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About Google Book Search Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through I lie lull lexl of 1 1 us book on I lie web al |_-.:. :.-.-:: / / books . qooqle . com/| I ^ *^' '-.^V, '^ V^ ^ ^ ^ "WT^'^^V^W-:^ jlli S — k esenttu ^J witb £omplim«m$( x A\ But strew his ashes to the wind, Whose sword or voice has served mankind, And is he dead, whose glorious mind Lifts him on high? To live in hearts zve leave h'hind, Is not to die. PUBLISHERS' NOTE. A number of letters and material have been re- ceived of a genealogical nature, with requests to in- corporate the same into this work. It is to be re- gretted that this cannot be done, as the object of this work is simply to preserve and perpetuate the names and biographical history of the most notable mem- bers of this family name. The preservation of such a record cannot fail to prove invaluable and a source of pride and interest not only to persons of the name but to the world in general; and this book may prove the foundation upon which a monumental work may be constructed. ORIGIN AND HISTORY • » » OF THE OF WL I WITH BIOGRAPHIES OF ALL THE MOST NOTED PERSONS OF THAT NAME. AND AN ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN OF SURNAMES AND FORENAMES. TOGETHER WITH OVER FIVE HUNDRED CHRISTIAN NAMES OF MEN AND WOMEN AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE. the Crescent family Record. "To live in hearts we leave behind is not to die." CHICAGO, ILL.: AMERICAN PUBLISHERS* ASSOCIATION. 1902. • f» JAN 2 3 1Q31 CONTENTS. Frontispiece. Vase of Flowers. Introduction, Illustration, Coats-of-Arms. Origin and History of the Family Name, The First of the Name in America, . - Principal Branches of the Family, - Historical and_ Biographical, -. - - - - 33 Origin of the Surname, •'..:•-"- - - - 49 Origin of the Forename, 81 Genealogy, - - - 93 Heraldry, - - - * - - - . _ _ 94 Illustration of Gamp-Fire Chats,- - - - - 98 Patriotic Societies of the United States, - - 99 Forenames of Men and Their Significance, - - 103 Forenames of Women and Their Significance, - 109 The Crescent Family Records, ----- 113 n' C INTRODUCTION. NOW that we all have surnames, we are apt to for- get that it was not always so. We cannot eas- ily realize the time when John, Thomas and Andrew, Mary and Abigail, were each satisfied with a single name, nor reflect that the use of two is not a refine- ment dating from an obscure and unknown antiquity, but quite within the reach of record and history. Every name, no doubt, originally had a meaning, or was at first assumed or imposed from its real or supposed fitness, from some accidental circumstance, or from mere caprice. Each individual is distinguished from his fellows by his name. But for this system his- tory and biography could scarcely exist. Our proper name is our individuality; in our own thoughts and in the thoughts of those who know us, they cannot be separated. Our names are uttered, and at once, whether in connection with blame or praise, with threat or entreaty, with hatred or love, we ourselves are affected by the ideas and feelings expressed. A few trifling words, in no way meant to apply to the man they describe, suffice to awaken the recollection of that man, his physical peculiarities, his moral character, and the most remarkable acts and events of his life; a few syllables will cause the tear to start afresh from the mother's eye, after years of consolation and resignation to her loss; they will sum- mon the tell-tale blush to the maiden's cheek, and she immediately thinks her secret is discovered; they will make a lover's heart beat more rapidly; rekindle the angry glance in an enemy's eye; and in a friend sep- arated from his friend, will renew all his past regrets and his fondest hopes. None the less rapidly do our thoughts connect a name with the idea of the thing to ii INTRODUCTION. which it belongs, be it land of birth, country, town, river, road, valley or hill. Dislike, desire, recollection of pain or pleasure, admiration, jealousy, kind feelings, national hatreds and love of country, one and all may be evoked by a single word, because the word repre- sents to. us the very object which has created those emotions within us. Every person, even the most in- curious observer of words and things, must have re- marked the great variety that exists in the names of families. He cannot fail to notice that such names are of widely different significations, many being identical with names of places, offices, professions, trades, qual- ities, familiar natural objects and other things. There is probably no person capable of the least degree of re- flection who has not often, in idle moments, amused himself with some little speculation on the probable origin of his own name. It is not sufficient for a per- son of inquisitive mind that he bears such and such a surname because his father and his grandfather bore it; he will naturally feel desirous of knowing why and when their ancestors acquired it. What would the annals of mankind and the rec- ords of biography be if people had never borne any proper names? It would be a mere chaos of unde- fined incidents and an unintelligible mass of facts, with- out symmetry or beauty, and without any interest at all for after ages. Indeed, without names, mankind would have wanted what is perhaps the greatest stim- ulous of which the mind is susceptible — the love of fame; and consequently, many of the mightiest achieve- ments in every department of human endeavor would have been lost to the world. Many of our ancient and modern institutions are intimately connected with the meaning and continued existence of proper names. It has been well said that hereditary names perpetuate the memory of ancestors INTRODUCTION. iii better than any other monument, an affectionate re- membrance this, surely, and one which fosters the cause of morality; they teach, or at any rate remind sons of their duty to be worthy of their ancestors. Though its importance be felt in all phases of our social life, the origin of proper names does not, essen- tially belong to a civilized condition. Undoubtedly it . is intimately connected with the gift of speech. A mqin must call his children by a distinctive appellation, either when he speaks to them or when Jie speaks of them in their absence, and when a gesture and an inflection of the voice are not sufficient to indicate his meaning. The distinctive title which he uses can only be a name exclusively applicable to the individual meant; on the other hand, the father will recognize the name given to him by his children. Again, the domestic animal, man's intelligent companion in his field sports, and the watch- ful guardian of his dwelling; the brook that runs be- neath his home; the tree that shelters or the forest that conceals it; the hill or the vale near which it lies, will soon be named by those who wish to distinguish them from similar objects around. If other men come to live near the first family, they will receive a name and give one in return. However simple these names be at first, so simple that they express nothing beyond the degree of rela- tionship between father and mother and children, and the order of their birth in the case of the last; be they mere substantives used to point out more specially the dwelling and all that surrounds it; as the hut, the tree, or the brook — or even supposing that in the common intercourse which may exist between one family and its neighbor the only distinctive terms employed are we and they, and further, that sun, fire, destruction, or thunder, designate the beneficent or angry deity — still the system of proper names already exists in embryo, iv INTRODUCTION. and is ready to be farther developed, even to the high- est degree of importance and intricacy, in proportion as the social principle itself becomes more extended and more complicated in its constitution. Add new members to the family; collect several fam- ilies together and form them into one tribe; place a number of tribes holding friendly relations with one another in a less limited tract of land; then will the spot occupied by each tribe, every village or cluster of inhabitants belonging to the same tribe, every hill and thicket and brook — in a word, the land and the gath- ering of men upon it assume proper names, just as the tribes had already done before, and the families and the individuals that constituted them. From this outline of the first elements of social life, let us remove, in thought, for a moment, and place ourselves in the heart of civilized existence. TJhe names of lands and dwellings have changed into the designa- tions of powerful states and magnificent cities; names which will be familiar for centuries after the grass has grown over and hidden even the ruins of their palaces and their fortresses and obliterated the very traces of their existence, and after political or naturally induced revolutions have depopulated, divided and totally dis- membered the provinces of mighty empires. Here the names of men distinguish the individual members of a great social body, magistrates, princes, chiefs of the great civil and political whole; and among these names, all of them less or more important at present, there are some which hereafter shall be handed down to his- tory as a rich inheritance, an object of envy to the am- bitious, and a pattern of conduct to the wise. HISTOBICAL AND BIOGBAPHICAL. 33 THE NAME OF MILLER. The name is from the occupation ; which has also given rise to other derivatives. Among names taken from trades is the name of Miller, some- times spelled Miller, also Mill, Mills, Milne, Milnes, Milman and Milner. It is possible that this last name may, in some cases, have been derived from Milliner, so called from Milan, the work having originated from the sale of a particular dress first worn at Milan, Italy, hence Milaner, which in English is Milliner. Miller may be regarded as a purely Scottish name. THE FIRST OF THE NAME OF MILLER IN AMERICA. One of the first settlers in New England was Alexander Miller, who settled in Dorchester, Mass. ; and was a proprie- tor in 1634. Rev. John Miller was a minister of Roxbury, and also a proprietor in 1635. In 1663 he left his property to his son John. John Miller was a proprietor and town officer in 1648. His sons were Samuel, Joseph and Benjamin. Thomas Miller, a tailor, came in the Elizabeth ; and settled in 1635 in Dorchester. He was proprietor and town officer in 1637. The division of his estate was made between Thomas and Nathaniel Miller. Joseph Miller came to New England in 1635 in the Hope- well. Richard Miller settled in Charlestown, Mass., in 1637. He had two sons, Joseph and James. Robert Miller went before the General Court in 1646 at Concord, Mass. William Miller was a resident of Ipswich, Mass., in 1648, and was paid for service against the Indians in 1646. COATS-OF-ARMS OF THE MILLER FAMILY. Arms : Arg. a cross moline az. in chief a lozenge between two mullets of the last, in base a bar, wavy vert, impaling Montgomerie. Crest : A hand couped at the wrist, the third and fourth fingers folded in the palm, arg. Motto: . Manent optima coelo. (The best things remain in heaven.) 34 HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. THE MILLEES IN AMEEICA. A THOROUGH perusal of the following life sketches of noted Millers, eminent in all walks of life, will reveal the fact that the Millers have been actively and intimately associated , with the ecclesiastical, civil, industrial and commercial affairs of America ; and to become conversant with their history will naturally create in our children a source of pride in the name of Miller heretofore unappreciated. As builders and merchants they have built cities and illu- mined the marts of trade ; in the field of science and medicine they have obtained great prominence ; in the arena of states- manship they have produced men of thought and men of ac- tion; while at the bar and in the administration of justice they have shown erudition and wisdom. As clergymen, edu- cators and lecturers they have occupied high places ; as musi- cians, composers and artists they have contributed profusely to social life ; and as authors and poets they are worthy to be crowned with a laurel wreath of fame. Also as heroes of colonial, Revolutionary and later wars they have rendered patriotic service, each one of whom has added luster to the name of Miller. MILLER, ADOLPH WILLIAM, merchant, lecturer, was born Oct. .8, 1841, in Germany. He is a wholesale druggist of Philadelphia, Pa. ; and prominent in the business and public affairs of that city. He is also lecturer on Materia Medica in the University of Pennsylvania ; and occasionally contributes articles to medical literature. MILLER, ALEXANDER McVEIGH, farmer, business man, state senator, was born in Nicholas county, W. Va. He is president of the board of directors of the Hospital for the Insane of Weston, W. Va. In 1901 he was elected a member of the West Virginia state senate ; and has served on several important committees. MILLER, ANDREW G., lawyer, jurist, was born in Carl- isle, Pa. He was appointed territorial judge for Wisconsin in 1838 ; and upon the admission of the state he was appointed United States district judge and so continued until his death in 1874. MILLER, MRS. ANNIE JENNESS, publisher, author, was born in 1859 in New Hampshire. She is a dress reformer of New York City; and publisher of The Jenness Miller Maga- zine. She is the author of Physical Beauty ; Mother and Babe ; and Barbara Thayer, a novel. MILLER, ARTHUR SCOTT, soldier, lawyer, builder, waa HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 35 born Nov. 13, 1848, in Alto, Mich. In 1864 he enlisted in the United States navy, and served to the end of the civil war. For a number of years he was court stenographer ; then prac- ticed law; and subsequently became an extensive builder of houses and blocks in Denver, Colo., where he now resides. MILLER, CHARLES B., physician, surgeon, was born in 1844 in Dillsboro, Ind. In 1862-65 he was assistant surgeon in the United States army. For fifteen years he was president and treasurer of the school board of Lawrenceburg, Ind. He is now a prominent physician and surgeon of Helena, Mont. ; has been president of the board of managers of the Montana Soldiers' Home; and president of the board of aldermen of Helena, Mont. His grandfather was a soldier in the war of 1812; and his great-grandfather fought in the revolutionary war. MILLER, CHARLES EXUM, son of Hon. Lorenzo Dow Miller, the well known lawyer of Miami, Texas, and Louella Exum Miller, was born Aug. 20, 1895, in Mobeetie, Wheeler county, Texas. His father and mother worshiped him with a love of no ordinary character, and saw in the noble face of their precious boy a benefactor to God's posterity. They looked forward to a long life of pleasure and good works, but alas, the tomb on the hillside marks the resting place of that heavenly gift— our darling Charley. When he was only a few days old the nurse by mistake gave him laudanum, and death seemed certain to our angel child; but by good and loving nursing he survived, and while he lingered between life and death his father and mother, with wringing hands and aching hearts, were praying God to spare their angel boy. They promised God to lead him in the path of duty and teach him to pray; and prayed that he might be great on earth in leading souls to Christ. He often wanted to hear the Bible read and be told of the wonders of heaven. His father now keeps close to his heart his little testament with his precious name in it. He was baptized in the Methodist Church South when a babe, and God is able to make this short life a great ministry service ; and this little sketch of his childish life is written in his name with the hope that God will bless these little words written here, and lead many to stop and think on his ways and turn to God. Charley used to say, How far is it to heaven, papa? as contemplating to go, and his greatest aim was doing good. He was pious, truthful and sympathetic. He told his papa to turn all prisoners out if they promised to be good (his father being state's attorney). 36 HISTOKICAL AND BIOGKAPHICAL. His father often thought and told Charley that his influence for prisoners was great, and would not go unheeded if he requested it. He was a lover of his Sunday School, and had his badge No. 6 — the year of his age. He would kneel down for prayer like a little man, and often insisted that the preacher go home with us for dinner, and would say that papa asked him to come. His father was a kind, indulgent man, and worshiped his children— especially Charley. He granted Charley all he asked of him. On Christmas Eve, Dec. 24, 1901, we were together in the town of Miami. Charley was busy buying childish things for others. Almost the last gift he made was his pocket book and four nickels and a cop- per pistol. His father used to say that all the giving comes from Charley; and it was a delight to teach the child that "it is more blessed to give than to receive.' ' He owned a brand L. D. on his horses and cattle. His famous horses Bul- ley and Jake and Dock; his saddle rig was of the best, and the spurs that speak volumes to us now. His favorite dog Jack was his great friend and playmate. His brother, James Franklin Miller, was born Feb. 13, 1898, and died Aug. 15, 1899 ; and his sister, "Winnie Davis Miller, was. born Sept. 17, 1900. They were all playmates, and often played camping- out with little lanterns his papa bought him ; and then played hide and seek around their fond mother's knee. Little Minnie missed him after he went away, and looked for him when his name was called in the places they used to play. While our darling Charley was near death's door, he pulled his mother near to his face and whispered : * ' Mama, won 't I live ? ' ' She said: "Yes, my darling, you will live always." In a few moments he quietly passed away to live always in heaven. It seemed all the people turned out to render him aid and do him honor in his last hours on this earth. Judges and lawyers came to condole with his stricken parents. Revs. Whatley and Cartwright of the Methodist church conducted his funeral service. The school children and teachers and a large gath- ering of sympathizing friends filed through the old church where he used to go to his Sunday School. I looked on that angelic face of my precious dead. His little ministry on earth has made me to again renew my hopes and efforts to meet him in heaven ; and when I think of his little prayer he used to say at night, I pray God to bless its efforts to do good here: "Now I lay me down to sleep. If I should die before I wake, I pray the Lord my soul to take. God bless Charley and keep HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 3? him a good little boy; bless all the afflicted people and save us all in heaven with little budgy for Christ's sake, Amen/' I pray this little prayer, like a chainless letter, will roll on; and all the boys of the name of Charley, and others also, will pray it ; and some sweet day meet him in heaven. His prec- ious toys, books and Bible are tucked away to remind us of his little angelic words he learned here on earth in his short service of the blessed Father in Heaven. To such as him death has no sting, and the grave no victory. He died Jan. 21, 1902, in Miami, Texas. I shall ever pray that the word and all the Millers will meet him in heaven.