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But strew his ashes to the wind, 

Whose sword or voice has served mankind, 

And is he dead, whose glorious mind 

Lifts him on high? 
To live in hearts zve leave h'hind, 

Is not to die. 


A number of letters and material have been re- 
ceived of a genealogical nature, with requests to in- 
corporate the same into this work. It is to be re- 
gretted that this cannot be done, as the object of this 
work is simply to preserve and perpetuate the names 
and biographical history of the most notable mem- 
bers of this family name. 

The preservation of such a record cannot fail to 
prove invaluable and a source of pride and interest 
not only to persons of the name but to the world in 
general; and this book may prove the foundation upon 
which a monumental work may be constructed. 


• » » 









the Crescent family Record. 

"To live in hearts we leave behind is not to die." 




• f» 

JAN 2 3 1Q31 


Frontispiece. Vase of Flowers. 


Illustration, Coats-of-Arms. 

Origin and History of the Family Name, 

The First of the Name in America, . - 

Principal Branches of the Family, - 

Historical and_ Biographical, -. - - - - 33 

Origin of the Surname, •'..:•-"- - - - 49 

Origin of the Forename, 81 

Genealogy, - - - 93 

Heraldry, - - - * - - - . _ _ 94 
Illustration of Gamp-Fire Chats,- - - - - 98 
Patriotic Societies of the United States, - - 99 
Forenames of Men and Their Significance, - - 103 
Forenames of Women and Their Significance, - 109 
The Crescent Family Records, ----- 113 

n' C 


NOW that we all have surnames, we are apt to for- 
get that it was not always so. We cannot eas- 
ily realize the time when John, Thomas and Andrew, 
Mary and Abigail, were each satisfied with a single 
name, nor reflect that the use of two is not a refine- 
ment dating from an obscure and unknown antiquity, 
but quite within the reach of record and history. 

Every name, no doubt, originally had a meaning, 
or was at first assumed or imposed from its real or 
supposed fitness, from some accidental circumstance, 
or from mere caprice. Each individual is distinguished 
from his fellows by his name. But for this system his- 
tory and biography could scarcely exist. 

Our proper name is our individuality; in our own 
thoughts and in the thoughts of those who know us, 
they cannot be separated. Our names are uttered, 
and at once, whether in connection with blame or 
praise, with threat or entreaty, with hatred or love, 
we ourselves are affected by the ideas and feelings 
expressed. A few trifling words, in no way meant to 
apply to the man they describe, suffice to awaken the 
recollection of that man, his physical peculiarities, his 
moral character, and the most remarkable acts and 
events of his life; a few syllables will cause the tear 
to start afresh from the mother's eye, after years of 
consolation and resignation to her loss; they will sum- 
mon the tell-tale blush to the maiden's cheek, and she 
immediately thinks her secret is discovered; they will 
make a lover's heart beat more rapidly; rekindle the 
angry glance in an enemy's eye; and in a friend sep- 
arated from his friend, will renew all his past regrets 
and his fondest hopes. None the less rapidly do our 
thoughts connect a name with the idea of the thing to 


which it belongs, be it land of birth, country, town, 
river, road, valley or hill. Dislike, desire, recollection of 
pain or pleasure, admiration, jealousy, kind feelings, 
national hatreds and love of country, one and all may 
be evoked by a single word, because the word repre- 
sents to. us the very object which has created those 
emotions within us. Every person, even the most in- 
curious observer of words and things, must have re- 
marked the great variety that exists in the names of 
families. He cannot fail to notice that such names are 
of widely different significations, many being identical 
with names of places, offices, professions, trades, qual- 
ities, familiar natural objects and other things. There 
is probably no person capable of the least degree of re- 
flection who has not often, in idle moments, amused 
himself with some little speculation on the probable 
origin of his own name. It is not sufficient for a per- 
son of inquisitive mind that he bears such and such a 
surname because his father and his grandfather bore 
it; he will naturally feel desirous of knowing why and 
when their ancestors acquired it. 

What would the annals of mankind and the rec- 
ords of biography be if people had never borne any 
proper names? It would be a mere chaos of unde- 
fined incidents and an unintelligible mass of facts, with- 
out symmetry or beauty, and without any interest at 
all for after ages. Indeed, without names, mankind 
would have wanted what is perhaps the greatest stim- 
ulous of which the mind is susceptible — the love of 
fame; and consequently, many of the mightiest achieve- 
ments in every department of human endeavor would 
have been lost to the world. 

Many of our ancient and modern institutions are 
intimately connected with the meaning and continued 
existence of proper names. It has been well said that 
hereditary names perpetuate the memory of ancestors 


better than any other monument, an affectionate re- 
membrance this, surely, and one which fosters the cause 
of morality; they teach, or at any rate remind sons of 
their duty to be worthy of their ancestors. 

Though its importance be felt in all phases of our 
social life, the origin of proper names does not, essen- 
tially belong to a civilized condition. Undoubtedly it . 
is intimately connected with the gift of speech. A mqin 
must call his children by a distinctive appellation, either 
when he speaks to them or when Jie speaks of them in 
their absence, and when a gesture and an inflection of 
the voice are not sufficient to indicate his meaning. 
The distinctive title which he uses can only be a name 
exclusively applicable to the individual meant; on the 
other hand, the father will recognize the name given to 
him by his children. Again, the domestic animal, man's 
intelligent companion in his field sports, and the watch- 
ful guardian of his dwelling; the brook that runs be- 
neath his home; the tree that shelters or the forest that 
conceals it; the hill or the vale near which it lies, will 
soon be named by those who wish to distinguish them 
from similar objects around. If other men come to live 
near the first family, they will receive a name and give 
one in return. 

However simple these names be at first, so simple 
that they express nothing beyond the degree of rela- 
tionship between father and mother and children, and 
the order of their birth in the case of the last; be they 
mere substantives used to point out more specially the 
dwelling and all that surrounds it; as the hut, the tree, 
or the brook — or even supposing that in the common 
intercourse which may exist between one family and its 
neighbor the only distinctive terms employed are we 
and they, and further, that sun, fire, destruction, or 
thunder, designate the beneficent or angry deity — still 
the system of proper names already exists in embryo, 


and is ready to be farther developed, even to the high- 
est degree of importance and intricacy, in proportion 
as the social principle itself becomes more extended and 
more complicated in its constitution. 

Add new members to the family; collect several fam- 
ilies together and form them into one tribe; place a 
number of tribes holding friendly relations with one 
another in a less limited tract of land; then will the 
spot occupied by each tribe, every village or cluster of 
inhabitants belonging to the same tribe, every hill and 
thicket and brook — in a word, the land and the gath- 
ering of men upon it assume proper names, just as the 
tribes had already done before, and the families and 
the individuals that constituted them. 

From this outline of the first elements of social 
life, let us remove, in thought, for a moment, and place 
ourselves in the heart of civilized existence. TJhe names 
of lands and dwellings have changed into the designa- 
tions of powerful states and magnificent cities; names 
which will be familiar for centuries after the grass has 
grown over and hidden even the ruins of their palaces 
and their fortresses and obliterated the very traces of 
their existence, and after political or naturally induced 
revolutions have depopulated, divided and totally dis- 
membered the provinces of mighty empires. Here the 
names of men distinguish the individual members of a 
great social body, magistrates, princes, chiefs of the 
great civil and political whole; and among these names, 
all of them less or more important at present, there 
are some which hereafter shall be handed down to his- 
tory as a rich inheritance, an object of envy to the am- 
bitious, and a pattern of conduct to the wise. 



The name is from the occupation ; which has also given rise 
to other derivatives. 

Among names taken from trades is the name of Miller, some- 
times spelled Miller, also Mill, Mills, Milne, Milnes, Milman 
and Milner. 

It is possible that this last name may, in some cases, have 
been derived from Milliner, so called from Milan, the work 
having originated from the sale of a particular dress first 
worn at Milan, Italy, hence Milaner, which in English is 

Miller may be regarded as a purely Scottish name. 

One of the first settlers in New England was Alexander 
Miller, who settled in Dorchester, Mass. ; and was a proprie- 
tor in 1634. 

Rev. John Miller was a minister of Roxbury, and also a 
proprietor in 1635. In 1663 he left his property to his son 

John Miller was a proprietor and town officer in 1648. His 
sons were Samuel, Joseph and Benjamin. 

Thomas Miller, a tailor, came in the Elizabeth ; and settled 
in 1635 in Dorchester. He was proprietor and town officer in 
1637. The division of his estate was made between Thomas 
and Nathaniel Miller. 

Joseph Miller came to New England in 1635 in the Hope- 

Richard Miller settled in Charlestown, Mass., in 1637. He 
had two sons, Joseph and James. 

Robert Miller went before the General Court in 1646 at 
Concord, Mass. 

William Miller was a resident of Ipswich, Mass., in 1648, 
and was paid for service against the Indians in 1646. 

Arms : Arg. a cross moline az. in chief a lozenge between 
two mullets of the last, in base a bar, wavy vert, impaling 

Crest : A hand couped at the wrist, the third and fourth 
fingers folded in the palm, arg. 

Motto: . Manent optima coelo. (The best things remain in 



A THOROUGH perusal of the following life sketches of 
noted Millers, eminent in all walks of life, will reveal the fact 
that the Millers have been actively and intimately associated 
, with the ecclesiastical, civil, industrial and commercial affairs 
of America ; and to become conversant with their history will 
naturally create in our children a source of pride in the name 
of Miller heretofore unappreciated. 

As builders and merchants they have built cities and illu- 
mined the marts of trade ; in the field of science and medicine 
they have obtained great prominence ; in the arena of states- 
manship they have produced men of thought and men of ac- 
tion; while at the bar and in the administration of justice 
they have shown erudition and wisdom. As clergymen, edu- 
cators and lecturers they have occupied high places ; as musi- 
cians, composers and artists they have contributed profusely 
to social life ; and as authors and poets they are worthy to be 
crowned with a laurel wreath of fame. Also as heroes of 
colonial, Revolutionary and later wars they have rendered 
patriotic service, each one of whom has added luster to the 
name of Miller. 

MILLER, ADOLPH WILLIAM, merchant, lecturer, was 
born Oct. .8, 1841, in Germany. He is a wholesale druggist of 
Philadelphia, Pa. ; and prominent in the business and public 
affairs of that city. He is also lecturer on Materia Medica in 
the University of Pennsylvania ; and occasionally contributes 
articles to medical literature. 

MILLER, ALEXANDER McVEIGH, farmer, business 
man, state senator, was born in Nicholas county, W. Va. He 
is president of the board of directors of the Hospital for the 
Insane of Weston, W. Va. In 1901 he was elected a member 
of the West Virginia state senate ; and has served on several 
important committees. 

MILLER, ANDREW G., lawyer, jurist, was born in Carl- 
isle, Pa. He was appointed territorial judge for Wisconsin 
in 1838 ; and upon the admission of the state he was appointed 
United States district judge and so continued until his death 
in 1874. 

MILLER, MRS. ANNIE JENNESS, publisher, author, was 
born in 1859 in New Hampshire. She is a dress reformer of 
New York City; and publisher of The Jenness Miller Maga- 
zine. She is the author of Physical Beauty ; Mother and Babe ; 
and Barbara Thayer, a novel. 

MILLER, ARTHUR SCOTT, soldier, lawyer, builder, waa 


born Nov. 13, 1848, in Alto, Mich. In 1864 he enlisted in the 
United States navy, and served to the end of the civil war. 
For a number of years he was court stenographer ; then prac- 
ticed law; and subsequently became an extensive builder of 
houses and blocks in Denver, Colo., where he now resides. 

MILLER, CHARLES B., physician, surgeon, was born in 
1844 in Dillsboro, Ind. In 1862-65 he was assistant surgeon 
in the United States army. For fifteen years he was president 
and treasurer of the school board of Lawrenceburg, Ind. He 
is now a prominent physician and surgeon of Helena, Mont. ; 
has been president of the board of managers of the Montana 
Soldiers' Home; and president of the board of aldermen of 
Helena, Mont. His grandfather was a soldier in the war of 
1812; and his great-grandfather fought in the revolutionary 

MILLER, CHARLES EXUM, son of Hon. Lorenzo Dow 
Miller, the well known lawyer of Miami, Texas, and Louella 
Exum Miller, was born Aug. 20, 1895, in Mobeetie, Wheeler 
county, Texas. His father and mother worshiped him with 
a love of no ordinary character, and saw in the noble face of 
their precious boy a benefactor to God's posterity. They 
looked forward to a long life of pleasure and good works, but 
alas, the tomb on the hillside marks the resting place of that 
heavenly gift— our darling Charley. When he was only a 
few days old the nurse by mistake gave him laudanum, and 
death seemed certain to our angel child; but by good and 
loving nursing he survived, and while he lingered between 
life and death his father and mother, with wringing hands 
and aching hearts, were praying God to spare their angel 
boy. They promised God to lead him in the path of duty 
and teach him to pray; and prayed that he might be great 
on earth in leading souls to Christ. He often wanted to hear 
the Bible read and be told of the wonders of heaven. His father 
now keeps close to his heart his little testament with his 
precious name in it. He was baptized in the Methodist Church 
South when a babe, and God is able to make this short life 
a great ministry service ; and this little sketch of his childish 
life is written in his name with the hope that God will bless 
these little words written here, and lead many to stop and 
think on his ways and turn to God. Charley used to say, 
How far is it to heaven, papa? as contemplating to go, and 
his greatest aim was doing good. He was pious, truthful and 
sympathetic. He told his papa to turn all prisoners out if 
they promised to be good (his father being state's attorney). 


His father often thought and told Charley that his influence 
for prisoners was great, and would not go unheeded if he 
requested it. He was a lover of his Sunday School, and had 
his badge No. 6 — the year of his age. He would kneel down 
for prayer like a little man, and often insisted that the 
preacher go home with us for dinner, and would say that 
papa asked him to come. His father was a kind, indulgent 
man, and worshiped his children— especially Charley. He 
granted Charley all he asked of him. On Christmas Eve, Dec. 
24, 1901, we were together in the town of Miami. Charley 
was busy buying childish things for others. Almost the last 
gift he made was his pocket book and four nickels and a cop- 
per pistol. His father used to say that all the giving comes 
from Charley; and it was a delight to teach the child that 
"it is more blessed to give than to receive.' ' He owned a 
brand L. D. on his horses and cattle. His famous horses Bul- 
ley and Jake and Dock; his saddle rig was of the best, and the 
spurs that speak volumes to us now. His favorite dog Jack 
was his great friend and playmate. His brother, James 
Franklin Miller, was born Feb. 13, 1898, and died Aug. 15, 
1899 ; and his sister, "Winnie Davis Miller, was. born Sept. 17, 
1900. They were all playmates, and often played camping- 
out with little lanterns his papa bought him ; and then played 
hide and seek around their fond mother's knee. Little Minnie 
missed him after he went away, and looked for him when his 
name was called in the places they used to play. While our 
darling Charley was near death's door, he pulled his mother 
near to his face and whispered : * ' Mama, won 't I live ? ' ' She 
said: "Yes, my darling, you will live always." In a few 
moments he quietly passed away to live always in heaven. It 
seemed all the people turned out to render him aid and do 
him honor in his last hours on this earth. Judges and lawyers 
came to condole with his stricken parents. Revs. Whatley 
and Cartwright of the Methodist church conducted his funeral 
service. The school children and teachers and a large gath- 
ering of sympathizing friends filed through the old church 
where he used to go to his Sunday School. I looked on that 
angelic face of my precious dead. His little ministry on earth 
has made me to again renew my hopes and efforts to meet him 
in heaven ; and when I think of his little prayer he used to say 
at night, I pray God to bless its efforts to do good here: 
"Now I lay me down to sleep. If I should die before I wake, 
I pray the Lord my soul to take. God bless Charley and keep 


him a good little boy; bless all the afflicted people and save 
us all in heaven with little budgy for Christ's sake, Amen/' 
I pray this little prayer, like a chainless letter, will roll on; 
and all the boys of the name of Charley, and others also, will 
pray it ; and some sweet day meet him in heaven. His prec- 
ious toys, books and Bible are tucked away to remind us of 
his little angelic words he learned here on earth in his short 
service of the blessed Father in Heaven. To such as him 
death has no sting, and the grave no victory. He died Jan. 
21, 1902, in Miami, Texas. I shall ever pray that the word 
and all the Millers will meet him in heaven.— A. D. Miller. 

MILLER, CHARLES RANSOM, journalist, was born Jan. 
17, 1849, in Hanover, N. H. For several years he was asso- 
ciated with the Springfield Republican. Since 1879 he has 
been connected with the New York Times ; and since 1883 has 
been editor-in-chief of that publication. 

thor, poet, was born Nov. 10, 1841, in Wabash district, Ind. 
He is a poet and prose writer who, after a life of adventure 
in California, went to London in 1870; and speedily became 
famous as the author of Songs of the Sierras. Since 1887 he 
has lived in Oakland, Cal. He is the author of Songs of the 
Sierras; The Ship of the Desert; Songs of the Sunland; in 
prose: The Danites in the Sierras; Shadows of Shasta; Me- 
morie and Rime ; '49, or the Gold Seekers of the Sierras ; The 
One Fair Woman; The Destruction of Gotham; and The 
Building of the City Beautiful, a poetic romance. 

MILLER, DANIEL F., lawyer, congressman, poet, was 
born Oct. 4, 1814, near Frostburg, Md. For forty years he 
was a member of the Iowa territorial legislature, and in 1850- 
51 was a member of congress. He was a noted lawyer of Keo- 
kuk, Iowa. 

MILLER, DANIEL H., congressman, was born in Phila- 
delphia, Pa. He was a representative in congress from Penn- 
sylvania in 1823,31. He died about 1880. 

