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p. W. j;OYCE, LL.D. 

Out 0/ Hie Coiiniiissioiiers /brlhf ruUicalion oj the Ancient Laws of Jrela?t<t 

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uiLie peasa an emiMN c)i$— 

;, An addition of knowledge 
ON TToi.Y Ireland: — Tliosc were 
the first words of Gillii-ua-Neeve 
O'lleeren, when he undertook to 
complete the description of Ireland^ 
which his predecessor, John O'Dugan, 
had left unfinished ; and they form a very suitable 
motto for the book I now offer to the notice of the 
public. For this book completes the work that 
was only half accomplished by the first Volume of 
**The Origin and History of Irish Names of 

"When I first took in hand to write a book on 
Irish Local Names, I thought I could grasp the 
whole subject in a single volume ; and in the 
attempt to do so, I compressed as much matter 

iv Preface. 

iuto tlic First Volume as auy readable book of the 
size could conveniently bold. I found, however, 
after it was written, that I had used little more 
than half my materials, and that there were many 
things requiring elucidation, which I had not been 
able so much as to glance at. 

The first book was received favourably, much 
more so, indeed, than I had ever dared to antici- 
pate ; and this encouraged me to contiuue the 
work. The result is the present volume ; and I 
earnestly hope it may be found as worthy of public 
favour as its predecessor. 

These two volumes comprise what I have to say 
concerning Irisli Local Naiiios ; for J hiivo noticed 
all [the principal circumstances that were taken 
advantage of by the people of this country to 
designate places ; and I have explained and illus- 
trated, as far as lay in my power, the various laws 
of name-formation, and all the important root- 
words used in building up the structure. 

I have employed throughout tliis volume the 
methods of investigation described in the first 
chapter of the First Volume, rendered, I may be 
permitted to hope, less liable to error by stricter 
precautions, closer investigation, and more ex- 
perience. In that chapter I enumerated my 
principal sources of information, and I need 
not repeat them here. Only 1 think I ought 
to mention once more that chief among them 
are the works of O'Donovan, especially his mag- 
nificent edition of " The Annals of the Four 
Masters." which no one can do without who 

Preface. T 

wishes to study Irish literature, history, or topo 
graphy ; and those of the Eev. Dr. Reeves, which 
seem to exhaust every subject they touch on. I 
have re-read every page of these, with what 
profit the reader may judge by the number of 
references to them in this book. I have also 
derived much information from the recently pub- 
lished Lectures of O'Curry on the manners and 
customs of the ancient Irish, edited by W. K. 
Sullivan, Th. D. 

It would have been extremely interesting to 
compjiro our place-names with those of other 
countries, and to point out curious parallels and 
instances of striking similarity of laws. Oppor 
tunities for doing so occurred in almost every 
page of this book ; but I thought it better to 
adhere to the plan pursued in the First Volume, 
viz., to confine myself to what I understood best, 
the local names of my own country, leaving to 
other hands the work of comparison and general- 

I have now to perform the pleasant duty of 
acknowledging the help of my literary friends. 
The Rev. AVilliam Reeves, D.D. ; the Rev. Thad- 
dcus 0']\lahony, D.D. ; and William M. Ilenness^^ 
Esq., IM.R.I.A., three men profoundly skilled in 
the subject here treated of, read my proof-sheets; 
not a mere superficial glance, but a close and 
critical perusal, that made it very hard for an 
incorrect statement or any error of consequence 
to pass imnoticed. They were, moreover, always 
ready to assist and advise whenever I found it 

vi Preface. 

necessary to ask for tlieir opinions on special 
points. It is abnost needless to add that though 
I often ventured to dissent from their views, yet 
in numerous cases their criticisms led to impor- 
tant modifications. 




































Chapter XVIII- 






-The Growth of Words 1 

-Diminutives, 18 

-Borrowed Words, 45 

-Poetical and Fancy Names, .... 62 

-Diseases and Cures, 74 

-Offices and Trades. 90 

-Strangers, 122 

-Irish Personal and Family Names, . . 127 

-Nicknames 159 

-English Personal and Family Names, IG7 

-Articles of Manufacture 174: 

-Boundaries and Fences, 210 

-Various Artificial Works 217 

-The Sun, 23G 

-The Atmosphere, 246 

-The Sea, 255 

-Colon ivs 266 

-The Animal Kingdom, 289 

-The Vegetable Kingdom, .: ... 318 

-The Mineral Kingdom, ...... 36G 

viii Contents. 


CiiAPTKii XXT.— The Surface of tho Liuul, . . . . 380 

CiiAPTUR XXII.— QuagmircB aud Wutory Places, . . . 388 

CuAPTEaXXIII.— Size; shape, 413 

CuAi'TEit XXIV.— Situation, 441 

CiiAi'TER XXV.— The Cardinal Points, 447 

OiiAi'TEU XXVI.— Various Qualities and Circuuastances, 458 

Index op Names, 489 

Ihdkx op Root Woeds, 631 




.HERE are many termina- 
tions or suffixes, in the 
Irish, as in other lan- 
<^iiii^(\s, by wliicli viirious 
new words are formed from 
one root, growiiif^ out liko 
iho brnnches of a tree from 
the same stem. It is not 
necessary in this place to enter 
on an examination of all these terminations ; I in- 
tend to notice merely those that are found in our 
local names, to explain their meanings as far as I 
can, and to illustrate tlicir use by examjjlcs. By a 
careful study of their laws, their combinations, and 
their various changes of form, we are often enabled 
to explain the formation of names which would 
otherwise be puzzling or imintelligible. 

An attentive examination of the terminations of 
<ho Irinh language would have saved many ety- 
mologists, ancient as well as modern, from error : 
VOL. 11. 2 

2 The Growth of Words. [(.hap. i. 

for tliey liavo in numerous cases mistaken mere 
postfixes for separate roots ; and Lave made com- 
pounds of words that are in reality simple, by 
slightly altering the old authentic forms to suit 
their own theories. One of the host examples of 
this deceptive process is Clogher, already examined 
(see First Volume). Flann of the Monastery re- 
solves the name of (ho ancient palace of Ailcach 
(see Ellagh, 1st Vol.) into ail, a stone, and ncli, a 
sigh ; and Micliael O'Clery, one of the Four 
Masters, derives the same name (which is applied 
to a circular stone fortress) from ail, a stone, and 
teacJi, a house — ail-theach, stone house — a conjec- 
ture which looks })lausible enough. But they are 
both undoubtedly in error ; for the eaclt, tis 
O'Ourry remarks (Lectures, TI., 153), is nothing 
more Lhiai tlio suHix ach : — ailcavh, stony, a slony 
edifice. Erin has been resolved into lar-in, wes- 
tern land ; but the n is a mere grammatical 
termination ; and the most ancient written form of 
the name is Eriu, of which the genitive is Erenn, 
dative Erinn (see Chap. xxvi.). 

Several of the folloAving postfixes have not been 
noticed before ; but I take them as I find them in 
names ; and it is our business to show how they 
pervade the language, and if possible to account 
for them. How far some of them may bo com- 
pounds, or how far some of the letters composing 
them may be the result of mere phonetic cliango 
rather than of etymological descent, may admit of 
question. The whole subject Avould repay a fur- 
ther examination, and it would be interesting to 
compare the Irish suiHxes with their cognates 
in other Indo-European languages ; but what I 
have said in this chapter will, I hope, bo con- 
sidered quite sufiicient for the purpose I have in 

CHAP. I.] The Orotcth of Words. 3 

Before proceeding further it is necessary to 
notice a peculiarity of Irish pronunciation, which 
often modifies words by the addition of letters 
having no signification. There are certain con- 
sonants Avhich in the Irish language do not 
coalesce in sound when they come together in a 
word, so that when they are pronounced, a short 
vowel is heard between them — a sort of phonetic 
buUer — to prevent the disagreeable clash of two 
incompatible consonantal sounds. When for in- 
stance scan [shan] old, is joined to m/sm*? [cashel], 
a circular stone fort, a short vowel sound is uttered 
between the n and the c, and the compound — Sean- 
cliaiscal, old stone fort — is pronoimced in four 
syllables, Shanacashcl, the name of some places in 
Cork and Kerry. Sometimes this vowel does not 
appear in anglicised names, as in Shancashlaim, 
old castle, in the parish of Kilmaganny, in Kil- 
kenny. It is unnecessary to ilkistrate this principle 
any farther bcrc, as numerous exam])les of its 
<)[)ciiitl()U will bo loiiiid in tbo names occurring in 
this and the next chapter. (See also O'Donovan's 
Irish Gramnuir, p. 57.) 

Ach, lack, nach, rack, tach, track, seaeh. All these 
postfixes have a collective signification when placed 
after noims, and generally convey the sense of 
" full of," " abounding in," much the same as the 
English postfixes./?f/, y, and ous. In Irish writings, 
especially if they be ancient, these terminations 
are often written cch, lech, &c. ; and sometimes, in 
compliance with a grammatical custom, they are 
changed to each, /each, &c. ; but these changes 
do not influence the anglicised forms. 

Ach. This is the most common of all Irish ter- 
minations, and its most usual form in anglicised 
names is a(/h, wliicli is sounded with a strong 
guttural by the people, but pronounced ah by those 

4 The Qron-th of Words, '[oiiap. i. 

who cannot souiicl tlio gutliiral. Scart nK^ma a 
brake or scrubby place ; and Scarlagb, the namo 
of a place near Clonaldlty in Cork, signifies a place 
covered with brakes — a bushy spot. From drai(//icn 
[dreen] the blackthorn or sloebush, we have 
draiglineclt, a place abounding in blackthorns ; and 
this again compounded withe///, church, gives Cill- 
draiyhncch (so written in the Irish Calendars), tlie 
church of the sloe-bushes. It was one of the 
churches of St. Ernin or Mernoc (died, a, d. 635), 
who is mentioned by Adamnan in his Life of St. 
Columba, and who gave name to Inchmarnock and 
to the t-Avo Kilmarnocks in Scotland. This church 
has left its name on a townland, now called Kil- 
dreenagh, in the parish of Dunleckny in Carlow, 
near Bagonalstown. 

In the parish of Kilrossanty in Waterl'ord, 
there is a valley into which several glens converge, 
each carrying a stream from the surrounding 
mountains. The word comar or cummer, in one of 
its significations, is applied to the meeting of 
streams or glens ; and this valley has got the very 
approi)riate name of Comeragh, a place of comars 
or confiuences. Moreover, it was in former days 
an im[K)rtant place, and as such, gave name lo the 
Comeragh mountains by which it is surrounded. 
The river that flows from Lough Derriana to 
Lough Currane, near Ballynaskelligs bay in Kerry, 
is called Cummeragh, the river of the glens or 

In accordance with the principle examined in 
the First Volume (Parti. Chap. ii.,soct. vii.), this 
termination very of ten appears in the Irish oblique 
form, aigh, which is pronounced like the English 
postfix y, and is often changed to it in anglit:iscd 
names. Ahlial [oul] is an apple, or an apple tree. 
Ouley (Irish Ab/ialaigh), a place full of apple trees, 

CH-u'. I.] The Groivth of Words. 5 

tlio name of a townland near Ballyhaise in Civan, 
and of two others in Down, one near Saiuttield, 
and tlie other three miles from Ratlifriland. 

The ternn'iintion rrch is often added on to a word 
for no apparent reason except to form "a sort of 
finish," withont in anj^ way ehanoing- tlio meaning 
of the word ; but it is probable that this is a 
remnant of an ohl formation, whose proper use has 
been lost in the course of ages. Thus smol, a 
thrush, is in the spoken language more generally 
called smolach ; sfor (treasure) is often made 
sfoivch, as in the connnon term of cndearnu'ut, 
asforach. Lios [lis] a fort, is occasionally length- 
ened to /mac/f, as we see it in Lissaghmore (great 
fort) in the parish of Agivey in Derry ; and in Lis- 
saghanedan near Ardagh in Longford, the fort of the 
edan, or hill-brow. JDiin is similarly augmented in 
Doonaghboy, near Kilkee in Clare, the yellow du7i 
or fort — yellow probably from furze blossoms. 

LacJi. This has still the same general meaning — 
" aboimding in ; " but some of the following ex- 
amples will show that like ach, it is occasionally 
a llixed to words without adding much, or anything, 
to the meaning. Its most correct anglicised form 
is /of/h, and we find this in such names as Muclagh, 
a place of mucs or pigs, Broclagh, a place fre- 
quented by brocs or badgers. (See 1st Vol. Part II., 
c. VII.). Near Edgeworfhstown in the county 
liongford there is a townland called Cranalagh. 
Hero iho shorf, a is inserted in accordance witli the 
principle explained at pngc 3 ; and the name sig- 
nifies a place full of cranufi or trees. Garravlagli, 
the name of a place in the parish of Tagheen in 
Mayo, signifies rough or coarse land, from garbh 
[garrav], rough. 

This allix more connnonly appears in an oblique 
form {laitjii, pron. lee), as in Garrifly in Fer- 

6 Tlie Growth of Words. [ciiai-. i 

inanngli and ]\[»)niigliau, wliicli is the samo as iho 
name last ineiitioned ; Cranally in the parish of 
Abheylura in Ijonoford, ilie same as Cranalagli. 
IhiKildy ill Aniiagli and IMonaghan in tlio same us 
Braeldagh in other coiinlies, and signifies u 
spceliled phioo {brcdc, spoelded). ]*]dentrinuly in 
llio parish of (;h)nalhin in Down, soulh-east oL' 
Newry {edan, a broAV, tram, the ekler), is the hill 
brow of the elder trees. 

Nach : usual anglicised forms, nagh, ney and ny. 
This postfix is well exhibited in Longharnagh, a 
townland near Galway bay in the north-west of 
the barony of Kiltartan, anciently one of the seats 
of the family of O'l 103^10 : for the Irish form avo 
have the authority of Mac Firbis (ITy F. p. (i8), 
who writes it Liuu'Jiarnacli, meaning rushy land, 
from luachair, rushes. Another very good illus- 
tration is Sawnagh, the name of a place near 
Portumna in Galway ; SamJinach, a place abounding- 
in samh [saw] or sorrel. Bracknagh, Brackcnagh 
(vowel sound inserted — page 3), and Bracknoy, 
the names of many placets in various counlies, 
same meaning- as Bracklagh — a s})eckled place 
(from hreae). In the parishes of Lackagh and 
Rathangan in Kildare, llu-ro are two towidands 
called Mynagh ; and in Meath, Tyrone, and Oavan, 
there are several places called Moynagh ; all 
meaning a level place, fiom mfujh, a plain ; while 
with the diminutive, the name becomes Moynaghan 
(small level spot) near Irvincstown in Fermanagh. 
From mothar [mohor] a thicket or a ruin of a 
building, comes Mohernagh near Shanagolden in 
Limerick, a place of thickets or ruins. In the 
parish of Moynoe in Clare, four miles north of the 
village of Scarriff, there is a mountain called 
Turkenagh, the name of which is derived from 
korc, a boar, and signifies a resort of wild boars; 

CTiAP. I.] The Growth of Words. 7 

like ]\[uckeiiagli, from muc, a pig, Brockenagli, 
from hroc, a badger (see these in Isfc Vol.). Ex- 
actly in the same way is formed the name of 
TTshnagh ITill, in tlic parish of Conry in West- 
iiuvilh, (•rl(>hraiod in nnciont Irish liistory — the 
point where the provinces met, and wliere King 
Tuathal tl\e Acceptable built a palace and estab- 
lished a fair in the first centur3^ In the oldest 
authorities the name is spelled Uisncch, which 
comes from o-?, a fawn (inflected to uis by a well 
known orthographical rule, just as it is in the 
proper name Oixiii), and signifies a place of fawns. 
The Dinnsranchfis indeed accounts for the name 
difCercntly (see O'Cnrry — licctures, I. 191) ; but 
the story tliere told is quite Avorthless as an 
authority, so far as the etymology of the name is 
concerned. There is another place with this name, 
now called Usnagh, in the parish of Clogherny in 

Jfarh : anglicised forma rar/h and r>/. Numerous 
examples might be cited of its use in the Irish 
language : but it will be sufiicient to quote the 
term ii/aif/hrrrh, used by OMIeercn (page 00, 
verse 6) to signify level land, from niagh, a plain. 

South of Millstrect in Cork, is the weU-known 
range called tlie Boggeragh hills (vowel sound 
inserted between g aud r — page 3), whose name 
is truly descriptive, signifying a soft or boggy 
])lace. Tlioso who visit Lough Gill near Sligo 
cannot fail to notice the demesne of Clcavcragh 
near the lake, about a mile from the town, whose 
name indicates either that basket makers lived and. 
grew osiers for their trade there at some former 
time, or that people used hurdles or rude wicker- 
work bridges to cross the river or the marshy spots 
near it : cliahh [clceve] a basket or hurdle. Cleavry 
in the parish of Kilmacallen in the same county, 

8 The Qrowth of Words. [chav. i. 

and Cliovvagh near Listowcl in Kerry, have llio 
same origin ; Drunicleavry in Rosconnnon, near 
the village of Drumsna, tie ridge of the baskets 
or Imrdles, Foydragh in the parish of Aghavca, 
Fermanagh, signifies literally a place of sods {jod, 
a sod), i.e. a spot whose surface is smooth and 

Tach. This Irish postfix is nol^ so common us 
the preceding, but it occurs often enough to assort 
its place as a distinct termination. In that part 
of the parish of Taghboy lying in the county 
Galway, there is a townland called Clytagh, a name 
which means a place of dykes or fences — cladli 
[cly] a dyke. A little stream called Oilliagli runs 
down the slope of Table Mountain into the Glen 
of Imaile in Wicklow, and joins the 81aney near 
its source: the nauio sigiiilies clilVy, from <iill,u 
cliif. Kcatagh in the parish of Fenoagh in Water- 
ford, a little below Carrick-on-Suir, means plain, 
open, or cleared land, from reidh [rea], a plain or 
open place. The oblique form appears in Kilros- 
santy, a parish in AVaterford, the name of which 
grew up in this way : — ros, a wood; rosmn (dimin.), 
little wood or brushwood ; rossanfach, a place over- 
grown with underwood ; Kilrossanty, the church 
of the woody or shrubby place. 

Track. This termination occurs very often in 
the forms tmyh and tra, and in the oblique form 
tt'}j. Omlcanntrach is a name frequently used in 
the Irish annals, signifying- a place of cui/ciiti or 
liolly (see Cullentra, 1st Vol.). Fostragh in I;ong- 
ford and Ivoscounnon, a, wildiirness {ivom/ds — hco 
1st V^ol.), the same as Fastry, the name of two town- 
lands in Monaghan. From /is, a fort, we have 
Hostvach (like liosach, p. 5), and this again goes 
to form Listraghee in the parish of Clonbroney 
m Longford, the fort of Aedh [Ay] or Hugh; 

cjiAi'. I.] The. Growth of Words. 9 

as well as Lis(TabeagnY,near the town of Monagli- 
an, JE(/)i(ich's or Eagiiv's fort. The oblique form 
is seen in Coultry near Santry in Dublin, a place 
of ro/k or hazels. 

iSi'iK'// [sha<>]\]. Tin's iR not very common in 
local names, but it is often used as a kind of 
feminine termination. Its use is illustrated in the 
word dimeach, in common use to signify a female 
fool. The corresponding word for a male fool is 
amaddn (see Chap. ix.). Tlie root of both is on, an 
old word, meaning a fool, from which comes 
oiihscach directl3^ From on comes onmit, another 
old word for a fool ; and from this again onniitan, 
which has been modernised to amaddn. From 
GaJl, a foreigner, we have GaiUseach, which is 
constantly used Irish writings to signify an 
EnglisliAvoman ; and this again is reproduced in 
Eallynagalshy {Bailc-na-Gailhighe) the name of a 
townland in the ]iarish of Castlejordan in Meath, 
the town of <li<> Englishwoman. IJut i^caeh is in 
many (^ases used in nuu'h the same nunmer as <bo 
preceding terminations. Ban signifies a green 
field ; and Bainacach means a level spot coverc^d 
with grass, which gives name to all those places 
now called Bansha and Banshy ; Derrynabaimshy 
in the parish of Attymass, Mayo, and Coobiabanch 
(shortened from Ooobiabanshy) near Clonaslee, in 
Queen's County, the oak-wood, and the hill-back, 
of the grassy plain. Kolsha near Baltinglass in 
Wicklow (written Quylshagh in some inquisitions) 
is the anglicised form of Coilkcach, underwood or 
brush wo(h1, from coill, a wood. 

I have classed all the preceding terminations 
together, because they correspond generally in 
meaning, and because the first of them, ach, forms 
the ending of all iho. rest. But there are some 
others, differing entirely in formation, and some- 

10 The Growth of Words. [chap. i. 

what diirorout in iiicauiiio-, which I will now 

Char or chor. This postfix conveys u curanla- 
tive sense, which is well seen in Bctniclior, a col- 
lection of pciiks or g-ahles, from bcaiui, a peak 
(see TJanaghor, 1st Vol.). Exiictly similar in 
formation to lliis, is Craniiglun-, in tho ]) ot 
Olooney in Olare, which is ang-licised from Crititn- 
char, as Banagher from Bcnnchor, and signilios a 
place of cniiDis or trees. So also from (jrcan 
[gran] gravel, we have granaglter, a gravell}'^ 
place, which forms again Gortnagranagher in 
Mayo and Tvimerick, tho giavelly fiiild {(/orf). 
Tliero is a small river in tho counly Leitrim, 
flowing fiom lielhavcl lake into tho north-wt>st 
(!orner of Lough Alhni ; it was fornieily cilh'*] 
tho Dull', hut it ia now known by tlio e([iiivalcnt 
name, Diffagher, which very well represents tho 
sound of Duibheachair {ea, vowel sound, inserted), 
black river, from duhh, black. The celebrated 
plague called the yellow sickness, which swept 
over the British Islands and tlie Oonlinent in the 
seventh century, is sometimes called bitidheachair 
in the Irish annals. This word is reproduced in 
the name of Cloonboygher near Carrigallen in 
Leitrim ; but here it is probable that the term 
was applied to the yellow colour of the water or 
of the mud ; and that the name means the 
meadow of the yellowish Avater (bnidhe, yellow). 

Bhar, bhre. These two terminations, one of 
which apjicars to be only a varied form of the 
other, have nmch the same meaning as the last, 
that is, they convey a cimiulative sense. The 
second form appears in Dairbhrc, a place; of oalcs 
{dair, an oak), which has been already discussed 
(see Darrery, Ist Vol.). 

From the first, bhar, is formed Darver (Darbhar), 

CHAP. I.] The Growth of Words. 11 

the name of a parish in Louth, which also means 
a pLace producinfi: oaks. Dnil/e [dullia] signifies 
the leaf of a tree; duiUcnhliar [cliUavcr, dilhire], 
an Irish word in constant nsc, foliage : Lisdillure 
in the pniisli of Drum in lioscommon, south-west 
from Athlone, must have received its name from 
an old fort covered with leafy trees — Lios-duiUca- 
hhair, the Us of the foliage. The word itself 
gives name to the river Delour joining the Nore 
west of Mountrath, which, judging from the name, 
nuist have formerly flowed through a well-wooded 
district. In tlio north, th(^ A\ord is usually 
shortened to dillur : Tattendillur near Maguire's 
]»ridge in hVrmanagh, signifies the frdr or field of 
the foliage ; Corradillar in the parish of Agha- 
lurcher in the same county, leafy little hill (ror). 
Duillc is also used to signify leafiness in Knocka- 
dilly in the parish of Killincoolj'^ in AVexford, the 
hill of the foliage; while the adjective form 
diiillrarh (fiu-jued l)y adding tlio termination <trh, 
for which see page 3), signifying leafy, a leafy 
place, gives name to the lake and townland of 
Dillagh, situated ahout two miles south of the 
village of Bellananagh in Cavan, 

Re, aire. Piy an inspection of some of the fol- 
lowing examples, it will appear that the second of 
these is derived from the first merely by the in- 
sertion of the phonetic vowel (p. 3) : both convey 
a cunudative sense, which is seen very clearly in 
the word hchr, spcecli, from hel, the mouth. There 
is a fownland called Fodry on the Atlantic coast 
wilhin f wo miles of Loop Head in Clare, the name 
of which is pronounced Foidre by the people, and 
signifies a place with a smooth green surface, 
literally a place of fods or sods. Craggora in the 
parish of Kilgarvan in Mayo, is a nnspronuncia- 
tion for Cnagaire [Knaggcra : k sounded] a hard 

12 The Qroivlh of Words. [ciiAi'. i. 

lilllo liill ; iiiul iliis in diii-ivcd IVoni (^ik/ij, u kiiol), 
which gives uaine to the liill of Kiuig over the 
north shore of Lougli Currane in ICerry : IMira 
near Atlionry in Galway, 3l(i/(//nr, a h;vol pLu'c, 
from tn(i(jh, a phiin. Crory, the name of some 
places in Wexford, and Cruary near Ck^nahilty in 
(Jork, are both anglicised from Ci-ndidhre, signify- 
ing liard land, which itself is derived, from vrumUi 
[croo], hard. While St. Patrick sojourned among 
tlie tribe of Ily-Tui. 're on Ihe west side of Lougu 
Neagh, we are told in tlie Tripartite Life, that he 
fomided. seven churches in the neighbouihood, one 
of which is called in the old. records Domlniaelt- 
fliainre. The latter part means sloping land, from 
fdny a slope; and the whole name signifies the 
cliurcli of the slope. In anglicising it, tlio aspi- 
rated / has disappeared, and the church is now 
called Donaghenry, and has given name to a 
parish in the east of T3a'one, near Lough Neagh. 

R. The letter r (preceded by a vowel if neces- 
sary for pronunciation — p. 3) is often added to 
nouns to give a collective or cumulative significa- 
tion, as in cloohar, a stony ])lace, from c/orl/, a 
si one (see Cloghcr in First Volume). From ho, a 
cow, comes biuir, kino, "catlle of the cow kind," 
a word in constant use; and from this again, we 
have Drimibure in the parish of Currin, south of 
Clones in Monaghan, the dnun or hill-ridge of 
the cows; which by the addition of ai(/h (gen. of 
ach — page 4) gives Drumboory, having the same 
meaning, the name of places in Cavan, l^'ormanagli, 
and Monaghan. From tnl, a lidle liill, we have 
Tvdlerboy, yellow hills, in the parish of Athlacca 
in Limerick ; bruach, a border, gives us Brougher 
(i. e. limits or borders) in Mayo, Fermanagh, and 
Sligo. From enoc, a hill, is derived knocker, which 
we find ill Knockergrana in the parish of Clonca, 

CHAP. I.] The Growth of Words. 13 

jjonegal, ugly hilly place (grana, ugly) ; and in 
Knockersally in the parish of Ballyboggan in 
Mcath, the hill or hilly place of sallows. 

In some of the preceding names, and others of 
this class, the ]v\ivr r np])oars, liko ach, to add 
lilile or iioUiiiig (o the meaning. 

S. This is a usual termination for abstract 
rouns; as for instance in neihhncas [eevnas], 
delight, from acihhinn [eevin], delightful ; maitheas 
[mahas], goodness, from maith [niah], good. It 
occurs sufficiently often in local names (with a 
vowel sound preceding when necessary — p. 3) to 
deserve rank as a distinct termination ; but in the 
greater number of those names in which I have 
found it, I am unable to perceive that it indicates 
abstract quality. Often it seems to have some- 
thing of a collective meaning like r ; but in many 
cases it appears to have been used for no definite 
purpose at all. Bcarna is the usual word for a 
gap ; but we have the authority of Irish MSS. for 
anotber form of tlm word, namely hmrnas, Avliich 
appears to diller in nowise from the first ; and the 
two words eoraich and rorcas, both of which are in 
cuiistant use to signify a marsh, are equally 
identical in meaning. Here, however, the con- 
clusion we ought to draw is, that this letter as a 
termination had once a meaning which it has lost. 

Pullis is the name of a townland in the parish 
of Doniigb, county Monnghan, near Glasslough ; 
and it niejins a place full of lioles, from jwl/, a 
hole. Lcnmh [lav] is tlie elm tree ; and Cloon- 
lavis in the parish of Knock in Mayo, is the cloon 
or meadow of the elms. Magherascouso is the 
name of a place near Comber in Down, which 
very well conveys the sound of 3Iachaire-sceamhais, 
llio field of the poly body, or wall fern, the Irish 
n;nne for this herb being sccamh [scav, scow]. 
liagani is the Irish word for horse-radish ; and 

14 The Growth of Words. [chap. i. 

Kagamus, the name of a place near Knocklong in 
Limerick, eignifies, according to tlie old people, a 
place abounding in horse-radish. 

On the coast of Kerry, west of Tralee, just at 
the base of IJrandou hill, there is u remarkable 
basin-shaped hollow, shut in by precipices on all 
sides except the north, where it looks out on the 
sea; and it is \iniversally known by the name of 
Sauce. A plentiful crop of sorrel grows at the 
bottom of the basin as well as on the high land 
over it, and this evidently gave origin to the name, 
which is formed exactly like the two last : — mmh 
[sauv or saw], sorrel: samhas [sauce], a place 
abounding in sorrel. This word is iu)t given in 
O'lleilly, but there is one approaching it very 
nearly, namely,. sr/w//srt [saussaj, which is explained 
as meaning sorrel. 1 lind adiithaa in one other 
name, though much disguised, viz. Lubitavish on 
the river Dall, a mile from Cushendall in Antrim : 
a name which exactly represents the sound of 
Lub-(i'-tsamhais, the loop or winding of the sorrel, 
so called from a remarkable winding of the little 
river. In this name, the s is eclipsed by t, and 
the mh is represented by v, as is usual in the 
north. It is worthy of remark that at the dis- 
tance of a mile and a half from this townland, 
there is another called Savagh — a place produc- 
ing sorrel. 

]\rany other names are formed in a similar way, of 
which the fcjUowing will be a sufficient illustration. 
Cniaclh [croo] means hard ; and cruadhas, signify- 
ing hardness or hard land, is represented in pro- 
nunciation by Crease in the parish of IJallycon- 
nick in Wexford. In like manner, Garroose (near 
Bruree in Limerick) signifies rough land, from 
garbh [garrav], rough ; and similar to both is the 
formation of the common townland named Brittas, 
which means speckled land, from brit, speckled. 

CHAP. I.] The Growth of Words. 15 

D. This letter is often added on to the end of 
words, sometimes with a collective meaning, some- 
times with scarcely any meaning at all ; and in 
anglicised names it is often replaced by t. The 
Irish word caol signifies narrow, and in the 
anglicised form Imil, it is applied to a narrow 
stream, or a narrow stripe ; but in Kerry, between 
Listowel and Atliea, it is modified to Kcalid, 
which is now the name of a townland. Croagh is 
a common term denoting a stack-like hill ; but 
there is a hill in the parish of Moyrus in Galway, 
called Croaghat, which is the same word with the 
addition of t. 

In like manner is formed the name of the Bonet 
river in Leitrim, flowing into Lough Gill through 
Drumahaire and Manorhamilton, which is called 
in Irish Buanaid, signifying the lasting river. 
For the Irish seem to have been fond of applying 
the word hnan, lasting, to rivers. In the Vision 
of Cahirmoro for example, in the Book of Leinster, 
the Slaiicy is called Sir-huon IS/diie, tlu> ever- 
lasting Slaney. In exactly the same way, from 
(/ifin, strong, vehement, or swift, we liave Dianaid, 
tlic strong or swift stream, tlio name of a river in 
Tyrone, flowing into the Foyle below Strabane, 
which is now called Burn Dennet. There is a 
lake near Lough Shindilla on the road from 
Clifden to Oughterard in Galway, called Lough 
Oorid, which signifies the lake of the cold or moist 
laiul, from wir, cold. 

It is hard to see that this termination carries 
any modification of meaning in the following 
names. The word tenrmann [pron. tarramon in 
some places] signifies church land ; but in the 
parish of Stradbally in Galway, south-east of 
Oranmore, d takes the place of n in the townland 
of Tarranmd ; and the same change takes place in 
Corrantarramud, in the parish of Mouivea, same 

16 The Growth of Words, [cuAr. i. 

county, the roimdliill {cor) of the tertnon. It may- 
bo Huapoclod iiidcod lliiit in tlicso iiamos tlio d is u 
remuaut of the okl spoiling, tearmaiul. Fan 
signifies a slope, and probably from this we have 
Fanad, the name of a district west of Lough 
Swilly in Donegal, written by the Irish authori- 
ties, Fanad, and signifying sloping ground ; the 
same name as Fanit, in the parish of Kilvcllauo 
near Newport in Tipperary. It seems certain 
that the d in these names is a termination, whether 
they be derived from fan, a slope, or not. In 
some parts of Ireland the people interpret taj) as 
meaning a round mass or lump ; from which the 
hill of Topped near Enniskillon derives its name, 
signifying a round hill. From the same root 
comes Tapachdn by the addition of the diminutive 
teriiiinatioii chdn (seo next chapter), with Iho 
vowel sound inserted before it (see p. 3) ; which, 
in the anglicised form Tappaghan, is the name of 
a hill on the boundaiy of Fermanagh and Tyrone, 
half way between Oniagh and Kesh. This liill is 
called by the Four Masters, 'Tappadan, in which 
the diminutive dan is used, with the same general 
meaning as Topped. With the diminutive an, we 
have Toppan, a little islet in the eastern end of 
Lough Nilly in Fermanagh, near where the river 
Arney enters the lake. We must no doubt refer 
to the same root, Taplagh, which is formed by 
adding lach (see p. 5), the name of a townland and 
small lake in the parish of Donaghmoyne in 
Monaghan, about five miles north of Carrickma- 
cross, a place of lumps or masses, or as the natives 
interpret it, a place of rubbish. 

Compound Terminations. The postfixes nach, 
lach, and tachy are often found coinbined with r, 
forming the compound terminations rnacJi, rlacli, 
and rtach, of which the first occurs oftener than 
the others. 8mut is a log or tree-slump; and, 

cinr. I.] The Growth of Words. l7 

Smutternagh near Boyle in Roscommon, signifies 
a place where there are many old trunks of trees — 
the remains of the Avood wliich once clothed the 
place, the branches having withered, or having 
been lopped off for firing. Clorj, a bell, a skull or 
head ; Cloggernagh, the name of two townlands 
in Roscommon, and Claggarnagh in Mayo and 
Galway, both signify either a round bell-like or 
skull-like hill, or a place full of round hills. One 
of these toAvnlands (in the parish of Lisonuffy in 
Roscommon) is otherwise called Bellmount, which 
is not a l)ad attempt at translation, tliough calcu- 
lated to conv(>y a false impression as to the origin 
of tlie name. Brackernagh near liallycanew in 
Wexford, speckled land, from hrcac [brack], 
speckled ; Tullyskeherny, the name of two town- 
lands in the north of Leitrim, the hill {fuUy) of 
the sccaghs or bushes. 

Char and nach are combined, so far as I know, 
only in one particidar compound, sailfhcarnaeh, 
which means a place growing sallows [sail) ; and 
for the correct form of this \\g have the authority 
of the Four IMasters, when tliey mention a place 
called Cluoin-miJcliearnaigh (the cloon or meadow 
of the osier plantation), which is now a townland 
with the modernised name Cloonselherny, in the 
parish of Kilkeedy, county Clare. The same word 
is fomid in Annaghselherny in Leitrim, a little 
north-east of Carrick-on-Shannon, the niii)(([/h or 
marsh of the sallows. 

Besides the preceding there are many other post- 
fixes in the Irish language ; but they do not occur 
svifficiently often in local names to require examina- 
tion here. There is another class of terminations, 
viz., diminutives, Avhich are so important that 1 
think it necessary to treat of tluMu in a separate 

TOT,, ir. 3 

18 Bimmutives. [c?iap. ii. 



A DIMINUTIVE termination is a syllable tliat indi- 
cates smallness. Tlie syllables let and hin, for in- 
stance, are English diminutives : — streamlet, a 
little stream ; mannikin, a little man. So in Irish 
the terminations een and oge are diminutives ; yort, 
a field; Ballygorteen in Kilkenny and Tipporavy, 
tlie town of the little field: callcii, holly ; Cullenogo 
near Tara hill, north-east ol' Gorey in AVexford, 
liltlo holly, or a place of holly trees. 

Before proceeding to eimmerate the Irish di- 
minutives, it is necessary to make a few observations 
regarding certain changes and extensions of their 
meaning and application. While smaHness was 
the idea originally expressed — an idea that many 
of the diminutives still retain — th e groat (u- number 
became in tho course of ages Avithuicd in ihoir 
a])plication, and were used to convoy ollior and 
very different notions. The signilicatlon ol' litlk!- 
ncss was in many cases quite forgotten, and the 
diminutives came idtimatoly to be applied without 
any reference to absolute or comparative size. 
O'Donovan remarks " that some nouns ending in 
[the diminutive syllables] an and og do not always 
express diminiitive ideas;" and he instances <'0^jo7, 
a dock or any large leaf growing on the earth; 
mordn, a great quantity; and oilecin, an island 
(Tr. Gram. 333). There is a remarkable moun- 
tain in Mayo, lying a little to the west of Nephin, 
called from its shape, Birreencarragh : bior [bir] 

CHAP. II.] Diiniinitives. 19 

means a spit or pin — diminntive hirreen ; carrach 
is rugged or rongh ; and Birreencarragli signifies 
the rugged little pin, Avliereas it is one of the 
highest and largest mountains in the whole county. 
Tliia word hior and its diminutives are applied else- 
where to liills and uiounlains; as in l)ineen hill 
over lake Beltra in Mayo, near Castlebar ; and in (spif -nose ; sron, a nose) the name 
of a townland near Kenmare. And outside Kilkee 
are two remarkable sharp sea-rockscalledBiraghty, 
spit- rocks. Nimierous instances of this change of 
application might be adduced. It is probable, 
however, that in many cases likeBirreencarragh, the 
diminutive was applied by " antiphrasis or con- 
trariety of speech " — for the Irish were much 
given to this manner of speaking — : in the present 
instance a kind of playful or ironical application 
of a term expressing littleness to an object remark- 
ably large; just as llobin Hood's gigantic comrade 
came to be called " Little John ;" and as the 81-ton 
gun at AVoolwich is called the "Woolwich In- 

T]\o diminutives of personal names passed ill rough 
a somewhat similar transition : from littleness they 
were used to express affection or endearment, a 
very natural extension of meaning ; and now the 
greater number have lost all distinctive signifi- 
cation, though they still form a part of thousands 
of personal and family names. 

In local names, diminutives are often added to 
the names of certain animals, vegetables, or 
minerals, and the whole word is used to designate 
a place abounding in one of these several objects. 
This usage is of old standing in the language, for 
we find the word lonnaf, a diminutive of lem, 
marsh-mallows, given in the St. Gall MS. (Zeuss, 
p. 274), as the equivalent of malraceus, i.e. a place 

20 i)iminutives. [riiAP. tt. 

producing marsli-miillows. Bccijg [dalg, dallag] 
.signifies a thorn, and hence a (horn bush ; the 
diminutive dealgan, a thorny brake, a phice pro- 
vhicing tliorns ; from which are derived the names 
of Dalgan Demesne near 8hndc in ]\rayo, Dalgan 
near Geashill in King's County, and ilie Dalgan 
river in tlio north ol' tlio county (jlalway, willi 
the townhtnd of l);dgin on its l)anlcs. \Vitli a 
vowel sound inserted (i)age 3), it is reproduced in 
the name of the little river Dalligan in Waterford, 
flowing into the sea a little to the east of Dun- 
garvan — the thorn-producing river — which itself 
gives name to Glendalligan in the parish of Kil- 

Zeuss enumerates seven diminutive particles used 
in the ancient Irish language, all of whi(!h he 
found occurring in the (St. (jall niaimscripl, a 
document of the eighth century. They are : — for 
the masculine and neuter genders, an, en, tat ; for 
the feminine, ine, ne, nat, net. IMost of these have 
long since dropped out of iise as living terminations, 
but we find them still forming part of innumerable 
words ; they retain their old places, but they arc 
lifeless and fossilised ; some retaining their primi- 
tive forms unchanged, some crusli((l and contoited, 
and difficult of recognition. 

I will now proceed to enumerate the diminutives 
given by Zeuss, and examine how far they are 
represented in our present names. 

An. This diminutive was anciently more com- 
mon than any other, especially in the formation 
of personal mimes; and it has conlinuod in use 
down to the present day. The investigations of 
Sir S. Ferguson and Dr. Graves have rendered it 
probable that it is the same as the termination agni 
in ^Oghara inscriptions : but whether agni is the 
original form, or a mere artificial extension of an 

CHAP. II.] Dmtnittkes, 21 

(for the old Ogham writers often lengthened words 
ill this way) it is impossible, in the present state 
of knowledge, to determine. (See Proc. R.I. A., 
■vol. I. Ser. II., p. 54). An is pronomiced long 
[awn] in the south, and short in the north ; and 
this distinction is generally, but not always, re- 
flected in modern forms. From cnoc, a hill, is 
formed cuocdn ; and this again appears in Knock- 
aunbrack in Kerry and Galway, and in Knockan- 
brack in Tyrone, R])eckled little hill. There is a 
small lake three miles west of Downpatrick, con- 
taining a little island which has given name to the 
parish of Loughinisland : this name is half English, 
and signifies tlic island of the loughnn, or small 
lake. J;oughan-Island is the present name of a 
little islet in the Bann, a short distance south of 
Coleraine, on which the Mac Quillans had for- 
merly a fortress to command the fishery of the 
Lower Bann ; tlie name is a translation of Inis-an- 
'orhaiii (l^'oiir Mas(ors), tbo island of the small 
lake — for tho riv(u- expands here into a sort of 
lake ; and no doubt Loughinisland in Down is n 
tianslation of the same Irish name. 

In numerous cases ihe local name in which this 
diminutive occurs is formed from a personal name, 
to which the diminutive properly belongs. The 
word bolg was occasionally used as a personal 
name : thus we find the name BoJgodhar [Bolg- 
ower — ]hl(j, the pale-faced], and also tho family 
name CyUo/g, in tlie Four Masters. The diminu- 
tive Bohjan, or Bolcan, is used much oftener than 
the original. St. Olcan, founder and bishop of 
Annoy in Antrim, who was ordained by St. 
Patrick, is also called Bolcan ; and the townland 
of Bovolcan near Stonyford in the parish of 
Derryaghy in Antrim, Avhich Colgan writes Both- 
Bolcain {Bo/can's tent or booth), was probably so 

22 Diminutives. [chap. it. 

called from him, the b being- aspirated to v (1st 
Vol. Part I., c. II.). Near the clmrch of Rasliarkin 
in Antrim, there is a ridge of rock called Drum- 
Lulcan {Ihlniii's ridge) wliicli also took its name 
from this saint (lleuves : Ecci. Ant., p. !)()). There 
are two townlands in Fermanagh called Drnmhul- 
can,one near Tiiam in (<al\vay called Drnmhiilcaun, 
and with ij used instead of e we have Drumhulgan 
in the parish of Ballyclog, Tyrone ; all of wliich 
received their names from dilferent persons called 
]3olcan. Another Bolcun left his name on Tra- 
Lolgan {Bolccoi's strand) near the mouth of Cork 
harbour: this ])lace is called in the Book of Iiights 
Mar-llolain [Jlo/aai's sea), showing that tlie change 
from c to (J is modern. 

On the nuirgin oF Tjongli Owel in Westmealh, 
there is a parish taking i(s name from a townland 
called Portloman, the j^or^ or landing-place of St. 
liOman. This saint, whose name is a diminutive 
of loin, bare, is commemorated in O'Clery's Calen- 
dar at the 7th February, and he is said to have 
built a small house on an island in Lough Owel 
near Portloman. The ruins of the monastery 
which arose on the site of tSt. Loman's original 
church are still to be seen within the demesne of 

Three miles above the village of Tallaght in 
Dublin, on the side of Glenasmole, looking down 
on the river Dodder, there is a picturesque little 
graveyard and ruin called Kill St. Ann, or " Saint 
Ann's Church ;" near it is "Saint Ann's Well ;" 
and an adjacent residence has borrowed from tli« 
church the name of "Ann Mount." The whole 
place has been in fact quietly given over to St. 
Ann, who has not the least claim to it; and an old 
Irish saint has been dispossessed of his rightful 
inheritance by a slight change of name. Dalton, 

CHAP. 11.] Diminutives. 23 

in his history of Dublin — apparently quoting from 
the Inquisitions — writes the name Killnasantan, 
wliich he absurdly translates "the church of Saint 
Anne." But in the Hrpoioriiim Viride of Arch- 
bishop Alan, wo find it written Killmesantan ; 
I'loiu which it is obvious that the na iji Ualton's 
Killnasantan, which he thought was the Irish 
article, is really corrupted from the particle ?mo, my, 
so commonly prefixed as a mark of respect to the 
names of Irish saints (see 1st Vol., Part II., c. iii.). 
The Four Masters give us the original form of 
llie name at a.d. 9r52, when they record the death of 
Caenchomhrac, abbot of the place, viz., Cill-Easpuig- 
iSaiicfdin, i.e. the church of Bishop Sanctan. So 
(hat the founder of this lonely church was one of 
the early saints — of whom several are commemo- 
rated in the calendars — called Sanctan or Santan, 
wlio no doubt fouglit hard in his day to clear away 
the pagan mists from the valley. He attained the 
rank of l)is]io]) ; find iho establishment he founded 
coiitiimed to (lourlsh long alter his tinu^ 'Iho 
name is a diminutive on ihe Jjatin root .sro?^^ (holy) 
borrowed into the Irish. Killsanfan or Killmo- 
sauclan was naturally and correctly translated in 
the first instance, Santan's church, which the 
English-speaking people, knowing nothing of 
Bishop Sanctan and his spiritual labours, soon con- 
verted into Saint Ann's church, the fonn also 
adopted by Dalton : and it is to be regretted that 
the error is perpetuated in the maps of the Ord- 
nance Survey. 

The an belongs to a family name in Cloony- 
gormican, the name of a parish in Roscommon, 
which is written CIuain-0' Cormacain in the 
Registry of Clonmacnoise, and signifies O'Cor- 
macan's meadow. 

In the sense of " abounding in," this dhniim- 

24 Jbiminutircs. [ciiu'. ii. 

tivo appears in tlio iiiiiiu; oF Qowian in ICilkcuiny. 
Tins nunio is written (utbliran in ancient liisii 
authorities; and in old Anglo-Irish records the 
place is called (with some inii?nportant variations 
of spelling) liallygaveran. lu very early times 
it was a residence of the kings of Ossory ; and it 
retained its importance long after the hhiglish in- 
vasion. The word tjahlidr [gower], as I have 
already explained in the First Volume, signifies 
either a steed or a goat, and it is a question which 
signification it bears here ; but on account of the 
early celebrity of the place, and as it must have 
been constantly the scene of royal and military 
gatherings, we may fairly conclude tliat it received 
its name from horses rather than from goats : — 
Qahhran, a place of steeds. The same word is seen 
in composition in Knochnagoran near Oarlingford, 
which by the old people of the locality is under- 
stood to mean the hill of the goats. With the 
termination ach we have other names of a like 
signification. One of these is Goragh near Newry, 
which gives the name " Goragh Wood " to a 
station on {\\o northi;rn line of i-aiUvay — a place of 
goats, formed like Ihockagh from broCy u badger. 
(8ee this in 1st Vol.). Gorey in Wexford is the 
same name, only with the oblique form of the post- 
fix, as also is Gouree near Glengarilf in Cork ; 
and the name of the place celebrated in the 
Scotch song " The Lass o' Gourie," has a similar 
origin and meaning. 

The herb coltsfoot is called spunc in Irish ; and 
from this we have the nanu; 8punkane, a townland 
in the parish of Dromod near Waterville lake, in 
Kerry — a place producing coltsfoot. In the north 
of the county Hoscommon is a little village called 
Ballyfarnan, the Irish name of which is Bel-atha- 
fearnain [Ballafarnan], the ford mouth of the 

CHAP. II.] Diminutives. 25 

fearndn or alder plantation — a name wliich was 
originally applied to a ford, where tliere is now a 
bridge, on the little river Feorish. The correct 
interpretation is preserved in the name of the ad- 
joining residence of Alderford. 

Eu, iai, rue. Those do not exist as diminutives 
in the modern language. It is probable that 
en and ene have become in many cases con- 
founded with either tin, or with another diminutive 
in, of which I shall presently speak — that the 
former have in fact merged into one or the 
otlior of the latter. "\Ve luiow that the en of 
(■(iis/('n (a castle) has been changed to an, for 
while the \A'ord is etdnlcn in all old documents 
\i is now always Avrit(.cn and pronounced caisledn. 
There are a few examples of the preservation of 
this diminutive in its purity, one of which is 
Slieve Rushen, now more commonly called Slieve 
Russell (change of n to / — 1st Vol. Part I., c. ii.), 
a mountain on the borders of Fermanagh and 
Oavan, near tlio village of ]iallycoimell. The 
correct form of the name is iSliabh liuisen (Four 
Masters), Avhich means the mountain of the little 
ros or wood. Of tat 1 have not been able to 
discover any trace in anglicised local names. 

JVe. Though this has been long forgotten as a 
diminutive, it was formerlj'^ in very common use, 
and it still holds its place in many local names. 
The parish of Ardcavan, which occupies the 
oxtr(Mni(y of n ])eninsulM, jutting inio W(>xford 
haven, opposite the town of AVcxford, is called in 
Irish records Aintne-CdemJiain [Ardnakevan], 
Kovan's little (trd or height ; and it was so called 
from a monastery founded there by a St. Kevin, 
or dedicated to him. According to O'Clery's 
Calendar (p|i. \i^, 105^), he was a brother of St. 
Kevin of G lcndalouo;h ; their mol her was named 

26 DhmnuUveH. [chap. ii. 

Caemell ; aud she Lad two otlior sons, Cacni/ioy 
and NateJtacintlie, who aro connnoniorated in ilie 
calendtus. The phice still contains the rnins of an 
ohl cliuveli. Adjoining- this parish is another 
called Ardcolni, taking' its name i'roni an old 
ruined church, which is called in the Annals 
Ainliie-Cohiiiii, Cohnn's little lu'iglit. Tn holh 
these cases tlie diminutive particle has been lost 
in the process of anglicising. There is an Ard- 
colum in Leitrim, and an Ardcollnm in the parish 
of Kilrouan, Roscommon ; but the people inter- 
pret this last name as meaning the hill of the 
pigeons {colmn, a pigeon). 

The original name of Dclgany in Wic.klow is 
Dergne, which ought to have been anglicised 
Dei'gany in accordance Avith the original pronxni- 
ciation; but it was made ])elgany by the usual 
change of r to I (see 1st Vol. Part I., c. iii.). The 
full name, as we find it written in Irish authori- 
ties, is Dergne-Mochorog ; the latter part of which 
was derived from St. Mochorog, a Briton by birth, 
who, like many of his countrymen, settled in 
Ireland in the primitive ages of the Chni'ch. He 
lived in the end of the sixth and the beginning 
of the sevtmth century ; and he was a contem- 
porary and friend of St. Kevin of Glendalough. 
The old chiirchyard of Delgany (which is at the 
lower end of the village) marks the spot where 
the saint bidlt his little church twelve hundred 
years ago ; and a slight examination of the place 
will clear up the WMnoBergne. Under the surface 
is a reddish-coloured rock covered with only a 
thin layer of clay, Avhich is hardly deep enough 
for a grave in the churchyard. The colour is 
very perceptible after rain on the road outside the 
churchyard wall ; and it is still more so when the 
rock is laid bare in the burial-ground. This rock 

CHAP. II.] Diminutives. 27 

in fact, underlies the Avhole of the village and the 
adjacent fields, and the water that trickles through 
it leaves a reddish deposit. So the name, which 
aS7. 3/or//oroff adopted as he found it before him, 
ji{'cin;il(>1y doscvilnHl the place : — drrf/^rcA ; Dcrrjne, 
red lilllc spot. There are places called Dergany, 
Dergonagh, and Derganagh in Tyrone and Uerry, 
all signifying red places ; but the terminations 
are scarcely the diminutive nc. From leac, a flag- 
stone, we have Icicne [leckiia], a little flag — a 
place full of flag-stones (page 19), which gives 
name to Licknj'^ in the parish of Mayne in West- 
meath, not far from Castlcpollard ; which also 
it]ipears in Duulcckny, the name of a parish in 
Carlow — the fort of the flag-stones; and in 
Drumleckney {Bmm, a hill-ridge) in the parish 
of Raca^an in Antrim. Just outside the little 
bay of Kilkee in Clare, there is a low reef of 
rocks called in maps and guide-books, Duggerna, 
but which the people pronounce, according to the 
trisli s|)(>lling, J)of/(iini<\ In <his word tlie (j vc- 
])i'esen(s a more aiunent c ; and there can be litile 
doubt (hat it is derived from docnir, difficult or 
obstr active (the opposite to a better known word, 
socair) ; Docairne, or Duggerna, signifying a hin- 
drance or obstruction — a very appropriate name. 

In some cases this diminutive is changed to na, 
as in the personal names Ferffna, from ferg, anger, 
and FiacJtna, from fach, a raven. This change is 
also seen in iha name of ]>larney near Cork, 
which is pronounced and written in Irish, Bldrna, 
signifying "little field," from hldr, a field. I 
have never met this word hlar in actual use in the 
language, but it is given in O'Reilly, and in the 
Scotch Gaelic dictionaries, as meaning a field ; 
nnd it is very common in the local nomenclature 
of Scotland in the form hlair. 

28 Diminutives. [chap. ii. 

Nat or net. Thoro is a })i'otty extmiplo of the 
uso of this diminutive, us a term of eiidcarmeut, 
in Leabliar na h-Uidhre. In a conversation 
between queen Maive and her daughter Fin- 
nahar, the hitter, when addressing- the foi-mer, 
several times calls her mdthair or mother ; hut on 
one occasion she says: — '' Afc/niisa eairptech 
issamaj/ a matiiaunait" — *' I see a cliariotman on 
the plain, my little-mother" (page 105 b. — lines 
29, 30). It was anciently A'ery often used in the 
formation of women's names ; for example, St. 
Brendan's mother was caWed JVea/nhnat [Navnat], 
which may be rendered Cclestilhi, little heavenly 
Olio. 'I^lirough the immos of wonuni it !i])pears in 
a few local names. 'I'lio parisli of Killasuot in 
lioitrim preserves the memory ot the virgin saint 
(hnat, nieiitioned by Oolgnn (A. 88. [). 'M\7), 
whose name signifies " little fawn" (os, a fawn) : 
Oill-Osnata, Osnat's church. About the year 
A. 1). 1200, Cahal O'Conor of the Red Hand, king 
of Connaught, founded a nunnery at a place 
called Kilcrcunaiay wliich is situated about three 
miles north-west of Tuam ; it is now caUcd Ivil- 
creevanty, and there are still remaining extensive 
ruins of the old nunnery. The Irish form of the 
name, as 'we find it jjreserved in the Four 
Masters, is Cill-Craehhnatt [Kilcreevnat], Creev- 
nat's church. Craebhnatt was a saint, whose name 
signifies little branch (craehh) ; but I do not know 
her history. In the north-east of Galway, there 
is a parish called Kilbegnet ; and in the south of 
the siune county, near Oort, is another tudltnl 
Kilbeacanty. The 1 rish form of tlio latler name 
is Cill-Becnata, which was anglicised like Kil- 
creevanty, and the place was so called from a 
saint Becnat {bee, small ; Beciiat, extremely little 
body). The patron saint of Kilbegnet bore the 

CiiAv. IT.] Dminvfirca. 59 

same name ; but I am not able to say whether or 
no she was the same as the founder of Kilbea- 

Except through the medium of the names of 
women, I have not found this diminutive termi- 
nation in local names. 

So far regarding the diminutives enumerated 
by Zeuss. But there are several others, some of 
them occurring — at least in later times — quite as 
often as any of the preceding ; and these I will 
now proceed to examine. 

0(1, ore, or oc. This was certainly used as a 
diminutive as early as the oldest of the manu- 
Rcri])ts quofed by Zeuss; iiulced much earlier, for 
we find it forming part of the names of saints 
who lived immediately after the time of St. 
Tatrick — Mochonnog, l)ah/irof/, Dachiarog, Macdh- 
og, MochacmJwg, &c. Og also signifies young ; 
and it was no doubt from this that it acquired its 
force as a dinn'nutivc ; for such an extension of 
nu>iining was very nattiriil. U is excoodingly 
common at (ho present day both in pcrsonnl and 
local names ; and is easily recognised. It is 
variously anglicised og, ogr, ogue, and sometimes 
by the almost identical English termination ork. 
Monog in the parish of Creggan, Armagh, little 
moin or bog ; Sharavogue in King's Countj'^, 
between Roscrea and Parsonstown, Sharvoge in 
iho parish of Killashee in Tjongford ; nnd Shar- 
Tognes, three miles from Randalstown in Aiilrim — 
all these names signify dandelion, or (p. 19) land 
pi'oducing dandelion {strrn'h/i, searhhog) ; and there 
are places in the comities of Meath and Louth, 
and one near Santry in Dublin, called Silloge, 
from w//, ozier : — ozier or sallow-bearing land. 
(Ilannogo in Cork and Olannock in Tyrone both 
signify little glen. 

30 Diminutives. [ciim'. n. 

Tin's dirninutivo also ol'lon iippcnva in llui ii;mu\s 
ol' places llii'ougli tho iiiediuin of personal nauies. 
The Irisli personal name represented in sound by 
]N[ogue, which is still pretty common as a man's 
name in Wexford and the adjoining- counties, is 
Maedhog, which again is contracted from Mo- 
Aedh-op, in which Mo is the equivalent of "my," 
0(j is tiio dimimitivc termination, while the ori- 
ginal meaning of Aedh is fire (see 1st Vol., 
Part II. c. in. : see also Chap. viii. infra). There is 
a place near Fiddown in Kilkenny, called Kil- 
mogue, i.e. Cill-Maedhog, St. Mogue's Church. 
Kilmeague, the name of a parish and village in 
Kildare, is another anglicised form of Cill-Mdvdh- 
0(j; for in Rawson's Statistical Survey (ISOT) 
wo find it written Kilmooge, and in an l^iducalion 
Itiiport <d" l(S2r), Kilmoiigo. Tlie Hanio ptMsoiial 
name appears in Timogue, now a townlaml and 
parish in Queen's County, in which the first 
syllable represents tecwh, a house. There were 
several saints named Maedhog, of whom the most 
celebrated was Maedhog, first bishop of Ferns in 
Wexford, who died A.n. G25 ; and it is not 
unlikely that one or all of the fore-mentioned 
places took their names from churches dedicated 
to him. 

Each of the preceding names consists of only 
two syllables; but when fully unfolded they 
become much longer than one woidd expect. 
Taking the last as the type, it is 2'each-Mo-Acdh- 
og ; and though its proper interpretation is 
" Mogue's house," yet if wo go back to tho 
primary signification of the Avords, and make 
allowance for the genitive, it includes in its 
signification this combination: — [the]-house-of- 
my-little-fire. And this is an excellent illustra- 
tion of the manner in which language incorporates 

ciiAv. II.] Diminutives, 31 

and assimilates its materials, and smoothes down 
the compounds so as to form pronounceable 
words — something like the way in which shells, 
gravel, and all sorts of stony fragments, are 
pressed together mid cemented into marble ; which 
iigain is carved inlo various forms, and polislicd 
by the hand of man, though to the last the 
several materials show f aintl}^ through the surface. 

In [een]. This is also an old duninutive, 
though sparingly used in ancient manuscripts. 
But it is exceedingly common in modern times ; 
nnd indeed it may bo said to bo almost tlio only 
one that still retains its full force as a living 
diminutive, which it. does even among the English- 
speaking people of every part of Ireland. Every 
one has heard such words as cruisltccn, a little 
croosk or pitcher, Jackcen, little Jack (a nickname 
for a certain class of Dublin citizens), hohcrcen, a 
little hohcr or road, &c. In the south it is usuall}' 
pronounced long (carrig(?c») ; in the north, short 

There is a place on the west bank of the Foyle, 
five miles north of Lifford, called Mongavlin ; 
but it should have been called Moygavlin, for the 
Irish name, as the Four Masters write it, is MagJi- 
f/aibhlin, the plain of the little (river) fork ; from 
(jnhhal \^gaval], a fork, diminutive gaihhlin. Gow- 
lin, another modern form of gaihhlin, is the name 
of a place iicar Dingle in Kerrj^, and of another 
in the i)ariKh of St. Mullins, Carlow, near 
Graigucnanuuiagh. From maghern, a plain, is 
formed IMaghereen, little plain, near Macroom in 
Cork; Clashcon, little dais or trench, the name of 
some places in Kerry and Wexford ; Luggacurren 
in Queen's County, well known for its great moat or 
fori, is in J\\ii\\,Jjiig-a''-('/inirriii, the hollow of the 
little curragh or marsh. We have this diminutive 

32 Biminutfves. [chap. ii. 

also introduced vory ol'tou willi pcrsoiinl iiaiucsi : — 
Ballydulieon ia a well-kuowii suburb of IShillow, 
whose name means the toAvn of little Dan or 
David; and there are several other townlands of 
this name in the same county, and in Ijimorick. 
iJallyfaudeen, and l}all3q)a(leon, are the names of 
some places in Clare and Tipperary, tlio Irish 
form of which is found in the l'\)ur Masters — 
Baile-Phaidin, little Patrick's town. 

Can or gdn. This diminutive is very common, 
especially in ancient personal names, such as 
Flanducan (now Flanagan), little Flann ; Duhucari, 
little hlack-complexioned man (now Dugan), t*tc. 
The more ancient form is can, which, in the 
modern language, has qiiite gi\'on place to (/an; 
and this forms tlie iinal sylhd)lo of many of our 
family names, such as JMuUigan — Alacldijan, little 
bald man {niael, bald) ; Finigan, little fair-haired 
man {finn, white), &c. 

We have it in its original form in Briencan 
near Ballymore-Eustace in Kildare, little hrnighean 
[brien], or fairy fort. Lucan near Dublin (from 
which Sarsfiold took the title of h]arl of L\ican) is 
written in Alan's licpcr/oriiini Viride, Linran, 
and in an Inquisition of Chtules I., Lciccaii ; I 
have not found any authority for the original 
Irish form ; hut these, no doubt, represent 
Lcamhcdn [Lavcan — Lucan]. The first syllable 
might mean either elm or the herb marsli mallows 
(see Chap. xix. infra) ; but the forms of the name 
quoted above give more neai-ly the Irish sound of 
the latter ; and wo have, moreover, the precedent 
of the old word lemnat, another diminutive, 
meaning malvaceus (see p. 19) ; so that Lucan 
signifies "land producing marsh mallows." 

The more modern form of this diminutive is 
seen in Colligan, the name of a little river flowing 

CHAP. II.] Dminutives. 33 

by Dungavvan in Waterford, from coll, hazel — 
the hazel growing river ; and in AVhinnigan, in 
the parish of Ck^enish, Fermanagh, not far from 
Enniskillen — whitish lif.tlc spot of land, from 
Ji))i), Mlii((\ 

In (lio following cases and others like them, it 
may ho doubled whether the termination is the 
diminutive can with the c aspirated, or a combi- 
nation of ach and an. Yvonx fearn, the alder tree, 
is ioYixiG(\. foarnachdn, from which again we have 
Mullafernaghan, in the parish of MaghcraU)'^ in 
Down, near Banbridge, the hill of the alder 
plantation ; and similarly Carrowfarnaghan near 
BallyconneU in Cavan, the quarter-land of 
the alders. Tulachan (from kil or tulach) sig- 
nifies a little hill, and is usually anglicised Tul- 
laghan : Tullaghanbaim in Mayo, signifies white 
little hill ; while in Tidlaghobegly in Donegal, 
the word is cut short, for the Irish name is 
Tulnchan-Bifjii, Begly's liillo hill. From duhh, 
bliick, wo liM.v(^ ])ii/i//(i('/i(rii, luiglicisod Dooghan in 
Donegal and Iloscommon, black land. 

N('n/. In Ooiinac's Glossary it is stated that 
ihe name Adannian is a diminutive of Adam, and 
this is the onl}" direct notice I have found of the 
diminutive termination van. Dr. Stokes, in his 
commentary on this part of Cormac's Glossary 
{voce, Adamndn), instances the personal names 
Lomnanus, Scsoiantis (Latinised forms of the Irish 
Lonmdii and Scsotdn), Flaithndn, Lachtndn; but 
he doubts whether ndn be not a double diminutive 
{dn + an), or the old adjective ndn, little. 

It is found, though not very often, in local 
names : and the manner in which it is used tends, 
I think, to the conclusion thai it is a simple dimi- 
nutive. The townland of Cl3'nan in the parish 
of Forgney, near Bally niahon in Longford, must 

VOL 11. 4 

34 Dimimitma. [chap. ii. 

have tnlion ita immo from u ainnll dyko or rampart 
of earth : — cladh [cly] a dyke, diuiimiiivG chu/hndn. 
Licknaiin in the parish of Templemaley in Clare, 
is little flag-stone (lec), or flag- surfaced laud; 
Keernaun near ll^nnis in the same county, black 
surfaced land, from ciary black ; Qortlownan^ south 
of Lough Gill in tSligo, the (jort or field of the 
elm plantation — kdfiih [luv, lou], elm. 

There is an old adjective dur (doore) which sig- 
nifies, among other meanings, stupid and obsti- 
nate ; it is still a living word in this sense Avherever 
Irish is spoken ; and in the north of Ireland it 
survives, and is in constant use aanong the English 
speaking people. In Munstor, a stupid, dronish, 
stubborn fellow is called a diiraddn [dooradaiui], 
a dimiiiutivo form (see p. 35), as familiar in the 
south as doore is in the north. AYith the diminu- 
tive termination at present under consideration is 
formed the word durndn [doornaun], which is 
well-known as a nickname given to the people of 
the barony of Ivirk, in the south of Kilkenny. 
The peasantry of this and the surroinidiug districts 
have a legend to account for the name. Tlieysay 
that when 8t. Patrick, in his progress through the 
countiy, came to Ivcrk, the people treated him 
very rudely and unkindly ; and when he called 
late one evening at the monastery of St. Kieran, 
the inmates gave him a most inhospitable recep- 
tion — no reception at all, indeed, for they shut 
the gates and kept him out all night. But what 
was worse than all, a woman who lived in the 
neighbouring village of BalUncrea, cooked uj) liu 
old yellow hound, threw poison on it, and sent it 
to him on a dish for his dinner ; but he detected 
the plot, and showed his followers in a most 
unmistakable way what sort of meat it really 
was. The general eonduct of the inhabitants, 

rHAP. II.] Dminutives. 35 

crowned by this last indignity offered to him by 
the unfortunate woman from Ballincrea, highly 
incensed the saint : and he uttered a bitter speech, 
in which he predicted that the inhabitants should 
bo known to iho end of the world by tlie name of 
i)u)')M>i)is — that is, a churlish, boorish, plebeian 
people. It is believed tJuit the little village of 
Doornano in the same barony took ils name fiom 
the people. The inhabitants of Iverk are a silent 
and reserved race — "dark people," as they woidd 
be called in Ireland ; and it is to be suspected that 
this storj^ grew up among the people of the 
adjacent districts of Waterford and Tipperary, 
who have an ancient cause of dislike — not less, 
indeed, than fourteen himdred years old — for 
their neighbours of Iverk. The legend is not 
"wholly without use, however, if it has helped to 
perpetuate in the word durndn, an interesting 
example of a long disused diminutive. 

Tan or (Jan. 'Wo.vo is an example of the use of 
this (liniinutive, in the sense of "abounding in" 
(see p. 19), in the St. Gall manuscript quoted by 
ZeuRS (8th ccnturj^), namely, the word rostan, 
which is given as the equivalent of the Latin 
roscfum (arose plot), and is derived from the Irish 
ros, a rose (Gram. Celt., p. 180). It is to some 
extent used as a diminutive at the present day, 
but always in the modern form dan, and it forms 
part of several Avords used even by ihe English 
speaking pensantry. Gcosdii is understood in 
some places to mean a stalk of any kind ; and the 
other diminutive, gcosaddn, is known in some of 
the Mimster counties as one of the names for the 
bolimin, hooghalaun-hcee, or ragweed. There is a 
small red berry groAving in heathery places, which 
is called Dionaddn, i.e., nttle bog-berry, from mdin, 
a bog (" Have you seen the ripe monadan glisten 

36 Dimimtkes. [chap. ii. 

in Kerry," — Edward Walsh, in tlie ballad of 
*' O'Donovan'8 daughter"). The word holgaddn 
[bullogadaiin] — a formation from holg, a belly — is 
universally used in the south of Ireland to desig- 
nate a little man with a big belly ; and we have 
also (Uiraddn, already quoted at page 34, from the 
root dur. 

The old form of this termination is exhibilcd in 
the aueient personal name Fintan, whioh has the 
same signification as Finan and Finujan, viz., little 
fair-haired man ; all three being diminutives from 
finn, white. This name was common both in 
pagan and Christian times ; and there were many 
saints called Fintan, one of whom gave name to 
Kilfintan (Fintan's church) in the parish of Street, 
in Tjongford — another to Kilfountain in the 
parish of Kildrum near Ventry, in Kerry, which 
exhibits the Munster way of pronouncing the 
name (see 1st Vol. Part I., c. ii.). There is also a 
place called Ardfintan — Fintan's height — in the 
parish of Killursa, near Headf ort in Galway. 

The bardic annals record that Lough Sallagh, 
near Dunboyne in Meath, burst forth in the time 
of Angus Ollmnca, one of the pre-Christian kings. 
The Four Masters call it Loch Saileach, and Keat- 
ing, Loch Sailcheaddin (the same name with the 
addition of the dimiimtive) ; both epithets signify 
the lake of the sallows ; and the modern name is 
derived from the former. I^'unshadaun in the 
parish of Killeenadeema in Cialway, signifying 
ash-producing land, is derived fron\ ftt'ninse, the 
ash tree, exactly as ro.slan from ros (p. 35). IN oar 
the village of Clare in Mayo is the townland of 
Leedaun — a grey spot of land — from ludh [loea], 
grey. Ijyradane is the name of a place in the 
parish of Grenagh in Cork ; there are some town- 
lands in Derry and Tyrone called Learden j and a 

cHAr. 11.] Diminutives. 37 

littlo stream called Lyarclane joins the Shournagli 
river, three miles from Blarney in Cork : all these 
signify a little fork or river-fork, from lodhar 
[lyro], a fork. Gahhal [gowl], another word 
iiJiving Ihosanie meiiuing, gives name to (Jouladaiio 
(littlo fork), a hill in the peninsula between the 
bays of Dunmanus and Bantry. From scrath 
[scrah], a sward, is formed the name Ardscradann 
near the city of Kilkenny, the height of the little 
grassy sward. 

L or //. It appears to me highly probable that 
this — either by itself or with a vowel preceding — 
is an ancient Irish diminutive termination, though 
I have nowlicre seen it noticed as such. In ono 
respect indeed it is more general than most of 
those already enumerated, for it exists in many 
languages ; as for instance in Latin, in such words 
as scutuhan, a little shield, from scutum ; //odiuJks, 
a dwarf, from homo, a man, &e. The Old High 
Oernifin abomuhvl with dimiinitivos in /; and wo 
know that ibis letter forms one of the commonest 
of English dimintitive terminations, giving rise to 
the numerous class of words ending in Ir, sucli as 
thimble, from thumb ; nipple, from nib; girdle, from 
gird, &c. It is also quite common in Greek, 
French, Spanish, Italian, &c. ; and what is still 
more to the point, in Ebel's Zeuss it is recognised 
as a diminutive in a certain class of Gaulish names 
(Gram. Celt., 767). 

The fact of it5 existence as an acloiowledged 
diminutive in so many other languages, would of 
itself afford a strong presumption that it had ori- 
ginally a diminutive signification in Irish ; and 
one can hardly avoid coming to this conclusion 
after examining the manner in which the termi- 
nation is used in the following names. 

It may be questioned whether the ail or all 

38 Biminutwes. [tiiAi', ii. 

wliich ends so many Irish jHn-soiial imiuos, was 
not originally used iu a diminutive sense : — as in 
Oathal (now Cahill), from mth, a battle {Cathal, 
a Avarriov) ; Do»iita/l (now Donnell in tlio names 
O'Donnell and Macdonnell), fromtlie same root as 
tlio Latin dominus ; Ihrasal (now lirassil and 
Ih-azil), from Bi'cas, wliicli was itself a co)inni)n 
])(n'sonal name. (iSee on this suffix. Gram. CelL, 

This termination is found in a considerahle 
immber of local names, whose formation is pre- 
cisely similar to that of many ah'eady mentioned 
as formed from other diminutives. From o-iiadh 
[croo], hard, is derived cniadhail [crue]], hard 
land, which takes the modern form Cruell in <he 
])arish of Aghahoo in (liieen's County ; and 
this namo is derived exactly like Cruan (Irish, 
Cniadhdn, same meaning), in the parish of 
Ooolaghmore near Callan in Kilkenny, which comes 
from the same root, with the diminutive termina- 
tion an. 

There is a root stur, not found in the piihlished 
dictionaries, though they give the derivatives, 
stiirriG and sturrog, Loth as signifying a hill- 
summit or pinnacle. From this root are derived 
the following names, with different diminutives, 
all signifying the same thing — apeak or hill- top : 
— Sturgan near the northern base of Slieve Gul- 
liou in Armagh ; Sturrin, the name of two hilh 
north-east of Lough Derg in Donegal ; Sturrakeen 
in Omey Island off the coast of Galway ; Sturra- 
keen, a peak of the (ilaltys west of Oaher iu Tip- 
perary ; and Mullaghastui-rakeen, the name of a 
high hill on the boundary between Tyrone and 
Deny — the summit of the pinnacle. Lastly, with 
the diminutive at present under consideration, we 
have " The Sturrel," a remarkable peak-shaped 

CHAP. II.] Dhmnutkes, 39 

rock on the coast of Donegal, near Glen Coluni- 
kille, rising from the sea to the height of 850 feet ; 
and this is also the name of a hill at the head of 
IMulroy Bay in the same coimty, two miles from 
Mil ford. 

I have on other occasions observed how hnppily 
the old name-formers generally succeeded in 
designating places by their most obvious charac- 
teristics — every name striking straight for the 
feature (hat niost strongly attracted attention ; so 
that to this day a person moderately skilled in 
such matters may often predict the ph3'^ical pecu- 
liarities or the aspect of a place as soon as he 
hears the nauio. Nothing could be more appro- 
priate in this respect than " The Dargle," which 
every one will recognise as the name of a beau- 
tiful glen near Bray in Wicklow. The pre- 
vailing rock in the glen is very soft and of a;, 
reddish colour, sometimes with a yellowish tinge, 
bu(. in several jilaces dcepouing into a d.ark ])ur- 
jilisli rod- 'V\\(\ visitor can luu'dly fail lo observo 
this almost as soon as he enters the lower gaf o, 
where tlio red stones come to the surface of the 
path under his feet. The reddish colour also per- 
vades the clay, which is merely the rock worn 
down ; and is very striking in several spots along 
the sides of the glen, where the clay and rock are 
exposed, especially after rain, which brings out 
the prevailing hue very vividly. The name 
" Dargle " is similar in formation to " Dclgany " 
(see p. 26) ,but with a different diminutive syllable : — 
dearg, red ; JDcargail, a red little c-pot. Still 
another name of the same kind, with the diminu- 
tive lin, is Dargan in the county Donegal. But 
Ave have other parallels to the " Dargle " still 
more complete — in fact the very same name — in 
Darrigil in the parish of Kilgeever, Mayo, and 

40 Biminutivcs. [citap. ii. 

Pavn'gal iioni- Kiliiioiidim in AV^iilorford, ia 
quilo as rcniarkublo for (lie redness of its suil'aco 
stones as tbo Dargle. It may be remarked tliat 
the " Dargle " is also pronounced in lliroo syllables 
{Darriyil) by tlie old people of AVicklow, 

This diminutive is also introduced through the 
medium of personal names. Cet [Keth] was the 
name of some of the most renowntnl warriors cele- 
brated in ancient Irish story. Some old chief 
who lived beyond the \ie\v of history, gave name 
to the famous Drumcett (properly Drai)ii Ceta), 
translated by Adamiian, Dorsum Ccie, Keth's ridge 
or hill, where the great convention was held in the 
year A.n. 574 ; but the namehasbeen long forgotten, 
and the hill, which is a long- mound in lioe Park 
near Nowtownlimavady, is now called The ]\lidlagh, 
and. Bometimos Daisy Jlill (see lioevcs's Adaiiinan, 
page 37). The name Oei still holds its jjlace in 
Dunkittin Kilkenny, Keth's fortress. The diminu- 
tive appears in Oarrickiltle, a lemarkal.tle lock 
giving name to a townland near Kilteelyin Lime- 
rick, which the Four Masters, Avhen recording Ihe 
erection of a castle on it in 1510, hy Garrett, i'larl 
of Kildare, call Carntig-Cital, Cital's rock (though 
the absence of the genitive inflection \\v\v. might 
raise some doubt : Cltat, gen. Citail (?) ; and also 
in Dunkettle, near Qlanmire, a little below Cork, 
which is the same as Dunkitt, only with the dif- 
ference of the diminutive in the personal name. 

Besides the preceding diminutives, there are 
others of a mixed character, which may be classed 
together. AVords ending in / i\m\ n old'U lake the 
letter t before suffixes or inflections, which is per- 
haps to be regarded rather as a euphonic insertion 
than as part of the termination. For instance, 
Coolteen in Sligo and Wexford is derived from 
cuil, a corner — Cuiltin, little corner — whei-e the 

CHAP. II.] Dminutives. 41 

real diminutive terminatiou appears to be in, not 
?fii. To the same category may be referred Scltan, 
the name of several places in Leitrim, written by 
the Four Masters, Sailtean, a place of sallows {sail) ; 
ICtH^Kano in tlio parjsli of TuUylcasc in Cork, little 
wood, or underwood, from colli, a wood ; and Fan- 
tano near Borrisolcigli in Tipperary, little fan or 
slope ; in these, the diminutive affix is probably 
an, not tan. 

Murhaim near Drumshambo in Leitrim, seems 
a genuine instaTice of a diminutive in flutn, for the 
Irish name is Mihilidn, little mur or wall. So also 
in Darhanagh near Foxford in Mayo : dair, an 
oak, diminulive darf/idn : darlhdnach, an oak- 
boa riug place. And in the following names it 
would appear that the termination is thin, for no 
reason can be assigned for the presence of the th 
otherwise than as part of the diminutive : — Bella- 
hoen in the parish of Kilrossanty in Waterford, 
Ih'ililJiin, little hcile or tree; Ihvrheeu in the parish 
of Aniiagh, near Ihdlyhaunis in Mayo, litile harr 
or liill-top ; Keenheen in the parish of Drum- 
reilly in Leitrim, a beautiful-surfaced spot of laud, 
from cnein [keen], beautiful. In the year 1581, 
Dermod O'Donovan headed a predatory excursion 
into the territory of Donal O' Sullivan, prince of 
Bear, and drove off a crcaght of cattle ; but 
O'SuUivan overtook the party, took O'Donovan 
prisoner, and hanged him from the branch of an 
oak tree. This event is vividly remembered in 
tradition ; and the tree, whose trunk is still to be 
seeu about four miles north-east of Castletown 
Bearhaven in Cork, is known by the name of Dari- 
heen Diarmada, Derniod's little oak. This same 
diminutive (Irish dnirithin, from dair, an oak) has 
given name to Deniheen near Cappoquin in 

42 Diminutives. [ciiav. ii. 

In a numerous clnss of cases, ilio cliniiimlivcsiu'c 
preceded by some of the terminations noticed in 
chapter I. AVe have r combined with da in 
Lavaran near the village of Kesh in Fermanagh, 
and hi Lowran near ]Jorris-in-Ossory in Queen's 
County, both anglicised from Lcfoii/irdn, elm land, 
from kainh [lav], elm. Ji is joined lo iidii in 
Sellernaun in the parish of Inishcaltra in Ualway, 
near the shore of Lough Derg — Sai/camnii, sallow 
wood, from sail, a sallow ; and the same letter 
combines with d(/ in Dooroge near Ballyboghil in 
Dublin, black land (dubh, black) ; which is also 
the name of a rivulet ("black little stream") 
flowing into the sea two miles north-east of Tara 
Hill in WoKford. 

The dimimitive in is veiy often joined with r, 
of which Cloghereen near Killarney, from vioc/i, a 
stone, is a very apt example (First Vol.). Crana- 
reen, the name of places in Wicklow and Mayo, 
signifies a place full of small trees, or a small 
plantation, from crann, a tree ; and there is a little 
lake a mile from Olifden in Galway, called Lough 
Acrannoreon, the hike of the snudl trc(^ Fliigh- 
erine — a wet little spot of land, from Jlii(c/i, wet — 
is the name of a pool from which flows a stream, 
in the townland of Ballycormick, parish of Clone- 
nagh. Queen's County ; Cuingareen, in the parish 
of Columkille, Longford, a rabbit-warren, from 
ciiinin, a rabbit. Similar in formation to these is 
the well-known name of Skibbereen in Cork. It 
is situated at the mouth of the river Hen, on a 
little crock much frequented by small vessels, for- 
merly — and still in some places — called scibs (Fng. 
skiff) ; and Scibirin, as the place is called in Irish, 
means a place frequented by skibs or boats. It 
exactly corresponds in meaning with Cotteenagh, 
the name of a little island in the river Shannon; 

CHAP. IT.] Diminutwes. 43 

near Sliaunon Bridge, below Cloiimacnoise, wliicli 
Bignifies a place frequented by little cots or boats. 
It is to be observed, however, that the word skib 
is not now at least applied to a boat in the neigh- 
bourliood of Skibbcreon ; and this fact may lead 
some to doubt the correctness of the etynioh)gy. 

In Fethcrneen (parieh of Kilvarnet, Sligo) we 
have a union of both n and ;• with the diuiinutive, 
the name signifying a little fend or streamlet; and 
it corresponds in formation Avith Fethernagh in 
Armagli, near Pointzpass, which means a place 
abounding in little brooks. 

Observe the rich growth of terminations — branch 
on branch — in Sillahertane, which is the name of 
two townlands, one near Dunraanway in Cork, and 
the other in the parish of Kilgarvan in Kerry, on 
the road from Kenmare to Macrooni. The Irish 
form, which the English very well represents in 
sound, is Sniknchartun, all from the simple trunk, 
mil, a snllow ; we have in succession oarh or ach, r, 
t, and i ho diminulivc an ; and the whole signifies 
a spot producing osier or sallow trees. It appears 
probable that in this name the combination rt — 
whether compounded of r and t, each in its separate 
sense, or forming one indivisible termination — 
has a collective signification; just as it has in the 
word conairt, which is applied in the south to a 
pack of hounds [cu, gen. con, a hound) ; from 
Avhich is derived Coolnaconarty, the corner [cMl) 
of the pack of bounds, a place in the parish of Kil- 
meen, five or six miles south-east of Dunmanway, 
which the inhabitants say was formerly a usual 
place of meeting on hunting days. The combina- 
tion is also found in a name preserved in the 
Annals of Lough Key, a.d. 1192, viz. Rath- 
ctiamrtaigh (the fort of the hounds), the second 
part of which is derived from cuan (a litter oJ 

44 Diminutives. [chap. ii. 

wlielps), by the addition of tlie two postfixes art 
and ach. 

Exactly similar in formation to this last is the 
name of Mangerton moimtain near Killarncy. The 
correct form is llmit/artaoh, for so we find it 
written in several old Irish documents, wliich has 
boon recently coi-niptiul by chau[>in<>' («'h to the 
diminutive dii. The signification of the name de- 
pends on the meaning of the root niaiuj, and this 
is doubtfid. In Cormac's Glossary, and other 
authorities, mang is explained a fawn ; and if this 
be its meaning here, Mancjartach woidd moan the 
mountain of the fawns. I am inclined to think, 
however, that mang is only another form of inotuj, 
signifying- literally the hair of the head, but often 
applied in a secondary sense to long grass ; just 
as goit, a field, was anciently often written gart ; 
folt, hair, fait ; m6r, great, mar, &c. If this be 
correct the name will mean a mountain covered 
with long hair-like grass. There are three cir- 
cumstances that support this interpretation : — first, 
in the ancient historical tale called the " Battle of 
Moylena," this very tenn mong is applied to the 
mountain ; for it is designated Mangartha mhong- 
ruadh — Mangerton of the red mong or hair (Battle 
of Moylena, p. 25) ; secondly, the flat moory 
summit of the mountain is actually covered with a 
growth of long coarse grass — the very kind of 
grass that mong is \isually applied to ; thirdly, 
whereas mang, a fawn, as far as I am aware, is not 
found in any othei- name in all Ireland, mong, as 
applied to long grass, and its derivatives inongach 
and mongan, are common in names all over the 
country, of which many examples will be found in 
Chapter XIX. 

CHAP. III. J Borrowed Words. 46 



WriKNFA'EK two iiMl.ioiis Rpciiki'iig difforont, Inn- 
gufigcs liavG iiitiiDalo iutcrcourse with cacli of.lier 
for any considerable time, there is sure to be a 
nnitiial interchange of words ; for each race bor- 
rows from the other certain tenns which in course 
of time become incorporated with the language 
that adopts them. In this manner every language 
becomes mixed with foreign words ; different lan- 
guages exhibiting different powers and degrees of 

During the long intercourse of the English 
and Irish populations in Ireland, there has been 
a good deal of interchange of this kind, though 
not, I think, so much as we find in other coun- 
tries imder similar circumstances, I propose 
to oxamiu(^ n. low siich words, somo borrowed 
from Irish into Iviiglisli, some from JCnglish into 
Irish; but I Avill limit the inquiry to those 
tliat (ind their way into local nomenclature. 
Moreover, I do not intend to go back to very 
early times ; I will illustrate only such words as 
have recently passed from one language into the 
other, or are now in process of transfer, and of na- 
turalisation. A good many of the Irish words re- 
tained by the English speaking people are only 
used locally ; but though they are still circum- 
scribed, they are holdiug their place among the 
people, and are gaining ground in point of ex- 
tent ; for the very good reason that they express 
exactly ideas not so well expressed by any synony- 
mous English words known to the people. And 
every one acquainted Avith the history of the Eng- 
lish language, or indeed of any other language, 

46 Borrowed Words, [chap. hi. 

knows well how a word of this kind — provided it 
is u good word, and bits the idea straight on the 
head — though it may be at first spoken perhaps 
only in a single valley, spreads slowly and gra- 
dually over a larger and larger surface, till at 
lengtli it becomes recognised by the whole nation, 
and has its citizenship acknowledged by being 
phiced in the columns of dictionaries. Occasionally 
too, from some accidental circumstance, a word 
borrowed from a strange language, or not bor- 
rowed at all, but invented, spiings at once into 
sudden and universal use. Some of the terms 
here illustrated are used only in a part of Ireland ; 
others are known nearly over the whole country ; 
a few again of the anglicised Irish words have 
found tluiir way across llie channel, and these are 
buro of a perumnent place. To this last class 
belongs the five first words in my list. 

Bog. The word bog has long been used by Eng- 
lish writers who have treated of Ireland ; and it 
had found its way into the literary language of 
England at least as early as the time of Elizabeth, 
for it is used in its proper sense by Shakespeare, 
as well as by Milton and liunyau. It is now an 
acknowledged word in the English language, and 
is beginning to be understood in England almost 
as well as the English equivalent, peat, or peat 
moss. Bog as it stands is Irish ; it signifies soft : 
and it is still a living word, and in constant use, 
by Irish speakers. In this original sense it is 
found in several local names ; such as Meenbog in 
Donegal iind Tyrone, soft mountain meudow, or 
tneen ; Aghabog, a parish in Monaghan, AcJtadJi- 
hog, soft field ; Maynebog in the parish of Agh- 
macart in Queen's County, soft field (niaighin). 

The original word bog is not now used in the 
native Irish to signify a bog, or peat moss ; it haa 

CHAP. III.] Borrowed Words. 47 

been quite supplanted by tbe derivative hogach, 
wbicb is in very general use in this sense, just as 
smolach has taken the place of smol (see p. 5). 
This word gives names to many places now called 
]}oggngh, Bogogh, and Boggy ; Boggyheary near 
Swords in Dublin, Bogach-acdhaire, tlie shepherd's 
bog. In the end of names it forms some such 
termination as boggy, Toggy, or vogy {h aspirated 
to V in the two last) ; as in Clonavogy in 
Monaglian, the meadow of the bog ; Portavogie in 
the Ards in Down, the port or landing-place of 
the bog. From the diminutive hogdn (little bog 
or soft place) arc dciivcd tlic names of many 
places now called Boggan, and Boggaun. 

Bother. It appears to me obvious that bother 
is merely the Irish bodhar, deaf, although I loiow 
very well that a different origin has been assigned 
to it. For, first, it is in universal use — it is 
literally in every one's mouth — in Ireland. Se- 
condly, what is more to the purpose, while it is 
used, as it is in l^^uglaiid, lo siguil'y minoyanco or 
trouble, it has another incaning in Ireland which 
is not known in England, namely, deaf, the same 
as the original \\or(l bodhar ; and this is obviously 
its primary meaning. A person who is either 
partly or wholly deaf is said to be bothered ; and 
this usage is perfectly familiar in every part 
of Ireland, from Dublin to the remotest districts — 
among the educated as well as among the illiterate. 
The word indeed in tliis sense, is the foundation 
of a proverb : — you are said to " turn the bothered 
ear " to a person when you do not wish to hear 
what he says, or grant his request. Moreover, so 
well are the two words bother and bodhar under- 
stood to be identical, that in the colloquial lan- 
guage of (ho peasantry they are always used to 
translate each other. 

48 Borrowed Words. [chap. in. 

As to tlio Eiigli'sli proiuniciniion, it is moroly a 
case of what is so familiar iu Irish uaiues — the re- 
storation of an aspirated consonant, wliicli I have 
already fully explained and illustrated (1st Vol. 
Part I., c. 2). Bodltar, pronounced in Irish, Lower, 
is called in English, bother, exactly as Odhar 
[ower] is made ()dder (seo this in index) ; as the 
river Dothra [Dohra] near Duhlin, is called the 
Dodder ; and as the word bothar [boher], a road, 
is often sounded hothyr or batter. I do not see 
how any one, with these evidences before him, 
can hesitate to acknowledge that bother is an Irish 

The word bodhar is used in local names, and in 
a very singular way too. What did our ancestors 
mean when they called a glen deaf? It is V(!ry 
hard to answer this question satisfactorily ; but i(, 
is certain that there are several glens in diil'erent 
parts of the coimtry called Glenbower, deaf glen. 
There is one in Kilkenny, three miles north of 
Piltown ; one — a fine glen two miles long — at the 
base of Slievenamon in Tipperary, two miles east 
of Kilcash ; a third in the i)arish of Kilbarron in 
Tipperaiy, near Lough Derg ; a fourth iu the 
parish of Offorlane in Queen's Comity, west of 
Mountrath ; a fifth which gives name to a small 
lake at the base of Slieve Beagh mountain, south 
of Clogher in Tyrone ; and a sixth — a pretty 
wooded glen — near the village of Killeagh, west 
of Youghal in Cork. In this last there is a pecu- 
liarity, which perhaps gives the key to the ex] da- 
nation of the names of all : — viz., it has a line echo, 
" affording," as Smith remarks (Hist. Cork, L, 
156), " seven or eight repercussions fi'om the same 
somid." If this be the origin of the name, per- 
haps the glen was so-called because you have to 
speak loudly to it, and you get a loud-voiced 

ciur. in. J Borrotved Words. 49 

reply, exactly as happens when you speak to a 
deaf person. 

But will this explanation apply to other places 
designated by hodJiar ? There is a " Drehidbower 
Bridge " {droir/iead, a bridge) over a small river 
in Clare, lour miles norOi of Killaloc ; which tlie 
l)cople say was so called because it was built by a 
deaf man in 1799 — but I confess I have not 
much faith in the explanation, lllaunbower — 
deaf island — is the name of a little islet in Lough 
Mask ; and wo have Cartronbowcr [myfrou, a 
quarter ol' land) in tlu^ ])arish of JJallintober in 
Mayo. I n Jvcnabower, near the village ol Barna, 
west of Oalway, and Curi-aghbowcr, a littlo south 
of the Blackwater, five miles west of Mallow, Icna, 
signifies a marshy meadow, and curragh, a marsh ; 
but whether the marshiness of these places had 
anything to do with the names, I must leave the 
reader to conjecture. 

In the parish of Kilgarvan in Mayo, there is a 
litdc river taking its name from an old mill, called 
Mullenbower ; and if one mill is found to be deaf, 
there seems no good reason why another sliould 
not be blind, which is the case Avith Mullenkeagh 
(cacc/i, blind) near the village of Cloghjordan in 
the north of Tip2)erar3% We may conjecture that 
these two names Avere given to old mills that had 
ceased to be used, and had fallen into ruin. 

Tori/. The two terms IF/iir/ and Tori/, lil\o 
many olher class nanuN^, were originally a])plicd 
in an opprobrious sense ; they wore nicknames, 
which griulually lost Ihcir olTensive ilavour when 
their origin Avas forgotten. The Avord n-/u'g is 
another form of w/icj/, and it is used to this day in 
Scotland, and in the north of Ireland, to denote 
thick sour nn'lk or sour Avhey ; but as the Avord 
does not come wit bin the scope of this book, it is 

VOT,. II. 5 

50 liorrowed Words. [ctiap. in. 

not ncccssnry to Iviico its liistovy fuilluM' Iumo. 
Tori/ is an Irish word, anglicised phonetically like 
most other Irish terms ; and the original form is 
tdriiidJie, the prommciation of which is very well 
])rosorv()d in the modern Kpolling-, fori/. Tis root 
is toir [tore], pursuit; and toruidhe is literally a 
pursuer — one who Inmts or chases, 'riunc! is still 
anotiier derivative, Idruid/icaa/i/, an ahstract noun 
signifying the act of pursuing ; and all three 
terms are in common use in the Irish language. 
We have, for instance, a well-known Irish 
romantic tale called " Toruklheacht Dluarmada 
agiis Qhrainne," the pursuit of Dermat and 

In the time of the Irish i)lantations of the six- 
teenth and seventeenth ceniuiic^s, great nund)ers 
oi" the native Irish who were dispossessed ol" tluur 
lands, took to the hills, woods, and bogs, and 
formed themselves into bands under the leader- 
ship of their principal men. From their wild re- 
treats they made descents at every opjjortunity on 
the open country, drove off the cattle of the 
settlers, and seized on all sorts of movable pro- 
perty that they could lay their hands on. These 
men were called tories — hunters or pursuers ; for 
they chased everything — the wild animals on 
which they partly subsisted, the herds of the set- 
tlers, and the settlers themselves if they chanced 
to come in their way. The settlers on their ])art 
ijombined for mutual protection, and vigorously 
retaliated ; and this social war was carried on 
without intermission, in souri districts, for a h)ng 
series of years. ]\Iany traditionary stories oi' those 
distiirbed and exciting times are still current 
among the peasantry. In course of time the 
tories became mere freebooters, and stringent laws 
were mada *or their suppression ; so that at length 

CHAP. Ill] Borrowed Words. 61 

the word tory lost its original .signification among 
the English speaking people, and came to signify 
an outlaw — the first step in its singular change 
of meaning. 

It is believed, according foastatement of Defoe, 
to haA^e been first introduced into England by 
Titus Gates ; for a story went round that certain 
tories were to be brought over from Ireland to 
assassinate Gates and some of his supporters ; and 
after this he was in the habit of calling every 
man who opposed him, even in conversation, a 
tory ; " till at last the word tory became popidar." 
The two terms, whig and tory, came into general 
use as political designations about the year 1680 ; 
but they had previously, as Swift expresses it, 
been " pressed into the service of many successions 
of parties, with very different ideas attached to 

The word tory is still retained among the pea- 
santr}^ of every part of Ireland in the sense of an 
outlaw or a. miscreant of any kind ; and it is quite 
usual to hear a nurse call a naughty child a 
" young tory." TliC}'" liave a nursery rhyme 
which preserves this sense very vividly; it is 
heard, with some variations, in all parts of the 
coiintry ; and Crof ton Croker has given a version 
of it in his " Researches in the South of Ireland." 

"I'll tell you a story about Johnny M'Gory, 
Who went to the wood and killed n tory ; 
Prought him lionio nnd ato his supper; 
Went to the wood and killed another." 

In the sense of a hunter or outlaw the word 
toruidhe is foimd in a few local names, none of 
which appear, however, to be of any antiquity. 
We have two hills in Ireland called Tory Hill, 
and in each case the name is of modern origin, 
and has superseded an older name. One lies two 

62 Borrowed Words. [cirvr. iir. 

miles souil) -oast of Miilliuiiviit in Kilkenny; and 
it received its name from Edmund Denn, a tory, 
wlio is celebrated among the peasantry to this 
day. He was one of the family of Denn who 
owned Tory Hill ; and after he was outlawed he 
lived in a eave on the hill, in Avhich the people 
still show his bed. The; old name of this hill was 
8liahh-0-(jCruinn or Hlieve Igrine, the mountain 
of the ancient territory or barony of Igrine, in 
which it was situated, and Avhich was i I self so 
called from the old tribe of Ily Cm inn who for- 
merly held it. (For the presence of the g, see 
Chapter VIII.). The other Tory Hill lies near 
(Jroom in Ijiniericlc, but 1 cannot ttjll anIio tins 
particular tory was that gave it the nanu; : ])er- 
ha[)H it wan bo (tailed from liaving b(!on u liauiit t)l' 
the torics. Its ancient name was (hioe-drontd- 
Assail [Knockdromassil], the hill of the ridge of 
Assal — Assal being the old name of the territory 
lying round the hill. 

Ballytory in Wexford signifies the tory's town- 
land. Near Cloghor in Tyrone is ti place calhnl 
Ratory, a name anglicised iVom llath-tdrnidlic, the 
fort of the tory or oidlaw ; and hero no doubt, in 
old days, some tory made his lair in the old rath, 
and sheltered and defended himself Avithin the 

Orrery. The instrument called an orrery, for 
showing the various motions of the planets and 
satellites, took its name from the title of the 
family of IJoyle, earls of Orrery; and the follow- 
ing is the conimoidy received account oi' (lie 
circumstance that brought the Avord into circula- 
tion. The instrument was invented about the 
year 1700 by Geor<>e Graham, Avho gave it inlo 
the hands of a workman to have it packed up and 
sent to Prince Eugene ; but before packing it, this 

CHAP. III. j Borrowed Words. 63 

man made a copy of it, which he sold to the earl 
of Orrery, without making any mention of 
Graham or his invention. The machine sent to 
Boyle came under the notice of Sir Richard 
tStoelc, wlio referred to it in one of liis ])apors as a 
very ingenious instrument, and called it an orrery 
in lionour of the earl, a name which was at once 
adopted, and has heen since retained. 

Orrery, from which the Boylcs took one of their 
titles, is an ancient territory in Munster, repre- 
sented by \ho. modern harony of Orrery, in tlie 
north of the county of (^ork, lying round tliotown 
of Oliarlcvillo. The old form of tlie name is 
Orhrai(j(\ u.sually spelled Avith both the h and tlio 
g aspirated, and pronounced Orvcry, which was 
easily softened down to Orrery. It M^as originally 
a tribe name ; but, in accordance with a custom 
very usual in Ireland (see 1st Vol. Part I., c. ii.) 
the people gave their name to the terrii.ory. 
Oormae Miu^ Oiillenan, in his Glossary, Avrif.t(Mi in 
the ninlli c(Mi(ury, nlaies that (Jiey look tlio name 
of Orhraiijc from an ancestor named Orb or Orhh ; 
Orbraige meaning the descendants of Orb (Cor. 
Gl. voce, Orb : raige, posterity — 1st Vol. Part I., 
0. II.). 'Donovan, in his commentary on this 
part of the Glossarj^ tells us that " Orbh was the 
ancestor of the peojjle called Orbhraighe, who 
Avore descended froin Fereidhech, son of Fergus 
IMacJioigh, king of Ulster in the first century ; " 
but 1 have not been able to find any further 
account of this old chieftain. Whoever he was, 
liowever, his name now forms one of the varied 
elements in the curious mosaic of the English 
language, and has thus become immortalised in a 
manner that Avoidd greatly astonish him if he 
could bo made aware of it. 

Shamrock. The trefoil, white clover, or trifo' 

54 Borrowed Words. [chap. iu. 

nnm repens, is dosignnlod by tlie Iriali word 
.aeamar [shainiiier]. Jiul iho dhuinutive seamarog 
[sliamnicroge : sec ]). 28] is tlio teiin most gene- 
rally used; and it has iseKlcd dowji into llio word 
i/KWirock, wliicli is now I'ouud in l^higlisli dic- 
tionaries, and is beginning to be imderstood wlier- 
3Vor the English luiiguage is spoken. 

We find it stated by several Anglo-Irish writers 
that in former times the Irish occasionally ate the 
shamrock. Spenser, for instance, mentions that 
in time of famine the jioor people who were re- 
duced to the last stage of starvation Avere glad to 
eat water-cresses and shamrocks ; Fynes Morrison 
has a pijssage of mucli the same import ; while 
Thomas Dinel)'^, who made a tonr through Ireland 
in l(i75, tells us that the pco])le ate shamroges to 
cause a sweet breath. This has led some persons 
to believe that the true shamrock is the o^t-alis 
acetocella, or wood sorrel. I see no reason, how- 
ever, why these passages should not refer to the 
white trefoil, which is quite as lit to be used as a 
food-herb as wood sorrel ; for I think we may 
assume that neither cress nor shamrocks were 
eaten in any quantity except under pressure of 
extreme Ininger, but only usckI wi(Ji other food 
just as water-cress is used at the present day. 

Moreover seainar and seamrog are given in Irish 
dictionaries as meaning trifolium repens, while 
wood sorrel is designated by saiiiltadli-coiUe and 
seamsog. And as corroborating the dictionary 
explanations, we find the compound scoith-sheaui- 
rach (translated by O'Donovan " abounding with 
flowers and shamrocks : " scoth, a flower) a 
favourite term among Irish writers to designate a 
green, open plain. The old records, for instance, 
tell us that Fiacha Finscothach {Fiacha of the 
white flowers) king of Ireland before the Chris- 

CHAP, in.] Borrowed Words 65 

tian era, waa so called because "every plain in 
Ireland was scoith-shcamrach in liis time : " and 
the same torin is nsed by the Irisli poet, Fcrfeasa 
O'Coiiite, about the year 1617 (Misc. Celt. Soc. 
1849, p. I^Ao), and by ilie writer of the Life oE 
St. Scuidihi (O'Ol. Cal. p. 5). In these passages 
it cannot bo the wood-sorrel that is meant, for it 
is not pvodiiccd in suflicient abundance, and it 
does not grow in open plains, but in shady places. 

It is not easy to determine the origin of the 
Irish custom of wearing a bunch of shamrocks in 
tlio ha(, ^n\ St. Tn (.rick's day— tlio ITtli of March. 
According to popular belief it commemorates an 
incident in the life of St. Patrick : — ihat on a 
ccrtiiin occasion, Avhen he was explaining the 
mystery of the Trinity to the pagan Irish, he took 
uj) a single shamrock and pointed out the three 
loaves growing from one stem, to illustrate the 
doctrine of three Persons in one God. But this 
story nnist bo an invention of recent times, for we 
iind no mention of it in any of the old Lives of 
the saint. Neither are we able to say that the 
custom itself is of any higher antiquity; for 
though it is now observed by the Irish race all 
over the world, and though it is mentioned by a 
few writers of the last two or three hundred 
years — as for instance by Thomas Dinel}-- in 1675, 
who describes how the people wore crosses and 
shamrocks on St. Patrick's day — yet we find no 
allusion to it in ancient Irisli writings. 

There are not many local names derived from 
this word, and I have found none recorded in any 
ancient written autliority. It appears in its 
primary form in Aghnashammer near Rosslea in 
Fermanagh, Achadh-iia-scainar, the field of the 
trefoils ; in J\lohornas1unnmcr on (he brink of the 
Shannon, near Termonbarry in Koscoinmon 

56 Borroiml Words. [chap. hi. 

{mothar, eltlioraruiii oratliiclv-cl-) ; and iiiKnock- 
luislunnnicr in Cuvan and fSligo, wliich in the 
latter county has tlie correct alias name of Olover- 
liill. The diminutive is more common : there are 
townliinds in Cork and Limerick called Oooliia- 
shamroge, the corner of the shamrocks; Gorteen- 
shnmroo-ue near Fethard in Ti[)i)orary, shamrock 
little held ; and Knocknashamroge near llackets- 
town in AVicklow, the same as Knocknashammer. 
Bann-hmck. You will not see a confectioner's 
shop window in any part of Dublin, on Ilallow- 
eve, without a handbill announcing a plentiful 
supply of barm-bracls with a ring in each. This 
word Oanii-bmcJc is now applied in many parts of 
Ireland to a sweet cake mixed with currants and 
raisins ; and we may safely ]iroj)hesy that it will 
ultimately light its way into the columns of 
English dictionaries. The original and correct 
word — written phonetically — is barreen-brack, 
which is still used among the English speaking- 
people of the south of Ireland; it has been 
changed to barm-brack by that process of falla- 
cious popular etymology described in First Volume 
(Part I., c. II.) ; and the altered term was all the 
more readily accepted intisnuich as the word barm 
seems the right Avord in the right place. The 
Irish word represented in sound by barrcen is 
bairghin, which signifies a cake ; the old Irish 
form is bairgcn, which glosses jninis in the Zeuss 
manuscripts ; brack — Irish brcac — means speckled ; 
and a bar rceii-b rack is literally " a speckled cake" — 
speckled with raisins and currants. 

A piece of land approaching a circular shape is 
sometimes called bairghhi ; and in this manner 
the word has found its A\'ay into local nomencla- 
ture. The complete word is exhibited in Barreen, 
in the parish of Balraheen in Kildare. If the 

ciiAP, III.] Borrowed Words. 67 

shape approach a semicircle, the place is some- 
iinics designated bj'' the compound Icaih-bhairgliin 
[Invarreen] meaning half a cake — leath, half; 
whicli is i)votty common as a name for fields and 
small (hMiominaiions ; and this is Ihoorigin of the 
names of (lie townhmds of Jjavarccn and Jjawar- 
rccn in Jjciirim, Clare, and !Mayo. As for the 
word hrcac, it will be treated of in Chapter XVII. 
and need not be further noticed here. 

So far regarding Irish words adopted into Eng- 
lish. There are many other Irish words which 
have been borrowed into English, that I do not^ 
notice here ; some (like whiskey, bror/iie, &c.) being 
mentioned elsewhere in these books, and some 
others not falling within my inquiry, as not 
entering into local names. Our local nomencla- 
ture also exhibits a munber of words borrowed 
from English into Irish ; and the remainder of 
this chapter will be devoted to the illustration of 
a few Avords of this kind. 

I'arson. Of the two I^nglish words person and 
parson, we know that the first is derived from the 
Ijatin persona, and according to soiho, the second 
is derived from the same word. We have 
in Irish two corresponding words. One, perso 
or persn, genitive 2)ersan, meaning a person or 
an individual, is merely the Latin persona, bor- 
rowed ; but it was borrowed at a very early 
ago, for we find it in tlie very oldest manuscripts, 
such as those (juoied by Zousa, Lehor na h-Uid/ire, 
&c. The other, pearsun [parsoon], correspond- 
ing with the English ])a)-son, is used in the 
colloquial language to signify the priest of a parish, 
a clergyman who has the care of souls. Some 
would perhaps consider that ])earsi(ii is the repre- 
sentative of the ancient loan-word j)erso ; but I 
think it has been borrowed direct from the Eno^lisU 

68 Borrowed Words. [chap. hi. 

parson in its special sense. The termination nn is 
indeed presumptive evidence of tliis, for when it 
occurs in Irisli, it generally marks a word taken 
straight from the English. We know that in 
Ireland the English word parson has latterly been 
restricted to tlie rectors of the late Established 
Oliiirch ; Init pearsun was ap])licd to a Itomau 
(Catholic parish priest, showing that it was bor- 
rowed before parson began lo be used in its spe- 
cial Irish sense ; though in later times, it has 
begim, like parson, to be restricted to Protestant 

There is a parish in Limerick four miles east of 
the city, taking- its name from a townland called 
Carrigparson, the rock of the parish priest, pro- 
bably marking the spot where a priest lived, or 
perhaps where Mass used to be celebrated in tiiues 
gone by. This name has been in use for more 
than 300 years ; and the rock is to be seen close 
by the ruin of the old church, not far from the 
present chapel. Ballyfarsoon near Monasterevin 
in Kildare — Baile-an-phearsmn, the town of the 
parson — probably got its name from being tenanted 
by a parish priest ; there is a place called Mona- 
parson, the parson's bog, on the Olyda river, just 
by the railway, four miles south of Mallow ; and 
Knockapharsoon {knock, a hill) lies four miles north 
of Fethard in Tipperary. 

JUarl. larla [eerla], an carl, is a word that Avaa 
borrowed into Irish at the time of the Anglo- 
Norman invasion ; it is in constant use in the 
annals, for the old historians, in recording events, 
in which the great Anglo-Norman lords were 
concerned, did not translate the word earl, but 
simply transferred it with a slight change of form. 

The Irish pronunciation is well preserved in 
Syerla near Dungannon in Tyrone, Suidhe-iarla^ 

CHAP, iii.J Borrowed Words. 59 

the earl's seat or residence. So also Kilmacanearla 
near Balling^arry in Ijiinerick, the chnrch of the 
carl's son ; An nagli early, the name of a lake and 
lownland fonr miles nortli-cast of Carrick-on- 
SIiaiHioii, th(^ carl's a)n>n(jJ/, or marsh ; and Avith 
the same meaning, Curraghanearla near Mallow 
in Cork ; Tominearly in Wexford, the earl's tomb. 
The word returns to the English form in Coolan- 
earl in the parish of lledcross in "VVicklow, the 
hill-back of the earl ; and in Knockearl near the 
village of Cloghjordan in Tipperary, the earl's 

Forest. The word foraois [furreesh], which 
O'Reilly and Peter O'Oonnell explain a forest, a 
fox cover, the haunt of wild beasts, is, I believe, a 
simple transfer of the English word forest. It 
occurs in the name of a little river flowing through 
the hamlet of Bellanagare in Roscommon, now 
called Owcn-na-foreesha, the river of the forest ; 
and in OoniiifnrriHh, in the parish of Tjcmanaghan 
ill King's ('((iiiily, the roniKJ hill ol' (Ju^ loicsi,. 

S/nlr, S/nrI,-, 8ia(j. We have in Irish the word 
slacadli [stawka], which is used in two disliiict 
senses to signify both a stake and a stack, and 
which I believe to be borrowed from these words, 
or perhaps from the northern word which is the 
origin of both. The former signification is ex- 
hibited in Stackaruagh, the name of a townland 
west of Letterkcnny in Donegal, which signifies a 
place full of stakes or slumps of trees ; a namo 
which exactly resembles Smutternagh both in for- 
mation and meaning (compound sufiix rnach : 
page 16). 

In a great many places all round the coast, tall, 
towerlike rocks, standing isolated in the sea, which 
arc designated by the words criiach, ben, &c., in 
Irish, are ca lied 6'?ac7HS.iu English ; but by a curious 

60 Borroived Words. [chap. iii. 

custom this is goiieniUy changod to the word staga. 
Tho Stags wliich form so prominent a featui'O of 
Ireland's Eye, as seen from Ilowtli, are an excel- 
lent example ; andollicr illustrations will Le found 
at various points of the coast. Similar rocks ai'o 
also called stacks on parts of the coast of Scot land, 
especially round the Shetland islands ; and in 
noticing these, AV^orsao traces the word to the (Jld 
Norse staclcr. 

Park. Fairc [park] means a Held or enclosure, 
and it is of course the same as the J^higlish and 
German word park. It exists also in AN'^elsh, but 
it is probable that both the Welsh and the Irish 
borrowed it from the Teutonic diah^cts. In Irish 
it generally means merely a field, having nothing 
of tho modern restricted application of theliUglish 
word park; and in this sense it is a very usual 
component of local names. This word forms or 
begins the names of about 170 townlands. As 
examples may be taken — Parknaglantanc near the 
cit}'- of Cork, Palrc-na-ncjleanntan, the field of the 
sm(dl glens ; Paikatleva in Galway and Mayo, 
Fairc-a'-tskibhe, the field of the s/iabh or mountain; 
Parknagappul near Dungarvan, the held of the 
cappuh or horses ; Tinnapark in Kilkenny and 
Wicklow, Tigh-na-paircey the house of the field. As 
this is a word not liable to be disguised by corrupt 
changes of form, and is therefore easily recognised, 
it will be unnecessary to give further illustrations. 

Canqy. The Irish canipa is nothing more than 
the English Avord cainpy with a vowel sound added 
on to the end. The J'"our JMaslersust) Ihe Avord at. 
A.D. 1548, when they record the erection of a large 
court then called Cat/ipa in licix, Avhich was the 
germ round which grew the town afterwards called 

Several sites of former encampments still retain 

ciiAr. Ill,] Borrowed Worth. 61 

as their name the English word camp, which in 
most cases first passed from English into Irish, 
and Avas afterwards restored to the correct English 
spelling. In other cases the word retains an Irish 
form, as in Bawnacowma, six miles south of Lime- 
rick city, the haicn or green field of the camp. 
Camplagh, near Kesh in Fermanagh, exhihits the 
word with the suffix lacJi (p. 5), the name meaning 
the same as the original root — an encampment. 

8])ur. I am not aware of any evidence to show 
that the ancient Irish used spurs ; indeed Giraldus 
Caud)rcnsiH expressly states that they did not : — 
" Also in riding they do not use either saddles, 
boots, or spurs ; hut only carry a rod in their 
hand having a crook at the upper end, with which 
thoy urge on and giudo their horses." (Top. Ilib. 
Dist. III., c. 10). This to some extents is corro- 
borated by the writer of the Irish account of the 
battle of Clontarf, who states that when Mael- 
mordhn, king of Leinster, left Brian Boru's palace 
oi' K'incora, in aiig(>r, soon before tlio batilo of 
Clontarf, ho drove Ins horse with a yew rod. And 
several other passages might bo cited from the 
Brehon Laws and other Irish writings, in which 
horse rods are mentioned. 

AYe have, however, the word spor, a spur, in 
Irish : it is used for instance in the Annals of 
Lough Key (Vol. II., p. 52), where it is recorded 
that a certain chieftain died from a wound by his 
own Ki)or ; and it is still heard in the collo(iuial 
language. But as it is probable that the nso of 
the spur was introduced from England, so I think 
it equally likely that the word was borrowed from 
the Ihiglish language. 

This word .ywr occurs in a few local names; 
but it. is nol easy to account for its presence : pro- 
bably places are called from spurs on account of 

62 Borroioed Words. [ctiap. hi. 

somepecuHarily of 8li;ij)c. I suppose some; poiiilcd 
rock gave iiaiae to Knockuspiiv near Ologli Jordan 
ill Tipperary. Goulaspurra is a well known 
6ub\irb of Cork, the name of Avliicli signifies the 
fork {(jobhal) of the spur ; and there is a townland 
near Castlelyons in Cork called Spurree, which is 
merely the plural sporaidhe, spurs or pointed 



Tn an early stage of society, tho people are in 
general very close observers of external nature. 
The sights and sounds by which they are sur- 
ro\inded — the shapes and colours of hills, glens, 
lakes, and streams, the solemn voices of winds, 
waves, and waterfalls, the babbling- of streams, 
tho singing, chirping, and chattering of birds, 
the cries of various animals — all these attract the 
observation and catch the fancy of a sim])le and 
primitive people. The Irish peasantry were, and 
are still, full of imagination to a degree perhaps 
beyond those of most other countries. ]\[any 
think, indeed, that this faculty is rather too highly 
developed, to the exclusion of other qiudities less 
fascinating but more solid and iiseful. But be 
this as it may, it is certain that an examination of 
our local name system will show that the people 
who built it up were highly imaginative and sen- 
sitively alive to the natural phenomena passing 
around them. In the present chapter I will give 
some specimens of names exhibiting this ten- 

CHAP. IV.] Poetical and Fancy Names. 63 

dency ; but many others, equally appropriate and 
striking, will be found scattered through this 
volume and the former one. 

When we find that the various Irish words 
which signify beautiful, lovelj^ fine, pretty, &c., 
arc in constant use in the formation of local 
names, the obvious inference is that the people 
had a vivid perception of natural beauty, and 
dwelt with admiration and pleasure on the loveli- 
ness of the various objects among which they 
lived and moved. And they manifested this de- 
light in a most natural and unalTcctcd way, by 
bes( owing a name that expressed exactly Avhat 
they felt. This is tlie more remarkable, inasmuch 
as the appreciation of landscape, particidarly of 
the landscape of mountains, woods, rocks, and 
jjrecipices, seems to be very much of late growth 
among the people of Europe. A new sense has 
been gradually developed, which, however, judg- 
ing from local uaTnes, appears to have been pos- 
sessed in a remarkable degree, and at a compara- 
tively early period, by the simple peasantry of 
this country. 

One of these Irish words is cacin [keen], which 
signifies, jn its application to natural objects, 
pleasant, delightful, or lovelj^ ; it is very frequently 
met with, and generally a&sumes the anglicised 
form keen. Killykeen is the name of some places 
in the county Cavan, which is modernised from 
CoiJI-chacin, pleasant or deliglitful wood ; Keen- 
rath — pleasant fort — is a place by the Bandou 
river, four miles above D unman way. There is a 
parish in the north of Tipperary now called 
Loughkeen, which is a very deceptive name, 
seeming to indicate the presence of a pretty lake. 
But the Four Masters mention it as one of tlie 
resting-places of O'Sullivan Bear in his celebrated 

34 Poetical ami Famuj JVamcs. [chav. iv. 

rotreat from Dvmboy to llio iiorlh in l()l)2; and 
here wo iind the true nunie, lUiik'-dclKthlh-clidciii, 
the town of the beautiful fiehl, wliich is pro- 
nounced by the ohl people, who still retain the 
name, Balloughkeen, and is now always called by 
the shorter and very incorrect name Loughkecn. 
8ometinuis this word assimies olluir forms, as in 
the case of DruuKpiin in Tyrone, Ihe correct nante 
of which, as written by the Four INIasters, is 
Dniim-chaeiii, pleasant hill-ridgo. Elsewhere this 
Irish name is anglicised more correctly Drumkeen 
and Dromkeen, which are the names of fifteen 
townlands in various counties ; Aghadrurakeen in 
Monaghan, the field {acltadh) of the beautiful 
ridge. There are two townlands in Clare called 
Drumquin ; but here the Irish form is Drniin- 
ChiiuiH, Conn's ridge. The term is very mucli 
disguised in Balleeghan, the name of a townland 
on the shore of Lough Swilly in Donegal, near 
Manor Cunningham, containing the ruins of an 
ancient church, the name of which is written by 
the Four Masters Baile-a'KjJiidJt-cJiuehi [Ihdlee- 
heen], the town of the beautiful face or surface. 
There are other places of the same luuue in 
Donegal, which probably come from the same 

Another word of similar import, which is still 
more frequently met with in names, is ueihhinn 
[eevin], signifying joyous, delightful, or beauti- 
ful. It is Avritten aimin by Cormac Mac Cullenan, 
in his Glossary, and is correctly com])ared by him 
with liat. (i)na-nuiii. It usually occurs in the cud 
of names in some such form as ei'lii or cccan ; and 
it is well illustrated in Knockeevan in the parish 
of Newchapel near Clonmel in Tipperary, the de- 
lightful hill ; Ilathevin in Queen's County, beau- 
tifid fort; Derryevin near Ballyjamesduff in 

CHAr. IV.] Poetical and Fancy Names. 65 

Cavan (dcrn/, an oak wood) ; CloneTin in the east 
of Wexford, near Gorcy, beautiful cloon or 
meadow ; and Drunieevin in the parish of Kilto- 
raglit in Clare, beautiful lull-ridge. 

yi/(iiini [awb'n] signifies bright or lovely; old 
Irish form, as found in the St. Gall manuscript 
qiujted by Zeuss, a/ind. It assumes several forms 
in anglicised names, none of them difficult to 
recognise. There is a townland near the village 
of Gilford in Down, called Moyallen, i.e., Ifagh- 
dJainn, beautiful plain ; and near Dromore in the 
some counly is another place called Kiuallen, 
benutiful head or hill [ceanii). The sound of the 
word is better preserved in Uerraidin in the parish 
of Corcomohide in Limerick, Doire-dlainn, pretty 
oak wood ; and still better in the name of the 
little river flowing through Fethard in Tipperary 
— Glasliawling, beautifid streamlet. Another 
form {dille, beauty) of the word is seen in Ros- 
salia in the i)arisli of Killaha in Kerry (ro.s, a 
Avood) ; but Kossalia near the abbey of Oorconu'oe 
in the north of Clare is the wood of the brine 
{sdilc : see Chap. XVI.). 

In Ma}'© the Avord caoim or cuhn is used to 
signify a beautiful valley ; and it has given name 
to the village of Keem in Achill Island. 

]\lany of the names of this class have been 
translated. But Bonnyglen near Inver in Donegal 
is not a case in ])oint, and is very deceptive ; for 
it is a modification of JJioi-a'-ghkanna [JJuna- 
glanna], the bun or end of the glen, so called from 
its situation at the lower end of the glen through 
which flows the stream that falls a little farther 
on into the Eany. 

One of the pleasantest sounds in the world is the 
bubbling of ii brook over rocks or pebbles ; and it- 
does not require a great deal of imagination to invest 
VOL. II. 6 

66 Poetical and Fancy Names, [chap. iv. 

the restless water with life, and to hear voices in 
its murmurs. Donogh Macnamara, in his song 
" Bdnchnoic Eireann ogh " (The fair hills of holy 
Treland), has the following line : — 

" Nil srol/ui 'ttiin ts<iiii/ira a(j Uiblnurl ar nroiii :" — 

*' Tlio sticaius in tho smninci-iinio spcjikiiig ia the ovoniiig.'' 

A^](\ iinolher Tvisli poet, in nn (Oci^iac, pooni on llio 
(loath of cortain warriors wlu) luul fallen in battle, 
makes all inanimate nature join in a lament ; and 
among the rest the cataracts raise their melancholy 
voices: — "The shores, the waves, the moon and 
stars, are in sorrow for the death of the heroes, 
and the sound {glor) of cataracts is becoming 
louder." (Seo Misc. Celt. Soc, 1849, pp. 378-9). 
The peasants who lived and wandered on the 
margins of our pleasant streams, were as much 
alive to these impressions as the poets ; and in 
many instances they gave names expressing what 
they imagined they heard in the busy waters. 
Gldrach, derived from glor [glore], is the word 
usually employed in the formation of names of this 
kind. Glor is sometimes used to signify voice, 
and sometimes noise; but I believe the former is 
the original meaning. In one of the dialogues of 
tlio Tain ho Cliuailngc (in Lchor na hUid/irc) the 
hero Ferdia uses the expression " drd glor" (of tlio 
majestic voice), to designate Meave, queen of Con- 
naught. (See O'Curry, Lect., TIL, 418). O'Clery 
(quoted by Dr. Stokes — Cor. Ql., voce, hahloir] ox- 
plains babloir hy fear morghlorach (a man with a 
great voice) ; and in the same passage he makes 
glor equivalent to guth, voice or speech. The word 
glor is used in this sense also in the last quotation; 
and many other passages to the same effect might 
be cited. "We may then, I think, conclude that 
the term gldrach was applied to streams in the 
sense of voiceful, babbling, or prattling. 

rjii Ar. IV.] Poetical and Fancy Names. 67 

There are several small streams in various parts 
of tlio country called Glashagloragli, the voiceful 
or hahbling brook. One of these is in the parish 
of Inch, three miles south of liorrisoleigh in Tip- 
pcrjrry ; anotlicr joins the Arigidccn river, west of 
Clonakilty in Cork ; there is still another near 
Kenmare. The Avord is joined with sruthdn (a 
little stream) in Sruhangloragh, in the parish of 
Kilnoe in Clare ; and with sruthrdn (another form, 
of sruthdn) in Sruhraungloragh Bridge, where the 
road crosses a little tributary of the 13arrow a mile 
south of Borris in Carlow — both these names mean- 
ing voiceful streamlet. It might be expected that 
a rugged ford, where streams spread widely, and 
murmur and wind among the rocks and pebbles, 
would bo often designated by this word gldrach ; 
and we find this to be the case. In the parish of 
Annagh in Mayo, south of the village of Bally- 
haunis, is a townland called Ahgloragh ; there is 
nnotlioi- townlnnd nenr Tuam, ol' tlu^ smno name, 
and each was so called from a ford on the adjacent 
strenm, tlio Irish form of the name being Ath- 
g/orach, the babbling or purling ford. There is a 
little hamlet called Gloryford, three miles west of 
the village of Ballymoe in Galway, the name of 
which has the same origin as the preceding, for it 
is an attempted translation of Ath-glorach. One 
mile to the west of Abbeyleix in Queen's Coimty, 
we cross Glorecn Bridge ; the name — which is a 
diminutive form — was originally applied to the 
ford before the erection of the bridge, and has the 
same meaning as the last. The word Gloragh 
itself is the name of a townland three miles north- 
west of the village of Sneem in Kerry, which was 
evidently so called from a small stream flowing 
southwards through the place into the Sneem river; 
and there is a stream called Glory joining the 

G8 Poetical and Fancy Namea. [chap. iv. 

King's River near KcUs in Kilkonn)^ : these two 
names signify "babbling river." 

It seems very natural that names of rivers sbould 
be occasionally formed from roots signifying to 
speak. Silius Italicus, a lloman poet of the tirst 
century of the Cliristian era, mentions a Gaulish 
river named Labariis; and Zeuss, (piotiii^- this, 
adds from certain mediioval charts, Jiab;ira, llio 
ancient name of three small rivers, now called 
Laber, falling into the Danube near lleginum, the 
present Ratisbon. He suggests that these names 
are derived either from hilar, spealdng (modern 
Irish lahhair, speak; hihliairt, speaking); or fi-om 
lahar, proud (Gram. Celt., p. 3, note**); but from 
what is said in the present aiticlo, the former will 
perhaps be considored ijiol'drable.* 

According to the Irish annalists, three rivers 
sprang forth in the reign of Fiacha-Lahhrainne, 
one of the pre-Christian kings : — the Fleasc (now 
the Flesk in Kerry), the Mang (now the Maine, 
near the Flesk), and the Labrann, which must be 
one of the rivers in the barony of Corkaguiny, 
though the name is now obsolete (see O'Curry, 
Lect. II., 82). This last name corresponds with 
the old Gaulish names above-mentioned, and has 
obviously the same origin. 