— A. D. Miller. MILLER, CHARLES RANSOM, journalist, was born Jan. 17, 1849, in Hanover, N. H. For several years he was asso- ciated with the Springfield Republican. Since 1879 he has been connected with the New York Times ; and since 1883 has been editor-in-chief of that publication. MILLER, CINCINNATUS HEINE -Joaquin Miller-au- thor, poet, was born Nov. 10, 1841, in Wabash district, Ind. He is a poet and prose writer who, after a life of adventure in California, went to London in 1870; and speedily became famous as the author of Songs of the Sierras. Since 1887 he has lived in Oakland, Cal. He is the author of Songs of the Sierras; The Ship of the Desert; Songs of the Sunland; in prose: The Danites in the Sierras; Shadows of Shasta; Me- morie and Rime ; '49, or the Gold Seekers of the Sierras ; The One Fair Woman; The Destruction of Gotham; and The Building of the City Beautiful, a poetic romance. MILLER, DANIEL F., lawyer, congressman, poet, was born Oct. 4, 1814, near Frostburg, Md. For forty years he was a member of the Iowa territorial legislature, and in 1850- 51 was a member of congress. He was a noted lawyer of Keo- kuk, Iowa. MILLER, DANIEL H., congressman, was born in Phila- delphia, Pa. He was a representative in congress from Penn- sylvania in 1823,31. He died about 1880. MILLER, DANIEL McLAW, lawyer. In 1856 he gradu- ated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York City. He has attained success in his profession at Oconomowoc, Wis.; and is prominent in the business and public affairs of his city, county and state. MILLER, EDGAR JAMES, banker, was born June 19, 1864, in Whitewater, Wis. For twenty years he has been connected with the First National Bank of Huron, S. D. ; of which institution he is now cashier. He is prominent in the 38 HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. business and public affairs of his city, county and state ; and has filled several positions of trust and honor. MILLER, EDMUND BOSTON, clergyman, was born Feb. 2, 1853, in Greenville, S. C. In 1883-93 he was pastor of the First Baptist church of Grenada, Miss.; and since 1893 has been pastor of the First Baptist church of Arkadelphia, Ark. In 1892-93 he was vice president of the home mission board ; in 1895-97 was vice-president of the foreign mission board; and since 1893 he has been financial secretary of the board of ministerial education, Ouchita college. MILLER, ELIHU SPENCER, lawyer, educator, author, poet, was born Sept. 3, 1817, in Princeton, N. J. He was a lawyer of Philadelphia; and professor in the university of Pennsylvania. He was the author of Treatise on the Law of Partition by Writ in Pennsylvania ; and Caprices, a volume of verse. He died March 6, 1878, in Philadelphia, Pa. MILLER, ELIJAH, educator, clergyman, author, was born Feb. 16, 1842, in Springfield, IU. In 1884 he founded Sedge- wickville Academy of Sedgewickville, Mo., which he conducted for five years. He has been president and secretary of the synod of Southern Illinois; and compiled A History of the Synod. MILLER, MRS. EMILY HUNTINGTON, educator, au- thor, poet, was born Oct. 22, 1833, in Brooklyn, Conn. She is president of the Woman's college of the Northwestern university of Evanston, 111. She is the author of From Avalon, and Other Poems ; The Royal Road to Fortune ; The Kirkwood Series; Captain Fritz; and Little Neighbors. MILLER, GEORGE AUGUSTUS, mechanic, was born Jan. 29, 1856, in Danville, Mass. He is a master mechanic in the employ of Florida East Coast Railway at St. Augustine, Fla. He has filled a number of positions of trust and honor. MILLER, GEORGE F., lawyer, congressman, was born Sept. 5, 1809, in Chillisquaquo, Pa. He was secretary of the Lewisburg university in Pennsylvania. He was a representa- tive from Pennsylvania to the thirty-ninth and fortieth con- gresses. MILLER, GEORGE P., state senator. He is prominent in the business and public affairs of Milwaukee, Wis. ; and has filled several positions of trust. In 1901-02 he was a member of the Wisconsin state senate. MILLER, GEORGE S., physician, surgeon. In 1891 he graduated from Rush Medical College of Chicago, 111. ; and in 1892 from Detroit College of Medicine, Mich. He has at- HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 39 tained success in the practice of his profession in Texas, and resides in Gause ; and has filled a number of positions of trust and honor. MILLER, MRS. HARRIET MANN, author, was born in 1831 in New York. Her writings have generally appeared under the name of Olive Thorne Miller. She is the author of a Bird-Lover in the West; Little Brothers of the Air; Bird- Ways; In Nesting Time; Four-Handed Folk; Little Folks in Feathers and Fur; Nimpo's Troubles; Queen Pets at Marcy's; Our Home Pets; Little People of Asia; The First Book of Birds; and other works. MILLER, HENRY C, pioneer, farmer, was born April 17, 1820, in Clermont county, Ohio. He moved to Decatur county, Ind., when it was an unbroken forest, abounding in deer, wolves and bears. He helped to build the first railroad in the state ; has been a justice of the peace ; and received the nomination for representative in the Indiana state legislature ; and other offices. MILLER, HENRY IRVING, railroad manager, was born in Cleveland, Ohio. Since 1888 he has been superintendent of several railroads ; and been prominent in railroad matters. In 1894 he became superintendent of the Vandalia Division of the Terre Haute and Indianapolis Railroad Company, which is the main line. He is now general manager of that corporation. MILLER, HERBERT, banker, was born in 1856, in Kan- sas. Since 1858 he has been prominent in the business and public affairs of Lyon county, Kansas ; and is now president of the State Bank of Admire. He has filled numerous posi- tions of trust and honor in his city, county and state. MILLER, HOLDEN TRIPP, banker, was born Feb. 1, 1841, in Byron, N. Y. He is cashier of the Bank of Batavia, N. Y. ; and prominent in the financial and public affairs of his city, county and state. MILLER, HOMER MARTIN VIRGIL, United States sen- ator, was born April 29, 1814, in Pendleton district, S. C. In 1868 he was elected a United States senator from Georgia; and in 1890 was appointed principal physician of the peniten- tiary of Georgia. He died May 31, 1896, in Atlanta, Ga. MILLER, HOWARD PHILIP, physician, surgeon, was born June 24, 1849, in Huntington, Mass. He is a promi- nent physician and surgeon of Seattle, Wash. ; and has filled a number of offices of trust and honor. MILLER, HUGH J., lawyer, jurist, was born Dec. 31, 1866, 40 HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. in Genoa, Minn. He received a liberal education in the public school; was engaged in educational work for five years; and subsequently graduated from the university of Michigan with the degree of LL. B. He has attained success as a lawyer in Livingston, Mont.; has been county attorney of Park county during 1891-94; and has held various other public positions of trust. On April 19, 1897, Gov. Robert B. Smith appointed him judge advocate of Montana, with the rank of major, on his official staff. MILLER, JACOB HENRY, lawyer, was born Feb. 10, 1828. In 1859-63 he was district attorney of Allegheny, Pa., serving two terms. He attained success at the bar of Pennsyl- vania; and was noted for his sound judgment and logical legal mind. He died Jan. 26, 1900, in Pittsburg, Pa. His son, Horace J. Miller, is a successful practicing lawyer and counselor of Pittsburg, Pa. MILLER, JACOB WELSH, lawyer, United States senator, was born in Nov. 1800, in German Valley, N. J. He was United States senator from New Jersey in 1841. He died Sept. 30, 1862, in Morristown, N. J. MILLER, JAMES, soldier, governor, was born April 25, 1776, in Peterborough, N. H. He entered the army in 1808 as a major; in 1812 was breveted a colonel for gallantry at Fort George; and was subsequently made a major-general and received a gold medal from congress. He was made gov- ernor of the territory of Arkansas, where he served until 1825 ; and in 1826-49 was collector of customs at Salem, Mass. He died July 7, 1851, in Temple, N. H. MILLER, JAMES A., pioneer, public official, was born in 1839, in Ohio. Early in life he emigrated to the Western plains, spending twenty years of his life away beyond civil- ization. In 1877 he was appointed clerk of the supreme court of Colorado, which position he held for twenty-one years. He now resides in Denver, Col. MILLER, JAMES FRANCIS, lawyer, congressman, was born Aug. 1, 1832, in Tennessee. He was a representative from Texas to the forty-eighth, and was re-elected to the for- ty-ninth congress as a democrat. MILLER, JAMES HOSEA CHESMAN, army surgeon, was born in 1800, in Rushville, N. Y. Under General Boli- var he entered service in South America ; and became a com- mander of a privateer for the Columbian Republic attacking the Spanish commerce. He was afterward' with Gen. Sam Houston in the struggle for Texan independence in 1836 ; and HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 41 later served as surgeon in the Mexican army. In 1861 he was appointed a surgeon in the union army. He died in 1883, in Jackson, Ohio. MILLER, JAMES RUSSELL, clergyman, author, was born March 20, 1840, in Harshaville, Pa. He is a presbyterian clergyman and during 1880-98 filled a pastorate in Philadel- phia. He is the author of Week Day Religion; Home Mak- ing; In His Steps; Silent Time; Cpme Ye Apart; The Mar- riage Altar ; Practical Religion ; Bits of Pasture ; Making the Most of Life ; Mary of Bethany ; The Dew of Thy Youth ; and The Every Day Life ; and other works. MILLER, JESSE, public official, congressman. He was a representative in congress from Pennsylvania in 1836-37. He was appointed first auditor of the treasury, and held the posi- tion until 1841. He was canal commissioner of Pennsylvania in 1845-46 ; and was secretary of state in 1846-48 ; for a short time as acting governor of the state. He died Aug. 20, 1850, in Harrisburg, Pa. MILLER, JOHN, grain merchant, governor, was born at Dryden, N. Y., Oct. 29, 1843. In 1888 he was elected to Dakota Territorial council ; in 1889 was elected first governor of the new State of Dakota. He is now president of The John Miller Co., grain commission merchants, of Duluth, Minn. MILLER, JOHN, jurist, state legislator, congressman, was born Nov. 10, 1774, in Amenia, N. Y. In 1812-21 he was a justice of the peace in New York. He was a member of the state legislature in 1817, 1820 and 1845; and was a repre- sentative to the nineteenth congress. He died in March, 1862, in New York. MILLER, JOHN, soldier, journalist, congressman, gover- nor, was born in 1780 in Steubenville, Ohio. He was ap- pointed register of the land office in Missouri. He was gov- ernor of Missouri in 1826-32. He was £ representative in con- gress in 1837-43. He died March 18. 1846, near Plorrissant, Missouri. MILLER, JOHN. He is a prominent citizen of Fremont, Neb. ; and has filled a number of positions of trust and honor. MILLER, JOHN ANDERSON, lawyer, jurist, was born Dec. 30, 1850, in Newark, N. J. For ten years he was lieuten- ant-colonel on division staff of the New Jersey national guard ; and for four weeks was on duty in camp preparing New Jer- sey troops for the Spanish- American war. He has attained success in the practice of law in his native city ; and in 1889- 42 HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 90 was judge of the first district court of Newark, N. J. MILLER, JOHN FRANKLIN, soldier, United States sen- ator, was born Nov. 21 , 1831, in South Bend, Ind. He served throughout the war ; and became brigadier-general and brevet major-general. He was United States senator from Califor- nia in 1881-86. He died March 8, 1886, in Washington, D. C. MILLER, JOHN G., state legislator, congressman, was born in 1812 in Kentucky*. In 1835 he moved to Missouri; and in 1840 was elected to the state legislature. He was a representative in congress from Missouri. He died May 11, 1856, in Saline county, Mo. MILLER, JOHN K., congressman, was born in Ohio. He was a representative in congress from Ohio in 1847-51. MILLER, JOHN ZOLLINGER, electrical engineer, in- ventor, was born June 16, 1867, in Lancaster, Pa. He is a noted electrical engineer of Erie, Pa. He is the inventor of various kinds of switchboards, transmitters and automatic drivers. MILLER, JOSEPH, lawyer, jurist, congressman, was born in Ohio. He was elected a representative from Ohio to the thiry-fifth congress. He was subsequently appointed United States judge for the territory of Nebraska. MILLER, JOSEPH NELSON, naval officer, was born Nov. 22, 1836, in Ohio. He entered the navy in 1851 ; became lieu- tenant in I860; commander in 1870; captain in 1881; and commodore in 1894. He retired from the navy in 1898 with rank of rear-admiral. MILLER, KILLIAN, lawyer, state legislator, congressman, was born July 30, 1785, in Claverack, N. Y. In 1824 and 1827 he was a member of the New York general assembly ; in 1837-40 county clerk. He was a representative in the thirty- fourth congress. MILER, LORENZO DOW, lawyer, jurist, was born Oct. 25, 1856, in Titus county, Texas. His father was a slave- holder in the South before the war ; and came from Missis- sippi. He received his education in the Mt. Pleasant College of Texas; and at the Mt. Vernon College of the same state. In the eighties he was a cowboy on the famous Charley Good- night ranch in the northern panhandle of Texas. He became a successful lawyer; and is now serving his eighth year as district attorney of the thirty-first judicial district of Texas, which is the largest district in the United States. He has been special district judge on several occasions; and all cases ap- pealed from him were affirmed in the higher courts. In his HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 43 home at Miami, Texas, he is well known as an astute lawyer ; and is ever ready to help the needy. He married Miss Lou- ella Exum, a daughter of the late Judge Exum, a native of Tennessee. Of his three children, Charles Exum, James Franklin and Winnie Davis, the latter is only now living. MILLER, LUCAS M., soldier, lawyer, state legislator, con- gressman, was born in 1824 in Greece. He moved to the ter- ritory of Wisconsin and settled in Oshkosh in 1846. In 1853 he was a member of the Wisconsin legislature. He was one of the commisisoners of the state board of public works; and for ten years was chairman of the county board. He was elected to the fifty-second congress as a democrat. MILLER, MRS. MINNIE WILLIS, author, was born in 1845 in New Hampshire. She is the author of The Silent Land; His Cousin, the Doctor; and The Pilgrim Vision. MILLER, MADISON, soldier, lawyer, jurist, state senator, was born Feb. 6, 1811, in Mercer, Pa. In 1865 he received the brevet of brigadier-general for meritorious service at Wil- son's Creek and Shiloh. Was in the Missouri state senate in 1865; and in 1867-96 was fund commissioner of the Missouri railroad. He died Feb. 17, 1896, in St. Louis, Mo. MILLER, MORRIS S., lawyer, jurist, congressman, was born in 1769. He was a representative in congress from New York in 1813-15. In 1819 he was appointed a commissioner to superintend a treaty with the Seneca Indians; and was also judge of a county court. He died Nov. 15, 1824, in Utica, N. Y. MILLER, NATHAN, congressman, was born about 1750 in Rhode Island. He was a delegate to the continental con- gress from Rhode Island in 1785-86. He died in 1787 in Rhode Island. MILLER, 0. A. He is a prominent citizen of Brockton, Mass. ; and has filled a number of positions of great trust and honor. MILLER, OHIO L., educator, lawyer, college president, was born in 1859, in Sigourney, Iowa. In 1885 he became a teacher; and for several years was a college president. He was admitted to the practice of law by the supreme court of Washington; and for several years has been engaged in the practice of law at Baker City, Oregon, where he is also secre- tary of the chamber of commerce. MILLER, ORRIN L., lawyer, jurist, congressman, was born Jan. 11, 1853, in Newburg, Maine. In 1887-91 he was district judge for the twenty-ninth judicial district of Kan- sas. He was elected to the fifty-fourth congress as a repub- 44 HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. lican. MILLER, PLEASANT M., congressman. He was a rep- resentative in congress from Tennessee in 1809-11. MILLER, REUBEN G., stockman, state senator, church president, was born Nov. 7, 1861, in Mill Creek, Salt Lake county, Utah. Since 1882 he has been successfully engaged in the stock business at Price, Utah. In 1894-95 he was county commissioner of Carbon county. He was a member of the state senate in the first state legislature of Utah ; and in 1898 he was re-elected a member to the third state legislature. He is president of his school and town boards ; and also president of the Emery Stake of the Church of Jesus Christ of the Lat- ter Day Saints. His father, James R. Miller, was born in 1838 in Dayton, 111. ; and his grandfather, Reuben Miller, was born in Pennsylvania and moved to Utah in 1849. MILLER, RICHARD THOMPSON, lawyer, jurist, was born Dec. 16, 1845, in Cape May, N. J. Was elected city solic- tor of Cape May City ; and prosecutor of pleas for Cape May county. He has served as district judge of Camden City; law judge of Camden county ; and is now circuit court judge of Nfew Jersev MILLER, RICHARD W., lawyer, was born in 1861 in Henry county, Ala. Since 1892 he has been in the active practice of law; has attained eminence at the bar of Henry county, Ala.; and is prominent in the business and public affairs of Abbeville. He has filled several positions of trust and honor. MILLER, ROBERT T., educator, lawyer, was born July 16, 1847. For fifteen years he was actively engaged in educa- tional work ; and is now in the active practice of law in Ploy- dada, Texas. For nine years he was clerk of district and county courts of Floyd county, Texas; and has filled other positions of trust and honor. MILLER, RUFUS W., clergyman, journalist, author, was born May 12, 1862, in Easton, Pa. He was the founder of the Brotherhood of Andrew and Philip; and is the editor of The Brotherhood Star, of Reading, Pa. He is the author of What a Young Boy Ought to Know. MILLER, RUTGER B., congressman, was born in New York. He was a representative from New York state to the twenty-fourth congress to fill a vacancy. MILLER, SAMUEL, clergyman, author, was born Oct. 31, 1769, in Dover, Del. He was a Presbyterian clergyman in 1793-1813 pastor of the Brick church, New York City; and HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 45 professor of ecclesiastical history at Princeton Theological seminary for the remainder of his life. He was the author of Presbyterianism the Truly Primitive and Apostolic Con- stitution of the Church of Christ ; Letters on Clerical Habits and Manners; Letters on Unitarians; Life of Jonathan Ed- wards; Letters on the Christian Ministry; and Letters on Church Government. He died Jan. 7, 1850, in Princeton, New Jersey. MILLER, SAMUEL, lawyer, educator, clergyman, author, was born Jan. 23, 1816, in Princeton, N. J. He was principal of the West Jersey collegiate institute in 1845-57; and in 1857-73 was in charge of the church in Oceanic, N. J. He was the author of Report of the Presbyterian Church Case. He died Oct. 12, 1883, in Mount Holly, N. J. MILLER, SAMUEL D., lawyer, was born in Indianapolis, Ind. He has a large practice in Indianapolis and has filled several positions of trust and honor in his city, county and state. MILLER, SAMUEL F., state legislator, congressman, was born May 27, 1827, in Franklin county, N. Y. In 1854 he was elected to the New York legislature; and in 1850 and 1857 was supervisor of Franklin. He was for fifteen years identified as colonel with the state militia. He was elected a representative to the thirty-eighth and forty-fourth con- gresses. MILLER, SAMUEL FRED, physician, surgeon, was born Aug.. 26, 1859. In 1887 he graduated from the medical de- partment of the University of the City of New York. He has attained success in his profession at Madera, Pa.; and has filled a number of offices of trust and honor. • MILLER, SAMUEL FREEMAN, physician, lawyer, jur- ist, author, was born April 5, 1816, in Richmond county, Ky. He became one of the leaders of the republican party in Iowa. In 1862 he was appointed a justice of the supreme court of the United States. He was the author of The Supreme Court of the United States, a series of biographies; and Reports of Supreme Court Decisions. He died Oct. 12, 1890, in Wash- ington, D. C. MILLER, SAMUEL H., lawyer, journalist, congressman, was born April 19, 1840, in Mercer county, Pa. He was a rep- resentative from Pennsylvania to the forty-seventh and for- ty-eighth congresses as a republican. MILLER, SIDNEY DAVY, lawyer, banker, was born in Monroe, Mich. He was a leading lawyer of the Northwest 46 HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. when in active practice. For twenty-three years prior to 1892 he was a police commissioner of Detroit, Mich., serving gratuitously, and as such formulated the plans which have always controlled that department. He was a member of the board of education, and as such was the main factor in found- ing the Detroit public library and other institutions. He is president of the Detroit Savings Bank; and takes an active part in financial and public affairs. MILLER, SMITH, agriculturist, state senator, congress- man, was born in North Carolina. He was a member of both branches of the legislature of Indiana; and was a representa- tive in congress in 1853-55. MILLER, STEPHEN, governor, was born Jan. 7, 1816, in Perry county, Pa. He was governor of Minnesota in 1863-66. He died Aug. 18, 1881, in Worthington, Minn. MILLER, STEPHEN DECATUR, lawyer, governor, Unit- ed States senator, was born in May 1787, in Waxsaw settle- ment, S. C. He was a representative in congress in 1814-19 ; served in the state senate in 1822-26; and was governor of South Carolina in 1828-30. He was elected United States senator for the term in 1831-37, but resigned on account of his health at the end of two years. He died March 8, 1838, in Raymond, Miss. MILLER, STEPHEN FRANKS, lawyer, author, was born about 1810 in North Carolina. He was a noted Georgia law- yer. He was the author of Bench and Bar of Georgia; Wil- kins Wylder, or the Successful Man ; and Memoir of General Blackshear and the War in Georgia. He died in 1867 in Oglethorpe, Ga. MILLER, THEODORE, lawyer, jurist, was born in May 1816, in Hudson, N. Y. He was associate justice of the court of appeals of New York in 1874-86 ; when he was retired on account of age. He died Aug. 18, 1895, in Hudson, N. Y. MILLER, WARNER, soldier, manufacturer, congressman, United States senator, was born Aug. 12, 1838, in Oswego county, N. Y. He was a member of the New York state legis- lature in 1874-5. He was a representative from New York to the forty-sixth and forty-seventh congresses and United States senator in 1881-87. MILLER, WARREN, lawyer, jurist, state legislator, con- gressman, was born April 2, 1847, in Meigs county, Ohio. For one term he was assistant prosecuting attorney for Jack- son county, W. Va. ; and was prosecuting attorney in 1881-86. He was a member of the West Virginia legislature in 1890-91. HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 47 He was elected to the fifty-fourth and fifty-fifth congresses as a republican. MILLER, WILLIAM, state legislator, governor, was born in Warren county, N. C. In 1810-14 he served in the North Carolina legislature ; and was governor of the state in 1814-17. MILLER, WILLIAM, founder of the sect of Millerites, was born Feb. 5, 1782, in Pittsfield, Mass. In 1833 he began to predict that the end of the world would come in 1843, when the faithful would be translated. His followers, who are said to have numbered nearly fifty thousand, greatly decreased after his death. He died Dec. 20, 1849, in Low Hampton, New "York MILLER, WILLIAM CHRISTIAN, physician, surgeon, druggist, was -born July 31, 1847, in Germany. Since 1854 he has lived in Hamilton, Ohio; and since 1864 has been a druggist of that city. Since 1877 he began the practice of medicine, and has since been a prominent member of that profession. In 1892-1900 he has been secretary of the Ham- ilton public library; and has filled a number of other posi- tions of trust and honor. ____ • MILLER, WILLIAM E., soldier, merchant, state senator, was born Feb. 5, 1836, at West Hill, Pa. At the outbreak of the civil war he enlisted as a private in company H, third Pennsylvania cavalry; was chosen second lieutenant; took part in thirty-four engagements; and became captain. Con- gress awarded him a medal of honor for his services. He then engaged in mercantile business in Carlisle, Pa. In 1898 he was elected a member of the Pennsylvania state senate. MILLER, WILLIAM H., congressman, was born Jan. 29, 1828, in Perry county, Pa. He was a representative from Pennsylvania to the thirty-eighth congress. MILLER, WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON, soldier, law- yer, was born Sept. 6, 1840, in Augusta, N. Y. He is one of the foremost lawyers of Indiana at Indianapolis ; and was in 1889-93 attorney general of the United States. MILLER, WILLIAM R., lawyer, governor, was born Nov. 27, 1823, near Batesville, Ark. In 1857 he removed to Little Rock, Ark. In 1876-8 he was governor of Arkansas. He was deputy state treasurer in 1881-82; and in 1886 was again elected state auditor. MILLER, WILLIAM S., congressman. He was a repre- sentative in congress from New York in 1845-47. He died Nov. 9, 1854, in New York City. ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 49 All proper names had originally a peculiar and appropriate meaning. Some persons might feel dis- posed to argue that there is nothing in the ordinary course of things to prevent the giving of names from sheer whim and without any meaning ; but it is quite as difficult to imagine the absence of motive and of fixed guiding principles in the choice of a name as it is in any other matter. It would be contrary to Man's nature to denote the object of his thoughts by sounds which produce no impression upon his memory, no representative idea in his mind. If the principle asserted, then, hold good in the matter of common nouns, much more must it be true with regard to the proper name, whose characteristic is, as we have said, that it places under our very eyes as it were, the individual object to which it is applied, ^m That some definite idea should "belong to the name when uttered, is so much needed by men in general that the natives of North America are in the habit of giving a name selected from their own language to any stranger deemed worthy of their especial notice. To them his own name does not sufficiently describe him, because it probably conveys no idea connected with his physical appearance. An anecdote is related of the Imaum of Muscat who when about to appoint a private physician asked his name. " Vincenzo," was the physician's reply. Not understanding it, the prince requested that its meaning should be explained in Arabic. The Italian gave the meaning, as Mansour, or Victorious, and the prince delighted with the happy omen offered by the name, ever after called him " Sheik Mansour." If we glance next at the records of travellers in distant countries, we shall find that whether they be private individuals or men engaged in scientific in- quiry, they never give a name to a people, a country, 50 ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. an island, or an unknown rock, without some defi- nite reason. Some allusion is made in it to physical conformation, to dress, to customs, to external pecu- liarities, or to certain circumstances which made the discovery a remarkable one. This natural habit has rarely been deviated from except when a desire has been felt to erect some geographical monument on distant shores, in honor of some denizen of the heavens; or to record, in a lasting form, some contemporary event, or the name of some contemporary character of distinction; or, lastly, to perpetuate the memory of a benefactor of his kind, and to testify of a na- tion's gratitude to a fellow-countryman of great pre- eminence. The long catalogue of proper names, with a meaning, which may yet be found among our older nations, in spite of mixture and corruption of races; and the longer catalogue disclosed by etymological inquiry, fully bear out these remarks. Schegel, a very learned philosopher, has traced descriptive epithets in almost all Hindoo names. So marked was the exist- ence of these meanings among the Hebrews, that their literature is strangely tinged by their influence. The older names among the Arabs, and those since introduced into general use, are highly significative; the face is acknowledged in the case of Grecian names, and the remark is equally true of all names derived from Teutonic origin. The most distant nations in our own more immediate circle of civilization exhibit no difference in this respect. Most of the natives of North America are named after some animal; during their lifetime they receive another title when they have earned it by some deed of daring, which it ex- plains and of which it is the token. The name of a most powerful chief in one of the Marquesas Islands, contains an allusion to the shape of a canoe, in the management of which he excelled. Thunder is the ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 51 name of the King of the Chenooks, a warlike tribe who live on the left bank of the river Columbia. The Kamtchadales, Koriakes, and Kuriles, have all of them significant names. SURNAMES. In the first ages of the world a single name was sufficient for each individual; and that name was generally invented for the person, in allusion to the circumstances attending his birth, or to some personal quality he possessed, or which his parents fondly hoped he might in future possess. Christian names being given in infancy, and by friends and relatives, cannot, as a general rule, have bad significations, or be associated with crime or mis- fortune. It is otherwise, however, with surnames. These will be found to be of all shades, from th^ best to the worst, the most pleasing to the most ridiculous. They originated later in life, after the character and habits of the individual had been formed, and after he had engaged in some permanent occupation, trade, or pursuit. They were given by the community in which he dwelt — by enemies as well as by friends. The first approach to the modern system of nomenclature is found in the assumption of the name of One's Sire in addition to his own proper name ; as Caleb the son of Jephunneh. Sometimes the adjunct expressed the country or profession of the bearer; sometimes some excellence or blemish; as Diogenes the Cynic ; or Dionysius the Tyrant. A mother's name, that of a parent, or of some remoter ancestor more illustrious than the father, have in the same way been used to form new names. A like attention has been paid to sentiments of friend- ship and gratitude. Sometimes the wife's name be- came the husband's surname. The name of the tribe 52 ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. or people to which a man belonged might also be- come a surname. If any particular name described the locality of a man's residence or property, it may serve the same purpose. Personal acts and qualities have given rise to a great variety of surnames. Surnames are traceable to several chief sources. There will be seen evidences in physical and political geography that the designations of countries, moun- tains, rivers, districts, towns, villages, hamlets, are all associated with the names of persons whom we daily meet, suggesting to the thoughtful mind most inter- esting topics regarding the histories of families and places. • Though the majority of our ancient family names are territorial, we have many large classes of excep- tions, and the origin of most of them is not at all doubtful. Surnames can scarcely be said to have been per- manently settled before the era of the Reformation. The keeping of parish registers was probably more instrumental than anything else in settling them; for if a person were entered under one name at baptism, it is not likely he would be married under another and buried under a third ; in some instances, prior to the keeping of parish registers, persons were recorded as having different names at different periods of their life. As to the derivations of surnames, it should be remembered, that places were named before families. You have only to examine any of those names which serve for lands and also for persons, to see this plainly. If you found the name of Cruickshanks, or Pretty- man, Black-mantle, or Great-head, you would not hesitate. These are evidently coined for persons, and you find no such names of land, or for the double purpose. But then you can have as little doubt that names like Church-hill, Green-hill, Hazel-wood, Sandi- ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 53 lands, were first given to places; and when you find them borne both by land and persons, you will con- clude the persons took them from the territories. In general then, when a place and a family have the same name it is the place that gives the name to the people, not the family to the place. This rule, which will not be disputed by any one who has bestowed some study or thought on the subject, has very few exceptions. There is a class of fables, the invention of a set of bungling genealogists, who, by a process like that which heralds call canting — catching at a sound — pre- tend that the Douglases had their name from a Gaelic word, said to mean a dark gray man, but which never could be descriptive of a man at all; that the Forbeses were at first called For beast, because they killed a great bear; that Dalyell is from a Gaelic word, meaning "I dare;" that the Guthries were so called from the homely origin of gutting three had- docks for King David the Second's entertainment, when he landed very hungry on the Brae of Bervie from his French voyage. These clumsy inventions of a late age, if they were really meant to be seriously credited, disappear when we find from record that there were very ancient territories, and even parishes, of Douglas, Forbes, Dalyell, and Guthrie, long before the names came into use as family surnames. It was formerly customary to receive names from ancestors by compounding their name with a word indicating filial relationship. Names so compounded were termed patronymics, from Pater: father, and Onoma: a name — father being used in the sense of ancestor. When personal names merged into family appellations, patronymics became obsolete; or, more correctly, ceased to be formed. Before this change was effected, in case a man was called Dennis: born .•«♦ • 54 ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. on the Day of St. Dennis, sometimes his eldest son would be called Dennison, which in some cases, be- came Tennyson; and a man from a village in which was a church dedicated to St. Dennis was called Dennistoun. After the period in which descriptive names flourished, each of his children, whether male or female, would be called Dennis, so that this be- came literally a patronymic, inasmuch as it was a name received from a father. Howbeit, only those names that were taken from a parent when such was not the rule are called patronymics. Personal names lead the van as to all others, and are the basis of half their successors. Long after personal names were almost as widely diffused as persons, we find patronymics coming into use, the offspring of necessity arising out of multiplicity. But when we come to realize that nearly one- third of Englishmen were known either by the name of William or John about the year 1300, it will be seen that the pet name and nick form were no freak, but a necessity. We dare not attempt a category, but the surnames of to-day tell us much. Will was quite a distinct youth from Willot, Willot from Wil- mot, Wilmot from Wilkin, and Wilkin from Wilcock. There might be half a dozen Johns about the farm- stead, but it mattered little so long as one was called Jack, another Jenning, a third Jenkin, a fourth Jack- cock (now Jacox as a surname), a fifth Brownjohn, and sixth Micklejohn, or Littlejohn, or Properjohn (i.e., well-built or handsome). The first name looking like a patronymic is ante- diluvian, viz., Tubal-Cain: flowing out from Cain, as though O'Cain, given to intimate pride in relation- ship to Cain. During the Israelitish theocracy Gentile patronymics were in common use, as Hittites from Heth, but those personal came in later. As soon, 56 ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. however, as the New Testament opens we meet with Bar-Jonah, Bar-Abbas, names received from fathers in the conventional patronymical sense. It is, therefore, manifest that the chronology of patronymics, the period of their formation, lies about midway between primitive ages and time current. The Saxons sometimes bestowed honorable appel- lations on those who had signalized themselves by the performance of any gallant action, like the Ro- man Cognomina. Every person conversant with the history of those times will call to mind that England was much infested with wolves, and that large re- wards were given to such as were able by force or stratagem, to subdue them. To kill a wolf was to destroy a dangerous enemy, and to confer a benefit on society. Hence several Saxon proper names, ending in ulph and wolf, as Biddulph, the wolf-killer, or more properly "wolf-compeller," and some others; but these, among the common people at least, did not descend from father to son in the manner of modern surnames. Another early species of surname adjunct is the epithet Great, as Alexander the Great; with words expressive of other qualities, as Edmund Iron-side, Harold Hare-foot; and among the kings of Norway there was a Bare-foot. France had monarchs named Charles the Bald, Louis the Stutterer, and Philip the Fair. As society advanced more in refinement, partly for euphony, and partly for the sake of distinction, other names came into common use. Modern nations have adopted various methods of distinguishing families. The Highlanders of Scotland employed the sirename with Mac, and hence our Mac- donalds and Macartys, meaning respectively the son of Donald and of Arthur. ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 57 It would, however, be preposterous to imagine that surnames universally prevailed so early as the eleventh century. We have overwhelming evidence that they did not ; and must admit that although the Norman Conquest did much to introduce the practice of using them, it was long before they became very common. The occasional use of surnames in England dates beyond the ingress of the Normans. Surnames were taken up in a very gradual manner by the great, (both of Saxon and Norman descent) during the ele- venth, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries. By the mid- dle of the twelfth, however, it appears that they were (in the estimation of some) necessary appendages to families of rank, to distinguish them from those of meaner extraction. The unsettled state of surnames in those early times renders it a difficult matter to trace the pedi- gree of any family beyond the thirteenth century. In Cheshire, a county remarkable for the number of its resident families of great antiquity, it was very usual for younger branches of the family, laying aside the name of their father, to take their name from the place of their residences, and thus in three descents as many surnames are found in the same family. This remark may be forcibly illustrated by reference to the early pedigree of the family of Fitz-Hugh, which name did not settle down as a fixed appellative until the time of Edward III. Although most towns have borrowed their names from their situation and other respects, yet with some apt termination have derived their names from men ; as Edwardston and Alfredstone. But these were from forenames or christian names, and not from sire names; and even almost to the period of the con- quest forenames of men were generally given as names of places. 58 ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. The Normans are thought to have been the first to introduce the practice of fixed surnames among us; and certainly a little while before the conquest, some of these adventurers had taken family names from their chateaux in Normandy. "Neither is there any village in Normandy," says Camden, "that gave not denomination to some family in England." The French names introduced into England at the conquest may generally be known by the prefixes de, du, des, de, la, st.; and by the suffixes font, ers, fant, deau, age, mont, ard, aux, bois, ly, eux, et, val, court, vaux, lay, fort, ot, champ, and dille, most of which are component parts of proper names of places, as every one may convince himself by the slightest glance at the map of Northern France. But that these Norman surnames had not been of long standing is very cer- tain, for at the Conquest it was only one hundred and sixty years since the first band of Northmen rowed up the Seine, under their leader Hrolf, whom our history books honor with the theatrical name of Rollo, but who was known among his people as "Hrolf the Ganger." But whether in imitation of the Norman lords, or from the great convenience of the distinction, the use of fixed surnames arose in France about the year 1000; came into England sixty years later, or with the Norman Conquest; and reached Scotland, speak- ing roundly, about the year 1100. The first example of fixed surnames in any num- ber in England, are to be found in the Conqueror's Valuation Book called Domesday. "Yet in England," again to quote the judicious Camden, "certain it is, that as the better sort, even from the Conquest, by little and little took surnames, so they were not set- tled among the common people fully until about the time of Edward the Second." ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 59 Those dashing Norman adventurers introduced to the British Isle the custom of chivalry and the sur- names they had adopted from their paternal castles across the channel. They made a rage for knight- hood and turned the ladies' heads. An English prin- cess declined to marry a suitor who "had not two names." Henry I wished to marry his natural son Robert to Mabel, one of the heiresses of Fitz-Hamon. The lady demurred: "It were to me a great shame To have a lord withouten his twa name." Whereupon King Henry gave him the surname of Fitzroy, which means son of a king. The era of fixed surnames does not rest only on the authority of Camden. It can be proved by a thousand records, English and Scotch. It is almost sufficiently proved when it can be shown the race of Stuart— already first of Scotch families in opulence and power, distinguished by no surnames for several generations after the Norman Conquest. Much later the ancestors of the princely line of Hamilton were known as Walter Fitz-Gilbert, and Gilbert Fitz- Walter, before it occurred to them to assume the name their kinsmen had borne in England. But surnames were undoubtedly first used in the twelfth century, and came into general use in the following one. THE SAXON PATRONYMIC Was formed by adding ing to the ancestor's name, as ^Elfreding, which means Alfred's son; the plural for which is ^©lfredingas. THE ENGLISH PATRONYMIC, Which is exceedingly common, is generally indicated by affixing son to the name of a progenitor, and is in- 60 ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. capable of being used in a plural form or in the gen- eric sense. For instance, Gibson, a son of Gibbs, a contraction for Gilbert. Munson, a son of Munn, a contraction of Edmund. DE AND MAC Are from the Latin word De, which means of. This is a Patronymical sign common to French, Italian, and even ' German names. Thus Deluc, which means of Luke. Dwight means of Wight; and De Foe means of the Faith. FITZ. Fitz stands for Filius, a son, and received through the Normans. VAN AND VON. Corresponding more or less closely with de, ac, is the Dutch van, and usually applied with the force of the, as Vandersteen, which means of the stone, hill, from which have sprung Folli, Fell, Knox. Vander- velde means of the field ; Van Meter means living on hired land; and Vandeveer means of the ferry. THE WELSH PATRONYMIC Is a form of the Celtic means mac, which the Cam- brian people made Mab or Map, and shortening it to a letter b, p, or its cognate f, gave it work to do as a patronymical prefix. Thus, Probart, son of Robert ; Probyn, son of Robin; Blake, son of Lake; Bowen, son of Owen; Price, son of Rice or Rheese; Priddle, son of Riddle; and Prichard, son of Richard. MILESIAN PATRONYMIC. The Highlanders, Irish and Welsh hold mac in common. The Welsh delight to have it in the forms of mab, map, ap, hop, b, p, f. In Irish names mac ORIGIN OP THti SURNAME. 61 tends toward inag y ma, and c. But Scotland took most lovingly to mac. The Milesians found a greater charm in Eoghan: a son, forming ua, and that used as in the sense of eldest son, for he only was al- lowed to use it. The Irish developed a patronymic out of their Erse treasury more elastic and poetic than the Gaelic mac. . The Celtic for young, offspring son, is, as above given, eoghan, whence Egan for Hugh, eoghan : son of Hugh; and also Flanegan, son of Flan. . THE GALLIC PATRONYMIC Is mac, meaning a son ; and from eoghan, for a first- born son. The Gaels also had a patronymical affix derived from eoghan, known as ach, och, the sou/ce of our ock, as seen in hillock, which means little hill. THE SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE PATRONYMIC Is formed by az, or ez affixed. The two words are vari- ations of the tail Filius, a son; as Alvarez, son of Alva; and Enriquez, son of Henry. THE ITALIAN PATRONYMIC Was sometimes formed by placing the name of a son before the name of his father, as Galileo Galilei, which means Galileo, the son of Galilei; Speron Speroni, which means Speron, the son of Speroni. THE RUSSIAN PATRONYMIC Is itch for a son ; and of, ef or if for a grandson or descendant. Romanovitch Jouriff: son of Romain, grandson of Joury; and Romanoff, descended from Romain, son of Rome. 62 ORIGIN OF THH SURNAME. THE MODERN GREEK PATRONYMIC Assumes the forms pulos, soula, as in the name Nicol- opulos, son of Nicholas. THE GERMAN, DUTCH, SWEDISH, AND LAPLAND PA- TRONYMIC Are sohn 9 zen, sen, son, zoon, and dotter, such as Men- delssohn, son of Mendel; Thorwaldsen, son of Thor- wald ; and Larsdotter, son of Lars. LITHUANIAN PATRONYMIC Is aitis, ait or at, used as affix, thus, Adomaitis, mean- ing a son of Adam. THE HINDOSTANEE PATRONYMICS Is putra, added as an affix ; as occurs in Rajaputra, son of a king. THE CHINESE PATRONYMIC Is tse, or se, used as an affix, as Kung-fut-se, which means Kung, the son of Fo; and Yang-tse-Kiang, river, son of the ocean. THE LATIN PATRONYMIC Is ilius, as Hostilius, son of Hostis. THE GREEK PATRONYMIC Is idas, modified to ida, ides, id, i, od. For instance, Aristides, son of Ariston. THE HEBREW PATRONYMIC Proper is ben, from the word Eben, a stone. The Chal- dees used Bar in the sense of lofty, elevated, superior, which was primarily applied to eminence, and is iden- tical with our Barr. As Barzillai, son of Zillai; Ben- Joseph, son of Joseph. ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 63 KIN. * The primary sense ot kin seems to have been rela- tionship: from thence family or offspring. The next meaning acquired by kin was child, or " young one." We still speak in a diminutive sense of a manikin, kilderkin, pipkin, lambkin, jerkin, mini- kin (little Minion), or Doitkin. Terminations in kin were slightly going down in popular estimation when the Hebrew invasion made a clfcan sweep of them. They found shelter in Wales, however, and directories preserve in their list of sur- names their memorial forever. In proof of the popularity of kin are the surnames of Simpkinson, Hopkins, Dickens, Dickinson, Watkins, Hawkins, Jenkinson, Atkinson, and all the rest. The patronymics ending in kins got abbreviated into kiss, kes, and ks. Hence the origin of our Perkes, Purkiss, Hawkes, and Hawks, Dawks, Jenks, Juckfes, and Jukes (Judkins). IN OR ON. This diminutive, to judge from the Paris Directory, must have been enormously popular with the French. England's connection with Normandy and France generally brought the fashion to the English Court, and in habits of this kind the English folk quickly copied. Terminations in kin and cock were confined to the lower orders first and last. Terminations in on or in and ot or et, were the introduction of fash- ion, and being under patronage of the highest families in the land, naturally obtained a much wider popu- larity. OT AND ET. These are the terminations that ran first in favor for many generations. 64 ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. This diminutive ot et is found in the English lan- guage in such words as poppet, jacket, lancet, ballot, gibbet, target, gigot, chariot, latchet, pocket, ballet. In the same way a little page became a paget, and hence among our surnames Smallpage, Littlepage, and Paget. Coming to baptism, we find scarcely a single name of any pretentions to popularity that did not take to itself this desinence. The two favorite girl- names in Yorkshire previous to the Reformation were Matilda and Emma. Two of the commonest sur- names there to-day are Emmott and Tillot, with such variations as Emmett and Tillett, Emmotson and Tillotson. Of other girl-names we may mention Mabel, which from Mab became Mabbott; Douce became Doucett and Dowsett; Gillian or Julian, from Gill or Jill (whence Jack and Jill), became Gillot, Juliet, and Jowett; Margaret became Margett and Margott, and in the north Magot. NAMES DERIVED FROM OCCUPATIONS AND PURSUITS. After these local names "the most in number have been derived from Occupations or Professions." The practice of borrowing names from the various avocations of life is of high antiquity. Thus the Ro- mans had among them many persons, and those too of the highest rank, who bore such names as Figulus, Pictor, and Fabritius, answering to the Potters and Paynters, of our own times. These names became hereditary, next in order after the local names, about the eleventh and twelfth centuries. As local names generally had the prefix de or at, so these frequently had le, as Stephen le Spicer, and Walter le Boucher. ORIGIN OP THB SURNAME. 65 Names derived from dignities, civil and ecclesi- astical; and from offices. The same principle which introduced surnames bor» rowed from trades and occupations led to the adop- tion of the names of dignities and offices, which also became hereditary; as Emperor, King, Prince, Duke, Earle, Pope, Bishop, Cardinal, etc. surnames derived from personal and mental qualities. These seem to form one of the most obvious sources of surnames, and a prolific source it has been. Noth- ing would be more natural at the first assumption of surnames, than for a person of dark complexion to take the name of Black or Blackman, a tawny one that of Browne, and a pale one that of White or Whiteman. But it was not from the head alone that names of this description were taken, for we have, in respect of other personal qualities, our Longs and our Shorts, our Strongs and our Weaklys, and our Lightfoots and our Heavisides, with many more whose meaning is less obvious. Among the names indicative of mental or moral qualities, we have our Hardys and Cowards, our Livelys and our Sullens, our Brisks and our Doolittles; and Brainhead, which later became Brainerd. SURNAMES DERIVED FROM CHRISTIAN NAMES. Everybody must have remarked the great number of names of this kind. Who does not immediately call to mind some score or two of the name of Ed- wards, Johnson, Stevens, and Harrison, in the circle of his acquaintance. Many of the christian forenames of our ancestors were taken up without any addi- 66 ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. tion or change, as Anthony, Andrew, Abel, Baldwin, Donald, etc. Others have been corrupted in various ways, as Bennet from Benedict, Cutbeard from Cuth- bert, Stace from Ustace. NAMES FROM MANORS AND SMALLER ESTATES. The surnames from these sources are almost in- numerable. There is scarcely a city, town, village, manor, hamlet, or estate, in England, that has not lent its name to swell the nomenclature of English- men. SURNAMES FROM VARIOUS THINGS. We find the names of the heavenly bodies, beasts, birds, fishes, insects, plants, fruits, flowers, metals, etc., very frequently borne as surnames; as Sun, Moon, Star, Bear, Buck, Chicken, Raven, Crab, Cod, Bee, Fly, Lily, Primrose, Orange, Lemon, Gold, Silver, etc. SURNAMES FROM THE SOCIAL RELATIONS, PERIODS OF AGE, TIME, ETC. There are several surnames derived from consan- guinity, alliance, and from other social relations, orig- inating, from there having been two or more persons bearing the same christian name in the same neigh- borhood; as Fader, Brothers, Cousins, Husbands; and closely connected . with the foregoing are the names derived from periods of age, as Young, Younger, Eld, Senior. From periods of time we have several names, as Spring, Summer, Winter. The following surnames may also find a place here: Soone, Later, Latter, Last, Quickly. A CABINET OF ODDITIES. There are a good many surnames which seem to have originated in sheer caprice, as no satisfactory ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 67 reason for their assumption can be assigned. It is doubtful, indeed, if they were ever assumed at all, for they have very much the appearance of what, in these days, we are accustomed to call nicknames or sobri- quets, and were probably given by others to the per- sons who were first known by them, and so identified with those persons that neither they nor their im- mediate posterity could well avoid them. To this family belong the names borrowed from parts of the human figure, which are somewhat numerous; as Pate, Skull, Cheek, Neck, Side, Nailes, Heele, etc. Then there is another set of names not much less ridiculous, namely those borrowed from coins, and denominations of money, as Farthing, Money, Pen- ny. Besides these we have from the weather, Frost, Tempest, and Fogg; from sports, Bowles, Cards; from vessels and their parts, Forecastle, Ship; from mea- sures, Peck, Inches; from numbers, Six, Ten. It is really remarkable that many surnames ex- pressive of bodily deformity or moral turpitude should have descended to the posterity of those who perhaps well deserved and so could not escape them, when we reflect how easily such names might have been avoided in almost every state of society by the simple adoption of others ; for although in our day it is con- sidered an act of villainy, or at least a "suspicious affair/' to change one's name unless in compliance with the will of a deceased friend, when an act of the senate or the royal sign-manual is required, the case was widely different four or five centuries ago, and we know from ancient records that names were frequently changed at the caprice of the owners. Names of this kind are very numerous, such as, Bad, Silly, Outlaw, Trash, etc. 68 ORIGIN OF TUB SU&NAME. NAMES DERIVED FROM VIRTUES AND OTHER ABSTRACT IDEAS. To account for such names as Justice, Virtue,. Pru- dence, Wisdom, -Liberty, Hope, Peace, Joy, Anguish, Comfort, Want, Pride, Grace, Laughter, Luck, Peace, Power, Warr, Ramson, Love, Verity, Vice, Patience, etc., they undoubtedly originated in the allegorical characters who performed on the ancient mysteries or moralities; a specie of dramatics pieces, which before the rise of the genuine drama served to amuse under the pretext of instructing the play-goers of the 9t old- en tyme." FOREIGN NAMES NATURALIZED IN ENGLAND. Various causes might be assigned for the variety that exists in the nomenclature of Englishmen. Pro- bably the principal cause is to be found in the pecu- liar facilities which that island had for many ages presented to the settlement of foreigners. War, royal matches with foreign princesses, the introduction of manufactures from the continent, and the patronage which that country has always extended to every kind of foreign talent — all have of course tended to introduction of new names. CHANGED SURNAMES. The practice of altering one's name upon the oc- currence of any remarkable event in one's personal history, seems to have been known in times of very remote antiquity. The substitution of Abraham for Abram, Sarah for Sarai, etc., are matters of sacred history. In France it was formerly customary for eldest sons to take their father's surnames, while the younger branches assumed the names of the states allotted them. This plan also prevailed in England sometime after the Norman Conquest. ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 69 In the United States they carry this system of corrupting or contracting names to a ridiculous ex- tent.. Barnham is Barnum; Farnham (fern ground) Farnum ; Killham (kiln house or home) , Killum; Birk- ham (birch house) Birkum, and so forth with similar names. Pollock becomes Polk; Colquhoun becomes Calhoun; and M'Candish becomes M'Candless. HISTORICAL SURNAMES. By an historical surname is meant a name which has an illusion to some circumstance in the life of the person who primarily bore it. Thus Sans-terre or Lack-land, the by-name of King John, as having rela- tion to one incident in that monarch's life, might be designated an historical surname. To this class of surnames also, belongs that of Nestling, borne by a Saxon earl, who in his infancy, according to Verstegan, had been rescued from an eagle's nest. TRANSLATED NAMES. During the middle ages the Latin language was the language of literature and politics; accordingly in history and in the public records proper names had to assume a Latin form. The change was not al- ways a happy one. Authors were obliged to change their own names as well as the names of the persons they celebrated in either prose or verse. The history of France was still written in Latin in the seventeenth century, all names consequently recorded in Latin. In the sixteenth century the Germans used to trans- late them into Greek. The absurdity which it en- tailed undoubtedly hastened the disappearance of the custom. The chiefs of an American tribe in North America receive a new name when they have earned it by their exploits. 70 ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. A similar practice prevails in various negro tribes. The Greeks, in olden times, used to change their names on the smallest pretense, and with the greatest indifference. The emperors of Japan and those of China after their death receive a new name. ON THE CHANGING OF NAMES. With us a woman changes her name when she marries; among the Caribs of the Antilles it was the custom for husband and wife to exchange names. In some formerly, and at the present day in Cape Verd Islands, a liberated slave takes the name of his old master; the adopted person substitutes the name of the person who adopts him for his own; the law allows that a donor or testator may require that his name should be taken by the person benefited. In 1568 Philip enacted a law that the Moors who lived in Spain should abandon the use of their peculiar idiom, and of their national names and sur- names, and substitute in their stead Spanish idioms and Spanish names. He hoped to make new men of them, to denationalize them, if we may use the term, and to merge them into his own people. He had a keen appreciation of the value of proper names, but like all despotic sovereigns, he was blind to the in- fluence of time, which can alone produce the gradual fusion of a conquering with a conquered people, more especially when differences in religion add their over- whelming weight to one side of the balance. The Moors obeyed, but still retained their nation- al feelings and religious beliefs; later, however, when they were compelled to choose between exile on the one hand, and apostacy on the other, they returned to their old country, and carried back with them a number of Spanish names. Accordingly, in several ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 71 Mauritanian families descended from the Andalusian Mussulmans, we still find the names of Perez, Santi- ago, Valenciano, Aragon, etc., names which have sometimes led European authors into error, and made them fancy they saw apostates from Christianity among the descendants of the martyrs ot Islamism. The robbers whose trade it was to carry men away and sell them as slaves, needed no legal com- pulsion to change the names of their slaves. The precaution which they naturally took in this matter baffled the researches of disconsolate parents, who could only endeavor to recover their lost children by a description which was always imperfect and always uncertain. In modern times the same system has been adopted, although it has not been dictated by equally prudential motives. The laws of Christian Europe have even in our own times legalized the sale of slaves. As soon as a negro had landed in the colo- nies it was usual for his purchaser to give hin a new name. HEREDITARY NAMES. In England the middle classes acquired a decidedly important political influence as early as the year 1258, or not later than 1264, the quarrels of the nobles and the king having opened the road to Par- liament for the representatives of the commons. More- over, an act that no tax should be levied without the consent of their representatives was passed before the year 1300, and accordingly, soon after that date, we find hereditary names commonly used in the mid- dle classes. For a contrary reason the change cannot have taken place in Germany until a much later period. In order to prove this, an instance is given which 72 ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 1 will be all the more conclusive from its being con- nected with an intermediate point between that coun- try and France. In the town of Metz, which in idiom and by union with the dominions of the descendants of Clovis and Charlemagne, was decidedly French, but which for thirty years had been Germanized in consequence of its political position, you might have noticed at the close of the thirteenth century that its chief magistrates, who were all knights, bore without exception individual or derived surnames instead of family surnames. When we say derived, we mean either from the place in which they lived, or from the post which their military duties obliged them to occupy. It was not until the close of the latter half of the fourteenth century that hereditary names became common among men who were high in office, so that among their inferiors it is only fair to infer that they were rarer still. The etymology of hereditary names in England and in Germany is generally the same as in France and Italy. The following remarks will embody the inferences to be drawn from their examination, for the use of philologists. In languages of Teutonic or- igin, when descent is implied merely, the word son is placed after the father's name; such is the derivation of all the family names in the languages of Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and England, which terminate in this way. There are some exceptions, such as Fergu- son and Owenson, which serve to corroborate the statement as to the possibility of the union of two languages to form one an4 the same proper name; in the instances quoted above, a Saxon termination is joined to a Caledonian or a Welsh name. Attention has already been drawn to the custom of giving the father's name, in the genitive case, to the spn $9 ^ surname. The addition of & final 5 in ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 73 English, and of the. syllable ez in Spain, sufficed to change Christian praenomina into surnames, and afterwards into family names; Peters, Williams, Richards, Henriquez, Lopez, Fernandez, literally (son) of Peter, of William, of Richard, of Henry, of Lope (or Wolf), of Fernando or Ferdinand. D'Andre, Dejean, Depierre, have probably beeome family names in France in a similar way. The name of the writer who was perhaps the keenest apprecia- tor of the genius of the immortal Dante that ever lived, Giuseppe di Cesare, shows that a similar form was not foreign to Italian customs. As in Italy, so also in the greater part of Europe, the practice of drawing up deeds and charters in Latin was almost universal, and in these the son was designated by his father's name in the genitive case, hence we must attribute all the names which are characterized by such a termination to this cus- tom. Such names, for instance, as Fabri, Jacobi, Simonis, Johannis, etc., names which would be mul- tiplied without end if other languages had retained the old Latin termination like the Italian. The coun- tries where the greatest number will be found will be those (it may be quite safely conjectured ) where the custom of writing legal documents in Latin prevailed the longest. Somewhat similar in Wales, the sign of descent, or rather of sonship, led to the formation of sur- names, which later again became hereditary names. The word "ah," when placed between two names, expresses descent, Rhys ab Evan (Rhys, the son of Evan); the vowel is gradually lost in common use, and the name becomes Rhys Evan, and, according to the same rule, successively takes the form of the fol- lowing patronymics, Bowen, Pruderrech, Price. It is still the same theory, only more simply car- 74 ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. ried out, which regulated the formation of family names in Ireland and in Scotland. As soon as the head of a clan had adopted some hereditary name, that name was given to all his vassals, whatever rank they might happen to occupy, and however re- motely connected they might be by ties of kindred with the head of the clan, and further, even though they had only entered it by enfranchisement or by adoption. The feeling of pride which suggested such a system is by no means an offensive one; we excuse it on the ground of its similarity to the old patri- archal customs; the head of the clan who is so pow- erful, and such an object of reverence, is but the eld- est brother of a large family, and the name which he takes belongs to all its members. It will not be quite so easy to discover a reason for the feeling of vanity which in Spain and in . Por- tugal led to such a tedious multiplicity of names. Birthplace, or the customary home, are not considered sufficient for a full description of a lordly title; alli- ances, adoptions, and the like, were all dragged in to increase the number of names. An ignorant phase of devotional feeling added to its proportionate share to their Christian praenomia; it may, therefore, be easily inferred what needless confusion must have arisen in the ordinary transactions of life through this two-fold prodigality of names. As the nobles in Sweden had not adopted heredi- tary names before the close of the sixteenth century, it followed as a matter of course that the middle classes did not use them until a still later period. The choice of names which this latter class made is worthy of notice. We know many names in France which indicate occupations, such as Draper, Miller, Barber, Maker, Slater, Turner,* etc. The same may ♦Mercier, Meunier, Barbier, Boulanger, Couvreur, Tourneur. ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 75 be found in England, but not in the same quantity; the oldest English commoners were freeholders of land rather than either merchants or manufacturers. There are few if any such, in Sweden; the greater part of their names are the names of properties, or of farms, or of forests, and were of that character because they were selected by a class who wished to approximate to the nobles by imitating their ways, and consequently not because they were the result of a need for distinctive signs — a need which is totally distinct from any individual wish or caprice. In Holstein and in Courland there are still many families who have no names peculiarly their own. In this instance, again, the scourge of feudalism is felt in all its severity. ORIGIN OF OUR FAMILY. Whatever concerns the origin of our family— from whom proceeded the sturdy men that planted our in- fant states has for all of us an especial charm, not only from what we know, but for what we hope to ascertain. Our ancestors, tracing back their lineage to Pict and Dane, to the legionaries of Rome, or to the sea kings of the Baltic, had gained strength from the fusion in their nature of various and opposing ele- ments, and combined what was best of many races. That our ancestors were fond of fighting when provoked, regardless of personal safety or private advantage, cannot be denied. For the five centuries following the conquest, wars at home and abroad succeeded with little cessation. Military duty was incumbent on all who could bear arms. Personal en- counters between knight and squire in mail with lance and battle axe, the rest in quilted doublets, with pike and bow, made men indifferent to danger, and induced habits of hardihood and daring. ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. According to some authorities the history of man- kind began with Adam and Eve about six thousand years ago; and that their decendants spread over Asia first, then over Africa, and then over Europe. But science clearly points that the [world and its in- habitants in some form must have existed for millions of years. It took primitive man four thousand years to learn how to make a hole in a stone, insert a stick in it, and use it for a weapon. Then he became master of the forest, with power readily to provide himself with meat-food. From fisherman and hunter man developed into a herder of flocks, a tiller of the soil, a cultivator of grain. Then came attachment to the family and the growth of the family into clans and nations. The first historical record is dated about three thousand seven hundred years ago, when a man by the name of Inachus led a very large company of emi- grants from Egypt into Greece. These found that country inhabited by savages, who no doubt, were the descendants of those who had w&ndered there from Asia. Inachus and his companies established themselves in Greece, and from that point of time Europe gradu- ally became occupied by civilized people. Thus three quarters of the globe, Asia Africa and Europe, were settled. But America was separated from Asia by the Pacific Ocean, almost ten thousand miles across; and from Europe and Africa by the At- lantic, about three thousand miles across. Of America in ancient times people knew nothing. The ships in olden times were small and feeble; and navigators seldom dared to stretch forth upon the boundless sea. Even the mariners compass, that mysterious but steadfast friend of the sailor was not used by the Europeans until 1250. 78 ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME'. THE FIRST SETTLEMENTS. It was in the year 1607 that the first emigrants, to successfully form a permanent colony, landed in Virginia. For twelve years after its settlement it languished under the government of Sir Thomas Smith, Treasurer of the Virginia Company in Eng- land. The Colony was ruled during that period by laws written in blood; and its history shows us how the narrow selfishness of such a despotic power would counteract the very best efforts of benevolence* The colonist suffered an extremity of distress too horrible to be described. Of the thousands of emigrants who had been sent to Virginia at great cost, not one in twenty remained alive in April, 1619, when Sir George Yeardley arrived. He bought certain commissions and instructions from the company for the •'Better establishing of a commonwealth here/' and the pros- perity of Virginia began from this time, when it received, as a commonwealth, the freedom to make laws for itself. The first meeting was held July 30, 1619— more than a year before the Mayflower, with the pilgrims, left the harbor of Southampton. The first colony established by the Plymouth Com- pany in 1607, on the coast of Maine, was a lament- able failure. The permanent settlement of New England began with the arrival of a body of Separatists in the May- flower in 1620, who founded the coloify of Plymouth. The Separatists' migration from England was followed in a few years by a great exodus of Puri- tans, who planted towns along the coast to the North of Plymouth, and obtained a charter of gov- ernment and a great strip of land, and founded the colony of Massachusetts Bay. ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 79 Religious disputes drove Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson out of Massachusetts and led to the founding of Rhode Island in 1636. Other church rangles led to an emigration from Massachusetts to the Connecticut valley, where a little confederacy of towns was created and called Connecticut. Some settlers from England went to Long Island Sound and there founded four towns which, in their turn, joined in a federal union called the New Haven Colony. In time New Haven was joined to Connecticut, and Plymouth and Maine to Massachusetts; New Hampshire was made a royal colony; and the four New England colonies Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Connecticut — were definitely estab- lished. The territory of Massachusetts and Connecti- cut stretched across the continent to the "South Sea" or Pacific Ocean. The Maryland colony was founded by Lord Bal- timore, a Roman Catholic, who was influenced in his attempts of colonization by a desire to found a refuge for people of his own faith ; and the first settlement was made in 1634 at St. Mary's, Annapolis was founded about 1683, and Baltimore in 1729. Meantime Henry Hudson in the employ of the Dutch, discovered the Delaware and Hudson Rivers in 1609; and the Dutch, ignoring the claims of England, planted colonies on these rivers and called the coun- try New Netherlands. Then a Swedish company began to colonize the Delaware Bay and River coast of Virginia, which they called New Sweden. Conflicts between the Dutch and the Swedes fol- lowed, and in 1655 New Sweden was made a part of New Netherlands. 