(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Origines parochiales Scotiae : the antiquities ecclesiastical and territorial of the parishes of Scotland"

ORIGINES 



PAROCHIALES SCOTIA. 



^ J.iu.-^.-^-^-^^'^^ff 



$arotl)ialtsi g)Cotiae 



THE ANTIQUITIES 

ECCLESIASTICAL AND TERHITORIAL 

OF THE PARISHES OF SCOTLAND. 



VOLUME FIRST. 



EDINBURGH : 

W. H. LIZARS, ST. JAMES' SQUARE. 

GLASGOW : J. SMITH & SON, ST. VINCENT STREET. LONDON : S. HIGHLEY, FLEET STREET, 
AND ALL BOOKSELLERS. 

MDCCCLL 



EDIX'ErEGH : T. COXST^VBLE, P»ISIER TO HKR JIAJESTY. 



THE CONTRIBUTION 

TO 

THE BANNATYNE CLUB 

OF 

LORD JEFFREY, 

SIR THOMAS MAKDOUGxVLL BRISBANE, BART., AND 

THE HON. CHARLES FRANCIS STUART. 



THE BANNATYNE CLUB. 

DECEMBER MDCCCL. 



THOMAS THOMSON, ESQ., • 
^resiaent. 

THE EARL OF ABERDEEN. 
VICE-ADMIRAL SIR CHARLES ADAM. 
THE EARL OF ASHBURNIIAM. 
LORD BELHAVEN AND HAMILTON. 
WILLIAM BLAIR, ESQ. 
BERIAII BOTFIELD, ESQ. 
THE MARQUESS OF BREADALBANE. 
SIR THOMAS MAKDODGALL BRISBANE, BART. 
10 GEORGE BRODIE, ESQ. 

CHARLES DASHWOOD BRUCE, ESQ. 

0. TYNDALL BRUCE, ESQ. 

THE DUKE OP BUCCLEUCH AND QUEENSBERRY. 

VERY REV. DEAN RICHARD BUTLER. 

JAMES CAMPBELL, ESQ. 

PATRICK CHALMERS, ESQ. 

SIR GEORGE CLERK, BART., M.P. 

HON. H. COCKBURN, LORD COCKEURN, [VICE-PRESIDENT.] 



^ 



THE BANNATYNE CLUB. 



DAVID CONSTABLE, ESQ. 
20 ANDREW COVENTRY, ESQ. 

JAMES T. GIBSON CRAIG, ESQ., [TREASURER.] 

SIR WILLIAM GIBSON CRAIG, BART., M.P. 

GEORGE CRANSTOUN, ESQ., [DECEASED.] 

THE MARQUESS OF DALHOUSIE. 

THE MARQUESS OF DOUGLAS AND CLYDESDALE. 

HENRY DRUMMOND, ESQ., M.P. 

SIR DAVID DUNDAS, M.P. 

GEORGE DUNDAS, ESQ. 

WILLIAM PITT DUNDAS, ESQ. 
30 THE EARL OF ELLESMERE. 

•JOSEPH WALTER KING EYTON, ESQ. 

LIEUT.-COL. ROBERT FERGUSON, M.P. 

COUNT MERCER DE FLAHAULT. 

THE EARL OF GOSFORD. 

WILLIAM GOTT, ESQ. 

ROBERT GRAHAM, ESQ. 

THE EARL OF HADDINGTON. 

THE DUKE OF HAMILTON AND BRANDON. 

SIR THOMAS BUCIIAN HEPBURN, BART. 
40 JAMES MAITLAND HOG, ESQ. 

JAMES B. HOPE, ESQ. 

RIGHT HON. .JOHN HOPE, LORD JUSTICE-CLERK. 

COSMO INNES, ESQ. 

DAVID IRVING, LL.D. 

HON. JAMES IVORY, LORD IVORY. 

SIR HENRY JARDINE. 



THE BANNATYNE CLUB. 



HON. FRANCIS JEFFREY, LORD JEFFREY, [DECEASED.] 

DAVID LAING, ESQ., [SECRETARY.] 

THE EARL OF LAUDERDALE. 
.50 VERY REVEREND PRINCIPAL JOHN LEE, D.D. 

LORD LINDSAY. 

JAMES LOCH, ESQ., M.P. 

LORD LOVAT. 

ALEXANDER MACDONALD, ESQ. 

HON. J. H. MACKENZIE, LORD MACKENZIE. 

JAMES MACKENZIE, ESQ. 

JOHN WHITEFOOUD MACKENZIE, ESQ. 

KEITH STEWART MACKENZIE, ESQ. 

WILLIAM FORBES MACKENZIE, ESQ., M.P. 
ISO ALEXANDER MACONOCHIE, ESQ. 

JAMES MAIDMENT, ESQ. 

HON. THOMAS MAITLAND, LORD DUNDRENNAN. 

THE VISCOUNT MELVILLE. 

THE HON. WILLIAM LESLIE MELVILLE. 

THE EARL OF MINTO. 

HON. SIR JAMES W. MONCREIFF, LORD MONCREIFF. 

JAMES PATRICK MUIRHEAD, ESQ. 

HON. SIR JOHN A. MURRAY, LORD MURRAY. 

WILLIAJI MURRAY, ESQ. 
70 ROBERT NASMYTH, ESQ. 

CHARLES KEAVES, ESQ. 

THE EARL OF NORTIIESK. 

LORD PANMURE. 

ALEXANDER PRINGLE. ESQ. 



THE BANNATYNE CLUB. 



JOHN RICHARDSON, ESQ. 

THE DUKE OF ROXBURGHE. 

RIGHT HON. ANDREW RUTHERFURD, LORD ADVOCATE, M.P. 

THE EARL OF SELKIRK. 

•JAMES SKENE, ESQ. 
SO WILLIAM SMYTHE, ESQ. 

.JOHN SPOTTISWOODE, ESQ. 

EDWARD STANLEY, ESQ. 

REV. WILLIAM STEVENSON, D.D. 

THE HON. CHARLES FRANCIS STUART. 

THE DUKE OF SUTHERLAND. 

ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL SWINTON, ESQ. 

ALEXANDER THOMSON, ESQ. 

SIR WALTER CALVERLEY TREVELYAN, BAKT. 

WILLIAM B. D. D. TURNBULL, ESQ. 
90 ADAM URQUHART, ESQ. 



A TABLE 



THE CONTENTS OF THIS VOLUME. 



THE PREFACE. 



TAGi; 



DIOCESE OF GLASGOW. 

DEANERY OF RUTHERGLEN. 

Glasgow, 

govan and gorbals, 

Cadder, 

monklant), 

BOTHWELI. AND BeKTRAJI ShOTTS, 

Cambdsnethan, 

Dalziel, 

Blantthe, 

Cambuslang, 

Rdtherglen, 

Carmunnock, 

Cathcart, 

Eastwood and Pollock, 

Paisley, 

Renfrew, 

INCHI^^^{AN, . 



1, 
i7, 
50, 
51, 
53, 

58, 

60, 
62, 

65, 
66, 
67, 
73, 



499 
501 
504 
504 
504 

56 
505 

59 
505 
505 

64 
505 
505 
506 
506 
507 



TABLE OF 




Erskine, .... 


I'AU K 

80 


KiLLALLAX, .... 


81 


Houston, .... 


82 


KiLBAROHAN, 


8.3 


KiLMACOLM ANB PoRT-GlASGOW, 


85 


IxNERKiP akd Greenock, 


87, 507 


LOCHWINNOCH, 


93, 507 


Neilstown, 


96, 508 


Meakns, .... 


97, 508 


Eaglesham, ... 


98, 508 


East Kilbride, 


99, 508 


TORRENS, .... 


100, 508 


Glasiord, .... 


102,510 


AVONDALE StRATHAVON, . 


103,510 


Hamilton, .... 


105,510 


Machan ou Dalserf, 


107 



DEANERY OF LENNOX. 



Kilpatrick, 








20, 501 


Dumbarton, 








23, 502 


Cardross, 








26, 502 


Rosneath and Row, 








27, 502 


Luss AND Arrochar, 








30, 502 


Buchanan, 








32,502 


KiLMARONOK, 








33, 503 


BONHILL, 








36 


Drymen, 








37, 503 


Balfron, 








39 


KlI.LEARN, . 








40 


FiNTRAY, 








42 


KiLsrxH, 








43 



THE CONTENTS. 



Cajipsv, 

Stkathblane, 

Baldernock, 

KiRKIVrULI.OCH AND ClMBKRXAULD, 



I'AGE 

44, oOS 

4(; 

47, 504 

48, 504 



PART OF THE DEANERY OF KYLE AND 
CUNINGIIAME. 



Laugs and Ccmbrvy, 

KiLBIRNlE, 



89, 607 
92, 507 



DEANERY OF L.VNARR. 



Stonehouse, 










108,510 


Lesmahago, 










110,511 


Carluke, 










115 


Lanark, 










117,511 


Carstairs, 










123,511 


Carjtwath, . 










125 


DONSYRE, 










12.S 


DOLPHINTON, 










130 


Walston, 










131.511 


Biggar, 










132,511 


LiBERTON, . 










135 


QnoxnQUHAN, 










136 


Pettinajn, . 










137,512 


Covington, 










140,512 


Thankerton, 










142, 513 


Symington, . 










144 


WiSTON, 
ROBERTON, . 










146,513 
148,513 





TABLE OF 


PAOE 


Carmichael, 




150,514 


Douglas, 




152 


Ckawfokd John, 




l(i(i 


Ceawfokd, 




163 


Wakdal, 




171 


Lamngton, . 




173 


CULTER, 




174 



DEANEEY OF PEEBLES. 



KlLBUCHO, . 










177,514 


Glenholm, . 










179 


Skirling, 










182 


KiKKURD, 










185,515 


West Linton, 










188,516 


Newlands, 










192,517 


Stobo, 










196,518 


Broughton, 










201 


Dawic, 










202 


Dedmmelzier, 










203 


TWEEDSJIUIR, 










205 


Ltne, 










207 


Eddleston, 










210,518 


Innerleithan, 










215,519 


Traquaiu, . 










218,519 


Meg get, 










222 


Kailzik, 










224, 520 


Peebles, 










227, 521 


Maner, 










238, 522 


Yarkow, 










248, 522 



THE CONTENTS. 



THE FOREST, 



PAGE 

2-11 



DEANERY OF PEEBLES (OR OF TEVIOTDALE.) 



Ettrick, 
Selkirk, 



259, 524 
267, 524 



DEANERY OF TEVIOTDALE. 



Rankilbden, 










264 


Galashiels, 








277, 525 


Melrose, 








279, 526 


BOAVDEN, 








287 


St. Boswell's or Lessddden 








290 


Longnewton, 








295, 526 


Maxton, 








297 


Ancrum, 










303, 526 


Lilliesleaf, 










306 


ASHKIRK, 










312 


Hassendean, 










316,526 


MlNTO, 










321,527 


Wilton, 










324 


ROBERTON, . 










326, 527 


Cavers, 










331,527 


KiRKTOWN, . 










337 


Haavick, 










338, 527 


Teviothead, 










346 


Bededle, 










347 


Abbotrdle, 










349 


HOBKIEK, 










351 


Castletown, 










353, 527 



TABLE OF THE CONTENTS. 



Ettlktown, 








PAOE 

363 


.SOUTHDEAN, 








364, 528 


Jedburgh, 








366, 528 


Crailing, 








387 


OXNAM, 








389 


HOWNAM, 








393 


ECKFORD, 








397 


JIOREBATl'LE, 








■102, 528 


Mow, 








413,528 


Yetholm, 








427 


Linton, 








431 


Sprouston, . 








436 


Lempitla-w, 








443 


Maxwell, . 








445 


Roxburgh, 








450, 529 



THE PREFACE. 



THE PREFACE. 



When this Work was first projected, nothing more was proposed than to 
collect the earliest mention of each parish church, the dedication to its patron 
saint, the nature and tenure of the benefice, and its value as found in the ancient 
church taxations ; the chapels, hospitals, and minor foundations within its 
territory. The recent printing of a great body of Chartularies — the registers 
and records of the ancient bishoprics and monasteries of Scotland — hitherto in- 
accessible, had induced the compiler to attempt a Parochial classification of the 
ecclesiastical antiquities and statistics which they contained. But in drawing 
from these sources, other matters often presented themselves of such utility 
and interest, that it was impossible to exclude them. There were proofs of the 
earliest settlements of laymen, instructive descriptions of old boundaries, traces 
of an aboriginal population disappearing, and of the rapid colonization of their 
supcessors, indications of the modes of living among all classes at a very early 
period. Such things could not be rejected in the account of a parish, and these, 
with notices of the descent of lands and fragments of territorial history, have 
extended the Work far beyond the original plan. But if this portion has 
thus swelled to an unexpected and perhaps inconvenient bulk, it must be re- 
membered that some of the parishes of the present volume were of peculiar 
interest, and all or nearly all were in districts much illustrated by the Chartu- 
laries of Glasgow and Paisley, and of the great Abbeys of Teviotdale. There 
is little room to apprehend such fulness of illustration for most of the other 
districts of Scotland. 



THE PREFACE. 



In a glance at the origin and history of our parochial sj'stem, it may be 
convenieut to use the term Parish as meaning a district appropriated to one 
baptismal church, though it was not employed in its present restricted sense in 
the early ages of the Church either among us or in the other countries of 
Christendom.^ 



1 Parish — parochia — va^omia, — meaning 
any district, was at first appropriated to 
the diocese of a bishop. In 1179 it is used as 
synonymous with diocesis, and applied to the 
Bishopric of Glasgow. {Regist. Glasff., pp. 43, 
50, 55.) In some instances it would seem to 
mean the jurisdiction rather than the district. 
KingWilliam the Lion in a charter to the monks 
of Kelso, speaks of the waste of Selekyrcke 
to which he had transferred his men of Eire- 
hope, as being ' of the parish of his vil of 
Selechirk.' {Liber de Calchou, p. 16.) But 
the term soon began in Scotland to be applied, 
though not technically and exclusively, to the 
baptismal church territory. In the middle of 
the 12th century Herbert bishop of Glasgow 
confirmed to the monks of Kelso the church of 
Molle, which Uctred the son of Liulf gave 
them, with the lands and parishes and all 
rights belonging to that church. {Liber de 
Calchou, p. 820.) Before the middle of the 
following century the parish of Molle seems to 
have been territorially defined, and in a con- 
troversy between Melrose and Kelso concern- 
ing it in 1269, the words parish and parish- 
ioners {parochia et parochiam) are used much 
in their present sense. {Ibid., p. 146.) In the 
year 1220 the churches belonging to the Abbey 
of Jedburgh are termed parishes {parochie), 
and the church of Jedburgh is styled parochi- 
alis ecclesia. {Regist. Glasg., p. 97-) Abbot 
Ailred in describing the successful preaching of 
Saint Ninian among the Picts of Galloway — 



the crowding to his baptism of ricli and poor, 
young and old, renouncing Satan and joining 
the army of the faithful — represents him as or- 
daining priests, consecrating bishops, and con- 
ferring the other dignities of ecclesiastical 
orders, and finally dividing the whole land into 
parishes — totam terram per certas parochias 
ditidere, {apud Pinkerton Vit. Sanct. Scot., p. 
11.) It is scarcely necessary to remark that 
Ailred in speaking of the acts of Saint Ninian 
uses the language of his own time. Indeed that 
life is of little value, written in rhetorical style, 
and bearing few marks of being compiled from 
ancient materials. Bede spe.aks more correctly, 
when he says of Saint Cedd that he erected 
churches in many places {fecit per loca eccle- 
sias), and ordained priests and deacons to 
assist him in preaching the faith and adminis- 
tering baptism. {Hist. Eccles., lib. iii., c. 22.) 
The word shire {schira, scyra) so common 
in our older church records, is often equivalent 
to parish, but sometimes applies to some 
other ' division ' of church territory which we 
cannot now define. The divisions of North 
Durham were Islandshire, Norliamshire, and 
Bedlingtonshire. In the Merse we had Colding- 
hamschire ; in Clydesdale, Machanshire, Kil- 
brideshire ; in Fife, the shires of Kilrimund 
(Saint Andrews) Forgrund, Futhrif, Karel, 
Kinnahin, Kennocher, Kinninmond, Kircala- 
dinit (Kirkaldy), Gelland, and Gateniilc ; 
in Aberdeen, Clatshire and the sliires of Tuly- 
nestyn, Kane, and Davyot. 



THE PREFACE. xxi 

Almost as early as we cau throw the faiut light of au imperfect history upon 
our country, a succession of zealous apostles of Christianity were spreading the 
faith over its remotest districts. Of those men only a few are now had in 
remembrance in Presbyterian Scotland ; yet while Ninian and his followers 
were preaching the gospel among the savage Galwegians, and building their 
white church over the waters of the Solway ; while the ' family ' of Columba 
were reclaiming the Pagans of the farthest Hebrides, and sending their Christian 
embassy and establishing their worship in Iceland ; while Palladius and his fol- 
lowers were planting churches in the northern mainland and the Orcades ; while 
Cuthbert was preaching to the shepherds of the Border mountains — others of less 
name along with them and following them, were spreading Christianity in every 
glen and bay where a congregation was to be gathered. This is not matter of 
inference or of speculation. It is proved beyond question by historians like Bedo 
and biographers like Adoranan ; and their narrative receives confirmation from 
the result of such preaching in the general conversion of the Pagan inhabitants, 
as well as from certain vestiges still to be traced of the individual preachcrs.i If 
a notable conversion was effected ; if the preacher had, or believed he had, some 
direct and sensible encouragement from Heaven, a chapel was the fitting memorial 
of the event. Wherever a hopeful congregation was assembled, a place of worship 
was required. When a saintly pastor died, his grateful flock dedicated a church 
to his memory. It was built, small perhaps and rude, of such matei'ials as were 

Plebania is a term which occurs more rarely kel in Aberdeenshire was of this class, and is iu 
in our church records. It expresses a wide named in the ancient charters. (Eeffist. Aberd.) 
district of a mother church, having subordinate ^ Bede describes the active zeal of the Scotch 
churches or chapelries within its territory. missionaries who converted Northumberland 
The church of a riebania will be found always and Lcthian. After relating how King Os- 
lo have been of very high and early sanctity, wald, who had lived long in Scotland, served 
and its priest or parson wielded generally some as interpreter to the Scotch Bishop Aedan 
authority approaching to that of a rural dean. preaching to the Saxons round Lindisfarne, 
Of this kind was Stobo with its four subordi- he continues — From that time many were daily 
nate parishes of Broughton, Dawic, Drummel- coming from Scotland to preach the word of faith 
yier, and Tweedsmuir, where the parson was and to baptize those believing, within the king- 
styled Dean, and was, it would seem, in very dom of Oswald. Churches were erected every- 
early times hereditary, like some of the beads where (per loco), the people flocked with joy 
of the regular convents. {^Begist. Glasg.) Kyn- to hear the word, &c. (Hist. Efcles.,lll.,c. 3.) 



THE PREFACE. 



most readily to be had. The name of the founder, the apostle of the village, 
attached to his church — to a fountain hallowed by his using it in his baptism — 
to some favourite haunt of his meditation or place of his preaching — to the fair 
of immemorial antiquity held there on his day — though forgotten by the descen- 
dants of those he baptized — ^often furnishes the most interesting and unsuspected 
corroboration of much of those church legends and traditions which, though 
alloyed with the fables of a simple age, do not merit the utter contempt they 
have met with.^ 



1 The Scotch hagiology abounds with per- 
sonal anecdotes of the early teachers of Christi- 
anity, many bearing sufficient impress of truth; 
and the country is full of tradition and of 
something like real evidence which joins on to 
those legends. The venerable Bede tells us 
that Saint Aedan the apostle of Northumbria 
' had a church and a chamber {ecdedam 
et cubiculum) near Baniborough, where he 
often dwelt for a time, and used to go out from 
thence in all directions around, preaching,' (III. 
17.) ' He used to travel everywhere, through 
the country and in the towns, not on horse- 
back, but unless when compelled, on foot,' (III. 
5.) A monk of Tynemouth, not intending to 
celebrate Saint Aedan, writes of him thus in- 
cidentally, — ' This most holy man was accus- 
tomed not only to teach the people committed 
to his charge in church, but also, feeling for 
the weakness of a new-born faith, to wander 
round the provinces, to go into the houses of 
the faithful, and to sow the seeds of God's 
word in their hearts according to the capacity 
of each.' (Vita Oswini, Surtees Soc, 1838.) 
Saint Cuthbert used the same practice in 
Lothian. ' He used to frequent most those 
places, to preach most in those villages which 
lay far in the high and rugged mountains, 
which others feared to visit, and which by 
tlioir poverty and barbarism repelled the ap- 



proach of teachers. Those he cultivated and 
instructed so industriously, and so earnestly 
bestowed himself on that pious labour, that he 
was often absent from his monastery (he was 
then Abbot of Melrose) for weeks, or even an 
entire month without returning ; and dwelling 
in the mountain countries, was continually 
calling the rude people to the things of Heaven, 
not less by his preaching than by his example 
of virtuous life.' {Hist. Eccles., IV., c. 27.) 

The church legend records how Saint Natha- 
lan averted a raging pestilence from his church 
of Buthelny by the fervency of his prayers. 
Long after the legend was banished from the 
popular mind, and the very name of Nathalan 
forgotten, the parishioners of Buthelny kept the 
eighth of January (Saint Nathalan's day) as a 
feast on which they did no work. The fairs of 
towns and country parishes were so invariably 
held on the day of the patron saint, that where 
the dedication is known, a reference to the saint's 
day in the Breviary serves to ascertain the day 
of the fair. The ' Summer-eve fair,' known by 
that strange and unmeaning name in several 
places of the North, is now traced through the 
Scotch Breviary, and by the help of Mr. Reeves 
and his Irish learning, to its origin in honour 
and memory of St. Malruba {Sai7U Mairune — 
Summareve), the monk of Bangor, who placed 
his Christian colony on the wild shore of Ap- 



THE PREFACE. 



Near each church so built, however small and however remote — -or conveni- 
ently neighbouring a group of churches — was established a band of relio-ious 
men, followers of their founder, for the service of God there.i That was perhaps 
more observed in Scotland than elsewhere, since Bede points to it as a peculiar 
custom of the Scots ; but if we reflect upon the object of the founders, and the 
circumstances in which they were placed, it would seem that some similar pla.n 
for continuing the rites and instruction of religion must have been adopted, where- 
ever missionaries of a new faith found proselytes. In many instances we find lands 
bestowed on the new ' family' or ' monastery,'^ but doubtless in the greater num- 
ber the servants of the Church lived on the voluntary offerings of their flock. 



plecross, and was had in reverence in Contin 
and Glen Urquhart. His festival in Scotland. 
was held on the 27th of August. In like man- 
ner, of old, the name of Saint Cuthbert was 
connected by some affectionate memorials with 
Melrose, Channelkirk, and Maxton, Saint Boisil 
with Lessudden, Saint Kentigern himself with 
Borthwick or Lochorwart, where he spent 
eight years of his ministry. 

The number of churches founded by one saint. 
Saint Columba, for instance, in Scotland proper. 
Saint Kentigern in Strathclyde and Lothian, is 
often wonderful and worth remarking, even by 
those who find it a duty to repudiate any feeling 
of gratitude to those first teachers of Christian- 
ity ; and it might help a very difficult historical 
question, to inquire of what country and what 
teaching were those saints whose names are still 
preserved in the dedications of our churches. 
The Irish are better known than those who 
came from our other Celtic cousins of Wales 
and Cornwall. Saint Fergus came from Ire- 
land, and at first lived a hermit life at Stro- 
geyth. He founded three churches there. 
He next preached and baptized to the faith 
in Caithness. From Caithness he sailed to 
the shores of Buchan, where he built a church 



still called by his name. Last of all, he came 
to Glammis in Angus, where he chose his place 
of rest. There he died and was buried. But 
his relics, after many years, were translated to 
the Abbey of Scone, where they did many fa- 
mous miracles. A fine spring rising from a rock 
below the church of Glammis is still known ;is 
Saint Fergus's well. There the first converts 
of Strathmore were baptized to Christianity. It 
would he curious to inquire why the Abbot of 
Scone (a singular instance) held a prebend in 
the cathedral church of Caithness. {Dunrobin 
Charters — Breviar. A herd. ) 

1 We have again the testimony of Bede for 
the fact that monasteries were founded for main- 
taining the new religion — ' Construebantur 
ergo ecclesias per loca, confluebant ad audien- 
dum Verbum populi gaudentes. Donabantur 
munere regio possessiones et territoria ad in- 
stituenda monasteria, imbuebantur a precep- 
toribus Scottis parvuli Angloruui una cum 
majoribus, studiis et observatione disciplina' 
regularis. Nam monachi erant niaxime qui ad 
predicanduni venerant : monachus ipse episcopus 
Aedan,utpote de insula quae vocaturllii.' (^Hist. 
Eccles., III., c. 3.) 

- There is no more instructive record for eccle- 



THE PREFACE. 



In tlie centuries of intestine wars and barbarian invasions that followed 
the first planting of Christianity in Scotland — in those ages of anarchy and 
confusion which have left a mere blank on that page of our history — many of 
these families of religious died out, many of their churches doubtless fell with- 
out record or remembrance. But many still lived in the memory or tradition of a 



siastical antiquities than the iii(|uisition regarding 
the possessions of tlie cliurcli of Glasgow, taken 
by the good men of the country in 1 1 1 G. Saint 
Kentigern was dead 500 years. The bishops, 
his successors, as well as the monasteries he had 
founded throughout his wide diocese, had died 
out in the storms of those centuries. During 
that period, or at least for the latter portion, it 
cannot be supposed that valuable possessions 
had been bestowed on a church so fallen. The 
property ascertained by the oaths of the inquest 
to belong to the church of Saint Kentigern, 
within the Scotch part of his diocese, must have 
consisted of donations to the first bishop and 
his early followers. The verdict of the inquest 
was not a mere idle tribute to the glory of 
Saint Kentigern. Possession followed upon it, 
anil numerous and powerful parties, holders of 
the lands, had an interest in testing its truth. 
For our present purpose, it is sufficient to ob- 
serve that the ancient possessions of the suc- 
cessors of Saint Kentigern consisted not of 
tithes, not of the dues of churches, but of broad 
lands and numerous manors, scattered over all 
the south of Scotland. There were churches 
too in that old rent-roll, though nothing ap- 
proaching to the parochial divisions. In Peebles 
the primeval See of Cumbria had ' a plough of 
land and the church (dedicated to Saint Kenti- 
gern).' In Traquair ' a plough of land and the 
church.' In Merebottle ' a plough of land and 
the church.' {Rcgkt. Glasf/., 1.) Were those 
ploughs of land the portions of old set apart 



for the service of those remote churches ? A 
half dauach seems to have been the accustomed 
measure of the kirk-land in the dioceses of 
Moray and Aberdeen. (^Regist. Morav., 83, 
85, &c.) 

A remarkable dovetailing of real or histori- 
cal evidence upon church tradition occurs in 
the property of Dunblane. Saint Blane, for a 
miraculous benefit conferred upon an English 
prince, received the lordships of Appleby, 
Troclynghani, Congere, and Malemath in Eng- 
land, {Brce. Aberdon. f. Ixxvii.,) and those 
manors remained the property of the See of 
Dunblane in the time of Fordun — a property 
it might be more easy to prove than to possess. 
{Scoiic/iron., lib. xi., c. 21.) 

In many cases, where the ancient monastery 
had disappeared before the period of our re- 
cords, traces of its former possessions are found 
in the lands named Abthania or Abthane so 
frequent in Angus and the neighbouring dis- 
tricts. Among the early gifts to the Abbey of 
Arbroath, King William granted ' the church 
of Saint Mary of Old Munros, with the land of 
that church which in Scotch is called Ahthen.' 
That Scotch word is translated in another 
charter, terra albacie de Munros. Malcolm 
Earl of Angus gave to Nicholas, son of the 
priest of Kerimure, the land of Abthein of 
Munifeith ; and the Countess Maud confirming 
that gift describes it as ' the land lying on the 
south of the church of Munifeith, which the Cul- 
dees had.' (i2«/is<. /liert., pref., p. xiv.) King 



THE PREFACE. xxv 

grateful people, and there still survived some of the religious houses — still stood 
a few of the old time-honoured churches of the earlier light, when the dawn of 
a second day rose upon Scotland.i 

Our imperfect acquaintance with the Christianizing of Scotland ceases with 
the seventh century. The three ages that follow are all darkness. The 
eleventh century is the renewal of light, and at the same time the era of a 
great revolution in society. The natives of our country were now all Christians. 
At least the old Pagan religion as a creed had disappeared, leaving some faint 
traces in popular rites and usages. Writing was coming into use, and lands began 
to be held by written tenures. But more important still, a new people was rapidly 
and steadily pouring over Scotland, apparently with the approbation of its 
rulers, and displacing or predominating over the native or old inhalntants. The 
marriage of ]\lalcolm Canmoir with the Saxon Princess ]\Iargaret has been 
commonly stated as the cause of that immigration of Southerns. But it had 
begun earlier, and many concurring causes determined at that time the stream 
of English colonization towards the Lowlands of Scotland. The character of the 
movement was peculiar. It was not the bursting forth of an overcrowded 

David I. granted to Matthew the Archdeacon tjuity ; Abernethy, with its hereditary lords ; 
of Saint Andrews, the Ahbacia of Rossin-cle- Scone, the place of coronation from time imuie- 
rach, in fee and heritage, to him and his heir, to morial ; Dunfermline, then dedicated to the 
be held as freely as any Abbacy in Scotland is Blessed Trinity and to no saint ; Culross, where 
held. (Begist. S. Andr., p. 200.) There can Saint Servan already led a monastic life when 
be no doubt that those were possessions of the infant Saint Kentigern and his mother were 
the primeval church, and one of them had washed ashore on the white sands of its bay. lu 
passed but lately from the hands of the abori- the north Monymusk, a bouse of Culdees, was 
ginal holders, the Culdees. another of those foundations of immemorial au- 
1 There is every reason to believe that most of tiquity. When the Bishopric of Aberdeen was 
the monasteries which were found subsisting in founded in the twelfth century, part of its en- 
Scotland whenDavid I. began hisChurch reform, dowments were 'the monastery of Cloveth,' 
were of that primeval foundation — the institu- and ' the monastery of Murtliillach, with its 
tions of the great preachers of the truth to whom five churches and the lands pertaining to them' 
Scotland owes its Christianity. Such probably • — {Reg'ist. Aberdon., p. 6) — all plainly the ves- 
were the monastery of Dunkeld, founded by Co- tiges of that monastic system which had sufficed, 
lumba, or his immediate followers, Dunblane, however imperfectly, to keep Christianity' alive 
Brechin, Saint Andrews, Saint Servan's of Loch- before a secular clergy was provided or the pa- 
leven, C'uldee houses of high and unknown anti- rochial system thought of. 



xxvi THE PREFACE. 

population, seeking wider room. The new colonists were what we should call 
' of the upper classes' — of Anglian families long settled in Northumbria, and 
Normans of the highest blood and names. They were men of the sword, 
above all servile and mechanical employment. They were fit for the society of 
a court, and many became the chosen companions of our Princes.^ The old 
native people gave way before them, or took service under the strong-handed 
strangers. The lands those EngUsh settlers acquired, they chose to hold in 
feudal manner and by written gift of the Sovereign ; and the little charter with 
the King's subscribing cross (+), or his seal attached, began to be considered 
necessary to constitute and prove their rights of property. Armed with it, and 
supported by the law, Norman knight and Saxon thegn set himself to civilize 
his new acquired property, settled his vil or his town,^ built himself a house of 
fence, distributed the lands among his own few followers and the nativi whom 
he found attached to the soil, either to be cultivated on his own account, or 
at a fixed ' form' on the risk of the tenant. 

Upon many of these manors still existed some of the old churches placed 
there as early as Christianity itself On some few of them remained also the 
family or small convent of rehgious originally founded and endowed for their 
service. As yet, it would seem, were no tithes paid — certainly no appropria- 
tion of ecclesiastical dues to any particular church. But through all Christen- 

1 The names of the witnesses to the charters Gordon, Hamilton, Lindsay, Maule, Maxwell, 
of David I. and his brothers would prove this Morevil, Moubray, De Quinci, Ruthven, Stew- 
without other evidence. It is astonishing with art, Sinclair, Somerville, Soulis, Valoines, 
what rapidity those southern colonists spread ^Vallace, and many other names, not less 
even to the far north. From Tweed and Sol- powerful, though less remembered, 
way to Sutherland, the whole arable land may ^ "We might expect the termination i-il, which 
be said to have been held by them. The great appears in Maccus's town of JMaxwell and a few 
old houses of Atbol, Lennox, and Stratherne, others, to be much more common, looking to 
were within the fastnesses of the Highlands. the great number of Norman settlers, whose 
Anwus soon came into the De Umphravils language must have been French. But the 
through marriage. But of the race of the Anglian tongue prevailed, and the villa Le- 
Endish colonists came Bruce, Balliol, Biset, vingi, villa Edulfi, villa Thancardi of the 
Berkeley, Colville, Cumin, Douglas, Dunbar— charters was translated and naturalized as Le- 
descended of Northumbrian princes, long them- vingston, Edulston, and Thancartun. 
selves princes in the Merse — Fleming, Fraser, 



THE PREFACE. xxvii 

dom the Church was then zealously inculcating the duty of giving tithes to the 
secular clergy. The new settlers in Scotland were of the progressive party 
friends to civilization and the Church. They liad found churches on their 
manors, or if not already there, had erected them. To each of these manorial 
churches the lord of the manor now made a grant of the tithes of his estate, 
and forthwith the manor tithed to its church became what we now call a 
parish.^ 

Thus constituted, the parish often still farther followed the fortunes of its 
parent manor. When a large manor was subsequently split into sevei-al lord- 



* Take as an instance, where we see the whole 
causes in operation, the parish of Ednam in 
the Merse. King Edgar, the eldest brother of 
David I., bestowed upon Thor, an Englishman, 
the land of Ednaham (the home on the rirer 
Eden) unsettled (desertam). Thor, who was 
called lonyus, was a tall man of his hands, and 
with the King's assistance, but by his own 
money, he cultivated and settled that desert. 
It became his manor, and there he erected a 
church, (ecclesiam a fundamentis fabricavi.) 
The King endowed the church with a plough- 
gate of land, and dedicated it to his honoured 
patron Saint Cuthbert. Besides the plough of 
land, the church of Ednam soon obtained the 
tithes and dues of the manor ; and then it 
became an object of desire to the monks of 
Durham. The kings of Scotland of that family 
were in an especial manner devoted to Saint 
Cuthbert, and nothing was to be refused that 
could obtain the donor a place in the Liber 
Vitm of the convent. Accordingly, Thor, for 
the weal of King Edgar's soul, and the souls 
of Edgar's parents and brothers and sisters, 
and for the redemption of his own beloved 
brother Lefwin, and for the weal of his own 
soul and body, gave to the monks of Saint 
Cuthbert of Durham the church of Ednaham 



and the ploughgate of land with which it was 
endowed by King Edgar. (Anderson's Diplom. 
Scotiw. Raines North Durham.) 

The formation of the parish of Melrose must 
have been subsequent to the removal of the 
Abbey from Old Melros to its present site. 
King David, at new founding the monastery, 
granted to the monks the lands of Jlelros, 
Eldune, Dernwic, Galtuneshalech, Galtune- 
side. King Malcolm added one stead in Cum- 
besley. King AVilliam, Alan the Steward, 
and the De Morevils gave Alewentshawis, 
Threpuude, Bleneslei, Milcheside, Solowles- 
felde, and part or the whole of Cumbesley, 
Biichelm, and AVitheley — which seem to in- 
clude all that formed the parish at the Refor- 
mation and now. The Abbey church served as 
tlie parish church. Here there was no rector 
and vicar, at first no landlord and tenant ; 
and, more remarkable still, no tithes. The 
monks were proprietors and cultivators, pa- 
rishioner and parson. 

King Alexander II. in granting to Jfelrose 
his 'whole waste' of Ettrick in 1235, makes 
no mention of a church. The monks must 
have built a church after receiving the lands, 
and, it would appear, that required no new 
charter. 



THE PREFACE. 



ships, it often became desirable that each shoulil have a separate church ;i some- 
times a lord of a castle within the parish wished to have an independent chapel 
in his own castle or near by.^ Sometimes a burgh grew up in the midst of a 
great ancient parish, and required a separate church and cemetery and inde- 
pendent parochial rights. It was in this manner that the parish of Edinburgh 



1 In the beginning of the 12th century Wice 
bestowed on the monks of Kelso the cliurch of 
his manor of Wicestun (Wiston), with its two 
chapels, namely, that of the ' town' of Robert 
brother of Lambin, and the chapel of the 
' town' of John stepson of Baldwin. A third 
chapel sprung up afterwards within the bounds 
of this manor of old Wice, which was situated 
on the land of Simon Loccard. In the next 
century all these chapels acquired independ- 
ence and parochial rights by steps, which may 
be easily traced, and from them have arisen 
the existing parishes of Eoberton, Crawford 
John, and Symington. 

In 1288 the Knights Templars obtained the 
privilege of an independent chapel for their 
lands in the parish of Culter on the banks of 
the Dee, chiefly on the ground that their 
people were separated from the parish church 
(the property of the monks of Kelso) by a 
great river without bridge, which they could 
rarely cross, and were thus deprived of the 
rites of the church to the great peril of their 
souls. {Begist. Aberd., p. 288.) The chapelry 
soon rose into a separate parish. 

The parish of Glenbuchat owes its erection 
to a tragical incident. Its separation from its 
parish church of Logy Mar, by high hills and 
streams subject to frequent floods, (propter 
pericula . . inundationihus aquaruin in- 
fra tcrram inhahitahilern in tnonte et deserto,) 
had long been felt a grievance. But at length, 
on an occasion when the people of the glen 



were crossing to celebrate Easter in the church 
of Logy, they were caught by a storm in which 
five or six persons perished. The bishop there- 
upon issued a commission for arranging the 
separation of Glenbuchat, and endowing a resi- 
dent chaplain. 

^ William de Moravia, in the beginning of the 
1 3th century, granted to the chapter of Moray 
the church of his manor of Artendol (Arndilly) 
with its tithes and dues ; but reserved the 
tithes of two dauachs next his castle of Bueh- 
arm, (namely, the dauachs of Bucharm and 
Athena,coT]i,/.Auc/ibcncart,) which he assigned 
for the support of a chaplain in his castle. 

A careful arrangement was made when Walter 
of Lindesei desired to have a chapel at Lam- 
berton. Arnold the Prior of Coldingham, to 
whom belonged the parish church, consented that 
he should have mass celebrated during his life, 
in the chapel which he had built in his court 
(curia) of Lamberton ; and Lindesei swore that 
the mother church should in nothing sufier 
thereby. It was provided that there should be 
no access to the chapel, but through the middle 
of his hall or chamber. The service was to be 
by the chaplain of the mother church whom he 
should deal with to celebrate there. There 
was to be no celebration of mass there on the 
five festivals of Christmas, the Purification, 
Pasch, Pentecost, and the feast of the dedica- 
tion of the church, that the oblations might 
not be withdrawn from the parish church. 
{Raines Nurth Durham, Append., p. 64'9.) 



THE PREFACE. xxix 

was carved out of the liCcart of Saint Cuthbert's, and Aberdeen out of tlie o-reat 
parish of Saint Machar. In such cases, the riglits of tlie mother church were 
first to be considered. By a transaction with the incumbent and the patron, 
sanctioned by the Ordinary, these might be acquired. But in many cases the 
new church was endowed separately, and the whole tithes, oblations, and dues 
of every sort which at first belonged to the mother church were reserved 
to her. In her alone was the right of baptism, of marriage, and of burial, 
and if the act was performed elsewhere, to her still belonged the valuable dues 
attending it.^ 

This goodly frame- work of a parochial secular establishment was shipwrecked 
when scarcely formed. Monachism was then in the ascendant in all Europe. 
The militia of the Papal power, the well disciplined bands of ' regulars,' were 
already fighting the battle of Roman supremacy everywhere, and each succeed- 



1 The clashing rights of the chapel and the 
parish church were very anxiously settled in a 
case regarding the chapel of the royal castle of 
Stirling, which was thought of such importance 
as to be decided in presence of the King, David 
I., his son Prince Henry, and their barons. 
The record bears that the King's barons all 
remembered that on the day on which King 
Alexander had made that chapel be dedicated, 
he granted to it the tithes of his demesnes in 
the soke of Stirling whether they should in- 
crease or decrease. Moreover they considered 
that the parish church of Eccles ought to have 
all the tithes paid by the llurdmeu and Bonds 
and Gresnien with the other dues which they 
owe to the church : and that whoever died, 
whether of the demesne lands, or of the pariah, 
their bodies should lie in the parish cemetery, 
witii such things as the dead ought to have 
with them to the church, unless by chance any 
of the burghers die there suddenly. . . And 
if the demesnes shall increase by grubbing out 
of wood or breaking up of land not tilled before. 



the chapel shall have the tithes. . . And if 
the number of men of the demesne increase, 
the tithes of them and of all who cultivate it 
shall go to the chapel, and the parish church 
shall have their bodies. And to all these men. 
whether of the demesne or of the parish, the 
parish church shall perform all the Christian 
rites, on account of the dignity of sepulture — 
(omnes rectitudines chrisiianitatis, propter 
sepulture dignitatem, faciei.) {^Rcgist. Dtm- 
ferm., p. 4.) It is remarkable that this pro- 
ceeding took place in the King's court, ajmd 
castcllum pueUarum, not in an ecclesiastical 
tribunal — the bishop of Saint Andrews and the 
abbot of Dunfermline being parties, the latter 
having right to the chapelry of the castle. 
The parish here called Eccles (ecclesia), and al.so 
known as Kirktoun, was the parish of Stirling, 
at that time comprehending besides the castle, 
the chapelries of Dunipace and liethbert, which 
were afterwards raised into independent 
churches. 



xxx THE PREFACE. 

ing year saw nev; orders of monks spreading over Eurojie, and drawing public 
synapathy by some new and more rigorous form of self-immolation. The 
passion or the policy of David I. for founding monasteries and renewing and 
re-endowing those that previously existed, was followed by his subjects with 
amazing zeal. The monastery perhaps was building on a spot endeared by the 
traditions of primeval sanctity. The new monks of the reformed rule of Saint 
Benedict or canons of Saint Austin, pushing aside the poor lapsarian Cuklees, 
won the veneration ofthe people by their virtues and their asceticism. The lord 
of the manor had fixed on the rising abbey for his own sepulture or had buried 
in it his eldest born. He was looking to obtain the benefit of being one day 
admitted as a brother to the spiritual benefits of the order. Every motive con- 
spired to excite his munificence. Lands were heaped upon the new foundation : 
timber from his forest, and all materials for its buildings ; rights of pasture, of 
fuel, of fishing, were bestowed with profusion.^ When these were exhausted, 
the parish church still remained. It was held by a brother, a son, or near kins- 
man. With the consent of the incumbent, the church and all its dues and 



1 Malcolm earl of Athol, for the souls' weal 
of the Kings his predecessors who rest there, 
granted to the monks of Dunfermlin the church 
of Molin and three ploughgates of land ; and 
in presence of the King, the Bishops, Abbots, 
Earls, and other good men of the kingdom, he 
and his countess Hextild 'rendered themselves 
to the church of Dunfermlin that when they 
died, they should be buried there.' (Riyisi. 
Dunferm., p. 147.) 

Before the middle of the 13th century, Dun- 
can earl of Mar gave the church of Logyroth- 
man to God and the church of Saint Mary, 
and the canons of Aberdeen, for the main- 
tenance of a chaplain, to celebrate for his soul 
in that church of Aberdeen, where he had 
vowed and bequeathed his body to be buried 
(ubi vovi et legavi corpus mcum sepelicndiiin) 
among the venerable fathers the bishops there 
buried. {Rcght. Aberd.,f. \G.) 



In the reign of William the Lion Robert de 
Kent gave a territory in Innerwic to the 
monks of Melros, adding this declaration — 
' and be it known I have made this gift to the 
church of Melros with myself {cum meipso), 
and the monks have granted me their cemetery 
and the service of a monk at my decease, and 
if I be free and have the will and the power, 
the monks shall receive me in their convent.' 
{Lih. dc Melros, p. 59.) 

Gilbert earl of Stratherne and his countess 
Matildis who founded the monastery in 1200, 
declared they so loved the place that they had 
chosen it as the place of burial for them and 
their successors, and had already buried there 
their first-born, for the repose of whose soul 
chiefly it was that they so bountifully endowed 
the monastery. At the same time they be- 
stowed five parish churches upon it. {Lib. 
Ins. 3Iisiar., pp. 3-.5.) 



THE PREFACE. xxxi 

pertinents were bestowed on the monastery and its patron saint for ever — reserv- 
ing only a pittance for a poor priest to serve the cure, or sometimes allowing the 
monks to serve it by one of their own brethren. In one reign, that of William 
the Lion, thirty-three parish churches were bestowed upon the new monastery 
of Arbroath, dedicated to the fashionable High Church saint, Thomas a Becket. 
The consequences of such a system were little thought of, and yet they 
might have been foreseen. The tithes and property which the Church had 
with much difficulty obtained for the support of a secular parish clergy were 
in a great measure swallowed up by the monks. The monasteries became, 
indeed, and continued for some ages, the centres and sources of religion and 
letters, the schools of civil life in a rough time, the teachers of industry and tlie 
arts of peace among men whose sloth used to be roused only by the sound of 
arms. But even the advantages conferred by them were of small account in 
contrast with the mischief of humbling the parish clergy. The little village 
church preserving the memory of some early teacher of the faith — with its modest 
parsonage where were wont to be found the consolations of religion, refuge and 
help for the needy, encouragement for all in the road to heaven — was left in 
the hands of a stipendiary vicar, an underling of the great monastery, ground 
down to the lowest stipend that would support life, whose little soul was buried 
in his cloister, or showed its living activity only in disputing about his need- 
ful support with his masters at the abbey, while his ' hungry sheep looked up 
and were not fed.' The Church which ignorantly or for its own purposes sanc- 
tioned that misappropriation, paid in time the full penalty. When tlie storm 
came, the secular clergy were degraded and powerless ; the regulars, eating the 
bread of the parish ministers, themselves idle or secularized, could not be 
defended.^ 

1 Churches were hekl by religious founda- the reign of Alexander I., before, also, any 

tions in Scotland before the reconstruction of certain record, Maldwin bishop of Saint An- 

the Church in the beginning of the 1 2th cen- drews had given to God and Saint Servan and 
tury, and even, as has been shown above, in - the Keledees of the isle of Lochleven the 

the earliest state of ecclesiastical polity which church of Marchinche : Bishop Tuadal ha<l be- 

we know of. Then, however, there were no stowed on them the church of Sconyn with all 

endowed seculars. The monks were parish liberty and honour ; and Bishop Modach the 

priests merely living in communion. Before church of Hurkenedorath on the same Kele- 



xxxii THE PREFACE. 

The chief sources from which a collection like the present must be compiled 
are the Chartularies or Registers of the muniments of the Religious Houses 
and Bishoprics. The Register of the Bishop was to be looked to for informa- 
tion regarding the property and rights of the secular churchmen, and for the 
ecclesiastical aflFairs of the whole diocese. But the monks had soon acquired 
such a number of parish churches^ — their transactions with neighbours involved 
the interests of so many more — above all, they were so careful recorders — that 
the Register of a great Abbey is generally the best guide to the parish anti- 
quities of its district. Of the Bishoprics of Scotland, only four have left extant 
chartularies. Those of the dioceses of Aberdeen, Glasgow, and Moray have been 
printed, and though the impression was limited, copies both of them and of the 
other printed chartularies are to be found in most public libraries. 

The printed Registers of the Religious Houses of Scotland, are those of 

The Abbey of Arbroath, of Tironensian Benedictines (one part). 

Balmerino, of Cistercian Benedictines. 

Dryburgh, of Premonstratensian Augustinians. 

Dunfermhne, of Benedictines. 

Glasgow, Collegiate Church of Saint ]\Iary and Saint Anne. 

Glasgow, Friars Preachers. 

Inchaifray, of Canons Regular. 

Holyrood, of Canons Regular. 

Kelso, of Tironensians. 

Lindores, of Tironensians. 

Melrose, of Cistercians. 

Neubotle, of Cistercians. 

North-Berwic, of Cistercian Nuns. 

Paisley, of Cluniac Benedictines. 

Saint Andrews, of Canons Regular, the Chapter of the Bishopric. 

Scone, of Canons Regular. 

dees eremites. All tbeir churches of old came ' churches in Galloway. Kiug "William granted 

from bishops. Laymen gave lands. {Regist. to Holyrood the churches or chapels in Gallow- 

fi. Andr., 116, 117.) ^ay, gue ad jus abbacie de HU Columchille 

Jn like manner, perhaps by a still earlier pertinent. (Charters of Holyrood, aX.) 
tenure, the monks of lona had right to four 

A 



THE PREFACE. xxsiii 

A great body of the charters and muniments of the Benedictine monastery 
of Coldingham, and among them tlie most ancient Scotch writings extant, have 
been printed by the Rev. James Raine in his History of North Durham, and in 
a vohune of ' The Priory of Coldingham.'^ 

Of chartularies hitherto unprinted the list is smaller ; 

The Register of the Bishopric of Brechin is far advanced at press, at the ex- 
pense of Mr. Chalmers of Auldbar, for the Bannatyne Club. 

A little Register is preserved at Aberdeen, of the charters of the ancient 
parish church of Saint Nicholas of Aberdeen. 

The second part of the Register of the Abbey of Arbroath is prepared for 
the press, but not yet printed. A number of royal charters have been found 
at Panmure, which will illustrate both this and the part already printed. 

The Register of the Priory of Beauly, of Benedictines of Vallis Caulium, the 
foundation of the old family of Lovat, is still hid in some northern charter-room. 
It has not been seen since the days of Sir George Mackenzie, who quoted its 
contents. Copies of a few of the Priory charters are preserved. 

Avery formal transumpt or copy under the Great Seal, of the charters of the 
Abbey of Canons Regular of Cambuskenneth, near Stirling, is preserved in the 
Advocates' Library. It was made in 1535 under the direction of Abbot Mylne, 
the first President of the Court of Session, to supply the defect of the original 
charters, almost destroyed by reason of the dampness of the place where the 
abbey stood. 

The Cistercian nuns of Coldstream had a careful Register of theii- muniments, 
executed in 1434. It is preserved in the British Museum." 

Crosregal, a house of Cluniac monks in Carrie, had a register of its charters, 
which was in the custody of the Earl of CassiHs when the learned Thomas Innes 
was in Scotland collecting materials for his historical essay published in ] 729.3 

The Cistercian Abbey of Coupar in Angus had a Register which was noted 
by Sir James Balfour, and quoted more lately by the more accurate Sir James 
Dalrymple at the beginning of the last century. It is not now known to exist. 
A fragment of an abridgment is at Panmure. 

' Surtees Society Volume, 1841. 2 H^rl. MSS. 6670, 4to, 55 leaves. 

3 MS. Note-Books in the possession of Mr. D. Laing. 



xxxiv THE PREFACE. 

A chartulary of the collegiate church of Crail is in the Advocates' Library. 

A Register of the collegiate chui'ch of Saint Giles of Ediubui'gh, erected in 
1466, is in the Library at Panimire. It had been partly prepared for the press. 

A chartulaiy of the Cistercian Abbey of Glenluce in Galloway was used by 
Thomas Innes.i If it still exist, its place of custody is not known. 

The Register of the Abbey of Canons Regular of Inchcolme is preserved in 
the library at Donybristle. 

Kilwinning in Cunuinghame, an Abbey of Tironensians, had a register which 
would be of great importance to Ayrshire history. It was quoted by Timothy 
Pont in the beginning of the I7th century, and was seen by Thomas Innes, 
' in the possession of the Earl of Eglinton,' ^ early in the last. It is probably 
still lying unknown at Eglinton. 

A small register of the charters of the Augustinian Canons of Saint Anthony 
of Leith is preserved in the Advocates' Library. 

A little chartulary of the Hospital of Soltra, founded for the relief of 
poor travellers on ' Soltra edge' at the head of the pass between Lothian and 
Lauderdale, is in the same Library. 

This great store of Church records is as yet little known. None of the 
Chartularies were printed when Chalmers was engaged on his Caledonia, and 
the imperfect copies of the MSS. which he procured often misled him. But 
the study of such records is still in its infancy among us, and unluckily the 
Scotch student of church antiquities, who has read only the writers of his own 
country, has much to unlearn before he can appreciate or admit the simple 
truth as it flows from charter and documentary evidence. 

One important document which has never been used at all, occurs in many 
of the chartularies. This is the ancient valuation of the churches and benefices 
of Scotland. It is found in whole or partially in the Registers of Saint Andrews. 
Dunfermline, Arbroath, Aberdeen, Moray ; and it may be proper to give some 
account of the appearance of that document in these different Registers. 

From the earliest time when the clergy could be considered a separate 
estate and with common interests, they required funds for general objects, and 

1 Thomas Innes' MS. notes. Earl of Eglinton's possession, and Father 

2 Pont describes the chartulary as in the Innes' MS. notes quote it — penes com. E(/Iint(in. 



THE PREFACE. xxxv 

it was necessary to ascertain the proportion of the common burdeii to be borne 
by each. From an early period also, Rome claimed some small tax from bene- 
ficed churchmen, and the Roman legates, when suffered to enter Scotland, ex- 
torted considerable sums as ' procurations.'^ On the other hand, the clergy 
as a body had often occasion to support a common cause at the Roman court, 
and it was not only for the expenses of their commissioners that money was 
required : the party pleading empty-handed at Rome was not found to be 
successful. In process of time, and as society advanced, and national taxes 
began to be levied, the clergy were not exempt.^ They were represented in 
the national council, and contributed their full share to the national expenses. 

On all accounts, therefore, a valuation of church li-\-ings was required, and a 
taxatio eccJesiastica existed at least as early as any extent or valuation of lay 
lands.^ It was known as the antiqua taxatio, and the clergy strenuously, 
though not always successfully, resisted all attempts to vary it according to the 
progressive value of livings. One instance of this is noted by our historians. 
The successive Popes, Innocent III., Honorius III., and Gregory IX., were 
zealous in preaching the sixth Ci'usade, and levied forces and money over all 
Europe. Scotland richer in soldiers than in gold, sent at first her share of cru- 
saders to the Holy Land. A subsequent demand in 1221, made by the Legate 
Cardinal Giles de Torres, produced a considerable sum of money from the clergy 
and laity ; and the Legate Otho was again successful in obtaining a large sum 
of money in 1239. Tlie Crusade failed, and the best blood of France and of 
all Europe was shed in Asia in vain. 

1 The legate Ottobon, afterwards Pope Ad- English captivity. The Cistercians bore their 

rian T., in 1266, claimed six marks from each share, but obtained the King's guarantee that it 

cathedral in Scotland, and the enormous sum should not prejudice their general right of ex- 

of four marks from each parish church for the emption from all taxation. (Xii. de. Me.lros, 

expense of his visitation. Those visitation dues p. 16. Diplom. Scotiw, Tp. 20.) 

of bishops and others were technically named ^ That it existed in the reign of "William 

' procurations.' the Lion is evident from the phrase apparently 

- The Cistercians pleaded an exemption, but applied to the tax for the King's ransom — 

in fact, paid under protest. Perhaps the ear- Geldum reg'mm quod communiter cajrietur de 

liest general tax sufficiently evidenced is that icrris et de eleemosynis per regnum Scotie. 

for the ransom of William the Lion from his {Regist. S. Andr., p. 212.) 



THE PREFACE. 



To promote the last Crusade greater exertions were made, and some of a 
nature ^Yhicll we should think not only objectionable, but little likely to be 
productive. In 1254 Innocent IV. granted to Henry III. of England, provided 
he should join the Crusade, a twentieth of the ecclesiastical revenues of Scotland 
during three j^ears, and the grant was subsequently extended. In 1268 Clement 
IV. renewed that grant and increased it to a tenth, but when Henry attempted 
to levy it, the Scotch clergy resisted and appealed to Rome. It is not pro- 
bable that Henry was successful in raising much of the tenth in Scotland, though 
the expedition of his gallant son to the Holy Land both supported his claim 
and rendered the supply more necessary. 

In 127.5 Benemund or Baianiund de Vicci, better known among us as Bagi- 
mond,^ came from Rome to collect the tenth of ecclesiastical benefices in Scot- 
land for the relief of the Holy Land. The English King's grant had by this 
time ceased, and Baiamund was evidently collecting for the Pope. The clergy 
of Scotland did not so much object to the imposition as to the mode of its col- 
lection, which here, however, affected the amount. They insisted for their 



1 Fordun calls him Magister Bajamondus. 
There is no greater reproach to our old Scotch 
writers of law and history than the blunders 
they have made about this man and his tax. 
Skene says ' the Pope in the time of James 
III. sent in this realm an cardinal and legate 
called Bagimont quha did niak ane taxation of 
all the rentalles of the benefices.' {De verb, s'lg- 
nif. voce Bagimont.) Bishop Lesly places him 
still lower, in the reign of James IV. Ilailes 
points out these gross blunders, and adds, — 
' This may serve as a sad specimen of the inat- 
tention and endless errors of our historians.' 
{Histor. Memorials, anno 1275.) But this is a 
fatal subject. The careful historian himself in 
the next sentence commits a strange error. 
Quoting a notice of one of the lost Scotch re- 
cords — a notice drawn up by an English clerk 
— he reads the words. Bulla Innocentii quinti 
tie concessione deciino! Papalis in regno Scotia- 



domino Kegi si toltierit tcrram sanctam adire 
— ' an offer to grant the papal tithe to Alex- 
ander III. King op Scots, providing he re- 
paired to the Holy Land.' {Ibid.) ButtiieKing 
to whom the offer was made was Edward I. — 
THE King of the scribe. 

Another writer, to be mentioned with all 
respect and honour, Mr. Raine, has fallen into 
some errors on this same subject. He mistakes 
the renewal by Pope Nicholas III. for the ori- 
ginal Bull of concession, though the latter is 
expressly referred to in it. He speaks of Scot- 
land as ' under the yoke of England' in 1279, 
&c. Moreover, the tax-roll which he gives, 
and which is so important for Scotch history, 
is not printed with the usual accuracy of the 
historian of Durham. {Priory of Coldingham. 
a Surtees volume, 1841. Pref., p. xi, and Ap- 
pend., p. cviii.) 



THE PREFACE. xxxvii 

ancient valuation as the approved rule of proportioning all Church levies, and 
they even sent the collector back to Rome to endeavour to obtain this change — 
' to entreat the Pope,' says Fordun, ' on behalf of the clergy of Scotland, that he 
would accept the ancient taxations of all their goods, counting seven years for 
six.'i Their appeal was unsuccessful. The Pope insisted on the tenth accord- 
ing to the true value — ve?'us valor — of the benefice ; but he probably found the 
collection troublesome or unproductive, for a year afterwards, he again made a 
grant of the Scotch tenth to Edward I. of England. That bull is not known to 
be extant ; but in a bull of confirmation granted in the second year of his 
papacy (1279), Nicholas narrates his previous grant to Edward of ' the tenth of 
church rents and incomes in the kingdoms of England and Scotland, and in 
Ireland and Wales, for the relief of the Holy Land,' and declares that the same 
shall be paid according to the true value — verus valor? Not only was that tax 
granted, but it was actually collected, at least in part ; for Mr. Raine has found 
in the Treasury at Durham, along with a most valuable ' taxa' of the Archdea- 
conry of Lothian, written in the beginning of the reign of Edward L, a receipt 
by the Prior of Coldingham, the deputy-collector of the tax, for the sum due 
by the Prior of Durham in respect of his income within that archdeaconry, 
dated in 1292,3 

The churchmen were careful of their old valuation. It is found recorded in 
the chartularies both of seculars and regulars, eacli preserving the diocese which 
interested its own body ; and, the parts thus saved, give us, beyond doubt, the 
state of church livings as in the beginning of the 13th century, and but little 
altered probably since the period which followed immediately on the great 
ecclesiastical revolution under David I. 

The ancient taxation of the churches of the bishopric of Saint Andrews, 
divided into its eight deaneries of Linlithgow, Lothian, Merse, Fothrif, Fife, 
Gowry, Angus, and Mearns, occurs in the registers of the priory of Saint 

1 Repedavit ad curiam Romaaam, domi- - The Bull is printed from the original in the 

nuni Papam pro clero Scotia; precatnrus ut Chapter House, Westminster, by Mr. Raine in 

antiquas taxationes omnium bonorum suorum the Surtees volume of Coldingham quoted 

acciperet, septem annis utique pro sex compu- above, Pref , p. xii. 

talis. {Scotichron., x. 35.) ^ In the volume quoted above. Pre!'., p. xii. 



xxxviii THE PREFACE. 

Andrews, of Arbroath, and of Dunfermline, in each in handwriting of the 13th 
century. 

The ancient taxation of the small diocese of Brechin is found in the Register 
of the monastery of Arbi-oath, which had large possessions and several churches 
in that bishopric. 

Tliat of Aberdeen, divided into its three ancient deaneries of Mar, Buchan, 
and Gariauch, in the Register of xirbroath, in a hand of the 13th century ; and 
in the Register of the bishopric of Aberdeen, in writing of the 1 5th century, 
divided into the five deaneries of Mar, Buchan, Boyn, Gariauch, and Aberdeen. 

The taxation of the churches of the bishopric of Moray, under its four 
deaneries of Elgin, Inverness, Strathspey, and Strathbolgy, occurs only in the 
Register of the diocese, in a hand of the latter half of the 13th century. After 
the summation of the value of the churches of each deanery, there follows a 
calculation of the tenth payable out of it.^ 

It will be seen that this record gives us a foundation of parochial statistics 
for all the eastern side of Scotland, from the Border to the Moray Firth. The 
western, central, and northern districts unfortunately want that guide."^ 

We may regard the valuation of the Archdeaconry of Lothian, as preserved 
among the Prior of Coldingham's accounts at Durham, as the oldest fragment 
of the taxation, according to the verus valor, inflicted on the Scotch clergy by 
Baiamund in 1275. The sum of the valuation of that Archdeaconry, according 
to the Antiqua Taxatio, was £2,864, a tenth of which is £286. The tenth, 
according to the Durham Roll, or verus valor, is £420. 

The new census, professing to estimate the real value, was necessarily 
fluctuating. Unfortunately, we have no early copies of it, except the tax-roll 
of Lothian preserved at Durham. Long known and hated among us as ' Bagi- 
mont's Roll,' only one copy, a late and bad one, has been noticed by our old 
lawyers, and it has suflered greatly in subsequent transcription.^ In the shape 

1 Thus, at the foot of the column of the the dioceses of Glasgow, Galloway, Dunblane, 

Deanery of Elgin — Summa, J.338, 16s. Duiikeld, Argyll, Isles, Eoss, Caithness, 

Decima inde, £dS, IGs. {Eiyisf. 3Iorav., p. Orkney. 
SC}2.) ^ Ilabakkuk Bisset, who has preserved it, 

- There is no Antiqua Taxatio yet found of assures us that the extract ' was fund be the 



THE PREFACE. xxxix 

which it uow bears, Baiamuud's Roll can be evidence for nothing earlier than 
the reign of James V. It taxes collegiate churches, all late foundations, among 
parish churches,^ though they had no parochial district ; and it omits all livings 
below 40 marks. The rectories in the hands of religious houses are not taxed 
specifically, but vicarages held separately, and exceeding that value are given. 
This Roll, as we now have it, may be considered as giving imperfectly the 
state of the church livings of Scotland in the reign of James V. 

As a subsidiary source of information, other valuations have been used in 
the present work. One of these is from a volume of Taxations of Scotch bene- 
fices above the value of forty pounds a year, calculated in proportion to the sum 
to be raised by the clergy. These are all plainly of the IGth century, and the 
latest in the volume is for an assessment of £2500, leviable for the expenses of 
the deputies to the Council of Trent, 1546.- This Taxation seems to run upon 
a value taken generally but not invariably about one-sixth lower than Baiamund's 
Roll. 

The next document of this class which has been used is entitled ' Libellus 
Taxationum sen contributionum spiritualitatis concessarum s. d. u. Regi per pre- 
lates et clericos Regni Scotie.' We have this valuation only in a late copy,^ and 
it is not easy to fix the date of the original, which, however, is very little ante- 
rior to the era of the Reformation. It includes the dioceses of Saint Andrews, 
Glasgow, Dunkeld, Dunblane, Galloway, Aberdeen, Moray, Ross, Brechin, 

proviuciall of the qubyte or carmelat frieris of - The volume, written in a hand of the 

AberJene, called dene Johnne Christisone, the period, is in the General Register House, titled 

principall provynciall of the said freiris and of on the back Taxatio Seculi XVI. The title of 

Scotland for the tyme, and wes dowbled or CO- each taxation usually runs — Taxatio super 

pied be ane chaiplane of Auld Aberdene, called Integra Scoticana ecclesia tara super prelaturis 

Doctoure Roust.' {See Regiat. Glamj., Pref., p. quam aliis iiiinoribus beneficiis ad valorem an- 

Ixii.) Bisset was servitor or clerk to Sir John nuum sumrae quadraginta librarum vel supra, 

Skene, the first editor of our ancient laws. It ad rationem millium librarum usualis 

is now impossible to say whether Bisset or Doc- monete Scotie. Of these there are five, cal- 

tor Roust, or even some previous transcriber, culated for raising £8000 — £13,000 — £5000 

should bear the blame of the inaccuracies with — £.3000, and the sum mentioned in the text. 

which this only copy abounds. 3 ]yjg_ Advocates' Library, (.Jac. V. 5, 

1 Among the collegiate churches entered in T,) 31, 2. .). The hand is of the 17th cen- 

Baiamund is Craill, a foundation of 1517- tury. 



xl THE PREFACE. 

Caithness, Argyll, the Isles, and Orkney. Notwithstanding its title, this record 
gives the value of the livings, not the sums assessed. The copy is very faulty.^ 

When all these means of ascertaining the early value of a church living have 
failed, it has been necessary to have recourse to the records made up at and 
after the Reformation. The Act 1561, which appropriated one-third of the 
revenues of ecclesiastical benefices to the maintenance of the reformed clergy 
and the purposes of government, required that the rental of all benefices should 
be produced by the holders. Some of the rentals so produced are still preserved, 
but far the greater number have been lost, after however serving their purpose 
in furnishing materials for the record known as ' the Book of Assumption of 
thirds of benefices.' ^ 

These, with occasional reference to the ' Register of Ministers and their 
stipends sen the yeir of God 1567,'^ and the fine record of the ' Book of As- 
signations' of stipends preserved in the General Register House, are all the re- 
cords that have been generally used in this work. Charters in private hands 
are alwa3's indicated with reference to their place of custody. 

It is not necessary to deprecate criticism in a work like the present. A fair 
and honest criticism, a noting of omissions and correction of errors, will much bene- 
fit the future portions of the collection. But when any reader feels disposed to 
judge it severely, and to argue from its imperfections that the whole work is care- 
less and inaccurate, he will do well to consider the nature of this undertaking. 
It is the first efibrt in a new field of labour, the first attempt to bring clear and 
methodical information out of a vast mass of records, hitherto unused, shut up 
partly in manuscript, and all in an obsolete and to the common reader un- 
intelligible language. That which has in other countries been considered 
the foundation of local statistics has been hitherto neglected in Scotland. If 
this collection in any measure supplies that defect, it will not be severely 
judged by the student who has experienced its want. One other consideration 

I It wriets E.inkilbon for Rankilburn — Fur- The .small remain.s of the original rentals from 

rester for Fore.sta — Hume for Hunum — Her- which it was framed, are in the Advocates' 

furd for Hecfurd, &c. Library. {Jac. V. 6. 20.) 

- This record is preserved partly in the Re- ^ In the General Register House — and 

gister House, partly in the Panniure Library. printed, Edinburgh 1830, 4to. 



THE PREFACE. xli 

may be offered. Nothing is asserted without adducing the proof or authority. 
If the deduction is wrong, at least the reference must be useful to correct it. 
The list of authorities on the margin of each parish will show at once the 
sources of information used and enable the consulter of the book, who has a 
more minute local knowledge, to supplj^ any that have been overlooked. No 
industry or labour has been spared intentionally. And yet, to the compiler, 
having set up a standard of strict evidence and absolute accuracy, the imperfec- 
tions appear but too glaring. It must be his consolation that he who has tried 
the labour, he who is most able to judge it, will be the least likely to be severe 
in criticising an attempt like the present. 

A {)leasanter duty remains in acknowledging the services of the gentlemen 
who have successively assisted the compiler, and borne the burden of the work. 

The Rev. Mr. W. Anderson, formerly minister of Banchory Tcrnan, prepared 
the outline of the whole contents of the present volume. He had worked out 
also a considerable portion of the details when his health obliged him to leave 
Scotland. Mr. Anderson's taste for statistics and his appreciation of the proper 
objects of interest in a work like the present, rendered his services peculiarly 
valuable, and encreased the regret for his severe illness. 

Mr. Joseph Robertson executed a portion of the work, about the middle of 
the present volume. His learning and previous charter study qualified him 
perhaps beyond any other person in Scotland for such an undertaking, but 
others had discovered his accomplishments, and he was not suffered long to 
bestow them upon a work of more labour than honour or reward. 

Since Mr. Robertson was withdrawn, his duty devolved on Mr. James E. 
Brichau, who has done the laborious pai-t of the latter half of the volume, with 
the assistance latterly of Mr. J. M'Nab. To both these gentlemen, to Mr. Brichau 
especially, it may be permitted the Editor to express his thanks for the courage 
with wliich they faced a huge array of very formidable looking books and re- 
cords, their ready adaptation of old learning to new studies, and the conscien- 
tious zeal with which they have discharged duties in a great part of which they 
were left much to their own guidance. 

The engraver has brouglit his skill to bear upon the map with an attention 
and careful accuracy which could only be produced by the interest he feels in 

/ 



xlii THE PREFACE. 

the work, but which uot the less entitle him to the best thauks of the Editor. 
The part of the map to accompany each volume will be thrown oif in lithography, 
but the whole is engraved ou copper, and a complete impression from the 
copper itself will be added to the work when finished. 

The next volume is intended to embrace tlie Northern Dioceses of Scotland. 

C. INNES. 



Edinbukgh, 
December ti, 1S50. 



ORIGIJ^ES 



PAROCHIALES SCOTIA 



ORIGINES PAROCHIALES SCOTIJ:. 



THE CITY AND BARONY PARISHES OF GLASGOW. 

Glasgu' — Glasgow. (Map I. No. 1.) 

This uaine appears in the earliest authentic record which we now have regarding tlie place, the 
Inquisition of David I. while prince of Cumbria; but traditions of an older appellation may be 
traced. Jocelin of Furnes mentions " Cathures " as now called "Glasghu," and also says, that St. 
Kentigern's cathedral see was in the vill.age " Deschu," which meant " cara familia," and was the 
same as Glasgow.^ 

The ancient parish of Glasgow comprehended all the city churches and districts, with the Barony 
parish, but it did not include the Gorbals. 

Of the foundation of a Christian settlement and a church at Glasgow by Saint Kentigern, or 
Mungo, in the middle of the sixth century, there is no reason to doubt. But of the subsequent 
government and even of the continued existence of St. Kentigern's establishment, we have no cer- 
tain evidence, till the period of the Inquest directed by David prince of Cumberland in 1116. That 
deed establishes equally the current tradition of the ancient history of the bishoprick and the exist- 
ence of the church at that time, and would seem to presume its possession of the adjacent territory, 
(known in later times by the name of St. Mango's Freedom,^) since it does not enumerate it among 
the other possessions belonging to the see.* 

The 7th day of July 1 136, is the date of the consecration of the Cathedral church of Glasgow, The Church. 
built by John the first bishop after the restoration of the bishoprick by King David I.^ It was 

' So named in lllf). Regist. Glasg., p. 5. * Regist. Glasg. pref. See also Introductory Notice of 

- Vita Kentigerni, Vita; SS. Scotia, pp. 219-223. tlie Diocese. 

■' Regist. Glasg., p. 370. ^ Cbron. de Mailros ; Chron. S. Crucis. 

VOL. r. A 



ORIGINES 



b 



Rectory and 
Vicar 4GE. 



rebuilt by his successor Herbert, and re-consecrated in 1197 by Jocelin, with two assisting bishops.' 
Bishop Bondington, who died in 1258, is said to have completed the cathedral as planned by Herbert 
and Jocelin. Bishop Robert Wishart had obtained timber from King Edward I. for making a 
steeple, but used it for constructing engines against that king's castles. The steeple was built of stone, 
as it now stands, by Bishop Lauder, who died in 1425. He added the battlements to the tower, 
built previously, and made the crypt under the chapter-house. Bishop Cameron, who died in 1447, 
built the chapter-house. The crypt of an intended southern transept, the beautiful rood-loft and deco- 
rated stairs were the work of Bishop Blacader, who died in 1 508. The cathedral was never completed. 

The " Parish of Glasgow, with its whole rights, liberties, and tithes," was appointed by Bishop 
John to form one of the prebends of the cathedral, in augmentation of which. Bishop Herbert be- 
stowed a plough of land near Renfrew.^ The rector of Glasgow was the bishop's vicar in the choir. 
The vicarage of the parish of Glasgow was also erected into a prebend before 1401, under the name 
of " Glasgow secundo."^ The patronage of both rectory and vicarage belonged to the bishop. 

The rectory is valued at £226, 13s. 4d. expressed by the tithe, £26, 13s. 4d. in Baiaraond's roll, 
and at the same sum in the " Libellus taxationum spiritualitatis concessarum Regi." At the Re- 
formation it was valued at £60, 4s. 8d. ; 32 ch. 8 b. meal ; 9 oh. 3 b. bear ; 3 barrels herring, and 
10 merks money.'' The vicarage is valued at £66, 6s. 8d. in Baiamond ; at 80 merks in the Libellus 
Taxationum, and the same in a MS. of the Assumptions, 1561, where it is noted that " the special 
rental of the vicarage consists in corps presents, umest claiths, teind lint and hemp, teinds of the 
yairds of Glasgow, a third pairt of the boats that arrives to the brig, Paschmes teinds of the 
browsters, and the oblations at Pasche." It was leased for 103 merks.^ 

In 1459 the sacrist had special charge of keeping in repair the furniture and ornaments of only 
the High Altar, and those of the Holy Cross, St. Catharine, St. Martin, and St. Mary the Virgin 
in the lower church ;8 but there were numerous altars in the church, most of which had permanent 
endowments for chaplains or for the maintenance of lights. Some of them follow : 

The High Altar had a chaplainry endowed by William the Lion with 100s. from the revenues 
of the sheriffdom of Lanark.^ On the 2d August 1301, Edward I. offered at this altar an obla- 
tion of seven shillings. He repeated his offering next day, and offered also seven shillings on 
that day, and on the third September, at the shrine of St. Kentigern.** 

St. Kentigern's Altar near his tomb in the lower church, received in 1400 an annual rent to 
maintain the lights before it,^ and in 1507 Archbishop Robert founded a chaplainry at it, which 
he endowed with part of the rents of Craigrossy.i" Before the year 1233, William Cumyn, earl 
of Buchan, gave a stone of wax yearly for the lights at a mass to be said daily at the altar of the 
tomb of St. Kentigern.il In 1475 James III. confirmed an ancient grant of three stones of wax 
from the lordshij) of Bothwell, half of which he directed to be used for the lights above the tomb 



Regist. Glasg., p. 611. 
Regist. Glasg., p. 26. 
Regist. Glasg., p. 299. 
Books of Assumption. 
Books of Assumption. 
Regist. Glasg., p. 411. 



^ Regist. Glasg., p. 211. 
^ Regist. Glasg., p. 621, 
9 Regist. Glasg., p. 412. 

'» Regist. Glasg., p. 519. 

" Regist. Glasg., p. 101. 



GLASGOW.] PAROCHIALES. 3 

of St. Kentlgern.i The " Tumba Sancti Kentigerni " was endowed also with certain roods of land 
on the confines of the city.^ 

Another Altar to St. Kentigern was founded on the south side of the nave of the church, by 
Walter Steward, knight, and endowed for a chaplain, in 1506, by his son, Andrew, Archdeacon 
of Galloway.-' 

An Altar dedicated to the Virgin stood in the crypt, or lower church, and another at the en- 
trance of the choir ; besides an image of " St. Mary of Consolation," at or near the Altar of St. 
John the Baptist, in the nave. 

Robert, a burgess of Glasgow, and Elizabeth, his wife, gave, before 1290, a tenement for the 
augmentation of the light of St. Mary the Virgin's Altar in " le crudes," or crypt.-* In 1460, an 
annual of 12d. was given from a tenement " in vice fullonum," or walcargate, (now the Saltmarket,) 
by David Hynde, burgess, for the sustentation of the lights of St. Blary and St. Kentigern in the 
lower church.5 In 1507, Archbishop Robert founded three perpetual chaplainries from the rents 
of the lands of Craigrossy, one of which was for the service of the glorious Virgin JIary of Conso- 
lation. He also gave one merk annually for the reparation of the ornaments of the Altar of St. 
Mary of Pity, at the south entrance of the choir, at which he had before founded a perpetual 
chaplainry.^ 

St. Servan's Altar was rebuilt in 1440 by David de Cadyhow, who gave an annual of £10 to 
the vicars of the choir and their successors, for the celebration of a daily mass there.' 

vSt. Mauchan's or St. Machan's Altar was placed on the north side of the nave, at the third 
pillar from the rood-loft, (ad tertiam columnam a solio crucifixi) and had been constructed of 
hewn and poli-shed stone (sectis et politis lapidibus) by Patrick Leche, who, in 1458, endowed 
it for a perpetual chaplain with rents from tenements in Glasgow, and gave the patronage to the 
community and burgesses.* 

St. John the Baptist, St. Blasins the Martyr, and St. Cuthbert the Confessor, bad each an altar 
in the nave of the church, which had been founded and endowed for perpetual chaplains before 
1467, by the dean, subdean, treasurer, and others. Their emoluments arose from certain lands, 
tenements, and annual-rents within the city and territory of Glasgow, then confirmed by Andrew 
the Bishop.9 

In 1494, Archibald Quhitelaw, subdean of Glasgow and archdeacon of St. Andrews, founded a 
chaplainry at the altar of St. John the Baptist from several tenements, lands, and rents lying in 
the city.i" 

The Altar to St. John the Baptist and St. Nicolas, situated in the south aisle of the church, at 
the first pillar from the rood-loft, was endowed for a perpetual chaplain in 1524, with lands, tene- 
ments, and annual-rents, by Roland Blacadyr, the subdean. ^^ 

' Regiat. Glasg., p. 417. " Regist. Glasg., p. 364. 

- Lib. CoUeg. N.D. Glasg., pp. 47, 87, 112. » Regist. Glasg., p. 392. 

^ Kegist. Glasg., p. 517. ' Regist. Glasg., p. 414. 

■■ Regist. Glasg., p. 298. '" Regist. Glasg., p. 487. 

' Regist. Glasg., p. 412. " Regist. Glasg., p. 537. 

^ Regist. Glasg., pp. 505-519. 



4 ORIGINES [GLASGOW. 

James Douglas of Achinchassil founded a chaplainry at St. Cuthbert's Altar, on the south side 
of the nave, with annual-rents from tenements in the burghs of Glasgow and Linlithgow. It 
was confirmed by Bishop Andrew in 1472.1 

The Altar of All Saints was on the north side of the nave, at the fifth pillar from the rood- 
loft. It was endowed in 1495 for support of a chaplain by David Cuninghame, Archdeacon of 
Argyle and Provost of the collegiate church of Hamilton, with tenements in the burgh of 
Dumbarton.- 

Tlie Aisle (or Chapel) of St. Blichael the Archangel was behind the great south door of the church 
towards the west. In 1478, Gilbert Rerik, Archdeacon of Glasgow, founded a chaplainry at its 
altar from tenements in the burgh, and provided that on St. Michael's day the chaplain, after 
divine service, should distribute, in presence of the people, " among 30 poor and miserable persons, 
of his own selection, 20s. in food anddrink."^ 

The Altar of St. Stephen and St. Lawrence, the Jlartyxs, was situated behind the great altar, 
and was endowed in 1486 for the sustentation of a chaplain, by James Lindsay, dean of Glasgow, 
with half of the lands of Scroggs, in the barony of Stobo, an annual of ten merks from St. Gelis- 
grange, Edinburgh, and with other rents.'' 

The Altar of Corpus Christi in the nave, or ambulatorium, at the fourth pillar from the rood- 
loft, was constructed with hewn and polished stones, by Robert, canon and prebendary of Glas- 
gow. It was endowed by him iu 1487 for a chaplain, whose revenues arose from annual-rents and 
tenements in the city.^ 

The Altar of St. JCicholas in the lower church of Glasgow, was endowed in 1488, by Michael 
Fleming, a canon, with a revenue of 5 merks, 4s. 8d., as half a chaplainry. He gave also 20s. for 
an obit to be performed by the vicars.^ 

The Altar of St. James the Apostle was situated in the choir, between the altar of St. Stephen 
and St. Lawrence on the south, and the altar of St. Martin on the north. It was endowed with 
rents from tenements by Martin Wan, chancellor of the diocese, in 1496.^ 

The Altar of the Holy Cross received an endowment for a chaplain in 1 497, from Malcolm 
Durans, prebendary of Govan.* 

The Altar of St. Peter and St. Paul was situated in the lower church, between the altar of St. 
Nicolas on the north, and the altar of St. Andrew on the south. It was endowed for a perpetual 
chaplain by Thomas Forsith, prebendary of Logy in the cathedral of Ross, in 1498.^ 

The Altar of the Name of Jesus was on the north side of the entrance of the church. It was 
founded and endowed for a perpetual chaplain by Archbishop Robert, from a part of the rental of 
Craigrossy, in 1503.1" 

The Altar of St. Thomas of Canterbury, archbishop and martyr, was founded by Adam Col- 

,st. Glasg.,p. 419. <^ Regist. Glasg., p. 463. 

ist. Glasg., p. i9l. ' Regist. Glasg., p. 493. 

St. Glasg., p. 437. ^ Regist. Glasg., p. 49.5. 

!St. Glasg., p. 450. ^ Regist. Glasg., p. 500. 

St. Glasg., p. 452. '" Regist. Glasg., pp. 504-519. 



GLASGOW.] PAROCHIALES. 5 

quhoun, canon of Glasgow and rector of Stobo, who died in the beginning of the year 1542. It 
stood in the nave of the church, and was endowed from hinds in the neighbourhood of the city.i 

There was also an Altar dedicated to St. Andrew ; an Altar (in the nave) dedicated to St. 
Christopher ; an Altar of " the Holy Blude ;" and a Chapel called the Darnley Chapel.^ 

Besides those required for the service of these altars and chapels, other chaplains were endowed 
in the cathedral for general or special purposes, whose ministrations do not seem to have been 
confined to particular altars. At least ten such chaplainries occur in the records of this church, 
one of which was founded by Robert II., while Steward of Scotland, as the price of the papal dis- 
pensation for his marriage with Elizabeth More.^ Numerous anniversaries or obits were celebrated, 
chiefly by the choral vicars, for benefactors and persons who founded and endowed them. 

The maintenance of the lights for the general services of the cathedral, was provided for by gifts 

from Walter Fitz-Alan before 1165, William the Lion, 11G5-89, Robert de Lundoniis, 1175-99, 

and several others. In 1481, John the bishop gave six stones of wax yearly, to be used in 

candles, in brazen sconces between the pillars, all round from the high altar to the entrance of the 

choir.* 

It would seem that in 1170 there were churches or chapels in the villages of Shedinston, now Otheu 

. Ecclesiastical 

Sbettilston, and Conclud (afterwards called Kyucleith) ; but there are no traces of them m the Foundations. 

subsequent records of the diocese. A place marked on old maps as Chapelhill, to the eastward of 

the city, m.ay perhaps indicate the site of a chapel connected with the prebend of Barlanark. But 

the greater number of dependent churches, chapels, and religious houses of this parish were within 

the city. 

The chapel of St. Slary the Virgin, or Our Lady chapel, was situated on the north .side of St. 
Thenaw's gate, not far from the market cross. It is ascertained to have been built before 1293,* 
and was in ruins in the beginning of the sixteenth century.^ 

St. Thomas' chapel in St. Thenaw's gate, not far from St. Thenaw's chapel, was dedicated to St. 
Thomas of Canterbury, archbishop and martyr. In 1320, Sir Walter Fitz-Gilbert, the progenitor 
of the Hamiltons, bequeathed a suit of vestments to the cathedral church of Glasgow, under the 
condition that they might be borrowed, if need were, four times every year, for the service of St. 
Mary's chapel at Machan (Dalserf,) and twice yearly for the use of the chapel of St. Thomas the 
martyr at Glasgow.^ This chapel was in existence in 1505.* 

The chapel of St. Thenaw, matron, the mother of St. Kentigern, was situated near the church 
now called corruptly St. Enoch's, at the western extremity of St. Thenaw's gate. It is mentioned 
as early as 1426. King James III., in confirming an ancient grant of wax to the cathedral of 
Glasgow, directed that one half stone of it should be given for the lights at the tomb of St. 
Thenaw, " in the chapel where her bones lie," near the city of Glasgow.'' There was a cemetery 
beside the chapel, and a spring which is still called St. Thenaw's well. 

' Lib.ColI.N.D.GIasg.,pp.25,26,110,lll,113,xx\iii. '• Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., pp. 87, 117, 244. 

- Books of Assumption ; Lib. Coll. N.D. Glasg. ' Regist. Glasg., pp. 227, 228. 

^ Regist. Glasg., p. 273. " ' Lib. Colleg. N.U. Glasg., p. 258. 

■• Regist. Gla.sg., p. 444. '■> Regist. Glasg., pp. 426, 497. 

* Regist. Glasg., p. 210. 



6 ORIGINES [GLASGOW. 

The chapel of St. Mungo without the walls, called also little St. Mungo's kirk, was built and 
endowed, in the year 1500, by David Cuninghame, archdeacon of Argyle and provost of the 
collegiate church of Hamilton.^ It stood on tte Dow-hill on the north side of the Gallowgate, 
on the eastern bank of the Molendinar, immediately without the Port. Certain trees which 
grew there, were called St. Mungo's trees ; a well beside it had the name of St. Mungo's well ; 
and a way which led to it still retains the name of St. Mungo's road. It was surrounded by a 
church-yard . 

The chapel of St. Roche the confessor, was situated on the common moor on the north side of 
the city, near the place now corruptly called St. Rollox. It was founded about 150S by 
Thomas Mureheid, canon of Glasgow and prebendary of Stobo. The patronage of the priest 
or chaplain was vested in the bailies and council of the city, with whose consent the benefice 
was, about 1530, incorporated with the college church of St. Mary and St. Anne; the chaplain 
being constituted a canon of that church, but under provision that he should twice every week 
say mass and other offices in St. Roche's chapel, for the soul of its founder.^ There was a cemetery 
attached to it. 

A Convent of Dominicans, or Friars Preachers, pojiularly known as the Black Friars, was 
founded by the bishop and chapter on the east side of the High Street, on or near the site of 
the present College Kirk. Their church, which was dedicated to the blessed Virgin and St. John 
the Evangelist, was begun to be built before 1246, when Pope Innocent IV. issued a bull of forty 
days' indulgence to all the faithful who should contribute to its completion. It was surrounded by 
a cemetery. The adjoining " place," or convent of the friars, ^'as large and richly endowed. 
When King Edward I. of England remained at Glasgow for a fortnight in the autumn of 1301, 
he was lodged at the Friars Preachers. The chief benefactors of the house were Bishop William of 
Bondington, who died in 1258, King Alexander III. in 1252, Bishop Robert Wischard in 1304, 
Guyllascop Maclaehlan in 1314, King Robert I. in 1315, John of Govan, burgess of Glasgow, 
about 1325, Sir Alan of Cathcart of that Ilk in 1336, Sir John Stewart of Darnley in 1419, Sir 
Duncan Campbell of Lochaw in 1429-1451, Sir William Forfare, prior of Blantyre, in 1430, 
Alan Stewart of Darnley in 1433, Alexander of Conyngham, lord of Kilmawrys, in 1450, Isabell, 
duchess of Albany and countess of Lennox, in 1451, David Caidyoch, cantor of Glasgow, in 1454, 
John Steuart, the first provost of the city of Glasgow, in 1454, Mathew Stewart, laird of Castle- 
milk, in 1473, Colin Campbell of Ormadale in 1474, Colin, earl of Argyle, in 1481, William 
Stewart, canon of Glasgow, prebendary of Killern and rector of Glasfurde, in 1487, Sir James 
Hamilton of Finnart about 1530, and King James V. in the year 1540.^ 

The Church and " Place" of the Franciscan, Minor, or Grey Friars, were situated in an alley 
on the west side of the High Street, a little above the College. They are said to have been founded 
in 1476 by Bishop John Laing and Thomas Forsyth, rector of Glasgow.^ No records are pre- 
served of the foundation ; nor of its property, which, as the brethren followed the strict or reformed 

' Regist. Glasg., pp. 501, 502. ^ Munim. Frat. Predic. tie Glasg., ap. Lib. Coll. N.D. 

- Lib. C'oUeg. N.U. Glasg.,p. 32; Chart, in Archiv. Civit. Glasg. 
Glasg. * Spotiswood. 



GLASGOW.] PAEOCHIALES. 7 

rule of the order, was probably very small. Jeremy Russel, a friar of this house, was burned for 
heresy in 1559. 

St. Nicholas' Hospital or Alms-house, near the bishop's castle and palace, is commonly said to 
have been founded by Bishop Andrew Mureheid, l-i5o-1473. It was endowed with lands, houses, 
and annuities within the city and its territory. In 14.76 it is called "Hospitals pauperum ;" 
in 1487 " Hospitale Glasguense;" and in 1507 it is styled " Hospitale Sancti Nieholai."' In the 
years 1528 and 1550, it is spoken of as consisting of two houses or chambers, " Paupercs Hospitalis 
Sancti Nicholai de utraque domo ;" and " Pauperes Hospitalis Sancti Nicholai de domibus anteriori 
et posteriori."^ This may perhaps have happened by its union in some way with the following. 

About 1503, Eoland Blacadyr, the subdean, founded an hospital for the poor and indigent 
casually coming to the city of Glasgow, " prope Stahyllfjreyn" the master of which was 
appointed by him to be also chaplain of the altar to St. John and St. Nicholas, which he had 
founded and endowed in the cathedral.^ Ho directed that six beds should be furnished and kept 
in readiness for receiving the poor, and made several minute and curious regulations for the 
management of the house.^ 

The same ecclesiastic bequeathed a hundred pounds for the erection of an hospital beside the col- 
legiate church of St. Mary and St. Anne ; but it does not appear that the bequest was carried into 
effect.* 

The Collegiate Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. Anne (sometimes called Our Lady 
College and the New College,) was situated on the south side of St. Thenaw's-gate, now known 
by the name of the Tron-gate. It was founded about the year 1530 by James Houston, subdean 
of Glasgow, for a provost, archpriest, sacristan, master of a song school, five other prebendaries, 
and three choristers. Subsequently, other three prebends were added, — one by Nicholas Wither- 
spoune, vicar of Strathaven, the remaining two by Sir Martyn Reid, chaplain of the altar of St. 
Christopher in the cathedral church of Glasgow. The patronage of the provostry was vested in 
tiie abbot and convent of Kilwinning ; that of the archpriest and sacrist, in the prioress and convent 
of North Berwick ; of the other canons, in the bailies and council of the city of Glasgow. The 
endowments of the College were from the fruits of the parish churches of Dairy, in the deanery of 
Kyle and Cunningham, and of JIayljoill, in the deanery of Carrick, and from lands, tenements, 
and annuities in the city of Glasgow and its neighbourhood. There was a cemetery beside the 
church ; and a song school stood on its west side.^ 

A Dominican Nunnery, dedicated to St. Catherine of Sienna, was proposed to be erected near tiie 
chapel of St. Thenaw about 1510. Three hundred pounds were bequeathed for the purpose by Roland 
Blacadyr, subdean of Glasgow, but no steps were ever taken to carry his bequest into execution. 

There seem to have been grammar schools, or pedagogia, in Glasgow in early times.' In Sep- 
tember 1 -494, the chancellor of the diocese brought a complaint before the bishop against David 

' Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., pp. 200, 254, 250. ^ Lib. CoUeg. N.D. Glasg., p. Ixxii. 

2 Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., pp. 51, lx.\iu. « Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg. 

' Regist. Glasg., pp. 537, 338. ' Regist. Glasg., p. 457. 
* Regist. Glasg., p. 539. 



8 ORIGINES [GLASGOW. 

Dun, a priest of the diocese, for openly and publicly teaching scholars in grammar, and children 
in the rudiments of learning, without the allowance of the chancellor, alleging that, by statute 
and immemorial usage, he and his predecessors had the right of appointing and deposing the 
master of the grammar school, of taking the charge and government thereof, and of licensing or 
prohibiting all teachers of youth, whether in public or in private, within the citv.^ 

Nearly half a century earlier, Pope Nicolas V. had issued a bull, (7th of January 1450-41,) for 
the erection of a " studium generale " or university, in Glasgow, " as well in theology and in the 
canon and civil law as in arts and all other lawful foculties." He was prompted, as in similar cases, 
chiefly by the bishop of the diocese, William TurnbuU ; but the Pope professes to proceed on the desire 
of King James (II.), and the great fitness of the city for producing the seeds and growth of learning, 
not only for the advantage of the kingdom of Scotland but of the neighbouring nations, " on 
account of the healthiness of its climate, the plenty of victuals, and of every thing necessary for 
the use of man ; — 'that there the catholic faith may abound, the simple be instructed, justice taught, 
reason flourish, and the minds and understandings of men be enlightened and enlarged." He ordained 
that the doctors, masters, lecturers and students, should enjoy all privileges, liberties, honours, ex- 
emptions and freedoms granted by the apostolic see, or otherwise, to the university of the city of 
Bologna : — that William, bishop of Glasgow, and his successors, should be the chancellors, and 
should have the same power and authority over the doctors, masters, scholars and others, as the 
rectors of the schools in the University of Bologna ; and that those who deserve to obtain a diploma 
and liberty of teaching in that faculty in which they have studied ; and those who apply for 
the degree of master or doctor, should have the same adjudged to them by the doctors and 
masters of the faculty in which they shall have been examined, and the degree conferred by the 
Bishop of Glasgow, after convocation of the doctors and masters there lecturing ; they being first 
carefully examined by himself and others, according to the use and wont in other universities ; 
and that those who have been so examined and approved of, and have obtained in such manner 
the licence of teaching and the aforesaid honour, should have thenceforth a full and free power of 
directing and instructing, as well in that city as in every other university." ^ 

On the 20th of April 1453, James III. by his royal letters, " took under his firm peace, pro- 
tection and safeguard, all and every the rector, deans of faculty, procurators of nations, regents, 
masters and scholars in the aforesaid university, and exempted them, together with the beadles, 
writers, stationers, parchment-makers and students, from all tributes, services, exactions, taxations, 
collections, watchings, wardings, and all dues whatsoever, imposed within the kingdom, or to be 
imposed."-' 

On the 1st of December of the same year. Bishop TurnbuU granted and confirmed to the Uni- 
versity the following privileges : — (1,) That they should have the liberty of buying and also of 
selling whatever property of their own they may have brought with them, not for the purpose of 
merchandise, within the city of Glasgow and the bounds of the regality, and of exercising this 
liberty, especially in all kinds of victuals and clothing, free of all customs and control; (2,) That 

' Regist. Gla^K., p. 490. = Regist. Glasg., p. 397. 

- Regist. Olasg., pp. 385, 337. 



GLASGOW.] PAROCHIALES. 9 

the rector might bring before the provost or bailies any one complained of for transgressing the assize 
of bread, ale, and the prices of eatables, according to the laws and customs of the burghs, and might 
require him, on his conviction before witnesses, to be sufficiently corrected and punished; which if 
the said provost or bailies should omit for eight lawful days thereafter, then the power of punish- 
ment should devolve upon the rector ; and that if any dispute should arise between them, its deci- 
sion should be referred to the bishop ; (3,) That the rector of the University should have the juris- 
diction and correction of all civil and pecuniary causes, and of minor offences, brawls and contro- 
versies which might arise among the members of the University themselves, or between them and 
the citizens or the other inhabitants, and of hearing and deciding on them summarily, unless it shall 
appear to him expedient to act otherwise ; but higher injuries and more important causes were 
to be reserved for the hearing of the bishop; (4,) That the regents, students and officers of 
the University should have the power of prosecuting the foresaid actions before the lord rector, or 
before the bishop, or his official, as they should think fit, and that any considering himself injured 
by the lord rector should have the power of appeal to the bishop ; (5,) That " hospitia," or inns, 
and a house in the city should be assigned to them, at a rent to be fixed by them and an equal 
number of citizens, chosen and sworn for the purpose, from which they should not be removed so 
long as they made payment and behaved themselves well therein ; (6,) That beneficed persons 
within the diocese, acting as regents or students, or who incline to study, so long as they are docile 
and have a license from the bishop, shall not be obliged to residence within their benefices, pro- 
vided they cause divine services to be properly performed during their absence ; and that, in the 
meantime, they should enjoy the fruits of their benefices; (7,) That the beadles, mace-bearers, 
with other servants and dependents of the University, should also possess the whole of the above- 
mentioned privileges; (8,) That the provost and bailies of the city should, each year on their 
election, swear to observe, and to the utmost of their power cause to be observed, these statutes, 
liberties, and privileges ; and, (9,) That the members of the University should be exempted from 
all tributes, exactions, vexations, capitations, watchings, wardings, collections, and other personal 
services whatever, performed now or in time coming within the city.i 

On the 6th of June 1459, James Lord Hamilton granted to Mr. Duncan Bunch, principal regent 
of the faculty of arts in the studium of Glasgow, and to the future regents of the same, a tene- 
ment lying in the " street leading down from the cathedral to the market-cross, near the place of the 
Dominican friars," together with four acres of land on the Dove hill, contiguous to the Molendinar 
l)urn, for the use of the said Mr. Duncan and all present and future students in the faculty of arts ; 
under provision that they should each day, according to a form prescribed, pray for his own soul 
and that of Euphemia his wife. Countess of Douglas and Lady of Bothwell ; and that if a chapel 
or oratory should be built in the college, the regents and students should also there convene, and 
on their bended knees sing an Ave to the Virgin, with a collect and memoria for himself and 
his wife. 

It does not appear that the University possessed any property or endowments before this time, 

' Regist. Glasg., p. 397-99. 



10 OEIGINES [GLASGOW. 

though it would seem they had a house called a " pcdagogiuni" which they may have relinquished 
for the tenement now given them. Mention is made in the year 1524, of " a tenement and place, 
in the Ratoun Raw, called ' The Aulde Pedagoge ;"'i a name which it seems to have received so 
early as the year 1478.^ 

In 1461, Bishop Andrew, in renewing and defining some of their former privileges, granted to 
the rector the first place after himself in sessions, processions, and other solemn acts, before all the 
prelates of the diocese.^ 

In 1462, (2d March,) David de Cadiou, canon of Glasgow and rector of the University, assigned 
annually, 12 merks from certain lands and tenements in the burgh, to endow a clerk in the 
faculty of the sacred canons, who should read in the public schools within the city in the 
morning, as is customary in other universities, and who should celebrate daily mass at the 
altar of the Virgin in the lower church of the cathedral, for the donor, his parents, friends, 
and benefactors. He also appointed the rector for the time and his four deputies to be the patrons 
of his gift.-i 

On the 10th of December 1472, James III. confirmed the charter of his predecessor, and granted 
a precept under the great seal for the preservation of the privileges of the University.^ 

On the 7th of June 1509, James IV. granted an exemption from all taxes and impositions to 
" all continuale regents and students and dayly officiaris " in his university of Glasgow.^ 

On the 24th of May 1522, "the congregation general of the university" having met in the 
chapter-house of the cathedral, James Stewart, provost of the College church of Dunbar being 
rector, had a letter read in their hearing, from James V. during his minority, containing a like 
exemption ; but on the 8th of February 1558, Queen Mary, although she had fully confirmed 
their privileges in 1547, exonerated from a tax of £10,000, then laid on the kingdom, only Mr. 
John Colquhone parson of Stobo, the rector, Mr. John Layng parson of Luss, the dean of faculty, 
and Mr. John Houstone vicar of Glasgow, the regent in the pedagoge, by name : and thence- 
forward, the students and daily officers seem to have lost the privilege of exemption from taxes. 
Similar letters were granted on the 15th June 1556 and 14th March 1567.'' 

On the 24th of January 1557, Archbishop James gave in augmentation to the " pedagogue or 
University of Glasgow, and to the masters and regents in it for the time," the perpetual vicarage 
of Colmonel, with all its fruits and ecclesiastical emoluments. 

13th July 1563, Queen Mary made an endowment for five poor children bursars within the 
college of Glasgow : " Off the quhilk college ane parte of the scoles and chalmeris being biggit, 
the rest thairof, alsweill dwellingis as provisioun for the poore bursours and maisteris to teache, 
ceassit, swa that the samyne appearis rather to be the decay of ane universitie, nor ony wayis to 
be reknit ane establischit fundatioun." She gave them " the manss and kirk rowme " of the 
Dominican Friars within the city ; 1 3 acres of land lying in the neighbourhood ; 1 merks annually, 

' Lib. CoUeg. N.D. Clasg., p. 261. ^ Documents, Univer. Com. Glasg. Append., p. 233. 

- Regist. Glasg., pp. 437-8. " Documents, Univer. Com. Glasg. Append., p. 233. 

^ Documents, Univer. Com. Glasg. Append., p. 231. ' Documents, Univer. Com. Glasg. Append., pp. 235-37. 
* Documents, Univer. Com. Glasg. Append., p. 232. 



GLASGOW.] PAROCHIALES. 11 

which the said Friars were wont to receive from certain tenements within the town ; 20 marks of 
annual rent from the nether town of Hamilton; 10 bolls of meal from certain lands within the 
bounds of Lennox ; and 1 merks yearly from the lands and lordship of Avendaill.i 

In 1569, (17th October,) Mr. Andrew Hay, parson of Renfrew and rector of the University, 
gave to Mr. John Davidson in name and behalf of the said university, " for the sustentatiuune of 
bursaris within the samen, the chaiplanry of St. Michaell, sumtyme situate within the metropo- 
litaue kirk of Glasgu, be vraquhill Maister Johne Restoune funditor thairof, now vacand be deceiss 
of Maister Dauid Gibsoun last chaiplaue."^ 

The 8th of January 1572, another foundation of the college was made by the town, which was 

confirmed by Act of Parliament upon the 26th of the same month. But on the 13th July 1577, 

James A''!, issued a new erection or foundation, which, while it more amply endowed the University, 

changed in several respects its original constitution and character.'' 

It is probable that the original limits of the parish were confined to the village and manor of Pahochiai. 

. Territorv. 

Glasgow proper, and that the several adjacent properties were afterwards included in the parish, 

according as they were added to the possessions of the see. Several of these belonged to 
it at the time of Prince David's Inquisition, (1116.) Conclut may be identified with the 
place afterwards called Kincleith. Pathelenerhc is evidently Barlannarc or Buthlornoc, after- 
wards associated, if not identical, with Provan. Villa filie Sadin, Schedinestun, (Inienchedin, 
Mineschadin,) now Shettleston, said to have been so called from a daughter of St. Patrick's brother, 
but more probably from some Saxon colonist, is enumerated among the bishop's possessions in 
1170. Other portions of the district, such as "Newton, Crag, Dalmurnech," &c., are mentioned 
in 1174-1186; but whether they were not in some instances subdivisions of original possessions, 
or in others, new names for properties otherwise formerly designated, is difficult to determine with 
certainty. When James II., in 1449, erected the whole into a regality, he designated it as " the 
city and barony of Glasgow and the lands called Bishop-forest." These lay in the north of the 
parish.* 

Barlannarc or Provan was given before 1172 by Bishop Herbert, in augmentation of the pre- 
bend of Cadiho or Hamilton. The lands were then designated " Barlannerc cum Budiornac," and 
were confirmed to the see by Pope Urban III. in 1186.^ Before 1322, Barlanark, (probably 
including also Budiornac,) had been erected into a prebendary by itself; and on the 12th May of 
that year, Robert I., in favour of Johu Wischard the canon who held this prebend, conferred on 
Barlanark the privileges of free warren.^ The holder of this prebend seems soon after to have been 
styled Lord of Provan. About 1480, the Bishop of Glasgow sought to render it mensal to himself, 
but in 1487 renounced the bulls which he had obtained for that purpose at Rome.' When James 
IV. became a canon of the cathedral, he is said to have been prebendary of Barlannerc and Lord 
of Provan. It is taxed, with the other prebends, for the ornaments of the church and for the 

' Documents, Univer. Com. Glasg., Append., p. 237. ' Regist. Glasg., pp. 26, 55. 

- Regist. Glasg., p. 584. ' Regist. Glasg., p. 234. 

^ App. Doc. Univ. Com. Glasg., pp. 237-39. ' Regist. Glasg., p. 456. 
* Regist. Glasg., pp. 7, 23, 30, 43, 55. 



12 ORIGINES [GLASGOW. 

salaries of the ticars ministering in the choir. It also appears in Baiamond's tax-roll ; in the tax 
of the sixteenth century ; and in the " Libellus taxationum," where its rectoria or parsonage tithes 
are alluded to, and made to contribute, as was customary, along with those of parishes ; but no 
mention is ever made of its church. There may indeed have been a chapel within its territory, 
but it must have been altogether of a dependent nature. On the dissolution of the bishopric, the 
lands came into the possession of James Hamilton of Silverston hill, who sold them before 1669 to 
the city of Glasgow. They are particularly enumerated in the Act of Parliament which then 
ratified and confirmed the charters and privileges of the city, and seem to have lain mostly on the 
west of the town.i 

The ancient surface of the parish, unless near the river, was, with a very few exceptions, a forest 
of wood and bush land.- Many of the ancient names indicate this ; and, perhaps, the legend which 
represents St. Kentigern as " miraculously compelling the wolf of the woods to join with the deer 
of the hills in labouring in the yoke of his plough," may preserve a memorial of the fact that these 
animals abounded there.^ 
City and Glasgow had been a village of some note since St. Kentigern's age ; and in the earliest records, 
(1175-.99,) which we have of the tenure of property, it seems to have been managed like other 
Saxon villages. The bishop's men were either "natives" and serfs, or they were burgesses, free 
tenants, and vassals. In 1174-89, William the Lion gave to Jocelin the bishop and his successors, 
Gilleraachoy de Conglud, with his children and all his descendants, — ("cum liberis suis et tota 
ejus secta que de ratione eum sequi debuerit.")'* In 1175-99, Raan Corbeht, Master of the 
Temple in Scotland, gave to his man, William Gley of Glasgow, for a reddendo of 1 2 pence, a 
plenary toft which Jocelin the bishop had given to himself in the burgh of Glasgow, and which 
was the same as Gillel. had held before it had been his, together with a net's fishing in the 
Clyde, given him also by the bishop, and with all the common easements of the territory. 
Alexander II. granted in 1235 to the bishop's men, natives and serfs, (nativi et servi,) freedom 
from toll, as well in burghs as without, for their own chattels and what they bought for their 
proper use.^ 

The burgh of Glasgow rose by gradual and well-marked steps out of the Episcopal village and 
city which, from the earliest period, surrounded the cathedral. About 1175, King William the 
Lion granted to God and St. Kentigern, and to Bishop Jocelin and his successors, that they should 
have a burgh at Glasgow with a Thursday market, and with all liberties and customs of one of the 
king's burghs ;" and the same king granted to the bishop a right of fair there annually for eight 
days following the octaves of St. Peter and St. Paul, (6 July,) and gave his " firm peace" to all 
attending it.' Bishop Jocelin, who had formerly been Abbot of Melros, granted to his old abbey 
a toft in the burgh of Glasgow, " namely, that toft which Ranulph de Hadintun built in the first 
building of the burgh,"** expressions which seem to mark tliat the town was at least extended by 

' Acta Pari., Vol. 7, p. 647. ' Regist. Glasg., p. 143. 

= Regist. Glasg., pp. 234, &c. ^ Regist. Glasg., p. 36. 

i de Scot. Fortitud., pp. 81, 82. ' Regist. Glasg., pp. 38, 112. 



* Regist. Glasg., pp. 32, 33. ' Lib. Melr., pp. 36-38. 



GLASGOW.] PAEOCHIALES. 13 

new buildings about the time of receiving the royal privileges. AVe next find the bishop's burgh 
resisting the claims of the more ancient and royal burgh of Rutherglen, which King Alexander II. 
declared should not levy toll or custom " within the town of Glasgow," but only at the cross of 
Schedenestun (now Shettleston,) as they used formerly to be levied.^ The same king, after erect- 
ing Dumbarton into a royal burgh, by a charter in 1242 preserved to the bishop's burgesses and 
men of Glasgow the rights of trade and merchandise through Argyll and Lennox, which they had 
anciently enjoyed.- At a later period, some encroachments of Renfrew and Rutherglen produced 
an order from King -lames II. (1449,) " That nane of yhour said burrows na nane vtheris cum 
wythin the barony of Glasgw na within ony laudis pertenand to Sant Blnngois Fredome to tak to! 
or custum be waiter or land."^ In 1450, the bishop's city and territory were erected into a 
regality ;* and the burgh, hitherto a burgh of barony, thus rose one step in dignity and privilege. 
The bishop was permitted to appoint a sergeant, for making arrestments and executing the edicts 
of his court, who was to bear a silver staff, having the royal arms blazoned on tiie upper end and 
the arms of the bishop on the other.s The increased consequence of the magistrates is immediately 
apparent. An indenture between them and the Friars Preachers, dated in 1 454, runs in the name 
of " an honorabyll mane, -Johne Steuart, the first pro vest that was in the cite of Glasgw."'' 
Whether as a burgh of barony or a burgh of regality, the appointment of magistrates was in the 
bishop ; and one instance is recorded, in the year 1 55.3, when on the Tuesday next after the feast 
of St. Michael the Archangel, when the new bailies are wont to be elected, an honourable man 
Andrew Hamyltoun of Cochnocht, provost, and the whole council, in the inner flower-garden 
beside the palace, where the archbishop was engaged in conversation with several of the canons of 
the chapter, presented to his lordship a schedule of paper with the names of certain of the most 
worthy and substantial men of the city, from whom the archbishop selected the bailies for the fol- 
lowing year.' In 1561, the council, first protesting that search had been made in vain for the 
archbishop, (who had withdrawn on the breaking out of the Reformation,) proceeded to elect their 
magistrates themselves. Glasgow sent representatives to Parliament in 1546 ; but it was only in 
1636 that a charter of Charles I., ratified in Parliament, declared the burgh duties payable directly 
to the Crown. The protestant archbishops, from time to time, and also the family of Lennox, as 
heritable bailies of the regality, long claimed the right of nominating the magistrates, and even in 
1655, Esme Duke of Lennox was served heir to his father in " the title of nomination and election 
of the proveist, baillies, and uther magistrates and ofiicers of the burgh and city of Glasgow."*' In 
1690, Parliament ratified a charter of AVilliam and Mary, giving the city of Glasgow and town- 
council, power and privilege to choose their own magistrates, as freely as Edinburgh or any other 
royal burgh. 

The more ancient city of Glasgow consisted of the cluster of residences collected round the cathe- 
dral and bishop's castle, extending westward for some way along the Rotten Row, eastward along 

' Regist. Glasg., p. 114. = Regist. Glasg., p. 432. 

- Regist. Glasg., p. 148. « Lib. CoUeg. N.D. Glasg., pp. 17fi-78. 

3 Regist. Glasg., pp. 369, 370. ' Regist. Glasg., p. 580. 

' Regist. Glasg., pp. 375-77. ° Inquis. Rctor. Lanark, No. 259. 



14 



ORIGINES 



[GLASGOW. 



the Drygate,' and down tlie steep part of the High Street.^ When the bishop acquired for his city 
the privileges of burghal trade, the Cross was placed on the more convenient plain ground, mid- 
way between the city and the river port. The way connecting the upper city with the Market- 
cross was gradually built upon, and preserved the name of the Great or High Street.^ From the 
Cross, three other streets branched out: — (1.) A continuation of the High Street, leading to the South 
Port or Nether Barras Yett, bore the name of the Walcargate* (superseded about the middle of tlie 
seventeenth century by that of the Saltmarket;) while a farther prolongation of the same road 
leading from the Port to the river,^ came, after the erection of the bridge over the Clyde, about 
the middle of the fourteenth century, to be called The Briggate. Another street in the same 
neighbourhood, if, indeed, it is not to be identified with The Briggate, was designated The Fischer- 
gate,^ probably from the occupation of the persons who dwelt in it ; and a third, apparently of more 
modern date, had the appellation of the StokweU.^ (2.) Westward from the Market-cross stretched 
a road called St. Thenaw's Gate,* spanned not quite half-way between the Cross and St. Thenaw's 
Chapel, by a gate called the West Port.^ The portion of this street lying within the Port, took, 
about the middle of the sixteenth century, the name of the Trongatej^" the outer portion, about 
two centuries afterwards, received the appellation of Argyll Street. (.3.) From the Market-cross 
eastwards extended the Gallowgate,'! intersected by the Molendinar burn, and crossed near its 
eastern extremity by the East Port. A road which led from the Gallowgate to the Chapel of St. 
Mungo without the walls was thence called St. Mango's gate.'^ 

Besides the Ports which have been enumerated (namely, the South Port, or Nether Barras Yett ; 
the West or St. Thenaw's, afterwards called the Stokwell Port ; and the East or Gallowgate Port,) 
mention is made of the Subdean's Port, between the Gyrthburne and the Drygate, in the year 
1410 ;!' and notices of other ports, some of which may however, perhaps, be identified with the 
above, occur at later periods. The walls of the city are often spoken of in descriptions of property 



' " Inter le Gyrthburne et vicum qui dicitur !e Dreg- 
gate." A.D. UIO. Lib. Colleg. N.D. Gksg., p. 238. 

^ '' Le Ratonraw," " vicus qui dicitur Ratonraw." A.D. 
1283. Regist. de Pasaelet, pp. 382-84. " Vicus qui dicitur 
Ratonraw." A.D. 1410. Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 237. 

^ Magna via ; circa a.d. 1325. Lib. Colleg. N.D. 
Glasg., p. 156. Magnus vicus tendens ab ecclesia cathe- 
dral! ad erucem fori. a.d. 1419. Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., 
p. 240. The gat at strekis fra the Merkat Cors tyll the 
He kyrk of Glasgu. a.d. 1433-34. Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., 
p. 166. 

< Vicus Fullonum. a.d. 1422. Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., 
p. 242. The Kyngis strayt the qwhylk is callit the Wal- 
cargat. A.D. 1454. Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 177. Via 
Fullonum tendens a Cruee Forali ad Portam Australem. 
A.D. 1528. Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 43. 

* Via que ducit a Porta Australi ad Pontem. A.D. 1528. 
Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 25. Publicus vicus tendens a 
Cruee Fori vsque ad Australem finem ville. a.d. 1460. 
Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 253. Via extra Portam Aus- 
tralem que ducit ad Pontem trans Cludam. a.d. 1528. Lib. 
Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 31. 

* Vicus Piscatonim circa a.d. 1325. Lib. Colleg. N.D. 



Glasg., p. 156. Le Fyschargate. a.d. 1497. Regist. Glasg., 
p. 495. 

7 Vicus vocatusle Stokwell. a.d. 1505. Regist. de Passe- 
let. Vicus Piscatorum juxta le Stok Wei. a.d. 1487. Lib. 
Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 256. 

^ Magnus vicus extendens a Cruee Fori versus Capellas 
Sancti Thome martiris et Sancte Tanew. a.d. 1426. Lib. 
Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 244. Vieus Sancte Tanew. a.d. 
1433. Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 248. The gait passing 
fra the West Port to Sanet Tenewis Chapell. a.d. 1548. 
Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 138. 

9 Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 73. 
'" Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. xxxii. 
'• Vicus qui dicitur le Galowgate. Circa a.d. 1325. Lib. 
Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 156. Via Furcarum. a.d. 1433- 
Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 247. Vicus Furcarum juxta 
torrentem de Malyndinor. A.D. 1487. Regist. Glasg., p. 
453. Via Furcarum extra torrentem Malyndonar. a.d. 
1528. Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 34. Via Furcarum ten- 
dens a Cruee Forali ad Orientalem Portam. a.d. 1523. Lib. 
Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 80. 

'2 Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., pp. 27, 41, 88. 

'3 Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 238. 



GLASGOW.] PAROCHIALES. 15 

(" iufra muros civitatis Glasguensis;"i "extra muros civitatis Glasguensis ;"2) but it may, with 
some reason, be doubted if any regular or continuous rampart encircled the whole town, at least so 
late as the fifteenth century. John Major, (who taught for some years in the University of Glas- 
gow,) writing in the year 1521, speaks of Perth as being the only properly walled town in Scot- 
land.' The municipal ordinances of the city, prove sufficiently that Glasgow was not in later 
times what is now called a walled town. On the last day of October 1588, " It is statut that 
euerie persone repair and hauld cloiss thair yaird endis and bak sydis, swa that nane may repair 
thairthrow to the toun bot be the commoun portes."'' 

Mention is found of the Bishop's lands of Ramnishorene in the year 124'1;5 of the Broomielaw 
(" campus de Bromilaw") about the year 1325;^ of the Meadow well in the Denside in the year 
1.304;'' of St. Ninian's well, on the south side of St. Thenaw's Gate, in the year 1433;'* of the 
Stabillgrene in the year 1430;^ of the Market-cross in the year 1418 ;!" of the Gyrthburne, not 
far from the Drygate, in the year 1410 ;'i of the Castle or Bishop's palace about the year 1290 ;'- 
of the Bishop's garden about the year 1268;i3 of the Tolbooth of the burgh (" Pretorium Glas- 
gense,") beside the cross, at the corner of St. Thenaw's Gate and the High Street, in the year 
1454 ji* of the Black Friar's Wynd, or Vennel, about the year 1300 ;i* of the West Cunye in 
1498, near the Cross in the Walcargate ;i^ of the Conyhee, near the Cross, in the year 1435 ;'^ 
of " the gate fra the Wynd hede to the Gray Freris" in the year 1534 ;'* of the Troyne Gait in 
the year 1545 ;i^ of Rounaldis Wynd, on the north side of St. Thenaw' Gate, in the year 1488 i^" 
of Maynis Wynd, in the year 1548 ;2' of the Commownjet, (near the Gallowgate,) in the year 
1433;"^^ of the "Quadrevium," or carfoix in the High Street, in 1494, and of the Densyde, near 
the monastery of the Minorites, 1494;23 of the Gallowmure and Borrowfield in the year 1529;-'' 
of the Dowhill, or Gersum land ;^-5 the Provansyde j^^ of the Common Green in the yeai- 1487.-''^ 

The manses and orchards of the thirty-two canons of the cathedral, as arranged under Bishoji 
Cameron about 1435, as well as the residences of the choral vicars, and, doubtless, of all the other 
officers of the cathedral continued, even after the extension of the burgh, for the most part in the 
principal streets of the old city, the High Street, the Drygate, and the Rotten Row. In a suppli- 
cation to Parliament (1587) by certain of the inhabitants, it is stated, that before the reformation 

' A.D. 1540. Lib. CoUeg. N.D. Glasg., p. 13. " Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 17G. 

- Circa a.d. 1530. Chart, in Archiv. Univ. Glajsg. '= Regist. Glasg., p. 216. 

2 De Gest. Scot., lib. i., fol. i.\. '" Regist. Glasg., p. 500. 

* Memorab. of Glasg., p. 23. '" Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 250. 

* Kegist. Glasg., p. 147. They are described in 1494 as '» Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 261. 
lying on the north side of the road to Partwick. Lib. " Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. xxxii. 
Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 258. -'» Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 257. 

« Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 156. -' Lib. CoUeg. N.D. Glasg., p. 1 IS. 

' Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 151. ^2 Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 247. 

« Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 248. -" Regist. Glasg., p. 500. 

" Ub. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 246. ^4 Li^. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 131. 

'" Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 239. " a.d. 1500. Regist Glasg., p. 501 ; Com. Rep. Glasg.. 

" Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 238. App., p. 231. 

'^ Regist. Glasg., p. 199 : Vicus qui se extendi! a muro -^ a.d. 1474. Regist. Glasg., p. 487. 

Fratrum Predictorum sursum versus Castruni. "' Lib. Colleg. N.D. Glasg., p. 200. 
'^ Regist. Glasg., p. 177. 



16 ORIGINES [GLASGOW. 

of religion, their city was " intertynit and uphaldin" by the resort of the parsons, vicars, and other 
clergy, but is now become ruinous and for the most part altogether " decayit ; " and that " that 
part of the said cietie abone the gray frier wynd is the onlie ornament and decoratioun therof, be 
ressone of ye grite and sumptuous buildingis of grite antiquitie, varie proper and meit for ye ressait 
of his hienes and nobilitie at sic tymes as they sail repair therto." 

Legends and Glasgow is the scene of several legends recorded of St. Kentijreru. It was here he is said to 
History. ° o o 

have buried St. Serf, his master.^ No remain of this saint, however, is mentioned in the in- 
ventory of relics belonging to the church in ] 432. An altar was dedicated to him in the 
Cathedral before 1446. It was on revisiting Glasgow that St. Kentigern is said to have 
preached to King Redrath and to a great number of the chiefs and people of the place, elevating 
himself on a little mount, whence he could be seen by all, and where a celebrated chapel was after- 
wards dedicated to his honour ; indicating plainly Little St. Mungo's Kirk beyond the walls.^ It 
was here too he met St. Columba of lona, and conferred with him at the Jlolendinar. And it is 
affirmed, with much probability, that the bodies both of his mother St. Thenaw, and of himself, were 
here preserved, and long held as objects of great veneration and of devout pilgrimage by the people. 
Glasgow took a distinguished part in the wars of the succession, under its patriotic bishop, 
Robert Wishart, who was elected to the see in 1271.^ From the favourable disposition of the 
inhabitants, the district became the resort or place of refuge of several of the Scotch patriots. 
It was at Glasgow, ("in dome cujusdam Rowe Ra,"^) that Wallace was captured. Edward I., 
who remained in the city during a part of August and September 1301,* for the purpose of over- 
awing a hostile district, some years later, accused the bishop to the pope of not only failing to ex- 
communicate Bruce for the slaughter of Cumin, but of giving him absolution for the deed five days 
after it was committed, and of providing him, from his own wardrobe, with the garments and robes 
_in which he was crowned at Scone. He was also charged with going about the country preaching 
to the people that it was more meritorious to fight for the new made king than against the 
Saracens. The bishop having been taken prisoner at Cupar in Fife, was kept in prison for eight 
years in England, and only liberated after Bannockburn, when he had become blind." He died 
on the 2fith November 1316, and was buried in the cathedral, it is said, between the altars of St. 
Peter and St. Andrew." 

The bishops' chief residence was their castle or palace adjoining the Cathedral church, the 
ruins of which remained till last century ; but from the beginning of the 1 4th century, the bishops 
of Glasgow are found frequently residing at their manor-house or castle of the Lake, called 
also Lochwood, six miles north-east of the city, in the vicinity of their ancient forest, and near 
a small lake called Bishop's Loch. Though now a little way beyond the boundary, it was then 
within the parish.^ Several of their charters are dated from this place. It contained a chapel.^ 

' Breviary of Aberdeen, Officium St. Kentig., Lectio VI. ^ Rymer's second letter to Bishop Nicolson, Barbour's 

- Lectio VIII ; Lib. CoUeg. N.D. Glasg., pp. xxvii, Bruce, Booli II., p. )70. 

xxviii. ' Spotswood's History. 

3 Ford. X., 29, 30. « Assumption Book. 156L Cader and Monkland. 

•• Illust. Scot. Hist., p. 54 ; The Wallace Papers, p. xxiii. » Regist. Glasg., pp. 'J5'2, 261, 293, 294. Regist. de Pass. 

= Regist. Glasg., p., 621. pp. 338, 339. 



GovAN.] PAROCHIALES. 17 

On 30th April 1325, Bishop John Lindsay, while living at his manor of the lake (manerium 
de lacu,) took a protest before John de Quiney, respecting his seal used for attesting charters, 
which had been lost by Robert del Barkour, near the chapel of St. Mary of Dumbarton, and 
found and presented to him by James of Irwyn, monk of Passelet. The seal is minutely de- 
scribed as exhibiting his patron St. Kentigern, and his emblems or cognizances of the fish, bird, 
and ring, which plainly refer to the then popular legends of the life of St. Kentigern, and which 
Bishop Robert Wischart first introduced on his seal. His successors followed hi^ example, and 
the modern arms of the city are only a modification of those old symbols of St. Mungo and his 
miracles.^ Bishop Cameron died at the castle of Loch wood on the Christmas Eve of 1447, with 
a popular rumour of some supernatural horrors, which Buchanan has thought it necessary to 
record.^ At the Reformation the Duke of Chatelherault took possession of the manor-place of 
Lochwood, as well as the episcopal palace and castle of Glasgow -^ 

On the 12th of September 1241, King Alexander IL granted to the bishops of Glasgow, (the 
bishop at the time was AVilliam de Bondington, Chancellor of Scotland,) to bold their lands around 
Glasgu, namely, Conclud, Sehedinistun, Ballayn, Badermonoc, Possele and Kenmor, Garvach, 
Neutun, Leys, Ramnishoren, the land of the burgh, and the other lands pertaining to the manor 
of Glasgu, in free forest, fenced with the usual penalty of ten pounds for ofiences committed 
against the vert or venison.* 

The mill of the bishop's manor, on the little stream which flows past the cathedral, gave its 
name to the Molendinar burn. 



GOVAN AND GORBALS. 

Guuen — Guuan.^ Deanery of Rutherglen. (Map I. No. 2.) 

The ancient parish of Govan was separated from the parish of Glasgow by the Kelvin on the 
west. It lay on both sides of the Clyde, and comprehended the present parish of that name and 
what is now Gorbals, which was erected into a separate parish by the Court of Teinds in 1771. 

Some time before the year 1147, King David I., with consent of his son Henry, granted Guuen 
to the see of St. Kentigern of Glasgow, in pure alms ; and soon afterwards Herbert, the bishop, 
erected into a prebend, in the cathedral, the church of Guvan, with all its ecclesiastical rights and 
pertinents, and with " the islands between Guvan and Perthec, together with that part of Pertheo 
which David the king gave to the church of Glasgow at its dedication, and that other part of 
Perthec which the same king afterwards gave in pure alms to Bishop John and his successors."^ 

This prebend was bestowed at the time of its erection on Help', the bishop's clerk, and the 
patronage continued in the bishop till the Reformation. 

The church was dedicated to St. Constantino. Fordun says, " he was a king of Cornwall who 

' Lib. CoUeg. N.D. Glasg., pp. xxvi., xxvii. * Regist. Glasg., p. 147. 

s Lib. XI. = Before 1152. Regist. Glasg., p. 10, 

^ Keith's Hist. ** Regist. Glasg., p. 11. 



18 ORIGINES [govan. 

accompanied St. Columba into Scotland, and preached the Christian faith to the Scots and Piets." 
He adds, " that he founded a monastery in Govan near the Clyde, over which he presided, and 
converted the whole of Cantyre, where he suflered martyrdom, and was buried in his monastery at 
Govan."! 

