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Full text of "Origin and development of Northeastern University, 1898-1960"

I 



ORIGIN 

and 

DEVELOPMENT 

of 

NORTHEASTERN 
UNIVERSITY 

1898 - 1960 




/O 



M. fZe.t'P'^'^'^ ' 



ORIGIN and DEVELOPMENT 

of 

NORTHEASTERN 
UNIVERSITY 

1898 - 1960 



by Everett C. Marston 
Professor of English 
Northeastern Un iversity 



Published by Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 

Manufactured in the United States b\' The Cuneo Press of New 

England, Inc. 

Copyright Northeastern University 1961 



PREFACE 

The purpose of this book is to report the history of North- 
eastern University, not in the fomi of a definitive factual 
record but as the story of an unusual institution of learning. 

The time span of the history is not extensive— 1896 to 1960— 
yet within that period a simple program of evening education 
for emploved young men, conducted by the Boston Young 
Men's Christian Association, became a large and impressive 
universitv. 

The assembling of this report has been difficult for two rea- 
sons. From 1898 until the years following World War 1, the 
builders of Northeastern were unaware that they were devel- 
oping a universitv; as a result, they did not record and preserve 
the information and interpretation which now would be of 
great value. The immediacy of time imposes the second handi- 
cap, since in 1960 an objective view of many events and people 
important to the historv of Northeastern is impossible to estab- 
lish. No doubt another recorder in 2060 will see these elements 
in authentic historical perspective. 

The present story of Northeastern is the result of composite 
eff^orts. Although anv errors of fact or sins of judgment must 
be the responsibility of the writer, many other people con- 
tributed, directly or indirectlv, to the content of this book. 

The setting and background of the Northeastern story was 
drawn from the writers listed in the Bibliography. The Annual 
Reports of the Boston Young Men's Christian Association from 
1883 onward were a vital source of information, as were nu- 
merous Universitv reports and records. 

Dr. Carl Ell authorized this project in the fall of 1958, and 
in the following months provided invaluable data and general 
assistance. 

A reviewing committee made up of Dr. Ell, Dr. William 
White, Dean Kenneth Rvder, and Mr. George Speers read first 
drafts of chapters and made corrections and suggestions. 

Professors Joseph Spear, Harold Melvin, and Edward Par- 
sons were helpful in many ways but particularly by evaluating 

iii 



Preface 

the first version of the development of student activities at 
Northeastern. 

Similarly, Dean Roy Wooldridge and Professors John Morgan 
and Thomas McMahon passed judgment on the chapter on 
Co-operative Education at Northeastern. 

Mrs. Marjorie Prout contributed valuable information from 
memory, from extensive records which she had built up through 
past years, and in numerous folders labeled "Odds and Ends 
of NU History." 

President Asa Knowles provided valuable assistance and 
made possible the final form of this history. 

Mr. Landon Herrick of the Library staff, in charge of Ar- 
chives, was helpful and co-operative; he performed a service 
for the University by systematizing a mass of historical material 
which earlier had been only a mass. 

Miss Manola Simpson tvped the first version of the manu- 
script and Virginia Ryder, an expert though volunteer worker, 
prepared the final version; both exercised editorial judgment 
as well as technical skill. 

In addition, the following people contributed to the content 
of this book, in some instances without knowing thev were do- 
ing so— Julian Jackson, Major Charles Skinner, Roland Moody, 
Frederick Holmes, William Wilkinson, Charles Havice, G. Rav- 
mond Fennell, Donald MacKenzie, Martin Essigmann, Richard 
Sprague, Robert Bruce, Loring Thompson, Rudolf Oberg, Mil- 
ton Schlagenhauf, Charles Kitchin, William Miernyk, Galen 
Light, Emil Gramstorff, Herbert Gallagher, George Mallion, 
Arthur Vernon, Lester Vander Werf, Alfred Ferretti, Chester 
Baker, Albert Everett, Ralph Troupe, Charles Baird, Carl 
Muckenhoupt, Mrs. Mildred Garfield, Wilfred Lake, Myron 
Spencer, ]. Kenneth Stevenson, Roger Hamilton, Franklin 
Norvish, William Alexander. 

If, by this combined effort but with final responsibility rest- 
ing with the writer, the story of Northeastern to 1960 reflects 
a portion of the imagination, courage, and enterprise which 
made a university, the time and effort have been well spent. 



IV 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 



I The Time and the Setting 1 

II An Evening Institute for Young Men 9 

III The Founding of Schools 14 

IV Fonning an Educational Pattern 31 
V Establishing an Independent University 57 

VI Adaptation to Change 63 

VII A Home is Built 75 

VIII Fifty Years of Co-operative Education 98 

IX Sixty Years of Evening Education 108 

X Student Activities 116 

XI The Student in After Years 132 

XII Wars and the Armed Forces 140 

XIII "A Familv of Men and Women" 149 

XIV The Governing Body 161 
XV "A Great Unrealized Potential" 171 

Appendix A Northeastern University Chronology 185 

Appendix B Members of the Corporation 1936-1960 189 

Appendix C Directors and Deans 215 

Appendix D Northeastern Buildings and Rooms 219 

Appendix E Honorary Degrees 221 

Bibliography 233 



THE TIME AND THE SETTING 



Boston in the 1890's was a city glorying in its past, reveling 
in the present, and with a new and different future pressing in 
upon it impatiently. 

The past had been long and distinguished, not only studded 
with such stirring events as those at Faneuil Hall, the Common, 
Bunker Hill, and Dorchester Heights, but with a vigorous nine- 
teenth century coming to a close. 

Major events were occurring in various parts of the world 
during the last decade of the century. In Gemiany, Bismarck 
"the Iron Chancellor" died in 1898, leaving as a monument to 
his long life a unified Germany and a legacy of trouble for the 
future. In France, in the same year, Marie and Pierre Curie 
brought their experiments to the point of discovering and es- 
tablishing radium as a new element. In England, Victoria was 
the symbol of an empire. Queen of Britain and Empress of 
India, with the Diamond jubilee of 1897 celel^rating and dem- 
onstrating the greatness of the empire. In Central America and 
in the orient, uneasy developments were forming and growing. 

An unstable balance of power and the pressure of new forces 
resulted in the Spanish-American War of 1898, a minor conflict 
in contrast to later wars since the four months of hostilities cost 
a mere $250,000 and a total of 5000 American lives, most of the 
deaths the result of disease rather than battle casualty. Yet the 
war resulted in ownership or protection by the United States 

1 



Origin and Development of Noiiheastern University 

of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippine Islands. With 
the addition of Hawaii to its possessions, the United States as- 
sumed the new and difficult role of world power, in territory 
as well as in responsibility and leadership. 

Boston was involved, both directly and indirectly, in all of 
these wide developments. At the same time, Boston was pre- 
occupied with its own affairs, for the 1890's ended a century of 
local expansion, material progress, and modernization. 

The phvsical citv was growing. The pear-shaped peninsula 
of 783 acres which constituted colonial Boston would become 
by 1903 an area of 1829 acres. Mill Cove in the North End, 
roughlv from Haymarket Square to Causeway Street, had been 
filled during the first quarter of the nineteenth centurv. Over a 
hundred acres had been added in East Cove, along the present 
Atlantic Avenue section. In the 1830's the South Cove Com- 
pany had redeemed from tidewater fifty-five acres of land lying 
southward from South Station. The Back Bav tidewater area 
had been in process of filling and development for forty years, 
and was absorbing more and more of the overflow population, 
including some people from the alreadv congested North End. 
The terrain of Boston was beginning to acquire the extent and 
aspect which in our time are so familiar. 

Inventions and improvements, bringing to portions of the 
Boston population the niceties of life, were beginning to be 
taken for granted. 

In 1848 the opening of the water suppK from Lake Cochitu- 
ate to the streets and houses of Boston had been the occasion 
for high rejoicing, with parades, orations, fireworks, a man- 
made gevser rising sixtv to eightv feet in the Frog Pond, and a 
day of freedom for all school children of the cit\'. The Railroad 
Celebration, three years later, when Boston was connected by 
rail with Canada, was a round of banquets, vacht races, and 
the entertainment of distinsuished visitors, including; President 
Millard Fillmore. 

In following decades such marvels as the telephone, the 
Boston subwav, and even the common use of bathtubs and ice- 



The Time and the Setting 

boxes, were accepted without celebration, or even much sur- 
prise. America was a growing, progressive nation, and Boston 
was assinned to be in the front line of advance. 

The phrase "Athens of America" was still applied to Boston 
and its kindred intellectual suburbs of Cambridge and Con- 
cord, though the label was less used as time passed. The 
influential giants Daniel Webster, Emerson, Longfellow, Haw- 
thorne, Thoreau, and others of their generation had passed 
from the scene. The impression thev had made still lingered, 
however, and other and different great men were taking their 
places. A representative of distinguished public service was 
Chief Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, who in 1902 would join 
the Supreme Court. At Harvard, William James and George 
Santavana were onlv two of the powerful minds that were to 
influence thinking in America and in the world. 

As a background to the outstanding figures in law, science, 
scholarship, and the arts, Bostonian culture was a pattern 
unique in American cities, with deep roots and long, steadv 
growth. 

Institutions and traditions familiar in our time were alreadv 
well established in the 1890's. The Lowell Institute, for exam- 
ple, had been founded in 1840, and the fact that it met a crying 
need of the time is supported by the report that in the second 
year of the Institute the crowds applying for free lecture tickets 
at the Old Corner Bookstore congregated in such numbers and 
with such enthusiasm that they broke in the windows of the 
store. The Handel and Haydn Society, an outgrowth of the 
choral group of Park Street Church, was founded in 1815, and 
in later decades, along with the Academy of Music, visits bv 
orchestras from abroad, the New England Conservatory of 
Music, and the Boston Symphony Orchestra, made Boston an 
impressive name in the world of music. 

Added fame was coming to Boston from more recent and 
different institutions. One illustration is the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, which developed from the work of 
William Barton Rogers who in the 1860's came from the Uni- 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

versitv of Virginia to launch in Boston a School of Industrial 
Science. 

Although Boston might later cease to be called an Athens, 
with other connotations attaching to its name, in the 1890's it 
was a city of widespread intellectual and artistic activity and 
a cultural status accepted without question in America and in 
Europe. 

Like almost any other decade in the long history of Boston, 
the period of the '90's was one of transition. Under the pressure 
of industrial growth and changing as well as growing popula- 
tion, the city was being forced in new directions. 

The expansion of manufacture, following the long period of 
shipping and foreign trade, brought new wealth, new family 
fortunes, and in some segments of the population a higher 
standard of living, to Boston and to all of Massachusetts. 

It also brought problems. In the pre-Civil War period, Boston 
Abolitionists found it easy and perhaps convenient to concen- 
trate on the freeing of the slave, and to ignore or minimize 
the deterioration of public health and morals in such towns as 
Lawrence and Lowell, where cotton mills required and some- 
how found an increasing number of workers, including thou- 
sands of young women from rural New England and from 
foreign countries. After the Civil War, and especially after 
1880, the industrial development of Massachusetts accelerated, 
and was paralleled by other developments which made for a 
changing population and attendant complexities. 

Immigration from the Old World to New England had 
started in 1620. In the nineteenth century, however, America 
became the land of opportimity in a new sense. The famines in 
Ireland in 1846 and 1847 resulted in the beginning of an in- 
creasing stream of immigrants to New England, with Boston 
as a focal point. Among the later national groups, immigrants 
from Italy and Russia were most conspicuous in Boston; con- 
sequently, the population in sections of the city, notably the 
North End, changed in proportion and dominance as decades 
passed. 

4 



The Time and the Setting 

After 1880, immigration to the United States increased rap- 
idly in response to the enticing offers of manfacturers, as well 
as the allure of America to people of other countries as a land 
of security if not a land of plenty. A national study of new 
problems arising from immigration, conducted in 1907 by the 
International Committee of the YMCA, showed a drastic shift 
in countries of origin of immigrants: before 1880, largely from 
the British Isles, Scandinavia, and north central Europe; after 
1880, largely from Italy, eastern Europe, and Asia. The same 
study showed that seventy percent of the immigrants staved in 
New England, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. An 
earlier survey demonstrated that most of these new citizens 
stayed in cities; in 1890, for example, there were 657,000 "for- 
eign born" in Massachusetts, and 601,000 of them were urban 
dwellers. 

To the citv of Boston, port of entry second only to New York, 
the wave of immigration from the 1840's to the end of the 
century was decisive. In fifty years the balance of population 
shifted conspicuously. 

M. A. DeWolfe Howe recorded in 1903 a striking contrast 
between 1845 and 1899 in four groups of the constituency of 
the population of Boston. In 1845, those living in Boston but 
born in other parts of the United States ranked first in number; 
second were those born in Boston of American parentage; 
third, those of foreign birth and origin; and fourth, the children 
of foreign born parents. In 1899 the pattern was reversed: 
foreign born people constituted the largest element in the 
population of Boston; children of foreign born parents were 
second in number; those born in other parts of the United 
States were third; and those born in Boston of American par- 
entage were fourth. 

Here is the basis of the comments by Boston writers of the 
1890's— comments sometimes humorous, sometimes bitter— that 
the "Yankee" was doomed to extinction. Certainly the popula- 
tion of Boston was changing, as a part of the changing 
American scene. 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

At the same time, new directions were showing in the ac- 
tivity and movement of the "native" population. From the dis- 
covery of gold in California at mid-centurv until the 1870's 
there had been a conspicuous migration from New England 
westward; in 1853, for example, 149 ships filled with prospec- 
tors for gold left the port of Boston. Large numbers of farm 
boys and family men followed the advice traditionally credited 
to Horace Greeley to "go west," not only to find gold but to ex- 
plore the frontier and establish new homes, as bold New Eng- 
landers had been doing since the period of colonial expansion. 

Then the gold fever abated, and in 1890 a pronouncement 
from Washington stated that there was no more free govern- 
ment land— there was no longer an American "frontier." 

Restless, ambitious boys on New Ene^land farms thereafter 
found an outlet for their energy and dissatisfaction by going to 
the city, and for those in the northern states, Boston was the 
obvious city. In Boston, they believed, thev would find good 
jobs at high pay, and they would enjoy diversions which a small 
town could not offer. 

The Gay Nineties have perhaps been given a glamor they 
do not deserve yet the appeal of electric lights, gaming rooms, 
and saloons must have been strong to country boys of the time. 
Burlesque added to the gaiety of the '90's and in Boston was a 
popular entertainment, with the Black Crook Burlesquers, the 
Bon-Ton Burlesquers, and other companies advertised in the 
daily press as "beautiful, dazzling, bewitching." Baseball games, 
bicycle races, exclusions to Nantasket, and encounters between 
great-name fighters like Corbett and McCoy varied the local 
activity and the news from other cities. Revere Beach attracted 
crowds estimated as high as 100,000 on summer Sundays. In 
some respects the decade was limited, but for energetic \'0ung 
men it provided excitement and pleasure— good, bad, and in- 
different. 

The younger generation in Boston from 1890 to 1900 was 
made up of diverse groups and elements, resulting from chang- 
ing times and shifting population. 

6 



The Time and the Setting 

There was still a strong vestige of the Yankee population, 
secure families with sons carefully brought up, and educated, 
at Harvard or one of the other colleges in the area, for the law 
or another profession in keeping with the family tradition and 
heritage. 

More conspicuous, both in numbers and in driving energy, 
were the voung men recently arrived from other countries, or 
the sons of immigrants. Some of them were fortunate enough 
to go to college; most of them were forced by economic neces- 
sity to begin working at an early age in men's jobs. 

Reinforcing the second group were the young men from out- 
Iving towns and the states of northern New England. Many of 
them settled down to hard work and dull leisure, if they re- 
sisted the blandishments of bright lights and easy pleasures. 
Those who had ambition and stamina were ready and willing 
to improve themselves by occupying their spare time profit- 
ablv, by accumulating knowledge and skill that would help 
them to advance in business, trade, or profession. 

In theory, advanced education was readily available, for 
Boston had become a center of education. The period 1850 to 
1890, and especiallv the decade following the Civil War, was 
a time of birth for many schools and colleges. Twelve present 
day institutions of higher learning in the Greater Boston area- 
including three theological seminaries, the New England Con- 
servatorv of Music, the Massachusetts School of Art, and such 
familiar colleges as Radcliffe, Boston University, Boston Col- 
lege, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Wellesley 
College— were founded in this period. In Massachusetts be\'ond 
the Boston area, seven collegiate institutions were established 
during the same fortv years. This new generation of schools 
and colleges, added to older institutions like Harvard, Tufts, 
Williams, Amherst, and Mt. Holyoke, provided higher educa- 
tion for the increasing nimiber of voung people who were com- 
pleting secondary school and were interested in going beyond 
that point. 

Yet in practice, college was available only to the fortunate 

7 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

few who b\- virtue of family tradition and financial support 
could afford the luxury of four years of leisurely education and 
attendant heavy costs. 

Moreover, the old colleges of Massachusetts and those estab- 
lished during the last half of the nineteenth century were con- 
ventional institutions, built in the pattern and following the 
tradition of New England education, and back of that the kind 
of education that had gone on for centuries in the mother 
country. Colleges were intended to prepare voung men for the 
professions and for related scholarly pursuits; they also pre- 
pared a few young women for teaching. 

The readiness of Boston in the 1890's for an outward spread 
and diversification of educational opportunities is demonstrated 
by the founding of Simmons College. 

In 1870 John Simmons wrote above his signature, "It is my 
will to found and endow an institution to be called Simmons 
Female College, for the purpose of teaching medicine, music, 
drawing, designing, telegraphy, and other branches of art, sci- 
ence, and industry best calculated to enable the scholars to 
acquire an independent livelihood." 

The actual founding of Simmons College was delayed for 
thirty years by the Great Fire of 1872, which wiped out the 
buildings in downtown Boston from which a fund of a half 
million dollars was to accumulate. Simmons College of 1899, 
started under much more restricted terms than Mr. Simmons' 
original broad intentions but still designed to prepare young 
women for independent livelihood, was more appropriate to 
the 1890's than to the 1870's. For capable, ambitious, and re- 
spectable young women, training in vocational skills was made 
possible by the founding of Simmons College. 

For the same category of young men the Boston Young Men's 
Christian Association was providing at that time lectures and 
classes that would lead ultimately to the development of a 
university. 



II 



AN EVENING INSTITUTE FOR 

YOUNG MEN 



In May of 1896 the Directors of the Boston Young Men's 
Christian Association voted to estabhsh an "Evening Institute 
for Young Men" and to employ a director to organize and de- 
velop it. The purpose of the new institute was to merge, co- 
ordinate, and improve the effectiveness of the classes which 
had evolved over a period of fortv years of unorganized but 
consistent efforts at providing part-time and supplementary 
education for young men. To the history of Northeastern Uni- 
versity this decision by the Directors is an important antecedent 
event. 

At its formation in 1851, the Boston YMCA, the first in the 
United States and following by a month the organization of a 
YMCA in Montreal, included in its articles of incorporation and 
by-laws authorization of "a committee on lectures, whose duty 
it is to procure teachers and lecturers for anv private classes 
that may be formed by the members." 

For some vears there were more lecturers than teachers, al- 
though an early Literary Class, later called the Lyceum, had a 
varied but continuous activity for more than two decades. In 
1875, Dr. George E. Hatton gave $5000 "to provide instruction 
for voung men," and thus became the first financial sponsor of 
the educational work of the YMCA. Perhaps because of that 
specific contribution, in the following vear the Committee on 
Lectures became the Committee on Instruction. By 1882 the 

9 




Boylston Street Building of the Boston YA/CA — first home of Northeastern 
— built in 1883, destroyed hij fire in 1910 



Committee was offering ten courses of twenty lessons each, and 
the YMCA Annual Report records the fact that 765 course 
tickets were taken by members and an additional 144 by ladies. 
In 1896 the time and conditions were ripe for a systematic 
development of the educational efforts that had built up 
through the years. The Association was well settled in its build- 
ing at the corner of Berkeley and Bovlston Streets, completed 
in 1883 and described in the following year as "unique in archi- 
tecture, simple in design, warm in color, and beautiful in its 
proportions." It was the fourth headquarters of the Boston 
YMCA and the second building which it had o\\aicd. 

10 



An Evening Institute for Young Men 

The Association was justifiably proud of the facihties and 
activities provided for its members. It pubhcized the advan- 
tages of the hbrary, socials, song sessions, Bible classes, private 
shower and sponge baths, a bicycle storage room with free 
checking, hand ball, exercise rooms, and a running track of 
twenty-eight laps to the mile. A gymnasium program under the 
direction of Robert Jeffries Roberts gave opportunity for physi- 
cal development, with a doctor in attendance to examine new 
members and make recommendations as to form and extent of 
exercise. The winter of 1896-1897 offered "Sixteen Superior 
Entertainments," free to members, with such diverse programs 
as illustrated lectures on India and Mexico; dramatic and hu- 
morous readings; the Brown University Glee, Banjo, and Man- 
dolin Clubs; the Salem Cadet Band; and Tvrolean and Swiss 
Warblers in native costume. 

Against this background of activitv and opportunity, the 
1896-1897 Annual Prospectus of the Boston YMCA announced 
the new Young Men's Evening Institute, with the promise "A 
good education possible to every young man." An Association 
membership entitled "any yoimg man of moral character" to 
Institute courses and all other privileges of the YMCA except 
the use of the gvmnasium, although the membership did in- 
clude the use of bathing facilities. 

Frank Palmer Speare was engaged to become Educational 
Director of the Boston YMCA and to be in charge of the Eve- 
ning Institute. At the age of twentv-seven, Mr. Speare was 
committed to education, in spite of the fact that the family 
tradition was sea-going, his father a steamship builder and 
operator, and a pioneer in the development of electric teleg- 
raphy, as well as weather bureau and transportation service in 
the United States and South America. 

In 1896 Mr. Speare had completed his education in the 
public schools of Boston, Chauncev Hall School, and Bridge- 
water Normal School, and was taking courses at Harvard Col- 
lege, where he sought advice as to the wisdom of assuming the 
position which the YMCA had offered him. He also had had 

11 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

practical experience iii education, as principal of Avon High 
School, a teacher in Berkeley School (which carried on its work 
in the YMCA building), director of an evening school program 
in the city of Medford, and teacher of English for one year in 
the Boston YMCA courses. 

The records indicate that Mr. Speare undertook the direction 
of the Evening Institute with the high-minded optimism, en- 
thusiasm, and imagination which marked his long service to 
the YMCA and to Northeastern Universitv. Thirtv courses were 
offered in the first year, including algebra, bookkeeping, draw- 
ing, electricity, French, German, Latin, geography, literature, 
music, penmanship, phvsiologv, and stenography. Seventeen in- 
structors were listed in the Institute announcement, and Mr. 
Speare himself taught classes in algebra, arithmetic, and Eng- 
lish. In addition, the Institute promoted a banjo club, camera 
club, orchestra, and a Young Men's Congress devoted to weekly 
parliamentary debates and discussions. 

The first year of the new venture was successful. The Di- 
rectors of the YMCA reported with satisfaction that Mr. Speare 
had instituted important changes, with the approval of the 
Board. The International YMCA Committee's outline of study 
was adopted, classes were reduced in size, regular examinations 
were required, reports on attendance and class progress were 
required from teachers, some classes were increased from one 
session to two sessions a week, lockers were provided for books 
and drawing tools, and tuition was increased from two dollars 
to five dollars. This increase reduced the total number of stu- 
dents but resulted in more regularity of attendance and a larger 
number completing their series of classes. An earlier financial 
arrangement had been a deposit of one dollar, returned to the 
student if he attended seventy-five percent of the class sessions. 
Even with this pleasant provision the number of young men 
completing courses had at times been disappointingly small. 

At the end of the second year the YMCA Board considered 
among the needs of the future a scholarship fund for '\vorth\ 
persons who are unable to pay even the moderate charges re- 

12 



An Evening Institute for Young Men 

quired in our Evening Institute," and suggested that $15,000 
as invested funds would yield enough income to meet the need. 
A department of music had been added to provide study in 
theory and composition as well as voice and instrumentation. 
Courses had been set up to prepare young men for civil service 
examinations and for higher education. More important in view 
of later developments was a series of law classes sponsored by 
the Lowell Institute but conducted l^y the Evening Institute. 

In two years the Evening Institute for Young Men fulfilled 
its assignment of organizing and co-ordinating a group of dif- 
fuse and unrelated courses, and at the same time worked to- 
ward the establishment of educational programs that would 
be preparatory and terminal rather than incidental and supple- 
mentary. 



13 



Ill 

THE FOUNDING OF SCHOOLS 



The School of Law, 1898 

"Special courses by the Lowell Institute under the auspices 
of the YMCA" were announced for the fall of 1897. The special 
courses were Elementary Electricity, Advanced Electricity, and 
Law, the last to meet for two-hour sessions on two evenings a 
week with instructors, three in number, from the Boston Uni- 
versity Law School. The announcement said further, "it is 
hoped that the attendance and interest shown will justify the 
addition of advanced courses the following year." 

The attendance and interest seem to have demonstrated a 
real need for additional opportunity for legal study in Boston. 
Two law schools were a\ ailable. IIar\ ard, in 1817, had been the 
first university in the coimtrv to undertake an academic law 
program. Boston University established its law school in 1872. 
By the mid-90's the combined enrollment of students of law 
at the two institutions totaled about 750. The fact that these 
two schools could not adequately meet the need of the time is 
indicated by two cumulative changes. 

The time-honored method of preparinj^ for the bar by read- 
ing law in the office of an established lawyer or law firm had 
begun to lose its effectiveness. Legal knowledge had become 
increasingly extensive and at the same time specialized, with 
the result that at the end of his apprenticeship the legal as- 

14 



The Founding of Schools 

pirant might well be limited in his total knowledge of the law, 
and restricted in competence to the one phase of law on which 
the guiding lawver or office concentrated. 

The industrial and commercial growth of Boston was result- 
ing in increased opportunities for voung men with general 
legal knowledge, as well as for practicing lawyers. Court offi- 
cials and clerks with facility in legal fact and terminology were 
needed. At many points the demand was not being met by the 
suoply. 

Mr. Speare showed skill and enterprise in launching a full- 
fledged program of legal study as one of his many undertakings. 
He secured the support of the Hon. James R. Dunbar, a dis- 
tinguished judge; Samuel C. Bennett, Dean of the Boston Uni- 
yersity Law School; and James Barr Ames, Dean of the Harvard 
Law School. These men agreed to act as an Advisory Com- 
mittee, to plan the course of study, to pass judgment on in- 
structors, and to supervise the operation of the new evening 
law school. Mr. Speare also found students who committed 
themselves to taking the advanced courses and paying the in- 
creased tuition. 

After these and other preparatory steps, all approved with 
some reluctance by the Board of Directors of the YMCA, the 
"Department of Law of the Boston YMCA" was announced. 
It offered two hundred hours of instruction, in one-hour ses- 
sions, four evenings a week. The first faculty consisted of five 
men— three with Harvard training and two from Boston Uni- 
versity—teaching courses in Pleading, Property, Criminal Law, 
Contracts, and Torts. The tuition was announced as $30 a year, 
including a five dollar YMCA membership. 

The new program started on October 3, 1898, a significant 
date in the story of Northeastern. For Boston and the world it 
Nvas a dav of vigorous and varied activity. 

The Boston Globe of Sunday, October 2, and Monday, Oc- 
tober 3, records major and minor events, and reflects the spirit 
of the time. 

In Paris, American and Spanish commissioners were in ses- 

15 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

sion to arrange final terms following the brief Spanish- American 
War. Paris, at the same time, was reported to be "in turmoil all 
day" over the Dreyfus Case. On the other side of the globe, 
"threatening conditions" in China had led to an order from 
Washington to Admiral Dewey, to send two warships from 
Manila to a position as close as possible to Pekin. At Vancouver 
a ship arrived carrying gold nuggets from the Klondike valued 
at a half million dollars. 

News of special immediate interest to Boston was the 
grounding on foggy Sandy Hook of the three-masted schooner 
Stephen Bennett, the preparations of the Ancient and Honor- 
able Artillery Company for their ceremonious expedition to 
Quebec, and the Saturday football scores, with Harvard defeat- 
ing Williams, 11 to 0, and Yale triumphant over Wesleyan, 
5 to 0. 

Crime was even then a problem, for a bicyclist in West 
Roxbury was relieved of the single dollar he had at the time, 
and a man captured by the police in the Back Bay was found 
to have a cache of razors, jewelrv, and money in his room in- 
dicating that perhaps he had committed a series of thefts and 
holdups. 

In some respects the year 1898 was a year simple and remote 
from our time, as evidenced by the advertisement of "best 
creamery butter" at $1.05 for a five-pound box, and the sports 
department of Jordan Marsh & Co. offering golf balls at $2 a 
dozen and clubs at $1 each. Yet the repetition of history is sug- 
gested by the Uncle Dudley editorial in the Sunda\' Globe, on 
Colonel Theodore Roosevelt as a unique figure in American 
history, moving from the military to the political scene. 

Recreation and diversion in Boston were varied in the early 
days of October, 1898. At the more refined and restrained thea- 
ters the offerings were impressive. Maude Adams was acting 
in The Little Minister at the Hollis St. Theatre, and Anna Held 
in The French Maid at the Park Theatre. The Great Diamond 
Robbery was at the Castle Square Theatre, Way Down East at 



16 



The Founding of Schools 

the Tremont Theatre, and at the Boston Theatre a repertory 
company, the Bostonians, was presenting Robin Hood. Other 
attractions were a horse show, and a War Exposition at Boston 
Auditorium on Tremont Street. Brockton Fair offered displays 
and exhibits, vaudeville, horse races, and a midway, all for an 
admission price of fifty cents. 

Against this background and in the face of this competition, 
law courses were started at the YMCA. 

The first lecture in the new program was delivered on the 
evening of Monday, October 3, by Robert Gray Dodge, teacher 
of the course in Property. Mr. Dodge was then a young man of 
twenty-six. He had completed his undergraduate work at Har- 
vard and had received his law degree in 1897. In the spring of 
the following vear he had taken over the teaching of a course 
at the Harvard Law School, when a member of the faculty be- 
came ill; he was engaged to continue teaching on a regular 
basis in 1898-1899. 

Nevertheless, teaching in a new, untried evening school of 
law was another matter. Sixty years later, Mr. Dodge remem- 
bered the occasion of October 3, 1898, as a terrifying one, faced 
as he was by a class of thirtv of his contemporaries and elders, 
and with Dean Bennett and Dean Ames of the Advisory Com- 
mittee sitting on either side of the teacher to observe and 
evaluate. 

Yet the first lecture and those that followed were successful. 
The law program was under wav, as a planned, supervised 
course of study directed toward two related, predetermined 
objectives: preparation for the bar examination of the Com- 
monwealth of Massachusetts, and an accumulation of legal 
knowledge for professional use in business, court procedure, 
and other areas of work. This pattern marked a new phase in 
the educational program of the Boston YMCA and the founding 
of Northeastern University. 

The growth and development of the program of legal stud\' 
during the next six years is reflected by the data submitted to 



17 



Origin ami Development of Northeastern Universitif 

the Committee on Education of the Massachusetts Legislature 
when in 1904 the Evening Law School asked for the right to 
incorporate the school and to grant a degree in law. 

The statement reported that 662 men had been enrolled since 
October of 1898; fortv-two men had been graduated in the two 
classes of 1902 and 1903, and thirtv-seven of those graduates 
had been admitted to the bar. 

The educational background of the 235 students then in the 
Law School reflects a surprising range and diversity. Twenty 
were college graduates, from Harvard College, Boston Uni- 
versity, Amherst College, Brown University, University of Ne- 
braska, Cambridge University, M.I.T., Stevens Institute, and 
Tufts Dental College. Nineteen had attended colleges spread 
geographicallv from Boston College to Prince of Wales College 
in Canada. In contrast, eightv-four students of law "had at- 
tended hieh school," twentv-three were grammar school urad- 
nates, and the name of one student carried the notation "never 
attended school, but possessed of extraordinary abilitv." 

An occupational tabulation lists students from thirty-five 
trades and vocations, with a preponderance of law clerks, clerks 
in comercial houses, bookkeepers, merchants, and salesmen. 

Through action of the General Court of the Commonwealth 
the "Evening Law School of the Boston Young Men's Christian 
Association" was incorporated in 1904, with power to grant 
the LL.B. degree. Twenty degrees were awarded in 1904 and 
1905. Mr. Speare acted as the first Dean of the Law School, and 
carried the title until 1920, when he was succeeded bv Everetl 
A. Churchill. 

Throughout its history, the Law School made a valuable con- 
tribution to the educational life of Boston. It became a large 
school; Albert Bushnell Hart's histor\ of Massachusetts cites 
the enrollment of 1926-1927 as 2440. Changes were made alono; 
the way to meet changing needs. Divisions were established in 
Worcester and Springfield in 1919 and in Providence in 1920. 
In the following year Austin W. Scott of the Harvard Law 
School made a study and report which recommended that 

18 



The Founding of Schools 

women should not be disqualified for admission, saying, "There 
seems to be no good reason why women should not be ad- 
mitted to the Law School. In all of the leading law schools, 
except Harvard and Columbia, women are now admitted." In 
September of 1922 women students were accepted in the 
Boston school and in Worcester and Springfield. A final change 
of location took place in 1938 when the Law School was moved 
from Huntington Avenue to Beacon Hill; at the same time, day 
classes, with an initial enrollment of seventeen, were started. 

In the evolution of Northeastern University, the Law School 
represents the early and successful exploration of possibilities 
of study, in the evening and under adverse conditions, leading 
to a degree and to recognize educational status. 

The Automohile School, 1903 

At the turn of the century the automobile was in its infant 
stage but few infants in American history have matured, or at 
least grown, so fast or with such far-reaching eftects. 

The exact time of the origin of the automobile is still a matter 
of disagreement; it seems fairly certain, however, that on this 
side of the Atlantic the first successful production of self- 
propelled road vehicles took place in 1893 and immediately 
thereafter. The new miracle was soon named, by the French 
Academy, after other groups and many individuals had sug- 
gested such labels as "quadricvcle," "automotor," "petrocar," 
and "autocycle." 

Within ten years an industry was in progress and the Amer- 
ican way of life was beginning to change. Production and use 
of the automobile expanded at an astonishing rate. M. M. 
Musselman in his history of the automobile in America records 
the production of cars in 1896 as totaling eight, with sixteen 
cars registered in the country, though he points out that a few 
unlicensed automobiles probably were operating. In 1900, pro- 
duction had risen to 4,192, and registration to 8,000; in 1910, 
production was 181,000 and registration 468,500. 

19 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

Massachusetts was the scene of significant activity in this 
earlv period of the automobile. The Duryea brothers of Spring- 
field produced a functioning horseless carriage in 1893, the 
same year in which Elwood Haynes of Indiana brought out 
his. In 1897 the Stanley brothers rode through the streets of 
Newton, to the astonishment of neighbors and horses, in a light- 
weight buggy propelled by a steam engine weighing 750 
pounds. The first automobile show in New England was held 
at Mechanics Hall in the following year; it consisted of four 
cars— a sports car from France, and three American cars, one 
gasolene, one steam, one electric. 

The early 1900's were expanding years in the history of the 
automobile. In 1902 the American Automobile Association was 
organized and soon issued the famous "Blue Books," which, in 
the years before numbered highway routes, directed motorists 
from coast to coast by citing distances and making directional 
references to white churches, red barns, watering troughs, and 
sawmills. In 1903, Henry Ford and eleven venturesome in- 
vestors formed the Ford Motor Co., and began producing a 
vehicle known for a time as Fordmobile. 

Also in 1903, the Boston YMCA opened "The Automobile 
School of the Evening Institute." The announcement promised 
three courses: A. (open to ladies and gentlemen) a "series of 
lectures for owners, prospective purchasers, chauffeurs, ma- 
chinists, and others interested in motor traction"; B. (for men 
only) a "drafting course for draftsmen and machinists who 
wish to enter the automobile industry"; C. (for men onlv) a 
"shop course in the mechanism, adjustment, handling, and care 
of steam, gasolene, and electric Automobile motors." A teach- 
ing staff of five men was to be supplemented by an Advisory 
Board of six, including the president of the Massachusetts Auto 
Club. 

The first year of the school, though a school of theorv be- 
cause of lack of space and equipment, appears to have been 
successful. The Directors of the YMCA in their report recorded 
the fact that the new courses "attracted a number of prospec- 

20 



The Founding of Schools 

tive buyers, so that the class contained men of great wealth 
and social position, as well as those from the humbler walks of 
life." The first classes were attended by "more than 250," and 
an undocumented but persistent tradition suggests that the 
early lecturers wore formal evening dress in the classroom. In 
later years, bv wav of contrast, there is some indication that 
both class members and teachers in the school were regarded 
as roughnecks by those in other schools. 

Within a vear, branches of the Automobile School were 
established in Worcester, Providence, Springfield, and Brock- 
ton, with instructors sent out from Boston. Similar schools were 
started by other organizations in New York, Detroit, Buffalo, 
and San Francisco, but the Automobile School of the Evening 
Institute carried the designation "the first school of its kind in 
the world." 

The prospectus of 1905 announced the purchase of a "fine 
10 h.p. White steam touring car" and a "16 h.p. Peerless tour- 
ing car." Mounted wheels, tires, and repair kits were available, 
and a course of driving lessons was offered, to qualify the 
motorist for securing his license from the Highway Commis- 
sion. Shop work was made possible by the use of rented space 
in the Park Square Auto Station. Later, the work was con- 
ducted in the White Garage on Newburv Street, in a building 
on Harcourt Street, and finally, in 1911, in the new Vocational 
Building on St. Botolph Street, erected b\^ the YMCA before 
the construction of its main building on Huntington Avenue. 

The Automobile School was clearly a vocational rather than 
an academic enterprise. It performed a real service in the early 
years of motor transportation, when the horseless carriage was 
a strange and mysterious vehicle. It interested "men of great 
wealth," instructed mechanics, and insured the future of coach- 
men to Boston families by converting them to the status of 
chauffeur. As the years passed, the name of the school was 
changed to "Automotive School," to "Automobile Engineering 
School," and back to "Automobile School." The leadership of 
the school changed often; Galen D. Light, who filled so many 

21 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

positions during the early years of the development of North- 
eastern, is listed as Superintendent of the Automobile School 
in 1907. 

For twenty-three years the Automobile School served its pur- 
pose. It was discontinued in 1926, when the Vocational Build- 
ing was remodeled to become the Laboratory Building, to 
provide space for the work of the School of Engineering. 

The Evening Polytechnic School, 1904 

In an effort to systematize further the work of the Evening 
Institute, Mr. Speare, and Mr. Light, Assistant Educational 
Director, undertook the establishment of departments and 
schools. In addition to the Law School, three groupings of 
courses resulted in what was referred to as a "university basis 
of organization. " 

The General School offered courses in Language, Grammar, 
Music, Commercial subjects, English, and Oratory. The Pre- 
paratory School gave courses directed toward college entrance 
and Civil Service examinations. 

The Evening Polytechnic School was a reorganization of 
technical courses old and new. The array of offerings was ex- 
tensive—Art, Architecture, Automobile Engineering, Chemis- 
try. Clay Modeling, Designing, Higher Mathematics, Marine 
Engineering, Naval Architecture, Na\'igation, Seamanship, 
Steam and Structural Engineering, and Surveying. 

Further specialization took place in the following \'ear, 1905, 
when the Automobile School was withdrawn from the Polv- 
technic School to become a separate unit again, and a School 
of Advertising and a School of Applied Electricitv and Steam 
Engineering were started. 

Year by year, courses and cmricida were moxed from one 
school to another as the technical work of the Institute ex- 
panded to meet the growing need for men trained in me- 
chanics, electricity, surveying, and related skills. By 1907 the 



22 



The Founding of Schools 

Polytechnic School, under the direction of Dean FrankUn T. 
Kurt, encompassed theoretical study and shop work adequate 
to the requirements of the time. 

The Evening Polytechnic School was a part of the educa- 
tional structure for over twenty years. In 1921 it offered three 
years of studv leading to diplomas in Civil, Mechanical, Elec- 
trical, Chemical, Structural, Industrial, and Automotive En- 
gineering; and the work was conducted by branches in Wor- 
cester, Springfield, New Hav^en, and Bridgeport, as well as in 
Boston. 

Lincoln Institute was formed in 1927 to carry on the tech- 
nical courses of the Polytechnic School. In the meantime, a 
parallel development from the Polytechnic School had become 
the first day college of Northeastern University. 

The School of Commerce and Finance, 1907 

Vocational training for commerce and industry was among 
the first educational undertakings of the Boston YMCA. 
Courses in typewriting, shorthand, penmanship, and bookkeep- 
ing appear in the early records. 

As the ambitious developments of the Evening Institute were 
planned and launched, Mr. Speare, supported by his associates 
in a belief that young men should be helped to prepare them- 
selves for whatever work thev were capable of doing, decided 
that training could be provided for more responsible positions 
in business than those of clerk or secretary. 

Academic training for business was still a new phenomenon 
in American education. The University of Pennsylvania had 
established its Wharton School of Commerce and Finance in 
1881. The Amos Tuck School of Administration and Finance at 
Dartmouth College began its work in 1900, the same year of 
the founding of the New York University School of Commerce, 
Accounts, and Finance; and the latter was primarily an evening 
school for employed people. In 1908, business courses were 



23 



Origin and Development of 'Northeastern University 

initiated at Harvard University as a department of the Grad- 
uate School of Arts and Sciences, and thereby gave rise to the 
Harvard Business School. 

These developments moved forward against the resistance of 
skepticism and open criticism. Conservative educational think- 
ers, especially in New England with its long tradition of 
classical education, viewed with disapproval the intrusion of 
courses directed toward success in business. They suggested 
that the purpose of such courses was merely to enable young 
men to make more money for themselves, and implied that the 
means by which those young men would make money might 
well prove to be devious and dubious. 

As late as 1935, Alfred North Whitehead, in his conversations 
with Lucien Price, said, ". . . law has been civilized— that was 
done by the Greeks and Romans, Justinian and that lot;— medi- 
cine has been taken out of magic; education has been getting 
rid of its humbug; and next it is time to teach business its 
sociological function; for if America is to be civilized, it must 
be done (at least for the present) by the business class, who 
are in possession of the power and the economic processes. I 
don't need to tell you that there is a good deal of sniffing on 
this, the Harvard College and graduate schools side of the 
Charles River, sniffing at the new Hai'vard School of Business 
Administration on the opposite bank. That strikes me as snob- 
bish and unimaginative. If the American universities were up 
to their job they would be taking business in hand and teaching 
it ethics and professional standards." 

Nevertheless, as American business progressed from the 
period of tycoons and robber barons to a period of corporations, 
small enterprises, and sole proprietorships, the value of aca- 
demic training for business slowlv came to be accepted. The 
Evening Institute was in the vanguard of a movement toward 
establishing business as a profession, with techniques and skills, 
concepts and standards which would come to mark business as 
a growing science rather than a trade. 

The School of Commerce and Finance was initiated in 1907 

24 



The Founding of Schools 

with departments of Commerce, Finance, Administration, Busi- 
ness Law, and Languages. These departments undertook to 
give systematic programs of study in Commerce, Finance, and 
Accounting. Like the other schools, this addition to the "uni- 
versity" structure of the Institute was modified from time to 
time; later fields of specialization, for example, were banking, 
business administration, finance and bond salesmanship, and 
accounting. From the start, however, the school required four 
years of evening study for the completion of a program in any 
of the specialized areas. 

At the end of its first three years of operation, in 1910, the 
School of Commerce and Finance was incorporated, and in the 
following year was authorized by the General Court to grant 
the degrees of Bachelor and Master of Commercial Science. 

In 1928 the school became the School of Business, with Carl 
D. Smith as its Dean. Thereafter it developed into the largest 
school of the Evening Division of Northeastern University, with 
subsequent changes in degree-granting privileges, and the ad- 
dition of graduate work in 1950. 

The Association Day School, 1909 

Space, in the literal, physical sense, was one of the major 
problems of the growing Association Institute. In the early 
years, a class was formed whenever there were voung men in- 
terested in attending the class; then a room was found in which 
the class could meet. Later, when the program had outgrown 
the available areas in the YMCA building on Berkeley Street— 
and even more drastically when that building burned— class- 
rooms were borrowed from M.I.T., the School Department of 
the City of Boston, and the Boston Young Men's Christian 
Union. Classrooms and other working areas were rented for 
temporary use. Still later, space became a matter of land, on 
which to build and establish a permanent home for a new 
university. 

A contrasting effect of physical space on the development of 

25 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

the Institute occurred when Chauncey Hall School, which had 
carried on its work in the YMCA building, moved to other 
quarters. Mr. Speare, always interested in new developments, 
proposed to the YMCA authorities that empty rooms could be 
used to educational and financial advantage for daytime classes 
conducted by the Institute. 

A broader motivation in the establishment of the Association 
Day School was the recognition of the need for a new kind of 
college preparatorv school. The announcement of the Associa- 
tion Day School as available to bovs "who, for various reasons, 
do not find public and high-priced private schools suited to 
their needs or means" was the result of careful analysis and 
planning. The intention was to provide a college preparatory 
program under conditions which would make possible the su- 
pervision and direction of students as individuals, a fusion of 
the influences of home and school in forming and developing 
character, and a program of sports and other activities which 
would direct toward maturity the growth of intelligent and 
promising boys. 

In specific and practical terms, the school, as a non-profit 
organization within a department of the YMCA, intended to 
provide college preparation at costs midway between those of 
the private boarding and day schools then available in the 
Boston area, and schools giving evening preparatory work to 
supplement and reinforce high school education. 

The Evening Institute had from its beginning conducted col- 
lege preparatory work. Young men were qualified for college 
by certificate, and prepared to take entrance examinations. As 
early as 1897, eighteen students passed from the Institute to 
colleges of good standing. 

In 1909 the college preparatory work was reorganized and 
established as a program of davtime studv. With an opening 
enrollment of one hundred, the school soon expanded to a stu- 
dent body of 250, and has maintained that level down to the 
present time, in keeping with the original commitment of con- 



26 



The Founding of Scliools 

ducting a school in which personal relations between teacher 
and student are a major objective. 

When, in 1913, the educational work of the YMCA was 
settled in the new buildino; on Huntincjton Avenue, the "Asso- 
elation Day School" became 'The Huntington School for Boys." 
As a day school for commuting students it came to be rec- 
ognized as a college preparatory school of high academic 
standards, competent administration, and successful results in 
directing and developing individual students. It built up a 
substantial program of general activities and of sports; Hunt- 
ington teams in basketball, track, and swimming have com- 
peted for manv years with other preparatorv school teams and 
college freshman teams. 

After the incorporation of Northeastern College in 1916, 
the Huntington School was one of the Northeastern group of 
schools. By 1950 it had become apparent that Northeastern 
could best devote its efforts to education at the college level. 
Consequently, The Huntington School became a Branch of the 
Boston YMCA, and continued to do the work assigned to the 
"Association Dav School" fortv-one vears earlier. 