80 ORIGIN OP THE SURNAME. The English seized New Netherlands in 1664, giv- ing it to the Duke of York; and the Duke, after es- tablishing the province of New York, gave New Jersey to two of his friends, and sold the three counties on the Delaware to William Penn. Meanwhile the king granted Penn what is now Pennsylvania in 1681. The Carolinas were first chartered as one proprie- tary colony but were sold back to the king arid final- ly separated in 1729. Georgia, the last of the thirteen English colonies, was granted to Oglethorpe and others; as a refuge for poor debtors, in 1732. In 1774 General Gage became governor of Mass- achusetts; and seeing that the people were gathering stores and cannon, he attempted to destroy the stores, and so brought on the battle of Lexington and Concord, which opened the war for Independence. The English army was surrounded at Yorktown by Washington and the French fleet and forced to sur- render. A convention at Philadelphia framed the Constitution of the United States. NATIONS THAT HAVE OWNED OUR SOIL. Before the United States became a nation, six European powers owned, or claimed to own, various portions of the territory now contained within its boundary. England claimed the Atlantic coast from Maine to Florida. Spain once held Florida, Texas, California and all the territory south and west of Colorado. France in days gone by ruled the Missis- sippi valley. Holland once owned New Jersey, Dela- ware and the valley of the Hudson in New York and claimed as far eastward as the Connecticut River. The Swedes had settlements on the Delaware. Alaska was a Russian possession. ORIGIN OF THE FORE-NAME. 81 FORE -NAMES. CHRISTIAN names are so called from having orig- inally been given to converts at baptism as sub- stitutes for their former pagan appellatives, many of which were borrowed from the names of their gods, and therefore rejected as profane. After the general introduction of Christianity, the epithet was still re- tained, because the imposition of names was ever connected with the earliest of its sacred rites. It is, nevertheless, most incorrect; sin'ce the majority of the personal names of modern times are borrowed from sources unconnected with Christianity. With what propriety can we call Hercules and Diana, Augustus and Julia, or even Henry and Caroline, Christian names? They should be called forenames (that is first names), a term much more preferable to the other. Perhaps the word name, without any ad- junct, would be better still. We should then use the name and surname as distinctive words; whereas we now often regard them synonyms. From the earliest times, names to distinguish one person from another have been in use. The names in the Old Testament are mostly original and generally given at the birth, in accordance with some circum- stance connected with that event, or from some pious sentiment of the father or mother. The Jewish child received his name at the time of circumcision. This practice is still adopted amongst the Jews, and has been followed by the Christian Church giving a name at baptism. The ancient Greeks used only one name, which was given on the ninth day after birth, and was 82 ORIGIN OF THE FORE-NAME. chosen by the father, who also possessed the right of altering it. These names generally expressed some great quality — as bravery, wisdom, or skill. Thus Callienachus means excellent fighter; and Sophron means wise. In later times many names were derived from those of their gods— as Apollodorus, the Gift of Apollo. The eldest son usually bore the name of his paternal grandfather, to which was sometimes added the father's name, or the occupation, place of birth, or a nickname. The Romans at a very early date used two names, and later on each Roman citizen had three. The praenomen was, like our Christian name, per- sonal to the individual; as Caius and Marcus; in writing, the initials only were generally used. In early times it was given at puberty, but afterwards on the ninth day after birth. Women took no prae- nomen until marriage, when they adopted the femi- nine form of their husband's name. Every Roman citizen belonged to a gens and to a familia included in it. The notnen gentilicum (the second name) usually ended in ius, cius, or aius. The third name was the hereditary cognomen borne by the family, to which was sometimes a second cognomen called agnomen, was added. The cognomen was often de- rived from some event in the family history, or from some personal defect. In common intercourse the praenomen and cognomen only were used, as C. Caesar, for C. Julius Caesar. Many of the Roman names were of a much less dignified origin than the Greek, as Cicero (Vetchgrower), Crassus (Fat), Naso (Longnosed). The Celtic and Teutonic names were originally very significant. Many were derived from "God," as Gottfried, Godwin, and others from genii or elves, as Alfred Elfric (Elf King). Personal prowess, wisdom, ORIGIN OF THE FORE-NAME. 83 and nobility of birth, were the origin of many names still in use, as Hilderbrand (the War Brand), .Arnold (Valiant Eagle) Osborn (God bear). After the intro- duction of Christianity many of the old names were superseded by those taken from the Scriptures. These names in course of time became much altered; as for example, Owen, Evan, and Eoghan are different forms of Johann or John. A change of name was sometimes made at confirmation, and amongst Roman Catholics an additional name is given at the first communion. Sir Edward Coke tells us: "If a man be baptized by the name of Thomas, and after at his confirmation by the bishop he is named John, he may purchase by the name of his confirmation. And this was the case of Sir Francis Gawdye, late Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas, whose name of baptism was Thomas, and his name of con- firmation Francis; and that the name of Francis by the advice of all the judges in anno 36, Henry VIII, he did bear, and often used in all his purchases and grants." Another instance is that of Henry III of France, who, being the godson of Edward VI of Eng- land, was named Edward Alexander at his baptism in 1551; but at his confirmation in 1565 these names were changed to Henri. In Germany the names are mostly of Teutonic origin, or connected with the early history of Christianity. Double Christian names were not much in vogue before the nineteenth century. A very early instance is that of "John Thomas Jones," a runaway thief, mentioned in a collection of autograph letters from Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, and his son (1601); Charles George Cook, Judge of the Admiralty in 1665; and Henry Frederick Thynne, brother to Lord Wey- mouth, 1682, are other examples, which might easily be extended. 84 ORIGIN OF THE FORE-NAME. In France and Germany when surnames became universal, the prefix of De or von to a common ple- beian name was considered as a mark of nobility. In Britain the De was not considered the test for no- bility, for the names of some of the best families were not territorial; as Butler, Stewart and Spenser. SCRIPTURAL NAMES ALREADY IN USE AT THE REFOR- MATION. It now remains simply to consider the state of nomenclature in England at the eve of the Reforma- tion in relation to the Bible. Four classes may be mentioned. MYSTERY NAMES. The leading incidents of Bible narrative were familiarized to the English lower orders by the per- formance of sacred plays, or mysteries, rendered un- der the supervision of the Church. To these plays is owed the early popularity of Adam and Eve, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Sara, Daniel, Samp- son, Susanna, Judith, Hanna or Anna, and Hester. But the Apocryphal names were not frequently used until about 1500. Scarcely any diminutives are found of them. On the other hand, Adam became Adcock and Adkin; Eve became Evott and Evett; Isaac became Hickin, Higgin, Higgott and Higgett; Joseph became Joskin; and Daniel became Dankin and Dannet. CRUSADE NAMES. The Crusaders gave several prominent names. To them we are indebted for Baptist, Ellis and Jordan; and John received a great stimulus. The sacred water, brought in the leathern bottle, was used for baptis- mal purposes. The Jordan commemorated John the ORIGIN OF THE FORE-NAME. 85 Baptist, the second Elias, the forerunner and bap- tizer of Jesus Christ. Children were styled by these incidents. Jordan became popular throughout Western Europe. It gave to England, as already observed, Judd, Judkin, Judson, Jordan and Jordanson, Elias, as Ellis, took about the eighth place of frequency, and John for a while the first. THE SAINT'S CALENDAR. The legends of the saints were carefully taught by the priesthood, and the day was as religiously ob- served. All children born on these holy days re- ceived the name of the saint commemorated. St. James's Day, or St. Nicholas's Day, or St. Thomas's Day, saw a small batch of Jameses, Nicholases, and Thomases received into the fold of the church. In other cases the gossip had some favorite saint, and placed the child under his or her protection. Of course, it bore the patron's name. A large number of these hagiological names were extra-Biblical — such as Cecilia, Catherine, or Theobald. All the apostles, save Judas, became household names; John, Simon, Peter, Bartholomew, Matthew, James, Thomas and Philip being the favorites. Paul and Timothy were also utilized, the former being always found as Pol. FESTIVAL NAMES. If a child was born at Whitsuntide or Easter, Christmas or Epiphany, like Robinson Crusoe's man Friday, he received the name of the day. Hence our once familiar names of Noel or Nowell, Pask or Pas- cal, Easter, Pentecost, and Epiphany or Tiffany. It will be observed that all these imply no direct or personal acquaintance with the Scriptures. All came through the Church. All, too, were in full tide :•«»*-« 86 ORIGIN OF THE FORE-NAME. of prosperity — with the single exception of Jordan, which was nearly obsolete — when the Bible, printed into English and set up in the churches, became an institution. The immediate result was that the old Scripture names of Bartholomew, Peter, Philip, and Nicholas received a blow much deadlier than that received by such Teutonic names as Robert, Richard, Roger and Ralph. The subject of the influence of the Bible upon English nomenclature is not uninteresting. It may be said of the "Vulgar Tongue" Bible that it revolu- tionized the nomenclature within the space of forty years, or a little over a generation. No such crisis, surely, ever visited a nation's register before, nor can such possibly happen again. Every home felt the effect. THE DECAY OF SINGLE PATRONYMICS IN BAPTISM. The introduction of double baptismal names pro- duced a revolution ^ls immediate as it was uninten- tional. It put a stop to what bade fair to become a universal adoption of patronymics as single baptis- mal names. This practice took its rise about the year 1580. It became customary in highly placed families to christen the eldest son by the name of the landed estate to which he was heir. Especially was it com- mon when the son succeeded to property through his mother; then the mother's surname was his Chris- tian name. With the introduction of second baptis- mal names, this custom ceased; and the boy or girl, as the case might be, after a first orthodox name of Robert or Cecilia, received as a second the patronymic that before was given alone Instead of Neville Clarke the name would be Charles Neville Clarke. From the year 1700 this has been a growing custom, and half the present list of treble names are thus formed. 88 • ORIGIN OF THE FORE-NAME. Until about the commencement of the seventeenth century, no material change in the designations of Englishmen had occurred since the days of the earlier Edwards, when surnames were generally adopted. John de la Barre, it is true, had become plain John Barr, and Roger atte Hylle had softened to Roger Hill, but still the principle of a single Christian name and a single surname had been maintained through- out. About the period alluded to, the innovation of a second personal name occurs, though but very rarely. The practice was imported to Great Britain from the Continent, where it seems to have originated among the literati in imitation of the trianomitia of antiquity. The accession of the many-named house of Brunswick may be said to have rendered it somewhat fashion- able; and during the last century it has become every year more common. Should the fashion continue, it is probable that at the dawn of the twentieth centu- ry it will be as difficult to find a binominated person in America, as it is in France at the present day. Another innovation belongs to the seventeenth cen- tury; that of the use of some family name as a bap- tismal appellation, as Gouldsmith Hodgson, Boscawen Lower, Cloudsley Shovel. This practice as well as the other is highly to be commended, as serving to iden- tify the individual with the designation. The genealo- gist will at once see its utility; and it is suggested to parents the desirability of inserting the maternal fami- ly name between the proper name of baptism and the surname, as James Morton Wilson, Henry Smith Brad- ley. Indeed it would be well to go further and add the maiden family name of the wife to the surname of the husband ; thus if a Charles Harrison married a Mary Bradshawe, they should thereupon write them- selves respectively Charles Bradshawe Harrison and Mary Bradshawe Harrison. If Vanity unites in the ORIGIN OF THE FORE-NAME. 89 same escutcheon the arms of the wife with those of her lord, ought not Affection in like manner to blend their names ? This usage is voluntarily followed at Geneva and in many provinces in France; and it serves to distinguish the bachelor from the married man. In some districts, where a family name was orig- inally applied at the font instead of the usual James, Peter, or John, that family name has come to be re- garded as a regular christian name. For example: about Lewes, Trayton is fully as common as Samuel, Nicholas, Alfred, or any name occupying the second rank in point of frequency, and only less usual than Henry, William and John. In the sixteenth century a family of this name, from Cheshire, settled in Lewes, and continued to reside there for several successive generations, during the latter part of which period they became so popular that a host of children re- ceived the baptismal name of Trayton in compliment to them. The spirit of imitation succeeded; and there are at the present day scores of Traytons, who have neither any idea of the origin of their name, nor any doubt of its being as orthodox as the very common appellatives alluded to, We have seen that the Christian name, once im- posed, cannot be altered at the option of the bearer, as the surname may; at least not without the sanc- tion of episcopal authority. Towards the close of the eighteenth century, Sir William Bridges exchanged the name of William for that of Brooke, by license from the Archbishop of Canterbury; but this is almost a solitary instance in modern times, as the occasion for it .rarely arises. Before the Reformation, the unauthorized change of a Christian name was a grave offence. It is recorded in the consistorial acts of the Bishop of Rochester, that on Oct. 15, 1515, one Agnes Sharpe appeared and con- fessed that she had "of her own motion and consent, 90 ORIGIN OF THE FORE-NAME. voluntarily changed, at confirmation, the name of her infant son to Edward, who when baptized was named Henry, for which she submitted to penance." The penance enjoined was to make a pilgrimage to the famous Rood of Grace, at the neighboring abbey of Boxley, and to carry in procession on five Lord's days, a lighted taper which she was to offer to the image of the Blessed Virgin. THE PAUCITY OF NAMES. There were no Scripture names in England when the Conqueror took possession; even in Normandy they had appeared but a generation or two before William came over. If any are found in the old Eng- lish period, they were undoubtedly ecclesiastical titles, adopted at ordination. Greek and Latin saints were equally unnoticed. Before many generations had passed, Bartholo- mew, Simon, Peter, Philip, Thomas, Nicholas, John and Elias, had engrossed a third of the male popula- tion; yet Domesday Book has no Philip, no Thomas, only one Nicholas; and but a springling of Johns. It was not long before Jack and Jill took the place of Godric and Godgivu as representative of the English sexes, yet Jack was from the bible and Jill from the saintly calendar. Without entering into a deep discussion, it may be said that the great mass of the old English names had gone down before the year 1200 had been reached. Those that survived only held on for bare existence. From the moment of William's edvent, the names of the Normans began to prevail. He brought in Bible names, Saint names, and his own Teutonic names. The old English names bowed to them, and disap- peared. A curious result quickly followed. From the year ORIGIN OF THE FORE-NAME. 91 1150 to 1550, four hundred years in round numbers, there was a very much smaller* dictionary of English personal names than there had been for four hundred years before, and than there has been in the four hun- dred years since. The Norman list was really a small one, and yet it took possession of the whole of Great Britain. A consequence of this was the Pet-name Epoch. In every community of one hundred Englishmen about the year 1300, there would be an average of twenty Johns and fifteen Williams; then would follow Thomas, Bartholomew, Nicholas, Philip, Simon, Peter and Isaac from the Scriptures; and Richard, Robert, Walter, Guy, Henry, Roger and Baldwin from the Teutonic list. Of female names, Matilda, Isabella and Emma were first favorites; and Cecilia, Catharine, Margaret and Gillian came closely upon their heels. Behind these, again, lollowed a fairly familiar number of names of either sex, some from the Teuton, some from the He- brew, some from the Greek and Latin Church, but, when all told, not a large category. This is not enough, for in common parlance it was not likely the full name would be used. Besides, there might be two, or even three Johns in the same family. So late as March, 1545, the will of John Parnell de Gyrton runs: "Alice, my wife, and Old John, my son, to occupy my farm together, till Old John marries; Young John, my son, shall have Brenlay's land plowed and sowed at Old John's cost. " The register of Raby, Leicestershire, has this entry : "1559. Item: 29th day of August was John, and John Picke, the children of Xtopher and Anne, baptized. "Item: the 31st of August the same John and John were buried. " 92 ORIGIN OF THE PORE-NAME. Mr. Burns, who quotes these instances in his "His- tory of Parish Registers, " adds that at this same time "one John Barker had three sons named John Barker, and two daughters named Margaret Barker." If the same family had but one name for the house- hold we may imagine the difficulty when this one name was also popular throughout the village. The diffi- culty was naturally solved by, firstly, the adoption of nick forms; secondly, the addition of pet desinences. Thus Emma became by the one practice simple Emm, by the other Emmott; and any number of boys in a smali community might be entered in a register as Bartholomew, and yet preserve their individuality in work-a-day life by bearing, such names as Bat, Bate, Batty, Bartle, Bartelot, Batcock, Batkin, and Tolly, or Tholly. In a word, these several iorms of Bar- tholomew were treated as so many separate proper names. It was, of course, impossible for Englishmen and English women to maintain their individuality on these terms. Various methods to secure a personality arose. The surname was adopted, and there were John Atte-wood, John the Wheelwright, John the Bigg, and John Richard's son, in every community. Among . the middle and lower classes these did not become hereditary until so late as 1450 or 1500. This is easily proved. In the wardrobe accounts . for Edward IV, 1480, occur the following items: "John Poyntmaker, for pointing of XI dozen points of silk pointed with agelettes laton. "Jehn Carter, for carriage away of a grete loode of robeux that was left in the strete. "To a laborer called Rychard Gardyner for work- ing in the gardyne. "To Alice Shapster for making and washing xxiiii sherts, and xxiii stomachers. " Shapster is a feminine GENEALOGY. 