MILLER, DANIEL McLAW, lawyer. In 1856 he gradu- 
ated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New 
York City. He has attained success in his profession at 
Oconomowoc, Wis.; and is prominent in the business and 
public affairs of his city, county and state. 

MILLER, EDGAR JAMES, banker, was born June 19, 
1864, in Whitewater, Wis. For twenty years he has been 
connected with the First National Bank of Huron, S. D. ; of 
which institution he is now cashier. He is prominent in the 


business and public affairs of his city, county and state ; and 
has filled several positions of trust and honor. 

MILLER, EDMUND BOSTON, clergyman, was born Feb. 
2, 1853, in Greenville, S. C. In 1883-93 he was pastor of the 
First Baptist church of Grenada, Miss.; and since 1893 has 
been pastor of the First Baptist church of Arkadelphia, Ark. 
In 1892-93 he was vice president of the home mission board ; 
in 1895-97 was vice-president of the foreign mission board; 
and since 1893 he has been financial secretary of the board of 
ministerial education, Ouchita college. 

MILLER, ELIHU SPENCER, lawyer, educator, author, 
poet, was born Sept. 3, 1817, in Princeton, N. J. He was a 
lawyer of Philadelphia; and professor in the university of 
Pennsylvania. He was the author of Treatise on the Law of 
Partition by Writ in Pennsylvania ; and Caprices, a volume of 
verse. He died March 6, 1878, in Philadelphia, Pa. 

MILLER, ELIJAH, educator, clergyman, author, was born 
Feb. 16, 1842, in Springfield, IU. In 1884 he founded Sedge- 
wickville Academy of Sedgewickville, Mo., which he conducted 
for five years. He has been president and secretary of the 
synod of Southern Illinois; and compiled A History of the 

thor, poet, was born Oct. 22, 1833, in Brooklyn, Conn. She 
is president of the Woman's college of the Northwestern 
university of Evanston, 111. She is the author of From 
Avalon, and Other Poems ; The Royal Road to Fortune ; The 
Kirkwood Series; Captain Fritz; and Little Neighbors. 

MILLER, GEORGE AUGUSTUS, mechanic, was born Jan. 
29, 1856, in Danville, Mass. He is a master mechanic in the 
employ of Florida East Coast Railway at St. Augustine, Fla. 
He has filled a number of positions of trust and honor. 

MILLER, GEORGE F., lawyer, congressman, was born 
Sept. 5, 1809, in Chillisquaquo, Pa. He was secretary of the 
Lewisburg university in Pennsylvania. He was a representa- 
tive from Pennsylvania to the thirty-ninth and fortieth con- 

MILLER, GEORGE P., state senator. He is prominent in 
the business and public affairs of Milwaukee, Wis. ; and has 
filled several positions of trust. In 1901-02 he was a member 
of the Wisconsin state senate. 

MILLER, GEORGE S., physician, surgeon. In 1891 he 
graduated from Rush Medical College of Chicago, 111. ; and in 
1892 from Detroit College of Medicine, Mich. He has at- 


tained success in the practice of his profession in Texas, and 
resides in Gause ; and has filled a number of positions of trust 
and honor. 

MILLER, MRS. HARRIET MANN, author, was born in 
1831 in New York. Her writings have generally appeared 
under the name of Olive Thorne Miller. She is the author 
of a Bird-Lover in the West; Little Brothers of the Air; 
Bird- Ways; In Nesting Time; Four-Handed Folk; Little 
Folks in Feathers and Fur; Nimpo's Troubles; Queen Pets at 
Marcy's; Our Home Pets; Little People of Asia; The First 
Book of Birds; and other works. 

MILLER, HENRY C, pioneer, farmer, was born April 17, 
1820, in Clermont county, Ohio. He moved to Decatur 
county, Ind., when it was an unbroken forest, abounding in 
deer, wolves and bears. He helped to build the first railroad 
in the state ; has been a justice of the peace ; and received the 
nomination for representative in the Indiana state legislature ; 
and other offices. 

MILLER, HENRY IRVING, railroad manager, was born 
in Cleveland, Ohio. Since 1888 he has been superintendent 
of several railroads ; and been prominent in railroad matters. 
In 1894 he became superintendent of the Vandalia Division 
of the Terre Haute and Indianapolis Railroad Company, 
which is the main line. He is now general manager of that 

MILLER, HERBERT, banker, was born in 1856, in Kan- 
sas. Since 1858 he has been prominent in the business and 
public affairs of Lyon county, Kansas ; and is now president 
of the State Bank of Admire. He has filled numerous posi- 
tions of trust and honor in his city, county and state. 

MILLER, HOLDEN TRIPP, banker, was born Feb. 1, 
1841, in Byron, N. Y. He is cashier of the Bank of Batavia, 
N. Y. ; and prominent in the financial and public affairs of 
his city, county and state. 

ator, was born April 29, 1814, in Pendleton district, S. C. In 
1868 he was elected a United States senator from Georgia; 
and in 1890 was appointed principal physician of the peniten- 
tiary of Georgia. He died May 31, 1896, in Atlanta, Ga. 

MILLER, HOWARD PHILIP, physician, surgeon, was 
born June 24, 1849, in Huntington, Mass. He is a promi- 
nent physician and surgeon of Seattle, Wash. ; and has filled 
a number of offices of trust and honor. 

MILLER, HUGH J., lawyer, jurist, was born Dec. 31, 1866, 


in Genoa, Minn. He received a liberal education in the public 
school; was engaged in educational work for five years; and 
subsequently graduated from the university of Michigan 
with the degree of LL. B. He has attained success as a 
lawyer in Livingston, Mont.; has been county attorney of 
Park county during 1891-94; and has held various other 
public positions of trust. On April 19, 1897, Gov. Robert B. 
Smith appointed him judge advocate of Montana, with the 
rank of major, on his official staff. 

MILLER, JACOB HENRY, lawyer, was born Feb. 10, 
1828. In 1859-63 he was district attorney of Allegheny, Pa., 
serving two terms. He attained success at the bar of Pennsyl- 
vania; and was noted for his sound judgment and logical 
legal mind. He died Jan. 26, 1900, in Pittsburg, Pa. His 
son, Horace J. Miller, is a successful practicing lawyer and 
counselor of Pittsburg, Pa. 

MILLER, JACOB WELSH, lawyer, United States senator, 
was born in Nov. 1800, in German Valley, N. J. He was 
United States senator from New Jersey in 1841. He died 
Sept. 30, 1862, in Morristown, N. J. 

MILLER, JAMES, soldier, governor, was born April 25, 
1776, in Peterborough, N. H. He entered the army in 1808 
as a major; in 1812 was breveted a colonel for gallantry at 
Fort George; and was subsequently made a major-general 
and received a gold medal from congress. He was made gov- 
ernor of the territory of Arkansas, where he served until 
1825 ; and in 1826-49 was collector of customs at Salem, Mass. 
He died July 7, 1851, in Temple, N. H. 

MILLER, JAMES A., pioneer, public official, was born in 
1839, in Ohio. Early in life he emigrated to the Western 
plains, spending twenty years of his life away beyond civil- 
ization. In 1877 he was appointed clerk of the supreme court 
of Colorado, which position he held for twenty-one years. 
He now resides in Denver, Col. 

MILLER, JAMES FRANCIS, lawyer, congressman, was 
born Aug. 1, 1832, in Tennessee. He was a representative 
from Texas to the forty-eighth, and was re-elected to the for- 
ty-ninth congress as a democrat. 

was born in 1800, in Rushville, N. Y. Under General Boli- 
var he entered service in South America ; and became a com- 
mander of a privateer for the Columbian Republic attacking 
the Spanish commerce. He was afterward' with Gen. Sam 
Houston in the struggle for Texan independence in 1836 ; and 


later served as surgeon in the Mexican army. In 1861 he was 
appointed a surgeon in the union army. He died in 1883, in 
Jackson, Ohio. 

MILLER, JAMES RUSSELL, clergyman, author, was 
born March 20, 1840, in Harshaville, Pa. He is a presbyterian 
clergyman and during 1880-98 filled a pastorate in Philadel- 
phia. He is the author of Week Day Religion; Home Mak- 
ing; In His Steps; Silent Time; Cpme Ye Apart; The Mar- 
riage Altar ; Practical Religion ; Bits of Pasture ; Making the 
Most of Life ; Mary of Bethany ; The Dew of Thy Youth ; and 
The Every Day Life ; and other works. 

MILLER, JESSE, public official, congressman. He was a 
representative in congress from Pennsylvania in 1836-37. He 
was appointed first auditor of the treasury, and held the posi- 
tion until 1841. He was canal commissioner of Pennsylvania 
in 1845-46 ; and was secretary of state in 1846-48 ; for a short 
time as acting governor of the state. He died Aug. 20, 1850, 
in Harrisburg, Pa. 

MILLER, JOHN, grain merchant, governor, was born at 
Dryden, N. Y., Oct. 29, 1843. In 1888 he was elected to 
Dakota Territorial council ; in 1889 was elected first governor 
of the new State of Dakota. He is now president of The 
John Miller Co., grain commission merchants, of Duluth, 

MILLER, JOHN, jurist, state legislator, congressman, was 
born Nov. 10, 1774, in Amenia, N. Y. In 1812-21 he was a 
justice of the peace in New York. He was a member of the 
state legislature in 1817, 1820 and 1845; and was a repre- 
sentative to the nineteenth congress. He died in March, 1862, 
in New York. 

MILLER, JOHN, soldier, journalist, congressman, gover- 
nor, was born in 1780 in Steubenville, Ohio. He was ap- 
pointed register of the land office in Missouri. He was gov- 
ernor of Missouri in 1826-32. He was £ representative in con- 
gress in 1837-43. He died March 18. 1846, near Plorrissant, 

MILLER, JOHN. He is a prominent citizen of Fremont, 
Neb. ; and has filled a number of positions of trust and honor. 

MILLER, JOHN ANDERSON, lawyer, jurist, was born 
Dec. 30, 1850, in Newark, N. J. For ten years he was lieuten- 
ant-colonel on division staff of the New Jersey national guard ; 
and for four weeks was on duty in camp preparing New Jer- 
sey troops for the Spanish- American war. He has attained 
success in the practice of law in his native city ; and in 1889- 


90 was judge of the first district court of Newark, N. J. 

MILLER, JOHN FRANKLIN, soldier, United States sen- 
ator, was born Nov. 21 , 1831, in South Bend, Ind. He served 
throughout the war ; and became brigadier-general and brevet 
major-general. He was United States senator from Califor- 
nia in 1881-86. He died March 8, 1886, in Washington, D. C. 

MILLER, JOHN G., state legislator, congressman, was 
born in 1812 in Kentucky*. In 1835 he moved to Missouri; 
and in 1840 was elected to the state legislature. He was a 
representative in congress from Missouri. He died May 11, 
1856, in Saline county, Mo. 

MILLER, JOHN K., congressman, was born in Ohio. He 
was a representative in congress from Ohio in 1847-51. 

MILLER, JOHN ZOLLINGER, electrical engineer, in- 
ventor, was born June 16, 1867, in Lancaster, Pa. He is a 
noted electrical engineer of Erie, Pa. He is the inventor of 
various kinds of switchboards, transmitters and automatic 

MILLER, JOSEPH, lawyer, jurist, congressman, was born 
in Ohio. He was elected a representative from Ohio to the 
thiry-fifth congress. He was subsequently appointed United 
States judge for the territory of Nebraska. 

MILLER, JOSEPH NELSON, naval officer, was born Nov. 
22, 1836, in Ohio. He entered the navy in 1851 ; became lieu- 
tenant in I860; commander in 1870; captain in 1881; and 
commodore in 1894. He retired from the navy in 1898 with 
rank of rear-admiral. 

MILLER, KILLIAN, lawyer, state legislator, congressman, 
was born July 30, 1785, in Claverack, N. Y. In 1824 and 
1827 he was a member of the New York general assembly ; in 
1837-40 county clerk. He was a representative in the thirty- 
fourth congress. 

MILER, LORENZO DOW, lawyer, jurist, was born Oct. 
25, 1856, in Titus county, Texas. His father was a slave- 
holder in the South before the war ; and came from Missis- 
sippi. He received his education in the Mt. Pleasant College 
of Texas; and at the Mt. Vernon College of the same state. 
In the eighties he was a cowboy on the famous Charley Good- 
night ranch in the northern panhandle of Texas. He became 
a successful lawyer; and is now serving his eighth year as 
district attorney of the thirty-first judicial district of Texas, 
which is the largest district in the United States. He has been 
special district judge on several occasions; and all cases ap- 
pealed from him were affirmed in the higher courts. In his 


home at Miami, Texas, he is well known as an astute lawyer ; 
and is ever ready to help the needy. He married Miss Lou- 
ella Exum, a daughter of the late Judge Exum, a native of 
Tennessee. Of his three children, Charles Exum, James 
Franklin and Winnie Davis, the latter is only now living. 

MILLER, LUCAS M., soldier, lawyer, state legislator, con- 
gressman, was born in 1824 in Greece. He moved to the ter- 
ritory of Wisconsin and settled in Oshkosh in 1846. In 1853 
he was a member of the Wisconsin legislature. He was one 
of the commisisoners of the state board of public works; and 
for ten years was chairman of the county board. He was 
elected to the fifty-second congress as a democrat. 

MILLER, MRS. MINNIE WILLIS, author, was born in 
1845 in New Hampshire. She is the author of The Silent 
Land; His Cousin, the Doctor; and The Pilgrim Vision. 

MILLER, MADISON, soldier, lawyer, jurist, state senator, 
was born Feb. 6, 1811, in Mercer, Pa. In 1865 he received 
the brevet of brigadier-general for meritorious service at Wil- 
son's Creek and Shiloh. Was in the Missouri state senate in 
1865; and in 1867-96 was fund commissioner of the Missouri 
railroad. He died Feb. 17, 1896, in St. Louis, Mo. 

MILLER, MORRIS S., lawyer, jurist, congressman, was 
born in 1769. He was a representative in congress from New 
York in 1813-15. In 1819 he was appointed a commissioner 
to superintend a treaty with the Seneca Indians; and was 
also judge of a county court. He died Nov. 15, 1824, in Utica, 
N. Y. 

MILLER, NATHAN, congressman, was born about 1750 
in Rhode Island. He was a delegate to the continental con- 
gress from Rhode Island in 1785-86. He died in 1787 in 
Rhode Island. 

MILLER, 0. A. He is a prominent citizen of Brockton, 
Mass. ; and has filled a number of positions of great trust and 

MILLER, OHIO L., educator, lawyer, college president, 
was born in 1859, in Sigourney, Iowa. In 1885 he became a 
teacher; and for several years was a college president. He 
was admitted to the practice of law by the supreme court of 
Washington; and for several years has been engaged in the 
practice of law at Baker City, Oregon, where he is also secre- 
tary of the chamber of commerce. 

MILLER, ORRIN L., lawyer, jurist, congressman, was 
born Jan. 11, 1853, in Newburg, Maine. In 1887-91 he was 
district judge for the twenty-ninth judicial district of Kan- 
sas. He was elected to the fifty-fourth congress as a repub- 



MILLER, PLEASANT M., congressman. He was a rep- 
resentative in congress from Tennessee in 1809-11. 

MILLER, REUBEN G., stockman, state senator, church 
president, was born Nov. 7, 1861, in Mill Creek, Salt Lake 
county, Utah. Since 1882 he has been successfully engaged 
in the stock business at Price, Utah. In 1894-95 he was county 
commissioner of Carbon county. He was a member of the 
state senate in the first state legislature of Utah ; and in 1898 
he was re-elected a member to the third state legislature. He 
is president of his school and town boards ; and also president 
of the Emery Stake of the Church of Jesus Christ of the Lat- 
ter Day Saints. His father, James R. Miller, was born in 
1838 in Dayton, 111. ; and his grandfather, Reuben Miller, was 
born in Pennsylvania and moved to Utah in 1849. 

MILLER, RICHARD THOMPSON, lawyer, jurist, was 
born Dec. 16, 1845, in Cape May, N. J. Was elected city solic- 
tor of Cape May City ; and prosecutor of pleas for Cape May 
county. He has served as district judge of Camden City; 
law judge of Camden county ; and is now circuit court judge 
of Nfew Jersev 

MILLER, RICHARD W., lawyer, was born in 1861 in 
Henry county, Ala. Since 1892 he has been in the active 
practice of law; has attained eminence at the bar of Henry 
county, Ala.; and is prominent in the business and public 
affairs of Abbeville. He has filled several positions of trust 
and honor. 

MILLER, ROBERT T., educator, lawyer, was born July 
16, 1847. For fifteen years he was actively engaged in educa- 
tional work ; and is now in the active practice of law in Ploy- 
dada, Texas. For nine years he was clerk of district and 
county courts of Floyd county, Texas; and has filled other 
positions of trust and honor. 

MILLER, RUFUS W., clergyman, journalist, author, was 
born May 12, 1862, in Easton, Pa. He was the founder of the 
Brotherhood of Andrew and Philip; and is the editor of The 
Brotherhood Star, of Reading, Pa. He is the author of What 
a Young Boy Ought to Know. 

MILLER, RUTGER B., congressman, was born in New 
York. He was a representative from New York state to the 
twenty-fourth congress to fill a vacancy. 

MILLER, SAMUEL, clergyman, author, was born Oct. 31, 
1769, in Dover, Del. He was a Presbyterian clergyman in 
1793-1813 pastor of the Brick church, New York City; and 


professor of ecclesiastical history at Princeton Theological 
seminary for the remainder of his life. He was the author 
of Presbyterianism the Truly Primitive and Apostolic Con- 
stitution of the Church of Christ ; Letters on Clerical Habits 
and Manners; Letters on Unitarians; Life of Jonathan Ed- 
wards; Letters on the Christian Ministry; and Letters on 
Church Government. He died Jan. 7, 1850, in Princeton, 
New Jersey. 