The Co-operative Engineering School, 1909 

Each of the undertakings of the Evening Institute required 
initiative, imagination, and optimism. Some of the experiments 
were short-lived, as evidenced bv the "schools" which came and 
went during the early 1900's; others became major contribu- 
tions to educational progress in New England. 

Co-operative education in an academic setting was estab- 
lished at the University of Cincinnati in 1906, through the 
pioneer efforts of Dean Herman Schneider. Essentiallv the plan 
was a modernization of the ancient apprentice svstem, adapted 
to the needs of industrv and the training of technical workers 
in the twentieth centurv. After a single-handed campaign to 
overcome the reluctance of industry and the conservatism of 



27 



Origin and Development of Noiiheastern Universitif 

academic thinking, Mr. Schneider started twenty-seven stu- 
dents on six-year curricula in mechanical, electrical, and chemi- 
cal engineering, alternating week by week between classroom 
and work in Cincinnati companies. 

It is impossible to know why the Boston YMCA initiated the 
second program of co-operative education in the United States. 
The "Cincinnati Plan" was receiving attention and comment, 
both favorable and unfavorable, and it is probable that Mr. 
Speare saw the plan as an interesting challenge and another 
opportunity for development. Clearly the plan would provide 
technical training for young men who because of limited finan- 
cial status were unable to pay the costs of education at the 
established schools of engineering, and these were the young 
men in whom the Institute had been interested since its found- 
ing. The appeal of "earn while you learn" was a strong one. 

For the fall of 1909 the Polytechnic School, then directed 
by Dean Hercules W. Geromanos, announced "Co-Operative 
Engineering Courses." A four-year davtime program would 
consist of alternating single weeks of classroom study and prac- 
tical work on jobs. Companies which had alreadv agreed in 
advance to accept students as workers, with two students main- 
taining one work assignment, were the Boston and Maine 
Railroad, Boston and Albanv Railroad, Boston Consolidated 
Gas Company, and Boston Elevated Railway Company. 

Eight students enrolled in the first vear of the experiment, 
and the Co-operative Plan was underway in Boston. 

In 1910, curricula in Civil and Mechanical Engineering and 
in Chemistry were announced. The student enrollment ad- 
vanced to thirty, and eight companies emploved students on 
co-operative work jobs. In that year, Carl S. Ell, a graduate 
student at M.I.T., became a part-time teacher of surveying. 

The catalog of 1912-1913 used the name "Co-Operative En- 
gineering School," with curricula in Civil, Mechanical, Electri- 
cal, and Chemical Engineering. The faculty had developed to 
a roster of eighteen, the student body to seventy, and the co- 
operating companies to ten. School expenses, including YMCA 

28 



The Founding of Schools 

membership, were announced as $100 for the vear, rooms in the 
dormitory of the new YMCA building were available at $1.50 
and up, and board in 1912 was costing $3.50 to $5.00 a week. 
Co-operati\'e students were earning from five to six dollars a 
week during a thirtv-week working vear, on a pay scale "by 
agreement with co-operative firms" of ten cents per hour in the 
first year, and by systematic gradations up to sixteen cents per 
hour in the fourth year. In addition to their technical subjects, 
all students in the engineering majors were required to take two 
vears of Business English, and the Chemical majors studied, 
also, two vears of German. 

In 1917, Mr. Ell, who had been Assistant Dean of Engineer- 
ing since 1914, succeeded Mr. Geromanos as Dean of the "Go- 
operative School of Engineering." The catalog of the following 
year lists fortv-two co-operating companies and a student body 
of 235. Evidences of (jrowino; collefre life are a vearbook, the 
Catddon; a monthly student newspaper, the Co-op, started 
in 1916; and professional societies for students in the four 
branches of engineering. 

World War 1 was necessarily a disrupting interlude in the 
progress of the school. In 1920, however, the engineering stu- 
dent bodv was 592, with ninet\'-two companies providing jobs 
for them. Tuition had advanced to $175, plus an acti\ ities fee 
of ten dollars. Activities now included the additions of a Glee 
Glub, Orchestra, and teams in baseball and basketball; the 
Co-op was issued twice a month. 

By action of the General Gourt in March of 1920, North- 
eastern Gollege, of which the Go-operative Engineering School 
was the most sul^stantial part, was empowered to grant engi- 
neering curricula degrees— B.G.E., B.M.E., B.E.E., B.Gh.E. A 
fifth curriculum, "Administrative Engineering," was added in 
the following vear, and changed to "Industrial Engineering" 
in 1928. 

Later modifications in curricula and plan, including the 
adoption of ten-week alternating periods of work and study and 
the extension of the program from four to five years, resulted 

29 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

in the enhanced status of the school, reflected by changes in 
the degrees granted, accreditation of the professional curricula, 
and a wider acceptance of the co-operative plan of education. 
Northeastern's "College of Engineering," so named in 1936, 
is another result of experiment which by virtue of careful plan- 
ning and persistent development proved to be of enduring 
value. 



30 



IV 

FORMING AN EDUCATIONAL 
PATTERN 



The first two decades of the present century represent, in the 
history of Northeastern, a period of adaptation, development, 
and progress. Development and progress were difficult. Ex- 
tensions of courses and curricula were made in a setting of 
limited space, facilities, and finances. Advances in educational 
stability and status were made under the same handicaps, 
further complicated by a reluctance on the part of some ele- 
ments in educational Boston to accept a YMCA Evening In- 
stitute as a developing college. 

Support came from many directions— the men who assisted 
the Law School in its early years; M.I.T. President Richard 
MacLaurin and Dean Gardner C. Anthony of Tufts College, 
who were interested in and helpful to the dexelopment of 
the Co-operative School of Engineering; other educators and 
public figures, including Andre}' A. Potter, Dean of the 
Schools of Engineering, Purdue Universit)', from 1920 to 1953; 
and institutions and organizations which provided hous- 
ing for YMCA and Northeastern classes, sometimes for finan- 
cial consideration but often as a gesture of good will and 
encouragement. 

The disapproval and resistance came from other men and 
other institutions, especially when the new Northeastern Col- 
lege petitioned the General Court for the right to grant degrees. 
The concept of YMCA classes for working people was an ad- 

31 



Origi'/j and Development of Northeastern University 

mirable one; the recognition and acceptance of an ambitious 
but ill equipped and unendowed college was another matter. 

During this period of about twenty vears, the destinv of 
Northeastern was determined by the combined efforts of a 
group of exceptional men. 

American colleges and universities have been founded and 
fostered in many different wavs, ranging from the dedicated 
pioneer work of sectarian zealots to the munificent financial 
gesture of a single man. One of the unusual ingredients in the 
evolution of Northeastern University is the assembling, by 
chance and bv selection, of a combination of men with diverse 
talents and varying motivations who worked together, some- 
times against their individual inclinations, to make possible the 
creation of a university. 

The men who helped to formulate Northeastern are nu- 
merous. Some of them were unaware of the direction the results 
of their work would ultimately take; others worked consistently 
toward a predetermined end. 

Arthur S. Johnson, President of the Boston Young Men's 
Christian Association from 1897 to 1929, and George W. 
Mehaffey, General Secretary from 1895 to 1919, were guiding 
and controlling forces in the early vears of the Evening Insti- 
tute and the founding of Northeastern. 

Hercules W. Geromanos, a graduate of M.l.T. in 1902 who 
came to the Eyening Polytechnic School in 1909, was impor- 
tant to the launching of the Co-operative Plan for daytime 
engineering study and its development until 1917. 

William Lincoln Smith began teaching in the Educational 
Department of the YMCA in 1895, was Dean of the School of 
Practical Electricity in 1908, and after holding other positions 
became Head of the Department of Electrical Engineering in 
the Co-operative School of Engineering in 1912. Professor 
Smith was a teacher of science who illuminated science with 
classical learning and nineteenth-century gentlemanly deco- 
rum. He was awarded the honorary degree of Eng.D. by 
Northeastern in 1937, at the time he retired from the Chair- 

32 



Forming an Educational Pattern 

manship of the Department of Electrical Engineering. He con- 
tinued to teach until the year before his death in 1947. 

These are four representative men of the fonnative period 
which extends from evening classes to an established university. 

In that period, four other men are of paramount significance 
in their effect on the evolution of Northeastern. As with the 
total group, these four contributed varying gifts, interests, and 
objectives; working together they constituted a complementary 
group which in the larger sense made possible the development 
of a universitv. The men are, in order of their association with 
the educational work, Frank Palmer Speare, Galen David Light, 
Carl Stephens Ell, and Everett Avery Churchill. 

Frank Palmer Speare 

In 1940, Dr. Speare retired as President of Northeastern Uni- 
versity, to become President Emeritus. That date ended a 
period of fortv-four years with the Boston YMCA and North- 
eastern, but did not mark either the beginning or the termina- 
tion of his activity in education. He had been a teacher and 
administrator for several years before he joined the YMCA as 
Educational Director in 1896, and he continued as Chairman 
of the Board, President, and Director of Chandler School until 
1947. 

When Dr. Speare died in May of 1954, at the age of eighty- 
five, the statement of his successor at Northeastern, President 
Ell, summarized not only facts but the feeling of many people 
throughout New England: 

"Dr. Frank Palmer Speare was, without question, an out- 
standing leader. It was his indomitable enthusiasm and op- 
timism which made Northeastern possible in the early days 
in the face of many discouraging experiences which met the 
development of the educational work which is now North- 
eastern University. 

"He was the guiding spirit in the establishment of the School 
of Law, the first school in the University system; and it was his 

33 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

inspiring personal traits which led others in directing, molding, 
and executing in a practical way the ideas and suggestions 
which he conceixed from time to time. 

"A man with a bright, alert mind brimful of ideas and spar- 
kling with enthusiasm, the first President of Northeastern Uni- 
\ ersity will forever have a unique and honored place in the 
historv of the great educational institution which his leadership 
guided through its early days. 

"Dr. Speare had a keen sense of humor and thoroughlv en- 
joved people. He referred frequentlv to 'the great satisfaction 
of feeling that I have made some contribution to American 
youth.' He fondly recalled the start of the Universitv bv re- 
marking: 'We started with an eraser and two sticks of chalk'— 
a fact which is literallv true. 

"When asked about the factors in the success of the Uni\'er- 
sity, Dr. Speare pointed out repeatedly: 'The reason for the 
success of Northeastern was teamwork. The perseverance of 
the Trustees, who gave liberally of their time and money; 
skilled administrative officers; loyal and devoted faculty and 
assistants— all contributed to everv step of the Universitv's 
progress.' " 

In the first years of the Evening Institute, Dr. Speare ini- 
tiated many classes, courses, and groups of courses. Some of 
his plans failed to materialize. On one occasion he visited a 
class in bookkeeping to enlist students for a course in Knots 
and Splices, because as an ardent vachtsman and with a retired 
sea captain available as teacher he belie\ ed the course would 
be valuable and appealing; according to the memory of a 
member of the bookkeeping class, there were no recruits for 
the new course. 

Some of the courses and "schools" were temporary, but all 
of them were motivated bv Dr. Speare's desire to promote and 
develop educational opportunities for \'Oung men who would 
otherwise have few or none. 

Many of the projects were independent, imaginati\e experi- 
ments. At the "Evening Institute Spread" of 1906 a speaker 

34 




Frank Palmer Spear e 



Forming an Educational Pattern 

said, "Ten years ago Mr. Speare was the only man who dared 
dream of such wild schemes as special schools. Today special 
schools are found in all our larger cities with wide-awake Asso- 
ciations, successfully conducted under their auspices." 

Dr. Speare was essentially a man of ideas and expansive for- 
ward view, for the record shows that often when a new enter- 
prise was undei-way to the point of giving reasonable promise 
of permanence, he lost interest in it and began thinking of 
other possibilities. 

Abundant energy and varied interests are reflected by the 
fact that for a long time Dr. Speare was an active and admired 
public speaker. He traveled frequently on speaking engage- 
ments and in later vears was fond of saying that time was when 
the best known names in New England were those of Lydia 
Pinkham and Frank Palmer Speare. The titles of some speeches 
indicate themes which were developed with lightness and good 
humor, unusual fluency of language, but with positive, con- 
structive emphasis: "Enduring Satisfactions," "Building a Ca- 
reer," "The High Cost of Ignorance," "The Man Who Arrives." 

Dr. Speare had perception in seeing the possibilities in other 
men, and the wisdom to give those possibilities full freedom 
to develop. As a small college became a complex uni\'ersity, he 
delegated increasing responsibilit\^ to others in the organiza- 
tion. In 1925 the structure of Northeastern was revised by the 
creation of two posts of vice president, one occupied by Dr. 
Ell, in charge of the Dav Division; the other by Dr. Churchill, 
in charge of the Evening Division. Thereafter, the two vice 
presidents directed the procedure and details of the actual 
operation of the University. 

One of the many evidences of Dr. Speare's foresight, and his 
willingness to let others develop the work which he had started, 
is a "Professional Will and Codicil," written in 1937 and filed 
with the Board of Trustees through the chairman, Mr. Dodge. 
Dr. Speare wrote, "I am now in my sixty-eighth year and have 
always contemplated retiring at seventy and shall be glad to 
do so if it would be of benefit to Northeastern." 

37 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

A final section of the "will" reflects the idealism and unselfish 
interest which carried Dr. Speare through his long period of 
dilio;ent work as an educator: 

"The dominating motive in my life has been the establish- 
ment and perpetuation of this great People's University. I have 
put everything that I possessed into it and it is fulfilling its 
function magnificentlv. 

"I can retire from the Presidencv with confidence as to its 
future, based upon the devotion of its loval, svmpathetic 
trustees, and its skilled executive staffs and faculties. 

"It has been a great privilege to serve the state and citv of 
my birth in this way and I take this opportunitv of expressing 
my profound appreciation for the wonderful support given me 
by the officers and directors of the Boston Y.M.C.A., the officers 
and trustees and facultv of Northeastern Universitv, and the 
tens of thousands of alumni who are living examples of the 
ennobling influences emanating from Northeastern." 

In 1941, his first year as President Emeritus of Northeastern 
University, Dr. Speare received his third honoran- LL.D. de- 
gree. The others had been from Northeastern and the Uni- 
versity of New Hampshire. The third was from Harvard 
University, with the citation: "Frank Palmer Speare— First 
President of Northeastern University, builder of our newest 
academic neighbor; the college of Henry Dunster congratulates 
a founding father." 

Until a final illness, Dr. Speare continued to be vigorous and 
active after his retirement from Northeastern. In letters he re- 
ferred to "getting my new office (at the Chandler School) in 
condition." And "from present indications, I am going to have 
many opportunities for useful service." His feeling of identity 
with Northeastern shows in the statement, soon after his leav- 
ing the presidency, "I am purchasing several pairs of new 
shoes because I find my old ones take me up Huntington 
Avenue, in spite of all I can do." 

As Director of the Evening Institute, and President of North- 
eastern College and of Northeastern Universitv, Dr. Speare was 

38 



Forming an Educational Pattern 

a pioneer, an inspiration, a directive force, and the man whc^ 
laid foundations on which others made developments with 
further creativity. 



Galen David Light 

Mr. Light joined the staff of the Boston YMCA in 1901 at the 
age of twentv-four, and retired from the position of Secretary 
and Treasurer of Northeastern Universitv in 1943. 

During that span of time, Mr. Light occupied many positions. 
He was Assistant Educational Director, working with Mr. 
Speare in the early years of the Evening Institute. He was Sec- 
retary of the Executive Council of Northeastern College when 
it was formed in 1916. Alono; the wav, he had been Reijistrar, 
and for a year Superintendent of both the Automol)ile School 
and the School of Applied Electricity. He held numerous other 
titles; Mr. Light himself has said that in the formative period 
of changing schools and personnel, his name was listed when- 
ever a vacancy in the roster needed to be filled. His major 
service in later years was as Secretary of the College and then 
the University, Secretary of the Board of Trustees, and Treas- 
urer of the University. 

To all of these positions Mr. Light brought assets that grew 
from ability, preparation, and temperament. 

Born in Penns\'l\'ania, Mr. Light moxed from a country set- 
ting to earn both a B.S. and an A.B. at Lebanon Valley College. 
Then he went to Yale and received another A.B. in 1901. By 
that time he was interested in the work of the YMCA, because 
of student participation at Lebanon \^alle\' College and Yale. 
His interest stemmed, also, from a family l^ackground which 
had developed in him a strong sense of personal integrity and 
a concern for other people. 

High standards were a handicap in Mr. Light's college years. 
To keep himself in college he worked at night for a druggist 
who, in the easygoing manner of the time, filled all prescrip- 
tions, including those for drugs and alcohol, which bore a doc- 

39 



Origin and Development of Noiiheastern University 

tor's signature. Accommodating doctors were always available, 
but Mr. Light disliked filling "Sunday prescriptions" which 
were legally valid but morallv illicit. The druggist solved the 
problem by having his wife fill such prescriptions when the 
student assistant was on duty. 

Working his way through college prepared Mr. Light for the 
demanding job he assumed with the Boston YMCA, on dutv 
three evenings a week at the start, and increasingly through 
the years carrying positions in which he was held responsible 
for accounts and reports that involved detailed work and me- 
ticulous accuracy. 

By temperament Mr. Light was well suited to fit into the 
pattern of the men who built Northeastern. In matters of plan- 
ning and policy he was a needed conservative, often striking a 
balance in discussions in which differing opinions and objec- 
tives caused tension. Because of his precision, accuracy, and 
stout qualities of honesty, Mr. Light was universally liked and 
respected. 

As stated by a Northeastern teacher and administrator who 
has known Mr. Light well for over thirty years: 

"Galen D. Light gave to his long vears of service to North- 
eastern such soundness of moral character that his name amon(T 
us instantly links itself with such attributes as honor, straight- 
forwardness, and fine decency. 

"Yet with all his firm rectitude there was warm understand- 
ing and kindliness. His quiet sense of humor and even temper 
mellowed his unyielding integrity. While he had a reputation 
for exactness and thoroughness in all matters of statistics and 
records, his chief concern centered in human xalues and in 
persons as such. Though he was not given to much talk about 
it, a deeply religious spirit permeated his daily life among us. 
It was this spirit which enabled him to combine humilitv with 
self-confidence, gentleness with moral courage, magnanimity 
toward others with strong convictions within himself." 

Another simnmary of Mr. Light's contribution to Northeast- 

40 




Galen David Light 



Forming an Educational Pattern 

ern is the following resolution, incorporated in the permanent 
records of the University: 

"RESOLVED: That the Board of Trustees express to Galen 
David Light, who will retire from active duty on June 30, 1943, 
its sincere appreciation for his faithful, loyal, and unremitting 
service to Northeastern University. 

"Appointed to the staff in 1901, Mr. Light occupied succes- 
sivelv several positions of responsibilitv. His most noteworthy 
service has been as Secretarv and Treasurer of the University, 
having occupied the former position for the past twenty-seven 
years and the latter for the past eleven years, prior to which he 
was Comptroller. In recent vears he has also been a member of 
the Corporation and the Board of Trustees. The responsibilities 
of these highly important positions he has discharged ably and 
well. He has indeed contributed in a signal manner to the de- 
velopment of the University from the early beginning of its 
educational programs to the present time. 

"The Board of Trustees extends to Mr. Light its sincere hope 
that he mav have the utmost happiness in whatever he may 
undertake in the future." 

Carl Stephens Ell 

The second President of Northeastern, in the later years of 
his own term of office, which extended from 1940 to 1959, was 
introduced at public occasions and often referred to privately 
as "Mr. Northeastern." The reason was that during his presi- 
dency and even before that time he was the central force which 
made possible the building of a universitv, in terms of campus 
and structures; growth in colleges, numbers of students, and 
corresponding educational status; and major and minor innova- 
tions within the university which even now have become 
traditional. 

Dr. Ell started life in Indiana, a member of a third genera- 
tion of a German family which originally had come to this 
country by way of Boston but had moved on to the open farm- 

43 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

ing area of the Middle West. From the farm he went to DePauw 
Academy and then to the Methodist university of the same 
name, where he completed four years' work in three while he 
supported himself by jobs at manual labor in free time. During 
those years, as one writer about Dr. Ell has said, "He learned 
to make eyery motion count; he trained himself to know the 
essential from the nonessential." 

In 1909, Dr. Ell came east to do graduate study at M.I.T., 
with a view to a life work in civil engineering. In the following 
year another of those coincidences of time, place- ai?d people 
occurred. Dr. Ell says, 

"Early in the fall of 1910, Professor Howard in the Survey- 
ing Department asked me if I would teach a course in sur- 
veying at the YMCA. Since I was earning my way through 
M.I.T. (and being bold, if not discreet), I said that Barkus was 
willing to try. 

"At that time, the classes were being conducted in an old, 
rambling frame dwelling, located on the exact spot where the 
Boston City Club was later built and which came to be known 
as the Mason Buildino;. 

"On or about October 1, 1910, I went to the YMCA and 
talked with the Educational Director, Frank Palmer Speare, 
about the program. I began teaching the eight students of the 
first day class in surveying, which later turned out to be the 
first class in Civil Engineering in what is now the College of 
Engineering." 

The limitations and by later standards the primitive condi- 
tions of the first years of co-operative engineering education in 
Boston are recreated by Dr. Ell's recall of the conditions under 
which he worked as an instructor. 

"The class work was conducted in the attic of the building, 
where we frequently banged our heads against the rafters as 
we straightened up from the drawing table. 

"The YMCA had no Civil Engineering equipment, so it was 
necessary to take the small class of four or five students down 
to 387 Washington Street where the B. L. Makepeace Company 

44 




Carl Stephens Ell 



Forming on Educational Pattern 

was located, rent a transit, level, or other equipment such as 
surveying rods, tapes and chains, at the rate of $1.50 for the 
afternoon, then proceed up Winter Street to the Common, 
where we had our field work and surveying exercises around 
the Frog Pond. After the field exercise was completed, the 
class returned the equipment to the Makepeace Company and 
signed ofl^ for the day." 

In 1912, having received his Master of Science degree from 
M.I.T., Dr. Ell became one of the seven members of the teach- 
ing staff of the YMCA Co-operative School of Engineering. 
Two vears later he was made Assistant Dean of the school and 
in 1917 succeeded Hercules Geromanos as Dean. 

Bv that time the major programs of the YMCA Evening 
Institute had become Northeastern College of the Boston 
Young Men's Christian Association, with the Co-operative 
School of Engineering as the most conspicuous and promis- 
ing unit. 

During a period extending over nearly fifty years. Dr. Ell 
devoted himself exclusively to the development of Northeast- 
ern. Since that period comes down to the present time, it is 
still too earlv to see all of the elements in final perspective 
and relationship. Yet some central facts and conclusions are 
clear. 

Dr. Ell has always been a hard worker. Mr. Light, in com- 
menting on the early years, said, "He was tremendously active, 
carrying a heavy schedule both day and evening, and never 
seeming tired." That energy continued, and accounted for the 
cumulative accomplishment. 

As Dean, Vice President, and President, Dr. Ell expected 
hard work from others. A common comment on a special as- 
signment was, "Take as much time as you want, so long as the 
job is done by nine o'clock tomorrow morning." Repeatedly 
he pointed out to his faculty that a job at Northeastern was a 
twenty-four-hour-a-day job, and while few if any in the or- 
ganization came as near the maximum as Dr. Ell himself did, 
many people worked long hours, carrying heavy teaching 

47 



Origin and Development of NoHheastern University 

schedules and additional responsibilities. Inevitably there was 
grumbling and self-pity, yet a sui-prising number of teachers, 
administrators, and office workers stayed on through the years, 
experiencing good times and bad, depressions and wars alter- 
nating with periods of prosperity as an unendowed university 
operated on a balanced annual budget. 

Workers at Northeastern caught from Dr. Ell the feeling that 
they were a part of a growing institution which already was 
performing a valuable service to youth and which had un- 
limited possibilities. The present might be arduous, but the 
future offered promise. 

A distinguished teacher and thinker left a small conventional 
New England college to join the faculty of a new university in 
the Boston area during its earlv uncertain years. His explana- 
tion was, "After fourteen years, I found that everything was 
predictable. There was no surprise element of stimulation in 
students, administration, or the total future of the college." At 
Northeastern, everything was unpredictable from year to year, 
and the sui-prises were many. The number of people who have 
spent their entire professional lives at Northeastern demon- 
strates that along with uncertaintv and sui-prises there was also 
current reward, and faith in the future. 

The establishment of the Northeastern home was a long 
and difficult process. Although the buildings which have been 
referred to as "the miracle on Huntington Avenue" are the 
result of interest and assistance by thousands of persons, 
with the development plan initiated during the administra- 
tion of President Speare, for many vears the direction and 
execution of the plan was centered in the initiative and work 
of Dr. Ell. 

Less apparent than buildings are the internal advances, im- 
provements, and refinements which have been incorporated in 
the growth of Northeastern during the past twenty years. Di- 
rectly or indirectly all of these changes stem from the ideas, 
plans, and desires of the second President. 

The widening circle of friends and financial contributors, the 

48 



Forming an Educational Pattern 

development of the University Corporation, the estabhshment 
of the Permanent Faculty and other personnel groups, and the 
initiation of annual events involving faculty, students, alumni, 
staff. Corporation members, and visitors represent a broaden- 
ing basis of activity which has resulted in an increased sense of 
identity with Northeastern in those participating. These and 
other contributions to the permanence of Northeastern will 
appear at many points in the following record. 

Recognition of Dr. Ell's accomplishment has come to him 
from many quarters. Since 1935, honorary degrees have been 
conferred by DePauw University, Tufts University, Boston 
University, University of Rhode Island, Emerson College, and 
Northeastern University. In 1957 at DePauw, Dr. Ell was 
recipient of "The Old Gold Goblet," given annually by 
vote of the senior class to an outstanding alumnus of the 
University. 

In October of 1958 a dinner of eight hundred members of 
the extensive Northeastern family signalized Dr. Ell's retire- 
ment from the Presidency of the University. Dr. Russell J. 
Humbert, President of DePauw University, spoke on "DePauw 
Salutes a Distinguished Son." Mr. Dodge announced the re- 
naming of the Student Center Building as the "Carl Stephens 
Ell Student Center." This permanent tribute had been pro- 
moted by Michael T. Kelleher, an active member of the Cor- 
poration and Board of Trustees, who frequently introduced Dr. 
Ell at meetings as "mv favorite college president"; a distinct 
loss to Northeastern, as to the Commonwealth, was Mr. Kel- 
leher's death only nine days after the October dinner. 

It is too early to summarize and evaluate Dr. Ell's contribu- 
tion to Northeastern, both because of the immediacy of time 
and perspective and because that contribution is still in prog- 
ress, even though Dr. Ell is now President Emeritus. It is clear, 
however, that Northeastern University as a major university, 
permanentlv established physically and educationally, owes 
more to Dr. Ell than to any other single person of the large 
group who have aided in that development. 

49 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

Everett Avery Churchill 

The fourth member of the central core of those who deter- 
mined the structure and future of Northeastern is another man 
who devoted his Hfe to that one area of work. 

Dr. Speare had held other positions before he joined the staff 
of the YMCA, and in later years he carried on additional activ- 
ities, but his primary interest and concern was the Evening 
Institute and the developments that came from it. Mr. Light 
and Dr. Ell entered the educational work of the YMCA as 
young men and staved on permanentlv. Similarh', Dr. Churchill 
devoted a full and productive professional life to one insti- 
tution. 

Dr. Churchill's educational preparation was varied, and 
spread over a ten-year period. After his graduation from Bridge- 
water Normal School in 1914, he went on to Wesleyan Uni- 
versitv to receive an A.B. decree, ma^na cum laude. In 1921 he 
received an Ed.M. degree from Harxard Universitv and three 
vears later, also from Harvard, the degree of Ed.D. 

In the interval of interrupted education Dr. Churchill did 
World War 1 service as a commissioned officer, and in 1919 
came to Boston to join the facultv of The Huntington School. 
The following vear he became Dean of the Law School, and 
thereafter was an integral part of the central personnel which 
planned and dexeloped Northeastern Universitv. 

From 1922 to 1925, Dr. Churchill carried, along with his 
other titles, that of "Unit Director." In that capacitv he super- 
vised the Northeastern evening programs in Worcester, Spring- 
field, Providence, New Haxen, and Bridgeport. He dexeloped 
and implemented an elaborate and exact svstem of inspection 
and reports, in an effort to insure qualitv standards in the work 
conducted bv these outlving units of the Northeastern svstem. 

As Vice President, in 1925, Dr. Churchill was in charge of 
the Evening Division, and guided it through a difficult period 
of adjustment, as changing local and world conditions resulted 
in new concepts, standards, and objecti\ es for all evening edu- 

50 




Everett Avery Churchill 



Fanning an Educational Pattern 

cation, including that at Northeastern. By supervising teachers 
and administrators during this period, and by bringing to 
bear upon the structure and conduct of schools and curricula 
his technical knowledge and philosophy of education, Dr. 
Churchill laid the foundations on which later developments, 
especially those following World War II, were built. 

When Mr. Light retired in 1943, Dr. Churchill became Sec- 
retary of the Northeastern University Corporation. At the same 
time he took over responsibility for University budgets and 
finances, and for supervision of "grounds and buildings." 

The last two of these three phases of his position as Vice 
President became increasinglv complex during the next ten 
years. 

After the lean period of World War II, finances of income 
and expenditure, gifts, scholarships, and other special funds ex- 
panded rapidh'. Dr. Churchill planned an intricate network of 
day and evening budgets, and saw to it that forecasts and 
commitments were adhered to. 

"Grounds and buildings" grew even more vigorously. The 
Student Center and the Library were built, and Dr. Churchill 
acted as University representative in negotiating contracts and 
supervising details of construction as the contracts were ful- 
filled. The legal technicalities of the purchase of additional land 
and the problems of maintenance, improvement, and remodel- 
ing of an expanding educational plant were also parts of Dr. 
Churchill's w^ork; in the latter area he was ablv assisted by 
J. Kenneth Stevenson, Supervisor of Grounds and Buildings, 
who worked closely with Dr. Churchill as both administrator 
and friend. 

To all of these kinds of work Dr. Churchill brought a 
scholarly mind, precise and disciplined, trained to reduce to 
essentials either a mass of statistical data or a voluminous gov- 
ernmental report. Like manv others of Northeastern's personnel 
through the decades, his first concern was doing the job well 
and getting it done, whether the time required ended at five 
o'clock, or late in the evening, or during the weekend. He was 

53 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

always up to date in his work, and at the same time planning 
for the future. 

In 1953, ill health forced Dr. Churchill to retire from active 
work at Northeastern. Until his death in December, 1959, he 
followed from a distance the progress of Northeastern, and 
maintained the interest which motivated him during thirty- 
four years of personal participation. 

The personalitv and individual qualities of Dr. Churchill, 
different from those of the other major administrators in the 
formative period of Northeastern, are well summarized bv one 
who knew him well during his term as \^ice President: 

"I am certain that in the historical account of everv progres- 
sive educational institution in this countr\' there will be found 
a section devoted to Dr. Churchill— one of the Dr. Churchills 
of education. These are the men who served ablv in the early 
days of growth, at Northeastern and elsewhere, who worked 
long hours, expended wiselv, conser\'ed assets, and urged their 
associates to greater accomplishment in order that the institu- 
tion they worked for might prosper and grow. Such was North- 
eastern's Dr. Churchill. 

"It was mv privilege to know Dr. Churchill over an extended 
period of time. He was short of stature, rather rotund, ener- 
getic, and that rare combination of scholar, gentleman, and 
astute administrator. He was a strict disciplinarian in all mat- 
ters pertaining to the financial structure and operation of the 
University. Especially in periods of financial stress and strain, 
woe unto the department head who exceeded his budget! 

"Often Dr. Chmchill, engrossed in the effort to soKe a Uni- 
versity problem, has walked past me without speaking, but 
several hours later has called me bv mv first name, and settled 
down to chat about the recent performance of a particular rac- 
ing yacht, the art of lioxing (and on one occasion he demon- 
strated the 'right cross' so efi^ectivelv that I found nnself 
flattened against a nearby wall ) , or the reason whv the Boston 
Red Sox Club was in fourth place instead of at the top of the 



54 



Forming an Educational Pattern 

league. Then the talk might turn to books, theories of educa- 
tion, international relations— anything. The versatility of Dr. 
Churchill's- interests and detailed knowledge was unusual, re- 
freshing, and stimulating;. 

"It was not given to Dr. Churchill to have intimate contact 
with the Northeastern student bodv, or with many of the 
facultv, for the verv nature of his work precluded this relation- 
ship. Anv student or faculty member would have gained much 
from knowing Dr. Churchill. 

"As is often the case in the affairs of men, fate in the form 
of a disabling illness forced Dr. Churchill to retire prematurely. 
Thus was closed the active career of a man who was respected 
greatly bv all who knew him, for his accomplishments, his de- 
votion to duty, and his vigorous, unpredictable responses to life 
and all that it contains." 

The University Pattern 

Under the guidance of these four men— Dr. Speare, Dr. Ell, 
Dr. Churchill, and Mr. Light— and with other men and women 
performing valuable services at many major and minor points, 
Northeastern evolved a pattern of education which met com- 
munity needs and at the same time proved to be efficient 
and economical for an institution which was making its own 
independent way. 

Evening education for emploved adults continued to be an 
inherent part of the Northeastern plan. The Law School, the 
School of Commerce and Finance, and the Polytechnic School 
were administered and directed by Northeastern College after 
the college was formed. The last two, under the names "School 
of Business" and "Lincoln Institute" became important schools 
in the Evening Division which developed from 1945 onward. 
Throughout the years— in YMCA buildings, in rented quarters, 
and later in the University's own buildings— evening schools 
made possible a double use of classrooms and other areas, and 



55 



Origin and Development of NoHheastern University 

to a certain extent personnel and equipment. At the same time, 
they carried on the original purpose and intention of the Eve- 
ning Institute. 

Co-operative education proved to be sound and successful. 
The School of Engineering grew slowly but steadily for some 
years and after 1917 moved into a period of increasing size and 
significance. Three other dav colleges were added. 

The College of Business Administration, established in 1922 
with Turner F. Garner as its first Dean, operated as a full-time 
school for four years and then adopted the Co-operative Plan. 

In 1935 a co-operative College of Liberal Arts started its first 
year with an enrollment of thirty-five. At that time co-operative 
education in the lil^eral arts areas of sciences and the human- 
ities had been attempted bv few institutions. Antioch College 
had been operating its program, completely in liberal arts, 
since 1921. Four other colleges were conducting co-operative 
education in science and applied arts. Again, Northeastern was 
experimental. The College of Liberal Arts developed, however, 
and by 1941 was a substantial unit in the University group. 

The fourth college, the College of Education, established in 
1953, completed the structure of the Dav Dixision. This college 
began as a four-vear full-time school of education; in its third 
year, it instituted a teacher-internship program, with the result 
that it became a co-operative school. 

Earlv in its development, Northeastern was committed to 
"co-operative education by dav, adult education in the eve- 
ning." The combination made it an unusual university— a 
pioneer in adult education, and the only institution in New 
England to operate all of its dav colleges on the principles and 
application of co-operative education. 

This permanent pattern enabled the Uni\'ersit\ to broaden 
and intensifv its inherited function of supplementing the edu- 
cational opportunities available in the Boston area, at the same 
time providing some new and difierent opportunities. 



56 



V 



ESTABLISHING AN INDEPENDENl 
UNIVERSITY 



On March 30, 1916, the Secretary of the Commonwealth 
signed a 1)111, already passed bv the General Court, which 
created Northeastern College "for the purpose of furnishing 
instruction and teachine; in all branches of education in con- 
nection with the Boston Y.M.C.A. and to do any and all things 
connected with or incidental to the purposes of its organi- 
zation." 

Northeastern College of the Boston Young Men's Christian 
Association was a legal corporation, and a basis for educational 
administration. The members of the corporate body were 
Arthur S. Johnson, Lewis A. Crossett, Ceorge W. Brainard, 
Charles W. Perkins, H. Bradlee Fenno, Sabin P. Sanger, Wil- 
liam E. Murdock, Frank P. Speare, and George W. Mehaffey. 
To them and to their associates and successors were assigned 
by law "powers, rights, and privileges," but "subject to the 
limitations, duties and restrictions, which bv law appertain 
thereto." 

The structure of the college was a Board of Ti*ustees, headed 
by Arthur S. Johnson, President of the Boston YMCA; and an 
Executive Council, made up of Frank Palmer Speare as Presi- 
dent; Galen D. Light, Secretarv; and the deans of the schools. 

The new college had, within its own rights and privileges, 
no degree-granting power. It undertook the conduct of a group 
of day and evening schools. According to a public announce- 

57 



Ori^i^in and Development of Northeastern University 

ment in March of 1916, the name "Northeastern College" 
would be applied to the Evening Law School, the School of 
Commerce and Finance, the Co-operative Engineering School, 
the Polvtechnic School, and a new and short-lived School of 
Liberal Arts. Affiliated schools were the School of Business, the 
evening Preparatory School, The Huntington School, and the 
Automobile School. 

Two legislative acts of incorporation had preceded the for- 
mation of Northeastern College. 

In 1904 the Evenino; Law School of the Boston Youns: Men's 
Christian Association was incorporated bv action of the Gen- 
eral Court, and given power to grant the degree of bachelor of 
laws. The original members of the corporation were James R. 
Dunbar, James B. Ames, Samuel C. Bennett, D. Chauncey 
Brewer, Josiah H. Quincy, Francis B. Sears, and George W. 
Mehaffey; a section of the legislative act provided that the body 
should always consist of seven members, of whom four should 
be members of the Board of Directors of the Boston YMCA. 

In 1910 the School of Commerce and Finance of the Boston 
Young Men's Christian Association was incorporated, and in 
the following year by a separate act was authorized to confer 
the degrees of Bachelor of Commercial Science and Master of 
Commercial Science "appropriate to the courses of study of- 
fered in accordance with the provisions of its charter." 

For several vears after 1916, Northeastern College func- 
tioned as a governing and directixe organization. Technically 
it was the Educational Department of the Boston YMCA, but 
as the college developed, its component parts came to have 
identity of their own. For example, the names of the two 
degree-granting schools were changed to "Northeastern Col- 
lege, School of Law of the Boston Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation" and "Northeastern College, School of Commerce and 
Finance of the Boston Young Men's Christian Association," and 
thereafter degrees were issued under those names. 

On March 17, 1920, a legislative act, carrying among other 
signatures that of the then Goxernor, Calvin Coolidge, gave 

58 



Establishing an Independent University 

Northeastern College authorization to grant bachelor's degrees 
in civil, mechanical, chemical, and electrical engineering. These 
degrees were applicable to the Co-operati\e School of Engi- 
neering, which bv 1920 had recovered from the World War I 
interim and under the direction of Dean Ell was developing 
rapidly, not only in numbers but in quality of both academic 
work and co-operative employment. 

Following the passage of the bill, a "Degree Jubilee, " organ- 
ized by Professor Joseph Spear, was held at the college, with 
students and faculty celebrating the new status of their college 
as an institution of legally recognized academic standing. 

At the June commencement of 1920, seventy-six engineering 
degrees were awarded, forty of them to alumni who had quali- 
fied under the requirements of the legislative act. 

The year 1922 is another decisive one in the history of North- 
eastern. In March, the name of the institution was changed 
from "College" to "University." Within the same year, Robert 
G. Dodge, F. R. Carnegie Steele, and Walton I. Crocker were 
elected to the Board of Trustees; they were the first Trustees 
who were not at the same time Directors of the Boston YMCA. 

The next twentv-six years constitute a slow and at some 
points painful process of determining and establishing the 
identity and autonomy of Northeastern. 

Equally important was the preparation of Northeastern 
schools and curricula for acceptance bv professional and 
academic bodies. That accreditation came later, from such or- 
ganizations as the University of the State of New York, the En- 
gineers' Council for Professional Development, and the New 
England Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. 

Numerical growth accelerated steadily and during some 
periods rapidly from 1922 onward, and whereas physical space 
for educational work had been a problem in the early 1900's, 
by 1930 the need for Northeastern buildings was not only evi- 
dent but imperative. Evident, also, was the inescapable fact 
that no institution can plan and live its own life as a part of 
another institution. 

59 



Origui and Development of N oitheastern Universitif 

While Northeastern grew in other respects, it moved, by 
successive steps, toward freedom of action and the determina- 
tion of its future. In 1924 the financial accounts of the Univer- 
sity and the Boston YMCA were separated, therebv absolving 
the YMCA from further financial responsibility and enabling 
the University to plan and administer its own funds. In 1932 
Mr. Dodge was elected Chairman of the Board of Trustees, the 
first Chairman not from the YMCA organization; his immediate 
predecessor was T. Grafton Abbott, President of the Boston 
YMCA. Other changes were made from time to time in the 
constituency of the Board of Trustees, varying the proportion 
of YMCA and non-YMCA members. 

It soon became apparent that the voung Universitv was more 
than a Department of Education, as that term was then used 
in other Young Men's Christian Associations, and in similar 
organizations. At the same time, the Boston YMCA regarded 
Northeastern as a part of its structure, since it had founded the 
first unit of the institution in 1898 and, directly or indirectly, 
had made possible the developments which followed that date. 

The gradual and eventuallv the complete separation of 
Northeastern from the Boston YMCA was the result of two 
parallel lines of change: the expansion of an educational insti- 
tution, and the corresponding necessity for that institution to 
determine and direct its own expansion. 

Northeastern University as a legal entity made steadv im- 
provement. It obtained the right to increase the amount of 
property which it might hold. In 1923 it was authorized by 
the General Court "to confer such deirrees as are usuallv con- 
ferred by colleges and uni\ ersities in this commonwealth, ex- 
cept medical and dental degrees and degrees of bachelor of 
science and bachelor of arts." In 1930 a legislative act added 
the B.S. with specifications, and in 1935 a final authorization 
empowered Northeastern "to confer such degrees as are usually 
conferred by colleges and universities in this commonwealth, 
but excepting medical and dental degrees." 

This extension of degree-granting power was the result of 

60 



Establishing an Independent University 

both internal and external efforts, involving the solution of 
immediate problems, long-range planning, careful educational 
and financial administration, and the enlistment of public 
support and recognition. The central figures in this detailed, 
arduous, and often discouraging program were Dr. Ell and 
Dr. Churchill. 

An objective view of the relationship between Northeastern 
and the Boston YMCA was proxided by the John Price Jones 
Corporation report to the Northeastern Board of Trustees in 
July of 1931. This report, of nearly three hundred pages, pre- 
sented a detailed analvsis of the Universitv, an estimate of its 
possibilities of future development and service, and a proposed 
plan for raising money for buildings and endowment. 

Anions: the "su^sestions regrarding future oro;anization of 
the Universitv" was the recommendation that the Bvlaws be 
changed to provide a Board of Trustees of forty-five, with the 
stipulation that "Board members who are also Directors of 
the Boston YMCA shall at no time constitute a majority of the 
membership." 

The reasons given for this recommendation are: "We foresee 
difficulty in attracting to the University Board men of influence 
and vision, outside of the Y.M.C.A. Directors, while such men 
have no actual control, in the last analysis, of the University's 
management and policies." And "Without an autonomous 
Board there would be difficultv in interesting large givers, 
particularlv the Foundations and higher education 'philan- 
thropists' of the country. Persons of large means might properly 
hesitate to give to an institution whose control lies with another 
organization founded primarilv for other than educational 
purposes." 

Through the 1930's the leaders of both the YMCA and the 
University worked on the tenuous problem of relationship be- 
tween the two institutions. 

In 1935, an organization chart, prepared by Dr. Churchill 
and accepted as at least a temporary basis of operation, shows 
an interlocking and overlapping directorate, with ten members 

61 



Origin and Development of Noiiheastern Universitij 

servinc; concurrently on the YMCA Board of Directors and the 
Board of Trustees of the University. 

A vear later the Bylaws of the University were amended to 
provide for the formation of a Corporation of seventy-five 
members, with a Board of Trustees to be elected from and by 
its membership, and four standing committees: Executive, 
Development, Funds and Investments, and Housing. 

The formal organization of the Northeastern University Cor- 
poration, the most important single event in the evolution of 
Northeastern's structure, took place on January 22, 1937, at a 
dinner meeting at which James L. Richards was host and 
chairman. Speakers on the past, present, and future of the 
University were Robert G. Dodge, President Speare, Vice 
Presidents Ell and Churchill, and Frank L. Richardson, Vice 
Chairman of the Corporation and Chairman of the Develop- 
ment Committee. 

The Corporation as then established consisted of seventy- 
four members, with Mr. Dodge as Chairman and Mr. Light as 
Secretary. Within the Corporation a Board of Trustees of 
thirtv-one, including eight Directors of the Boston YMCA, was 
elected. The Corporation thus became the controlling bodv 
of Northeastern University. 

Incidental changes, matters of legality and technicality, were 
made at other points along the way. In 1935 the words "of the 
Boston Youno; Men's Christian Association" were eliminated 
from the corporate name "Northeastern University. " In 1947 
the purpose of the Northeastern University Corporation was 
simplified to the statement: "for the purpose of providing in- 
struction in any or all branches of education and doing any- 
thing incidental thereto." Finally, in 1948, a revision of the 
Charter and Bylaws made Northeastern completely independ- 
ent in all respects. 

Like other phases of the histor\' of the UniversitN', autonomy 
and self-sufficiency were the products of an evolutionary 
growth, and of a progress that was inevitable, in view of the 
leadership which Northeastern has had. 

62 



VI 
ADAPTATION TO CHANGE 



In the minutes of the meeting of the Board of Trustees on 
April 10, 1953, appears the record: 

"It was voted that the educational policy of Northeastern 
University be stated as follows: 

"Northeastern University is a community service institution 
which seeks to discover and to meet important needs in the 
field of higher education. Its offerings are designed to serve 
substantial groups of students in programs for which there is 
genuine demand and which are not adequately provided by 
other colleges and universities in the Boston area. 

"The University does not conceive its function to include the 
committing of institutional resources for the purpose of carry- 
ing on schools, curricula, or courses that serve the needs of 
very few students at high expense or that duplicate unneces- 
sarily the opportunities available at neighboring institutions. 

"Northeastern tries to apply its energies and facilities to edu- 
cational enterprises that will yield maximum advantages to the 
community. The University is primarily concerned with teach- 
ing at the undergraduate and graduate levels and limits its 
activities in research to those which will be stimulating and 
helpful to the faculty as means toward the enhancement of 
instruction." 

This statement is a formal summary of educational principle, 
thinking, and planning inherent in the history of Northeastern. 

63 



Oriff^in and Development of Noiiheastein University 

Few universities have been so flexible, even during the first 
half of the twentieth century, when many American colleges 
and universities chose or were forced to modify curricula, 
schools, and even basic structure. 

In the early years, the YMCA work in education was fluid as 
well as flexible. After the formation of Northeastern College, 
the basic policy was one of planned adaptation to changing 
interests and desires on the part of young people, and chang- 
ing needs and requirements of a new century. The result was 
frequent adjustment of educational programs, balanced with 
the maintenance and expansion of a self-sustaining, operative 
university. 