It had an Altar dedicated to the Virgin, with an endowed cbaplainry, but when or by whom 
founded does not appear. At the Reformation, the revenues of this Altar, as given up by the 
chaplain, were ] 2 bolls of oats, 3 bolls of meal, and 268. in money ."^ 

The rectory was valued in Baiamond's roll and in the Libellus Taxationum at £106, 13s. 4d. 
It is only £97, 7s. 6d. in Taxatio XVI. Sec. In the books of the Collector General of the thirds 
of benefices, for the year 1561, the third of the parsonage and vicarage of the church of Govane 
is stated at £66, 13s. 4d., or £200 in whole. It was soon after bestowed on the University of 
Glasgow. In the books of assignation of stipends, 1579-80, ei seq. Govan is entered as " servit 
be the college of Glasgow." 

At Polmadie, (the name of a rivulet on the left bank of the Clyde, said to denote the wolf's 
burn,) there was an Hospital for men and women. It was founded before 1249, and was dedicated 
to St. John.3 

Robert I. confirmed to the master, brethren, and sisters of the hospital of Polmadie " juxta Ru- 
glen," all the privileges which they were wont to have in the time of Alexander bis predecessor.^ 
In 1319, Bishop Robert constituted Patrick, called Floker, master and guardian of this house, with 
the power of restraining the excesses and correcting the faults of the brethren and sisters pensioners 
therein, or of removing any of them for their delinquency. He gave him also a dispensation for non- 
residence at his church of Kilbryde, provided he took care that it was not left destitute of the due 
celebration of divine offices.^ In 131 9 Edward II. nomiually bestowed the keepership of St. John's 
Hospital of Polmadie, on William Hauk.*" In 1320 Bishop John gave to the hospital that half of 
Little Govan lying between the hospital and the western half of the same land.^ In 1333 Malcolm 
Earl of Lennox granted to the masters, brethren and sisters freedom from all kinds of service, bur- 
dens and exactions, as regarded their own house and their church of Strathblane. The church and 
land of Strathblane would appear to have belonged to the Hospital before 1316.* In 1334 Adam, 
son of Alan, burgess of Dumbarton, had lent them a sum of money in their necessity .^ On the 
18th of May 1347 JMargaret (Logy,) Queen of David II., by grant of her lord the king made in 
her behalf from the bishoprick of Glasgow, (" ex concessione domini nostri Regis de episcopatu 
Glasguensi in parte nobis facta ") constituted William de Kirkintullach master of this hospital.-"* 
On the 10th of May 1391 Bishop Matthew issued a presentation from his " Manor of the Lake" 
in favour of Gilian de Vaux, and directed the master and brethren of Polmadie to receive her and 
give her all the rights due to a sister and portioner of their house during her lifetime.!^ William 

' Martyrol. apud Regist. Aberdon. Fordun, L. iii., C. 23. ' Regist. Glasg., p. 229. 

2 Book of Assumption, 1561. ^ Regist. Glasg., pp. 225, 248. 

2 Regist. Glasg., p. 327. " Regist. Glasg., p. 249. 

* Regist. Glasg., p. 225. '" Regist. Glasg., p. 278. 

6 Regist. Glasg., p. 223. " Regist. Glasg., p. 293. 

" Rjm. iii., p. 786. 



GovAN.] PAROCHIALES. 19 

de Cunninghame, vicar of Dundonald, was cited in January 1403, by Matthew the bishop, and 
threatened with excommunication, for having, on a presentation of the Earl of Lennox, intruded 
himself into the administration of the " Poor's House of Polmadie."^ In 1427 this hospital, with 
its united church of Strathblane, was erected into a prebend, of which the bishops retained the 
patronage. The prebendary was to be a clerk " cantu bene et notabiliter instructus," and was 
ordained to pay a vicar in the parish church of Strathblane, and to maintain and educate in singing 
four boy choristers, giving them sixteen merks annually for their sustenance, their admission and 
removal to be with the bishop.^ On February 16th 1440, Duncan Earl of Lennox, at an inter- 
view held with the Bishop of Glasgow in the west chapel of the castle of Edinburgh, resigned all 
right which he or his progenitors had assumed over the hospital of Polmadie and its annexed perti- 
nents, the church and church-lands of Strathblane.^ In 1450 the church of Strathblane was dis- 
severed from Polmadie ; and it was annexed to the collegiate church of Dumbarton, by Isabella, 
duchess of Albany and countess of Lennox. 

The Hospital of St. Ninian stood at a little distance from the south end of the old bridge of 
Glasgow. It was called " Hospitale leprosorum degentium prope pontem" in 1494; " Leproso- 
rum S. Niniani trans pontem" in 1505 ; " the puir lipper folkis house beyond the brig" in 1587. 
It is said to have been founded by a lady of the family of Lochow about 1350, which is also the 
era of some other similar erections. It had a burying-ground and a chapel near it. The lat- 
ter, it is said, still stands in the main street of the village of Gorbals.* And between this 
and the bridge, at a place where an old building called the Lepers' Hospital formerly stood, a 
quantity of human bones lately discovered seems to point out the site of the cemetery. The ground 
on which the whole was placed is still called St. Ninian's Croft.^ The following ordinance of the 
town council of Glasgow, of 6th October 1610, shows the condition of the poor leper even at that 
comparatively recent period : " Item, it is statut and ordanit that the lipper of the hospital sail 
gang onlie upon the calsie syde near the gutter, and sal haif clapperis, and ane claith upon thair 
mouth and face, and sail stand afar of, quhill they resaif almous or answer, under the payne of 
banischeing tliame the toun and hospital."^ 

In 1494 William Stewart, canon of Glasgow and rector of Kilerne, refounded a chaplainry in 
the chapel of St. Ninian, at the leper's hospital near the bridge, which had formerly been con- 
structed and of new rebuilt by him. He gave for the susteutation of the chaplain and the repa- 
ration of the chapel several tenements and annual-rents in the neighbourhood, and he ordained 
that on the anniversary of his death the chaplain should annually assemble in the said chapel 
twenty-four poor scholars skilled in singing mass, who should sing for him, and for the souls of 
all the faithful deceased, the seven penitential psalms, with the " de profundis;" and after the mass 
distribute 2s. of Scotch money, Id. to each, and to the lepers, not members of the hospital, 12d. 
He also ordained that the lepers should at a fitting time every night for ever ring the bell of the 
chapel and convene at the " salve," and devoutly pray for their benefactors, and especially for him 

' Regist. Glasg., pp. 29.5, 301. ■• N. Statist. Ace. 

- Regist. Glasg., p. 327. ^ N. Statist. Ace. 

^ Regist. Glasg., p. 359. * Memorabilia of the City of Glasgow. 



20 ORIGIN ES [kilpateick. 

the founder ; finally, he ordained that the chaplain, being master of the grammar school, should, 
after his decease, commend him every night to all his scholars before their separation, and make 
them devoutly pray for his soul and for all the faithful dead.i 

It seems probable that before 1152 Govan and Perthec, which were distinct manors, were also 
distinct parochial territories; the latter lying on the north and the former on the south side of the 
Clyde. The islands in the river then existing between them have now disappeared, or have become 
a part of the mainland. The Bishops of Glasgow had a residence at Perthec before 1277. In 1 362, 
the compromise of a dispute between the lord l)ishop and his chapter took place at the manor-house 
of Perthec.^ It is supposed to have stood on the bank which overlooks the junction of the 
Kelvin and the Clyde. There were several free tenants or vassals on both manors.'' 



OLD AND NEW, OTHERWISE WEST AND EAST, KILPATRICK. 

Kylpatric." Deanery of Lennox. (Map I. No. 3.) 

' Of the places in various parts of Scotland, including six parishes in the diocese of Glasgow, 
which derived their appellation from the apostle of Ireland, the most ancient and distinguished 
was certainly Kylpatrick in Lennox. The parish, lying on the right bank of the Clyde, is 
bounded on the north by the Kilpatrick hills, which approach very near the river at the place 
where stood the old church and village of Kilpatrick. Here it is said St. Patrick was born. His 
own words in the Book of Confessions ascribed to him, and corroborated by other accounts, are, 
" My father was Calphurnius a deacon, who was the son of Potitus a presbyter, of the village 
of Bonaven of Tabernia." Jocelin of Fumes, who wrote his life about the end of the twelfth century, 
from several very ancient accounts, says that " the territory was called Taburnia, from its being 
a Roman station, and that it was by the town of Nempthor on the shores of the Irish sea." The 
best authorities agree in applying this description to Kylpatrick, where the Roman wall ter- 
minated. St. Patrick was born about 372, and went to Gaul and Italy about the end of the 
fourth century ; he continued there about thirty-five years, during which he studied for eighteen 
years under St. Germanus, and afterwards visited St. Jlartin of Tours, the brother, or, more 
probably, the uncle of his mother Conquessa. He returned when past sixty to preach the gospel 
in Ireland, to which country he had been carried captive in his youth.^ 

A saint so famous, and who is said to have " founded 365 churches, and ordained as many 
bishops, and 3000 priests," could not be long without a memorial in the place of his birth ; but 
the early history of this district is obscure, and we have no transaction recorded in connexion with 
the church here until about the end of the twelfth century ; sometime previous to which Alwin 
Earl of Lennox had confirmed to the church of Kilpatrick all the lands of Cochinach, Edinbernan, 

' N. Statist. Ace. ' Regist. de Passelet, p. 157. 

- Regist. Glasg., pp. 192, 265. ' Usher Britanic. Eccles. Antitjuitat., pp. 427-463. 

" Regist. de Passelet, pp. 1-12, 3C9, 383. O'CoDner. 



KiLPATRicK.] PAKOCHIALES. 21 

Baccan, Finbealach, Drumcreue, Graguentalach, Monaclikenneran, Drumtecliglunan, Cuiltebut, 
Dalevenacb, granted by his predecessors, and had himself added the land of Cateconnen.' 

Before 1 227, Maldoven, Earl of Lennox, granted the church of Kilpatrick, which had been 
so richly endowed by his family, to the monastery of Paisley, where he chose his own place of 
sepulture.- The benefice continued the property of the abbey till the Reformation.^ 

Dufgal, the Earl's brother, was rector of Kilpatrick, and for some time resisted the right of 
Paisley to those lands which they claimed both as ancient pertinents of their church of Kilpatrick, 
and as confirmed by charters of the Earls. The case was tried by Papal delegates in 1 233. The 
recorded proceedings, including the proof of the tenure of the lands, afford one of the most 
remarkable and interesting of our early law proceedings in church matters. Dufgal at length 
yielded, and renounced all claim to the property of the lands, and threw himself on the abbot's mercy, 
who granted to him, during his lifetime, the church with half a carucate of land of Cochinach.* 

In 1227, the church was decreed to belong to Paisley in proprios usus, and the vicarage was 
taxed at twelve merks, of the altarage, or of the tithe of corn if the altarage was not sufficient.* 
The procurations due to the bishop were taxed at one reception (hospitium) yearly.^ 

The site of the ancient church seems to have been the same as that of Old Kilpatrick in 17 -OS, 
which was described in that year as " a very ancient building." In the river Clyde opposite to 
it " there is a large stone or rock, visible at low water, called St. Patrick's stone," connected with 
a legend " that St. Patrick's vessel struck upon it in full sail on setting out to Ireland, and sus- 
tained no injury." 

At Drumry, near Garscadden, are the ruins of a chapel, which seems to have been in existence 
before 1476. Lawrence Crauford of Kilbirnie founded a chaplainry there, and endowed it with 
the five pound lands of Jordan-hill. It was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and is said to have had 
also other possessions.' 

At Lurg, on the estate of Plains, there was another small church with a cemetery. On an emi- 
nence, having a pleasant prospect, near the termination of the Roman wall, is a place called Chapel- 
hill and Chapeltown,* where there was probably a chapel or oratory. A sculptured cross, said 
to have been taken from " near the Roman wall," was long used here as a footbridge over a burn. 
The parish is rich in Roman antiijuities. 

In the Libellus Taxationum the church of Kilpatrick is valued at £(i6, 13s. 4d.; and in a Book 
of Assumption, c. 15G1, its yearly value is stated among the revenues of the abbey of Paisley at 
28 ch. 1 5 bolls and 2 firl. meal, and 7 ch. 3 bolls, 3 firl. 2 p. bear. 

The vicarage appears in Baiamond's tax roll at the value of .£53, Gs. 8d., and it bears the same 
value in the books of the Collector General of thirds of benefices, a.d. 15G1. 

The lands mentioned above as anciently belonging to the church, were, at the end of the 
twelfth century, held by a person named Beda Ferdan (who lived at Monaclikenneran, on the 

' Regist. de Passelet, p. 157. » Regist. tie Passelet, p. ii21. 

- Regist. de Passelet, pp. 158, 159. « Regist. Glasg., p. 124. 

■■ Book of Assumption, c. 1561. ^ Regist. Privy Seal. 

■■ Regist. do Passelet, p. 165. " See Bleau and Thomson's Atlas. 



22 OEIGINES [kilpatrick. 

Clyde, in a large house of wattle,) and three other persons, who were bound, for all service, to 
receive and entertain pilgrims or strangers coming to the church of St. Patrick. From some defect 
of title which cannot now be detected, these lands were the subject of continual disputes between 
the monks of Paisley and those claiming right through the family of Lennox. Almost immediately 
after the donation of the church to Paisley, an attempt was made by the Earls of Lennox or their 
vassals to regain possession of them. Beda, who held Monachkenneran, Cultebuthe and Drumtech- 
glunan, was slain in defence of the rights of the church. Dufgal the rector, allowed several of 
the other lands to be alienated from the living (" per defectum et negligenciam,") because he 
was unwilling to offend his father, brother, and relatives. Gilbert the son of Samuel of Renfrew, 
was unjustly ])ossessed of Monachkenneran, and Blalcolm Beg had sold Kathconnen " prae timore." 
Duugal the son of Cristinus, a former judge of Lennox, vindicated his right to the possession of 
Cultbuthe on the Clyde, and to a small piece of land which lay between the church and that river 
on the east.i The rector resigned his claim, as mentioned above, and the Earl obtained the resigna- 
tion of Gilbert the son of Samuel, by paying to him sixty merks of silver.^ In 12.39 Malcolm, 
son of Slaldoven the Earl, received from the Abbot sixty merks " pro bono pacis," and resigned 
to the monks the lands of Cochinach, Fimbelach, and of Edinbernan, of which he had vindicated 
the possession against them.^ And not long after Uuugal, who held the lands of Cnoc under the 
Abbot, resigned also his possession of Culbuthe. 

About the year 1270, new claimants to these lands appeared in the persons of John de War- 
droba, Bernard de Erth, and Norrinus de Monnorgund, claiming in right of their wives, grand- 
nieces and heiresses of Dufgal the rector; and the Abbot was obliged to pay to those claimants 
140 merks "pro bono pacis," when he received a separate charter of agreement and resigna- 
tion from each. After this, in 1273, Malcolm Earl of Lennox, "before he received knighthood," 
confirmed to the abbot and monastery of Paisley all the lands which they held in Lennox, includ- 
ing not only those which belonged to the church of Kilpatric, but also Drumfower (Drumtoeher,) 
Eeynfode, and Drumdynanis, which were given before by his predecessors to the monastery itself.'' 
Yet we find again, in 1294, that Robert Bishop of Glasgow had to inhibit the Earl's steward, 
"Walter Sprewel, his bailies, and at length the Earl himself, from taking a new claim to these 
lands under their jurisdiction in the secular court.^ 

Those possessions had been originally freed from all burdens, so that when Earl David, the 
brother of William the Lion, possessed the earldom of Lennox, he found he could raise no aid from 
them as from his other lands. In 1330, however, they had been in use to pay five chalders of meal 
to the keepers of Dumbarton castle." The monks of Paisley had a right of courts of life and limb 
from the Earls of Lennox, in all their lands within their earldom. They were erected into a barony 
and regality by Robert II. or III., and James II. conceded to the regality court of the abbot the 
tV.iir points of the crown which bad been formerly reserved.'' 

' Regist. de Passelet, pp. 162-175. ^ Regist. de Passelet, pp. 201, 204. 

- Regist. de Passelet, p. 170. " Regist. de Passelet, pp. 167, 208. 

" Regist. de Passelet, p. 1 6 1 . ' Regist. de Passelet, pp. 255, 256. 
•• See pp. 158, 159, 204. 



DUMBARTON.] PAROCHIALES. 32 

The rental which the monks derived from their lordship of Kilpatricli was, in 1525, 53 bolls of 
grain, £67, 13s. 4d. money.i 

The parochial district, both on the east and the west, seems to have included several other 
properties belonging to the vassals of Lennox. About the year 1250, Umfridus de Kilpatrik, the 
ancestor of the family of Colquhoun, had a grant of the lands of Colquhoune, from JIaldoven 
Earl of Lennox.- The later retours of the family of Luss describe their property in this parish 
as " the lands of Colquhoun, with the manor -place of Dunglas, and the yairs of the Clyde." There 
are the remains of a very ancient castle at Dunglass. 

In 1250 Maldoven the Earl gave to the monastery of Paisley a pasture of the lauds of Lennox 
on the north jiart of their land of Backan, as Ralph the king's chaplain held it in his lifetime, by 
the following boundaries, " as a burn flows from Lochbeth and falls towards the north into 
the water which is called Cornenade, and by that water westward to the rivulet which runs on 
the north part of Salvari, where the men of Dufgal, his late brother, had their shealings ; and so 
to the right boundaries of their land of Fimbalach."^ 

In the middle of the thirteenth century, Earl JIaldoven granted to Maurice son of Gillaspic Gal- 
braith, and Arthur his son, that quarter of land in Auchincloich lying next to Strochelraakessoc, 
( Arochelmakessoc ?) in exchange for two lands, Thombothy and Letyrmolyn, which he failed to 
warrant to them ; for a 32d part of the service of a man-at-arms.* On the land of Gartenconnel, 
an old possession of the Galbraiths, are still visible the foundations and fosse of an ancient castle. 

In the latter half of that century. Earl Malcolm granted to Water Sprewl the land of Dalmuir, 
resigned by Roger de Dundener, the grantee performing the foreign service of the king, as much as 
pertained to a quarter of a plough in Lennox.^ 

In 1452 Robert de'Lyle (in consideration of a sum of 112 merks received by him, and to be 
applied in prosecuting his right of inheritance in the Garviach) granted in feu to the monks of 
Paisley, the third of the fishing of the Crukytshot in Clyde, a pertinent of his lands of Achyntuerly 
and Duunerbowk, in the parish of Kilpatrick, together with a particle of land for building a house 
for preservation of the fish, and for a habitation for the monks' servants, and a space for drying 
and mending their nets, and with licence to take wood for hanging their nets upou, from the wood 
of Achyntuerly and Dunnerbowk. The reddendo five merks.^ 

DUMBARTON. 

Alcluith ; Petra Cluitlv — Caer Alclut" — Dunbretane." Deanery of Lennox. 
(Map I. No. 4.) 

Dumbarton must have been one of the earliest Christian settlements in Scotland ; but all that is 
known of the constitution of its churcli during the existence of the kingdom of Strathcluyd, of 

' MS. Rental. <> Regist. de Passelet, p. 250. 

^ Regist. de Levenax, p. 25. ' ^ In the 7th century, Beda; Hist. I. 12. 

' Regist. de Passelet, p. 171. " a.d. 870. Chron. of the Pr. of Wales. 

■* Chartul. de Levenax, p. 27. " 13th century. Regist. Glasg. 

^ Chartul. de Levenax, p. 42. 



24 ORIGINES [Dumbarton. 

which it was the capital, is an intimation of a bishopric and bishop taking their style from it in 
the sixth century. The annals of Ulster record the death of Cathal Macfergus, bishop of Alcluyd, 
in 554. 

The parish of Dumbarton is distinguished by its remarkable castle-rock, rising abruptly from 
the level bank of the Clyde, where it is joined by the Leven, at its southern extremity. For two 
miles inland, the parish is flat, and then rises into high moorland at its northern boundary. 

In ]29G it was a free rectory; Alan de Dunfres the parson of Dumbarton swore fealty to 
Edward I.' In the following century the church, with all its pertinents, was given to the 
monks of Kilwinning,- who continued to possess it till the Eeformation.s The cure would seem 
to have been served by the monks or their chaplains. 

Several altars and chaplainries were endowed in the church and castle. Kobert the Second 
confirmed to the Earls of Lennox the lands of Auchindonane and Inverdowne in alms and 
regality, under the condition of paying six merks sterling to the chaplain celebrating at the altar of 
the Holy Cross, within the parish church of Dumbarton.* The rental of this altar in 1561 was 
£22.5 ^ chaplainry was endowed at the altar of the Virgin Mary, with the £5 land of Muldoven 
in Cardross ; the patronage in the family of Ferme, by whom it was founded.^ There was a 
chaplainry of St. Peter, but whether within the parish church, or in a chapel in the town, does 
not appear.' An aisle or chapel within the church was dedicated to St. James.* In 1561 the 
third of money of the chaplainry of Dunbartane was taken up at £7, 6s. Sd.^ 

The chapel of Dumbarton castle is mentioned in 1271.1" It was dedicated to St. Patrick ; and 
in ] 390 had ten merks yearly out of the mails of the burgh.'i It is said to have been originally 
in the gift of the crown, but the patron latterly was the Bishop of Glasgow.i^ In 156'1 the third 
of the money of this chaplainry was 44s. S^d.'^ A chapel, dedicated to the Virgin, stood near the 
burgh, (juxta burgum,) the chaplain of which received 20s. out of the king's forms of the burgh.i* 
It may, perhaps, have been at Chapelton, a place marked on Bleau's map, a little to the eastward 
of the town. The same map sets down Kirkmichael a little way to the north. In the reign of 
Robert Bruce, William Fleming of Dumbarton had a crown charter of " an annual of ten merks 
furth of Kirkmichael, whilk is within the liberty of Dumbarton. "i* 

The parish church appears to have been dedicated to St. Patrick, and always to have stood, as 
now, at the south end of the principal street of the burgh.i^ 

The rental of the church of Dumbarton, forming part of the revenues of the abbey of Kilwinning 
for some time preceding the period of the Reformation, was £66, 13s. 4d.i'' 

A collegiate church, dedicated to St. Patrick, was founded at Dumbarton about 1450, by Isabella, 

' Rotul. Scot. I. 25. "> Regist. de Passelet, p. 192. 

- Chart, of Levenax, as cited by Chalmers. " Robertson's Index, 12C, 11. 

' Books of Assumption. '- A Bool; of Assumption. 

* Chart, of Levenax, pp. 4, 5. '^ A Book of Assumption. 
^ Book of Assumption. '"' Chamb. Rolls, iii. 1G4. 

* Privy Seal Reg. Chalmers. '■' Robertson's Index, 8, 82. 

" Regist. de Paaselet, p. 394. '* Magnus vicus tendens ad crucem' cart. pen. Napier de 

« Hamilton of Wishaw, p. 104. Kilmahew. 

' Conipt Collector Gen. of thirds of benefices. " Libell. Taxat. Book of Assumpt. 



DUMBARTON 



] PAROCHIALES. 25 



Duchess of Albany and Countess of Lennox. She endowed it for a provost and six prebendaries, 
with the churches of Bonhill, Fintray, and Strathbhane, and it had also part of the lands of Strath- 
blane ; Stuckroger and Ferkinch in the parish of Luss ; Balernic-beg in Cardros ; Knockdourie- 
barber in Roseneth ; and Ladytown in Bonhill.i The Earls of Lennox were patrons. In 
Baiaraond it is valued at £.320, and in the Libellus Taxationum at £80. In 1561 the third of 
money of the provostry of Dumbarton was taken at £77, 15s. Bfd.^ A single arch, supposed to 
be the remains of this church, is still seen, close to the town. 

There was here an hospital for bedesmen, with a chapel, and an endowed chaplainry. The Earls 
of Lennox the patrons.-* 

The whole territory of the parish was part of the ancient lordship of the Earls of Lennox. 
About 1238, Alexander II. in confirming to Earl Maldoven the possession of the earldom of 
his ancestors, excepted the castle of Dumbarton, the land of Murrach, the harbour, and the fishery 
on both sides of the river Leven, as far as the said land of Murrach extended.* The monks 
of Newbotle had a grant from the same king, of a toft within the burgh, and a net's fishing on 
Leven ; and from Malcom Fleming, Earl of AVigton, a gift of an acre of land within the burgh.^ 
A high way (magna via, via Eegia) led, at a very early period, from Dumbarton up the valley of 
Leven, probably to the earl's castle of Balloch.^ 

The town of Dumbarton, the capital of the ancient kingdom of Strathcluyd, is one of the oldest 
towns of which we have authentic historical record, whose site can now be identified. In 657 
died Guivet, "king of Alcluoith." In 69.3, Donald M'Alpin, king of Alucloith, died. In 721, 
Bile M'Elpin, king of Alocluith.' In 731, the venerable Bede describes Alcluith as the capital 
of the Britons of that district, (civitas Britonum munitissima.) In 756, Eadberht and Unst, 
kings of the Picts, " led an army against the city of Alcluth, and there imposed terms of sub- 
mission on the Britons."* In 779 is recorded the burning of Alucloith ; and in 869, and the 
following year, it was besieged and demolished by the northern pagans.^ In 974, Dunwallon, the 
king of Strathcluyd, went to Rome.^" We hear no more of these sovereigns or their kingdom. 
The ancient town assuredly grew up around the castle; but the neighbouring and dependent 
port has drawn the buildings of the modern burgh in that direction. 

Even before the castle was reserved to the Crown by Alexander II., he had conferred the 
privileges of a royal burgh upon Dumbarton, which brought it into collision with the bishops' 
burgh of Glasgow.ii Alexander III. and David II. renewed those privileges, and they were con- 
firmed and extended by James VI. in J 609, and ratified by Parliament in 1612.1^ 

The castle of Dumbarton was the chief strength of the ancient Earls of Lennox. About 1 238, 
it was resigned by Earl Jlaldoven, and reserved by king Alexander II. Since that time it has re- 
mained with the Crown as a national defence, and one of the keys of the kingdom. It was 

' A Book of Assumption. ' Annal. Ulton. 

' Compt Comptrol. Gen. ' Simeon Dunelm. 

3 Priv. Seal Reg. ^ Ann. Ult. Cliron. of pr. of Wales. 

■* Chart. Levenax, p. 1. ■» Chron. of pr. of Wales, 

'i Regist. de Neubotil. " C. 1122, Regist. Glasg. 

" Regist. de Passelet. '- Chart, in archiv. burg.. Act. Pari. 

VOL. I. D 



26 ORIGINES [cabdross. 

delivered over to Edward I., along with the other chief strengths of Scotland, during the discus- 
sion of the claims of the competitors to the crown of Scotland. Bruce obtained possession of it, 
early in the war of independence. David II., and his young queen, took shipping from thence 
when seeking shelter in France in 1333.1 Previous to 1363 it had been in use to receive five 
chalders of meal for the maintenance of the garrison, from the lands of old granted by the Earls 
of Lennox to the church of Kilpatrick.- Froissart calls it a strong castle standing in the marches, 
" agenst the wyld Scottis." Dumbarton Castle was annexed to the Crown, by Act of Parliament, 
in 1455, together with the lands of Cardross, Rosneth, an annual out of Cadiow, and the duty 
payable from the lands of the monks of Paisley in Kilpatrick.3 It became, in the reign of Queen 
Mary, the scene and subject of frequent contests between her followers and the party of the Re- 
formation and the Regent. 

CAEDROSS. 

Cardinros — Cadinros^ — Cardrose.^ Deanery of Lennox. (Map I. No. 5.) 

On the opposite side of the Leven to Dumbarton, the parish of Cardross rises from the shores of 
Clyde and Leven by a gradual ascent northwards for upwards of two miles, to the ridge of the 
hills which bound the valley of Lochlomond. Anciently, it appears not to have extended much 
farther along the bank of the Clyde than the site of the present church : but some lands in Glen- 
fruin and on the Gareloch, and even as far as Loch Long, belonged to it ; which were separated 
from it in 1643, when the parish received an addition on its western boundary. 

Between 1208 and 1233, Maldoven Earl of Lennox granted to Walter Bishop of Glasgow, as 
mensal to the bishoprick, the church of Cardross, with its lands and fishings, reserving the right of 
his brother Duugal, (who was in orders, and probably held this benefice as well as Kilpatrick.)" 
Before 1432, this parish had been erected into a prebend, for a canon of the cathedral.^ 

The church originally stood in the eastern extremity of the parish, opposite to Dumbarton, 
separated from it by the Leven. 

At Kilmahew was a chapel dedicated to St. Mahew, confessor, probably Macceus, a companion 
of St. Patrick, which gave its name to the lands. The chapel, as well as the lands of Kilmahew 
belonged to the Cochrans in the reign of David 11.^ In the fifteenth century, they had reverted 
to the Napiers. In 1467, the chapel appears to have been rebuilt, and on the 10th of May, George 
Bishop of Argyle, (with license of the Bishop of Glasgow, the diocesan,) in mitre and pontificals, 
consecrated the chapel and cemetery, dedicated to St. Mahew, confessor, the old patron of the 
place ; and he granted, in name and by consent of Duncan Napare of Kilmahew and James 
Napare, his heir, to God and St. Mahew, and a chaplain to celebrate in the newly consecrated cha- 
pel, forty shillings and tenpence yearly, out of tenements in the burgh of Dumbarton, with a croft 

' Hailes's Annals. = A.D. 1401. Regist. «lasg.,pp. 299, 347. 

2 Regist. de Passelet. " Regist. Glasg., p. 93. 

3 Act Pari. ii. 42. ' Regist. Glasg., p. 344. 

* A.D. 1208-33. Regist. Glasg., p. 93. " Robertson's Index, 50, 7. 



ROSNEATH AND BOW.] PAROCHI ALES. 27 

adjoining the chaj)el.i At Kilbride, in Glenfruin, there was a chapel of old, the remains of which 
are still known as " Chapel Diarmid." 

The rectory of Cardross is taxed in Baiamond at £61, 13s. 4d. In the Libellus Taxationum at 
£66, 13s. 4d., and it is given up as set for the latter sum in the Books of Assumption. The vicar 
pensionar gave up his living at the Reformation as of £lO yearly value.^ In the compt of the 
Comptroller-general of the thirds of benefices, the third of the money of the parsonage and vicarage 
of Cardross was taken at £22, 4s. 5id. 

This parish was part of the lordship of the old Earls of Lennox, but portions of it were held by 
their vassals before the wars of the succession. In the middle of the thirteenth century. Earl Mal- 
doven of Lennox granted to Donald Macynel a land in Glenfreone called Kealbride, which is held 
a fourth part of a " harathor," — bounded by the Lavaran and the burn called Crosc, as they run 
from the hill, and fall into Freone ; the reddendo, the twentieth part of the service of a man-at- 
arms. The grant is witnessed by the Earl's brother, Amelec, of whose large appanage, Glenfruin 
was a part.^ Before 1294, John Naper held Kilmahew of the Earl, giving three suits at his 
head court, and paying what is exigible for a quarter of land in Lennox, (reddendo quantum 
pertinet ad unum quarterium terre in Levenax.)'' 

Malcolm Earl of Lennox resigned in the hands of the king, Robert I., a plough of land of 
Cardross, getting in compensation the half of the lands of Lekkie in Stirlingshire.^ The king, 
about 1322, gave the lands of Moyden, within the barony of Cardross, to Adam son of Alan. 
But he had another object in acquiring the land of Cardross. On a bank overhanging the Leven 
and Clyde, still called the,Castle-hill, Robert Bruce built himself a castle, and laid out a park 
around it, called the King's Park of Cardross. Here the hero spent some of his latter years In 
rural occupations, and in constructing and managing a mimic fleet of little vessels, with which he 
cruised in the Clyde and the lake; and in this castle he died, on the 7th June 1329.'' David II. 
gave to John Reid the lands of Pelainflatt, in the park of Cardross.' Robert III. granted a 
charter to Findlay Bunting, of the lands of Mylnetelame, and six merks of the barony of 
Cardross.* 

EOSNEATH and ROW. 

Neueth^ — Neyt'"— Rosneth" — Rusnitli'- — Eenytt." Deanery of Lennox. 
(Map I. No. 6.) 

The ancient parish of Rosneth contained the present parishes of Rosneath and Row, with a 
small part of Cardross and Luss on the east, but exclusive of Glenfruin, and a part of the coast of 

' Kilmahew charters, apud M'Farlan MSS. ^ Roberts. Ind., 141, 50. 

- Book of Assumption. » Reg. de Passelet, p. 114. 

^ Regist. de Levenax, pp. 91, 92. '» Reg. de Passelet, p. 308. 

■* Charters of Kilmahew. » Reg. de Passelet, p. i!09. 

^ Reg. Mag. Sig., Roberts. Ind. '^ R^g ^^ Passelet, p. 346. 

° Compot. Camerar. Fordun. Barbour. '^ Reg. de Levenax, p. 14. 
■ Roberts. Ind., 42, 15. 



28 ORIGINES [rosneath and row. 

the Gareloch, which of old belonged to Cardross. The modern parish of Rosneath consists of 
Rosneath proper, the peninsula formed by the Firth of Clyde, Loch Long, and the Gareloch. 
The country people still call it " the island." The modern parish of Row, on the eastern side of 
the Gareloch, rises from the shore in two ridges, one of which skirts the waters of the Gareloch 
and Loch Long, reaching elevations of more than 2000 feet ; the eastern ridge tends northward for 
several miles till it joins the other. The valley between them is Glenfruin. The eastern ridge 
and Glenfruin were not within the boundary of the ancient parish of Rosneath. 

The ancient church of Neueth, which is said to have been dedicated to St. Nicholas, was 
situated on the Ros or promontory in the district of Neueth. At a short distance from the castle 
of Rosneath, it stood close by the shore, upon the site of the present church ;i and, deriving its 
name from its situation, was, from the earliest notices of it, indifferently called the church of 
Neueth, or the church of Rosneth. At a much later period the parish was known as " the parochine 
without and within the isle." About 1620, Parliament was petitioned to transport the kirk of 
Rosneath to the lands of Ardinconnel on the mainland;^ and between 1643 and 1648, the 
boundaries between it and Cardross were settled, and the new parish of Row was erected out of 
them. 

At what time the church of Neueth was founded is uncertain. The earliest notice of it occurs 
in the grant which Alwyn Earl of Lennox made to the church of Kilpatrik before 1199, and 
which was witnessed by Blichael Gilmodyn parson of Neueth.3 Amelec, (also called Auleth,) 
a younger son of Alwyn, and who seems to have had this district as his inheritance, granted the 
church of Rosneth, with all its just pertinents, in pure and perpetual alms, to the monks of Paisley, 
to be held by them as freely as their other churches, actjuired by gift of the patrons.^ This 
grant was confirmed by Amelec's brother. Earl Maldoven,^ and subsequently by king Alexander 
at Trefquer, on the 12th of March 1225.^ About the same time Amelec granted a salt pan in 
his land of Rosneth to the monks of Paisley, and to this gift Nevinus, parson of Neueth, and 
Gilmothan, son of the sacristan of Neueth, are witnesses.' In the settlement of a dispute which 
arose between Walter bishop of Glasgow, and AVilliam abbot of Paisley, regarding the vicarial 
churches held by the monks in the diocese of Glasgow, and which the bishop, acting under a 
recent statute of General Council, was grievously oppressing, it was appointed by amicable com- 
positors in the church of Peblis on Tuesday before the Feast of St. Martin 1227, that the church 
of Neueth should be ceded to the monks in proprios usus, and exempted from the payment of 
procurations, on condition that they should present to the church a fit secular chaplain, who should 
answer to the bishop de EjnscopaUbus.^ 

At the head of the Gareloch, in that part of the parish which was called the mainland, 
stood a chapel, whose ruined walls and burying- ground may still be seen, not far from the castle of 
Faslan.9 Near the coast there is a burn and a farm, which Bleau has marked Kirkmichael, 

' Wallace, B. 9, 1470. " Reg. de Passelet, p. 210. 

^ Act. Pari. iii. 607. ' Reg. de Passelet. p. 211. 

' Reg. de Passelet, p. 157. ° Reg. de Passelet, pp. 321-324. 

* Reg. de Passelet, p. 209. *• Thomson's Atlas. 

5 Ibid. 



ROSNEATH AND BOW.] PAROCHIALES. 29 

where, also, there was a place or worship ; and several other places, in Rosneath proper, have 
names, and are connected with traditions, which indicate religious sites. Examples of these are 
Kilcragin and Portkill, in a field adjacent to which several stone coffins have been found. It 
has been supposed — but apparently without sufficient evidence — that the Earls of Lennox founded 
here a religious house of canons regular, and dedicated it to the Virgin Mary.i 

In the Libellus Taxationum, the rectory and the vicarage are estimated at £40. They were 
let in 1561 for £146, 13s. 4d.2 

Most of this part of the lordship of Lennox belonged to Amelec, who, on the last of Hay 1225, 
received from king Alexander at Cadihou, a confirmation of the grant which his brother Jlaldoven 
Earl of Levenax made to him of the lands of Neved, Glanfrone, Moigliag, Letblaan, Ardereran, 
Kilmeagdh.a, and Dolenchen, to be held of the said Jlaldoven.s In 1351, Donald Earl of Lennox 
confirmed to Walter de Fosselane, the donation which Malcolm Earl of Lennox granted to Avileth 
lord of Fosselane, of the lands of Keppach, Culgrayne, Caniccskanys, Kyrkmychell, Airdendgappil, 
Arddenaconvell, Letdovald, Bullernok, Fosselane, Glenfrone, and Muleig, together with all the 
lands and offices acquired by Walter within the said earldom, especially the office of forester of 
the woods of Levenax, and the office of Tossachiorschip of Levenax, both purchased from Patrik 
Lyndissay.* 

This lordship was soon divided into various possessions. The lands of Faslan, and the lands 
of Ardincapel, on the east side of the Gareloch, had each become the property and residence of a 
baronial family in the 13th century. Several of the clan Macfarlane settled in the northern 
extremity of the territory of Amelec ; while the shores of Loch Long and the Gareloch side were 
peopled by a colony of Colquhouns. The barons of Ardincapel, who afterwards took the name 
of Macaulay, were the proprietors of that district during the wars of the succession. The great 
quarter of Porthnelane between Knokgour and Rossvue, together with Ardach and Tulchane, were 
in the possession of a family of Oliphant, at the end of the fourteenth century.5 In the reign of 
Robert II., the lands of Rosneth were granted by Mary, the widowed Countess of Monteith, to 
John de Drommond, and by him given to Alexander de Menteth.^ They were legally annexed 
to the Crown along with the castle of Dumbarton in 1455 ; but Colin, first Earl of Argyll, 
Chancellor of Scotland, had a charter of the lands of Rosneth, under the Great Seal, 9th Jan. 1489.' 

There was an ancient fort, whose ruins may still be seen upon the shores of Loch Long ; and 
there is reason to believe that the castle of Rosneath existed as a royal castle, before the end of 
the 12th century. It is said to have been destroyed by Wallace ; and his name is still given to 
a rock in the neighbourhood. Parts of the present castle of Ardincapel are said to be as old as the 
12th century. A green mound alone marks the spot where the castle of Faslane stood; and near 
the modern house of Shaudon are traces of another castle, called Old Dun. 

^ Spotiswood. 5 Regist. de Levenax, p. 55. 

- Book of Assumption. « Reg. Mag. Sig., 134, 3. 

' Reg. de Levenax, p. 92. ' Reg. Mag. Sig. 
* Reg. de Levenax, p. 93. 



30 ORIGINES [luss and arhochae. 

LUSS and ARROCHAK. 

Luss. Deanery of Lennox. (Map I. No. 7.) 

The ancient parish of Luss compreheuded the present parishes of Luss and Arrochar, with parts 
of Buchanan and Bouhill. 

By an Act of Privy Council in 1621, the detached lands of Buchanan were disjoined from the 
parish of Luss, and annexed to Inchcailloch ; and the lands of Auchindenan, Cameron, Stockrogert, 
and Tullichewin, wore disjoined from it about 1650, and united to Bonhill. In 1658 Arrochar was 
erected into a separate parish. The lands of Caldanach, Prestelloch, and Couglens, forming at 
one time a part of the parish of Inchcailloch, are now annexed to the parish of Luss, which also 
includes ecclesiastically the lands of Bannachrae, that properly belong to Row. 

Although there can be no doubt that the church of Luss is of much greater antiquity, there is 
no notice found of it till about the middle of the 1 3th century, when its patronage was confirmed 
by Maldoven Earl of Lennox, to Maldoven dean of Lennox, and his son Gillemore.^ The parish 
was a rectory ; and the rectors of Luss occur as witnesses in several ancient charters.^ Between 
1426 and 1432, John Cameron, bishop of Glasgow, erected this church, with consent of its patron, 
John de Collequhone, lord of Luss, into a prebend of his cathedral. It was agreed that the patron 
and his successors should have the right of presenting to the prebend ; and that the cure of the 
parish should be served by a vicar pensionar bound to make continual residence, whose provision 
and collation should belong to the bishop, and who should receive a yearly pension of twenty 
merks.3 In bishop John's statutes of 1432, the prebendary of Luss is taxed nine merks for support 
of the choral vicars of the cathedral.* 

The church of Luss was dedicated to St. Kessog or Makkessog, bishop and confessor in the 
province of Boina, who is said to have been a native of Lennox.^ He died in 560, and was buried in 
the ancient church of Luss,'' which seems to have stood on the site of the present church, about a 
mile to the south of which there existed, as late as 1796, the remains of a large cairn, called 
" Carn Machiasog," or the cairn of St. Kessog. On the 6th of March 1316, Robert the Bruce 
confirmed to John de Luss, knight, a charter by Malcolm Earl of Lennox, in which he granted, 
for the honour of his patron, the most holy St. Kessog, to his beloved and faithful bachelor, 
(baculario,) Sir John of Luss, freedom from exactions for the Royal household during the King's 
progresses (prisas captiones seu carragia) within the lands of Luss, and exemption from appear- 
ing as witnesses (ratione testimonii perhibendi) before the king's justiciar.' 

A dependent chapel stood at the mouth of the Enrick, near the residence of the lairds of 
Buchanan.^ There was another chapel at Rossdhu, which had an endowed chaplainry ; and at 
Auchnaheglish, now Belritiro, in Bonhill, there was a burying-ground, used within the last 
century, in which tradition says there were the foundations of an ancient church or chapel. 

^ Reg. de Levenax, p. 96. ^ Acta Sanctorum x Marcii. 

- Reg. de Levenax, pp. 24, 45, 71. ° Acta Sanctoram x Marcii. 

^ Reg. de Glasg., p. 340. ^ Reg. de Levenax, p. 21. 

" Reg. de Glasg., p. 347. ' Bleau. 



LUSS AND ARROCHAR.] PAROOHIALES. 31 

The rectory is estimated at £ 160 in Baiamond's tax roll, and at £136 in the taxation of the 
16th century. Before the Reformation, the vicar's pension was raised from twenty to twenty-four 
merks a-year.i In 1561, the parsonage and vicarage were let together for £173, 6s. 8d.- The 
revenues of the endowed ehaplainry of Luss, which was founded probably in the parish church, 
extended yearly to the sum of twenty merks. It had the lands of Craiginly and le Muir, with the 
multure of the two miUs of Luss and Finlawis, which were let in feu ferm to Adam Colquhoun 
in 1556. The rental of our Lady's Chapel of Rosdew, which had a cemetery attached to it, and 
possessed certain rents in the town of Dumbarton, amounted in 1561 to ten merks.3 

The lands of Luss were granted by Earl Alwin to Maldoven dean of Lennox, before 1225. 
From the recognition of Earl Maldoven, it appears that he had taken, and had for some time kept 
possession unjustly, of the three lower quarters of the lands of Luss, called Achadhtulech, Dunlin, 
and Inuerlaueran, and of the other quarter which lies on the west of Luss. Becoming penitent, he 
recognised the right of dean Blaldoven and his son Gillemore, and gave them a confirmation on all 
the lands of Luss, except the land contained between Cledhebh and Banbrath, with its islands. 
The grant is described by the following boundaries ; from Aid Suidheadhi, and from Laueran to 
lower Duueglas, as the said Duueglas falls from the mountain into Lochlomne, on the one side, and 
from the head of the said Laueran, across by the summit of the mountains to the lower just 
boundary between the land of Luss and the land of Nemhedh, (Rosneath,) as it descends into 
Loch Long, on the other side, thence to Aid Bealach Nascamche, as the same Aid Bealach Nas- 
camche descends into Loch Long ; and from the head of the said Aid Bealach Nascamche, right 
across to the said Duueglas, as it falls into Lochlomne. He also granted and confirmed to them 
Frechelan, Elan Rosduue, and Ines Domhnoch. For the whole of this territory, the dean and 
his heirs paid to the earl, when with the king's host, two cheeses out of every house where 
cheese was made, and they were burdened with as much of the common service to be done to tlie 
king, as pertained to two arochor', or a carucate and a half of land, in the earldom of Lennox.^ 
This grant was subsequently confirmed by the same earl to Gillemore, the son of dean Maldoven, 
and to Maldoven the son of Gillemore. 

In 1277, Maurice lord of Luss granted to the church of Glasgow, whatever timber might be 
required for the tower and treasury (Campanile et thesauraria) of the cathedral, and protection to 
all those who should be employed in cutting, preparing, and carrying it ; and pasturage for their 
horses and oxen while employed in the work.^ In the end of the thirteenth century, Blalcolm, 
Earl of Lennox, transferred to Sir -John of Luss, the homage and service of Maldofen Macgille- 
mychelmore and his heirs, and of Gillchrist Maccrystine and his heirs, due for the whole land of 
Banwrith, with the islands of Innesconogaig and Elanclew ; for a reddendo of two cheeses from 
every house where cheese is made, when the King's host is levied.^ 

Notwithstanding the apparent distinctness of the boundaries of Maldoven's grant, its real extent 
is uncertain. It is doubtful whether it embraced on the north the whole of modern Arrochar, or 

' Book of Assumption. ■* Reg. de Levenax, pp. 19, 97, 08. 

- Book of Assumption. ' Reg. de Glasg., p. 191. 

^ Book of Assumption. ^ Reg. de Levenax, p'. 20. 



32 ORIGINES [buchanan. 

whether it contained the quarter and half-quarter land known as Macgilchrist's land, and as the 
upper plough of the lands of Luss, which lay between the rivulets called Dywach and Aldanchwlyn 
on the one side, and those called Hernane, Henys, and Trostane, on the other ; and which, with 
the islands of Elanvow, Elanvauow, Elandouglas, and Elaig, long formed a separate possession, 
granted before 1 425, by Duncan Earl of Lennox, to Duncan the son of Malcolm Makfarlane, lord 
of Arrochar, for his homage and service.^ It certainly did not embrace on the south the lands of 
Tulewyn and Stukeroger, on the water of Leven, which were given by Earl Donald to Walter de 
Fosselane, and his son Duncan -^ nor the forty pound land of Buchanan, which lay detached on 
the other side of the lake. The same earl granted to Maurice de Buchquhanane, the plough land 
of Buchquhanane, extending from Kelyn to Aldinarr, as the latter falls in below the water of 
Hannerch, together with Sallachy, extending from Sallachy to Kelg, as it falls into Lochlomond.s 
The village of Luss, and the house or castle of Rosdhu, with its chapel and cemetery, are of con- 
siderable antiquity ; and at Buchanan, where there was once a chapel, there must have been also 
a baronial residence of ancient date. 

BUCHANAN Parish. 

Inchecaloch.'' Deanery of Lennox. (Map I. No. 8.) 

Inchcailyoch, a remarkable island of Lochlomond, gave name to an ancient parish, including 
the whole of the present parish of Buchanan, except the forty pound lands of Buchanan at the 
south-east end. The island is mentioned by Fordun, as in his time the site of a parish church. 
The ancient church of Inchcailyoch stood near the shore of the island, and was in use subsequent 
to 1621. It was dedicated to Kentigerna, a holy widow, sister of St. Congan, and mother of 
St. Fillan, who retired to this island for devotion in her old age, and died there in the odour of 
sanctity. Her festival was observed on the 7th of January. The island was sometimes called 
Inchcalyerth S. Kentigerne f and it was also known by the traditionary name of Kildarie.'^ 

A current tradition, which assigns this island as the site of an ancient nunnery, seems to rest 
on no better foundation than the name, which is said to mean ' the isle of old women.' There is 
no record nor any other trace of such a foundation. 

Inchcailyoch was a free rectory, and is taxed in Baiamond's roll at 6tJ26, 13s. 4d. It is massed 
in the taxation of the 16 th century, with the vicarage of Kilpatrik and the prebends of Corstor- 
phine and Abernethy. In the compt of the Collector of thirds, 1561, the third of the parsonage 
of Inchecalyeoch is stated at £13, 6s. 8d. 

The ancient parish comprised, besides the isle of Inchcailyoch, most of the neighbouring islands, 
and a high mountainous tract on the eastern shore of the lake, including the ridge of Benlomond. 
In 1621, it was increased by the annexation of the forty pound lands of Buchanan, which 
were, by an act of Privy Council, disjoined from Luss. 

' Reg. de Levenax, p. fi2. * Fordun, ii. 10. 

- Reg. de Levenax, p. 92. . = Martyrol. Aljt-rdon. 

^ Keg. de Levenax, p. 57. ° Macfarlane MSS. 



KiLMARONOK.] PAROCHIALES. 33 

The notices of the transmission of the property included in this parish are few. Malcolm 
Fleming, Earl of AVigton, gave the island of Inchcailyoch in the lake of Lochloume, and the 
advocation of its church, to John Danielstoun, who had a royal confirmation of them in the reign 
of David II.i Cragtrostane, extending to a ten pound land, and the park of Rossemurrys, were 
granted by Donald Earl of Lennox to Walter de Fosselane and his heirs, and were confirmed to 
them by the king, on the 2d of May 1360.2 

The wonderful beauty of Lochlomoud had rendered it the subject of romantic exaggeration and 
fable, before men had thought of- the real grounds of their admiration, or acknowledged the power 
of scenery. Geoffrey of Monmouth, and the interpolator of Nennius, describe the " stagnum 
Lumonoi" as one of the chief wonders of Britain. According to this report, it had 310 islands, 
peopled by men, and 340 surrounding rocks, inhabited by eagles, and 340 rivers poured their 
waters into it, while out of it there flowed but the Leven. They also notice a small lake called 
Gueverlie, not far from Lochlomond, famous for four kinds of fishes, each of which reserved to 
itself one of the four banks of the lake.-'*- 

An old tradition asserts, that Lochlomond did not originally extend below Rowardenan, and 
that all from thence to the Leven was inhabited country, until it was overflowed by a sudden 
irruption. To confirm the truth of this tradition, it is averred that several judicious men, who 
have traded on the lake, have observed in different places, when the water was low, during the 
drought of summer, the ruins of houses, on which their laden boats have often struck. M'Farlane 
the antiquary of the last century, tells us, that upon a point of land which runs into the north 
part of the loch, and is called Easkell, there is the ruin of an old building of a circular shape, and 
in circumference about sixty paces, which is constructed of very large whinstones without cement. 
The superstition of the Highlanders has discovered in Lochlomond, in common with many other 
of our northern lakes, a suitable abode for the Hippopotamus or water-horse, who visits the shores 
of the lake chiefly round the mouth of the Endriek.-* 

Cragtrostane is remarkable for several caves. One of these is commonly called king Robert's 
cave, where, after his defeat at Dalrie, in Strathfillan, Bruce is said to have taken refuge for some 
time, until he was enabled to cross the lake. Other occupants found shelter there at a later 
time ; and they became the favourite haunts of marauding freebooters, and especially of the land- 
less and proscribed clan of M'Gregor, whose " hand was against every man." 



KILMARONOK. 

Kilmerannok'^ — Kilmoronok.^ Deanery of Lennox. (Map I. No. 9.) 

The old parish of Kilmaronok consisted of the coast of Lochlomond between the Leven and 
Endrick, comparatively level and fertile along the shore, but rising inland in two' small ridges on 

' Robertson's Index, 30, 10. < Macfarlane MSS. 

- Reg. de Levenax, p. 3. s Reg. de Levenax, p. .53. 

3 Nennius, ch. 74. o Reg. de Cambuskenneth, f. 101. 



34 ORIGINES [kilmaronok. 

the west and south, and having in the centre of the parish the singular conical hill of Duncryne. 
It contained the lands of Balloch, Milton, Blairquhois, (now Westerton,) and Lesdrestbeg, 
which were annexed to Bonhill about 1650. 

The church of Kilmaronok was probably originally a free parsonage, in the gift of the Earls 
of Lennox, whose ancient residence was within the parish. There is, however, no record of it 
before 1324., when, on the IGth of January, Robert I., who was then at Scone with his nobles, and 
shortly afterwards held a Parliament there, granted the church to the abbay of Cambuskynneth 
in proprios usus. On the 22d of November 1325, John Bishop of Glasgow, at the king's 
special request, confirmed that grant to the monks, together with the lands, tithes, and other 
pertinents, belonging to the church, on condition that the cure should be served by a perpetual 
vicar, who should be inducted by the bishop, and should pay all ordinary burdens and his 
share of the extraordinary, according to his portion of the benefice. Both these grants were 
ratified by the chapter of Glasgow in 1327, on Friday after the feast of the translation of St. 
Thomas the Martyr; and by Pope John XXII. at Avignon, on the 22d of -June, in the 18th 
year of his pontificate. It was not till 1328, that the monks of Cambuskynneth enjoyed the full 
benefit of these transactions. John de Lyndsay, the last rector of Kilmaronok, having then 
resigned his charge, bishop John addressed a letter, on Tuesday before the feast of St. Barnabas, 
to the dean of Christianity of Lennox, for giving possession to the monks of the vacant 
benefice. Maurice, the perpetual vicar of Kilmaronok, who was also dean of Christianity of 
Lennox,! appeared as defendant in an action brought against him before the official's court of 
Glasgow, by the convent of Cambuskynneth, for the payment of procurations. An amicable 
composition was concluded between the parties on the last of January 1351 ; the vicar agreeing 
to pay henceforth all procurations due, when a canonical visitation should be made, and the abbot 
bearing the expense incurred by their litigation. In 1507, John Napar was appointed to the 
vicarage of Kilmaronok on the resignation of Andrew Quhiteheid, who was translated to the 
rectory of Auldkrathy. On his death, the abbot presented Richard Striueling, a priest, who 
received possession on the 15th May 1522, from Alexander Lilburn, curate of Kilmaronok, by 
delivery to him of the door-key, a chalice and paten, and the missal used at the high altar. 
Having been resigned by Walter Malvile, on his appointment to the office of parish-clerk of St. 
Patrick's of Strogeith, it was afterwards bestowed upon Robert Grahame, a priest of Dunblane. 
He was translated to the vicarage of Drymen, and was succeeded by Maurice Clerk, who, on 
the 15th of July 1527, was put in possession, by delivery to him of the door-key, the font lock, 
{seramfontis,) the vestments of the high altar, and a chalice and missal.^ 

The ancient church was situated in the north of the parish, at a short distance from the old 
castle of Kilmaronok. It was dedicated to St. Maronoch or Marnock, who was also the guardian 
saint of a neighbouring well. Another church or chapel must have been planted at Ballagan, 
where the remains of an old building, called Shan Eccles, or Old Kirk, may still be seen. Near 
this place were found, in the last century, three stone chests, after the form of malt steep 
troughs ; in one of which there was an uruj containing a liquid matter like oil, in another, a 

^ Reg. de Levenax, pp. 53, 6'2. - Reg. de Cambuskyn., f. 100-112. 



KiLMARONOK,] PAROCHIALES. -35 

similar urn with ashes, and in the third, several human bones, of a very large size.' A chapel, 
still known as St. Mirren's chapel — marking, by the name of its patron saint, some old connexion 
with the Abbey of Paisley — stands now in ruins, upon Inchmuryn, the largest island of Lochlo- 
mond, and is probably of much older date than the castle erected there by the old Earls of 
Lennox.^ 

The value of the vicarage is estimated in the Libellus Taxationum at £6, 1 3s. 4d. ; and of the 
rectory at £26, 13s. 4d. In 1561, the rectory was let for a hundred merks.'' 

The parish seems to have been early subdivided among the vassals of Lennox. Balloch, which 
contained the chief residence of the earls, extended alone to but a five pound land. A separate 
property was formed out of the lands which lay round the castle and mains of Kilmaronok. 

In the year 1320, Sir Malcolm Fleming, steward of the King's household, and Sheriff of Dum- 
barton, while rendering his account of" the tenth penny'' and " the contribution for the peace," out 
of his county, did not state the rents of the land of Kymeromok, " because they were in his hands 
for his life, for the keeping of the Castle of Dunbarton."^ 

About the time when the castle of Dumbarton was resigned into the hands of Alexander II., 
the Earls of Lennox seem to have had a residence at Gathers, where they established the principal 
seat of their jurisdiction. Earl Malcolm granted the lands of Blarvotych and Drumfynvoich, 
with court of bloodwits, " which is called in Scotch fuUrat/t," to Kessan Young, for the yearly pay- 
ment, at Hallowmas, at Gather, of twenty stones of cheese, according to the weight of the stone of 
Lothian.5 His successor Donald, gave the lands of Buchquhanane and Sallachy to Maurice de 
Buchquhanane, and allowed him the privilege of holding courts of life and limb within the said 
lands, on condition that all convicted of capital crimes should be executed at the carl's gallows 
of Gather — ad /ureas nostras de Catlier^ The moot hill of Gather, a large artificial mound, is 
still entire. 

Balloch about the same period became the chief castle of the Earls of Lennox. Maldoven, who 
surrendered Dumbarton to the Grown, dates a charter from it, in favour of the monks of Paisley, 
as early as the 3d of May 1238.'' Its " situation was central and convenient, possessing facilities 
alike of defence and access, from Lochlomond and the Leven. The moat and fosse may still be 
distinctly traced in the lawn of Balloch castle, but no remains of the building are recollected." The 
castle of Balloch was abandoned before the close of the fourteenth century, for that which had been 
newly erected on Inchmuryn. Many of the charters of Duncan the last of the old Earls of 
Lennox, are dated from this retreat.^ It was held by James Stewart, the Regent Murdach's 
youngest son, after the execution of his grandfather Duncan; but on the 8th of June 1425, was 
surrendered to John Montgomery, who had been ordered by the king to reduce it.^ It was, 
however, subsequently inhabited by Isabella Duchess of Albany, Duncan's eldest daughter, and 
Countess of Lennox in her own right, who here, on the 18th of May 1451, with the consent of her 

' Macfarlane MSS. " Reg. de Levenax, p. SG. 

- Reg. de Levenax, pp. 45, 59. ~* Regist. de Paaselet, p. 161. 

^ Book of Assumption. ^ Reg. de Levenax, pp. 45, 59, b"0. 

■* Compot. Camerar. ^ Fordun, xvi. 11. 

•'■ Reg. de Levenax, p. 45. 



36 ORIGINES [bonhill. 

sister Margaret lady of Rusky, granted the lands of Balagane, in the parish of Kilmaronok, to the 
Friars Preachers of Glasgow, for the weal of the souls of herself, her husband jMurdac Duke of 
Albany, her father Duncan Earl of Lennox, and her sons, Walter, James, and Alexander.i After 
her death it was rarely occupied. 

Within the parish of Kilmaronok was situated also the ancient castle of Batturret or Baturrich, 
whose ruins are seen on the side of the lake. 



BONHILL. 

Buthelulle=— BuUuP— BohtluP— BuchluL' Deanery of Lennox. (MapI.No. 10.) 

About the year 1650, Auchendennan, Cameron, Stockrogert, and Tullichewen, were disjoined 
from Luss, and added to the ancient territory of the parish of Bonhill on the west ; and, at the 
same time, it received from Kilmaronok the lands of Balloch, Milton, Blairquhois, Ballagan, and 
Ledrestheg, on the east. 

This parish is first mentioned in a grant by Forveleth, daughter of Kerald, in her widowhood, 
confirmed by Maldoven, Earl of Lennox, c. 1270, of the land of Hachenkerach, in the parish of 
Buthelulle, for the support of the fabric of the church of Glasgow.^ Donald, sixth Earl of Len- 
nox, in the middle of the fourteenth century, granted to Robert de Dunbretane, clerk, for his 
faithful aid and counsel, all the lands of upper Bullul, which lay adjacent to'the church of Bul- 
lul, and were to be held by the said Robert and his heirs, until the earl should pay to them at 
Dunbretane, between sunrise and sunset of one day, the sum of £40 sterling.'' The church was 
probably a free parsonage under the patronage of the Earls of Lennox. It was given to the colle- 
giate church of Dumbarton in 1450, by Isabella the unfortunate Duchess of Albany.* 

The living was very small, and we know nothing, with certainty, of its early administration. In 
later times the cure was served by a perpetual vicar pensionar. In the rental of the provostry 
of Dumbarton for 1561, the parsonage of Bullul is valued at five chalders meal. The vicarage 
was given up at ten merks, with a chamber, an acre of land, and the ofierings which were then 
" decayit."^ The compt of the collector-general of thirds in 1561, states the third of the vicarage 
at £2, 4s. 5jd. 

The boundaries of the ancient parish were very circumscribed, and its population was small. 
Before its enlargement in 1650, it had only 120 communicants. At that time it consisted chiefly 
of the lands of Buchnul on the Leven, which marched with the lands of Tulechewyne, and were 
granted, in the early part of the fourteenth century, by Earl Malcolm to his relative Patrick, son 
of Hugh de Lindsay, upon whom he also bestowed the oflices of Toshecujor, or hereditary bailie, 
and forester of Lennox.^'* Earl Donald confirmed his father's grant to the son of Patrick 

' Lib. Col. N.D. Glasg., p. 171. " Regist. Glas., p. 145. 

-' Regist. Glasg. ' R«g- de Levenax, p. 68. 

3 Reg. de Levenax, p. 68. " See Dumbarton. 

* Reg. de Passelet, p. 216. " Book of Assumption. 

5 Reg. de Passelet, p. '212. '" Keg. de Levenax, pp. 49, 50. 



DRYMEN.] PAROOHIALES. 37 

Lindsay, describing tiie land by the following boundaries : the whole land of Buchnwl on Lewyne, 
lying between the rivulet which is called Pocheburne, and the Blindsyke, on the north side of 
Carmane, and so descending to the Ilalyburne ; and from the Halyburne to the old causey which 
lies beyond the moss, and descending thence to the water of Lewyne.i The parish, however, 
comprised other properties. Upper Bullul, which lay nearest to the church, has already been 
noticed. The " quarter" of BuUulis, bordering upon the laud of Bellach, was granted by Walter Fitz- 
Alan, then lord of Lennox, to Duncan Naper, lord of Kylmahew, for homage and service done by 
John Naper, his father, to Malcolm Earl of Lennox. Duncan also obtained the right of grinding 
free of multure, at the mill of Balloch, on condition of allowing a water run through his lands.^ 
These various possessions seem to have been afterwards known as the eight pound lands of Bonyle 
Lyndsay, the fifty shiUing lands of Bonyle Noble, or Noblestoun, and the ten merk lands of Bonyle 
Naiper.'* 

The Leven, which flows through the parish, was early celebrated for its salmon fishings ; its 
banks were fertile in grain, while its upper grounds abounded in wood and pasture. Before 
1225, Robert Hertford, precentor of Glasgow, in the near prospect of death, bequeathed his body 
to the house of Paisley, where he chose for himself a place of sepulture; and with the assent of 
GeoflTry, his nephew and heir, he granted to the monks the land and fishing of Lynbren in Lennox. 
Earl Maldoven confirmed to the monks of Paisley, the grant of Robert Hertford, of the half fishing 
of Lynbren or Leveyn-brenyn, together with the land of Dallenlenrath, lying between the said 
fishing and the great road to Dunbertan, as it had been granted to them by the earl in excambion 
for the acre of land Which he gave Robert Hertford, with the half of the fishing of Lynbren. They 
also obtained from the same earl, the other half of the yare, with pasture for eight oxen and two 
horses in his land of Buchlul, together with the liberty of taking stones, materials for build- 
ing, and fuel, from any part of his property they pleased. And he gave them a right of fishing 
over the whole of his lake of Leven, without any impediment ; with the privilege of drying their 
nets, and of erecting houses and shielings for their fishermen, on the islands of the lake, or on any 
part of the surrounding territory.'* 

DRYMEN. 

Drumyn^ — Drummane.*' Deanery of Lennox. (Map I. No. 11.) 
Drymes is di-v-ided into two parts, by a tract of moorland and mountainous country, which 
stretches from the eastern extremity to the north-west of the parish. Its northern division forms 
a portion of the basin or vale of the Forth ; its southern is situated within the valley of the 
Clyde ; and between the two lies the bog of Ballat, one of the lowest summit levels between the 
east and west coasts of Scotland. The low flat called Flanders Moss, begins in the north-east of 
the parish, and extends along the Forth to Stirling. 

' Reg. de Levenax, p. 51. ' Reg- de Passelet, pp. 211, 212. 

- Reg. de Levenax, pp. 69-71. ' Reg. de Levenax, p. 91. 

^ Reg. de Levenax, p. 101. '' Reg. de Levena.x, p. 31. 



38 ORIGINES [drymen. 

This parish was a free rectory in the early part of the thirteenth century. On the 2d of 
March 1 238, Gilbert parson of Drumyn, witnessed a charter at Fyntrie, by which Maldoven Earl 
of Lennox granted three carucates of the land of Kyncaith and Buthernockis to William Galbraith,! 
and another charter of the same earl. In later times, it became a mensal church of the bishops. In 
the rental of the arclibishoprick of Glasgow, given up under the act for assuming the thirds of bene- 
fices, 1561, one article is " the kirk of Drymyne sett to Johne Schaw in theyeir for the sowme of 
eight score pundis." 

Drumakill, beside Spittal, is by some supposed to have been the site of the old church, which, 
however, would rather seem to have been situated at Knocknaheglaish, on the lands of Finnich 
Drummond. In this neighbourhood there is a remarkable well, called St. Vildrin's well, perhaps 
a corruption of St. Vininus, to whom Kilwinning was dedicated. The well is still ornamented 
with an image, said to be of its patron saint ; and in consequence of the healing virtues which 
the opinions of a less enlightened age ascribed to it, is often visited in modern times, " throu 
the pervers inclinatioun of niannis ingyne to superstitioun," by pilgrims who profess little vene- 
ration for the ancient faith. 

The names of other places in the parish indicate the former existence of religious foundations. 
On the barony of Drummond, in the north of the parish, there is a place called Chapel-Iarach, 
(chapel site,) where there was an ancient chapel, whose ruins were standing in 1724.2 It is said 
to have been dedicated to the Virgin, and to have been dependent on Inchmahome.^ In its 
vicinity lies Dalmary, or Mary's field. Four places are named Spittal. One is situated in the 
north of the parish, not far from Chapel-laroch ; another, in the north-east, near Auchentroig and 
Auldwalls ; the third lies on the borders of Balfron on the east, and is called Spittal Ballat ; 
and the fourth is in the south, on the Craigivanan burn. In the enumeration of the different 
properties belonging to John Cunnynghame of Drumquhassill, who was served heir to his father in 
1601, mention is made of the forty penny lands of the Spittal of Arngibbon, and of the lands of 
the Spittal of Druman, called Cragynschedraiche, with the common pasture of the same.* The Spittal 
lands of Druman, called Craiginch-lodrach, occur along with the Spittal lands of Finnesk-tennent, 
and those of Finnesk-blair, in a retour of James Marquis of Montrose, which is dated 1 3th Feb- 
ruary 1685. 

It is supposed that the name of the parish of Drymen, was originally identical with that of the 
barony of Drummond, which lies within it, and from which the family of Drummond is said to 
have derived its surname. Persons deriving their designation from the lands of Drummond, are 
frequent witnesses in the early charters of the Earls of Lennox ; and the family appear to have 
held various lands in the earldom, as well as offices in the household of the great Earls of Lennox, 
at an early period, and until they migrated to the earldom of Stratherne.' 

In the thirteenth century, Malcolm Earl of Lennox granted to Arthur Galbraith and his heirs, 
that quarter of the lands of Buchmonyn, (Balfunning,) which is nearest to the land of Blarne- 
fode, and that half-quarter of the land of Gilgirinane, which is nearest to Cartonewene and 

• Reg. de Levenax, p. 30. ■* Inqiiisit. Special,, p. 32. 

- Macfarlane MSS. * Regist. de Levenax. 

3 Macgregor, App. 



BALFRON.] PAROCHIALES. 39 

Tyrwaldouny, for as much service in the king's foreign service as ought to be rendered for a 
quarter of land in Lennox in the Scotch service.^ The quarter of land called Cronverne, and the 
quarter called Buchmonyn, bordering upon the land of Ballatt, were granted along with Blarefode, 
which is adjacent to the lands of Cromverne, by Earl Malcolm to Gilbert de Carrie, son and heir 
of the late Sir Gilbert de Carrie, knight, for his service.- Michael Mackessane and his heirs 
received from the same earl the lands of Garruchel and Buohlat, for which they were to make 
but one suit, and that by the person of a single suitor.3 Jlackessane held also the three quarter 
lands of Blarindess, Auchintroig, and Garthclachach in Garchellis, which were afterwards con- 
firmed by Earl Duncan to Arthur the son of Andrew the son of Nigel, and to Celestine Mac- 
lachlane, for their homage and service, and the yearly reddendo of a pound of pepper, payable at 
Christmas.* 

On the 22d February 1494, Archibald Napier received a charter " of the lands and mill of Gart- 
ness, the lands of Dolnare, Blareour, Gartharne, the two Ballatis, Douchlass, &c., with the woods 
and forests thereof, and the fishings in the waters of Anerieh and Altquhore."^ 

Dochray is mentioned in the Chamberlain Rolls in 1434, as a distinct lordship from that of 
Drummond. 

In the western extremity of the parish, in the barony bf Drummond, the remains of a fort, 
called the Peel of Ganfaoran, may be traced. There are also the remains of an old castle, at a 
place called Drumquhassill — the castle ridge — which appears to have been the residence of an old 
amily of Lany.^ The ancient place of residence of the Drummonds is unknown. 



BALFRON. 

Bafrone" — Balfrone.* Deanery of Lennox. (Map I. No. 12.) 

The parish of Balfron lies on the north bank of the valley of the Endrick. The church and 
clachan stand near the confluence of two small streams which immediately afterwards fall into the 
Endrick on its right bank. 

Its early history is remarkably obscure : it is said to have been given to the abbey of Inch- 
affray, by a younger brother of the house of Drummond, before 1305. In 1607 it is spoken of 
as " ane of the proper kirkis of the said abbacie ;" and, as no mention is made of its vicarage in 
any rental, it was probably served from the time when it was acquired by the monks of Inchafi'ray, 
either by themselves or by a chaplain, whom they appointed and paid.'' 

The rectory of Balfrone is valued in the Libellus Taxationum at £16, 13s. 4d. In 1607, James 
Drummond commendator of Inchaffray, let the parsonage and vicarage teinds, for twenty-one 

■ Reg. de Levenax, p. 29. « Reg. de Levenax, p. 4». 

- Reg. de Levenax, p. 43. ^ Libellus Taxat. 

^ Reg. de Levenax, p. 43. s R^g. de Inchaffray, p. 128. 

* Reg. de Levenax, pp. 75, 76. » Reg. de Inchaffray, p. 128. 

* New Statist. 



40 ORIGINES [killearn. 

years, to Sir James Ciininghame of Glengarnock, knicht, whose " predecessores Lairdis of 
Glengarnock, has bene kyndlie tenentis and takismen in tyme bygane past memorie of man, oflf 
all the parsonage and vicarage teyndis of the Kirk of BaLfrone." For these teinds the laird of 
Glengarnock paid the annual rent of " fourtye markis gude and usuall money of Northt Britane, 
togidder witht fourtene stane of cheis."* 

About a mile distant from the village there is a place called Spittal, which, with another known 
by the name of Ibert, (in Gaelic, sacrifice,) indicates the former existence in the parish of religious 
establishments, whose character and history are now alike unknown. It may be remarked, that 
the parishes of Drymen, Balfron, and Killearn, have each an Ibert, apparently connected in 
some manner with the church and the Spittal. 

This part of the earldom of Lennox is said to have been given to Malcolm Beg, a younger 
brother of Earl JIaldoven, but no authentic record of the grant has been discovered. A half 
quarter of land, called Camkell, in which Rachorkane is situated, and which borders on the land 
of Balinodalach, was granted by Earl Malcolm to Patrick Galbraith in the beginning of the four- 
teenth century.^ The lands of Kilfassane and Ballindallach, held for some time by Duncan de 
Luss, were conferred, after his death, by Malcolm Flerayng, Earl of Wygtone, upon Andrew de 
Cunnino-hame and his heirs.^ Edinbelly, which lies in the parish of Balfron, was held by the 
Napiers before the end of the fifteenth century. 

KILLEARN. 

Kynerine"— Kyllern/ Deanery of Lennox. (Map I. No. 13.) 
About tlie middle of the thirteenth century, Maldoven Earl of Lennox gave the advocation of 
the church of Kynerine, together with the half plough of land on which it stood erected, and which 
in Scotch was called Lecheracherach, to Stephen de Blantyre." 

This benefice was erected into a prebend of the cathedral of Glasgow by bishop John Cameron, 
c. 1430, with consent of its patron, Patrick Lord Graham and lord of Killern, to whom, and his 
heirs, the right of presenting to the newly erected prebend was reserved. From that time the cure 
was served by a perpetual vicar pensioner, who was appointed by the bishop, and received an 
income of fifteen merks annually, together with a manse beside the church, where he was bound 
to make residence, and a small lot of land-«aliqua terrula'-out of its possessions. The pre- 
bendary was taxed three pounds for the support of the cathedral worship; and had also to provide 
a choral vicar, who received ten merks.'' 

A yearly pension of twenty merks was settled upon each of the vicars of the five other churches, 
which were made prebends of Glasgow at the same time with Killearn.^ The council of Oxford, 
under Archbishop Langton, had enacted in 1222 " that perpetual vicars have at least fice marks 

. Reg. de Inchaffray, p. 128. ' R^S-'- G'aBg., P- 340 

^' Reg. de Levenax, p. 31. , R^S; de Levenax, p 3(, 

3 Reg. de Levenax, p. 67. ' R-'S'^'- «: ''^S" ^\lf' ^^■ 

^ Reg. de Levenax. p. 36. R^gist. Glasg., p. 340. 



K.LLEARN.] PAROCHIALES. 41 

assigned them as a stipend ; except in tliose parts of AVales in which, on account of the poverty of 
the churches, vicars are contented with less ;"' and it was ordained in the constitutions of William 
de Bleys in 1229, " that every annual chaplain shall have a competent maintenance, to the value 
of three marks at the least.'"-^ It is not a little remarkable, that the provincial council of 
Scotland, about the same period, ordered " that the sum of ten marks at the least be assigned to 
every vicar, free of all charges, if the revenues of the church can afford it ; and that in richer 
churches, the income of the vicars should be proportioned to their wealth.^ Even this sum was 
soon after increased by one-half; for as early as 1326, a law of the Scotican council is mentioned 
which requires that the vicar have an income of ten pounds, or fifteen marks sterling.'' 

The parsonage and vicarage of Killearn were set together in 1561 for 160 marks, or £106, 
13s. 4d., the sum at which they are valued both in Baiaraond's roll and the Libellus Taxationum 
Regni Scotiae. 

The modern parish of Killearn comprises the greater portion of the southern valley of the 
Endrick, forming a counterpart to the parish of Balfron, which lies on the north. Fertile and flat 
along the banks of this water, it rises by slow degrees into a high bleak moor. 

The land of Kynerine, as given with the patronage of the church to Stephen de Blantyre, Earl 
Malcolm subsequently bestowed on Patrick de Grarae and his heirs, to be held in chief of the 
Earl, as it had been by Stephen. * It is probable that the church was then also given with those 
lands to the Grames, who were certainly its patrons at a later time.^ About the middle of the 
fourteenth century, Donald the sixth earl of Lennox confirmed the whole lands of Eschend, with 
its mill, and the fishing of the Pott, to Andrew de Cunninghame. The grant is described as a 
half-quarter of the land called Renrich, another half-quarter of the land called Garcher, and 
the land called Duncarme, together with the land of Drumtheane.' Murechauch, the son of 
Kork, or Murdach Maokork, as he was sometimes called, who is said to have been a grandson of 
Alwin, Earl of Lennox, had a grant from Thomas de Cremennane, which was subsequently con- 
firmed by Earl Malcolm, about the end of the thirteenth century, of the entire quarter land of 
Groyne, lying between Fynwyk and Kynherin. This grant embraced the usual pertinents, with 
the exception of pleas of life and limb, and theft ; but the escheats arising from these were in- 
cluded in it. He also gave to Mackork the right of erecting a mill on any part of the lands of 
Groyne, of grinding all the grain of Groyne at his mill of Aschend, without any other payment 
than a single firlot out of each chalder, for the service of the miller.'* After his death, a recogni- 
tion was made in the kirk of Kynherin on Friday before the feast of the nativity of John the 
Baptist 1320, in presence of Earl Malcolm, and with his consent, and the consent of Matilda, 
Forveleth and Elizabeth, heirs portioners of the half of the lands belonging to the late Thomas 
de Gremennane, regarding the privileges pertaining to his lands and court, and the dues payable 
to the Earl. The assize, which consisted of thirteen, after examining the charters and muniments 
of the said Thomas, declared that he held a court of life and limb, for himself and his heirs, and 

' Wilkins. ^ R^g^ jg Levenax, p. 38. 

' Wilkins. « Regist. Glasg., p. 340. 
^ Stat. Gen. Eccles. Scot., c. 10. 7 Heg. de Levenax, p. 66. 

^ Reg. de Dryburgh, pp. 296-7. " Regist. de Levenax, pp. 79, 81. 

VOL. I. F 



42 ORIGINES [fintray. 

had a prison for the whole of his lands within the earldom of Lennox, together with all the escheats 
and profits arising from his court; that all the criminals, however, who were condemned at his 
court should be executed at the Earl's gallows ; and that his heirs were bound to pay to the Earl 
for the said half of his lands, two pounds and a half of wax. This payment the Earl remitted in 
exchange for the islands of Creininch, Elanacha, and Elanardnoy.i Besides these, there were 
several other ancient possessions to the east on the upper part of the valley of the Endrick, which 
it is not easy now to identify. 

Remains of ancient buildings are found at the place of Killearn, where the family of Montrose 
had a mansion. Balglass, in the neighbourhood of Ballikinrain, is said to have been anciently a 
well fortified castle, where the patriot "Wallace found a safe retreat. It is also remarkable for the 
semicircular excavations in the western extremity of the Campsie hills, known as the Corries of 
Balglass. Killearn boasts of being the birth-place of Buchanan, who was born at the farm of Moss 
on the banks of the Blane. 



FINTRAY. 

Fjnitrif — Fyntre.- Deanery of Lennox. (Map I. No. 14.) 

TuE parish of Fiutray consists of a portion of the valleys of the Endrick and Carron, and the 
ranges of hills that bound and separate them. The ancient note of the marches of Campsy gives 
it on one side, as a boundary, the rivulet of Fennauch, (a part of the Carron,) which in that place 
divided the parish of Campsy from that of Fintray ; and from thence the marches of the lands of 
Balneglerauch and Glaskell — the former in Fintray, the latter in Campsy.^ 

The ancient church was probably placed where the church stood in 1790, beside a burn on the 
left bank of the Endrick. Some part of that building is said to have been very old. 

Donald, rector of Fintray, witnessed a charter of Earl Malcolm 1333-G4, and a compromise of 
the bishop and chapter of Glasgow in 1362.* The church formed part of the endowment of the 
collegiate church of Dumbarton, confirmed by the Countess of Lennox, and so remained till the 
Reformation. In 1.561, it was let for eighty merks.' 

About the middle of the thirteenth century, Earl Maldoven granted to Luke, the son of Michael 
of Fyntrif, for a reddendo of two pounds of wax, that half Arrochar of Nentbolg, which was 
bounded " on the east as the rivulet called Gyndhame descends from the mountain and runs into 
the Annerech, and on the west as another rivulet, called Bolgy, descends from the mountain and 
falls into the Anneric, and as the Anneric was wont to flow between Bolgy and Gyndhame."^ A 
century later. Earl Donald granted Gilaspic, the son of Macmaldoueny, the son of Alwin, that 
quarter of land which is called Neatbolg Ferdane, lying between Carfbethrune, and Culliachane, for 
the yearly reddendo of a pound of wax.'' 

' Reg. de Levenax, p. 81. * Reg. de Levenax, p. 54. Regist. Glasg., p. 267. 

- Reg. de Levenax, pp. 12, 'M. Regist. Glasg., p. 88. * Book of Assumption. 

^ Regist. Glasg., p. 88. ^ Reg. de Levenax, p. 34. ' Reg. de Levenax, p. 53. 



KILSYTH.] PAEOCHIALES. 43 

There was a manor place or residence at Fintray before ] 338, from which two of Earl Mal- 
doven's charters are dated ; and upon the south side of the Fintray hill, about half a mile from the 
church, are the remains of an old tower, with its mound and fosse, which was in later times the 
residence of the Grahams of Fintray.^ 



KILSYTH. 

Monyabroch — Kclvesyth. Deanery of Lennox.- (Map I. No. 15.) 

This parish was commonly called Monyabroch till after the Reformation, but a large part of the 
district forming the parish was called Kelvesyth as early as the beginning of the thirteenth cen- 
tury.3 The latter name may be held as descriptive of the parish, which consists of a long, narrow 
valley, watered by the Kelvyn, with a tract of hill and moorland on the north. The bottom 
of the valley was of old occupied by a series of lochs, of which the town-head loch (though partly 
artificial) and Dullatur Bog are remains. The ancient notice of the boundaries of Campsy gives as 
one part of the march " the rivulet which runs beside the land of Kelvesyth, and which divides 
the parish of Monyabroc from the parish of Campsy, and so ascending by that rivulet, namely, 
Garcalt, [Garvold,] until one reaches the marches of the lands of Blarenebleschy, which belongs to 
the parish of Monyabroc, and so following the ancient bounds between the land of Blarneblenschy 
and the land of Glaskell, which is within the parish of Campsy until you reach the water of 
Caroun."'' The district between Inchwood burn and the Garvold glen, called the West Barony, 
was detached from Campsy, and added to Kilsyth in 1649. 

The church of Monyabroc was a free parsonage, belonging originally to the family of Lennox, 
and afterwards apparently to the Lords of the Manor. The rectory is valued in Baiamond's taxa- 
tion at £53, 6s. 8d. In the taxation of the sixteenth century, at .£45, 5s. The parsonage and 
vicarage tithes together yielded in 15G1 ten chalders of meal.^ 

The ancient chnrch was situated in the Barwood, where the burn of Abroch rises. There is 
a remarkable spring on the south of Woodend called St. jNIirrin's Well, and another opposite 
Auchinvolle, whose corrupt name seems to point at St. Talarican for its patron. 

In the west barony is a place called Chapel Green, but nothing is known of the religious house 
from which its name is taken ; nor have we any information respecting the dedication of the 
church, unless we found a conjecture upon the names which still attach to the wells of old ob- 
servance. 

On the day of St. Laurence 1216, Maldoven Earl of Lennox, granted to Malcolm son of 
Duncan, with his sister Ela, the lands of Glaswel, and a plough and a half in Kilynsyth, with the 
patronage of the church of Monyabroch ; confirmed by Alexander II. in the second year of his 
reign ; and the same king, on the 26th of August, twenty-fifth year of his reign, granted to the 

' Macfarlane MSS. ^ Regist. Glasg., p. 88. 

^ Eegist. Glasg., pp. Ixvii. 88. * Regist. Glasg., p. 88. ^ Book of Assumption. 



44 ORIGINES [campsy. 

same Malcolm, the lands of Glentarvin, Moiiyabrocb, Kilsyth, and Glasswell, winch he had by the 
gift of the Earl of Lennox, together with the lands of Calynter, in free warren. From the grantee 
of those charters descended the family of Callender, which merged, in the fourteenth century, in 
that of Livingston.! 

The castle of Kilsyth is said to have been held by the Engli.sh in the time of Wallace.- From 
an early period it must have been surrounded by its dependent village. 



CAMPSY. 

Kamsi and Altermunin. Deanery of Lennox.^ (Map I. No. 1(1) 

The parish of Campsy may be described roughly as consisting of the valley and bounding hills 
of the Glassert, a stream rising in a remarkable range of fells in the north, and falling in on the 
right bank of Kelvin. 

Alwyn Earl of Lennox, in the reign of William the Lion, granted to Saint Kentigern and the 
church of Glasgow the church of Kamsi, with the land which he had given to it in its dedication, 
and with the adjacent chapels, and with common pasturage of the whole parish.* 

About the time of that grant, the bounds and marches of the parish were ascertained as follows : 
beginning on the west at the rivulet running along the land of Blarescary, which rivulet divides the 
parish of Campsy from Buthernok, and following that rivulet as it runs and falls into the water 
of Kelvyn towards the south, and thus following the Kelvyn water and its ancient course until as- 
cending eastward you reach the rivulet which runs along the land of Kelvesyth, and divides the 
parish of Monyabroc from the parish of Campsy ; and thus ascending by that rivulet, viz., the Gar- 
calt, to the boundaries of the land of Blarenebleschy, which belongs to the parish of Monyabroc, 
and so following the old boundaries between the lands of Blarneblenschy and the land of Glaskell, 
which is in Campsy. all the way to the water of Caroun, which there divides the parish of Campsy 
from the parish of St. Niuian of Kyrctoun of the bishoprick of St. Andrews, and so following the 
water of Caroun westward as far as the rivulet which is called Fennauch, which there divides the 
parish of Campsy from the parish of Fyntre, including the land of Glaskell, and so following the 
boundaries of the lands of Glaskell and Balneglerauch, as far as the march between the parishes of 
Strathblachan and Campsy, and thus descending by that march as far as the march between the 
parishes of Campsy and Buthirnok, and so descending by that march all the way to the water of 
Kelvyn where the bounding began.^ 

The church was dedicated to St. SLochanus, whose festival was on the 28th of September." It 
was situated at the mouth of a ravine called Kirkton glen, where five streams pouring down from 
the hills, unite to form the water of Glassert. 

The church of Campsy is enumerated amongst the prebendal churches of Glasgow in a bull of 
1216,'^ and it remained as a prebend till the Reformation. 

' Crawford's Rem. on Ragman Roll. = Regist. Glasg., p. 88. 

-' Barbour. ^ Regist. Glasg., p. 86. " Martyrol. Aberdon. 

■• Regist. Glasg., pp. 86, 87. ' Regist. Glasg., p. 94. 



CAMPSY.] PAROCHIALES. 45 

The title, however, was not clear nor undisputed. Earl David, the brotLer of King William, 
holding at the time the earldom of Lennox, granted the church of Camsy and the church of Alter- 
munin in Levenas to the monks of Kelso, which grant appears to have been confirmed by the 
King, as well as by Bishop Joccliue of Glasgow.! These dashing rights were the subject of an 
amicable composition, which took place in the chapel of the castle of Roxburgh on Innocents' day, 
1221, in presence of the chancellor and other magnates of the King's Court, when the abbot of 
Kelso quitclaimed to the bishop the church of Campsy for a payment from the benefice of ten'merks 
of silver yearly to the house of Kelso.^ Richard, rector of Campsy, and Chancellor of Glaso-ow, 
had fallen into arrear of the annual payment, and became bound to pay it regularly iu future on the 
feast of the purification of the Virgin, 1266.^ 

Altermunin, from that time, ceased to be a parochial district or name ; the land of Anter- 
munin still forms a part of the j)arish of Campsy. 

The ancient parish of Cami)sy would appear to have embraced that part of the present parish of 
Fintray which lies south of the Carron. In 1649, the Lords Commissioners for the valuation of 
toinds disjoined all that part of Campsi which lay betwixt Inchwood burn and the Garrel glen on 
the east, annexing it to tlie parish of Kilsyth, which portion contained thirty ploughgates of land, 
and is rated at £2000 Scots valuation. In like manner, they disjoined all that portion on the south- 
west which is situated betwixt Balgrochan and the Brawzyet burn, annexing it to the parish of 
Baldirnoch containing twenty-one ploughgates of land, and valued at .£1241 Scots. 

The original grant of Earl Alwin indicates more than one chapel dependent upon Campsy, and 
some traces of these remain in the names of places in the parish. 

The third of the parsonage of Campsy is stated in the compt of the collector-general of tiiirds of 
benefices in 1561, at £88, 17s. 9gd., and the third of the vicarage at £3, 6s. 8d. 

Donald, Earl of Lennox, about the middle of the fourteenth century, granted to Finlaus de 
Campsy, son of Robert de Reidheuch, by the earl's daughter, that quarter of land called BaUin- 
lochnach, the quarter called Balecorrach, the half-quarter of Balletyduf, Tomf'ync, Fynglennaue, 
and the tenements of Lanortaydy.* 

Earl Maldoven, about the middle of the thirteenth century, granted to William, son of Arthur 
sou of Galbrait, three ploughs of land, one of which was called Kyncaith ; and Earl Malcolm, his 
successor, gave to Patrick Galbraith three quarters of land, which formerly belonged to David de 
Grahame, with that quarter called Ballecarrage, which belonged to the said David, in the tenement 
of Kinkaid.* 

Robert I. granted to Duncan M'Ath two quarters of land called Ratheou and Atrinnumythe, 
together with the office of serjandrie within the county of Dumbartane. The lands extended to 
seven merks, and were confirmed by Robert II. to Murdoch, the son of Malcolm.'' The lands of 
Altyrraony and Dalrevach, which belonged to William Clerc of Faukirk, and had fallen to the 
Crown on his death, were granted to John Lyon knight, by Robert 11.^ Murdoch Leckie iiad a 

' Regist. de Kelso, 186, 304, 318. ' Inquis. Special., pp. 52, 122. 

- Regist. Glasg., p. 100. Regist. lie Kelso, p. 189. * Reg. de Levenax, pp. 30, 32. 

' Regist. de Kelso, p. 187. "' Reg. Mag. Sigil. pp. 16, 83. ' Reg. Mag. Sigil., pp. 157, 18. 



46 ORIGIN ES [steathblaxe 

charter from Robert III. " of two fourth parts of Rathewnu and Altremony."i Between 1451 and 
1458, Robert Fleming of Bigger founded a chaplainry in the parish church of KirkintuUoch, out 
of the lands of Auchinrewach in the lordship of Auchtyrnione. 

One-half of the lands and mill of Gloret were granted by David II. to Gilbert de Insula ; W.al- 
ter Cissor had previously received the other half.^ 

On the 22d of July 1421, Duncan Earl of Lennox gave to his " weil belufit son laft'well Donald 
of the Levenax, all and singular his lands of Ballyncorrauch, witht the pertinens, all the landis of 
Ballyncloich and Thombry, with thair pertinens lyand within the parishing of Camsy." 



STRATHBLANE. 

Strathblachan — Strablahane.s Deanery of Lennox. (Map I. No. 17.) 

This parish, lying between the valleys of Carapsy and Endrick, derives its name from the water 
of Blane, which rises near Earl's seat, the highest of the Lennox hills, and flowing southward 
for more than three miles, turns towards the north, and after a course of four miles farther, 
falls into the Endric, in the north-west corner of the parish. It is studded with several lochs, and 
crossed by a table-land of about two miles in breadth. 

Strathblane is mentioned as a parish about 1200.'' Its patronage during the thirteenth centurj' 
belonged to the Earls of Lennox, by whom it appears to have been granted to the ho.spital of Pol- 
madie before 1333.^ On the 12th of January 1427, according to the computation of the Scotican 
Church, John bishop of Glasgow, asserting his right to the foundation and entire disposition of 
the hospital of Polmade within his barony of Glasgow, erected it, with its annexed church of Stra- 
blahane into a prebend of his cathedral, reserving the right of patronage to himself and his succes- 
sors. This erection was confirmed by Pope Martin V. in 1429, upon a petition from the bishop 
and chapter. But notwithstanding this, and without any apparent opposition on the part of the 
bishop or chapter, the church of Strathblane was given in 1450, along with the churches of Fintray 
and Bonhill, by Isabella Duchess of Albany, to endow the collegiate church of Dumbarton, and 
continued to belong to it, down to the period of the Reformation, when it was valued as a part of 
that provostry at two hundre<l merks.^ 

Probably, about the end of the thirteenth century, Malcolm Earl of Lennox granted to Sir Pat- 
rick de Grame, along with other lands, three quarters of a plough of land (qua; Scptice vocatur 
arochar) of Strablane, namely, two quarters where the church of Strablahane is built, and a quarter 
of the land of Magadavaeros, for the third part of the eighth part of the service of one man-at-arms 
in the King's foreign army, when that happens. The same earl granted him an exemption from 
" prises and carriages," (forced supplies during the journeying of the over-lord,) and a court and 
prison for his lands.'' 

1 Robertson's Index, pp. 14"2, 73, ■* Regist. Glasg., p. 88. ^ Regist. Glasg., p. *248. 
- Robertson's Index, pp. 30, 3, 5. ® Regist. Glasg., p. 327. Book of Assumption. 

2 Reg. Glasg. p. 88. Reg. de Levenax. p. 38. ' Cartul. de Levenax, pp. 38, 40. 



BALDERNOCK.] PAROCHIALES. 47 

Malcolm Earl of Lennox, gave to Gillemore son of Jlalis Bane, that land in Strablane which 
is called Blarechos ; which in ] 398 was granted by Earl Duncan to Jlalis Carrach, upon his resig- 
nation, with remainder in succession to Forveleth and JIuriel, his natural daughters.^ 

About the middle of the fourteenth century, Donald Earl of Lennox granted or confirmed to Wil- 
liam of Galbraith the land of Achrcfmoltoune, in the tenement of Strathblachyne.^ 

The castle of jMugdok, an ancient strength of the Grahams, was protected on the east and north 
sides by a lake, the water of which supplied a ditch to complete its defence. 

The remains of Duntreath castle stand on the north side, near the opening of its narrow strath. 
On one side of the castle was a chapel. 

Fifty years ago the remains of a castle were visible at Ballagan. 



BALDEENOCK. 

Buthirnok.' Deanery of Lennox. (Map I. No. 18.) 

Tnis parish, lying between Kilsyth and Kilpatrick, on the north bank of the Kelvin, has a gene- 
ral slope of descent from north to south, diversified by round swelling hills. At the south-western 
end lies the loch of Bardowie, of al)out seventy acres extent. 

Buthernock is mentioned as one of the bounding parishes of Carapsy about the year 1200.'' The 
church was a free rectory, the patronage of which seems to have belonged to the manor or lordship 
of Cartenvenoch or Bardowie. The old church probably stood on the site of the present one, be- 
tween the ancient castle of Cragin or Craigmaddie, the manor place, and the loch of Bardowie. 

In Baiamond's tax-roll, the rectory is valued at £2G, 13s. 4d. In the books of the collector of 
thirds, the third of the benefice, including both parsonage and vicarage, is estimated at £\7-, 
15s. efd. 

The eastern part of modern Baldernock, between Balgrochan and the Brawzyet burn, belonged of 
old to the parish of Campsy.^ 

Early in the thirteenth century, Maldoveu Earl of Lennox granted to Maurice, son of Gillaspic 
Galbraith, and the heirs of his marriage with Catharine daughter of Gillepatrick, the whole plough 
of the land of Cartenvenoch, for the seventh part of the service of a man-at-arms ; and the same 
earl, in 1238, confirmed to William, the son of Arthur, the son of Galbraith, three ploughs in Len- 
nox ; namely, the two Buthernockis and a third plough of Kyncaith.'' Arthur of Galbraith had 
a grant from Earl Malcolm of the liberty of making a prison, and holding a court for trial of theft 
and slaughter in his lands, with the usual condition that persons judged to death should be hanged 
at the Earl's gallows, and if combat be adjudged, it should take place in the Earl's court. Gal- 
braith had also a right of search within his own lands for stolen goods, " which is called in English 



In the beginning of the fifteenth century, Duncan Earl of Lennox confirmed to John Hamilton 

' Chart, de Levenax, pp. 47, 74. * Regist. Glasg., p. 88. 

- Chart, de Levenax, p. 33. " Cartul. de Levenax, pp. 27, 28. 

' Regist. Glasg., p. 89. » Regist. Glasg., p. 88. ' Cartul. de Levenax, p. 28. 



48 ORIGINES [ 



KIRKINTILLOCH AND 



all the lands of Butliernock, lying in the earldom of Lennox, within the shires of Stirling and Dum- 
barton, which were resigned in his favour by Sir John de Ilamilton.i From the identity of the red- 
dendo, it seems certain that this is the same property granted of old by Earl Maldoven to William, 
son of Arthur Galbraith. The old possession of Cartenvenoch was probably merged in it. 

Upon the high ground in the north-west corner of the parish, stands an old tower, the only 
remains of the mansion of the Galbraiths of Balderngck. It appears to have been at one time sur- 
rounded by a ditch. 



KIRKINTILLOCH and CUMBERNAULD. 

Cairpentaloch — KirkyntuUoch — Kirkentulaht — Kirkintholach — Kyrkyn- 
tulok — Kirkyntulach alias Lienya..' Deanery of Lennox. (Map I. No. 19.) 

These parishes lie on the south side of the valley of the Kelvin. The modern parish of Kirk- 
intulloch occupies the lower end towards the west. Cumbernauld, on the east, rises with a gradual 
slope to the heights of Monkland, which separate it from Clydesdale. The district is watered by 
the Luggie, a small stream which joins the Kelvin on the north-west of the town of Kirkintulloch. 

In the end of the twelfth century, AVilliam son of Thorald, sheriff of Stirling, and lord of the 
manor of Kirkentulach, gave its church to the monks of Cambuskynette, together with half a 
plough of land ; and in the beginning of the next century, William Cumin, who was then lord of 
Kirkentulaht, quitclaimed to the monks, the church, and granted an adjacent oxgang of land to it.^ 
The church continued the property of Cambuskenneth till the Reformation. It was served by a 
perpetual vicar, and in later times by a curate paid by him. 

In 1621, the Earl of Wigton and the parishioners of Lennie, petitioned Parliament " for trans- 
porting the kirk, presently standing at the west end of the parish, to another part near the middle 
thereof."* The prayer of their petition was not granted; but in 1649 the Lords of Erection 
divided the ancient parish of Kirkintulloch into the two modern parishes of Kirkintulloch and 
Cumbernauld ; and the chapel which was dedicated to the Virgin in the town of Kirkintulloch, 
became the parish church of Wester Lenyie. 

The ancient church of Kirkintulloch stood on the west end of the parish, near a place which has 
perhaps derived its name of Oxgang from the grant to the church by William Cumin, and not 
far from the junction of the Bathlan burn with the Luggie. It was dedicated to St. Ninian, and 
its ruins are still seen in the old cemetery. 

The rectory of Kirkintulloch was valued at .£50 in the Libellus Taxationum. The kirk of 
Lenyie yielded to the Monastery of Cambuskyneth at the time of the Reformation £80.^ 

In Baiamond the vicarage is valued at £26, I3s. 4d., and the collector of thirds, in 1561. stated 
the third of the vicarage of Lenyie, at £6, 13s. 4d. 

' CartuL <le Levenax, p. 71. " Regist. de Cambuskyn. 

- Nennius. Resist, de Cumbusken., f. 88. Regist. Glasg., < Act. Pari. III., 607. 

jnp. 78, -296, 390. ' Book of Assumption. 



CUMBERXA 



ULD.] PAROCHIALES. 49 



In 1399, Robert III. confirnied a charter of David Fleming, lord of Bygar and of Lenye, grant- 
ing to the chapel of the Virgin in the burgh of Kirkintulloch, for the support of a chaplain, the 
whole land of Drumteblay with its mill, lying in the barony of Lenye and shire of Dumbarton.'' 

In 145), Robert Fleming of Bigare, founded a chaplainry in the parish church of St. Ninian of 
Kyrkyntulach, otherwise Lenye, endowing it with ten merklands of Achiurewach, lying in the 
tenandries or lordship of Auchtyrmone, and shire of Stirling, an annual rent of five nierks from the 
lands of Panmure in Forfarshire ; two merks of annual rent from his lands of Kyrkyntulach, to- 
gether with a tenement in the town of Kyrkyntulach, with the garden and pertinents ; and seven 
years afterwards, he added to the revenues of the chaplainry, the residue of the lands of Over 
Achinrewach, and forty pence of annual rent from the lands of Kyrkyntulach. The patronage was 
in the family of Fleming.^ 

At Chapeltou, on the farm of Achinkill, in the east end of the parish, some vestiges remain of 
an old cemetery which probably surrounded a church or chapel of which we have now no other trace 
but these names, both of which seem to point at such a foundation. 

The ancient parochial district was evidently founded upon the boundaries of the ancient manor, 
though the church may have had a far earlier origin. The place appears to have been one of the 
Roman stations on the wall of Antonine. Of the tenure of William, the son of Thorald, the first 
benefactor of the Church, within the period of record, nothing is known. King William granted 
to William Cumin the land of Lenneth, by the boundaries by which the King himself held it.' 
Between 1200 and 1202, William Cumin, in presence of the King and his court at Alith, quit- 
claimed to William, bishop of Glasgow, the lands of Slucraht, which he had pleaded belonged to 
Kerkentulaht, whilst the bishop contended it was part of Balain.* Robert I. granted to Malcolm 
Fleming the whole barony of Kirkintolach which had belonged to John Cumyn, knight.'' In 1369 
Robert de Erskyn granted the lands of Bord, Tweoures, Croy, Smythestun, Balloch and Ardre, 
within the barony of Leygneh, to Patrick second son of Malcolm Fleming of Bigger, in exchange 
for Dalnotre and Garscadane ; with the following provision — " if it happen that the old heirs of 
the barony of Leygneh, through the treaty of peace to be made between England and Scotland, 
recover the said barony as their inheritance" — then Patrick to have his former lands.^ Robert 
II. confirmed a grant made by Thomas Fleming, grandson and heir of Malcolm, Earl of Wigton, 
to Gilbert Kennedy knight, of the town of KirkintiUoch, with the pertinents. ^ 

No traces remain of the castle of Kirkintilloch, which was a stronghold of the Cumyns, and a 
place of considerable consequence in the wars of the succession and independence. 

The town is of considerable antiquity. It was erected into a burgh of barony in favour of Mal- 
colm Lord Fleming by James V. in 1526. 

There were ancient castles at Barhcad, (where the arms of Boyd are said to be still visible on a 
remaining tower,) and at Cumbernauld, the seat of the Flemings. 

' Regist. Glasg., p. 296. " Regist. Glasg., p. 78. = Reg. Mag. Sig. 15, 80. 

2 Regist. Glasg., pp. 390, 408, 446. " Orig. in Wigton charter chest. 

^ Chart, of Conf. by Alex. II. at Cumbernauld. ' Reg. Mag. Sig., 102, 39. 



50 ORIGINES [cADDKR. 

CADDER. 

Chaders — Cader — Kader. Deanery of Rutlierglen.i (Map I. No. 20.) 

The parish of Cadder lies on tbe south side of the vale of the Kelvin, which bounds it on the 
north and west. It consists of a series of undulations, interspersed with several lochs and mosses, 
and appears to have been at one time thickly wooded. 

About the middle of the twelfth century, JIalcolm IV. made a grant of the lands of C'onclud, 
Cader, and Badermonoc, to the see of Glasgow, which was early confirmed by his successor 
William. Each of those manors must have had a church before, or very soon after Malcolm's 
grant; for they are mentioned in a confirmation by pope Alexander III. in 1170, among the 
manorial churches which properly belonged to the bishop's table. Cader and Badermonoc were 
subsequently erected into a prebend, for the subdean of the cathedral; the cure being served by a 
perpetual vicar pensionar, who employed a curate at each place." 

In 1509 Sir Archibald Calderwood, vicar of Cadder, granted out of his " place lyand on the 
freyr wall of Glasgow," an annual of ten shillings to " the curat of Cadder, to pray for him daily 
at his mes, and to commend his saule to the parrochenaris, and to compeyr in the kyrk of Cadder 
on Salmes day efter nwyn, and to say exequias mortuorum, with mes of the requiem on the 
morne." Before 1530, Master Thomas Leys, vicar of Dregarne, founded a chaplainry in the 
parish church, which he endowed with a tenement in the street, called the Stok wol in the city 
of Glasgow.^ The ancient church, with its village, was situated on the banks of a rivulet in the 
north of the parish, about a mile west from the wall of Antonine, and very near one of the outer 
watch-towers or forts. There seems to have been another place of worship at Garden Kirk. 

The subdeanery of Glasgow is valued in Baiamond's roU, and in the Libellus Taxationum, at 
£266, 13s. id. At the Reformation, the parsonage tithes, and the lands of the churches of Cadder 
and Monkland, were stated at 39 ch. 11 bo. meal; 4 ch. 9 bo. 2 firl. bear ; and £63, 6s. Sd.* 

The vicarages of these two parishes are valued in Baiamond at £53, 6s. 8d., and in the compt 
of the collector of thirds, 1561, the third of the vicarage of Cadder and Mounkland is stated at 
.£8, 17s. 9gd. ; while they appear to have been set in lease for £5i.^ 

The parochial district comprised the manors of Cader and Ballain, which last — from the time of 
"William the Lyon — included the disputed lands of Muchrat. 

Between 1214 and 1227, Walter bishop of Glasgow, at the instance and request of Alexander 
II., Robert de Brus, and Walter the high steward, granted a third part of the lands of Cader 
to .Johan, the wife of David Olyfard, for life. In consequence, as would seem, of a dispute 
between the bishop and his tenant, this grant was, for the sake of peace, exchanged for the mill 
of Cader, with its pertinents, and a toft lying next to the church of Cader on the east, which, on 
the death of Johan, should revert freely and entirely to the patrimony of St. Kentigern and the 

' Regist. Glasg., pp. 23, 28, 43. 3 Lib. Coll. N. D. Glasg., p. 92. 

- R«gist. Glasg., Ixra, pp. 23, 28, 522. Book of As- ' Rental of Assumptions, 

sumption. ^ Rental of Assumptions. 



MONKLAND.] PAEOCHIALES. 51 

church of the bishops of Glasgow. The same liishop, before 1232, confirmed a grant of three 
merks, which Alexander, the king's sheriff' of Stirling, for the soul of king William, and the weal 
of king Alexander and himself, gave out of the mill of Cader to support a chaplain, who should 
serve at the altar of St. Serf, erected by him in the cathedral.^ The bishops of Glasgow had 
several vassals under them on this property. An ancient residence, belonging to one of these, or 
to the bishops themselves, stood at a short distance from the church. In 1814, when level- 
ling the lawn iu front of the present house of Cadder, the workmen discovered part of the founda- 
tions of an old tower, and a vessel containing upwards of 350 gold coins, some of which bore the 
inscription " Jacobus." 



MONKLAND, NEW and OLD, or EAST and WEST MONKLAND. 

Munkland," perhaps more anciently Badermanoch^ — Badermonoc.'' — 
Deanery of Rutherglen. (Map I. No. 21.) 

The parish of ilonkland, as it existed some time previous to the Reformation, embraced that 
district of about twenty miles in length, by an average breadth of three, now known as the parishes 
of east and west, or new and old j\Ioukland. The latter, consisting of a low and level tract, run- 
ning, for some miles, along the right bank of the Clyde, and bounded on the east by the parish of 
new Monkland, which rises into rougher and higher ground, and stretches to the ancient boundaries 
between Lothian and Clydesdale. 

The church of Badermauoch was confirmed to the see of Glasgow, among the bishop's mensal 
churches, by pope Alexander III. in 1170 ;^ and the same pope again confirmed to the bishop the 
laud of Badermonoc, with its church, in 1178;^ and a confirmation, in similar terms, by pope 
Urban III. in 1186, is the last time we find the church of Badermonach mentioned in record. 
But the land of that name occurs some time later. 

The church of Monkland appears in Baiamond's roll ; but in an inquiry of this kind, it can 
only be regarded as a late authority. In 1.509 the vicar of Cadder, who was also plainly vicar of 
Monkland, gave an endowment of 20s. yearly to the lady-priest of the Monkland, and to the 
curat of the Monkland 10s. yeirlye, to be tayn of the samyn place, to commend his saule to the 
parrochinaris, and to pray for him daily in their mess, and to compeir in the kirk of Monkland 
on Salmes daye (All Souls day) eftir nwyn, and thair to say exequias mortuorum, with mess on the 
requiem on the morn, for his faderis saule, his moderis saule, and his ane saule' — which is the earliest 
occurrence of this name for the parish and church that we have met with. 

The rectory of Monkland was, along with Cadder, the prebend of the subdean of the cathedral ; 
and that dignity is taxed in Baiamoud and the Libellus Taxationum, as of £266, 13s. 4d. value, 
the same sum as the prebends of the dean and the archdeacon. 

' Regist. Glasg., pp. 103, 104. •• Regist. Glasg., p. 29. 

^ 1 323. Regist. de Neubotil. ^ Regist. Glasg., p. 23. 

= 1170. Regist. Glasg., p. 23. " Regist. Glasg., p. 43. Mbid., p. 522. 



52 ORIGINES [monkland- 

The vicarages, in 1509, were also held by the same person, and probably were so usually. In 
Baiamond the valuation of both is £53, 6s. 8d., and they were let in lease at the time of the Re- 
formation for £5i. 

At the lieformation, the parsonage tithes, and the lands of the churches of Cadder and Monk- 
land, were stated at 39 chalders 11 bolls meal; 4 chalders 9 bolls 2 firlots bear ; and £63, 6s. 8d.i 

The ancient church seems to have stood on the site of the present church of Old Monkland, 
near the junction of a small burn witli the Cadder. There are places round it which have long 
born the names of Kirk.shaws and Kirkwood.^ 

At a place called Kipps, on a burn in the west of New Monkland, was a chapel, where the 
monks of Newbottle are said to have held their courts baron. In digging the foundations of " the 
Clyde iron works," built graves and urns, and great quantities of human bones, were discovered, 
marking the site of some ancient cemetery used before the introduction of Christianity. 

Malcolm IV. gave to the Bishop of Glasgow the lands of Conclud, Cader, and Badermonoc,^ 
which grant was confirmed by his brother William the Lyon ;■* and Alexander II., in 1241, granted 
the lands of Conclud, Schedinistun, Ballayn, Badermonoc, Possele, Kenmor, and others, to the 
bishops, in free forest.^ The name of Badermonach, whether applied to land or church, is not 
met with, at a later date, and it would appear the Celtic must have been translated into a Saxon 
appellation. 

Malcolm IV. granted to the monks of Newbotle, in perpetual alms, the lands of Dunpeldre, by 
its right bounds, namely, with Motherauch, and Mayueth, and Glarenephyn, to DunidufTes, 
eastward, as Gillepatric Mackery held them before, and as Baldwin the sheriff of Lanark, and 
Geoffrey sherifi' of Edinburgh, (castri puellarum,) and Fergus Macferchat, and Donald Ewein, 
and Udred sheriff of Lithgow, perambulated them, by the marches between Lothian and Clydes- 
dale, free from all secular exaction, and with the same peace and liberties as they held their own 
land of the abbacy of Neubotle.^ He also confirmed to them the lands lying along the Clyde, 
called Kermyl, which were bestowed upon the abbey by bishop Herbert, and the chapter of 
Glasgow. In 1241, Alexander II. granted to the monks, that they should hold their grange of 
Dunpeldre with their other possessions in Clydesdale, in free forest." They Lad frequent grants of 
free passage through the lands which intervened between their abbey and tliose Clydesdale 
possessions. Alexander II. gave them a right of passage by the usual ways, and liberty to pasture 
for one night during their journey, anywhere except in growing corn and hay meadows.* In 
] 264, Gregory Maleville granted them a free passage through his lands of Retrevyn, with their 
cattle and wains, and liberty to unyoke their beasts and to feed them in the common pasture, 
saving always corn and meadow, and to stay there all night ; the reddendo being a new wain 
yearly, full of timber, such as the monks used for their own work in Clydesdale. Walter the 
steward, in 1323, gave them right of passage for their carriages and cattle, through his barony of 

' Rental of Assumptions. > Regist. Glasg., p. 147. 

" Bleau. " Regist. de Neubotil, fol. 36. 

3 Regist. Glasg., p. 28. ' Regist. de Neubotil, fol. 36. 

■* Regist. Glasg., p. 28. " Regist. de Neubotil, fol. 218. 



«oTHWELL.] PAROCHIALES. 53 

Backis to their own land, " called the Jlonkland ;"' — the earliest occurrence of this name, as 
applied to lands. 

Reserving their own mains and grange at Dunpeldre, the abbots of Newbottle had established 
vassals, rentallers or kindly tenants, of a large territory held under them, and before the Reforma- 
tion, most of these had obtained feudal grants of their old possessions. 

In the north-west corner of this parish is Inchnock, an old castle of the Forsytbs of Dykes. 
It is " situate singularly," says Hamilton of Wislaw, " in the midst of woods, almost surrounded 
with mosses of difficult access." 

On the banks of the Calder, in New Monkland, is a large artificial cave, dug out of a rocky 
eminence, to which no history or tradition is attached. 



BOTHWELL and BERTEAM SHOTTS. 

Botheuill — Bothvile — Bothwile.- Deanery of Rutherglen. (Map I. No. 22.) 

The ancient parish of Bothwell, lying on the right bank of the Clyde, comprehended the whole 
of the old manor and barony of that name, of which the lower part, nearest the river, now forms 
the parish of Bothwell, while the other end, rising eastward into what was called of old the moor 
or forest of Bothwel or Bothwell scheils, is now known as the parish of Bertram Shotts or Shotts. 

The church of Bothwell was originally a free rectory, in the gift of the lords of the barony, and 
continued so till the erection of the collegiate church of Bothwell by Archibald the grim. Earl of 
Douglas, in 1398. 

In 1296, David de Moravia, parson of the church of Bothwell, did homage to Edward I.-' -John 
Fleming was rector of the parish church of Bothwell in 1 327.^ After the erection of the collegiate 
church, the provost had the rectory of Bothwell. 

The old parish church seems to have stood where the collegiate church was afterwards, at the 
head of an elevated table land, more than a mile distant from Clyde. 

At Osbemystun, in the south-west corner of the parish, near the confluence of the South Calder 
with Clyde, stood a chapel dedicated to St. Catharine the virgin. It was endowed by Walter 
Olifard, justiciar of Lothian, before 1242, with an annual of ten pounds from the lands of 
Osbemystun, and failing them, from the mill of Botheuill, at the sight of a jury.^ In 
1253, Walter de Moravia, lord of Bothwell, had challenged the gift of endowment, and a 
convention took place, according to which, de Moravia was to hold the land of Osbernistun in 
farm from the chaplains, (of whom one should perform service in the chapel of Osbernistun, 
and the other in the High Church of Glasgow,) paying yearly to the chaplain of Osbernistun 
nine merks, (he finding for himself a clerk,) and to the chaplain at Glasgow 100 shillings, until 
such an annual rent be assigned them from the fief of Bothevil, or elsewhere in the diocese, at 
sight of the bishop."" 

' Regist. de Neubotil, fol. 46. ■* Regist. Glasg., p. 241. 

* Regist. Ulasg. * Regist. Glasg., p. 148. 

^ Ragman Rolls. ' Regist. Glasg., p. 162. 



54. ORIGINES [bothwell 

At Cliapel, on the bauk of a stream north-east from the old bouse of Lauehope, there 
existed, in the beginning of last century, a ruined chapel, then used as a burial-place by the 
family of Lauehope. On the I5th August 152.9, John Jack had a grant for life from the king, of 
three acres pertaining to the chapel of Lessart, in the parish of Bothwell, for upholding the chapel.' 
At Bertram Shotts, in the middle of Bothwell muir, was a chapel that had been founded long be- 
fore in that desert place, and was re-dedicated to St. Catherine of Sienna, probably along with the 
Virgin, and endowed by James Lord Hamilton, with lands at Kinneil, which were tithe free, 
being gained from the sea ; and he added to it an hospital for the reception of the poor. His founda- 
tion was confirmed by Pope Sixtus IV., 30th April 14?G.- Jonet Gray, who died in 1552, 
directed her body to be buried in the church of the Virgin Mary in Bertram Shotts.^ The chapel 
of St. Catherine was dependent on Bothwell ; the rector or provost is said to have paid a vicar there. 

Archibald Douglas, lord of Galloway, having acquired the lordship of Bothwell by his marriage 
with Anne de Moravia, founded here (HIth October 1.398) a collegiate church for a provost and 
eight prebendaries, and endowed it with the tithes, parsonage, and vicarage of the parish, and the 
kirk lands, being a ten pound land of old extent, the lands of Osbernstnn, in the barony of Both- 
well, and Nether Urd, in the shire of Peebles, with its mill. At a later time, the collegiate 
church acquired the tithes and revenues of the churches of Strathaven and Staneliouse, and the 
forty shilling land of Cathkin, with its mill, in the parish of Carmunuok. The provost had the 
tithes and church lands of Bothwell, and the lands of Osbernstoun. In 1447, William Earl of 
Douglas, lord of Galloway and of the barony of Hawik, with the consent of Gawin, provost of the 
collegiate church of Bothwell, erected the church of Hawik into an additional canonry of Bothwell, 
to which he presented his cousin James Lindsay. The houses of the canons and their choral vicars 
were demolished in 1 795, but their site retained the name of the prebends' yards, and the vicars' 
yards. 

The first provost of Bothwell was Thomas Barry, a canon of the cathedral church of Glasgow, 
who celebrated, in a lengthy Latin poem, the battle of Otterburn, where James Earl of Douglas 
fell, eth August 1388.^ 

The provostry is taxed in Baiamond at £20, being estimated at £200. The report made by 
John Hamilton, provost, for the assumption of thirds, states that the parsonage and vicarage of 
Bothwell, were set in assedation " to the lairds Carinphin and Kleland town, sen the field of Flow- 
doun" for 300 merks ; and that " the gleibe of the provestry, ten pound land of auld extent, was 
set in few and heretage of auld for £22 yeirlie :" The prebend of Newtoun, held by Mr. John 
Robertsoun, was then set to JMatthew Hamiltoun of Mylburn for ^20 : The tithes of that of Stane- 
hous, of which the prebendary was AVilliam Tailyifeir, were set to James Hamiltoun of Stenhous 
for £24, and its land, namely, the forty shilling land of Cathkin, to Andrew Hamilton of Ardoch, 
for five merks of feu ferme, and three and a half oxengangs of Nether Urd, with the eighth part 
of its mill for five merks of feu ferme. The prebend of Hissildene, pertaining to Mr. Robert Ha- 
milton, was set in assedation for fifty bolls meal. The prebend of Netherfield, William Struthers's, 

' Priv. Seal. ^ Council Rec. of Glasgow. 

- Catal. of the Papers at Hamilton Palace. * Apud Fordun. 



AND sHOTTs.] PAROCHIALES. 55 

consisting of the Netherfield, with the kirkland, Goystintoun, Unthank, the Parson's .Mansion, 
tlie eiglith part of the feu mails and grassums, witli the augmentation of Cathkin and Nethertield, 
extended to forty merks.i In the compt of the collector of thirds of benefices, 1561, the third of 
the provostry of Bothuile is stated at £74 ; of the prebend of Newtoune, at £6, 13s. 4d. ; of the 
prebend of Stanehouse, at £30, 13s. 4d. ; of the prebend of Netherfield, at £6, 13s. 4d. ; of the 
prebend of Overtoune at £7, 6s. 8d. ; and of that of Hessildene, at £8, 1 7s. O^d. 

Walter Olifard, the justiciar, lord of the manor of Bothwell, died in 1242, the year in which his 
grant to the chapel of Osbernistun, was confirmed by king Alexander II.'^ Walter de Moravia 
was proprietor in 1253. Edward I. bestowed the castle and manor on Eymer de Valence, Earl of 
Pembroke, his lieutenant of southern Scotland. By Bruce it was given or restored after Bannock- 
burn, to Andrew de Jloravia, his brother-in-law ; and it came into the family of Douglas, by the 
marriage of his grand-daughter and heiress with Archibald the grim in 1366. On the forfeiture of 
the Douglases in 1455, C'reichtoun, the chancellor's son, had a gift of the castle and lower division, 
and the Ilamiltons obtained the territory of Bothwell muir, in exchange of their lands of Kinky vel. 
After the forfeiture of the Creichtouns in 1485, Bothwell passed, with their other possessions, to 
Adam Hepburne of Ilailes, created Earl of Bothwell, in whose family it remained, till the for- 
feiture of the notorious Earl of Bothwell, iu the reign of -James VI.^ 

The castle is finely situated on a sloping bank, round which the Clyde sweeps in a full stream, 
separating it from the crag on which stands the priory of Blantyre. Its ruins still show the suc- 
cessive additions made by the various lords of Bothwell ; and the names still attached to parts of 
the building, " the Valence tower," — " Douglas tower," &c., may, perhaps, indicate the builders. 
The Earl of Hereford was taken in Bothwell castle by Edward Bruce after Bannockburn. Edward 
III. seems to have resided here for some time in 1336.* In the following year the castle was 
stormed by the Scotch, and demolished. 

Bothwell bridge, across Clyde, was an early erection, probably of the 14th century. Another 
bridge, of one arch, high, very narrow, and without parapets, across the South Calder, is said to be 
in the line of the great Roman road, and is generally, though perhaps erroneously, called a Roman 
work. 

In this parish is still .seen the house of Bothwellhaugh, the residence of James Hamilton, who 
assassinated the regent Moray. 

Carfin, anciently the property of a family of Baillie, subsequently passed into that of Nisbet. 
The last proprietor of that family, on leaving it, transferred the name of Carfin to a property which 
he acquired in the upper ward of Clydesdale. 

The respectable family of Clcland had its name from the place, situated on a rock overhanging 
the South Calder, in which there is a remarkable cave, bearing marks of having been used for 
defence. James Kneland of that ilk, made his will in 1547. Among other bequests, he ordained 
his eldest son Saunders, who had the " airschip," to pay ten pound yearly to John, a younger son, 
until he resign in his favour the clerkship of the East kirk of Caldercleir. He appointed his 

' Books of Assumption. ^ Wishaw. 

- Chron. Mailr. ■• Foetlei-a. 



56 ORIGINES [cambi'snethan. 

obsequies to be done honestly in the kirk of Bothwell, and an honest obit, and that his executors 
subsist ane preyst for ane yeir, to syng mess for his saule.i 

In the reign of David II., Thomas de Moravia gave a charter of Over and Nether Lachopes, in 
the barony of Bothwell, to William Balystoun.-' The old tower of Lachope, situate on the North 
Calder, was the seat afterwards of the chief family of Muirhead.^ 

Johan Countess of Douglas, lady of Bothvile, widow of Archiliald Earl of Douglas, lord of 
Galloway and Bothvile, granted to the church of Glasgow, in aid of its lights, three stones of wax 
yearly, from the ferm of her barony of Bothvile. Her charter was sealed at her castle of Bothvile, 
with a double shield of arms crowned, one shield giving " a heart ; on a chief, three stars."* In 
1496, that annual rent which had been fixed upon the lands of Udynston, and confirmed by James 
III., had gone into arrear ; and the chamberlain and sacristan of Glasgow having taken a poind 
for it, the same was taken out of their hands by the serjant of Udynston, in the name of a most 
potent lord, Archibald Earl of Angus, and chancellor of Scotland ; after which the archbishop 
proceeded against the tenants of the lands in the ecclesiastical court, and by sentence of excom- 
munication.5 

Verstegan relates, that an English gentleman travelling in Palestine, not far from Jerusalem, as 
he passed through a country town, heard a woman, who was sitting at a door dandling her child, 
singing, " Bothwell bank thou bloomest fair." " The gentleman hereat exceedingly wondered, 
and forthwith in English saluted the woman, who joyfully answered him, and said she was right 
glad there to see a gentleman of our isle, and told him that she was a Scotchwoman, and came first 
from Scotland to Venice, and from Venice thither, where her fortune was to be the wife of 
an officer under the Turk."^ 



CAMBUSNETHAN. 

Cambusneithan ; — Kambusnaythan.^ Deanery of Rutherglen. (Map I. No. 23.) 

This parish rises in a narrow strip from the Clyde to the borders of Lothian, about twelve miles 
long by two broad. The South Calder forms a chief part of its northern boundary. The Auchter 
water and Garrion burn flow through it. 

AVilliam de Finemund, the lord of the manor, before 1 153, granted the church of Kambusnaythau 
to the monks of Kelso, which was confirmed to them by Malcolm IV. and AVilliam the Lion.'* 
About the end of that century, the church was granted of new, or confirmed to Kelso by Ralph 
de Clere, son of Ralph de Clere, with consent of his son and heir Roger, the then lords of the 
manor, who at the same time gave to the church of Cambusnaythan the tithe of their multure, and 
issues of their mills of Cambusnaithan, while the monks granted in return to the de Clores, liberty 

' Commiss. Records of Glasgow. Regist. Glasg., pp. 497-8. 

2 Robertson's Index. Restitution of decayed intelligence. Antw. 1605. 

3 Wishaw. Liber de Kelso, p. vi, 14. 

* Regist. Glasg., N. cxxiri. p. 300. Liber de Kelso, p. vi, p. 14. 



CAMHUSNETHAN.] PAROCHIALES. 57 

to make and use a private chapel vvithiu their court, (infra ourteni meam,) without prejudice to the 
mother church.^ The church was confirmed to Kelso in 1232, by Walter bishop of Glasgow.^ 
By what transaction the church of Cambusnethan afterwards became the property of the bishops 
of Glasgow, no documents have been found to explain. It does not appear in the roll of churches, 
the property of the abbey of Kelso, made up about 1 300 ; and in the general assumption of 
benefices at the Reformation, the rental of the archbishopric of Glasgow has, as one item, " the 
kirk of Cambusnethan sett in assedation to Sir James Hamilton yeirlie, for the soume of xvj 1. 
xiijs. iiiid." 

The cure was served by a vicar, both while the church belonged to Kelso, and after it became 
the property of the bishops of Glasgow.^ 

The church stood at the south-western extremity of the parish, near a fine curving reach or 
camus of the Clyde. Some parts of the old buildiug remain. 

A chaplainry was founded in " Sanct Michael's chapel of Cambusnethane," probably in the 
parish church, on the 4th July 1386 ; and the chapel was endowed by the family of Soraervil 
from the lands of Cambusnethan, somewhat later.'' There is a place still called " chapel," or 
^Vatston chapel, marking an old place of worship, on the Auchter water, near the centre of the 
parish f and at Darmead linn, among the high mosses of the south-eastern corner, are the ruins of 
another. 

The lands of Golkthrople belonged of old to the Knights Templars." 

The kirk, or parsonage teiuds of Cambusnethan, were set in assedation at the period of the 
Reformation, for £16, 13s. 4d. The " penny mail," or money rent of the kirk lands, amounted 
to 30s." The vicarage teinds, set in assedation, paid yearly 30 merks.** The vicarage lands were 
of 46s. 8d. extent." 

The ancient manor of Cambusnethan probably at one period comprehended the whole parish. 
In later times the parochial district was made up of the barony of Cambusnethan ; the lands of 
Auchtermure, belonging to the abbey of Arbroath ; and the lands of Watstoun and Watstoun- 
head, an old possession of the family of Hamilton. We have seen above, William de Finemund, 
and the famil}' of de Clere, successively lords of the manor of Cambusnethan. In the reign of 
Robert I., Robert Barde had a crown charter of the barony, on a reddendo of ten chalders of 
wheat, and ten of barley, payable yearly at Rutherglen ■}" but the estate again passed out of that 
family by the forfeiture, it is said, of Sir Robert Barde in 1345 j^i and it came into the family of 
Somervil by the marriage of Thomas, son and apparent heir of Sir William Somervil, with 
Joneta, daughter of Sir A. Stewart of Darnlie, who had a crown charter of the lands in 1392.1^ 
Cambusnethan continued with the Somervils for six generations. The first of that name^^ is said 
to have dwelt at Cambusnethan — " the pleasantnea of the place inviteing him thereto, albeit at the 

' Liber de Kelso, p. 225. " Rental of Assumptions. 