MILLER, SAMUEL, lawyer, educator, clergyman, author, 
was born Jan. 23, 1816, in Princeton, N. J. He was principal 
of the West Jersey collegiate institute in 1845-57; and in 
1857-73 was in charge of the church in Oceanic, N. J. He was 
the author of Report of the Presbyterian Church Case. He 
died Oct. 12, 1883, in Mount Holly, N. J. 

MILLER, SAMUEL D., lawyer, was born in Indianapolis, 
Ind. He has a large practice in Indianapolis and has filled 
several positions of trust and honor in his city, county and 

MILLER, SAMUEL F., state legislator, congressman, was 
born May 27, 1827, in Franklin county, N. Y. In 1854 he 
was elected to the New York legislature; and in 1850 and 
1857 was supervisor of Franklin. He was for fifteen years 
identified as colonel with the state militia. He was elected 
a representative to the thirty-eighth and forty-fourth con- 

MILLER, SAMUEL FRED, physician, surgeon, was born 
Aug.. 26, 1859. In 1887 he graduated from the medical de- 
partment of the University of the City of New York. He has 
attained success in his profession at Madera, Pa.; and has 
filled a number of offices of trust and honor. • 

MILLER, SAMUEL FREEMAN, physician, lawyer, jur- 
ist, author, was born April 5, 1816, in Richmond county, Ky. 
He became one of the leaders of the republican party in Iowa. 
In 1862 he was appointed a justice of the supreme court of 
the United States. He was the author of The Supreme Court 
of the United States, a series of biographies; and Reports of 
Supreme Court Decisions. He died Oct. 12, 1890, in Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

MILLER, SAMUEL H., lawyer, journalist, congressman, 
was born April 19, 1840, in Mercer county, Pa. He was a rep- 
resentative from Pennsylvania to the forty-seventh and for- 
ty-eighth congresses as a republican. 

MILLER, SIDNEY DAVY, lawyer, banker, was born in 
Monroe, Mich. He was a leading lawyer of the Northwest 


when in active practice. For twenty-three years prior to 
1892 he was a police commissioner of Detroit, Mich., serving 
gratuitously, and as such formulated the plans which have 
always controlled that department. He was a member of the 
board of education, and as such was the main factor in found- 
ing the Detroit public library and other institutions. He is 
president of the Detroit Savings Bank; and takes an active 
part in financial and public affairs. 

MILLER, SMITH, agriculturist, state senator, congress- 
man, was born in North Carolina. He was a member of both 
branches of the legislature of Indiana; and was a representa- 
tive in congress in 1853-55. 

MILLER, STEPHEN, governor, was born Jan. 7, 1816, 
in Perry county, Pa. He was governor of Minnesota in 
1863-66. He died Aug. 18, 1881, in Worthington, Minn. 

MILLER, STEPHEN DECATUR, lawyer, governor, Unit- 
ed States senator, was born in May 1787, in Waxsaw settle- 
ment, S. C. He was a representative in congress in 1814-19 ; 
served in the state senate in 1822-26; and was governor of 
South Carolina in 1828-30. He was elected United States 
senator for the term in 1831-37, but resigned on account of 
his health at the end of two years. He died March 8, 1838, 
in Raymond, Miss. 

MILLER, STEPHEN FRANKS, lawyer, author, was born 
about 1810 in North Carolina. He was a noted Georgia law- 
yer. He was the author of Bench and Bar of Georgia; Wil- 
kins Wylder, or the Successful Man ; and Memoir of General 
Blackshear and the War in Georgia. He died in 1867 in 
Oglethorpe, Ga. 

MILLER, THEODORE, lawyer, jurist, was born in May 
1816, in Hudson, N. Y. He was associate justice of the 
court of appeals of New York in 1874-86 ; when he was retired 
on account of age. He died Aug. 18, 1895, in Hudson, N. Y. 

MILLER, WARNER, soldier, manufacturer, congressman, 
United States senator, was born Aug. 12, 1838, in Oswego 
county, N. Y. He was a member of the New York state legis- 
lature in 1874-5. He was a representative from New York 
to the forty-sixth and forty-seventh congresses and United 
States senator in 1881-87. 

MILLER, WARREN, lawyer, jurist, state legislator, con- 
gressman, was born April 2, 1847, in Meigs county, Ohio. 
For one term he was assistant prosecuting attorney for Jack- 
son county, W. Va. ; and was prosecuting attorney in 1881-86. 
He was a member of the West Virginia legislature in 1890-91. 


He was elected to the fifty-fourth and fifty-fifth congresses as 
a republican. 

MILLER, WILLIAM, state legislator, governor, was born 
in Warren county, N. C. In 1810-14 he served in the North 
Carolina legislature ; and was governor of the state in 1814-17. 

MILLER, WILLIAM, founder of the sect of Millerites, was 
born Feb. 5, 1782, in Pittsfield, Mass. In 1833 he began to 
predict that the end of the world would come in 1843, when 
the faithful would be translated. His followers, who are said 
to have numbered nearly fifty thousand, greatly decreased 
after his death. He died Dec. 20, 1849, in Low Hampton, 
New "York 

MILLER, WILLIAM CHRISTIAN, physician, surgeon, 
druggist, was -born July 31, 1847, in Germany. Since 1854 
he has lived in Hamilton, Ohio; and since 1864 has been a 
druggist of that city. Since 1877 he began the practice of 
medicine, and has since been a prominent member of that 
profession. In 1892-1900 he has been secretary of the Ham- 
ilton public library; and has filled a number of other posi- 
tions of trust and honor. 

____ • 

MILLER, WILLIAM E., soldier, merchant, state senator, 
was born Feb. 5, 1836, at West Hill, Pa. At the outbreak of 
the civil war he enlisted as a private in company H, third 
Pennsylvania cavalry; was chosen second lieutenant; took 
part in thirty-four engagements; and became captain. Con- 
gress awarded him a medal of honor for his services. He 
then engaged in mercantile business in Carlisle, Pa. In 1898 
he was elected a member of the Pennsylvania state senate. 

MILLER, WILLIAM H., congressman, was born Jan. 29, 
1828, in Perry county, Pa. He was a representative from 
Pennsylvania to the thirty-eighth congress. 

yer, was born Sept. 6, 1840, in Augusta, N. Y. He is one of 
the foremost lawyers of Indiana at Indianapolis ; and was in 
1889-93 attorney general of the United States. 

MILLER, WILLIAM R., lawyer, governor, was born Nov. 
27, 1823, near Batesville, Ark. In 1857 he removed to Little 
Rock, Ark. In 1876-8 he was governor of Arkansas. He was 
deputy state treasurer in 1881-82; and in 1886 was again 
elected state auditor. 

MILLER, WILLIAM S., congressman. He was a repre- 
sentative in congress from New York in 1845-47. He died 
Nov. 9, 1854, in New York City. 


All proper names had originally a peculiar and 
appropriate meaning. Some persons might feel dis- 
posed to argue that there is nothing in the ordinary 
course of things to prevent the giving of names from 
sheer whim and without any meaning ; but it is quite 
as difficult to imagine the absence of motive and of 
fixed guiding principles in the choice of a name as it 
is in any other matter. It would be contrary to Man's 
nature to denote the object of his thoughts by sounds 
which produce no impression upon his memory, no 
representative idea in his mind. If the principle 
asserted, then, hold good in the matter of common 
nouns, much more must it be true with regard to the 
proper name, whose characteristic is, as we have said, 
that it places under our very eyes as it were, the 
individual object to which it is applied, ^m 

That some definite idea should "belong to the name 
when uttered, is so much needed by men in general 
that the natives of North America are in the habit of 
giving a name selected from their own language to 
any stranger deemed worthy of their especial notice. 
To them his own name does not sufficiently describe 
him, because it probably conveys no idea connected 
with his physical appearance. An anecdote is related 
of the Imaum of Muscat who when about to appoint 
a private physician asked his name. " Vincenzo," was 
the physician's reply. Not understanding it, the prince 
requested that its meaning should be explained in 
Arabic. The Italian gave the meaning, as Mansour, 
or Victorious, and the prince delighted with the happy 
omen offered by the name, ever after called him 
" Sheik Mansour." 

If we glance next at the records of travellers in 
distant countries, we shall find that whether they be 
private individuals or men engaged in scientific in- 
quiry, they never give a name to a people, a country, 


an island, or an unknown rock, without some defi- 
nite reason. Some allusion is made in it to physical 
conformation, to dress, to customs, to external pecu- 
liarities, or to certain circumstances which made the 
discovery a remarkable one. This natural habit has 
rarely been deviated from except when a desire has 
been felt to erect some geographical monument on 
distant shores, in honor of some denizen of the heavens; 
or to record, in a lasting form, some contemporary 
event, or the name of some contemporary character 
of distinction; or, lastly, to perpetuate the memory 
of a benefactor of his kind, and to testify of a na- 
tion's gratitude to a fellow-countryman of great pre- 
eminence. The long catalogue of proper names, with 
a meaning, which may yet be found among our older 
nations, in spite of mixture and corruption of races; 
and the longer catalogue disclosed by etymological 
inquiry, fully bear out these remarks. Schegel, a very 
learned philosopher, has traced descriptive epithets in 
almost all Hindoo names. So marked was the exist- 
ence of these meanings among the Hebrews, that 
their literature is strangely tinged by their influence. 
The older names among the Arabs, and those since 
introduced into general use, are highly significative; 
the face is acknowledged in the case of Grecian names, 
and the remark is equally true of all names derived 
from Teutonic origin. The most distant nations in 
our own more immediate circle of civilization exhibit 
no difference in this respect. Most of the natives of 
North America are named after some animal; during 
their lifetime they receive another title when they 
have earned it by some deed of daring, which it ex- 
plains and of which it is the token. The name of a 
most powerful chief in one of the Marquesas Islands, 
contains an allusion to the shape of a canoe, in the 
management of which he excelled. Thunder is the 


name of the King of the Chenooks, a warlike tribe 
who live on the left bank of the river Columbia. The 
Kamtchadales, Koriakes, and Kuriles, have all of 
them significant names. 


In the first ages of the world a single name was 
sufficient for each individual; and that name was 
generally invented for the person, in allusion to the 
circumstances attending his birth, or to some personal 
quality he possessed, or which his parents fondly 
hoped he might in future possess. 

Christian names being given in infancy, and by 
friends and relatives, cannot, as a general rule, have 
bad significations, or be associated with crime or mis- 
fortune. It is otherwise, however, with surnames. 
These will be found to be of all shades, from th^ best 
to the worst, the most pleasing to the most ridiculous. 
They originated later in life, after the character and 
habits of the individual had been formed, and after 
he had engaged in some permanent occupation, trade, 
or pursuit. They were given by the community in 
which he dwelt — by enemies as well as by friends. 

The first approach to the modern system of 
nomenclature is found in the assumption of the name 
of One's Sire in addition to his own proper name ; 
as Caleb the son of Jephunneh. Sometimes the adjunct 
expressed the country or profession of the bearer; 
sometimes some excellence or blemish; as Diogenes 
the Cynic ; or Dionysius the Tyrant. 

A mother's name, that of a parent, or of some 
remoter ancestor more illustrious than the father, 
have in the same way been used to form new names. 
A like attention has been paid to sentiments of friend- 
ship and gratitude. Sometimes the wife's name be- 
came the husband's surname. The name of the tribe 


or people to which a man belonged might also be- 
come a surname. If any particular name described 
the locality of a man's residence or property, it may 
serve the same purpose. Personal acts and qualities 
have given rise to a great variety of surnames. 

Surnames are traceable to several chief sources. 
There will be seen evidences in physical and political 
geography that the designations of countries, moun- 
tains, rivers, districts, towns, villages, hamlets, are all 
associated with the names of persons whom we daily 
meet, suggesting to the thoughtful mind most inter- 
esting topics regarding the histories of families and 
places. • 

Though the majority of our ancient family names 
are territorial, we have many large classes of excep- 
tions, and the origin of most of them is not at all 

Surnames can scarcely be said to have been per- 
manently settled before the era of the Reformation. 
The keeping of parish registers was probably more 
instrumental than anything else in settling them; for 
if a person were entered under one name at baptism, 
it is not likely he would be married under another 
and buried under a third ; in some instances, prior to 
the keeping of parish registers, persons were recorded 
as having different names at different periods of their 
life. As to the derivations of surnames, it should be 
remembered, that places were named before families. 
You have only to examine any of those names which 
serve for lands and also for persons, to see this plainly. 
If you found the name of Cruickshanks, or Pretty- 
man, Black-mantle, or Great-head, you would not 
hesitate. These are evidently coined for persons, and 
you find no such names of land, or for the double 
purpose. But then you can have as little doubt that 
names like Church-hill, Green-hill, Hazel-wood, Sandi- 


lands, were first given to places; and when you find 
them borne both by land and persons, you will con- 
clude the persons took them from the territories. In 
general then, when a place and a family have the 
same name it is the place that gives the name to the 
people, not the family to the place. This rule, which 
will not be disputed by any one who has bestowed 
some study or thought on the subject, has very few 

There is a class of fables, the invention of a set 
of bungling genealogists, who, by a process like that 
which heralds call canting — catching at a sound — pre- 
tend that the Douglases had their name from a Gaelic 
word, said to mean a dark gray man, but which 
never could be descriptive of a man at all; that the 
Forbeses were at first called For beast, because they 
killed a great bear; that Dalyell is from a Gaelic 
word, meaning "I dare;" that the Guthries were so 
called from the homely origin of gutting three had- 
docks for King David the Second's entertainment, 
when he landed very hungry on the Brae of Bervie 
from his French voyage. These clumsy inventions of 
a late age, if they were really meant to be seriously 
credited, disappear when we find from record that 
there were very ancient territories, and even parishes, 
of Douglas, Forbes, Dalyell, and Guthrie, long before 
the names came into use as family surnames. 

It was formerly customary to receive names from 
ancestors by compounding their name with a word 
indicating filial relationship. Names so compounded 
were termed patronymics, from Pater: father, and 
Onoma: a name — father being used in the sense of 
ancestor. When personal names merged into family 
appellations, patronymics became obsolete; or, more 
correctly, ceased to be formed. Before this change 
was effected, in case a man was called Dennis: born 

.•«♦ • 


on the Day of St. Dennis, sometimes his eldest son 
would be called Dennison, which in some cases, be- 
came Tennyson; and a man from a village in which 
was a church dedicated to St. Dennis was called 
Dennistoun. After the period in which descriptive 
names flourished, each of his children, whether male 
or female, would be called Dennis, so that this be- 
came literally a patronymic, inasmuch as it was a 
name received from a father. Howbeit, only those 
names that were taken from a parent when such 
was not the rule are called patronymics. Personal 
names lead the van as to all others, and are the 
basis of half their successors. Long after personal 
names were almost as widely diffused as persons, we 
find patronymics coming into use, the offspring of 
necessity arising out of multiplicity. 

But when we come to realize that nearly one- 
third of Englishmen were known either by the name 
of William or John about the year 1300, it will be 
seen that the pet name and nick form were no freak, 
but a necessity. We dare not attempt a category, 
but the surnames of to-day tell us much. Will was 
quite a distinct youth from Willot, Willot from Wil- 
mot, Wilmot from Wilkin, and Wilkin from Wilcock. 
There might be half a dozen Johns about the farm- 
stead, but it mattered little so long as one was called 
Jack, another Jenning, a third Jenkin, a fourth Jack- 
cock (now Jacox as a surname), a fifth Brownjohn, 
and sixth Micklejohn, or Littlejohn, or Properjohn 
(i.e., well-built or handsome). 

The first name looking like a patronymic is ante- 
diluvian, viz., Tubal-Cain: flowing out from Cain, as 
though O'Cain, given to intimate pride in relation- 
ship to Cain. During the Israelitish theocracy Gentile 
patronymics were in common use, as Hittites from 
Heth, but those personal came in later. As soon, 


however, as the New Testament opens we meet with 
Bar-Jonah, Bar-Abbas, names received from fathers in 
the conventional patronymical sense. It is, therefore, 
manifest that the chronology of patronymics, the 
period of their formation, lies about midway between 
primitive ages and time current. 

The Saxons sometimes bestowed honorable appel- 
lations on those who had signalized themselves by 
the performance of any gallant action, like the Ro- 
man Cognomina. Every person conversant with the 
history of those times will call to mind that England 
was much infested with wolves, and that large re- 
wards were given to such as were able by force or 
stratagem, to subdue them. To kill a wolf was to 
destroy a dangerous enemy, and to confer a benefit 
on society. Hence several Saxon proper names, ending 
in ulph and wolf, as Biddulph, the wolf-killer, or 
more properly "wolf-compeller," and some others; 
but these, among the common people at least, did 
not descend from father to son in the manner of 
modern surnames. 

Another early species of surname adjunct is the 
epithet Great, as Alexander the Great; with words 
expressive of other qualities, as Edmund Iron-side, 
Harold Hare-foot; and among the kings of Norway 
there was a Bare-foot. France had monarchs named 
Charles the Bald, Louis the Stutterer, and Philip the 

As society advanced more in refinement, partly for 
euphony, and partly for the sake of distinction, other 
names came into common use. 

Modern nations have adopted various methods of 
distinguishing families. The Highlanders of Scotland 
employed the sirename with Mac, and hence our Mac- 
donalds and Macartys, meaning respectively the son 
of Donald and of Arthur. 