Ten decisive structural changes, occurring in the period from 
the 1920's to the 1950's, illustrate the background to and the 
implementation of the statement by the Board of Trustees in 
1953. 

( 1 ) The Automobile School was from 1903 a part of the De- 
partment of Education of the Boston YMCA, and later a school 
affiliated with Northeastern. Bv the mid-1920's the automobile 
had become an accepted ingredient of the times; it was no 
longer an experiment, or a mvsterious marxel, or the rich man's 
toy. The personnel of the Automobile School had therefore 
changed, as conditions changed. 

In 1926 it was evident that the school had served its purpose. 
It was discontinued for that reason, and because the areas it 
occupied in the present Botolph Building, then the Vocational 
Building, were needed for the work of the School of Engi- 
neering. 

( 2 ) Outlying branches of Northeastern work had been estab- 
lished and developed in the period 1917 to 1920, beginning 
with evening law work in Worcester and extendino; to addi- 
tional schools in Sprinojfield, Providence, New Haven, and 
Bridgeport. These schools conducted some college preparatory 
work and some technical courses, but mainlv stud\' in law and 
business, leading to Northeastern degrees. The schools were 



64 



Adaptation to Change 

supei"vised by a special committee under the direction of Dr. 
Churchill. 

As Northeastern concentrated its efforts in Boston and as 
some of the branches built up a basis for their own identity, the 
University withdrew from responsibilit\' in other cities, starting 
with the Bridgeport branch in 1924, and completing the dis- 
association in Springfield in 1951. 

Three present-day institutions are outgrowths of Northeast- 
ern branches. They are Worcester junior College; Western 
New England College, Springfield; Roger Williams junior 
College, Proyidence; and Bridgeport Engineering Institute, 
which in 1924 took oyer the Northeastern technical courses and 
developed an independent and successful school of engineering. 

(3) The College of Liberal Arts, established in 1935, was an 
effort to offer the educational and financial advantages of the 
Co-operative Plan to students in non-technical areas of study 
and in the humanities. It has increased in size, slowly but sub- 
stantially, and has proved its effectiveness as preparation for 
careers directly upon graduation and for advanced study in 
graduate schools. 

Co-operative work assignments for Liberal Arts students 
have necessarily proved difficult, especially in periods of eco- 
nomic lag. For students majoring in mathematics, physics, 
chemistry, and biology, jobs which correlate classroom study 
with field experience present no real problem. For students 
majoring in history, government, English, and modern lan- 
guages, however, work which combines monetary and educa- 
tional advantage to the student is not easy to locate and 
supervise. Yet the record of employment and the personal 
values which students have derived from co-operative work 
experience have justified the original and sustained effort. 
Moreover, the College of Liberal Arts, under the direction of 
Dean Wilfred Lake, has established both status and accom- 
plishment in preparing students for graduate work. 

(4) Northeastern's inherited tradition was education for 



65 



O/'igi/i and Development of Noiiheastern University 

young men, ]:)ut tliis masculine emphasis was modified as time 
passed. There was, in fact, historical precedent for co-education 
in the Northeastern system, going back to the pre-Evening In- 
stitute period. Dr. Churchill, in his History of Nortlieastern 
University 1896-1927, wrote, "In 1891 and 1892 we find that 
women were no longer admitted to the evening classes, on the 
grounds that there was not adequate room to accommodate 
even the men who applied for admission to courses." 

Co-education was adopted by different schools for var\'ing 
reasons and over a long period of time. Some of the early 
courses in the Automobile School were open to ladies, and dur- 
ing World War I there were special courses for women drivers; 
no records are available, however, to indicate how many ladies 
took advantage of these opportunities. The School of Law ad- 
mitted women students in 1922. In the same year the School 
of Commerce and Finance became co-educational, and in 1926 
granted six degrees, including one Master of Commercial 
Science degree, to women. The Preparatory School accepted 
women students in 1925, and later, when the Preparatory 
School had become Lincoln Preparatory School, it appealed 
particularly to voung women who needed academic credit in 
preparation for nurses' training. 

In 1943, the colleges of the Day Division adopted co- 
education. Six women students entered Northeastern that year: 
four in Liberal Arts, and one each in Engineering and Business 
Administration. Four of this pioneer group on the Co-operative 
Plan completed their five-year courses and receixed degrees. 

An Adviser to Women was appointed, and in 1954 the title 
was changed to Dean of Women; that position was first held 
by Dr. Myra Herrick, who had been Adviser to Women for 
four years. 

The first Northeastern daughter was Marjorie Faunce, Lib- 
eral Arts 1949, whose father, Laurence S. Faunce, was of the 
Engineering class of 1922. Miss Faunce married George Brumis, 
Class of 1945. 

From 1943 on, women students have constituted a propor- 

66 



Adaptation to Change 

tionately small but important part of the student body of the 
co-operative colleges, largest in numbers in the College of 
Liberal Arts, and in recent vears, in the College of Education. 

(5) Bv 1950, the size and complexity of undergraduate pro- 
grams at Northeastern and the beginnings of graduate work 
gave evidence that the Universitv could not function effectively 
with affiliated secondarv and college preparatorv work. The 
Huntington School was therefore disassociated from the North- 
eastern structure, and became a part of the Boston YMCA, 
where it had had its origin. 

(6) The announcement of the closing of the School of Law 
in 1953, and the completion of its work in 1956 was a conspicu- 
ous step in the process of adaptation. 

As the first unit in the Northeastern svstem, the Law School 
had built up a sound record and reputation over a period of 
fifty-five years. The conditions and need which had brought the 
school into being, however, had changed greatly with the pass- 
ing of a half-century. Moreover, requirements bv accrediting 
bodies of the legal profession made an evening law school with 
a small dav program difficult to administer at the level of 
standards which had been established in previous decades. 

A view of the closing of the Law School, as stated editorially 
by the Boston Globe in April of 1953, shows perhaps the weight 
of more objective judgment than was easv to see in 1953: 

"The decision of Northeastern Universitv to close its Law 
School will doubtless jolt its many law alumni. Yet the attitude 
displayed by the University authorities in making this move 
will doubtless win their approval and that of the community 
Northeastern serves, when the matter is weighed carefully. 

"What Northeastern is doing, in fact, is shifting its educa- 
tional energies to fields where the need is greater than it is for 
turning out law graduates. As the Universitv officials truly 
state, facilities exist elsewhere in sufficient quantity and quality 
alreadv, in the matter of law schools. Other fields are not so 
amply served. To serve them better is sound policy. 

"Northeastern has long since established itself as an institute 

67 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

whose policies connote courage, wise perception of social, eco- 
nomic, and scientific trends, and a detennination to serve the 
community through close co-operation. Its latest decision 
clea\ es to that ideal." 

(7) The "shifting of energies" at Northeastern was demon- 
strated by the establishment of the College of Education for 
the academic year 1953-1954. 

The need for more elementary and secondary school teachers, 
and the prospect of a cumulative need in the on-coming dec- 
ade, were the subject of manv ominous conclusions and pre- 
dictions, both locally and nationally, in the early 1950's. A 
survey of teacher-training opportunities in Greater Boston in- 
dicated that a school of education which emphasized subject 
matter and teachable course content in major fields of speciali- 
zation, as well as including technical courses in education as a 
science and an art, would serve a constructive purpose. 

The College of Education, under the deanship of Dr. Lester 
Vander Werf, who came to Northeastern from the University 
of New Hampshire, started its first year, offering both under- 
graduate and graduate curricula. It has continued that com- 
bination, with the addition of the Teacher Internship Plan. 

(8) Evening courses to prepare students for entrance to 
college constitute another of the fifty-year projects at North- 
eastern. 

The Evening Preparatorv Scliool was started in 1904, as a 
part of the YMCA Evening Institute. In 1927 it became Lin- 
coln Preparatory School, affiliated with Northeastern Univer- 
sity, and with James W. Lees as its Principal. Thereafter it 
grew in enrollment and extent of curriculum as it met the needs 
of young men, and in later years young women who had been 
unal^le to complete their high school years or who needed par- 
ticular courses to fulfill the requirements for entrance to college. 

In its most active period, the 194()'s, when Donald H. Mac- 
Kenzie was directing the school, Lincoln School offered a 
complete preparatorv cinriculum: phvsics, chemistry, biology, 
mathematics, English, economics, government, French, Latin, 

68 



Adaptation to Change 

Spanish, German. During that period it was the only prepara- 
tory school in the Boston area offering such a diversity of 
evening courses. 

After World War II, the function which Lincoln School had 
performed was no longer a real need, mainly because of com- 
prehensive examinations instituted and conducted by the Mas- 
sachusetts Department of Education to provide students with 
substantial credit toward a high school diploma. Consequently, 
Lincoln Preparatory School was discontinued in 1954, although 
some of its courses in mathematics and science were carried on 
for two years thereafter by Lincoln Institute to complete the 
work which students had started in the preparatory school. 

(9) The elimination of college preparatory work from the 
Northeastern structure was accounted for in large measure by 
a recognition of other educational areas in which the Univer- 
sity was prepared to do more valuable work than it could do 
at the secondary level. Increasing specialization and the exten- 
sion of boundaries in all scientific fields demonstrated a new 
need for more people trained in advanced academic study. Con- 
sequently, Northeastern, which had deliberately limited itself 
to undergraduate programs, added graduate study to its basic 
structure and function. As with other movements toward adap- 
tation, the addition was a process of successive steps. 

In 1940 teaching fellows were accepted by the Department 
of Chemistry of the College of Liberal Arts, to receive a 
Master's degree after two years of seminar courses, directed re- 
search, and teaching in the fonn of laboratory supervision. 
This common American pattern of graduate work was later 
used by the Department of Biologv and the Department of 
Physics, and in the College of Business Administration by the 
Department of Accounting. After the establishment of the 
Graduate School in 1958, it was extended to the Departments 
of English, Historv, Government, and Psvcholog\ in the College 
of Liberal Arts. 

The College of Engineering undertook graduate work in 1948 
with six evening courses, initiated in response to the report of 

69 



Origin and Development of NoHheastern University 

the Engineering Societies of New England that there was a 
conspicuous need, following World War II, for evening courses 
at the graduate level. An enrollment of 153 students in those 
six courses justified the addition of seven courses in the follow- 
ing year and in 1950 the establishment of evening Master's 
programs in Civil, Mechanical, and Electrical Engineering. 
Since that vear, programs in Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, 
Communications, Engineering Management, and Engineering 
Mechanics have been added. 

The organization and de\'elopment of this work has been 
under the direction of three men. Professor Alfred Ferretti of 
the Department of Mechanical Engineering was in charge for 
the first two vears, and was followed by Professor Herbert 
Brown of the same department. In 1954, Professor Emil Gram- 
storff. Chairman of the Department of Civil Engineering, was 
made Dean of Graduate Engineering Programs. 

The teaching personnel of the evening graduate work in en- 
gineering has been varied, including a number of men from 
other universities, and from research groups and industrial com- 
panies. Mr. Kentaro Tsutsumi, Principal Engineer, Jackson and 
Moreland, Inc., has taught courses every year since 1948. 

In 1956, the Co-operative Plan was adapted to graduate 
study in engineering. The two-year schedule is made up of four 
ten-week sessions in daytime classes and the same number of 
weeks on industrial jobs, in teaching, or in graduate assistant- 
ships at the University. The Master's degree in Civil, Me- 
chanical, and Electrical Engineering is made possible bv this 
program. 

The School of Business of the Evenins Dixision started a 
Master of Business Administration program in 1951. As in other 
specialized areas, business in the post-war period needed more 
and more workers with ad\'anced studv and graduate degrees. 
Other colle2;es of the Greater Boston area were taking care of 
students available for full-time study; Northeastern undertook 
to serve business and industrial workers who were available 



70 



Adaptation to CJiange 

only for evening study but who wanted to compete for promo- 
tion and company upgrading. 

The College of Education began graduate work as well as 
undergraduate work in 1953. At the June Commencement of 
1954, three Ed.M. degrees were conferred on students who had 
come to Northeastern with substantial transfer credit. Since 
that year, graduates of the advanced curricula have gone from 
Northeastern to teaching positions in all of the New England 
states. New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, California, Texas, 
and Oregon; others have gone on to further graduate study in 
education. 

The Graduate School of the Universitv, established in 1958, 
now administers the various programs that have developed dur- 
ing the past twenty years. Dr. Arthur Vernon, Chairman of the 
Department of Chemistiy in 1938 and in 1940 Director of 
Graduate Study, College of Liberal Arts, is Dean of the Grad- 
uate School. He continues as Director of Graduate Programs 
in Arts and Sciences. Emil Gramstorff acts as Dean of Graduate 
Engineering Programs, and Professor Mvron Spencer and Dr. 
Lester Vander Werf direct the graduate programs in Business 
Administration and Education. 

( 10) Paralleling the development of graduate studv at North- 
eastern was the beginning of a process of svstematizing tech- 
nical research and bringing it under University sponsorship. 

In the early decades, when all energies were directed to the 
physical development of Northeastern and the improvement 
and accreditation of schools and curricula, research and crea- 
tive academic writing by members of the facultv were limited 
by heavy teaching schedules and additional assignments of 
committee and student advisory work. In a small wav, however, 
research was carried out, along with the writing of textbooks 
and professional papers; from 1930 to 1940 some members of 
the faculty', particularly in the Departments of Civil and 
Chemical Engineering, did consulting work for industrial com- 
panies. 



71 



Ori(i^in and Development of Northeastern University 

The first effort at formalizing research was the Bureau of 
Business Research, estabhshed in 1939 with Asa S. Knowles, 
then Dean of the College of Business Administration, as Direc- 
tor; other active members of the Bureau were Professors Julian 
Jackson, Alfred D'Alessandro, and John Tuthill. Bulletins from 
the Bureau, in sequence with papers from departments of the 
Colleges of Engineering and Liberal Arts, were issued as 
"Northeastern University Publications." Contributors to this 
series of sixteen bulletins, extending from 1940 to 1945 and the 
final four numbers in the vears 1949 to 1951, included Professor 
George Pihl, Department of Electrical Engineering; Professor 
Chester Baker, Department of Chemical Engineering; Dr. Fay 
Luder and Professor Saverio Zuffanti, Department of Chem- 
istry; and Dr. Stanley G. Estes, Department of Psvchologv. 

Numbers 1 and 4 in the series— "Merit Rating in Industry" 
and "Merit Rating of Supervisors, Foremen and Department 
Heads" were written by Dean Knowles of the Bureau of Busi- 
ness Research in 1940, when merit rating in industry was 
coming into prominence as a subject of technical studv; the 
bulletins were basic contributions to a new field and were 
widely used durins; the next fifteen \'ears. 

In 1954, research activities were brought under a Faculty 
Committee on Development and Co-ordination of Research, 
with Dr. William White as Chairman; and as Secretary, Dr. 
Ralph Troupe, who carried the new title Research Professor of 
Chemical Engineering. By the year 1954, research activities 
had become varied and were becoming extensive. 

Consulting work in the Department of Chemical Engineer- 
ing had led to outside financial support of projects conducted 
by faculty members assisted by senior students or laboratory 
assistants. One illustration is annual grants from Godfrey L. 
Cabot, Inc. for studies carried on by Professor Baker and stu- 
dent assistants, including Stuart Stoddard, Class of 1941, who 
later became a Vice President of the Cabot Company. 

In 1948, the Department of Electrical Engineering received 
a contract for research work for the Air Force Cambridge Re- 

72 



Adaptation to Change 

search Center. This initial contract led to the development of 
five long-range projects in succeeding years: Principles and 
Techniques of Speech Analysis, Research in Statistical Com- 
munications Theory and Reliabilitv, Instrumentation for Geo- 
physical Research, Research in Telemetering, and research 
directed to finding new ways of applying mathematics to engi- 
neering. Professor Martin Essigmann directed and built up the 
general program with Dr. Sze-Hou Chang and Professors J. 
Spencer Rochefort and Louis Nardone in charge of individual 
projects. 

Under the leadership of Dr. Roger Hamilton, the College of 
Business Administration activated a Bureau of Business and 
Economic Research in 1953. Dr. William Miernvk was made 
Director of the Bureau, which in its first year conducted studies 
in "Inter-Industry Labor Mobilitv: The Case of the Displaced 
Textile Worker," "Trends and Cycles in the American Cotton 
Textile Industry," and "Mansfield Master-Plan." Later work of 
the Bureau included a Reprint Series— articles contributed by 
the Director and his research associates to professional journals 
and reviews; "Preparation and Use of Business Case Studies," 
developed by Professor Charles Dufton and student assistants; 
and "The Recruitment, Utilization and Development of Engi- 
neering Faculties," conducted by the Bureau for the committee 
on Development of Engineering Faculties of the American 
Society of Engineering Education. 

In the College of Liberal Arts, the Department of Psychology 
carried out contracts with the U.S. Quartermaster Corps, Re- 
search and Development Command, involving studies in human 
variables in motor vehicle accidents and in performance of 
sensory and motor tasks bv males of military age. 

As outside contracts and grants-in-aid developed, the Faculty 
Committee on Development and Co-ordination of Research 
recommended that a Northeastern University Basic Research 
Fund be established. The recommendation was implemented in 
1957, and three grants were made for research projects in the 
Departments of Biology, Sociology, and Chemical Engineering, 

73 



Origin and Development of Noiiheastern University 

Concurrently, a research policy was formulated Iw the cen- 
tral Committee. On acceptance of the premise that profitable 
imiversity instruction in the twentieth century requires pro- 
vision for research bv teachers who are competent and inter- 
ested, and that a university must offer opportunities for research 
in order to attract and retain superior teachers, the Northeast- 
ern policy was directed toward basic, uncommitted research 
for the extension and transmission of knowledge, "to enhance 
the effectiveness of the educational program through the stimu- 
lating influence upon faculty members of sharing in the con- 
tinued search for new knowledge and better understanding at 
the boundaries of their fields." 

In 1959, another step in the development and co-ordination 
of research programs and projects was taken by the appoint- 
ment of Dr. Carl Muckenhoupt as Director of Research. Dr. 
Muckenhoupt was a member of the Northeastern facult\' from 
1929 to 1946; for the last eleven of those years he was Chair- 
man of the Department of Physics. After acting as Office of 
Naval Research Liaison Officer for Navv-sponsored research 
programs being carried out in New England colleges, he 
came back to Northeastern to direct an area of research which 
had grown from spare-time efforts bv individual teachers to 
a complex structure involving extensive personnel, facilities, 
and funds. 

By these ten major adaptations, during a period of thirty 
years. Northeastern resolved its growing pains as it moved to- 
ward maturity as a universitv. In summarv, thev represent the 
launching of two colleges, the closino; of three schools, the elimi- 
nation of responsibility for one dav school and fi\ e branches 
of evening work, the commitment to co-education throughout 
the University system, and the development and encourage- 
ment of graduate work and applied research. All of these moves 
were efforts "to discover and to meet important needs in the 
field of higher education." 

74 



VII 
A HOME IS BUILT 



For forty years Northeastern was a growing institution with- 
out a home of its own in which it could Hve an independent 
hfe and plan a future. During that period it was housed in 
parental quarters; elsewhere, at different times, it was guest or 
tenant. 

Until 1910 the educational work was carried on in the YMCA 
building on Boylston Street, but early in that year, on January 
10, the building burned completely. The Directors of the 
Boston YMCA had earlier planned for a change of location, 
had decided on a site on the northwest corner of Arlington and 
Newbury Streets as the location for a new central building, 
and had established a building fund for use in the future. 

Following the Boylston Street fire, the work of the YMCA, 
includino; evenincr classes and the few dav classes, continued 
uninterrupted. For three months classes were held in rooms pro- 
vided by the City of Boston, the Boston Young Men's Christian 
Union, Boston University, and M.I.T., and then in a large 
frame building on Ashburton Place. Two years later that build- 
ing was sold to the Boston City Club, and during another in- 
terim period the educational work was carried on, according 
to a contemporary report, in 'Various buildings on Huntington 
and Massachusetts Avenues." 

The Directors of the YMCA, in the meantime, had decided 
not to use the Arlington Street location but to erect a central 

75 




Huntington Avenue Building of the Boston YMCA, huHt in 1913 — 
photograph taken in 1943, before the building of Dodge Library in the 

foreground 



biiildiim on Huntiiiirton Avenue, because of the larcje recreation 
field to the west of the new site and because the Huntington 
Avenue section of Back Bay was being rapidly developed and 
was regarded as an important new center in the expansion of 
Boston. 

Buildings which later became landmarks were beino; con- 
structed during this first decade of the century— S\'mphony 
Hall and Horticultural Hall, 1900; the New England Conserva- 
tory of Music building, 1901; the extension of the Christian 
Science Church from the original Mother Church built twelve 

76 



A Home is Built 

years earlier, 1906; the first of the six architectural sections of 
the Museum of Fine Arts, 1907; the Boston Opera House, 1908. 

Huntington Avenue was the central thoroughfare into and 
through this growing district. In 1875 it had been laid out from 
Boylston Street to Camden (now Gainsborough) Street; later 
it was extended by sections until in 1895 it reached the Brook- 
line town line. 

The avenue was named for Ralph Huntington ( 1784-1866 ) , 
a banker and trader important to the expansion of the Back Bay 
area. He was President of the Boston & Roxbury Corporation 
which built the famous Mill-Dam, and was involved in subse- 
quent enterprises of water power and the development of new 
land in the Back Bav. Among Mr. Huntington's public interests 
was a concern for education; in recognition of his gifts to M.I.T. 
the assembly hall in the Rogers Building on Boylston Street, a 
handsome hall used for many public and general meetings in- 
cluding: Lowell Lectures and the rehearsals of the Handel and 
Ha)'dn Society, bore his name. 

Ground breaking for the main building of the YMCA on 
Huntington Avenue took place in November of 1911, but a 
month earlier the Vocational Building, now the Botolph Build- 
ing, had been completed, and was occupied by the Automobile 
School and Electrical School, which moved from temporary 
quarters on Harcourt Street. The main building was completed 
and occupied in 1913. 

The growth of Northeastern which followed World War I 
necessitated space outside of the YMCA building. In 1920, 
classrooms and instructional offices were set up on the rented 
third floor of the Gainsboro Building. When the Huntington 
Building was completed in 1924, with a second story built "to 
specifications for Northeastern University," the Gainsboro 
Building was vacated. From 1924 until the completion of 
Richards Hall in 1938, Northeastern classrooms, offices, and lab- 
oratories extended, bv successive areas, from Gainsborough 
Street to Symphony Hall— the entire second floor of the Hunt- 
ington Building. 

77 



Origin and Development of Noiiheastern University 

During this period, Northeastern built its own first classroom 
area by adding in 1936 a wing to the Botolph Building, used to 
meet the utilitarian needs of a maintenance shop and a print 
shop as well as the need for classrooms and laboratories for the 
new Department of Biology. 

Both of the rented areas on Huntington Avenue were make- 
shift quarters in which education was accomplished in spite of 
handicaps. In the Gainsboro Building the rooms were adequate, 
but thev were attractive to mice, rats and other noncollegiate 
transients from a drug store and a restaurant on the lower 
floors. The building contained an elevator, restricted to faculty 
use and inclined to break down between floors. In the Hunting- 
ton Building, teachers competed with the noise of traffic, in- 
cluding surface streetcars, and the sounds, odors, and distract- 
ing allure of night-club restaurants and other enterprises which 
occupied the first floor of the building. Several classrooms, un- 
officiallv known as "squash courts," had no windows and were 
ventilated by skylight vents which functioned with decreasing 
efficiency as the years passed. 

In this setting, as well as in the YMCA building and the 
Botolph Building, day and evening classes were conducted, a 
growing program of extracurricular activities was carried on, 
and in all respects the University not onh- survived but made 
progress. Clear evidence of that progress, and of planning for 
the future, is the slow, methodical effort to acquire land on 
which, at some future, undetermined date. Northeastern could 
build a home of its own. 

The first purchase of land, from the Boston and Providence 
Railroad Corporation, took place in 1929, made possible bv 
carefully guarded funds that had accumulated in the previous 
six years during which Northeastern financial accounts had 
been separated from those of the Boston YMCA. The land itself 
was not impressive— slightly more than one acre in extent, lo- 
cated in a wasteland area to the south of the YMCA building, 
about three hundred feet back from Huntington Axenue and 
with no legal means of access from the street to the new land 

78 



A Home is Built 

holding. It was, however, a beginning and a significant pur- 
chase; for the first time, Northeastern University owned tan- 
gible, permanent property in its own name. 

In the following vear, 1930, three pieces of land and two 
buildings were added to the small beginning. On Huntington 
Avenue, the YMCA conveyed to Northeastern nearly two acres 
of land lying between the street and the isolated acre purchased 
in the previous year; YMCA tennis courts and a small handball 
building remained on this land for some years thereafter. The 
YMCA also conveyed title to the Vocational (Botolph) Building 
and the land on which it stood. On Kent Street in Brookline, the 
University purchased the five-acre plot which for several years 
had been used as an athletic field by Northeastern and the 
Huntington School, and on it built a field house. 

These early properties, minor in contrast to later develop- 
ments, mark the beginning of almost continuous activity over 
a period of twentv-two years in accumulating the Huntington 
Avenue campus. By final purchases in 1951 the central campus 
on the south side of the Avenue was established as an area of 
approximately twelve acres, with a street frontage of 1,300 feet. 
This total result was made possible by the acquisition of four- 
teen separate parcels of land, one a mere scrap of 1,290 square 
feet. Numerous previous owners were involved, although major 
portions of the land were held by the Boston Elevated Railway 
Company and The Durant, Incorporated, a private organiza- 
tion which had planned to build a residence hotel for working 
women. Establishing lines, clearing titles, and other technical 
and legal complexities necessitated hours of planning and de- 
tailed work the total of which is beyond estimate. All were part 
of a systematic, progressive program of expansion and develop- 
ment. 

Central figures in the acquisition of land and the clearing of 
titles, from 1929 onward, were Dr. Ell; Dr. Churchill; Mr. 
Light; and Professor Charles O. Baird, who in 1930 began 
working on land surveys and the intricate details of the Land 
Courting of property, and in 1954 became University Engineer. 

79 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

The geographic section of Boston of which the Northeastern 
campus became a part has a long and varied history. Before the 
Ice Age of 20,000 vears ago, a large river, possiblv the Merri- 
mac, flowed through the Back Bay area with the center of its 
channel cutting across the present location of Northeastern; 
this ancient topography accounts for the fact that bed rock 
under the campus is two hundred feet, more or less at different 
points, below the surface. 

Much later, but still before recorded history, the area be- 
came useful to primitive men. When excavations for the Boyl- 
ston Street subway were being made in 1913, and excavations 
later for the foundations of buildings, thousands of stakes dis- 
tributed over an area of deeplv buried mud flats and marshland 
were identified as the remains of a fishweir, estimated to have 
been in use at least 1,400 and perhaps 2,500 vears ago. 

Explorers and settlers of the seventeenth century found a 
wide expanse of tidewater marshland extending from the har- 
bor to the hills of later-named Brookline and Roxburv; the 
references in 1634 to the "backside" of the Charles River ap- 
pear to be the source of the designation "Back Bay." 

In the nineteenth centurv a major extension of the terrain of 
Boston took place in the Back Bav. The Boston & Roxburv Mill 
Corporation, formed in 1814, built a wide dam from Boston 
Common to Sewall's Point in Brookline, and a cross dam to 
Roxbury. The purpose was to produce tidewater power, but 
the dams were also constructed as toll roads; the main dam, 
called ]:)oth Mill-Dam and Western Avenue, followed the pres- 
ent line of Beacon Street and was a novel setting for buggv and 
cutter rides, and races between sporty drivers of high spirited 
horses. 

The construction of railroad lines across the Back Bav, head- 
ing for Providence and Worcester, disturbed the drainage and 
tidal flow. In 1849 a report to the Boston Citv Council pro- 
tested that the Back Bay was "nothing less than a great cess- 
pool." Soon thereafter the filling of the area began, to eliminate 
a public nuisance and to meet a pressing need for land brought 

80 



A Home is Built 

about by high rents in central Boston and the iDuilding of stores 
on downtown streets which formerly had been residential. 

From 1856 to 1894 the Back Bay took on its modern land 
structure. The Commonwealth filled in one hundred acres be- 
tween Arlington Street and Fairfield Street, and sold house lots 
at public auction; it also donated new land on Bovlston Street 
to VI.I.T. and to the Museum of Natural History. An enterpris- 
ing company built a railroad line to Needham and by using 
trains of thirty-five cars to haul fill, produced two building lots 
a day, on "good" days. 

Streets were laid out on the new land but were changed and 
renamed as the district grew and was modified by the demands 
of new decades. Forsvth Street, for example, was successively 
named Bryant Street, Bryant Mall, and Rogers Avenue; and 
sections of it were designated as Rugsles Place and Silver Lane. 
Hemenway Street originallv ran from Boylston Street to Hunt- 
ington Avenue and until 1898 was known as Parker Street, 
Attached to the street names of the area are many interesting 
and curious associations, but none more so than those of 
Botolph Street. According to the traditional storv of England, 
Saint Botolph founded a monastery, in the seventh century, in 
a then ancient town known as Ikanho. Later, out of reverence 
for Saint Botolph, the town changed its name to Botolphstown, 
and still later contracted the name to Boston. 

By the beginning of the twentieth century the Back Bay was 
established as an important section of Boston, but it still was 
spotted with large open areas. The field on Huntington Avenue 
which had appealed to the Directors of the Boston YMCA 
when they bought land for their new building was the scene of 
varied and famous activities. Here, in 1903, was played the first 
World Series baseball same, between the Boston Americans 
and the Pittsburgh Nationals, with the home team the winner. 
In later years the Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey 
Circus raised its tents in the open field, and the Tabernacle of 
the evanjTelist Billv Sundav was there in 1916. Another stimu- 
lating occupant was the Shoot the Chute, in which adventure- 

81 




First World Series baseball game, 1903 — the Cabot Physical Education 
Center now occupies this area 



some citizens slid in toboggan cars down a long incline and 
into a pool of water. After other and incidental uses, and many 
transfers of ownership, these acres on Huntington Avenue, 
facing the Fenway, became the Northeastern campus. 

A memorandum on "Plant Development Plan for Northeast- 
ern University," prepared by Dr. Churchill in 1948, reports that 
on June 14, 1933, Mr. Dodge as Chairman of the Board of 
Trustees appointed a Committee on Housing, comprised of 
seven men with Mr. Dodge and Dr. Speare as ex-officio mem- 

82 



A Home is Built 

bers. Early in 1934 this committee presented a plan for secur- 
ing a design for the development of a University plant and the 
plan was accepted by the Board. An architectural competition 
was held and on June 11, 1934, the Jury of Award, made up of 
the Committee on Housing and the Executive Council of the 
University, having examined the five plans which had been 
submitted, approved the one prepared by Coolidge, Shepley, 
Bulfinch and Abbott. In October of 1934 the Board of Trustees 
established a Committee on Development, for the purpose of 
raising funds for the construction of the first building in the 
development plan. 

An objective backward view to the vears 1933 and 1934 
would suggest that these decisions and plans were ill timed 
and so visionarv as to l)e impossil^lv unrealistic. 

The stock market crash of 1929, with an estimated loss to 
American citizens of fortv l^illion dollars, had initiated a period 
of business depression and of national insecurity, both eco- 
nomic and psvchological. Suicides of business executives, apple 
selling in the streets of great cities, the collapse of over four 
thousand state and national banks during the period 1930 to 
1932, dust bowl farmers facing with shotguns the agents of 
foreclosure, the march to Washington of armed forces veterans 
—all these were harrowing experiences. In 1933 they were still 
grim realities. 

The year 1933 was marked by the first recorded sit-down 
strike, the Senate investigation of Wall Street ( immortalized by 
the midget on the knee of J. P. Morgan), the nagging problem 
of unemplovment, and other disturbing evidences of national 
insecurity and maladjustment. While the vigorous activities of 
the Roosevelt administration gave reassurance to some Amer- 
icans, to others it increased the common temper of skepticism 
and alarm. Such slight signs of confidence as the revival of the 
Miss America beautv contest after a lapse of five years were 
lost in an atmosphere of confusion and defeatism. 

The spectre of the times— a new enemy in the historv of the 
United States— was undefined but universal fear. In the last 

83 



Origin and Development of Noiiheastern University 

months of his Presidency, Herbert Hoover said in precise terms, 
"Ninety per cent of om" difficulty in depressions is caused by 
fear." Frankhn Roosevelt at his inauguration on March 4, 1933, 
said, in words that stirred emotion and imagination, "The only 
thing we have to fear is fear itself— nameless, unreasoning, un- 
justified terror which paralyzes needed eff^orts to convert re- 
treat into advance." 

The optimism and self-confidence of the men who controlled 
the destiny of Northeastern is demonstrated by the fact that in 
this critical period of national demoralization thev adopted a 
plan of development which called for six buildings at an esti- 
mated cost of $3,688,000. Moreover, from 1933 to 1937, while 
the countrv struggled upward from the lowest points of depres- 
sion and despair, these men built the first building of the plan 
and financed in advance most of its cost. 

The public announcement in 1934 of the architectural plan 
was, to be sure, cautious: "The Universitv is not prepared to 
announce just when construction will be started, inasmuch as 
a campaign for funds is required before the buildings are con- 
structed." The same press release, however, also said, "The 
University has reason to feel that in the not-far-distant future 
the first two buildings will be built." 

The need for the first building of the adopted plan had be- 
come critical as insurance of the future of the Collese of Eno;i- 
neering. From 1936 to 1938 the new Engineers' Council for 
Professional Development conducted an accrediting program 
designed to control professional standards in the training of 
engineers, as had been done earlier in the training of aspirants 
to the practice of law and medicine. At Northeastern it became 
apparent, after one examination by ECPD, that the College of 
Engineering could not meet the requirements of the accredit- 
ing body until it was provided with adequate classrooms, 
laboratories, and other facilities. Since the futine of Northeast- 
ern depended at that time on the future of its College of 
Engineering, the construction of a building was imperative. 



84 



A Home is Built 

Fortunately, the leaders of the University had the will and 
determination to undertake expansion in a period which even 
then was regarded as inauspicious if not ominous. 

Funds for the first building were raised by a widespread 
solicitation which included faculty, staff, students, alumni, 
members of the newly formed Corporation, and friends of the 
Universitv. In most instances the contributions were individ- 
ually small and extended over a three-year period, but when the 
building was completed, its $800,000 cost had been met except 
for a mortgaee which was cleared in 1940, the first vear of Dr. 
Ell's presidencv. 

Ground was broken for the building on September 29, 1937; 
the cornerstone was laid in November. These two ceremonies, 
and the later dedication of the building, were the last major 
occasions at which Dr. Speare officiated before his retirement 
as President. 

When the new structure was occupied in June of 1938 it 
was designated as West Building, while the educational area 
of the YMCA was called East Building, and, to complete the 
compass designations, the Botolph Building became the South 
Building. 

On October 3, 1938, Northeastern held "Fortieth Anniver- 
sary and Dedicatory Exercises" in the Boston Opera House. 
The new buildino; was dedicated, as was also the School of Law 
Building at 47 Mt. Vernon Street, earlier purchased and reno- 
vated to prepare, in part, for day classes in law which began 
in September of that year. 

An address was delixered bv Karl T. Compton, then Presi- 
dent of the Massachusetts Institute of Technologv, and Dr. 
Speare conferred honorary degrees upon Mr. Compton; Win- 
throp W. Aldrich, Chairman of the Board of Directors of the 
Chase National Bank; Harvev N. Davis, President of the 
Stevens Institute of Technologv; Dugald C. Jackson, Professor 
Emeritus and Honorarv Lecturer at the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology; Henrv Cabot Lodge, jr., United States Senator 



85 




Richards Hall, completed in 1938 — first unit of the Northeastern 
building plan 



from Massachusetts; and Edward A. Weeks, Jr., Editor of the 
Atlantic Montlihj. 

The West Building made possible new and adequate class- 
rooms, laboratories, administrative offices, an enlarged Book- 

7 7 7 ^ 

store, and general service areas. Particularly important were 
the new quarters of the Department of Chemistrv, dedicated 
at the October exercises as the Charles Hayden Memorial Lab- 
oratories. Remaining in the educational section of the YMCA 
building were classrooms, several instructional offices, and the 
library. 

Two years later the Board of Trustees voted to gi\'e the new 
building a permanent name, and on May 7, 1941, as a part of 
Corporation Day, a tablet in the first-floor lobby was unveiled. 

86 



A Home is Built 
The inscription is: 

RICHARDS HALL 

NAMED FOR 

JAMES LORIN RICHARDS 

INDUSTRIALIST AND PHILANTHROPIST 

HIS VISION, ENERGY, AND 

DEVOTION TO THE NEEDS OF YOUTH 

MADE THIS BUILDING POSSIBLE 

Mr. Richards had l^ecome a vahiable and substantial friend 
of Northeastern. In 1932, the second year in which the Univer- 
sity conferred honorary degrees, he was awarded the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Laws, with the citation: "Organizer, in- 
dustriahst and financier, who, as a self-made man, by dint of 
superior ability, tact, energy, and vision, steadily advanced to 
outstanding achievements in business, becoming a leader in the 
gas and transportation industries and in many other types of 
business enterprises; one who, because of his great attainments 
and his human sympathy, kindliness, and integrity serves as 
an inspiration to youth and is held in high esteem by his asso- 
ciates and the eceneral business world." 

In 1935, Mr. Richards became a member of the Board of 
Trustees, and in the next year a charter member of the new 
University Corporation; he was also helpful in the formation of 
the Corporation bv enlisting members from his wide circle 
of business and civic associates. 

During Northeastern's first effort at fund raising, Mr. Rich- 
ards was responsible for securing more than half of the cost of 
the building which now perpetuates his name and his contri- 
bution to the establishment of Northeastern. 

Mr. Richards died in 1955, less than a week before he would 
have reached his ninetv-seventh birthdav. For nearly seventy 
years of that life span, he was a dominant figure in the indus- 
trial development and modernization of eastern Massachusetts, 
but with interests and influence extending beyond New Eng- 
land. In the last years of his life his biography was written by 

87 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

William T. Cloney, Jr., then a member of the Department of 
English. 

In September of 1940, Dr. Ell, in his third month as President 
of the University, reported to the Board of Trustees that the 
West Building and the other available areas could not long con- 
tain the expanding programs of Northeastern. He also reported 
that he had accumulated $30,000 in gifts for a building fund 
to be used in the future, and he then proposed that in view 
of worsening world conditions a smaller structure than the 
W^est Building should be undertaken immediatelv at a cost of 
$250,000, and asked for authorization to raise the necessary 
funds. 

The result was a building constructed durins; the tis^htenino; 
war year of 1941, when materials and costs presented an 
increasing problem of planning and execution. The "New 
Building" provided space for the Department of Chemical En- 
gineering, an enlarged Department of Biologv, a temporarv 
student lunch room, instructional offices, and classrooms, in- 
cluding a large lecture hall. The "New Building" was later 
named "Science Hall." 

The third building was initiated when the Corporation voted, 
in April, 1944, to raise $1,000,000 for further construction. The 
proposal was a generalized one, since the intention was to add 
at some time in the future a building primarily for use by 
students in recreational and extracurricular activities, with an 
auditorium and a gvmnasium to be added at an even later date. 

By 1944 the original plant design had been revised conspicu- 
ously. The connection of all of the planned buildings had been 
discarded in favor of separate buildings with a connecting 
basement passage, since it became apparent that above-ground 
fusion of the buildings would result in wide and useless corri- 
dors and a reduction of lio;htino; from outside. The central 
building had been designated as a "Student Activities Building" 
and "Gymnasium and Auditorium," but a detailed study of 
property lines and possible land areas proved that a gymnasium 
and auditorium could not be combined. 



• A Home is Built 

During the planning and construction of the Student Center, 
Dr. Ell again exercised his initiative, not only in raising funds 
but in making sure that the building would be complete and 
permanent. Although the auditorium had been planned as a 
later addition, Dr. Ell, with tv^pical forthright decisiveness, 
authorized the ordering of steel for the entire building, and 
therebv insured the construction of the auditorium. 

Alumni Auditorium is a testimony to the response by alumni 
to a campaign conducted from 1945 to 1947. Hundreds of chairs 
in the body of the auditorium bear the names of contributing 
graduates. In the lobby is a plaque listing those alumni who 
made special contributions. 

The Student Center Building and Alumni Auditorium were 
dedicated on October 5, 1947. Thomas C. Clark, then Attorney 
General of the United States, was the principal guest and 
speaker. Among the greetings was that of Robert Bruce, '14, 
Chairman of the Alumni Federation, who said, 

"I cannot conceive of any alumnus coming into this impres- 
sive auditorium, named for the alumni, without experiencing 
a thrill of pride and satisfaction in his relationship to North- 
eastern and a sense of having a vested interest and an obliga- 
tion to advance, in whatever manner he mav be able, the best 
interests of this great institution." 

In the years since 1947, Alumni Auditorium has been the 
scene of many events important in the history of Northeastern. 
Two from the University's "Fiftieth Anniversary Year" are 
especially significant. 

On June 18, 1948, a Gold Star Memorial Service was held, 
participated in by Dr. Ell, Dean Harold Melvin, Dean Charles 
Havice, Professor Robert Bruce, the Rev. Wilbur Ziegler '40, 
and the Rev. Oliver Childers '38. The service was a tribute to 
the 5520 Northeastern men who served in World War II, and 
a plaque in the lobby of the auditorium caiTies 241 names 
under the inscription "In grateful memory of Northeastern Men 
who gave their lives for their countrv 1941-1945." 

The Fiftieth Anniversary Convocation was held in Alumni 

89 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

Auditorium on October 2, 1948. James Bryant Conant, then 
President of Harvard University, gave an address in which he 
stated his view of education which in later years he developed 
more fully: 

"The increasing emphasis on diversity and flexibility is closely 
related to our American ideas of what constitutes a democracy 
... in this country we have evolved a type of fluid and free 
society never seen in the world before. 

"We plan for education of all youth, not a selected few . . . 
we aim at social equality of all useful labor and refuse to have 
our post-high school education a narrow channel leading only 
to learned professions." 

Honorary degrees were conferred at the Fiftieth Anniversary 
Convocation, and two were particularly impressive. 

The Board of Trustees, in secret session, had voted to award 
an honorary Doctor of Laws degree to Robert Gray Dodge, 
their Chairman, in recognition of "a most unusual service to 
the University." 

Dr. Ell announced that the Board of Trustees had voted to 
confer the honorary degree of Doctor of Literature on Rabbi 
Joshua Liebman, before his death in June of 1948. Dr. Ell said: 
"Rabbi Liebman is not here to receive the degree, but his spirit 
is still alive in the community. The memory of his greatness of 
mind and heart remains to guide and encourage us. In his own 
enduring words: 'Life will not perish with us; humanity will 
not die. Culture will not disappear with our generation . . . 
live for the triumph of men whom we shall never know, of ages 
we shall never experience.' " 

At the dinner in honor of Dr. Ell on October 22, 1958, the 
Chairman of the Corporation, Robert Dodge, announced that 
the Student Center Building had been renamed the Carl 
Stephens Ell Student Center. The formal designation of the 
building by that name took place as a part of Alumni Day on 
June 19, 1959. 

Northeastern's library was for many years one of the critical 
points of growth and development. Originally it consisted of 

90 



A Home is Built 

additions to the library which the Boston YMCA provided for 
its members; by 1929 it was a separate collection consisting of 
12,740 books. Miss Myra White, associated with Northeastern 
from 1920 until her retirement in 1957, bnilt the library re- 
sources from small beginnings to a pattern of materials and 
organization needed for a university. 

The addition of a library building to Northeastern's campus 
was determined in time by three factors: the overflow in quan- 
tity of the library itself, the need by the YMCA for the space 
occupied by the Northeastern library, and the national and 
international complications leading to the Korean conflict of 
1950. 

These conditions accelerated the program of planning, fund 
raising, and building. In August, 1950, the Board of Trustees 
voted to proceed with immediate construction, six months 
ahead of planned schedule, and ground was broken on August 
29. The cost of construction was met by another vigorous and 
widespread appeal to Corporation, alumni, faculty and staff, 
students, and friends of the University; the success of the 
campaign was determined by the efforts of many people but 
particularly by the central committee headed by Richard L. 
Bowditch and Robert Cutler. 

The library building, planned to house eventually 300,000 
books, was in use in the summer of 1952, with the fourth floor 
given over to the Drawing Department and with classrooms 
and instructional offices occupying areas which later would be 
used by the library. In 1953, Roland H. Moody came to North- 
eastern from the Lamont Library at Harvard University as 
Director of the University Library, and in the following seven 
years built the library from 37,000 volumes to 95,000. 

At the meeting of the University Corporation in May, 1959, 
the library was named the Robert Gray Dodge Library, in 
honor of the man who was teacher of the first class in law in 
1898, member of the Board of Trustees in 1922, and Chairman 
of the Board from 1932 to 1959. 

Following immediately the erection of the library building, 

91 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

the construction of the Physical Education Center was begun 
in the summer of 1952 and completed in 1954. Funds for the 
building were augmented by gifts from trusts and corporations, 
and the Alumni Fund was used for interior equipment. 

This addition to the Northeastern plant contains two gym- 
nasiums, special exercise rooms, an indoor rifle range, offices 
and service areas, and, as a major unit, a cage used for work 
in physical education, track practice and indoor meets, and 
football and baseball practice. All areas and facilities of the 
Center are used for three phases of Northeastern work: the 
physical education program, the development of athletic 
squads, and some parts of the activity of the ROTC. 

On February 26, 1957, the two related phvsical education 
buildings were named the Godfrey Lowell Cabot Physical 
Education Center, on the occasion of Mr. Cabot's ninety-sixth 
birthday. 

Mr. Cabot became a member of the Universitv Corporation 
in 1941 and thereafter was a valuable and influential friend of 
Northeastern. He first entered the records of Northeastern dur- 
ing the brief period at the end of World War I when the School 
of Co-operative Engineering was activated bv the government 
as an SATC and Navy unit; a report of that period states: "Lt. 
Godfrey Cabot, USN, was helpful in securing materials and 
instructors." 

To provide adequate quarters for the work of the Evening 
Division and classrooms and laboratories for the growing stu- 
dent population, a seventh building was raised during 1955 and 
1956. Until its dedication on October 24, 1956, it was known 
as the "Classroom-Laboratorv Building ; then it was named 
Hayden Hall, "in recognition of the gift from the Charles 
Hayden Foundation." 

An interesting feature of the fund-raising for Ha\'den Hall 
was the series of special events and projects carried out by 
fraternities, clubs, the Silver Masque, and other student groups 
as contributions to the cost of construction. 

When completed, Hayden Hall was occupied by the Eve- 

92 




Cabot Court 



ning Division, the Department of Electrical Engineering, the 
College of Business Administration, and extensive instructional 
areas. 

In July of 1958, ground was broken for the building which 
was to become the Graduate Center, designed to centralize the 
graduate work of the University and to include the Depart- 
ment of Physics ( moved from Richards Hall ) and a University 
cafeteria. This building was dedicated on September 8, 1959, 
the day of the inauguration of the third President of the 
University. 