The word lahhair, speak, is preserved in the name 
of Cloghlowrish Bridge over a little stream falling 
into tho Tay, two miles north-west from Strad- 

* At tlic s.amo time it must be ol)sei-ved that rivers some- 
tinioa get names meaning prontl. The little river that .flowa 
into tlio aea throngii (jilengarrilV in Cork, is ealled LTallach, 
thongh this name is not jireserved on the Ordnance maps. 
Uaill signilies pride; Uallach, proud; and so well is this under- 
stood that llie peasantry are now beginning to call tlie river 
\>y the English name I'roudly. There are other rivers in Ire- 
land now ealled Oolagh, which ia the same name anglicised. 
I suppose rivers with such names are subject to sudden and 
iinpotuous floods, aa tho QlengarrifF river ia. 

ciiAr. IV.] roctical and Fancy Names. G9 

bally in Waferford. But here the faculty of 
speech is attributed to a stoue, not to a stream. 
The name, which signifies the speaking stone 
(Gaelic Chch-/ahhrais) is applied to a rock near 
tlio bridge. According to a very vivid tradition 
in the county Watcrford, this stone gave responses, 
and decided causes in pagan times. Ijut on one 
occasion a very wicked woman jjerjured herself in 
its presence, and appealed to it to prove her truth- 
fuhiess ; Avhereupon the stone was so shocked tliatit 
split in two — broke its heart, in fact — with horror, 
and never spoke again. There are other stones in 
Ireland with this name, one of which has given 
name to two townlands now called Clolourish, near 
Enniscorthy in Wexford. The name of this stone 
had, no doubt, a similar origin. There is a beau- 
tiful hill near Swaidinbar, on the borders of Oavan 
and Fermanagh, now called Binaghlon, whose 
Gaelic name \^Bcann-EacJdahhra (Four M.) the jjeak 
of tlie fip(>nl<iiig ho]B(i. JFere, according to l(>gcnd, 
a great horse used to come forth from the moun- 
tain, before the time of St. Patrick, and, speaking 
in a human voice, projjhesy coming events to those 
who consulted him. 

In the Tripartite Life of St. Patrick, it is related 
that when he came to Magh Slecht in the present 
county of Cavan, to destroy the great idol Crom. 
Cruach, he first caught sight of the idol from a 
stream called Gnth-drd, which means loud voice ; 
but the old writer is careful to explain that it got 
this name because St. Patrick raised his voice on 
seeing the idol. Wliether this ])c the true expla- 
nation or not, it is curious that we have to this day 
a townland (now divided into two) in the north of 
Kerry, three or four miles east of Ballybunnion, 
called by (his same name, in the modern form 
Guhard. Whellier (bis name was oiigiiudly ap- 

70 Poetical and Fancy Names, [ciiai'. iv. 

plied to n strcuin I cannot say ; it is not unlikc^ly 
that the place was so called on account of a remark- 
able echo. According to the tradition of the 
people, Goward, near Hilltown in Down, at the 
base of the Mourue Mountains, took its name from 
an echo — this being the same name as Guhard. 
In connection with this itmay bo worth remarking 
that there is a little stream in the parish of Wliite- 
church in Waterford, live miles south-east of Cap- 
poqnin, called the Roaring Water. 

There is another Irish word, glebir [glorc], which 
not unfrequently goes to form the names of rivers, 
and as it is somewhat like (jloy in sound, the two 
are liable to be confounded wluni tlioy become 
anglicised. Qleoir means brightness or clearness. 
The river Olcoir in Sligo is very often mentioned 
in ohl records (Four M., Hy F., «.^c.). According 
to O'Donovan (Hy F. 109), this is the river now 
called the Leaffony, flowing into Killala Bay, five 
miles north-east of the mouth of the Moy ; but 
the old name is quite forgotten. There was also 
a river Qleoir in the ancient district of Caaibuje, 
the peninsxda between Carlingford and Dundallc. 

This old name is retained, however, by oilier 
streams in various parts of the country. There is 
a river Glore near CastlepoUard in Westmeath, 
rising in Lough Glore, and joining the Inny ; 
anothea- near the village of Kiltamagh in Mayo ; 
and near Glcnarm in Antrim is a townland called 
Glore, which must have taken its name from a 
stream (v. Tleeves : h]ccl. Ant. 3;}8). The name 
of the townlandof Glear near Clones in IMonughan, 
has a like origin, for it is written Oleeore in the 
DoAvn Survey ; and its appearance, abounding in 
sparkling waters, justifies the name. 

There is still another word somewhat like this 
last, namely gluair [gloor], meaning pure or clear; 

CHAP. IV.] Poetical and Fancy Names. 71 

from wliicli comes gluaire [glooria], purity, clear- 
ness, briglitness ; but I suppose glooir and gluair 
are radically the same. lu the Tripartite Life it 
is stated that St. Patrick founded a church at a 
place called Gluaire in the neighbourhood of the 
present town of Larne (see Reeves : Eccl. Ant. 87, 
note /.•). This word gives name to the two toAvn- 
lands of Glooria near Lough Key in the north of 
Roscommon, and to Glouria in the parish of Qaley 
in the north of Kerry. 

Before leaving this part of the subject, I must 
direct attention to another way of designating the 
sparkling briglitness of streams, by comparing it 
with the brilliancy of silver : a comparison which 
is extremely common, not only in modern poetry, 
but in the language of everyday life. This was 
the origin of the name of the Arigidcen, literally 
"little silver" — the silvery little river — a consider- 
able stream which flows into the sea at Courtmac- 
sherry in tlie south of the county Cork (airgend^ 
silver; diminutive airgidhi). Near (/Mslloisland in 
Kerry there is a small stream which dashes over 
rocks, called Glasheenanargid, the little streamlet 
(glaisin) of the silver. 

In their observation of the beauties of nature, 
the people did not pass unnoticed the singing of 
birds. It woidd not be easy to find a prettier 
name than CooUcellure, which is that of a place 
near Dunmanway in Cork, signifying the recess 
of the warbling of birds: — Cuil-ccilcahhair. The 
word ceilcahhav [kellure], which enters into this 
name, is now commonly applied to the singing, 
chirping, or warbling of a bird : — 

"Do bhel is binne 
Na'71 chnacli air bile, 
S'nd ceihnhhar coriii lutn runlaidh." 

" Thy mouth which is sweeter than the cuckoo 

72 Poetical and Fanci/ Naniea. [cii.M'. iv. 

on ilio tree — sweeter <liini ilic; melodious warbling- 
of tlie birds." JUit it originally signiiied tlie .same 
as the Latin celehratio, wliicli tlie early ecclesias- 
tical writers transferred into tlie Irish language. 
Corinac ]\[ac Cullcnan (Oloss. 9tli cent.) mentions 
the word, and derives it from celchro. It is pro- 
baldo that tlio name Drumbinnis, wlu'cli wo lind 
in Oavan, I'ermanagb, and Jjcitrim, and Drum- 
binnisk in Fermanagh alone, have a similar 
origin : — Bruim-binnis, the hill-ridge of melody 
{binneas, melody). 

The fragrance of the fields and flowers arrested 
the attention, and drew forth the admiration of, 
these observant people, as well as the visible bean- 
ties of the landscape. And they expressed their 
])(!rc(!|)iion and enjoyment of iJie jHirliinie of any 
particular spot, fragrant from its abundance of 
sweet-smelling herbs, by imposing names formed 
from the word cumhra or cubhra [coora], which 
signifies sweet-scented. The word is used in this 
sense by Giolla losa Mor Mac Firbis in a, poem 
written by him in the beginning of the tifteenth 
century, when ho calls O'^fHrcfiad/ia's house 
"Habitation of the sweet-scented branches" {Aifirb 
na craeb cubraidi: see Hy F,, p. 205). Irish 
Avriters were fond of using this term cracbh cumhra; 
and in love songs it is often applied to a beautiful 
young woman, as in the well known song, "Hois 
(jeal dabh :" — "A chraebh chumhra a dubliairt liom 
go raibh grcidh agud dom :" " 0, sweet-scented 
branch, who hast told mo that thou didst love me." 
There is a parish in Ijiraerick which, curiously 
enough, has for name this very epithet, Cracbh- 
cumhradh [Crave-coora], for so O'lleeren writes 
thename, meaning sweet-scented branch, or branchy 
tree — but it is now anglicised Crecora. A place 
about three miles north-west from Eyrecourt in 

CHAP. IV.] Poetical and Fancy Names, 73 

Gahvay has a name like tliis : — Scecoor, i.e. in 
Iiisli Sceach-cumhra, fragrant busb. 

Clontycoora, the name of a townlaud in the 
parish of Clccnish in rcrmauagh, is as suggestive 
of fiokis (Icclccd with ennnncr flowcns as any name 
of this chiss — C/i(aiiifc-('Uii>/irai(Ui, tlie odoriferous 
chons or meadows ; so also is Aghacoora near the 
village of Lixnaw in Kerry — sweet-scented field ; 
and Clooncoorha, scented meadow, is the name of 
a little hamlet three miles north of Kilrush in 
Clare. At a.d. 1401 the Four Masters record that 
Mac Ilannall, the chief of his race, was slain by 
another chief of the same name at Drmm-cuhhra, 
the f ragiant-sccnted ridge ; and the place, which 
lies in the parish of Kiltoghert in Leitrim, stLll 
retains the name in the form of Drumcoora. There 
is another place of the same name near Mohill in the 
same county. Wc have also Tidlycoora near 
Castlcblayney in Monaghan {Tully, a hill); and 
the old church that gave name to Kilcoorha in the 
parish of Killecdy in Limerick, Avas probably sur- 
rounded with sweet- smelling bushes — most likely 
hawthorn — when it got the name. Five miles 
north-east from Birr in King's Coimty, is a con- 
siderable lake called Lough Coura — which, no 
doubt, was so called from the perfume of the 
flowery herbage on its shores. 

What a curious and pretty name — pretty at least 
in iis meaning — is ]\luggalnagrow, in the parish 
of Inishmacsaint in Fermanagh ; mogul, a cluster; 
cno, a nnt; Mognl-na-gcno, cluster of nuts (w 
changed to r ; 1st Vol., Part I., c. ni.). Just out- 
side {Sybil Point, west of Dingle in Kerry, there 
is a rock rising from the sea, called Maheraneig ; 
i.e. in Irish Mathair-an-fhiaig, the raven's mother 
(fuH'h, a raven) ; and it got this name, I suppose, 
as being larger and more imposing in appearance 

74 Poetical and Fancy Names, [ctiap. tv. 

(lian another sea rock in its vicinitj^ called the 
liaven. Anunig- the innuiueraLlo inlets roinul 
Lettermore island in Conneniara, there is one at 
the townland of Bealadangan, which at its open- 
ing is exposed to all the violence of the tempests 
that sweep over that desolate coast. A stormy 
and inhospitahle shore was never more graphically 
pictdred than in the name ol' that IKile inlet: — 
Crompannvealduark : cronipun, ii small sea-inlet; 
hel, mouth ; duairc, frowning or surly ; — the little 
creek of the surly mouth. Among the many 
streams that flow into Killary Bay from the north 
or Mayo side, there is one just opposite Leenane, 
called Sndiami-more-ard (the large high stream- 
let), which tumhles over a rocky precipice into the 
dark depths below ; and anyone Avho understands 
a little of the Irish language can form a fair idea 
of the gloomy and dangerous character of this 
waterfall even without seeing it, for the name is 
enough: — Skirra-go-hiffiru, slipping to hell. 



Our native literature affords sufiicient proof (hat 
the science of medicine was carefully cultivated 
in anci(!nt Ireland. For we have in our museums 
several medical manuscripts containing elaborate 
treatises on the various tjqies of diseases known in 
the times of the writers, with minute descriptions 
of symptoms, and carefully detailed directions on 
the methods of treatment. The ofiice of physician 

nuAr. v.] Diseases and Cures. 76 

was liereditury, like many other offices in tliis 
coimtry ; and these manuscripts were compiled by 
the several leech families, and handed down from 
father to son, each adding to the volume the most 
recent discoveries in the science, or the result of 
liis own (^xp(M-ienco. 

Several great physicians are celebrated -in the 
pagan records of the country ; and many legends 
are extant which show that they were believed 
to possess powers of cure bordering on the mira- 
culous. The most celebrated of all was Dianceehf, 
tlie physician of the IJcdannans. When this race 
invaded Ireland they found it already in possession 
of the Firho/gs ; and a battle was fought between 
the two armies on the plain of Moytura, near 
Cong in the county Mayo, in the year of the 
world 3303, in which the Firho/gs were defeated, 
and their king, Foc/ij/, slain. The ancient account 
of this battle states tliat Nuada, the king of the 
Deda)i)ia)is, had his ai-m lopped off with a blow 
ol' !i lieiivy Hwovd, by Sirng, one op the Firho/g 
warriors. Crednr, the king's artificer, fashioned 
nn aim of silver; and DiancrcJif fixed it on by his 
surgiciil skill, while liis son, 31iach, endued it with 
life and motion, so tliat the king was able to use 
it like the hand and arm he had lost ; and he was 
ever after known by the name of Nuada of the 
silver hand. 

The second battle of Moytnra was fought twenty- 
seven yenrs after, by the Dedaimans against 
the Fomorians, in which the former were again 
victorious ; but their king, Nuada of the silver 
hand, was slain by the great Fomorian chief- 
tain, Balor of the mighty blows. In this battle 
also, the wonderful medical skill of Diancecht 
was brought into play ; for with the aid of his 
daughter and his two sons, he prepared a medicinal 

76 Diseases and Cures. [chap, v. 

bath in tlie rear of (lie army, and endued it with 
sucli sanative virtue, that the wounded warriora 
who retired and phmged into it, came out restored 
to strength, "smooth and wholefrom their v\ounds." 
The batli derived its healiuf^ qualities from herbs 
which were gathered by Diancccht chielly in a 
district situated wvnv liirr in the ])resont King's 
(Jonnty, which, because it produ(;cd these medicinal 
herbs in such abimdance, was called Lusmagh, the 
plain of the herbs {his, an herb ; ma(jh, a plain), 
a name which it retains to this day. 

We read also in the Tain ho Chaaihxje, of a 
warrior named CeUwi-n who was desperately 
wounded, aiul who Avas cured by {]\o physician 
Fingin, by means of a bath medicated ^vith the 
uuirrow of a great number of cows (O'Curry, 
Jicct,., II., 101). 

If we are inclined to laugh at the simple people 
who believed in those marvellous cures, let us not 
forget that they Avere in no degree more credulous 
than myriads of our own day, who are caught by 
quack advertisements, and who believe in cures 
quite as wonderful as those performed by Diancccht. 

The frequent notices of physicians in Irish 
writings, the great consideration in which they 
were held, and the numerous regulations regarding 
them found in the Brehon Laws, show that medicine 
was a well-recognised profession from the most 
remote periods of history. After the introduction 
of Christianity we find no mention of any particular 
physician, so far as I am aware, till a.d. 8()0, in 
which year the lA)ur IMasters and i]w Au\u\h ol' 
Ulster record the death of " ]\Luylohar O'Tiunri, 
the most learned physician of Ireland." h'rom 
this time forward we have information — increasing 
as we advance — regarding medicid science and its 
professors. Each of the great Irish families had 

CHAP, v.] Diseases and Cures. 77 

attaolicd to it a physician whose office was here- 
ditary, and who usually held a tract of land in 
return for service. These physicians ranked with 
the judges and poets ; many of them resided in 
slately castles, and lived in fact altogether like 

Among these may he mentioned the O'Cassidys, 
who were physicians to the Maguires of Fermanagh, 
of whom several individual practitioners of great 
eminence arc commemorated in the annals. This 
family possessed a tract in the county Fermanagh, 
which retains their name to this day — Farran- 
cassidy, the land of the O'Cassidys. The O' Sheila 
were anolhcr very distinguished family of physi- 
cians, who were attached to the Mac Coghlans of 
Delvin in the King's County, and to the Mac 
Mahons of Oriel ; and their medical manuscript — 
" The Book of the O'Sheils " — is now in the Royal 
Irish Academy. This family possessed the lands 
ol' nallyslKMl near the village of Cloglian in King's 
Coiinly — (ho town ol' O'iSIkmI. Tliero aio oilier 
places of the same name in the counties of Down 
and Armagh. 

The very names of some of these families indicate 
their profession. O'Lee (the name is now always 
written Lee) was physician to the O'Flahertys of 
west Connaught ; and tlie book belonging to this 
family is also preserved in the library of the Royal 
Irish Academy. The Irish form of the name is 
(/Lini(//i, which means the descendant of the liaf/h 
[leea], i. e. of the kcch or physician. So also 
O'llickey : the O'llickeys were long celebrated as 
phj^sicians, and different branches of the family 
were attached to the O'Briens and other great 
southern families. This name is in Irish O'hicid/ie, 
which sign i lies the descendant of the healer, from 
the root ic to heal {ic, salus, Zeuss, 49). 

78 Diseases and Cures. [chap. v. 

Tlio two ancestors from wliom these families 
respectively took their names must have sprung 
into sudden celebrity on account of their skill in 
medicine ; so much so that their usual names were 
changed to Icid/ie [eeky], the healer, and L'uujh 
[leea], the physician ; and their profession was 
transuiitted from father to son for hundreds of 
years, till it iinally died out in times comparatively 
recent — a good example of the extraordinary 
tenacity with which the several families clung 
to hereditary offices in Ireland. 

It is almost unnecessary to observe that it is not 
my object to give here a history of disease in Ire- 
land, but only to illustrate by a few remarks those 
local names that preserve in their etymology a 
memory of disease either general or spe(;ial. 

l*la(jue. We have in Irisli several words to do- 
note a plague in general. The most usual term in 
use in Pagan times was tamlt. [thauv], of which I 
have already treated (see Talhight, First Volume). 
Anotherword in use wSLsteidhm [thame], which how- 
ever I do not find reproduced in names. In 
Christian times the word plaUjh [plaw] —a mere 
adaptation of the Latin plaga — came into general 
use to denote any great pestilence or violent 
epidemic. This word enters into the formation of 
several names; and when we find a place with such a 
name we may draw the conclusion either that it was 
at some time long past depopulated by one of those 
dreadful pestilential visitations which are so fre- 
quently recorded in our annals, and which, as it 
swei)t over the country, concentrated its virulence 
on that particular spot ; or that the place was 
selected, during the prevalence of the mortality, as 
an asylum for the sick ; and probably, in some 
instances names of this land mark the spots where 
the vict'ma of some sort of plngue were interred in 

[chap, v.] Diseases and Cures, 79 

one great sepulchre (see Tallaght, First Volume), 
Just by the chapel of Shanbally near Monkstown 
below Cork, there is a large rock with some ancient 
remains on its top ; it is called on the Ordnance 
map Carrigaplau, representing the Irish Carmiff-a'- 
phlaiijh, the rock of the i)lague ; but the popular 
anglicised name is Carrigafly, which is more 
correct, the p being aspirated as it ought. There 
is a place near Clonmel called Templeaplau — the 
plague cliurch ; in the parish of Donaghmore in 
Cork we have Commeenaplau [Gommeen, a little 
coom, or valley) ; and three miles north-west from 
Shrulo in J\Inyo, is a place called Knockauaplawy 
the little hill of the plague. 

Lcproay. In our native records there is abundant 
evidence to prove that some form of leprosy existed 
in Ireland from a very early date. It would seem 
to have been a recognised disease in the time of St. 
Patrick ; for we are told in one of his Lives, that 
at one time lie niiiintaincd a leper in his house, and 
ministered to him with his own hands. After his 
time our literature, especially that portion devoted 
to the Lives and Acts of the Irish saints, abounds 
with notices of the disease ; and even some of the 
early saints themselves are believed to have been 
afflicted with it, as for instance St. Finan, the 
foimder of the monastery of Innisfallen at Killar- 
ney, in the seventh century, who was surnamed 
lohur or the leper, because, as is commonly believed, 
ho was for thirty years alllictcd with some cutaneous 

There are several notices of individual deaths by 
leprosy in the aimals, and on more occasions than 
one it broke out in the form of an epidemic, and 
carried off great mmibers of people. From the 
time of St. Til I n'ck (ill 1 he 17th century, the country 
appears never to have been free from it. Boato 

80 Discdf^cs and Ciors. [oiiai'. v. 

slates tlint in his time (1645) it liad di.saijpoavcd ; 
but says that formerly it was very common, ami 
he attributes its prevalence to the practice of eating 
salmon out of season. 

So general was the disease in former times, that 
leper hospitals were establised in various parts of 
Ireland, many of them in connexion with monastic 
institutions; for example at Dublin, Waterford, 
Wexford, &g. ; and Boate states that they were 
specially nxmierous in Munster, where the disease 
was very prevalent. This last statement appears 
to receive some confirmation from the epithet 
applied in the Book of Bights (p. 49) to Slieve 
Lougher near Castleisland in Kerry, namely Litn- 
chair na luhhair, Lougher of the lepers ; which 
wo\dd also go to show that tliis characteristic, as 
regards at least a part of ]\l mister, was ol'long 
standing. We find recorded in the " Monasticon 
Ilibernicum " that a hospital for lepers was 
founded in 1467 at the village of Hospital in 
Limerick, and another at Dungannon, the former of 
which still retains the name. The names of Spittle, 
Spiddle, and Spital, Avhich are only shortened 
forms of Hospital, are very common in various 
parts of Ireland; and they mark the sites of 
hospitals of some kind, some of them no doubt 
leper hospitals. 

There are several terms in Irish for cutaneous 
diseases of the nature of leprosy. Of these sa)nh- 
thrusG [sauvrusk] is applied to a great epidemic 
which broke out in the middle of the sixth century, 
which is understood to have been a sort of mango, 
or scaly leprosy. Clamh [clauv] is another word 
in common \isc for some form of the same disease, 
as well as for a person alllicted with it ; and avo 
have this commemorated in Drumclamph near 
Ardstraw in Tyrone, the ridge of the lepers. But 

CHAP, v.] Diseases and Cures. 8l 

it is with the Avord lohhar [lower] we have chiefly 
to do here. It is generally believed that this is 
merely the Latin word kin-a borrowed by the Irish. 
But lobar is used in the oldest Irish writings in 
the sense of infirm us, and is not confined in its 
application to leprosy ; it occurs, for instance, many 
times in the MSS. quoted by Zeuss (8th cent.) in 
the old form lohor, and always glosses infirmus or 
dchilis. In the Book of Leinster and also in the 
Book of Lismore, the expression " na lohor ociis na 
clam " occurs, and in both cases, Dr. Reeves trans- 
lates claw by " lepers " and lohor by " sick," which 
latter exactly corresponds with the infirmns and 
drhilis of (ho ancient glossographcr (Reeves on the 
Culdees, Trans. R.I.A., Vol. XXIV., p. 19G). 
From this it would appear that lohor is not borrowed 
from lepra, but is merely cognate with it. If we 
bear in mind the sense in which this word was used 
in old Irish, it will not perhaps be necessary to 
believe that those early saints — of whom there 
woro Kov(M'jil — who arc surnamcd loh/iar, were 
afllicted with leprosy ; but that they were simply 
infirmus or feeble in health. 

In whatever sense lohhar may have been used, 
however, in very early ages, in later times it came 
to be applied, not in a general manner to a person 
infirm or sick, but in a special sense to one aiflicted 
with leprosy. And in this sense it is fomid in the 
local nomenclature of the coimtry, Avhich thus 
corrobornfos the accounts preserved in the national 
records, of the former prevalence of the disease. 
The usual anglicised forms of the word is lour, 
lower, loura, and lure (this last representing the 
Irish modified form luhhar, which very often 
occurs) ; and I suppose that wherever we 
find a name containing this word, we may 
generally infer that some kind of hospital or 

VOL. II. 7 

82 Diseases and Cures. [chap, v. 

usyluin for lepers was I'oinierly establislicd (liere. 
Such a place is Knockaimaloiir in the parish of 
Ardnagcchy, south of the Naglcs INloiiutains in 
Cork — Cnocdn-ua-lobhar, the little hill of the 
lepers ; and Knocknalower, which has a similar 
iiKuiuing', is the name of it suiiill hill wilh a fcsw 
houses at its base, in the midst of a moory tract, 
east of BelmuUet in Mayo. There are places in 
Cork, Tipperary, and Galway, called Gortnalour, 
Gortnalower, and Gortnaloura, the field of the 
lepers ; and in Ivathnalour in the parish of New- 
chapel near Clonmel, the diseased must have been 
sholtered within the ench)suri! of the old fort. 
About five miles north of Corrolin in Clare, there 
is a ])laco called Poidiialour, the lepcirs' pool or hole, 
which was probably so called from a pool sup[)osed 
to possess some virtue in curing lepers who washed 
themselves in it. Balljaialour, the town of the 
lepers, is a townland near St. MuUins in CarloAv ; 
and this was the original name of Leperstown 
between Dublin and Bray, which is now corruptly 
called Leopardstown. 

But no doubt, several of the places with names 
of this kind were so called because i)ersons alliicted 
with leprosy resided in, or had them in possession ; 
and this may be presumed to have been i\\e case 
when the name commemorates only a single leper. 
There is a place near Kanturk in Cork, called 
Dromalour, and another in Cavan, half wwy between 
liutler's Bridge and ]}eltuvbet, called l)rumalur(>, 
both ixo\i\ Druhn-a^ -lohhair , the riilge of the le])er ; 
Cloonalour, near Tralee, the leper's meadow. 
There is a place in the jxirish of Cloonogliil in 
Sligo, called Flowerhill, which is a strange trans- 
foj'mation of the proper Irish name, Knockalower, 
hill of the leper. This change, which was made 
by translating cnoc to hill, and by turning lohltair 

CHAP, v.] Diseases and Cures. 83 

(lour) to fower, totally hides the meaning. It is 
to be observed that the fact of lohJiar being singular 
in a name does not exclude the supposition of a 
leper hosj)ital. 

Jaundice. Those who are afflicted with jaundice 
may be restored to health and colour by drinking 
the water of Toberboyoga (avcU of the jaundice) 
near Kells inMeath: — huidhcog [boyoge], jaundice. 
Wells of this kind are sometimes called Bmdheachdn 
[Boynglian], a term which, like huidheocj, is a 
diminiitivo from hnidhe [bo3'^], yellow ; and one of 
these wells has given name to the townland of 
Boyaghan near Irvinestown in Fermanagh. But I 
must observe that some of them may have been so 
called from the yellow colour of the clay or mud. 
Gortnasoolboy in the parish of Cam in Roscommon, 
would seem \o be connected in some way with this 
disease, as its most exi)ressive name appears to 
indicate — tho field of tlie yellow eyes (.s/^/7, eye). 
Another name of exactly the same kind is applied 
to a fort, and also to a townland, in the parish of 
Ardcrony, three miles south of IJorrisokano in 
Tipperary — Lisnasoolmoy, the fort of ilie yellow 
eyes. Here the h of hiddhe or hoy is eclipsed by m 
as it ouglit to bo ; but I cannot imagine why the 
fort got this name. 

Warts. If a person's hands are disfigured bj 
warls, lie bits genoiiilly not fjir to trav(^l to lind ii, 
well, ill whicb if lie wash tliom diiy after Any for 
some time, the warts will disappear. Sometimes 
the rain-water that collects in the hollows of certain 
monumental stones, such as crosses, tombs, &c. — 
and occasionally in rocks of any kind — is believed 
to possess this virtue. Two miles west of Macroom 
in (Jork, near the soutli bank of the river Sidlane, 
and in the townland of Inchibrackane, is a holy 
well called Tobcrnawanny, which is the pronmi- 

84 Diseases and Cures. [chap. v. 

ciatiou of 2hhat'-na-l)///aii/itiiclhe, the well of tlic 
warts: — -faithnidh [fuuiiy], a wart. TLere is 
another well of the same name in the townland of 
Derrygarriv, two miles south of Ivenmare ; and 
still another — Tohernavaunia, in (he parish of 
Kilcummin in Galway. Fahnia lake, a small pool 
three miles north-east of the town of ]^onegal, 
must have been believed to possess some virtue of 
this kind, for the name is the English represen- 
tative of the Irish Loch-na-hhfaithnidhe [Lough 
Navaunee], the lake of the warts. 

Well Cures. The memory of diseases is preserved 
more generally in connection with wells than with 
any other physical t'eaturo. Vov wells were very 
often dedicated to the early saints, after whoso 
death they (jontinucd to be held in rovereiicci for 
ages by the people; and nmny of Iheni wi'i'e 
believed to possess the power of curing diseases. 
Jocelin records the legend that St. Patrick caused 
a well to spring miraculously from the eartli in tlio 
neighbourhood of Saul near Downpatrick, and this 
well was called 8ldn [slawn] ; but the Ultonians, 
we are told, filled it up on account of the annoyance 
they suffered from the great crowds that frequented 
it. For it was believed to possess wonderful 
efficacy ; and the old scholiast, in explaining the 
name sliui by sanus or health-giving, adds that it 
was called shin because all who came to it returned 
from it whole and sound. 

A reverence for wells, and a popular belief in 
their sanativo virtues, existed among the Pagiiii 
j)opula(ion of the country before thelifth century ; 
for we find it recorded in one of tlie earliest narru- 
tives of the Life of St. Patrick, that he came on a 
certain occasion to a well, culled Sldii, which the 
dniids worshipped as a god ; and other passages 
might be cited to the same effect. 

CHAP, v.] Diseases and Cures. 85 

This yvord sldn, wWcli we have seen was a name 
for certain fountains in pagan times and was 
adopted also by the early Christians, continued in 
use after the spread of Cliristianity as a kind of 
gcnei'ic term for holy wells ; and we have many 
cxnmples of wells so called — all in the same sense — 
indicating the prevalence of a belief in their heal- 
ing qualities. It must be remarked that sldn, 
healthy, and the derivative sldmte [slaimtia] health, 
are living words in common use at the present day. 
TJicro is a Tobcrslnno — the well of health or tlio 
lioiding Avcll — which gives name to a townland in 
ilie ])nrish of Killca a little south-west of the city 
of i)crry ; there is anotlier well now called Tober- 
slaun in the townland of Balleeghan near Lough 
Swilly in Donegal, which O'Donovan believes, and 
■with good reason, to be the same well mentioned 
in the Four Masters at 1557, by the name of 
Cahliavthach [Cowrha], which has much the same 
monning as .sAf», viz., helping. Toberslauntia — 
well of health — is the name of a well in the town- 
hind of Knightswood, two miles south-west of the 
village of Multyfarnhnm in Wcstmeath ; and there 
is a small circidar lake called Lough Slaun near 
the east margin of Lough Ree, south of Lanesboro. 

The word sldn enters also into other names. 
There is an old fort in the parish of St. John's in 
Roscommon, which would appear by its name to 
have been used at one time as a Icind of sanatorium : 
— Lisaslaun, the fort of the sick people {cas, a 
negative particle ; casldn, a sick person). The 
common planlain or rib-grass is called in Irish 
shin Jus, heal-herb ; from which again the townland 
of Muingatlaunlush in the parish of O'Brennan, 
nbout six milesnorth-cast of Tralce, has its name -.-^ 
Mi(ing-a'-tskinliiis, the muing or sedgy place of thi 
rib- grass. 

86 Discasi's and Cures. [chat. v. 

Wliilo g-reat imin])er8 of wells arc, like tho 
preceding, celebrated for curing all sorl s oi' diseases, 
many, on the other hand, were resorted to for par- 
ticular disorders ; and the names of not a few attest 
this npecialify. We may with great probability 
conclude that wells of this kind very of ten derived 
their reputation from being dedicated to patrons 
who were noted for curing special diseases. As a 
good example of a special reputation of this kind, 
I will instance a curious legend in the life of one 
of our most celebrated early saints. 

Aedh mac Brio {Aedh or Hugh the son of Bree), 
bishop, was the tutelar saint of the Kinelea, that 
is, of the people who inhabited the territory now 
represented by the barony of Moycashel, in West- 
meath. He was one of the tribe himself, his father, 
Jlrce, being descended in the fourth generulion 
iVom Niall of the JMine Hostages; he was born early 
in the sixth century, and he died in the year 589. 
The chief of a district in his native territory 
presented him with one of the native circular forts 
to be turned to Christian uses; and the saint 
erected a church within its fosses ; whence, accord- 
ing to his Life, the place came to be called Itath- 
Acd/ia, Castelhim Aidi, i.e. Aedh's or Hugh's fort, 
now anglicised Rahugh, the name of the parish in 
which he is still venerated. And the old fort still 
remains there. This saint is reverenced in several 
other places. With that taste for extreme and 
impressive solitude so prevalent among the early 
ecclesiastics, he built a little oratory, whose ruins 
are still to bo seen, on the top of Slieve League in 
Donegal, where he is now called bishop Hugh 
Breaky ; and near it is his holy well, where there 
were stations within the last two or three 

It is related in his Life that a man once came 

CiiAT. V.J Diseases and Cures. 87 

to him who was afllicted with a violent headache, 
and bofyged the saint to pray for him. The bishop 
said, " 1 cannot cure you in any way except by 
causing the pain to pass from you to me ; but you 
Avill have a great reward if you bear it patiently." 
The man porsistcd, stating that the pain was more 
iJiaii lie could bear; Avhcrcupon the bishop prayed, 
and the sufferer was immediately relieved, but the 
pain was transferred to the head of the holy man. 
Ilence it came to pass, as the legend goes on to 
say, that persons were in the habit of invoking 
this saint's name for a pain in the head. The 
great antiquity of this custom is proved, and very 
curidusly illustrated, by the following short poem 
published by INlono, archive director of Carlsruhe, 
from a manuscript preserved in the monastery of 
Reichenau on an island in Lake Constance : — 

rex, o rector rcgniinis, 
o cnlfcor coeli carminis 
o persecutor murmoris 
o (lens alti agmiiiia. 

■I* Alio -l- pator 
Atdo sanctus mcc/t Brichhemhn\a, 
posco pnro precamina, 
ut rcfrigerat flumiua 
mei capitis calida. 

Curat caput cum renibua 

•1' cerobro 
meis, atque talibus, 

cum oculig et genibus, 
cum auribus et naribus. 

■1- norvib\i8 
Ouin incliti.s cuntibug, 
cum fistulis soiiaiitibu3 
cum lingua atque dentibus, 
cum lachry marum fontibus. 

Sanctus Aid altua adjuvat, 
meum caput ut liberat, 
ut boc totum peiseverat 
sanum atque vigilat. 

This poem (the Latin of M^hich is very barbarous, 
as Dr. lieevcs remarks) was wrilten in the eighth 
century by an Irishman, one of those good men 
who in early ages exiled themselves from home to 
liclp to spread the Faiih, and it will be perceived 
thai it is a form of prayer to obtain relief from a 
headaclio. We may assume that the writer merely 
transcribed it, and that its com])Osition may bo 

88 LiM-ases and Cures. [chap. v. 

rcforred to u still earlior (Into. Mono, who luul not 
access to Irish hagiological autliorities, conjectured 
that the person whose intercession is invoked was 
Acdh or Moguo, first bishop of Ferns ; but Dr. 
Reeves at once recognised him as Aedh mac Brie. 

J)y Reeves concludes the paper from which the 
preceding account has been taken,* with the follow- 
ing appropriate remark: — "The little composition 
which forms the leading subject of the paper, 
possesses no literary merits, but it is a well-defined 
trace of that early religious emigration which com- 
menced in the sixth century, and waxed more and 
more vigorous till it attained its height in the 
ninth, taldng with it not "only the language and 
literature of the Scoti, but also their legendary 
associations, which they cbuig to in forcn'gn climes; 
and not only so, but left them on record in manu- 
scripts which have weathered a thousand years, 
and are now beginning, through German industry, 
to be reflected on the mother country, where they 
find their counterparts, after a separation of so 
many centuries." 

The counterpart of this little poem is the account 
quoted at p. 86 from the Life of the saint. But 
there is another, and if possible a more interesting 
one, in the fact that Hugh mac Brie is still invoked 
for a headache. Near the ruins of the old monas- 
tery of Rahugh was bishop Hugh's holy well, 
but it is now, I regret to say, closed up, though it 
would be easy to restore it ; and in the same place 
is a largo stone, still called bishop Hugh's stone — 
for according to local tradition, the saint was ac- 
customed to pray on it — to which the people of 
the surrounding districts have been, time out of 
mind, in the habit of resorting for the relief of 

* On the Hymnus Sancti Aidi, by the Rev. W. Reeves, D.D. 
Proo. R.I.A., VII., 91. 

CHAP, v.] Diseases and Cures. 89 

headache.* So that the custom, which probably 
began soon after the saint's death, has lived on 
without interruption for more than twelve hundred 

Wells that wore famed for curing sore eyes were 
often called Tobersool and Tobernasool, the well 
of the eyes {suil, the eye) ; there is a Tobersool 
for instance in the parish of Balscaddan in the 
north of the county Dublin, near Balbriggan; one 
called Tobernasool in the parish of Rathlogan, near 
Johnstown in Kilkenny ; and another of tlio snme 
name, one mile north-east of Ijisbellaw in Fer- 
managh, from which the adjacent lake has got 
tlio name of Jjoiigh Eyes. Of the same cliaracter 
must be Loughannasool two miles east of Elphin in 
Roscommon, Loughannasool, in the parish of Cloony- 
gormican, same county, and Loughnasool, near the 
north end of Lough Arrow in Sligo, all signif^dng 
the lake of tlie eyes. Sometimes these wells are 
called Tobcrkcagh, blind well {caech, blind) ; but 
this term is often also applied to a well which 
sometimes dries up, without any reference to eye- 
cure : it is blind when there is no water in it. 
There is a place called Blindwell in the parish of 
Kilconla in Gal way, six miles north-west of Tuam ; 
OTul a stream called Owenkeagh, blind river, joins 
the Arigideen above Timoleague in Cork. 

When children are wasting away in a decline 
iliey are bathed in the little lake called Lough- 
aneeg, three miles south of Elphin in Roscom- 
mon : — cug, death, but applied here to a slow, 
wasting disease ; Loughaneeg, the lake of the 
decline. The general restorative qualities of 
Toberanleise, near the river Barrow, in the town- 
land of Dunganstown, parish of Whitechurch, 

* See the Rev. A. Cogan's " Diocese of Mea^h," II. 522, 

90 Offices and Trades. [chap. vi. 

"Wexford, is indicated by its name — Tobar-an- 
kif/Iiis, tlio well of tlio euro {liagli, u j)liy«Ici!iu — 
kitjlteas, cure). Tlie little lake of Loiiglianleagli, 
three miles east of liailieboro in Cavau, lias been 
celebrated from time innnemorial for curing- all 
Iciuds of cutaneous diseases : let tlio eruption bo 
ever so virultnit, the patient who was bathed in 
this little pool and af terwai'ds troatiul with poultices 
of the mud, was sure to show u chuiu white skin in ti 
very few days. A good many years ago, mifortun- 
ately for the people of the neighbourhood, a gen- 
tleman who had a pack of mangy hounds swam 
them in the water, which so offended the local 
guardian that the lake immediately lost its virtue, 
and has never since regained it. But still the 
name remains, to tantalise the people with the 
memory of what they have lost — Loch-an-liaciha, 
physician lake. There are many small lakes called 
Loughanlea in various parts of the country, but it 
is pretty certain that in these cases the name means 
merely grey lake.* 



Immediately after the time of St. Patrick, Chris- 
tianity spread rapidly in Ireland ; religious bodies 
sprang- up in all directions ; and tho country bo- 

* For a considerable part of the information in this chapter 
regarding diseases in Ireland, I am indebted to the Introduction 
to the "Table of Deaths" in the Census of 1851, by Sir William 
R. Wilde. 

CHAP. VI.] Offices and Trades. 91 

came covered with a vast niunber of ecclesiastical 
institutions of every kind. From Britain and the 
Continent great numbers came hither to spend 
their lives in study and peaceful retirement ; and 
in every part of h^uropo Irish missionaries were tO 
ho loiind wlu) liiid volimdirily left tlioirnaiivo land 
to ])rcac]i the (Jospcl: so tliat Ireland came to bo 
Icnown by the name of IiisiiJa Sanctorum, the Island 
of Saints. As one consequence of this, we find 
that the Irish terms by which the various orders 
of ecclesiastics are designated, are intimately inter- 
woven with the locnl nomenclature of the country. 
Names formed in tliis way often mark the sites of 
monasteries, nunneries, or churches — many of them 
now oblif crated; or they indicate places where 
ecclesiastics lived, or land which was once the pro- 
perty of neighbouring religious institutions. 

Clergy. Clerech signifies a clergyman without 
any reference to rank ; and like the I^nglish term 
clergy, it is a loan word from tlie Latin clericus. 
Two of its most common anglicised forms are seen 
in Farrnncleary, the name of a place near Cork 
city, the land of the clerg^inan ; and in BaUyna- 
gleragh, tlio name of several places in Clare, Tip- 
perary, and AVaterford, the town of the clergy. 
In this last the c is eclipsed by g, and also in 
CarroAvnagleragh in Roscommon and SHgo, the 
quarter-land of the clergy. 

Bishopsi. The word episcopus was borrowed early 
from Ijiitin into Irisli, and in tlio okl language it 
took 1 lie I'onn cjm'op ; but this lias been changed 
by motalhesis to the modern form caspog or easpoc, 
which is now the word in universal use for a 
bishop. When this term occurs in names, it is 
almost always easy of recognition, as the following 
examples will show: — Monaspick, the name of a 
towuland near Blessiugton iu Wicklow, signifies 

92 Offices and Trades, [chap, vi. 

bishop's bog; TulHiiospick, in llio parish of Bright 
in DoAvn, the tulach or hill of the bishop. In a 
very few cases the word is disguised, as in Kil- 
laspy in the parish of Dunlcitt in Kilkenny, which 
is written in certain old documents, Killaspucko, 
meaning the bishop's churcih. 

Canons. Oananach, whieli is an adapialion of 
the Latin cano)iious, signifies a canon, a church 
dignitary. It is pretty common in local names, 
and the first c is usually changed to </ by eclipse. 
There is a towuland near Letterkenny, which in old 
times formed part of the termon lands of the monas- 
tery of Kilmacrenan; and this circumstance is still 
connnemorated in the name Carrowuaganonagh, 
land of the canons. In the great expansion of (lie 
tShannou south of Clare, there is an island now 
called Canon Island in English, but always by the 
people speaking Irish Oilean-na-gcananach, the 
island of the canons. There was a monastery for 
Augustinian canons founded on this island by 
Donald O'l^rien, king of Limerick, the extensive 
ruins of which can be very plainly seen from the 
steamer as it passes the island. 

Priests. Sagart, or in its old form, sacart, a 
priest, is merely the Latin sacerdos, borrowed at 
the very dawn of Christianity in Ireland. It is 
very common in local names, and like the last, is 
easily Icnown ; for it usually assumes the form 
saggart, or with the s ecH])sed by t, taggart or tcg- 
gai-f. Tlioso ioi'ms arc exliibitiul in Kylennsaggart 
in the parish of Ballycallen, near the city of Kil- 
kenny, Coill-na-sagart, the wood of the priests ; 
and in Carricka taggart near Killy begs in Donegal, 
Carraig-a' -tsagairt, the priest's rock. Taggarts- 
land in the parish of Donegore in Antrim, shows 
the t preserved after the article had dropped off, 

CHAP. VI. J Offices and Trridcs, 03 

tlie Irish name being obviously Fcarann-a'-tsar/airf, 
i.e. priest-land. There is a range of hills near the 
village of Ballyvoiirney in Cork, called Dcrryna- 
saggart, the derr// or oak-wood of the priests. In 
a iW cases iho .s is as])iratcd, and then the form 
assumed by tlio word is generally such as is scon 
in Drmnhaggart in the parish of Burt in Donegal, 
Druim-shagairt, the priest's ridge. 

Another word for a priest, but much more rare 
than sagart, is cruiiulitlier [criffer, cruffer]. Ac- 
cording to Cormac Mac Cullenan (Glossary ; 9th 
cent.), the Irish borrowed this word from tlie 
Welsh, and the latter from the Latin : he states 
thai prcshi/fc)' is the original, Avhich the Welsh 
ecclesiastics who were in attendance on St. Patrick, 
changed to premier ; and the Irish borrowing this, 
altered it to cruimtJwr, for " prem in the Welsh is 
crui»i in the Gaelic." In some of onr oldest 
records, we find this word cruimthcr applied to 
several eminent ecclesiastics, such as Critimiher 
Aedh, Crii/>!if/ier Co/inii, &c. 

A very correct anglicised form of the word is 
exhibiled in ClooncrnlTer in the parish of Ardcarn, 
in the north of Roscommon, the c/ooii or meadow 
of the priest ; and a less correct in the name of a 
far more important place, Kilcrumper, a parish 
near Fermoy in Cork, taking its name from a cele- 
brated old church which is frequently mentioned 
in the Book of Lismorc, and called Cill-cndmthir, 
the church of the priest. In Kilcumreragli, the 
name of a parish in the south of Westnieuth, 
the word is so much disguised by corruption as to 
be unrecognisable. Mr. Ilennessy writes to me to 
say that this name is always written in old Inqui- 
sitions, Kilcrumrcragh ; and that in the Down 
8ur\ey it is in one place Killcrumraghragh, iuid in 
another Killcrumreaghragh ; all of which point 

94 Offices and Trades. [chap. vi. 

plainly to Cill-Cruimthir-Fhiachrach, the churcli of 
Priest Fiachra. 

Abbots. Ab or abb signifies an abbot, and is in 
constant use in Irish writings. It is merely the 
Latin word abbas, but it was borrowed early, for 
it is found in the oldest Irish docunieiils, as for 
instance in the manuscripts quoted by Zeuss. It 
sometimes takes the form of ap. Its usual geni- 
tive is abadh or apadh [abba, appa], and this is the 
form generally commemorated in local names. 
Thi'ee miles from the town of Wicklow, near the 
entrance to the Devil's Glen, is a well-lcnoAvn place 
called Inchanappa, the incJi, or river-island ot" the 
abbot, the hielt, being the rich meadow beside the 
Yaitry. Mearly (he Himio lorni t»l' the word is 
found in JCiluappy in the parish of I'augliaiivah^ 
in Derry, the wood of the abbot ; while it is short- 
ened to one syllable in Ballinab in the parish of 
Mothel in Waterford, the abbot's bally or town- 
land ; and in Portanab, near Kildalkey in Meath, 
the bank or landing-place of the abbot. 

Monks. The common Irish word for a monk is 
manach, which is only an adaptation of monacJms, 
from which the English word ^/^o;?/.: is also derived. 
Managh, one of its English forms, is also the usual 
anglicised representative of nicadJionach, middle ; 
and in individual cases the inquirer should be on 
his guard not to mistake one of these Irish words 
for the otlier. If managh be preceded by na, the - 
genitive plural of tlio article, it nuiy bo taken to 
mean moidcs, otherwise it very ol'((>n .stands I'or 
middle. Thus Knocknamanagh in Cork and 
Qalway is Cuoc-na-tnanavli, tlu; hill of the monks; 
while Knockmanagh in Cork, Kerry, and IMayo, 
is Cnoc-meadhonach, middle hill. When the an- 
glicised word ends in y the meaning is seldom 
doubtful, as in the case of Farranmanny near 

CHAP. VI.] Offices and Trades, 95 

Moate, in Westraeath, the same as Farranmanagli 
near Milltowu in Kerry, and Farrannamanagh 
near Cloyne in Cork, the monks' land. 

Kilnaniannoh, which is the name of several 
places, generally represents the Irish Cill-na- 
manach, the church of the monks ; but sometimes, 
as in the case of Kilnamanagh in Tipperary, the 
Kit stands not for cill, a church, but for coill, a 
wood. Similar in formation to this is Garrana- 
managh, the name of a townland and parish near 
Freshford in Kill^enny, signifying the garden or 
shrubbery of (he monks ; and Dunnamanagh, the 
name of a village in Tyrone, <lic monks' dun or 
fortress. AVhen the word occurs in the genitive 
singular it is often anglicised many, as in Drum- 
many, the name of several townlands in Cavan, 
Brmm-manaigk, the ridge of the monk ; in this 
case also when the article is used, the m becomes 
nspirated <o f, as in Dnnnavanaghnear the town of 
(Javiin, Druim-a'-mhnnaigh, the ridge of the monk; 
aiul here the interpretation is supported by the 
name of " The friar's avenue," whicli extends as 
far as another feature — " The friar's Avell." With 
the southern peculiarity of retaining the final g in 
pronimciation, we have Rahavanig near Bally- 
bmmion, Rath-a^-mhanaig, the monk's fort. Monk- 
newtown, the name of a parish near Slane in 
Meath, is a sulTiciently correct translation of the 
Irish name, which is still remembered, Baik-niia- 
na-manach, the new town of the monks. 

Nwis. CaiUcack, a mm, is one of the few Irish 
ecclesiastical terms not borrowed from Latin ; in 
an old Life of St. Brigid, it is stated to be derived 
from eaiJIe, a veil : — eailJench, the veiled one. But 
us cai/frach also siguilies an old woujan — spellful 
the same as the former, though differently derived 
— it is often liard 1o know which of the two mean- 
ing's the word bears in names. 

96 OO'iccs and Irai/rs. [chap. vi. 

In a spot at tlio soutli side of the city of Deny, 
tlioro foriiicily «loo(l a nuiuiory ; and its miiniory 
is still preserved in the name of a piece of land 
that belonged to it : — Ballynagalliagh, or in Irish 
Ihiik-na-(jcaillcach, the townland of the nuns. 
There are several other places with this name, 
which probably in all these cases has a similar 
origin. Calliaghstown is tho name of several 
places in Dublin, Moath, and AVestmeath. We 
know that Calliaghstown in the parish of Kil- 
sharvan, near Drogheda, had formerly a little 
church dependent on the nunnery of St. Brigid at 
Odder, which originated the name (see " The 
Diocese of Mcath," by the Rev. A. Cogan, T. 172) ; 
and we may bo sure that tho other places got 
tlieir names for a like reason. Colliorstown, near 
Mkrcou ill JMoalh, in a corriiplion of tbo sanio luiiiio; 
for in the DoAvn Survey it is written Calliaghs- 
town ; and this probably is the correct name of 
other places now called Collierstown. 

Friars. Brathair [brauher] which literally sig- 
nifies a brother, is also the word used to denote a 
friar ; and in this respect it exactly resembles the 
word friar itself, which is the French frere (Lat. 
f rater) a brother. Moreover it shoiild be remarked 
that all tho three words, brathair, frafer, and 
brother, are only modified forms of the same 
original. There is a place near the city of Cork 
called Garranabraher, which must have been for- 
merly a possession of some friary, for the name is 
Garrdha-na-mbrathar, the garden of the friars. 

A)iclioritcs : Pilgrinia Aiicoire, an anchorite, 
borrowed through the Latin from tho Greek 
anachoretes, forms part of the name of Dunancory 
near Virginia in Cavan, and of Ballinanchor near 
liismore in Waterford, the former signifying the 
fortress, and the latter the townland, of the ancho- 
rite or hermit. Near Geashill in King's County, 

CHAP. VI.] Offices and Trades. 97 

is a towiiland called Killellery, which represents 
the sound of Gill-ailithre, the church of the pilgrim. 
(See also E-oss in Cork, mentioned in Vol. I.) 

Ord, gcjiitive nird, is the same as the Latin orcfo, 
nud signillos order or rnnk, or ecclesiastical rule. 
Froin this term is derived the name of Kilworth 
in Cork (adjacent to Kilcrumper), which is to this 
day called in Irish Cill-uird, the church of the 
order, i.e. of the ecclesiastical rule or discipline. 

Druids. When St. Patrick arrived in Ireland 
to begin his Oliristian mission, one of the obstacles 
he encountered was the opposition of the druids ; 
and we have several accounts — some historical, 
some logendnrj' — of liis contests with them at 
Tara and at other places. Druidism was the 
religion of the country in pagan times ; that is, if 
the people mny be said to have had any generally 
diffused regular form of religion or religious 
worship at all, Avhich appears very doubtful. But 
the druids, if Ihey did not influence to any great 
extent iho inner religious life of the people, exer- 
cised enormous influence in another way ; for they 
were the depositaries of all the available know- 
ledge of the times, and they were believed to be 
prophets and magicians possessed of tremendous 
supernatural powers. In some of the old histori- 
cal romances, we find the issues of battles often 
determined, not so much by the skill of the com- 
mnnders or the valour of the combatants, as by 
ili(> nijigical p(>u(>rs of tlie druids attached to the 
armies. Both the druids themselves and the 
popular belief in them, however, gradually sank 
before <he influence of Christianity. 

The old Celtic word for a druid is drid [dree] 
Avliich takes a d. in the end of its oblique cases 
(gen. druad); the Greeks and Latins borrowed this 
word from the Celts, and through them it hag 

VOL. IT. 8 

98 Offices and Trades. [chap. vi. 

I'ouud ita way into English in the fovni druid. 
Notwithstanding the long lapse of time since (ho 
extinction of diuidism, the word dnii is still a 
living word in the Irish language. Even in some 
places Avhero the language is lost, (he word is 
rememherod; for I havfe repeatedly heard the 
Engliali-apeaking people of (he south apply the 
term shoundlu-ee [seun-drui, old druid) to any 
crahbed, cunning, old fashioned looking fellow. 
This very term is perpetuated in the name of 
Loughnashandree — the lake of the old druids — a 
very small lake near the head of Ardgroom 
harbour, south-west of Kenmare. And the same 
word reappears at the other end of the island in 
Magherintendry in Antrim, two miles south-east 
of Jiushmills. Here the s of seau is eclipsed ac- 
cording to grammatical rule (see Vol. i. (JIuip. ii.), 
the Gaelic form of the name being Machaire-an- 
tseandruadh, the field of the old druid, the sound 
of which is fairly given in the modern name. 

And the memory of those old druidic sages is 
still preserved in local names, but only in a few 
scattered places. There is a conspicuous hill in 
the parish of Skreen in Sligo now called lied 
Hill. Its ancient name was Mullacli-llundha 
[Mulla-rua] Huada's hill, and according tu Duald 
Mac Firbis, it was so called from liuada, king 
Dathi's wife (see 1st Vol. Part II. c. ii.), who was 
buried on it a few years before the arrival of 
St. Patrick, and whose cairn remains near the 
summit to this day. This name has been angli- 
cised Mullaroe, which is still the name of a town- 
land near the hill ; and it was from the erroneous 
popular belief that the latter part of the name 
[Ruadha) was the word ruadh, red, that the in- 
correct translation " Red Hill " has been per- 
petuated. But the hill had another name — the 

CHAP. VI.] Offices and Trades, 99 

one which concerns us here — viz., Cnoc-na-ndruadh 
[Knocknadrooa], i. e. the hill of the druids ; and 
this name was given to it "because," in the words 
of Mac Firbis, " the druids of Dathi, king of 
Erin, used to ho on it obtaining knowledge [by 
observing the clouds, according to another ac- 
count], for it was here they predicted to Dathi 
that he woidd obtain the kingdom of Erin, Alban, 
&c." (lly F. pp. 97-8-9.) The name of Cnoc-na- 
ndruadh is now however totally forgotten in the 
place. A name nearly the same as this is Drimn- 
na-ndruadh, the ridge of the druids, which was 
the ancient name of Cnmchan (now Rathcroghan 
near Bclhinagare in lloscommon), the celebrated 
palace of the kings of Connaught. 

There is a well about two miles from the village 
of Freshford in Kilkenny, called Tobernadree, 
described in the Proc. R.I.A., Vol. IX., p. 430, 
by the late G. V. Du Noyer. Mr. Du Noyer 
writes this name Toher-na-drnnd, and attempts to 
show thtit it couimomoratcs a dritidess, on tho 
grounds that na cannot be the genitive plural of 
tho article, for Ihon there should be an eclipsing 
n [Tohnr-ua-ndruad) which there is not; and that 
it must therefore be the genitive singular feminine 
— lobar-na-dniad, the well of the druidess. But 
nothing can be inferred from the absence of the n 
in tlio modern form of this name. For though 
aluiiys in liish, siud generally in anglicised words, 
(lie .sound ol' the eclipsing letter takes tho pLiec of 
. that of the eclipsed letter, yet where n eclipses a d 
followed by r, the n invariably drops out in angli- 
cising the word, Avhilo the d is retained ; for the 
very good reason that English speakers unac- 
customed to Irish find it impossible either to pro- 
nounce or to represent in English letters the 
proper Irish combination of these sounds. The 
eclipsing letter also drops out in anglicising g 

100 Offices and Trades, [oiiap. vi. 

eclipscclby V?, aiidoftoii in anglicising /M^olipsed by 
m. So the proper Irish form of the present name is 
obviously Tohar-na-ndruad, the well of the druids. 

There is a lake three miles west of Lough Derg 
in Donegal, called Loughnadrooa, the lake of the 
druids, and this name exhibits the same process of 
angli(M,siition as the last; for 1 hough in tiio present 
name there is no n, yet when the; people [iroJioiince 
the Irish name, the n is plainly heard. lu the 
parish of Clogherny, in Tyrone, is a townland 
called Killadroy, which represents Coill-a'-dfuadh, 
the druid's wood ; and a point of land in Achill 
Island is named Gobuadruy, the druids' point. 
The name of Derrydruel near Dunglow, in Done- 
gal, must be a corruption, for the people pronounce 
it in Irish without the final /, Boirc-dmadh, the 
druid's oak wood. 

Kings; Queens. High [ree], written ri in old 
Irish, is the usual Irish word for a king, cognate 
■with the Latin rex, and with Gothic reiks. No 
general statement can be made as to why places 
received names containing this word ; for there 
are many different explanations in different places. 
We may conclude that some places so named w^ero 
in former times the residence of petty kings ; 
that some were in the king's iimncdiate possession; 
while others commemorate an event or transaction 
in connexion with a Icing. Certain places were 
called " King's Land" in Lnglish, or were known 
by some correspondhig name in Irish, because 
they were held by tenants direclly from the 
crown. Tliere is a place near J)ingle in Kerry 
called Monaree, Moln-a'-righ, the bog of the king; 
v'hich the people say was so called from the fact 
that in the beginning of the last century, turf was 
cut in this townland, which was then a bog, for 
the use of the barrack of Dingle, in which there 
was a detachment of soldiers. 

^)1IAV. VI.] Offices and Trades. 101 

This terra generally takes the form of rec in 
anglicised names; hut as the genitive oi fraech, 
heath, assumes in some cases the very same form, 
Hie two are occasionally liable to be con f onndefl. 
'l^Inis it is im[)()ssihl(^ to fell hy an ius^x^ction of 
the mere modern form whether Dunaree is angli- 
cised from I)/hi-a'-ri(jh, the fort of the king, or 
iroin Dun-a'-f/imeigh, the fort of the heath; and 
as a fact, the name is difEerently interpreted in 
different places. In Dunaree in the parish of 
Donaghmoyne in Monaghan, the last syllable 
means heath. But Dunaree in Cavan is a diiXoront 
name ; it means the fort of the king ; and the 
town of Kingscourt which it includes, retains the 
name in an English dress. The old fort of 
Dunaree still exists, a little to the west of the 
town. The form ree is also exhibited in Tooraree 
in Limerick and Mayo, the king's toor or bleach- 
field. The Four Masters record the legend that 
in the socoiul year of tho reign of TTeremon, t.ho 
nine rivers naiucd High (King's river) burst forth 
in Leinster. There are, however, only four rivers 
in that province now known by the name, one of 
which is the llye Water, which flows into the 
Liffey at Leixlip, and which retains the old name 
almost unchanged. 

We have also places named after queens. The 
usual word for a queen is rioghan [reean], 
or in old Irish rignn ; the genitive of which is 
rioghiia [roona]. Wo see it in the name of Della- 
rcna, a well known place at the mouth of the river 
Roe, four miles north of Limavady ; a name 
which was first applied to a ford across the Roe: — 
Bcl-atha-rioghna, the queen's ford. In the parish 
of Clondermot, a little south of the city of Derry, 
is a townland called Tagharina, tho house [teach) 
of the queen. 

10^ Offices and Trades. [ciivi'. vi. 

Kniyhts. As far back in antiqiiil y as our hislovy 
and our oldest traditions roach, there existed in 
Ireland an institution of knighthood. The knights 
of the Hed Urancli, who flourished ahout the Ix^gin- 
ning- of the Christian era and had their chief 
residence at the palace of Eniania, are the earliest 
mentioned in our ancient lilorature ; and the 
annalist Tighornagh records Ihat their chief, the 
celebrated Cuchidlin, received knighthood at seven 
years old. It is curioiis that this agrees with 
what another historian of a much later time and 
of a different nationality records, namely Froissart, 
who tells us that Avhen Hicliard II. visited Dublin 
in 1395, two Irish kings or chiefs of clans were 
presented to him ; and when they wei'e urged to 
iiUow themselves to be knighted, they replied that 
1 hey had long- before received kniglilhood from 
their fathers at the age of seven years, according 
to an ancient practice by which Irish kings were 
accustomed to create their sons knights. Froissart 
goes on to say that the following ceremony was 
used on these occasions : — Each youth when about 
being knighted, runs a course with a slender lance 
proportioned to his strength, against a shield set 
upon a stake in the middle of a field ; and he 
receives greater or less honour according to the 
number of lances he breaks. And the historian 
states that the same custom existed among the 
Anglo-Saxon kings. 

There are several Iiish woi'ds for a knight or 
liero. One is ridire [riddera], which will be at 
ojico perceived to be the same as the C^vniian 
vitter. Whenever this term occurs in names it i$ 
very easily detected, as it generally assumes a 
form which fairly preserves the pronunciation. 
One of the best known examples of its use is in 
the name of Kilruddery, the seat of the earl of 

;)HAP. VI,] Offices and Trades. 103 

Meatb, near Bray in Wicklow : — Cill-ridire, the 
church of the knight. The present mansion, or 
rather the one that preceded it, must have been 
built on the site of an ancient church ; for besides 
tlvc evidence of tbo name, I have heard it stated 
that wlien the workmen were sinking the founda- 
tions fifty years ago, they dug up large quantities 
of hinnan bones. 

The Knight of Kerry is the owner of Ballin- 
ruddcry near Listowcl, which possibly got its 
name — meaning the knight's townland — from one 
of his ancestors ; there is another place of the 
same name near Borrisokane in Tipperary ; while 
with slight chaugo of form, wo have Bidlinridderu 
near ]\lultyfarnliam in Wostmoath, and ]3a,llin- 
riddery near Mountmellick in Queen's Coimty, 
which is also called by the correct alias, Knights 
town. With the same meaning, only with more 
serious modifications of the word, are Ballyruther 
near tbo sen, const, half Aviiy botwoon Lanio and 
Ul(MiMrm in Antrim ; and Hallyri(kn' noa.j- tSl.iad- 
bally in Queen's County. A little north of 
Caslleisland in Kony is tlio Qlanruddory range of 
mountains, wbicli, like s(!veral other Irish ranges, 
took their name — signifying the glen of the 
knight — from one of their numerous valleys ; 
Avhilc the highest of all, at the southern termina- 
tion of the range, just three miles from Castle- 
island, is now called the Knight's Mountain. 
Wlien I have instanced JMuUaghruttery near 
Clare-Gal way (?;?7f//flc"A,a hill- summit), and Sheelrud- 
dcra in the parish of Terryglass in Tipperai*y (the 
knight's siol or progeny), 1 have enumerated all 
the jnincipal varieties of form assumed by this word. 

Champions ; Heroes. Laech [pron. lay, with an 
aspirated c at end] means a hero or champion. It 
is very hard to distinguish this word in anglicised 

104 O^Oices and Trades. [chat. vi. 

luimoa from lacyh, u ciilf, uiiK^ss there bo writ ten 
authority for the original orthography. In somo 
cases, however, eveu Avithout any ancient record, 
the meaning caimot be doubted. Near Fort- 
william, half way between Belleek and Bally- 
ehannon in Donegal, there is a cromlech which has 
a more appro])riato name than these ancient 
structures xisually get, a name; which embodies tho 
tradition that this monument was erected over 
some renowned champion of far distant ages ; 
viz., Labbinlee, or in Irish Leaha-an-laeich, the 
bed or grave of the hero. There is a townland of 
the same name south of Cootehill in Cavan — but 
spelt by somo authorities in a way that brings out 
the meaning more clearly — Labbyanlee ; which no 
doubt received its nanu) from a Hlinilarmoniimcnt. 
The term usually appliiid to the kniglits ol tlio 
Red Branch is ciiradh [curra], which means a 
champion or knight. On the road from Bally- 
landers to Kilfinane in Limerick, is a place called 
Ahnagurra, which exactly represents the sound of 
the Irish Ath-na-ycuradli, tho ford of the cham- 
pions ; but why it got the name it is hard to say — 
probably it was the scene of a battle. 

I question whether any of the names derived 
from ridire are very ancient ; I am inclined to 
think they are derived from Anglo-Norman knights 
rather than from the knights of early Irish 
history. But it is not so with those derived from' 
laech and caradh, most of which descend, I believe, 
from a veiy remote period. 

There are several other terms for a champion or 
warrior, almost all of which are perpetuated in 
local names. Seal signifies a spectre or appari- 
tion, and also a hero, which is probably a secon- 
dary meaning. It was, besides, often employed 
as a proper name. Thus the maternal grandfather 

oiiAr. VI. J OfJ^ccs and Trades. 105 

of king Felimy the Lawgiver, was named Seal 
BaJbh, or Seal the stammerer. The best example 
of its use is in Lenc-an-scdil or Lackanscaiil, an 
unusually large cromlech in the townhmd of Kil- 
moguo, ahout tliroc miles from the village of 
llugginslowii, in Kilkenny. This name is exactly 
like Labhinlce, and is quite as appropriate and 
suggestive, sigiiifying tlio flag-stone of the hero; 
bvit tradition and legend have quite forgotten who 
the champion was — a man of no small note he 
must have been — over whom this immense monu- 
ment was erected. 

In the ancient tale called the Tromdaimh or 
Congress of the learned men, we are told that 
Guaire the Hospitable, king of Connaught in the 
seventh centiiry, had a brother, an anchorite, 
named Mnrbhan, who lived in a hermitage in a 
place called Glenn-an-scdil the glen of the hero. 
One mile from the village of Oranmore in Galway 
there is a place of this name, noAV calh>d Glenna- 
scaid ; but wlietlicr it is the Qknn-an-scdil of (he 
hermit Marhhdn, I have no means of determining. 
There is also a reniarkablo valley near Slemish 
Mountain in Antrim which was anciently called 
Gleann-an-scdil. Killascaul, the hero's wood, is 
the name of a place in the parish of Kiltullagh in 
Galway. A few miles east of Dingle in the 
wild barony of Corkagiiiny in Kerry, there is a 
small river flowing from a lake : the lake is 
called Loughansraul, the lake of Ihe hero ; the 
river is Owenascaid, the hero's river ; and on it is 
situated the village of Anascaul. Some intelligent 
persons from this neighbourhood believe that 
scaul in these names signifies a shadow, and that 
the name originated in the deep shadows cast on 
the lake by the high clills that rise over its 
watci's ; while others account for the names by a 

lOG Ojjioes and Trades, [chap. vi. 

legend regarding a lady named Seal, who was 
drowned in the lake. I do not tliink either 
ueeouni is correct, however ; partly because the 
iuudogy of the preceding names would load to the 
l)r( sumption that scaul here means a hero ; Lut 
tliiefly because the Irish name of the lake is 
lj()ch-a)i-iicdil, lujt Lovh-na-scai/c, in the latter of 
which the article and noun are feniiniiu), while in 
the former both are masculine, indicating that the 
word is seal a hero, not scdile, a shadow, which is 
feminine. So with Owenascaid : but as to Amis- 
caul I do not know how it came by its present 
form; for it would seem to be the anglicised 
representative of Ath-na-scdl, the ford of the 
heroes, not of the hero. 

Tr^un [train] signifies strong, brave, or power- 
ful (tren, furtis : Zuuss, IGG) ; and hence it ia 
applied to a strong valiant man, a hero {tr'iain, 
Leroes : Zeuss, 230). Some great champion, or 
perhaps a battle in which one of the leading 
warriors was slain, is commemorated in Bellatrain, 
a place on the borders of Cavan and JMonaghan, 
three miles from the village of Shercock ; wliich 
took its name from an old ford on the little river 
flowing from the lake of Shantonagh to Bellatrain 
lake: — Bet-atJia-triin the ford-mouth ot' the hero. 

Gallocj lasses. — Those Irish soldiers called by the 
names galloglass and hern, figure very prominently 
in the history of Ireland, especially in the later 
history, and in the pages of Anglo-Nornuin 
writers. The galloglasses were heavy armed foot 
soldiers ; they wore an iron hcilniet, a coat of 
mail, and a long sword ; and carrietl iu one hand 
a broad keen-edged battle-axe. Spenser, in his 
'* View of the state of Ireland," asserts that (he 
Irish took the idea of the galloglasses from the 
English settlers ; and iu this he is probably right ; 

CHAP. VI.] Offices and Trades. 107 

for we do not find them mentioned in early Irish 
documents. Moreover the composition of the 
word further supports the assertion ; the Irish 
form is galloglacJi, which is formed from r/rr//, a 
foroifj^nor, and oglaeh, a youth, vassal, or soldier: — 
gall-oijhu'h, a foreign soldier. 

The Irish name of the village of Millford in the 
north of Donegal, which the people still use when 
speaking Irisli, is Bel-na-ngaUoglach, the ford of 
the galloglasscs ; and in the parish of Loughgilly 
in Armagh, there is a townland taking its name 
from a rock, called Carrickgallogly ; the rock of 
the galloglass. 

Kerns. The kern were light armed foot 
soldiers. They wore light clothes; carried no 
defensive armour except a head piece ; and they 
fought with darts or javelins to which a long 
string was fastened, swords, and sictans, or loiifc- 
like daggers. The kerns are of great antiquity ; 
tliey are several (imes mentioned in tlie account of 
tlio battle of MoyrnMi, fought in tlio year A.i). 
637 ; and Cormae Mac CuUenan speaks of them 
in Ills Oh)ss!ir3% a document of tlio ninth cenfiny, 
and conjectines the etymology of the word : — 
" Ceithcrn, a baud of soldiers, whence eethernach, 
a single man out of a cohort : from cath, a battle, 
and orn, slaughter ; i. e. slaughter in battle." The 
Irish word is cethcrn [kehern] ; wliich is a collec- 
tive term, never applied to a single mail, but 
always to a, body. I will, however, for (ho sake 
of clearness, use the ]<]nglish plural form kerns 
when necessary. It must be observed that cethern 
was also used in very early times as the proper 
name of a man (see O'Curry, Lect., II., 313). 

We have a considerable number of local names 
which preserve the memory of these kerns ; the 
spots no doubt having formerly been selected as 

108 Offices and Trades. [vnw. vi. 

places of moetiiig or retreat ; perluips some of 
them arc battle fields. In Derrykearn near 
Mountrath in Queen's County, tlie derry or oak 
wood tliat formerly grow in tlie place, probably 
served as a slielter for these warriors. Aughna- 
carney near Clogher in Tyrone, the field of the 
kerns, was pcrha])S one of tluiir exercise grounds, 
or the scene of a battle ; a hill in the same locality 
has the name of Knocknacarney (the kerns' hill), 
which is also the name of a hill in the parish of 
Errig-le Trough in IMonaghan. There is a hill 
about six miles east of Donegal town called 
Croaghnakern, the rick of the kerns ; and in ilio 
same county, north oL' liough I'^ask, is a |)la('o 
called Oronakerny, the kern's valh;y [era). AVhon 
a Hinglo person was inlcindcd to be designated, (he 
adjective form cclhcarnach was used, as Corjuac 
states in the passage quoted above ; and this word 
appears in Knoekacaharna in the parish of Mode- 
ligo in Waterford, the kern's hill. 

Amhas [aAvas] means a hired soldier, a soldier 
who serves for pay ; this is the sense in which the 
word is used in the Irish annals, and this seems to 
be the meaning intended in Cormae's Glossary : — 
" Amos, a soldier, i.e. amh-fos, restless, because he 
is never at rest or stationary, but going from place 
to place, or from one lord to another." The Four 
Masters at a. d. 1323, record a battle fought 
between the O'Farrells and the Berminghams at 
a place called Coill-nan-amhiis, the wood of tlio 
soldiers ; and the name of this pla(;e, which is 
situated near Granard in Tjongl'ord, still survives 
in the form in Killinawas. The word assumes a 
different form in Ballynanoose in the parish of 
Killoscidly in Tipperary : — IJaile-nan-ai/ihas, the 
town of the hired soldiers. 

Oreaghts For a long period, while society in 

ciiAr. VI.] Offices and Trades. 109 

Ireland was in an unsettled state, the chief tains 
fortified themselves in strong castles, and made 
war or concluded peace with their neighbours, 
with little or no reference to the government of 
the province or the kingdom. Cattle raids were 
a usual form of this potty warfare ; and these 
plundering expeditions were the frequent cause of 
desperate i'euds ; for the spoilers were often pur- 
sued and overtaken, and then there was sure to be 
a battle. Traditions of such incursions are still 
told by the peasantry in every part of the country, 
and records of them abound in the pages of the 
Four ]\l asters and other annalists. 

Caeydigheaeht [keereeaght] signifies primarily a 
flock ol' sheep, from cacra, a sheep; but it is used 
in a general sense to signify any herd of cattle. 
The men who took care of cattle in time of peace, 
or who drove the preys in time of war, were also 
designated by the same word, which in the angli- 
cised form cveacjhiy is constantly met with in the 
pages ol" Anglo-ln'sli writers of the last three or 
four hundred years, and used by them in both 
senses. The crcaghls were regularly oflicered like 
the kerns and galloglasses ; and they were usually 
armed with a club, and a meadoge or long knife. 
They led a free and wandering life, knew the 
haunts and habits of cattle, and were intimately 
acquainted with all the intricacies, the secret 
paths, the toghers, and passes of the moimtains, 
bogs, and morasses. 

Places frequented by these people and their 
herds, or Avliere they used to conceal their preys, 
still often retain names formed from tliis word 
creoght. Near the head of Mulroy bay in Donegal, 
there is a little lake called Loughnacreaght, the 
lake of the ('r(\'igli(s. Tluno arc two toAvnlands in 
Tyrone called Lisnacreaght, where the old fortifi- 

110 Offices and Trades. [chap. vi. 

cations of tho Us must have boon taken advantago 
of to shelter and defend the cattle. Sometimes 
the word caerai<jheachiwas applied to themouaitaiu 
boolies or temporary settlements of shepherds* 
huts (see 1st Vol. Part II., c. vii.) ; and it is in 
this sense no doubt that it has given names to 
some places in Wexford, now called Kereight, 
which very correctly represents the original. 

Thieves. In times of civil war or social dis- 
turbance, one of the most tempting aad profitable 
occupations a man could follow is that of a high- 
'tvuj' robber or common thief; and as Ave have had 
Ouf own share of warfare and tumidt, so we have 
Uad gangs of freebooters infesting every part of 
tho country. We know this to bo the case from 
luHtory aiul tradition ; but oven hxud names alfoi'd 
very plain indications of it. Places where bands 
of robbers fixed their lair and hid their plunder 
are often known by the word hradaeh, which 
signifies a thief or thievish. It occurs in a good 
number of names, and usually takes the forms 
hmddagh, brada, and bradt/. Boherbraddagh is the 
name of a towidaiul near Adare in Limerick, 
signifying the road of the thieves ; of similar 
formation is Moneenbradagh near Castlobar in 
Mayo [nioneen, a little bog) ; and Glenbradagh 
near Aghada beloAV Cork, the glon of the thieves. 
The hill of Benbradagh over the town of Dun- 
given {ben, a peak) must have at one time afforded 
asylum to the plunderers that laid the surrounding 
district under tribute ; and at some former period 
a police barrack nuist have been sadly wanted at 
Balbradagh, near Bective in Meath, and at Bally- 
brada near Cahir in Tipperary, the names of which 
signify thievish toAVii or the town of the thieves, 

Gadaujhe [gaddy] is another word for a thief, 
which is commemorated in Balgaddy, the town of 

CHAP. VI.] Offices and Trades. Ill 

the thief, the name of two townlands in the county 
Dublin, one near Clondalkin, and the other near 
Balbrlggan ; which has the same meaning as Bal- 
lingaddy, the name of some places in Clare and 
Limcvick ; and Ballj^gaddy in Galway, Kildare, 
and King's Coimty. 

Some of these last mentioned places took their 
names from a legendary personage, celebrated all 
over Ireland and the Highlands of Scotland, about 
whom many pojjular stories are still current in 
both countries, Gadaiqhe duhli, O'Diibhdin, or the 
Black lliicf O'Buano.' 

Jhti-ds; Poets. From tho earliest period of his- 
tory wo iind mention of bards or poets among the 
Celts ; they are mentioned by Caesar, by Strabo, 
and indeed b}'^ every ancient writer who treats of 
the Celtic nations. In ancient Ireland the bard 
was inferior to the Jilt; the latter was the teacher 
of philosophy, literature, history, rhetoric, &c. ; 
the former was merely a versifier or rhymester. 
There were various classes of bards, and each class 
had its own special form of poetry. Attached to 
every great chieftain's household there was a bard, 
whose office it was to recite the exploits of his 
patron's ancestors, to compose laudatory poems on 
him and on the tribe over whom he ruled, to cele- 
brate their deeds of arms in verse, &c. 

We have many places named from bards ; in 
some cases these names indicate that the lands 
wci-e held by thorn as a reward for tlicir professional 
services ; and where this is not the case they point 
out the places where bards formerly resided. One 
of these is Derrybard near Fintona in Tyrone, the 
bard's oak grove. But the word is generally 
cbanged in form either by aspiration or eclipse of 
ili(> ( letter. In <ho former (;nse it uHiinlly 
assumes the form ward; as in Gortaward near 

112 Offices and Trades. [ciiAr. vi 

Inver in Donegal, Oori-a'-b/inird, tlu; Held of tlio 
bard ; and with tlio «anio nuumiug-, Agluiward iu 
Roscommon, three miles soutli of Drumsna. So 
also Glenaward in tlie parish of IMoylagh in IMeath, 
ilie hard's glen ; and Ihdlyward, tlio name of some 
places in Down, Tyrone, and Wicldow, the town- 
huid of tlie hard. 

In case of eclipsis the word hecomes mard, 
as we see in Aghnamard near Newhliss in 
Monaghan, Achadh-na-mhard, the field of the 
hards ; Latnamard in the same neighbourhood, 
Leacht-na-mhard, the bards' sepulchral monument, 
indicating the spot where several were biiried — 
perhaps the burial mound of those that lived in 

Tliis is the origin of the family name Mao.-an- 
Bhaird [Mac-an- Ward] i.e. literally, son of the 
bard, which is now always written Ward. The 
family of Mac-an-Bhaird were the hereditary poets 
of the O'Kellys of Hy Many in Connaught ; and. 
they resided at Muuie-chasain and Baile-mic-an- 
Bhaird, the latter of which retains the name in the 
anglicised form of Ballymacward, now applied to 
a parish near Castleblakeney. 

Eigeas [aigas] signifies any learned man, but 
the term is usually applied to a poet. In the 
parish of Aghnamullin in Monaghan there is a lake 
called Lough Egish, the poet's lake; and ovei' its 
western shore rises a hill called Tullynanegisli, 
the hill of the poets, which gives name to a toAvn- 
hind. Near the demesne of Thomastown, six miles 
south-west of Athlone, a little south of the railway 
line, there is a little lake called Lough Nanogish, 
the lake of the poets. It is likely that at some 
former time families of hereditary poets lived at 
these places. 

The word crotair^, a harper (from emit, a harp) 

CHAP, vi.] Offices and Trades. 113 

is perpetuated in Caheracrutfcera near Dingle in 
Kerry, where some great harper had his abode in 
old times, for the name means the caher or stone 
fort of the harper. 

Jh/aij/is. In ancient times an Irish chioffaiii 
usually established within his territory a sort of 
public hostelry, over which he placed an officer 
called a hmdhtach [bectagh] or food-man (from 
biadh, food). This biadhtach or public victualler 
held a tract of Innd rent free, on condition that he 
should supply food and lodging without charge to 
travellers, and to the chief's soldiers whenever they 
happened to march in that direction. The land 
attached to one of these houses was called a Baile- 
biadhtaigli or victualler's town, and contained 480 
large Irish acres. The biataghs were held in great 
estimation, and their memory is still preserved in 
a few place-names. There are three townlands in 
Cork and Kilkenny called Ballynamctagh, in Irish 
BaiIo.-nn,-mbiadhtach, the town of the victuallers, 
so called probably because they formed part of 
the property attached to a house of entertain- 
ment. Similar in formation, and probably in 
origin, is Cloonametagh near Abbeydornej'^ in 
Kerry, and Garraunnameetagh near the village of 
Tynagh in Galway, the meadow and the shrublsery 
of tlie vicf nailers. Ballybetagh, south of Dublin 
(Betagh's town) and Betaghstown in Kildaro, 
Louth, and ]\Loath, Avoro probably called from the 
family of JW^Iiigli, bud this faniily name lias still 
the same origin: their ancestors were betnghs. 

Sfru-ardx. Among the various functionaries enu- 
merated in the /ami lia of Armagh, wo find men- 
tion of a 7naer, i.e. a steward or keeper, who Avas 
ihe appointed guardian of certain sacred relics, 
such as the bell, book, and crosier of St. ratrick. 
This office was hereditary ; the family Icept the 

114 Offices and Trades. [cuai'. vi. 

relics suLjcct lo certain coiulitionis, one of wliich 
was that they should be ready at all times to pro- 
duce them when required ; and in payment for this 
duty of guardianship, they held tracts of land from 
the see of Arnuigh, free of rent. The family to whom 
was entrusted the custody of the eelohrated liook of 
Arnuigh, were from tluit circumsdince called ]\li(c- 
Mavir or Mac Moyre — the son of ihe steward or 
keeper; and they held in free tenancy eight town- 
lands, which are now united into one parish called 
Ballymyre, the townland of the keeper, situated 
about eight miles south-east of Ai-magh (Reeves : 
Eccl. Ant. p. 150). 

This word niacr is pretty frequent in names ; 
and though we have not such positive information 
regarding them as in the last cas(^ avo may be sure 
that the several places so designated were formerly 
held in fee by families who were guardians of 
lands, cattle, or sacred reliquaries, for neighbour- 
ing chieftains. Ballynamire is the name of three 
toAvnlands in Oarlow, King's County, and Wexford, 
and it signifies the town of the keepers. When 
the word occurs in the singuhir the m is often 
changed to to by aspiration. Tinwear near I)ur- 
row in Queen's Co\inty, is shortoiuul from Tiyli- 
an-mhacir, the house of the keeper ; Lackawcer in 
the parish of Inishkeel in Donegal, the steward's 

Scologes. Scolog signifies a small farmer ; the 
term is still in general use, but it is used in a some- 
what contonq)tiiou8 sense. Wherever it occurs in 
a local name there is no mistaking it, as will bc^ 
seen from the following examples. Near Lisnaskea 
in Fermanagh there is a place called Farransculbtge 
iYiefearann or land of the petty farmers, lially- 
nasculloge is the name of a place near Blessington 
in Wicklow, and of another near A thy in Kildare: 

CHAP. VI.] Offices and Trades. 115 

the name sigiiiftes the farmers' townland ; and in 
another part of Kildare this same name, in the 
half translated form Scullogestown, designates a 

S//r])/in-ds. Tlie usual word for a slicphcrd is 
acdhairo \ aiva], which is derived from acdh, an old 
word for a slieep. It enters into the formation of 
a considoraltlc numher of names; and it is in 
general not difficult of recognition in its anglicised 
forms. Corraneary, the name of several townlands 
in Cavan and licitiiui, and Corranarry in lYrono, 
are in Irish Cor-an-acdJiairc, the roimd hill of the 
shepherd ; ICillyncary in Cavan, and Kill3meery 
in Tyi"o^ic> ^^^ sheplierd's wood ; Cappaneary in 
Queen's County {cca^ach, a tilled plot) ; Drimiary 
in Fermanagh and Monaghan, and Drumaneary 
near Inver in Donegal {dniim, a hill-ridge) ; and 
we have a place called Canary in Annagh, which 
however does not derive its name from caves, dogs, 
like tlu> Ciiuary Islands, hut fi'(mi reaxn : — Ceauii- 
acdltdire, the slu^phord's head or hill. 

Widoirs. The names of many places in Ireland 
commcmora<o widows; and this is one of the 
numerous examples that show how fond the Irish 
were of designating people hy an epithet expressive 
of some well-marked peculiarity, rather than call- 
ing them directly hy their own names. Bahi- 
treahhacJi [pron. bointravagh, hut generally boin- 
tra] is our usual word for a widow, no doubt 
derived from ireahh [trav] a house, and bean, a 
woman: — trcahhack, a housekeeper; hainireahhach, 
literally a female housekeeper. A very good 
example of its use is found in Ballynabointra, the 
name of a place near Carrigtoliill in Cork, Bailc- 
na-hainfreahhaighe, the townland of the widow. 
When the word occurs in the genitive plural witl 
the article, the b is changed to m by eclipse, but 

116 Offices and Trades. [chap, vi. 

otlierwiso there ia usually very little clunioe. 'riiis 
is seen in Ballynaiuintva near Dungarvan in 
Waterforcl, and in IJallynaraointragli a mile or two 
from the strand of Tramore in the same county, 
both from Baile-na-mhaintreahhach^ the towiiland 
of the widows ; in Lienamintry near Portadown in 
Armagh {lis, a fort) ; and in IVIulmontry near 
Taghmon in Wexford, the widows' hill. 

Tanners. The peasantry had formerly a rude 
method of tanning the hides of animals, which, in 
remote parts of the country, is practised to this 
day. They first filled the hide with lime, and im- 
mersed it in a bog-hole to loosen the hair ; after 
ten or eleven days they took it out, cleaned olf 
the lime, and in order to thicken the hide, put it 
into tt cask to stoc]) for about three weekn, wi(li ilio 
loot of u -^I'dnt (ii)l{{n\.cronic((ij ov neachartacli, whicli 
also gave it a brown colour. After this it was 
rubbed between boards with millc, to make it 
smooth and pliable, and then dried, when it was 
fit for use. There were people who practised this 
as a means of livelihood, the trade probably des- 
cending from father to son ; and the jjlaces whore 
the professional tanners lived may now in numerous 
cases be known by their iiames. 

Sudaire [soodera] is the Irish word for a tanner. 
The word is exhibited with very correct pronuncia- 
tion in Kilnasudry, near the village of Killeagh, 
west of Youghal in Cork, Coill-na-siidairiyhe, the 
wood of the tanners ; and in Ballynasuddery near 
Kilbeggan in Westmeath, the town of the tamiers. 
When the word occurs in the genitive singular, 
the first s is usually changed to t by eclipse ; 
and this is seen in Edenatoodry, south^vards 
from Fintona in Tyrone, Eadan-a'-tsudairc, the 
hill brow of the tanner ; in Knockatudor, near 
Stradoue in Cavan, the tanner's hill ; and in 

CHAr. VI.] Offices and Trades. 117 

Listooder near tlie village of Crossgar m Down, 
written Listowdrie in one of the Hamilton Patents, 
Avhere a tanner practised his trade in or near 
the old Us or fort. 

The spot on wliicli the town of Portarlington 
stands was anciently called Cidl-a'-tsudmre 
[Coolatoodera], the corner of the tanner ; and the 
toA\'nland is stiU called Cooltedery. Thus in a grant 
of 1G67 to Sir Henry Bennett, Lord Arlington 
(from whom the town is called Arlington's ^?or# 
or fortress), we find it mentioned as " Coole- 
towdiy, alias Cidlenderry or Cultndra, alias Por- 
tarlington." There is a townland in the parish of 
Dmulerrow in Cork having the same name, now 
anglicised Coolatooder. 

Another Avord that indicates where the process 
of taniiing was carried on is leathar [laher] ; it 
has ihe same signification as the English word 
leather, but is not borrowed from it, for we find 
the Avord in Cormac's Glossary in tho form lethar : 
Wvhh llrdr. This word is well c.complificd in 
Curraghalaher on the Roscommon side of the 
Shannon near Athlone, the marsh of the leather ; 
and in Clashalahcr, the name of two townlands in 
Tipperary, one near Cashel and the other near 
Tipperary town, where the clash or trench was 
probably the place in which the hides were 

Croiceann [cruclcen] signifies a skin or hide 
{erocenn, tergns ; Z. G9) ; and when it occurs in 
names it is probable that, like leathar, it indicates 
tbe former residence of tanners. Killycracken in 
Monaghan represents the Irish Coill-a' -chroicinn, 
the wood of the hide ; and of similar formation is 
Cloncracken {clon, a meadow), near Roscrea in 

rotters. A poller is denoted by potaire [puttera], 

118 Offices and Trades. [ 

which is forraocl on the Tviali word pofa, a pot. Near 
Ihittevant in Cork is a townhind called Clushiui- 
buttry ; here the p is eclipsed by b in the genitive 
plural, the Irish form being Clais-iia-hpofaiird/i, 
the trench of the potters ; and we may conclude that 
(lie ti-eiich supplied the clay for carrying on the 
mamilactiiro. A bi-ttcr kiioAvn place i« ['otHoralh 
in the pariah of Kihiianagh in Kilkenny, whit^li 
was formerly one of the residences of Mac Richard 
Butler, a distinguished chieftain of the Butler 
family in the 15th century ; and where there are 
still the ruins of a castle and of a church. This place 
is called in Irish documents liafh-a'-photaire, the 
fort of the potter ; but in the present spoken Irish 
it is corruptly pronounced Rafh-a'-phokii/c (change 
of r to I; 1st Vol. Part I., c. in.), from which by 
an attomiited translation, the name I'ottlcrath 
(instead of the correct Pottersrath) has been 
formed. The old rath where the potter in some 
remote time took up his residence is still there. 

Weavers. Mageoghegan, in his translation of 
the Annals of Clonmacnoise, remarks of John, the 
son of Mahon O'Conov, that he " was the sonne 
of a woman that could weare, which of all trades 
is of greatest reproach amongst the Irishrye, 
especially the sons and husbands of such trades- 
women, and therefore Shane Move was nicknamed 
the weaving-woman's sonne." The Irish word 
for a weaver is Jiyheadoir [feedore]. There is a 
small pool a mile and a half south of Cashel, giving 
name to a townland, called Loughfeedora, the 
weaver's lake; and Ballineedora i« the name of a 
place four or five miles east of Traleo, which ex- 
actly represents the sound of Baile-an-flngheadora, 
(/aspirated and omitted), the town of the weaver. 

Fullers. ThcHnas Dineley, who made a tour 
through Ireland in 1675, thus describes, as he saw 

CHAP. VI,] Offices and Trades, 119 

it, " The manner of tucking and thickening cloth 
without a mill. They place the cloth doubled 
upon a large wicker or twiggeu door called an 
luirlc, and work it wi(h their hands and feet, until 
it becomes thick byrowling;" — sprinkling it all 
tlie time with a suitable liquid. In remote dis- 
tricts cloth is still thickened in this rude way by 
being worked for a long time with the feet in a 
properly prepared mixture, 

A fuller is designated by the word ucaire 
[ookera] ; and the occurrence of this word in 
names iiidicatca the places Avhere the home-made 
frieze used to be f viUcd and napped. As the word 
ustially retains a form easily detected, one or two 
examples of its use Avill be sufl&cient. There is a 
townlaud near Aghada below Cork, called Bally- 
nookery, i, e. JBaile-an-ucaire, the town of the 
fuller ; and Knockanooker near the village of 
Hacketstown in Wicklow, signifies the fuller's 

redlars. Ceammighe. [cannce] signifies a mer- 
chant, a dealer of any kind. There is a ford over 
a stream a mile south of Oldcastle in Meath, 
which is mentioned by the Four Masters at a, d. 
1482, as the scene of a defeat inflicted on the 
Plunkets by Art O'Conor ; and called by them 
Ath-na-gccannaigheadh [Annaganny] the ford 
of the pedlars or merchants. The place is now 
called in Irish by tlie synonymous name Bel-otha- 
fia-grcaiinaig/iradh [IJollanaganny] ; but tliis sug- 
gestive old name has been laid aside for the 
modern name Mill Brook. There is a place of 
tlie same name in the parish of Aghabulloge near 
Macroom in Cork, now called Annagannihy, which 
took its name from a ford on the little river Agha- 
lode. Near Carrignavar in ilio same county, two 
roads meet at a spot now called Crossernagannee, 

120 Offices and Trades. [chap. vi. 

tlic c.ross-roiuls of the pedlars. Mangairc [inou^'ava] 
is auother Irish word for a pedlar ; and wo iiiid it 
in Ballynamongaree near Glanworth in Cork, the 
town of the pedlars. It is prohahle that pedlars 
formerly lived in these plaeeaor were in the hahit 
of exhibiting- their wares there to tempt the passers- 
hy, which gave rise to the iiumes. 

Oa/i/cti/cfti. A gambler, or gamester, is desig- 
nated in Irish by the word ceurrhhaeh [earvagh, 
carroogh], which is still in common use ; in the 
south, even among the English speaking people, 
they call a card-player a carroogh. The peasantry 
are fond eno\igh of card playing at the present 
day ; but they appear to have been still more ad- 
dicted to it in former times. Campion, in his 
" History of Ireland," written in the year 1571, 
t-ays : " There is among them a brotherhood of 
carroioes that professe to play at cards all the yeare 
long, and make it their onely occupation. . . . 
They waile for jxissengers in the highway, invite 
them to a game upon the greene, and aske no more 
but companions to hold them sport." Spenser 
also in his " View of the IState of Ireland," do- 
scribes the " Carrows, which is a kind of people 
that Avauder up and down to gentlemen's houses, 
living only upon cards and dice." 

One of the best illustrations of this word is Lis- 
nagarvy, which was the old name of Lisburn, and 
Avhich is still retained as the name of a townland 
adjoining the town. The origin of this name is 
very clearly set forth in a passage quoted in the 
" Ulster Journal of Arclucology (Vol. V. p. 150), 
from a pamphlet published in 1691 : — '' We 
marched towards Lisburn : this is one of the 
prettiest towns in the north of Ireland : the Irish 
name is Lisnegarvah, which they tell me signifies 
* gamesters' moimt j' for a little to the north-east 

niiAP. VI.] Offices and Trades. 121 

of the town there is a mount moated about and 
nnother to the west. These were formerly sur- 
rounded with a great wood ; and thither resorted 
all the Irisli outlaws to play at cards and dice." 
Tlin"moiml. uiojiXcd ahout " is one of <he ancicnl 
liases ; and it was from this tliat the place took 
<he name of Lios-na-gccarrhhaeh, the fort of the 
gamhlers. The present name Lisburn retains the 
first syllable ; the syllable hum, it is said, com- 
meniorates a conflagration by which the town was 
at one time totally destroyed. 

The c of this word is usually eclipsed, as in this 
last name ; another example of which is Ologhan- 
nagarragh in the parish of Noghaval in Wcst- 
meath, a name which I suppose indicates that the 
clochan or stone building was turned to the same 
use as the fort at Lisburn. Sometimes, however, 
the e is retained ; as in Meenacharvj'' in Glen- 
colnmkille in Donegal, Mhi-a'-chearrbhaigh, the 
i)/('cii or mountain meadow of the gjimestcr. 

The word diiiiic [dinna] is often upplied <.o a 
num exclusively ; but more often it signifies ani/- 
hodji, a i)crson whether man or woman. It is seen 
in the name of the island of Inchidony in Clona- 
kilty bay in Cork, which is called in old Irish 
documents Inis-Duine, the island of the man or 
person : but why so called it is now impossible to 

Tliero is a high mountain rising over Ardgroom 
bay on the borders of Cork and Kerry, called 
Tooreennannia, the little toor or bleaching- place 
of the woman. The termination inna here is the 
genitive of bean, a woman, and is very easily re- 
cognised wherever it occurs. The genitive plural 
is ban, which is seen in Cornainan, the name of 
places in Cavan and Lcitrim, Cor-na-mhan, the 
round hill of the Avomen. Here the b sound is 

122 Strangers. [chap. vii. 

eclipsed by that of m (IstYol. chap. ii.). A name 
like this for men is Lickuavar near Skibbereen in 
Cork: — Leac-na-hhfear, the Icac or flagstone of the 
men : fear, a man. 

The following- names exhibitvarions other trades 
and occupations. There is a place near the city of 
Cork called Farraudahadoro, signifying Win fearann 
or land of (he dyer : datliadoir, a dyer, from dtith, 
colour. In many parts of Ireland there are rocks 
called Carrigafeepera or Carrickapheepera, the 
rock of the piobair^ or piper ; but whether from 
real human musicians or fairy pipers I cannot say 
— probably the latter. Farrankindry is the name 
of a place in the parish of KuocligralVou north- 
east of Caher in Tipperary : the modern form of 
the name is corrupt, for it is Farrinacridnnj in the 
Down Survey ; and the true name is Fcarann-ii' - 
cliriathadbra, the land of the crihadore or sieve- 
maker — criath [crih], a sieve. 



When a foreigner came to live in Ireland, the 
place in which he settled often received a name 
indicating his nationality. The term to express a 
native of any particidar country is usually formed 
by adding the adjective termination ach (p. 3) to 
the name of the coimtry : thus Francacli, a French- 
man, Lochlannach, a native of Lochlann or Scan- 

Welshmen. Brcathnach, which is merely the 
word Briton, modified according to the phonetic 
laws of the Irish language, is used to signify a 

CHAP. VII. J Strangers. 123 

Welshman. As Mayo was called Mayo of tlie 
Saxons (see Mayo, in 1st, Vol.), so Gallon in the 
Kings's County was for alike reason cnllod Gailinnc 
iia DiJhrfdiiii, or Gallon of the Britons ; for a 
uioiinstory Avas eroctod there, in the end of the fifth 
eeiilury, for J'.ritish monks hy St. Cunocus, a 
Welshman. In the later colloquial language the 
word BycdfJivneh has been confmed in its applica- 
tion to those who have adopted the family name of 
Walsh ; and this is the sense in which it is gene- 
rally understood in local names. Ballyhrannagh, 
Bnllynahronnngh, andBall^aiahrennagh, which are 
all townland names in various counties, signify 
" the town of the Walshes," or of the families 
called AValsh. Brannockstown, the name of some 
plaees in Kildare, Meath, and Westmeath, is a 
half translation of one of the same names. 

Someiiines we find the word Brcatan with the 
t fully sounded ; hut in this case it seems to be a 
])orRoniil nnme, of the same origin however as 
/hr(i//iii(ic/i,\. e. iiulic^alitigBritisli or Welsh origin. 
Jh-)lan we know occurs as a personal name in early 
Irish liistory ; tlius Jh-i/an Jflarl Avas one of tlic 
sons of tlie inythical personage N(Mucdius, and, 
according to the bardic fable, gave name to Britain. 
Kilbrittain on the south coast of Cork, at the head 
of Courtmacsherry bay, took its name from some 
person of this name, who probably built the cill or 
church ; Gartbratton {Brdan\^ field) is the name 
of two townhindsin Ca\an; and we have Bally- 
britain in Derry, and Ballybrittan in King's 
County, Bretan's town. There is a parish in Kil- 
Icenny adjoining the county Tipperary, called 
Tubbridbritain, which is called in the " Circuit 
of 3lHrehmrtach 3Iae Neil/," Tiohraide Britain 
hnaiu,ihG wells of long-lived Britan; but we do 
not laiow who this venerable personage was. 

Strangers. [cuAr. vii. 

Scotchmen. A Scotclnnan is generally fl(>sig- 
nated in Irish by Alhanach, a term derived from 
Alba (gen. Alban), the old Celtic name of Scotland. 
Ballyalbanagh, the Scotchman's iovn\, is the name 
of a place in the parish of Ballycor in Antrim. 
Two miles south of the village of ]\lilltown Malhay 
in Clare, is a townland called Knockanalban, 
shortened from Cnoc-an-Atbanaig//, the Scotch- 
man's hill ; and there is a place in the parish of 
Kilgeever in Mayo, called Derreennanalbanagh, 
the little oak-wood of the Scotchmen. 

JSiKjlishmen. We have several terms for an 
Englishman, one of the most conmion of which is 
iSacaonaa/i, or more generally iSassoiiac//, which is 
merely the word Saxon with tlio iisnal termination. 
The word was in constant use in the early ages of 
(he Church — the sixth and seventh ceutuiies — 
^vhen many natives of Britain came to study in 
the schools of Ireland ; and England itself is often 
called in Irish writings, Saxon-land. The word 
Sassonach is still used in the spoken language, but 
it is now generally understood to mean a Proteslant, 
and it is conmionly used in an offensive sense ; 
but these shades of meaning are vidgar and very 

Near Saintfield in Down there is a place called 
Craignasasonagh, the rock of the Saxons or English- 
men ; Bohernasassonagh (bothar, a road) lies three 
miles south-west fi'om Tuam in Galway. With 
the first s eclipsed (as it ought to be in the genitive 
singular with the article) and with the south 
Munstcr form of llie genitive, we lind the word 
in Xnockatassonig near Mizen Head in Cork, Cnoc- 
a'-tSassonaig, the Englishman's hill. 

liomans. I have already mentioned that among 
those who came in early ages to study in Ireland, 
numbers were from the continent (see p. 91, supra). 

CHAP. VII.] Strangers. 125 

Many of these are commemorated in the Litany 
of Aengus the Cuklee, a document of the end of 
the eighth century : and we have, besides, other 
historical evidences in the lives of the early Irish 
saints. Some came even from Rome. Near the 
church of St. brccan on the great island of Aran, 
there is a headstone which appears to be as old 
as the sixth century, with the inscription 
"vii ROMANi," "Seven Romans," who probably 
spent their peaccf id days as pilgrims in companion- 
ship with St. Breoau himself (Petrie, R. Towers, 
139). Local names give testimony to the same 
effect. Kilnarovanagh is tlie name of an old 
cliurch sou 111 of Macroom in Cork, and of another 
between Killarney and Milltown in Kerry; signi- 
fying the chiu'ch of the Romans [Romhanach, pron. 
liovanagh, a Roman) ; both of which probably 
received their names from being the burial-places 
of Roman pilgrims. There is a townland in the 
parish of Kilraore in the east of Roscommon, called 
liailuijirovjinagh ; tlio L'our Masters, in rcK'orcb'iig 
the fact tliat it Avas presented in 1248, by Felim 
O'Conor the son of Cathalof the Red Hand, to the 
canons of Kilmore, call it Rath-na-llomhdnach ; 
and Duald Mac Firbis, in his translation of the 
Irish Annals (Irish Misc., I., 243), writes it with 
a translation, ^^ Raith-na-Romanach, i.e. [the fort] 
of the Romans." Tigroney, the name of a place 
beside the river Ovoca, between Rathdrum and 
/Vrklow in Wicklow, a\ ell Icnown for its mines, is 
the ancient Tcch-na-Romhan [Ti-na-Rovan] tlie 
liouse or church of the Romans, where Palladius, 
St. l*atrick's predecessor, erected a church during 
his short visit to this coast. 

Wh(>n persons migrated from one part of Ireland 
(() .'iiiollier, the pliic(>s uliere they settled often got 
names indicating the provinces from which they 

l26 StrcDiffcrs. [(uiai'. vri. 

ciiino; mifl names of lliis kind arc conliilmlcHl by 
all the four provinces. 

Leimtenncn. Laiylincach [L5^nagh] isaLeinster- 
nian, from Laiglican, llio irish name of lioinster. 
There is a phice near Kilfinano in Limerick, called 
Ballinlyna ; another called Ballinliny, three miles 
from Newcastle in the same county; u third near 
the village of Golden in Tipperury, called ]>allin- 
lina ; and there are two townlands called lially- 
lina also in Tipperary : — all these names signify 
the town of the Leinsterman. 

Connaughtman. Connachtach, a Connaughtman, 
is preserved in Balljmagonnaghtagh (first c eclipsed 
hy (j) in the parish of Dysert, Clare, the toAvn of 
the Connaughtmen. In the townland of Bally- 
gcely in the ])arish of Kilshanny, north of h'nnis- 
tymon in Ohirc, there is a great monumental 
mound now called Carn-Connachtach, the earn of 
the Connaughtmen ; which O'Donovan believes 
to be the Carn-Mic-Tail mentioned in the Annals 
(Four M., v., 1669, note u). 

Munstermen. From Mumha, genitive Mtoulian 
[Mooan], ISfunster, we havo ]\Iii in/// iicac/i [Mweis 
nagh], a Munstcnnan. It Avoidd appear that im- 
migi-ants from across Ihe (Shannon nnist have 
settled in Cloontj'^mweeiuigh (the oloons or meadows 
of the Munstermen) near the village of Scarrilf in 
Clare, close to the shore of Lough Derg, before or 
about the time of the annexation of Clare to Mun- 
ster. Nearly the same form as this occurs in 
Bawntanameenagh near Freshford in Kilkenny, 
the Munstermen's baiciis or green fields; ami a 
slightly different in Newtown Moynagh near Trini^ 
in Meath, i. e. Newtown of the Munstermen. 
Barnameenagli is the name of t^o townlands in 
Leitrim — the bar ov hill-top of the Munstermen. 

Ulster men. TJlaidh [idly] is the Irish name of 

CHAP. VIII.] Imh Personal and Famih/ Barnes. l27 

Ulster, from which we have Ultach or Oltach, an 
ULsterma 11, which assumes slightly varied forms in 
different local names. Cooloultha in the parish of 
Evko in Kilkenny, signifios tlie Ulsterman's corner; 
n Leiier lonn is scon in Knockamdfy near Eiiiiisty- 
nion in Clare {moo, a hill) ; and in JJoleynanouit- 
agh near Kildorreiy in Cork, the booley or dairy 
place of the Ulstermen. There is an Ardultagh in 
Galway — the height of the Ulstermen. As the 
genitive form nnh of the article is used in Cloon- 
iialnilty in the parish of Aghamore in Mayo — 
indicating the singular feminine — we must con- 
clude that tlie name signifies the cloon or meadoAV 
of the Ulstcrwonian. Ulster itself is com- 
memorated in Cahenilla in Kerry, near the Shan- 
non mouth, the caliir or stone fort of Ulaidh or 



In order that the reader may better understand 
the substance of this chapter, it is necessary to 
show in a general way how Irish personal and 
family names took their rise, and to explain and 
illustrate certain laws observable in the derivation 
of local names from both. 

It may bo said that wo know nearly all the 
personal names formerly in use in this country, 
through the medium of our ancient literature and 
inscriplions ; and a large proportion of them still 
survive in daily use, though in most cases greatly 
changed from their original forms. When we 
examine thorn m (heir most ancient orMi()gia])liy, 
we can easily perceive that all are significant ; but 

128 Irish Personal and Family Names, [chap. viii. 

though most of them bear their meanings plainly 
on their face, many are now exceedingly obscure, 
either because they have been handed down to us 
incorrectly by the old transcribers, or that the 
words composing them have long since become 

Tu very early ages individuals usually received 
their names from some persojial peculiarity, such 
as colour of hair, complexion, size, figure, certain 
accidents of deformity, mental qualities, such as 
bravery, fierceness, &g. &c. ; and we have only to 
look at the old forms of the names to remove any 
doubt we may entertain of the truth of this 

We need not hesitate to pronounce that the 
man who first received thonameof Diih/idn [Duane] 
was so called from his dark hair and complexion ; 
for it is a diminutive of dubh [duv], black : and 
Duhhan signifies as it stands, a black or dark-com- 
plexioned man. Moreover it is very ancient, for 
we find it in the Book of Leinster and Lehor ria 
h Uidhre as the name of persons mixed up with our 
earliest traditions; and it is still in use as a family 
name disguised under the forms of Dwano, Dvvain, 
Downs, &c. 

Some person of this name must have lived at 
Dundooan near Coleraine, and another at l)un- 
dooan in the peninsula of Rosguill in the north of 
Donegal, for the name of both signifies DnJiltan's 
fortress. The parish of Hook in AVexford — ^that 
long narrow poninsida bomiding AValorferd har- 
bour on the east — came by its present name in a 
curious way. The old name of the place, as it is 
written in several charters, was Randouan or Rin- 
down ; and it was so called from St. Dowan, Avho, 
according to a Patent Roll of Henry VIII., was 
the patron saint of Hook. This Dowan, whose 

CHAP. VIII.] Imh Personal and Family Names. 129 

correct name was Dubhan, is commemorated in tlie 
Irish Calendars at the lltli of February. He was 
one of a family of brothers and sisters, who settled 
in Ireland at the end of the sixtli century, chil- 
dren of a Ih-itish kinp^ named Bracdu ; ainong- whom 
were Ddblicoij of Lough Dorg, Paanoi Cill-Fhaain 
(now Xiifano in Kilkenny), Iloc/iorot/ of Uclgany 
(p. 2G), and otliers. 1 to was calhvl Dubhan Ailithir, 
or Bnhhan the pilgrim, and he built a cell in a 
place which was afterwards called from him Rinn- 
Duhhain, Duhhan's point. In the lapse of long 
ages /SV. Dubhan was forgotten ; and the people of 
Wexford, prefening a name for the place with an 
English soimd, attempted to translate the old 
native name. The word dubhan, in addition to 
the meaning already assigned to it, signifies also a 
fishing hook ; and as this appeared a very appro- 
priate appellation for the long peninsula under 
consideration, they accordingly, knowing nothing 
of St.y)/^^)/^/;/, rendered llinn-Dubhain, Tlook Point, 
and caUed the parish itself by the nanu; of Hook. 
This identification we owe to the llev. James 
Graves (Kilk. Arch. Jour., Vol. III., 1854-5), 
whom I have followed. 

Persons of this name, and of others foimded on 
it, are commemorated in several other places. In 
the parish of Kilkeedy in Clare, seven miles north- 
east of Corofin, there is an old castle in ruins, now 
called Cloonoan, onco belonging to the O'Briens, 
which was stormed by Sir llicliard JJingham in 
the year 158G : the Four Masters, recording tin's 
event, give the < rue name — Cluain-Dubhain {Duhh- 
an's meadow), which lost the d by aspiration in 
the process of anglicising. The parish of Kibnac- 
duane near Kilrusli in Clare, takes its name from 
an old church, once belonging to the monastery of 
Inis Cathaigh or Scattery Island ; it is mentioned 


130 Irish Personal and Family Names, [chap. viii. 

in the life of St. Senan and in the Annals of the 
Four Masters, who call it Cill-mhec-Duhliain, the 
church of Bubhan's son. In the year 1579, 
Derinot O'Shaiighnessy, one of the chiefs of the 
O'Shaughncssys of Kinolea in the south-east of 
Galway, laid a snare for his brother's son, William, 
at a place popularly called Aidiuealuano, in the 
parish of iJoagh in (Jalway, lour miles south of 
Uort ; he succeeded in slaying- his nephew, but the 
young- man defended himself so well, that the 
assassin died of his wounds an hour after the 
combat. The Four Masters, in recording- this 
event, call the i>\iioe Ard-Maoldubhai)i,Maohlnihan's 
height ; it contains the ruins of a castle, which is 
called Ardamidlivan in tlie Ordnance maps. 

Duhlian foruis a ])art of several oMiur personal 
and family names, but I Avill mention only one 
other, viz., Ciardhuhhan [Keeruwaun], which was 
formed by prefixing ciar to duhhan, very probably 
after the latter had lost its significance ; for ciar 
itself means black or very dark. This is the 
original form of the family name Kirwan or 
O'Kirwan, so well known and widely spread in 
the county Galway. There is a townland in the 
parish of Clondagad near the mouth of the Fergus 
in Clare, called Craggykerrivan, which took its 
name from a member of this family ; for the Four 
Masters, atA.w. 1600, call it Craig-JJi-Chiardhubh- 
ain, O'Kirwan's rock. 

It appears to mo that many — perhaps the 
greater inimbor of- — descri])live or connnemorative 
})ersoual nauics were origluully Hccoudiiiy or ad- 
ditional names, given in after-life, and subse- 
quently retained, so as to supersede the first 
name. AVe have ample historical testimony that 
this custom was very general in Ireland ; but 
these secondary names generally seem not to have 

CHAP. VIII.] Irish Personal and Famihj Names. 181 

been given in an offensive or opprobrious sense, 
but to have been accepted by the individuals as a 
matter of course. There are innumerable in- 
stances of this change of name in our histories, 
but 1 Avill iiHMition only three. 

We are told tliat St. Patrick's first name was 
Siiccaf, which old writers interpret " warrior " 
(the latter part being cath, a battle) ; that he was 
afterwards called Cothraige, signifying " four 
families," from the circumstance that, while he 
was a slave in Ireland, he was the projserty of 
four masters, and was forced to serve them all. 
And finally he received the name Patricius, which 
was a title of distinction among the Romans, 
meaning a patrician or noble person. 

The great hero, CuchulUn, according to our 
traditional history, had several names. He was 
first called Setanta, and the reason why he received 
the name of CuchulUn is the subject of a curious 
legend, told in several of our very old books, 
among others in Lehor-nu-hUidhrc. Oji one oc- 
casion Culand, a great artificer in metals, who had 
his residence and kept his foigo near SHove 
GuUiou in Armagh, came to the palace of Emania 
to invito king Conor Mac Nessa and the lied 
Branch Knights to a feast. Setanta, who was 
then a little boy, was also invited, for he happened 
to be on a visit at the palace at this very time ; 
but when the company set out, he remained behind 
to finish a game of ball with his companions, say- 
ing that he would follow very soon. He started 
off in the evening, and arrived late at Culand's 
residence ; but when he attempted to enter the 
house, he found the way barred by an enormous 
dog, which was kept by the artificer to guard his 
])rcmises at night. The savage animal instantly 
sot on him ; but the brave little fellow, in no 
florrroo ton-ified, vnliantly di-^fended himself 

132 Irish Personal and Family Names, [chap, viii. 

Wlien Culiind and liis guests heard the dreadful 
uproar outside, the smith started up and asked in 
great alarm whether any of the company had 
remained behind; for no one, he said, had ever 
approaclied llie house at night without being torn 
in pieces by the dog. Then the king all at once 
recollected how Sotanta had promised to follow 
him, and Fergus Mac lloigh and several others of 
the guests rushed out to save him ; but when they 
came to the place, they found the great dog lying 
dead, and the young hero standing over him. 
Fergus, in great delight, snatched up the boy in 
triumph on his shoulder, brought him into the 
house, and placed him on the floor in presence 
of the king and the whole assembly, who received 
him very joyfully. 

Culund, after he had first given vent to his glad- 
ness at the boy's escape, immediately fell to 
lamenting his dog, complaining that his house and 
flocks would now have to remain unprotected. 
But young Setanta at once said that he would 
procure him a puppy of the same breed, if one 
could be found in all Erin, from Tonn Tuath iu 
the north to the Wave of Cleena in the south ; and 
he offered, moreover, to take upon himself the 
charge of guarding the house at night till the 
yomig dog shovdd be sufficiently grown to take 
his place. Whereupon, the king's druid, Cathhad, 
who happened to be present, proposed that the 
boy's name should be changed to Cu-Chulnind 
(Culand's hound) ; and he declared that he should 
be known by this name to all future generations, 
and that his fame and renown would live for ever 
among the men of Erin and Alban (see O'Curry, 
Lect. II., 3G2). 

In the ancient historical tale called "The 
Feast of Bim-na-ngedh," there is a very good 
example of the manner in which secondary names 

CHAP. vTTi.] Irish Tcrsonat and Family Names. 133 

were given on accoimt of personal deformities or 
peculiarilies. The arch rebel, Congal Claen, in 
his angry speech to the king, enumerating liis 
wrongs, tclla Itim how, when he was one day loft 
aldMo in tlio g;ird(Mi of tlio /is whore ]w was 
nursed, a little bee stung him in one eye, so that 
the eye became awr}', "from which," he says, 
" I have been named Congal Claen " — choi. sig- 
nifying inclined or crooked. lie goes on to relate 
how on another occasion he slew the king of 
Ireland, Swena Menn ; '' and when the king Avas 
tasting death, he llnng a chess-man Avhich was in 
his liand at me, so that /lo broke the crooked eye 
in my head. I was scj ^int-eyed {claen) before ; I 
have been blind-eyed (cacch) since." Accordingly 
we find him called /n old documents by both 
names, Cougal Clam, and Congal Cacch. 

This custom of bestowing names dcscrijitive of 
some qualities in the individuals, was all along 
(•i(tssod by anollMH' tliat musi, have oxistcMl I'loni 
tbo earliest ages, nnmcly, tho porpetiialion of 
hereditary personal names. It is a natural desire 
of parents (o call their child after one of them- 
selves, or after some distinguished ancestor ; and 
such names were given without any reference to 
personal peculiarities. Moreover, a feeling of 
reverence for the memory of the parent or ancestor 
whose name was adopted, would be a powerful 
motive — just as it is in our own day — to resist a 
change of name in after-life. This manner of 
designation became more and more general, till it 
ultimately quite superseded the other ; and now, 
even if the names were understood, no one would 
ever think of finding in the name a description 
of the person. 

1 1 appears from our historians that hereditary 
family names became general in Ireland about the 

134 Irish Personal and Family Names, [cirvr. viii. 

period wlion Brian Boni roigncd, viz., in llio end 
of the tentli and tlie beginning- of the eleventh 
century ; and some authorities assert that this 
I'ustoni was a(h)pted in ohedionco to an ordinance 
issned hy that monarch. The manner in wliich 
these names wore fornuKl was very simple. The 
meniLors of a family — each in addition to his own 
proper name — took as a common designation the 
name of their father, of their grandfather, or of 
fiome more remote ancestor ; in the first case pre- 
fixing the word tnac, which means a son, and in 
the two other cases ua or o, which signifies grand- 
son ; and in all cases the genitive of the pro- 
genitor's name followed the mac or the o. Thus 
the following were the names of seven successivo 
kings of the Hy Noill race from a.d. 7(13 to 95(1, 
and each was the son as well as the successor of 
the next preceding : — Niall Frassach (of the 
showers), Hugh Oirne, Niall Cailne, Hugh Finn- 
liath (fair-grey), Niall Glundubh (hlack-knee), 
Murkertagh of the leather cloaks, and Domnall 
D'Neill. This last king was the first that adopted 
the surname of Ua NeiU (Niall's grandson) which 
he took from his grandfather, Niall Gllundubh ; 
and from that time forward every man of his I'acc 
bore the surname of O'Neill.* 

Great numbers of places all through the country 
have received their names from individuals or 
from families, who were formerly connected with 
them, either by possession or residence, or some 
other accident. In the formation of such names 
certain phonetic laws were observed, which I will 
now proceed to explain and illustrate. It must 
be remarked, however, that while these laws are 
rigidly observed in the Irish language, it often 

* See O'Donovan'a admirable essay on " Ancient names of 
Tribes and Territories in Ireland, in the Introduction to 
O'.Diigan'a Typographical Poem. 

(!HAP. VIII.] Irish Personal and Family Names. 135 

happens that in the process of anglicising, either 
they are disregarded, or the effect of them al- 
together diHa])])ears. 

I. When a local name is formed by the union 
of a noun of any kind with a personal name, tlio 
latter follows the former, as is in the genitive 
case. Scftnach [Shannagh], which signifies wise 
or prudent, was formerly very common as a man's 
name, and it continues in use in the family name 
0'81uiuahan. Its genitive is Seanaigh, which is 
pronounced Shanvy in every ]inrt of Ireland ex- 
(•(>pt south ]\Iuns(,or, Avhere Ihey sound it S/ianni(/. 
vSomo saint oC this name is commemorated at 
Kilsliannig near llivlhcormack in Cork, the Irish 
name o[ wliicli is CiU-8panaigh, Scanach's church. 
Kilshanny near Mitchelstown in the same county, 
is the same name, and exhibits the more usual 
sound of the genitive. The small island of Inish- 
murray in the bay of Sligo, is called in <he annals 
Inis-Miiireadhnigh, and it received its nanie from 
^ndreadhaoJi, Mio first bishop of Killsda, Avho 
nourished in the seventh century. 

lomhnr or Eiinhcr [Ecvcr] is a mnn's name 
which was formerly very connnon, and which still 
survives as a family name in the forms of Ivor, 
Ivors, Evers, and even Howard. The village of 
Ballivor in Mcath exhibits this name very nearly 
as it ought to be pronounced, the Irish being 
Bailc-IomJiair, Ivor's town. There was a cele- 
brated (^hief of the ()' Donovans nanied lomhar 
who lived in the thirteenth century, and from 
whom a considerate sept of the O'Donovans were 
d(^scended. Ilo bnilt a, casllo called from him 
Caislcan-Iomhair, which long remained in posses- 
sion of the family ; it is now called Castle Eyre, 
and its ruins still renuiin near the litile village of 
Unionhall in the parish of Myross, at the mouth 

136 Irish Personal and FauiiUj Names, [chap, vin 

of Glandore harbour in Cork. He was a great 
trader : and tlie legends of tlie peasantry still 
relate that he lives enchanted in a lake near the 
castle — Ijough Cluhir — and that once in every seven 
years his sliip is seen with (lolours Hying over the 
surface of the water (see O'Donovan's Four M. 
VI., 2i;59). Crossuiakeovor in Horry exhihils the 
family name Avith Mac, still very common — this 
name signifying Makeevcr's or Maclvor's cross. 
Muireagdn, genitive Muireaga'in, is a very old Irish 
personal name, signifying a mariner, from niuir, 
the sea ; and it is still used in the form of jSIorgan. 
There is a place near Abbeyleix in Queen's County, 
called Ci'omorgan, the Irish name of Avhich is 
Crioclt-Muireagdin, Muregau's distiict. In the four 
last names the modification in sound and syxilliiig 
ol the gciiitivo disiippearH in (ho anglicised forms. 

II. The initial letter of a personal name in the 
genitive case, following a noun, is usually aspi- 
rated, if it be one of the aspirablo letters. This 
occurs in the Irish language, but in the anglicised 
forms the aspirated letters are often restored. 
Mliirn or Mvrni (signifying love or affection), was 
a woman's name, formerly in use in Ireland ; Finn 
Mac CanihaiU's mother, for instance, was called 
Afurni llancaini (of the boautit'id neck). Tlusre is 
a village and parish west of Macroom in Cork, 
called Ballyvourne)'-, where some woman of this 
name has been commemorated; for the Four 
Masters, in recording it as one of the camping places 
of O'Sullivan Bear in his retreat from Dunboy in 
H]{)2y call it Baile-Mlrairne, IMurna's fownland. 
The aspirated ni is restored in CJarrigmoorna 
{Mama's rock) in tlie parish of Kilrossanty in 
Waterford. In this townland there is a conical 
stony hill, having a large rock on the summit, 
with an old lis near it ; and within this rock dwells 

CHAP. VIII.] Irish Per lional and Family Names. 137 

the enchantress Murna. When the wind blows 
stronf^ly in certain directions, a loud whistling 
sovnid comes from some crevices in the rock, whicJi 
can be lionrd distinctly half a mile off ; and the 
])(>:i.siniiry wlio know notbing of such hvvrncd ex- 
planations, and careless, will tell you, among many 
other dim legends of the lady Murna, that this 
sound is tbe humming of her spiiming wheel. 

III. The genitive of ua or o (a grandson) is ui, 
whicli is pronounced the same as cc or ;/ in English ; 
and consequently when a local name consists of a 
noun followed by a family name with (such as 
O'Brien) in the genitive singular, the ui is usually 
(but not always) represented in anglicised names 
by y. Tliis is very plainly seen in Cloonykelly 
near Athleague in Hoscommon, Clnain- Ui- Chcal- 
laigh, O'Kelly's meadow ; in Drumyarkin in Fer- 
managh (near Clones), O'llaxkin's drum or hill- 
ridge. Cloonybrien, near Boyle in Hoscommon, 
wliere a portion of the Annals of Lough Key was 
copied, is cnllod in li'isli (Jliinin-J-Wiraoiii, 
O'Breen's meadow. Xnockycosker, nortli of Kil- 
beggan in AVestmoath, is written by the Four 
^Masters Cnoc-Ui-C/iosrrdif/h, O'Cosgry's hill. The 
barony of Iraghticonor in the north of Kerry, is 
called in Irish Oircacht-Ui-Chonchohhair, O'Conor's 
iraijlit or inheritance. 

In the parish of Moycidlen in Galway there is 
a townland, now called Gortyloughlin ; but as we 
find it written Guilyloughnane in an old counly 
map, it is obvious tliat here n has been changed 
to / — a very usual phonetic corrui^tion (1st Vol., Ft. 
I., c. III.), and that the Irish name is Gort-Ui- 
Lachtnain, the field of O'Lachtnan or O'Loughnane 
— a well-known family name. This townland in- 
cludes the demesne and house of Danesfield, the 
name of which is an attempted translation of the 

138 Irish Personal and Family Names, [chap. viii. 

incorrect name Goriylounlilin, ilio triiiislalors 
tliinkino- tliat tlio latter part was identical with 
Lochhuinach, one of tlie Irisli terms for a Dane. 
But the Danes had nothing* to do with tlie name, 
for neither Gortylonghnane nor Gortyloughlin, 
conkl hear the interpretation of Danesfiekl, which 
is one of the many instancies of false translations 
in our local nomenclature. The family name 
0' Lachtnain is coromemorated in Ballyloughuane, 
the name of two townlands, one in the north of 
Tipperaiy (near Birr), and the other near Oroora 
in Limerick — O'Loughnane's town. With (joH 
for the initial term we have Gortyclcry near 
Mohill in Tjcitrim, Gortylcahy near Mac room in 
Cork, and Gortymaddcn in (he parish oi' Ahhey- 
gormaciin iu Galway, O'Olory's, OTicahy's, and 
0'J\ladden'H lield respectively. 