It would, however, be preposterous to imagine 
that surnames universally prevailed so early as the 
eleventh century. We have overwhelming evidence 
that they did not ; and must admit that although the 
Norman Conquest did much to introduce the practice 
of using them, it was long before they became very 
common. The occasional use of surnames in England 
dates beyond the ingress of the Normans. Surnames 
were taken up in a very gradual manner by the great, 
(both of Saxon and Norman descent) during the ele- 
venth, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries. By the mid- 
dle of the twelfth, however, it appears that they were 
(in the estimation of some) necessary appendages to 
families of rank, to distinguish them from those of 
meaner extraction. 

The unsettled state of surnames in those early 
times renders it a difficult matter to trace the pedi- 
gree of any family beyond the thirteenth century. In 
Cheshire, a county remarkable for the number of its 
resident families of great antiquity, it was very usual 
for younger branches of the family, laying aside the 
name of their father, to take their name from the 
place of their residences, and thus in three descents 
as many surnames are found in the same family. 
This remark may be forcibly illustrated by reference 
to the early pedigree of the family of Fitz-Hugh, 
which name did not settle down as a fixed appellative 
until the time of Edward III. 

Although most towns have borrowed their names 
from their situation and other respects, yet with some 
apt termination have derived their names from men ; 
as Edwardston and Alfredstone. But these were from 
forenames or christian names, and not from sire 
names; and even almost to the period of the con- 
quest forenames of men were generally given as names 
of places. 


The Normans are thought to have been the first 
to introduce the practice of fixed surnames among us; 
and certainly a little while before the conquest, some 
of these adventurers had taken family names from 
their chateaux in Normandy. "Neither is there any 
village in Normandy," says Camden, "that gave not 
denomination to some family in England." The French 
names introduced into England at the conquest may 
generally be known by the prefixes de, du, des, de, la, 
st.; and by the suffixes font, ers, fant, deau, age, 
mont, ard, aux, bois, ly, eux, et, val, court, vaux, 
lay, fort, ot, champ, and dille, most of which are 
component parts of proper names of places, as every 
one may convince himself by the slightest glance at 
the map of Northern France. But that these Norman 
surnames had not been of long standing is very cer- 
tain, for at the Conquest it was only one hundred 
and sixty years since the first band of Northmen 
rowed up the Seine, under their leader Hrolf, whom 
our history books honor with the theatrical name of 
Rollo, but who was known among his people as 
"Hrolf the Ganger." 

But whether in imitation of the Norman lords, or 
from the great convenience of the distinction, the use 
of fixed surnames arose in France about the year 
1000; came into England sixty years later, or with 
the Norman Conquest; and reached Scotland, speak- 
ing roundly, about the year 1100. 

The first example of fixed surnames in any num- 
ber in England, are to be found in the Conqueror's 
Valuation Book called Domesday. "Yet in England," 
again to quote the judicious Camden, "certain it is, 
that as the better sort, even from the Conquest, by 
little and little took surnames, so they were not set- 
tled among the common people fully until about the 
time of Edward the Second." 


Those dashing Norman adventurers introduced to 
the British Isle the custom of chivalry and the sur- 
names they had adopted from their paternal castles 
across the channel. They made a rage for knight- 
hood and turned the ladies' heads. An English prin- 
cess declined to marry a suitor who "had not two 
names." Henry I wished to marry his natural son 
Robert to Mabel, one of the heiresses of Fitz-Hamon. 
The lady demurred: 

"It were to me a great shame 
To have a lord withouten his twa name." 

Whereupon King Henry gave him the surname of 
Fitzroy, which means son of a king. 

The era of fixed surnames does not rest only on 
the authority of Camden. It can be proved by a 
thousand records, English and Scotch. It is almost 
sufficiently proved when it can be shown the race of 
Stuart— already first of Scotch families in opulence 
and power, distinguished by no surnames for several 
generations after the Norman Conquest. Much later 
the ancestors of the princely line of Hamilton were 
known as Walter Fitz-Gilbert, and Gilbert Fitz- Walter, 
before it occurred to them to assume the name their 
kinsmen had borne in England. But surnames were 
undoubtedly first used in the twelfth century, and 
came into general use in the following one. 


Was formed by adding ing to the ancestor's name, as 
^Elfreding, which means Alfred's son; the plural for 
which is ^©lfredingas. 


Which is exceedingly common, is generally indicated by 
affixing son to the name of a progenitor, and is in- 


capable of being used in a plural form or in the gen- 
eric sense. For instance, Gibson, a son of Gibbs, a 
contraction for Gilbert. Munson, a son of Munn, a 
contraction of Edmund. 


Are from the Latin word De, which means of. This is 
a Patronymical sign common to French, Italian, and 
even ' German names. Thus Deluc, which means of 
Luke. Dwight means of Wight; and De Foe means 
of the Faith. 


Fitz stands for Filius, a son, and received through 
the Normans. 


Corresponding more or less closely with de, ac, is 
the Dutch van, and usually applied with the force of 
the, as Vandersteen, which means of the stone, hill, 
from which have sprung Folli, Fell, Knox. Vander- 
velde means of the field ; Van Meter means living on 
hired land; and Vandeveer means of the ferry. 


Is a form of the Celtic means mac, which the Cam- 
brian people made Mab or Map, and shortening it to 
a letter b, p, or its cognate f, gave it work to do as a 
patronymical prefix. Thus, Probart, son of Robert ; 
Probyn, son of Robin; Blake, son of Lake; Bowen, 
son of Owen; Price, son of Rice or Rheese; Priddle, 
son of Riddle; and Prichard, son of Richard. 


The Highlanders, Irish and Welsh hold mac in 
common. The Welsh delight to have it in the forms 
of mab, map, ap, hop, b, p, f. In Irish names mac 


tends toward inag y ma, and c. But Scotland took 
most lovingly to mac. The Milesians found a greater 
charm in Eoghan: a son, forming ua, and that used 
as in the sense of eldest son, for he only was al- 
lowed to use it. The Irish developed a patronymic 
out of their Erse treasury more elastic and poetic 
than the Gaelic mac. . The Celtic for young, offspring 
son, is, as above given, eoghan, whence Egan for 
Hugh, eoghan : son of Hugh; and also Flanegan, son 
of Flan. 


Is mac, meaning a son ; and from eoghan, for a first- 
born son. The Gaels also had a patronymical affix 
derived from eoghan, known as ach, och, the sou/ce 
of our ock, as seen in hillock, which means little hill. 


Is formed by az, or ez affixed. The two words are vari- 
ations of the tail Filius, a son; as Alvarez, son of 
Alva; and Enriquez, son of Henry. 


Was sometimes formed by placing the name of a son 
before the name of his father, as Galileo Galilei, which 
means Galileo, the son of Galilei; Speron Speroni, 
which means Speron, the son of Speroni. 


Is itch for a son ; and of, ef or if for a grandson or 
descendant. Romanovitch Jouriff: son of Romain, 
grandson of Joury; and Romanoff, descended from 
Romain, son of Rome. 



Assumes the forms pulos, soula, as in the name Nicol- 
opulos, son of Nicholas. 


Are sohn 9 zen, sen, son, zoon, and dotter, such as Men- 
delssohn, son of Mendel; Thorwaldsen, son of Thor- 
wald ; and Larsdotter, son of Lars. 


Is aitis, ait or at, used as affix, thus, Adomaitis, mean- 
ing a son of Adam. 


Is putra, added as an affix ; as occurs in Rajaputra, 
son of a king. 


Is tse, or se, used as an affix, as Kung-fut-se, which 
means Kung, the son of Fo; and Yang-tse-Kiang, 
river, son of the ocean. 


Is ilius, as Hostilius, son of Hostis. 


Is idas, modified to ida, ides, id, i, od. For instance, 
Aristides, son of Ariston. 


Proper is ben, from the word Eben, a stone. The Chal- 
dees used Bar in the sense of lofty, elevated, superior, 
which was primarily applied to eminence, and is iden- 
tical with our Barr. As Barzillai, son of Zillai; Ben- 
Joseph, son of Joseph. 




The primary sense ot kin seems to have been rela- 
tionship: from thence family or offspring. 

The next meaning acquired by kin was child, or 
" young one." We still speak in a diminutive sense 
of a manikin, kilderkin, pipkin, lambkin, jerkin, mini- 
kin (little Minion), or Doitkin. 

Terminations in kin were slightly going down in 
popular estimation when the Hebrew invasion made 
a clfcan sweep of them. They found shelter in Wales, 
however, and directories preserve in their list of sur- 
names their memorial forever. 

In proof of the popularity of kin are the surnames 
of Simpkinson, Hopkins, Dickens, Dickinson, Watkins, 
Hawkins, Jenkinson, Atkinson, and all the rest. The 
patronymics ending in kins got abbreviated into kiss, 
kes, and ks. Hence the origin of our Perkes, Purkiss, 
Hawkes, and Hawks, Dawks, Jenks, Juckfes, and Jukes 


This diminutive, to judge from the Paris Directory, 
must have been enormously popular with the French. 
England's connection with Normandy and France 
generally brought the fashion to the English Court, 
and in habits of this kind the English folk quickly 
copied. Terminations in kin and cock were confined 
to the lower orders first and last. Terminations in 
on or in and ot or et, were the introduction of fash- 
ion, and being under patronage of the highest families 
in the land, naturally obtained a much wider popu- 


These are the terminations that ran first in favor for 
many generations. 


This diminutive ot et is found in the English lan- 
guage in such words as poppet, jacket, lancet, ballot, 
gibbet, target, gigot, chariot, latchet, pocket, ballet. 
In the same way a little page became a paget, and 
hence among our surnames Smallpage, Littlepage, 
and Paget. 

Coming to baptism, we find scarcely a single 
name of any pretentions to popularity that did not 
take to itself this desinence. The two favorite girl- 
names in Yorkshire previous to the Reformation were 
Matilda and Emma. Two of the commonest sur- 
names there to-day are Emmott and Tillot, with such 
variations as Emmett and Tillett, Emmotson and 

Of other girl-names we may mention Mabel, which 
from Mab became Mabbott; Douce became Doucett 
and Dowsett; Gillian or Julian, from Gill or Jill 
(whence Jack and Jill), became Gillot, Juliet, and 
Jowett; Margaret became Margett and Margott, and 
in the north Magot. 


After these local names "the most in number have 
been derived from Occupations or Professions." 

The practice of borrowing names from the various 
avocations of life is of high antiquity. Thus the Ro- 
mans had among them many persons, and those too 
of the highest rank, who bore such names as Figulus, 
Pictor, and Fabritius, answering to the Potters and 
Paynters, of our own times. These names became 
hereditary, next in order after the local names, about 
the eleventh and twelfth centuries. As local names 
generally had the prefix de or at, so these frequently 
had le, as Stephen le Spicer, and Walter le Boucher. 


Names derived from dignities, civil and ecclesi- 
astical; and from offices. 

The same principle which introduced surnames bor» 
rowed from trades and occupations led to the adop- 
tion of the names of dignities and offices, which also 
became hereditary; as Emperor, King, Prince, Duke, 
Earle, Pope, Bishop, Cardinal, etc. 

surnames derived from personal and mental 


These seem to form one of the most obvious sources 
of surnames, and a prolific source it has been. Noth- 
ing would be more natural at the first assumption 
of surnames, than for a person of dark complexion 
to take the name of Black or Blackman, a tawny 
one that of Browne, and a pale one that of White 
or Whiteman. But it was not from the head alone 
that names of this description were taken, for we 
have, in respect of other personal qualities, our Longs 
and our Shorts, our Strongs and our Weaklys, and 
our Lightfoots and our Heavisides, with many more 
whose meaning is less obvious. Among the names 
indicative of mental or moral qualities, we have our 
Hardys and Cowards, our Livelys and our Sullens, 
our Brisks and our Doolittles; and Brainhead, which 
later became Brainerd. 


Everybody must have remarked the great number 
of names of this kind. Who does not immediately 
call to mind some score or two of the name of Ed- 
wards, Johnson, Stevens, and Harrison, in the circle 
of his acquaintance. Many of the christian forenames 
of our ancestors were taken up without any addi- 


tion or change, as Anthony, Andrew, Abel, Baldwin, 
Donald, etc. Others have been corrupted in various 
ways, as Bennet from Benedict, Cutbeard from Cuth- 
bert, Stace from Ustace. 


The surnames from these sources are almost in- 
numerable. There is scarcely a city, town, village, 
manor, hamlet, or estate, in England, that has not 
lent its name to swell the nomenclature of English- 


We find the names of the heavenly bodies, beasts, 
birds, fishes, insects, plants, fruits, flowers, metals, 
etc., very frequently borne as surnames; as Sun, 
Moon, Star, Bear, Buck, Chicken, Raven, Crab, Cod, 
Bee, Fly, Lily, Primrose, Orange, Lemon, Gold, 
Silver, etc. 



There are several surnames derived from consan- 
guinity, alliance, and from other social relations, orig- 
inating, from there having been two or more persons 
bearing the same christian name in the same neigh- 
borhood; as Fader, Brothers, Cousins, Husbands; and 
closely connected . with the foregoing are the names 
derived from periods of age, as Young, Younger, Eld, 
Senior. From periods of time we have several names, 
as Spring, Summer, Winter. The following surnames 
may also find a place here: Soone, Later, Latter, 
Last, Quickly. 


There are a good many surnames which seem to 
have originated in sheer caprice, as no satisfactory 


reason for their assumption can be assigned. It is 
doubtful, indeed, if they were ever assumed at all, for 
they have very much the appearance of what, in these 
days, we are accustomed to call nicknames or sobri- 
quets, and were probably given by others to the per- 
sons who were first known by them, and so identified 
with those persons that neither they nor their im- 
mediate posterity could well avoid them. To this 
family belong the names borrowed from parts of the 
human figure, which are somewhat numerous; as 
Pate, Skull, Cheek, Neck, Side, Nailes, Heele, etc. 
Then there is another set of names not much less 
ridiculous, namely those borrowed from coins, and 
denominations of money, as Farthing, Money, Pen- 
ny. Besides these we have from the weather, Frost, 
Tempest, and Fogg; from sports, Bowles, Cards; from 
vessels and their parts, Forecastle, Ship; from mea- 
sures, Peck, Inches; from numbers, Six, Ten. 

It is really remarkable that many surnames ex- 
pressive of bodily deformity or moral turpitude should 
have descended to the posterity of those who perhaps 
well deserved and so could not escape them, when 
we reflect how easily such names might have been 
avoided in almost every state of society by the simple 
adoption of others ; for although in our day it is con- 
sidered an act of villainy, or at least a "suspicious 
affair/' to change one's name unless in compliance 
with the will of a deceased friend, when an act of 
the senate or the royal sign-manual is required, the 
case was widely different four or five centuries ago, 
and we know from ancient records that names were 
frequently changed at the caprice of the owners. 
Names of this kind are very numerous, such as, Bad, 
Silly, Outlaw, Trash, etc. 




To account for such names as Justice, Virtue,. Pru- 
dence, Wisdom, -Liberty, Hope, Peace, Joy, Anguish, 
Comfort, Want, Pride, Grace, Laughter, Luck, Peace, 
Power, Warr, Ramson, Love, Verity, Vice, Patience, 
etc., they undoubtedly originated in the allegorical 
characters who performed on the ancient mysteries or 
moralities; a specie of dramatics pieces, which before 
the rise of the genuine drama served to amuse under 
the pretext of instructing the play-goers of the 9t old- 
en tyme." 


Various causes might be assigned for the variety 
that exists in the nomenclature of Englishmen. Pro- 
bably the principal cause is to be found in the pecu- 
liar facilities which that island had for many ages 
presented to the settlement of foreigners. War, royal 
matches with foreign princesses, the introduction of 
manufactures from the continent, and the patronage 
which that country has always extended to every 
kind of foreign talent — all have of course tended to 
introduction of new names. 


The practice of altering one's name upon the oc- 
currence of any remarkable event in one's personal 
history, seems to have been known in times of very 
remote antiquity. The substitution of Abraham for 
Abram, Sarah for Sarai, etc., are matters of sacred 
history. In France it was formerly customary for 
eldest sons to take their father's surnames, while the 
younger branches assumed the names of the states 
allotted them. This plan also prevailed in England 
sometime after the Norman Conquest. 


In the United States they carry this system of 
corrupting or contracting names to a ridiculous ex- 
tent.. Barnham is Barnum; Farnham (fern ground) 
Farnum ; Killham (kiln house or home) , Killum; Birk- 
ham (birch house) Birkum, and so forth with similar 
names. Pollock becomes Polk; Colquhoun becomes 
Calhoun; and M'Candish becomes M'Candless. 


By an historical surname is meant a name which 
has an illusion to some circumstance in the life of the 
person who primarily bore it. Thus Sans-terre or 
Lack-land, the by-name of King John, as having rela- 
tion to one incident in that monarch's life, might be 
designated an historical surname. To this class of 
surnames also, belongs that of Nestling, borne by a 
Saxon earl, who in his infancy, according to Verstegan, 
had been rescued from an eagle's nest. 


During the middle ages the Latin language was 
the language of literature and politics; accordingly 
in history and in the public records proper names had 
to assume a Latin form. The change was not al- 
ways a happy one. Authors were obliged to change 
their own names as well as the names of the persons 
they celebrated in either prose or verse. The history 
of France was still written in Latin in the seventeenth 
century, all names consequently recorded in Latin. 
In the sixteenth century the Germans used to trans- 
late them into Greek. The absurdity which it en- 
tailed undoubtedly hastened the disappearance of the 

The chiefs of an American tribe in North America 
receive a new name when they have earned it by 
their exploits. 


A similar practice prevails in various negro tribes. 

The Greeks, in olden times, used to change their 
names on the smallest pretense, and with the greatest 

The emperors of Japan and those of China after 
their death receive a new name. 