' Liber de Kelso, pp. 229, 332. » Inquis. Retorn. 

' Prynne iii. 658. Books of Assumption. '" Reg. Mag. Sig. 

■* Act. Dom. Con. 19 Oct. 1495. ■ ' Memorie of the Somervills. 

' Bleau. '-' Reg. Mag. Sig. 

^ Inquis. Retorn. ' Rental of .Assumptions. ■" Mistakenly called John by the family historian. 

VOL. I. H 



58 ORIGINES [dalziel. 

tyme ther was noe other Louse upon it (except some laigh office bouses) but the Baird tower, a 
building some twenty foot square, and four storie bigh, which was still standing in the same forme 
and fashion untill the year 1661, that it was demolished by Sir John Harper, when he rebuilt the 
house of Cambusnethen."! James V. confirmed in Parliament (19 Nov. 1524) the barony of 
Cambusnethan, with the tower and fortalice, to James Hamilton of Fyneart.^ 



DALZIEL. 

Dalyell — Daliel.^ Deanery of Rutherglen. (Map I. No. 24.) 

The land of this parish rises generally from the haughs on the Clyde, and from the banks of 
the South Calder to a flattened ridge in the centre of the parish. The modern parish of Hamilton, 
in two places, crosses the Clyde, once in the middle of this parish, and again on the north-west 
corner, on the Calder. Both these portions, perhaps, originally formed part of Dalziel. On the 
other hand, a small part of Dalziel — the cuningar — is now on the south of the Clyde, which has 
arisen evidently from the deviation of the stream. 

The church of Dalziel was the property of the abbey of Paisley, by gift of the true patron, and 
confirmation of bishop Jocelin, (who died in 1199,) and of pope Innocent III.-' Early in the 13th 
century, the abbot and convent of Paisley granted this church to the canons of the cathedral of 
Glasgow as a common church. To that grant bishop Walter was a witness, who died in 1232.5 
It was one of the common churches of the dean and chapter at the Reformation.'' 

In 1556, the dean and chapter conferred the perpetual vicarage of Daliell upon the common 
table of the choral vicars of the cathedral, reserving to the vicar his pension of ten pounds, with 
toft, croft, gardens and manse.^ 

The old church, considered of great antiquity, finally demolished in 1798, stood in the southern 
extremity of the parish, near the Clyde, and in the neighbourhood of the old tower of Dalyel. It 
was dedicated to St. Patrick, to whom also a neighbouring well was held sacred. A well called 
our Lady's well, is near the manor and village of Motherwell ; and another bears the name of St. 
Catharine's well. 

Both parsonage and vicarage of the parish were in the vicars of the choir of Glasgow before the 
Reformation, and, together, were estimated at ten merks money and sixty-eight bolls oat-meal. In 
the rental of the common kirks of the chapter of Glasgow, at the time of the Reformation, is 
entered, " the kirk of Dalzell, sometime sett to James Tailfeir, and laitlie to the viocars of the 
queir of Glasgow, yeirlie, for twenty merkis.""* 

The transmission of property in this parish is remarkably perplexed. David II. granted a 
charter to Malcolm Fleming, of the barony of Daliell, with others in free warren:" but in 1352 

' Memorie of the Somervils. " Books of Assumption. 

- Act Pari. ii. p. -J'-T. ' Regist. Glasg., p. 681. 

^' Resist, de Passelet. " Rental Bottk of Assumptions. 

•■ Regist.de Passelet, p. 428. * Regist. Glasg., p. 95. " Roberts. Index, 54, 11. 



BLANTYRE.] PAROCHIALES. 59 

the same king granted to Robert Stewart of ScanJbothy, afterwards Robert 11., the hands of 
Daleel and of Modyrwaile, fallen to the crown by reason of the heir of the deceased Robert de 
VaDibus abiding in England against his allegiance, to be held in free barony, as they had been by 
Malcolm Fleming and Robert de Vallibus.' That was a time of change. It appears that Duncan 
Wallace and John de Nesbit, were co-proprietors of Dalyell in the beginning of Robert II. 's 
reign.2 In 1368 Duncan Walys, lord of Cnokfubill, within the barony of Bothwell, endowed a 
chaplainry at Glasgow from his lands of Cnokfubill, or, failing them, from Dalyell, by a charter 
dated at Dalyell j^ and in 1373, a charter passed the great seal, of the barony of Dalyel and of 
Modervale, with other lands, in favour of Duncan Wallace, knight, and Elianore de Bruys, 
countess of Carrick, his spouse, with remainder to Sandylands, C'athkert, and Culquhone.* The 
same king granted a charter of the barony of Dalyell and Jlodervale, and other lands, to James 
Sandilands, on his marriage with Johan the king's daughter.* Robert III. granted a charter of 
the barony of Dalyell to George Dalyell, upon the resignation in his favour of James Sandilands, 
the king's good-brother.^ 

Upon the edge of a steep den, through which a considerable burn runs to join the Clyde, is the 
old tower, formerly called the " Peel house" of Dalyell. Wishaw calls it a " castle with a bar- 
tishing." The mansion house is joined on to it. On the opposite bank of the den were lately 
visible the foundations said to be those of the Nisbets, joint inheritors of the estate. Near it 
stands an ancient stone cross. 

Old villages seem to have existed at Motherwell ; near the church and manor place ; and a 
third at Fleminjrton. 



BLANTYEE. 

Blantir — Blauntyr — Blanntyre/ Deanery of Rutherglen. (Map I. No. 25.) 

The parish of Blantyre consists of a narrow stripe of low ground, bounded by the Clyde on 
the north, and by the Rotten Calder on the west, rising to the southward into mosses. Nothing 
is known of its church history, till it is found the property of the Priory of Blantyre ; and it con- 
tinued to belong to that house till the Reformation. 

The old church was placed with its village on a rich level, in the middle of the parish, and is 
said to have borne, before its rebuilding in 1 793, evident marks of great antiquity. 

The Priory of Blantyre, a house of canons regular, is said to have been founded and endowed 
with the tithes and revenues of the parish church, by Alexander II. Spottiswood says it was a 
cell depending on Holyrood. The Prior of Blantyre assisted at the Parliament at Briggeham, 

' Regist. Mag. Sig. 25, 33. '■ Reg. Mag. Sig. 171, 9. 

- Reg. Mag. Sig. 113, 1. « Roberts. Index, pp. 139, 140. 

^ Regist. Glasg., p. 279. ' Act. Pari. vol. i. Ch. of Hulyrood, p. 80. Reg. Mag. Sig. 

■' Reg. Mag. Sig. 102, 37. «2, 195. 



60 ORIGINES [CAMBUSLANH- 

in 1289.' In the taxation of the Scotican church of the sixteenth century the priory is taxed 
among the prelacies, but only at the rate of £3, 8s., when ,£8000 were to be raised from 
the whole church. In Baiamond it is taxed upon a valuation of £66, 1 3s. 4d. The collector- 
general of the thirds of benefices, ] 561, stated the third of the priorie of Blantyre at £43, 15s. fifd. 
At that time, we find " the haill parsonage and vicarage, with the annuals of the kirk-land, and 
manse and gleib, with twenty-five merks of pension out of Whithern, had been set in assedation 
for many years to David Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, for the sum of nine score and seventeen 
merks ;" of which forty merks were paid to " ane minister," twenty merks for a pension, and 
thirteen merks to Robert Lindsay of Duurod, for his " baillie fee." The remaining 124 merks of 
revenue were the commendator's.- 

The ruins of the priory, on a wooded crag, on the left bank of the Clyde, opposite to those of 
Bothwell castle, are still an object of interest in one of the fairest scenes of Scotland. 

The parish apparently consisted, of old, of merely the manor of Blantyre. The land of Blantyre 
Craig was a one merk land of old extent.^ The barony belonged to the Dunbars. In 1368, David 
n. granted a charter to his " cousin" George Dunbar, of the lands of Cumnok, and of Blantyre, 
with other lands, resigned by Patrick Dunbar Earl of March; and in 1375 Robert 11. granted 
the baronies of Blantyre and Cumnok to David de Dunbar, on the resignation of George Earl 
of March.* Walter Stewart, son of the laird of Minto, was made commeudator of the priory by 
James VI., and it was erected into a temporal lordship in his favour. 



CAMBUSLANG. 

Cambuslang — Camyslang^ — sometimes Drumsargart. Deanery of Rutherglen. 
(Map I. No. 26.) 

Cambuslang, lying mostly in the extensive flat, on another part of which the city of Glasgow 
stands, is bounded by the Clyde on the north, and the Rotten Calder on the east. 

The manor of Drumsargart of old formed the whole of the parish. The latter took its proper 
name from the church ; but occasionally the parish, like the barony, was called Drumsargart.*' 

The church was a free parsonage, of which the patronage was in the lords of the manor. William, 
parson of Drumsirgar, is witness to two charters of Jocelin bishop of Glasgow, at the end of the 1 2th 
century.'' In 1380, William Monyjjenny, rector of the parish, founded a chaplainry in the chapel 
of St. Mary of Cambuslang, and endowed it with an annual rent of six merks, out of the land 
called East Ferme of Ruthirglen.* In 1394', Master John de Merton, rector of Camyslang, 
claimed ineffectually the tithes of a farm lying on the east of the town of Rutherglen, belonging to 

' Act. Pari. vol. i. ' Rotul. Scot. i. 25. Rcgist. de Passelet, p. 107. 

- Books of Assumption. ° Regist. de Passelet, pp. 99, 101. 

■' Act. Pari. iv. p. 563. ' Regist de Passelet, pp. 99, 101. 

' Ueg. Mag. Sig. B2, 195,-136, 54. " Regist. Mag. Sig. 144, 90. 



CA.MBUSLANG 



] PAROCHIALES. 61 



the ferm of tlie Blessed Virgin, (ad firmam b. Marise virginis pertinens,) which were adjudged 
to belong to the parish of Rutherglen.' John Cameron held this living, who was afterwards bishop 
of Glasgow. In 1429 he obtained the consent of Archibald Earl of Douglas, lord of BotLwell 
and Drumsargart, and erected the parsonage into a prebend of the cathedral. Mr. Thomas Roul 
was then rector.^ The vicar was to have a fixed pension of twenty merks. In 1458, bishop Muir- 
head, with the consent of Master John de Iruhos, prebendary of Carabuslang, assigned to Edward 
de Caldorwud, vicar pensioner, his pension of twenty merks, and also " that croft of church land 
stretching from the north-eastern corner of the cemetery in a northern direction, down to the 
marches of the town lands of Cambuslang, as far as the torrent which runs down at the chapel of 
the Virgin, and from thence upwards by that torrent, and in a right line from it to the western 
corner of the cemetery, and thence by the western ditch of the cemetery, again ascending to the 
foresaid eastern corner. "^ 

The church was seated on the bank of a rapid rivulet, called the Kirkburn, at the place where 
it makes a bold sweep, and is confined in several places by high rocks, before it reaches the 
Clyde. It appears to have been dedicated to Cadocus, a saint of Wales, who flourished in the 
beginning of the sixth century.'' On the 15th June 1553, a certain Robert Brown at Cambuslang, 
directed his body to be buried in the dust of St. Cadocus, (in pulveribus S. Cadoci,) confessor, his 
patron saint.^ 

The chapel of our Lady of the Kirkburn, was situated on a ravine, about a quarter of a mile 
lower than the church. The patronage of the chaplainry endowed by William Monypenny, 
was reserved to him and his heirs. Sir John Jlillar, the chaplain in 1565, who gave up its value 
at seven merks yearly, granted in feu to Alexander Bogil, three and a half acres of the church 
land, with the houses and garden belonging to the said chapel.^ Four acres of land there still 
retain the name of chapel. It is said, that two miles east from the church was an hospital, to 
which some lands, still called Spittal and Spittal-hill, seem to have been attached. 

The prebendal rectory is valued in Baiamond at £G3, 6s. 8d., and the same in the Libellus 
taxationum. It is counted only £i5, 5s. in the taxation of the sixteenth century. At the Re- 
formation, the parsonage was given up by specific rental, including " the Spittell" and the " chapell" 
lands, at 11 ch. 11 b. 2 f. meal; 1 ch. 3 b. 2 f. barley, and £5 money.' Besides the assumption 
of the third, under the Act of Parliament, it was burdened with heavy pensions to the Duke of 
Chatelberault and " Sir David Christisun," which " things being considerit," says the parson of 
Cambuslang, " I will have lytill to leive upon." 

The vicarage pensionary was then stated at twenty-two merks, ten acres of land, with manse 
and coal heuch, " in profit worth £M." 

The whole territory of the parish, anciently constituted the manor and barony of Drumsargard, 
which, with that of Bothwell, passed from the Olifards to the family of de Moravia, who held 
them for several descents. A younger son of that family, John de Moravia of Drumsargard, by 

' Regist. de Passelet, p. 107. * Com. Rec. Glasg. 

* Reg. Glasg., pp. 323, 340. " Priv. Seal. Reg. 

^ Reg. Glasg., p. 408 . ■* Capgrave, Usher, &c. ' Rental of Assumptions. 



62 ORIGINES [rutherglen. 

marriage with Mary daughter of Malis Earl of Strathern, early in the fourteenth century, acquired 
lands in Strathern, and founded the house of Abercairney. The lordship of Bothwell, with at least 
the superiority of Drunisargard, and the patronage of the church of Cambuslang, passed into the 
family of Douglas, when Archibald the Grim, the third earl, married the heiress of the Morays of 
Bothwell. 

About a mile east from the church, at the termination of a little ridge, is a circular mound, 
levelled on the top, twenty feet high, and forty feet in diameter, the site of the ancient fortalice. 
A century ago there were some remains of building upon it. There were, about 1780, remains of 
building also on the summit of Dechmont hill, which have been carried off for roads and walls. 
In removing these materials, the foundations were exposed of a more ancient structure — circular, 
of twenty- four feet diameter, having the stones carefully joiued without mortar. A thick stratum of 
charcoal was found near the summit, covered by a coat of fine loam. There was a tradition in the 
place, that Beltane fires used to be lighted upon this hill. 



RUTHEEGLEN. 

Rutherglen — Rutheglen — Ruglen.' Deanery of Rutherglen. (Map I. No. 27.) 

This parish extends about three miles along the left bank of Clyde, and comprehends the lower 
declivity of the Cathkin ridge of corresponding length. 

Ruthei'glen, from the earliest period of record, was a royal manor. AVhen the manor had be- 
come a parish, William the Lyon granted the church, with its lands, tithes, and oiferings, to the 
Abbey of Paisley ; and Bishop Jocelin of Glasgow confirmed that grant in usus proprios mona- 
chorum? For some time after that confirmation, however, the monks acted only as patrons, for 
Philip de Perthec was rector of Rutherglen in 1227. In that year a settlement took place between 
the bishop and the monks, and thenceforward the monks drew the great tithes, and served the cure 
by a vicar-pensioner, who had ten mcrks aud the altar dues, with the tithes of the fish — paying 
yearly two merks to the abbey. 

The church, with its cemetery, stood in the midst of the town. It was dedicated to the 
Virgin,^ though the yearly fair was held at the feast of Saint Luke, and still takes place in the 
month of October. It seems to have had altars, dedicated to the Holy Trinity and to Saint Nicholas, 
and endowed from lands within the burgh.* A stone cross stood within memory, on " the cross 
hill," which was ornamented with sculptured figures. 

The rectorial tithes of Rutherglen produced to Paisley at the period of the Reformation thirty- 
two bolls meal, thirty-five bolls hear, and fifty-eight bolls oats. The vicarage was given up in 



' Original charter. Regist. Glasg. Regist. de Passelet. '^ Reg. de Passelet, p. 377. 

Comijot. Camerar. ' I ib. Col. N. D., Glasg. p. 34-5, ! 1 8-2 1 . 

- Regist. de Passelet. 



RtiHEK.iLKN.] PAEOOHIALES. 63 

156'3 at forty mcrks.* The bishop had reception and entertainment once a year in name of ))r(i- 
curations.- 

David I. erected his demesne village of Rutherglen into a royal burgh, with the exclusive privi- 
leges of trade over a district, the limits of which cannot now be fixed with certainty. They are 
described as extending from Nethan to Polmadie, from Garin to Kelvin, from Loudun to Prenteineth, 
from Karneboth to Karun ; and William the Lyon confirmed those privileges.^ Within that exten- 
sive boundary was included Glasgow, so that it happened when Bishop Jocoliu procm-ed for the 
Episcopal city the privileges of free trade, it was obstructed in their use by the king's burgh of 
Rutherglen ; and though Rutherglen was restrained by Alexander II. in 1 226 from taking toll farther 
within the bishop's territory than at the cross of Shettilston, the royal burgh long afterwards con- 
tiuued to oppress the bishop's city. The fermes or rent paid by Rutherglen to the crown were con- 
siderable from an early period. William the Lyon granted forty shillings yearly from the fermes 
of his burgh of Rutherglen for lights in the cathedral, and six merks for the support of the dean 
and subdean. Alexander III. in 1284 gave 100 shillings from the same rents for maintaining a 
priest at St. Kentigern's altar. ■• These sums deducted, the burgh paid of fermes to the crown in 1331 
£15, 5s. lOd., while Linlithgow paid £10, 9s. 4d., Edinburgh £32, Is. 4d., and Berwick £46, 
Is. 7d.5 This crown-rent was at length fixed, when Robert II., in 1387, granted to the burgesses 
the burgh in feu ferm, with courts and issues of court, mills, fishings, and petty customs, for a 
reddendo of thirteen pounds sterling yearly.'' Malcolm IV. granted a toft in Rutherglen to the 
monks of Kelso ;" and in virtue of that grant apparently, their ancient rental bears that they had 
hostellage, fewel, candle, and litter in a tenement there. In 1262 Cecilia, widow of John de 
Perthec, sold to Paisley Abbey a piece of land in Rutherglen, lying between the cemetery of the 
church of St. Mary the Virgin and the Clyde.* In 1 305 James Steward, lord of Kilbride, resigned 
in favour of the monks of Paisley all his right in the " Thendehouse," situated in the " Watryraw" 
of Rutherglen.9 

The castle of Rutherglen was an early residence of the Scotch kings. Several of William's 
charters are dated there. It was of strength and ranked among the important fortresses of the 
kingdom. It fell into the hands of Edward I. during the war of the succession ; was besieged by 
Bruce, and taken by his brother Edward in 1313. 

An ancient royal domain on the river haughs, beside Rutherglen, was named Ferme. In 1329 
the king's annual-rent from the land of " Le Ferme," beside Rutherglen, was six pounds.^" Robert 
I. had given it to Walter Stewart before his decease j^ and it came in the time of David II. into 
the possession of the Douglases.'^ It was afterwards broken into several properties. One portion 
became known as Farme or Craufurd Farme, and another as Hamilton Farme, from being the 



' MS. rental of Assumptions. ' Compot. Camerar. 

- Reg. de Passelet. "^ Regist. Mag. Sig. 

^ Acta Pari. I., prolegomena, p. 76. Neither David's ' Regist. de Kelso, 

original charter nor that of William is preserved ; the latter, ^ Regist. de Passelet. 

narrating the former, is, however, engrossed in a charter of ^ Regist. de Passelet. 

Robert I. still in the burgh archives. '" Compot. Camerar. 

■■ Regist. Glasg. " Roberts. Index, 9, 12. '^ Ibid. .5.5, 18. 



64 ORIGINES [carmuxnock. 

property of the family of Hamilton, wlio had it erected, along with other lands, into a barony 
in 1445.1 

Robert III. granted to Robert Hall the lands called Castle Vallie of Rutherglen and the 
King's Isles.- 



CAEMUNNOCK. 

Cormannoc — Curmaiinoc.^ (Map I. No. 28.) 

This parish, formerly of small extent, was increased in 1725 by the addition, quoad sacra, of 
the barony of Drep, taken from the parish of Cathcart, and the lands of Busby from East Kil- 
bryde, all lying to the west of the Killock burn. Partly bounded by the steep and wooded banks 
of the White Cart on the west, the parish consists chiefly of a high district of the Cathkin range, 
looking down on the valley of the Clyde, from Dumbarton to Hamilton, and commanding pros- 
pects of the distant Lothians. 

About the year 1180, Henry the son of Anselm, gave to the monks of Paisley the church of 
Cormannoc, with a half plough of land in the manor, and right of common pasture, bequeathing a 
third part of his substance to the church of Saint Mirinus of Paisley, and the bodies of himself and 
his wife -Johanna to be interred there. A condition was added, that if the monks granted the 
jjarsonage to any one, he should do fealty to the lord of the manor.-" The grant was confirmed by 
King William the Lyon ; and Bishop Jocelin likewise confirmed it, and allowed the monks to 
hold the church to their own use and for their support.^ Thenceforward, the duty was performed 
by a vicar, who, by a settlement in 1227, had the whole altar dues with three chalders of meal.'' 
It is said that in 1552, John Hamilton Abbot of Paisley and Archbishop of St. Andrews granted 
the church of Carmunnoc to the collegiate church of Hamilton, but it appears among the posses- 
sions of Paisley at the time of the Reformation. 

The rectory is valued at .£20 in the Llbellus taxaiionum, and it was set for that rent at the 
time of the Reformation." The vicarage in the Libellus is valued at £6, 13s. 4d. 

The manor of Cormannoc, which composed the original parish, is said at a later period to have 
passed into the hands of the Douglases ; and it became in the reign of James II., the property of the 
family of Hamilton.** Cathkin, with its mill, belonged to the collegiate church of Bothwell. Cas- 
tlemiik or Castletoun has long been the property of a branch of the family of Stuart. 

The village, in the midst of which stood the ancient church, is undoubtedly of considerable 
antiquity. 

On the estate of Cathkin there are several sepulchral cairns, and there have been found many 
pieces of ohl arms and utensils, probably of native manufacture. Part of a boat of oak, fastened 
with wooden nails, was dug ujj near the same place. 

' Acta. Pari. II. 53. ^ Regist. de Passelet, pp. 106, 109. 

- Roberts. Index, 137, 13. "■ Regist. de Passelet, p. 321. 

3 Regist. de Passelet. Regist. Glasg. ' Rental of Assumptions. 

* Regist. de Passelet, p. 1U5. " Wishaw, p. 23. 



CATHCART.] PAROCHIALES. 65 

CATHCART. 

Katkert — Ketkert.' Deanery of Rutherglen. (Map I. No. 29.) 

A PARisu of remarkable variety of surface ; the White Cart, entering the parish at the south- 
eastern extremity, flows through it to the north-west, sometimes lost between steep wooded banks, 
and at others spreading out in open plains. Many places derive their names from the wood 
which formerly covered the greater part of the parish, and which still springs naturally where it 
is allowed. 

Walter Fitz-Alan, the great steward of Scotland, between 1165 and 1173 bestowed the church 
of Cathcart upon the monks of his abbey of Paisley. It was confirmed to them in proprios usus 
by Bishop Jocelin,- and continued in their possession till the Reformation.^ 

The church, castle, and village were situated on the east bank of Cart, where it runs in a deep, 
rocky, and narrow channel between steep bauks. The church was dedicated to Saint Oswald, pro- 
bably the Northumbrian king, who lived in the sixth century, and who was commemorated by the 
church on the 5th of August. -Jonetta Spreull, lady of Cathkert, who died there 22d October 
1550, directed her body to be buried in the choir of Saint Oswald in Cathkert.'* 

The rectorial tithes of Cathcart were let by the abbey before the Reformation for £40. 

By a settlement in 1227 the vicarage was fixed at the produce of the altar dues, with three 
chalders of meal. It is taxed in Baiamond as of the value of £26, 13s. 4d. The third of the 
vicarage of Cathcart in 1561 was £16.^ 

The parish seems at first to have embraced at least two ancient manors, Cathcart and Drep, 
which were both granted, with other estates, by David I. to Walter Fitz-Alan, the high steward 
of Scotland. The vassals of that great family who obtained the land of Cathcart, soon adopted it 
as their surname. Reinaldus de Ketkert is a witness to several charters of his over lord before 
the end of the twelfth century.'' Sir Alan de Kethkert was one of the companions in arms of 
Bruce.' The land of Drep was granted by the Steward to Paisley Abbey, at the time of its founda- 
tion. In the twelfth century it was already set in ferme by the abbey, apparently for two merks of 
silver.* The land of Akynhead was confirmed by Robert II. to John de Maxwell, knight, and 
his wife, Isabella de Lyndesay, the king's grand-daughter, in 1373.^ 

The square tower which formed the whole of the original castle of Cathcart, was still inhabited 
in 1740. It stands, surrounded by later buildings, on a precipitous rock overhanging the Cart. 

In removing the earth from a quarry near the site of the old castle of Williamwood, about thirty 
years ago, was discovered below ground a little town of forty-two houses, apparently of great anti- 
quity. ' 

' Regist. de Passelet, pp. S, 7. ' Compt. of Col. Gen. of thii'ds of ben. 

2 Regist. de Passelet. « Regist. de Passelet. ' 13arbour. 

^ Rental of Assumptions. ' Regist. de Passelet, pp. 309, 4U9. 

* Commis. Records Glasg. ^ ^^^^' Mag. Sig. 



66 ORIGINES [eastwood. 

Langside, a village of this parish, gave its name to the battle, the last effort made by the 
adherents of Slary before her flight into England. 



EASTWOOD and POLLOCK. 

Polloc— Pulloc. Estwod— Hestwod.' Deanery of Rutherglen. (Map I. No. 30.) 

The ancient manors of Nether Polloc and Estwod had originally each its own church, and 
constituted separate parishes. Before the end of the 12th century, Peter the son of Fulbert, who 
took the local surname of Polloc, gave to the monks of Paisley the church of Polloc, with its per- 
tinents in lands and waters, plains and pastures ; which was confirmed to them for their own use 
and support by Bishop Jocelin, who died in 1199.^ In 1227, at the general settlement of the 
allowances to the vicars of the abbey churches, the vicar of Polloc was appointed to have the altar 
dues and two chalders of meal and five acres of land by the church, the rest of the church land 
remaining with the monks. 

The church of Estwod was also the property of the abbey of Paisley, but acquired somewhat 
later. Its donor is not known. It may have been founded by the monks themselves on their own 
manor. It was certainly the property of Paisley in 1265, when Pope Clement IV. confirmed both 
the churches of Estwood and Polloc to the abbey, with their other possessions.^ 

After that period Polloc disappears as a separate parish and parochial name. It is not known 
whether it included Upper Polloc, now a part of the parish of Mearus. Its ancient church pro- 
bably stood beside the castle upon the bank of the Cart. It was dedicated to Saint Convallus, 
the pujjil of Saint Kentigern, whose feast was celebrated on the 17th of May.* The old church 
may have continued to exist as a chapel. 

From the 1.3th century the parish of Eastwood has comprehended both the lands of Nether 
Polloc and Eastwood. It is about four miles long by three broad, and may be said generally to 
slope from a range of hills on the south-east (where it marches with Mearns) downwards to 
north-west. It embraces the fine valley watered by the White Cart and Aldhouse burn. The 
Brock burn is its western boundary. 

The ancient church of Estwood was situated a mile to the west of the present church, near the 
junction of the Eastwood and Shaw burns, and near to Aldhous, which in 1265 was the property 
of the abbey of Paisley.* 

In the rental of Paisley, 1561, the parsonage of Estwood is stated at 1 ch. 7 b. 3 f of meal, 
and 1 ch. 3 b. 2 f. of barley.^ The vicarage is taxed in Baiamond according to a value of 
£26, 1.3s. 4d. The third of the vicarage in 1561 was £17, 15s. (i^dJ 

Polloc was part of the great estate bestowed by David I. upon the first high steward ; and like 
most of their manors, soon passed into the possession of their military vassals. 

' Regist. de Passelet. ' Regist. de Passelet, p. 64. 

' Regist. de Passelet, pp. S8, 99. " Rental of Assumptions. 

^ Regist. de Passelet, p. 308. ' Ibid., p. 64. ' Compt. of Col. Gen. of thirds of ben. 



PAISLEY.] PAEOCHIALES. 67 

Peter the son of Fulbert, the first of the surname of Polloc, in the latter half of the 12th cen- 
tury, was a follower of Alan Fitz- Walter, the high steward, whom he calls his Advocatus or patron, 
and held by his gift both Polloc and Mernis.i In 1230, Robert the son of Robert de Polloc, gave 
to the monks of Paisley 1 2 merks of the ferm of his land of Polloc, for the weal of the souls of 
Walter Fitz-Alan, and of Alan his son, and for the souls of Peter de Polloc, and Robert son of 
Fulbert, on condition of being admitted to fraternity and participation of the merits of the whole 
Cluniac order.^ The possessions of the Pollocs came, it is believed by marriage of the heiress, 
into the family of Maxwell, before the end of the 13th century. 

In 1265, Roger the son of Reginald de Aldhous, resigned all claim to the land of Aldhous, part 
of the dower (rfos) of the church of Saint Convallus of Polloc, which land he and his father had 
held in ferm.^ John de Aldhus, the son of Roger, again renounces his right in most solemn man- 
ner in the Court of the Justiciar of Lothian, at Glasgow in 1284 ; obtaining a grant of a portion 
of the land for the lives of himself and his wife.'' But a century afterwards the monks required 
to get from the Steward, their hereditary patron, a specific confirmation of their infeftments and 
certain misty possessions, especially of Aldhous, as part of their barony and liberties. ^ 

Nether Pollock, says Wishaw, stands upon the Cart, " in a fertile soil, ane great old house." 
The viUage of Pollock or Pollockshaws is probably ancient. 



ABBEY and TOWN PARISHES of PAISLEY. 

Passelet — Passeleth." Deanery of Rutherglen. (Map I. No. 31.) 

The parish of Paisley was in ancient times very extensive. There is reason to believe it included 
the royal manor and burgh of Renfrew before the reign of David I.^ The church of Loch- 
winnoch was at first a chapel dependent upon the parish church of Paisley; and it probably com- 
prehended also the district which now forms the parish of Eastwood. Renfrew, Lochwinnoch, and 
Eastwood, however, had been separated and become distinct parishes at early periods long before 
the Reformation. Since that time some less important changes seem to have taken place. Thus, 
at the end of the 17th century, Lochlebosyde and Ilartfield were spoken of as being anciently in 
the parish of Paisley, but then in the parishes of Paisley and Neilston respectively ;* and Ainslie's 
map represents Hartfield as within the parish of Paisley, which, if it be correct, would give a con- 
tinuous territory to connect the mother church with its chapel of Lochwinnoch. Charles II.'s 
retour of the barony of Darnley in 1680,^ describes some of the places as within the ancient parish 
of Paisley. 

' Regist. de Passelet, p. 98. » Regist. de Passelet, p. 66. 

^ Regist. de Passelet, p. 378. « Regist. de Passelet. Regist. Glasg. 

' Regist. de Passelet, p. G3. ? Regist. Glasg., p. 60. 

< Regist. de Passelet, p. 65. i Infiuis. Retor. Renfrew, 186. » Ibid., No. 181. 



68 ORIGINES [paisley. 

The church of St. Slirinus of Paisley had a parochial territory in the heginning of the 12th 
century, when David was restoring the cathedral church of Glasgow, and founding a royal burgh 
on his demesne of Renfrew.^ When Walter Fitz-Alan had planted his colony of Cluniac monks 
from Wenloc in tiie church of St. Mary and St. -James of the Inch beside Renfrew, he granted to 
them the church of Passelet, with two ploughs of land.'^ A few years afterwards, the monks were 
removed to Paisley, and the parish continued the property of the monastery till the Reformation. 
St. Mirinus, who is said to have died at Paisley, was the patron saint to whom the original parish 
church of Paisley was dedicated. St. Mary and St. James were the tutelar saints of the monks' 
first sojourning place at the Inch of Renfrew, and St. Milburga, a Welsh saint, was the patroness 
of their mother house of Wenloc. To all these saints, therefore, the Stewart's new abbey church, 
wiiich was also the parish church, was dedicated. 

In the records of Paisley there are casual notices of endowed altars within the church, dedicated 
to the Virgin, St. Mirinus, St. Columba, St. Ninian, St. Nicholas, St. Peter, St. Catharine, St. 
Anne the matron. The endowments of these altars were given along with the income of St. 
Rocque's chapel, by the King, in 1576, for founding a grammar school in the burgh. Buchanan 
then pensioner of Crossraguel and keeper of the King's privy seal witnesses the deed.^ 

The chapel of St. Rocque stood in the town of Paisley. It had seven roods of land belonging to 
it.'' The Stewarts had a chapel at their manor place of Blackball, the chaplain of which witnessed 
a charter in 1272.* As early as 1180, Robert Croc of Crocston, and Henry de Ness, retainers of 
the Stewarts, received permission to construct oratories or chapels within their courts (in clausis 
suis) for celebrating divine service for their own families and guests only, by chaplains from the 
abbey, who were bound to bring the offerings to the mother church.^ 

About the year 1180 the monks of Paisley granted permission to the sick brethren of the hos- 
pital built by Robert Croc on his land, to have a chapel and chaplain — the mother church suffering 
no loss in oblations, and the bodies of those dying to be buried in Paisley, without mass said in 
the chapel.'' This hospital appears to have stood on the west side of the Laveran water, between 
Old Crookstoun and Neilston. 

In a rental given up for the assumption of thirds in 1.3G1, the great tithes of the parish of Pais- 
ley are stated at o ch. 1 f. 2g p. of meal, and 6 ch. 9 bo. barley, with .£10 for the tithes of Rail- 
stoun and Whitefurd, and £26, 1.3s. 4d. for the tithes of the town of Paisley, set for money. The 
vicarages of Paisley and Lochwiunoch together, yielded to the monastery £100. 

The abbey of Paisley was founded by Walter Fitz-Alan, the high steward, about the year 
1160, for Cluniac monks whom he brought from AVenloc in Shropshire, and whom he established 
at first at the church of St. Mary and St. James on the island of the Clyde beside Renfrew. While 
still seated there, King Malcolm IV. confirmed to the church of St. Mary and St. James of the 
island beside the town of Reinfrew, and to the Cluniac monks of St. Milburga of Weneloc there 
serving God, that whole island, with the fishing between the island and Perthec ; the church of 

1 Regist. Glasg., p. 60. * Regist. de Passelet, p. 232. 

2 Regist. de Passelet, p. 249. * Regist. de Passelet, p. 76. 
' Burgh Charters. * Burgh Charters. ' Regist. de Passelet, p. 77. 



PA.sLKY.] PAROCHIALES. 69 

Passelet, with tvro ploughs of land ; a plough in Hestenesden ; the church of Innerwic, and five 
merks of money from the mill of Innerwic.i The monastery was soon afterwards moved to Paisley, 
and munificently endowed, chiefly by the high stewards and their followers, and by the great 
lords of Lennox and of the isles. A confirmation of Pope Clement IV. in 126.5,2 thus describes 
their possessions : — " The place in which the monastery itself stands, with all its pertinents," 
(including the chnrch of Paisley,) " and the chapel of Lochwynoc with its pertinents, the 
churches of Innerwyc, of Lygadwod (in the Merse,) of Katcart, of Rughglen, of Curmannoc, 
of Polloc, of Mernes, of Neilston, of Kylberhan, of Hestwod, of Howston, of Kylholan, of Hars- 
kyn, of Kylmacolm, of Innerkyp, of Largys, of Prestwic burgh, of the other (J. e.. Monks') 
Prestwic, of Cragyn, of Turnebery, of Dundonald, of Schanher, of Haucyulec, of Kyl])atrik, 
of Neyt (Roseneath,) of Kyllynan, of Kylkeran, of Saint Colmanel of Scybinche, with chapels, 
lands, and pertinents — the chapel of Kylmor at Kenlochgilpe, with its pertinents ; and the 
land which Duncan, son of Ferchard, and Lauman his cousin, gave to the monastery there ; 
and that whole land, lying on both sides of the Kert, as the late Walter Fitz-Alan, steward 
of the king of Scotland, founder of the monastery, himself bestowed it ; and the carucate of land 
which formerly Grimketil held, and which now is called Arkylliston (in Paisley,) and the carucate 
of land which they possessed between the Kert and Grif, (in the parish of Renfrew,) which is 
now called the island (or the Inch) ; and the whole land of Drumloy and of Swynschawis; and 
the Graynis which is now called Drumgrane ; and the whole land of Hakhyncog, of Dalmulyn 
(all in Ayrshire,) and the land which they had in the manor of Polloc ; and the whole land of 
Dreps, which the late William son of Maduse, held at ferm of the monastery ; and a carucate of 
land at Huntley, (Teviotdale,) which the late King William of Scotland, excambed with lands 
which they had in the manor of Hastanesden ; and the carucate of land which the late Eschina de 
Molle (wife of their founder) bestowed on them in that place ; and the fishing which they had 
upon the water of Clyde between Perthec and the island which is commonly called the island of 
Renfrw ; — (they had resigned the inch itself to the grandson of their founder for certain other 
lands) ; — ^and an annual of half a merk of silver from the ferm of the burgh of Renfru ; and the 
mill which they had in the tenement of that burgh, with the water courses and all its pertinents ; 
and a plenary toft in the town of Renfru ; and one net for salmon in the river Clyde at Renfru ; 
and the land which they possessed there near their mill ; and the lands of Ilyllington and Castle- 
side ; and the whole mill of Innerwyc, with the water courses and all the pertinents, and the 
whole land of Prestwic, which is now called Monks' town, (in Ayrshire,) and the land of Monia- 
broc, and the land of Cnoc (in Renfrew ;) and the mill of Paisley, with its sequel, which they 
held by the gift of their founder, and half the fishing at the issue of Lochwinoc, with that liberty 
of fishing in the lake itself which Walter their founder granted ; and the whole land of Penuld, 
which is called Fulton (in Kilbarchan,) as Henry de St. Martin, with the consent of his over lord, 
conferred it ; and the land situated between the Mach and Caldouer (in Renfrew,) and that part 
of the laud where the mill of Paisley is situated, which Walter the Steward conceded by certain 

' Regist. de Passelet, p. 249. 2 Regist. de Passelet, p. 308. 



70 ORIGINES [paisley. 

boundaries ; and the land beyond the Kert, between the Espedar and the Auldpatrik (in Paisley,) 
as the said steward gave it ; with all their liberties and easements in the forests of Paisley and of 
Seneschathir (in Ayrshire,) and the land at Carnebro, which they had from the gift of the late 
Uctred son of Paganus ; and the land at Orde (in Perthshire,) which the late Walter called Murd- 
hac bestowed on the monastery ; and the annual rent of a chalder of wheat which they received 
from the late Patrick Earl of Dunbar, and the annual rent of a chalder of wheat and of haK a 
mark of silver which they possessed at Cadiow by the gift of Robert de Londoniis, brother of the 
late king of Scotland ; and an annual of a mark of silver from Kilbride by the gift of the late 
Philip de Valoins ; and by the gift of the late Earl Maldoven of Lennox, that fishing upon the 
water of the Lewyn which is called Linbren (in Balloch,) with the land between it and the high 
way leading to Dunbertan ; and the lands which they had in the county of Lennox, which are 
commonly called Coupmanach, Edinbernan, Bacchan, Finbelach, Cragbrectalach, Druncrino, Dal- 
lenenach, Drumtoucher, Drumteyglunan, Drumdeynanis, Cultbwy, and Reynfod ; and the land 
which they had in the place called Monachkenran with its pertinents (in Kilpatrick,) and the land 
which Thomas the son of Tankard conferred at Moydirual (in Dalziel) ; and the land called Garyn 
received from the late Rodulfus de Cler ; and the whole land of Crosragniol and Strathblan (in 
Ayrshire,) by the gift of Duncan Earl of Karric ; and two chalders of meal received from Alex- 
ander the patron of their monastery in exchange for the multure of the Rass ; and an annual rent 
of two marks of silver for the mill of Thornton." 

Thirty parish churches are mentioned here in 1265, and twenty-nine were found in their pos- 
session in 1525-61 ; eleven of which were in Renfrewshire. According to an extant rental of 
the land estates of the abbey, taken in 1525, the lordship of Paisley yielded 1130 b. 2 f. of grain, 
£217, 12s. 7d. in money, 120 capons, and 1120 hens; the lordship of Glen, in Lochwinnock, 24 
b. of grain, £34, 4s. 4d., 285 hens; the lordship of Kilpatrick, 53 b. of grain, £67, 13s. 4d. ; the 
lordship of Monkton and Dalmulyn, £114, 9s. 2d., 205 capons, 135 hens. 

The rental of the abbacy given up in 1561 for the assumption of the thirds of benefices for the 
Reformed clergy and the Crown, gives the whole money as £2467, 19s. ; the meal 72 ch. 3 b. 3| f. ; 
the bear, 40 ch. lib.; the horse-come 43 ch. 1 b. 1 f. 1 p. great mete ; the cheese five hundred, 
five score and six stones. Among the items of deduction stated, are 7 chalders of meal yearly, for 
the almoners weekly doles to the poor; for the maintenance of the convent in kitchen expenses 
and clothes yearly, according to the accounts of the cellarer and granitar, £473, 8s. 4d. ; for the 
fees of the granitar and cellarer and their under servants £38 ; for the archbishop's claim of pro- 
curations, now converted into money, £13, 6s. 8d. ; for the contribution to the Lords of Session 
and pensions settled on the abbey £550, 2s. 8d. 

From the enumeration of the abbey possessions given above, it would appear the monks ha.d 
more than two-thirds of the soil of the parish lying chiefly on the northern and western sides. 

Among their munificent gifts to their abbey, the stewards reserved to themselves the manor long 
known by the name of Blackball, with its park and forest in this parish. At the foundation of 
the monastery, Walter Fitz-Alan gave the monks a dwelling upon the rock where his hall was 
founded, (iihi aula men eratfunihita), the tithe of all his hunting, and all the skins of deer taken 



PAISLEY.] PAROCHIALES. 71 

in Forineise, with pasture for their cattle and swine through all his forest of Paisley.' The rights 
of the forest were getting more carefully attended to, in the next two generations, and the grandson 
of the founder in granting to the abbey " all the land between Hauldpatrick and Espedare, as 
Hauldpatrick falls into Kertlochwinoc and the Espedare falls towards the land of the monks, 
lying between the Black Lyn and the Kert of Paisley," specially excepted birds and beasts of 
game, and prescribed penalties for any of the monks' cattle which should be found trespassing 
within his forest, and especially within Forineise. He gave them wood for building, and dead 
wood for fuel in his forest, and pasturage for a hundred swine there for one month in time of 
mast.2 About 1250, Alexander the steward allowed an equivalent to the monks for land which 
he had included in his park (in parco nostro) on the west bank of Espedare. In 1 294, James the 
high steward granted a charter of confirmation of the abbey privileges with more precise defini- 
tion of rights and boundaries. He gave them power through his whole forest within bis barony of 
Renfrew, of quarrying both building stones and lime stone for burning, whether at Blackball within 
the said forest or elsewhere ; of digging coal for the use of their monastery, its granges, smithies, 
and brew-houses ; of making charcoal of dead wood, and of cutting turf for covering in the charcoal ; 
of greenwood for their monastery and grange buildings within the barony, and for all operations 
of agriculture and fishery ; and dead wood for fuel without restriction ; saving always his parks and 
preserved forest (parcis meis et foresta prohibita.) He gave them a right of carriage for all these 
necessaries through the forest, whether on wains or on horses or oxen, except through his manors, 
orchards, gardens, corn ground and preserved forsst, which last is described by its marches, — " as 
the Ruttanburn falls into Lauerane, and ascending by the Lauerane to the Black burn, and by the 
Black burn ascending to a certain ditch between Lochlebosyd and the Cokplays, and by that ditch 
going up to the loch of Lochlebo, and by the said loch westward to the marches of Caldwell, and 
by the marches of Caldwell northward, ascending by a certain ditch on the west of Carmelcolme, 
between the Langesaw and Dungelesmore, and from that ditch across the moss to the bead of the 
Haldpatryk, and descending that stream to the march of Stanley, and by the march of Stanley de- 
scending between Stanley and the Cokplays to the Ruttanburn, and so by Ruttanburn to Lauerane." 
These boundaries comprehended apparently a district in the west of Neilston parish, with a small 
part on the north of Paisley. The ways by which the monks and their servants were allowed to 
pass, were the roads of Arlaw, Conwaran, the Rass and Stokbryg, and the customary tracks of the 
husbandmen. They were allowed to go armed with swords, bows and arrows, and other necessary 
weapons, and to lead with them greyhounds and other dogs ; but if they passed through the pre- 
served forest, they must lead their hounds in the leash and unstring their bows. They had a right 
to hunt and hawk within their own land, and of fishing in all the streams of the forest and in the 
whole rivers of Kert-Paisley and Kert-Lochwinoc below the yare of Achendonnan ; but the 
steward reserved to himself, birds of game, hawk, and falcon. He gave the monks a rio-ht of a 
water course for their mills from the water of Espedare, both within and without his park of Black- 
hall, on condition of being allowed the use of their mills for his own corn at his own expense.^ 

' Regist. de Pa.sselet, p. 6. ^ Regist. de Passelet, p. 17. 3 R^gi^f_ j^ Pa^elet, p. 9-J. 



72 



ORIGINES 



[paisley. 



In 1396, Robert III. granted the lands of Blackball to Jobn Stuart bis natural son, and they 
are still in the possession of bis lineal male descendants. The house is now in ruins. 

Robert Croc, a retainer of the Stewarts, in the reign of Malcolm IV., obtained from them a ter- 
ritory in the east quarter of the parish, which was afterwards called Crocston. He is a witness to 
the foundation charter of the abbey. He obtained a right of chapel in his court at Crocston, and 
at an hospital which he had erected and endowed. His descendants continued for several genera- 
tions in the possession of Crookston, which afterwards passed by marriage into the branch of the 
Stuarts, from which descended the lines of Darnley and Lorn. The remains of their castle stand 
on a wooded bank about three miles eastward from Paisley. 

Hawkhead, situ.ated between Blackball and Crookston, came into tiie possession of the family of 
Ross in the latter end of the 14th century. In 1281, Sir Godfrey son and heir of Sir Godfrey de 
Ros, knight, confirmed to the monastery a land in the manor of Stewarton granted by James de 
Ros.i In 1392, John Ros, lord of Hawkhed, witnessed a charter of Adam Fullarton of Crosseby."^ 
Their house, in 1700, was an irregular pile, built in the form of a court, and consisting of a large 
old tower, with some lower buildings added in the reign of Charles I.^ 

Two miles south of Crookston, on the bank of the Lavern, st.ands the fortalice of Raiss. It was 
from an early period a separate possession held by some of the Stewart family. The monks of 
Paisley had the tithe of its mill multure, in redemption of which Alexander the high steward, 
c. 1250, granted them two chalders of meal out of Inchiuan.-* Alexander Stewart of Raiss is 
witness to a charter in 1443,^ and the Stewarts were still proprietors at the end of the 15th 
century.* One part had previously passed into a family of Logan, and went by the name of 
Logan's Raiss. John Logan of Raiss occurs as a witness in the resignation of Fulton by AVilliam 
de Urry in 1409.' 

Stanley castle stands at the foot of the braes of Gleniffer, on the boundary of the Stewart's old 
preserved forest of Fereneze. In 1372, Robert II. granted to Thomas de Aula, chirurgeon, for 
his faithful service, four merks of land in the tenement of Stanley, and Robert III. in 1392 con- 
firmed to Robert de Danyelston, knight, all his lands of Stanley.* A little to the west of Stanley 
castle, lately stood an ancient sculptured stone with figures of animals on it, which may not im- 
probably be connected with the boundaries of the forest so carefully fixed by its old lords. 

In the western extremity of the parish formerly stood the old tower of Cochrane, now demo- 
lished, which gave name to the noble family of Dundonald as early as the 13th century. 

Elderslie, the birth-place and inheritance of William Wallace, lay to the N.E. of Cochrane, on 
the bank of tlie Auldpatrick. The family of Wallace first appears among the followers of the 
Stewards. The lands of Elyrislie were held by Wallaces so late as 1 466'.^ 

Ralston, situated on the east side of Paisley, gave its surname to another old family, deriving 
their rii^ht from frrants of the Stewards. Nicholas de Raulston witnessed the resignation of Fulton 



Regist. de Passelet, p. 380. 
Regist. de Passelet, p. 364. 
Robertson's Crawfurd, 
Regist. de Passelet, p. 310. 



Crawfurd. 

Regist. de Passelet, p. 57. 
' Reg. Mag. Sig., 89, 311-201, 20. 
' Regist. de Passelet, p. 370. 



RENFREW.] PAROCHIALES. 73 

to the monastery of Paisley by Anthony Lombard, knight, in 1272,1 and the lands continued in 
the same family till the end of the 15th century. - 

The lands of Whyteford, Walkenshaw, Ferguslie, Barrochan, were also ancient separate territories. 

The Stewards had a mill at Paisley as early as IITO.^ There were other ancient mills at Raiss 
and Thornton besides the mills of the monks upon the Espedair. 

A village probably existed round the church of Paisley, where there was a mill before the monks 
acquired the church. After the establishment of the monks in 1169, the village extended on the 
bank of the Cart opposite to their monastery, and had attained to some size and importance before 
permission was obtained from Pope Sixtus IV. in 1483, for the abbot to let for an annual rent in 
perpetuity, or for a certain time, lands within a mile around the monastery, and the lands called 
the acres or roods in the village of Paisley.* In 1488, king James IV. out of favour to the abbot, 
George Schaw, for his virtuous education and nutriment bestowed upon the king's brother James 
Duke of Ross, erected Paisley into a free burgh of barony, with the same privileges as the burghs 
of Dunfermline, Xewburgh, and Abirbrothok, and with two yearly fairs, one on the feast of St. 
Jlirinus (the 17tb September,) the other on that of St. INIarnocus (the 2oth of November.) The 
magistrates were to be nominated by the abbot.^ In 1490, the abbot made a grant of the burgh 
to the provost, bailies, and community, describing its boundaries and certain lands annexed, to be 
held of the abbey for payment of burgage, ferms, and annual rents, according to the rental and 
register of the monastery. The burgesses had the privilege of taking stones from the abbot's 
quarries. If they should win coal, the abbey was to have fuel from their pits. The abbot granted 
them a common passage of twelve ells breadth on the north side of the cross of St. Ninian. He 
gave them also the usual burgal powers of holding courts, appointing oiEcers, and of levying petty 
customs, all under the regulations prescribed by " the burgh laws." 

In 1525, the abbey had 2 tenants in Snaddun, 1 in Sclatbank alias Sclaters' bank, 10 in 
Oxschawsyd, 14 in Pryor croft, 9 in the town of Paisley, 15 in the Cawsasyd, 2 in Castleheid, 3 
in the Quarrel, 8 in the Broomlands, 2 in Oxschawheid, 66 in all, besides those in Sedyill, Well- 
medow, Wardmedow, and the AValkmill, all within the territories of the burgh — from the whole 
of which they received annually £69, 17.s. 8d. 



RENFREW. 

Renfriu — Reinfru — Ranfru — RintViu." Deanery of Rutherglen. 
(Map I. No. 32.) 

This parish which is popularly called Arrenthrew, consists generally of that level plain which 
extends from the base of the Kilpatrick range to the heights of Stanley. About two-thirds of the 
parish lie on the left bank of Clyde, the remainder on the right. The southern division is intersected 
by the White Cart. The Black Cart and the Gryfe bound the parish on the west and north-west. 

' Regist. de Passelet, p. SO. ■* Regist. de Passelet, p. 2fi0. 

' Regist. de Passelet, pp. 406-7. * Regist. de Passelet, p. 263. 

' Regist. de Passelet, p. 6. '' Chron. Mailr. Regist. Glasg. 

VOL. I. K 



74 ORIGINES [renfrew. 

The surface along the river has undergone some change within the period of record. The marshy 
woodlands which formerly covered both banks have disappeared, and the Clyde, which once 
spread and wandered amongst numerous islands, and of which one branch at least washed the 
burgh of Renfrew, has been reduced within a narrow and steady channel. Font's map, published 
by Bleau, in the middle of the seventeenth century, but drawn considerably before, gives six small 
islands between the mouth of the Kelvin and the place where the Gryfe flows into the Clyde. 
The two largest were called the White Inch and the King's Inch, the former of which now makes 
part of the lands of Partick in Govan, and the latter, the park of Elderslie house between the 
burgh of Renfrew and the present channel of the Clyde. 

When David I. erected the burgh of Renfrew upon his own domain, (in fundo proprio con- 
struxisset) he gave the church of the place to John, bishop of Glasgow, who erected it into a pre- 
bend of his cathedral, probably soon after 113G. Twenty years later, Walter Fitz-Alan having 
conferred the church of Paisley upon his new monastery, the monks pretended a right to the 
church of Renfrew, as being within the parish of Paisley; but it was confirmed as a separate 
parish to Glasgow by Pope Urban III., 1185-1187, and the monks of Paisley renounced all right 
to it early in the following century.i 

The cure was at first served by a chaplain, but afterwards a vicar discharged the duty. The 
ancient church appears to have been situated upon the site of the present, and was probably dedi- 
cated to St. James. In it were two endowed chaplainries of St. Thomas the Apostle and St. 
Thomas the martyr, ouc of which yielded £13, 6s. 8d. yearly at the Reformation.^ It is said 
there were also altars dedicated to St. Mary, St. Christopher, St. Ninian, St. Andrew, St. Bar- 
tholomew, and the Holy Cross. 

A chapel dedicated to the Virgin stood adjoining on the south to a mill at Renfrew, which 
belonged to the monks of Paisley, and which was latterly held under them by the burgh.s 

In Baiamund's roll and in the Libellus Tax. Reg. Scot, the rectory is taxed according to a value 
of £1 06, 13s. 4d. In the taxation of the sixteenth century, it is stated at the value of £90, 7s. 6d. 
In 1561, it was given up for the assumption of thirds of benefices, at 19 chalders of victual, let 
for 240 merks.* The prebendary of Renfrew paid 12 merks to a choral vicar in the cathedral; 
three pounds for the ornaments of service : and the benefice was astricted to a yearly payment of 
six and a half merks to the hospital of Glasgow.^ 

The vicarage in 1561 was let for 12 merks, after the Pasque ofi"erings and other dues had been 
discharged by Act of Parliament. 

The king's manor of Renfrew appears to have constituted the original parish. When David I. 
erected the burgh and bestowed its church upon the cathedral of Glasgow, he gave to the abbey 
of Kelso a toft in the burgh, and a ship, and a net's fishing in the river free from all custom or 
rent ; and to Holyrood a toft of five perches in the burgh and a net's salmon fishing, and liberty 
to fish for herrings, custom free.^ When the manor passed into the possession of the Stuarts, 

> Regist. Glasg., pp. 60, 96. ■■ MS. Rental of Assumptions. 

-Retours,36. Compt. of Coll. Gen. of thirds. > Regist. Glasg., pp. 344-S. MS. Rental of Assumptions. 

■' Regist. de Passelet, p. 247. " Liber de Kelso, p. 5. Charters of Holjrood, p. 5. 



RENFREW.] PAROCHIALES. 75 

the buro-h passed along with it, though probably without any infringement on its privileges as a 
royal burgh. Walter Fitz-Alau, the founder of Paisley, granted to that abbey the mill of Ren- 
frew and a toft within the burgh ; to the priory of Wenloc in Shropshire, a mansion in the burgh, 
and the fishing of a salmon net and six herring nets, and a boat, as the price of the independence 
of his new convent upon the mother house of AVenloc ; to the monks of Kelso an additional toft, 
bounded by the stream which flows from the mill into Clyde, and a toft to the abbey of Duuferm- 
line. AJan the son of AV^alter bestowed upon the monks of Newbottle a toft in his burgh of 
Renfrew, next to his own garden, on the east side, and a net in the water of Clyde where he had 
his own fishing -^ and to the Cistercian monks of Cupar, a toft in Renfrew beside the church-yard, 
and a net's salmon-fishing in the Clyde.- The monks of Paisley soon acquired other burgage lands. 
In 1280, Eda, .spouse of Stephen de Lithgow, re.signed to them the land contiguous to the house 
of Stephen Marshall, on the east of the village, and -John of Smallwood, a burgess, received from 
them £3, for the lands " in the burgh of Renfrew called Beltonland."-'^ 

Before 1165, Walter Fitz-Alan the steward gave two shillings payable at Easter yearly for lights 
to the cathedral of Gla.sgow, from the revenues of the burgh of Renfrew, and to the monks of Pais- 
ley a half nierk yearly.'* His grandson Walter granted 20s. yearly from the burgh to the monks 
of Bromholm.5 

In 1 .370, among the receipts of the great Chamberlain of Scotland, the contribution of the burgh 
of Renfrew for the King's ransom is £4, lis. 8d., while that of Glasgow was £5, 18s. 5d., and of 
Rutherglen £5, 12s. 4d.^ AA'^hen the barony of Renfrew was separated from Lanarkshire, the 
burgh of Renfrew became the head burgh of the new county, and in 1396 Robert III. granted the 
burgh to the burgesses and the community in fewferm, changing the old variable " ferms " into a 
fixed reddendo of 8 merks yearly. The charter confirmed to the community the fishings in Clyde 
and the petty customs as well within the burgh as throughout the whole barony of Renfrew. The 
burgh was bound to pay 100 shillings for the maintenance of a chaplain in the parish church.'' 
Under that charter or by virtue of its old privileges as a royal burgh, Renfrew claimed the right 
of exacting customs in Paisley. 

In 1488, George abbot of Paisley, and the burgh of Renfrew, entered into a compromise of the 
debates touching the redding of the landymeris, richt marchez and aid divisis betwix the landis of 
the regalitie and fredome of Paslay and the common landis of the burgh of Renfrew. The arbiters 
were William Flemeyng of Barrochan, Uchtrede Knok of the Cragyns, Johne Simpill of Fullewod, 
Robert IMorton of Walkynschaw, Johne of the Knok of that ilk, Robert Montgummery of Scottiston, 
and -Johne Raliston of that ilk ; who, with counsel of William Conyngham of Ovyr Crag.ayns and 
Robert of Crauford of Auchynnaniys, found the marches to be — fra the Knok dike to the heide 
dike nuke at the fuite of the Hadryhil, and frathine furth to folow the aid dike to the lard of 
Raliston's marche aid, usit of befor, and the dike to be the marche, new and aid.* 

' Regist. de Neub., f. 43. ^ cj,. ^f Holyrood, p. 67. 

^ lUust. Scot. Hist., p. 23. "* Compot. Camerar. 

** Regist de Passelet, p. 375. ^ Charter apud Wishaw, p. 281. 

■* Regist. Glasg., p. 19. ' Regist. de Passelet, p. 4U7. 



76 ORIGINES [renfrew. 

In 1493, the lords auditors of causes and complaints in Parliament decided in an action at the 
instance of the burgh of Eenfrew, that the town and lands of Paisley had been erected into a free 
Ijarony and regality by king Robert preceding the infeftment made to the town of Renfrew, and 
also that the " town of Renfrew is privileged but of the lands within their burgh and barony of 
Renfrew."! 

In 1495, the burgh of Renfrew was sued by George abbot of Paisley for taking custom within 
the regality of Paisley, and also for letting the convent from having common pasture on the muire 
of Renfrew; and for casting down of a market cross of Paisley; and for fishing and setting of 
nets in their water of the Bernis in Dunbartonshire, and for downcasting of a house pertaining to 
the abbot in the town of Arkilston.- 

In a dispute with Dunbarton, it was determined by a decree of the chamberlain of Scotland, 3d 
January 1429, upon the verdict of an assize, that Renfrew was in possession of the fishing of the 
Shotts, which is called the Sand orde, also of the mid-stream of the water of Clyde, and ought to 
have the custom and anchorage of it that comes within them, the whilk water of Clyde extends to 
the Eriskane ; and from thence down, the assize discerns that it is debateable, the profit of it to be 
divided between both burghs.^ 

The Clyde is now half a mile distant from the burgh. But the gardens along the street called 
Townhead are described in their titles as bounded on the north by the Clyde ; and even as late as 
1790, vessels were built and launched from Renfrew\ 

The manor and castle of Renfrew, probably an old dwelling of the kings of Scotland, is the first 
named among the ample possessions in Clydesdale granted by David I. to the first high steward of 
Scotland, and which Malcolm IV. confirmed in the fifth year of bis reign (1158.) It was here, 
about the year 1 1 63, Walter Fitz-Alan first settled his colony of Cluniac monks, whom he after- 
wards transplanted to Paisley. He granted to the church of Saint Mary and Saint James, of the 
island beside the town of Reinfrew, and to the prior and Cluniac monks of Saint Milburga of 
Wenloc there serving God, all the said island, with the fishing between it and Perthec, and other 
possessions.* After their removal to Paisley, their patron granted to the monks, in addition, a 
toft in Renfru, and half a merk from the burgh form for light to their church, and a net-fishing of 
salmon, and the mill of Renfru, and the land where the monks formerly had their house.^ The 
monks of Paisley afterwards exchanged, with the grandson of their founder, the island and their 
rights in the forest land of Renfrew, for the lands lying between Maic and Calder and the land of 
Durchat and Meiklerigs," but they held " the Inch and the meadow of the Inch, east and west," 
at the time of the Reformation.'' They had right of common pasture in the moor of Renfrew in 
1 204.8 

The remarkable prominence called " the Knock " was an early possession of Paisley. Before 
1234, Dugal son of Cristinus the Dempster of Lennox, compelled by poverty, and after oflering 

' Act. Aud., p. 176. * Regist. de Passelet, p. 5. 

^ Regist. de Passelet, p. 4U4. " Regist. de Passelet, p. 20. 

3 Charter apud Wishaw, p. 283. ' MS. Rental of Assumptions. 

' Regist. de Passelet, p. 294. " Regist. de Passelet, p. 20. 



RENFREW.] PAROCHIALES. 77 

tho land to his kindred and heirs at a smaller price, (according to the ancient burgh laws,) sold to 
the abbey his land of Cnoc, which he held in heritage of the abbot and convent.i 

In 1361, Robert the steward granted to Paisley half a merk from Porterfelde beside Reynfru,- 
and in 1399, Robert Porter of Porterfield gave the monks a small annual rent from burgage tene- 
ments in Renfrew, and confirmed a former grant of his father, Stephen Portar,^ a name plainly 
derived from an old hereditary office. Porterfield was a forty shilling land of old extent.^ 

The see of Glasgow had a plough of land near Renfrew, from a very early period, which Bishop 
Herbert granted in augmentation of the prebend of Glasgow.^ 

Late in the 13th century, James the high steward granted to Stephen son of Nicholas burgess ' 
of Reynfru, the land which formerly belonged to Patrick de Selvinisland, deceased, lying between 
the burgh of Reynfru and the Nes of the Ren (inter burgum de Reynfru et le Nese del Ren'), 
where the water of Grife falls into Clyde, resigned by Adam the son of Patrick in a full court of the 
barony of Reynfru : Reddendo, "12 pennies of silver in name of feu-ferme at our manor of Reyn- 
fru," without multure, ward, or relief. The witnesses to that charter, being probably the persons 
assembled in the barony court, were Thomas Randalf, Robert Boyde, AVilliam Fleming of Baruchan, 
Finlay of Huwiston, knights, Gilbert of Coningisburg the elder, Gillisius of the Estwod, Robert 
Simpil steward of the barony of Renfru, Roger Wythirspon clerk.^ From Stephen, the family 
of de Aula or Hall is believed to have descended. Thomas de Hall physician, (medicus,) had a 
yearly salary from the Crown of £10, in 1370.^ Thomas de Aula surgeon, (sirurgicus), in 1377 
had a charter of the lands formerly granted to Stephen, and of the island called the King's Inch.** 

Scotstoun, on the north bank of the river, belonged to a family of Montgomery in 1488." 

The castle, in which first the kings and afterwards the stewards of Scotland had their occa- 
sional dwelling, stood on a rising ground between the Cross and the Ferry in the King's Inch. It 
was afterwards held in succession by Lord Lisle (in IGSS),!" and by the Rosses of Hawkhead, who 
possessed, along with it, the lands of the Inch, and a fishing on the Clyde, and the office of constable 
of Renfrew.ii A foss built inside with stone, and filled by a rivulet, surrounded the castle. Its 
memory and site are still retained in the names of " the Castle hill," " King's meadow," and " the 
King's orchard." 

The mill of Renfrew belonged to the monks of Paisley by grant of the great steward. The 
burgesses were constrained to pay full multure to it.'- In 1414, the abbot granted in feu to the 
burgesses the mill of Renfrew, situate on the north side of the chapel of Saint Mary, for one merk 
yearly of feu-duty ; and he gave them permission to take mill-stones from the places where the 
monks used to take them.'^ 

On the eminence called the Knock, already mentioned, midway between Renfrew and Paisley, 
formerly stood a monument, familiarly known as " Queen Blearies stane." It was an octagonal 

' Regist. de Passelet, p. 178. ' Compot. Camerar. p. 539. 

" Regist. de Passelet, p. C7. ' Charter at Dargavel. 

' Regist. de Passelet, p. 374. ' Regist. de Passelet, p. 406. 

* Retours. "* Crawfurd. 

^ Reg. Glasg., p. 26. " Retours. 

" Charter at Dargavel. " Regist. de Passelet, p. 20. " Ibid., p. 248. 



78 OEIGINES [inchinnan. 

pillar, the shaft probably of a cross, about ten feet high, without inscription or sculpture, inserted 
in a solid pedestal, also eight-sided, and about sis feet across. The only reason for distinguishing 
it among the crosses which were so frequently placed to mark the boundaries, especially of church 
lands, was the fantastic name, (thougli evidently a vulgar corruption,) and a tradition perhaps 
founded on it, of Marjory Bruce, wife of Walter the high steward, having at this spot fallen from 
her horse in hunting, which occasioned the premature birth of her child, afterwards Robert II. 
The stone was demolished and dug up about 1779.^ 

" The Kempe kuowe," on the same farm, and only 1 GO yards distant, westward from '' Queen 
Blearies stane," was a circular mound of earth about twenty yards in diameter, surrounded by a moat 
five yards broad. Pennant was told that it was traditionally held to be the place of Somerled's 
death and of his interment. The place may have been a fort of an early date. 



INCHINNAN. 

Inchienun — Inchenane — Inchinan." Deanery of Euthergleu. (Map I. No. 33.) 

This parish forms part of the northern bank of Strathgryfe, and extends to the Clyde on its 
north-eastern border. 

The church of Inchinan appears to have been very ancient. Fordun tells us that Saint Convallus 
was one of the chief disciples of Saint Kentigem, that he was famous for his virtues and his miracles, 
and that his bones lie buried at Inchenane, five miles distant from Glasgow .3 Boece adds, that his 
remains, in a stately monument at Inchennan, were held in great veneration by the Christian 
people even to his day.* 

When Walter Fitz-Alan, the steward of Scotland, gave the other churches of Strathgryfe to the 
monks of Paisley, he expressly excepted the church of Inchinan,^ which had been bestowed pre- 
viously by David I. upon the Knights Templars. On their suppression, in 1312, it passed into the 
hands of the Knights of Saint John. The rectorial tithes were administered by the house of 
Torphichen, and the cure appears to have been served by a vicar down to the period of the Refor- 
mation. 

The ancient church, which was situated where the present one stands, near the confluence of the 
Gryfe and Cart, was taken down only iu 1828. It was regarded as having been built in 1100. 
Its area was fifty feet by eighteen. When its floor was dug up, it was found literally paved with 
skulls. Four old tombstones, apparently old stone coffins with ridged tops, are still caDed by the 
country peojjle " the Templar's graves." 

'Montgomery's Descr. of Renfrew, 1642. Hailes' that name in Baiamund's Roll, where it stands, not for this 

Disquis. parish however, but for Killelan. 

- Regist. de Passelet. Fordun. Chalmers says this ^ III. 29. * Lib. ix. 

parish was also named Killinan. He was misled by finding ^ Regist. de Passelet, p. 5. 



iNCHiNNAN.] PAROCHIALES. 79 

Tbere was an endowed altar, dedicated to the Virgin, within the church ;i part of its endowment 
was an acre still called Lady's acre, the superiority of which is still in the incumbent of the parish.- 

Tho parsonage or rectorial tithes of Inchinnan, sometime before the Reformation, were let to the 
laird of Crookstoun, and had been in use to pay but £20 yearly.^ The Libellus Tax. Reg. Scotie 
values it at £26, 13s. 4d. The rental of the vicarage, pertaining to Sir Bernard Peblisj with all 
profits and duties, was given up at the Reformation, for the assumption of the thirds of benefices, 
at three score pounds.'' 

The Templars had considerable grants of lands in Inchinnan. Sir James Sempil of Beltrees, 
who acquired them from the first Lord Torphichen, was seized " in the temple lands and tenement 
within the barony of Renfrew, united into the tenandry of Greenend."^ 

Malcolm IV.'s charter to the first Steward, after confirming his grandfather's gifts, added the 
land of Inchienun f and that manor continued in the hands of the Stewards in 1246, when Alex- 
ander the Steward gave to Paisley two chalders of meal from his ferms in Inchinnun." 

" The lands of Barns, Barnhill, Aldlands, Newlands, and Glenchinnoch were given by Walter, 
the high steward, to Walter, the son of Sir Gilbert de Hamilton, in the time of King Robert I., 
and are commonly said to have been ane god-bairn gift."* Those lands afterwards passed to the 
family of Mar, and from it to Hamilton of Orbistun.^ 

Foulwood belonged to a branch of the family of Sempil in 1409.1" 

The rest of the Stewart's lands in Inchinnan seem to have passed to their kinsmen the lords of 
Darnley before their accession to the throne. In 1 36 1 , Sir John Stewart of Darnlie had a charter 
of resignation from Robert the high steward, (afterwards Robert II.) of the lands of Crookisfow, 
Inchinnan, and Perthwycscott. To Matthew the second Earl of Lennox, the descendant and re- 
presentative of Sir John, James IV. granted in 1511 a charter of confirmation, in which the king, 
for the special favour which he bore towards his cousin the said earl, and for the preservation of 
the castle of Crookisfow and the manor place and palace of Inchinnan, within the lordship of 
Darnlie, from the devastation and destruction that might happen to them during the time the lands 
might be in ward, granted to the said earl and his heirs male the said castle and fortalice of Crook- 
isfow (or Darnlie,) and the said manor and palace of Inchinnan, with the parks and gardens 
thereof, the mains of Inchinnan, the lands of Quithill, the town of Inchinnan, Ruschaled, Wirthland, 
Flurys, Gardenerland, &c., extending to a £20_land of old extent, to be held blench.i' Slatthew 
Earl of Lennox granted to his kinsman Thomas Stewart the lands of Northbar, Craigton, Barscube, 
and Rashield, at Crookstoun, .5th July 1497.'^ 

The manor house, called the palace of Inchinnan, stood on the north side of the parish, looking 
towards Clyde. It is said to have been built in 1506, which may be the date when the old manor 



' Ch. in N. Statist. Ac. ' Regist. de Passelet, App. p. 87. 

- Clialmers. ^ Wishaw, p. 87. 

' Kegist. de Torpliicli. in N. Statist. ' Crawfurd. 

■* Rental of Assumptions. Compt. of Col. Gen. '" Regist. Passelet, 57. 

* Inqu. Retor. 67. " Stewart's Geneal. Hist, of the Stewarts i 

^ Regist. de Passelet, App. p. "2. '^ Cart. pen. M'GUchrist of Northbar. 



80 OEIGINES [erskine. 

house was superseded by the " palace" of the Darnleys. In 1710 " there were some considerable 
remains of it," but it has been since demolished. 

The village of Inchinnan was about a mile from the church. There was an ancient mill near 
the manor place. 



ERSKINE. 

Irschin — Yrskin — Hyreskyn— Harskyn.* Deanery of Rutherglen. 
(Map I. No. 34.) 

Erskine is part of the ridge which divides the Gryfe from the Clyde. The lands shelve sharply 
towards the Clyde, and more gradually towards the water shade of the tributaries of the Gryfe. 

The church of Erskine was one of the churches of Strathgryfe granted by Walter Fitz- 
Alan to Paisley. It was confirmed by name, by Florence bishop elect of Glasgow, between 1202 
and 1207.2 In 1227, a composition was made between Paisley and Glasgow concerning the pro- 
curations payable to the bishop for the Abbey churches. The arbiters then taxed all the churches 
of Strathgryfe at only two receptions (hospicia,) and, to make up for some loss sustained, decreed 
that the church of Hyreskyn, which then pertained to Paisley, should become the property of the 
bishop.3 The parsonage was afterwards erected into a prebend of the cathedral, but at what time 
is not known. It was taxed among the prebends in 1401.'' William, parson of Yrskin, was wit- 
ness to an agreement between the see of Glasgow and the canons of Gyseburn in 1223.* The cure 
was served by a vicar after the parish became a prebend of Glasgow.^ 

The old church stood in the middle of the present church-yard, at the east end of the parish. 
The stoup which was attached to its principal entrance still stands there. 

The prebendal rectory is taxed in Baiamond at a value of £80; in the taxation of the 16th 
century at .£68. In 1561 it was let for 200 merks.' The vicarage is valued in Baiamond at £26, 
13s. 4d. ; in the taxation of the 16th century at £34. It was stated at £40 in 1561.* The vicar's 
glebe, with the manse, seems in all to have been about 1 1 acres.^ 

Frieland, 2^ mark land of old extent, was part of the possessions of the Knights Templars,'" 
who had a settlement at Inchinnan. 

The rest of the parish constituted the ancient manor of Erskine, and must have been granted 
to the Stewarts among their other Renfrewshire possessions, though it is not named in the charter 
of Slalcolm IV. Like the other manors of their great fief, this soon passed into the hands of a 
family who took their surname from it. Its possessor in 1225 was Henry de Erskin, who wit- 

' Regist. Glasg. Regist. de Passelet. " Regist. de Passelet, p. 28.5. 

- Regist. de Passelet, p. 113. ' Rental of Assumptions. Compt. of Col. Gen. 

3 Regist. Glasg., p. 121. ° Compt. of Coll. Gen. of thirds. 

* Regist. Glasg., p. 299. ' Inquis. Retorn., 116, 117. 

' Regist. Glasg., p. 105. '" Wishaw. Inquis. Retorn., 78. 



K.LLALLAN.] PAROCHIALES. 81 

iiessed a confirmation of the church of Roseneath to Paisley by king Alexander II. ;i and John 
Ireskin, knight, witnessed the Earl of Monteith's grant of Saint Colmonel to the same monastery, 
a pud par cum de Irschyn in 1262.2 It continued with that family till after the Reformation. In 
1635, the ancient lordship and barony of Erskine was retoured at 100 merks of old extent, and 500 
of new. Attached to it were the ferry-boats of the east and west ferries to and from Dunbarton 
and Kilpatrick.3 

The possession of Park was held for sometime by a family of the same name, and in the reign 
of James IV. was left to three daughters, co-heiresses.'' The other principal possessions were Bal- 
garran, Bishoptown, Dargavel, the property of a family of Maxwell, which came ofl" from the 
Maxwells of Newark in 1515 ; Rossland and Glenshinnoch. 

The old castle of Erskine stood on the bank of the Clyde, near the site of the present house. 



KILLALLAN. 

Kelenan — Kilhelan — Kylhelan — Kylliiian.' Deanery of Rutherglen. 
(Map I. No. 35.) 

The ancient parish of Killallan, forming the north and north-east district of the now united 
parishes of Houston and Killallan, lay in some places much intermixed with the other. The 
parishes were united by a decree of the Court of Teinds in 1760. 

Killallan was among the churches of Strathgryfe given by the Steward to the monastery of 
Paisley in 1165. It was confirmed by name to the monks, by Florence bishop elect, before 1207, 
and by the Pope in 1253.^ In 1227, the vicar serving the cure was appointed to have all the 
altar dues and offerings, and one chalder of meal.^ 

The old church of Killallan stands in ruins, with its high and low Kirktowns about a mile west 
of the old house of Barrochan ; it was dedicated to Saint Fillan.* At a little distance from the 
church is a large stone, with a hollow in the middle, called Saint Fillan's chair, and under a rock 
a little beyond, shaded with overhanging bushes, rises Saint Fillan's well, to which the country 
people even lately used to bring their sickly children. There is a fair held here in January called 
Saint Fillan's day. This Saint was celebrated by the church upon the 9th day of January. 

The Knights Templars had a half merk land in the lordship of Barrochan within the parish ;9 
and a place still known by the name of Chapeltown, on the west side of the Barrochan burn, may 
perhaps mark the site of their establishment. 

The rectory is valued at £13, 6s. Sd. in the Libellus Tax. Reg. Scot., and in the rental of Pais- 

' Regist. de Passelet, p. 240. s Regist. de Passelet. 

2 Regist. de Passelet, p. 122. « Regist. de Passelet. 

3 Inquis. Retorn., 94. 7 Regist. de Passelet, p. 318. 

■* Crawfurd, p. 114. s Inscription upon the church bell. -' Inquis. Retom. 

VOL. I. L 



82 OEIGINES [houston. 

ley 150 J, it is given up as set for 1 chalder of meal, 8 bolls of bear, and £19, 6s. 4d. in money.i 
The vicarage is valued in the taxation of the leth century at X34 ; it was given up at £40 at 
the Reformation, for the assumption of thirds of benefices. 

The parish seems to have consisted mainly of the lordship of Barrochan, a £20 land of old 
extent. The barony was the property of a family of Fleming, in the reign of Alexander III. 
Willelmus Flandrensis de Barruchane miles, witnesses the grant of Malcolm Earl of Lennox, of 
the land of Dalehorne.- In 1488, William Flemyng of Barrochan was one of the arbiters in the 
dispute between Paisley and Renfrew regarding their customs.^ He fell at Flodden.^ 

Before 1225, there was a dispute between the monks of Paisley and Sir Hugh Fitz-Reginald 
Lord of Houston, regarding the land of Auchinhoss, which, though in his fief, the monks claimed 
to belong to their church of Kilhelan. The dispute was terminated by the knight agreeing to 
hold his land of the abbey, and to pay half a merk annually towards the lights of the church of 
Paisley.^ 

A few score yards south of the mill of Barrochan, and close to the public road, formerly stood 
an ancient cross, about 11 or 12 feet high, 20 inches broad, and 9 in thickness. It has much 
wreathed carving on all sides, and two rows of small figures on each front, but no letters apparent ; 
it is a good deal weather-worn. In the upper compartment of the east face are four men bearing 
spears or battle-axes in their hands. In the upper compartment of the west face is a combat be- 
tween a horseman and a person on foot, and below it are three figures, the centre one of diminutive 
st.ature, and the figure on the right hand interposing a shield to save him from the uplifted weapon 
of the other. The costume of the groups seems of two diflerent kinds. In its old situation this 
monument was set in a pedestal of undressed stones ; it has now been removed to the site of the 
old castle of Barrochan.^ 



HOUSTON. 

Kilpeter' — Villa Hugonis — Huston." Deanery of Rutherglen. (Map I. No. 36.) 

The south and south-western portion of the now united parishes of Houston and Kilallan formed 
the ancient parish of Saint Peter of Houston. 

This church does not appear to have been among the churches of Strathgryfe, conferred by 
Walter Fitz-Alan on the abbey of Paisley. It is not named among those which Florence, bishop 
elect of Glasgow, confirmed to the monks in the beginning of the 13th century.^ At that time 
the territory, and probably the church, were the property of others. The Stewarts acquired the 
superiority of the land soon afterward, and with it probably the property of the church. It had 
become the property of the monks of Paisley before the confirmation of their churches by Bishop 

' Rental of Assumptions. " Wishaw, Appendix Old Statist. 

^ Chart, de Levenax, p. 41. ' Carta pen. Houston, de eodem, apud Crawfurd. 

^ Regist. de Passelet, p. 406. » Crawfurd. ' Regist. de Passelet. 

' Regist. de Passelet, p. 37'2. " Regist. de Passelet, p. 113. 



KILBARCHAN.] PAROCHIALES. 83 

Walter 1220-32, who confirms tbe church of Houston by name among the other churches of Strath- 
gryfe^ for the monks' own use. 

The cure was served by a vicar, who, by the settlement of 1227, was to draw the altar dues and 
ofierings, with three chalders of meal.- 

The church of Houston still existed in 1791, containing several old monuments of the Houstons. 
The old village of Houston had grown up in its neighbourhood. The church was dedicated to Saint 
Peter. Beside it, on the north-west, was Saint Peter's well, " covered with a wall of cut free 
stone, arched in the roof." A stream hard by is called Peter's burn, and one of the village fairs 
held in the month of July is called Saint Peter's day. 

The rectory of Houston is valued in the Libollus Tax. Eeg. Scot, at £20. It was given up in 
15G1 as yielding to Paisley 2 ch. 2 b. 1 f. meal, and 7 b. 1 f. bear.^ The vicarage is valued in 
the Libellus taxationum at £6, 13s. 4d. 

Baldwin de Bigre, the ancestor of the noble family of Fleming, possessed the territory of Hous- 
ton in the beginning of the 1 2th century. In the reign of Malcolm IV. he is said to have given 
the lands of Kilpeter to Hugo de Paduinan, who appears as a witness to the foundation charter of 
Paisley after the middle of the 12th century. His son Reginald, obtained from Robert son of 
Waldev, son of Baldwin de Bigre, a confirmation of those lands, as granted to his father by 
Robert's grandfather, with that land held by his brothers Roderic and Archibald.* Hugh, the 
son of Reginald, obtained a charter from Walter Fitz-Alan, the high steward, now become the 
superior, where it is narrated that his father and grandfather held the lands of the family of 
Bigre.5 The barony had now taken its Saxon name from the settlement of the first of these old 
lords — Huston or viUa Hiif/onis, and the parish church of Saint Peter of Houston came to be called 
the church of Houston. John Houston of that ilk, who died in 1609, " ordained his body to be 
buried in the queir of Houston with his parents ; and his eldest son to be governed by my Lord 
Duke of Lennox, and to serve him as his predecessors had ever served the house of Lennox."" 

The mansion house of Houston, mostly demolished in 1780, is said to have been very ancient. 
It had a high tower on the north-west corner, with a lower house joined to the east end, vaults below, 
and a very long and wide-paved hall above, and " antique windows in the front." The other 
parts of the building, completing a quadrangle, seemed modern. There was a grand entrance on 
the south, with two towers and a portcullis. The building was large, and being built on an elevated 
situation, it had a lordly appearance, overlooking the whole plain towards Paisley and Glasgow.' 



KILBARCHAN. 

Kylberchan — Kelberchan — Kilbarchan." Deanery of Rutherglen. 
(Map I. No. 37.) 

This parish is bounded on the north and south by the Gryfe and Black Cart. Nearly in the 

middle of the parish, on the east side of the glen in which the church stands, is a detached 

* Regist. de Passelet, p. 114. - Ibid., p. 321. ^ Carta pen. Houston, de eodem. 

^ Rental of Assumptions. "* Com. Rec. of Glasgow. 

"* Carta pen. Houston, de eodem. ^ O. Statist. ^ Regist. de Passelet. 



84 ORIGINES [kilbarchan. 

eminence called the Bar of Kilbarclian,i or the Bar hill. The Lochir, a considerable stream, 
crosses the northern half of the parish. 

This was among the churches of Strathgryfe bestowed upon Paisley by Walter Fitz-Alan the 
high steward. Bishop Jocelin, before the end of the 12th century, confirmed the church of Kyl- 
berchan by name to the monks for their own use and support.^ The cure was served by a vicar, 
who had for his stipend in 1227 the altar dues and offerings.^ 

The ancient church was situated in the village or kirk town. It is only from the name we learn 
its dedication to Saint Barchan, bishop and confessor, but his feast seems formerly to have been 
celebrated in the village, and was probably the day of the annual fair.'' 

There was an altar to the Virgin endowed in 1401 by Thomas Crawfurd of Auchinames, who 
also founded a chapel, dedicated to Saint Catharine, in the cemetery of the parish church, and 
gave for the support of a chaplain serving at both, the lands of Lynnernocht and two merk lands 
of Glentaync, (Lyndnocht and Glenlean, Craufurd^ with an annual rent of three merks from his 
lands of Calyachant, of Colbar, and the whole lands of Auchinamis ; confirmed by Robert III. 
October 24, 1401.* There are still some remains of Saint Catharine's chapel. 

At Raufurly, on a farm called Priestun, a little to the eastward of the castle, was a chapel 
dedicated to the Virgin, founded by the Kiioxes. Its foundations were visible in 1791. 

In the ancient village of Kenmuir, in the south-west corner of the parish, was a chapel dedi- 
cated to Saint Bride, which had lands bestowed upon it by the Sempils. In 1504, John Lord 
Sempil added them to the endowment of the collegiate church of Lochwinnoch.^ He bestowed, for 
the same purpose, the lands of Welland, Bryntschellis, and Pennall in this parish, and the produce 
of the office of parish clerk, worth about 10 merks yearly, of which oflice he was the patron, 
and which he gave to the organist of the collegiate church for the support of two boys to be instruct- 
ed by him in music, deducting the expenses of a fit clerk for the parish.^ The village of Kenmuir 
has disappeared, but the burn is still known as Saint Bride's burn, and a mill there bears the name 
of Saint Bride's mill. 

In the general assumption of the thirds of benefices in 1561, the rectory of Kilbarchan was given 
up among the churches of Paisley let for money, at £65, 13s. 4d. The vicarage was then let to 
William Wallace of Johnston for 40 merks. In Baiamund, the vicarage is valued at £40, and in 
the taxation of the 1 6th century, at £34. 

Among the oldest settlements in the parish is Ranfurlie, in the north, the seat of a family of 
Knox. In 1234, the land of Cnoc, in Renfrew, was held under the abbot of Paisley by Dungallus 
and Matildis his spouse, who claimed lands in Kilpatrick as heirs of Dufgallus, the rector, and the 
brother of the Earl of Lennox.* Soon after that time, John of Knok is a frequent witness in the 
writs of the monastery. In 1488, John Knok of that ilk, along with ITchtrede Knok of Cragyns, 
in this parish, was among the arbiters chosen by the abbot and the burgh of Renfrew.^ The barony 
was afterwards divided into Ranfurlie Knox, and Ranfurlie Cuninghame, belonging to the family 

' Inquis. Retorn. "' Regist. Glasg., p. fill. 

- Regist. de Passelet, p. 109. ' Regist. Glasg.,p. 511. 

' Regist. de Passelet, p. 321. " Regist. de Passelet, p. 178. 

* Semple of Beltrees. ' Regist. de Passelet, p. 346. A retour of Ranfurlie 

^ Nisbet Herald. II., App. 88. Cuninghame, contains " lie twa Knok montanes." 



KiLMAcoLM.] PAROCHIALES. 85 

of Glencairn. The remains of Ranfurlie, the old castle of the Knoxes, stand about a mile and a 
half north-west of the village. On a rock overlooking them, is a green quadrangular mound, 
called the Castle hill, with a fosse round its unprotected sides, the site of an earlier stronghold. 

Auchinames, to the west of the church, is an old property of a family of Crawfurds. It came 
latterly to be divided, so that a branch of that house, and after them the Sempils of Lochwinnoeh, 
held " the third part," being a ten merk land of old extent.^ Some remains of the old castle were 
visible till 1825, when they were entirely demolished. 

Johnston, on the east side of the church, was formerly the property of a family of Wallace, said 
to be descended of Elderslie, and to have obtained the lauds by marriage with a Nisbet.- 

Waterstoun is said to have been anciently in the possession of a family of the same name. 
William Waterstoun of that ilk, is said to have alienated the lands to Sir William Cuninghame 
of Kilmaurs in 1384.3 

Blackston, on the bank of the Black Cart, is said to have been a summer mansion of the abbots 
of Paisley, and to have had a house erected upon it by Abbot Schaw, in the reign of James IV.'' 

Craigends is the seat of a cadet of Glencairn, which dates from 1477. Part of the house is 
apparently as ancient. 

On the bank of Saint Bride's burn, which bounds the parish on the west, is a remarkable stone, 
22 feet in length, 17 feet broad, and 12 feet high. It is still called Clochodrick, the stone of 
Roderick, and gives its name to the farm — the same name by which it was known when it served 
for a boundary of the lands of Moniabrock, 6'50 years ago,^ and which it probably derived from 
one of the first settlers on the fief of Houston. 



KILMACOLM and PORT-GLASGOW. 

Kilmacolme — Kylmalcolm.'' Deanery of Rutherglen. (Map I. No. 38.) 

The ancient parish of Kilmacolm comprehended the upper basin or strath of the Gryfe and its 
tributaries, with a large margin of moorland on the south-west, and a stripe of steep wood-lands 
along the sea. 

In the year 1694-, the burgh of barony of Port-Glasgow, and the bay of Newark, were separated 
from the parish of Kilmacolm, and erected into a distinct parish.'' 

Kilmacolm, amongst the churches of Strathgryfe, was granted by Walter the Steward to the 
monks of Paisley, and was confirmed to them by name, by Florence, bishop elect, 1202-7.* In 
1227, the cure was served by a vicar pensioner, who had 100s. yearly from the altarage." Hugh 

' Cart. pen. dom.Sempil. Inqu. Retorii. - Crawfurd. * Regist. de Passelet, p. 13. 

■^ Carta penes Porterfield, de eodem. '■ Regist. de Passelet. Regist. Glasg. 

* Crawfurd. In the Retour of tlie Earl of Abercorn, " Crawfurd. 

1621, is " BlackstouD cum manerio de Blaclistoun." Inqu. " Regist. de Passelet, p. 113. 

Retom. ' Regist. de Passelet, p. 318. 



86 OEIGINES [kilmacolm. 

de Parcliner, perpetual vicar of Kilmacolm, is witness to a charter granted by Donald Makgilcriste 
lord of Tarbard, granting to the monks of Paisley, the right of cutting wood within all his terri- 
tory, for the building and use of their monastery, after the middle of^the 13th century; and on 
Monday next after the feast of the Purification in 1303, Sir Hugh de Sprakelyn, vicar of Kilma- 
colm, lent his seal to authenticate a deed granted at Paisley by Roger son of Laurence, clerk of 
Stewardton, whose seal was not sufficiently known. 

The ancient church was situated in the village of Kilmacolm, on the banks of a small stream. 
It is said to have been dedicated to King Malcolm III., but without any authority. There can 
be little doubt that it was one of the numerous churches dedicated to Saint Columba. 

At a place near Westside, and not distant from the old castle of Duchall, there was a chapel on 
the green water, which appears to have been endowed by the family of Lyle, the lords of the 
manor. Master Da^id Stonyer, hermit of the chapel of Syde, is a witness to a deed in 1555."^ In 
1635, the lands of Auchinquhoill, Easter and "Wester Sydes, with the chapel and chapel lands of 
the same, were the property of the Earl of Glencairn.^ 

In the barony of Finlastoun-Maxwell or Newark, there was a chapel and endowed chaplainry, 
afterwards included in the parish of Port-Glasgow ; and the names of other places in that barony, 
as Priestsyd, Kylbryde, and the 20s. land of Ladymuir,^ perhaps mark endowments belonging to 
that chapel, or to altars in the parish church. 

In the Libellus Tax. Eeg. Scot, the rectory of Kilmacolm is valued at .£40. It was let for 200 
merks at the time of the Reformation.* The vicarage is taxed in Baiamund according to a value 
of £53, 6s. 8d. It was let at the time of the Reformation for 50 merks. Its glebe was of two 
acres.5 

This wide parish, among the heights that separate Renfrew from Ayrshire, which the monks of 
Paisley used to call " the moor," and one of their earliest benefactors styled " the moors," in 
reference to Innerkyp, which lay beyond it,^ seems at first to have consisted of two great manors 
or baronies — Duchal, to the south and inland ; and the other called Danielstoun, between the 
Gryfe and the sea. The family of Lyle possessed the former at an early period of record. Ralph 
de Insula, along with many of the favourite adherents of the first high steward, about 1170, wit- 
nesses the gift by Baldwin de Bigre, of the church of Innerkyp to the monks of Paisley. '^ and a 
grant of Walter Fitz-Alan himself, made for the soul of Sir Robert de Brus.* Alan de Insula 
was one of the knights of the high steward in 1 246,'' and Ralph de Insula, lord of Duchyl, wit- 
nesses a sale of Aid Ingliston to Paisley about 1260.1" Duchall remained in the family of Lyle 
till the middle of the 16th century, when it passed into that of Porter of Porterfield." The 
remains of the castle were described in 1792, as " very romantique in situation and strong in con- 
struction." 

The other manor of the parish appears to have borne the name of Danielston as early as the 

' Crawfurd, p. 21. ' Regist. de Passelet, p. 112. 

- Retour. " Regist. de Passelet, p. 87. 

■^ Retour. ^ Regist. de Passelet. 

■> Rental book of Assumptions. = Retours. "> Regist. de Passelet, p. 58. 

" Regist. de Passelet, pp. 112-5, &c. " Crawfurd. 



iNNERKip.] PAROCHIALES. 87 

reign of Malcolm IV.' It was the property of a family deriving its name from the manor, in the 
end of the 1 3th century. Sir Hugh de Danielstoun, of the county of Renfrew, did homage to 
Edward I. in 1296. Sir John Danielstoun was lord_ of Danielstoun in 1367. He was keeper of 
Dumbarton Castle, and one of the barons in the Parliament, 1371, which fixed the settlement of the 
crown on his grand-nephew, John Earl of Carrie. In 1373, Robert Danyelstoun knight, had a 
crown charter of Danyelstoun, a £40 land, and Finlawystoun, in the barony of Renfrew, and 
shire of Lanark, to be held in free barony ; and he had a grant of Staneley, in Paisley, from 
Robert HI. in 1391.^ Falling to Margaret and Elizabeth, the daughters and co-heiresses of Sir 
Robert, the barony became parted between Sir Robert Cuninghame of Kilmaurs and Sir Robert 
Maxwell of Calderwood, their husbands ; and the lands took the names of Danyelstoun-Cuning- 
hame, and Danyelstoun-Maxwell. The castle of Finlaystoun, long the seat of the Earls of Glen- 
cairu, is described by Crawfurd as a noble and great building, round a court. Newark, the mes- 
suage of the other division, on the bank of the river, close to Port-Glasgow, consists of a keep, of 
the beginning of the 15th century, with additions of a lower period, but rich in carved devices 
and cyphers, a remarkable specimen of the Scotch manor-house of the date marked by the in- 
scription over the door — " The blessin of God be herein. 1597." 



INNERKIP and GREENOCK. 

Innyrkyp.3 Deanery of Rutherglen. (Map I. No. 39.) 

The ancient parish of Innerkip,. which included Greenock, rises from the shores of the Clyde to 
the height of upwards of 600 feet above its level, and then stretches away into a moorland and 
mountainous tract, in which are the sources of the Gryfe on the east, and the bed of the Shaw 
burn and the Kipp on the west. It is divided from Largs by the Kellie and Rotten burns. In 
1589, John Shaw of Grenok had a crown charter for erecting " his proper lands and heritage of 
Grenok, Fynnartie, and Spangok, with their pertinents, extending in all to £28, 13s. worth of 
land of auld extent, lyand within the parochin of Inucrkipe," into a separate parish ; ratified by 
act of Parliament 1594.^ 

About the year 1170, Baldwin de Bigre sheriff of Lanark, granted to the church of Saint 
Mirin and the monks of Paisley the church of Innyrkyp beyond the moors (ultra mores,) with 
that penny land between the rivulets (Kyp and Dafl') where the church is built, and with the 
church dues of its whole parish (cum integritate parochias sua,) as freely as they held the other 
churches of Stragrif by the gift of Walter Fitz-Alan the steward. The gift reserved the tenure of 
Robert, chaplain of Renfrew, as long as he should live, or until he should betake him to the monastic 
life ; but of the nature of that tenure we have no information. This charter of the ancestor of the 
noble family of Fleming was granted and sealed in presence of a number of the known retainers 
and vassals of the first Steward.^ 

' Carta pen. Houston, de eodem, apud Cravvftird. ' Regist. de Passelet. 

- Reg. Mag. Sig. Ragman Rolls. Regist. de Passelet. « Acta Pari. III. 549. 

Acta Pari., vol. i. s Regist. de Passelet, p. 112. 



S8 



ORIGINES 



[iNNERKIP. 



The vicar who served tbe cure had in 1227 a pension of 100s. from the altar dues. In Baia- 
mund, the vicarage is taxed at a value of £40, and in the taxation of the 16th century at £34. 
It was let at the Eeformation for 100 merks.i The parsonage is valued at £40 in the Libellus 
Tax. Reg. Scot., and it was let at the Reformation, along with Largs and Lochwinnoch, for £460. 
The parish takes its name 'from the situation of the church at the mouth of the Kyp, where it is 
joined by the DafT. To the penny land lying between these waters, granted to Paisley by Bald- 
win de Bigre, were in 1226 added certain acres in exchange for land of the monks on the west of 
Espedare, which Walter the second and Alexander, Stewards, had enclosed in their park.^ 

The chapel of Christswell was founded at least as early as the reign of Robert HI. ;^ it was 
endowed with a considerable extent of lands between Spangok and Laren, on the Kipp. In 1556, 
Sir Laurence Gait, styled prebendar of the prebend or chapel of Christswell, granted the whole 
chapel lands to Sir James Lindsay, a chaplain, and his heirs in feu ferme.* In 1675, James Stewart 
was served heir of Robert Stewart of Cbrystswall in the 40d. land of old extent of the prebend 
or chaplainry of Cbrystswall, and the lands called chapel lands of the said chapel.^ 

There is said to have been anciently a chapel dedicated to Saint Lawrence on the site of the 
present town of Greenock, from which Saint Lawrence bay had its name. 

It does not appear when the property of Baldwin de Bigre, which evidently included this whole 
parish, came into the hands of the Stewards, nor have we any notice of its tenures until divided 
among several proprietors holding under them. In 1404, Ardgowan or Achingoun, was bestowed 
by Robert III. upon John Stewart, his natural son,8 and it is still held by his descendants. The 
house of Ardgowan, situated on the western shore, about a mile from the church, consists of an 
old square tower, with several lower modern additions.' 

Dunrod, in this parish, was the property of Sir John de Lindsay, in the reign of Robert 11.* 

The barony of Greenock came into the possession of the Shaws of Sauchie, by marriage with 
one of the co-heiresses, daughters of JIalcolm Galbraith of Greenock, in the reign of Robert III. ;" 
and " the family of Sauchie," says Nisbet, " from failure of succession, fell into Greenock, who is 
now lineal representer and chief of the name." 

Above the village of Gourock, stood a castle of the same name, the principal messuage of the 
barony of Finnart Stewart, which, in the reign of James II., by the forfeiture of the Earl of 
Douglas, came to Stewart of Castlemilk.i" 

Upon the north-western shore stand the ruins of the castle of Leven, the ancient possession of a 
family of Morton, which failed in Adam Morton of Leven, 1547." 

The lands of Kelly, situate on a burn of the same name, which bounds the parish on the south, 
were given or confirmed by James III. to James Bannatyne.'^ 

The village of Daflf or Kirktouu of Innerkipp, is probably as old as the foundation of the church. 



Rental book of Assumptions. 

Rental book of Assumptions, p. 88. 

Rob. Index, p. 145. 

Privy Seal, xxxv. 21. 

Retours. 

Cart. pen. Blackbill, apud Crawfurd. 



^ Crawfurd. 

8 Rob. Index, p. 125. 

" Nisbet Herald. 

'" Gordon's Hist, of Stewarts, apud Crawfurd. 

" Charter penes Stewart of Blackball. 

*- Charter quoted by Crawfurd. 



LARGS.] PAROOHIALES. 89: 

LARGS and CUMBRAY. 
Lerghes — Largys.' Deanery of Cuuinghame. (Map I. and II. No. 40.) 

The ancient district of Largs appears to have inclucleil the parishes of Largs and Wester Kil- 
bride, consisting of a narrow margin of level and fertile land, along the Firth of Clyde, bounded by 
the burn of Kellie on the north, from which the hills rise abruptly to a mountainous ridge at the 
eastern boundary, broken by the valleys of two streams, the Noddle and Gogo, which run from 
the eastern marches to the sea. David L bestowed upon the church of Saint Kentigern of Glasgu 
the tithe of his kain of Strathgrive, Cunegan, Cbul, and Karric ; but when the bishop obtained 
the Papal ratification of that grant, he procured the insertion, perhaps by way of explanation, of 
the territory of Largs, so that the bull runs, " of the tithe of the kain of Gharri, of Chil, of Cunig- 
han, of Stragrif, of Lerghes."^ Whether it was considered an independent district or a sub- 
di\nsion of Cuninghame, we know that at that time the district of Largs included the parish of 
Kilbride.3 

The parish of Largs anciently included the island of Greater Cumbray, now a distinct parish, and 
belonging to Bute. Largs was an independent rectory until the year 1318, when Walter, the high 
steward, granted to the monks of Paisley the church of Largys, with all its tithes, dues, and fruits, 
and with the land with which it was endowed time out of mind. William de Lyndysay, the rec- 
tor, having resigned, the chapter of Glasgow (the see being vacant) ratified to Paisley the grant 
of the church of Largys in Cunyngham and its chapel of Cumbraye, and in consideration of the 
dreadful and long war between England and Scotland, and for assisting the fabric of the church of 
Paisley, burned in the said war, allowed the convent to hold it for their own use, without pre- 
senting a vicar, but performing the service of the church by priests removable at pleasure.* 

The church, surrounded by its ancient village, stood on the level ground on the right bank of 
the Gogo, where it falls into the Firth. It was dedicated to Saint Columba, whose festival was 
on the 9th day of June, and a yearly fair, vulgarly called Colm's day, once famous over the West 
Highlands, is still held there on the second Tuesday of June, old style. 

On the Blackhouse burn, between the manor-houses of Skelmorly and Knok, is a place called 
Chapel yards, and near it Fillan's well — indicating the site of an ancient chapel dedicated to 
Saint Fillan.5 

Near the mouth of Noddisdale, there is a place caUed Chapeltown, and North and South Kirk- 
land on opposite sides of the stream.^ 

' Regist. Glasg. Regist. de Passelet. sponsible for the procurations of the archbishop, synodals, 

- Regist. Glasg., pp. 12-2'2. and other ordinary burdens — Ibid. 241 ; but this does not 

^ Cart, de Northberwick, p. 4. appear to have been effectual. 

■* Regist. de Passelet, p. 237. By another deed, the con- * j^ 1509^ Hugh Montgomerie, son and heir of Patrick 

vent was bound to place a vicar in the church, with a por- Montgomerie of Blackhouse, succeeded to the land of Saint- 

tion of 17 merks sterling, with 6 acres of land, and 4 wains fillanswell, along with other possessions within the lands 

of hay; the convent paying the procurations of the bishop, of Skermorlie and Cuninghame. — Retours. 

and finding wax for church lights, and the yieixr being re- "^ Bleau. 

VOL. I. SI 



90 OEIGINES [ 



LARGS AND 



The chapel of Cumbray was ancieutly dependent upon the parish church of Largs. It stood at 
the kirktown, on the south side of the island of Mickle Cumbray, then the only village in the 
island, half a mile inland from Milport, now the principal place of the isle. The church of Cumray 
(ecclesia de Cumray) was stated in the rental of the abbey of Paisley, given up for the assumption 
of thirds in 1561, at two chalders, eight bolls of barley .1 

It was proposed in 1649 to remove the church of Largs from the village to the southern district 
of the parish. That change did not take place, but the lands of Southanan, belonging to Lord 
Sempil and Corsbie, the property of Craufurd of Auchinames, were disjoined from Largs and 
annexed to Kilbride. 

At the castle of Southanan, beside the village of Fairley, stood a chapel dedicated to a Saint 
Anan or Ennan. It appears to have been built or restored by John Lord Sempil, in the reign of 
-lames IV., who endowed it with an annual rent of 10 merks from Kilruskan, two soumes of pas- 
ture in the mains of Southanan, and an acre of land on the north side of the chapel cemetery, for 
the chaplain's manse.^ 

The churches of Largs, Innerkip, and Lochwinnoch, were leased together by the abbey at the 
time of the Reformation for £460. In the Libellus Tax. Reg. Scot, the rectory and vicarage of 
Largs are valued at £40. 

In 1227, Dervorguilla de Baliol, daughter and one of the co-heiresses of Alan of Galloway, 
widow of John de Baliol, granted to the bishop and church of Glasgow, her whole land and pasture 
of Forhgil in her tenement of Cunynghame, her whole land and pasture of Ryesdale, 24 acres of 
her mains of Largs, called Bayllolfislands, and a plough of land in her tenement of Largs, formerly 
possessed by Thomas Seysil.'' 

Robert I. granted to Robert called Sympil, (Roberto dicto Sympil), the land which formerly 
belonged to John de Balliol knight, in the tenement of Largys.'* The dean and chapter of Glas- 
gow entered into an agreement with -John Lord Sympil in 1494, to exchange Risdalemure of Largs 
and Tuerly (Fairley ?) for the advowson of Glasfurd, to be made a common church of the chapter 
with £20 yearly, which, however, does not seem to have taken effect.^ The canons of Glasgow 
liad in the parishes of Largs and Dairy lands called " the channoun land," of forty merks of 
ancient extent, consisting of Baillie lands, Harplair, Rylies, Kilburne, Tuirgyld, Hourat, and 
Ryisdaillmure.'' 

William Cuninghame of Kilmaurs had a charter from Robert III. of the lands of Skelmorley.' 
In the time of Timothy Pont, South Skelmorley was the inheritance of Archibald Cuninghame, 
while North Skelmorley " was a fair well-built house, and pleasantly situated with orchards and 
woods, the inheritance of Robert Montgomery, laird thairof, quho holds it of the Earls of 
Glencairn." 

A family of Kelson were long proprietors of Kelsouland. In 140-3, -lohu de Kelsou, son of 
the lord of Kelsouland, quitclaimed to the monks of Paisley a piece of land called Langlebank. 

1 Rental of Assumptions. •" Reg. Mag. Sig., 11, 53. 

- Reg. Mag. Sig., apud Chalmers. ' Regist. Glasg., p. 485. 

3 Regist. Glasg., p. 192. " Retours. ' Robertson's Inde.x. 



cuMBRAY.] PAROCHIALES. 91 

lying between the church land of the parish church of Largs on the west, and the land of Kelson- 
land on the east ; and in ] 432 he gave them half a stone of wax yearly at the feast of Saint 
Mirinus, from the ferms of Kelsouland.i Kelsouland has since merged in the barony of Brisbane. 
In Font's time, it had " a guid house, and well planted, the heritage of Archibald Kelson of that 
same." 

From the same author, who prepared, with more than his usual care, the materials for the map 
and description of Cuninghame, we have a few other notices of houses in this parish. 

" Crosby-tour is the habitation of William Crawfurd of Auchnaims, by divers thought to be 
the chiefie of the Crawfurds. He holds the same of the Earls of Glencairne." The estate was a 
£14 land old extent.- 

" Fairlie castle," (or Southennan house,) " is a strong tour and very ancient, beautified with 
orchards and gardens. It belongs to Fairlie de eodem cheiffe of their name." In ISS."), William 
de Fairlie is included in the list of Scotchmen who received letters of pardon from Edward HI. 
for the crimes they had committed in the war with England.^ " Kelburne castle," (situated to 
the north of the former, on a rivulet of the same name,) " is a goodly building," says he, " well plant- 
ed, having very beautifull orchards and gardens, and in one of them a spatious rome with a chris- 
taline fontane cutt all out of the living rocke. It belongs heritably to John Ball, laird thereof." 
Richard Boyle, dominus de Kaulburn, is said to be mentioned in a transaction with Walter Cumyn, 
in the reign of Alexander III. " And Robert de Boyville of Kilburn and Richard do Boyville of 
Ryesholm did homage to Edward I. 1206." 

Hayle, near which the battle of Largs is said to have been fought, belonged in Font's time to 
Gavin Blare, but was in 1483 in the possession of a family of Wilson.* On a height above it, 
called Castle-hill, there were " the remainders of ane ancient castle," and at the back of the 
mansion house a tumulus called Margaret's Law, which when opened contained stone coffins and 
bones, supposed to belong to some of the Norwegians who fell in the battle.^ 

Knock castle, " a pretty dwelling situated on the main ocean," belonged to a family of Frazers, 
who are said to have acquired the property by marriage with the heiress about 1400. John the 
third son of Hugh Frazer of Fairlyhope in Tweedale, and of Lovat in Inverness-shire, received a 
charter of the lands from Robert ni.*" 

Besides the town of Largs, there do not seem to have been any other ancient villages. There 
is a large common near the sources of the Gogo and the Rye, designated in Bleau, the common of 



In 1263, the Norwegian fleet of 160 ships landed or was driven ashore at Largs, and Haco was 
attacked and beaten by the Scotch forces. The Norse account of the battle narrates the burial of 
their dead at a church which appears to have been the parish church of Largs. 



' Regist. de Passelet, pp. 244, 3G9. * Robertson's Cuninghame, p. 101. 

- Retours. * Robertson's Cuninghame, p. 112. 

^ Rect. Scot., vol. i. p. 381. " Robertson's Cuninghame, p. 86, 



92 OEIGINES [kilbir.vie. 

KILBIENIE. 

Kilbyrny — Kylbyrne.' Deanery of Cuningbame. (Map I. and II. No. 41.) 

The river Garnock traverses this parish in a south-easterly direction. The Maich, a smaller 
stream, running parallel to the Garnock, forms part of its eastern boundary, and discbarges itself 
into the loch of Kilbirnie, anciently called Loctancu and Locbthankard.^ From this loch, and 
the valleys of these rivers, it rises to the mountainous ground on the eastern border of the parish of 
Largs. The church, situated on the Garnock and beside the castle of the manor, appears to have 
heen dedicated to Saint Brandane, the apostle of the isles, whose festival is on the 16tb day of May. 
The annual fair is held on the 28th of May, and is called Saint Brinnan's day. In the neighbour- 
hood is a mineral well, known by the name of Birnie's well. 

The church belonged to the monastery of Kilwinning. The cure was served by a perpetual 
vicar. Sir Thomas Mersohel perpetual vicar of Kylbryny, witnessed a notarial instrument in Glas- 
gow in 1413. In the rental of Kilwinning given up at the Reformation, the parsonage is stated 
among the kirks set for money, when the rent was only £S. The vicarage is taxed in Baiamund 
according to a value of £40, and in the taxation of the 16th century at £34. 

The whole parochial district was at an early period divided into three estates, Kilbirnie, Glen- 
garnock, and Ladyland. The first, occupying nearly one half of the whole parish, is found in thfe 
possession of a branch of the Barclays of Ardrossan, about the end of the 1 4th century. There is 
said to be a charter of 1429 extant, in which Adam Barclay is styled, Adam " filius domini 
Hugonis de Kilbirny miles.''^ " Kilburney castle," says Pont, " is a fair building well planted, 
the heritage of John Crawfurd, laird thereof." Its ruins are situated a mile west of the vicarage, 
and overlook the vale of Garnock and the loch of Kilbirnie. The most ancient part consists of a 
great square tower of great height, with very massive walls, (divided into four stories, the lower 
of which is vaulted and without a fire-place,) evidently erected before the use of fire-arms.* 

The barony of Glengarnoeh extends over both sides of the upper course of the Garnock, and is 
said to have been possessed at a remote period by a family of the name of Riddel, and passed from 
them by an heiress about 1265, who married one of the Cunninghames of Kilmauns. " Glengar- 
nock castle," says Pont, " is a very faire, strong, ancient, and well built casteU, ye chieffe fabreck 
arraysing in three touris of good height, seatted one a rocke, under which glydes the river Gar- 
nock. It has for a long tyme belonged to the Cuninghames, lairds thereof." " It is perhaps," 
says Robertson, " among the most ancient Mid most stately ruinous fabricks in Ayrshire. It is 
pitched on the top of a high precipitous rock in a peninsula formed by the Garnock, about two 
miles north-west of the village of Kilbirnie." The chasm by which it is nearly surrounded is 
about 1 00 feet deep, dark, and the waters almost hid by overhanging woods. It was separated 
from an adjoining field, its only accessible quarter, on the north-east, by a moat and drawbridge. 

' Regist. Glasg. ^ Robertson's Cuningbame, p. 259. 

= Regist. de Passelet. Retours. * Robertson's Cuningbame. 



LocHwiNNocH.] PAROCHIALES. 93 

Ladyland, lying on the Maich, and occupying the north-east quarter of the parish, was perhaps 
a possession of the abbots of Killwinning. Prior to 1C06 it was in the hands of a branch of the 
Barclays of Kilbirnie, and Pont describing the mansion house, simply calls it a strong tower.' 



LOCHWINNOCH. 

Lochinauche — Loghwinnoc — Lohwinhoc — Lochwynyok.^ 

Deanery of Rutherglen. (Map I. No. 42.) 

The parish of Lochwinnoch consists of a low fertile valley, winding amongst bleak hills, in the 
middle of which is a large lake, formerly of much greater extent, which receives the Cakler water 
and other streams, and gives rise to the Cart, called the Black Cart or Cart Lochwinnoch. 

The grant by the high steward of the parish church of Paisley, " with all its pertinents," to his 
new monastery, conveyed to the monks the chapel of Lochwinnoch, though not named. It was a 
dependant chapel of Paisley. Before 1207, Florence, bishop elect of Glasgow, confirmed to the 
abbey of Paisley the chapel of Lochwinnoch It is frequently mentioned afterwards as a chapel in 
connexion with the place and monastery of Paisley.'* It is not known at what time Lochwinnoch 
became a separate parish. In 1.504, the lands of Moniabrok were described as within the parish 
of Lochwynyok.6 The rectorial tithes of the parish at the period of the Reformation had been 
let, along with those of Largs and Innerkip, for J460, and the vicarage tithes, along with those of 
the parish of Paisley, for £100.^ Both are valued together in the Libellus Tax. Reg. Scot, at .£40. 
The cure was probably served by chaplains or monks of the abbey. The office of parish clerk was 
in the gift of the Lords Sempil.^ 

The chapel or church dedicated to Saint Winnoc, the abbot, whose festival is on the 6th 
November, was situated, along with its kirk-town, on the west side of the lake, to which it gave 
its name. 

There seems to have been a chapel endowed by the family of Sempil before the erection of the 
collegiate church, the lands of which merged in that foundation, and a place still called Chapel- 
town, near their park and castle, probably marks its site. 

The collegiate church of Lochwinnoch or Sempil was founded by John Lord Sempil within his park 
of Lochwinnoch, by the authority of the bishop. The foundation charter is dated the 5th April 1 504. 
The new college was dedicated to the Virgin, and was endowed for a provost, six chaplains, and two 
singing boys. The provost had part of the rectory of Glasfurd, amounting to £45 yearly. The first 
and second chaplains had part of the tithes of Glasfurd, amounting to 18 merks yearly ; the third 
was endowed with the parish clerkship of Lochwinnoc, valued at 1 8 merks ; the fourth chaplain had 

' Inquisit. Special. ■* Regist. de Passclet, pp. 308, 410. •'' Ibid., p. 6'2. 

^ Regist. de Passelet. ** Rental Book of Assumptions. 

^ Regist. de Passelet, p. 113. ' Regist. Glaag., p. 509. 



94 ORIGINES [lochwinxoch. 

the lands of Upper Pennale, with a mansion, gardens, and orchards, and a pension of 40s. from 
the lands of East and West Bryntschellis, in the parish of Kilbarchan, extending to 18 marks ; 
the fifth chaplain had the whole lands of Nether Pennale, with the mill, extending to 26 merks 
yearly. He was to be organist, and to teach a singing school, giving daily lessons to boys in the 
Gregorian chaunt and prick-song, and was to maintain two singing boys for the service of the 
church ; for whose support he received the emoluments of the parish clerkship of Kilbarchan, de- 
ducting the necessary expenses of a person filling the office. The sixth chaplain had the lands of 
Auchinlodmond, with its mill, extending to 22 merks yearly; he was to be skilled in grammar, and 
in the Gregorian or plain, and prick-song, and was to teach at least the first and second parts of 
grammar to the two singing boys. The sacrist had the emoluments of the parish clerkship of Glas- 
furd, worth 6 merks yearly, he finding a sufficient person to discharge the duty ; and he had land 
beside the collegiate church for a house and garden. His duties were, to have charge of the church, 
and the ornaments and vestments, to regulate the clock, and duly to ring the bells at matins, ves- 
pers, compline, as well as curfew and prayers, doubling as the custom is, on feast days, to collect 
oflerings passing through the church, and to clean the church and adorn it with greens and flowers. 
The provost and chaplains had ten roods of land within the park for building houses and forming 
wardens for fruit trees and flowers ; the five merk land of East Welland, with the lands which 
were formerly annexed to the chapel of Saint Bride in Kenmure, both in the parish of Kilbarchan ; 
the lands which formerly belonged to the Sempil's chapel, in the parish of Lochwynyoc, and the 
lands which were annexed of old to the chapel of Saint Conal, in the village of Ferrenese, were 
assigned for their commons in bread, wine, and wax. The dresses of the provost and chaplains 
are minutely specified. They were bound to continual residence ; to perform a solemn obit for 
James IV. and his Queen, for Robert archbishop of Glasgow ; and daily, after high mass, to sing an 
Ave Gloriosa and a De profundis at the tomb of William Sempil and the dame Margaret Cathcart, 
his spouse, of Sir Thomas Sempil and dame Elizabeth Ross, and for Sir John Sempil and dame 
Margaret Colville, his spouse, their founders, as well as to celebrate their obits on their anniver- 
saries. The patronage of all the offices was reserved to the founder and his successors.^ The walls 
of this collegiate church still remain, its length is Tl|- feet long by 24 broad. The chancel is used 
as a burying-place for the family of Sempil. 

We first become acquainted with Lochwinnoch in the gift of David I. to Walter Fitz-Alan his 
steward, confirmed by jMalcolm IV.,- and the earliest known possessors under the Stewards were 
the monks of their abbey of Paisley. About the year 1202, Alan the son of Walter the high 
steward, granted to Paisley the land of Moniabrok in Stragrif, by the boundaries perambulated by 
Robert Croc, Henry de Nes, and William son of Maidus, namely, as the torrent which runs under 
Crat'henbroc falls into Lughor, and so by the Lughor to Cragmenan, and so by a hollow on the 
west of Cragmenan to Caldoure, and by Caldoure to a torrent which is called Cloghari, and by 
that torrent to the rock of Bardristrenach, and by the nearest syke below that rock to the burn 

' Resist. Glasg., p. 506. when it is considered, that it has passed through the copy- 

- Regist. de Passelet, Appendix, p. 1 . But little weight ing of two transcribers of remarliahle incorrectness — Skene 
can be given to the spelling Lochinauehe in this charter, and Balfour. Pref. Regist. de Passelet, p. xxiii. 



LocHwiNNocH.] PAROCHIALES. 95 

of Logan, and by that burn to the boundaries of Cloghrodric, and so by those boundaries to the 
foresaid torrent, which runs under Craghenbroc. He also granted them the half of the fishing at 
the issue of the Black Cart from Lochwinnoch, and the right of fishing in the lake whenever he 
himself or bis successors fished there.' About the end of the 1 3th century, James the steward granted 
to the monks free passage of the water of Kert Lochwinnoch between his yare of Auchindunan 
at the issue of the river, and the monks' yare of Lyncleyf, so that there should be no impediment 
between them to the injury of the monks' fishings.^ In the middle of that century they had received 
from Alexander Fitz-Alan, the steward, six acres of land adjoining their chapel of Lochwinnoch, 
in exchange for property which they had resigned to the Steward at Innirwic.-* 

The monks of Paisley also possessed the lands of Bar and Glen between the Mach and Caldour, 
and the pasture lands of Peti Auchingowin, the last of which previously belonged to the convent 
of Dalmulin on the water of Air, and were transferred to Paisley with the other possessions of tliat 
house. In tlie original grant to Dalmulin about the beginning of the 1.3th century, the boundaries 
of Peti Auchingowin are described — as the burn of Ardecapel falls into Locwinnoc, and ascending 
by that burn to the Mere burn, by the same boundaries by which Alexander, son of Hugh, held 
the land of the Steward, and so by the Mere burn descending to the burn which flows out of 
Loctancu, and by that burn descending to Locwinnoc, and so by the bank of Locwinnoc to tiie 
foresaid burn of Ardecapel.* The boundaries between the monks' lands of Bar and the lands of 
Calderhauch belonging to Robert Sempil of Fowlwod and Richard Brown of Cultermayns, were 
settled by arbiters in 1509.^ 

When the possessions of the monastery were erected into a regality by James II., those in Locli- 
winnoch composed the lordship of Glen, which in the rental of 1525 is stated as yielding 32 styrks, 
24 bolls of grain, .£ S-t, 4s. 4d. in money, and 285 hens. Jluch of the abbey lands here were feued, 
probably before the date of that rental. 

The manor of Elioston was the property of the Sempils in the reign of Alexander III.*' In 
1545 the abbot of Paisley appointed Robert, master of Sempil, justiciar and bailie of the reality 
of the Abbey, except the lordship of Kyle and Ayrsiiire lands ; for discharging which office he 
had a new grant of the 43s. 4d. lands of Glen, called the Locheid, (which he had held before), and 
three chalders of oatmeal yearly." The castle of Eliston, the ancient seat of the chief family of 
Sempil, was on the eastern bank of the lake. It is said that Robert Lord Sempil built the peel as 
a place of defence, on a small island of the lake, of which some remains are still visible. The pre- 
sent house of Castle Sempil is on the site of Castle Tower, which is described by Crawford in 1710 
as consisting of a large court, part of which seemed to be a very ancient buildin". 

Beltrees, on the south side of the lake, was possessed by a family of Stewart in 1477."* Auch- 
inbothie belonged in part to a family of Wallace. 



' Regist. de Passelet, p. 13. s Regist. de Passelet, p. 430. 

2 Regist. de Passelet, p. 254. « Charters apud Crawfurd. 

3 Regist. de Passelet, p. 88. ^ Regist. de Passelet, App. 3. 
■■ Regist. de Passelet, p. 23. a Crawfurd. 



96 ORIGINES [neilstown. 

NEILSTOWN. 

Neleston — Neliston.' Deanery of Eutherglen. (Map I. and II. No. 43.) 

The parish of Neilstown. rises from a flat on its eastern boundary into hilly grounds, from 400 
to 500 feet of elevation on the south and west. The ridge formed by the Fereneze and Lochlibo- 
side hills stretches from north-east to south-west through the parish, enclosing the picturesque Loch 
Libo at the southern end. Behind these is the remarkable saddle-shaped hill called the Pad of 
Neilstown, and the Knockmade ridge, divided into two by the valley of Lavern, which issues from 
Loch Long on its south-eastern limits. 

The baronies of Knockmade and Shutterflat on the southern boundary, now united to Beith and 
Dunlop, quoad sacra, formerly belonged to Neilstown. Lochliboside and Ilartfield were anciently 
in the parish of Paisley, but now in Neilstown.^ 

Early in the thirteenth century, the monks of Paisley had obtained the property of the church 
of Neilstown, probably from their patrons the Stewards. William de Hertford, perhaps the 
rector, gave them the rectory in farm for his life, in exchange for the half of the great tithes of 
Thornton, and in 1227, the monks were allowed by Papal commissioners to hold it in usus pro- 
prios, and exempt from procurations, on condition of presenting a qualified chaplain.^ About the 
middle of that century, Robert Croc, who had claimed some right in the church, resigned it in 
favour of the monks, in presence of Walter the high steward.'* The church and village of Neils- 
town have always stood between the right bank of the Lavern and the Kirktown burn. Some 
part of the persent church is old. 

Tradition has preserved the sites of two ancient chapels, one on the west bank of the Lavern, 
near Arthurley, at a place still called Chapel, and another about a mile from the church, at a 
sequestered spot called " Boon the brae." There is a fine spring at each. 

In the Libellus Tax. Reg. Scot, the rectory and vicarage together are estimated at £33, 6s. 8d. 
They were let in 1561 for £66, 13s. 4d.5 The church lauds of Neilstown were of 13s. 4d. 
old extent."' 

It would appear that the lands of Neilstown belonged to Robert Croc, when he resigned to the 
monks of Paisley his claim to the church. They passed with the other possessions of the Crocs, 
Crookston and Darnley, into the Darnley branch of the family of Stewart.'' 

Caldwell occurs as an estate with known boundaries and marching with the Stewart's forest of 
Fereneze in 1294. It came into the possession of a branch of the Mures of Abercorn early in the 
1 5th century,* by the marriage, as is believed, with the heiress of a family taking its name from 
the lands. 

' Regist. de Passelet. ^ Rental of Assumptions. 

- Retours— Cran-furd. " Retours. 

3 Regist. de Passelet, p. 321, and Regist. Glasg., p. 121. ' Retours. 

■• Regist. de Passelet, p. 105. " Crawfurd. 



MEARxs.] PAROCHIALES. 97 

Arthurley seems also to have been held by a family of the same name in the middle of the 1 4th 
century .1 It passed afterwards into a branch of the family of Darnley.- 

Coudon belonged to the old family of Sprewl, one of whom, Walter Sprewl, was steward of the 
earldom of Lennox, and had grants of the lands of Dalchorne and Dalmore about the end of the 
1 3th century. The lands of Condon were resigned by Walter Sprewl in favour of his son Thomas 
in 1441.3 

A sculptured stone, which once stood on the lands of Hawkhead, now serves as a bridge over a 
burn between those lands and Arthurley. There are two cairns on the top of the Fereneze hills, 
one of them remarkable for its size and for the foundation of a large wall surrounding it. 



MEARNS. 

Meorns — Mernes — Le Mernis." Deanery of Rutherglen. 
(Map I. and II. No. 44.) 

The district long known by the name of the 3Iearns was one of those parts of the diocese (partes 
parochias) confirmed to .Jocelin bishop of Glasgow, by Pope Alexander III. in 1178.^ That was 
a mere grant of episcopal jurisdiction, for ten years later, Helias the son of Fulbert and the brother 
of Robert and Peter de Polloc, all followers of the Stewards, himself a clerk, granted to the monks 
of Paisley the church of Mernis, with all its pertinents, for the souls of Walter Fitz- Alan and Alan 
his son, the patron (advocatus) of the grantor, and bishop Herbert of Glasgow.^ His charter 
was confirmed by Peter de Polloc, his brother,' and by King William the Lion.* Bishop Jocelin 
allowed the monks to hold the church for their own use and support." 

The cure of the parish was served by a perpetual vicar. In 1227 the vicar's pension was fixed 
at 100s., or the altar dues, with two oxgangs of land beside the church. There was other church 
land within the parish which remained to the monks.i" 

The rectory of Mearns is valued in the Libellus Tax. Reg. Scot, at £50. It yielded the house 
of Paisley, in 1561, £104 in money, and six chalders, 10 bolls, and 3 firlots of meal.'^ The vicarage 
is rated in Baiamund at £40, and in the taxation of the 16th century at £34. The vicar's lands 
were 13s. 4d. of old extent.i- 

The church was situated in the end of the 13th century near the south-eastern extremity of the 
parish, between the Kirk burn and another called the Broom burn, on the other side of which was 
the old village and the castle of Mearns. 

About the year 1300, Herbert de Maxwell knight, endowed a chapel in the parish chureli with 

^ Regist. de Passelet. ^ Regist. de Passelet, p. 98. 

^ Crawfurd. ^ Regist. de Passelet, p. 100. 

^ Writs of Coudon, apud Crawford. ' Regist. de Passelet, p. 101. 