This y sound of ui is often altogether sunk in 
the y of Bally and clerry, when a family name fol- 
lows these words. The parish of Ballyhoggan in 
Meath takes its name from a celehrated ahbey 
whose ruins are still to be seen on the Boyne, and 
which is called in the annals Baile-Ui-Iiliof/aiit, 
(the abbey of) O'Boggan's town. There are several 
places in different coimties called Ballykealy ; the 
Four Masters give the correct form of the name 
when they mention Ballykealy in Kerry, which 
they call Baile-Ui-Chaelniy/ie, O'Kecly's town. 
Half way between Athenry and. Oranmore, just 
by the railway at the south side, thei"e is an old 
castle ruin called Derrydonnell, the Irish name of 
which is given in the same aiithority, Doire-Ui- 
l)]iomJmaill, O'DonnoU's oak wood. 

IV. When a local name consists of a word fol- 
lowed by a family name with 0, in the genitive 
plural (i.e. having such an interpretation as " the 
rock of the G'Donnells"), in this case, whilst the 

CHAP. VIII.] Irish Personal and Family Names. 139 

retains its own form unchanged, the first letter 
of the following word is eclipsed (if it admit of 
eclipsis) exactly the same as if the Avere the 
article in the genitive ])lnral. As this is a very 
iniportiint law, and influonces groat nnnd)ors of 
names, and as besides it is very generally followed 
in the anglicised forms, I will illustrate it by 
several instances. 

Many examples of this usage might be quoted 
from the annalists. The Four Masters record at 
1550, that Calvagh O'Donnell was taken prisoner 
in the monastery of Cill-0-dTomhrair, the church 
of the O'Tomrairs. The ruins of this monastery 
are situated near tlie shore of Lough Swilly, two 
miles fi'om the village of llathmelton in Donegal. 
The name ought to be pronounced KiUodorrir, but 
the Irish speaking people change the last r to / 
(1st Vol., Part I., c. iii.), and pronoimce it Killo- 
dorril ; and those who anglicised the name from 
this corrnplod it further by changing the rr io nn, 
so that the ohl cliurch is now always called ](^illo- 
donnell, as if it look i(s name from the O'Donnells. 
The family of O'Tomhrair, who now call tluMuselves 
Toner, took their name from an ancestor, Tomhrar, 
whose name was borrowed from the Danish Tomrar, 
or Tomar. 

Torney is now a pretty common family name, 
the correct form of which is O'Torna. According 
to O'Curry (Lect., II., 69) they derive their name 
fronr the celebrated poet Torna Eigeas, who 
flourished in the fourth century ; and they in- 
habited the district of O'Torna in the north of 
Kerry. The name of this district is still retained 
in that of the monastery and village of Abbey- 
dorney ; the former, which was founded in 1154, 
is caUed in Irish by the Four Masters, Mainistir- 
0-dTorna ["Mannister-Odorna], the abbey of the 

140 Irish Personal and Fa mil If Nnmea. [chap, viit. 

O'Tornas. The word "abbey" is oinittoil in tbo 
name of the parish, which is now culled O'Dorney. 
Another name exactly similar to tliis last is 
( )gonnelloe, which is that of a parish in Clare ; 
here tlie word tualli is niulerstoud : — TuaUi-O- 
(jCoingidlla, the district of the O'Conneelys. Near 
Crooni in liimerick is a townland called Tidlovin, 
which exactly represents the sonnd of Tul'-O- 
bhFinn, the hill of the O'Fiinis, where the / is 
eclipsed by the bh or v, and the same family name 
is commemorated in Graigavine near Fiddown in 
the south of Kilkenny, Graig-0-hhFinn, the 
O'Finns' graigue or village. 

Ill the year A.i). 8()1), Hugh Fiiinliath, king of 
Ireland, gained a victory over tlie J)aiies at a])lace 
called by the annalisis Cill-Thi-vlhigJtro [Kir- 
loneery I tlio Ohiiich dl" the O'Decrys ; vvliicli Dr. 
Todd believes to be the place now called Xillineer 
near Drogheda. The personal name Doighre [Dira] 
from which this family name has been formed, 
though formerly in use, is now obsolete ; but it is 
preserved in local nomenclature. Some man of 
this name is commemorated in Duniry, now a parish 
in Galway, Avhere the Mac Egans, hereditary bre- 
lions to the O'Kellys of ITyMany, long had their 
residence, and which in their writings, and in the 
Four Masters, is called Bun-Boighrc {D lost by 
aspiration), Doiglire's fortress. 

There is a parish near the town of Antrim, called 
Donegore, which Colgan calls Dun-O-gCurra, the 
fortress of the O'Curras ; and the old fortress still 
exists, and is called Donegore moat (lleeves : Eccl. 
Ant. 64, note d\. 

The Four Masters at a.d. 1393 record a conflict 
between two families of the Mac Dermots, fought 
at a place which they call Cluain-0-gCoinneny the 
meadow of the O'Cunnanes, which is situated near 

CHAP, -viii.] Irish Personal and Family Names. 141 

Frenchpark jn the north of Roscommon, and is 
now called Cloonnagunnane. Near Borrisokane 
in Tipperary there is a place called Kyleonermody ; 
here the n in the middle represents a d which it 
eclipses, the whole name being Cdill-0-nDiarmadn, 
tbo wood of (ho O'Dcrmody's, a family name still 
common in Limerick and Tipperary. Diarmaid as 
a personal name is cormnemorated in Dundermot 
(Diarmad's fortress) a townland giving name to a 
parish in Antrim, which itself takes its name from 
a large earthen fort over the Clough Water near 
where it joins the river Main, Killodicrnan is an 
old cluirch giving name to a ])arish in Ti])perary, 
one of tho cliurchcs that took their names from 
fiimilies, where tho O'Tiornans were probably 
crenaghs or hereditary wardens of the church, the 
Irish name being Cill-0-dTighearnan. A name 
exactly corresponding to this is Killogilleen in 
Galway, exhibiting the eclipsis of c hj g : — Cill-0- 
gCillin, tho church of tho O'Killeens, or as they 
now cull thomselvos, Killccns. 

Occasionally in constructions of this land, the 
disappears in the process of anghcising, while the 
effect of the eclipse remains. This is seen in 
Ilathgormuck, the name of a village and parish in 
Waterford, which they now pronounce in Irish 
liafh-a-gCormaic, but which, thirty years ago, the 
old people called Rath- 0-g Cor maic, the fort of the 
O'Cormacs. On this it is to be remarked that in 
nijiiiy parts of Ireland, the of family names is 
prouomiced A in the colloquial language: — Daniel 
O'Connor for instance would be made DomhnaU- 

In a few cases both the and the eclipsis are 
obliterated, as in Rosbercon, the name of a village 
in tho Ronlh of Kilkenny, wbi('li on nccount of 
being situated in the ancient territory of l/i-JJer- 

142 Irish Personal and Family Names, [chap. viii. 

clion, is culled in Trish Ilos- Ua-tiiBcrchon, tlio wood 
of the O'liorcLuns. 

V. The mac of family names is often written 
maff, even in manuscripts of authority. Among a 
gi'oat many examples of this I may mention the 
family of Mugroarty, who were keepers of the 
cclohratcd reliquary called the caah or cathach, 
belonging to the family of O'Donncll, The Four 
Masters mention this family tmce, and in both 
cases write the name Mag RohJiartaigh (son of 
Rohhartach [Roartagh]) ; and the g holds its place 
in the modern form, as well as in local names 
derived from the family. An example of this is 
Ballymagrorty, the name of two townlands, one 
near the town of Ballyshannon, and the other near 
the city of Dcrry, which Colgan writes Baile-Meg- 
Jiabhartaich, Magroarty's townland. The Mag- 
roarfcys resided in and gave name to these places, 
and it is probable that they held the lands in virtue 
of their office. 

VI. When mac in the genitive plural follows a 
noun, if the noun following begin with a vowel, n is 
inserted after mac and before the vowel. This 
« is merely an inflectional termination, and be- 
longs to the ancient form of declension, as may bo 
seen by reference to Zeuss, Gram. Celt., p. 221. 
An excellent example of this is Kilmacrenan, 
[Cill-Macn-Enain), examined in 1st Vol. It is 
seen also in Kilmacnoran, two miles east of Bally- 
haise in Cavan, Cill-Macn- Odhrain, the church of 
the sons of Odhran or Oran. There is a barony in 
the east of Galway called Olonmacnowen, or more 
correctly Olanmacnowen ; the name divides itself 
this way, Clan-macn-owen ; Irish, Clann-mac- 
iiEoghan (Four M.), the descendants of the sons 
of Eoghan or Owen ; and this tribe were descended 
and took their name from Owen, the son of Donall 

CHAP. VIII. J Irish Personal and Family Names. 143 

More 'Kelly, chief of ITy Many, who flourished 
in the early part of the thirteenth century. 

VII. AVhen a local name consists of a noun 
followed by a family name beginning with mac, 
or by any surname following mac, the m of mac 
is often aspirated ; as in Derry vicneill in the parish 
of Attymas in Mayo, Doire-mhic-Neill, the oak- 
wood of Niall's son ; Bally vicnacally near Dromore 
in Down, the town of the son of the calliagh or 

VIII. The V of this anglicised syllable vie or 
rick, is often omitted both in proniuiciation and 
writing, h'aving only id; aiul sometimes nothing 
more than the more sound of 1c. Tin's is a con- 
traction very common in Irish family names; and 
in a great many that begin with k, c, or g, these 
letters represent the last letter of the mac or mag. 
Kcon is shortened from Mac Owen ; Cuolahan 
from Mac Uallacliain ; Cribbin, Gribbin, and 
Gribbon, from 3[ac lloibin, the son of Robin, or 
little llobcrt. 

The Irish call the Berminghams Mac Fhcorais 
[]\Iac Orish], i. e. the son of Feoras, or Picras, or 
Pierce, a name derived from an ancestor. Pierce, 
the son of Meyler Bermingham, who was one of 
the chief heads of the family. Several branches 
of this family have altogether dropped the Eng- 
lish name, and adopted the Irish ; but it is almost 
univoi'sally contracted from Mackorish to the 
forniH (JoiiHli, ConiM, and (Jlioi'tis, all family nainos 
common in certain parts of Ireland. Some mem- 
ber of ihis family gave name to Ballycorus in the 
coinify of iJublin, near J'jnniskerry, well known 
for its lead mines, the full name of which is Baile- 
Mhic-Flicorais, the town of Mac Orish or Berming- 
ham, The hcrcdilary name Pierce or Feoras, 
without the mac, is preserved in Monasteroris, the 

144 Irish Personal and Family Karnes, [chap, viii 

naino of a ruined inonustoiy near ]*l(leii(l()rry in 
Kiiij^'e Ccniuly, which wan i'uuiulcd hy Sir Juliii 
Bermiughum for Franciscans in the year 1325, 
and hence culled Mainister-Feorais (Four M.), the 
monastery of {Mac) Fcorais. (iSeo Sir AVilliani 
E. Wihle's " Boyne and Bhickwatcr.") 

A n()()d example oi' (lie ciihIoiii now under con- 
sideralion in its application to local nomeucilature, 
is liallickmoyler, the name of a village in (iiieen's 
County, which signifies tlio town of the son of 
Moyler or Myler. So also Gorticmeelra in Ros- 
common, Mac Meelra's gort or field ; Killicka- 
weeny near Kilcock in Kildare, Coill-mhic-a'- 
J\lliHiinhni(jh, the wood of the son of the Muintliiimeh 
[Mweenagh] orMunsterman. Near the bank of the 
grand canal, two miles west of Tullamore in King's 
County, is an old castle called Ballycowan, which 
gives name to the barony in which it is situated. 
The Four Masters at 1557 write the name Baile- 
mhic-Ahhainn, the town of the son of AhJiann or 
Aihhne, a personal name formerly in use, and still 
sometimes met with in the anglicised form Evenew. 
There is a place in King's County and another in 
Kildare, called Cadamstown ; the Irish form of 
this name is preserved by the Four IMasters, 
who write the name of Cadamstown in King's 
Coimty, Baile-mic-Adam, the town of Adam's son; 
and the correct anglicised form Ballymacadam is 
the name of some places in Kerry and Tipperary. 

IX, The G of mac is sometimes dropped. There 
is a parish in Tipperary called Kilmastulla, which 
should have been anglicised Kilmacstulla, for it is 
written in the Dowu Survey Killm'^tS/ii////, and 
signifies Mac Stidly's church. In like manner, 
Ballymadun, a parish in the nortli of the county 
of Dublin, is written in an ancient Latin document, 
quoted by Dean Reeves (O'Dugan, Notes, V.) Villa 

CHAP. VIII.] Irish Personal and Family JVames. 146 

Macdun, indicating that the correct anglicised 
name is Ballymacdun, IVIacdun'a townland. So 
IJallymascanhm, a parish in Louth, ought to have 
been, and indeed often is, called Ballymacscanlan, 
the town of Scanlnn's son. 

T Avill now procei'd to instance a few cliaractor- 
istic Irish personal and family names, and to 
illustrate tlio manuer in whieli locnl n.'nnes have 
been formed from them ; and I will first resume 
the consideration of those names derived from 
duhh, blaclc, all of which, like Duhhan, must have 
been originally applied to persons with dark hair 
and comploxion. 

( )u(^ of tl\(\sc \Hl)iih/il/iach [Duffa], which has de- 
RccndiMl (o our own day in the form of IJuHy 
and O'Duffy. I do not wish to venture on an 
exiDlanation of thach, the latter part of the word : it 
may be possibly nothing more than a suifix, for it is 
found in other names, such a.sCarthnch,Cobhihach, 
&c. Duhlifhach is a, name of groat an(iquity ; and 
tliose wlio have read the history of St. i'atrick's 
preaching in Ireland, will remember Icing Laegh- 
aire's arcli poet Dnhhthach, whom the saint con- 
verted when he preached before the king and his 
court in Tara, a.d. 433. 8ome individual of 
this name must have formerly possessed Tanrna- 
doey near jMoneyuiorc in Deny, which is called 
in Irish Tarnhnach-Duhhiliaigh, Duhhthach^s field; 
and wo have the name also in Ballyduffy iuLong- 
f(»rd, lM;iyo, and Ivosconnnon, tho toAvnland of 
Dulfy or b'Dun'y. 

From Iho same root wo havo D}(hhnllJwc1i, 
which nu>;ins a dark-complexioned, lofty person ; 
Ihough the alt would bear other interpretations 
besides lofty. This name is generally anglicised 
Ihiiild or Dudley, but it is now seldom metMilh 
in any form. Jassadulta in the parish of Kil- 


146 Trifih Personal and Family Names, [chap. viii. 

tliomas in Gulway, signifies Duald's fort — Lios-a'- 
Dubhaltaigh. This personal name is strangely 
perverted in Moneygold, tlie name of a place near 
the village of Grange in Sligo. The last sylhible, 
gold, has hccn extracted from the long name 
Dhuhhaltaigh ; but the wliole process is in strict 
accordance with phonetic laws already explained 
(1st Vol., Tart I., c. 111.): Vva., JUnihlKtllaigh re- 
duced to Dhubhalt by throwing oil' the last syllable ; 
lepresenting this phonetically, and substituling // 
for dh ; after this it required little pressure to 
force Moneyguald to Moneygold, for money natu- 
I'ally suggested gold, according to the ordinary 
process of ])opidar etymology : — Muine-Dhnhhalt- 
aigh, Duald's shnd)bery. 

One of the best known names derived from this 
root Duhh is dahhda ; here it is cond)in(Hl with the 
ancient adjectival termination, de or da ; and sig- 
nifies black-complexioned. What lover of oysters 
has not heard of Poldoody ! It is a large pool at 
the shore near the E,ed Bank of Burren in the 
north of Clare; and it produces oysters of ex- 
cellent quality in great abundance. The name, 
however, has nothing to do with oysters, for it 
is merely Poll-Dnhltda, l^ooda's pool. We know 
nothing of tliis Duh/ida, hnt he may in all like- 
lihood get the credit of being an epicure in 
oysters. A chieftain of this name, who flourished 
in the seventh con ti\ry, and was nintli in descent 
from the monarch Dathi, was the ancestor of Ihe 
family of Tli Dahhda, or O'Dowd. 

Dabhagan is a diiiiinutivo of dahJi, and sigiiilies 
literally a little dark man. It is well known as a 
family name in the phonetii^ form Dugan or 
( )'Dugan ; and families of the name are comme- 
morated in the townlands of Ballydugan in 

CHAP. VIII.] Irish Personal and Family Names, 147 

JDown and Tipperary, wliose name signifies 
O'Dugan's townland. 

Personal names derived from colours are very 
numerous in Irish, and it may bo instructive (o 
enumerate a low of the most imporlniit and 
usual. Odhar [oar] is pale, pale-brown, pale- 
faced; one of the chieftains of the O'Carrolls, 
Tvho was slain in 1581 by the O'Conors Faly, 
was styled William Odhar, or William the pale- 
faced. The term in its simple form was in for- 
mer days used as a personal name : and it is 
exhibited in Hoare, a family name occurring 
often in Cork and other southern counties, 
where the name is in Gaelic Uali JJidhir, pro- 
nounced O'lleere. But the Hoares of Wexford 
are English, and their name is from Jwar, gi'^J" 
liaired. From a chieftain of this name, who was 
seventh in descent from CoUa Da Chrieh, and who 
lived in the sixth century, the IMaguires took 
their name. For Uidhir, ilie genitive of Odhar, 
is pronounced ccr oy ire; and JMaguiro is a toler- 
ably correct representative, so far as sound is 
concerned, of Mac ?/?>///?>, which signifies b'tcrnlly 
the son of the pale-faced man. 13allymaguire 
(Maguire's town) near Lusk in Dublin, and 
another townland of the same name in Tyrone, 
were botli so called from members of this family. 
The diminutive Odhran [Oran: little pale-faced 
man] is far more frequent as a personal name than 
Odhar. It, was nun-cover in nse at a. very early 
period of our liistory ; St. Patrick's charioteer 
was St. Odhran, who gave name to a place called 
Desert-Oran in Offaly. It is often found forming 
part of local names, of which the following are 
examples. There is a townland called Seeoran in 
the pariah of Knockbride in Cavan, which is 
called by the annalists Siddhe-Odhrain, Oran's 

148 Irish Personal a)id Family Names, [chai'. viii. 

seat. Dororanin tbo parish of Teniioumaguiik in 
Tyrone, is called Deryowran in the map of the 
]*lantation, i.e. Doire-OdJirain, Odran's oak-wood. 
MuUaghoran, Oran's summit, is the name of a 
])lace in the parish of Drumhnnman, Cavan ; 
tliere are some phaccs in Tyrone and Cavan called 
llahoran {rath, a fort) ; ICilloran, the name of 
several townlands in Gahvay, Tipporary, and 
Sligo, is Oran's church ; Ballyoran, Oran's town- 
land ; Avo have Templeoran in Westmeath, Oran's 
church ; and the name of Templeorum near Fid- 
down in the south of Kilkenny, has been corrupted 
from this, for in the Irish elegy on the Hev. Ed- 
mund Kavanagh, by tbo Hev. James Lalor, it is 
called Teamimll- Odhrahi. 

The Irish word /laiui, as a noun, signifies blood; 
and as an adjective, red or ruddy. I'^ioiii a very 
early period it has been used as a personal name, 
and it must have been originally applied to a 
ruddy-faced man. Flann, or, as he is usually 
called, Flann of the monastery, was a celebrated 
annalist, poet, and professor, Avho flourished at 
Monasterboice, and died a.d. 105G. The geni- 
tive form is Flainn, which is pronoxniced Flinn or 
Floin ; and hence the family name 0' Flinn. In 
this name the F is sometimes aspirated, which al- 
together destroj^s its sound ; and then the name 
becomes O'Lynn, which is also pretty common. 
IJut the Ois now usually omitted from both names, 
reducing them to Flinn and Lynn. Flann also 
forms a family name with mac, and in this case the 
F is always aspirated aiul oiiiiKcd; thus Mac 
Fhlainn has given us the family name Macklin, 
which will remind llie rcjidcr of the celebratcul 
actor (whose real name, however, was Mac l^ough- 
lin) ; while other branches of the same family call 
themselves Magloin or M'^Gloin. Many again 
drop the ilfrtc or Matj, the y of which gets attracted 

CHAP. VIII.] Irish Personal and Family Names. 149 

to the I (see p. 143) ; and this gives rise to the 
family names Glynn and Glenn. 

About three-quarters of a mile west of the 
town of Boyle in Roscommon, near a small cataract 
on the river, just at the railway bridge, there is an 
old church which is often mentioned in the annals 
by the names Eas-Dachonna and Eas-3Iic-nEirc 
(cas, a waterfall), from St. Dachoima, the son of 
Ere, who was the patron of the place. But in 
later ages it has been called Eas- Ui-Fhlainn, 
O'Flynn's cataract, from the family of OTlynn, 
who were the erenaghs or wardens of the church; 
and this old name is exactly represented in sound 
by the present name of the church, Assylin. Near 
the village of Desertmartin in Dorry, there is a 
small lalce called Loughinsholin (and sometimes 
incorrectly Lough Shillin), or in Irish Loch-innsc- 
Ui-Fhlainn, the lake of O'Flynn's island. This 
island was a crannoge (see this in 1st Vol.), and 
wiiH ;i, fortresHol' snch iinpoi-ljmco thntif. gavo name, 
not only to the lake, but to the barony of Lough- 
insholin. From the same branch of this family 
two other places in the same neighbourhood took 
their names, viz., Desertlyn (0 'Lynn's hermitage), 
and Monasterlynn (0 'Lynn's monastery), but the 
latter is now always called by the seductive name 
of Moneysterling. 

The family name with mac is commemorated in 
Bnllymnglin in Dcrry {haJly, n, townland) ; and in 
Orossmaglin, the name of a village in Armagh, the 
full name of which is Cros-mcg-Fhlainn, Maglin's 
cross. And Ave have the personal name exhibited 
in Attyflin near Patrickswell in Limerick, and in 
Attiflynn near Dunmore in Galway, both of which 
are called in Irish Ait-fighe-Flainn, the site {ait) 
of Flann's house. 

With the diminutive termination gdn, and a 

160 Xi'ish Personal and Famili/ Names, [c 

iiAr. viii. 

vowel sound inserted (pp. 32 uiid 3, supra), ilio 
uanie Flannagdu has been formed — little Fliinn — a 
little ruddy-faced man ; and t'l um tliis again comes 
the family name of O'Flanagan, or Flanagan, as 
they now generally call themselves. The F of this 
name becomes aspirated and omitted in Bally- 
lanigan, the name of some places in Limerick and 
Tipperary — Uai/e-Ui-F/i/anitagain, O'Maiuigau's 

I might give many more examples of personal 
names derived from colours — indeed there is 
scarcely a colour that does not originate a name — 
but 1 will content myself with the foregoing. I 
will now instance a few personal and family iiames 
derived in various ways, and give examples of local 
names derived fiom them. 

Acd/i [ay: sounded like i\w a// in sai/j, genitive 
Aedha, is interpreted by Cormac Mac Cullenan, 
Colgan, and other ancient writers, to mean fire. 
It is cognate with Gr. aithos, " also Avith Lat. avdcs, 
Skr. edlias, firewood. Hence the Gaulish name 
Aodui — Welsh rt/VA/, warmth " (tStokes inCor. Gl. : 
see also on the name Aedui — " Die bei Caius Julius 
Caesar vorkommenden Keltischen Namen in ihre- 
rechthcit festgestellt und eililutert," by C. W. 
Gliick, p. 9). In its original application it was 
]irobably used in the sense of a fiery warrior. 
\This name has been in use in Ireland from the 
most remote antiquity; and as we have seen, it 
was used among the Gauls in the time of Julius 
Caisar. We find it among those early colonists, 
tho Dedaunans ; and it Avas very common among 
the Milesians who succeeded them. It was the 
name of a great many of our ancient kings ; 
and the Irish ecclesiastics named Aedli are almost 
innumerable. Those who write in Latin use the 
form Aidus ; and in English it is always made 

CHAP. vni.J Irish Fersonal and Family Names. 16 i 

Hugli, whicli however is a Teutonio name, witli an 
ontircly diileront signification. 

From it are derived the two family names of 
O'hAedha and Mac Acdha [O'Hay, Mac-Ay], both 
of wliicli liMvo been modilied into various itiodorii 
forms. The most correct anglicised form of the 
first is O'lToa or O'llay, which is still common, 
but some fiimilics call themselves TIay. In 
Limerick the name is very common in the form of 
Hayes, which in the cities is sometimes changed 
to ITaiz, to make it a]>|)car, I suppose, of foreign 
origin, TIio uHiial iiiodcrjiised lonii ol" Mac Acdha 
is]Vlage(\ which is coirect, or M'^Gee, not so correct, 
or Mackay, which Avould be correct if accented 
on the last syllable, which it generally is not ; and 
it is made M'Kay by some. It is very common in 
the form of Mac Hugh, which again is often still 
further modernised to Hughes. 

The suuple name, variously modified, is foimd 
in great nmubers of local names. It is represented 
by cc (as it is in Mag^r-) in Inishce quoted farther 
on. There is a parish near KiUybegs in Donegal 
caUod Killaghtee, which takes its name from an 
old church, tho nuns of which are still to be seen 
near the hamlet of Bruckless. The name signifies 
the church of Aedh^s leach t or sepulchral monimient ; 
and a large stone about six feet high, with a curious 
and very ancient cross inscribed on its face, which 
stands in the graveyard, marks the site of the old 
leach f, whore Aedh, who was probably the oi'iginal 
founder of the church, lies buried. Acdh lias tho 
same form in llathmacnce, the name of a parish 
near Carnsore Point in Wexford, where the ruins 
of a castle still stand, probably on the site of the 
ancient rath which gave origin to the name : — 
Rafh-innc-nAcdha,\\\Q.{o\[joii\\omn^ oi Acdha (« 
inserted, p. 142). But it is more usuall}' repre- 

152 Irish Personal and Family Names. [oiiAr. viii. 

sonted by ea, us wo soo in Calieiou, tlu; lumu) of 
80ine places iu Clare — CaUudr-Aedha, llugli'is caliei' 
or circular stone fortress. 

Not inifre(|nently tlio name is made TTii<>li, as in 
Tuliyhiit^li in Arniagli and fcJliyo, Hugh's liill; 
Uatlilnigli in the parish of Ahamlish in Sligo, 
Hugh's fort. Tlio harouy ol' Tirluigh in (lio 
u.vtrcmo south-west oi' Donegal, is called in Irish 
authorities, Tir-Aedha, the territory of Aedli ; and 
it received that name from Aedlt or ITugh (son of 
Ainmire), the king of Ireland Avho sunnnoned the 
celebrated convention of Drumceat in 573, and 
who was slain at the great battle of Dunbolg-, 
A.D. 598. Before his time this territory bore the 
name of 8ereth. 

This name Aedh is often so very much disguised 
by contraction as to bo quite mulistinguisliable 
without the aid of written authorities. A good 
example of this is the well-known tribe name of 
Clanmdjoy or Clandeboj^, which is a short form of 
the old name Clann-Acdha-haidhe [Clan-ay-boy] 
us we find it in the annals : these people Avere so 
called from Acdh-hiiid/ic (yellow Hugh) or Hugh 
Boy O'Neill, a chieftain who was slain in the year 
A.i). 1283. In the fourteenth tx'ntury tlu;y 
possessed an extensive territory in the counties of 
Down and Antrim, and this was the ancient Clan- 
naboy ; but the name no longer exists, except so 
far as it is preserved in Lord DulTcrin's seat of 
Clandeboye near Bangor in Down. Lissofin is a 
townland in the parish of Tulhigh in Clare, the 
Irish name of which is Lio^-Acdlia-Finn [Lissay- 
fin] the fort of Hugh the fair, derived from Acdh 
Finn, the ancestor of the family of Mac Namara 

The family name with is commemorated in 
Cloonyhea in the parish of Drangan in Tipperary, 

CHAP. VIII. J Irish Personal and Family I^ames. 163 

'Ilea's meadow ; also in Ballyliay, the name of a 
parish in Cork, and of a townland in Down near 
bonaghadec (JJallyhayes, Inq. — 1623), as weU as 
in Ballyhiiys in Kihlaro — all sionifyinjr O'llca's 
town. Wo liavo iho finnily iKnno wi(h i))(ic in 
IJallynuKuio in Tipporaiy, and Jhdlymagco near 
Bangor in Down : so also in Kilmakeo the name 
of two places in tiio parishes of Dorryaghy and 
Templcpatrick in Antrim, the church of Hugh's 

Tlic personal name Acdhagdn (little Acdh) is 
formed by adding the diminiitive^a;? with a vowel 
sound before it (pp. 32 and 3) ; and this again 
gives origin to the family name Mac-Aedhagain 
or Mac Egau, now generally Egan, descended and 
named from Aedhagdn, a chieftain who lived in 
the eleventh century. The Mac Egans were long 
celebrated for learning, and one branch of them, 
who were hereditary brehons to the M'Carthy 
More, resided at P)a.lly-Mac-l*]gan on the Sliaiinon, 
in th(K[)arlHh ol' Loiilia. in 'r'i[)pei(i)y, TIum'o nrc^ 
several oilier names formed from this name Acdh. 
See p. 30, .s/t/n-a. 

Eoghan [Owen] means, according to Cormac's 
Glossary, well born. This name is now very com- 
mon in Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, in the 
phonetic form Owen ; but it is also often changed 
to Eugene, which is the corresponding- Greek name 
having the same meaning. The family name 
Mac-Owtni is derived from it, but it is more often 
written M'Keon and Keon (c attracted : p. 143). 
It generally has the forin Owen in local names, as 
in Dunowen in Cork and Galway, called in the old 
records Dun-Eogliain, Owen's fort ; Ballyowen, a 
pretty common townland name, Owen's town ; 
Kilballyowcn in Clare, Limerick and Wicklow, 
the church of Owen's townland, Derryowen, an 

154 Irish Personal and Family Nainos. [chap. viii. 

old castle in tho parisli of Kilkccdy in Claio, giving 
namo to a townlaud, is called Ly the Four Masters, 
Doire-Eoyhain, Owen's oak-wood. 

Art is an ancient Celtic word "wLicli, according 
to Cormac's Glossary, lias three meanings: — "A 
stone," " God," and " noble." As a ])ersonal 
name it was, I snppose, originally meant to convoy 
the idea of hardness, bravery, and power of endur- 
ance in battle. It was much used in Ireland, and 
that from a very early time, several of oui' ancient 
kings having borne the name ; and it was equally 
common in Wales in the form of Ai'thur — a name 
which \n\\ remind every reader of the great Welsh 
mytliical hcuo, with his kiiiglilHoL" the loiiiid (a))le. 
Asa personal name it is still used in Jreland, but 
is MOW always made Arthur ; and as a family iiiimc 
it exists in O'hAirt or O'Hart, now more generally 
Hart ; and also in Mac Art and Mac Aithur. 

Local names that end in the syllable art, may 
be considered as commemorating persons of this 
name, unless when it is obviously connected with 
preceding letters, as in scart, mart, yart, &c. It 
is seen in Carrigart, Art's or Arthur's rock, a vil- 
lage in Donegal; and in Drmnart in Armagh, 
Art's ridge. Some person named Mac Art 
gave name to the great fortress on the top of Cave 
Hill near Belfast, well known as Mac Art's fort ; 
and we have Ballymagart in Down, and Ballyma- 
cart in Waterford, Mac Art's town. Artayan is 
a diminutive of Art, from which we have the 
family name O'Hai'tigan or Hartigan, still tobe 
met with in somoof the southern counties. Dun- 
lang O'Uartagan was the name of one of the ])al- 
cassian heroes slain at the battle of Clontarf. 

Acnyus is a name which has been in use in 
Ireland from the earliest period. One of the most 
celebrated of our mythical characters was the great 

CHAP. VIII.] Irish Personal and Family Names. 155 

Dedannan enchanter, Aengiis an Bhrogha, i. e. 
Aengiis of Bruga on the Boyne ; and Aengus 
was the name of one of the three brothers — sons 
of Ere — who led a colony to Scotland in the year 
500, ;nid (onnded the 8cot(ish monarchy. Front 
that period it becnnie eqnally common in Scotland; 
and in the nsual anglicised form, Angus, it will be 
recognised as the name of one of the leading cha- 
racters in Macbeth. In Ireland it is still in use 
as a personal name, but nearly always changed to 

The name is compounded of acu, one, and gus, 
strength or valour ; and it is to be interpreted as 
mciniing n unity or coiu-entration of strength. 
One of its genitive forms is Acngnm [Eanusa], 
which :i])poars in the family names Mac Aenghvm 
and O'/iAeiiij/iNssa, or Magennis and O'Hcnnessy 
or Ilennessy. Some members of the latter family 
gave name to Ballyhenncssy in Clare, Cork, and 
Kerry, (he iown of OMIennossy. Another geni- 
tive form is AnujIniiK, which is popularly pro- 
nounced Enccce ; and this is represented in 
KillyntHre nenr IMngherafolt in ])(Miy, and in 
JJerryneece in Fermanagh, both signifying Aen- 
gus's wood ; and with a slight change in the sound, 
in Taghnoose in the parish of Kilkeevin. in Ros- 
common, Aengus' s house. 

Another name containing the root gus is Fergus 
which signifies manly strength, ivovifear, a man; 
and it is equally ancient Avith the preceding. It 
assumes various forms in local names. Sometimes 
the name remains rmchanged, as in Kilfergus in 
the parish of Loghillin Limerick, Fergus's wood; 
more often g disappears hy aspiration, as we see in 
Tulfarris on the river Lilfey near PoUaphuca 
waterfall, the hill {luJach) of Fergus. StiU more 
frequently the word loses the initiaiy by aspii-a- 

150 Irish Personal ancf Family Names. [(;iiap. viii. 

tion, as in Ballynrgus in ImBliowcn, tlio town of 
Fergus ; and often both the/ and the y drop out, 
as Ave see in Attyreosh in the parish of Oughaval 
in Mayo, Ait-tiijhe-Fheargltuis, the site [ait) of 
Fergus's house. 

Great lunnbers of Irish personal names were 
taken from tlie names of auiuials ; tlie individuals 
being supposed to possess in an eminent degree 
the characteristic qualities of the animals they 
were named after. Sometimes these names were 
taken without any change, and applied to men 
or women ; but more often they had diminutives 
or other terminations, or they were compounded 
with other words. We have in this way bor- 
rowed cu, a hound, from which numerous names 
ai'(i derived ; coluiti, a dove, whence Columba and 
Columkille, and the diminutive Colaiiian or Vol- 
man (Latinised Colnmbamis) from which again 
are the present family names Oolman and Cole- 
man ; lac'd, a call: ; cuach, a cuckoo ; os, a fawn; 
fael, a wolf, whence Faeldn (little wolf), and the 
family name O'Faeldin, now Thelan {aid AVhelan; 
donnach, a fox ; broe, a badger, and the diminu- 
tive hrocdn, whence the family name O'Brogan 
or Ih'ogan ; en, a bird ; and a host of others. 

Cuun, probably a diminutive of cu, is very 
usual as a man's name; there were several saints 
named Cuan, from whose churches the townlands 
and parishes now called Kilquane and Kilquain 
were so named. The genitive of cu is con, which 
is the form usually found in family and local 
luunes. Ca forms the beginning of a great many 
names ; such as Cu-mara, hound of the sea, given 
first, I suppose, to a slcilful sailor or a bold leader 
of maritime expeditions. From a chieftain of 
this name, who died in 1014, and who was 23rd 
in descent from Olioll Olum king of Munster, de- 

CHAP. VIII.] Irish Personat and Family Names. 157 

scend the family of Mac Comnara now Macnamara. 
There is a parish in INEayo near the village of 
Swineford, called KilcondufE, taking its name 
from an old chiirch wliich the Four Masters call 
CiJhCIioiuhiihh, iho church of CudufE (hlack 
hound), a person of whom 1 know nothing more. 

Ciimhaighe [Cooey] is another personal name, 
which was formerly pretty common : — magh, a 
plain — hound of the plain. This name is often 
anglicised Quintin. In the parish of Ardquin in 
the Ards in Down, there is a lake called Lough 
Cowey : near tlio shore of Tara hay in tho same 
ncMghhourhood, is on old disused cemetery called 
Tciii|)l(M'()\v('y ; and Ihei-o are also (iiii7diu ensile, 
(iuintin hay, and J5allyquiutin townland, AvhicJi 
gives name to tlio extreme southern point of tlie 
Ards. All these, according to local tradition, 
received their names from a saint CumhaigliG or 
Quintin, of whom however we know nothing fur- 
ther. (Tvceves: Ecc. Ant., p. 25.) 

in the townland of 15allykinle(.fragh, parish of 
Kilfian, Mayo, tAvo miles south of the village of 
Uallycastle, there was in old times a fort called 
Lioslctreach, the fort of the letter or wet hill-side. 
This fort was the residence of a fanrily of the Hy 
Fiachrach called Mao Conletreack, who were de- 
scended and named from Culetreach (i. e. Cu of 
Lios-letreach), a chieftain who was fifth in descent 
from Awley, brother of Dathi, king of Ireland, 
and wlio iiiust tlierefore liavo lived ahou(; ilie 
middle of tho sixth century. The to^vnland of 
linllykinlettragh took its name from the family. 
]5esides these, we have Dallyconboy in Roscom- 
mon, Baile-mhic-Chonhuidlie (see p. 143), i. e. the 
(ownlaud of INlac Cojihoy, a family named from 
an anceslor, CiihiiidJii', yellow hound ; and many 
others mioht he enumerated. 

158 IrisK Personal and Famili/ Names, [chap, viii- 

Bnut is a raven, and it was formerly a favourite 
name for men. Few personal names can show a 
longer history than this. It was common in Ire- 
land from the earliest times ; and it was also used 
amongst the Gauls, for I look upon it as quitt; 
certain that it is identical with Brennus, the name 
of the great Celtic leader who sacked Home in the 
fourth century before Christ. 

Among many Avho bore the name in Ireland, 
the most celebrated was Bmnduhh (black raven), 
king of Leiuster, who defeated and slew Hugh 
Ainmire, king of Ireland, at the battle of Dun- 
bolg, in the year a.T) 598. He had his residence 
at llathbran, Bran's fort, near Bnltinglass in 
Wicklow. Another Branduhh gave name to Uath- 
fran [h aspirated to ./'), two miles from Killala in 
]\Iayo, well known for its abbey, Avhii;hMii(! l*'iibis 
writes Rath-Brandiiibh. There is a sand-bank ford 
across the mouth of the river, just under the abbey, 
which is now called the Farset of Bathfran (see 
Farset in 1st Yol.) ; but it was anciently called 
Fearsad-Tresi ; and according to a story in the 
Dinnseanchus, it was so named from Tresl, the wife 
of Awley, brother of king 1 )athi, who was drowned 
in it. (Ily F. 224.) Tlicre is also a Bathbr;iu in 
IMcath ; and wo have Dunbriu (Bran's fortress) in 
Queen's County, near Athy. 

From Bran, son of Maebnordha (king of Lein- 
ster, slain in the battle of Clontarf), are descended 
the family of O'Brain, who now generally call 
themselves O 'Byrne, or more generally Byrne, 
sometimes more correctly O'Brin, and occasionally 
Burn, Byrnes, Burns, 13riu, and sometimes even 

This name, Bran, still exists in many local 
names, the genitive being usually made hrin, or 
vrin ; as for example, Rossbrin near Skull in Cork, 

CHAP. IX.] Nicknames, 159 

where there is a ruin of one of O'Mahony's 
castlcR, Bran's ross or peninsula. Clonbrin in 
King's County, and Clonbrin in Longford, Bran's 
meadow ; Tullowbrin in Kilkenny, Bran's hill ; 
Berry vrin in Kerry, Bran's oak-wood. 

From ech, a horse (l^at. rquxs) comes Erhcfldn, 
a man's name meaning litem llj^ little horse. From 
an ancestor of this name descended the family of 
Mac Echcgain or Mageoghegan, now more gene- 
rally Geoghegan and Gahagan {g attracted : see 
p. 143). Eochaidh [Ohy], signifies a horseman; 
and from tliis ngaiii is formed <ho rnmily name 
3[ar Eochadha [Mac-oha] or Mac Kcogh, now 
usually contracted to Keogh or Kehoc; but in 
some places it is made M'Goey. Eochaidh was 
formerly exceedingly common as a personal name. 
From a chieftain named Eochaidli Cohha, who 
flourished in the third century, a tribe descended 
called Uibh-Eachach [Ivahagli], Eocliaidh's de- 
scendants, who possessed a large territory in 
lllsler, now represented in name l>y the barony of 
iveagh in Down. Tliero was nnotlier iiu-ritorj'^ of 
the same naTuo in the south-west, ol' tlie county 
Cork which was so called from a tribe descended 
from Eochaidh, seventh in descent from Olioll 
Oluin, king of Munster j^n the second century. 



No ])eople in the world arc, T believe so given to 
nicknames as the Irish, unless perhaps the Scotch. 
Among t]ie niral popidation in many parts of the 
country, almost every third man is known by some 
name besides his ordinary surname and Christian 

IfiC? IT'i'tJi names. [chap. ix. 

name. Sometimes these epithets are licreditary, 
and commemorate some family peculiarity or tra- 
dition ; but more often they describe a personal 
characteristic of the individual. Sometimes they 
carry reproach, and are not nsed except to insult ; 
but very often they are qiiito iuofl'ensive, and are 
accepted as a matter of (H)urs(^ and with perfect 
goo(l humour. 

In early life I knew a Yillaoe Avhero more than 
half the people were familiarly known by nick- 
names, which were always used, the proper names 
being hardly ever mentioned. One man, on ac- 
count of his powers of endurance in faction fights, 
was calhnl Gaddcraijli, Avhich b'tovully nu'ans a 
tougli fellow liko a (jad or withe (allix racli, p. 7) ; 
another was never called by any name l)ut C/oos- 
darrag, red-ears (which is indeed a historical nic-k- 
name, for we find it stated in O'Clery's Calendar, 
that St. Greallan, who is commemorated in it, was 
the grandson of a man named Cairbrc-eluais-derg) ; 
a third was Phil-a'-gaddy, or Phil (the son) of the 
thief ; a fourth 8haun-na-hointrce, John (the son) 
of the widow ; and one man, who was a notorious 
schemer, was universally called, by way of derision, 
or "joer antiphmsiin," TJiomaus-cC -sagart, Tom the 
priest. So generally had some of these been ac- 
cepted, and so completely had they sujDerseded 
the proper names, that to this day I remember 
those people well by their nicknames, though in 
many cases I have no idea — and never had — of 
what the real names wexo. 

On this subject Sii- lleinyrierH Avrot.o as follows 
in the year 1082, in his dcsiniption of the couuly 
Westmeath : — " They take much liberty, and seem 
to do it with delight, in giving of nicknames ; if 
a man have any imperfection or evil habit he is 
sure to hear of it in the nickname. Thus, if he 

CHAP. IX.] xficknamcs. 10 1 

be blind, lame, squint-eyed, gray-ej'^ed, be a stam- 
merer in speech, left-handed, to be sure he shall 
have one of these added to his name ; so also from 
the colour of his hair, as black, red, yellow, brown, 
&c. ; and from his age, as young, old ; or from 
wliiit ho add ids himself to, or much delights in, 
as in draining, building, fencing, and the like; so 
that no man v, hatever can escape a nickname who 
lives among them, or converses with them ; and 
sometimes so libidinous are they in this kind of 
raillery, they will give nicknames ^^cr anfip/irast))}, 
or contrariety of speech. Thus a man of excellent 
parts, and beloved of all men, shall be called grana, 
that is, naughty or fit to be complained of (literally 
ugly or hateful) ; if a man have a beautiful 
countenance or lovely eyes, they will call him 
cuicgh, thtii is, squint-eyed {caccli : see next page); 
if a great, housekeejjer he shall be called acherisagh, 
that is, greedy {ocrasach, hungry or greedy)." 
(Quoted by O'Donovan in O'Dugan : p. [19]). 

IJiit all this is obviously only a remnant of what 
was ancienlly the general custom. For originally, 
as I have already observed, personal names were 
descriptive ; and the peoj)lo who now designate a 
man by a nickname, do exactly as their ancestors 
did thousands of years ago, when they fixed on a 
nameby which a person was to beaf terwards known. 
The propensity of the Irish and Scotch for nick- 
names may, I think, be explained by the fact, that 
the tradition of personal names being significant 
and descriptive, still remains fresh on the minds 
of the people ; and that many of the names them- 
selves retained their significance — that is, they 
were living, intelligible Avords — as long as the 
people continued to speak the Celtic language. 

Our annals and histories of both I'agan and 
Christian times, all'oid uumGrous examples of the 
vol,. II 12 

102 Nirlnamcs. [chap. IX. 

pievalencc of iliis cusloia in remote ages. Some 
had their proper names altogether changed to 
others descriptive of some personal peculiarity 
(see p. 130) ; while others retained their original 
names, bnt had a descriptive epithet appended, like 
Ciii)iiin Fada, or Cuhnin the tall ; Finan Lohhar, 
or Finan the leper, &o. And of nicknames, ^' per 
(iitfiphirisiiii or contrariety of speech," I will content 
myself with the mention of one, viz., Aedh oi 
Hugh O'Neill, a celehi-ated chieftain who died in 
1230, and Avho, on account of his incessant activity 
in o])posing the English, was nicknamed Aedli- 
ToiulcciHc, a sobriquet which would not bear literaS 
translalion, but which may bo rendered in decent 
English Hugh Jjazybody. 

I'tnsons are often commemorated in local names 
by (heir iiicliiiaiiuis. One w ho wascilherpurbbiid 
or squint-eyed, or who had abogethcr lost one eye, 
was usuall}'^ called cacch ; which when it is angli- 
cised is commonly represented by Ihe syllable hee. 
Aghakee in the parish of Ci-osserlough in Cavan, 
represents the Irish Ath-a^-chacic/i, the ford of the 
purblind fellow. Killakeo, a well known place at 
the base of the mountains soutli of Dublin, derived 
its name in a similar way, the Irish word being 
Coill-a'-cluicic/i, the blind-man's Avood. 

The word d«/l is \isually a])plied to a person 
altogether blind ; but it is to be observed that the 
distinction here made between w^r/^ and daU, is not 
always observed. There is a place near the town 
li Eoscommon called Tiallindall, whicli is called in 
li'ish li((ih'-(nt-d((ill, tlie town of tlie blind man. 
'I'he southern pronunciation (dowl) is exhibit(>d in 
iDUuexion with an ccli])sis, in Lisiumowl near 
Oastlomaine in Kerry, which exactly rei3resents 
the sound of the Irish Lios-na-ndall, the fort of 
the blind men. The genitive plural with the 

article and with the eclipse omitted in anglicisation, 
is exhibited in TiilljTiadall in Tyrone and Fer- 
managh, the tiilach or hill of the blind men. 

If the blind have been commemorated, we have 
also tlic lame and the halt. A cripple of any kind 
is designated by the word bacach (from bac, to 
baulk or halt), but the word is generally imder- 
stood to mean a lame man ; and from whatever 
cause it may have arisen, this term is frequently 
reproduced in local names. Ascrijiples verj-^ often 
take up begging as a means of liveliliood, a bamrh 
is understood in many parts of Ireland to mean a 
beggar. There is a townland near the city of 
Dcrry called Termonbacca, iho.tcnnon or sanctuary 
of the cripple. A different form of the word is 
seen in Knockavocka near Ferns in Wexford, the 
cripple's liill [cnoc-a' -hhacaigh) , in which the b is 
aspirated to v. With the b eclipsed hjm we have 
Ballynamockagh \\G[\rJ^sl\\\\n?^\oe,Baile-na-mbacach , 
tlio townlaud of the ciipph^s or beggars. 

There is a townland conlaiiiing tlu^ ruins of a 
ooM]o in <he parish of Killaha in the north of 
Kerry, called l?allyinaca(piini ; and Avhoevcr the 
man may have been that is commemorated in the 
name, he himself got a nickname on account of 
some deformity in his father. The Four Masters 
mention the castle at 1577, and they call it l]aile- 
mhic-an-chaim, the town of the son of the crooked 
fellow ; but Avhether it was a stooped back, a 
crooked leg, or a twisf.ed eye, that earned the 
epithet cam for the father, it is now impossible to 

An amadcin is a fool or simpleton ; but the word 
is often applied in derision as a mere nickname, to 
one who is not exactly a downriglit idiot, but who 
luis tlie cliaracter of being a foolish, brainless, or 
spoony fellow ; and this upplicatioin is very com- 

1(54 Nichnamcs. [ciiAi*. ix. 

in»)U at llio prcsout day In most pints ol li\l.iiul, 
even where the Irish kiiiguage has been long dis- 
nsed. Fellows of this kind are often commemor- 
ated in local names ; and the forms the word 
assumes will bo seen in Ardamadano (accented on 
am) near Blarney in Cork, the fool's height; in 
Tirom'edan near Ball^'hay in ]\lonaghan, tlic land 
of the fool ; in Trinam'adan near the vilhigo of 
Gortin in Tyrone {triaii, a third part or division of 
land) ; and in Knockanam'adane, near Sneem in 
Kerry, the amadan's hill (see p. 9). 

A bodach is a clown, a surly, churlish, uncivil 
fellow ; and this opprobrious term is still constantly 
heard in various i)arts of the country. Some such 
ill-conditioned person nnist have lived at, or owned, 
Knockawuddy near tlio village of Clariubridge in 
(jialway, and (heHaniemay l)o saidol' Knockuvuihlig 
in the parish of Olonmult in Cork, both anglicised 
from Cnoc-a' -hhodaigh, the hill of the clown or 
churl. ])iIonavoddagli in the parish of Ballyna- 
slanoy in AVexford, signifies the clown's bog. 
Clownstown, the name of a place near ]\lullingar 
in AVestmeath, is merely a translation of Bally- 
namuddagh [Baile-na-inhodacli, the town of the 
clowns), which is itself a very common townland 
name. The b in this word (which occurs very 
often in local names) is seldom preserved intact ; 
it is almost ahvays aspirated, as in the first two 
names just quoted ; or eclipsed, as in Ilathna- 
muddagh near the western shore of Lough Ennell 
in Westmeath, llath-na-mbodacJi, the fort of the 

The word cdhog is very much used in different 
parts of Ireland, even where Irish has disappeared, 
to denote a clownish, boorish, ill-mannered fellow. 
The Four Masters have preserved one old name 
containing this word, viz., Ard-na-gcabog, the 

CHAP, IX.] :f^ic7,- names. 165 

clowns' lieiglit, wliich is still applied to a hiU at 
tho mouth of the Fergus iu Clare, a little south 
of the village of Clare ; and it also appears in 
J'allynagahog iu Antrim, the town of the 

Oihcr ways of dcsIgiKifing individuals by nick- 
names will be seen in JMeenirroy in the parish of 
Couwal in Donegal, Avhich is llm-an-f/iiy-ruaid/i, 
the mountain-meadow of the red-haired man ; a 
name exactly like Fallinerlea near Cushendun in 
Antrim, the fa//, i. e. the hedge or enclosure, of 
<hc grey man {/ialJi, grey) ; also in Clooiicrim near 
the village of IJalUidough in Wcstmcath, the 
nuvidow of the bent or stooped man [cram). Ciot 
(kith) signilies the left hand, from whicli again 
come Ciotach and Ciotog [kittha, kitthoge] two 
words meaning left-handed. A celebrated chief 
of \\xe MacDonnells was called Colkitto, i.e. Col/a- 
Ciotach or Colla the left-handed, because (accord- 
to tradition) he could use his sword in battle with 
tlie left liiind as well as witli the right. There is 
a place near the southern shore of Lough Graney 
in Clare, called Dcnynagittagh, exactly represent- 
ing the sound of the Gaelic form Doire-na-gciotach, 
the derry or oak-wood of the left-handed men. 

In their passion for nicknames the people did 
not stop at human beings ; for we find that they 
also vented it on inanimate objects ; and townlands 
even still retain in their names traces of this strange 
custom. Sipag [fptiwg] is a ridiculous name for 
a club foot, or a long ugly foot ; and the word is 
a])plied in the anglicised form Spaug, to a town- 
bind near Ennistymon in Clare, to express probably 
some queer elongation of shape. It must have 
been in some derisive or ridiculous sense that the 
name of Coogyulla, i. e. Cuigc-Uladh, "the pro- 
vince of Ulster," was given to a towidand near 

166 Nichiamcs. [chap, ix 

Lisdoonvarna in Olavo ; but why exactly ilio ])lac,o 
was HO called 1 liavo not tho IcaHt idea. It is curioua 
that there is another townland of this same name 
about three miles south-east of Templemore, in 
Tipperary, only slightly varied to the form Coog- 
ullu. Lyneen, " little I.einster," is the name of 
a place in the parish of Moydow in Longford 
{Laiyhen — pron. Lycn, Leinster) ; but I suppose 
this is merely a fancy name. 

Near the village of Inistioge in Kilkenny there 
is a townland called Bally cocksoost. The tradition 
of the neighbourhood is, that in former days the 
people of this townland were very unskilful 
threshers compared with their neighbours ; in 
consequence of which the contemptuous name of 
Ballycocksoost was given to it. But this name 
will not bear translation into plain hjnglish,Ko tlu; 
reader must be content with knowing that suitit is 
a flail, and that the whole name signifies the town 
of the dii'ty flail. A nickname of the same oppro- 
brious character (containing the same root, vac, 
cognate with Lat. caco) is Cackanodc, applied to a 
townland in tho parisli ol" Cloudroliid, near 
^Macroom in Cork, to iutinialo the (ixtreme IcKhiess 
of the land : — Cac-an-fhd'ul, tho dirty part of tho 
fodcy sod, or soil ; and we have Cockow in the 
parish of Knockane in Kerry, dirty river. 

There is a little street in the Liberties of Dublin 
called Mullinahack. The first part of this name 
(■mul/eii) ^\i\\ be recognised as the Irish word for a 
mill ; and Mr. Gilbert (Hist. Dub. L, 351), has 
traced tho existence of a mill there as early as tho 
close of the twelfth century, i. e. before the city 
had extended quite so far. It is probable that in 
the good old times when the present name was 
invented, the miU had fallen into ruin ; and I will 
merely give the Irish name — Muilenn-a' -chaca — 

CHAP. X.] English Personal and Family Names. 167 

leaving the reader to translate it for himself, and 
to conjecture why such a name shoidd be given to 
an old mill. 



After the Anglo-Norman invasion in 1172, Eng- 
lish settlers began to arrive and make their home 
in Ireland. They were for a long time almost 
confined to Avliat was called the Pale, a small por- 
tion of the eastern coast, but gradually they ven- 
tured into various oilier })arts of tlie country ; and 
after the plantations there were few districts ol" 
Ireland, wliere families, either English or of Eng- 
lish descent, were not to bo found A large num- 
ber of the places where they settled changed their 
old names, and took the names of the new pro- 
prietors ; and now our topographical nomenclatun' 
sbows a considerable mixture of Ihiglish personal 
and family names. 

We have also Danish names, but they are so 
extremely few that I do not think it necessary lo 
devote a separate chapter to them: I will incorpo- 
rate in the present chapter those I shall have to 

AVhen the Irish speaking people came to use or 
to adopt English or Danish names, they made 
various changes in tliem iji accordance with the 
phonetic laws of iheir own language. It wouhl 
be easy to classify these alterations minutely if the 
subject were ol' any great imj)ortance ; but a state- of a few of the causes of change will be sulli- 
cient here. 

1. The Irish language docs not admit to such 
an ext(Mit as the Teulouic lnngii!ig(>s, ol' \\\v. union 

108 EmjUsh Personal and Fuinily JSmneti. [ciiai*. x. 

of two or more consonants in pronunciution, with- 
out tlie intervention of a vowel sound. Where 
such combinations occurred in an English or 
Danish name, the Irish often omitted some of the 
consonants ; or if they were committed to writing 
by Irish scribes, the letters were inserted, but un- 
der asjjiration, which indicated their partial or 
total omission in pronunciation. Thus the Danish 
name Godfrey, which was occasionally adopted 
into Irish families, is written by the Four Masters 
Gothfraith, which would indicate the suppression 
in pronunciation of the d (or of th which replaces 
it in the Irish form) : Gothfruith, pronounced 
Goffnj. But in actual use by speakers, the ./'was 
also generally aspirated and consequently omitted ; 
and the name is exhibited so curtailed in Derry- 
gorry in Monaghan (near the village of Augh- 
nacloy), Gorry's or Godfrey's oak-wood; and in 
Mullatigorry in the parish of Tedavnet, same 
county, the hill-summit {rmilla) of Godfrey's house. 
So also Redmond is generally reduced to the sound 
Rayman ; as in Kilcreman on the borders of 
King's County and Tipporary, near Itoscrea, in 
which the o is a remnant of tunc (see p. 143), the 
name when fully written hcnv^CoiU-viliic-llonoinn 
[Killickromon], the wood of the son of lledmond. 
II. There is no soimd in Irish like that of the 
soft g in English {g in gem) ; and when this occurs 
in an English name, it is always replaced in Irish 
by slender s, M'hich is equal in sound to English 
sh. Thus George is always made Shoresha (two 
syllables'^ in Irish. This rule comes very fre- 
quently into operation, and I will give several ex- 
amples. The Irish form of Geoffrey illustrates 
both this principle and the last. The Four Mas- 
ters write it ISeffvaiyh (Sheffry) ; but in actual use 

ciJAP. X.] English Personal and Family Names. 169 

the / is always aspirated and omitted, reducing 
the name to Sherry or Sheara. 

A little to the west of Kinsale in Cork is the 
bay and marine village of Conrtmacsherry, the 
court of Mac Sherry or Geoffrey's son. The per- 
son who built his residence or "court" here, and 
gave the place its name, was an EngKshman 
called Hodnet, who came from Shropshire ; but 
according to Smith (Hist, of Cork, II., 3), "The 
family degenerating into the Irish customs, assumed 
the name of Mac Sherry." The original Mac Sherry 
is R<ill vividly remembered in the traditions of the 
nciglibourliood. Other forms of this name are 
seen inllaheeushoaranear liathdownoyin Queen's 
County, Geoll'rey's little fort ; and in Maghera- 
shaghry in the parish of Currin in Monaghan 
(Maghera, a field or plain), in which the /is re- 
placed by the Irish aspirated c. In many cases 
the genitive is made Shearoon or Sherron ; as in 
Knockslicaroon near Borrisoleigh in Tippcrary, 
GoolTrey's hill ; BallymacsherroninErrisiuMayo, 
the town of Geoffrey's son. 

John is generally made Shaun or Shane in collo- 
quial Irish ; as in Glenshane near Dungiveu, 
John's glen ; BalljTnacshaneboy in Limerick, be- 
tween Ardpatrick and Charleville, the town of the 
son of yellow John. In BaUyshonock, a name 
found in several counties, the last syllable, ock, 
represents the Irish 6g, young or little (see p. 29) ; 
and the whole means young John's town. Jordan 
is usually changed to Shurdane, as in Ballyshur- 
dane near Kildorrery in Cork, Jordan's town ; but 
in the anglicised forms thej is sometimes restored, 
which is seen in Cloughjordan, the name of a 
village in Tipperary, Jordan's stone castle ; and in 
Clonjoidmi in Wexford, Jordan's nu^adow. T\\o 
name Jcnniue:3 is in Irish Mac Shonccn ; and 

170 EiujUsli Personal and Faniilij Names, [chap. x. 

lience we have Ballyiiiaeshoneen, aiulwilliout (he 
mac, Ballysliouocn, which arc the nauieaof sevoial 
phices, siguifying Jenning's town. 

On a lovely site near the junction of the little 
river Arrigle with the Nore nc;ir ^'honiaslown in 
Kilkenny, Donogh O'Donuhoo founded a Cistercian 
nbbciy in 1180 — Jerpoint ahbey, now one of the 
most beautil'iilruinsiM Irelaiul. Theabbey tookihe 
name of the site, which is called in Irish tSeiripuin, 
and in old documents Seripont, Jeripont, &.c. 
The name means Jerry's or Jeremiah's bridge. 

III. The Irish does not possess the English 
sound of ch soft (as in cJiaJf) ; and when this 
sound occurred in an English name, it was repre- 
sented by t followed by slender s in Irish, which 
is equal to Wi in English ; thus Castletownroche 
in Oork is called in the IJook oL' Eermoy Juiilc- 
Caiskain-an-Iioitsi(jh, the town of Iloche's castle, of 
which the present name is a translation ; and it 
was so called because it was the chief residence of 
the Hoche family, where they kept a great house 
of hospitality in which scholars, poets, ollaves, 
shanaghies, &c., wpr'j received ancl treated like 

This is is a very correct rc})resent alien of the 
English 6'A; but in the spoken language it was 
almost always changed by metathesis to st or s/it, 
as we see in Clogharoasty near Ijoughrea in Gal- 
way, Iloche's stone castle ; and in Bidlyristeen 
near Bonmahon in Waterford, and Ballyrishteen 
near Dingle in Kerry, the town of liishteen or 
little Bichard. 

IV. If an English name presented a combina- 
tion of sounds not xisual in the Irish language, 
the Irish speakers sometimes got over the diih- 
culty by omitting altogether a portion of the 
name. Of this the name David affords a good 

CHAP. X.J Em, tish Personal and Family Names. 171 

illustration, for it is universally pronounced Dau. 
Ballydaw, the name of some places in Cork, Kil- 
kenny, and Wexford, signifies the town of David ; 
but this name is still more common in the restored 
form Ballydavid ; and we find it near Hollywood 
in Down as IJallydavy. >Somoof theso may, how- 
ever, be derived from the old Irish name DatJii ; 
as in case of Ballydavis near Maryborough in 
(Queen's County, Avhich the Four Masters write 
liaile-Daithi. William is always made Lceam ; and 
even this is generall}'^ further contracted in local 
naTues, as in Dcrrylcmoge near Mountmellick in 
(iuocn's County, the oak-wood of young William. 
Isabel is pronounced in Irish Shtbbcal ; and this 
in an anglicised form gives name to Sybil Ilead 
north-west of Dingle in Kerry. 

The lady who gave name to this place was Isabel 
Ferriter, about whom the peasantry in the neigh- 
bourhood of Dingle still tell many legends. Ac- 
cording to the prevailing tradition, her father was 
a Gal way chief named Ijynch. He wished her to 
marry an Ulster chieftain; but she loved the 
young lord of Ferriter's castle ; and on the very 
day when she was to give her hand to the northern 
sidtor, she secretly married Ferriter, and fled with 
him to his stronghold in Kerry. A deadly feud 
followed ; the castle was besieged by the vmited 
forces of the old chief and the disappointed suitor ; 
and dreading that his bride might fall into the 
hands of his rival if the castle were taken, Ferriter 
hid her on the evening before the assault, in a cave 
ojjening on the sea, just under the head, whicli 
communicated with the castle by a secret under- 
ground passage. 

Early next morning he jnade an rmexpected 
sally from the castle ; ihe besieging forces, taken 
by surprise, wore routed, and the Ulster chief 
slain ; and ihe father and the young lord were 

172 ErifjlUh Personal and Famihj Names, [cii a w x. 

reconciled on the field of battle, lint meantime a 
t'eaiful Htorm liud raged during the niglit ; and 
when the husband and the father hastened to the 
cave, they found that the sea had swept througli 
it, and no trace ol' ])Oor Isabel was over discovered 
from that day to this. 

V. In Irish the article is occasionally used be- 
fore a |)roi)er name, asiu KiMeenadeema, the name 
of a parish in Galway, Avhich is locally understood 
to mean the little church (Killeen) of St. Dimma : 
here the middle a is the article. But this occurs 
very seldom, and so far as I am aware, only in the 
spoken language. This form of expression, how- 
ever, is very usual where English personal names 
are concerned. Many examples of this ])eculiarity 
miglit be cited, but the following will be suffi- 
cient. Near Ilathkealo in Limerick, there is a 
place called Cloghauarold, a name which is di- 
vided in this way, Clogh-an-Arohl, li (orally the 
stone castle of the Harold, i. e. Harold's castle. 

In Ballinrichard near Kinsale in Cork, the n 
represents the article, and the name means Rich- 
ard's town; and in like manner in Ballinuntynoar 
Killenaule in Tipperary, the last part of which 
ro])resents the old i\nglo-Norman name Kunt, the 
i'' being aspirated and omitted according to gram- 
matical rule : the whole name means Funt's town. 
Knockaunabroona near the village of Mayo, the 
little hill of (a man named) Brown. 

We know that in local names, Irish words 
often sinudate English fonns (see 1st Vol., Part 
I., c. 11.) ; and in like manmu- many of the per- 
sonal and family names that appear in our local 
nomenclature, though they appear to be English, 
are in reality Irish. Numerous examples of this 
might be given, but I will content myself with 
two. There is a towuland in the parish of Tem- 

CH Ar. X . i English Personal and Family Names. 173 

pleslianbo in Wexford, now called Bally bamilton. 
But ill ilic Down Survey it is written Eally- 
hunil)lety and (lie old pronunciation, Ballylio- 
nndty, is still rcnicnd)crod by tlie people ; which 
])hiiiily indicates ]iail<'-lIi-Tli()i))iiUai<j]i, \\\q iowii 
of O'ToinuKy, a family niinio still in use in sonu! 
parts of Ireland. 

Whoever has been in the neighbourhood of 
Kells in Meath, must ha^•c remarked the beautiful 
fertile Hill of Lloyd, a mile from the town, witb 
a tall pillar crowning its summit ; from wliicli also 
the townland in which it is situated is called the 
Commons of Lloyd. It is considered as a matter 
of course to have taken its name from a man or a 
family named IJoyd. But the Irish name Mullach- 
Aiti (Aiti's hill ?) — so the Four Masters write it 
— is in reality veiled under this more modern form. 
The old name is still reinembered in the neigh- 
bourhood, but mullach is generally shortened to 
wnl, as it is in nuniy other places, nudthe t of Aili 
is chjingcnl (o d (for i of nncicnt Irish is usually 
made d in the modern language) ; so that the 
present Irish name is Mitl-Aidi, whicli is pro- 
nounced as nearl^'^ as can be represented Mulloi/dff. 
This name was, according to the etymological fancy 
of those who anglicised it, divided in this way — 
Mul-Loyda — the / sound being attracted to the 
second part like the c of mac (see p. 143, stipra), 
and like the c of Lough Corrib (see this in Isl 
Vol.) ; and while mul was correctly intcrpreiivl 
" hill," the whole name was believed to mean the 
TTill of Lloyd. 

174 Articles of Manufccture. fciiAr. xl. 



In case of some of the articles mentioned in tin's 
cliapter, it is often hard to say cxaclly M'hy ihoy 
^a vo names to places. Sometimes no douht people 
found them in the earth when digging or ploughing 
deeply ; for we know that arrow heads and swords 
arc still often found in bat tle-liclds, butter in bogs, 
and various household articles in crannoges and 
raths. Sometimes also when a family who followed 
a part.i(!idar trade lived in one spot for any eun- 
siderable time, the place got a name derived from 
the things made Ihci'o. And there are otluM- ex- 
pliinalloMH wlii(5h will come to the surhiee as 1 go 
along-. AVhenever there is positive infoi-ination 
or good grounds for an oj^inion, I will offer an 
explanation ; otherwise I will leave the question 

As I have to deal in this book chiefly with names, 
I must remark, that of the innumerable articles 
connected with the past social life of the Irish 
people, I notice here those only that have helped 
to build xip our local nomenclature. 

Chariots and Cars. Our literature affords unques- 
tionable evidence that chariots were used in Ireland 
from the most remote ages. In the ancient his- 
torical tales in the Lehor na h Uidhre and the Book 
of Leinster, the great chiefs, such as Ciic/iul/iii, 
Co)i(ttl-CcariiacJt,JjOi'(i((irc-li(ta(lli(ich, &.c., are con- 
stantly described as going to battle in war-chariots, 
each driven by an ara or charioteer ; and at a 
nmch later period, in the great battle of Moyrath 
— A.D. 637 — Duhdiad the druid, while viewing the 
king's army, is struck with " the snorting and 

CHAT*. XT.] Arfictni of Manufaefiire. 176 

neighing of their caparisoned, bridle-taraecl steeds 
bounding nndor chariots, sxipporting and com- 
mandingthc battle around them in everj^ direction," 
^p. 103). We know fron\ the Jjives of tlie early 
Saints, that ]\itrick, lirigid, Colunikillo, Declan, 
&c., jouiiieyed in chariots in their missionary 
j)rogrcss througli tlie country. And as Cuchullin's 
charioteer, Locg, is celebrated in the ancient tales, 
so St. Patrick had a charioteer, Odhnin, who is 
ecpially well-known in ecclesiastical history. 

In the old romances there are several descriptions 
of Cuchullin's chariot, as well as of those belong- 
ing to other chiefs ; Avhich are so detailed as to 
all'ord us a very good idea of the construction of 
the vehicle. 

The chariot of Cuchullin is described in various 
places as having a frame made of wood ; a high 
wicker work body, Avith its sloping sides ornament- 
ed with tin ; two bright brazen (or brazen coloured) 
spoked wheels; a, silver-while ])ole, veined Avitli 
bi<ni/,e ; an arclu>d yok(% sometimes ol' a rich golden 
colour, sometimes silvery white. The war chariots 
are sometimes described as furnished with sharp 
spikes and scythe blades like those of the old 
Britons ; while in times of peace, kings, queens, 
and chieftains of high rank, rode in chariots 
luxuriously fitted up and ornamented with gold, 
silver and feathers.* 

The Irish word for a chariot is carpaf, which is 
obviously cognate with the I^atin carpcii/uni, or as 
some think, borrowed from it: the modern Irish 
form is airharl. We niay conclude Avith great 
probability, that some at least of the places Avhose 
names contain this word — and they are pretty 

* Sec the article on tlic Irish chariot, by J. O'Beinic Crowe, 
A.R„ Kilk. Arch. Jour., 1871-2, p. 41.3; sec also O'Curry, 
I.ort., n., 272. 276, 287; and I. (Sullivan's Introd.) cccclxxv. 

170 Articica of IWiunifiuinfi'. [ciixp. xi. 

numerous — wcro excrcisc-gvounds, wlun'c the 
young- warriors and cluiriotoers trained their steeiis 
and practised driving-. This was no doubt the case 
at Fan-na-carhad — the slope of the chariots — ^^a 
place at Tara, mentioned in the Diimseanchiis. 
Several other names containing this word are 
recorded in old Irish documents ; and it is very- 
easy to recognise it in its modcinised forms. 

The parish of Tull^'corbet in Monaghan took the 
first part of its name from a small hill ; tlie place 
is mentioned in O'Clery's Calendar at the 2()th 
January bytlie name of Ti(hich-carhoid, the hillock 
of the chariot. Keating, in the reign of Dermot 
the son of Fergus, mentions a certain place called 
Itcdnid-tri-earhail, the gap of the tlirce chariots, 
])ut the name is now obsolete. 'J'he Four Masters 
ici'ord thai, in MAM, O'Doiiiicll, })rin(;e of Tir- 
connell, crossed the Foyle, and ravaged a part of 
the territory of the O'Neills, from SliahJi- 
gcarhadach, or the mountain of the chariots, which 
is the hill now called ]\f ullagh Carbadagh in the 
parish of Upper Badoney in Tyrone, ten miles 
nearly cast of Strabane. 

There are many other names through the country 
formed from this word. The townland of Dun- 
carbit in the parish of Culfcightrin near Fair Head 
in Antrim, took its name from a fort — the fortress 
of the chariots ; and near the village of Malin in 
Inishowen, is a place called Drumcai-bit (dnm a 
ridge) . We have also Kilnagarbet near the village 
of Stradone in Cavan, and JMoneygorbet in the 
parish of Donaghmoyne in INfonaghan — ihe first 
signifying the M'ord (coi/l) and the second the bog 
(moin) of the chariots. Near the boundary between 
Tipperary and Kilkenny, two miles west of Callan, 
is a bridge now called Carabine Bridge ; but this 
name is a vile corruption, for the old Irisli name, 

JHAP. XI.] Articles of Manufacture, 177 

according to local authority, is Droiched-na-gcarhad, 
the bridge of the chariots ; so that its present 
name should be Chariot Bridge. In a neighbour- 
ing field were found not long ago great numbers 
of sword blades ; and this fact coupled with the 
name, would seem to point out a battle field. 

The Irish word carr is the same as the English 
car, but is not borrowed from it, for it is found in 
Irish manuscripts nearly a thousand years old — 
for example in Cormac's Glossary. Both are 
probably cognate with, not borrowed from, the 
Latin carrus. In Irish it was applied to vehicles 
either with or without wheels. It is curious that 
this word often enters into the names of fords ; 
originating sucli names as Afhnngar, Annagar, and 
Aghnagar ; all from the Irish Ath-na-gcarr, the 
ford of the cars. The probable explanation of 
each of these names is, that while there were 
several fords on the stream, all used by foot 
passengers, only one was level and smooth enough 
to be crossed by cars ; which therefore got flic 
name of the car- ford. Other features besides fords 
have been named from cars. Drumnagar is a 
townland near the village of Stradone in Cavan 
{drum, a hill-ridge) ; Lisnagar Demesne near 
Rathconnack in Cork, the fort of the cars. 

Cars without wheels, or slide cars, were also very 
commonly used both in ancient and modern times. 
They were employed until very lately in many 
parts of Ireland, especially in drawing peat down 
the steep sides ef mountains. I remember seeing 
fine in the year 1843 laden with diy turf, drawn 
down by a horse from near Ihe siuumit of one of 
the Galty mountains. The sides of Scefin moun- 
tain over Glenosheen in the county Limerick, still 
retain the tracks of the old diny-cars — as they woic; 
there Ciilled in English — which the grandratlicrs 
vol.. II. 13 

178 Articles of Manufacture. [chap. xi. 

of the pvosoiit genoration iisocl in Lringing homo 
tlieir fuel from the hill-tops ; and one particular 
pathway leading from the village up the hill is 
still called the iJray-road. 

I have already stated that the word can- was 
applied to these as well as to wheeled vehicles ; 
but they had another name specially appropriated 
to them, viz., slaed [slade], which I supi)0se is 
connected with the English word dide. Carrick- 
uaslate — the rock of the slide-cars — is the name 
of a place near Lilford in Donegal. There is a 
townland in Derry, near Ooleraine, called Drura- 
slade ; and auother in Mayo, near the sea side, 
opposite Achill Island, called Drumsleed ; both 
signifying the ridge of the slide-cars. 

Arroiva. One of the Irish names for a how was 
fidbac, a uative word signifying " wood-bend," 
from fid wood, and bao a bend. Another name 
was ho(jha [bo-a], which, however, is a Teutonic 
loan-word, the same as the English bow. The 
Irish used only the long-bow, the general length 
of whiuh, as wo lind it re})rusonted in the figures 
on Irish sculptures was from four to live feet. 
The bow-and-arrow is often mentioned in the old 
Irish accounts of battles : and numbers of arrow- 
heads both of flint and bronze are to be seen iu 
the National Museum in Dublin, 

Sai(jct, cognate with and little different from the 
Lat. myitta, is the usual Irish word for an arrow — 
modern Irish saighead [syed'\ ; but it is also used 
for a light dart of any kind, whether projected 
from a bow or not. It not unfrecpiontly forms 
part of names, usually in the anglicised forms 
Hi/the and seed ; it is very likely that places with 
such names were battle fields ; and that they were 
so called because flint arrow-heads were found in 
digging the ground, the relics of the tight. 

CHAP. XI.] Articles of Manufacture. 179 

There is a bridge over the river Funshion, a 
mile east of Kilbelieny, on the boundary between 
Limerick and Tipperary, called Ahnaseed ; and the 
name renders it almost certain that a fight took 
l)laoo at some rotnoto time at tho crossing of <he 
stream : — Alli-na-mi(jit, the ford of t.lio arrows. 
As an instance of a ford named from a circun?- 
stance like this, I may quote an entry of tho Four 
Masters at a.d. 1532, recording the fact that a 
certain ford was called Bel-atha-na-bhfahhcun, the 
ford-mouth of the falcons or cannons, because a 
battle was fought at it in that year, in which the 
O'Carrols defeated the earl of Ormond, and took 
a number of cannons from his army. 

There is a place in the parish of Kilnahue, six 
miles north-Avest from Gorey in Wexford, called 
Monaseed, the bog of the arrows ; and a little lake 
two miles from Templemore in Tipperary is called 
Moneennascythe, which has a like meaning. The 
form .srrr/ is also soon in Kuocknasced (Inoclc, a 
hill), the njtmo ol' a plnco situated near tho river 
Blnckwater in tho early part of its course, about 
four miles south of Xingwilliamstowu. Tho Avord 
takes the other form in Gortnasythe in the parish 
of Cam in Roscommon and in Coolsy the in the parish 
of Drummaul in Antrim, the field and the corner 
of the arrows. There is a place in the parish of 
Kilreekil in Galway, which is called in Irish Gort- 
na-saiplimd ; but the present name is Dartfield, 
which is a correct translation. 

Ga, gac, or gath [gah] is a light spear, a lance, 
or javelin. It occurs in names at least as often as 
saighcad; and hero also wo may conclude that these 
names generally point out battle fields. Drumgaw 
in the parish of Lisnadill in Armagh, and Glenga 
in Tyrone, signify respectively tlie ridge and tlie 
ijlcn of javelins. Slightly dilTcrent forms appear in 
Aghagah in Longford, and AghiigawinMonaghan; 

180 Articles of Manufacture. [chap, xi 

ulso in Cloncgah in Carlow, and Clonegath 
near ISlonasterevin in Kildaro — all aignifying the 
field {achadh and cliiain) of the javelins. There is 
a name mentioned in HyFiachrach (p. 153) apart 
of which is very like this, viz., Qlam-guirt-na- 
lainnc, (he stream of the field of the lances ; 
but only the first half has survived — Qlam-guirt 
(the stream of the field), now Olusgort, tho 
name of a townland in the parish of liallintober 
in Mayo. 

Swords. One of the Irish words for a sword is 
claidheamh [cleeve], old Irish claidcm, obviously 
cognate with Lat. gladius ; Fr. and Eng. glaive ; 
which is still well known in the Scotch claymore, 
i.e. claidhemnh-indr, great sword. Perhaps the 
iownlund of Oorticlcavo in the parish of I'hrigle 
Truagli in the north of tho county Monaghan, Avas 
" sword-land," or land conquered by the sword ; 
for this interpretation would be borne out by the 
name, Qort-a -chlaidhimh, the field of the sword. 
Cole or colg [collog] signifies a small straight- 
bladed sword or dirk : it forms a part of the name 
of Duncollog in the parish of Drung in Cavan — 
the fort of the swords, a name that seems to point 
back to the time when the old dun was celebrated 
for its abundance of military weapons. 

Axes. The hill of Knockdoe about eight miles 
from Galway, is historically remarkable for the 
sanguinary battle fought there in 1504, between 
the earl of Kildare and Mac William Burke of 
Clanrickard. The name of this hill is written by 
ilio IriHli nnnalists Cnoc-tuadh, which Campion 
correctly translates the hill ol the axes. ISonio 
think that the place received this name on account 
of the battle ; but the manner in which the Irish 
authorities use the name, and other considerations 
besides, show that it is older ihan 1504, and that 
it originated in some other way. 

ctiAP. XI.] Articles of Mamif'tclurd. l8l 

Four miles from Newtownbarry in Wexford, 
there ia a place called Clobemon, whose Irish name 
is Cloch-hcimcann, the stone or stone castle of the 
strokes or blows ; which perhaps was the scene of 
a battle foiif^^ht loii<i^ ii2^o, or a place Avhcrc rin[htinp^ 
was habitually carried on, or a military practising- 
ground. [Bcim, a stroke or blow.) 

Shields. The ancient Irish used shields from 
the A'ery dawn of their history, and indeed very 
probably from a period beyond the horizon of both 
history and tradition. In the most ancient his- 
torical tales, such as " The Cattle spoil of Oooley," 
" The Brudin da Derga," " The Siege of Knock- 
long," &c., the shields of the great heroes who 
took part in the several battles are described with 
sufficient minuteness to enable ns to judge pretty 
accurately of their various shapes, sizes, and 

It is highly probable that the most ancient 
shields were made of wickerwork, covered over 
with layers of hardened hide. In Ireland wo havc^ 
a living illustration of the very general use of such 
shields in foinuM- times; for, the word scia/h 
[skeea], which is the most usual word for a shield, 
is still applied in Munster to a shallow oblong 
ozier basket, used generally for carrying, holding, 
and washing potatoes. From a careful study of 
ancient authorities, O'Curry (from whom I have 
taken this illustration : Lectures, II., 330) shows 
that the ancient wickerwork shields were some- 
what of this shape, the convex side being turned 
towards the enemy ; and they were often large 
enough to cover the whole person of the warrior. 

But there were also flat circidar shields made of 
wood — generally yew-wood — which were smaller 
in size than those of wickerwork. MoreoAcr, the 
shields of distin ;uished warriors hal oftm a rim 

182 Articles of Manufacture. [oiiAr. xi. 

of l)roiizc, iiiid somotiinca even of gold ov silver, 
and were ornamented on tlie oiilside with vaiious 
devices in colours or metal work. The smaller 
circular shields were occasionally made of bronze, 
of which there is a very beautiful specimen in the 
lloyal Irish Academy, which was found in a beg- 
at Lough Gur in Limerick. There is also in the 
Academy an ancient wooden shield found at Kil- 
tubbrid in the county Leitrini. 

Several ancient authorities show that places took 
their names from shields : thus in the second life 
of St. Carthach of Lismore, we are told that before 
his time, the sjjot on which Lismore now stands 
was called Magli-scidtJi, which the writer translates 
Oainpns-scuti, the plain of the shield. In llieyear 
810 the Danes were defeated by the Irish in a 
batllc fought at a place in the county Kildaro(!allcd 
in the Book of Leinster Sciath-Neclitain, Nechtan's 

In the parish of Rathlynin in Tipperary about 

four miles north-east of Tipperary town, there is 

a townland now called Donaskeagh, which took its 

name from an ancient fort on the summit of a hill, 

the remains of which can still be traced. In this 

fort, Carthach, the ancestor of the family of Mac 

CarthaUjh or Mac Carthy lived in the 11th century. 

The Four Masters record that the dun was burnt 

(i.e. of course the wooden i-esidences erected within 

the enclosure) by the Ossoriaus and the men of 

Ormond in the yeai* 1043 ; but Carthach pursued 

and overtook them near the village of Golden on 

(lie Siiir, defeated tliem, and recovered the spoil. 

In this record and another, the Four Masters write 

tlie name Dun-na-sciatJi, the fortress of the shields. 

There was another Dun-na-sciath on the shore of 

Lough Ennel in Westmeath, far more celeb rat d, 

for it was the residence of Malachy, kiug of Ire- 

riiAv. XI.] Articles of 2rnnnf(tclnrc. 183 

land in the time of Brian Boru ; but its name lias 
been long since forgotten in the neiglibourhood. 

Liskea in the parish of Templetogher in Gal way, 
derived its name from an old fort still remaining 
on the top of a hill : Lios-sciatli, the fort of the 
sliields : nnd tlicre is a ])lace called Liskeagh in 
Sligo, a name that has the same meaning. We 
may conclude that these three names were derived 
from the uiiusual number of warlike accoutremenis, 
especially shields, stored up in the fortresses by 
the kings or chiefs who built or owned them. 

There are no doubt many other places deriving 
their names from shields; but in the absence of 
writ Ion authority it is dilficult to distinguish sc?>;'//, 
a shield, in anglicised names, from seme//, a white- 
thorn busli. 

Br//s. We Icnow from the authentic Lives of 
St. Patrick and of other early preachers of Chris- 
tianity in Ireland, that they constantly used bells 
in their ministrations, which were sometimes made 
of broDze, and soTnetimes of iron, "^rho ancient 
consecrated bells were generally quadrangular in 
shape, small in size, and open at the mouth ; though 
there was also in iise a smaller pear-shaped bell, 
closed up, except a small opening in the side for 
the escape of the sound, and rung by an enclosed 
metallic pellet. St. Dageus, who flourished in the 
early part of the sixth century, was a celebrated 
artificer ; he fabricated croziers, crosses, shrines, 
chalices, &c., and among the rest, bolls, some plain 
and some ornamented Avith gold, silver, and pre- 
cious stones. 

The bells that belonged to the primitive saints 
were regarded by their successors with the most 
intense veneration ; and in order the better to pre- 
serve them, they were often furnished with covers, 
which were sometimes made of gold and silver and 

184 Articles of Manufacho'e. [ciiav. xi. 

otlioi' mcfals, claLorntcly ornamented with inter- 
laced work and precious stones. They were often, 
like croziers and other relics, nsed for swearing 
on ; and it was customary to bring tliem into the 
presence of parties who were entering into a com- 
pact, to render it more solenni and binding. 

tSt I'atrick had a celebrated bell, which plays an 
impcn-tant part inman^-^of the Patrician narratives, 
both legendary and authentic ; it Avas called Finn- 
faidhech, or the fair sounding; and it would appear 
that other saints called their favourite bells by the 
same name in imitation of their great predecessor. 
Manj^ of these venerable quadrangular bolls are 
now preserved in the Museum of the Royal Irish 
Academy in Dublin, as well as in other collections; 
and among them, one in particular is believed, with 
some reason, to be the very bell — the melodious 
Fiiin-fuidhech — of St. Patrick. 

Clocc or clog is the usual Irish word for a bell ; 
corresponding with the Ijatin clocca, and English 
clock ; but there were other Irish terms also, which 
it is not necessary to notice here. It i.', probable 
that the Irish borroAved the Avord clog from the 
Latin through the early missionaries. There is a 
parish in Tyrone named Ballyclog. This place 
derived its name from the circumstance that it was 
held by the family of O'Mulchallan (now Mul- 
holland) who were the keepers of St. Patrick's 
bell ; and as the land was held in virtue of the 
office, it was called Baile-cliluig, the town of the 
bell. (See Reeves on the Rell of St. Patrick, 
'i'rans Iv.I.A., p. 18). There is a parish near 
Pallymena in Antrim called Ballyclug, Avhich has 
the same meaning as the last name, being called in 
Irish liaile-an-chluig . This word more usually 
enters into names in the genitive plural, and with 
ihe c changed to g by eclipsis. There is for ex- 

CHAP. XI.] Articles of Mnmifadure. 185 

ample a bridge over an ancient ford on the Aha- 
phuca river, between Glenroe and Ballylanders in 
Limerick, called Annaglug, i.e. Afh-na-gclog, the 
ford of the bells ; Dcrnaglug in Monaghan [dour, 
nil oak grove) ; and Ardnaglug, the height of the 
bolls, is a little liamlct near the railway line, about 
five miles north-cast of Ballinasloc. 

In the neighbourhood of many of our ecclcsias- 
iical ruins the peoi:)le have a pretty legend about 
the church bells : that in some far distant time, 
when dcspoilcrs — Danes or natives — came to 
pluiid( I ih(! monastery, tho bells, which some of 
the l(\g(nuls say M^erc of silver, were hastily taken 
down and thrown for safety into the nearest river 
or lake, whore they remaiu to this day. But at 
intervals — some say every seven years — they are 
heard to ring with a faint, muffled, melancholy 
tone. The silver bell that once hung in the round 
tower of Rattoo in Kerry, now lies at the bottom 
of the river Brick ; its voice has often been heard, 
hut the j^eoplc have never been able to find il, 
(liough they have often searched (Petrie 11. Tow crs, 
;5n8). The bells of the ancient church of Drum- 
cliCC near Ennis in Clare, lie beneath the waters of 
a lakelet in the townland, which is called Poulna- 
glug, the pool of the bolls : and the thieves who 
stole the silver bell of Killodonnell Abbey near 
Bathmelton in Donegal, were drowned in crossing 
Lough Swilly in a boat with their prize ; but the 
bell still lies at the bottom of the lough, and is 
heard to ring once in seven years. It would ap- 
pear that these stories are not always without 
foundation. There existed for generations a tra- 
dition that the bell of St. Rioch, who founded the 
monastery of Kilwheery on the brink of the river 
Brosua near Forbano in King's County, was, in 
time of persecution, thrown for safety into a 

18G Jrticks of Manufacture. [chap. xi. 

pai iicular pool of tho Brosna. During tlie diainaoo 
works ill LSI!) tlui bcid of ilio liver was altered, 
and tliu bell was iound in tlic very pool pointed 
out by tradition. It was enclosed in a shrine wliich 
was taken away and sold ; but the bell itself is still 
preserved (A7/L Arch. Journal, 1808-9, j). Ul). 

Just near the southern end of the esplanade at 
Bray, a. little way up tho Tfead, very near the rail- 
way line, there is a ehurcli ruin, which can be seen 
quite plainly from every part of the esplanade ; 
and it is well known in and around Bray, by the 
name of Raheenaclig. The people say that it is 
the oldest church in Ireland ; and the style of 
masonry, especially of the two end windows, shows 
that it can hardly be later than the eleven tli cen- 
tury. It has long ceased to be used in any way, 
but within the memory of the old people, uiibap- 
tised infanta were buried in it.. Tlie name is very 
plain, and represents almost exactly the sound of 
the correct Irish form RaWiin-a' -chlaig, the little 
fort of the bell. The story told by the name would 
seem to be this : — that in far distant times, before 
the erection of the church, Mass used to be cele- 
brated in an old rath, which had remained there 
from days still more ancient — for as I have men- 
tioned elsewhere (1st Vol. J'art II., c. i.) open air 
Masses were anciently very usual in Ireland ; and 
that a bell was set up in the usual way, to call the 
people ; which originated the name. After a 
time, when a church came to be built, it was 
natural that the old site should be chosen, and the 
old name retained. There arc some remains of 
embankments near the church, but I saw notliing 
that could be identified as a portion of a rath ; 
which however is not to be wondered at, as the 
ground has been cvdtivated up to the very walls of 
the ruin. 

cuAi'. XI.] Articles of Manufacture. 187 

Croziers. One of the most celebrated ecclesias- 
tical relics of ancient Ireland was St. Patrick's 
crozier, commonly called tbe Bachall Isa, the staff 
or crozier of Jesus. A well-known legend in the 
life of St. Patrick tells us that he received tliis 
staff from a hermit who lived in an island in the 
Tyrrhene sea, to whom it had been intrusted by 
our Saviour, with an injunction to deliver it to 
Patrick when he should arrive at the island. The 
saint kept it and bore it constantly in his hand 
during his ministration in Ireland ; and after his 
death it was preserved with the greatest veneration, 
and covered with gold and precious stones. It 
was removed from Armagh to Christ Church in 
Dublin in llic twelfth century ; but in 1538 it was 
burned in the streets of Dublin with many other 

In the Poyal Irish Academy there is a collection 
of ancient croziers, found from time to time buried 
in the earth, in bogs, or under the ruins of eccle- 
siasfical buildings. Tlicy nre generally higlily 
ornamented; a)id some of thorn are elaborately 
adorned with gems and complicated interlaced 
work in mclnl, which even tliobcst, artificers of the 
present day would find it very hard to imitate. 

Bncholl is the Irish word for a crozier, probably 
borrowed from the Latin bacillus. Some authori- 
ties would lead us to infer that Ballyboghill near 
Swords in Dublin, derived its name from St. 
Pat rick's crozier ; which however is doubted by 
others. The name nt any rate signifies the town 
of the crozier ; and the probability is that it was 
derived from a crozier belonging to St. Patrick — 
for he appears to have left more than one — whether 
it be the celebrated Bachall Isa or not. 

The word bachall signifies any staff, such as a 
fheiDherd's crook, &c. ; and one of its diminutives, 

1^8 A)-fit'/('s of Manufacture. [cn.w. xi, 

nninoly hacliaiJIin [Loglialccn] isiotliisday a})])Hed 
by the J<jnglisli speaking- people of parts oi' the 
south of Irehmd to a staff furnislied with a flat 
end piece, which they use in washing and masliing 
up potatoes. However, when we iind the word in 
names, we may bo pretty sure tlnit it is intended 
U)v a crozier. Tliore is a ])lace called Moy voughley, 
tlireo miles to the norlh of Moalo in Westnieath, 
which the Four Masters write Magh-hhaclila, the 
plain or field of the crozier. Polluamoghill, the 
name of a townland near Aughrim in Roscommon, 
exhibits the eclipsis of the h : — Foll-na-nibachaU, 
the pool of the staffs or croziers. 

liroys or shoes. The ancient T rish shoe was called 
hrocc, modern Irish hrdij, which is still well known 
as a living word, and connnonly spelled hro<jue by 
I'^nglish writers of the present day. The most 
ancient kind of hrog was made of raw or half- 
tanned hide, which was roughly stitched with 
thongs ; and this form continued in use among the 
lower classes of people down to very recent times. 
Brogs of this land have been found in bogs ; and 
several may be seen in good preservation, thongs 
and all, in the Royal Irish Academy. Gradually 
they came to be more elaborate in make, especiall}' 
those used by the wealthier classes ; the leather 
was tanned and ornamented with patterns worked 
into it ; and of this kind some beautiful specimens 
are also preserved in the Royal Irish Academy. 

We may be pretty certain that makers of hrogs 
lived at, or perhaps owned, those places whose 
names are formed from the word hrog; such us 
Knocknabrogue in the parish of Latteragh, Tip- 
perary, which is anglicised from Cnoc-na-mbrog, 
the hill of the brogues or shoes ; Raheenabrogue 
near Ballyroan in Queen's County (raheen, a little 
fort) ; Eskernabrogue near Clogher in Tyrone 

ciiAr. XI.] Articles of Manufacture. 189 

{esker, a sand-ridge) ; Finnabrogue near Down- 
patrick, Fith-im-mhrdg, the wood of the brogues ; 
and Broguestown near the village of Kill in Kil- 
dare, the name of which is translated from the 
original Ballybrogue, as it is written in an Inqui- 
sition of Charles I. 

This conjecture will not explain the name of 
the little river Brogcen near Kanturk in Cork, 
which means little brog. Why a river should 
receive such a name I cannot imagine, and the old 
people of the neighbourhood, so far as I have made 
inquiry, have no tradition of the origin of the 
name worth listening to, and are not able to offer 
any rational cxplanafion. It is curious that there 
is another stream a little south of Milltown in 
Kerry, joining the Laune, called Kealbrogeen, the 
keal or narrow marshy stream of the little brog. 
Knockavrogeen [knock, a hill) is the name of a place 
near Dingle in Kerry. 

There is a townland in the parish of Inver near 
Killybcgs in Donegal, called Luaghnab rogue, i.e. 
Liiach-na-broige, the Inach or price of the brogue ; 
and this name would be almost as puzzling as the 
two river names, if we were not helped out of the 
dijBficidty by a local legend : — the place was pur- 
chased one time for a pair of brogues. It is to be 
feared however, that the legend was invented to 
suit the name ; and perhaps we may conjecture 
that in former days a shoemaker or brogueraaker 
tenanted this townland, and paid his rent in 
kind, by supplying his landlord's family with 

In connexion with this last name, I will step 
aside for a moment to remark that the word hiach, 
hire or reward, forms part of other names. Five 
miles north-cast from Thurlcs in Tipperary lies the 
village and parish of Loughmoe, with the fine ruins 

190 Articles of Mannfacturo. [ciiai». xi. 

of tlio casllo of (Lc Purcclls — tlio barons of Jjougli- 
moe — the correct old name of which, according to 
the Four Masters, is Liiach-mhagh, price-plain, or 
the field of the reward. The peninsula west of 
Ardara in Donegal is called Ijoughros, and gives 
name to the two bays of Ijoughros-inore and 
lioughros-beg (groat and small) ; this place is also 
mentioned by the Four Masters, who call it 
LuaeJiros, the ros or peninsula of hire or reward. 
AVhy these places were so called we know not ; 
but we may fairly conjecture that in old times 
some tenant held them free of direct rent, as a 
reward for some signal service, or on condition of 
fulfilling some special duties. 

Culinary vessels. Several of the vessels in 
domestic use have given naines to places. Tn some 
cases these names are explained by legends ; in 
others we may conclude that persons lived in the 
places who either made the vessels as a trade, or 
used them in some special occupation ; and, lastly, 
perhaps some have been named from ancient ves- 
sels found buried in the earth or in bogs. 

Lcstar. The word lestar denotes a vessel of any 
kind, or of any shape or material, (lester, vas, Z. 
IGG) though the term was generally applied to 
vessels made of wood. This woid is found in the 
names of some places in Monaghan and Tyrone, 
called Drumlester — the ridge of the vessels ; and 
in Derrinlcster and Derryiudester in Cavan, the 
first the oak wood of the vessel, the second, of the 

Metlier. The mother, Tiiah nicadar, was a drink- 
ing vessel conunonly made of yew wood, quad- 
rangular at top, and either round at bottom, or 
having the corners rounded off ; and commonly 
furnished with two or four handles, for the con- 
venience of passing it from hand-to-hand round 

CHAP. XI.] Artklfs of Manufacture. 191 

the table. It was called meadar because it was 
used for drinking mead, i.e. ale or metheglin. 
Several ancient vessels of this kind are to be seen 
in the niuseum of the Royal Irish Academy (see 
Sir William 11. Wilde's ' Catalogue, p. 214). A 
mether maker probably lived at Drumnamether 
near MarkethiU in Armagh, the ridge of the 
methers ; as weU as at Ballymather in the parish 
of Killead in Antrim, the town of the methers ; 
and possibly the name of Rathmadder in the parish 
of Kilfree in Sligo, may preserve some dim memory 
of the revelry carried on in old times in the rath 
or residence of tlie chief, 

Cuinneog, a churn, gives names to Ardnagimiog 
in the parish of Faughanvale in Derry, to Lisna- 
gonoge near Holycross in Tipperary, and to Lis- 
nagunogue near Bushmills in Antrim, the first 
signifying the height, and the other two the fort, 
of the churns ; the c being eclipsed by g in all 

IIow names of this class may take their rise 
from legends — or perhaps sometimes the reverse — 
can be gathered from tlie following story, of which 
several different versions are found in Irish writ- 
ings. Keating has one ; Colgan, in his Life of 
St. Colraan Mac Duach, has two others ; and the 
peasantry of Clare and Galway will tell the legend 
as fully as either. 

Guaire [Gnara], king of Connaught in the 
seventh century, who was celebrated for his 
generosity and hospitality, had a brother, an 
ecclesiastic, a very holy man, whose name was 
Colman. This priest went one time to spend the 
Lent among the rocks and forests of Burren, in 
the north of the present county of Clare ; he was 
attended by only one young man, who acted as 
his clerk; and they lived in a desert spot, by a 

192 Articles of Manufacture. [chap. xi. 

well of piiro water, fivo miles from Durltis Gunni, 
the king'd paluco. Tlioy uto only one luoal a day, 
and that consisted of a bit of barley bread, a few 
sprigs of cress, and a drink of water from the 

In this manner they passed the seven long weeks 
of Lent, till at last Easter Sunday came round ; 
when the poor young clerk, feeling quite worn out, 
as well he might, by his long abstinence and poor 
fare, was seized with a longing desire for flesh 
meat ; so he came to his master, and told him that 
he was about to go immediately to the palace at 
Durlas, to have one good meal. "Stay with me," 
said Colman, " and T Avill see whether I cannot 
procure a dinner for you where you are : " so lie 
prayed that meat miglit bo brought to the clerk. 

It so happened that the king's dinner was j)r(!- 
paring at this same time in Durlas Guara : a noble 
dinner, with everything in lavish profusion — so it 
ever was in the house of Guara the hospitable ; 
and among a great variety of dishes, a boar and a 
stag, cooked whole, were brought to table on a 
pair of enormous trenchers. Everything was 
ready, and the king and his guests were son led, 
just as Colman and the clerk had finished their 
conversation. All at once the dinner was lifted 
from the table by some invisible power before the 
wondering eyes of his majesty ; trenchers, dishes, 
and mothers, boar and stag and all, floated gently 
through the open doors and windows — not as much 
remained on the table as would make a meal for a 
wolf dog — and as soon as they had got fairly out- 
side the palace, they set off with great expedition 
straight towards the little hermitage among the 
hills of Burren. 

The monarch and his guests, after recovering a 
little from their astonishment, resolved to make an 

CHAP. XI.] Articles of Manufacture. 193 

effort to overtake their dinner and bring it back ; 
so after a hurried preparation, they took horse ; 
and the whole company, horsemen, footmen, and 
dofj^s, with the king at their head, instantly started 
in pursuit. Thoy kept tlio dishes in view, but 
were not able to overtake them ; and after a close 
chase, they arrived near the hermitage, hungry 
and tired, just in time to see them alighting at the 
feet of Colman and the clerk. 

The young man was much delighted to see so 
fine and plentiful a dinner provided for him, as 
well !ia greatly auia/,cd at tho strango manner of 
its ai)poiii'anco ; and l\o was about to begin liis meal, 
wIkui Ijiippouiug to look round, ho saw tho rocky 
slope of tho op])osi<o hill covered with a tumul- 
tuous crowd, all maldng straight towards him. 
So he turned once more to his master, and addressed 
him, saying, that he saw not the least good in 
getting a dinner of meat, while there was such 
an angry multitude ready to dispute it with him. 
" Eat your dinner in peace," said Colman, " there 
is no danger, for it is my brother the king, and 
his household, and I will take care that they shall 
not interrupt you." 

The moment he had done speaking, the feet of 
the horses, men, and dogs, were fastened to the 
groimd, and the horsemen to their seats, so that 
they were unable to advance one inch farther; 
and while the monarch and his nobles were looking 
on, tho clerk sat down and ate a hearty meal at 
his leasure before their eyes. As soon as he had 
finisliod, tho company wore released; the king 
recognised his brother, who explained the whole 
affair ; and they all seated themselves — except of 
course the clerk — and ate their dinner in comfort 
jind (piiottiosM. 

TJic road traversed by tho dinner, in the latter 

VOL. II. 14 

194 Articles of Manufacture. [chap. xi. 

part of its flight, is still pointed out, nnd it is uni- 
versally known by tlie name of Bdthar-)ia-)iuas 
[Bohernameece], the road of the dishes. It is 
situated in a rocky valley in the towidand of Keel- 
hilly,* in tlio parish of Oarran, live miles scailh- 
west from the village of Kinvarra ; and it runs 
along- the Lase of a i)rc(;i])ic,o called ICinawlia ov 
the head of the clilf. Tlio ihit surface of tho 
limestone rocks on the opposite hillside is full of 
small holes, of various shapes and sizes, very curious 
and very striking- to look at ; a geologist would say 
that they were worn in the rock by the rain, in 
the course of ages ; but they are in reality the 
tracks of the men, horses, and dogs — the very 
tracks where their feet were iiinily fastened to 
give the clerk time to eat his dinner. 

This strange legend is a good example of the 
manner in which fabulous tales were interwoven 
with the authentic acts of the early saints. The 
chief person here was a man well known in the 
history of the early church of Ireland. He was 
a near relative of Ouaire Aict/inc, king- of Con- 
naught, but not his brother, as tho siory has it. 
He was called Culinan-niac-Duach, or more usually 
Mac Buach, i. e. Duach'a son ; for his fa(h<n' was 
Z)«acA, eighth in descent fromDathi, kLngof Ireland 
a little before the time of St. Patrick. In the 
early part of his career he lived as a hermit, with 
bnly one attendant, for seven years in the solitudes 
of Burren. At the end of that time the king- 
discovered his retreat, and offered him as much 
laud as he wished to take, for the establishment of 
a religious community ; but Colman accepted only 
a small spot, not far from his little hermitage, in 
which he erected a monastery, where he afterwards 

* Caet-choille, nanow wood. 

CHAP. XI.] Articles of Manufacture. 195 

became a bishop, lie died in the middle of the 
seventh century. 

This good saint has been greatly and deservedly 
revered ; the monastery he founded flourislied long 
after him ; iind tlie ])1jic(\ which is sitnaled throe 
miles from (Jort, coiitiiius the rcinains of a round 
tower and of several churches. Moreover it still 
retains the founder's name, for it is called Kilmac- 
duagh, the church of DuacJi^s son ; and it has given 
name both to the parish and to the diocese. 

Colman-mac-Duagh is still vividly remembered 
and much venerated by t]ie peojjle, and his name 
lives in the topography of the whole neighbour 
hood. There are several wells called Tobcr-mac- 
Duagh, one of Avhich is engra\ed and described in 
the Dublin Penny Journal (Vol. I., p. 200). The 
ruins of his little hermitage, Temple-mac-Duagh, 
still remain in the lonel}^ valley, near Boherna- 
meece ; near it is aTiother Tober-mac-Duagh, the 
identical well mentioned in the legend and in the 
atdhontic Lives of iJio Siiiut, where stations are 
performed to tljis day ; and immediately over it 
there is a cave in the rock, called Ijabba-mac- 
Duagh, or Mac Duagli's bed, in Avhich tradition 
says he slept every night during his residence in 
the valley. It is interesting to remark that the 
present name of the cliff which rises over the 
hermitage — Kinawlia — is the very name used in 
tlie ancient Life of the saint : — " He fixed his 
residence near a. pleasant fonntain [now Tober- 
mac-Duagh] in the great wood of Boireann, and 
in that part of it Avhich is called Kinn-aille, about 
five miles from Durlas, the palace of Guaire." 
(Colgan : Acta Sanctorum, 244 b. cap. vi.) 

Half a mile east of Kinvarra, on the sea shore, 
stands an ancient circular fort, one of those so 
common in most parts of Ireland ; and this is all 

196 Articles of Manufacture, [chap. xt. 

that remains of the hospitable palace of Durlas. 
Moreover it has lost the old name, and is now known 
by the equivalent name of Dun-Guaire, or as it is 
anglicised, Dungorey, Giiaru's fortress. A modern 
castle built by the O'lleynes — modern compared 
with the earthen circumvallations — stands in the 
middle of tho fort, and occupies the very site of 
the house of Quara the Ilospi table. 

After all, the story of the dishes may, like most 
other legends, rest on a foimdation of fact. We 
may suppose that on some particular Easter Sun- 
day, during Colman's residence in Burren, the king 
took it into his head to go himself, with his house- 
hold, to diuu with him; and that as Colmiiu had 
a poor kitchen, the king sent on the dinner ready 
(iooked, and followed after with the whole assembly. 
tSuch a transaction woidd impress the pco})lo with 
wonder and admiration, and in the long lapse of 
ages their imagination would be sure to shape the 
tradition into some such marvellous story as the 
legend of Bohernameece. 

There is a high mountain about eight miles west 
of Dunnumway in Cork, whose name contains this 
word mias (which is cognate with Lat. mensn) : — 
viz., Mullaghmesha, in Irish, MuUach-m&ise, the 
summit of the dish. But here the name is probably 
derived from some dish-like hollow on or near the 
summit of the mountain. 

Sacks or Bags. Why it is that places took their 
names from sacks or bags, it is not easy to deter- 
mine, iniless wo resort to the old explanation that 
sack makers lived in Ihom ; or perhaps the places 
may have been so called from the use of an unusual 
number of sacks in farming operations, in storing 
corn, flour, &c. In tho year a.d. 598 there was a 
terrible battle fought at a place called in all the 
Irish authorities, Dunbolg — the fort of the sacks — 

CHAP. X1.3 Articles oj Manvfacture. l97 

near Hollywood in Wicklow, in whicli tlie king of 
Ireland, Hugli, the son of Ainmire, was defeated 
and slain by Brandiihh, king of Leinster. This 
iiimio is not noAV rcmenihcrcd in tho neighbonr- 
liood, tlioiigh tlio pooplo hnvo still some dim 
traditions of the battle ; but there is a parish of 
the same name in Cork, now called Dunbidloge. 

The word hoJfj, which forms part of these names 
and of those that follow, and which is still in 
constant use, corresponds with the old Gaulish 
hiJga, meaning a little bag of leather (Stokes in 
Cor. Gl.). Caherbullog in the parish of Kilmoon 
in the north of Clare, has nearly the same signifi- 
cation as the last name, only with cahery a stone 
fort, instead of dun: and with much the same 
meaning still, we have MoherbuUog near Corrofin 
in the same county — mohcr, a ruined fort. It will 
be perceived that these four names were originally 
applied to circular forts, which themselves for 
some roasoTi or nnotlior took their names from 
sacks. I will remark hero tlint tlie word holg is 
sometimes applied to a quiver for arrows ; but for 
several reasons I do not, think that this is the 
sense in which the word is applied in those names. 

Then we have Moybolgue, now the name of a 
parish, partly in Mcath and partly in Cavan, which 
is mentioned in some of our oldest authorities by 
the name of Magh-holg, the plain of the sacks ; 
and Clonb\dloge {cluain, a meadow) in King's 
County and Carlow. There is a parish in Galway 
called Killimorbologue, which signifies Killimor 
of tho saclcs ; while Killimor itself means the 
church of the patron saint Imor, who is thought 
to have lived in the twelfth century. And Agha- 
bulloge, the name of a large parish in Cork (near 
Macroom) is in Irish Achadh-bolg, the field of the 

198 Articles of Manufacfn re. [chap. xi. 

BasJx-ets. Tlio word eliabh [cleeve] a basket, is 
found in the oldest doouments of tlie language, 
aud it is still a living word : even among the 
English speaking people in some purl s of Ireland, 
you will hear talk of a ckeve of turf, of potatoes, 
&c. A considerable number of names, some of 
them of high antiquity, are formed from this word. 
One of the best known is that of Drumcliif near 
the town of Sligo, where a monastery was either 
founded by St. Columkille, or dedicated to him 
soon after his death, and where there are still the 
remains of a round tower. As being au ecclesias- 
tical establishment of great note it is wry often 
mentioned in ancient Iriah authorities, and always 
written Druiui-c/i/i(ihh, the hill ridge of baskets. 
'J'luM'o Im also a. I )i iiinclilf in Clare, and aiuHher 
in Donegal, while we have Drumcleave in Tip- 
perary, all meaning the same thing ; and there 
is a townland in Monaghan called Lisdrum- 
cleve (lis, a fort). The c becomes eclipsed by the 
insertion of the article in Qortnagleav in the parish 
of Killinan in Galway, Gort-na-yeliahh, the field 
of the baskets. 

The diminutive cUahhdn [cleevaun] is used to 
signify a cradle. It is hard to say Avith certainty 
wliy a high mountain near Sallygap in Wicklow 
was called Mullaghcleevaun, the summit of the 
cradle ; probably it was from the shape of some 
hollow or cradle-shaped rock near the top. There 
is also a little hill which gives name to a small 
lake and a townland tlin^e miles soulh-east of tho 
village of FivemiletoAvn in Tyrone, called Orocka- 
cleaven, cradle hill {crock, properly cnoc, a hill) ; 
and Coolaclevane, the corner or ajigle {cuil) of the 
cradle, is the name of a place about three miles 
east of Inchigeelagh in Cork. 

Ir Meath and Cavan the people use a kind of 

CHAP. xi.J Articles of Manufact.ur , l99 

basket for fisliing which they call scudal ; from 
wliich Lough tSkuddal, a small branch of Lougli 
vSillan near Shercock in Cavan, derives its name — - 
the lake of tlio fisliing basket. 

IlttnUcs. In discussing the namo of ]')ublin in 
the First Volume, I had occasion to speak of tho 
word cliath, a hurdle, and of the application of 
hurdles to the construction of Avickerwork fords. 
There are ofher places which have taken their 
names from this word, where hurdles were applied 
\o other purposes not so easily defined. Cliffony, 
a village in the norlh of 81igo, is called in Irish, 
CJiathnih/iduc, meaning hurdle- shrubbery {mnine, 
slivubbcry) — so called 1 sui)posc because the shrub- 
bery sui)plicd the hurdle makers with twigs. 

The simple word gives name to several town- 
lands now called Clay in Armagh, Down and Fer- 
managh; another anglicised form is seen in Clea- 
boy in Roscommon and Waierford, yellow hurdle; 
jiiKJ slill' in Cleaglibeg, (/ic^agligarvo, :iud 
( 'lojigjiuiorn, ill lioscominon and (liilwiiy — meaning 
respectively little, rougb, and great hurdle. It is 
s(>ou as a torminalion in Tullyclca in the pafishof 
DerryvuUan in Fermanagh, the little hill of the 
hurdle ; and the diminutive gives name to Olea- 
hocn, little hurdle, in the parish of Tumna in Eos- 
common. I think it probable that in some of these 
places the hurdles were used in the construction of 
fords across small streams. 

Nets. There may have been several reasons why 
places received names from nets — from fishing, 
or from bird-catching, or from the raanirfacture 
of tlie nets themselves : but 1 suppose the greater 
number of such names originated in fishing. 
CochaJl is one of the Irish words for a net, 
especially a small fishing not ; the word, however, 
is more commonly applied to a hood, corresponding 

200 Articles of Mdiiii/dctarc. [oiiAi-. xi. 

with tho Latin mcullus, mul Miigliali and. At Ww 
present day, it is generally applied in the south 
to any covering for the shoulders, and in the north 
to a net. 

There is a townland near K ilia shandra in Cavan 
— a spot situated in the midst of a lake district — 
called Drumcoghill, the ridge of the net ; Cool- 
coghill {cid, tho back of a hill) is a place near 
Maguire's Bridge in Fermanagh ; Lisacoghill, the 
fort of the net, is the name of a townland in the 
parish of Inishmagrath in Lei trim. At the 
bridge of Ballycoghill, over the Ballybay river, 
near the village of Rockcorry in Monaghan, the 
former practice of net fishing in connexion with 
the name, is still remembered in tradition. 

Beetles. Those who have had opportunities of 
obHorviiig tho cuHtoms ol" tho pcasantiy, iiuiathuvo 
often seen the village girls beetling clullies at a 
stream — beating them on a large smooth stone, 
while saturated with water, with a flat, heavy, 
wooden beetle, or mallet, a part of the process of 
washing. This beetle is called in Irish slis [slish] . 

In foimer days there was a ford — ovidoutly an 
important one, if we may judge from the scenes 
enacted at it — over the Owenure river, one mile 
from the town of Elphin in Iloscommon, on the 
road to Strokestown, which must have been a 
favourite spot for this kind of work, as it got the 
name of Ath-slisean, the ford of the beetles — for 
so the Four Masters designate it when recording 
a battle fought there in 1288, in which Cathal 
O'Conor, king of Connaught, was defeated by his 
brother Manus. There Avas another battle fought 
there in 1342, in recording which the annalists 
call the place Bel-atha-sUsean, the ford-mouth of 
the beetles ; and this is the present name of the 
bridge which now spans the old ford, anglicised 

CHAP. XI ] Articles of Manufacture. 201 

to Bellaslislien. We have one example in our old 
records of a ford deriving its name from the custom 
of washing at it, viz., Bel-atha-na-nidheadh — so 
called in Hy Fiachrach — the mouth of the ford of 
the wasliings, a ford on the Owenboy river, a mile 
and a haH from the village of Foxford in Mayo. 
It was no doubt for some reason of this kind 
that Cajjpanaslish in the parish of Killokennedy 
in Clare received its name — Cmpach-na-slis, the 
garden-plot of the beetles. There is a mountain 
called Slish rising over the south shore of Lough 
Gill near Sligo ; probably taking its name from 
'\is shape. Slishmeen, i.e. smooth beetle, is the 
name of a towidaud in Mayo. With the diminu- 
tive no or some such termination (see p. 25) and 
with the first s-sound eclipsed by t (see 1st YoL, 
ch. II.) we have Tullintlisny near Oastleblayuey 
in Monaghan, i.e. TiW -an-tsUsne, the hill of the 

Soindik [shindilla] is another word for a beetle, 
from which a lalce on the left of the road from 
Clifden to Oughterard in Galway, is called Lough 
Shindilla, probably from some fancied likeness 
between its shape and that of a beetle : or perhaps 
the women were formerly accustomed to beetle 
clothes on its shores. We have Shindala in Kil- 
dare and Shindilla or Lurgan (i.e. beetle or shin: 
liirgan a shin — see 1st. Vol.) in Galway. Another 
and probably the original form of this word is 
m)))lidile [shovdilla] from which Shivdilla near 
Mohill, and Sliivdelagh, both in Leitrim, take their 
names; and this form also gives name to Kinatev- 
ddla, the western point of Clare island oil Mayo — 
the s being here eclipsed by t — Ccann-a' -tseimJidile, 
beetle head. The little island of Shintilla in 
Tiougli Mask was so called from its long narrow 
shape ; and there is a long point of land running 

203 Articles of Mamifadurc. [ciiai-. xr, 

into tlio 8oa near Tiolclurc on "W^cslporl l^ay, callc^d 
for a like reason Shivdella. 

Anvils. About three hundred years before the 
Christian era, there lived, according- to the Dinn- 
scnchiis, a celebrated artiiicer in metals named 
L^n of the white teeth, Avho was (fcr^^ or goldsmith 
to the fairy mansion of liovo Dei-g- at Slievenanion. 
lie Avas employed one time to make certain pre- 
cious articles — diadems, brooches, cups, &c., for 
the lady Faiul, who lived at Ijough licane, or the 
Lakes of Killarney. lie travelled, it seems, every 
morning from his liome near Slievenamon to the 
lake (about eighty English miles) to begin his 
day's work ; and returned the same journey in 
the evening ; but before setting out for home each 
day, he (lung his anvil before him, with such force 
and precision, that it always dropped dowji exactly 
at his own residence. Hence tlic place has been 
ever since known by the name of Inneoin [Tinione], 
or " The Anvil." (See O'Curry, Lect. III., 203 : 
see also 1st Vol. Part IV., c. w.) This place was, 
many ages afterwards, the chief residence of the 
Decies, so that it was often called in the annals, 
Inneoin of the Decies. It is now called by the 
modernised name Mullaghn(»ney, the hill-sinnmit 
[Mullach) of Inneoin; and it is situated in the 
parish of Newchapel near Clonmel. 

Several townlands and natural features have 
got names from anvils ; we may, I suppose, infer 
that at some former time there was a forge at each 
of these places ; and probably not a few over-cri- 
tical readers, who may have some misgivings as 
to the truth of the legend of Len and his anvil, 
will be inclined to accomit for ihewame oi Inneoin 
of the Decies in the same simple v>'dy. 

There is a place called Ballynona near the vil- 
lage of Dungourney in Cork ; and another called 

CHAP. XI.] Articles of Manufacture. 203 

Ballynooney in the parish of Kilbcacon in .Kil- 
kenny; both of which probably once belonged to 
smiths, for the names siy^nify the town of the 
anvil. Anotlier form of this word is scon in Tul- 
lyiiJihinnorn, in tlic pavisli of A^lmaimillon in 
JMouaghan, in which Tulh/ is corrupted from 
talnmh, land (land of the anvil) ; and in Gubna- 
hinneora, the name of a rocky point on the north 
coast of the western extremity of Acliill island, 
so called because it resembles the cor-chip or Jiorn 
of an anvil, I suppose the name of Killinordan, 
east of Strokestown in Pioscommon, originated like 
most of the preceding : — CoiU-an-ordain, the wood 
of the litilo sledge hammer. So also Rathordan 
near Cashcl, the fort of the hammers. 

Scollojys. A scolh (scollob), commonly called a 
scollop by the English-speaking people, is a spray 
or twig about twenty inches long, used in fasten- 
ing thaicli on houses. When about being used it 
is (loubl(>d up in tlio middle in the form of aloo^), 
iind its two ends, which ure pointed, nvo driven 
with the hand into the thatch. According 1o 
O'Curry (Lcct. III., 32) this method of fastening- 
thatch — Avhether of straw, rushes, or sedge — was 
used in roofing the ancient Irish circular wicker- 
work houses ; and Ave know that it is still practised 
all over the country. 

The name of Derryscollop in Armagh, near 
IMoy, indicates that tluu'emusthaA^o been formerly 
a dcrri/ or oak Avood there, in Avhich the people 
Avcre in the habit oE cutting tAvigs for scollops. 
Inchinsquillib in tlic parish of TocminTippcrary, 
is the i)wh or river-holm of the scollop — so called 
possibly from the looped shape of the stream. 
Seullaboge in the parish of Newbawn in Wexford, 
figures unhappily in the rebelUon of 1798 ; but 
its name conveys none of this history ; for it is 

204 Articles of Manufacture. [chap. xi. 

simply Scolhdg (see p. 19), a place producing- twigs 
for scollops. 

Candlesticks. To anyone unacquainted with the 
multifarious ways in Avhicli local names grew up 
in Ireland, the name ol' Ballykinler, a jiarish on 
the shore of Dundrum bay in Down, would appear 
eccentric and puzzling ; for the latter ])art of the 
name represents the Irish coinleoir, or in its old 
form caindloir, a candlestick (Lat. candelahnwi), 
from coinneal or caindel, a candle ; and the whole 
name is Baile-caindlera, the town of the candle- 
stick. But the name is quite natural ; for Eally- 
kinler was what is called a la mi nary to the cathe- 
dral of Christ Church in Dublin, that is, it was 
appropriated to supply the altar of that church 
with waxlights. It was granted by John ]^e 
Courcy about the year 1200, and it remained in 
possession of the old cathedral until very recently 
(Reeves: Eccl. Ant., p. 210). We find the very 
same name applied to a tract of land between 
Arklow and Gorey in Wexford, now divided into 
three townlands ; but the name is in the slightly 
varied form of Ballycoidore, the latter part of 
which exactly represents the pronimciation of the 
modern Irish form coinleoir. Whether this place 
received its name in the same sense as Ballykinler, 
or directly from the article itself, I am not able 
to tell. One thing we know, that the coinleoir 
was formerly a usual article of furniture, and we 
find it laid down in the law tract called Grith 
QahJilach, that in the house of a bo-airc, or tenant 
farmer, there should be, among nuiny otlior 
articles, " a candle on a candlestick without fail." 
(O'Curry, III., 486). 

Charcoal. The making of charcoal was under- 
stood and practised at a very early period in Ire- 
land ; for according to the law tract last quoted 

CHAP. XI.] Articles of Mamifactiire. 206 

(O'Curry : same page) the ho-aire was obliged to 
have " ihrco eaclcs in his house : a sack of malt; 
a sack of bulrushes for dressing the wounds of his 
cattlo ; a sack of coals for [forging] the irons." 

The 8|)()(m wluno charcoal ur(hI to bo manufac- 
tured in times of old are still discernible in various 
parts of the country ; for in such places the soil 
is to this day quite black, and mixed with the 
dust and small fragments of charcoal. Places of 
this kind often retain names containing the word 
grial, which of course is cognate with the English 
coaly and which signifies either coal or charcoal. 
In names, however, the local tradition always 
points to charcoal, which must be correct, as tho 
introduction of coal as fuel is comparatively recent. 
There is a little point of land jutting into Lough 
Erne, a mile from the village of Pettigo, and an- 
other just opposite on Boa island, both of which 
are caUed by the same name, Rossgole, that is, 
Bos-guail, tlie peninsida of the charcoal. Glen- 
goolo, clinrcoal ghvu, is tho namo of a place noai- 
Killenaule in Tipperary; and there is a townland 
near tho village oi' Caledon in Tyrone, called Dorry- 
gooly, where of course the derri/ or oak wood sup- 
plied the materials for making the charcoal. 

Milk, butter, lard. Though these commodities 
can hardly be ranked under the heading of this 
chapter, yet the names derived from them may be 
treated of conveniently here. 

When a place got its name from milk or butter, 
it may be surmised that at some former time cows, 
sheep, or goats used to be milked, or general dairy 
operations carried on there — something Hke the 
boolies of old times described in the First Voliune. 
In some cases it is certain that names of this kind 
were applied to rich pasture land — land producing 
milk and butter in abundance. 

206 Articles of Manufacture. [chap. xi. 

The common word for milk is haine [bonnia, 
baniiy], and it occurs in names in suoli forms as 
ivanny, vanni/, tvinny — the b being aspirated to v. 
Tawnawanny, the name of a townhmd in the 
parish of Tcmplecarn in Fermanagh, signifies the 
fiekl {tamhnach) of the milk; Tullinwannia in 
Lei trim and TulHnwonny in Fermanagh, milk 
hill ; Coolavanny, near Castleisland in Kerry, the 
corner of the milk. 

New milk is denoted by leamhnacht [lewnaght] ; 
but the old form, as we find it in Cormac's Glossary, 
is lemlacht, the / being changed to n (see First Vol. 
Part I., c. ni.) in modern Irish. In its simple 
ivtvnx it givcss name to two townland.s ciillod Ijcu- 
naghtjOnc in Monaghan andtlio other in Kilkenny; 
while the diminutive Loonaglitan is the name of a 
place near Ahascragh in Galway, signifying new- 
milk land (see p. 19). There is a townland giving 
name to a parish near Clonmel, called Inishlou- 
naght, the river-holm of new milk, where O'Faelan, 
prince of the northern Decies, had his stronghold ; 
and where O'Brien, king of Limerick, and O'Faelan 
founded an abbey in 1187. The Irish form of the 
name, as given by ^e'dim^,!^ Inis-leamlmaclUa, t\\Q 
river-holm of the new milk ; and the place ob- 
viously got this name from the beautiful inch 
along the Suir, between Clonmel and Marlfield. 
The word occurs in many other names, such as 
Druudauuaght in Cavan (Drum, a long hill), 
Fahanlunaghta near Ennistimon in Clare, and 
Gortlaunaght in Oavan, both signifying the field 
[faitchc and <jort) of the new milk. Nc;ir the 
western shore of Lough Berg, in the parish (d' 
Clonrush in Galway, there is a small lake called 
Lough Alewnaghta, new milk lake, which may 
have been so called from the softness of its water. 

Keating accounts for a name of this kind by a 

CHAP. XI.] Articles of Manufacture. 207 

legend about one of those medicinal baths spoken 
of at page 7G. Uuiiug tlie short time tliat the 
Picts resided in Ireland, before their migration 
to Scotland, many centuries before the Christian 
era, Criffau, the Icing of Lcinster, and his subjects 
were sorely annoyed by a hostile people in his 
neighbourhood, who used poisoned weapons, so that 
whoever received a wound from them, no matter 
how trifling, was sure to die of it. The king at 
last consulted a learned Pictish druid named 
Troadan, who told him to have a bath prepared 
on tlie occasion of the next battle, with the milk 
of 150 white hornless cows, in which each wounded 
man was to bo bathed. Crift'an, as soon as he had 
}>rocured tlie cows, at once sent a challenge to his 
adversaries ; and on the eve of the battle he had 
tlie bath prepared just as the druid directed. As 
fast as the king's men were woimded they were 
plunged into the bath, from which they came out 
as well as over ; ro iliat tlio Leiuster army routed 
tlieir ro(\s with dreadl'ul shuigliter. Fiom ilifs 
event the place came to be called Ardlemnachta, 
the lieiglit of the new milk. 

Sometimes other words for milk are found in 
names. Thus the name of BKttog in the parish 
of Donaghmoyne in Monaghan, is a diminutive on 
hliocJit or bleacht, milk : — Bliochtog, milk-land ; 
meaning, I suppose, good milk-pasture. 

The art of making and saving butter appears to 
have been known in Ireland from the earliest 
ages ; for it is mentioned with milk, curds, cheese, 
&c., in our oldest literature. In later times it was 
customary to sink butter deep down in bogs, closed 
up in casks or baskets, to give it a flavour. Among 
the food of the Irish, l^incley (a.d. 1675) mentions 
bti(l(M' " mix(>(l with sloro ol" . . . a kind of gar- 
lick, and buried for some time in a bog to make a 

208 Articles of Manufacture. [chap. xi. 

provisicm of an high taste for Lent." Sir William 
Petty also mentions butter made rancid by keeping 
in bogs ; and other authorities to the same effect 
might be quoted. Whether this custom existed 
in ancient times I am unable to say ; but at 
any rate, its prevalence, even at this late period, 
is a sufficient explanation of the fact that butter 
is now very often found in vessels of various 
shapes and sizes, deeply embedded in bogs ; 
sometimes in firkins not very different from 
those now in use (see Sir W. E,. Wilde's Catal. 
Ant., p. 212). Several specimens of this bog 
butter, as it is commonly called, are to be seen 
in the Hoyul Irish Academy museum. In all cases 
the butter is f oimd to be changed, by the action of 
the bog water, into a greyish (;hoese-liko siibsdnico, 
partially hardened, not much like butter, and quite 
free from putrefaction. 

From the word im, butter {imhy in Cor. Gl.), 
we have several names. There is a townland near 
Mallow in Cork, giving name to a parish called 
Monanimy (accent on im) which signifies the bog 
of the butter ; and we may conjecture that the 
bog received its name from the quantity of butter 
found in it. Half a mile from Clifden in Gal way 
is a little lake called Lough Animma, butter lake ; 
and another of the same name lies two miles east 
of Ballymore in Westmeath. . Derrynim is the 
name of a townland in the parish of Cleenish, 
Fermanagh ; and there is another called Carrigau- 
imma, seven miles north-west from Macroom, the 
first signifying the wood, and the second the rock, 
of the butter. 

Why were placea named from lard ? Perhaps 
such names indicate that pigs were fattened in the 
respective places. Whatever the origin may be, it 
is certain that we have several names from the 

ciiAP, XT.] Articles of 3Iamffndnre. 209 

•word hlonog, which signifies lard, fat, or suet. 
Such for instance is Corblonog in the parish of 
Tcdavnct in Monaghan, the round hill of the lard ; 
Killyblunick Glebe in Tyrone, and Derrynablun- 
nnjj^a, souih of the lakes of Killarncy, these two 
last signifying the wood of the lard ; and there is 
a place called Caherblonick [cnhcr, a round stone 
fort) near tlie lake of Inchiquin in Clare. 

The following names are derived from various 
articles of manufacture. There is a small lake in 
Donegal, two miles south-east from the village of 
(Jlonties, caHcd liuugli Nasnahida, the lake of the 
noodle : — Hnaihad, a needle. There is a parish in 
Longford c!i11(h1 Forgney, taking its name from a 
townland, wliich must have been so called from 
some remarkable building ; iov forgnaidh signifies 
an edifice or a building. Slahhm [slavra, sloura], 
is a chain. Two miles east of Ardara in Donegal 
is a hill called Crockasloura, which means the hill 
of tlie cliain [croch for kuocl-, a iiill) ; and Derrinl- 
loina is tlie name of a iownhind in the i)arisl) of 
Islandcady, west of Castlebar in Mayo, the dernj or 
oak grove of the chain {Doiro-an-UIabhra), the s 
of sJabhra being here eclipsed by t, as it ought to be. 

In the western extremity of the townland of 
Athlunkard, on the Clare side of the Shannon, 
near the city of Limerick, there is a small rock 
within a f cav yards of the Shannon, called Carrick- 
alloura, the rock of the chain; and in this place 
there is a tradition to explain the nnme : that at 
the siege of Limerick, t,he English army crossed 
the Shannon at this spot by means of a chain 
which was thrown across the river, and fastened 
on the Clare side to this rock. The word sds 
[sauce] denotes an engine or machine of any kind. 
ItwitH (iri(>n itppliod in an engine for battering 
down 'lio walls of castles — called commonly a so /r 
vol,, u. 15 

210 liomidaries am? Finces. [cuw. xti. 

in English. Cornaaans, tho nnmo of sonic plncoa 
in Cuvan und JMcutb, signilies ilio cor, or loimd 
hill of the engines. 



Bru and its derivative hniach, both signify a 
border, brink, or margin ; bnt it is connnonly 
applied to the brink of a stream or glen. The 
latter of the two is the term generally fonnd in 
names; and its most usual ungliciscti form is 
Brough, which is the name of a place near 
Doneraile in Cork. Broughshane in Antrim signi- 
fies John's border ; Broughderg, red border, is tho 
name of places in Cavan, Fermanagh, and Tyrone ; 
and it is the same as Dergbrough in Tyrone, with 
tIio root words transposed. Broiighmorc in vVnlrim 
is the same as Bromoro in Kerry — great border. 
The diminutive in an also occurs, giving origin to 
Broughan and Broughane in Armagh and Kci ly 
(little border) ; and to Broughanlea, the name of 
a place east of Ballycastle in Antrim, grey little 

Crioch [creea] means an end, confine, or bound- 
ary ; but it is an unsatisfactory term to deal with 
here, for it is very hard to distinguish it in angli- 
cised names from other words like it in sound, but 
different in meaning. When it is found in names 
M'e may conclude that it marks the ancient bound- 
aries of farms, townlands, or territories. Its most 
common modern form is Creagh, which either 

CHAP. XII.] Boundaries and Fences. 211 

simply or in combiuiition, gives names to several 
toAvnlands and parishes ; it sometimes drops the 
aspirate at the end, as in Cavan and King's County, 
where there are some places called Cree and Creea. 

In an extended sense this word has come to eignify 
also a country or territory, exactly like the Latin 
fines. For example, the country of the O'Byrnes 
in Wicklow is called Cn'och Branaeh. Tlio IJoolc 
of Rights, O'Heeren's poem, and other authorities, 
mention a tribe named Ui-Buidhe, i.e., the tribe or 
family of O'Boy, who are described as seated on 
the west side of ihe Barrow. In one of these old 
books we are told that the church of Killabban 
lies in the territory of this tribe ; from which we 
are enabled to fix the exact position. This ancient 
territory is commonly called in Irish writings, 
Crioch Ua mBuidhe, i.e., the country of the O'Boys; 
and the tribe name still exists in the name of the 
parish of TuUomoy, which suflicicntly rej^resents 
the sound of Tul-O-wBuidhe, the hill of the O'Boys 
— the B being ccli}).sed by in, according to the law 
explained at page 138 (see O'Donovan in Book of 
Bights, 213). 

The accounts left us of St. Abban, the founder 
of the church of Killabban, south of Athy in 
Queen's County, are very contradictory. It ap- 
pears, however, that he was born in Leinster in the 
sixth century ; and his mother, Mella, is said to 
have been a sister of St. Kevin of Glendalough ; 
ho f()UMd(Ml Hovond churches, iind died in a place 
called Ma(]h-Arnaidhe [JMoyarnoy : plain of sIo(^r] 
in Wexford, greatly revered for goodness and 
holiness of life. In his Life published l)y Colgan, 
it is stated that when Abban and his clergy came 
among the tribe oiI[i/-mBairyc]ic (who possessed the 
ierrilory of Slicneiuargy in Ihe south-east of (Queen's 
County), these people gave him a joj'^ous welcome ; 

212 Boundaries and Fowes. [chai'. xii. 

and he bnilt a great monastery there, and laid tho 
foundation of a town ; " and tlio niouastery and 
the town are called in the Scotic (i.e., Irish) 
language by one name, Ceall Ahhain, which in 
Latin is interpreted Cel/a-Abbani" — in English, 
Abban's Oliurch, which name has been extended 
to tho parish. 

2'cdra [torn] is a border or boundary ; the regu- 
lar genitive is tcdrann, as it is preserved in lially- 
toran on the borders of Tipperary and King's 
County, near the village of Clogh Jordan ; and in 
Knocktoran near Knooklong in Limerick, the town 
and the hill of the boundary. A corrupt modifi- 
cation of tlio word appears in tho name of a lake 
called Loughatorick, so called because it lies on 
tlio boundary between the counties of Gal way and 
Olaro, and the boundary lino ran through it in 
1G04, as appears by an Inquisition of that date 
(RyMany, G9). 

lorrus. O'Flaherty, at page 96 of his description 
of lar Connaught, says : " Many lands hero, 
environed for the most part by the sea, are called 
Irros, with an adjection to distinguish them one 
from another. The proper form of the word is 
torrtis; and some have thought that it signifies 
western promontory — iar, west, ros, a pronu)ntory 
— while others believe that it means nothing 
more than a border or limit," Ilardiman, the 
editor of 0'riahcrty,6aysit means a border, brink, 
margin, promontory, or headland. Tliero can bo 
no d(nd)t that tho Avord was applied to a peninsula; 
for all (lio wr;'».5es of (Jalway aro pcniiiHulaH ; us 
for inslaTico, lorrus-bcag, tho peninsula lying west 
of Iloundsione, which still rehiins Iho name of 
Errisbeg; lorrus-ainhagh, the old name of the 
peninsula between the bays of Bertraghboy and 
Kilkerrin ; Jovrus-mort the peninsula which termi- 

ciiAP. XII.] Boundaries and Fences. 213 

nates iu Slyne Head ; lorrus-Flannan, the little 
point of land south-west of Olifden, between Mau- 
iiin bay and Ardbeav bay. 

Tho barony of Erris in Mayo is the best known 
plnco (aking iis naino from tliis word ; but 
although the name now covers an extensive terri- 
tory, it may be safely assumed that it belonged 
originally to the peninsida at present called the 
Mullet, from which it was extended to the whole 
district. There is a townland called Bi-ris near 
Boyle in Hoscommon, taking its name from a littlo 
point of laud jutting into Lough Key. Erris is 
another name for Shirk Glebe near Borris-iu- 
Ossory in Queen's County, wliich O'Donovan 
thinks was so called because it was on the borders 
of the ancient territory of Ossory. Other forms 
of the word are exhil>ited in Urros in the parish 
of Inishmacsaint in Fermanagh ; IJyrismenagh 
(midtUo nrris) iu tho parish of Clomnanyin Inish- 
()\v<Mi, Donegal; and Urrasaun iu tbo ]iari8h of 
Tibohino iu llosrounuou, Avbich is a diminutive, 
meaning little border or peninsula. Sonio of tho 
procc(b*ng arc sitTiatcd inland, which would lend to 
show that tliis word was used to designate a border 
as well as a peninsula. 

Tcrmens. In Ireland, as in other Christian 
couiitries, many of the churches had the right of 
sanctuary. A small piece of land was usually 
fenced olf roimd the church, and iha four corners 
were often marked by crosses or pillar-stones ; 
this land was regarded as belonging exclusively to 
the chm'ch ; and criminals fleeing from justice, 
or fugitives from their enemies, were safe from 
molestation for the time, once they had taken re- 
fuge either in the church itself or inside the 

The word tearmann was originally applied to 

214 Boundaries and Fences. j^chap. xii. 

tlioso termini or boundaries, and in this sense it 
exactly corresponds with Latin terminus ; but it 
was afterwards extended in meaning till it came 
to signify a sanctuary or asylum ; and this is the 
sense in Avhich it is generally used in Irisli writ- 
ings. It was often popularly used in a still more 
general way, to denote church lands, or lands 
belonging to a sanctuary, so that the expression 
" termon lands" is quite common in Anglo-Irish 

This word is still retained in a good many local 
names, marking the precincts of sanctuaries ; and 
in several of these the spots are almost as much 
venerated now as they were a thousand years ago, 
Lhougli they no longer alford an asylum to the 
riigitivo. Tlu) iiioniory ol' »St. P'ecliiii is preserved 
in the name of Termonfeckin — I'echiu's sanctuary, 
now applied to a parish near Drogheda. St, 
Ikrach, the founder of a church in the present 
county of Hoscommon, who was descended from 
Brian, king of Connaught in the fourth centuiy, 
nourished in the latter part of tho sixth century, 
and was a pu])il of St. Kevin of Glendalough. 
After leaving Glendalough, he crossed the Shan- 
non, and founded an establishment for himself at 
a place called Cluain-coirpthe [Clooncorpa], near 
the shore of the river, in the desert of Kinel Dofa, 
which afterwards attained to great eminence. The 
old name is now forgotten, and the founder, who 
is still greatly venerated, is commemorated in the 
present nanu) of tlio church and parish, Tcrmon- 
barry, St. JJcrach's sanctuary. 

The warden or lay superintendent of church land 
was termed the erenagh (Gaelic aircJieannacli) ; and 
this office was commonly held by members of the 
same family for generations. In some places the 
ternions have preserved the family names of the 

CHAP. XII.] Bomidaries and Fences^ 216 

erenagh instead of those of the patron saint. The 
church of St. Daheog or Daveog, one of the very 
early Irish saints, was situated in an island in 
Jjough Derg in Donegal ; but the termon lands 
holonging to tlio church lay on tho mainland, near 
the village of Pettigo. The hereditary wardens of 
this termon were the Magraths ; and accordingly 
the place is called in the Four Masters, sometimes 
Termon Daveog, and sometimes Termon Magrath. 
The latter is the name now used, though it is 
usually shortened to Termon ; the ruins of Termon 
castle, tho ancient residence of the Magraths, are 
still slandiug ; and tlio sanctuary has given name 
to tho little river Termon, flowing through Pettigo 
into liough Erne. 

The parish of Termonmaguirk in Tyrone was 
anciently called Tearmann-cuimnigh, which name 
Dr. Peeves (Adamn. 283) conjectures may have 
been derived from Ouimne, St. Columkille's sister. 
It got its present name from tho family of Mac- 
(jliiirk, who were for a long time its hereditary 
wardens. In like manner, the O'Mongans were 
the wardens of Tcrmonomongan in the west of the 
same county ; its ancient name being Killcerril, 
from St. CaireaU, the founder or patron of the 
church (Reeves : Colt. Vis. 72). Termon and 
Tarmon are the names of several places, indicating 
in every case the former existence of a sanctuary. 
Sometimes the word is foimd combined with other 
terms that have no reference to either patron or 
warden. Thus Termoncarragh, west of Belmullet 
in ]\Iayo, menus merely rough Termon, in refer- 
ence, no doubt, to the ruggedness of the ground. 
There is a place near the village of Annascaul in 
tho parish of Ballinacourty in Kerry, called Ballin- 
feniion, tlio town of ihe sanctunry ; and Ardtormon 
(sanctuary height) lies in tho parish of Dnuncliif 
in Sliw. 

216 lioundaries and Fences. [(UIap. xii. 

Hedge. Fdl [fnul] sij^iiilloH ii hcdi^o or wall; 
the fouce iluil sepuratod tlic lands of two adjacent 
occupiers ; and it is used in tliis sense in our oldest 
law tracts. In local names it often designates the 
land enclosed Ly a Jul; Lut (liis is allogellier u 
modern ap[)licatiou, Avliicli liad no existence in tlio 
Irish language. In this latter sense, it is und(;r- 
stood by the people of Fulnasoogaun, three miles 
north-west from Ballymote in Sligo, for the town- 
land is also called in English, Ropefield (digan, a 

This word is usually found in anglicised names 
very little changed from its original form ; as w^e 
see in Falearragh in Donegal, rougli or nigged 
fal — and here also the meaning has prohahly Lcini 
extended to a held; I^almachreed and lalmaciilly 
in Antrim, Mac liride's and ]\la(; (Jrilly's hedge or 
enclosure. The word is sometimes pronomiced in 
two syllahles [fcila), giving rise to Fallowbeg in 
Queen's County, south of Athy [beg, little) ; Fallow- 
ard and Fallowlea, both in the parish of Faughan- 
vale in Derry (high and grey), and Fallowvec; near 
Cushendall in Antrim, yellow hedge [Imidhc). 
There is a place in tin; parish of Islandeady in 
Mayo, which is mentioned in Ily Fiaclnach by the 
simple name Fal ; but it is now called Kilfaul, the 
wood of the hedge. 

Fallagh, Faulagh, and Faltagh are adjective 
forms, found in various counties, all meaning a 
place of hedges; and Faulcens in Mayo (little 
hedges) is a diminutive. One of the plural forms 
is fdlt((, which has given names to several ])lacc8 
now called Faltia, Falty, and Faulties ; Falty banes 
in Donegal, white hedges or enclosed fields. 

When it comes in the end of names in the geni- 
tive plural with the article, it is usually represented 
by loall, val, or vaul ; as in Cornawall near New- 

CHAP. XIII.] Various Artificial Works. 217 

bliss in Monaglian, Cor-na-bhfal, the little hill of 
the hedges ; TulljTiavall near Carrickmacross in 
Monaghau, same meaning. There is an ancient 
fort near the village of Kilkeelin the south of the 
coimty Down, called .Duuiiuval, the fortress of the 
walls or hedges ; and a little island near Slync 
head in Galway has the same name, but in the 
anglicised form, Doonnawaid. 

In an old map of Belfast engraved in fac-simile 
by IMr. Edmund Getty in the Ulster Journal of 
Arc]ia!ol()gy (Vol. III.), the district immodiatcly 
soulh of the town, in the angle between the black- 
stalf rivcM- and Ihe Lagan, is called Tuoghe-na-fall ; 
il isMritt(Mi 'riioglinarall in a grantol'Oar. I.; and 
in an Intjuisition of 1G05 (Reeves, Eccl. Ant. 346) 
it is called Tuogh of the Fall. The name of this 
old territory is still remembered : for it is now 
locally known as •'* The Falls," and the Falls Road 
is a well-known outlet of Belfast, leading through 
this district. Both the modern and ihe old forms 
cl" ilu^ name obvionsly point lo (he original Irish 
Tnaih-na-hhjal^ the district of the /a/6' — hedges or 



Bonds. In the First Volume* I enumerated 
Fcvoral terms for a road, and gave names derived 
irom each. There is yet another, which, though 
not so common as those, is yet used in the lan- 
guage, and deserves mention, as it enters into local 

* Part III., Chapter iv. 

218 Variotis Artificial Works, [chap. xiii. 

R6d [road] — old Irish rot — is oxactly l.lio same 
word as the English road ; but one is not derived 
from the other. For the English road comes from 
tlio Anglo-Saxon ; and we know that the Irish 
word has boon vised in the native language from a 
[)eriod long before English was known in this 
eountry. Iji the Glossary ol' Oorniae Mac, OiilhMian, 
a work of the end of the m'nth century, rot is 
given as one of the terms for a road ; and from 
the way in which he mentions it, the word appears 
to have been used to denote a road just broad 
enough for the passage of a single chariot. It is 
also constantly used in other Irish writings, such 
as the Book of Rights, the Topographical Poem of 
0'])ugan (who, for instance, designates a certain 
district as " Glann RuainuH na rdd syolhacJi," tlie 
Clann Ruainne of the flowery roads : p. 133), &c. ; 
and it still continues in use in the spoken lan- 

We have a good many local names into which 
this word enters. There are two townlands in 
Waterford and one in Wexford, called 1 hill inroad, 
the town of the road ; Lisnarodo near the vil- 
lage of Olonaslee in Queen's County, signilies the 
lis or fort of the roads; while tlie diminutivo 
Rodeen, and the shorter form, Roden — both 
meaning little road — are the names of several 
places in Cork, Roscommon, Waterford, and 

Causoivay. Tdchar, the usual term for a cause- 
way, has boon already dealt Avith ; but there is 
another word for the same thing, which is some- 
times used, namely, cobhas or cobhsa [couse or 
cousa] : in parts of the south of Ireland it is ap- 
plied to stepping-stones across a river. It gives 
name to Couse, about two miles south of the city 
of Waterford ; and to Tincouse in the parish of 

CHAP. XIII.] Various Artificial WorJcs. 219 

Powerstown, south of Goresbridge in Kilkenny, 
Tigh-an-chohhais, tlie house of the causeway. 

Mound or dyke. An artificial mound, dyke, or 
ranipart of any kind, is usually designated by the 
word cladh, pronounced c/yor cJce'm the south half 
of Ireland, and dee or claw in the north. The word 
is also applied to the raised fences so universal in 
Ireland, separating field from field. Wherever 
we find this word in the name of a place, we must 
conclude that it originated in some remarkable 
rampart, erected cither for purposes of defence, or 
<o separate two ndjacent territories. Many of 
these old mounds are to bo seen at the present day 
in A^arious parts of Ireland. 

Smith (Hist. Kerry, p. 219) mentions an ancient 
boundary of this kind called C/ee Ruadg [cladh 
ruadh, red mound), which begins at Oahercarbery 
near Kerry Head, runs north-east towards the 
river Cashen, reappears at the other side of the 
river, and crosses the mountain of Knockanoro 
into Limerick. There is a still more remarkable 
ancient boundary wall in the valley of the Newry 
river, which is now coimnonly called the Danes' 
Cast ; but the Danes had no hand in its construc- 
tion, for it was built to separate the ancient king- 
doms of Oriel and Ulidia, many ages before the 
Danes came to Ireland. In case of some of these 
old ramparts, the natives have a legend that they 
M'cro rooidd \ip by an enormous enchanted black ])ig. 

JMcar the village of Dallymoro in Westmeatb, 
there is a townland called Clyglass, green mound; 
and wo have Olybaun (whitish) in Galway, Cloyfin 
(white) near Coleraine, Clyroe and Clykeel in Cork 
(red, narrow), and Clynabroga in Limerick, the 
mound of the brogue or shoe (see p. 188). Porta- 
cloy — the port or landing-place of the rampart — 
is the name of a coast-guard station, and of a little 

220 Various Artificial Works. [oiiap. xiii. 

bay, near Bonwee Head on the norili-west point 
of Mayo. The word is exhibited with a dilt'erout 
pronunciation in Gortaclee near Cushendall in 
Antrim, tlie field of tlie mound ; and anotlier usiud 
form is seen in l^denchiw near the village of 
Ederny in the north of Fermanagh, the edan or 
hill-brow of tlie rampart. Gortaclivore near thu 
town of Tipperary, the liehl of tlie great dyke. 

The two words soiinach and tonnack both mean a 
wall, mound, rampart, or circular enclosure. As 
they are identical in meaning, and differ only in 
their initial letters, it seems probable that tonnach 
is merely a variety of sonnach, the t replacing s 
under the inihience of the article (1st Vol., Part I., 
c. II.) ; for sonnach is found in our oldest manu- 
scripts, as for example in Lchor-na-hUidhre. 

Sonnach gives names to those places now called 
Sonnagh and Sunnagh, in all of which some re- 
markable defensive rampart must have existed. 
But tonnach is far more common in names, and 
assumes such anglicised forms as tonnagh, tunny, 
tonny, tony, &c. Derrintonny in Monaghan and 
Fermanagh, represents the sound of l)oire-an-ton- 
naigh, the oak wood of the rampart ; Ardtonnagh 
near liisbellaw in Fermanagh, high mound. The 
names of Lissatunna, and Lissatunny (the fort of 
the rampart) in Clare, Gal way, Tipperary, and 
Westmeath, indicate that at each of these places 
there was a lis or fort defended by a circumvalla- 
tion of unusual magnitude. Sliantonagh and 
Shantony, old rampart [scan, old), are the names 
of places in Monaghan and Tyrone. Ballytunny, 
the town of the rampart, is the name of a town- 
land a little north of Arklow. In some of the 
preceding names the form may be sonnach, with 
the s eclipsed in the usual way ; but this make 
makes no difierence as to meaning. 

CHAP, xiii.] Various Artificial Worls. 221 

Trench. A trench, a deep furrow, a dry ditch, 
or pit, is usually designated by the word clah 
[clash], which is extremely common in the south- 
ern half of Ireland, as a component of local names, 
usually in <l\o anglicised form clash. It is seldom 
mot widi in tlio north. Chish constitules oi- begins 
the names of about 130 townlands ; and enters 
into many ^ombinaiions in other positions. Clash- 
roe in Cork, King's County, and Waterford — red 
trench — must have been so called from the colour 
of the clay ; Clashnamrock near Lismore, is 
Clais-na-mhroc, the trench of the badgers ; Clash- 
william in Kilkenny, William's furrow ; Clashy- 
gowan in Donegal, O'Gowan's furrow ; Clashna- 
gannifp near Cork city, the trench of sand, or 
simply sandpit. There is a little Tillage at the 
entrance to Glenmalure in Wicklow, and several 
townlands in other parts of Ireland, called Bally- 
naclash, the town of the trench. The ])lural of 
the word is anglicised Classes, the name of two 
townlands in Cork, between Cork city and Ma- 
croom, i. e. trenches. And the jiostfix ach is 
added (p. 3) in Classngh near Killaloe in Clare, 
and also in Classaghroe in Gal way and Mayo, red 

iMill stream. Among the several Irish words 
beginning with sr Avhicli denote a stream (such as 
sriith, srubh, &c.) srac ovsracihis used to designate 
n mill stream. Four nn'les cast of iho village of 
Arfhiiliiin in Golway, tluMCi is a liMhwiver that 
sinks info the ground, cfilled Owenshree, the river 
of tlio mill-rncn. But the word almost always 
enters into naines with tho s elipsed by t, which 
chnngcs it to fraj/, trea, Sec. This syllable, in the 
end of words, can usnnlly be distinguished from 
trai/ (traifjh) a strnnrl, by the form oi the arfielo ; 
for tra?/, a strand, is feminine, and takes na before 

222 Various Artificial Wor/ca. |;ciiAr. xiii. 

it, when tlio ariiclo is used at all ; wliilo tr((i/, 
wlieu it meaus a mill-race, is masculine, and takes 
one of the masculine forms of the article an, a, n, 
or in, before it. 

This is illustrated by the two names Gorbia- 
traw and Gortatray ; the former (in Donegal) is 
Qort-na-tragha, the field of the strand ; the latter 
(in Cork and Tyrone) Qort-a'-tsrae, the field 
of the mill-race. Inchintrea, near Cahersiveen 
in Kerry, is the river-holm of the mill-race ; 
and Derrintray {Doire-an-tsrae, mill-race wood) 
is the name of a place near the village of Clona- 
slee in Queen's County. There is a townland near 
the city of Armagh, and anollicr in the parish of 
Donaghmoynu in Monaghan, called Tray, in which 
t dis[)lac,OH .s under the influence of the article — an 
Israc, (lie uiill-nico. (8ce 'J'nnigli, 1st Vol.) 

Flank bridges. Among the various contrivances 
adopted for crossing rivers before stone bridges 
were introduced into this country, or before they 
came into general use, plank bridges deserve to be 
mentioned : — timber planks were laid across the 
stream from bank to bank, if it were narrow 
enough, or supported on rests of natui-al rock or 
on artificial piers, if the river was wide. We 
know that bridges of this kind are occasionally 
found in use at the present day in various remote 
parts of the country — I know a place in the county 
Wicklow, where one is now in coiirse of con- 
struction — and we have suflicicnt testimony both 
in history and in the names of placets, that they 
were much used in old times. Tlion^ \v;is a. ])lank 
bridge across the Shannon in the time of Ih'ian 
lioru, near his palace of Kincora, llitii is, cither 
at the very place where the bridge of Killaloe now 
stands, or near it. For we read in the " Wars of 
the Irish with the Danes," that, soon before the 

CHAT. XI If.] Various Artificial Works. 223 

battle of Clontarf, when Mailmorra, king of 
Leinster, retired in anger from Kincora, a mes- 
senger from Brian followed liim, and " overtook 
liim at the end of the plank-bridge of Killaloe 
on the cast sido " (" I eind clair Cilli Dalua :" 
p. 145). 

This ancient bridge is designated in the preced- 
ing passage by the word cldr, which means literally 
" a plank ;" its name and meaning are still pre- 
served in the name of the bishop's house at Kil- 
laloe — Clarisford ; and there is no better example 
of how an old Irish name may be newly varnished 
up so as to efface every vestige of its age and 
origin. For Clarisford is only a prctfy way of 
saying the ford of the clar or planlc ; though 1 
sujjposo there are few persons who suspect in the 
least how the name originated. 

It is probable, indeed, that many of these struc- 
tures scarcely deserved the name of bridges, but 
should be ratlior designntcd plank fords or plank 
crossings, \vJii(;]i is (ho vciy uauio tlicy comiiiouly 
go by in the Irish language ; for many of them 
oven still retain names partly formed from tlio 
word c/ar, a board ; while the other part of the 
name often consists of one of the Irish words for 
a ford. Moreover, the people in several of those 
places have a tradition that the names were de- 
rived from a plank bridge ; which we find to be 
the case, for instance, in the village of Clare on 
(bo river Fergus, find also in Clare Galway (see 
these places in First Vohime). 

A very good illustration of this class of names 
is Atliclare near ]^unh>or in Louth — the ford of 
the plank ; which takes the form of Aghclare near 
Graiguenamanagh in Kilkenny ; and still another 
fonu, Aclnre, in Mon(h nnd Carlow. An()(her 
c(pudly I'bariicd rislic nauio is lielclaro (for wJiicb 

224 Various Artificial Wurhs. [ciiAr. xiii 

see First Vol.) ; Benl;i('1ar<\ now Iho lunno ol' n 
bridge over the Leiiiniiwmldra river, al the head ol' 
Roaring Water bay in Cork, two miles from the 
village of Eallydehob, shows how the river was 
crossed before the bridge was built — lidl-a'-c/i/uir, 
the ford of the board. 

There is a little village near Oranmore in Gal- 
way, now called Clariid)ridge, but formerly Aih- 
cliath-Meadhraidhe [Aclee-Maaree], i.e. the Atli,- 
cliath or hurdle-ford of Maaree — this last being 
the name of the peninsula running into Galway/ 
bay west of the village. This was in old times a 
place of note, for it was the western terminus of 
the Esker Hiada, which separated the northern 
from the southern half of Ireland, the eastern 
terminus being the great Ath-cliath, or Dublin 
(see I'^isker Iviada. in I'irst Vol.). It is very pi'o- 
bable that the original ford of hurdles gave place, 
in course of time, to a better crossing made of 
planks ; for while the old name is among the 
people, tlie village has been long called in Irish 
l)roichc(id-a'-chl(iirin [Drohid-a-clareen] , thebridgo 
of the clarccH or little board, of which '* Olarin- 
bridgo " is asortol' half translation. 

The existence of such a bridge at some remote 
time over the river Bride, half a mile above t,he 
little village of Ovens, west of Cork cit^^ is proved 
by the name of the present bridge — Diehidnaglar- 
agh, the bridge of the planks. "Clare Ihidge' over 
the Clare river in the parish of Abington in Lime- 
rick, near the village of Newport, is now a good 
stone structure ; but both tlie present name, and 
the Irish, Droicliead-a -chlhir, of Avhichitis a trans- 
lation, show that the original bridge was made of 
planks ; and from this old bridge the river itself de- 
rives its name. Aughnaglaur is the name of a bridge 
crossing a small stream flowing from the Black- 

CHAP. XIII.] Various Artificial Works, 225 

stairs Mountains, in the parish of Killann in Wex- 
ford — Ath-na-gddr, the ford of the planks. 

Fold. The word cro has several meanings, one 
of which is a hut, hovel, or small house ; and this 
is its most general sense when it is found in names 
i.e. a hut, fold, or pen for cattle. The little build 
ing in Glendalougli, now called St. Kevin's kitclien, 
ifj called in the annnla Cro-Kcvin, St Kevin's hut. 
The most usual anglicised form of this word is 
seen in Culcrow in the parish of Agivey in Derry, 
near the Bann, \^\g angle or corner of the call le 
sheds ; and in Clasliacrow, the name of a pariKh 
in Kilkenny, C/(n's-(('-c/no, the trench of the slicd. 
]n Curragluu'ronacon near Abbcylcix in Queen's 
County, the first part currafjha, is the plural of 
cvrragh, a moor ; and the whole name fully writ- 
ten, is Currac/ia-cro-na-gcon, the moors of the hut 
of the hounds. 

Near Hoscrea in Tipperary, tliere are two ad- 
jacent townlands called IJarnagree and Pintown ; 
the former is understood to be Barr-na-gcvoitlic, 
the summit of the cattle-pens ; while the latter, 
Pintown, is a translation, which is incorrect, how- 
ever, in both members {jnn ior pen ; and toivn for 
top), and should have been made l^entop, or some- 
thing bearing the same signification. There is a 
little islet in the south-west part of Lough Ennel 
in AVestmeath, now called Cro-incha, and often 
Cormorant Island; where JMalachy II , king of 
Ireland, died in tlie year 1022, surrounded by the 
chief ecclesiastical dignitaries of the country. In 
the annnls it is cnlled Cro-iin'ft, wliicli me.'ins tho 
island of the hut or pen ; and I su])poso tliat tho 
name Cormorant Island took its rise from the be- 
lief that cro was English crow, a bird — " Cormo- 
rant Island " being intended as a sort of orna- 
mental translation of Cro-inis. 

vol- II. i(» 

226 Various Artificial Works, [chap. xiit. 

The word lias [lecce] means a hut ; generally 
applied to a hut, or ahcd, or pen, for auinmls : lias- 
lo, a cow-house : lias-caerach, a sheep pen, &c. 
There is a townlund in Leitrini called Drunilease 
which gives name to a purisli. This place is called 
in the old authorities Drtiiin-lias, and the meaning 
is determined by a gloss in a very ancient MS. 
quoted by Zeuss (Gram. Celt. 2G0) : — " Druinnn- 
daro, i.e. Uruim-lias,i.e. jugum-quercus, i.e.jugum- 
tuguriorum." This gloss proves that the more 
ancient name of the place was Dniim-daro, the 
ridge of the oak ; and that the present name sig- 
nifies the ridge of the huts. The parish of Tully- 
lease in the north of the county Cork is called in 
the annals Tulach-liaSy the hillock of the huts. It 
is to be observed that this word is pronoimced 
\orxg{leece), while lios, a fort is sounded short ; and 
so the two words may generally be distinguished 
in names. 

Ovens. Bdciis [baucoose] means an oven. It is 
given by O'Reilly (in the form bdciulhas) on the 
authority of Shaw's Gaelic Dictionary ; but that 
it has been in use in Ireland we may consider as 
certain, even though we had no other reason for 
concluding so than its existence in local names. 
It is obviously connected with the English word 
hake; but whether it is an oldlrish word, oris mei*ely 
borrowed from English, I Avill not now undertake 
to determine. It is seldom much disguised in 
names, except only that the h is commonly changed 
to V by aspiration. Its usual anglicised forms are 
Keen in Gortavacoosh in the jmrishof Abington in 
Limerick ; Gort-a-bhCicMis, the held of the oven ; 
in Coolavacoose in the north of Kildare, near 
Edenderry {cuil, a corner) ; and in Parkavacoosb 
{pdirc, a field), now the name of an. old fort near 
Jjixnaw in Kerry. 

CHAP. XIII.] Various Artificial Worh. ' 227 

Near tlie village of Kilmacow, in tlie parish of 
Dunkitt, in Kilkenn}'', there is a townland called 
Tinvacoosh, i.e. Tigh-an-lihacuis, tJio house of the 
oven, or simply baking-house. In this place there 
lived one time, according to a local legend, a rich 
baker, wlio employed liimsolf in cultivating a pmoll 
garden round his house, Avhencver he was able to 
withdraw from the cares of his oven. One day, 
after placing a batch of loaves in the heated oven, 
he left them to bake, and went as usual to his 
garden. The day was very sultry, and the sum- 
mer had been unusually dry ; so he filled a vessel 
■with water from a clear well hard by, and began 
to sprinkle his flowers and vegetables, which were 
drooping for want of a little moisture. lie had 
not been long employed in this manner, when a 
stranger, a man of grave and dignified appearance, 
walked up to him, and told him that his conduct 
was liighly imj^roper ; that he should not presume 
to interfere with the ordinary course of nature ; 
but ihat luisliould h-avo it entir(>ly in tlie hands of 
l*rovidence to regulate the distribution of drought 
and moisture. After administering tliis rebuke, 
ho walked slowly away, and disappeared among 
the trocs of a neighbouring wood. 

While the baker stood pondering on the stran- 
ger's words, he bethought him that it was time to 
look after his loaves ; so he went to the oven and 
drew them forth ; but found them, not baked, as 
he expected, but covered all over with cars of 
wheat, which had sprouted out in the oven, and 
appeared as green and flourishing as if they had 
grown naturally in the richest soil. This wonder- 
ful occurrence convinced him that the mysterious 
stranger was quite right ; and he resolved that he 
would never again venture to water his garden. 

The legend of the rich baker of Tinvacoosh 

228 Various Artificial Works, [chap. xiii. 

filiows the folly of watering plants, wliicli is plain 
enough indeed to many people without a miracle 
at all ; for is it not far pleasanter and wiser to sit 
at your ease on a hot summer day, and let the 
])lants take their chance, than to go toiling in a 
garden with a heavy watering-can in your hand ? 

Kilns. Sorn means a furnace, kiln, or oven. 
Thcword is often applied to a lime-kiln ; and its 
presence in names indicates the spots where kilns 
were once in use. The anglicised forms are easily 
recognised ; for they are generally identical, or 
nearly so, with the Irish ; as in Drumnasorn in 
the parish of Killaghtee in Donegal, and Aghna- 
Burn on the north side of Lough Key in Roscom- 
mon, the ridge and the field, of the kilns or fur- 
naces. The word staaids nlone in the name of 
Soruu near the village of ])rumlish in TjcMigford, 
and in Some, the name of a hill, four miles from 
Bunoi'ana in Donegal ; and the s becomes aspi- 
rated in Drumhurrin, the name of a lake and town- 
land in the parish of Templeport, in the north- 
west corner of Cavan. which means the ridge of 
the furnace. 

From teine [tinna] fire, and ael, lime, is derived 
teine-aeil [tinned], the usual name for a lime-kiln, 
signifying literally " fire of lime." The word is 
used by the Four Masters when they record that 
Flaherty O'Brollaghan, abbot of the great monas- 
tery of Derry, and his clergy, erected a tcine-acil 
measuring seventy feet every way, \\\ the year 
11G3. Tinned near lloss Carbery in Coik, and 
Tinned nour the villngo of Ivosenidlis in Queen's 
County, took their names from lime-kilns; and 
we find the word also in Knocknatinnywed near 
Newport Ma)'^o, and in Garrynatinned in Tip- 
perary, near Killaloe, the hill and the garden of 
the liine-kiln. 

rTT.vr. XIII.] Various Artificial JForh. 229 

Another word very like this is tenneal, a bonfire, 
from Avliich comes Ard-an-tcnnail, bonfire height, 
mentioned in the Annals of Longli Key as a for- 
tress belonging to the O'JMahouys, which has 
given name to a fownhind near tSknll in Cork, 
now corruptly called Ardintenant. 'J'lio name 
j)oints to an old custom of lightings bonfires on 
the top of the hill — probably on St. John's Eve. 

Prison. Carcair signifies a prison : it is of 
course the same as the Latin career, and is pro- 
bably derived from it. This word has given 
names to various places throughout the four 
provinces, now called Carker and Corker ; but. 
what kind of prisons they were, that have left 
their names on these places, or what their his- 
tory, we have now no means of determining. 
In some parts of Ireland, especially in Clare, 
the term is applied to a narrow pass between 
hills, which is only an extension of the original 
meaning — a nariow or (■()idin(Ml pass like a prison; 
and this may bo its meaning in some of tho 
preceding places. 

It was certainly nnderstood in this sctiso m 
**The Corker Head," a steep and narrow pass 
leading to the abbey of Corcomroe in the north of 
Clare, which is mentioned by the Four Masters, 
and called by them Carcair-na-gcJeireach [Cark- 
ernagleragh], the narrow pass of the clergy, a 
name by which it is still known. The clergy from 
whom the latter part of the name was derived 
were, no doubt, the monks of the great abbey of 
Corcomroe. The word carcair must have been 
applied in its original sense to Inishcorker, one oi 
the numerous islands at the mouth of the river 
Fergus in Clare, whoso name signifies the island 
of the prison. 

Door. The word dorm [durrus] signifies a J,ior <.»l 

230 Various Artificial Worh. [chap. xtu. 

gate and gives name to some places : but (lioiigli I 
have included it in this chapter, it seems to me that 
the doors from which places took their names were in 
most instances natural features. There is a towidand 
in the parish of Cloone in Leitrim, called Gubador- 
ris, the guh, snout, or point of the door. But the 
word g-enorally enters names in the plural form ; of 
which Dorsy, the name of live townlands near 
Newtownhamilton in Armagh, is a good example, 
meaning simply doors, gates, passes, or approaches. 
It is probable that these townlands represent the 
doirse mentioned in the Annals of Lough Key 
(I. 270) : " Ar slicihthibh Shhe Fun id onis ar doir- 
sihliliinhna." — "On the pusses ol' SI ievcFuad ami on 
the doors of Emania." Dursy Island olf the west 
euaut of Cork, exhibilsiu its name the same word, 
doirse, doors ; but why this name was given to the 
island I cannot tell. The name, however, is 
modern: the old name is Oilean-Bhaoi-Bheirre, i.e., 
the island of Baei of Bear, from the old fortress 
of Dun-Baei or Dimboy, well knoA\ii in later ages 
as the great stronghold of tho O'Sullivans. 

Sfpuic/ire. Subaliair in i^iYcn in Coiniuc's Gh 8' 
sary as meaning " a graveyard of a plague, i.e. a 
gnat liehl in which tho pagans used to bury ; " 
and Cormac derives it from tho Latin sepaltara. 
Tbere is just one place in Ireland taking its name 
from this word, viz., the parish of Subulter near 
Kanturk in Cork. 

Port. The Irish word port has several mean- 
ings ; but of theso tlioro are only two which it is 
necessary to notice here, namely, 1. A bank or 
landing-place, a harbour, port, or haven ; 2. A 
fortress or military station, a royal fort, a chief- 
tain's residence. The word is used in theso two 
senses in both the ancient and modern language ; 
and I will give one example of each appUoatioq 

CHAP. xiTT.] Various Artificial Worh. 23l 

from old autlioiitics. It statids for " landing- 
place" in a passage in Lehor-na-hUidhre (see 
Kilk. Arch. Jour., 1870-1, p. 390), in wliicli 
Cnchullin relates : — " It was in that manner I 
swam the ocean until I was in the (purt) harbour ;" 
while in an ancient poem on the death of Malachy 
(king of Ireland), quoted by the Four Masters, afc 
A.n. 1022, it is used as Bynonymous with dun, a 
fortress : — 

" Three hundred ports had the king i which flesh and food 
were given ; 
Guests from the king of the elementa were in each dun of 

The compounds ceannpJiort amlbai/rphori (canfort, 
ballyfort), were also used to denote either a chief 
city or a chief residence. 

The word always bears one or the other of these 
two meanings in local names ; but it is often not 
easy to distinguish between them. It may bo 
stilled generally, however, that whoi the ^pot 
whose name is wholly or partly formed from this 
term, is situated on the sea-shoro or on a river or 
lake, the word means a landing place ; otherwise 
a chief residence. 

Port forms or begins the names of about 140 
townlands, parishes, and villages. Portadown 
must have taken its name from an earthen di(n on 
the shoreof thcBann : — Por^-a'-f/w?';?, the landing- 
place of the fortress. There was once a remark- 
able castle belonging to the O'Maddens, on the 
banks of the Shannon, in the parish of Lorrha in 
Tipperary, north of Lough Derg, which is called 
by the Four Masters Port-an-tolchain, the bank or 
landing-place of the little tulach or hill. In the 
Down Survey the name is written Portolohane ; 
and it still survives in the much-dissuised form of 

232 VarioHH Artificial TTorha. [ohav. xiir. 

Portland — now (ho name of a townland and resi- 
dence. 'JMh'i'e is u place called I'oi tcnislia on the 
Shannon, near (Jastlcconnell, which the l*'our Mas- 
tors, when recording tlie erection there, in 1506, 
oC a woo(l(!n bridge, by one of the O'Briens, cull 
Port-cvoisi, the landing place of the cross. 

In the eastern part of tlie connty Clare, port ia 
prononnced as if written pdirt [part], and this 
pronunciation is reflected in the names of some 
places on the Shannon, from Limerick to Killaloe, 
which are now called Paiteen, a diminutive form 
isignif3'ing little landing-place. 

Fairy palace. Falas or pailis signifies a palace or 
royal residence, a loan word from the Tjatin {pala- 
tiiim). AVe have it pretty often reproduced in 
names, and it ia always applied to a circular fort 
or //.s ; but as modern stone caslles sometimes cumo 
to be erected on or near the sites of the forts, the 
name naturally descended to them, though this is 
not the original apj)lication of the word. More- 
over in later times, after the abandonment of the 
old lisses as residences by their human inhabitants, 
and since the fairies have taken possession of them, 
the word pailis is generally understood to mean a 
fairy palace or residence. 

There are between twenty and thirty townlands 
called Pallas, Palace, and Pailis, three anglicised 
forms of this word ; and all these places took their 
names from fairy forts or linses. Pallaskenry ia 
Limerick was so called as being situated in the 
old territory of Kenry or Caonraighe. In Sligo, 
the term is found in the form of Piialeesh, wiiich 
is the name of a townland ; and in the end of 
names the p is occasionally changed to / by aspi- 
rat'on, as in Cappafaulish in Kilkenny, the 
gardeu-plot of the fairy fort. The name of Caltra- 
pallas, in Galway (the Caltragh or burial-ground 

CHAP. XIII.] Various Artificial Works. 23^5 

of ilio fairy palace) shows tliat an old fairj^ fort 
was adopted as a burial-place, which has been 
done elsewhere in Ireland. 

Moiasfrrics. The Irish word, maimster, which 
sipiii(i(<H a monastery or abbey, ismerelj^ the Ijatin 
u/oiKisfcriifni, b(>rrow(>d, like several oilier eccleslas- 
iical terms. Many of the old abbeys to which the 
word was originally applied, still retain it in their 
names, and it is generallj^ very little disguised by 
letter changes. 

tSaint Eimhin or Evin founded a monastery on 
W\Q brink of the river Barrow, on a spot wliich 
before liis time liadbeen called Jios-glas, green ro.s 
or wood ; but which took from him the name of 
Ilainisirr-Eimhin — so written in all ancient autho- 
rities — Evin's monastery, now Monasterevin. He 
was a native of ]\Iunster, and was one of four 
brothers, all ecclesiastics, sons of Eoghan, who 
was eighth in descent from Olioll Olura king of 
Munster in the third century. He lived in the 
beginning of the sixth century ; and he is believed 
to have been the writer of a Life of St. Patrick in 
a mixture of Irish and Lalin, which is still extant, 
and Avhich on account of its being divided into 
three parts, each having a proper introduction of 
its own, is now well known as the " Tripartite 

Monasierboice in the county Louth, near 
Drogheda, now so celebrated for its abbey ruins, 
its round tow(>r, and ils niagnificent stone crosses, 
was founded by 15uito or lioetliins, bishop andabbot, 
who is b(>lieved lo have been ono of St. I'ntrick's 
disciples, and who died, according to the Annals 
of Ulster, A.D. 522. This great establishment 
continued to flourish for many ages afterwards ; 
and amongst its many remarkable men, was tho 
celebrated hisloriiin and poet, Elann, or as ho ia 

234 Various Ariijicial IFoiIiS. [ciiAr. xttt. 

commonly called, Flann of the ]\[onasleiy, avIio 
died in 105G. The place is called in liishantlioii- 
ties Mainiater-Buithe ; but the th of the founder's 
namo litis been changed to c in the modern form, 

In that part of the parish of Athleague lying 
west of the Shannon, in the county Qalvvay, 
there is a townland called " Monastcrnalea or 
Abbey grey," of which the second name professes 
to be a translation of the first, which it is not ; for 
the full Irish name is Mainister-na-liatha, the 
abbey of the grey (friars). This term occurs in 
several other names, and the forms are slightly 
varied : — Aghmanister is the namo of a place in 
the parish of Abbeymahon, in the south of Cork, 
meaning the field {achadh) of the monastery ; 
TuUyminister in Cavan {talach, a hfll) ; Btdly- 
ministragh in the parish of Kilmood in Down, 
which in certain old documents is written Bally- 
monesteragh (Reeves : Eccl. Ant. 198), the town 
of the monastery ; and Ballyminstra in Antrim, 
which is the same name. 

Schools. Sooil signifies a school, and it has given 
name to some townlands. There is a parish in 
Kilkenny, taking its name from a townland called 
Portnaskvilly, the port, or bank, or landing-place 
of the school. In another part of the same county 
is a place called Tinnascolly, i.e. Tiijh-na-scoile, 
the house of the school, or simply the schoolhouse. 
The same name, with the addition of ait, a site, 
is seen in AttinaskoUia in Mayo, the site of the 
schoolhouse. Sculleon, little school, is a townland 
near Cloyne in Cork. 

Head Residence. The word Ceanannus, which 
has been long in use, is very satisfactorily ex- 
plained by the Four Masters, in a passage recording 
the foundation of Ceanannus, now Kells in Meath, 

ciiAr. XIII. i Various Artificial W'orks. 235 

in A.M. 3991. They state :— " It was by Fiar/ia 
Finnaikhcs [kii)g of Ireland] tliat JDnn-chui/c- 
Sibri)inc, tliatis, Ccananuus, was erected ; " andiliey 
go on to say tliat, wherever this king erected a 
li!il)ilnii(>i\ for liiinselP, lin called it by tlio naino 
Ccanaiinus, which means head abode. From this 
it is obvious that tlie structure designated in the 
first instance by the name Ccananuus, was a dun 
or circular earthen fort in which the king resided. 
The Ccanaiinua now under notice continued to 
bo a royal residence domi to the sixth century, 
when king Derniot Mac Kerval granted it to St. 
Columkille ; after which time it lost its pagan 
associations, and soon became a great ecclesiastical 
centre. The old pagan name Cean annus was how- 
ever retained as long as the Irish language was 
used : but by those who spoke English it was 
modified to Kenlis, which was considered an equi- 
valent name, Kenlis meaning head lis or fort. The 
literal translation of this has given name to the 
demesne and mansion of Ileadfort, from which 
again the Marquis of Ileadfort has taken his title. 
Kenlis was afterwards shortened to the present 
name, Kells. There is still an ancient earthen 
fort in the demesne of Ileadfort, which is believed 
to be the original royal residence that gave name 
to the place. 

From the passage of the Four Masters quoted 
above, wo may infer that there were several places 
called Ccananuus ; but I am aware of only one 
otiier place of the name in Ireland, and it has been 
similarly anglicised; namely, Ccananuus, now 
Kells, in the county Kilkenny. There are other 
places called Kells in Antrim, Clare, Kerry, and 
Limerick ; but these are all probably the angli- 
cised plural of cill, namely, cealla [kclla], signi- 
fying clnirches. 

230 The Sun. [chap. xiv. 

There is a towiilaiid near Killarney called Tlead- 
fort, giving- name to a railway station ; and another 
called lleadiord in the county of lieitrim ; but in 
botli these cases the original Irish name is Lis- 
iia-(jceann, the fort of the heads ; leading to the 
])resumption that the places were once vised for 
executing criminals. The name of ITeadford in 
(luhvay has still a did'erent origin. Tii tho " Cir- 
cuit of Murkertagh Mac Neill," it is called Ath- 
niac-Cing, and in another ancient authority, 
quoted by Ilardiman in his edition of O'Flaherty's 
"lar Connaught" (p. 371), Ath-mic-Cing, which 
signifies the ford of the son of Cing, or Kinn. The 
present Irish name is a shortened form of this, 
viz., Ath-dnn ; and as cinn is the genitive of cccnin, 
the head, the name was erroneously believed to 
signify the ford of the head, and translated accord- 
ingly, Ileadford. 


Our ancient annals relate that when the monarch 
llugony the Great, who reigned three centuries 
before the Christian era, divided Ireland into 
twenty-five parts among his twenty-five children, 
"he exacted oaths [from his subjects] by the sun 
and moon, the sea, the dew, and colours, and by 
all the elements visible and invisible, and by every 
olenu!iit which is in heaven and on earth, that tho 
sovereignty of Erin should be invested in his des- 
cendants for ever." And Tuathal the Acceptable, 
king of Ireland in the second century of the 
Christian era, exacted a similar oath in imitation 
of his ancestor llugony. 

CHAP. XIV.] The Sun. 237 

The monarcli Laeghaire [Leary], in whose time 
St. Patrick came to Ireland, reigned from a.d. 
428 to 458. In the ancient account of his death 
given in Liher na hUidhre (the book of the 
l)ro\vu cow) it is related that there existed from 
old times a prophecy, that ho would meet his 
death somewhere between Eire and Alha (Ireland 
and Scotland) ; and accordingly, although his 
father, Niall of the Nine Ilostages, Dathi, and 
others of his predecessors, were celebrated for 
their naval expeditions, Loeghaire quite avoided 
the sea, and carried on his wars within the limits 
of the island. 

In the year 457 ho invaded Leinster, in order 
to exact the oppressive tribute called the boiiimha 
[boru], claimed from that province by the kings 
of Ireland ; and the Leinstermen defeated him in 
a battle fought at a place called Afh-dara (oak- 
ford) on the river Barrow, and took him prisoner. 
The old account goes on to state, that they re- 
leased him alter lie had sworn by (ho sun and 
moon, the water and air, day and night, sea and 
land, that ho would never again demand the 
hovuwha. The very next year, however, he made 
an incursion into Leinster to enforce the tribute, 
and on his march from Tara, seized a prey of cowa 
at Sidh-Ncaclitan [Shee-Nectan — the hill of Car- 
bery at the source of the Boyne] ; but as soon as 
ho had arrived at a place called GreUoch Daphill 
(the marsh of the two slceds), by the side of Cai^fii, 
situated between tico hills called Eire and Alba, he 
was struck dead by the sun and wind for having 
violated his oath ; and in this manner the pro- 
phecy was fulfilled. 

Tliese accounts show that the Irish, like most 
other ancient nations, observed natural objects and 
natural phenomena with attention, and regarded 

238 The Sun. [chap. xiv. 

them with a certain degree of admiration and awe. 
lu the Lives of the Saints and other Irish writings 
we have ample evidence that various natural 
objects were worshipped by the pagan Irish. 
But this worship was only partial, confined to 
individuals or to the people of certain districts, 
each individual, or family, or group, having some 
special favourite object. Tlicro is good reason to 
believe that it was not the mere nuiterial object 
they worshipped, but a spirit or genius that was 
supposed to dwell in it : for the Celts of Ireland 
peopled almost all remarkable natural objects 
witii preternatm-al beings. 

It has been already stated (vol. i., p. 450) that 
wells were worshipped. Tliat tire was another 
object of worship with some peo})le appears from 
a passage in Muirchu's Jjife of 8t. Patrick written 
in tlie seventh century. During the saint's contest 
with the draids at Tara, Xing Laegaire proposed 
that a book belonging to one of tlie druids and 
one belonging to St. Patrick should be thrown 
either into water or into fire ; " and whichever 
book comes out unharmed " — said the king — 
" we will believe in the owner of that book." But 
the druid declined, declaring that Patrick wor- 
shipped water and fire as gods. This indicates 
that the worship of these two elements was fami- 
liar to people at the time. 

A passage in " St. Patrick's Confession," and 
another in " Cormae's Glossary " show that some 
people also worshipped the sun. But many writers 
of the last two centuries have gone altogether 
to excess in their 8i)eouhitions regarding sun- 
worsldp. They erroneously supposed that the 
round towers were temples of the sun ; and that 
cromlechs were pagan altars iu which human 
victims were often immolated to " the great 

CHAP. XIV.] The Sun. 239 

luminary " : but these cromlechs are now known 
to be merely tombs. 

The matter that particularly concerns us here, 
however, is this: — It is known that many places 
through the country derive their names from the 
Bun, as will be shown furtlier on : and this circum- 
stance was supposed by these speculative antiqua- 
ries to indicate that at these spots the sun was 
worshipped. But there is nothing remarkable or 
mysterious in a place being named from the sun 
any more than from any other natural object. 
There is scarcely a class of objects, an element, or 
a phenouiouon, in physical nature, as I iiave, I 
think, fully proved in this and the preceding 
volume, from which places have not derived luvmi s, 
and that in a manner, and for reasons, perfectly 
natural and intelligible.* We have names con- 
taining the word iiiscc, because the places were 
unusually watery ; high or exposed spots got 
names formed from gneth, wind ; elevated moun- 
tain p^aks or gorges, subjoot to thick mists, are 
described by the word ceo, a fog— and so on 
through all nature. Just in the same natural 
way, sunny spots, places on the south or south- 
west sides of hills, sheltered from cold winds and 
warmed by the sun's rays, were named from the 
sun. I know many spots of this kind, so named, 
all over the country : this is the explanation uni- 
versally given by the most intelligent of the 
peasantry ; and it is fully borne out hy the 
physical aspect of the localities. 

Whoever concludes on such testimony as this, 
that the sun was adored at a particular place, 
might with equal force of reasoning, infer that 
almost all objects, natural and artificial, were dei- 
fied and worshipped. Besides, there is no more 
• See Vol., Tart IV. ; and Chaps, xiv. to xxii. of tins volume. 

240 The Sun. [chap.xiv. 

significnnco in such anaiiio as Corn'gnngrcna (sun- 
rock) than in {Suuville, iSunlawn, tSunuybank, 
Sunnyside, and many other like l^uglish nainea ; 
unless we are to believe that while English speaking 
people often gave descri])tivc names to sunny spots, 
those speaking Irish, for some strange reason, 
never did any such thing ; or that there is some 
mystery hidden away in the dim recesses of the 
Irish language that is not to be found in such u 
plain language as English. 

Gr'ian [green] is the Irish word for the sun, 
and like the German soune, it is a feminine noun. 
Its genitive is yreine [greana], and this is the form 
that most commoidy appears in names. In the 
parish of Monamolin in \\''exford, there are two 
adjacent townlands called IMonagreany, which 
re[)rcscnts the Irish j\Idiii-iu(-(jrci/ic, the bog of tho 
sun or sunny bog ; ]<]denagrena near Inishkeen, a 
little to the west of Dundalk, is the ciidan or hill- 
brow of the sun ; and Inchagreana in the parish 
of Kilfeacle near the town of Tipperary, is sunny- 
island or river holm ; Ardnagrena, sunny height. 

In many anglicised names of this class, the word 
is shortened to one syllable ; as in TuUagreen near 
Carriglohill in Cork, Tu/(ic/t-(/)-(}iiic, the hill of tho 
sun, and Curragrean near Oranmore in Galway, 
with a like meaning (cor, aroimdhill). Sometimes 
the formation of the word indicates directly that 
the place received its name on account of its aspect 
with regard to the sun ; as we see in Coollegrean, 
the name of some places in Kerry, Leitrira, 
and Mayo — Cul-le-grein, literally " back to iho 

Auburn in Westmeath, Goldsmith's "Deserted 
Village," has probably got this name by some 
fanciful adaptation of its old Gaelic name, Avhich 
is Aghanagrena, the achadh, or field of the sun, 

CiiAP. XIV.] The Sun. 1>4I 

or sunny-field. Perhaps Goldsmith had the old 
name in his mind when he wrote : — 

•• Where smiling epriug its earliest visit paid, 
And parting summer's lingering blooms delayed." 

In the year 1785 Mr. Theopliilus O'Flanagan 
published (in the Trans. R.I.A.) an account of a 
remarkable monimient — a sort of cromlech — situ- 
ated on Callan mountain in Clare ; with a copy 
and translation of an Ogham inscription on it, 
setting forth that a chieftain named Conan lay 
buried beneath the great flag. This monument is 
slill to bo seen, and Sir Samuel Ferguson has, I 
tliink, shown conclusively that the inscription is 
gonuiuc.* But O'Flauagan went further than 
this: ho forged an Irish quatrain and cited it as 
a, part of an ancient poem called " The battle of 
Gabhrn," to the elTect that Conan (the well known 
Conan Mail of Irish romance) had gone before 
the battle to worship the sun at JMount Callan, 
and that he was slain and buried on the side of 
the monntiiln under a fl:ig, on wbicli his nnino was 
inscribed in Ogham, t J ust under the brow of the 
mountain on which the monument is placed, there 
is a small lake in a hollow, called Lough lioolyna- 
greana — the booly or dairy place of the sun ; and 
it received this name from two circumstances : 1, 
that at some former time, the people of the sur- 
rounding neighbourhood used to pasture their 
herds and flocks, and milk their cows and goats on 
its banks ; 2, that the whole valley in which it 
lies h;is a sunny southern aspect. It was, no doubt, 
the existence of this name that started in OTlana- 
gan's fcrlile brain tl\e idea of inventing the stiinza 
about Conan's sacrifice and death ; and for some 
years after the publication of his paper, it was 

• Sep I'roc R.T.A. Vol. I., Ror. II., p. ir.(). 
fSoo O'Donoviin's Irish Oram., lutrod. xlvii. 

VOL. II. 17 

242 The Sun. [chap. xiv. 

goiiorally considered Ihat llio Callan nioniinioiit 
alVorJed conclusive proof of the provaloiico of auu 
worship in all places named from the euu. 

The name liuaile-na-greine is not confined to 
Callan mountain ; wo find it in the parish of Kil- 
cumreragli in Westmeath, where, however, llio 
loolij is cori-uplod to hally, and Ihe full name is 
icprcsontcd by iJallynagrcnia. There aro names 
similar to this last in other parts of Ireland, but 
they are somewhat differently derived. Balljnia- 
grena near Dunleer in Louth, signifies the sunny 
hall}/ or townland, and it is correctly translated 
►Suntown in the name of a residence ; Bally- 
grcany in the of Dunoany, about three miles 
from the town of Xildare, has the same meaning; 
but in l^allygreany in the parish of Clontibret in 
]\lonaghan, (hu balli/ represents leahich, a pass: — 
the sunny pass or road. 

The word, grian in local names sometimes com- 
memorates, not the sun but a woman ; for though 
primarily meaning the sim, it was anciently (being 
a feminine noun; p. 240) a favourite female name, 
applied of course in the sense of brightness and 
btaiity. Kilgrcana near Qalbally in Limerick, is 
understood by the people to mean Grian's church; 
but there are other places in Carlow, ]\[ayo, and 
A\''aterford, with this name, in the slightly varying 
forms of itilgreany and Kilgraney in which pro- 
bably the first syllable represents coill; thewliolo 
meaning sunny wood. 

The most intcrosling example of the occurrenco 
of this word in local nomenclature as u wouuin's 
name, is Knockgrean, a hill rising over the village 
of Tallas-Greau in the county Ijimerick. The lady 
" Grian of the bright cheeks," from whom thia 

Elace was named, was an enchantress; and the 
ill, which before her time was called Cnoc-na- 

The iSnn. 

gcuradh [Knocknagurra], the till ^* __ .,^arii- 
pions (see p. 104), was lier favourite haunt. 

Five young champions, the sous of Conall, came 
one lime to attack the sidh [shee] or fairy mansion 
of Grian's father, Firae; and they destroyed the 
.svV///, mid shnv besides one of Uiian's young limid- 
nmids. Eut they paid dearly for this cruel deed ; 
for (he vcngcfiJ sorceress overtook tliem on (heir 
retuiii, and transformed them all into hadgers. 

When Conall heard of the fate of his five sons, 
he set out immediately, bent on vengeance, to seek 
for the enchantress ; and when he arrived at 
Knocknagurra, he found her asleep on the hill. 
She started up as he approached, and a contest 
took place between them, in which Conall nearly 
succeeded in killuig her. When she found herself 
worsted in the fight, she planned a stratagem to 
bring him within the power of her sorcer}'^; and 
slie said, pretending to recognise hiin then for the 
first time, " Is it thou, O Conall ? " Conall an- 
swered, "It is I." "Come near mc," said she, "that 
I may give thee a blessing." So Conall came close 
to her, and she immediately shook ashes on him. 
He retired at once from her presence, but the 
withering spell of the ashes overcame him ; and 
when he had come to a certain mound he died 
there, so tliat the mound was named from him, 

Grian had no better fortune ; for no sooner had 
Conall left her than she lay down and died of her 
wounds. And ever since, the hill has borne the 
luuiio of Ciwc-Grcinc or Xnockgrean, in memory 
of the enchantress, Grian of the bright cheeks. 
About a quarter of a mile from the village of 
Pallas- Grean, which lies at the foot of the hill, 
there is a, large fort, now called the moat of Pallas ; 
this is the original sidh or fairy mansion of Firuo 

2 14 The Sun. [chap. xtv. 

and his claughfcv : niid from it tlio Yi'llajio took 
i(s iiaiiio: — rallus-Greaii, i.e. the i'airy-palace ol: 
the lady Grian (sec page 232). There is also an 
ancient fort on the top of the hill, which now 
goes by the name of Seetin (see 1st Vol. Part II., 
c. 1.) ; and this was no douht Grian's own resi- 

The enchantress Grian has heen long foi'gotteu 
in the neighbourhood ; and the name of the place 
is now supposed to be derived directly from the 
sun. Accordingly the townland lying adjacent 
to the village on the west side, is called Sunglen ; 
and near the village of " Pallas-Grean New," at 
the Pallas station of the Walerford and Ijiuicrick 
railway, is the towidand and rcsitlouceot' tSiinville ; 
both named \ni(lor \\\() ciroiuHxis impression that 
Knochgrcau meant the hill ol" the sun. 

Ikit to retiirn to the badgers. After their trans- 
formation, they betook themselves to the nearest 
badger warren, and lived in all respects just like 
the general run of badgers. Many years after 
this, it happened that Cormac, who was after- 
wards called Cormac Gaileng, made a great feast 
for his father Tadg [Teig], at a place called Bres- 
Icch; and he succeeded in procuring one hundred 
of every four-footed beast for this feast, except 
badgers only. Now the want of badgers seems to 
have sorely troubled the heart of his father ; for 
Avc read in the ancient legend, that he called his 
son into his presence, and connnanded \\m\ to go 
forth and procure a siipi)ly of these animals for 
the IvMst. 

(Jormac set out in obedience to his father's (lir(>c- 
tions; and before he had gone far, he met Odrau 
thedruid, the son of the charioteer I^aidir. " What 
dost thou seek ? " said Odran. " I am seeking for 
badgers for my father's feast," answered Cormac; 

CHAP. XIV.] The Sun. 245 

" tell nie, I pray tliee, are there any to "be pro- 
cured." " It lias been foretold," answered Odran, 
" that I sliould procure badgers for thee, and I 
l<now that now the lime is come Avhen the pro- 
phecy is (() bo fuHillod. Tn former dayf^*,'' he 
continued, "the sorceress, Grian of the bright 
cheeks, threw her magic spells on the young war- 
riors who had destroyed her father's mansion, and 
transformed them into badgers ; and these I will 
procure for thee to bring to thy father's feast." 

(So Cormac and the druid went to the fortress of 
the badgers, and called on thcjn to come forth at 
once ; but Ihe badgers, who still retained some 
A'cstigos of ih(>Ir huuum intelligence, llally refused 
to do any such thing. 

The wily druid, however, devised a cunning 
stratagem to draw them forth ; and he said to 
Cormac, " They will never come out on thy pro- 
tection, for they distrust thee ; but give them the 
guaraut(Hi of tliy father's spear, and they will no 
jonger bcsitnle." ('oniiac, ihvn went back, niul 
brought Ihe spear Avitliout his father's knowledge ; 
and he came to the moutli oC the badger-fortress, 
and solemnly guaranteed their safety on the 
honour of the spear. Now the badgers knew 
quite well that no one had ever dared to question 
llie honour of Tadg's spear ; so they foolishly 
came out in a body without further parley ; and 
no sooner did they show themselves, than Cormac 
and the druid fell on them and made short worlc 
of them. 

"When the'feast came on, Tadg felt in his heart 
a a miaccountable loathing at sight of the badgers; 
and no wonder indeed, seeing that these same 
badgers were his own near cousins ; for both he 
ai\d Ihey were \ho gn^ai-graudcliihlreu of Owen 
^iore, that renowned king of Muuster, who fovced 

246 The Atmosj)here. [chap, xv. 

Conn of tlio liuudi'od buttles to divldo Ireland 
with Liiu. And when lie heard in what a 
treacherous manner Cormac had slain the badgers, 
and how he had violated the honour of his spear, 
he was tilled Avith anger and indignation, and ho 
iiinncdiately expelled the young man from his 
house. Cormac iled to Connaught, where ho ob- 
tained a large territory for himself and his de- 
scendants ; but after this event he was known by 
the reproachful name of Cormac Gailehg, or 
Cormac of the dishonoured spear.* 



Wind. Places in a high or bleak situation, or 
otherwise exposed to the wind, are often designat- 
ed by the word (j«c/// [gwee or gee] which is tho 
Irish word for wind. It occurs in the end of 
names in the genitive (jacitlie [geeha] which is 
correctly represented by the anglicised forms 
(jccha, geehtj, though it is often reduced to the 
single syllable gee — all easily distinguished. 

Dungeeha is the name of a place near Newcastle 

* Gae, a spear ; lang, deceit. An abstract of this ancient 
lej'cml is given in Corniac'a Glossary, voce Oalltuft. It is given 
fully in the Mti. 11. 3, 18, T. 0. D. ; fr«>iu which it has been 
publislied with a translation, by Dr. Whitley Stokes, in his 
"Three Ir. Glossaries," p. xlii. The barony of Oallen in 
Mayo derived its name from Cormac Gaileuy, and for this, 
and for a historical account of the various personages men- 
tioned in the legend, see First Vol. Part 11., c. ii. For other 
place-names derived from Grian, as a woman's name,see Lough 
Graney and Granny's bed in 1st Vol. 

ciiAr. XV.] The Afmofipltere. 247 

in Limerick, wliicli took the name from an old 
fort : — Dun-gacithc, the fortress of the wind ; 
Brumnagce in the parish of Balliutoy in Antrim, 
east of JJuslimUls, the hill-ridf^e of the wind ; 
'J\illynn<^(>o in Down and Dorry, windy hill ; 
Jjatgce in tlio parish of J<liriglo Trouj^Ii, JMoniifj^- 
han, the Jaght or sepulchral mound of the wind. 
]*ilovated hleak mountain passes very often get the 
name of Barnageehy or Ijarnanngeehy tlie hania 
or gap of the wind ; which is frequently trans- 
lated into the English names Windgap and Wind- 
gate. I know of only one place in all Ireland 
where a windmill is expressly commemorated in a 
name, viz., ]\Iullingee near Granard in Long- 
ford : — Muilmnn-gacitlie, the mill of tlie wind, 
i. e. windmill. 

In ^Meath and some of the adjoining counties, 
the final th is often retained in the modernised 
names, and fully pronounced; as in JMulgeeth, 
two miles soutli of Johnstown in the north of 
Jvildarc, the liill {dihI) of tlie Avind. 

The diminutive gacthdn [geehan, geehaun] is 
used to d(niote a hroezc ; we find it in Ardgeclian 
near I'ortaferry in Down, and in Ardgeliane, which 
occurs twice near the south coast of Cork, the 
height of the hreeze. 

Gacth is sometimes applied to an arm of the 
sea ; of which examples will be found in the next 

IScidcdn [shcdawn] signifies pufiing or hlowiug 
(a diminutive of seid, to blow) ; as in (he term 
snrnchta-scidcdin [snaghta-sliedawn, snow of the 
wind] ap[)licd in some parts of Ireland to dry 
snow raised from the ground and blown about by 
gusts of wind. It occurs in local names todesig- 
na((> breezy places, or ])laces which are coiisifh'icMl 
subject to violent windy puila or gusts. h\ tho 

218 The y. viosphere [chap. xv. 

parisli of Taghsheenod in Ijongford, thvco inilos 
t'roiu Arilagh, thoro is a townluncl taking i(s naiiio 
from a little lake called liOu irhshecdau, tbe lake of 
the blowing or blasts ; Sedenrath near Kells in 
Meath, gusty rath, or fort, an attempted translation 
oi Rath-seidedin ; Knocksedan, two miles west of 
Swords in Dublin, where there is a very beautihd 
ancient flat-topped fort, tlie hill of the blast. 

This word, however, more commonly begins with 
a ^ in anglicised names, the s being eclipsed by 
the intervention of the article (1st Vol., Part I., 
0. II.) as in Lough Atedaun, a lake near Corofin in 
Clare, Loch-a' -Ueldedin, the lake of the breeze ; 
Ijackantedane near the town of Tipperary [Icac, a 
flag-stone) ; Ardatedaun in the parish of Kiltal- 
lagh, about three miles from IMilltown in Kerry, 
the height of the blowing. 

On some parts of the sea coast, the term is used 
to designate rocks or caves or holes that shoot up 
jets or columns of water in time of storm ; as in 
case of the well-kno\vn puffing holes on the coast 
of Clare, which are called in Irish, Poulatedaun (i.e. 
roll-a-'hcidedin), the hole of the pufling. There 
is a puffing hole on the Clare side of the (Shannon, 
four miles below Kilcredaun Point, near Carriga- 
holt, which retains the Irish name, Poulatedaun. 

The diminutive in d(j is also frequently met 
with ; as in Carrickashedoge in the parish of 
Magheracloone in Monaghan, the rock of the 
breeze ; Eashedoge near Letterkenny in Donegal, 
the rath of the blast or gust. And sometimes we 
meet with the word seid willi only an adjectival 
termination ; as in Aghnasedagh, the name of u 
little lake, and also of a townland, near the town 
of ilonaghan, the field (ac/tad/t) of the wind gusts. 
The word holg or buihj [buUig] in the sense of 
♦' bellows," is applied much in the same way as the 

CHAP, XV.] The Atmosphere, 249 

last term, to designate gusts or blasts or gusty spots; 
of which an excellent example is the townland of 
Bulligs, between Killashandra and Ballyconnell in 
Cavnu, i.e. a belloM's or a gusty spot. But this 
word occurs generally on tho coast, where it is 
jipplicd like sciddn, to pulling holes, to rocks or 
points that break and spout up water during 
storms; and it is commonly anglicised Bullig, 
Avhich is a name constantly met with all along the 
western coast from Donegal to Cork. The little 
peninsula lying on the west side of the bay of 
Adrigolc, west o£ Glcngariff in Cork, is called 
BcenabuUiga, the rc<i or mountain Hat (or perhaps 
the recn or point) of the bellows or breakers. 

JSform. Ganih [gov] denotes Avintcr ; it is also 
applied to a cold wintry storm ; and thence to 
places exposed to bleak cold winds. Drumgulf 
near Newbliss in Monaghan, signifies the dnon or 
hill-ridge of the storm ; the same name as Drum- 
guiff and Drumgampli in Fermanagh, and Druni- 
goJf over CJlonmalnre in Wicklow. 

The word shi [sheen] also denotes a storm, and 
is applied topographically, like the last word, to 
high stormy places. Drumsheen, the ridge of 
storms, is the name of a place in the parish of 
Kilgarvan, ISIayo ; Cloonsheen in the parish of 
Ivilconla in Galway, exposed or stormy meadow. 
Another word for a storm is ainhhthcth or anfufh, 
Avhich often occurs in Irish writings. The name 
oC iho poniuRuhi lying betAVcon tho bays of Ber- 
traghboy and Kilkicran in Conncmara, is Irrus- 
ainliagh, i.e. the stormy irrns or peninsula ; and 
tlic same term has given name to Leckanvy — tho 
Hag-stone of tho storm — a little liamlet in a wild, 
exposed situation, on the shore of Clew bay, near 
the base of Ci-oagh Patrick, two miles west of 
]\lurrisk abbey. 

250 The Almosphero. [cjiap. xv. 

S/ieller. As places liavo Lcoii dcrilgnalod from 
tlieir exposed or stormy situntious, so also we liiul 
tliat some spots have receiA ed names indicating the 
very reverse — a position sheltered by trees, rocks, 
or hills. About halt' a milo south of Ard[)atrick 
in liimerick, there is a narrow road shut in by a 
lii<^li fence on each side, protxHjtiug it from tho 
west wind, which is called by the expressive name 
of liohereenacluher, the ho/icrecn or little road of 
the shelter. This word chitluir [cluhar], shelter, 
is found in other names ; for example Dromcluher 
in the parish of Tuogh in. Ijinierick, sheltered 
ridge ; and Derryclure near Geashill in King's 
County, sheltered derry or oak grove. In tlio 
peninsula between Glandore harbour and Castle- 
haven in the south of Cork, there is a small lako 
called Ijough Cluhir, sheltered lako; and in tho 
same county, south of Timoleague, near the sea- 
shore, is a Currigcluher, the rock of shelter. Kil- 
cloher {kil, church or wood) is the name of a town- 
land four miles east of Cappoquin in Waterford ; 
there is another place of the same name four 
miles south-west from Ennis in Clare, from 
which Snugville, the name of an adjacent resi- 
dence, has been di^rived. 

In some cases the word clutltar comes in where 
you would least expect to find it, namely, in 
extremely exposed situations ; of which a good 
example is Kilcloher on the shore of the Shannon 
mouth, near Loop Head in Clare ; but in cases of 
this kind, I suppose that an artificial shelter was 
constructed, or a rock, or an abrupt ehivation was 
taken advantage of, to countciact the bleakness of 
the situation. Indeed it is just in such exposed 
places that a sheltered nook would be more notice- 
able, and more likely to receive a special name. 
Perhaps in the present iiistance the kil was a wood, 

CHAP. XV.3 The Atmosphere. 251 

whicli received a name to express tlie slielter it 
afforded in so bleak a spot. 

SnoiP. In most mountainous countries there are 
particular peaks that receive their names from tlie 
circnmstauco tliat tlicy rolaiu snow on their suiu- 
mits during tlio whole or a considerable i)art of (he 
year. In such a country as Ireland, with a mild 
climate and no very high mountains, namesof llii.s 
kind could scarcely be expected. Yet we have a few 
hills whose names are partly formed from the word 
snearht [snaght] snow, a word cognate Avilh Ijatin 
nix, and with English s)iow ; and although some 
of them are not distinguished for height, they 
must in some way retain snow in winter so much 
longer than the surrounding elevations, as to attract 
the attention of the people. 

There are two mountains in Donegal, called 
SHeve Snaght, one near Carndonagh in the penin- 
sula of Inishowen, and the other a little south of 
Eriiglo mountain ; tho Irish form of the name is 
the mountain of the snows. Tlio people say that 
the snow usually renuiius on the sutnmit of the 
Inishowen Slieve Sunglit, up to the May fair of 
the neighbouring village of Carndonagh. The 
}]oo\'i oi Druim-snerhta (the hill-ridge of the snow) 
was one of the ancient historical books of Ireland, 
often quoted by Irish historians, but it is not now 
known to exist. 'J'ho only ])lace now bearing this 
name is iJrumsnat, in Monaghan (which lias 
dropped the guttural) ; and as an ancient monas- 
tery existed Wunc, fouiuled by St. INlolua of Clon- 
fert-Molua, it is probable that this is the place 
where the book was compiled. 

Near Fivemiletown in Fermanagh, there is a 
townland called Moysnaght, the plain of the snow; 
and there is another place of the same name in the 

252 The Atmosphere, [chap. xv. 

parisli of Clontibi-et in Monaglian. Cloousnaglita 
(suow-iueudow) is the name of a towiilaiid con- 
taining a lake of the same name, two miles Avest 
of Ivilladysert in Clare, and of another in the 
l)ai'ish of ]\Ioyga\vnagh in JNfaj'O. 

When the article is iiscd, the s is commonly 
eclipsed hy /, and this is followed by a furlher 
change of n to r, to facilitate the pronnnciation. 
AJtatraght in the parish of Kilteevoge in Donegal, 
a little west of Stranorlar, represents the Irish 
yili-a'-tsneaghfa, the height of the snow — Alta- 
traght for Altatnaght, like crock for Jaiock, 
Ardatrave for Ardatnave (see these in 1st Vol.). 
l*recisely the same change occurs in Legatraghta 
in the parish of Templeport in Oavan, south-west 
of SvvanliMl)ar, the snowy /i((/ or hollow — the /ii(/ 
lying on the northern slope of a hill ; the same 
name as Lugasnaghta in the parish of Cloonclare 
in the north of Leitrim. The additional change 
of the suppression of the guttural, is seen in 
Tullintrat near Castleblaney in Monaghan, the 
hill (till) of the snow. 

Cohl. Fnar or iiar, signifying cold, is found as 
part of a great many names ; the places so desig- 
nated having probably an ex])oscd or noithern 
aspect, or perhaps a marshy cold soil ; and it is 
often applied to the water of springs, rivers, or 
hdces, which are considered to be unusually cold 
(see Oranmore, 1st Vol.). About a mile south of 
Elphin in liosconnnon, there is a stream called 
Ovvonure {Ahli(iinn-fIiH(U\ cold river), which is 
meMlioucsd in //// Mdiuj by the ccpiivalent uanie, 
(lldifit-iuiir, cold stream. Tiie station next beyond 
Ivillarney towards Tralee, on the Southern and 
A\^es(ern Railway, is called Farranfore, Fcaraiin- 
fiiar, cold land ; and there is a lake in the parish of 
Annaghdown in Galway, a little east of Lough 
Corribj called Lough Afoor, i.e. cold lake. 

ciTAr. xv.'J ^ic Afmoftpiirvr. 2t>^ 

AVlicii the back of a hill had a iiorihcrn aspect, 
it was often called Coolfore, cold back, which is the 
name of places in tlie counties of Lovith, Meath, 
IMonaji-han, and ])abli)i. This element fore cither 
as it stands, or Avith slight variations of spelling, 
is Tory ol'teu found in names, and may almost 
always be interpreted in the sense here given. 
Slievefoore, cold mountain, is the name of a hill 
in the parish of Killahurler, in Wicklow, about 
two miles from the Wooden Bridge Hotel ; and 
there is a townland called Derryfore, cold drn->/ 
or oak-grove, near ]5allyroan in Queen's County. 

The word often precedes the noun that it qualifies, 
as iji Fourknocks in the parish of Stamullin in 
]\lea(h, west of Balbriggan, which means cold 
l-noclis or hills ; Forelacka near Kinnittj^ in King's 
County, cold flags or hill-slope. The compound 
Fuar-choill, cold wood, is of frequent occurrence ; 
it is 7nade Foorkill in Galway, Fo-rekill near 
TTilingford in Kilkenny, Fourcuil in Cork, and 
I'mhill in M(>iitli and 7\r)nagh. In (he parish of 
Ciomieyin Clare is the village of Spancelhill, well 
known for i(s fairs. The conect Irish name is 
Ciioc-fiKtrcJioilli [Knock-i'oorkilhi], the hill <>l' the 
cold wood, for so (he Four ]\lasters call it, when 
rccordhig a battle fought there in 1559, between 
the rival earls of Ormond and Desmond. In the 
colloquial language, however, the / is aspirated 
and omitted, which reduces it to Cnoc-iirrhaill 
[Knockooikill] ; and as nrcJmll or nrchomhal is a 
spanccl, the name came to be erroneously trans- 
lated vSpancelhill instead Coldwoodhill. 

S/ioircr. The word ccat/i or ceatha [cah, caha] 
signifies a shower. The Caha mountains in the 
peninsula between the bays of Kenniare and 
Bantr}', must have been considered specially 
liable to rain m hen they got the name, which is 

25 i - The Atmosphere. [chap. xv. 

reduced from tlio present popular Irish name, 
C)ioc-na-ccatlt(i'ui [Jvnoclinacaliin], llio ishowcry 
mountain. This word probably gives name also 
to Dromcahan near Kenmare, Dndin-ceathain, the 
ridge of tlie shower. 

Fog. A fog or mist is denoted by the word ceo 
[keo : the o long; the e hardly pronounced], 
which enters into Roiiie names, chiefly in the 
south of Ireland. According to a passage in the 
life of bishop Mel, there was an ancient nunnery 
called I)rni)n-chco, immediately to the west of 
Slieve Golry near Ardagh in Ijongford ; but both 
the nunnery and its name are now forgotten. The 
name l)niiin-cheo (tlie ridge of the fog) nmst have 
been originally applied to the hill west of ISlievo 
Golry, Avheiu^e it was transferred to the nunnery. 
Wliy this hill received such u name is obvious ; 
for as it is an isolated elevation in the midst of a 
plain, it catches the vapour and is often capped 
with fog, when the surrounding level country is 
clear ; and some such explanation applies to on ery 
name containing the word ceo. Knockacheo, the 
foggy hill, is the name of a place in the parish of 
liallynoe in Corlc ; Loughakeo, the lake of the 
mist, near Stradbally in Queen's County ; Cron- 
cheo, four miles north-west of Killybegs in Done- 
gal, the C7-0 or valley of the fog ; Coomacheo in 
Cork, and Coomakeoge in tbe parish of Killem- 
lagh, near Valentia in Kerry, the coom or valley 
of the mist : in this last name the genitive is 
made ceoifj, and the final g pronounced, as is usual 
in Coi'k and Kerry. 

xvi.J The Sea. iiSb 



I NOW come to a class of names, which are gene- 
rally ej)oaking to be looked for only round (lio 
coast; though in consequence of secondary appli- 
cations, or extensions of meaning, they are some- 
times found inland. 

The most common Irish word for the sea is mm'r, 
genitive jnara ; and this name for the sea exists, 
Avidi slight modifications, in every Aryan lan- 
guage of JCuropc except Greek: — Lat. mare; Goth. 
91/(1 iri ; A. Sax. mere; Welsh mj/r ; Corn, mor, 
t^c. ; Avhile it is represented in tSanscrit hy m'fra 
(Pictet, Grig.) The Avord has already incidentally 
come under notice, as forming part of several 
names which have been dealt wilh in the First 
Volume (see Kenmare, Connemara, &c.) As a 
])art of compound Avords, it also enters pretty ex- 
tensively into nam(>s, of which the follo\\ing may 
be taken as exam])les. A small bay is often called 
miirhholij [nnirvullog, murlog], i. e. sea-belly, from 
holg, a sack or belly; and this word is generally 
anglicised JNIurlough, M'hich is the name of several 
inlets mostly round the coast ; among other.s, 
of the little bay lying east of Fair Head in Antrim ; 
and of two in JJonegal, one in Lough Swilly, and 
the other near Ijifford. The bay extending east- 
wards fiom Bengore Head till it tcnninatcs in 
AVliitc Park bay, was anciently called Murhliolfj ; 
but the peoph^ have lost this name. Lough 
Murree, a snudl lake in a penrnsula, two miles 
north-east of Ballyvaghan in Clare, signifies 
marine lake, so called from being on the very 
Yci'ge of \\\o sea. 

Five miles west from Ballysadare in Sligo, on 

250 The Sal. [([lAV. xvl. 

ono of llio inlets of Eall^^sadaro Lay, is 'raiirego, 
u uamo wliic'li is exactly similar in I'onnalioii to 
Touregee (First Volume), and exhibits another 
term (f/o), but ono very seldom used, for the sea: 
— Irisli Toin-rc-(jo, backside to the sea. 

<SV/7, mil, or sdilc [saul, saulia], which is a 
[v.vwx in somewhat moro common usci than iitair, 
signilies biine, salt Avater, or brachisli water ; 
cognate with Latin sal, English salt. The pretty 
hamlet and vale of Salrock, near the moiith of 
the Killeries in Connemara, takes its name from 
the little inlet, now called Little Killery bay, at 
the head of which it is situated ; the name signifies 
St. Iloc's briny inlet ; but we have no written, 
account of this saint, though he is vividly re- 
membered in the traditions of the place, and the 
ruins of his church and his holy well arc situaled 
near the hamlet. The word in its simple form 
gives name to Salia, a little hamlet on the eastern 
side of Achill Itsland, from which the inlet called 
Salia bay takes its name. 

Kylesalia, west of Xilkieran bay in Connemara, 
signilies the wood of the sea-water. There is a 
small river running into AVexford Ifaveu, at tlu; 
hamlet of Killinick, live miles south of AV^extovd 
town, over which there was anciently a ford, now 
bridged, just where the tide and river met ; from 
which it got the name of Ath-sailo, ih) ford of 
the brine, now modernised to Assaly. In the 
parish of Kilcummin, Galway, south-west of 
()ughterard, there is a place with the long name, 
Muckanaghederdauhalia, which is a concise de- 
scri])tion of both the position of the place, and of 
its former use : — MackanayJi, a place where ')nucs 
or pigs used to sleep or feed ; eder, between ; ilau, 
two ; haile, the same as saile, with the s aspirated : — 
the piggery between two briny inlets. 

CHAP. XVI.] The Sea. 257 

The diminutive Saleen was applied to any small 
estuary or creek, and in this sense it is still the 
name of several places. The word has other 
meanings, however : but on the coast there can 
bo no diihculty in determining when it signifies 
un inlet. 

The original terra often occurs with the s 
eclipsed by t. Just before the train from Dublin 
reaches the Galway station, it crosses over the nar- 
row neck of an inlet called Lough Atalia, in Irish 
Loch-a'-ffidi/c, the lake of the brine : there is 
another braclcish lake of the same name in the 
peninsula north of Omey Island, off the coast of 
Galway ; and still another, a small jiool, near 
Midleton in Cork, just where the Ballynacorra 
river enters the tideway of the Lee. The same 
change is seen in Bellataleen, a townland lying 
adjacent to Murrisk Abbey at the foot of Croagh 
Patrick in IMoyo, 23cl-a'-fsai/tn, the ford of the 
litllo briny iidct, wliich obviously took i(s namo 
from the litllo salt water strand on the right of 
the road as you apju-oach the old abbey from 
WcstiK)it. Four or iivo miles west of Tralcc, 
there is a litllo inlet of this same name only with 
the ell gh fly different spelling, Bealathaleen. 

In Irish writings many references are made to 
what ore called the three Tonns or waves of Ire- 
land ; and they are much celebrated in ancient 
tales and romances. Those were To)m CIccua in 
Glandoro harbour (for wliicliscelst Vol., I'artll., 
c. v.) ; Tonn Tvaithc (Tooha) near the mouth of 
Ibo ]}ann ; and Tonn JiiK/hrai^U/o [Hury] in Dun- 
drum bay off Ibo county of Down. In stormy 
weather, when the wind blows in certain directions, 
the sea at these places, as it tumbles over tlie 
Himdbanks, or among the caves and fissures of the 
rocks, u< f ers an unusually loud and solemn roar, 

VOT,. II. * 18 

258 The Sea. [chap. xvi. 

which excited tlio imnginntion of our inuH-al oih; 
and they believed that tlieso sounds had a super- 
natural origin, and foreboded the approaching 
death of kings or chieftains. 

Thcso names have been long since forgotten by 
the people ; but many local (lenoininations slill 
eui'vive, which contain the word fomi. Outside 
tlio mouth of Lough Foyle, there is a large and 
dangerous sandbank called the Tuns, on which 
many vessels have been wrecked: — " Before the 
mouth of this lough lyeth a great sand called the 
Touns, upon which it burneth greatly when the 
wind bloweth from the sea." (Boate's Nat. Hist. 
of Ireland). This is the most characteristic 
application in all Ireland of the word tu)ni, for 
hero the "Tuns" most truly means the waves or 
billows. This term gives names to j)laces by rivers 
and lakes as well as by the sea : and in many cases 
the t is changed to d by eclipse. There is a lake 
in the parish of Moyrus in Connemara, called 
Loughannado^vll, i.e. LocJian-na-dtonn, the little 
lake of the waves ; so called, I supjiose, from being 
very much exposed to the wind, and subject there- 
fore to high waves. Near Knocklong in Limerick, 
there are four adjoining townlands called Mitchels- 
towndown, of which the proper Irish name is Ihiile- 
Mhistealaujh-na-dtonn [Ballyvistela-na-down] ; the 
first part signifies the town of Mitchell, and this 
has been translated, while the last part has been 
left untouched. The whole name means " the 
town of Mitchell of the waves." The epithet na- 
dlonn, "of the waves,'' may belong (o ihe place, 
as it is situated on the Morning Star river ; and 
in this case the inference would be that it was so 
called to distinguish it from Milchelstown in the 
county Cork, not very far oil' ; but I think this 
unlikely. Or it may be that the person who left 

CHAP. XVI. J The Sea. 269 

his name on the place was called " Mitchell of the 
waves," because he wns a sailor or a voyager. 

At the head of Dingle bny just outside the 
point of Rosbchy peninsula is a sandbank locnlly 
well known by <bo nnnio of Tonn Tonia, ihe 
wave of Tonia (a woman). In iho storms of 
winter the sea thunders over this bank so as to be 
heard twenty miles inland. This roaring is popu- 
larly believed to predict rain. 

On the Avestem shore of Lough Swilly, in the 
parish of Clondavaddog, Donegal, there is a little 
hamlet called Bunnaton, the bun or end of the 
wave — a name whicli probably Avas originally ap- 
plied to the highest point reached by the surge in 
the little bay. A varied form of the genitive is 
seen in Derrintin, the name of a small lake and 
townland near the Errilf river, four miles above 
Leenane at the head of the Killeries ; Doire-an- 
tuinn, the oak-wood of the wave. 

In the last name the Avord is used in the mascu- 
line. But it is more generally feminine, Avith the 
genitive iuinnCy a fonn which is found in one very 
interesting name. According to our fabulous 
histories and romances, Fintan, one of the three 
men who came to Ireland Avith the lady Casara, 
forty days before the flood, died just before the 
beginning of the great catastrophe, and was 
buried in JPert Fintain (Fintan's grave), otherwise 
called T'lilliiinnc [Tultinna]. But it seems that ho 
only pretended to die, or that he merely fell into 
a trance ; for according to a legend in the Lcbor 
na Ileera, he survived the deluge, and lived for 
many generations af tcrAvards. lie Avas transformed 
from time to time into the shapes of various animals, 
till at length he became a salmon ; and finally 
made his apjioarancc as a man in the reign of 
Fergus Mao Kerval, king of Ireland in the sixth 

260 The Sea. [chap. xvi. 

contury. Most people who undergo traiismigrutiou 
lose ull memory of previous states of existence ; 
but it was not so with Fintan ; for he remembered 
clearly every important event that had taken place 
in Ireland for two thousand years, since the time 
of the lady Casara ; so that he was considered — 
no wonder ho should he — the greatest sage tliat 
fcvor appeared in tho country. Before ho died for 
tlie lust time, he gave a long account of the his- 
tory of Ireland to St. Finnian of MoviUa. 

The place where he took his long sleep while 
the deluge was tumbling over his head, is still well 
luiown ; and the name Tultuinne survives, but 
slightly altered to Tountinna (change of / to n). 
Tountinna is a hill near Derrycastle, rising over 
Jjough ])erg, two miles north-east of Killaloo, on 
tho top of which was Fintan's grave j and it is 
well described by the name 2\iltuinne : — tul, a 
hill — Tul-tuinne, the hill of the wave — the hill 
rising over the wave of Lough Derg.* 

There is a townland containing the ruins of a 
castle, called Towulough, on the verge of the lake, 
near the base of the hill ; and it seems likely that 
the name has some indirect connexion with that of 
the hill ; for the Irish form is Tonnlocha, the wave 
of the lake, though by a local extension of mean- 
ing, the word tonn is, in this instance, understood 
by the people to mean, not exactly a wave, but a 
Watery place or a quagmire. 

Though there are other, Irish words for the sea, 
none of them enter into names except in a few 
solitary unimportant cases. iJut avo have many 
terms for all tho various kinds of sea inlets ; and 
the rest of this chapter will be devoted to them 
and to the names derived from them. 

* See O'Douovau ; Four Mast. I. 4, note. 

THAP. XVI. J The Sea. 261 

The most general word for a harbour or haven 
is cuan, and it is still employed everywhere round 
the coast. Tlie old name of Strangford Lough, 
wliich was used till very lat(>ly, was Lough Cuan, 
harbour Like ; and " OaHtloliavon," the iianio of n, 
well-known liarbour on the south coast of Cork, is 
a translation of the Irish name, as the Four 
Masters write it — Cuan-an-chaislein. There is a 
remarkable sea cave a little west of the giant's 
causeway, called Portcoon, which signifies the port 
or landing-place of the harbour. 

The word cunn is also used in an extended sense 
to signify any curve or winding ; and whether in 
any particular case it is so used, or bears the 
meaning of harbour, is easily determined. Ac- 
cordingly, the diminutives Coonecn and Ooonoge 
are found inland as well as on shore, in rivers and 
lakes as well as at the sea ; Coonane, another 
diminutive, is the of a townland about a 
milo and a hnIC noi-Mi of Olengnrrill' in (!lork. 
There are two townhmds, one in Tippcrary, and 
the other in Wicklow, called Coonmore, great 
winding. The simple word gives uamo to some 
places in Wicklow and KiUcenny, now called Coan, 
and also to a townland in Queen's County, near 
Clonaslee, called Cones. Tincone and Tincoon are 
two townlands in Wexford, one occupying the 
point of land opposite to Wexford town at the 
other side of the river, tlio olhcr on the shore of 
the Slaney, opposite King's Island, five miles 
below Enniscorthy ; both names being anglicised 
from the Irish Tigh-an-chuain, the house of the 
harbour or winding. 

Ctwnpdn signifies a little creek, an inlet at the 
mouth of a small stream, or branching off from a 
river, lake, or sea. It is very much used in Kil- 
kenny, and is also found in the southern and 

262 The Sea. [ciiAr. xvi. 

western counties. Cnnnpaun is tlio nanio of a li( (lo 
river flowing at the base of Nephin mountain in 
Mayo into Lougli Beltra ; and of another river 
near Limerick, joining the Shannon about three 
miles below the city. There is a townlancl called 
Crumpaun in Leitrim, two miles west of Glenade 
Lough, which takes its name from a little stream, 
one of the sources of the Black river, which joins 
the river Duff; and another in the parish of 
Kilcatherine in Cork, near the village of Eyeries. 

The word pill has much the same meaning as 
crompda — a small river inlet; on the Wexford 
and Watcrford coasts, where it is much used, it is 
applied to a deep cutting or channel made in the 
sea-mud by a small tidal river as it enters the 
Hca* It uppoaiH evident that it is merely an 
oblique form of poll, a hole :- -nominative jwll, 
genitive poill [pile]. A very apt illustration of 
the word is Canpill, the name of a little hamlet at 
a bridge, just at the head {ceann) of a small inlet 
or pill branching off from the river Barrow near 
Dunbrody Abbey in Wexford. 

The ancient and present Irish name of Pilltown 
in the south of Kilkenny, is Baile-an-phoill [Ballin- 
file], the town of We poll, or pill ; and it appears 
to have taken its name from the Pill river which 
joins the Suir after flowing through the village. 
There is also a Pilltown two miles from Drogheda 
on the road to Lay town ; and another in the parish 
of Kinsalebeg in Waterford, about three miles 
from Ardmoro. Hosspile in the parish of Bally- 
lannan in Wexford, near the head of Bannow bay, 

* On this, and on several otlier local matters, I have got 
much information from George Henry Kinahan, Esq., M.R.I. A., 
P.R.G.S.I., who turns his journeys through various parts of 
Ireland to good account in obtaining a knowledge of the legends 
ftnd antiquities of the country. 

CHAP. XVI.] The Sea, 263 

is the ross or wood of the inlet. Pill-laue near 
Chiirch-stveet in Dnhlin, took its name from a 
little j)i/l that branched off from the Liffey in 
former days, long before the river was confined by 
quay walls. 

1 have already remarked (1st Vol., Part IV., 
c. II.) that the word ciias (properly, a cave) is 
applied along the coast of Cork and Kerry to a 
little cove ; and that it usually takes the form of 
Coos. It is also sometimes made ciis, as in Cus- 
kenny, a place about a mile below Queenstown; 
the name was originally applied to the adjacent 
little semicircular inlet, and it signifies Kenny's 

In the south of Ireland, the word goi/in [goleen] 
is used to signify a small sea or river inlet. In 
the parish of Kilmore, near IMizen Head in Cork, 
there is a little creek, wliich gives name to the 
townland of Goleen. Goleen Bridge crosses a 
lililcM^rcok a milo aud a half oast of Labiisheoda 
in Clare. Burn ham n(\'ir Dingle, the scat of Jiord 
Vcntry, is called in Irisli to this day Goleen, a 
name which was originally applied to the little 
creek into which a tiny stream flows at the western 
end of Dingle harbour. There is an old castle 
ruin on the shore of the creek which still retains 
the name of Ballingoleen, the townland of the inlet. 
One part of the modern name was probably in- 
tended to be a translation of goiJin: — Burnham, the 
houie of the burn or stream — formed exactly like 
Ptoclcingham (see this in 1st Vol.). But it is to be 
remarked that the name maybe an importation — a 
mere imitation of the English Burnham. 

In the west, especially in Galway, enisle [cashla] 
is used to signify a sea inlet ; of which the best 
known example is Cashla Bay, west of Galway, 
which is also the name of the river flowing into 

264 The Sea. [chap. xvi. 

it. Though this is tho seuso in wliich tli(> worM 
is now understood, 1 urn iucliued to think that it 
was originally applied to a river ; and the Irish 
name of Caslila Bay to some extent favours this 
opinion, viz., Ctian Caislc, the hay of Cashla, which 
looks as if the hay got its name from the river. 
There is a very little lake one mile east of Clifden, 
an enlargement of a small stream, flowing from 
Lough Nahrackkeagh into the Owenglin river; 
and the name of this lake is also a sort of confir- 
mation of the same opinion — Lough Cashlccn 
(diminutive of Cashla), the lake of the little Cashla. 
Here Cashleen must mean a stream, for both lake 
and stream are inland, and there is no inlet of any 
kind. The same observation applies to the town- 
land of Casldeon in tho parish of IJallynakill in 
(Jalway noar Uinvylu l*oiiit, wliich ovitlontly lakes 
its name from the little stream on whose hanks it 
is situated, flowing into the sea just near the 

It may be added that the root of the word is 
obviously the Irish cas, twisted or crooked; so that 
its application to a river would be generally very 
appropriate. In Donegal the word caslach, another 
derivative from cas (postfix lack, p. 5), is under- 
stood to mean a creek ; and it appears in this 
sense in Kincaslough, a townland on the mainland 
opposite Cruit island, which gives name to a lake, 
and which was itself so called from its situation at 
the head (ceann) of the little inlet called " Cruit 

Blean means the groin ; but in a secondary 
sense it is applied to a creek, branching olf either 
from the sea or from a lake, or formed by the 
mouth of a river ; sometimes it means any hollow 
or curved place. It is much used in local names, 
and it is found all over Ireland, especially in the 

CHAP. XVI.] The Sea. 265 

northern half. Blean and Blane are tlie names of 
some places in Wicklow, Clare, Galway, and Tip- 
perary. Blaney, the plural form of blean, is the 
name of a little bay on the southern side of lower 
Lough Erne, near Dcrrygonnelly, so called because 
it is formed of several smaller bays : Blaney, lite- 
rally creeks. At the extreme western end of the 
same lake, there is an inlet called Bleanalung, the 
creek of the boat. In upper Lough Erne there is 
an island called Bleanish, properly Bleaninish, 
creek island, so called from tlio little inlet between it 
and Crom Casth^ on the mainland; Buunablancy- 
bnne in the paifsli of (Jloues, Ecrmanagli, tlie end 
(hiiii) of the while bl(\'in or curve; and Killyblano 
in the paiish of Killeshcr, same county (the wood 
{(vill) of (ho curved sjiof.. Blaiuroe, red creek or 
curve, iu the parish of Kilpool, a little south of 
Wicklow town. 

In Galway we have Bleanoran, Odhran's or 
Oran's creek or curve ; and Bleannagloos, a sin- 
gular name, signify iug the creek or curve of the 
ears {cluas), so called no doubt from some pecu- 
liarity of sha))e : in the parish of Annadulf in 
Lei trim, Bleankillew, the i/e«w of the wood; which 
takes its name from being on the shore of that 
arm of Loughbofin which is now called Lough 

I have already stated (page 247) that gaeth is 
sometimes applied to the sea ; it is used in this 
sense, and in the old form gaot, in Cormac's Glos- 
sarj^ xmder hircU. This term occurs on the 
northern half of the western coast, and it is there 
restricted in its ai)plication to " a shallow stream 
into which the tide flows, and which is fordable 
at low water." (O'Donovan, Appendix to O'Reilly's 
Diet., under gaeth). There is a tmvnland called 
Gweesalia in the ])ari8l\ of Kilcommon in Erris, 

206 Colours. [ctiav. xvii. 

Mayo, which talies its iianio from its [)osilion on 
the shore of a tidal creek branching oif from iJluck- 
sod bay ; the name being Oacth-sdik, i.e. salt- 
water tide-inlet. The best known names exhi- 
biting this word are Gwecdoio artd Qweebarra, 
applied to two bays on the west coast of Donegal, 
into whicli flow two tidal sdoama of the same 
names. In 619 a.d., according to the Four 
Masters, I)6ir, the son of Hugh Allan, king of 
Ireland, was slain by a chieftain named Flann 
Fiadhbhadh [Feeva] ; but Flann himself was soon 
afterwards killed in revenge for this deed by the 
friends of Doir, on the little island of Inishkeel in 
Gweobarra bay. 0' Donovan (Four Mast. I. 242, 
note t) believes that the river and bay of Gweedore 
took its name from this prince : — Gaefh-Do/r, 
Doir's inlet. I think we may conclude that G wec- 
barra also derived its name from a man ; but I do 
not know of any authority, written or otherwise, 
bearing on the point. 



Among the various circumstnnocs that dcilcrmine 
the names of places, colovirhohls in all countries a 
prominent position ; and accordingly we find the 
words denoting the different colours widely spread 
among the local names of our own country. The 
colours that attracted the observation of the people 
who imposed the names, whether applied to the 

CHAP. XVII.] Colours. 267 

surface of the land, to rocks, rivers, or lakes, are 
cliaracteristic of most of these places and objects 
at the present day ; but, on the other hand, there 
are many instances in which all traces of the 
ori<>;lii;il colour have disappeared ; and this is 
especially the case whore the pre vail inj]^ hue was 
given by trees, shrubs, bogs, or marslics, which 
have been removed by cultivation. 

As colours are infinitely varied, and run one 
into another by imperceptible gradations, it is not 
to be expected that the colours and shades which 
cue nation or people designates by distinct names, 
will bo in all cases the same as those distinguished 
by corresponding names among other nations. 
And indeed in the same language, the words for 
colours vary greatly in. their signification ; the 
English words green and grey for instance, are ap- 
plied to shades very diilerent among themselves 
So in regard to some of the Irish names for colours, 
it is not always easy to dctermino the exact hues 
or shades intended, or to give the precise equiva- 
lents of the terms in English. 

Black. Diibh [duv], black, blackish, very dark 
coloured. This word is found in vast numbers of 
names throughout all Ireland — afact which results 
in a great measure from the prevalence of bogs 
and lioggy lands. Its most usual English forms 
arc di{ff, doo, and dii,, the first of which is seen in 
DufCcarrick and in Carrickduff, both of which 
mean black rock. The little river Dull flows on 
the boundary of the counties of Sligo and Leitrim, 
and falls into Donegal bay four miles west of Bun- 
dorau. It is called Dubh in the annals, which in 
the Book of Armagh, is translated Niger, i.e. black. 
At its mouth is the townland of Bunduff, the bun 
or mouth of the river Duff. There are two town- 
lands in Galway called Ballinduff, a name which 

268 Colours. [chap, xvii. 

18 preserved in its correct form by tlio Four 
Masters : — Baile-an-duibh, the town of the black or 
dark-complexioned man. 

Many of our lakes whose waters look inky black, 
partly from the infusion of bog, partly on account 
of the reflection of the dark sides of the surround- 
ing hills, get the names of IjouglidiiiT, Loughdoo, 
and Doolough, all meaning black lake; which 
again give names to several townlands, villages, 
and residences. 

The prevalence of bogs also accounts for the 
great number of Irish rivers having names which 
signify black or dark. Douglas has already been 
mentioned. The dimiimtivo Duog or Duvog — 
black streamlet — is the name of many small 
streams, corr(ispoiuliiig in formation willi Breiiogc^ 
and Glanog (which see). And besides these there 
are the several rivers now called Blackwater. 

Sometimes whole districts were designated by 
this word dubk, if their surfaces were boggy or 
clothed in a dark covering of heather. There is a 
well-known district in the barony of Scarawalsh in 
Wexford, now called the Dulfry ; but the correct 
Irish name, as we find it in our old authorities, is 
Duihhthir [Duffir], which signifies black territory 
{tir, land or country). The name is very correctly 
anglicised Dujfyr in Clynn's annals ; but the pre- 
sent form Duffry seems to be derived from the 
genitive, Duibhthirc, which it correctly represents 
in sound. (1st Vol., Part I., o. ii.) 

The Dinnseanchas records a legend,* that this 
territory was once open and fertile — " a broad, 
delightful region ; " audit was possessed by two 
brothers, Guara and Dara. But Guara treacher- 
ously slew his brother and seized upon his part 

♦Translated by Bryan O'Looney, Esq., M.E.I. A., in Proc. 
R.I.A., MS. Ser., p. 184. 

DHAP. XVII.] Colours. 269 

of the territory ; after which a curse fell upon 
the land as a punishment for the crime, and the 
whole district became overgrown with brushwood 
and heath ; whence it was called Duihh-thir. One 
inforonce wo may draw from this legend, that at 
the time when it was written, the land was covered 
with heather and scrubwood, from which, and not 
from bogs, it got its name. The " Faes of Ath- 
lone," a woody district in the county Roscommon, 
was also called Duihhthir (Four Masters), for the 
very same reason. And the word exists in the 
name of Driundiffer in the parish of Drumreilly 
in Leitriin, the drum or ridge of the black district. 

Dooally and Doocatteens are the names of two 
townlands near Newcastle in Limerick, which are 
the anglicised forms of Duhh-aille, black cliU, and 
DnhhchoitcMnidhe, black cotteens or commonages. 
Dooros and Dooms signify black wood in the 
south, and black promontory in the north. Four 
miles above Listowol in Kerry, the river Fealc 
divides and encloses an island ; on ono of the 
branches there was in old times a ford, which was 
called Dubh-afh, black ford ; the old church built 
near it took the same name, and in its turn gave 
name to the village and parish, which are now 
called Duagh. 

The word is softened down in various ways, 
which will be illustrated in the following names : — 
Dinieh is the name of a little island well known to 
Killarney tourists, situated near the Old Weir 
Bridge; and there are several islands in other 
coimties called Dinis, Dinish, and Deenish ; all 
which are shortened from Duihh-inis, black island. 
DeeKs and Deelish, which are names of common 
occurrence, have been similarly reduced from 
Duihh-lios, black fort ; which is also the Irish form 
of L)ufle>*P in Tyrone, of Doolis in Tipperary, and 

270 Colours. [chap. xvii. 

of Devloash iu Mayo. It occurs us acompouud in 
Cordevlis, the name of some places in Cavan and 
Monaghan, the round hill of the black fort. 

The well-known monntain, Divis, near Belfast, 
is called iu Irish Dtibh-ais, which simply means 
black hill ; and this old name seems to find an 
echo in English, for there are two other hills very 
near it, now called Black Hill and Black Moun- 
tain. There is another place of the same name in 
Mayo, slightly altered to Divish; while in Donegal 
it takes the form of Dooish. Diviny and Diva- 
nagh, which are the names of some townlands in 
Tyrone, Armagh, and Fermanagh, arc anglicised 
forms of Diiibh-canaigh, black marshes. At a.d. 
1140, the Annals of Innisfallon record the erection 
of Caidcn-Eam-duihJie (tho castle of the black 
cataract : pron. Oashlon-Asdco). Tho latter part 
of this long designation is still retained as the 
name of a little hamlet three miles west of Bally- 
longford in Kerry, now called Astee. The boggy 
little river, in time of flood, rushes over ledges of 
rock near the village, and this is the feature that 
gave it tho name of the black cataract. The form 
dee is also exhibited in Clashnamonadee near Lis- 
more in Waterford — Clais-na-mona-dnibhe, the 
trench of the black bog. 

At the bottom of some deep bogs there is found 
a half liquid stuff, as black as jet, which was for- 
merly used by the peasantry all over Ireland for 
dyeing black; and is still so vised in remote dis- 
tricts. It served its purpose admirably well, 
giving fiio/o and othoi- woollens an exccilhrnt dye, 
and it was usually known by the name of dubhadh 
[dooa], which answers to the liUglish word black- 
ing (old form dubad ; Cor. Gl.). Many of the 
places where this dye stuff was foimd are still in- 
dicated by their names j such as Carrickadooey ia 

CHAP. XVII.] Coiours. 271 

the parish of Magheross in Monaghan, Carraig-a'- 
duhhaidh, the rock of the black dye stuil: Pollandoo 
in Donegal, PoUadooey in Galway and Longford, 
and Polladoohy near Crossmolina in Mayo, all 
tiiko their names from the deep hole (poll) out of 
which the colouring matter was taken ; Derryna- 
dooey in Poscommon, and Eskeradooey in Tyrone, 
the oak wood and the sand-ridge of the black dye 

Ciar [keer] is commonly understood to mean 
jet black. The ordinary name among the peasantry 
for a beetle or chafer is ciarog [keeroge], a dimi- 
nutive of ciar, meaning black little fellow ; the 
other diuiinutivo, Ciaran, was formerly extremely 
common as a man's name, meaning a dark-com- 
plexioned person ; and it still exists in the family 
name Kicran. The word is also used to signify 
a dull or brownish black ; and this is, I suppose, 
the sense in which we are to understand it in local 
niiuics. There is a small river called Keerglen in 
the parish of KiKum in Mayo, giving name to a 
townland, and taking its own name from the glen 
througli which it flows: — Ciar-gfilcann, dark- 
coloured glen. 

White. Finn, or fionn, white, is a word of most 
ancient and extensive use in the Celtic languages. 
It glosses albits in the St. Gall manuscript of Zeuss; 
and still more ancient is its use in forming part of 
personal names, both Irish and Gaulish. VindnSy 
the termination of many Gaulish names, is another 
form of this word; and Finn has been used as a 
personal name in our own country, from the time 
of the great hero, Finn the son of Cumal — and 
long before him indeed — down to our own day. 

In local nomonclatiire the word is used to de- 
signate places cillier absolutely white, or whitish, 
fair or bright-coloured ; as for instance the side of 

272 Colours. [ciiav. xvit, 

a hill covered witli wliiiisli grass ; and its usual 
anglicised forms are Jinn or Jin. The Four Mas- 
ters record a fight between the O'Neills and the 
O'Boyles in a.d. 1502, at a place in Donegal, 
which they call Tulach-Jinn, the white little hill ; 
it is situated near Inver, and is still known by 
the name of TuUaghfin. Finvoy, tlie name of a 
parish in Antrim, and of a townland in Louth, 
is the modern way of writing the old name, as 
we find it in the annals — Finn-mJiagh, white or 
bright plain ; which again takes the form Fina- 
way near Crosserlough in Cavan. Carrickfin in 
Donegal and Westmeath, signifies white lock. 

In the south of Ireland Jinn is commonly pro- 
nounced/c'OJW ovfune, which originates tlio angli- 
cised hnmajbiin and June, oticaaionally mol. with. 
Thus Knockfuno in Tipperary is the same us 
Knockfin in other counties ; and the Four Mas- 
ters give the correct form of both, Cnoc-Jionu, 
white hiU. So also Coolfune is the same as Cool- 
fin, white corner. Inchafune near Dunmanway 
in Cork, white inch or river meadow. In the 
King's Coimty this word is sometimes pro- 
nounced fan, which is reflected in the name of 
Fancroft near Roscrea, a name which is greatly 
corrupted. In the Red Book of Ossory it is 
written in one place Fynchor, and in another place 
Fyncora ; from which it is obvious that the ori- 
ginal name is Finn-c/toradh, white weir. 

Although Jinn strictly means a colour, it is used 
to designate water that is clear or transparent. In 
this way is formed the name Finglas from glais, 
a little stream \—Finn-gIais (so written in many 
old authorities), crystal rivulet. The village of 
Finglas near Dublin takes its name from the little 
stream which flows through it, and joins the Tolka 
at Finglas Bridge ; there are several streams of 

CHAP. XVII.] Colours. 273 

the same name in difPerent parts of Ireland ; and 
it is also modified to Finglush, Finglasb, and Fin- 
glaslia. Compounded with ros, a wood, it gives 
name to tlie village of Rosenallis in Queen's 
County, a name wliich is very mucli corrupted 
from the original. There was an ancient church 
here, dedicated to St. Brigid ; and Colgan, in enu- 
merating it among the churclies of this saint, gives 
the true form of the name, Hosfng/as, which signi- 
fies the wood of the bright stream. I may here 
observe that this name, Finglas, is the counterpart 
of anollier nanu) still bettor known, Douglas, dark 
siream — which has been noiiccd in First Volume. 

IMany ^tbcr oxamph'snn'gh the given oC tlio appli- 
cation of tliis word//;?;? to water, but I will mention 
only one more, namely, the sparkling little river 
Finniliy at Kcmnare, wliich deserves its name as 
well as any stream in Ireland. The termination 
in this name is of frequent occurrence in the 
Minister couniios, especially in Cork and Kerry ; 
and it appears to be the same as the participial 
termination in verbs : — Finnitho, corresponding 
exactly with cldrtlia from cldr [Lcbor na h Uidhre : 
O'Curry Lect., II., 315) ; and with odhartha in 
Cluain-odhartha, now Clonoura in the parish of 
Fennor in Tipperary, pale-grey meadow, and in 
Cnoc-odhartha, pale-grey hill, now Knockoura in 
Cork and Galway, both from odhar (p. 285 : see 
Phconix Park in First Volume). 

The compound Finnahhair, old form Findahair, 
Avas formerly common as the name of a person, 
generally of a woman, but sometimes of a man ; 
and it was also used as a place-name. As the 
name of a place, some of the old Irish-Latin 
writers have translated it canipiis-albiif^, white- 
coloured field (Jbcelin, Vit. Patr. c. 94) ; but I 
sujipoRo that this is intended to express the fact 
vor,. II. 19 

274 Colours. [ciiai-. xvii. 

llicit Flnnahliair meant a wliitish placo, for I do 
not think that ahhair can Lo in un^ cuso, tlio equi- 
valent of canijms. O'Curry (Lect. III., 10), trans- 
lates Fimtahhair as a personal narao by " fair- 
Lrowed," wliich Avonld answer very well in its 
applieation to a ])laee — a wliitisli-coloured brow of 
a field — a bill-brow. lUit it may be doubted 
wliellier ahair bere can mean a brow ; for as Mr. 
Crowe remarks (Proc. E.I.A., MS. Ser. 15t)), tbo 
genitive of ahair, a brow, is nhrat (thus Eochnidh 
Abrat-ruaidh, Eocbaidh of tbe red brow — a king- 
of Leinster) ; wbile tbe genitive of Find-abair, as 
a personal or local name is Find-abrach. It ap- 
pears in fact tbat there are two dilferent words, 
both spelled abair in the nominative : — abair, gen. 
abrat, a brow or eyelash ; abair, gon. abrach (mean- 
ing r*) ; and tbat it is the latter word tliat app(!a.r.s 
in Findabalr. Mr. Crowe, in tlie same place, 
translates Find-abair "bright-beam," comparing 
abair with Lat. ajmcum ; but I do not know on 
what authority he bases this interpretation. 

Wbatevor may bo the exact moaning ol' abair 
hero, wo may take it tlwit Fiimabhair was locally 
applied to a whitish spot. It has several modern 
forms, in most of which th(i b is altogether sup- 
pressed, on account of aspiration. The most visual 
is Fennor, which is the name of nine townlands in 
the Leinster and Munster counties. Fennor on 
the Boynoin Meath — a place of great antiquity — 
is called by the annalists, FinnabJiair-ablia, i. o. 
Fennor of the river (IJoyne), to distinguish it froxi 
other Fenuors; and Fiiniahliair or l^'ennor iu 
Westmeath is mentioned by the Four Masters as 
the scene of two battles in the years 794 and 822. 
This term takes several other anglicised forms : in 
Donegal and Fermanagh it is made Finner ; in 
Uoscoramon and Clare, Finnor : Finver is found 

CHAP. xvH.] Colours. 275 

once in Donegal ; while in Gal way and Sligo the 
name becomes Finniire. 

The ^emi'wG, fionnahhrach [finnoura] appears in 
the name of Kilfcnora in, an ancient bishop's 
»>'<'(>, cnllcMl by (lio mm!ilis(,s C//l-J')'oii»(iIJ/r(irh ; iind 
the same form occurs in Knockfcnora near 
Bruree in Limerick. It is probable that the second 
part of each of these is the name of a person — man 
or woman : — the church and the hill of Finnahair. 
With the/ eclipsed in the genitive plural, we find 
it in Ballynavenooragh near Brandon Hill in 
Kerry, which very correctly represents the sound 
of the Irish Baile-na-hhfwnnnhhrach, the town of 
<Iio while-coloured spots, or of the persons named 

The word ceinnfhioiin [cannon] which literally 
means white head [ceann, head), is now applied to 
a coAV with a white spot in the middle of her fore- 
head. The term is used by the Four IMasters at 
A.M. 3072, wluMi (hoy ro(!()rdlho legend that (luring 
the reign of king Fiacha Fiiiaikhcs, all the cows 
were ceindfhiond, white-headed. The meaning of 
this compound is sometimes extended however, so 
that it is used to designate anything speckled 
with white spots. In this sense it is used to give 
name to Foilcannon, a great clifP with a smooth 
face of rock, under the Eagle's Nest near Glcn- 
garrifp, i.e. speckled cliff. So also Clooncannon 
in Oidwny, speckled uu\'ulow; Cnrrigcannon in 
Cork and Kerry, speckled rock ; iJrumcannon and 
Druracanon in the nortliern counties, speckled 
ridge ; Lettercannon in Kerry, speckled hill-side. 
Some of the preceding may have taken their names 
from a legendary cow (like Loughnaheery, p. 288) ; 
and this is certainly the case with Foilnacanony 
in the parish of Upperchurch in Tipporary, and 

276 Colours. [cTiAP. XVII. 

vvitli Qlennacauiion near Baltinglaas in Wicklow, 
tlie cliff and the glen of the Avhite-hcaded cow. 

Ban signifies white or whitish. There is a 
beautiful lake in Wcstmeath, near the village of 
Fore, called Longhhano or Loiighbawn, wliite 
lake ; and another of ilie same name in IMonaghan, 
three niih;,s norlh of tho village of Shorcock : (ion- 
nected with the former is the small Loiigh (J lass 
(green lake) ; and Avith the latter, lilack Lake ; 
each pair receiving their name from some real or 
fancied contrast of colour. Carrickbaun and Car- 
rigbaun, white rock, are the names of places in 
( folk and Leitrim ; Clashl)ane near Caherconlish 
in liimerick, white irench. 

The ])r()montory of Ivonbane near TJallycastle 
ill Antrim, with its cnslh! ruins, is u cliaracicuislic 
example of tho application of this word; tlie elilf 
is composed of white limestone, and the name, 
Ccannhdn, white head, exactly describes its ap- 
pearance. Sometimes the people give the name of 
(j/earrdn-bdn, white gnrron or horse, to conspicuous 
white rocks, in which they fancy they can trace 
some resemblance to the shape of a horse. There 
is a hill about a mile from the village of Clarin- 
bridge in Gal way, which the Four Masters call 
Cnoc-an-gJtearrdin-hJidin, the hill of the white 
horse, and which is now called Knockagarranbaun. 

In very many cases the h of this word becomes 
V or w by aspiration. There are several rivers in 
Ireland called Owvane or Ouvane, Avhich exactly 
represents tho sound of the Qixii\u',Ahli-hhd}i,^\\\\\o 
or whitish river. But the Owvane llowing into 
the head of Jiantry Bay in Cork has its name 
from a dilTorent source : it is cnWv(\AI>h-»i/t('(((///()n 
by the natives, i.e. middle river, from its posit iou 
between the two rivers, Coomhola and Mealagh. 
Here also the modern name conveys the sound of 

CHAP. XVII.] Colours. 277 

the Gaelic form. Many little bays round tlie sea 
coast and round the shores of the larger lakes are 
called Trawane, Trabane, and Trawbawn, white 
strand, ^vhich derived their names from the 
whitish colour of the sand. 

Gcal [gal] means whi( o, fair-coloured, or bright. 
There is a place near the city of Limerick called 
Galvone, white bog {Gail- mho in), which probably 
received its name either from the white sedge 
grass, commonly called financ, or from the ccvna- 
vnun or bog-down. Loughgal, white lake, is a 
little lake three miles south of Elphin in Iloscom- 
nion ; Galcussagh, literall}^ white-footed, is the 
name of a townland in the parish of Desertcreat in 
Tyrone ; and it was, I suppose, applied to low lying 
land covered with Avhite flowers, or whitish grass. 

Gilo, [gilla] is an abstract noun derived from 
ijeal, and signifies brightness or whiteness ; it is 
often heard in the colloquial language, as in the 
eomiuon (>|)i(.liet ol' endearment, GUhnuncJivcc, 
biiglidioss ol' my heart ; and it is found qnite as 
oflen as <jc(il\n local names. Longli (ilill in Sligo 
is always called in the annals Loch-gilc, the lake 
of brightness, or bright, lake ; and there is a small 
lake in the parish of Aghagower in Mayo, called 
Longhannagilla, the little lake of the brightness. 
This word also appears in Legilly in the parish of 
Clonfeacle in Tyrone, the bright lug or hollow. 

lied. Jh'firg signifies a deep scarlet, or very 
decided red {derc, rubes; Z. 61) ; and in the for- 
mation of names it usually takes the forms derfj/ 
dcrrig, and darrig. There are several fords and 
bridges all over the country called Belderg> 
Ballahaderg, Ballaghaderg, and Bellanaderg, all 
meaning red ford [hcl and hel-athay a ford : 1st Vol. 
I*art III., c. V.) which were so called from tljo 
colour of the water, which again took its coloi i 

278 Colours. [chap. xvti. 

from the soil or mud. Tlicro is a parisli in Tippu- 
rary, half way between Cuhir and (Jlonmel, now 
called Derrygratli, near where Lewy Mac Con was 
killed (boo Gortanoro in Chapter xx.) ; it took its 
luune from a conspicuous fort, still in existence, 
which is called in Irish Dearg-rath, red rath. The 
same name is found in Hoscommon in the mora 
correct form Dergraw ; and there is a townland 
in Queen's County culled Ratherrig, whose Irish 
name is liath-d/iearg, same meaning. In this last 
the d drops out by aspiration, as it does in Lick- 
orrig near Athenry in Galway, whose Irish name 
J]ic-(l/iC(irtj, red surface-flag, most truly describes 
the place. 

lluadh [roo], red, reddish, or fox-coloured, is 
(•(pavalent to, and cognate with, the Latin rithcr, 
and English red and ruddy. This word is very 
extensively used in the formation of Irish local 
names ; and though it is variously modified, its 
most usual anglicised form is roe. 

There are two places in Donegal — one near the 
village of Convoy and the other nctir Kilnmcrennn 
— called Cloghroe, red stone or stone castle ; and 
there is another place of the same name two miles 
from Bullincollig in Cork. Tiie Owenroe or red 
river, a tributary of the Blackwater, flows through 
the village of Moynalty in Meath. Moyroe near 
Dungannon in Tyrone, is Magh-ruadh, reddish 
plain ; which is also the Irish form of J^foroe, the 
name of a little village in the parish of Abington 
^'u Limerick. At the little handct of lloeveliagh 
in the parish of Killeely, near Clarinbridge in 
Galway, grow the inauguration tree of the IIij' 
Fiachrach Aidhne (see 1st Vol., Part IV., c. viii.), 
from which the hamlet took its name. At a.d. 
1143, according to the Four Masters, Turlough 
O'Brien led a hostile expedition into Connaught, 

CHAP. XVII.] Colours. 279 

and cut down this tree, wliicb. the old authority 
cnlla Riiadh-bhcitlieacli, i.e. the red birch, the 
pronunciation of which is well represented by 
lloevehagh. The word takes another form in 
JMidroy, tlio nanio of a long bay in the north of 
Donegal, wliich must have been so called from a 
hill, the Irish name being Maol-ruadh, red bald- 

By means of various postfixes, several derivatives 
are formed from this word, which are, or were, 
nil applied to rcddisli-colourcd spots. With the 
diminutive an, we have Ruan in Limerick and 
Clare; RTinnes in Cork; Ruaunmore in Wexford 
(groat red pl;tcc) ; llowan and llowans in Armagli, 
Meath, and JXiblin ; and llooaun in several coim- 
ties. In Tullaroan in Kilkenny the same word is 
seen ; but here it is a personal name [lluadhdn or 
Rowan, a red-complexioned man — Bnfm), Tidla- 
roan meaning Rowan's Tulacli or hillock. With 
chn or chim,, lloughan and Roogliann, <ho names 
of several townlands; with lack (p. 6), Roolagh in 
Ti])porary, Rolngli in INlcath, and Rowlagh in 
Dublin; and wiMi iacli (p. 8), wo have Rootiagh 
and Routagh in Limerick, and Rootagh in Tippe- 
rary. This t in the termination appears in Ruaidh- 
tihh [Rootiv], reddish spots of land, which has been 
anglicised to Rooves inthe parish of AglishinCork. 

YcJhw. Ihiidhc [bwce or boy] yellow is evi- 
dently cogimlo with Laiin badiiis, Vr. bai, J'^ng. baj/ 
(colour). 'I'lio usual form in anglicised names is 
boj/, i hough it is somelimcs made bi/, vcc, tviiij, tvcc, 
&c., the lust three by the aspiration of the b. 

This term, like dearg, was often applied to fords, 
from the coloiir of the water, caused by yellow 
mud. ^V\w villiig(^ oT Atliboy in Mnaih got its 
namofroju a ford on llio river which flows through 
it ; it is very frocpuMitly mentioned in the annals 

280 Colours. [chav. xvii. 

by tlio luinio of Af/i-hiti<I//r-'/7(ic///(/u, \]h) yi'"«'^v 
I'oi'd of Tlnchtya, from tlio cclobralul hill of 
Tlachtga, now called the Hill of Ward, in 
its neighbourhood. The name Atlt-hu'ulhe often 
compouiuLs with bdl, ford-nioiith, forming Ucl-aii- 
atha-baidhc, the mouth of the yellow ford, which 
was the name of a ford on the river Callaii, a little 
north of Armagh, where O'Neill defeated l^agenal's 
army in 1598. The anglicised form of this — 
liellanaboy — is the name of some places in Lcitrim, 
Mayo, Sligo, and Donegal ; and it is corrupted to 
Ballinaboy in Cork, Gal way, and Itoscouunon. 

There are two places in Donegal called Straboy, 
one of which (near Glouties) is mentioned by the 
Four Masters, who call it Srath-hiiUUic, the yellow 
srath or river holm. Other modern fonns of this 
word are seen in Dallybinuby near lioche Castle, 
four miles from Dundalk, the town of the yellow 
bin or peak ; Drumbanaway in Tyrone, the ridge 
of the yellow peak ; and Benwee itself — yellow 
peak — is the name of some hills in ]\layo and 
elsewhere. Fallowvee near Cushendall in Antrim, 
ycillow hedge or enclosure (see p. 21(5). TliclKtle 
stream Owenwee — yellow river — flows midor tlio 
base of Slieve League in Donegal ; and thci'i^ are 
other streams called Owenboy giving names to 
townlands in Donegal and Mayo. 

Broicn. Bonn is brown, dark-brown ; much the 
same in meaning as the ]*jnglish word dan : donn, 
fuscus, Z. 225. When the word occurs in names, 
which is not often, it is generally anglicised down ; 
as in Darnadown, the luune of some places in Kil- 
kenny and Wexford, signifying brown gap. 

Cron [crone] signifies brown, dark-brown, or 
swarthy ; and in this sense it is still a living word. 
Ardcrone, brown height is the name of a place in 
the parish of Currans in Kerry ; Curkacrone near 

CHAP. XVII.] Colours. 28] 

Callan in Kilkenny, brown oats (coirce) or oats- 
land ; Cronkill in Armagh and Tipperary, and 
Orunkill in Rosconnnon, brown Avood ; Oruninish, 
brown island, the name of an islet in lower Longh 
V]\\\(\ I'licro is II. larg(^ hko. called Tjongli Oroan, 
(lark-brown lake, in IJosc^ommon, four nn"les from 
]\lount Talbot. The syllable cr6n has other mean- 
ings, however, which it is sometimes hard to dis- 
tinguish from the present in anglicised names. 

Green. Glas is commonly translated green ; and 
this is its usual acceptation, for we find it often 
applied to express the green of grass and foliage. 
r»ut the word was also used to designate a greyish, 
or bluish green, or rather a greyish blue, a shade 
of colour having in it litlle or none of what we 
should call green. For instance ghis was ofien 
applied to a greyish blue eye, and also to the colour 
of the water- wagfail. In its topographical appli- 
cation, however, it must be generally understood to 
mean grass-green. 

The Four Masters record the erection of a fort 
called llath-Lochaid, in the reign of Irial Faidh, 
one of the pro-Christian kings, at a place called 
Glaseharn, green earn or monument, which O'Douo- 
van identifies with Glascarn near Mullingar ; and 
there is another Glascarn, near Ratoath in Meath. 
Gla.scarrig, green rock, is the name of a place on 
the coast of Wexford, remarkable for its abbey 
ruins. Tn WW^, a. bloody baf (lo Avas fought be- 
tween Iwo clans of the O'Neills at a ])lace in the 
parish of Aghanloo in Tyrone, which the annalists 
call G/(fs-d)vi)iaii)v, green ridge, biit which is now 
called Glassdrummond ; this is also the name of 
other townlands in Armagh and Monaghan ; and 
there are more than twenty in the northern and 
W(^sfern counties called nun-o correctly Glasdrum- 
man. Glaslough, a 8n)all town in Monaghan, 
takes its name, Avhich means green lake, from ihe 

282 Colours. [chai'. xvii. 

small lake near tlie town ; Glassillan, gi-cou island, 
is the name of several small islands oil the coasts, 
and in the lakes of Mayo and Galway. 

The word assumes other forms, chiefly hy gram- 
matical inflection, as may be seen in the following 
names. There is a place in the parish of Donagh- 
moyno in ]\ronaghan, calh'd Corcnllioiiglisli, wliich 
is anglicised from Cor-eiiiUinn-ylais, the romul hill 
of the green holly ; Kilmaglush in Carlo w, and 
Kilmaglish inWestmeath, both signify the church 
of the green magh or plain. 

Blue. Gorm signifies blue. It is often applied 
to mountains, and of course in this case designates 
llieir blue colour when seen from a distance. 
Tliere is a range of hills north of Donegal town, 
called Croaghgorm, which has also tlie correct 
atlas name of liluestack. Beugorm, blue jjeak, is 
a high mountain rising over the Killeries in Oon- 
nemara ; there is another fine mountain of the 
same name over Lough Feeagh, noith-west of 
Newport in Mayo, and we have Bingorras near 
Slievesnaght in the j^ai-ish of Gartan in Donegal — 
Beanna-yorma, blue peaks ; Slievegorm, blue moun- 
tain, in the parish of Killererin in Galway. 

The word yorm was also used to designate the 
colours of various natural objects, such as the soil, 
rocks, water, &c. ; and it was applied to several 
shades of blue. Poidgorm, blue pool, is f.ho name 
of some small lakes in Clare, Cork, and other 
counties ; there is a little island in Loiigh Melvin 
in Fermanagli, called Gormiuish, blue island; 
Gormagh bridge crosses the Silver lliver, two miles 
north of Tullamore in King's County — Gorm- 
achadh, blue field ; and there is a place called 
Gormlee in the pai'ish of Dunbulloge, north of 
Cork city — Gormliath, bluish grey, a name derived 
from the colour of the soil. 

Greij. Riahhach signifies greyish, brindled, 

CHAP. XVII.] Colours. 283 

swarthy, or tan-coloured — for I find it translated 
by all tlicso terms : some Latin writers render it 
fuscus. The shades of colour designated by this 
word nmst linvo been usual in the surface of tlic 
land, for it is very gonoral in local n;uncs ; aiid it 
is commonly anglicised in the forms of reagh, rca, 
and rcvagh. 

The Four Masters, at a.d, 1476, mention a castle 
called Rath-riahhach, grey rath, in Longford, 
which is now called Rath reagh, and gives name to 
a church and pnrish, where the ruins of both castle 
iiiid church still rcuiain. In ]\l;iyo, there is another 
])arisli of the snuie nauie ; and thisis idso the name 
ol' sonic towidaiids in ICilkcJiny and Limerick. 
There is a townland near Downpatrick called 
lliugreagh, i.e. llinnriahhach, grey point : Agha- 
rcjigh, grey field. 

The simple anglicised form, Reagh, locally 
understood to mean grey lands, is tlie name of 
Konio pbices in Cork, ]it)ac(tninK)n, and Down ; it is 
softened to Rcc in the parish of Agivey in l)erry ; 
while several other places in Galway and Tyrone 
are designated by the diminutive Rcaghan, a 
name which signifies a small grey spot of land ; 
and there are numerous hills in the south of Ire- 
land called Slievereagh, grey mountain. 

In the west and north-west, the hh of riahhach 
generally gets its full v sound ; and in this case 
the word is usually represented by revogh : — Gor- 
trevagh in Galway, grey field, is the same as Gort- 
reagh in T5a'one and in some of the Munster 
counties ; the same word appears in Derrygortrevy 
in Tyrone, the oak-wood of the grey field ; Car- 
rickreagh, grey rock, in Fermanagh, takes the 
form of Carrickrevagh in Lcitrim. This term 
designates a man in Attithonuisrevagh near Salt- 
hill, a suburb of Galway, which means the site of 

284 Colours. [chap. xvii. 

swurtliy Thoinns's lioiiso {ait, sito ; fcacJi, liousr ; 
see IstVoL, TaiL III., c. i.). 

Liath [leea] answers exactly to the English 
word grey : and in anglicised names it generally 
assumes the forms of* lea and leaijh. Leagli itself 
in the sense of grey land, gives name to a number 
of townlands in various counties ; and the word 
takes the form of Lea as the name of a parish in 
Queen's County, and of several places in other 
counties. The plural Liatlia, grey spots, is repre- 
sented by Leaha in Gal way and Kerry, Leaglis in 
Tyrone, and Leahys in Limerick. As a diminu- 
tive we find it in Lcaghan in Fermanagh and 
Tyi(»iio, Leigliiji in CJavan, Lcjahccn iu (ylin-e, 
]joighanin l''ci'iniiniigh,Leighon,the name ol' a little 
island iwiar Lcttermore island iu Conncuiara^nll 
which were originally applied to grey spots dI' land. 

Tliere is a village in Fermanagh, situated on 
the Finn, called Rosslea, whose name was ob- 
viously derived from the piece of land half enclosed 
by a bend of the river : — lion- liath, grey peninsula. 
Carriglca, Carrigleagh, Oarrigleigh, and Cari'ick- 
loagh, are tlie names of townlands in AVaterford, 
Cork, and Ijouth, all signifying grey rock ; and 
there are several places in Leitrim, Monaghan, 
and Roscommon, called Creevelea, grey branch or 
branchy tree. In the parish of Two-mile-Borris, 
east of Thurles in Tipperary, there is a very 
ancient church, which is called in the annals LiatJi- 
Mor (great grey spot), and nho Liath-Mochaenihog 
Moc/iaciit/tO(/'s grey hind; and it still retains this 
latter name in the anglicised form of Lcamokevoge 
which transmits the sound truly enough. St. 
Mochaenthoy, who founded this church was the son 
of the sister of the celebrated St. Ita of Killeedy 
in Limerick (see 1st Vol., Part II., c. iii.) ; he is 
sometimes called Fulcherius, which is merely a 

CHAP, xvti.] Colours. 285 

translation of his Irisli nhme ; for Moehacmhog 
signifies " my beautiful youth." He was a very 
eminent man, and died, a.d. 656. There is 
another church, founded by, or dedicated to, this 
sfiinf , in (ho south of the county Kilkenny, colled 
cm Moclmcmhocj, and now KihnakeYOgo, which 
gives name to a parish ; but the people are begin- 
ning to call it Killivory from a notion that cacmlwg 
means ivorv (see O'Donovan in Four Masters, I.; 
266, note h). 

rale Grey. The Avord odhar [oar, our] signifies 
a dtni colour, a palo grey, or light bro^^•n. It is 
f(»nnd in our oldest writings (odnr ; Cor. Gl.), and 
it conliinios in use as a living word. Tt usually 
occurs in names in tho anglicised forms of ore, oar, 
oirrr, our, and era; as in Ardoro in Fermanagh, 
and Ardour in Galway, grey height ; Corrower in 
]\layo, pale-grey hill ; 5loanour, the name of a 
hill near Galbally in Tjinierick, grey bog. Derroar 
in tlio parish of Termonmaguirk in Tyrone is 
called in the map of the plantation, Dcrijowre, i.e. 
Doire-odhar, grey oak-wood : — Seskinore, a village 
in Tyrone, is called in tho same map and in early 
grants, Shaslxanoure, pointing clearly to Sescenu- 
odhar, grey marsh. Turloughour south west of 
Tuani in Galway is grey turlovgh (see 1st Vol. 
for Turlongh). 

There are two townlands in Galway called Ower, 
which is notliing but tho simple word, and signifies 
dun coloured land ; and Ouragli near Tidlow in 
Carlow is an adjective form with the same mean- 
ing. Sometimes the simple word Ora is applied 
to a hill, as in case of Ora more and Ora-beg 
(great and little grey-hill) near the north shore of 
Vp]>or Tiough INIacnean in Fermanagli ; from the 
foi-mcr of which the adjacent lake, Lough Ora, 
lias its name. The d becomes restored (see Ist 

286 Colours. [chai'. xvii. 

Vol., Part T., 0. ii.) in tlio iiiirao of Odder near 
Tara in Meath, wliich is called in the annals, 
Odhra, the plural of odhar, signifying pale-grey 
spots of land. 

The word odhar was sometimes used to designate 
streams, to express proLahly the hrown colour of 
water that flowed through hogs. In our most 
ancient authority, the account of the cattle spoil 
of Cooley in the Lehor na hUidhre, a river is 
mentioned called Odras, which is an ahstract 
noun : — odar, pale- grey ; odras, pale-greyness ; (see 
p. 13 for the termination s). This river is stated to 
he at Slievo Baune in the east of tlio county Hos- 
common ; and as the name Avould he pronounced 
Oris, the Odras is prohahly tlie same os the river 
now called the Feorish, which ilows from tlie 
slopes of Slievo Baune, and joins the Shan- 
non opposite Cloondara in Longford ; f heing 
prefixed to the name as is done so often in 
other cases (1st Yol, Part I., c. ii.). There is 
another Feorish farther north in the same county 
joining the Shannon near tho southern end ol" 
Lough Allen. 

We have another example of this application in 
the name of the river Nier in Waterford, which 
rises from a group of lakes in the Oomeragh moun- 
tains, and flows into the Suir helow Clonmel. The 
n is merely the article, attracted to the name in 
the manner already explained (N'ier, the grey 
[river]: 1st. Vol., Part 1., c. ii.) ; and the people 
carefully separate them when speaking Trisli, and 
give each its proper declension. It appears clear 
that this name is an ohlique form of odhar (which 
they pronoimce, nom. our, gen. iera, dat. icr) ; for 
as I have shoAvn, 1st Vol., Part I., c. ii.), the 
custom of using oblique forms as nominatives 
has grown into a sort of law in the Irish as well 

ciiAr. XVII.] Colours. 287 

as in other European languages ; and hence we 
call Ara, Aran ; Teamhair, Tara, &c. That this 
is the true interpretation of the name is further 
shown by the fact that Cninalough or Cumalough, 
one oC <ho group of miiiill Inlccs from which the 
Nier ilows, is sometimes called Cumalough odhar, 
grey Inko, by the natives (" Cumaloch od/iar a's 
Con?-na-fjcnpa/l ;" old song).* 

The fine valley through which the river flows is 
called Gleann-na-hUidhre [Glanahiery], the glen 
of the Odhar or Nier ; which has given name to 
tlu) barony of Qlcnahiry. And this is a further 
]>roof of tlie coiTcctnoss of ilio preceding etymo- 
logy ; for na-hiiidhre is oxactly (ho genitive of an- 
odhar. There is a Glannaheera in the parish of 
Ballinvoher, east of Dingle in Kerry, which the 
people correctly interpret, the glen of the brown 

The word odhar, with the same oblique pronun- 
ciation, but without the attracted article, gives 
iijimo to the litflo stream, now called the Ire, which 
flows eastward from the well-known mountain 
l;il<(^ of (youmshingann (l\\o miles from tluj soiirco 
of (he Nicr), and joins (he (Jlodiagh river. 

This word odhar is often applied to a cow ; and 
several places have doiivcd their names from le- 
gendary cows with this designation. Names of 
this kind may be known by their terminations ; 
for tliey almost always end in iiahcery, mihrrrn, or 
iiahoora ; as in Kibiaheery near Clogher in Tyi-ono, 
and Kilnahora near Uromdaleague in Cork, Coill- 
va-hnidhrr, the Avood of (lie dun cow. Under the 
eastern face of Sliove Bcagh on the boundary ol 
Tj'rone and Monaghan, there is a small lake called 

* TTote I am draw ing on information supplied by Mr. John 
Fleming of llatligormuck, of whom I have spoken iu the 

1 rola.jc to t!ic second edition of 1st Vohniie. 

288 Co/ours. [chap, xvii, 

Louglinalieery, wliicli tlic mountain of Essnaliocry 
rising ovei* it, wliicli took its name from an ess 
or waterfall ; and the hill of Monahoora lies on 
the north side of Slieve Croob in Down, Moin-iut- 
huidhvc, the bog- of the dun cow. This is also the 
origin of the name of the ancient book so oitcn 
(juolod in (lieso }»ag('.s, calli'd Lclior iia JiUiiUirc, 
[Lower-na-heera], the book of the brown cow ; 
for according to the legendary account, it was 
written by St. Kieran of Clonmacnoise, and 
the vellum of which it was composed was made 
from the hide of his favourite dark-grey cow. 

Speckled. Brcae [brack] signifies speckled or 
parti-coloured. As land, especially hill-sides or 
dry npland, often presents u speckled or spotted 
appearan(;o, caused by different kinds ot vcigela- 
tion, or by the varying colours of the soil or of 
rocks, this word is of very frequent occurrence in 
local names ; and it usually takes the anglicised 
form brack. At a.d. 1601, the Four ]\[asters 
mention a place in Galway called Coill-hhreac, 
speckled wood — speckled, I suppose, from a mix- 
ture of various coloured trees ; it is now called 
K}lebrack, and is situated in the parish of 
lioitrijn. Willi a slight dilferenco of form we 
have Kilbrack in Cork and Waterford, and Kil- 
bracks (speckled woods or churches) in Armagh. 
There is a townland near Oola in Ijimcrick, called 
lirackyle, which is the same name Avith the root- 
words reversed. Annaghbrack, speckled marsh. 

The l^ia(;kbawn is u line nu^untain stream flow- 
ing down the side of the Galty Mountains near 
Kilbehenny, and joining the Funshion; or rather 
it is itself the head water of the Funshion. 
The name properly belongs to a townland through 
which the river flows ; and it signifies speckled 
whitish land {ban, p. 276). The word bvaek is 

CHAP, xviii.] The Animal Kingdom. 289 

often applied in this way, as a noun, meaning 
speckled land : — Bracknahevla in the parish of 
Killarc in Westiucath, speckled land of the orchard 
{ahhal) ; Bracknaniuckley near Portglenone in 
Antrim, speckled land oF the muchtch or ])i<;gery. 
Many other phices taking their names from the 
word hreac have been noticed in this and the for- 
mer volume. 

There is another word for speckled, viz., hrit, 
hriof, or hreat, which is also often used in the for- 
mation of names. Mullybrit, speclded summit, is 
the name of a townland near Lisbellaw in Ferma- 
nagh, the same as IMullybrack, Murabrack, and 
Mnllaghbrack, elsewhere. ]}rittas, which has been 
already no<iced (p. 14), is corrupted to British in 
the parish of Killead in Antrim, and forms part of 
the name of Ballj^brittas in Queen's Coimty and 
Wexford, the town of the speckled land. 



When a place is named from some particiUar kind 
of animal, the name of the animal usually comes 
in at the end of the local designation, in the geni- 
tive plural. Sometimes the article is omitted, as 
in case of Slieve-Buck, the name of a mountain 
south of i^nniskcrry in Wicklow, of another giving 
name to a townland near llaphoe in Donegal, 
and of a few elsewhere. The Irish form of the 
name is 8liabh-hoc, the mountain of the bucks or 
stags. But more generally the article is inserted, 
which eclipses the first consonant, if it can be 
eclip.sed: this is seen in Carrieknagat and Carrig- 
nagat, which occur in many places all over the 
country, the Irish form of which is Carraig-na- 
VOL. II. 20 

290 The Animal Kingdom. [chap, xviii. 

(jcat, tlie rock of the (wild) cats. Occasionully the 
name of the animal comes first ; as in Uoaninisb, 
a little island off Donegal, outside GweeLarra bay, 
Jton-inis, seal island ; Roancarrick, the name of 
several email rocks and rocky islets round the 
coast, resorts for seals — Ron-char raig, seal rock. 
This is the same as Car ri guar one, which is also 
occasionally met with. This name too has a lite- 
rary and romantic interest. When the four chil- 
dren of Lir, who had been turned into swans by 
their wicked step-mother, were driven about by 
tempests on the rough sea of ]\Ioyle (the narrow sea 
between Antrim and the Mull of Can tiro), they 
n})pointcd Carrignarono as their meotiiig-placc, in 
case they should bo separated by the sloriii ; and 
wbon Finola, tho eldest, came to tho rock, and 
found her brothers absent, she uttered a lament 
which Moore has echoed in his beautiful song 
" Silent, Moyle, be the roar of thy water." 

As I have introduced the subject of seals, it may 
be as well to give a few more names derived from 
them. The little inlet that boimds the east side of 
Aughinish island in the Shannon, two miles above 
Foynes, is called Poularone, the pool or hole of 
the seal : and the name Poulnarone (hole of the 
seals) is often applied round, the coast to sea caves 
frequented by seals. 

The genitive plural of ron is generally ran, as in 
Carraig-na-ron or Carrignarono above-mentioned. 
But it is sometimes rointe [roanty], so that rocks 
frequented by seals are called Carrignarono in 
some places, and in others Carrignaroanty. The 
best known name in which this form appears is 
that of Roundstone Bay, wliich gives name to the 
village of Roundstone, in Connemara. The bay 
took its name from a rock frequented by multi- 
tudes of eeala, and called from this circumstance 

CHAP, xvin.] The Anini a/ Kingdom. 291 

Cloch-rointe, the stone or rock of the seals. But 
some person ignorant of the meaning took rointc 
[roanty] to ho the same us the English word ro?«?r/, 
having soinolhing like the same sound, and accord- 
ingly iranslal edit iio/^^/f^-stonc instead of ^y? /-stone. 

There is yet another vfny of forming names oi 
this kind, to which I have to dii-ect special atten- 
tion, viz., the name of the animal is brought in at 
the end, in the genitive singidar instead of the 
genitive plural. And names of this class are in- 
tended to express the fact that the places were the 
haunts of the animals in question (the same as ii 
the genitive plural were used), a single animal 
being made to stand for tho whole species. An 
excellent example of this is Poulanishcry or Poul- 
nashcrry, a well-known inlet of the Shannon near 
which you pass in going from Kilrush to Killcee. 
It has alwaj^s produced abundance of oysters ; and 
there is still an o)^ster-bed at its western side. 
This fact is expressed by tho name — ro/l-on-oisirc, 
the hole, pool, or inlet of the oyster (not of the 
oysters). It is to bo observed, however, that in 
some names of this kind, one animal is really 
meant ; and then the name is often connected with 
a legend. Whether this is the case or not in any 
particular place, can only be ascertained from local 

Ants and Midges. Miol [meel] denotes any kind 
of animal ; different species being designated by 
means of qualifying terms. We find it standing 
alone in Bellaveel near Ballyhaunis in Mayo, the 
hd or ford of Ihe beast [h aspirated to v). When 
this simple form is used collective!}'', it is some- 
times intended to denote pismires ; as in Drumna- 
meel near Enin'skillnii, which is understood there 
to mean the ridgo of ilio an(s; and occasionally 
it stands for midges, as in Croaghnameal, a moun- 

292 The Animal Kingdom, [chap, xviii. 

tain six miles east of Donegal town, tlie bill of the 

The diminutive mioltog [meelthoge] is the usual 
word for a midge ; and tliis term is i)retty general 
in names, always indicating a place where, in 
favourable weather, there are swarms of midges. 
There is a townland culled ]\lccltoge near Bolturbet 
in Cavan, and another, IMeeltogues, in the parish 
of Kilskeery in Tyrone, both meaning a midgy 
place. Bohernameeltoge in the parish of Killoe in 
Longford, is the road of the midges ; there is 
a little lake called Loughnameeltoge, among the 
Croaghgorm bills, north of Donegal ; and a to^vn- 
hind near Ikllinamore in Leitrim called ]3allyna- 
meeltoge, the town of the midges. Other Aavi- 
valivcH oMbu word v///o/ are npidicd to tlio Hauio 
little animal: — as examples take Curragbmcchigh 
— midge marsh — the name of a townland and of a 
little lake in the parish of Killougliy in King's 
County ; C'ornameelta near Boyle in Koscommon, 
and Cormeeltan in Leitrim, both meaning the 
round hill of the midges. 

The general Irish Avord for a pismire or ant is 
scangdii [shangaun] ; which is a diminutive from 
aeang, slender, and means slender little fellow. 
There is a small low bill near the village of Louth, 
where an abbey, which afterwards became much 
celebrated, was founded in 1148, and consecrated 
by the great St. Malachy O'Morgair, archbishop 
of Armagh. It is mentioned often in Irish records 
by the name of Onoc-na-seangdn, the hill of the 
ants ; and it is now generally called in English 
IMsniire Ilill ; while the abbey is called Knock 
Abbey. There are townlands of this name in 
Donegal and Fermantigh, which are now correctly 
anglicised Knocknashangan ; and near Lurgau in 
Armagh, is a place called Knocknashane and some- 

CHAP. XVIII. j The Animal Kingdom. 293 

times Knocknaseggane, both of which are varied 
forms of the same name. Indeed this hist seems 
to preserve the ohiest form of the word, which is 
given spgon (without the middle n) in Cormao's 
Gh)ssary : nnd it is pronounced all Mirongh Ulster 
in accordance with tliis — as if written seaghan, 
where the gh is sounded as a strong guttural. 

Near the lake of Qartan in Donegal, there is a 
place called Maghernashangan, the plain (machaire) 
of the pismires ; Coolshangan near luver in the 
same comity, and Coolsliingaun in the parish of 
lujigh, Clare {caif, a corner) ; Lishecnnashinganc 
three miles from Mill town in Kerry, on the road 
to Killarncy {li,s?n, a little fort) ; Garranashingaun 
in the parish of Castletownarra in Tippcrary {gar- 
ran, a shrubbery) ; Aghnashingan in Longford, 
the field {achadh) of the ants. There is a little 
river near Bantry called Owennashingaun — pis- 
mire river — joining the Hen near Dromdaleague. 

With the termination ach (p. f3) is formed scan- 
gAnach, which signifies a place abounding in pis- 
mires ; and this term, in various anglicised forms, 
is the name of a great many places indifferent jwrts 
of the country. The best known is Shanganagh 
in Dublin, between Killiney and Bray, which 
Denis Florence Mac Carthy has commemorated in 
his poem, " The Vale of Shanganagh." The pro- 
nunciation adopted in the poem, which is that 
univcrstilly used by the ednc:itod people of the city 
and county of Dublin [Shau-gaii'na, to rhyme wilh 
manna\ would point to the erroneous etymology, 
sean-gaineamh, old sand. ]]ut the traditional pro- 
nunciation of tlie native peasantry [Shangana : 
accent on S/iang ; the other two syllables very 
short] shows that the name is an anglicised form 
of Scangdnach. Even to this day these insects are 
specially abundant along the banks of the little 

894 The Animal KiiKjdom. [chap, xviii. 

river that runs tliroiigli llio (owiilaud. There is 
also a Shaugunagli in Chire, and another about 
three miles from Athy in Queen's County. In 
Kilkenny, this name takes the form of Shanganny. 
In Cork it is Shananiigli ; in Jifayo, Tipperary, 
and Waterford, Shinganagh ; in Qalway, Shinna- 
niigh; and in Clare, Shingaunagh. Shingaim, the 
simple word, without the termination ach, is the 
name of a place in Wexford, and has the same 
meaning as all the preceding — a place full of ants 
or pismires. 

Bee. According to the testimony of many old 
writers both native and foreign, Ireland was for- 
merly rcimarkablo for its abmidiinc-e of bees. 
Stanihurst, Camden, Lombard, David llothe, and 
olhors state ihat boos laid up their hoimy in 
enonnous combs, not only in hives, but in trunks 
of trees and in caves. That they were in old 
times regarded as an important article of natural 
wealth is shown by the fact that they are often 
mentioned in the Book of Rights as forming- part 
of the tribute due to kings. Thus, at page 245, 
it is stated that the king of Uktid Avas entitled — 
among many other things — to " twenty baskets 
(hives) in which are bees." (See also Bremore in 

Beach [bah] is the Irish word for a bee, cognate 
of course with the English word. It sometimes 
appears in local names, almost always forming 
with the article the termination namngh, i.e. na- 
mhcachy of the bees, wlu>rc the h is ecli})sed by m. 
'i'hus Cornamagh netir Kingscourt in Cavan [cor, 
a round hill) ; Coolnanuigh near the village of 
Cecilstown in Cork betAveezi Mallow and Kanturk 
{cuil, a corner) ; and Ilalhnamagh in the parish of 
Killian in Mayo, the rath or fort of the bees. 
Observe that this termination magh must not be 
on founded with magh, a plain. 

oiiAP. xviii.J The Animal Kingdom, 295 

Hornet. The word cearnahhan is given in the 
dictionaries as the name for a hornet ; but a slightly 
different form is perpetuated in local names — 
cearnaman [carnaraan]. There is sometimes a 
little uncertainty as to the exact animal meant 
when the word occurs in names ; in some places 
it is understood to mean hornets; in others clocks', 
and in Loughcarnaman in the parish of Knockbride 
in Cavan, the word is, according to some of the old 
natives, applied to a species of fish. There are 
several lakes in the north of Ireland called Lough 
Nagarnaman (c eclipsed by g) : one for instance at 
the liead of Gwc(^l)arra ]'»ay in Donegal, and another 
four mih's nortli of Carrickmacross in Monaglinn. 

The more nsual Avord for the common clock is 
ciarog [koeroge], which literally means black little 
thing, from ciar, black. This word is seen in 
Loughnakeeroge (tlic lake of the clocks), the name 
of a beautiful litde lake in the island of Achill ; 
and in Glnslianageoroge, tlio name of alitllo strenni 
(lowing into the river Decl near DronicoUiher in 
liimorick — the glanha or rividet of tbe hecroges. 
In IJallykeerogo in Wexford, it is pre! ty certain 
that the word Keeroge is a man's name — Ciarog in 
this case being identical in meaning with Ciardn, 
now Kieran — see page 271. 

Blouse. This little animal is called /?^cA in Irish 
{Inch, mus: Z. 71) ; but the diminutive luchog is 
the term most generally employed. It is seen in 
Inchalughoge, the name of a little stream and of 
a townland in the parish of Kilnoe in the east of 
Clare, tlie inch or river-meadow of the mice. 
Gortnalughoge, mouse-field, is a place in thc- 
parish of Mevagh in the north of Donegal ; there 
is a townlnnd called "Mullynalughoge near Clones, 
the sutnmit of tho mice ; and l^lsknaloughogo is a 
hill, four miles west of Sneeni in Kerry, which 

296 TliG Aniinal Kiiiydoin, [ynk\.\ xviii. 

mxist have tukea its iiamo iruni nu cuk or wutoi- 

Wren. In old times, this little bird was regarded 
as a great proplict; for by listening atlenlively lo 
itfc chirping, those who were skilled in the language 
of birds were enabled to predict fndiro events. 
Hence the writer of an old Life of St. Moling 
translates dreaii, which is one name for the binl, 
by " magis avinm," the " druid of birds," imply- 
ing that drean was derived from drui-en (drtii, a 
drnid; ^n, of birds), and says that it was so called 
on accoimt of the excellence of its angury. Al- 
thongli I fear this will be regarded as a very 
fanciful etymology, yet it shows in what estima- 
tion the wren was held in the time of the Avriter. 
Our well-known rhyme "The wren, the wren, tlio 
king of nil birds," is a remnant, no doubt, of 
this ancient superstition. 

The wren had several names. Two of them, 
dreoldn and dreoilin [drolaun, droleen] are diil'erent 
diminntives of the same root ; of which the fVniner 
is exhibited in Gortecnadrohine east of Inchigeel- 
agh in (Jork, the little Held i)!" Ihewren; and in 
Curradrolan, the name of a hill in the north 
of Tyrone, a few miles east of Strabane, the 
cor or round hill of the wren ; and the latter 
in MuUadrillen near Ardee in Louth, the wren's 
hill- summit. The other term, drean, we find 
in Drumdran, the name of two townlands in 
Fermanagh and Tyrone, which means the ridge of 
the wrens. 

Wagtail. The water-wagtail has received a 
namo in Irish which is derived from the colour 
of the bird, viz., ghisoy, a diminutive of glas, 
green or greyish-green : — glasog, grey-green little 
fellow. This is moreover an old name, for it is 
the one used in the ancient Irish poetical list of 

CHAP. xvTii.] TJiB Animal Kingdom. 297 

animals published by Sir William E,. Wilde in 
Proc. 11. 1. A., vol. VII. Lisglassock near Bally- 
niahou in Longford, took its name from a fort, 
wliieli must have been frequented by these little 
birds — iho lif^ of tlio waler-waglails ; and the 
townhind of Terryglassog near Dungannon in 
Tyrone, should have been called Derryglassog, 
the drmj or oak-grove of the wagtails. 

Bohin Redbreast. There is no difficulty in detect- 
ing the name of tins bird in local denominations ; 
f(n- it is c.'illed in Irish fipidcor/, which is pronounced 
and usually augli(',is(^<l .spi</do(/c. There is a place 
near Stradhally in (Queen's Coimty called Kyle- 
R[)i(l(loge, the Avood (coil/) of tlie redbreasts ; Tur- 
naspidog}?^ near luehigeelagh in Cork should have 
been called Tiniaspidogy, as it is anglicised from 
Tir-naspidcoige, the land of the redbreast. There 
is a townland about five miles south-west of Tul- 
low in Carlow, coniainin g tlie ruins of a castle, called 
Gritignaspiddogo, (he grd'H or village of the robins. 

Sparrow. (Jcalbhun or gcallin [galvan, gal- 
loon] is the word usually employed to denote a 
sparrow ; fhoiigh wiili various qualifying terms it 
is also applied to the linnet, the bulfinch, the 
yellow-hammer, and other little birds. Srana- 
giilloon in the parish of Inchicronan in Clare, 
exhibits theword withitsusual southern pronuncia- 
tion — Srafh-na-ngcalhlu'oi, fhe srath or river-holm 
of tlie spiirrows. iSo also Derrygabni, two miles 
from Kanturk in Cork, sparrow-grove ; and Cloon- 
ag;dloon in the parish of Mcelick in Mayo {cluain, 
a meadow). I'lie northern varieties of pronuncia- 
tion are seen in Urumagelvin in Monaghan, the 
sparrow's ridge ; and in Jjisnagelvin near the city 
of Derry, tlie /?"<? or fort of the sj)arrows. T^hereis 
a small lake at the east side of Sliove Beagh in 
]\Ionaghan, called Lough Galluane; another just 

298 The Animal Kingdom. [<'iiai'. xvhi. 

on tho boundary of Donooal and Tyrone, of 
liOugli Derg, called Lough Ayelvin ; and a third, 
three miles north-west of Pettigo in Donegal, with 
tho naino of Lough AycUowin — all from tho Irish 
Loch-a -ijhealbhaln the lake of tho sparrow. 

Snipe. A enipe is denoted by the word naosga 
or naosgach [naisga], whieh is genoi-ally easy to 
recognise in names. TuUyneasky, the name of a 
place near Clonakilty in Cork, is not much changed 
from the Irish, Tulaigh-naosgaidh, the little hill of 
the snipes; Garrynaneaskugh near Ardfcrt in 
Kerry, and Toornaneaskagh in the same county, 
the garden and the bleach-field of the snipes. 

Another word for a snipe, though not commonly 
used, is meantcin. Ballinaminton, three miles from 
(lio village of Clara in Kiug's County, is written 
in the Down Survey, Bellanamantan, which shows 
that it took its name from a ford, and that the 
Irish form is Bel-atha-na-meantdn, the ford-mouth 
of the snipes. 

Grouse. We call a grouse in Irish either cearc- 
fraeigh or coileach-fraeigli, [cark-froc, colliagh-frec]. 
The former is applied to the female, signifying 
literally, heath-hen — (eearc, a hen; fntech, heath) ; 
the latter to tho male (coi/cac/i, a cock); but in 
common use they are applied indiscriminately to 
male and female. Places named from this bird 
are almost all wild mountain or moory districts, 
and any that are not so now, have been reclaimed 
since the time the places got the names. There is 
a townland nearly east of Glen<ios in Donegal, 
called Oronacarkfree, a name which is slightly 
corrupted from Cro-na-gcearc-fraeigh, the cro or 
valley of the grouse. 

The full name of the bird seldom appears in 
names however ; the word cearc being generally 
used alone ; and although this word means the hen 

CHAP. XVIII.] The Animal Kingdom. 299 

of any bird, yet in its topographical application it 
is commonly intended for grouse. It is easily 
iccognised in names, as it always takes some such 
anglicised form as cark, hirky, kirk or gark — 
the c heing ccH})Rcd by g in tlio last. ])crrycark 
near ]]clturbet in Cavan, boars its meaning on its 
face — the oak-wood of (tlio hcatli-) hens or grouse; 
Coolkirky two miles from Ballinhassig in Cork, 
the grouse-hen's angle or corner {ciiil) ; Glen- 
nagark in the parish of Kilcormack in Wexford, 
and Slie vena gark two miles west of Ballina in 
Mayo, the glen and the mountain of the grouse- 

There is a well-known castle, now in ruins, 
on a little island in the western arm of Lough 
Corrib, called in the Four Masters, Caislen-na-circe, 
the Hen's Castle ; but now anglicised Castlekirk, 
History tells us that this castle was erected in the 
twelfth century by the sons of Roderick O'Conor, 
the last king of Ireland ; but local tradition will 
have it that it was built in one niglit by two 
grouse, a cock and a hen, who had been an Irish 
prince and princess. 

The other term for a grouse, coikach-fraeigh or 
coilcach simply, i.e. cock, is equally common. The 
word usually occurs with the first c eclipsed, as it 
appears in the following names:— Cornaguillagh, 
inLeitrim, Longford, and Monaghan, represents the 
Irish Cor-na-gcoillcach, the round hill of the grouse- 
coclcs ; Coinnnagillagh on ilie side of Mauhcr- 
slieve or " mother-moimtain," south of Silver- 
mines in Tipperary (cow, a mountain glen) ; Knock- 
nagulliagh near Carrickfergus, grouse-hill, which 
same name is applied to a hill near Blessington in 
Wicklow, in tlio incorrect form of Croeknaglugh ; 
and Glannagilliagh near Killorgliu in Kerry, the 
glen of the grouse- cocks. We of ten find the word 

300 The Animal Kingdom [chap. xvin. 

williout eclipse ; asfor inslimco in IJcnculliigh, ono 
of the Twelve Pins in Conuemara, llio name of 
whicli signifies the peak of the grouse ; Knockakilly 
near Tliurles in Tipporary, in which the genitive 
singular form appears, the name meaning the 
grouse's hill ; and with the final g pronounced, we 
have Derrcenacullig in the ])arish of Killaha in 
Kerry, the little oak-wood of the gouse-cock. The 
word is a good deal disguised in Rossahilly in 
Fermanagh which is anglicised from Ilos-a' -choiUgh , 
the wood of the (sm^/c^) grouse-cock. (See Poulan- 
ishery, page 291). 

There is a townland in the parish of licsselton, 
east of Ballybunnion in Kerry, now called Kilcock, 
tlie name of which is curiously corru])ted : the 
Gaelic name is Cuil-coilig [Oooh',ollig], the corina- 
of the grouse-cock, which the people have augii- 
cised by changing Ciiil to Kil, and translating 
coilig. The village of Kilcock in Kildare and 
Kilcock in Roscommon, take their names from the 
virgin saint, Cocca (Cocoa's church), who lived 
in the early ages of the church. 

Bittct'u. The lonely hoom of the bittern is 
heard more seldom year after year, as the marshes 
are becoming drained and reclaimed. But we 
have names that point out the former haunts of 
the bird, and some of them indicate the wild moory 
character of the places when the names Avere im- 
posed. Bunndn is the Irish name of the bird ; it 
is seen in Tievebunnan in the parish of Boho in 
Mayo, the hill-side of the bitterns ; and in Cur- 
raghbonaun near Tobercurry in Sligo, whei-e tlie 
old people have still some memory of hearing the 
bittern booming from the c?^/'m<7/i or marsh. About 
four miles from the suspension bridge at Kenmare, 
on the road to Glengariff, you cross the Feabun- 
aun rivulet — the feith or marshy stream of the 

CHAP, xviii.j The Animal Kin^om. 301 

bitterns. Near the northern shore of Clew Bay, 
about six miles west of Newport, there is a small 
island called Inishbobunnan : Inishbo, signifies the 
island of the cows ; and Inishbobunnan, cow- 
island of the bitterns. 

Sioan. Judging from various passages in ancient 
Irish Kterature, wild swans were much more 
plentiful in Ireland in former times than they are 
now ; but they are still often seen, especially in 
the western parts of the island. The usual word 
for a swan is eala [alia]. The word is exhibited 
in Doonvinalla, the name of a lofty and almost 
insulated promontory in tlie north-west of Mayo, 
beside Benwco Head, which well represents tJie 
sound of the Gaelic, Diin-hhinne-cala, the forlrcRS 
of the peak {hwn) of the swans. The word is 
seen also in Loughanalla (the lake of the swan), 
the name of some small lakes in Galway and 
Westmeath, one of which in the latter county has 
given its nnme to a townland near Castlepollard : 
and in Fermanagh there is a townland called 
JMonalla, the moin or bog of the swans. 

Pigeon or Dove. Colum signifies a dove. In 
various parts of the country, holes or caves in 
rocks, frequented by these birds, are called PoU- 
nagolum, in Irish, PoU-na-gcoIum, the hole or 
cave of the doves. In the present spoken language 
coliir [coloor] is the more usual term for the same 
bird ; and it is found more often in names. There 
is a little river joining the Finow near Millstreet 
in Cork, called Owcnnagloor, i. e. Ahhainn-na- 
gcoliir, the river of the pigeons ; Annagloor is a 
townland in the parish of Drishane in the same 
county (pigeon-ford : ath, a ford) ; and on the top 
of one of the Ballyhoura mountains, on the borders 
of Oork and Iiimorick, is a largo rock, called 
Carraig-na-gcolur, which now usually goes by the 

802 The Animal Kingdom [chap, xviir, 

name of Pigeon Hock, a correct translation of tho 

Jackdaw. The word cudhdg [cu-oge] means a 
jackdaw. But in Munster it is always called, 
cadhog, and pronounced cawg ; and in this province 
the termination -nagaug, or in Gaelic na-gcadhog, 
always means " of the jackdaws." Thus Coolna- 
gaug near Kinsale is tlie cool or angle of the jack- 
daws. There is a place called Dawstowu two 
miles north-west of Blarney in Cork, the name of 
which is merely a translation from Ballynagaug 
{Baile-na-g cadhog) the town of the jackdaws. (See 
the word g&g farther on.) 

Cormorant. The common cormorant, a large 
black sea bird, well known round our coasts, has 
got several Irish nnuK^s, most or all of which ai-e 
reproduced in local names. One, duibhin [diveuu], 
I do not find in the dictionaries, though it is in 
general use among Irish-speaking people of the 
coasts. And it well describes this fine bird, as it 
means literally black-bird ; dubh, black ; dn a bird. 
There is a little island in the upper end of Lower 
Lough Erne, called Inishdivann, cormorant island ; 
and a townland in the parish of Killeeneen in 
Galway, south-west of Athenry, is callel Carheena- 
diveane, the little caher or stone fort of the cor- 

Another name for the cormorant is hruigheal 
[breeal], from which sea- rocks on the west coast 
are sometimes called Carrignabryol, or with the 
l» eclipsed, Oarrignamrcel, the rock of the cormo- 
rants. The bird is often called seagaidh [shaggy 
or shoggy] on the Cork coast ; from which again 
many rocks are named Carriguashoggy. But the 
most curious name for the cormorant is cailleach' 
dubh [calliagh-doo] the black-nun, (see p. 95), 
which gives the name Carrignagalliaghdoo, to 

CHAP. xvTii.] The Animal Kingdom. 303 

numerous sea-rocks on the coasts of Galway and 
Mayo, where cormorants bask in the sun. Calliagh- 
doo has been fancifully translated nymph in 
Nymphsfield near Cong in IMayo, which is not the 
field of the nymphs but of (lie cormorants. 

Hedgehop. Tho common hedgehog is called in 
Irish, grdincog, which is no doubt derived from 
grain, signifying ugliness or abhorrence : grdincog 
ugly or hatefid little fellow. If this be the case, 
the name embodies to some extent the idle populai 
prejudices against this harmless little animal ; for 
the people formerly believed it was a witch in 
disguise, and that it used to suck cows, rob 
orchards, &c. These stories are spread over all 
Europe, and are probably as old as the Indo- 
European race. Pliny states that the hedgehog 
catches up apples with its prickles; and the 
witches in Macbeth find that it is time to begin 
their incantations, for 

" Thrice the brindled cat hath mewed. 
And once the hedge pig whined." 

The names that commemorate the haunts of 
this animal are not nimierous. There is a town- 
land in the parish of Inver in Donegal, called 
Meenagranoge, the meen or mountain field of the 
hedgehog ; another iji the parish of Eobertstown 
in Limerick, near Foynes, called Inchagreenoge, 
the hedgehogs' inch or river-meadow ; a small 
hill in the parish of Caheragh in the south of 
Cork, is called Knock nagranogy, the hill of the 
hedgehog ; aiul Oarrynagranogo near Charcvillo 
in Cork, signifies the garden (garry) of the hedge- 

JIare. In another ])lace I had occasion to remark 
(hat (ho word fiddh [i'cea] was originally applied 
to any wild animal, though latterly restricted to 

804 The Animal Kingdom, [(nrip. xvni. 

deer (Ist Vol., Part IV., o. vii.). The liaro would 
appear to be the smallest aniiiuil to wliicli the term 
was applied, if we may judge by the eomposition 
of the name (jearr-fhiudh [gerree] ; i. e., short or 
small fiadh, from yearr, short or dcficieut. The 
usual plural form is geirr-fiadhaclia, which is 
pronounced something like yirriha ; and this is 
exhibited in Ballygirriha in the parish of Donagh- 
more in Cork, the townland of the hares ; and in 
Droragurrihy, one mile from IVIonkstown in the 
same county, the hares* ridge. 

Lamb. A lamb is designated by the word uan, 
which is still a living word, and cognate with Latin 
a(j)ius ; old Welsh ocn (tin ii, i\'^nn>i: Z. 1 ()(>}. It 
usually occurs in the end of names in the genitive 
})liival wiih the articlo, forming the easily recog- 
nised termination nanoon. Tiiere is a place called 
Strananoon west of the southern extremity of 
Lough Allen in \j&iivmi,Srath-na-nuan, the river- 
holm of the lambs ; and with the same meaning 
Inchnanoon in the parish of Kibnacabea in Cork. 
Loughnanoon (lamb-lake) is the name of a small 
lake five miles south of Killorglin in Kerry ; and 
there is a townland called Gortnanoon, the field of 
the lambs, near Crosshaven, at the mouth of the 

There is another word for a lamb, not in such 
common use as uan, namely luan ; fi-om which 
]\Ialoon near Cookstown derives its name — Magh- 
/{(an, the plain of the lambs. There is a place 
ctdledMalone, immediately south of l^elfast, which 
in the old documents (piotcid at page 217, is 
mentioned as an alias name for Tnath-ne-fall, and 
there called Mylone ; and this no doubt is the 
same as Maloon. The name occurs in combination 
in Gortmaloon in the parish of Knockane in Kerry; 
the£eld of the plain of the lambs. 

ciiAr. XVIII.] The Animal Kingdom. 805 

Kid. The word meann and its diminutive mean- 
nhn (man, manaun] both signify a kid; the latter 
is more commonly used than the former, and it 
enters pretty extensively into the names of places 
under several modern forms. The southern pro- 
nimciation is well exhibited in Cahcrminnaun, now 
an old castle ruin giving name to a townland near 
Kilfenora in Clare — the caher or stone-fort of the 
kids. Near Newratli Bridge in Wicklow is a 
place called Clonraannan, the kids' meadow. Car- 
rickmannan, now the name of a lake and townland 
near Saintftcld in Down, and Carrigraannon on the 
Slaney, about five miles above Wexford, both 
signily tlio kida' rock, and there is a ])lnco in the 
parish of Faugliauvale in Dorry called Ijcgavannon, 
tlio big or hollow of the Idd. It is possible that 
<hc latter part of some of these denominations may 
be a man's name. 

Wether. Molt signifies a wether (molt, vervex : 
Z. 67). It is well represented in Annamult, three 
miles from Thomastown in Kilkenny, which ob- 
viously took its name from a ford on the King's 
llivor, where slieop were in the habit of crossing; 
Afh-na-molt, the ford of the wethers. Ballyna- 
mult {Bally, a town) is the name of a place on the 
summit level of the road from Clonmel to Bun- 
garvan ; Rosmult in the parish of MoyaHff in 
Tipperary, the wethers' wood. There is a place 
beside Balljnnena in Antrim, now called Brockla- 
mont, which is a strange anglioisation of the old 
name, Brugh-na-molt, signifying the bricgh or 
dwelling of the wethers. 

Ilcifer. The word dairt signifies a young heifer 
or bull, from one to two years old. This term is 
used in the very oldest of our raanuscripf s ; for the 
ddiii, liko<lio.<;/^i'(soo sM infra), wasaiu-ientlyonc 
of (ho nieasuro'* of value; and the dried hide of n 

vol., 11. 21 

306 The Animal Kingdom, [chap, xviii. 

dairt was used by wnrriovs to cover their bodies 
and thoir sliiolds going to battle. It enlors inio 
local names ; but here it must be taken as meaning 
nothing more than this — that people were formerly 
in the habit of sending yearling heifers to graze 
in the places named. 

There is a liill three miles from Dunmore in tlio 
north of Gal way, called Slieve Dart ; a high 
mountain of the same name, now called simply 
Dart, is situated west of Sawel mountain, just on 
the boundary between Derry and Tyrone ; and 
there are others still elsewhere : — the name signi- 
fies the mountain of the yearling heifers. In Cork 
wo have Glandartand Qlandarta, the lieifor's glen. 
The diminutive dartan sometimes occurs, as in 
Drumdartan near Balliiiiiinoro in Ticitrim, tlio 
ridge of the heifer, which has the .sumo meaning 
as Drumdart in the same county and in Monaghan, 

A colpa or colptJiach is a three year old heifer. 
The word is perpetually met with in old law 
tracts as a measure of value, and it is still in 
constant use in the spoken language. At the 
present day, however, in some purls of the country 
at least, it is commonly used in connexion with 
grazing on commons ; and in this sense it is of t( n 
applied to various grazing animals. Six sliec'i) 
are called a collop (this is the usual anglicised 
term), because they are estimated to eat as much 
grass as one full-grown cow. However, in local 
names, we must understand the word in its original 
sense of a heifer. 

Mocollop on the Blackwater above Lismore, 
with its castle ruins, one of the old seats of the 
Desmonds, is called in Irish Magh-colpa, the plain 
of the collqps or heifers. In the parish of Racavan 
in Antrim, four miles north-east from Brough- 
ehano, is a place caUed Kilnacolpagh ; and near 

Chap, xviii.] The Animal Kingdom. 307 

Castletownsend in the south of the county Cork, 
is Bawnnagollopy, the former signifying the 
wood, and the latter the green-field, of the collops. 
At Killycolpy, in the parish of Arboe, on the 
western slioro of Lough Ncagh, a considerable 
portion of the old " steer's wood,'' as it was cor- 
rectly called in English, still remains. 

The word mart designates an ox or a full grown 
cow — a heef ; and hence the compound, mairt- 
fheoil, for beef, literally ox-flesh. Stranamart is 
the name of a townland in the parish of Killinagh 
in Cavau, signifying the srath or river-holm of 
tlio beeves ; and the term also appears in the old 
nrime of Wcstport in Mayo, which is still the 
name of the townland in which the town stands : — 
Cahernamart, the stone fort of the beeves. The 
old fortress is now effaced, but its site is still well 
known within the demesne of the Marquis of Sligo. 

Hog. The word w«<c, a pig, has been treated 
of in the 1st Volume. There is another word 
for a pig, ore or arc, which has in a great 
measure dropped out of the modem language, but 
is met with often enough in old writings. It is 
sometimes xmderstood to mean a young pig — a 
honnive — and sometimes it is applied to the last 
pig farrowed, usually the smallest of the litter. 
Thus the Four Masters record at 1038, "Very 
great fruit this year, so that the ores of the pigs 
were fattened" (i. o. oven the last pigs of the litter). 

This Avord in both forms is pretty common in 
local names. In the parish of Killynuud in Donc- 
gid is a place called Drumarlc, the ridge of the 
pigs ; and Derryork — (oak- grove of pigs) is a 
place near Dungiven in Derry. Cloonark {cloou, 
inoadoAv) is fonud in Mayo iind Rosconnnon ; and 
Ucnlnanark — Ihe iield of the pigs — is the name 
of a place near Gort in Galway. 

808 Tfie Animal Kingdom, [chap, xviii. 

Tlio Celtic word ore is also used to designate 
certain large sea animals — whales, sea-hogs or 
porpoises, &c. ; and this is obviously the word 
that has given name to tlio Orkney Islands, 
which Mela and Pliny call Orcades. Some of 
the oldest traditions in Gaelic books state that 
these islands wore at ono time inhabited by 
the Qailcons (a tribe of tho L^irbolgs), and after- 
wards by the Picts, pointing clearly to their 
early occupation by Celtic tribes. The islands 
are called Insi h-ore in old Gaelic writings, 
and the surrounding sea Muir n-orc, this latter 
denoting the sea of Avhales ; and Insi h-orc, of 
which Orkneys is the modern form, means the 
"Islands of Whales." Orcades, the old classical 
name, is formed on the word ore, the adcs being a 
mere termination, as in Ci/cladcs, Sporadcs, &c. 

A very young pig is called a hanhh, which is 
known all over Ireland in the anglicised forms of 
honniv or honny, or with the diminutive, bonneen or 
bonni'veen — words used in every part of Ireland for 
sucking pigs. The Avord is well seen in Drum- 
bonnilf in the parish of Clonduff in Down ; in 
Drumbonniv, the name of a townland and of a 
little lake, in the parish of Inchicronaun in Clare; 
and in Drumbannow in Cavan — all meaning the 
drum or ridge of the bonnivs; also in Druraaty- 
bonniff in Poscommon, with the same meaning — 
drnmaty {drumadaigh) being a mere lengthening 
of drum. The h is eclipsed (1st Vol. Chap ii.) in 
Possnanianniff near Templemoio in Tipperary, 
lios-na-tnbaiibh, tho wood of tho young pigs. 

Cat. Tlie name for a cat is the same in Irish 
as in English {cat) ; but it is not borrowed, for the 
word exists in many languages — Lat. eatus, cattus; 
French, chat, &c. Places whose names are de- 
rived from this word were so called as being 

CHAP. XVIII.] The Animal Kingdom. 809 

resorts of wild oats. Roscat in Carlow — the ros 
or wood of the cats — preserves the word un- 
changed. The genitive singular inflection, caitox 
cuH, is commonly represented hy kit ; as in Kilkit 
in Monaglian, the Avood of the cat (s(^o piigo 291), 
and in llaheenakit in AVicklow, the little rath of 
tlie cat. Very often the c is eclipsed by g (Vol. I. 
Chap. II.) when the word becomes gat ; as in Lis- 
nagat, the name of several places in Antrim, Lei- 
trim, and Cork, Lis-na-gcat, the fort of the cats : 
and in Feegat in Meath, the wood {fidh) of the cats. 

Ram. lleithe is a ram : comes in at the end of 
names usually in the anglicised form of rehij or 
reha. Near the southern extremity of the Mullet 
in Mayo, at the mouth of Elacksod Bay, there is 
a little island called Leamareha, the leap of the 
ram (see leim, p. 317). There is a conspicuous hill 
over the Clare shore of the Shannon, a little 
below Carrigaholt, called Knockrehy — the ram's 
liill — now commonly c;dlcd llohy Ilill, giving 
name to the townland of llehy. 

Foal. Tlie most connnon word for a foal is 
srarrach [sharrugh], which enters pretty often 
into local names. The word is in the masculine 
gender, and as in case of other masculine nouns 
beginning with s the article eclipses the s in the 
genitive singular ; besides this, the final g of the 
genitive is sounded fully in the south of Ireland 
(»(>e 1st Vol., Cliii|). II.) ; by llieso Iwogrammiiticnl 
changes <ho word is often much disguised in 
anglicised names, though plain enough to those 
who understand the Irish language. 

At the Cliffs of Moher in Clare, a steep and 
dangerous path near the north end leads down 
to the base of the clilf ; this clilf and path 
are well knoAvn by the name of Aillenasharragh, 
the ail or cliff of the foals. In Wexford, near 

310 The Animal Kingdom, [chap, xviii. 

Dunbrody Abbey, there is a tovvnlaiid called Clon- 
sbarragli ; and near Clonmel in Tipperary is a 
Carrigeensbarragb, the first the meadow (cloon), 
and the second the little rock of the foals. This 
form of the word often occurs and is always easily 

"JMio eclipse is seen in Aghaterry in the parish 
of Killabban, and in Clonterry in the parish of 
Ardea, both in Queen's County, the first of which 
represents the sound of Achadh-u'-ti^iorraitj/t, the 
field of the foal ; the second is the foal's meadow. 
At the mouth of the river Laune in Kerry, two 
miles below Killorglin, there is a point jutting 
into the sea called Pointantirrig, the point of tlie 
foal : this name shows both the eclipse and the g 
sound at fhe end. 

Stud : Jlock. The word graigh or groigh, [gray, 
gree] is applied collectively to horses, to mean a 
stud or drove : occasionally it is applied to flocks or 
herds of cattle without any reference to the par- 
ticular kind of animals. It is often found in names, 
usually forming with the article the termination 
nagnj or nagree. There are townlands in Tippe- 
rary, Waterford, Clare, and Galway, named Garry- 
nagry and Garrynagree, tlie garden of the horses. 
Slievenagry, in the parish of Kilfenora in Clare, 
is mentioned by the Four Masters, who call it 
Slieve-na-ngvoigheadh, the mountain of the horses — 
exliibiting the correct genitive j^lural. Gortna- 
gree occurs in Kerry {gort^ a field) ; Coolnagree 
in Wexford [ciiil, a corner) ; Carrownagry in Clare, 
the qxiarter-land {ceatluwitJtadli) of the horses. 

Eel. A good many names of small places 
through the country are derived from the Avord 
casgan, an eel ; and the form the word generally 
assumes is exhibited in Pollanaskin near Castlebar 
in Mayo, Po//-fl«-ert5f/am», the hole or pool of the^eel. 

CHAP. XVIII.] The Animal Kingdom, 311 

The vford gcalidg [galloge], a diminutive of geal, 
white, is understood in many parts of the country to 
mean a white-bellied eel, though it is occasionally 
iipplicd to other fish. It appears in the name of 
ISranayallogo cast of Lough Shcclin in Cavan, 
which the people call in Irish, Srnthan-na-ngcallog, 
the streamlet of the white-bellied eels ; and in 
Aghayalloge in the parish of Killevy, Armagh, 
the agha, or field of tho white-bellied eels. 

Salmon. Braddn is the usual word for a salmon. 
There are many lakes in Ireland especially in the 
north-\vest — more frequent however in Donegal 
than elsewhere — called Loughbraddan, Lough- 
nabraddan, and Loughnambraddan, aU signifyin 
the lake of the salmons. 

Crab. A crab is sometimes called portdn and 
sometimes cruboge, this latter meaning the fellow 
with many crooba or feet. There is a Carrigna- 
bortaim — tho rook of tlie crabs — outside Rinvyle 
]*()iiit ill (jalway ; and thJH naiiK^ in found elsovvhoro. 
In like manner, from the otlicr term, rocks arc 
nanuul (Jurrignacroobugo, with tho same meaning 
as tho last. 

Limpet. Tlie common limpet is well known on 
rocky coasts all round the shores of the British 
Islands. It has a conical shell, and is found in 
thousands firmly adhering to the rocks when the 
tide is out. Its Irish name is bdirneach ; and this 
name is used by the English-speaking people at 
Kilkee and elsewhere, who call the little animal 
bornock. One of the many islands in Clew Bay, 
lying two miles west of Newport, is called Ros- 
barnagh ; though called an island it is really 
peninsulated at low tide ; and the meaning is, the 
ros or peninsula of limpets. This word joins with 
many other roots to form names : thus we have 
Oavr'ignabauvnagh in Cork (I'ook), and Coosna- 

312 The Animal Kingdom. j^ciiAf. xvni, 

buruugli in Kerry {coos, a cave). Alluumaruagli 
ocours on tlie Mayo coast, tlie ail or clift' of the 
limpets: here the b is eclipsed by in (see Vol. I., 
Chai). 11.) luisLaniog- — island of llui])ets — is the 
name of a little island beside Dawros Head at the 
entrance of Lovigbros Bay, Donegal : bere th 
form of the name for the animal is not hciirneach 
but the diminutive hdirneog (p. 29). 

Herring. The common Gaelic word for a herring 
is scaddn, old Irish scatan. There is a spot over 
the sea in Howth, near the town, called Balscaddan, 
the town of the herrings : from which tigain Bal- 
scaddan Bay receives its name. It is probable 
that this i)lace was so called, because it was the 
spot where the herring- boats usually landed their 
cargoes in old times, long bel'oro the construe! ion 
of llowth Harbour. ]\lany inland places take 
names fi-om herrings, probably from being- selected 
as places of sale for the lish : but in some of these 
the people say that a shower of herrings once fell 
there which occasioned the name. This latter 
explanation may in some cases be true ; for it is 
well known that showers of herrings have some- 
times fallen — raised from the sea and borne inland 
by violent whirlwinds. In the parish of Kilinac- 
talway in Dublin, between Clondalkin and Oel- 
bi'idge there is a Coolscuddan, the angle of the 
herrings ; and in the parish of Kiltogan in 
Tipperary, is a townland called Parknascaddane, 
the field of the herrings. In the county Down 
g,nd elsewhere there are many names formed 
from this word scaddn. 

Trout. Breac [brack] signifies a trout, a name 
which is derived from its speckled skin {hrcac, 
speckled ; page 288), The river Bealanabrack, 
flowing inio Lough Oorrib at its extreme western 
end must have taken its name from one of its 

CHAP. XVIII.] The Animal Kingdom. 313 

fords — probably that at Maum, now spanned by a 
handsome bridge — which ajBforded amusement to 
anglers ; for its Irish name is Bel-atha-na-mhreac, 
tlio ford-mouth of the trouts. There are number- 
less small lakes in all parts of the country called 
Loughnabrack, and Loughnambrack, trout lake. 

A well is sometimes met with containing one 
inhabitant — a trout or salmon — which is always 
to be seen swimming about in its tiny dominion : 
and sometimes there are two. These little animals 
are usually tame ; and the people hold them in 
great respect, and tell many wonderful legends 
about them. Tliis pretty custom is of old stand- 
ing, and appears to have originated with the early 
Irish saints. Tims in the Tripartite Life of St. 
Patrick, we are told tliat the saint left two salmon 
in the well of Ac/iad/i-fobhair, now Agbagower 
in Mayo : — " Then Patrick left two salmon alive 
in the well, and they will be there for ever." It 
was j)robably a fisli of this kind that gave name 
to a little lake in the of Drumlease in 
Leitrim, two miles nor(h-oast of Drumahaire, 
ciilled Lough Aneanvrick {Loch-an-aein-hhric, the 
lake of the one trout. There is another little 
lake of the same name in the townland of Strana- 
mart, j^arish of Killinagh, Oavan, from which a 
stream flows into the Shannon before the latter 
enters Lough Allen ; but here the name is accounted 
for by a sort of legend, that when you fish 
in the lake you can catch only one trout at a 
time ; and if you go away and come again j-^ou 
will catch another, and so on ; but no sacred cha- 
racter is attributed to the fish. 

While the word hreae is commonly used to 
dosignnto a trout, it is of(t>n applied to any small 
lisli, the different species being distinguished by 
various qiialifying words. I have met with a 

814 The Animal Kingdom, [chap, xviii. 

great many compound terms formed in ibis way 
on the word breac ; and in several cases it is now 
difficult to find out what particular kinds of fish 
wore meant. Some wore no doubt different varie- 
ties of real trout, while others were certainly not 
trout at all. Many of these terms enter into the 
names of small lakes, in which the several kinds 
of fish were foimd ; and these lakes are scattered 
over Munster, Connaught, and west Ulster, but 
they are especially numeixjus in Donegal. 

There is a species of trout, found only in the 
lakes of the west of Ireland, and well-known to 
anglers, called the gillaroo (Irish giolla-ruadh, red 
fellow), because they are distinguished by an un- 
usual number of red spots. Great numbers of 
biiuill lakes, in the counties of Doiujgal and Kerry, 
are called Lougli Nabrackderg, l^ough Nabrack- 
darrig, and Lough Nambrackdarrig, all signifying 
the lake of the red trouts ; and it is probable that 
some or all of these were so named from the 
gillaroo. But we have also many small lakes 
called Lough Nabrackboy, the lake of the yellow 
trouts [huidhe, yellow) : what these are I cannot 
venture to conjecture. 

There is another curious lake-name which occurs 
very often in the west, all the way from Inishowen 
to Killarney — Lough Nabrackkeagh, the lake of 
the blind trouts {caech, blind) ; but why these 
fishes were called breac- caech, or of what particular 
kind they were, I am unable to explain. AVe 
know that the fish inhabiting tlie gloomy waters 
of the great Mammoth Cave of Kentucky, and 
those also found in some Carinthian subterranean 
lakes, are blind; for their eyes have gradually 
degenerated from long disuse, till at last after a 
series of generations, they have become merely 
rudimentary, and totally insensible to light. Can 

vHAV. xviTi.] The Animal Kingdom. 315 

it be that our hreac-caech have become blind by 
living for ages in those subterranean waters so 
common in the limestone districts of the west, 
from which they occasionally come to the surface, 
wlicro (boy aro caught ? Whatever may bo the 
cause, one thing is certain, that the hrcac-cacch is 
a litfJo fish cither wholly blind, or having eyes so 
small or so imperfectly developed, as to be hardly 

There are several small lakes in Donegal called 
liough Nabrackbady ; one, for example, about half 
way between Lough Nacung and the Gweedoro 
river, and another in the valley between the 
mountains of Aghla More and iVghla Bog, four 
miles north-west from Lough Beagh, The word 
headaidhe (represented in the name by hady) is still 
used in the colloquial language, especially in 
Donegal, and signifies fond of dainties, fastidious, 
or saucy. This name signifies the lake of the 
saucy or dainty trouts ; and the fish are so called 
I suppose from their shyness in taking a bait.* 

If the angler should be scared away by the 
name of Lough Nnbrackbady, or by that of Lough 
Nabrackbeg (the lake of the small trouts) near 
Dunglow, let him proceed straight to Lough Na- 
brackrawer abovit tAvo miles north of Belleek, 
from which, if there be anything in a name, he is 
likely to return with a heavy basket — Loch-na- 
inhyc(ic-rr<n)))ifn\ the lake of (ho fat trouts ; or (o 
Lough Wabrackalan, the lake of the beautiful 
trouts {dlainn, beautiful) ; or to Lough Nabrack- 

* Tliese lakes have been brought under my notice by tlie 
writer of the review of my First Volume of Irish Names of 
Places, in the Atkcnmim of Aug. 21, 1869 ; and from him 
I have borrowed the explanation of the epithet given to these 
little fishes. My orlhogmpjty and interpretation differ some- 
what from those of the reviewer; but I believe that it is the 
same lake-name that is meant in both cases. 

316 The Ammal Kingdom, [chap, xviii. 

more near Dunglow, where if lie get a bite tit all, 
it is likely to be worth something {breac-mor, a 
big trout). 

One would think that there never was such a 
thing as a drowned trout ; yet there is a small lake 
eight miles north of the town of Donegal, called 
]j()ugh Nabrackbautia, the lake of the drowned 
trouts {bdidhte, drowned — see c. xxii.) Perhaps 
the same explanation will apply to this as to 
Lough Nabrackdeelion, which is the name of 
several of the Donegal lakelets — of one, for in- 
stance, in a chain of lakes, four miles south-east 
of Glenties. This name signifies the lake of the 
flood-trouts {dileann, a flood) : and the little fishes 
are so called because they always appear in those 
lakes after floods, which probably sweep them 
down from higher waters. 

The diminutive, briein, has given name to Glen- 
brickeen, north-west from Clifden in Galway, the 
glen of the little trout ; and to another place far 
better known, Brickeen Bridge at Killarney, the 
name of which means " little-trout bridge : for 
the Irish form is I)roichead-a' -bhricin [Drehid-a- 
vrickeen], of which the present name is a correct 

Various Animals. In the following townland 
names, animals of several kinds are commemorated. 
Carrickacroman near Stradone in Oavan, the rock 
of the kite (croman, a kite). Qlcntillid in the 
j)arish of Leclc in Donegal, the glen of the snails 
[seilide, a snail : s ocli])scd by t) : Legatillida in 
the parish of Aghalurcher, h'ermanagh, tlie leg or 
hollow of the snail. In the parish of Ballintober 
in Hoscommon, is a place called Rathnalulleagh, 
the fort of the milch cows : the same word is 
seen in Derrylileagh, the name of a townland and 
of a considerable lake in the north of Armagh, 

CHAP, xvm.] The Animal Kingdom, 317 

near the shore of Lough Neagh, the oak- grove of 
the milch cows. (See Owendahilagh in 1st Vol.). 

Tlie word Mini [laim], a leap, is very often used 
to designate spots where animals were in the habit 
of passing — a narrow part of a river whore they 
crossed by bounding from one bank to the other, 
a rent in a line of rocks affording just room to 
pass, a narrow pass across a hill ridge leading 
from one pasture to another, &c. Sometimes this 
word leim commemorates a legend (for this, see 
the article on Loop Head in 1st Vol.) ; and some of 
the following names may come under this head. 

Leam itself, the usual anglicised form, is the 
name of eight townlands in various counties : in 
several other places it is given in translation — 
I;cap. There is a townland in the parish of Killina- 
boy in Clare, called Leamaneh, Gaelic L^im-an- 
eich (Four Mast.), the leap of the horse ; which is 
also the name of a parish in "VVestmeath, now 
always cfdled Ilorseleap. Thi s also forms part of the 
name of Lemnaroy, four miles south-east of Ma- 
ghera in Londonderry, which is contracted from 
IJim-an-cich-imaidh [Lomaneh-roo] the leap of 
tlie red horse. Certain cliffs in Galway are known 
by the name of Lenmaheltia, the leap of the doe 
{eilit) : one of these, rising over Kylemore lake, 
gives name to a to^^Tiland : here they have a 
legend of a hound chasing a doe ; and the spectral 
cliase still goes on. Leamlara, four miles north of 
Cavrigtohill in Cork, isthe leap of the mare \Idir)\ 
and in the parish of Ardclinis in Antrim there is 
a place called Lemnalary, which is the same name 
only with the addition of the article. A little 
river running into Roaring Water Bay in the 
south of Cork, is called Leamawaddra, the leap of 
the dog [madi-a]. 

Animal Life. Sometimes other means are 

318 The Vegetable Etngdom. [ohap. xix. 

adopted of denoting tlie presence of animal life. 
Near Nobber in Meatli a sluggish stream is crossed 
by Deegveo Bridge : — dig [deeg], a ditch : beo, 
living : Buj-hheo, living ditch — alive with frogs. 

The word grug [graiig] denotes the cawing of 
crows, iXxQ croaking, cackling, or screaming of 
birds of various kinds. Oragarnagh in the parish 
of AglniamuUiu in Monaghan, signilics the cack- 
ling of geese, hens, or birds of some sort (postfix 
mack, p. 16). The same derivative appears in 
Gortnagrogerny in the parish of Killasnet, north- 
west of Mauorhamilton in Leitrim, the govt or 
field of the cackling. Another derivative is gra- 
gam, from which is derived the name of Glenagra- 
gara in the parish of Kilfergus, near Glin in 
Limerick, the glen of the bird-cackling — a place 
remarkable to this Any for wild birds. 



Corn. The word arhhar [arwar, arroor] signifies 
corn of any kind, "particularly so called when 
standing, or before it is threshed " (O'Brien : 
Irish Diet.). It may be supposed that those places 
whose names are partly formed from this word, 
were originally isolated corn-producing spots, 
surrounded by uncultivated or unproductive land. 
It appears in Knockanarroor near Killarney, Cnoc- 
(Ui-arbhair,i\x(i\i\\\ of tho corn; and in Lis.sanarroor 
near Galbally in Limerick, Avhich probably got 
its name from a lis or fort in which corn used to 
be stacked up. 

Another form is arhha [arwa, arroo] from 
which arhhar appears to have been formed by the 

CHAr. xix] The Vegetable Kingdom. ^19 

addition of r (p. 12) ; and it enters into names aa 
often at least as arhhar, Meeuanarwa in the parish 
of Inishkeel in Donegal, near Lough Finn, signi- 
fies the mccn or mountain flat of the corn ; Coolan- 
anoo in tlio parish of Tuosist in Kerry, south- 
west of Kcumare {cuil, a corner) ; Clonarrow near 
Philipstown in King's County, corn meadow ; 
Derryarrow near Mountrath in Queen's Coimty, 
the demj or oak-grove of the corn. 

WJicat. Wo know for a certainty that wheat 
has been cultivated in this country from the most 
remote ages ; for we find it constantly mentioned 
in our ancient literature. Many illustrations of 
this might bo given, but one will be suflicient. 
In A.i). G51, Donogh and Conall, the two sons of 
Blathmae [Blawraac], afterwards king of Ireland, 
were slain by the Leinstermen at " the mill of 
Maeloran the son of Dima Cron." This event is 
recorded in the Annals of Tighernach (who died in 
1088), in tho Annals of Ulster, and in the Annals 
o[ tho Four Masters. A contoniporary bard com- 
posed a poem on the event, in wliicli he apostro- 
phises tho mill in tho following strikingly vivid 
stanza : — 

"0 mill, what hast thon ground? Precious thy wheat I 
It if? not oats thou hast ground, but the offspring of 

Cearl)hall (i. e. the two princes). 
The grain which the mill lias ground is not oats but blood 

red wheat; 
With the scions of the great tree (Cearbhall) Maeloran's 

mill was fed." 

Mageogheghan, in his translation of the Annak 
of Clonmacnoise, says that " Donogh and Connell 
were killed by the Lynstermen near IMollingare, 
in the mill of Oran [or Maeloran] called Molleno- 
ran." This mill was situated on the little river 
that runs from Lough Owel to Lough Iron, near 
the point where the river is now crossed by a 
bridge ; and the place still retains tho name of 

320 The Vtgetahle Kingdom, [ xix. 

Mxillenorim. It is ciirious that a mill oxistod there 
from the time of the death of the princes — and no 
one can tell hovr long before — down to the end of 
the last century ; and there are some old people 
still living there whose fathers saw it in full work.* 

There are two native Irish words for wheat, 
tuireann and crnithieacht [cnmnat] ; hut I will 
notice onl}- the latter, for I do not lind the other 
commemorated in names. Cormac Mac Culleuan, in 
Ms Glossary (ninthi century), derives cruithneacht 
from cmith [cruh], blood-coloured or red,and nccM 
clean : the first part of this derivation is probably 
correct, but I fear modem philologists will be incli- 
ned to believo necht a mere termination (sec page 
2). Be that as it may however, the etpnology suffi- 
ciently proves the interesting fact, that the wheat 
cultivated in the time of the venerable king bishop 
CoiTuac — 1000 years ago — was the very same as 
the Irish wheat of the present day; for every 
farmer knows that the old Irish wheat — now fast 
dying out — is distinguished by its red colour. 

It is worthy of remark that in several other 
languages, wheat — as Pictet shows (Les Originc^, 
I. 261) — has been named from its colour, not 
indeed from its redness as in Ireland, but fiom its 
whiteness as compared with other kinds of corn. 
As one instance niay be mentioned the English 
word wheat, which he shows is only another form 
of tthite. 

Near Castleblaney in Monaghan there are three 
adjoining to wnlands called Tullanacrunat, modern- 
ised from Talamh-na-cruithneachta, signifj^ing the 
land of the wheat ; Portnacrinnaght in the parish 
of Kilnamanagh, Roscommon, the port or landing- 
place of wheat ; Tullycreenaght near the town of 
Antrim, wheat hill. 

• Bee O'Donovan in Four Masters at ad. 647. 

ciiAi'. XIX.] The Vegetable luiigdom. 321 

The simple word gives name to Crunagh in the 
parish of Loughgill}', and to Crimaght near 
Market-hill, both in Armngh ; and the diminutive 
(see p. 19), to Crinnaghtane near Kihvorth in 
Cork, and to Criniiaghtaun near Cappoquin in 
AVatcrford; all thcf^e names meaning wheat 
or wheat-bearing hmd. 

Oafs. The obsc.vati)ns made about the early 
cultivatioii of when' Apfy equally to oats; numer- 
ous references to i ^ s cultivation and use are found 
in our most ancient literature. In recent times, 
before the potato became very general, oats formed 
one of the principal articles of food of the people ; 
and ovni so lain as tlio beginning of the present 
century, a quern or hand-mill, chiefly for grinding 
oats, was a very usual article in the houses of the 

The Irish word for oats is coirce [curkia] ; Welsh 
ceirch, Armoric korh ; and it appears with its full 
pronunciation in liissncurkia, tlio name of two 
places iu Koscommon, one near Tulsk, and tho 
other in the parish of Tibohine, near Frenchpark 
— tho fort of tho oats, a name of like origin to 
Lissanarroor (p. 318) ; while another form of the 
word appears in Farranacurky near Lisnaskea in 
Fermanagh, oats bearing land (fearann). 

This word is very often shortened to one 
syllable ; but whether shortened or not, it is easily 
recognised : the examples given here include almost 
all its anglicised forms. Gortachurk is the name 
of a townland near Bellananagh in Cavan ; and 
there is a place called Coolacork in the parish of 
Dunganstown, south of Wicklow ; the former 
signifying the field {govt), and the latter the angle 
or corner (ci'ii/) of the oats. 

BaHcy. The Iiish word for barley is c6nia 
[orna], Avliich is very correctly reprcsc^nicd in 
vor. II. ' 22 

322 The Vcgctahlc Kiuydom. [ciiAr. xix. 

Cooliialioniii, the namo of places in Wexford 
ami AVatorford, tlie angle {cidl) of the barley ; 
in Tavnaghorna, now the name of a little 
stream near Cushendall in Antrim, whose pi-oper 
meaning is barley-field. The word seldom gets 
its full pronunciation, however, in modernised 
names, the final vowel soimd being generally 
omitted. In the north of Derry, near Portrush, 
there is a townland called Craignahorn, the rock 
of the barley ; Mulnahorn, barley hill (mtcl), is 
the name of two townlands in Femianagh and 
Tyrone ; Glennyhorn in the parish of Clontibret 
in Monaghan, is a corrupt form of the correct 
name, Cloonnahorn, the cioon or meadow of the 
barley ; Cappaghnahoran west of Mountrath in 
Queen's County, barley-field {eeapach). 

There is a little lake near Ncwry, giving name 
to a townland, called Loughorne, barley lake ; 
another of the same name, in the slightly different 
form Lough Ourna, four miles north of Nenagh 
in Tipperary ; and still another among the hills 
over Glengarriff, which is conspicuously visible 
on the loft hand side of the road to Kenmare as 
you approach the tunnel : but this is lunv always 
called IJarley Lake. It is not improbable that 
these lakes may have received their names 
from the circumstance that barley used to be 
steeped and malted on their margins in ages 
gone by. 

liyc : Irish seagal [shaggal] : corresponding 
with the Latin secale, and French seigle. In 
modern namcb it appears almost always in the 
forms of tacjijle and tetjcjic, the s being changed to t 
by eclipse. Lissataggle in the parish of Currans, 
near Castleisland in Kerry, is in the original Lio&- 
a'-tseagail, the fort of the rye (see Lissanarroor, 
p. 318) ; Coolataggle near Borrisoleigh in Tippe- 

CHAP. XTX.] The Vegetable Kingdom. 323 

rary [cuil, a corner) ; Pollataggle near Gort in 
Galway, the hole or pool of the rye. 

Beam. The bean is designated in Irisli by the 
word ponaire [ponara] ; which corresponds with 
the Welsh ponar, and English bran ; whence we 
have Ardiiaponra. near Moate in Wostincath, cor- 
rupted from Ard-na-bponaire, the height of the 
beans. In the south and west, the n is commonly 
omitted in pronunciation [poria] ; and this con- 
traction is also carried into local names — Coolpowra 
near Portumna in Galway, the hill-back [cul) of 
tho beans. In the greater number of cases the 
p is itspirntod; as in Gortecna])horia in tho parisli 
of ]\[oyaliff in Tip})crary, and Gortaphoria near 
Dingle bay, west of Drung hill — both meaning 

Fea. Pis [pish], genitive ^;/se [pisha], signifies 
pease of all kinds, and is of course cognate with 
Eng. pease ; Lat. pisum. It is almost always 
anglicised pish and pisha; as in Coolnapish and 
Coolnapisha in CmiIow, Kilkenny, and Limerick, 
the angle or liill-back {cicil or eiil] of the pease : 
Aghnn;i]iisha in Wcstmoalli, the field of the pease. 
From I ho diminutive piscdn [pisliane | is formed 
(by the addition of ach — p. 3) Pishanagh, thi 
name of two townlands in Westmeath, signifyin'„' 
a place producing pease. 

Berries. A berry of any kind is denoted by 
caer [kcar]. It is sometimes represented in names 
by heare, as in Dromkoaro on the shore of Lough 
Currane or Waterville lake, in Kerry, the ridge 
oE boi-rics ; and Knockcoolkeare in the parish of 
Killccdy in Limerick, the hill of tlie angle {cuil) 
of the berries. In far the greater number of 
cases the c is eclipsed by g, and then the word is 
roprcsenfcd by grer or soine such anglicised form. 
Glennai^oare in Cork and Clare, is in Irish Glcann- 

324 The Vegetahle Kingdom, [chap. xix. 

na-gcaer, the glen of the berries ; Croaghnagecr, 
a reniarliuble lull near the gap of Barnesmore in 
Donegal [cricach, a round hillj : so also Kilnageer 
in Mayo and Monaghan {coill, a wood) ; Gortna- 
gicr in Galway {gorf, a field) : and IMonagear in 
AVexford, the hog (moin) of the berries. 

Another word for a berry is suhh [suv, soo], 
which is connnonly reslriclcd to soft juicy boi lies. 
In its simple form it is often applied to the straw- 
berry, though the usual name of this is subh- 
talmhan [suv-talloon], berry of the earth. The 
word is usually anglicised soo, suff, or sov. There 
is a place near Newtown Hamilton in Armagh, 
<alled Inishnasoo, which the Four ^Masters write 
Iim-na-siibh, the island of the berries, or straw- 
berries. Cornasoo south-west of the town of 
]\Ionaghan, the cor or round hill of the berries. 
There is a Lisnasoo in Antrim [Uos, a fort), and a 
KnocknasufE near Blarney in Cork, the hill of the 

Gooseberry. Splondn [speenaun] is a gooseberry 
or a gooseberry bush, a diminutive form spin a 
thorn, which is of course the same as the Latin 
spina. Spinans in the parish of Donaghmore in 
Wicklow, sign ides a place (or i-ather places, for 
tho word is plural) abounding in gooseberry 
bushes ; and with another diminutive we have 
Speenoge in Donegal, north-west of Derry — same 
meaning: Killaspeenan near Newtown Butler in 
Fermanagh, the wood {coill) of the gooseberries. 
In some cases an r is corruptly inserted after iho 
p, an example of which is ('airi<k.springaii lu^ar 
Moynalty in Meath, the rock of the gooseberries. 
And in some parts of Munster the i is replaced in 
pronunciation by u ; which is exemplified in Lis- 
nasprunane, the name of a fort in the townland 
of Garranroe, near Adare in Limerick, gooseberry 

CHAP. XIX.] The Vegetable Kingdom. 325 

Blackberry. Smear [smare] is the word for tko 
common blackberry, and it gives name to a con- 
Ridorable number of places. It is seen unchanged 
in Smear in the pnrisli of Columkille in Longford, 
Kignilying a, pl;l(•(^ prixbicing b]ackborri(>a : indeed 
tlie word almost always preserves its orii^inal Irish 
form in anglicised names. Cappanasmear near 
Borrisokane in Tipperar}^, the plot [ccajmeh) of the 
blackberries ; Creenasmear at the base of Muckish 
mountain in Donegal [crioch, a district) ; Coolna- 
smear near Dungarvan, blackberry corner ; Diuni- 
nasmear in the parish of Layd in Antrim, the 
ridge of the blackberries. With the affix lack 
(p. 5) this word gives name to a little river 
Smearlagh which flows into the Feale near Listowel 
in Kerry, the blackberry-producing river. 

Nut. A nut of any kind is denoted by end 
[kno; both k and n sounded]. The old form, as 
given in Cormac's Glossary, is cnu, cognate with 
Jjat. ni(x, and J^liig. nut, both of which have lost 
the initial c, The word has several plural lV)rms, 
one of which ennoi, gives name to a parish in Tip- 
perary, now c:dl(>d Knigh — a name signifying a 
place producing nuts. Derrycnaw in the parish 
of Feakle in Clare, signifies the derry or oak-wood 
of the nuts. There is a little lake in the 
parish of Kilgarvan in Kerry, near the river 
lloughty, called Coolknoohill, which represents 
the Irish cuil-cnochoill, the corner of the nut-hazels 
{coll, hazel). 

In the preceding names the n has kept its place ; 
but it is generally changed to r in anglicised 
names, by a usual phonetic process explained in 
1st Yol., Part I., c. in. ; and this is always the 
case when g replaces c by eclipse. Both changes are 
exhibited in Oh)()nn!igro near Lough Qrancy in 
Clare, not far from Derrycnaw, mentioned above, 

326 The Vegetable Kingdom, [chap. mx. 

in Gaelic, Chiain-na-gcno, tlie meadow of llie nuts; 
and in Cavanagrow, two miles from ]\Iarketliill in 
Armagli, nut hill. Observe it is sometimes hard 
to distinguish this word in anglicised names 
from creainh or cncamh, wild garlic. 

Floucr or blossom. There are several Irish 
words for a flower, of which I find only one 
rcpi'oduccd to any extent in names, viz., bldtli 
[hlaw]. It is connected with Sanscrit ■phuU, to 
hlossoin; with Latin fios; 0. II. Germ, blot; A. 
Sax. htosma; English blossom, bloom, and blow, 
We have names formed from this woi'd that not 
only s])cak of ilowcry fields, hut testily to our an- 
cestors' perception and appreciation of tliis sort of 
quiet natural beauty. The popular admiration 
f(H' flowers Kconis lo bavo been devolopcd among 
the people of Ireland at a very early period, if 
we are to judge by the cognomen of one of our 
ancient kings, and the circumstance said to have 
given rise to it. A little earlier than the time of 
Ollav Tola — ever so many centuries before the 
Christian era — reigned Fiacha Finscothach [Feeha 
Finscoha] ; and the legendary records tell us 
that he received this name because " every plain 
in Ireland abounded with flowers and shamrocks 
in his reign " (see p. 54, supra]. Some of the old 
authorities interpret ./m in this name to mean wine 
{scoth, a flower; finscotha, wine flowers)— for 
" these flowers moreover were found full of wine, 
so that the wine was pressed into bright vessels " 
(Four Masters) —a bardic way of saying that wine 
was mad(; from tlu^m. ( )rlicr,s again believe— and 
this is O'Donovan's opinion (Four ]M., a.m. iJ8U7) 
—that Jin here means white:— this king "was 
Burnamed Ffinsgohagh of the abundance of white 
flowers that were in his time** (Mageoghegan, 
Ann. Clon.). 

CHAP. XIX.] The Vegetable Kingdom, 327 

The names derived from this word are not, 
numerous. Cloneblaugh near Clogher in Tyrone 
is one of the most characteristic, Cluain-hlathach, 
flowery meadow ; Ballyblagh is the name of 
j)luccg in Armagh, Down, and Tyrone; and 
tlicre is a Ballybla in Wicklow, the townland of 
the flowers or blossoms. AYe have in Inishowen, 
Donegal, Carrowblagh, and on the western shore 
of Lough Swilly in the same county, Carryblagh, 
both in Irish, Oi'afhramh-bldf hack, fiowery quarter- 
land. In some of these last-named places however 
the termination hlagh is understood to mean milk 
— Gaelic hleadhach. About five miles east of 
Donegal town, there is a place called Blabreen- 
agh, which the old ^people still imderstand to 
be Bldth-bruighncach, the bmighean [breen] or 
fairy-fort of the blossoms. Near Coleraine there 
is a place called Blagh, which represents the 
adjective form Bh'itJiach, flowery— a flowery place. 

Scofh [skoh], another word for a flower is 
very slenderly reptoHcntcd in local mimes. In 
the parish of Orossbo3aie in Mayo, there is a 
townland called Kilscohagh, a name which is 
anglicised from Coill-scothach, flowery wood; and 
we have Kilscohanagh near the village of Drom- 
daleague in Cork, which probably has the same 
meaning ; but here the diminutive syllable an is 

Fla^. One of the names of this plant is still 
preserved in a great number of the European 
languages, the forms slightly varying, but all 
derived from the root lin. The Greek word is 
linon ; IjoXmlinum (whence Eng. linen and lin- 
seed) ; A. Sax. lin; Buss, lenii : Bohem. kn, &c. 
This shows that it was cultivated by the western 
Arynn people since before tho time of their se- 
paration into \\\(?. various nationalities of Europe 

328 The Vcijftahlc Kingdom, [chap. xix. 

Tho invostio-ations of Dr. Oswald Ilcer of Munich 
luive lod liiin to believe iluit the original home 
of cultivated flax was on the shores of the Medi- 
terranean ; it was cultivated in Egypt more than 
4000 years ago ; and it has been found in the 
oldest of the lake dwellings of Switzerland. 

The Celtic tribes who first set foot on our 
shores, brought the plant and a knowledge of 
its cultivation with them ; and corresponding 
to all the names given above, is the Irish /i;i [leon], 
which is still the word in universal use for flax. 
Besides the evidence of philology, our own records 
sliow that linen was manufactured in Ireland from 
the earliest historic times. It was a favourite ar- 
ticle of dress, and was worked up and dyed in 
a great variety of forms and colours, and exported 
besides in large quantities to foreign nations. ISo 
that the manufacture for which one portion of 
Ireland is famous at the present day, is merely an 
energetic development of an industry, whose 
history is lost in the twilight of antiquity. 

We have a great number of places to which 
this plant has given names, and the word lin ge- 
nerally appears in the modernised forms hen, lin, 
and line — most commonly the first. Coolaleen in 
the parish of Killeedy in Limerick near the vil- 
lage of Broadford, is in Irish Ciiil-a'-lin, the comer 
of the flax ; Crockaleen near EnniskiUen, flax-hill ; 
Ciortaleen in Cork and Kerry, the field of the flax. 
From the nature of some of the names we may 
infer that the species they commemorate was the 
wild or fairy-flax, or as they call it in somo places, 
lin-na-mnasiijhe [leenaranaw-shee]. This was pro- 
bably the case in Killaleon near Drumahaire in 
Leitrim, and in Killyleen near the town of Mo- 
naghan, both signifying} the wood {coill) of the 

(ii\r. XIX. 3 The Vegetable Kingdom. 32!) 

Other places seem to have received their names, 
not from producing flax, but because they were 
selected as dr3'ing'-places for it, after steeping ; 
such as Lisheeualeen in Cork, Galway, and Tip- 
perary, and Ratlileen near Inistioge in Killcenny, 
where, probably, the flax was spread out on the 
green area of the IhJiecn, rath, or fort. And the 
peasantry were, no doubt, long accustomed to put 
I beir flax to steep after pulling, in the pools of 
Monaleeu {moin, a bog) near Newtown Mount- 
kenncdy in AVicklow ; and of Curraghaleen {ciir- 
ragh, a marsli) near tlio railway line, four miles 
west of Athlonc. 

Foxglove. The coiniiion foxglove, fjiiry-finger, 
or fairy-thimble — for it is known by all these 
names — the digifa/is purpurea of botanists — is in 
Ireland a most potent herb ; for it is a great fairy 
])l;int ; and those who seek the aid of the good 
people in the cure of diseases, or in incantations of 
any Icind, often make use of it to add to the power 
of tlirir spells. It is known by several names in 
Irish, one of the most common being hcsmore, 
great herb ; but I do not find this appellation re- 
produced in local nomenclature. It is also called 
sian or sian-sleibhe (shean-sleva), i.e., sian of the 
mountain, because it grows plentifully in upland 
or hilly districts. 

As the foxglove is a showy and conspicuous 
plant, and one besides of such mysterious repute, 
it is not a matter of surprise that it enters pretty 
extensively into names. The initial s of sian is in 
every case that has come under my notice, changed 
to t in anglicised names, by eclipse ; and the word 
generally presents itself in such forms as teean, 
teane, tain, tine, &c. But as the word sidhean, a 
fairy mount (sec 1st Vol.), often also takes the 
s;nno forms, i( is sonu-liuK^s hard to dislingnish 

330 The Vegetable Kingdom. [cuai'. xix. 

(lie correct moaning of tlicso syllables. It often 
happens indeed, hero as in other cases, that our 
only guide to the true meaning is the tradition oi: 
the old people of the neighbourhood. 

Near Cushendall in Antrim is the towiiland of 
Gortateean, which would be called in Irish Gort- 
a'-isiain, the field of the foxglove. Mullantain is 
the name of a place near Stewartstown in Tyrone ; 
and there is a townland in Kildaro and another in 
Armagh, called Mullantiue : — all meaning the hill 
{mill) of the fairy finger ; Drumantine, foxglove 
ridge, is the name of a place five miles north of 
Newry ; Carrickateane and Carrickatane, the 
names of some ])laces in and around Cavan — the 
rock of the foxglove. 

The word VKUiracdn, which properly means a 
thiuible (a diminutive in cdii, from mair, a linger, 
just like thunble from thumb), is also applied to 
this plant, and corresponds with the English name 
of fairy thimble. In the parish of Inchicronan 
in Clare, there is a townland called Gortnameara- 
caun, the field (gort) of the fairy thimbles ; at the 
western extremity of which is a little handet 
called Thimbletown, an attempt at translating the 
name of the townland. 

i'lrw. As many of the common kinds of fern 
grow in this coimtry in great abundance and luxu- 
riance, they have, as might be expected, given 
names to numerous places. The simplest form of the 
Irish word for the fern is raith, which is used in some 
very old documents ; but this form is wholly for- 
gotten in the modern language, and I cannot find 
that it has been perpetuuted in names. The 
nearest derivative is Rathain [rahen], which is the 
Irish name (as we find it in many old documents) 
of the parish of Rahan in King's County, well 
known in ecclesiastical history as the place where 

CHAP. XIX.] The Vegetable Kingclom. 331 

St. Carthacli was settled before lie founded his 
great establishment at Lismoi'e. This name, which 
signifies a ferny spot, occurs in several other parts 
of Irelnnd. The Mnc Sweenys had a castle 
at a j)lace called llahan near Dunkineely in 
Donegal, which the Four Masters call liathain ; 
there is a parish in Cork, near Mallow, with the 
same name, and seveial places in diifcient coun* 
tics have the names Kahin and Rahans — all 
menning the same thing. 

The common word for the fern is raithne or 
rnif/niraeh [rahna], which latter form is found in 
Cormac's Glossajy, and is used by the Irish- 
sj)oakiiig peasantry all over the country at the 
present day. One of its diminutives, llaiih- 
ncachdn, in the anglicised form llanaghan (a fern- 
growing spot) is the name of places in each of 
the four provinces. All the preceding forms are 
further illustrated in the following names. 

Ardrahan, a small village in the county Galway, 
conlaiuiug an old castle and a small portion of the 
ruins of a round tower, is often mentioned in the 
annals by the name of Ard-rathain, ferny height; 
and this also is the name of two towidauds in 
Kerry, and of one near Galbally in Limerick. 
There are several j)laces in ditferent counties 
called Drumi-ahan, Drumraine, Drumrane, Drum- 
rainy, and Drumrahnee, all signifying the ridge 
of the ferns. 

Ta.vnaghranny {fnvnar/h, a field) is a place in the 
parish of the Grange of Layd in Antrim ; Lis- 
renny, ferny fort, is situated three miles north of 
7Vr(lee in lioutli. In Weslport bay, just outside 
the town, there is a small island now called Inish- 
raher ; this name is corrupted from Inis/iraher. 
(change of Ji to ;•; see 1st Vol., Part I., c. in.), for 
the annalists, who mention it more than once as 

<332 The Vegetable Kingdom, [ciur. \1X. 

the scene of skirmishes, always call it Tnis-raithni 
or Inis-rathain, i.e. forny island. There is another 
small island near the western shore of Strangford 
Lough in Down, called Rainey, which is merely 
the phonetic representative of liaifhnig/ie, i.e. ferns. 
(See Coleraine, IstVol.) 

Thiatle. This plant is denoted in Irish by either 
ft)faiindn ov follianndn [fohanaiin], hoth of whicli 
are obviously the same word, varied by dialectical 
corruption — for in Irish there is occasionally an 
interchange between th (which sounds the same as 
h) and/ (see 1st Vol. Part I., cm.). Although 
these are the words now employed, it is obvious 
that {\\Q ioxxixB fothan awdifoj'un, of which (hey are 
diminutives, were in use at an earlier jieriod ; for 
we find the adjective form Foffanagh (a place full 
of tliistles) as the nameof a towiilanda lililo norlli 
of liuucrana in Donegal; which is the same as 
fofanny in the two townland names, Fofannybane 
and Fofannyreagh (white and grey) in the parish 
of Kilcoo, at the northern base of the Mourne 
mountains. The little river of Glen Fofanny 
(thistle glen) flows down from Slieve Donard into 
the sea, a little south of the town of Newcaslle. 
The other forni gives name (o Fohanagh a parish 
in Galway, and to the townland of Foghanagh in 
Roscommon, near the village of Ballymoe, both 
having the same signification as the preceding. 

As a termination, the word is found in Tony- 
fohanan in ]\Ionaghau, and liarrafohona in Cork, 
the mound [tonnagh) and hill-top {barr) of the 

Nettle. The simple word for the common nettle 
is neanta [nanta]. The forms assumed by this 
word in the end of names are easily detected, for 
they are generally nanta, nanty, or the single syl- 
lable nant, Cappananty is the name of a i)lace in 

CHAP. XIX.] Tha Vegetable Kingdom. 333 

the parish of Corcomohide in Limerick ; and about 
three miles south-east of Limerick city is a place 
called Knockananty, the first signifying the plot, 
nnd the second the hill, of the nettles. Near Kesh 
in I'^onnanngh, tlioro is n towhind called Ballynant, 
wliich has the saiiio meaning at Ballynanty in 
I;imerick, and Ballinanty in Wicklow, viz., the 
townland of the nettles. • 

The word takes the diminutive termination 6g 
(p. 29) in Kilnanloge in the parish of Clonsast in 
the east of King's County, the wood of nettles. 
And it takes the diminutive termination nan (p. 
33) in Nantinan, the name of a townland near 
Killorglin in Kerry, and of a townland and parish 
near Askeaton in]jimerick, this name signifying 
a place abounding in nettles. 

Rush. The most common word for a rush is 
luachair, which is the term now always used in the 
spoken language ; but the form generally found 
in local names is the genitive and plural, luachra. 
Near Cahir in Tipperary, there is a townland con- 
taining a castle in ruins and a modern residence, 
all bearing the very descriptive name of Loughlo- 
hery — Loch-luachra, the lake of the rushes, fiom 
a small lake within thedemesne; Greaghnaloughry, 
north-east of Ballinamore in Leitrim, the grcagh 
or mountain (lat of tho rushes ; Lo( (crlougher in 
the parish of U}>pcr Cumber in Deny, the rushy 
hilcr or wet hill-side. Tho simple word gives 
name to Loughry, i.e. rushes, or a rnsliy Rj)ot, tlie 
name of some places in Tyrone; and to Jjougher 
in Kerry and JMeath : Loughermore in Antrim, 
Deny, and Tyrone, great rushy place. 

The buUrush is denoted by sibhhi or simhhi 
[shiveen]; the latter being the older form, for 
find we it iu Cormnc's Glossary : ])lural sim/ine 
[sliivna]. Tliis word occurs frequently in local 
names. There is a river flowin<2: near Mountbel- 

n34 The Vegclahlc /uii;/'lom. [ctiap. xix 

lew in Galway, nnd joining ilie Suck a litlle south 
of Mount Talbot, called thelShiven — Irish iSii)i/iiic, 
the river of bullrushes. Another little stream 
with the same Irish name runs through Tollymore 
Park, south of Newcastle in Down ; hut in this 
case the aspirated m is restored (1st Vol., Part I., 
c. II.), making the name Shimna. Cloonshivna 
in Galway, and TawnanashelUn in Mayo, the mea- 
dow and the field of the bullrushes. 

Another term for a bullrush is feadh [fa] : in 
the north it is used to denote any strong rush, 
from which they make lights. It is not so com- 
mon as the others ; but it gives name to Loughfea, 
a lake near Carrickniacross iu INlonaghan, the lake 
of the bullrushes ; and to lioughaunnavaag, with 
the same meaning, two miles from the village of 
Kilconnell in Qalvvay, la this namo the final <l/i 
is changed to g unaspirated, as is done in many 
other cases. 

Flagger. The common marsh or river flag or 
flagger is called felestar or fclestrom ; or without 
the /, elestar or elestrom. This last form gives 
name to several places called EUistrom ; but some- 
times the m in the end is replaced by w (1st Vol. 
Part I., c. III.), as Ave find in Ellistrin near Let- 
terkenny in Donegal, and Ellistron near Ballin- 
robe in Mayo : — all these names meaning a place 
producing fiaggers. Iu the northern counties the 
word usually takes an s in the beginning instead 
of the soutliern /; and the resulting form gives 
name to Mullanshellistragh in the parisli of Cleeu- 
ish in Eeriuaiuigh, tliu litllo hill (iiinlldu) ol' tlio 
flaggers ; and to liisatilistor near Carrickniacross 
in Monagluin, in which the s is eclipsed by t — 
Lios-a -taiolastair, the fort of the flaggers. 

Reed : Broom. The word giolc or yiolcach [gilk, 
gilka : a hard] is used differently in different 
parts of Ireland. In the north and west it is gene- 

CHAP. XIX.] The Vegdahle Kingdom. 335 

rally applied to a reed, in the south and east to 
the common broom ; but this assertion is liable to 
exceptions. In the townland of Guilcagh, which 
f^ives name to a parish in Waterford, there is even 
yet a lively tradition of the luxuriant growth of 
broom in former days. There is also a place 
called Guilkagh in the parish of Listerlin in Kil- 
kenny ; G ilkagh is the name of a townland in the 
parish of Moylough in Galway, and of another 
place near Ballymoe in the same county ; and 
there is a townland called Gilky Hill in the parish 
of Upper Cumber in Derry ; but in some of these 
cases the word points to a growth of reeds. The 
genitive form of this word is seen in Kilgilky near 
Cecilstown, west of Mallow in Cork, broom wood 
{coin, wood). 

Sometimes this word is made in Irish cuilc or 
cuilceack, and these forms are also represented in 
anglicised names ; as in Garranakilka in Tipperary, 
broom garden. In Ulster the word is often 
made giolhtch, which gives name to two townlands 
called Giltagh in Fermanagh, one of which is 
called in the Grand Jury map of Devenish, " Gil- 
tagh or Broomhill." 

Herb. The word luihh [luv, liv] is applied to 
any herb ; the old form is hih, which is found in 
the Zeuss MSS., glossing frutex ; and it is cog- 
nate with the A. Saxon leaf. When the word 
occui's in names — as it often does— we may con- 
jecture that it was a])plicd originally to desiguate 
places which were particularly rich in the smaller 
vegetable productions, or perhaps in licrbs used for 
healing purposes. It is usually anglicised fi/f, but 
it often assiunes other forms. Drumliff is the 
name of three townlands in Cavan and Fermanagh, 
in Irish J^nn'iu /iii/i/i, the ridge of the herbs ; while 
another form of the genitive {luiblieann) is fioou 

836 The Vegetable JCiujdom. [cuw. \i\. 

in Drumliffin near Carriclv-ou-Slunnum in Ijcihini, 
which has the same meaning as the preceding. 
ClonlifE — herb-meadow — is a phxce very near 
Dublin city ; and there is a townland of the same 
name in the parish of Kinawly in Fermanagh. 
The word takes the termination rnaeh (p. 16) in 
Drumnalifferny in the parisli of Gartan in Done- 
gal, the drum or hill- ridge of the weeds. 

This word combined with (/o>'^ (an enclosed field), 
forms the compound luhh-gliovt [looart : loovart], 
a garden — literally herb-plot : the old form is Ittb- 
gort, as we find it in the Book of Armagh ; and hib- 
gartoir glosses olitor in Zeuss (Gram. Celt. 37) 
The Cornish representative of this com])ound ia 
luvort. It forms jnirt of the name Knockaloherl 
in the parish of Kilbrin, five miles west of Done- 
railo in Cork — Cuoo-a-lubhghairt, the hill of the 
garden ; and of Faslowart in Leitrim, near Lough 
Gill {fas, a wilderness) ; while in its simple form 
it gives name to Lohort near Cecilstown, west of 
Mallow, where there is an ancient castle of the 
Mac Carthys, restored and still used as a residence. 

The diminutive of this corapoimd is, however, 
in more common use than the original, viz., lubh- 
ghortdn [loortaun], which undergoes a great 
variety of changes in modern names. This is often 
incorrectly written Inghbhortdn, even in good au- 
thorities, and the corruption must have been intro- 
duced very early ; for Cormac states in his Glossary 
that this was the form in use in his time. The 
Four Masters mention one place of this name, and 
use the corrupt form Lughbliurddn ; tlii.s is now 
the name of a townland in the parish of Jkdlin- 
tober, Mayo ; and it is known by the anglicised 
name of Lulfertaun. There is another townland 
called LufEertan a little west of Sligo. 

A shorter form of the term is Lorton, which is 

CHAP. XIX.] The Vegetable Kingdom. 337 

the name of a hill within the demesne of Rock- 
ingham, near Boyle, from which Lord Lorton 
takes his title. In King's County the same name 
is made Lowerton ; and it puts on a complete 
English dress in Lowcrtown, which is the name of 
four townland.s in the counties of Cork, Mayo, 
Tyrone, and Westmeath. 

Iloss. Caonach [keenagh] is the Irish terra 
for moss. Keenagh, one of its anglicised forms, 
which is applied to mossy land, is the name of 
several Tillages, townlands, and rivers, in Leinstcr, 
Connaught, and Ulster : there is a village of this 
name five miles norlh-west from Ballymahon in 
Longford; and Mosstown, the name of the adja- 
cent demesne and residence, is intended to he a 
translation of the Irish. The diminutive Keena- 
ghan, with the same application, is a townland 
name of frequent occurrence ; and another dimi- 
nutive Keenoge is met with pretty often in some 
of the Illstor and Ijcinstor counties. It is scon as 
a teniiiiialion in J)rutnkoenagli in tlio parisli of 
Cleenish, Fermanagh, and in Caherakecny, five 
miles west of Tuam in Galway, the ridge and the 
cahcr or stone fort of the moss ; also in Carrive- 
keeny in Armagh, near Newry, and in Carrow- 
keeny in the parish of Kiltowu in Roscommon, 
north-west of Athlone, mossy quarter. 

Grass. The usual word for grass isfer ovfeur; 
and while topographically it was sometimes used 
in its simple signification, it Avas also in an ex- 
tended sense often applied to a meadow, a grassy 
place, or lea land. One usual anglicised form is 
fear, which is seen in Fearglass inLeitrim; in 
Ferbane the name of a village in King's County ; 
and in Fearboy in the same county ; of whi( h the 
first means green, the second whitish, and the 
third yellowish, grass-land. The adjective form 
V()>,. II. 2"? 

338 The Veyelahle Khujdom. [ 

ciiAr. XIX. 

Fonrngli or Forngh, sigiiifics a trmssy spot, wliicli 
is also the sigiiilicalion ol' ilio (liiiiiiuilivoFoanuui, 
in the parish of Kilrush in Kihhxre. 

Sometimes the initial /disappears by aspiration, 
as we find in lassanair in the parish of Kilmihil 
in Clare ; Lios-an-fMir, the fort of the grass. 
This is the case in the Avord nioinflihir [numair], a 
mountain meadow ; literally bog- grass {nioin, bog) ; 
which is sometimes found forming a part of names ; 
such as Monairmore and Monearmore, the names 
of several townlands in Munster and Connaught, 
great meadow ; Ballinvonear near Doneraile in 
Cork, Baile-an-mhoinfMir, the town of the moun- 
tiiin meadow. 

In Donegal and Derry and some of the neigh- 
bouring counties they use the word e?7V//s fevish] 
to designate coarse mountain pasture, synonymous 
with monair in the south ; and the word has 
become incorporated in many place names ; such 
as Evish, two miles from Strabane ; Avish in 
])erry; Evish hill over Glenaritf in Antrim; 
Evishacrow in the same iieighbourhood, the moun- 
tain pasture of the cvo or hut — the latter built 
iio doubt to shelter the cattle; Evishbreedy in 
Donegal, Brigid's pasture. 

Gruag means the hair of the head. Hence the 
word gruagach, a name applied to a giant ; this 
tei'm being selected as marking a most noticeable 
feature of a giant, as he existed in the imagination 
of the peo})le — viz. hairiness. This word, as well 
as the diminutive form gntagan, is also applied to 
a sort of fairy. ]n the county Antrim the fairy 
called grogaii is a hairy fellow, low in stature, witu 
broad shoulders, and " desperately strong." This 
is much the same as the popular idea of the "drudg- 
ing goblin" that prevailed in England in the 
time of Milton, as he expresses it in L' Allegro : — 


CHAP, XIX.] The Vegctnhle Kingdom. 339 

*' Tlicn lies liini clown the lubber fiend. 
And stretched out all the chimnej's length, 
Basks at the fire his hairy strength.'* 

NoaT- Crossinolina in Mayo, tliere is a place 
rnllod liiilliiifj^rooy — writfon Bnllonc^ruop^y in an 
\\\{{. Car. 1, — (l\o town of llio grnagach : bnt Lore 
I suppose ibc gruaf^acli was not a giant, but some 
ordinary man remnrkablc for his hairiness. 

This word gruag, by a natural extension of 
meaning, is applied to long hair-like grass growing 
in a marshy or sedgy place ; and in this sense it 
often occurs in h)cai iKuncs. Hence we have in 
various jwrts of the country Grogagh, Grogey, 
GrogjMi, (li'oggnn, (ilrogc(M» and Qrin'g, all signify- 
ing sedge — :i ])lace jiioducing long sedgy grass. 

UrJa [oorla | signifying the hair of the head, is 
applied topogrnphically in exactly ibe same second- 
nry sense as the preceding; and gives name to 
Oorla near Foynes in Limerick, to Urlec in the 
parish of Tvisselton in the north of Kerry — a ])lnce 
of long grass ; and to Lisstirland, three miles from 
Newcaslle in Jjimerick, corrupted from Lissurlan 
the fort of the long marshy grass. 

Ceahh or ceibh [keeve, cave] means a lock of 
hair ; it is given in Cor. Gl. as the equivalent of 
vrla. Like the preceding words, it is applied to 
long grass that grows in morasses. There are 
two townlands in Gal way and Mayo called Cave, 
apparently an English word, but in reality the 
phonetic representative of ciihh : near Ahascragh 
in Galway, it takes the form of Keave. The 
adjective forms ciahhach and ciabhnigh, with the 
same general meaning — a marshy place producing 
long grass — give name to Keevagh in Clare ; to 
Cavey in that part of the parish of Lrrigle Keerogo 
that lies in Tyrone ; ntul to Kivvy in (Javan and 
Ltitrim. Culcavy near Jlillsborongh in Down, 

340 The Vegetable Kingdom, [ciiap. xix. 

lliG hill-back [cM) of tlio lung gia^ss ; Clo^^lma- 
keava near Gort in Qalwaj^ and Roscavey near 
tlie village of Beragli in Tyrone, tlie stone and 
flic point of the long grass. Sometimes the word 
is prononnced cih, genitive cibc [kecb, kceba : re- 
storation of aspirated h : see 1st Vol. ; Part I., c. 
II.]; wlicncG Avo bave Monakeeba near Thurles in 
Tipperary, tbe grassy bog. 

Mong also signifies the liair of tbe bead, or a 
mane (Welsh tmo/g, a mane) ; and like the three 
last terms, it is applied to long coarse grass, or to 
a sedgy place. From this we have Mong, Mongagb, 
Munga, INFongan, Mongaun, Mungan, M\ingann, 
in various counties, all meaning a morass, a wet 
place prodncing long, coarse, sedgy grass. There is 
a river called ^Mongagb, i.e. the scflgy river, flowing 
t lirough the parishes of Casllelost and Castlejordan 
in AVestmeath ; and one of the mountains near 
Nephin in Mayo, is called Glennamong, tbe glen 
of the sedge, a name which Avas extended to the 
mountain from a glen. 

Sedge. The word seasg [shesk, shask] de- 
dcnotes sedge or sedge-grass. ]t is a pretty 
frequent component of names in tbe forms n/ieak, 
shask, shcslia, s/iesli//, &c., and is always easily recog- 
nised. Cornashesk in Tyrone and Cavan, and 
Cornashesko in Fermanagh, the cor or round hill 
of the sedge : Derrynashesk in Mayo, and Derry- 
nashask in Fermanagh, the derry or oak-grove of 
the sedge-grass. Near lasmore in Waterford are 
two tovvniands called fllensbask, and Qlonshesk 
near Ballycastlo is one of the "Glynns of Antrim" 
both meaning the glen of the sedge. Slievena- 
f^haska is a place in the parish of Kilcrohane in 
Kerry {sUah/i, a moimtain) ; and tbei'e is a Bally- 
ahasky in Derry, the townland of sedge-grass. 
Tares, Tares^ the aa ell known weeda that grow 

CHAP. XIX.] The Vegetable Kingdom, 841 

among corn — often called cockle — are called cogal 
in Gaelic. The word gives names to several places ; 
and tbo forms it tnlces will be seen from the follow- 
ing examples. Tlicro are several townlands in 
Roscommon called by niunos beginning wiib coggal 
which is understood to mean a, place abounding in 
tares : thus Coggalmore and Coggalbeg (great and 
little) ; Coggalkecnngh mossy tare-land {caonnch, 
moss), Coggaltonroe, the tare-land of the red 
bottom [toin and ruadh). In the same county are 
two townlands called Corracoggil, the cor or 
round-hill of the tares. 

Dandelion. The Irish designated the dandelion 
by its most prominent quality, bitterness of taste ; 
for they commonly called it searhhun or searhhog 
[sharavaun, sharavoge] two diminutives from 
searhh, bitter. In some places they call the 
plant cais-tscarhhan [cosh'tharvaun] — prefixing cas, 
twisted or curled, in reference to the form of the 
leaf, which causes the s to be eclipsed by t; but I 
do not find this term in any local names. 

There is a place called Moneysharvan two miles 
north of Magliora in Deny, which is in liisli, 
Moin-na-scarbhan, the bog of the dandelions ; and 
the word is used with an eclipse in the genitive 
singular, in Toberataravan, in the parish of Tumna 
east of Bojdo in Iloscommon, Tohar-a' -tsearhhain 
dandelion well. The word scarblwg has been 
nl ready examined (p. 20). It is found com]iounded 
in I'ollsjuirvoge, in the parisb of Meolickin M;iyo, 
about four nules south-east of Foxford; and in 
Gortnasharvoge in Iloscommon, near Ballinasloe, 
the hole (poll) and the field (gort), of the dandelions. 
Sorrel. The common sorrel is produced plenti- 
fully everywhere in Ireland, and it has given 
luimes to great numbers of places. Its Irish name 
is samhadh, pronounced mua, sawva^ sow, according 

342 The Vegetable Kingdom, [chap. xix. 

to locality ; the word uiuloiyocs a variety ol' 
changes, but it is eaaily recognised in all its forms. 
As it stands it gives name to tlie river 8ow — the 
sorrel- producing river — which falls into the estuary 
of the Slaney at Castlebridge, a little above 
Wexford ; Sooey in the parish of Ballynakill in 
Sligo, near the village of Riverstown, means sorrel 
bearing land ; Garshooey, three miles west of 
Derry, Gcard/ia-samliaidh, sorrel garden ; Kilsough 
near Skerriewin Dublin, Coill-saui/iach, sorrel wood. 
In the greater number of cases however, the s 
disappears, giving place to t by eclipse ; and the 
various forms it then assumes — none of them 
diflicult of lecognition— arc illustrated in the 
following names. Curraghatawy in the parish 
oL' Drumreilly in Tjcitiim, near B.^llinamore, 
Currach-a'-tsainhaidh, the maish of the sorrel; and 
similarly Derrintawy in the tame county, and 
Derreenatawy in Hoscommon (dcrri/ and derrecii, 
oak-Avood) ; Carrowntawa and Carrowntawy in 
Sligo {carroto, a quarter-land) ; and Currantavy in 
Mayo (cor, a round hill). In the parish of Kilmi- 
hil in Clare, there is a place calh^l lllaunatoo, 
which is correctly translated by the alias name, 
Sorrel Island, while a residence in the townland 
has got the name Sorrel House ; Knock atoo in 
Galway, sorrel hill ; Carrigathou near ^Macroom 
in Cork, the rock of the sorrel. In the northern 
half of Ireland the v sound of the mh often comes 
out clearly ; as in Knockatavy in Louth, sorrel 
hill; and in Ulster the ui is oflcn fully restored 
(see 1st Vol., Part I. c. ii.), as in Aghintamy 
near the town of Monaghan, Achudh-an-isamliaidh, 
the field of the sorrel. 

Rue. The herb rue is denoted in Irish by what 
is n sound the same as the English word, namely, 
ru or riihka [rooa]. The word has nearly the same 

CHAP. XIX,] The Vegetable Kingdom. 343 

sound as ruadh, red ; and it is often difficult to 
determine to which of these two terms we are to 
refer a name. In a great many cases, however, the 
old people make a clear distinction, and we may, 
with the usual cautions (see 1st Yol., Part I., c. i. ) 
follow ihcir guidance. Moreover, the names on 
the Ordnance maps commonly tell their own story ; 
for those who determined the modern forms, gene- 
rally distinguished between the two words by 
anglicising ruadh, roe, and ruhha, roo or rue. 

The Four Masters at the year 1599 mention a 
place near the abbey of Corcomroe in the north of 
Clare, called Ruhha (rue or rue-land) ; it lies two 
miles west of the village of Kinvarra in Galway, 
and it is now sailed Eoo. Very near Roo House 
is the little Jiamlet of Corranroo, so called from 
an old carra or ft^eir ; from this again the head of 
Aughinish Bay, on whose shore the village is 
situated, is called Corranroo Bay ; and adjacent 
to tlie hamlet is the peninsula of Inishroo — rue 
island. Tlioro are Rov(M-al oMior places scallorcd 
over ihe country called Roo, Rue, Rowe, and Roos 
(the English plural form), which have taken their 
names, not from their red colour, but from pro- 
ducing a plentiful growth of this herb. 

Rowe in the parish of Killare in Westmeath, 
is mentioned in the Aimals by the name Ruhha. 
The Calendars mention a saint Tiu of Ruhha in 
the Ards, in the county of Down ; this old name 
is still preserved in the name of the townland of 
Rowreagh {reagh, grey : grey rue-land) ; and in 
that of "Rubane House" adjoining it [han, 
whitish) — both situated near the village of Kir- 
cubbin. Rubha-Chonaill (Conall's rue-land) is 
mentioned by the Four Masters as the scene of 
several battles — one in a.d. 798 ; another in 1159. 
This place is situated two miles east of MuUingar 

344 The Vegetable Kitujdom. [ciiav. xix. 

its Irish name is pronounced Ruconnell, wliicli 
sound is still retained by some of tlio old people ; 
l)ut it is corruptly anglicised Rathconnell, wliich 
is now the name of a townland and parish. There 
is another place called Eathconnell in Kildare ; 
but here the name means Connell's rath or fort, 
Gortaroo, the name of a place three miles from 
Youghal, on the left of the road to Cork, aul 
Gortarowey in the parish of Drumclilf, north of 
Sligo town, both signify the field of the rue. 

Wall-fern. The polypocUum vulgare or wall fern 
is denoted by sceamh [scav]. The simple word 
gives name to Drumnascamph in the parish of 
Clondulf inDo\vn,Drmn-na-sci'amh,th.Q ridge of the 
wall-ferns. Its diminutive is seen in Carrigskee- 
waun in the parish of Kilgeever in Mayo ; and in 
Meeuscovane in the parish of Duagh, Kerry, the 
former meaning the rock, and the latter the 
smooth plain, of the wall-ferns 

Waterc7'ess. The ancient Irish used the water- 
cress for food — probably much in the same way as 
it is used at the pi-esent day ; for among the pre- 
rogatives of the king of Ireland, mentioned in the 
])ook of Ilights, are the cresses of the river Ihosna 
in Westnieath. Biomr [birrcr] is the word for 
watercress, and it is obviously derived from hior, 
water, by the addition of the collective termination 
r (p, 12). In the colloquial language the middle 
r of this word is always changed to / by a common 
phonetic law, and it is consequently pronounced 

In Cork and Kerry there are several townlands 
called Billeragh — Irish Biolamch, a place pro- 
ducing cresses ; in Donegal, Monaghan and Tyr- 
one, it takes the form Biliary, and in Wexford, 
Bellary, both of which represent the oblique case 
liolaraigh. In the end of names the h is commonly 

CHAP. XIX.] The Vegetable Kingdom, 345 

aspirated, and the word is then anglicised viller. 
There is a townlaud in the parish of Killann in 
Wexford, taking its name from a little stream 
running down the eastern slope of the Blackstairs 
mountnins, called Askinvillar — Irish Easc-an-bhio- 
lair, tho wet land, or the water-course of the 
cresses ; Toberaviller near the town of Wicklow, 
watercress well. 

Marsh mallows. The simple form of the word 
denoting marsh mallows is leamh [lav], or in old 
Irish lem, as we find it in the St. Gall MS. of 
Zeuss (Gram. Celt. p. 274). It is curious that the 
very same word is applied to the elm, and it is 
often therefore difficult to say whicli of the two 
plants is meant, when we find the term in names. 
It is probable that the words for marsh mallows 
and for elm are radically different, and have 
accidentally assumed the same form (see Max 
Mviller: Lectures on the Science of Language, 
2nd. Ser. p. 287). In modern Irish a difference 
in sound is made between tho two words, which 
helps us to distinguish them one from another, 
when we hear them pronounced. There is a par- 
ticular nasal sound in the latter part of leamh, 
when it means marsh mallows, which it is im- 
possible to indicate on paper ; but the pronunciation 
is not very different from lew; and besides this 
the term \isually employed (for this plant) is not 
tho simple form, but the derivative leamhaeh, 
whi(;h is pronounced something like leicagh. 

"Wliatover amount of uncertainty there may be 
in the word, the following names may be referred, 
without much danger of error, to this plant, and not 
to the elm. In Kilkenny and Tipperary there are 
places called Lough; Lcwngh is a townland near 
Thurh\s ; Loo is near IJallyliaunis in Mayo ; Looh 
in the parish of Donaghmore in Wicklow ; Liiogh, 

346 The Veyetahlc K'uujdom. [ciiav. xix. 

the name of a small lake and two towiilands, near 
the clilis of Moher iu Clare: — all those iiamea 
were originally applied to a place producing marsh 
mallows — and all show, in their modernised ortho- 
graphy, an attempt to represent the peculiar sound 
of the Irish. The word appears compounded in 
Rathnaleugh near the village of Ivathdowney in 
Queen's County, the fort of the marsh mallows. 

Dillesk. The sea plant called in Gaelic duilcasg 
ia well known all over Ireland by the anglicised 
names dillesk, dullisk, and dulvk ; it grows on rocks 
round the coast, and is eaten after being dried. 
Women hawk it in baskets about the streets of 
Dublin. There is a Dullisk Cove near Newcastle 
in the county Down ; and a Dillesk Point on the 
Kerry side of the Shannon opposite Carrigaholt. 
Daileasg-na-habhan [dillesk-ua-hown] is the name 
given to a sort of broad-leaved pond -weed — not 
marine ; and from this we have Killadullisk, the 
name of a little river and of a townland through 
which it flows, four or five miles west of Eyre- 
court in Galway — the coill or wood of the dillesk. 

Sloke ov Slake. The nuirine plant called ^^or- 
phyra vulgaris, a species of laver, found growing 
on rocks round the coast, is esteemed a table 
luxury and is often pickled, and eaten with pepper, 
vinegar, &c. It is called in Gaelic sleahJiacdn 
[slavacan, sloakan], which in the anglicised forms 
sloakan, sloke, and slake, is now a])plied to it all 
over the Three Kingdoms. On the coast near 
Derrynane Abbey in Kerry is a townland called 
Coomatloukane, the eooin or hollow of the sloakan. 
But this word sleabhacun must have been also 
applied to some herb not marine ; for we have an 
inland townland in the parish of Killaan in Gal- 
way, west of Ballinasloe, called Cloonatloukaun, 
the cloon or meadow of the sloke (s eclipsed by t). 

CTiAP. XIX.] The Vegetable Kingdom. 347 

Docl;-Icaf. The diminutive copog [cuppoge] is 
tlie word now always used for the common dock- 
leaf ; but judging from some of the derivatives 
(liat follow, it would appear that the primitive cop 
and nnothor diminutive oopan must have been in 
UHO at sonic fornun- timo. The usual form (with 
the adjective suffix aeh) is seen in Glencoppogagh 
in the parish of Upper Bodoney in Tyrone, the 
glen of the dock-leaves ; and with the c eclipsed to 
g in Lagnagoppoge {lag, a hollow), a little south 
of Strangford in Down, and in Cloonnagoppogc in 
]\layo, dock-loaf meadow. This termination, gop- 
pogc or gappoge, is extremely common all over tlic 
country. From the root cop is formed copdnach 
(by the addition of the diminutive and adjec- 
tive terminations), signifying a place abounding 
in dock-leaves, which, with very little change, is 
anglicised Coppanagh, the name of some places in 
Ulster, Connaught, and Leinster; while the oblique 
form gives nauiC to several townlands called Coj)- 
ncy and Co])any, in Tyrone, Armagli, and Donegal. 

Garlic. The common wild garlic is denoted — 
among olher \\ords — by crcanih [crav: craw] or 
cneamh, which in anglicised names appears as crajf, 
crave, crew, cranipl>, &c. Clooncraff, now a parish 
in Hoscommon, and once a place of some ecclesi- 
astical note, is often mentioned in the amials by 
the name of Cluain-creamha, the meadow of wild 
garlic. There is a townland of the same name not 
far from tlie town of Koscommon ; near Killucan 
in Westmeath, the name is varied to Clooncrave ; 
in King's County to Clooncraff ; and in Limerick 
to Cloncrew, which is the name of a parish. There 
is a little island in Lough Corrib opposite the 
castle of Cargins, now called InishcralT, which is 
often mentioned by the annalists, and called by 
them Inis-crcamlia. O'Flaherty, in his account of 

348 The Vegetable Kinc/dom. [chap. xix. 

lar Connauglit, speaks of it in these words: — 
*' Iniscreawa, or wild garlic isle .... where the 
walls and high ditch of a well-fortified place are 
still extant and encompass almost the whole 
island. Of this isle, Macanih Insicreawa (the 
youth of Inishoralf), a memoraLle ancient magi- 
cian, as they say, had his donominalion." The 
walls mentioned hy O'Mahcrly, which are Cyclo- 
pean in their character, still remain ; and the 
people say they are the remains of the fortress of 
Orbsen, who gave name to Lough Corrib (see this 
in 1st Volume). 

The mh in the end has a very peculiar nasal 
sound, whicli is attempted to bo reproduced in 
some of the names given above. This same sound 
is very clearly heard in the native pronunciation of 
Derreennacno, the little derr// or oak-grove of the 
wild garlic, a name which preserves the n of cneamh. 

In the northern counties the word is often 
anglicised cramph (like the change of danih to 
damph, &c. — (See 1st Vol., Part I. c. iii.), as in 
Derrycramph near the town of Cavan, the oak- 
wood of the wild garlic, the same name as Dorry- 
craft' in Mayo, and Derrycrave in AVestmeath. 
This change, with the eclipse of the c by g, is ex- 
hibited in Drum gram ph in Fcriuauagh, Mou- 
aghan, and Tyrone, Dniim-gcrcainh^ garlic ridge. 

Creamh combined with coill, wood, forms the 
compound creamhchoiU [cravwhill : wild garlic 
wood], which undergoes many curious transforma- 
tions in anglicised names, closely corresponding 
with the various forms of laonlwhoill (sco Loug- 
field in 1st Vol.). One modification is CrafBeld, 
which is the name of a towuhmd in Wicklow ; and 
we have Clooncrafiield (the meadow of the wild- 
garlic wood) near Castlerea in Roscommon. There 
is a parish in Antrim called Cranfield, which 

CHAP. XIX.] The Vegetable Kingdom. 340 

exhibits auothei* form : Colgan calls it by its 
correct Irish name Creamh-choill ; but in a lease of 
1G8;{ it is written "CroghiU alias Cranfield," 
showing that at that period the name was in 
])roc(^sa of change from iui okl and correct angli- 
cised form, to wliat it now Is. The townland of 
Cranfield also, which occupies the soutliern ex- 
tremity of the barony of Mourne, and gives name 
to Cranfield Point at the entrance of Carlingford 
Lough, was formerly called Craughill (see Reeves: 
Eccl. Ant, p. 87), In 8Hgo this name becomes 
Crawhill, and in the parish of Ahoghill in Antrim, 

It appears probable that the correct form of 
this word is cneamh \Jmav : k and n both pro- 
nounced], and that this has been corrupted to 
creamh like cnoc to crock ; for we find cneamh pre- 
served in several names. Knavagh is the name of 
a townland in the parish of Tiranascragh, near 
the Shannon, north of Portumnain Galway, which 
is tlie adjective form CnrnniJiach, a place producing 
wild garlic. In the jjarish of Incliicronan in 
('lare, oiKnnilofioni tlio village of Crusli(^en, tliero 
is a lo\\'i\lan(l call(>(l l)!iMnniiti!i('laic\v, wliicli took 
llio first part of i(s nnnie from a loAV ridge or 
(h'umman. J^ut this little hill — as in many other 
cases — after giving name to the toAvnland, got a 
ncAV name itself, Avhich however is a correct trans- 
lalicm of (he old name ; and it is now called Garlic 
Hill. There is a pla(;e near Lismore in Water ford 
called Curraghacnav, the garlic-producing marsh. 

Parsnip. The word;;?mw», [mackan] is used to 
denote the taprooted plants ; and the several kinds 
are designated by means of distinguishing terms ; 
such as meacan-ragani, horse-radish ; mcacan-hnidhe- 
an-isJcihhr, the common spurge, &c. Taken without 
any qualifying term, however, the word is com- 

350 The Vegetable Kingdom. [ciiAr. xix. 

monly tniclcrstood to mean a parsnip, and I will 
translate it in tbia sense in the few names mentioned 
under the present heading. 

From this word are derived the names of all 
those places now called Maclean, Macluian, Mack- 
anagh, Macknagh, and Mackney — the second the 
diminutive in an, i\\(i three last the adjective form 
iiK'dcanaoh ; all so called i'rom producing in abun- 
dance parsnips or some other sort of tap-rooted 
plant — wild, no doubt ; — Cloonmackan and Clon- 
mackan, parsnip meadow ; Gortnamackaii and 
Oortnamackanee, the field of the pai-snips. 

Another word for a parsnip — cuiridiu — is ])er- 
])etiialod in Killygoi'don, ihc name of a village 
near fSlranorlar in ])onegal and of a townland 
near Clogher in Tyrone : this name the Four 
Masters write Coill-na-gculfidin, tlie wood of the 

Wood ; forest. The wovd/otliar [fohar] is given 
by Peter O'Connell in his dictionary, as meaning 
a forest ; and he also gives the plural form foithre. 
ft is a term often met Avith in Irish writings, 
though it is not given in the dictionaries of 
O'Brien and O'Reilly. In ancient times there was 
a woody district to the nortli-west of Birr in 
King's County, which is called in the annals, 
Fothar-Dealhhnach, i. e. the forest of Delvin, from 
the old district in which it was situated; and though 
this great wood has long since disappeared, its 
name and memory are preserved in the townland 
of ]iallaghanoher, halfway between Birr and 
Banaghci', which correctly represents the sound 
of the old name, as the Four ]\1 asters write it, 
Bealach-an-fhotJiair, the road of the forest. 

The word more connnonly occurs, however, in 
the plural form oi foithre [fihra, lira, fweera], which 
is often understood to mean underwood, or copse, 

ciiAT. XIX. J Tl>o rr(/dabk ICinijclom. 35l 

or forest laud, and is anglicised in several ways. 
Gortuafira, in the parish of Mogeely in Cork, not 
far from the village of Tallow, signifies the field 
of the underwood. There is a townland near the 
village of Ferbane in King's County, which gives 
uauic to a parish, now called Wheery, hut localh* 
pronounced Fweehro, which is a correct anglicised 
representation of Foifhrc, woods ; and from thiiji 
also is named the townland of Curragh wheery, 
the marsh of Wheery. In the parish of Kilbelfad 
in Mayo, south-west of Ballina, on the shore of 
Lough Conn, this name is found in the form of 
Wherrew ; and in Kerry the idea of plurality is 
conveyed by the addition of the s of the English 
inflection, forming Fieries, the name of two places, 
one in the parish of Molahiffe, four miles from 
Miltown, and the other near Castleisland. 

Firc-irood. Conadh [conna] signifies firewood : 
old form as given in Cor. Gl. condud : Welsh 
rj/muid. Tlie word has been used in this sense 
I'loui V(My (>!iily tin)(\s, ['or \\^^ {hn] ('O)nut(fh, " lire- 
b()(o," moiitionod in Iho IJook of ]{.igli(s as a por- 
tion of tlio tribute of the unfrce tribes of Lcinsfor 
to the Icing of that province. It occurs very often 
in names ; and it was, no doubt, applied to places 
where there was abundance of withered trees and 
bushes, the remains of a decayed wood or shrub- 

The word takes several modern forms, which 
will be understood from the following examples. 
1 II the Four Masters, and also in the " Annals of 
1 reland," translated for Sir James Ware by Duald 
Mac Firbis, it is recorded at the year 1445, that 
Ijynagh Mageogheghan was slain at a place called 
Coill-an-chonaidh, the wood of the " fire-bote :" 
the place is situated in the parish of Kilcumrerogh 
in Westmcath, and it is now called Killyconny. 

352 The Vc(j('table Kingdom, [cuAr. xix, 

Thoro is anotlior place of llio snmo name in ( )a van, 
and a village called Kilcoiiny, also in Cavaii — this 
last liaving tlie same signification. Other forms 
are seen in Drumminacunna near Cappagli white in 
Tipperary [drummin, a low hill) ; also in Money- 
toncy west of Draperstown in Derry, and in 
IMonachiinna in the parish of Dunnaniaggan in 
Kilkenny, the former signifying the shrubhery, 
and the latter the bog of the firewood. In Oork 
and Kerry, the final dJt, is often changed to g (as 
in many other cases), which is fully pronounced; 
as we see in Clooncunnig in Cork, the same as 
Clooncunna, Clooncunny, and Cloonconny in other 
counties, all meaning lire- wood meadow. And 
lastly by the aspiration of tlie c to h, the word is 
frequently anglicised //one//, which is a pretty 
common termination, especially in the north ; as 
in Drumhoney near Irvinestown in Fermanagh, 
fire-Avood ridge. 

The word crion [creen] withered, is often found 
in names, applied probably to a jjlaco covered witli 
withered brambles or to the willioring remains of 
a wood. It is seen in Creenkill in Kilkenny — 
crion-choill, withered wood. There are several 
townlands scattered over Ireland, called Creenagh 
and Greeny, which is written Crinach by the Four 
Masters — withered land, or land where trees or 
shrubs are withering. 

Stutnp or stake. The word smut, and its dimi- 
nutive smutdn are used to denote a log, a stake, a 
stump of a tree. This is a pretty connnon element 
in names ; and I suppose it was applied to places 
where some of the branchless stumps of an old 
wood, or some one remarkable trunk, still remained 
standing. Something like this last must have 
been the case in Smuttanagh near Balla in Mayo, 
which is called in Hy Fiachrach, Baile-an-smotdin 

ciiAr. XIX.] The Vegetable Kingdom. 353 

the town of the stock or trunk ; but the modern 
form, Smuttanagh, means a place full of trunks. 
The word appears in its simple form in Clashna- 
smut a little north of Carrick-on-Suir, the clash 
or trench of the Irunks. 15ut the diminutive is 
more common. Tlicre is a towuland in Mayo, and 
another in Tipperary, called Gortnasmuttaun, the 
field of the stakes. Ballysmuttan (town of the 
tree-trunks) is a well-known place on ihe river 
Liffey, near Blessington ; Toorsmuttaun in Galway 
(tnar, a hleachfield) ; Coolasmuttano near Charle- 
ville in Cork, and Lissasmutfaim near I'ortlaw in 
Watcrford, the angle (cuil) and the lis or fort, of 
the tnmk. 

Another word for a tree-stock, stake, or block, is 
crap [cap], which is often used and applied in 
nuich the same sense as smut : cognate with Lat. 
cippus, a sharp stake, and with Welsh cyff, a 
trunk. It generally appears in the anglicised form 
kip, Avhich represents the genitive cip. In 1573, 
a baltle Avas fought between two parties of the 
O'Jhiens of Thomond, at a place which the Four 
]\Iastcrs call Bcl-an-chip, the (ford-) mouth of the 
(rce- trunk ; the name is now Knockakij), which is 
applied to a hill on the sea- shore near Lahinch in 
ilie county Clare. 

There was an old ford over the Shannon, near 
Carrick-on-Shannon, which is mentioned several 
times in the annals, by the name of Afh-an-chip, 
a name having the same meaning as BcJ-an-chip. 
It is probable that a large trunk of a tree stood 
near each oC tlieso fords, and served as a mark to 
direct Iravellcrs lo the exact crossing. What gave 
mnue to Xippure mountain, from the slopes of 
which the rivers liiffey and Dodder run down to 
Iho l)td)lin ])laiu, it is now hind to say Avith 
certainty ; but probably it was so called from tho 
VOL. II. 24 

354 The Vegetable Kingdom, [chap. xix. 

remains of some largo old yew, for tlie naino ex- 
actly represents Cip-iiili/iair, the trunk of the yew- 
tree. Coolkip near Ilolycross in Tipperary, and 
Coolakip in Wexford, both mean the corner of 
tho trunk. 

The is often changed to g by eclipse, and then 
tho word becomes gap in anglicised names. Gort- 
nagaj) ia tho name of a townhmd near Tulhuoan 
in Kilkenny ; and there is another called Aakana- 
gap in tho parish of ]\Ioyne in Wicklow — tlio 
former meaning tho field Ojori] and the latter the 
wet land (easga) of the trunks. Kippceii {cipin, 
little stick), one of the diminutives of this word, 
is well-known by all people having any knowledge 
of Ireland, as a popular turin for a ahillelagh or 
cudgel : it gives name (though not exactly in this 
sense) to Kippin inWestmeath; alsotoKij)pindulf 
in the same county, and Kippeendulf (black little 
trunk) near the village of Clara in King's County. 

With the termination ach (p. 3) we have Kip- 
pagh, the name of several townlands in Cork, a 
place full of stocks or tree stumps. 

A twig is denoted by the word slat ; and from 
this we have Slattagh in lloscommon, and 81atti- 
nagh in Fermanagh, both meaning a place 
abounding in twigs, rods, or osiers (terminations 
ach and nach, pp. 3 and 6). 

Thorn. Lealg [dallog] means literally a thorn ; 
but in a secondary sense it is applied to a pin or 
brooch. It occurs in names in the forms dallig, 
dellig, dollig, &c., but always in the primary sense 
of a thorn or a thorn bush. There is a lownhiud 
called Money dollog near Ahoghill in Antrim, the 
Irish name of which is Miiine-dealg, the thorny 
shrubbery ; and Kildellig (church of the thorns) 
ia the name of a parish in Queen's County. 

When this word comes in as a termination, the 

CHAP. XIX.] The Vegetable Kingdom. 355 

d often becomes eclipsed by n, as in Heennanallag- 
ane in the parish of Glanbehy in Kerry, which 
also exhibits a diminutive of the word under 
consideration, llinn-na-ndeaJgdn, the point of the 
little thorn-bushes. The phiral form is scon in 
l)cllii];;i, near tlie village of Milford, in the parish 
of Kilbolane in Cork, which the Four Masters 
write DeJge, i.e. thorns ; and in Delligabaun in the 
parish of Aghaboo in Queen's County, whitish 

Brier or bramble. The word drcas or dris [drass, 
drish] is used in very old documents to signify a 
brier or bramble of any kind ; but the diminutive 
drisfoi/ [drishoge] is the term now commonly cm- 
])loyod, and it is usually applied to a brier, or a 
blackberry bush, or any bramble. Our local 
nomenclature exhibits a great variety of deriva- 
tives from the word dris. Three diminutives as 
well as the primitive, give names to places ; but 
they are applied topographically, not to a single 
biamblo, but rather to a brake of briers or a 
brambly place. 

The river Drish (brambly river) joins the Suir 
near Thurles. Drishane on the I31ackwater near 
Mill- street in Cork, is well known as one of the 
former seats of the Mac Carthys where the ruin of 
their castle still remains, from which the parish 
has its name ; and there are several other places 
of the same name in Cork and Tipperary. An- 
other diminutive gives name to Drishecn, a little 
west of Skibbereen in Cork : a third, Drishoge, is 
the name of several ])laccs in Dublin, Hoscommon, 
and Tipperary, which assmnes in Mcath and Car- 
low, the form Drissoge orDrisoge, and changes to 
Dressoge in Fermanagh and Tyi'one. 

There are several other derivatives, which arO 
also applied in the same sense as the preceding — 

356 The Vcgetahh Kingdom, [chap. xix. 

to a briimbly place. Drishaglia\m — a diminutive 
i)f the adjective form driseavh — is tbe name of aix. 
townlands in Hoscommon, Galway, and Mayo ; 
wliile we have Dresnagh, the name of a place a 
mile from Casilefinn in Donegal, formed from the 
primitive drcas by the addition of the suffix nach 
(see p. G). Dristernan and Diestcrnan, which 
occur frequently in llie north-western counties, 
exhibit the compound termination man (p. 42) ; 
but I cannot account for the t except as a mere 
euphonic insertion. Similarly, we have with mack 
(p. 16) Dresternagh near llallyhaise in Cavan ; 
which with the change of d to t, becomes Trister- 
nagh, the name of a well-known place on the 
shore of Lough Iron in A\^estmealli. Drcssogagh, 
an adjective from one of the diminutives, is the 
name of two townlands in Armagh. Another 
termination appears in Coohlrisla in Tijiperary, 
the cool or hill-back of brambles. 

It is perfectly easy to recognise this word in all 
its forms when it occurs as a termination. The 
simple form appears in Gortnadrass near Achonry 
in Sligo, the brier-field ; and in Kihlress, a parish 
in Tyrone, the church of the biambles ; so also 
Ardrass in Mayo and Kildare, and Ardrcss near 
Loughgall in Armagh, Ard-drcas, the height of 
the brambles. 

Sallow. If the Irish distinguished, in their 
tongue, the different species of sallow one from 
another, these distinctions do not a])i)ear in that 
part of the language that has subsided into local 
names ; for the word sail [ saul] is used to designato 
all the different kinds — cognate with Lat. saliu;, 
and with Manx shell, and Welsh hel//(j, willows. 

SoUoghod, now a parish in Tipperary, derives 
its name from this tree ; and for this etymology 
we have the authority of Cormac Mac Cullenan. 

ciiAF. XIX.] TJie Vegetable Kingdom. 357 

] [e states in his Glossary that Salchoit, as he writes 
the name, comes from sal, the sallow, and coit, a 
Welsh word for wood ; and he further tells us that 
a largo Avood of sallows grow there ; but of this 
tluM-o is imt a trace remaining. 

This word has a great variety of derivatives, and 
all give names to places in various parts of the 
country. Tlio simple word sail is seldom heard, 
the adjective form sdileach and the diminutive 
sdileog being now universally used to designate the 
plant. The former is anglicised sillagh, silla, and 
sallagh in the end of names, and the latter silloge 
and silloga. Both are exemplified in Corsillagh 
near Newtown Mountkennedy in Wicklow, and 
in Corsilloga in the parish of AgnamuUen in 
Monaghan, each signifying the round- hill of the 
sallows. Lisnasallagh, the fort of the sallows, 
is the name of two townlands in Cork, and of one 
near Saintfield in Down ; while the same name is 
found in Rosconnnon in the form Lisnasillagh : 
(Jurrasilla in Tipperary and Kilkenny, the curragh 
or marsh of the osiers. 

There are several dimiinitivos, from otio of wliicli, 
Sylaun (a place of sallows), the name of some 
places in Galway is derived. Tooreennasillane near 
Skibbereen in Cork, signifies the little bleach-field 
of the osiers ; Cloonsellan is the name of some 
to\Aiilands in Longford and Roscommon {cloon, a 
meadow); and there is a considerable lake near 
►Shcrcock in Cavan called Ijough Sillan, the osier- 
producing lake. Other derivatives are exhibited 
in Sallaghan in Cavan and Leitrim, and Sallaghy 
in Fermanagh, all meaning the place of sallows or 

Sometimes the s is changed to t by eclipse, as 
in Kiltallaghan in the parish of Killamcry in Kil- 
kenny, and Kiltillahan near Carnew in Wexford, 

358 The Vegetable Kingdom, [chap. xix. 

Loth of wliicli would be written in Irish CoiU- 
tsailenclidin, the wood of the saHows, the same as 
Kilsallaghan, the name of a parish near Swords 
in Dublin. In these three names there is a com- 
bination of the adjective termination acli. and the 
diminutive an. The eclipse also occurs along with 
the diminutive in 6g in Kyletilloge, in the parish of 
Aghaboe, Queen's County, which has the same 
signihcation as Kilsallaghan. 

Fir. Giumhas [guse : g hard] denotes a fir- 
tree. In some parts of the country the word is in 
constant use, even when the people are speaking 
English ; for ihe pieces of old deal timber dug np 
from bogs, which llioy use for iiring, and sumo- 
times for light in place of candles, are known by 
the name of gewah. 

Tliis tree has not given names to many places, 
which would appear to show that in foi^mer times 
it was not very abundant ; and when it does occur 
it may be a question in any individual case, 
whether the place was so called from the living 
tree or from bog-deal. In the parish of Moore in 
Roscommon, there is a townland called Cappayuse 
— Cectpach-ghimnhais {g changed to y by aspiration), 
the garden-plot of the fir. The name of IMona- 
goush near Ardmore in Waterford, indicates that 
the bog (moin) supplied the people with winter 
stores of gewsh ; in ]\reenaguse near Inver in 
Donegal (mcen, a mountain meadow) the fir is still 
taken out of the bog ; and we may probably ac- 
count in the same way for the name of Ijough 
Ayoosy, a littlo lake live niilos soulli-Wi^st from 
Crossmolina in Mayo, aiul of anotiier small lake 
— Lough Aguse — two miles from Gal way. 

Arhiitus. The arbutus grows in most parts of 
Treland, though it is generally a rare plant ; it is 
•plentiful, however, in parts of Cork and Kerry, 

CHAP. XIX.] The Vegetable Kingdom, 359 

especially nboiit Killarney and Glengarriff, where 
it flourishes in great luxuriance. Some think that 
it was brought to Ireland from the continent by 
monks, in the early ages of Christianity ; but it is 
more generally believed to be indigenous ; and it 
a2)pears to me a strong argument in favour of this 
opinion, that we have a native term for it. The 
Irish call it caitknc [cahina] : and in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Killarney lakes, this word is 
Icnown, but veiled under a thin disguise ; for even 
(he Englisli-speaking people call the berries of 
the arbutus crt?».-apples, though few or none of 
them suspect how this name took its riso. More- 
over this name has been long in use ; for Throl- 
keld, who wrote his " Synopsis Stirpium Iliberni- 
carum," in 1727, notices it, and recognises it as an 
anglicised form of caiihne. 

The arbutus lias not given name to many places. 
Tlie wood at the back of the Eagle's Nest near 
Killarnoy, is called Cahnicaun (roc p. 10) or arbu- 
tus wood ; and tlie stream that flows from Barley 
lake down to Glengarriff, is named Owenacahina, 
the river of tlie arbutus. The Irish name of the 
village of Smerwick near Dingle in Kerry, which is 
still used, is Ard-na-caithne (now pronounced Ard- 
naconnia), the height of the arbutus. Isknagali' 
iny is the name of a small lake near Lough Cuv- 
rnne in Kerry, five miles north-east of Derrynane: 
Kiac-na-gcaithne, the stream track of the arbutua 

In Clare and the west of Ireland, the name of 
this tree is a little different, viz., cuinchc, pro- 
nounced very nearly queenha ; this form is foimd 
as the name of a village and parish in Clare, now 
shortened to Quin, where Sheeda Maonamara 
founded an abbey in 1402, the ruins of which ore 
yottobo seen. The Four Masters, who men (ion 

3G0 The Mineral Kingdom. [ciiAr. xx. 

it several times, call it Citinc/ie, arbutus or arluitiis 
land : and this ancient name is correctly anglicised 
Quiucliy in Carlisle's Topographical Dictionary, 
and Quinhie in the DoAvn Survey, this last being 
almost identical in sound with the western name 
of the arbutus. In the same parish is a townland 
now called Feaghquin, but written in an old quit 
rent ledger, Feaghquiuny, i.e. arbutus land. One 
of the many islands in Clew Bay, a very small 
one, is called Quinsheen, a diminutive form signi- 
fying little arbutus island. 



Gold. It appears certain that gold and silver 
mines were worked in this country from the most 
remote antiquity ; and that these precious metals 
— especially gold — were found anciently in nmch 
greater abundance than they have been in recent 
times. Our oldest traditions record not only tho 
existence of the mines, but also the names of the 
kings who had them worked, and even those of 
the artificers. According to the bardic annals, the 
monarch Tighernmas [Tiernmas : about 1000 years 
B.C.], was the first that smelted gold inlreland,and 
with it covered di-inking goblets and brooches ; the 
mines were situated in the Foithre, the woods pr 
woody districts (see p. 350), cast of thcLin'ey ; and 
the artificer was Uchadan, who lived in Fercualuit, 
that part of Wicklow lying round Powerscourt. 

Whatever amoimt of truth there may be in this 
old legend, it proves very clearly that the Wicldow 
gold mines were as well known in the far distant 

ciiAr. XX.] The Mineral Kingdom. 361 

ages of antiquity as they were in the end of the 
last century, when the accidental discovery of a few 
pieces of gold in the bed of a stream, revived the 
iong-lost knowledge, and caused such an excit- 
ng search for several years. This stream, which 
is now called the Gold Mine river, flows from the 
mountain of Croghan Kinshella, and joins the 
Ovoca near the Wooden Bridge hotel. On accoimt 
of the abundance of gold in Wicklow in old times, 
the people of Leinster sometimes got the name of 
Laighnigh-an-6ir, the Lagenians of the gold 
(O'Curry, Lcct. I., 5). 

Several other early kings are celebrated for 
having introduced certain golden oriunnents, or 
niado tlie custom o[ wearing them more general. 
And Irish liioraturo abounds in allusion to golden 
bosses, brooclics, pins, armlets, crowns, &c. In later 
and more authentic annals, we have records also 
which show that gold was everywhere Avithin 
I'oach of the wealihy, and was used by them in 
nimieioiiM woiKh oI' ai-t. 

The general truthfulness of these traditions and 
records is fully borne out by tho great cpianiitics 
of manufactured gold found in various parts of 
the country ; and whoever looks on the fine collec- 
tion in the Royal Irish Academy, which, rich as 
it is, is only a small remnant of our ancient golden 
ornaments, will be scarcely prepared to discredit 
the ancient accounts. These ornaments moreover 
are not alloyed — the gold is absolutely pure, as far 
as the old gold workers were able to make it so. 
And this universal purity, and the corresponding 
richness of colour, gave rise to the expression devg- 
6r — red gold — which occurs so often in Irish writ- 
ings, both ancient and modern. 

ho Irish word for gold is 6r [ore], copnalo 
with Latin auyum,'[m(S. Welsh aur. It enters into 

3G2 The Mineral Kiiujdom. [ciiAr. xx. 

(ho formniiou of a C()nHi(loral)lo innnLer of iiauica 
of places, in eacli of wliicli wo must conclude that 
gold in some shape or another was formerly found. 
In many of these places traditions are current of 
the former presence of gold, and in some it is found 
at the present day. 

Near ihe villag-e of Cullcn, on the borders of 
Ijimerick and Tipperary, there is a hog which has 
been long celebrated for the quantities of manu- 
factured gold found in it. For the last 150 years, 
innumerable golden articles of various hinds have 
been dug up from the bottom of this 1 oj, as well 
as many of the implements used by the old gold- 
smiths in their work, such as crucibles, bronze 
ladles, &c. ; from which it is probable, as O'Curry 
remarks, that this place was anciently — long be- 
fore the bog was formed, and when the land was 
clothed with wood — inhabited by a race of gold- 
smiths, who carried on the manufacture there for 
generations. O'Curry, in a portion of a very in- 
teresting lecture, has endeavoured to identify the 
goldsmiths of this place with a race of artificers, 
who, according to their genealogy as given in the 
Book of Ijcinster, were descended immediately 
from OlioU Olum, king of IMunster, and who fol- 
lowed the trade uninterruptedly for seven genera- 
tions, from about a.d. 3U0 to 500 (Lectures III., 
205). It may be added that the bog of Cullen is 
proverbial all over Munster for its riches : — 

".And her wealth it far outshines, 
C'nllen's bog or 8ilverniines. " 

(See "The Enchanted Lake" in Crofton Croker's 
" Fairy Legends.") 

The celebrated fort of Dunanore, in Smerwick 
Bay in Kerry, was correctly translated Fort-del-or 

'CHAP. XX.] The Mineral Rinrjdom, 3G3 

(fort of the gold), by the Spaniards, who landed 
and fortified themselves in it in 1580, The Four 
IMastcrs call it in one passage Diin-mi-Oir, and in 
niiolher OiIen-an-(nr (island of the gold), of which 
the foiinor name shows that the rock nnist havo 
hccn originally occu))icd by a circidar <Iu)) or fort. 
As to Avhy it was called the Fort of Gold, there are 
several ojiinions and traditions, none of which seem 
either snfHcient to exj^tlain it, or worthy of being 
recorded. On the west coast of Cape Clear Island 
is a castle ruin also called Dunanore ; this was in 
old days a forialicc of iho 0'J)riscolls ; and hero 
also the peasantry have ]iiany legends of hidden 
treasure, all probably founded on the name. Ano- 
ther name like ihis is Casheloir (m^sm^, a stone fort), 
applied to a fine circular fort of the most ancient 
cyclojiean masonry, lying near the village of Bal- 
lintogher in Sligo, three miles from Drumahaire. 

One of the various ways in whicli a place may 
liave derived iis name from gold is illus- 
ii-atcd in the account of the death of Lewy 
Mac-Con, king of Ireland in the second century. 
It is staled that on one occasion this king was at a 
place called Gort-an-6ir (near Dcrg-raih : see p. 
278), sfauding with his back against a pillar-stone, 
engngcd in tlie royal occupation of distributing 
gold and silver to the poets and learned men of 
Irehmd. A certain poet named Ferchas, the son 
of Comau, who lived at a place cvWoA Ard-na- Gem- 
lech (lieigiit of Iho folters), otherwise called C)we- 
ach (i.e. liilly place), when he heard how the king 
was occupied, entered with some others into the 
assembly, with a kind of javelin called a rwend in 
his hand, which he drove with one thrust through 
the king's body, so that it struck the pillar-stonc 
flt Iheoihor side; and ]\lac-(km died innnediately. 
It is added that " Gori-an-6ir (field of the gold) has 

364 The Mineral Kingdom. [chap. xx. 

been the name of that place ever since ; and it lias 
been so called from the quantity of gold distri- 
buted there by the king to the bards and ollainhs 
of Ireland." This place, which is well known, and 
still retains the name of Gortanoro, is situated just 
near the fort of Derrygrath, in the parish of the 
same name, four miles nearly east of Uahir inTip- 
})erary, on the right of the road as you go towards 
Clonmel ; and the poet's residence has left the 
name of Knockagh on a townlaud in the immediate 

In the legendary accoimt of the origin of the 
name of the ancient principality of Oriel originally 
comprising the territory (now occupied by the coun- 
ties of Monaghan, Armagh, and Louth), we have 
another illustration. This kingdom was founded 
by the three Collas in the year 332 ; and it is 
stated that one of their stipulations with the neigh- 
bouring kings was that whenever it shoidd be found 
necessary to fetter a hostage from their newly- 
formed principality, chains of gold should be used 
for the purpose. Hence the name — nsed in all our 
authorities — Oir-ghialla [Ore-yeela] golden hos- 
tages, which has been modernised to the form 

In every case I know of, the or, and its genitive 
oir, take the form of ore in anglicised names ; but 
it must be remembered that this syllable ore occa- 
sionally represents other words, as for instance 
uab/iar, pride. 

In the parish of Feakle in Clare, near Lough 
Graney, there is a townland taking name from a 
hill, called Slieveanore — 8/iabh-an-6ir, the moun- 
tain of the gold; and there is a mountain of the 
same name a little west of Carrantuohill, the 
highest of the Reeks in Kerry ; while we have 
Knockanore — golden hill — the name of places in 

CHAP. XX.] The Mineral Kingdom. 3G5 

Cavan, Kilkenny, and Waterford (but Knockanore 
near Kerry Head, at the raoutli of the Shannon, is 
Cnocan-uahhai)', (he hill of pride) ; and Tullynore 
near nillshorough in Down, the little hill {tulach) 
of the gold. At (ho haso of (he hill of IMidlogh- 
nicsha between 13antry and Dimm.inway in Cork, 
there is a small pool called Cooraanore [ciim, a hol- 
low among mountains) ; Laganore, near Clonmcl 
in Tipporar}^ has nuich the same meaning {hnj, a 
hollow) ; and Glananore — golden glen — is the name 
of a place near Castletownroche in Corlc. 

Silver. As in case of gold, wo have also very 
ancient legends about silver. Our old histories 
tell us that king Enna Airgf/ieac/i, who reigned 
about a century and a half after Tighernmas, was 
the first that made silver shields in Ireland, which 
he distributed among his chieftain friends. The 
legend goes on to say that they were made at a 
place called ylrc/e if ros or Silverwood, situated in the 
parish of llathbeagh on the Nore in Kilkenny, 
wliich Avas said to derive i(s namo from (hoso 
silver shields. llosargid, which has the same 
meaning, wmr, according (o O'Dugan, (ho ancient 
name of a place near Toomy vara in Tippcrary ; but 
the name has not reached our day. 

The Irish word for silver is airgeat [arrigit] ; it 
is cognale wi(h (he Latin argcntunf, and w'ith San- 
scrit ragnta, all being derived from a root arg or 
rag, signifying white or shining (Pictel). As 
silver is tlio hI!im(1im(1 of value, (ho word airgcal is, 
and has been for a long time, the common Irish 
word for money. It is generally easy to detect 
the Avovd in local names ; for i(s modem forms 
do not often depart from Avhat woidd be indi- 
cated by the Irish pronunciation. Three miles 
from ]3allycas(le in Antrim, there is a place called 
Moyarget, the field or plain (magh) of silver; 

3G6 The Minoml Kingdom, [chap. xx. 

Cloonargid, silver meadow, is the name of a place 
ill the parish of Tibohiiie, liosoommou, live miles 
south-west from Ballaghaderreen, which is cor- 
rectly translaled Silveifield in the name of a re- 
sidence in the townland. Thei'e are many small 
lakes throiig'li the counlry called Lough Anargid 
and liOugh Anargit [Loch-un-ainjit, lake of tho 
silver) ; ono for iuslanco in Ualway, and another 
eight miles north of the town of Donegal, over 
which rises the " Silver Hill," Avhicli was so called 
from the lake. Whether these lakes took their 
names from a tradition of money having been 
buried or found in them, or from their silvery 
brightness, like tlio river Arigideen in Cork (see 
p. 71), it is dillicult to tell. 

It is certain, as I have already stated, that many 
of tho names in tho foregoing part of (hi.s chapter 
indicate that, at some past time, gold or silver was 
dug from the earth, or found in the beds of streams, 
at the particular places. But this is not the origin 
of all such names ; and there is good reason to 
believe that a considerable number of them origi- 
nated in treasure legends. There is scarcely any 
class of superstitions more universal, or that have 
taken more iirm hold of the imagination of tho 
people, than those connected with hidden treasure ; 
and no wonder, for there are few, from a lord to 
a peasant, who would not be delighted to find a 
crock tilled with old coins of gold and silver. Le- 
gends about hidden treasure abound in our popular 
literature,* and wo must not wholly disbelieve 
ihem ; lor iu all ages of tho world, t\spccially in 
times of turbulence or war, people have been in 
the habit of burying in the ground hoards of 
money and other valuables, on any sudden emer- 

• See Ciofton Ciokei'a "Fairy Legends." 

cHAr. XX.] The Mineral Kingdom. 3C7 

gency or clanger; and what one man hides and 
leaves behind him is generally found out sooner 
or later by some one else. 

That it has not been reserved for the people of 
our day to fall in for such pieces of good fortune 
is shown by many old records : and as onoexami)lo 
we find it stated in the " Tribes and Customs of 
Ily Many " (pp. 63-4-5) that among other emolu- 
ments, the king of Connaught ceded to the people 
of Ily Many " the third part of every treasure 
found hidden or buried in the depths of the 

In almost all the countries of Europe hidden 
treasure is popularly believed to be guarded by 
supernatural beings ; and to circumvent them by 
cunning, or by some other more questionable 
agency, is the grand study of money seekers. In 
Ireland the fairies are usually the guardians ; and 
they are extremely ingenious in devising schemes 
to bailie treasure seekers, or to decoy or frighten 
fhem fioin tlicir pursuit. Tho antiquity of tin's 
superstition is proved by a curious passage in tho 
"Wars of the Irish with the Danes,'' a document 
as old as the eleventh century. Tho writer is 
describing the robberies perpetrated by the Danes, 
and their ingenuity in finding out hidden hoards 
of valuables, and he says : — " There was not in 
concealment under ground in Erin, nor in the 
various solitudes belonging to Fians (i.e. ancient 
heroes : see 1st Yol., Tart II., c. i.) or to fairies, 
anything that was not discovered by these foreign, 
wonderful Denmarkians, through paganism and 
idol worship" — meaning "that notwithstanding 
the potent spells employed by the Eians and 
fairies for the concealment of their hidden trea- 
sures, the Danes, by their pagan magic and the 

"368 The Mineral Kingdom. [chap. xx. 

diabolical power of tlieir idols, were enabled to 
find tlieni out" (Todd, in nolo, p. 1 15). 

I Lave seen in various parts of Ireland tlie 
marks of treasure- seekers' work in old rati is, 
castles, and abbeys, and many a fine old ruin 
has been sadly dilapidated by their nightly explo- 

It is probable tbat from legends of tliis kind 
some of the preceding names are derived, and 
others like them ; and a similar origin may in all 
likelihood be assigned to the following: in 
of these places, indeed, stories of adventurous 
searches after treasure are still told by the people, 
liisanargid, Ijishcenanargid, and llathargid (all 
signifying the fort of silver or of money) aic names 
of very frequent occurrence ; Scartore — the seart 
or thicket of gold — is a jdaco near Dungaivan 
in Waterford ; and there is a townland called 
Cloghore — stone of gold — in the parish of Kil- 
barron in Donegal, near Belleek. 

Iron. We know that among the people of 
Europe, weapons and instruments of stone Avere 
iised in war, and in the arts of everyday life, 
long before the time of historical records ; and 
that stone was superseded by bronze, and bronze 
by iron. It is believed that the change from one 
material to another was very gradual ; that stone 
contintied in use long after the introduction of 
bronze ; and that for a period of unknown dura- 
tion, bronze and iron wereused contemporaneously, 
till tbo former was gradually relinquished as tlio 
latter became moro plontil'ul. 

AVhen it was that iron mines began to be worked 
in this country, our annals or traditions do not 
inform us. It is certain that the metal was known 
amongst us from the earliest period to which Irish 
history or tradition reaches; for we find it re- 

CHAP. XX.] The Mineral Kingdom. 8G9 

pcatedly mentioned in our most ancient tales, 
romances, and historical tracts, as being the mate- 
rial from which were made defensive armour, and 
weapons of various kinds, such as clubs, spears, 
swords, Sec. In the Book of Rights, which refers 
to a A'cry earl}' period of society, we find mentioned 
among the tributes due to the Icing of Connaught, 
"seven times fiftj' masses of iron " (p. 105). It 
is curious that the word used for "masses" is 
coera, i.e. sheep; a "sheep" of iron correspond- 
ing to the term " pig " used at the present day. 

All this shows that some progress must have 
been made in very early times in the art of rais- 
ing and smelting ore ; but as to the ])articular 
molliods employed, or to what extent the iron 
mines of ihc country were utilised by the native 
Irish, our literature does not, on the whole, give 
us juuch infonnation. In the fifteenth, sixteenth, 
and seventeenth centuries, iron mines were exten- 
sively worked, chiefly by the Anglo-Irish lords ; 
and ihc vast consumption of timber in smelting 
Mas one of the main causes of the destruction of 
tlu'' great forests. 

The Irish word for iron is not very difToront 
from the English : — idrann, old Irish form tarn 
[both pronounced eeran], and the word exists in 
various forms in Welsh and in several of the nor- 
thern languages ; such as Gothic cisarn, old High 
German isarn ; Angl.-Sax. ^rc;;, "Welsh hcyrn. We 
ha\e numerous names formed from this word, in- 
dicating the spots where the ore was found ; and 
some of them are mixed up with our earliest tra- 
ditions. Thus the annals reckon Loch-niairn (the 
lake of iron) among the nine lakes which burst 
forth in the time of Tigheaimmns ; and this 
lake, which is situated in AVestmeatli, still 
retains the name, modernised to Lough Iron. Ac- 
VOL. II. 25 

370 " The Mineral Kingdom. [chap. xx. 

cording to tradition the iron mines of Slievcan- 
ieriu, east of Lougli Allen in tlio county of 
Leitrim [Stiabh-an-iairn,l^o\\x^l., tlie mountain of 
iron) were worked by Goibncn tlie great Dedan- 
nan smitli ; and it is now as celebrated for its iron 
ore as it Avas when it got the name, long ages ago. 

In a few cases the Irish term is simply 
changed to the English word iro)i ; as in Derry- 
iron (oak-grove of iron) in the parish of lially- 
burly, five miles from Philipstown in King's 
County. But it more commonly assumes other 
forms. Toberanierin is a place five miles from 
Gorey in Wexford, well known as one of the 
battle-fields of 1798 : — Tohar-an-iarainn, the well 
of the iron. One of the hills rising over Glenma- 
lure in Wicklow, is called Fananierin, ihofdn or 
filopo of the iron. In iho ])iiiiHh of Clondermot, 
about three miles from Londonderry, is a townland 
called Currynierin (eurrach, a marsh) ; and with a 
like meaning we have Annaghieriu (eanac/i, a 
marsh), the name of a lake near Shercock in Cavan. 
Lisheenanierin is a toAvnland near the village of 
Strokestown in Roscommon ; and there is a Lissa- 
nierin in King's County, four miles north of 
Roscrea: both signifying the fort of the iron. 
Lough Anierin is a small lake about a mile from 
the hamlet of Kiltyclogher in Leitrim. 

It may be conjectured that some of the fore- 
mentioned places, as well as others, received their 
names, not from the actual discovery of the metal 
itself, but from the reddish, rusty ajipearance of 
the soil, indicating the presenco of iron. However 
the presence of ferruginous mud was generally 
indicated by a distinct term, which will form the 
subject of the next article. 

lro)i sewn. When the soil is impregnated with 
iron, water epringing from the ground or flowing 

cHAr. xx.J The Mineral Kingdom. 371 

along tlie surface deposits a reddisli mud ; wliich. 
also sometimes floats on the top and forms a thin, 
shining, metalliferous-looking scum. This rusty- 
looking mild or scum is sometimes used in colour- 
ing cloth, and it is known in most parts of Ireland 
— or was known when Irish was spoken — by the 
name of rod or rnide [ridda]. It got this name 
from its colour ; for rod signifies red. This word 
is given in the old form rot, in Cormac's Glossary, 
where it is stated that it signifies " everything red." 
It is of course cognate witli Eng. red and ruddy. 
Tlio word is prctly common in names, and it is 
easily known, for it is never much disguised by 
corruption. It is nngliciscd rud, rndda, ruddf/, 
riddut, &c., mU wliich forms are illustrated in tlie 
following names. Near the village of Ballycon- 
nell in Cavan, is a lake remarkable for this kind 
of deposit, called Lough Rud ; and there is a 
small pool cnllcd Lough Arudda in the county 
Leitrim, one mile from the north-western end of 
upper Lough Macnean. Moneyrod the shrubbery 
(or perhaps the bog) of the iron scum, is the 
name of a place in the parish of Duneane in 
Antrim ; Corrarod in Cavan {cor, a round hill) ; 
Boolinrudda at the northern base of Slievecallan 
mountain in Clare (booh/, a dairy place). Raruddy, 
with its old castle ruins, near Loughrea, and 
Cloonriddia in the parish of Killcrerin, both in 
Galway, the rath or fort, and the meadow, of the 
scum ; the latter the snme as Clonrud near Abbey- 
leix in (Queen's County. In Bunnaruddee {fjun, 
the oiul, the mouth of a stream) near Ballylong- 
ford in Kerry, there is a spa ; and all the laud 
round it is (as a person once described it to me) 
" covered with shiny stuff." The final (j belonging 
(o tlio adjective form n[)j)cars — aflor iho miinncr 
of the oxtrcinosoudi — in Xealariddig in the parish 

372 The Mineral K'uigdom. [vukv. xx. 

oi Kilc-roluuio, west ol" Konmaro in K(>ny — tho 
keal or narrow marsLy stream oi" the iron .s(;iiin. 

Sulphur. Native sulphur is found in the lime- 
stone at Oughterard in Galway, so that it can be 
picked out of the stones in the hod of the pretty 
little river that flows through the village, when 
the water is very low. O'Flaherty (hir. 0. p. 53) 
records that in a great drought in KiOO and 1GC7, 
" there was brimstone found on the dry stoue-s 
[in the bed of the river] about the bridge of 
Fuogh." From these sulphury deposits he states 
*' it was commonly called Owan Hoimhe, or Brim- 
stone E,iver ; and this name is now modernised to 
Owenriff. This word ruibh [riv], sulphur, is ioxmd 
in a few other names, but it docs not occur often. 
Revlin in the parish of Killyniard, near the town 
of Donegal, probably received its name for the 
same reason as the last : — liuibh-Unn, sulphur pool 
or stream. Moneenreave in the parish of Inish- 
magrath in Leitrim, the little bog of the sulphur. 

Salt. The art of preserving provisions by 
means of salt is of great antiquity in Ireland ; 
and salt itself is often mentioned as an important 
article of consumption in the old laws regarding 
allowances and tributes. The Irish word for salt 
is saliinn — old ioxm.\salond, as given in Cormac's 
Glossary — corresponding with Welsh halen, Lat. 
sal, Gr. hah, Slav, solt, Goth, and Eng. salt ; and 
the Irish dictionai'ies give the diminutive sdlannan 
as meaning a salt pit. 

A good number of places have taken their names 
from this word, as if marking the s])ot>s Avhcre salt 
was dug up, where it was nianurjicl.iired IVom sea 
water, or where it simply impregnated the soil. 
But in every case I have met with, the s is eclipsed 
by t; and the word is nearly always anglicised 
talUn, tallon, or tallatiy forms which are easily 

CHAP. XX.] The Mineral Kingdom. 373 

Glenatallan is a townland near Loughrea in 
Gal way, whose Irish name is Gleann-a -tsalainny 
the glen of the salt. Coomatallin in Cork, and 
Lugatallin in Ma_yo, both signify salt hollow; 
Tawiiytallan in Ijeitrim, the salt field {tamhnacJt) ; 
UTul li()iigli!ii!)llon, a small })ool two miles south- 
west of Castletown in Westmoath, tlie lake of the 
salt. On the south shore of the Shannon, im- 
mediately west of Foynes Island, is Poultallin 
Point — Poultallin, the pool or hole of the salt. 

Qnarrj/. A quarry of any kind, whether pro- 
ducing stone or slate, is eallcd cnil<^.ir [cullare]. 
The Pour Masters (Vol. V,, p. 1261) mention a 
place in the county Monaghan called Ath-an- 
choi/cir, tlie ford of the quarry. There is, or was 
a quarry in the parish of Drum in Mayo, west of 
Balla, which has given name to the townland of 
Ouillare ; and another near Athenry in Galway, 
whence tlie townland of Cullairbane has got its 
name, signifying white quarry. Pollacullaire in 
Galway, Poulacullcare in Tipperary, and Clasha- 
collare near Callan in Kilkenny, all mean simply 
quarry-hole {poll, a hole; dais, a trench). The 
word is slightly disguised in Knockacollcr near 
Mountrath in Queen's County, and in Craigahulliar 
(c changed to h by aspiration) near Portrush in 
All trim — the hill and the rock of the quarry. 

IS/ate. Slinn is a slate or any very flat stone or 
tile. There is a liill in the townland of Flenn- 
moro, parish of Xilfergus in Limerick, called 
ivuocknasliuna, signifying the hill of the slates; 
])erj'ynasHng in the parish of Ardcrony in Tip- 
])erary, and Mullaghslin in a detached part of the 
]):irish of Clogherny in Tyrone, the oak-wood 
{(hire) and the summit {mnllach) of the slates. 

Lime. Notwithstanding that lime is so plentiful 
in Ireland, comparatively few places have taken 

374 The Mineral Kingdom. [chap, xx 

tLeii' names from it. Our word for lime is acl, 
and it appears in at least one name preserved in 
tlie annals. The Four Masters twiee mention a 
^IsLce caWed Aelmliagh, i.e. lime-plain; but the name 
is now obsolete. O'Dugan in one place (p. 94) calls 
Kilkenny by the appropriate name, Oill-C/iaiimigh 
na clock n-iioil, Kilkenny of the limestones. 

In an}>licised names the word usually appears 
as a termination in the form of ccl. iJawnaneel 
in the parish of Kilmeen, west of Kanturk in Cork, 
represents the Irish Bdn-an-aeil, the lea-iield of 
the lime. Near Trim in Meath there is a place 
called Cloncarneel (or Carnisle, as it is often called), 
the clon or meadow of the limestone earn ; Toneel 
in the of Boho in Fermanagh, the bottom- 
land (toil) of the lime ; Knockananeel in (he parish 
of Orosslioyne in Mayo, Oiiocan-dn-aci/, little lime- 
stone hill. 

Gravel. Grean [gran] is often used to signify 
land in general ; but it is more usually restricted 
to mean gravel, and occasionally the gravelly bed 
of a stream. This word sometimes gets confound- 
ed in anglicised names with grian, the sun, and 
with gran, grain; but when the Ii'ish pronuncia- 
tion can be heard it is always sufficient to distin- 
guish them ; for grean is sounded short [gran], 
and the other two long [green, graan]. 

From this Avord a considerable number of names 
are derived. There is a stream flowing into the 
Maigiie, near Adaro inl-iimerick, called the Orean- 
agh, which is the adjective form with the postfix 
(ich (p. W), signifying gravelly stream ; and some 
town lauds in Galway and Disrry are called Gran- 
nagh and Granagh — gravelly place. AVith the 
oblique inflexion this same word gives name to 
Granny, which occurs in each of the three counties, 
Kilkenny, Derry, and Eoscommon ; and this name 

CHAP. XX.] The Mineral Kingdom. 375 

is modified to Granig, near Tracton, soutli of Coi'k 
harl>our, in accordance wifli the custom of pro- 
nouncing- til ^ final g prevalent in Cork and Kerry, 
Tlio diminutive Qranaglian (on the adjective form 
(/rrtnnrch) \h the n;nno of many other townlands, 
and has the panic meaning as the j^reccding. 

The English gravel is sometimes transferred into 
the Irish; it is spelled gairbh^al — pronounced 
gravale — and has given name to Gravale, a high 
mountain near Sailygap in Wicklow. 

ISnnd. There are several Irish words for sand, 
of which the one most generall}'- used is gaincamh 
[gannav]. Tlie simple word gives name to Ganniv 
in Cork, to Gannew in Donegal, and to Gannow 
inGalway. From the adjective gainmJieach, sandy, 
are derived Gannavagh in Leitrim, Gannaway 
near Donaghadee in Down (Gannagh, Inq.), and 
Gannoughs (sandy places) in Galway ; while the 
diminutives are seen in Gannavane in Limerick, 
and Gannaveen in Galway. Pollaginnive in Fer- 
managli signilies <ho sandpit {poll, a hole) ; Clon- 
ganny in AVcxford, sand ycloon or meadow ; and 
on tiie shore near ]5angor in Down, is a place 
called Glenganagh, the glen of the sand. 

Jewels, Pearls. The Irish term sed (shade) 
old form ,<?^^ — was anciently used to denote a mea- 
sure of value. According to Cormac's Glossary 
there wore several kinds of sets ; but they were 
nil understood to be cattle of the cow kind. The 
word was most conimonly applied either fo a three- 
year-old heifer, or to a milch cow ; but sometimes 
it was used to designate property or chattels of 
any kind. 

This word had also a somewhat more specific 
meaning ; for it denoted a pearl, a precious stone, 
or a gem of any kind ; thus Con O'Neill, who was 
killed in 1493, is designated by the Four Masters, 

37G Tlic Mineral Kingdom. [chap. xx. 

in recording his cleatb, " tlio bestower of scih and 
riches," and O'Douovaa here translates sech by 
jewels. This latter is the sense in which the word 
is now, and has been for a long time, understood ; 
and this is the meaning with which I am con- 
cerned here. 

Several Irish rivers were formerly celebrated for 
their pearls ; and in many the pearl nuiscle is found 
to this day. Solomon Richards, an Englishman, 
who wrote a description of Wexford about (he 
year 1G56, speaking of the Slaney, says, " It 
ought to precede all the rivers in Ireland for its 
pearle fishing, which though not abundant are yet 
excellent, for muscles are daily taken out of itt 
about fowre, five, and six inches long, in which 
are often found pcarlcs, for lustre, magnitude, 
and rotundily, not inferior to oriental or any 
other in the world. They have lately been sold 
by a merchant that dined this day with me for 
208, 30s, 40s, and three pound a pearle, to 
goldsmiths and jewellers in London." (Kilk. 
Arch. Jour.— 1862-3, p. 91). O'Flahcrty states 
that in the Fuogh river or Owenriff, flowing by 
Oughterard in Gal way, " muscles are found that 
breed pearles," and to this day they are often 
found in the same river. In Harris's Ware it is 
stated that pearls are found in the fresli water 
muscles of the Bann, and in those of several of 
the streams of Tyrone, Donegal, and elsewhere. 
He tells us that a present of an Irish pearl was 
made to Anselm, archbishop of Cantcuhm-y, by 
Gillebert, bishop of liinioiick, about 101)1*. In 
Kerry also, he remarks that several other precious 
stones are found, namely, Kerry diamonds, 
amethysts, topazes, emeralds, and sapphires of 
good quality. Many of the streams of Donegal 
produce the pearl muscle in which pearls are of ten 

CHAP. XX.] The Mineral Kingdom, 377 

foimd (see Dub. Pen. Jour, I., 389) ; and the 
snnie niny be siiid of strciuns in several other parts 
of Ircltnul. 

The word .sf'*/ designates all such precions stones ; 
and IVoni Avhat T haAo ahcady said no one will be 
surprised to find that this term is often found 
forming a part of local names. When it occurs 
in names it is not easy to determine in each case 
the precise sense in which it is used ; sometimes 
it indicated no doubt that pearls or other gems 
were found in the respective places ; it may have 
been occasionally applied to cattle ; while in other 
cases, the njiines probabl}^ mark places whore 
hordes of valiuibles of some kind were kept. 

The old name of Baltimore on the south-coast 
of Cork was Dun-na-std (Annals of Innisfallen), 
the fortress of the jewels ; but the name was 
originally applied to a circular fort on a high rock, 
the site of which is now occupied by the ruins of 
O'Dn'scoU's ciislle, to which tho name is slill a])- 
j)lied. 1 will not venluro any conjecture as to 
why the old fortress got the name of Diin-ua-^r<I. 

\V\\\\ r(>g;ud io the present name, we are told in 
the topographical Dictionaries of Seward and 
Lewis, that the place was called JBeal-ti-mor, the 
great habitation of Beal, because it was one of 
the principal seats of the idolatrous worship of 
Baal. But for this silly statement there is not a 
particle of authority. The name is written in 
several old Anglolrish documents, Baliniimorc, 
which accords exactly with the present Irish 
pronunciation ; the correct Irish forni is Bai/e-rni- 
iigh-mhoir, which means merely the town of the 
large house ; and it derived this name no doubt 
from the castle of the O'Driscolls, already 
spoken of. 

The word sed appears in Cloghnashade, the 

378 The Mineral Kingdom. [chap. xx. 

stono of llio jewels, now ilio uaiuc! of a iownlniul 
and of a small lake in llosconnnon, two miles 
east of Mount Talbot. Tlicy have a legend in 
ISfunster, tluit at tlie bottom of the lower lake of 
Ivillarney there is a diamond of priceless value ; 
which sometimes shines so brightly that on certain 
nights the light bursts forth with dazzling brilli- 
ancy through the dark waters. I'erliajjs some 
such legend gave name to Loughnashade (lake of 
the jewels), a small lake four miles north-east of 
Philipstown in King's County ; to Louglmashade, 
a lakelet two miles west of Armagh ; and to a 
third lake of the same name, a mile from Drura- 
shanibo, just where the Sliainion issues from 
Lough Allen. 

Tho road from Tjismore to Cloghocn over the 
splendid pass of Knockmcaklowu runs for the 
first six or seven miles of its course — i. e. nearly 
tho whole way to the summit level of the pass — 
along tho bank of the pretty mountain stream, 
the Owennashad, which joins the Blackwater at 
Lismore. Tlie native pronunciation of tlie name 
of tliis river brings out tlio meaniug very cleai'ly 
— Oicennashe^-ad, representing the Gaelic Abli- 
ainn-na-scad, the river of the jewels. 

In the Leahhar B)-eac, or S])eckled Book of the 
Mac Egans, a collection of ancient pieces com- 
piled in the fourteenth century, there is a pretty 
legend to account for the nnme of Loch Fxil Scad, 
one of the lakes on the Qalty mountains. Coer- 
abar, the beautiful daughter of the great Connaught 
fairy queen, Etal, had one hundred and fifty 
maidens in her train, who every alternate year 
were transformed into as many beautiful birds, 
and in the other years had their natural shapes. 
During the time that they lived as birds they 
always remained on Loch Crotta Cliach {Crotfa 

<;hap. XX.] The Mineral Kingdom, 379 

Cliach, the ancient name of the Galty mountains) ; 
and tbey were cliained in couples with chains of 
silver. One of them especially was the most 
l)onntil'Ml l)ird in the whole world ; and she had a 
neckliicn of rod gold on her nock, wi(h three 
tinios lifty clinins suspended from it, cjich chain 
terminating in a ball of gold. So the people who 
saw the birds every diiy, oallod Ihc lake Loch B<H 
8e(«l, the lake with the jewel mouth, from the 
gold and silver and gems that glittered on the 
bi'vds. (O'Curry : Lect. on MS. Materials, 426). 
This Inke has long lost its old name, and it is now 
called Ijough IMuskry, from the old territory of 
MuscrtiigJie Chuirc in which it is situated. 

Yoiy curiously tliere is a lake of this name, 
now Lough Belshade, at the eastern base of the 
Croaghgorm or Bluestack mountains, about six 
miles north east of the town of Donegal. Here 
the people have a legend in connexion with the 
name. At the bottom of the lake is a castle, in 
which is a casket of jewels of priceless value, 
guarded by an enormous demon cat : and in the 
dungeons of the castle many persons have been 
for ages held captive by the spells of an enchanter. 
r>ut at some future time a descendant of the 
!Mac Swynes of Doe Castle is to come to the edge 
of the lake, bringing a black pig, which he will 
kill and roast on a rock. The hungry demon cat, 
allured from his post by the savoury smell of the 
roasting pork, abandons his post and comes forth 
from the lake ; and while he is devouring the pig, 
Mac Swyne suddenly falls on him and slays him. 
This breaks the spell : the lake dries up, the 
castle stands forth as it stood ages ago, and the 
captives are all set free. 

380 The Surface of the Land. [chap. xxi. 



Tahunh [tallav] siguillos ilio cartli or land, cor- 
re.S])onding- witli Lat. tellus. It is not often found 
in local use, and a few names will l)o sufliciont to 
illuatrato it. A short diatanco north of Killary 
harbour, there is a little island near the coast, 
called Tallavbaun, wliich signifies whitish land. 
Tallavnainralier is the name of a townland in the 
parish of Kilbegnet in Galway — Talamh-na- 
■inhrathar, the land of the friars. It sometimes 
takes the form of tallow, as in Tallowroe in the 
parish of Xilleeneen in Galway, red land ; Shan- 
tallow and Shantalliv, the names of several places, 
old land, which were probably so called because 
they had been long cultivated, while the surround- 
ing district remained waste. The genitive form is 
tahnhan, the pronunciation of which is exhibited 
in Buntalloon neai' Tralee, a name which exactly 
corresponds in meaning with " Finisterre " and 
" Land's End." 

Feara)ii>, land, ground, a countr3^ In its topo- 
graphical use it is applied to a particular portion 
of land or territory. It is widely disseminated as 
a local term ; and in the anglicised form Farran it 
constitutes or begins the names of about 180 
townlauds. Farranagalliagh in Roscommon must 
have formerly belonged to a nunnery — I'cai-ann-na- 
gcailleach, the land of the nuns. Farrangarve 
near Killashandra in Cavan, rough land ; Farran- 
tomple in Kilkenny and ])erry, the land of the 
church ; Farranatouke, near Kinsale, the land of 
the hawk. 

A great many of the denominations beginning 
■yiiilLfearann have the latter part formed of a per- 

CHAP. XXI.] The Surface of the Land. 381 

sonal or family name, commemorating former pos- 
sessors. Thus Farranrory in Tipperary is Rudh- 
raidhc's or Ivory's land ; Farranydaly in Cavan, 
O'Dalys land ; Fnrranf^arodo in Sligo, and Farran- 
{^iiircl'in Walorlord, hotli Bif>nifying tiarrot/sland. 

NVIu'ii MiiM ^vo^d J'orniH llio end ol' a nnin(>, il; 
often loses (lio/by aspiration, as in llio conuiion 
lownland names Lalianin and Lalianun, wliicli 
represent Lcaih-fhearan)i,\xa\i land — a name applied 
to one half of a townland, which for some reason 
liad been divided in two. Raheenarran in Kil- 
kenny, the little rath or fort of the land or farm. 

D'r is the common Gaelic word for land — land 
as distingnislicd from sea, or from water : cognate 
with Lat. terra. The syllable tir begins about 130 
townland names, and teer and tier about 50 others, 
in nearly all of which they mean land, in the 
sense of district : but in a very few cases the ti 
represents tigh, a house. Beyond those names the 
word does not enter extensively into local nomen- 

Tirargus near Kilmacrenan in Donegal is in 
Gaelic Tir-Flicarghnis, Fergus's land; butTirfei-giis 
neai- Katlilriland is a dillerent jianie, if one may 
judge from the local pronunciation of some old 
peo])le, whicli makes it Tirfergagh, Fergagh's 
liind, corrupted to Firfergus. Tiiboy near Tuani 
in Galway, yellow hind. Tirnageeragh in Derry, 
the land of the sheep. 

Tlie word Teer, i. e. district, is the name of 
four towulands in Armagh, Fermanagh, Monagh- 
an, and Kerry. Teernacreeve in the parish of 
Moycashel in AVestmeath, is called in the Martyr- 
ology of Donegal Tir-da-chraebh, the district of 
the two branches. The Danes we know had a 
settlement at Creadeu Head in Waterford, and it 
was evidently from them that the modern name 

382 The Surface of the LancL [chap. xxi. 

of the barony is" derived — Gaultiere, i.e. the land 
of the Galls or foreigners. 

Fod [fode] means a sod, soil, or land. In its 
topographical application it is comnioidy used to 
designate a spot, which, compared with the sur- 
rounding land, has a remarkably smooth, grassy 
surface. In many cases, however, it is undei'stood 
to mean merely the grassy surface of the land. 

As a part of names, this word usually comes in 
as a termination ; but the / almost always disap- 
pears either by aspiration or eclipse. The aspirated 
form is seen in Moyode, three miles from Athenry 
in Galway ; Magh-fhoid, the field of the (grassy 
surface or) sod; in Castlonodo, a milo from 
Strokestown in lloscommon, the castle of the green 
sod ; and in Bellanode, which was once the name 
of a fold on the IHackwater river, tliree miles from 
the town of Monaghan, a name shortened from 
Bel-atJia-an-flmd, the ford-mouth of the sod. The 
fine modern mansion, Cloghanodfoy Castle, stands 
three miles south of Kilfinane in Limerick. The 
name, which was derived from a peculiarity in 
colour of the suifaco of the land, was originally 
applied to the stronghold of the Fitzharrises which 
stood a little to the west of the present mansion : 
Cloch-an-fhoid-bhuidhe, the stone castle of the 
yellow sod. 

The termination ode or node (the n belongs to 
the article) is almost always to be interpreted as in 
the preceding names. The word takes other 
slightly diiferent forms, as in Lisoid, near Ard 
glass in Down, which is t]\e same name as Lissan- 
ode, near IJallymore in \V"eslmoath {lion, a fort). 

When the/ is eclipsed it forms the termination 
vode, the use and interpretation of which is seen 
in MuUannavode, near St. Mullins in Carlow, 
Mulldn-na-hhj6d, the green field of the sods, i. e. 

CHAP. xxT.] The Surface of the Land. 383 

of the remarkably grassy surface ; and Slievena- 
vode near the Wooden Bridge Hotel in Wicklow 
(slinbh, a mountain), a name given, I si.ppose, to 
indicate that the sides of the mountain were 
covered Avith green palclica. 

The diminutive h"'odccn — liille sod or sod- 
covered surface — is the name of a townland near 
Tara in Mcath ; and the phiral, Fodeeus, is found 
near the village of Kill in Kildare ; while with 
the adjective terminal ion, we have Podagli in 
Wexford, a soddy place, i. e. a place with a very 
grassy surface. 

Lea land. Ban [bawn] is applied in various 
parts of Ireland, especially in the Munster 
counties, to denote a green field or lea land — until- 
Icd or uncropped grass-land. It is often anglicised 
baicn, which forms or begins the names of a great 
many places. Bawnanatlin near Thurles signifies 
the field of the furze (aifcann) ; Bawnluskaha 
near Castlcisland, Jhin-Ioispifhe, burnt field, i. e. 
Mi(i surface burned for ngriculturnl purposes: 
JJawnnahow near Dromaleague in Cork, the field 
of the river (ahha). 

As bawn is also the modern form of hadhun, the 
enclosure near a castle (for which see 1st. Vol., 
Part III. c. I.) some caution is necessary before 
one pronounces on the signification of this angli- 
cised word bawn. 

Ban assumes in combination other forms, whose 
meanings are scarcely liable to be mistaken ; for 
example, Ballinvana near Kilraallock in Limerick 
signifies the town of the field [b changed to v by 
aspiration) ; Tinvane near Carrick-on-Suir, and 
Tinvaun in Kilkenny, both anglicised from Tigh- 
an-bhuin, the house of the field. 

Tliere are several dimiimtivcs of this word. One 
bdnoj (little lea field), gives name to all those 

384 The Surjaco of the Land. [chap. xxi. 

places now called Buiioge, l^awnogc, and Bawnoo-es. 
The word has been disguised by cornipliou in 
Banuixtowu near Fethard in Tipperary, which 
ought to have been anglicised Banogestown ; for 
the Irish name is l^aila-na-tnhdnog, the town of 
the hanoges or little lea fields ; Barrananianoge 
near Lisniore in Waterford, has a name with 
a similar formation — the harr or summit of tho 
little bawns. Another diminutive is seen in 
Cranavaneen in Tipperary, the crann or tree of 
the field : and still another in Baunteen near 
Galbally in Limerick, which as it stands means 
little lea field. 

The plural of this word is hcinta [baimla] which 
is seen in J]a\vntamecna near Thurles, smooth 
green fields [min, smooth) ; and in Bawntard near 
T\iliuall(H'.k in liiiueri(;lc, Znn//r/-^<r(/a, high iiehls ; 
while uncompounded it gives name to several 
places now called Baunta. 

Sivard. Scrnth [scraw] signifies a sod, a sward, 
a grassy surface. The word is still ciirient in the 
south of Ireland among people who no longer 
speak Irish ; and they apply the term scrairs, and 
the diminutive scrawhoycs, to the fiat sods of the 
grassy and heathery surface of boggy land, cut 
with a spade and dried for burning. There is a 
hill one mile south of Newtownards, called Scrabo, 
the name of which signifies the sward of the cows ; 
on this hill lived John Mac Ananty^ the northern 
fairy king, who is still remembered there in 
popular superstition ; and the old earn, in the 
interior of which he kept his court, still stands on 
the summit. Ball3aiascraw and Ballynascragh in 
Longford and Gal way, the town of the scraivs or 
swards. The diminutive scmthan (little sward) is 
more common than the original ; it takes the forms 
Scr.ihan and Scrahane, which with the plural 

/;hap. XXI. J The Surface of the Land. 386 

Scrahaus, forms the whole or part of the names of 
several townlands hi Cork, Kerry, and "Waterford, 

Shelf. Fachair [f aher] shelving land ; a shelf- 
like level spot in a hill, or in the face of a cliff : 
used in this sense in Donegal and Mayo. I have 
heard it in Kerry and Cork, and it gives name to 
places in various counties. In Donegal and other 
counties there are several townlands called Fau- 
gher — meaning in all cases a shelf or a shelving 
hill side. There is a place called Faugher near 
Stradhally in AYaterford ; a high cliff on the north 
side of Valentia Island is called Fogher ; and 
Faher is the name of a mountain north-west of 
Kcnmaro. Knocknafaughcr near Dunfanaghy in 
Donegal, the liill of tlio shelf. 

Scumhal [skool] signifies a precipice, a sharp 
slope, a steep hill. It gives name to several places 
now called 8cool, Seoul, and Skool. The Four 
Masters mention a place in the county Clare, as the 
site of a battle fought between two parties of the 
O'JJricns in 15G2, called Cnoe-an-scamhail, which 
is now called in Irish Cnoc-an-scumhail, the hill of 
the prcci])ice ; it is situated about two miles south- 
west from Coroiin, and the name is anglicised 
Scool Hill. There is a place a little north of 
Knockainy in Limerick called Ballinscoola (with 
a different inflexion for the genitive), the town of 
the precipice ; and another place called Drumskool 
near Irvinestown in Fermanagh, the ridge of the 

Pass. The word c^ini [caim], which literally 
means a step, is often applied topographically to a 
narrow pass or roadway between rocks or hills. 
In this sense it has given name to Caim near 
Eimiscorthy in Wexford and to Keam in the 
])arish of 0'I?rennan in Kerry, north-east of 
Trnlco. There is a very high mountain called 
VOL. II. 26 

388 The Surface of the Land, [oiiav. x\i. 

Camaderry rising over the north eifle of Olonda- 
lougli in Wicklow, which haa taken its name from 
a pass at its base: — C&im-a' -doire, the pass of the 
deny or oak- grove. 

This word, as used in local names, is often 
joined with cos to form the compound cois-ceiyn, 
meaning literally foot-stop, hnt still applied to a 
narrow road or pass. This term has given name 
to the hamlet of Kishkeam in the parish of Kil- 
meen in Cork ; to Cushcam near Dmigarvan in 
Waterford; and to the river Kishkeam which 
joins the Feale in its upper course near the meeting 
point of Cork, Kerry, and Limerick. South-east 
of the Twelve Pins in Galway there is a lake 
called Cushkeamatinny, the step or pass of the 
fox (sionnach: see Coolashinny in 1st Vol.). 

Alp, a mass. The Gaelic word alp or ai/p sigi- 
fies a mass or lump : one of its diminutives, 
ailpin, is in familiar use among the English- 
speaking people of Ireland, who call a stick, or 
ihillelah, with a knob on the lower end, an alpeen 
or clclialpeen {death, a wattle : see Dublin in 1st 
Vol.) : a ckhalpcen is the most improved form of 
stick for fighting. We have just one mountain 
in all Ireland whose name is derived from this 
word alpy namely, Sllevo Al[) in tlie barony of 
Erris in Mayo, about six miles inland from Jilack- 
8od Bay. Whether the name of our Alp is the 
same Celtic word as the name of the great Alps is 
a question outside my province. 

Round holloiv. Cron is a very uncertain term 
to deal Avith ; for it has several meanings, and it is 
often very hard to know the exact sense in which 
it is applied. In Wicklow and Carlo w and the 
adjoining districts, the people — when Irish was 
spoken — often applied it to a round basin-like 
hollow. Orone itself is the name of several places 

CHAP. xxT.] The Surface of the Land. 887 

in Wicklow ; Cronebane near the "Wooden Bridge 
Hotel, is well known for its copper mines, and 
Cronroe near Eatbuew, for the beauty of its 
scenery; tbe former signifies white, and the latter 
red, hollow. Cronybyrne near llatlidvum signifies 
O'Jiyrne's hollow (// representing ; see p. 137); 
and the place is still in possession of an 0'J3yrne. 

In some of the eastern counties — especially in 
Dublin — they apply the word slctd or slade to a 
stream running in a mountain valley or between 
two hills. I know a little stream near Kilbride 
in Wicklow — near the source of tlio LilTey — 
called Slaudnabrack, the stream of the trouts : and 
one of tbo chiol" tributaries of the Dodder, attho 
head of Glciinasmolo,is called SladeBrook. There 
is also the Slade of Saggart, a beautiful mountain 
pass, near the village of Saggart in Dublin. 

Sandba?ik. Dumhach is used on some parts of 
the coast to signify a sandbank ; bnt it is very 
difiicult to separate the word from dtimha, a grave 
mound, and from other terms approaching it in 
sound. A very excellent example of its application 
is seen in Dough Castle near Lehinch in Clare, 
which the Four Masters, when recording the 
deatb there in 1422 of Rory O'Connor, lord of 
Corcomroe, call Caiden-na-diimhcha, the castle of 
the sandbank ; and it was most aptly so called, for 
it is built on a large mound altogether formed of 
sea sand. There are other places in Clare also 
called Dough, while another form of the name, 
Doagh, is common in several of the northern 

The word hcartrach means a sandbank ; and in a 
secondary sense it is often applied in the west of 
IrelnTid to an oyster bank. A very characteristic 
e\nui|>h> of i(a ns(^ is I'onud iti Ww iiaTiu^ oT \\\G 
little island of Bartrngh at the mouth of the Moy^ 

■388 Quagmires and Wafenj Places, [chap. xxii. 

near Killala, which is remarkably sandy — in fact 
formed altogether of sand thrown up by the 
meeting of the tide and river currents. The point 
of land jutting into Clew Bay, opposite Murrisk 
Abbey, at tlio base of Croagli Patrick, is called 
Bartraw. There is a well-known sea inlet in 
Connonuira calbnl Bortraghboj'^, which must have 
received its name from some point on its shore, 
for it means yellow eandbauk. 



In the sixth chapter of Part IV. of the First 
Volume, I have treated of several terms which 
designate marshes, and have given many names 
derived from them. But besides these there 
are various words denoting swamps, quagmires, 
sloughs, puddles, and watery places of all kinds ; 
and these I now propose to enumerate and illus- 
trate. And here it is necessary to reiterate a 
remark made in the beginning of the fore- 
mentioned chapter : — that while many places that 
derived their names in distant ages from their 
marshiness are still as marshy as ever, others — and 
perhaps the greater number — have been drained, 
and the names are no longer correctly descriptive 
of physical character. 

The Four Masters, when mentioning the place 
now called Bellaugh near Athlone, call it Lathach, 
which signifies mud, a slough, a puddle, a miry 
spot i anu this woru gives name to a good many 

CHAP. xxTT.] Quogmires and Watery Places. 1389 

places. It is seen in its simple form in Laliagh, 
east of Templemoro in Tipperary, in Lagliey near 
Dunoannon in Tyrone, and in Laghy in Donegal; 
wliilc we have Jjagliagli glass, green slough, in 
Giilwjiy. As a ioriniiuUion it usually takes somo 
such i'orm as lahy, as in Moualaliy, north of 
lUarnoy in Cork, the main or bog of the puddle; 
Gortnalaliee in the same county, and Gortnalahagh 
near Castleconnell in Limerick, both signifying 
the field of the miry place. The diminutive, 
Laheen (little slough), is also the name of several 
places in Cavan, Donegal, and Leitrim. 

Ahar signifies generally a mire or puddle — 
sometimes a mire caused by the trampling of caf tie 
in a wet place ; and occasionally it is understood to 
mean a boggy or marshy piece of land. The word 
is interesting, inasmuch as it may be — and indeed 
has been — questioned whether it is not the same as 
the Welsh aher, a river mouth, corresponding with 
our word inhher. I do not believe that it is, for I 
think it quilc^ imj)robal)le that avo should have, 
running ])arallol in the IrisJi language, two dif- 
ferent words corresponding wilh the Welsh aher, 
unless we got one of them by borrowing from the 
Welsh, which I think equally unlikely. It is 
found forming a part of names chiefly in Donegal, 
and occasionally in the adjoining counties. 

There is a place near Kilmacrenan called Bally- 
buninabber, whose name signifies the town of the 
bun or cud of the mire. A muddy little stream in 
the parish of Innishkeel in the same county, is 
called Abberachrinn, i. e. (the river of) the miry 
place of the crann or tree. Somelimes it becomes 
ubber, as in Buninubber near the north-eastern 
shore of Lower Lough Erne, the same name as 
Bminynubbor near Omagh, the bun, end. or 
bottom, of the miie, 

390 Quagmires and Watery JPIaces. [chap. xxii. 

The word salach is nppliod to anylliino- unclean 
or filthy, aud htis several shades of meauiug ; but 
topographically it is applied to a mere dirty 
place — a ])lacc of puddle or mire. It often takes 
tho form of alough and tilayh in aiigliinsed names, 
as we see in Ciirraghslagh near (Jlogheen in Tip- 
perary, the iWriy cur raij It orniiirsh — a name which 
lakes the form of Curraghsallagh in lloscommon. 
(So also in Crannslough in Tyrone, dirty tree, 
which I suppose took its name from a tree growing 
in a miry spot. 

The meaning of the anglicised termination sal- 
lagh is however, often douhtful ; for the Irish 
word sailcucJt, a place of sallows, ol'lcn assnmes 
this very form ; and here, as in all such cases, we 
must be guided by the local pronunciation or tra- 
dition, or by the original Irish spelling, if we can 
come at it. It would be impossible to tell what 
Kilsallagh means as it stands ; for kil might be 
either wood or church {colli or cill), and aallagh 
either a dirty place or an osier plantation. But 
the Four Masters when they mention Kilsallagh 
near Ardagh in Longford, clear up the doubt, so 
far as that place is concerned, for they call it 
Caill-salacli, miry wood. And it is pretty certain 
that this is the ijiterpretation of all the other Kil- 
sallaghs, of which there are eight in different 
parts of the country ; in several of them, indeed, I 
know that this is tho popular exj)lanation. All 
these places called liathsallagh nuist have taken 
tluiir name from a rufli or fort suri-oimded 
by a miry ditch ; for evt^ry where the traditional 
translation is dirty fort, with Avhich the local pro- 
nunciation agrees. Ardsallagh is the name of 
several places, including a parish in Meath : but it 
would not be safe to give a general translation : 

(iHAr. XN,[i.] Qnngmhra and Watery Places. ^91 

all that can be said liere is that it ineaus either 
iniry licight or the height of sallows. 

l^'roin \\\e word crith [crih], to shake, several 
(onus arc derived, wliicli are applied to morasses 
ol' (liat kind wln'ch ilie peasaidry call " shaking 
bogs." With the addition of the postfix lach (p. 
5) it gives name to Creelogh in Gorumna Island in 
Galway, to Creelagh near Rathdowney in Queen's 
County, and to Crylough in the parish of Bally- 
more in AVexford — all meaning a shaking-bog. 
In the oblique form we have the same word in 
(Jrilly, the name of some places in Donegal and 
Tyrone ; and in the latter coimty, near Dungan- 
non, there is a small lake called Lough Nacrilly, 
the lake of the morass. 

Another derivative of the word, with still the 
same meaning, is crithledn, which gives name to 
Crillan near Kesh in Fermanagh, and to Crillaun 
in Mayo ; Loughcrillan in the parish of Inishkeel 
in Donegal, ilu^ lake of the shaking-bog. Wi(h 
tlio diminutive termination an, followed by ach 
(see pp. '^, 20, .^upra) we have Crehauagli, the 
name of a townland near Oarrick-on->Snir, wliich, 
though now for the most part good dry land, was 
such a dangerous quagmire a little more than a 
century ago, that the people thought it was only a 
miracle that enabled a fugitive to cross it, when 
escaping from a troop of dragoons. 

Criaf/iar [crihar] signifies a sieve [criathar, 
cribrum, Z. 10(5), and it is derived from crith, to 
shake (by the addition of r ; see p. 12), in allusion 
to the manner in which a sieve is used. This word 
is also applied, chiefly in the north and west of 
Ireland to boggy or swampy places, or to broken 
land intermixed with quagmires and brushwood, 
either on account of their being cut up with 
holes or pits (like a sieve) or from shaking 
under the foot. There is a place called Creehar- 

392 Qaayiiiires and Watery Places, [chai'. xxii. 

more (great sieve) on <lie Ixoscoiuinoii sidi^ of 
the Suck a little below Mount Talbot. Unnuin- 
acrebir in the parish of Colunikille in Long- 
ford, is the little ridge of the sieve ; but this 
was probably so called because the people used 
to winnow corn on it. It is generally not cria- 
thar itself however that is us(hI, but a derivative 
from it. The Four Masters (at a.d. 149G) desig- 
nate a morass by criathrach (suffix ach, p. 3) ; 
and Mac Firbis (Hy F., p. 202) mentions " the 
three townlands of Criathrach ;" this name is still 
retained by the natives when they speak Irish, 
but the place, which is situated one mile from 
Ihillinrobe, is called in l<]nglisli Iho "Dcniusno 
of Creagh" In Mayo and Tipperary there are 
places called Crecragli, which is a covicfct an- 
glicised form of criathrach. The diminutive gives 
name to Creeran in Monaghan, and Creeraun in 
Galway. Macreary in the parish of Kilmurry in 
Tipperary, the plain of the sliaking-bog. 

According to Cormac's Glossary, tlio primary 
meaning of much is smoke: — " Miich, i.e. the 
name proper for smoke : unde dicitur niuchad (to 
smother)." From this word much, in its secondary 
sense of " to suffocate or smother," is derived 
the diminutive muchdn, which is applied to a 
morass, probably from some fanciful notion that 
in such place men or boasts are liable to be 
suffocated. There is a little lake on the railway 
line, two miles from Newmarket-on-Fergus in 
Clare, called Mooghaun Lough, in wliich great 
quantities of gold anticjm'lies were found in 1854; 
and this name very well represents the sound of 
the original Irish, ^lie same word gives name to 
places now called Moohane in Kerry and Limerick. 
Knockamoohane near Listowel in Kerry, the hill 
of the quagmire ; Ourraghmoghaun in the parish 

CHAP. xxTi.] Quagmires and Watery Places. 393 

of Clooney in Clare, the smothered curragh or 

Greach is a moimtain flat, a level moory place, 
much the same as a reidh, explained in the First 
Volume. It is very common as an clement in 
(ownland designations in tlie counties of Oavan, 
Leitrim, Roscommon, INIonaghan, and Fermanagh; 
and it is found also, but less frequently, in some 
of the counties bordering on these. Greagh, the 
usual anglicised form, is the name of several 
places ; Greaghawillin in Monaghan, the moun- 
tain flat of the mill ; Greaghnagleragh in Ferman- 
agh, of the clergy {dcircacJi) ; Greaghnagee in 
Caviin, of iho wind (garfh). 

The word min'i/g signiflcs, according to O' Dono- 
van (App. to CR. Diet, m voce), "a sedgy morass, 
a flow-bog or shaking-bog." I think there can 
be no doubt that this word is merely an oblique 
case of JHong, long hair (p. 340) ; and this opinion 
is strengtlieuod hy iho fact ihntmnirig is also used 
to (loMote a horse's iii!MU\ From this it will ap- 
pear that the places whose names are derived from 
mning were so called in the first instance from the 
long mane-like sedgy grass they produced ; exactly 
like those from mong, gruag, &c. (pp. 340, 341, 
supra) . 

This word, as a local appellative, is almost con- 
fined to the south and west of Ireland. In the 
beginning of names it is usually made Muing and 
Moyng, wliich are themselves the names of some 
townlnnds ; Muingnaminnane east of Tralee, the 
sedge of tlic Idds ; Muingbaun in Galway, white 
sedge ; Muingatogher in Mayo, the muing of the 
togher or causeway. 

In the end of words — as a genitive — it assumes 
several forms, all easily recognisable. C^oolmuinga 
lu'nr Kilrush in Clare, the cnl or back of the 

304 Qiiafftrures and Wafcri/ Places, [chat. xxii. 

morass; and witli tlio eamo rorni, IJaiiunimiugn, 
near ISliillolugb in tlio souUi of Wicklow, tliu aanio 
as Barrawinga near Buthdowney in Queen's 
County {barr, the top). The m becomes aspirated 
in this last name, as well as in Dorryviing in the 
parish of Kiltullagh in Itoscommon {derri/, oak- 
grove), a well-known morass, which is accessihle 
only on one side; ajso in Jiallinwing north-east 
of Carrick-on- Shannon, and Moauwing near E,ath- 
keale in Limerick, the townland and the bog, of 
the sedgy morass. 

Cladach or clodach, a word in general use along 
the western coast of Ireland, from Donegal to 
Kerry, signifies a flat stony sea-shore — stony as 
distinguished from a traigh or sandy beach. The 
Rev. William Kilbride, in an article on the "Anti- 
quities of Arranmore " (Kilk. Arcli. Juui'., 18(58, p, 
108), states that the people use traigh to designate 
that part of the beach between high and low water 
mark ; the cladach lies above the traigh, and the 
dnirling higher still ; and O'Donovan makes much 
the same statement (Appendix to O'H. Diet., voce, 
cladach) — designating cladach as " a flat stony 
shore." The best known example of the use of 
this word is the Claddagh, a suburb of Galway, 
now inhabited chiefly by fisherme)i. But it un- 
dergoes several modifications of pronunciation, 
as if written in Irish cladhdach, claodach, and 
claoideach [clydagh, claydagh, clecdagli] ; and in 
its signification it is also varied. In one or all 
of these various forms it is known over Ireland ; 
and inland it is very connnonly applied to a 
muddy or miry place ; to the muddy bank of a 
lake or river ; and to a river with a sluggish 
course, and muddy, miry banks. This last is its 
most usual signification, but it would appear 
that in its application to a river, it sometimes 

CHAP. XXII.] Quagmires and Wafery Phces. 395 

carries with it the meaning attached to it along 
the western coast — a stony water margin — for I 
know some rivers to which it gives name, in no 
degree muddy or shiggish — mountain torrents 
railiei-, liaving their beds strewn Avi(h stones 
brought down from the gknis in which they rise. 

This twofold meaning corresponds with the 
explanation of the word given in Peter O'Connell's 
Dictionary: — "Cladach, the sea-shore or strand; 
dirt, filth, slime, puddle."' "Which of these two 
meanings the word bears must be determined in 
each casi> by local knowledge. 

There are numbers of rivers all over Ireland, 
whose names arc formed from this word ; and in 
many cases they have, in their turn, given names 
to townlands, villages, and parishes. The village 
of Clady lies on the Tyrone side of the Finn, four 
miles from Strabane ; there are several townlands 
of the same name in Tyrone, Antrim, and Armagh; 
Clydag] lis equally common in some of the western 
and soutlun-n counties ; and there is a parish in 
Queen's County called Cloj^dagh. Clodagh occurs 
several times in Kerry ; near Killarncy we find 
the word in the form of Cleedagh ; and in another 
place an r is inserted, making the name Clodragh. 

The little river Clody, flowing from the slopes 
of Mount Leinster into the Slaney, gave the name 
of Bunclody to the pretty village at its mouth [hun, 
a river mouth), which has been lately put aside 
for (lie new name, Newtownbarry. Clcad}'^ is the 
name of a small tributary joining the lioughty a 
littlo above Kentnare; the river Olodiagh runs 
into tho Suir tlirough I'ortlaw and the demesne of 
Curraghmore ; another stream of the same name 
flows by Tullaghmore: and still another runs into 
(licNore three miUis below Inistioge. Tho Olyda 
stream joins the Blackwater near Mallow; the 

396 Quagmires and Watenj Places, [ctiap. xxii 

river Claddagli falls into upper Lough Erne after 
flowing- through the village of Swauliuhar ; 
and Lough Nacung in Donegal pours its surplus 
waters into the Atlantie by the river Clady, oppo- 
site Gola island. 

We have, in a few instances, the authority of 
ancient dcxuiments for tlie orthogra])hy of tliis 
name. Olady in Tyrone iscalhjd (Uaiilcach hy (he 
Four Masters, when they record a battle fought 
there in 784, between the Kinel-Owen and the 
Kinel-Conall ; and the Annals of Ulster, recording 
the same event, write the genitive of the name 
Cloitigi, which points to a nominative from Cloit- 

It will be observed that all these are derived 
from the root clad or cloed, to which the adjectival 
termination ach has generally been added : but 
in one case — Clodragh, already mentioned — the 
termination is rack (see p. 7), all which implies 
that those who gave the names had a distinct per- 
ception that they were building on clad or cloed as 
a foundation. 

Cacdh [quay, kay] signifies a quagmire or marsh 
— occasionally a wet natural trench ; and though 
not in very common use, it occurs in each of the 
four provinces. In Scotland and Ulster and in 
some parts of Ooiinaught, it is still retained with 
its proper meaning by the English-speaking peo- 
ple, in the word qiiaio, Avhich is used for a quag- 
mire. Its several anglicised forms retain fairly 
enough the original pronunciation. One of these 
is exhibited in the name of Kye in the parish of 
Clooncraff in Roscommon. There is a little hill 
near Silvermines in Tipperary, called Keywee, 
Caedh-bhuid/ie, yellow marsh ; and in the same 
county, west of Nenagh, is Bawnakea, the bawn 
or green field of the quaw. In the north of Done- 

CHAP. XXII.] Quagmires and Watery Places. 397 

gal, near the village of Millford, is a little lake 
called Lough Nakey ; in Limerick we have Biinkey, 
the bun or end of the morass. In Dublin it forms 
part of the name of Coolquoy, west of Swords, the 
back [cnl) of tlie quagmire. Key anna about four 
miles east of Limerick city, is merely a plural 
form, and signifies quagmires. 

Feith [feah] is used in some places to designate 
a boggy stream, a stream flowing through a marsh 
or a trench ; in other places a soft, boggy, or 
marshy place : the former is its general signifi- 
cation. Four miles north west of Thurlcs is the 
townland and demesne of Dovea, which is men- 
tioned by the Four Masters, and called by them 
Dubhfcth, black boggy stream or marsh. There is a 
place called Baurnatea in the parish of Shankhill 
in Kilkenny, the top of the marshy stream ; and 
near Lismore in Waterford is Monafehadee, i. e. 
Moin-na-feithe-duihhe, the bog of the black quag- 

Br^an, which signifies putrid, foul, fetid, or 
stinking, is often applied to spots that omit an 
offensive smell. There are various circumstances 
that may originate foul smelling exhalations f lom 
land. One of the indications that led Colonel Hall 
to the discovery of copper mines at Glandore in 
Cork, was the fetid smell emitted from a fire of 
turf cut in a neighbouring bog, which turned out 
to be strongly impregnated with copper; this bog 
M'as known as the "stinking bog" {moin hhrihin) ; 
and the j)cople had it that neither cat nor dog 
could live in the house Avhere the turf Avas burnt.* 
Tliero is a jilaco called Brenter in the parish of 
Inver, east of Killybegs in Donegal, whose name 
is in Irish Br^an-tir, stinking district; and it 

^See MxB. Hall s Irehiud, 1. Hi, 

398 Quagmires and Watery Places, [oiiap. xxii. 

got this name from tlie strong sulphiircous smell 
of a spa which is in the towulund. There was a 
celebrated district of the same name lying north- 
east of Mount Oallan in Clare, which is often 
mentioned in the annals (always as Brentir), but 
I do not know why it was so called. In most 
cases places with names of this kind are swamps, 
pits, or bogs, which emit foul odours from decay- 
ing animal or vegetable matter. 

There ore ten townlands in various counties, 
called Breandrum, stinking ridge. Breanshagh, 
east of Castlemaine in Kerry, and Breansha near 
the town of Tipperary, both mean fetid land ; the 
latter part of each name being merely the termina- 
tion seach (p. 9). The two diminutive terms 
Olanog and Brendg are often applied to small 
streams or inlets of the sea, but in opposite senses. 
The former, which is from glan, clean, is used to 
designate a bright clear little stream, flowing over 
a gravelly bed. There was a stream of this name 
near the castle of Cargins in Galway, which is 
mentioned by the Four Masters as the scene of a 
battle in 1469. Qlan itself was sometimes given 
as a name to wells ; for we read in O'Clery's 
Calendar that, before the time of St. Patrick, 
Donaghmore in Tyrone was called Ros-Qlanda 
(wood of Glan), and that it took this name from a 
well called Glan. The diminutive in an — Glannan 
— which was originally applied to a clear stream, 
is now the name of a townland in the parish of 
Donagh in Monaghun. The other term Brhidg^ 
is, on the contrary, a foul, lazy-llowing, iotid 
stream. The Four J\laHlors mention a \Anv,o called 
Bun-Brenoige, the mouth of the Bronog, in the 
townland of Lissadill near Drumcliff in Sligo. 
The adjective form Breanagh (with the same 
meaning) gives name to a little stream in Kerry, 

CHAP. xxTT.] Quagmires and Watery Places. 899 

joining the Feale in the upper part of its course ; 
and there is a place called Breaey (an oblique 
form of the last name) near Ardagh in Longford. 

'Wq level, soft, meadow-land or holm — often 
SAviuiipy and sometimes innndafed — along the 
banks of a river or lake, is generally called sraih. 
It is a very common term in Irish local names ; 
and it is often greatly disguised by inflection 
and corruption. Its most correct anglicised forms 
are Sra, Srah, and Sragh, which are the names of 
numerous places. But a t usually becomes in- 
serted between the s and the r, in accordance with 
a euphonic law noticed in First Volume (Part I., 
Chap. III.) ; as in Strabane in Tyrone, which took 
its name from the meadow land along the river 
Mourne, and which the Four Masters write Srath- 
hdn, the fair or whitish river-holm. Under the 
influence of this corruption also, the simple word 
becomes Straw iw the names of some townlands in 
Derry. There is a parish in Carlow and another 
in Queen's County, called Straboe, a name which 
signifies srath of the cows. Straness near the 
town of Donegal takes its name from a cataract — 
Srafh-dii-casa, the hohn of the waterfall. 

This word is exhibited as a termination in Bal- 
linastraw, the name of several places in Carlow, 
Wicklow, and Wexford, and in Ballynasrah in 
King's County, both meaning the town, of the 
river-holms. In the end of names, when it is in 
the genitive singular, the s is usually eclipsed by 
t, which considerably disguises the word ; in this 
form it is seen in Mullantra near Kingscourt in 
Cavan, Mul-an-tsra.tha, the hill-top of the srath ; 
and in Corriiitra near Oastleblayney in Monaghan, 
the roimd hill of the river-holm. Ballintra, the 
name of several places, is nstially anglicised from 
Baile-an-tsratha, the town of the srath; but in a 

400 Quacfmires and Watery Places, [chap. xxtt> 

few cases it is differently derived (see Ballintra 
in Ist Vol.). The word is greatly disguised in 
Dowra in the north-west of Cavun, near the 
source of the Shannon, which the people there 
pronounce Datnh-slirath [Daw-ra], i.e. ox-holm — 
the srafh of the oxen (see Devenish, 1st Vol.). 

The word min [nieen] signifies fine or smooth, 
and it has several other shades of meaning 
which need not he noticed here. It is used in 
its proper sense in Clonmeen and Cloonmeen, 
the names of several townlands — Cluaiii-mm, 
smooth meadow ; and in Barmeen near Cushondun 
in Antrim, the smooth barr or hill- top. 

Topographically it is often aj)plicd to a green 
spot, comparatively smooth and fertile, producing 
grass and rushes, on the face of a mountain, or in 
the midst of coarso rugged hilly land. Jt is used 
all over Ireland, hut is far more common in Done- 
gal than in any other part of the country. There 
are upwards of 230 townlands whose names hegin 
with this word, in the anglicised form of meen, 
ahout 150 of which appear in Donegal alone, 36 
in the rest of the Ulster counties, and something 
over 40 in the other three provinces. 

Its application in this sense will he imderstood 
from the following examples. Meeniska near 
Kilheggan in Westmeath signifies the meen of 
the water {uiseje) — a wet mountain meadow ; 
Meenbane near Stranorlar in Donegal, Meenvane 
near Skull in Cork, and Meenwaim near Ban- 
agher in King's County, are all anglicised from 
Mm-bhdti, whitish i\v\d. There are two places 
in Donegal, one of them near Stranorlar, called 
Meenagrauv ; the r here i-epresents n (as croek 
for cnoc : see 1st Vol.), while the g eclipses c ; and 
the full name is Min-na-genamh, the mountain- 
meadow of the bones (cnamh) — a name which 

cTiAP. xxiT.] Quagmires and Wafcry Flaces. 401 

would nppoar to indicate the site of a battle. 
In the i)aiish of Donaghmore in Cork is a place 
called Meenahony ; and there is another place of 
the same name in Donegal, of which the Irish 
form is Mhi-a'-chonnidh, the mountain-fiold of tlie 
lire- wood. 

One of the plural forms of this teiin in its 
present application is mhitc [meenta], which ap- 
pears in Meentanakill near Inver in Donegal, 
and in Meentyflugh in the parish of Kilmeen in 
Cork, the former signifying the meens of the 
church, and the latter wet mountain-fields. A 
diminuti\e form is seen in Meentoges in the 
pnrish of Kilcummin in Kerry, i.e. small green 
spots. (See also p. 416.) 

Lcana means in general a wet or swampy 
meadow — grassy land wilh a soft spongy bottom. 
The word is in use more or less all over Ireland, 
but it is commoner in Ulster than in the other 
provinces. In Dorry it is used to signify any 
gro(Mi Hold, meadow, or pasture land; but its usual 
meaning is the one first given. In its simple form 
it gives nnnio to the parish of Lcny in Wcstmcafh, 
as well as to the townland of Leauy near Corrofin 
in Clare ; and Lenamore, great wet-meadow, is the 
name of many townlands scattered through several 
counties. Near the town of Antrim is a townland 
with the half English name of Quarter Lenagh, 
that is, the wet-meadoAV quarter; and in the parish 
of Aglinamullen in Monaghan, Ave have Tievaleny, 
the hill-side of the meadow ; Moanleana, near 
Newcastle in Limerick, the bog of the wet-mea- 
dow. The plural UantaidJw [leanty] is exhibited 
in Aghalenty near Letterkenny in Donegal, the 
field {achadh) of the wet-meadows. 

In most pints of Irolnnd the people undorstand 
and habitually use the word slug in thf sense of 
VOL. II. 27 

402 Quagmires and Wafery P/accs. [ctiap. :c.\ti. 

ewallowiiig drink — gulping it down quickly and 
greedily. Lever's witty Irisli soldier, Maui'ice 
Quill, used to creep among his comrades in tlie 
heat of battle, holding in his hand a can of ale, 
«nd saying, while he offered each poor fellow a 
drink, "Here, take a slugheiore you get a bullet." 
The Irish form of this word is slog, and it is often 
applied to a swallow hole in a river or lake, that 
is, a deep pool with an open at bottom, from Avhich 
the water escapes as fast as it enters — often with a 
gurgling noise. Such pools often gave names to 
places ; and the word slog assmnes various angli- 
cised forms, which are, however, seldom so far 
removed from the original us to bo diiUculfc of re- 

Lough (Slug — the lako with thoswnllow — is the 
name of several small lakes in Donogul. A com- 
mon derivative is slogaire [sluggeraj, literally a 
swallower, i. e. topographically a swullow-hole, 
which gives name to Sluggara near Cappoquin in 
"Waterford, to Sluggary south-west of Limerick 
city, and to several other places. The « is eclip- 
sed in Parkatluggera near Dungarvan, Pairc-a'- 
tslogaire, the swallow-hole field. One mile from 
Mitchelstown in Cork is the townlund ;ind wood of 
Glenatlucky, the name of whicli is in Irish, 
Qleann-a'-tt>logaidhe, the glen of the swallow-liole. 
The south Munster pronunciation of tliis termina- 
tion is seen in Foilatluggig, a little rocky inlet off 
Kenmare Bay near Ardgroom Harbour — the,/o// 
or cliff of the swallow-hole. There is a village called 
Crocslough, near the nu)uih of Sluuipliaven in 
Donegal, five miles south-cast of DunfaiKigliy, 
which took its name from a little lake. In this 
name a different Irish word is used, viz, craos, 
gluttony : — Craoa-loch, a lake that swallows up 

CTiAP. -xxii.] Quagmires and Watery Places. 403 

Dohhar [dovar, dower] is one of the many Irish 
terms for water, corresponding to the Sanscrit 
dabhra, the sea (Pictet). Cormac Mac Cullenan, in 
his Glossary, remarks that dohhar, water, is com- 
mon to the Irish and the Welsh languages ; and 
from it he derives the Irish name for an otter, 
viz., dohhar-chu, which Kterally signifies watcr- 
hoiind. One of the rivers in the south-west of 
Donegal was anciently called Dohhar; for in a 
poem in the Book of Fenagh, we are told that the 
old territory of Banagh extended from the river 
Edhncch (the Eany at Inver) to the "Bright 
Dohhar wliich flows from thn rugged moimtains." 
Tin's namois now, however, obsoloto. 

The simplest modern form of this word is 
Dower, which is the name of a place one mile 
east of Castlemartyr in Cork, so called from a 
little river which runs for some distance under 
ground ; and there is a townland of this name 
also in the parish of Kilnamanagh, llosconnnon. 
Another form is seen in Dore in the parish of 
TuUoghobcgly in Donegal. The name of Bun- 
doran in Donegal (the hun, end, or mouth of the 
Doran) shows that the little river flowing into the 
sea at the village must have been anciently called 
the Doran ; and although there is no documentary 
evidence that I am aware of for the original form 
of this river name, there is little doubt that it 
is a diminutive of Dohhar — Dohharaii, little water 
— little when compared with the adjacent rivers 
Drowes and Erne. In Scotland this dimi- 
nutive is exactly represented in the name of the 
river Doveran, in which the v sound of the hh is 
preserved, while it is lost in the Irish. 

J)iir is given by U'Boilly ns meaning mm (or, but 
I liavo never mot it in any Irish text. All iiough 
it docs not enter extensively into names, it is 

404 Quagmifcs and Watery Piacea. [chav. wtI. 

venerable for its antiquity na a topographical tenn ; 
for Ptolemy, iu his map of Ireland, has given 
the name of Dur to a river in the west of the 
island. There are several local names in various 
parts of the country, which must be derived from 
this word. In Antrim, Kerry, King's County, 
and Longford, Ave iind townlands called Doory, 
the anglicised representative of the Irish Duire — 
as the people still call it — which is probably an 
abstract-noun formation, signifying wateriness or 
watery land. There is a parish in Clare, now 
called Doora, which represents the genitive of 
(lirr, the Irish name being pardistc-ilhuire, the 
parish of the Dur or water ; and this parish was 
anciently, and is still, celebrated for its abundance 
oi" water, marsh, and bog. Tho adjective form 
Dooragh is the name of a place near Stewartstown 
in Tryone. 

A meeting of any kind would be designated by 
comhrac ; and from this general signification 
come two of its principal secondary meanings : — 
first, tho meeting of rivers or roads ; and second, 
a combat, i. e. the meeting of opposing sides in 
battle. AVe have these two meanings perpetuated 
in local names, and it is often impossible to dis- 
tinguish tlu!in without some local history or tradi- 
tion to guide us. But it is certain that far the 
greater number of such names are derived from 
river confluences. The Four JNIasters, at the year 
1473, have a record of a battle between the 
Mac Kannals and some of their neighbours, fought 
near the village of Carrigallen in Leitrim. The 
people still retain a vivid tradition of this event, 
and point out the townland of Clooncorick near 
Carrigallen as the scene of the combat. Here we 
have history and tradition both agreeing ; and 
although historical names very seldom originated 

DHAP. XXII.] Quagmires and Watery Places. 405 

so late in the fifteenth century, yet we can hardly 
avoid the conclusion that the place got its name 
from the event : Cluain-comhraic, the field of 
conflict. There is a place of the same name in 
Fermanagh, and another called Cloncorig in 

About five miles north of Borrisokane in 
Tipperary, near the shore of Lough Dorg, there 
is a little village called Carrigahorig, where, ac- 
cording to a record in the Four Masters, some 
battles were fought in 1548. Here however the 
coincidence is merely accidental, for the name 
is older than the sixteenth century, and was not 
derived from the battles mentioned by the anna- 
lists. The correct orthography is preserved in the 
record : — Carraig-an-chomhraic, the rock of the 
meeting ; but I cannot tell whether the name 
originated in a battle or in a confluence of streams. 

This word in its simj)le form gives name to 
several places in Cavan, Derry, and Tyrone, now 
called Corick : Oorick near Cloghcr in Tyrone, 
was so called because it is situated near the con- 
fluence of the two rivers Blackwatcr ;nid Fury. 
The two great roads from Castlebar and (Jrossmo- 
lina to Belmidlet in Mayo, meet at a bridge over 
the Owenmore river, about eleven miles from Cross- 
molina, where two small streams join the Owen- 
more. For ages before the bridge was built or the 
roads made, Ihere was a ford at this spot across the 
Owcnmoro, which, from the meeting of the streams, 
was called Bcl-aiha-a-cJwmln'aic, the ford mouth of 
the (MUilbience ; and this name is now applied to the 
bridge, in the anglicised form Bellacorick, wbich 
very well represents the sound of the long Irish 
name. There is a place of the same name in 
('lare, near the mouth of the little river Owen- 
slieve, in the parish of Clondagad, for the Irish 

400 Qiiapmires and Watery VhiceA. [niAr. xxii. 

name of which wo have tho uuthorily of the Four 
]\lu«tor8, who wriiQ a Bei-af/ni-dii-c/wui/iraic ; but 
it is now corruptly called Ballycorick. 

Ill Corrnac's Glossary the word incsclund is ex- 
plained " srihh laath no tren," " a swift or strong 
stream." This word has long been obsolete in the 
language, but it still remains in the names of a 
good many places. Tho parish of Dromiskin in 
Ijoutli takes its name fiom a very ancient eccle- 
siastical establisliment built on a rising groimd — 
said to have been originally founded by fSt. I'atrick 
— ^which is often mentioned in the annals, and 
which still retains a round tower — a vestige of its 
former importance. Its old name is Druiin-ineas- 
clainn [Di-mninisklin] as we iind it in many Irish 
documents, and this name is retained to this day 
by the old people who speak Irish ; it signifies the 
drum or ridge of the strong stream. There are 
in the county Cavan two townlands, one near 
Ballyjamesduff, the other near Belturbet, whose 
names are the same as this, but more correctly 
anglicised Druminisclin ; and in Meath, near the 
village of M<>>nudty, is another, which is incor- 
rectly modernised I)ruminiskin. 

This root-word is seen also in Clooninisclin near 
the village of Ballinlough in llosconunon, the 
meadow of the rapid stream. In its simple form 
it gives name to two townlands in Tyrone, called 
Inisclan, and to another called Inisclin in Fer- 
miinagh. In accordance with a well-known cus- 
tom (prefixing./'; 1st Vol., Part I., c. ii.) this 
word is often ftnind begiuuiug with/; and so wo 
have live towidands in Qalway, lioscommon, 
Leitrim, and Sligo, with the names of Finisclin, 
Finisklin, and Fiunisglin. The word has its origi- 
ual application as the name of the little river 
Finisclin, which joins the Breedoge two miles 

CHAf KxTi.] Quagmires and Watery Places. 407 

north of Frenchpark in Roscommon. It must be 
observed that in a few of the above-mentioned 
places there are now either very trifling streams 
or no streams at all ; from which we must infer, 
either thai tlioro has boon considerable physical 
chanp^o in (hose ])laces, or that Cormao's explana- 
tion (Iocs not apply to tho wliole of Ireland. 

Lin [loon] nuvms to fill ; conncictcd with Lat. 
plenus. The diminutive liondn [leenaun], which 
means filling or flowing, is used pretty often as a 
topographical term. Sometimes it is applied to 
creeks on the sea-shore where the tide flows in. It 
is in this sense no doubt that it gives name to tho 
well-known hamlet called Leenanc, near the head 
of Killery Bay in Connemara, which is called by 
the Four Masters, Lionan, or more fully, Liondn- 
chindnmra, the linan or tide-filling spot at the 
head of the sea {crann-mara, head of the sea: see 
Kenmare, 1st Vol.) ; and to Leenane near Crook- 
haven, west of Cape Clear island in Cork, which 
is situated on a narrow tidal channel. There is a 
small lake called Lough Aleenaun, the lake of the 
filling or flowing, four miles oast of Kilfenora in 
Clare, which in dry summers supplies the sur- 
rounding district with water. 

Linn signifies a pond or pool, water, the sea ; 
and it occurs in local names, but only as meaning 
a pool or pond. Tho l^lnglish-speaking people of 
Scotland retain the word <o the present day, but 
thoy ai)ply it; to a waferfall : — 

" Wliylosowre a linn the burnie plays." 

*' Lot. mo in for Innd tlio linn 
Is roariii' o'er the warlock oraggie." 

Here however the word was transferred from the 
pool which is under every waterfall, to the water- 

408 Quagmires and Watery Places, [chap. xxn. 

fall itself ; just as happens sometimes iu Ireland 
in the case of the word lug, which properly 
means a basin-shaped hollow iu the side of a 
uiountain, but which is now in a few cases applied 
to the mountain itself (see Liigdulf and Lngna- 
quilla, 1st Vol.). 

This word is very ancient as a topogrnphieal 
term, and enters into names, not only iu Irelaiul, 
but also iu Great Britain and on the continent. 
It helps to form a few important names in Ireland, 
some of which have already been discussed iu the 
First Volume ; but it is not iu very general use. 
At the point where the two rivers Glyde and Dee in 
Louth meet, two miles south east of Cusllebelling- 
ham, the waters expand into a sort of lake, just 
before they enter the sea. This little expansion 
was anciently called Linn-Duachalll or Liiulua- 
chaille ; and the mouth of the stream was called 
Casan-Linne (the path of the pool). There was 
here in former days a celebrated monastery which 
nourished for a long time, and it took the name 
of Linduachaill from the little river-lake on the 
shore of which it was situated. Tighernach records 
at the year 700, the death of St. Oolman of 
Linduachaill, and the same record is found in 
several other authorities. At a later period the 
Danes had a settlement at the same spot, and we 
\>we to them, no doubt, the effacement of every 
<>estige of the ancient monastic establishment. 
St. Colman is commemorated in the martyrology 
(>r Aeiif^iis, and the writer oP the gloss (piotes a 
legend to account for the name of Linduachaill 
(the pool of Uachall) : that before the time of 
Colman, a demon named Uachall infested the 
waters of the lake, from which he often rose up 
and did great mischief to the people. The two 
parts of the name Casan-Linne are still preserved 

CHAP. xxiT.] Quagmires and Wafcnj Places. 409 

in two different denominations, the former in 
Annag-assan (for whicli see 1st Vol.), and the 
latter in the Linns, which is the name of a town- 
hmd lying between the river Glyde and the sea. 

Ill (ho iKivish of OloncK.y, near Newcastle in 
Limerick, tliere is a townland taking its name 
from a ford oallcd Aughalin, the ford [ath) of the 
lin or pool ; and a ford on a little river in the 
parish of Ballybrennan in "Wexford, has a name 
with a like signification ; it is now called " The 
Ford of I-fiug," and it takes its name from a pool 
at the mouth of the river. Near Clogher in 
Tyrone, is a place called Cloghlin, the stone of the 
pond; Cushaling — the foot of the pond — is a 
small river giving name to two townlands, about 
half-way between Rathangan and Edeuderry. 

Cong, conga, or cunga means a narrow neck, a 
strait where a river or lake contracts, the stream 
by which one lake empties itscK into another very 
near it. It appears to bo connected with cuing, 
which is the conmion word for the yoke borne by 
horses that arc harnessed to a chariot or carriage. 
Tliin term belongs cliielly to tho norlli-westof Ire- 
laud ; it is common in I>onegal, where indeed it 
is a living word among the old natives who speak 
Irish ; and it is found as a local appellative in this 
county, as well as in Mayo, Galway, and Tyrone. 
An admirable example of its application is seen 
in Ijough Nacung, a pretty lake at the base of 
Errigle mountain in the north-west of Donegal. 
This lake is connected with another — Dunlewy 
lake — by a very short and narrow strait, which is 
now called " The Cung," and which has given 
name to Lough Nacung, the lake of the " cung," 
or nock. Another cung connects this — which is 
called Upper Lough Nacung — with Lower Lough 
Nacung, from which the townland of Meenacung 

410 Quagmires and Watery Places, [cmw. xxii. 

{meen a moxintaiii meadow) takes its name. Tlie 
narrow passage between Lough Conn and Lough 
CuUin in Mayo, now crossed by a road and bridge, 
has given name to Cungmoro point, lying near 
the crossing. 

The best known example of the use of this 
word is Cong in Mayo, which derived its name 
from the river on which it is situated, connecting 
Lough Mask with Lough Corrib. But though 
this is the most remarkable place in Ireland of tlio 
name, the river is by no means a good chai-actcr- 
istic example of a "cong," for it is somewhat 
scattered and partly subterranean. The great 
al)bcy of Cong is celebrated as being tlio place 
wliero lloderick O'Connor, tlie last native king of 
Ireland, past the evening of liia days in religious 
retirement; and it still exliibits in its vcnorabh; 
ruins many vestiges of its former magnificence. 
It was either fotmded originally by St. Fechin in 
the seventh century, or was dedicated to his 
memory ; and hence it is called in Irish documents 
Cunga or Conga Feichm. 

Lough Cong is the name of a small lake south- 
east of the Twelve Pins in Connemara ; and there 
are two townlands, one near Maguire's Bridge in 
Fermanagh, and the other in Tyrone, with the 
euplionious name of Congo, all from the same 
word. The narrow strait connecting Ballycong 
lake with the lake of Carrowkeribly, in the parish 
of Attymas in Mayo, live miles south of Balb'na, 
is called Babh-conga by the Four Masters ; and the 
ford over it was anciently designated Ath-cunga 
(lly F. ) ; this ford is now called liel-aUia-conga, 
the ford-mouth of the co)ig or strait, Avhich has 
been anglicised to Ballycong, the present name of 
the small lake. 

Buinne. [bunnya — two syllables] means a wave 

ciiAr, XXII.] Quagmires and Waienj riatfii^. 411 

or flood, any flow of water ; and this word, or a 
derivative from it, is pretty often found forming 
a part of local names, applied to watery or spewy 
spots, or places Kable to be inundated by the over- 
flow of a river or lake. It is very well represented 
in Cloonbunny in the parish of Tibohine in Ros- 
common, the cloon or meadow of the flood or 
stream — a stream}^, watery field; and this same 
name is found in Westmeath, Clare, Longford, 
and Roscommon, in the slightly modified form of 
Cloonbony ; in Tipperary it is Cloubminy ; while 
Olonbminiagh near Ennisldllen exhibits tlio ad- 
jective form huinncach. Lisbunny is tlie name of 
a parish inl^i])poriiry, and of a to^vnland in J)orry, 
each of which must liavo been so called from a 
circiUar fort whoso fosse was flooded. 

Watery or oozy places, soft, wet, spongy ground, 
or spots liable to be overflowed, are often desig- 
nated by the word flinch [flugh], whose simple 
meaning is "wet:" flinch, huraidus ; Z. 6G. It 
is Roen in i(fl best anglicised form in Killyfliigh 
near BaUymeua in Antrim, the wet wood ; and in 
Glenflugh in Wicklow, near the source of the 
Lillcy, now the name of a mountain, but origi- 
nally that of a glen at its base : — Gleann-fliuch, 
wet or marshy glen. 

The derivative y?wc/MM«c^ signifies a wet or spewy 
place ; it gives name to Flughanagh and Flugh- 
any in Leitrim and Mayo ; and it comes in as a 
termination in Gortalnghany, the name of two 
townlands in Fermanagh, the wet govt or field — 
the / in the beginning having dropped out by 
aspiration, under the influence of the article (see 
1st. Vol., Part I., c. ii.). The word is corrupted 
in Flegans, about three miles north-west of Ath- 
lone, which we find written Flughan in an Inquisi- 
tion of James I. ; and this old spoiling, together 

412 Quagmires and Watery Places, [ctiav. xxit. 

with tlie proservation of the plural form in the 
present name, shows that the origiual name is 
Fliuchain, wet places. 

From badh [baw], meaning to drown, also a wave, 
comes the adjective baiihe [bawtha], signifying 
" drowned," This term is applied to places which 
are often submerged, or drowned with water. I 
may remark that when the annalists wish to ex- 
press that the Danes destroyed the sacred books 
of the churches and monasteries they pkmdered, 
by throwing them into water, they often use this 
very word : that is, they say the books were droimied 
by the Danes ; and this shows that the application 
is not modern. 

We see the word (with the h aspirated) in Curra- 
watia near Moycullcn in Galway, the droivned or 
inundated curragh or morass. With the adjectival 
termination ach, it gives name to Bauttagh, west 
of Louglirea in Galway, a marshy place. Very 
often it takes tlie diminutive termination {6g p. 28), 
as in Mullanabattog near the town of Monagh- 
an, tho mullagh or hill-summit of the morass. 
This form is well exhibited in the name of the 
little river Bauteoge running through Stradbally 
in Queen's County, which richly deserves its name, 
for it flows lazily through level swampy laud, 
which it always inundates in wet weather. In 
parts of the west, they change the initial letter to 
m, which gives rise to the forms mditeog and mait- 
each ; and in this way we have the name of 
Mauteoge, near Crossmolina in Mayo, and of 
Mautiagh in the parish of Uossinver in Leitrim, 
both signifying watery land. 

Bnj Spots. As many places received names 
from being wet or swampy, so there were spots 
which, either by the nature of their surface or by 
artificial drainage, were dry in comparison with 

cilAP. xxiii.] Size ; Shape. . 413 

the surrounding or adjacent marshy ground, and 
whose names were derived from this circimi stance. 
The only word I will introduce here to illustrate 
this observation is tiryn, which is the common Irish 
word for dry. With the t aspirated to //, it is 
seen in Tullyhirm, the name of places in Armagh 
and Monaghan — Tulaigh-thirtn, dry little hill. 
This is also the original form of the name of the 
parish of Tullaherin near Gowran in Kilkenny, 
which has been corrupted by a change of m to n 
(1st Vol., Part I., cm.), though the correct angli- 
cised prommciation, Tnllowheerim, is still often 
heard among the people. 



Great ; small. The tenns mor [more] and beg, 
meaning respectively large and small, are used to 
express size, both relative and absolute, more than 
any other words in the Irish language ; and they 
are in general easily recognised, being almost 
always spelled more and beg in anglicised names. 

In the parish of Moviddy in Cork, near the 
southern bank of the river Bride, stands the ruins 
of CasMemore castle, once the residence of the chief 
of the Mac Swecnys, and afterwards of the Mac 
Cartliys ; and its name indicates that it was con- 
sidered the most important fortress of the locality : 
Caislen-mor, great castle. The parish of Castlemore 
in Mayo, or nsit is sometimes called, Castlcmore- 
Costello, because id is in (ho biu'ony of CostcUo, 
in like manner took its nnme from a castle, which 

414 Size; Shape. [ciiav. xxiri. 

is called Catskn-m6r in tlio nnnals of Though Xcy. 
Castleniore is also the name of a towiiland in 
Carlow. Of the correlative term Castlebeg, small 
castle, as a to^vnland name, one example occurs 
north-west of Comber in Down. There is a point 
of land jutting into the Foyle from the Donegal 
side, about five miles below Dcrry, called Culmorc, 
where Sir Ilonry Docwra erected a fort in the 
year 1600 ; The Four Masters call it Cuil-mor, 
great corner or angle. The townlaud of Down- 
killybegs in the parish of Drimimaul in Antrim, 
is written by Colgan, Dun-cMlk-bice, the fortress 
of the little church. 

Very often these terms were employed to express 
comparison as to size, between the feature named 
and some other feature of the same l;ind in the 
immediate neighbourhood. There can be no doubt 
that Inishbeg — small island — in the harbour of 
Baltimore in the south of Cork, received that 
name by comparison with the larger island of 
Ringarogy in the same harbour. So also Eunbeg 
on the shore of GKveedore Bay in Donegal, was so 
called from its situation at the mo\ith of the little 
river Clady : — Bunbeg, small bun or river mouth — 
small in comparison with tho adjacent estuary of 
the Gweedore river. 

In a great many cases the application of these 
terms originated in the subdivision of townlands 
into unequal parts. Three miles south of Kanturk 
in Cork, in the angle formed by the rivers Allow 
and Blackwater, there is what was once a single 
townland called Dromcummer; and it took its 
name from its situation at the junction of the two 
rivers : — Druim-comair, the ridge of the conflu- 
ence. But this townland was divided into two 
parts, containing respectively 373 and 249 acres ; 
and the former is called Dromcummer-more, and 

CH A r . XX 1 11 .'J Size ; Shape. 4 1 5 

the latter Dromcummer-beg. Sometimes in a case 
of this kind, the larger portion retained the original 
name without any distinguishing postfix, while the 
smaller Icept the name with the addition of beg ; 
as in the case of Dorrycidlinan (CuUinan's oak- 
grovo), and Dorryculliuan-beg in Leitrim. 

Be(j is very seldom altered in form by either 
grammatical inilection or corruption : but the m 
of mor is often aspirated to vot iv ; as we see in 
Baravore near the head of Glenmalure in Wicklow, 
the great harr or summit. Occasionally — though 
seldom — this nspiratcd sound has been dropped, 
leaving no(bing of the postfix but ore. This liap- 
pens in Tnishoro, the name of an island in upper 
Lough Erne, three miles from the village of Lis- 
naskea, which the Four Masters call "Inis-mhdr of 
Lough Barry," the great island of Lough Barry 
(this last being the local name for that part of 
Lough Erne). 

Like Irish limiting terms in general, these 
words commonly come after the words they qualify. 
But not unfrequently it is the reverse. Moraghy 
is the name of a lownland in tlie parish of 
IMuckno in Monaghan, which signifies great field 
{achadh) ; but Aghamore, with ihe same meaning, 
is a more common name. Rathmore or Ramore, 
great fort, is a very usual local name ; but in the 
parish of Drumlease in Leitrim, it is made More- 
rah. So also with hcg. Rathbeg is a name of 
fre(picnt occurrence, and signifies little rath or 
fort; but in the county of Louth, a little above 
l^rog]\eda, is a jdacc called Begrath, wliich has 
the name meaning. There is a small island close 
to the land in Wexford liarbour, called Begerin 
or Begery, which is celebrated as the place where 
>St. Ibar, after having preaehed the Gospel in 

416 Size; SJinpo [ciiw. xxiii. 

various parts of Ireland, foiuulcd a nioiiastcryin llio 
fifth century, aud established a schuol, iu which he 
instructed a vast number of students ; and the 
place still retains the ruins of some of the ancient 
buildings. The name is written iu the annals, 
Beg-Eire, which in the Life of the saint is trans- 
lated Parva Iliheruia, Little Ireland ; but why this 
epithet was applied to it I cannot imagine. There 
is another Bogeriu in the same county, in the 
parish of Old Ross, four miles from the town of 
New Ross. 

When these terms are translated, mor is gene- 
rally rendered great or big, and hcg, small or little. 
But occasionally we find the former translated 
by much. Muchknock and Muchrath in the parish 
of Killinick in Wexford, are half translations of 
Knockmore and Rathmore, great hill and great 
fort. There is a fine rocky precipice in Howth, 
just over the castle, the pi-oper name of which is 
Carrickmore ; but it is now beginning to be gene- 
rally called Muchrock, which seems to me a change 
for the worse. 

The word min, among other significations, 
means small, and it is occasionally used in the same 
manner as leg. There is a townland on the 
Blackwater in Meath, three miles above Kells, 
called Meenlagh, i.e. small lake, which probably 
took its name from some enlargement of the river. 
A far better known place is Menlough or ^lenlo 
near Galway ; this was properly the name of the 
small expansion of the river Corrib, on (ho shore 
of which tho village is situated ; and in couipari- 
son with Lough Corrib it was called Mi ii- loch or 
small lake, which name was transferred to the 
village and castle. Derrymeen, the name of places 
in Fermanagh and Tyrone, signifies small derry 

CHAP, xxiii.] Size; Shape. 417 

or oak-grove, that is, composed of small slender 
trees ; and we have Moneymeen in Wicklow, the 
email-tree shrubbery. 

Length. The usual words to express length and 
sliortnoas of dimensions arc fada and gcnrr. As 
long ufifddtr. roluins the/, it is easy enough to dc- 
toot the word in anglicised names, for it does 
not undergo mucli corruption. Its most correct 
forms are seen in Knockfadda, long hiU, a name 
of frequent occurrence ; and in Killyfaddy in the 
northern coimties, long wood. But it is very 
often shortened to one syllable, as in Knockfad 
and Killyfad, the same respectively as the two 
preceding names. The/is often omitted on account 
of aspiration, which somewhat obscures the word ; 
of this a good example is Banada in Sligo and Ros- 
common, which very correctly represents the sound 
of Beann-fhoda, as the Four Masters write it, 
meaning long ben or peak. The word is quite 
disguised in Creewood, a place about three miles 
north-west from Slane in Meath, which in King 
John's charter to the abbey of Mellifont, is called 
Crevoda, representing the Irish Craehh-fhoda, tlie 
long cyave or branchy tree. 

Shortness. The opposite term to fada is gearr 
[gar], short; and this is seen in Castlegar, the 
name of some places in Gal way and Mayo, which, 
in a document of 1586 called " Division of Con- 
naught" (quoted by Ilardiman, lar. C, p. 44, 
note g) is correctly translated "short caslle;" 
Qlengar in Tipperary, short glen. iSomctimes it 
comes in the beginning of a name, but in this case 
it is liable l,o be confounded with garhh, rough ; 
thus Garbally, which is the name of several town- 
lands, in some places means short town, and in 
others rough town ; as Garracloon is translated 
VOL. II. 28 

418 Size; Shape. [ciiAr. xxtii. 

in Olio placG short meadow, and in another rough 

Bi-cadth. Leathan [lahan] signifies broad. The 
best anglicised form is lahan, whicli is seen in 
Ardlahan near the mouth of the river Maigue in 
Limerick, broad height. But it is very often 
Khortcncd to lane, especially in the north ; as in 
(Jortlano near Cushcndall in Antrim, broad field ; 
tiie samo name us Gortlahan in the parish of Kil- 
dacommoge in Mayo : Lisluno in Derry and 
Tyrone, broad fort. 

From the same root as the last (by the addition 
of d : p. 15) comes the noun leithead [lehed], 
whicli signifies breadth ; and wo have this term 
also very often used in local nomenclature. It is 
seen in its most correct form in Moylehid, south- 
west of 'l<;nnisldllon, which is pronounced in Irish 
Mul-leithid, the hill of breadth, i.e. broad hill-top. 
But like leathan, it is often shortened to one syl- 
lable, as we see in Carriglead near St. Mullins in 
Oarlow, broad rock. 

JVarrotimess. There are corresponding terms 
signifying narrow, whicli are found in names as 
often as the preceding. The principal is cael [kale, 
keel], which, with its simple adjective meaning, 
is almost always represented in anglicised names 
by keel. Glenkeel, narrow glen, is the name of 
some places in Cork, Fermanagh, and Leitrim ; 
Derrykecl, narrow oak-wood. 

This word is often applied to a narrow stream, 
a stream fioAving through a long narrow glen, or 
thioiigli a inaisli ; and it is the usual term also 
for a narrow slrait. It is in somo one of these 
senses that it gives name to all those places called 
Keel, Keal, and Keale. As applied to a strait, 
the word is very happily illustrated in Loughna- 

CHAP. XXIII.] Size ; Shape. 419 

dreegeel near Ballyjamesdiiff in Cavan, the name 
of a lake, which exactly represents the sound of 
the Irish Lough-na-dtri-gcael, the lake of the 
three straits, so called hccauso it narrows in three 

Keoliij^liy in Forinanagh represents Cad-achndh, 
narrow held ; and Kcelagh and Keilagh, which 
are the names of several townlands, are in some 
places understood to be shortened forms of the 
same name ; while in other places they are consi- 
dered nothing more than the adjective form 
caclach, i.e. something narrow. 

Fat or thick, llcamhav, or in old Irish rcnior, 
is a word Avhich is very extensively employed in 
the formation of names. It means literally gross 
or fat ; and locally it is applied to objects gross 
or thick in shape, principally hills and rocks. 
It is pronomiced differently in different parts of 
the country. In the south they sound it roiiry 
and it becomes anglicised accordingly, as in Car- 
rigrour near Glengarrin: in Cork, Carraig-rcamhar, 
thick rock ; Bccnrour, gross or thick pcalc, the 
name of a hill over Lough Currano in Kerry; 
iind Ilceiiroii]-, ji name frequent in Cork and 
Kerry, thick rinn or point. As we go north the 
pronunciation changes : sometimes it becomes 
rawer, as in Duubunrawer near the village of 
Gortin in Tyrone, the fort of the thick bun or 
hill-base. Elsewhere in the north, as well as in 
tltc west, wo find \\\(i mh rcju'cscntcd by r, as 
in Killyrover in the parish of Aghalurchor in 
Fermanagli, thick wood, which I suppose means 
a wood of thick or gross trees (see Derrymccn, 
p. 416, siqyra). 

In the northern half of Ireland, the aspiration 
of the m is sometimes altogether neglected, and 
the latter becomes restored in the manner shoM n 

420 Size; Shape. [chap, yxiit. 

in 1st Vol. (Part I., c. ii.) ; whicli is exoniplifiod 
in Killyramcr near Bally money in Antrim, and 
in Cullyramer near tlie village of Garvagh in 
Derry, both the same as Killyrover. The highest 
summit on Ilathlin Island off Antrim is called 
Kenramer, fat or thick head ; the same name as 
Can rawer near Oughterard in Galway. The re- 
storation of the m is illustrated in a name more 
familiar than any of the preceding — that of 
Lough Ramor in the south of the county Cavan, 
which is an abbreviation of the full name Lough 
Munramer, for it is called in Irish authorities 
Loch-Muinreamhair. The latter part, which sig- 
nifies fat-neck [innin, the neck), was a man's 
name anciently pretty common in Ireland ; and 
this latce received its name from some one of 
the old-world heroes Avho boro llio name. 

Twisted. Cas signiliea twisted : — Ciis-an-tmgdin, 
" the twisting of the rope." The word is exhibited 
in Cashlieve, the name of a place between Castlerea 
and Lallinlough in Roscommon, which exactly 
conveys the sound of the Irish Cais-shiiabh. twisted 
slieve or mountain. 

Crooked or curved. Cam signifies crooked (enij}, 
curvus, Z. 64) ; but it has other meanings which 
do not concern us here. Its most frequent appli- 
cation is to rivers and glens ; and there is an ex- 
cellent illustration of its use, and of its Munster 
pronunciation, in Glencoura or Glencaura, a re- 
markable defile near Macroora in Cork, crooked or 
winding glen : there is a Glancam near the rail- 
way, five miles north of Blainoy, and a Glenconm 
near Graiguenaniauagh in Xilkeimy. iSeveral 
small streams in various parts of Ireland are called 
Camlin and Camline — that is crooked or curved 
line. The river Camowen flows through Omagb 
in Tyrone; and it well deserves the name: — 

CiiAr. xxiii.] &he; Shape, 421 

Cam-ahhainn, winding river. The parish of Cam 
or Camina in lloscoinmon, west of Athlone, took 
its name from a church dedicated to St. Brigid, 
which is called Camach by Mac Firbis (Hy F. 78,) 
wliilc Cam, tlio plural Cams, and the adjective form 
Camagh, are the names of several townlands — 
names derived originally from curved objects of 
some kind, such as rivers, lakes, long hills, &c. 

The dimliiutive Camofj, in the several forms 
Cammoge, Commoge, and Commock, is employed to 
designate various natural features, principally 
winding rivers. The little river Cnnimock or 
Camac, which joins the Li (ley near Jvilinainhani, 
is so called because it flows through the "winding 
glen" of Crumlin (which see in 1st Vol.). There 
is a townlnnd near Enniskillen called Camgart, 
curA'cd field or garden, a name which in Galway 
is made Camgort ; and Cangort near Shinrone in 
King's County, is a corruption of this last form 
(by tlio usual phonetic change of in to ??), being 
spelled indeed by some authorities Camgort. 
IJetween Oianmore and Galway, near the ruins of 
a church and a round tower, a long narrow penin- 
sula juts inio Galway Bay, called lloscam, a name 
which stands exactly as it was written in Irish 
authorities, and which signifies crooked peninsula. 

By the addition of s (see p. 13 supra) is formed 
the derivative camas, which is applied to a bend in 
a river, and somethnestoa curved bay ; and which 
in the forms of Camas and Camus, gives names to 
many places. St. Comgall of Bangor founded a 
monastery in the filth century at Camus on the 
Bann, two miles above Coleraine; it is called 
Cambas in Adamnan's Life of St. Columba, and 
Camus in the annals ; and it received the name 
from tho curve in the Bann river, near which it i^ 
situated. The monasterv. which flourished for 

422 Size; Shape. [chap. xxiu. 

many ceulurios, lias (|uilc! disappeared; aiul iSl. 
ComgaU's aiieient establishment is now represented 
merely by a graveyard. There is a spot on the 
Suir, two miles north-west from Cashel, which is 
mentioned by the Fo\ir Masters at a. d. 1G23, by 
the name of Ath-an-cJiainais, the ford of the camiis 
or winding — for the river curves at one side round 
a little island ; but a bridge now spans the Suir 
over the ancient ford, which still retains the name 
of Camus Bridge, 

Bends and Slopes. Crom means bent, inclined, 
stooped, or crooked. It is a term of very common 
occurrence in local names, but many of those of 
which it forms a part have been already examined. 
In anglicised names it usually takes the forms 
cvoiii, and crniit, and occasionally criiu. One (tl' the 
peaks of the JVlourjie range is called Bencrom, 
stooped mountain. Macroora in Cork is written 
in the Irish authorities Ma(jh-crointha [INlacromha]; 
the latter part is the genitive of the participial 
form cromaiUt ; and the whole name means the 
sloped or inclining fielder plain; which accurately 
describes the spot on which the town stands, for it 
is a slope at the base of Sleveon hill. The name 
corresponds with that of Cromaghy, a place near 
the village of Hosslea in Fermanagh — sloping 
field. Cromane and Cromoge, two diminutives, 
signify anything sloping or bending, and give 
names to many places : whether they are applied 
to glens, hills, fields, &c., must be determined by 
the character of the particular spot in each case. 
Sometimes they are applied to streams, as in the 
case of the Crummoge, a ri\ulet a little south of 
Borrisoleigh in Tipperary, which, like Loobagh, 
(p. 424) received its name from its sinuous course. 
Claen [clane] has several meanings, one of 
vhioh. —and the only one which concerns us here — 

CHAP, xxiii.] Size; Shape. 423 

is inclining or eloping. "Is aire is claen an lis ; " 
" this is the reason why the fort slopes " — Cormac's 
Glossary. This quotation naturally calls up llath- 
cline in Longford, a townland which gave name to 
a parish and barouy, and which itself must have 
taken its name from a fort situated on sloping 
ground ; and this is the traditional interpretation 
of the neighbourhood. It is exactly the same, 
only with the terms reversed, as Cleenrah in the 
north of Longford, and Cleanrath the name of 
tlireo townlands in Cork, This, moreover, is a 
very ancient name ; for Ave are tohl in one of the 
historical talcs in Lchor na h-Uidltre, that Caher- 
conrce, tho great fortress of Ctiroi mac Dairc, on 
Slicvcmish mountain in Kerry, was also called 
Cathair-na-claen-ratha, the stone fort of the Claen- 
rath or sloping rath (O'Ourry, Lect. III. 82). 

The word Cleen itself, signifying simply a slope, 
is the name of three townlands in Fermanagh, 
Leitrim, and Hoscommon. The English plural 
form Cleens is found in the parish of L)evenish in 
Fermanagh, and the Irish plural Cleeny near Kil- 
larney, both meaning slopes ; while the adjective 
forms Cleenagh and Clenagh, occur in Donegal, 
Fermanagh, and Clare. The Four Masters at a.d. 
1247, mention a lake called Claenloch, which seems 
a singular name, for it means sloping lake ; and 
although the name is forgotten in Leitrim, it still 
survives in the parish of Drumsnat in Monaghan, 
in the form of Clenlough. It is probable that 
these names took their rise from the configuration 
of tho ground round the lakes, as people sometimes 
imagine that a stream flows against the liill. 
Another name of the same class is Clacnghlais 
[C'lonnlisii]— so tho Four Masters write it — which 
siguilies sloping streamlet, the name of a district 
in the south-west of Limerick, in the parish of 

424 S('ze ; S/iape. [chai'. xxiii. 

Killecdy near tlio LtJideis of Cork ami Xony, 
wliicli is now commonly culled Clonlish. 

Fan or Fdnadh [fawn, fawna] signifies a slope 
or declivily ; and the forms it assmncs in anglicised 
names will bo seen in the following examples. In 
tlie parish of Killonagban in the north of Clare, 
there are two townlands called Faunarooska, Fhn- 
a'-rusca, the slope of the fighting or quarreling ; 
and Faunrusk, the name of a place a little north 
of Ennis has the same meaning. The simj)le word 
fan gives name to some places in Leitrim, now 
called Fawn, Avhile fdnadh is anglicised Faima in 
Wicklow, and Fawney in Tyrone and Deny. It 
appears as a termination in Tohernafauna near 
Fiddown in Kilkenny, the well of the slope. 

Loops. From the word luh, signifjdng a loop, 
bend, or fold, many rivers and other curved objects 
take their names. The adjective form Loobagh is 
the name of the river that flows by Kilmallock ; 
and meaning, as it does, full of loops, winding or 
serpentine, it describes exactly the character of 
that river. Tlio word generally takes such forms 
as /ooh, loop, or loopij ; thus Aughnaloopy near 
Kilkeel in Down, signifies the field of the loop or 
winding. About four miles from the village of 
Ilollymount in Mayo, is the demesne and residence 
of Newbrook ; the Irish name, as preserved in an 
ancient poem in the Book of Lecan, ia Ath-na-lub, 
which the people still retain with the addition of 
b^l a mouth, Bel-atha-na-liih [Bellanaloob], the 
ford of the loops, from the windings of the little 
river flowing through the demesne into Lough 
Carra. An adjective form derived from the dimi- 
nutive is seen in Derrynaloobinagh near Ballybay 
in Monaghan, the oak-wood of the windings ; and 
also in Sheskinloobanagh, the name of a marsh in 
the townland of Croaghonagh, about four miles 

CHAP. XXIII.] &ize ; &hape. 425 

south-west from Ballybofey in Donegal, whicli 
theFoui'MasterSjat 1603, write Seascann-luhanach, 
the marsh of the windings. 

Nook. Cluid is a nook, a corner, an angle. It 
tiikos the niiglicisod forms Olood, Cluid, and Cluido, 
which are the names of several townlands. Clood- 
revagh in Lcitrim, and Cluidrevagh in Galwaj'^, 
both signify grey nook (p. 282) ; Cloodrumman in 
Leitrim, the corner of the drum or ridge. 

Floor. Several of the terms which designate a 
level spot of land have been already examined ; 
and the last I will instance is urlar, Avhich signifies 
a floor, sometimes a threshing-floor. Near the 
village of Stranorlar in Donegnl, along the little 
river that flows throngh it, there is a remarkably 
level holm or river meadow, which has given the 
village its name — Srath-an-urlair, the holm or 
river bank of the floor. The simple Avord gives 
name to Urlar in Sligo, and to Urlaur in JNIayo — 
both meaning a level place like a floor. There are 
several townlands in the Counaught counties 
called Carrownnrlaur, the quarter-land of the floor, 
i. e. a flat piece of land, or a tbreshing-floor. 

Nail. longa [inga], signifies a nail, talon, or 
hoof ; and it was sometimes appKed to pointed 
rocks, or to long-pointed pieces of land. The 
sound is well preserved in Inga, the name of a 
place near the village of Killimor in the south- 
{>ast of Qalway. Near the mouth of the river 
P'orgus in Clare, a short distance west of New- 
market, is a little promontory jutting into the 
river, called Ing Point, wliich has given name to 
tliree townlands. Just outside liannow Bay in 
Wexford, near the village of Fethard, is a long 
point with a cliPP rising over the sea along one 
side; and it is called Ingard — highnail. Duninga, 
the name of a place on the Kilkenny shore of the* 

426 Size; Shape. [chap, xxiii. 

liarrow, between Goresbridgo and Bngiialslown, 
the fort of the nail or point. The correct genitive 
is iongan, which is represented in Clooningan in 
the parish of Achonry in Sligo (C/oon, a meadow) ; 
and we find the phiralin Drumingua in the j)ari«h 
of Kiltubbrid in Sligo, the hill-ridge of the talons. 

2\iil. The Irish word earJxtH was often a])pb\id 
to the extremity of any natural feature, such as a 
long, low hill ; or to any long stripe of land, which 
was either the extremity of a larger portion, or 
which was, for any reason, considered by the people 
to bear some resemblance to the tail of some 
animal. This word earhall [commonly pronounced 
urbal] signifies (he tail of an animal ; and according 
to Cormac's Glossary, it is derived from iar, hinder, 
and hall, a member. In its topographical apj)li- 
cation, it is liable to singular corruptions in pro- 
nunciation, in the several ways illusti-ated by the 
names that follow. It will be observed also that 
the people often imagined they saw in certain 
features a likeness, not luerely to a tail, but to the 
tail of some particular animal. 

TJrbal, which is a correct anglicised form, is 
the name of several townlands in some of the 
northern counties. There is a place near the town 
of Monaghan called Urbalkirk, which signifies 
the tail of the cark or hen; Urbalshinuy in Done- 
gal is the fox's tail [sionnach, a fox). In some of 
the Ulster counties it is made warh/c ; as we see 
in Warbleshinny about three miles south of Derry, 
the same name as the last. In Conuaught, the 
word is usually pronounced, by a metathesis, 
rubble ; and this corruption is reproduced in the 
name of two townlands called Rubble in Mayo and 
Leitrim. The townland of Erribul near the Clare 
side of the Shannon, opposite Foynes, exhibits the 
usual Munster pronunciation. 

CHAP. XXI II.] Size; Shape. 427 

^ar. In clesignatiDg places by their shape, the 
car was a favourite object of comparison. A 
lateral, scmi-detachecl portion of land, or a long 
stripe, would often bo called an ear ; and this fan- 
ciiMl likeiH^SM lias givou origin to rouui odd Pic'nlcs 
of uonjenckiturc. Cliins [cloos] is the Irish Avord 
for car ; in local names it usually takes tlie form 
of c/oos and cloosh. Near Castlogregory in Kerry 
is atownland called Cloosguire — Cluas-gadhair, 
the dog's ear ; and there is another near Mount- 
ralh in Queen's County, called Clooscullen, with 
a similar signification — Cluas-coikain, the whelp's 
ear. One of the innumerable small lakes in Wig. 
parish of Moyrus in Gal way, is called Lough 
Clooshgirrea, the lake of the hare's ear (see p. 303). 
With tlie c eclipsed by g in the genitive plural, we 
have Lisnagloos in the parish of Killora in Gal- 
way, south of Athenry, and Coolnagloose in the 
parish of Kilcavan in Wexford, the former signi- 
fying the fort, and the latter the auglo of the ears. 
Tongue. The Irish word teaiiga [tanga] a 
tongue, is often applied to long-shaped pieces of 
land or water, just in the same sense as we say in 
English " a tongue of land." There is a place 
called Bryantang in the county Antrim, not far 
from Ballycastle, which derives the latter part of 
its name from a tongue of land at the meeting of 
two streams : the little tongue itself is noAV called 
" Bi-yanlang Braes." Tlu) first part hri/nn, repre- 
sents tlic Irish hniighcan (see Boheruabreena in 
1st Vol.), a fairj^-fort; for a remarkable ancient 
circular fort stood not long since near the jimction 
of the streams, but it is now obliterated : Bryan- 
tang, the fairy-fort of the tongue. Just before 
i\\o river Inny falls into Lough Bee, it is joined 
by the little river Tang, two miles from Ballyma- 
hon. There are two townlands in Donegal called 

428 Size; !^7iape. [chai*. xxiii. 

Tang-aveane, middle tongue {vcane from nicadhuii) : 
Tanglucartoor in Mayo, the tongue of the cartron 
or quarter-land. 

Skull. The word claigcanii [claggan], which 
signilies a skull, is oflcn applied to a round, dr}^, 
hard, or rocky hill ; and in this sense it gives 
names to all those places now cnllcd Clagan, Clag- 
gan, and Oleg-gan. The adjective form Claiyean- 
nach is used to designate a place full of round 
rocky hills, from which we have such townland 
names as Clegnagh and Clagnagh. And the 
simple plural is exhibited in Clegna, the name of 
a place east of Boyle in Roscommon, i.e. skulls or 
round hills. 

Breast. The front of a hill, a projection from 
its general body, is often designated by the word 
nclit, which signilies the breast. The most cor- 
rect anglicised form is light, which is seen in Ught- 
yneill near Moynalty in the county Meath, 
O'Neill's hill-breast (y for : see p. 137, mpra). 
But it more often takes the form ought ; of which 
an excellent example is seen in Oughtmama, the 
name of a parish in Clare, meaning the breast or 
front of the maam or mountain pass — Oughty- 
moyle and Oughtymore in the ])arish of Magilli- 
gan in Derry, signifying bare breast and great 
breast respectively, the y being a corruption in 
both names. 

There is a small island in the eastern side of 
Lough Mask, about four miles soiilh-west of Bal- 
linrobe, called Inishoght, the island of the breast; 
and tlio l'\)ur Masters mention anolher little 
island of the same name, which tlu^y call Inis- 
ochta, in Ijough Macnean in Fermanagh, as the 
scene of a fight between the O'Rourkes and the 
Mac Rannalls in a.u. 1499. But this name, though 
used in the last century, is now forgotten ; 

CHAP. XX TIT.] Size; Shape. 429 

the present name of the islet is Inishee, i. e. 
Inis-Aed/ia, the island of Aedh or Hugh ; and ac- 
cording to the tradition quoted by O'Donovan 
(Four M., IV. — p. 1250 m.) it received this name 
from a king named yir(/h who once lived on it. 
liiislioo or Jlugh's Island is also tho name of a 
place in the parish of Clonfert in the cast of the 
county Gal way. There is a parish in the east of 
Galway, including within it the village of Eyre- 
court, now called Donanaghta; but in the Inqui- 
sitions the name is written Doonanought, both of 
which point to the meaning, the fort of the breast, 
i.e. built on the breast of a hill. 

C/rft. The word gag [gang] means a cleft, 
chink, a split or chasm in a rock. It is well re- 
presented in Garrygaug in the south of Kilkenny, 
and in Ballygauge in Queen's Coimty ; the garden 
and the town of the cleft or chasm. Gaugin 
mountain, eight miles west of Stranorlar in Done- 
gal — Gaugin, little cleft — must have taken its 
name from some chasm or cliasms in its side. 

There is another word slightly different from 
tin's in sonTid, tiscd in ISFunRlor, imd espocially in 
Clare, namely, gong, or as it would bo spoiled in 
Irish, gohhag ; and this is applied to a split or 
cavern in a cliff, or to a narrow nook into which 
the sea enters — a long narrow sea inlet. The 
diminutive Gougane is the name of a townland 
near the village of Banteer in the north of Cork ; 
and Gougane Barra (for which see 1st Vol.) is well 
known to every Irish tourist. A little stream called 
Gougane flows into the strait separating Valentia 
Island in Kerry from the mainland. Care must 
be taken not to confound the two preceding words 
with the Gaelic for jackdaw, for which see p. 302. 

Kneading trough. In former days when fami- 
lies generally made their own bread, a kneading 

430 Size ; Shape. [chap, xxiii. 

trough was an article found in almost every house. 
Losakl, or in an anglicised form, losaet, is tlie Irish 
word for a kneading ti'ough ; and curiously enough 
it is in very common use as a component in local 
names. Here, however, the allusion seems to he 
not so much to shape, as to use and production ; 
for the word is applied to a well-tilled and pro- 
ductive field, or to good rich land. A farmer w ill 
call such a field a losset, because he sees it coA(nod 
with rich produce, like a kneading troiigh with 
dough. The word is used in this sense chielly in 
the northern counties, hut it is also found in the 
south ; and in the form of Losset, it is the name 
of a dozen townlands, in various counlios fiom 
Doiuigal to Tip})erary. Cappanalossct in Iho 
parish of Lemanaglian in King's County, signifies 
iho gui'doii-plot of tlie lossots, i.e. a rich, pioduc- 
tive plot. 

The genitive and plural form is loiste [lusty], 
and this gives name to all those places now called 
Lustia and Lusty — both signifying simply fertile 
spots. There is one example of the genitive intlio 
hour ]\[asters, namely, at a.d. 15!)7, whore tlioy 
mention a place called ])niiiii-ii(i-loisfc, the ridge 
of the kneading trough ; which is situated near 
Liver in Donegal, and is now called Dnnnnalost. 
Another anglicised form is seen in Loyst, the 
name of a place near Hockcorry in Monaghan, 
which also occurs in Tullaghaloyst in the parish of 
Currin in the same county, the hill of the /osscf : 
Annaloist near Portadown in Armagh, shows the 
woj'd compounded witb (if//, a ford. Agliahist near 
iho village ol" Aidagli in Longford, is (lie same as 
Aghalustia near liallughaderreen in ]\layo, the 
held (achadh) of the kneading trough, i.e. simply 
a rich fertile field. 

Troiiyh. Aniar or umar signifies a trough or 


CHAP. xxTTi.] Size : Shape. 431 

font ; and the term is locally applied to designate 
a hollow place. Both the sound and sense are well 
preserved in Lngganammer and Leganamer, two 
townlands in Lei trim, the names of which mean the 
/ng or hollow of the trough, i.e. a lug formed like a 
trough. So also Bohammcr near BalgrifTm in Dub- 
lin, written in the Inquisitions Bothomer, which 
comes near the Irish Both-amuir, the hut of the 
trough ; Glcnnanummer in the parish of Kilcumrer- 
agh in the north of King's County, andGlennanam- 
mer near Athleague on the Roscommon side of the 
Shannon, both of which mean the glen of the 
troughs — a glen in which there are deep pools. 

In some cases a h or a p is inserted ai'ter tho m, 
in accordance Avith a phonetic law already ex- 
amined (1st Vol., Part I., c. iii.). This is tho case 
in Killy number in the parish of Kilcronaghan in 
Derry, which represents Coill-an-umair, the wood 
of the trough ; as well as in Coolumber in the 
parisli of ]\Iooro, in the south of Hoscommon, and 
ill (''ooliiinhor on tlio l)oun(lary of Tjongford and 
Wosdncath, bolh liaving nauics of similar import 
(o (JuldalT, signii'ying tho back of tlio trough or 
deep hollow ; and wo have a^) in Cloondaluuiipcr 
five or six miles east of Tiiam m. Galway, the 
meadow of the two {da) hollows. 

Caldron. Roimd deep hollows were often de- 
signated by the several Irisli terms which corre- 
spond with such English words as vat, heeve, cal- 
dron, &.Q,. ; just as tho crater of a volcano was so 
called from the Greek word kraUr, a cup or cha- 
lice. Coire [curra, curry] signifies a caldron or 
boiler — such a caldron as was always kept in every 
public victualling house, and in every chieftain's 
kitchen. Locally the word was applied to a deep 
round hollow in a mountain, often also to tho dee]) 
pool formed under a cataract, and sometinu^s lo a 

"432 Size; Shape. [ohai'. xxiii. 

whirlpool in the sen. In sucli applications it. is 
very connnon in Scotland, but it is not so nmch 
used in Ireland. There are two townlands in Tip- 
perary, one near the village of Tooniyvara, the 
other near Kilsheelan, called Poulakerry ; and 
there is a place at Glanmire near Cork city, called 
Ponlacurry — all from Poll-a'-choire, the caldron- 
hole. In the wild district cast of Achill Island in 
Mayo, there are two mountain lakes, one called 
Corryloughaphuill, the caldron of the lake of the 
hole — a name sufficiently expressive in all con- 
science ; the other Corrauabinnia, the caldron of 
the bin or peak — the peak being a very high 
mountain which rises over the lake. 

In the sound between Ilathliu Island and the 
coast of Antrim, there is a whirlpool caused by 
the violent coudict ol' (ho tid(!s, wlii(;li wiis iu old 
times as celebrated among the Irish as Charybdis 
was among the ancient Greeks ; and it was known 
by the name of Coire-Breaoain [Corry-Breckan or 
Corryvreckan], Brecan's caldron. Cormac Mac 
Cidlenan in his Glossary, written in the ninth 
century, gives the following spirited account oi 
this great whirlpool: — "Coire Brecain, i.e. a great 
whirlpool which is between Ireland and Scotland 
to the north, in the meeting of the various seas, 
viz., the sea which encompasses Ireland at the 
north-west, and the sea which encompasses Scot- 
land at the north-east, and the sea to the south 
betAveen Ireland and Scotland. They whirl round 
like moulding compasses, each of them taking the 
place of the other, like the paddles of a mill-wlu>cl, 
until they are sucked into the depths, so that the 
caldron remains with its mouth wide open ; and 
it would suck even the whole of Ireland into its 
yawning gullet. It vomits that draught up again, 
80 that its thunderous eructation and its bursting 

criAF. xxiii.] Size; S/nipe. 43^^ 

and ils roaring are heard among the clouds, like 
the stoam-boiliug of a caldron on the fire." 

He then goes on to say that a certain merchant 
named Brccan, grandson of Niall of the Nine 
Hostages (Niall died, a.d. 405), had fifty riir- 
rnc/is or boats trading between Ireland and Scot- 
land, and that on one occasion they were all 
swallowed np (with Brecan himself) in this 
caldron. Hence the name Coirc-Brcacain, Brecan's 
caldron, which Adamnan, who mentions it. Latin- 
ises Charyhdis Brecani. The old name has been 
long forgotten, however, and the whirlpool is 
now known by an equally expressive one among 
the people of Antrun and Rathliu, viz. S/or/-na- 
mara, the swallow of the sea (v. pp. 401, 255). 
The name is remembered in Scolland, but it is 
applied to a dangerous whirlpool between the 
islands of Scarba and Jura, which is mentioned b}'- 
Sir Walter Scott in " The Lord of the Isles " — 

"And Scarba's isle, whose tortured shore 
Still rings to Corrievrckcn's roar." 

That the original Corry Breckan was that be- 
tween Antrim and llathlin, and that the name was 
borrowed by the monks of lona for the Western 
Isles, is made quite evident from the authorities 
quoted by Dr. Ileeves in his "Adamnan," p. 29, 
and in his " Ecclesiastical Antiquities," p. 289.* 

Vat. JJahhnch [davagh] signifies a vat, a kieve, 
or large tub : it occurs in Irish names much 
oftener than the last term, and it is generally 
applied to a well, a deep pit or pool, or to any 
deep hollow like a vat or caldron. Davagh, 
its most correct anglicised form, is the name of 
some townlands in Monaghan and Tyrone ; 
Mullandavagli near Clones in Monaghan, i\\& 

* Tn the latter there is a e(>ni])lete aoionnt of Coiie-Brcacaiii, 
from M'hicli I have condonacd tlio sketch given here. 

VOL. II. 29 

434 Size; S/iapo. [chap, xxiii. 

summit of ilio vat-liko lioUow ; Glciidavngh near 
AugliiUKiloy ill Tyiuuo, means a glen liaviiig det^p 
pools along its course (like Glennanummer : p. 

Oneof tlie genitive forms of this word is daihhchc 
[divha, diLa], whicli is variously modified in the 
modern forms of names. It is M^ell represented in 
Gortnadihy in the parish of Kilmeen in Cork, 
which in the " Genealogy of Corca Ijddhe " is 
called Gort-na-daibhcJWy the field of the vat or 
round hollow. There is another place of the same 
name near Skihbereen in the same county ; and 
two called Gortnadiha in Waterford, which is still 
the same name. So also Knoeknadiha in liime- 
rick, J)rumdiha in Tippcrary, and Droindihy in 
Cork, all meaning the hill of the round hollow. 
Portdeha (port of the vat) is Iho name of a little 
bight on the eastern shore of Aranmore ; but this 
name is now accounted for by a legend in the life 
(if St. Eudcus, which is related at length by the 
Rev. W. Kilbride in his description of Aranmore 
(Kilk. Arch. Jour. 18G8, p. lOG). 

In these names the hh sound is suppressed and 
that of ch retained as an h; but in other names it 
is the revei'se — such for example as Letterdife in 
the parish of Moyrus in Galway, the hill-side of 
the vat. We have a diminutive form of the word 
in Loughdeheen in the parish of Lisnakill near 
Waterford city; in Loughdiheen, oneof the moun- 
tain lakes under Galtymore ; and in Rindifin near 
Gort in Galway, the two first of which mean the 
lake, and the last the point, of the little vat or 
pool. In Donegal this word is sometimes applied 
to a flax-dam, whicli is illustrated in Culdaff 
(Cooledagh, Inq.), the name of a village and 
parish in Inishowen, signifying the cul or back of 
the flax-dam. 

Fah<'. or pseiido men. In various parts of Ire- 

CHAP, xxiii.^ Size; Shape, 435 

land, a standing stone, whetlier natural or artificial, 
placed in a conspicuous position, so as to look at a 
distance something like the figure of a man, is 
called by the ncimefcar-breige [farbreaga], literally 
it f:ilse niiiu — a fantastic or pscudo nian ; or il 
lluMo bo two or more together, fir-hriitje [fir- 
bieaga], false men. The term is also applied to 
a scare-crow, or to any artificial object made to 
represent a man. In some cases such stones have 
given names to the townlands or hills on which 
they stand ; as in Farbreague in the parish of 
Woyne in Wicklow ; Farbioaguc, a hill lying five 
miles north-east of Ivosciea in Tippcrarj'-; and Far- 
bieagues, cast of Atldcaguoinlvoscommon. There 
is a Farbregagh — a tall rock in the sea — at the 
north side of Scarrilf Island outside Kenmare Bay ; 
and a group of standing stones on one of the Btdly- 
lioura hills, on the borders of Cork and Limerick, 
is called Firbreaga. 

Sometimes tlie word huachaill, a boy, is used 
instead oifcar. The hill Ij'iug immediately south 
of Knocklayd, near Ballycastle in Antrim, is called 
Bohilbreaga. Near the village of Ballynee(y in 
Limerick, there is a long stone standing on the 
top of a hill, which may be seen on the right of 
the railway as you approach Pallas from Limerick ; 
and it is well known by the name of Boughal- 
brcaga : there is also a Boghil Bregagh near the 
dcnu'sne of iScafoide in <1ic ]Kuisli of Loiigliin- 
islaud in Down. Tlio word huacliaill itself, with- 
out the other term, is often applied to a standing 
stone. There is a mountain called Boughil, five 
miles from Kenmare ; and the driver of the car 
will point out the conspicuous standing rock — the 
houfiJnl ]\m\9,{A{ — wliicli gave name to the moun- 
tain, on tlio lefl. ol' tlie road as you go to Killar- 
ney. And sevei-nl townlands in various parts of 

436 Size ; Shape, [chap, xxiii. 

Trcliuul aro cnllorl Boiiolu'll mid BooLill, wliosd 
names origintiled tiiinilaiiy. liougliilbo isii town- 
land near 81ianagolden in Limerick, tlie name of 
which signifies " cow-hoy." 

The word breiig [hreague] signifies a lie ; and 
in several senses and in varions modified forms, it is 
pretty commonly used in the formation of local 
names. There is a townland called Dromorehragiie 
near Longhhrickland in Down, concerning which 
the people have a local tradition, that tlie founders 
of Dromore in the same county, at first intended 
the town to he here : but they changed their minds 
and built it on its present site, so tliat the former 
])lace was called Dromorehragiie, false or psviido 
Dromore. The city of Armagh has also a similar 
representative — a sort of sliadow, or ghost, or 
fctcli, of itself, viz., Armaghbrague in the parish 
of Lisiiadill in the same county. 

The term is sometimes used to designate streams 
that are subject to sudden and dangerous floods, 
or which flow through deep cpiagmires ; and in 
this case it means deceitful or treacherous. An 
excellent example is the little river Dr(\i;()ge in 
Cork, which joins the Awbeg (the JMulhi oi 
Spenser) near Doneraile. ]{regogo is a diuiinii- 
tive of hrcitg (see p. 2i)) and signifies " little liai' 
or deceiver." This river is formed by the junction 
of the principal stream which rises in a deep glen 
on tlie side of Corrinmore hill, with three others 
— all four of the same length, flowing down the 
face of the Ballyhoura hills, and meeting nearly 
in the same spot, whence tho united stream runs 
on to the Awbeg. These rivulets carry A^ery little 
water in diy weather ; but whenever a heav}' 
and continued shower falls on the hills, four 
mountain floods rush down simultaneously, and 
lueet together nearly at the same instant, swell in^^' 

ciTAP. xxiii.j Sizp. ; Shape, 437 

the little riviilet in a few moments to an impetuous 
and dangerous torrent. This little stream is cele- 
brated by Spenser in his " Colin Clouts come 
homo again ; " he calls it " False Bregoge," whicli 
is (|nilo a correct intorprolafion ; and in his own 
ranciful way, ho accounts for tlio name in one ol' 
tho most beautiful pastorals in tlio English 

There is a little stream called Breagagh about 
three miles south-east of Thurles in Tipperary ; 
another of the same name flows near the city of 
Kilkenny ; but those probably received their 
names from flowing througli treaclierous marshes ; 
and the river Dinin used often to be called Breag- 
agh on accomit of its destructive floods, (see p. 475). 

A name of similar import is Srahanbregagh 
in the parish of Ettagh, south of Birr in King's 
County — false sru/inn or little stream. Why it 
was that Ballybregagh in Wexford east of Ennis- 
cortliy, and Ballybregagh in the parish of Lough- 
guile in Antrim, were so called I cainiot imagine ; 
for the names signify lying town. The bay of 
Trawbrcaga at Malin in Donegal, well deserves 
its name, Traigh-hrcge — so Colgan writes it — 
treacherous strand ; for the tide rises there so 
suddenly that it has often swept away people 
walking incautiously on the shore. 

The following names exhibit words expressive 
of a variety of forms and resemblances. 

Knot. The name of tho village of Snecm in 
Ken-y, on the coast west of KenniarO; is a per- 
fectly plain (lac^lic Avord, and universally under- 
stood in Iho neighbourhood — snaidJnn [snime], a 
knot. The intelligent old people of the place say 
that the village has its name from a roundish grass- 
covered rock rising over a beautiful c-iscade in th(^ 
river just below the bridge, where the fresl 

438 Size; Shape. [chap, xxiir. 

water and the salt water meet : wlicu tlio tide is 
in, this rock presents tlie appearance of a maidhm 
or knot over the stream. 

I know of only one other place whose name 
contains this word s-naidhm — Snimnagorta near the 
village of Ball)anoro in Westmeatli. ITere the 
whole name is a puzzle, though its mcuning is 
plain enough : — (jort or gorta, hunger or famine — 
the knot of hunger'. Prohably the latter part of 
this name originated like Ballyhought (1st Vol.). 
Month. There is a moimtain rising over Glen- 
garriif in Cork, well known to visitors by the name 
of Cobduff, which the old people of the place cor- 
rectly interpret black-muzzle or black-muulh. If 
you look \ip at the mountain from the door of Eccles' 
hotel on a smniy summer morning, about 1 o'clock, 
you will at once see why this name was given to it. 
There is a deep cleft or chasm running across the 
face of the hill near the top, bearing from the 
point of view a rude resemblance to a mouth ; and 
it is throAvn into strong shade while the rest of 
the mountain is in bright sunshine : this is the 
cobduff^' or black mouth. Cab or gab [cob, gob] is 
a mouth ; and I may remark that the latter form — 
gab or gob — is universally used in Ireland and 
Scotland. Burns speaks of a person's " greedy 
gab" in "The Jolly Beggars." 

Beak or Snout. Gob [gub] though in all re- 
spects like gab, is a different word : it means a beak 
or snout, and is often found in local names. 
Gub and Qubb, i. e. simply point or siu)ut, are 
the names of some places in Cavan, Leitrim, 
and Fermanagh ; and we have Gubs, beaks, also 
in Leitrim. Gubdoo in Fermanagh, and Gubroe 
in Leitrim, black and red snout (diibh and ruadh). 
The word is far commoner in the north than in 
the south : but we have the diminutive Gubbeen, 
little beak, near Skull in Cork. Near Elwhin in 

CHAP. xxiiT.] Size; Shape. 43C 

Roscommon, is a townland called Carrowgob- 
badagh, and anotber of the same name south-west 
of Sligo town : the name signifies pointed or 
beaked quarter-land {ccnf/irnmhadh), gohadach 
being merely a derivative from goh. Soc is 
another word for a snout or beak, from wliich we 
have Socks in Tjeitrim, i. e. beaks or points ; and 
beside it, Socknalougher, the beak or point of the 
ruslies {liiachair): 

Clah [clob] is another word used for a mouth — 
a wide mouth : and like gah it is used familiarly 
in Ireland, but always in derision. It has also 
found its way into local names. There is a town- 
land in the parish of Carran in the north of Clare, 
called Clab, a mouth ; and in the parish of 
Killilagh, in the west of the same county, is a place 
called Gortaclob, the govt or field of the mouth. 

Foot, Hoof. Criih [croob] is applied to the paw, 
hoof, or claw of one of the lower animals. Why 
Slievocroob in Down received such a name — • 
signifying, at Icastin its present form, the mounlain 
of tlm hoof or paw — it is now impossible to deter- 
mine : probably from some small local feaf ure. 
There is a townland near the village of Ballin- 
lough in the west of Roscommon, called Lisnagroob, 
the lios or fort of the croohs or hoofs : here pro- 
bably the lis was used to enclose and shelter cattle. 
One of the diminutives, Crubogo, little hoof or 
claw, is the name of a townlnnfl in the parish of 
Newchapcl in Tippcrary, a lidlo north-west of 
Clonmel — so called probably from some queer 
peculiarity of shape, like Spaug (page 1G5). There 
is a townland called Crubeen near Ballyroan in 
Queen's County, which on the face of it bears 
the same meaning asCruboge: ihe yvord cr/n'hhi 
[croobcen] is in general use in Ireland, wli ro 
many people consider a pig's croobcen a great 

440 Size ; Sliapo. [chap, xxiii. 

delicacy. As to Crubeen in Queen's County, 
however, some old people say tliat cruibhi is a 
kind of lierb ; and that from the prevalence of 
this herb the place got its name. The herb meant 
is no doubt bird's-foot trefoil, whose Gaelic name 
is cntba-eun, or bird's feet. So whether the name 
Criibinagh in the parish of Clonfeacle in Tyrone, 
means a place abounding in hoofs, or in bird's-foot 
trefoil, is uncertain : but it means one or the other. 

Hand. One of the cluster of islands in Clew 
Bay is Crovinish, lying outside Westport : the 
Gaelic name is crohh-inis, hand-island, that is 
like a hand [crohh). 

Eye. Two miles west from Thurlos the road 
crosses Soolvane Bridge, whicli spans a little river 
of the same 7iamo. In tho soiilh of Ireland, the 
arch of a bridge is called tho eye ; and this name 
is very plain — 8uil-hhdn, white-eye or white-arch. 
Soolvane Bridge gave its name to the river. 

The word si'til, an eye, in the compound suil- 
chritheach [literally shaking-ej^e] is applied to a 
shaking-bog or quagmire. In some parts of the 
country it is applied to a whirlpool in a river; and 
in this sense it has given name to the river Swilly 
in Donegal, which is called in the Annals, sihleaeh, 
i. e. abounding in eyes or whirlpools. The river 
gave name to Lough Swilly. In the same county 
there is another river, a small stream flowing by 
llaphoe and falling into the Foyle four miles 
below Liiford, called Swilly Burn, which name 
has tho same meaning and origin. 

JTorn. It wo\dd now bo hard to say why Eirk 
in the parish of Templenoe in Kerry, north-west 
of Kenmare, got its name, which signifies a horn 
— Gaelic adiiarc [eirk]. We have good authority 
for the use of this word adharc in local names. 
There is a large island now called Incherky, 

CHAP. XXIV.] Situation. 441 

formed by two branches of the Shannon, three 
miles below Banagher in King's County: the 
Four Masters call it, in some places, Aidhirceach 
[eirkagh], horned or horny island, and in other 
places, Inis-Adharcaifjh, this last being anglicised 
to the present name Incherky. I know a little 
chapel among the Comeragh Mountains in Water- 
ford which is called to this day Sephl-na-Jiadhairce 
[sheppeal-na-heirka], the chapel of the horn : for 
in former days — 40 or 50 years ago — when the 
people could not afEord to buy a bell, a man 
{Shaun-Eittlwgc, Left-handed John Power), went 
up on a height near the chapel on Svmday morn- 
ings, and blew a bullock's horn to call the congre- 
gation to Mass. 



The relative situation of a place with regard to 
one or more others, is a circumstance that has 
been often taken advantage of in the formation of 
local names ; so that several of the terms expres- 
sive of this sort of relation, such as those for 
upper, lower, middle, far, near, lateral direction, 
outer or beyond, &c., arc quite common in every 
part of Ireland as forming part of our nomen- 

Upper. Uachdar signifies the upper part. It 
is also the word for cream (as being on the top of 
the milk), but we moy leave this meaning out of 
the qucslion hero, though in some places tho 
people believe that this is the sense it bears in 

442 Sifxafion. [chap, xxiv. 

local names. It is soiucdinos us(>(l to (l(>signn((> a 
high place simply ; but it is ofteiior applied in a 
comparative sense to indicate tliat tlie place is 
higher than some other in the same neighbour- 
hood. Its usual form is ougltter, which is easily 
recognised. There is a hill a mile north of the 
Recess hotel, on the road from Olifden to Gal way, 
just at the eastern base ot' the Twelve Pins, called 
Lissoughter, upper fort, probably from a lis or 
fort on its summit. Killoughter, upper churcli, 
is a place near Rathnew in Wicklow, which gives 
its name to a railway station ; and there is a town- 
land of the same name near Ballyhaise in Cavan. 
The townland of Ballyoughter in the parish of 
Moyaliff in Tipperary, should have been called 
TJella-oughter ; for thonamo was originally apj)li(>d 
to a ford across the Clodiagh river, over which 
there is now a bridge : and its Irish form is Bel- 
atha-nacfidair, the mouth of the upper ford. There 
are places of this naine in the same county and in 
Mayo, and some townlands in Wexford called 
Balloughter; but these are probably Bailc-uacJular, 
upper town. Oughteranny, part of the name of a 
barony in Kildare, is anglicised from Uachdar- 
fhine, upper _/z/jes or district. 

The word tiachdar is not unfrequently anglicised 
ivater ; as in Clowater near Borris in Carlow, 
Cloch-uachdar, upper stone or stone castle ; and 
this change operating on the adjective form has 
given origin to Watree near Gowran in Kilkenny, 
which is simply the phonetic reduction of Uach- 
daraighe, upper lands. 

The adjective form iiachdarach is as common aa 
the original ; it is seen in its several anglicised 
forms in Bally oughteragh, Ballyoughtragh, and 
Ballyoughtra ; all signifying upper town. 

Lower. The opposite term to uachdar is iochdar, 

CHAP. xxTv.] 8if nation. 443 

which signifies lower ; and this and the adjective 
form iochdarach, appear in anglicised names in 
such forms as eightcr, eighterogh, etra, &c., which 
are illustrated in Carro weigh tor in Roscommon, 
lower quarter-land ; in Broiglitcr on the railway 
lino between Magilligan and Doiry, hroghiochdar, 
lower hrugh or fort ; and in Moyeiglitragh near 
Killarney, lower plain. In the parish of Desert- 
oghill in Derry, there are two adjacent townlands 
called Moyletra Kill and Moyletra Toy. Moyletra 
signifies lower mael or hill ; kill is " church ; " toi/ 
is tnath, a layman, or belonging to the laity ; and 
those two distinguishing terms indicate that one 
of <ho townlands belonged to some church, and 
the otlier to a lay proprietor. 

Very often when a towjiland Avas divided into 
two, the parts were distinguished by the terms 
oiightcr and eighter, upper and lower, or by 
the anglicised adjective forms otra and etra, or 
of re and etre ; which is seen in Moy Etra and Moy 
OIra in the parisli of Clontibret in Monsiglian, 
lower Moy (plain) and upper Moy ; as well as in 
many other names. 

Low. Iseal [eeshal] means low in situation. 
In its most correct anglicised form it is seen in 
Gorteeshal near Ballyporeen in Tipperary, low 
field ; and in Agheeshal in Monaghan, low ford. 
There is another much better known place of this 
name in Tipperary, on tho river Suir, four miles 
from Cashel, but incorrectly anglicised Athassel, 
where stand the fine ruins of the priory founded 
in tho twelfth century by Willinm Fitz-Adclm. 
The annalists write the name At/i-iscal, and the 
ford Avas probably so called to distinguish it from 
the ford at Golden, a mile higher xip the river. 
Tlie people of the ])lace, however, believe that it 
means merely " shallow ford ; " for they say that 

444 Situation. [ctiap. xxiv. 

cvon children can cross it when the river is in its 
ordinary state, MagJi-iscdl [Moy-eeslial] \o\\ 
])Uiin or field, is the name of several places, but 
it is nsually contracted to two sylluLlos : in Car- 
low it assumes tlie form oL' ISfyshall, the nuiiK; of 
a village and paiish ; in the pai'ish of Magoiirney 
in Cork, is the townland of ]\Ieeshall ; and near 
Ihmdon in the same comity, there is a place called 
Mishells, low plains. 

Middle. We have several words for middle, the 
most common of which is eadar [adder], old Irish 
form eiar, cognate with Latin inter: the literal 
meaning of the word is " between." Names w^ere 
formed from tliis word on account of <he pt)8ition 
of the places or objects between two others. It is 
seen in Gragadder near Kilcock in Kildare, cen- 
tral (jntiil or village. Similar to this in signiiical ion 
are Adderville and Adderwal in Donegal, both 
meaning central town, the last syllable of each 
representing the Irish baile. Another form is ex- 
hibited in Ederglen in Mayo, and Edercloon in 
Longford, central glen and meadow. The Four 
Masters mention a chnrch situated somewhere 
near Armagh, called Magh-etir-di-ghlais, \\ni plain 
between the two streams; wdiich Dr. Heeves 
(Adainn. p. 154, note) considers is probably Magh- 
eraglass in the parish of Kildress near Cookstown 
in Tyrone ; for besides the similarity of the 
names, there are in this townland the remains of 
an ancient chapel. 

From eadar, by the addition of the suffix nach 
(p. G) is derived the adjective form eadanuic/i ; 
from which comes Edernagh near Cookstown in 
Tyrone, meaning central phice. The oblique in- 
flection changes this to Ederny, which is the name 
of a village in the north of Fermanagh. There are 
two townlands in the same county called Doo- 

("HAP. XXIV.] Situation. 44•^ 

cdeniy, blitck central-land {doo from chibh, black). 
Another adjective form is cadarach, which gives 
iianio to Ballyaddragh near Grecuore point, south 
of ^Vcxford harbour ; and to Dnnadry three miles 
froni (ho town of Antrim (pronounced by tJie 
(Scotch scttlcra Dnu-cddory), ccntial dun or fort, 
in which the termination is modiiied by obli(pio 

Mcadhon [maan] is anotlicr term for middle, 
coi'responding with Latin medius. In one of its 
anglicised forms it is seen in Inishmaan, the 
iiame of the middle ishuidof Aran in Gal way Bay; 
and there are other islands of the same name, in 
\]\c slightly modified forms ,of luislinu>aii and 
liiishmaiiie, in Longh ]\Iolvin and Longh ]\lask. 
Inishnuiine near the eastern sliore of Lough Alask, 
lias the ruins of an abbey which is mentioned by 
the Four Masters at a.d. 1223, by the name of 
Ints-tncad/io)/. The barony of Kibnaine and the 
])arisli of Kilmainemore in Mayo, botb take tlieir 
names fi'om an old church situatcnl in tlie parish, 
which the annalists call Cill-meadJion, middle 
church. The adjective form mcadhonarh [maanagh] 
also enters into names, usually in the forins ij/oiai/h 
and mcna ; as in Druramenagh, the name of some 
townlands in Armagh, Tyrone, and Fermanagh, 
middle ridge. But the on is often aspirated to v, 
an instance of which is Reevanagh in the parish 
of TiscofBn in Kilkenny, middle rcidh orraoimtaiu 

The word lar [laur], which properlj^ signifies the 
ground, or a floor, is used to denote the middle ; 
and in this sense it often finds its Avay into 
names, usually in the forms of lave or laur. Ross 
la re is a long narrow peninsula near Wexford, 
giving name (o a parish ; its nanu> signili(>s middle 
pcninsida ; and it was probably so called as being 

'iiQ Situafion. [(!1iav. xxiv. 

tlio boundary botwooii Wexford JI:iv(mi and (ho 
oilier sea. IJalliulaur in (lie parish ol' Ivilrei'kil 
in Galway, is JJui/e-an-lair, the town of the niiddlo, 
or middle town ; Ennislare iu the parish of Lis- 
nadill in Armagh, middle island or liver meadow. 

Across. 2'arsiia signifies across, i. e. it is applied 
to anything having a transverse position witli 
respect to soniething else. The word is nearly 
ahvays anglicised tarsna, or by metathesis, trasna, 
and cannot be mistaken, so that a few illustra- 
tions will be sufficient. Kiltrasna is the name of 
a townland in Cavan, and of another in Galway, 
whose Irish form is Coill-tarsna, cross-wood; 
Drumtarsna near Borrisoleigh in Tijiporary, cross 
ridge. Trasna is tlie name of a townland in Fer- 
managh, and Tarsna of another in Tij)perary ; 
(luire is a. small island in .Strang lord Lough caHed 
Trasnagh ; one in Upper Ijough Erne, and another 
in Lower Lough Erne, near Emiiskillen, called 
Trasna ; all so called on account of their trans- 
verse position. There is a high mountain on the 
boundary lino between Galway and ]\[ayo, called 
Maumtrasna, giving name to a locality tluithas of 
late sjnang into sad notoriety: the mouutaiu took 
its name from a niaum or high jiass (see 1st Vol.) 
running across the range : INIaumtrasna, cross or 
transverse i)ass. 

Near, outer. The Avord gar, near, is occasionally 
employed to form names. In the centre of Glen- 
garilf I3ay, is a little island called Garinish, near- 
island ; it was so called by the people of Glen- 
garrilV to indicate its relative position in respect 
to the more distant island of Whiddy ; so also 
(xarinish near Sneem is compared with Sherky, 
lying further out; and there are several other 
islets of the same name round the coast of Cork 
and Kerry. 

CHAP. XXV.] The Cardinal Points 447 

The whole district in which the village and 
parish of Kiltamagh in Mayo are situated, was 
formerly wooded, which is plainly indicated by the 
number of local names in the neighbourhood con- 
taining tlio word coin a word, or tlie plural coillte; 
Hucli as Ky]e(rasna, cross wood; Kyleweo, yellow 
A\ood ; and " The AVoods," which is the name of a 
little hamlet on i mile from Kiltamagh. Two 
miles cast of the village, there are tAvo small lakes 
near each other ; one called Guilty bo (lake), the 
woods of the cow, which is also the name of places 
elsewhere ; and the other Cuiltybobigge (lake), 
the Avoods of the little cow. The Irish name of 
the village and parish is Coillfc-amnch , outer 
woods ; and the people say that these old Avoods 
were so called because they formed the western 
or outer extremity of the ancient forest. 



When we find the term for one of the cardinal 
points forming part of a local name, we may infer 
that (he object or place was so called on account of 
i(s direction, either from ilie people who gave it 
tlui name, or from some other place or object or 
lorritt)ry lying near it. 

The four cardinal points were designated by the 
Irish in the same way as by the ancient Hebrews 
and by the Indians ; for they got names which 
expressed their position with regard to a person 
standing with his face to the east.* 

* See Zertss ; Gram Celt. 57, note. 

448 T/ic Cdfdiiuil I'oiiifs. [cuai>. xxv. 

East. The orioinul Tiisli word for ili(> ojisi- is 
oir [iir, or] ; ^vllicll liowcvor in ol'teu \\ ritiou aoir 
and t//oir [sur, liur] ; aud a derivative form oirtJiear 
[inlier, erher], is used in the oldest Irish writings. 
Moreover, tlie first and List arc often written air 
and airt/iear (air is everything eastern : Cor. Gl.). 
Our ancient literature a (lords ample proof that 
tlu>so words were used fi'ojii the earlicvst times lo 
signify both the front and the east, and the same 
double application continues in use at the present 
day. As one instance out of many, may be cited 
the twofold translation of airther in the ancient 
druidical prophecy of the coming of St. Patrick : — 
" A uu'asa i n-airt/ier a tiijlti " (his dishes [shall bo] 
in the east of his house). For while JNIurchu, in 
the Book of Armagh translates airtlter by the 
Tiutin word aiilcrior, or front, on the otlu^r liaiid 
the same word in the same passage has been trans- 
lated by its more usual equivalent oriens or oriottaUs 
(i. e. east) in the Scholia to Fiech's Ilynxn, and in 
several of the Lives of St. Patrick — (see Ileeves's 
Adamnan — page 82). 

Oi)' is usually rcjiresented in anglicised names 
by er. It commonly occurs in the end of names, 
and when it does, it always carries the accent, a 
(est by which it may generally be recognised. 
Tullalier (accent on lie)-) the name of a townland 
and also of a lake, four miles nearly east of Kilkee 
in Clare, represents the Irish Tulach-oir, eastern 
hill : Emlagher in the parish of Carn in Kildare, 
two miles south of the Ciirragh (^amp, and 
Annaghor at the vlUage of Coal Ishind, (our miles 
from Dungannon in Tyrone — l)oth signify eastern 
marsh {inileach, canach, a marsh). 

There is a celebrated abbey near Killarney 
which is now always known by the name of Muc- 
ross J but this is really the name of the peninsula 

■CHAP. XXV.] The Cardinal Points, 449 

on which it stands (see Mucross in 1st Vol.), and 
the proper name of the ahbey, as we find it in 
many old authorities, is Oirhhealach [Erva^lagh], 
the eastern healach or pass ; which Anglo-Irish 
wiKors nsnally nngliciso Irrclagh. Tlio ])ro.sont 
abbey was built iu the year 1340, according- to the 
Four Masters, for Franciscan friars, by Donall 
]Mac Cardi)'- More, prince of Desmond ; but we 
know from the Irish annals that a church was 
situated there long previously. There is a tradition 
current in the county regarding the foundation of 
the abbey, that Mac Car thy More was admonished 
in a A^siou to erect a monasterj^ at a place called 
Carraig-an-chiuil\Ga,rr\^a\m[e]y the rock of the 
ceol or music ; but as he knew no such rock, he 
sent out a number of his followers to search for a 
place bearing this name. They searched long in 
vain, and were returning home unsuccessful and 
downcast; wli on as they were passing by Oirhheal- 
ach, they heard a sweet strain of music issuing from 
a rock ; and they came straight to their chieftain, 
and told him what had occurred. Mac Carthy 
More hearing their story, at once concluded that 
this was the very rock that had been revealed to 
him in his vision, and he immediately began to 
build the monastery.* (See O'Donovan, Four M, 
III. 5G6.) 

This name Oirhhealach is foimd elsewhere also; 
in the form of Ervallagh it designates three town- 
lands in Gnlwiiy, one in Oonnenuira, nndtho otlier 
two near Ahascragh. One mile from Headford in 
the same county, lie the ruins of the monastery of 

* The legend of music heard from the rocks is very general 
in Ireland ; and I take it that this is the origin of the name 
Carrigapheepera, the Piper's Eock, applied to certain rocks in 
many parts of the country : perhaps some were dancing places. 
See page 122. 

vol,. TI 30 

450 The Cardinal Points. [chap, xxv 

Rosscrrily, wliicli, according to the Four Masters, 
was founded for Franciscans in the year 1351. lu 
recording its foundation they call it Ros-oirhheal- 
aigh, the wood of the eastern pass, the sound of 
which is well conveyed by its present name ; but 
at the year 1604 they call it lloa-Iriala, which 
would mean Trial's wood. It is likely that the 
former is tho correct unciont name. 

The other form oirthear, is also connnon in local 
nomenclature. The ancient kingdom of Oyiel, 
which was founded by the three Collas, a.d. 332, 
comprised the present counties of Monaghan, 
Armagh, and Louth ; the eastern part of it, whicli 
was the patrimony of the O'llanlons, received the 
name so often met with in our annals, Oirthcam 
[Orhera]. This word is plural, and was originally 
applied not to the territory, but to tho inhabitants; 
and it is translated by several of the Latin-Irish 
writei's Orieiita/es, i. e. easterns or eastern people; 
and it was also called Crioch-na-nOirthear, whicli 
carries out the same idea ; for the latter part is in 
the genitive plural, and the whole designation has 
been translated by Probus in his Life of St. 
'Pa.tvick, liegioOrientalitim, literally, the country of 
the eastern people. But after a fashion very 
common in Ireland, the territory ultimately got 
the name of the people who inhabited it ; and the 
ancient Airtheara still exists in the modernised 
form Orior, as tho name of two baronies in the 
east of the county Armagh. Tho same anglicised 
form of Oirthear appears in Trdlyorior, the name 
of a townland in tho ])arish of Oarvagliy in Pown, 
not far from Banbridge — eastern tulacit or hill. 

The most easterly of the old forts in the ancient 
Tailltenn or Teltown (see Tellown in 1st Vol.) on 
the Blackwater, near Kells in Meath, Avas called 
Math-airthir (Four M.), eastern fort; but its pre- 

CHAP. XXV.] The Cardinal Points. 451 

sent Irish name is Baile-orthmdJie [Ballyory], a 
modification of the old designation ; and this again 
has been translated into Oristown, which is now 
the name of a village and of two townlands, 
occup^'ing the old site. Tlic most eastern of the 
Aran islands is called by Oormac Mac Cullenan 
Ara-airfhir, i, e. eastern Aran. Its present angli- 
cised name ia Inisheer, which is very puzzling ; 
for it exactly represents the prommciation of Inis- 
siar, irrstcrn island ; and it is hard to believe that 
it could have been modernised from Inis-soir — for 
I have never found soir represented by s/iecr, or 
oil' by eer, in anglicised names. Perhaps we may 
take Inisheer as it stands, and interpret it western 
island, on the supposition that this was a later 
name given to the island by the people of the 
mainland about Galway. 

lar [eer] signifies the hinder part, a meaning 
which is illustrated in the word iarball, applied to 
the tail of an animal, i. e. the hinder ball or mem- 
ber (see p. 42G). It also signifies the west; in 
which sense it appears in Ardaneer near Shana- 
goldcu in Limerick, the wesfern heiglit. 

This word more usually enters into names in 
the adjective form iarach or iarthach. There is a 
mountain called Baurearagh, over Glengarriff in 
Corlc, near the tunnel on the Kenmare road, 
which also gives name to the stream flowing 
through the deep vallc}'- which you cross going 
towards Kcninaro after leaving the tunnel ; the 
name is Barr -iarach, western summit. Cloonearagh 
in Kerry and Hoscommon, western cloon or 
meadow. The western extremity of Little Island 
in the Lee below Cork, is called Inchera, which 
was probably the original name of the whole 
island, for it means western island — Inis-iarthach 
— so called on account of its position with respect 
to the Great Island. 

452 The Cardinal Points. [chap. xxv. 

As oir is oflcu used with an initial s, so iar is 
quite common in the form of siar [sheer]. Clon- 
shire, a townland giving name to a parish in 
Limerick, was probahly so called on accoimt of 
its direction from Adare — Cluain-siar, western 

Tliere is a derivative form iarthar, correspond- 
ing with oiHhear (page 4-^18), wliich is in very 
general use ; but as I have not found it in any of 
our surviving local names, I will not notice it 

Deas [dass] means literally the right hand side ; 
old Irish form des, corresponding with Lat. dcxtra, 
Gr, dexia, Sanscr, daksha ; and it is also the word 
for the south, as the right hand lies towards the 
south when the face is tuinod to the oast. The 
word is used in both senses at the present day ; 
and it would be easy to prove by quotations from 
old Irish authorities, that this was the case in the 
very earliest ages. It is often Avritten teas [tass] 
of which we have a very good example in Eatass, 
a parish in Kerry, near Traleo, which took its 
name from a fort : — liath-teas, southern fort. 

This word as forming the names of two terri- 
tories in Ireland, reminds us of an interesting- 
event in our early history. In the time of Cormac 
Mac Art, monarch of Ireland in the third century, 
there dwelt at the south side of Tara, a tribe 
descended from Fiacha-SuiglidJie [Feeha-See], who 
was brother of Conn of the Hundred Battles, and 
consequently Cormac's grand-uncle. As they 
lived south of Tara, they were called Desi, 
southerns, or southern people* (just like ^/V^Amra, 
eastern people — p. 450) ; and the two baronies of 
Deece in Meath still retain their name. 

* This is the interpretation of Dr. Todd, Proc. B.I.A., MS. 
Ser., p. 25 ; and it is confirmed by Zeuss, Grain. Celt. 57, note. 

CHAP. XXV.] The Cardinal Points. 453 

Cormac on one occasion sent Ms son Kellach 
with a body of warriors to enforce the borumean 
tribute or cow tax, which Tuathal the Acceptable, 
Idng of Ireland, had imposed on Leinster about 
150 years before, and which the Leinster people 
sciircely over paid without compulsion. Kcllnch 
returned with the cows ; but he exceeded Ins in- 
structions, and insulted the Leinstermen by 
bringing also 150 maidens into captivity. Among 
these there happened to be one who belonged to 
the Desi, and not to the tribute paying tribes of 
Leinster. At this time the principal man of the 
Dcsi was Angus, a powerful chieftain, who had 
proclaimed himself the defender of his tribe and 
the avenger of all insidts oHered to them ; and he 
always carried a celebrated spear which has become 
inseparably connected witli his name, for he was 
called, and is known in history, as Angus of the 
poison- javelin,* This chieftain was the maiden's 
uncle ; and as soon as lie heard of the degrada- 
iiou of bis kiiiHwomaii, lie w(Mit stniigbt to Tara, 
where he found her among others of the captives, 
fetcliing water for the palace from the well of 
Ncmnach. Ho returned with lior to his own 
house, repaired again to Tara.f and this time 
went into the long's presence. Here after an 
angry altercation Angus slew the king's son, 
Kellach, with one thrust of his terrible spear ; and 
when drawing out tlic wearpon in his fury, he acci- 
dentally struck the king's eye with the point and 
destroyed it ; while at the same moment the end of 
the handle struck the house steward and killed 
him on the spot. In the confusion that followed 
Angus escaped and reached his home in safety. 

As it was unlawful for a king with a personal 

•Irish, AciujiisGnci-huaihhtrch. 

t Keating assigns a diirerent cause for Augus'a hostility. 

454 The Cardinal roints. [ciiai'. xxv. 

bloiniali to reign at Tiini, Corniac iiLilicutcd iiud 
rotirod to a private residence at Acaill, or tlio liill 
of Skreen, in the ncigbbourliood of Tara, Avbero 
be spent tbe remainder of bis days. Meantime 
be began criminal proceedings against tbe Desi to 
recover damages for tbe tbreefold injury ; and in 
a great assembly convened on tbe bill of Usbnagb 
(in Westraeatb), it was decided tbat tbe tribe, 
instead of being free as beretofore, sbould in 
future pay tribute to Cormac and bis descendants, 
and acknowledge tberaselves as vassals for ever. 
Tbe Desi rejected tbese terras witb indignation, 
and a long feud followed, wbicb ended in tbe ex- 
pulsion of tbe wbole tribe from tbeir original 
bomo. Tbey wandered iov many years Uiruugb 
dilferent parts of Leinster and Munster, till at 
leiigtli llioy sotllcd in ilio latter ])i()vince, in u 
territory given to tbeni by tbe Munster king, 
Olioll Olmn. Tbis district lies in tbe present 
cotmty of AVaterford ; and tbe two baronies of 
Decies still preserve tbe name of tbe tribe, tbougb 
tbey do not include tbe wbole of tbe ancient 
territory. It will bo observed tbat tlio original 
word Ucsi is plural (meaning people and not ter- 
ritory), and by tbe addition of tbe Englisb in- 
flection 6", tbe idea of plurality is retained in 
tbe present name Decies.* 

Deisceart [deskart], a derivative from dcas, is 
a terra in more general use to designate tbe soutb 
tban tbe original ; tbe latter syllable is cognate 
witb Latin 2)a7'S (for Irisb c often corresponds to 
Latin jo) : — deisceart, soutbcrn part or direction, 
i^'rom tbis word is derived tbe name of tbe two 

• This account has been taken from Dr. Todd's translation 
of the original in the ancient Book of Fermoy (Proc. R.I. A., 
IVESS. Ser. 25). Another version, differing in some particulars, 
is given by O'Curry, Lect. II., 326. 

CHAP. XXV.] The Cardinal Points. 455 

townlands of Deskart in Monaghan, and that of 
Diskirt in the parish of Ardclinis in Antrim. 

Deisiol [desshul] is another derivative from deas 
and signifies towards the right hand, or south- 
wards. Tlio Celtic people were — and are still — 
ncciistomed to turn sunwise, i. e. from left to right, 
in the performance of various rites, some of them 
religious, some merely superstitious : and the 
word deisiol was used to designate this way of turn- 
ing. This custom is very ancient, and like many 
other Irish customs, has descended from Pagan to 
Christian times. Toland notices it (Celtic llel. p. 
143) ; and Martin describes it as existing in his 
day among the Scotic people of the Hebrides 
(p. 20) . In Cormac's Glossary (voce prull) the spirit 
of poetry in the form of " a young man, kingly, 
radiant," is stated to have met Senchan Torpeist 
(chief poet of Ireland in the time of Guaire 
Aidhne lung of Connaught in the seventh century), 
find " then he goes sunwise (dossiiil) round Senchan 
atid his people.'' It was customary to carry the 
caf/iach, the sacred battle-book of the O'Donnells, 
three times from left to right round the army of 
the Kinel Connell before going to battle : and 
this ceremony was believed to ensure victory. 

The custom of turning sunwise as a religious 
observance was not confined to the Celts : for in the 
ancient classics we find nimierous allusions to it as 
observed by the Latins and Greeks (see Paper 
" On the Ceremonial Turn, called Dci.siid," by Sir 
Samuel Ferguson : Proc. R.I.A., June, 1876). 

Headers of Waverley will remember how the 
old leecli made the deasil by walking three times 
in the direction of the sun round the wounded 
Edward, before beginning his examination of the 
wound. Ijvon at lln's day the Irisli peasantry 
Avlieu they are burying their dead, walk at least 

456 The Cardinal Points. [ciiav. xxv. 

once — sometimes three times — roxuul llio gravo- 
yaid with the cofliu from left to right. From 
left to right is considered lucky ; the opposite 
direction, unlucky. 

There is a stone in a field a short distance to 
the south-west of Clonmacnoise, on which if you 
turn round on your heel with the sun, when you 
are ahout to leave Ireland, you will he sure to 
come hack to your native place alive and well. 
This stone is called Clogh-an-umpy, the stone of 
the turning. The latter part of this name is the 
Gaelic word iompodh [impo], which I will ex- 
amine here in connexion with deisiol, as tlie two 
are so often connected. 

Tempo in Fermanagh derives its name from the 
same custom. The f in the beginning- of this 
name is a part of tho article (see Tempo in 1st 
Volume), the name being- properly T-empo, of 
which empo is a good anglicised form of Iompodh. 
The full Gaelic name of the jjluce is An t-Ionipodli 
Dcisiol [An Tempo Deshul], "the [place of] 
turning right-hand-wise." There was a spot al. 
Tara, often spoken of in the ancient records, 
called Demol Teamhrach, tho Deisiol of Tara, 
which was considered a lucky spot, and where 
people were in the habit of turning- sunwise ; and 
there was also a Deisiol at Derry. 

The word deisiol enters into the name of Mo- 
deshil, a parish near Killenaule in the east of Tip- 
perary, the plain [magh represented by vio) of the 
deisiol. In the paiish of Tullyfern in Donegal, 
about four miles from tho villago of ]\Iillf()rd, 
there is a stone, locally very notorious, now lying- 
in a ditch by the roadside, called the Tempodeshil 
stone, a name exactly the same as that of the 
Fermanagh Tempo : and in connexion with the 
name the people of the place tell many legends. 

CHAT. XXV.] The Cardinal Points. 457 

The word iomjiodh alone — witliout the other 
term deisiol — is sometimes found in names. In 
the parish of Cleenish in Fermanagh, near the 
north shore of Upper Lough Macneau, there is a 
townhmd called Ballintcmpo, the town of the 
turning. And four miles west of Newcastle in 
Limerick, there is a mountain 1132 feet high 
called Knockanirapaha, the hill of the turning : 
this name exhibits the iLsual participial genitive 
form {iompoighthe) . Whether the turning com- 
memorated in the last two names was tlio deisiol 
turn I cannot determine : perhiips in the last 
name the turning was simply turning hark. This 
last idea seems to bo commcmorntcd in the name 
of the village of Ballinhassig a little south of Cork 
city. The local Gaelic name is very plain — Bdl- 
atha-an-chasaig [Bcllahanhassig] the ford or ford- 
mouth of the turning: casadli, turning, return- 
ing, or twisting : genitive casaig. But though, as 
I liavo said, the literal meaning of this name as 
well as that of Knockanimpaha, is very plain, the 
circumstances that gave rise to the two names are 
involved in obscurit}'. 

North. Tuaith [tooa] means properly the left 
hand ; and as deas is applied to the south, so this 
word is used to signify the north. About eleven 
miles due north from Ratass (p. 452), there is 
another parish with the corresponding name of 
Enttoo : — Hafh-titaidh, northern fort. It took its 
n.iino from a ratli ; but whether Batass andRalloo 
received their names by comparison one with 
another, or each with some other rath, I will not 
luidertake to determine. 

The word assurues various forms which are ex- 
emplified in the following names. There is a place 
cullcdXiltoy,(>no mile fiom TiOtterkonny inDonegnl, 
wliosc name is u corruption of the Irisli Cni-tuaidh, 

458 Various Circumstances, [chap, xxvi , 

iiorllicrn cool or back of a liill. Mncli the enme 
meaning has Tievctooey in the parish of Tem])le- 
carn in the same county, northern hill-side [tacbli) ; 
Oloontooa in Qalway and ]\rayo, northern meadow. 
Very often the first t is cliaiigiid to h by aspiration, 
as in Drumhoy in the parish of Aghavea in Fer- 
managh — Druiin-tJniai(//i,i)OY\]\ I'idgo. And in 
Cork and Kerry avo often find a hard // in tlie end ; 
as in Raheenyhooig near Dingle, HaiUunidlie-tltuaig 
northern little forts. 

Corresponding with deisceart, we have iuaisceart, 
— northern part or direction, which enters into the 
names of Cloontuskert and Clontiiskert, already 
quoted in First Volume. (See for ample illustra- 
tion of this word, Eeeves, Eccl. Ant. p. 71) 



Ireland. The oldest form of the native name is 
Eria, genitive JErcnn, dative Erinn. But in the 
ancient Latin and Greek forms of the name, the 
first syllable Er is represented by two syllables 
with a h, V, or w sound between two vowels : — 
Hiberio, Ilibernia, 'louernia (Ivernia), &c., — the 
first, Hiberio or Ihcrio, being the Latin form always 
found in our own most ancient native writings, 
such as St. Patrick's Confession, his letter to 
Coroticus, &c. Add to this that the Welsh and 
Breton names for Ireland are Ywerddon, Iwerdon, 
Iverdon. The inference is that Eriu is contracted 
from a still older native form Iheriu or Iveriu ; 
but for this we have no written authority. As to 
the meaning of this last form all is conjecture j but 

CHAP. XXVI.] Various Circumstances. 459 

Dr. Wliitley Stokes suggests that it may be con- 
nected with Sanscrit avara, posterior, western. 

The old native name Erru is always written 
Eire (pron. in two syllables) in modern Gaelic 
writiniv.s ; and this ga\'o rise <o the Anglo-Saxon 
name Jralaiid (i. c, tbc land of Jra or 7'.V/r), which 
has scdlcd doAAai to the modern form Ireland. 

There have been many other conjectures as to 
the meaning of the name Eire or Erin, but they 
are all unscientific and quite beneath serious 
notice. Our native writers have a legend to ac- 
count for the name, as they have for most of the 
important namesof the country : but these legends, 
though they may be valuable in other respects, 
are most of them worthless as authorities for ety- 
mology. The legend states that when the Milesians 
came to Ireland they found the country governed 
by three kings of the Dednnnans, who reigned in 
turn — Mae Coll, Mac Kcclit, and Mac Grena. Their 
throe queens were Eire, Fudla [Fola], and Banha; 
and from these the country was called by the three 
names Eire, Fodla, and Banha. As a matter of fact 
wo find Ireland very frequently called by the 
names Fodla and Banha in ancient as well as in 
modern native writings, but always in poetry. 
^y]lat the origin of these two names is it is now 
vain to conjecture. 

AnoHicr poetical name for Ireland was Tnisfail, 
which it received from the celebrated coronation 
Btono culled /'(// ['""!] ov Lia-Fdl, wliich was 
brought by the iJedannans to Ireland ; Inis-Fdil, 
the island of Fal or of Lia-Fdil. It was also called 
Scotia, whence the Irish were called Scots ; but 
for a full account of these two names see Scotia in 
first Volume. 

Contention. Dispules about land are of common 
occurrence in all countries where the pop\dation is 

460 Various Circumstances, [chap. xxvi. 

moderately dense, and wliere the majority of the 
people are engaged in agricultural piirsuita. In 
Ireland there have been plenty of such contentions, 
from the earliest historical times to the present day. 
AV^ehave a singular way of recording squal)ble.s of 
this kind, for the lands themselves often retain 
names indicating the feuds maintained by the ])ar- 
ties who disputed their possession. We see this 
in plain English in " Controversy," the name of 
a townland in the parish of Killoscully in Tip- 
perary ; and in " Controversy Land " in the 
north of Queen's County ; both of which are trans- 
lations of some of the Irish terms that follow. It 
is also seen in " Cla?npor Land," a place in the 
parish of Lower Cimiber in Derry, whose name 
means disputed land ; for elanipar is a wrangle or 
dispute. The same, and i'or a like reason, appears 
in Clamperpark near Athenry in Galway ; in 
Coolaclamper near Cahir in Tipperary {Cul, a hill- 
back) ; and in Clampernow in the parish of Clon- 
dermot in Derry, " new controversy," i. e., land 
Avhich had recently been the subject of dispute. 

Tmreas [innneras] means a controversy or dispute 
of any kind. There are fields in various parts of 
the south of Ireland called Parkanimerish, the held 
of the controversy — one for instance near Mitchels- 
towu in Cork ; Boulanimerish {hall a spot) is a place 
near Killorglin in Kerry; IMeenanimerishis situated 
fourmilesnorth-cast of Killybegsin Donegal (wt'<?^/ a 
mountain meadow) ; and Unnneras, which signilies 
simply contention, is the name of a towidand in the 
parish of Lackagh in Kildaro. A name very like 
these is Quintinmaniis near Dungannon, the first 
part of which is cohitin, controversy : — Manus's con- 
troversy or disputed land. 

Several other terms are used to express conten- 
tions, disputes, and squabbles of various kinds ; 

CHAP. XXVI.] Various Circumstances. 461 

but it would not be safe to assert tliat the land 
bearing tlie naine was itself, in every case, tbe siib- 
ject of tbe dispute. In some at least of the fol- 
lowing cases, we may assume that tlie name merely 
c()inmem()tai<>s n c<)ii(,cnti'(»ii ; but wliat it was all 
about it would now bo vain to conjecture. Near 
Lisnioro in Watcrford, thorc is a townland Avith 
the name of Knoclcacomorlish, the second part of 
which is a common Irish word, comortus, signifying 
emidation, comparison, or contention. Probably 
the inference to be drawn from this name is, that 
the little hill (kiwcJc) was the scene of peasant 
gatherings in former times, where the young men 
used to contend with cacli other in hurliug and 
other athletic games and sports. 

There is a townland in the parish of Templeport 
in Cavan, called Tullynaconspod, the hill of the 
controversy {consjMid). Trodan signifies a quarrel; 
and from this word we have the names of two 
]>laces in Annagh : — Oarricktroddan in the parish 
of Grange, and Bally troddan in the parish of 
Clonfeacle, the rock, and the townland, of the 
quarrel or strife. 

The word fog lie r we know generally signifies a 
causeway ; but in a few cases it represents the 
Irish word tachor, a battle or skirmish. The Carn- 
togher mountains in Uerry took their name from 
some particular hill with a earn on its suimnit ; 
and that from a battle fought round it at some 
unknown time, all record oL" which is lost except 
the old name, which Colgan writes Carn-tachair, 
battle mound. It is not improbable that the earn 
may have been erected in commemoration of the 
battle. There is a place near the town of Roscom- 
mon now called Cloontogher ; but the natives, 
when speaking Irish call it, not Cluaiii-idchair, 

4G2 Various Circiumtances. [chap, xxvi 

but Cluain-tachah' ; and here we may conclude 
with certainty that the cloon or meadow was the 
scene of some memorable fight. The village of 
Ballintogher in Sligo is mentioned three times by 
the Four Masters ; at 156G they give the name 
Baile-an-tdcliair, the town of the causeway, which 
the present name corre(;(ly represents ; but on two 
other occasions they call it Bel-an-tac/utir, the ford- 
mouth of the battle. It is very unusual for the 
annalists to contradict themselves in the spelling 
of a name ; and perhaps we may suspect that in 
these records different places are meant. 

The Miskish mountains near Castletown Bear- 
haven in Clork, took their name from one particidar 
hill, called {Slievo Miskish, the mountain of enmity. 
The word itiioacuis (tlio sound of which is exactly 
represented by Miskisli) signilies enmity, spile, or 
hatred {mismis, odium ; Z. 740) ; and this name 
would seem to indicate that the possession of the 
mountain was long and bitterly disputed by two 
neighbouring clans or proprietors. 

Dunglow in Donegal took its name from a fight 
or contention of some kind. The present village 
was originally called Cloghanlea (grey docjhaii or 
stepping-stones) ; the real Dunglow lies a little 
distance off ; hut a good many years ago, a fair 
which was hehl there was transferred to Cloghan- 
lea, as a more convenient place; and the name fol- 
lowed the fair. The latter syllable of the name— 
Irish glco — signifies noisy contention or tumult ; 
and Dunglow means the fort of contention or strife. 

Other contentious ninues are Lisnahedeina, 
which designates two townlands lying a little 
south-west of 13ailicborougli in Cavan, the fort of 
the ambuscade {eadarnaidJi) ; and Gortatrassa in the 
parish of KiUuran, in the barony of TuUa, Clare, 

CHAP. XXVI.] Various Circumstances. 463 

the gort or field of the conflict {treas, genitive 

Covenant. There are two townlauds in Leitrim 
called Conray, and one named Conrea in Mayo ; in 
llieso places the disputes must have terminafed 
in a pacific manner ; for the name represents tlio 
Irish word cunnradli, a covenant or treaty. "VVe 
have a name of this kind in the county Wicklow, 
which is very satisfactorily explained in some of 
our old books, for it originated in a historical 
event. The following account is taken from an 
ancient historical tale called "The Battle of 

In 598, A.D,, was fought the terrible battle of 
Danbolg near Hollywood in Wicldow (see p. 196, 
supra), between Bran Dubh, king of Leinster, and 
Hugh !Mac Ainmire, monarch of Ireland, in which 
the latter was slain and his army routed. Some 
time before the battle Bran Dubh went up on the 
higli grounds Avith a strong detachment, to recon- 
noitre tlic royal army; and on Sliovo NecJitan, a 
mountain overlooking tlic ])lain of Kildare, he fell 
in with a considerable band of Ulidians, who had 
come from their own piovince to the assistance of 
Hugh. Bran Dubh immediately took them pri- 
soners, and ultimntely persuaded them to join his 
own army, and fight against the king of Ireland. 
Whereupon both parties entered into a solemn 
treaty of friendship ; in commemoration of which 
they erected a earn on the mountain, and cliangcd 
its name from Slieve Nechtan to Slieve Cadaigh, 
the mountain of the covenant. It is a large and 
conspicuous moimtain rising over the left of the 
road as you go from Hollywood to Donard, about 
midway between them ; and it is still well known 
by the nan\c, in the slightly altered form of Slievo 
Gadoe; but it is sometimes called Church Moun- 

464 Various Circumstances [ciiAr. xxvi. 

tain, from a liillo cluircli ruin, with a lioly well 
near it, s(uucling' on its summit. 

Jtidcjment. There is a place called Drumal'agagh 
in the county Roscommon, fovir miles east of Bal- 
linasloe. The word ealagach signifies nohle : — 
readers of early Irish history will rememher that 
Inis-cahja, noble island, was one of the ancient 
bardic names of Ireland ; but in the neighbour- 
hood of the place in question, the people under- 
stand the term in the sense of " just " — the ridge 
of justice or equity. Accordingly the chief resi- 
dence in the townland is now universally called 
Mount Equity. Perhaps we may bo permitted to 
conjecture that in old times somecelel)rated broltons 
(or judges) lived there ; and if this were so, 
the present name would bo singularly a])j)i'oi)rialo. 
Anyhow we may be suro that this was tlie case in 
IJallynabrehon, now the name of two townlands 
near Claremorria in Mayo ; the Gaelic name of 
which is Baile-na-mbreathamhaiii, the town of the 
brehons or judges. 

Slaughter. In and near the town of Urlingford 
in Kilkenny, the people have a very vivid tradition 
of a great battle fought round the spot where the 
little river now crosses the road imder a bridge at 
the town. The account states that a king of Ossory 
led a plundering expedition into Tipperary ; and 
that when returning with immense herds of cattle 
and spoils of every kind, he was pursued by the 
vengeful Munster army under a leader named 
Finn, and overtaken at the ford, where there was 
then no bridge. J lore a dreadful battle was fought ; 
the Ossorians were ultimatel}'^ driven back, and the 
Munstermen recovered the spoils; and the slaughter 
was so great that the stream was impeded in its 
course by the heaps of slain. 

There can be little doubt that this tradition ia 

cEiAP. xxvi.] VarioHH Circumstances, 465 

founded on fact ; for it is corroborated by the name 
of the town, which is called in Irish Ath-na- 
mirlaidhc [Ah-na-noorly], the ford of the slaugli- 
ters ; and the present name is a half translation of 
this : — TJrlingford, i. e. slaughter-ford. The same 
word arlaidh, orlaidh, urlaidh, appears in Kinarla in 
the parish of Rossorry in Fermanagh ; and in 
Ballyorley in the parish of Kilcormick in Wexford, 
the first signifying the head or hill, and the second 
tlic town, of slaughter. 

Martyrs. The word nmrtra, which literally sig- 
nifies martyrdom, is borrowed from Greek through 
Latin ; but it has been long naturalised in Irish. 
It was sometimes applied to any place where there 
was a Tuassacre or shmghter : and of this there is 
a very good example in an ancient poem quoted by 
O'Ourry in his lectures (II. 344) : the poem relates 
that Ninde, prince of Tirconnell, now Donegal, 
made a predatory incursion into Connaught, but 
(hat ho WHS ovortiiI<(>n aud dcifonted witli gi'(Mit 
shiuglitor, at the old cataract of Eas-dara or iJally- 
sadare : — 

' Ten hundred heads of the Conallians 
Was their loss ere they reached Eas-dara , 
The defeat of the flood we gave 
To Ninde and liis shouting hosts ; 
We changed the name of the cold cataract ; 
From thenceforth it is called Martra." 

But the word sometimes means " relics " (of 
martyrs ?) ; and this may be its meaning in some 
local names. 

There are a good many places scattered here 

and there through the country, whose names con- 

<nin (his woj-d : ;uul at several of (hem (he people 

s(ill rc(aiu dim (radi(ions of nuissacres in olden 

vol,. II, 31 

466 Various Cii'cumsfances. [ctiat. xxvi. 

limes. One of tlie besL luiown is Caslloniaiiyr in 
Cork, wliose proper name is Bally nainarlru — for 
so it is written in the Annals of tlio Four ]\[asters, 
and in the Depositions of 1652 — signifying the 
town of the martyrdom or slaughter. A town- 
land in the parish of Witter in Down has much 
the same name — Ballymarter — which has a similar 
meaning and origin. Two miles west of Macroom 
in Cork is Kilnamartry, now the name of a parish, 
the church of the massacre, or of the relics. The 
simple word has given names to Martara in Xerry, 
to Martray in Tyrone, and to Martry in Clare, 
Meath, and Roscommon ; and we may I suppose 
apply to some or all of tlu^se the cxplanal ion given 
of the name Martra in the above quotation, that 
each place was at h(hmo fornusr iimo tho hcuuo of a 
massacre of some kind. 

The soul. I am greatly puzzled to accoimt for 
names — of which there are several — containing 
the word ancwi, the soul (gen, anma : the Lat. aniina, 
borrowed) ; such, for instance, as l^illananima in 
the parish of Killanummery in Leitrim, whose 
original form there can be no question about, for 
the Four Masters write it Culll-un-cuinia, the wood 
of the sold; and Killynaiuim in the parish of 
Denn in Cavan, which has the same meaning. 
Some believe that places with such names were 
bequeathed to some church or monastery for the 
soul's health of the donor or of some relative ; 
while others again assert (hat the names originated 
in ghosts. But this is all conjocturo ; and I will 
give a few examples of such names, Avithout being 
able to throw any further light on the matter. 

There is a place called Xnockananima in the 
j)arish of Killukin, in the north of Ilosconmion: — 
Cnoc-an-cuuna, tho hill of the soul. Drunnnouum 
{druim, a hill-ridge) is a townland near the town 

CHAP. XXVI.] Various Circumstances. 4G7 

of Cavan ; Annaghananara {eanach, a marst) in 
the parish of Desertcreat in Tyrone ; Ballinanima 
near Kilfinane in Limerick, and Balljnianania in 
other places : — Baile-^n-anma, the town of the soul. 
I could quote many other names containing this 
word anam. 

! Festive gatherings. When we meet with local 
names formed from the words for certain seasons, 
festivals, or days of the week, we may, I think, 
fairly conclude that the peasantry were formerly 
in the hahit of meeting at tlioso places at the times 
indicated, for the celchration of games or festivals. 
I have nlrcndy enumerated many names of this 
kind (1st Vol., Tart II,, c. vi.), and I will hero 
instance a few more, quite as interesting. 

In many parts of Ireland the young people used 
to meet on Easter Sunday or Easter Monday and 
amuse themselves with various sports and pastimes ; 
but the custom has nearly died out. We find 
thoso mootings Romoliinos comiiuMuorutcd hy tho 
word cch\sc [causkj, signifying Easter, which is 
merely a loan-word from Latin pnsc/in, Avith tho 
usual change from^? to c, as in curcur irom purpura . 
Near Abbeydorney in Kerry is a place called 
Knocluiacaska, the hill of Easter. There is a little 
island in the river Shiven in Galway, two miles 
above its jimction with the Suck, called Island 
Causk, which has left its name on the adjacent 
bridge. Laghtcansk, Easter /aght or sepulchral 
mound, lies near Elpliin in Rosconnnon ; Boolana- 
causk in the parish of Killeely in Clare, and Mul- 
lanacask in the parish of Errigle Trough in 
Monaghan, the dairy place {hoolcy) and the hill- 
summit {mu//ach) of l^^aster. There is a townland 
near thovilliigo of S(i(>otiTi W(\stinoath called Cor- 
nacausk ; and another in Galway, near Athlcaguo. 
called Cornacask ; both signify the round hill ol' 

^108 Various Oirciimsfanccs. [on vv. xxvi. 

Easter ; and the latter has the alias luinie — not 
quite correct though — of Jllasterfield. 

I suppose the youths and maidens used to retire 
on Saturdays to the shore of the lonely lake of 
Coomasaharn — or as it is usually and correctly 
called by the peasantry, Coomataharn — eight 
miles east of Oahersiveen in Kerry, and refresh 
themselves with a merry-making after the week's 
toil: — Ciim-a'-tsaihairn, the valley of Saturday. 
So also with Aghataharn in the parish of Agha- 
more in the east of Mayo, Achadh-a'-tsathaim, 
Saturday field, the eclipsing t of this name being 
preserved on the Ordnance ]\f aps, as it ought to be. 

We find spring and summer often commemo- 
rated in this manner ; but here we may piobably 
conclude that the places wore so called from their 
warm and sunny aspect, or because the leaves be- 
came green or the flowers began to bloom sooner 
than elsewhere in the neighbourhood. There is a 
place in the parish of Ardcarn near Lougli Key in 
Roscommon, called Derreenanarry — Doir'm-an- 
earraigh, the little oak-grove of spring : earrach, 
spring; Lat, ver ; Qv. ear: and in the parish of 
Drumlease in Leitrim is a townland called Fawn- 
arry, ihafcin or slope of spring. 

Our word for summer is samhradh [sowra], 
corresponding with German sommer, lilng. summer. 
Near Oldcastle in Meath is a place called Drum- 
sawry, with the alias name of Sumraerbank, 
which is sufficiently correct [druim, a hill-ridge) ; 
and this was the old name of the village of Sura- 
merhill in the same county, as appears from the 
Down Survey map, and other old documents. 
The same name appears witli a different anglicised 
form in Drumhawragh in the parish of Drum- 
luraman in Cavan, north-west of Lough Sheelin ; 
in this name the s of samhradh is -nspirated to h. 

CHAP. XXVI.] Various Circumstances, 469 

In the north of Ireland tlie aspirated m is usually 
restored to its primitive sound, as we find in Lur- 
gantamry in the parish of Donaghcloney in Down, 
{lurgan, a long low hill) ; in which also the s is 
eclipsed by t, as commonly happens in other names. ^ 
This change, and the south JMuiistcr iinul g sound, 
are both exemplified in Maughantoorig in the 
parish of Kilcummin, north-east of Killarne}'^, 
which very well represents the sound of the Irish 
Macha-an-tsamhraig, the farm-yard of summer ; 
and there is a small lake with this same name, one 
mile south of the village of Killorglin in the same 
county. It is highly probable that the people 
used to feed their cattle, and live themselves, in 
iheso places dui'ing the smnmer half year, which 
was formerly a connnon practice in many parts 
of Ireland (see "booley" in 1st Vol.) ; and that 
this circumstance gave rise to the names. 

Night : Gloom. In the parish of ClooncrafE 
in the east of Roscommon, five miles north of 
Strokestown, is a townland and a demesne called 
Cloonahee, which, when exhibited in its original 
form is a very strange name. The Four Masters 
call it Cluain-na-hoidhche [Cloon-na-heeha], the 
meadow of the night. It is hard to imagine what 
could have given rise to such a name as this. 
Moreover it does not stand alone ; for there is a 
townland in the parish of Clonrush in the south- 
east corner of Qalway, not far from the shore of 
Ijouglv Derg, called Uerrainy, which, according 
to local proiumcialion, is corrupted from Doirean- 
oidhchc [Derran-ccha], the little oak-grove of 
night : and a little island in the southern end of 
Lough Carra in Mayo, near the western shore, is 
called Ijcnmnahye, or in Gaelic, as pronounced 
wilh p(M-fcct cloiirnoss in the localHy, LiHtn-na- 
hoiiilicIiVy the leap oT Iho night. A more siiigubir 
name still is Lishecnvicnahcoha which designates 

470 Vcirmts Circumstances, [ctiap. xxvi. 

a townland in tlio parisli of Tluan in Claro, a littlo 
oast of Corrotin, a peifcclly plain name as it 
stands, the little fort (iis/iccn) of the son of the 
night. The same personal name appears in Bal- 
licknahee, a townland in the north of King's 
County, about a mile from the village of Clara, 
i.e. Baile-mlnc-na-JioidhcJie, the town of the son of 
the night {ni of mac omitted, as in l^alUchmoylcr : 
p. 144). Ilere there seems to have been a family 
named Mac-na-hOidlcche, or Mac Knee, from which 
the townland had its name. AYhy a man was 
called Mac-na-hoidhche, " Son of the night," it 
would be vain to conjecture. 

Perhaps there is some community of idea be- 
tween the preceding names — or some of them — 
and the following. Woods, bogs, &c., are some- 
times designated by the word doUhir [dohcr], dark 
or gloomy, or as a noun, darkness or gloom. There 
is a townland in the parish of Coolaghmore in 
Kilkenny, about two miles from Callan, near the 
boundary with Tipperary, called Kyleadoher ; and 
another called Kyleaduhir near it on the Tipperary 
side of the boundary : both are anglicised from 
CoiU-a'-doithir, the Avood of blackness or gloom. 
In another part of I'ipperary — in the ])arish of 
Donohill, north-cast of the town of Tipperary — 
is a townland called Moandoherdagh, gloomy bog : 
doitheardach, gloomy (for dach =■ tach, see p. 8). 

Household. The land set apart for the mainte- 
nance of the household troops of a king or chief 
was of ten called i»cA^-^/y///6' [Lugh-tee], i.e. people 
of the house, commonly anglicised Loughteo or 
Lough ty: litcht, people; tencli, genitive tiylte, a 
house. For instance, in the barony of Monaghan, 
county of Monaghan, there was a district called 
Loughtee-Mac-Mahon which maintained the house- 
hold troops of Mac ISIahon of Farney, The only 

CHAP. XXVI.] Various Circumstances. 471 

territory that preserves this old name to the pre- 
sent day is in Cavan, forming the two baronies of 
Upper and Lower Ijoughtee, which are said to 
have derived their name from an old manor in the 
pavisli of Drumlane. 

iS//nod. The Irish borrowed the word sf/nodus 
from the Latin in the early ages of Christianity ; 
and the form it assumed iiv the Irish language was 
senad or scnud. One of the raths at Tara was 
called Rath-senaid, synod fort, from the fact 
that three ecclesiastical meetings were held on it, 
at (lilfcrcnt times, by the three great saints, 
Patricik, Brendan, and Adamiian. There is an 
island in Upper Lougli Erne Avhose ancient name 
was tSoiad, i.e. synod (island); but why it got this 
name there seems no means of finding out. It was 
for a long time in possession of the family of 
Mac Mauus, and hence it is usually called in the 
annals, Sentid Mac Manus ; but this old name has 
been long obsolete, and the island is now called, 
on account of its beauty, Belle-Isle. 

This island is a classical spot, for it was here 
the Annals of Ulster were compiled by Cathal 
Mac Manus, who, besides being a very learned 
man and a great historian, kept a house of hospi- 
tality on the island, where he died of smallpox, 
according to the Four Masters, a.d. 1498. It 
was O'Donovan who first identified Belle-Isle with 
Sonrul Mac ]\1nnuR — a, mere unit of liis innume- 
rablo discoveries in Irish historical tojiography ; 
and I wish very much that Mr. Porter, the present 
proprietoi', would restore tlio old name. 

The only place in Irelaiul that I am aware of, 
now bearing a name derived from this word, is 
Shanid near tShanagoldenin Limerick, remarkable 
for its liu(^ (•asil(^ ruins, perched on tin* sunnnit of 
a liill. This castle was one of the seats of tho 

472 Variom Cirmm stances, [chap. xxvi. 

earls of Desmond — the powerful Fiiy.;^orMl(ls— and 
it was from this tliat one Lruiich of the faiiiily 
adopted the war-cry of Shanid Ahoo which is 
still the motto of the Knight of Glin; while the 
Leiuster branch, represented by the ])uke of Lein- 
ster, retains the motto, Crom-aboo, from the castle 
of Groom in the same county. 

A co/iiiNon. Thv (•()nim()na<5;es so generally mot 
with near villages, not only in Ireland, but also 
in England and Scotland, are designated in this 
country by several terms, the most usual being 
coitcMonn [cutteen] : coifchcn, coimnune : Z. 179. 
The simple word gives name to several places in 
the south, now called Cutteen ; to Cottian in Done- 
gal ; and to Cautheen in Tipperary. The jjlural 
is seen in Cutteanta in Sligo (commons) ; and we 
have the word in combination in Ardcotten near 
Ballysadare in Sligo, which signifies the height of 
the commonage. 

Proud. I have already noticed the name of 
Benburb (proud peak — see 1st Vol.), and that of 
the Uallaeh or " Proud River " at Gleugarriff. 
It is curious that the Irish terms for " proud " 
or " pride " often enter into local names ; but 
Afhether the places got such names from their 
commanding position, like Denbtub, or from some 
great and strong fortress, or from belonging to a 
powerf id family, or from some other circumstance, 
it is now I fear beyond our power to discover. 

The word most generally employed is uabhur 
[oover, oor], which means pride ; and it is usually 
anglicised orer, owcr, or ore ; but it iccjuires care to 
distinguish the meaning of ihe last syllable, for it 
may also mean gold (see p. 3G1). About the original 
form and meaning of Donore in ]\Ieath, we can 
have no doubt, for the Four Masters write it 
Dun-tiahhair the fort of pride. Even without tlie 

CHAP. XXVI.] Various Circumstances. 473 

help of the aimaJists we could tell that ore here 
means " pride," and not "gold;" for the peasantry 
of the ncighhourhood still call the place Donover 
Other ])]nce3 in various parts of the country are 
ciilh^d Donoro, ])()iioiii(\, Doouoor, Doonour, Doon- 
o re, and Dunover, all having the same meaning. 
There is a place in the parish of Killerry in Sligo, 
called Casdcore, whose correct name, Caislen-an- 
uahliair, the castle of pride, is also preserved by 
the Four Masters. We have a name correspond- 
ing to this in Galway — Cloghanower {clock, stone 
or stone castle). Lissanover is the name of a place 
in the parish of Killeany in Galway, and of 
another near the village of JJawnboy in Cavan, a 
name which corresponds with Donore. liegarding 
Lissanover in Cavan, the people have a tradition 
that the castle was in former days held by a chief- 
tain named Magauran, who was a mei'ciless tyrant ; 
and they tell that on one occasion he slew a priest 
on the altar for beginning Mass before he had ar- 
rived. This is Ix^lieved by tho inhabitants to have 
given origin to the name — Lios-an-uabhair, the 
fort of pride. 

The Avord uallach is exhibited in Cuilleenoolagh, 
the proud little wood, which is appKed to a hill, 
formerly wooded, and to a townland, in the parish of 
Dysart in Roscommon. Diomas [deeraas] is another 
Irish word for pride. There was a celebrated 
chieftain of the O'Neills in the time of ]<]li/,abeth, 
who, on account of tjio lof(y liaughtiness of his 
character, was called SJiane-an-diomais, John the 
proud. From this word is formed the name of 
O'Dioniasaigh or Dempsey, a family deriving their 
name from a progenitor who was called Dioniasach, 
i. e. proud. The word appears in the name of 
Dordinms, a iownland about three miles south-west 
of Kilkenny, Doire-diomais, the oak-grove of pride. 

474 Variom Circumstances, [ctiap. xxvi. 

Cfmve. There is a townlaiul near Darrynane 
Abbey in Kerry, eallcd Coatl, which has giveu its 
uarae to a mountain and a lake ; and another 
towrdand of the same name is situated near Cor- 
rofin in the county Clare. There is some un- 
certainty about the original form of this name ; 
but I believe that it is comlifhod [coad], a bed or 
grave. In a passage of tlie DmnseneliHS, trans- 
lated by Mr. O'Beirne Crowe (Kilk. Arch. 
Jour., 1872, p. 150), the dwarf's grave at Tara is 
called in one place, cuhhad, and a little farther on 
comhfod. Mr. Crowe thinks that both are forms 
of the Latin cubitus; but it may be doubted 
whetlicr this applies to the second at least, for it 
is an intelligible Irish word as it stands, formed 
from comh (Lat. con), and,/r;r/a, long: — co)itJtJbd, 
" as long as" [the human body], a very natural 
and expressive term for a grave or tomb. Coad 
in Clare is called comhad by the Four ]\Iasters (V. 
p. 1365) ; but here they have omitted the aspir- 
ated _/', as they appear to have been doubtful of 
the etymology. There is an old graveyard in the 
Kerry Coad, with a large stone standing on it, 
round which the people often pray ; and the grave 
marked by this old monument is probably the 
original comhfhod from which the townland takes 
its name. 

River qualities. Many of the qualities by which 
Irish rivers have been designated, have been 
noticed incidentally in various parts of this aiul 
the preceding volume ; and I will hero add a few 
more. iJivcus oi'teu receive names from the mau- 
ner in which they flow, whether quickly or slowly, 
straight or curved, &c. There is a considerable 
stream in Wexford, joining the Bann, three miles 
west of Gorey, called the Lask, which is a very 
expressive name, for it is the Irish word lease, lazy 

CHAP. XXVI.] Various Circumstances. 475 

The word dian, strong or vehement, has given 
name to several rivers. The river Dinin in Kil- 
kenny, which joins the Nore above the city, is 
subject to sweeping and destructive floods ; so that 
it is }nost accurately described by its name Deinm, 
a diminutive form signifying vehement or strong 
river. The little river I)inin joins the Nore at 
I>orris in Carlow ; and the Dccuagh — the name of 
which is an arlicctive form with the same meaning 
— runs into the lower lake of Killarney near the 

The Lingaun river in Kilkenny flows east- 
ward from the slope of Slievenaman ; it runs at all 
times very rapidly, a character which is exactly 
expressed by tlie name : — ling to spring or 
leap forward ; Lingaun, the leaping or bounding 

Rough. The most common term for the quality 
of roughness or coarseness is garhh, of which the 
tiRual anglicised forms are garri//' and gnrve. The 
word is often applied (o <ho surface of tlie ground, 
as in Parle garrilf and Parkgarve, rough field, 
which are the Jiaines of several places in Cork, 
Waterford, and Galway. It is also a frequent 
component in the names of rivers, of which 
Glashgarriff, Glashagarriff, and Owengarve — 
rough stream or river — Avhich are the names of 
many strcwms in the south and west, may be 
taken as examples. It is applied to a person — to 
express probably roughness or rudeness of man- 
ner or character — in ToberagarrifE, in the parish 
of Abington in Limerick, Tcbar-a' -ghairbh, the 
well of the rough (man). 

Other and less usual anglicised forms are seen 
in Garracloon in Clare, Galway, and Mayo, Garry- 
clone and Garrycloyno in Cork and Waterford, 
all from Garbh-chluam, rough meadow, which is 

476 Various Circumstances, [chat xxvi. 

the same as Oloongarve in Glare, only with the 
root words reversed. There are several places in 
Leinster, Munster, and Connaught, called Gar- 
bally, which is generally interpreted short-town 
{(jcarr, p. 417) bnt which sometimes means rough 
town. In one case, however, it has a different 
interpretation, viz. in Garbally in the parish of 
Moylough in Gahvay, where there was in old 
times a castle of the O'Kellys ; in mentioning 
this castle the Four Masters give the true name, 
Oarhh-dhoire, rough oak-wood, which should have 
been anglicised Garderry. 

The diminutive Garvoge is often used to desig- 
nate coarse cloth ; and it is also the name of a 
townland in Kildare, meaning in this case a 
rugged spot of land. 

Oarrac/i is rugged, rough; swarthy or scabby us 
applied to a person. In local names it is almost 
always anglicised carragh or corragh, of which 
Slievecorragh and Slievecarragh, rugged^mountain, 
the names of several hills, may be taken as ex- 

Aimhreidh [avrea] has several shades of mean- 
ing, all derivable from what is indicated by the 
composition of the word : — aimJt. a negative prefix 
and reidJi, open or smooth — i. e. .not clear or open 
— uneven, rugged, difficult, intricate, &c. 
O'Dugan (p. 40), applies the word to the territory 
of Kinel- Conn ell, now the county of Donegal : — 
^'Aimhreidh fonn anfini sin " — rugged is the land 
of that tribe. Perhaps the best known example of 
its topographical a])plication is Lackavrea, the 
name of a remarkable mountain lising over 
Lough Corrib at its western arm, near the Hen's 
Castle : Leac-aimhreidh, the rough or complicated 
flagstone ; for it is formed of quartzose lock which 

CHAP. XXVI.] Various Oircumstances. 477 

presents a peculiarly rough surface.* This moun- 
tain is also called Corcoge (which means a heehive) 
from its shape. 

The word stands by itself as the name of a 
townland in the barony of Farney in Monaghan, 
two miles from the village of Shercock in Cavan ; 
this place is now called Ouvry, but in 1G55 it was 
called Eaverio, which fairly represents the pro- 
nunciation of the original. t There is a small 
island olf the coast of Connemara, between Mac 
Dara's Island and Mason Island, called Avery, 
another form of Aimhrcidh ; for it consists wholly 
of rugged rocks which are washed by the waves 
in storms. A river floAVS into Blacksod Bay in 
Mayo, which is called Owenavrea, rough river. 
And in Tarrca in the parish of Killeenavarra in 
Galway, near the village of Kinvarra, we have 
an example of a ^ prefixed under the influence of 
the article : — an taimhreidh the rough land, like 
Tardreo for Ardr(in (see this in lat Vol.). 

Hard. The word cruadh [croo] hard, is some- 
times found forming a part of local names, and 
it is used in all such coses to designate hard sur- 
faced land, a soil difficult to till on account of 
tough clay, surface rocks, &c. A good example 
is Ciirgacroy in the parish of Drumbo in Down, 
Cairrge-cruadha, hard rocks. Mullaghcroy near 
Castletowndelvin in Westmeath, signifies hard 
summit; Crooderry near Bojde in Roscommon, 
hard dcrry or oalc-wood, or the hard place of the 

Afhca. No one woidd ever suspect the origin 
of the name of the village of Athea in Limerick 
from its present form ; and the inquirer would 

* Rro 0. TT. KinnhiiM, Ksq., in Sir W. R. Wildo's LourIi 
Corril) p. 'Ji;, i«itp. 

t Hco lliis iiamo in Shirley's " Bnrony of Farnoy." 

478 Various Circumstances. [chai*. xxvi. 

not. be mucli enlighicnocl evon by the popular 
pronunciation in Irish — Awtliay. But there is a 
little old ruined church near the village, whose 
Irish name removes the dilliculty ; for tl>e people 
call it Thoiimpul Awthlay (the church of Athlea or 
Athea). Here there is an / after the ^A, which, 
curiously enough, is not inserted in the name of 
the village itself; and this / makes the whole 
thing q\iite plain ; for according to the southern 
pronunciation, Aivthlay is the phonetic representa- 
tive of Ath-a' -tsleibhe the ford of the mountain, 
as Ballintlea is reduced from Baik-an-tsleibhe (see 
this in Ist Vol.). The ford stood where the bridge 
now spans the river Galcy ; and the mountain 
from which it was designated is Knockathea, or 
the hill of Athea, rising over the village. 

Blessing. Between the town of lloscommon 
and Lough Eee, there is a stream called the Banew. 
The people have a tradition that tlie monlvs of the 
abbey of Inchcleraun in Lough llee were in former 
days in the habit of meeting those of Roscommon, 
at this stream; and from the salutations exchanged 
between them at meeting and parting, the river 
got its name: — heanniighadh [bannooa] i.e. blessing 
or salutation. 

BcannacJit — old form henclacht — a blessing, is 
merely the Latin henedictio, borrowed in tlie eai'ly 
ages of Christianit}'^, and softened down by con- 
traction and aspiration ; from which again is 
derived the verb heannaigh, to bless, and the verbal 
noun hcannnghadh, just mentioned. This last is 
not unfrequently found in place-names ; and it is 
probable that in the greater number of such cases 
there are local traditions connected with the names, 
something like that of the river Banew. 

In the wild district south-east of Cahirsiveen, 
there is a lonely valley shut in by hills and 

CHAP. XXVI.] Various Circumstances. 479 

precipices, called Coomavaimiha, a name which 
exactly conveys the sound of the Irish Ciim-a'- 
hheanimi(jhthe the valley of the blessing. A little 
pool at the western base of Sugarloaf mountain near 
(i|lengarri(T in \\\o snino comity, is called Tobcr 
avanaha, tlic well of the blessing ; but hero Ave may 
look for the origin of the name in one of the iiinu- 
merablo legends connected with holy wells. There 
is an ancient and very remarkable stone in the 
parish of Moore in Roscommon, called Clogher- 
banny, tlie blessed or consecrated stone. A name 
exactly the snmo as tliis — except tliat clocJi, the 
common word for a stone, is used instead of clochnr 
— is Clobanna, three miles north of Thurles in 

Cursing. But it must be confessed that we have 
a far greater nimiber of names from cursings than 
from blessings. The word that is commonly used 
in forming names of this kind is niallacht, signi- 
fyiuga curso ; its old form is maldacJtt, which was 
derived from the Latin makdictio, like hcndacht 
from hcncdictio. It is hard to know what gave 
origin to such names. Possibly they may have 
been the scenes of massacres or strife, or of bitter 
feuds carried on between the neighbouring hostile 
clans or families. Connected with some of them 
are popular traditions, which, if they are worth 
very little — as many of them undoubtedly are — 
indicivlo at least what tlio people would consider a 
natural and sullicicnt explanation of names of this 
kind. Such is the Kerry legend about the little 
niountnin stream, Owennmnallnght. flowing into 
Tralce ]^)ay near Castlcgregory, which, it is to 
bo f(\aved indeed, was invented in late times to 
nccouut for the name. The people will tell you 
(liat ou a <>orlain occasion, Mhen St. Patrick was 
passing through this part of Ivcrry, ho ran short 

i80 Various Circumsfances. [cifap. xxvi. 

of provisions, and requostod tlio iislicnncu to ^ivo 
him soiuo of tlio fish ilioy liiul just caught in the 
river. But they refused him in a very churlish 
and offensive manner ; whereupon he pronounced a 
curse on the river, and predicted that no iish shouhl 
be found in it for evermore. And accordingly 
(here is no fish in it — so at least the people say. 

I coidd enumerate more than a dozen nauK^s 
containing this word niallacht ; but as it is hardly 
ever corrupted — except that occasionally it loses 
the final t — a few illustrations will be sufficient. 
There is a small village in Gal way, situated on 
the Owendalulagh river, where it flows from the 
slopes of Slieve Aughiy ; it takes its name, IJelhi- 
namallaght, from an ancient ford, the Irish name 
of which was Bel-atlia-na-maUacht, theford-moulli 
of the curses. Ballynamallaglit in the north of 
Tyrone is evidently a corruption of the same Irish 
name, and was so called from the ohl ford on the 
Burn Dennet, which is now spanned by the village 
bridge. Another name like these is Aghna- 
mallagh near the town of Monaghan, the original 
form of Avhich was Ath-na-mallit(jlit, the ford of the 
curses. But in Aghnamallaght, three miles north of 
Roscommon, the first syllable {(igh) signifies a field. 

There is a townland giving luime to a lake, five 
miles north-west of Ballyhaunis in Mayo, called 
Carrownamallaght, the quarter-land of the male- 
dictions, which, as well indeed as the last name, 
may have been a bone of contention between iwo 
neighbouring rivals. Barnanamallaght {hcarna, 
a gap between hills) is a place in Ibe north ot 
Glare, about four miles south-east of Ballyvagliau; 
we have Drummallaght {drum, a hill-ridge) near 
Bally jamesdulf in Cavan ; and Cloghnaniallaght 
in the parish of Monamolin in Wexford, corres- 
pondis with Clobanna, mentioned at page 479. 

CHAP XXVI.] Various Circumstances. 481 

Old. It appears difficult to account for tJie 
application of the wordsean [shan], old, to certain 
natural features ; for so far as history or tradition 
is concerned, one mountain, or river, or valley, 
cannot be older than another. Yet wo have Shan- 
ow, Shannow, and Shauowen (old river), all 
common river names, especially in the soiith ; 
there are many places called Shandrum (old ridge) 
and Shanaknock (old hill), the former sometimes 
made Shandrim, and the latter Shancrock : Shan- 
tulla and Shantullig, old tulach or hill. 

It is probable that scan in such names refers to 
use : — a river was called Shanowen, because the 
people had been from time immemorial living, 
fishing, or boating on it ; a hill got the name of 
Shandrum because it was inhabited, cultivated, or 
grazed, long before any other in the neighbour- 
hood. They use the word very much in this sense 
in the west and south : thus Shannafreaghoge in 
the parish of Rahoon in Galway, the old or famous 
place for freaghoges, hurts, or whortleberries ; 
Shanavagoon a little south of Castlemartyr in 
Cork, an odd name, signifying literally " old 
bacon ; " but the real meaning is probably the old 
place for pigs or bacon. 

The following names and many others like them, 
originated in a similar way : — Shangort, old field, 
in Galway and Mayo ; Shanmoy in Tyrone, old 
]>lain ; Shannghy in several counties, old field ; all 
names imj)lying that the places had been longer 
under cultivation than the surrounding land. 

It is easy enough to account for such names as 
Shauafona in the parish of Duagli in Kerry, old 
pound ; * Shanawillen in Kerry, old mill {muilenn) ; 

* In connection with this name, I may remark thatth,e word 
jnhm,, a pound, ia found in other namop, as for instance, i\hnfona 
licar Ballybunnion in Kcvvy,A(k a'-phOna, the ford of tb,' pound. 

VOL. II. 32 

482 Various Circumstances, [chap, xxvi- 

Slinnavolier in Corlc, and Slianvolier in Qalway, 
old hothar or road ; * Slianeglisli in Armagli, old 
church (eaglais) ; and Shantraud — 8ean-tsrdid, old 
street or village near Adare. For the names 
merely express the fact that, at the tune these 
several structures were so called, they were old 
as compared with others in the neighbourhood 
iiioro recently erected; or that they were simply 
old, without implying any comparison. 

This word sean, whose old form is sen, is cognate 
with Latin senex and Sanscrit sana. It is a frequent 
component of local names ; but I do not think it 
necessary to give many more illustrations of its iise, 
as it is nearly always anglicised sltan, except where 
the s is eclipsed by t, when it becomes tan. Bawna- 
tanavoher in Watcrford and Tipperary, the bawn 
or green field of the old road — Bdn-a^-tscan- 
hhothair ; Carrowntanlis near Tuam, the quarter- 
land of the old lis or fort ; Gortatanavally near 
Inchigeelagh in Cork, and Garry an tan vally near 
Listowel in Kerry, the field and the garden of the 
old hally or town. 

Shadoto. I suppose the word sedth [skaw], a 
shadow, which is occasionally found in names, 
was locally used in its natiiral and obvious sense, 
to designate spots shadowed by overhanging 
cliffs, or by a thick groAvth of tall leafy trees. 
There is a small river four miles south-east of 
Newcastle in Limerick, called Owenskaw, the 
river of the shadow ; Skaw itself, i. e. shadow, is 
the name of a towrdand near Ballymoro in West- 
meadi ; and there is a place near Tcniplemoro 
in Tipperary called Barnalascaw, the gap of the 
half shadow {la for Icath, half), so called pro- 
bably because the gap runs in such a direction 

* Remark in several of these names, the insertion of a 
euphonic vowel sound : — see cage 3, su;pra. 

CHAP. XXVI.] Various Circumstances. 483 

that wlien the sun shines, one side is thrown into 
shadow. In the parish of Molahiff e in Kerry, near 
the Farranfore station of the railway to Killarney, 
there is a place called Skahies, which is the angli- 
cised form of the plurnl Scdt/ia, shades or shadows. 

Freehold. A land which was lield free of rent 
or duty of any hind was sometimes designated by 
tlio word srirr, free. There are two townlauds, 
one near Killashandra in Cavan, the other in the 
parish of Macosquin near Coleraine, called Farran- 
seer, free land {fcarann) ; and another south of 
Ballyshannon, called Clontyseer, shortened from 
Claainte-saera, free cJoons or meadows. Saeirse 
[seershaj, among other meanings, signifies a free- 
liold, whence we have Seersha near Newmarket- 
on-Fergus in Clare, and Seersha north-west of 
Killarney ; which again is shortened to Serse in 
Armagh, not far from Newry ; and modified to 
Seershiu, three miles from the village of Barna, a 
little west of Qalway, which is the same as Shir- 
sliocn nc«r Gorey in Wexford. 

Old Territories. On the west side of the Shannon, 
in that part of the county Roscommon extending 
between Drumsna and Lanesboro, there were an- 
ciently three districts, called respectively Cinel 
Dohhtha, Tir Briuin na Sinna, and Corca Eachlann ; 
these, both in the annals, and among the people, 
were of fen cnllcd simply " Na Tiiaflia" [na-tooha] 
i.(>. (ho Til a //la. -tor t(M'n'(,orio.s, and tbougli tlieir in- 
dividual nnmoaliavo perished, thislast still survives. 
On the road from Kooskey to Drumsna, whore it 
crosses an arm of the Shannon between two lakes, 
there was an ancient weir, very much celebrated 
called Caradh-na-dtuath [Carra-na-doo], the earadh 
or weir of the (tliroo) tnaths or districts. A bridge 
now spans the stream on the site of the weir, and 
it is well known by tlie name of Caranadoe Bridge. 

484 Various Circumstances, [ctiap. xxvi. 

A magic calf. In the county of TiOngford they 
tell a story of the origin of Lough Qowua, which 
forms the head of the chain of lakes traversed by 
the river Erne ; this legend also accounts for the 
eruption of Lough Oughter and Lough Erne. 
There is a well in the townland of Eathbrackan, 
one mile from Granard, out of which a stream 
runs into Lough Qowna ; from this well a magical 
calf sallied forth, once on a time, and the water of 
the well rushed after htm as far as the sea at 
]i ally shannon, expanding in its course, iirst into 
Lough Gowna, and afterwards into the two Loughs 
Erne ; in memory of which the well is still called 
Toher Qowna, and (ho lake, Lough Gowna, the 
well and the lake of the calf. 

Solitude. Among the many circumstances taken 
advantage of by the observant Irish peasantry, to 
designate places, one of the most striking and 
poetical is solitude or loneliness. There is a dis- 
trict east of Kells in Meath, which, even in the 
earliest period of our history, was noted for its 
solitariness ; so that persons going to reside there 
were considered to have retired altogether from 
the view of the world. When the celebrated 
Lewy of the Long Arms, who, according to an- 
cient tradition, was skilled in all the arts and 
sciences, came to reside at the court of Tara, the 
artists and learned men who had been up to that 
time in the king's service, felt themselves so 
overshadowed by the biilliant talents of tlic new 
professor, that they retired in shame from Tara, 
and betook themselves to (his very spot — (ho 
JJiamhraibh or solitudes of Bregia, as it is called 
in the old narrative (one of the legends in the 
Dinnseanchus), where they remained in obscurity 
ever after. The word dianihar, of which diamhraihh 
is a plural form, is still used in the spoken Ian- 

CHAP. XXVI.] Various Circmustanccs. 485 

guage in tlie sense of mysterious, hidden, or ob- 
scure ; and the district in question still retains 
tlie old name, in tlie slightly modified form of 
])iamor. In O'Clery's Calendar, a place is mcn- 
tioiuMl cnllod LViiain-diawhair, solitary meadow. 

Tlio allusion to tho professors who retired from 
Tnra, occurs in the legendary history of the name 
of Turvey, a place situated on an inlet of the sea 
in the north of the county Dublin, two miles from 
Luslc. The old writer states that Tuirhhi [Tur- 
vey], the father of the great artist, Gobban Saer, 
who lived in the seventh century, had his resi- 
dence on this strand ; and that every evening 
after ceasing from his work, he used to throw his 
hatchet (as L^n of the white teeth used to throw 
his anvil : p. 202, supra) from an eminence, which 
was afterwards called Tulach-an-hhiail or the hill 
of the hatchet, to the farthest point reached by 
tlio tide. Hence the place was called Traigli- 
Tuirhhi, Turvoy's strand, which is now shortened 
<o Tnrvej^ The narrative adds that it was not 
known to what jicople he belonged, unless he 
was one of jlio daik-comploxioncMl race who fled 
from Tara to the solitudes of Eregia (see Petrie, 
II. Towers, p. 38G). 

We have still another word— uaigneas [oognas], 
to express the same idea. In the parish of Tuosist 
in Kerry, on the left of the road from Kcnmarc 
io l<lyerie«, there is a hill called Knockanouganish, 
the hill of solitude; and we have the adjective 
form exhibited in Glenoognagh in the parish of 
LismuUen in Meath, lonely glen. 

Morning Star. I believe I may safely assert 
that there is not a place-name in any part of 
the world, that could not be matched in Ireland. 
For our names are scattered broadcast in such 
infinite profusion and variety, that they seem to 

486 V-jrioHs Circumstances. [(;iiai>. xxvi. 

liave almost cxlianstcd luinian invciiiicm. Ifc 
would be easy to bring togetlier a collection o£ 
odd and eccentric local designations, imusiial in 
formation or strange in origin, from every part of 
tbe M^orld, and then to produce, from the abun- 
dance of our local nomenclature, names corres- 
ponding to them all. And after this I think I 
could find many names in my own country that it 
would be hard to match anywhere else. (Scotland 
would be a dangerous competitor, but even here I 
should feel very confident as to the result of the 
comparison ; and I should have no fear at all 
about the rest of the world. 

AV^ill any great topographer or learned etymo- 
logist find me such a river name as " The IMorning 
Star " anywhere outside Ireland ? We have a river 
of this name, a fine stream rising near the Oalty 
mountains, flowing through the town of Bruff in 
Limerick, and joining the Maigue below Bruree. 
The old name of this river, as we find it in various 
ancient authorities, was Samliair or Samer ; and 
this is also well known as the ancient name of the 
river Erne, from which again the little island of 
Inis-Samer near the Salmon-leap at Ballyshannon 
— an island connected with some of our oldest 
legends — took its name. 

It is to be observed that Samer was in former 
times used also as a woman's name ; but what the 
radical meaning of the word may bo, I cannot 
venture to conjecture. As a river name, Picfot 
(Origines Indo-Europionnes) connects it willi the 
old names of several rivers on flio continent of 
Europe, and with the Persian sltamar, a river : — 
for example the Samur, flowing from the Caucasus 
into the Caspian ; the Samara, flowing into the 
Sea of Azov ; and the ancient Celtic name, Samara, 
of a river in Belgium. 

ciiAr. XXVI.] Various Circumstances. 487 

It must be confessed tliat our "Morning Star " 
canio by its fine name througH a mistake, or in 
plain words by a false translation ; but it is a 
mistake turned to such bappy account tbat one 
would never wisli to correct it : — for in tlio collo- 
quial Irish of the people, the old name Samhair 
was corrupted to Camhair ; and as this word sig- 
nifies the first appearance of daylight or the 
break of day, so thev translated it into " Morning 

There is a townland called Glenastar near New- 
castle in Limerick ; but this name has nothing to 
do with the stars. The correct anglicised form, 
etymologically, woidd be Glen-as-daar. Just 
where the river that traverses the glen flows by 
the townland, it falls over a rock into an imfathom- 
ahle pool, forming a fine cascade ; this is the as 
(Irish eas, a waterfall) ; and as the name of the 
river is the Daar, the glen was called Gleann-easa- 
Dairc, the glen of the cataract of tlie Daar, 

Sleep. AViicn AVasliington Irving wrote liis 
Legend of Sleepy Hollow, he imagined, no doubt, 
ihat such a uanio was not to l)o found in any part 
of the world except on the banks of the Hudson 
— if indeed he did not invent it to suit his stor}-^, 
which I strongly suspect he did. But if he had 
only come over to Ireland, and travelled through 
certain parts of the county Cork, he would find 
that we had been beforehand with him ; for as he 
passed near the little town of Inishaimon, he could 
see from the railway carriage window, close to the 
line, a gentleman's residence and a townland, 
called Coolcidlata, which corresponds exactly in 
meaning with his Sleepy Hollow. The first syllable 
is the Irish cuil, a recess or corner ; while codlata 
[cullaki] is a genitive form of codla [culla], sleep ; 
and these two words put together, and spelled in 

488 Various Circumstances, [ctiap. xxvi 

English letters in accordance with the sound, 
make Coolcullata, the recess of sleep, or sleepy 
hollow. Moreover, the county Cork can boast of 
another drowsy spot ; for there is a hill at the 
western extremity of the Nagles Moimtaina, near 
the village of Killawillin, called Knockacullata, 
the hill of sleep. 

]5ut why it is that Coolcullata was so called ; 
whether it was from the solitude of the spot ; 
or from its drowsy accompaniments — its murmur- 
ing waters, its rustling leaves, and its humming 
bees, as Irving describes his somniferous valley ; 
or from the sleepy character of the natives — but 
indeed I do not believe this, for the Corkonians 
are as wide-awake a people as can be found in any 
T)art of Ireland ; whether any or all or none ol' 
these, gave name to the place, I am sorry to say 1 
can give no satisfactory account. Perhaps Cool- 
cullata was another Castle of Indolence, 

" A pleasing land of drowsy liead, 
Of dieama that wave before tlie half-sluit eye," 


" Was nought around but images of rest ; 

Sleep-sootliing groves, and quiet lawns between , 
And flowery bods that slumbrous influence kest, 
Fi'om poppies breathed ; and beds of pleasant green." 

But however we may be at fault in our attempts 
to account for the name, there it stands as a fact ; 
and if I am right in believing that A7ashington 
Irving invented the American name, I can claim 
one superiority for our Coolcullata over his Sleepy 
Hollow, that his name " is a fiction, but mine ia 


N.B.— Mnny nnmee that do not occur in the lodj cither of the 


Vohime oi of the l-ivst, 

are explained in this iadex. 




. . . 389 

Agbintamy, . . . . 



. . . 139 



Abbeygrej. . 

. . . 234 

Agbnagar, . • • 


Aclare, . . 

. . 223 

Aghnamall igb, . ■ • 



. . 'in 

Aglmamiilliigbl, . 




Aghiiamard, . . . . 



. . 374 

Agbiiasodagb, . . . 



. . ]!I7 

AgliniiflliaiiiiiKM, . . . 


/igluilxig, . 

. . 40 

AgliiiaBbingaii, . . . 



. . . 73 

AglinaBurn, . . • 



, . . 64 

Agbafona, . .481 


Agbagah, Agbf 

gaw. 179 

Ahgloragb, . . . . 


Aghagower, , 

. . 313 

Abiiagurra, . . . . 


Agbakce, . 

. . 162 

Aillenasliariagb, . . 


Aglialentj, . 

. . 401 

Abnaseod bridge,. . . 


Agbaliist, Agh 

alt.stia, 430 




. . 4J5 

AUiianmrniigb, . . 



. . 240 

Altatraght, . . . . 


Aglianapisha . 

. . 323 

Altdorg; red bpight : 


. . 283 

p. 278. 

Aghatabarn, . 

. . 408 




. . 310 

Annaganniby, . . . 



. . 112 



Agbavalloge, . 

. . 311 

AnnagaBsan, . . . . 


. . 223 

Aiinagliaiianain, . . . 



. . 4J3 

Annfiglibrack . . . 



Index of Names, 

Annagher, . , 

Annaghiorin, , 
AnnagUselherny, . 
Aim Wuiint, . 
Arduiuadane, . 
Ardaimillivaii . 
Ardatrave, » , 
Ardeolm, Ardcolum, 
Ardcotten, . . , 
Ardcroue, . . . 
Ardliulan, . . 
Ardgoohaii, Ardgoliano, 
Ardintenaiit, . 
Ai-dincaliiauo, . 
Ardnagabog, . 
Ardiiiighig, . 
Ardaagrena, . 
Ardiiagimiog, . 
Ardnapoura, . 
Ardore, Ardoui", 
Ardralian, . . 
Ardrass, Ardress, 
Ardroe ; red height : 

p. 278. 


Ardacradaiin, . . . . 
Ardternion, . . . . 
Ardtonnagh, , . . . 
Ardti-asna ; cross height 

p. 44(5. 
Ardultagh, . . . . 
Arget-roa or Silverwood, 
Arigideen river, . . . 
Armaghbrague, • . . 
Arkanagap, . . . . 
Askiuvillar, . . . . 


2 17 











Atbclare, . 

Atboa, . . 

Atbnagar, . 

Altillyuu, . 



Atlyflin, . . . 

Attyreesh, . . . 

Auburn, . . , 

Aubwee ; yellow river 

p. 279. 
Augbalin, . . 
Aughnacarney, . 
Aughnaglaur, . 
Aughnaloopy , 
A very Iblaiid, . 
Avibh, . . . 


, 270 

, 279 

, 223 

. 477 

, 177 

, 149 

, 234 


. 149 



Balgaddy, . 
Ballaghgar ; short pass 

p. 304 
Balliighgeo ; windy 

p. 246 
BaUahadorg, . , 
Ballcoghan . . . 
Balleigbter, Balleigb 

agh ; low town : p, 
Ballickuioyler, . . 
Ballieknaliee, . . 
Ballinab, . . . 
Ballinaboy, . . 
Ballinanciior, . . 
Ballinaninia, . . 
Ballinanty . . 
Ballinasilloge ; town 

the sallows : p. 356 
Ballinasoostia ; town of 

the flail : see p. 160. 













Index of Namei. 




Ballinastraw, .... 


Ballybrada, . . . 


Ballindall, . . . 


Bally brannagh, . . . 
Ballybregagh, .... 





Ballinocdora, .... 


Ballybritain, Jiallybrittan 


Tallingaddy, .... 






BallvhiinitKiMicr, . . . 


l>alliiigrogj, .... 


BallVclog, linlljcliig, . 


Ballinliaasig, .... 


Baliyc'ocksoost, . . 




Bivllycoghill, . . . . 




Ballyconboy, . . . . 








Baliyconlore, . . . . 


Ballinookpry ; U)vi\\ of 

Ballyrorick, . . . . 


(lio fuller: p. 119. 



Balliiiricliarrl, .... 


Bally t'ottcen; town of the 

BalUnriddcr.i, ]],llinrid- 

commonage : p. 472. 



Bnllycowan, . . . . 




B.ill,yda ; eanio as Bnlly- 

Ballinriiddory. ... 



13allinscoola, . . . . 


Ballydnliccn, . . . . 


Ballintoiiip'), . . . . 


Ballydavid, BallydaTis, 

BallinteriiKiM, , . . . 


B.-.llyi1avy, . . . . 


Ballintim ; t,()\vii of the 



torn or bush. 

Ballydonnell, O'Donnell' 


Ballintoghcr, . . . . 







BallinuUv; town of the 

Ballydugan, . . , . 


Ulsterman : p. 127. 

Bally fad; long town: 41 




Ballyfarnan, . . . . 




Bally faisoon, . . . . 


Ballinvard ; town of the 

Bally faudeen 


bard: p. 111. 

BallyfiHbeen ; town of 

Ballinvonear, . . . , 


little Philip. 







Ballygar ; short town : i. 


Balionghter, . . . . 






Ballygirriha, . . . . 


Ballynlbaniigli, . . . 


Ballygortcon, . . . . 


Ballyanraliaii ; O'lfniira- 

Ballygreany, . . . 
Ballyhamillon, . . . 


han's town. 



Baliyhay, Ballyliays, 


BaUyliotngh, . . . . 


Ballyhetuiesay, . . . 


Ballybinaby, . . . 


Ballykealy, .... 


Ballybla, linllyl 1 lyh, . 


Ballykeeroge, . . . 


Bal I V hoggin, . . . . 


Ballykinler, . . . 


Ballyboghill, . . . . 


Ballykinlottorn!.h, . 



Index of Names. 

Ballylanigan, . 
BuUylina, . . 
Ballymacart, . 
IJally Mac E{jnn, 
Ballyinaciie, . , 
Ballymagart, . 
IJallymaguire, . 
Ballymarter, . 
IJallymatlicr, . 
Ballyminsti-n, . 
Bally ininisLi-agli, 
Ballymonaster ; same 

Ballyinyre, . . 
Ballynadash, . 
Ballynagabog, . 
Ballynagaug, . 
Bally naglemgb, 
B:illynagoniiagl,l ngl), 
Ballynaguilkee ; town 

of the brooni-biislics 

p. 334. 
Ballynalour, . 










Bally namiio 114 

Bally namockagb, . . . IGli 
Ballynamointragli, . . 1 iCi 
Ballynamoiigareo, . . 120 
Ballyuaimiddagli, . . Kil 
Ballynamult, .... 305 
Ballynanania, .... 467 

Bally naiiooBo 108 

Ballyiiant. B:il]yi.;n,l y, 33;; 
BallynamiKagli ; luwa 
of the Ulsteruieu . 
p. 127. 
Ballynasaggart; priests' 

town : p. 92. 
Ballynascrab, Ballyna 

scraw, . . . 
BallyiiasciiUoge, . 
Ballyiiasi-ali, . . 
BallynaBuddciy, . 

Ballyiioiia, . . . 
Ballynearla ; town of the 
earl : p. 58. 

Ballynookery, .... 

Bully nooncy, .... 

Bally oran, .... 


Ballyoughtor, liallyoi 
orngh, . . . 

Ballyoughtra, Bil 
oughtragli, . . 

Ballyowon, . . 


Ballyquinlin, . . 

Ballyreagh, Ballyrm 
grey town : p. 282 

Ballyrider, . . 

Ballyribbleen, Ball; 

Ballyruthor, ....-- 

BallyBliasky, .... 310 

Ballysheii 77 

Ballysboneen, ... 170 

BallyBhonock, . . . 169 

Ballysburdane, . . 169 

Ballysmuttan, ... 355 









Index of Names. 


Ballytorau, .... 
Bally tory, .... 
Ballytresna ; cross town 

p. 440. 
rullytroddnn, . 
Bnllylniiiiy, . 
Ballywaid, . . 
Balscaddan r>ay, 
Baltimore, . . 
Baimda, . . 
Banba, . . . 
Banew river, . 
lianope, . . 
Baiislia, ]]a)ipliy 
Baravore, . . 
Bargarriff; i-oiigb top 

p. 475. 
Barheen, .... 
Barlaban ; wide top : p. 
Barley Lake, . . . 


Biirnabaun ; white gap 

p. 276. 
Baniadown, . . . 
Baniageeby, B:iiiiani 

geeby, . . 
Barnngree, . . 
BarnalaBkaw, . 
Barnaraiiinga, . 
Barrafoboiia, , 
Barreen, . . , 
Bartragb, . . 
Bartraw, . , 
Baunbraok ; sjiockled lea 

field : p. 288. 
Baimoge, .... 


Bauiiteen, .... 
Baiiroarngb, . . . 
Bnurgovni ; lib;o lop : p 











Baurnafea, . . . 


Bautedge river, . . 






]?awnacownm, . . . 


Bawiinkea, ... 


Bawiinnaltin, . . . 


Bawnanccl, . . . 




Bftwnisbnll ; low lea-fiolc 


pp. 383, 443 

Bawnluekaba, . , 


Bawnnagollopy, . , 
Bawnnabow, . . . 



Bawnoge, Bawnoges, 


Bawntatneona, . . 


Bawntaimineeiiagb, . 


Bawntard, ; . . . 


Bealaclaro, .... 


Bealanabrack river, . 


Bealatbaleen, . . . 



Beenbane ; wbite peak 

p. 276. 



Bcgerin or Bcgory, . 


licgratb, .... 


Bel-an-cbip, . . , 






Belclare, .... 


Bolderg, .... 


Bellarorick, .... 


BellMgbaderg, Pellaba 



Bellaheen, .... 


Bejianaboy, . . . 


liellanaderp, . . . . 


Belianagnniiy, or Mil 

Brook, .... 


Belbinaloob, . . . 


Bellniiainnll igbt, . . 


Bellnnode, .... 


Bellarcna, .... 




BolInBlislion Bridge, . 


Bellat.nlcen, . . 


Bolluliain, .... 



Index of Names. 


Bolkugli, 388 

Bellaveel, 2'Jl 

Belle Islo, 471 

Bellinomit, 17 

Bonbnulii-h 110 

Boiicrom 4-*"2 

Boncullugli 300 

Bondiiff ; black peak : 
p. 2G7. 

Bongorin, 282 

Ben wee, 280 

Bei-Li-ftglibi.y Hay, . . 3SS 

Butaghatow 113 

Biliary, Billoiagli, . . 314 

Binaghlon, G9 

Bingorms 282 

Biraghty Eocks, ... 19 

Birreen, 19 

Birreencarragb, . , . 18 

Blabreenagb, .... 32? 

Black Hill, 270 

Black Lake, .... 276 

Black Mountain, ... 270 

Blackwater, .... 2()8 

Blagh 327 

Blaim-oe, 2G5 

Blane, 2()5 

Blaney, 2l)5 

Blarney 27 

Bloan, 2(15 

Bleanalung, .... 205 

Bleanisli, 205 

Bloankillow, .... 2t>5 

Bloannagli)o9, .... 258 

Bleanoran, 2(55 

Blindwell 89 

Blittog, 207 

Bluest ack Mountains . 282 

Bogagh, 47 

Boggagb 47 

Bo"gnglHLilT; black bog: 

IH). 47, 2(17. 

Boggau, BoggiUin, , . 47 
15oggaunreagh ; grey little 
soft place : see pp. 46, 

Boggeragh Mountains, . 7 

Boggy 17 


Boggyheary 47 

Bogbill, 435 

Bogliilbregagb, ... 435 

Holiaminor, 431 

Hoberbnuldagli, . . . 110 

Itolioreonaoluher, . . 250 
Boliergarve; rough road : 

p. 475. 

BoliornauH'oltogo, . . 292 
Bobernamias or Bolierna- 

nieece, 194 

Boliornasassonagb, . . 121 

Bobilbroaga 435 

Boleydorragba ; dark boolcy 

or dairy-place. 

Boleynanoultagh, . . 127 

lionet river, .... 15 

Bonnyglen, . . . 65 
Boolabaua ; white dairy- 
place : p. 276. 

Boolanacausk, .... 467 

Booleynagreana Lough, 241 

Boolinrudda, .... .371 
Boolycreen ; withered dairy- 
place : p. 352. 
Borheenduff ; black little 

road : 267. 

Bougbal Breaga, . . . 435 

Boughil Mountain, . . 435 

Boughilbo, 436 

B..uglull, 436 

Boulaniniorish, . . . 460 

Bovolcan, • . . . . 21 

Boyagban, 83 

Brackbaun, 288 

Brackenagh, .... 6 

Brackornagh, .... 17 

Bracklagh, 6 

Brackly 6 

Brarknagh 6 

Bni.kuahovla 280 

IhMcknamuckloy, . . . 299 

Bracknoy, 6 

Brackvoan ; speckled bog : 
p. 288. 

Brackyle 288 

Brannoekstown, . . . 123 

Breagagh, stream, . . 437 

Index o/N'ames. 


island : 

Breanagli, , 
Breandrum, . 
Breanoge, . 
Breaneha, Breanshagh 
Breany, .... 
Brockinish ; Bpocklod 

p. 288 
Bregogd river, . 
Brenog, . . . 
Brenter, . . . 
Brickeen Bridge 
Briencan, . . 
British, . . . 
Britlaa, . . . 
Brorklainont, . 
Brogeen r'wor, . 
Urognostowii, . 
Broight.or, . . 
Brotnore, . . 
Brotigh, . . . 
Brougher, . 
Biillig, Bulligg 
Bunaglanna, . . 
Biinbog, .... 
Buncam ; crooked end 

p. 420. 
Bunclody or Newtown' 

Bundoran, . 
Bunduff, . 
Bunduvowen ; end of the 

black river : p. 267. 
I?iininnL>bor, .... 


Bunnablayneybane, . , 
Bunnafinglas ; end of the 

clear stream : p. 272. 
Bunnaruddee, .... 


Bunnynubber, .... 
Binirawor ; lliick end : 

p. 419. 











Burn Dennet, . 
Burnham, . . 
Cackanode, . . 
Cadamstown, . 
Caha Monntaing 
Caherakeeny, . 
Cahorblonick, . 
-Caherbullog, . 
Caherduff ; black stone 

fort: 267. 


CnherminnaTin, . . . 
Cnhornagoolm ; stono fort, 

of the wind : p. 246. 
CaliornagoUum ; stone 

fort of the pigeons : p. 

Cahernamarfc, . . . . 


Cahirduff ; black stone 

fort : p. 267; 
Cahnioaim wood, . . . 
CalliagbBtown, . . . 


Caltrapallas, . . . . 
Cam, Cams, . . . . 
Camadcrry Mountain, . 






Camas, 421 

Camgart, Camgort, . . 421 

Camillaun ; crooked 
island : p. 420. 

Camlin, Camline, . . 


Cam mock or Camac river, 

Cammoge river, . . . 

Camowen river, . . . 




Camus Bridge, . . . 


Canbeg ; small bead or 
hill : p. 413. 

r^innanighjwoBlorn head: 
p. 45 1. 



Index of Names, 


CangOrt 421 

(.'luiiiM laliind, .... Uli 

Cimpill, 2G2 

Can rawer, 420 

Cappaboy ; yellow plot : 

p. 279. 
Cappuduif; black plot: 
p. 267. 

Cappafaulish 232 

Cappagarrilf ; rough 

plot : p. 47ft. 
Cappaghduft' ; black plot : 

p. 267. 
Ouppagbnahoran, . . 322 
Cappalaby; plot of the 

slough : p. 388. 
Cappanalossot, . . . 430 
Cuppanaiurogiie ; plot of 

the shoes : p. 188. 
Cappananty, .... 332 
CappanapiBha ; plot of 

tlio poaBO ; p. S23. 
Oapiianurgid ; plot of the 

silver : p. 3C5, 
Cappauaslish, .... 201 
Cappanasmear, . . . 325 
Cappanavar ; plot of the 

men : p. 122. 
Cappanoary, . . . . 115 
Cuiipayuso, .... 358 
Cajipyoo ; red plot : p. 

Carabine Bridge, ... 176 
Oarandoo Bridge, . . 483 
Cai-bery niil, . • ; • 237 
O'lrgaghramer ; tliii'k 
rocky place : p. 420. 

Caragacroy 477 

Carlieenadiveano, . . 302 
Carkor, . . ... . 229 

Oarnanbane ; white little 

earn : p. 270. 
Carnanroagh ; grey lilllo 

earn : p. 282. 
Caru-Connac-htach, . . 126 
Carnduff ; black earn : 

Carnisle, 374 

Cirn-uuc-Tail, . . • 12'^ 


Carnoughter; upper earn : 

p. 441 
Caintogher IHUb, . . 
Carrickacroman, . . . 
Carrickadooey, . . . 
Carrickajjlieepera, . . 
Ciirrickashedogo, . . . 
Carrickataggart, . . . 
Carrickatane, Carritk- 


Carrickatloura, . . . 
Carrickbaun, .... 
Carrickduff, .... 
Carrickeeshill ; low rick : 

p, 443. 
Carrickfin, . ... 
Carrickgallogly. . . . 
Carrickittle, . . . 

(Jarrickloagh, .... 
OarrickiuanHan, . . . 
(larricknioro, .... 
Curricknagat, .... 
Carricknahorna ; rock of 

the barley: p. 321. 
Carricknaalate, . . 
Carrickreagh, Carrickre- 


Carrickspringan, . . . 
Carricktroddan, . . . 
Carrigacunna ; rock of 
the lire-wood : p. 351. 
Carrigaflyor Carrigaplau, 


Carriganimnia, .... 
Carriganookery; rock of 

the fuller : p. 119. 
Cflrrigapheepera : 122; 

449, note. 
Carrigaplau or Carriga 


Carrigart, .... 
Carrigalhou, . . . 
Carrighaua, . . ■ 
Carrigcannon, . . • 
Carrigcluher, . . . 
Carrigeensliarr.igh, . 
Carrigfadda ; long rock 
p. 417. 












index of Namef^. 



Carriglea, Carrlgleagb, . 284 
Carriglead, . , . . 418 

Carrigleigh 284 

Carrigmannon, .... 305 
Cariiginoorua, . . , . ISO 
Canignnbiimnngli, . . 311 
Cnnicniiboitaim, . . . 311 
Carrignaeroobogc, . . 311 
Carrigrmbryol, , . . 303 
Carrignngiillinglidoo . . 30'J 
Carrignngat, .... 289 
Canignamreel, . . . 302 
Carrignaione, .... 290 
Carrignaro.nit.j, . . . 2'Jl) 
Carrignnelioggy, . . . 30:2 
Cnrrigparson, .... f)8 
Carrigrour, . . . . 419 
Carrigskeewaun, . . . 344 
Carrivekeeny, .... 337 
Carrivetragb ; lower land- 

quarler : p. 442. 
CaiTowblagh, .... 327 
Carrow' , yellow land- 

([iiaitcr : p". 279. 
Carrowcarragb ; rough 

quarter-land : p. 470. 
Carroweighter, . . . 443 
Carrowfarnagban, . . 33 
Carrowgar ; BJiort quar- 

tor-Iand : p. 304. 
Carrowgobbadagb, . , 439 
Carrowkeenj, . . . 337 
Carrowlaur ; middle 

quarter : p. 445. 
Carrowuienngli ; middle 

quarter : p. 445. 
Oarrownnganmiagli, . . 02 
Oarnnvnnijnrk ; ((iiarlor 

of llio (bealb-) bens : 

p. 298. 
Cnrrownaglcarngb, , . 91 
Carrownagry, . . . . 310 
Carrownamallagbt, . . 480 
Oarrowntaiilis, . . . 482 
Carrowntassnna ; quarter- 
land of tbo Englielnuan : 124 
Carrowiitawa, Carrowii- 

tawy, 342 



Carrowntedaun ; quarter- 
land of thebrecre : p. 248. 

Carrownurlaur, . . . 425 
Carrowtrasna ; crussqtiar- 

ter-lniid : p. 440. 

Carryblagb, .... 327 

Cnrtroiiliower, .... 19 
Oartronkecl, ; narrow 
quarter-land : p. 418. 

Gaflan-Linne 40S 

Casbeloir, .303 

Cashelreagb ; grey stone- 
fort : p. 282. 

Casbla, Casbla Buy, . 20.-} 

Cash loon, 2(;4 

Casblicve, 120 

Caelaiiakirka; castle ot 
tbe ben : p. 298. 

Castlebeg 414 

Castleboy ; yellow cast Ic, 279 

Oastle-Eyre, .... 135 

Cnstlegar, 417 

Castlebuven 201 

Caetlekirk, 299 

Cnstlemartyr, .... 406 

Castleniore, . . . . 413 
Castlenageeba ; ensile of 
tbe wind : p. 240. 

Ciis(I(>node, .']82 

Caslleoro 473 

Castleruddery ; cnstle of 

tbe knigbt : p. 102. 

Castletownrocbe, . . . 170 
CasMotoodry ; caetlo of 
tbe tanner : p. 116. 

Cautlicon, 472 

Cavanngrow, .... 320 

Cavd, Cavoy 339 

Ciiurcb Mountain, . . 403 

Clab 439 

Claddagb 396 

Cindy, .... 395, 390 

Clngan, Clnggan, . . 428 

Claggarnagb, .... 17 

Clagnagb, 428 

Clnmpor Land, . . . 400 

Clainpernew 4(iO 

Clauiperpiu'k, . . . . 40" 



Index of Names. 


Olandoboye or Olnnnaboy, 1 .'i'i 
Clui-e, Clare-Qalway, . 2:i3 
Claro, Biidgo anil River, 224 
Cliiriubi-iilge, .... 224 

Clai-isford, 222 

Clash, ...... 221 

ClaBliacolIare, .... 373 

Clasliacrow 2-'r) 

(llaBlLiKai-rilT, .... 475 
Clabh.lalior, .... 117 
Clasbavorlig ; trench of 
tbo clown : p. 164. 

Clasbbano, 27G 

CliiBlicarragh ; rough 

trench : ]). 47G. 
ClashgarrilV, .... 475 
Clashnabnttrv, . . . 118 
(Haahnaganiiirr, . . . 221 
Clashnanionadoe, . . . 270 
Clashnamrodi, . . . 221 
Olushnasniut, .... 353 
Ciashrcagli; grey trench: 
p. 282. 

(]lashroo, 221 

Clashwilliam, ... 221 
ClashygDwan, .... 221 

Olassagli 221 

Classagi.roe, .... 221 

Classes 221 

Clay 190 

Cloaboy, lO'J 

Cleady Si ream, . . . 3'.)5 
Cloaghbeg, (/loagligarve, ID'J 
Cloaghmoro, .... I'.'O 

Cleaheen, li)9 

Cleanglnss, 423 

Cleanratb, 423 

(Jleavoragli, Cloavry, . 7 

Cleedagh, 305 

Cleen. ...... 423 

Clooiiagli 423 

(Ueenillaun ; nlopiug 
island : |). 422. 

Cleenrah, 423 

Cleens, 423 

Cleeny, 423 

CleeRuadg, .... 219 
-Cleggan, 428 


Ciognrt, Clegnagh, . . 42ri 

Cleuagh, 423 

Clenlough, 423 

Clievragh, 8 

Cliff ony, 199 

Clobanna, 479 

Clobwnon, 181 

Clodagh 395 

Clodiagli rivor, . . . 895 

Cluggornagh 17 

Clodrugh, . . . 895, 396 

Clody, 395 

Cloghanarold, .... 172 
Cloghagaddy ; stone castle 

of the thief ; p. 110. 
Cloghanlea, .... 462 
("loghannagarragh, . . 121 
ClDghanodfoy castlo, . oS2 
Cloghanower, .... 473 
Ologhanumpy stone at 

Clonmacnoise, . . . 456 
Clogharoasty, .... 170 
Cloghaviller ; Etono or 
stone castle of the 
water-cress : p. 344. 
Ciogherbanny, ... 479 
Cloghglass ; green stone 
or stone castle : p. 281. 

Cloghjordan 169 

Cloghlin, 409 

Cloghlowrish, .... 68 
Cloglinakoava, .... 340 
Cloghnaniallaght, . . . ISO 
Cloghnashade, .... 377 

Cloghore, 368 

Cloghreagh ; grey stone, 
or stone castle : p. 282. 

Ologi.roo, 278 

Clulourisb, 69 

nionarrow 319 

('loiiavi)gy, 47 

Cloi>bane ; while mea- 
dow : p. 276. 
Clonboy ; yellow iiiefl • 
dow : p. 279. 

Clonbrin, 159 

Clonbulloge, .... 197 
Clonbunniagh, . . . • 411 

Index of Names. 



Clnnbnnny, 411 

Cloncaiinon ; speckled 

meadow : p. 275. 
Clonrameol, .... 374 

Oloiiforip 405 

Cloiicnickon, .... 1 17 

Cloncrow, .S17 

Cloiieblangb, .... .S27 
('loiiop;ati, Cloiicgntli, . 180 

Clonovin G5 

Clongaddy ; meadow of 
the thief : p. 110. 

Clonganny, 375 

Clonji.idan, IfiO 

Clonliff, 33G 

Clonlish or Cleanlisli, 423, 42i 
C'lonmackan, .... 350 
Clonmacnowen, , . . 142 
Clonmannaii, .... 305 

Clonineen, 400 

Clonoura, 273 

Clonreagli ; prey mea- 
dow : p. 282. ■ 
Clonroo ; red meadow 

p. 278. 
Clonsliire, . 
Oloiil.orry, . 
Clontyduffy; 0' Duffy 

Clontyseer, . 
Clood, . . 
Cloonaiieaila ; llio eav 

meadow : p. 53. 
Ooonnpisha ; meadow of 







10 peaso : p 


Cloonargid 3GC) 

Cloonark 307 

ClooiiaUoukauii, . . . lUG 

Cloonbony, . . . . 411 


Oloonboy ; yellow mea- 
dow : 279. 
Cloouboygher, . „ 10 

Oloonbunny, . r .. 411 

Clooneanuoii, ... 275 
Clloom-oniiy, .... 352 
Cloonconra; Coiira's 

Clooiicoorlm, .... 73 
Clooncorrlck, Clooneoiig, 404 

ClooncraCF, 347 

Olooncraflleld, .... 348 
Clooncrave, .... 317 

Cloonerim, 105 

Clooncruffer, .... 93 
Clooncunna, .... 352 
Clooncunning, .... 3/52 
Clooncunny, .... 352 
Cloondabamper, . . . 431 
Cloonearagh, .... 451 
Clooneenbaun ; wliite little 

meadow : p. 270. 
Clooiieshil ; low mea- 
dow : p. 443. 
Cloonfad, Cloonfadda ; 
long meadow : )>. 417. 
Cloonfinglas ; meadow of 
tlio rlear stream : p. 272. 
Cloondiigh ; wet mea- 
dow : p. 411. 
Cloongarve, .... 475 
Clooningan, .... 426 
Clooninisclin, .... 406 
Cloonkeel ; narrow mea- 
dow : p. 418. 
Cloonkeen ; beautiful 
meadow : p. 03. 

Cloonlavis, 13 

Cloonleagb ; grey mea- 
dow : p. 284. 
Cloonmaan ; middle mea- 
dow : p. 4J5. 
Cloonmackan, .... 350 
Cloonmeen, .... 400 
Cloonnngoppoge, . . . 347 
Cloonnngrow, .... 325 
Clooimagiiimaiic, . . . Ill 
Cloonnaborn, .... 322 


Index of Karnes. 


Cloonnabulty, .... 127 

Cloonoau, 129 

Cloonoughter ; upper 

meadow : 44]. 
Cloontirm ; dry meadow : 

p. 413. 
Clooiitugher, .... 


Cloontuskert, .... 
Cloontymweonagli, . , 
Clooniilly ; nibtcrman'a 

iiieaduw : p. 127. 
Cloonybeirne ; O'Beirne's 

meadow : p. 137. 
Clooiiybrioii, .... 
Cloonygormicaii, . . . 


Cloonykelly, .... 
Cloonyqiiiu ; O'Quin's 

meadow : p. 137. 


Clooscullen, .... 

ClooBguire, 427 

Cloosb, 427 

Cloosbgirrea, .... 427 
ClooBmore ; great ear : 

pp.413, 427. 
Clougbfin ; wbite stone 








Cloverbill, . . 

Cb) water, . . 
Cbiwnstown, . 
Ob.ydagb, . . 
Cluydii, . . . 
Cluid, Chiide, 
Cluidrevagb, . 
Clybaun, . . 
Clyda, Clydagh; 
Clyglass, . . 
Oykeel, . . 




Clynabroga, . . . . 219 

Clyimn, 33 

Clyroe 219 

Clytagb, 8 

Ciioe-iia-boaiigan, . . 292 

Goad, 474 

Coan, 261 

Oobduff Mountain, . . 438 

Cockow, Ui() 

Coggulbeg, 311 

Ooggalkoonagii, . . . 341 

Coggulmore, .... 341 

Ouggaltonroe 341 

Coire-Breacain, . . . 432 

CoUieretown, .... 96 

Colligan, 32 

Ooiiioragb, 4 

Comillano ; crooked is- 
land : p. 420. 

Commoenaplau, ... 79 

Commook, Commogo, . 421 

Cones, 261 

Cong 410 

Congo, 410 

Conrea, 463 

Conray, 463 

Controversy, Contro- 
versy Land, .... 460 
CooguUa, CoogyuUa, 165, 166 
Coulaiilaniper, . . . 460 
Coolaclevane, .... 198 

Coolacork, 321 

Coolakip, 354 

Ooolaleen, 328 

Coolamber, ... . -'31 

Coolanarroo, . . . . 319 

Coolanearl, .... 59 

Coolasniuttane, . . . 353 
Coolasnagbta ; bill-back 
or corner of tbe buow : 
p. 251. 

Cuolatagglo, .... 822 
Coolateggart; bill-back oi" 
corner of tbe priest; 
p. 92. 

Ooolatooder 117 

Ooolavacoose, .... 226 

Coolavanny, .... 206 

Index of N^ 


Ooolballintaggarfc ; back 
of the priest's town : 
p. 92, 
Coolrauni crooked cor- 
ner : p. 420. 
CooldoLer ; sheltry 

corner : p. 250. 
Conlcoghill, .... 200 
Coolcraff : hill-back of the 

wild garlick : p. 347. 
Coolcnllata, . . . 487, 488 

Cooldriela, 356 

Cooleighter; lower cor- 
ner : p. 442. 

Coolfin 272 

Coolfltieh ; wet corner 
or hill-back : p. 411. 

Coolfore, 253 

Coolfune, 272 

Coolgarriff, Coolgarve, 
Coolgarrow ; rough 
corner or hill-back: p. 

Coolkellure 71 

Cnolliip 354 

Ccolkivlty, 299 

Coolknoohill, .... 325 
Coolleprcan, .... 240 
CooUiaduff ; nitglo of the 

black fort : p. 267. 
Coolmiiingn, .... 393 
Cooluabancli, .... 9 
Coohmcloghafinna ; hill- 
back of the white 
etono: p. 271. 
Cdolnacoiinrly, . . . '13 
C()()liiiicriii(n)i;ht ; corner 
or hill-biick of the 
wheat : p. 320. 
Coolnagaug, .... 302 
Coolnagillagh ; corner of 
the grouse-cocks: pp. 
298, 299. 
Coolnagloose, . . . 427 
Coolnasree, .... 310 
Coolnahornn, . . . 322 
Coolnamagh, .... 294 
Coolnapish, Coolnapishn, 323 


Coolnashamroge, . . 56 
Coolnaeillagh ; angle of 

the sallows : p. 350. 
Coolnasmear, . . . 325 
Cooloultha, .... 127 
Coolpowra, .... 323 

Coolquoy 397 

Coolrawer; thick hill- 

baok: p. 419. 
Coolrengh; grey corner 

or hill-back : p. 282. 
Coolscudden, .... 312 
Coolshangan, .... 293 
Coolshingaun, . . . 293 

Coolsythe, 179 

Cooltedery, .... 117 

Coolteen 49 

Cool umber, .... 431 
Coolydoody ; O'Doiida's 

corner or hill-back : 

pp. 137, 146. 
Coouiacheo, .... 254 
C'oomakcoge, .... 254 
Coomanaspig ; bishop's 

hollow : p. 91. 
Coonianoro, .... 3G5 
Cooniasaharn, .... 408 
Coomalallin, .... 3/3 
Coomatloukane, . . , 3t6 
Coouiavanniha, . . . 478 
Coonane, Cooncen, . . 261 
Coomleagh ; grey valley : 

p. 284. 

Coonmore, 261 

Coonoge, 261 

Coos, 263 

(!(i()Rnalmrnaf;;h, . .'Ill,.'tl2 
Copany, Copncy, . . . 347 

Coppanagh 347 

Corblonog, .... 209 
Corcoge Mountain, 470, 477 
Corcraff ; round-hill of 

wild garlick : p. 

CorcuUionglish, . . . 2S2 

Cordcvlis, 270 

Corfad ; long round-hill : 

p. 417. 


LhUx of Names. 

Corfliigh ; wet round- 
bill: p. 411. 

Coricfc, 405 

Ooi-kei-, Corker Road, . 229 
Coriuaddyduff : rouud- 
hill of tho black dog : 
p. 2(57. 
Conncoltiin, .... 292 
Oormoiialoa; rouiid-liill 
of tbegroy bog : p. 284. 
Cormorant laland, . . 225 
Cornabrogue ; round-bill 

of tbe shoe : p. 188. 
Cornacask, Cornacausk, 467 
Cornafurrisli, .... 59 
Oornaj^iliugb ; soo iiuxt 

Cornaguillagb, .... 299 
Coriiamagli, .... 294 
Coriianian, .... 121 
Cornaraeelta, .... 292 
Cornamuddagb ; round- 
bill of tbe clowns : p. 
Oornasans, .... 209 
Curnasbesk, Cornasbesko, 340 

Cornasoo, 324 

CornawuU, 216 

Corradillar, .... 11 
Corranabinnia Lake, . 432 
Corracoggil, . . . . 311 
Corranarry Corranoary, 115 
Corranroo, .... 343 
Corrautarramud, . . 15 

Corrarod, 371 

Corravillor ; round-bill 

of wator-cresd : p. 314. 

Corroagb ; groy round- 

iiiil : p. 282. 
Oiirrignagrona, . . . 210 

Corrintni, JVJO 

Corrowor, 285 

Corrybrennan : O'Bren- 
nan's round-bill : p. 
Corrybrackan, . . . 433 
Corrylougbaphuill Lake, 432 
Corryvraokan, . . . 432 


Corryvreckan, .... 


Corsillagb, Oorsilloga, . 


Cortrasua; cross bill : p. 446. 

Oorvickreraon ; round- 

bill of Redmond's 

son : pp. 143, 168. 

Coltoonagb, .... 


Cuttiau, ...... 




Coumbrack ; speckled 

valley : p. 288. 

Coumnagillagb, . . . 


Oourtmacdberry, . . . 








Craggycorradan ; 0'('or- 

radan's rock : p. 137- 

Craggykerrivan, . . . 


CraigabuUiar, .... 


Craigauboy; yellow little 

rock : 279. 

Craigfad ; long rock : p. 


Craignaborn, .... 


Craignasasonagh, . . 


Craigroe; red rock : p. 








Cranareen, .... 
Cranavancon, .... 
Cranfiold, CranQcId 

Point 318, 349 

Crankill, 349 

Orannslougb, .... 390 
Crawbill, 319 

Oroagli, . . . 


<h-oii:,'li DoinoSlio, . 


(Jnicora, . . . 


Oroe, Creoii, . . 


Croobarmoro, . . 



Croelagb, Creelogb 


Creeaagh, . . . 



Croenkill, , . . 


Greeny, .... 


Index of Namoa. 



Creeran, Creeraun, . . 392 

Creeslough, 402 

Creeveeshal ; low branch : 

p. 443. 

Croovoloa, 284 

Crcovoiiaitmnagli ; branch 

of tbo monks : p. 94. 

Creewood 417 

Crebanagb, 391 

Cremorgan, 136 

CrillaM, Crillaun, ... 391 

Crilly, 391 

Crinnaghtane, Crinnagh- 

taun, 321 

Croagbat, 15 

Croagbgorm, .... 282 

Croagbnageer, .... 324 

Croagbiiakern, .... 108 

Croaghnameal, . . . 291 

Oroase, 14 

Crockacleaven, .... 198 

Crockaleen 328 

Crockasloiira, .... 209 
Crockateggal ; hill of the 

ryo : p. 322. 

Orockn.igliigb, .... 299 
Crocknafarbroague ; bill 

of the false men : p. 


Croincba 225 

Cromagby, 422 

Ciomane 422 

Oromogo 422 

CrompannvoaUbiark, . . 71 

Cronaearkfroo, .... 2'.t8 

Cronakerny, .... 108 

Cronolico, 251 

Crone, ('roncbaniS . 3SI», 3S7 

Cronkill, 281 

Cronroe, 387 

Cronybyrne, .... 387 

Crooderry 477 

Crory, 12 

Crossbane ; white cross : 

p. 273. 

Crossernaganny, ... 119 
Crosaloa ; groy cross : p. 


Crossmakeevor, . . 


Crossmaglen, . , . 


Crovinish Island, . . 

. 440 







Crubinagb, .... 






Orummogc, .... 


Crumpaun, .... 


Crunagb, Crunaght, . 


Cruinnish, .... 




Crylougb, .... 




Cuilleenoolagb, . . 


Cuiltybo, Cuiltybobiggo, 


Cningareen, .... 




Oulcrow, .... 






Cullen Bog, .... 




Oiillyramor, . . . 


Ciilmoro, .... 


Ciunraeragh river, 


Cung, Tbo, .... 


Ounginoro Points, 


Curkacrono, . . . 


Carradrolan, . . . 


Curraghacnav, . . . 


Curragbacronacon, . 


Curraiibalalior, . . 



Curraghanoarla, . . 


Cnrnigltatagi^art ; nnnMh 

of tbo priost : p. 92 

Curraghatawy, . . 


Ourragbbaun ; white 

marsh : p. 276. 

Curraghbonaun, . . 

. 300 

Curraghbower, . . . 


Curragfad ; long marsh 

p. 417. 

Curraghlane ; bi-oul 

marsh : p. 4 1 S. 


Inchw of Names. 

Curraghmeelagb, . 
C»n-ngl)salliigli, . 
Cun-aghslagb, . , 
OurragliwLeery, . 
Curraglass; green marsh 

p. 281. 
Curragrean, . . . , 
Cui-raleigh ; gioy 

umrsU : p. 284. 
Currantayy, . . , . 
Curraeilia, , . . . , 


Curryeighter ; lower 

marsh : p. 4-12. 
Curryglass ; green 

marsh : p. 281. 
Curryiiioriii, . . . , 
Curryougliter; upper 

marsh : p.' 441. 




Cushkeamatinny, . . , 











Daisy Hill, 40 

Dalgan, Dalgin, ... 20 

Dalligan, 20 

Danes* Cast, .... 219 

Danesfield, 137 

Dargan, 39 

Dargle, 39 

Darhanagh, 41 

Daribeen Diarmada, . . 41 

Darrigal, 40 

Dairigil 39 

Dailliold 179 

DiirL Mountain, . . . 300 

Darvor, 10 

Davagh, 433 

Dawstown 302 

Decies, baronies of, . . 454 

Deece, baronies of, . . 452 

Deogveo Bridge, . . . 318 

Deelis, Deelisb, ... 269 

Deenagli, 475 


Deenish "JliO 

Deisiol Teamhrach, . . 456 

Dolgany, 20 

Delliga, Delligabaun, . 355 

Delour river 11 

Derdimu8, 473 

Derganagb, Dergany, . 27 

Dergbrougb, .... 210 

Dorgenagb, 27 

Dergraw 278 

Dernaglug, 185 

Dernamanagh ; oak-wood 
of the monks : p. 94. 

Deroran, 148 

Derraulin, 65 

Derrainy, 469 

Dorroonacullig, . . . ,300 

Dorroonanarry, . . . 468 

Dorreenatawy, .... 342 

Derreennacno, .... 348 

] )orroennanall)anagh, 

Dorribeen at Cappoqnin, 

Derrinkee : oak-wood of 
the purblind man 



Derrintin, . 



Derrintray, . 

Dirroar, . . 


Derrybard, . 

Derrycark, . 

Derryclure, . 

Derrycnaw, . 

Dorrycraff, . 


Derrycrave, . 

linimbeg, . 


Derrydruel, . 

Derryevin, . 

Derryfore, . 


Derrygeeba ; windy oak- 
wood : p. 246. 







Index of Names, 



Derrygooly, . . 

. . . 205 

Derrygorry, . . 

. . . 168 

Derrygortrevy, . 

. . . 28.3 

Dorrygratb, . , 

. 278, .'?a4 

Donvii'on, . . 

. . . .170 

Ddrrylioiini, . . 

. . . 108 

Dorrykcel, . . 

. . . 418 

Dorryleagh: grey 


wood : p. '284. 

Derrylomogo, . 

, . 171 

Derrylileagh, . 

. . . 316 

Derrymeen, . . 

. . . 416 


. . 9 


. . 209 

Derrynadooey, . 

. . 271 


. . 165 

Derrynagleragli ; ( 


wood of the clcr 


p. 91. 

Derrynalester, . 

. . mo 


. . 424 

Dorrynanianagh ; 


wood of the moi 

ik8 : 

p. 94. 

Dorrynamraher ; o 


wood of the f lia 




. . 93 


. . 340 

Derrynaslicsk, . 

. . 310 

Dorrynasling, . . 

. . 373 

Dcrryneece, . . 

. . 155 

Derrynim, . . 

. . 208 

Dorryork, . . 

. . 307 

Dorryowen, . . 

. . 153 

Derryscollop, . 

. . 203 

Derrytrasna; cros 

8 oak- 

wood : p. 'IIG. 

Derryvicnoill, . 

. . 143 

Den-yvrin, , . 


Denyrung, . . 

. 394 

Desertlyn, . . 

. . 149 

Desertoran, . . 

. . 147 

Deskart, . . . . 

. - 455 

Deshulj . . . 

. . 456 

Dovleasb, . . 

. . 271 

Dianior, . . . 

. 485 

Diffaglier, . . 



DiUagb, 11 

Dillesk Point, .... 346 
Dinin river, . , . 437, 475 

Dinis Dinish, .... 26i) 

Piakirt 455 

Divaiiagh, 270 

Diviny 2/0 

Divis, Divish, .... 270 

Doagli, 387 

Dobliar, 403 

Donaghenry, .... 12 

Donanaghta 429 

Donaskeagh, .... 182 

Donegore, 140 

Donoro, Donoure, . . 473 

Donover, 473 

Dooally, ...... 269 

Doocarrick, Doocavrig ; 

black rock : p. 267. 

Doocatteens, .... 269 

Dooederny, ... 441, 445 

Dooglmu, 33 

Dooish, 270 

Doolis, 269 

Dooloiigh, 268 

Doonnghboy, .... 5 
Doonanarroo ; fort of the 

corn : p. 318. 
Doonavanig ; fort of the 

monk : p. 94, 

Doonnawaul, .... 217 
Uoonoor, Doonore, Doo- 

nour, 473 

Doonvinalla, .... 301 

Doora, Doorngh, . . . 404 

Doornane in Kilkenny, . 35 

Dooroge, 42 

I)ooro8, Dooms, . . . 269 

Doory, 404 

Dore, 403 

Dorsy 230 

Dough, Dough Castlp, . 387 

Douglas, 268 

Dovea, 397 

Doveran river in Scot- 
land 403 

Dower, .'.... 403 

Dowukillybegs, ... 414 

Index of Names. 


Dowra, 4U0 

Di-ay-road, 178 

Drehidbovver Bridge, . 49 

J)i-ebidnnglaragb, . . . 224 

Dresimgb 336 

Dressogagb, 356 

Dreasoge, 355 

Dresternagb, .... 351) 

Urcstornan, 350 

Dribb, 355 

Drishagbaun, .... 3515 

Drisbano, Drisbeen, . . 355 

Dribboge, Drissoge, . . 355 

Dristernan 356 

Dromalour, 82 

Dromcaliaii, .... 254 

|)n)mi;liibor, .... 250 
Droiucuimuer, . . 414, 415 

Droiiidiby 434 

Di-onuliirt" ; black lidgo : 
p. 267. 

DTOiugurriby 304 

Droiiiiskin, 406 

Dromkealo ; narrow 
ridge : p. 418. 

Droiiikoaro, 323 

Dromkeen, 64 

Droiulougbra ; ridge of 

rusbea : p. 333. 

Dioiiiorebrague, . . . 430 
Droiuraban, Dromrah- 
nuo ; ferny ridge : p. 
Droinroo ; red ridge : 
p. 278. 

Druimcbeo, 254 

Di-uimnandniadb, . . t)9 

Dniiiiianecbta, .... 251 
Dnimadart ; ridge of tbe 

ox : p. 305. 

Pniiimgolviii, .... 207 

Drui.iulagagli, .... 164 

Dnimaluro S2 

Dnimanoary 115 

Dnimanespiek ; tlio bi- 

ebop's ridge : p. 91. 

Prumantine, , , . . .S30 

Drumark 307 

Druniaroad ; ridge 


tbe road: p. 218. 

Drumart, . . . . 


DruiDary, . . 


Druniatybonniff, . 


Drumavanagu, . . 




Prumbannow, . . 







Drunibonniv, , . 


Driiinboory, . . 


Druinboy ; yellow ridge 

p. 279. 

Dniiiibiibum, Driiinbul 



Drimibulgiiii, . . 



])riiiiu;aiiii(>ii, . . 


Drumcaiion, . . 


Druiiicarbit, . . 




Druiueboiick ; ridge ot 

meeting : p. 404. 

Drnmclami)b, . . . 



Drnmcloavry, , 


Drnnicliff, .... 


Dnancogbill, . . . 


Drumcollop ; ridge of 

beifers : p. 306. 

Drnnicoora, .... 


Diunicrampb ; wild gar 

lie ridge : j). 347. 

Drunidart, Diuuidartan 


Drumdiffer, .... 

. 269 

Drunidiba, .... 

. 4:!4 

Prinndran, .... 

. 296 

Drunietbbal ; low ridge 

p. 443. 


Dnniilliigli ; wet ridgo 

p. 411. 

Di"iini"'un)))b . , 

. 249 

Diumgarrow, Druni- 


p. 475. 

Index of Names. 



Dnimpaw, 179 

Drutngoff, 249 

Drumgramph, .... 348 

Tlrmiigiiff, Ditimguiff, . 249 

])nimliiifj:(>iirl., .... 93 
J)nimltiillngli ; diily 

i-idgo : p. 390. 
Druiniiarsna; cross ridgo : 

p. 440. 

Drumliawra, .... 468 

Driimboney, .... 352 

Druuihoj, 4.')8 

Drumliurrin, .... 228 

Druminacrehir, . . . 382 

Druuiingna, 426 

Druminisclin, .... 406 

Driiniiniskin, .... 406 

Drumkeen, 64 

Drumkeenngh, .... 337 

Uruiukeo, 254 

Driimlngby ; ridge of t.lio 

sloiigli : p. 388. 

Druralaunaglifc, ... 200 
Druinlea, Drumleagh ; 

groy ridge : p. 


Druiidcaeo, 220 

Drimilci'kiipy, .... 27 

Driitnl.'slor, .... liH) 

J)nmiliff 3.S5 

])ruit)limn, 336 

Drutumallaglit, . . . 480 
Druiumanlane ; wliito 

little ridge: p. 418. 

Driiintnany, . . . • 95 

Dniniinonagh, .... 445 

Drumminacknow, . . . 319 

l)nimmiimciiniia, . . . 352 
Drumminroo ; red lilLlo 

ridge : p. 278. 

Driinuuonum, .... 460 

Dvumnagar, 177 

Drumnagee, .... 247 

Driimnalifferny, . . . 336 
Druranatnallaght; see 


Dniinnalost, .... 430 

Drumuaiueol, , . . , 291 


Dnimnamether, . . . 191 

Drumnascnmph, . . . 844 
Drumnasillngh ; ridgo of 

sallows : p. 350. 

Dniinnasinoar, . . . 825 

Dnimnnsorn, .... 228 
DruTiinawall; ridgn of 

the liedges : p. 216. 

Priimqiiin, 64 

Drumrahan, .... 331 

Driunrahnee 331 

Drumraine, Drumrainy . 331 
Drumraiuor ; tliick ridgo : 

p. 419. 

Drumrane, 331 

Drumreyagb ; grey ridge. 

Drumsawry, .... 468 
DrumscoUop ; ridge of 

scollops : p. 203. 
Druinsbancorick ; ridge 

of tlie old meeting : 

pp. 404, 481. 

Drumsbeen, 249 

Drumskool, 385 

DriiniBlade, Druiiislecd, 178 

Drimifliiiif., 251 

Dnindarfiiia, .... 4 1(» 

Driiniyarkin, .... 137 

Diiiifrb, 209 

Duff, 207 

Duffcarrick, 267 

Duffry, 268 

Duness, 269 

Duggerna Rocks at Kil- 

kce, 27 

DulliekCoTP, .... 310 

Dunadry 445 

Diiiianoory, 06 

Dunanore, . . . .302, 303 

Duiiaree 101 

Dunbolg, 196 

Dunbrin, 158 

DunbuUoge, 197 

Dunbuurawer, .... 419 

Duncarbit, 170 

Diincollog ISO 

Diiiidertiiot Hi 

Dundooan, . . . . 128 


Index of Names. 

Dunferris ; Fci-j^ua's for- 
treas : p. 155. 

Duiigeelia, 246 

Dunglow 402 

Diingorey Castle, . . . lt)() 

Duiiinga, 425 

Duniry, 140 

Dimialial ; low fortress : 

p. 443. 

Dunkottle, ..... 40 

Dunkilt, ..... 40 

Dunleckny, 27 

Dunnamaiiagh, ... 95 

Diiii-na-3ciatli, .... 182 

Dunnaval, 217 

Dunovor, 473 

])iinowon, 153 

DunsciiUib ; fort of scol- 
lops : p. 203. 

T)uog, Duvof,', .... 208 

J)urfly Island 230 

Uiivillaun ; black island : 
p. 207. 

Eiistorfield, 4G8 

Edonagee ; edan or liill- 
brow of the wind : p. 

Edenngrena 240 

Edonappa ; the abbot's 

hill-brow : p. 94. 

Edenatoodry, .... 116 

Edonclaw, 220 

Edonroagh ; grey hill- 
brow : p. 282. 

Edentrumly, .... 6 

Edercloon, 444 

Edcrglon 444 

Edernagh, Edorny, . . 444 

I<;ightor, 413 

lOiik, 4 10 

Ellistrin, 334 

EUistrom, Ellistrou, . 334 

Emlagher, ..... 448 ' 

Ennislaro, 446 

Erin, 458 

Erne river, 486 

Eii-ibul, 426 



Eviahacrow, Evishbrecdy, 338 

Erris, Errisbeg, 
Ervallagh. . . 

Eskoradooey, . 
Essnaheory, . . 
Etra, . . . . 
lOvish, . . . 

Fagher, ... 
Fahanlunaghta, . . . 
Fahavane ; white plat : 

p. 276. 
Fahor, ...... 

It'ahnia Lake, . . . . 




Falloward, Pallowbeg, . 


Falowvee, . . . .216, 
Falls, Falls Road, . . 
Falmaebreed, , . 
Falinacrilly, . . , . 
Falls Road, Belfast, . . 
Falnasoogaun, .... 


Faltia, l^alty, .... 






Fan-na-carbad, . . . 


ii'arbreaga, Farbreagiio, . 
Farbreagiies, .... 
Farbregagh, .... 


I'ar-anacin-ky, . . . 
Farranagalli:igh, . , . 
Farrunaree ; land of the 

king : p. 100. 
Farranduff, black land. 
FarranascuUoge, . . . 
Farranaspig ; land of the 

bishop : p. 91. 







/ ndca^ of Names. 



Fnrranatoulfe, .... 380 

Farrancassidy 77 

Farrancleary, .... 91 

Favrandahadore, . . . 122 
Farranctra ; lower land : 

Fan-aiiforc, .... 252 

Farrangarode, .... ,381 

Farraiigarrct, .... 381 

Farrangarve, .... 380 
Farraniiiirish ; disputed 

land : 4G0. 
Farrankeal ; narrow 

land : p. 418. 

Farranlsindrj, .... 122 
Farranlester ; land of 

the vessels : p. ] 90. 
Farrannianagb, Farran- 

manny, .... 94, 95 

Farrannamanagb, . . 95 

Farranrory, .... 381 

Farranscullogc, . . . 114 

Farransccr, 483 

Farrantem))le, .... .380 

Farranydaly, .... 381 

Faslowart, 3.'{('i 

Fasl.ry, ..;... 8 

Fanglior, 385 

Fnnlagh, 21G 

l^'aiiloonfl, 21 (i 

Faullies, 21(> 

Fauna, 424 

Faunarooska, .... 424 

Faunrusk, 424 

Fawn, 424 

Fawnanierin ; slope of 

tlie iron : p. 369. 

Fawnarry, 408 

Fawney, 424 

Feabunaun rivulet, . . 300 

Feagbquin, 3()0 

Fearagb 338 

Fearaun, 338 

Fearboy, Fearglass, . . 337 
Feavautia ; flooded 

nmrsb: pp. 397, 412. 

Fcdornagli, 19 

I'^egat, 309 


Feebary 17 

Fennor, 274 

Feorisb River, .... 286 

Feragb, 338 

Ferbane, 337 

I'Vrliorniigb, .... 43 

Fotliorncon, .... 43 

Fiories, 351 

Finaway, 272 

Finglas, '^^72 

Finglasb, Finglasba, . 273 
Finglen ; wbite glen. 

Finglusb, 273 

Finisclin, Finisklin, . . 406 

Finnabrogue, . . . . 189 

Finner 274 

Finniby, 273 

Finnisglin, 406 

Finnor, 274 

Finuure, 275 

Finver, 274 

Finvoy, 272 

Firbreaga, 435 

Fisb Island 486 

Flegans 411 

Floworbill 82 

Fiugbanngb, Flngliany, 411 

Fliigliorino, ^12, 383 

lA)doon, Ji^odcnns, . . . 383 

Fodla 459 

Fodry, 11 

Foffanagb, 332 

Foffany (bane, rcngb), . 332 

Fogbanagb, Fohanngli, . 332 

Foglier, 385 

Foilatliiggig, . . 
Foilrannoii, . . . 
Foildarg; red clilf 

Foorkill, . . 
Ford of Ling, 
Forekill, . . 
Forelacka, . 
Fofgnoy, . . 
l^'orkiil. . . 




Lidex of Names, 


J'oBlragli ^ 

Foureiiil, 253 

Fourknocks, .... 253 

Pojdragla, ..... g 

Fuushaduun, .... 36 

Galcussagh, 277 

Giilvonc, 277 

G:'ll<'» 21G, mio. 

Guiiaway, Ganuaragb, , 375 

Gunnavaue, Gaunaveen, 375 

Gannew, 375 

Ganniv, 375 

Gannougbs, 375 

Gannow, 375 

Gai-bally, .... 417, 476 

G.iriniali, . . . 4.](; 

Garlic Hill, . . . . '. ;{19 
Garracluun, . . . 417, 475 

Garraiiahralier, . , , <i(; 

Garniiiakilka 3;;f, 

Garraiiaiuuimgh, . . . <J5 
Gurrananaspick ; birbop'a 

Bbrubbery : p. 91. 

Garranasbingaim, . . . 203 
Garranboy ; yellow 

shrubbery : p. 279. 
Garrauenamuddagb ; tbe 

sbrubliory of tbo 

clowns : p. 1G4. 

Garraiinnameetagh, . 113 

Garravlagb, .... 5 

Gari-iny, 5 

Garrouse, 1 1 

Gan-yantaggart ; (lie 

priest's garden : p. 92. 

Garryantanvally, . . . 482 
Garry cam ; crooked gar- 
den : p. 420. 
Garryelober ; sheltered 

garden : p. 250. 

Garry clone, Garry cloy ue, 475 

Garrygaiig, 429 

Garrynagranoge, . . . 302 
Garrynagreo, Garryna- 

gry, 310 

Garrynaneaskagh, . . 298 

Garryuutinueel, . . . 228 

Garry roe ; red garden : 
p. 278. 


Garlbratton, . . . . 

Garvillaun ; rough is- 
land : p. 475. 


Gaugin Mountain, 


Gilkagb, , ' ' ■ 

GilkyhiU, . . ■ ' ■ 

Giitagb, ....'.■; 




Glancnllare ; glen of the 

quarry : p. 373. 
GlandarL, Glandarta, . 
Glannabeora, . 
Glannan, , . 
(jiauuagillingb, \ \ 
Glaiuia-Kuddory Alls., 
Glaunoge, .... 
Glaniiock, , 
Glanog, ....'■ 
Glanreagh; grey vlcn 

p. 282. 


Gliacarrig, .... 
Glaaderry ; green oak 

wood : p. 28 1. 
Glasdrunnnan, . 
Giasdrunimond, . 
Glasgort, .... 
Glasbacarriff River, . 
Glasbagloragh, . . 
Glasbanakeeroge, . , 
Glashananoon ; stream 

let of the lambs : p 

Glasliawling, . . . 
Glasbeenariargid, . . 
Glasiigarriff river, 
Glaskiil ; green wood : n 



Glasnarget; brook of 

silver : p. 3(55. 










Index of Names. 




Glassillan, Glassillaun, . 


Qlentrasna ; cross glc 

n : 



p. 446. 

Glonagragara, . . . . 


Gleoir river, . . 

. 70 


Glooria, .... 

. 71 

Glenane, Glenaiin ; little 

Gloragb, .... 

. 07 

glen : p. 20. 

Glove, .... 

. 70 

Oloiiarco; plon of tho 

Gloroen Bridge, . 

. 07 

king: p. JUO, 

Glory ford, . . . 

. 07 

Glenastnr, . . , . 


Glory River, . . 

. 67 

Gleiiatallan, , . . . 


Glouria, . . . 


Glenatlucky Wood, . . 


Gluaire, .... 

. 71 



Gobnadruy, . . 

. 100 



Gold Mine River, 

. 361 

Glenboj ; yellow glen : 

Goleen, Goleen Eridg 

e, . 263 

p. 279. 

Govagb Wood, . 

. 24 

Glcnbradapli, . . . . 


Goroy, .... 

. 24 

Glenbrii'keeii, . . . . 


Gorniagl), . . . 

. 282 

GloncoppogMfrli, , . . 


Gorniinisb, . . 

. 282 

Glonroiim or Glcncauni, 


Gorndoo, . . . 

. 282 

Glendalligan, . . . . 


Gortacburk, . . 

. 321 

Glendavagli, , . . . 


Gortaclee, . . . 

. 220 

Glendoo ; black glen : p 

Gortaclivore, . . 

. 220 


Gortaclob, . . . 

. 439 



Gortacollopa ; field 


GlenfofannT, . . . 


tbo beifer : p. 306. 

GlcngM, .'.... 


Gorlaeorka ; Hold 


(ilcngiiniigli, . . . . 

37 'i 

(mtfl: p. 321. 

Glcngar, .... 


Gortaforia ; field 


Glcngnolo, .... 


benns : p. 323. 

Glengorni'; bliiisli glcn : 

Gorlaleon, . . . 

. . 328 

p. 282. ■ 


. . 411 

Glenkeel, .... 


Gortanore, . . . 

. . 364 

Glenkeo ; glen of fog : p 


Gortapboria . . 

. 323 

Glennacannon, . . . 


Gortareo; field of 


Glennacunna ; glcn o 

king : p. 100. 

firo-wood : p. IJ51. 

Gortaroe; red fields 


Glenuagark, . . . 



Glonii;igo;u-o, . . . 


Gort.iroo, Gorlarowo 

V, . 341 

Gloiinrinidng, . . , 


Gorlataggiirt ; prii 


Glennanamnier, . . 


field : p. 82. 

Olcnnanuiumer, . . 



. . 482 

Glennascaul, . . . 


Gortateean, . . 

. . 330 

Glonnyhorn, . . . 


Gortatrussa, , . 

. . 402 

Gleiioge ; see Glanoge. 

Gortutray, . , . 

. . 222 

Glenoognagb, . . . 


Gortavacoosh, . . 

. . 226 

Glensbane, .... 


Gortaward, . . . 

. . Ill 

(^Icnslmsk, Glonslicsk, 


Gortcatn ; rrookod fie 


Glcntillid, .... 


p. 420. 


Iiidcw of Agonies. 


Gortdrlabngli ; brambly 

Held ; p. 355. 
Gorteonadrolane, . . 296 
Gorteenapheebera ; little 
field of tlio piper : p. 
449, note. 
Goiteeuaplioria, . . . 323 
Gorteenasiiingaiin ; little 
field of tbo pisuiiros : 
p. 292. 
Gorteensbainrogue, . . 5() 
Goi-teesbal, .... 443 
GortieleaTe, .... 180 
Gortiemeelra, .... 144 
Goi-tlaban, Gortlane, . 418 
Gortlaunagbt, .... 206 
Gortlogber; rusby field; 

p. 333. 
Goitlownan, .... 34 
Gortmaloon, .... 304 
Gorlundilm, Goi-liiadiiiy, b'il 
Gortandrass, .... 3.'')() 

Gortnafira, 351 

Gortnagap 354 

Goi-tnagark ; field of tbe 
(beatli-) bens : p. 298. 

Gortnagier 324 

Gortiinglcav, .... 198 
Gortnagraiuigber, . . 10 
Goitnagree, .... 310 
Gortnagrogerny, . . . 318 
Gortnaborna; field of tbe 

barley : p. 321. 
Gortnalubagb, . . . 389 
Gortnalaliee, . . . . 389 
Gortnalour, Gortnaloura, 82 
Gortnalower, .... 82 
Gortnalughoge, . . . 295 
Gortnamackan, . . . 350 
Gortnamackanee, . . . 350 
Qortnaniearaeaun, . . 330 
Gortuanark, .... 307 
Gortnanoon, .... 304 
Gortnasculloge ; field of 

tbe petty farmers : p. 114. 
Gortnasbiingan, Gortna- 
sbingaun ; field of tbe 
pismires : p. 292. 


Gortnasbarvoge, . , . 311 

Gortnasmuttaun, . . . 383 

Gortnasoolboy, ... 83 

Gortnasytbe, .... 179 

Gortnatraw, .... 222 

Gortreiigb, Gortrevagb, 283 

Gortyclery, 138 

Gortyleaby, 188 

Gortymaddon, .... 138 

Gortylougblin, ... 137 

Gougane, Gougane Barra, 429 

Gouladane, 37 

Goulaspurra, .... 62 

Gouree, Gourie, ... 24 

Goward, 70 

Gowlin, 31 

Gowran, 24 

Gragaddor, .... 444 

Gragarnagb, .... 318 

Graigavino, .... 140 
(Jraigiiagroana ; siiiiny 

village : p. 2-10. 

Graignaspiddoge, . . . 297 
Graigueacbullaire ; vil- 
lage of tbe quarry : p. 

Qranagb, 374 

Graiiagban, .... 375 

Grauig, 375 

Grannagb, 374 

Granny, 374 

Gravale Mountain, . . 375 

Groagb, 393 

Greagbawillen, . . . 393 

Greugbnageo, .... .S93 

Greagbnagleragb, . . 393 

Greaglinalougbry, . . 333 
Greagbrevagb ; grey 
mountain-field : p. 282. 
Grean ; see Knockgrean. 

Greanagb stream, . . 374 

GrogMgb, Grogan, . . 339 

(jrogeen, Grogey, . . 339 

Groggan, 339 

Gruig, 339 

Gub, 438 

f;..badorri8, .... 230 

I Gubdoo 438 


Index of JSanies, 



Gubbs, 438 

Gubbeen, 433 

Gubnahinneora, . . . 203 

Gubg, 438 

Giih.irfl C)9 

Guilcngh, Gtlilknirl) . . .TW 

Gweelwrra, 260 

Gweedore, 2C6 

Gweesalia, 265 

Headford, 236 

Hoadfort, , . . 235, 236 

Hen's Castle, .... 299 

Ilook, Parish and Point, 128 

Ilorscloap 317 

Hospital, 80 


Illatinbaun; white ia- 
land- p. 383. 

IlI:iniibo\vor, .... 

lihiiiiicaaiu ; crooked 
island : p. 42. 

Illaunnambraher ; friars' 
island : p. 96. 


Inclingrcann, .... 

Inchagreonoge, . . . 

Ineliahighoge, .... 

Iiiohannppa, .... 

Inchanearl ; earl's is- 
land : p. 68, 

Inchera, . , 

Incherky Island, 

Incliidony, . . 


InrhinlroM, . . 

Inchnaiioon, . 

Ins:a, . . . 

Ingard, . . . 

In^ Point, . . 

Inisbariio;?, . . 

Intsclan, Inisrlin, 

InisE:)|ga, . . 

Inisfail, . . . 

Iiiisbbcf,'. . . 


luiebcorker, . , 





41 I 


Inishcraff, 347 

Iniahdivann, .... 302 

Inishee, .... 151, 429 

Inisheer, 451 

Inishkoen ; beautiful is- 
land : p. 6.3. 

Inislilounaght, .... 206 

Iniahuiaan, 445 

luisiimaino, 445 

Inishmean, 445 

Inishnuiay, .... 135 

Inishnasoo, 324 

Inishogbt, 428 

Inishoro 415 

luishraber, 831 

Inishroo, 343 

^0\,. 11, 

Inis Samor 


Inncoin-nan-Dcisp, . . 


lrns:lili<'onor, . . . . 




lie stroun, 

287 Abbey, . . . 




Irrus-Ainhagb, . 212 


Isknagahiny, .... 


iHlnnd Caimk, .... 


Islaudganniv ; sandy Is- 

land : p. 376. 

Ivoagh barony, . . . 




Kanargad ; eilyer head or 

hill : p. 365. 

Keal, Kcale, . . 15 


Kealariddig, . . . . 


Koalbrogeon stream : p. 










Kcphȣrb, Keelncliy, . . 


Keclderry,; narrow oak- 

wood : p. 418. 

KecUane, . . , . . 


Keem in Acliill, . . . 








Index of Names. 


Keenheen, 41 

Keenoge 337 

Keenrath, 63 

Keerglen, 271 

Keeruaun, 34 

Keevagh 339 

Keilagh, 419 

Kells, .... 234, 235 

Kelsha, 9 

Kenbane, .... 276 
Kenlie, ... .235 

Kenramer in Rathlln, . 420 

Zereight 110 

Kevin's Kitchen, . . . 225 

Keyanna, 397 

Keywee, 396 

Kilbullyowon, .... 153 

Kilbeacauty 28 

Kilbegnet, 28 

Kilbnick, Kilbracks, . . 288 

Kllbrlttulii, 123 

Kilcloher, 250 

Kilcock, .300 

Kilconduff 157 

Kilconny, 352 

Kilcoorha, 73 

Kilcreevanty, .... 28 

Kilcreinan, 168 

Kilcrumpor, .... 93 

Kilouiureragh, .... 93 

Kildellig, .• ... 334 

Kildreenagh 4 

KildresB. 836 

Kilfane 129 

Kilfaul 216 

Kllfenora, ..... 275 

Kilfergus, 155 

Kilfintan, 36 

Kilfountain, .... 36 

Kilgilky, 335 

Kilgraney, 2-12 

Kilgreana, Kilgreany, . 242 

Kilkit, 309 

Killabban, 211 

Killabraher ; church of 

the friar : p. 96. 
Killaclug ; church of the 

beU:p. 184. 

KlUadroY, . : . . . 100 
Killadullisk, .... 346 

Killaghtee 151 

Killakee, 162 

Killaleon, 328 

Killananima, . . , 466 

Killascaul, . . . . 105 



Killaspy, , . 

Killeenadeema, . . . 

Killeenboy ; yellow little 

church : p. 279. 
Killeeshal ; low church or 

wood : p. 443. 
KilloUery, , . 
Killicka weeny, . . . 
Killiiuor, ... 
KiUiiuorbologue, . . . 
KilliiiaBpick ; diurch of 

tlio bibhop: p. 91. 
Killinawas, . 
Kill St. Ann, 
Killyblane, . 
Killycolpy, . 
Killycouny, : 
Killycramph ; wood of 

wild garlic : p. 347. 
Killyfad, Killyfaddy, 
Killyflugh, .... 
Kiliygordon, .... 350 
Killykeen, ..... 63 

Killyleen 328 

Killymallaght ; wood of 

curses : p. 479. 
Killynanum, .... 466 
Killyneary, .... 115 
Killyneece, . . , . 155 




Index of Karnes, 


Killyneery, . 
Killyramer, . 
Killyrover, . 
Kilmaglisb, Kiliiinglusb 
Kilmaine, Kilmaine- 

more, ... 
Kilmakee, .... 
Kilmakerogo, . . . 
Kilmastulla, . . . 


Kilinoguo, .... 
Kilnacolpagh, . . . 
Kiluagarbot, . . . 
Kilnageor, .... 
Kilnaheery, Kilnahera, 
Kilnaraanagli, . 
Kilnamarfcry, ■ . . 
Kilnantoge, .... 
Kilnappy, .... 
Kilimrovanagli, . . 
Kilnasudry, . . . 
Kilquain, Kilquan, . , 
Kilrossanty, ... 



Kilsallaghan, . . . , 
Kilacohagh, . . . . 
Kilscohanagh, , . . . 
Kilshannig, Kilebaimy, . 










Kinatevdilla, . . . , 
Kinawlia, . . . . , 
Kiiiciisloiigb, . . . , 
Kinduff ; black head : p, 

















Klngarriflf, Klngarrow, 

Kingarve ; rough head : 

p. 475. 



Kinkool ; narrow bead : 

p. 418. 
Kinramor • thick bead : 

p. 419. 
Kippin, KippindufT 
Kippnre Mountain, 
Kisbkoam, . 
Kivvy, . . 
Knag Hill, . 
Knigb, . . 
Knight's Mountain, 
Knigbtatown, . 
Knock Abbey, . 
KnockacoUer, . 
Knockadilly, . 
Knockadroleen ; hill of 

the wren : p. 296. 
Knockagb, . . . 
Knockakilly, . . 
Knockakip, . . . 
Knockalobert, . . 
Knockamoobane, . 
Knockananoel, . . 
Knockananty, . . 
Knockanaplawy, . 
Knockanarroor, . 
Knockanimpaha, . 
Knockanimrish ; bill of 

tlio dispiito : p. 460. 
Knockanooker, .... 
Knockanore, . . 364, 











Index of Namos, 


Knoctanouganieh, . . 485 

Knockamilty, .... 127 

Knockapharsoon, ... 58 
Kuockariildcra ; knight's 

hill : p. 102. 

Knockaspur, .... 62 

Knockatassonig, . . . 124 

Kiiockatavy, . . . 312 

Knockathou, .... 478 

Knockatoo 342 

Kuockatudor, .... 116 

Knockaunabroona, . . 172 

Knockaunalour, ... 82 

Kuockaunbrack, ... 21 
Knockauncarragh ; rough 

little hill : p. 476. 

Knockavocka, .... 163 

Knockavrogeen, . . . 189 

Kuockavuddig, ... 164 

Kiiockawuddy, . . . 164 
Knockbowor ; doaf hill : 

p. 46. 

Kuockcoolkeare, . . . 323 
Knoekcorragh ; rough 

hill : p. 476. 

Knockdoe Hill, ... 180 

Kuockearl, 59 

Knockeenatuder ; little 

hill of the tanuor : p. 


Knockeevan 64 

Knookergiana 12 

KnockorsuUy, .... 13 

Knockfad, Kuockfadda, 417 

Knockfenora, .... 275 

Knockfin, Kuockfune, . 272 

Knockgrcan, .... 242 

Knockmanagb, ... 94 

Knockmoie, .... 416 
Kuockinoyuagh ; Mun- 

eteriuan'fl hill ; p. 


Knocknabrogue, . . . 188 

Knocknacarney, . . . 108 

ilnocknacaska, .... 4(;7 

Knocknadihaj .... 434 

Enocknadrooa, ... 99 

Knocknafaugber^ . i . 386 

Knocbiagilky ; hill 


the broom : p. 334. 


. 24 

Knocknagranogy, . 
Knoc;knagulliagb, . 

. 303 




Knocknamanagh, . 

. 94 

Knocknaaoed, . . 

. 179 

KnockiiaBoggano, . 

. 293 


. 56 


. 56 

Knocknasbane, . 

. . 292 

Kiiocknasbangan, . 

. 292 


. . 373 

Knocknasu£P, . . 

. 324 


. 228 

Kuockoura, . . . 

. 273 

Knock rawer ; thick hill ; 

.p. 419. 

Kuocki-eby, . . . 

. 309 

Knocksaggart ; priest'a 

hill : p. 92. 

Knockscdan, . , . 

. 248 

Knockshearoon, . 

. 169 

Knocktoraii, . . 

. 212 

Knockycoeker, . . 

. 137 


. 396 

Kyloadoher, . . 

. 470 

Kyloadubir, . . . 

. 470 

Kylebrack, . . . 

. 288 


. 92 

Kyleoniedan ; foo. 


wood : p. 163. 


. 141 

Kylesalia, . . . 

. 256 

Kylespiddoge, . . 

. 297 

Kylotilloge, . . . 

. 358 

Kyletrasna, . . . 

. 447 

Kylowee, .... 

. 447 

Labara, Labarus, Labor, C8 

Labba-mac-Duagb, . . 195 

Labbinlee, Labbyaulee, . 104 

Labrann, 68 

Laukansoaul, .... 105 

Lackantedane, .... 248 

Lackavrea Mountain, . 47Q 

Lnckaweer, Ul 

Index of Names. 



Laganore, 366 

Lagflugh ; wet hollow : 411. 

LagliaghglaBS, .... 389 

Lnghoy, Lngliy, . . . 389 

Lriglilciuislc, 4()7 

Lngt.Mg(.i)p,)go, . . . 317 

Lnluigli 389 

Laharan, Laliarran, . . 381 

Lnhoon, 3S9 

Lask River, 474 

Latgeo, 247 

Latnaraard, 112 

Lavaran, 42 

Lavaroen, 57 

I;awarrcen, 57 

Loa, Lcagh, 281 

Lcaffony lliver, ... 70 

Loaghiii 284 

Loagimn, 284 

Loalia, Leahys, . . . 284 

Loaheen, 284 

Learn, 317 

Leamaneh, 317 

Leamaroba, 309 

Ijoamawaddra, . . . . 317 

Loaiiilara, 317 

Loamnahye Island, . . 469 

Leamokevoge, .... 284 

Lcany, 401 

Leap, 317 

Learden, 36 

Leckanvy, 249 

Leedaun, 36 

Lcenane 407 

Leganamcr, 431 

Legatillida, 316 

Lpgatraghia, .... 252 

Logavannon 305 

Lcgilly 277 

Legnaliorna ; hollow of 

the barley : p. 321. 

Leigbaii, lioiglion, . . 284 

Lemnabellia, .... 317 

Lomnnlnry, 317 

Loinnaroy, 317 

Lonabowor, .... 49 
Ijennloughra ; rnehy wet 

meadow : pp. 333, 401. 


Lenamore, 401 

Lenareagh, Leuarevagh ; 

grey wet meadow 

renimglit, . 
Lcny, . . . 
lipo, I,ooh, . 
Letterdife, . 
Lengh, Lewagb 
Liokny, . 
Jjnduaobaill, , 
Ling, Ford of, 
Liiigaun River, 
Linns, . . . 
Lisacogiiill, . . 
Lisanargid, . . 
Lisaslaun, . 
Lisbiinny, . . 
Lisbiirn, . . . 

tbo meadow 

midges : p. 292. 
Liadillure, . 
Lisglass ; green fort 

Lisglasgock, . . 
Lisbeenaleen, . . 
Lisbeennagat ; liltlo 

of the cats : p. 308. 
Liskea, Liskeagb, . 
Lislane, .... 
Liamoro, . . . 
Ijinnacreagbt, . 
Lisiiagar demesne, 
Lisnngarvy, . . 
Lisnagat, . . . 

fort of 
of tbo 












Index of Na 

Lisnngeer ; fort of the 

berries : p. 323. 

Lisnagelvin, .... 




l.isuagonoge, .... 


LiBiiaguuogue, . . . 


Lisnaliedema, .... 


Lisniimiiitry, .... 




Lisnapouva ; fort of the 

beans : p. 323. 

Lisnaree ; fort of the 

kings : p. 100. 



Lisnasallagh, Lisnasil- 


Lisnasaesonagh ; the fort 


of the Englishmen : p. 




Lisnasoolmoy, .... 


Lisnasprunane, . . 




Lisomadaun ; fool's fort : 

p. 163. 



Lisroe ; red fort : p. 278. 

Lissacurkia, . . . . 




Lissaglianedan, . . . 


Lissagbuiore, . . . . 


Lissaleeu ; fort of flax : 

p. 327. 



Lissanarroor, . . . . 








Lissasmuttaun, . . . 




I.issatunna, Liasatunii)', 














Lluyd, Hill of, . . . . 



Lohort 330 

Loobagh Eiver, . . . 424 

Loonaghtau, .... 206 

Lorton, 336 

Lossot, 430 

Loughacranuoreen, . . 42 

Lough Afoor 252 

Lough Aguso 358 

Loughiikoo, 254 

Lougii Aleenauu, . . . 407 

Lough Alunaghta, . . 206 

I.oughanalla, .... 301 

Loughanargid, .... 366 

Loughanargit, .... 366 

Loughaueeg 89 

liouglianeanvriuk, . . . 313 

Loughaniorin, .... 370 

Lough Aniiuuia, . . . 208 

Loughan Island, ... 21 

I.ouglianloii, .... 89 

Lougiianloagh, ... 90 
Loughanlevvnaght ; same 

as Lough Alunaghta. 

Loughannadowu, • . . 258 

Loughannagilla, . . . 277 

Loughannasool, ... 89 

Louglianscaul, .... 105 

Lougharnagh, .... 6 

Lough Arudda, . . . 371 

Lough Atalia, .... 257 

Loughatallon, .... 373 

Lough Atedaun, ... 248 

Loughatorick, .... 212 

Loughaunnavaag, . . . 334 

Lough Ayellowin, ... 298 

Luugii Ayelvin, ... 298 

Lough Ayoosy, . . 358 

Ijoughbane, Loughbaun, 276 

Loughbraddan, ... 311 

Lough Bolshade, ... 379 

Lough Boolyuagrouna, . 241 

Loughcarnaman, . . . 295 

Louglicaehleen, . . . 264 

Lough Clooshgirrea, . . 427 
Lough Cluher, . . 136, 250 

Lough Oong, .... 410 

Lough Coura, .... 73 

Lough Oowey, .... 157 

Index of Names. 



Lough OrlUan, . . . 


Lough Groan, .... 


Lough Cuan, .... 


Louglidehoen, Loiiglidi- 







Lough Egisli, .... 


Loughor, Lougbormoro, 


Lough EyoB, .... 




Lough feedora, . , . 


Lougbgal, .... 


Lougligjihiane, . . . 


Lough Gill, . . . 


LougliglasB, . . . 


Lougli Glore, . . . 


Lough Gowna, . . 


Loughinialand, . . 


Lougliinsholin, . . 


Lough Iron, . . . 


Loughkeon, .... 


Lough Lohery, . . 


Loughmoe, .... 


Loughmurree, , . . 


Lough Muskry, . . 


Lough Nabrack, . . 

. 313 

Lough Nabrackalan, 


Lougli Nabrakbady. 

. 315 

Lough Nabrackbautia, 


Lough Nabrackbeg, . 

. 315 

Lough Nabrackboy, . 

. 314 

Lough Nabrackdcolion, 

. 316 

Lougli Nabrackdarrig, 

. 314 

Lough Nabraokdorg, 

. 314 

Lough Nabiackkpagli, 

. 314 

Lough Nabrackrawcr, 

. 315 

Lough Nabrackmoio, 315, .TIC. 


. 310 

Lough Nacreaght, . 

. 109 

Lough Nacrilly, . . 

. 391 

Lough Nacuug, . . 

. \m 

Lough Nadreegeel, 418, 419 

Lough Nadrooa, . . 

. 100 

Loiigb Nngarnaman, 

. 295 

Loughuahecry, . . 

. 288 

Loughnakeeroge, . . 

. 295 

Lough Nftkcy, . . . 

. 397 


Loughnamhrack, . . , 313 

Lough Nainbrackdarrig, 314 
Loughuambraddan, . .311 

Loughnameoltogue, . . 292 

Lougli Nanpgisb, . . . 112 

Lough Nanoon, . . . 304 

LoughnaBhado, . . . 378 

Longhnashandrpo, . . 98 

Lough Nasnahida, . . 209 

Lough Nasool, ... 89 

Lough Ora, .... 285 

Loughorno, Loughourna, 322 

Lough Ramor, . . . 420 

LougbrosB more and beg, 190 

Loughrud, 371 

Loughry, 333 

Loughsallagh, .... 26 

Lougbsheedan, . . . 248 

Lough Shillin, .... 149 

Lough Shindilla, . . . 201 

Lough Sillan, .... 357 

Lough Skuddal, . . . 199 

Lough Slaun, .... 85 

Lough Slug, .... 402 

Lough Swilly, .... 440 

Lough tee baroiiicB, . . 471 

Loworton, Lower town, . 337 

Lowran, 42 

Loysb, 4.30 

Luagbnabrogue, . . . 189 

Lubitayish, .... 14 

Lucan, 32 

Luffertan, Luffertaun, . 336 

Lugasnnghta, .... 2.52 

Lugatallin, ..... 373 
Lugboy ; yellow hollow : 

p. 2^9. 

Jjuggacurron, .... 31 

Lugganammor, . . . 431 
LugglasB ; green hollow : 
p. 281. 

Luogh, 345 

Lurgantamry, .... 469 

Lusmagh, 76 

Lustia, Lusty, .... 430 

Lyardano, 36 

Lyneen, 166 

Lyradane, 36 


Index of Names. 




Mac Art's fort, . . . 


Meen bog, 


Rluckun, Maokanagli, . 


Meenirroy, . . . . 


^Maciiagh, Macknan, . . 










Mcenniore ; great moun- 



tain meadow ; iip. 400, 

Maglioradiirtiii ; plain nf 


luiifora; p. 30fj. 

]\[noiu(':i;;b ; /jjroy moun- 

Mnglioraglaas, .... 


tain meadow :"i)p. 282, 

WagLoraaoarla, Magber- 


anorla ; tlio plaiu of 

Mc'onscovano, . . . . 


tbe earl : p. 58. 

Moentanakill, . . . . 


Magberaecouse, . . . 


Meontoges, . . . . 


Magberasbagbry, . . . 


Meentyflugb, . . . . 


Magbereagb ; grey plain. 

Menlo or Meniougii, 




Meenvano, Meonwuun, 


Maglierintendry, . . 




Magboruaebaugan, . 


Monlougb or Menlo, 


Maberaneig, .... 


Mill Brook or EcUana- 

Malone, MaKxm, 


{,'anny, .... 


Maiigcrton Mountain, . 


MiUlord, .... 






Jlartray, Martry, . . 


]\Iibbal9, .... 


Maugbantoorig, . . 
Maiiheralieve, . . . 


]\Iiskisb MouoUinri, . 



l\lilL-licL-,town, . . . 



]\lilrln'lstowndown, . 


Mauteoge, ^lautiagb, . 


Moanbi'can, . , . 




Muandoberdagb, . . 


Meeltoge, Meeltogues, . 


Moanfin, Moanfoun, 



Moanfuue ; white bog 

Meenacbarbot ; mount ain 

p. 271. 

meadow of tbe chariot: 

Moanleana, . . . 


pp. 175, 400. 
Meenacbaryy, . . . . 


Moanour, .... 


Moan wing, .... 


Meenacung, . . . . 


MocoUop, .... 




Modcsliil, .... 


Moonagraiiv, . . . . 


Mobuibuliog, . 


Moonaliony, . . . . 




MeenaguBO, . . . . 


Mobornaslianimer, . 


Meonabeory ; moiiiilnin 

]\lonacluama, . . . 


Ual ol" tbo duu cow : 

Monacoeka; dirty bog 

p. 287. 

p. 166. 

Mcenanarwa, . . , . 


Monafcbadee, . . . 

. 397 

Meenaninierish, . . . 


Monngear, .... 

. 324 

Meenatawy ; mountain 

Monagoush, . . . 

. 358 

meadow of the sorrel : 

Monagreauy, . . . 
Mouaboora, . . . 


p. 841. 

. 288 



1 Mouairmoro, . . . 

. 838 

Index of Names. 



Moonakeeba, . . . 


Monaleen, .... 


Jfonnnimy, .... 
JIoiiiiparBoii, . . 

Moimrco, .... 
Moiianul ; bog of tl 

iron pciim : p. 07 1. 
MoiiMscecl, . - 
Monnspiok, . 
Monavoddagb, . , 
Monoarla ; carl's bog. 
Monenrmore, . 
Moueenreave, . 
Moneenroe ; red 

bog : p. 278. 
Miiliojcoiioy, , 
Moiicydollog, . 
Moiiojgorbet, . 
Monojmoon, . 
Money rod, . . 
Moneysliingaun ; 

bery of ants : p 
Moneysterliiig, , 
MonfT, Mongiigb, Mon- 

gan, Mongami, 


]\lonl(iiovvtown, . . 


Monrongh ; grey bog : 

p. 270. 
Mooglmun, Moohane, . 



Morning Star River, 48 



Motabower ; deaf moat ; 

p. 40. 






















Mount Equity, .... 464 

Moyallen, 65 

Moyarget. 365 

Moyarney, 211 

Moybolgiio 197 

MoyeighLrngb, .... 443 
BFoy, l<;tra and Oti-a, . 443 
Moygarriff ; rough 
pliiin : p. 475. 

Moylebid, 418 

Moyletra, Kill and Toy, 443 

Moynagh, g 

Moynagban, .... 6 

Moyng, 393 

Moyode, 382 

Moyroe, 278 

Mf)y8nagbt, 251 

Moyvougbley, .... 188 
Muchknock, .... 416 
Muchrath.Mucbrock, . 416 
Miu-kanagbederdauhalia, 256 
Muckross Abbey, . . . 448 
Miiggalnagrow, ... 73 

Muing, .... 
Miiingatlannliisb, . 
Miiingatoglior, . . 
Miiingbaun, . . . 
Miilgrcth, . . . 
MiiUabrack . . . 
Mulladrillen, . . 
Mullafernaghan, . 
Mullngh, The, . . 
Mullngbbrark, . . 
MnlJMgh (Jarbadiigh, 
.Miiliaghch'ovatin, . 
Miillaglicroy, . . 
Mullaghdarrig, Mullagh- 

dorg ; red Bummit 

Mullaghoran, . 
MuUanacask, . 











Index of Names. 


MuUannavode, .... 382 

Mullanebelliatragh, . . 334 

MuUantain, 330 

Mulhintine, 330 

Mullantra, 399 

Mullaroe, 98 

Mullatigorry, .... 1C8 

Miillauiiavotlo, .... 882 

MiilloiilHiWor, .... '19 

Mullonkough, .... 49 
MuUenorau, near Mul- 

lingar, 320 

Mulliuaback Laiio, . . 16(5 

Mullingee, 247 

Mullybrack, .... 289 

MuUybrit, 289 

MuUyimlugbogo, . . . 295 
MuUyailly ; summit of 

tbe sallows : p. 356. 

Miilinontry, . . . . 116 

Mulnaborn 322 

Mulroy, 279 

Miinga, Muugan, Mun- 

gaun, 340 

Murbaun, 41 

Murlough, 255 

Mynagb 6 

Mysball, 444 

l*.'antinan, 333 

Newbrook, 424 

Newtownbarry, or Bun- 

clody, 395 

Newtown Moynagb, . . 12G 

Nier riyer, 286 

Nympbsfield 303 

Oddor, 286 

O'Dornoy 110 

Ogoiinilloo MO 

Oiltiagb elroam, ... 8 

Oorid, 15 

Oorla 339 

Ora, Ora-more, Ora-beg, 285 

Oriel, 364, 450 

Orior, 450 

OrletowD, 451 

Orkney Islands. ... 308 

PA as 

Orrery, , 62 

Otra, 443 

Oughter, 442 

Ougbteranny, .... 442 

Oiigbtmama, .... 428 
Ougbtymore, Ouglity- 

nioyle 428 

Ouloy, 4 

Own.gii, 280 

Oiivauo, 27(5 

Ouvry, 477 

Oweuacabina, .... 359 

Owenascaul, 105 

Owennavrea, .... 477 

Owenboy 280 

Owengarve River, . . . 475 

Owenkoagb, .... 89 

Owennaforeesba River, . 69 

Owennagloor 301 

Owonnamnllagbt, . . . 479 

Owennashad liivor, . . 378 

Oweunasbingaun, . . . 293 

Owenriff, 372 

Owen roe, 278 

Owensbree, 221 

Owenskaw, 482 

Owenure, 252 

Owenwee, 280 

Ower, 285 

Owvane river, .... 276 

Palace, Pallas, . ... 232 

Pallas Grean, .... 242 

Pallas Kenry, .... 232 

Pallis, 232 

Park, 60 

Parkaniniorisb, . . 460 

I'arkadova, (iO 

Purkatliiggera, .... 402 

ruikavaroosli 226 

I'ariigarrlir, I'arkgai-yo, 475 

Parknagappid, .... 60 

Parknaglantane, ... 60 

Pai-knascaddane, . . . 312 
Parknasilloge ; park or 

field of the sallows : p 


Index of Names, 


Parteen, 232 

Phaleesh 232 

Pigeon Rock, .... 301 

PillLano, 263 

Pill lUvor 2('.2 

PiUlowii, 202 

Pintown, 225 

Pislmtrngl) 323 

Pismiro Hill 2'J2 

Pointantirrig, . . . . 310 

Polcloody, 146 

Pollacullaire, .... 373 

Polladoo, Polladooey, . 271 

PoUadooby, .... 271 

PollaginniTe, .... 375 

PoUanaekan, .... 310 

PoUandoo, 271 

PoUataggle, 323 

PoUatlugga ; bole of the 

swallow : p. 401. 

Pollnagoliira, .... 301 

Pollnamoghill, .... 188 
PoUnasiUagh ; bole of 

the sallows : p. 356 
Pollowor ; groy bolo 



Portacloy, . 

Portadown, . 

Portanab, . 



Portcoon, . 

Portcrusha, . 

Port-doha in Aran, 

Portduff ; black bank or 
landing-place : pp. 230, 


Portleen ; bank or laud- 
ing place of flax : pp. 
230, 327. 


Portnacrinnaght, . . . 

Portimskully, .... 








to hole : 

Poulacurry, . 
Poulakerry, . 
Potilarone, . 
1 'old ban n; whi 

p. 276. 
Poulbaiitia; subraorgod 

hole : p. 412. 
Poulgorm, . 
Poulnalour, . 
Poultallin, . 
Proudly River, 
Puffing Hole, 
PuUis, . . 




. 282 
. 185 
. 82 
. 290 
. 291 
. 373 
, note. 
. 248 

Quarter Lenagh, . . . 401 

Quin, 359 

Quinsheon Island, . . 300 

Qulntin Bay and castle, . 157 

Quintinmanug, .... 460 

IlagamuB, 14 

Rahan, Rahaus, . 330, 331 

Rahavanig, 95 

Raheenabrogue, . . . 188 

Raheenaclig near Bray, . 186 

Raheenakit 309 

Rabeenarran, .... 381 
Raheenleagh; grey little 

fort : p. 284. 

Raheensheara, .... 169 

Raheenyhooig, .... 458 

Rahin, 331 

Rahoran, 148 

Rahugh, 86 

Rainey, 332 

Ramore, 415 

Ramult ; fort ot wethers : 
p. 305. 

Ranaghan, 331 

Ravuddy, 371 

Rnsliedogo, 248 

Raslllagh; fort of sal- 
lows : p. 356. 


Index of Names. 







Rathbrack ; speckled fort 

p. 288. 





KlllllCDlllloU, .... 

SI 1 

Riillici'oglian, .... 


Riithcuuiiartagh, . . . 


Rathcuppoge ; fort of 

dock leaves : p. 347. 







Rath gor muck, .... 




Ratbinreo; fort of Lbo 

king : p. 100. 



Ratbmacnoo, . . 

. 151 

Ratb madder, . . 

. 191 

Rath more, . . . 


Ratbnaleugh, . . 

. 346 

Ratbnalour, , . 

. 82 

RathnaluUeagb, . 

. 316 

Rttthnamagb, . . 

. 294 

Ratbnamuddagh, . 

. 164 

Ratbnarovanagb, . 

. 125 

Ratbordan, . . . 

. 203 

Ratbreagb, . . . 

. 283 

RathBallagh, . . 

. 390 


. 471 

Rathsillagb ; fort 


sallows : p. 356. 

Eatory, .... 

. 52 

Rattoo, .... 

. 457 

Raven Rock, . . 

. . 74 

Reafadda ; long rea 


mountain flat : p. ^ 


Roagh, .... 

. . 283 

Reagban, . . . 

. . 283 


. . 8 

Red Hill in Sligo, . 

. . 98 

Ree, ..... 

. . 283 

ReenabuUiga, . . 

. . 249 

Reennanallagane, . 

. . 355 

Reenrour, . . . 

. . 419 


Reevanagh 445 

Rehy, Rehy Hill, ... 309 

Revlin, 372 

Rindifin, 434 

Ringreagb, C /^ 

Rinroo ; red point : p. 


l!.m.u-uni,-k, .... 200 

Roaniiiiab, 2'.)0 

Roaring water, ... 70 

Eodeen, Roden, ... 218 

Roevobngh, .... 278 

Rolagb, 279 

Roo, Roo House, ... 343 

Rooaun, 279 

Roogbaun, 279, 279 

Roos, 343 

Rootagb, Rootiagb, . . 279 

Roovos, 279 

Uopefiold, 216 

Rosargid, 365 

Rosburnagb, .... 311 

Rosbercon, . . . . 141 

Roacam, 421 

Roscat, 309 

Roscavey, . . . • . 340 

Rosenallis, 273 

Rosmult 305 

Rosroe ; red wood ; p, 


Rossabilly, 300 

Rossalia, 65 

RoBsbrin, 158 

Rosaboy ; yellow wood : 

p. 279. 

Rossonily Abbey, . , 450 

Rossgole 205 

Rosslaro peninsula, . . 445 

RoHaloa, 284 

lloBspilo, 202 

Rossroe ; red-wood : p. 


Roiiglian 279 

Ro.itagb 279 

Roverkilly, 216 

Rowan, Rowans, . . . 279 

Rowe, 343 

Index of Names, 







Rowlagli, . . 
Eoundatone Bay, 
Bowreagh, . , 
R<in,ii, lliinnOB, 
Kubano UoiiBO, 
Kubblo, . . . 


Rushweo ; yellow wood 

or point : p. 279. 
Rye Water,. . . . 

St. Anne's Church, . . 22 

Saleen, 257 

Salia, 256 

Sallaghan, Sallnghy, . 357 

Salrock, 256 

Samer River, .... 486 

Sauce in Kerry, ... 14 

Savagb, 14 

Sawnagh, 6 

Scartagh, 4 

Scartore 368 

Bcecoor, 73 

Feool, Seoul 385 

Bcolla, d59 

Scrabo, 384 

Scrahan, Scrahane, . . 384 

Scralmus, 385 

ScuUabogo, 203 

Sculleen, 234 

Scullogestown, . . . 115 

Sedenrath, 248 

Seooran, 147 

Soorsha 483 

Soorsbiii 483 

Solloinaun 42 

SoKim, 41 

Senad Mac-Manus,. . . 471 

Sepeal-na-hadhairce, . 441 

Sereo, 483 

Seskinoro, 285 

Shanacashel 3 

Shanafona, 481 

Bhanaghy, 481 

Sbanaknock, .... 481 

Shananngh 294 

Shanaragoon, .... 481 


ShanaToher, .... 481 

Shanawillen, .... 481 

Shancashlaun, .... 3 

Sbancrock, 481 

Shandrim 481 

Sliandrnin, 481 

Sbanoglish 482 

Slmnganagb, . . . 293, 294 

Sbanganny, .... 294 

Sbangort, 481 

Sbanid, 471 

Shanmoy, 481 

Sbannafreaghoge, . . 481 

Shannow, Sbanow, . . 481 

Sbanowen, 481 

SbantaUiv, 380 

Sbantallow, .... 380 

Sbantonagh, Shantony, 220 

Sbantraud, 482 

ShantuUa, Shantullig, . 481 

Sbanyober, 481 

Sharavogue, .... 29 

SbarToge, Sbarrogues, . 29 

Sbeelruddera 103 

Shoskinloobanagh, . . 424 

Sliiinna River, . . . 834 

Sblnanagh, 294 

Sbindala, Sbindilla, . . 201 

Shingnnngb 294 

Sliingaun, Sblngaunagli, 294 

Sbinnanagh, .... 294 

ShintiUa, 201 

Sbirsheen 483 

Sliivdella 202 

Sbivdclagb, Sblvdilla, . 201 

Sbivon Iliver, .... 334 

Sbronebirrane, ... 19 

Sillagb, 357 

Sillahortane, .... 43 

SiUoge 357 

SilverCeld, 306 

Silver Hill 366 

Silverwood, 365 

Skahiea 483 

Skaw, 482 

Skecoor, 73 

Skebanierin ; bush of tho 
iron : p. 369. 


Index of Names. 


Skenageehy ; bush of the 

wind : p. 246. 
Skibbereen, .... 42 
Skirra-go-bifBi-n, ... 74 
Skool, Skool Hill, . . 385 

Slade Brook 387 

Blade of Saggart, ... 387 

SlanWell, 84 

Slattagli, Slattinagh, . 354 
Slaudnabrack, .... 387 

SlieveAlp 386 

Slieveanierln, .... 370 
Slieveanore, .... 3G4 

SHevebuck, 289 

Sllevecarragh, Slievecor- 


Sliovocroob, .... 
Sliovedart, .... 
Slievedoo ; Slieveduff: 

blaok mountain : p. 

Slievo Igrine, . 
Slieye League, 
Slieve Miskieh, 
Slievenagark, . 
Blievenagrj, . 
SlieveHaTode, . 

SlleveEussell, or Eushen, 
Blisb, . . . 
Sliabmeen, . 
Sluggara, Sluggary 
Smear, . . . 
Sinoarlagb, . 
Sniorwlck, , . 
Smuttanagli, . 
Smutteriiagh, . 
Sneem in Kerry 
Snimnagorta, . 
Snugyillo, . . 
Socks, . . 





SoUogbod 356 

Sonnagh, 220 

Soodi-y ; a place for tan- 
ning : p. 116. 

Sooey, 342 

Soolvane Bridge and River, 440 


Soran, SornO; 
Sorrel Island, 

Sow River, . 
Spancelbili, . . 
Spaug, . . 
Speenoge, . 
Spiddle, . . . 
Spinans, . . , 
Spital, Spittle, 
Spiinkano, , . 
Sjjurroo, . . . 


Sragb, Brail, . 
Sranagalloon, . 
Sranayalloge, . 
Srubaugarrow ; rough 

sruhau or streamlet 

p. 475. 
Sr uhaungloragh, 
Stackarnagh, . 
Stacks, . . . 
Stags,. . . . 
Strabane, . . 
Straboe, . . . 
Straboy, . . . 
Straness, . . . 
Strangford Lough 
Stranorlar, . 
Sturgan, . , 
Sturrakeen, . 
Sturrell, . . 
Sturriu, . , 
Subulter, . . 




















Index of Names. 


Sunglen, . . 
Siinville, . . 
Swilly Hum, 
.Syliil'lloml, . 
Syoria, . . 
Sylaiin, . . 





Ta^gartsland, ... 92 

Tagharina, ... .101 

Taghnoose, 155 

Tallavbaiin, 380 

Tallow roe, 
Tnmuadoey, . 
Tang Eiver, . . 
Tangincartoor, . 
Tanrego, . 
Taplagh, . . . 
Tappaghan Hill, 
Tarmon, . 
Tarramud, . . 
Tarrea, . . . 
Tarenn, . . . 
Tatteiulillur, . 
TaTiiagliorna Burn, 
Tavnaglirnnny, . . 
Tawnivglibiuin ; white 

field : p. 276. 
Tawnagligorm ; blue 
field : p. 282. 

Tawnauasbeffin, . . . 


Tawnytallan, .... 


Toorovoii ; boautilul dis- 
trict: pp. G4, 380. 

Teermore ; great district. 

Tcernacreeve, .... 

Templeaplau, .... 79 

I'empleatbea, .... 478 

Teniplecowey 157 

Temple-Mac-Duagh, . 195 

Templeoran, Tomple- 

orum, 148 









Tempodeshil Stone, . 


Termonbacca, . . . 

Termonbarry, , . . 

Tormoncarrngb, . . 

Tcrinonfccliin, . . . 

Termoninagratb, . . 
Termonmaquirk, . 

Termonomougan, . . 

Terryglassog, . , . 





Thimbletown, .... 
The Woods, .... 
Tiermore ; great district : 

p. 380. 
Tieveachorkj : hill-side 
of the oats : p. 321. 


Tievebunnan, .... 




Tincone, Tincoon, . , 



TiiinascoUy, . . . • 


Tinvacoosb, .... 
Tinvane, Tinraun, . . 
Tin wear, ..:... 
Tirachorka ; district of 
theoata: pp. 321,380. 
Tiraree; district of the 
king : pp. 100, 380. 



Tiroarly ; district of the 
carl : i)p. 58, 380. 


Tirgarriff, Tirgarve; rug- 
ged district : pp. 380, 4 
Tirnageeragh, . . . . 


Tiromedan, . . . . 
Toberagarriff, .... 
Toberaniorin, .... 
Toberanleise, . . . . 
Toberataravan, . . . . 



, 215 

, 163 

, 213 

. 215 

. 214 

. 216 

. 215 

. 215 

. 297 

. 409 

. 330 

. 447 









Index of Names. 



ToberavanaLa, .... 


Trinaniadan, . . 


Toberaviller, .... 


Ti-isternagli, .... 


Tobei-buyoga, .... 


Tubbridbritain, . 


Tobergowna, .... 








Tobermacduagb, . . . 




Tobernaclug ; well of the 

TuUagbanbaun, . . . 


bolls : p. 184. 



Tobornadroo, .... 


Tullagbobogloy, . . . 


Tobernafauna, .... 


TuUagreen, . . . . 


Tobernasool, Tobersool, 



Tobernavaunia, . . . 




Tobernawabnoe, Tober- 

TuUanacrunat, .... 


nawanny, ... 83, 84 

TuUanaglug ; hillock of 

Toberroe ; red well : p. 

the bella : p. 184. 

278. ^ 

Tiillaroan, . . . . . 


Toboralano, Toboralaim, 




ToburbUiuutia, .... 


'rulliiiuB|)ick, . . . . 


Tobersool, Tobernasool, 


TuUintlisny, . . . . 








Tiillinvvauuia, TuUiu- 

Toun Cleena, .... 




Tonn Rudbraidhe, . . 




Tonus or 'i'lins, . . . 




Tonn Toma, 




Tonn Tuaitbe, .... 




Tonrengh; grey bottom 



land : p. 282. 

Tullycorbet, . . . . 


Touyfobanan, .... 


Tullycorka; hillock of 



the oats : p. 321. 

Tooreenalour : the lep- 

TuUycreenagbt, . . . 


er's little bleach-field ; 

TuUyearl ; earl's hillock : 

p. 281. 

p. 53. 

Tooveennanina, . . . 


Tullybirra, ... 


Tooroennaaillane, . . . 




Toornaneaskagb, . . . 




Toorsmuttaun, . . . 


Tullyininister, . . . . 


Toppan Island, . . . 


Tullynaconspod, . . . 


Topped Hill, .... 


TuUynadall, . . . , 


Tory Hill 






Tiiliyiiagiiig ; hillock of 



Ibo bi^llb : p. 184. 



Tiill}'ii.iliiiinei-a, . . . 


Trabolgan, .... 


'ruilyuaiifgibh, . . . . 


Trasna, Trasnagb, . . 


TullyuMsliummer ; hillock 

Trawane, Trawbwn, . 

. 277 

of the shamrocks : p. 

Trawbreaga Bay, . . 

. 437 



. 222 

TuUynavall, . . . . 


Index of Names. 





Tullyrnlifvii, Tullyrivin ; 
liiilock of llio ferns: p. 

Tnlljskoliorny, . . . . 
Tiillywee ; yellow hillock 

p. 279. 
Tultuinne, .... 
Tung or Tonns, . . 
Turkenagh Mountain, 
Turloughour, . . . 
Tiirnnspidogy, . . . 



Uallach, .... 68,473 

Ughtyneill, 428 

Uinmei-as, 460 

Urbal, ...... 426 


Urbalkirk, 426 

Urbalreagh ; grey tail : 

pp. 282, 426. 

Urbalshinny, .... 426 

Urlar, Urlaur, . . . 425 

Urloo, 339 

Urliiigford, 404 

Urrasaun, 213 

Urrismenagh, .... 213 

Urros, 213 

Ushuagb Hill, Usnagb, 7 

Warbleshinny 426 

Watree, 442 

Westpoit, 307 

Wbeery, 351 

Wherrew 351 

Whinnigan, 33 

Winflgap, Windgatp, . 217 

Woods, The, .... 447 

VOL. 11. 




Ab, an abbot, 94. 
Abair, a brow, 274. 
Abar, raire, 389. 
Acb, a teriniimtion, 3. 
Adbnre [eirk], a horu, 440. 
Aedh [ay], a man's name, 147. 
Aedhaire [aira], a shepherd, 

Ael, lime, 374. 
Aengus, a man's name, 154. 
Aililhre, a j)ilf,'rini, 97. 
A'illo, boniil.y, (\rK 
Aimliioidh [nvroa], uneven, 

Ainhl.lhetb, a storm, 249. 

Air [ar], east, 448. 

Aire, a termination, 11. 

Airgead [arrigid], silver, 71, 

Aiitliear [arher], eastern, 448. 

Alainr. [awlin], beautiful, 65. 

Albanacu, a Scotchman, 124. 

Alp, a ninss, 386. 

Amach, out, outside, 447. 

Auiadau, a simpleton, 9, 163. 

Aiiiar, a trough, 430. 

Ambas, a hired soldier, 108. 

Anam, the soul, 460. 

An, a dim, termination, 20. 

Ancoire, an anchorite, 90. 

Aoibhiiin [eevin], beautiful, 64. 

Arbhii, arbhar, corn, 318. 

Arc, a jiig, 307. 

Arlaidh [auriy], slaughter, 465. 

Art, a man's name, 154. 

Bacach [bacca], a cripple, 163. 

Bachall, a crosier, 187. 

Bacds, a bake-house, 220, 

Baidhte, submerged, 412. 

Baine [bonnya], milk, 206. 

Baintreabhacb, a widow, 115. 

Bairghin [barreen], a cake, 56. 

Bairneach, a limpet, 311. 

nan [bawn], white, 276. 

Itrm I bawnj, lea land, 383. 

Banbli, a sucking i)ig, 308. 

Bard, a rhymer, 111. 

Beach [bah], a bee, 294. 

Bcadaidho [bady], saucy, fasti- 
dious, 315. 

Bean, a woman, 121. 

Beannacht, a blessing, 478. 

Beartracb, an oyster bank, 

Beg, small, 413, 414. 

Beim, ablow, 181. 

neo, living, 318. 

Bhar, bhre, a termination, 10. 

Biadhtach [beetaj, a public 
victualler, 113. 

Binneas [binnas], melody, 72. 

Biolar [biller], watercress, .344. 

Blath [blaw], a flower, 326. 
Bl^an, a creek, 264. 
Bh>nog, lard, 209. 
Bodnch, a churl, 164. 
Bodhar, deaf, 47- 


Index of Root Words. 

Bog, soft, a bog, 46. 

Logacb, a bog, 47. 

Bolg, a sack, 197. 

Bolg, a bellows, 248. 

Bolgadan, 36, 

Bother, 47. 

Bradach, a thief, 110. 

Bradan, a salmon, 311. 

Bi-an, a man's name, 158. 

Brutluiir [brawhor], n friar, 96. 

Breac [brack] spei^kled, 288. 

Breac [brack], a trout, 312. 

Br6an, stinking, 397- 

Breatan [brattan], a Briton, 

Breathnach, a Welshman, 122. 

Breug [breague], a lie, 435, 

Brit, speckled, 289. 

Brog, a shoe, 188. 

Brii, Bruacb, a brink, 210. 

Bnilgheal [brooalj, a cormo- 
rant, 302. 

Buaehail, a boy, 435. 

Buan, lasting, 15. 

Buidhe [bwee], yellow, 279. 

Buidheog, jamidice, 83. 

Buinue [biinnia], a flood, 410. 

Bunu&u, a bittern, 300. 

Oab, a mouth, 438. 
Cabog, a clown, 164. 
Cac, dirt, 166. 
Cadacb, alliance, 463. 
Cadhog, a jackdaw, 302. 
Cuech [kee], blind, 10:2. 
Caedh [kay], a quagmire, 396. 
Caein, delightful, 63. 
Gael [keal], narrow, 418. 
Caer [kear], a berry, 323. 
Cailleach, a nun, 95. 
Caiso [causk], Easter, 467. 
Caislo [caslihi], a sea-iiilot, 263. 
Cais-tsoarbhan [coahtharvaun], 

dandelion, 341. 
Caitkne [cahtna], arbutus, 359. 
Cam, crooked, 420. 
Camhair, the break of day, 


Campa, a camp, 60. 

Can, a dim. termination, 32. 

Cananach, a canon, 92. 

Caoin [keen], beautiful, 63. 

Oaonach [keenagb], moss, 337. 

Caoraigheacht [keereaght], a 
herd of cattle, 109. 

Carbad, a chariot, 175. 

Carcair [carker], a prison, 229. 

Oarr, a car, 177. 

Carrach, rough, 476. 

Cas, twisted, 420. 

Oaslach, a creek, 264. 

Cat, a cat, 308. 

Ceabh [keave], long grass, 339. 

Ceanannus, head abode, 234. 

Ceannaighe, a pedlar, 119. 

Ceap, a stoiik or trunk, 3i>3, 

Cearc fcark], a hen, 298. 

Cearc-fraoigli [cark-freo], a 
lioath-lien, 298. 

Cuarnabhan, coarnaman, a 
hornet, 295. 

Cearrbhach, a gamester, 120. 

Oeath [call], a shower, 253. 

Coiloabhar [kolluro], the warb- 
ling of birds, 71. 

C6im, a step, a pass, 385. 

Ceinfhionn [cannon], white- 
head, 275. 

Ceilhearn [kehern], light- 
arniod foot soldiers, 107. 

Ce6 [keo], a fog, 254. 

Char, chor, a termination, 10, 

Ciar [keer], black, 271. 

Ciarog [keeroge], a clock, 295. 

Ciot, the left hand, 165. 

Ciotach, ciotog, a left-iiauded 
person, 165. 

Clab, a wide mouth, 439. 

Chidach, a stony shore, 304, 

Cladli, a dyke or mound, 219. 

Claen [clean], sloping, 422. 

Claidheamh, a sword, 180. 

Claigeann [claggan], a skull, 

Clais [clash], a trench, 221. 

Clamh [clav], a leper, 80. 

Index of Root Words. 


Clnrnpar, a dispute, 4(30. 
Clftr, aboai-fl, 222. 
Claymore, a swovd. 180. 
Clercpli, clergy, 91. 
Clinhl) [oleeve], a Imsket, 198. 
ClinliliAii, acradlo, 198. 
Clialli [rlco], filitrrdio, 199. 
Clog, a bell, 17, 184. 
Cluag, an ear, 427. 
Cluid [clood], a nook, 425. 
Clutbar, shelter, 250. 
Cnag, a knob, 12. 
Cno, a nut, 325. 
Cobbag, a causeway, 218. 
Cochall, a net, a hoocT, 199. 
Codla [culla], sleep, 488. 
Cogal, tares, 341. 
Coileach-fracigli [collifigh- 

free], a boat!) -cock, 298, 299. 
Coileir [cullare], a quarry, 373. 
Coinleoir, a candlestick, 204. 
Coisceim, a step, a pass, 386. 
Coiree [curkia], oats, 321. 
Coire, a caldron, 431. 
Coitchionn [cutteenj, a com- 
mon, 472. 
Coblias [couso], a causowav, 

Cointin, controversy, 400. 
Colpr, a straigbt sword, 180. 
Colpa, a lipii'cr, .'50(j. 
Colum, colur, a clove, 301. 
nombfbod [coad], a bed or 

grave, 474. 
CoMihrac, a meeting, 404. 
Coniortr.s. contention, 461. 
Conadb [conna], fire-wood, 

Cong, a narrow strait, 409. 
Connacbtach, a Connauglit- 

man, 126. 
Conspoid, controversy, 461. 
Copog, a dock-leaf, 347. 
Creagbt, cattle-spoil. 108. 
Creamh [crav], wild garlic, 

Criatlwidoir, .'i siovn maker, 

Criocli [croo], a boundary, 210. 

Criatbar, [crihar], a sieve, 

Orion, williered, 352. 
Crith [crib], to sbake, 391. 
Cro, a hut, 225. 
Crobh [crov], a band, 440. 
(Jroiccann [cruckan], a bide, 

Orom, sloping, 422. 
Croruan, a kite, 316. 
Crompan, a little sea-inlet, 

Cr6n, a brown colour, 280. 
Cron, a round hollow, 386. 
Crotaire, a harper, 112. 
Cruadh [croo], hard, 477. 
Orubog, a crab, 311. 
Crilb, a hoof, 439. 
Cruba-eun, bird's-foot tre- 
foil, 440. 
Cruimbtber, a priest, 93. 
Cruithneacht, wheat, 320. 
Cu, a bound, 156. 
Cuan, a harbour, 261. 
Ouas, a cove, 26.3. 
Ciibbra or cumhra [coora], 

sweet-pcontod, 72. 
Cudlu'ig [cu-ogo], a jackdaw, 

Guile, cuilnencb [quilk, quH- 

ka], a rood, 335. 
Cuinneog, a churn, 19. 
Guiridin, a parsnip, 350. 
Cunnradh, a treaty, 463. 
Guradh [curra], a knight, 104. 

D as a termination, 14. 
Pabhacb [davagh], a vat, 433. 
Dairt [dart], a licifer, 305. 
Dall, blind, 162. 
l)An, a dim. termination, 35. 
Dathadoir, a dyer, 122. 
Dealg [dallig]", a thorn, 20, 

Dcarg [darrig], red, 277. 
Deas [dass], south, 442. 
Deiscoart [deskart], south, 454. 
D(>iiiol [dosbul], southwards, 



Index of Root Words. 

Diainhar [doovnr], mystorious, 

solitary, 481. 
Diun [deean], strong;, 475. 
Diomas [deouias], pride, 473. 
Dobhar [dovar], water, 403. 
Doithir [dohir], glooiu, 470. 
Bonn, brown, 280. 
DoruB, a door, 229. 
Drean [dran], a wren, 296. 
Dreas [draas], a bramble, 355. 
Dreolan, Dreoilin, a wren, 296. 
Drui [dree], adriiid, 97- 
Duairc [dooark], surly, 74. 
Dubh [duv], black, 267- 
Dubbadb, blacking stuff, 270. 
Duibh6u, a cormorant, 302. 
Duileasf?, dillesh, 346. 
Duillo [duUia], a leaf of a tree, 

Duilleabhar [dillure], foliage, 

Duiiio, a person, 121. 
Duiuhacb, a sand-mound, 

Diir [door], water, 403. 
Dur, obstinate and stupid, 34. 
Diiradan, a stupid person, 


Eadar [adder], between, 444. 

Eadarnaiglie [adderny], an 
ambuscade, 4G2. 

Eag, death, 89. 

Eala, a swan, 301. 

Ealagacb, noble, just, 464. 

Earball, a tail, 126. 

Earracb, spring, 468. 

Easgan, an eel, 310. 

Easpog [aspug], a bisliop, 91. 

Eibbis, coarse pasture, 338. 

Eigeas [aigas], a poet, 112. 

Elestar, a llaggor, 334. 

En, ene, a diminutive termi- 
nation, 25. 

Eorna [orna], barley, 321. 

Pachair, a sbelf in a cliif, 

Fada, long, 417. 

Faitbnidli [fahnot)], a wart, 

Fal[fawl], a hedge, 216. 
Fd,n [fawn], a slope, 424. 
Feadh[fa], a rush, 434. 
Fear [far], a man, 122. 
Fearaun [farran], land, 380. 
Fear-br6igo, a false man, a 

scarecrow, 435. 
Feith [fea], a wet trench, 397. 
Feleatar, a Hagger, 334. 
Fer [fair], grass, 337. 
Figheadoir, a weaver, 118. 
Finn, fionn, white, 271. 
Fliuch [flugh], wet, 411. 
F6d [fode], a sod, 382. 
Fofanndu, a thistle, 314. 
Foraois [furreesh], a forest, 

Forgnaidh, a building, 209. 
Fotliannan, a thistle, 332. 
Fothar [foliar], a forest, 350. 
Fuar, cold, 252. 

Ga, gae, gath, a dart, 179. 
Gab, a mouth, 438. 
Gadaighe [gaddy], a thief, 

Gaeth [gee], wind, 246. 
Gaeth, a sea-inlet, 2tJ5. 
Giig [gang], a cleft, 429. 
Gaillseacb, an Englisliwoman, 

Qaineamh [ganniv], sand, 375. 
Gairbh^ul [gravale], gravel, 

Galloglach, a heavy-armed 

foot soldier, 107. 
Qamh [gauv], winter, storm, 

Gan, a dim. termination, 32. 
(Jar, neiir, 4 16. 
Oarbii [garrav], rough, 475. 
aeal[gal], white, 277. 
Qealbhiin [galloon], a sparrow, 

Qeallog, a wliite-bellied eel, 

I Gearr[gir], short, 304, 417. 

Index of Root Words. 


Gearr-fbiadh [girree], a hare, 

GeosadAn, ragweed, 35. 
Gild, wliiteness, 277- 
Giolc [gilk ; (j Lard], a reed 

broom, 3!M. 
(;iuinl.x<.[gu8c], fir. 3^8. 
Glan, clean, p»iro, 398. 
Glas, green, 281. 
Glasog, a wagtail, 296. 
Gleo[gloj, strife, 402. 
Gleoir [glore], brightness, 70. 
Gi6r [clore], a roieo, 06. 
Glorach, voicef ul, prattling, 66. 
Gluair [gloor], pure, 70. 
Gluaire, purity, 71. 
Go, the sea, 256. 
Gob, a snout, 438. 
Gobhng [gougr], a cleft, 420. 
Goilin[goleon], a narrow little 

sea-inlet, 263. 
Gortn, blue, 282. 
Gort, gorta, hunger, 438. 
Graigh,groigh, a stud, 310. 
Grain, ugliness, 303. 
Graineog, a hedgehog, 303. 
Oranii, ugly, 13. 
GrCaeh, a mountain flat, 393. 
Grean [gran] gravel, 374. 
Orian [grooan], the s>in, 240. 
(Irting, li.'iir, long graHS, 33S. 
Glial [gool], coal, charcoal, 

Gu8, strength, 154. 

lar [eer], west, 451. 
larann [eeran], iron, 369. 
larla [eerla], an earl, 58. 
larthar [eerliar], west, 452. 
Ic[eok], to heal, 77, 78. 
Im, butter, 208. 
Imroas, a dispute, 460. 
In [een], a dim. termination, 

Ineasclann [inisclan], a strong 

stream, 406. 
Inneoin [iunone], an anvil, 

lochdar [eetnrj, lower, 442. 

lompodh [impo], turning, 456. 
Tonga [inga], a nail, 42 5 
lorriis [irrus], a peninsula, 

Iseal [eeshal], low, 443. 

L, II, as a terminal in ,37. 

Labhair, speak, 68. 

Lach, a fermination, Fi. 

Laech [lay], a champion, 103. 

Laighneach, a Leinsterman, 

I.Ar, middle, 445. 

Lathach [lahagh], a slough, 

Leamh, marsh mallows, 345. 

Leamhnacht, new milk, 206. 

Leana, a wet meadow, 401. 

Lease [lask], la/.y, 474. 

Leathair [laher], leather, 117. 

Leathan [lahan], broad, 418. 

Leigheas [lease], a cure, 90. 

Leim, a leap, 317. 

Leithead [lehed], breadth, 

T^estnr, a vessel, 190. 

Jjiagh [looaj, a physician, 77, 

Lias, a hut, 226. 

),iatli [leoa], grey, 284.[leon|, (lax,327 

Lin [leen], to fill, 407. 

Ling, to spring, 475. 

Linn, a pond, 407. 

Lobhar [lower], a leper, 81. 

Losaid, a kneading trough, 

Luach, price, 189. 

Luachair [looghar], a rush, ,333. 

Lnan, a lamb, ,304. 

Liib, a loop or bend, 424. 

Lubhgort [looartj, an herb gar- 
den, 336. 

Li'icb, a mouse, 295. 

Lucht-tighe, [lughtee], a house- 
hold, 470. 

Luibh[luv, lir], an herb, 335. 

Jjiisnior, foxglove, .329. 

Maer [maroj. a steward, 113. 


Iiulcx of Root Wonh. 

Maiuiater, a moiiastory, 233. 
MttUucht, a curse, \Vd. 
Manacli, a monk, 94 
Miingaire, a pedhir, 120. 
Mart, a bullock, 3U7. 
Martra, martyrdom, 405. 
Meacan, a parsnip, 349. 
Meadar, a kind of vessel, 190. 
Moadlion [niaaii], middle, 415. 
Muann, meannan, a kid, 305. 
Meantan [mantan], a snipe, 

Mearacdn, foxglove, 330. 
Mias [meece], a dish, 196. 
Min [meen], fine or smootli. 

small, 400, 413. 
Miol, a beast of any kind, 291. 
Mioltog [lueeltoge], a midge, 

Miacuis, enmity, spite, 402. 
Mogul, a cluster, 72. 
Moinfliour, a meadow, 338. 
Molt, a vvetber, 305. 
Morig, bair, long coarse grass, 

M6r [more], great, 413, 414. 
Miich [mooh], smoke, 392. 
Miiciiadh, to smot