With us a woman changes her name when she 
marries; among the Caribs of the Antilles it was the 
custom for husband and wife to exchange names. 
In some formerly, and at the present day in Cape 
Verd Islands, a liberated slave takes the name of his 
old master; the adopted person substitutes the name 
of the person who adopts him for his own; the law 
allows that a donor or testator may require that 
his name should be taken by the person benefited. 

In 1568 Philip enacted a law that the Moors 
who lived in Spain should abandon the use of their 
peculiar idiom, and of their national names and sur- 
names, and substitute in their stead Spanish idioms 
and Spanish names. He hoped to make new men of 
them, to denationalize them, if we may use the term, 
and to merge them into his own people. He had a 
keen appreciation of the value of proper names, but 
like all despotic sovereigns, he was blind to the in- 
fluence of time, which can alone produce the gradual 
fusion of a conquering with a conquered people, more 
especially when differences in religion add their over- 
whelming weight to one side of the balance. 

The Moors obeyed, but still retained their nation- 
al feelings and religious beliefs; later, however, when 
they were compelled to choose between exile on the 
one hand, and apostacy on the other, they returned 
to their old country, and carried back with them a 
number of Spanish names. Accordingly, in several 


Mauritanian families descended from the Andalusian 
Mussulmans, we still find the names of Perez, Santi- 
ago, Valenciano, Aragon, etc., names which have 
sometimes led European authors into error, and made 
them fancy they saw apostates from Christianity 
among the descendants of the martyrs ot Islamism. 

The robbers whose trade it was to carry men 
away and sell them as slaves, needed no legal com- 
pulsion to change the names of their slaves. The 
precaution which they naturally took in this matter 
baffled the researches of disconsolate parents, who 
could only endeavor to recover their lost children by 
a description which was always imperfect and always 

In modern times the same system has been 
adopted, although it has not been dictated by equally 
prudential motives. The laws of Christian Europe 
have even in our own times legalized the sale of 
slaves. As soon as a negro had landed in the colo- 
nies it was usual for his purchaser to give hin a new 


In England the middle classes acquired a decidedly 
important political influence as early as the year 
1258, or not later than 1264, the quarrels of the 
nobles and the king having opened the road to Par- 
liament for the representatives of the commons. More- 
over, an act that no tax should be levied without 
the consent of their representatives was passed before 
the year 1300, and accordingly, soon after that date, 
we find hereditary names commonly used in the mid- 
dle classes. 

For a contrary reason the change cannot have 
taken place in Germany until a much later period. 
In order to prove this, an instance is given which 



will be all the more conclusive from its being con- 
nected with an intermediate point between that coun- 
try and France. In the town of Metz, which in idiom 
and by union with the dominions of the descendants 
of Clovis and Charlemagne, was decidedly French, 
but which for thirty years had been Germanized in 
consequence of its political position, you might have 
noticed at the close of the thirteenth century that its 
chief magistrates, who were all knights, bore without 
exception individual or derived surnames instead of 
family surnames. When we say derived, we mean either 
from the place in which they lived, or from the post 
which their military duties obliged them to occupy. 
It was not until the close of the latter half of the 
fourteenth century that hereditary names became 
common among men who were high in office, so that 
among their inferiors it is only fair to infer that they 
were rarer still. 

The etymology of hereditary names in England 
and in Germany is generally the same as in France 
and Italy. The following remarks will embody the 
inferences to be drawn from their examination, for 
the use of philologists. In languages of Teutonic or- 
igin, when descent is implied merely, the word son is 
placed after the father's name; such is the derivation 
of all the family names in the languages of Sweden, 
Denmark, Germany, and England, which terminate in 
this way. There are some exceptions, such as Fergu- 
son and Owenson, which serve to corroborate the 
statement as to the possibility of the union of two 
languages to form one an4 the same proper name; 
in the instances quoted above, a Saxon termination 
is joined to a Caledonian or a Welsh name. 

Attention has already been drawn to the custom 
of giving the father's name, in the genitive case, to 
the spn $9 ^ surname. The addition of & final 5 in 


English, and of the. syllable ez in Spain, sufficed to 
change Christian praenomina into surnames, and 
afterwards into family names; Peters, Williams, 
Richards, Henriquez, Lopez, Fernandez, literally (son) 
of Peter, of William, of Richard, of Henry, of Lope 
(or Wolf), of Fernando or Ferdinand. 

D'Andre, Dejean, Depierre, have probably beeome 
family names in France in a similar way. The name 
of the writer who was perhaps the keenest apprecia- 
tor of the genius of the immortal Dante that ever 
lived, Giuseppe di Cesare, shows that a similar form 
was not foreign to Italian customs. 

As in Italy, so also in the greater part of Europe, 
the practice of drawing up deeds and charters in 
Latin was almost universal, and in these the son 
was designated by his father's name in the genitive 
case, hence we must attribute all the names which 
are characterized by such a termination to this cus- 
tom. Such names, for instance, as Fabri, Jacobi, 
Simonis, Johannis, etc., names which would be mul- 
tiplied without end if other languages had retained 
the old Latin termination like the Italian. The coun- 
tries where the greatest number will be found will be 
those (it may be quite safely conjectured ) where the 
custom of writing legal documents in Latin prevailed 
the longest. 

Somewhat similar in Wales, the sign of descent, 
or rather of sonship, led to the formation of sur- 
names, which later again became hereditary names. 
The word "ah," when placed between two names, 
expresses descent, Rhys ab Evan (Rhys, the son of 
Evan); the vowel is gradually lost in common use, 
and the name becomes Rhys Evan, and, according to 
the same rule, successively takes the form of the fol- 
lowing patronymics, Bowen, Pruderrech, Price. 

It is still the same theory, only more simply car- 


ried out, which regulated the formation of family 
names in Ireland and in Scotland. As soon as the 
head of a clan had adopted some hereditary name, 
that name was given to all his vassals, whatever 
rank they might happen to occupy, and however re- 
motely connected they might be by ties of kindred 
with the head of the clan, and further, even though 
they had only entered it by enfranchisement or by 
adoption. The feeling of pride which suggested such 
a system is by no means an offensive one; we excuse 
it on the ground of its similarity to the old patri- 
archal customs; the head of the clan who is so pow- 
erful, and such an object of reverence, is but the eld- 
est brother of a large family, and the name which he 
takes belongs to all its members. 

It will not be quite so easy to discover a reason 
for the feeling of vanity which in Spain and in . Por- 
tugal led to such a tedious multiplicity of names. 
Birthplace, or the customary home, are not considered 
sufficient for a full description of a lordly title; alli- 
ances, adoptions, and the like, were all dragged in to 
increase the number of names. An ignorant phase of 
devotional feeling added to its proportionate share 
to their Christian praenomia; it may, therefore, be 
easily inferred what needless confusion must have 
arisen in the ordinary transactions of life through 
this two-fold prodigality of names. 

As the nobles in Sweden had not adopted heredi- 
tary names before the close of the sixteenth century, 
it followed as a matter of course that the middle 
classes did not use them until a still later period. 
The choice of names which this latter class made is 
worthy of notice. We know many names in France 
which indicate occupations, such as Draper, Miller, 
Barber, Maker, Slater, Turner,* etc. The same may 

♦Mercier, Meunier, Barbier, Boulanger, Couvreur, Tourneur. 


be found in England, but not in the same quantity; 
the oldest English commoners were freeholders of 
land rather than either merchants or manufacturers. 
There are few if any such, in Sweden; the greater 
part of their names are the names of properties, or 
of farms, or of forests, and were of that character 
because they were selected by a class who wished to 
approximate to the nobles by imitating their ways, 
and consequently not because they were the result of 
a need for distinctive signs — a need which is totally 
distinct from any individual wish or caprice. 

In Holstein and in Courland there are still many 
families who have no names peculiarly their own. 
In this instance, again, the scourge of feudalism is 
felt in all its severity. 


Whatever concerns the origin of our family— from 
whom proceeded the sturdy men that planted our in- 
fant states has for all of us an especial charm, not only 
from what we know, but for what we hope to ascertain. 

Our ancestors, tracing back their lineage to Pict 
and Dane, to the legionaries of Rome, or to the sea 
kings of the Baltic, had gained strength from the 
fusion in their nature of various and opposing ele- 
ments, and combined what was best of many races. 

That our ancestors were fond of fighting when 
provoked, regardless of personal safety or private 
advantage, cannot be denied. For the five centuries 
following the conquest, wars at home and abroad 
succeeded with little cessation. Military duty was 
incumbent on all who could bear arms. Personal en- 
counters between knight and squire in mail with lance 
and battle axe, the rest in quilted doublets, with pike 
and bow, made men indifferent to danger, and induced 
habits of hardihood and daring. 


According to some authorities the history of man- 
kind began with Adam and Eve about six thousand 
years ago; and that their decendants spread over 
Asia first, then over Africa, and then over Europe. 
But science clearly points that the [world and its in- 
habitants in some form must have existed for millions 
of years. 

It took primitive man four thousand years to learn 
how to make a hole in a stone, insert a stick in it, 
and use it for a weapon. Then he became master of 
the forest, with power readily to provide himself with 
meat-food. From fisherman and hunter man developed 
into a herder of flocks, a tiller of the soil, a cultivator 
of grain. Then came attachment to the family and 
the growth of the family into clans and nations. 

The first historical record is dated about three 
thousand seven hundred years ago, when a man by 
the name of Inachus led a very large company of emi- 
grants from Egypt into Greece. These found that 
country inhabited by savages, who no doubt, were 
the descendants of those who had w&ndered there 
from Asia. 

Inachus and his companies established themselves 
in Greece, and from that point of time Europe gradu- 
ally became occupied by civilized people. 

Thus three quarters of the globe, Asia Africa and 
Europe, were settled. But America was separated 
from Asia by the Pacific Ocean, almost ten thousand 
miles across; and from Europe and Africa by the At- 
lantic, about three thousand miles across. Of America 
in ancient times people knew nothing. 

The ships in olden times were small and feeble; 
and navigators seldom dared to stretch forth upon 
the boundless sea. Even the mariners compass, that 
mysterious but steadfast friend of the sailor was not 
used by the Europeans until 1250. 



It was in the year 1607 that the first emigrants, 
to successfully form a permanent colony, landed in 
Virginia. For twelve years after its settlement it 
languished under the government of Sir Thomas 
Smith, Treasurer of the Virginia Company in Eng- 
land. The Colony was ruled during that period by 
laws written in blood; and its history shows us how 
the narrow selfishness of such a despotic power would 
counteract the very best efforts of benevolence* The 
colonist suffered an extremity of distress too horrible 
to be described. 

Of the thousands of emigrants who had been 
sent to Virginia at great cost, not one in twenty 
remained alive in April, 1619, when Sir George 
Yeardley arrived. He bought certain commissions 
and instructions from the company for the •'Better 
establishing of a commonwealth here/' and the pros- 
perity of Virginia began from this time, when it 
received, as a commonwealth, the freedom to make 
laws for itself. The first meeting was held July 30, 
1619— more than a year before the Mayflower, with 
the pilgrims, left the harbor of Southampton. 

The first colony established by the Plymouth Com- 
pany in 1607, on the coast of Maine, was a lament- 
able failure. 

The permanent settlement of New England began 
with the arrival of a body of Separatists in the May- 
flower in 1620, who founded the coloify of Plymouth. 

The Separatists' migration from England was 
followed in a few years by a great exodus of Puri- 
tans, who planted towns along the coast to the 
North of Plymouth, and obtained a charter of gov- 
ernment and a great strip of land, and founded the 
colony of Massachusetts Bay. 


Religious disputes drove Roger Williams and Anne 
Hutchinson out of Massachusetts and led to the 
founding of Rhode Island in 1636. 

Other church rangles led to an emigration from 
Massachusetts to the Connecticut valley, where a 
little confederacy of towns was created and called 

Some settlers from England went to Long Island 
Sound and there founded four towns which, in their 
turn, joined in a federal union called the New Haven 

In time New Haven was joined to Connecticut, 
and Plymouth and Maine to Massachusetts; New 
Hampshire was made a royal colony; and the four 
New England colonies Massachusetts, New Hampshire, 
Rhode Island and Connecticut — were definitely estab- 
lished. The territory of Massachusetts and Connecti- 
cut stretched across the continent to the "South Sea" 
or Pacific Ocean. 

The Maryland colony was founded by Lord Bal- 
timore, a Roman Catholic, who was influenced in his 
attempts of colonization by a desire to found a refuge 
for people of his own faith ; and the first settlement 
was made in 1634 at St. Mary's, Annapolis was 
founded about 1683, and Baltimore in 1729. 

Meantime Henry Hudson in the employ of the 
Dutch, discovered the Delaware and Hudson Rivers in 
1609; and the Dutch, ignoring the claims of England, 
planted colonies on these rivers and called the coun- 
try New Netherlands. 

Then a Swedish company began to colonize the 
Delaware Bay and River coast of Virginia, which 
they called New Sweden. 

Conflicts between the Dutch and the Swedes fol- 
lowed, and in 1655 New Sweden was made a part of 
New Netherlands. 


The English seized New Netherlands in 1664, giv- 
ing it to the Duke of York; and the Duke, after es- 
tablishing the province of New York, gave New Jersey 
to two of his friends, and sold the three counties on 
the Delaware to William Penn. Meanwhile the king 
granted Penn what is now Pennsylvania in 1681. 

The Carolinas were first chartered as one proprie- 
tary colony but were sold back to the king arid final- 
ly separated in 1729. 

Georgia, the last of the thirteen English colonies, 
was granted to Oglethorpe and others; as a refuge 
for poor debtors, in 1732. 

In 1774 General Gage became governor of Mass- 
achusetts; and seeing that the people were gathering 
stores and cannon, he attempted to destroy the 
stores, and so brought on the battle of Lexington 
and Concord, which opened the war for Independence. 
The English army was surrounded at Yorktown by 
Washington and the French fleet and forced to sur- 
render. A convention at Philadelphia framed the 
Constitution of the United States. 


Before the United States became a nation, six 
European powers owned, or claimed to own, various 
portions of the territory now contained within its 
boundary. England claimed the Atlantic coast from 
Maine to Florida. Spain once held Florida, Texas, 
California and all the territory south and west of 
Colorado. France in days gone by ruled the Missis- 
sippi valley. Holland once owned New Jersey, Dela- 
ware and the valley of the Hudson in New York and 
claimed as far eastward as the Connecticut River. 
The Swedes had settlements on the Delaware. Alaska 
was a Russian possession. 



CHRISTIAN names are so called from having orig- 
inally been given to converts at baptism as sub- 
stitutes for their former pagan appellatives, many of 
which were borrowed from the names of their gods, 
and therefore rejected as profane. After the general 
introduction of Christianity, the epithet was still re- 
tained, because the imposition of names was ever 
connected with the earliest of its sacred rites. It is, 
nevertheless, most incorrect; sin'ce the majority of the 
personal names of modern times are borrowed from 
sources unconnected with Christianity. With what 
propriety can we call Hercules and Diana, Augustus 
and Julia, or even Henry and Caroline, Christian 
names? They should be called forenames (that is 
first names), a term much more preferable to the 
other. Perhaps the word name, without any ad- 
junct, would be better still. We should then use the 
name and surname as distinctive words; whereas we 
now often regard them synonyms. 

From the earliest times, names to distinguish one 
person from another have been in use. The names in 
the Old Testament are mostly original and generally 
given at the birth, in accordance with some circum- 
stance connected with that event, or from some 
pious sentiment of the father or mother. The Jewish 
child received his name at the time of circumcision. 
This practice is still adopted amongst the Jews, and 
has been followed by the Christian Church giving a 
name at baptism. 

The ancient Greeks used only one name, which 
was given on the ninth day after birth, and was 


chosen by the father, who also possessed the right 
of altering it. These names generally expressed some 
great quality — as bravery, wisdom, or skill. Thus 
Callienachus means excellent fighter; and Sophron 
means wise. In later times many names were derived 
from those of their gods— as Apollodorus, the Gift of 
Apollo. The eldest son usually bore the name of his 
paternal grandfather, to which was sometimes added 
the father's name, or the occupation, place of birth, 
or a nickname. 

The Romans at a very early date used two 
names, and later on each Roman citizen had three. 
The praenomen was, like our Christian name, per- 
sonal to the individual; as Caius and Marcus; in 
writing, the initials only were generally used. In 
early times it was given at puberty, but afterwards 
on the ninth day after birth. Women took no prae- 
nomen until marriage, when they adopted the femi- 
nine form of their husband's name. Every Roman 
citizen belonged to a gens and to a familia included 
in it. The notnen gentilicum (the second name) 
usually ended in ius, cius, or aius. The third name 
was the hereditary cognomen borne by the family, to 
which was sometimes a second cognomen called 
agnomen, was added. The cognomen was often de- 
rived from some event in the family history, or from 
some personal defect. In common intercourse the 
praenomen and cognomen only were used, as C. 
Caesar, for C. Julius Caesar. Many of the Roman 
names were of a much less dignified origin than the 
Greek, as Cicero (Vetchgrower), Crassus (Fat), Naso 

The Celtic and Teutonic names were originally 
very significant. Many were derived from "God," as 
Gottfried, Godwin, and others from genii or elves, as 
Alfred Elfric (Elf King). Personal prowess, wisdom, 


and nobility of birth, were the origin of many names 
still in use, as Hilderbrand (the War Brand), .Arnold 
(Valiant Eagle) Osborn (God bear). After the intro- 
duction of Christianity many of the old names were 
superseded by those taken from the Scriptures. These 
names in course of time became much altered; as for 
example, Owen, Evan, and Eoghan are different 
forms of Johann or John. A change of name was 
sometimes made at confirmation, and amongst 
Roman Catholics an additional name is given at the 
first communion. Sir Edward Coke tells us: "If a 
man be baptized by the name of Thomas, and after 
at his confirmation by the bishop he is named John, 
he may purchase by the name of his confirmation. 
And this was the case of Sir Francis Gawdye, late 
Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas, whose 
name of baptism was Thomas, and his name of con- 
firmation Francis; and that the name of Francis by 
the advice of all the judges in anno 36, Henry VIII, 
he did bear, and often used in all his purchases and 
grants." Another instance is that of Henry III of 
France, who, being the godson of Edward VI of Eng- 
land, was named Edward Alexander at his baptism 
in 1551; but at his confirmation in 1565 these 
names were changed to Henri. 