* Regist. Glasg., and Regist. de Passelet. '" Regist. de Passelet, p. .S21. 

* Regist. Glasg., p. 42. " Rental of Assumptions. 
Regist. de Passelet, p. 100. " Retours. 



98 ORIGINES [eaglesham. 

six merks, payable from his mills of Mearns, and his grant was witnessed by Sir Alan, perpetual 
vicar of Mearns.^ The Templars, and after them the Hospitallers, who had land close to the 
church, seem to have had a chapel on their lands of Capelrig, which were of 6s. 8d. old extent, 
bounding or perhaps mixed with the lands of the monks in the new town.^ 

When the high stewards portioned out their great territory of Renfrew among their knights and 
followers, Mearns, along with Upper and Nether PoUoc, fell to a family who in the course of a gene- 
ration or two adopted their surname from the lands of Polloc. They disappeared as lords of Mearns 
in the war of the succession, an era of remarkable changes of families and property. Before 1316, 
Herbert de Maxwell knight, was proprietor of Jlearns and Lower Polloc, and gave to the monks of 
Paisley 8i acres and 28 perches of land in the Newton of Mearns, in exchange for a like quantity in 
the land of Aldton. The acres granted in the Newton, bounded thus, — As the kirk burn crosses the 
highway leading from the church to the Newton, and so up that burn northwards to a standing stone 
in a green furrow in the Crosteflatt, and so by that green furrow northwards to a syke leading west- 
ward to another standing stone, and from it directly northwards to a rill at a well head, and so by 
that rill to Poddocford, and thence by the highway to the place where the kirk burn crosses it — 
excepting the land which belongs to the house of Torphichin. The greater part of those lands in the 
territory of Aldton lay between the syke which bounds the crofts on the east side of the Aldton, 
and the syke on the west of Thorny flat, descending iuto Kirkhilgat, and from thence to the high- 
way ; and three acres lay on the east bank of the lake of Aldton, and were called Spragunflat.^ 

The family of Hamilton held the lands of Fingerton under the Maxwells. 

The common of Mearns was of considerable extent, and seems to have been a pertinent of the 
villages of Aldton and Newton. There are notices of several ancient mills both in Mearns and 
Polloc, more than one of which was at Aldton of Mearns. 

The house of Mearns is described by Wishaw as " an old castle situated on a rock." It is a 
large square tower commanding a beautiful prospect. It was surrounded by a strong wall, and the 
entrance secured by a drawbridge. The castle of Upper Polloc was a handsome old tower in the 
ordinary model, with a large battlement.^ 



EAGLESHAM. 

Eglisham.^ Deanery of Rutherglen. (Map II. No. 45.) 

Eglisham, literally " The church place," gives name to this parish, part of the high ground 
forming the southern boundary of the valley of the Clyde. It slopes downwards from the south- 
west, where it has an elevation of 1000 or 1200 feet above the sea level. The Earn and the 
Kevoch burn, with several other streams, flow through it to the Cart, which forms its north-eastern 
boundary. 

' Regist. de Passelet, p. 103. ^ Regist. de Passelet, p. 102. 

- Regist. de Passelet, p. 101 , and Retours. ■■ Crawfurd. * Regist. de Passelet, App. I. 



EAST KILBKIDE.] PAROCHIALES. 99 

The church was a free parsonage, of which the patronage belonged to the lords of the barony 
until about 1430, when Sir Alexander IMontgomery Lord of Eaglesham, the patron, consented to 
its being erected into a prebend for a canon of Glasgow, reserving the right of patronage.i Roger 
Gerland was rector of Eglisham in 13G8-70, and Thomas de Arthurly in 1388.2 After this erec- 
tion of the church into a prebend of Glasgow, a resident vicar was appointed with a salary of 20 
nierks.3 The church was situated with its village about a mile from the old castle of Polnoon, 
upon a stream which joins the Cart. The old church, which was in use till about 1790, was 
described as " a very diminutive place." 

The rectory is valued in Baiamund at £106, 13s. 4d., and in the taxation of the 16th century 
at £dO, 7s. 6d. It paid £3 for the ornaments of the cathedral church, and nine merks for a 
choral vicar.* At the time of the Reformation the rectorial tythes produced 14 chalders, 13 J bolls, 
of meal, let for £186, 13s. 4d.5 

The ancient manor of Eaglesham, 1 00 merk land of old extent, with which the parish was co- 
extensive, appears to have been bestowed by the high steward upon his follower, Robert de Munde- 
gumri, of Norman origin, and evidently high in his leader's confidence,^ or on some of his immediate 
descendants. John de Mungombry Lord of Eglysham, in 1388,' married the daughter and heiress 
of Sir Hugh de Eglintoun of Eglintoun and Ardrossan. 

Some remains of Polnoon castle, the baronial residence of the Slontgomeries, were standing in 
1790 upon the banks of a rivulet of the same name, which falls into the Cart. 

The village or kirktoun of Eaglesham is undoubtedly very ancient. 



EAST KILBRIDE. 

Kellebride." Deanery of Rutherglen. (Map I. and II. No. 46.) 

Kilbride, bounded by Blantyre and Cambuslang on the north-east, gradually rises in a suc- 
cession of small hills to the ridge of Eldrig, a height of 1400 feet. The Powmillon forms two miles 
of its southern boundary, and flows into the Avon. The Kittoch runs past the village and church, 
and joins the Cart beyond Busby : and the White Cart and Calder rise from Eldrig ridge, and 
form nearly the western and eastern boundaries. 

It appears that the church of Kilbride belonged to the cathedral of Glasgow in the time of 
Bishop John, the first bishop consecrated in Glasgow after the restoration of the see by the Prince 
of Cumberland, afterwards David I. About the year 1180, in a question between Bishop Jocelin 

' Regist. Glasg., p. 340. s Rental of Assumptions. 

■ Regist. de Passelet, pp. 329, 427, 337. " Regist. de Passelet. 

^ Regist. Glasg., p. 340. » Ibid., p. 337. 

* Regist. Glasg., pp. 344, 347. » Regist. Glasg. 



100 ORIGINES [torrens. 

and Roger de Valoins, it was found and proved, in presence of the King and of his full Court at 
Lanark, by sufficient witnesses, good and old men of the country, that the advowson of the church 
of Kellebride, with a plow of land and common pasture, belonged of old to the church and bishop 
of Glasgow, and that Bishop John and his successors gave the same freely and quietly without 
contradiction, upon which decision, De Valoins renounced his claim, and the bishop granted him a 
right of private chapel in his castle of Kellebride, where the chaplain might receive the offerings 
of his own family and guests (suis curialibus et hospitibus) without prejudice to the parish church 
in tithes or other church dues."^ It appears to have been a prebendal church in 121(5,^ and it was 
assigned for the support of the chanter of the cathedral. In 1417, the bishop ordained, that in 
the church of Kylbryd, annexed to the precentory, there should be a perpetual vicar having the 
cure of souls, with a pension of 12 merks yearly, with a manse and croft on the east side of the 
cemetery, and towards the water of Kydow, with the tithe hay of Slurrais, Torrens, Langland, 
the Perke, Conglas, Cladane, Skeath, Ardawrig, and Clochanys ; the vicar finding communion ele- 
ments, except at Easter, when the precentor was to provide wine.'' 

The church dedicated to Saint Bridget stood with its village in the north-east quarter of the 
parish, near the Kydow or Kyttoch burn. There is a place on the east of it called Kapelrig, and 
another on the north-east named Chapelside. 

TORRENS. 

An hospital, with a chapel attached, dedicated to Saint Leonard, existed at Torrens as early as 
the 13th century. An artificial mound near it is still called the Tor. In 1296, John de Haytoun, 
warden of Saint Leonnard's hospital at Torrens, made submission to Edward I., and had a pre- 
cept to the sheriff of Lanark for restitution of the lands of his house.* Schir John Tiri was called 
rector of Torrens in 1489, and " parson of Torrens" in 1491.^ On September 28th, 1512, Mr. 
Patrick Paniter, the King's secretary, had a gift of the hospital and church of Torrens when 
the same should become vacant. In 1529, the King presented Mr. John Hamilton to the church 
of Torrens, vacant by the deprivation of Sir William Brown. In August 1531, the King pre- 
sented Sir John Leirmonth chaplain, to the rectory, chaplainry, and hospital of Torrens, on the 
restoration of Mr. William Brown. Mr. Robert Hamilton was rector of Torrens in July 1559.* 
In 1561, he reported that the whole profits, including corps presents, umest claiths, and small 
offerings, were leased for 20 merks.'' 

It has already been mentioned, that in the appointment of a vicar to Kilbride in 1417, he was 
to have the tithe of the hay of Torrens and other lands. In the rental of assumptions given up in 
1571, one entry is of the " parsonage of Torrens lying within the parrochin of Kilbride." In 1589, 
the Presbytery of Glasgow annexed the parsonage of Torrens to the kirk of Kilbride as being a 
necessary part thereof, and as next adjacent to the said kirk. Torrens does not appear in Baia- 

' Regist. Glasg., p. 48. ' Act. dom. Audit., p. 152. 

^ Regist. Glasg., p. 94. ^ Regist. of Privy Seal, quoted by Chalmers and not 

' Regist. Glasg., p. 316. verified. 

* Rot. Scot., p. 125. ' Rental of Assumptions. 



TOKRKNs.] PAROCHIALES. 101 

mund or any of the other church taxations, and we must conclude that it was never a separate 
parish and parish church, but simply an hospital and chapel, whose warden in later times had the 
style of parson of Torrens. The chapel or church stood on the banks of the Calder, about half a 
mile from the mansion-house of Torrence. Mauchinhole or Calderglen is said to have been the 
residence of the parsons. 

The precentory of Glasgow, which consisted of the rectory and vicarage of Kilbride and the 
rectory and vicarage of Thancartoun, is taxed in Baiamund at a value of £160. In the taxation 
of the 16th century, at .£136; and in the rental of assumptions in 1561, the rental of the par- 
sonage and vicarage of Kilbryd, pertaining to Mr. John Stevenson, chaunter of Glasgow, is stated 
at £266, 13s. -id. By the statutes of 1432, Kilbride was taxed £5 yearly for the ornaments of 
the cathedral church and necessaries of divine worship.! In 1793 the minister of Eaglisbam had 
been wont to receive 16 bolls of victual from Craig-Mulloch, and the inhabitants of that district 
of Kilbride professed to have a claim on him for ministerial duties.- 

Roger de Valoins, a younger brother of that ancient Norman family who came into Scotland 
in the end of Malcolm IV.'s reign, received the manor of Kilbride from William the Lion. He 
probably built a castle there in which he resided. His daughter and heiress, Isabella, married 
David Comyn. About the year 1250, Isabella de Valoins lady of Kilbride, gave for the weal of 
her own soul and for the soul of David Comyn her husband, deceased, to the church of Glasgow, the 
forest of Dalkarn, to be made up to £ 1 5 of lands of the fief of Kirkepatrik.^ When the C'omyns 
forfeited their possessions in the war of independence, Robert I. gave the barony of Kilbride to 
Walter Stewart,^ and it was soon divided amongst other families. Sir Hugh de Eglintoun had a 
charter of AUertoun, in the barony of Kilbride, in 1371.^ John Sympill had a grant from John 
Earl of Carrick, afterwards Robert III., of the park of Clounnwarn, Knocglas, Clonskeach, Clay- 
anyss, Torranys, and Ardacliryg, in the barony of Kylbryd.'' In 1384, Robert II. confirmed a 
gift he had made before ascending the throne to John de Lyndesay of Dunrod, of the mains lands 
called the domain of the barony of Kilbride, together with Rogerton, Halfkyttoksyde, Tliornton, 
Bogton, Halfthrepland, C^arndufl", Facfyld in Browsterland, within the said barony, but except- 
ing Philphill, which was contained in his original charter.^ Amongst the missing charters of 
Robert III. was one " to James Stewart, son naturall to the King, of the lands of Kilbride 
(Lanerk) with ane taillie."* 

Castlehill and Roughhill on opposite sides of the Kittoch are the sites of very ancient castles 
or forts. The remains of a vaulted structure, which long supplied materials for dykes and roads 
in the neighbourhood, existed on the latter in 1793. The family of Licpriviek are said to have 
had a grant of the heritable office of sergeant and coroner of the lordship of Kilbride, in the 
reign of Robert III., confirmed to them by several of the Jameses. A mound of earth, which is 
said to mark the situation of their residence, stands about a mile and a half to the south of the 
village of Kilbride. 

' Regist. Glasg., p. 344. ^ Roberts. Index, pp. 9, 1*2. 

- Ure's Kilbride. " Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 1U8, No. 61). 

= Resist. Glasg., p. 1.59. ' Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 1C7, No. S3. 

* Roberts, Index, pp. 9, 12. ' Roberts. lnde.\, p. 140, No. 29. 



102 ORIGINES [glasford. 

The Maxwells of Calderwood, on the Calder water, and the Stewarts of Torrens, are also said 
to have been early settlers here. The ancient castle of Calderwood, situated on a perpendicular 
rock, fell into ruins in 1773. 

The ruins of Mains castle stand about a mile north of the village. It appears to have been the 
residence of the Lindsays. 

The tower of Crossbasket, an ancient possession of the Lindsays, stood on the Calder in the 
neighbourhood of Blantyre. It derived its name from a cross which stood at a small distance from 
the tower on the lands of Basket, near the foot of which was a font, and on the fout a long inscrip- 
tion, which in 1793 had not been legible for more than a century.^ 

The house of Peel stands not far from the site of an ancient castle of the same name, on the 
banks of the Kittoch. 

The village of Kilbride is ancient. The kirktown of Kilbride was an 8^ merk land of old 
extent, and had a common attached.^ There seems to have been an ancient village at Torrans 
and another at Kittochsyde. 



GLASFORD. 

Glasfruth— Glasfurth— Glasfurd.' Deanery of Rutherglen. (Map II. No. 47.) 

Tuis parish comprehends part of the Strath of the Avon, which forms its lower or eastern bound- 
ary, stretching away into wide moors to the west. 

The church was a free parsonage, the advowson belonging to the lords of the manor. Robert 
parson of Glasfurth, witnessed a charter of the abbot of Paisley early in the 13th century.** In 
1494, the dean and chapter of Glasgow entered into an arrangement with John Lord Sempil, for 
obtaining the property and patronage of the church of Glasfurd, to be united to the common churches 
of the chapter, for which they were to give in exchange the lands of Ridalesmure of Largis and 
Tuerley, lying within the bailliary of Conynghame, receiving £20 of annual rent, and 10 merks 
more during the lifetime of Master William Stewart rector of Glasfurd. That transaction did not 
take eflect.5 At the erection of the collegiate church at Lochwinnoch, in 1504, the provost had 
the church of Glasfurd, of which parish he was to be the rector, and for his own appointments he 
had the great tythes of the township (vUlagii) of Glasfurd, from the Blaiden's well (a fonte puella?) 
to the lands of Kittemuir, extending to £45 ; and the glebe, except a spot of ground and a manse 
assigned for the vicar. He was bound to keep the choir of the church in repair, in altar ornaments, 
plate, windows, roof, and tiles, as the rectors of the church had been used to do. The vicar who 
had the cure of the parish, was to have the altar dues and the manse, with an acre of arable land 
beside it, and three soums pasture in the east quarter of the township of Glasfurd, which had for- 

' Ure's Kilbride. ^ Retours. * Regist. de Passelet, p. 77. 

* Regist. de Passelet. Regist. Glasg. '' Regist. Glasg., p. 485. 



AvoNDALE.] PAROCHIALES. 103 

raerly belonged to the rectors of Glasfurd, extending to 20 merks yearly, out of which he was to 
pay procurations, synodals, and other dues. The first chaplain in the collegiate church of Loch- 
winnoch was endowed with the great tithes of Nethir Schelis, Schautownhill, and Ridrane, and (the 
lands of) Drumtall and Gruderland, extending to 18 merks yearly. The second chaplain was 
endowed with the great tithes of the village of Chapeltown, Nether Schautown, West Ridrane, 
Drumbow, and Flat, extending to IS merks.' 

The church was situated in the town land of Glasford, it had a parish clerkship worth about six 
merks yearly, which went to swell the foundation of the collegiate church of Lochwinnoeh. 

There seems to have been a chapel formerly on the land of chapeltown, a town land of 12.s. Id. 
old extent.^ 

The value of the rectory was estimated in Baiamund at £53, 6s. 8d., and in the taxation of the 
16th century at £56, 1.3s. 4d. At the general assumption of thirds in 1561, John Sempil of Bel- 
trees stated, that the parsonage of Glasford was " set of auld for yeirlie i)ayment in lane tymes 
past of twa chalders aits and fourty pund money quherof I have ressauit nathing sen my provisioun 
thairto."'' 

The manor of Glasford, from which the parish obtained its name, gave name also to an ancient 
family, who appear to have possessed it down to the war of independence. 

In 1206, Roger de Glasford and Aleyu his son, of the county of Lanark, did homage to Edward. 
About the year 1317, Alan de Glasfurth knight, witnessed the grant of the church of Laro-s by 
Walter the high steward, to the monks of Paisley.'' John earl of Carrick, afterwards Robert III., 
granted to John Sympill, son and heir of Thomas Sympill, the lands of Glasford, with the advow- 
son of the church and the tenandries of Crosraguel, Ridrane, and Blackford, confirmed by Robert 
II. in 1375.5 

Wishaw says of Glasford, " It hath an old ruinous castle near the church." That castle has 
been lately demolished. The villages and town lands of Glasford and Chapeltown are of consi- 
derable antiquity. 



AVONDALE— STRATHAVON. 

Strathavon — Auansdesdale — Strathauan." (Map II. No. 48.) 

This parish consists of the valley of the Avon, with its numerous tributaries, as the Cadder and 
Pomillon on the north, and Givel or Geil, Lochar, and Kype on the south, with a hilly district 
on the south-east boundary. 

In 1228, Hugo de Bygre, son of Robert, son of Waldeve, styling himself patron of the church 

' Regist. Glasg., p. 508. ' Regist. de Passelet, p. 237. 

- Retours. > Reg. Mag. Sig. 

' Rental of Assumptions. " Regist. Glasg., and Liber de Kelso. 



104 OKIGINES [aVondalk, 

of Strathavon, but then only nineteen years of age, granted to the monks of Lesmahago the great 
tithes of the land of Richard de Baard, lying on the south side of Avon, namely, of all- the.coilti- 
vated lands of greater and lesser Kyp, Glengevel, Polnele, and Louhere, on condition that the 
monks should pay 20 bolls of oatmeal to a chaplain serving in the chapel of Saint Bridget of Kyp. 
The church of Strathavon is expressly mentioned as one of the churches of the abbey of Kelso, 
(which acquired all the rights of Lesmahago,) in a confirmation of Pope Innocent IV., about 
1250 ; but it is not in the abbey's list of churches made up about 1300,^ and whatever interest 
Kelso may have had in the property or tithe of the parish, the patronage of the church of Strath- 
avon appears to have remained with the lords of the manor, and the whole tithes went to the 
endowment of the collegiate church of Bothwell, (by gift as it is said of Archibald Earl of Douglas, 
its founder,) in the reign of Robert III., while the cure was served by a vicar pensioner. 

The old church, beautifully situated on a high bank of the Pomillon, to the eastward of the 
castle, was dedicated to the Virgin.- 

The chapel of Saint Bride, already mentioned, stood beside a burn on Greater or West Kype. 
There was another chapel on the south-east border, near Bradewude castle ; while a third was in 
the centre of the parish, at the junction of the Locher with the Avon ; and a fourth in the western 
district, where the Templars had lands.^ 

The rectory of Strathavon is taxed in Baiamund at a value of =£213, 6s. 8d. In the taxation 
of the 16th century, at a value of £180, 15s. 

The territory of Strathavon was a property of the great family of De Bigre or Fleming at the 
earliest period that record can reach. The Bards had a considerable part of the lands under them. 
In the middle of the 13th century, Richard Bard, with the con.sent of his lord Robert Fitz-Waldeve, 
confirmed to the monks of Lesmahago all the land of Little Kyp by these boundaries : — from the 
head of the water of Kyp, in a straight line to the green moss, which is below the two Haresawes, 
and gp to the first stone which is placed beside a furrow drawn as a boundary, and_ so to the 
other stones placed towards the head of Bradewude, and from the head of Bradewude due east- 
ward by other stones, which are placed as far as a burn running from the eastern part of the head 
of Bradewude and flowing into Kyp, and so going up that water of Kyp to its head.* In the 
reign of David II., Maurice Murray had charters of the barony of Strathavon upon the resignation 
of Alexander Stewart. It afterwards passed, perhaps along with the other possessions of the 
Murrays of Bothwell, into the family of Douglas. After their forfeiture in 1455, it was given 
by .lames III. to Andrew Stewart, grandson of Murdoch, Duke of Albany, afterwards Lord 
Avondale, who exchanged it with Sir James Hamilton for the barony of Ochiltree.^ 

The castle of Avondale, now in ruins, stands upon a rocky eminence in the town of Strathavon. 
It is said to' have been built by Andrew Stewart. At the foundation of the collegiate church of 
Bothwell, by the Earl of Douglas, five of the prebends were endowed from the lands of Nether- 
town, Overtown, Newtoun, Netherfield, and Cruickburn, within this parish. 

The ancient village which had grown up round the church and castle, was in the middle of the 

' Liber de Kelso, pp. 230, 350-470. ' Bleau and Tliomson. * Liber de Kelso, p. 149. 

^ Com. Rec. of Glasg. Wishaw, p. 9. ' Robertson's Index. Wishaw. 



HAMILTON.] PAROCHIALES. 105 

15th century erected into a burgh of barony. It had an extensive common, which has long since 
become private property. 

The moorland district, on the western side of the parish, was the scene of an encounter of Wallace 
with the English forces, and in later times of the skirmish called the battle of Drumclog. The great 
Koman road can be traced for several miles on the south side of the Avon. 



HAMILTON with DALSEEF. 
Cadihou— Cadyhow — Hamylton.' Deanery of Rutherglen- (Map, No. 49.) 

The Clyde forms the general boundary of Hamilton on the north-east, but it now crosses the 
river in two places, which it seems not to have done anciently.- From the fertile haughs on the 
banks of the Clyde it rises gradually south-westward to the height of about 600 feet. It is tra- 
versed by the Avon and nine smaller streams, rising in the south-west part of the parish, six falling 
into the Avon and three into the Clyde. The Cadyhow burn rises in AVackinwae well in Glas- 
ford, and runs through the town of Hamilton. 

About the year 1 150, David I. granted to the bishop and see of Glasgow the church of Cadihow. 
It was soon afterwards erected into a prebend of the cathedral, at first in connexion with the 
lands of Barlannark and Bodlornok, which were subsetjuently separated from it, and formed the 
endowment of another canon.^ The church of Cadihow was the prebend of the dean of the cathe- 
dral. It included the chapelry of Machan as pertinent. The cure was served by a perpetual vicar. 
On the erection of the collegiate church of Hamilton, the vicarage was annexed to the benefice of 
the provost. He paid twelve merks to a vicar. 

Nothing is known of the fabric of the church until it was rebuilt and adapted for the collegiate 
foundation after the middle of the 16th century, which from that time served as the parish church. 
In 1 367, John Malklenere of the Castlehill became bound to pay yearly two wax candles of a 
pound each, to the church of Cadiou, for lights on the altar of the Blessed Virgin in the choir, for 
the land of Spenterhelvie and Spenterside, lying beside the meadow of Patrick Fitz-Adam, which 
Henry the perpetual vicar of Cadiow had bought from him in the name of his church and its 
parishioners. In 13G8, Hugh Seviland, lord of the land of Orchard, (terriB de Pomario,) lying 
at the west end of the town of Cadiow, bound himself in a similar manner for two candles of the 
same size, to be burned on the altar of the Holy Cross, for the land of Danscallis croft and Hundis- 
hill, and both those grantors used the seal of David Fitz- Walter, lord of the barony of Machane. 
In the following year, Agnes Fitz-John bound herself to give one candle of a pound of wax 
yearly to the last-named altar, for the land called St. JMary's land, lying between the land of Saint 
Mary of Bethlehem and that which she held of the Earl of Mar.* 

' Regist. Glasg. Act. Pari. II., 59. s legist. Glasg., pp. 1 1 , 2G, &c. 

- See Dalyell. " Regist. Glasg., pp. 281-283. 



106 OEIGINES [HAMILTON. 

At a farm near Edlewood, in the middle of the parish, is a place still called the Chapel. 

In 1450-1, the collegiate church of Hamilton was erected and endowed by James Lord Hamil- 
ton, under the sanction of the bishop and the pope. George de Graham was installed provost on 
the 4th April 1462.1 " Lord Hamilton built new the parish kirk, the queer, and two cross aisles 
and steeple, all of polished stone, ... all yet remaining entire," (c. 1719.) He also gave to 
the provost and six prebendaries, with the two former chaplains, now eight prebendaries in all, a 
manse, and yard, and glebe in the haugh of Hamilton, with the vicarage teinds of Hamilton and 
Dalserf, together with several lands within these parishes and that of Stonehouse. In 15.52, John 
archbishop of Saint Andrews, as abbot of Paisley, united the parish church of Curmanock to the 
collegiate church of Hamilton, giving the patronage to the Duke of Chatelherault and bis heirs.- 
In 1520, Gavin Hamilton of Kirlie and Jonet Hynde, his spouse, gave to the collegiate church 
of Hamilton an annual rent of £0, to be levied from lands and bouses in Glasgow.^ There was 
a cbaplainry in honour of the Virgin within this collegiate church, which had " a manse and glebe, 
viz., houses, yeard, barne, and an acre of land within the territory of the burgh of Hamilton."* 

The land of Saint Mary of Bethlehem, mentioned above as a burgh boundary, indicates an hospital 
endowed by the family of Hamilton and others in the lower part of the town. It appears to have 
belonged to the short-lived order of Our Lady of Bethlehem, founded by Pope Pius II. in 1459. 
In 1627-9, John Hamilton of Udston left to the hospital of Hamilton, " to the puir there, twa 
hundred merks, to be decretit by my lord and ladie how it sould be usit."^ 

The Templars had considerable possessions within the territory of the burgh.^ 

The deanery of Glasgow is taxed in Baiamund as of the value of £266, 13s. 4d. In the taxa- 
tion of the 16th century, at £226, 12s. 6d. The rental given up in 1561, on behalf of Mr. James 
Balfour, then dean, was: — "silver, £359; meal, 16 bolls; aitis, 24 bolls; capons, 24; by his 
part of the commons." The provostry of Hamilton is rated in Baiamund at a value of £40, and 
in the taxation of the 16th century at £34, which, however, included only the spirituality or the 
income from tithes. Mr. Archibald Karray, vicar pensioner of Hamilton in 1561, gave up the 
rental of the vicarage pensionary at 20 merks, " of the whilk thair be xii merks given be the 
provost, and the rest thairof dois consist in hay and sik lyk dewties conserning ane viccarage 
pensionarie."" 

The settlement of Cadyow seems to have been very early, reaching back into the traditionary 
period of history. The old church legend assigns it as the residence of the princess to whom Saint 
Kentigern miraculously restored the ring, which forms part of the symbols of the see of Glasgow.* 
It was a royal domain, and an occasional residence of David I. and his successors, until William 
the Lion bestowed the fief upon his natural son Robert de Lundres. Before the end of the 12th 
century, Robert de Lundres gave to the cathedral of Glasgow a stone of wax yearly from his rents 
of Cadihou, and to the monks of Paisley a chalder of wheat and half a merk of silver.'' Before 

' Hamilton papers. '' Retours. 

- Hamilton papei-s. ' Rental of Assumptions. 

3 Liber. CoUeg. N.D. (xlasg., pp. 73, 75. " Regist. Glasg., p. xcii. 

■* Retours. ^ Com. Rec. C-ilasg. -' Regist. Glasg., p. 41. Regist. de Passelet, p. 310. 



DALSERF.] PAROCHIALES. 107 

1222, he had bestowed upon the abbey of Kelso, lands in the waste of Roshauau, in the territory 
of Cadihou, by certain boundaries, viz., — beginning at an oak tree marked with a cross, standing 
at the head of a syke, and descending along that syke to the nearest burn, and by it into Clyde ; 
and on the other side, from the same oak, going down straight to Clyde, opposite the land of 
Thomas Fitz-Thancard, — with common pasture of the wood of Roshauan for ten cows and ten 
oxen.i Robert I. granted to Walter Fitz-Gilbert, the ancestor of the family of Hamilton, the 
barony of Cadiow in farm for £80 sterling, 22 chalders of wheat, and 6 chalders of barley. When 
David II., in 1368, confirmed to David, the son of that Walter, the barony and the land of Edel- 
wod, he remitted the corn rent, because the barony had been so destroyed by wars and various 
pestilences that it could not pay so much.^ 

The remains of the ancient castle of Cadiou stand on a rock overhanging the channel of the 
Avon, surrounded by woods. It bears the marks of repairs and additions of very diflerent periods. 
The site of the present house of the Dukes of Hamilton is in the haugh formerly called " the 
Orcharde," (Pomarium,) which was declared to be the principal and chief messuage, when the 
baronies of Cadyhow and Mawchane, and the superiority of Hamilton-ferme, the lands of Cors- 
baskat and barony of Kinneile, were erected into the lordship of Hamilton by James II. in Par- 
liament, 1445.^ At that time "the Orcharde" was surrounded by the village, with its parish and 
collegiate church : but the town has gradually been removed to the higher grounds. 

The Castle-hill, on the Barnclath burn, was no doubt the site of an older residence. Near 
it is Silverton-hill, anciently Qubitecamp, possessed in 1 449 by a branch of the family of Hamil- 
ton; and in the north-west of the parish Earnock is said to have been given by Malcolm IV. to 
Robert, brother of Lambein Fleeming, and was for many generations possessed by a family of the 
name of Roberton.'' 

The town of Hamilton was a burgh of regality as early as 1 475,^ under the superiority of the 
family of Hamilton. It is said to have been erected into a royal burgh by Queen Mary, by charter 
dated 15th January 1548.'' 

MACHAN oil DALSERF. 

Among the lands belonging to the cathedral church of Glasgow at the period of the inquest of 
Prince David, c. 11 16, was Mecheyu, since called Machan, Machanshire, or Dalserf, being that 
portion of the haughs of Clyde lying chiefly between the Clyde and Avon — having a gentle slope 
towards the north. 

This district was attached to a chapel perhaps originally independent, but certainly dependent 
on the church of Hamilton from the time of David I. The chapel was dedicated to the Virgin. 
Robert Bruce granted to Walter Fitz-Gilbert the whole tenement of Machan which belonged to 
John Comyn.^ In 1 320, Walter Fitz-Gilbert presented certain vestments, a chalice, two phials, 
and a censer of silver, to the altar of the Virgin in the crypts of the cathedral, reserving the use of 

' Liber de Kelso, p. 151. s Burgh Reports. 

- Reg. Mag. Sig. " Burgh Reports. 

' Act. Pari. II., p. 59. * Wishaw. ■ Reg. Mag. Sig. 



108 ORIGINES [STONEHOUSE. 

them for the chapel of Saint Mary of Blaychan at the four great feasts of Christmas, Easter, 
Whitsunday, and the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, yearly .^ 

A charter of James VI., 1589, granted to James Earl of Arran the patronage of the deanery of 
Glasgow, and the parsonages of Hamilton and Dalserf, and in 1621, Parliament ratified to James 
Marquess of Hamilton, his nephew, the lands and barony of Machanshire, with the advowson of 
the deanery of Glasgow, " callit the parsonage of the kirkis of Hauimiltoun and Dalserf."- From 
these expressions alone, apparently, it has been concluded that Hamilton and Dalserf were disjoined 
and erected into separate parishes before the Reformation, which seems to be a mistake. 

At Broomhill, in Dalserf, stood an old chapel, which remained till 1724. Its site is still called 
Chapel rone. A chapel stood on Chapel-know, a little to the north of the house of Eaploch. The 
neighbouring farm was called Crossgates. " The Templars' land of Hairlees," within the township 
of Auldmachan, was in that neighbourhood.^ There was a chapel at Chapel-burn in the interior of 
the parish, and another, near the Clyde, at Dalpatrick, which was sometimes called the chapel of 
the Blessed Virgin, and is believed to have been the chapel mentioned by the ancestor of the Hamil- 
tons in 1329. Its remains were still visible in 1792. 

The old residence of the Hamiltons of Dalserf was at Auldtowu, but there is a still older site, 
called Castlehill, where probably the Cumins had their residence, and from which several royal 
charters are dated. 



STONEHOUSE. 

Stanhus.* Deanery of Lanark. (Map, No. 50.) 

This parish consists chiefly of a plain or gentle slope, lying on the right bank of the Avon, 
which, with the Cander, forms for the most part its eastern boundary. The Kype is its boundary 
on the west. The part of the parish lying on the left bank of the Avon seems not to have been 
anciently portion of the barony which consituted the parish. It belonged to the parish, however, 
before the Reformation. 

We have no very early notice of this church. In 1267, Sir Roger, the rector of the church of 
vStanhus, witnessed a grant of 5 merks yearly, confirmed by Alexander de Vaux knight, as com- 
pensation for some offence done by his father to the church of Glasgow.^ 

The church was dedicated to St. Ninian,^ and stood with its village near the Avon, and not far 
from Catcastle, but on the opposite side of the burn ; probably to the west of the present village.'' 

On the farm of West Slains, on the bank of the Avon, near Catcastle, is an artifici.al mount and 
large cairn, in which were found (in 1834) many sepulchral urns, described as highly ornamented. 

The rectory of Stanehous, formerly independent, along with the vicarage, was bestowed on the 
collegiate church of Bothwell, (c. 1398,) by Archibald of Douglas, its founder. The value of the 

' Regist. Glasg., p. 227. * Regist. Glasg. Lib. de Kelso. 

- Act. Pari. IV., p. 634. ' Regist. Glasg., p. 180. 

^ Retonrs. '' Commiss. Records of Glasgow. ' Bleau. 



sTONEHousE.] PAROCHIALES. 109 

rectory, as divided among tlie " stallers," or prebendaries of Bothwell, is stated in Baiamund at 
£53, Cs. 8d. The vicarage, to which belonged a manse and a glebe, was of small value. The 
vicar's lands lay between the village and the Avon, and are still known by the name of " Vicars." 
They were of two merks old extent. The whole vicarage was given up by the provost of Both- 
well, in 1561, at 10 merks.i 

A place, still known bj the name of Chapel, iu the south end of the parish, seems to mark the 
site of a chapel anciently dedicated to St. Lawrence. It had a ten shilling land of old extent, 
and in 1 608 the land was in the possession of the Hamiltons of Goslinton.^ 

On the eastern side of the parish, near Castlehill, at a place still called Spittal, stood formerly 
an hospital, which is said to have been endowed with the lands of Spittal, Headdykes, and Lang- 
rigs, all in its neighbourhood, and with the lands of Spittalgil and the mill in Lesmahago.^ 

The Templars had a house and considerable possessions in the neighbourhood of the village. 
In 1674, William Lockhart of Lea knight, ambassador to France, was served heir to his father, 
among other church lands, in the two Templar lands of Woodlands, in the Templar lands of Cat- 
castle, in the 3s. 4d. Templar lands in Stanehouse, in the half of the Templar lands called Tofts, 
in the 40d. lands of Tofts, and in the 6s. 8d. Templar lands on the west part of the village of 
Stanehouse.'' 

The manor of Stanhouse appears to have been the property of the family of Ros at an early 
period. In 1362, David II. confirmed a charter granted by Alexander of Elfyuston to Alexan- 
der, son of Sir Adam More, of the whole land of Kythumbre, in the barony of Stanhouse, (in ex- 
change for land in Erthbeg,) which Godfrey de Ros gave to Alexander, the father of the said 
Alexander Elfynston.'' The same king granted to William, the son of Maurice Murray, the for- 
faultrie of Godfred Ross, within the barony of Stanehouse.^ Kythumbre (Kitymuir) became 
afterwards the endowment of one of the prebends of Bothwell. Another prebendary possessed 
the revenues of Hesildene. 

The barony and patronage of the church are found in the possession of the Earls of Doui-las until 
their forfeiture, when the one-half came to Lord Hamilton, and the other to the Laird of Stone- 
house.' On 1st March, 1406, John Mowat of Stenhous was on the service of Sir Thomas cle 
Somerville, as heir to his father. Sir John; and in 1435 Sir John Mowat of Stannas settled the 
fourth part of his estate on his daughter Janet, married to AVilliam Lord Somerville. The estate 
continued in this family for several generations.** 

Catcastle, the remains of which stand on a precipitous rock overhanging the Avon, had a 
five merk land of old extent, and was vulgarly called Crumach.^ Another ruin, similarly situated 
on the Avon, is called Ringsdale Castle, of which nothing is known. The name is probably a 
corruption of Rydenhill.'" Castlehill, the residence of the chief proprietor, seems to be the place 
called Kempscastle in Bleau. 

The village of Stonehouse is undoubtedly ancient, and the muir or common of the barony was 
of considerable extent. 

' Rental of Assumption. ^ Reg. Mag. Sig., 27, 40. 

- Retours, 77. « Rob. InU., SB, 19. ' Wishaw. 

^ Chalmers, apparently fouodi.ig on Retour, No. 328. " Memoric of the Somervilles, pp. Ia2-179. 

■• Retours, 328. " Retours, Bleau. '" Retours. 



110 ORIGINES [lesmahago. 

LESMAHAGO. 

Ecclesia Machuti — Lesmachute.^ Deanery of Lanark. (Map, No. 51.) 

This parish may be described rouglily as consisting of the straths of the Netban and its tri- 
butary the Logan. The Kyi^e separates it from Avondale, and the Poneil from the parish of 
Douglas. On its western boundary is the remarkable hill range which divides the counties of 
Lanark and Ayr. 

The church was very ancient, and esteemed of much sanctity. In 1 144, King David I. granted 
to the abbey which he had founded at Kelso the church and whole territory of Lesmahago, for 
instituting a cell for monks from Kelso, and Bishop John of Glasgow declared it and its monks 
free from Episcopal dues and subjection.^ 

The church was dedicated to the Virgin, and to Saint Machutus, from whom it derived its 
name; and it was certainly believed to be in possession of his relics. In 1316, King Robert I. 
granted to the Blessed Virgin, and Saint Machutus, and the monks of Lesmachut, ten merks ster- 
ling, for supplying eight tapers of a pound of was each, to be burned round the tomb of Saint Ma- 
chutus on Sundays and festivals, as the custom is in cathedral and collegiate churches.^ Saint 
Machutus was a disciple of Saint Brendan, and one of his companions in his voyage to the Or- 
cades. His festival was on the 15th of November. 

The ancient baptismal church became the church of the priory peopled by Kelso monks. It 
stood, with its village, on the Abbey green, in a narrow part of the strath of the Nethan. All 
that remained of it in 1793 was a square tower, with the marks of fire still visible on its walls.'' 

The cure was probably served by the monks of the convent. At the period of the Reformation 
the vicarage tithe was let for £66, 13s. 4d. 

About the middle of the 12th century the convent of Kelso granted to Lambinus Asa a right 
of chapel in bis lands of Drafan and Dardarach, held of the abbey, with service three days in the 
week ; but on the principal feasts the people were to come to the mother church of Lesmahagu.* 
At a little distance above the church is a place called Cbapelhill. Another chapel stood in the 
lands of Blackwood, at a place still retaining the name, and perhaps marking the foundation of 
Lambinus Asa, and a third was in the east end of the parish, near Kirkfield-bank, called the 
Chapel of Greenrig.'' 

When David I. granted the church and territory of Lesmahagu, by the counsel of John Bishop 
of Glasgow, for instituting a cell of monks of Kelso there, and for receiving poor travellers, he 
granted, of reverence for God and Saint Machut, his firm peace to all fieeing to the said cell, or 
who came within its four surrounding crosses to escape peril of life or limb,'' thus adding the se- 
cular sanction to the privilege of sanctuary which the holiness of the place had already in part 

' Liber de Kelso. ■* O. Statist. Ac. 

' Ibid., pp. 9, 149. * Lib. de Kelso, pp. 75, 76. 

3 Ibid, p. 365. " Retours. ' Lib. de Kelso, p. 9. 



LESMAHAGO.] 



PAROCHIALES. Ill 



established. In 1236, King Alexander II. granted to the prior and convent of Lesmahagu to 
hold their lands in free forest. In 1240, they received a gift of the lauds of Little Kype, in the 
neighbouring parish of Strathaven, from Richard Baird ; and from Hugo de Bygris, the patron of 
the parish, the tithes of the said Richard's lands lying on the south side of the Avon.' In 1 245, 
William Bishop of Glasgow confirmed a grant of the church of Kilmaurs in Cuninghame, which 
Robert Fitz-Warnebald had made to Kelso, for the proper use of the house of Lesmahagu. 

Notwithstanding the dependence of the priory as a cell upon Kelso, the prior had a seat in Par- 
liament ; and the place perhaps derived additional importance from furnishing a retreat to the 
monks of the superior house, when banished from Kelso by the ravages of English war. Lesma- 
hagu did not always escape. In 1335, John of Eltham, brother of Edward III., leading a body of 
English troops towards Perth by the western marches, lodged on his way at Lesmahagu, and 
" that nycht he brynt up that abbay."^ 

There are a good many instances recorded of laymen retiring from active life to this monastery. 
In 1290, Reginald de Corrokys resigned to Kelso his laud of Fyncorrokys, for which he had in 
exchange the land of Little Kype ; and the convent granted him for his life four chalders of oat- 
meal yearly, together with honest maintenance for himself and a serving-man in the monastery 
of Kelso or Lesmahago.^ In 1311, Adam of Dowan the elder, resigned to Kelso his land in 
Greuerig, within the barony of Lesmahago. The convent became bound to find him the proper 
maintenance of a sergeant within their house of Lesmahago; and Adam was to perform the suit 
due by the priory in the Sherifli" Court, and to hold the court of pleas of the barony.^ 

In the beginning of the 13th century, Folcaristuu — judging from the name, a settlement of a 
Saxon — was granted by the monks to Richard the son of Solph, as it had been held by his father 
and his ancestors, to be held in feu of the abbey of Kelso. The reddendo was two merks of silver.^ 
It was a £20 land of old extent, and lay in the south end of the parish, on the north of the Pol- 
nele burn. It seems to have included Birkhill, Grasshill, Fauldhouse, and Helisbyk.'' William, 
son of Adam de Folkardiston, resigned that particle of land in the tenement of Lesmahagu called 
PoUenele, in the abliot's court of Lesmahagu, in 1269, in presence of the chamberlain of Scotland, 
Thomas Ranulph, Nicolas de Bigre knight, and others.^ These lands were afterwards, in 1270, 
granted by the convent in liferent to William de Douglas knight, " pro fideli concilio, auxilio et 
patrocinio," on a reddendo of a pound of wax.* 

In the middle of the 12th century, between 1147 and 1160, Theobald, a Fleming, had a char- 
ter from Abbot Arnold of Kelso of the land upon the Douglas water by these boundaries : — from 
the source of Polnele, as that water runs to the Water of Douglas, and from the source of Pol- 
nele, beyond the broad moss to the long fau, thence to Hirdlau, thence to Thievesforde in Moss- 
minine and Corroc, and so to the long Black ford, and so as the way runs to Crossford. These 
limits are still traceable on the older maps. The burn of Polnele is the boundary between 

1 Reg. de Kelso, pp. 149, 152. ' Lib. de Kelso, p. 78. 

- Wyntown, riii. 30. Fordun. '' Bleau. Retours. 

^ Lib. de Kelso, p. 165. " Reg. de Kelso, p. 155. 

' Ibid., pp. 163-64. ' Ibid., p. 168. 



112 ORIGINES [lesmahago. 

the parishes of Lesmahago and Douglas, from its source to its junction with the Douglas water ; 
but the source of one of its feeders seems here taken for the principal stream. On its north side, 
and within Lesmahago, lie the Hflocchan moss, the Fau house, and the Fau burn, Brokencross 
muir, Thievesford, Mossminin, Corroc (Corehouse,) Blackford in Bogside, the way to Crossford,' 
all jjlainly remains of the ancient boundaries. In a grant made soon afterwards (1160-1180) of an 
eighth part of Corroc to Waldeve Fitz-Bodin, mention is made of a particle of land called Culter- 
segill, now known as Coultershogle, which is described to lie between the territory of Douglas 
and Corroc- But the grant of Folkardistun shows, by the position of the places, that this terri- 
tory of Douglas, or of land upon the Douglas water, must have been a portion of Lesmahago lying 
on that water, opposite to Carmichael, and altogether different from the parish territory of Douglas- 
dale. Its reddendo was but two merks. It seems to have embraced chiefly the lands now known as 
Ilarperfield, &c. The confusion or mistake of later writers seems to have arisen from the ancient 
charter having described as the source of the Polnele burn, that which is really only one of its 
feeders or tributaries. 

About the end of the 13th century. Abbot Robert of Kelso confirmed to David, son of Peter the 
dean of Stobo, the land of Corroc, which his father had held of the abbey, bounded by the road 
leading from Crauford (marked in other cases as the junction of the Douglas and Clyde) to the 
Kirkeburn, (called also the burn of Dowane,) and by that burn to the Clyde, with privilege of 
mill and petty courts of Blodewit and Birthinsak, with the niercheta or marriage-tax of his people, 
aud with the other liberties which his father had, and which the other landholders of Lesmahago 
have. The reddendo was 2g merks. He and his men might take from the wood what was ne- 
cessary for their own burning and building, but not for sale. In a later grant, (1206-8) this vas- 
sal had liberty of grubbing out wood for the purpose of cultivation ; and he had the keeping of the 
wood, and the right of excluding common users from any part he chose to protect.^ 

Fincurroks, a tenement between the land of the monks at Lesmahago and the Clyde, seems 
to have been occupied chiefly by a family bearing a Celtic name. In the beginning of the 1 -Sth 
century part of it was confirmed to Gillemor, son of Gilleconel, bounded by the march which 
was between him and his father's uncle, and by the lake which divided him from the monks, and 
so across from the boundary of Sabides (Saludis ?) to the burn of Avenhath, and by that burn to 
Gregeterf, and thence by the Nethan to Clyde. The reddendo was 20 shillings yearly, and his 
privileges of his court were the same as those of William of Ardauch, or James of Draft'an or 
Saludis. * 

About the same time, another part of Fincurroks was confirmed to G., son of Saludis,! as the 
Pollenoran falls into Clyde, and so up the Pollenoran to the leading syke between Gilbertstun 
and Gilmehaguston, and following it to the burn, and up the burn to the Black ford in the bog, 
and by the leading syke in the bog to Elwaldesgate, thence to a little burn falling into Culne- 
gaber, and by that burn downwards to the ditch on Esbert's croft, and thence by the little burn 
downwards to the great burn of Dunelarg, and so up that great burn to the ford of the road which 

' Bleaii. Old County Map. — Thomson. ^ Reg. de Kelso, pp. 82, H3. 

- Reg. de Kelso, p. 82. ■• Ibid., p. 79. 



LESMAHAGo.] PAEOCHIALES. 113 

leads from Lesmahago to Lanark, and up that road into Dularg, as far as the slender cross (gra- 
cilis crux,) and thence to the adjoining valley, and down the burn of Ancellet into Clyde. The red- 
dendo was sixteen shillings for the ferine of the land, and four for the privilege of perpetual fra- 
ternity with the convent. He enjoyed the same freedoms as the other abbey vassals, and the 
same jurisdiction of court as James of Draffan and William of Ardach.i 

In 1326, John, son and heir of Adam the younger of Duwan, received from the monks the 
whole land of Aghtyferdale, with the common pasture of Aghrobert, in exchange for the half of 
Duvau ; and he and his heirs were constituted janitors at the abbey gate, for the discharge of 
which office they were to have their diet (mensam suam,) and a robe for a servant yearly ; and 
their servant at the gate was to receive three gallons of bread {laganas panis) daily .^ 

In 1556, the whole rent of the priory, including the tithes of its lands, and of the churches 
of Closburne, Trailflat, Robertoun, Urniistoun, Symuntoun, Drumgre, Dunsyre, Mortoun, Kil- 
maweris, Carlouk, and Lesmahago, amounted to £1214, 4s. 6d. of money; 15 chalders, 8 bolls, 
1 firlot, 2 pecks of bear; 11 chalders, 8 bolls, 3 firlots of meal; 4 chalders, 3 bolls of oats; 250 
fowls, counting six scores to the hundred, after the fashion of Scotland. 

At that time there were five brethren of the convent — taking yearly for their pensions, habits, 
silver, and other dues, £88, with 2 chalders, 12,^ bolls of meal, and 5 chalders of bear — a forester, 
a cultellar, a falconer, a porter, a brewer, a barber, and boatmen on the Clyde, in the service of 
the monks. For the washing of the altar-cloths, there was allowed one boll of meal ; for leading of 
the convent's fuel, the same ; and the same for " grathing of the garden."^ The abbey o-ardens 
and orchards remained objects of interest even in 1773, together with the abbey green, the site of 
the village.'' 

Bishop John's confirmation of King David's grant in 1144 recognises Lesmahago as a pre- 
viously existing parochial territory, and it then probably formed one of the royal manors, which 
like several others in Clydesdale, were chiefly in the king's own hands. Before 1160, 'William 
Comyn, who then had a residence, and held possession of the neighbouring lands of Mauchanshire 
disputed with the abbot of Kelso the right to Drafane and Dardarach, included within the parish 
of Lesmahago ; l)ut he ultimately resigned his claim in favour of the monks.^ 

Before the year 1 1 44, or about the time when the monks of Kelso first acquired Lesmahago 
Gillemur, the son of Gilleconnel, gave to God and the church of St. Machute half a nierk of silver 
annually, in augmentation'of the ferme of the land which he held of them ; and the monks received 
him into their brotherhood, and made him partaker of the benefits of their order.^ 

In the middle of the twelfth century, the lands of Draflane and Dardarach, bordering on Dal- 
serf, were given by the monks of Kelso to Lambyn Asa, marched by the stream runninf from the 
moss of Carnegogyl into the water of Candouer ; up the Candouer to the burn of Smalbec ; up 
that burn till right opposite the stream under Culnegray ; and so down that stream into Naythane 
and down Naythane into Clyde. The vassal had a court of bloodwit, byrdinsak, and such small 



' Reg. de Kelso, p. 80. * Scots Mag., 1773. 

- Ibid., p. 164. !■ Reg. de Kelso, p. lu. 

' Ibid., p. 475. (. Ibid., p. 153. 

VOL. I. i' 



114 ORIGINES [lesmahago. 

pleas.i In the beginning of the next century the same lands were confirmed in feu-ferme to A. 
the son of James, according to the boundaries in William Comyn's original grant, which differ in 
some particulars from those above described.^ 

Between 1160 and 1180, the town of Little Drafanc was granted by the monks in heritage to 
Robert Fitz-Warnebald.3 

Towards the end of the twelfth century, the convent of Kelso granted to Constantino, son of 
Gilbert the priest of Lesmahago, the land of Dowane, with the two hills, to the boundaries of 
Ardack on the south. He was to hold by the usual tenure of the greater church vassals, enjoying 
a limited jurisdiction within his lands.* These lands, lying in the east end of the parish, appear 
to have comprehended the lands of Greenrig: they became the subject of dispute in 1240, when 
Daniel and Robert of Dowane were obliged to pay to the abbot of Kelso a sum of money, and 
yield to him the site of a certain mill upon Kerlyngholm, where the burn of Dowane falls into 
Ne3'than, with a common pasture attached, and specifically bounded, within which no corn or 
meadow-land was to be allowed. About the end of the thirteenth century, Adam the son of 
Daniel, seems to have resigned the whole land to the monks.* 

Ralph, a servant of the abbey of Kelso, had a grant about the end of the twelfth century of 
part of the land of Glenan, bounded by a stream falling into Haliewellburn, and by another falling 
into Naythan, with two holms on Naythan called Daldroc and Dalsagad. Glenan seems to have 
been at that time occupied by a number of small tenants holding crofts, and liable in farm services 
and customs to the monks.^ 

Between 1160 and 1180, the third part of Auchinlek was given by the convent to Walter Fitz- 
Bodin, (who had a charter about the same time of the eighth part of Corrock,) together with a 
particle of land called Cultensegle, with the same easements as the other possessors of the town of 
Greenrig.' 

Greater and Lesser Ardauch were, in the end of the twelfth century, the property of William 
de Ardach, but in 1266 were resigned in the king's court held in the castle of Roxburgh, by Robert 
called Franc' of Lambiniston, the grandson and heir of that William, in favour of the abbot and 
convent of Kelso.* 

About the year 1400, the half of Blakwodd, and of Dermoundyston, with the whole land of 
Mossemynyne, lying in diiferent places in the barony of Lesmahago, were confirmed by the abbot 
and convent to Rothald Wer.'' In 1497, the lands of Rogerhill and Brownhill, in the lordship 
of Blakwodd, but held in capite of the abbey by John Mungumry, were confirmed to Robert 
Wer ;!'' and the whole land of Blackhill, with a merk land of Hoilhouse, which had belonged 
in heritage to William Wer of Stanebyres, was given, on his resignation, to Ralph Ker, brother- 
german to Thomas abbot of Kelso, in 1528. 

Besides Craignethan, or Draffane Castle, built on a remarkable site overhanging the river 

' Reg. de Kelso, p. 75. ' Reg. de Kelso, p. 01. 

- Ibid., p. 76. " Ibid., p. 84. 

3 Ibid., p. 77. " Ibid., p. 156. 

■■ Ibid., p. 77. . ° Ibid., p. 413. 

s Ibid., pp. 162, 169. " Ibid., p. 428. 



cAKLUKE.] PAROOHIALES. 115 

Nethan, there are the ruins of other strongholds ; but little is known of their history or age. The 
ruin of Corehouse, on the top of a precipitous rock above a deep pool of the Clyde, and near the 
tine fall which is named from it, is probably ancient. At the manor of Mosminine a meeting took 
place in 1316, for settling a controversy between the abbot and convent of Kelso and Alexander 
Folkard, concerning the land of Polnele.i Gillebank, in the ancient territory of Fincurroks, was 
the resort of Wallace ; and Corhed, said to be the residence of his kinsfolks, is also mentioned by 
Blind Harry. Near the fall of Stonebyres, at a place called Cairney Castle, several narrow arch- 
ways were discovered in 1794, in which were found two querns, with certain deers' horns and bones 
of animals.- 

A village must have existed at the church of Lesmahago, at the earliest period of record. There 
were probably ancient villages at Draffane, Dowano or Greenrig, and Glenane. 



CARLUKE. 

Eglismalesoch — Eglismalescok in valle de Cluyde — Carneluke — Carluke — 
Forest-kirk.^ Deanery of Lanark. (Map, No. 52.) 

Carluke consists of a narrow strip of holm land, along the margin of Clyde, spreading, at a few 
points, into broad haughs, and rising rapidly eastward into an uneven table-land, which termi- 
nates in wild moor. The church was originally placed on the margin of an extensive forest and 
woodland, called Maldisley or Clyde's Forest. It stood on the low ground by the river, and near 
a cairn called Carluke-law. On a hillock called Ha'hill, supposed to be its cemetery, a great 
quantity of human bones have been found. The church, which is supposed to have been dedicated 
to Saint Luke, was popularly known as the Forest-kirk. It was an independent rectory till the 
time of King Robert I. 

That prince granted the patronage of Eglismalescok, in Clydesdale, to the monks of Kelso, a.s 
compensation for their sufferings and losses during the wars of the succession.* The chapter of 
Glasgow, in 1321, and Bishop John, confirmed the grant, conferring the benefice on the monks in 
proprios usus,^ saving the life-right of Nigel de Cuningham, then rector, and reserving to the 
bishop the collation of the vicarage, with a pension of twenty merks for the support of the vicar." 

The monks appear to have occupied some of the church lands of Carluke by themselves, or at 
least to have had a grange there. The ground adjoining the old church was long known as the 
Abbey steads. Long before the Reformation the parish church was removed to a spot two miles 
farther eastward, where it stood, in 1793, near the village of Kirkstyle, now Carluke. It ap- 
pears to have been dedicated to Saint Andrew. There was dug up in its burial-ground, in 1 83S, 
a coflin hewn of one stone, with a rude cross carved on the lid. The older church did not inime- 

' Reg. de Kelso, p. 158. - Old Statist. Acct. * Robert. Index, 3. 3. 

2 Regist. Glasg. ; Lib. de Kelso ; Roberts. Index ; Reg. ' Reg. Glasg , p. 228. 

Mag. Sig. ; Regist. of Ministers, 1567. " Liber de Kelso, p. 386. 



116 ORIGINES [cARLUKE. 

diately cease to exist, or to be used. In 1507, the Forest-kirk had a separate reader, but in 1574 
Carluke and Forest-kirk are united.' 

In the south end of the parish, near the tower of Halber, were a hermitage and chapel dedi- 
cated to Saint Oswald. A small field adjoining retains the name of Friars' croft. In the west 
end, at a place called Chapel-yard, was anciently a chapel, which stood with its cemetery beside a 
mineral well. 

In a rental of the abbacy of Kelso of 1567, Carlouk is entered among " the kirkis and teindis 
set for sylver :" its rectory is stated at £66, 13s. 4d., and the vicarage at £9, 6s. 8d.- 

The ancient parish embraced the forest of Maldisley, originally, probably, of great extent. At 
a later period it comprehended the two baronies of Maldisley and Braidwude, with the lands 
of several lesser proprietors, mostly sub-vassals. In 1 287, the royal demesne of the forest of 
Maldisley yielded 13 chalders 2 bolls of oat-meal, sold for £9, 3s. 4d. ; and 13 chalders 12 bolls 
of barley, sold for an equal suni.^ In the early part of the next century, Robert I. granted ten 
merks yearly for lighting St. Machute's tomb at Lesniahago, payable out of the rents of his mills 
of Maldisley, called, in another charter, Carneluke.'* These mills were at Miltown, where the 
Carluike burn falls into the Clyde. In 1359, the king's fermes from the " park" of Maudisley 
were £i, besides the revenue of the mills. 

The land of Kilcadyow, in the south-east, a domain of the king, was then in the hands of John 
lie Lindsay of Dunrode, by concession of Malcolm Fleming, Earl of Wigton, who had no right 
to it, except by tolerance.' 

Robert I. granted a charter to .John de Manfode of the lands of Braidwood and Yieldshicls, 
with the lands of Hevedis.^ In 1381, Robert II. confirmed to William de Cokburne, son of Alex- 
ander Cokburne, and of Margaret de IMonfode, the daughter of John de IMonfode knight, the land 
of He\'edis, disjoined from the barony of Braidwood, and annexed to the Cokburne's barony of 
Scralyne." It afterwards belonged to the Douglases, and passed from them to Chancellor Mait- 
land.^ 

Robert I. gave to Ellen de Quarantley the lands of Bellitstan and Grunley, in the forest of Mal- 
disley, in exchange for a manor and orchard which belonged to her in the burgh of Lanark.^ 
John de Danyelston knight, had a confirmation from Robert II. of all his lands of Mauldisley, 
Law, and Kileadyou, in the barony of Carluke : the reddendo a pair of gilt spurs.'" Kiiktoun, 
with the pendicle called Kirkstyle, was a 40s. land of old extent. 

At a place called Castlehill, on the supposed line of the Roman way, Roman coins have been 
found.!' The old castle of Mauldislie appears to have stood in the vicinity of the church and of 
Mauldisley Law, a part of which retains the name of Gallowlee, from the use which it served in 
the time of feudal jurisdictions. Hall-craig, on the upper part of the burn of Carluke, and within 
the barony of Mauldisley, had, in 1 790, some remains of the old hall perched on a pinnacle of the 

1 Register of Ministers. i^ Rob. Index, 24, II. 

= Liber de Kelso, pp. 493-94. ' Keg. Mag. Sig., 144, 88. » Wisbaw. 

2 Compot. Camerar. I. 63.* ' Reg. Mag. Sig., 15, 76. 
< Liber de Kelso, pp. 170, 36o. Rob. Index, S, 75. '" Ibid., 110, 66. 

^ Compot. Camer., I. 334. " Scots Magazine. 



LANARK.] PAROOHIALES. 117 

rock, with vaults and a causeway in the garden. It belonged, along with the adjoining lands of 
Mylnetoun of Mauldislie, to the Whytfoords of that ilk, who held both blench of the king, and 
from whom they passed into the possession of Hamilton of Hall-craig.i 

Halbar castle, called, in a retour of 1C85, the tower and fortalice of Braid wood, is picturesquely 
situated on a rock, in a dell on the southern border of the parish. It is a square tower, 52 feet 
high, containing a vault and three arched apartments above it. There are the remains of a tower 
of considerable antiquity, in the house of Wicketshaw, or Waygateshaw, a XI land of old extent, 
long annexed to the barony of Touchadame in Stirlingshire.^ 

Part of an old wall is seen at Wallans, a portion of the land of Miltown, which lies on the other 
side of Clyde, but in Carluke parish, having apparently been separated from the northern 
bank by an alteration of the stream of the river. It is said to be the ruins of a fortalice which is 
popularly associated with the memory of Wallace, and is called Castle Wallans, or Temple 
Hall. 

Hyndshaw is conjectured to have been the site of a Roman town, and Kilcadyou Law, also on 
the line of the supposed Roman way, has a mount or cairn, perhaps artificial. 

The villages of Carluke, Braidwood, Kilcadyou. and Yieldshields, are probably ancient. 



LANARK. 

Lannarc'' — Lanarc" — Lanerk'^ — Lanark." Deanery of Lanark. 
(Map, No. 53.) 

This parish lies on the right bank of the Clyde, which, here bending southward to receive the 
Douglas water, washes Lanark on two sides. The deep irregular valley of the Mouss divides the 
parish from east to west ; and from either bank of this stream, the ground rises into a flat upland ; 
that on the south being called Lanark-moor, the northern taking the name of Lee-moor. Both 
slope towards the Clyde. Of old the parish had the forest of Maldisley or Carluke on its northern 
march, and the forest or woodland of Mossplat and Pedynane on the east and the south. 

The ancient limits of the parish, extended as will be seen by several annexations, seem to have 
embraced a district or chapelry belonging to the hospital of Saint Leonard, which is now attached 
to Carluke ; as well as the whole parish of Pedynane, which was separated from Lanark about the 
time of the Reformation ; and the lands of Slossplat, which are now in Carstairs, quo ad sacra, but 
pay tithe to the church of Carluke." 

Lanark is, undoubtedly, a place of great antiquity, though the evidence which, carrying it back 

' Wishaw. s Baiamund. Regist. Glasg., vol. i., p. Ixviii. 

- Retours. Wishaw. « A. D. 1225. Id., vol. i., p. 116. A. D. 1200. Palg. Illust. 

■■s A. D. 1187-89. Regist. Glasg., vol. i., p. 6o. Hist. Scot., vol. i., pp. IS3, 2.91, 300, 306, 310. 

■' A. D. 1175— 89. Id.,voI. i., p. 49. • Chart. Drvb., foil. 63, 64. 



118 ORIGINES [LANARK. 

to the Dark Ages, would identify it with the Llannerch of the ancient poetry of the Welsh tribes, 
appears to be built upon insufficient foundations. 

It is certain that, about the year 1150, King David I. gave to the canons regular of Dryburgh 
the church of Lanark, with its lands, tithes, and all other rights, and the church of Pedynane, 
with all its pertinents, and the carucate of land in the ville or kirk-town, held aforetime by 
Nicholas, the king's clerk. Between the years 1147 and 1164, Bishop Herbert of Glasgow con- 
firmed to the monastery of Dryburgh, for its own proper use, the church of Lanark, with the 
chapel of Pedynane.^ Not long afterwards King William the Lion granted to the church of 
Lanark the whole parish of Nenflare and of Cartland, with all the tithes of these towns, both great 
and small ; and enjoined his men residing there to pay their tithes of all things to the church of 
Lanark, and to reverence it in every thing, as right was, as their mother church.- In the same 
ace, William Gilis, for the souls' weal of King William deceased, and of his lord the King 
Alexander, granted to the mother church of Saint Kentigern of Lanark all the dues and ofierings 
of his land of Moss-plat, with the tithes of his mill and of his whole land, whether tilled or un- 
tilled.3 In the time of King William the Lion, a piece of land on the east of the church, bounded in 
part by a waste adjacent to the lands of the Brethren of the Hospital, was given to the church of Saint 
Mary and Saint Kentigern of Lanark, by Jordan Brae* In the year 1257, Alexander, the rector 
of Colbanyston, resigned, in favour of the church of Lanark, all right to the tithes of Clouburn.* 

The parish church, dedicated, as has been seen, to the great Apostle of the Strathclyde- Britons, 
stood, surrounded by its cemetery, at the distance of about a quarter of a mile to the south-east 
of Lanark." From its situation without the burgh, it was known by the name of the " Out Kirk."'' 
The ruins show both the antiquity and the beauty of the building, which is distinguished by some 
interesting peculiarities of architecture.** 

There were divers chantries within the parish church. In the thirteenth century, Robert a 
deacon, son of Hugh the clerk of Lanark, made a grant of three shillings a-year for lights to the 
church of Saint Kentigern of Lanark.^ Alexander, the High Steward of Scotland, (who died 
about the year 1300,) gave a yearly sum of five shillings and sixpence, from his land in the burgh 
of Lanark, for the maintenance of a light in the greater church and chapel of the town.'" 
Among the missing charters of King Robert III., is a confirmation of " the foundation of the 
ehaplainrie of the parish church of Lanark, by ane John Simpsone, burgess."!' In the year 1500, 
King James IV. granted to William Clerkson, chaplain at the altar of the Blessed Virgin within 
the parish church of Lanark, a tenement in the burgh, which had reverted to the King by reason 
of the bastardy of the last owner.i^ The Rood altar in the church of Lanark was worth seven 
pounds yearly in the year 1561 ; and at that time the canons of Dryburgh, who still continued to 
hold the church by the grant of Saint David, paid forty pounds a-year to three priests of the 

' Chart. Dryb., fol. 16. ' A. D. ItiSO. Rttours. 

2 Chart. Dryb., fol. 17. " Blox. Gothic Architect. 

3 Chart. Dryb., foil. 63, 64. » Chart. Dryb., fol. 63. 

' Chart. Dryb., p. 156. '" Chart. Dryb., fol. 153. 

* Chart. Dryb., fol. 138. " Robertson's Index, p. 145, no. 24. 

" Old Stat. Acct. '- Pri\7 Seal Reg. 2, 14. 



LANARK.] PAROOHIALES. 119 

cliapel. The vicar paid ten pounds yearly, with a share in the lesser ofl'erings, to a curate residing 
in the parish.^ 

Besides the ancient church or chapel of Pedynane, and a chapel at Imbriston, Inglisberry Grange, 
on the left bank of the Clyde, there was a third at Cleghorn, on the other side of the stream. In the 
year 1220, the Abbot of Jedburgh, with other delegates appointed by the Apostolic See to try the 
cause between William of Hertford and the canons of Dryburgh as to the chapel of Glegern, gave 
for their final sentence, that the chapel belonged to the mother church of Lanark, and adjudged 
Hertford to pay ten merks towards the costs of the suit. In obedience to this decision, apparently, 
Robert of Carmitely, for the soul of his lord, Philip of Valoins, resigns all claim to the patron- 
age of the chapel which might belong to him in virtue of his right of lordship in the territory of 
Glegern. Before the year 1 232, Bishoj) Matthew of Glasgow confirms the chapel to the canons 
of Dryburgh, as a chapel to be served by them or their chaplains, belonging of right to the mother 
church of Lanark, free from all episcopal exactions beyond the sum of four shillings yearly .^ 

Nemphlar, in the reign of King William the Lion, seems to have had a church of its own, 
which, after its annexation by that king to Lanark, became a chapel dependent on the mother 
church. Its site was at East Nemphlar, probably at a spot called " Alman's appletree ;" and the 
chapel lands were of the extent of six shillings and eightpence.^ 

Another chapel, dedicated in honour of Saint Nicholas, stood within the burgh of Lanark. It 
can be traced back to the beginning of the thirteenth century, and had several endowed altars. 
Robert, a deacon, son of Hugh the clerk of Lanark, bequeathed a yearly sum of fifty pence for 
lights to Saint Nicholas' chapel.'' King James IV., in the year 1492, confirmed the grant which 
Stephen Lockhart of Cleghorn made of the place of Clydesholm, and the passage-boat upon Clyde, 
for the maintenance of a chaplain at the altar of Saint Catharine in the chapel of Saint Nicholas 
at Lanark.5 The canons of Dryburgh founded another chantry in the same church, retaining the 
patronage in their own hands." The endowment of Saint Mary's altar seems to have been derived 
from the lairds of Jerviswood, who held the patronage as a pertinent of their barony.'' Certain 
yearly rents of small value from tenements in the burgh were given to these and other altars 
within the same chapel by burgesses of Lanark.** At the Reformation, Sir Thomas Godsel, chap- 
lain of Saint Nicholas, reported that the benefice was worth forty pounds yearly, from which he 
paid to a curate ten pounds a-year ; but he added that he had received no payment for three years 
past. The yearly rental of Our Lady's altar was fifteen merks ; of the Haly Blude altar, four 
pounds ; and of Saint Slichael's altar, three pounds." 

Eastward from the burgh, at the distance of about half a mile, stood an Hospital dedicated to 

Saint Leonard, of which the ruins survived the year 1792. It is said to have been founded by 

King Robert I., but may more probably be identified with the hospital of which mention has 

been made above, as existing in the reign of King William the Lion. King Edward II., in the 

year 1319, presented Thomas of Eggefeld to its wardenship, then vacant."' It was endowed with 

' Book of Assumptions. ^ Chalmers quoting Reg. Mag. Sig. 12, 365. 

2 Cliart. Dryb., foil. 13, 18, 19. o Chalmers quoting Privy Seal, vi. 17. 

^ Retours. ^ Retours. " Chart. Dryb. 

■• Chart. Dryb., fol. 63. ^ Book of Assumptions. '<> Rymer, vol. ii., p. 401. 



120 ORIGINES [LANARK. 

a land of the value of ten pounds of old extent, called Spittal Shiels, a large tract of pasture, now 
attached to the parish of Carluke ; as well as with certain acres near the burgh of Lanark called 
Saint Leonard's Maina.i In the year 1390, account was rendered in the king's exchequer of a 
payment of forty shillings made to the master of Saint Leonard's Hospital near Lanark as his 
yearly pension.^ King Robert IIL, in the year 1393, granted Saint Leonard's Hospital to Sir 
John of Dalyel, with all its lands and revenues, on condition that the Knight of Dalyel and his 
heirs should cause three masses to be said weekly in Saint Leonard's chapel for the souls' health 
of the king and his consort Anabella, and should render to the crown the accustomed service for 
the hospital's lantls and rents.3 In the year 1465, the patronage of Saint Leonard's Hospital 
was, with its property, transferred by Peter of Dal yell to John Stewart of Craigy, or Craigie- 
hall.* It continued till the Reformation to be governed by a master whose pension was paid by 
the king from the fermes of the burgh.* To the chapel of the hospital there were attached a 
cemetery and an ecclesiastical district, comprising chiefly its own lands, which long bore the name 
of Saint Leonard's Parish.'' The chapel of Saint Leonard was, in the year 1609, annexed to the 
parish church of Lanark, " whair the samin has bene continewalie servit in tymes bipast."^- 

There was at Lanark a convent of Gray Friars, or Friars Slinor, of the order of Saint Francis, 
founded, it is said, by King Robert 1.8 It stood on the south side of the chief street of the burgh, 
and its church had an aisle dedicated to the Blessed Virgin.9 There was a cemetery attached to 
it ; and near a part of the grounds now called the Friar's-field, there is a plentiful spring which bears 
the name of Saint Peter's well. In the year 1359, ten pounds were paid to the Friars Minor of 
Lanark, in part of twenty merks of yearly alms due to them by the king from the wards of the 
castle.i" This pa3anent continued to be made until the Reformation.'! xhe convent enjoyed also 
certain yearly rents from tenements in the burgh. Its possessions were thus described in the year 
1592, when they were granted to the young laird of Leys: " the fundament, place, and slate- 
house, biggings, and yards adjacent thereto sumtyme belonging to the Friars Minoris callit Cor- 
dilires of Lanerk, with an aikar of land pertening thairto. Hand in Wertland syd, within the ter- 
ritorie of the burgh."i"' A chapter general of the whole Franciscan order in Scotland was held in 
this convent in the year 1496.'^ 

The rectory of Lanark is valued in the " Libellus Taxationum Regni Scotite'' at £40, and the vicar- 
age at X6. In the year 1561, the monastery of Dryburgh let the tithes of the church of Lanark for 
X80. In 1630, the teinds of the " Out-kirk" were separately held from those of the "In-kirk,"and 
were worth eight chalders of victual. The vicarage, with the kirkland and glebe, and the corn tithes 
of the beir-yards, extended yearly to twenty-eight bolls of meal and bear, with les. 8d. in money. 
The remainder, •' when all manner of dewties was paid of old," w;is worth forty merks, but then only 
twenty merks. The procurations of the bishop and the synodals extended to five merks, 10s. 8d." 

The parochial territory, obviously made up of several manors or manorial villages and of some 

1 Retours. ' Spottiswoode. ' Commis. Rec. Glasg. 

- Chamberlain Rolls. '" Chamb. Rolls, vol. i.,p. 33(i. 

■i Reg. Mag. Sig., p. -'li, no. 47. " Book of Assumptions. 

" Chalmers quoting Reg. Mag. Sig. " Acts Pari. Scot., vol. iii. p. G34. 

5 Book of Assumptions: '" Miscel. Spald. Club, vol. ii. 

6 Retours. " Acts Pari. Scot., vol. iv., p. 441. '' Book of Assumptions. 



LANARK.] PAROGHIALES. 12] 

forest lands, was nearly all royal dcunaiu in the reigns of King David I. and his two immediate 
successors ; and was for a considerable time afterwards chiefly possessed by the crown, or held of 
it in ferme by lay vassals. William the Lion gave a charter to Michael Hart of the lands of Brakys- 
field, which Ade Braks resigned. The rents of the king's lands of Lanark, in the year 1295, formed 
part of the dowry promised to the niece of Philip king of France, on her marriage with the son and 
heir of King -John Balliol.i In the year 1220, Cleghorn was held in whole or in part by Wil- 
liam of Hertford -^ and about the same time Robert of Carniitely had a right of lordship in the 
same land.^ Cartland, of which the Lee formed a part, was let by the crown in ferme before 1288, 
and paid, in that year, 66s. of rent.^ In 1289 it paid five chalders of oatmeal, which was the 
amount of its yearly ferme, and 80s. " propter bonum forum. "5 About the year 1.300, Sir 
Eichard Hastings made suit to King Edward I. for the lands of Simon Locard, namely, Lot^h- 
wood, in Ayrshire, and " la Laye," in the shire of Lanark.*^ In the year 1323, King Robert I. 
confirmed a grant by Sir Simon Locard knight, lord of the Leey and of Cartland, to William of 
Lindsay, rector of Air, of ten pounds yearly from the lands of Cartland and the Leey.'' Kino- 
Robert 11., in the year 1382, granted or confirmed to his nephew, Sir -James of Lindesay kni^dit, 
the superiority of the lands of Leey, of Cartland, of Foulwod, and of Bondyngton (Boniuton,) to 
hold of Lindesay in chief as lord of the barony of Crawfurd-Lindsay.** 

The church lands and the vicar's glebe were £7, 3s. 4d. in extent.^ In 1.592, there were five 
acres of arable land, with a house and yard, lying on the south side of the glebe of the kirk of 
Lanark, " fra the common way as thay pass frae the burgh to the brae callit Eudday croee, on the 
east, and the lands of Brackisfield, adjacent, on the south parts," which had been held from old 
time of the vicars of Lanark. i" 

The burgh territory was extensive. King David II. confirmed a charter to Simon Chapman 
burgess, of the Bauds and Breriebanks, in the territory of Lanark, which -John of Lyvyngston of 
Drumry had mortgaged to him." It embraced also Whamfra-flatt, and other lands, besides a laro-e 
rauir or common.i^ 

The royal castle of Lanark, which seems to have existed in the days of King David I., was 
perhaps built on the site of an older fort. Between the years 1175 and 1199, an inquest of the 
elders and good men of the country was held before King William the Lion in his court at Lanarc, 
to determine as to the advowson of the church of Kylbride, which was in dispute between Bishop 
Joceline of Glasgow and Roger of Valoins.i'* Divers charters of this prince, as well as of King 
Alexander II. and King Alexander III. are dated at Lanark.^* The castle was used as a prison 
about the year 1288, when the sheriff of the county, in reckoning with the exchequer, was allowed 
a payment which he had made for the construction of a " pondfald" at Lanark, together with 15s. 

' Robertsoii'slndex, p. 24, no. 13. Rymer's Foedera, vol. " Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 167, no. 15. Robertson's Inde.\, 

ii. p- 695. p. 13-1, no. 34. 

2 Chart. Dryburg. i A. D. 1649. Retours. 

= Cbart. Di-jburg. '" Acts Pari. Scot., vol. iii. p. 640. 

* Chamb. Rolls, vol. i. pp. 1,* 62.* " Robertson's Index, p. 55, no. 2 ; p. 82, no. 170. 

' Chamb. Rolls, vol. i. p. l?i* '- Retours. '^ Regist. Glasg., vol. i. pp. 48, 49. 

« Palg. lUust. Hist. Scot., vol. i. p. 306. '-i Regist. Glasg., vol. i. pp. 65, 116 ; Lib. de Melros, vol. 

' Regist. Glasg., pp. 235-237. i. pp. 39, 43, 141. 

VOL. I. Q 



122 ORIGINES [LANARK. 

which he had paid for iron, and the making of fetters, and lis. 8d. for the food of the prisoners.^ 
In the year 1329, the Chamberlain Ayre at Lanark yielded 100s. ; in 1331 it produced 27s. 5d.2 
The sums received in the year 1359, from the several baronies of the shire liable to charge for 
ward of the castle, amounted to £\3.^ 

On the north side of the Mouse, upon the brink of the Cartland Crags, there were to be seen, 
in the last century, the vestiges of an ancient stronghold called indifferently Castle-dykes, or 
Castle-quair. In the rock below were artificial caves or passages. One of them, entering from 
the fece of the rock, is described as about seven or eight feet in length by four in width, and 
nearly four feet in height, built without mortar, of large unhewn slabs of stone, one overtopping 
the other, until the two sides joined at the roof.^ 

About half a mile above this, on the high bank of the Blouse, are the picturesque remains of a 
tower called Castlehill, an ancient seat of the Lockharts. 

The house of the Lee, famous in its associations with the talisman called " the Lee penny," was, 
says Wishaw, " anciently ane old castle, but, long since, there were convenient buildings joyned to 
it ; and of late, upon the south syde of the court, there are added six extraordinarie fyne rooms, 
well finished and furnished. The gardens are great and regular, adorned with fyne walks, stairs, 
and terrasses."* 

The other manor-houses in the parish commemorated by this author, are Cleghorn, Jerviswood, 
Maynes of Braxfield, and Bonniton. 

The town of Lanark, said to have been erected into a burgh royal by King Alexander I., was 
certainly in possession of burghal privileges in the reign of King William the Lion.'' Its ancient 
charters are not now to be found, but a charter by King Charles I., of the year 1632, confirms 
(1) a charter to the burgh by King James V.; (2) a charter by King liobert (said to be King 
Robert I. ;) and (3 and 4) two charters by King Alexander III., by which the usual privileges 
are granted to the burgh, and the burgesses receive the exclusive right of buying wool and skins, 
and all other merchandize, and of dealing in broad and dyed cloths, within the county. King 
Alexander also grants his peace to all who bring wood or feal to the burgh ; enjoins that all its 
inhabitants shall join with the burgesses in the payment of the rent due from the burgh to the 
king ; and confirms to the burgesses all their common pastures, moors, mosses or peat pots, marshes, 
and other easements.' The bailies of Lanark paid to the chamberlain of Scotland, for the king's 
ferme of their burgh, £7, 5s. 5d., in the year 1328 ; £9, 3s. in the year 1330; and £6, 13s. 4d. 
in the year 1390. In the year 1399, the ferme was let in feu to the burgh for £6 ; and this ever 
after was the appointed yearly payment.* 

As in other burghs, so in Lanark, the religious houses, at an early period, acquired tofts from 
the pious bounty of the kings. The great monasteries of Jlelrose and of Kelso held theirs by 
grants from King William the Lion.^ The canons regular of Dryburgh, in the same reign, ob- 
tained from Amfridus " curnaisarius de Lanark" a burgage tenement lying between the work- 

' Chamb. Rolls, vol. i. p. 63.' ' Lib. de Metros, p. O'S. 

- Chamber. Rolls, vol. i. pp. 135, '22'2. ^ Carta burgi de Lanark, in Hamilt. Descrijit, Lanark. 

•* Chamber. Rolls, vol. i. p. 335. pp. -5(1, *2o7. ** Chamber. Rolls. 

' Old Stat. Acct. ^ Hamilton's Lanark, p. 54. " Lib. de Melros, p. 68 ; Lib. de Calchou, p. I'J. 



cARSTAiRs.] PAROOHIALES. 123 

shop of Henry Uell and William the Sacristan.^ The same canons exchanged a toft over 
against the house of William of Karamickley for another between the dwelling of William the 
weaver and John Blaw.2 In the year 1 5.02, the laird of Lej's was confirmed in the possession 
of " a piece of a croft containing three roods of land, with the old walls of a ruinous house, and a 
little yard, lying on the south side of the common street of Lanark," held of the canons of Dry- 
burgh in time past.-* 

In the year 1244, along with almost all the towns of Scotland, Lanark was consumed by acciden- 
tal fire.^ It then, doubtless, consisted chiefly of wooden houses. At a later period, mention is made 
of its ports or gates, but there is no sufficient evidence of its having a continuous wall on all sides. 

Early notice is found of the seminaries of Lanark. In 1283, Pope Lucius, by a bull confirming 
the privileges of the canons of Dryburgh, prohibits all persons from interfering with the masters in 
regulating the studies in the schools of Lanark, and the other parishes belonging to the monastery.-'' 

Lanark, about the year 1296, was the scene of one of the first adventures of Sir William Wal- 
lace.^ Tradition points to Cartland Crags and their cave, to Cartland Wood, and to a cave at 
Bonington Linn, as having been his hiding-places. 

About the year 1.310, King Robert I. gained possession of the town and castle of Lanark. He 
gave to Ellen of Quaranteley or Caranteleghe (who swore fealty to King Edward I., about the 
year 1296, for her lands in the shire of Lanark,') certain lands in the forest of Maldisley in ex- 
change for a manor and orchard belonging to her in the burgh of Lanark, as they are bounded 
" in circuitu per murum."** In the parliament of King David II. held at Perth in 1348, it was 
ordained that so long as the burghs of Berwick and Koxburgh remained in the English power, the 
burghs of Lanark and Linlithgow should be accepted in their place in the council of the burghs. 
Money was coined at Lanark of old, and " the keeping and outgiving of the standard weights" 
were committed to it by statute in the year 1617.^ It had, from a remote time, seven yearly fairs, 
which long continued to be of great resort. 

The villages of Nemphlar and Cartland are ancient. 

CARSTAIRS. 

Casteltarres" — Casteltarras" — Casteltarris^- — Carstairs.'^ Deanery of Lanark.'^ 

(Map, No. 54.) 

In the upper and northern parts, the surface is broken into irregular knolls of sand or gravel, 
divided in many places one from another by marshes or mosses, in which the remains of trees are 

' Chart. Dryburg, p. 15.5. ' Reg. Mag. Sig. p. 1.5, no. 76. 

- Chart. Dryburg. " Acts Pari. Scot. 

^ Acts Pari. Scot., vol. iii. p. 240. '« A. D. 1170. Regist. Glasg., p. 23. 

* J. Forduni Scotichronicon, lib. ix. c. 01. " A. D. 1174. Regist., p. 30. 

= Chart. Dryburg, p. 196. >'- A. D. 1245 ; A. D. 1273. Lib. de Calchou, pp. 231, 



J. Forduni Scotichronicon, lib. xi. c. 28. Wallace, bb. 267. 
>■ " A. D. 1.592. Act Pari. Scot., vol. iii. p. 6>2. 

Palg. Illust. Hist. Scot., vol. i. p. 300. '« Baiamund. 



124 ORIGINES [carstmrs. 

to be seen. The rest of tlie parish is the meadow- or liaugh of the Clyde, which is its boundary 
on the south. 

In the reign of King Alexander II., the tithes and oblations of the lands of Mossplat, on the 
north side of the parish, were given to the church of Saint Kentigern at Lanark.^ The lands 
themselves, however, belonged to the Bishop of Glasgow,- who was lord also of the manor of Car- 
stairs ; and hence, probably, they were annexed quo ad sacra to this parish, although, quo ad chi- 
lia, they lay within the limits of Carluke. 

The church of Casteltarres, one of the bishop's seventeen mensal towns, was confirmed to Bishop 
Engelram of Glasgow, by Pope Alexander Til. in the year 1 1 70.^ The manor of Castletarras, 
with its church, was confirmed to Bishop Joceline by the same Pope Alexander in the years 1 1 74 
and 1178 ;'' by Pope Lucius III. in the year 1181 ;^ and by Pope Urban III. in the year 1186.^ 
The benefice was erected into a prebend of the cathedral church of Saint Kentigern at Glasgow 
before the year 1216, when the right of nominating the prebendary was confirmed to the Bishop 
of Glasgow by Pope Honorius III." In the year 1401, the prebend was taxed two merks yearly 
for the ornaments of the cathedral ;* and in the year 1432, the prebendary was enjoined to pay to 
his stallar or vicar choral in the cathedral a pension of nine merks yearly." 

In the year 1508, Robert Blackader, archbishop of Glasgow, founded a chaplainry " in the 
church called Saint Mary's of Welbent, in the parish of Casteltarris, which had been built and 
repaired at his own charge." The chaplain had for his endowment forty shillings yearly, with a 
small sum from the petty customs of the city of Glasgow.i" In the year 1592, " the patronage 
of the parsonage and vicarage of the parish kirk of Carstairs, with the vicar's lands thereof, and 
the chaplanarie, called , pertaining thereto," were confirmed to James Hamilton of 

Libbarton. In the year 1587 they had been granted, along with the barony, in feu-ferme to Sir 
William Stewart of Uchiltrie knight." 

In Baiamund's Roll, the rectory is valued at £40 : the vicarage at £26, 13s. 4d.'- At the 
Reformation, the former yielded eight chalders of victual (two-thirds being meal, and one-third 
bear,) which being commuted with the tenants and labourers of the ground at the rate of ten 
shillings a boll, produced in all £105, 12s. The vicarage was worth £40 yearly.'-'* 

The manor of Carstairs, a barony of £48 of old extent,'* comprising the whole parish,'^ belonged 
to the Bishop of Glasgow, as one of his mensal demesnes, in the twelfth century. The annexed 
" land of Mossplat, in the bailliary of Lanark," was given to Bishop William of Bondington, by 
King Alexander II., in the year 1244."' Jordan the " prepositus," or baillie of Carstairs, appears 
as a witness to a charter in the year 1225."' The bailliary was held by Hugh, Lord Somer- 
ville, c. 1517, who also possessed the land of Ranstruther. The office was granted to Sir William 

' See above, in Lanark. '■' Regist. Glasg., p. 347. 

- Regist. Glasg., p. 151. '" Regist. Glasg., p. 519. 

'■> Regist. Glasg., p. 23. " Acts Pari. Scot., vol. iii. p. 622. 

* Regist. Glasg., pp. 30, 43. '-' Regist. Glasg., pp. Ixiii. Ixviii. 

^ Regist. Glasg., p. 50. ^^ Book of Assumptions. 

^ Regist. Glasg., p. 55. '"• Acts Pari. Scot., vol. iii. p. 622. 

" Regist. Glasg., p. 95. ''' Hamilton's Descript. of Lanark, p. 55. 

' Regist. Glasg., pp. 299, 344. '° Regist. Glasg., p. 151. •' Regist. de Passelet, p. 212. 



CARNWATH.] PAROCHIALES. 125 

Stewart in 1587 ;^ and in the beginning of the eighteenth century belonged to the Lockharts of 
Carstairs.- 

At Carstairs there was, from a remote date, a dwelling-place of the bishops of Glasgow. 
Bishop William of Bondington confirmed to the priory of Lesmahago the church of Saint Maure 
in Cuningham, by a charter dated at Casteltarris on the Sunday next after the feast of the Ex- 
altation of the Holy Cross, in the year 1 •245.^ On the Monday next before the feast of Saint Lau- 
rence, in the year 1273, a controversy between the Abbot of Kelso and Sir Symon Locard knight, 
was amicably settled at Casteltarris, in presence of Robert Wischart, bishop of Glasgow.* This 
prelate, after the death of King Alexander III. in 1286, began to build at Carstairs a castle of 
stone and lime ; and in the year 1 292 he obtained from King Edward I. licence to complete the 
structure.^ He dates a charter from Carstairs in the year 1294.'' 

The castle stood in the village, which seems to have occupied the site of a Roman station. The 
village mill was old, and so, probably, were the hamlets of Mossplat and Ravcnstruther. 



CARNVVATH. 

Charnewid" — Karnewic'* — Karnevvid" — Carnewith."' Deanery of Lanark. 
(Map, No. 55.) 

Carnvvatii is bounded by the Clyde on the south ; and the haughs which lie along this river, 
and its tributary the Medwyn, are broad and fruitful. The Mouss and the Dippool water the 
upper parts, which are chiefly extensive plains of pasture and flow-moss, intersected by two or 
three ridges of high land. 

This parish was of old part of that of Liberton. About the year 11G.5, the church of Charne- 
wid was confirmed to Ingelram bishop of Glasgow, by Pope Alexander IIL" The same church 
was confirmed to Bishop Joceline, by the same Pope, in the years 1174 and 1178 ,-'- by Pope 
Lucius III., in the year 1 181, '^ and by Pope Urban IIL, in the year 1 18(j." Between the years 
1180 and 1189, William of Sumerville, bythe advice of William his father, and others his friends, 
confirmed to Bishop Joceline, as he had aforetime granted to Bishop Ingelram (between the years 
1164 and 1 174), the church of Karnewid, with half a carucate of land, a toft and croft, common 
pasture, and other privileges of the townshi]>.i-'' The benefice having, in virtue of this yrant, been 

' Memorie of tlie SomerviUes, vol. i. pp. XVii, JdO. '" A. D. 1185.— A. D. 1187. Regist. Glasg., p. 4(j. It has 

Acts Pari. Scot., vol. iii. p. 622. been eoniectured that Carnwath is the Chefcarnenuat of 

- Hamilt. Descript. Lanark, p. 55. the famous inquest of Prince David of Cumbria, in the year 

=1 Lib. de Calchou, p.231. 1116. (Hamilt. Descript. Lanark, p. 15,0.) 

" Lib. de Calehou, p, 267. =■ Rot. Scot. " Regist. Glag., p. 22. 

" Regist. de Passelet. i-' Regist. Glasg., pp. .•3(1, 43. 

' Circa A. D. 1 1 65. Regist. Glasg., p. 22. la Regist. Glasg., p. 50. 

" A. D. 1174. Regist. Glasg., p 30. n Regist. Glasg., p. 55. 

" A. n. 1178. Regist. Glasg., p. 4.3. " Regist. Glasg., p. 45. 



126 



ORICIINES 



[CARNWATH. 



erected iuto a prebend of the cathedral of Saint Kentigern at Glasgow, the erection was confirmed 
by Pope Urlian III., between the years 11S.'> and 1187. in a bull, which declares that though the 
church of Carnewith had been built by William of Sumerville within the bounds of the neighbour- 
ing parish of Libertun, and the right of patronage of Libertun had subsequently passed to another 
lord, as was affirmed, carrying with it the church of Carnewith, yet the church and prebend of 
Carnewith should belong to the dean and chapter of Glasgow, as it had been confirmed to them 
by Pope Lucius.i It continued to be thus possessed until the Reformation, the prebendary being 
the treasurer of the cathedral. 

The church stood at the west end of the village, separated by a burn from a mound or cairn, 
which, in the year 1790, had an entrance at the top, with a rude stair within descending to the 
bottom.- 

At Muirhall, in the upper part of the parish, there was a chapel which would seem to have been 
dedicated in honour of Saint Mary Magdalene, and to have been endowed with sixty pounds of 
Scottish money yearly from the barony of Carnwath.'* At the Reformation its revenue was re- 
turned at 16 merks and 5 shillings yearly.* 

Near the place where the burn of Carnwath meets the South Medwyn, is a spot of ground called 
'Spital. It was a land of forty shillings extent, the property of the Somervilles ■? and probably 
derived its name from an hospital endowed for eight bedesmen by Sir Thomas Sonierville, in the 
beginning of the fifteenth century. 

In the year 1424, the same Knight of Sonierville, with consent of William his son, founded a 
coUeo-iate church at Carnwath for a provost and six prebendaries.^ The parish church was made 
serviceable for the purposes of the new foundation, by the erection of an aisle and some other ad- 
ditions. The building is thus described, in the year 1670, by the historian of the Somervilles: 
" The isle itself [called the College Isle of Carnwath] is but little ; however, [it is] neatly and 
conveniently built, opposite to the middle of the [parish] church, all aisler, both within and with- 
out, having pinnacles upon all the corners, whereon are engraven, besides other imagerie, the armes 
of the Somervilles and the Sinclaires."' Within its walls the knightly founder, and his wife, 
Dame Mary Sinclair, chose their sepulture ; and it continued to be the burying-place of his de- 
scendants until the year 1570.* At the Reformation, Sir Duncan Aikman, " prebendary of the 
isle of Carnwath," reported his stipend to be twenty-four merks yearly .» 

The rectory of the parish church of Carnwath, being the prebend of the treasurer of Glasgow, 
is valued in Baiamuud's roll at £160.1" In the year 1561, it was let on lease for .£200; but 
aforetime it had yielded 260 merks.i^ In the year 1401, it was taxed ^£5 for the ornaments of 
the cathedral church -p and in 1432, the prebendary was enjoined to pay to his stallar or vicar 
choral a pension of .£16 yearly. i^ The vicarage does not appear in Baiamund, having probably 



Regist. Glasg., p. 46. 

Old Stat. Ace. 

Memorie of the SomeniUes, vol. i. p. 38: 

Book of Assumptions. ^ Ketours. 

Spottiswoode. Maefarlane. 

Mem. of Somervilles, vol. i. p. 166. 



■ Mem. of Somerv., vol. i. pp. IGG, 440. 
' Book of Assumptions. 
' Regist. Glasg., p. Ixiii. 
Book of Assumptions. 
•' Regist. Glasg., pp. 299, 344. 
' Regist. Glasg., p. %k^. 



CARNWATH.] PAROCHIALES. 127 

beea incorporated with the collegiate church. The vicar-poiisiouer, at the Reformation, returned 
his benefice as worth £16 yearly, one-half arising from the glebe, the other being paid by the 
prebendary of Carnwath.^ 

The manor of Carnwath is said to have been given, with other lauds, by King David I. to 
William of Somerville, who died in the year 1142. It was certainly possessed by that family 
about the year 1 164. It seems to have been at first a part of Libertun, where, as has been seen, 
the mother church stood. In the year 1358, the lands of Libertun were free from all payment of 
castle-ward to the sheriff' of Lanark, while the barony of Carnwath was liable in the sum of sixty 
shillings.^ About the year 1300, Sir Robert Hastang made suit to King Edward I. for the lands 
of Lyntone and of Carnewythe, which belonged to Sir Thomas of Somerville.' Carnwath was a 
land of £200 of old extent, and the Somervilles continued to possess the greater part of it in pro- 
perty, and to be over-lords of the whole, until the reign of King James VI.'' This barony affords 
one of the few instances of jocular tenures that occur in Scotish charters. Part of the red- 
dendo was " the price of two pair of stockings made of two halfs of an ell of English stuff, to he 
given, on the feast of Saint John at Midsummer, to the quickest runner of a race, from the east end 
of the town of Carnwath to the cross called Halo-crosse.^ 

King Robert I. granted or confirmed to Andrew of Douglas a charter of the lands of Creswell, 
within the barony of Carnwath, which had belonged to Henry of Wiutoun deceased.^ The same 
lands of Creswell, or Carswell, were held by Sir John Herring of Edmonston in Clydesdale, and 
of Gilmerton in Lothian, of John Lord Somorville, to whom they returned by purchase, in the 
year 1461-2.^ 

The village and lands of Newbigging, in the south-east part of the parish, originally, perhaps, 
holden of the crown by a separate tenure, came into the possession of the Somervilles about tiie 
middle of the thirteenth century, by marriage with the daughter and heiress of Walter of New- 
bigging.* They were afterwards the property of the Livingstons of -Jerviswood. In 1468, John 
Livingston was served heir to his father James iu the third part of the lands of Newbigging. 

In the year 1543, 'Spital Mains was given by Hugh Lord Somerville to his youngest son ; and 
other cadets of the chief had possessions at Tarbrax, and Overcallo.^ An inconsiderable estate 
called Black Castle, on tiie east side of the parish, was given by John of Somerville, before the 
year 1347, to his second son David.'" 

The ancient castle of the Somervilles stood at Couthalley, or Cudley, a narrow neck of land 
stretching into a large moss, on the north side of the village of Carnwath. It is said to have been 
burned during the wars of the Succession. In 1372, a contract of marriage between Sir Walter 
of Somerville and the daughter of Sir -lohn Herring was concluded at Couthally. Soon after- 

' Book of Assumptions. ' Mem. of Somervilles, vol. i. p. 2-_'9. 

= Chamber. Rolls. " Mem. of Somervilles, vol. i. p. 65. It is affirmed by 

3 Palg. Illust. Hist. Scot , vol. i. p. 304. the same authority that Newbigging and Carnwath were 
* Mem. of Somervilles, vol. ii. p. 80 ; Hamilt. Descript. first united into one barony by King Robert I., in favour 

Lanark, p. 56. of his faithful follower, John of Somerville. (Id. vol. i. 

' Responde Book, 7th Nov. 152-2, apud Riddell's Peer. pp. 82, 240.) 

and Consist. Law, I. 350. ^ Mem. of Somervilles, vol. i. p. 415, vol. ii. p. 41. Retours. 

" Robertson's Index, p. 8, no. 74. '" Mem. of Somervilles, vol. i. p. 93. 



128 ORIGINES [dunsybe. 

wards Sir Walter repaired the original tower, and built a stone barbican, with another tower 
at the east corner, without the gate, three stories in height, vaulted at the top, and fortified by 
battlements of ashlar. In 1415, Sir Thomas of Somerville added other buildings, and dug a 
broad and deep trench around the whole, " the great moss affording him much water for filling 
the ditches." About the same time, or not long afterwards, a round tower was built, with a wall 
joining the three towers together. Hugh Lord Somerville, about the year 1527, still farther con- 
nected the towers by galleries, and made other additions, so that the castle now formed a court of 
three sides, open to the south. Couthally, famed for its hospitality, and for the sport of hawking 
which the neighbouring muirs, lake, and marshes afforded, was more than once visited by the Scot- 
tish sovereigns. In the j'ear 1489, when King James IV. honoured the place with his presence, the 
old Lord Somerville, " who, by reason of his age, was not able to meet the king at any distance, 
yet, supported by his nephews, received him at the west end of the calsay that leads [through the 
moss] from Carnwath tonne to Couthally House, where his Majesty was pleased to alight from 
his horse, as did his whole retinue, and walked upon foot from thence to Couthally, being a mile 
of excellent way." The mansion of the Somervilles was still more frequently the resort of King 
James V.^ It was a place of considerable strength, and its possession was matter of contest in 
the feuds hetween the houses of Douglas and Hamilton.'^ The Somervilles continued to dwell in 
their old abode until their barony was sold to the family of Mar, about the year 1618. It was a 
ruin in ICiTO. Wishaw speaks of it as " quyte decayed," in the beginning of the following cen- 
tury ; and only the foundations now remain to show its form and extent of old. 

The village of Carnwath is doubtless coeval with the first settlement of the Somervilles. It 
was erected into a burgh of barony in the year 1451. ^ In the year 1516, Hugh Lord Somerville 
erected a cross here, on which the names and arms of himself and his wife were sculptured. Of 
still older date was a cross in the village of Newbigging, erected, it is said, by Walter of New- 
bicgiug, in the thirteenth century, having simply a double cross engraved upon it. 



DUNSYEE. 

Dunsyer^ — Dunsier^ — Dunsyre." Deanery of Lanark. (Map, No. 56.) 

Tnis parish forms the northern side of the valley of the South Medwyn, rising from that stream 
into a rido-e which may be regarded as the termination of the Pentlands on the west. The steep 
and rugn-ed hill of Dunsyre, 1235 feet above the level of the sea, is separated from the hills of 
AValston and Dolphington by a level tract about three miles in length and a mile in breadth. 

Between the years 1165 and 1199, Fergus Mackabard gave to the monks of Kelso the church 
of Dunsyer, with all its pertinents. The grant was confirmed by Joceline bishop of Glasgow, 

' Memorie of the Somerville?, pfKsim. •" Circa A. D. 1180. Liberde Calchou, pp. 16, 285. A. D. 

- Pinkert. Hist, of Scot., vol. ii. p. 126. 1299. Regist. Glasg., p. 214. 

■" Chalmers, citing Keg. Mag. Sig. ^ Circa A. D. 1306. Liber de Calchou, p. 472. 

8 A. D. 1556. Lib. de Calchou, p. 476. 



nuNSYRR] PAROCHIALES. 129 

between the years 1175 and 1199, and by King William the Lion.i About the same time, the 
monks obtained another grant of the same church, with its lands, tithes, and all other pertinents, 
from Helias the brother of Bishop Joceline.^ Neither as to the source of his right in the church, 
nor as to that of Fergus Mackabard, is any thing known. On the feast of Saint Potenciana the 
Viro-in (19. May,) in the year 1232, Walter bishop of Glasgow, confirmed to the monks of Kelso 
their church of Dunsyer, for their own proper uses, as it had been granted to them by his prede- 
cessor. Bishop Joceline.s It was confirmed to them also by Pope Innocent IV., between the years 
1243 and 1254.* The parsonage being thus vested in the monks, the cure of souls was served 
by a vicar. ' W., the vicar of Dunsyer,' appears as a witness, about the year 1240, to an agree- 
ment between the Abbot of Kelso and Daniel and Robert of Dowan and their wives.^ 

The church, with its hamlet, stood at the foot of the hill of Dunsyer, close by an eminence 
called the Castle Hill.'' On the farm of Anston, or Ainstoun, there is a clear and plentiful spring 
of water bearing the name of Saint Bride. A large heap of stones, in a deep ravine on the east 
side of the parish, has the appellation of ' Roger's Kirk.'' 

The rectory, or parsonage, of Dunsier, about the year 1300, yielded to the monks £.5, 6s. 8d. 
yearly.* In the year 1567, being let in lease, they derived from it ^10 annually; which was the 
same sum that it produced for each of the three years preceding 1556.^ The whole fruits of 
the vicarage, in 1561, were worth ,£20.''' The church lands, and the vicar's glebe, were together 
of the extent of 13 merks, 10s. lOd." 

In the end of the twelfth century, Fergus Mackabard (perhaps of the family of Baird, in which 
Fergus was of old an accustomed name)i^ seems to have shared with Helias, the brother of Bishop 
Joceline, the territory of Dunsyre. A hundred years afterwards, it belonged to a family which took 
surname from it. On the Friday next before the feast of Saint Dunstan, in the year 1299, John 
lord of Dunsyer, the son of Adam of Dunsyer, sold to Alan of Denume, the land of Le Ilyllis, 
with a piece of ground lying on the Maydebane (Medwyn,) with liberty of common in the whole 
tenement of Dunsyer, with right of taking timber and stones for his buildings from the wood and 
quarry of the lord of Dunsyer, and the privilege of leading water to his mill from the Medwyn. 
Andrew vicar of Dunsyer affixes his seal to the deed of sale, along with the seals of the granter 
and of Hugh the chaplain of Scravillyn'^ (Scralling, Skirling.) In the year 1367, King David II. 
confirmed a charter granted by Walter Byset lord of the half barony of Culter, to William of 
Newbygging lord of Dunsyar.i'' Before 1 450, the territory is said to have passed into the family 
of the Hepburns of Hailes, afterwards Earls of Bothwell ; and, at a subsequent period, one-half 
of it was acquired by the Earls of Angus.'^ A great portion was feued to sub-vassals, who built 
houses, of which the ruins are in some instances yet to be seen. 

A fragment of the castle of Dunsyre still remains. 

' Liber de Calchou, pp. 16, 316, 319. » Liber de Calchou, p. 472. 

^ Liber de Calebou, p. 28.5. ^ Liber de Calchou, pp. 493, 476. 

^ Liber de Calcbou, pp. 2*29, 333. '^ Book of Assumptions. " Retours. 

» Liber de Calchou, p. 351. '= Regist. Glasg., p. 241. '^ Regist. Glasg., p. 215. 

5 Liber de Calchou, p. 163. '* Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 57, no. 174. 

" New Stat. Aect. " Act. Dom. Cone, p. 72. Act. Dom. Audit., pp. 97, 101. 

' Old and New Stat. Acct. Wishaw. New Stat. Acct. 



130 ORIGINES [dolphinton. 

DOLPHINTON. 

Dolfinstoni — Dolphentoune.^ Deanery of Lanark.^ (Map, No. 5?.) 

In the middle of the upper half of this small parish, and at about the distance of a mile from 
the western extremity of the Pentlands, the hill of Dolphinton rises to the height of 1550 feet. 
Another eminence, about 250 feet in height, and of a. conical shape, lying in the south-west border, 
takes the name of the Keir Hill, from the remains of an ancient fort or camp. The remaining 
portion of the surface is holm ground along the Medwyn, on the north, or low and arable land 
along smaller streams, on the south-east. The burn of the Tairth carries the waters of the higher 
grounds into the Lyne and the Tweed. 

It is not always easy to discriminate between Dolphinton on the Clyde, and the manor of Dol- 
phinton in Teviotdale.3 The editors of Wishaw have still farther perplexed the boundaries of 
the parish, by a misapprehension of their author's text, which has led them to denote the lands of 
Newholme, which are undoubtedly within this district, as a parish of themselves.'' 

Dalfin, or Dolfin, was a name so common, that, in the absence of record, conjecture must be 
fruitless as to the individual from whom the manorial village took its appellation. 

Notice of the church first appears in the year 1253, when John of Saint Andrew, the rector, is 
found as a witness to the charter by which Alan bishop of Argyll grants the church of Saint Keran 
in Kantyre to the monks of Paisley.^ In the year 1296, John Silvestre, parson of Dolfinston in 
the shire of Lanark, swore fealty to King Edward I. of England.*" The benefice continued a free 
rectory or parsonage until the Reformation. 

It is valued in Baiamund's Roll at £40 ; in the Taxat. Eccl. Scot. sec. xvi., at .£34 ; and in the 
Libellus Taxat. Regni Scotiae, at £10. The rental given up in 1561-2 by John Cockburn the 
parson, showed that the whole fruits of the benefice wore then let on lease for £50 a-year ; of 
which sum £13, 8s. 8d. were paid to the vicar serving the cure, and £3, 6s. 8d. to the ordinary 
of the diocese for procurations aud synodals.^ 

The ancient church stood on the site of the present, and there was discovered beside it, in the 
year 1786, a tomb-s?one, on which a large two-handed sword was rudely carved.* 

The lands of Dolphinton, with the patronage of the parish church, seem to have been, from an 
early period, a part of the lordship of Bothwell, and to have followed the fortunes of that great 
barony.8 About the end of the sixteenth century, they passed into the possession of the Earls of 
Angus, of whom they were held by a family of the name of Brown. In Wishaw's time, the manor 
of Newholme was the property of the Lermonds.^" 

The villages of Dolphinton and Robertoun are ancient. 

' A. D. 1253. Regist. de Passelet, pp. 134, 135. A. D. ' Wishaw's Descript. Lanark., p. 57. Retours. New 

1296. Ragman Rolls, p. 165. Stat. Acct. 

' Baiamund. * Regist. de Passelet, pp. 129, 134. 

3 The Dolfynston referred to in the Regist. Glasg., p. "' Ragman Rolls, p. 165. 

257, is obviously not in Clydesdale. Cf. Regist. Mag. Sig., ' Book of Assumpt. ° Old Stat. Acct. 

p. 134, no. 37. ^ See above, p. 55. ^° Descript. of Lanark, p. 57. 



WALSTON.] PAROCHIALES. 13] 



WALSTON. 

Walyston — Waleston — Walliston^ — Wailstoune.- Deanery of Lanark.^ 
(Map, No. 58.) 

This parish, which in its general aspect resembles Dolphinton, lies on the left bank of the 
Medwyn water. A ridge called the Black Mount- divides it into nearly equal portions, one on the 
north-west, the other on the south-west. The burns which rise from the latter meet in the vale of 
Elsrickle, through which they flow into the Biggar water, which is a tributary of the Tweed. 

The lands of Walston, with the advowson of the church, belonged in the thirteenth century to 
the lords of Bothwell. A controversy having arisen as to the church of Sraalham, in the deanery 
of the Merse, and diocese of Saint Andrews, between William of Murray, Pantler of Scotland, and 
lord of Bothwell, on the one hand, and the dean and chapter of Glasgow, on the other, the ques- 
tion waa referred to the arbitration of Robert bishop of Glasgow, at Scone, on the Thursday next 
after the feast of Saint Valentine the martyr (14. February,) in the year 1292-3.3 On the same 
day, in terms of the Bishop's sentence, the Pantler granted to the dean and chapter of Glasgow 
the right of patronage of the rectory of the church of Walyston, reserving the presentation of the 
vicar to himself, and to his heirs and successors.'* The grant was confirmed by the Bishop, at 
Glasgow, on the morrow of Saint George the martyr (23. April,) being the Friday next before 
the feast of Saint Mark the Evangelist (25. April,) in the year 1293 -^ aud at the same time, and 
by the same authority, the church (estimated at twenty merks yearly, and three acres of land) 
was given to the dean and chapter, to be held by them for their own proper use in increase of their 
commons f and letters were issued commanding the rural dean of Lanark to institute Sir John of 
Botheuil chaplain, proctor for the dean and chapter, in the rectory of the church of Waliston, 
then vacant by the resignation of Master William of Wioton.' The dean and chapter, on their 
part, in obedience to the Bishop's judgment, resigned to the Pantler all their right in the church 
of Smalham,^ and consented to the removal of all ecclesiastical censures which, in the course of the 
controversy, had been pronounced against himself, his lands, and his followers.^ The Pantler far- 
ther became bound to pay a hundred merks sterling, by ten half-yearly instalments, in discharge 
of the costs which had been incurred in the suit by the dean and chapter. i" The portion of the 
benefice to be enjoyed by the vicar was fixed by the Bishop, on the Thursday next after the feast 
of Saint Laurence the martyr (10. August,) in the year 1293. The dean and chapter were to 
have all the greater or corn tithes, as well of the hamlet of Elgirig, far and near, as of the de- 
mesne lands of the lord of Walliston, at the time when they were of most extent ; together with 
three acres of land, measured in length eastwards, lying next to the demesne lands of the Pantler 

' A. D. 1293. Regist. Glasg., pp. 202-209. « Regist. Glasg., p. 203. 

- Baiamund. ' Regist. Glasg., pp. 203, 204. 

^ Regist. Glasg., p. 201. « Regist. Glasg., pp. 204, 205. 

•* Regist. Glasg., p. 202. '■' Regist. Glasg., p. 206. 

^ Regist. Glasg., pp. 202, 203. '" Regist. Glasg., pp. 206, 207, 208. 



132 



ORIGINES 



[biguar. 



on the south. All others, the fruits of the church, both great and small, were assigned to the vicar 
serving the cure.i In the year 1296, Robert of Lainbretone, vicar of Walleston, swore fealty to 
King Edward I. of England,- and had from that prince letters of restoration to the temporali- 
ties of his benefice, directed to the sheriff of Lanark.^ The right of advowson of the vicarage 
remained until the end of the sixteenth century with the lords of Bothwell. The rectory con- 
tinued with the dean and chapter of Glasgow. 

The parsonage of Walston, at the Reformation, was reported by the precentor of the cathedral 
of Glasgow to be of the value of £40 yearly. The vicarage was let in lease for 70 merks a-year, 
of which 50 were paid to Sir David Dalgleish the vicar, and 20 to a minister of the new religion, 
who was serving in the church.-' In Baiamund's Roll the vicarage is valued at £26, 13s. 4d. 
yearly.^ 

The church stood on the north side of the hill, near the village of Walston, in the neighbour- 
hood of several springs, one of which appears to have been held in reverence.^ Stone coifins have 
been discovered at the east end of the village of Elsricle, on the other side of the Black Mount. 

The whole parochial territory, it has been seen, belonged of old in property to the lords of 
Bothwell, and it continued to hold of them until after the Reformation. William of Elgeryk swore 
fealty to King Edward I. in the year 1296.' In the reign of King David II., Sir Thomas Mur- 
ray of Bothwell granted the lands of Walystoun and Elgereth to Sir Robert Erskyn and Christian 
Keith, his spouse,* through whom, perhaps, they may have passed to the Earls of Mar." The 
manor place is described, in the beginning of the eighteenth century, as ' ane old house seated 
near to the church, and well planted with barren timber.' 



BIGGAR. 

Bio-ir^" — Bygris" — Bigre'- — Begar'^ — Begart" — Biggar.'* Deanery of Lanark. 



(Map, No. 59.) 



The greater part of this territory is broken into round hills, mostly detached one from another, 
and risino', in a few instances, to a height of more than a thousand feet. Towards the south, a con- 
siderable tract of level ground, watered by the Biggar, extends itself from east to west, at an alti- 
tude of 628 feet above the level of the sea. 

The church, a free rectory, in the advowson of the lord of the manor, seems to be as old as the 
days of King David I. A grant by Walter Fitz-Alan to the monks of Paisley, between the years 



Regist. Glasg., pp. 209, 210. 

■ Ragman Rolls, p. 165. 

I Rotuli Scotiae, vol. i., p. 25. 

■ Book of Assumpt. 

' Regist. Glasg., p. Ixviii. 

• Old Stat. Acct. ' Ragman Rolls, 

' Robertson's Index, p. 62, no. 38. 



^ Wishaw's Descript. of Lanark., p. 58. 
'" A. D. 11C4— A. D. 1177. Regist. de Passelet, p. 80'. 
" A. D. 1229. Liber de Calehou, p. 152. 
'- Circa A. D. 1200. Regist. Glasg., p. 89. A. D. 122 
Ibid., p. 117. ^^ Baiamund. 

^■' A. D. 1524. Munimenta Univ. Glasg. 
'^ A. D. 1555. Liber Cart. S. Crucis, p. 295. 



BiGGAK.] PAROCHIALES. 133 

1164 and 1177, is witnessed by Robert the parson of Bigir.i ' Master Synion the physician of 
Bygre,' who was doubtless the parson of the church, appears as a witness to a charter by Walter 
bishop of Glasgow, between the years 1208 and 1232.- In the year 1330, Sir Henry of Bygar, 
rector of the church of Bygar, was clerk of livery to the King's household.-'' In the previous 
year, he appears to have been one of the royal chaplains.'' 

In the year 1531, a chantry, of which the lords Fleming were patrons, was founded in the 
parish church of Biggar by John Tweedie of Drumnielzier, with an endowment of ten pounds 
yearly from his lands and barony, for the soul's rest of John lord Fleming, chamberlain of Scot- 
land, whom the founder and his son had slain at the hawking seven years before.^ 

A collegiate church, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, was founded at Biggar, in the year 1545-6, 
by Malcolm Lord Fleming, chamberlain of Scotland, who fell at Pinkie Cleuch in the following 
year. It was endowed for a provost, eight canons or prebendaries, four choristers, and six bedes- 
men. The greater part of the benefice of Thankerton, with the manse and glebe (under burden of 
provision for a perpetual vicar serving the cure) was assigned for its support.^ In the year 1555, 
the perpetual vicarage of the parish church of Saint Mary and Saint Bruoc at Duurod, in the 
deanery of Desnes, and diocese of Galloway, was added to the endowments, at the instance of 
Master John Stevenson, (precentor of Glasgow, vicar of Duurod, and the first provost of Our 
Lady College of Biggar,) with consent of the patrons, the canons regular of Holyrood, and of the 
ordinary of the diocese. The Bishop's charter bears to be granted in consideration of ' the singu- 
lar zeal and pious aflfection towards God and the catholic church, which were shown, in these un- 
happy days of Lutheranism, by a some time noble and mighty lord, Malcolm Lord Flemyng, 
who at his own charge built a stately church in the village of Biggar, dedicated to Our Lady of 
the Assumption, and commonly called the College of Saint Mary of Biggar.' The college is taken 
bound to make provision of twenty merks yearly, with a manse and garden and an acre of arable 
ground, for a vicar pensioner serving the cure of souls at Dunrod, and accounting to the diocesan 
for his procurations and synodals.'' The collegiate church, which was that also of the parish, stood 
in the village of Biggar. It was built in the form of a cross, and is still in use ; but the vestry, (a 
fine flag-roofed building, communicating with the chancel,) a large porch at the western door, the 
organ gallery, and the richly carved and gilded oaken ceilings, have all been removed, together 
with an arched gateway at the entrance of the church-yard. The building of the spire was inter- 
rupted by the Reformation, and was never finished.* 

On the Candy burn, in the south-eastern border of the parish, is a place which, in Blaeu's map, 
is named 'Spital : it was probably the site of an hospital, to which the bedesmen, for whom provi- 
sion is made in the foundation of the collegiate church, may have belonged. It stood on the old 
highway between Biggar and Peebles; and the lands, in the year 1G68, were the projierty of the 

' Regist. de Passelet, p. 86. s Reg. Mag. Sig. xxiv. 137. Privy Seal Reg. i.\. 51, 

- Lib. Cart. S. Crucis, p. 57. Cf. Lib. S. iMarie de Mel- cited by Chalmers, 

ros, p. 243 ; et Lib. S. Marie de Calohou, pp. -229, 321, 333. « Spottiswoode. New Stat. .\cct.: 

^ Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., pp. 168, 192. ' Liber Cart. S. Crucis, pp. 294-298. 

■* Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., pp. 122-124. » Old Stat. Acct. New Stat. Aect. Grose's Antiq. Scot. 



134 ORIGINES [biggar. 

Earl of AVigton.i The Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem had two borates of land called ' The 
Stane,' not far from the village of Biggar.- 

The rectory is valued in Baiamund^ at £66, 13s. 4d. ; and in the Taxat. Ecclesiae Scoticana« 
sec. XVI., at £58 a- year.* Lord Fleming's steward, at the Reformation, reported that the parsonage 
and vicarage together, had for many years past yielded £100.'' 

The parish seems to have been coextensive with the manor, which, in the twelfth century, be- 
longed to a family whose surname was taken from the lands. Baldwin of Biggris," sheriff of 
Lanark, in the reign of King Malcolm the Maiden, was succeeded by his son Waldeve of Bygris." 
Waldeve the son of Baldwin transmitted his possessions to his son Robert,* whose son Hugh ap- 
pears, in the year 1229, styling himself ' Hugh of Bygris, the son of Robert, the son of Waldeve 
of Bigris.'^ Sir Nicholas of Bygir knight, is found in a deed dated at Lesmahago in the year 
1269 j^" and, in the year 1273, he was sheriff of Lanark.^^ He died before the end of the year 
1292, when the marriage of Mary his widow, and the ward and marriage of Margery and Ada his 
daughters and heirs-parceners, were granted, by King Edward I. of England, to Robert bishop of 
Glasgow. 1'^ Through one or other of these heiresses, it would seem that the lands of Biggar be- 
came, before the middle of the fourteenth century, the inheritance of the Flemings of Lenyie or 
Cumbernaidd, Earls of Wigton,i3 in whose possession they continued until that title fell into abey- 
ance, in the year 1747. The surname of Biggar, though the lands had passed to another race, 
still continued to exist, apparently in the younger branches of the original stock. It has been 
seen that Sir Henry of Bygar, one of the King's chaplains, was rector of the church of Biggar, in 
the year 1330 ; and Sir Walter of Biggar, rector of the church of Erroll, and master of the Maison 
Dieu of Dalqwowill, held the office of chamberlain of Scotland in the reigns of King David H. 
and King Robert H." 

Several portions of the parish were held in feu of the Earls of Wigton before the Reformation.'* 

Mention of the village of Biggar is found during the Wars of the Succession. When King Ed- 
ward IL invaded Scotland in the year 1310, he passed from Rokesburgh, through the forest of 
Selkirk, to Biggar, (where he was, on the 1st, 6th, and 18th of October.)!^ The hamlet was 
erected into a burgh of barony, with a weekly market on Thursday, by King James IL, iu the 

' Blaeu. County Maps. Rctours. '° Lib. S. Marie de Calchou, p. 155. 

- Retours. " Lib. S. Alarie de Calchou, p. 268. 

^ Regist. Glasg., p. Ixviii. '- Rotuli Scotiae, vol. i., p. 14. 

* Regist. Glasg., p. Ixxvi. ^^ Wishaw"sDescript.Lanark.,p.58,andDouglasPeerage, 

^ Book of Assumptions. p. 695, following tbe older genealogists. Chalmers, in his 

" Chalmers (Caled. i. 60'2, 603 ; iii. 738) identifies Bald- anxiety to prove a Flemish colonization of Scotland, adopts 

win of Biggris the King's sheriff, with the ' Baldwin Flam',' the untenable position, that the family of Bygar, after hav- 

or Baldwin the Fleming, who appears as witness in a char- ing borne that surname for nearly two centuries, suddenly 

ter of R. bishop of Saint Andrews, about the year 1150. dropped it, to resume what he imagines to have been their 

(Regist. Cflasg., p. 13.) But for this there is no authority. original surname of Fleming. (Caled., vol. iii., pp. 738, 

' Ch., quoted in Crauf. Offic. of State, p. 299. Lib. S. 739.) 
JIarie de Melros, pp. 36, 82. Palg. Illust. Hist. Scot., vol. "> Chamb. Rolls, vol. i. Crawf. Offic. of State, p. 299. 

i., p. 80. '^ Wishaw's Descript. Lanark., p. 58. Memorie of the 

B Ch., quoted in Crauf. Offic. of State, p. 299. Lib. S. Somervilles, pp. 115, 226. Acta Dom. Audit., p. 157. 
Marie de Melros, p. 174. Regist. Glasg., p. 117. '^ Hailes' Annals, vol. ii., p. 31, quoting Foedera, torn, iii., 

3 Lib. S. Marie de Calchou, pp. 152, 230. pp. 226, 227. Rotuli Scotiae, vol. i., p. 95. 



I.1BERT0N.] PAROCHIALES. 135 

year 1451-2; and the erection was ratified by tlie parliament, in the year 1526.1 The burgh 
contained twenty-four burgage lands, two cottages, the cot lands, and the mill of Biggar.^ Its 
moor or common lay at some distance, on the north-west border of the parish.^ The hamlet, which 
stood on the banks of the Biggar water, consisted of one wide street sloping to the south. On the 
removal, a few years ago, of the ' Cross-know,' a small eminence in the middle of the village, 
there was discovered a gold coin of the Emperor Vespasian. At the west end of the burgh, there 
is a mound or moot-hill thirty-six feet iu height. Three yearly fairs were held at Biggar, one at 
Candlemas, another in the month of July, and the third in the month of November.* 

The castle of Boghall, the ancient seat of the Earls of Wigton, stood in a marsh about half a 
mile from the hamlet. It was encompassed by a ditch, within which there was a stone-wall 
flanked by towers. The entrance was through a stately gateway .* Scarcely a vestige of the build- 
ing is now to be seen." 



LIBERTON. 

Libertun' — Liberton** — Libirton-' — Lybyrtoun'" — Libyrtoun" — Libertoun.'- 
Deanery of Lanark.i2 (Map, No. 60.) 

TuE parish of Quothquan, which is on the south of Liberton, was annexed to it in the year 
16G0." 

It lies at the point where the Mcdwyn falls into the Clyde, these streams being its boundaries 
on the north and the west. The haughs along the Clyde are low and fruitful, but the banks 
which are washed by its tributary, are for the most part moorland. Towards the east, the district 
rises gradually into an elevated tract of broken ground. 

The church is ancient, and its territory was of old of great extent, the parish of Carnwath hav- 
ing been included within its limits until about the year 1186.'* It was a free rectory, in the gift, 
doubtless, of the lord of the manor. William parson of Libertun appears as a witness, in charters 
to the abbey of Kelso, about the year 1210.'* ' Huwe of Dounom, parson of the church of Liber- 
ton in the shire of Lanark,' swore fealty to King Edward I. in the year 1296. '^ It is asserted 
by Blind Harry that Sir Thomas Gray parson of Libertoune, was one of the companions of Wal- 
lace, and was with Blair joint-author of the Latin story of his life.'^ About the year 1360, John 
of I\[axwell, lord of that Ilk, for the .souls' health of himself and Christian his wife, gave to the 

' New Stat. Acct. Chalmers, quoting Reg. Mag. Sig. iv. " A. D. 1-96. Ragman Rolls, p. 156. 

■2-21 ; and Privy Seal Reg. vi. 45. Acts Pari. Scot., vol. ii., " Circa A. D. 1360. Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 3i, no. 86. 

p. 317. '" A. D. 14-29. Regist. Glasg., p. 3-22. 

- Retours. " Ibid. 

^ See Map. '- Baiamund. 

' Old Stat. Acct. New Stat. .'Vect. '=> Old Stat. Acct. 

^ Grose's Antiq. Scot. ' * Regist. Glasg., p. 46. See above, in Carnwath. 

* New Stat. Acct. '■'' Lib. de Calchou, pp. 171, 178. 

' A. D. 1185.— A. D. 1187. Regist. Glasg., p. 46. Circa "> Ragman Rolls, p. 156. 

A. D. 1210. Lib. de Calchou, pp. 171, 175. " Wallace, book v., line 14-23. 



136 OKIGINES [quothquhan. 

monastery of Saint Jlaiy and Saint Wynnyn at Kilwynnyn in Cunningham, in free alms for ever, 
the right of patronage or advowson of the church of Liberton, with an acre of his land lying beside 
the kirk land, as he had perambulated the same. The charter, which reserved the right of Sir 
Robert of Glene, the rector then instituted, was confirmed by King David II. ;i but there is room 
to doubt if it ever took full efTect. In the beginning of the following century, Master John of 
Vaux, canon of Glasgow, is found in possession of the rectory, which he resigned into the bands 
of the Bishop, who, on the 26th of July, 1429, added the benefice to the commons of the canons.- 
The abbot and convent of Kylwynnyn had, two days before, given to the dean and chapter of 
Glasgow all right of patronage in the church which of law or custom belonged to them.^ These 
proceedings were either ineffectual at the time, or were afterwards set aside, for the rectory of 
Liberton appears as a free parsonage in all the rolls of benefices which are known to exist, and is 
not found in the rentals of the see of Glasgow. 

The church stood, with its village, on the bank of the Clyde, and was described, at the close of 
the last century, as very old.^ 

In Baiaraund's Roll, the rectory is valued at £100 f and in the Taxatio Eccl. Scot. sec. xvi., 
at £85.'^ 

The Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem had four bovates of land in the parish." 