During the twenty-year period from 1938 to 1958, North- 
eastern brought to reality the campus plan which had been 

93 



Origin and Development of NoHheastern University 

announced in 1934. The original plan underwent changes, but 
the final result was a compact set of major new buildings, con- 
structed at a cost of $8,288,333 in two decades marked histori- 
cally by national industrial depression, two periods of armed 
conflict, and fundamental changes in the pattern of higher 
education which broucrht strain and, in some instances, con- 
fusion to American colleges and universities. 

During the same period. Northeastern extended its property 
and facilities beyond the central campus. Four additions were 
adjacent to the Huntington Avenue plant. 

In 1947 and 1948, land bounded bv Hemenwav, St. Stephen, 
and Forsyth Streets was acquired. This plot of nearlv four acres 
was, like other Back Bay land, an area which had passed 
through manv hands since its reclamation from tidewater 
marshes; fixe owners were involved in the negotiations which 
resulted in final purchase. The land became the North Parking 
Area, and included tennis courts, and, until the buildino; of the 
Physical Education Center, limited space for track practice. 
The limitation of the space was dramatized when during one 
track practice session a zealous participant in the field events 
hurled the hammer over the Northeastern boundaries and to 
the top of a parked car which, perhaps fortunately, was owned 
bv a member of the Northeastern facultv. 

The Tufts Medical and Dental Buildings on Huntington 
Avenue were purchased by Northeastern in 1949, when Tufts 
University moved its schools to an in-town location. After raz- 
ing two of the three buildings, Northeastern occupied the 
Greenleaf Building, establishing there headquarters for the 
ROTC, and new quarters for the Department of Industrial 
Engineering and for electronics research laboratories. 

In 1951, a building on Forsyth Street, vacated bv the Syl- 
van ia Electric Products Companv and at an earlier stage in its 
history a garage, was added to the Northeastern property. 
It was remodeled to become the Forsyth Building, to provide 
additional areas for the ROTC and instructional departments. 

By the mid-1950's, the Boston Opera House had become a 

94 



• '•«j««„«5!« 




University Yard 



liability to its owners, and in 1956 it was condemned as unsafe 
by the City of Boston. Northeastern bought the land and build- 
ing, later removed the building, and used the land as a parking 
area, but with the intention of constructinii in the future a 
building on the land facing Huntington Avenue and the main 
campus, and adjoining the North Parking Area. 

The increase in student enrollment in the Dav Colleges from 
beyond commuting distance led to the first Northeastern dor- 
mitory in 1950, a remodeled residence on Marlboro Street 
which was occupied in that vear by twenty-two women stu- 
dents. In later years, four additional doiTnitories were estab- 
lished in the Back Bay for both women and men students. 

95 




Central Canij)u.s, Huntington Avenue 



By 1960 Northeastern could well say that it had a home of 
its own. That home had been built painfully but carefully from 
the single acre of land of 1929. It was built into a permanent 
city campus on Huntington Avenue, with extensions and addi- 
tions which laid the basis for further development and expan- 
sion in future decades. 

A broad view of the building of the physical Northeastern 
University shows that two unusual elements explain the past 
and forecast the future. 

The plan of development adopted in 1933 has proved to be 
workable and successful. Through the decades the plan was 
kept flexible and was subject to change and modification. 
Nevertheless, the present outcome is remarkably close to the 
estimate of 1933 in actual buildings and in meeting the North- 
eastern needs which at that time could only be conjectured. 

96 



A Home is Built 

Through the combination of chance and foresight, North- 
eastern is located in a section of Boston which in the future will 
become increasingly significant as a specialized community. 

In the early years of the present century the Back Bay was 
a new, open area, in contrast to the other outlying sides of 
Boston where established residential streets, industrial inter- 
ests, and the waterfront precluded extensive expansion. In- 
evitably, schools, hospitals, art centers, social service homes, 
and other institutions gravitated to the Back Bay; among those 
institutions was the Boston YMCA. Since land was available 
and inexpensive, each institution secured all the space it needed 
then or believed it could need in the foreseeable future. 

The future, however, brought development and expansion 
which could not possibly have been foreseen. By mid-century, 
the established permanent institutions in the Back Bay were 
cramped for space, and were facing common problems of the 
need for additional land, and needs for improved commuting 
transportation, parking areas, and housing for permanent and 
temporary residence of employees and patrons. Many institu- 
tions had become established occupants, notabh' the New 
England Conservatory of Music, the Museum of Fine Arts, the 
Harvard Medical School, the hospitals and medical centers of 
the Longwood Avenue area, Simmons College, Emmanuel Col- 
lege, and the Gardner Museum. At the same time, the Back 
Bay had proved to be a variable institutional area; new mem- 
bers came in, while such earlv institutions as Tufts Medical 
School, the Boston Opera House, and Mechanics Hall disap- 
peared from the scene. 

Northeastern is therefore centrally located in an active, 
growing segment of Boston. The nature and function of the 
Back Bay has been determined bv its history; its potential is 
undetermined and unlimited. In the future. Northeastern will 
of necessity work to meet its own needs and will share the 
common interests of other institutions in the further develop- 
ment and the long-range stabilization of the Back Bay as a 
community of educational, cultural, and social service residents. 

97 



VIII 

FIFTY YEARS OF CO-OPERATIVE 
EDUCATION 



During the first half of the twentieth centurv, the co- 
operative plan of education grew from experimental begin- 
nings to the status of a permanent and significant form of 
higher education. Northeastern University, the second educa- 
tional institution to adopt the co-operative plan, established 
and has maintained a central position in the historical develop- 
ment of this method of academic-industrial training. 

Modern co-operative education originated in the pioneer ef- 
forts of Herman Schneider, who adapted to his time the prin- 
ciple of co-ordinating theory and the application of theory 
which had been thought and written about and in a small wav 
practiced for several centuries. 

After his earlv vears in a Pennsvlvania minins; town, Mr. 
Schneider was graduated from Lehigh Universit\' in 1894 as an 
architect. Varied experiences in architecture, in railroad con- 
struction in the Northwest, and as an instructor in civil 
engineering at Lehigh University led to a serious anahtical con- 
sideration of the proper training for engineers. Mr. Schneider 
saw engineering curricula of that time as mereh' an extension 
of traditional liberal arts education, conducted in an isolated 
academic setting. He believed that for technical students the 
classroom and the outside world could be related, and that the 
young engineer should learn methods, processes, and practices 
during his college years rather than aftenvard. He also foresaw 

98 



Fiftij Years of Co-operative Education 

possibilities of adapting his thinking to commercial, business, 
and liberal arts undergraduate education. 

Having formulated a plan which to him seemed theoretically 
sound and at the same time workable, Mr. Schneider met with 
resistance and opposition ranging from skepticism to scorn. 
Educators and business men found the proposal interesting but 
in their opinion completely impractical. High school graduates 
were reluctant to undertake a program of six years, leading to 
a degree which they could earn in four years of conventional 
education. Mr. Schneider spent five years in a continuous effort 
to win support and the opportunity to put his plan into action. 

In 1906 at the Universitv of Cincinnati, where Mr. Schneider 
had been a member of the faculty for three years, an experi- 
mental year of co-operative engineering education was under- 
taken, involving fifteen Cincinnati companies who employed 
six pairs each of mechanical and electrical engineering stu- 
dents, and three students of chemical engineering, one without 
an alternate. This group started a six-vear program of work and 
study in alternating units of one week. At the end of the first 
year, Mr. Schneider was authorized to continue the program, 
and co-operative education was under way. 

As Dean and later President of the University of Cincinnati, 
Herman Schneider saw his experiment firmly established, not 
onlv at his universitv but elsewhere. By the vear of his death, 
1939, his plan had been adopted bv forty American colleges and 
universities. Some institutions dropped it after ^ a trial period, 
others made minor or drastic changes in the original concept 
and its application, but the co-operative plan had become an 
accepted and respected addition to the pattern of American 
higher education. 

In Boston, co-operative education was initiated in 1909 with 
"Co-Operative Engineering Courses" conducted bv the dav 
Polytechnic School of the YMCA Evening Institute. Eight 
young men started four vears of courses on one-week alternat- 
ing periods of classroom studv and emplovment in Boston 
industrial companies. In the following year the Institute an- 

99 



Origin and Development of Noiiheastern University 

nounced curricula in Civil and Mechanical Engineering and 
in Chemistry; in 1911-1912 Electrical Engineering was added 
and Chemistry was changed to Chemical Engineering. The 
1912-1913 catalog was issued under the name "Co-Operative 
Engineering School." 

These programs did not lead to an academic degree, but the 
appeal and value of co-operative education in the Boston area 
is shown by statistical evidence. Bv 1913-1914, for example, 
the original enrollment of eight had increased to 107, and the 
four co-operating companies had increased to fourteen. In the 
following vears, and in spite of World War I, the figures grew 
steadilv. 

In 1920 Northeastern College was authorized to grant de- 
grees in its Co-operative School of Engineering, and in 1936 
the school became the present College of Engineering, includ- 
ing the four original curricula and Industrial Engineering, 
which developed from a curriculum in Administrative Engi- 
neering, added in 1921. 

Northeastern built its dav colleges on the premise of the co- 
operative plan of education. Full-time study was made avail- 
able during several brief periods through the decades, primarily 
in times of educational stress caused by economic and world 
conditions, but as the Colleges of Business Administration, 
Liberal Arts, and Education were added to the structure of the 
University, they were developed in an educational plan parallel 
to that of the College of Engineering. 

The progress and status of the co-operative plan at North- 
eastern have been directed, both in principle and precept and 
in the mechanics of operation, by five men in succession. 

Hercules W. Geromanos, as Dean of the Polytechnic School, 
administered the plan in its first vears. With help from Frank 
Palmer Speare and others he introduced the new idea to Boston 
companies and secured commitments to accept working stu- 
dents in 1909; thereafter he supervised the students in their 
relationships with the school and with their employers. 

In 1917 Carl S. Ell succeeded Mr. Geromanos as Dean, and 

100 



Fifty Years of Co-operative Education 

assumed, along with his other responsibihties, that of placing 
students on jobs and coordinating their studv and work, as he 
had had a hand in doing for several previous years. During the 
next two-year period Dean Ell extended the roster of co- 
operating companies from twenty-seven to forty-two as the 
student body increased from 160 to 235. At that point the 
growth of the school made necessary a division of labor. 

Philip C. Nash joined the staff of Northeastern College in 
1919 as Professor of Civil Engineering and was later made 
Director of Engineering Practice. Mr. Nash had previously 
been a practicing engineer with the Boston Transit Commission 
and had worked on the design and construction of the South 
Boston Tunnel; he also had served in the United States Army 
in World War I as a Captain. 

In February of 1921 the student newspaper The Tech re- 
ported that Professor Nash had been granted a leave of absence 
to go to Yellow Springs, Ohio, where Arthur Morgan, as Presi- 
dent of Antioch College, was in process of reorganizing the 
college on a co-operative plan designed "to train proprietors 
and owners rather than emplovees." Mr. Nash established the 
co-operative plan at Antioch College and stayed on to become 
Dean of the college. Later, he was Executive Director of the 
League of Nations Association, and in 1933 President of the 
Universitv of Toledo. In 1938, nine vears before his death, Mr. 
Nash was the recipient of an honorary LL.D. degree from 
Northeastern University. 

The fourth man to guide co-operative work at Northeastern, 
and the second to hold the title of Director of Engineering 
Practice, was Winthrop E. Nightingale, who in the spring of 
1921 was appointed to that position and also made Assistant 
Professor of Civil Engineering. With the later titles of Director 
of Co-operative Work and Director of the Department of Co- 
operative Work, Winthrop Nightingale built the program 
through the years until his death in 1953. 

The increasing size and complexitv of Northeastern's co- 
operative education during this period of thirty-two years is 

101 



Origin and Development of Noiiheastern University 

indicated by growth in numbers from 433 engineering students 
in 1921 to the 1953 total of 2379 students in the three colleges 
of Engineering, Business Administration, and Liberal Arts. In 
the second year of his work. Professor Nightingale's staff con- 
sisted of an Assistant Director of Engineering Practice, who 
was also a member of the teaching faculty; at the end of his 
period of direction his department was made up of ten Co- 
ordinators of Co-operative Work. 

This expansion was dominated by Professor Nightingale's 
systematic administrative abilities and his intense and unswerv- 
ing belief in the educational values and personal disciplines of 
co-operative education. The 1953 senior annual, The Cauldron, 
included in its In Memoriam statement: ". . . Completely de- 
voted to his work at the Universitv, Professor Ni2:htino;ale was 
highly regarded bv his colleagues, by students, and by co- 
operating employers as a man of stalwart integrity, indefatig- 
able energy, and splendid personal qualities. " 

Roy L. Wooldridge became Director of the Department of 
Co-operative Work in 1953 and has held the position since that 
time, extending and adapting the work of the department and 
its personnel to the chaneino; conditions of recent vears. Pro- 
fessor Wooldridge was graduated from Northeastern in 1945 
and after four years in engineering work returned to his uni- 
versity as a Co-ordinator in the department which he now 
heads. 

In the years that followed Herman Schneider's valiant ex- 
periment in Ohio, the tenn "co-operative education" came to 
be widely used. It was applied to substantial technical curricula 
leading to recognized academic degrees, and it was also the 
name given to educational experiments which in some instances 
were little more than extended field trips of industrial observa- 
tion and some actual work. All of these uses and adaptations 
of the co-operative idea had values and validit\'. Northeastern 
University has been unusual in its continuous and complete 
use of the idea. 

The completeness of use is indicated by some of the policies 

102 



Fifty Years of Co-operative Education 

and practices which Northeastern estabUshed early in its de- 
velopment and has held to consistently. 

Except during brief interludes, the colleges of the Day Divi- 
sion have been operated entirely on the co-operative plan. The 
acceptance of a student for the freshman year implies the 
responsibilitv of the Uni\'ersitv to place him on co-operative 
work, provided he satisfactorilv completes the freshman )'ear. 
Co-operative work is not optional for the student, nor is it as- 
signed to a limited group of selected students. The University 
holds complete control of placement, rather than allowing stu- 
dents to find their own work. 

Because co-operative work has been an integral part of the 
functioning of Northeastern, the Department of Co-operative 
Work has alwavs had a voice in university administration and 
policy, through representation of the department on central 
committees of the University. 

As developed by Winthrop Nightingale, a stringent policy 
has been the maintenance of close contact between Northeast- 
ern and co-operating companies. By systematic planning of 
time, co-ordinators make visits once during every ten-week pe- 
riod to firms within dav commuting distance of the University, 
twice a year to outlving companies, and once a year to the 
most distant companies, in such states as Michigan and North 
Carolina. These visits accomplish several purposes; foremost 
is the opportunitv to meet with supervisors to review the 
student's progress on the job and to assist the employer in im- 
proving or adapting the program to best meet his own expec- 
tations while enhancing the student's learning opportunities. 
These personal contacts in the field improve the co-ordinators 
knowledge of his students, keep him abreast of the latest de- 
velopments in his area of specialtv, and perform an important 
public relations function for the University. On local visits the 
co-ordinator often does not see the student worker; at distant 
points, where the student is awav from his home, the co- 
ordinator alwavs sees him to bring; him news and a reminder 
of his University. 

103 



Origin and Development of NoHheastern University 

A Business Conference, sponsored in 1948 by the Depart- 
ment of Co-operative Work, became later the Co-operating 
Employers' Dinner. At this annual event emplovers and super- 
visors, whom Dr. Ell often addressed in past years as "the 
faculty in the field, " visit Northeastern and become better ac- 
quainted with the academic setting of the students whom they 
emplov. 

A deliberate effort has been made to build up diversity of 
employment, to avoid concentration of student workers in one 
industry or in a group of related industries, and thus to provide 
breadth of training opportunities as well as to avoid problems 
of readjustment should the need for students decrease in any 
one industry. 

The Northeastern Co-operative Plan has been adjusted to 
changing times and conditions. Perhaps the best illustration of 
flexibility is the increase in the length of alternating periods of 
study and work. 

Employers naturally prefer to have students on their jobs as 
long as possible, to ayoid breaks in continuity and the readjust- 
ment of individuals. Likewise, teachers, especially those with 
traditional backgroimd, believe that students learn best and 
most during solid blocks of time on the campus. Dr. Ell, who 
played a vital part in the development of co-operative educa- 
tion at Northeastern, became convinced that the period of class 
work should equip the student with a unit of subject matter to 
apply on the job, but that the working period should not be of 
such length as to break the student's feeling of identity with 
his university. After experimentation with one-week, two-week, 
and five-week periods of alternation, the ten-week plan was 
adopted as the time unit providing the greatest benefits and 
avoiding the major disadvantages. 

By the application of these policies the Co-operative Plan at 
Northeastern continued in operation and progressed in effec- 
tiveness, in spite of handicaps. 

During the depression period of 1930 to 1935 student em- 
ployment dropped sharply; Winthrop Nightingale, writing for 

104 



Fifty Years of Co-operative Education 

Industry Magazine, reported: ". . . the lowest point to which 
the co-operative employment curve sank was 42% of the stu- 
dents enrolled." Companies which wanted to retain students 
on their payrolls were reluctant to do so while family men were 
in need of work. Many helpful employers resorted to the stop- 
gap measure, beneficial to themselves and to students, of using 
students for temporary jobs as special needs arose. Many of 
these jobs had no relation to the students' curricula, but they 
provided work for compensation in a period when money was 
scarce. Throughout this difficult period the members of the 
Department of Co-operative Work continued to visit com- 
panies, both employers and prospective employers, and thereby 
maintained a continuity of relationship. The Northeastern Co- 
operative Plan was kept in the consciousness of business and 
industry, and groundwork was laid for future development in 
the post-depression years. 

Even in times of prosperity the correlation of study and work 
has been difficult to implement in all academic curricula. 
Hemian Schneider worked with technological students, though 
he thought also of students of business and the humanities. 
Northeastern adapted the plan to all of its colleges. Inevitably, 
some students saw no correlation between the jobs to which 
they were assigned and the subject in which they were major- 
ing; most of them eventually recognized the basic and periph- 
eral values of practical experience under working conditions 
during formative undergraduate years. 

By its very nature, the co-operative plan depends for success 
upon complex and delicate relationships involving student, em- 
ployer, co-ordinator, and at some points teacher and university 
administrator. These relationships can l^ecome strained and on 
occasion they can break down. The reason may be the unco- 
operative and dissatisfied student, the busv or unsvmpathetic 
employer, or the co-ordinator who has misjudged just one of 
the many elements in a situation which needs adjustment. 

Inherent in the co-operative plan, also, are numerous subtle 
and intangible problems. In some companies non-college super- 

105 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

visors and other workers resent the visiting collegians; as a 
result, the student is handicapped by his academic status and 
if he makes a mistake, is more directlv and severely criticized 
than he would be if he were not a student. Women students 
on co-operative work are less impressed by preparation for a 
career through experience in routine work than bv an interest- 
ing job at a satisfactory wage. Some companies trv the co- 
operative plan with little understanding of its purpose and 
function, and soon find reasons for abandoniufr it. These 
problems in himian relations are part of the work of the co- 
ordinators, and part of the education of the students. 

In spite of the strains imposed upon co-operative education 
by varying industrial conditions and the demands made on all 
those concerned in operating the plan, the values of co- 
operative education are by now well established. 

Work assignments give the student a chance to see his pro- 
fession in action; at graduation he is oriented to it. On the 
other hand, he may have decided along the way that the pro- 
fession is not congenial to him, and he has been able to change 
his direction while still an undergraduate. The "Co-op" student 
learns work habits and requirements, standards and values, and 
the basic rules of harmonious association with other workers, 
and thereby accumulates during his college years the larger 
orientation necessary to any worker in any profession. 

Since World War II, changes in attitude toward co-operative 
work have become apparent and have affected the operation of 
the plan at Northeastern as elsewhere. 

The rapid expansion in manv areas of business and industrv 
has been accompanied bv an increasing need for manpower 
trained both in general disciplines and in specialized skills and 
techniques. The result has been a wider acceptance of student 
workers and an increase in compan\' training programs for 
students; in 1958-1959, for example, fifty per cent of all North- 
eastern co-operative work students were in planned company 
training programs of varving lengths and degrees of formality. 

Co-ordinators find now a ready acceptance of students as 

106 



Fifty Years of Co-operative Education 

desirable employees. The students, often given opportunities to 
prove their ingenuity and creativitv as well as their ability to 
do routine work, in many instances have made real contribu- 
tions to their companv and have been rewarded with assign- 
ments of increasing importance and responsibility. Frequently 
the exceptional student moves naturally into exceptional work: 
auditing rather than doing simple accounting, working on the 
development of the gas turbine engine rather than performing 
routine mechanical chores, writing copv for a newspaper rather 
than acting as a City Room errand bov. 

These changes are part of a growing inter-relationship of 
education and the world of business, a basic shift in under- 
standing and effort toward mutual accomplishment reflected at 
other points in the pattern of contemporary higher education. 

The increasing importance of graduate work for engineers 
led to the establishment in 1956 of a co-operative program lead- 
ing to the master's degree in Electrical Engineering. A year 
later additional programs in Mechanical and Civil Engineering 
were added. 

After a half century of operation Northeastern continues to 
be a university built on and committed to co-operative educa- 
tion; without this plan, now tried and proved, Northeastern 
would not have served a valid purpose in the Boston educa- 
tional community and, indeed, might not have come into being. 



107 



IX 



SIXTY YEARS OF EVENING 
EDUCATION 



Since 1898, evening education at Northeastern has passed 
through successive stages of evokitionarv development. In its 
general aspects the development has been part of the chang- 
ing national pattern of evening education; at some points, in- 
novations and variations in method and emphasis have been 
peculiar to Northeastern. 

In the years of the YMCA Evening Institute and later under 
the direction of the University, evening programs were concen- 
trated in four areas: law, college preparatorv work, engineer- 
ing and related technical study, and business. 

The School of Law was throughout its fifty-eight years of 
operation an evening school, supplemented during the last 
years of that period bv a day program. 

From the establishment of the E\ ening Preparatory School 
in 1904 until the termination in 1956 of the last of the pre- 
college courses offered bv the Lincoln Preparatorv School, sec- 
ondary education was a small but stable and \aluable part of 
the evening work. 

The Polytechnic School of 1904 was designed to meet the 
needs of men and bovs working in the expanding and increas- 
ingly complex technical trades of a new centur\'. After ten 
years of operation the school was offering three, four, and five- 
year programs in Chemistrv and in Chemical, Electrical, Struc- 
tural, Railroad, and Municipal Engineering. The student 

108 



Sixty Years of Evening Education 

enrolled for three courses each year. The scanty records indi- 
cate that most of the students did not complete full programs, 
but they undoubtedly accumulated knowledge and skills useful 
to them in their work. 

The Polytechnic School was extremely flexible. It changed its 
offerings frequently, and was directed by several successive 
Deans, including Carl S. Ell, who was in charge of the school 
from 1919 to 1924. Three years later, the name Lincoln Insti- 
tute was adopted, with James W. Lees as Director. Mr. Lees 
continued as head of the school until 1945. 

In a somewhat parallel way the School of Commerce and 
Finance, started in 1907, developed and changed as education 
for business changed. Unlike the Polytechnic School, it estab- 
lished degree programs, in Business Administration and Pro- 
fessional Accounting. The Bachelor of Commercial Science 
degree was granted to a student who was a high school grad- 
uate, who passed the four-year sequence of courses with at least 
a grade of C, and who had had two years of "satisfactory busi- 
ness experience." The requirements for the Master of Commer- 
cial Science degree were the bachelor's degree, a year of study 
"under the direction of the faculty," and a general examination 
at the end of the year. 

Comparative figures show that the School of Commerce and 
Finance enrolled more students than did the Polytechnic 
School, especially in the years following World War I when 
Northeastern was conducting programs in outlying cities. The 
direction of the school was carried out by eleven different men 
from 1907 to 1945; of this group, Carl D. Smith served longest 
as Dean, from 1923 to 1935. During his administration, in 1928, 
the school became the School of Business. 

As the decades of the present century passed, conspicuous 
changes in concepts and premises as well as in content and 
method took place at most American colleges and universities 
which conducted evening education. These changes are re- 
flected by the contrast in the names which colleges formerly 
used and now use to designate their evening programs. The 

109 



Origin and Development of Northeastern Vniversitij 

earlv terms, so consistently used as to l)e almost universal, were 
"night school" and "adult education. " Both terms came to have 
circumscribed and, in manv quarters, slightly negative conno- 
tations. A night school was assumed, especially by educational 
traditionalists, to be one which provided a second-choice and 
therefore necessarily a second-rate form of education. "Adult 
education" was a flexible term; it was applied to courses and 
lectures in technical study, pottery making, cookerv, wood- 
working, the appreciation of music, and many other subjects. 
These were worthy activities but thev could hardly be con- 
sidered "significant" or "substantial" on the level of higher 
education. Evening education suffered increasingly from the 
handicap of labels which seemed, in both the public and the 
academic mind, to establish limitations as well as limits. 

In contrast, John P. Dyer in Ivorij Towers in the Market Place 
reports that the one hundred members of the Association of 
University Evening Colleges use thirty-three different names. 
Most common, in order of frequency, are Evening Division, 
Evening College, and University College. Others are Intown 
College, Downtown College, College of Adult Education, 
School of General Studies, Communit\' Colleije, College of 
Special and Continuation Studies, and one which Mr. Dyer 
finds particularly interesting in its descriptive value— Twilight 
School. 

In its earlv phases, evening education was regarded bv most 
of those administering and teachino; it as a continuation of sec- 
ondary education. The content of manv courses was simplified 
and diluted. While curricula might lead to degrees, they often 
were not directed in a svstematic wa\' toward the professional 
and humanistic growth and de\'elopment of the student. Efforts 
were made to correlate and integrate courses, but the efforts 
frequently were incomplete or ineffectual. 

Exploratory thinking among those concerned with e\'ening 
education was accelerated in the years following World War II, 
when students wanting education of all kinds at all levels in- 
creased numerically at a rapid rate. Consideration was given 

110 



Sixty Years of Evening Education 

to the objectives, new and old, of evening education, to the 
kinds and tvpes, backgrounds and potentials of students to be 
served, and to methods of building curricula which would pro- 
vide professional preparation and improvement and at the same 
time give the student perspective on his relation to the society 
and the culture of which he is a part. It was found that because 
evening education is not bound by long tradition and fixed 
patterns, any possibility could be examined and any feasible 
possibilitv could be undertaken. As a result, evening education 
of the present decade is not only more extensive than it was 
fifteen vears ago but is much improved in quality and scope. 

At Northeastern, the changes in evening education during 
the past fifteen vears are accounted for by the trends of the 
period and by some special local conditions. 

B\' the early 1940's, Northeastern had determined and estab- 
lished its position and role in the educational community of 
Boston, and it alreadv had or had in prospect the facilities and 
equipment adequate to meet the new and larger needs. North- 
eastern was in all respects a flexible university, experienced in 
adapting itself to changing educational conditions. Finally, 
there was at the University personnel with interest and belief 
in evening education and the administrative and promotional 
abilitv needed to develop and conduct the kind of evening 
education called for in a new period. 

In 1945, Albert E. Everett was made Dean of the School of 
Business and Director of the Evening Division. Dean Everett, 
a graduate of Northeastern, had become a member of the Uni- 
versitv facultv in 1927, as a Co-ordinator in the Department of 
Co-operative Work. In the years immediately preceding his 
appointment in 1945 he had been in charge of the Engineering, 
Science, and Management War Training program. In his new 
position, he worked on the development of the School of Busi- 
ness, while Donald H. MacKenzie took charge of Lincoln In- 
stitute. 

Dean MacKenzie had been graduated from Northeastern in 
1931 and had been associated with the Universitv thereafter, 

i 
111 



Origin and Development of Noi'theastern University 

as a teacher, an assistant in the Department of Student Activ- 
ities, and in other administrati\'e work. Under his direction 
Lincohi Institute was adapted to the post-war period. Courses 
were streno:thened bv the increase in class sessions from two 
hours to two and one-half, with a resultant substantial increase 
in the semester hours of credit required for a degree. Course 
content was upgraded and modernized, and basic programs 
were changed; curricula in electronics and in industrial engi- 
neering were added, and the aeronautics option in mechanical 
engineering was dropped. 

These changes, in a time of increasing demand for special- 
ized technical training, resulted in a consistent growth in the 
quality and enrollment of Lincoln Institute. Quality was re- 
flected by enrollment, as students sought and found the eve- 
ning study which satisfied their needs and interests. In the 
academic year 1944-1945, 367 students studied at Lincoln In- 
stitute, and were taught by a faculty of twent\'-eight. In 1959- 
1960, the enrollment was 3966, and the facult)^ numbered 185. 

After some changes and experiments, the Institute estab- 
lished its offerings as Chemistry, leading to the degree of Asso- 
ciate in Science; Civil, Electrical, Electronic, Industrial, and 
Mechanical Engineering, leading to the degree of Associate in 
Engineering; and an Engineering and Management program 
by which, with additional work in the School of Business, a 
student could earn the degree of Bachelor of Business Ad- 
ministration. 

Students enrolled in these programs are men and women 
whose daily work is on technical and semi-technical jolis in a 
great diversity of companies, large and small, in the Greater 
Boston area. They continue their education in preparation for 
advancement in their work to more responsible and more dif- 
ficult jobs, and each year more of them are sponsored finan- 
cially, wholly or in part, by the companies for which they work. 

The expansion of the School of Business during the past fif- 
teen years has been even more marked than the growth of 
Lincoln Institute. The reasons are the industrial changes which 

112 



Sixty Years of Evening Education 

have taken place in Massachusetts, coupled with Dean Everett's 
energetic administration and his policy of going out to the busi- 
ness community to determine the varying needs of different 
areas and industries and then constructing courses and groups 
of courses to meet these needs. 

Under Dr. Everett's administration the School of Business 
was rebuilt to serve three distinct groups of students. 

Degree candidates constituted the largest number of students 
in the School of Business. By way of eighteen professional pro- 
grams leading to the degree of Bachelor of Business Adminis- 
tration they completed a series of Core Courses, for general 
orientation to business; Professional Courses, dealing with a 
field of specialization; and Liberal Arts courses, directed to- 
ward a view of man in relation to his culture, his society, and 
his universe. The total of the academic work represented 124 
semester hours, in contrast to the forty-eight hours required by 
the original School of Commerce and Finance. 

Manv of the degree candidates came to the School of Busi- 
ness to complete a college education started elsewhere at an 
earlier time. A survey of the student bodv conducted in 1959 
by Richard W. Bishop of the School of Business staff showed 
that of the 2,808 students who returned the survey question- 
naire, 1,370 had previously attended seventy-eight New Eng- 
land colleges and 112 colleges in other parts of the countrv and 
abroad. 

The second group of students enrolled in Institute programs, 
where thev took courses dealine; with such business areas as 
insurance, retailing, labor relations, and office management. 
These students accumulated credit toward a certificate or quali- 
fication for transfer to one of the degree programs. 

Special students constituted a third group. They were work- 
ing men and women, some of them college graduates with 
advanced degrees, who needed a special skill, such as drafting, 
or who wanted to study new and current developments in an 
area of previous study. Thev came to the School of Business for 
single courses or a series of related courses. 

113 



Origin and Development of Noiiheastern University 

Since 1945, the work of the evening School of Business has 
been experimental and exploratory in manv directions. From 
these efforts have come pioneer courses in job analysis and • 
evaluation, transportation and traffic management, materials 
handling and, more recently, reliability engineering; early 
courses in statistical quality control led to the founding of the 
Boston Society of Quality Control. 

Since 1954 an important adjunct of the School of Business 
has been the Bureau of Business and Industrial Trainins;. The 
Bureau was an outgrowth of the Engineering, Science, and 
Management War Training program, a government-sponsored 
national effort to train workers as replacements of men who had 
gone into active war service and to prepare workers in war in- 
dustries for more advanced technical jobs. Northeastern par- 
ticipated in the program from 1940 to 1945 and, largely through 
the work of Dr. Everett, developed a total of 135 special 
courses in mathematics, physics, drawing, chemistry, radio, in- 
dustrial methods, time study, electronics, and similar subjects. 

The industrial experience of W^orld War II and the condi- 
tions of the post-war period established a general recognition 
of the need for special training of compan\' personnel to meet 
local company problems. After some experimentation, the Bu- 
reau of Business and Industrial Training undertook to meet the 
need with both brief and extended courses, usually conducted 
at the company rather than on the campus and always courses 
prepared specifically for the occasion rather than courses from 
the regular curricula of the School of Business. B\' 1959 the 
Bureau was working with forty different New England com- 
panies, for some providing single courses in such subjects as 
letter writing or quality control, for others fiunishing an ex- 
tended program of training to prepare young company per- 
sonnel for managerial work in future years. 

The work of the Bureau was, in the usual sense, non- 
academic, since the courses and groups of courses did not carry 
credit toward a degree. In contrast, the School of Business 
initiated in 1950 programs of study leading to the degree of 

114 



Sixty Years of Evening Education 

Master of Business Administration. This academic work at- 
tracted students who were interested in more knowledge of 
business and the professional advantage of an advanced degree 
and who were available for classroom work only in the evening. 

Another evidence of the extension and improvement of eve- 
ning education in the post-war decades is the changes that have 
taken place at Northeastern in evening studv in liberal arts. 

In 1938, Northeastern started a two-year pre-legal program 
in liberal arts, as preparation for entrance to schools of law. 
Two years later the program was extended in requirements to 
an Associate in Arts degree course which gave the student four 
choices: termination of collegiate study, pre-legal preparation, 
transfer to a day college of liberal arts at Northeastern or else- 
where, and transfer to the Northeastern School of Business. In 
1953, a further extension of requirements established a program 
leading to the Bachelor of Arts degree. ' 



115 



X 

STUDENT ACTIVITIES 



The January 20, 1926, issue of the student newspaper The 
NoHheastern Tech reported in its front page lead story : 

"Professor Joseph Spear, since 1921 in charge of the Depart- 
ment of Student Activities, has submitted to Dean Ell his resig- 
nation as Director of Student Activities in order to devote his 
entire time to the Department of Nhithematics of which he is 
chairman. 

"When Professor Spear came to the school, student activities 
were almost non-existent. A paper, 'The Co-op,' was irregularh- 
published, an occasional dance was held, and once in a while 
the classes held smokers. Under his direction, the musical ac- 
tivities of the school were initiated and developed. Bv devoted 
work, he gathered together a band; begged, borrowed, or bought 
instruments, training his raw recruits until the^ could present a 
creditable program. The orchestra, also, was started b\ him in 
much the same wav. His enthusiasm, howexer, \\'as not con- 
fined to musical activities. In March, 1920, he planned the still- 
remembered Degree Jubilee. ... In the spring he had a large 
part in developing Field Day, now a Northeastern tradition." 

This report, as well as the sur\ i\ ing records of the period, 
shows that during the 1920's extracurricular actixities at North- 
eastern became a planned and significant part of the work of 
the young university. There was, however, background to this 
development, and a groimdwork on which to build. 

116 



Student Activities 

In October of 1916 a monthly student newspaper The Co-op 
made its first appearance. It was a small, four-page, three- 
column publication, and the first number announced that it had 
been started "through the efforts of Mr. Ell." In the same year 
local professional societies in Civil, Mechanical, Electrical, and 
Chemical Engineering were started; in later years these or- 
ganizations and societies in other academic curricula became 
affiliated with regional and national societies. 

In the spring of 1917 a senior annual The Cauldron was 
issued. It contained pictures of twenty seniors and a faculty of 
nineteen, and was dedicated to Hercules Geromanos, then Dean 
of the School of Engineering. It reported the activities of the 
year, including a Co-op Orchestra, a Student Council, a Co-op 
Glee Club, a Co-op Dance, and a Co-op Athletic Association. 

A particularly interesting summary in this first yearbook re- 
ports the season of a basketball team, coached by Carl S. Ell 
and completing its season with six victories and five losses. The 
opponents were the Boston YMCA, Bridgewater Normal School, 
Rhode Island State Normal School, Massachusetts College of 
PhaiTnacy, Massachusetts Nautical Training School, Wentworth 
Institute, Watertown Community Club, and two games each 
with Fitchburg State Normal School and Boston University. 

The war period following 1916-1917 curtailed student ac- 
tivities. The Cauldron did not appear again until 1921, but The 
Co-op continued to be published on a somewhat irregular basis. 
Fraternities entered the structure of activities during this in- 
terim period with the founding of Beta Gamma Epsilon and 
Alpha Kappa Sigma in 1919 and Eta Tau Nu in the next year. 

Although Joseph Spear was not officiallv in charge of student 
activities until 1921, he was a dynamic force in that area im- 
mediately after his joining the faculty in 1919, following his 
war service and before that two years of teaching mathematics 
and German at the University of Maine. By 1920 Professor 
Spear had recruited and trained a vigorous band of eighteen 
members, including Edward S. Parsons '22 and Albert E, 
Everett '23. 

117 



Origin and Development of No)iheastern University 

The new Department of Student Activities of 1921 was made 
up of Divisions of Publications, Athletics, and Miscellaneous 
Activities; a Division of Music was added later. The depart- 
ment de\'eloped its own budget and financial control by way 
of a ten-dollar Student Activities Fee which was accepted by 
vote of the students and was later increased to fifteen dollars, 
also by vote of the students. 

During Professor Spear's administration of activities the four 
divisions of the department added new activities and improved 
those that had alreadv existed. 

In publications, the student newspaper, which in 1920 had 
changed its name to The Northeastern Tech, expanded to a five- 
column page and increased its circulation from 600 to 1800 as 
the student bodv grew. Tlic Cauldron reappeared in 1921 and 
has had a continuous life since that vear. A student handbook 
or "Freshman Bible" was added to the annual publications. 

The Division of Athletics took over direction of three sports, 
added three, and in 1924 established athletics on a University 
basis, with requirements for eligibilitv, letter awards, and other 
phases of intercollegiate competition. 

From 1920 onward baseball and basketball were major sports, 
with regular scheduled seasons and coaching by successive 
members of the faculty. Track had a slightly earlier start. In 
1919 a team made up of members of the classes of 1922 and 
1923 carried out a limited but organized season. In the next 
vear a team captained h\ Edward Parsons and Hjalmar Fundin 
was active, and in 1921, with Joseph W. Zeller as Coach of 
Track, this sport was firmlv established. By 1925 it had de\el- 
oped sufficiently in status and participation to warrant the be- 
ginning of cross country as a separate varsity sport. 

Wrestling was added to Northeastern sports in the 1920's 
Init it did not become a permanent part of the program. There 
is also a record of swimming as an acti\it\', though not as a 
recognized sport. 

In the fall of 1922 soccer was started as a minor sport, and 
the new team had the satisfaction of winning its first game, 

118 



Student Activities 

with M.I.T. as opponent. The sport was launched and devel- 
oped through the efforts of George Frost '24, a native of Eng- 
land who at Northeastern was captain of the first soccer team, 
captain and coach in the next year, and therefore referred to at 
the time as "the father of soccer at Northeastern." In 1926 
soccer was made a major sport and it continued as an active 
and popular phase of the athletic program until 1933, when 
football was introduced. 

The Division of Music included bv 1925 a Band, Concert 
Orchestra, Glee Club, Banjo Clul:», Dance Orchestra, and Dra- 
matic Club. 

Miscellaneous Activities are recorded as Activities Mass 
Meetings, Field Dav, the Rush, Student Council, and "many 
minor activities." 

Field Day was an all-University outing initiated in 1910, de- 
veloped to major proportions after 1920, and continued until 
the late 1930's, when the size of Northeastern made a family 
picnic impractical. On June days through those years, students, 
faculty members and their families, alumni, and friends gath- 
ered, regardless of weather, at Riverside Recreational Grounds 
in Weston for a dav and evenino; of games and races, facultv- 
senior baseball, canoe tilting, tennis, golf, eating, dancing, and 
general conviviality. 

The Freshman-Sophomore Rush was launched in 1919 by 
the class of 1922. It continued until 1932, when the Student 
Council, led by President John LaBelle '32, voted to abandon 
it because "it has outlived its usefulness." 

In its he\'dav, the Rush was one of the non-academic high 
points of the Northeastern year. On a designated dav, Division 
A freshmen and sophomores met in combat in the Fenway; in 
Division B they were forced to meet for less vigorous activities 
in the YMCA gymnasium. The Rush in the Fenway, near the 
Museum of Fine Arts, was alwavs climaxed by a Pole Rush, 
with one class gathered around a twelve-foot greased pole on 
the top of which flew class colors, while the other class stormed 
the phalanx of students in an attempt to reach the top of the 

119 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

pole and seize the colors; and a tug-of-war, for which the two 
classes were organized in line on opposite banks of the shallow 
and sluggish but well named Muddy River. Attendant exciting 
activities, in the years of the Rush, included various forms of 
psychological as well as physical warfare, most important the 
abduction of class presidents on the night before the critical 
day. The increasing size of both freshman and sophomore 
classes, the increasing number of abrasions, contusions, and 
other mishaps, and the increasing tendency of both classes to 
relieve at least a few of their opponents of their clothing in 
the Pole Rush led to the prohibitive action by the Student 
Council. 

In 1920 the English High Club was organized, to bring to- 
gether for social purposes the Northeastern students who had 
been graduated by that school. This was the first of a series of 
similar town, city, and regional clubs which flourished until the 
numbers involved made them unmanageable, while at the same 
time student interests and energies came to be centered in the 
collegiate activities at Northeastern. At the height of their 
popularity the clubs included Salem High, Brockton, E\'erett, 
Milford, Nutmeg State, Maine-lacs, Lawrence, Empire State, 
Quincy, Haverhill, and Twin State. 

In 1921 The Senate, an engineering honor society for students 
"high in scholarship and activities," was created bv the joint 
initiative of Professors Joseph Spear and Philip Nash. A parallel 
society, Sigma Delta Epsilon, was formed in 1925 in the new 
College of Business Administration; later it became the Sigma 
Society. The Senate was, in later vears, accepted as a chapter 
of the national engineering honor societv Tau Beta Pi, and 
additional chapters of national societies in the College of 
Engineering were Eta Kappa Nu, for students of electrical en- 
gineering; and Pi Tau Sigma, for students of mechanical engi- 
neering. In 1937 The Academy was formed as the honor society 
of the College of Liberal Arts; a local chapter of Phi Alpha 
Theta, open to students of historv, was established later. The 
most recent of the Northeastern units of national honor so- 

120 



Student Activities 

cieties is a chapter of Kappa Iota Epsilon, formed by students 
of education. 

A revised Student Council undertook student government in 
1924, under one of the manv constitutions that have been writ- 
ten and implemented through the decades of Northeastern 
activities. In the following year a Student Union was formed, 
with Milton J. Schlagenhauf as its first facultv adviser and with 
the stated purpose: "to broaden engineering education by lec- 
tures, trips, and religious activities." 

All of these developments, as well as the "many minor ac- 
tivities," were instigated or promoted by Professor Spear. He 
encouraged an Inter-fraternity Council when there were only 
four fraternities at Northeastern, and in the interest of aca- 
demic encouragement he was chairman of the first Board of 
Freshman Advisers, which consisted of five other members of 
the facultv. 

The second Director of Student Activities, from 1926 to 1929, 
was Harold W. Melvin, who had joined the Northeastern fac- 
ultv in 1920 and in the following vear had been put in charge 
of the Department of English. In 1929 Professor Melvin be- 
came the University's first Dean of Students and at that time 
was succeeded in activities work bv Edward S. Parsons, who 
continued for twenty-four years, with the later title of Director 
of Health, Phvsical Training, and Student Activities; in 1953 
he left the department to become Business Manager of the 
University. Professor Parsons represented Northeastern in nu- 
merous regional and national athletic organizations, including 
a term as district Vice President of the National Collegiate 
Athletic Association, as a member of the NCAA Council, and on 
several committees of the United States Olympic Association. 

After 1953 a period of two years with a division of athletics 
and a division of student activities was followed bv a reunited 
department with Herbert W. Gallagher '35 as Director and 
Charles E. Kitchin as Associate Director. In 1960, as one phase 
of the University reorganization initiated bv President Knowles, 
the complex area of athletics and non-athletic activities was 

121 



Origin and Development of Noiiheastern University 

again divided; Professor Gallagher became Director of Health 
and Athletics, Professor Kitchin was made Director of Student 
Activities, and the general super\'ision of the non-athletic pro- 
gram was added to the administration of the Dean of Students. 

Under the guidance of this succession of men, student ac- 
tivities at Northeastern have gone through periods of ex- 
perimentation and varying vitality, but consistent growth in 
number and variety as the student body grew in size and as 
the tastes and interests of successive generations of college stu- 
dents changed. "Student Activities Hours," Tuesday and Thurs- 
day from twelve to two, were established to provide definite 
periods for athletic practice, rehearsals, club meetings, and 
general assemblies. This provision, together with the develop- 
ment of an advisory svstem wherebv a member of the facultv 
worked with each organized and recognized student group, was 
designed to offset the limitations of "campus life" from which 
any urban university sufl^ers, and to encourage de\'elopment 
and self-realization among students through activitv and lead- 
ership in small groups. The result has been a flexible program, 
adapted not only through the decades but from vear to year 
to student-motivated interests and desires. 

In dramatics, for example, the early and somewhat half- 
hearted clubs were followed by a series of annual all-University 
shows from 1924 to 1934. Six were original musical comedies in 
which were united the creative and dramatic talents of stu- 
dents, various members of the facult\' including Professor 
Melvin, and professional coaches brought in for the occasion. 
With sprightly and topical titles Listenin In, Are You Mi/ Wife?, 
The Rajah of Kashmir, Yes, Yes, Siam, and Top d the World, 
the series came to an end and a climax with Banned in Boston, 
a large production involving a cast of seventy-five, an orchestra 
of fiftv pieces, a puppet prologue, and a gala presentation in 
the Arlington Theatre; this production was developed and di- 
rected by Trentwell Mason White, then a member of the 
Department of English, and in later years, until his death, 



President of Leslie College. 



122 



Student Activities 

A new Dramatic Club was formed in 1934 and functioned 
for several years under the handicaps of meager facilities and 
the necessity of borrowing girls from neighboring colleges for 
plays with mixed casts. After the arrival of co-eds on campus 
and the building of Alumni Auditorium, the club became the 
Silver Masque and under the direction of Eugene J. Blackman, 
member of the Department of English and in 1959 head of the 
new Department of Drama, Speech, and Music, developed a 
substantial and effective program of three plays and one musi- 
cal production during each academic year. The Silver Masque 
has presented such outstanding plays and musicals as The 
Barretts of Wimpole Street, Ah, Wilderness, All My Sons, 
Pygmalion, A View From the Bridge, Born Yesterday, Dark 
of the Moon, Finians Rainbow, Oklahoma, South Paeific, 
Carousel, and Fanny. 

Two major sports were added to the athletic structure. 
Hockey was initiated through the promotional activity of H. 
Nelson Ravmond '28, who in his senior year circulated petitions 
and built up student interest in the sport. The first season was 
1929-1930 with Mr. Raymond as coach. Thereafter, in spite of 
difficulties in scheduling practice sessions, hockev became one 
of the most successful Northeastern sports. Another alumnus 
important to its development was Herbert Gallagher, a bril- 
liant player as an undergraduate and later coach of hockey for 
a total of fifteen seasons. 

Football was introduced by administrative decision rather 
than student initiative. After a year of freshman games with 
junior colleges and other freshman teams, the first varsity sea- 
son, 1933, consisted of games with St. Anselm's College, St. 
Michael's College, Colby College, Arnold College, and Norwich 
University. Alfred M. McCov was coach of the freshman team 
and of the first four varsity teams. 

By 1935 the athletic activities of Northeastern had been de- 
veloped to the inter-collegiate status of membership by the 
University in the New England Intercollegiate Amateur Ath- 
letic Association, the Association of New England Colleges for 

123 



Origin and Development of Northeastern Universitij 

Conference on Athletics, the New England Association of the 
Amateur Athletics Union, the Intercollegiate Association of 
Amateur Athletes of America, the National Collegiate Athletic 
Association, and the United States Olympic Association. When 
the Eastern College Athletic Conference was formed in 1947, 
Northeastern was one of the charter members. 

As an adjunct to athletics a club called the Fore Paw Kev 
was organized in 1929 to promote school spirit, student support 
of athletics, and relations with visiting teams and students. 
Among its contributions to campus life was the launching of a 
traditional event, the Football Dance, in 1934. Because of the 
curtailment of college athletics during the war years, the Fore 
Paw Key ceased to function, but it was reactivated in 1948 as 
the Husky Key to carry on, under different conditions and with 
different activities, the purpose of the original organization. 

The Student Union expanded and adapted its functions, par- 
ticularly after Charles W. Havice became its ad\'iser in 1927. 
Such projects as noon-hour programs, an annual drive for con- 
tributions to missionary work in South Africa, walking tours in 
historic Boston, and overnight camping as a part of freshman 
orientation were conducted as long as thev contributed to the 
well-being and community college life of students. Later efforts 
were concentrated in the two areas of co-operative projects 
with and service to other student groups on campus, and vol- 
unteer social service work at settlement houses, hospitals, the 
Braille Press, and community centers. 

Certainlv the most vital single contribution of the Student 
Union to the life of Northeastern has been the weekly Chapel 
services. In October of 1927 the first service was held in the 
church then known as the Church of the Messiah, on the cor- 
ner of Gainsborough and St. Stephen Streets; President Frank 
Palmer Speare was the speaker and the attendance was about 
two hundred students and faculty. In the following year and 
for two years thereafter the services were held in Repertory 
Hall, a part of the Repertory Theater on Huntington Avenue. 
Later Chapel homes were a room in the Huntington Building 

124 



Student Activities 

and then in Richards Hall. The Student Center was planned 
and built to contain a well appointed Chapel, a suitable setting 
for the weekly services. 

In 1940 Dr. Havice was made Dean of Chapel and at that 
time gave up direct guidance of the Student Union. Chapel 
services continued in the pattern which he had established in 
1927— non-denominational worship periods at which visiting 
representatives of different faiths gave ethical and moral talks 
to students and faculty. As the faculty grew in size and in 
wisdom through age, Dean Havice invited members of that 
group to the Chapel pulpit, alternating with clergymen of the 
Boston area. A Chapel Choir was developed by Laurence F. 
Cleveland of the Department of Electrical Engineering to be- 
come a valuable part of the services. Professor Cleveland has 
had a long association with Northeastern Chapel and made an 
unusual contribution bv building, in 1940, an electronic organ 
which was used until the construction of the Student Center. 

The Bacon Memorial Chapel, the gift to Northeastern of 
Chandler & Company and dedicated to the memory of Charles 
F. Bacon, has become a source of varied and deep associations 
and values for manv Northeastern people. The Chapel organ 
was dedicated by the Student Union to the memory of Miss 
Eva Kinnear, sister of Mrs. Carl Ell, who for several years be- 
fore her death in 1932 was secretary, devoted worker, and 
friendly counselor to the Student Union. In recent years the 
Chapel has been the scene of the weddings of students and 
alumni, and of the baptism of children of Northeastern parent- 
age. In some instances Dean Havice has performed both the 
marriage and baptism ceremonies for these young families. 

For a brief period extracurricular activities at Northeastern 
moved in two parallel lines. The students in the College of 
Business Administration, starting in 1922, felt the independence 
and obligation of a new school in which they were pioneer 
citizens. Consequently they established their own organiza- 
tions, including a Student Union, Student Council, dramatic 
club, orchestra, and a newspaper called The Bulletin. In 1926 

125 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

the first graduating seniors, sixteen in number, produced The 
Administrator, a class yearbook. Parallel activities proved to be 
impractical, however, and in the next few years all organiza- 
tions were combined. The Bulletin fused with The Tech to 
become The Northeastern News in February of 1926, and 
after three issues The Administrator was merged with The 
Cauldron. 

Representative of the increasing diversitv of student inter- 
ests are the three widelv different organizations : the Rifle Club, 
started in 1930 with G. Ravmond Fennell as its first coach, and 
the basis of later rifle teams and riflerv as a minor sport; the 
International Relations Club of 1932 with Roger S. Hamilton 
as its first adviser; and the Huskv Hio;hli2hters, formed in 
1948 by Dean Melvin for noontime broadcasts within the Uni- 
versity of campus news, announcements, and some enter- 
tainment. 

Some social functions and planned organizations came into 
being to meet a current wave of interest and enthusiasm, and 
later disappeared from the scene because, like the Freshman- 
Sophomore Rush, thev had outlived their usefulness. Some were 
annual all-University aftairs like the Minstrel Show and Spring 
Concert and later the Mid-winter Concert and Dance, the 
Round-up of students, faculty, and friends held in the Boston 
City Club, and Home Folks' Dav conducted for four successive 
vears by the first students of the College of Business Adminis- 
tration. 

In 1922 Frank Palmer Speare founded the Delta Society "to 
develop school spirit, character, and spiritual values." The Class 
of 1925 started the Sagitta Societv of Sophomores "to promote 
inter-divisional activity and to enforce freshman rules." A Fly- 
ing Club of 1927, guided bv Professor Nightingale, was active 
for several years before it languished because of lack of equip- 
ment in which to do actual flving. A foreshadowing of later 
postwar periods is the Federal Board Club of 1924, made up 
of forty-one veterans of World War I "who are receixing gov- 
ernmental aid in their education at Northeastern University." 

126 



Student Activities 

Although in many respects the early periods of student ac- 
tivities and student life at Northeastern were simple and by 
later standards unsophisticated, there are some indications of 
a surprising degree of elegance and precision of decorum. In 
the fall of 1921 The Tech approved editorially of the presence 
of faculty guests at an Alpha Kappa Sigma informal dance in 
informal dress; the faculty thereby, said the editorial, "departed 
from an ancient custom and established a precedent." Another 
illustration of the exactitude of the early years is the instruc- 
tions appearing in The Tech in 1920: "The members of the 
school who are wearing the school pin will please be careful to 
see that the arrow points to the northeast. When a person is 
upright, north is directlv over the head, and east is to the 
left." 

Through the years the common and basic interests of stu- 
dents have been satisfied by a growth of stable and permanent 
activities. 

The two original fraternities. Alpha Kappa Sigma and Beta 
Gamma Epsilon, both founded in 1919, were later augmented 
by other local fraternal groups— Nu Epsilon Zeta, 1921; Sigma 
Kappa Psi, 1921; Kappa Zeta Phi, 1924; Phi Beta Alpha, 1924; 
Phi Gamma Pi, 1924; Sigma Phi Alpha, 1924; Gamma Phi 
Kappa, 1925; Phi Alpha Rho, 1960. Three fraternities-Eta Tau 
Nu, founded in 1920, and Sigma Delta and Iota Sigma, founded 
in 1925— relinquished their charters in later years. An Inter- 
fraternity Council built up through the years a spirit of unity 
and co-operation among the fraternities. Especially in the years 
after 1954, when Professor William H. Reynolds of the Depart- 
ment of English took over advisorship, the IFC showed stability 
and originality in maintaining and initiating projects and 
events. The fraternity scholarship shield, originated in 1929, 
was continued; interfraternitv activity in bowling, basketball, 
and Softball was encouraged and supervised; in co-operation 
with the Huskv Key, the IFC worked to promote the North- 
eastern sports program; it conducted an annual Christmas party 
for children patients in Boston Citv Hospital; and at the Uni- 

127 



Origin and Development of Noiiheastern Vniversity 

versitv Convocation of October, 1959, the IFC presented to 
President Knowles the first Northeastern flag, which the IFC 
had desis^ned and purchased as a contribution to the University 
and the estabhshment of a new svmbohc tradition. 

As women students increased in numbers, they formed two 
general social societies— Omega Sigma in 1944 and Gamma 
Delta in 1958. 

Special sports interests were developed in the Hus-Skiers 
and the Yacht Club, with the result that skiing and yachting 
were accepted as minor sports. 

The Politics Club, Art Club, Debating Societv, and several 
organizations open only to students in ROTC illustrate the 
diversitv of student activities in the larcje unixersitv which 
Northeastern became. 

A postgraduate interest in Northeastern acti\ities and a de- 
sire to retain the associations developed in college led to the 
formation of alumni groups among former members of the 
Silver Masque and The News, and the Varsity Club, made up 
of alumni who were letter men in Northeastern sports. 

Since 1926 the mascot s\'mbol of Northeastern activities in 
general and sports in particular has been the Siberian Eskimo 
dog. No other non-academic element in Northeastern's history 
has drawn to itself so much color and romance and, on the 
other hand, so manv complications and crises. 

In 1926 it became evident to various people at the Univer- 
sity, including Edward R. Place, then director of the Publicit\' 
Department, that Northeastern athletic teams needed a mascot 
and a name for identification of Northeastern sports in the 
public mind. A suggestion contest conducted b\- The News 
resulted in a \'arietv of possibilities— "everything from ant to 
elephant." The bee was serioush' considered, until someone 
foresaw the possibility of Northeastern athletic defeats being 
reported on sports pages under the headline "NU Bees Stung 
Again." The name "Husky" was chosen. 

Through the efforts of Dean Ell, includins; a winter visit to 
Poland Springs, Maine, Leonard Seppala gave to the University 

128 



Student Activities 

its first mascot, King Husky I. Mr. Seppala was at that time a 
breeder and racer of Siberian dogs, and internationallv known 
as the hero of a sled-dog emergenc\' run to Nome to carry 
serum to a stricken citv. 

The new mascot arrixed in Boston on March 9, 1927. He was 
met at North Station and there a parade formed consisting of 
1200 students, a pohce escort, the Northeastern Band, and in 
central position a float on which rode the King, Mr. Seppala, 
and six Northeastern secretaries; three of the secretaries were 
known to Northeastern students in later years as Mrs. Mildred 
Garfield, Mrs. Jessie Rhodes, and Mrs. Mary Reynolds. 

The New York Times considered the progress of the parade 
sufficiently newsworthy to report, in part: 

"With seyeral hundred students grouped on the steps of the 
Boston Uniyersity business administration building and scores 
more jamming every window overlooking Boylston Street, the 
demonstration began right after the mounted police detail 
leading the parade had passed. 

"Frozen snow was showered on the band and succeeding sec- 
tions of the parade were pelted with missiles. Women and girl 
spectators received much that was badly thrown, hats and coats 
being spoiled by broken eggs. The windshield of a passing 
motor car was broken by a piece of ice. 

"Each volley was countered bv the marching students with 
a cheer for Boston Universitv, and they kept on marching. Sev- 
eral policemen went into the college building and confiscated 
crates of eggs and vegetables before they could be utilized. 
When the Northeastern bovs took the punishment jokingly and 
refused to retaliate, several Boston University students tried to 
stop the missile throwing b>' calling for cheers for North- 
eastern." 

The aftermath of this stimulating episode was a renewal of 
amicable relations between the students of the two universities. 
On March 17 the new mascot's first birthday was celebrated at 
Northeastern, and among the greetings was a card measuring 
three feet by five feet from the students of Boston University; 

129 



Origin and Development of Noiiheastern University 

later in the spring King Husky appeared as a guest of honor at 
a Boston University mass meeting. 

King Husky I was Northeastern's mascot until March of 1941. 
In that period of fourteen years he made frequent appearances 
at student gatherings, won prizes at the Eastern Dog Show, and 
in many respects lived up to his roval name and significant posi- 
tion. At the same time, he created problems for Dr. Ell, who 
during most of the period housed the mascot in Newton and 
on Cape Cod; King Husky ate well and extensively, on two 
occasions was at liberty and lost for several days, and on the 
Cape for summer vacation varied his confined life by rang- 
ing the countryside and causing expensive damage in a poultry 
farm. 

The first mascot was followed by Queen Husky I, the gift to 
the University of Mr. and Mrs. Milton Seeley, proprietors of the 
Chinook Kennels at Wonalancet, New Hampshire. The Queen, 
welcomed to the University not only by the students but by 
greetings from the Bates Bobcat, the Bowdoin Polar Bear, the 
Colby Mule, the University of Maine Black Bear, and Danny, 
the Boston University mascot, died at the earh' ao;e of six 
months. 

The later succession was King Husky II, presented to the 
University in 1942 by Mr. and Mrs. Seeley; King Husky HI in 
1952, also from the Chinook Kennels; and Kins; Husk\ IV, who 
made a guest appearance at the University in February, 1958, 
accompanied by Mrs. Eva Seeley. 

By 1958 the difficulties of maintaining a li\ing mascot in 
Boston, under climatic conditions alien to the Siberian Husky, 
coupled with complications arising from the deaths of succes- 
sive members of the royal line, culminated in a review of policy. 
Through agreement of the Student Council, the Faculty Com- 
mittee on Student Activities, and the Executive Council of the 
University, a new phase of symbolism was established in 1959. 
Students conducted a fund-raising campaign for creating a 
bronze statue of Kin^ Husky I, and the Executi\e Council 
agreed to duplicate the amount raised by student solicitation. 

130 



Student Activities 

In future years the spirit of King Husky I— stated in 1927 by 
President Speare as "endurance, determination, intelligence, 
recognition of leadership and a willingness to enter whole- 
heartedly into teamwork"— will be perpetuated by a perma- 
nent, though inanimate, symbol. 



131 



XI 
THE STUDENT IN AFTER YEARS 



Since early in the century, when in 1902 and 1903 a group 
of forty-two men completed the curriculum of the School of 
Law, over 20,000 men and women have become alumni of 
Northeastern. Since the late 1920's, this growing body of 
graduates has contributed substantialh' to the present status 
and stature of the University. 

The relationship has been a reciprocal one. As alumni have 
reached positions of significance in all areas of business, the 
professions, and the academic world, thev ha\'e created in the 
public mind an increasing awareness of Northeastern and its 
accomplishment. As the University itself has developed, alumni 
have benefited from public recognition and acceptance of a 
young but major uni\'ersit\' in action. 

It is to the credit of Northeastern alumni that earlv efforts 
toward organized activities were self-imposed. For a period of 
ten years, groups were formed through the interest and energv 
of a few graduates; some of these groups were short-lived, but 
they laid the groundwork for later developments. 

In 1915, one hundred graduates of the School of Commerce 
and Finance met as an Association "mainlv for social purposes." 
In 1919, "former members of the Da\ Division" set up a social 
organization with Roland G. Porter 18 as temporarv Chairman. 
This group held a "First Annual Banquet ' at the Parker House 
and elected John R. Leighton "14 as President. The Annual Ban- 

132 



The Student in After Years 

quet later became the "Fall Dinner ' and still later "Home- 
coming Day," and has been a continuous annual event since 
1919. In recent years Homecoming Day has become a gala fu- 
sion of undergraduate and alumni activities— a football game, 
with a parade of floats and the crowning of a campus Beauty 
Queen; an Alumni dinner; and the presentation of a plav by 
the Silver Masque. 

The Northeastern University Club of Boston was organized 
in 1922 with a membership of one hundred, but it disappeared 
from the records soon thereafter. In 1924 the class of that year 
in the School of Law organized a Law School Alumni Associa- 
tion with Asa S. Allen as President. 

Against the background of these spontaneous and well- 
intentioned activities a long process of organization and con- 
solidation was initiated bv the appointment in 1927 of William 
C. White as the first Alumni Secretarv. Durino; the next three 
years he established the basis of the future cementing of rela- 
tions between alumni and the Universitv. 

The first organized class reunion, that of the Class of 1922, 
took place in 1927. In the same year The Northeastern Ahimni 
Bulletin made its first appearance. In later years, with some 
brief periods of inactivitv along the wav, the Bulletin became 
The Nor' east er and in 1945 a quarterly magazine. The North- 
eastern Alumnus. The alumni of the College of Engineering 
and the College of Business Administration were united in 
one organization in 1928, with William M. Parsons '24 as 
President. 

When William White was made Secretary of the Day Divi- 
sion faculty in 1929, he was succeeded in alumni work by 
Rudolf O. Oberg '26, who became Alumni Secretary of the 
Dav Colleges. Bv 1943 his work had become so extensive that 
an Alumni Ofiice was created, and he was appointed Director 
of Alumni Relations. 

In that year the Alumni Fund was organized as the first con- 
sistent appeal to graduates for financial contributions to their 
University, although an Endowment Campaign had been con- 

133 



Origin and Development of Noiiheastern University 

ducted as early as 1928, and alumni had been solicited in 1938 
for funds for the building of Richards Hall. 

The Alumni Fund became an annual project, each vear with 
a special objective determined by the Alumni Fund Com- 
mittee, in consultation with the President of the University. 
Through the years these objectives have been directed mainly 
toward the Northeastern building program— the underwriting 
of the cost of Alumni Auditorium, contributions to the Library, 
equipment for the Physical Education Center. Other major 
enterprises have been a $100,000 Alumni Faculty Salary En- 
dowinent Fund, and an Alumni Scholarship Fund of the same 
amount. 

Northeastern alumni were solidified by the formation of the 
Alumni Federation in 1946. With Robert Bruce 14 as its first 
Chaimian, the Federation coordinated the activities and in- 
terests of graduates of the Day Colleges, the School of Law, and 
the School of Business. The Federation proved its effectiveness 
in forming what Dr. Ell called "one united voice," through 
the representatives of schools and colleges who constitute the 
structure of the Federation. 

Alumni participation in vital matters of Universitv policy has 
increased as the alumni have grown in numbers, age, and will- 
ingness to contribute their abilities, judgment, and specialized 
knowledge. In 1937, by vote of the University Corporation, the 
President of the Alumni Association became a member of the 
Corporation by virtue of his office. In 1952 the Corporation 
established a plan of Alumni Term Members; by this plan four 
alumni are added to the Corporation each year for four-year 
terms, with the result that there always are sixteen alumni term 
members serving as members of the bodv. Since 1956 at least 
one alumnus has been elected each year to the Corporation as 
a regular member. 

In recognition of distinguished accomplishment in some area 
of professional work and in citizenship, the University has in- 
cluded in the group of honorary degree recipients at June com- 
mencements since 1952 one member or more of the alumni body. 

134 



The Student in After Years 

Before 1952, five alumni had received honorary degrees— 
Sanford Bates '06 in 1937, Horace T. Cahill 18 in 1940, John P. 
Higgins '27 in 1940, Cyrus S. Ching '12 in 1946, and Frederick 
J. Dillon '23 in 1950. All of these men were graduates of the 
Northeastern School of Law, and from the University received 
the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws. 

Since 1952, the alumni honored by the University have been 
the following, listed here with the positions they held at the 
time of the conferring of the degree: 

1952-William C. White '25, Director of Day Colleges of 
Northeastern University, Doctor of Engineering 

1953— George Hansen '18, President of Chandler & Company, 
Doctor of Laws 

1954— J. Harold Stewart '18, Partner in the fimi of Stewart, 
Watts & Bollong, Doctor of Commercial Science 

1955— Charles N. Kimball '31, President, Midwest Research 
Institute, Doctor of Engineering 

1955— Frank L. Flood '22, Senior Partner, Metcalf and Eddy, 
Doctor of Engineering 

1956— Albert E. Everett '23, Director of the Evening Division 
and Dean of the School of Business, Northeastern University, 
Doctor of Commercial Science 

1957— John L. Burns '30, President of the Radio Corporation 
of America, Doctor of Business Administration 

1958— Arthur J. Pierce '32, Brigadier General, of the United 
States Air Force, Doctor of Laws 

1959- William T. Alexander '26, Dean of the College of En- 
gineering at Northeastern University, Doctor of Engineering 

1960-Right Reverend Robert J. Sennott '32, Chancellor, 
Archdiocese of Boston, Doctor of Civil Law 

William E. R. Sullivan '28, Brigadier General, United 
States Army, President, U. S. Army Chemical Corps Board, 
Doctor of Science 

Following the tradition of American colleges, the Alumni 
Office promoted regional alumni clubs. In New York a group 
was organized by William White in 1927. The Connecticut 

135 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

Club was formed in 1929. Eventually there were twenty-one 
Northeastern alumni clubs within the bounds of the country 
from Maine to California, as well as an unofficial club which 
holds an annual winter vacation session on a semi-tropical 
island. Some clubs have been large and some small, and some 
have passed through fluctuating periods of activity; but all have 
continued to be focal points of common interest in social func- 
tions, visits by representatives of the University, and a con- 
tinuity of alumni support for the University. 

As an encouragement to undergraduates, the Alumni Council 
started in 1947 the Senior Award for Professional Promise. 
Richard Newcomb of the College of Engineering was the first 
winner; in later years the Award was extended to include a 
senior from each of the four Day Colleges. 

As a service to alumni, the University appointed in 1956 
Thomas J. McEneaney '52 as Senior and Alumni Placement 
Officer. In addition to arranging recruitment visits and other 
interviews with seniors by industrial representatives, Mr. Mc- 
Eneaney works with several hundred alumni each year, refer- 
ring them to job opportunities which he has on file and in many 
instances providing direct or indirect vocational counseling. 
The two large categories of alumni who consult Mr. McEneaney 
are recent graduates who have completed a term of service in 
the armed forces, and alumni who have become established 
professionally in other parts of the country but want to return 
to New England. The diversity of this service to alumni is illus- 
trated by the placement of a member of the Class of 1917 who, 
upon retiring from a successful career, wanted to continue to 
use his ability and experience in a new but less demanding 
position. 

From many points of view the most ambitious and at the 
same time appealing single project carried out b\' Northeastern 
alumni was the tribute in 1958-1959 to Dr. Ell, on the occasion 
of his retirement from the Presidenc\'. The Alumni Da\' pro- 
gram in June was attended by eight hundred graduates and 
friends and included the unveiling of the inscription on the 

136 



The Student in After Years 

Carl Stephens Ell Student Center Building, a reception to Dr. 
and Mrs. Ell, a dinner at which William C. White '25 and 
Gardner A. Caverly '34 were the speakers, and a deluge of 
greetings and gifts from alumni in all parts of the United States 
and in foreign countries. The gifts sent to Dr. and Mrs. Ell in- 
cluded such varied items as rice bowls from Japan and a living 
redwood tree from California. In September, as an aftermath to 
the June meeting, the Alumni Carl Stephens Ell Scholarship 
Fund of $100,000 was presented to the University. 

The fact that Mrs. Ell shared conspicuously in this tribute 
from the alumni reflects the appreciation of all Northeastern 
people of the contribution which the wife of the second Presi- 
dent made to the University. 

In 1913 Miss Etta Kinnear became Mrs. Carl Ell, and there- 
after, as Dr. Ell moved from one position to another in the 
development of Northeastern, she assumed increasing status 
and responsibility. Her natural warmth of personality and real 
concern for people led her to know intimately the faculty 
family. At scores of student affairs, ranging from football games 
to formal dances, Mrs. Ell was a figure of dignity and gracious- 
ness, another svmbol of the spirit of Northeastern. 

Mrs. Ell founded, in 1940, the Northeastern University Fac- 
ulty Wives, an organization which since that time has not only 
held its own educational and social meetings but has provided 
scholarships for girl students and special gifts to the University. 
Mrs. Ell was President of the group from 1940 to 1943, and 
Honorary President until 1960. 

In the local and the larger communitv Mrs. Ell has been 
a worker and a directive force in social service organiza- 
tions in the citv of Newton, in the Massachusetts Council of 
Churches, and in local and national committees of the Metho- 
dist Church. 

The 1959 Cauldron, dedicated to Dr. Ell on his retirement 
from the Presidency of the University, carried in the dedica- 
tory section a picture of Mrs. Ell and the following poetic 
statement by Michael Murphy of the Class of 1959— 

137 



Origin and Development of Noiiheastern University 

The night drifts down on quiet wings; 
Invisible forces move the Earth. 
No mountain is, and no bird sings 
But something underneath, behind, 
Supports its being, tells its worth 
Though all the world be blind. 

During the early months of 1960, a committee of the Alumni 
Federation drafted a proposed All-University Alumni Consti- 
tution, to coordinate alumni activities with other administrative 
changes then taking place at the Universitv. The purposes of 
the new constitution were stated to be: to promote the welfare 
of Northeastern University, to establish a mutually beneficial 
relationship between Northeastern Universitv and its alumni, 
and to perpetuate fellowship among members of the Association. 

By the provisions of the constitution all alumni were brought 
together under one Association, headed by a President, senior 
Vice President, and an Executive Committee. Lines of alumni 
work were established under the direction of four Vice Presi- 
dents, in charge of Alumni Fund, Alumni Affairs, Alumni Clubs, 
and Alumni Class Council. A new position, Director of Alumni 
Fund, was created. This officer, together with the Director of 
Alumni Relations and the Director of Development, is related 
directly to the President of the University, coordinating all 
phases of alumni relations, those sponsored bv the University 
and those originating in the work of the elected officers of the 
Alumni Association. The new constitution recognized all con- 
stituent college groups of alumni, but within the structure and 
under the general direction of an All-University Alumni Asso- 
ciation. This basic change in organization should result in a 
more effective and efficient program of alumni relations, and 
a closer relationship between the alumni and their University. 

The cumulative accomplishment of Northeastern alumni di- 
rected toward the best interests of their alma mater has been 
accounted for by their growing recognition of a debt of the 
past and a genuine concern for the present and the future. At 

138 



The Student in After Years 

the Inaugural Dinner of President Knowles in September, 1959, 
George C. Thompson '30, Chairman of the Ahimni Federation, 
said, "I not only bring the greetings of mv fellow alumni to 
Dr. Knowles, but also pledge the support of Northeastern's 
alumni in all projects that will make Northeastern University 
an ever greater institute of learning." 

The promotion and direction of this feeling of identitv with 
Northeastern among its alumni has for the past thirtv vears 
been the work of Rudolf Oberg. With distinguished service and 
assistance from Miss Marjorie King, Chief Secretarv of the 
Alumni Office since 1945, he has established patterns of atti- 
tude and action unusual among the alumni of colleges which 
have a history of little more than half a century. 



139 



XII 
WARS AND THE ARMED FORCES 



When, on April 6, 1917, the United States declared that a 
state of war existed between itself and Germany, Northeastern 
was completing its first year as an incorporated colle2;e, and the 
inauguration of President Speare had taken place seven da\'S 
before the declaration of war. 

The tense, unsettled conditions of the war that was to end all 
wars provided an inauspicious setting for a small and struggling 
school of engineering. Bv the spring of 1918 the United States 
was prepared to send to Europe 120, 000 troops everv month. 
All of the energies of the American people were turned to what 
Woodrow Wilson called "Force, Force, to the utmost. Force 
without stint or limit, the righteous and triumphant Force 
which shall now make Right the law of the world, and cast 
every selfish dominion down in the dust." 

During the summer vacation of 1917 Carl S. Ell went to 
Washington for a brief period of government work in structural 
design, and then to Albanv for a special assignment with the 
New York Department of Health, for which he had done con- 
sulting work in 1913 and 1914. He returned to Northeastern for 
the opening of the school year and in mid-September became 
Dean of the School of Co-operative Engineering. 

The annual report of the Boston YMCA for 1917-1918 sum- 
marized the Association's war program. As that program af- 
fected Northeastern, the report said, "The United States 

140 



Wars and the Armed Forces 

Government has taken over our School of Co-operative Engi- 
neering as an S.A.T.C. Unit. Barracks for two hundred and 
fiftv men are being constructed on the tennis courts; a fully 
equipped mess house is in progress for erection. Four officers 
under the command of Lieutenant A. Gordon Merry have 
already arrived. . . . The facultv of the school has l^een nearly 
doubled. . . . the school goes under military control October 1st." 

The "regular War Program, " designed "to prepare men so 
that they may go to camp ready for promotion," was described 
in the report as consisting of twentv-one courses, mainly tech- 
nical but including Foreign Trade, Personal Development for 
Wartime Needs, Military French, and Typewriting. Airplane 
Mechanics was proving to be the most popular course, and the 
report referred to an engine laboratory and testing shed, and 
the use of a large area of the Boston Elevated Railway land 
near the YMCA for the possible construction of a hangar. 

These activities and preparations were carried forward dur- 
ing the summer and fall of 1918. The actual functioning of the 
military unit was for only a brief period. A first-hand view of 
the period is given by Edward Parsons, who entered North- 
eastern as a freshman in September of 1918. After registration, 
all students were sent home for two weeks; when they returned, 
the barracks were in place on land now occupied by Dodge 
Librarv, and were partiallv equipped. Professor Parsons acted 
as chief bugler of the military unit and with other students 
then at Northeastern served a two-month Army period. After 
the end of the war on November 11 thev were again sent home; 
when they returned, the barracks had disappeared and in 
December the students were discharged from the Army and 
returned to civilian academic life. 

In two other areas Northeastern made educational contribu- 
tions to World War I. 

The 1917-1918 report of the Boston YMCA states: "The 
Huntington Preparatory School is offering to accomplish four 
vears' work in two, two vears' work in one, and six months' 
work in three in preparing men to enter the colleges and 

141 



Origin and Development of NoHheastern University 

thereby increase the available supply of men for the Officers' 
Training Camps. Over one hundred bovs and voung men have 
entered with this express purpose in mind." 

The records of the Automobile School of this period indicate, 
though vaguely, that special brief courses in automobile driv- 
ing and maintenance were set up for both men and women. 

The outbreak of World War II and the six years of war that 
followed affected Northeastern as they affected all American 
colleges and universities. It was a period of constant adjustment 
and readjustment to the demands of total war. 

Special programs and military reserve units continued through 
most of the war years. The Civilian Pilot Training Program was 
started at Northeastern in 1939; in following vears, reserve 
groups of the Army, Navy, and Marines enabled many students 
to complete their college education before entering active serv- 
ice. On the other hand, the National Youth Administration, 
initiated by the federal government during the depression 
years, ended its ten-vear program in 1942-1943. Northeastern 
played a conspicuous and active part in the Engineering, Sci- 
ence, and Management War Training program from 1940 to 
1945 and thereby prepared for the later work of the Evening 
Division Bureau of Business and Industrial Training. 

In June, 1942, the University introduced an intricate but 
helpful program of acceleration. B\' its pro\'isions a student on 
the Co-operative Plan could complete his requirements for a 
degree eighteen months before his nomial time of graduation, 
and by full-time study could increase the time saving to two 
years. Acceleration necessitated a twelve-month academic vear, 
with two weeks of vacation for faculty and staff. It resulted in 
commencements in both jime and December through 1943 to 
1946, war degrees granted to seniors who had completed more 
than half of their last year of academic work, and a redistribu- 
tion of class numerals which baffled the students involved and 
caused the Alumni Office extensive work of further redistribu- 
tion in the post-war years. 

By war-time expediences manv students were carried through 

142 



Wars and the Armed Forces 

to the completion of their undergraduate study. Many others 
were drafted. Most affected were the Day Colleges of Liberal 
Arts, which in 1940 had an enrollment of 503 and in 1943, 268; 
and the College of Business Administration, which dropped 
from a 1940 enrollment of 664 to a 1943 enrollment of 99. In 
the academic year 1943-1944, thirty-three members of the fac- 
ulty were on military leave of absence. 

In August, 1943, the War Department, after inspection and 
approval, authorized the establishment at Northeastern of a 
unit of the Army Specialized Training Program. In December, 
350 ASTP students arrived on campus; the University in the 
meantime had prepared for their arrival by setting up living 
quarters on Hemenway Street, allocating members of the fac- 
ulty to ASTP teaching, and implementing the courses called 
for by the special Anny curriculum. 

The three-month session of ASTP was an unusual experience 
for Northeastern but in many respects a satisfying experience. 
The young men, most of them former students in other colleges, 
provided rewarding classroom work for the faculty, some of 
whom found the military atmosphere and discipline foreign to 
their past teaching. Students from homes and colleges in other 
parts of the country enjoyed a brief period of living in New 
England, and built up associations at Northeastern, in the city 
of Boston, and in faculty homes. In February, 1944, Secretary 
of War Stimpson announced the discontinuance of ASTP ex- 
cept in limited areas. Early in March the Northeastern unit left 
Boston for special combat training; thereafter they participated 
in the Battle of the Bulge, where manv of them were casualties 
and fatalities. 

In the academic year 1944-1945, 267 veterans of World War 
II were enrolled at Northeastern. In 1950-1951 the veterans 
numbered 6990, or fifty-three per cent of the total enrollment 
of the University. 

During this post-war period, another program of acceleration 
was carried out, enabling returned students to complete as soon 
as possible the education which had been interrupted by war 

143 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

service. The Dav Division Class ot 1950, for example, was 
graduated in three sections, each with its own commencement, 
social activities, and class yearbook, but all within a calendar 
\'ear. 

Bv 1952-1953, veterans of the Korean War were returning to 
or entering Northeastern; in the following vear the registration 
of all colleges showed 1900 veterans of World War II and 2100 
veterans of the Korean War. In this year a Veterans' Guidance 
Center was established bv the University to work with students 
and government agencies. 

The contribution of Northeastern to the two mid-century 
wars is incalculable. Alumni known to have been active in 
World War II totaled 5520; 241 Northeastern men lost their 
lives in the same war. Above and bevond such statistical evi- 
dence of the participation of Northeastern men, and the adapta- 
tion of the work of the Universit\' to the educational necessities 
of war years, is the inestimal^le contril^ution of Northeastern 
individuals and groups to the network of sustained hmnan re- 
lationships which helped to make possible the completion of 
active warfare. One illustration, but cogent because of its con- 
tinuing organized activity, is the work of Husky Plus, under the 
direction of Dean of Students Harold Mehin. 

Husky Plus was a group of students enlisted bv Dean Melvin 
to maintain correspondence with Northeastern men in military 
service during World War II. When letters from students gone 
to war reached such proportions that Dean Melvin could not 
answer them individually, he started a University letter, giving 
Northeastern and Boston news, reports of changes in military 
rank of former students, current addresses of Northeastern mili- 
tary personnel, a list of visits to the University by servicemen 
on leave, and always a message of greeting and encouragement 
from the Dean. The letter grew to extensi\ e proportions and 
the later numbers were prepared b\' offset printing to include 
pictures. Husky Plus, so named by Dean Melvin because a 
group of students volunteered to do an extra job in the interest 
of their University, addressed, stamped, and mailed over 1200 

144 



Wars and the Armed Forces 

copies of the letters sent out during the last months of the war. 
Casualties and fatalities were not mentioned until a final letter 
after the close of hostilities, when all that had been reported to 
the University were listed. 

A similar letter from Dean Melvin was sent to servicemen in 
the Korean War. 

The deep personal concern of Harold Melvin for students 
and alumni in war service as well as the gratitude of the Uni- 
versity of which he was Dean was expressed in his tribute given 
at the Gold Star Memorial Service in Alumni Auditorium on 
June 18, 1948: 

Remembering 

Remembering the bovs who have not returned. 
Remembering their faces and what they said, 
Remembering their books on tables at home. 
The skis and fishing rods against the wall, 
Remembering the cemeteries across the sea, 
Boys buried in salt water and boys who died in camps, 
Remembering the bovs who have not come back. 
What shall we sav? Sav this: "We who went away 
And now are back remember you." 
Or sav: "We who waited at home for vour return 
Remember vou." Sav this: "That now 
In lilac time, the Remembering Day of our Nation, 
We are remembering. We are grateful to \'ou, 
—Not names upon a wall but in the heart- 
Each of vou— bovs whom we know, remember, and miss. 
So, inadequatelv, in the onlv way we can. 
We pay our respect to vou who gave so much, 
Remembering you- we here, now, returned— 
Giving this evening and this moment to vou, 
Standing silent, remembering . . . 

In 1950, while veterans of World War IT constituted more 
than half of the student population of Northeastern, mobiliza- 

145 



Origin and Development of NoHheastern University 

tion for the war in Korea began to affect the plans and expecta- 
tions of both high school students and college undergraduates. 
At Northeastern the establishment of an Army Reserve Officers' 
Training Corps stabilized student enrollment and introduced a 
new element into the operation, development, and history of 
Northeastern. 

By order of the Secretary of the Anny, effective April 1, 1951, 
two ROTC units— Corps of Engineers and Signal Corps— were 
authorized. The first Army officer to arrive on campus, in May, 
was Captain William H. Chestnut, a combat veteran and a 
graduate of the University of Buffalo. Working with Professor 
G. Raymond Fennell, who acted temporarily as Military Prop- 
ertv Custodian, Captain Chestnut prepared for the arrival of 
the authorized personnel of seven officers and ten enlisted men, 
supplemented by a civilian typist and a University-emploved 
supply clerk. 

The ROTC unit was activated in September of 1951 under 
the command of Colonel Howard E. Price, a veteran of active 
service in Europe and Korea who came to Northeastern from 
North Carolina State College where he had been Assistant 
PMST. 

Student enrollment in the first year was 886, including five 
veterans who entered the program with advanced standing and 
in 1953, preceding their senior year, became the first North- 
eastern students to participate in Summer Camp at Fort Bel- 
voir and Fort Gordon. 

Adaptation of the work of the ROTC unit to the Northeast- 
ern system entailed numerous complex problems. The ten- week 
Co-operative Plan schedule necessitated adjustment of the units 
of both military training and related classroom study. The Co- 
operative Plan also precluded Summer Camp training between 
the junior and senior years of ROTC students; there were, 
therefore, few students on campus in their senior year who 
could pass on to underclass cadets the results of the disciplinary 
experience of Summer Camp. Academic credit toward the 
Northeastern degree to be allowed for ROTC class work con- 

146 



Wars and the Armed Forces 

stituted another problem, particularly since different colleges 
throughout the country have used different bases of evaluation. 
Here again the ten-week Northeastern semester constituted a 
special basis for adjustment and correlation of credits; after 
some experimentation the matter was settled on a permanent 
basis to the satisfaction of the University and the Army. 

Colonel Price served for two years as Commanding Officer of 
the ROTC unit and then went to an assignment in Europe. 
During his term of command he established the program, with 
the necessary adjustments to the special conditions of the 
Northeastern structure, built up the unit in numbers both of 
students and instructional personnel, and by the encouragement 
and sponsorship of activities made ROTC a part of the Uni- 
versity rather than a separate and isolated unit. 

The University Band was revived to become the ROTC 
Band, through the use of Army instruments and uniforms and 
the combination of ROTC and non-ROTC students in the 
group. The Rifle Team was likewise revived and in following 
years developed into a group of four teams, with the accept- 
ance by the University of riflerv as a minor sport. The MARS 
( Militar\' Affiliate Radio System ) Radio Club made its start in 
1951 and later established a co-operative working arrangement 
with the Northeastern Radio Club. 

Also in 1951 a Drill Team was organized. This unit was later 
chartered as Company E, 8th Regiment of the national ROTC 
honor society Pershing Rifles. Another group organized in the 
first year was the Society of American Military Engineers. In 
1952-53 a Student Chapter of the Armed Forces Communica- 
tions and Electronics Association was chartered. It became an 
active and creative group; in 1956 it assisted in conducting the 
annual association convention in Boston, in following years sent 
delegations to the conventions in Washington, and made the 
first student-produced Northeastern motion picture, a review of 
ROTC training at the University. 

Colonel Price was followed in command of ROTC by Colonel 
Murray D. Harris, a staff officer during World War II and 

147 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

later. Under his direction the unit expanded in numbers and 
activities. 

A Mihtary Ball was held in 1953, the first of a series of an- 
nual events now conducted by the honorary societv H. Com- 
panv, 11th Regiment of the Society of Scabbard and Blade, 
chartered at Northeastern in 1954. A series of Military News 
Movies was started to bring to cadets of the underclass groups 
information and impressions of military ideals and traditions. 
A program of scholarships, initiated by five Universitv scholar- 
ships "in recognition of the constructiveness of the Military 
Science Program," was extended b\' scholarships gi\ en by Scab- 
bard and Blade and bv Pershing Rifles. 

As the ROTC unit grew from the original enrollment of 886 
to more than 2,800, it became the largest Armv ROTC unit in 
the nation. It distinguished itself not onlv in size among volun- 
teer undergraduate military units but h\ the exceptional ac- 
complishments of groups and individuals within the unit. In 
1959 the University received a "Certificate of Achievement" 
from Secretary of the Army William M. Brucker "for outstand- 
ing and dedicated service to the United States Arm\- through 
its highlv successful Reserve Officers Training Corps." 

Colonel Harris, PMST for fi\e vears at Northeastern, retired 
in December 1958. His successor, Colonel Sidnev S. Davis, was 
Signal Officer to General Anthonv McAuliffe, who, during the 
Battle of the Bulge, made the famous terse reply "Nuts" to the 
German demand for surrender. After the war Colonel Davis 
continued his Army career, and came to Northeastern from his 
post as Inspector General of the Signal Corps. 



148 



XIII 
A FAMILY OF MEN AND WOMEN' 



Speaking to the University Corporation during the last yeai' 
of his Presidency, Dr. Ell said, "Our Northeastern faculty, staff, 
and students are a family of men and women, boys and girls 
with deep personal interest in and concern for the hopes and 
aspirations, the welfare and achievement of every member of 
the family. 

"The radiant spirit, co-operation, and good will which per- 
meate life at Northeastern make the Universitv more than 
bricks and mortar, more than a place to work or a place to 
studv. It is a place for all— facultv, staff, and students alike— to 
live with zest, to grow, and to learn. 

"I give thanks every dav that mv life has been cast with as- 
sociates who are workers, learners, and vibrant spirits— men 
and women in whom I have alwavs had complete confidence 
and who have willingly and gladly given themselves, without 
reserve, to a good cause." 

The numerical size of the facultv to which Dr. Ell referred 
is beyond accurate calculation, in view of the number of people 
who have worked for Northeastern effectively but briefly and 
the even larger number who have been part-time teachers or 
have been associated with the Universitv for special short-term 
purposes. In other respects than size the family has demon- 
strated the qualities and changes common to all groups which, 
though large and diversified, take on homogeneous identity 
with the passing of time. 

149 



Origin and Development of Northeastern ihiiversity 

As must always happen through the decades, the attrition 
of death has left its mark on the Northeastern family. Besides 
William Lincoln Smith, Winthrop E. Nightingale, and Everett 
A. Churchill, whose records appear elsewhere in this account 
of Northeastern, ten men who died while active in the work of 
the University made substantial contributions and left deep 
impressions. 

The first was William Jefferson Alcott, Jr., a teacher in the 
Department of Mathematics from 1924 to 1933, when he died 
from the final effects of injuries incurred in World War I. In 
the following year members of his family and of the faculty 
established a fund for the Alcott Award, given annually to a 
student who has shown outstanding excellence in intellectual 
achievement bevond that which is required of him in his aca- 
demic program. 

Henry B. Alvord joined the faculty in 1920 and in the next 
year became Chairman of the Department of Civil Engineer- 
ing when the placement of students on co-operative work was 
detached from the department and centered in a new depart- 
ment. He held the chainnanship of Ci\il Engineering until 
April of 1939. 

Samuel A. S. Strahan was associated with Northeastern from 
1912 to 1942. After evening teaching, he was the first new 
member of the faculty of the School of Co-operative Engineer- 
ing, appointed in 1917 by Dean Ell. Later he became Chairman 
of the Department of Chemical Engineering, and in the last 
four years of his life gave his full time to the teaching of or- 
ganic chemistry. 

Russell Whitney's first work with Northeastern was in the 
Springfield Division, starting in 1929. In Boston he served for 
eight years as Dean of the evening School of Business and on 
the retirement of Galen Light became Comptroller. When he 
died in 1944, Mr. Whitney left his estate equally to North- 
eastern and to Dartmouth College, his alma mater. 

Two long-time and much-beloved teachers in the Depart- 
ment of Electrical Engineering were Roland G. Porter and 

150 



"A Family of Men and Women" 

Henry E. Richards. Roland Porter, an alumnus of Northeastern, 
joined the faculty in 1919. He followed Dr. Smith as Chairman 
of the Department of Electrical Engineering and served for 
sixteen years until his death in 1953. "Friends of Roland Porter" 
established a Memorial Fund by which an annual award of 
books is made to a student of Electrical Engineering who has 
demonstrated superior campus citizenship. Henry Richards was 
a teacher of Electrical Engineering from 1921 until his sudden 
death in 1955. The dedication of the 1950 Cauldron said of 
him: "His positive attitude and honest, forthright efforts made 
him an example of integritv most highly respected by his 
classes." 

Three other highly respected teachers were taken suddenly 
from active Northeastern life. Charles F. Barnason was for 
eleven years member and chairman in the Department of 
Modern Languages before a fatal heart attack in 1949. R. Law- 
rence Capon, an accomplished and creative musician as well 
as an effective and influential teacher of English, was at North- 
eastern from 1939 until September of 1959. Elmer H. Cutts, 
Chairman of the Department of History, died suddenly in 
April of 1960. Dr. Cutts had been at Northeastern since 
1941, and had spent the academic year 1958-1959 in India on 
a Fulbright grant, holding a professorship at Andhra Univer- 
sity to design and institute a new graduate program in Pacific 
history. 

Waldemar S. McGuire spent thirty-four years with the De- 
partments of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry. Although 
the last years of his life were handicapped by increasing illness, 
he maintained his vigorous interest in teaching and in the 
development of the Yacht Club, to which he had long been 
adviser and guiding force. Professor McGuire died in 1958. 

Passing decades brought sixteen people of the Northeastern 
faculty and administration to the age of or the personal need 
for retirement. The careers of Dr. Speare, Dr. Churchill, and 
Mr. Light have already been recorded. The other members of 
the group of sixteen were long-time teachers and staff workers, 

151 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

some of whom "retired" by relinquishing one area of activity 
and assuming another. 

Joseph W. Zeller was Chairman of the Department of Me- 
chanical Engineering from 1921 until 1950, and as Coach of 
Track in the early years of his association with Northeastern laid 
foundations on which Edward Parsons and Gerald Tatton de- 
veloped track to its present status as a major Universitv sport. 
From 1950 to 1954 Professor Zeller continued to teach courses 
in the Department of Mechanical Engineering; in following 
vears he contributed his experience and skill to evening teach- 
ing in Lincoln Institute. 

In 1957 Joseph Spear retired from the Chairmanship of the 
Department of Mathematics and gave full time to the teaching 
which he had conducted with such distinction since 1919. 

Also in 1957 Harold Mehin retired as Dean of Students but 
l3ecame a full-time member of the Department of English, as 
he had first been in 1920; he continued to teach the courses in 
poetry, Shakespeare, and American Literature which have 
brought satisfaction and rewards to successive generations of 
Northeastern students. 

Robert Bruce, whose association with the L^niversitv facultv 
began in 1916 when he became a part-time instructor in the 
School of Commerce and Finance, retired in the early 1940's 
but returned to be Actinu Dean of the College of Business Ad- 
ministration between the administrations of Asa S. Knowles 
and Roger S. Hamilton. Thereafter he served the Unixersity on 
special occasions and in his retirement continues to be an active 
figure in alumni work and a consistent attendant at sports 
events and social affairs. 

Two men identified in the memories of manv alumni as close 
friends and colorful Northeastern personalities were John B. 
Pugslev and George W. Towle. 

John Pugslev became an instructor in mathematics and chem- 
istry in 1918, after having been an Athletic Officer with the 
A.E.F. He was made Registrar in the following vear and in that 
position supervised the increasingb detailed records of stu- 

152 



"A Familif of Men and Women" 

dents as a small college grew to be a large university; he also 
was a teacher of Geology, and did administrative advisory work 
with veterans of both World War I and World War II. Pro- 
fessor Pugsley retired in 1947 and died in 1953. 

George Towle joined the Northeastern faculty in 1923 as one 
of the earlv assistants in the Department of Co-operative Work. 
Second only to Winthrop Nightingale, he was, until his retire- 
ment in 1954, the symbol of the Northeastern Co-operative 
Plan to students and employers during that long period. Pro- 
fessor Towle enjoyed three \'ears of retirement before his death 
in 1957. 

Joseph A. Coolidge retired in 1954 after forty-three years of 
work with Northeastern, including twentv-three years as Chair- 
man of the Department of Phvsics. As a major contributor to 
the infomial tradition of the University he identified himself for 
many years with the Chess Club through his perennial offer to 
entertain at lunch anv student who could defeat him at the 
game. 

Another member of the Department of Physics retired in 
1956 after twenty-six years of Northeastern teaching; C. David 
Johnson, a rocket enthusiast long before rockets became an 
international preoccupation, moved to Florida for a retirement 
of leisurely living and part-time teaching, 

Albert E. Whittaker was a teacher of Phvsics and Mechanical 
Engineering at Northeastern from 1924 until 1956, with a 
period during which he was on leave and a teacher at M.I.T. 
He contributed to the early development of student activities, 
particularlv through his work with the Banjo Club, a popular 
student organization in the 1920's and '30's. 

The Department of Drawing was developed by the energy, 
imagination, and untiring efforts of Eliot F. Tozer, a member 
of the Northeastern faculty from 1923 to 1958. Following 
George F. Ashlev, who came to Northeastern in 1918 as a bril- 
liant teacher in the pioneer effort to develop departments in 
the young School of Engineering, Eliot Tozer built the depart- 
ment in size, methods, and equipment; at the same time he 

153 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

made contributions through textbook writing to the field of 
drawing beyond Northeastern. After leaving the University, 
Professor Tozer was a technical consultant in drawing equip- 
ment and methods of teaching until his death in 1960. 

Two women long identified with the daily life of both faculty 
and students at Northeastern retired in 1957. 

Miss Mvra White had been a member of the University staff 
since 1920 and was the first woman member of the faculty. As 
Librarian, she was a significant figure in the growth of the 
University and the eff^ort to meet its changing needs. 

In another area of growth. Miss Mary B. Foor took over 
management of the Bookstore in 1918 and at her retirement 
left a complex business enterprise as a part of the structure and 
service of the University. Miss Foor, an energetic individualist, 
was fond of saying that she was the only person who ever "put 
Dr. Ell out of business"— a correct observation since until her 
employment books and supplies had been intermittently dis- 
pensed by the Dean from a closet near his office. 

Miss Edna j. Garrabrant was the first and for some time the 
only secretary in the Department of Co-operative Work. From 
1920 onward, while students were few in number. Miss Gar- 
ral^rant knew them all and performed a valuable service as 
unofficial adviser as well as departmental secretary. In 1949 
Miss Garrabrant retired to her farm in New Hampshire, and 
died in 1958. 

The stability of the personnel of Northeastern was empha- 
sized in a pleasant and somewhat dramatic way when in 1955 
Dr. Ell formed the Twenty-Five- Year Associates, "the full-time 
members of the Northeastern University faculty and office staff, 
active and retired, who have given at least twenty-five years of 
service to the University." The group consisted of forty-six men 
and women, listed here with the titles which the\' held in the 
spring of 1955: 

William T. Alexander, Dean of the College of Engineering 
Charles O. Baird, Chaimnan of the Department of Civil Engi- 
neering 

154 



"A Family of Men and Women" 

Chester P. Baker, Chairman of the Department of Chemical 

Engineering 
Mrs. Mabel E. Bean, Administrative Secretary, Buildings and 

Grounds Department 
Robert Bruce, Professor Emeritus of Accounting 
Everett A. Churchill, retired Vice President of the University 
Laurence F. Cleveland, Associate Professor of Electrical En- 
gineering 
Joseph A. Coolidge, Professor Emeritus of Physics 
Mrs. Madelyn R. Dowlin, Secretary, Office of the Vice President 
Carl S. Ell, President of the Universitv 
Albert E. Everett, Director of the Evening Division 
Mrs. Daisy M. Everett, Bursar of the University 
G. Raymond Fennell, Assistant Director of Admissions 
Alfred J. Ferretti, Chairman of the Department of Mechanical 

Engineering 
Marv B. Foor, Manager of the Book Store 
Edna J. Garrabrant, Secretarv, Department of Co-operative 

Work 
Emil A. Gramstorff, Dean, Graduate Division, College of En- 
gineering 
Mrs. Mildred C. Garfield, Administrative Secretary, Office of 

the Vice President 
Charles W. Havice, Dean of Chapel 

Frederick W. Holmes, Chairman of the Department of English 
Mrs. Bertha Hunter, Telephone Operator 
C. David Johnson, Associate Professor of Physics 
Wilfred S. Lake, Dean of the College of Liberal Arts 
Galen D. Light, retired Secretarv of the University 
Everett C. Marston, Professor of English 
Waldemar S. McGuire, Associate Professor of Chemistry 
Harold W. Melvin, Dean of Students 

George H. Meserve, Jr., Chairman of the Department of x\rt 
John C. Morgan, Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering 
Rudolf O. Oberg, Director of Alumni Relations 
Edward S. Parsons, Business Manager of the University 

155 



Origin and Development of Noiiheastern University 

E. Victoria Peterson, Administrative Secretary, Business Office 
Mrs. Marjorie G. Proiit, Administrative Secretaiy, Office of the 

President 
Mrs. Marv T. Revnolds, Secretary, Electronics Research Project 
Mrs. Jessie P. Rhodes, Secretarv to the Director, Department 

of Student Activities 
Milton J. Schlagenhauf, Director of Public Relations 
Joseph Spear, Chairman of the Department of Mathematics 
Frederick A. Stearns, Professor of Mechanical Engineering 
J. Kenneth Stevenson, Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds 
Gerald R. Tatton, Head Coach of Track 
George W. Towle, Professor Emeritus of Co-operative Work 
Eliot F. Tozer, Chairman of the Department of Drawing 
Myra White, Librarian 

William C. White, Vice President of the University 
Joseph W. Zeller, Professor Emeritus of Mechanical Engineering 
Saverio Zuffanti, Professor of Chemistrv 

Since its formation the Twenty-Five-Year Associates have 
met for an annual spring luncheon as guests of the University 
and for other social satherin^s at the home of Dr. and Mrs. Ell. 
Each member receives a University chair in Governor Carver 
design upon becoming a member of the Twentv-Five-Year 
Associates, and mementoes at later meetings; for example, at 
one spring luncheon a silver dollar minted in 1898, the vear 
of the founding of the University. 

Since the formation of the group three members have been 
added to the Associates: in 1956 Roger S. Hamilton, Dean of 
the College of Business Administration and Donald H. Mac- 
Kenzie, Dean of Lincoln Institute; and in 1958, Rudolph M. 
Morris, Registrar. No members of the faculty or staff were 
eligible for membership in 1959 or 1960, since twentv-five vears 
earlier, during the period of depression. Northeastern personnel 
was not increasing. 

Varied reasons explain why so manv men and women have 
spent long spans of time and in many instances their entire 
working careers at Northeastern. 

156 




William Crombie White 



"A Family of Men and Women' 

Some, like Professors Cleveland, Ferretti, Holmes, Meserve, 
Morgan, Stearns, and Zuffanti, found areas of teaching which 
gave them complete and permanent satisfaction. 

Others found interest and stimulation in different positions as 
the \'ears passed. Milton J. Schlagenhauf, for example, was a 
teacher from 1922 to 1926, then Director of Admissions, and 
beginning in 1952 Director of Public Relations. He was close 
to the growth and development of the University. G. Raymond 
Fennell, a Northeastern alumnus of the first class to be grad- 
uated from the College of Business Administration, has been a 
teacher of marketing, business management, economic geog- 
raphv, and economics, and at different times has held the titles 
Secretarv of the Faculty, Assistant Registrar, Executive Assist- 
ant to the Vice President, Assistant Director of Admissions, and 
Adviser to the Student Union. 

Throughout the membership of the Twenty-Five-Year Asso- 
ciates the common and unifying reason for length of association 
with the University clearly is a deep and cumulative concern for 
the "good cause" which Northeastern represented to them. 

The arduous fixed schedules and extra demands on time and 
energv, the limited facilities, and other restrictions of work at 
Northeastern in the early vears have been alleviated as changes 
and improvements have become possible. 

In 1946 the establishment of the "Permanent Facultv" rein- 
forced the security of teachers and administrators with a retire- 
ment plan and a form of tenure. Later benefits, supported by 
the University or bv the University and the worker, have been 
Blue Cross and Blue Shield supplemented bv a Major Medical 
Plan, Group Insurance, and a Terminal Payment Plan for mem- 
bers of the office staff. 

The increasing size of Northeastern and the attendant in- 
crease in number and diversity of schools and programs have 
had conspicuous effects on both teaching faculty and adminis- 
tration. 

In recent vears teachers have been able to give more time, 
energy, and talent to research and professional writing, as 

159 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

teaching assignments have been reduced and the total work of 
the University has spread over a larger group. A further advan- 
tage and challenge to the Northeastern teacher has been op- 
portunity for specialization and the direction of advanced study 
as the graduate programs have developed. 

Changes in administrative structure have necessarilv in- 
volved new positions and specialization of responsibility. In 
1925 a simple basic administrative form was adopted; with Dr. 
Speare as President, Vice President Ell was in charge of the 
Dav Division and Vice President Churchill was in charge of 
the Evening Division. In contrast, structural changes and addi- 
tions in the period 1953 to 1959 include the new position of 
Business Manager, held bv Edward S. Parsons; Financial Offi- 
cer, Lincoln C. Bateson; Provost of the Universitv, William C. 
White; Dean of the Graduate School, Arthur A. Vernon; Dean 
of Administration of the Dav Colleges, Kenneth G. Rvder; and 
Dean of Research Administration, Carl F. Muckenhoupt. 

The "family of men and women," grown from small numbers 
to a University total of 900 in the academic vear 1959-1960, has 
been the basis and the source of the vitalitv, continuitv, and 
progress of Northeastern; it has made possible the history of 
the University. 



160 



XIV 
THE GOVERNING BODY 



Three different groups— the governing body, the faculty, and 
the students— are vitahv important to the success of a univer- 
sity. From a chronological standpoint the governing body is 
the first element necessarv for the birth and continued existence 
of a university. The creation of such a group establishes the 
institution as a legal identity, and this group has the final legal 
responsibility and control of the actions of the university as a 
corporate entity. The members of the governing body of a 
private universitv are leaders in the community who can bring 
to the institution their moral and financial support as well as 
guide it toward worthwhile objectives. 

The university administration and faculty and, more par- 
ticularlv, the universitv president function as the link between 
the governing bod\' and the students. In America the names of 
outstanding universitv professors and outstanding university 
presidents are generally associated in the mind of the public 
with our nationallv prominent universities. It is quite in keep- 
ing with this tradition that the previous chapters in the history 
of Northeastern have been written laro;elv in terms of the lead- 
ership exercised b\ Northeastern facult\' members and ad- 
ministrators. 

In the focus of historical perspective, Northeastern Univer- 
sity provides an excellent example of the essential contribution 
of a governing board, a contribution seldom recognized by the 

161 



Origin and Development of Noii:heastern University 

public or even by the faculty and students. It is the flexibility 
of governing boards and their ability to adapt themselves to 
new situations which account for much of the success of Amer- 
ican higher education and, by the same token, of Northeastern 
University. The Educational Committee and the Board of Di- 
rectors of the Boston YMCA could hardly have known that 
they were preparing for Northeastern University when they 
sponsored the evening law program of 1898. Onlv through the 
flexibilitv of these groups and their response to the success of 
the first programs was the evolution of Northeastern made 
possible. 

From the early years of the Evening Institute until the in- 
corporation of Northeastern College, controlling authoritv 
rested with the Educational Committee, a well established 
unit in the structure of the Boston YMCA and responsible 
to the Board of Directors. In 1914-1915 that Committee con- 
sisted of William E. Murdock, Albert H. Curtis, and William C. 
Chick. Separate from the Educational Committee in the same 
year were the School of Law Corporation, formed in 1904, and 
the School of Commerce and Finance Coi-poration, formed 
in 1911. 

The first Trustees of Northeastern College, as announced in 
the catalog for 1916-1917, were the President of the new col- 
lege and the twentv Officers and Directors of the Boston 



YMCA- 



Arthur S. Johnson, President 
Albert H. Curtis, 1st Vice President 
William E. Murdock, 2nd Vice President 
George W. Mehaffey, 3rd Vice President 
George W. Brainard, Secretary 
Lewis A. Crossett, Treasurer 

F. W. Carter J. Grafton Minot 

S. B. Carter W. B. Mossman 

William C. Chick W. H. NewhaU 

George W. Coleman Silas Peirce 

162 



The Governing Body 

H. Bradlee Fenno Charles W. Perkins 

Henrv G. Lord Thomas H. Russell 

Francis P. Luce Sabin P. Sanger 

Frank Palmer Speare 




Robert G. Dodge 

With few changes in personnel this group continued to act 
as the Board of Trustees of the new college in the years im- 
mediately following 1916. An innovation in the personnel of 
the Board occurred in 1922 when Walton I. Crocker, Robert G. 
Dodge, and F. R. Carnegie Steele were elected to membership; 

163 



Origin and Development of Noiiheastern University 

these three men were the first members, except for the Presi- 
dent of Nortlieastern, who were not at the same time Directors 
of tlie Boston YMCA. 

A l^asic cliange in the structure of the governing bodv took 
place in 1936 and 1937 with a revision of the Bylaws of the 
Universitv and the formation of the Northeastern Universitv 
Corporation. The background to this change and the details of 
the meetings which brought about the establishment of the 
Corporation are recorded in Chapter V; the thinking and 
planning of that transitional period reflect a fundamental 
change at that time in the control of Northeastern and the 
concept of its future. The reorganization gave Northeastern 
University a governing board composed of leaders in the busi- 
ness, industrial, and cultural communitv it served. Some of 
those who had served Northeastern for manv vears were joined 
by a large number of other leaders from the broader commu- 
nity; in 1937 the Corporation was composed of seventv-four 
men. 

As planned at its formation, the Corporation meets annuallv 
and elects from its membership a Board of Trustees. This 
board assumes a direct responsibility for governing the Uni- 
versitv, and is organized into various committees for this pur- 
pose. At the present time an Executive Committee and stand- 
ing committees on Development, Funds and Investments, and 
Facilities provide an extensive and flexible organization. The 
Corporation has grown to 130 members and the Board of 
Trustees to thirty-seven. 

From its formation until the present time the Coi-poration 
has been of great value to the University, not only as a legally 
constituted authority but as a body which has provided sup- 
port and assistance. By personal interest and concern, by mone- 
tary gifts, and b\' influence in the community and throughout 
New England, members of the Corporation have aided sub- 
stantially in the construction of the buildings on Huntington 
Avenue and have contributed both directlv and indirectly to 
the growing stature of Northeastern. 

164 



The Governing Body 

In 1937 the President of the Aknnni Association was made a 
member of the Corporation by virtue of his office. In 1952 the 
Corporation adopted a plan of Alumni Term Members; by this 
plan, four alumni are elected each year to the Corporation for 
four-year terms. In recent years, therefore, the alumni have 
had a stronger voice in the governing body of their University. 

The sustaining support of the Corporation is reflected by the 
fact that seventeen members of the original group are still 
members in 1959-1960. They are Arthur A. Ballantine, George 
L. Barnes, Thomas P. Beal, F. Gregg Bemis, William C. Chick, 
Paul F. Clark, Albert M. Creighton, Robert G. Dodge, Carl S. 
Ell, Merrill Griswold, Chandler Hovey, Howard M. Hubbard, 
Galen D. Light, Edward A. MacMaster, Frank L. Richardson, 
Leverett Saltonstall, Robert T. P. Storer. 

The officers of the Corporation through the years have been 
as follows— 

Chairmen of the Corporation and the Board of Trustees 
Robert G. Dodge, 1936-1959 
Byron K. Elliott, 1959- 

Vice Chairrnan of the Corporation and the Board of Trustees 
Frank L. Richardson, 1936- 

Secretari/-T reastirer of Northeastern University 
Galen D. Light, 1936-1943 

Treasurers of the Corporation and the Board of Trustees 
Henrv N. Andrews, 1943-1946 
Robert G. Emerson, 1946-1956 
Byron K. Elliott, 1956-1959 
Lawrence H. Martin, 1959- 

Secretaries of the Corporation and the Board of Trustees 
Everett A. Churchill, 1943-1953 
Lincoln C. Bateson, 1953- 

The standing committees of the Board of Trustees, provided 
for in the original structure of the Corporation, have made 

165 



Origin and Development of Notiheastern University 

vital contributions to the control, direction, and progress of 
the University. Of the Executive Committee, for example, Dr. 
Ell has written, "This Committee has had, and has today, all 
of the authority of the Board of Trustees in the absence of a 
meeting of the Board. It is obvious, therefore, that the Execu- 




Byron K. Elliott 

tive Committee is by far the most powerful committee and ac- 
tually performs many of the duties in regard to the supervision 
of the institution which nonnally would devolve upon the 
Trustees." The leadership of this and the other standing com- 
mittees has been continuously in the hands of able men who 

166 



The Governing Body 

maintained a deep interest in Northeastern and contributed 
significantly to its development. The chronological sequence 
follows— 

Chairmeyi of the Executive Committee 

Edward T- Frost, 1936-1938 
Walter Channing, 1938-1954 
Frank L. Richardson, 1954-1955 
George R. Brown, 1955-1957 
David F. Edwards, 1957-1960 
S. Bruce Black, 1960- 

Chairmen of the Committee on Development 

Frank L. Richardson, 1936-1946 
Edward Dana, 1946-1960 
David F. Edwards, 1960- 

Chairmen of the Committee on Fumis ami Investments 

Charles Stetson, 1937-1953 
Robert G. Emerson, 1953-1956 
Byron K. Elliott, 1956-1959 
Lawrence H. iMartin, 1959- 

Chairmen of the Committee on Facilities 

Frederic H. Fay, 1943-1944 
Earl P. Stevenson, 1944- 

Appendix D in this record of Northeastern is "Northeastern 
Buildings and Rooms Dedicated to Persons and Created by 
Individual Gifts." The names of seventet-n present and past 
members of the Corporation appear in tliis listing- 
Godfrey L. Cabot Edward J. Frost 
George H. Clifford Harry H. Kerr 
Robert G. Dodge Edwin S. Webster, Jr. 
Bernard W. Doyle James L. Richards 

167 



Origin and Development of Noiiheastern University 

David F. Edwards Frank L. Richardson 

Carl S. Ell Joseph G. Riesman 

Albert E. Everett Abbot Stevens 

Joseph F. Ford Robert G. Studley 

Edwin S. Webster 

In view of the large number of able and distinguished men 
who have served on the Northeastern Universitv Corporation— 
for example, fifty-six men were members of the Corporation at 
tlie time of their death, from 1937 to 1959— individuals can be 
cited only on the basis of objective criteria. 

Presidents Speare and Ell, Vice President Churchill, and Sec- 
retary Galen Light were for many years connecting links be- 
tween the day-to-dav operation and development of the Univer- 
sity and its trustees. In the present administration this liaison is 
carried on by President Knowles and Secretarv Lincoln Bateson. 

Arthur S. Johnson, member of the Boston YMCA Board of 
Directors in 1888 and President of the Boston YxMCA from 1897 
to 1929, was a strong guiding force in the early years of North- 
eastern history. He was President of the first Board of Trustees 
of Northeastern College in 1916 and a member of the Corpora- 
tion from its formation until progressive illness required his 
retirement from activity in 1949. Among Mr, Johnson's many 
contributions to the Boston YMCA and to Northeastern was 
his direction of the fund drive which made possible the con- 
struction of the YMCA building on Huntington Avenue. 

James L. Richards became associated with Northeastern as 
a member of the Corporation at its foundation. He made major 
contributions to Northeastern bv stimulating interest in the 
University among his friends and business associates; by mak- 
ing possible the construction of Richards Hall, the first building 
on the Huntington Avenue campus; and bv continued interest 
and support until his deatli in 1955. 

Godfrey L. Cabot became a member of tlie Corporation in 
1941. Thereafter, his constant interest in Northeastern, demon- 
strated by substantial financial contributions and regular at- 

168 



The Governing Body 

tendance at Commencements and at special University func- 
tions, led to the naming of the Physical Education Center as a 
tribute to him. 

William C. Chick was a member of the Educational Com- 
mittee of the Boston YMCA in 1915, and a member of the first 
Board of Trustees of Northeastern College in the following 
year. Mr. Chick's association with Northeastern has been con- 
tinuous since that time; he was a charter member of the Cor- 
poration and still holds membership in that body. 

Robert Grav Dodre, first teacher in the School of Law in 
1898, was elected to the Board of Trustees in 1922 and became 
its Chairman and Chairman of the Executive Committee in 
1932. He continued as Chairman of the Corporation and the 
Board of Trustees from 1936 until 1959, when he retired from 
active leadership to become Honorarv Chairman of the Cor- 
poration and the Board of Trustees. 

Frank L. Richardson, a graduate of the School of Law, Class 
of 1909, was the first alumnus to become a Trustee of North- 
eastern Universitv. Elected in 1930, Mr. Richardson was made 
Vice Chairman of the Board in 1932; he was the first Vice 
Chaimian of the Corporation and is still serving in that position. 

Among the manv members of the Corporation who have 
contributed time, effort, and monev to the development of 
Northeastern buildings, Richard L. Bowditch and Robert Cut- 
ler perfomied a signal service as chairman and vice chairman 
of the fund-raising campaign for the Library in 1950. 

Members of the Corporation have given generously to the 
general financial support of the Universitv and have created 
funds for special purposes. Two annual awards which have be- 
come increasingly valuable and meaningful to successive gen- 
erations of students were made possible bv Sears B. Condit and 
Harold D. Hodgkinson. 

Mr. Condit, a memlDer of the Corporation from 1936 until his 
death in 1951, established a student loan fund in 1927, and in 
1940 changed it to a permanent fund for monetarv awards to 
juniors and seniors of outstanding scholastic achievement. In 

169 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

1940 there were eight student recipients; in later years, as the 
fund was augmented, the niunl^er increased to twenty and more 
annually. The total number of students who have been re- 
warded, aided, and encouraged by the Sears B. Condit Honor 
Awards is an impressive continuous group. 

Mr. Hodgkinson became a member of the Corporation in 
1945. Since 1954 the substantial Harold D. Hodgkinson 
Achievement Award has been given annually to the student 
who, in the judgment of a faculty committee, is the most out- 
standing student from all points of view in the junior class. 
This award, like the Condit Award, is regarded bv the student 
bodv as carrying a significance far bevond its monetaiy value. 

The men cited in the preceding paragraphs are representa- 
tive of the body of business and civic leaders to whom North- 
eastern has appealed as a vital addition to the educational 
community of Boston. Without their interest and help, the 
establishment and development of Northeastern could not 
have taken place so fruitfully during the first half of the twenti- 
eth century. 

A complete listing of the Corporation from 1936 onward 
appears in Appendix B, prepared under the direction of Lin- 
coln C. Bateson, Secretary of the Corporation, and Loring M. 
Thompson, Director of University Planning. 



170 



XV 

A GREAT UNREALIZED 
POTENTIAL" 



July 1, 1959, was a significant date in the history of North- 
eastern. On that date the third President of the University took 
active office. 

Preparation for the transfer of leadership was begun in Jan- 
uary of 1958, when Dr. Ell announced that he would retire at 
the end of June, 1959. In a special issue of the Northeastern 
News, he said, "If this institution is to progress, then it should 
not have its direction suddenly changed. It should go ahead in 
the same direction. It should be developed and enriclied. We 
must get the right man as the third President." 

In May, 1958, the Board of Trustees announced that on unani- 
mous recommendation of a special committee of the Board they 
had elected as Dr. Ell's successor Asa S. Knowles, then Presi- 
dent of the University of Toledo. 

Dr. Knowles, a native of Maine and a graduate of Thayer 
Academy and Bowdoin College, started his professional career 
at Northeastern in 1931 as a teacher of industrial management, 
later serving as professor and head of the Department of In- 
dustrial Engineering. From 1939 to 1942 he was Dean of the 
College of Business Administration and Director of the Bureau 
of Business Research. 

Thereafter he was successively Dean of the School of Busi- 
ness Administration and Director of General College Extension 
at Rhode Island State College, founder and President of the 

171 



Origin and Development of Noiiheastern University 

Associated Colleges of Upper New York, Vice President for 
University Development at Cornell University, and in 1951 
President of the University of Toledo. 

In 1938 Dr. Knowles was on leave from Northeastern to serve 
as a member of the secretariat and director of industrial plant 
tours for the 7th International Management Congress; 1941- 
1943 he sei'ved as Panel Consultant on Training within Industry 
for the War Manpower Commission; and in 1943-1945 he 
sei'ved as Public Panel member of the New England War La- 
bor Board. 

Dr. Knowles held local and national offices in the Society for 
the Advancement of Management, and in 1938 received tlie 
Taylor Key from the Societv for service in the field of manage- 
ment. He has received citations from Bergen Junior College 
(later Fairleigh Dickinson Universitv) and Thaver Academy for 
distinguished service to higher education, and from the Citv 
Council for distinguish service to the Citv of Toledo, Ohio. 
In 1938 he was awarded a fellowship in the Institute of Indus- 
trial Administration, London, England, for his services in the 
7th International Management Congress. In later years he was 
given honorarv membership in the American Institute of In- 
dustrial Engineers for contributions to industrial engineering, 
and in the Engineering Societv of Toledo for services to en- 
gineering. In 1951 he received an honorarv degree from Bow- 
doin College and in 1957 from Northeastern University. 

Various affiliations of the new President, from 1938 to 1960, 
were Society for the Advancement of Management, American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers, American Societv for En- 
gineering Education, and American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences; and the honor societies Phi Kappa Pi, Tau Beta Pi, 
Beta Gamma Sigma, Pi Delta Phi, Blue Key, Sigma Society, 
Pershing Rifles, and Scabbard and Blade. Current community 
activities include membership on the Board of Directors of 
the United Fund of Boston and of tlie Boston Cliamber of 
Commerce, and on the National Advisorv Council, Boston 
Conference on Distribution. 

172 




Asa Smallidge Knowles 



"A Great Unrealized FotentiaV* 

Dr. Knowles has written articles on management, industrial 
engineering, and education for various magazines and journals, 
and is a contrilDutins: editor of Production Handbook. He is the 
author of Job Evahmtion for Hoiidtj and Salaried Workers, and 
co-author of Industrial Management, Management of Man- 
power, and Production Control. 

The third "first ladv" of Northeastern is the former Edna 
Worsnop of Brunswick, Maine; she and Dr. Knowles are the 
parents of a son, Asa Worsnop, and a daughter, Margaret 
Anne. 

An unusual background to the transfer of leadership at 
Northeastern was a seven-month period in 1958-1959 during 
which the President-elect was at the University in an un- 
official capacitv. 

Dr. Knowles reported this experience, under the title "Orien- 
tation of a College President," in The Educational Record of 
the American Council on Education. He pointed out that 
usuallv the new president of an American college or university 
assumes his position with little awareness of the major char- 
acteristics, concerns, and possibilities of the institution which 
he is to direct; and, equallv important, with an unawareness 
of the subtleties of the institution. This lack of broad under- 
standing, and deficiencv of contact with the thinking, atti- 
tudes, and desires of administrators, faculty, students, and 
alumni often results in a limited perspective by the new 
president, with resultant errors in judgment and decision. At 
Northeastern, the period of "orientation" was a planned, co- 
operative effort to avoid the problems that can arise from 
abrupt transition of leadership. To Dr. Knowles it was, in his 
words, a period of "coming home," but coming back to a uni- 
versity which had changed markedly since he had left it 
in 1942. 

At the annual meeting of the University Corporation in 
May, 1959, Dr. Ell was elected to the position of President 
Emeritus and Honorary Chancellor of the University. At the 
same meeting Robert Grav Dodge resigned after twenty-three 

175 



Origin and Development of Noi'theastern University 

vears as ChaiiTnan of the Corporation and twenty-seven years 
as Cliairman of the Board of Trustees, and was elected Hon- 
orary Chairman of the Corporation. He was succeeded as Chair- 
man of the Corporation and the Board of Trustees by Byron K. 
Elhott, Treasurer of the Corporation and the Board of Trustees 
and President of the John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance Com- 
pany. Lawrence H. Martin, Executive Vice President, The Na- 
tional Shawmut Bank of Boston, was elected to succeed Judge 
Elliott as Treasurer of the Corporation and the Board of Trustees. 

At the Facultv Inaugural Dinner on September 8, 1959, 
President Knowles, speaking on A Look Ahead, concluded 
with a summaiy of his views of the future of Northeastern— 

"At this time we can forecast the following: 

"We shall cling to our present aims and objectives as now 
defined— Co-operative education, adult education, and special 
service education for industry. 

"We shall strive to consolidate and strengthen the gains and 
growths accomplished already. This requires that we strive 
constantly to improve our efficiency, organization, and staff. 

"We shall strive to improve the quality of our student body 
and graduates bv improving our selection of students and en- 
hancing the quality of instruction. Thereby we shall sei^ve 
better the community and nation. 

"We shall make additions to our programs and sendees only 
as thev confonn to established objectives and can be operated 
on a sound financial basis. 

"We shall give priority in fund raising to augmenting oiu' 
endowments and funds to support the programs and services 
now provided by the Universitv. 

"We shall keep a proper balance in the instructional and 
research activities of our faculty. 

"We shall continue to operate this University on a sound 
financial basis, doing only those things that we can afford to 
do and expanding as we have resources available. In brief, we 
shall operate in the black. 

"If we adhere to these principles as we operate from day to 

176 



"A Great Unrealized Fotential" 

day and make plans for the future, we can move foi-ward 
with confidence. . . . Northeastern University has a great un- 
reahzed potential; let us work together to realize it." 

The implementation of the principles, attitudes, and ob- 
jectives stated and implied in Dr. Knowles' inaugural address 
took shape and became increasingly evident as the academic 
vear 1959-1960 progressed. 

A significant change in administrative organization was 
effected by the creation of three new positions and the ap- 
pointment of staff members to fill them— Assistant to the 
President, John S. Bailey (later appointed to the position of 
Director of Public Relations); Director of the Office of Uni- 
versity Planning, Loring M. Thompson; Director of the Office 
of Universitv Development, F. Weston Prior. 

A change in the structure of the University was the estab- 
lishment of a fifth college, announced in Februarv of 1960 and 
to become effective in July of that year. University College, 
supplementing and reinforcing the Colleges of Engineering, 
Business Administration, Liberal Arts, and Education, is de- 
signed to provide improved status for the growing number 
of part-time students and programs in evening education 
leading to associate and bachelor degrees. It will develop 
courses and curricula related to the subject matter offered in 
the other Northeastern colleges, but adapted to the needs and 
interests of emploved people who wish to undertake or com- 
plete a program of higher education during evening hours. 

Simultaneously with the establishment of University Col- 
lege, the evening School of Business was merged with the 
College of Business Administration, completing a fusion of 
day and evening programs of instruction which was abeady 
in effect in engineering, liberal arts, and education. 

In future vears these structural changes will become in- 
creasingly significant. The bachelor's degree will be earned 
at Northeastern by day studv, evening study, or a combination 
of day and evening work. With the same college admission 
requirements applving to all curricula in Engineering, Busi- 

177 



Origin and Development of Noiiheastern University 

ness Administration, Liberal Arts, and Education, and with 
the same quantitative and quahtative standards apphed to 
programs in the four colleges, different degrees in the same or 
similar fields will in future be eliminated, and the Northeast- 
ern degree will have the same value and significance whether 
earned bv dav or evening studv. 

Also in 1960 an Office of Adult and Continuing Education 
was established, to develop and promote all evening programs 
and to offer special educational services as they may be re- 
quested or foreseen. Divisions within this Office are the well 
established Bureau of Business and Industrial Training, and a 
Department of Special Services. 

The development of the new Universitv College and the 
Office of Adult and Continuing Education is under the direc- 
tion of Albert E. Everett. Dr. Everett has been associated with 
Northeastern since 1927; in 1945 he became Dean of the 
School of Business and Director of the Evening Division. 

Other academic changes in 1959-1960 were an extension of 
graduate study in engineering and the establishment of an 
evening undergraduate program in engineering. 

A master's program in Electrical Engineering was first of- 
fered in 1956, and extended to Civil and Mechanical Engi- 
neering in the following year. This work was a combination of 
day and evening classes. Beginning in the fall of 1960, these 
curricula, with the addition of Chemical Engineering, were 
administered on a unifomi Co-operative Work schedule of 
ten-week alternating periods of da\' classes and engineering 
practice. 

An innovation in engineering study in New England was the 
undergraduate program in Electrical Engineering, beginning 
in the fall of 1960, to be conducted in the evening over a 
nine-year period, and made up of the same courses and with 
the same requirements as those of the day curriculum. 

The increasing complexitv of Northeastern resulted in 
added delegation of responsibility to faculty members and 
faculty committees during 1959-1960. In each of the colleges 

178 



"A Great Unrealized Potential" 

a Curriculum Committee was fonned, to analyze current cur- 
ricula and to evaluate new courses and proposed changes. The 
University Committee on Faculty Policy was reconstituted on 
the basis of membership bv election of representatives of the 
teaching faculties of the colleges, with a chainuan elected by 
the Committee from its membership. 

The structure and objectives of these two committees 
were the result of administrative recommendation. On the 
initiative of the faculty, in 1960, a Northeastern Chapter of the 
American Association of Universitv Professors was estab- 
lished. 

A major addition to the property of the University was the 
purchase of the Boston Storage Warehouse, announced in 
July, 1959. Like the adjoining propertv on Huntington Avenue 
where the Boston Opera House formerly stood, the Ware- 
house acquisition was of primary importance in adding nearly 
60,000 square feet of land to the Northeastern campus. The 
building, made up of ten units constructed at different times 
during the first quarter of the centui-v, contains floor space 
over four times that of Ricliards Hall. During 1959-1960 
studies were carried on to determine whether the Warehouse 
should be remodeled for educational purposes, or demolished 
to make room for new construction. 

On April 21, 1960, another of the anniversaries in North- 
eastern's history took place. An afternoon convocation and an 
evening dinner celebrated the fiftieth year of the College of 
Engineering and of Co-operative Education at the University. 
A special issue of the Northeastern News, edited by Charles 
Fuller '60, reviewed the history of co-operative education at 
Northeastern and in the United States. At the dinner. Dr. 
John L. Burns '30, President, Radio Coi-poration of America, 
was the speaker. Dr. Burns, one of Northeastern's most dis- 
tinguished alumni, received his undergraduate education in 
the College of Engineering, under the Co-operative Plan. 

At the convocation and at the dinner. President Knowles 
made citations to tlie following— 

179 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

Carl Stephens Ell, ". . . whose leadership throughout half 
a century inspired courage and fidelity in his colleagues and 
helped tliem build an ever finer institution of learning." 

John R. Leigliton 14, "A member of the pioneer group of 
'co-ops,' whose dedicated sei-vice as a teacher in the evening 
programs of Lincoln Institute extends over nearly half a 
century. " 

Twenty members of the faculty and administration who 
had spent thirty-three years or more in the sei*vice of North- 
eastern and its development- 
William T. Alexander, Dean of the College of Engineering 
Charles O. Baird, Professor of Civil Engineering 
Chester P. Baker, Professor of Chemical Engineering 
Robert Bruce, Professor Emeritus of Accounting 
Joseph A. Coolidge, Professor Emeritus of Physics 
Albert E. Everett, Dean of the Scliool of Business and Di- 
rector of the Evening Division 
Alfred J. Ferretti, Professor of Mechanical Engineering 
Emil A. Gramstorff, Dean of Graduate Engineering Pro- 

2;rams 
Charles W. Havice, Professor of Sociology and Dean of 

Chapel 
Frederick W. Holmes, Professor of English 
Wilfred S. Lake, Dean of the College of Liberal Arts 
Everett C. Marston, Professor of English 
Harold W. Melvin, Professor of English and former Dean 

of Students 
George H. Meserve, Professor of Art 
Edward S. Parsons, Business Manager of the University 
Milton J. Schlagenhauf, Co-ordinator of Fimctions 
Josepli Spear, Professor of Matliematics 
Frederick A. Stearns, Professor of Mechanical Engineering 
William C. White, Vice President and Provost of the Uni- 
versity 



180 



"A Great Unrealized Potential" 

Joseph W. Zeller, Professor Emeritus of Mechanical Engi- 
neering 

Three fifty-year co-operating companies- 
Boston Edison Company 
Boston Gas Company 
Wm. S. Crocker, Inc. 

Twenty aknnni of the College of Engineering, "for distin- 
giiislied attainment"— 

Donald A. Bean '35, Assistant Director of Product Stand- 
ards, Campbell Soup Company 

Maurice H. Bigelow '24, Vice President, Research and En- 
gineering, Allied Chemical Corporation 

Richard B. Brown, Jr. '22, Diyision Head, Commercial 
Lighting Sales, Boston Edison Company 

Henry F. Callahan '26, Vice President and General Man- 
ager, Sylyania Lighting Products 

Elmer T. Carlson 25, Executiye Vice President, Electric 
Distribution Products, Inc. 

William S. Chapin '27, Project Engineering, St. Lawrence 
Seaway Power Authority of the State of New York 

James N. DeSerio '35, Consulting Engineer 

Ivan G. Easton '38, Vice President for Engineering, Gen- 
eral Radio Company 

Howard T. Engstrom '22, Vice President and Director of 
Marketing, Remington Rand Univac Division of Sperry 
Rand Corporation 

Calvin A. King '44, President, Bird Machine Company 

Edward B. Landiy '28, Director of Safety and Health, 
United States Post Office Department 

Alfred E. Lonnberg '32, Vice President of Sanborn Com- 
pany 

Robert E. Madsen '31, Marine Sales Manager, Mobil In- 
ternational Oil Company 



181 



Origin and Development of Noi'theastern University 

Josepli P. McGuckian '30, Vice President, William S. Lib- 

bev Company 
Charles W. Perrv '34, Assistant Manager, Matchieson 

Company 
Leon P. Sudrabian '36, Consulting Engineer, Electro 

Rust Proofing Corporation 
Harold A. Swanson '30, Vice President, E. F. Drew & Co., 

Inc. 
Eugene J. Vogel '36, Treasurer, Wes Julian ConstiTiction 

Company 
Roger G. Witherell '27, Officer in charge of Seabee Reserve 

Training for the U. S. Nayy 
Alfred K. Wright '31, Vice President, Operations, Tung-Sol 

Electric, Inc. 

The changes and innovations which took place at North- 
eastern in 1959-1960 are forecasts of the future of the Uni- 
versity. The details of that future are impossible of predic- 
tion, but outlines of the future are apparent. 

It is evident that Northeastern will qyow in stature as it 
adapts itself to a changing world. A Committee on Planning, 
made up of meml:)ers of the facult\' and administration, rec- 
ommended in 1960 that during the period until 1970 un- 
dergraduate education at Northeastern should grow less rap- 
idly than during the period from 1920 to 1960, and that 
graduate education should increase substantially 

The reasons for these recommendations rise from basic 
changes seen by the Committee as taking place in higher 
education in Massachusetts as well as in the nation. With 
the inevitable development of public-supported regional col- 
leges, state and community, and the establishment of new pri- 
vate colleges in different sections of the Commonwealth, the 
commuting undergraduate population of tlie futme will be 
spread over a wide area rather than being concentrated in the 
Boston colleges. With the increasing importance of advanced 
degrees and specialized training, in the liumanities as well as 

182 



"A Great Unrealized Potential" 

in technical and scientific fields, the need for broadened and 
intensified opportunities in graduate study will develop. 

In view of these two trends, Northeasteni's contribution to 
the future mav well be a stabilizing of its undergraduate work, 
with progressive higher standards through selectivity of stu- 
dents; and an extension of graduate work. 

This development would necessarilv correlate with further 
expansion and acceleration of research. It would require ex- 
tensive and specialized personnel, housing, equipment, and 
library facilities. Moreover, coupled with the fulfillment of 
Universitv Colleo;e and the Office of Adult and Continuino; 
Education, graduate study and research would project into the 
future the Northeastern tradition of flexibility and adaptation 
as means toward communitv and national service— a tradition 
which had its origin in the Evening Institute for Young Men 
of the Boston YMCA. 

Any educational institution which endures must change 
with changing times. Each new period requires different lead- 
ership, personnel, and methods, if the direction and the po- 
tential of the period are to be seen, understood, and realized. 
With due allowance for the limited perspective which im- 
mediacy of time imposes, the pattern of the historv of North- 
eastern can be viewed in three broad periods. The central 
figure in each period is not onlv a svmbol but a determining 
force. 

Dr. Speare provided the idealism, optimism, and adventure- 
some spirit needed in his time to lav foundations and chart 
directions bv experimentation and bv trial and error. 

Dr. Ell built upon the foundations and broadened the scope 
of earlier directions, to establish Northeastern Universitv as 
a physical entity and a recognized university. 

The third President, Dr. Knowles, with some talents and 
concepts similar to those of his predecessors but with special 
qualities now needed in his own time, will determine the 
future. 



183 



APPENDIX A 

NORTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY 
CHRONOLOGY 



1896-Evening Institute of the Boston YMCA established 

1897— Special courses in Law, Elementary Electricity, Ad- 
vanced Electricity, by the Lowell Institute, under the 
auspices of the Evening Institute of the Boston YMCA 

1898— Department of Law of the Evening Institute estab- 
lished 

1902— First graduating class (21) from the School of Law 

1903— Automobile School of the Evening Institute established 

1904— School of Law incorporated, with power to grant the 
LL. B. degree 

Evening Polytechnic School (Lincoln Institute) estab- 
lished 

1907— School of Commerce and Finance (School of Business) 
established 

1909— Day co-operative education in engineering started 

Day Preparatoiy School (The Huntington School) estab- 
lished 

1911— School of Commerce and Finance incorporated, with 
degree-granting power 
Botolph Building occupied 

1913— Huntington Avenue Building of the Boston YMCA occu- 
pied 

1916— Northeastern College of the Boston Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association incorporated, March 30 
Student newspaper The Co-op started 

185 



Origin ami Development of Northeastern University 

1917— Frank Palmer Speare inaugurated as first President, 

March 30 
1920— Northeastern College authorized to grant degrees of 

B.C.E., B.M.E., B.E.E., B. Ch. E. 
1921— The Senate, honor society of the School of Engineering, 

organized 
1922— Northeastern College renamed Northeastern University 

School of Business Administration established 
1923— Degree-granting power extended, with exceptions of 

medical and dental degrees, A.B., and B.S. 
1925— Sigma Society, honor society of the College of Business 

Administration, organized 
1926— Automobile School closed 

King Husky I, University mascot, crowned, March 9 
1929— First purchase of land on Huntington Avenue 

First year of hockey as a varsity sport 
1930— Degree-granting power extended to include B.S. with 

specifications 

Acquisition of Botolph Building from the Boston YMCA 

Acquisition of Huntington Field in Brookline 
1933— First season of football as a varsity sport 
1935— College of Liberal Arts established 

Degree-granting power extended, with exception of med- 
ical and dental degrees 

College of Engineering accredited by the University of 

the State of New York 
1936— Northeastern Universit)' Coi^poration established 
1937— The Academy, honor society of the College of Liberal 

Arts, organized 
1938— Richards Hall occupied 
1939— Curricula in Civil, Mechanical, Electrical, and Industrial 

Engineering accredited by the Engineers' Council for 

Professional Development 
1940— Carl Stephens Ell inaugurated as second President, No- 
vember 19 

University added to the list of institutional members of 

186 



Appendix A 

the New England Association of Colleges and Secondary 
Schools 

First Northeastern University teaching fellows (Depart- 
ment of Chemistiy) 

1941— College of Business Administration and College of Lib- 
eral Arts accredited bv the University of the State of 
New York 

Department of Chemistry accredited by the American 
Chemical Society 

University made an institutional member of the American 
Council on Education 

Chapter of Tau Beta Pi, national honor society, estab- 
lished in the College of Engineering 
Science Hall occupied 

1942— University made an institutional member of the Associa- 
tion of American Colleges 

CuiTiculum in Chemical Engineering accredited by the 
Engineers' Council for Professional Development 

1943— Women students admitted to the Day Colleges 

School of Law accredited bv the Universitv of the State 
of New York 

1945— School of Law made a member of the Association of 
American Law Schools 

1947— Student Center occupied 

1948— Fiftieth Anniversan^ convocation and banquet, October 2 

1950— Transfer of The Huntington School to the Boston YMCA 
Evening graduate programs in tlie College of Engineer- 
ing started 

1951-Anny R.O.T.C. unit established 

1952— Libraiy Building occupied 

1953— College of Education established 

Closing of School of Law announced 

1954— Physical Education Center occupied 

Facultv Committee on Development and Co-ordination 
of Research formed 

1956— Hayden Hall occupied 

187 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

1957— Physical Education Center named Godfrey Lowell 

Cabot Physical Education Center 
1958— Student Center Building named Carl Stephens Ell 

Student Center 

Graduate School established 
1959— Graduate Center occupied 

Library Building named Robert Gray Dodge Libraiy 

Asa Smallidge Knowles inaugurated as third President, 

September 8 
1960— University College established 

Celebration of 50th year of the College of Engineering 

and of Co-operatiye Education at Northeastern, April 21 



188 



APPENDIX B 

MEMBERS OF THE CORPORATION 
1936-1960 



Members of the Corporation— The regular members of the 
Corporation are elected for an indefinite period. 

Alumni Term Members of the Corporation— Each year four 
alumni are elected to the Corporation for a four-year term. 
Those elected once are not eligible for re-election as Alumni 
TeiTn Members. 

Term Members of the Corporation— Ahimni association presi- 
dents are ex officio term members of the Corporation dur- 
ing their period of office as president. 

Members of the Board of Trustees— Each year ten members 
of the Corporation are elected for four-year terms on the 
Board of Trustees. Members are eligible for re-election at 
anv time. 

Standing Committees— Memhers of the Board of Trustees are 
eligible for appointment to the standing committees of the 
Board. These are the Executive Committee, the Committee 
on Development, the Committee on Facilities, and the 
Committee on Funds and Investments. 

Abbott, Joseph Florence, formerly Chairman of the Board, 
American Sugar Refining Company. Member of the Cor- 
poration, 1941-54. 

Abrams, Julius, President, Poleij-Abrams Corporation. Alumni 
Term Member, 1960- . 

189 



Origin and Development of Noi'theastern University 

Adams, Charles Francis [Sr.], formerly Chairman of the Board, 
State Street Trust Company. Member of the Corporation, 
1936-53; Board of Trustees, 1937-44. (Deceased) 

Adams, Charles Francis [Jr.], Chairman of the Board, Raytheon 
Company. Member of the Corporation, 1953- . 

Adams, Wilman Edward, formerly General Secretary, Boston 
Young Mens Christian Association. Member of the Corpora- 
tion, 1936-46; Board of Trustees, 1936-46. (Deceased) 

Allen, Asa Samuel, Attorney at Law: Willard, Allen 6- Mulkern. 
Term Member of the Corporation, 1946-49. 

Amory, Roger, formerly Chairman of the Board, Rockland- 
Atlas National Bank of Boston. Member of the Corporation, 
1936-51. (Deceased) 

Anderson, O. Kellev, President and Director, New England 
Mutual Life Insurance Company. Member of the Corpora- 
tion, 1945- . 

Andrews, Henry Nathaniel, formerly Vice President, Old 
Colony Trust Company. Member of the Corporation, 1940- 
60; Board of Trustees, 1941-46; Executive Committee, 
1943-46; Committee on Development, 1943-46; Treasurer 
of the Corporation and the Board of Trustees, 1943-46. 
(Deceased) 

Avila, Charles F., President, Boston Edison Company. Mem- 
ber of the Corporation, I960- . 

Ayer, Frederick, Trustee and Director. Member of the Cor- 
poration, 1946- . 

Babst, Earl D., Chairman of the Board, Aynerican Sugar Re- 
fining Company. Member of the Corporation, 1936-40. 

Baker, George Bramwell, formerly Banker and Trustee. Mem- 
ber of the Corporation, 1936-37. ( Deceased ) 

Baldwin, Robert, Vice President, Museum of Fine Arts, Bos- 
ton; formerly Senior Vice President, Second National Bank 
of Boston. Member of the Corporation, 1937-44. 

190 



Appendix B 

Ballantine, Arthur Atwood, formerly Attorney at Law, Dewey, 
Ballantine, Bushby, Palmer b- Wood. Member of the Cor- 
poration, 1936-60; Board of Trustees, 1936-45; Committee 
on Development, 1936-43. ( Deceased ) 

Barnes, George Louis, Vice President and Director, Heywood- 
Wakefield Company. Member of the Corporation, 1936- ; 
Board of Trustees, 1936- ; Executive Committee, 1936-56; 
Committee on Facihties, 1956- . 

Bateson, Lincohi Carr, Financial Officer, Noiiheastern Uni- 
versity. Secretary of the Corporation and the Board of Trust- 
ees, 1953- ; Member of the Corporation, 1959- ; Board 
of Trustees, 1959- ; Committee on Funds and Investments, 
1959- . 

Beal, Thomas Prince, Chairman, Directors Advisory Board, 
State Street Bank and Trust Coinpany. Member of the Cor- 
poration, 1936- . 

Bemis, Farwell Gregg, Chairman, Bemis Bro. Bag Company. 
Member of the Corporation, 1936- ; Board of Trustees, 
1939- ; Executive Committee, 1943-51; Committee on De- 
velopment, 1951- . 

Bigelow, Edward Livingston, Chairman of the Board, State 
Street Bank and Trust Company. Member of the Corporation, 
1959- . 

Black, S. Bruce, Chairman of the Board, Liberty Mutual 
Insurance Companies. Member of the Corporation, 1942- ; 
Board of Trustees, 1956- ; Committee on Facilities, 1956- 
58; Executive Committee, 1958- , Chairman, 1960- . 

Blackwell, Lawrence Franklin, Vice President and Director, 
Pneumatic Scale Corporation, Ltd. Alumni Term Member of 
the Corporation, 1959- 

Blanchard, Ravmond H., President, B. F. Goodrich-Hood Rub- 
ber Company; Chairman of the Board of Directors, First Na- 
tional Bank of Maiden. Member of the Corporation, 1956- . 

Bloch, William Albert, Comptroller, Cabot Corporation. Alumni 
Term Member of the Corporation, 1955-59. 

191 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

Bottomly, John S., Attorney at Law. Member of the Corpora- 
tion, 1951-54. 

Bowditch, Richard Lyon, formerly Chairman of the Board, 
C. II. Sprague 6- Son Company. Meml^er of the Corporation, 
1948-59; Board of Trustees, 1950-59; Committee on Develop- 
ment, 1950-59. (Deceased) 

Bradford, Cecil Babcock, President, Lewis E. Tracy Company. 
Alumni Term Member of the Corporation, 1955-59. 

Bradlee, Henry Goddard, formerhj Vice President, Stone 6- 
Webster, Inc. Member of the Corporation, 1940-47; Board 
of Trustees, 1941-47; Committee on Funds and Investments, 
1941-47; Committee on Development, 1943-47. (Deceased) 

Bradley, Samuel Whitnev, Vice President, Eaton ir- Howard, 
Inc. Alumni Term Member of the Coi^poration, I960- . 

Brask, Henry, President, Brash Engineering Company. Alumni 
Term Member of the Corporation, 1957- . 

Brown, George Russell, Chairman of the Board, United Shoe 
Machinery Corporation. Meml:)er of the Corporation, 1949- ; 
Board of Trustees, 1955- ; Committee on Facilities, 1952- 
54; Executive Committee, 1954- , Chairman, 1955-57. 

Brown, Martin, President, /. ir M. Brown Cotnpany, Inc. Alumni 
Term Member of the Corporation, 1959- . 

Bruce, Robert, Professor Emeritus of Accounting, Northeastern 
University. Term Member of the Corporation, 1946-48. (De- 
ceased) 

Burke, George Leo, Consulting Engineer. Alumni Term Mem- 
ber of the Corporation, 1959- . 

Burnham, George A., formerly Consulting Engineer, Allis- 
Chalmers Manufacturing Company. Member of the Cor- 
poration, 1941-61. (Deceased) 

Burns, John L., President, Radio Corporation of America. Mem- 
ber of the Corporation, 1957- ; Board of Trustees, I960- ; 
Committee on Development, I960- . 

192 



Appendix B 

Burt, Ashley D., Assistant Treasurer, Waldorf System, Inc. 
Term Member of the Corporation, 1957-59. 

Cabot, Godfrey Lowell, Honorary CJmirman of the Board, 
Cabot Corporation. Member of the Corporation, 1941- ; 
Board of Trustees, 1942- ; Committee on Development, 
1943- . 

Cabot, Louis Wellington, President, Cabot Corporation. Mem- 
ber of the Corporation, 1953- ; Board of Trustees, 1954- ; 
Committee on Facilities, 1955-56; Executive Committee, 

1956- . 

Cabot, Paul Codman, Chairman of the Board, State Street In- 
vestment Corporation. Member of the Corporation, 1936-48; 
Board of Trustees, 1944-48; Committee on Development, 
1945-48. 

Carey, Charles C, President, General Badio Company. Mem- 
ber of the Corporation, 1958- ; Board of Trustees, I960- ; 
Committee on Facilities, 1960- . 

Carlson, Elmer T., President, The Trumbull Electric Manufac- 
turing Company. Member of the Corporation, 1947-55. 

Carpenter, Frank Pierce, formerly President, Amoskeag Paper 
Mills. Member of the Corporation, 1936-38. (Deceased) 

Carter, Winthrop Lakey, formerly President, Nashua Gummed 
and Coated Paper Company. Member of the Corporation, 
1939-44. (Deceased) 

Caverly, Gardner Arthur, Executive Vice President, The New 
England Council. Alumni Term Member of the Corporation, 

1957- . 

Channing, Walter, formerly President, Walter Channing, Inc. 
Member of the Corporation, 1937-54; Board of Trustees, 
1937-54; Committee on Development, 1937-43; Executive 
Committee, 1938-54, Chairman, 1938-54. (Deceased) 

Chapman, Richard P., President, New England Merchants Na- 
tional Bank of Boston. Member of the Corporation, 1956- . 

193 



Origin and Development of Noiiheastern University 

Chase, Theodore, Partner, Palmer, Dodge, Gardner 6- Brad- 
ford. Member of the Corporation, 1956- . 

Cherrv, Robert Wilham, Market Administrator, Federal Milk 
Market Agency. Term Member of the Corporation, 1950-51. 

Chick, Wilham Converse, Chairman of the Board, John H. Pray 
6- Sons Company. Member of the Corporation, 1936- ; 
Board of Trustees, 1936- ; Committee on Funds and In- 
vestments, 1936-41; Executive Committee, 1941- . 

Ching, Cyrus Stuart, Consultant, Labor-Management Relations. 
Member of the Corporation, 1946-51. 

Choate, Robert Burnett, Publisher and President, Boston Her- 
ald-Traveler Corporation. Member of the Corporation, 1948- 
57. 

Churchill, Everett Avery, formerly Vice President, Northeast- 
ern University. Member of the Corporation, 1936-59; Board 
of Trustees, 1941-52; Committee on Development, 1939-41, 
Chairman, 1939-41; Secretary of the Corporation and the 
Board of Trustees, 1943-52. (beceased) 

Clark, Paul Foster, Chairman of the Board, John JJancock Mu- 
tual Life Insurance Company. Member of the Coi"poration, 
1936- ; Board of Trustees, 1936-55; Committee on Develop- 
ment, 1936-43, 1945-55. 

Clifford, George Henry, formerly President, Stone ir Webster 
Service Corporation. Member of the Corporation, 1948-52. 
( Deceased ) 

Collins, William Hazel, formerly Vice President, Shipbuilding 
Division, Bethlehem Steel Company. Member of the Cor- 
poration, 1944-48. (Deceased) 

Condit, Sears B., formerly Chairman of the Board, The Chasc- 
Shawmut Company. Member of the Corporation, 1936-51. 
( Deceased ) 

Connolly, T. Paul, Vice President and General Manager, 
Thermo-Fax Sales, Inc. Term Member of the Corporation, 
I960- . 

194 



Appendix B 

Cookingham, Howard C, Vice President, D. H. Litter Com- 
pciny, Inc. Term Member of the Corporation, 1949-51; 
Alumni Temi Member of the Corporation, 1958- . 

Coohdge, Amory, Executive Vice President, Pepperell Manu- 
facturing Company. Member of the Corporation, 1945-59. 

Coohdge, Wilham Appleton, Chairman of the Board, National 
Research Corporation. Member of the Corporation, I960- . 

Cottle, George T., formcrhj Treasurer, Charles E. Crofoot Gear 
Corporation. Member of the Corporation, 1952-58; Board of 
Trustees, 1954-58; Committee on Development, 1954-58. 
( Deceased ) 

Creighton, Albert Morton, Trustee and Director. Member of 
the Corporation, 1936- . 

Crocker, Paul Earl, Treasurer and Secretary, Pepperell Manu- 
facturing Company. Alumni Term Member of the Corpora- 
tion, 1952-56. 

Crockett, Elton Guild, President, Crockett Mortgage Company. 
Alumni Term Member of the Corporation, 1954-58; Member 
of the Corporation, 1959- ; Board of Trustees, I960- ; 
Committee on Development, I960- . 

Curtis, Edgar Hazen, formerly with Charles F. Baker Company. 
Member of the Corporation, 1937. ( Deceased ) 

Cutler, Robert, United States Executive Director, Inter-Ameri- 
can Development Bank; Special Assistant to the Secretary of 
the Treasury. Member of the Corporation, 1946- . 

Dalton, Marshall Bertrand, Chairman of the Boards, Boston 
Manufacturers Mutual and Mutual Boiler ir Machinery In- 
surance Companies. Member of the Corporation, 1945- ; 
Board of Trustees, 1947-54; Committee on Funds and In- 
vestments, 1947-54. 

Damon, Roger Conant, President and Chairman of the Execu- 
tive Committee, The First National Bank of Boston. Member 
of the Coi-poration, I960- . 

Dana, Edward, Transit Consultant; formerly General Manager, 

195 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

Metropolitan Transit Authority. Member of the Corporation, 
1942- ; Board of Trustees, 1945- ; Committee on Develop- 
ment, 1945-60, Chaimian, 1946-60; Executive Committee, 
1946- ; Committee on Facilities, I960- . 

Dane, Edward, President, Brookline Trust Company. Member 
of the Corporation, 1942- . 

Dane, Ernest Blanev, formerUj President, Brookline Trust Com- 
pany. Member of the Corporation, 1939-42. ( Deceased ) 

Daniels, James William, The Daniels Agency. Term Member of 
the Corporation, 1943-45. 

Darrin, Ralph Mead, Commercial Vice President, General Elec- 
tric Compam/. Member of the Corporation, 1949-54. 

Dart, Justin Whitlock, President, Rexall Drug Company. Mem- 
ber of the Corporation, 1944-48. 

Davidson, William J., Trustee and Director. Member of the 
Corporation, 1936-47; Board of Trustees, 1936-44. 

Davis, Nathanael Vining, President, Aluminium, Ltd. Member 
of the Corporation, 1957-61. 

Dean, James, formerly Chairman of the Executive Committee, 
Boston Safe Deposit and Trust Company. Member of the 
Corporation, 1936-42. (Deceased) 

Dennett, Carl Pullen, formerly Trustee and Director. Member 
of the Corporation, 1947-55. ( Deceased ) 

Dennison, Henry Sturgis, President, Dennison Manufacturing 
Company. Member of the Corporation, 1936-40. 

Dignan, Thomas C, formerly President and General Manager, 
Boston Edison Companij. Member of the Corporation, 1954- 
60. (Deceased) 

Dillon, Frederick Joseph, Judge of Probate, Suffolk County, 
Massachusetts. Term Member of the Corporation, 1949-54. 

Dodge, Robert Gray, Attorney at Law, Palmer, Dodge, Gard- 
ner b- Bradford. Member of the Corporation, 1936- ; Board 
of TRistees, 1936- ; Chairman of the Corporation and the 

196 



Appendix B 

Board of Trustees, 1936-59; Executive Committee, 1959- ; 
Honorary Chairman of the Corporation and the Board of 
Trustees, 1959- . 

Doyle, Bernard VV., formerly Vice President, Dit Pont Viscoloid 
Company. Member of the Corporation, 1944-49. ( Deceased ) 

Draper, Paul Augustus, Chairman of the Board, Draper 6- Com- 
pany, Inc. Member of the Corporation, 1936-48. 

Eaton, Charles F., President, The Clement Manufacturing Com- 
pany. Member of the Corporation, 1936-44; Board of Trus- 
tees, 1936-37. 

Edwards, David Frank, Honorary Chairman of the Board, Saco- 
Lowell Shops. Member of the Corporation, 1943- ; Board 
of Trustees, 1944- ; Committee on Development, 1945-54, 
1960- , Chairman, I960- ; Executive Committee, 1954- , 
Chairman, 1957-60. 

Ell, Carl Stephens, President Emeritus and Honorary Chan- 
cellor, Northeastern University. Member of the Corporation, 
1936- ; Board of Trustees, 1940- ; Executive Committee, 
1959- . 

Elliott, Byron Kauffman, President, John Hancock Mutual 
Life Insurance Company. Member of the Corporation, 
1954- ; Board of Trustees, 1955- ; Committee on Facili- 
ties, 1955-56; Treasurer of the Corporation and the Board 
of Trustees, 1956-59; Executive Committee, 1956-59; Com- 
mittee on Funds and Investments, 1956-59, Chairman, 1956- 
59; Chairman of the Corporation and the Board of Trust- 
ees, 1959- . 

Ellison, William Partridge, Vice President, Proctor Ellison Com- 
pany. Member of the Corporation, 1941- ; Board of Trus- 
tees, 1944- ; Committee on Development, 1945- . 

Ellms, Lindsay, District Manager, Ohio Brass Company. Term 
Member of the Corporation, 1939-41, 

Ely, Joseph Buell, formerly Governor, Commonwealth of Mas- 
sachusetts. Member of the Corporation, 1937-46. (Deceased) 

197 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

Emerson, Robert Greenough, Trustee; formerly Senior Vice 
President, The First National Bank of Boston. Member of the 
Corporation, 1944- ; Board of Trustees, 1946- ; Executive 
Committee, 1946- ; Treasurer of the Corporation and the 
Board of Trustees, 1946-56; Committee on Funds and In- 
vestments, 1952-56, Chairman, 1953-56; Committee on Fa- 
cihties, 1956-58. 

Erickson, Joseph Austin, President, The New England Council. 
Member of the Corporation, 1953- . 

Erickson, Robert, Executive Vice President, Beckman Instru- 
ments, Inc. Akmini Term Member of the Coi-poration, 

1957- ; Board of Trustees, I960- ; Committee on Develop- 
ment, 1960- . 

Everett, Albert Ellsworth, Dean of Continuing Education, 
Northeastern University. Alumni Term Member of the Cor- 
poration, 1952-56. 

Falvey, Timothy James, formerly President, Massachusetts 
Bonding 6- Insurance Company. Member of the Corporation, 
1936-39. (Deceased) 

Falvey, Wallace, formerly President, Massachusetts Bondin(^ 6- 
Insurance Company. Member of the Corporation, 1948-58. 
( Deceased ) 

Farley, John Wells, formerly Attorney at Law, Herrick, Smith, 
Donald, Farley b- Ketchum. Member of the Corporation, 
1940-59; Board of Trustees, 1941-59; Committee on Develop- 
ment, 1945-59. (Deceased) 

Farwell, Frank L., Vice President, Liberty Mutual Insurance 
Company. Member of the Corporation, 1956- ; Board of 
Trustees, 1958- ; Committee on Funds and bnestments, 

1958- . 

Fay, Frederic Harold, formerly Consulting Engineer, Fay, 
Spofford i^ Thorndike, Inc. Member of the Coi-poration, 
1936-44; Board of Trustees, 1936-44; Executi\e Com- 
mittee, 1936-44; Committee on Development, 1936-37; 

198 



Appendix B 

Committee on Facilities, 1943-44, Chairman, 1943-44. 
( Deceased ) 

Flood, Frank Lee, formerly Partner, Metcalf b- Eddy. Alumni 
Term Member of the Corporation, 1952-56; Member of the 
Corporation, 1957-58. (Deceased) 

Forbes, Allan, Chairman of the Board, State Street Trust Com- 
pany. Member of the Corporation, 1936-45. 

Ford, Joseph Fabian, President, Ford Manufacturing, Inc. Mem- 
ber of the Coi*poration, 1945- . 

Foss, Noble, President, Maverick Mills. Member of the Corpora- 
tion, 1949- . 

Freeman, Ernest Bigelow, formerly President, B. F. Sturtevant 
Company. Member of the Corporation, 1942-58; Board of 
Trustees, 1944-58; Committee on Development, 1945-51; 
Executive Committee, 1951-58. (Deceased) 

Frost, Edward J., formerly President, Wm. Filene's Sons Com- 
pamj. Member of the Corporation, 1936-44; Board of 
Trustees, 1936-44; Executive Committee, 1936-40, Chair- 
man, 1936-38; Committee on Development, 1936-40. 
( Deceased ) 

Ganse, Franklin Wile, formerly with Ganse-King Estate Service. 
Member of the Coi-poration, 1936-47. (Deceased) 

Gardner, George Feabody, Trustee and Director. Member of 
the Corporation, 1936-40. 

Garth, William Willis, Jr., President, Compugraphic Corpora- 
tion. Member of the Corporation, 1955- . 

Gibson, Harvey Dow, Trustee and Director. Member of the 
Corporation, 1936-46; Board of Trustees, 1936-45. 

Gill, John Joseph, President, John J. Gill Associates, Inc. Term 
Member of the Corporation, 1958-59. 

Gow, Charles Rice, formerly Chairman of the Board, Warren 
Brothers Company. Member of the Corporation, 1936-37. 
( Deceased ) 

199 



Origin and Developfnent of Northeastern University 

Grandin, John Livingston, Jr., Secretary, The Gillette Com- 
pany. Member of the Corporation, 1948- . 

Greer, David, Attorney at Law, Greer, Sibley i^ Dalton. Term 
Member of the Corporation, 1945-56. 

Griswold, Merrill, Honorary Chairman of the Advisory Board, 
Massachusetts Investors Trust. Member of the Corporation, 
1936- ; Board of Trustees, 1945- ; Committee on Develop- 
ment, 1945- . 

Gross, Boone, President, The Gillette Company. Member of the 
Corporation, 1956- . 

Gryzmish, Reuben Bertram, Chairman of the Board, Alles i^ 
Fisher, Inc. Alumni Term Member of the Corporation, 1953- 

57. 

Hagemann, H. Frederick, Jr., President, State Street Bank and 
Trust Company. Member of the Corporation, 1948- . 

Hanf, Adolf Walter, Manager of Wholesale Credit, Esso Stand- 
ard Oil Company. Term Member of the Corporation, 1955-57. 

Hansen, George, President, Conrad 6- Chandler, Inc. Member 
of the Corporation, 1944- ; Board of Trustees, 1948-52, 
1954- ; Committee on Development, 1948-52, 1955- . 

Hansen, John William, Secretary-Treasurer, Iselin- Jefferson 
Company, Inc. Alumni Temi Member of the Corporation, 
1958- . 

Harriman, Henry Ingraham, formerly Vice Chairman of the 
Board, New England Power Association. Member of the Cor- 
poration, 1936-50; Board of Trustees, 1937-47; Committee on 
Development, 1937-47. (Deceased) 

Harvev, Carroll Sherlock, President, Arthur C. Harvey Com- 
pany. Member of the Corporation, 1943-49. 

Haufler, Robert C, Division Engineer, Liberty Mutual Insur- 
ance Company. Term Member of the Corporation, 1955-60. 

Henderson, Ernest, President, Sheraton Corporation of America. 
Member of the Corporation, 1956- ; Board of Trustees, 

200 



Appendix B 

1957- ; Committee on Facilities, 1957-60; Executive Com- 
mittee, 1960- . 

Herter, Christian Archibald, formerly Governor, Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts, and formerly Secretary of State, 
United States of America. Member of the Corporation, 
1948- . 

Higgins, Chester William, Assistant Vice President and Person- 
nel Director, American Mutual Liability Insurance Company. 
Term Member of the Corporation, 1959-60. 

Hodges, Charles Edward, President, American Mutual Liability 
Insurance Cotnpany. Member of the Corporation, 1948- . 

Hodgkinson, Harold Daniel, Chairynan of the Board and Chief 
Executive Officer, Wm. Filene's Sons Company. Member of 
the Corporation, 1945- . 

Hood, Harvev Perlev, President, H. P. Hood 6- Sofis, Inc. Mem- 
ber of the Coi-poration, 1944- . 

Hotchkin, William C, formerly President, Hotchkin Company. 
Member of the Corporation, 1944-45. ( Deceased ) 

Hovey, Chandler, Partner, Kidder, Peabody h- Company. Mem- 
ber of the Corporation, 1936- ; Board of Trustees, 1936- ; 
Executive Committee, 1936-38; Committee on Development, 
1936-37, 1938-40; Committee on Facilities, 1943- . 

Howland, Weston, Trustee and Director. Member of the Cor- 
poration, 1941-47. 

Hubbard, Howard Munson, Industrialist; formerly President, 
Greenfield Tap and Die Company. Member of the Coi^pora- 
tion, 1936- ; Board of Trustees, 1941-44. 

Hutchinson, Maynard, Treasurer, Loomis-Sayles ir Company, 
Inc. Member of the Corporation, 1939-52; Board of Trustees, 
1939-52; Committee on Development, 1938-52; Executive 
Committee, 1941-43. 

James, Raymond Winfield, Production Manager, Photek, Inc. 
Term Member of the Corporation, 1945-47. 

201 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

Johns, Rav E., General Secretary, Boston Young Mens Christian 
Association. Member of the Corporation, 1946- ; Board of 
Trustees, 1946- ; Committee on Development, 1948- . 

Johnson, Arthur Stoddard, formerly Chairman of the Board, 
Boston Young Men's Christian Association. Member of the 
Corporation, 1936-49; Board of Trustees, 1936-49; Executive 
Committee, 1936-41; Committee on Development, 1941-43, 
1947-48; Committee on Facilities, 1943-47. (Deceased) 

Johnson, Charles Berkley, General Agent, John Hancock Mu- 
tual Life Insurance Company. Member of the Corporation, 
1943- . 

Johnson, Robert Loring, Vice President and Treasurer, Boston 
Manufacturers Mutual and Mutual Boiler ir Machinery In- 
surance Companies. Member of the Corporation, 1953- ; 
Board of Trustees, 1953- ; Committee on Funds and Invest- 
ments, 1953- . 

Jones, Henry Campbell, President, Arkwright Mutual Insurance 
Company. Tenn Member of the Corporation, 1937-39; Mem- 
ber of the Corporation, 1952- . 

Kaplan, Jacob Joseph, Attornci/ at Law, Nutter, McClennen ir 
Fish. Member of the Corporation, 1943-52. 

Kelleher, Michael T., formerly Vice President, Marsh ir McLen- 
nan, Inc. Member of the Corporation, 1946-58; Board of 
Trustees, 1947-58; Committee on Facilities, 1947-58. (De- 
ceased ) 

Keller, Carl Tilden, formerly Partner, Lyhrand, Ross Bros, b- 
Montgomery. Member of the Corporation, 1936-37. (De- 
ceased ) 

Kerr, Harrv Hamilton, formerly President, Boston Gear Works. 
Member of the Corporation, 1942- ; Board of Trustees, 
1945- ; Committee on Development, 1945- . 

Kimbell, Arthur W., Honorary Chairman of the Board, United- 
Carr Fastener Corporation. Member of the Corporation, 
1955- . 

202 



Appendix B 

Knowles, Asa Smallidge, President, NoHheastern University. 
Member of the Corporation, 1959- ; Board of Trustees, 
1959- . 

LaBelle, John WiHiam, Assistant to the Executive Vice Presi- 
dent, Foster-Grant Company, Inc. Term Member of the 
Corporation, 1953-55. 

Lahey, Frank Howard, formerly Director, The Lahey Clinic. 
Member of the Corporation, 1941-51. (Deceased) 

Lamprey, Kenneth Walker, Controller, The A. B. Sutherland 
Company. Term Member of the Corporation, 1953-55. 

Larner, Edward Atkins, Chairman of the Board, American Em- 
ployers' Insurance Company. Member of the Corporation, 
1948-57. 

Lawrence, John Endicott, Partner, James Lawrence and Com- 
pany. Member of the Corporation, 1948-56. 

Lazarus, Maurice, President and General Manager, Wm. 
Filene's Sons Company. Member of the Corporation, 1959- . 

Lee, Halfdan, Chairman of the Board, Eastern Gas h- Fuel 
Associates. Member of the Corporation, 1936-48. 

Light, Galen David, formerly Secretary-Treasurer , Northeast- 
ern University. Member of the Corporation, 1936- ; Board 
of Trustees, 1941-43. 

Lowell, John, Vice President and Director, Boston Safe De- 
posit and Trust Company. Member of the Corporation, 
1958- ; Board of Trustees, I960- ; Committee on Funds 
and Investments, I960- . 

Lowell, Ralph, Chairman of the Board, Boston Safe Deposit 
and Trust Company. Member of the Corporation, 1950- . 

Luther, Willard Blackinton, Attorney at Law, Peahody, 
Arnold, Batchelder b- Luther. Member of the Corporation, 
1949- . 

Macomber, John Russell, formerly Chairman of the Board, The 
First Boston Corporation. Member of the Corporation, 1936- 

203 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

48; Board of Trustees, 1936-48; Committee on Development, 
1937-40. (Deceased) 

MacMaster, Edward Abbott, formerly Attorney at Law, Mac- 
Master, Hunt 6- Nutter. Member of the Corporation, 1936-61. 
( Deceased ) 

Madden, James Lester, Vice President, Scott Paper Company. 
Member of the Corporation, 1952-55. 

Madsen, Robert Emanuel, Manager, International Accounts, 
Mobil International Oil Company. Alumni Term Member of 
the Corporation, I960- . 

Mallion, George Arthur, Assistant Dean, Lincoln Institute, 
Northeastern University. Term Member of the Corporation, 
1941-43. 

Mann, Harvard L., Partner, Spark, Mann & Company. Alumni 
Term Member of the Corporation, 1956-60. 

Manning, Joseph Patrick, formerly President, Joseph P. Man- 
ning Company. Member of the Corporation, 1936-44. (De- 
ceased ) 

Marshall, Albert Edward, formerh/ Vice President, Hei/den 
Chemical Corporation. Member of the Corporation, 1941- 
49. (Deceased) 

Martin, Lawrence Henry, President, The National Shawmut 
Bank of Boston. Member of the Corporation, 1953- ; Board 
of Trustees, 1955- ; Committee on Development, 1955-59; 
Executive Committee, 1959- ; Committee on Funds and In- 
vestments, 1959- , Chairman, 1959- ; Treasurer of the 
Corporation and the Board of Trustees, 1959- . 

Mason, Harold Francis, formerly President, Boston Whw'f 
Company. Member of the Corporation, 1937-54. (Deceased) 

McCoombe, Charles Mathew, New England District Manager, 
Allen-Bradley Company. Alumni Term Member of the Cor- 
poration, 1956-60; Term Member of the Corporation, 1959-60. 

McDevitt, Edward Joseph, Partner, Patterson, Teele ^ Dennis. 
Term Member of the Corporation, 1948-50; Alumni Term 
Member of the Corporation, 1953-57. 

204 



Appendix B 

McElwain, James Franklin, formerly Chairman of the Board, 
J. F. McElwain Compamj. Member of the Coi*poration, 1939- 

58. (Deceased) 

McLaughlin, Edward Francis, Lieutenant Governor, Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts. Temi Member of the Corporation, 
1954-55. 

McLellan, Hugh Dean, formerly Judge, United States District 
Court. Member of the Corporation, 1936-53. (Deceased) 

Meo, Dominic, Jr., Vice President, Salem Oil cL^ Grease Com- 
pany. Alumni Tenn Member of the Corporation, 1955-59. 

Mitchell, Don G., Vice Chairman, General Telephone b- Elec- 
tronics Corporation. Member of the Corporation, 1954- . 

Mitton, Edward R., President, Jordan Marsh Company. Mem- 
ber of the Corporation, 1947- . 

Mock, Harold Adam, Partner, Arthur Young It Company. 
Alumni Term Member of the Corporation, 1953-57; Member 
of the Corporation, 1959- . 

Moore, Irwin Likely, Chairman of the Board, New England 
Electric System. Member of the Corporation, 1943- . 

Morgan, Fred Lester, formerly President, Morgan Brothers 
Company. Member of the Corporation, 1939-46. (Deceased) 

Morton, James Augustus, Vice President, Loomis, Sayles b- 
Company, Inc. Member of the Corporation, 1953- ; Board 
of Trustees, 1953- ; Committee on Funds and Investments, 
1953- . 

Mosher, Ira, President and Chairman of the Board, Ira Mosher 
Associates, Inc. Member of the Corporation, 1944-55. 

Moultrop, Irving Edwin, formerhj Consulting Engineer. Mem- 
ber of the Corporation, 1936-57; Board of Trustees, 1936-57; 
Committee on Dexelopment, 1936-43; Committee on Facili- 
ties, 1943-55. (Deceased) 

Mugar, Stephen P., President, Star Market Company. Member 
of the Corporation, I960- . 

205 



Origin and Development of NoHheastern University 

Miimfoid, George S., Treasurer, Scott 6- Willimns, Inc. Mem- 
ber of the Corporation, 1948- . 

Nathanson, Edward Abraham, formerly Attorney at Law, Na- 

thanson 6- Rudofsky. Member of the Corporation, 1949-55. 

( Deceased ) 
Newton, Clarence Lucian, formerly Attorney at Law, Newton, 

Brickett, Weston b- Hill. Member of the Corporation, 1936- 

45. (Deceased) 
Newton, Harlan Page, Manager, Claims Division, Boston Gas 

Company. Term Member of the Corporation, 1951-53. 

Nichols, William Hart, Vice President and Treasurer, W. H. 
Nichols Company. Member of the Corporation, 1956- . 

Noonan, John Thomas, Attorney at Law and Partner, Herrick, 
SmitJi, Donald, Farley 6 Ketchum. Member of the Corpora- 
tion, 1950- . 

Norwich, Samuel, President, J. W. Strieder Company. Member 
of the Corporation, 1942-49. 

O'Keeffe, Adrian F., President, First National Stores, Inc. Mem- 
ber of the Corporation, 1954- ; Board of Trustees, 1958- ; 
Committee on Facilities, 1958- . 

Olmsted, George, Jr., President, S. D. Warren Company. Mem- 
ber of the Corporation, 1945- ; Board of Trustees, 1948-52; 
Committee on Development, 1948-50; Committee on Facili- 
ties, 1950-52. 

Olsen, Olaf, formerly Vice President, Old Colony Trust 
Company. Member of the Corporation, 1936-46. (De- 
ceased ) 

Orr, James Hunter, President, Colonial Management Associates, 
Inc. Member of the Corporation, 1959- . 

Parker, Augustin Hamilton, Jr., President, Old Colony Trust 
Company. Member of the Corporation, 1939- ; Board of 
Trustees, 1939- ; Committee on Development, 1940-41, 
1955- ; Committee on Facilities, 1945-55. 

206 



Appendix B 

Parsons, Edward Snow, Business Manager, 'Northeastern Uni- 
versity. Alumni Term Member of the Corporation, 1959-60; 
Member of the Corporation, I960- . 

Peary, Theodore Roosevelt, Controller, Ludlow Manufacturing 
& Sales Company. Term Member of the Corporation, 1951- 
53; Alumni Term Member of the Corporation, 1954-58. 

Peters, Andrew James, formerly Mayor, City of Boston. Mem- 
ber of the Coi-poration, 1936-38. ( Deceased ) 

Phinney, Edward Dana, Vice President, Internationeil Tele- 
phone and Telegraph Corporation. Member of the Corpora- 
tion, 1947- . 

Pierce, George Edwin, formerly Senior Vice President, The 
National Shawmut Bank of Boston. Member of the Corpora- 
tion, 1936-48. (Deceased) 

Pierce, Roger, Chairman of the Board, The New England Trust 
Company. Member of the Corporation, 1936-45. 

Porosky, Matthew, formerly President, Eagle Signal Corpora- 
tion. Member of the Corporation, 1936-48. (Deceased) 

Pratt, Albert, Partner, Paine, Webber, Jackson ir Curtis. Mem- 
ber of the Corporation, 1958- . 

Pratt, Frederick Sanford, F. S. Pratt 6 Son. Member of the 
Corporation, 1936-58; Board of Trustees, 1939-58; Commit- 
tee on Development, 1941-43, 1946-58; Committee on Facili- 
ties, 1943-46. 

Preston, Roger, formerly President, S. S. Pierce Company. 
Member of the Corporation, 1941-54; Board of Trustees, 
1942-54; Committee on Development, 1943-54. (Deceased) 

Prout, Harry Wendell, formerly Treasurer, Home Savings Bank. 
Member of the Corporation, 1936-45. (Deceased) 

Rabb, Sidney R., Chairman of the Board, Stop and Shop, Inc. 
Member of the Corporation, 1937-48, 

Rand, Stuart Craig, formerly Attorney at Law, Choatc, Hall & 
Stewart. Member of the Corporation, 1939-56; Board of 

207 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

Trustees, 1939-56; Committee on Facilities, 1945-55. (De- 
ceased ) 

Rand, William McNear, President, Monsanto Chemical Com- 
pany. Member of the Corporation, 1942- ; Board of 
Trustees, 1951-53, 1954- ; Committee on Development, 
1951-53; Committee on Facilities, 1954-58; Executive Com- 
mittee, 1959- . 

Rantoul, Neal, formerly Partner, F. S. Moseley 6- Company. 
Member of the Corporation, 1946-56. ( Deceased ) 

Raye, William H., Jr., Vice President, The First National Bank 
of Boston. Member of the Corporation, 1955- . 

Redmond, Kenneth H., President, United Fruit Company. 
Member of the Corporation, 1958- . 

Richards, James Lorin, formerly Financier and Industrialist. 
Member of the Corporation, 1936-55; Board of Trustees, 
1936-55; Committee on Funds and Investments, 1936-52; 
Committee on Development, 1936-54. (Deceased) 

Richardson, Frank Lincoln, Honorary Chairman of the Board, 
Newton-Waltham Bank and Trust Company. Member of the 
CoqDoration, 1936- ; Board of Trustees, 1936- ; Executive 
Committee, 1936- , Chairman, 1954-55; Committee on 
Funds and Investments, 1936-41, Chairman, 1936-37; Com- 
mittee on Development, 1936-46, Chairman, 1936-46; Vice 
Chairman of the Corporation and the Board of Trustees, 
1936- . 

Richdale, James C, Vice President, Colonial Beacon Oil Com- 
pany. Member of the Corporation, 1945-55. 

Richmond, Harold Bours, Chairman of the Board, General 
Radio Company. Member of the Corporation, 1943-60; Board 
of Trustees, 1944 60; Committee on Development, 1945-55; 
Committee on Facilities, 1955-60. 

Riesman, Joseph C, Trustee. Member of the Corporation, 
1959- . 

Rittenhouse, Charles F., formerly Soiior Partner, Charles F. 

208 



Appendix B 

Rittenhouse ir Co. Member of the Corporation, 1944-60; 
Board of Trustees, 1947-60; Committee on Facilities, 1947- 
60. (Deceased) 
Robinson, Dwight P., Jr., Choirman of the Board of Trustees, 
Massachusetts Investors Trust. Member of the Corporation, 
1952- ; Board of Trustees, 1954- ; Committee on Funds 
and Investments, 1954-58; Committee on Facihties, 1958- . 
Robinson, John James, President, New England Telephone and 

Telegraph Company. Member of the Corporation, 1942-46. 
Rogerson, Charles Milton, formerly Attorney at Law. Member 
of the Corporation, 1936-44; Board of Trustees, 1936-44; 
Committee on Funds and Investments, 1936-41; Committee 
on Facilities, 1943-44. ( Deceased ) 
Rugg, Robert Billings, formerly President, National Rockland 
Bank of Boston. Member of the Corporation, 1936-46. (De- 
ceased ) 
Saltonstall, Leverett, United States Senator from Massachusetts; 
formerly Governor, Commonwealth of Ma.ssachusetts. Mem- 
ber of the Corporation, 1936- ; Board of Trustees, 1937-51; 
Committee on Development, 1945-46, 1949-51; Committee 
on Facilities, 1946-49. 
Sanders, Russell Maryland, formerly Treasurer, H. M. San- 
ders Company. Xlember of the Corporation, 1941-59. 
( Deceased ) 
Sanger, Sabin Pond, formerly Trustee and Director. Member 
of the Corporation, 1936-38; Board of Trustees, 1936-38. 
(Deceased) 
Sayles, Ralph T., formerly Vice President, Loomis-Sayles b- 
Company, Inc. Member of the Corporation, 1947-57. (De- 
ceased ) 
Seiler, Andrew Sebastian, formerly President, H. J. Seiler 
Company, Inc. Member of the Corporation, 1942-54. (De- 
ceased ) 
Shea, Albert Leroy, Staff Production Manager, Campbell 

209 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

Soup Company. Alumni Temi Member of the Corporation, 
1955-59; Member of the Corporation, I960- . 

Simmers, Richard Walter, formerly Partner, Scudcler, Stevens 
6- Clark. Member of the Corporation, 1953-59; Board of 
Trustees, 1953-59; Committee on Funds and Investments, 
1953-59. (Deceased) 

Simonds, Gilford Kingsbury, Jr., President, Simonds Saw and 
Steel Company. Member of the Coi-poration, 1948- ; 
Board of Trustees, 1951-55; Committee on Development, 
1951-55. 

Slater, Robert Edward, Senior Vice President, John Hancock 
Mutual Life Insurance Company. Member of the Corpora- 
tion, 1960- . 

Smith, Famham Wheeler, President, Lincoln Management 
Corporation. Alumni Term Member of the Corporation, 
1954-58; Member of the Corporation, 1959- . 

Smith, William Armstrong, President, William Arinstrong 
Smith Company, President, Reliance Chemical Companies of 
Kansas and of Richmond, California. Alumni Term Member 
of the Corporation, 1958- . 

Spang, Joseph Peter, Jr., Director, The Gillette Company. 
Member of the Corporation, 1945- . 

Speare, Frank Palmer, President Emeritus, 'Northeastern Uni- 
versity. Meml^er of the Corporation, 1936-52; Board of 
Trustees, 1936-50; Committee on Funds and Investments, 
1938-40; Committee on Facilities, 1943-47; Committee on 
Development, 1947-49. (Deceased) 

Sprague, Robert Chapman, Chairman of the Board and Treas- 
urer, Sprague Electric Company. Member of the Coi-pora- 
tion, 1953- . 

Stafford, Russell Henry, Moderator, International Congrega- 
tional Council; formerly Minister, Old South Church, 
Boston. Member of the Corporation, 1936-45. 

Steadman, Chester Chandler, Attorney at Law, Steadman ir 

210 



Appendix B 

Thomason. Alumni Term Member of the Corporation, 
1957- . 

Stearns, Russell Bangs, Chairman of the Board, Colonial Stores, 
Incorporated. Member of the Corporation, 1957- ; Board 
of Trustees, 1958- ; Committee on Facilities, 1958-60; 
Executive Committee, I960- . 

Steele, Francis Robert Carnegie, formerly Senior Partner, Pat- 
terson, Teele ir Dennis. Member of the Corporation, 1936- 
55; Board of Trustees, 1936-55; Executive Committee, 1936- 
52. (Deceased) 

Stetson, Charles, formerly Attorney at Law, Warner, Stackpole, 
Stetson 6 Bradlee. Member of the Corporation, 1936-1953; 
Board of Trustees, 1936-53; Committee on Development, 
1936-43; Committee on Funds and Investments, 1936-52, 
Chairman, 1936-52; Executive Committee, 1943-53. (De- 
ceased ) 

Stevens, Abbot, formerly Vice President, J. P. Stevens 6 Co., 
Inc. Member of the Corporation, 1951-58; Board of Trus- 
tees, 1954-57; Committee on Development, 1954-57. (De- 
ceased ) 

Stevens, Raymond, President, Arthur D. Little, Inc. Member 
of the Corporation, 1958-60. 

Stevenson, Earl Place, Chairman of the Board, Arthur D. Little, 
Inc. Member of the Corporation, 1939- ; Board of Trustees, 
1939- ; Executive Committee, 1940-43, 1945- ; Commit- 
tee on Facilities, 1943- , Chairman, 1944- . 

Stewart, John Harold, Partner, Arthur Young 6 Company. 
Alumni Term Member of the Corporation, 1958- . 

Stone, David B., Partner, Hayden, Stone 6- Company. Member 
of the Corporation, 1959- . 

Stone, Robert Gregg, Limited Partner, Hayden, Stone ir 
Company. Member of the Corporation, 1951- ; Board of 
Trustees, 1956- ; Committee on Facilities, 1956-60; Execu- 
tive Committee, I960- . 

211 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

Storer, Robert Treat Paine, President, The Storer Associates, 
Inc. Member of the Corporation, 1936- ; Board of Trustees, 
1936- ; Executive Committee, 1936-43; Committee on Fa- 
cilities, 1943-57; Committee on Development, 1957- . 

Stuart, Frank Horace, for7nerhj President, T. Stuart <b Son Com- 
pany. Member of the Corporation, 1936-54; Board of Trus- 
tees, 1937-54. ( Deceased ) 

Studley, Robert Lee, formerhj with Studley ir Emory. Member 
of the Corporation, 1936-37; Board of Trustees, 1936-37; 
Committee on Development, 1936-37. ( Deceased ) 

Supple, Edward Watson, Vice President, The Merchants Na- 
tional Bank of Boston. Member of the Corporation, 1936-47; 
Board of Trustees, 1937-45; Committee on Development, 
1936-38; Executive Committee, 1939-40. 

Tenney, Charles H. II, Chairman of the Board, Brockton 
Taunton Gas Company. Member of the Corporation, 1955- . 

Thompson, George C, President, The Goudeij Gum Company. 

Term Member of the Corporation, 1957-58. 
Thompson, Ralph E., formerly President, Scott ir Williams, Inc. 

Member of the Corporation, 1942-52. (Deceased) 

Thomson, Earl H., Attorney at Law, Thomson and Thomson. 
Alumni Term Member of the Corporation, 1953-57; Member 
of the Corporation, 1958- ; Board of Trustees, I960- ; 
Committee on Facilities, I960- . 

Todd, Nelson Barnard, Vice President, United Shoe Machinery 
Corporation. Alumni Term Member of the Corporation, 
1955-58. 

Toner, James Vincent, formerly President, Boston Edison Com- 
pany. Member of the Corporation, 1942-51; Board of 
Trustees, 1943-51; Committee on Development, 1943-51. 
( Deceased ) 

Toulmin, John Edwin, Vice Chairman of the Board, The First 
National Bank of Boston. Member of the Corporation, 
1936-40. 

212 



Appendix B 

Traylor, Mahlon Edward, formerly President, Massachusetts 
Distributors, Inc. Member of the Corporation, 1940-42. ( De- 
ceased ) 

Tuckerman, Bayard, Jr., Senior Partner, OBrion Russell ir Co. 
Member of the Corporation, 1937-41. 

Tulloch, Douglass Frankhn, Department Superintendent, Bos- 
ton Edison Company. Term Member of the Corporation 
1947-49. 

Tyler, Chaplin, Management Consultant, E. I. duPont de Ne- 
mours 6 Company, Inc. Alumni Term Member of the Cor- 
poration, 1956-60. 

Vogel, Eugene Joseph, Treasurer and Manager, Wes-JuUan 
Construction Corporation. Alumni Term Member of the 
Corporation, I960- . 

Wadsworth, Eliot, formerly Trustee and Director. Member of 
the Corporation. 1936-59. (Deceased) 

Wakeman, Samuel, General Manager, Quincy Yard, Bethlehem 
Steel Company. Member of the Corporation, 1945- 

Walcott, Eustis, Vice President, American Policyholders Insur- 
ance Company; Assistant Vice President and Special Services 
Manager, American Mutual Liability Insurance Company. 
Member of the Corporation, 1940- . 

Walter, Harold John, Vice President, Amerace Corporation. 
Member of the Corporation, 1949- . 

Webster, Edwin Sibley, formerly Chairman of the Board, 
Stone ir Webster, Inc. Member of the Corporation, 1936-50. 
( Deceased ) 

Webster, Edwin Sibley, Jr., formerly PaHner, Kidder, Peabody 
6 Company. Member of the Corporation, 1951-57. (De- 
ceased ) 

Weeks, Edward A., Editor, The Atlantic Monthly. Member of the 
Corporation, 1950- . 

Weeks, Sinclair, Chairman of the Board, United-Carr Fastener 

213 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

Corporation; formerly Secretary of Commerce, United States 
of America. Member of the Corporation, 1939- . 

White, WilHam Crombie, Vice President and Provost, NoHh- 
eastern University. Ahimni Term Member of the Coi'poration, 
1952-56; Member of the Corporation, 1956- . 

Wilkins, Raymond Sanger, Chief Justice, Supreme Judicial 
Court of Massachusetts. Member of the Corporation, 1959- . 

Wilhams, Rov Foster, Honorary Vice President, Associated In- 
dustries of Massachusetts; President and Managing Director, 
Alden Research Foundation. Member of the Coi'poration, 
1953- . 

Wilson, Carroll L., Engineering Administrator. Member of the 
Corporation, 1955- . 

Wood, John W., President, J. W. Wood Elastic Weh Company. 
Member of the Corporation, 1954- . 



214 



APPENDIX C 

DIRECTORS AND DEANS 

OF MAJOR NORTHEASTERN 

SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES 



School of Law 

1907-1918-Frank Palmer Speare, Dean (Mr. Speare was Di- 
rector from the establishment in 1898 of the Department 
of Law of the Evening Institute of the Boston YMCA) 

1918-1920— Bruce W. Belmore, Executive Secretaiy 

1920-1935-Everett A. Churchill, Dean 

193.5-1936-Sydney Kenneth Schofield, Acting Dean 

1936-1945-Sydnev Kenneth Schofield, Dean" 

1945-1947-Stuart'M. Wright, Dean 

1947-1953-Lowell S. Nicholson, Dean 

1953-1955-Joseph G. Crane, Dean 

Lincoln Institute 

1904— Frank Palmer Speare, Supervisor of Polvtechnic School 
(also conducted Evening Preparatory School courses ) 

1907-1909— Franklin T. Kurt, Dean, Evening Polytechnic School 

1909-1913-Hercules W. Geromanos, Dean 

1913-1917-Thomas E. Penard, Dean 

1917-1919— Thomas E, Penard, Dean, Evening School of Engi- 
neering of Northeastern College 

1919-1921-Carl S. Ell, Dean 

1921-1923-Carl S. Ell, Dean, Evening Polytechnic School 

1923-1924-Carl S. Ell, Director of the Engineering and Tech- 
nical Schools 

215 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

1924-1927— Thomas E. Penard, Associate Dean of the Evening 

Polytechnic School 
1927-1935— James W. Lees, Dean, Lincoln Institute 
1935-1945— James W. Lees, Dean, Lincoln Technical Institute 
1945 Donald H. MacKenzie, Acting Dean 

1946-1954-Donald H. MacKenzie, Dean 
1954- Donald H. MacKenzie, Dean, Lincoln Institute 

School of Business 

1907-1909— Orlando C. Mayer, Dean, School of Commerce and 

Finance 
1909-191 l-Shelby M. Harrison, Dean 
1911-1912-Clarence B. Stoner, Dean 
1912-1914-Frank Palmer Speare, Dean 
1914-1915-Harry C. Bentley, Dean 
1915-1916— Frank Palmer Speare, Dean 
1916-1917-Mark A. Smith, Acting Dean 
1917-1922-Dana S. Sylvester, Demi 
1922-1923-Fred MiUer, Dean 

1923-1928-Carl D. Smith, Dean and Regional Director 
1928-1935-Carl D. Smith, Dean, School of Business 
1935-1944-Russell Whitney, Dean 
1944-1945-Wilfred S. Lake, Acting Dean 
1945-1960- Albert E. Everett, Dean 

The Huntington School 

1909-191 1-Ernest P. Carr, Dean, Preparatory School (day and 
evening ) 

1911-1912-Ernest P. Carr, Dean, College Preparatory School 

1912-1919— Ira A. Flinner, Superintendent of Day Schools (in 
1913 the Association Day School was named The Hunt- 
ington School for Boys) 

1919-1926— Ira A. Flinner, Headmaster of The Huntington 
School 

1926-1944— Charles H. Sampson, Headmaster 

1944-1945— James W. Lees, Headmaster 

216 



Appendix C 

1945-1946-William G. Wilkinson, Acting Headmaster 
1946- -William G. Wilkinson, Headmaster (in 1950 the 
direction of The Huntington School was transferred from 
Northeastern University to the Boston YMCA) 

College of Engineering 

1909-1912— Hercules W. Geromanos, Dean, Co-Operative En- 
gineering Courses in the Polytechnic School ( day ) of the 
Evening Institute of the Boston YMCA 

1912-1916— Hercules W. Geromanos, Dean, Co-Operative En- 
gineering School of the Association Institute 

1916-1917— Hercules W. Geromanos, Dean, Co-operative 
School of Engineering, Northeastern College 

1917-1936-Carl S. Ell, Dean 

1923-1936-Carl S. Ell, Director of the Engineering and Tech- 
nical Schools (day and evening) 

1936-1940-Carl S. Ell,' Dean of the Day Division (including 
the College of Engineering ) 

194(>-1943-Winiam C. White, Director of the Day Colleges and 
Acting Dean of the College of Engineering 

1943-1945- William C. White," Director of Day Colleges and 
Dean of the College of Engineering 

1945-1953- William T. Alexander, Dean of the College of En- 
gineering 

1953-1954- Alfred ]. Ferretti, Acting Dean 

1954- —William T. Alexander, Dean 

College of Business Administration 

1922-1928-Turner F. Garner, Dean of the School of Business 

Administration 
1928-1935-Carl S. Ell, Dean 
1935-1939- Wilfred S. Lake, Dean of Instruction of the College 

of Business Administration 
1939-1942- Asa S. Knowles, Dean 
1942-1944— Robert Bruce, Acting Dean 
1944- —Roger S. Hamilton, Dean 

217 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

College of Liberal Arts 

1935-1939-Wilfred S. Lake, Dean of Instmction 

1939- -Wilfred S. Lake, Dean 

College of Education 

1953- -Lester S. Vander Werf, Dean 



218 



APPENDIX D 

NORTHEASTERN BUILDINGS AND 

ROOMS DEDICATED TO PERSONS, 

AND CREATED BY 

INDIVIDUAL GIFTS 



Buildings 

In honor of— 

Godfrey Lowell Cabot 
Robert Gray Dodge 
Carl Stephens Ell 
James Lorin Richards 

Areas in Buildings 
The Chapel 
In memory of Charles F. Bacon 

Lobbies, Lounges, Reading Rooms 

In memory of— 

Lieut. Stafford Leighton Brown 

George Henry Clifford 

Edward J. Frost 

Henry Clay Jackson 

Richard Mitton 

Abbot Stevens 

Robert Lee Studley 

Edwin S. Webster 

Stuart Mead Wright 

219 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

In honor of— 

Godfrey Lowell Cabot 
David Frank Edwards 
Sebastian S. Kresge 
The gift of— 

Clara and Joseph Fabian Ford 
Lillian and Harry Hamilton Kerr 

Classrooms, Laboratories, Offices, Conference Rooms 
In memory of— 

Albert Fai-well Bemis 

Magdalena M. Bohnenberger 

Robert ]. Bottomly 

Lizzie J. Burgess 

James R. Connors '57 

Bernard W. Do^'le 

Dominic Esposito '53 

Anna Glass 

Samuel Glass 

Charles Havden 

Merrill R. Lovinger '50 

Ethel H. Lvons 

Everett Richard Prout 

James Walter Reading 

Samuel and Mary Robinson 

Dana S. Sylvester 

Harold Hamilton Wade 

Edwin Siblev Webster, Jr. 

Russell Whitnev 

Gordon E. Wright '38 
In honor of— 

Albert Ellsworth Everett '23 
The gift of— 

Frank L. Richardson '09 and Mrs. Richardson 
Joseph G. Riesman '18 
Julius Charles Santis '21 

220 



APPENDIX E 
HONORARY DEGREES 



A chronological listing of honorary degrees confeiTcd by North- 
eastern University, with designation of the position held by the 
recipient at the time of the award. 

1931 

Arthur Atwood Ballantine, Lawyer, Root, Clark, Buckner & 
Ballantine— Doctor of Laws 

Harrison Prescott Eddv, President, Metcalf & Eddy— Doctor of 
Engineering 

Edward Morgan Lewis, President of the University of New 
Hampshire— Doctor of Laws 

Frank Palmer Speare, President of Northeastern University- 
Doctor of Laws 

1932 

Raymond George Bressler, President of Rhode Island State Col- 
lege—Doctor of Laws 

Charles Rice Cow, President, Warren Brothers Company— Doc- 
tor of Engineering 

James Lorin Richards, Chairman, Massachusetts Gas Co.; 
Chairman of the Board, Boston Consolidated Gas Company- 
Doctor of Laws 

1933 

Henry L Harriman, Financier and Industrialist— Doctor of Laws 
Henry Tilton Lummus, Judge, Supreme Judicial Court, Com- 
monwealth of Massachusetts— Doctor of Laws 

221 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

Paul Dwight Moody, President of Middlebury College— Doctor 
of Laws 

1934 

Frederic Lauriston Bullard, Journalist, Author, Editorial Writer 

of the Boston Herald— Doctor of Literature 
Dexter Simpson Kimball, Dean of the College of Engineering, 

Cornell University— Doctor of Engineering 
Payson Smith, Commissioner of Education, Commonwealth of 

Massachusetts— Doctor of Laws 

1935 

Carl Pullen Dennett, Industrialist, Financier, and President, 
National Economy League— Doctor of Laws 

Charles Thomas Main, President, Charles T. Main, Inc.— Doc- 
tor of Engineering 

Edward Fuller Miner, President, Edward F. Miner Building 
Company— Master of Arts 

Leverett Saltonstall, Speaker, House of Representatives, Com- 
monwealth of Massachusetts— Doctor of Laws 

Harry Stanley Rogers, President of The Polytechnic Institute 
of Brooklyn— Doctor of Science 

1936 

Lloyd Cassel Douglas, Author, Lecturer, and Clergyman— Doc- 
tor of Literature 

Audrey Abraham Potter, Dean of the Schools of Engineering, 
Purdue University— Doctor of Science 

Edwin Sibley Webster, Vice Chairman of the Board, Stone & 
Webster, Inc.— Doctor of Laws 

Clement Clarence Williams, President of Lehigh University- 
Doctor of Engineering 

1937 
Sanford Bates, Executive Director, Boys' Clubs of America; 
Former Penal Institutions Commissioner of the United States 
—Doctor of Laws 

222 



Appendix E 

Harry Ellsworth Clifford, Former Dean of the Harvard School 
of Engmeermg— Doctor of Science 

William Lincoln Smith, Professor of Electrical Engineering at 
Northeastern University-Doctor of Engineering 

Clyde Everett Wildman, President of DePauw University-Doc- 
tor of Laws 

1938 

Calvin Francis Allen, Professor Emeritus, Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology and Consulting Engineer-Doctor of 
Engineering 

Henrv Stvles Bridges, United States Senator from New Hamp- 
shire—Doctor of Laws 

Thornton Waldo Burgess, Author-Doctor of Literature 

Philip Curtis Nash, President of the University of the City of 
Toledo— Doctor of Laws 

October, 1938 (Dedicatory Exercises) 

Winthrop Williams Aldrich, Chaimian of the Board of Directors 
of the Chase National Bank-Doctor of Laws 

Karl Taylor Compton, President of the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technologv— Doctor of Laws 

Harvev Nathaniel Davis, President of Stevens Institute of Tech- 
nology—Doctor of Science 

Dugald Caleb Jackson, Professor of Electrical Engineering 
Emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and 
honorary lecturer— Doctor of Engineering 

Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., United States Senator from Massachu- 
setts—Doctor of Laws 

Edward Augustus Weeks, Editor-in-chief of the Atlantic 
Monthly— Doctor of Literature 

1940 

Joseph Warren Barker, Dean of Faculty Engineering, Colum- 
bia University— Doctor of Science 

Horace Tracy Cahill, Lieutenant Governor of the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts— Doctor of Laws 

223 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

Arthur Walter Dolan, Associate Justice, Supreme Court of 
Massachusetts— Doctor of Laws 

Edward Levburn Moreland, Dean of Engineering at the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology— Doctor of Engineering 

1941 

Godfrey Lowell Cabot, President, Codfrey L. Cabot, Inc.— Doc- 
tor of Science 

Leonard Carmichael, President of Tufts College— Doctor of 
Laws 

Wat Tyler Cluverius, President of Worcester Polytechnic Insti- 
tute—Doctor of Engineering 

Harold Glenn Moulton, President of the Brookings Institution- 
Doctor of Laws 

G. Bromley Oxnam, Bishop of the Methodist Church, Boston 
Area— Doctor of Literature 

1942 
Ralph E. Flanders, Industrialist and Engineer— Doctor of En- 
gineering 
Hu Shih, Author, Scholar, and Diplomat— Doctor of Laws 
Joseph Crosby Lincoln, Author— Doctor of Literature 
Channing Pollock, Dramatist, Essayist, and Lecturer— Doctor 

of Laws 
Roy Andrew Seaton, Dean of the Division of Engineering, Kan- 
sas State College; Director, Engineering, Science, and Man- 
agement Defense Training Program of the Federal Govern- 
ment—Doctor of Science 

1943 

George Russell Harrison, Dean of Science at the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology- Doctor of Science 

Randall Jacobs, Rear Admiral of the United States Navy— Doc- 
tor of Engineering 

James J. Ronan, Associate Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court 
of Massachusetts— Doctor of Laws 

224 



Appendix E 

Brehon Somervell, Lieutenant General of the United States 
Army— Doctor of Engineering 

William Pearson Tolley, Chancellor of Syracuse University- 
Doctor of Laws 

1944 

Igor L Sikorskv, Engineering Manager of the United Aircraft 

Corporation— Doctor of Science 
Arthur T. Vanderbilt, Counselor at Law and Dean of the School 

of Law of New York Universitv— Doctor of Laws 
Julius Eniest Warren, Commissioner of Education for the 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts— Doctor of Laws 
Thomas John Watson, President of the International Business 

Machines Corporation— Doctor of Laws 
Charles Edward Wilson, Executive Vice-Chairman of the War 

Production Board— Doctor of Engineering 

1945 

Bradley Dewey, President, Dewev and Almv Company— Doctor 
of Science 

Chester Laurens Dawes, Associate Professor of Electrical En- 
gineering at Harvard Universitv— Doctor of Engineering 

Harvey Dow Gibson, President and Chairman of the Board of 
Directors of the Manufacturers Trust Company— Doctor of 
Laws 

Ira Mosher, President of the National Association of Manufac- 
turers—Doctor of Laws 

Kenneth Roberts, Author— Doctor of Literature 

1946 

Frederick Lewis Allen, Editor-in-chief of Harper's Magazine 
—Doctor of Literature 

Cvrus S. Ching, Director, Industrial and Public Relations, U. S. 
Rubber Company— Doctor of Laws 

Jerome Clarke Hunsaker, Head of the Departments of Mechan- 
ical and Aeronautical Engineering at the Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology— Doctor of Engineering 

225 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

William McNear Rand, President, Monsanto Chemical Com- 
pany— Doctor of Laws 

Francis Trow Spaiilding, President-elect of the University of 
the State of New York— Doctor of Laws 

June, 1947 

Richard Eyelyn Byrd, Scientist and Explorer— Doctor of Science 

}. Anton de Haas, Professor of International Relations at Har- 
vard Graduate School of Business Administration— Doctor of 
Laws 

Mark Antony DeWolfe Howe, Editor, Biographer, Historian- 
Doctor of Literature 

Thomas Kilgore Sherwood, Dean of Engjineerine at the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology— Doctor of Engineering 

September, 1947 

Eliot Wadsworth, Treasurer of the Carnegie Foundation for In- 
ternational Peace— Doctor of Laws 

January, 1948 

Christian A. Herter, Member of Congress from the 10th District 
of Massachusetts— Doctor of Laws 

June, 1948 

Sinclair Weeks, Chairman of the Board, Reed & Barton Cor- 
poration—Doctor of Laws 

October, 1948 (Fiftieth Anniversary Convocation) 

Mary Ellen Chase, Author, Professor of English Literature at 

Smith College— Doctor of Literature 
James Bryant Conant, President of Harxard University— Doctor 

of Laws 
Luis de Florez, Consulting Engineer and Inventor, Rear Admiral 

U.S.N.R.— Doctor of Engineering 
Bernard DeVoto, Author and Editor— Doctor of Literature 
Robert Gray Dodge, Lawyer, Chairman of the Northeastern 

University Coi^poration- Doctor of Laws 

226 



Appendix E 

Edwin R. Gilliland, Professor of Chemical Engineering at the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology— Doctor of Engineering 

John Patrick Higgins, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of 
Massachusetts— Doctor of Laws 

Percy Lavon Julian, Director of Research and Manager of Fine 
Chemicals for The Glidden Co.— Doctor of Science 

Clarence Belden Randall, Vice-President, Inland Steel Com- 
pany—Doctor of Laws 

Edmund Ware Sinnott, Director of the Sheffield Scientific School 
at Yale University— Doctor of Science 

Joseph P. Spang, Jr., President, Gillette Safety Razor Company 
—Doctor of Laws 

Thomas W. Swan, Judge of the United States Circuit Court of 
Appeals for the Second Circuit— Doctor of Laws 

Raymond Walters, President of the University of Cincinnati- 
Doctor of Laws 

1949 

Earl Byron Babcock, Chief Chemist, Firestone Tire & Rubber 
Company- Doctor of Science 

Richard Lyon Bowditch, President, C. H. Sprague & Son Com- 
pany—Doctor of Laws 

George Henry Clifford, President, Stone & Webster Service 
Corp.— Doctor of Laws 

Robert Cutler, Old Colon\' Trust Company- Doctor of Laws 

Esther Forbes, Author— Doctor of Literature 

Albert Haertlein, Professor of Civil Engineering at Harvard 
University— Doctor of Engineering 

James R. Killian, Jr., President of the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology— Doctor of Laws 

1950 

F'rank W. Abrams, Chairman of the Board, Standard Oil Com- 
pany of New Jerse\— Doctor of Engineering 

Margaret Clapp, President of Wellesley College— Doctor of 
Laws 

227 



Origin and Development of Northeastern Universitij 

Frederick Joseph Dillon, Judge of the Probate Court, Suffolk 
Count\', Massachusetts— Doctor of Laws 

Crawford Hallock Greenewalt, President, E. I. du Pont de Ne- 
mours and Company, Inc.— Doctor of Science 

Ralph Lowell, President, Boston Safe Deposit and Trust Com- 
pan\'— Doctor of Laws 

John Phillips Marquand, Author— Doctor of Literature 

1951 

Donald Kirk Daxid, Dean of the Harvard Graduate School of 
Business Administration— Doctor of Laws 

Herbert Thomas Kalmus, President and General Manager, Tech- 
nicolor Motion Picture Corporation— Doctor of Engineerin^T 

Harold R. Medina, judge of the United States Court of Appeals 
for the Second Circuit— Doctor of Laws 

Don G. Mitchell, President, Sylvania Electric Products, Inc.— 
Doctor of Laws 

John Christian Warner, President of the Carnegie Institute of 
Technology— Doctor of Science 

Thornton Niven Wilder, Author, Teacher, Scholar— Doctor of 
Literature 

1952 

Arthnr Stanton Adams, President of the American Council on 
Education— Doctor of Laws 

Van Wyck Brooks, Author and Critic— Doctor of Literature 

Thomas Dudley Cabot, Executive Vice-President, Godfrev L. 
Cabot, Inc.— Doctor of Laws 

William Crombie White, Director of Day Colleges at North- 
eastern Universitv— Doctor of Engineering 

Raymond Sanger Wilkins, Associate justice of the Supreme Ju- 
dicial Court of Massachusetts— Doctor of Laws 

1953 

Erwin Dain Canham, Editor of the CJiristian Science Monitor- 
Doctor of Literature 

228 



Appendix E 

George Hansen, President, Chandler & Company— Doctor of 
Laws 

Clarence Decatur Howe, Minister of Trade and Commerce in 
the Dominion of Canada— Doctor of Engineering 

Alfred Jacobsen, President, Amerada Petroleum Corporation- 
Doctor of Laws 

Charles Franklin Phillips, President of Bates College— Doctor 
of Laws 

Stanley Elrov Qua, Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court 
of Massachusetts— Doctor of Laws 

Robert Chapman Sprague, Chairman of the Board, Sprague 
Electric Company— Doctor of Engineering 

Alan Tower Waterman, Director of the National Science Foun- 
dation—Doctor of Science 

1954 

Harold Claude Case, President of Boston University— Doctor of 
Laws 

Harold B. Gores, Superintendent of the Newton Public Schools 
—Doctor of Laws 

Clifford F. Hood, President, United States Steel Corporation- 
Doctor of Engineering 

John L. McCaffrey, President, International Harvester Com- 
pany—Doctor of Laws 

David Thompson Watson McCord, Officer of Harvard Univer- 
sity— Doctor of Literature 

John Harold Stewart, Partner in the firm of Stewart, Watts & 
Bollono;— Doctor of Commercial Science 

Walter Gordon Whitman, Head of the Department of Chemical 
Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology- 
Doctor of Science 

1955 

Arthur B. Bronwell, President of Worcester Polytechnic Insti- 
tute—Doctor of Laws 
Harlow Herbert Curtice, President, General Motors Corpora- 
tion—Doctor of Commercial Science 

229 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

Frank L. Flood, Partner, Metcalf & Eddy— Doctor of Engineer- 
ing 

Caryl Parker Haskins, President, Haskins Laboratories— Doctor 
of Science 

Charles Newton Kimball, President, Midwest Research Insti- 
tute—Doctor of Engineering 

Nathan Marsh Pusey, President of Harvard University— Doc- 
tor of Laws 

John V. Spalding, Justice, Supreme Judicial Court of Massa- 
chusetts—Doctor of Laws 

1956 

Chester M. Alter, Chancellor of the Universitv of Denver— Doc- 
tor of Laws 

Catherine Drinker Bowen, Author— Doctor of Literature 

Albert Ellsworth Everett, Director of the Evening Division and 
Dean of the School of Business at Northeastern University- 
Doctor of Commercial Science 

George Keith Funston, President, New York Stock Exchange- 
Doctor of Laws 

Ivan A. Getting, Vice-President, Engineering and Research, 
Raytheon Manufacturing Company— Doctor of Science 

John Fitzgerald Kennedy, United States Senator from Massa- 
chusetts—Doctor of Laws 

John Anthonv Volpe, Commissioner of Public Works, Com- 
monwealth of Massachusetts— Doctor of Engineering 

1957 

John Lawrence Burns, President, Radio Coi'poration of Amer- 
ica—Doctor of Business Administration 

Bruce Catton, Editor and Historian— Doctor of Literature 

Thomas Wade Herren, Commanding General, First United 
States Army— Doctor of Laws 

Asa Smallidge Knowles, President of the University of Toledo- 
Doctor of Laws 

230 



Appendix E 

Calvert Magruder, Chief Justice, United States Court of Ap- 
peals for the First District— Doctor of Laws 

Julius Adams Strattou, Chancellor of the Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology— Doctor of Laws 

Carl Raymond Woodward, President of the University of 
Rhode Island— Doctor of Laws 

1958 

Peter Popow Alexander, Chainnan of the Board, Metal Hy- 
drides, Inc.— Doctor of Science 

Jean Paul Mather, President of the University of Massachusetts 
—Doctor of Laws 

Perry Miller, Professor of American Literature at Harvard 
Universitv— Doctor of Literature 

Arthur Jenkins Pierce, Brigadier General, of the United States 
Air Force— Doctor of Laws 

Henry Bradford Washburn, Jr.— Director of the Boston Museum 
of Science— Doctor of Science 

Nils Yngve Wessell, President of Tufts University— Doctor of 
Laws 

1959 

Charles Francis Adams, President, Raytheon Company— Doc- 
tor of Business Administration 

William Thurlow Alexander, Dean of the College of Engineer- 
ins at Northeastern Universitv— Doctor of Science 

Carl Stephens Ell, President of Northeastern University- Doc- 
tor of Science in Education 

Arthur Bartlett Homer, President and Chief Executive, Bethle- 
hem Steel Coi-poration— Doctor of Business Administration 

Edwin Herbert Land, President, Polaroid Corporation— Doctor 
of Science 

John O. Pastore, United States Senator from Rhode Island- 
Doctor of Laws 

Louise Hall Tharp, Author and Lecturer— Doctor of Literature 

231 



Origin and Development of Northeastern University 

1960 

Raymond Flovd Howes, Editor, The Educational Record— Doc- 
tor of Humane Letters 

Walter Consuelo Langsam, President of the University of Cin- 
cinnati—Doctor of Science 

Perrv Townsend Rathbone, Director, Museum of Fine Arts, 
Boston— Doctor of Humane Letters 

Abram Leon Sachar, President of Brandeis University— Doctor 
of Literature 

Right Reverend Robert J. Sennott, Chancellor, Archdiocese of 
Boston— Doctor of Civil Law 

William E. R. Sullivan, Brigadier General, United States Army; 
President, U.S. Army Chemical Corps Board— Doctor of 
Science. 



232 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Catherine Drinker Bowen, Yankee from Ohjmpus, Little, Brown 
and Company, Boston, 1944 

James L. Bruce, Filling in the Back Bay and the Charles River 
Development, Proceedings of the Bostonian Society, Janu- 
ary 16, 1940 

James L. Bruce, The Rogers Building and Huntington Hall, 
Proceedings of the Bostonian Society, January 21, 1941 

Everett A. Churchill, History of Northeastern University 1896- 
1927, Boston Young Men's Christian Association, Boston, 
1927 

Melvin T. Copeland, And Mark an Era, the Story of the Har- 
vard Business School, Little, Brown and Company, Boston, 
1958 

Dialogues of Alfred North Whitehead, as recorded by Lucien 
Price, Little, Brown and Company, Boston, 1954 

John S. Diekhoff, The Domain of the Factdty in Our Expanding 
Colleges, Harper & Brothers, New York, 1956 

John P. Dyer, Ivory Towers in the Market Place, The Bobbs- 
Merrill Company, Inc., New York, 1956 

Albert Bushnell Hart, Editor, Commonwealth History of Massa- 
chusetts, The States History Company, New York, 1930 

M. A. DeWolfe Howe, Boston, the Place and the People, The 
Macmillan Company, New York, 1903 

Frederick Johnson, The Boylston Street Fishweir, Phillips Acad- 
emy, The Robert S. Peabody Foundation for Archaeology, 
Andover, Massachusetts, 1942 

233 



Bibliography 

Albert P. Langtry, Metropolitan Boston, A Modern History, 
Lewis Historical Publishing Company, Inc., New York, 1929 

Kenneth L. Mark, Delayed by Fire, Being the Early History of 
Simmons College, Privately Printed, Boston, 1945 

Daniel L. Marsh and William H. Clark, The Story of Massa- 
chusetts, The American Historical Society, Inc., New York, 
1938 

Samuel Eliot Morrison, Three Centuries of Harvard, Harvard 
University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1946 

M. M. Musselman, Get a Horse!, J. P. Lippincott Company, 
New York, 1950 

Clyde W. Park, Ambassador to Industry, The Bobbs-Merrill 
Company, Inc., New York, 1943 

A Becord of the Streets, Alleys, Places, Etc. in the City of 
Boston, City of Boston, 1910 

Richard E. Sprague, Cooperative Education in the United 
States at the Undergraduate Level, M.B.A. thesis, Northeast- 
ern University, 1955 

Arthur Walworth, Woodrow Wilson, Longmans, Green and Co., 
New York, 1958 

Dixon Wecter, The Age of the Great Depression, The Macmil- 
lan Company, New York, 1948 

George F. Weston, jr., Boston Ways, Beacon Press, Boston, 1957 

Walter Muir Whitehill, Boston A Topographical History, The 
Belknap Press of Harvard Universitv Press, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, 1959 

William B. Whiteside, The Boston Y.M.C.A. and Community 
Need, Association Press, New York, 1951 



234 



Academy of Music; 3 

Accounting, Department of; 69 

Adams, Maude; 16 

Adult and Continuing Education, Office of; 1 83 

Advisor to women; 66 

Air Force Cambridge Research Center; 72 

Aldrich, Winthrop W.; 85 

Allen, Asa S.; 133 

Alumni Auditorium; 89 

Alumni honorary degrees; 135 

Alumni scholarship; 134 

Alumni distinguished attainment; 181-182 

American Automobile Association; 20 

American Society of Engineering Education; 73 

Ames, James B.; 15, 58 

Amherst College; 18 

Amherst, Massachusetts; 7 

Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company; 16 

Anthony, Gardner; 31 

Antioch College; 101 

Arlington Street; 75, 81 

Asia; 5 

Association Day School; 25-27 

establishment; 26 
Athletic Field; 79 
Atlantic Aveune; 2 
Atlantic Monthly; 86 
Automobile School; 58, 64, 

branches; 21, courses offered; 20, 

founding; 19 



B 



Back Bay; 16,76,77,80,94 

development; 2, growth of; 80-82 
Beacon Street; 80 
Bennet, Samuel; 15, 80 
Berkeley Street; 10 
Beta Gamma Epsilon; 17 
Biology, Department of; 69, 73, 78, 88 
Black Crook Burlesquers; 6 
Bonus Army; 83 
Boston, Massachusetts; 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 14, 15, 63, 75, 80, 81 

local expansion; 2, crime; 16, war exposition; 17 
Boston Americans; 8 
Boston City Council; 80, 127 
Boston College; 7, 18 
Boston Common; 80 
Boston Elevated Railway; 79 
Boston Globe; 15,67 
Boston Opera House; 77, 85, 94, 97 
Boston & Roxbury Corporation; 77 
Boston School of Industrial Science; 4 
Boston Symphony Orchestra; 3 
Boston Theatre; 17 

Boston University; 7, 14, 18, 49, 75, 129 
Bostonians; 17 
Bon-Ton Burlesquers; 6 
Botolph Building; 64, 78, 85 
Botolph Street; 81 
Bowditch, Richard L.; 91 
Bowdoin College; 171 
Boylston Street; 10, 75, 77, 81 
Braille Press; 124 
Brainard, George W.; 57 
Brewer, D. Chauncey; 58 
Bridgeport; 23, 50, 64, 65 
Bridgeport Engineering Institute; 65 
Bridgeport Normal School; 50 



British Isles; 5 

Brockton Fair; 17 

Brookline; 79, 80 

Brown, Herbert; 70 

Brown University; 18 

Bruce, Robert; 89 

Brumis, George; 66 

Bryant Street; 81 

Bunker Hill; 1 

Bureau of Business; 1 15 

Business, School of; 58, 109, 111, 113-115 

Business Administration, College of; 69, 73, 93, 100, 125 

Business of the Evening Division, School of ; 70 



Cabot Company; 72 

Cabot, Godfrey L. Incorporated; 72 

Cabot Physical Education Center, Godfrey Lowell; 92 

California; 6, 71 

Cambridge; 3, 18 

Camden Street; 77 

Carnegie Steele; 59, 163 

Cauldron, The; 102, 117, 118 

Castle Square Theatre; 16 

Causeway Street; 2 

Central America; 1 

Chang, Sze-Hou; 73 

Chauncey Hall School; 26 

Chemistry, Department of; 86 

Chemical Engineering, Department of; 71, 72, 73, 88, 

Chestnut, William H.; 146 

Childers, Oliver; 89 

China; 16 



Christian Science Church; 76 
Churchill, Everett A.; 18, 50-55, 61, 62 

development plan; 82, dean of law school; 50, education; 

50, History of Northeastern 1896-1927 ; 66, secretary 

of corporation; 53, vice president; 50 
Cincinnati, University of; 27 
Civil Engineering, Department of; 7 1 
Civil & Mechanical Engineering; 100 
Civil War; 4, 7 
Cleveland, Laurence F.; 125 
Cloney, William T.; 88 
Columbia University; 19 
Commerce & Finance, School of; 23-25, 58, 66, 109, 113 

authorization to grant degrees; 25 
Compton, Karl T.; 85 
Conant, James B.; 90 
Concord, Massachusetts; 3 
Condit Award; 170 
Co-education; 66 
Co-op, The ; 116-117 
Cooperative Education; 27, 32, 49, 66, 104, 105 

adoption; 28, 56, cooperating employer's dinner; 103, 

co-operative plan; 104-105, department of cooperative 

work; 102-103, earnings; 29, growth and development; 

98-107, University of Cincinnati plan; 99 
Co-operative Engineering, School of; 27-30, 58, 92 
Corbett, James J.; 6 
Cornell University; 172 
Crocker, Walton I.; 59, 163 
Corportation, Officers of the; 165 
Crosett, Lewis A; 57 
Curie, Marie; 1 
Curie, Pierre; 1 
Cuba; 2 

Curriculum Committee; 179 
Cutler, Robert; 91 



D 



D'Alessandro, Alfred; 72 

Davis, Harvey N.; 85 

Davis, Sidney S.; 148 

Day Colleges; 95 

Deaths of influential faculty; 150-151 

DePauw University; 49 

Development, Committee on ; 83 

Development, Faculty Committee on; 73 

Diamond Jubilee; 1 

Dodge Library; 91 

Dodge, Robert; 17, 49, 59, 62, 82, 90, 163 

Dorchester Heights; 1 

Dramatics; 122, 123, 

Silver Masque, 123 
Drawing Department; 91 
Dreyfus Case; 16 
Dunbar, James R.; 15, 58 
Durant Incorporated; 79 
Duryea brothers; 20 
Dyer, John P.; 110 



East Cove; 2 

Education, College of; 68, 71 

Education, Department of; 69 

Educational Committee; 162 

Electrical Engineering, Department of; 72, 93 

Ell, Carl S.; 28, 29, 43-49, 109, 117, 183, 

childhood; 43, on Speare; 33-34, schooling; 44, 

teaching; 44 
Ell, Etta K.; 137 
Ell Student Center, Carl Stephens; 90 



Emerson College; 3, 49 

Emmanuel College; 97 

Endowment Campaign; 133 

English, Department of; 88 

Engineers Council; 84 

Engineering, College of; 69, 84 

Engineering, School of; 56, 64 

Engineering Science; 1 1 1 

Essigmann, Martin; 73 

Etta Kappa Nu; 117, 120 

Muckenhoupt, Carl; 74 

Everett, Albert E.; Ill, 117 

Evening school, evolution of ; 108-1 15 

Executive Committee, chronology of; 167-168 

Extracurricular activities; 117 

Europe; 4 



Faculty & staff, retirements of; 152-156 

Faneuil Hall; 1 

Faunce, Laurence S.; 66 

Faunce, Marjorie; 66 

Federal Board Club; 126 

Fennell, G. Raymond; 126 

Fenno, Bradlee; 57 

Fenway Park; 8 1 

Ferretti, Alfred; 70 

Field Day; 116, 119 

"Fiftieth Anniversary Year"; 89 

Fillmore, Millard; 2 

Ford, Henry; 20 

Ford Motor Company; 20 

Forsyth Street; 81, 94 

France; 1 

Frost, George; 119 



Fundraising; 85 



G 



Gainsboro Building; 77, 78 

Gainsboro Street; 77 

Gallagher, Herbert W.; 121 

Gardener Museum; 97 

Garfield, Mildred; 129 

Gamer, Turner F.; 56 

Germany; 1 

Germanos, Hercules W.; 28, 32, 100, 117 

Graduate Center; 93 

Graduate School; 69, 70, 71 

Gramstorff, Emil; 71 

Greely, Horace; 94 

Guam; 2 



H 



Hamilton, Roger; 73 

Handel & Haydn Society; 3, 77 

Harcourt Street; 21, 27 

Harris, Murray D.; 147 

Hart, Albert B.; 18 

Harvard Law School; 18 

Havard Medical School; 97 

Havard University; 3, 7, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 24, 38, 50, 90, 91 

Hatton, George; 9 

Havice, Charles; 89, 124 

Hayden Hall; 92 

Hayden Memorial Lab, Charles; 86 



Haynes, Elwood; 20 

Haymarket Square; 2 

Hawaii; 2 

Held, Anna; 16 

Hemenway Street; 81, 94 

Herrick, Myra; 66 

Hodgkinson, Harold D.; 170 

Hollis Street Theatre; 16 

Holmes, Oliver Wendell; 3 

Hoover, Herbert; 84 

Housing, Committee on; 82, 83 

Huntington Avenue; 76, 77, 78, 79, 94, 96 

Huntington Building: 78 

Huntington, Ralph; 77 

Huntington School; 58, 67, 79 



Immigration, study of 1907; 5 

Industry Magazine; 105 

Industrial Engineering, Department of; 94 

Inter- fraternity Club; 121 

International Relations Club; 126 

Ireland; 4 

Italy; 4, 5 

Ivory Towers In The Market Place; 110 



Jackson, Dugald C; 85 

Jackson, Julian; 72 

Jackson and Moreland, Incorporated; 70 

James, William; 3 



Johnson, Arthur S.; 32, 57 
Jordan Marsh & Company; 16 



K 



Kappa Iota Epsilon; 121 
Kelleher, Michael T.; 49 
Kent Street; 79 
King Husky; 129-131 
King, Marjorie; 139 
Kinnear, Eva; 125 
Kitchin, Charles E.; 121 
Knowles, Asa S.; 72, 121,171 

positions held; 172, president; 182, 183 



LaBelle, John; 119 
Lake Cohituate; 2 
Lake, Wilfred; 65 
Land purchases; 78-79 
Lawrence, Massachusetts; 4 
Law, School of; 66, 67, 108 

founding; 14-22, granting degrees; 18, student profile; 

18 
League of Nations Association; 101 
Lehigh University; 98 
Lees, James W.; 68, 109 
Leighton, John R.; 132 
Liberal Arts; 66, 69 

co-op; 100 
Liberal 7\rts, College of; 65, 73 
Liberal Arts, School of ; 58 
Liebman, Joshua; 90 



Light, Galen D.; 21, 22, 39-43, 

assistant educational director; 39, contributions; 40, 43, 

secretary/treasurer; 39 
Lincoln Institute; 23, 109, 111, 112 
Lincoln Preparatory School; 66, 68, 69, 108 
Lodge, Henry Cabot Jr.; 85 
Longwood Avenue; 97 
Lowell, Massachusetts; 4 
Lowell lectures; 7 
Lowell Institute; 3 



M 



Mackenzie, Donald H.; 68, 111 
Maclaurin, Richard; 31 
Maine, University of; 117 
Management War Training; 1 1 1 
Manila; 16 
Marlboro Street; 95 
Massachusetts; 5, 87, 113 

commonwealth of; 81, industrial development; 4 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology; 3, 7, 18, 75, 77, 81,1 19 
Massachusetts School of Art; 7 
McCoy, Kid; 6 
Mechanics Hall; 20, 97 
Mechanical Engineering, College of; 70 
Mehaffey, George W.; 32, 57, 58 
Melvin, Harold; 89 
Merrimac River; 80 
Merry, A. Gordon; 141 
Messiah, Church of the; 124, 125 
Michigan; 103 
Miemyk, William; 73 
Military Property Custodian; 146 
Mill Cove; 2 
Moody, Roland H; 91 
Morgan, Arthur; 101 



Mount Holyoke College; 7 
Muckenhoupt, Carl; 74 
Murdock, William E.; 57 
Musselman, M.M.; 19 
Museum of Fine Arts; 77, 97,1 19 
Museum of Natural History; 81 
Music, Division of; 119 



N 



Nantasket, Massachusetts; 6 

Nardone, Louis; 73 

Nash, Philip; 101, 120 

National Collegiate Athletic Association; 121 

Naval Research, Office of; 74 

Nebraska, University of; 18 

New England; 4, 5, 7, 71, 74, 87 

New England Conservatory; 3, 7, 76, 97 

New Haven, Connecticut; 23, 50, 64 

New Hampshire, University of; 38, 68 

New Jersey; 5, 71 

New York; 5,71 

New York Times', 129 

New York Universtiy; 23 

Nightingale, Winthrop E.; 101,104 

North Carolina; 103 

Northeastern Chapel; 125 

Northeastern News', 171 

Northeastern Tech, The', 116 

Northeastern University; 15, 17, 23, 38, 

ability to grant degrees; 59, acceptance by professional 
academic bodies; 59, administrative structure; 61, Board 
of Trustees; 37,57, 62, 82, 86, 88, 90, 91, 171, by-laws; 

62, campus; 82, corporation; 62, creation; 57, day 
division; 37, 66, degree jubilee; 59, degree granting 
rights; 31, 60, development; 31-56, educational policy; 

63, evening division; 37, evening programs; 50, 
executive council; 83, executive development; 62, 



formalized research; 72, funds and investments; 62, 
growth after world war II; 53, housing; 62, 
incorporation; 27, long range research; 73, 
pattern of education; 55, permanent faculty; 49, 
population growth; 149, property attainment; 25, 
physical expansion; 75, revision of by-laws; 62, 
separation from YMCA; 60, structural changes; 37, 64- 
74,77 

Northeastern University Basic Research Fund; 73 

Northeastern University Contributions to WWI; 141-142 

Northeastern University 1896- 1927, History of, 66 

Northeastern University Publications; 72 

North End, Boston; 2, 4 

North Parking Areas; 94 

North Station; 129 



O 



Oberg, Rudolf O,; 133, 139 
Old Comer Bookstore; 3 



Park Square Auto Station; 21 

Park Street Church; 3 

Park Theatre; 16 

Paris, France; 15 

Parker House; 132 

Parker Street; 81 

Parsons, Edward S.; 117 

Pennsylvania; 5, 71, 98 

Perkins, Charles W.; 57 

Phi Alpha Theta; 120 

Philippine Islands; 2 

Physics, Department of; 69, 74, 93 



Pinkham, Lydia; 37 
PhiTau Sigma; 120 
Pittsburgh Nationals; 81 
Polytechnic School; 58, 108, 109 
Porter, Ronald G.; 132 
Potter, Audrey A.; 31 
Preparatory School; 22, 58, 66 
Price, Lucien; 24 
Prince of Wales College; 18 
Providence, Rhode Island; 18, 50, 64 
Psychology, Department of; 73 
Puerto Rico; 2 
Purdue University; 31 



Quebec, Canada; 16 
Queen Victoria; 1 
Quincy, Josiah H.; 58 



R 



Radcliffe; 7 

Reorganization of administrative structure; 164-166 

Repertory Theatre; 124 

Revere Beach; 6 

Reynolds, Mary; 129 

Reynolds, William H.; 127 

Rhode Island, University of; 49 

Rhodes, Jessie; 129 

Richards Hall; 77 

Richards, James L.; 62 

Board of Trustees; 87, honorary degree; 87 
Richardson, Frank L.; 62 
Ringling Brothers & Bamum & Bailey Circus; 81 



Rochefort, J Spencer; 73 
Roger Williams Junior College; 65 
Rogers Avenue; 81 
Rogers Building; 77 
Rogers, William Barton; 3 
Roosevelt, Franklin D.; 83, 84 
Roosevelt, Theodore; 16 
ROTC; 92, 94, 147 
Roxbury, Massachusetts; 80 
Ruggles Place; 8 1 
Rush; 119 
Russia; 4 



Saint Botolph; 81 

St. Stephens Street; 94 

Santayana, George; 3 

Scandinavia; 5 

Schneider, Herman; 27, 88, 102, 105 

Schlagenhauf, Milton J.; 121 

Scott, Austin W.; 18 

Sears, Francis B.; 58 

Seeley, Milton; 130 

Senior Award for Professional Promise; 136 

Service Awards; 

thirty years 1961; 180, fifty year company s 1961; 180 
"Shoot the Chute"; 81 
Sigma Delta Epsilon; 120 
Silver Lane; 81 
Simmons College; 8, 97 
Smith, Carl D.; 109 
Smith, William Lincoln; 32 
South Station; 2 
Social Clubs; 120 
Sociology, Department of; 73 
South Cove Company; 2 
Spanish-American War; 1, 16 



Speare, Frank Palmer; 11, 15, 22, 23, 28, 33-39, 57, 62, 82, 
85, 100, 183 

Spear, Joseph; 59, 116 117, 120 

Spencer, Myron; 71 

Sports; 

baseball; 118, basketball; 117, 118, football; 123, 
hockey; 123 soccer; 118, sports associations; 124, 
swimming; 118, track; 118, wrestling; 118 

Springfield, Massachusetts; 18, 23, 50, 64, 65 

Stanley brothers; 20 

Steven's Institute; 18 

Stock market crash; 83 

Stoddard, Stuart; 72 

Student Activities, Department of; 112, 116-131 

Student Council; 119 

Sunday, Billy; 81 

Sylvania Electrical Products Company; 94 

Symphony Hall; 76, 77 



TauBetaPi; 120 

Texas; 7 1 

Thayer Academy; 171 

Thompson, George C; 139 

Thoreau, Henry David; 3 

Toledo, University of; 101, 171, 172 

Tremont Theatre; 17 

Trustees, first; 162-163 

Tsutsumi, Kentaro; 70 

Tufts Dental School; 18, 94 

Tufts Medical School; 94, 97 

Tufts University; 7, 49, 94 

Tuthill, John; 72 



u 



United States; 1 

role as world power; 2, immigration; 5 
United States Quartermaster Corps; 73 
University College; 183 



Vancouver, Canada; 16 
VanderWerf, Lester; 68 
Virginia, University of; 4 



W 



Wall Street; 83 
Washington, D.C.; 6, 16, 83 
Webster, Daniel; 3 
Weeks, Edward A.; 86 
Wellesley College; 7 
Wesleyan University; 16, 50 
Western Avenue; 80 
Western New England College; 65 
White Garage; 21 
White, Myra; 91 
White; William C; 133 
Whitehead, Alfred North; 24 
Wilson, Woodrow; 140 



Women, Dean of; 66 

Women students; 66 

Worcester, Massachusetts; 18, 23, 50, 64 

Worcester Junior College; 65 

Wooldridge, Roy L.; 102 

World Series, 1st; 81 

World War I; 29, 109 

impact on enrollment; 143 
World War II; 143 



Yale University; 16 

Yellow Springs, Ohio; 101 

Young Mens Christian Association; 17, 26, 38, 67, 79, 81, 91 
annual prospectus 1896; 11, automobile school; 77, 
board of directors; 162, department of education; 32, 
64, department of law; 15, development of evening 
institute; 12-13, east building; 85, electrical school; 77, 
evening institute; 108, executive council; 57, facilities; 
1 1, fire 1910; 75, founding; 9, Huntingon; 27, 
lectures; 8, polytechnic school; 97, "sixteen superior 
entertainments"; 11, south building; 55, west building; 
85,86 

YMCA, International Committe of the; 5 



Ziegler, Wilbur; 89