In Germany the names are mostly of Teutonic origin, 
or connected with the early history of Christianity. 

Double Christian names were not much in vogue 
before the nineteenth century. A very early instance 
is that of "John Thomas Jones," a runaway thief, 
mentioned in a collection of autograph letters from 
Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, and his son (1601); Charles 
George Cook, Judge of the Admiralty in 1665; and 
Henry Frederick Thynne, brother to Lord Wey- 
mouth, 1682, are other examples, which might 
easily be extended. 


In France and Germany when surnames became 
universal, the prefix of De or von to a common ple- 
beian name was considered as a mark of nobility. 
In Britain the De was not considered the test for no- 
bility, for the names of some of the best families were 
not territorial; as Butler, Stewart and Spenser. 


It now remains simply to consider the state of 
nomenclature in England at the eve of the Reforma- 
tion in relation to the Bible. Four classes may be 


The leading incidents of Bible narrative were 
familiarized to the English lower orders by the per- 
formance of sacred plays, or mysteries, rendered un- 
der the supervision of the Church. To these plays is 
owed the early popularity of Adam and Eve, Noah, 
Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Sara, Daniel, Samp- 
son, Susanna, Judith, Hanna or Anna, and Hester. 
But the Apocryphal names were not frequently used 
until about 1500. Scarcely any diminutives are 
found of them. On the other hand, Adam became 
Adcock and Adkin; Eve became Evott and Evett; 
Isaac became Hickin, Higgin, Higgott and Higgett; 
Joseph became Joskin; and Daniel became Dankin and 


The Crusaders gave several prominent names. To 
them we are indebted for Baptist, Ellis and Jordan; and 
John received a great stimulus. The sacred water, 
brought in the leathern bottle, was used for baptis- 
mal purposes. The Jordan commemorated John the 


Baptist, the second Elias, the forerunner and bap- 
tizer of Jesus Christ. Children were styled by these 
incidents. Jordan became popular throughout Western 
Europe. It gave to England, as already observed, 
Judd, Judkin, Judson, Jordan and Jordanson, Elias, 
as Ellis, took about the eighth place of frequency, 
and John for a while the first. 


The legends of the saints were carefully taught 
by the priesthood, and the day was as religiously ob- 
served. All children born on these holy days re- 
ceived the name of the saint commemorated. St. 
James's Day, or St. Nicholas's Day, or St. Thomas's 
Day, saw a small batch of Jameses, Nicholases, and 
Thomases received into the fold of the church. In 
other cases the gossip had some favorite saint, and 
placed the child under his or her protection. Of 
course, it bore the patron's name. A large number 
of these hagiological names were extra-Biblical — such 
as Cecilia, Catherine, or Theobald. All the apostles, 
save Judas, became household names; John, Simon, 
Peter, Bartholomew, Matthew, James, Thomas and 
Philip being the favorites. Paul and Timothy were 
also utilized, the former being always found as Pol. 


If a child was born at Whitsuntide or Easter, 
Christmas or Epiphany, like Robinson Crusoe's man 
Friday, he received the name of the day. Hence our 
once familiar names of Noel or Nowell, Pask or Pas- 
cal, Easter, Pentecost, and Epiphany or Tiffany. 

It will be observed that all these imply no direct 
or personal acquaintance with the Scriptures. All 
came through the Church. All, too, were in full tide 



of prosperity — with the single exception of Jordan, 
which was nearly obsolete — when the Bible, printed 
into English and set up in the churches, became an 
institution. The immediate result was that the old 
Scripture names of Bartholomew, Peter, Philip, and 
Nicholas received a blow much deadlier than that 
received by such Teutonic names as Robert, Richard, 
Roger and Ralph. 

The subject of the influence of the Bible upon 
English nomenclature is not uninteresting. It may 
be said of the "Vulgar Tongue" Bible that it revolu- 
tionized the nomenclature within the space of forty 
years, or a little over a generation. No such crisis, 
surely, ever visited a nation's register before, nor can 
such possibly happen again. Every home felt the 


The introduction of double baptismal names pro- 
duced a revolution ^ls immediate as it was uninten- 
tional. It put a stop to what bade fair to become a 
universal adoption of patronymics as single baptis- 
mal names. This practice took its rise about the year 
1580. It became customary in highly placed families 
to christen the eldest son by the name of the landed 
estate to which he was heir. Especially was it com- 
mon when the son succeeded to property through his 
mother; then the mother's surname was his Chris- 
tian name. With the introduction of second baptis- 
mal names, this custom ceased; and the boy or girl, 
as the case might be, after a first orthodox name of 
Robert or Cecilia, received as a second the patronymic 
that before was given alone Instead of Neville Clarke 
the name would be Charles Neville Clarke. From the 
year 1700 this has been a growing custom, and half 
the present list of treble names are thus formed. 


Until about the commencement of the seventeenth 
century, no material change in the designations of 
Englishmen had occurred since the days of the earlier 
Edwards, when surnames were generally adopted. 
John de la Barre, it is true, had become plain John 
Barr, and Roger atte Hylle had softened to Roger 
Hill, but still the principle of a single Christian name 
and a single surname had been maintained through- 
out. About the period alluded to, the innovation of 
a second personal name occurs, though but very rarely. 
The practice was imported to Great Britain from the 
Continent, where it seems to have originated among 
the literati in imitation of the trianomitia of antiquity. 
The accession of the many-named house of Brunswick 
may be said to have rendered it somewhat fashion- 
able; and during the last century it has become every 
year more common. Should the fashion continue, it 
is probable that at the dawn of the twentieth centu- 
ry it will be as difficult to find a binominated person 
in America, as it is in France at the present day. 

Another innovation belongs to the seventeenth cen- 
tury; that of the use of some family name as a bap- 
tismal appellation, as Gouldsmith Hodgson, Boscawen 
Lower, Cloudsley Shovel. This practice as well as the 
other is highly to be commended, as serving to iden- 
tify the individual with the designation. The genealo- 
gist will at once see its utility; and it is suggested to 
parents the desirability of inserting the maternal fami- 
ly name between the proper name of baptism and the 
surname, as James Morton Wilson, Henry Smith Brad- 
ley. Indeed it would be well to go further and add 
the maiden family name of the wife to the surname 
of the husband ; thus if a Charles Harrison married a 
Mary Bradshawe, they should thereupon write them- 
selves respectively Charles Bradshawe Harrison and 
Mary Bradshawe Harrison. If Vanity unites in the 


same escutcheon the arms of the wife with those of 
her lord, ought not Affection in like manner to blend 
their names ? This usage is voluntarily followed at 
Geneva and in many provinces in France; and it serves 
to distinguish the bachelor from the married man. 

In some districts, where a family name was orig- 
inally applied at the font instead of the usual James, 
Peter, or John, that family name has come to be re- 
garded as a regular christian name. For example: 
about Lewes, Trayton is fully as common as Samuel, 
Nicholas, Alfred, or any name occupying the second 
rank in point of frequency, and only less usual than 
Henry, William and John. In the sixteenth century a 
family of this name, from Cheshire, settled in Lewes, 
and continued to reside there for several successive 
generations, during the latter part of which period 
they became so popular that a host of children re- 
ceived the baptismal name of Trayton in compliment 
to them. The spirit of imitation succeeded; and there 
are at the present day scores of Traytons, who have 
neither any idea of the origin of their name, nor any 
doubt of its being as orthodox as the very common 
appellatives alluded to, 

We have seen that the Christian name, once im- 
posed, cannot be altered at the option of the bearer, 
as the surname may; at least not without the sanc- 
tion of episcopal authority. Towards the close of the 
eighteenth century, Sir William Bridges exchanged the 
name of William for that of Brooke, by license from the 
Archbishop of Canterbury; but this is almost a solitary 
instance in modern times, as the occasion for it .rarely 
arises. Before the Reformation, the unauthorized change 
of a Christian name was a grave offence. It is recorded 
in the consistorial acts of the Bishop of Rochester, that 
on Oct. 15, 1515, one Agnes Sharpe appeared and con- 
fessed that she had "of her own motion and consent, 


voluntarily changed, at confirmation, the name of her 
infant son to Edward, who when baptized was named 
Henry, for which she submitted to penance." The 
penance enjoined was to make a pilgrimage to the 
famous Rood of Grace, at the neighboring abbey of 
Boxley, and to carry in procession on five Lord's days, 
a lighted taper which she was to offer to the image 
of the Blessed Virgin. 


There were no Scripture names in England when 
the Conqueror took possession; even in Normandy 
they had appeared but a generation or two before 
William came over. If any are found in the old Eng- 
lish period, they were undoubtedly ecclesiastical titles, 
adopted at ordination. Greek and Latin saints were 
equally unnoticed. 

Before many generations had passed, Bartholo- 
mew, Simon, Peter, Philip, Thomas, Nicholas, John 
and Elias, had engrossed a third of the male popula- 
tion; yet Domesday Book has no Philip, no Thomas, 
only one Nicholas; and but a springling of Johns. It 
was not long before Jack and Jill took the place of 
Godric and Godgivu as representative of the English 
sexes, yet Jack was from the bible and Jill from the 
saintly calendar. 

Without entering into a deep discussion, it may 

be said that the great mass of the old English names 

had gone down before the year 1200 had been reached. 

Those that survived only held on for bare existence. 

From the moment of William's edvent, the names of 

the Normans began to prevail. He brought in Bible 

names, Saint names, and his own Teutonic names. 

The old English names bowed to them, and disap- 

A curious result quickly followed. From the year 


1150 to 1550, four hundred years in round numbers, 
there was a very much smaller* dictionary of English 
personal names than there had been for four hundred 
years before, and than there has been in the four hun- 
dred years since. The Norman list was really a small 
one, and yet it took possession of the whole of Great 

A consequence of this was the Pet-name Epoch. 
In every community of one hundred Englishmen about 
the year 1300, there would be an average of twenty 
Johns and fifteen Williams; then would follow Thomas, 
Bartholomew, Nicholas, Philip, Simon, Peter and Isaac 
from the Scriptures; and Richard, Robert, Walter, Guy, 
Henry, Roger and Baldwin from the Teutonic list. 
Of female names, Matilda, Isabella and Emma were 
first favorites; and Cecilia, Catharine, Margaret and 
Gillian came closely upon their heels. Behind these, 
again, lollowed a fairly familiar number of names of 
either sex, some from the Teuton, some from the He- 
brew, some from the Greek and Latin Church, but, 
when all told, not a large category. 

This is not enough, for in common parlance it was 
not likely the full name would be used. Besides, there 
might be two, or even three Johns in the same family. 
So late as March, 1545, the will of John Parnell de 
Gyrton runs: 

"Alice, my wife, and Old John, my son, to occupy 
my farm together, till Old John marries; Young John, 
my son, shall have Brenlay's land plowed and sowed 
at Old John's cost. " 

The register of Raby, Leicestershire, has this entry : 

"1559. Item: 29th day of August was John, 
and John Picke, the children of Xtopher and Anne, 

"Item: the 31st of August the same John and 
John were buried. " 


Mr. Burns, who quotes these instances in his "His- 
tory of Parish Registers, " adds that at this same 
time "one John Barker had three sons named John 
Barker, and two daughters named Margaret Barker." 

If the same family had but one name for the house- 
hold we may imagine the difficulty when this one name 
was also popular throughout the village. The diffi- 
culty was naturally solved by, firstly, the adoption 
of nick forms; secondly, the addition of pet desinences. 
Thus Emma became by the one practice simple Emm, 
by the other Emmott; and any number of boys in a 
smali community might be entered in a register as 
Bartholomew, and yet preserve their individuality in 
work-a-day life by bearing, such names as Bat, Bate, 
Batty, Bartle, Bartelot, Batcock, Batkin, and Tolly, 
or Tholly. In a word, these several iorms of Bar- 
tholomew were treated as so many separate proper 

It was, of course, impossible for Englishmen and 
English women to maintain their individuality on 
these terms. Various methods to secure a personality 
arose. The surname was adopted, and there were 
John Atte-wood, John the Wheelwright, John the Bigg, 
and John Richard's son, in every community. Among . 
the middle and lower classes these did not become 
hereditary until so late as 1450 or 1500. 

This is easily proved. In the wardrobe accounts . 
for Edward IV, 1480, occur the following items: 

"John Poyntmaker, for pointing of XI dozen 
points of silk pointed with agelettes laton. 

"Jehn Carter, for carriage away of a grete loode 
of robeux that was left in the strete. 

"To a laborer called Rychard Gardyner for work- 
ing in the gardyne. 

"To Alice Shapster for making and washing xxiiii 
sherts, and xxiii stomachers. " Shapster is a feminine 


form of Shapper or Shaper — one who shaped or cut 
out cloths for garments. 

All these several individuals, having no particular 
surname, took or received one from the occupation 
they temporarily followed. 


None of the sciences is less generally studied than 
that of Genealogy. Like all the others, though dry 
and repellant at first, when perseveringly followed out 
it becomes, in the research, full of interest, and pro- 
ductive of great results. 

An account of the origin, descent and relations of 
families is often a principal auxiliary to the true ap- 
preciation of history. In treating of persons who 
have distinguished themselves in their country's an- 
nals, not only are all those actions of their lives which 
have a bearing upon the character of the age in which 
they lived, or the well-being of the nation and com- 
munity to which they belonged, to be considered, but 
their own family and personal extraction, standing 
and descent. 

The genealogist confines himself to tracing family 
lineages, or the course of succession in particular fami- 
lies. That is his peculiar department. He leaves to 
the annalist the chronicling of events in the order of 
their occurrence, and to the historian the filling up of 
the details and circumstances to which these dry facts 
refer, and the description of the causes from which 
they spring, as well as the consequences to which they 
lead. The sole purpose and pursuit of the historian 
is to be able to show "Who is Who " and to distinguish 
those who are somebody from those who are nobody. 

The principal nomenclature of genealogy is as 


All persons descended from a common ancestor con- 
stitute a family. 

a series of persons so descended is called a line. 

A line is either direct or collateral. 

The direct line is divided into the ascending and 

The projenitors are father, grandfather, etc. ; the 
other ascendants not in a direct line are called ancestors. 

The descendants are son, grandson, etc. ; the other 
descendants not in a direct line are generally termed 

The Collateral comprehended all those which unite 
in a common projenitor. 

Some affect to hold in contempt the study of suc- 
cession of families. Others undervalue it, without being 
fully aware of the importance of genealogical research. 

There are some people, says Dr. Lindsay Alexan- 
der, in his "Life of Dr. Wardlaw, " who say they 
attach no importance to a man's descent, or to family 
honors, and despise those who do. Perhaps they may 
be sincere, but their judgment in this matter is cer- 
tainly erroneous, and their feeling unnatural. "The 
glory of children, " says the wisest of men, "are their 
fathers ;" and a honorable descent should be highly 


Heraldic devices, truly so called, made their first 
appearance in Europe in the middle of the twelfth 
century ; and about one hundred years later Heraldry 
became a science in high repute, without being able to 
trace its intermediate progress, or discover the names 
of those who first laid down its laws, or subsequently 
promulgated them. The earliest Heraldic document of 
which even a copy has come down to us is a roll of 


arms, that is to say, a catalogue of the armorial bear- 
ings of the king of England, and the principal barons, 
knights, etc. , in the reign of Henry III ; and, from in- 
ternal evidence, supposed to have been originally com- 
piled between the years 1240—1245. This transcript 
was made by Glover, Somerset Herald, in 1586, and 
is preserved in the College of Arms. Other rolls are 
to be found both there and in the British Museum, of 
nearly the same date, but none earlier; and no work 
explanatory of the science has been yet discovered of 
a period anterior to the reign of Edward III. In the 
reign of Henry III, armorial ensigns had become hered- 
itary, marks of cadency distinguished the various 
members of a family, and the majority of the present 
Heraldic terms were already in existence. 


At that period was to distinguish persons and prop- 
erty, and record descent and alliance, and no modern 
invention has yet been found to supersede it . For this 
reason alone, as we have remarked elsewhere, of all 
ancient usages it is one of the least likely to become 
obsolete. Hundreds of persons may be entitled to the 
same initials, may possess precisely the same name; 
but only the members of a particular family can law- 
fully bear certain armorial ensigns, and the various 
branches of that family have their separate differences 
to distinguish one from the other. After the lapse of 
centuries, the date of a building or the name of its 
founder or ancient possessor, may be ascertained at 
the present day, through the accidental preservation 
of a sculptured coat of arms or heraldic encaustic tile ; 
and the careful study of early rolls of arms enables 
the historian to discover matrimonial alliances and 
family connections, of which no written record has 
been found; and thereby not only to complete the 



very imperfect genealogies of many of the bravest and 
wisest of English nobility and gentry, but also to ac- 
count for sundry acts, both public and private, the 
motives for which have been misunderstood, or alto- 
gether unknown to the biographer or the historian. 


Arms are not only granted to individuals and fam- 
ilies, but also to cities, corporate bodies, and learned 

Arms of Dominion or Sovereignty are properly the 
arms of the kings or sovereigns of the territories they 
govern, which are also regarded as the arms of the 
State. Thus the Lions of England and the Russian 
Eagle are the arms of the Kings of England and the 
Emperors of Russia, and cannot be properly altered 
by a change of dynasty. 