The manor of Liberton, along with that of Carnwath, belonged, in the reign of King David I., 
or his immediate successor, to William of Somerville. It was a land of forty pounds of old ex- 
tent,* and remained with the Somervilles until after the reign of King James Y., when it seems 
to have passed to the Earls of Marr and Buchan. The ruins of a house near the church are still 
known by the name of ' Mar's AValls.'" The lands of Whytecastle and Gladstaines appear to 
have been held by sub-vassals.^" 

The village of Liberton, to which there was a large moor or common attached, is ancient. 



QUOTHQUHAN. 

Cuthqueii" — Quodqueiii^ — Knokquhanei^ — Quhotqueu.^^ 

Deanery of Lanark.13 (Map, No. 61.) 

It lies on the south side of Liberton, to which it was annexed, in the year 1 660. It resembles 
that parish in its situation and appearance, but is much less in extent. A fair green hill, of a 

' Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 34, no. 86. ' Retours. 

■-' Regist. Glasg., p. 322. " Old Stat. Aect. 

^ Regist. Glasg., p. 321. *" Wishaw's Descript. Lanark, p. 58. 

■" Old Stat. Aect. " A. D. 1253. Regist. de Passelet, p. 129. 

» Regist. Glasg., p. Ixviii. '- A. D. 1403. Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 252, no. 21. 

« Regist. Glasg., p. l.xxvi. '^ Baiamund. 

7 Retours. '■" A. D. 1567. Regist. of Minist. 



PETTINAIN 



.] PAROCHIALES. 137 



conical shape, called Quothquban Law, rises to tlie height of about 600 feet above the waters of 
the Clyde.i 

The church appears as a free parsonage in the middle of the thirteenth century, ' Master Henry 
rector of the church of Cuthquen,' is a witness, along with John of Saint Andrew, rector of Dolfin- 
ston, to a charter by Alan bishop of Argyll, dated at Paisley on the feast of SS. Cosmus and Damiaii 
the martyrs (27. Sept.,) in the year 1253.^ It seems to have continued unappropriated until the 
Reformation. In Baiamund's Roll, it is taxed as an independent rectory; but in the Taxation cif 
the Scotish Church in the Sixteenth Century, it is rated along with the vicarage of Pencaithland. 
in the deanery of Lothian and diocese of Saint Andrews. 

The church stood with its village on the shoulder of Quothijuan Law. 

The rectory is valued in Baiamund, at £66, 13s. 4d. ; and in the Libellus Tasationum Regni 
Scotiae, at £16, 13s. 4d. 

The manor seems to have been of old a part of the wide domain of the Somervilles, of whom 
portions of it wore held by sub-vassals. In the year 1403, the lands of Quodijuen in Clydesdale 
became the inheritance of William of Fentoun, lord of that Ilk and of Baky, in terms of an agree- 
ment between hiui, on the one part, and Margaret of the Ard, lady of Ercles, and Thomas of 
Cheseholme, her son and heir, on the other side, which was confirmed by the Regent Albany, in 
the year 1413.3 Jq t]jg year 1447, William Lord Somerville of Newbigging gave charter and 
seisin to Walter Ogilvie of that Ilk, of sis oxgates of land in the township of Quothquan, which 
belonged in time past to -John Auchinlok of that Ilk.* In the year 1459. Patrick Oirilvie, and 
Elizabeth Fentoun his wife, resign their right in the lands of Quothquan to David Crichtoune. 
John Chorsewood, Master Adam Lyle, James Dunbar, and George Wallace, who thereupon receive 
charter of confirmation from John Lord Somerville the overlord.^ Shielhill belonged to a familv 
of the name of Chancellor j^ and Cormystoun is probably an old possession.^ 

PETTINAIN. 

Pedynnane** — Paduenane^ — Padynane^" — Paduynnan" — Paduynhane'- — 
Padeuenane" — Padenane'* — Padinnan" — Padnynnane^" — Pettynane''' — 
Pettinane.'^ Deanery of Lanark.'" (Map, No. 62.) 

This small parish lies on the left bank of the Clyde, by which it is divided from Lanark. It 
consists of low grounds along the river, of gentle slopes in the interior, and of a ridge which, com- 



' Old Stat. Acct. 
'^ Regist. de Passelet, p. 129. 
^ Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 252, no. 21. 
■• Mem. of Somervilles, vol. i., p. 197. 
^ Mem. of Somervilles, vol. i., p. 219. 
^ VVishaw's Descript. of Lanark., p. 58. 
' Blaeu's Map. Retours. 

« A. D. 115(1— A. D. 1153. Regist. de Dryb., p. 34. 
" A. D. 1175— A. D. 1 199. Regist. de Drjb., p. 3ti. 
VOL. I. 



» A. D. 1150— A. D. 1153. Regist. de Dryb., p. 151. 

' A. D. 1153— A. D. 1214. Regist. de Dryb., pp. 179, 1«0. 

- A. D. 1184. Regist. de Dryb., p. 194. 

3 A. D. 1202- A. D. 1250. Regist. de Dryb.,pp. 39, 40, 41. 
' A. D. 1105- A. D. 1214. Regist. de Dryb., p. 37. 
5 A. D. 1 175— A. D 1199. Regist. de Dryb., p. 152. 
« A. D. 1221. Regist. de Dryb., p. 172. 

- A. D. 1562— A. D. 1588. Regist. de Dryb., p. 328. 
'^ Baiamund. 



138 



ORIGINES 



PETTINAIN. 



mencing in Covington, on tlie south, runs througli Pettinain in a north-westerly course, and ter- 
minates at Cairn-gryiFe, its highest point, on the west. The Clyde, which is the boundary for the 
most part on the north ami the east, appears to have changed its channel in several places, so as 
to leave certain fields of this parish on its right bank, and to place portions of other parishes upon 
its left side. 

The parish appears to have been separated from the parochial territory of the church of Saint 
Kentigern at Lanark before the year 1480, when it was served by a vicar, Alexander Barcare, 
who is found endowing a chantry at the altar of Saint Blaise the martyr, in the church of Saint 
Giles at Edinburgh. i In the reign of King David I., it was a free parsonage, in the advowson 
of the crown, to which the manor belonged. When that prince granted the church of Lanark 
to the canons regular of Dryburgh, between the years 1150 and 1153, he bestowed on them also 
the church of Pedynane,^ which they would then seem to have stripped of its parochial character, 
converting it into a chapelry. As such it was confirmed to them by Bishop Herbert of Glasgow, 
between the years 1147 and 1164 ;^ by Bishop Joceline between the years 1175 and 1 199 ;■• by 
Florence bishop elect, between the years 1202 and 1208 ;^ by Bishop Walter, in the year 1232 ;^ 
by Bishop William, between the years 12.33 and 1258 ;" by King Malcolm the Maiden, between 
the years 1153 and 1165 ;* by King William the Lion, between the years 1165 and 1214 ;9 by 
King Alexander IL, in the year 1230 j^" by Pope Lucius III., in the year 1184 ;'i by the Papal 
Legate, in the year 1221 ;'- and by Pope Gregory VIII., in tlie year 1228.13 

The church stood with its hamlet on a rising ground, which in old times was surrounded by 
woods. Between the years 1150 and 1153, King David I. gave to Nicholas his clerk, and to his 
successors, in free forest, all the wood within the marches of the land in Paduenane which Syrand 
the priest had held of the King in time past.i* This woodland (measuring a carucate in extent) 
passed, along with the church, to the canons of Dryburgh, in the reign of King David. i^ From 
King William the Lion, between the years 1165 and 1196, they had a grant of ' that land in Pade- 
nane, which Robert the son of Werembert, the King's sherifl' of Lanark, perambulated at the King's 
command, being the same land which the canons had held in the time of King David and King 
Malcolm ; together also with a toft and croft to the chapel of Paduenane, and common pasture of 
the township, as much as belonged to the parson of the said chapel.' i^ The grant was confirmed 
by Pope Celestine III., in the year 1196. On the lands thus conveyed, the canons had a grange 
at the spot called Ingelbriston, Imbriston, Ingbuston, or Inglisberrie. It lay between the Rae 
and the Bramble burns, which here flow into the Clyde. The canons, at an early period, attempted 
to convey it to a lay vassal. Before the year 1200, they made a compact with William of Asseby, 
by which he was to have seisin of the land to himself and his heirs, and to pay to the monastery 



Maitland's Hist, of Edinb., p. 271. 

■ Regist. de Dryb., pp. Ixi.^., ai, 151. 

■ Regist. de Dryb., p. 35. 

' Regist. de Dryb., pp. 36, 152. 
' Regist. de Dryb., p. 39. 
' Regist. de Dryb., p. 40. 
Regist. de Dryb., p. 41. 
' Regist. de Dryb., p. 179. 



» Regist. de Dryb., pp. 37, 180. 
'" Regist.de Dryb., p. 181. 
" Regist. de Dryb., p. 194. 
*- Regist. de Dryb., p. 172. 
'3 Regist. de Dryb., p. 199. 
'^ Regist. de Dryb., p. 38. 
" Regist. de Dryb., pp. l.\ix., 17 
'" Regist. de Dryb., p. 37. 



pETTiNAiN.] PAROCHIALES. 139 

ten merks, it being stipulated that unless the King's charter should be obtained confirming Asseby 
in the possession, according to the same marches by which the canons had held, the lands should 
revert to them, and the price be restored to him. In terms of this stipulation, Peter of Asseby 
his son and heir, in the years 1203 and 1204, seeing that neither could the King's confirmation 
be had, nor could the canons warrant his possession, nor was the land itself of any profit to him 
or his, took repayment of the ten merks at Lillisclove, and renounced all right to the land, firstly, 
at Naythansthorn, in the presence of the Lady Christian, the widow of William of Morville ; 
secondly, at Roxburgh, in the synod ; and again before the sheriff of Lanark, the bailies of the 
King, and others.^ In the year 1434, the lands of Inglisberry Grange, holden of the church, were 
confirmed to Thomas Lord Somerville.^ In the year 1473, their occupation was unsuccessfully 
disputed by the canons with the Lord Hamilton.^ The abbot and convent, in the year 1538, 
granted to Hew Lord Somerville a charter of the lands of Inglisberry Grange, of the old extent of 
£8,'' for a yearly rent, including the tithes, of £42.5 Xhis grant does not seem to have included 
a ' two merk land in the townhead,' which yielded a yearly rent of 27s. Sd.^ 

The rectory is valued in the Libellus Taxat. Regni Scotiae at £50 ; the vicarage, at £6, 13s. 4d. 
In the rentals of the canons of Dryburgh, about the period of the Reformation, the benefice 
appears as let in lease to the Captain of Craufurde for £20 yearly.' In the year 1562, the glebe, 
manse, and yard of the vicarage, estimated at two acres of land, were let by Sir John Twedy, vicar 
of Pettynane, for the yearly rent of ten shillings.** In the year 1588, the church had a thatched 
roof, and two windows of glass.'* 

The parochial territory, which was in the crown in the reign of King David I., and was pro- 
bably a part of the royal forest on the Clyde, appears, towards the end of the twelfth century, 
to have given surname to the first three generations of the knightly family of Houstoun of 
that Ilk iu the shire of Renfrew. Hugh of Paduinnan received from Baldwin of Biggar, the King's 
sheriff, a grant of the lands of Kilpeter in Stratbgryfe, which he transmitted to his son Reginald the 
son of Hugh of Paduinnan, and to his graudson Hugh the son of Reginald the sonof Hughof Paduin- 
nan.i" Between the years 11 05 and 1 196, Otho de Tilli confirmed to the canons of Dryburgh, the 
toft and croft which King William had given them in the township of Padynnane, extending from 
the south side of the chapel to the west side of the well, with as much right of common pasture in 
the township as wont to belong to a rector or parson.'^ About the year 1212, Alexander the 
rector of the neighbouring parish of Colbayniston, in presence of the abbot and prior of Kelso, and 
of the rector of the nuns of Eccles, the delegates appointed by the Apostolic see, renounced, in 
favour of the canons of Dryburgh, all his right to the tithes of Clowburn.^^ This land, which seems 
long to have been a separate possession, belonged, after the Reformation, to the family of AV'^eir of 
ClowburD.13 The lands of Pettinain, reputed of the extent of £20, were bestowed on the ancestor 

' Regist. de Dryb., pp. lliO, 161, 162, 163. ^ Regist. de Dryb., pp. S28, 333, 342, S47, 351, 358, 360, 

- Mem. of Somervilles, vol. i., p. 74. 362, 370, 385. 

2 Act. Dom. Audit. " Regist. de Dryb., p. 328. " Regist. de Dryb., p. 328. 

* Regist. de Dryb., p. xxii. '" Charters quoted by Craufurd, in Offie. of State, )). 299. 

5 Regist. de Dryb., pp. 331, 340, 345, 349, 356, 361, ■> Regist. de Dryb., p. 158. 

368, 390, 404. '-' Regist. de Dryb., p. 159. 

" Regist. de Dryb., pp. 368, 381. '^ Wishaw's Descript. of Lanark., p, 64. 



140 ORIGINES [COVINGTON. 

of tbe house of Johnstone of Westraw or Westerhall, for his service in taking the rebel Earl of 
Douglas at the battle of Arkinholrae, in the year 1455.' King Robert I. granted to Eustace of 
Maxwell, the lands of Westerraw, Pedynan, and Park, forfeited by John Fitz-Waldeve, who died 
in rebellion against the King.^ King David II. gave to Herbert Murray the half of the barony 
of Pedynane in the shire of Lanark, which Herbert Maxwell had forfeited.^ 

The house of Westraw is ancient, but has undergone many alterations. There seems to have 
been an old manor-house or tower at Clowburn.* 

On the summit of a little rising ground, about half a mile west from the village, there was a tall 
cross of stone which, in the year 1794, lay near the pedestal from which it had been overthrown, 
but has since disappeared.^ On the high moorland, in the southern border of the parish, there were 
two rude forts, enclosed by stone walls built without cement. They were circular in shape : the 
area of the larger measured about six acres ; that of the smaller, about a rood. Sepulchral remains 
have been found in their ruins and neifrhbourhood. 



COVINGTON. 

Uilla Colbani" — Colbaynistun'' — Colbwantoun'* — Colbaiiton" — Covingtoune"' 
Covyntoune" — Cowantoune.^^ Deanery of Lanark.'" (Map, No. 63.) 

This parish was annexed, between the years 1702 and 1720, to that of Thankerton, which lies 
on its southern border. The lands along the Clyde, I)y which it is bounded on the east, are low 
and fertile : the grounds beyond, towards the west, are chiefly moorland or pasture. 

One of the followers of Saint David, between the years 1119 and 1124, while he was yet only 
Prince of Cumbria, bore the name of Colban,!^ from whom this parish may have taken its appel- 
lation. ' Meruein the son of Colbain,' is found among the witnesses to King David's charter to 
the Benedictines of the Holy Trinity at Dunfermline,^* between the years 1146 and 1153; and to 
the same Prince's charter to the canons of Saint Mary at Dryburgh, between the years 1150 and 
1152.'^ Thomas of Colbainestun is a witness to a charter of King William the Lion, at Lanark, 
between the years 1187 and 1189, together with Symon Locard and Thomas Tancard, from whom 
the neighbouring parishes of Symington and Tliankerton derive their designations.^^ William 
of Colbaynston, along with Hugh of Duglas, is witness, between the years 1203 and 1222, to the 

' Godscroft'8 Hist, of Doug., p. 203. Regist. de Dryb., » A. D. 1430. Regist. Glasg., p. 326. 

p. xis. ^^ Baiamund. 

' Robertson's Inde.\, p. 11, no. 49. " Ta.xat. Eccl. Scotic, sec. xvi. 

» Robertson's Index, p. 31, no. 30; p. 3G, no. 21. '■ A. D. 1479. Act. Dom. Audit., p. 94. 

■• Wisbaw's Descript.ofLanark., p. G4. Old Stat. Acct. '^ Lib. de Calchou, p. 4. Raine's Nortb Durham, app. p. 

5 Old Stat. Acct. 23, no. xeix, e. 

« A. D. 1189— A. D. 1196. Spalding Club Miscell., vol. '■■ Regist. de Dunferm., p. 7. 

ii.. p. 305. '* Liber de Dryburgh, p. Ixx. 

' Circa A. D. 1212. Regist. de Dryb., p. 159. "^ Regist. Glasg., p. 65. Cf. Miscell. .Spald. Club, vol. ii., 

» A. D. 1429. Regist. Glasg., p. 322. p. 305 ; and Regist. de Dryb., p. 163. 



COVINGTON.] PAROCHIALES. 141 

deed by which Brice bishop of Murray bestowed the church of Daviot, in the deanery of Inver- 
ness, on the cathedral of the Holy Trinity at Spynie.i 

The church, which was founded probably in the reign of King David I., was a free parsonao-e, 
in the advowson of the lords of the manor, the descendants or successors of Colban. About the 
year 1212, Alexander the rector of Colbaynistun renounced, in favour of the canons regular of 
Dryburgh, his right to the tithes of Clowburn in the parish of Pettinain.^ Hugh of Barnard 
Castle, parson of Colbanstone, swore fealty to King Edward I., in the year 1296.^ Master 
Gilbert of Park was rector, in the years 1429 and 1430 ; and Master James Lindesay, in the year 
1479.'' 

The church, which was dedicated to Saint Michael the archangel,^ stood with its village near 
the tower or manor place of Covington.^ 

There was a chapel dedicated to Saint Ninian, on the lands of Warrandbill, in the south-west 
part of the parish. It may have been founded by the Knights Hospitallers of Saint John, who 
held a considerable portion of the neighbouring land, such as Cummerland, Northflatt, Pacokland, 
and Cliddisflat.' 

The rectory is valued in Baiamund at J:40 f in the Taxat. Eccl. Scotic. sec. xvi.,'* at £34 ; 
and in the Libellus Taxat. Regni Scotiae at £10. The vicarage does not appear to have been 
separated from the parsonage. 

The earlier generations of the lords of the manor of Colbanston have been spoken of above. 
About the year 1 26.5, the lands were in the King's hands for default of payment of a fine of a 
hundred merks.i" Not long afterwards, they fell to female heirs-parceners. About the year 
1288, account was made in the King's exchequer, of forty shillings paid for the repair of the 
houses of Nortun, which belonged to the sisters of Colbaynestun." Margaret of Colbanstone, and 
Isabel of Colbanstone, together with Edmund of Colbanston, swore fealty to King Edward I., in 
the year 1296 ;i- and Margaret obtained letters to the sheriff of Lanark ordering her to be restored 
to her lands.i3 Xhe barony held immediately of the crown, and in the year 1359 paid for the 
ward of the King's castle of Lanark, twenty shillings, being the same sum as was paid by the manors 
of Tliankerton and Symonton.^'' In the year 1324, the lands of Colbanston were confirmed to Sir 
Robert of Keith, the mareschal of Scotland.i^ They were given, in the year 1406, together with 
the advowson of the church, by Sir William of Keith, the mareschal, to his son Sir Robert of 
Keith, lord of Troupe, and the grant was confirmed in the following year by the Regent Albany.'^ 
They became afterwards the property of the Lindsays of Covington, in whose possession they 
continued until after the Reformation. In the year 1293, King John Balliol granted to William 
of Silkyswrth, ' ten nierks of land with the pertinents in the tenement of Colbainstun,' until such 

^ Regist. Morav., p. 61. ^ Regist. Glasg., p. lxx\-i. 

^ Regist. de Dryb., p. 159. '^' Cbaniberlain Rolls, vol. i., p. 47.* 

^ Ragman Rolls, p. 165. ^' Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., p. 67.* 

■• Regist. C41asg., pp. 32-2, 326. Act. Dom. .\udit., p. 94. '-' Ragman Rolls, pp. 125, 166. 

^ Commis. Rec. of Glasg. ^^ Rotuli Scotiae, vol. i., p. 29. 

^ Wisbaw's Descript. Lanark., pp. 63, 64. '* Cbamberlain Rolls, vol. i., p. 335. 

' Retours. '* Acta Pari. Scot., vol. i., p. 122. 

' Regist. Glasg., p. l.\viii. " Reg. Mag. Sig., pp. 224, 226, no. 11. 



142 ORIGINES [thankerton. 

time as the King should grant him as much land in some fit place elsewhere.^ Between the years 
1471 and 14S2, the lands of Waranhill, holden of the Lord Maxwell, were in dispute between 
John of Livingston, son and heir of John of Livingston of the Beldestane, and John Lindsay of 
Covington.2 

The tower of Covington is said to have been built betT%eeu the years 1420 and 1442. It had a 
battlement, and the walls were ten feet in thickness. The ruins were described as stately so 
recently as the year 1790.^ 

In September 128S, Duncan (the son of Colban the son of Malcolm) Earl of Fyfe, one of the 
wardens of the realm, was assassinated on the King's highway at Petpolloch, by Sir Patrick of 
Abernethy and Sir Walter of Percy, at the instigation of Sir William of Abernethy knight. The 
murderers, pursued by Sir Andrew of Murray, fled across the water of Forth. Two of them, 
namely, Sir William of Abernethy and Sir Walter of Percy, were overtaken at Colbanston in 
Clydesdale, where Percy, with two of his esquires, who shared his guilt, were instantly put to 
death. The Knight of Abernethy was sent captive to the castle of Douglas.'* 



THANKERTON. 

Wodekyrke' — Wdekyrch' — Wdekirke" — Wudecliirche'' — Ecclesia de uilla 
Thancardi scilicet Wdekyrclf — Ecclesia uille Thancardi que dicitur 
Wdekirke" — Ecclesia de Tanchardestone^ — Ecclesia de Tyntou^ — St- 

John's Kirk.^" Deanery of Lanark. (Map, No. 64.) 

A S5IALL stream called the Kirk Hope burn, which flowing eastward falls into the Clyde, is the 
march between Thankerton and the parish of Covington, to which it is now united. The aspect 
of both is much alike, but Thankerton on the west includes a great part of the ridge of Tinto. 

The parish of Wudechirche, whether so called from its site, or from the materials of which it was 
built, comprehended the territory of Thankerton and the territory which belonged to Symon Locard. 
Between the years 1179 and 1189, -Joceline, bishop of Glasgow, gave to the monks of Saint Mary 
of Kelso ' the church of Wudechirche, with its whole parish, as well, namely, of Tancardestun, 
as of the town of Symon Locard.' ^i The church was about a mile and a half distant from the 
hamlet of Thankerton, from which eventually it took its name, the appellation of Wudechirche 
falling gradually into disuse. About the year 1180, Auneis of Brus gave to the monks of Kelso 
' the church of Thancard's town, namely, AVdekyrch ;'i- and, about the same time. Bishop Joceline 

' Orig. chart, at Durham, printed in Raine's North " A. D. 1232. Lib. de Calchou, pp. 229, 333. 

Durham, app. p. 17., no. IxxviU. ' Circa A. D. 1180. Lib. de Calchou, pp. 272, 319, 320. 

- Act. Dom. Audit., pp. 14, 15, 44, 86, 99, 105. = A. D. 1243— A. D. 1254. Lib. de Calchou, p. 351. 

■t Old Stat. Acot. ° Circa A. D. 1300. Lib. de Calchou, p. 471. 

•■ J. Forduni Scotichronicon, lib. xi., cap. xi . Chronic. '" A. D. 1567. Regist. of Minist. 

de Lanercost, p. 127. Wyntoun, book ™., ch. ix. " Lib. de Calchou, pp. 319, 320. 

i Circa A. D. 1180. Lib. de Calchou, pp. 227, 316. '^ Lib. de Calchou, p. 227. 



THANKEBTON.] PAROCHIALES. 14S 

confirmed to them ' the church of Thancard's town^ which is called WudecLirche.' ' It is called 
' the kirk of Thancard's town or Wodekirke' in a charter of Bishop Walter in the year 1232 j^ 
but in a papal bull between the years 1243 and 1254, it appears simply as ' the church of Tan- 
chardestone.'^ Half a century later, it is found in the rental of the abbey to which its advowson 
belonged, with the name of ' the church of Tynto,'* a well-known hill in its neighbourhood. 
But this designation does not seem to have become general. The patron saint to whom it was 
dedicated, supplied yet another name, that of ' Saint John's Kirk,' by which, in much more recent 
times, it was popularly known.s 

The manor of Symon Locard, which lay within this parish, would seem not to have been 
the manor which took from him the name of Sjrmon's town, and was erected, towards the end 
of the twelfth century, into a parish by itself. No trace is to be found of any relation be- 
tween Wudechirche and this latter manor, which, on the contrary, was claimed as a part 
of the parish of Wiston." In virtue apparently of the right accruing to him from his lands 
within the parish of Thaukerton, Symon Locard, about the year 1180, gave to the monks of 
Kelso a charter of ' the church called Wudechirche, with common pasture and easements of his 
township.'' 

The abbey of Kelso continued to hold the patronage of the rectory until it was annexed to the 
collegiate church of Saiut Mary at Biggar, not many years before the Reformation. Great part of 
the tithes appear to have been appropriated, but at what period is not ascertained, to the cathe- 
dral church of Saint Keutigern at Glasgow. The monks of Kelso, about the year 1 300, derived 
only a pension of forty shillings yearly from the benefice,^ which was let at the Reformation for 
100 merks, of which £26, 13s. 4d. belonged to the cantor of Glasgow.^ It was valued in Baia- 
mund's Roll at £40 ;!" in the Taxat. Eccl. Scot., sec. xvi. at £34 ;" and in the Libellus Taxat. 
Reg. Scot, at £10. The church lands of Thankerton, (known after the Reformation, when they 
passed into lay hands, by the name of Saint John's Kirk,) with their tithes, and right of pasture in 
the common of Thankerton, were of the extent of 10 merks, 6s. Sd.i^ 

The parochial territory would seem to have been, at an early period, divided among three 
owners. The manor of Symon Locard, and his right in the advowson of the church, have already 
been spoken of. Anneis of Brus, to whom, about the year 1180, the right of patronage of the 
church belonged in whole or in part, is supposed to have given name to Annistoun, a land of 
five pounds of old extent, now in the parish and barony of Symonton, but within a mile of the 
church of Saint John. Symon of Aynestone swore fealty to King Edward I. in the year 1296.13 
Thankerton apparently derived its name from Tancard, who held lands at several places in 
Clydesdale during the reign of King Malcolm the Blaiden.i'' He left a son, Thomas, who appears 

' Lib. de Calchou, p. 319. ' Lib. de Calehou, p. 272. 

' Lib. de Calchou, pp. 229, 333. » Lib. de Calchou, p. 471. 

^ Lib. de Calchou, p. 351. ^ Book of Assumptions. 

* Lib. de Calchou, p. 471. '" Regist. Glasg., p. Ixviii. 

* Regist. of Minist., 1567. Wishaw's Dcscript. Lanark., " Regist. Glasg., p. Ixxvi. '^ Retouvs. 
P- 59. 13 Ragman Rolls, p. 166. 

'' Lib. de Calchou, pp. 269, 270. '* Regist. Cenob. S. Thome de Aberbroth. 



144 ORIGINES [symington. 

as a witness in charters of King William the Lion ;i gave to the monks of Saint Thomas the Martyr, 
at Arbroath, the land between Ethkar and Kaledour, which King Malcolm had given to Tankard, 
his father ;- bestowed land at Slotherwell on the abbey of Paisley f and granted a carucate of 
land in free marriage with his sister, Beatrice, to John Logan.* About the same time, Robert 
Thancard is found as a witness to a charter by William of Cuniggeburc to the monks of Kelso, of 
the church of Stapelgortune.^ ' Symon de la More de Thangarstone' swore fealty to King 
Edward I. in the year 1296'.^ The barony of Thangarton, in the year 1359, paid twenty shil- 
lings for the ward of the King's castle at Lanark, being the same sum as was paid by each of the 
neighbouring baronies of Crawford Lindsay, Eoberton, Wiston, Lamington, Symonton, Biggar, 
Colbanton and Dalyell.'' From the end of the fifteenth century to the beginning of the seven- 
teenth, the lands of Murehouse belonged to the family of Tynto of Crympcramp in the barony of 
Crawford Douglas .8 At an earlier period, the Flemings of Biggar became overlords of nearly 
the whole parochial territory, the greater part of which they also possessed in property .9 



SYMINGTON. 

Ecclesia de uilla Symonis Lockardi" — Ecclesia de Symondstone.n 
Deanery of Lanark. (Map, No. 65.) 

Like Covington and Thankerton, this parish consists chiefly of rich arable land, along the left 
bank of the Clyde. It has high pasture ground reaching to the summit of Tynto. 

About the year 1189, a dispute between the monks of Kelso and Symon Locchard, as to the 
chapel of Symon's vill, was referred, by the contending parties, to the decision of Bishop Joceline 
of Glasgow, and of Osbert, prior of Paisley. The monks claimed the chapel as belonging to their 
parish church of Wiston ; and fit and sufficient witnesses were ready to make oath that they had 
seen the folk of Symon's town, both those who were dead, and those who were yet in life, receiving 
the church's sacraments from Wiston as their mother church. It was agreed, therefore, that Symon 
should renounce his claim to the chapel, and grant it to the abbey of Kelso, with all its rights, in 
free alms for ever. Hereupon, in presence of the arbiters, the monks kissed his hands ; and con- 
sented, on their part, that the parson whom Symon had presented after the moving of the contro- 
versy, and who had been instituted to the church (as they afiirmed, contrary to the canons,) should 

' Cartae Burgi de Aberdeen, p. 30. Lib. Cart. S. Crucis ' Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., p. 335. 

de Edinb., p. 44. Regist. Glasg., p. 65. Miscell. Spalding ° Acts Pari. Scot., vol. ii., p. 328. Retours. Act. Dom. 

Club, vol. ii., p. 305. Concil., p. 191. 

- Regist. Cenob. S. Thome de Aberbroth. ' Wishaws Descript. Lanark., p. 59. 

3 Regist. de Passelet, pp. 13, 310. '" A. D. 1175— A. D. 1254. Lib. de Calchou, pp. 229, 

' Nisbet's Herald., vol. ii., app. p. 153. 269, 316, 319, 333, 351. 

= Lib. de Calchou, p. 281. " A. D. 1273— A. D. 1300. Lib. de Calchou, pp. 267, 

« Ragman Rolls, p. 166. 268, 472. 



SYMINGTON.] 



PAROOHIALES. 



145 



hold it of the abbey in peace and freedom during his life.i ' The church of Symon Loceard's 
town' was soon afterwards (between the years 1189 and 1199,) confirmed to the monks by King 
"William the Lion/ as well as by Bishop Joceline, who died in the year 1199,^ by Bishop Walter, 
in the year 1232,^ and by Pope Innocent IV., between the years 1243 and 1254.5 fhe benefice, 
after the lapse of a century, again became subject of contest between the monks and Symon's de- 
scendant. Sir Symon Locard knight. The strife was finally composed at Carstairs, on the Monday 
next before the feast of St. Lawrence (10. August) in the year 1273, in presence of the Bishop of 
Glasgow, of Sir Thomas Ranulph the King's chamberlain, of Sir William of Douglas, of Sir 
Nicholas of Biggar the sheriff of Lanark, and others. Sir Symon, confessing that he had no right 
either to the fruits or to the advowson of the church (now known by the name of Symondston,) 
bound himself by oath never to trouble the monks or their vicar in the enjoyment of the benefice, 
under pain of seeing himself, without farther trial of the cause, publicly cursed by the Lord Bishop 
or his official, on Sunday and holiday, with bells rung and candles lighted, through all the diocese 
of Glasgow. The monks, on their side, forgave payment of forty and four chalders of meal which 
the knight had unjustly received of the tithes of Symondston, all except seven chalders, three of 
which he undertook to pay without delay, and the remaining four before the octave of the feast 
of Saint Martin (11. November) then first to come.^ It seems to have been about this time that 
' Symon Locard, the son of Malcolm Locard,' confirmed the church to the monks of Kelso, ' for 
their own proper uses.'^ This clause of appropriation had not taken eifect, it would seem, when the 
rental of the abbey was compiled, about the year 1300; for there the church of Simondeston appears 
as a rectory, which was wont to yield the monks ten pounds yearly.^ It is found as a vicarage in 
Baiamund's Roll, where it is taxed at £26, 13s. 4d.9 At the Reformation, it was let in lease for 
£30 yearly.i" jj, 1567^ the portion of the benefice belonging to the abbey was let for £12 yearly." 
William of Carmichael, vicar of Symontoun, was rector of the University of Glasgow, from the 
year 1478 to the year 1480, and again in the year 1483.1^ 

The parochial territory seems to have been coextensive with the manor which Symon Locard pos- 
sessed in the reign of King Malcolm the Maiden, or at the beginning of that of King William the Lion, 
and which continued with his descendants until the time of King Robert I. By that prince it was 
granted or confirmed to Thomas Fitz-Richard or Dickson,^^ the progenitor of the family of Sjouonton 
of that Ilk.i* In the year 1359, the barony of Symonton paid 20s. for the ward of the royal castle 
at Lanark.13 King Robert II., in the year 1381, confirmed to Thomas of Cranyston, the grant of 
the land of Thomas Fitz-Duncan in the barony of Symoundston, made to him by Thomas Fitz- 
Duncan of Symondston.'*' John of Symonton of that Ilk was sheriff-depute of Lanark in the years 



' Lib. de Calchou, pp. 269, "270. 
' Lib. de Calchou, p. 316. 
^ Lib. de Calchou, p. 319. 
* Lib. de Calchou, pp. 229-333. 
■> Lib. de Calchou, p. 351. 
« Lib. de Calchou, pp. 2i)7-269. 
' Lib. de Calchou, p. 267. 
" Lib. de Calchou, p. 472. 



' Regist. Glasg., p. Ixviii. 

"^ Book of Assumptions. 

" Lib. de Calchou, p. 493. 

*- Munim. Univ. Glasg. 

'^ Regist. Mag. Sig., p. 15, no. 78. 

''' Godscroft's Hist, of Doug., p. 15. 

'^ Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., p. 335. 

1" Regist. Mag. Sig., p. 143, no. 83. 



146 ORIGINES [wisio.v. 

l-tTS and 1490.1 HJg family were hereditary constables of the castle of Douglas, and bailies or 
stewards of Douglasdale.- 

The village stands at the foot of a rising ground called the Castle Ilill, on which some vestiges 
of a place of strength are to be seen.^ About fifty yards to the north-east of the village, a moat, 
which may yet be traced, surrounds what is believed to have been the site of the manor-place of 
the Symingtons of that Ilk. It is described by Wishaw as 'au old house, now ruinous.''' 



WISTON. 

Ecclesia uille Withce' — Ecclesia uille Wische'^ — Ecclesia de uilla Wice^ — 
Ecclesia de Wicestun" — Wyscytune^ — Wyston^" — VVouston". Deanery of 
Lanark.i2 (Map, No. 66.) 

RoBERTON, of old a chapelry of Wiston, lying immediately above, on the river side, was re- 
united to this parish in the year 1772. i^ 

It stretches along the left bank of the Clyde for about two miles, and is bounded by the ridge 
of Tynto on the north. The Grafe water, running through it eastwards, falls into the Clyde. 

In the year 1159, King Malcolm the Maiden confirmed to the monks of Kelso the gift which 
*• Withce' had made to them of the church of his town or manor.i^ The donor in his own charter, 
stylinf himself ' Wice of Wicestone,' gives to the monks ' the church of his vill of Wicestun, 
with its two chapels, namely, of the vill of Robert the brother of Lambin, and of the vill of 
John the step-son of Baldwin,' for the weal of his lord the King Malcolm, of William the King's 
brother, of himself, his wife and heirs, and for the souls' health of his father and mother, and of all 
bis ancestors and successors.^^ The grant was confirmed by King William the Lion, between the 
years 1189 and 1199,1^ and twice at other periods of his long reign ;i^ by Bishop Joceline of 
Glasi^ow, between the years 1175 and 1199 ;i* by the grandson of the donor, Sir "Walter (the son 
of William, the son of Wice) of Wicestun knight, about the year 1220 ;i^ by Bishop Walter, in the 
year 1232 ;-" by Pope Innocent IV., between the years 1243 and 1254 ,--i and by Sir Henry lord 
of Wyscytun knight, about the year 1260.^^ This last confirmation appears to have been granted 
after doubts had arisen as to the advowson of the church, and the right of presentation to the vicar- 
afe which the Knight of Wyscytun now bound himself and his heirs never after to call in ques- 
tion, under pain of sentence of cursing on their persons, and of interdict on their lands. ' T. the 

1 Act. Dom. Audit., pp. 4-t, 72, 148. " Retours. '- Baiamund. 

- Ketour, 22 Sept. 1605. See below, in Douglas. " Old Stat. Aect. " Lib. de Calchou, p. vi. 

3 Old Stat. Acct. ■• Wishaw'sDescript. Lanark., p.53. '* Lib. de Calchou, pp. 270, 271. 

s A. D. 1159. Lib. de Calchou, p. vi. "^ Lib. de Calchou, p. 316. 

« A. D. 1165— A. D. 1214. Lib. de Calchou, p. 14. " Lib. de Calchou, pp. 14, 16. 

' A. D. 1165 A. D. 1214. Lib. de Calchou, p. 16. '" Lib. de Calchou, p. 319. 

A. D. 1232. Ibid., pp. 229, 333. '" Lib. de Calchou, p. 271. 

3 A, D. 1153_A. D. 1159. Lib. de Calchou, p. 270. -» Lib. de Calchou, pp. 229, 333. 

^ Circa A. D. 1265. Lib. de Calchou, p. 272. -'' Lib. de Calchou, p. 351. 

'" A. D. 1406. Lib. de Calchou, p. 414. -- Lib. de Calchou, pp. 272, 273. 



WISTOX.] 



PAROCHIALES. 



147 



clerk of AVicestun,' appears as a wituess to a charter by Sir Walter of Wicestun, about the year 
1220.1 ' AVilliam the vicar of the church of Wyston,' swore fealty to King Edward I., in the 
year 129G.^ In the fourteenth century, there was a controversy between the perpetual vicars of 
Wyston and the monks of Kelso, as to a pension of four chalders of meal yearly, due to the latter 
from the fruits of the benefice. The dispute, after it had been carried to Rome, was at last settled 
by mutual compromise, confirmed by Matthew bishop of Glasgow, in the year 1406. The monks, 
on their part, agreed that Sir Thomas Penwen, the perpetual vicar who then was, and his succes- 
sors in the cure, should have the corn tithes of the village of Newton, within the parish, in in- 
crease of their stipend. The vicar, on the other side, for himself and his successors, renounced all 
claim to the yearly pension in dispute.^ The church, served by a perpetual vicar, continued in 
the possession of the abbey until the Reformation. It stood in the village of Wiston. 

The vicarage is rated in Baiaraund, at £26, 13s. 4d,* and in the Libellus Taxat. Regni Scotiae, at 
£6, 13s. 4d. It was reported, at the Reformation, as having been let, when all the dues were 
paid, for fifty merks, from which ten pounds were paid to the curate, and thirty-seven shillings to 
the diocesan for his procurations and synodals.5 The rectory was valued, in the abbey's rental, 
about the year 1300, at £6, 13s. 4d. :'' it was let in lease, in the year 1567, for £16 yearly.' 

Two of its chapels became the parish churches of Roberton and Crawford John, before the end of 
the thirteenth century. A third chapel, which, about the year 1180, was claimed as depending on 
the mother church of Wicestun," was, not long afterwards, erected into the parish church of Symon- 
ton. There was a fourth chapel dedicated to Saint Ninian, bishop and confessor, on a forty penny 
land belonging to the Knights of Saint -lohn of Jerusalem.^ 

The barony of Wiston was of the old extent of forty poirads.i" In the year 1359, it was taxed 
for the ward of the King's castle at Lanark, in the same sum of twenty shillings, which was levied 
from the neighbouring manors of Symonton, Roberton, and Lamington." The ancient generations 
of its first lords, the descendants of Wice, have already been spoken of. In the year 1292-3, 
King Edward I. of England, as overlord of the realm of Scotland, at the instance of Bishop 
Robert of Glasgow, confirmed the grant which the Wardens of Scotland had made to Walter Logan, 
of the ward of the lands and heirs of Henry of Wyston deceased, for the payment of twenty 
merks yearly until the heirs were of lawful age.^- About the year 1300, Sir Henry of Prender- 
gest, who had brought tidings to the English King of the capture of Sir Syition Eraser, made suit 
to Edward I., for the lauds of Walter of Wyston, and Austyn of Murray, his tenant, in the shire 
of Lanark.''' The barony of Wiston was given by King David II., on the resignation of William 
Levingston, to -James Sandilands,'* who obtained, at the same time, an exemption from all pay- 
ments from the lands for the ward of the King's castle.^^ King Robert II., in the year 1384, con- 



Lib, de Calchou, p. 271. 
Ragman Rolls, p. 139. 
Lib. de Calcbou, pp. 414, 
Regist. Glasg., p. Ixviii. 
Book of Assumptions. 
Lib. de Calchou, p. 471. 
Lib. de Calchou, p. 493. 



" Lib. de Calchou, pp. 269, 270. 

■•' Retours. ^^ Retours. 

" Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., p. 335. 
'- Rotuli Scotiae, vol. i., p. 15. 
'^ Palg. Illust. Hist. Scot, vol. i., p. 31 U. 
^* Robertson's Index, p. 38, no. 3!). 
'^ Robertson's Inde.x, p. 38, no. 39. 



J 48 ORIGINES [roberton-. 

firmed to Sir J.imes of Sandilands knight, in marriage with the Lady Joau, the King's daughter, 
the barony of Wyston, and the barony of Dalliel and of I\Iodirvale, in the shire of Lanark, and the 
lands of Erthbiset, of Ochtirbannok and of Slamanenemore in the shire of Stirling.^ In the year 
1473, there was an action ' be Johne of Carmichell of that Ilk, on the ta part, again James San- 
delandis, William Balye, and Thomas Sandelandis, on the tother part, anent the etin and distroy- 
ing of certane corne and castin dovne of dikis savvin and biggit be the said Johne vppone the landis 
of Wistoune pertening to him in seuerale and propirte, and ettin, distruyit, and castin dovne be the 
said personis because it was sawin and biggit vppone the land pertening to the said James in com- 
mone as was allegit.'^ At a later period the barony belonged to Wynrehame of Wyston; ' but he 
dying without heirs-male, and having three daughters, the eldest was married to Allan Lockhart 
younger of Cleghorne, and the other two gott portions.'^ There were several sub-vassals on the 
lands.* King Robert III. confirmed a grant by James Sandilands of Calder to George Lauder 
of Hiltoun, of the lands of Sornefawlache and Greenhill, in the barony of Wistoun, which Marion 
Pettendriech had resigned.5 Newton of Wiston was of the old extent of five pounds,^ and seems 
to have been holden by itself in the year 1406.'' 

Near the hamlet of Wiston is a spot which retains the name of ' Castle Dykes,' and another, 
which is called ' The Place.''* 

The village of Wiston is as old at least as the year 11.59. The name of Newton indicates the 
more recent origin of that hamlet. 



ROBERTON. 

Uilla Robert! fratris Lambini^ — Robertstunio — Roberdeston'^' — Roberton. 12 

Deanery of Lanark.i3 (Map, No. 67.) 

Both in its situation and in its appearance, this parish is like that of Wiston, of which it was 
of old a part, and to which it has, in modern times, been again annexed. A stream called Roberton 
burn flows through it eastwards, and falls into the Clyde ; and the Duneaton water and the Mill- 
burn wash its western border, and divide it from Crawford John. 

' The chapel of the town of Robert the brother of Lambin,' was dependent on tiie parish church 
of Wiston, when Wice, the lord of the manor, bestowed that benefice on the monks of Kelso, be- 
tween the years 1153 and 1159.^* As one of the chapels included in the grant of Wiston, it was 

1 Regist. Mag. Sig., p. 171, no. 9. Chart, in Hay's Vin- ' A. D. 1153— A. D. 1232. Lib. de Calchou, pp. 229, 
die. of Eliz. More. 270, 316, 319, 333. 

2 Act. Dom. Audit., pp. 26, 27. ■ '" A. D. 1228-9. Lib. de Calchou, p. lb?,. 

3 Wishaw's Descript. Lanark., p. 63. " A. 1). 1279. Lib. de Calchou, pp. 278, 279. 

* Wishaws Descript. Lanark., p. 63. '- A. D. 1296. Ragman Rolls, p. 125. A. D. 140 

* Robertson's Index, p. 144, no. 21. Uotuli Scotiae, vol. ii., p. 187. 
" Retours. ' Lib. de Calchou, pp. 414, 415. '^ Baiamund. 

' Thomson's Map. '■' Lib. de Calchou, p. 270. 



ROBERTON 



PAROCHIALES. 



149 



confirmed to the monks by Kiug William the Lion between the years 1189 and 1199;' by Joceline 
bishop of Glasgow, between the years 1175 and 1199 ;2 by Sir Walter Fitz- William of Wiston 
knight, about the year 1220 ;3 and by Walter bishop of Glasgow, in the year 1232.'' Not long 
afterwards, it was erected into a parish church, served by a perpetual vicar presented by the monks. 
On the Monday next before Martinmas, in the year 1279, the subprior and sacrist of Coldino-ham, 
and the rector of the schools of South Berwick, sitting in the church of the Holy Trinity of that town, 
to judge between the Abbot and convent of Kelso, on the one hand, and AValter, the perpetual vicar 
of the church of Eoberdeston, on the other, in the question raised as to the greater tithes of that 
manor, gave for sentence that they belonged to the Abbot and convent as the rectors of the church, 
collated and confirmed to them for their own proper uses, and imposed silence on the vicar for 
evermore.' The benefice continued to be possessed by the abbey until the Reformation. 

The church stood not far from the Clyde, on the Roberton burn, on the opposite bank from that 
on which the village is situated. 

The Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem had two acres of land with ' outsetts,' and a meadow, 
in the village and territory of Hadington or Hardington, and two acres and a meadow in the 
village of Bakbie.^ Both places lie on the Clyde, to the north of the hamlet of Roberton. 

The rectory was valued iu the rental of Kelso, about the year 1300, at £6, 13s. 4d. : in the 
year 1567, it was let in lease for .£20 yearly^ The vicarage is rated in Baiamund's Roll, at 
£26, 13s. 4d. ;8 and in the Libellus Taxat. Regni Scotiae, at £G, 13s. 4d. The glebe land is 
said to be eighteen acres in extent.* 

The parochial territory appears to have been coextensive with the manor, which, between the 
years 1 153 and 1159, belonged to 'Robert the brother of Lambin," the same person, probably, as 
the ' Lambin Asa,' to whom Arnold abbot of Kelso, gave the lands of Drafl'ane and Dardarach, 
on the Nethan water, between the years 1147 and 1160.1" Robert of Robertstun is found as a 
witness to a charter by Hugh Fitz-Robert Fitz-Waldove of Bigar, granted at Lesmahago in the 
year 1228-9.ii In the year 1296, Stephen of Roberton swore fealty to King Edward I.i^ King 
Robert I. gave the lands of Robertstoun in Lanarkshire to John of Monfode.'^ In the year 1372, 
Sir James of Douglas of Dalkeith, by a charter which was confirmed by King Robert II., oranted 
to William of Cresseuyle, for all the days of his life, 'twenty merks of land iu the barony of 
Robertston, namely, all the lands which the donor had in the township of Robertston, with its 
mill ; and the remainder, or as much as would make up the avail of twenty merks, in the township 
of Ilerthornehill.' The Knight of Dalkeith became bound to content and pay to our lord the 
King the castle wards due from the lands,'-" which, iu the year 1359, amounted to twenty shillings, 
being the same sum as was levied from each of the neighbouring baronies of Wyston, Lamino-ton, 



Lib. tie Calcbou, p. 316. 

Lib. de Calcbou, p. 319. 

Lib. de Calcbou, p. *271. 

Lib. de Calchou, pp. 22a, 333. 

Lib. de Calchou, pp. 2i 8, 279. 

Retours. 

Lib. dc Calubou, pp. 471,493. 



" Regist. Glasg., p. Ixviii. 

" New Stat. Acct. 
^" Lib. de Calcbou, p. 75. 
'' Lib. de Calcbou, p. 153. 
'^ Ragman Rolls, p. 125. 
'^ Robertson's Index, p. 24, no. 10. 
'* Reg. Mag. Sig., p. llfi, no. 15. 



150 



ORIGINES 



[CARMICHAEL. 



Symonton, Thankerton, Colbanton, Biggar, Crawford Lindsay, and Dalyell.^ In the year 1411, 
the lands belonged to Sir James of Douglas of Roberton knight, the son of Sir James of Douglas 
knight, lord of Dalkeith ;- and they are said to have continued with the Douglasses, or to have 
been held of that race, until the end of the seventeenth century. They had jurisdiction of regality 
over the barony,^ in which there were subvassals from an early period. 

John of Robardstoun is a witness to a charter by William of Cunningham, lord of Carrick, about 
the year 1 365.^ In the year 1390, John of Robertun of Ernoksabufoy resigned in the King's hands, 
his lands of Auchinleck, in the barony of Renfrew.^ Stephen of Roberton obtained letters of safe- 
conduct from King Henry IV. in the year 1408, at the suit of the Earl of Douglas." In the 
year 1474, John of Robertone of that Ilk appears iu possession of the lands of Modervile.'' At 
a later period, Roberton of Eamock was reputed the chief of the name.* 

In the beginning of the last century, the mansion-house of the laird of Littlegill, lying upon 
the Clyde, retained the name of The Moat.9 

The ancient villages have already been mentioned. 



CAEMICHAEL. 

Kermichel" — Kirkmychel" — Carmichell.'" 

(Map, No. 68.) 



Deanery of Lanark.i^ 



This parish, lying on the northern side of Tynto, is of a broken and hilly aspect. It is watered 
by several streams which flow into the Clyde and the Douglas, by which it is bounded on the 
north. 

The elders and wise men of Cumbria, who, about the year 1116, assembled at command of 
their Prince to make inquest as to the possessions of the see of Saint Kentigern, found that the 
lands of ' Planmichel' belonged to the church of Glasgow.i'' But beyond the resemblance of the 
names, there is nothing to identify this place with the Carmichael of later days. Between the 
years 1164 and 1174, Pope Alexander III. confirmed to the see of Glasgow the church of Cher- 
micdh',1^ by which, perhaps, may be meant Carmichael. It was certainly confirmed to the see by 
that Pontifl'in the year 1179 ;i" by Pope Lucius III., in the year llSl ;''' and by Pope Urban 
III., iu the year 1 186.^'' Robert of .Jeddeworth, parson of the church of Kermighel, swore fealty to 



Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., p. 335. 
Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 248, no. 1 1 . 
Wishaw's Descript. Lanark., pp. 69, 
Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 40, no. 108. 
Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 180, no. 8. 
Rotuli Scotiae, vol. ii., p. 187. 
Acta Dom. Audit., p. 30. 
Wishaw's Descript. Lanark., p. 17. 
Wishaw's Descript. Lanark., p. 60. 



'" A. D. 1 179— A. D. 118(i. Regist. Glasg., pp. 43, 50, 

'1 A. D. 130G-A. D. 1329. Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 15, no. 

•2 A. D. 1473. Act. Dom. Audit., p. 26. 

^3 Baiamund. 

'< Regist. Glasg., p. 5. 

'* Regist. Glasg., p. 22. 

'^ Regist. Glasg., p. 43. 

>' Regist. Glasg., p. 50. 

" Regist. Glasg., p. 55. 



CAHMIOHAEL.] PAROOHIALES. 151 

Kin"- Edward I., in the year 1296,i and had letters for the restoration of the temporalities of his 
benefice directed to the sheriff of Lanark.^ The right of advowson of the church, along with the 
parochial territory, was granted or confirmed to the good Sir James of Douglas by King Robert I.,^ 
and lontr continued in that house. Both the parsonage and vicarage were free at the time of the 
Reformation.^ 

It may be conjectured, from the boundaries described in King Robert's charter to the Knight of 
Douglasdale, that in the beginning of the fourteenth century, the church, which, as its name shows, 
was dedicated to Saint Michael the archangel, stood to the south-east of its present site, perhaps 
on the side of the rising ground towards the base of Tynto. Blaeu's map shows a place named 
Laclauckirk, which is now known as Lochlaik. Saint Michael's well is still remembered, though 
Saint Michael's bog has been drained and cultivated.^ On the margin of a burn, to the north- 
west of the church, is a place called Chapel Hill, and near it is ' Saint Bride's Close,' names 
which sufiiciently indicate that a chapel stood there of old. 

The rectory is valued in Baiamund's Roll, at ^40;^ and in the Taxatio Eccl. Scot. sec. xvi., at 
X34. At the Reformation, both parsonage and vicarage were let for 100 merks.'^ 

The charter which King Robert I. granted to Sir James of Douglas, of tlie ' whole land and 
tenement of Douglasdale, and the whole land and tenement of Kirkraychel,' thus describes the 
marches of the latter : ' Beginning, that is to say, at the Karyn (cairn) of Tintov, and so down- 
wards by the Merburne to the moor of Thankaristone, and across by that moor to the east side of 
Hokenedu till it reach Glaedburne, and across Gladeburne upwards by the burn on the east side 
of the church of Kirkniichel, and from the head of that burn downwards by the middle of Clouche- 
burnbog to Chernesford (Skerisford,) and so downwards to the water of Cluyde, and by the water 
of Cluyde upwards to the place where the water of Douglas falls into the water of Cluyde, and so 
by the water of Douglas upwards to Polnelismoutho.'* These seem to be very nearly the existing 
boundaries of the parish of Carraichael, on the south-east and the north : the other marches set 
down in the charter are those of Douglasdale, leaving the limits between that territory and Car- 
michael undescribed. Both districts were to be held by the Knight of Douglas in free barony, with 
the advowsona of their churches, with their free tenants and their native men, ' exempt from all 
manner of prises, attachments, and demands whatsoever, so that none of the King's oflicers should 
in any way meddle within the marches aforesaid, unless in the points specially belonging to the 
crown.''* 

In the territory which was thus conveyed to the lords of Douglas, and confirmed to them 
by King David II.,!" they had several vassals, one of whom, about the middle of the four- 
teenth century, took his surname from the lands which he held. William of Carmychel is said to 
be mentioned in a charter of the lands of Poufcigh, about the year 1.350." In the year 1-370, 

' Ragman Rolls, p. 1S9. ? Book of Assumptions. 

- Rotuli Scotiae, vol. i., p. 2S. » Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 15, no. 77. 

Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 15, no. 77. " Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 15, no. 77. 

■' Book of Assumptions. = Old and New Stat. Acct. "' Robertson's Inde.x, p. 55, no. 18. 

** Regist. Glasg., p, Ixviii. The record bears, ' vicaria,' '• Douglas Peerage, p. 351, citing charter in the archivesof 

oljviously by mistake for ' rectoria.' the Earl of Hyndford. 



152 ORIGINES [douglas. 

John of Carmycliel bad a grant of the lanils of Carmiehael from William Earl of Douglas and 
Marr.i John Carmiehael of that Ilk is found on an inquest in the year 1406.- Williani of 
Carmychale, lord of that Ilk, appears as a witness to a charter by the Prior of Saint Andrews in 
the year 1410.'' The family was ennobled in the year 1647, by the title of Lord Carmiehael; and, 
in the year 1701, was advanced to the dignities of Earl of Hyndford, and Viscount Inglisberry 
and Nemphlar. Its residence was on the lands, in a mansion which Wishaw describes, in the 
beginning of the last century, as ' a good substantious old house, much repaired, and well finished 
of late, very well planted, with a noble avenue from the house to the church.' ^ 

Not far from the site of Saint Bride's chapel is a hill called Drumalbin, and a smaller height, 
called AVhite Castle hill, where probably there was a manor place of old. 



DOUGLAS. 

Duuelglas' — Duueglas^ — Duglax' — Duglas' — Dufglas'^ — Doueglas' — 

Dufgles* — Dufeglas" — Dowglas"' — Douglas." Deanery of Lanark.12 

(Map, No. 69.) 

The Douglas water, springing from the foot of Cairntable (a hill on the borders of Kyle, 
1650 feet above the level of the sea,) flows westward for about eleven miles through the pastoral 
dale and parish to which it gives name, and about a mile beyond falls into the Clyde. ' It is a 
pleasant strath,' says Wishaw, ' plentifuU in grass and come and coall ;'^^ but on either side, at 
no great distance from the stream, the ground stretches away into wide moors, or rises into hills, 
especially towards the west. The Douglas, which divides the territory into nearly equal portions, 
receives on the left the Monks, Pidourin, and Poniel burns; and on the right, those of Kennox, 
Glespin, Parkhead, and Craig. 

The parish is found as a parsonage in the beginning of the thirteenth century. A charter by 
Brice bishop of Murray, to the monks of Kelso, between the years 1203 and 1222, is witnessed 
by ' Fretheskin, parson of Dufgles,'!* who was a younger son of the house of Douglas, and appears 
to have become afterwards dean'^ of the great northern diocese, to the rule of which his brother 
Brice was called from the bumble priory of Lesmahago.^'' ' Dunecan, parson of Duueglas,' ap- 
pears as a witness along with Sir William of Douglas, in a deed regarding the lands of Dowan, 
between the years 1240 and 1249.^'^ In the year 1292, King Edward I., as overlord of Scot- 

' Douglas Peerage, p.'351, citing cliarters in Ibe ar- ^ A. D. 1203— 1'2'22. Eegist. Morav., p. 17. 

chives of the families of Douglas and Hyndford. '" A. D. 1432. Regist. Glasg., p. 345. 

-• Mem. of Somervilles, vol. i., p. 152. " A. D. 1447. Regist. Glasg., p. 366. 

^ Regist. Priorat. S. Andree, p. 427. '" Baiamund. 

* Wishaw's Descript. of Lanark., p. 65. " Descript. Lanark., p. CS. 

5 A. D. 1147— A. D. 1160. Lib. de Calchou, pp. 78, '♦ Lib. de Calchou, p. 297. 

84. " Regist. Morav., pp. 17, 44, 66, 67, 70, 71, 73, 74. 77, 7}i, 

6 A. D. 1174— A.D.I 199. Lib. de Calchou, p. 346. 92, 251 ; pref. p. XLVI. 

' Circa A. D. 1190. Lib. de Melros, p. 55. '" Clironic. de Mailros, p. 105. 

A. D. 1203— A. D. 1222. Lib. de Calchou, p. 297. " Lib. de Calchou, p. 163. 



DOUGLAS.] PAROCHIALES. 153 

land, presented Master Eustace of Bikerton, to the church of Duglas then vacant, and in the gift 
of the crown, by reason that the lands of William of Duglas were in the King's hands for certain 
trespasses which he had committed.i Aylmer of Softlawe, parson of the church of Douglas, swore 
fealty to King Edward I. in the year 1296 -^ and had letters for the restoration of the temporalities 
of his tenefice, directed to the sheriff of Lanark.^ In the summer following, an agent of the Eng- 
lish sovereign, writing from Berwick-on-the-Tweed, says, that the church of Douglas, worth good 
two hundred merks, is then void, and prays that it may be given to Hugh of Cressingham, the 
King's treasurer for Scotland.'* ' Sir Aylmer/ the rector of Douglas, was present in a court of 
the Lord Abbot of Kelso, held at Lesmahago on Pentecost Eve, in the year 1301.^ In the year 
1.352, blaster Richard of Foggowe, parson of Douglas, had letters of safe conduct through Eng- 
land from King Edward III., on the suit of Sir William of Douglas, then a prisoner in England.*" 
Master John of Railston was rector in the year 1439-40;^ Master James Lyndesay, in the year 
144T ;** Master John Frissel, in the year 1482-3 ;" Master Walter Kennedy from the year 1520 
to the year 1525 j'" and Master Archibald Douglas from the year 1562 to the year 1570.'i 

The benefice, which seems to have been at all times in the advowson of the lords of the manor, 
was erected into a prebend of the cathedral church of St. Kentigern at Glasgow, between tlie years 
1401 and 1440.^^ It was taxed about the last mentioned year, in £5, for ornaments to the cathe- 
dral; and the prebendary was ordained to pay 11 merks yearly to his stallar or vicar choral.''' 
It is rated in Baiamnnd's Roll at £133, 6s. 8d;" and in the Taxat. Eccl. Scot. sec. xvi., at £118, 
6s. 8d.i5 At the Reformation, it was let on lease for 300 merks or £200.1'' 

About the middle of the fifteenth century, a petition regarding the erection of the parish church 
of Douglas into a collegiate church, was presented to the Apostolic See ; but though the Pope's 
consent seems to have been obtained, the purpose never was fulfilled." 

The church stood in the village of Douglas, in the neighbourhood of Douglas Castle. It was 
dedicated to Saint Bride,'"* who thus became the especial patroness of the Douglasses, the saint 
whose help they invoked in sudden peril, by whose name they swore, on whose festival they dated 
their charters, before whose altars they chose their graves.''* On Saint Bride's day (1. Feb- 
ruary,) in the year 1329-30, at the Park of Douglas, the good Sir James, being then about to 
depart for the Holy Land with the heart of his royal master, made an agreement with the monks 
of Newbottle in Lothian, whereby, on the one side, he bestowed his half of the land of Kilmad 
upon the monastery, which already possessed the other half by gift of Sir Roger de Quincy de- 

Rotuli Scotiae, vol. i., p. 7. '" Lib. CoUeg. N. D. Glasg., pp. 73, 75. Mun. Univ. Glasg. 

'^ Ragman Rolls, p. 159. • ' Book of Assumptions. Regist. Glasg., p. 586. 

2 Rotuli Scotiae, vol. i., p. 25. '= Regist. Glasg., pp. 299, 345. 

■* Orig. in Turr. Lond., ayiid Chronicon de Lanercost, '^ Regist. Glasg., pp. 345, 347. 

pp. 494, 495. '* Regist. Glasg., p. Ixiv. 

^ Lib. de Calchou, p. 161. '^ Regist. Glasg., p. Ixxii. "' Book of Assumptions. 

^ Rotuli Scotiae, vol. i., pp. 746, 752. Cf. Lib. de '^ Priory of Coldingbam, p. 236. (Surtees Soc.) 

Melros, pp. 429-431, 433, 464. '^ Archdeacon Barbour's Bruce, book iv., 1. 336. 

' Chalmers, citing charter in the Roxburgh archives. "* Thus, in the year 1353, when Sir William of Douglas, 

** Hay Vindic. Eliz. More, p. 78, citing charter in the Knight of Liddesdale, was carried to his burial at Mel- 
Reg. Mag. Sig. rose, it was before the altar of Saint Bride that they dug his 

" Chalmers, citing Reg. Mag. Sig., v. 44. sepulchre. Lib. de Melros, p. 4C3. 



154 ORIGINES [dolglas. 

ceased; and the monks, on their part, became bound for evermore, on tlie feast of Saint Bridget 
yearly, to sing a mass (cum nota) at Saint Bridget's altar within their abbey church, and to feed 
thirteen poor folks, that so she might be moved to make intercession for the weal of the Knight of 
Douglasdale.' 

There were at least two chantries founded within the jiarish church. By a charter, dated at 
the Castle of Douglas in the year 14S3-4 (and confirmed by the King imrriediately afterwards,) 
Archibald, Earl of Angus, gave two oxgates of land in the Scrogtoune of Douglas, for the sup- 
port of a chaplain serving at the Alarie altar in Saint Bridget's kirk of Douglas.^ By another 
charter, dated at the Castle of Rothesay in Bute in the year 150G (and confirmed by the King 
a few weeks afterwards,) the same Earl bestowed on the same altar, which is described as stand- 
ing on the north side of the church, ' that oxgate of the land of Scrogtoune which Ninian Gow 
had in ferme.'^ In the year 1535-6, King James V. presented Sir John Purvis chaplain, to the 
chantry of the altar of Saint Thomas in the church of Douglas, then vacant by the decease of 
Sir John luglis, and in the gift of the crown, by reason that the lordship of Douglas, to which the 
right of presentation belonged, was in the King's hands, through forfeiture of the Earl of Angus.'' 
Saint Thomas' altar seems to have stood on the south side of the church. 

The church, with its chancel, is mentioned in the history of the Wars of the Succession at the 
beginning of the fourteenth century.* It is said to have been no mean building,^ and was pre- 
served until about the year 1781, when it was taken down, all except a turret, and an aisle which 
covered the vault, where so many of the lords of Douglas had chosen their sepulture. Their 
stately tombs are now broken down or defaced ; but remains may yet be seen of the monuments 
of the good Sir James, (whose bones were brought back from the battle-field on which he fell in 
Andalusia, and ' honorabilly in till the kyrk of Douglas war erdyt, with dule and mekill car,' 
beneath a fair sepulchre of alabaster);^ of Archibald, duke of Touraine, earl of Douglas and 
Longueville, lord of Galloway, AVigton, and Annandale, lieutenant of the King of Scots, who 
died in the year 1438 ; of James, duke of Touraine and earl of Douglas, lord of Annandale, Gal- 
loway, Liddesdale, Jedburgh Forest, and Balveny, great Warden of the Marches, who died in the 
year 1443-4 ; and of his wife Dame Beatrice of Sinclair (daughter of Henry, earl of the Orkneys 
and lord Sinclair,) countess of Douglas and Avendale, and lady of Galloway. Many of the leaden 
coflins bear inscriptions, but none of older date than the seventeenth century .8 

There was a chapel^ dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, at Parrockholm, near the Monk's 
burn, on the western border of the parish. It appears to have been founded in the reign of King 
James IV. In the year 1531, King James V. gave for support of the chaplain, the four merk 
land of Parrockholm in the lordship of Douglas, then in the King's hands by reason of the for- 
feiture of Archibald, sometime Earl of Angus.^ In the east of the parish there is a hill called 
Chapel Hillji" and at Anderson (formerly called Andershaw,)ii on the south-east, there was a 

' Regist. de Neubot., fol. 37. ' Barbour's Bruce, book xiv., I. 1 175. 

- Reg. Mag. Sig.,xi. C9. ' Reg. Mag. Sig., xiv.223. « Pennant's Tour, 1772. Old Stat. Acct. New Stat. Acct. 

•• Chalmers, citing Privy Seal Reg., x. 101. Blore's Sepulchral Monuments. 

■> Archdeacon Barbour's Bruce, book iv., 11. ."iie-SGy. " Reg. Mag. Sig., xxiv. 69. 

'• Wishaw's Descript. Lanark., p. 66. '" New Stat. Acct. Ross's Map. "Blaeu'aMap. Ross's Map. 



DOUGLAS.] PAROOHIALES. 155 

chapel, with a cemetery. The font, which was of stone, was removed within the memory of man ; 
and a plentiful spring near the place where it stood, yet bears the name of the Chapel Well. There 
was probably another chapel on the neighbouring lands of Glentaggart, where a stone font has 
been found,' and where the ruins of a castle may be seen. Traces of other lands, once devoted to 
ecclesiastical use, may be found in record, or in the existing names of places. 

The manor was coextensive with the parochial territory. The origin of its lords, that heroic 
lineage, who, taking their surname from this little valley, have made it famous for ages throughout 
all Western Christendom, is unknown. The boast of their historian, two centuries ago, may 
still hold good : ' We do not know them in the fountain, but in the stream ; not in the root, but in 
the stem ; for we know not who was the first mean man that did raise himself above the vulgar.' ^ 
The Prior of Saint Serf's Inch in Lochleven, writing about the year 1425, says, that of the begin- 
ning of the Murray and the Douglas, diverse men speak in diverse ways, so that he can affirm 
nothing for certain ; nevertheless, as both bear in their arms the same stars set in the same man- 
ner, it seems likely to many that they have come of the same kin, either by lineal descent, or by 
collateral branch.^ This old conjecture still stands as the limit of our knowledge, beyond which 
no research has been able to pass.* The supposition of Chalmers is wholly untenable, that the 
family took its descent from Theobald, a Fleming, who, between the years 1147 and 11G4, obtained 
a grant of lands on the Douglas water from Arnold abbot of Kelso. There is neither proof nor 
reason to believe that the Flemish Theobald was in any way connected with the Douglasses ;5 
and it is beyond doubt that the lands on the opposing bank of the valley, which he acquired from 
the monks of Kelso, were no part of the ancient domain of Douglas.^ 

(i.) The first of the race known to record is William of Dufglas, who, between the years 1175 
and ] 199, .witnesses a charter by Joceline bishop of Glasgow, to the monks of Kelso ;■' appears as 
witness to a charter to the canons of Holyrood by King William the Lion, about the year ] 200 ;* 
and was present in the King's court at Edinburgh on the feast of Saint Nicholas, in the year 1213, 
when Maurice earl of Menteith resigned that earldom in favour of his brother, JIaurice the younger.^ 
William of Douglas, who was either the brother or the brother-in-law of Sir Freskyn of Kerdal in 
Murray,!" had six sons, Archibald, or Erkenbald, his heir j'^ Brice,'"^ prior of Lesmahago, who in 
the year 1203 was preferred to the great bishopric of Murrayji^ Fretheskin, parson of Douglas, i* 
afterwards apparently dean of Murray j^^ Hugh, canon, and probably archdeacon,^'' of Murray; 
Alexander sherifl' of Elgin ;'" and Henry, canon of Murray.'* 

' New Stat. Acet. - Godscroft's Hist, of Doug. '•* Orig. Chart., printed in Riddell's Rem. on Scotch Peer- 

3 Wyntownis Cronyk., book viii., cap. vii. age Law, pp. 149, 150. 

' Regist. Moray., pref. pp. XLV — XLTit. '•' Regist. Morav., pp. (jl, 99. 

^ Chalmers unhesitatingly calls William of Douglas the ^* Regist. de Dunferm., p. 190. ^^ Regist. Morav., p, 81. 

undoubted ancestor of the family, ' the son of Theobald, '^ Chronic, de Melros, p. 105. 

and the inheriterof his estate.' (Caled. I., 579 ; III. 723.) '■> Lib. de Calchou, p. 297. Regist. Morav, pref. app., nn. 

But for this assertion there is no vestige of authority. 1, 3. 

" Lib. de Calchou, pref., pp. xxvii, ,\.\viii. See above, '■' Regist. Morav., p. 17, pref., p. xlvi. 

pp. Ill, 112, in Lesnjahago parish. "> Regist. Morav., pp. 17, 21, 61, 69, 71, 75. 

' Lib. de Calchou, p. 346. " Regist. Morav., pp. 61, 132, 251, 274 ; Lib. de Calchou, 

' Lib. Cart. S. Crucis, p. 44. Dalrj-mple's Collect. Scot. p. 297. 

Hist., p. Lxm. 18 Regist.Morav.,pp.2l,132,251,274; Lib.deCaIchou,p.297. 



156 ORIGINES [douglas. 

(ii.) Archibald, or Erkenbald, of Duueglas is witness to charters by Joceline bishop of Glasgow, 
between the years 1189 and 1199 ;i by Walter bishop of Glasgow, between the years 1208 and 
1232 ;2 by Brice bishop of Murray, his brother, between the years 1203 and 1224 ;* by Andrew 
bishop of Jlurray, in the year 1 226 ;* by David of Lyndesay, between the years 1 175 and 1199;^ 
by William of Murray, the son of Freskyn, between the years 1203 and 1224 ;6 and by Hugh 
of Bygar, in the year 1228.' In the year 1213, he was present, along with his father, in the 
King's court at Edinburgh ;8 and he seems to have attained the dignity of knighthood. A charter 
by William Purveys of Mospennoc to the monks of Melrose, between the years 1214 and 1249, 
is witnessed by ' Sir Archibald of Dufglas, by Sir William Fleming of Stanhus, and by Andrew 
the knight or man-at-arms (milite) of the aforesaid A. of Dufglas.'^ Beside his own domain of 
Douglas in Clydesdale, he held of the church a considerable territory on the banks of the water 
of Leith in Lothian. Between the years 1178 and 1198, ' Archibald the son of W. of Duglas, 
of his own good will, with counsel and consent of his friends, and for a sum of money paid to him 
by Thomas the son of Edward of Lastalric and his friends,' appeared in a full chapter of the 
Benedictines of Dunfermline, and there renounced all claim to the land of Halis which he had held 
of the monks, and returned into the abbot's hands the charters that had been granted to him, 
together with all right which he had, or might have, to the land ; which the monks thereupon granted 
to Thomas of Lastalric, (afterwards sherifi" of Ediuburgh,)'" in fee and heritage for a yearly rent 
of six silver merks.i' 

(iii.) William of Dufglas, apparently the son of Sir Archibald, appears as a witness to a charter 
by King Alexander IL at Lanark, in the year 1240.12 He attained knighthood a few years after- 
wards. A deed regarding the lands of Dowan in Lesmahago, is witnessed by Sir W. of Duueglas, 
between the years 1240 and 1249.'^ Sir William of Dufglas is witness, along with Sir Andrew 
of Dufglas (probably his brother, and the progenitor of the house of Dalkeith,) to a charter by 
John Gallard at Musselburgh, in the year 1248.1* In the year 1253, he became one of the sure- 
ties for Sir Walter of Murray (the ancestor of the lords of Bothwell,) in an agreement made at 
Ancrum with the Bishop of Glasgow, regarding the chapel of Saint Catharine at Osbernistun on 
the Clyde.'* He was one of the partizans in Scotland of King Henry IIL, in the year 1255.1^ 
In the year 1267, he is found in possession of the manor of Fawdon in Northumberland, holden of 
Gilbert Umfraville lord of Redesdale, and conferred on Douglas by Prince Edward the King's son.i' 
From the monks of Kelso he obtained, in the year 1271, a grant in liferent of the abbey's land 
of PoUenel in Lesmahago.i^ He was present at Carstairs, along with the Bishop of Glasgow, 



' Lib. de Melros, p. 37. 

2 Lib. de Calchou, p. 230. 
^ Regist. Morav., p. 274. 
< Regist. Morav., p. 81. 
5 Reg. de Neub., p. 19. 
*^ Regist. Morav., p. 17. 
' Lib. de Calebou, p. 153. 
" Orig. Cbart., printed in Riddel's Rem. on Scotcli 

Peerage Law, pp. 149, 150. Rem. on Scotch Peerage Law, p. 175, 

3 Lib. de Melros, pp. 214, 21a. '" Lib. de Calchou, p. 168, 



Regist. de Dunfenn., p. 91. 

Regist. de Dunferm., pp. 190, 191. 

Lib. de Calchou, p. 151. 

Lib. de Calchou, p. 163. 

Regist. de Dunferm., p. 97. 

Regist. Glasg., p. 163. 

Rymer's Foed., i. 566, 567. 

Abbrev. Placit. in Curia Regis, 166, quoted by Ridde 



DOUGLAS.] PAROCHIALES. 157 

Thomas Ranulph, the King's chamberlain, and Sir Nicholas of Bygar, the sheriff of Lanark, in 
the year 1273.1 He is said to have died in the year 1276, and certainly had two sons. 

(iv.) Hugh the elder, in the year 1259, married Marjory, sister of Sir Hugh of Abernethy, 
receiving with her in dowry twenty carucates of land in Glencorse, in consideration of which, it 
was stipulated that he should have from his father twenty carucates of land in the fief of Duglas. 
Sir William of Douglas accordingly granted a charter to Hugh, his son and heir, of the lands of 
Glaspen, Hartwood, Kennox, Carmacoup, and Le Holm, together with the lands which were in 
dispute between him and the heirs of John of Crawfurd.^ Hugh of Douglas having died without 
issue, about the year 1287, was succeeded by his younger brother. 

(v.) ' William, the son of William of Duglas,' appears, in the year 1267, defending his father's 
manor of Fawdon in England, from a foray by the men of the lord of Redesdale, in which he was 
wounded so grievously that his head was almost severed from his shoulders.^ In the year 1288-9, 
he acknowledges the receipt of his charters, which the Lord Abbot of Kelso had held in keeping.^ 
At the head of an armed band, in the year 1289, he carried off his future wife, Alianora of Lo- 
vaine, the widow of William of Ferrars, lord of Groby, from the manor of her kinsfolks, the La 
Zouches, at Tranent in Lothian.^ For this offence, his manor in Northumberland was forfeited, 
but was soon afterwards restored, and remained in his family until after the year 1329. He swore 
fealty to King Edward I., in the year 1291,'' and again in the year 1296,' when he had letters 
for the restoration of his lands in the shires of Fife, Edinburgh, Berwick, Ayr, Dumfries, and 
Wigton.* He died a prisoner in England, about the year 1302, and was succeeded by his son, 

(vi.) The good Sir James of Douglas, from whose time the succession and the fortunes of the 
lords of Douglasdale are to be read in the common annals of their country. 

In the year 1321, King Robert I. granted to James of Duglas, the son and heir of William 
of Duglas knight, a charter of the whole land and tenement of Duglasdale, and of the land and 
tenement of Kirkmychel. The boundary between Douglasdale and Carmichael is not defined, 
but the marches of Douglas, on the other side, are thus described : ' Beginning at Polnelis- 
mouthe (where Poluele falls into the water of Douglas,) and so upwards by Polnele to Catte- 
clouche, and from Catteclouche to Knoke Stillache, and from Knockstillauche to Lenbukkislav, 
and from Lenbukeslav to the Kaerne (cairn) of Kaerntabel, and so downwards by the old march 
of Duglas until it reach the Kaerne (cairn) of Tintov' (where the march of Carmichael be- 
gins.) The lands are to be held blench of the King for a pair of gilt spurs yearly, on the feast 
of Our Lord's Nativity at Lanark, ' in free barony, with advowsons of churches, free tenants 
and native men,' exempt as well from wards, reliefs, marriages, escheats, and suits of court) 
as from all manner of prises, attachments, and demands whatsoever, so that none of the King's 
ministers shall enter within the marches aforesaid, except for matters specially concerning the 

' Lib. de Calchou, p. 268. in Cur. Scaccar., quoteJ in Riddell's Rem. on Scotch Peer- 

- Charter cited in Godscroft's Hist.of Dong.,pp. 12-15. age Law, p. 176. 

^ Abbreviat. Placit. in Curia Regis, 16C, quoted in « Ragman Rolls, p. 13. 

Riddell's Rem. on Scotch Peerage Law, p. 175. " Ragman Rolls, p. 04. Palg. Illust. Hist. Sat., vol. i., 

■• Lib. de Calchou, p. Ifi8. p. 198. 

' Collins' Peerage, vi. 332, 333. edit. 1779. Rot. Orig. » Rotuli Scotiae, vol. i., p. 24. 



158 ORIGINES [doi'gi.as. 

crown.' A subsequent charter bestowed still higher privileges on the good Sir James and the 
wide domains which he acquired from the bounty of King Robert;^ and his successors of the 
house of Angus obtained the proud right of bearing the King's crown in parliament, of leading the 
vanguard of the King's army in battle, and of sitting in the foremost place, and giving the first 
vote in the parliaments and councils of the realm.^ 

The Douglasses had vassals in their territory. Thomas Dickson, for his memorable service on 
the day of the Douglas Larder,* is said to have received a grant from the good Sir James, of the 
lands of Hisleside, about two miles to the south-west of the church and castle.^ He obtained 
from King Robert I. a charter of the barony of Symonton,^ and is believed to have been the 
progenitor of a family which took their name from that land.^ In the year 1605, John Symon- 
ton of that Ilk was served heir to William, his grandfather, in the constabulary of the castle of 
Douglas, and the office of bailie of Douglasdale, and in the lands of Hessilsyde, Kenok, Little 
Blantagart, and Polmukisheid, in the lordship of Douglas ;^ and in the year 1612, John Symon- 
ton of that Ilk was served heir to his father John, in the lands and barony of Symouton, with the 
office of bailie of the barony of Douglas, and captain of its castle.^ 

In the year 1348, William of Douglas, lord of that Ilk, grants to his esquire, James of Sandy- 
landyis, the lands of the Sandylandyis, and the Rydmire, in the lordship of Douglasdale, ' with the 
east part of Pollynfegh (Poufech,) as the water of Douglas runs, upwards to the two trees of 
Byrks, on the west part of Halleford over against Haynyngschaw, which is in the barony of Les- 
mahago.'i" In the year 1370, King David II. confirmed a grant by William earl of Douglas to 
Laurence of Govane, of the lands of Pollynfeych in the earldom of Douglas-^' 

The village of Douglas, erected into a burgh of barony at an uncertain date,!^ stiU shows some 
tokens of antiquity. An eminence at no great distance, towards the east, is called the GallowshilL'^ 
The castle of the lords of Douglas appears on record before the end of the thirteenth century. 
In the year 1288, Sir William of Abernethy, one of the murderers of Duncan earl of Fife, a war- 
den of the realm, was seized by Sir Andrew of Murray, at Colbantoun in Clydesdale, and thrown 
into prison in Douglas castle, where the Chronicles say that he lay until the day of his death.^* 
In June 1291, King Edward I., as overlord of Scotland, commands that William of Douglas shall 
deliver up to the King, the person of Hugh of Abernethy, accused of the slaughter of Duncan 
earl of Fife, because, ' according to the law and custom of Scotland, no baron or other person of 
that realm, the King alone excepted, may or ought to keep in his prison a felon accused of a felony 
done without the lord's own barony, much more a felon who was also taken beyond the lord'.s 
barony.'i* In the parliament of King John Balliol, which met at Stirling in August 1293, the Knight 

' Regist. Mag. Sig., p. 15, no. 77 ; Godscroft's Hist. ' Godscroft's Hist, of Doug., p. 18. 

of Doug., p. 38. ^ R«tour, no. 56. ^ Retour, no. 478. 

' Robertson s Index, p. 10, no. 26. '" Chart, at Torphichen, apud Hay's Vindie. Eliz. More, 

' Riddell's Rem. ou Scotch Peerage Law. pp. 109- p. 67 ; M'Farlan's Coll., vol. ii., p. 482. 

111. Riddell's Peerage and Consist. Law of Scot., vol. i., " Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 76, no. 269. 

pp. 155-161. ^2 Hamilt. Descript. Lanark., p. 65. 

■* Barbour's Bruce, book iv., 11. 279-372, ^^ New Stat. Acct. 

5 Godscroft's Hist, of Doug., p. 18. '■> J. Forduni Scotiehronicon, lib. xl., cap. xi. Wyntownis 

" Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 15, no. 78. Cronykil, book viii., cap. ix. ■= Rotuli Scotiae, vol. i., p. 2. 



DOUGLAS.] PAROCHIALES. 159 

of Douglas was accused of having seized certain of the King's officers, and kept them in his castle 
against their will for a day and a night ; and of having imprisoned three men in the same castle, 
and beheaded one of them, against the law of the realm. Part of this charge Douglas confessed, 
throwing himself on the King's mercy ; of the other part he was found guilty, and was ordered 
to be imprisoned during the King's will.i In the year 1297, Sir William of Douglas having joined 
Wallace in his rising against the English power, Robert Bruce, the youthful earl of Carrick, then 
a partizan of England, wasted Douglasdale with fire and sword, and carried ofiF the wife and chil- 
dren of its lord.2 Nine years afterwards, when this same Earl himself took arms to assert his 
claim to the sceptre of the Scots, Douglasdale was possessed by Robert lord Clifford, who had in 
the castle a garrison of two-and-thirty men. On the Sunday next before Easter (19. March,) in the 
year 1307, all these, the cook and porter excepted, repaired to the church of Saint Bride, bearing 
the branches which give to that day the name of Palm Sunday. While making their devotions 
within the chancel, they were surprised and overpowered by the young Sir James of Douglas. 
Twenty of their number were slain in the conflict; the rest were taken by Douglas to the castle, 
and there beheaded. Their dead bodies were thrown into the wine cellar, together with all the 
provisions of the garrison ; the casks and tuns were broken, so that ' meile and malt, and bind and 
wyne ran all togidder ;' the well was defiled by salt and carrion flesh ; and the castle having 
been set on fire, so that nothing but the stone walls survived the flames, the Douglas departed 
from a scene to which the Scots, in their exultation, gave the name of ' The Douglas Larder.'-' 
The lord of Clifford immediately built up the castle, and strengthened its defences, placing another 
garrison in it under a captain of the name of Thyrlwall,* who, not long afterwards, was decoyed 
by Douglas into an ambuscade at Sandylandis, and was there slain.'' ' The awenturus castell off 
Douglas,' as the fortress came now to be called, was next committed to the keeping of Sir John of 
Webetoun, a brave and gallant youth, whose fortune proved no better than his predecessors', for 
he too was ensnared into an ambush by Douglas, and there killed. On this occasion, whether by 
force or sleight, the castle was taken by the Scots, who threw down the wall, and destroyed all the 
houses, but spared the lives of the constable and his company. In the coffer of the young captain, 
they found a letter sent to him by a lady whom he loved par amour, telling him, that when he 
should have kept the perilous castle of Douglas for a year, then he might ' weile ask a lady hyr 
amowris and hyr drouery.'^ We read no more of its fortunes during the Bruce's wars. When 
Edward Balliol was surprised at Annan, in the winter of ] 332, and driven from Scotland, he 
found refuge in AVestmoreland with the lord of Clifford, to whom he vainly promised that ' should 
God grant him happier times, and restore him to his dominion," his host should possess Douglas- 
dale as freely ' as it had been given to his grandfather in the days of good King Edward.'^ In 
the year 1336, during the war of the Disinherited Barons, Ralph lord Stafford, invaded Douglas- 
dale, which remained faithful to the Scottish King, and brought a great prey away with him.^ 
In the year 1346, John of Fordun relates, that ' AVilliam of Douglas, the first earl of his race, the 

' Hailes' Annals, quoting Foed. ii. G13, fiU. ^ Barbour's Bruce, book v., 11. 7-78. 

^ Hailes' Annals, quoting Hemingford, i. 119, 120. ^ Barbour's Bruce, book vi., 11. 436-5'20. 

•* Barbour's Bruce, book iv., 11. 255-446. ^ Chronicon de Lanercost, p. 271. 

' Barbour's Bruce, book iv., 11. 446-462. " Chronicon de Lanercost, p. 288. 



160 ORIGINES [CRAWFORD JOHN. 

son of Sir Archibald called Tyneman, the brother of the good Sir James, returned from France, 
and repairing to Douglasdale, his native heritage, which had then lately submitted to the English 
yoke, speedily brought its people back to their allegiance, and afterwards won all Ettrick Forest 
likewise.' 1 A century later, when the power of the Douglasses had grown so great that it almost 
overshadowed the throne, King James II., in the year 1455, ' passed to Glasgow, and gathered 
the westland men, with part of the Irishery, and passed to Lanark and to Douglas, and then 
burned all Douglasdale, and all Avondale, and all the lord Hamilton's lands, and clean harried 
them.'^ The castle is said to have been cast down at this time, yet not so wholly but that, in the 
year 1644, when Godscroft wrote, there remained a part called Harries Tower, which was be- 
lieved to have been built by the lord of Clifford, in the reign of King Robert I.^ The pile, which 
in the beginning of the eighteenth century, was described as ' the principal seat of the Marquess 
of Douglass his family, a very considerable great house,''' was burned down by a chance fire, about 
the year 1760. A new mansion was soon afterwards founded near the site of the old, of which 
only one ruined tower now remains, embosomed among ash trees, which seem of scarcely less 
venerable years than itself.^ 

At Parkholm (Parisholm,) on the skirts of Cairntable, in the fastnesses of which the Earl of 
Angus boasted that he could keep himself against all the power of England,^ are vestiges of a 
fortress so placed as to command the approaches to Douglasdale from the west. The traces of 
another place of defence called Tothoral Castle, are to be seen about a mile and a half from 
Douglas Castle, on the brink of the highway which leads to Cumberland. Within the castle 
park, on the east side of the modern mansion, is a mound which has long borne the name of 
Bowcastle.' 

A stone coffin lies in the churchyard, and sepulchral remains of the same kind have been found 
on the farm of Polneil.* 



CRAWFOED JOHN. 

Uilla Johannis priuigni Balduinif* — Crawfordeione^" — Crawfurde Johne." 
(Deanery of Lanark.) (Map, No. 70.) 

This district is the strath or valley which is drained by the Duneaton water and its tributarie.s, 
of which the Snar is the chief. It stretches from the Clyde, on the east, to Cairntable on the bor- 
ders of Kyle, on the west ; and is separated by the burn of Glengonar from the parish of Craw- 
ford Muir, or Crawford Lindsay, on the south. 



1 J. Forduni Scoticlironicon, lib. xiv., cap. vi. Wyntownis "^ Godseroft's Hist, of Doug., p. 270. 

Cronykil, book viii., cap. xli. - Auchinleck Chronicle. ' New Stat. Acct. 

a Godseroft's Hist, of Doug., p. 28. " New Stat. Acct. 

■> Hamilton's Descript. of Lanark., p. 65. " Circa A. D. 1159. Lib. de Calchou, p. 270. 

s Pennant's Tour, vol. i., p. 117. Old Stat. Acct. New i" Circa A. D. 1300. Lib. de Calchou, p. 471. 

Stat. Acct. " A. D. 1492. Act. Dom. Audit., p. 239. 



CRAWfORD JOHN.] 



PAEOCHIALES. 



161 



' The chapel of the vill of John, the step-son of Balclwiu,' was dependent on the parish church 
of Wiston, between the years 1153 and 1159, when Wice the lord of the manor bestowed that 
benefice on the monks of Kelso.^ As a chapehy, conveyed by the grant of the mother church, it 
was confirmed to the monks by King William the Lion, between the years 1189 and 1199;^ by 
Joceline bishop of Glasgow, between the years 1175 and 1199;^ by Sir Walter, the son of Wil- 
liam of Wiston knight, about the year 1220;"' and by Walter bishop of Glasgow, in the year 
1232.* The date of its erection into a parish church does not appear; but it came to be an inde- 
pendent cure probably about the same time that ' the chapel of the vill of Robert the brother of 
Lambin,' which likewise depended on Wiston, was separated from that parish, that is, before the 
year 1279'' The church of ' Crawford John' appears as a rectory in the rental of the abbey of 
Kelso about the year 1300 ;'' and there does not seem much reason to doubt that, under this name, 
we must recognise the church of Baldwin's step-son John. The monks appear, before the middle of 
the next century, to have trausferrcd their right in the benefice to one of the lords of the manor. 
In the year 1450, Master William of Glendonwyne, rector of Crawfurdjohn, appears as a witness 
to charters by the Bishop of Glasgow, and by the dean and chapter of his cathedral church.'^ The 
benefice is not to be found in the rental of the abbey made up about the year 15G7." 

The church, together with the castle, the village, and the mill, stood on the Kirkburn (a rivulet 
which seems to be mentioned under that name, between the years 1180 and 1203,'") where it falls 
into the Duneaton water. A yearly fair, held beside it from a remote time, on the 2Gth of July, 
may perhaps indicate that it was dedicated to Saint Anne, the naother of the Blessed Virgin, whose 
festival was celebrated on tiiat day.'' 

The parsonage is rated in Baiamund's Roll, at £I0(), 13s. 4d. ;'- in the Taxat. Eccl. Scotican. 
sec. XVI., at £100.'^ It yielded to the monks of Kelso, about the year 1300, a yearly sum of 
£6, 13s. 4d.'< 

The Baldwin whose step-son appears as lord of the manor, between the years 1153 and 1159, 
may very probably be identified with Baldwin the sheriff of Lanark, who flourished at the same 
period, and took the surname of Bigar, from his domain of that name.'* ' John, the step-son of 
Baldwin,' again, may perhaps be identified with the ' John of Crauford,' who, along with ' Bal- 
win of Bigar,' is witness to a charter of lands in Lesmahago, by Arnald abbot of Kelso, between 
the years 1147 and 1104.'^ Geoflrey of Crauford, who seems to have been an ecclesiastic, is 
found as a witness to charters by Roger bishop of Saint Andrews, between the years 1 1 89 and 
1202." Sir Reginald of Crauford knight (who was sheriff of Ayr in the reign of King William 
the Lion,'^) along with his sons, William, John, and Adam, is witness to a deed by Hugh, tiie son of 



' Lib. de Calchou, p. 270. 

' Lib. de Calchou, p. 316. 

= Lib. de Calchou, p. 319. 

* Lib. de Calchou, p. 271. 

5 Lib. de Calchou, pp. 229, 3.33. 

' Lib. de Calchou, pp. 278, 279. 

' Lib. de Calchou, p. 471. 

» Regist. Cilasg., pp. 379, 380. 

' Lib. de Calchou, pp. 489-532. 



Lib. de Calchou, p. 82. 

Brev. Aberd. Kalend. Aberd. 

Regist. Glasg., p. Ixviii. 

Regist. Glasg., p. Ixxvi. 

Lib. de Calchou, p. 471. 

See above in Biggar parish. 
« Lib. de Calchou, p. 79. 

' Lib. de Calchou, p. 331. Regist. Priorat. S. Andree, 
154. ^8 Lib. de Melros, pp. 64*-66, 71. 



162 ORIGINES [ckawford john. 

Robert, the son of Walileve, the sen of Baldwin of Bygar, patron of the church of Strathavon, dateJ 
at Lesmahago, in the year 1228.' About the same time, Reginald, another son of Sir Reginald 
of Crauford, was parson of Strathavon.^ John of Crauford, who died before the year 1259, gave 
lands in Glengonar to the Cistercians of Newbottle, and left heirs, who disputed the possession of 
certain lands with Yfilliani of Douglas.^ In the year 1271, Sir Hugh of Crawford knight (who 
was the son of Reginald,*) and Alice bis wife, held the lands of Draffane in Lesmahago of the 
abbey of Kelso. Mention is made at the same time of Reginald, the son and heir of Sir Hugh ;^ 
and in the year 1296, he swore fealty to King Edward I. for his lands in Ayrshire,^ the Crawfords, 
apparently, having ceased by this time to be numbered among the landowners of Lanarkshire.^ 
The descent of the territory of Crawford John is not to be traced with certainty or precision 
through all these generations. Before the middle of the fourteenth century it had been divided, 
apparently between two heirs parceners. In the year 1359, the sheriff of the county, in reckon- 
ing with the exchequer for the castle wards of Lanark, acknowledged to have received 20s. from 
that half of the barony which, from its possessor doubtless, was called Craufordjohn Berclay; 
but from the other half he had nothing, because it was in the hands of Thomas of Jlurray, by 
grant of the crown, so long as he should be hostage for the King.* King James II., in the year 
1451, granted to William earl of Douglas and Avendale, the lands of Culter and the lands of 
Crawford John which belonged to him aforetime, and which he had resigned into the King's 
hands.8 In the year 1 458-9, the same Prince gave to Sir Walter Scot of Kirkurde knight, for his 
good service in the defeat of the Douglases at Arkinholme, the lands of Albintoune, Pharebolme, 
and Glengonaryg, in the barony of Crawfurde John.i" It was found in the year 1492, that the 
lands of Mekle Blakburn, in the barony of Crawfurde Jobne, were part of the lordship of Cal- 
derwood, and as such should be possessed in right of her terce by Margaret Rutherfurde, the 
widow of Sir John Maxwell of Calderwood knight.'^ In the year 1530-1, Sir James Hamilton 
of Fynnart, commonly called the Bastard of Arran, obtained from the crown a charter of the half 
of the barony of Crawfurdjohn ; and before the year 1 537, he obtained the other half in exchange 
for lands in Ayrshire. The barony reverted to the crown on his forfeiture ;i- but it was restored 
to his descendants, and was confirmed to his grandson, Sir James Hamilton of Libberton, in the 
year 1589.''' According to Wishaw, it belonged of old to the Jlonypennies of that Ilk.''' It 
was of the old extent of £GG, 13s. 4d ; '^ and yielded to the crown, in the reign of King James VI. 
a yearly rent of ^251, 6s. Sd.'^ There were sub-vassals on the lands, who held Gilkerscleugh, 
Glespen, Bockoleugh, and others, of the lord of the manor. 

' Lib. de Calchou, p. 153. ' Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., p. 335. 

2 Lib. de Calchou, p. 230. ' Acts Pari. Scot., vol. ii., p. 169. 

3 Regist. de Neub., fol. .\sxii. (See below, in Crawford '" Charter printed in Hay's Vindic. of Eliz. More, p. 79. 
parish.) Indenture cited by Godseroft in Hist, of Doug. " Acta Dom. Concil., pp. 238, 239. 

* Lib. de Melros, p. 174. Dalrymple"s Collect. Scot. '- Acts Pari. Scot., vol. ii., pp. 360, 405. 

Hist., p. LXV. '= Reg. Mag. Sig., x.\iv. 21; xxv. 317,232; x.\xvii. 268, 

= Lib. de Calchou, p. 364. quoted in Anderson's Hist, of the Hamiltons, pp. 284, 285 , 

6 Ragman Rolls, pp. 129, 148, 161. P.-ilg. Illust. Hist. 287. Hamilton's Descript. of Lanark., p. 62. 

Scot., vol. i., p. 153. '■* Hamilt. Descript. Lanark., p. 62. 

'Ragman Rolls, pp. 137, 142, 146, 148. I-'obertson's '= E.xtent of the sheriifdom of Lanark. 

Index. ^® Rentall of Crown Property. 



CRAWFORD.] PAROCHIALES. 163 

There was a castle near the village, the ruins of which might be seen at the end of the last 
century. It stood in the neighbourhood of a semicircular moat/ and its walls were believed to 
have been taken down to supply stones for the erection of the neighbouring mansion of Bon-house, 
which was built, it is said, by King James V. (when the barony was in the crown, about the 
year 1540,) for his mistress, the daughter of the Captain of Crawford, afterwards the wife of the 
laird of Cambusnethan.^ Moss Castle, on the north side of the parish, was another place of 
strength : there was a third at Glendorch ; and the ruins of a fourth were to be traced in the year 
1790, on a projecting rock on the banks of the Snar. The summit of Black-hill or Netherton-hill, 
which looks down on a long stretch of the Clyde, is enclosed by two concentric ramparts of stone, 
distant from each other by about thirty feet, and enclosing an area 135 feet in diameter.3 

Silver mines are said to have been wrought of old on the Kirkburn, near the church and village; 
and near Abington, on the Clyde, are the remains of what are believed to be ' gold scours.' ^ 



CRAWFORD. 

Ecclesia Sancti Constantini de Crauforde' — Ecclesia de Crauford" — Cra- 
thoford" — Craufurd" — Crauforth^ — Crawfurd Lyndissay" — Craufordlinde- 
say'" — Crawford Douglas" — Crawfurd Douglas alias Crawfurd Lyndsay-'- 
Deanery of Lanark.13 (Map, No. 7l.) 

The confines of this large and mountainous territory, on the south and west, are the marches 
between Strathclyde on the one hand, and Annandale and Nithsdale on the other. The waters 
that have their rise in its heights, uniting near the middle of the parish, form the Clyde ; which 
swelled by tributaries from the right and from the left, ' becometh a river before it reach the castle 
of Crawfurd.' The loftiest of the hills is about 2450 feet above the sea level. 

The church, which seems to have stood in or near the village, was dedicated to Saint Con- 
stantine, king and martyr. The Scotish Breviary relates that he succeeded his father in the rule of 
the kingdom of Cornwall, but on the death of his wife, who was a daughter of the King of Lesser 
Britain, he laid down his crown, and withdrew to Ireland, where he embraced a religious life. He 
was a disciple, first of Saint Columba, afterwards of Saint Kentigern. By the latter he was sent 
to preach to the tribes of Galloway, where he attained the dignity of abbot. He was mar- 

' Old Stat. Ace. 1-228-9. Regist. Glasg., pp. 122, 123. A. D. 1250. Lib. 

- Hamilt. Descript. Lanark., p. 62. Mem. of Somcr- Cart. S. Crucis, p. C8. 

"lies. ' A. D. 1165-A. D. 12U. Regist. de Neub., fol. xxx. 

3 Old Stat. Acct. New Stat. Acct. " A. D. 1387. Lib. Cart. S. Crucis, pp. 189-191. 

« Old Stat. Acct. New Stat. Acct. '' A. D. 1426— A. D. 1498. Lib. Cart. S. Crucis, pp. 137 

5 A. D. 1175— A. D. 1178. Lib. Cart. S. Crucis, p. 129,148,253-6. ' 

42. A. D. 1208— A. D. 1215. Lib. Cart. S. Crucis, p. '" A. D. 1359. Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., p. 335. 

55. '> A. D. 1510— 1511. Reg.Mag.Sig.,.\vi. 98, quoted by 

" A. D. 1164. Lib. Cart. S. Crucis, p. 169. A. D. Chalmers, vol. iii., p. 732. '- A. D. 1595. Retours, 

1165-A. D. 1171. Lib. Cart. S. Crucis, p. 24. A. D. '^ Libellus Taxat. Eccl. Scotican. 



164 ORIGINES [cbawford. 

tyred in Kantjre about the year 576, and liis festival was observed by the Scotish church on 
the eleventh of March.i He has often been mistaken for a Scotish King of the same name, 
who in a following age resigned his sceptre, and took the cowl among the Culdees of Saint 
Andrews. 

The church of Saint Constantine of Crawford, with two carucates of land, and all its rights, 
was confirmed to the canons regular of Holyrood by Pope Alexander III., in the year 1164 ;2 by 
King William the Lion, between the years 1165 and 1171 ;^ by Joceline, bishop of Glasgow, 
between the years 1175 and 1178;* by BLshop Walter, between the years 1208 and 1215;^ 
and by Bishop William, in the year 1250.^ From the charter of Bishop Walter, it appears that 
the church land lay on both side.s of the Clyde. In the year 1228-9, an agreement was made 
between Bishop Walter and the Abbot Elyas, in terms of which, saving the rights of Yvo the 
chaplain then instituted, the vicar of Crawford was to have a hundred shillings yearly out of the 
fruits of the benefice, which were estimated at twenty merks. But this compact never took 
effect, the deeds in which it was recorded being defaced from the Registers of the See, and a note 
inserted by the scribe, saying ' that the valuation aforewritten was not then made by Lord 
Walter the bishop ; but David the proctor of the canons of Holyrood asserted that the church had been 
valued at so much, of old.''' A new agreement was made at some time afterwards, before the year 
1 233, by which it was provided that the vicar of Craufurd should take a hundred shillings yearly, 
as they should be assigned to him from the altarage of the church, at the sight of the archdeacon 
of Glasgow, and two of the bishop's clerks ; that the vicar should be answerable for the bishop's 
dues, and for the ordinary and accustomed burdens of the church, the extraordinary burdens being 
discharged by the canons ; and that, on the benefice becoming vacant, the canons should enter on 
its possession for their own proper uses, reserving always to the diocesan the ward of the vicarage, 
so long as it should remain vacant through the non-presentation by the canons of a fit chaplain, or 
one of their own number, if they so preferred.* But neither does this provision appear to have 
taken effect in all its clauses; for in the year 1351, Pope Clement VI., on the petition of the canons, 
setting forth the burning of their granges, houses, and goods, and the spoiling of their chalices, 
books, and vestments in the wars which were in Scotland before the death of Pope John XXII. 
(A. I). 1334,) issued a bull uniting the church to the monastery of Holyrood, so that on the death 
or resignation of ' the rector commonly called the vicar' then in possession, the canons should, even 
without the consent of the diocesan, appropriate the whole benefice to their own uses, under bur- 
den always of such due provision as the bishop should appoint to a perpetual vicar serving the 
cure, to be nominated by the canons, and instituted by the ordinary. Before this time the canons 
had been accustomed to receive, in right of their rectory, a pension of eighteen merks of silver 
yearly.^ Sir William Clerk was vicar, in the year 1246,1" ^nd Sir -John Masone, in the year 1435.^' 

' Brev. Aberd., prop. SS. pro temp, hyem., fol. lx\'ii. ^ Lib. Cart. S. Crucis, p. 55. '^ Lib. Cart. S. Crucis, p. 68, 

Kalend. Aberd. Regist. Aberd., vol. i., pref., p. Ixxxvi. 7 Regist. Glasg., pp. 122-124. 

J. Forduni Scotichronicon, lib. iii., cap. xxvi. ^ Lib. Cart. S. Crucis, p. 57. 

- Lib. Cart. S. Crucis, p. 169. » Lib. Cart. S. Crucis, pp. 189-191. 

3 Lib. Cart. S. Crucis, p. 24. '*• Lib. Cart. S. Crucis, p. 137. 

» Lib. Cart. S. Crucis, p. 42. " Lib. Cart. S. Crucis, p. 129. 



CRAWFORD.] PAROCHIALES. 165 

Sir John, the vicar pensioner of CrawfurJlindesay, in the year 1459, exchanged that benefice with 
Sir Duncan Zhaluloh for the rectory of the church of Ranpatrick.' In the year 1498, it was found 
by James Duke of Ross, the royal bishop elect of Saint Andrews, to whom, as judge arbiter, a 
dispute as to the vicarage had been referred, that the canons should pay the bishop's dues yearly, 
and that Master Patrick Donaldson, and his successors, the vicars pensioners for the time, should 
have the ancient pension of fifteen merks a-year for themselves, and twelve merks for a curate, or 
if they chose to serve the church in person, twenty-seven merks a-year, free from all burden, ex- 
cept the cure of souls, together with a dwelling-place, a croft, and pasture for two cows, as the 
use had been from time immemorial.- 

When Bishop Joceline confirmed the church to the canons of Ilolyrood, between the years 1175 
and 1178, he specially included in his charter ' the chapel of the castle j'^ and from a subsequent 
confirmation by Bishop Walter, between the years 1208 and 1215, we learn that it was endowed 
with two acres of land beside the castle.^ By a charter dated from ' the chapel of Saint Thomas 
the Martyr, beside the castle of Crauford, on the Friday next before the feast of the nativity of 
the Blessed Virgin' in the year 1327, David of Lyndsay, lord of Crauford, the son and heir of Sir 
Alexander of Lyndsay, gives to the Cistercians of Newbottle in Lothian a certain portion of his 
lands of the Smethwod, lying between the burn of Powtrail and the water of Daer, at the southern 
extremity of the parish, on condition that they should cause each of the chapels of Saint Thomas 
the Martyr beside the castle of Crauford, and of Saint Lawrence the Martyr at the Byr (de le Byr, 
apparently in East Lothian,) to be served by one monk or secular jiriest, and should uphold the 
buildings and appointments of the chapels. To the chaplain of Saint Thomas, for his dwelling- 
place and garden, there was assigned the ancient manor of ' the mains' or demesne land, together 
with pasture in Ragardgil for one horse, five cows, and as many calves not more than a year old, 
two acres and a half of meadow in the meadow of the Pynnyr ; as much feal as should suffice 
from the place called Leuedymos ; and fishing in the Clyde for a net drawn by one man. The 
chaplain of Saint Lawrence was provided in two acres and a half of land beside his chapel, for a 
manse and croft, together with pasture over the whole pasture lands of the Byr (outside the 
enclosures and meadows) for one horse, two cows, and two calves not more than a twelvemonth old, 
and the common easements of feal in Glademor (doubtless in East Lothian).^ The lord of Crawford 
Lindsay, by another charter, dated at his castle of Crauford on the Wednesday next after the feast of 
Saint Dyonisius and his companions (9. October,) in the year 1328, became bound to the monks, 
that if they should be ejected from the piece of land formerly belonging to the lords of Durrysder, 
(the neighbouring parish in Nithsdale,) lying between Balnufesburne and Mereburne, which he had 
given them for the maintenance of two priests serving in the chapels of Saint Thomas the Martyr, 
near the castle of Crauford, and of Saint Lawrence the Martyr, at Le Byr, he and his successors 
should grant them as much land in another place adjacent to the lands of the monastery.^ ' The 
chapel of vSaint Thomas' is, doubtless, to be identified with ' the chapel of the castle,' confirmed by 

' Lib. Cart. S. Crueis, pp. 148, 149. ' Lib. Cart. S. Crucis, p. 55. 

- Lib. Cart. S. Crueis, pp. "253-255. ' Regist. de Neubot., foil, xxxiv, xxxv. 

** Lib. Cart. S. Crueis, p. 42. "^ Regist. de Neubot., ibl. xxxv. 



166 ORIGINES [crawford. 

Bishops Joceline and Walter to tbe Austin Canons of Holyrood, along with the parish church, but 
relinquished by them, we may suppose, to the Cistercians of Newbottle, under the provisions of the 
charters which have been recited. It seems to have been in the advowson of the lord of the manor.^ 
The ruins of a second chapel are to be seen on the lands of Glengonar, which of old belonged to the 
abbey of Newbottle, near the mouth of a small stream which flows into the glen called Kirkgill. 
Blaeu's map shows a church near the Clyde ; and a burying-ground may yet be traced on the abbey's 
lands of Glencapel, which were divided from the parish church by a tributary of the Clyde, the Hur- 
leburle or Hurleburn. There is a place on the east bank of the Daer, opposite to tbe monks' lands 
of the Smethwod, which is called the Nunnery ; but of the origin of that name nothing is known. 

In the Libellus Taxationum Ecclesiae Scoticanae, the rectory is valued at £40. In the year 
1561, both parsonage and vicarage were let by the canons of Holyrood for £86, 13s. 4d., the vicar 
pensioner returning his portion of the benefice at £32, lOs.^ The possessions of the Cistercians of 
Newbottle, within the parish, had been made tithe-free so early as the year 1223, by a composi- 
tion between them and the Augustinians of Holyrood.'* 

In the reign of King William the Lion, great part of the territory of Crawford was held in lord- 
ship of Swein or Swan the son of Thor the son of Swein, by William of Lindsay,'' whose descend- 
ants both increased the original domain, and (apparently before the middle of the thirteenth 
century) came to hold it of the crown in chief. King Robert II., between the years 1370 
and 1390, granted a charter to Sir James of Lindesay knight, of the castle of Crawforde with 
the barony of the same, except tbe lands of Holcluch, Buchowys, Poltrayle and Herthope.^ 
He had from the same King, in the year 1381, a grant of the lordship of the lands of Ley, 
Cartland, of Foulwod and of Bondyngton, in Lanarkshire, to be holden of him in chief as 
baron of Crawforde Lindesay.^ His cousin and heir, Sir David of Lindsay of Crawford and 
Glenesk, was created Earl of Crawford in the year 1398, and had from King Robert III. 
a charter of the barony of Crawfurd with jurisdiction of regality." It remained with his descend- 
ants until the year 1495-6, when it was granted by the crown to the Earl of Angus, whose 
son and heir had a charter in the year 1510-11, of the barony of Crawford Lindsay to be 
thenceforth called the barony of Crawford Douglas.* In the year 1359, it paid for the ward of 
the King's castle at Lanark, the sum of twenty shillings.^ In the year 1479 the demesne lands 
of Crawford and the lands of Midlok yielded twenty-four merks of yearly rent ; the lands of the 
Crukitstane, yielded fifteen merks; and the lands of Lytel Clyde, fifteen merks.'" The whole 
barony was of the old extent of £200, being the value of each of the baronies of Kylbride, Avon- 
dale, Lesmahago, Douglas, and Carnwath. Only one barony in the shire was taxed at a higher 
sum, namely that of Bothwell, which was rated at £300.^' 

The Lindsays, at an early period, gave large tracts of their territory to the church. About the 

' Priv)' Seal Reg., ii. 18, cited by Chalmers, vol. iii., ' Robertson's Index, p. 141, no. 64, 

p- 734. - Book of Assumptions. * Reg. JIag. Sig., xiii. 235; xvi. 98, quoted by Chalmers, 

•* Regist. de Newbot., fol. xxviii. vol. iii., p. 732. 

* Regist. de Newbot., fol. xxx. " Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., p. 335. 

= Regist. Mag. Sig., p. 172, no. 13. '<> Acta Dom. Audit., p. 89. Act. Dom. Con., pp. 17, 18. 

" Regist. Mag. Sig., p. 157, no. 15; p. 175, no. 34. " Extent of the Shire of Lanark. 



CRAWFORD. 



PAEOCHIALES. 167 



year 1170, William of LyndJesay bestowed on the Cistercians of Newhottle, a certain portion of 
his land of Crawford, namely, the land which lay ' to the south-west of Brochyralewyn (now the 
Elvan water) and to the north of Deiher, namely, as Brochyralewyn runs downwards from its 
spring into the Clud, and as Polneternoch (the Pitrenick, a tributary of the Powtrail) descends 
from the hills into Deiher, and as Deiher flows into Clud, and along Clud downwards to 
Brochyralewyn.' He reserved from the grant (which is witnessed by David his heir, and 
by Walter of Lynddesay) the beasts and birds of game, and the services due to Our Lord 
the King, and to Swane the son of Thor and his heirs.i David of Lynddesay granted to the 
monks a charter confirming the gift of his father William ; which was confirmed also by Pope 
Innocent III. in the year 1203, by King William the Lion,- and by David of Lynddesay (the 
son of David of Lynddesay) the grandson of the first granter.^ Between the years 1214 and 
1232, David of Lynddesay, the son of David of Lynddesay, gave to the same monks a portion of 
the territory of Crauford, of which the marches are thus described : ' from the head of Glengoneuer 
downwards by the burn between his own land and the land of John the son of Reginald of Crau- 
ford, to the land of the church of Crauford, and by the top of the hill between the said church land 
and Glencaple to the head of Hurleburle, and so by the top of the hill to Byrkebanke, and so 
athwart the moss to the head of Glencaple, and by the hill-top between Brochyralwyn (Elvan) 
and Glengoneuer to the head of Langtoloch, and so by the hill-top to the head of Glengoneuer.' 
He reserved only the birds and beasts of sport.* By another charter he gave to the monks (for 
the soul's rest of William his brother) another portion of his land in the territory of Crauford, 
namely, the whole land called Brocheralewyn, with all its rights (birds and beasts of game 
excepted,) by these boundaries : ' on the west side from Arthur's well (a fonte Arthuri) to the 
summit of the mountain which is above the mine (la minere,) thence to the summit of the moun- 
tain above Balgal, thence on the north part from the head of Balgyl to the head of Glencaple, 
thence to the upper hill (ad superiorem collera,) which is on the east side of Sarchedochelch, 
thence downwards across towards the south by Birkebancke to Fulsych, and thence to the burn of 
Brocheralewyn.'S In the years 1232 and 1239, King Alexander II. confirmed to the monks, 
the grant which David of Lynddesay, the son of David of Lynddesay, had made to them, of 
the lands in the territory of Crauford, called Glengoneuer and Glencaple and Brochiralewyn.*' 
Gerard of Lynddesay, the son of David of Lynddesay, confirmed the gifts as well of his grand- 
father William of Lynddesay, as of his brother David of Lynddesay, by a charter, which is wit- 
nessed by John of Crauford and Hugh of Crauford. In copying this writ into the Register of 
the Monastery, the convent scribe has added the following note : ' William of Lynddesay, who 
gave the land of Brochiralwyne and Polneternoch, had a son named David, who confirmed the 
aforesaid gift, as appears above. The said David had two sons ; namely, David ^ his first-born, 

' Regist. de Newbot., fol. xxx. ' Before the year 1237, David of Lynddesay, the son 

® Regist. de Newbot., foil, xxx, I. of David of Lynddesay, for the soul's weal of his brother 

^ Regist. de Newbot., foil, xxxi, xxvii. Walter of Lynddesay, gave to the monks of Newbottle, that 

* Regist. de Newbot., fol. xxx, xxxi. salt-work in the Carse of Forth, which King William the 

* Regist. de Newbot., fol. xxxi. Lion gave to the granter'a grandfather, William of Lynd- 
® Regist. de Newbot., fol. xxxi. desay, Regist. de Newb., foil, xxxviii, xxxix, xxxvii. 



168 ORIGINES [cbawford. 

who gave the land which is between Brocbiralwyn and the burn of Glengoneuer. And either 
donor reserved to himself the birds and beasts of prey. But Gerard, the brother of this second 
David, gave liberty of forest, reserving nothing to him or his, except timber for building to his 
burgesses of Crauford.'' The allusion in the latter part of the note is to a charter by which Gerard 
of Lynddesay confirms the grants of his grandfather William, and of his elder brother David, 
and for the special love which he has to the house of Newbottle, grants farther that the monks 
shall hold all the lands which they had thus received, freely and fully, without any reservation of 
the beasts and birds of prey, of forestry, or of any other thing, except that the granter's burgesses 
of Crauford, according to the tenor of their common charter, shall have easement of the wood of 
Glengoneuer, but only for the purposes of building, and at sight of the forester of the abbey.^ 
King Alexander II., at the suit of Gerard of Lynddesay, farther erected the whole territory of the 
monks in Crauford into a free forest.^ Between the years 1214 and 1249, John of Crauford, for 
the souls' weal of himself and of Osanna his wife, bestowed upon the monks a certain portion of 
his land in the territory of Crauford, namely, ' from the place where the burn of Lauercatsalanue 
falls into the stream of Goneuer, upwards by the said burn to the top of the hill, thence westwards 
as the waters descend into Glengoneuer above the mine (desuper mineram) to the marches between 
the granter's land and Nithsdale.' This grant he made in order that the brethren of the convent 
should have an honest ' pittance' or addition to their common fare, yearly on the feast of Saint 
Michael, during the granter's life, and on the anniversary of his death, after he should be taken to 
his rest.* By a charter dated from the chapel of Saint Thomas the JIartyr, beside the castle of 
Crauford, on the Friday next before the feast of the nativity of the Blessed Virgin (8. Septem- 
ber) in the year 1327, David of Lynddesay, lord of Crauford, the son and heir of Sir Alexander 
of Lynddesay, deceased, confirmed the afore-written grant of Gerard of Lyndessay, and of new 
bestowed on the monks, for the souls' weal of himself and of Mary his wife, all his escheats and 
amerciaments of the aforesaid lands, and of the men dwelling on the same, as well of war as of peace ; 
and granted that the monks should hold the lands, ' with gallows and pit, sock and sak, tol and 
them, and infangandthefis,' and all rights and franchises to the court of a baron belonging, so that 
neither the grantor nor his heirs should have right to come within the said lands to make sum- 
mons or attachment, or to take prise, talliage, or carriage, but that the lands and the men dwelling 
on them should be altogether free and exempt from the granter's barony of Crauford in all things.^ 
This grant was confirmed by King Robert I., with an exemption of the lands from suit of court to 
the King or his heirs." The same David of Lynddesay, lord of Crauford, son of Sir Alexander of 
Lynddesay, by another charter, dated at the chapel of Saint Thomas the Martyr, on the Friday 
next before the feast of the nativity of Our Lady, in the year 1.327 (and confirmed by King 
Robert I.,) bestowed on the monks a part of his land of the Smethewod, (together with all the 
franchises which he had granted to them in the lands which they held before,) by these marches : 

' Regist. de Neubot., fol. xxxi, xxxii. was in the territory of Crawford John, as indeed more 

" Regist. de Neubot., fol. xxxii, xxxiii. than one marking on the margin of the Register seems to 

^ Regist. de Neubot., fol. xxxii. denote. * Regist. de Neubot., fol. xxxiii, xxxiiij. 

* Regist. de Neubot., fol. xxxii. But perhaps this land " Regist. de Neubot., fol. xxxiiij. 



CRAWFORD.] PAEOCHIALES. 169 

'the west of the Merecluch (Merebuvne), as it falls into Payltrayl (Polentrayl, Powtrail,) thence 
by the course of the water as Payltrayl falls into Deiher, according to the old marches between 
Smethwod and Glenhumphar (Glenphumpward,) thence upwards by Deiher to Kyrckhopmuth 
(Kyrkmuthop,) thence upwards by the burn of Kyrchop to the little burn of the Buchswyre, 
and so ascending to the head of that burn, thence by the hill top between the Cumblau and 
Kyrkhop, and thence by the hill top of the Cumblau to the Mereburne.'^ These boundaries, 
for the most part, may still be traced, and they show that the Cistercians of Newbottle possessed 
nearly all the western half of the parish. In July 1467, David earl of Crauford and lord 
Lyndyssay, appeared before the King at Perth, in the fore-chamber of the dwelling-place of John 
of Haddingtoune, and there, in consideration of the zeal, gratitude, and devotion which his noble 
forefathers had in their time shewn towards the monastery of Newbotyll, resigned in the King's 
hands the lordship of the lands of Fremure in the domain of Craufurdlyndissay, given to the abbey 
by his progenitors aforesaid, together with all right to the property or possession of the same, and 
to the mine and lead-pit (mineram et plumbifodinam) in the lands which were claimed by the 
monks. The Sovereign thereupon gave livery of the lands, with the mine and lead-pit, to the 
monastery;^ and, on the 15th of November following, issued a charter erecting the whole lands, 
both lordship and property, into a free barony, to be holden of the crown, with all accustomed 
privileges, without any other service than the orisons of the monks for the King and his succes- 
8ors.3 Under this charter the monastery had seisin on the 21st of December following, at 
' Leglencapilswyr,' the chief messuage of the lands, in presence of David Lyndissay and Andrew 
Blayr, esquires ; Alexander Levingstoune being the sherifl', the proctor for the abbey being Dene 
William Cawdinhed, the cellarer.^ About the year 1328, AVilliam abbot of Newbottle granted 
to Adam Hunter and his heirs, the office of chief sergeant in all matters of life and limb throughout 
the monastery's laud of Craufurd, but so that he should not exercise any right within the said 
land by any authority other than that of the monks, nor make summons or attachment, nor take 
prise, talliage, or carriage, nor do any other thing against the liberties of the abbey.' A note 
which follows this grant in the Register shews that in surrendering the game of the lands, David 
of Lynddesay took from the convent a licence of hunting in it during his own lifetime.® In 
the year 1479, John Hunter, bailie of Crawfurd, was ordered to enter his person in ward in the 
Blackness, for contempt of a sentence by the Lords Auditors of Council, enjoining him to restore 
to Master John Slaxwell, eight oxen and a cow, which he had taken from Maxwell's servants in 
the town of Craufurde.^ In the year 1595, John Carmichel of Medowflat was served heir of his 
father in ' the office of bailiery of the lands of Crawfurdmure otherwise Friermure, with the yearly 
fee of ten pounds from the fermes of the aforesaid lands.'* At the Reformation, the monastery of 
Newbottle had nine several possessions in Crawfordmure, yielding it in all £111, 5s. yearly." 
The Lindsays had lay vassals under them. In the year 1370, King David II. confirmed the 

' Regist. de Newbot., foil, xxxiv, xxxv. ^ Regist. de Neubot., fol. xxxvi. 

- Regist. de Neubot., ad fin. " Regist. de Neubot., fol. xxxvi. 

^ Regist. de Neubot., ad fin. ' Act. Dom. Concil., pp. 11,32. 

"* Kegist. de Neubot., ad fin. ^ Retour, no. 6. ^ Book of Assumptions. 



170 ORIGINES [CRAWFORD. 

grants which James of Lyndesay, the son and heir of the deceased Sir James of Lyndesay knight, 
made to William Tailfer, of the land of Hareclouche, and of the yearly rent of thirteen shillings 
and fourpence, from the fermes of the land of Sludelok, in the barony of Crawforde Lyndesay.^ 
King Robert II., in the year 1377, confirmed a charter by King David II., in the year 1357, 
granting or confirming to John of Allint'm, his clerk, all the lands in the barony of Crauford 
Lyndesay which aforetime belonged to Richard of Rothirford, and were then in the King's hands 
by reason of the forfeiture of William of Rothirford, his son and heir. The lands were to hold 
of the overlord.- There were other vassals in the territory, in wLich also the crown seems to have 
had lands until a recent period.^ 

Notice of the castle of Crawford is found so early as between the years 1175 and 1178.'' It is 
described by AVishaw at the beginning of the last century as ' a square court with much lodging 
in it, lying upon the river Clyde, just opposite to the kirk and town of Crawfurd.'^ It bad its 
hereditary captain or constable. In the year 1595 John Carmichael of Medowflat (in the parish 
of Covington,) was served heir to bis great grandfather, John Carmichael, in the keeping of the 
castle of Crawfurd Douglas, with its mills, and in the oflace of baillie of the lands and barony of 
Crawfurd Douglas.^ From his descendant, the Captain of Crawford, the edifice was purchased by 
William the first Marquis of Douglas, who ' added much new building to the old castle.' ^ 
The bailiary of Crawford in the year 1479 belonged to James lord Hamilton, who was found en- 
titled to recover from John Lindissay of Colvinton, his deputy in the oflice, the value of the profits 
and escheats underwritten : fourteen seisin oxen, four cows, twelve wedders of a bloodwyt ; five 
cushions out of the castle, eleven pieces of pewter vessels, three score stones of wool ; a cow, of a 
deforcement ; a salt mart, a mask fat, three ' mate gudis,' three oxen hides, two crooks also out of 
the castle of Crawford ; besides six pounds for fines of greenwood, muirburn, deforcements, and 
others.* 

The village is said to have been erected into a burgh of barony in the reign of King William 
the Lion. It certainly possessed burghal privileges in the reign of his successor. Gerard of 
Lynddesay, in a charter which is confirmed by King Alexander II., reserves from his grant to the 
Cistercians of Newbottle, the right of his burgesses of Crauford, according to their common charter, 
to the easement of the woods of Glengoner, but for purposes of building only, and at the sight of 
the abbey's forester.^ The charter here referred to seems also to have conveyed to the burgesses 
a portion of land to be held by them in common of the lord of the manor. In the year 1790, the 
township contained twenty ' freedoms,' which until fifteen years before that time were cultivated 
in the way of ' run rig.' Each freedom consisted of four or five acres, made up of parcels of every 
kind and quality of land within the township ; and the holder, whom the popular speech styled a 
' laird,' and his wife a ' lady,"" had the right of pasturing so many sheep, cows, and horses on the 
hill or burgh common. Besides these burgesses, there was a subordinate rank of sub-vassals, who 



Regist. Mag. Sig., p. G7, no. 226. ^ Descript. of Lanark., p. 61. 

Regist. Mag. Sig., p. 149, no. 107. *■ Descript. of Lanark., p. 60. ^ Retour, no. S. 

Wishaw's Descript. of Lanark., pp. 60-62. ^ Act. Dom. Concil., p. 33. 

Lib. Cart. S. Crucis, p. 4"3. ' Regist. de Neubot., foil, xxxi, xxxii, xxxiii. 



WANDAL.] PAROCHIALES. ]7] 

feued from the burgess ' lairds ' as much ground as served for a house and yard. The community 
was governed by a birlaw, or ' birley,' court, in which every holder of a freedom had a vote, if he 
were resident; if he dwelt elsewhere, the tenant of his freedom voted for him. The chief 
business of the little assembly, which is said to have been noisy and unruly, was to determine the 
number of cattle that each burgess should pasture on the common.^ 

The mines of Crawford have been famous for many centuries. They are mentioned, as has been 
seen, in charters of the reign of King Alexander II. In the year 1265, the sheriff of Lanark, in 
reckoning with the exchequer, claimed credit for forty-two shillings which he had paid for the 
carriage of seven carts of lead (septem carrat' plumbi) from the moor of Crawford to the Kind's 
burgh of Eutherglen. In the year 1466, there was a suit before the Lords Auditors of Causes in 
Parliament, at the instance of Patrick abbot of Newbottle, against James lord Hamilton, for the 
recovery of a thousand stones of lead ore which the Lord Hamilton had carried away from the 
abbey's lands of Fremure.^ In the end of the following year the abbey's right to the mine and 
lead-pit in the lands of Fremure, was specially recognised both by the lord of Craufurdlyndissay 
and by the crown.^ The mines of Crawfordmure were wrought, both for lead and gold, at the 
expense of the crown, in the reigns of King James IV., and of the three princes who succeeded 
him on the throne. An account of these enterprises, written in the year 1619, has been printed 
for the Bannatyne Club, with the title of ' The Discoverie and Historie of the Gold Mynes in Scot- 
land, by Stephen Atkinson." The gold was dug for in the lower part of Glengonar; the gold 
' scours ' were in the valley of the Elvan. Wishaw speaks of the lead mines as being in his time 
' great and profitable.'^ 



WANDAL. 

QuendaP — Hertesheuede" — Hertysheuid' — Hertside^ — Hartsyde alias 

Wandell." Deanery of Lanark.i" Map, No. 72.) 

THRorcn this hilly territory six streams run westward to the Clyde. The largest is the Quan 
or Wan, which gave the parish its oldest name, as the more recent appellation has been taken from 
the Hartshead or Hartsyde burn. The holms along the Clyde, and its tributary waters, are fruitful. 
Great part of the district seems of old to have been covered with woods, which have left abundant 
memorials of their extent in the existing names of places. 