93 form of Shapper or Shaper — one who shaped or cut out cloths for garments. All these several individuals, having no particular surname, took or received one from the occupation they temporarily followed. GENEALOGY. None of the sciences is less generally studied than that of Genealogy. Like all the others, though dry and repellant at first, when perseveringly followed out it becomes, in the research, full of interest, and pro- ductive of great results. An account of the origin, descent and relations of families is often a principal auxiliary to the true ap- preciation of history. In treating of persons who have distinguished themselves in their country's an- nals, not only are all those actions of their lives which have a bearing upon the character of the age in which they lived, or the well-being of the nation and com- munity to which they belonged, to be considered, but their own family and personal extraction, standing and descent. The genealogist confines himself to tracing family lineages, or the course of succession in particular fami- lies. That is his peculiar department. He leaves to the annalist the chronicling of events in the order of their occurrence, and to the historian the filling up of the details and circumstances to which these dry facts refer, and the description of the causes from which they spring, as well as the consequences to which they lead. The sole purpose and pursuit of the historian is to be able to show "Who is Who " and to distinguish those who are somebody from those who are nobody. The principal nomenclature of genealogy is as follows: 94 HERALDRY. All persons descended from a common ancestor con- stitute a family. a series of persons so descended is called a line. A line is either direct or collateral. The direct line is divided into the ascending and descending. The projenitors are father, grandfather, etc. ; the other ascendants not in a direct line are called ancestors. The descendants are son, grandson, etc. ; the other descendants not in a direct line are generally termed Posterity. The Collateral comprehended all those which unite in a common projenitor. Some affect to hold in contempt the study of suc- cession of families. Others undervalue it, without being fully aware of the importance of genealogical research. There are some people, says Dr. Lindsay Alexan- der, in his "Life of Dr. Wardlaw, " who say they attach no importance to a man's descent, or to family honors, and despise those who do. Perhaps they may be sincere, but their judgment in this matter is cer- tainly erroneous, and their feeling unnatural. "The glory of children, " says the wisest of men, "are their fathers ;" and a honorable descent should be highly valued. HERALDRY. Heraldic devices, truly so called, made their first appearance in Europe in the middle of the twelfth century ; and about one hundred years later Heraldry became a science in high repute, without being able to trace its intermediate progress, or discover the names of those who first laid down its laws, or subsequently promulgated them. The earliest Heraldic document of which even a copy has come down to us is a roll of HERALDRY. 95 arms, that is to say, a catalogue of the armorial bear- ings of the king of England, and the principal barons, knights, etc. , in the reign of Henry III ; and, from in- ternal evidence, supposed to have been originally com- piled between the years 1240—1245. This transcript was made by Glover, Somerset Herald, in 1586, and is preserved in the College of Arms. Other rolls are to be found both there and in the British Museum, of nearly the same date, but none earlier; and no work explanatory of the science has been yet discovered of a period anterior to the reign of Edward III. In the reign of Henry III, armorial ensigns had become hered- itary, marks of cadency distinguished the various members of a family, and the majority of the present Heraldic terms were already in existence. THE USE OF ARMS At that period was to distinguish persons and prop- erty, and record descent and alliance, and no modern invention has yet been found to supersede it . For this reason alone, as we have remarked elsewhere, of all ancient usages it is one of the least likely to become obsolete. Hundreds of persons may be entitled to the same initials, may possess precisely the same name; but only the members of a particular family can law- fully bear certain armorial ensigns, and the various branches of that family have their separate differences to distinguish one from the other. After the lapse of centuries, the date of a building or the name of its founder or ancient possessor, may be ascertained at the present day, through the accidental preservation of a sculptured coat of arms or heraldic encaustic tile ; and the careful study of early rolls of arms enables the historian to discover matrimonial alliances and family connections, of which no written record has been found; and thereby not only to complete the 96 HERALDRY. m very imperfect genealogies of many of the bravest and wisest of English nobility and gentry, but also to ac- count for sundry acts, both public and private, the motives for which have been misunderstood, or alto- gether unknown to the biographer or the historian. VARIOUS SORTS OF ARMS . Arms are not only granted to individuals and fam- ilies, but also to cities, corporate bodies, and learned societies. Arms of Dominion or Sovereignty are properly the arms of the kings or sovereigns of the territories they govern, which are also regarded as the arms of the State. Thus the Lions of England and the Russian Eagle are the arms of the Kings of England and the Emperors of Russia, and cannot be properly altered by a change of dynasty. Arms of Pretension are those of kingdoms, prov- inces, or territories to which a prince or lord has some claim, and which he adds to his own, though the king- doms or territories are governed by a foreign king or lord ; thus the Kings of England for many ages quar- tered the arms of France in their escutcheon as the descendants of Edward III, who claimed that king- dom, in right of his mother, a French princess. Arms of Concession are arms granted by sovereigns as the reward of virtue, valor or extraordinary ser- vice. All arms granted to subjects - were originally conceded by the Sovereign. Arms of Community are those of bishoprics, cities, universities, academies, societies and corporate bodies. Arms of patronage are such as governors of prov- inces, lords of manors, etc., add to their family arms as a token of their superiority, right jurisdiction. HERALDRY. 97 Arms of Family, or paternal arms, are such as are hereditary and belong to one particular family, which none others have a right to assume, nor can they do so without rendering themselves guilty of a breach of the laws of honor, punishable by the Earl Marshal and the Kings-at-Arms. The assumption of arms has, however, become so common that little notice is taken of it at the present time. Arms of Alliance are those gained by marriage. Arms of Succession are such as are taken up by those who inherit certain estates by bequest, entail, or donation. THE SHIELD. The shield contains the field or ground whereon are represented the charges or figures that form a coat of arms. • ' PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES 99 PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES IN THE UNITED STATES. Within the past few years there has been a remark- able movement in the United States, which has re- sulted in the formation of many patriotic hereditary societies of large membership, with chapters in every State in the Union. Those only are eligible to mem- bership who can prove their descent from an ancestor of Colonial or Revolutionary times, trom an officer or soldier or seaman of the various wars, from a pilgrim in the Mayflower, an early Huguenot emigrant, etc. These societies bring men and women of like traditions together, and organize them in an effective way for action. The action contemplated is patriotic — never religious or related to party politics. The general so- ciety from its headquarters issues charters to branch societies in the different States. Each State society forms an organized group of persons well known to each other, by name at least, and often personally. Certain of these societies have been very active in preserving old monuments, buildings, landmarks and historic documents, or in erecting tablets and monu- ments at historic places, or in marking the sites of battles or the graves of Revolutionary soldiers. Others have founded prizes to be given annually to school •children for essays on events in American history. Others, again, formally celebrate the nation's anni- versaries. All of them foster patriotism and historical research, and teach organization — the sinking of indi- vidual desire in a common loyalty. There are proba- bly too many such organizations at present, and more are forming. The weaker societies will, however, die ; and those that remain will represent some real aspir- ation of their members. 100 PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES. As the entrance to such societies is through descent from some ancestor, geneaology has been powerfully stimulated, and thousands of family records have been examined and summarized in print. Our Colonial and Revolutionary history has been studied in its details, which is the only way to fully realize it. The men of to-day have been connected with Colonial and Revo- lutionary times. The children of the coming century will find their ancestral records all prepared for them, and they will be face to face with high standards of duty and effort. THE SOCIETY OP COLONIAL WARS, Instituted in 1892, is open to lineal male descendants of civil or military officers, or of soldiers, who served the colonies between May 13, 1607 (Jamestown) and April 19, 1775 (Lexington). THE SOCIETY OP AMERICAN WARS, Founded in 1897, includes the lineal male descendants of soldiers or civil officers from 1607 to 1783, and of officers of the War of 1812, of the War with Mexico, and of the Civil War. THE ORDER OF THE FOUNDERS AND PATRIOTS OF AMERICA , Founded in 1896, is open to any male citizen of the United States who is lineally descended in the male line of either parent from an ancestor who settled in any of the colonies between 1607 and 1657, and whose intermediate ancestors adhered as patriots to the cause of the colonists throughout the War of the Revolution. PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES. 101 THE SOCIETY OF THE CINCINNATI, Instituted in 1783 is composed of descendants of offi- cers of the Revolutionary army, usually the eldest male direct descendant. THE AZTEC CLUB, Founded in 1847, is open to the descendants of offi- cers of the army who served in Mexico, usually the eld- est male direct descendant. THE MILITARY ORDER OF THE LOYAL LEGION OF THE UNITED STATES, Founded in 1865, is composed of officers who served in the War of the Rebellion, and of their eldest direct male lineal descendants. THE SOCIETY OF THE WAR OF 1812, ORGANIZED IN 1814, Is composed of lineal male descendants of soldiers or sailors of the War of 1812. THE NAVAL ORDER OF THE UNITED STATES, Instituted in 1890, is open to officers of the navy who have served in war, and to their male descendants, etc.; and also to enlisted men who have received a Medal of Honor from the United States for bravery. THE SONS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION, Instituted in 1875, must prove their descent from a Rev- olutionary ancestor. The Sons of the Revolution (1876) is organized on the same basis. It is expected that these two large societies will be consolidated. THE HOLLAND SOCIETY, Incorporated in 1775, is composed of the direct male descendants of Hollanders resident in America before 1675. 102 PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES. THE HUGUENOT SOCIETY OF AMERICA, Organized in 1883, admits descendants of Huguenots who came to America before 1787. THE SOCIETY OF COLONIAL DAMES OF AMERICA, Organized in 1891, is composed of women descended from an ancestor who held an office of importance in the colonies previous to 1750. There are various other societies for women, of which the most important are Daughters of the Am- erican Revolution, founded in 1890 ; and Daughters of the Revolution, founded in 1891; and there is also a society of Children of the American Revolution, founded in 1895. THE SOCIETY OF "MAYFLOWER" DESCENDANTS, Organized in 1894, includes male and female descend- ants of the passengers of the Mayflower (1620). MEDAL OF HONOR LEGION. The one decoration that is given by the government of the United States is the Medal of Honor, which was authorized by acts of Congress of 1862 and 1863 to be awarded to officers and enlisted men of the army for "gallantry in action and soldier-like qualities during the present insurrection." It has been bestowed only for conspicuous services. For example the Twenty-seventh Regiment of Maine Infantry was present on the field where the battle of Gettysburg was fought, and its term of service had expired. The entire regiment, to a man, volunteered to remain on the field and fight the battle; and for this gallant conduct a medal was awarded to each officer and man. A Naval Medal of Honor is also awarded by the government and it is highly prized. FORE-NAMES OF MEN 103 FORE-NAMES OF MEN. AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE. Aaron : Lofty ; inspired. Abdiel : The servant of God. Abel : Breath, vanity. Abiathar: Father of plenty. Abiel: Father of strength. Abiezer: Father of help. Abijah: To -whom Jehovah is a father. Abner: Father of light. Abraham: Father of a multitude. Abram: Father of elevation. Absalom: Father of peace. Adam: Man; earth-man; red earth. Adiel: The ornament of God. Adin, or Adino: Tender; delicate; soft. Adolph or Adolphus: Noble wolf; i>., noble hero. Adoniram : Lord of height. Alaric: All- rich; or, noble ruler. Albert: Nobly bright, illustrious. Alexander: A defender of men. Alfred: Elf in council; good coun- sellor. Algernon: With whiskers. Allan: Corruption of yElienus. Almon: Hidden. Alonzo: Same as Alphonso. Alpheus: Exchange. Alphonso: All-ready; willing. Alvah, or Alvan : Iniquity. Alvin or Alwin: Beloved by all. Amariah: Whom Jehovah prom- ised. Amasa: A burden. Ambrose: Immortal; divine. Ammi: My people. Amos: Strong; courageous. Andrew: Strong, manly. Andronicus: A conqueror of men* Anselm, or Ansel: Protection of man. Anthony or Antony: Priceless; praiseworthy. Apollos: Of Apollo. Archelaus: Ruler of the people. Archibald: Extremely bold; or, holy prince. Ariel: Lion of God; valiant for God. Aristarchus: A good prince. Arnold: Strong as an eagle. Artemas: Gift of Artemis, or Minerva. Arthur; High, noble. Asa: Healer; physician. Asahel : Made of God. Asaph: A collector. Asarelah: Upright to God. Aehbel: Fire of Bel. . Asher: Happy, fortunate. Ashur: Black, blackness. Athanasius: Immortal. Athelstan: Noble stone. Aubrey: Ruler of spirits. Augustin, Augustine, or Austin: Belonging to Augustus. Augustus: Exalted, imperial. Aurelius: Golden. Azariah: Helped of the Lord. Baldwin : Bold, courageous friend. Baptist: A baptizer; purifier. Barachias: Whom Jehovah has blessed. Bardolph : A distinguished helper. Barnabas or Barnaby : Son of con- solation. 104 FORENAMES OF MEN. Bartholomew: A warlike son. Barzillai: Iron of the Lord; firm; true. Basil: Kingly; royal. Benedict: Blessed. Benjamin: Son of the right hand. Benoni : Son of grief or trouble. Beriah: In calamity. Bernard : Bold as a bear. Bertram: Bright raven. Bethuel: Man of God. Bezaleel: In the shadow of God. Boniface: A benefactor. Brian: Strong. Bruno: Brown. Cadwallader: Battle-arranger. Caesar: Hairy; or blue-eyed. Cain: Gotten, or acquired. Caleb: A dog. Calvin: Bald. Cecil: Dim-sighted. Cephas: A stone. Charles: Strong; manly; noble- spirited. Christian: A believer in Christ, Christopher: Bearing Christ. Clarence: Illustrious. Claudius, or Claude: Lame. Clement: Mild-tempered, merciful. Conrad: Bold in council; resolute. Constant: Firm, faithful. Constantine: Resolute, firm. Cornelius: Horn. Crispin, Crispus, or Crispian : Hav- ing curly hair. Cuthbert: Noted splendor. Cyprian: Of Cyprus. Cyril: Lordly. Cyrus: The sun. Dan: A judge. Daniel: A divine judge. Darius; Perserver, David: Beloved. Demetrius: Belonging to Ceres. Denis, or Dennis: Same Dionysius. Dexter: The right hand. Dionysius: Belonging to Dionysos, or Bacchus the god of wine. Donald: Proud chief. Duncan: Brown chief. Eben: A stone. Ebenezer: The stone of help. Edgar: A javelin (or protector) of property. Edmund: Defender of property. Edward: Guardian of property. Edwin: Gainer of property. Egbert: The sword's brightness; famous with the sword. Elbert: Same as Albert. Eldred: Terrible. Eleazer: To whom God is a help. Eli: A foster son. Eliab: God is his father. Eliakim: Whom God sets up. Elias: The same as Elijah. Elihu: God the Lord. Elijah: Jehovah is my God. Eliphalet: God of salvation. Elisha: God my salvation. Elizur: God is my rock. Ellis: A variation of Elisha. Elmer: Noble, excellent. Elnathan: God gave. Emmanuel: God with us. Emery, Emmery or Emory: Pow- ful, rich. Eneas: Praised, commended. Enoch: Consecrated, dedicated. Enos: Man. Ephraim: Very fruitful. Erasmus: Lovely; worthy to be loved. Erastus: Lovely, amiable. FORE-NAMES OF MEN. 105 Eric: Rich, brave, powerful. Ernest, Ernestus: Earnest. Esau: Covered with hair. Ethan: Firmness, strength. Eugene: Well-born ; noble. Eusebius: Pious, godly. Eustace: Healthy, strpng; standing firm. Evan: Same as John. Everard: Strong as a wild boar. Ezekiel: Strength of God. Ezra: Help. Felix: Happy; prosperous. Ferdinand or Fernando: Brave, valiant. Festus: Joyful, glad. Francis: Free. Frank, Franklin: Contraction of Francis. Frederic or Frederick: Abounding in peace, peaceful ruler, Gabriel: Man of God. Gad: A troop, or company. Gaius: Rejoiced. Gamaliel: Recompense of God. Geoffrey: Same as Godfrey. George: A landholder, husband- man. Gerald: Strong with the spear. Gershom: An exile. Gideon: A destroyer. Gilbert: Yellow-bright; famous. Giles: A kid. Given: Gift of God. Goddard: Pious, virtuous. Godfrey: At peace with God. Godwin: Good in war. Gregory: Watchful. Griffith: Having great faith. Gustavus: A warrior, hero. Guy: A leader. Hannibal: Grace of Baal. Harold: A champion; general of an army. Heman: Faithful. Henry: The head or chief of a house. Herbert: Glory of the army. Hercules: Lordly fame. Herman: A warrior. Hezekiah: Strength off the Lord. Hilary: Cheerful, merry. Hillel: Praise. Hiram: Most noble. Homer: A pledge, security. Horace, Horatio: Oak wood; or worthy to be loved. Hosea: Salvation. Howell: Sound, whole. Hubert: Bright in spirit; soul- bright. Hugh, or Hugo: Mind, spirit, soul. Humphrey: Protector of the home. Ichabod: The glory is departed. Ignatius: Ardent, fiery. Immanuel: Same as Emmanuel. Increase: Increase of faith. Ingram: Raven. Inigo: Same as Ignatius (Spanish form). Ira: Watchful. Isaac: Laughter. Isaian: Salvation of the Lord. Israel: A soldier of God. Ishmael: Afflicted her. Ithiel: God is with me. Ivan: Same as John (Russian form). Jabez: He will cause pain. Jacob: A supplanter. Jairus: He will enlighten. James: Same as Jacob. 