Arms of Pretension are those of kingdoms, prov- 
inces, or territories to which a prince or lord has some 
claim, and which he adds to his own, though the king- 
doms or territories are governed by a foreign king or 
lord ; thus the Kings of England for many ages quar- 
tered the arms of France in their escutcheon as the 
descendants of Edward III, who claimed that king- 
dom, in right of his mother, a French princess. 

Arms of Concession are arms granted by sovereigns 
as the reward of virtue, valor or extraordinary ser- 
vice. All arms granted to subjects - were originally 
conceded by the Sovereign. 

Arms of Community are those of bishoprics, cities, 
universities, academies, societies and corporate bodies. 

Arms of patronage are such as governors of prov- 
inces, lords of manors, etc., add to their family arms 
as a token of their superiority, right jurisdiction. 


Arms of Family, or paternal arms, are such as are 
hereditary and belong to one particular family, which 
none others have a right to assume, nor can they do 
so without rendering themselves guilty of a breach of 
the laws of honor, punishable by the Earl Marshal 
and the Kings-at-Arms. The assumption of arms has, 
however, become so common that little notice is taken 
of it at the present time. 

Arms of Alliance are those gained by marriage. 

Arms of Succession are such as are taken up by 
those who inherit certain estates by bequest, entail, 
or donation. 


The shield contains the field or ground whereon 
are represented the charges or figures that form a coat 
of arms. • ' 



Within the past few years there has been a remark- 
able movement in the United States, which has re- 
sulted in the formation of many patriotic hereditary 
societies of large membership, with chapters in every 
State in the Union. Those only are eligible to mem- 
bership who can prove their descent from an ancestor 
of Colonial or Revolutionary times, trom an officer or 
soldier or seaman of the various wars, from a pilgrim 
in the Mayflower, an early Huguenot emigrant, etc. 
These societies bring men and women of like traditions 
together, and organize them in an effective way for 
action. The action contemplated is patriotic — never 
religious or related to party politics. The general so- 
ciety from its headquarters issues charters to branch 
societies in the different States. Each State society 
forms an organized group of persons well known to 
each other, by name at least, and often personally. 

Certain of these societies have been very active in 
preserving old monuments, buildings, landmarks and 
historic documents, or in erecting tablets and monu- 
ments at historic places, or in marking the sites of 
battles or the graves of Revolutionary soldiers. Others 
have founded prizes to be given annually to school 
•children for essays on events in American history. 
Others, again, formally celebrate the nation's anni- 
versaries. All of them foster patriotism and historical 
research, and teach organization — the sinking of indi- 
vidual desire in a common loyalty. There are proba- 
bly too many such organizations at present, and more 
are forming. The weaker societies will, however, die ; 
and those that remain will represent some real aspir- 
ation of their members. 


As the entrance to such societies is through descent 
from some ancestor, geneaology has been powerfully 
stimulated, and thousands of family records have been 
examined and summarized in print. Our Colonial and 
Revolutionary history has been studied in its details, 
which is the only way to fully realize it. The men of 
to-day have been connected with Colonial and Revo- 
lutionary times. The children of the coming century 
will find their ancestral records all prepared for them, 
and they will be face to face with high standards of 
duty and effort. 


Instituted in 1892, is open to lineal male descendants 
of civil or military officers, or of soldiers, who served 
the colonies between May 13, 1607 (Jamestown) and 
April 19, 1775 (Lexington). 


Founded in 1897, includes the lineal male descendants 
of soldiers or civil officers from 1607 to 1783, and of 
officers of the War of 1812, of the War with Mexico, 
and of the Civil War. 



Founded in 1896, is open to any male citizen of the 
United States who is lineally descended in the male 
line of either parent from an ancestor who settled in 
any of the colonies between 1607 and 1657, and whose 
intermediate ancestors adhered as patriots to the cause 
of the colonists throughout the War of the Revolution. 



Instituted in 1783 is composed of descendants of offi- 
cers of the Revolutionary army, usually the eldest male 
direct descendant. 


Founded in 1847, is open to the descendants of offi- 
cers of the army who served in Mexico, usually the eld- 
est male direct descendant. 



Founded in 1865, is composed of officers who served in 
the War of the Rebellion, and of their eldest direct male 
lineal descendants. 


Is composed of lineal male descendants of soldiers or 
sailors of the War of 1812. 


Instituted in 1890, is open to officers of the navy who 
have served in war, and to their male descendants, etc.; 
and also to enlisted men who have received a Medal 
of Honor from the United States for bravery. 


Instituted in 1875, must prove their descent from a Rev- 
olutionary ancestor. The Sons of the Revolution (1876) 
is organized on the same basis. It is expected that 
these two large societies will be consolidated. 


Incorporated in 1775, is composed of the direct male 
descendants of Hollanders resident in America before 



Organized in 1883, admits descendants of Huguenots 
who came to America before 1787. 


Organized in 1891, is composed of women descended 
from an ancestor who held an office of importance in 
the colonies previous to 1750. 

There are various other societies for women, of 
which the most important are Daughters of the Am- 
erican Revolution, founded in 1890 ; and Daughters of 
the Revolution, founded in 1891; and there is also a 
society of Children of the American Revolution, founded 
in 1895. 


Organized in 1894, includes male and female descend- 
ants of the passengers of the Mayflower (1620). 


The one decoration that is given by the government 
of the United States is the Medal of Honor, which was 
authorized by acts of Congress of 1862 and 1863 to 
be awarded to officers and enlisted men of the army for 
"gallantry in action and soldier-like qualities during the 
present insurrection." It has been bestowed only for 
conspicuous services. For example the Twenty-seventh 
Regiment of Maine Infantry was present on the field 
where the battle of Gettysburg was fought, and its term 
of service had expired. The entire regiment, to a man, 
volunteered to remain on the field and fight the battle; 
and for this gallant conduct a medal was awarded to 
each officer and man. A Naval Medal of Honor is also 
awarded by the government and it is highly prized. 





Aaron : Lofty ; inspired. 

Abdiel : The servant of God. 

Abel : Breath, vanity. 

Abiathar: Father of plenty. 

Abiel: Father of strength. 

Abiezer: Father of help. 

Abijah: To -whom Jehovah is a 

Abner: Father of light. 

Abraham: Father of a multitude. 

Abram: Father of elevation. 

Absalom: Father of peace. 

Adam: Man; earth-man; red earth. 

Adiel: The ornament of God. 

Adin, or Adino: Tender; delicate; 

Adolph or Adolphus: Noble wolf; 
i>., noble hero. 

Adoniram : Lord of height. 

Alaric: All- rich; or, noble ruler. 

Albert: Nobly bright, illustrious. 

Alexander: A defender of men. 

Alfred: Elf in council; good coun- 

Algernon: With whiskers. 

Allan: Corruption of yElienus. 

Almon: Hidden. 

Alonzo: Same as Alphonso. 

Alpheus: Exchange. 

Alphonso: All-ready; willing. 

Alvah, or Alvan : Iniquity. 

Alvin or Alwin: Beloved by all. 

Amariah: Whom Jehovah prom- 

Amasa: A burden. 

Ambrose: Immortal; divine. 

Ammi: My people. 

Amos: Strong; courageous. 

Andrew: Strong, manly. 

Andronicus: A conqueror of men* 
Anselm, or Ansel: Protection of 

Anthony or Antony: Priceless; 

Apollos: Of Apollo. 
Archelaus: Ruler of the people. 
Archibald: Extremely bold; or, 

holy prince. 
Ariel: Lion of God; valiant for 

Aristarchus: A good prince. 
Arnold: Strong as an eagle. 
Artemas: Gift of Artemis, or 

Arthur; High, noble. 
Asa: Healer; physician. 
Asahel : Made of God. 
Asaph: A collector. 
Asarelah: Upright to God. 
Aehbel: Fire of Bel. . 
Asher: Happy, fortunate. 
Ashur: Black, blackness. 
Athanasius: Immortal. 
Athelstan: Noble stone. 
Aubrey: Ruler of spirits. 
Augustin, Augustine, or Austin: 

Belonging to Augustus. 
Augustus: Exalted, imperial. 
Aurelius: Golden. 
Azariah: Helped of the Lord. 

Baldwin : Bold, courageous friend. 

Baptist: A baptizer; purifier. 

Barachias: Whom Jehovah has 

Bardolph : A distinguished helper. 

Barnabas or Barnaby : Son of con- 



Bartholomew: A warlike son. 
Barzillai: Iron of the Lord; firm; 

Basil: Kingly; royal. 
Benedict: Blessed. 
Benjamin: Son of the right hand. 
Benoni : Son of grief or trouble. 
Beriah: In calamity. 
Bernard : Bold as a bear. 
Bertram: Bright raven. 
Bethuel: Man of God. 
Bezaleel: In the shadow of God. 
Boniface: A benefactor. 
Brian: Strong. 
Bruno: Brown. 

Cadwallader: Battle-arranger. 

Caesar: Hairy; or blue-eyed. 

Cain: Gotten, or acquired. 

Caleb: A dog. 

Calvin: Bald. 

Cecil: Dim-sighted. 

Cephas: A stone. 

Charles: Strong; manly; noble- 

Christian: A believer in Christ, 

Christopher: Bearing Christ. 

Clarence: Illustrious. 

Claudius, or Claude: Lame. 

Clement: Mild-tempered, merciful. 

Conrad: Bold in council; resolute. 

Constant: Firm, faithful. 

Constantine: Resolute, firm. 

Cornelius: Horn. 

Crispin, Crispus, or Crispian : Hav- 
ing curly hair. 

Cuthbert: Noted splendor. 

Cyprian: Of Cyprus. 

Cyril: Lordly. 

Cyrus: The sun. 

Dan: A judge. 
Daniel: A divine judge. 
Darius; Perserver, 

David: Beloved. 
Demetrius: Belonging to Ceres. 
Denis, or Dennis: Same Dionysius. 
Dexter: The right hand. 
Dionysius: Belonging to Dionysos, 

or Bacchus the god of wine. 
Donald: Proud chief. 
Duncan: Brown chief. 

Eben: A stone. 

Ebenezer: The stone of help. 

Edgar: A javelin (or protector) of 

Edmund: Defender of property. 
Edward: Guardian of property. 
Edwin: Gainer of property. 
Egbert: The sword's brightness; 

famous with the sword. 
Elbert: Same as Albert. 
Eldred: Terrible. 
Eleazer: To whom God is a help. 
Eli: A foster son. 
Eliab: God is his father. 
Eliakim: Whom God sets up. 
Elias: The same as Elijah. 
Elihu: God the Lord. 
Elijah: Jehovah is my God. 
Eliphalet: God of salvation. 
Elisha: God my salvation. 
Elizur: God is my rock. 
Ellis: A variation of Elisha. 
Elmer: Noble, excellent. 
Elnathan: God gave. 
Emmanuel: God with us. 
Emery, Emmery or Emory: Pow- 

ful, rich. 
Eneas: Praised, commended. 
Enoch: Consecrated, dedicated. 
Enos: Man. 

Ephraim: Very fruitful. 
Erasmus: Lovely; worthy to be 

Erastus: Lovely, amiable. 



Eric: Rich, brave, powerful. 
Ernest, Ernestus: Earnest. 
Esau: Covered with hair. 
Ethan: Firmness, strength. 
Eugene: Well-born ; noble. 
Eusebius: Pious, godly. 
Eustace: Healthy, strpng; standing 

Evan: Same as John. 
Everard: Strong as a wild boar. 
Ezekiel: Strength of God. 
Ezra: Help. 

Felix: Happy; prosperous. 
Ferdinand or Fernando: Brave, 

Festus: Joyful, glad. 
Francis: Free. 
Frank, Franklin: Contraction of 

Frederic or Frederick: Abounding 

in peace, peaceful ruler, 

Gabriel: Man of God. 
Gad: A troop, or company. 
Gaius: Rejoiced. 
Gamaliel: Recompense of God. 
Geoffrey: Same as Godfrey. 
George: A landholder, husband- 
Gerald: Strong with the spear. 
Gershom: An exile. 
Gideon: A destroyer. 
Gilbert: Yellow-bright; famous. 
Giles: A kid. 
Given: Gift of God. 
Goddard: Pious, virtuous. 
Godfrey: At peace with God. 
Godwin: Good in war. 
Gregory: Watchful. 
Griffith: Having great faith. 
Gustavus: A warrior, hero. 
Guy: A leader. 

Hannibal: Grace of Baal. 

Harold: A champion; general of 
an army. 

Heman: Faithful. 

Henry: The head or chief of a 

Herbert: Glory of the army. 

Hercules: Lordly fame. 

Herman: A warrior. 

Hezekiah: Strength off the Lord. 

Hilary: Cheerful, merry. 

Hillel: Praise. 

Hiram: Most noble. 

Homer: A pledge, security. 

Horace, Horatio: Oak wood; or 
worthy to be loved. 

Hosea: Salvation. 

Howell: Sound, whole. 

Hubert: Bright in spirit; soul- 

Hugh, or Hugo: Mind, spirit, soul. 

Humphrey: Protector of the home. 

Ichabod: The glory is departed. 
Ignatius: Ardent, fiery. 
Immanuel: Same as Emmanuel. 
Increase: Increase of faith. 
Ingram: Raven. 
Inigo: Same as Ignatius (Spanish 

Ira: Watchful. 
Isaac: Laughter. 
Isaian: Salvation of the Lord. 
Israel: A soldier of God. 
Ishmael: Afflicted her. 
Ithiel: God is with me. 
Ivan: Same as John (Russian 


Jabez: He will cause pain. 
Jacob: A supplanter. 
Jairus: He will enlighten. 
James: Same as Jacob. 



Japheth: Enlargement. 
Jared: Descent, 
^ason: A healer. 
Jasper: Treasure master. 
Javan: Clay, supple. 
Jedediah: Beloved of the Lord. 
Jeffrey: Same as Godfrey. 
Jeremiah, Jeremias, or Jerome: 

Exalted of the Lord. 
Jerome: Holy name. 
Jesse: Wealth. 
Jesus: Same as Joshua. 
Joab: Jehovah \b his father. 
Job: Afflicted, persecuted. 
Joel: The Lord is God. 
John: The gracious gift of God. 
Jonah, or Jonas: A dove. 
Jonathan : Gift of Jehovah. 
Joseph: He shall add. 
"oshua: The Lord is welfare. 
Josiah or Josias: Given of the 

Totham: The Lord is upright. 
Judah: Praised. 
Julian: Sprung from, or belonging 

to Julius. 
Julius: Soft-haired. 
Justin, or Justus: Just. 

Kenelm : A defender of his kindred. 
Kenneth: A leader, commander. 

Laban: White. 

Lambert: Illustrious with landed 

Lancelot: A little angel; other- 
wise a little lance or warrior; or 
a servant. 

Laurence or Lawrence: Crowned 
with laurel. 

Lazarus: God will help, 

Leander: Lion man. 

Lebbeus: Praise. 

Lemuel : Created by God. 

Leonard: Strong, or brave as a 

Leonidas: Lion-like. 

Leopold: Bold for the people. 

Levi: Adhesion. 

Lewis: Bold warrior. 

Linus: Plaxen-haired. 

Lionel: Young lion. 

Lewellyn: Lightning. 

Loam mi: Not my people. 

Lodowic: Same as Ludovic or 

Lorenzo: same as Laurence (Span- 
ish and Italian form). 

Lot: A veil, covering. 

Louis: Same as Lewis. 

Lubin: Beloved friend. 

Lucian: Belonging to or sprung 
from Lucius. 

Lucius: Born at break of day. 

Ludovic: Same as Lewis. 

Luke: Light-giving. 

Luther: Illustrious warrior. 

Lycurgus: Wolf -driver. 

Madoc: Good, beneficent. 

Malachi: Messenger of the Lord. 

Manasseh: Forgetfulness. 

Marcellus: Diminutive of Marcus] 

Marcius: Same as Marcus. 

Marcus or Mark: A hammer, other- 
wise, a male, or sprung from 

Marmaduke: A mighty noble. 

Martin: Of Mars; warlike. 

Matthew: Gift of Jehovah. 

Matthias: Gift of the Lord. 

Maurice: Corruption of Amabuc. 
(himmelreich); the kingdom of 

Maximillian: The greatest Aemili- 



Meredith: Sea-protector. 
Micah: Who is like the Lord? 
Michael: Who is like to God? 
Miles: A soldier. 
Morgan: A seaman, a dweller on 

the sea. 
Moses: Drawn out of the water. 

Naaman: Pleasantness. 
Nahum: Consolation. 
Napoleon: Lion of the forest-dell. 
Nathan: Given, a gift. 
Nathanael, or Nathaniel: The gift 

of God. 
Neal or Neil: Dark, swarthy; 

otherwise (Celtic) chief. 
Nehemiah: Comfort of the Lord. 
Nicholas or Nicolas: Victory of 

the people. 
Noah: Rest, comfort. 
Noel: (Dies Natalis) Christmas; 

Born on Christmas Day. 
Norman: A Northman, native of 


Obadiah: Servant of the Lord. 

Obed: Serving God. 

Octavius or Octavus: The eighth- 

Oliver: An olive tree. 

Orestes: A mountaineer. 

Orlando: Same as Rowland. 

Oscar: Bounding warrior. 

Osmond or Osmund: Protection 
of God. 

Oswald or Oswold: Power of God. 

Owen: Lamb, otherwise, young 

Ozias: Strength of the Lord. 

Patrick: Noble; a patrician. 
Paul, Paulinus, or Paulus: Little* 
Peleg: Division. 
Peregrine: A stranger. 