The parish of Wandal was joined to that of Lamington in the year 1 608." 

It was found by the ancient and wise men of Cumbria, who assembled at the bidding of David their 

' Old Stat. Acct. = Act. Dom. Audit., pp. 5, 6. " A. D. 1359. Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., p. 335. 

' Regist. de Neub., ad fin. 8 A. D. 1484-5. Acta. Dom. Cone, pp. 102*, 103*. 

* Descript. of Lanark., p. 61. s A. D. 1613. Retours. 

s Circa A. D. 1116. Regist. Glasg., p. 4. '» Baiamund. 

" A. D. 1225. Regist. Glasg., pp. HI, 113. " Kirk Session Records. Presbytery Records. 



172 



ORIGINES 



[w.j 



Prince about the year 11] 6, to make inquest of the possessions of the cliurch of Glasgow, that the 
lands of ' Quendal ' belonged to that see in old times.^ There is not much room for doubt that 
Quendal is to be identified with the Wandal of after days ; but it does not appear that the suc- 
cessors of Saint Kentigern held any right in the parochial benefice or its advowson, which seems 
rather to have belonged to the lord of the manor of Hertesheuede. 

The rectory of Hartsyde is taxed in Baiamund's Roll, at £G6, 13s. 4d. j^ in the Taxatio Ec- 
clesiae Scotticanae sec. xvi., at J58 j^ and in the Libellus Taxationum Regni Scotiae, at £16, 13s. 
4d. At the Reformation, the parson, Master Nichol Crawford, reported that the benefice yielded 
four chalders and six boils of meal yearly, including fourteen bolls paid to the Cald Chapel ; and 
that the whole was let to the laird of Liftnories for £G6, 13s. 4d.^ The church stood at the 
northern extremity of the parish.^ 

The dependent chapel of the Cald or Cat stood on the Hawkwood burn, near the Rammallweil 
Craio-s, where a bridge was ordered to be built on the Clyde in the year 1661.^ A barrow, about 
five yards in height and twenty in diameter, stood in its neighbourhood, beside another of less di- 
mensions, which, on being levelled, was found to cover sepulchral remains.'' 

The parochial territory seems, from an early period, to have been divided into two portions. The 
smaller, then known by the name of Quendal, was found to belong to the see of Glasgow about the 
year 1116;* and it appears to have continued in the possession of the bishopric until after the year 
1484-5.^ The larger moiety of Hartesheued belonged to a family who took name from the lands. 
' 'William of Hertesheuede, sheriff of Lanark,' appears as a witness to charters of King Alex- 
ander II., dated at Cadyow, in the year 1225.'" ' Alan of Hertisheued ' is witness to a charter by 
David bishop of Saint Andrews in the year 1240 ;'ii and in the year 1296, Aleyn of Herteshede 
swore fealty to King Edward I. for his lands in the Merse.'- In the year 1359, the barony of 
Hertysheuid was in the ward of the crown.i^ King David II., between the years 1329 and 1370, 
granted to William of Jardine (de Gardino,) the ancestor of the knightly house of Applegarth, the 
lands and barony of Hertishuyde in the shire of Lanark.'-* With his descendants it continued until 
the rei^n of King Charles I., when it passed to the family of Douglas.'s In the year 1491, the 
forty shilling lands of Ilartside were let in lease by John Jardin of Apilgirth to Sir John the Ross 
of Montgrenan knight, and his tenants.i^ John Jardane of Apilgirth, in the year 1613, was served 
heir to his father, Sir Alexander, ' in the lands and barony of Hartsyde, otherwise Wandell, with 
the mills and advowson of churches, of the old extent of forty pounds; excepting always the eight 
merk land of Wandelldyik ; the twenty-five shilling land, of the six merk and ten shilling lands 
of Cauldchapell otherwise Burnefute; the three merk land of the aforesaid six merk land, and ten 
shillino- lands of Cauldchapell otherwise Burnefute ; and the twenty shilling land of the lands of 



' Regist. Glasg., p. 4. 

2 Regist. Glasg., p. Ixviii. 

' Regist. Glasg.. p. Ixxvi. 

■* Book of Assumptions. 

= Blaeu. New .Stat. Acct. 

" Acts Pari. Scot., vol. rii., pp. 54, 66. 

' New Stat. Acct. 

<' Regist. Glasg., p. 4. 



» Acta Dom. Cone, pp. 102*, 103*. 
'» Regist. Glasg., pp. Ill, 113. 
' * Lib. de Calchou, p. 322. 
'- Ragman Rolls, p. 151, 
'•* Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., p. 335. 
" Robertson's Index, p. 33, no. 28. 
^^ Wishaw's Descript. of Lanark., p. 



Act. Dom. Audit., p. 159. Act. Dom. Cone, p. 202. 



LAMiNGTON.] PAROCHIALES. 173 

Davingshaw otherwise Wodend ; the lands thus excepted, extending in all to fourteen merks and 
five shillings of the lands of the barony.' i 

The old manor place of ' The Bower of Wandall,' said by tradition to have been a hunting- 
lodge of King James V., stood on a point of land washed on three sides by the Clyde, opposite to 
the village of Roberton. 

The summit of the cone-shaped eminence of Arbory hill, which rises at the southern extremity 
of the parish to a height of about five hundred feet above the waters of the Clyde, has been forti- 
fied by a double ditch and rampart, within which a rude wall of stone, nine yards in thickness 
and four in height, encloses an area about forty-four yards in diameter.^ 



LAMINGTON. 

Lambinistun^ — Lambyniston^ — Lambyngyston^ — Lammyntoun'' — Larayn- 
toun' — Lamingtoune.'' Deanery of Lanark.* (Map, No. 73.) 

This small parish lies along the right bank of the Clyde, which here begins to flow through 
wide and fertile holms. Of four streams that water the territory, the Lamington burn is the chief. 

The church may probably be referred to the reign of Saint David, or to that of his successor, 
King Malcolm the Maiden, when ' Lambin ' flourished, from whom this parish derived its name, 
as that of Roberton took its title from ' Robert the brother of Lambin.' 9 He himself, between the 
years 1147 and 11 64, had a grant of the lands of Draffane and Dardarach in Lesmahago, from the 
monks of Kelso 5^" and about the same time ' -James the son of Lambin' obtained from Richard 
of Moreville, the Constable of Scotland, a charter of the lands of Loudon and others in Ayrshire.^' 
The benefice of Lamington appears to have been at all times a free parsonage in the advowson of 
the lords of the manor. 

The church stood near the southern extremity of the parish, on the north bank of the Laming- 
ton burn, where it flows into the Clyde. A neighbouring spring bears the name of ' Saint Innian's 
Well,' 12 indicating probably that the church was dedicated to Saint Ninian, the Apostle of the 
Southern Picts, or perhaps to Saint Inan, a confessor in Scotland, whose feast was kept on the 
18th of August.i^ Master Bernard Bailye, who was rector of Lamington from the year 15361* to 
the year I541,i5 died before the close of the year 1560, leaving a natural son, who, like his father, 
figures in charters of the Cistercian Nuns of North Berwick.i" 

' Retour, no. 480. - New Stat. Acct. " Charter in the Loudon charter chest, cited in Dal- 

" A. D. 1266. Lib. de Calchou, p. 155. rymple's Collect. Hist. Scot., p. Lxv. '^ yij gtat. Acct. 

■■ A. D. 1329. Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., p. 91. '■' The northern Irish had a Saint Enan, whose festival 

* A. D. 1359. Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., p. 335. they observed on the 25th of March. Reeves' Ecclesiast. 

" A. D. 1539. Regist. Glasg., p. 554. Antiq. of Down, Connor, and Dromore, pp. 285, 377. 

' A. D. 1471. Act. Dom. Audit., p. 19. '•• Privy Seal Reg., x. 163-4, cited by Chahners, vol. iii., 

= Baiamund. p. 743. Regist. Glasg., p. 554. 

' Lib. de Calchou, p. 270. See above in Roberton parish. '* Lib. Colleg. N. D. Glasg., p. 17. 

'" Lib. de Calchou, p. 75. '« Carte de North Berwic, pp. 78, 82. 



174 OEIGINES [culter. 

The parsonage is rated in Baiamunfl's Roll, at £66, 13s. 4il. ;' in the Taxatio Ecclesiae Scoti- 
canae sec. xvi., at L.58 ;^ and in the Libellus Taxationum Regni Scotiae, at X16, 13s. 4d. 

The descent of the manor from Lambin, its first lord known to record, cannot be traced with 
any precision. In the year 1266, ' Robert the Norman (Robertus dictus Franc') of Lambin- 
stun, the son and heir of Henry, the son and heir of the deceased William of Ardach,' 
renounced, in favour of the monks of Kelso, all claim to the lands of Ardach in the fief of 
Lesmahago.3 ' William the son of Robert of Lambynstone, an esquire of Scotland,' was 
kept in prison at Fotheringay castle, by order of King Edward I., from April to October 
in the year 1299.* He is doubtless to be identified with the ' William of Lamygton' who 
swore fealty to that sovereign about the year 1296.^ In the year 1329, the lands were in the 
possession of Alexander of Seton, who compounded with the King for bis entry of the barony of 
Lambyniston by a payment of twenty pounds.'' King David II. granted a charter ' to Margaret 
Seaton, daughter to umquhill Sir Alexander Seaton, of her togher of the twenty pound land of 
Lamingtoun in the shire of Lanark.'' The same King, in the year 1367-8, granted a charter ' to 
William Baillie of the lands of Lambingtoun in Lanarkshire ;'* and with his descendants they still 
continue. The barony, which was of the old extent of forty pounds,^ paid, in the year 1359, 
twenty shillings for the ward of the King's castle at Lanark. i" 

The manor place of Lamington is described by Wishaw, at the beginning of the last century, as 
' ane old house seated upon the river of Clyde, near to the kirk, in a pleasant place, and well 
planted.' The lairds, he adds, are chiefs of the name of Bailie; are ' reputed ane old family, and 
have in this shyre, and in Lothian, land worth twenty thousand merks yearly, that hath all been 
possest by this family above these three hundred years.' ^^ 



CULTEK. 

Cultyr''—Cultir"—Cultre"— Culter.'' Deanery of Lanark."^ (Map, No. 74.) 

By a sentence of the Lords Commissioners of Teinds, in the year 1794, a considerable part of 
the parish of Kilbucho, in Tweeddale, was annexed to Culter, which it borders on the north-east.'^ 

The parish is a long tract of land, partly level and fruitful holms, partly upland pastures, lying 
on the banks of the Culter water, which, flowing from the south-west to the north-east, falls into 
Clyde. That river bounds the district on the west : its eastern limits are the Culter Fells, which 
rise somewhat abruptly from the valley to a height, in certain points, of 2330 feet above the sea. 

' Regist. Glasg., p. Ixviii. ^ Regist. Glasg., p. Ixxvi. ' Retours. Extent of the shire of Lanark. 

2 Lib. de Calchou, pp. 155-158. '" Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., p. 335. 

* Chronicon de Lanercost, p, 400. *' Descript. of Lanark., p. 59. 

' Palgrave's Illust. Scot. Hist., vol. i., p. 196. '= A. D. r208— A. D. 1211. Regist. Glasg., p. 86. 

« Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., p. 91. " A. D. 1228-9. Lib. de Calchou, p. 153. 

' Robertson's Inde.i, p. 62, no. .39. " A. D. 1296. Ragman Rolls, p. 165. 

8 Robertson's Index, p. 36, no. 28. Nisbet's Heraldry, '* Baiamund. 

vol. ii., appendix, p. 136. '* New Stat. Acct. 



culter] PAROCHIALES. 175 

The church appears as a free rectory in the reign of King William the Lion. ' Sir Richard the 
parson of Cultyr' is witness to charters by John of Wilton the younger, between the years 1208 
and 1211 ;i by Hugh of Bygar, in the year 1228-9 ■,^ of Walter bishop of Glasgow, between 
the years 1208 and 1232; 3 and of ' Radulphus Masculus,' lord of Lochquhorwart, in Lothian, 
about the same time.* ' Master Pieres Tylliol, parson of Cultre,' swore fealty to King 
Fdward I., in the year 12.96.^ Thomas of Balkasky was rector, in the year 1388.^ Master George 
of Schoriswood, who was rector of Culter in the year 1449-50,^ was soon afterwards preferred to 
the see of Brechin, and was Chancellor of Scotland, from the year 1456 to the year 1460.* Be- 
tween the years 1482 and 1484, William Halkerstoune was presented to the benefice by Elisabeth 
countess of Ross (daughter of James lord Livingston,) and received collation from William the vicar- 
general of Glasgow, during the vacancy of the see. But his right was disputed by James Straith- 
auchin, who claimed possession in virtue of a grace 8i Neutri which he had procured from the 
court of Rome. The matter was, by complaint of Halkerstoune, brought before the Lords of 
Council, who, in the year 1489, gave for judgment, ' that Our Sovereign Lord's letters be written, 
charging the said James Straithauchin to have no dealing or intromitting with the said benefice 
of Culter, in hurting of lay patronage and the universal good of the realm, and to desist and cease 
from all vexation and troubling of the said William in the said benefice, as he will eschew the 
King's high indignation and displeasure, and under the pain of rebellion and putting of him to the 
horn; with certification to the said James, that if he do in the contrary, Our Sovereign Lord will 
write his effectual letters to Our Holy Father the Pope thereupon, and also make the said pains to 
be executed upon him.'^ The voice of remonstrance against the assumption of ecclesiastical 
patronage by the Apostolic See, was then beginning to be heard in Scotland : the parliament, 
which met at Edinburgh, in October 1488, had passed two acts for restraining the traflic in bene- 
fices at the court of Rome.^" 

The church stood in the lower part of the parish, on the eastern bank of the Culter burn. 

A little way below the village, on the other side of the water, is a place called Chapel Hill.'i 

The rectory is valued, in Baiamund, at £80;!^ in the Taxatio Ecclesiae Scoticanae sec. xvi., 
at ^68 ;" and in the Libellus Taxationum Regni Scotiae, at £16, 13s. 4d. At the Reformation, 
both parsonage and vicarage were let in lease, by Master Archibald Livingston the parson, for 
160 merks, or £106, 13s. 4d.i'' 

In the thirteenth century, the manor seems to have been possessed by a family who took their 
name from the lands. ' Alexander of Cutir' is witness to a charter by Maldowiu earl of Lennox 
to Stephen of Blantyre, between the years 1225 and 1270.1^ In the following century, it was 
divided between two, if not three, lords. King David II. granted to Walter Bisset a charter of the 
lands of Clerkingtoun in Lothian, and confirmed ' ane contract between Bisset and Ker anent 

' Regist. Glasg., pj). 85, 86. ^ Acta Dom. Concil., p. Vl'i. 

2 Lib. de Calchou, p. 153. '» Robertson's Parliam. Rec, pp. 338, 339. 

^ Lib. de Calchou, p. 230. " New Stat. Acct. 

* Regist. de Neub., fol. viii. ^ Ragman Rolls, p. 165. '- Regist. Glasg., p. Ixviii. 

' Chart. Lennox, ii. 191, cited by Chalmers, ill. 741. '^ Regist. Glasg., p. Ixxvi. 

' Regist. Glasg., pp. 375, 377, 388. '■> Book of Assumptions. 

" Bp. Keith's Catal. Scot. Bish. " Chart, de Levenax, p. 36. 



] 76 ORIGINES [cultek. 

marriage, and the lands of Coulter in Lanarkshire, with revocation. '^ ' Walter Byset, lord of half 
of the barony of Culter,' by a charter which was confirmed by King David II., in the year 1367, 
granted to William of Newbyggyng, lord of Dunsyar, all the lands in the said barony, which the 
granter held of the King in chief, the lands of Nesbyt excepted, with the advowson of the church, 
and the services of the free tenants who had held of Byset.^ In the following year, AVilliam of 
Newbyggyng resigned the lands to his son Walter, who thereupon obtained a charter of confirma- 
tion from the King.^ In the year 1369, King David II. granted to Sir Archibald of Douglas 
knight, a charter of the lands of Clerkynton in Lothian, and of the half of the barony of Culter in 
Clydesdale, which AValter Byset of Clerkynton had resigned in the King's hands.* AVilliam earl 
of Douglas, in the year 1449, had a charter from the crown of the half of the lands near the 
parish church of Culter, and of the advowson of the benefice.^ In the year 1385, King Robert II. 
granted to Robert Maynheis a charter of the half barony of Culter, which his father John had 
resigned. The same lands, with the advowson of the church, were confirmed to John Maynheis, 
on the resignation of his father David, by King James I., in the year 1426.^ In the year 1431, 
' David Menyheis, lord of half of the barony of Cultire,' gave to the monks of Melrose, in frankal- 
moigne, his part of the lauds of AVolchclide, within the said barony ; and the grant was confirmed 
by King J.imes I., in the year 1433.'' It has been seen that, between the years 1482 and 1484, 
the advowson of the church belonged to Elizabeth of Livingston countess of Ross, to whom it 
descended, from her father, James the first Lord Livingston, who, in the year 1458, had a charter 
from the crown of the lands of Culter. In the year 1479, two parts of the lands were in ward in 
the King's hands :* the remaining third part belonged to Marion, the wife of James Tweedy. The 
whole lands were burdened with an annuity of forty shillings yearly .^ John Brown of Cultre 
appears on an inquest of the gentlemen of the shire, in the year 1492.K' Nesbyt held by itself, in 
the fourteenth century ;'i and Coulter Maynes appears, at a subsequent period, to have become also 
a separate tenure.^- The barony does not appear to have been taxed along with the neighbouring 
manors, in the year 1359, for the ward of the castle of Lanark.^^ jj ^^g ^f tj,g qJJ extent of 
.£40, being the same value which was put upon each of so many of the baronies of the shire, namely, 
Cambusnethan, Dalyell, Cambuslang, Blantyre, Mauchan, Stanhous, Lamington, Wiston, Symon- 
ton, Roberton, and Pettinain.!* 

Near Causey end, on the way from Culter to Biggar, not far to the north of tlie church and vil- 
lage, is a place which, in the old maps, is called Castlesteid. About half a mile to the north-east 
of the farm of Nisbet, a mound, called the ' Green Knowe,' built of earth and stones, upon piles 
of oak, and having an area of about thirty yards, rises to the height of two or three feet above the 
level of the surrounding morass, through which a causeway of large stones leads to the firm land.'* 

The village of Culter is no doubt ancient. 

' Robertson's Index, p. 48, nn. 2, 3. ' Lib. <le Melros, pp. 512, 513, 514, 515. 

- Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 57, no. 174. " Acta Dom. Concil., p. 32. " Acta Dom. Concil., p. 5G. 

^ Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 49, no. l47. '" Acta Dora. Concil., p. 269. 

* Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 68, no. 23U. " Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 57, no. 174. 

' Reg. Mag. Sig., iv. 94, cited by Chalmers, in. 741. '= Retours. Wisbaw's Descript. of Lanark., p. 59. 

Cf. Act. Pari. Scot., vol. ii., pp. 360, 405. " Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., p. 335. 

" Cart, in archiv. Dom. de Weym, apud M'Farlan's Coll. '■■ Extent of the shire of LanavU. 

Chart. MS. '■'' New Stat. Acct. 



KiLBucHo.] PAROCHIALES. 177 



KILBUCHO. 

Kylbeuhoc' — Kylbevhhoc' — Kelbeclioc^ — Kelebeuhoc^ — Kilbouchow* — 

Kylbocho.' Deanery of Peebles.^ (Map, No. 7 •'5.) 

THRonGH this parish two ridges of hills run parallel one to another, from the south-west to the 
north-east, each overlooking a valley stretching along its base on the north. The water of Biggar 
flows through the more northern of these dales, dividing the parish from those of Biggar, Skirling, 
and Stobo, as these were marched of old. Through the southern glen, the burn of Kilbucho flows 
downwards to the Biggar, which is a tributary of the Tweed. Garden Height on the south-west 
rises about l-lOO feet above the level of that stream; and the hill of Crosscryne, one of the limits 
of the territory in Scotland, ceded to King Edward III. after the battle of Dunbar, in the year 
1346, is within this parish :^ 

At Karlynglippis and at Cors-cryne 
Thare thai made the marchis syne.'' 

At the end of the last century, a large part of Kilbucho was annexed to Culter ; and the remain- 
ing portions were joined to the parish of Broughton-with-Glenholm-and-Kilbucho. 

The church lies near the eastern extremity of the parish, not far from the mouth of the Kilbucho 
burn, where doubtless it was planted in early times. It was dedicated to Saint Begha the virgin, 
whose festival was kept by the Scotish church on the day of her deposition, the thirty-first of 
October.8 She was of Irish birth, but passing into Britain, became the disciple of Saint Aidan 
and of Saint Hilda, in whose convent at Whitby her relics were preserved until the sixteenth 
century.8 She was held in great devotion throughout the northern provinces of England, where 
monasteries were dedicated in her honour, of which the most famous was the nunnery on that head- 
land in Copland, which is still called after her. The name of ' Saint Begog,' by which she was 
known of old on the Cumbrian shore, has since been changed into that of ' Saint Bees;'!" and 
the same alteration has taken place in the vale of Tweed, where the ' Bechoc' of the thirteenth 
century became the ' Bez'H or ' Bees'^^ of the eighteenth. ' Saint Bees' well,' beside the church 
of Kilbucho, still flows in a plentiful stream, nor have the traditions of its old reverence wholly 
passed away.^s 

' Circa A. D. 1200. Regist. Glasg., p. 89. Lib. de -' Brev. Aberd., prop. SS. pro temp, estiv., fol. cxx.wi. 

Melros, p. 64*. '" Lives of the Englisli Saints, no. vi., p. 179. 

= A. D. 1-214— A. D. 1249. Regist. Glasg., p. 127. " Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 260. 

' Circa A. D. 1200. Lib.de Melros, p. 63. '- Note of Thomas Innes on a MS. Kalendar in the 

■I A. D. 1475. Lib. S. Crucis, p. 201. * Baiamund. Scotish College at Paris, quoted in Butler's Lives of the 

" J. Forduni Scotichronicon, lib. xiv., cap. v. Saints, 6 Sept. 

' Wyntownis Cronykil, book viii., ch. xl., 11. 231-238. " Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweed., p. 261. New Stat. 

' Kalend. Aberd., p. 21, apud Regist. Aberd., vol. ii., Acct. 
ad init. 



178 ORIGINES [kilbucho. 

The benefice appears as a free rectory in the reign of King AVilliam the Lion. ' Gilbert, parson 
of Kylbevhhoc,' is a witness to the perambulation of the marches of Stobo about the year 1200 ;' 
ami to a charter of Walter the son of Alan the son of Walter, the Steward of Scotland, about the 
year 1220.^ Between the years 1233 and 1249, Christian the daughter of Sir Adam the son of 
Gilbert, gave her lands of Ingolfhiston to the chapel of Saint Mary of Ingolfhiston, for the souls' 
weal of herself, of Sir Adam Fitz-Gilbert her father, of Ydonea her mother, of Sir Henry her son 
and heir, his wife and children, of the King Alexander, of Sir Walter Cumyn, of Sir Alexander earl 
of Buchan, of Sir John Comyn, of Gameline parson of Kelbechoc and Mariot his sister, and of 
Gilbert, parson of Kelbechoc.^ The church seems to bave continued an unappropriated parsonage, 
in the advowson of the lords of the manor, until the end of the fifteenth century ; when, on the 
petition of the patron James earl of Morton, it was erected into a prebend of the collegiate church 
of Saint Nicholas at Dalkeith, by a bull of Pope Sixtus IV., in the year 1475. It was then 
appointed that the cure of souls should be served by a perpetual vicar, who was to take a suitable 
portion of the fruits of the benefice, and whose presentation, along with that of the prebendary 
or canon, should belong to the Earl and his successors. The collation and admission of the 
vicar lay with the ordinary of the diocese ; that of the canon, with the provost of the collegiate 
church.* In the year 1493, Master William Lawder was parson of Kilbotho.^ 

There was a cell of a religious solitary within the parish, about the end of the twelfth or the 
beginning of the thirteenth century. ' Cospatrick, the hermit of Kylbeuhoc,' is a witness, along 
with Gilbert the parson of Kilbeuhoc, to the perambulation of the marches of Stobo about the year 
1200.6 

The rectory and the vicarage are valued together in Baiainund's Roll at £S0.^ In the Taxatio 
Ecclesiae Scoticanae sec. xvi., the parsonage alone is rated at ^oS."* In the Libellus Taxa- 
tionum Regni Scotiae, both together are taxed at £20 ; and at the Reformation they were let 
in lease for £80. In the year 1561, the vicar pensioner reported his share of the fruits to be 
worth £12.9 

The manor of Kilbucho, in the beginning of the thirteenth century, was possessed by a family 
which took its surname from the lands. ' Adam of Kelebeuhoc' appears as a witness to a charter 
by Walter the son of Alan the son of Walter, the Steward of Scotland, between the years 1202 
and 1213.1" King David II. granted to William of Douglas a charter of the lands of Kilbothok 
and Newlands, resigned by John Graham of Dalkeith,!' whose heiress Douglas is said to have 
married.'- In the year 1374, King Robert II. confirmed to Sir James of Douglas of Dalkeith 
knight, and to James of Douglas his son, the barony of Kylbothok and of Newlandys;i3 and with 
their descendants it continued, though not without interruption, until after the Reformation. A 
charter by Queen JIary to James earl of Jlorton of the barony of Kilbotho, in the year 1564, was 

' Regist. Glasg., p. 89. - Lib. de Melros, p. C4*. '^ Regist. Glasg., p. Ixxiii. 

2 Regist. Glasg., p. 127. ^ Book of Assumptions. 

" Lib. S. Cruris, pp. iOO-iOl. '° Lib- de Melros, p. 63. 

= Act. Dom. Concil., p. 311. " Robertson's Index, p. 54, no. 1. 

" Reoist. Glasg. p. 89. '° Godscroft's Hist, of Doug., pp. 81, 8G. 

;. Regist. Glasg.' p. Ixiv. " Regist. Mag. Sig., p. 140, no. 73. 



GLENHOLM.] PAEOCHIALES. 179 

ratified by parliament in the year 15(57.' It had been acquired by the Earl before the year 1558, 
by purchase from Jlalcolra lord Fleming.^ It was of the old extent of £6G, 13s. 4d., being the 
largest sum at which any barony in the shire was rated.^ 

Threipland seems to have been held by itself from an early period. ' Robert of Threpelande,' of 
the county of Peebles, swore fealty to King Edward I., in the year 1296.* 

Hartre ajjpears to have been held under the lord of the manor from the beginning of the 
fifteenth century. ' Richard Broun of Hertre, and John Broun his son/ are appointed the bailies 
of David Menyheis, lord of half of the neighbouring barony of Culter, in the year 1431.^ ' Wil- 
liam Broune of Hartre' appears, along with Henry Levingstoun of Maneristoun, in a suit before the 
Lords Auditors of Parliament, at the instance of John Martin of Medop,"" in the year 1478-9. 
In the year 1627, Andrew Broun of Hartrie was served heir to his father Gilbert in the yearly 
rent of three hundred merks from the town and demesne lands and mill of Kilbucho.'' Not long 
afterwards Hartre passed to the Dicksons, who acquired also the barony of Kilbucho, with the 
advowson of the parish church and privilege of regality .* At the muster or weaponshawing of 
Tweeddale, held by the sherifi" of the county on the burgh muir of Peebles, in the summer of 1627, 
the laird of Hartree was himself absent, but ten of his men were present, mounted on horseback, 
with lances and swords. The only other freeholder from the parish who appears on the roU is 
Sir Archibald Murray of Darnhall, who had a following of forty-two horsemen, with lances and 
swords, ten of them having jacks and steel bonnets, from his lands in the parishes of Kilbucho 
and Eddleston.s 

The tower of Hartree stood on the banks of the Biggar, upon a knoll surrounded by marshes. 
Near it was a barrow, in a line with two others in the same dale, the one at Biggar, the other at 
Wolfclyde.i" 



GLENHOLM. , 

Glenwhym" — Gleynwim'- — Glenvvin'- — Glenwym" — Glevvym'-' — Glvn- 
whym" — Glenquhun'" — Gleuquhom.^'^ Deanery of Peebles. (Map, No. 76.) 

This pastoral district, as the name indicates, is the dale of the Holm water, which, flowing from 
the south-west to the north-east, falls into the Biggar a little way above the place where that 
stream meets the Tweed. The strath, about a mile in width at its mouth, gradually narrows, 

• Robertson's Pari. Rec, pp. 7C3-765. '» Pennecuik's Deseript. of Tweeddale, pp. 260, 2()1. 

2 Anderson's Diplom. Scot. " Circa A. D. 1200. Regist. Glasg., p. 89. A. D. 129C. 

= Extent of the shire of Peebles. Ragman Rolls, p. 152. Circa A. D. 1300. Lib. de Melros, 

■• Ragman Rolls, p. 152. p. 319. 

* Lib. de Melros, p. 514. '^ circa A. D. 1233. Regist. Glasg., pp. 1 1 1, 142. Circa 
« Act. Dom. Audit., p. 80. A. D. 1300. Lib. de Melros, p. 319. 

' Retour, no. 72. i3 A. D. 1272. Lib. S. Trinitatis de Scon, pp. 83-85. 

» Pennecuik's Deseript. of Tweeddale, pp. 2GU, 261. '* A. D. 1293. Rot. Scot., vol. i., p. 18. 

Retours, nn. 133, 141. 's A. D. 1493. Act. Dom. Cone, p. 307. 

" Pennecuik's Deseript. of Tweeddale, pp. 304-307. '" Baiamund. 



180 OEIGINES [glen-holm. 

UDti), at the distance of about seven miles, it terminates in the lofty ridge of Culter Fell. The 
parish is now tjie south-eastern part of the parish of Broughton-with-Glenholm-and-Kilbucho. 

The church, which was dedicated to Saint Cuthbert, bishop and confessor, is said to have been 
originally dependent on that of Stobo.i In the year 1272, .John Fraser of Glenwym, clerk, gave 
to the Austin canons of Scone the advowson of the church of Saint Cuthbert of Glenwym, in the 
diocese of Glasgow, belonging to him, as he affirmed, of hereditary right, together with all claim, 
temporal or spiritual, which he or his predecessors had to the church. The grant was confirmed, 
in the same year, by Pope Gregory X.,^ but it does not seem to have taken effect. The benefice 
is not included in the confirmations or rentals of the churches belonging to Scone, nor is there 
any evidence of the abbey having ever exercised the right of patronage thus conveyed. It was 
certainly a free parsonage before the end of the fifteenth century, when its possession was con- 
tested between Master Thomas Lewis and Sir Alexander Simsone. The question was carried 
before the Lords of Council, who, finding that Lowis produced no title beyond an instrument of 
appeal (apparently to the Apostolic See,) while Simsone had letters of presentation by Our Sove- 
reign Lord the King, ordered that the latter should have collation of the benefice from the ordinary 
of the diocese in common form. The Lord Chancellor farther charged the lawyers who were of 
counsel for Lowis (and who had protested against the competence of the lay tribunal,) that neither 
he nor they should ' attempt to do aught in the court of Rome contrary to the acts of parliament, 
under the pains contained in the same.'^ 

The church, with the village and mill, stood on the south side of the glen, not far from its 
opening. The church lands, which were of the value of 46s. 8d., passed into lay hands after 
the Reformation, and seem to have become a lay manor called Kirkhall.^ 

On the opposite or left bank of the stream is a place which, in the seventeenth century, retained 
the name of Chapelhill.'' In the upper part of the dale are spots called Chapelgill and Glenkirk,^ 
both upon the right side of the water. 

The rectory is rated in Baiamund, at J:iO ;'' and in the Libellus Taxationum Regni Scotiae, at 
XI 6, 13s. 4d. In the latter, the vicarage is valued at £3, 6s. 8d. At the Reformation, the 
parsonage was reputed to be worth 110 marks, or £73, Gs. 8d.8 The benefice does not appear in 
the Taxatio Ecclesiae Scoticanae sec. xvi.^ 

Gleuholm is first noticed in record about the beginning of the thirteenth century. ' Gillecrist the son 
of Daniel at Glenwhym,' is one of the witnesses to the perambulation of the marches of Stobo about 
the year 1200.'" The manor, which was of the old extent of i'SO,'' seems afterwards to have given 
surname to the family who were its lords. ' SirNicholas of Gleynwim, rector of the church of Yetholm,' 
is witness to charters of the lands of Stobo, by Mariot the daughter of Samuel, about the year 1 233.12 

' Old Stat. Acct., vol. ill., pp. 3"29, 330, citing charter ^ Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 257, 258, 

in the Wigton archives. Old Stat. Acct., vol. iv., p. 429. Retours. Map. 

- Liber S. Trinitatis de Scon, pp. 83-85. ' Regist. Glasg., p. Ixiv. » BooU of Assumptions. 

^ Act. Dom. Cone, pp. 307, 308. ' Regist. Glasg., p. lx.tiii. 

■• Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 258. Re- '" Regist. Glasg., p. 89. 

tours. " Extent of the shire of Peebles. 

5 Retour, A. D. 1637. '- Regist. Glasg., pp. Ill, 142. 



(fLENHOLM.] PAROCHIALES. 18] 

In the year 1293, King Edward I. of England appointed Stephen of Glynwhym to be the guardian 
of Magduf the son of Jlalcolra sometime Earl of Fife, pending his memorable appeal from the court 
of King John Balliol and his barons to the justice of the Overlord of Scotland.' ' Esteuene de 
Glenwhym del counte de Pebbles' swore fealty to King Edward I. on his subjugation of Scotland, 
in the year 1296.^ He appears a few years afterwards, along with the sheriff of Tweeddale, as 
witness to charters of the lands of Kingildoris, Hopcarton, and Hoprew, by Sir Symon Eraser 
knight, the son and heir of Sir Symon Eraser deceased.^ ' Dene James Glenquhom' was a monk 
of Kelso in the year 146G.-' The manor of Glenholm, it is said, belonged to the Douglases in the 
year 1490.5 

The lands of Mosfennan, which lie on the Tweed, held by themselves in the thirteenth century. 
Between the years 1214 and 1249, William Purveys of Mospeunoc sold to the monks of Melrose 
(who held the lands of Hopcarthen on the opposite bank of the Tweed,) for twenty shillings, a 
right of way through the middle of his land of Mospennoc, for themselves and their men, as well 
with their cattle as with their carriages ; and if it should happen that the accustomed road could 
not be passed by reason of floods, then the monks had right to make themselves a way at another 
place through the land next the water, whether the same were tilled or unfilled.^ John Eyr of 
Mespennon swore fealty to King Edward I. in the year 1296, for lands in the shire of Peebles.'' 

The lands of Gleukirk, in the years 1478 and 1484, belonged to George Portvvis or Porteous of 
Glenkirk,* whose descendants possessed them in the beginning of the eighteenth century.'' In 
the years 1534 and 1535, Malcolm lord Fleming had charters of the lands of Rachan and Glen- 
cotho and Kilbocho ; and in the following century, the Earls of Wigton held in lordship half 
the lands of Glenrusco, Logane, Mosfennan, Quarter, Chapel-gill, and Cardrone, with the 
advowson of the church of Glenholme and its tithes.'" In the year 1625, Charles Geddes of 
Rauchane was served heir to his father in the land of Rauchane of the old extent of £6, including 
the half of the village and lands of Glenholme, in the twenty shilling land of Glenhigtane, the 
forty shilling land of Glencotho, a fifteen shilling land of Quhitslaid, a five shilling land in 
Glenkirk, the lordship of the forty shilling lands of Smailhope Wester, with pasture in the 
common of Glenwholmshope.^'^ The Geddesses of the Rauchane were reputed the chiefs of their 
name.'^ According to a doubtful tradition, the little heritage of Duck Pool was given by 
King James V. (for service done to him in one of his adventures) to John Bertram, whose 
descendants, claiming to be chiefs of their name, long possessed, it is said, a scanty remnant of 
the royal bounty. i^ 

At the end of the last century the ruins of no fewer than six manor houses '■• were to be seen in 
the parish, chiefly near the entrance of the strath, in the neighbourhood of the church. The old 
tower of Cuttle-hill, the seat of the Geddesses of the Rauchan, stood on a holm at the foot of a 

' Rotuli Scotiae, vol. i., p. 18. ' Ragman Rolls, p. 152. 

^ Ragman Rolls, p. 152. * Act. Dom. Audit., pp. 81, 140. 

^ Lib. de Melros, p. 319. " Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 257. 

* Lib. de Calchou, p. 424. '" Retours. '^ Retours. 

' Godscroft's Hist, of Doug., p. 232. '- Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 258. 

^ Lib. de Melros, pp. 214, 215. His seal shews a horn '* Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 259. 

without anj other arms, (p. xxv.) '* Old Stat. Acct. 



182 ORIGIN ES [skirling. 

hill. The peel of Wrae is said to have been possessed by a branch of the same family : in the 
beginning of the seventeenth century, it belonged to the Tweedies.' 

There are several barrows in the parish, in one of which, near the confluence of the Tweed and 
Biggar, a stone coffin was found, inclosing an urn and the skeleton of a man, with bracelets on 
the arm bones. An eminence near the church bears the name of Gallowhill or Gallowknowe : 
sepulchral remains have been found in its neighbourhood. There are vestiges in several places of 
rude forts of stone or earth : the most remarkable bearing the name of M'Beth's Castle, is defended 
by two concentric ditches and by as many walls.^ ' Symon the son of Malbeth' was sheriff of 
Traquair, in the year 1184.3 

At the military array, or weaponshawing, of the shire, held on the burgh muir of Peebles, in 
the year 1627, the freeholders, who gave suit and presence from the parish of Glenholm, were 
these : James Chisholm for my lord Earl of Wigton, well mounted himself, with seven horsemen 
with lances and swords, dwelling on the said noble Earl's lands; the laird of Glenkirk, absent 
himself, but four of his men present, well horsed with lances and swords ; .James Geddes of the 
Rachan, well mounted with jack, steel-bonnet, sword and pistol, with five horsemen carrying 
lances and swords ; Adam Gillies, parcener of Whitslaid, well mounted, with a lance and sword ; 
William Brown of Logan, well mounted, with lance and sword, with a horseman who had no 
weapons ; and William Tweedie the younger of Wrae, mounted, with a lance and sword, with a 
horseman bearing the same arms.* 



SKIRLING. 

Scravelyn^ — Scravillyn" — Scraline" — Scralyne^ — Skraling" — Scraling."' 
Deauery of Peebles." (Map, No. 77.) 

This, the smallest parish in the shire, is bounded on the west by the Skirling or Candy burn, 
H tributary of the Biggar, which divides it from Kilbucho on the south, while the Kirklawburn is 
its limit on the east. The surface is undulating, but not hilly. 

The parish church appears on record, for the first time, towards the end of the thirteenth 
century. Pope Gregory X., by a bull dated at Leyden, on the fifth of April ] 275, appointed 
Robert bishop of Dunblane to be judge in the complaint brought by the dean and chapter of 
Glasgow against Master William of Lyndesay the archdeacon, and Master William Salsar the 
oiRcial of Glasgow, for obstructing the course of the laudable freedoms and customs of Sarum, 
according to which the cathedral church of Saint Kentigern had been ruled in times past.^' The 

' Old Stat. Acct. New Stat. Acct. Pennecuik's Descript. ' A. D. 1362-3. Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 26, no. 34. 

..r Tweeddale. " A. D. 1379. Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 144, no. 88. 

- Old Stat. Acct. New Stat. Acct. " A. D. 1478. Act. Dom. Audit., p. 65. A. D. 1493. 

' Regist. de Neubot., fol. vi. Act. Dom. Concil., pp. 285, 303, 314. 

' Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 303-307. '^ Taxat. Eccl. Scotic. sec. xvi. 

= A. D. 1275. Regist. Glasg., p. 191. " Regist. Glasg., pp. 189, 190. 
« A. D. 1299. Regist. Glasg., p. 215. 



SKIRLING.] PAROCHIALES. 183 

bishop, by a mandate dated at Mothil, on the Friday next before the feast of Saint Margaret the 
Virgin (13. July), ordered the rural dean of Peebles and Lanark, to summon Lyndsay and Salsar 
to appear before him in the parisii church of Stirling, on the Monday next after the feast of 
Saint Luke the Evangelist (IS. October), there to answer to the matters preferred against them. 
In obedience to the bishop's mandate, Yvan, the rural dean of Peebles and Lanark, repaired to 
Eddleston, where Salsar was holding an archidiaconal chapter of the clergy, and there cited him 
and Lindsay to appear at Stirling on the day appointed. This he did on the morrow of Saint Mary 
Magdalene (23. .July) ; and on the vigil of Saint James (24. July), he made Lynd.say be cited a 
second time ' at his own church at Scravelyn.'i It does not appear to be certain whether Scravelyn 
was styled Lyndsay 's church in respect of his holding the benefice, or only because he chanced 
to have his abode within the parish at the time. Nor is the issue of the proceedings recorded. 
The benefice was a free parsonage in the gift uf the lord of the manor, which, until after the Wars 
of the Succession, seems to have belonged to the Lyndesays. In the year 1335, King Edward III., 
in right of the lordship of the southern counties of Scotland, conceded to him by King Edward 
Balliol, confirmed a charter by William of Coucy to his son William, of the manor of Scravelyn 
in the shire of Peebles, with the advowson of the church, and many other lands, which the granter 
had inherited from his mother, Christian of Lyndesay,- the heiress of a large portion of the 
domains of the great house of Lyndesay.^ 

' Hugh, the chaplain of Scravillyn,' affixes his seal to a charter by John the lord of Dunsyer, the 
son of Adam of Dunsyer, at Glasgow, on the Tuesday next before the feast of Saint Dunstan the 
bishop, in the year 1299.* He may have been either the parson's curate, or the priest of a chantry 
which was founded within the parish church, and was in the advowson of the lord of the manor. 
In the year 1551-2, James Cokburne was served heir of his brother Sir William Cokburne 
of Skirling knight, in the lands and barony of Skirling, with the patronage of the church of 
Skirling, and of the chaplainry of the same.^ 

The church stood beside the castle, village, and mill, on the banks of the Skirling burn, which 
springs from the Lady Well.*' There are ruins of a building, of unknown use, on the farm of 
Kirklaw or Kirklandhill, in the south-west part of the parish.' 

The rectory with the vicarage is rated in Baiamund, at £66, 1.3s. 4d;* in the Taxatio Ecclesiae 
Scoticanae sec. xvi., at £5G, 13s. 4d;9 and in the Libellus Taxationum Eegni Scotiae, at 
£16, 13s. 4d. They were reported at the Reformation, in the year 1561, to be let on lease for 
the small sum of £l0.i" 

The manor was of the old extent of £40.'' The Lyndesays, it has been seen, were its lords in 
the thirteenth century. King Robert I. granted to William of Twedy certain tenements in 
Scraveling which Gilbert Lindsay had forfeited.'^ These seem to have held of the lord of the 

' Regist. Glasg., pp. ISO, I9l. ' New Stat. Acct. » Regist. Glasg., p. Ixiv. 

- Rotuli Scotiae, vol. i., p. 352. » Regist. Glasg., p. l.xxiii. 

^ Lord Lindsay ^s Lives of the Lindsays, ad mii. "* Book of Assumptions. 

* Regist. Glasg., p. 215. " Extent of the shire of Peebles. 

* Retour, no. 8. '* Robertson's Index, p. 27, no. 10, where ' Striveling ' is 
"i Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 262. erroneously printed for ' Scraveling.' Cf. p. 29, liji. nil. 



184 OEIGINES [skirling. 

barony, not of the crown in chief; for among the lost records of King Robert's reign, is a 
' complaint of the lord of Skirling, upon William of Twedy, that he makes not suit and 
service.' 1 The lord of Skirling was doubtless Sir John of Monfode knight, to whom the 
same king granted the whole barony of Scrauelyne, with the advowson of the church, and 
the lands of Robertstoun, Braidwood, YulesheiUs, and Hevedis in Clydesdale.^ His daughter, 
Margaret of Monfode, being in her widowhood, gave to a chaplain serving in the church of Dun- 
manyne (in the deanery of Linlithgow and diocese of Saint Andrews,) a yearly rent of nine merks 
due to her from the lands of Hopkelloche by James of Tuedi, with two merks yearly from her own 
lands of Scraliue ;^ and the grant was confirmed by King David II. in the year 13G2-3. She died 
before the year 1.380, leaving by her marriage with Alexander of Cokbum, a son William of 
Cokburn ; and by her marriage with Walter of Cragy,'' a son John of Cragy, who died without 
issue, and a daughter Margaret of Cragy, who became the wife of Sir John Stewart knight. The 
division of the heritage of Margaret of Monfode, and her son John of Cragy, was long disputed 
before the King and his council ; but at length, in the year 1379, it was determined that William 
of Cokburn should have the whole barony of Scralyne, with the advowson of the church, tenand- 
ries, and services of free tenants, mills, multures, and their sequels, as freely as Sir John of 
Monfode, his grandfather, held them in the time of King Robert of illustrious memory, together 
with the whole land of the Heuidis (the Heads in Carluke parish,) which was aforetime in the 
barony of Bradwod in the shire of Lanark, but was now united and annexed to the barony of 
Scralyne in the shire of Peebles, to be held of the crown for the service of three broad arrows 
yearly in name of blench ferme. Failing issue of the body of William of Cokburne, the lands 
were to pass to his brother Edward of Cokburne, and the heirs of his body, whom failing, to his 
sister Agnes, and the heirs of her body, whom failing, to Margaret of Cragy, and her heirs what- 
soever.5 The manor remained with the knightly family of the Cockburns until the seventeenth 
century .s In the year 1478, the Lords Auditors of Parliament found that Walter Tuedy of 
Drummelliour should restore to Master Adam of Cokburne of Skraling, a cup of silver double gilt, 
having a foot or pedestal and a lid or cover, which Cokburne had laid in pledge to him for twenty 
marks.' Sir William Cokburne of Skraling knight, in the year 1493, sued Thomas Middilmast of 
Grevistoun (to whom he had given his sister Margaret in marriage) for the restoration of three 
and twenty score of sheep.* In the year 1513, the Lords of Council ordered that William 
Cockburn of Skraling should restore the goods following, which had been escheated to Our Lord 
the King, and had by him been bestowed upon Mathew Campbell, but were afterwards taken 
away by Cokburn : that is to say, three ' verdour' beds, and an arrass bed, three pairs of 
sheets, a board (table) cloth of dornwik (diaper), six smocks of the same, a board cloth of 
linen, a feather bed with a bolster, four cods (pillows), two ' verdour' beds, a pair of fustian 
blankets, a ruff and curtains, two pairs of sheets, a pair of blankets of ' smal quhyte,' a 

' Robertson's Index, p. 29, lin. ult. " Robertson's Index, p. 66, no. 2. 

2 Robertson's Index, p.24,nn. 10, II. Reg. Mag. Sig., * Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 144, no. 88. « Retours. 

144 no. 88. ' -A^"'- Do™- Audit., p. 65. 

' 3 Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 26, no. 34. " Act. Dom. Cone, pp. 285, 303. 



KiRKURn.] PAROCHIALES. 185 

f'eatber bed, and two saddles, with their ' ropalingis,' estimated in all to be worth thirty-five 
pounds.' 

The castle (the vestiges of which, half a century ago, showed its considerable extent) stood in a 
bog or morass, which was crossed by a bridge of stone.^ It was demolished by gunpowder, by the 
Regent Murray, on the twelfth of June 1 568,3 because its lord. Sir James Cockburne, had 
espoused the fortunes of Queen Mary, for whom, at that time, he held the castle of Edinburgh.'' 
In the Mount-hill, a little to the east of Skirling, there was found, about the middle of the seven- 
teenth century, in a mossy turf, a parcel of gold.^ Nortii of the village is an eminence called the 
Gallow-law. 

'The kirk town' was a burgli of barony in the seventeenth century. A yearly fair, held in it 
of old on the fifteenth of September,'' being the octave of ' the latter Lady-day of harvest, which 
is the birth of Our Lady,'" indicates, doubtless, that the church was dedicated to the Blessed 
Virgin Mary, whose name was borne also by the fountain in which the Skirling burn has its 
beginning. 

When the array of Tweeddale was gathered to the weaponshawing on the burgh muir of 
Peebles, in the year 1627, only one freeholder seems to have owed suit from this parish, namely, 
Sir John Hamilton of Skirling knight, who being absent himself was represented by his bailie, 
James Cokburne, accompanied by certain horsemen (how many is not stated,) armed with lances 
and swonls, and four jacks.^ 



KIRKURD. 

Ecclesia de Orda^— Ecclesia de Horda^"— Orde"— Horde^^— Urde"— Kyrk- 
hurde" — Kirkiirde" — Kyrkvi-d."^ Deanery of Peebles. (Maji, No. 78.) 

The Tarth, a tributary of the Lyne water, washes this parish on the north, dividing it from 
Linton and Newlands. The surface, though hilly, is pleasantly diversified. It rises towards the 
southern boundary into a ridge called Hell's Cleugh, about 2100 feet above the level of the sea, 
having a cairn called Pyked Stane on its summit, where the marches of Stobo, Broughton, and 
Kirkurd meet. 

It has been conjectured that Kirkurd is to be identified with the Treverquyrd, where the memor- 

' Robertson's Pari. Rec, p. 538. "> A. D. 11S6. Regist. Glasg., p. SS. 

- Old Stat. Acct. " Circa A. D. 1200. Regist. Glasg., pp. 89, 90. 

'■' Diurnal of Occurrents, p. 133. '- A. D. 129G. Ragman Rolls, p. IS'-'. 

■■ Godscroft's Hist, of Doug., p. 306. " A. D. 1306— A. D. 1329. Robertson's Index, p. 24, 

^ Penneeuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 26*2. no. 2. 

« Penneeuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 262. '■' A. D. 1382. Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 163, no. 11. 

• Adam King's Kallendar, 1588. Kalend. Aberd. '= A. D. 1458-9. Ch. in Hay's Vindic. of Eliz. More, p. 

" Penneeuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 304, 305. 79. A. D. 1479. Act. Dom. Audit., p. 94. 

» A. D. 1170— A. D. 1181. Regist. Glasg., pp. 23, 43,51. "= Taxat. Eccl. Scotic. sec. xvi. 

VOL. I. 2 A 



lS(i ORIGINES [kirkuhd. 

able inquest of Prince David of Cumbria, about the year 1116, found that the see of Glasgow pos- 
sessed a church and a carucate of land.^ It certainly belonged to the successors of Saint Kenti- 
gern, from an early period. The church of Orde was confiruied to Bishop Engelram, by Pope 
Alexander III., in the year 1170;^ and to Bishop Joceline, by the same Pontiff, in the year 
1178 ;3 by Pope Lucius III., in the year llSl;^ and by Pope Urban III., in the year 1186.'' 
In the following century, it was bestowed by the see of Glasgow upon the Hospital of Soltre. 
Bishop William of Bondington, in the year 1255, granted to the brethren of the church of the 
Holy Trinity of Soltre, the church of Orde, to be held by them for their own proper uses.'' It 
continued to be thus appropriated until the year 1462, when, along with the other endowments of 
Soltre, it was transferred to the collegiate church of the Holy Trinity beside Edinburgh, founded 
by Mary of Gueldres, the widowed queen of King James II.'' After the appropriation of the 
benefice, the cure of souls was served by a vicar pensioner. 

The ancient church stood about half a mile to the west of the present one, within what is now 
the park of Kirkurd house (or Castle Craig,) where its ruins and cemetery -were to be seen at 
the end of the last century. A plentiful spring flows beside it ; and in the neighbourhood are two 
mounds or barrows, the one called The Castle, the other The Law, surrounded by an irregular 
dyke or parapet.*' 

From the bull of the year 1186, by which Pope Urban III. confirms the church of Horde to 
the see of Glasgow, it would seem to have had a dependent chapel at a spot called Munmaban.^ 
On the Dean burn, iu the south-west of the parish, is a place named the Mount, in the neigh- 
bourhood of which there have been found an urn containing bones, and a stone coffin containing 
bones, weapons of flint, and a ring. A considerable way to the north is a circle of standing stones 
called the Ilarestanes, and near them are spots called Kirkdean and Temple lands.^" The lands of 
the Knights Hospitallers of Saint John, and certain other ecclesiastical lands in the parish, were 
of the extent of three shillings, and had fifteen soumes of grass in the common pasture.^i 

In Baiamund's Roll (if we are to suppose that its Kirkboyde is written in error for Kirkurd,) 
the rectory is rated at £53, 6s. 8d. ; the vicarage, at £2(>, 13s. 4d.i2 In the Taxatio Ecclesiae 
Scoticanae sec. xvi., the rectory is valued at £45, .5s.,i2 and in the Libellus Taxationum Regni 
Scotiae, at £6, 13s. 4d. The vicarage, which is estimated in the Libellus at £13, 6s. 8d., was 
let, in the year 1561, for £20." 

Between the years 1208 and 1214, the manor of Orde belonged to Sir Robert of London (the 
bastard son of King William the Lion,) under whom it was held by ' William the son of Geoffrey, 
lord of Orde.'is Adam of Horde and Thomas of Ladyorde, of the county of Peebles, swore fealty to 
King Edward I. in the year 1296.1^ But the territory seems to have been divided from an early 

' Regist. Glasg., p. 5. " Regist. Glasg., p. ,'55. 

= Rogist. Glasg., p. 23. '" Old Stat. Acct. 

' Regist. Glasg., p. 43. " Retours. 

* Regist. Glasg., p. SO. '-' Regist. Glasg., p. l.\iv. 

> Regist. Glasg., p. 55. '^ Regist. Glasg., p. l.\xiii. 

« Lib. S. Trinitatis de Soltre. " Book of Assumptions. 
' Foundationcharter, printed in Maitland's Hist, of Edinb. ''' Regist. Glasg., p. 90. 

'• Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 201, '202. ■ '" Ragman Rolls, p. 152. 



KiRKURD.] PAROOHIALES. 187 

period. Before the year 122", Walter Miirdach gave certain lands at Orde to the Clugniac monks 
of Paisley. The grant was confirmed by Pope Ilonorius III. ; and the lands were included in the 
jurisdiction of regality which the abbey obtained from King Robert III. and King Jame.s III.i 
King Robert I. granted to John of Craik a bounding charter of the half of the barony of Urde, 
which he received from Edward of Cockburu in marriage.^ In the year 1379, King Robert II. 
gave a charter to Peter of Cokburne, the son and heir of Peter of Cokburne, of the lands of Henri- 
land, and the lands in the township of Bothill, and the lands of Kyrkhurde in the township of 
the same.3 Great part of the manor was about the same time possessed by the Scotts, who appear 
as landowners in Tweeddale at an early date. 'Adam le Scot' held lands in the neighbouring 
parish of Linton, in the end of the twelfth or in the beginning of the thirteenth century.* ' Walter 
leScot' swore fealty to King Edward I. in the year 129G, for lands in the shire of Peebles.' Walter, 
the son and heir of Robert Scott, had from King Robert II., in the year 1390, a charter, changing 
the tenure of his lands and barony of Kirkurd from ward to blench.^ For about a century after- 
wards his descendants were styled of Kirkurd ; and the manor continued to be numbered with the 
great possessions of the Earls of Buccleuch until after the Restoration.' In the year 1434, John of 
Geddes, laird of the half of Ladyhurd, resigned all that land, with its pertinents, into the hands of 
his overlord, Wat Scott, lord of Morthinyston, who thereupon granted it anew to ' ane honest man, 
William of Geddes.'* In the year 1 479, ^Margaret Somerville, the wife of John Lindsay of Cokburne, 
deceased, and .John Lindsay, his son, sued John Lindsay of Cowantoune and Master .James Lindsay, 
parson of Cowantoun (Covington,) for recovery of certain charters of the lands of Kirkurtl, belong- 
ing to the said -John Lindsay of Cokburne, deceased. The parson of Cowantoun not appearing in 
court, and his possession of the charters being proved, the Lords Auditors of Parliament ordained 
' that letters be written to his ordinary the Bishop [o( Glasgow,] exhorting and praying him to 
compel the said Master James, by his spiritual authority, to deliver the said evidentis (charters) to 
the said Margaret and her son.'^ Kirkurd and Ladyurd, with ' tenant and teuandries,' were of 
the old extent of £40.^" 

No freeholder from this parish seems to have boon present at the weaponshawing of tlie cnunty 
in the year 1G27.'^ 

' Regist. de Passelet., pp. 410, 7-, 91. ' Retours. 

- Robertson's Inde.x, p. 24, no. *2. " Orig. Chart, at Castle Craig. 

■' Regist. Mag. Sig., p. 163, no. 11. = Act. Dom. Audit., p. 94. 

< Regist. Glasg., pp. 127, 128. '" E.\tent of the sliire of Peebles. 

* Ragman Rolls, p. 144. " Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 304-;i07. 
'■ Chart, penes Ducem de Buccleuch, quoted by Doug- 
las in his Peerage, p. 100. 



188 ORIGINES [west linton. 



WEST LINTON. 

Lyntuuruderic' — Lintunrutheric' — Lintun Rvderick^ — Lyntunruthri* — Lin- 
tunrotlieri' — Lyntourotherick"— Lintunruthuri" — Linton RotherP — Lyn- 
ton Rothrig'— Lynton'"— Lyntoun." Deanery of Peebles." (Map, No. 79-) 

This territory is the upper and larger portion of the vale of the Lyne, a tributary of the Tweed. 
It is for the most part hilly and moorland, especially towards the north, where the Lyne, the 
northern Esk, and the Medwyn have their rise almost in the same ridge. The first of these 
.streams traverses the parish from north to south, receiving the Pollentarf or the West Water, on 
the one hand, and the Cairn burn on the other. The second flows along the north-eastern march 
for a considerable way, and then turns towards Penycuick ; while the last, dividing its waters 
about four miles from their source, pours one stream through Walston and Carnwath into the 
Clyde, and sends another, under the name of the Tarth, through the western borders of Linton into 
the Lyne. There is a small loch on the lands of Slipperfield. 

Nothing is known of the Roderick, whose name was bestowed on this parish, before the middle 
of the twelfth century, to distinguish it from the parishes of Lynton in Teviotdalei^ and Lynton in 
Lothian. This Linton in Tweeddale appears to have been one of the earliest possessions of the 
Cumins. Between the years 1 1 52 and 1 159, Richard Cumin (the second in Scotland of a race which 
rose within little more than a century to a height of power such as no other family in the land had 
ever reached before, or attained in any after time,)'^ gave to the monks of Saint Mary of Kelso, the 
church of Lyntunruderic, with all its rights, and half a carucate of land in the township, for the 
souls' rest of his lord the Earl Henry, and of his own son John, whose bodies were buried at Kelso, 
on condition that he himself and Hextild his wife, and their children, should be received into the 
brotherhood of the convent, and be made partakers of its spiritual benefits.''' The grant was con- 
firmed by King Malcolm the Maiden in the year 1159 ;^^ by King William the Lion, between the 
years 1195 and 1199 j'^ and twice again at other periods of his reign ;i^ by Joceline bishop of 
Glasgow, between the years 1175 and 1199 ;'* by Bishop Walter, in the year 1232 ;19 and by Pope 
Innocent IV., between the years 1243 and 1254.^" About the same time that Richard Cumin m.-ide 

' A. D. 1152 — A.D.I 159. Lib. de Calchou, p. 22G. age of Linton in the deanery of Peebles, with the parsonage 

- A. D. 1159. Lib. de Calchou, p. VI. of Linton in the deanery of Teviotdale. Cf. Caledonia, 

•' A. D. 1160— A. D. 1164. Lib. de Calchou, p. SSo. vol. ii., pp. 192, 951. 

■■ A. D. 1 175— A. D. 1 199. Lib. de Calchou, p. 319. '" O. Buchanan. Rer. Scotic. Hist., lib. viii , cap. xxx, 

5 A. D. 1195— A. D. 1199. Lib. de Calchou, p. 316. '* Lib. de Calchou, p. 226. 

« A. D. 1165- A. D. 1214. Lib. de Calchou, p. 14. '= Lib. de Calchou, p. vi. 

^ A. D. 1232. Lib. de Calchou, p. 3.32. '« Lib. de Calchou, p. 316. 

' A. D. 1243— A. D. 1254. Lib. de Calchou, p. 351. '' Lib. de Calchou, pp. 14, IG. 

'■> Circa A. D. 1300. Lib. de Calchou, p. 472. '" Lil). de Calchou, p. 319. 

'" A. D. 141 1. Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 248, no. 11. '" Lib. de Calchou, pp. 229. .^32. 

" Baiamund. -" Lib. de Calchou, p. 351. 

'- Chalmers has in two places confounded the vicar- 



WEST LINTON.] PAROCHIALES. 189 

his charter, another lurd who claimed a right in the manor, Uodin, granted the same church of 
Lintuu Ruderick to the monks of Kelso, with its tithes and offerings and the church land, and 
the tenth part of the whole land of the territory of Lintun Ruderick. The grant was confirmed 
by Herbert bishop of Glasgow, between the years 1160 and 1164 j^ and the benefice remained 
with the monastery until the Reformation, together with ' the fourlandis of Lyntowne,' which, about 
the year 1567, yielded a yearly rent of four pounds.- The cure was served by a vicar. In the 
year 1256-7, 'Richard the chaplain, some time vicar of Linton Rotheric,' was presented to the 
vicarage of Peebles by William bishop of Glasgow.^ 

The church, with its burying ground, stood on the bank of the Lyne, at the lower end of a 
plain called Linton Green, on the west side of the village. An extensive meadow on the opposite 
side of the hainlet bore the name of ' the Linton crofts.' When the church was taken down in 
the years 1781-2, it was seen to have been built in part of the remains of an older fabric, and in 
one of the walls there were found stones on which a cross and shears were sculptured i& relief.* 

Between the years 1233 and 1249, Christian, the daughter of Sir Adam the son of Gilbert 
( who held the township of Hotun, of Adam the son of Adam the son of Richer,") being then 
in her widowhood, for the souls of herself, of Sir Adam Fitz-Gilbert her father, of Ydonea her 
mother, of Sir Henry her son and heir, his wife and their children, of Sir Walter Cumyn, of 
Sir Alexander earl of Buchan, of Sir John Cumyn, of Gamelin parson of Kelbechoc, and Mariot 
his sister, and of Gilbert the parson of Kelbechoc, gave all her land of Ingolistun, with all its 
rights (reserving only to the men of Blyth, with their cattle, the easement near the marches 
beside the water, which they were wont to have in the days of Adam the Scot and William the 
Bald (Willelmi calui) of good memory,) to the chapel of Saint Mary on the same land, for the 
maintenance of three chaplains (to be presented by the granter and her heirs,) of whom one was to 
celebrate daily the mass of the Holy Ghost, the second was to say mass for the faithful departed, and 
the third was to perform the mass appointed for the day.** No farther notice of this chapelry is 
found. There was at Ingistoun, which lies at the southern end of the parish, on the bank of the 
Tarth or Medwyn, about the middle of the last century, the remains of a manor place, with an 
avenue of old trees, opposite to which was a little conical knoll, about forty feet in height, called 
' The Law.'' 

Below the village, about half a mile, is a piece of ground, on the bank of the Lyne, called The 
Temple Land ; ' and as the brae washeth away, by the force of the under-running floods,' Dr. 
Pennecuik writes, in the year 1715, ' there are to be seen the ends of many coffins of broad flag- 
stones close joined together. These upon opening, I found the scull, legs, arms and thigh bones 
of people ; but when and upon what account these bodies have been buried here, after such a 
manner, none can positively determine, there being no appearance of any church, chapel, or 
churchyard, nearer than Lintoun.'* 

' Lib. de Calehou, p. .335. = Regist. Glasg., pp. 67-G9, 72. 

- Lib. de Calehou, p. 491. " Regist. Glasg., pp. 1-27, 128. 

' Regist. Glasg., p. 1()4. ' Peniiecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 19G, 197. 

* Old Stat. Acct. 3 Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. lb'2. 



190 ORIGINES [west linto.v. 

Still farther to tlie south, following the coui-se of the Lyne, is a place called Spittlehaugh, beside 
which is a jiark called Chapel hill, where several stone coffins have been found, denoting, perhaps, 
that here of old stood an Hospital and a chapel. A neighbouring spring, which bears the name 
of Paul's Well, probably preserves the name of the Apostle under whose invocation they were 
placed.! 

The rectory, about the year 1300, yielded to the monks of Kelso twenty merks yearly.- In 
the year 1567, it is entered in their rental as let for thirty-six pounds.^ "Walter Balfour the vicar, 
in the year 1561, reported that it was valued in the old rental of Kelso, at £36, 13s. 4d., or 
thereby ; that it was leased to him for £100 ; but that he estimated it as worth no more than £80, 
and had let it for that sum to the parishioners for the year 1560.'' The vicarage is rated in Baia- 
mund's Roll, at £26, 13s. 4d. ;5 and in the Taxatio Ecclesiae Scoticanae sec. xvi., at £40, 5s.*^ 
It was let in the year 1561, for £43, lOs.'' The Libellus Taxationum Regni Scotiae, values the 
vicarage at £13, 6s. 8d., and the parsonage at the same sum. 

The Cumins are the first lords of the manor known to record. Between the years 1165 and 
1190, Richard Cumin, with the consent of Hestild his wife and of his heirs, gave to the Augus- 
tinians of the Holy Rood at Edinburgh, the whole land of Sleparisfield, by these marches : ' From 
tiie head of Kingseteburn (Kingseat-hill-burn,) as it descends into the Line, and as the Line 
descends to Biggeresford, and so by the high road to the next burn beside the Cross, and as that 
burn descends into Pollentarf, as Pollentarf descends to the great moss (White Moss,) and so by 
the great moss to Alreburne, and as Alreburne ascends to the west of Menedicte (Slendick hill,) 
and so to the steads of the old sheilings, and so to the Cat stone (lapidem Catti,) and so to the 
head of Pollentarf, and so to Kingesseteburne.' The charter, which was witnessed by ' Helyi the 
steward of Lintun,' gave the canons liberty of building a mill, and declared them exempt from all 
service, custom, and demands, either of the granter and his heirs, or of the King and his bailifs.* 
The grant was confirmed by the donor's son William Cumin, and subsequently by David of 
Lyndesay, who appears to have succeeded the Cumins in the lordship of this territory about the 
middle of the thirteenth century.^ The canons of Holyrood, before the year 1300, compounded 
with the monks of Kelso for the great tithes of Slaperfelde, by a yearly payment of one merk.*" 

The barony of Linton was in the gift of the crown in the reign of King Robert L, who granted 
a charter to John of Logan, of the ten pound land of Lyntoun Rotherikis.^' The same King 
gave to the same John of Logan another charter of certain lands of Lintonrotherikis, and gave 
at the same time, to James lord of Douglas, a grant of the lands of Sonderland in the barony of 
Hawick, and a charter of confirmation of Lintonrotherikis.^^ Logan, doubtless, held of the 
Douglas. In the year 1374, King Robert II. confirmed to Sir James of Douglas of Dalkeith 
knight, and to James of Douglas his son, the whole barony of Lynton Rotheryk in the shire of 

' Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 170. " Book of Assumptions. 

- Lib. de Calcliou, p. 472. " Lib. Cart. S. Crucis, pp. 210, 211. 

^ Lib. de Calohou, p. 493. " Lib. Cart. S. Crucis, pp. 211, 212. 

* Book of Assumptions. "' Lib. de Calchou, p. 473. 

5 Regist. Glasg., p. Ixiv. " Robertson's Inde.\, p. l.'j, no. 2. 

" Regist. Glasg., p. Ixxiii. '- Robertson's Index, p. 27, nn. 7, 8. 



WEST LINTON-.] PAROCHIALES. 191 

Peebles, which the Knight of Dalkeith had resigned in the King's hands.i In the year 1411, Sir 
James of Douglas knight, lord of Dalkeith, gives to his son Sir James of Douglas of Roberton 
knight, the lands of Stanypethe and Baldewynysgill, lying of old in the harony of Lynton, and 
now in the bai'ony of Dalkeith, in contentment of a twenty mark land which the lord of Dalkeith 
had promised, by a letter under his seal in time past, to give to the Knight of Roberton. The 
charter which reserved to the granter the escheats of tenants, and courts of life and limb, was 
confirmed by the Regent Albany in the year 1411.2 Jijg lands and barony of Lyntoun, which 
with Newlands, were of the old extent of £40,^ continued with the Douglasses of Dalkeith until 
after the Reformation.'' They had vassals under them. In the year 1 377-8, James of Douglas 
lord of Dalkeith gave to Adam Forster the land of Fayrelehope in the barony of Lyntonrothrok, 
which Hugh Fraser laird of Lovat had resigned.^ 

The ancient village of Linton was erected into a burgh of regality in the reifn of Kiu" 
Charles I.^ There were, from an early period, vills or hamlets at Ingiston and Blyth. The 
latter, in the beginning of the last century, was still known as ' the town of Blyth." On a hill in 
its neighbourhood, called Green Castle, there are vestiges of a circular fort.'' 

On the lands of Carlops is a deep and narrow glen, which seems to have been fortified of old, 
and to have been a pass of importance. It would appear to be the ' Karlynglippis' spoken of by 
Andrew of Wyntoun and John of Fordun, as one of the marches of the territory conceded to the 
English sovereign by King Edward Balliol, in the year 1346.* In the parliament which was 
held at Perth on the 11th of March 1423-6, it was complained to the Lords Auditors of Causes, 
by David i\Ienyhes of Bogry, that Sir James of Douglas, lord of Dalketh, the overlord of the 
lands of Karlinlippis, which Menyhes had possessed in peace for twelve years and more, had, in 
the vassal's absence, made them be ' recognosced,' and had thereupon given them in possession to 
a certain Alan of Erskyne in right of his wife, against law, and to the no small hurt of the coni- 
plainer. The Lords Auditors having fully heard the cause, gave for sentence that the lands of 
Karlinglippis should, without any delay, be ' recognosced' in the hands of the lord of Dalketh, 
and should then be delivered in pledge to Menyhes as their lawful possessor.^ They belontred, in 
the seventeenth century, to IMenzies of Weems, in Athol, by whom they were sold to a family of 
the name of Burnet.^' 

At the weaponshawing or muster of the shire, in the year 1627, no freeholder of the parish of 
Linton seems to have been present.'" 

' Regist. Mag. Sig., ]i. 140, no. 7.3. » Wyntownis Cronykil, book viii., cli. .\1 J. Forduni 

-' Reg. Mag. Sig., p. '248, no. 11. SeoticIironicon,lib. xiv., cap. v. Lord Hailes' Annals, vol. 

■' Extent of the shire of Peehlcs. ij., p. 220. 

■* Robertson's Pari. Rec, pp. 763-765. = Regist. de Neubot., fol. 7, ad init. 

5 Charter printed in Anderson 's Hist, of Erasers, p. 4(). '" Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 114-117. 

" Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 158. " Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 304-307. 

■ Pennecuik's Descript, of Twi eddale, p. 199. 



192 ORIGINES [newlands. 



NEWLANDS. 

Neulandis in Tweeddale' — Newlandys' — Newlandis.^ Deanery of Peebles.^ 
(Map, No. 80.) 

The upper part of this parish is watered by the Dead burn (so named from its sluggish and 
sullen nature,) which rising in the Cress-well flows in a south-westerly course into the Lyne, 
having on the north-east a range of hills called the Kelty heads. The lower half is traversed by 
the Lyne itself, and its tributaries, the Flemington-mill-burn, and the Tarth. 

The name of this parochial territory indicates its comparatively recent origin, and it does not 
appear in record until the beginning of the fourteenth century. By a charter dated on the feast 
of the Seven Brothers (10. July,) in the year 1317, John of Grahame the father (apparently 
the lord of Dalkeitli,) gave to the monks of the Holy Trinity at Dunfermline the right of patron- 
age of tlie church of Neulandis in Tweeddale, with its lands and other rights.* It is doubtful if 
this grant took effect ; for though in the Register of the Monastery^ there is a deed of the beginning 
of the sixteenth century, presenting Master R. of Wynnerstane to the rectory of the church of 
Newland (there said to be in the diocese of Saint Andrews,) it appears from other records that 
the advowson of the benefice remained with the lords of the manor. In the year 1475, Pope 
Sixtus IV., on the petition of the patron, -James earl of Morton, erected the benefice of the parish 
church of Neulandis, in the diocese of Glasgow, into a prebend of the collegiate church of Saint 
Nicholas at Dalkeith, appointing the cure of souls to be served by a perpetual vicar, who was to 
have a suitable share of the fruits of the living, and was to be presented, together with the canon 
or prebendary, by the Earl and his successors. His admission and collation lay with the diocesan ; 
the institution of the canon, with the provost of the collegiate church.^ A cliarter by Queen 
Mary to -James earl of ]Morton, in the year 1564, of the barony of Newlandis, with the advowson 
of its church, was ratified by parliament, in the year 1567.^ 

The church, which stood among lofty ash trees, upon the bank of the Lyne, about a mile below 
the manor place of Romanno, showed tokens of antiquity in the middle of the last century. It 
had an aisle built early in the seventeenth century by John Murray, the founder of the family of 
Stanhope, which had here its burial place.^ 

In Baiamund's Roll, the rectory is rated at £160 ;^ and in the Taxatio Ecclesiae Scoticanae sec. 
XVI., at £136;!* these high estimates marking probably a late valuation of the tithes consequent 
on a recent erection of the parish. The benefice is taxed at £40, in the Libellus Taxationum 
Regni Scotiae : it was let, at the Reformation, for 200 merks, or £133, 6s. Sd.^' 

' A. D. 1317. Regist. de Dunferm., p. 236. « Lib. Cart. S. Crucis, pp. 200-204. 

^ A. D. 1374. Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 140, no. 73. ' Robertson's Pari. Rec, pp. 763-765. 

3 Baiamuud. ^ Penneeuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 182-136. 

* Regist. de Dunferm., pp. 236, 237. " Regist. Glasg., p. Ixiv. 

5 Regist. de Dunferm., pp. 403, 404. "> Regist. Glasg., p. Ixxiii. " Book of Assumptions. 



NEWfANDs.] PAEOCHIALES. 193 

The teiritory seems to have been divided from an early period. In the middle of the twelfth 
century, Philip of Euermele, Euermer, or A^ermer, gave to the canons of the Holy Rood at Edinburgh, 
acarucateof landin the fiefof Rothmaneie(Rumanach,Romanno,) with pasture for a thousand sheep.i 
The grant was confirmed by King Malcolm the Maiden, in the year 1164-5, and by King William 
the Lion, between the years 1165 and 1171.^ Philip of Euermel, or Vermeles, the second of that 
name, between the years 1189 and 1199, gave and confirmed to the same canons the whole land 
which they held of his fiitber in Romanoch, and cultivated by themselves or their men, to the fullest 
extent that they held the same on any one day or night in tiie time of his father. Moreover, in 
increase of the gift, he gave them the wiiole laud lying next to their own land on the north, stretching 
along the same in breadth to the marches of the donor's land and of Linton ; together also with the 
whole land lying next to the land of the canons on the south, stretching along the same in length to 
the marches of the donor's land. He gave them also right of common pasture over all Romanoch for 
a thousand sheep and sixty cattle, and for their own stud, and for the stock of their men dwelling 
in the land ; and if it chanced that they had no sheep there, he granted that they might ha^e a 
hundred cattle in place of a thousand sheep, or at the rate of one cow in place of every ten sheep 
short of a thousand ; and if they bad no stud there, then in place of every mare they might have 
a. cow. He granted also that they themselves or their men might till the new land thus given to 
them, like the rest of their land, wherever they were able and willing ; and he bound himself and 
his heirs to keep them, their men, and cattle free for ever from all service, aid, or demand, except 
that, when they came to his mill to grind, they should give a sixteenth part, in contentment of all 
other mill dues.^ The charter was confirmed, between the years 1223 and 1227, by the donor's 
son, Ralph of Euermel, or Vermel, who also added to the grant, and ratified and confirmed the 
exchange which the canons of Holyrood had made in the year 1223'' with the monks of New- 
bottle, of the land of Romanoch for the land of Muntlouen (Muntlounes, Munt Loudyan.)^ 
The Cistercians of Newbottle obtained lands in the parish in the reign of King Malcolm the 
Maiden, when Philip of Euermele or Vermer, with consent of Philip, his son and heir, in exchange 
for another land which be and his father had given them in Romanoch, gave to them that land 
in Rumanak which Hugh of Paduynan and his son Reginald held of the granter's father, by 
these marches : ' From the Gallow-hill, as the way passes by the Harestan to the burn of 
Cadcalenoch, and as that burn descends into the wood of Derelech, and along the march between 
the said wood and the moss to the well which is called the head of Peblis, and thence by the 
march between the firm land and the moss towards Lecbernard, and as the said moss turns towards 
the north and a certain well strype descends at Sterneduft, and thence across northwards to the 
marches of Penykoc, and thence westward to the marches of Lynton, and thence southwards by 
the peat-moss above the hill, near the land which Radulph the priest held, to the Gallow-hill.' ^ 
The charter was confirmed by Pope Innocent III. in the year 1203 ; by King William the Lion 

' Lib. Cart. S. Crucis, p. 18. ten ' Mirabilis concessio.' It was certainly a bountiful 

- Lib. Cart. S. Crucis, p. 24. gift. 

^ Lib. Cart. S. Crucis, pp. 215, 216. • Regist. de Neub.. * Regist. de Neub., fol. .xxviii. 

fol. xxix. On the leaf of the latter Register, on which ^ Lib. Cart. S. Crucis, p. 217. Regist. de Neub., fol. xxix. 

this grant is engrossed, the convent scribe has writ- ^ Regist. de Neub., fol. xxviii. 



194 ORIGINES [newlands. 

lietween the years llo'j aud ]21^ ; and by King Alexander II. in tbe year 1224.' Between the 
years 1223 and 1227, Philip of Euermele the younger, lord of Romanoch, confirmed to the Cis- 
tercians of Newbottle all the lands which they held of his ancestors in the fief of Romanoch, and 
ratified the exchange which they had made with the canons of Holyrood, for the removal of 
disputes as to pasturage which had arisen between the two houses, and were not finally deter- 
mined until the year 122.3.^ AVhat the lands were which the latter received from the old lords 
of Romanoch does not more precisely appear j^ but a vestige of the conditions under which they 
were held survived the year 1790, in the thirlage of certain lands, ' to the extent of the six- 
teenth of all the oats raised, horse corn, and the seed sown on the farm, only excepted,''' a descrip- 
tion in which it is easy to recognise the obligation imposed by Philip of Euermele six hundred 
years before : ' cum ad molendinum meum veneriut ibi ad sextumdecimum vas molent sine aliqua 
molendini operatione.'s The possessions of the monks of Newbottle evidently spread over most 
of the upper part of the parish. They had a grange and a mill on their lands. 

The Euernieles seem to have been succeeded in the lordship of Romanno by the Grahames of 
Dalkeith. The lands were in ward of the crown, in the year 1265, when they yielded 43s. 4d. 
to the sherifl" of Traquair.^ The grant of the advowson of the church by John of Grahame, in 
the year 1317, has already been spoken of. King David II. granted to William of Douglas a 
charter of the lands of Newlands and Kilbothok, resigned by John Graham of Dalkeith," whose 
heiress Douglas is said to have married.* King Robert II., in the year 1 374, confirmed to Sir 
James of Douglas of Dalkeith knight, and to James of Douglas his son, the barony of Kyl- 
bethok and of Newlandys;^ and with their descendants the lands continued until after the Refor- 
mation.'" In the tax-roll of the shire, Newlands, together with Linton, was rated at £40 of old 
extent.^' 

Certain portions of Romanno, at the end of the thirteenth or beginning of the fourteenth 
century, belonged to the Lyndesays. In the year 1335, King Edward III., in right of the lord- 
ship of the southern shires of Scotland, conceded to him by King Edward Balliol, confirmed a 
charter by William of Coucy to his son AVilliam, of ' the manor of Scravelyn (Skirling,) and all 
its lands and tenements in Romannok, in the shire of Peebles," with many other domains which 
the elder Coucy inherited from his mother. Christian of Lyndesay, the wife of Sir Ingelram de 

' Regist. de Neub., foil, xxvii, xxviii, 1. removing doubts ; also a cbarter of Edward of Wittelle ; 

- 'Regist. de Neub., foil, xxviii, xxix, xxx. also a charter of Alexander the First [l. the Second] for 

^ At the foot of that leaf of the Register of Newbottle, the canons [of Holyrood] ; also a perambulation of the 

on which the last charter of Romanno is engrossed, the marches for the monks [of Newbottle] at the King's com- 

seribe of the convent has written the following note : ^ It mand.' Reg. de Neub., fol. xxx. 

is to be remembered, that besides what is written in this ■■ Old Stat. Acct. 

book, there are seven cliarters touching the business of •'' Lib. Cart. S. Crucis, p. 216. 

Romanoch, namely, a charter of Philip [of Euermel] the "^ Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., p. SI*. 

second, in favour of the monastery [of Newbottle], as to ' Robertson's Index, p. 54, no. 1. 

the marches, which are there fully dealt with ; also a '" Godscroft's Hist, of Doug., p. 81. 

charter of the same [Philip of Euermel], regarding the ^ Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 140, no. 73. 

controversy and concord between him and the canons [of '" Robertson's Pari. Rec, pp. 763-765. 

Holyrood] ; also a charter of King William, for the canons ' ' Extent of the shire of Peebles. 

[of Holyrood] ; also a charter of Radulph of Euermel, for 



NEWI.ANDS.] PAROCHIALES. 195 

Gynes.' The same or another portion of the territory seems not long afterwards to iiave been 
annexed to the earldom of Douglas. In the year 1389, King Robert II. granted to Archibald 
Douglas lord of Galloway, a charter of the lordship of Douglas, of the Forest of Ettrick, Lauder- 
dale, Romanok, and many other lands.^ Dr. Pennecuik, whose father married the heiress of 
the lands, speaks of the Romaunos of that Ilk as flourishing until about the year 1510, when 
their male heirs, he says, came to an end, and a daughter carried the inheritance to the Slurrays.^ 
They held probably of the church. There seem to have been other subvassals at Ilalmyre (which 
was an eight pound land of old extent,) at Caldcoats, and probably at Scotstoun. 

In the beginning of the last century, there were to be seen, beside the churchyard, the ditches 
and foundations of a castle, from the stones of which, according to tradition, both the church of 
Newlands and the neigiibouring tower of White Side were built. The ruins bore the name of 
' Grahame's Walls ;'■* and doubtless marked the site of a fortress of the old lords of Dalkeith and 
Newlands. Their successors, the Douglasses, have left a memorial of their power and splendour, 
as well as of their crime and misfortune, in the great ruin of Drochil, standing on the brow of a 
hill, at the meeting of the Lyne and the Tarth. ' It hath been designed,' says Pennecuik, ' more 
for a palace than a castle of defence, and is of a mighty bulk, founded and more than half built, 
but never finished, by the great and powerful regent James Douglas earl of Mortoun. This 
mighty earl, for the pleasure of the place and the salubrity of the air, designed here a noble recess 
and retirement from worldly business, but was prevented by his inexorable death three years after, 
an)io 1581, being executed by the merciless Maiden at the cross of Edinburgh, as art and part of 
the murder of our King, Henry earl of Darnly.' On the southern front, above the entrance, are 
carved the initial letters of the Regent's name and style, with a fetter lock, the supposed symbol 
of his office of Warden of the Marches.' Drochil, at the end of the thirteenth century, gave sur- 
name to its possessors. Alexander of Droghkil swore fealty to King Edward I. in the year 1296, 
along with Stephen of Stevenston (a place on the opposite bank of the Lyne,) for his lands in the 
shire of Peebles.'' ' Alexander of Drochyl and Alice his wife,' probably about the middle of the 
thirteenth century, made an agreement with the monks of Newbottle, as to the marches between 
the land of Kynggesside (in the parish of Eddleston,) and the abbey's land of Spurlande, in Lo- 
thian : the deed is witnessed by Philip of Roumanoch, by Roger the son of Oggou, by Gilcrist of 
Schopelaus, by Reginald of Stuardistuu, by Adam Bullo, and others. ^ 

There was an old tower house, of small size, in the year 1715, above Burn's mill, in the upper 
part of the parish. There were also manor places of some antiquity at Halinyre, at Romanno, and 
at Caldcoats.* 

Above Newlands, within the grounds of Romanno, says Pennecuik, ' upon the side of a pleasant 
green hill, are to be seen eleven or twelve large and orderly terrace walks, which in their summer 
verdure,' he adds, ' show fair from a distance.' He contends that they have been made by art, 

' Rotuli Scotiae, vol. i., p. 352. ' Pennecuik'sDeseript.ofTweeddaIe,pp. 189-191. Car- 

- Act. Pari. Scot., vol. i., pp. 193, 194. donnelFs .\ntiii. of Scot. 

■' Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. ITO, 177. '' Ragman Rolls, p. 152. ' Regist. de Neub., foil, viii ix. 

' M'Farlane's Geog. Collect., MS. ■' Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 172-177. 



196 ORIGINES [stobo. 

' because upon the top of the hill there is a little round fortification of earth and stone, with a ditch 
about it, as if it had been some garrison, and these terraces cut to keep off horse ; the like being 
to be seen on the top of several other hills in Tweeddale.' ^ But modern science appears to have 
succeeded in proving these parallel roads to be the work of nature. 

When the posse of the shire was arrayed on the King's muir at Peebles in the year 1627, the 
freeholders present from the parish of Newlands were, the laird of Romanno, well-mounted, armed 
with a sword, and having a train of four horsemen with lances and swords ; David Murray of 
Halmire (who had lands also in Stobo and Drummelzier,) well-mounted, accompanied with thirty- 
nine horsemen, one of whom had a buff coat, and the rest lances and swords ; Rowland Scott, 
parcener of Deins-houses, mounted, with jack, steel-bonnet, sword, and lance ; and another par- 
cener of Deins-houses, whose name is not given, but who brought seven jacks, steel-bonnets, 
swords, and lances into the field.^ 



STOBO, BROUGHTON, DAWIC, DRUMMELZIER, AND 
TWEED SMUIR. 

Stoboc' — Stubho* — Stubbeho' — Stupho'' — Stobhow' — Stobhou- — Stubhoc" 
— Stobhoc"— Stobbope"— Stobbehe'-— Stobowe^'— Stobou"— Stobbo"— 
Stobohowe'' — Stobhowe" — Stobbou'" — Stubbehok'- — Stobo. '^ Deanery of 
Peebles.20 (Map, No. 81.) 

TuE ancient parish of Stobo was of large extent, including within its limits the modern parishes 
of Lyne, Broughton, Drummelzier, Tweedsmuir, Dawic, and perhaps also Glenholm, which were 
known of old as the ' pendicles' or ' vicarages' of Stobo, and had readers or exhorters serving their 
cures between the years 1567 and IS?*.^! The first and the last were erected into parishes by 
themselves before the Reformation, and appear in Baiamund's Roll. Tweedsmuir bore the name 
of Upper Drummelzier, and comprehended Drummelzier proper, or Lower Drummelzier, within its 
boundaries, until the middle of the seventeenth century. 

' Penneeuik'sDescript. of Tweeddale, pp. 186-189. " A. D. 1208— A. D. 1214. Regist. Glasg., p. 9U. 

- Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 304-307. '- Circa A. D. 1200. Regist. Glasg., p. 89. 

3 Circa A.D. 1116. Reg. Glasg., p. 5. A. D. 1268. '^ A. D. 1216. Regist. Glasg., pp. 94, 95. A. D. 1425. 

Reg. Glasg., p. 179. Regist. Glasg., p. 317. 

■> .\. D. 1170. Reg. Glasg., p. 23. '■'A.D. 1223. Regist. Glasg., p. 109. JV. D. 1482. Regist. 

5 A. D. 1174. Reg. Glasg., p. 30. Glasg., p. 445. 

« A. D. 1175— A.D. 1178. Lib. Cart. S. Crueis, p. 42. '* A. D. 1223. Regist. Glasg., p. 1 1 0. 

;.V.D. 1179. Reg. Glasg., p. 43. '« A. D. 1225. Regist. Glasg., p. HI. 

-' A.D. 1181— A. D. 1401. Reg.GIasg., pp.50, 55, 108, " Circa A. D. 1233. Regist. Glasg., p. 112. 

174, 183, 188, 189, 191, 299. Lib. de Calchou, pp. 82, 83, '" Ragman Rolls, p. 164. 

270,271. Lib. de Melros, p. 1 17. '» A. D. 1401— A. D. I,i02. Regist. Glasg., pp. 344, 346, 

» Circa A. D. 1208. Regist. Glasg., p. 73. 450, 467, 611. 
"> A. D. 1208— A. D. 1214. Regist. Glasg., p. 88. . =" Baianiund. -'' Reg. of Miniat., 1567. 



sTOBo.] PAROCHIALES. 197 

This wide district contains all the vale of Tweed, from its source to the point where turning 
eastwards it meets the Lyne, together with the glens and hills of the tributary waters of the 
Fruid, Cor, Talla, and some smaller streams. It is a high and pastoral country, but not without 
many rich and fruitful holms. 

The antiquity of the mother church of Stobo (whicli, though not expressly called by that name, 
was apparently a ' plebania') is doubtless shown by the number and the distance of its dependent 
chapels. The manor was declared to belong to the see of Glasgow, by the memorable inquest 
which was made by the elders and sages of Cumbria, at the command of David their Prince 
about the year 1116.' The church was confirmed to Bishop Engelram, along with the other 
churches of his seventeen mensal towns, by Pope Alexander III. in the year 1170.^ The church 
and manor were subsequently confirmed to the successors of Saint Kentigern, by the same Pope 
in the years 1174,3 and 1179 ;■* by Pope Lucius III. in the year llSl;* by Pope Urban III. 
in the year 1186;^ and by Pope Honorius III. in the year 1216.^ 

The benefice appears to have been held at a very early period by one of the rural deans of the 
iliocese. ' Peter, the dean of Stobhou,' appears as a witness to charters of the bishops of Glasgow, 
between the years 1175 and 1199 ;* and is doubtless to be identified with the ' Peter, the dean of 
Cludesdale,' who apiiears at the same time as a witness to other charters of the same bishops ;9 the 
deanery of Stobo, Tweeddale or Peebles, and that of Lanark or Clydesdale, being held probably by 
one person in that age, as we certainly know that they were in the next century.^" Peter, the dean 
of Stobhou, held the land of Corroc in Lesraahago, of the abbey of Kelso; and he transmitted it to 
his son David, whom the monks received as his heir (quem in heredem eius recepimus,) between 
the years 1 180 and 1203.^1 ' Gregory, parson of Stobhou,' appears on record between the years 
1202 and 1207;'- ' Richard, parson of Stobhoc,' is found between the years 1208 and 1214;'^ 
and 'William, rector of the church of Stobhou,' in the year 126(5.'* ' Yvan, vicar of Stoboc,' 
occurs in the year 1268 ;"> and in the year 1275, a person of the .same name figures as rural dean 
of Lanark and Peebles, and dates his citations from Stobhou.'^ ' Michel of Dunde, parson of the 
church of Stubbehok in the shire of Peebles,' swears fealty to King Edward I. in the year 1296."^ 

The church was erected into a prebend of the cathedral of Saint Kentigern at Glasgow, probably 
at the first institution of canons after the restoration of the bishopric in the beginning of the 
twelfth century. The advowson of the prebend of Stobou was confirmed to the Bishop by Pope 
Honorius III. in the year 1216 ;i* and during the vacancy of the see in the year 1319, Kino- 
Edward II., as Overlord of Scotland, claimed to exercise the right of patronage.'" The benefice 
continued to be thus appropriated until the Reformation ; the cure of souls being served by a vicar 

' Regist. Glasg., p. 5. - Regist. Glasg., p. 23. '" Regist. Glasg., pp. 188, 189, 131. 

^ Regist. Glasg., p. 30. " Lib. de Calehou, pp. 8-2,83. Regist. Glasg., p. 73. 

■• Regist. Glasg., p. 43. '* Regist. Glasg., p. 72. Lib. de Calehou, p. 271. Lib. dc 

* Regist. Glasg., p. 50. Melros, p. 117. 

" Regist. Glasg., p. 55. '^ Regist. Glasg., p. 88. '■> Regist. Glasg., p. 174 

' Regist. Glasg., pp. 94, 95. " Regist. Glasg., pp. 174, 179. 

" Lib. de Calehou, p. 270. Lib. Cart. S. Crueis, p. 42. '" Regist. Glasg., pp. 188, 189, 191. 

" Regist. Glasg., pp. 41, 46. Lib. de Melros, pp. 113, " Ragman Rolls, p. 164. 

11-4. '^ Regist. Glasg., p. 95. '° Rymer's Foed., vol. ii., p. 401. 



198 OEIGINES [stobo. 

resident in the parish. In the beginning of the fifteenth century, a question having arisen between 
Bishop William and Master Thomas Stewart, prebendary of Stobo, as to the right of advowson of 
the vicarage, the sub-dean and chapter of Glasgow, by a deed dated on the eve of Whitsunday in 
the year 142.'i, found and declared that the full collation (excluding right of presentation by the 
prebendary,) had belonged to their lords the Bishojis of Glasgow from the time whereof the memory 
of man was not in the contrary ; and that Sir Andrew Hoinlyn, the vicar that last was, possessed 
the vicarage by the Bishop's plenary collation. i In the year 1401, the prebend of Stobo was taxed 
in the sum of five pounds, for the vestments of the cathedral.^ About the year 1432, the prebendary 
was required to pay twelve merks yearly to his stallar, or vicar choral in the cathedral.^ At the 
visitation of the chapter in the year 1501-2, the prebendary of Stobo was censured, because, 
' during time of service, he often went out and came into the choir.''' 

The church, which stands on the right bank of the Eastown burn, where it flows into the Tweed, 
is an ancient building: its font was in existence at the end of the last century.* There may 
perhaps be room to question whether the village of Stobo, and perhaps the church, did not, in the 
beginning of the thirteenth century, stand on the Westown burn, which was then called Polten- 
stobbo.^ 

The rectory is rated in Baiamund's Roll, at £2G6, 1 3s. 4d. ;' in the Taxatio Ecclesiae Scoticanae 
sec. XVI., at £226, 12s. 6d. ;* and in the Libellus Taxationum Regni Scotiae, at £160, 13s. 4d. 
At the Reformation, the parson John Coloqhoun returned the fruits at eighteen chalders, thirteen 
bolls, and two firlots, three hundred lambs, and twenty stones of wool, derived from the places 
following : namely, the Deantown, East and West Iloperew, Dewan, Broughton Mains, Hentbrae 
and Little Hoije, Burnetland, Langlandhill, Starkfield, Sheildbank, Claverhill, Great Hetland, 
Drummelzier, and Dawic. The list shows the large extent of the parish of old. Of the corn 
tithes, the rector stated that there was ' waste and be thieves' not paid, three chalders and four 

bolls.9 

The vicarage is taxed in Baiamund's Roll, at £66, 13s. 4d. ji" and in the Taxatio Ecclesiae 
Scoticanae sec. xvi., at £56.ii It does not appear in the Libellus Taxationum Regni Scotiae ; but 
in a report of the year 1561, it is declared to be as follows: forty bolls of meal in Tweed-Muir, 
within the pendicle of Drummelziers and jurisdiction of Stobo ; a forty shilling land of old extent 
with fifty soumes of grass ; a certain tithe yielding five merks yearly ; twenty-two stones of 
cheese; five stones and a-half of butter; and £22, 16s. 8d. in money. The whole was let appa- 
rently for £60. 

The Bishop's mensal manor of Stobo, whatever its first extent may have been, was of no great 
size even in the beginning of the thirteenth century, when compared with the ecclesiastical limits 
of the parish.i- It did not include Hoprew, nor Broughton, nor any of the ' pendicles' of Stobo. 

' Regist. Glasg., pp. 317, 318. ' Regist. Glasg., p. Ixiv. 

- Regist. Glasg., pp. 299, 344. •> Regist. Glasg., p. Ixxiii. 

^ Regist. Glasg., p. 346. ^ Book of Assumptions. 

■> Regist. Glasg., p. 61 1. '" Regist. Glasg., p. Ixiv. 

' Old Stat. Acct. " Regist. Glasg., p. Ixxiii. 

" Regist. Glasg., p. 89. " Regist. Glasg., p. W. 



sTOBo.] PAROCHIALES. 199 

The whole barony, at tbe Reformation, yielded only £107 in money; forty bolls of ' kain' bear, 
■at ten shillings a boll; and forty ' kain' wedders, at four shillings each.^ The possession of the 
manor was the subject of repeated contests between the church and the lay barons of Tweeddale. 
Between the years 1208 and 121 4, William the son of Geoffrey, lord of the neighbouring manor 
of Orde, at the instance of his overlord Sir Robert of London, the son of King William the Lion, 
renounced in favour of the see of Glasgow, the land of Stobhope as bounded by the hill-top, 
which he and his overlord had wrongly and unjustly occupied and kept, from the time of Florence 
the elect of Glasgow (A. D. 1202 — A. D. 1207,) to that of Walter the bishop that then was, 
(consecrated A. D. 1208.) The Bishop, in return for this quitclaim, gave to the lord of Orde, 
right of common pasture in the disputed ground, during his lifetime, free of any service.^ It 
seems to have been about this period that the following instructive record of the boundaries of the 
manor was inscribed in the Register of the See : ' These are the right marches between Stobbo and 
Hoperewe and Orde. From the fall of the burn of Potternam (the Eastown burn) into Twede, to 
the head of the said burn ; and thence along the hill-top between Glenmanthav and Glenmerlahv 
to Whiteshopes Suirles ; and thence by the hill-top to Ordeshope (Ladyurd) ; and from Ordeshope 
by the hill-top to the head of Poltenstobbehe (the Westowu burn) ; and from the head of Polten- 
stobbeh by the hill-top to Glemubsuirles ; and so by the hill-top between Gleniubsuirles to the 
burn of Glenkeht (the Muirburn,) and so downwards as that burn falls into the Bigre. These 
are the names of the witnesses of the marches aforewritten : Sir Adam the son of Gilbert ; Sir 
Milo Corneht; Sir Adam the son of Edolf; John Ker, the hunter at Swhynhope; Gillemihhel 
Ques-Chutbrit at Trefquer ; Patrick of Hopekeliov; Mihliyn Brunberd at Corrukes ; Milihyn the 
son of Edred at Stobbo ; Cristin the hermit of Kyngeldores ; Cos-Patric the hermit of Kylbeuhoc ; 
Padin the son of Kercau at Corrukes ; Gillemor the son of Kercau at Corrokes ; Cristin Gennan 
the Serjeant (seruiens) at Trefquer ; Gylcolm the smith at Pebles ; Gylmihhel the son of Bridoc 
at Kyngeldures; Gylis the son of Buht at Dunmedler; Gillecrist the son of Daniel at Glenwhym ; 
Matthew,.James, and John, the sonsof Cos-Mungho the priest at Edoluestone; Cos-Patric Roniefare; 
Randulf of Meggete ; Adam of Seles the clerk ; Gillccryst the son of Huttyng at Currokes ; 
Gilbert the parson of Kylbevhhoc ; Gylmor Hund at Dauwic ; Mihhyn the steward of Dauwic ; 
Dudyn of Brouhtune ; Patric the son of Caswale at Stobbo ; Adam and Cosouold the sons of 
Muryn at Oliver's Castle.'^ The possession of the manor was again in dispute between Bishop 
Walter, towards the close of his long pontificate, and Jordan of Currokes, a place which seems to have 
been in the immediate neighbourhood, though no trace of its name is now to be found. The matter 
was carried before the Apostolic See, by whom its decision was remitted to the Bishop of Saint 
Andrews, to the Archdeacon of Lothian, and to the Archdeacon of Saint Andrews. These judges 
found, in the year 1223, that the Bishop of Glasgow should pay a hundred pounds to the lord of 
Currokes, who, on his part, should give up all the writs which he had regarding the land, resigning 
the same by staff and baton, and quitclaiming it for ever to Saint Kentigern and the church of 
Glasgow.* The sentence was confirmed by King Alexander II. in the same year;^ and in the 

' MS. Rental. Book of Assumptions. -* Regist. Glasg., p. 89. 

-■ Regist. Glasg., p. 90. ' Regist. Glasg., pp. 108, 109. ^ Regist. Glasg., p. 110. 



200 



ORIGINES 



[STOBO. 



year 122,5, the same Prince renounced in favour of the see of Ghisgow, all claim to certain men of 
Stohhowe, whom Adam the son of Gilbert had quitclaimed to Bishop Walter and his successors, 
namely, Gillemil the son of Bowein, and his son Gilleraor, and Buz', and Gillys the son of Eldred.i 
The possession of Stobo was yet once again disputed with the church about the year 1233, when 
Mariot the daughter of Samuel, by the King's letters, took Bishop William before Sir Gilbert 
Fraser sheriff of Traquair. The question was settled by Mariot renouncing her claims, in considera- 
tion of a sum of ten merks yearly to be paid from the Bishop's manor of Edulueston, by the hands 
of his chamberlain, to herself during her lifetime, and to her heir or assign after her death.^ At 
the same time Eugene the son of Amabill (another daughter of Samuel) renounced all claim to the 
manor which he might have, in favour of Saint Kentigern and the church of Glasgow.^ Stobo 
appears as one of the baronies of the bishopric, in the years 1369,'' 1482,^ and 1486.6 In the 
year 1489-90, it was erected by King James IV., along with Edilstoun, into a free regality, in 
favour of Bishop Robert and his successors.' 

The manor of Hoprew (which, together with Lyne and Meggct, is rated in the tax roll of the 
shire at .£20 of old extent,) belonged, at the end of the thirteenth century, to the Erasers.*' It 
had an old tower-house ; and at Drevah, which was a part of the Bishop's manor, there was 
another place of defence. 

The village of Stobo is ancient. It stands, with its mill, on the left bank of the Tweed, on ' a 
pleasant and fertile spot of ground, a little above the river, looking to the south sun.' Certain farms 
in the neighbourhood retained, in the last century, the name of ' the nineteen towns of Stobo.'" 

On a fiat aud barren heath, called ' The Sheriflf-Muir,' are standing stones, cairns, and other old 
remains.!" 

At the weaponshawing of the shire, in 1627, the freeholders present from Stobo were William 
Brown in Wester Happrew, bailie to my Lord Tester, in his lordship's name, well mounted, with 
jack, ' plet sleeves,' steel bonnet, pistol, and sword, accompanied by threescore and five horsemen, 
and four footmen, all with lances and swords, ' dwelling on noble Lord Yester's lands in Peebles, 
Lyne, Stobo, and Drummelzier ;' and David JIurray of Halmire, well mounted, with thirty-nine 
horsemen, for his lands in Newlands, Stobo, and Drummelzier.^^ 

The chapelries of Stobo were five in number, namely, Lyne, Broughton, Kingledoors, Dawic, 
and Drummelzier. The advowson of the first between the years 1189 and 1209, was dis- 
puted between Gregory the parson of Stobo, on the one hand, and Robert of Line, the son and 
heir of David of Line and Waldeve his uncle, on the other side. J. bishop of Whitherne, to 
whom the cause was remitted by the Apostolic See, decided against the lay claimants, who there- 
upon renounced all right to the chapel in favour of the Bishop of Glasgow, patron of the mother 
church, and the parson of Stobo. ^^ 



Regist. Glasg., pp. 110, 111. 
Uegist. Glasg., pp. Ill, 141, 142. 
Regist. Glasg., p. 112. 
Chamljerlain Rolls, vol. i., p. S09. 
Regist. Glasg., p. 445. 
Regist. Glasg., p. 4.50. 



' Regist. Glasg., p. 467. 

" Lib. de Melros, p. vJ19. 

y Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 2G8, 269. 
'» Old Stat. Acet. 

" Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 304-307. 
'^ Regist. Glasg., p. 72. See under Lyne. 



STOBO BROUGHTON.] PAROCHIALES. 201 



BROUGHTON. 

Between the years 1175 and 1180, Ralph le Neym (who held lands on the shores of Buchan, 
in the north, as well as on the eastern marches between England and Scotland,) i with consent of 
Richard, his son and heir, gave to the chapel of Broctun, half a carrucate of land in Broctun, with 
a toft and croft, and common pasture of the township, as much as should in reason belong to half 
a carrucate, and all other easements ; granting also that the chapel should be held and possessed 
by the mother church of Stobbou, free of all claim by the donor and his heirs.^ 

The site of the chapel was probably that of the present parish church, on the right bank of the 
Broughton burn, a short way above the ancient village. A yearly fair held there of old, on the 
twenty-second of September,^ may denote that the chapel was under the invocation of Saint 
Maurice and his companions in martyrdom, or of Saint Lolan the bishop, whose festivals were 
kept by the Scotish church on that day.* 

The manor of Broughton, a barony rated at X40 of old extent,^ occupies a valley bounded by 
a ridge on either side. It belonged to the Le Neyms, about the year 1180, and would seem to 
have been possessed, about twenty years afterwards, by a person who took his surname from the 
lands. ' Dudyn of Broughton' was one of the witnesses of the marches of Stobo, about the year 
1200.^ Alexander Dudyn, in the year 1296, swore fealty to King Edward I. for lands in the 
shire of Peebles.' King David II. granted to Edward of Hawdene, and his wife, the lands of 
Broughton in Tweeddale.^ David Mowat received from King Robert III. a charter of the barony 
of Broughton, and of Winkiston and Burelfield,^ to be held, apparently, of the Ilawdenes. In the 
year 1407, Robert duke of Albany governor of the realm of Scotland, confirmed to John of 
Hawdene, the son and heir of William of Hawdene, the lands of Hawdene and Yethame in 
Teviotdale, and the lands of Brochtoun in Tweeddale.'" 

Burnetland is said to have been held by the Burnets of old ;^^ but it appears, in the year 1618, 
as part of the barony of Broughton, and one-half of it was possessed by the Tweedies of Wrae.^- 
Stirkfield, which belonged to the Elphinstones, was a four pound land of old extent.'^ In the 
year 1452, Henry Weir, brother and heir of Ralph Weir of Blackwood in Clydesdale, granted to 
William lord Somerville, a ten pound land within the barony of Broughton in Tweeddale ; and in 
the year 1459, John lord Somerville was served heir to his father in this heritage.'* 

The remains of a place of strength, called Macbeth's castle, were to be seen in tlie end of the 
last century. Coins and fragments of weapons have been dug up among the ruins.'^ Broughton 

' Antiq. of Shires of Aberd. and Banff, vol. ii., pp. 397, of Roxburgh and Peebles. Palg. Illust. Hist. Scot., vol. i., 

393. (Spalding Club.) p. 300. 

- Regist. Glasg., p. 41. '•* Robertson's Index, p. 148, no. 14. 

3 Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 264. "> Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 238, no. 39. 

* Kalend. Aherd. ' ' Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 264. 
■'• Extent of the shire of Peebles. ^^ Retours. 

* Regist. Glasg., p. 89. '^ Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 264. Extent 
' Ragman Rolls, p. 152. of the shire of Peebles. 

^ Robertson's Index, p. 59, no. 18. .Almaric of Haudene '^ Mem. of .Somerviiles, pp. 205, 219. 

swore fealty to King Edward I. for his lands in the shires " Old Stat. Acct. 

VOL. I. 2 c 



202 ORIGINES [storo— dawk:. 

House, formerly called Little Hope, the seat of the notoriims ' Secretary Murray,' was burned 
down, in. the year 1773.1 Vestiges of as many as other eight towers, it is said, were to be seen 
within the parish about that time.^ 

The freeholders of Broughton who gave suit and presence at the military muster of the shire, in 
the year 1C27, were the laird of Stanhope, represented by seven horsemen, with lances and 
swords ; the laird of Haldon, represented by his bailie, John Waldon, accompanied by ten horse- 
men and twelve footmen, with lances and swords ; the laird of Langlawhill (a forty shilling land 
of old extent,) well mounted, having a jack, steel bonnet, lance, and sword, with thirteen horse- 
men bearing swords and lances ; and John Patterson, parcener of Broughton-shield, well-mounted, 
accoutred with lance and sword.^ 

DAAVIC. 

When the chapelry of Dawic was founded, or by whom it was endowed, is not known. In 
the year 1571, Thomas Bisset had a yearly salary of twenty merks for serving as exhorter in the 
kirk of Dawic, besides £26, 13s. 4d. which he received for serving the same office in the kirk 
of Drummelzier.* The parochial territory, which was of small extent, lay along the right bank of 
the Tweed. The church stood on the Scrape burn, at the upper end of the district, beside the 
village and mill of Wester Dawic (afterwards called New Posso,) ' at the foot of a black hill, upon 
a pleasant plain on the river side.'^ The parish was suppressed in the year 1742, when a small 
part of it was annexed to Stobo, and the rest was added to Drummelzier." 

The manor was rated, in the tax-roll of the shire, at X20 of old extent. It was divided, but at 
what time is not ascertained, into two portions. Eastern and Western ]!)awic. ' The latter,' says 
Pennecuik, ' belonged from very ancient times to the name of V^eitch, a considerable family, and 
chiefs of their name.'' In the year 1296, William le Vache swore fealty to King Edward I. for 
his lands in the shire of Peebles.* ' William the Wache of Dawic ' appears as a frequent suitor 
before the Lords of the Council and the Lords Auditors of Parliament, between the years 1474 
and 1494.^ The laird of Dawic, well-mounted, girt with a sword, and accompanied by one 
horseman, armed with sword and lance, was present at the weaponshawing of the county in the 
year 1627.'" The manor place was taken down at the beginning of the last century, and another 
built in its place, to which the name of New Posso was given. 

There was an old tower or peel-house at Lour, between Eastern and Western Dawic.'' 

'Mihhyn the steward of Dauwic,' and ' Gylmor Ilund' at Dawic, were among the witnesses to 
the perambulation of the marches of Stobo about the year 1200.'^ 

^ Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 264, 265. ^ Ragman Rolls, p. 15'2. 

2 Old Stat. Acct. s Act. Dom. Cone, pp. 96, 255, 305, 350, 357. Act. 

3 Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 304-307. Dom. Audit., pp. 35, 118, 129, 140, 149*. 

■* Register of Ministers, 1567. '" Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 304-307. 

^ Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 266. " Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 2(i6-270. 

^ Old Stat. Acct. '- Regist. Cflasg., p. 89. 
' Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 266, 267. 



STOBO DRUMMELZIER.] PAROOHIALES. 203 



DRUMMELZIER. 

Until the year 1643, the ecclesiastical district of Drummelzier included within its bounds the 
modern parish of Tweedsmuir or Upper Drummelzier. Lower Drummelzier, or Drummelzier 
proper, to which the western portion of Dawic was added about the middle of the last century, 
lies chiefly on the right bank of the Tweed, which is its boundary on the west and the north, 
except at the south-west corner, where it crosses the stream to enclose the glen of the Kingle- 
doors burn. Tiie water-shed between the tributaries of the Tweed (of which the chief are the 
Stanhope, the Powsayl, and the Hopcarton burns) and those of the Manor, is the march on the 
east. 

There were two cliapels within the territory. That of Drummelzier, which after the Reforma- 
tion became the parish church,' stood with its cemetery close by Merlin's grave, on the right bank 
of the Powsayl water, a little way above the spot where it flows into the Tweed, which is here 
bordered by a large and fruitful haugh. Near by is the large irregular village of Drummelzier, 
and a short distance above, on the bank of the river, stood Drummelzier castle. ^ It is not known 
when or by whom the chapel was founded, but it owed its origin probably to the lords of the 
mauor. The minister who served the cure, as an exhorter, in the year 1571, had a yearly salary 
of £2G, 13s. 4d.2 

In the little valley wliich is watered by the Kingledoors burn, a religious solitary had his cell 
at the beginning of the thirteenth century. ' Cristin the hermit of Kingledores' appears as one of 
the witnesses to the marches of Stobo, about the year 1 200, together with ' Gylmihhel the son of 
Bridoc at Kyngeldores,' and ' Gylis the son of Buht at Dunmedler.'s A chapel, under the invo- 
cation of Saint Cuthbert, was built in the glen before the close of the same century. Sir Symon 
Fraser the elder, who died in the year 1291,'' bestowed on the monks of Melrose all the land of 
South Kingdoris, along with the chapel of Saint Cuthbert of Kingildoris, on the south side of the 
burn of Kingildoris, and the whole land of Hopcarthane (lying on the other side of the Tweed.) 
Sir Symon Fraser the younger, who was beheaded in the year 1306, confirmed his father's grant, 
and added right of free entry and egress to the monks, with their cattle and the men herdin"' the 
same in the pasture between Hesilyard and Haldeyhardsted (' sicut terre dictorum monachorum se 
condonant,') as freely, peaceably, and well as it was written in the charter which the donor had 
from Sir Laurence Fraser sometime lord of Dunmelliare.^ Sir Simon Fraser the younger, about 
the same time, gave to the monks a right of way for their waggons and carts through his land of 
Hoprew, ' by the road which stretches beyond the moor of Hoprew, namely, from the burn which is 
called the Merburn to the King's highway below the land of Edwylstone.' ^ The monks, about 
half a century before, had acquired from William Purveys a right of way for themselves, their 
nuMi and their cattle, through the middle of his land of Mospennoc, lying in the parish of Glen- 

' Pennecuik's Descript. of TweeclJale, pp. 252-256. ' Hot. Scot., vol. i., p. 7. 

2 Kegist. of Minist., 1567. ^ Lib. de Melros, pp. 318, 319. 

'■> Kegist. Glasg., p. 89. " Lib. de Melros, p. 319. 



204 ORIGTNES [stobo — drl^mmelzieb. 

holm, to the west of Kingledoors, opposite to their land of Ilopecarthan.' In the fourteenth 
century a question arose between the monks on the one side, and the lords of Biggar and 
Kingledoors on the other, as to the burden of repairing and upholding the chapel, and finding a 
priest to serve in it. The controversy, after haviug been long agitated, was settled in the year 
1417, when Malcolm Flemyng lord of Bygar renounced in favour of the rnonks, ' all right and 
claim in the chapel and its priest, had or to be had from the beginning of the world to the end 
of time.'2 The land retained the name of Chapel Kingledoors in the beginning of the last 
century.3 

The manor of Drummelzier, it has been seen, belonged at the beginning of the fourteenth 
century to Sir Laurence Eraser, apparently the same person as the Laurence Fresel of the shire 
of Peebles, who swore fealty to King Edward L, in the year 1296.^ King Robert L, in the year 
1326, granted to Roger the son of Finlay, the barony of Druraraeiller, which belonged to Sir Wil- 
liam Fraser knight, and was resigned by him, with its free tenants, and its other pertinents, in the 
King's hands, by staff and baton, before the great men of the realm.^ King David IL granted 
the barony to James of Tweedie ;^ and with his descendants it remained until the sixteenth 
century. It was rated, in the tax-roll of the shire, at X20 of old extent. 

That portion of Kingledoors which was not included in the grant to Melrose, was in the ward 
of the crown in the years 1358 and 1359, when it yielded 13s. 4d. yearly to the sheriff of Peebles.^ 
In the year 1492, the rents of the half of the lands of Kingildurris were in dispute between 
Andrew Twedy and Walter Twedy in Drummelzare, and Andrew Twedy in Oliver Castle, on 
the one side, and William Flemyn of the Borde, on the other.* 

The lands of Polmood or Powmood were possessed from an early time by the Hunters, who are 
said to have held them for tiie service of a bow and a broad arrow when the King came to hunt 
on Yarrow, according to the terms of a fabulous charter which is well known.^ The manor-place 
stood on the burn of Polmood, where it flows into the Tweed. 

The castle of Drummelzier, built on a steep bank of the Tweed, was stately in its ruins at the 
end of the last century. It is described about the year 1715, as ' the ancient decayed house of 
Drummelzer, whose heritors were, from all antiquity, chiefs of the name of Tweedie, a powerful 
and domineering family, now quite extinct.' '" On the hill-top, behind the castle, are the ruins of a 
smaller fort of great strength called Tennis castle, which belonged to the lords of Drummelzier.'' 

On the water-side, a little above Polmood, is the manor-house of the Bower, which perhaps is 
to be identified with the place which gave name to ' Laurenz atte Boure,' one of the freeholders 
of Tweeddale, who swore fealty to King Edward I. in the year 1296.''^ 

' Lib. lie Melros, pp. 214, 215. 1296, for lands in the shire of Lanark. Ragman Rolls 

- Lib. de Jlelros, pp. 524, 525. p. 139. 

' Pennecuik's Deseript. of Tweeddale, p. 252. ' Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., pp. 316, ?A'.l. 

■* Lib. de Melros, p. 319. " Act. Dom. Cone, pp. 231, 248. 

' Origmal charter at Monymusk. -' Pennecuik's Deseript. of Tweeddale, pp. 251, 252. 

« Robertson's Index, p. 59, no. 19. lie was, per- '" Pennecudi's iJescript. of Tweeddale, pp. 253, 254. 

haps, of kindred to ' Roger the son of Finlay,' who " Pennecuik's Deseript. of Tweeddale, pp. 253, 254. 

obtained the barony from King Robert. A ' Fynlay of (irose's Antiq., vol. ii., p. 224. Cardonnel's bcot. Antiq. 

Twjdyn' swore fealty to King Edward I., in the year '- Ragman Rolls, p. 152. 



STOBO— TWEEDSMUIR.] PAROCHIALES. 205 

Dmiiimelzier is famous ia ancient legend, and in later prophecy. Jolia of Fordun relates how 
Saint Keutigern was one day surprised in his solitude, by the apparition of a wild and naked savage 
called Lailoken, who being adjured by the bishop to say who and what he was, replied that he 
was a Christian, though most unworthy of the title ; that he was of old a bard in the court of 
King Vortigern, where he was known by the name of Merlin ; and that he was now living a 
houseless wanderer among the beasts of the field, in penance for his grievous sins ; for he it was 
that was the cause of the slaughter of all who died on that fatal field of strife, between Lidel and 
Carwanolow. Saint Kentigern having received his confession, admitted him to the holy sacra- 
ment, and dismissed him with his blessing. But on that same day, as he himself had foretold, he 
met his death : certain shepherds of a chief of the country named Meldred, set upon him with 
stones and staves; and stumbling in his agony, he fell from a high bank of the Tweed, near the 
town of Dunmeller, upon a sharp stake which the fishers had placed in the water, and which 
pierced his body through and through.' He was buried near the spot where he expired; and it 
was believed that, on the same day on which King James VI. ascended the English throne, a 
strange and sudden rising of the waters fulfilled an fild prophecy. 

When Tweed and Pausayl meet at JMerlin's grave, 

Scotland and England shall one monarch have. 
' The particular place of his grave,' says Pennecuik, ' was shown me many years ago, by the old 
and reverend minister of the place, at the foot of a thorn tree, at the side of the Pausayl, a little 
below the churchyard.' ^ 

TWEEDSMUIR. 

This hilly and pastoral district is the basin of the infant Tweed and its many tributaries, of which 
the chief are the Cor, the Fruid, the Hawkshaws, the Miuzion, the Talla, and the Ilairstanes. The 
Tweed itself takes its rise on the southern confines of the pari.sh (where also is the march between 
the shires of Peebles and Dumfries,) near a spot called Tweed's Cross, so named, it is said, from a 
rood which stood there of old.^ The parish was separated from that of Drummelzier in the year 
1G43 ; and a church was soon afterwards built upon the Quarter Know, on the right bank of the 
river, near the place where it receives the stream of the Talla. In the neighbourhood are a circle 
of standing stones, and a barrow called The Giant's Grave.* 

There was a chapel in ancient times near the tower of Hawkshaws, on the banks of the Fruid 
water. Its remains were to be seen in the last century standing in a cemetery which was cot then 
altogether forsaken. ' 

The whole or great part of this territory belonged in the thirteenth century to the Erasers. 
' Oliver, the .son of Kylvert,' appears among the followers of the great Earls of March, between 
the years 1175 and 119.9.^ He built a fortress on his demesne in Tweeddale, which was known 

' J. Korduni Scotichronicon, lib. iiu, cap. x.\xi. The ^ Penneouik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. •238-243. 

storj is not to be found in the Vita S. Kentegerni by Joce- ■• Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 24S-247. 

lin of Fumes, printed by Pinkerton in his Vitae Antiquae '^ Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 243, 244. 

Sanctorum Scotiae. e Regist. de Neubot., foil, xviij, xi.\. Lib. de Melrcs, 

= Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 2,53, 254. p. 112. Kylvert, or Chilvert, apparently the remotest 



206 ORIGINES [stobo — tweedsmuih. 

by his name as early as about the year 1200, wbeu 'Adam and Cosowold, the sons of Muryn, at 
Oliver's Castle (aput castrum Oliuerj,') are enumerated among the witnesses to the perambulation 
of the marches of Stobo.i He married a lady named Beatrice, who probably brought liim lands 
on the Tyne in East Lothian ; and, according to a tradition in the family, through this or another 
marriage, he acquired his great estate on the Tweed.^ The degree of kindred in which he stood to 
the family which succeeded to his inheritance of Oliver's Castle, seems to be not more precisely 
ascertained than that he was the uncle of Adam the son of Udard Fraser.^ The barony remained 
with the Erasers until the beginning of the fourteenth century, when it appears to have passed by 
marriage to the Flemings of Biggar and the Hays of Yester, between whom it was divided into 
Over and Nether, or South and North Oliver Castle. King Robert IH. granted to Patrick Fleming 
a charter of the lands of Honemener and Gleurustok, within the barony of Oliver Castle;^ and 
durinn- the regency of the Duke of Albany, Malcolm Fleming of Biggar pledged his lands of 
Oliver Castle to Robert Dickson for a hundred pounds.^ In the year 1475, Edward Huntar of 
Polmude cited Sir David the Hay of Yester knight, his father, and John the Hay of Oliver 
Castle, to appear before the King and his Lords of Council, to have it shown which of them was the 
chief baron of Oliver Castle.^ In the year 1480, the lands of Oliver Castle were possessed by 
AVilliam and Laurence Tweedy, as tenants of William lord of Saint John's, the preceptor of 
Torphichen ; and Thomas Porteus of Halkschaw was ordered by the Lords Auditors of Parliament 
to restore threescore and fourteen lambs which he had taken from the lands." The fortalice stood 
on the left bank of the Tweed, where some faint vestiges of it might be traced in the last century. 
Pennecuik mentions that in his day the lord of Oliver Castle was called first of all the free- 
holders in the rolls of the shire court at Peebles.^ The manor was taxed at £13, 6s. 8d. of old 
extent.^ 

The Lindsays possessed part of the territory in the fourteenth century. King Robert I. granted 
to Sir David of Lindsay knight, the whole land of Hawkeshaws, for the service of two archers in 
the King's host ji" and King Robert II., in the year 1371, confirmed the grant which Sir James 
of Lyndesay knight, made (it would seem, in dowry with his daughter Isabel) to Sir John of 
Maxwell knight, of the lands of Haukschawys, Glengonvir, and Fyuglen, in the shire of Peebles." 
By an indenture made at Dunbarton, in the year 1400, between Sir John of Maxwell knight, 
lord of Nether Pollock, and his son Robert, on the one side, and Sir John of Maxwell knight, the 

ancestor to whom the Uneage of the Frasers can be yet received little examination from hands competent to 

traced, seems to have had three sons and a daughter : (i) the task. 

Oliver, who is not known to have left issue ; (ii) Udard, ' Regist. Glasg., p. 89. 

the father of Adam Fraser, the father of Laurence Fraser ; - Anderson's Hist, of the Frasers, p. 5. 

(iii) Ness, who left issue ; and (iv) Maria of Hales, who was ' Regist. de Neubot., foil, xviij, xix. 

married, but would seem to have left no child. Regist. * Robertson's Index, p. 146, no. 37. 

de Neub., foil, xviij, xix, xxi, xxii, xxiiij, xxv, et fol. 6, * Robertson's Index, p. 159, no. 32. 

ad init. Lib. Cart. S. Crucis, p. 11. A charter, by Earl ^ Act. Dom. Audit., p. 38. 

Waltheof, the son of Earl Cospatrick, dated in the year ' Act. Dum. Audit., p. 137. 

116S, is witnessed by ' Gillebert Frasier.' ( Raine's North '■> Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweaddale, p. 245. 

Durham, app., p. 2B, no. cxiv.) The genealogists assume ■' Extent of the shire of Peebles. 

the identity of this Gilbert with Kylvert or Chilvert the "' Regist. Mag. Sig., p. 8, no. 35. 

father of Oliver. But the early history of the Frasers has " Regist. Mag. Sig., p. 1 00, no. 24. 



LYNE.] PAROCHIALES. 207 

son and heir of the lord of Nether Pollok, on the other side, it was agreed that the said Robert 
and his heirs should have the ' Haukschawland, Fynglen, and Carterhope, in Twede Muir,' with 
certain lands in the sherifl'dom of Lanark.^ The manor of Hawkshaws, rated at £15 in the old 
extent of the sliire,^ was possessed towards the end of the fifteenth century by a family of the 
name of Porteous, who were reputed chiefs of their surname, and the motto of whose arms was, 
' Let the hawk shaw.'^ In the year 1479, the Lords of the Council ordered Joifra and William 
Litill to restore to Thomas Portews of Halkschawis, eighteen score of sheep, ewes in milk, each 
of them worth four shillings, plundered from the lands of Halkschawis.* The manor place was 
described as an old house, at the beginning of the last century. In the year 1627, the laird of 
Halkshaw sent to the muster of the train bands of the shire, four horsemen, three of whom were 
armed with lances and swords.^ 

There are to be seen on the Fruid burn the vestiges of another tower, which is said to have 
been the seat of a branch of the Erasers.^ 

Earlshaugh, on the southern border of the parish, was a four pound land of old extent. Glen- 
brak, or Glenbreck, on the left bank of the Tweed, nearly opposite to Hawkshaws, is rated in the 
same valuation at £6, 1 3s. 4d.'' 



LYNE. 

Line' — Lyn'' — Lyne'" — Lin." Deanery of Peebles.i^ (Map, No. 82.) 

The chapelry or parish of Megget, on Saint Mary's Loch, distant about fourteen miles from the 
nearest part of Lyne, was annexed to it about the year 1621. '3 

The small parish of Lyne lies on the left bank of the stream of the same name, by which it is 
divided from Stobo. The ground slopes upwards from the water into a ridge of low bills on the 
north, running nearly parallel to the course of the Lyne. The whole territory, in the year 1792, 
contained only two farms : about sixty years before, it was divided among seven small tenants.''' 

The district was, in the twelfth century, a chapelry dependent on Stobo. A controversy which 
arose as to the chapel of Line, between Robert of Line, the son of David of Line, and Waldeve 
his uncle, on the one side, and Gregory, the parson of Stobehe, on the other, was by the Pope re- 
ferred to the decision of J. the bishop of Galloway, by whom final sentence was given in favour 
of the church, between the years 1189 and 1209. The lord of Line thereupon renounced all claim 
or right in the chapel, in favour of the mother church of Stobehe and its parsons, and the Bishoijs 

' Original at Pollock. « A. D. J201— A. D. 1-216. Regist. Glasg., pp. 72-95. 

' Extent of the shire of Peebles. » A. D. 1188^A. D. 1202. Lib. de Scon, p. 33. 

3 Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 214. '" A. D. 1175— A. D. 119!). Regist. de Neubot., fol. 

* Act. Dom. Cone., p. 37. iiij. Circa A. D. 1320. Regist. Glasg., p. 229. 

* Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 244, 307. " A. D. 1G47. Munira. Alme Universitatis Glasg. 
« New Stat. Acct. Shaw's Hist, of Moray, p. 138. '- Baiamund. 

' Extent of the shire of Peebles. " Old Stat. Acct. ' < Old Stat. Acct. 



208 ORIGINES [ltne. 

of Glasgow, its patrons.i ' Robert, the chaplain of Line,' appears as a witness to a charter of the 
lord of the manor, between the years 1208 and 1213.^ The church became parochial before the 
middle of the next century. A charter by John bishop of Glasgow, about the year 1320, is wit- 
nessed by Sir Nicholas the son of Peter, rector of the church of Lyne.^ The see of Glasgow seems 
to have renounced its patronage, so that the parsonage continued free and unappropriated until the 
Reformation. 

The church, which was old and possessed a font until recent times, stands in a solitary place, 
on a little height near the Lyne, about a mile above the point where its waters meet the Tweed. 
The building has been altered during the present century : in the middle of the last, one of its pews 
bore the date of the year 1606, another had that of the year 1644, in which year also, it is said, 
the pulpit was made in Holland.* 

The village of Lyne, and the ' town head of Lyne,' stand at some little distance to the eastward. 

The rectory is rated in Baiaraund's Roll at £40 ;^ in the Taxatio Ecclesiae Scoticanae sec. xvi., 
at £3i ;^ and in the Libellus Taxationum Regni Scotiae, at £10. The parsonage and vicarage 
at the Reformation were let for £60 yearly.' 

In the end of the twelfth and the beginning of the thirteenth century, this small manor belonged 
to a family who took their surname from it, and were lords also of the manor of Locherworth in 
Lothian.* About the year 1208, David of Line gave to Simon, the son of Robert of Scrogges, 
the land of Scrogges, estimated at half a carucate, by these marches: ' namely, from the strype of 
Westerdene above Holmedun (or Hameldun) to the water of Line, and from the rise of Westerden 
across to the rise of the strype of Gilmimenerdene, and from the rise of Gilmimenerdene to the 
water of Line, excepting always the wood of Gilmimenderdene,' which the lord kept in his own 
hands, but permitted his vassal to have easement within it for pasture, and for building in his own 
land, together with easements of the lord's whole fief, in meadow and field, in wood and plain. 
The land was to be held of the lord for the rent of twelve pennies yearly at the feast of Saint 
IMartin. The vassal and his men were to come to the lord's mill : the men were to pay multure 
and give help in the mill work, but the vassal's own household and he himself were to be free. 
If an escheat came J,brough the vassal, he was to pay twelve pennies ; if a bloodwite, two shillings : 
' the escheats of his men were to go to the vassal. The vassal was to ride with his lord to the 
King's host, upon his own horse, but the lord was to find both the horse and his rider in all things 
necessary. If the horse should die in the lord's service, the lord was to find another ; and if the 
vassal should be himself unable to ride with the lord, he was bound to find another in his place.^ 
This grant, which was made because the vassal's father, Robert of Scrogges, lost his life in the 
lord's service, was confirmed by Robert of Line, the son of David of Line, between the years 1208 
and 1 2 1 3.'" A few years afterwards, Simon of Scrogges, with the consent of his brothers William 
and Hucting, and the permission of his lord, sold the land to Walter bishop of Glasgow, to whom 

' Resist. Glasg., p. 72. " Regist. Glasg., p. Ixxiii. 

- Regist. Glasg., p. 76. ' Book of Assumptions. 

^ Regist. Glasg., p. 2-29. " Regist. de Neubot., foil, iiij, v. Lib. S. Trinit. de 

•* Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 204. Scon, p. 33. 

■'' Regist. Glasg., p. Ixiv. ^i Regist. Glasg., p. 73. "> Regist. Glasg., p. 75. 



LYNE.] PAROCHIALES. 209 

it was confirmed by Robert of Line, at first on the same c(mJitions as Simon of Scrogges had held 
it,i and subsequently in francalmoigne, free from all secular service or demand.^ In the year 
1216, ' the land of Scrogis in the township of Line' was confirmed to the see of Glasgow by Pope 
Honorius IIL^ The family of Line in no long time ended in an heiress by whom its possessions, 
it is said, were carried to the Hays, afterwards lords of Yester. ' Lyne, Hoprowis, and Megget,' 
were together of the old extent of ^20.* 

The land of Scroggis remained with the see of Glasgow until the end of the fifteenth century. 
In the year 1470, Bishop Andrew granted precept of seisine to George of Carribers, burgess of 
Edinburgh, heir of William of Carribers, and Agnes his wife, in the lands of the Scrogis, and, on 
his resignation, to William of Carribers, his brother-gernian.^ Sir George of Caribers priest, was 
served heir to his brother William, on a brief from the Bishop's chancery, in the lands of the mid 
part of Scroggis, in the barony of Stobo, in the year 1482 ; and having resigned them in favour of 
James Lindesay, dean of Glasgow, that dignitary had seisine of them, by the Bishop's charter and 
precept.8 In the year ] 48G, he gave the lands of the half of the Scrogys, with certain other lands 
and rents, to the chantry of Saints Stephen and Laurence, martyrs, in the cathedral church of 
Glasgow, at the back of the high altarj Bishop Robert confirmed the grant, on condition that 
the chaplain should render to the church of Glasgow four pounds of wax and two pounds of 
incense yearly on Saint Kentigern's day.^ In the year 1497, Elizabeth Balbirne, the widow of 
William Carriberis, resigned in the hands of the Archbishop of Glasgow, all her right in the tierce 
of the half of the lands of the Scroggis, in favour of the chaplain of Saints Stephen and Laurence." 
After tlie Reformation, in the year 1572, the lands and revenues of the chantry passed to the 
University of Glasgow, together with the endowments of the other chantries in the cathedral and 
cityji" and in the year 15U6 the LTniversity made a grant of the half land of Scrogis to George 
Hay, son and heir apparent of Gilbert Hay of Slonktoun, for payment yearly of fourteen merks 
three shillings and fourpence, the old rent, and of three shillings and fourpence of increase." 
The College rental shows that, in the year 1 G47, there was derived a yearly feu duty of X9, 13s. 4d. 
from the lands of Scrogis.^- The lands were known, in the year 1715, as ' the Scrogs,' and ' the 
Sorogwood.' The wood was mostly birch and alder. Above are Hamilton, the Holmedun or 
Hameldun of the thirteenth century, and a hill fort, defended by a ditch and earthen rampart. 
A camp near the church bears the name of Randal's Walls.'^ 

' Resist. Glasg., pp. 75, 7ii. '" Munira. .\lme Univ. Glasg., pp. 82-110, 97. (Mail. Club.) 

- Regist. Glasg., pp. 76, 77. " Miinim. Alme Univ. Glasg., Ulackli. Inv. no. 304, MS. 

^ Regist. Glasg., p. 95. The rent of 'the ane half of the Scroggis in Twedell' was 

■* Extent of the shire of Peebles. returned by the chaplain of SS. Stephen and Laurence, about 

' Regist. Glasg., p. 418. the year 15G1, as only * xij merkis yeirlie.' (Book of As- 

" Regist. Glasg., pp. 445, 446. sumptions, MS., f. .").) 

' Regist. Glasg., pp. 450, 451. '-' Muniin. Aime Univ. Glasg., vol. xx.xix. part i. p. 69, MS. 

' Regist. Glasg., p. 451. '■> Uegist. Glasg., p. 494. " Pennecuik's Descript. of i'weeddale, pp. 205-207. 



210 



ORIGINES 



[eddleston. 



EDDLESTON. 

Penteiacob^ — Peniacob" — Gillemorestuin^ — Gillemorestun* — Gillemoreston'^ 
— Edolueston^ — Edulueston'' — Edeluestun* — Edeluestune* — Edoluistuin" — 
Edulfistun" — EdoUiistum"' — Edylston" — Edalston^^ — Eddalstoune" — Edil- 
ston'* — Edilstoun'"' — Edulstoun^'^ — Athelston.'" Deanery of Peebles. ^^^ (Map, 
No. 83.) 

This territory is tbe upper basin or strath of the Peebles water, here called the Eddleston 
burn. The grounds on either side rise to a considerable height : Dundroigh, about two miles 
east of the church, is 2100 feet above the sea. A small loch, fed by a burn which rises in this 
hill, sends its waters into Lothian, where they have the name of the South Esk. 

The changes which the name of this district has undergone are more than commonly instriio- 
tivo. It was found, by the inquest of the elders and sages of Cumbria, about the year lllC, 
that the lands of ' Penteiacob ' had belonged of old to the church of Glasgow.i^ The British 
name of ' Penteiacob,' or ' Peniacob,' was, within half a century, supplanted by that of ' Gille- 
morestun,'-" an appellation derived doubtless from the common Celtic name of the person by whom 
it was possessed. Before the year 11 89, the manor of ' Gillemoristun, anciently called Peniacob,' 
was granted to ' Edulf, the son of Utred j'^^ and from him it took the name of Edulfston, by 
which it has ever since been known. 

Pentiacob, like most of the ancient possessions of the see of St. Kentigern, was probably hallowed 
by religious associations of an age beyond charter or other legal record. The church of the Bishop's 
niensal town of Gillemorestuin was confirmed to Bishop Engelrani, by Pope Alexander III., in 
the year 1170.-^ The same church was confirmed to Bishop Joceline, by the same Pope, in the 
years 1174 and 1178 ;"3 by Pope Lucius III., in the year 1181;-* and by Pope Urban III., in 
the year 1 186.'^ When Bishop Engelram granted the land of Gillemoreston in lease to the Con- 



' Circa A. D. 1116. Regist. Glasg., p. 5. 

- Ante A. D. 1189. Regist. Glasg., p. 39. A. D. 1214 
— A. D. 1249. Regist. Glasg., p. 142. 

3 A. D. 1170. Regist. Glasg., p. 23. 

* A. D. 1174— A. D. 1196. Regist. Glasg., pp. 30, 39, 
40, 43, 50, bo. 

5 A. D. 1170. Regist. Glasg., p. 39. 

'■' Circa A. D. 1200. Regist. Glasg., p. E9. 

' A. D. 1216. Regist. Glasg., p. 94. Circa A. D. 1233. 
Regist. Glasg., pp. 141, 142. 

8 A. D. 123.3. Regist. Glasg., pp. l.TO, 13,9, 140, 141. 

a A. i). 1260— A. D. 1268. Regist. Glasg., p. 175*. Circa 
A. D. 1430. Regist. Glasg., p. 347. 

>» A. D. 1275. Regist. Glasg., p. 191. 

" A. D. 1369. ChamberLiin Rolls, vol. i. p. 508. 



'-' A. D. 1401. Regist. Glasg., p. 299. 

'3 A. D. 1401. Regist. Glasg., p. 344. 

'■' A. D. 1447. Regist. Glasg., p. 368. 

'5 A. D. 1489-90. Regist. Glasg., p. 467. Baiamund. 

'« A. D. 1501. Regist. Glasg., p. 612. 

" A. D. 1715. Pennecuik's Uescript. of TweedJale 

pp. 215-222. 
'" Regist. Glasg., p. 191. 
'^ Regiat. Glasg., p. 5. 
2» Regist. Glasg., pp. 23, 39. 
-' Regist. Glasg., p. 39. 
-- Regist. Glasg., p. 23. 
-3 Regist. Glasg., pp. 30, 43. 
-■' Regist. Glasg., p. 50. 
-^ Regist. Glasg., p. bb, ' 



EDDLESTON.] 



PABOCHIALES. 



211 



stable of Scotland in the year 1170, lie excepted the churcb from the grant.' ' Matliew, James, 
and John, the sons of Cosilungo, the priest at Edolueston,' were witnesses to the perambulation 
of the marches of Stobo about the year 1200.- In the year 1275, the Official of Glasgow held 
an archiJiaconal visitation of the clergy at Edoluistun on the morrow of the feast of St. Mary 
Magdalene.^ William of Bondington, who was preferred to the see of Glasgow in the year 
1233, is said to have been rector of Edelstone.'' 'Master Richard of Boulden, parson of the 
church of Edelston,' swore fealty to King Edward I. in the year 1296.^ 

The church was erected into a prebend of the cathedral church of St. Kentigern at Glasgow 
before the year 1401, when it was taxed in the sum of three pounds for the vestments of the 
cathedral.'^ About the year 1432, the prebendary was enjoined to pay his stallar, or vicar choral, 
a yearly salary of eleven merks.^ At the visitation of the chapter in the year ISOl, it was 
reported of the prebendary of Edulfstoun, that ' even his name is not known.'^ A controversy 
between Ma.ster John Methuen, canon of Glasgow, and Sir John JMousfald, chaplain, as to the 
right of ' a certain tenement in the burgh of Glasgow, in the Ratonraw, on the north side of the 
King's highway, between the land of the sub-dean of Glasgow on the west, and the land in which 
Jonet of Gerland dwelt' on the east, was decided, in the year 1447-8, in the chapel of the castle of 
Edinburgh, by the Lord Chancellor of Scotland and other arbiters, who found that the tenement 
belonged to Master John the canon, as part of the prebend of Edilston.'' 

The benefice is rated in Baiamund's Roll at ^133, 6s. 8d. j^" in the Taxatio Ecclesiae Scoticanae 
sec. XVI., at £113, 5s. lOd. ;" in the Libcllus Taxationum Regni Scotiae at £133, 6s. Sd. The 
church lands of the rectory were of the extent of four merks.^^ 

The church stands near the centre of the parish, on the left bank of the Eddloston burn, over 
against the old village of Eddleston, and the manor-house of Dearn Hall.'-^ A yearly fair was held 
here on the twenty-fifth of September, on which day the Scotish Church kept the festivals of 
Saint Bar or Fymbert, a bishop who obtained special reverence in Caithness, and of Saint Firmin, 
bishop and martyr.^'' 

It has been conjectured that Harehope, in this parish, was the seat of a Friary, founded, it is 
said, by King David I. ,'5 and suppressed towards the end of the fourteenth century. In the year 
1296, 'Friar William Corbet, master of the house of Saint Lazarus of Harop,' had letters from 
King Edward I. of England to the sheriff of Edinburgh, for restitution of the lands of his house 
in the shire of Edinburijh."' In the year 1376, King Robert 11. gave to his eldest son, John 
earl of Carick, Steward of Scotland, the lands of Prestisfelde, Saint Giles' Grange, and Spetelton, 



Regist. Glasg., p. 39. 

Regist. Glasg., p. 89. 

Regist. Glasg., p. 191. 

Bishop Keith's Catal. Scot. B.sh. 

Ragman Rolls, pp. 164, 165. 

Regist. Glasg., pp. 299, 341. 

Regist. Glasg., p. 347. 

Regist. Glasg., p. 612. 

Regist. Glasg., p. 368. 



"^ Regist. Glasg., p. Ixiii. 

'^ Regist. Glasg., p. Ixxii. '- Retours. 

'^ Pennecuik's Descript. of Tvveeddale, pp. 217, 220. 

'* Kalend. Aberd. Breviar. Aberd. 

" Chalmers' Caled., vol. ii., p. 943. The conjecture 
seems to have no other foundation than that of the name, 
which is, however, far too common to waiTant of itself any 
certain conclusion. 

"* Rot. Scotiae, vol. i., p. 25. 



212 ORIGINES [eddleston. 

in the shire of Edinburgh, which were in the King's hands by reason of the forfeiture of the Friars 
of Hareliope abiding at the faith and peace of the King and realm of England, against the faith and 
peace of the King of Scots.i But it is sufficiently certain, that the ' Harehope' of this cliarter 
was the well-known monastery of Holmcultram in Cumberland, which was commonly called 
also by the name of ' Harihop.'^ Between the years 1170 and 1196, the land of Gillemoristun 
was held ' in fee and heritage, in monastery and mill/^ expressions which may refer to the sup- 
posed Friary of Harehope, or to lands in Harehope, which were certaiuly held in the reign of 
King William the Lion by the Cistercians of Melrose,^ to whom also they belonged at the Refor- 
iuatiou.5 

The manor of Penteiacob, extending probably over nearly all the parish, belonged, as has been seen, 
to the see of Glasgow so early as the beginning of the twelfth century. In the year 11*0, Bishop 
Engelram, in consideration of a sum of three hundred merks, granted the land of Gillemoreston, 
anciently called Peniacob, in ferme for fifteen years to Richard of Moreville, the Constable of Scot- 
land, who gave his oath at the altar, on the Holy Evangel, that, at the end of that time, he would re- 
store the land to the church."^ Between the years 1170 and 1187, the Constable granted the manor 
to Edulf the son of Utred (from whom it took its name of Edulfston), to be held of the granter and 
his heirs for one knight's service, as freely and peaceably as any knight held his fief of the granter.^ 
This charter was confirmed by AVilliam of Moreville, the Constable, betw-een the years 1189 and 
1196.* The manor was confirmed to the see of Glasgow by Pope Honorius HI. in the year 1216 ;" 
but it would seem still to have been retained by the Morvilles and their heirs, the lords of Gal- 
loway, in virtue of the lease by Bishop Engelram. At length, in the year 1233, on the death of 
Alan the son of Roland, the lands and lordship of Galloway came to be divided among his three 
daughters,*" and by these the land of Eduluestune was formally restored to the bishops of Glasgow, 
from whom the heirs of Galloway now acknowledged that in time past it had been wrongly de- 
tained by violence, making oath on the Holy Scriptures that they would never more lay any claim 
to the same. Charters in these terms were granted by ' Ellen, the eldest daughter of the deceased 
Alan of Galloway, the Constable of Scotland,' both in her own name, and along with her husband, 
Roger de Quency, the Constable of Scotland and earl of Winchester; by John of Bailliol, lord 
of Barnard Castle, who married her second sister ; and by AVilliam de Fortibus, the son of 
William earl of Albemarle, who married the youngest of the three heiresses.ii At the same 
time, a similar release was granted to the bishop by the vassal who had possessed the manor under 
the Constable, namely, Reginald de Lake, who married the daughter of Constantino, w-ho was 
the son of Sir Adam, who was the son of Edulph the son of Utred, to whom the land was first 
granted by Richard of Morville, between the years 1170 and 1189.*^ Adam the son of Edulph, 

' Regist. Mag. Sig., p. 132, no, -27. " Regist. Glasg., p. 40. 

- Priory of Coldingham, p. iil. Spottiswoode's Relig. " Regist. Glasg., p. 94. 

Hous., cliap. ix. § 4. '" Cliron. de Mailros, p. 144. 

■' Kegist. Glasg., pp. 39, 40. " Regist. Glasg., pp. 138-141. 

* Lib. de Metros, pp. 73, 74. ** The same line of vassals held lands on the Eak in 

' Book of -'Assumptions. Mort. Men. Ann. Teviot,p. 284. Lothian, under the heirs of the Morvilles. Eegist. de 

" Regist. Glasg., p. 39. ' Regist. Glasg., p. 39. Neub., foil. vi. vii. MS. 



EDDLESTON.] PAROCHIALES. 213 

between the years 1214 and 1233, bestowed part of the manor upon Constantine his son, to lie 
held for the twentieth part of a knight's service ; ' namely, that part of the grantor's land in tht- 
territory of Eduluiston, of old called Peniacob, which extends from the head of Aldenhisshlauer 
towards the south by the Whitegate, to the Cross which stands in the highway; and so across 
upwards to the top of Erhacleth as the march stones show ; thence descending westwards to the 
Harecarneburne, and along the liareearneburne downwards to the water of Peblis ; thence liy 
that water upwards to tiie slack (gulam) of Aldenhisslauer ; and the whole of Harecarflat, with 
one acre of the ground which is between it and the highway ; and with the meadow lying next to 
it as far as Kingisforde ; and common pasture and all common easements over the whole tief of Edul- 
uistun.'i This charter was enrolled in the Register of the Bishopric, but at a subsequent period 
a note was written in the margin that the grant no longer held good, and this explanation was 
added : ' It is to be remembered that this Constantine resigned and quitclaimed to William the 
lord bishop of Glasgow the whole right which he had in the foresaid lands, for himself and his 
heirs for ever ; although the grant made to him was of no avail from the beginning, because the 
said Adam had no right to the said township, inasmuch as neither he nor his father Edulph entered 
to the same otherwise than through Richard of Moreville, and through AVilliam his son, who had 
no right except by reason of their lease of fifteen years, as in the charter of the same Richard 
is written at length. Also it is to be remembered, that Reginald de Lake, has the aforewritten 
charter signed with the seal of the said Adam the son of Edulph, in right of his wife, who came 
of the said Constantino.'^ At a subsequent period, the bishop recovered possession of another 
portion of the manor, which had been bestowed by the Constable on his bastard daughter. Be- 
tween the years 12G0 and 12G8, Malcolm, the sou of David Dunne of Conestablestun and his wife 
Alice, the daughter of William of Sloreville, quitclaimed to John bishop of Glasgow the lands of 
Tor or Windihiwes, in the territory of Edulfistun, the possession of which they had aforetime 
disputed with the Bishop.^ 

The manor thus restored remained with the church in lordship until the Reformation, when the 
rents of that portion which the Bishop held also in property were reported to be £23, 18s. 4d., 
with eight bolls of kain bear, and certain kain wedders.'* Edilston was erected into a barony 
in favour of the Bishop before the year 1369 ;'' and in the year 1489-90, it acquired jurisdiction 
of regality by grant of King James IV.'J About the year 1233, notice is found of the Bishop's 
chamberlain of the manor of Eduluestoun." 

The Bishop had vassals under him. One of the chief held the lands of the Blackbarony (of the 
old extent of £40^), the manor-place of which, now called Dearn Hall, was long the seat of a family 
of the Murrays.s The neighbouring lands of Denen Easter, of the old extent of four poundsj^" 
belonged, before the year 1551, to Patrick Whitelaw of Whitelaw.n This place, in the year 



' Regist. (ilasg., p. 142. " Regist. C41asg., p. 467. 

- Regist. Glasg., pp. 142, 14:'.. ' Regist. Glasg., p. 142. 

^ Regist. Glasg., pp. 175*, 176*. " Extent of tbe Shire of Peebles. 

'' Book of Assumptions. ^ Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 217. 

* Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., p. 5UI!. '" E.\tent of the Shire of Peebles. " Retour 



214 ORIGINES [eddleston. 

1715, was called the Easter anil Wester Deans Houses. Cringilty appears also to Lave bad 
a manor-house of some antiquity. About the year 1363, the Lady Margaret of Logy, Queen of 
Scotland, made intercession with Bishop William for the restoration of John Martin, burgess of 
Edinburgh, to the land of Harcars, which he claimed to hold of the bishop by hereditary right. 
The Bishop, after .some delay, expressed his willingness to make a grant of the land to Jfartin for 
his life-time.' 

Between the years 1106 and 1214, Ellen of Morville, 'in exchange for the land in Cunningham, 
which William of Moreville, her brother, devised to them by his last will, namely, the land which 
Simon of Beumunt held,' gave to the monks of Melrose a certain piece of land in the territory of 
Killebeccokestun (or Gillebecchistun), bounded thus : ' that is to say, from the head of Widhope 
towards the east, by the middle of the hill-top, to the Old Castlestead ; thence across to Carelgi- 
burne ; thence by the march between the plough-land and the moor to Haropeburne ; and so down 
that burn to the place where Haropeburne and Carelgiburne meet ; and so upwards by Carelgi- 
burne to the ditches dug for a march ; and so westwards by the ditches dug for a march, to the 
ford of Widhopeburne towards the Line ; and so upwards by that burn to the head of Widhope 
aforesaid.' She gave to the monks also common pasture in the territory of the township, wherever 
her own cattle or the cattle of her men wont to pasture, for seventy sheep, with their lambs till 
two years old, or as many wethers ; for forty f ows and a bull, with their calves under two years 
old ; for forty oxen ; for eight horses ; and for four swine, with their porkers under three years 
old ; together with all the common easements of the township, and free egress and regress to and 
from the pasture through the granter's land and the land of" her men.^ The grant was confirmed 
by Alan of Galloway, Constable of Scotland, the son of Ellen of Morville and of her husband 
Roland of Galloway ;^ and by King William the Lion.^ The lands of Ilarehope in Tweeddale 
belonged to the abbey of Jlelrose at the Reformation.^ 

On the farm of Ringside, on the northern extremity of the parish, a great many gold and silver 
coins, among which were recognised pieces of one of the Jameses, were dug up in the end of the last 
century. The land of Kyngesside belonged, in the thirteenth century, to Alexander of Drochyl, and 
to Alice his wife, who made an agreement with the abbey of Nevvbottle, by which the marches 
between their land of Kyngesside and the abbey's land called Spurlande, were appointed to be as 
follows : ' Erom the head of the well, which is called Beriswell, westwards in a line as the 
march is between the meadow and the arable land, to the burn which flows from Kynggewoll, and 
thence as the said burn flowed of old from the said well, firstly towards the south, then towards 
the west ; so that the whole peat-moss beneath the town shall abide with the monastery.' The 
agreement is witnessed by Reginald of Stuiardistoun, (a land of £7 of old extent,** in the south- 
west of this parish) ; by Adam the son of Molk (from whom Milkinston, on the left bank of the 
water, may have taken its name) ; by Gilcrist of Schnpelaus (doubtless the Shiplaw of modern 
days, on the right bank of the stream) ; by Philip of Roumanoch ; by Roger the son of Oggou ; 

' Regist. Glasg., pp. 276-278. * Liber de Metros, pp. 74, 7.5. 

- Liber de Melros, pp. 71,72. ' Book of Assumptions. iMort. Mon. Ann. Te\iot, p. 284. 

3 Liber de M-lros, pp. 72-74. « E.'itent of the il>.ire of Peebles. 



INNERLEITHA.V.] PAROCHIALES. 215 

by Roger the son of Roger; by Adam Bulloc ; by Thomas the son of JIalJoulny ; by William 
of Anecriue, and others.^ By a charter dated, in the King's presence, at the Park of Dunse, on 
the ninth of July 1316, Thomas Rauulph, earl of Murray and lord of Man, gave to the monks of 
Newbottle a yearly rent of two nierks, due to him from the tenement of Kynggesside, within the 
tenement of Halton.- 

Wormieston, in this parish, with Kidstoun, in the parish of Peebles, were together of the old 
extent of £10. Curhoip was of the old extent of 40s.3 

Sir Archibald Murray of Darn-hall, at the muster of the train-bands of the shire in tiie year 
1627, gave suit and presence with forty-two horsemen, for his lands in the parishes of KilbucLo 
and Eddleston. The laird of Walton, for his lands in Peebles and Eddleston, sent nine men to 
the array.* 



INNERLEITHAN. 

Inuerlethan' — Ynirlethan" — Innerlethan" — Inuerlethna*' — Eniiirlethane''' — 
Enirletham^ — Inuerleithane'" — Inei-lithene" — Innerlethain.'" Deanery of 
Peebles.'- (Map, No. 34.) 

A PART of the parish of Kellie or Hopkellie, lying on the left bank of liie Tweed, was annexed 
to Innerleithan in the year 1674. '^ 

The parish is the long, rugged, and pastoral strath of the Lethan water and its tributaries, 
with a small glen on either side, watered by rivulets", which, like the Leithan, flow into the 
Tweed. 

Between the years 1159 and 1165, King Malcolm the Maiden (so named from lii.s youth or 
etfeminate appearance, not, as the chroniclers of a later time imagined, from his conspicuous 
chastity)!* gave to the monks of Kelso the church of Innerlethan, with all its rights and perti- 
nents ; and because the body of his (bastard) son had rested there on the first night after his 
decease, the King granted to the church the same right of refuge or sanctuary, throughout all its 
territory, which Wedale or Tyninghame had, and forbade that any one should dare to violate the 
church's peace and the King'.s, under penalty of life and limb.'^ The grant was confirmed, 
in another charter by the same prince, between the years 115U and 1165 ;^'' by King William 

' Regist. de Neub., foil. viii. ix. MS. " A. D. 1-241. Regist. de Neub., fol. xxvii. MS. 

- Regist. de Neub., fol. xxviii. MS. " Circa A. D. 1300. Lib. de Calehou, pp. iw, 47J. 

^ Ejitent of the shire of Peebles. » '" A. D. 1492-3. Act. Dom. Cone, p. ■.V.'. 

Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweed.lale, pp. 304-307. " A. D. 15b7. Lih. ,le Calehou, p. 493. 

s A. n. 1153— A. D. 1165. A. D. 1243— A. D. 1-2.54. Lib. '= Baiamund. 

deCalchou,pp.-23,-229, 316, 319,33-2,351. Reg. Glasg., p. 40. '" Old Stat. Ace. -New .Stat. Ace. 

« A. D. 1 153— A. D. 1165. Lib de Calehou, p. 22. '■■ Lord Hades' Annals, vol. i., p. 1 10. 

' A. D. 1153— A. D. 116.5. A. D. 1165— A. D. 1214. '^ Lib. de Calehou, pp. -2-2, -23. 

Lib. de Calehou, pp. 7, 16. "^ Lib. de Calehou, p. 7. 



216 



ORIGINES 



INNEBLEITUAN. 



tlie Lyon, between tbe years 1165 and 1214,i and again between the years 1189 and 1199 ;- 
by Joceline,, bishop of Glasgow, between the years 1175 and 1199 f by Bishop Walter, in the 
year 1232 ;■» and by Pope Innocent IV., between the years 1243 and 1254.5 ' AVilliam, the 
parson of Inuerlethan,' is witness to a charter by "William of Morville between tbe years 1189 and 
1196 :" be bad probably been instituted in the benefice before it was impropriated to the monks 
of Kelso. These, besides the rectorial tithes, enjoyed a yearly pension from the vicarage, and 
an acre of land beside the church, which, in tbe thirteenth century, was wont to yield them 
twelve pennies yearly.'' The benefice remained' with the abbey until the Reformation. 

Tbe church stood, with its village, on the bank of the Leitban, near its junction with the 
Tweed. A yearly fair held beside it, on the 14tb of October,* may perhaps denote that the 
church was dedicated to Saint Calixtus, pope and martyr, whose feast was kept by the Scotish 
church on this day." 

In the rental of Kelso, about the year 1300, the rectory is valued at .£26, 13s. 4d. yearly.'" 
In the rental of the year 1567, it is set down as let for £20.'^ The vicarage is taxed in Baia- 
nmnd at .£66, 13s. 4d.;i2 in tbe Taxatio Ecclesiae Scoticanae sec. xvi., at .£56, 13s. 4d. ;13 and 
in the Libellus Taxationum Kegni Scotiae, at £20. 

The whole parochial territory appears to have been royal demesne in the middle of the twelfth 
century. The grant of the advowson of the church by King JIalcolm the Jlaiden, has already 
l)een spoken of. In the year 1241, King Alexander II., for the souls' health of himself and of 
ilary bis Queen, who bad chosen her sepulture at Newbottle in Lothian, granted to the Cister- 
cians of that house, free of all service save their orisons alone, ' the vale of tbe Lethna, with its 
pertinents, by these marches ; that is to say, from the bead of the burn of Lethna downwards, as 
the streams descend on either hand into Lethna, even to the marches of the common pasture of the 
township of Inuerletbna.' He granted to the monks, at the same time, the right of keeping tbe 
valley by their own proper servants, so that no one should hunt or chase within it, except by 
special leave of the monastery. This grant the King made for providing to the brethren a 
inttance, or addition to the convent's fare, twice in every year, namely, on tbe feast of Saint Bar- 
tholomew tbe Apostle (24tb August), the King's birth-day, and on the feast of the Nativity of tbe 
Blessed Virgin Jlary (8tb September), to whom tbe monastery, like all the houses of the Cister- 
cian order, was dedicated.'^ About the same time, King Alexander, by a mandate dated at Sel- 
kirk on tbe 29th of August, ordered J. de Vaux sherifl' of Edinburgh, G. Eraser sheriff of 
Traquer, O. of Heris tbe forester, and "W. of Penycockis, to repair to Lethna, and there, on that 
very day, being Thursday the day of the beheading of St. John the Baptist, cause the pasture of 
Letban moss, with its pertinents (saving the common pasture of tbe King's township of Inner- 



Lib, de Calchou, p. llj. 

Lib. de Calchou, p. 316. 

Lib. de Calcliou, p. 319. 

Lib. de Calchou, pp. 229, 332. 

Lib. de Calchou, p. 351. 

Regist. Glasi;., p. 40. 

Lib. de Calchou, pp. 460, 472. 



Old Stat. Ace. 
' Kalend. Aberd. 

Lib. de Calchou, p. 472. 

Lib. de Calchou, p. 493. 
' Regist. Glasg., p. Ixiv. 

Regist. Glasg., p. Ixxiii. 

Regist. de Neubot., fol. .\xvii, MS. 



INNERLEITHAN.J PAROCHIALES. 217 

lethna) to be measured or extended according to the oaths of the good and faithful men of 
the country.i The grant was confirmed by Pope Gregory X. in the year 1273.^ King David 
II., by a charter dated at Scone on the 2Sth of Sefrtember 1367, granted to the monastery right 
of free forestry over all their lands of the vale of Lethane, forbidding, under a penalty of ten 
pounds, that any one should chase, hawk, or hunt in the same, or dare to fish in its lakes, ponds, 
stanks, or streams, without leave of the monks. By another charter, dated at Edinburgh on the 
2.5th of February 1368, the same monarch conveyed to the abbey the right of enclosure or em- 
parking (cum modo parcandi et pena parcagii,) and forbade any one to usurp pasture within the 
marches of the dale.^ The territory remained with the abbey until the Reformation, when the 
lands of Lethenhopes yielded it a yearly rent of £132.* 

' The herd's house, called Innerleithen Common,'^ which seems to have been the march of the 
abbey's lands on the south, is about a mile above the church. That portion of the valley lying 
beneath this point, together with the holms along the Tweed, appears to have remained with the 
crown until a later period. In the year 1358, Laurence of Govan, the sheriff of Peebles, accounted 
to the King's excheipier for thirteen shillings and fourpence, the rent of Hormehunterysland. He 
reported that he had received nothing from the lands of Ormyston, which, in time of peace, were 
worth ten pounds,^ nor from the King's bondages of Trcquayr and of Inuerlethane, because they 
were in the hands of William Mautalent, by what title the sherifi" knew not, of which inquiry should 
be made, and the King be consulted.^ Soon afterwards. King David II. granted to Mautalent a 
charter of the bondage lands of Traquair, and sundry others, Innerletham and Ormhuchstone resigned 
by Edward Keith.* The same King granted to John Murray a charter of the lands of Innerlethan." 
King Robert II. confirmed the grant which Thomas Mautalent of Halsynton made to William 
Mautalent, his son and heir, and his wife Elizabeth, the daughter of William called Watson, of 
the lands of Schelynlaw, Troucqwair, and Inuerlethane. i" King David II. is said to have granted 
the mill of Innerlethan to the community of Peebles.'^ In the year 1492-3, 'the lands of Home 
Huntaris land in the lordship of Inuerleithane,' belonged to John Twedy of Drummelyare, by whom 
they were let in lease to his brother James and his tenants.'^ They were of the old extent of 
£5.'^ King Robert III. granted the lands of Preu, or The Pyrne, of the old extent of £5,^* 
to John Tait,'^ by whose descendants they were possessed until after the Reformation.!*' King 
Robert I. granted the lands of Capronystoun, of the old extent of £5,'' which John Melville resigned, 
to William Kingesey and his wife.^* In the year 18G6, King David II. confirmed the same lands, 
on the resignation of John of Malleville, and Walter of Malleville, his sou and heir, to the said 

' Regist. de Neubot., fol. xxvii, MS. ' Robertson's Index, p. 52, no. .51. 

- Regist. de Neubot., fol. 11, MS. '» Reg. Mag. Sig., p. '20S, no. 31. 

^ Regist. de Neubot., fol. non numerat, inter fol. xxxiii. ^' Municip. Corp. Reports, 

et fol. xxxiv, MS. "2 Act. Dom. Cone., p. 272. 

* Booli of Assumptions, MS. '^ Extent of the Shire of Peebles. 

* Penneeuik'sDescript. of TweeddaIe,pp.23,?,23G. Maps. '■* Extent of the Shire of Peebles. 

^ In the Tax Roll of the shire ' Ormestoun easter' is rated ' ^ Robertson's Index, p. 1 44, no. 31 . 

a5 a £10 land of old extent. '" Retours. PennecuiU's Descript. of Tvveeddale, p. 311. 

' Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., pp. 316, 317. Cf. p. 319. " Extent of the Shire of Peebles. 

^ Robertson's Index, p. 37, no. 4. '^ Robertson's Inde.x, p. 24, nn. 8, 9. 



218 



ORIGINES 



[traQUj 



Walter of Malleville and his wife Margaret, the daughter of John Ayr ; and, failing issue of the 
said Margaret, to Symon her hrother.i In the year 1296, John Eyr and William of Melville 
swore fealty to King Edward I. for their lands in the shire of Peebles.^ In the reign of King 
David II., the crown had a hostilage at Cavers, in Tweeddale, which yielded a rent of four 
shillings yearly. The sheriffs of Peebles, in the years 1358 and 1359, reported that it lay waste.^ 
Ruined towers were to be seen in the last century at Glentress, Purvishill (which was a land of 
the old extent of £5,^) Colquhar, Lee, Ormiston, and Caberstoun.^ On a rising ground close by 
the ancient village of Innerlethane, there is a circular fort, about an acre in extent, defended by a 
ditch and three walls of stones built without cement.^ 



TRAQUAIR WITH MEGGET. 

Trauequay r ' — Trauequair' — Trauequey r" — Tr aueq iieir"' — Trauquer e ' ' — 
Trauercuer'" — Trafquair^^ — Trefquer" — Treuequer'' — Traverqveir^" — • 
Trauerqueir'" — Treuequor^- — Trequaer^'* — Treuequair^" — Traquayre" — 
Trauercoir^^ — Trequer^^ — Tresquayi-^* — Tresquere"' — Trequair^° — Trake- 
ware^' — Trekware^* — Tracquair alias Kirkbryid"'' — St. Bride's Kirk.^" 
Deanery of Peebles. (Map, No. 85.) 

This territory lies on the right bank of the Tweed, and is the basin of the Quair and its tribu- 
tary rivulets, the Kill-burn or Kirk-burn, the Newhall, Shellinglaw, Glengaber, and Tinniel burns. 
It is deeply indented at three points by the parish of Yarrow, or The Forest, which, stretching 
across the heights of the Minchmoor, runs in one place to within a few hundred yards of the parish 
church, and in another almost touches the Tweed, nearly insulating the eastern district of Traquair. 



' Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 53, no. 160. 

- Ragman Rolls, pp. 152, 125, 137. 

' Chamberlain Rolls, vol.i. pp.316, 319. 

* Extent of the Shire of Peebles. 

' Armstrong. Old Stat. Ace. 

" Penneeuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 237. 

' Circa A. D. 1150— A. D. 1-242. Regist. Glasg., pp. 10, 
23, 37, 147. 

« A. D. 11.33-A. D. 1142. A. D. 1181. Lib. de Melros, 
pp. 3, 665. Regist. de Passelet, p. 1 07. Regist. Glasg., pp. 
49, 50. A. D. 1233. Lib. de Melros, p. 222. 

» A.D. 1211— A. D. 1214. Regist. Vet. de Aberbroth., p. 
21. A. D. 1184. Regist. de Neub., fol. vi. MS. 

"•A.D. 1179. Regist. Glasg., p. 43. A. D. 1189— A. D. 
1 1 99. Lib. de Calchou, p. 304. 

" A.D. 1235. Lib. de Scon, p. 44. 

12 A. D. 1174. Regist. Glasg., p. 30. 

'3 A. D. 1186. Regist. Glasg., p. 55. 
" Circa A. D. 1200— A. D. 1216. Regist. Glasg., pp. 89, 
95. A. D. 1226. Regist. de Passelet, p. 210. 



" Circa A. D. 1200. Regist. Glasg., p. 72. A. D. 1235. 
Lib. de Scon, p. 42. A. D. 1265. Chamb. Rolls, vol.i.,p.51*. 

's A. D. 1172— A. D. 1189. Lib. de Calchou, p. 305. 

' ' A. D. 1 1 65— A. D. 1 1 7 1 . Regist. Priorat. S. Andree, p. 
225. Act. Pari. Scot., vol i., pref. p. 80. 

'" A. D. 1124— A. D. 1147. Lib. de Melros, p. 5. 

" A. D. 1153— A. D. 1 165. Lib. de Melros, p. 6. 

=" A. D. 1171— A. D. 1178. Lib.de Melros, p. 12. 

-' A. D. 1264. Lib. de Melros, pp. 285, 286. 

- A. D. 1124— A.D. 1153. Raine'sN. Durham, app., p. 
4, no. xiii. 

-'3 A. D. 1288-9. Chamb. Rolls, toI. i., pp. 56*, 72*. 

-' A. D. 1306. Palg. Illust. Hist. Scot., vol. i., p. 359. 

-^ J. Ford. Scotichron., lib. viii. cap. Ixiv, Ixx, sub ann. 
1203, 1209. 

^s A. D. 1358. Chamb. Rolls, vol. i., p. 317. 

" A. D. 1407. Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 233, no. 28. 

'-" A. D. 1410. Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 247, no. 9. 

-" A.D. 1571. Sub-Collect. Thirds of Benef., MS. 

=<> A. D. 1567— A. D. 1572. Regist. of Minist. 



TRAQUAiR.] PAROCHIALES. 219 

It is probable that the glen of the Megget, and its tributai-ies, was of old accounted a part of 
this parish, though separated from it by an arm of Yarrow. 

In 1674, that part of the parish of Kailzie, or Hopkailzie, which lay on the right bank of the 
Tweed, was added to Traquair, though divided from it by a part of Yarrow, which here reaches 
to Tweed.i 

About the year 1116, the inquest of the elders and wise men of Cumbria found that the see of 
Saint Kentigern had possessed in old time a church with a carucate of land in ' Treuerquyrd.'^ It has 
been questioned (as would seem, somewhat capriciously) whether this notice applies to this parish.'* 
Certain it is, that the church of Traquair belonged to the see of Glasgow from an early period. It 
was confirmed to Bishop Eugelram by Pope Alexander III. in the year 1170 ;* and to Bishop 
Joceline, by the same Pontiff, in the year 1 174,5 and again in the year 1 178-9 ;•' by Pope Lucius III. 
in the year 1181;^ and by Pope Urban III. in the year 1186.^ It appears to have continued 
with the Bishops as a mensal church until the Reformation, and to have been served by a vicar. 

In the year 1216, Pope Honorius III. confirmed to Bishop Walter ' the patronage of the prebend 
of Trefquer;'^ but it is not found in the later lists of the cathedral dignities. 

The church stood, with its hamlet, near the middle of the parish, where the Quair receives the 
waters of the Kilhouse, or Kirkhouse burn.'" It was dedicated to Saint Bride, whose name is still 
given to a well on the glebe.'' 

The benefice of ' the kirk of Traquhair,' at the time of the Reformation, appears in the rental 
of the see of Glasgow, as let in lease to Patrick Murray of Hangitschaw, for the yearly rent of 
.£5.'^ In the year 1571, ' the third of the vicarage pensionary of Tracquair alias Kirkbryid' was 
reported to be £Q, 13s. iA}^ In Baiamund's Roll the ' vicarage of Kirkboyde' (by which, perhaps, 
Traquair is meant) is rated at £26, 13s. 4d.'* The church lands, rectorial and vicarage, with 
their appurtenance of Glenlude, (near the sources of the Kirkhouse burn on the south border of the 
parish,) were of the extent of thirty shillings. They had the name of Kirkhous, and continued to 
be described as in the regality of Glasgow, after the beginning of the seventeenth century, when 
they had become hereditary in the Jlurrays of Falawhill.'^ 

The parish, with the exception of the church land, appears to have been royal demesne, and 
was the frequent residence of our early princes. Saint David,"' Earl Henry his son,'' Kiug Malcolm 
the Maiden,"* King William the Lion,'^ King Alexander II.,-" and King Alexander III. ,21 all date 
charters from Traquair. King William the Lion made his abode here during a tedious illness in 

' OldStat.Acc. '^ BookofSub-CoUect. of Thirdsof Benefices, 1571, MS. 

^ Regist. Glasg., p. 5. '* Regist. Glasg., p. Ixiv. 

3 Chalmers' Caled., vol. ii. p. 952. '* Retours, nn. 18, 19. 

* Regist. Glasg., p. '2,^. '^ Raine's N. Durham, app., p. 4, no. xiii. 
** Regist. Glasg., p. 30. '' Regist. Glasg., p. 10. 

'' Regist. Glasg., p. 43. '^ Chalmers' Caled., vol. ii., p. 928, citing Chart, of Cupar. 

' Regist. Glasg., p. 50. " Regist. de Passelet, p. 1U7. Regist. Vet. de Aberjjro- 

* Regist. Glasg., p. 55. thoc, p. 21. Regist. Glasg., pp. 37, 49. Act. Pari. Scot., 

* Regist. Glasg., p. ^5. vol. i., pref., p. 80. 

'" Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 2.S0. ^" Lib. de Melros, p. 222. 

" New Stat. Ace. =' Lib.de Melros, pp. 285, 28G. Seventh Rep. of Dep. 

'^ Book of Assumptions, fol. 2, MS. Keep, of Rec, app., p. 256, no. 1959. 



220 ORIGINES [traquair. 

the year 1203.1 He is again spoken of in the chronicles as holding his court at Tresquere in the 
year 1209.^ It was visited by King Edward I. in the year ISOi ; and by King Edward II. in the 
year 1310.3 

The Kings had their forest in the valley of the Quair. Between the years 1133 and 1142, Saint 
David granted to the Cistercians of Saint JMary of JNIelrose, pasture and pannage, wood and timber, 
in his forests of Seleschirche and Trauequair ;* and the grant was confirmed by his son Earl Henry, 
before the year 1147 ;^ by King Malcolm the Maiden, between the year.? 1153 and 1165 ;" and 
by King William the Lion, between the years 1171 and 117S." In the year 1292, King Edward 

I. of England, as Overlord of Scotland, gave to William, the son of John Comyn, the keeping 
of the forest of Trequer and Selechirche, to be held during the Overlord's pleasure, in the same 
manner as Simon Eraser, lately deceased, had it.* King Robert I. made a charter to the Good 
Sir James of Douglas of the forests of Selkirk, Ettrick, and Traquair." 

The sheriff of Tweeddale would seem at first to have had his seat at Traquair, and to have been 
styled indifferently from that place and from Peebles, unless, indeed, it shall be held that this small 
shire had two sheriffs, one on the right, and another on the left bank of the Tweed. ' Symon, the son 
of Malbeth,' appears as sheriff of Trauequoyr in the year 1 1 84.1" jf, the year 1242, King Alexander 

II. issues letters to his sheriff and baillies of Trauequair commanding them to take, and into prison 
cast, all those within their bailliary who should be presented to them by the Bishop of Glasgow, 
his archdeacon, ofiicial, or dean, as having for forty days lain under sentence of excommunication, 
in contempt of the keys of the church.i' A few years afterwards, ' G. Eraser, sheriff of Traquer,' 
with ' 0. of Heris, the forester,' appears settling the marches of the pasture of the monks of Neu- 
botle in the vale of Leithan.^^ In the year 1265, ' Symon Eraser, sheriff of Treuequer,' accounts 
to the King's exchequer for ' the small fermes of the bailliary of Treuequer,' and for ' twelve 
chalders and a half of oatmeal from the mill of Treuequer and of Pebles.' He paid SSs. 8d. for 
repairing all the houses at Treuequer, and the walls ; and to Michael Scot and Richard Roos, who 
took the waste lands in st«el-bow, or ' to stutht,' he gave 34s. 8d., namely, to each of them, half 
a chalder of barley, a chalder of wheat (prebende), and a horse or 6's. 8d., all to abide with the 
land for ever.i^ In the year 1288, William Perel, sheriff of Trequer, makes account for 12s., the 
price of twelve live hogs fed on the pannage ; for 40s. of fine, or grassum, received from the 
tenant of the land of Quylte ; and for 268. 8d. of grassum taken from free tenants who took certain 
bonds' lands that had been waste for five years.i* The same sheriff, in the year following, reckons 
in exchequer for 6s. received for pannage hogs ; and for 4s. for the land of the gardener, who fled 
for the slaughter of his wife, as was said.^^ Perel appears as sheriff, under King Edward I., in the 
year 1292.i^ In that year, ' Thomas of Haliwell, tenant of the mills of Trakeweir,' is charged to 

' J. Forduni Scotichron., lib. viii. cap. Ixiv. " Regist. Glasg., p. 147. 

- J. Forduni Scotichron., lib. viii. cap. l.\x, '= Regist. de Neub., fol. xxvii. MS. In the year 1259. 

-' Rot. Scotiae, vol. i., pp. 54, 103. • G. Fraser' appears with the style of slicriB' of ' Peebles.' 

■• Lib. de Melros,pp. 3, 4, b'65, 666. (Act. Pari. Scot., vol. i., pref. app., p. 88. ) 

^ Lib. de Melros, p. 5. ^ Lib. de Melros, pp. G, 7. '^ Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., p. 51*. 

^ Lib. de Melros, pp. 12, lIC * Eot. Scotiae, vol. i., p. 7. '* Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., p. 56*. 

" Robertson's Index to the Charters, p. 10, no. 24. " Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., p. 72*. 

" Regist. de Neub., fol. vi., MS. '^ Rotuli Scotiae, pp. 8, 11, 17. 



TRAQUAiR.] PAROCHIALES. 22] 

pay £20, for which he was in arrear of his account for tiie rent of the mills aforesaid.i King 
Edward I., in the year 1306, granted to Aymer of Valence the royal manors and demesnes of 
Selkyrk and Tresquayr.2 Among the charters in the King's treasury at Edinburgh in the year 
1282, was 'carta janue de Treuquayr.'^ In the year 1358, the sheriff of Peebles reported to the 
exchequer that he had got nothing of the rent of 3s. yearly from the hostilage of Trequair ; nor 
had he received anything from the King's bondages of Trequayr and Inuerlethan, because they 
were in William Mautalent's hands, by what title he knew not, but desired that it might be looked 
to, and the King advised of it. From the rents of the mills of Trequair he had 13s. id.* Among 
the lost charters of King David II. are a grant to William Maitland of the bondage lands of Traquair 
and others, resigned by Edward Keith ; and a gift ' to Thomas (or Kichard) Halywoll of the 
hostillarie in Tr.aquhair,' forfeited by John Craik (or Craig.)^ In the year 1335, William de 
Coucy is found asserting his right, among other portions of his Lindsay inheritance, to ' his free 
hospices in Auldcamus, Selkirk, and Trequair.'" King Robert II., in the year 1382, grants to 
Adam Forester all the King's hostilages of Traquare, in the shire of Peebles, with their yearly 
rents." About the year 1392, King Robert III. confirms the grant which Thomas Mautalent of 
Halsyntone made to William Mautalent, his son and heir, in marriage with Elisabeth, the daughter 
of William called Watson, of the lands of Schelynlaw, Troucqwair, and Inuerlethane.* In the 
year 1407, the Duke of Albany, governor of the realm, confirmed the sale made by Thomas Maut- 
alent of Halsyngton, with consent of William his son and heir, to William Watson of Cranystone, 
of his lands of Trakeware and Scheringlaw, in the township of Trakware and sherifi'dom of Peebles." 
The same Regent Albany, in the year 1410, confirmed the same lands to William Watson, son of 
William Watson of Cranyston, and his wife Jonet, daughter of John of Cauerhili, and to the heirs 
of their bodies ; whom failing, to Alexander of Murray, son of the deceased John of Murray of 
the Blakbaronry, and the heirs male of his body ; whom failing, to Robert Watson, the brother of 
William aforesaid, and the heirs male of his body; whom failing, to Roger Watson, the son of 
the uncle of William aforesaid, and the heirs male of his body ; whom failing, to the nearest lawful 
heirs of the said William Watson.i" It was probably through this grant that the lands of 
Trakware descended to William de Moravia, the ' Outlaw Murray' of Border ballad, on whose 
forfeiture in the year 1464, they were given by the crown to WiUiam Douglas of Cluny.^i In 
the year 1 479, having again reverted to the sovereign by the forfeiture of Robert lord Boyd, they 
were bestowed on James Stewart, earl of Buchan, who, about the year 1492, granted them to his 
second son James Stewart, whose descendant, the Lord Treasurer, in the year 1 633, was created 
Earl of Traquair. Between the years 1482 and 1492, there were many and long pleas as to 
twelve merks yearly, and two husband lands in Traquare, claimed by Margaret of Murray, the 
widow of William of Murray of Traquare. The matter was compromised by the Earl of Buchan 
granting her seisine of eight merks yearly. Claim also was made in the year 1492, by Gelis of 

' Rotuli Scotiae, p. 13. ' Regist. Mag. Sig., p. 164, no. J 7. 

- Palg. Illust. Hist. Scot., vol. i., p. 35.Q. » Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 206, no. 31. 

■' Act. Pari. Scot., vol. i., act. sec. xiii., p. 4. "^ Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 233, no. 28. 

■* Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., pp. 317, 319. '" Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 247, no. 9. 

* Robertson's Index to the Charters, p. 37, no. 4 ; p. 44, " Chalmers' Caled., vol. ii., p. 928, quoting 'autograph 

no. 11 ; p. 57, no. 26. in the hands of the late Andrew Plummer, the sheriff of 

'' Rotuh Scotiae, vol. i,, p. 352. Selkirk.' 



222 



ORIGINES 



[tRAQUAIR MEGGET. 



Cokburne, and Alexander Murray her husband, for ten merks' worth of the land of Schelynglaw, 
of which they had obtained seisine from William iMurray of Traquare, deceased.^ The lands of 
Traquair were valued in the old extent of the shire at twenty pounds.^ 

In the year 1452, the lands of Grestone and of the Gillishauche were in the possession of 
George of Crichton earl of Caithness, admiral of the realm.3 The former was of the extent of 
twelve pounds, the latter of fifty-three shillings and fourpence.'* About the year 1490, Grestone, 
Greffistoune, or Grevistoune (which lies on the north-west border of the parish), belonged to a 
family named Middlemast : mention is then made of 'theauld mansioun.'^ In 1479, the lands 
belonged to Patrick of Auchinlek." 

The lands of the Glen, which lie high on the Quair, and were rated at sixteen pounds,^ are 
said to have given name to the Le Glens, who appear about the year 1296 as holders of land in 
the Forest, the Merse, and Clydesdale.* In the year 1479, the Glen is found in the possession of 
Gilbert Cokburn :^ it seems to have been divided into three parts (East, West, and Nether Glens) 
before the year 1493.'" 

The lands of Fethan, on the right bank of the Quair, near the middle of the parish, together 
with the lands of Quylt, were in the possession of the Earl of Morton in the year 1567-^' 

Bold (Boill, WoU,) in the eastern district of the parish, was a sixteen pound land of old 
extent.^2 Notice is found of seven husband lands in its township and territory .13 

The house of Traquair probably marks the site where the Kings had their residence. It stands 
on a pleasant bank between the Tweed and Quair, and part of the building is described as old. 
There were towers at Greston, at Bold, and probably at the Glen. 

The village of Traquair is ancient. About the year 1200, ' Gillemihhel QuhesChutbrit at 
Trefqucr,' and ' Cristin Gennan Serjeant (seruiens) at Trefquer,' are found among the witnesses to 
the perambulation of the marches of Stobo.''' Houses in the hamlet are still held on the tenure of 
finding certain ' bondages.'^' 

A clump of birch on a hill above the house of Traquair, is believed to have given name to the 
sweet pastoral melody of ' The Bush aboon Traquair,' or as it was more anciently written, ' The 
bonnie bush aboon Traquhair.'^" 

MEGGET. 

This district, which appears to have been a chapelry before the Reformation, is the basin of the 
Mco-et, 'the only water in Tweeddale that pays no tribute to Tweed.''" The stream rises near 



' Act. Dom. Audit., pp. 96, 134, \',2. Act. Dora. Cone, 
pp. 70, 107, 288. 

- E.xtent of the Shire of Peebles. 

'■' Act. Pari. Scot., vol. ii., p. 75. 

< E.\tent of the Sliire of Peebles. 

* Act. Dom. Cone, pp. 149,228, 240, 287, SOS, 313. Act. 
Dom. Audit., p. 161. 

6 Act. Dom. Audit., p. 87. 

" Extent of the Shire of Peebles. 

" Rot. Scot., vol. i., pp. 11, 26. Ragman Rolls, p. 144. 
Penneeuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 229. 



Pennecuik's Descript. of 



" Act. Dom. Audit., p 

^" Act. Dom. Cone, j 
Tweeddale, p. 229. 

' ' Act. Pari. Scot., vol. ii., pp. 562, 564. 

'2 Extent of the Shire of Peebles. Act. Dom. Con 
p. 107. 

'2 Retours, nn. 19, 50. 

'* Regist. Glasg., p. 89. '■■ New Stat. Ace. 

'*• Wood's Songs of Scotland, vol. i., p. 19. Daunc 
Ancient Scot. Melod., p. 369. Old Stat. Ace. 

'" Penneeuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 24;-2.iO. 



TSAQUAIR— iMEGGET.] PAROCHIALES. 223 

the wild confines of Loch Skeen, and after a course of six or seven miles, during which it is swelled 
by several burns on either side, flows into Saint Mary's Loch. 

The territory, which had the name also of Roddonno, would seem to have been assigned anciently 
to the parish of Traquair, though it would have been much more conveniently served by the priest 
of the church of Our Lady of the Forest. In the year 1621, the King and parliament authorized 
the commissioners for the plantation of churches to grant the request of ' John Lord Hay of Yester 
and the possessors of the lands of Rodonno, desiring that the same lands of Rodonno should be 
declared a part of the parish of Lyne, as also craving that it might be lawful to the Lord Yester 
to build a kirk upon the most commodious place of his lands of Rodonno or Megget for servino- of 
tlie inhabitants at such times as they should be impeded by storm of weather from coming to the 
kirk of Lyne.'i Slegget was accordingly annexed to Lyne ; but for more than forty years after- 
wards, Ilenderland and other places in Megget continued to be described as in the parish of Saint 
Bride of Traquair,- to which it would seem, therefore, that the district had previously belonged. 

The chapel stood with its cemetery at Henderland, on the left bank of the Megget, not far from 
its confluence with the lake. On a tombstone found in the ruins about the middle of the last 
century, were sculptured a cross and sword, with the legend ' here lyes perys op cokbprne 
AND HIS WYFE MARJORY.'^ The chapcl had neither reader nor exhorter at the Reformation.* 

' Randulf of Meggete' was one of the witnesses to the perambulation of the marches of Stobo, 
about the year 1 200.^ At Cramalt, or the Crammel, near the middle of the glen, are the remains 
of an old tower, which, according to the tradition of the country, was the seat of Megget of Megget.'' 
In the old extent of the county, Megget was rated, together with Lyne and Hoprewis, at twenty 
pounds. ' 

The Hays had ancient possessions here. When King Alexander II., in the year 12.36, gave 
the forest of Ettrick to the monks of Melrose, he described its boundaries on one side as ' ascending 
westwards as the waters divide between Esckedal and Ethric to the hill called Vnhende ; thence 
eastward as the waters divide between Annandale and The Forest, to the head of Rodanoch ; thence 
eastward as the waters divide between The Forest and the land of Thomas of Ilay, to the head of 
Copthrawerisclouch ; and thence downwards to the larger lake,' (apparently Saint Mary's Loch.)** 
Henderland, a ten pound land of old extent,'' on the pleasant bank of the lake, belonged of old 
to the Cockburns, the reputed chiefs of their surname in Scotland.^" In the year 1.383, Kin" 
Robert III. granted to Peter of Coekburne, the son and heir of Peter of Cokburne, the lands of 
Henriland with the pertinents, the lands of the township of Bothill, and the lands of Kyrkhurde 
in the township of the same name, in the shire of Peebles, and the lands of Sundreland, with the 
manor of the same in the shire of Selkirk, which had belonged to Peter his father, and were by 
him resigned in the King's hands.i' 

' Act. Pari. Scot., vol. iv., p. 607. ' E.xtent of the Shire of Peebles. 

- Retours, tin. 144, 157. » Liber de Melros, pp. 235, 667. 

' Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 248-25(1. ■' Extent of the Shire of Peebles. 

* Regist. of Ministers, 1567. '" Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 248-J50. 

= Regist. Glasg., p. 89. '• Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 163, no. 11. 

" Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 248. 



224 ORIGINES [kailzie. 

Pitscottie relates how King James V., in the year 1528, ' on the second day of June, past out of 
Edinburgh to the hunting, with many of the nobles and gentlemen to the number of twelve 
thousand men ; and then past to Meggitland, and hounded and hawked all the country and bounds ; 
that is to say, Crammat, Pappertlaw, St. jMarylaws, Carlavirick, Chapel, Ewindoores, and Long- 
hope. I heard say,' concludes the clironicler, 'he slew in these bounds eighteen score of harts.' > 

Neither Megget nor Traquair appears to have sent any freeholder to the ' weaponshawing' on the 
burgh moor of Peebles in the year 1627.' 



KAILZIE. 

Hopckeliov^ — Hopekeliocli^ — Hopkelchoc'^ — Hopkelioc" — Hopekeliow' — 
Hopkelyache**— Hopkelloche^— Hopkeliouche^"— Hopkelzow"— Hopkailze'- 
— Hopcalzeo"— Kelzeo" — Kealzea"- — Kailly^° — Kailzie.^' Deanery of Peebles. 
(Map, No. 86.) 

This small parish lay partly on the left, partly on the right bank of the Tweed. It was sup- 
pressed in the year 1674, when its northern district was annexed to Innerleithan (and, it is 
said, Peebles) ; and the southern, or larger portion, on the other side of the river, to Traquair.^* 

The church appears to have been originally a chapel dependent upon Innerleithan, and to have 
passed to the monks of Kelso, in virtue of a grant of the latter, between the years 1 159 and 1165.'^ 
The rental of the abbey, about the year 1300, shows that it had 'at Hopekeliow three acres of 
laud, which were wont to yield three shillings yearly.'-" No mention is made of a church or 
chapel ; but at the Reformation, the monks appear in possession of the church and tithes of Hop- 
kailze, which were then let in lease for ten pounds yearly.-' It had a reader in the year 1567.^ 
The tithes in the year 1630 were reported to be worth two chalders and ten bolls.^'' 

The church stood on the Kirkburn, not far from the Tweed.-^ It was dedicated to the Blessed 
Virgin Mary, and was commonly known as the church of Our Lady of Hopkailzie.-'' A neigh- 
bouring spring still keeps the name of Our Lady's Well.-'' 

' Hist, of Scot., p. 265, edit. 1749. '^ A. D. 1C82. Retours, no. 183. 

- Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 304-307. "^ Circa A. D. 1715. Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweed- 

3 Circa A. D. 1200. Regist. Glasg., p. 89. dale, p. 308. 

■! A. D. 1260— A. D. 1268. Regist. Glasg., p. 176*. " A. D. 1775- A. D. 1794. Armstrong's Map. Old 

'■ A. 11. 1259. Act. Pari. Scot., vol. i., pref. app., p. 88. Stat. .\cc. 

•' A. D. 1262. Act. Pari. Scot., vol. i., pref. app., p. 91. " Old Stat. Ace. New Stat. Ace. 

' Circa A. D. 1300. Lib. de Calchou, p. 459. '» Morton's Mon. Ann. Teviot., p. 141. 

» A. D. 1358-9. Chamb. Rolls, vol. i., pp. 316, 319. -'" Lib. de Calchou, p. 459. 

■■• A. D. 1362-3. Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 26, no. 34. -' Lib. de Calchou, p. 493. Morton's Mon. Ann. Teviot., 

1" A. D. 1366-7. Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 33, no. 85. p. 149. 

>'A. D. 1494. Act. Dom. Cone, p. 348. -'- Regist. of Minist., 1567. 

1- A. D. 1567. Lib. de Calchou, p. 493. -- Morton's Mon. Ann. Te\iot., p. 178. 

'■> A. D. 1606. Retours, no. 33. -■* Armstrong's Map. 

"A. D. 1653. Retours, no. 130. -"■ Retours, no. 167. -« New Stat. Ace. 



KAiLziE.] PAROCHIALES. 225 

' Patrick of Hopekeliov ' appears among the witnesses to the perambulation of the marches of 
Stobo, about the year 1200.1 In the year 1259, an inquest regarding the land of Ilopkelchoc 
was held at Peebles, in presence of Sir Thomas of Normanvill and Stephen the Fleming, justiciars 
of Lothian, when the jurors, good men and true of the country, ' that is to say, Sir Nes Freser, 
Sir Henry de la C'haundel, William of Malevill, John Hunter, Roger of Bodevill, Adam of Mertou, 
Robert Cruoc, William of Meldun, Erchebald of Hundewulchopp, Henry Stel, Roger of Kydeston, 
and John Wyldesmyth, gave for their verdict, that the inquest made aforetime of the same land 
by Sir G. Fraser, sheriff of Peblis, was truly and reasonably made, and by reasonable persons, 
void of all suspicion ; and that they found truly in all points, except that William Malvil and 
Robert Cruoc said that one person suspect was upon the first inquest, namely, one of the tenants 
of Robert of Hopkelchoc.'^ In the year 1262, 'Archebald of Hopkelioc' and 'Clemens of Hop- 
kelioc' appear on an inquest regarding the moss of Waltamshope, made at Peebles on the feast of 
Saint Leonard.3 ' Erchebald of Hopekelioch ' is a witness, between the years 1260 and 1268, to 
a deed by Malcolm the son of David Dunne of Conestablestune, and by his wife Alice, the 
daughter of William of Moreville."* ' AVilliam of Hopkelioghe' swore fealty to King Edward I., in 
the year 1296, for the lands in which he was tenant of the crown in the shire of Peebles.^ In the 
year 1362-3, King David II. confirmed the grant which Margaret of Monfoode had made in her 
widowhood to a chantry in the church of Dalmony in Lothian, of nine merks yearly due to her 
from the lands of Hopkelloehe by James of Tvedi.^ In the year 1494, the lands of Hopkelyow 
belonged in liferent to Slarioun Crechtoune, widow of James Tuedy of Drummelyare, and wife 
of William Bailye of AVatstoun." liopkello was a ten-pound land of old extent :* it is mentioned 
in the old poem of ' Peblis to the Play.'" 

In the year 1358, Laurence of Govane, the sheriff of Peebles, accounted in exchequer for 
£6, 13s. 4d., the rent of Esterhopkelyache, for two terms.i" Adam Locard, who was sheriff in 
the following year, reckoned for £3, 6s. 8d., being one term's rent of the same land.n In the year 
1366-7, King David II. granted to James of Douglas, son of the deceased John of Douglas, 
knight, the crown rents of Esschelis, Horsbruk, Esterhopkeliouche, and Newby, in the shire of 
Peebles, during the King's will.i'- The same King granted to Laurence Govan a yearly payment 
from the lands of Easter Hopkillow.i^ The Earl of Morton, in the year 1567, had a charter of 
confirmation of £6, 13s. 4d. yearly from the lands of Eister Hopcailze.i'' 

Horsbruk, a ten-pound land of old extent,' ^ on the left bank of the Tweed, appears to have 
given surname to its possessors in early times. Between the years 1214 and 1249, Symon of 
Horsbroc is a witness to a charter by William Purveys of Mospennoc.i^ Notice occurs, in the 
year 1283, of 'William of Horsebroch, clerk of the dean and chapter of Glasgow.'i^ ' Master 

' Regist. Glasg., p. 69. » Works of King James I., p. 201, edit. 1827. 

' Act. Pari. Scot., vol. i., pref. app., pp. 88, 89. '" Chamberlain KoUs, vol. i., p. 316. 

' Act. Pari. Soot., vol. i., pref. app., p. 91. " Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., p. 319. 

* Regist. Glasg., p. 176*. '^ Regist. Mag. Sig., p. 33, no. 85. 

' The Ragman Rolls, p. 137. '■' Robertson's Index to the Charters, p. 32, no. 6. 

" Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 26, no. .34. Robertson's Inde.N to " Act. Pari. Scot., vol. ii., pp. 562, 564. 

the Charters, p. 43, no. 28. " Extent of the Shire of Peebles. 

' Act. Dom. Cone, p. 348. '« Lib. de Melros, p. 215. 

° Extent of the Shire of Peebles. '" Regist. Glasg., p. 195. 



226 ORIGINES [kailzie. 

Michael of Horsbrok' appears as a witness to a grant by Sir AVilliam of Durem, knight, of certain 
burgage lands in Peebles, between the years 1306 and 1330.1 In the year 1440, Robert Hors- 
bruk was subprior substitute (tercius prior) of Saint Andrews.^ King David II. granted to 
.James Sandilands a yearly payment from the lands of Horseburgh.' In the years 1358 and 1359, 
the sheriffs of Tweeddale made account to the exchequer for £6, 6s. 8d., the yearly rent of the 
lands of Horssebrok or Horsbruk.^ The crown rent of Horsbruk was, in the year 1366-7, 
bestowed, during the King's will, upon James of Douglas, son of Sir -John of Douglas, deceased.^ 
In the year 1434, Thomas of Cranstoune, receiver-general of our Lord the King on the south side 
of the water of Forth, made account for £13, 6s. 8d., being two terms' rent of the lands of Hors- 
bruk." They seem to have been in ward at that date, and so continued until the year 1438.' 
Alexander Horsbruk of that Ilk appears in the year 1479.^ In the year 1550, Alexander Hors- 
bruik is served heir of John Horsbruik, his father, in the lands and mill of Horsbruik, of the old 
extent of ten merks.** Queen Mary, in the year 1567, granted to James earl of Morton a charter 
of confirmation of £6, 13s. 4d. yearly from the lands of Horsburght.^" The barony seems to have 
been divided : in the year 1 633, -James Stewart of Nether Horsburgh is served heir of his father. 
Sir Robert Stewart of Scheillinglaw, knight, in Eister Horsburgh or Nether Horsburgh, an eight- 
pound land of old extent, part of the lands called the barony of Horsburgh.'^ 

Cardrona, on the right bank of the Tweed, is mentioned in the old poem of ' Peblis to the 
Play.'i- It was rated at ten pounds in the ancient extent of the shire ; i-* and belonged ' of old,' says 
Pennecuik, ' time out of memory, to the surname of Govan, chiefs of that name.''^ It appears 
in their possession in the years 1607, 1620, and 1 633.^^ Laurence of Govan, who was sheriff of 
Tweeddale in the year 1358,''' had a grant from King David II. of a yearly payment from the 
lands of Easter Ilopkillow,''' held lands of the Douglas in Douglasdale,^'* and received from King 
Robert III. a yearly grant of a hundred shillings from the castlewards of Roxburgh.'" 

The ruins of the tower of Horsburgh are still to be seen on a knoll beside the Tweed : its lords 
were reputed chiefs of their name. There was a tower also at Cardrona.-" Towards the end of the 
last century, above Nether Horsburgh, were the ruins of a large building, which had apparently 
been a place of strength.^' 

' Lib. de llelros, p. 378. '- Stanza v. Works of King James I., p. 201. 

- Regist. de Dunferm., p. 300. '•■ Extent of the Shire of Peebles. 

- Robertson's Index to the Charters, p. 3'2, no. Ifi. " Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 309. 
< Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., pp. 316, 319. " Retours, nn. 34, 56, 94. 

=• Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 33, no. 8.5. '" Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., p. 316. 

" Chamberlain Rolls, vol. iii., p. 291. " Robertson's Index to the Charters, p. 32, no. 6. 

' Chamberlain Rolls, vol. iii., p. 393. " Robertson's Index to the Charters, p. 57, no. 1 ; p. 91, 

' .\ct. Dom. Audit., pp. 76, 86. no. 269. 

" Retours, no. 6. ''■" Robertson's Index to the Charters, p. 133, no. 30. 

'" Act. Pari. Scot., vol. ii., pp. 562, 564. "" Blaeu Theat. Scotiae. Old Stat. Ace. New Stat. Ace. 

" Retours, no. 95. "' Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 308-310. 



PAROCHIALES. 227 



PEEBLES. 

Pobles' — Peples^ — Peblis^ — Pebly s* — Pebeles' — Pebbles" — Pebles' — Peb- 
blys^—Pebblis'—Pebillis^'—Peiblis^—Peiplis^-— Peebles.'^ Deanery of Peebles.'* 
(Map, No. 87.) 

The Tweed, flowing through this parish from east to west, divides it into nearly equal portions. 
That on the left bank of the river is the strath of the Eddleston or Pebbles water, which runs into 
Tweed. The burgh of Peebles stands at the point where the streams meet, in a pleasant and fruit- 
ful valley, surrounded by hills. 

The parish of Manner, on the right bank of the Tweed, was of old a chapelry dependent on 
Peebles. Part of the suppressed parish of Kailzie, or Hopkellioc, is said to have been annexed to 
Peebles in the year i6'74.'2 

Peebles appears to have been a religious site from very early times. The well which gives 
water to the burgh bears the name of Saint Mungo ;^^ and it was found, by the inquest of the 
elders and sages of Cumbria, about the year 11 16, that the see of Saint Kentigern at Glasgow had 
anciently possessed a 'carucate of land and a. church in Pobles.''^ The church of Peblis was 
confirmed to Bishop Engelram by Pope Alexander III. in the year 1171 ;'* to Bishop Jocelin, by 
the same Pontiff, in the years 117419 and 1178 ;-" by Pope Lucius III. in the year 1181 ;2i and 
(along with its chapel of Maineure) by Pope Urban III. in the year 1186.^- 

It was erected into a prebend of the cathedral church of Glasgow before the year 1216, when 
the right of presenting the prebendary was confirmed to the bishop by Pope Honorius III.-^ 
In the year 1266-7, Bishop William having assigned the church of Peblis to be the benefice of 
the Archdeacon of Glasgow, reserved the collation of the vicarage to himself and his successors, 
bestowing it, for that time, upon Richard, late vicar of Linton Rotheric, but excepting from 

' Circa A. D. 1116. Resist. Glasg., p. 5. A. D. 1165— A. D. 1325. Regist. Glasg., pp. 55, 164, 17i; 

= A. D. 1120— A. D. 1153. Stevenson's Illust. Hist. 234. Regist. de Passelet., p. 403. Lib. de Calchou, pp. 13, 

Scot., p. 13. (MaitLind Club.) 15,163,351. Chronic, de Mailros, p. 102. 

3 A. D. 1170— A. D. 1504. Regist. Glasg., pp. 23, 73, » A. D. 1262. Act. Pari. Scot., vol. i., pref., p. 91. 

95, 142, 164, 177, 271, 344, 445, 494. Lib. Cart. S. Crueis, " A. D. 1259. Act. Pari. Scot., vol. i., pref., p. 89. 

p. 188. Regist. de Passelet., pp. 320-32.0. Lib. de Melros, '" A. D. 1567. Lib. de Calchou, p. 492. 

pp. 317, 376, 377, 590, 615, 61C. Reg. Vet. de Aberbroth., " A. D. 1567. Act. Pari. Scot., vol. iii., p. 6. 

pp.300,301. Act. Pari. Scot., vol. i., pp.57, 122,157; vol. ii., '-' A. D. 1594. Act. Pari. Scot., vol. iv., p. 72. 

pp. 75, 256. '3 A. D. 1643. Act. Pari. Scot., vol. vi., p. 6. 

" A. D. 1305— A. D. 1373. Lib. de Melros, p. 317. Act. '•> Baianmnd. 

Pari. Scot., vol. i., pp. 143, 148, 175, 182. Chamb. Rolls, '» Old Stat. Ace. 

vol. ii., p. 24. ""> PennecuiU's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 2u7. 

5 A. D. 1175— A. D. 1199. Lib. de Calchou, p. 346. '■ Regist. Glasg., p. 5. 

'■ A. D. 1128— A. D. 1147. Regist. Priorat. S. Andree, '" Regist. Glasg., p. 23. 

p. 181. A. D. 1159. Lib. de Calchou, p. V. A. D. 1153— '= Regist. Glasg., p. 30. 

A. D. 1227. Lib. de Calchou, pp. 299, 300, 305, 312. -" Regist. Glasg., p. 43. 

Regist. Glasg., pp. 30, 43, SO, 89, 121, 122. " Regist. Glasg., p. 50. 

^ A. D. 1126. Raine's N. Durham, app., p. 4, nn. xv, -^ Regist. Glasg., p. 55. 

xvi. Circa A. D. 1147. Regist. Priorat. S. Andree, p. 191. == Regist. Glasg., p. 95. 



228 OEIGINES [peebi.es. 

the grant the cbapel of Menwire, which, with consent of the vicar, he gave to Master Reginald, 
the archdeacon of Glasgow, and his successors.^ The Archdeacon was required to pay fourteen 
nierks to his stallar or vicar choral in the cathedral :^ the tax imposed on ' the prebend of 
Peblis and Mener,' in the year 1432, for the ornaments of the cathedral, was five pounds.^ 
The Archdeanry is taxed in Baiamund's Roll, at .£266, 13s. 4d. ;^ in the Taxatio Ecclesiae 
Scoticanae sec. xvi., at £82, 13s. 4d. ;5 and in the Libellus Taxationum Regni Scotiae, at 
£266, 13s. 4d. It was let at the Reformation for 300 merks." 

The perpetual vicarage was coeval doubtless with the erection of the rectory into a prebend : 
its collation, as has been seen, was with the Bishop. John, the vicar of Peebles, appears in 1227 ;' 
Sir Richard, in 1266-7 ;* Sir "Walter, a few years afterwards ;^ and John, in 1296.1" In the year 
1329, the vicar of Peebles had a grant of forty shillings from the King's chamberlain, in recom- 
pense of the damage which he sustained by the last army.i' In Baiamund's Roll, the vicarage 
of Peebles is taxed at £26, 13s. 4d. ;12 in the Taxatio Ecclesiae Scoticanae sec. xvi., at £16, 
10s. 3d. ;'3 and in the Libellus Taxationum Regni Scotiae, at £10. It was let in the year 1561 
to the parishioners for 42 nierks, but had formerly yielded £60.1'' The vicarage glebe is said 
to have measured eighty acres.'"' 

Peebles seems to have given name to the rural deanery of Tweeddale, from the beginning of the 
thirteenth century. ' Richard the dean of Peebles' appears as a witness to a deed by David of 
Lyne, about the year 1200.1^ 

The parish church stood on the right bank of the Eddleston or Peebles water, at the west end of 
the chief street of the old town. It was under the invocation of Saint Andrew (whose figure appears 
on the ancient seal of the burgh,) and was surrounded by a cemetery. i^ The Chronicle of Melrose 
records that ' the church of Saint Andrew the Apostle at Pebles was dedicated by Jocelin, the 
bishop of Glasgow, on Sunday the twenty-ninth of October ] 195.'"^ In the year 1227, an agree- 
ment between the see of Glasgow and the abbey of Paisley was concluded in the church of Peblis.'^ 

It had several altars or chantries. ' John of Geddes, lord of Half of Ladyhurd, in the barony 
of Kirkhurd, gert be biggit the chapel of Our Lady Sanct Mary within the paroch kirk of Sanct 
Andrew of Peblis;' and there, in the year 1434, in presence of Wat Tweedie of Drummelzier 
and others, he resigned, by stafi" and baton, his lands of Half Ladyhurd, in the hands of his ' our 
lord Walter Scott of Morthington.'^" 'The Rood altar of the College Kirk of Saint Andrew in 
Peebles' was united with ' the Haly bluid altar, situate in the Cross Kirk,' and had an annual 
revenue in 1561 of £10, 19s. 2d., arising from twenty-nine small pieces of land, a mill, a barn, 
and a moss house.-^ 

' Regist. Glasg., p. 1C4. '" Eegist. Glasg., p. Ixiv. 

- Uegist. Glasg., p. 346. " Regist. Glasg., p. Ixxiii. " Book of Assumptions. 

■• Regist. Glasg., p. 344. '^ Peniiecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 298. 

■• Regist. Glasg., p. Ixii4. '" Regist. Glasg., p. 73. 

» Regist. Glasg., p. Ixxii. ' Book of Assumptions. " Grose's Antiq. Scot., vol. i., p. 222. Old Stat. Aa:. 

' Regist. Glasg., pp. 121, 122. Regist.de Passelet., pp. Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 287. 

320-.S27. Lib. de Calchou, p. 163. '" Chronic, de iUailros, p. 102. 

» Regist. Glasg., p. 176. " Regist. Glasg., pp. 121, 122. Regist. de Passelet., pp- 

» Regist. Gla.sg., p. 177. 320-326. 

'" The Ragman Rolls, p. 123. " Original Charter at Castle Craig. 

" Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., pp. 110, 132. "' Book of Assumptions. 



PEEBLES.] PAROCHIALES. 229 

In the year 1543, the parish church of Saint Andrew was, by the municipal corporation of the 
burgh, and John lord Hay of Yester, erected into a collegiate church, endowed for a provost, 
ten prebends, and two choristers.^ The prebends, which appear to have been founded in part 
from the revenues of previously existing chantries, had the names of Saint Mary, the Holy Cross, 
Saint Michael the Archangel, Saint Mary major, Saint John Baptist, Saint Mary del Geddes, 
Saint Andrew, Saint -lames. Saint Lawrence, and Saint Christopher.- The endowment made by 
the burgli and Lord Yester was probably no more than a yearly sum of twenty-four merks, with 
a chamber and a yard.^ 

There was a chapel in the burgh dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, and commonly known 
as Our Lady's Chapel. It appears to have existed as early at least as the beginning of the four- 
teenth century."' In the year 1.3C6, it was endowed by King David II. with the grain and 
fulling mills of Innerleithan, their lands and rich multures.^ Its advowson seems to have belonged 
to the bailies of the burgh ; and its revenues at the Reformation were reported to be £21, 3s. 8d.'' 
It was a long, narrow building, and stood on the bank of the Eddleston or Peebles water, on a 
site which came afterwards to be part of the High Street of the new town. 

The King's castle of Peebles had its chapel of old. Between the years 1105 and 1199, King 
William the Lion confirmed to the monks of Kelso ' the chapel of the castle of Pebles, with its 
carucate of land, and with ten shillings yearly from the rent of the burgh of Pebles, which his 
grandfather King David bestowed on the chapel for a perpetual service to be had there for the soul 
of his son the Earl Henry.' King William took the monks bound to make a fit and fair chapel, 
to find it in decent ornaments, and to provide a chaplain to minister in it for the soul of the Earl 
Henry for ever.^ The grant was confirmed by Joceline bishop of Glasgow, between the years 
1175 and 1199, 'saving the right and privilege of the mother church of Pebles.'* In the 
rental of the abbey of Kelso, in the year 1567, 'the cheppell hill besyde Pebillis' appears as 
yielding twelve pounds yearly .^ This was probably the carucate of land belonging to the chapel 
in the twelfth century ; and is perhaps to be identified with a place on the right bank of the Peebles 
water, about a mile and a half north of the burgh, which is still called Chapelhill.'" 

Of the foundation of the conventual church of the Holy Cross in Peebles, by King Alexander 
III., John of Fordun gives an ample narrative : ' In the year of our Lord 1261, the thirteenth 
year of the reign of King Alexander, upon the ninth of May, a magnificent and venerable cross 
was found at Peblis, in the presence of divers honourable men, priests, clerks, and burghers. In 
what year, or by what persons, it was hidden there, is wholly unknown ; but it is supposed to have 
been buried by certain of the faithful about the year 296, when Maxiniian's persecution was raging 
in Britain. In the same place, not long afterwards, there was found a stone urn, as it were three or 
four paces from the spot where that glorious cross was found. It contained the ashes and bones of 
a human body, which seemed to have been dismembered ; but whose reliques they were, no one yet 

' Chart, in jMacfarlane's Collect. MS. '' Book of Assumptions. 

^ Chart, in Agricult. Survey of Peebles. Pennecuik's ' Lib. deCaichou, p, 15. Morton's Monast. Ann. Tevint.. 

Oescript. of Tweeddale, p. 282. p. 141. 
'^ Chalmers" Caled., vol.ii., p. 945, citing * MS. Donation.* ^ Lib. de Calchou, p. 346. 

* Lib. de Melros, p. 377. ' Lib. de Calchou, p. 492. 

'• Old Stat. Ace. Municip. Corp. Reports, vol.ii., p. 293. '" Map. Retours. 



•230 ORIGINES [peebles. 

knows. Some, however, there are who think they were the remains of him whose name was written 
on the stone on which that holy cross lay ; for on that stone there was engraven without. The place 
of Saint Nicholas the bishop. In the place where the cross was found, frequent miracles were 
wrought by it, and are still wrought ; and multitudes of the people flocked thither, and do 
still devoutly flock, making their oblations and vows to God. Wherefore the King, by advice of 
the Bishop of Glasgow, caused a stately church to be built there, in honour of God and the Holy 
Rood.'' The church thus erected was given to the Red or Trinity Friars, whose Jlinistery or 
Hospital in Peebles was probably coeval with the building.- In the year 1296, ' Frere Thomas 
mestre de la ]\Ieson de la Seinte Croiije de Pebbles,' swore fealty and homage to King Edward I. as 
Overlord of Scotland.^ King Robert II., in the year 1.3.90, gave to the church of the Holy Rood 
of Peebles, to Friar Thomas the King's chaplain, and to his successors serving in the same church, 
' the meadow, called the King's Meadow, beside the town of Peblis,' free of all secular tax or 
burden, and with power to the chaplain, for the time being, to bring it into culture.* The con- 
vent is said to have had grants from the Frasers of Ncidpath and of East Fenton ; to have pos- 
sessed houses in Edinburgh, and land in the parish of Cramond in Lothian ; and to have received, 
in the year 1529, 'a house in Dunbar, built by Christian Bruce, countess of Dunbar, and be- 
queathed by her to the brethren of the Trinity Friars there.'^ But the rental of 'the Ministery of 
Peebles,' given up at the Reformation by the Minister, Gilbert Brown, parson of Ketins, makes 
mention only of the kirk and kirklands of Ketins (in the deanery of Angus and diocese of Saint 
Andrews) ; the temporal lands of Houston ; certain acres lying above Dunbar ; certain fields 
beside the Cross Kirk of Peebles ; and the King's Meadow. The yearly value in all was about 
£329.^ In the Taxatio Ecclesiae Scoticanae sec. xiv., the Ministery of Peblis is rated at .£17-" 
The conventual buildings, which stood on the north-east side of the old town, at the end of the 
King's Orchards, are described as forming a quadrangle. The church stood on the south side, and 
measured 102 feet in length, by 32 in width ; the side walls were 24 feet in height, and three feet 
thick. In the fore-wall of the church, which had five windows, there was a small aperture and 
arch between the third window and the door, so constructed as to make it probable to anti- 
quaries of the last century, that the reliques of Saint Nicholas and the Holy Cross had been 
deposited there, so that they might be seen as well from without as from within the church. The 
cloisters were on the west side of the quadrangle, and measured 22 feet in width.^ The build- 
ings on the other sides were 14 feet in height, 16 feet in width, and vaulted." 

There was an Hospital for the infirm and indigent, which can be traced to the middle of the 
fourteenth century. It was commonly known by the name of Saint Leonard's, but appears to have 
been dedicated also to Saint Laurence. It stood on the left bank of the Tweed, about a mile and 
a half below the burgh, at a place which still keeps the name of 'the Chapel Yards.'i" It was 
governed by a master, who had a perpetual grant from the crown of two merks yearly from the 

' Scotichronicon, lib. x., rap. xiv. Kxtracta e Variis ' Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 174, no. 25. 

Cronicis Scocie, p. 104. T. Dempsteri Hist. Eeeles. Gent. ■' New Stat. Aec. ' Book of -Assumptions. 

Scot., lib. .viii., cap. 952 ; torn, ii., p. 501. " Regist. Glasg., p. Ixxi. 

^ Spottiswoode's Religious Houses, cliap. iv., § 6. J. de " Grose's Antiq. of Scot., vol. ii., pp. 220, 221. 

Ford. Scotichronicon, vol. ii., p. 540, edit. Goodall. " Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 295. 

' Ragman Rolls, p. Ifi4. '" Maps. Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 295. 



PEEBLES.] PABOCHIALES. 231 

rents of tlie burgh. When this payment was accounted for by the bailies in the year 1395, the 
roll of the exchequer styles the master, ' of Saint Leonard's Hospital of Peblys.' i But in the 
following year he is called of ' Saint Laurence's Hospital,' and continues to be so styled in the rolls 
of the years 1398, 1399, 1-103, and 1405.^ In this last year, the burgh having been wasted by 
fire, no payment was made into exchequer ; and the rolls say : ' And nothing is allowed to the 
master of Saint Laurence's Plospital, beside Pebles, during the time of this account, because theie 
was not whence the master of the Hospital could take anything of his accustomed pension of two 
merks, of the King's alms.'^ When the Hospital next appears in the rolls, in the years 1425 and 
1434, it has the name of Saint Leonard's : in the former year. Sir Robert of Laweder, knight, the 
elder, was its master.* In the year 1427, King James I. presented his confessor, David Rat, 
' vicar of the order of Preachers within the realm of Scotland,' to the Hospital of Saint Leonard's, 
near the town of Peebles.^ It held lands until the Reformation, when they passed into lav 
hands : in the year 1624, John Hay was served heir of Alexander Hay of Smeithfeild, his brother, 
' in the lands of Spittelhauche, Weitlandis, Squyerhauche, and Saint Leonard's acres, beside the 
chapel of Saint Leonard, near the burgh of Peebles, which lands are called ' Chapel Yairds of 
Saint Leonardis;' in three roods or particates of land at Quhytstanehill, near the buro-h of 
Peebles ; in three roods of land near the lands of the Holy Cross church of Peebles ; and in a 
tenement of land at the Cunzienuik of the Briggait of Peebles ; extending in all to forty shillings 
yearly.' " 

, The Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem had a tenement in Peebles (which kept 
the name of Templeland to the close of the seventeenth century) and an acre of land attached to it. 
called Rud aiker." 

Peebles had seven yearly fairs, namely, Yule or Christmas ; Fasten's Even or Shrove Tuesday ; 
Beltane, (1st May) ; Saint Peter's, (29th June) ; Hook fair, (1st Tuesday of September) ; Rytt, 
Runt, or Saint Denis, (9th October) ; and Saint Andrew's, (30th November.)* The celebrity of 
the May-day fair, which extended over two days, is attested by the old poem of ' Peblis to tlir 
Play,' beginning 

At Beltane quhen ilk bodie bownis 

To Peblis to the play.'' 

The burgh had a charter of the freedom of its fairs from King Robert I.i" 

The royal castle here was a frequent residence of the Kings. Charters are dated from Peebles by 
Saint David;'! by his son the Earl Henry ;'- by King Malcolm the Maiden ;13 by King William 

' Chamberlain Rolls, vol. ii., p. 317. * Be the Halyrud of Peblis ;' 

- Chamberlain Rolls, vol. ii., pp. 370*, 406, 454,589, (i5(i. and another verse tells how 

■' Chamberlain Rolls, vol. ii., pp. 656, 657. * Hopealya and Cardronow 

* Chamberlain Rolls, vol. iii., pp. 156,255. Gaderit out thikfald.' 

^ Spottiswoode's Relig. Houses, chap, .kx., § 15. '" Robertson's Inde.x to the Charters, p. 15, no. 4. 

■^ Retours, no. 64. ' Retours, no. 179. " Stevenson's Illust. Hist. Scot., p. 13. Regist. Priorat. 

" Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 286, 287. S. Andree, p. 181. Regist. Mag. Sig., p. 203, no. 22. Raines 

Chalmers' Caled., vol. ii., p. 941, note. ' N. Durham, app., p. 4, nn. xv, xvi. 

' Pinkert. Scot. Ballads, 1783. One of the personages in '- Regist. Priorat. S. Andree, p. 191. 

the poem swears '^ Lib. de Calchou, pp. 299, 300, 312. 



232 OEIGINES [peebles. 

the Lion;' by King Alexander II.;- by King Edward I. of England ;■' and by King James 
III.* It was visited by Prince David of Scotland in the year 1329 ;5 by King Edward Baliol 
in the year 1334 ;S and by King Henry Darnley in the year 1565.' An assize of King William 
the Lion, between the years 1 165 and 1214, ordained that the two chief courts of the Justiciar should 
be held yearly at Edinburgh or at Peblis.* The Justiciars of Lothian are found sitting at Peebles 
in the year 1259 ;^ and notices occur of courts of the Justiciar of Scotland held at Peebles both in 
the fourteenth and in the fifteenth centuries.'" 

The burgh dates from the reign of Saint David," though the earliest grant of its privileges on 
record is not older than the reign of King Robert I.'- It had charters from King David II., 
King James II., King James IV., and King James VI.'S In the year 1159, King Malcolm the 
Maiden confirmed a toft in Peebles to the monks of Kelso ;i* and the confirmation was renewed 
by King William the Lion between the years 1 165 and 1214,'^ and by Pope Innocent IV. between 
the years 1243 and 1254."' About the year 1200, 'Gylcolm, the smith at Peebles,' was one of 
the witnesses to the perambulation of the marches of Stobo."' King Alexander II. granted to the 
Hospital of Soltre half a chalder of oat meal yearly from his mill of Peebles.'* In the year 1262, 
King Alexander III. issued a brief to his sherift" and bailies of Peebles, commanding them to make 
inquest if Robert Cruik had spoiled the King's burgesses of Peebles of the moss of Waltamshope, 
granted to them, as they affirmed, by the King and his father ; and also if the said Robert had 
tilled or otherwise unjustly occupied the King's land and the common pasture of his burgesses afore- 
said.18 Inquest was made accordingly at Peebles, on Saint Leonard's day in the same year, by 
Archibald of Hopkelioc, Alexander of Wynkistun, Richard Eermcr, Clement of Hopkelioc, Roger 
of Kedistun, Michael of Kedistun, Roger Gardener, Archibald of Huudwaluehishope, Adam of 
Stobhou, Thomas Smith, Richard the son of Godard, Gauri Pluchan, William Shepherd, AValter 
Shepherd, John Modi, Robert Gladhoc, Cokin Smith, and Adam Hacsmall ; who being sworn, found 
that the burgesses of Peebles dug their peats in the moss of Waltamshope, and that Robert Croke 
spoiled, scattered, and broke the said peats, and hindered them from being driven ; that he had built 
his hall where the men of our Lord the King were wont to have their common ; and that he had 
ploughed upon the common of Peebles.-" In the year 1292, there swore fealty to King Edward I., 
as the Overlord of Scotland, William of the Chamber, bailie and burgess of Peebles ; John the vicar 
of the church of Peebles ; Adam of Hord, David Anderson, Nichol of Northincheton, Reynald 
Ilardegrepes, John the son of Walter Gretheued, Henry Rauesmaugh, Symon the brother of Walter, 
Syraon the son of Geofl'rey, Pierce the son of Geofl'rey, and Roger Blynd, burgesses of Peebles.^' 

' Morton's Monast. Ann. Teviot., p. 0."). Lili.de Calcliou, " Lib. de Calchou, pp. 15, 346. 

,, ;^o5 '- Municip. Corp. Reports. Robertson's Index to the 

^ Regist. de Passelet., p. 403. Charters, p. 15, no. 4. 

' Palg. lUust. Hist. Scot., p. '236. Rot. Scot., vol. i., p. 53. '^ Municip. Corp. Reports (1835), vol. ii., p. 293. Report 

* Lib. de Melros, p. 590. on Scottish Burghs (1793), p. SG, no. 11. 

' Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., p. 62. '" Lib. de Calchou, p. v. 

« Chronic, de Lanercost, p. 279. " Lib- de Calchou, p. 13. 

; Buchanani Hist. Rer. Scotic, lib. xvii., cap. liv. "^ Lib. de Calchou, p. 351. ' ' Regist. Glasg., p. fi9. 

" Act. Pari. Scot., vol. i., p. 57. '° Macfarlane's Collect. Chart., p. 7, MS. 

- Act. Pari. Scot., vol. i., pref., p. 89. " Act. Pari. Scot., vol. i., pref., pp. 90, 91. 

'" Act. Pari. Scot., vol. i., p. 175. Act. Doni. Cone, pp. -'" Act. Pari. Scot., vol. i., p. 91. 

91!, 118, 149, 101. "' Kagman Rolls, p. 123. 



PEEBLES.] PAROCHIALES. 233 

In the same year King Edward I. issued letters to William Clausun, ' fermer of the burgh and mills 
of Peebles,' charging him to pay i'2S, for which he was in arrear of his account for the said burgh 
and mills.i The same King, in the year 1306, granted the burgh of Peebles, with its mills and 
all other appurtenances, to Aymer de Valence.^ Among the missing records of King Robert I., is 
entered ' a charter for the burgh of Peebles, and the freedom of its fair.'^ In the year 1329, the 
King's chamberlain received from the bailies or boroughreeves (prepositi) of Peebles, a rent of £10, 
5s. 4d. ; the rent received for the same year from Lanark, being £9, 3s. ; from Haddington, £12, 
19s. lid. ; from Edinburgh, £9, 4s. 8d. ; and from Linlithgow, £10, Ss. 6d. :•* but these rents varied 
in amount and proportion from year to year, so that they are no very accurate index to the opulence 
of the bnrgh.5 In the parliament of 1357, Peebles was represented by two commissioners, Nichol 
Johnson and John Williamson.^ King David IL, in the year 1369, made a grant to John Gray, 
the clerk of rolls, during his life, of all the rents and issues of the burgh of Peblys, those belonging 
to the chamberlain ayre only excepted.' The fermes and issues of the burgh were let to the bailies, 
in the year 1398, for £8, 13s. 4d.* In the year 1405, the bailies, William Davidson and John 
Huntare, made this account in exchequer of their receipts and expenditure from the 19th June 
1403 to the 17th March 1405-6 : 'They charge themselves with £21, 13s. 4d., received for the 
fermes and issues of the burgh, together with the mills, by the lease made to them on the part of 
the King's chamberlain, for the five terms of this account. Of which sum there is allowed to them, 
on account of the burning of the town of Peblis by the English in the time of common war, 
£7, 3s. 9d. And there remain £13, 68. 8d. of the fermes of the burgh mills in the hands of 
Alexander of Scheie, as the bailies affirm, by the King's charter, which they are ordered to cause 
be produced in exchequer, on pain of being charged with the said sum.'^ In the year 1434, the 
crown rents of the burgh were let to the community for £2, 13s. 4d., and the rents of the burgh 
mill for £6, 13s. id}" Peebles was burned by the English in the year 1549,ii a fate to which its 
situation must have not seldom exposed it. The preamble of a charter granted to the burgh by King 
James VI., in the year 1621, sets forth 'the memorable and grateful services performed by the 
bailies, counsellors, and community, upon all former occasions, in peace and war, not only in 
defending the country against foreign invaders, but also at the risk of their lives and fortunes, in 
struggling with secret and open oppressions on the borders of England and Scotland ; their city 
being often plundered, burnt, laid waste, and rendered desolate.'*^ It is said, that after a catas- 
trophe of this kind, the inhabitants began to build, on the left bank of the Eddleston water, what 
came to be known as the ' new town of Peebles.' The ' old town,' on the opposite bank, is 
believed to have extended westwards from the Eddleston water to ' the meadow well strand,' the 
market cross standing opposite to the Ludgate.'^ In the middle of the seventeenth century, the 
burgh was noted for its five triads, namely, three churches, three steeples, three ports or gates, 

' Rotuli Scotiae, Tol. i., p. 13. ^ Chamberlain Rolls, vol. ii., p. 405. 

« Palg. Illust. Hist. Scot., pp. 359, 360. " Cliamberlain Rolls, vol. ii., p. 656 ; vol. iii., p. 156. 

^ Robertson's Index to the Charters, p. 15, no. 4. ^" Chamberlain Rolls, vol. iii,, p. 255. 

* Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., p. 87. ^' Birrel's Diary, p. 4. 

5 Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., pp. 165, 20.3, 222, 269. >= Penneouik's Descript. of Twecddale, p. 282. 

" Act. Pari. Scot., vol. i., p. 157 " Old Stat. Ace. Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, 

' Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 62. no. 198. p. 274. 

2 G 



234 ORIGINES [pEEnLEs. 

three streets, and three bridges ; one of the latter, which spanned the Tweed, having five arches, 
another of two arches crossing the Eddleston water.i 

The burgh council numbered seventeen members, namely, a provost, two bailies, a dean of guild, a 
treasurer, eleven councillors, and a deacon.- The armorial bearings of Peebles were a figure of Saint 
Andrew, the patron saint of the parish, with three salmon: the motto, contra nando incrementum.^ 
The market cross is described as showing the arms of the Frasers, the ancient sherifls of Tweeddale.'' 
The place had a -weekly market on Tuesday .^ It is said to have had a mint, but the statement 
seems to have no other ground than the name of the ' cuinzie nook' given to a house in the Briggate.'' 

More than one of the great monasteries had lands or houses in the burgh. The monks of Kelso 
possessed a toft, which was confirmed to them by King Malcolm the Maiden in the year 1159, 
by King William the Lion between the years 1165 and 1214, and by Pope Innocent IV. between 
the years 1243 and 1254.'' In the year 1305, Sir William of Durem, knight, sold to the Cister- 
cians of Melrose that burgage in the town of Peblys which had belonged to Thomas Lilloc 
deceased.* A few years afterwards, the monks accjuired from the same knight another burgage, 
which he had bought of John Forster, lying between the land of Saint Slary on the west, and the 
land which belonged to Henry the son of Emma on the east.^ In the year 1492, Master Archi- 
bald Dikisone, chaplain, in consideration that the monks had granted him charter of a land in the 
old burgh of Peblis for a rent of eight shillings yearly, became bound to them in fault of nonpay- 
ment of the rent, or of non-repair of the dwelling, that they might distrain his land in the 
new burgh, on the north side of the same, between the land of Archibald Blenkys on the east, 
and the land of Saint Michael on the ^vest.i" The abbey of Arbroath had a toft, which was 
bounded on the south by the land of John of Lake, and on the north by the land of John William- 
son. This toft, having been resigned by Laurence of Wedayl, was granted by the monks, in the 
year 1317, to AVilliam called Maceon, a burgess of the town, saving the abbey's right to hold its 
court of regality on the ground, and taking the grantee bound to pay two shillings of yearly rent, 
to find honest lodging, according to his degree, along with his own family, for the abbot, his monks, 
novices, and clerks, their bailifs and attorneys, travelling on the monastery's afi'airs. For this end 
he was to keep a hall, with a table, trestles, and other furniture, for their meals ; a spence with a 
buttery ; one or more chambers for sleeping ; a decent kitchen ; and a stable for their horses. He 
was to find fuel as well for the hall and the chamber as for the kitchen ; white candles of tallow, 
commonly called Paris candles ; straw or rushes for the hall and chamber ; and salt for the table. 
Lastly, the abbey's messengers or runners were to have shelter in the dwelling, but not food.^^ 

To the south-east of Peebles, and on the other side of the river, was the Gallows Hill ; and 
between that and the town lay the Burgh Jloor, part of which had the name of the King's Moor, 
where the ' weaponshawiugs,' or military musters of the shire, were often held.^- 

' Blaeu Theatrum Scotiae, p. 34, edit. li;6"2. Cf. Penne- « Penneeuik'sDeseript. of TweeJdaIe,p. 283. Retours. 

cuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pD.'274. 284. ' Lib. de Calchou, pp. v., 13, 351. 

- Report on Scottish Burghs 1793, app. c, no. xxxiii. ' Lib. de Melros, pp. 317, 318, 376, 377. 

3 Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 287, 274. ' Lib. de Melros, pp. 377, 378. 

■• Old Stat. Ace. '" Lib. de Melros, pp. 615, 616. 

' Municip. Corp. Reports 1835, vol. ii., p. 293. Penne- " Regist. Vet. de Aberbrothoc, pp. 300, 301. 

cuik's Descript. Tweeddale, p. 286. '- Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 296, 304. 



PEEBLES.] PAROCHIALES. 235 

Great part of this parish seems to have remained with the crown until the middle of the four- 
teenth century. ' Rauf del Fount de Pehbles,' along with other thirteen tenants of the crown in 
the shire of Tweeddale, swore fealty to King Edward I., as Overlord of Scotland, in the year 
12.96.'! In the years 1358 and 1359, the sheriffs of Tweeddale made account in the exchequer 
for 8s. of yearly rent from Wodgrenystone ; 6s. 8d. from Wynkystone ; 40s. from Corsconyngys- 
felde ; £6, 13s. 4d. from Estschelys ; and 1 5s. from Hughonfelde : the rent of Newby was £4, but 
the land was waste, so that nothing was recovered.^ 

King Robert I., between the years 1306 and 1329, made a grant of twelve marks yearly from 
the lands of Edringtoun to Thomas Nesbit:^ he had from King David II. a charter of the lands 
in blench holding, but with a ' thirle to Peebles niilne.'-* They had previously belonged to 
Andrew Clarky,'' and seem to be identified with the lands of Eddarstoun, on the right bank of 
the Tweed, valued in the extent of the shire at £8.^ 

Smythfeild, on the left bank of the Peebles or Eddleston water, was rated at forty shillings of 
old extent.^ King David II., between the years 1329 and 1371, made a grant of thirty shillings 
yearly from the lands of Smeithfield to Thomas Lilly.' It was found by the Lords of Council, in 
the year 1494, that William Dikkesone, the son and heir of John Dikesone of Smethfeld, deceased, 
should pay to Robert Dikesone a hundred merks for costs and scaith, and for the overgiving of 
the lands of Melwelislande (lying on the same side of the Peebles water, and rated at 32s. 4d. in 
the valuation of the county)" to the aforesaid John Dikesone and his heirs, because the said Robert 
is put from the lease of a fourth part of the lands of Edrigstoune, and the said William, as heir 
aforesaid, has failed to put him in the lands of Melwillisland, or in as much other good land.^" In 
the year 1549, Thomas Hay was served heir of his brother James Hay in the half of the lands 
of Smythfeild, with the tower, fortalice, manor, and orchard, of the old extent of 26s. Sd.^i 

Winkistoun, which lies above Melvillsland, on the same side of the water, gave name to its 
possessors as early as the middle of the thirteenth century, when ' Alexander of Wynkistun' was 
on the inquest for ascertaining the rights of the burgesses of Peebles in the moss of Waltamshope.^^ 
It was of the old extent of iOaP King David II., in the year 1365, granted to William of Gled- 
stanes, the son and heir of William of Gledstanes, knight, deceased, the lands of Wodgrenynton, 
Wynkiston, and Acolmefelde, which Patrick Malleville resigned, together with the yearly rent 
due to the crown from the lands of AVynkyston and Wodgrenyngton.i* Walter Gladstanes had 
a grant from King Robert III., between the years 1390 and 1406, of a yearly payment from 
Winkistoun and Wodgrainningtoun ; and John Gladstanes had a charter from the same King of 
the lands of Hundwalleshape, (in the barony of Manor,) resigned by Margaret Glaidstanes, his 

' The Ragman Rolls, p. 137. The names of the other ' Robertson's Index to the Charters, p. 62, no. 20. 

crown tenants were * Patrik de Maleuill, William Perel, "^ Extent of the Siiire of Peebles. Maps. Retours, no. 11. 

Roger le Mareschal, William de Maleuill, William de Cre- Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 281, 308. 

leng, Wautier Lillok, Thom Lillok, Rogier de Mohaut, ' Extent of the Shire of Peebles. 

Hughe of the Leigger, William de Hupkeliogh, Johan le ^ Robertson's Index to the Charters, p. 54, no. 6. 

Naper, Adam le Feure de Erseldoun, William Pomevs '' Extent of the Shire of Peebles. 

[/; Z. Poraeys], tenauntzle Roi du counte de Pebbles.' '" Act. Dom. Cone., pp. 323, 324. " Retours, no. I. 

- Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i., pp. 316, 319. '- Act. Pari. Scot., vol. i., pref., p. 91. 

' Robertson's Index to the Charters, p. 24, no. 1. '^ Retours, nn. 39, 73. Extent of the Shire of Peebles. 

• Robertson's Index to the Charters, p. 40, no. 17. '■' Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 41, nn. 112, 113. 



236 ORIGINES [pebbles. 

motber.i In the year 1384, King Robert II. granted to Henry of Douglas, knight, forty shil- 
lings yearly from the lands of Corscunyngfelde (which, with Borrouson, was rated at £4 in the 
old extent of the county) ;- fifteen shillings yearly from Huchounfelde (a 25s. land on the left bank 
of the EJdleston);3 and sis shillings and eightpence yearly from ' Maleuille's part of AVynkys- 
ton.'* David Mowat had a charter from King Robert III., between the years 1390 and 1406, 
of Winkistoun and Burelfield.^ In the year 1489, Wynkstoun belonged to AVilliam Dikesoun.^ 
Robert Dyckison bad a grant of the lands of Hechonfields from King Robert III. between the 
years 1390 and 1406.' 

Fullage, or Foulage, lying on the northern border of the parish, on the left bank of the Peebles 
water, was rated at £3, 6s. 8d. of old extent.* In the year 1559, John Caverhill was served heir 
of James Caverhill of Fouleche, his father, in the lands of Fouleche.^ 

Kidston, which lies on the other side of the stream, gave surname to its possessors in the middle 
of the fourteenth century.'" Roger of Kydeston was on an inquest touching the lands of Hopkel- 
choc in the year 1259 ; and Roger of Kedistun and Michael of Kedistun were on an inquest 
regarding the moss of Waltamshope in the year 1262. Kidston was taxed, together with Wormes- 
toun, at £\0 of old extent.'i 

Jedderfield, or Jedburgbfield, a forty-shilling land,'- on the left bank of the Tweed, a little to the 
west of Peebles, appears to have been an appurtenance of the hereditary sheriffship of the county. 
In the year 1576, William lord Hay of Tester was served heir to his father, of the same name, 
' in the lands of Jedworthfeild, with the office of sheriff of Peibles, of the old extent of five 
raerks;''^ and in the year 1610, John lord Tester was served heir to his father James lord Hay 
of Tester, ' in the lands of Jedburghfeild, with the oflice of sheriff of Peiblis and the castle of 
Nidpath, of the old extent of five merks.'''' 

Eschells, on the east side of the parish, on the loft bank of the Tweed, wasof the old extent of £20.'^ 
In the year 1364, King David II. granted to -James of Douglas, the son of John of Douglas, knight, 
deceased, the yearly rents due to the crown from Esschlis, Ilorsbruk, Estirhopkeliouche, and 
Newby.'^ James earl of Morton, in the year 1567, had a charter of confirmation of the lands and 
barony of Esschelis, with the fortaliee and mills, advowson, and donation of churches and chapels.'' 

Suynhope, or Soonhope, on the left bank of the Peebles water, appears in the old extent of 
the shire with a value of £10.'* The demesne lands, with the mill, belonged, in the year 1549, 
to the Hays of Smythfeild."' ' .John Kerr, the hunter, at Swhynhope,' appears among the wit- 
nesses to the perambulation of the marches of Stobo about the year 1200.-" 

Ilayston, on the eastern border of the parish, on the right bank of Tweed, was of old called 

' Robertson's Index to the Charters, p. 145, nn. 14, 15. " Extent of the Shire of Peebles. 

^ Extent of the Shire of Peebles. '2 Extent of the Shire of Peebles. 

* Extent of the Shire of Peebles. '^ Retours, no. 11. 

' Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 167, no. 34. '< Retours, no. 44. 

"* Robertson's Index to the Charters, p. 148, no. 14. '^ Extent of the Shire of Peebles. 

■' Act. Dom. Audit., p. 123. '<' Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 33, no. 85. 

' Robertson's Index to the Charters, p. 143, no. 8. " Act. Pari. Scot., vol. ii., pp. 562, 564. 

" Extent of the Shire of Peebles. '* Extent of the Shire of Peebles. 

** Retours, no. 9. '* Retours, no. 1. 

'" Act. Pari. Scot., vol. i., pref., pp. 88, 91. -" Regist. Glasg., p. 89. 



PEEBLES.] PAROCHIALES. 237 

Henderstoun. Between the years 1306 and 1329, King Robert I. granted to John Traquair the 
lauds of Edirdye and Henderstoun, resigned by Moubray.^ In the year 1489, Christian Mowat, 
the wife of George Wallace, had right of terce in the lands of Henderistoune and Newbe : her 
bailie in the lands was William Dikesoune of Wynkstoune.^ In the year 1680, John Hay of 
Haystoune was served heir male of his father Master John Hay of Haystoune, ' in the lands and 
barony of Haystoune, comprehending the lauds of Ilenderstoune, now called Haystoune, the lands 
of Newbie, and the parts of Haystoune called Sheilneise, Lanerbank, and Deidsyd, with the mill 
of Haystoune, of the old extent of ,£10.''* 

King David II., between the years 1329 and 1371, granted to Richard Menzies a yearly pay- 
ment from the lands of Newbie.* The same King, in the year 1364, granted the crown rent of 
six nierks yearly from the land of Newby, to David Broune for his life-time.^ In the same year, 
James of Douglas, son of the deceased John of Douglas, knight, had a grant from the same King 
of the crown rents of Esschlis and Newby .^ James earl of Morton, in the year 1567, had a charter 
of confirmation of four pounds yearly from the lands of Newby.'' 

Cruxton, which lies to the south of Newby, was of the old extent of £5.^ It took its name 
doubtless from the family of Cruik, Cruke, Cruoc, or Croke, which held lands in Tweeddale in the 
middle of the thirteenth century. It was found, by an inquest of the good men of the country, in the 
year 1262, that Robert Cruik had molested the King's burgesses of Peebles in leading their peats 
from the moss of Waltamshope, that he had ploughed part of the common of Peebles, and had built 
his haU where the men of our Lord the King had wont to have their common.'' King David II., 
between the years 1329 and 1371, granted the lands of Croykstoune, in the shire of Peebles, to 
Robert Dalzell.i" 

Bonyngtoun, of the old extent of .£5, was granted to Thomas the son of Michael, by King 
David II., between the years 1329 and 1371.'^ 

Cademuir, Homildean, Venlaw, Glentrass, the Castle Hill, the Rude mill, the Wauk mill 
built upon the side of the said Castle Hill, and the Auld mill upon the water of Peebles, were 
given or confirmed to the burgh of Peebles by King James VI. in the year 1621.^2 In the year 
1482, the Lords Auditors of Parliament ordered inquest to be made, at the next justice ayre of 
Peebles, touching the common of Cademuir and Common Struthere, and the multure of the corns 
of the lands of Corscunyngfeild.^s 

The ancient castle of the Kings appears to have stood on a mound at the point where the 
Peebles water flows into the Tweed. It was garrisoned by the English in the year 1297-8, during 
the War of the Succession.''' It was probably dismantled or destroyed by King Robert Bruce, in 
]iursuance of his well-known policy,'^ and does not appear as a place of defence in the year 1334."' 

' Robertson's Index to the Charters, p. 1, no. G. '" Robertson's Index to the Charters, p. 3-, no. 17. 

^ Act. Dom. Audit., p. 123. " Robertson's Inde.x, p. 32, no. 23. 

' Retours, no. 179. Extent of the Shire of Peebles. '- Old Stat. Ace. New Stat. Ace. Pennicuik's De- 

* Robertson's Index to the Charters, p. 32, no. 7. script, of Tweeddale. 

5 Reg. Mag. Sig., pp. 29, 30, no. 54. '^ Act. Dom. Audit., p. 98. 

" Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 33, no. 85. " Original Unprinted Documents regarding Scotland 

' Act. Pari. Scot., vol. ii., pp. 562-564. p. 36, no. ixix. (Maitland Club.) 

' Extent of the Shire of Peebles. '' J. de Ford. Scotichronicon, lib. xii., capp. xii. xix. 

' Act. Pari. Scot., vol. i.,pref., pp. 90, 91, 88. '= Rotuli Scotiae, vol. i., p. 271. 



238 ORIGINES [pebbles. 

Neidpath is said of old to have bad the name of ' the castle of Peebles." ' It was a strong, 
stately j)ile, built upon a rock on the left bank of the Tweed (which flows here through a deep 
and narrow glen), not far to the west of the old town of Peebles, and in a line with its chief street. 
Its walls measure eleven feet in thickness.^ 
There were towers or manor-houses at Smythfeild,^ at Sheiklgreen,'' at Winkiston, and at Foulage.* 
The freeholders of this parish who gave suit or presence at the muster of the trainbands of the 
shire on the burgh moor, in the year 1627, were the bailie of Lord Yester, with sixty-five horsemen 
and four footmen armed with lances and swords, ' dwelling on noble Lord Tester's lands in 
Peebles, Lyne, Stobo, and Drummelzier ;' the laird of Walton, absent himself, but represented by 
nine men, with lances and swords, for his lands in Peebles and Eddlestoun ; John Sander of 
Foulage, for his land of Foulage and Melinsland, mounted on horseback, armed with jack, plate 
sleeves, and steel bonnet, and carrying lance and sword; the laird of Smithfield, absent himself, 
but represented by eight horsemen and one footman, all armed with swords and lance.s; the laird 
of Horsbrugh, for the lands of Hutchinfield, mounted on horseback, armed with a collet, buff coat, 
and steel bonnet, and carrying lance and sword ; Thomas Thomson in Bennington, and Thomas 
BuUo in Bounington, both horsed, and bearing lance and sword ; James Scott of Cruickston, 
absent himself, represented by two footmen bearing lances and swords ; Robert Porteous, for the 
lands of Winkston, armed with buff coat, rapier, and pistols ; and Robert Pringle of Chapelhill, 
mounted on horseback, having lance, pistol, and sword, and attended by a footman bearing a lance.^ 

MANER. 

Maineure' — Menewire^ — Mener^ — Menare"' — Mennar" — Mennare'' — 
Menar" — Maner." Deanery of PeebW (Map, No. 88.) 

This is the strath or basin of the Maner water and its tributaries, the burns called the Sting, 
Dollar, Newholm, Glenrath, Templehouse, and Hundleshope. The Maner springs from the marsh 
called the Foulbrig, on the borders of Megget ; and, after a course of ten or twelve miles, flows 
into the Tweed, a little above Neidpath castle. The upper part of the strath is deep and narrow, 
the hills on the west side rising in the peaks of Dollarlaw and Scrape to a height of about 2800 
feet above the sea level.'^ 

Maner was at first a chapelry dependent on the mother church of Peebles ; and as such was 
confirmed to Bishop Joceline and the see of Glasgow, by Pope LTrban III., in the year 1 186.'" 

' Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 271. '" A. D. 1401. Regist. Glasg., p. 299. 

= Grose's Antiq. of Scotland, vol. ii., p. 222. " A. D. 1478— A. D. 148.3. Act. Dom. Audit., pp. 59, 

•' Retours, no. 1. Macfarlane's MS. Collect. 65, 81. 98. Act. Dom. Cone, p. 19. 

* Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 3U8. " A. D. 1492-3. Act. Dom. Cone, p. 291. 

5 Blaeu Theatrum Scotiae, p. 34. '3 ^_ d_ 1555 Regist. Glasg., p. 581. 

" Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 304-307. '* Booke of the Universall Kirk, vol. i., p. 224. 

" A. D. 1186'. Regist. Glasg., p. 55. 's Old Stat. Ace. New Stat. Ace. Pennecuik's De- 

» A. D. 125G-7. Regist. Glasg., p. 164. script, of Tweeddale, pp. 209-215. 

' A. D. 13'23. Act. Pari. Scot., vol.i., p. 1'22. "^ Regist. Glasg., p. 55. 



MANER.] PAROCHIALES. 239 

When the rectory of Peebles, about the year 1256, was assigned to the Archdeacon of Glasfow 
the Bishop reserved to himself the collation of the vicarage, excepting only the chapel of Maner, 
which he granted to the Archdeacon.^ It does not appear to have become a parochial church 
until the very eve of the Reformation ; when, in the year 1555, ' Alexander Dick, primary arch- 
deacon of the metropolitan church of Glasgow, and rector and vicar plenary of the parish church 
of Menar, with consent of the Archbishop and chapter, constitutes Sir William Turnouer. 
priest, vicar of the church of Menar, with a pension of twenty-four merks yearly, the small 
oblations, and the vicarage toft and croft;' and commands the dean rural of Peebles to give insti- 
tution accordingly .2 Slaner had a reader after the ReformatioD,^ the Archdeacon of Glasgow 
keeping ' the personage of Peebles and Maner.''* 

The church or chapel of Maner does not appear by name in the tax-rolls of benefices, bein" 
included in the Archdeanery of Glasgow. But when the prebends were taxed for the ornaments of 
the cathedral, in the year 1401, Menare was rated at £5,^ in virtue, doubtless, of some arrano-ement 
by which the burden imposed on the Archdeacon's benefice was appropriated to his chapelry of 
Maner. The ' church lands and glebe of the parish church of Manner, with the tithes,' were returned 
as of the extent of three merks and forty pence, in the year 1651, when they were in lay hands.*" 

The church stood on Newholmhope, near the head of the glen, until the middle of the seven- 
teenth century, when it was removed to its present site, in the lower district of the parish." It 
was known as ' Saint Gordian's kirk,' or ' Saint Gorgham's chapel,'* from its dedication either to 
Saint Gordian, who was beheaded at Rome, under .lulian the apostate, about the year .362, or to 
Saint Gorgon, a eunuch of the imperial palace, who was martyred under Dioclesian, about the 
year 300.^ The feast of Saints Gordian and Epimachus, martyrs, was kept by the Scottish Church 
on the tenth of May; that of Saint Gorgon, martyr, on the ninth of September.'" Of the ancient 
church, in the year 1715, ' nothing was to be seen but the rubbish and ruins.'*' A little to the 
south-west of the modern building, is a monument described, in the middle of the last century, as ' a 
pedestal called the Font Stone, whose indentation has supported a market, or monumental cross.' '- 

There was an endowed chantry in the church. 'The Rude altar in the jiarish church of Maner' 
had a yearly revenue in 1507 of forty-five shillings.'^ 

The name of Templehouse, given to a place near the middle of the parish, denotes, probably, that 
the Templars, and afterwards the Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem, had land there.''' 

King Robert I. confirmed charters which his predecessor King Alexander (whether the second 
or third of that name does not appear) had granted to William Beddebie and to John Baddebie '^ 

' Regist. G'.asg., p. 164. " Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. -21 0. 

- Regist. Glasg., p. 581. '2 Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 214. New 

^ Regist. of Minist. 1567. Stat. Ace. 

< Booke of the Universall Kirk, p. 224. '= Book of Assumptions, MS. 

i Regist. fxlasg., p. 299. ^ Retours, no. 127. ■* Map. New Stat. Ace. 

' Old Stat. Ace. Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, '^ John of Badeby was sheriff of Berwick in the year 

pp. 210, 214. Blaeu Theat. Scot., p. 33. 1296. and in that year swore fealty to King Edward I. for 

" Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 210. his lands in the Merse. (Rotuh Scotiae, vol. i., p. 33. Rag- 

3 Brev. Rom. ex decret. SS. Concil. Trident, restitut., man Rolls, p. 164.) John of Baddeby, of the county of 

Prop. SS. X. Maji ; i.\. Sept. Butler's Lives of the Saints. Peebles, made his allegiance to the English King, as Over- 

'° Brev. Aberd. Kalend. Aberd. lord of Scotland,in the same year. (RagmanRolls,p. 162.) 



240 ORIGINES [maker. 

of the lands of Menncr.i The same King Robert granted two charters of the whole barony of 
Mener in Tweeddale, to Adam Mareschal, the one conveying the lands, the other describing their 
boundaries.^ Mareschal seems to have subsequently resigned one-half of the lauds into the hands 
of the King in parliament, by whom the moiety was granted to Sir Alexander of Baddeby.^ After- 
wards, in the year 1323, Baddeby appeared in a parliament held at Scone, and claimed ' the 
whole land of Mener, in one-half of which Adam Mareschal stood seised in heritage by our Lord 
the King." It was answered to this claim on the part of the crown, ' that since the same our Lord 
the King, in terms of a certain agreement, had graciously granted the other moiety of the land of 
Manor to the said Sir Alexander of Baddeby, the knight must either abide by the agreement afore- 
said, or renounce the moiety of the land which had been granted to him under its terms ; and our 
Lord the King would then do him full justice.' Thereupon Sir Alexander abandoned his claim, 
professing himself content with the agreement in all things, ' unless our Lord the King should be 
pleased of his bounty' to enlarge its terms.* The division of the barony which was made at this 
time appears to have continued ever afterwards.^ In the tax-roll of the shire, ' Manor, pertaining 
to Lewis and Hoppringle,' is rated at ten pounds of old extent.^ The family of Lewis of Mennar 
is found as early as the year 1478,^ and is to be traced beyond the year 1622.* King Robert III., 
in the year 1396, granted to his kinsman Sir William Inglis, in reward for his notable exploit in 
slaying Thomas de Struther, an English knight, in single combat, on the marches, the whole barony 
of Maner, to be held blench of the crown, but reserving the lands possessed by William Gladstanes, 
knight, together with the lordship of the barony.^ 

The lands of Hundleshope, on the eastern border of the parish, gave surname to the possessor in 
the middle of the thirteenth century. ' Archibald of Hundewulchopp,' or ' Hundwaluchishope,' 
appears on inquests made by the good men of the country at Peebles in the years 1259 and ] 262.1" 
King David XL, between the years 1329 and 1371, granted the lands of Humdallwalschop, in the 
barony of Mener, to John Trumble.^' The same lands were confirmed to John Gladstanes, on the 
resignation of Margaret Glaidstanes, his mother, by King Robert III., between the years 1390 
and 1406.12 

Between the same years, the lands of Possaw, Langhall and Kirkhope, of Caverhill, of the half 
of Glak, of Glenrath, and of Letteis, in the barony of Maner, were granted to Thomas Baird, by 
King Robert III.i^ Posso, rated at ten pounds of old extent,'* is described by Pennecuik as ' a 
pleasant and solitary seat in a valley amongst high and green hills.' '^ It is said to have passed to 
the Nasmyths, by marriage with the heiress of the Bairds. Caverhill gave surname to a family 
which is found in possession of the lands of Foulage, in the neighbouring parish of Peebles, in 
the year 1559 -.^^ it afterwards became the heritage of the Patersons, reputed chiefs of their name.'" 

' Robertson's Index to the Charters, p. 24, nn. 3, 4. '" Act. Pari. Scot., vol. i.,pref. app., pp. 88, 91. 

'^ Robertson's Index to the Charters, p. 24, nn. S, 6. " Robertson's Index to the Charters, p. 57, no. 32. 

^ Robertson's Index to the Charters, p. 24, no. 7. '- Robertson's Index to the Charters, p. 145, no. 15. 

* Act. Pari. Scot., vol. i.,p. 122. ^ Retours, nn.58,200,205. '= Robertson's Index to the Charters, p. 144, no. 35. 

•i Extent of the Shire of Peebles. " Extent of the Shire of Peebles. 

' Act. Dom. Audit., pp. 59, 65. Act. Dom. Cone, p. 19. '* Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 210. 

" Retours, no. 58. " Retours, no. 9. 

^ Robertson'.^ Index to the Charters, p. 137, no. 18. " Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 270, 271. 
Chart, in Macfarlane's Coll., MS. 



ETTRICK FOREST.] PAROCHIALES. 241 

In the year 1494, a yearly payment of twenty shillings from the third part of the lands of 
Glak and Cauerhill, was in dispute between William Inglis of Murdostoune, and Alexander 
Fokkart and Christian Lowis his wife.i Glenrath or Glenvrack was of the old extent of £6, 
13s. 4d.2 

Barns was reputed an ancient possession of the Burnets.^ 
Halyairds, a barony, was of the old extent of ten pounds.^ 

There was a tower at Castlehill near Manertown in the middle of the parish, and another called 
Macbeth's Castle (probably after ' Malbet ' whose son Symon was Sheriff of Tweeddale in the vear 
11 84 5) between Posso and Glenrath." There were towers or manor places at Jfaner, Posso 
Caverhill, and Barns.' 

A large rude obelisk, called ' the Standing Stane,' on the lands of Bellumrig, bears traces of 
sculpture.^ 

There are hill forts near Hallmannor, Hundleshope, on Houndhill, and on Caverhill.^ 
The freeholders of Maner who gave suit or presence at the ' weaponshawing ' of the shire in 
the year 1627, were Thomas Scott of Hundleshope, represented by six men on horseback, and two 
on foot, all with lances and swords ; William Burnet elder of Barns, ' well horsed, with a buff- 
coat and steel bonnet, lance and sword, accompanied by seven horsemen, with lances and swords, 
and a footman with a lance ;' the laird of Mannor, with seven horsemen bearing swords and lances ; 
William Scott of Glenrath, represented by 'four of his men, horsed, with lances and swords, and a 
.steel bonnet ;' the laird of Glack, ' absent himself, three of his men present, horsed, with two 
lances and swords ;' and James Nasmyth of Posso, the sheriff-depute of Tweeddale, himself with 
buff-coat, steel bonnet, two pistols, and a sword, accompanied by twelve horsemen havino- lances 
and swords.i" 



THE FOEEST. - 

The whole or nearly the whole district comprehending the forests of Selkirk, Ettrick, and Tra- 
quair, sometimes indiscriminately styled ' The Forest of Selkirk,' or ' The Forest of Ettrick,' and 
popularly known as ' The Forest,' was, according to the earliest extant records, the property of the 
crown. 11 But it is difficult to ascertain what were the exact limits of this royal demesne. There are 
but few of the more ancient writs that furnish us with anything like a definite boundary, and these, 
being framed with reference to less extensive tracts either within or without The Forest, define 
but a very small portion of its marches or limits. One of these ancient charters, in conjunction 

' Act. Dom. Audit, p. J 87. " New Stat. Ace. Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, 

* E.xtent of the Shire of Peebles. p. 214. 

3 Sir J. Dalrj-mple's Collect, on Scot. Hist., p. 411. " Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, p. 21!. Chal- 

Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 270,271. mers' Caled., vol. ii., p. 909. 

•* Extent of the Shire of Peebles. '" Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 30-1-307. 

■' Chart, of Xeubot., pp. 15, 16. " Eotuli Scotiae. Robertson's Index. Liber de Alelros. 

" Pennecuik's Descript. of Tweeddale, pp. 211, 212. Acts of Parliament. 
' Blaeu Theat. Scot., p. 34. 



242 ORIGINES [ 



ETTRICK FOREST. 



with several of a later date, determines with sufficient accuraey what has from the earliest period 
of authentic history constituted its north-east border.^ About the middle of tlie twelfth cen- 
tury King David I. granted to the church and monks of Melros a charter of all their easements 
of pasture, wood, and pannage in his forests of Selkirk and Traquair. That charter included the 
lands lying between the Gala and Leader on the west and east, and between the Tweed and 
the borders of Lauderdale on the south and north ; and the whole grant, with the addition of the 
fishings of Selkirk, was confirmed by Malcolm IV. in the same century, by William the Lion in 
the end of it or beginning of the thirteenth, (during which, as well as the following century, the 
lands between the Gala and the Leader formed a frequent subject of dispute between the monks 
and the great March Earls,) and by David IL and Robert II. in the fourteenth.^ These docu- 
ments make it evident, that at least throughout the period to which they refer, with the exception 
perhaps of the reign of David I., the Gala formed the north-east boundary of The Forest, and 
it does not appear to hitve afterwards extended farther in that direction. 

The south-east and southern portion of the Forest bounds is not so easily ascertained. It woulil 
appear, however, that the original limit of The Forest on the south and east was the river of 
Ettrick from its source to its junction with the Tweed, the latter forming the continuation east- 
ward to the mouth of the Gala. In later times The Forest seems to have nearly if not exactly 
corresponded with the sheriffdom of Selkirk, having been gradually enlarged up to that line, with 
the exclusion of the burgh of Selkirk, and that portion of the county lying to the eastward. From 
the confluence of the Tweed and the Gala to a point on the Ettrick near Selkirk the old boundary 
has been preserved till the present day, while the more modern limit of The Forest appears to 
have thence run south-west between Selkirk and the Haining to the borders of Roxburgh. 
The portion of the county thus cut off is nearly identical with that which was denominated 
' the lands of Selkirk,' or ' the lands of the lordship of Selkirk,' and seems to have been included 
in the ancient sherifl'dom,^ but not to have formed part of The Forest. 

The grant of land called ' the land of Selkirk,' given by David I. to the abbey founded by 
him there and afterwards removed to Kelso, confirmed by Malcolm IV., was but an insignificant 
portion of the Lordship, if indeed it lay wholly within it.* One of the earliest charters pointing to 
that Lordship is a grant by Edward I. of England to Aymer de Valence in 1292-3, of ' the castle 
of Selkirk, and also the demesne lands (dominicas terras) of Selkirk and Traquair, and the whole 
forest of Selkirk with its pertinents.'^ Traquair at that period gave name to a different sheriff- 
dom.6 About 1321 or 1322, Robert the Bruce bestowed on ' the good ' Sir James of Douglas the 
whole barony of the forests of Selkirk, Ettrick, and Traquair, and in 1325 he confirmed the grant 
in the charter termed ' The Douglas Emerald Charter.''^ In 1342, the same grant was renewed 
by David 11."^ But about 1365, that prince granted to Sir Robert Dalyell 'all the lands of Selkirk 

' Lib. de Melros, pp. 3, 4, 5. ^ Palg. Illust., vol. i., p. 359. 

2 Lib. de Melros, pp. 6, 12, 399, 443. Acta Pari., vol. i., « Rot. Scotiae, vol. i., p. 17. 

pp. 68*, 69*, 163. ' Robertson's Index, p. 10, nn. 24, 26. Godscroft, vol. i., 

3 Taxt Roll of the Shireffdome of Selkirk, 1628. p. 75. 

•* Ree:istrum de Kelso, pp. 3, 6, and charter immedi- ^ Robertson's Index, p. 55y no. 18. 

ately preceding. 



ETTRICK FOREST.] PAROCHIALES. 243 

with their pertinents, excepting the annual rents ami firms of the burgh ;'i and at that time the 
family of Douglas must have been in full possession of tiie whole barony of the forests of Selkirk, 
Ettrick, and Traquair, as previously bestowed. Again, when Henry IV., in 1402-3, granted to 
the Earl of Northumberland all the possessions of tlie Douglas ' within Scotland, pro nobis et 
heredihus nostris quantum in nobis est,' including the Forest of Ettrick, he bestowed on him 'the 
lordship of Selkirk,' as a distinct portion of the grant.^ And finally, in one of three charters 
granted by Queen Mary during the minority of Archibald, sixth Earl of Angus, in 1547, 
confirmed by another charter in 1564, and ratified by Act of Parliament in 1567, part of the 
grant consists of ' the lands, lordship, and barony of Selkirk.'^ The charters of Henry IV. and 
Mary were bestowed after the Douglases had long been completely dispossessed of the forest lands. 

Westward of the line now indicated, and south or south-east of the water of Ettrick, The 
Forest seems to have received an accession in the time of William the Lion, if not in a previous 
reign. If credit may be given to a charter attributed to that monarch, and dated 1171,'' and 
which, if not to be held genuine, is nevertheless of high antiquity, Morgund, son of Gillocher, 
sometime Earl of Mar, and heir of the earldoms of Mar and Moray, appeared in presence of the 
King at ' Hindhop Burnemuthe in his new forest,' before the common council and army of the 
kingdom of Scotland there assembled, craving the King to give him possession of his heritage. 
In Blaeu's map we have ' Hyindhoope Burn,' and near its mouth, ' Hyindhoop,' evidently corre- 
sponding with the ' Ilyndhoip ' of the Retours,^ and the ' Hindhope ' of our present maps. A 
charter of the same King, dated at Selkirk, between 1165 and 1182, grants to the church of 
Glasgow, and Orm of Ashkirk and his heirs, and their men of Ashkirk, the liberty of ' pasture 
in the neighbourhood of my forest and in the forest, as well and fully as King Malcolm my brother 
caused make for them perambulation of the same, and as I by the hands of Richard de Morevill 
my constable, and other good men of mine, who were present at the foresaid perambulation, caused 
that perambulation to be renewed to them.'^ The bounds thus perambulated carry us through 
Huntleie, Akermere, Todholerig, Langhope, Askirke, AVhiteslade, and Alne — the Huntlie, Oaker- 
moor, Todrig, Longhope, Ashkirk, Whitslaid, and Ale of the present day — and all lying on the 
borders of The Forest, and within the counties of Selkirk and Roxburgh. 

It is very probable that the addition thus made to The Forest in the reign of William ex- 
tended at tiie utmost no farther than the stream called the Rankilburn. A large tract of country, 
lying chiefly between that stream on the east and the Tima water on the west, but partly extend- 
ing both east and west beyond both, belonged in the fourteenth century to Walter Scott of Mur- 
dieston and Rankilburn, ancestor of the Scotts of Buccleucli, who was slain at Homildon in 1402.^ 
His son Robert Scott, styled lord of Rankilburn, in 1415 exchanged a portion of the property, 
lying on both sides of the Tima, with the monks of Melros for their lands of Bellenden east of the 
Rankilburn.* This excambion was in the same year approved and confirmed by Peter de 
Kokburne, lord of Henryland, who was superior of the lands given in exchange by Robert 

' Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 45. * See Ret. passim, and Ret. Extent of Ettrick Forest. 

- Rot. Scotiae. vol. ii., p. 16.S*. *' Rcgist. Glasg., pp. 28, 29. 

^ Acts of Pari., vol. ii., pp. S65-568. ■ R\mer, vol. viii., p. 5-1. Fordun, vol. ii., p. 434. 

"* Act.s of Pari., pref. ^ Lib. de Melros, pp. 547, 548. 



244 ORIGINES [ettrick forest. 

Scott.i In the deeds relatiuj; to these transactions, no mention is made of The Forest, and the 
fact that the superiority was lield by Cockburn of Ilenryland, and not by the Douglases, at that 
time lords of the whole forest, is against the supposition that the lands in question then formed a 
part of their forest possessions. Sir Walter Scott of Kirkurd, son and heir of Robert, with whose 
consent the lands above mentioned had been exchanged, in 14.46 had the estate of Buccleuch and 
other lands on the river of Ettrick. On the fall of the Douglases, whose faction he opposed, he 
rose into favour with the King, and in 146.3, his son, Sir David Scott, for his services in the same 
cause, obtained from James III. a charter of the barony of Branxholni, which included Rankilburn 
and other lands.^ The district between the Rankilburn and the Tima, with the neighbouring 
annexed lands, belonging to the Scotts of Buccleuch, seems, however, to have been ultimately com- 
prehended within The Forest, as in the retours of the sixteenth and seventeenth century various 
portions of the property are mentioned as lying within its bounds.^ 

Down to the reign of Alexander II., The Forest to the west of the mouth of the Tima seems to 
have preserved its old boundary, the Ettrick, although the land on the right of that stream was 
the property of the crown. In a charter of the lands of Ettrick, granted by the King of Scots to the 
monks of Melros in 1236, the grant evidently includes a portion of The Forest, but as evidently 
places The Forest north of the water of Ettrick. The boundary runs on the south-east and south 
' between Glenkerry and Ettrick, and between Eskdale and Ettrick, as far as the mountain called 
Vnhende, and thence on the west between Annandale and The Forest to the head of Rodanoch, 
and between The Forest and the land of Thomas de Hay to the head of Copthra-werisclouch.' The 
northern boundary runs through The Forest to the Ettrick, and along that stream upwards to Tima- 
mouth.* Now, if the Vnhende of the charter is to be identified with the modern Whin/ell, 
Wind/ell, or Windi/ Haas, above the sources of the Ettrick, and on the boundary between Eskdale 
and Annandale — and Copthra-werisclouch with Mereclouf/h west of Saint Mary's Loch, The 
Forest, at the date of the charter, would be bounded west of the Tima by the river Ettrick. The 
land thus bestowed by King Alexander as a free and perpetual gift, he afterwards granted to the 
monks in ' free forest,'^ and the lands of Ettrick and Rodono, along with Carrick, were con- 
firmed to the monks, and erected into a 'free regality," by James I. in 1436; these lands and 
privileges were again confirmed by James II. in 1442 ; and their right of exemption from the 
jurisdiction of the Forest courts was fully admitted and conceded by the Earl of Douglas in 
1446.8 Xt does not clearly appear from these documents, whether the whole or only part^of the 
territory given to the monks of Melros lay at any time within the bounds of The Forest ; and, 
though in the map published by Blaeu in the seventeenth century, which he styles ' Tweedaill with 
the sherifldome of Etterick-Forrest, called also Selkirk,' the whole lands of Ettrick are included 
within his forest boundary, yet the Retours, and especially the Extent of the Lordship of Ettrick 
Forest, 1628, entirely exclude them. 

It would appear that whatever maj' at first, and for some centuric*. have been the exact dis- 

' Lib. de Melros, p. .550. ■* Lib. de Melros, pp. 234, 235, G66, G67. 

- Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. vi.. no. 7.i. =■ Lib. de Melros, p. 235. 

^ Retours. ° Lib. de Melros, pp. 4.93, 404, 571-573. 



ETTRICK FOREST.] PAROCHI A LES. 24o 

tinction between the three large tracts comprehended within The Forest, the two designations, 
Selkirk and Traquair, were gradually dro|)ped, and the whole territory at length assumed the 
name of Ettrick-Forest. In the charters of David I., Malcolm IV., and William the Lion, the 
name Ettrick does not appear; and in the charter of Alexander II. to the monks of Melros. 
already quoted, the district is styled simply The Forest. And both this charter and its several 
confirmations by James I. and II., as well as other deeds of the same period, make no mention of 
the Forest of Ettrick. In documents of Edward I. it is styled ' The Forest,' and ' The Forest of 
Selkirk.' 1 It was, however, during the same period that Robert I. granted to Sir James of 
Douglas a charter of ' the forests of Selkirk, Ettrick, and Traquair,' above cited, and in the same 
century the writs of Edward III. style the district by the name of the ' forest,' or ' forests' of 
Selkirk and Ettrick.- And in the beginning of the following century, when James IV. bestowed 
The Forest on Margaret of England as a portion of her dowry, the charter framed for that purpose 
designates the gift as ' all and whole our lordship of The Forest of Ettrick ; also our whole 
Forest of Ettrick, with its pertinents, called Ettrick Forest, in the sheriffdom of Selkirk, with the 
tower, fortalice, or manor of Newark, within the foresaid Forest ; also all our lands, tenements, 
revenues, victuals, meadows, woods, and pastures, with pertinents, in the Forest of Ettrick. '^ _J 

The documents just mentioned, taken in conjunction with the retours dated between 1.530 and 
1628, determine with accuracy that the remaining portion of The Forest boundary, viz., that run- 
ning northward and eastward from Saint Mary's Loch to the Gala, included the northern part of 
Selkirkshire, with nearly all the parish of Traquair. But, while the whole demesne termed The 
Forest is described with sufficient clearness, there is a distinction made between The Forest and 
the sherifi'dom, which it is evident were not exactly identical. The ' lordship of Selkirk,' as ob- 
served above, was included in the sheriffdom, but not in The Forest. Chalmers says, ' the fact 
is, that, in the retours made to Parliament in 1613 of the rental of each estate in the whole coun- 
try, the sheriffdom of Selkirk and the Forest of Ettrick were returned separately, and seem to 
have been severally accounted for in the exche([uer, the first by the Sheriff, and the second by the 
Forester.' The ' Retoured Extent of the Lordship of Ettrick-Forest,' in 1628, includes the greater 
portion of ' the sheriffdom of Selkirk,' and excludes the part termed in subsequent retours ' the 
regality of Melros,' in the parish of Ettrick, and a number of small estates corresponding to those 
found in ' Tlie Taxt Roll of the Shirefl'dome of Selkirk.' Whatever may be the reason of this 
exclusion, the inference seems to be, that, with the exception of Traquair on the one hand, and the 
lands or lordship of Selkirk on the other. The Forest and the sheriffdom, or county, were identi- 
cal, and that the lordship of Ettrick Forest formed only the larger portion of this royal territory. 

On the fall of the Douglases, and the consequent annexation of their property to the crown in 
1455, the occupiers of lands in The Forest, who had till that time possessed them as kindly teii- 

' Rot. Scotiae. Palg. Illust. "In those dajs," (129fi), Hemingford merely intimates the roiik' by which the 
says Lord Hailes (Annals, i. 317), '^ tJie forest of Selh/rke English army marched, and that the opinion here ex- 
appears to have comprehended not only the tract now known pressed by Lord Hailes is not borne out by other doou- 
by that name, but also the upper part of Clydesdale and ments relating to the subject. 
Ayrshire. Thus, Hemingford says, ' Diverterunt nostri jur - Rot. Scotiae. 
medium forestcs de Selh/rJie usque castellum de are.^ " On this, ^ Acts of Pari., vol. ii., pp. 271, 272. 
however, it may be remarked, that the quotation from 



246 ORIGINES [ettrkk forest. 

ants or rentallers under the liouse of Douglas, continued to occupy them as kindly tenants of the 
crown. And about the beginning of the following century many of the lands were feudalised, the 
tacks being changed into charters of feu-right — a practice which was subsequently adopted to a still 
greater extent. These lands were divided into ' forest steads,' each about the size of a modern farm 
of £200 to £500 rent, and many of the present farms are exactly the old steads. Some properties 
were divided into several steads, held by difterent owners : for instance, Hartwood was divided 
into three steads, viz., the Eaststead of Hartwood, or Hartwoodburn, the Middlestead or Black- 
middings (still named Jliddlestead), and the Weststead or Ilartwoodniyres — all at present dis- 
tinct properties. 

At an earlier period, the whole Forest had been divided into three ' wards,' viz., the ward of 
Ettrick, the ward of Tweed, and the ward of Yarrow, corresponding with the valleys or dales of 
the three rivers. In 1423 and 1425, we find the ward of Yarrow mentioned in charters, by 
Archibald earl of Douglas, to Sir William Jliddlemast, vicar of Selkirk, of certain lands or steads 
within that ward.' All three are found in a number of charters, about the year 1 500.^ But the 
fullest information on the subject is afiorded by the Exchequer Rolls, in which the lordship of 
Ettrick Forest first occurs in 1456. Each ward had a ranger or ' currour' (cursor), who collected 
the rents, and accounted for them to the exchequer, and who appears also to have had a general 
charge of the royal interests within his ward. For most of the years from 1467 to 1509 the 
Rolls contain a regular return from each ward, with the name of the ranger in each, the office being 
held chiefly by persons of the surnames, Liddale, Murray, Pringle, Scott, and Hume, all generally 
connected with The Forest as tenants or proprietors. In 1509, Alexander Lord Hume makes the 
returns for the whole Forest as chamberlain. 

Each ranger appears to have been entitled to appropriate the proceeds of one forest stead as his 
remuneration. In the ward of Ettrick the ranger's stead was Cacrabank, in that of Y' arrow, 
Tinnis, and in that of Tweed, Redhead. Thus, in a setting of the Forest lands, made at Peebles 
in 1484, by the Earl of Angus and other commissioners, the following entries occur — ' Tinnis, one 
stead, in the hands of John Murray of Touchadam, for the office of ranger ;' ' Cacrabank, in the 
hands of William Scott, for the office of ranger ;' ' Redhead, in hands of James Hoppringilj, for the 
office of ranger.' 

The only other public officer in The Forest, mentioned in the Exchequer Rolls, is the Sherifl'. 
The office of Sheriff of Selkirk, if originally distinct from that of keeper of The F'orest, seems 
latterly to have been vested in the same individual. The first mention of either occurs in the time 
of Alexander III., in 1258, the Sheriff of Selkirk witnessing a charter of that date.^ Ed- 
ward I., in 1291, issued one of his mandates to Simon Fresel, or Eraser, 'keeper of the 
forest of Selkirk,' on whose death, in 1292, he appointed William, son of John Comyn, to the 
vacant office.* And in 1293, Alexander de Synton is mentioned as Sheriff of Selkirk, under 
the rule of the same monarch. ■■• The Douglases, or their deputies, .«eem to have held the same 

' Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. ii., no. 61. ■• Rot. Scotiae, vol. i., pp. 5, 7. 

' Charters of Elibank and Philiphaugh. * Kot. Scotiae. vol. i., pp. 13, 17. 

*» Lib. de Kalchou, p. 179. 



ETTRICK FOREST.] PAROCHIALES. 247 

office or offices during tbeir possession of The Forest, anil they form the subjects of grants by the 
English sovereigns, while these claimed any dominion within the country. In 1334, Robert de 
Manors was appointed by Edward III. ' Sheritf of Selkirk, and keeper of the Forests of Selkirk 
and Ettrick,'! and in 1335, the same King conferred the sheriffdom on William de Montacute.- 
In 1446, 1449, and 1450, before the forfeiture of the Douglases, that family possessed all the rega- 
lities and pertinents of The Forest.'* In 14G7, the Sheriff of The Forest was Thomas Lord 
Erskine ; in 14S8, Archibald earl of Angus;* and in 1501, Alexander Lord Erskine, whose 
deputy was John Murray of Falahill, supposed to be the ' Outlaw ' of traditionary song. This last 
personage, according to the old ballad in which he is celebrated, at first usurped the office of 
Sheriff, which was afterwards confirmed to him, or bestowed on him, by James IV. in 1509,^ and 
which thenceforth continued hereditary in his family, till the abolition of heritable jurisdictions. 

Other two offices are mentioned in history in connexion with The Forest. In 1334, Edward 
III. appointed both a chancellor and a chamberlain over the whole forest lands.^ The latter alone, 
however, appears to have beeu usual under the Scotch sovereigns, and to have been generally, if 
not always, vested in the great chamberlain of the kingdom. In 1434, the chamberlain of James 
I. states as part of the royal expenses the price of 'six barrels of tar, bought and delivered to 
William Myddilmast, for the King's sheep within the Forest of Ettrick.'^ And in 1489, Alexander 
Hume, great chamberlain to James IV., was appointed to collect the King's revenue within The 
Forest.* He seems, however, at that time, and for many years after, to have acted merely as 
ranger of the ward of Yarrow, and only in 1509, as above stated, to have assumed, or resumed, 
the office of chamberlain of The Forest. 

It was at the place of Galashiels, that in June, 1503, sasine was given to Queen Margaret of 
her jointure lands of the Forest, under her marriage-contract. This was done by John Murray of 
Fawlohill, Sheriff of Selkirk, at that time, as above, usurper of the office, and the deed was 
witnessed, among others, by Walter Scott of Buccleuch.'* 

During the earlier years of the possession of these lands by the crown, we find frecjuent changes 
in their occupation at each lease, which was always granted for a limited period ; but after the 
commencement of the sixteenth century changes were very rare, and though the tacks were 
limited, they appear to have been usually renewed to the same family. The grantees are thus 
described in some of the charters granted in 1587, — 'They and their forbeiris had been auld and 
kyudlie possessours and few rentallaris past memorie of man ;' ' Vulgo lie auld kyndlie native 
tennantis and rentallaris' — a style which had beeu adopted in the writs of King James before 
attaining his majority. i" 

The sum total of the old extent of the sheriffdom, was .£122, 'besyds the kirklandis,' and the 
lands in Roxburghshire, (apparently the barony of South Sinton, locally within Roxburgh.) And 
the Taxt Roll of the Lordship of Ettrick Forest, as it was retoured in 1628, amounted to £6C6, 
13s. 4d. 

^ Rot. Scotiae. *^ Rot. Scotiae. 

^ Rot. Scotiae. ^ Conipot. Camerar., vol. ii., p. 342. 

^ Acts of Pari., passim. ^ Acts of Pari., vol. ii., p. 21 9. 

* Acts of Pari. • ^ Rymer, vol. xiii., pp. 73, 74. 

^ Philiphaugh Charters. '" Philiphaugh Charters. 



248 ORIGINES [yakrow. 



YARROW. 

Rectoria de Forrestai — Ecclesia Beate Marie de Farmainishop- — Ecclesia 
de la Foreste^ — Ecclesie Beate Marie Virginis* — Ecclesia de Foresta^- — 
Saint Marie Lowis^ — Saint Marie Kirk of Lowis, alias Forest Kirk" — 
Saint Marie, Saint Marie Kirk of the Lowis, Sanctae Mariae Ecclesia 
de Lacubus s — Kirk of Lowis, Saint Mary Kirk or Yarrow ^ - — 
Parish of Ettrick Forest. l" Deanery of Peebles." (Map, No. 89-) 

Down to the Reformation, Saint Mary's of the Lowes, Ettrick, and Rankilburn, were three dis- 
tinct parishes.'^ Subsequently they were subjected to several successive changes. In 1568, Selkirk 
and Saint Mary's were united under one minister, or ' exhortar.' ^^ In 1574, Ashkirk, Selkirk, 
Saint Mary's, Ettrick, and Rankilburn, were served by one minister, with readers at Ashkirk 
and Selkirk. 1^ From 1576 till 1579, Ashkirk and Selkirk formed but one ministerial charge, 
with a reader at each; while Saint Mary's, Ettrick, and Rankilburn, were united under one 
minister, without readers.i^ But in 1586, in the roll of presbyteries presented to the General 
Assembly by the Lord Clerk of Register, we have Selkirk, Nook of Ettrick, Rankilburn, and 
Ashkirk, entered as separate parishes, without any reference to Saint Mary'a.^" Before 1621, 
however, another change at least must have taken place, for in 1606, Ettrick is mentioned as a 
distinct parish,^'' and in 1621, lands which formed a considerable part of the parish of Rankilburn 
are placed within that of Saint Mary's of the Lowes.^* In the ' Decreet of modification and loca- 
lity of stipend of Saint Mary Kirk or Yarrow, 15 July, 1636, &c.,' it is stated that the defenders 
are summoned to see and hear ' the said parochin divided in two several parishes, and two several 
kirks planted, and an competent stipend and provision modified and granted to ilk minister, with 
ane sufficient manse and gleib.' A copier of that decreet in the following century, observes, ' that 
the division meant seems to be that of the now parishes of Yarrow and Ettrick, which formerly 
were one,' but states that ' this decreet makes no mention of the parish of Ettrick.' i^ The latter, 
however, we have seen, was a separate parish in 1606, and there is no probability that it was 
again united to Yarrow. In 1650, certain lands, forming or including the ancient parish of Ran- 

' Baiamund's Roll, 1275. " Baiamund. Libellus Taxationum. 

- Rot. Scotiae, 1292. '^ Book of Assumptions, and similar documents of the 

' Rot. Scotiae, 129G. period. 

* Temp. David. II. Robertson's Index. '" Register of Ministers, 1 567-73. 

* Reg. Mag. Sig., 1409. ''' Book of Assignations of that date. 

" Register of Ministers, 1568. " Book of Assignations of these dates. 

' Book of Assignations, 1574. '" Booke of the Universall Kirk. 

" Retours, 1621, &c. " Lib- de Jlelros, pp. 658, 660. 

" Teind process at Dalkeith. " Retours. 

"> Retours, 1667. '" Papers at Dalkeith. 



YARROW.] PAROCHIALES. 249 

kilburn, were disjoined from the parish of Yarrow, and annexed to that of Ettrick,i an arrange- 
ment which seems to have existed ever since. 

The modern parish of Yarrow has a very irregular outline, especially on the north, where at 
three several points it projects for a considerable distance into the neighbouring districts. It is 
traversed throughout its whole breadth, from south-west to north-east, by the nearly parallel val- 
leys of the rivers Yarrow and Ettrick. With the exception of a considerable table-land in the 
south, the parish is exceedingly hilly, and in its north-west corner the Blackhouse Heights at- 
tain an elevation of about 2370 feet. The Yarrow and Ettrick are fed by numerous tributaries, 
the chief of which is the Douglas Burn, flowing from the Blackhouse Heights south-east into the 
Yarrow. The Glensax burn on the north of that range forms the outlet of its waters in that direc- 
tion. In the west end of the pariah lies Saint Mary's Loch, united by a small stream to the 
Loch of Lowes, from both of which, anciently termed the Lochs of the Lowes, the parish was 
formerly named. 

The earliest notice of the church or rectory ' of the Forest,' appears to be that in Baiamund's 
tax-roll. There can be little doubt of its identity with ' the church of Saint ]\Iarie of Far- 
raainishop, in the diocese of Glasgow,' to which, on the occurrence of a vacancy by the resig- 
nation of Master Aimer de Softelawe, in 1292, Master Edmund de Letham was presented by 
order of Edward I. as Overlord of Scotland.- In the month of August, 1296, ' Mestre Ed- 
mund de Ledham del Counte de Rokesburgh' swore fealty to Edward at Berwick.^ And on the 
2d of September, in the same year, Edmund de Letham, ' parson of the church of the Forest,' 
received Edward's writ to the sheriff of Peebles to restore him to his lands and rights as one 
who had taken the oath of allegiance.'' 

The advowson of the church was undoubtedly at first, and probably, with a temporary 
exception, at all periods vested in the crowu. Chalmers affirms that it ' belonged to the 
Douglases, from the epoch of their obtaining from Robert I. the forest of Selkirk till their 
forfeiture in 1455.' This, however, is contradicted by the fact that the advowson of the church 
was granted by David II. to the Abbey of Dryburgh.^ No record of the exercise of the patronage 
by any of the Douglases occurs, but Slatthew de Geddes, who enjoyed the benefice in 1409,^ and 
who is affirmed by Chalmers to have been rector between 1401 and 1424, and to have acted as 
secretary to Archibald earl of Douglas, may possibly have been the presentee of that nobleman. 
A document in Eymer gives us George Liddale, secretary to James III., and one of his ambassa- 
dors to England, as rector in 1461. Chalmers, on the authority of Dempster, whose correctness 
he doubts, says, that John Ireland, professor of theology at Paris, was rector of this church in 
1490, and he further affirms, on the authority of a MS. in his library, of date 1658, that at the 
period of the Reformation the church was a vicarage. This is confirmed by the ' Register of 
presentations to benefices' for 1578, where we find that Alexander Douglas was in that year pre- 

' New Stat. Ace. or Fermhope, are several times mentioned in conjunction 

^ Rot. Scotiae. witli those of Dryhope and Kirlistead, in the immediate 

^ Ragman Rolls, p. 162. vicinity of Saint Mary's Loch and Chapel. 

* Rot. Scotiae. In the Retours made between 1628 ^ Robertson's Index, p. 59, no. 3. 

and 1688, the lands of Fairnyhoip, Fairnihope, Fernehope, '' Reg. Mag. Sig. 

2 I 



250 ORIGINES [yarrow. 

sented to the ucarage pensionary of ' Sanet Marie Kirk in the Lewis' — a shape which the bene- 
fice was likely to take when it became the property of the monks of Dryburgh. It appears to 
have passed from the convent before the Reformation, and it is not found in any of the documents 
recording the property of regular houses at the period of their dissolution. 

The ruins of what is now termed Saint Mary's Chapel, situated on the north-west of Saint 
Mary's Loch, mark the locality of the ancient Kirk of the Lowes. In 1640 a new church was 
erected, at the distance of about ten miles on the left bank of the Yarrow, which before that date 
had imparted its name to the parish .1 Besides the church of Saint Mary of the Lowes, there ex- 
isted within the bounds of Ettrick Forest several churches or chapels, apparently in some manner 
connected with it. The charter granted by King David to the monks of Dryburgh gave them 
the patronage of ' the Kirks of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Ettrick Forest.' Churches are known 
to have existed at Kirkhope and Deuchar in the parish of Yarrow.^ Chapelhope, in Ettrick, may 
possibly be identical with Blaeu's Yarrow kirk, which he places near the Lochs of Lowes, and 
the kirk of Duchore in his map stands near the locality of the modern church of Yarrow and 
the site of Deuchar tower. 

In Baiamund's Roll the rectory of The Forest is valued at .£13, 6s. %\.-? in the Libellus 
Taxationum at 100 merks, or ^66, 13s. 4d. In 15G1 and 1562, 'the thrid of the money of the 
ane half of Sanct Marie Kirk of the Lewis,' was stated at .£20.* The whole value must therefore 
have been £120, of which the minister in 1579 received X80 from ' the fruitis of the vicarage.'* 

In the Record of Assumptions of the thirds of benefices for the maintenance of the Reformed 
clergy after 1561, is the following entry — 'The rentale of Sir Jon Feitheis pairt of Sanct Marie 
Kirk of the Lowis, presently set in assedation be him to the laird of Cranstoun for three score 
punds Scots money be zeir, and I gat neuir penny payment fra the said laird sen his enteres, 
quhilk wes at Lambmes wes a zeir by past, and hes ua vthir thing to live on, and thairfor pro- 
testis for lettres for payment. Sic subscribitur Sir Johnne Fethie with my hand.' It is added, 
' in the haill Ix lib. — 3d thairof, xx. lib. — this is bot a pairt of the kirk.' 

The whole of the parish of Yarrow is included within the district known as The Forest, and 
was therefore from an early period the property of the crown. The first alienation of the whole 
or any part of it in favour of a Scotch subject occurred in the reign of Robert Bruce, who granted 
to his companion in arms, 'the good' Sir James of Douglas, a charter of the forests of Selkirk, 
Ettrick, and Traquair, in free barony.^ And in 1325 he granted to the same Lord James, as 
part payment of 4000 merks, which, at the request of the King of France, Robert undertook to 
pay as the ransom of three French knights, taken prisoners by Douglas at the battle of Biland, a 
charter of all his lands in free regality — including ' our forest of Selkirk, of which he is our 
ofiiciar,' giving sasine, it is said, by placing on his finger an emerald ring, from which last cir- 
cumstance the writ has been termed ' The Douglas Emerald Charter.' ' 

After the death of Bruce, and the accession of his son David II., Edward III. of England, as his 

^ New Stat. Ace. Papers at Dalkeith. ^ Books of Assignations. 

^ New Stat. Ace. ^ Robertson's Index, p. 10, no. 24. 

^ Reg. Glasg. , ? Robertson's Index, p. 10, no. "^tj. Godscroft, vol. i., p. 7.5. 

* Book of Assumptions. 



YARROW.] PAROCHIALES. 251 

predecessor, Edward I., had done,' claimed the dominion of The Forest in virtue of its cession in 
his favour by Edward de Balliol. Accordingly, in 1334, he appointed Robert de Maners sherifi'of 
Selkirk, and keeper of the forests of Selkirk and Ettrick — John de Bourdon, chamberlain — and 
William de Bevercotes, chancellor .^ In 1335, he granted to William de Montacute the Forest of 
Selkirk and Ettrick, and sherifl'dom of Selkirk, with their pertinents in feu-ferme — with the 
knights' fees, and advowsons of churches, abbeys, priories, hospitals, and chapels, &c., for a 
reddendo of £30 to the King's exchequer at Berwick-on-Tweed.3 In 1342, David 11. renewed 
the grant of The Forest to William of Douglas, nephew of the good Sir James, to whom it 
had originally been given by Robert I., in a charter reciting that Hugh lord of Douglas, 
brother and heir of Sir James of Douglas, had on the 26th of May, 1342, resigned into the 
King's hands the lands of Douglasdail and Carmyall, the Forest of Selkirk, &c., and granting the 
same to William of Douglas, son and heir of the deceased Archibald of Douglas, brother of 
the said James, and his heirs male.* This William, created first Earl of Douglas by the 
same King in 1S56-7,^ returning from France during the captivity of David in England, 
at the head of the men of Douglasdale, Teviotdale, and the Forest of Ettrick, defeated the 
English under John de Coupland, captain of Roxburgh castle, and restored the whole district 
to the allegiance of the Scotch monarch.^ Yet, in 1349-50, we find Edward III. ordering his 
chamberlain of Berwick-on-Tweed to allocate to this same John de Copeland 3000 merks from 
the revenues of Roxburgh, Selkirk, Ettrick, &c., for his custody of the castle for three years.' 
By a charter of Robert III. the regality of the forest of Ettrick was again conferred on the 
Douglases, in the person of Archibald, son of the Earl, who was married to a daughter of the 
King.* And, although, even till the beginning of the fifteenth century, the sovereigns of England 
pertinaciously laid claim to the dominion of The Forest, they seem at length to have regarded 
that claim as one which they could not effectually assert. In 1402-3, Henry IV. granted to 
Henry de Percy earl of Northumberland all the lands of Archibald earl of Douglas within 
the forests of Ettrick and Selkirk, as possessed by the Earl and his mother Johanna at the time 
the former was made prisoner at Homeldon Hill, accompanied however with this significant qua- 
lification on the part of the English King as far as it teas in his poicer to give? 

The Douglases seem to have thenceforth retained quiet possession of their lands till the time of 
James II., when that monarch endeavoured to curtail their possessions and their power. But 
during a temporary cessation of the disturbances of that period, we find William earl of Douglas 
in presence of the King and Parliament, in 1449-50 and 1451, resigning into the King's hands ' all 
and each the lands of the forests of Ettrick and Selkirk, with their pertinents, which lands he pos- 
sessed by heritage.' In virtue of this resignation, and for his faithful service rendered and to be 
rendered to the King, James renewed the grant of these lands in free regality to the Earl and his 
heirs, all past misdemeanours notwithstanding, for the payment of one broad-headed arrow as 
blench-ferme to be rendered to the King and his successors, if required, on the festival of the nati- 

* Palg. lllust. Rot. Scotiae. * Robertson's Index, p. 31, no. 42. 

- Rot. Scotiae, vol. i., pp. 271, 275, 276. ' Fordun, lib. xiv., c. 6. Acts of Pari., vol. i., p. 188. 

2 Rot. Scotiae, vol. i., p. 380. ' Rot. Scotiae, vol. i., p. 732. 

* Robertson's Index, p. .55, no. 18. Godscroft, vol.i., p. ' Robertson's Index, p. 142, no. 71. 
147. Charter in Register OlEce. " Rot. Scotiae, vol. ii., p. 163. 



252 ORIGINES [yarrow. 

vity of John the Baptist, at the moothill of Selkirk.i The Douglases, however, did not long enjoy 
the grant, for in the Parliament of James 11., 4th August 1455, James earl of Douglas and his 
heirs were declared forfeited, and ' the lordship of Ettrik forest with all boundis pertenyng tharto' 
was perpetually annexed to the crown.^ 

During the temporary disgrace of the Douglases, John of Murray and John Turnebull were 
appointed by the Parliament in 1467-8 to make a retour of the rents of the barons within the 
county of Selkirk, for the purpose of assessing them.3 And during part of the reign of James III., 
from 1475 to 1481, various acts of Parliament were passed relating to persons assisting or having 
intercourse with 'the tratour James of Douglace."'' The part which the family acted in the pro- 
ceedings which terminated in James's death is matter of history. And yet in the first Parliament 
of James IV., in 1488, Archibald earl of Angus sat and voted, and by the same Parliament he 
was appointed sheriff of Roxburgh, Selkirk, Peebles, and Lanark.^ The King, however, still 
retained the property of The Forest, and in the following Parliament, 1489, Alexander Hume, 
his great chamberlain, was appointed collector of the King's revenue in the district.^ In 1 503, 
James IV., in contemplation of his marriage with Margaret, daughter of Henry VII., granted to 
that Princess as her dowry certain lands, including 'all and whole our lordship of the forest of 
Ettrick, also our whole forest of Ettrick with its pertinents, called Ettrick Forest, in the sheriff- 
dom of Selkirk, with the tower, fortalice, or manor of Newark within the said forest, for the 
whole term of her life.'' Although, however. Queen Margaret according to the grant retained 
her dowry subsequently to her husband's death, she seems to have enjoyed neither its full revenue 
nor its undisturbed possession. She was married to Archibald earl of Angus in 1514, and before 
1522 had separated from him, and offered him Ettrick Forest to consent to a divorce. In a letter 
to Lord Dacre in 1522 she rejected a proposal to receive back her husband, observing that she 
had married him in opposition to the national will, and had thereby lost the tutorage of her son, 
the castle of Stirling, and the regency, while the return she met with was extreme unkindness, 
Ano-us having usurped her revenues, and spoken dishonourably of her in public.^ In 1528, the 
Earl of Antfus, who in 1526 had been divorced from Queen Margaret, was accused of ' tresonable 
art and part of the municioune of our Souerane Lordis fortalice of Newwerk.'^ For this and other 
offences, the Douglases were forbidden to intermeddle with public affairs, or to come within twelve 
miles of the King, on pain of death. i* And on 5th September 1528, the Earl of Angus, his 
brother George, and his uncle Archibald were attainted." On the same day, the Queen Dowager 
protested against her suffering loss by the forfeiture of Douglas, who owed her money, and Par- 
liament passed an act securing her against loss.'^ Several charters of James V., relating to por- 
tions of The Forest, show that the liferent of the lands was in Queen Margaret by virtue of her 

' Acts of Pari., vol. ii., pp. 63, 67. ° Pinkerton, vol. ii., p. 469, &c. 

' Acts of Pari., vol. ii., p. 42, &c. " Acts of Pari., vol. ii., p. 323, &c. 

3 Acts of Pari., vol. ii., p. 90. " Godscroft, vol. ii., p. 98. 

■■ Acta of Pari., vol. u., pp. 108, 109, &c. " Godscroft, vol. ii., pp. 100, 101. Acts of Pari. 

= Aet.s of Pari., vol. ii., pp. 199-'21-2. "* Acts of Pari., vol. ii., pp. 327, 328. 

' Acts of Pari., vol. u., p. 219. 

' Acts of Pari., vol. ii., pp. 271, 272. Rymer, vol. xiii., 
p. 63. 



YARROW.] PAROCHIALES. 253 

conjunct infeftment.i In 1542 the Douglases were once more restored to favour,^ and in 1544 
the Earl of Angus was acquitted of a charge of treason,^ but the connexion of the family with 
The Forest, as rightful lords of its territory or owners of its revenues, appears to have entirely 
ceased with its temporary possession by Earl Archibald, as husband of Queen Margaret. 

The Douglases, during their occupation of The Forest, had under them a number of vassals or 
tenants in that district. In 1368, Thomas de Balliol, brother to the Earl of Mar, resigned into 
the hands of William earl of Douglas, his overlord in the barony of Cavers, certain lands in that 
barony, including Singlee and Stanehushope, of which the former at least lies within the parish of 
Yarrow.* In 1423, Archibald of Douglas, earl of Wigton and Longueville, granted ' til our 
iwuit chapellan Sir Wilzeam Myddilmast, twa forestar stedis wythin Schutynleward, lyand be- 
twix the masterstede and the couroursted off the ward off the Yharow, wyth al vythmerkis and 
marchys that thaim awch tyl haff of aid acht and custum wyth the gamyn onsetis and dwellyng 
placis that thai now haff or ar haldin wyth bath in feus and lesu, and alswa the lesu callit Glen- 
gabire, the said Sir Wilzeam payand till ws or tyl our ayris or assygnays the mal for the forsaid 
stedis as other stedis pays on four half about.' This charter is dated ' at the New Werk,' and in 
1425, the same Earl, styled also 'lord of Galloway and Ananderdale and of the forest of Ettrick,' 
grants to the same Sir William, vicar of Selkirk, and to George his nephew, for their lives the 
office of ' maistership' of ' our ward of Yharow' within the said forest, together with the ' stede' 
pertaining to that office, ' as freely, weell, and in peace as any officiar bears office of us or of ours 
within our said forest' — strictly commanding the inhabitants and tenants to obey them in said 
office. Both these charters were confirmed by James I. in 1426.^ 

The lands of Singlie or Singill, mentioned in these charters, belonged iu 1G06 to Robert Lord 
Roxburgh, heir to his father, William Ker of Cessford, and formed part of his barony of Erne- 
heuch.^ In 1 624, they were the property of John Scott, brother of Simon Scott of Bondington, 
and heir-male to his nephew, Robert Scott.' In 1628, they belonged to Sir W^illiam Scott of 
Harden.'^ At these three periods, according to the same authorities, the united lands of Singlie 
and Erneheuch were retoured at £56; £5G, 63. 8d. ; and £13, 9s. lid. respectively: the last 
being their value according to a retour of the Royal Commissioners in the year last specified. 

The lands of Schultingleis and Catslak belonged before 1581 to James Crichton, son of Robert 
Crichton of Eliok.^ Shottinglees and Glengaber were, in 1628, the property of the Earl of Buc- 
cleuch, and their respective values, including that of Catslackburne, were retoured at £16, 15s. 4d. 
and £1, 18s. 2d."> 

The Scotts of Buccleuch, previously known as the Scotts of Murdieston and Rankilburn, had 
possessions within The Forest at an early period, at least before the year 1398.ii It is doubtful, 
however, whether the lands they held within The Forest before the fall of the Douglases, and their 
own consequent elevation, were during that period considered as forest ground.'^ For part at least 

' Reg. Mag. Sig. Philiphaugh Charters. " Retours. ' Retours. 

' Acts of Pari., vol. ii., p. 415. " Extent of Ettrick Forest. 

' Acts of Pari., vol. ii., p. 450. » Acts of Pari., vol. iii., p. 245. 

* Lib. de Melros, pp. 435, 436. '" Extent of Ettrick Forest. 

' liegist. Mag. Sig., lib. ii., nn. 60, 61. " R.vmer. '- See Remarks on ' Tlie Forest.' 



254 



ORiaiNES 



[yarrov. 



of these possessions neither the Earl of Douglas nor the Sovereign was their overlord, and a charter 
of confirmation of a deed of excambion by Scott of Rankilburn in 1415, witnessed by Archibald 
of Douglas, sheriff of Teviotdale, ascribes the superiority of the lands escambed to Peter Cock- 
burn of Ilenryland.i That however the power and possessions of the Scotts within The Forest 
gradually increased after the forfeiture of the Douglases, is abundantly manifested by the charters 
and other writs of the time ; and from these it does not appear that they ever held any lands of 
the Douglases, whose interests they had in various instances strenuously opposed.^ 

But before the Scotts had acquired much property in The Forest, several other families had 
received grants of land within its bounds. In 1471, Agnes Sibbald was proprietrix of the lands of 
Hangingshaw, and had the right of subletting them.3 In 1509, these lands, along with those of 
Levingshope in Yarrow and Ilarehead in Selkirk, were set by James IV. for nine years to ' John 
Murray of Faulohill and (another tenant), and to the langar lever of them, with power to 
tele and saw in all places where it has been telyt and sawin of befor, notwithstanding the acts and 
statutes of our said forest,' for payment yearly of £26, 14s., ' eftir the form of our avid rental,' — 
and the King discharges ' our bailies, commissionars of our forest courts, our currouris of our saide 
forest, &c., of the taking of ony unlawes or entres of the said stedings in our forest courts or out- 
with, and of any raising of unlawes thairof for the points of our forest courts be our statutes made 
thereapoun.'^ In 1514, the same lands, with those of Caldounheid in Stowe, were let by Queen 
Margaret, of whose dower they were part, to ' James Murray of Faulohill and his assignais,' with 
power to make subtenants, (undirseddilis.)^ In 1526, the same Queen Margaret let to James 
Murray for five years, and in 1531 to Patrick his son for the same term, the lands of Quhittop- 
bank, Lewingshope, and Hayrheid.^ In 1545, the lands and steading of Hangingshaw, Hairheid, 
and Lewingshope were let by Mary Queen of Scots to the same Patrick Murray for nine years, 
and in 1553 and 1563 respectively for nineteen years.'' They were again let for nineteen years 
to Patrick Murray of Faulohill by James VI. in 1584, for £27 Scots, the same yearly rent at 
which they had been let during and since the time of Queen Margaret.^ And in 1589, the same 
King, in consideration that his Majesty and his predecessors had let to the said Patrick, his grand- 
father, great-grandfather, and other predecessors, the same lands of Hangingshaw, Levinshope, 
and Hairhede, in virtue of which they had possessed them beyond the memory of man, disponed 
them by charter to the said Patrick, his heirs and assignees, for payment of a feu-duty of £27 as 
the ancient duty, and 6s. 8d. in augmentation of the rental.^ In 1603, the same monarch granted 
a charter of the same lands, formerly incorporated into a free tenantry, called the tenantry of 
Hangingshaw, to John Murray of Falahill, principal sheriff of Selkirk, his heirs, and assignees, for 
the same payment as in the preceding charter; and in 1625, Sir John Murray of Philiphaugh, 
who had obtained the lands of Lewingshope by reversion from Sir Patrick Murray of Elibank, 
resigned the whole in favour of James Murray, his son, and Anna Craig of Riccartoun, his spouse. 



' Lib. de Melros, p. 549. 

2 Pinkerton, vol. ii., pp. 277, 278. Godscroft, vol. ii., p. 
90. Acts of Pari., vol. ii., p. 330. 
^ Acta Dom. Aud., p. 16. 
* Philiphaugh Charters. 



* Philiphaugh Charters. 
^ Philiphaugh Charters, 
' Philiphaugh Charte: 
^ Philiphaugh Charters. 
' Philiphaugh Charters, 



YARROW.] PAROCHIALES. 255 

in whose favour a charter was in the same year granted by Charles I., bestowing on them and ou 
their heirs these lands and others resigned by the said Sir John, and incorporated into the barony 
of Philiphaugh.' 

In 1478, Duchir of that Ilk is mentioned as one of the arbiters in a dispute among neighbours.^ 
In 1593, the lands of Deuchar, of £46 extent, were possessed by John Dalgleis, as heir to Thomas 
Dalgleis his father,^ and in 1628, they were the property of Hugh Scot of Deuchar, and were re- 
toured at .£10, 9s. 9d.* In 1643, they were in the bands of James Murray of Deuchar, and sub- 
sequently became the property of the Dewars of Deuchar.^ 

In 1 482, 'the placis of Dowglace Craig and Eltreif lying within theForest of Ettrik,' are described 
as pertaining to ' Elizabeth countase of Craufurde.'^ In 1605 and 1606, Douglas-Craig belonged 
to Stewart of Traquair, and Eltrieve, in 1621, was the property of the Earl of Home.^ In 1628, 
both belonged to the Earl of Buccleuch, and were retoured at £11, 8s. lOd. and £11, ISs. lOd. 
respectively.^ 

In 1492, Walter Scot of Howpastlot is decerned by the Lords of Council to pay to Jane 
Countess of Rothes £10 yearly 'for aucht yeiris bigane aucht be the said Walter for the males 
and profittis of the forest-stede of Aldinhop.'^ Before 1544, however, the property had passed 
into the bands of the Scotts of Branxholm. In that year Queen Mary, with consent of the 
Regent Arran, granted to Sir Walter Scott of Branxholm, on his own resignation, and to Janet 
Betoun his spouse, the Lady Buccleuch of the Lay of the Last Minstrel, the ' locations and lands 
of Dawleryane, Wardishope, Aldynnishope, and Eldinhope,' reserving the liferent to Elizabeth 
Ker, dowager lady of Buccleuch.^*' These lands do not appear in the Retours before 1628, but in 
that year Wester and Easter Dollerance (subsequently and variously spelled Dalloran and Delo- 
raine"), Wardlishoip, Auldishoip, and Eldinghoipes, are all retoured as the property of the Earl 
of Buccleuch, and at the several values of £6, 5s. for Wester Delorain and Warelleshope, and 
£4, 15s. 6d., £3, es. lOd., and £14, la. lOd. for the other three respectively.'^ 

The lands of Elibank, under the title ' the whole lands and forest-stead of Aleburne with their 
pertinents,' were, in 1511, bestowed by a charter of James IV. on ' Catherine Douglas, spouse of 
umquhile John Liddale, and John Liddale, son of the said John, and their heirs-male, or failing 
them, to the eldest of their heirs-female, without division, in feu-ferme and heritage for ever.' The 
grant was given with the usual liberties, ' excepting the fishing of salmon, le kipper, and smoltis,' 
the use of the coal being allowed on condition of rendering to the King and his successors ' every 
tenth load of coal which should happen to be procured within the lands,' for payment of £30 
Scots, yearly, augraentiug by £5, 10s. the King's rental, which then amounted only to £24, 10s. 
The said John and his heirs were bound to build a sufficient mansion with policies, &c., (including 
apium custodihus dictis le be kivis.) They were further bouud to furnish for every ten pound 

^ Philiphaugh Charters. ' Retours. 

' Acta Aud. ° Extent of Ettrick Forest. 

' Retours. _ " Acta Dom. Cone, p. 203. 

* E.ttent of Ettrick Forest. '" Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. xxx., no. 15. 

* Papers at Dalkeith. *' Papers at Dalkeith. N. Stat. Ace. and M^ps. 

* Acta Aud., p. 98. ^ " Retoured Extent of Ettrick Korest. 



256 ORIGINES [yarrow. 

land two horsemen, with a lance and baggage-horse for one of them, for the support of the King's 
wars and armies when required, being prohibited from going to host except along with the King 
or his lieutenant, and from alienating the lands without the express consent of the King or his 
heirs, on pain of losing their feu.^ In 1,527, James V. granted a similar charter of the lands of 
Hartherne and Ailburne to Ninian Liddale and bis spouse Janet Liddale, heir of John Liddale 
of Halkerstown, for payment of ,£30 Scots for each property to the Queen Dowager, and at her 
death to the King and his successors.^ In 1593, John Liddell of Halkerstown was retoured heir 
to AVilliam Liddell his uncle, in half the lands of Alybank, (anciently called the lands and place of 
the forest of Alyburne,) extent £15.^ In 1595, John Liddell of Halkerston, in a charter confirmed 
by James VI., disponed to ' Master Jedion Murray of Glenpoite the lands of Elebank alias 
Eleburne, formerly called the land of the forest and place of Eleburne,' for the same payment as in 
the original charter by James IV. to Catherine Douglas and her son, with the addition of 40s. 
for the fishings in the Tweed.* In 1621, Sir Patrick Blurray of Elibank was retoured heir to Sir 
Gideon Murray, Treasurer-depute of Scotland, his father, in the barony of Ballincrief, including 
the tenandry of Elibank, which with other lands comprehended those of Elibank, Elibarne, or 
Eliburne.^ At that time they were rated at the former value of £30, but in 1628, when retoured 
among the lands of the Lordship of Ettrick Forest as the property of Sir Patrick Murray, the 
value was given at £7, 3s. 3d.^ In 1643 they belonged to Patrick Lord Elibank, one of the 
Senators of the College of Justice.' 

The lands of Haltherne, Hartherne, or Hertherne, bestowed, as above, in 1527, were subse- 
quently resigned into the King's hands by Ninian and -Janet Liddale, in favour of William Scott, 
son of Walter Scott of Branxbolm, and in 1575, were bestowed by a charter of James VI. on 
Walter Scott of Branxbolm, nephew and heir of AVilliani, for payment of £30."^ In 1628, 
they were the property of the Earl of Buccleuch, and were retoured at £7, 3s. Sd.^ 

The lands of Tinnis seem to have been held under a feudal title by Lord Home, but to have 
passed about the end of the fifteenth century to a family of the name of Pringle, progenitors of the 
Pringles of Buckholm, and perhaps of the Pringles of Haining. David Hoppringill in the 
Tynneis is mentioned in a charter dated 1500.^" In 1509 the same David Hoppringill is men- 
tioned in the Clifton charter to William Pringle of Torwoodlie. His son, James Hoppringill, 
and Sybilla Carmicbael, lady CalJerwood, his spouse, are mentioned in a charter of 1529, 
entered in the public records. And in 1565 James Pringle of Tynneis is mentioned in a charter 
of the lands of Cortilferrie on the Gala, to his son, JMalcolm Priugill. The Homes, however, 
appear to have retained at least the superiority of the lands, for in 1593 and 1594 they were 
conveyed by charter from Lord Home to John Home, brother to Alexander Home of iMander- 
ston. In 1600 the said John Home disponed them by charter to James Pringle, 'appearand' of 
Buckholm, which disposition was confirmed by royal charter in 1605. In 1619 they were dis- 

' Elibank Charters. « Extent of Ettrick Forest. 

- Elibank Charters. ' Rental of the Parish of Saint Mary. 

3 Retours. « Reg. Mag. Sig., .xxxiv., no. 198. 

' Elibank Charters. « Extent of Ettrick Forest. 

' Retours. 'o Philiphaugh Charters. 



YARRow.J PAEOCHIALES. 957 

poncd by James Pringle and John bis father to Walter earl of Buccleuch,^ to whom, in virtne of 
the resignation of the Pringles, these lands, along with otiiers resigned by several individuals 
were in 1(321 confirmed by a charter de novo of King James VI.- In 1628 Tinnis was retoured 
as the projierty of the Earl of Buccleuch, extent ,£1 1, 18s. lOd.^ 

Flora, Ploraw, or Ploro, seems to have been early divided into two small properties, and to 
have all along continued under different proprietors. In 1512 the eastern half of the place and 
stead of Ploro, or, as it is otherwise more briefly named, Easter Plora, was by James IV. be- 
stowed in feu-ferme on Master John Murray of Blackbarony, who, along with Master Gideon 
Murray, obtained a decreet of absolvitur in favour of their continued possession of these and other 
lands.^ In 1621 Easter Plora belonged to Sir Patrick Slurray of Elibank, and was valued at 
£13.5 In 1628 it was the property of Lowis of Plora, extent £3, 2s. Id.^ "Wester Plora, which 
in 1605 was the property of James Stewart of Traquair, and in 1606 the property of John 
Stewart, his grandson," was in 1628 that of the Earl of Buccleuch,* and in 1643 belonged to the 
Earl of Traquair.9 

Kershope, or Carshope, was another divided property. In 1555, Robert Scott of Bowhill was 
retoured heir to Walter Scott, his brother, in the lands and place of half the steading of Ker- 
shop, commonly called ' Westsyd of Kershop,' old extent £3, 10s., new extent £12.1" In 
1616 Andrew Scott of Aikwood succeeded Robert Scott in possession of half the lands of the 
forest of Kershoip, extent £12.ii In 1628 the half of Easter Carshoip was the property of John 
Murray of Soundhoip, the other half was owned by James Murray of Kirkhouse, and the West- 
side of Carshoip belonged to Andrew Scott, formerly of Aikwood, the respective extents of these 
portions being, Easter Carshoip, one half, £1, 9s., and Westside of Carshoip, £3, 8s. 3d.i2 In 
1643 the Earl of Buccleuch had the ' half of the Eastside of Kershope,' Sir John Murray had 
West Carshope, and John Murray of Sundhope and Robert Murray had each a 'quarter of 
Carshope,' i.e., of ' Eastside of Carshope. ''^ 

The lands of Blackhouse, Gardlawcleuch, Berriebush, and Fauldishope, which in 1605 were the 
property of James Stewart of Traquair,i^ and in 1606 the property of John Stewart, his grandson, 
had by 1628 become that of the Earl of Buccleuch, and were in that year retoured at the respec- 
tive values of £11, Ss. lOd.forthe first two, and of £2, 17s. 6d., and £7, Ss. for the second two.'^ 
'^'■C/'!)'-^ Bourhoip, or Bowerhope, was in 1606 the inheritance of Robert Lord Roxburgh, who received 

it from William Ker of Cessford, his father, !•> and in 1628 it belonged to Walter Scott of Girne-i) /iti^^ 
wood, and was retoured at the sum of £4, 16s. lOd.'' In 1643 it was the property of the Earl'! '^'■^ 
of Buccleuch.i* 

Winterburgh, and Fawoodgrange (or Craighall), were in 1610 the projierty of John Scott of 

' Charter in Buccleuch Charter Chest. '" Rotours. 

2 Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. xli.x., no. 219. " Retours. 

' Extent of the Lordshiij of Ettrick Forest. '- Extent of Ettrick Forest. 

' Elibank Charters. " Rental of the Parish of Saint Marie. 

■'■ Retours. ^* Retours. 

" Extent of Ettrick Forest. '^ Extent of Lordship of Ettrick Fonst. 

7 Retours. '® Retours. 

» Extent of Ettrick Forest. " Extent of Ettrick Forest. 

" Paper at Dalkeith. '■' Rental of Parish of Saint Jlarii-. 



258 ORIGINES [yarrow. 

Newburgh,! and according to the Retoured Extent of Ettrick Forest in 162S they belonged to 
Andrew^ Scott, burgess of Edinburgh, and were respectively rated at £5, Is. 8d., and £2, 18s. 3d. 
In 1611, Walter Lord Buccleuch had a charter from James VI. of the lands of Ferniehoip, or 
Fermhoip, for payment of £.52 Scots, and 3s. 4d. in augmentation.- In 1628, these lands with 
Dryhope and Kirkstead belonged to the same family, and were valued, the two former at £12, 9s. 
together, the last at £3, 9s. 2d.3 

The half place and forest, or half the forest-stead of Glensax, was inherited by John Elphin- 
stone of Henderston from Cuthbert Elphinstone, his father, in 1615.* In 1628, Glensax was the 
property of the lord or laird of Cardrona, extent £5, 4s. 7d.5 

In 1618, Simon Scott in Newton was retoured heir of conquest to Walter Scott, his next 
younger brother, in the lands, farm, and forest-stead of Ladope, and the lands of Alterhouse and 
Quhithope.^ In 1621, James VI. granted to Walter earl of Buccleuch a charter de novo of 
certain lands, including Lawdope, which was held for payment of £24 feu-firm, to be doubled at 
entry.' In 1628, Laidhoip and Quhithope belonged to the Earl of Buccleuch, and were respec- 
tively valued at £7, 8s. Id., and £5, 19s. 4d.* 

In 1621, James earl of Home, lord Douglas, &c., was retoured heir to Alexander earl of 
Home, in the lands of Ilyndhoip, Fawodshiell, Huntlie, and Crosscleuch.^ In 1628, these lands 
were owned by Walter Scott of Huntlie, Andrew Scott of Edinburgh and John Scott of Gilmans- 
cleuch, the Earl of Buccleuch, and Walter Scott of Girnewood, and were valued at £3, 14s. 8d., 
£15, 12s. Sd., £5, 5s. Id., and £2, 17s. Sd.i" 

In 1622, John Murray of Soundhope succeeded his father, William Murray, in the forest lands 
of the forest stead of Soundhope, extent £20.ii In 1628 they had sunk in value to £5, 1 4s. 7d.'- 

In the year just mentioned the remaining lands in the parish, those of Easter and Wester 
JHountbenger, and Catslacknow, were valued, the first and last together, £16, 16s. 8d., and the 
second the same; Glengaber, £1, ISs. 2d.; Quhythilbrea, £7, 12s. lOd. ; Helveliane, £3, 3s. 6d., 
— all belonging to the Earl of Buccleuch ; Ashiesteill, £6, 8s. lid., Sir Andrew Ker of Oxnam; 
Kirkhope, Deadhope, and Dodhead or Dodbank, £9, lis. Id., £2, 7s. 9d., and £4, 7s. 9d., 
Walter Scott of Harden; Schawes and Helinburn, £10, 10s. 2d., and Bailielees, £5, 15s. 7d., 
Gilbert Elliot of Stobbs; Langhope, £4, 6s., Walter Scott of Huntlie; Gilmanscleuch, £4, 17s. 
lOd., John Scott of Gilmanscleuch ; and Howford, £6, Walter Scott of Howford.'s 

The vestiges of St. Mary's Church and the ruins of the vicar's house are still visible, and the 
ancient cemetery is still partially in use.^'' A little to the east lies a small mound with a few stones 
on the top, called Binram's Corse or Cross.i^ 

The old towers or peel-houses of which any remains still exist are Blackhouse on the Douglas 
burn; Elibank castle on the Tweed ; Dryhope near St. Mary's Loch ; Deuchar Tower on the Yar- 

' Retours. " Retours. 

^ Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. xhi., no. 376. '° Extent of Ettrick Forest. 

^ Extent of Ettrick Forest. ■* Retours. " Retours. 

' Extent of Ettrick Forest. '- Extent of Ettrick Forest. 

" Retours. " Retoured Extent of Ettrick Forest. 

' Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. xlix., no. 219. '•' New Stat. Ace. 

« Extent of Ettrick Forest. '= New Stat. Ace. 



ETTRicK.] PAROCHIALES. 259 

row ; and Dodhead near Singlee.^ Of these the oldest is said to be Blackhouse tower, and the wild 
tract in which it lies is represented by Godscroft as a possession of the Douglases in the reign of Mal- 
colm Canmore.2 Seven large stones on the neighbouring heights are said to mark the scene of the 
well-known ' Douglas Tragedie,' and Douglas burn is pointed out as the water of which the 
lovers drank.3 The ballad itself evidently places the tragical event in this vicinity, as is testified 
by the names ' St. Slarie's Kirk,' and ' St. Marie's Loch ;' and it may be observed that, however 
unauthoritative our ancient lyrics may be in point of narrative, they are in general remarkably 
correct in point of locality. 

West of Yarrow Kirk, says the N. Stat. Ace, is a piece of ground on which were formerly about 
twenty large cairns, and on which are still two unhewn massive stones, about 100 yards from 
each other, evidently the scene of a conflict, and supposed to be ' The Dowie Dens of Yarrow.' 
This will perhaps scarcely correspond with the 'ten slain men' and the 'Tinnes bank' of 
ancient ballad. 

Deuchar Swire, in the north of the parish, was the scene of a duel between Scott of Tushielaw 
and Scott of Thirlstane, which was fatal to the latter.'' 

Dryhope Haugh and the neighbourhood of Altrive Lake are localities in which cairns and 
tumuli were anciently raised. On the former stood a large cairn, known by the name of Herton's 

Hill.5 



ETTRICK. 

Ethric, Ethryc, Hettrich, Etryk^— Etrike^— EthrikS— Atrik"— New Kirk 
of Ettrickio — Nook of Ettrick." Deanery of Peebles. (Map, No. go.) 

Tnis pari.sh comprehends the ancient parish of Rankilburn, which previously to the Reforma- 
tion was an independent Rectory .'^ In the Register of Ministers, 15G7-1573, the name of either 
does not appear. In 1574 they were both, at least ecclesiastically, united with the parishes of 
Ashkirk, Selkirk, and St. Mary Kirk of the Lowes, under one minister, with a reader at Ashkirk, 
and another at Selkirk.'^ From 1576 to 1570 they were joined with St. Mary's, the three being 
served by one minister, and, according to an entry in the record, the ' New Kirk of Ettrick and 
Rankilburn,' needing ' na reidars.'^* In the roll of Presbyteries presented to the General 
Assembly 1586, Ettrick and Rankilburn are given as separate parishes in the Presbytery of Had- 

' N. Stat. Acc.and Maps. Notes to' Border Minstrehy.' ^ A. D. 1539 and 1577. Lib. de Melros, p. 627. Book 

^ Godscroft, vol. i., pp. *20, 21. of Assumptions. 

'^ N. Stat. Ace. Common-Place Book of Ballad, pub- '"A. D. 1561. Book of Assumptions. A. D. 1574, 1576, 

lished in 1824. 1.578,1579. Books of Assignations. A. D. 1606. Lib. 

■• New Stat. Ace. de Melros, pp. 658, 660. 

^ New Stat. Ace. ■> A. D. 1586. Booke of the Universall Kirk. 

« Circa A. D. 1235. Lib. de Melros, pp. 234, 235, '= Lib. de Melros, pp. 547, 548. 

666, 667. '^ Books of Assignations. 

' A. D. 1415. Lib. de Melros, p. 548. '■* Books of Assignations. 

8 A. D. 1436 and 1446. Lib. de Melros, pp. 493, 494, &c. 



260 ORIGINES [ettrick. 

dingtou.i In 1606, Ettrick is mentioned as 'the paroche kirk, called the Xew Kirk of Ettrik,' 
and it would appear that before that date it had not as a Protestant church become a parish 
quoad civilia? Before 1(550 the old parish of Rankilburn had been united to that of Yarrow, 
but in that year it was both ecclesiastically and civilly disjoined from Yarrow and united to 
Ettriek.s 

The surface of the parish of Ettrick is wholly mountainous, consisting of smooth, green, rounded 
hills, of which Ettrick Pen in the south-west rises to the height of 2200 feet above the level of 
the sea. Among the group of which it forms the most conspicuous are the sources of the river 
Ettrick, which, flowing thence in a north-east direction, and fed in its course by innumerable 
rivulets, nearly divides the parish iijto two equal parts. The most considerable of its tributaries 
are the Tiraa and the Rankilburn, both rising on the borders of Eskdale, and entering the Ettrick 
on the right. In the north-west of the parish rises the river Yarrow, the principal feeder of the 
Loch of Lowes (Blaeu's locus occidentalis Lobiorum or West-Mary Loh of the Lowes), whose 
northern margin forms part of the boundary between this parish and Yarrow. 

We have no early notice of Ettrick as a parish. Although its original boundary was distinctly 
defined in the reign of Alexander II., its name docs not appear in Baiamund's Roll, the Libellus 
Taxationum, or the Taxatio Eccl. Scot, sec. xvi. If not included among the ' Kirks of the 
Blessed Virgin,' that is, St. Mary's of the Lowes and other churches in Ettrick Forest, of which 
the advowson was given by David II. to the monks of Dryburgh,"* it probably continued a de- 
pendency of the Abbey of Slelros from its first foundation till it became a Protestant church. 
Previously to 1 235 there seems to have been no church within the territory known as Ettrick, 
which at that time is described as a waste. In that or the following year Alexander II. granted to 
the monks of Melros his charter of Ettrick, the bounds of which are thus described — ' our whole 
waste from the river of Ethryc ascending by the rivulet of Tynieye, as far as the bounds of Nigell 
de Heryz — thence ascending by the watershed between Ethric and Glenkery to the borders of 
Esckedal, and thence ascending westward by the watershed between Esckedal and Ethric as far 
as the mountain called Vnhende, and thence eastward along the watershed between Annandale and 
The Forest to the head of Rodanoch, and thence eastward by the watershed between The Forest 
and the land of Thomas de Hay, to the head of Copthra-werisclouch, and thence descending to the 
greater lake (doubtless St. Mary's Loch), and thence ascending by the lake to its head, and thence 
ascending southward to the rivulet of Wythhop, and thence ascending as far as Thyrlstangate, and 
along the same road to the head of Wulfliop, and thence descending by a sike to the rivulet of 
meikle Thyrlestan, and by the same rivulet descending to the river of Ethric, and by that river 
ascending as far as Tymeymuth.'^ For the territory thus bestowed the monks were to render to 
the King or his heirs for ever nothing but their prayers (praeter solas orationes.)^ And by a sub- 
sequent charter the King erected the lands of Ettrick into 'a free forest,' prohibiting all others with- 
out license from the monks to cut wood or to hunt within them, on pain of his full forfeiture of .£10.'' 

' Booke of the Universall Kirk. * Robertson's Index, p. 59, no. 3. 

- Lib. tie Melros, pp. 658, 660. * Lib. de Melros, pp. 234, 235, and 666, 667. 

^ New Stat. Ace. '' Lib. de Melros. ' Lib. de Melros, p. 235. 



ETTRicK.] PAROCHIALES. 261 

No addition appears to have been made to the monks' lands of Ettrick till 1415, almost two 
hundred years after, although before that time they had acquired the lands of BellenJen, sepa- 
rated from Ettrick by the parish of Rankilburn. In 1415 Robert Scott, laird of Rankilburn and 
Murdieston, ancestor of the Scotts of Buccleuch, with consent and assent of his son and heir 
Walter Scott, granted to the monks of Jlelros ' all his lands of Wynzehope west of the water of 
Temay that were called Glenkery, lying within the sheriffdom of Selkirk, between the monks' 
lands of Mighope at one part, and the lands of Etrike at another, and the lands of Dallies on 
the west — descending a certain rivulet to the said water of Temay, and beyond it ascendin" the 
boundary between Wynzehope and the said lands of Dalgles, east of the foresaid water of Temay, 
as far as a certain ditch surrounding twelve acres of meadow (which also he bestowed on the said 
monks) northwards — and again descending westwards to the said water of Temay, and thence 
descending the same to the bounds of the lands of Mighope abovementioned' — ' reserving only 
to himself and heirs the liberty of fishing and hunting within the said lands of Glenkery' — in 
exchange for ' the lands of Bellinden, lying within the said sheriffdom of Selkirk, with perti- 
nents' — ' reserving for ever to the same monks the liberty of fishing and hunting in the said lands 
of Bellinden.'' At the same time, and by virtue of the same charter, the tithes of both lands were 
exchanged, those of Glenkery to be appropriated to the monks, and those of Bellenden to the 
church of Rankilburn. The transaction was completed in the same year by a charter of Peter de 
Kokburne, laird of Henryland, of whom the lands of Glenkery were held, approving and con- 
firming the excambion for himself and heirs.^ 

In 143G James I., out of regard to John de Fogo, his confessor, and Abbot of Melros, con- 
firmed to him and to the monks the lands of Ethrik and Rodono, along with those of Carrik, and 
erected the whole into a free regality.^ In 1442 the same grant and privileges were confirmed 
by James II.,'* and although the exemption from the jurisdiction of the Forest courts thus secured 
to the dependents of the Abbey was for some time disputed by the Douglases, while lords of The 
Forest, it was at length in 1446 fully admitted by William earl of Douglas in a charter in which 
the men, servants, servitors, and indwellers of the monks, were finally and for ever declared freed 
from that jurisdiction.'' 

Thus was constituted what was thenceforth the part of the ' regality,' and also subsequently to 
the Reformation of the 'lordship' of Melros, in the county of Selkirk,^ with which the ancient 
parish appears to have been identical. No mention, however, seems to be made in any public 
record of Ettrick as a parish, or as having a church within its bounds, till the era of the Reforma- 
tion ; but the scanty notices of that period establish the fact, that there existed within the lands of 
Ettrick a church or churches before the battle of Flodden in 1513. In a rental of the Abbey of 
Melros about 1561, we find the following memorandum — 'The Kirks of AV^ester and New of 
Ettrick has been out of use of payment of ony kind of teinds sen Fluddoun.^ In 1539, however, 
the teinds of Ettrick are mentioned as then available, and at the disposal of the Abbot of JMelros. 

' Lib. de Melros, pp. 547-S49. '' Lib. de Melros, pp. 572, 573. 

- Lib. de Melros, p. 550. « Lib. de Melros, pp. 256, &c. Retours. 

^ Lib. de Melros, pp. 403, -194. ' Book of Assumptiona. 

'■' Lib. de Melros, p. 571. 



262 ORIGINES [ettrick. 

In tbat year the Abbot Andrew appoints ' M. Matbeu Steiiard, person of Moffet and cbannon of 
Glasgw,' his procurator for five years in the Consistory of Glasgow, and in return for his 
services, promises to pay ' to the said M. Matbeu all and sindry teindis of the said M. Matbeu 
parochianaris of Mofiet that sal happine ony tyme to cum to occupy ony landis quhare the teindis 
of the samyn perteins to the said venerabill fader his convent or abbaye baytbt in Atrik and 
Esdail mwir.'i In 15.56 the New Kirk of Ettrick was served by a curate, who was paid for bis 
service from the revenues of Melros £3, 6s. Sd.^ In the Register of Ministers and other 
public documents quoted above, Ettrick does not appear as a parish till 1586. It was known, as 
above noticed, as 'the paroche Kirk, callit the New Kirk of Ettrik' in 1606, when James com- 
mendator of Melros resigned the patronage into the bands of the King.^ From the deed of resig- 
nation it appears that the monastery, or rather the commendators of Melros, retained the patron- 
age, if not also the teinds of the parish, long after the Reformation. It is only in the retours of 
the seventeenth century that we find any intimation of the ecclesiastical status of the parish or its 
incumbent. In a retour of I'Gfi? the pasturage of the lands of Sbortup or Sborthope, within the 
lordship of Melros, are combined with the 'parsonage tithes,' and in another of 1695 the tithes 
of the same lands are given as those of the ' parsonage, rectory, and vicarage,' and valued at 10s. 

The church appears to have stood at one time in the western part of the parish, probably at 
Kirkhope on the Ettrick, or Chapelhope near the Loch of Lowes, but to have been removed to a 
site on the Ettrick, near the centre of the parish, at a period prior to the disastrous battle of Flod- 
den.* The present church occupies the position of that built on the latter site, and named the 
' New Kirk of Ettrick.' 

The benefice, as above stated, does not appear in Baiamund's Roll, the Libellus Taxationum, or 
the Tax. Eccl. Scoticanae. In a ' rentale of Melros,' about 1577, ' the bail] teinds of atrik' are 
valued at £6, Ss. 4d.5 

In 1569 the ' Abbacie' of Melros, with all lands, lordships, teinds, regalities, &c., which in- 
cluded Ettrick, was disponed by James VI. to James Douglas, second son to William Douglas of 
Locbleven, as Abbot or Commendator, with power to set in feu-ferme long or short tacks, ' siclyk 
and in the same manner as gif he had been providit thairto of auld in the court of Rome.'^ In 
1577 the 'lands of Atrik,' as given in the rental roll already quoted, were those of Glenkeyrie, 
Migehoipe, Atrikhous, Schortbope, Fairhope (Fawhope), Kirkhope, Elspethoipe or Elspyboipe, 
Scabeeleuch, Craig, Ramsecleuch, Thirlstane, and Langhope, — and their united extent was ^66.^ 
In 1606 James Commendator of the ' Abbacie of Melros, with consent of the convent thereof, re- 
signed to King James YI. in favour of William earl of Morton, ' the maner place of Melros, callit 
of auld the monasterie of Melros,' with pertinents, &cJ And in 1 609 the ecclesiastical domain thus 
resigned was erected by James into a temporal lordship in favour of John Viscount Haddington." 

In 1643 the lands of Ettrickhouse belonged to Robert Scott of Quhitslaid, whose daughter 

' Lib. de Melros, p. 627. * Register of Presentations to Benefices. 

2 Lib de Melros, p. xxvii. of Preface. ^ Book of Assumptions. 

3 Lib. de Melros, pp. 658, &c. ° Lib. de Melros, pp. 657, &c. 
* Book of Assumptions. ' Acts of Pari., vol. iv. p. 461. 
^ Book of Assumptions. 



ETTRicK.] PAROCHIALES. 263 

]Margaret, in 1619, was retoureJ his heir in the same lands.i In 1655 they were the property 
of Thomas Scott of Quhitslaid, extent £6, 18s. 8d., including feu-ferme and augmentation, and 
in 1670 they belonged to Charles earl of Haddington.^ 

The lands of Shorthope also belonged in 1643 to the Scotts of Quhitslaid, extent £0, and the 
pasturage and tithes in 1667 and 1695 belonged to the Pringles of Whytbank, the tithes, as above 
stated, being valued at lOs.^ 

Scabecleuche, or Strabcleughe, was in 1670 part of the property of Charles earl of Had- 
dington within the regality of Melros, and its extent is not separately stated.* The same was 
the case with the lands of Ramsecleuch, or Ramsaycleugh.^ 

Sir Francis Scott of Thirlstane, in 1667, had the lands of Craig or Craighill, extent £2, 3s. 4d., 
and perhaps also those of Kirkhope within the same regality of Melros, extent £5, 3s. 4d.'' 

The Scotts of Thirlstane, or, as they were styled at the time, the Scotts of Howpasley, had posses- 
sions in Tiie Forest before the end of the fifteenth century.' They are said to have acquired Thirl- 
stane from the monks of Melros, who, however, as the above rental bears, retained at least a portion 
of the lands known by that name.* In the tacks or assedations of Forest lands made about 1480 
and 1490, the office oi cursor or ranger of the ward of Ettrick was assigned to several persons of 
the name of Scott, probably of the Thirlstane family, or the neighbouring one of Tushielaw.'* In 
1670, Charles earl of Haddington was proprietor of Thirlstane, '^'' which appears to be the part re- 
tained by the monks, and afterwards bestowed on the Haddington family by James VI. 

Within the parish of Ettrick, but without the regality or lordship of jMelros, lie the lands of 
Tushielaw, possessed about 1480 or 1490 by the Scotts of Tushielaw. In the beginning of the 
following century flourished Adam Scott of that family, known as ' The King of Thieves,' or 
' King of the Borders,' and executed at Edinburgh by order of James V. in loSO.'i In 1592, 
•James VI. and his Parliament ratified a feu charter and infeftnient, recently granted to Walter 
Scott of Tushielaw and his heirs-male, of the lands of Tushielaw and Gemmelscleuch, (the latter 
lying in the parish of Rankilburn,) as he and his predecessors had been ' auld and kyudlie pos- 
sessors and feu rentallaris past memorie of man.'i^ In 1628, Toschelaw and Cromelaw, of united 
extent £7, 123. 9d., were the property of Robert Scott of the same family,!^ and in 1633, Walter 
Scott, his son and heir, had Tuschelaw and the mill and lands of Conniuglaw, together valued at 
£33, 6s. 8d." 

Corslie or Crosslee was in 1609 the property of Walter Veitch of North Syntouu, in 1628 
and in 1654 it belonged to the Pringles of Torwoodlie, and was retoured in 1628 at £5, Is. id.'^ 

Cacrabank, Caltrabank, Cantrobank, or Contrabank, formerly the forest stead appropriated to 
the ranger of the ward of Ettrick,!" was occupied by the Scotts in that capacity so early as 1480 
and 1490, and appears to have been at length permanently bestowed on the family of Tushielaw. 



' Retours. - Retours. 


" Pitcaim's Crim. Trials, vol. i., p. 145. Notes to Lady 


^ Retours. ■* Retours. 


of the Lake. 


' Retours. « Retours. 


'- Acts of Pari., vol. iii., p. 618. 


' Act. Dom. Cone., p. 175. 


'3 Extent of the Lordship of Ettrick Forest. 


^ Book of Assumptions. 


'* Retours. 


^ See remarks on ' The Forest.' 


' * Retours and Extent of Ettrick Forest. 


'" Retours. 


'^ See remarks on ' The Forest.' 



26-1 



ORIGINES 



[raxkilbur.v. 



In 1G21, however, it was retourcd as the property of James earl of Home as heir to his father 
Alexander.i In 1G28 it was again in the hands of the Scotts of Tushielaw.^ In August, 1633, 
it belonged to Lady Blargaret Home, heiress of provision to James earl of Home, and in No- 
vember of the same year, to Walter Scott of Tushielaw.3 In 1693, it was the common property 
of James Dickson, John Shoarswood, and Alexander Morisone, heirs-portioners to their cousin, 
Jean Home, daughter of John Home, umquhile servitor to the Earl of that name.-* 

Almost the only remains of antic^uity in the parish are the ruins of the toivers of Tushielaw 
and Thirlstane on the Ettrick ; the site of a church at Kirkhope on the same river, the dimen- 
sions of which are barely discernible ; and that of another church or chapel at Chapelhope on the 
Loch of Lowes, of whose foundations the enclosure and form are still perfectly distinct.* 



EANKILBURN. 

Ecclesia Peroclialis de Eankilburne'^ — Rectoria de Rankilbon'' — Eankil- 
burn and RankilburiieS — Rankilburn Kirk.« Deanery of Teviotdale.io 
(Map, No. 91.) 

Rankilburn, named ' Buccleuch' in the New Statistical Account and in modern maps, and now 
for two centuries part of the parish of Ettrick, was early in the fifteenth century an independent 
parish and rectory." Subsequently to the Reformation, and before the year 1621, it was both 
ecclesiastically and civilly united to the parish of Yarrow,!"- \y^^ ;„ ig5o the lands of Deepup, 
Mount Common, Gemmelscleuch, Ettrickside, Anelshope, Buccleuchs Easter and Wester, Tushie- 
law, Cacrabank, and the Corslies, nearly corresponding to the ancient Rankilburn, were by a de- 
creet of disjunction separated from Yarrow and annexed to Ettrick, ' quharunto,' says the record, 
' they ly mairewest.'^-* 

The general features of the parish, which was almost entirely comprehended between the streams 
of the Rankilburn and the Tima, are similar to those of Yarrow and Ettrick, and consist princi- 
pally of beautifully verdant hills, with numerous small valleys and streams interspersed. 

We have no very early notice of this church. It is not found in Baiamund's Roll, or in any 
of the earlier charters. From a deed, however, formerly quoted, the charter of excambion between 
Scott of Rankilburn and the monastery of Melros of the lands of Bellenden and Glenkerry, it is 
certain that a rectory existed here before the year 1415, and was also at that time comprehended 
in the diocese of Glasgow." By this deed an exchange was effected, not only of the lands, but of 



' Retours. 

- E.xtcnt of Lordship of Ettrick Forest. 

^ Retours. 

* Retours. 

* New Stat. Ace. 

«A. D. 1415. Lib. de Melros, p. 549. 
' Libellus Ta.^ationum. 



^ A. D. 1574 to 1586. Books of Assignations. Booke of 
the Universall Kirk. 
=" Blaeus Map. 
'^ Libellus Ta.\ationuni. 
' ' Lib. de Melros, p. 549. 
^- Books of Assignations. Retours. 
'3 New Stat. Ace. " Lib. de Melros, p. 549. 



R4NKILBURN.] PAROCHIALES. 265 

the tithes, those of Glenlcerry being appropriated to Melros, and those of Bellenden to the parisli 
church of Rankilburn. The parties whose consent was necessary to this exchange were the monks 
of Melros, the rector of the church of Eankilburn, and the bishop and chapter of Glasgow, and 
the deed is witnessed by the archdeacon and the sheriff of Teviotdale. In 1453, in a roll of 
bachelors entered at the newly founded University of Glasgow, we find ' Dominus Jacobus Spot- 
tiswod, rector ecclesiae de Rankilburn.' At the period of the Reformation it had so far declined 
both civilly and ecclesiastically, that it was united at different times with one or more of the old 
parishes, and, although thus under charge of a minister, was not considered as requiring the ser- 
vices of a reader.' 

In the Libellus Taxationum the rectory is valued at £6, 13s. 4d. 

The principal lands in the parish of Rankilburn belonged at an early period to the Scotts of 
Buccleuch, previously known as the Scotts of Murdieston and Rankilburn. They appear to have 
had possessions in Selkirkshire in the reign of Edward I. In 1296, on the 28th of August, 
Richard le Scot de Murthoxton, of the county of Lanark, swore fealty to that monarch,^ and in 
consequence of this submission the sheriff of Selkirk, on the 5th September of that year, is ordered 
to restore him to his lands and rights.^ In 1398, Walter Scott of Murdieston and Rankilburn, 
afterwards slain at Homeldon in 1 402, was one of those who were bound to keep the peace of 
the Border marches.* His descendant and successor, Robert Scott, who in 1415 exchanged the 
lands of Glenkerry for those of Bellenden, is styled lord of Rankilbnrn.s Walter, afterwards 
Sir Walter Scott, son and successor of Robert, appears to have been the first who was styled of 
Buccleuch,** and was one of the conservators of truces with England during the reign of James II. 
from 1438 to 1460.' He is styled also Sir Walter Scott of Kirkurd, and in 1463, durino- his 
lifetime, David Scott, his son, had a charter from James III., erecting into a free barony the lands 
of Branxholra, Langton, Limpitlaw, Elrig, Rankilburn, Eckford, and Whitchester, to be named 
the barony of Branxholm, for payment of one red rose as blench-ferme at the principal messuage 
on the festival of the nativity of St. John the Baptist.* From that time till the time of James 
VI., the titles of Kirkurd, Branxholm, and Buccleuch, as appears from the charters of the period, 
were for some time used indifferently ; the title of Kirkurd gradually giving place to that of 
Branxholm, and the latter being finally superseded by that of Buccleuch.^ In 1526 took place 
the conflict near IMelros, in which an attempt was made by the Scotts to rescue the young King 
James V. from the hands of Douglas.^" In 1528, Walter Scott of Branxholm, knight, was 
declared by the King and Parliament to be innocent of the crime of the gathering at Melros, 
and to have acted on the authority of the King, Douglas, &c.'i In the same year, by a 
charter dated 20th October, he disponed to his son David Scott the lauds and barony of Branx- 

^ Books of Assignations. ^ Ragman Rolls, p. 125. ^ Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. vi., no. 75. 

' Rotuli Seotiae, vol. i., p. 29. ' Acts of Pari., vol. ii., pp. 81, 132. Acta Auditoruni, 

* Rymer, vol. viii., p. 54. Fordun, lib. xiv., c. 14. pp. 46, 74, 83, 153. 

' Lib. de Melros, p. 549. '° Godscroft, vol. ii,, p. 90. Pinkerton, vol. ii., 

« A. D. 1441. Acts of Pari., vol. ii., p. 57. p. 278. 

Rymer, vol. x., p. G95, vol. xi., p. 253, &c. Rotuli " Acts of Pari., vol. ii., p. 330. 
Seotiae, vol. ii., p. 310, &c. 



266 



ORIGINES 



[rankIlbukn. 



holm and EkforJ, the lands and barony of Kirkurd, and the lands, tenements, and lordships of 
Buccleuch, Rankilburn, and Limpitlaw, and on the 28th of that month, the charter was confirmed 
by James V.i This Walter, or Sir Walter, appears to have subsequently fallen into temporary 
disgrace and forfeiture; for in 1,542 and 1543 he was declared by one Parliament to have been 
.sufficiently punished by a short imprisonment for assisting the English at the burning of Cavers 
and Dennum, and was restored to all his lands and rights, and by the Parliament immediately 
succeeding the act of the former was approved and ratified.^ In the records of these Parliaments 
he is styled both Walter Scott of Branxholm and ' lard Bukclewth.' The lands thus possessed by 
the Scotts so long before the Reformation appear to have continued since that period unalienated 
from the family, whose representative, about the end of the sixteenth century, became a Lord of 
Parliament, with the title of ' Lord Scott of Buccleuch,'^ and in 1619, was created Earl of 
Buccleuch.'' 

Gamescleuch or Gemmelscleuch appears to have been long in possession of the Scotts of Tushie- 
law. In 1592, James VI. and his Parliament, on the narrative that Walter Scott of Tushielaw 
and his predecessors had been ' auld and kyndlie possessors and few rentallaris past memorie of 
man,' confirmed to him and his heirs-male the lands of Tushielaw and Gammilsheuche.^ But in 
1621, Sir Robert Scott of Thirlstane was retoured heir to Sir Robert Scott of Cruikstoun in the 
lands of Gemniiliscleuche, alias Thorniehill, with the outset called Etriksyd, at that time forming 
part of the parish of St. Mary of the Lowes.^ In 1628, the lands of Ganiilscleuch belonged to Sir 
William Scott of Harden, and were retoured at .£3, lis. 7d.^ 

The lands of Dalgleis or Dalgliesh, about the sources of the Tima water, seem to have been 
originally possessed by a family who derived their surnaiae from the property. In 1 407, Symon 
de Dalgles is witness to a charter of Robert Duke of Albany.* The lands were subsequently 
united to the Earldom of Mar, as part of the barony of Synton, of which, in 1635, the lands 
of Quhitslaid and Dalgleiss formed the third part." In 1647, they were retoured at the old ex- 
tent of 10 merks, or £6, 13s. 4d., and new extent of 40 merks, or £26, 13s. 4d.i'' 

Near the Rankilburn there may still be seen the indistinct outline of the walls of the church 
and churchyard.il Ju tJ^g valley formed by a tributary of that stream lies the spot on which, 
according to tradition, the slaying of a deer gave name to the property and afterwards to the 
family of Buccleuch. There are no remains of a baronial residence, and it has been doubted 
whether one ever existed on the spot ; but a decision of the Lords of Council, dated 25th 
June 1494, removes all doubt upon the subject. The Lords decern two persons, both named 
AVilliam Douglas, to content and pay to Walter Scott of Buccleuch, nephew of umquhile 
David Scott, certain goods ' spuilzeit, distroyit, and takin be Symon Routlage in the Trovvis, 
and Mathew Routlage his sone, and ther complici.s, fra the said umquhile David and his tenentis,' 



' Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. xxii., no. 205. 
'■ Acts of Pari., vol. ii., pp. 414, 433. 
' Reg. Mag. Sig. 

' Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. xlix., no. 123. 
* Acts of Pari., vol. iii., p. CIS. 



^ Retours. 

I Extent of the Lordship of Ettrick Forest. 
" Reg. Mag. Sig. 

^ Retours. '" Retours. 

" New Stat. Ace. 



SELKIRK.] PAROCHIALES. 267 

' aud as to the avale of the saidis and the dampuage and scathis sustenit be the birnyng of tlie 
place and raaner of Bukcleuch,' alleged to extend to 1000 merks, the said Walter is allowed 
time for proof.^ 

The tower of Gamescleuch, built by the Scotts of Thirlstane, is still an object of some interest 
to the antiquarian.^ 



SELKIEK. 

Selechirche^ — Selkirke* — Seleschirche, Selchirche 5 — Seleklrche, Sele- 
kyrcke, Selekirke, Seleschyrclie, Selechirc, Selechirche^ — Selekirc, 
Selechirk, Seleskirke, Selchirche, Selechirche^ — Selechirche, Selkyrk, 
Selekirk, Selkirk ^ — Selkirc, Selkirk, Sellechirh, Selkyrc, Selkyrk, 
Selkerc 9— Selkyrk, Selkirk i"— Selkyrk, Selkyrke, Selkirk"— Selkirk 12 
— Selkirk, Selcrik, Selkrik, Selcraig.i^ Deanery of Peebles or Teviotdale. 
(Map, No. 92.) 

This parish is very irregularly shaped, and has two detached portions, one lying in a different 
part of the county, and the other within the county of Roxburgh, in which also another smaJl 
portion not detached is situated. The river Ettrick enters it on the south-west, and flowing 
north-east divides it into two. The Yarrow, entering on the west, and flowing for some distance 
parallel to the Ettrick, turns then at right angles to its former course, and joins the Ettrick near 
the centre of the parish, which on the north is bounded chiefly by the Tweed. Like the rest of 
The Forest, Selkirk is considerably diversified by hills, of which the Three Brethren Cairn and 
the Peat Law in the northern part of the parish attain respectively the height of 1968 and 1964 
feet above the level of the sea. Several portions are well wooded, and the southern division is 
studded by a few small lakes. 

David L, while he was Prince of Cumberland, in 111.3 established a colony of Tyronensian 

' Act. Dom. Cone, p. 338. = New Stat. Aec. ■" A. D. 1333-1370. Rot. Scotiae, vol. i., p. 380. Reg. 

3 Ante A. D. 11-2.1. Lib. de Calchou, pp. 3, 4. Mag. Sig., p. 4.5. Robertson's Index, p. 34, no. 16, p. 79^ 

* A. D. 11-2G-115--'. Lib. de Calchou, pp. 6, 7. no. 131. 

» A. D. 1153-1165. Lib. de Calebou,pp. 7,300,301, and " A. D. 1384-1434. Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 163. Lib.de 

p. \-. aStf T Taljiila. Lib. de Melros, p. 10. Calchou, p. 408. Rob. Index, p. 139, no. 7, p. 145, no. IS. 

^ A. D. 1165-1214. Lib. de Calchou, pp. 13, 16, 316, Lib. de Melros, pp. 546, 547. Compota Camerar., vol. iii. 

318,319. Lib. de Melros, pp. 91, &c. pp. 270, 271. 

' A. D. 1215-1254. Lib. de Calchou, pp. 229, 332, 350, '- A. D. 1434-1560. Compota Camerar., !<(!sa/)ra. Acts of 

357. Lib. de Melros, 204, 216, 236. Pari., vol. ii., p. 93, &c. Acta Audit., p. 14, &c. Acta Dom 

3 A.D. 1291-1.304. Rot.Scotiae, voI.i.,pp.7,13,54,&c. Cone, p. 228. 
Palg. lllust., vol. i., p. 359. la A. D. 1560, et svpra. Acts of Pari., vol. ii., p. 565 

9 A. D. 1300-1329. Lib.de Calchou, pp. 460,471. Rot. &c.; vol. iii., p. 49,&c. Lib.de Calchou. p. 494, &c. Register 

Scotiae, vol. i., p. 80. Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 6. Lib. de of Ministers. Books of Assignations. Booke of the Uni- 

Melros, p. 387. Rob. Index, p. 21, no. 30. Compota versall Kirk. 
Camerar., vol. i., p. 13. Philiphaugh Charters. 



268 ORIGINES [selkirk. 

monks at Selkirk,' but the name, whicb signifies ' The Holy Church,' and some expressions in 
the charter, suggest the probability that the abbey was founded on the site of an ancient religious 
house, though perhaps fallen into decay. The charter, however, makes no mention of a church 
distinct from the abbey, and the first mention of ' the church of Selkirk' occurs in a subsequent 
charter of David, after he succeeded to the throne, transferring the abbacy to Kelso. In the latter 
he grants to the abbot and monks of Kelso ' the church of Selkirk,' and appoints the abbots to 
be his own, and his son's, and his successors' chaplains in that church.^ These and the charters of 
the succeeding reign, seem to refer to ttco churches, one on the site of the former abbey and another 
somewhere in the vicinity. Malcolm confirmed the charter of his grandfather David, relating to the 
transference of the abbey, to which he grants what his own charter terms ' the church of the other 
Selkirk.' 2 Another of his charters styles it simply ' the church of Selkirk.''' Malcolm's charter 
of confirmation was renewed by William the Lion in the same terms, and one charter by the 
latter merely mentions 'the parish of his town of Selkirk,''' but other charters granted during 
his reign distinctly prove the existence of tico churches at Selkirk.^ It is in these that we first 
meet with the distinctive appellations, ' ecclesia de Selkirk,' and ' ecclesia de alia (or altera) Sel- 
kirk.' In a charter of the reign of Alexander II. the same terms are used.'' In the reign of the 
same King, or in that of his successor, Alexander III., between 1243 and 1254, the two churches 
were known as those ' de Selkirk monachorum,' and 'de Selkirk regis,'* and before 1300 both 
the two churches and the two towns (villae) in which they were situated came to be distinguished 
by the names, ' Selkirk-regis,' and ' Selkirk-abbatis.'^ Little mention is made of the churches 
of Selkirk from that period till the Reformation, at which time, if not previously, one of them had 
been entirely suppressed, or the two united under the title of ' Selkrik Kirk.'"' 

In 1180, Bishop Joceline of Glasgow gave to the monks of Kelso all their churches within his 
diocese, including those of Selkirk and the parsonage of the same.^'^ Between 1195 and 1199 the 
donation of Joceline was confirmed by William the Lion.^^ And in 1232, Bishop AValter con- 
firmed to the monks all the churches in the diocese granted by his predecessors, with the parsonage, 
(fee, including those of Selkirk.'^ We first read of the vicarage during the usurpation of Edward 
I., to whom Richard, vicar of the church of Selkirk, swore fealty in 1296.'* In 1300, in the 
rent-roll of the abbey of Kelso, both the churches of Selkirk were held by the monks in rectory, 
i.e., the convent were rectors of both.i^ In 1425, William Middilmast was vicar of Selkirk, 
and held also of the family of Douglas (whose chaplain he was) the office of ' mastership of 
the ward of Yarrow.' i^ In 1489, the office of parish-clerk, with its perquisites, was the subject 
of dispute between Alexander Ker on the one hand, and Robert Scott in the Haining, and his son 
-lohn Scott, on the other. The controversy was at first debated in the Civil Court, in the 

' Morton's Monastic Annals, p. 77. Lib. de Calchou, " Lib. de Calehou, pp. 460, 471. Morton's Monastic 

p'eface. Hailes' Annals, vol. i., pp. 1 1 1, 11'2. Annals, p. 1G6, &c. 

■ Lib. de Calchou, p. 7. '° Lib. de Calehou, p. 491, &c. 

■' Lib. de Calchou, p. v. after Tabula. " Lib. de Calchou, pp. 318, 319. 

■• Lib. de Calchou, pp. 300, 301. '* Lib. de Calchou, p. 316. 

= Lib. de Calchou, pp. 13, 16. '^ Lib. de Calchou, pp. 229, 332. 

'i Lib. de Calchou, pp. 316, 318, 319. '■* Kaginan Rolls, p. 156. 

' Lib. de Calchou, pp. 229, 332. '' Lib. de Calchou, p. 471. 

" Lib. de Calchou, pp. 350, 351. '« Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. ii., nn. 60, 61. 



SELKIRK.] PAROCHIALES. 269 

judicial committee of Parliament ; but when its nature was disclosed, the Lords Auditors de- 
termined — ' Anent the actioun and caus persewit be Alexander Ker clamand to be perris-clerk 
of Selkirk againis Robert Scot, &c., ather of thaim clamit the said clerkschip to pertene to thaim, 
the lordis auditoris therefore referris the matter to be decidit before the Juge ordiner, sen thai 
contend upon the riclit of the said clerkschip, and it a spirituale actioun.'i 

Selkirk is not named in any of the ancient tax-rolls. In the ' rentall of the abbacie' of Kelso, 
1300, the rectory of Selkirk-regis is stated as wont to be valued at ^20 ; that of Selkirk-abbatis 
at 40S.2 In the rental of 1567 the vicarage is given at £66, 13s., id., and the ' Kirklands ' 
at 40s., probably the old revenue of the rectory of Selkirk-abbatis.^ The Book of Assumptions, 
1.561-1563, and the Books of Assignations, 1574-1579, give the third of the vicarage at £22, 4s. 
5id., corresponding with the rental of the same period. 

The ample revenues, first of the abbey, and afterwards of the church or churches of Selkirk, 
were wholly possessed by the monks of Kelso from the time of David I. till the Reformation. 
When that King had founded the abbey, 1113-1124, he endowed it first of all with ' the land of 
Selkirk,' bounded ' as a rivulet descending from the hills falls into the Gierua to that rivulet 
which descending from Crossinemara runs into the Twoda,' and beyond the rivulet falling into the 
Gierua, with ' a certain piece of ground between the road which goes from the castle to the abbey, 
and the Gierua, viz., towards the old town.' To these he added the liberty of fishing in the 
waters arouud Selkirk, and the free use of his pastures and woods. ^ On the transference of the 
abbey to Kelso, as before stated, the church of Selkirk was added, on condition that the abbots of 
Kelso should be the King's chaplains.^ Malcolm IV., in 1159, repeated and confirmed the grant.*' 
A slight variation in the wording of his charter makes part of the grant consist of ' the church of 
the other Selkirk, with half a ploughgate of land.' This half ploughgate, if not a portion of the 
land bestowed by David I., was at least in possession of the monks during his reign, as appears 
from a charter of Malcolm, in which he bestows on them ' the church of Selkirk, with the half 
ploughgate of land which in the time of David his grandfather lay scattered through the plain,' — 
but, because ' the half ploughgate thus scattered was of little use to them,' he gives them ' in the 
same town as nmch land together in one spot in exchange for the said land.' ' William the Lion, 
1165-1171, confirmed all these possessions to the monks, with the additional privilege, that no 
one should be allowed to distrain any goods on the grounds belonging to the abbey.^ William 
further conceded to the church of Kelso, ' that the places of his waste of Selkirk, to which he had 
transferred his men of Elrehope, as well as of the parish of his town of Selkirk, and all dwelling in 
these places, with all their possessions, should belong to the church of Selkirk as to their mother 
church ' — and, if in the same places a church or chapel with full baptismal and other rites should 
happen to be built, he gave it ' with all its just pertinents to the said church of Kelso.'^ In 1223 or 
1224, Alexander II. confirmed the privileges bestowed by William.^" The charter of Bishop Joceline, 

' Acta Auditorum, p. 14. '' Lib. de Calcliou, p. v. after Tabula. 

- Lib. de Calcliou, p. 471. ' Lib. de Calchou, pp. 300, 301. 

3 Lib. de Calchou, pp. 491, 494. ' Lib. de Calcbou, pp. 7, 8. 

* Lib. de Calchou, pp. 3, 4. ^ Lib. de Calchou, p. 16. 

5 Lib. de Calchou, pp. 6, 7. '" Lib. de Calchou, pp. 8, 9. 



270 ORIGINES [sei.kirk. 

1180, confirmed by William the Lion, and that of Bishop Walter in 1232, have been already 
noticed. In 1234 or 1235, Alexander II. gave to the monks of Kelso, for the perpetual sustenta- 
tion of the bridge of Ettrick, the land which Richard, son of Edwin, held on both sides of the 
water of Ettrick, and which he had quitclaimed to the King.^ At this bridge the conventual 
courts were afterwards held.'^ And all these possessions, described as the ' town of Selkirk, the 
churches de Selkirlc-monadiorum and de Selkirk-regis, with lands, tithes, and all pertinents,' 
were between 1243 and 1254 finally confirmed to the church of Kelso, by a bull of Pope 
Innocent IV.-* 

In 1300 the temporalities of the abbey of Kelso within the parish of Selkirk, or connected with 
it, according to its rent-roll, were as follow.'' In the ' tenement' of Selkirk-regis the monks 
had ' the land called the land of the bridge,' probably the grant of Alexander II., or an equiva- 
lent, consisting of 16 acres, and the 'pasture in Minchemoor.' They had also the town of 
Selkirk-abbatis, and therein one ploughgate of land in demesne, of the yearly value of ten marks 
— fifteen husband-lands, each one oxgang in extent and rented annually at four shillings, with 
nine days' work in harvest, two of the husbandmen or husbands being bound to furnish a cart or 
wagon for carrying peats from the moss to the abbey, and other two a horse for carriage be- 
tween the abbey and Berwick — sixteen cottagia, or ten acres of land, fifteen of which yielded per 
annum twelvepence each, and the remaining one two shillings, with the service of one man for 
nine days' work in autumn, and of another to assist in washing and shearing sheep — three brew- 
houses, each yielding fis. 8d. per annum, and a corn-mill yielding five merks — and without the 
mains, thirty detached acres yielding five shillings, and four acres, called the land of Richard Cute, 
of the yearly value of six shillings. The spiritualities of the abbey within the parish, according 
to the same roll, consisted in the rectorial tithes of the two churches, as given above, extending 
in all to £22 per annum.^ 

In 1567 the revenues of Kelso derived from Selkirk consisted of the yearly value of the kirk- 
lands and vicarage as above — of £10 from the lands of Quhitmure town, £5, 6s. 8d. from Quhit- 
mure-hall, £5 from Greenhead, and £5 from 'the altowue besyd hati'ik,' all included in the 
barony of Bolden — and of victual paid to the church of Selkirk by the owners of the lands in 
the parish, amounting to 1 boll wheat, 9 chalders, 1 boil, 2 firlots bear, and 16 chalders, 12 bolls, 
2 firlots meal — in all, 25 chalders, 15 bolls." 

Besides the church or churches of Selkirk, it does not appear that there was any church or 
chapel within the parish. But the monks of Melros had the enjoyment of certain possessions and 
perquisites within the district. The ' fishing' of Selkirk, first bestowed on them by Malcolm IV., 
1153-1165,^ was confirmed to them by AVilliam the Lion, 1 165-121 4,^ and by Alexander II. 
.ibout 1247.^ To the ' fishing' the last named monarch added seven acres of land, with buildings 
and meadow, pasture for S oxen and 8 cows, and liberty to take from the King's forest material 

' Lib. de Calehou, p. ?fO. ^ Lib. de Calchou, p. 471. Morton's Men. Annals, p. 171. 

- Lib. de Calcliou, p. 179. ' Lib. de Calchou, pp. 490, 491, 494, 514, &c. 

*> Lib. de Calchou, pp. 350, 351. ' Lib. de Melros, p. 10. 

■• Lib. de Calchou, pp. 41)0,462. Morton's Mon. Annals. '^ Lib. de Melros, p. 13. 

pp. 14G, 1C6. " Lib. de Melros, p. 236. 



SELKIRK.] PAROCHIALES. 271 

for the sustentation of their 'yhar,' or cruive. In 1426 the abbot and convent of Melros let 
to John Brydinson and Thomas Robynson, shoemakers, or the longer liver of them, ' a certai n 
tenement of theirs lying on the north side of the town of Selkirk and within the same town, and 
a croft of three acres pertaining to the foresaid tenement, with liberty of folding and pasture, 
and all pertinents.'^ The lease was for life, but coupled with the condition, ' that, if the abbot 
and monks should happen to come to the town, they should have a sufficient lodging, chamber, 
and stable, free of cost.' 

The church of Selkirk appears to have stood at all periods either in the town of Selkirk-abbatis, 
or in that of Selkirk-regis. The present structure is entirely raodern.- 

At what time Selkirk was first erected into a burgh is unknown. The charters of David I. 
mention ' the old town,' those of Malcolm IV. ' the town,' and William the Lion, in a charter 
.already quoted, terms it 'his town of Selkirk.' Courts were held here by King William in 
1204 and 1208,3 by Alexander II. in 1223, and by Robert I and David II. in the following 
century.* Charters were dated at Selkirk by Alexander II. in various years,^ and one was 
granted there by Randolph earl of Moray in 1319.® It was undoubtedly a burgh in the reign 
of King Robert the Bruce. In 132S the freeholders and huryesses of Selkirk, contributed to an 
a-ssessment levied 2'>ro reformatione pacis a tithe of their money, amounting to £14, 19s. .O^d." 
In 13G8-9 the customs of 'the burgh/ as accounted for by the chamberlain, amounted to £2-, 
13s. 4d.* In 1434 John Spare-the-dur, one of the bailies of Selkirk, rendered to the chamberlain 
an account of the firms and issues of the burgh, amounting to £,3, 6s. 8d., and of arrears from 
former account, £\, 13s. 4d — amounting in all to £,o? The items are as follow — 'Firms and 
issues of the burgh for Whitsunday and Martinmas 1433, £2, 17s. 4d. — Firms of the land of 

Gelchestanecroft in hands of the King, 6s. 8d. — Firms of the land of Crakwillis land, 4d. 

Firms of the land of Pele, 2s. — Firms of the land of Salsarland, 2d. — Firms of Comounwomanis 
land, 2d.' So early as the reign of .James HI., in 1469 and 1478, and thenceforward till that of 
James VI. in 15GS, we find a commissioner to serve in parliament returned by the burgh of 
Selkirk.i" 

No extant charter of the burgh dates before the reign of James V. in 1535. The charter then 
granted, proceeding on the narrative that former charters had perished, was enlaro-ed in 1 538 and 
1 540." A manuscript, dated 1 722, and copied by Macfarlane, states, that Selkirk is a very 
ancient royal burgh, and for the good service of its citizens was endowed with great privileges 
from the crown — that it was several times burned by the English — that King James IV. on his 

way to Flodden was accompanied by eighty of the burghers under command of tlie town-clerk 

that of these the clerk alone returned, bringing with him an English banner and battle-axe that 

King James V., when he came to the Forest of Selkirk to expel a certain outlaw, for the good 

' Lib. de Melros, pp. 546, 547. " Lib. de Melros, p. 387. 

- New Stat. Ace. " Compota Camerar., vol. i., p. 13. 

^ Lib. de Melros, pp. 91, 9"2, 137. Acta Pari. Scot., vol. " Compota Camerar., vol. i., p. 490. 

i., pp. 68*, 69*, &c. ■' Compota Camerar., vol. ili., pp. 270, 271. 

* Act. Pari. Scot., vol. i., p. 75*. Reg. Mag. Sig., pp. '" Acta Pari. .Scot., vol. ii., pp. 93, 121, and vol. iii p 

6,45. 49, &c. ' 

' Lib. de Melros, pp. 204, 216, &c. " Municipal Corporation Reports. 



272 ORIGINES [selkirk. 

services done by the burgh to his father at Flotlden granted it the liberty of making incorpora- 
tions, particularly an incorporation of ' sutours,' the privilege of a sheriffdom, with a power of 
repledging from any court spiritual or temporal, and the property of 10,000 acres of his Forest 
for maintaining the royalty, with liberty to cut as much wood as might suffice for rebuilding the 
town ; and that for the good service done by William Bryden, town-clerk, to James IV. at 
Flodden, he knighted both him and his successors.^ All this most probably refers to the charter 
of 1535, which seems to be the 'patent' noticed in the MS. as lying in the town's 'chartour 
chist.' It is said that the burgh arms, ' a woman in a forest lying dead at the root of a tree with 
a living child at her breast,' were granted by James V., on account of one of the burghers' 
wives, while her husband was at Flodden, having wandered out in hope of meeting him, and 
having died in the position represented.^ 

There was at Selkirk before 1124, in the time of David I., while yet Prince of Cumberland, a 
royal castle, the frequent residence of the Sovereigns of Scotland, and held in their absence by 
their Constable.^ 

The mill or mills of Selkirk are mentioned in 1292, at which time they were held by John le 
Taillur as farmer or firmar.* 

Adjacent to the burgh were certain lands, including or in some manner connected with the 
town's common, and with it forming part of ' the lands and lordship of Selkirk.'^ 

The town, castle, mills, lands, and common or pasture of Selkirk, formed at difl'erent periods, 
either conjunctly or severally, the subjects of royal or other grants. In 1302, Edward I., during 
his usurpation, granted to Aymer de Valence 'his castle of Selkirk, and also his manor and 
demesne lands of Selkirk and Traquair.'^ In 1309, Edward II. ordered the same Aymer 
de Valence earl of Pembroke to fortify the castle of Selkirk.'' In a charter of Robert I., 
about 1314, that monarch bestows on William Barbitonsor (or Barber), among other gifts, 
' the commonty of the pasture of the town of Selkirk, and the oflBce of the constabulary of 
Selkirk, to be enjoyed as in the time of his predecessor Alexander last defunct.'^ About 1322 
the same King granted to Henry Gelchedall the mill of Selkirk for two merks of silver.^ The 
town of Selkirk formed part of a grant by Edward III. to William de Montacute in 1335.1" David 
II., about 13G5, bestowed on Sir Robert de Dalyell 'all his lands of Selkirk with pertinents, 
except the annualrents and firms of the burgh due to the King, to be held by him and his heirs 
until the King or his heirs should infeft him in land of equal value in some competent place. ^^ 
Thomas Carnok, for his father's services and his own, also received from David II. a grant ' of 
his lands within Selkirk, and the mill thereof.'^- In 1388, Robert II. ordered his sheriff and 



' Macfarlane's Collections, vol. i., pp. 466, 467. ' Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 6. Philiphaugh Charters. Robert- 

= Macfarlane's Collections, vol. i., p. 468. son's Index, p. 5, no. 23. 

2 Lib. de Calchou, p. 4. Reg. Mag. Sig. Philiphaugh ' Robertson's Index, p. 21, no. 30. 

Charters. '" Rot. Scotiae, vol. i., p. 380. 

■• Rot. Scotiae, vol. i., p. !3. " Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 4.5. Robertson's Index, p. 34, no. 

= See Remarks on 'The Forest.' 16, and p. 79, no. 131. 

^ Palg. Illust., vol. i., p. 359. '^ Robertson's Index, p. 60, no. 12. 

' Rot. Scotiae, vol. i., p. 80. 



SELKIRK.] PAEOCHIALES. 273 

bailies of Selkirk to pay to Isabella, spouse of the late James earl of Douglas, Iier third part of all 
the lands and annual rents with pertinents, which belonged hereditarily to her husband within their 
bailiary, which he held of the King in chief, and of which be died vest and seized.^ Between 
1390 and liOfi Robert III. granted to John Gladstanes a charter of confirmation of the lands of 
Roberton and 'the toun of Selkirk,' resigned by Margaret Gladstanes his mother.^ In 1398 the 
same King confirmed by charter an infeftment granted by James Sandilands to George earl of 
Angus of certain projjerties, including ' the haill town of Selkirk.'^ In 1488 James IV. granted 
to George Douglas, son of Archibald earl of Angus, the lordships of Selkirk, and houses and 
fortalices of the same, with pertinents.* In 1547 Mary Queen of Scots granted to Archibald 
earl of Douglas, and James his son, a charter of the lands, lordship, and barony of Selkirk, with 
pertinents, for payment of one silver penny as blench-ferme.* These were all confirmed by 
another charter of Mary in 1564, ratified by act of parliament in 1567,^ and finally confirmed to 
William earl of Douglas, and his heirs, in 1602, in a charter de novo damns of King James VI.^ 
A part, however, of the same property belonged for a time to the Murrays of Philiphaugh, or 
Falahill, having been granted to them by James VI. in 1584, after the forfeiture of Archibald 
earl of Angus. In that year the King gave to Patrick Murray of Faulohill, and his heirs, eighteen 
husband-lands, lying within the lordship of Selkirk, the east mill and wester mains of Selkirk, 
and the easier mains of Selkirk, with grass-lands and cappon-lands, with all pertinents.* The 
small customs and burgh firms, along with the lands of Peelhill, of the old extent of 40s., and 
the office of sheriff of Selkirk, were in 1509 conferred by James IV. on John Murray of Fawlo- 
hill.9 In 1530 Patrick Murray was retoured heir in the same lands to his father James Murray, 
son of .John, who had been infeft therein in 1514, and they seem to have continued in the 
possession of the family for about two centuries thereafter.!" The lands of the lordship were of 
the old extent of J 13, 6s. Sd." 

The lands of Philiphaugh appear in record in the reign of Robert I., who in 1314 oranted to 
William Barbitonsor and his heirs the east part of the land of Fulhophalch and Schel^-rene bind- 
ing them either to pay to the miller one firlot of grain for every chalder, or to find him bis victual 
on the day they ground their corn.^^ This seems to be the piece of land afterwards known as 
' Barborisland,' and was of the old extent of £1, 13s. 4d.i3 In 1315 King Robert gave to William 
called Turnebul that piece of ground which lies on the west side of Fulhophalch, as far into The 
Forest as it was ploughed in past times, for a reddendo of one broad arrow at the feast of the 
assumption of the Virgin Mary." In 1524 James V. granted a precept of sasine in favour of John 
Turnebull, son and heir to Rudolph TurnebuU, in the five pound lands of Philipbaut'h.is In 1558 

' Lib. de Calchou, p. 408. "> Philiphaugh Charters. Retours. 

" Robertson's Index, p. U5, no. 15. " Taxt Roll of the Shireffdome of Selkirk. 

■■< Robertson's Index, p. 133, no. 7. '^ Reg. .Mag. Sig., p. 6. Robertson's Index, p. 5, no. 23. 

■> Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. xii., no. 91. Philiphaugh Charters. 

^ Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. xxx., no. 164. is Retours. 

" Acta Pari. Scot., vol. ii., p. 5K5, &c. " Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 6. Robertson's Index, p. B, no "3 

' Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. xliv., no. 22. Philiphaugh Charters. 

' Philiphaugh Charters. "> Philiphaugh Charters. 

' Philiphaugh Charters. 

2 M 



274 



ORIGINES 



[SELKI 



John TurnebuU was retoured heir to Janet TiirnebuU, his mother, in five acres of the lands within 
the territory of Philipliaugh, of the old extent of 5s.i These five acres were subsequently divided 
between the five heirs portioners of John Turnbull, each portion, according to the old extent, being 
valued at 12d.- 

The lands of Philiphangh belonged in the fifteenth century to a family of the name of Ilopprin- 
gill.3 In 1461 they were granted by James III. to John de Moravia of Faulohill, probably the same 
who, in 1467, was along with John Turnbull appointed to make a retour of rents within the county.* 
In 1477, 1480, 1482, 1486, and 1492, various parts of them were purchased from difierent indivi- 
duals by Patrick Murray of Fawlawhill.5 In 1514 William Jenkinson, for a sum of money paid 
him in his necessity by James Murray of Fawlahill, granted the latter a charter of five acres of 
land with pertinents, lying in the territory of Philiphaugh, to be held of the king and his succes- 
sors.^ In the same year James JMurray, brother and heir of the deceased John Murray of Fal- 
lohill, was by a precept of King James V. seized in the tower and lands of Philiphaugh, extend- 
ing to a four pound land with pertinents, lying in the town and territory of Philiphaugh, and in 
20s. annual rent of the lands of William Jenkinson.' In 1528 James Murray of Fawlahill re- 
signed to the crown, in favour of Patrick his son and heir, the whole lands of Philiphaugh, with 
tower, fortalice, &c., and 21 husband-lands, with pertinents lying within the burgh of Selkirk, — 
and in 1529 King James V. bestowed these lands by charter on the same Patrick.* In 1535 
Patrick Murray resigned in favour of Agnes countess of Bothwell, and Robert lord Maxwell 
her husband, 12^ acres of the lands of Philiphaugh, in lieu of ^612 Scots, due by the said Patrick 
and his father James for the rents of Capirstane uplifted by them, and James V. in the same 
year gave the said Countess and her husband a charter of the said acres, which they in their turn 
resigned in 15.37 in favour of JNIalcolm lord Fleming, for a sum of money due him by them.'' In 
1582 Patrick Jlurray, grandson and heir to Patrick Murray of Faulohill, was seized in all and 
whole the lands of Philiphaugh, with the tower, fortalice, manor-place, garden, orchard, and mills 
of the same, with pertinents, extending annually to a four pound land lying in the town and ter- 
ritory of Philiphaugh.'" In 1576 the teind-sheaves of Philiphaugh and Hairhead were let to 
Patrick Murray and his heirs for £b per annum, and in 1594 for £20." In the beginning of the 
seventeenth century the lands of Philiphaugh, of the old extent of £\Q, were equally divided be- 
tween Murray of Falahill and Turnbull of Howden.'^ 

Peter of Cokburne, son and heir of Peter of Cokburne, (probably of the family of Henderland,) 
had in 1384 a grant from King Robert II. of certain lands resigned by his father to the King, 
including the lands of Sunderland with the manor of the same.'^ In 1463 the lands of Sunder- 
land-hall, which seenf to have belonged to the same family, and were forfeited by AVilliam Cok- 
burn for abetting ' the tratour James of Douglas,' were bestowed by James III. on William 



^ Retours. 
- Retours. 
^ Philiphaugh Charters. 

* Philiphaugh Charters. 
5 Philiphaugh Charters. 

* Philiphaugh Charters. 
' Philiphaugh Charters. 



" Philiphaugh Charters. 

^ Philiphaugh Charters. 
'» Philiphaugh Charters. 
" Philiphaugh Charters. 
IS Ta.\t Roll of the Shireffdome of Selkirk. 
" Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 163. 



SELKIRK.] PAROCHIALES. 275 

Douglas of Clunj, and with some other lands erected into the barony of Sunderland-hall,' which 
he retained for at least some years.^ Early in the seventeenth century half of the lands of Sun- 
derland and Sunderland-hall, of the old extent of £5, belonged to John lord Fleming, and the 
other half, of the same extent, to James Lauder of that Ilk.^ 

The lands of the Haining were in 1491 possessed by Robert Scott, but claimed by William 
Cokburn, son and heir of the laird of Langton, who in that year brought an action against the 
former ' fTor the wrangwis occupatioun and manuring of the forest stede of the Haining wythin 
the forest of Ettrik be the space of thre yeris bigane, and for the wrangwis vptaking and wyth- 
halding of the proiEtis of the said stede be the said thre yeris extending to iij^'' of lib.'* Both 
parties claimed the property in virtue of a crown lease, Cokburn from James IV"., and Scott from 
James III. In 1500 David Hoppringill of Tynneis, in conjunction with John Murray of Faulo- 
hill, had a tack of the Haining from James IV. for a period of nine years, 'payand therfor all 
maills and grassumes and dewties aucht and wont and as our rental proports, and keipand our 
said steid forest like as effeiris,' with power to make subtenants.^ In 1611 the Haining with 
'the loch of the same' was the property of Robert Scott ,8 and in 1G28 was retoured by his 
Majesty's commissioners at the extent of £6 and 8d.' 

Greenhead was possessed in the fourteenth century by a family of the same name, on whose 
forfeiture it was bestowed by David II. on William Broun.** 

In 1471 Thomas Turnebull was proprietor of Fawlishope." In 1628 the royal commissioners 
returned Fauldishope, easter and wester, then the property of the Earl of Buccleuch, at the united 
extent of £7, Ss." 

Hairhead was in 1509 let for nine years by James IV. to John Murray of Faulohill and 
another tenant.!^ The tack was in 1514 renewed by Queen Margaret to James Jlurray of Faulo- 
hill, and in 1526 and 1531 the same Queen granted a five years' lease respectively to the same 
James Slurray and Patrick his son.'^ In 1628 Hairhead was retoured as the property of Sir 
John Murray of Philiphaugh, at the extent of £12, Is. 2d.i3 

Redhead, or Whytbank, the ancient forest-stead of the ward of Tweed, was by a charter of 
King James IV. in 1510, in terras similar to the Elibank charter of 1511,'* bestowed on David 
Hoppringill and Margaret Lundin his spouse.'^ Xhis property, which has ever since remained in 
the family, was in 1628 retoured at £6, IDs. od.i" 

Hadderslie, Hathirle, or Iledderle, including Batts, Mauldisheuch, and probably Mauldishauch, in 
1552 formed a distinct lordship, part of which was at the time possessed by Robert Scott of Wam- 
fray.i' Mauldisheuch and Mauldeshaugh were in 1601 the property of John Murray of Fallow- 

' Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. vi., no. 76. '" Retoured E.xtent of Ettriek Forest. 

- Aet.\ Pari. Seot., vol. ii., p. 88. " Philiphaugh Charters. 

' Ta.\t Roll of the Shireffdome of Selkirk. '-' Philiphaugh Charters. 

■■ Acta Dom. Cone., pp. 208, 209. '3 E.\tent of Ettriek Forest. 

^ Philiphaugh Charters. '-i See Yarrow. 

" Retours. "^ Charter penes A. Pringle, Esq., of Whytbank. 

' Retoured E.\teiit of Ettriek Forest. "5 Extent of Ettriek Forest. 

" Robertson's Index, p. .SI, no. 33, and p. 36, no. 24. " Philiphaugh Charters. 

^ Aeta Aud., p. 18. 



276 ORIGINES [selkirk. 

hill, by whom they were inherited from his father Patrick. ^ Hadderslie with Batts was about 
1600 a five pound land of old extent, the property of Andrew Ker of Yair.^ 

The lands of Howden, pertaining in the sixteenth or seventeenth century to Mark Turnbull, 
were of the old extent of £5.^ Those of Todrig, held at the same period of William lord Tester 
by Walter Scott of Todrig, were of the old extent of £10.* 

Of the remaining lands of the parish, with the exception of Newark, Old Wark, and Carter- 
haugh, of which it is stated in an old MS. inventory of Philiphaugh papers John Murray of Falo- 
hill had a grant from Queen Margaret in 1518, we have little or no account previously to the re- 
tour of the King's commissioners in 1628. In their roll of properties we find Newark mill, £1, 8s. 
8d; Auldwark, £5, 13s. 7d. ; Cairterhaugh, .£8, lis. lOd. ; Blackgranes, £16, 16s. 8d.; Fastheuch, 
£7, 3s. 3d.; Fawsydes, £6, 6s. lOd. — retoured as the property of the Earl of Buccleuch ; Wil- 
liamhope, £6, 4s. 2d., Sir Patrick Murray of Elibank ; Yair, probably including Craig,^ £14, 8s., 
Andrew Ker of Yair ; Middlestead and Blackmiddiugs, £7, 4s. 7d., Gilbert Elliot of Stobbs ; 
Hartwoodmyres, £6, 13s. 8d., Eobert Scott of Hartwoodmyres ; Hartwoodburn, £6, 4s. 2d., 
Walter Scott of Quhythauch ; Aikwood, or Oakwood, probably the Aolintour of the rental of 
Kelso," £6, 13s. 8d. ; Southbowhill, £3, 6s. lOd., Walter Murray of Aikwood; Northbowhill, 
£3, 4s. 6d., Robert Scott of Bowhill ; Braidmeadows, £7, 19s., Andrew Scott of Braidmeadows ; 
Blackhauch, £7, 12s. 9d., Alexander Mitchelstoun of Bluckhauch. 

Only two ancient castles, those of Newark on the Yarrow and Oakwood on the Ettrick, now 
remain.^ In 1722 the old tower of Shaws was still to be seen.^ Newark, which is said to have 
superseded the Auld Werke, was in 1476-78 bestowed by James III. on his Queen Margaret, as 
part of her third of the property and revenues of the kingdom according to her marriage contract.* 
In 1489 it was in possession of Alexander Hume, great chamberlain of James IV.,'" and in 1503 it 
formed part of the dower bestowed by that monarch on his Queen. " In later times it was the resi- 
dence of Anne duchess of Buccleuch, and is the supposed scene of ' The Lay of the Last Minstrel.' 

The banner and halbert, said to be taken from the E