106 FORE-NAMES OF MEN. Japheth: Enlargement. Jared: Descent, ^ason: A healer. Jasper: Treasure master. Javan: Clay, supple. Jedediah: Beloved of the Lord. Jeffrey: Same as Godfrey. Jeremiah, Jeremias, or Jerome: Exalted of the Lord. Jerome: Holy name. Jesse: Wealth. Jesus: Same as Joshua. Joab: Jehovah \b his father. Job: Afflicted, persecuted. Joel: The Lord is God. John: The gracious gift of God. Jonah, or Jonas: A dove. Jonathan : Gift of Jehovah. Joseph: He shall add. "oshua: The Lord is welfare. Josiah or Josias: Given of the Lord. Totham: The Lord is upright. Judah: Praised. Julian: Sprung from, or belonging to Julius. Julius: Soft-haired. Justin, or Justus: Just. Kenelm : A defender of his kindred. Kenneth: A leader, commander. Laban: White. Lambert: Illustrious with landed possessions. Lancelot: A little angel; other- wise a little lance or warrior; or a servant. Laurence or Lawrence: Crowned with laurel. Lazarus: God will help, Leander: Lion man. Lebbeus: Praise. Lemuel : Created by God. Leonard: Strong, or brave as a lion. Leonidas: Lion-like. Leopold: Bold for the people. Levi: Adhesion. Lewis: Bold warrior. Linus: Plaxen-haired. Lionel: Young lion. Lewellyn: Lightning. Loam mi: Not my people. Lodowic: Same as Ludovic or Lewis. Lorenzo: same as Laurence (Span- ish and Italian form). Lot: A veil, covering. Louis: Same as Lewis. Lubin: Beloved friend. Lucian: Belonging to or sprung from Lucius. Lucius: Born at break of day. Ludovic: Same as Lewis. Luke: Light-giving. Luther: Illustrious warrior. Lycurgus: Wolf -driver. Madoc: Good, beneficent. Malachi: Messenger of the Lord. Manasseh: Forgetfulness. Marcellus: Diminutive of Marcus] Marcius: Same as Marcus. Marcus or Mark: A hammer, other- wise, a male, or sprung from Mars. Marmaduke: A mighty noble. Martin: Of Mars; warlike. Matthew: Gift of Jehovah. Matthias: Gift of the Lord. Maurice: Corruption of Amabuc. (himmelreich); the kingdom of heaven. Maximillian: The greatest Aemili- anus. FORE-NAMES OF MEN. 107 Meredith: Sea-protector. Micah: Who is like the Lord? Michael: Who is like to God? Miles: A soldier. Morgan: A seaman, a dweller on the sea. Moses: Drawn out of the water. Naaman: Pleasantness. Nahum: Consolation. Napoleon: Lion of the forest-dell. Nathan: Given, a gift. Nathanael, or Nathaniel: The gift of God. Neal or Neil: Dark, swarthy; otherwise (Celtic) chief. Nehemiah: Comfort of the Lord. Nicholas or Nicolas: Victory of the people. Noah: Rest, comfort. Noel: (Dies Natalis) Christmas; Born on Christmas Day. Norman: A Northman, native of Normandy. Obadiah: Servant of the Lord. Obed: Serving God. Octavius or Octavus: The eighth- born. Oliver: An olive tree. Orestes: A mountaineer. Orlando: Same as Rowland. Oscar: Bounding warrior. Osmond or Osmund: Protection of God. Oswald or Oswold: Power of God. Owen: Lamb, otherwise, young warrior. Ozias: Strength of the Lord. Patrick: Noble; a patrician. Paul, Paulinus, or Paulus: Little* Peleg: Division. Peregrine: A stranger. Peter: A rock. Philander: A lover of men. Philemon: Loving, friendly. Philip: A lover of horses. Phineas, or Phinehas: Mount of brass. Pius: Pious, dutiful. Poly carp: Much fruit. Ptolemy: Mighty in war. Quintin: The fifth. Ralph: Same as Rodolphus. Randal: House-wolf. Raphael: The healing of God. Raymond, or Raymund: Wise pro tection. Reginald: Strong ruler. Reuben: Behold, a son. Reuel: Friend of God. Reynold: Same as Reginald. Richard: Rich-hearted, powerful. Robert: bright in fame. Roderic or Roderick: Rich in fame. Rodolph or Rodolphus: Famous wolf or hero. Roger: Famous with the spear. Roland or Rowland: Fame of the land. Rudolph or Rudolphus: Variations of Rodolphus. Rufus: Red, red-haired. Rupert: Same as Robert. Salmon: Shady. Samson, or Sampson: Splendid sun, great joy and felicity. Samuel: Heard of God; asked for of God. Saul: Asked for. Seba: Eminent. Sebastian: Venerable, reverend. Septimus: The seventh born. 108 FORE-NAMES OF MEN. Sereno or Serenus: Calm, peace- ful. Seth: Appointed. Shadrach: Rejoicing in the way. Sigismund: Conquering, protec- tion. Silas: A contraction of Silvanus. Silvanus: Living in a wood. Silvester: Bred in the country rustic. Simeon, Simon: Hearing with ac- ceptance. Solomon: Peaceable. Stephen : A crown. Swithin: Strong friend. Sylvan us: Same as Silvanus. Sylvester: Same as Silvester. Tertius: the third born. Thaddeus: The wise. Theobald : Bold for the people. Theodore: The gift of God. Theodoric: Powerful among the people. Theophilus: A lover of God. Theron: A hunter. Thomas: A twin. Timothy: Fearing God. Titus: Honorable. Tobiah or Tobias': Distinguished of the Lord. Tristram: Grave, pensive, melan- choly, sorrowful, sad. Tybalt: Same as Theobald. Ulysses: A hater. Urban: Of the town; courteous; polished. Uriah : Light of the Lord. Urian: A husbandman. Uriel: Light of God. Valentine: Strong, healthy, pow- erful. Vicesimus: The twentieth born. Victor: A conqueror. Vincent: Conquering. Vivian: Lively. Walter: Ruling the roast. William: Resolute helmet, or hel- met of resolution; defence; pro- tector. Winfred: Win-peace. Zabdiel : Gift of God. Zaccheus: Innocent, pure. Zachariah, or Zacherv: Remem- bered of the Lord. Zadok: Just. Zebediah or Zebedee: Gift of the Lord. Zebina: Bought. Zebulon: Dwelling. Zedekiah: Justice of the Lord. Zelotes: A zealot. Zenas: Gift of Jupiter. Zephaniah: Hid of the Lord. FORE-NAMES OF WOMEN. 109 FORE-NAMES OF WOMEN. AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE. Abigail: My father's joy. Belinda: From Bella, Isabella, Eliz- Achsa: Anklet. abeth. Ada: The same as Edith. Benedicta; Feminine of Benedic- Adela, Adelaide, or Adeline: Of tus. noble birth, a princess. Bertha: Bright; beautiful. Agatha: Good, kind. Betsey: A corruption of Elizabeth. Agnes: Chaste, pure. Blanch, or Blanche: White. Alberta: Feminine of Albert. Bona: Good. Alethea: Truth. Bridget: Strength. Alexandra, or Alexandrina: Femi- nine of Alexander. Camilla: Attendant at a sacrifice Alice, or Alicia: Same as Adeline. Caroline: Feminine of Carolus or Almira: Lofty; a princess. Charles. Althea: A healer. Cassandra: One who inflames with Amabel: Loveable. love. Amanda: Worthy to be loved. Catharina, Catharine, or Catherine Amelia: Busy, energetic. Pure. Amy: Beloved. Cecilia or Cecily: Feminine ot Angelica, Angelina: Lovely, an- Cecil. „ e jj c ^ Celestine: Heavenly. Ann, Anna, or Anne: Grace. Celia: Feminine of Coelus. Annabella: Feminine of Hannibal. Charlotte: Feminine of Charles. Annette: Variation of Anne. Chloe: A green herb; blooming. Antoinette: Diminutive of Anto- Christiana, or Christina: Feminine n j a> of Christianus. Antonia,or Antonina: Inestimable. Cicely: A variation of Celia. ^Arabella: A fair altar; otherwise, Clara: Bright, illustrious. corruption of Orabllia, a praying Clarice, or Clarissa: A variation of woman. Clara. Ariana: A corruption of Ariadne. Claudia: Feminine of Claudius. Augusta: Feminine of Augustus. Clementina, or Clementine; Mild, Aurelia^ Feminine of Aurelius. gentle. ? Aurora: Morning redness; fresh; Constance: Firm, constant. brilliant. Cora: Maiden; a form of Corinha. Azubah; Deserted. Cornelia: Feminine of Cornelius. Cynthia: Belonging to Mount Barbara: Foreign ; strange. Cynthus. Beatrice,6r Beatrix: Making happy. 110 FORE-NAMES OP WOMEN. Deborah: A bee. . Fanny: Diminutive of Frances, Delia: of Delos. Faustina: Fortunate; lucky. Diana: Goddess. Felicia: Happiness. Diantha: Flower of Jove; a pink. Fidelia: Faithful. Dinah: Judged. Flora: Flowers ; goddess of flowers Dora: A variation of Dorothea. and spring. Dorcas: A gazelle. Florence: Blooming; flourishing. Dorinda: Same as Dorothea. Frances: Feminine of Francis. Dorothea, or Dorothy: Gift of Frederica: Feminine of Frederick God. Drusilla: Dew watered. Georgian* or Georgina: Feminine of George. Edith: Happiness; otherwise rich Geraldine: Feminine of Gerald. .£. Gertrude: Spear-maiden. Edna: Pleasure. Grace or Gratia: Grace » favon Eleanor, or Elinor: Light; same as Griselda: Stone; heroine. n * „, Hannah: Same as Anna. Elisabeth. Elizabeth, or Eliza: Wor- „„ . . _ u . . ™ — • • x ' *, „ A Harriet, or Harriot: Feminine of shiper of God; consecrated to „ „ f? 0dt , Helen, or Helena: Light. Ella: A contraction of Eleanor. u . . . « . . ,. . .. _.. « ,. . . , ~. Henrietta: Feminine diminutive Ellen: A diminutive of Eleanor, . TT Elvira- White Henrjr - _ * _ . Hephzibah: My delight is in her. Emehne, or Emmeline: Energetic, ^^ Qr Hegtha . Same ag Egther> industrious. Hilaria: Feminine of Hilary. H„e' ° r ^ " Eme * HOn ° ra ' ° r Honorfa: Honorably _ , Hortensia: A lady gardener. Ernestine: feminine and diminu- H iildah: A weasel. tive. Esther: A star; good fortune. Ida: Happy. Ethelind, or Ethelinda: Noble T nez: Same as Agnes. snake. Irene: Peaceful. Eudora: Good gift. Isabel, or Isabella: Same as Eliza- Eugenia, or Eugenie: Feminine of beth. Eugene. Eulalia: Fair speed. Jane, or Janet: Feminine of John. Eunice: Happy victory. Jaqueline, Feminine of James. Euphemia: Of good report. J ean > Jeanne, or Jeannette: Same Eva: Same as Eve. as J ane or J oan - Evangeline: Bringing glad news. Jemima: A dove. Eve: Life. Jerusha: Possessed, married. Evelina, or Eveline: Diminutive Joan, Joanna, Johanna: Feminine of Eva. of John. PORE-NAMES OP WOMBM. ill Josepha, or Josephine: Feminine of Joseph. Joyce: Sportive Judith: Praised. Julia: Feminine of Julius. Juliana: Feminine of Julian. Juliet: Diminutive of Julia. Justina: Feminine of Justin. Katharine, or Katherine: Same as Catharine. Keturah: Incense. Keziah: Cassia. Laura: A laurel. Laurinda: A variation of Laura. Lavinia: Of Latium. Leonora: Same as Eleanor. Letitia: Happiness. Leitice: A variation of Letitia. Lillian, or Lily: A lily. Lois: Good; desirable. Lorinda: A variation of Laurinda. Louisa, or Louise: Feminine of Louis. Lucia: Same as Lucy. Lucinda: Same as Lucy. Lucrece, or Lucretia: Gain; other- wise, light. Lucy: Feminine of Lucius. Lydia: A native of Lydia. Mabel: A contraction of Amabel. Madeline: French form of Magde- lene. Magdalene: A native of Magdala. Marcel la: Feminine of Marcellus. Marcia: Feminine of Marcius. Margaret: A pearl. Maria: Same as Mary. Marianne: A compound of Mary and Anne. Marion: A French form of Mary- Martha: The ruler of the house; otherwise, sorrowful,melancholy. Mary: Bitter; otherwise, their re- bellion ; or, star of the east. Mathilda, or Matilda: Mighty bat- tle-maid; heroine. Maud: A contraction of Matilda; or Madalene. May : Month of May ; or Mary. Mehetabel, Mehitabel: Benefited of God. Melicent: Sweet-singer; otherwise working strength. Melissa: A bee, Mildred: Mild threatener. Miranda: Admirable. Miriam: Same as Mary. Myra: She who weeps or laments. Nancy: A familiar form of Anne. Nora: A contraction of Helenora; Honora; and of Leonora. Octavia: Feminine of Octavius. Olive, or Olivia: An olive. Ophelia: A serpent. Olympia: Heavenly. Paula, Paulina, or Pauline: Femi- nine of Paulus or Paul. Penelope: A weaver. Persis: A Persian woman. Phebe, or Phoebe: Pure, radiant; Philippa: Feminine of Philip. Phillis, Phyllis: A green bough. Polly : A diminutive of Mary. Priscilla: Advanced in years. Prudence: In Latin Prudentia. Rachel: An ewe. Rebecca, or Rebekah: of enchant- ing beauty. Rhoda: A rose. Ro6a: A rose. 112 FORE-NAMES OF WOMEN. Rosabel, or Rosabella: A fair rose. Rosalia, or Rosalie: Little and blooming rose. Rosalind: Beautiful as a rose. Rosamond: Horse protection; or famous protection. Roxana: Dawn of day. Ruth: Beauty. Sablna: A Sabine woman. . Sabrina: The river Severn. Salome: Peaceful. Salva: Safe. Sara, or Sarah, A princess. Selina: Parsley; otherwise moon Serina: Feminine of Serenus, or Sereno. Sibyl, or Sibylla: A prophetess. Sophia: Wisdom. Sophronia Of a sound mind. Stella: A star. Stephana: Feminine of Stephen. Susan, Susanna, or Susannah: A llly 4 Tabitha: A gazelle. Theodora: Feminine Of Theodore. Theodosia: The gift of God. Theresa: Carrying ears of corn. Thomasa, or Thomasine: Femi- nine of Thomas. Tryphena: Delicate; luxurious. Tryphosa: Luxurious, dainty. Ulica: Rich. Urania: Heavenly. Ursula: She-bear. Valeria: Feminine of Valerius. \ ictoria: Victory, or feminine of Victor. Viola: A violet. Virginia: Virgin; pure. Vivian: Lively ; cheerful. Wilhelmina: Feminine of Wilhelm, German form of William. Winifred: A lover of peace. Zenobia: Having life from Jupiter. A. PATERNAL. HEAD f anp matornal ] OP THE HOUSEHOLD. My full name is: Place of my birth. • Date of my birth : School attended: Residence: Occupation: Positions held, traits of character, etc. : • 49" Information of my forefathers given on pajres B, D, F. Place of my marriage : Date of my marriage : Full maiden name of my wife: i Place of her birth: 9 Date of her birth : School attended: Her attainments, traits of character, etc. : • 49" Information of her forefathers given on pajres C, E, G. Christian Names of Our Children : 1st Child: Fait Names to Whom Married : Married to: Born: D-ed: Date of marriage: 2nd Child: Married to: Born: Died: Date of marriage: 3rd Child: Married to: Born: Died: Date of marriatre: 4th Child Married to: Born* Pied: * Date of marriage: 5th Child: Married to : Born: Died: Date of marriage: 6th Child: Married to: Born: Died : Date of marriage: 4SrWhen married further information given on pages H, I, J. MY PARENTS. My fathers full name is: Place of his birth: Date of his birth Residence: Occupation: Positions held, traits of character, etc.: ?fy$!L?f. hi? death : Date of his death : *S~ Information of his forefathers given on page D. Place of their marriage : Date of their marriage . Full maiden name of his wife: Place of her birth : Date of her birth: Her attainments* traits of character, etc. : Place of Tier death : Date of her death: «* Information of her forefathers given on page F. Christian Names of Their Children : 1st Child: Full Names to Whom Married : Married to: Born: Died: Date of marriage: 2nd Child: Married to : Born: Died: Date of marriage: 3rd Child: Married to: Born: Died: Date of marriage: 4th Child: Married to: Born: Died: Date of marriage: 5th Child: Married to: Born: Died: Date of marriage: 6th Child: Married to: Born: Died: Dite of marriage: MY WIFE'S PARENTS. My wife's father's full name is: Place of his birth : Date of his birth : Residence : Occupation : Positions held, traits of character, etc.: ■ Place of his death : Date of his death : 49* Information of his forefathers given on page £. Place of their marriage : Date of their marriage : Full maiden name of his wife: Place of her birth : Date of her birth : Her attainments, traits of character, etc, : Place of her death : Date of her death : 49* Information of her forefathers given on page G. Christian Names of Their Children : Full Names to Whom Married : 1st Child: Married to: Born: Died: Date of marriage: 2nd Child: Married to : Born: Died: Date of marriage: 3rd Child: • Married to: Born: Died: Date of marriage: 4th Child: Married to: Born: Died: Date of marriage: 5th Child: Married to: Born: Died: Date of marriage: 6th Child: Married to: Born: Died: Date of marriage: F. MY MOTHER'S PARENTS. My Mother's fathers full name is: Place of his birth : Date of his birth : Residence: Occupation : His father's full name was: ■♦•« M Ht •• •• •• ••••«• His mother's full maiden name was. •••• •* •«••••• •*••••« •«••• Place of his death: Date of his death, Place of their marriage: Date of their marriage . Full maiden name of his wife: Place of her birth: Date of her birth : Her father's full name was • • Her mother's full maiden name was: Place of her death: Date of her death : Christian Names off Their Children : 1st Child: Full Names to Whom Married : Married to: Born: Died: Date of mar ri aire: 2nd Child: Married to : Born: Died: Date of marriage: 3rd Child: Married to: Born: Died: Date of marriaere: 4th Child: Married to: Born: Died: Date of marriage: 5th Child: Married to: Born: Died: Date of marriage : 6th Child: Born: Married to: Died: Date of marriag-e: G. MY WIFE'S MOTHER'S PARENTS. My wife's Mother's father's, full name is: Place of his birth: Date of his birth : Residence: Occupation: . His father's full name was : If is mother's full maiden name was. Place of his death: Date of his death: Place of their marriage : • Date of their marriage : Full maiden name of his wife: Place of her birth : Date of her birth* Her father's full name was : Her mother's full maiden name was: Place of her death : Date of her death : Christian Names of Their Children : 1st Child: Full Names to Whom Married : Married to : Born: Died: Date of marriage: 2nd Child: Married to: Born: Died: Date of marriag-e: 3rd Child: Married to: Born : Died : Date of marriag-e: 4th Child: • Married to: Born: Died: Date of marriag-e: 5th Child: Married to: Born: Died: Date of marriag-e: 6th Child: Married to: Born: Died: Date of marriag-e: H. RECORD OF MY TH CHILD'S MARRIAGE. My th Child's full name is:. •••••*••••••••••••••*•••••••••••■••••••••••••••••••••••••♦«••• Place of birth : Date of birth: School attended: Residence: Occupation: Traits of character, etc- : Place of marriage : Date of marriage: Full name to whom married: Place of birth : School attended: Date of birth: Residence: Occupation: Traits of character, etc, : • * Father's full name : Mother's full maiden name, • Christian Names of Their Children : 1st Child: Full Names to Whom Married : Married to: Born: Died: Date of marriage: 2nd Child: Married to: Born: Died: Date of marriage: 3rd Child: Married to: Born: Died: Date of marriage: 4th Child: Married to: Born: Died: Date of marriage: 5th Child: Married to: Born: Died: Date of marriage: 6th Child: Married to: Born : Died: Date of marriage: K. RECORD OF MY TH CHILD'S MARRIAGE! My ih Child's full name is: Place of birth : Date of birth : School attended: Residence: Occupation: Traits of character, etc* . Place of marriage: Date of marriage: Full name to whom married: • Place of birth: Date of birth: School attended: Residence: Occupation: Traits of character, etc. : Fathefs full name : Mother's full maiden name: Christian Names off Their Children : 1st Child: Full Names to Whom Married: Married to : Born: Died: Date of marriage: 2nd Child: Married to: Born: Died: Date of marriag-e: 3rd Child: Married to: Born: Died: Date of marriag-e: 4th Child: • Married to: Born: Died: Date of marriag-e: 5th Child: Married to: Born: Died: Date of marriag-e : 6th Child: Married to: Born: Died: Date of marriage: NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF RELATIVES OR OTHER FACTS WHICH SHOULD BE RHOORDHD.