Peter: A rock. 
Philander: A lover of men. 
Philemon: Loving, friendly. 
Philip: A lover of horses. 
Phineas, or Phinehas: Mount of 

Pius: Pious, dutiful. 
Poly carp: Much fruit. 
Ptolemy: Mighty in war. 

Quintin: The fifth. 

Ralph: Same as Rodolphus. 
Randal: House-wolf. 
Raphael: The healing of God. 
Raymond, or Raymund: Wise pro 

Reginald: Strong ruler. 
Reuben: Behold, a son. 
Reuel: Friend of God. 
Reynold: Same as Reginald. 
Richard: Rich-hearted, powerful. 
Robert: bright in fame. 
Roderic or Roderick: Rich in 

Rodolph or Rodolphus: Famous 

wolf or hero. 
Roger: Famous with the spear. 
Roland or Rowland: Fame of the 

Rudolph or Rudolphus: Variations 

of Rodolphus. 
Rufus: Red, red-haired. 
Rupert: Same as Robert. 

Salmon: Shady. 

Samson, or Sampson: Splendid 

sun, great joy and felicity. 
Samuel: Heard of God; asked for 

of God. 
Saul: Asked for. 
Seba: Eminent. 

Sebastian: Venerable, reverend. 
Septimus: The seventh born. 



Sereno or Serenus: Calm, peace- 

Seth: Appointed. 

Shadrach: Rejoicing in the way. 

Sigismund: Conquering, protec- 

Silas: A contraction of Silvanus. 

Silvanus: Living in a wood. 

Silvester: Bred in the country 

Simeon, Simon: Hearing with ac- 

Solomon: Peaceable. 

Stephen : A crown. 

Swithin: Strong friend. 

Sylvan us: Same as Silvanus. 

Sylvester: Same as Silvester. 

Tertius: the third born. 

Thaddeus: The wise. 

Theobald : Bold for the people. 

Theodore: The gift of God. 

Theodoric: Powerful among the 

Theophilus: A lover of God. 

Theron: A hunter. 

Thomas: A twin. 

Timothy: Fearing God. 

Titus: Honorable. 

Tobiah or Tobias': Distinguished 
of the Lord. 

Tristram: Grave, pensive, melan- 
choly, sorrowful, sad. 

Tybalt: Same as Theobald. 

Ulysses: A hater. 

Urban: Of the town; courteous; 

Uriah : Light of the Lord. 
Urian: A husbandman. 
Uriel: Light of God. 

Valentine: Strong, healthy, pow- 
Vicesimus: The twentieth born. 
Victor: A conqueror. 
Vincent: Conquering. 
Vivian: Lively. 

Walter: Ruling the roast. 

William: Resolute helmet, or hel- 
met of resolution; defence; pro- 

Winfred: Win-peace. 

Zabdiel : Gift of God. 
Zaccheus: Innocent, pure. 
Zachariah, or Zacherv: Remem- 

bered of the Lord. 
Zadok: Just. 
Zebediah or Zebedee: Gift of the 

Zebina: Bought. 
Zebulon: Dwelling. 
Zedekiah: Justice of the Lord. 
Zelotes: A zealot. 
Zenas: Gift of Jupiter. 
Zephaniah: Hid of the Lord. 




Abigail: My father's joy. Belinda: From Bella, Isabella, Eliz- 

Achsa: Anklet. abeth. 

Ada: The same as Edith. Benedicta; Feminine of Benedic- 

Adela, Adelaide, or Adeline: Of tus. 

noble birth, a princess. Bertha: Bright; beautiful. 

Agatha: Good, kind. Betsey: A corruption of Elizabeth. 

Agnes: Chaste, pure. Blanch, or Blanche: White. 

Alberta: Feminine of Albert. Bona: Good. 

Alethea: Truth. Bridget: Strength. 

Alexandra, or Alexandrina: Femi- 
nine of Alexander. Camilla: Attendant at a sacrifice 

Alice, or Alicia: Same as Adeline. Caroline: Feminine of Carolus or 

Almira: Lofty; a princess. Charles. 

Althea: A healer. Cassandra: One who inflames with 

Amabel: Loveable. love. 

Amanda: Worthy to be loved. Catharina, Catharine, or Catherine 

Amelia: Busy, energetic. Pure. 

Amy: Beloved. Cecilia or Cecily: Feminine ot 

Angelica, Angelina: Lovely, an- Cecil. 

„ e jj c ^ Celestine: Heavenly. 

Ann, Anna, or Anne: Grace. Celia: Feminine of Coelus. 

Annabella: Feminine of Hannibal. Charlotte: Feminine of Charles. 

Annette: Variation of Anne. Chloe: A green herb; blooming. 

Antoinette: Diminutive of Anto- Christiana, or Christina: Feminine 

n j a> of Christianus. 

Antonia,or Antonina: Inestimable. Cicely: A variation of Celia. 

^Arabella: A fair altar; otherwise, Clara: Bright, illustrious. 

corruption of Orabllia, a praying Clarice, or Clarissa: A variation of 

woman. Clara. 

Ariana: A corruption of Ariadne. Claudia: Feminine of Claudius. 

Augusta: Feminine of Augustus. Clementina, or Clementine; Mild, 

Aurelia^ Feminine of Aurelius. gentle. ? 

Aurora: Morning redness; fresh; Constance: Firm, constant. 

brilliant. Cora: Maiden; a form of Corinha. 

Azubah; Deserted. Cornelia: Feminine of Cornelius. 

Cynthia: Belonging to Mount 

Barbara: Foreign ; strange. Cynthus. 
Beatrice,6r Beatrix: Making happy. 


Deborah: A bee. . Fanny: Diminutive of Frances, 

Delia: of Delos. Faustina: Fortunate; lucky. 

Diana: Goddess. Felicia: Happiness. 

Diantha: Flower of Jove; a pink. Fidelia: Faithful. 

Dinah: Judged. Flora: Flowers ; goddess of flowers 

Dora: A variation of Dorothea. and spring. 

Dorcas: A gazelle. Florence: Blooming; flourishing. 

Dorinda: Same as Dorothea. Frances: Feminine of Francis. 

Dorothea, or Dorothy: Gift of Frederica: Feminine of Frederick 


Drusilla: Dew watered. Georgian* or Georgina: Feminine 

of George. 

Edith: Happiness; otherwise rich Geraldine: Feminine of Gerald. 

.£. Gertrude: Spear-maiden. 

Edna: Pleasure. Grace or Gratia: Grace » favon 

Eleanor, or Elinor: Light; same as Griselda: Stone; heroine. 

n * „, Hannah: Same as Anna. 

Elisabeth. Elizabeth, or Eliza: Wor- „„ . . _ u . . ™ — • • x 

' *, „ A Harriet, or Harriot: Feminine of 

shiper of God; consecrated to „ 

„ f? 0dt , Helen, or Helena: Light. 

Ella: A contraction of Eleanor. u . . . « . . ,. . .. 

_.. « ,. . . , ~. Henrietta: Feminine diminutive 

Ellen: A diminutive of Eleanor, . TT 

Elvira- White Henrjr - 

_ * _ . Hephzibah: My delight is in her. 

Emehne, or Emmeline: Energetic, ^^ Qr Hegtha . Same ag Egther> 

industrious. Hilaria: Feminine of Hilary. 

H„e' ° r ^ " Eme * HOn ° ra ' ° r Honorfa: Honorably 

_ , Hortensia: A lady gardener. 

Ernestine: feminine and diminu- H iildah: A weasel. 


Esther: A star; good fortune. Ida: Happy. 

Ethelind, or Ethelinda: Noble T nez: Same as Agnes. 

snake. Irene: Peaceful. 
Eudora: Good gift. Isabel, or Isabella: Same as Eliza- 
Eugenia, or Eugenie: Feminine of beth. 


Eulalia: Fair speed. Jane, or Janet: Feminine of John. 

Eunice: Happy victory. Jaqueline, Feminine of James. 

Euphemia: Of good report. J ean > Jeanne, or Jeannette: Same 

Eva: Same as Eve. as J ane or J oan - 

Evangeline: Bringing glad news. Jemima: A dove. 

Eve: Life. Jerusha: Possessed, married. 

Evelina, or Eveline: Diminutive Joan, Joanna, Johanna: Feminine 

of Eva. of John. 



Josepha, or Josephine: Feminine 

of Joseph. 
Joyce: Sportive 
Judith: Praised. 
Julia: Feminine of Julius. 
Juliana: Feminine of Julian. 
Juliet: Diminutive of Julia. 
Justina: Feminine of Justin. 

Katharine, or Katherine: Same as 

Keturah: Incense. 
Keziah: Cassia. 

Laura: A laurel. 

Laurinda: A variation of Laura. 

Lavinia: Of Latium. 

Leonora: Same as Eleanor. 

Letitia: Happiness. 

Leitice: A variation of Letitia. 

Lillian, or Lily: A lily. 

Lois: Good; desirable. 

Lorinda: A variation of Laurinda. 

Louisa, or Louise: Feminine of 

Lucia: Same as Lucy. 

Lucinda: Same as Lucy. 

Lucrece, or Lucretia: Gain; other- 
wise, light. 

Lucy: Feminine of Lucius. 

Lydia: A native of Lydia. 

Mabel: A contraction of Amabel. 
Madeline: French form of Magde- 

Magdalene: A native of Magdala. 
Marcel la: Feminine of Marcellus. 
Marcia: Feminine of Marcius. 
Margaret: A pearl. 
Maria: Same as Mary. 
Marianne: A compound of Mary 

and Anne. 

Marion: A French form of Mary- 

Martha: The ruler of the house; 
otherwise, sorrowful,melancholy. 

Mary: Bitter; otherwise, their re- 
bellion ; or, star of the east. 

Mathilda, or Matilda: Mighty bat- 
tle-maid; heroine. 

Maud: A contraction of Matilda; 
or Madalene. 

May : Month of May ; or Mary. 

Mehetabel, Mehitabel: Benefited 
of God. 

Melicent: Sweet-singer; otherwise 
working strength. 

Melissa: A bee, 

Mildred: Mild threatener. 

Miranda: Admirable. 

Miriam: Same as Mary. 

Myra: She who weeps or laments. 

Nancy: A familiar form of Anne. 
Nora: A contraction of Helenora; 
Honora; and of Leonora. 

Octavia: Feminine of Octavius. 
Olive, or Olivia: An olive. 
Ophelia: A serpent. 
Olympia: Heavenly. 

Paula, Paulina, or Pauline: Femi- 
nine of Paulus or Paul. 
Penelope: A weaver. 
Persis: A Persian woman. 
Phebe, or Phoebe: Pure, radiant; 
Philippa: Feminine of Philip. 
Phillis, Phyllis: A green bough. 
Polly : A diminutive of Mary. 
Priscilla: Advanced in years. 
Prudence: In Latin Prudentia. 

Rachel: An ewe. 

Rebecca, or Rebekah: of enchant- 
ing beauty. 
Rhoda: A rose. 
Ro6a: A rose. 



Rosabel, or Rosabella: A fair rose. 
Rosalia, or Rosalie: Little and 

blooming rose. 
Rosalind: Beautiful as a rose. 
Rosamond: Horse protection; or 

famous protection. 
Roxana: Dawn of day. 
Ruth: Beauty. 

Sablna: A Sabine woman. . 

Sabrina: The river Severn. 

Salome: Peaceful. 

Salva: Safe. 

Sara, or Sarah, A princess. 

Selina: Parsley; otherwise moon 

Serina: Feminine of Serenus, or 

Sibyl, or Sibylla: A prophetess. 
Sophia: Wisdom. 
Sophronia Of a sound mind. 
Stella: A star. 

Stephana: Feminine of Stephen. 
Susan, Susanna, or Susannah: A 

llly 4 

Tabitha: A gazelle. 
Theodora: Feminine Of Theodore. 
Theodosia: The gift of God. 
Theresa: Carrying ears of corn. 
Thomasa, or Thomasine: Femi- 
nine of Thomas. 
Tryphena: Delicate; luxurious. 
Tryphosa: Luxurious, dainty. 

Ulica: Rich. 
Urania: Heavenly. 
Ursula: She-bear. 

Valeria: Feminine of Valerius. 
\ ictoria: Victory, or feminine of 

Viola: A violet. 
Virginia: Virgin; pure. 
Vivian: Lively ; cheerful. 
Wilhelmina: Feminine of Wilhelm, 

German form of William. 
Winifred: A lover of peace. 
Zenobia: Having life from Jupiter. 



My full name is: 

Place of my birth. 


Date of my birth : 

School attended: 



Positions held, traits of character, etc. : 


49" Information of my forefathers given on pajres B, D, F. 

Place of my marriage : Date of my marriage : 

Full maiden name 

of my wife: 


Place of her birth: 


Date of her birth : 

School attended: 

Her attainments, traits of character, etc. : 


49" Information of her forefathers given on pajres C, E, G. 

Christian Names of Our Children : 
1st Child: 

Fait Names to Whom Married : 

Married to: 



Date of marriage: 

2nd Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriage: 

3rd Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriatre: 

4th Child 

Married to: 




Date of marriage: 

5th Child: 

Married to : 



Date of marriage: 

6th Child: 

Married to: 


Died : 

Date of marriage: 

4SrWhen married further information given on pages H, I, J. 


My fathers full name is: 

Place of his birth: 

Date of his birth 



Positions held, traits of character, etc.: 

?fy$!L?f. hi? death : Date of his death : 

*S~ Information of his forefathers given on page D. 

Place of their marriage : Date of their marriage . 

Full maiden name of his wife: 

Place of her birth : 

Date of her birth: 

Her attainments* traits of character, etc. : 

Place of Tier death : 

Date of her death: 


Information of her forefathers given on page F. 

Christian Names of Their Children : 

1st Child: 

Full Names to Whom Married : 

Married to: 



Date of marriage: 

2nd Child: 

Married to : 



Date of marriage: 

3rd Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriage: 

4th Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriage: 

5th Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriage: 

6th Child: 

Married to: 



Dite of marriage: 


My wife's father's full name is: 

Place of his birth : Date of his birth : 

Residence : Occupation : 

Positions held, traits of character, etc.: 


Place of his death : Date of his death : 

49* Information of his forefathers given on page £. 

Place of their marriage : Date of their marriage : 

Full maiden name of his wife: 

Place of her birth : Date of her birth : 

Her attainments, traits of character, etc, : 

Place of her death : Date of her death : 

49* Information of her forefathers given on page G. 

Christian Names of Their Children : Full Names to Whom Married : 

1st Child: Married to: 

Born: Died: Date of marriage: 

2nd Child: Married to : 



Date of marriage: 

3rd Child: 


Married to: 



Date of marriage: 

4th Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriage: 

5th Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriage: 

6th Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriage: 



My Mother's fathers full name is: 

Place of his birth : Date of his birth : 


Occupation : 

His father's full name was: 

■♦•« M Ht •• •• •• ••••«• 

His mother's full maiden name was. 

•••• •* •«••••• •*••••« •«••• 

Place of his death: Date of his death, 

Place of their marriage: 

Date of their marriage . 

Full maiden name of his wife: 

Place of her birth: 

Date of her birth : 

Her father's 

full name was 


Her mother's full maiden name was: 

Place of her death: 

Date of her death : 

Christian Names off Their Children : 
1st Child: 

Full Names to Whom Married : 

Married to: 



Date of mar ri aire: 

2nd Child: 

Married to : 



Date of marriage: 

3rd Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriaere: 

4th Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriage: 

5th Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriage : 

6th Child: 


Married to: 

Died: Date of marriag-e: 



My wife's Mother's father's, full name is: 

Place of his birth: 

Date of his birth : 



. His father's full name was : 

If is mother's full maiden name was. 

Place of his death: 

Date of his death: 

Place of their marriage : • 

Date of their marriage : 

Full maiden name of his wife: 

Place of her birth : 

Date of her birth* 

Her father's full name was : 

Her mother's full maiden name was: 

Place of her death : 

Date of her death : 

Christian Names of Their Children : 

1st Child: 

Full Names to Whom Married : 

Married to : 

Born: Died: 

Date of marriage: 

2nd Child: 

Married to: 

Born: Died: 

Date of marriag-e: 

3rd Child: 

Married to: 

Born : Died : 

Date of marriag-e: 

4th Child: 


Married to: 

Born: Died: 

Date of marriag-e: 

5th Child: 

Married to: 

Born: Died: 

Date of marriag-e: 

6th Child: 

Married to: 

Born: Died: 

Date of marriag-e: 



My th Child's full name is:. 


Place of birth : 

Date of birth: 

School attended: 



Traits of character, etc- : 

Place of marriage : 

Date of marriage: 

Full name to whom married: 

Place of birth : 
School attended: 

Date of birth: 



Traits of character, etc, : 

• * 

Father's full name : 

Mother's full maiden name, 


Christian Names of Their Children : 

1st Child: 

Full Names to Whom Married : 

Married to: 



Date of marriage: 

2nd Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriage: 

3rd Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriage: 

4th Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriage: 

5th Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriage: 

6th Child: 

Married to: 

Born : 


Date of marriage: 



My ih Child's full name is: 

Place of birth : 

Date of birth : 

School attended: 



Traits of character, etc* . 

Place of marriage: 

Date of marriage: 

Full name to whom married: 


Place of birth: 

Date of birth: 

School attended: 



Traits of character, etc. : 

Fathefs full name : 

Mother's full maiden name: 

Christian Names off Their Children : 
1st Child: 

Full Names to Whom Married: 

Married to : 

Born: Died: 

Date of marriage: 

2nd Child: 

Married to: 

Born: Died: 

Date of marriag-e: 

3rd Child: 

Married to: 

Born: Died: 

Date of marriag-e: 

4th Child: • 

Married to: 

Born: Died: 

Date of marriag-e: 

5th Child: 

Married to: 

Born: Died: 

Date of marriag-e : 

6th Child: 

Married to: 



Date of marriage: