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Full text of "Origin and history of the name of Smith, with biographes of all the most noted persons of that name. And an account of the origin of surnames and forenames. Together with over five hundred Christian names of men and women and their significance. The Crescent family record .."

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GENEALOGY COULECTiON 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 00859 4886 



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But strezv his ashes to the zvind, 

Whose sword or voice has served mankind, 

And is he dead, whose plorious mind 

Lifts him on high? 
Jo live in hearts zve leave b 'hind, 

Is not to die. 



PUBLISHERS' NOTE. 



A NUMBER of letters and material have been re- 
ceived of a genealogical nature, with requests to in- 
corporate the same into this work. It is to be re- 
gretted that this cannot be done, as the object of this 
work is simply to preserve and perpetuate the names 
and biographical history of the most notable mem- 
bers of this family name. 

The preservation of such a record cannot fail to 
prove invaluable and a source of pride and interest 
not only to persons of the name but to the world in 
general ; and this book maj^ prove the foundation upon 
which a monumental work mav be constructedo 



ORIGIN AND HISTORY 



OF THE 

INT A i^ e : 

OF 
^VITH 

BIOGRAPHIES OF ALL THE MOST NOTED 
PERSONS OF THAT NAME. 



AND AN ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN OF 
SURNAMES AND FORENAMES. 

TOGETHER WITH 

OVER FIVE HUNDRED CHRISTIAN NAMES OF MEN AND WOMEN 

AND THEIR SIGNTFICANCE. 



Cbe Crescent family Record. 



To live in hearts we leave behind is not to die. 



CHICAGO, ILL.: 

AMERICAN publishers' ASSOCIATION. 



INTRODU CTION. 



NOW that we all have surnames, we are apt to for- 
get that it was not always so. We cannot eas- 
ily realize the time when John, Thomas and Andrew, 
Mary and Abigail, were each satisfied with a single 
name, nor reflect that the use of two is not a refine- 
ment dating from an oliscure and unknown antiquity, 
but quite within the reach of record and histor\^ 

Every name, no doubt, originally had a meaning, 
or was at first assumed or imposed from its real or 
supposed fitness, from some accidental circumstance, 
or from mere caprice. Each individual is distinguished 
from his fellows by his name. But for this system his- 
tory and biography could scarcely exist. 

Our proper name is our individuality'; in our own 
thoughts and in the thoughts of those who know us, 
they cannot be separated. Our names are uttered, 
and at once, whether in connection with blame or 
praise, -with threat or entreaty, with hatred or love, 
we ourselves are affected by the ideas and feelings 
expressed. A few trifling words, in no way meant to 
apply to the man they describe, suffice to awaken the 
recollection of that man, his ph3'sical peculiarities, his 
moral character, and the most remarkable acts and 
events of his life; a few syllables will cause the tear 
to start afresh from the mother's eye, after years of 
consolation and resignation to her loss; they will sum- 
mon the tell-tale blush to the maiden's cheek, and she 
immediately thinks her secret is discovered; they will 
make a lover's heart beat more rapidly; rekindle the 
angry glance in an enemy's eye; and in a friend sep- 
arated from his friend, will renew all his past regrets 
and his fondest hopes. None the less rapidly do oar 
thoughts connect a name with the idea of the thing to 



ii INTRODUCTION. 

which it belongs, be it land of birth, country, town, 
river, road, vallej^ or hill. Dislike, desire, recollection of 
pain or pleasui't, admiration, jealously, kind feelings, 
national hatreds and love of countrv, one and all may 
be evoked by a single -word, because the w^ord repre- 
sents to us the very object which has created those 
emotions v^ithin us. Every person, even the most in- 
curious observer of words and things, must have re- 
marked the great variety that exists in the names of 
families. He cannot fail to notice that such names are 
of v^idely different significations, many being identical 
with names of places, offices, professions, trades, qual- 
ities, familiar natural objects and other things. There 
is probably no person capable of the least degree of re- 
flection wdio has not often, in idle moments, amused 
himself with some little speculation on the probable 
origin of his own name. It is not sufficient for a per- 
son of inquisitive mind that he bears such and such a 
surname because his father and his grandfather bore 
it; he will naturally feel desirous of knowing why and 
when their ancestors acquired it. 

What would the annals of mankind and the rec- 
ords of biography be if people had never borne any 
proper names? It would be a mere chaos of unde- 
fined incidents and an unintelligible mass of facts, with- 
out symmetry or beauty, and without any interest at 
all for after ages. Indeed, without names, mankind 
would have wanted what is' perhaps the greatest stim- 
ulous of which the mind is susceptible — the love of 
fame; and consequently, many of the mightiest achieve- 
ments in every department of human endeavor would 
have been lost to the world. 

Many of our ancient and modern institutions are 
intimately connected with the meaning and continued 
existence of proper names. It has been \vell said that 
hereditar\^ names perpetuate the memory of ancestors 



INTRODUCTION. iii 

better than any other monument, an affectionate re- 
membrance this, surelj^, and one which fosters the cause 
of moraHt3^; they teach, or at any rate remind sons of 
their duty to be worthy of their ancestors. 

Though its importance be felt in all phases of our 
social life, the origin of proper names does not essen- 
tially belong to a civilized condition. Undoubtedly it 
is intimately connected with the gift of speech. A man 
must call his children by a distinctive appellation, either 
when he speaks to them or when he speaks of them in 
their absence, ^nd when a gesture and an inflection of 
the voice are not sufficient to indicate his meaning. 
The distinctive title which he uses can onl3^ be a name 
exclusively applicable to the individual meant; on the 
other hand, the father will recognize the name given to 
him by his children. Again, the domestic animal, man's 
intelligent companion in his field sports, and the watch- 
ful guardian of his dwelling; the brook that runs be- 
neath his home; the tree that shelters or the forest that 
conceals it; the hill or the vale near which it lies, will 
soon be named by those who wish to distinguish them 
from similar objects around. If other men come to live 
near the first family, they will receive a name and give 
one in return. 

However simple these names be at first, so simple 
that they express nothing beyond the degree of rela- 
tionship between father and mother and children, and 
the order of their birth in the case of the last; be they 
mere substantives used to point out more specialh^ the 
dwelling and all that surrounds it; as the hut, the tree, 
or the brook — or even supposing that in the common 
intercourse which may exist between one family and its 
neighbor the only distinctive terms employed are we 
and they, and further, that sun, fire, destruction, or 
thunder, designate the beneficent or angry deitv — still 
the system of proper names already exists in embryo, 



iv INTRODUCTION. 

and is ready to be further developed, even to the high- 
est degree of importance and intricacy, in proportion 
as the social principle itself becomes more extended and 
more complicated in its constitution. 

Add new members to the family; collect several fam- 
ilies together and form them into one tribe; place a 
number of tribes holding friendly relations with one 
another in a less limited tract of land; then will the 
spot occupied by each tribe, every village or cluster of 
inhabitants belonging to the same tribe, every hill and 
thicket and brook — in a word, the larfd and the gath- 
ering of men upon it assume proper names, just as the 
tribes had already done before, and the families and 
the individuals that constituted t^iem. 

From this outline of the first elements of social 
life, let us remove, in thought, for a moment, and place 
ourselves in the heart of civilized existence. The names 
of lands and dwellings have changed into the designa- 
tions of powerful states and magnificent cities; names 
which will be familiar for centuries after the grass has 
grown over and hidden even the ruins of their palaces 
and their fortresses and obliterated the very traces of 
their existence, and after political or naturally induced 
revolutions have depopulated, divided and totally dis- 
membered the provinces of mighty empires. Here the 
names of men distinguish the individual members of a 
great social body, magistrates, princes, chiefs of the 
great civil and political whole; and among these names, 
all of them less or more important at present, there 
are some which hereafter shall be handed down to his- 
tory as a rich inheritance, an object of envy to the am- 
bitious, and a pattern of conduct to the wise. 



HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL 



THE NAME OF SMITH. 

The word smith, is Anglo-Saxon from smitan, to smite- 
originally any one who strikes or sraited with a hammer, an 
artificer, a carpenter, smith, or workman. One who worked 
in iron was called iren smith, which means an iron smith. Be- 
sides Smiths simple we have Smithsons (heritors of the thrice 
noble name of Percy). Blacksmiths and Whitesmiths have 
been lately discovered, but they are very rare. More than two 
hundred years ago old Verstegan asked the question: 
"Whence comes Smith, all ; be he Knight or Squire— l3ut from 
the Smith that f orgeth at the fire. ' ' 

The surname of Smith explains itself. Under its different 
forms of spelling and pronunciation, as. for instance, in Ger- 
man, Schmitz or Schmidt; Dutch, Smitt; French, Smeets; 
Saxon. Smid (hence Smiddy or Smithy) ; English, Smith and 
Smythe. also the English Smyttan. and the Scotch Smeton 
and Smeaton : the name is a common one. not only in Europe, 
but in America, and everywhere. Of surnames derived from 
occupations. Smith is the most numerous. It is stated that 
there are over a quarter of a million of people in Great 
Britain bearing the name. In Lardner's Cyclopedia, the fol- 
loAving paragraph occurs: "One of our historians observes 
that immediately preceding the Conquest, the art of working 
in iron and steel had risen to such a state of improvement that 
even the horses of some of the chief knights and barons were 
covered with steel and iron armor. Artificers who wrought 
in iron were so highly regarded in those warlike times, that 
every military officer had his smith, who constantly attended 
his person, to keep his arms and armor in order. The chief 
smith was an officer of considerable dignity in the court of the 
Anglo-Saxon and Welsh kings, where his weregeld. or pay- 
ment, was much higher than that of any other artificer. In 
the Welsh court the king's smith sat next to the domestic 
chaplain, and was entitled to a drausrht of every kind of 
liquor that was brought into the hall. As the same trade and 
occunation was often practiced in former times by the same 
family for many generations, descending hereditarily from 
father to son, the names of occupations the more readily be- 
came stationary family names. 



10 HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL 

THE FIRST OF THE NAME OF SMITH IN AMERICA. 

One of the first settlers of New England was Abraham 
Smith, who was a resident of Cambridge, Mass., in 1646. He 
boiisrht land. Alice and John Smith came in the Planter in 
1635. 

Benjamin Smith was an attorney, and a proprietor of 
Dedham. 

Christopher Smith was a proprietor of Dedham in 1640. 
In his will he bequeathed to his sons John Smith, Michael, 
Eleazer. 

Daniel Smith was a planter of Watertown, and bought land 
in 1645. His will provided for wife and son Daniel. 

Edward Smith was a town clerk and a proprietor of Wey- 
mouth in 1643. 

Edward Smith, a gunsmith of Boston, left estate in New 
England. 

Francis Smith was juryman in 1630. He was a proprietor 
at Boston and a land owner at Lynn. 

Francis Smith was a proprietor at Watertown in 1636, and 
was also a town officer. His son John was a proprietor and 
town officer also. 

Francis Smith was a proprietor of Hingham in 1635. He 
had a deed of land at Weymouth. He bequeathed in his will 
to his wife and his eldest son Samuel. 

Henry Smith, a very early settler of Dorchester, Mass.. was 
also a proprietor in 1634. He was a prominent citizen. 

Henry Smith was a proprietor in 1637; and came to New 
England with his two children. John and Sethe. In his will 
he bequeathed to his son John. 

As an early settler of New England, Henry Smith came 
first to Charlestown, Mass. He was a deacon and a deputy. 
He bequeathed in his will to sons Henry and Daniel. 

Hugh Smith was a proprietor of Rowley, Mass., and was 
also a town officer. In his will he bequeathed to his wife, and 
the estate was to be divided between the children at her death 
or marriage. 

Jacob Smith was a proprietor at Marblehead in 1648, and 
at Gloucester before 1649. In his will he bequeathed to his 

James Smith settled at Weymouth in 1639. He was a pro- 
prietor, and was an o^Amer of lands. In his will he bequeathed 
to James and Nathaniel Smith, his sons. 

Bev. John Smith was a minister of Barnstable, Mass. He 



HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL 

tried to organize a church, which the council refused. He 
was pastor at Sandwich in 1637-39. His sons were Samuel, 
Ebenezer, John, Shubael, John, Benjamin, Ichabod, Thomas 
and Joseph. 

John Smith, herdsman and proprietor, came in the James 
and settled at Dorchester in 1635. In his will he partly be- 
queathed to his son John. 

Rev. Ralph Smith came over to -New England in 1628, with 
the colony of the Massachusetts Bay Company. He became a 
pastor and went to Manchester. 

Ralph Smith was an early settler of New England, and 
came to Charlestown in 1633. He left a son Samuel. 

Samuel Smith came in the Elizabeth to Ipswich, and set- 
tled at Salem in 1634. 

Thomas Smith, a weaver, settled in Ipswich. He came in 
the James in 1635. His widow left an estate to his sons James 
and John Smith. 

Thomas Smith M'as a carpenter who settled in Watertown, 
Mass., in 1636, and was a proprietor. He left property to 
Thomas, John, Ephraim, Joseph and Jonathan, his sons. 

A descendant writes me that some aspiring Smith or 
Smythe clainLS for us a sea-horse rampant, with the motto, 
Calm amid the waves ; and it does not seem inappropriate for 
our seafaring race. 

The surname of Smith is of great antiquity in Scotland, 
and of old was variously written Smyt, Smyth, and Smith; 
and sometimes they have been called Gow. which is Gaelic for 
Smith. The traditional account of their origin is that they are 
descended from Clan Chattan; that Neil Croomb, third son 
of IMurdock of that elan, who lived in the reign of William 
the Lion, was their progenitor. The sejant cat is the motto, 
"Na beau d'on chat gan la na hainee," which means Touch 
not the cat Mnthout a glove. The Clan Chattan, who gave the 
name to the county of Caithness, bore as their cognizance the 
wild mountain cat, and called their chieftain, the Earl of 
Sutherland, "Mohr au that." which means The great wild 
cat. 

The coat of arms belonging to the family of Sir John 
Wyldboro Smith, of County Dorset, England, has for its 
motto Semper fidelis, which seems singularly appropriate also, 
when we think of all who have devoted themselves to their 
country's service, 



12 HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL 

COAT-OF-ARMS OF THE SMITH FAMILY. 
Arms: — Sable, six fleur-de-lis argent three, two and one. 
Crest: — Out of a ducal coronet or a demi-bull salient 
argent armed of the first. 

Motto:— Nee timeo, nee sperno. 

THE SMITHS IN AMERICA. 

A thorough perusal of the following life sketches of noted 
Smiths, eminent in all walks of life, will reveal the fact that 
the Smiths have been actively and intimately associated with 
the ecclesiastical, civil, industrial and conmiercial affairs of 
America; and to become conversant with their history will 
naturally create in our children a source of pride in the name 
of Smith heretofore unappreciated. 

As builders and merchants they have built cities and illum- 
ined the marts of trade; in the field of science and medicine 
they have obtained great prominence ; in the arena of states- 
manship they have produced men of thought and men of ac- 
tion; while at the bar and in the administration of justice 
they have shown erudition and wisdom. As clergymen, edu- 
cators and lecturers they have occupied high places; as musi- 
cians, composers and artists they have contributed profusely 
to social life ; and as authors and poets they are worthy to be 
crowned with a laurel wreath of fame. Also as heroes of 
colonial, Revolutionary and later wars they have rendered 
patriotic service, each one of whom has added luster to the 
name of Smith. 

SMITH, A. HERR, lawyer, congressman, was born March 
7, 1815, in Lancaster county. Pa. In 1643-44 he was a mem- 
ber of the house of representatives of Pennsylvania; and in 
1845 was elected to the state senate. He was a representative 
to the forty-third, forty-fourth, forty-fifth, forty-sixth, forty- 
seventh and forty-eighth congresses as a republican. 

SMITH, A. I., lawyer, was born Dec. 11, 1848, in Grafton 
Center, N. Y. He has attained eminence at the bar of Mis- 
souri in Kansas City. He makes a specialty of real estate 
law ; and for fifteen years has been attorney for the Equitable 
Mortgage Company. He has filled numerous positions of 
trust and honor. 

SMITH, A. J., lawyer, banker. He has attained success 
at the bar of Missouri at Adrian ; has been a candidate for 
prosecuting attorney of Bates county; and also a candidate 
for the state legislature. For the past fifteen years he has 



HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL 

been city attorney of Adrian, Mo. ; has been for several years 
vice-president of the Adrian Banking Company; and has 
filled numerous other offices of trust and honor in the gift 
of his city, county and state. 

SMITH, AARON PERSIL, physician, surgeon, was born 
March 3, 1829, in Coosahatchie, S. C. During the civil war 
he was a surgeon in the confederate army. He subsequently 
attained eminence as a successfvil physician and surgeon of 
the South, and still practices his profession in Sampson City, 
Fla. He is a prominent member of several medical associa- 
tions, and has filled numerous positions of trust and honor. 

SMITH, ABNER, lawyer, jurist, was born Aug. 4, 1843, in 
Orange, Mass. He is a judge of the circuit court of Cook 
county. 111., and a man whose high attainments have placed 
him in the front rank of the representatives of the legal pro- 
fession. His ancestors on both sides of the house figure prom- 
inently in the early history of this country. On graduating 
from Middlebury college in 1866 he became principal of New- 
ton academy of Vermont, but resigned in 1868, when he came 
to Chicago to take up the study of his chosen profession. He 
was admitted to the bar in 1868 at Chicago, where he still re- 
sides, and enjoyed a large practice in the state and supreme 
courts till the fall of 1893, when he was nominated by the 
republican party for the circuit court judgeship and elected 
by an overwhelming majority. On the bench as well as at the 
bar he has made a record that will long command the respect 
of the people of Illinois. He also possesses great literary 
ability. 

SMITH, ALBERT, lawyer, congressman, was born Jan. 3, 
1793, in Hanover, Mass. He was sent to the general court 
of Massachusetts in 1820. In 1830-38 he was marshal of the 
United States for Maine. He was a representative in con- 
gress from Maine in 1839-41 ; and in 1842-47 was United 
States commissioner to settle the northeastern boundary, un- 
der the Ashburton treaty. He died May 29, 1867, in Boston, 

SMITH, ALBERT W., educator, was born Oct. 4, 1862, in 
Newark, Ohio. He is a prominent educator of Ohio, and is a 
member of the American Chemical Society, and the American 
Institution of Mining Engineers. He is a Fellow of Amer- 
ican Association Advancement of Science, and professor of 
industrial chemistry in Case School of Applied Science of 
Cleveland, Ohio. 



14 HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL 

SMITH, ALBERT W., wool merchant, banker. He is presi- 
dent Fourth National Bank of Providence, R. I., and is 
prominent in the financial and public affairs of that city. 

SMITH, ALVAH LEE, banker. He is president of The 
Miners National Bank of Blossburg, Pa., and is prominent in 
the financial and public affairs of his city, county antl state. 

SMITH, ANDREW C, physician, surgeon, banker, state 
senator. He is a prominent physician of Portland, Ore., and 
a lecturer on clinical surgery in the medical department of 
the University of Oregon. He is a member of the Oregon 
State Medical Society; a member of the American Medical 
Association ; and has held many positions of importance. He 
is president of the Hibernia Savings Bank of Portland, and 
has served with distinction as a member of the Oregon state 
senate. 

SMITH, ANDREW J., lawyer, was born April 20, 1841, 
in Onondaga county, N. Y. He has built up a large law prac- 
tice in Wisconsin at Amherst, and is prominent in the busi- 
ness and public affairs of his city, county and state. He 
served two years as the first president of Amherst, Wis., and 
stands high in secret and social societies. 

SMITH, ANDREW JACKSON, soldier, was born April 28, 
1815, in Bucks county, Pa. In 1838 he graduated from West 
Point; served in the Mexican and civil wars, and attained 
the brevet of major-general in the United States army. He 
died Jan. 30, 1897, in St. Louis, Mo. 

SMITH, ANDREW L., merchant, banker, was born in 
Carrollton, Ala. For five years he was city secretary of Hills- 
boro, Tex. ; for two years was an alderman of that city ; and 
for three years was a member of the state executive com- 
mittee of Texas. He is president of the Smith and Tomlinson 
Company, of Hillsboro, Texas ; is a well-known cotton buyer ; 
and is a prominent factor in the financial and business affairs 
of his city and state. 

SMITH, ARTHUR, state legislator, congressman, was born 
No'^ 15, 1785, in Isle of Wight county, Va. He served with 
credit at the head of a militia force at Norfolk in 1812 ; was 
a member of the privy council of Virginia ; and subsequently 
a member of the state legislature. He was a representative in 
congress in 1821-25. He died ]\Iarch 30, 1853, in Virginia. 

SMITH, BALLARD, congressman. He was a representa- 
tive in congress from Virginia in 1815-21. 

SMITH, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, farmer, was born May 



HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL 15 

8, 1840, in Missouri, He is a successful farmer of Lewisville, 
Ore., and has filled several positions of trust and honor in 
Lewisville and Polk county. 

SMITH, BERNARD, congressman, was born in 1776, in 
Morristown, N. J. He was sent as a special bearer of dis- 
patches to Europe; and was subsequently collector and post- 
master at New Brunswick. He was a representative in con- 
gress from New Jersey in 1819-21 ; and in 1821-35 was register 
of the land office in Arkansas. He died July 16, 1835, in 
Little Rock, Ark. 

SMITH, BERT L., stockman, banker, was born June 22, 
1863, in Leeds, N. Y. He is a successful stockman of Eureka, 
Nev. ; vice-president of the Eureka County Bank, and prom- 
inent in business and public affairs. His great-great-grand- 
father helped to build the American warships known as the 
Constitution and Old Ironsides. 

SMITH, BOARDMAN H., lawyer, jurist, congressman, was 
born Aug. 18, 1826, in Whitingham, Vt. He settled in New 
York; became judge of the Chemung county courts in 1859. 
He was a representative from New York to the forty-second 
es ; Comparative View of the Constitutions of the States ; and 

SMITH, BUCKINGHAM, lawyer, diplomat, antiquarian, 
author, was born Oct. 31, 1810, in Cumberland Island, Ga. He 
was a Spanish- American scholar and antiquary of note ; twice 
secretary of the United States legation at Mexico; and after 
1859 a lawyer in Florida. He was the author of Grammatical 
Sketch of the Heve Language; Grammar of the Pima, or Ne- 
vome; and Narratives of the Career of Hernando de Soto in 
the Conquest of Florida. He died Jan. 5, 1871, in New York 
City. 

SMITH, C. F., agriculturist, legislator. He is prominent 
in the public and business affairs of MorrisviUe, Vt. ; and in 
1900 was a delegate to the Farmers' National Congress. He 
has been president of the Vermont Dairymen's Association; 
and has held one of the highest offices in the State Grange. 
He is one of the best known farmers in his county, and is con- 
sidered the most practical agriculturist in his state. He hai^ 
been a member of the Vermont state legislature, and has Luicd 
>ther positions of trust and honor. 

SMITH. CALEB BLOOD, journalist, congressman, juiis6, 
cabinet officer, was born April 16, 1808, in Bost(«n, Mass, in 
1832 he established and edited a whig journal called the /cdi- 
uLiU, Sentinel. He was a member of the legislature in j.b;K^-3«^ 



16 HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL 

He was a representative in congress from Indiana in 1843-49 ; 
and was a presidential elector in 1840 and 1856. After leav- 
ing congress in 1849 he was appointed one of the members of 
the board for investigating the claims of American citizens 
against Mexico ; and subsequently practiced his profession in 
Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1861 he was appointed secretary of the 
interior department. He was a member of the peace congress 
held in Washington in 1861 ; and in 1862 was appointed judge 
of the United States district court for the district of Indiana. 
He died Jan. 8, 1864, in Indianapolis, Ind. 

SMITH, CHARLES ADAM, clergyman, author, was born 
Jan. 25, 1809, in New York city. He was a Lutheran clergy- 
man of Rhinebeck, N. Y., and elsewhere. He was the author 
of "The Catechumen's Guide," "Men of the Olden Time," 
"Before the Flood and After," "Among the Lilies," "Inlets 
and Outlets," " Stoneridge, " pastoral sketches, and "Popu- 
lar Exposition of the Gospels." He died Feb. 15, 1879, in 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

SMITH, CHARLES BROOKS, soldier, congressman, was 
born Feb. 24, 1844, in Wood county, W. Va. He enlisted in 
the Union army at the age of nineteen years; and was mus- 
tered out in 1865. He was twice elected mayor of the city of 
Parkersburg, and in 1880-84 was sheriff and treasurer of the 
county of Wood. He was delegate-at-large to the national 
republican convention at Chicago in 1888, and was repre- 
sentative to the fifty-first congress as a republican. 

SMITH, CHARLES EMORY, journalist, diplomat, cabi- 
net officer, was born Feb. 18, 1842, in Mansfield, Conn. He 
became editor of the Albany Express in 1865 ; of the Albany 
Journal in 1870; and since 1880 has conducted the Philadel- 
phia Press. He was president of the New York State Press 
Association in 1874, and delivered the annual address at its 
meeting. He was a regent of the university of the state of 
New York in 1879-80; and a delegate to the national repub- 
lican conventions in 1876 and in 1888. He was United States 
minister to Russia in 1890-92 ; and in 1898 became postmaster- 
general. 

SMITH, CHARLES FERGUSON, soldier, was born April 
24, 1807, in Philadelphia, Pa. He served at the military acad- 
emy in 1829-42 as assistant instructor of infantry tactics, 
adjutant, and as commander of cadets and instructor of in- 
fantry tactics. He was with the army of General Zachary 
Taylor in the military occupation of Texas in 1845-46; and 



HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL 17 

was placed in command of four companies of artillery, acting 
as infantry, which throughout the war that followed was 
famous as Smith's light battalion. He died April 25, 1862, 
in Savannah, Tenn. 

SMITH, CHARLES FRANKLIN, physician, surgeon, was 
born June 6, 1850, in St. Lawrence county, N. Y. He gradu- 
ated in medicine in 1878, and was admitted to the bar in 
1884. He has a large medical practice in Kankakee, 111., and 
is president of the board of education of that city. He is 
division surgeon for two railroads, and surgeon at the Emer- 
gency Hospital. 

SMITH, CHARLES HENRY, Bill Arp, soldier, lawyer, 
journalist, author, was born June 15, 1826, in Lawrenceville, 
Ga. In 1861-65 he served in the confederate army, becoming 
major on staff of Gen. G. T. Anderson. He is a lawyer and 
journalist of Rome, Ga., and well known as a humorous con- 
tributor to The Atlanta Constitution. He is the author of 
"Bill Arp's Letters," "Bill Arp's Scrap Book," "The Farm 
and the Fireside," "A Side Show of the Southern Side of 
the War," "Georgia as a Colony and State in 1733-1893," 
and "Fireside Sketches." 

SMITH, DANIEL, United States senator, was born about 
1740, in Fauquier county, Va. He was one of the earliest 
emigrants to Tennessee, and was a general of militia. He was 
United States senator from Tennessee in 1798 and 1805-09. 
He died in July, 1818. 

SMITH, DANIEL, clergyman, author, was born Sept. 16, 
1806, in Salisbury, Conn. He was a Methodist clergyman of 
New York state, and very active in the temperance cause. He 
was the author of "Wisdom in Miniature," "Gems of Fe- 
male Biography," "Anecdotes for the Young," "Teachers' 
Assistant, " " Lectures to Young Men, " " Book of Manners, ' ' 
and "Anecdotes of the Christian Ministry." He died June 
23, 1852, in Kingston, N. Y. 

SMITH, DAVID HIGHBAUGH, lawyer, state senator, 
congressman, was born Dec. 19, 1854, in Hart county, Ky. He 
was county attorney for LaRue county in 1878-82 ; in 1882-84 
was a member of the general assembly, and a member of the 
state senate in 1885-93, and was president of the senate. He 
was elected to the fifty-fifth and fifty-sixth congresses as a 
democrat. 

SMITH, DELAZON, journalist. United States senator, was 
born Oct. 5, 1816, in New Berlin, N. Y. He studied law, be- 



18 HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 

came a writer for the press, and was associated with the 
Rochester True Jeffersonian and the Western Empire of 
Dayton, Ohio. In 1846 he removed to Iowa territory, and in 
1852 to Oregon territory. In 1854 he was elected to the 
assembly of Oregon, and was re-elected in 1855 and 1856. In 
1857 he was a member of the convention which framed a state 
constitution, and in 1859-65 was United States senator. He 
was also the editor of the Oregon Democrat. He died Nov. 
17, 1860, in Portland, Ore. 

SMITH, DEXTER, author, poet, was born in 1842, in 
Salem, Mass. More than one thousand poems from the pen 
of this poet have been set to music, and some of his songs have 
attained circulations running well into millions of copies, 
notably the lyrics, "Ring the Bell Softly," "There's Crape 
on the Door," "Cross and Crown," "Put Me in My Little 
Bed," "Darling Minnie Lee," and others. "Ring the Bell 
Softly" has been translated into several foreign languages. 
Since 1865 he has edited continuously various musical jour- 
nals, among them the Orpheus and the Boston Musical 
Record, which he now conducts. A volume of his poems ap- 
peared in 1867. 

SMITH, DICKERSON A., physician, surgeon. In 1892 he 
graduated from Rush Medical College of Chicago, 111., and 
has since attained prominence in his profession at Shreve- 
port, La. He has filled a number of positions of trust and 
honor. 

SMITH, DIETRICH C, soldier, manufacturer, banker, 
congressman, was born April 4, 1840, in Hanover. He en- 
tered the Union army in 1861; served throughout the vvur, 
and attained the rank of captain. He engaged in banking 
and manufacturing in Pekin, 111., and was a representative in 
the legislature of Illinois. He was a representative from Illi- 
nois to the forty-seventh congress. 

SMITH, EDWARD C, railroad president, was born Jan. 
5, 1854, in St. Albans, Vt. Since 1891 he has been president 
of the Central Vermont railroad. 

SMITH, EDGAR FAHS, educator, scientist, author, was 
born in York, Pa. In 1874 he graduated from the Pennsyl- 
vania college, and in 1876 from the University of Goettingen. 
In 1876-81 he taught chemistry in the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, and since 1888 has filled the chair of chemistry in that 
institution. In 1895-96 he was president of the American 
Chemical Society, and in 1898 was vice-president of the 



HISTORICAL AND BIOGltAPHICAL. 19 

American Association for the Advancrnient of Science. In 
1893 he was a member of the jnry of UA^ards of the Chicago 
Columbian Exposition, and in 1896 and 1901 served on the 
United States Assay Commissions. He is the author of ''Ex- 
periments in Chemistry" and other st-ientific works. He is 
also the translator of ''Richtor's Inn-ganic and Organic 
Chemistries," and other works. 

SMITH, EDAVARD HENRY, farmer, congressman, was 
born in 1809, in Smithtown, N. Y. In ]860 he was elected a 
representative from New York to the thirty-seventh congress. 

SMITH, EDWIN B., farmer, merchant, was born March 
12, 1824, in Sumner Hill, Cayuga con til y, N. Y. Until 1857 
he was engaged in agricultural pursuii.s. then began mercan- 
tile business in Chatham, 111., where ht continued in business 
until he retired in 1901. During his forty-four years' career 
as a merchant, he found time to fill numerous positions of 
trust and honor in his city and county. 

SMITH, ELI AS, clergyman, author, was born June 17, 
1769, in Lyme, Conn. He was a Congregational clergyman 
of Massachusetts. He was the author of "The Clergyman's 
Looking-Glass, '" "History of Anti-Christ," and "Sermons 
on the Prophecies.'' He died June 29, 1846, in Lynn, Mass. 

SMITH, MRS. ELIZABETH OAK]']S, author, poet, was 
born Aug. 12, 1806, in North Yarmouth, Maine. She was a 
prominent writer of prose and poetry, and was the first 
woman lecturer in America. Her later years were passed in 
Hollywood, S. C. She was the author oE "The Sinless Child; 
and Other Poems;" "The Newsboy," which first directed 
public attention to a hitherto neglecteil class; "Riches With- 
out Wings," "Old New York, or Jacob Leisler," a tragedy; 
"Woman and Her Needs," "Bertha and Lily," and "The 
Western Captive." She died Nov. IH, 1893, in Hollywood, 
N. C. 

SMITH, ELLIOTT, dentist, was botn Dec. 9, 1852, in To- 
ronto, Canada. He is a successful dentist of Kansas City. 
Mo. He is noted as an amateur oarsman, and in 1893 partici- 
pated in the World's Fair International regatta. 

SMITH, ELISON C, lawyer, jurist was born Dec. 5, 1849, 
in Ohio. He has been United States district attorney; and 
is noted as an eminent jurist of Sou-h Dakota, at Yankton. 
For twelve years he has served his state as circuit judge. 

SMITH, ELSWORTH IB'., physician, surgeon. In 1848 he 
graduated from St. Louis Medical College, St. Loirs, Mo., 



20 HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 

and was for many years a prominent physician of that city. 
He was emeritus professor clinical medicine to St. Louis Med- 
ical College, and a member of the American Medical Associa- 
tion and other medical societies. He was in charge of the St. 
Louis smallpox hospital during the civil war. He was first 
health officer of St. Louis in 1857-63, and third president of 
the board of health. He died Aug. 19, 1896, in St. Louis, Mo. 

SMITH, ELSWORTH S., physician, surgeon, was born 
Jan. 1, 1864, in St. Louis, Mo. He is a prominent physician 
of St. Louis, Mo., and clinical professor of medicine in the 
medical department of Washington University. He is phy- 
sician-in-chief of medical clinics in the 'Fallon Dispensary, 
and consulting physician of St. Mary 's and City Hospitals, 

SMITH, EUGENE GERHART, lawyer, jurist, was born 
Jan. 24, 1853, in Manheim, Pa. He has attained success as 
one of the foremost lawyers of Pennsylvania at Lancaster. 
He is now a judge on the bench, and has filled numerous other 
positions of trust and honor in his city, county and state. 

SMITH, EUGENE HANER, dentist, was born Oct. 23, 
1853, in Oldtown, Maine. He is a successful dentist of Boston, 
Mass. He is dean of the dental department in Harvard Uni- 
versity, and professor of denistry in that institution. 

SMITH, P. A., banker. He is cashier of the banking firm 
of Case & Whitbeck, of Oacoma, S. D. He is prominent in 
financial and business affairs, and has filled several positions 
of trust and honor. 

SMITH, F. DUMONT, lawyer, legislator, state senator, 
was born Jan. 31, 1861, at Kewanee, 111. He is a son of S. M. 
Smith, who was born in 1811, in Lyme, Conn., and grandson 
of Dr. Marvin Smith, who descended from Nathaniel Smith, 
who came to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1640. Since 
1886 he has been in the active practice of law, and is promi- 
nent at the bar of Kinsley, Kan. He has been a member of 
the Kansas Tax Commission, and served with distinction in 
the Kansas state senate. 

SMITH, FRANCIS HOPKINSON, civil engineer, artist, 
author, was born Oct. 23, 1838, in Baltimore, Md. He is the 
author of " Well- Worn Roads of Spain, Holland and Italy," 
"Old Lines in New Black and White," "A White Umbrella 
in Mexico," "Colonel Carter of Cartersville, " a novel; "A 
Day at Laguerre's, and Other Days," "American Illustra- 
tors," "Venice of To-Day," "A Gentleman Vagabond, and 
Some Others," and "Tom Grogan." 



HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 21 

2, 1846, in Richmond, Wis. In 1872 he discovered Tells 
Marsh Borax Mines. He is president of the Pacific Coast 
Borax Company, and also president of the Realty Syndicate, 
Oakland, Cal. 

SMITH, FRANCIS OSMOND JOHN, lawyer, state sen- 
ator, congressman, was born Nov. 23, 1806, in Brentwood, N. 
n. He was elected to the assembly of Maine in 1831; was 
president of the state senate in 1833, and was a representa- 
tive in congress from Maine in 1833-39. He was a brilliant 
orator and parliamentarian. He died Oct. 14, 1876, in Deer- 
ing. Me. 

SMITH, FRANK ELLIOTT, lawyer, was born Jan. 16, 
1863, in Charlton, N. Y. He has attained prominence at the 
bar of Montana at Lewistown. For six terms he has served 
as prosecuting attorney of Fergus county, and has filled other 
positions of trust and honor. 

SMITH, GEORGE, congressman. He was a representa- 
tive in congress from Pennsylvania in 1809-13. 

SMITH, GEORGE ARTHUR, banker, was born Dec. 20, 
1855, in Worcester, Mass. He is cashier of the Citizen's Na- 
tional Bank of Worcester, Mass. He is prominent in financial, 
business and public affairs, and has filled several positions of 
trust and honor. 

SMITH, GEORGE HANDY, United States senator, was 
born July 21, 1836, in Philadelphia, Pa. In 1871 he was 
chosen a member of the Pennsylvania state legislature; wae 
twice re-elected, and in 1875 was elected a state senator. He 
was United States senator in 1877-89, and in 1885-87 he w»« 
chosen president of the senate. 

SMITH, GEORGE L., soldier, merchant, journalist, con- 
gressman, was born Dec. 11, 1840, in Hillsborough county. N. 
H. He served in the army; settled in Louisiana at the close 
of the civil war, and engaged in mercantile business. He was 
elected a member of the assembly in 1870 and 1872. He wa^i 
proprietor of the Shreveport Southwestern Telegram, and was 
president of a savings bank and trust company. He was 
elected a representative from Louisiana to the forty-third 
congress to fill a vacancy. 

SMITH, GEORGE P., agriculturist, author, was born Nov. 
25, 1858, and is a son of Rufus Smith. He is a prominent citi- 
zen of Sunderland, Mass., and in 1900 was a delegate to the 
Farmer's National Congress. In 1898-1901 he was a member 



22 HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 

of the Massachusetts state board of agriculture, and has tilled 
various positions of trust and honor. He is the author of 
"An Essay on The Revolutions of Farm Machines in Massa- 
chusetts Agriculture. ' ' 

SMITH, GEORGE W., lawyer, congressman, was born 
Aug. 18, 1846, in Putnam county, Ohio. In 1870 he was ad- 
mitted to the practice of law by the supreme court of Illinois, 
since which time he has resided in Murphysboro. In 1880 he 
was the republican elector for his congressional district, and 
cast the vote of the district for Garfield and Arthur. He was 
elected to the fifty-first, fifty-second, fifty-third, fifty-fourth, 
fiftv-fifth and fiftv-sixth congresses as a republican. 

SMITH, GEORGE "WASHINGTON, founder, author, was 
born Aug. 4, 1800, in Philadelphia. He was founder of the 
Pennsylvania Historical Society; for many years one of its 
councillors, and at his death senior vice-president. He pos- 
sessed a large estate, of which he gave liberally to benevolent 
objects. He was the author of "Facts and Arguments in 
Favor of Adopting Railroads in Preference to Canals," "De- 
fence of the Pennsylvania System in Favor of Solitary Con- 
ilnement of Prisoners," and edited Nicholas Wood's Treatise 
on Railroads. He died April 22, 1876, in Philadelphia. Pa. 

SMITH, GEORGE WILLIAM, governor. He was gov- 
ernor of Virginia in 1811-12. Pie lost his life at the burning 
of the Richmond theater, Dec. 26, 1811. 

SMITH, GERRIT, congressman, author, philanthropist, 
was born March 6, 1797, in Utica, N. Y. He was one of the 
leaders of the Anti-Slavery society; and was noted for his 
philanthropy. Having inherited one of the largest landed 
estates in America, he distributed nearly two hundred thou- 
sand acres of it among the poor. He was a representative in 
congress from New York in 1853-55. He was the author of 
"Speeches in Congress," "Sermons and Speeches," "The 
Religion of Boston," "The Theologies." and "Nature the 
Basis of a Free Theology." He died Dec. 28, 1874. in New 
York City. 

SMITH, GERRIT, lawyer. He is a noted la%vyer of New 
York' City ; and has filled numerous positions of trust and 
honor. 

SMITH, GILES ALEXANDER, soldier, was born Sept. 
29, 1829, in Jefferson county, N. Y. He became captain in the 
eighth Missouri volunteers in 1861 ; and in 1863 was promoted 
brigadier-general of volunteers. He died Nov. 5, 1876, in 
Bloomington, 111. 



HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 23 

SMITH, GILMAN TROAV, soldier, dentist, was born Feb. 
11, 1838, in Buckland, Mass. In 1859 he graduated in den- 
tistry from Princeton University ; and has attained success in 
'.he practice of his profession in Illinois at Princeton. Ho 
was an original member of the Illinois State Dental Society ; 
and has been commander of the Ferris Post of the Grand 
Army of the Republic. He is prominent in the business, social 
and religious affairs of his city ; and has filled numerous posi- 
tions of honor. 

SMITH, GREEN CLAY, soldier, clergyman, congressman, 
was born July 2, 1830, in Richmond, Ky. He was a school 
commissioner in 1853-57 ; and established a great number of 
schools. He served as second lieutenant in the Mexican war ; 
and after the breaking out of the civil war in 1861 had com- 
mand of the fourth Kentucky cavalry. He was elected to the 
state legislature ; was appointed a brigadier-general in 1862 ; 
was subsequently promoted to the rank of major-general ; and 
was present at the battle of Ball's Bluff and about fifty other 
engagements. He was a representative from Kentucky to the 
thirty-eighth and thirty-ninth congresses. In 1866, while still 
in congress, he was appointed governor of Montana. He sub- 
sequently became a preacher in the Baptist church in Frank- 
fort, Ky. In 1876 he was the candidate of the prohibitio^.i 
party for the presidency of the United States. He died June 
1^9, 1895, in Washington, D. C. 

SMITH, H. K., lawyer, jurist, was born Aug. 10, 1832. ii: 
Parkman, Ohio. He is a prominent lawyer of Chardon, Ohi^>. 
He has been state's attorney; and for thirty-six years was 
probate judge. He is prominent in business and public af 
fairs ; and has filled numerous positions of trust and honor. 

SMITH, H. S., lawyer. He has attained success in the prac- 
tice of law at Taylor, Texas; and has filled several positions 
of trust and honor in this city and in Williamson county, 
Texas. 

SMITH, H. T., dentist. He is a successful dentist of Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. His father, Dr. Henry A. Smith, is dean of the 
Ohio College of Dental Surgery. 

SMITH, H. T., banker. He is president Citizens' National 
Bank of El Reno, Oklahoma Territory; and is prominent in 
the financial and public affairs of his territory. 

SMITH, H. BOARDMAN, lawyer, jurist congressman, 
was born Aug. 18, 1826, in Whitingham, Vt. He became 
judge of the Chemung county courts in 1859. He was elected 



24 HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 

to the forty-second and forty- third congresses as a republican. 

SMITH, HANSEN H. E., banker, was born Dec. 6, 1867. 
He is president of the Merchants' Bank, and also of the 
Northern Security Company; and is prominent in the finan- 
cial and public affairs of his city, county and state. 

SMITH, HENRY, millwright, congressman, was born July 
22, 1838, in Baltimore, Md. The year of his birth he removed 
with his parents to Massillon, Ohio: and since 1844 has re- 
sided in Milwaukee, Wis. He was a member of the common 
council of Milwaukee in 1868-72 ; was a member of the Wis- 
consin legislature in 1878 ; and was again a member of the 
common council in 1880-82. He was city comptroller in 1882- 
84; and in 1884-87 a member of the common council. He was 
elected to the fiftieth congress as the people's party candidate. 

SMITH, HENRY A., dentist, was bora Feb. 28, 1834, in 
Oxford, Ohio. He has attained prominence as one of the fore- 
most dental surgeons in the United States ; and has a success- 
ful practice in Cincinnati. Ohio. He is dean and professor 
of operative dentistry in the Ohio College of Dental Surgery 
of Cincinnati. Ohio, one of the largest and second oldest den- 
tal colleges in the world. 

SMITH, HENRY BOYNTON, clergyman, author, was 
born Nov. 21, 1815, in Portland, Maine. He was professor of 
systematic theology in Union seminary of New York City in 
1854-74. He was the author of Faith and Philosophy; 
Apologetics ; Chronological History of the Church of Christ ; 
Introduction to Christian Theology; and System of Christian 
Theology. He died Feb. 7, 1876," in New York City. 

SMITH, HENRY H., soldier, statistician, author, was born 
July 31, 1842, in Fairport, N. Y. He served in the army dur- 
ing the civil war in 1862-65 ; and then in the treasury depart- 
ment until 1870. For fifteen years he Avas general clerk of 
the national house of representatives; and has repeatedly 
been special United States bank examiner. He prepared two 
codifications of the rules of the house and one of the senate. 
In 1892-94 he was assistant and acting register of the treas- 
ury. He is the author of Digest and Manual of the revised 
rules and practice of the national house of representatives; 
and has nearly ready for publication a Parliamentary His- 
tory of Congress. 

SMITH, HENRY HOLLINGS WORTH, surgeon, author, 
was born Dec. 10, 1815, in Philadelphia, Pa. In 1855-71 he 
was professor of surgery in University of Pennsylvania; and 



HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 25 

in 1871 became professor emeritus. He was the author of 
Minor Surgery; System of Operative Surgery; Practice of 
Surgery; and Professional Visit to London and Paris. He 
died April 11, 1890, in Philadelphia, Pa. 

SMITH, HERBERT EUGENE, physician, chemist. In 
1882 he graduated from the University of Pennsylvania; and 
is now a well known physician of New Haven, Conn. He is 
dean of Yale University, Medical Department ; and a member 
of the American Physiological Society, the Connecticut Med- 
ical Society, and several scientific associations. 

SMITH, HEZEKIAH BRADLEY, merchant, congress- 
man, inventor, was born July 24, 1816, in Bridgewater, Vt. 
He learned the trade of a cabinet-maker; and became an in- 
ventor and manufacturer of wood machinery. In 1871 he 
established a wood manufactory in Smithville, N. J. He was 
elected a representative from New Jersey to the forty-sixth 
congress. He died Nov. 3, 1887, in Smithville, N. J. 

SMITH, HIRAM Y., lawyer, state senator, congressman, 
was born March 22, 1843, in Piqua, Ohio. He was district at- 
torney of the fifth judicial district of Iowa in 1875-79 ; and 
was a member from Des Moines of the state senate in 1882- 
84. He was a representative from Iowa to the forty-eighth 
congress to fill a vacancy. 

SMITH, HOKE, educator, journalist, cabinet officer, was 
born Sept. 2, 1855, in Newton, N. C. He taught school and 
studied law; and in 1887 purchased the Atlanta Journal. 
Much of the credit for Cleveland's victory in Georgia in 1892 
was attributed to the Atlanta Journal and the personal ef- 
forts of its proprietor ; and in 1893 he was appointed secre- 
tary of the interior in President Cleveland's cabinet. 

SMITH, HOMER J., educator, clergyman, lecturer, was 
born Aug. 31, 1846, in Fayette county, Pa. He has received 
the literary degrees of B. A., M. A., Ph. D. and D. D. He 
is vice-president of the Ohio State Sabbath association. Since 
1870 he has been a clergyman of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. He was a successful educator ; and one of the found- 
ers of the Ohio Anti-Saloon League. He is one of the foremost 
lecturers on scientific and general topics, and now fills a pas- 
torate in Ironton. Ohio. 

SMITH, HORACE WEMYSS, journalist, author, was 
born Aug. 15, 1825, in Philadelphia county. Pa. He was the 
author of Nuts for Future Historians to Crack; Yorktown 
Orderly Book ; and Life of Reverend William Smith. 



26 HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 

SMITH, ISAAC, lawyer, jurist, congressman, was born in 
1736 in Trenton, N. J. He was a representative in congress 
from New Jersey in 1795-97 ; and was appointed a commis- 
sioner to treat with the Seneca Indians. He was a judge of 
the superior court of New Jersey. He died Aug. 29, 1807, in 
Trenton, N. J. 

SMITH, ISAAC, congressman, was born in Pennsylvania. 
He was a representative in congress from Pennsylvania in 
1813-15. 

SMITH, ISAAC TOWNSEND, banker, diplomat, was born 
March 12, 1813, in Boston, Mass. In early life he was super- 
cargo of ships to the East Indies, to China, Manila, Java 
Straits, Singapore and South Africa. He later became a 
bank president ; and commissioner of emigration for the state 
of New York. He was presidential elector in the election of 
Abraham Lincoln to the presidency of the United States 
He is now consul-general for Siam in New York City. 

SMITH, ISRAP^L, lawyer, jurist, United States senator, 
governor, was born April 4, 1759, in Suoeld, Conn. He was 
sent to the Vermont state legislature from Rutland ; and was 
a representative in congress in 1791-97 and in 1800. He was 
appointed chief justice of the supreme court of Vermont in 
1797. He was United States senator in 1801-02 and 1803-07. 
He was governor of Vermont in 1807. He died Dec. 2, 1810, 
in Rutland, Vt. 

SMITH, J. G. He is a well known citizen of Vail, Iowa. 
He takes a great interest in public affairs ; and has filled sev- 
eral positions of trust. 

SMITH, J. J., physician, surgeon, state senator. He is a 
prominent physician of Franklin, Wash. ; and is a prominent 
member of leading medical associations. He has served with 
distinction as a member of the Washington state senate ; and 
has filled numerous other positions of trust and honor in the 
gift of his city, county and state. 

SMITH, J. MOREAU, banker. He is president Rochester 
Trust and Safe Deposit Co. of Rochester, N. Y., and is prom- 
inent in the financial and public affairs of his city, county and 
state. 

SMITH, J. WARREN, banker. He is cashier of the 
Orange National Bank of Orange, N. J.; and prominent in 
financial and business affairs. He has filled several positions 
of tmst and h*?:srr 

SMITH, JA<.:!OB HENRY CLAY, lawyer, state senator 



HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 27 

was born Aug. 9, 1842, in Wells county, Ind. He has attained 
prominence at the bar in his native state of Indiana ; and has 
a successful practice at Bluffton. In 1886-90 he was a mem- 
ber of the Indiana state senate ; and has filled numerous posi- 
tions of trust and honor in his city, county and state. 

SMITH, JAMES, signer of the declaration of independ- 
ence, was born about 1720 in Ireland. On the approach of 
tbc revolutionary war he took an active part in public affairs; 
raised a company and commanded it in the field ; was made 
a colonel, and also took an active part in raising additional 
troops. He was a delegate to the continental congress in 
1776-78; was a signer of the declaration of independence; 
and in 1780 entered the state legislature. He was the author 
of The Constitutional Power of Great Britain over the Col- 
onies in America, which materially aided the cause of the 
patriots. He died July 11, 1806. in York, Pa. 

SMITH, JAMES, pioneer, author, was born in 1737 in 
Franklin county. Pa. He was a noted Kentucky pioneer. He 
was the author of Shakerism Developed; Shakerism Detect- 
ed; Remarkable Adventures in the Life of Colonel James 
Smith; and Mode and Manner of Indian War. He died in 
1812 in Washington county, Ky. 

SMITH, JAMES E., physician, surgeon. In 1887 he grad- 
uated from Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pa. ; and 
is now a well known physician of Altoona. Pa. He was med- 
ical examiner of the Pennsylvania Mutual Life, and ITnifced 
States Masonic Life Assurance Association ; and is a i^emoe" 
of State Medical Society, American Medical Assoempon. atiU 
other medical societies. 

SMITH, JAMES MILTON, soidier, lawyer, governor, v^as 
born Oct.. 24, 1823, in Twiggs county, Ga. He entered the 
Confederate army in 1861 as major in the thirteenth Georgia 
regiment: and became colonel in 1862. He was a member of 
the Confederate congress from that year until the close of 
the civil war. He served in the legislature in 1871-72; was 
speaker in 1872 ; and was chosen governor to fill a vacancy, 
which office hp hpld hy va.a}aM^[nn i\\\ 1874. JIc died Nov. 
25, 1900, in Geor^a. 

SMITH, JAMES S., physician, state legislator, congress- 
man, was born in Orange county, N. C. He Avas a representa- 
tive in congress from North Carolina in 1817-21; and served 
in the legislature of North Carolina in 1821. 

SMITH, JAMES THOMAS, soldier, journalist, was born 



28 HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 

May 4, 1847, in Ireland. During 1861-65 he was a lieutenant 
in the Union forces, and up to 1870 served in the regular 
army. He has been city clerk and city auditor of Denver, 
Col., and since 1876 has been secretary and director of the 
state school of mines. He has also been an editor of the 
Rocky Mountain News since 1878. 

SMITH, JAMES WALTER, physician, surgeon, was born 
Sept. 4, 1860, in Johnson county, Mo. In 1890 he graduated 
from the Missouri Medical College of St. Louis, Mo. He has 
attained especial success in surgery in Missouri at St. Louis; 
and is a prominent member in various medical and scientific 
associations. He has filled a number of positions of trust and 
honor; and has contributed extensively to medical literature. 

SMITH, JAMES YOUNGS, manufacturer, state legisla- 
tor, governor, was born Sept. 15, 1809, in Groton, Conn. In 
1838 he was a cotton manufacturer in Willimantic, Conn., 
and at Woonsocket, R. I. He was afterward a member of the 
legislature of Rhode Island for several years. He was mayor 
of Providence in 1855 and 1857; and was governor of the 
state in 1863-65. He died March 26, 1876, in Providence, 
R.I. 

SMITH, JAMES AYRES, educator, was born Aug. 9, 1848, 
in Fayette county, Ohio. He is a noted educator of Ogden, 
Utah ; and is superintendent of schools and principal of high 
schools of his city. He is a member of the Nebraska State 
Board of Educational Council; editor, president and pro- 
prietor of Commercial Schools; and president of the Utah 
Baptist State Convention. 

TAYLOR, JAMES MADISON, inventor, was born Sept. 
25, 1842, in AVarren county, Pa. He is a successful inventor 
in mechanism in advanced stages ; and is a prominent citizen 
provpri Underground Electric Street Railway. 

SMITH, JARED AUGUSTINE, soldier,' civil engineer, 
was born July 6, 1840. in Wilton, Maine. He has filled all 
grades in the United States army from cadet to colonel ; has 
attained note for gallantry; and is now colonel in corps of 
engineers in the United States army. He received the brevet 
of captain for gallant and meritorious services in the battle 
of Cedar Mountain in 1862; and was breveted major for gal- 
lant and meritorious services during the civil war. 

SMITH, JEDEDIAH K., lawyer, jurist, congressman, was 
born in 1770. He was a representative in congress from New 



HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 29 

Hampshire iu 1807-09 and 1822-25. He held the office of 
judge and chief judge of the court of common pleas for Hills- 
borough county in 1810-14; and was also a state councilor 
He died in 1828. 

SMITH, JEREMIAH, lawyer, jurist, congressman, gov- 
ernor, was born Nov. 29, 1759, in Peterborough, N. H. He 
was a ^representative in congress from New Hampshire in 
1791-97; and was one of the last survivors of the distin- 
guished men who participated with Washington in the ad- 
ministration of the government. He was chosen governor of 
New Hampshire in 1809; served as a presidential elector in 
1809 ; and was for several years chief justice of the superior 
court of the state. He died Sept. 1, 1842, in Dover N H 
^ SMITH, JEROME VAN CROWNINSHIELD, physician, 
author, was born July 20, 1800, in Conway, N. H. He was 
a physician of Boston, where he was mayor in 1854; and 
subsequently practiced medicine in New York City. He was 
the author of Class Book of Anatomy ; Life of Andrew Jack- 
son; Natural History of the Pishes of Massachusetts; Pil- 
grimage to Palestine ; Turkey and the Turks ; and The Ways 
of Women. He died Aug. 21, 1879, in New York City 

SMITH, JESSIE VALERIA, physician, surgeon, founder, 
was born m Winterset, Iowa. She is a successful physician 
and surgeon of Winterset, Iowa; and founder of The 
Woman's State Medical Society of Iowa. 

SMITH, JOHN, one of the founders of Virginia, was born 
m 1579 in England. He was a celebrated sea captain and ad- 
venturer; was one of the founders of Virginia; and of the 
company which settled at Jamestown in 1607. He was a 
forcible, vigorous writer, much given to magnif3dng his own 
exploits ; and not always to be trusted in the absence of other 
testimony. He was the author of A True Relation of Vir- 
ginia ; The General History of Virginia, which is partly 
original and partly compiled ; A Map of Virginia, with a De- 
scription of the Country; A Description of New England; 
An Accidence, or Pathway to Experience; A Sea Grammar; 
and The True Travels of Captain John Smith. He died in 
1631. 

SMITH, JOHN, United States senator, was born in 1735 
in Hamilton county, Ohio. He was United States senator 
of Omaha, Neb. He is the inventor and promoter of the Im- 
personal friend of Aaron Burr, and though for a time sus- 
pended, was in reality innocent of treasonable designs. He 
died June 10. 1816. in Hamilton conntv. Ohio. 



30 HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 

SMITH, JOHN, soldier, congressman, United States sen- 
ator, was born Feb. 12, 1752, near Brookhaven, N. Y. He 
was a general of militia in New York. He was a member of 
the state legislature in 1784-99 ; and was a member of the 
convention which adopted the constitution. He was a repre- 
sentative in congr( ss from New York in 1799-1804 ; and in 
1804-13 w^as Unite<l States senator. In 1813 he was appointed 
United States marshal for New York. 

SMITH, JOHN, lawyer, state legislator, congressman, was 
born Aug. 14, 1789, in Barre, Mass. He moved in early life 
to St. Albans, Vt. ; represented St. Albans in the legislature 
for nine successive years ; and was state 's attorney of Frank- 
lin county in 1826-32. In 1831-33 he was speaker in the gen- 
eral assembly. He was a representative in congress in 1839- 
41. He died Nov. 20, 1858, in St. Albans, Vt. 

SMITH, JOHN, congressman. He was a representative in 
congress from Virginia in 1801-15. 

SMITH, JOHN A., lawyer, state legislator, congressman, 
was born Sept. 23, 1814, in Hillsborough, Ohio. He was a 
member of the Ohio legislature in 1841-42 ; and was a mem- 
ber of the state constitutional convention of 1851. He was 
elected a representative from Ohio to the forty-first and 
forty-second congresses as a republican. 

SMITH, JOHN AMBLER, ^f^v^er, state senator, congress- 
man, was born Sept. 23, 1847, near Dinwiddle Court House, 
Va. In 1868 he was appointe-^ co]Tiinissioner in chancery of 
the courts of Richmond; was <^*at^ 8^^orney of Charles City 
and New Kent counties for one yoar; and was elected to the 
state senate in 1869. He was '^. representative from Virginia 
to the forty- third congress. He died m Richmond, Va. 

SMITH, JOHN AUGUSTINE, physician, college presi- 
dent, author, was born Aug. 29, 1782, in Westmoreland 
county, Va. He was president of William and Mary college 
in 1814-26 ; then resumed the practice of medicine in New 
York City; and in 1831-43 was president of College Physi- 
cians and Surgeons. He was the author of Mutations of the 
Earth; Moral and Physical Science; and Functions of the 
Nervous System. He died Feb. 9, 1865, in New York City. 

SiNIITH, JOHN B., clergyman, educator, college president, 

was born Aug. 29, 1836, in Union county, Ind. He is an em- 

■ inent divine of Crockett, Texas ; and vice-president of the 

First National Bank of that city. He was chaplain of the 

nineteenth regiment Ohio volunteer infantry during the civil 



HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 31 

war. He has been president of the Farmers' College; presi- 
dent of the Mary Allen Seminary ; and a prominent factor in 
the religious, educational and business affairs of his city, 
county and state. 

SMITH, JOHN B., congressman. He was a representative 
in congress from Louisiana in 1853-55. 

SMITH, JOHN BUTLER, manuf actun r, governor, was 
born April 12, 1838, in Rockingham, Vt. Since 1847 he has 
resided chiefly in Hillsboro, N. H.; and has foUowed his 
father's business of woolen manufacturing. He is now pres- 
ident and chief owner of the Contoocook Mills Company, 
manufacturing knit goods, employing two hundred and fifty 
hands and having stores in Boston and New York for the 
sale of its products. He is also president of the Hillsboro 
Guarantee Savings Bank; and prominent in business affairs. 
He is prominent in political life ; was presidential elector in 
1884; in 1887-89 was a member of the governor's council; 
and in 1890 chairman state central committee. In 1893-95 
he was governor of New Hampshire. 

SMITH, JOHN CORSON, soldier, lieutenant-governor, 
was born Feb. 13, 1832, in Philadelphia, Pa. He served in 
the civil war from private soldier to brigadier-general. He 
was United States assessor at Galena, 111. ; has been chief 
grain inspector of Chicago; state treasurer of Illinois; and 
filled the office of lieutenant-governor of the state of Illinois. 
He has made three ti'ips around the world; and the last and 
most memorable one was in 1894-95; and at every point in 
the world he touched he met brothers of the Masonic order. 
He is the past grand master and past grand commander, Illi- 
nois, and honorary grand master of Egypt. 

SMITH, JOHN COTTON, lawyer, jurist, congressman, 
governor, was born Feb. 12, 1765, in Sharon, Conn. He was 
a member of the Connecticut state senate in 1793; and in 
1796-1800 was a member of the lower house. He was a repre- 
sentative in congress in 1800. He was a presidential elector 
in 1809; was again a member of the legislature until 1809; 
and was governor of Connecticut in 1812-17. He was also 
lieutenant-governor; and juc^ge of the superior court. He 
died Nov. 7, 1845, in Sharon, Conn. 

SMITH, JOHN E., lawyer, jurist, state senator, was born 
Aug. 4, 1843, in Nelson, N. Y. He has been district attorney 
and assistant United States attorney of northern district of 
New York ; and for two terms was a member of the New York 



32 HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 

state senate. He is now county judge and surrogate in Mad- 
ison county, N. Y. 

SMITH, JOHN EUGENE, soldier, was born Aug. 3, 1816, 
in Switzerland. In 1862 he became a brigadier-general of 
volunteers; subsequently served in the United States army 
as major-general; and in 1881 was retired. He died Jan. 29, 
1897, in Chicago, 111. 

SMITH, JOHN GREGORY, lawyer, state senator, gov- 
ernor, was born July 22, 1818, in St. Albans, Vt. He suc- 
ceeded his brother as chancellor in 1858 ; was a member of 
the Vermont state senate in 1858-59 ; and was a representa- 
tive in the state legislature in 1860-62. He was governor of 
Vermont in 1863-65; and was an active supporter of the 
union cause during the civil war. In 1866 he was made pres- 
ident of the North Pacific railroad. 

SMITH, JOHN HENRY, state legislator, was born Sept. 
18, 1848, in Corbunca, Iowa ; and is the son of Apostle George 
A. Smith, who was the first councillor to Brigham Young. 
In 1882 he was a member of the Utam legislature, and iii 
1895 was elected a member of the constitutional convention, 
of which body he was unanimously elected president. He is 
at the present time president of the Trans-Mississippi Com- 
mercial Congress. He has contributed a number of valuable 
economic articles to the periodical press. 

SMITH, JOHN HYATT, clergyman, congressman, author, 
was born April 10, 1824, in Saratoga, N. Y. He was a prom- 
inent Baptist clergyman of Brooklyn, N. Y. He was a mem- 
ber of the forty-second congress in 1880-82. He was the au- 
thor of Gilead ; and The Open Door. He died Dec. 7, 1886, 
in Brooklyn, N. Y. 

SMITH, JOHN JAY, librarian, author, was born June 16, 
1798, in Burlington county, N. J. He was a librarian of Phil- 
adelphia; and edited many works. He was author of Notes 
for a History of the Library Company of Philadelphia; A 
Summer's Jaunt Across the Water; and Historical and 
Literary Curiosities. He died Sept. 23, 1881, in Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

SMITH, JOHN QUINCY, farmer, state senator, congress- 
man, was born Nov. 5, 1824, in Warren county, Ohio. He 
was a member of the Ohio state senate in 1860 and 1872 ; and 
was a member of the state house of representatives in 1862- 
63. He was a representative from Ohio to the forty-third 
congress as a republican ; in 1875 was appointed conunis- 



HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 33 

sioner of Indian affairs; and subsequently was one of the 
first managers of the Ohio Reformatory at Mansfield, Ohio. 

SMITH, JOHN SPEED, lawyer, state senator, congress- 
man, was born July 31, 1792, in Jessamine county, Ky. He 
served as a soldier under General Harrison ; was at the battle 
of Tippecanoe ; and was aide to the same general at the battle 
of the Thames in 1813. In 1819 he was elected to the legis- 
lature of Kentucky. He was a representative in congress in 
1821-23 ; and in 1827 was again elected to the state legislature, 
and was made speaker of the house. He subsequently served 
several terms both in the house and state senate ; and was ap- 
pointed United States attorney for the district of Kentucky. 
He was superintendent of public works in Kentucky for sev- 
eral years. He died June 6, 1854, in Madison county, Ky. 

SMITH, JOHN T., congressman, was born in Pennsyl- 
vania. He was elected a representative in congress from 
Pennsylvania in 1843-45. 

SMITH, JOHN TALBOT, clergyman, author, was born 
Sept. 22, 1855, in Saratoga, N. Y. He is a Roman Catholic 
clergyman in the diocese of Ogdensburg. He is the author of 
History of Ogdensburg Diocese; A Woman of Culture, a 
novel ; Solitary Island, a novel ; Prairie Boy, a juvenile tale ; 
and Our Seminaries, an essay on Clerical Training. 

SMITH, JOHN. W., physician, druggist, was born August 
4, 1842, near Cape Girardeau, Mo. He is a successful physi- 
cian of Puxico, Mo. ; and the proprietor of a drug store. For 
sixteen years he has been a notary public ; and has filled num- 
erous other positions of trust and honor. 

SMITH, JONATHAN BAYARD, congressman, was born 
Feb. 21, 1742, in Philadelphia, Pa. He was a delegate from 
Pennsylvania to the continental congress in 1777-78 ; and 
was a signer of the articles of confederation. He died June 
16, 1812, in Philadelphia, Pa. 

SMITH, JONATHAN, lawyer, jurist, was born in 1842. 
In 1875 he was admitted to the bar; and is now a prominent 
lawyer of Clinton, Mass. He fills the position of district 
judge ; and has held other offices of importance. 

SMITH, JOSEPH, founder of the mormon sect, was born 
Dec. 23, 1805, in Sharon, Yt. After failing to start a colony 
of his sect in Ohio and Missouri, he at last settled in Nauvoo, 
111. But this failed as all others had, on account of the op- 
position of the people to the peculiar doctrines of the mor- 
mons. Joseph and his brother being confined in jail, were 



34 HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 

surrounded by a mob and both killed June 27, 1844, in 
Carthage, 111. 

SMITH, JOSEPH, president of a religious sect, was born 
Nov. 6, 1832, in Kirtland, Ohio. After the death of his fath- 
er in 1844 he remained in Nauvoo with his mother, who would 
not acknowledge the authority of Brigham Young. He went 
abroad and preached frequently for about fifteen years; and 
then removed to Lamoni, Iowa, the acknowledged head of the 
reorganized church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, a 
strong opponent to the doctrine and practices of the polyga^ 
mists of Utali. 

SMITH, JOSEPH, naval officer, was born March 2, 1790, 
in Boston, Mass. He served in the civil war ; and in 1862 at- 
tained the rank of rear-admiral. He was chief of Bureau of 
Lands and Docks. He died Jan. 17,1877, in "Washington, D. 
C. 

SMITH, JOSEPH, clergyman, author, was born July 15, 
1796, in Westmoreland county. Pa. He was a noted Presby- 
terian clergman in western Pennsylvania. He was the auth- 
or of History of Jefferson College; and Old Redstone, or 
Historical Sketches of Western Presbyterianism. He died 
Dec. 4, 1868, in Greensburg, Pa. 

SMITH, JOSEPH HENRY, banker, founder, was born in 
1853, in Lenawee county, Mich. He received his education in 
the common schools and at Adrian College. For fourteen 
years he followed the trade of carpenter and joiner ; and sub- 
sequently was superintendent of a lumber yaed and sash and 
blind factory at Tecumseh, Mich. In 1892 he organized the 
Tecumseh State Savings Bank ; and has since been its cashier. 
His father, William Henry Smith, was born in 1831 in New 
York; and since 1833 has resided in Michigan. His great- 
great-grandfather, Aaron Smith, was born in 1745 in Wor- 
cester county, Mass. 

SMITH, JOSEPH ROWE, soldier, was born Sept. 8, 1802, 
in Stillwater, N. Y. During the Mexican war he was brev- 
eted major and lieutenant-colonel. He became chief muster- 
ing officer of Michigan in 1862, military commissary of mus- 
ters in 1863, and in 1865 was breveted brigadier-general, 
United States army, for long and honorable service. He died 
Sept. 3, 1868, in Monroe, Mich. 

SMITH, JOSEPH S., lawyer, manufacturer, congressman, 
was born June 20, 1824, in Fayette county, Pa. He moved 
to Oregon ; and then to Washington territory. He was made 



1212274 

HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 35 

pi'osecutiug attoruey; aud was elected to the territorial legis- 
lature, and made speaker iu 1857. He was a representative 
from Oregon to the forty-lirst congress. 

SMITH, JOSIAli, congressman, was born in 1745 in Pem- 
broke, Mass. He was a representative in congress from 
Massachusetts in 18U1-03. He died in March, 1803, of small- 
pox. 

SMITH, L. C, banker. He is vice president of the Nation- 
al Bank of Syracuse, N. Y. ; and is prominent in the finan- 
cial and business affairs of that city. 

SMITH, LLOYD PEAKS ALL, librarian, author, was 
born Feb. 6. 1822, in Philadelphia, Pa. He became hereditary 
assistant and treasurer in the Philadelphia and Loganian 
library ; and iu 1851 succeeded his father as librarian. He 
edited Lippincott's Magazine in 186S.7') He was the author 
of Report of the Contributors of the x x:;i!iusylvania Relief As- 
sociation for East Tennessee of a Cc* — '^sion of the Executive 
Committee Sent to Examine that Region ; Remarks on the Ex- 
isting Materials for Forming a Just Estimate of Napoleon I; 
Remarks on the Apology for Imperial Usurpation Contained 
in Napoleon's Life of Caesar; Address Delivered at Haver- 
ford College Before the Alumni ; and Symbolism and Science. 
He died July 2, 1886, in Cermantown, Pa. 

SMITH, LOWELL CLINTON, clergyman, was born Jan. 
13, 1858, in Albion, N. Y. For four years he was pastor of 
First Congregational church at Moravia, N. Y., and seven 
years at Oshkosh, Wis. Since 1896 he has been superintend- 
ent Presbyterian Home Missions at Oshkosh, Wis. His 
u'.icle. Rev. Lowell Smith, labored as a missionary for fifty 
vears in the Hawaiian Islands. 

S]\IITH, LYMAN CORNELIUS, manufacturer, inventor, 
was born March 31, 1850, in Torrington, Conn. He develop- 
ed a new typewriter, to which he gave the now well-known 
name of The Smith Premier. In 1893 his business was incor- 
porated under the name of The Smith Premier Typewriter 
Company, Mr. Smith being the president; and this industry 
now gives employment to five hundred skilled mechanics in 
the factory and to two hundred people in connection with the 
sales department in the various branch offices in this country 
and in Europe. 

SMITH, MADISON R., lawyer, was born in 1850. Since 
1875 he has been actively engaged in the practice of law ; ana 
is now a member of a law firm of Farmington, Mo. He is also 



36 HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 

reporter of the St. Louis court of appeals ; and has filled other 
positions of trust and honor. His great-grandfather was 
John Smith, an artisan in iron and wood of Lincoln, N. C. ; 
and who was also a soldier in the revolutionary war. 

SMITH, MARCUS A., lawyer, congressman, was born Jan. 
24, 1852, near Cynthiana, Ky. He moved to Arizona in 1881, 
and the following year was elected prosecuting attorney of his 
district. He was elected to the fiftieth, fifty-first, fifty-second 
and fifty-third, fifty-fourth and fifty-fifth congresses as a 
democrat. 

SMITH, MAR.TIN LUTHER, soldier, was born in 1819 in 
New York City. He entered the confederate service ; became 
a brigadier-general ; commanded a brigade in defence of New 
Orleans, was at the head of the engineer corps of the army; 
and planned and constructed the defences of Vicksburg, where 
he was taken prisoner. He subsequently attained the rank of 
major-general. He died July 29, 1866, in Rome, Ca. 

SMITH, MARY A., physician, surgeon. In 1880 she grad- 
uated from University of Zurich, Switzerland. She is now a 
successful physician of Boston, Mass. ; and holds the position 
of Senior Surgeon to the New England Hospital for Women 
and Children, Boston, Mass. 

SMITH, MATTHEW HALE, clergyman, author, was born 
in 1816 in Portland, INIaijie. He was a clergyman of the Uni- 
versalist and subsequently of the Presbyterian and other 
faiths; and was also a lawyer and brilliant journalist, known 
as Burleigh. He was the author of Universalism Examined, 
Renounced, and Exposed ; Universalism Not of God ; Sabbath 
Evenings ; Blount Calvary ; Sunshine and Shadow in New 
York ; Bulls and Bears of Wall Street, which include his chief 
works. He died Nov. 7, 1879, in Brooklyn, N. Y. 

SMITH, MELANCTHON, congressman, was born in 1724 
in Jamaica, N. Y. He was a delegate from New York to the 
continental congress in 1785-88. He died July 29, 1798, in 
New York citv. 

SMITH, MELANCTHON, naval officer, was born May 24, 
1810, in New York city. In 1826 he entered the navy as a 
midshipman ; passed through all the grades ; and was commis- 
sioned rear-admiral in 1870. He was subsequently appointed 
governor of the naval asylum at Philadelphia. He died July 
19, 1893, in Green Bay, Wis. 

SMITH, MERIWETHER, state legislator, congressman, 
was born in 1730 in Essex county, Va. He was long a member 



HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 37 

of the house of burgesses; was a member of all the Virginia 
conventions in 1775 and 1776 ; and was a member of the fed- 
eral convention of Virginia. He was a delegate to the con- 
tinental congress in 1778-82. He died Jan. 25, 1790, in Vir- 
ginia. 

SMITH, MILLINGTON, physician, surgeon, was born in 
Clark county, Ark. In 1881 he graduated from the Missouri 
Medical College; and subsequently received special diplomas 
from the New York Polyclinic and from the Hospital Medical 
College of St. Louis, Mo. He is now a prominent physician 
of Sulphur Springs, Texas ; and a member of the Texas State 
and North Texas Medical Associations. He is examiner for 
the New York Mutual, Northwestern, and various other in- 
surance companies. 

SMITH, MILO P., lawyer, was born July 16. 1835. in Dela- 
ware county, Ohio. He has attained prominence as one of 
the foremost lawyers of Iowa at Cedar Rapids. For eight 
years he was district attorney for the eighth judicial district 
of Iowa; for four years was county attorney; and has filled 
other positions of honor. He is prominent in public and 
political affairs ; and in 1884 was the candidate of his party 
for congress. 

SMITH, NATHAN, lawyer, United States senator, was 
born Jan. 8, 1769, in AVoodbury, Conn. He was a member 
of the convention that framed the state constitution ; and was 
for many years state 's attorney for the county of New Haven. 
He frequently served in the state legislature ; and was for 
several years United States attorney for the district of Con- 
necticut. He was a delegate to the Hartford convention in 
1814; and represented his native state in the senate in 1833- 
35. He died Dec. 6, 1835, in AVashington, D. C. 

SMITH, NATHAN RYNO, surgeon, author, was born May 
21, 1797, in Concord, N. H. He was a professor of surgery 
in the university of Maryland in 1840-70. He was the author 
of Surgical Anatomy of the Arteries; and Legends of the 
South. He died July 3, 1877, in Baltimore, Md. 

SMITH, NATHANIEL, lawyer, jurist, congressman, was 
born Jan. 6, 1762, in Woodbury, Conn. He was for many 
years a member of both houses of the state legislature. He 
was a representative in congress from Connecticut in 1795- 
99 ; judge of the supreme court of the state. He died March 
9, 1822, in Woodbury, Conn. 

SMITH, OLIVER, state legislator, jurist, philanthropist, 



38 HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 

was born in January, 1766, in Hatfield, Mass. He was a 
magistrate for forty years; twice a representative to the state 
legislature; and in 1820 was a member of the state coiistitu- 
tional convention. He acquired large wealth by stock-rais- 
ing which he bequeathed to establish the Smith charities, a 
unique system of benevolence, now holding one million dol- 
lars, the interest of which is extended in marriage portions to 
poor and worthy young couples. He died Dec. 22, 1845, in 
Hatfield, Mass. 

SMITH, OLIVER HAMPTON, lawyer, congressman, Unit- 
ed States senator, author, was born Oct. 23, 1794, near Tren- 
ton, N. J. -In 1824 he was prosecuting attorney for the third 
district of Indiana; and was elected to the state legislature in 
1822. He was a representative in congress from Indiana in 
1827-29; and was United States senator in 1837-48. He was 
the author of a work giving his Recollections of Congressional 
Life; and Early Indian Trials. He died March 19, 1859. in 
Indianopolis. Ind. 

SMITH. OSCAR J., lawyer, banker. He is a prominent 
attorney of Reno, Nevada; and is president Eurekn County 
Bank of Eureka, Nev. He is also prominent in the financial 
and public affairs of his city, county and state ; and has filled 
several positions of trust and honor. 

SMITH, PERRY, lawyer, jurist. United States senator, 
was born May 12, 1783, in Woodbury, Conn. He settled in 
New Milford in 1807; was a state representative for four 
years; and was a judge of probate for two years. He was 
United States senator in 1837-43. He died June 8. 1852, in 
Milford, Conn. 

SMITH, QUINTIUS CINCINNATUS, physician, sur- 
geon. He is a general practitioner of surgery and medicine in 
Austin, Tex. He is a member of the American Medical Asso- 
ciation, Texas Academy of Science, and a life member of the 
California Academy of Science. He is a life foundation fel- 
low of the society of science, letters and art of London ; and 
life fellow of American Association for the advancement of 
science. 

SMITH, RANDOLPH, coal operator, banker, was born 
May 31. 1849. in Marion county. III. He is president of the 
First National Bank of Flora. 111. ; and president of the 
Breese Coal Mining Company of Breese, 111. He is promi- 
nent in bu'=:iness nnd financial affairs, and has filled several 
positions of trust and honor. 



HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 39 

SMITH, REUBEN S., lawyer, was born April 1, 1854, in 
Marianna, Fla. He is a prominent lawyer and counselor of 
Washington, D. C. He has held various positions under the 
national government from first-class clerk to United States 
special agent. 

SMITH, RICHARD, congressman, was born March 22, 
1785, in Burlington. N. J. He was a delegate from New Jersey 
to the continental congress in 1774-76. He died in 1803 near 
Natchez, j\Iiss., while on a journey through the southern 
states. 

SMITH, RICHARD PENN, lawyer, dramatisr, author, was 
born March 13, 1799, in Philadelphia, Pa. Fifteen of his 
plays were placed on the stage, and were once popular, Caius 
Marius being one of the best. He wrote also The Forsaken, a 
novel ; The Actress of Padue, and Other Tales ; and Lives of 
Crockett and Martin Van Buren. His complete works in four 
volumes were issued in 1888. He died Aug. 12, 1854, in Falls 
of Schuvkill, Pa. 

SMITH, RICHARD SOMERS, soldier, educator, author, 
was born Oct. 30, 1813, in Philadelphia, Pa. He was a sol- 
dier and educator ; president of Gira.rd college in 1863-68 ; 
and for the last seven years of his life in charge of the depart- 
ment of drawing at the United States Naval academy. He 
was the author of Manual of Topographical Drawing; and 
Manual of Linear Perspective. He died Jan. 23, 1877, in An- 
napolis, Md. 

SMITH, ROBERT, soldier, state legislator, cabinet officer, 
was born in November, 1757, in Lancaster, Pa. He served 
as a volunteer in the revolutionary war; and was present at 
the battle of Brandywine. He served as a member f:>f the 
Maryland legislature ; was secretary of the navy in 1802-05 ; 
and was also secretary of the navy under President Madison. 
He died Nov. 26, 1842. in Baltimore, Md. 

SMITH, ROBERT, manufacturer, congressman, was born 
June 12, 1802, in Peterborough, N. H. He removed to Illi- 
nois in 1832 ; served in the Illinois legislature in 1836-40, and 
was enrolling and engrossing clerk of the house in 1840-43. 
He was a representative in congress in 1843-49 ; and was re- 
elected to the thirtv-fifth congress. He died in December, 
1867, in Alton, 111. ' 

SMITH. ROBERT A., lawyer, banker, legislator, was born 
June 13, 1827, in Booneville, Ind. He was elected auditor 
of "Warrick county, Ind. ; and in 1853 moved to St. Paul, 
Minn. He practiced law; was appointed secretary to Gover- 



40 HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 

nor Gorman ; acted as territorial librarian up to 1856 ; and for 
the twelve succeeding years was treasurer of Ramsey county. 
In 1884 he was elected alderman of St. Paul, and for three 
years was president of the common council. He served two 
years in the legislature ; then became mayor of St. Paul. He 
w'as elected a state senator, and served eight years as mayoi^ 
and four years as state senator. He has been postmaster of 
St. Paul; and for nearly fifty years has been engaged in 
official life. 

SMITH, ROBERT BURNS, lawyer, legislator, governor, 
was born Dec. 29, 1854, in Hickman county, Ky. For four 
years he was engaged in educational work; and studied law 
and was admitted to the bar in 1877. In 1884 he was a mem- 
ber of the constitutional convention of Montana; was United 
States district attorney for Montana in 1885-89 ; was corpora- 
tion counsel for the city of Helena in 1891 ; and in 1894 was 
a candidate for congress on the people's party ticket. In 1901 
he was governor of Montana. 

SMITH. ROBERT FREDERICK, soldier, was born Aug. 
2, 1806, in Philadelphia, Pa. He saw much active service, 
and commanded a brigade in Sherman's march from Atlanta 
to the sea and thence to Washington. Before the regiment 
was mustered out of service in 1865 he was breveted briga- 
dier-general. He died April 23, 1893, in Hamilton, 111. 

SMITH, ROBERT G., lawyer, was born in 1864. Since 
1890 he has been engaged in the practice of law ; and now has 
a successful practice in Grant's Pass, Oregon. He is promi- 
nent in business and public affairs ; and has filled several posi- 
tions of trust and honor. 

SMITH, SAMUEL, congressman. He was a representative 
in congress from Pennsylvania in 1805-09. 

SMITH, SAMUEL, soldier, merchant, congressman. United 
States senator, was born July 27, 1752, in Lancaster, Pa. He 
was a distinguished merchant of Baltimore, of which city he 
was mayor. He rose from the rank of captain to that of bri- 
gadier-general in the revolutionary war. In 1776 he was a 
member of the convention for framing the constitution of 
Maryland -. and was a representative in congress in 1793-1803 
and '1816-22. He died April 22, 1829, in Baltimore, Md. 

SMITH. SAMUEL, raanufadurer, congressman, was born 
in 1767 in Peterborough, N. H. He held many public posi- 
tions; and was for many years a manufacturer of paper. He 
was a representative in congress from New Hampshire in 
1813-15. 



HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 41 

SMITH, SAMUETj a., congressman, was born in Pennsyl- 
vania. He was a representative in congress from Pennsyl- 
vania in 1829-33. He died in Bucks county, Pa. 

SMITH, SAMUEL A., lawyer, congressman, was born 
June 26, 1822, in Monroe county, Tenn. In 1845-48 he was 
attorney-general for the third judicial district of Tennessee. 
He was a delegate to the National convention in 1848 at Balti- 
more ; and soon afterward elected a presidential elector. He 
was again chosen a presidential elector in 1852; and in 1850 
took a deep interest in the affairs of the East Tennessee and 
Georgia railroad. He was a representative to the thirty- 
tliird, thirty-fourth and thirty-fifth congresses. In 1859 he 
was appointed commissioner of the genei'al land office. 

SMITH, SAMUEL EMERSON, lawyer, jurist, state legis- 
lator, governor, was born March 12, 1788, in HoUis, N. H. 
la 1812 he settled in Wiscasset, Maine; was a representative 
in the legislature in 1819-20; and was chief justice of the 
court of common pleas of Maine in 1812. He was justice of 
the state court of common pleas in 1822-30; was governor of 
Maine in 1831-34; and was again judge of the court of com- 
mon pleas in 1835-37. In 1837 he was a commissioner to re- 
vise the public statutes of Maine. He died March 4, 1860, in 
Wiscasset IVIaine. 

SMITH, SAMUEL FRANCIS, clergyman, author, poet, 
was born Oct. 21, 1808, in Boston, Mass. In 1834 he was or- 
dained a clergyman of the Baptist church; filled a pastorate 
in Waterville for two years; and in 1842-54 filled a pastorate 
in Newton, Mass. He was editor of the various publications 
of the Baptist IMissionary union in 1864-69 ; and he twice vis- 
ited the chief missionary stations in Europe and Asia. Dr. 
Smith did a large amount of literary work, mainly in the line 
of hymnology, his most noted compositions being the national 
hymn. My Country, 'Tis of Thee; and the missionary hymn 
entitled The Morning Light is Breaking. His original hymns 
and poetry have been published under the titles of Lyric 
Gems ; The Psalmist ; Rock of Ages ; and he was also the auth- 
or of Missionary Sketches. He died Nov. 16, 1895, in Boston, 

ATqcq 

SMITH, SAMUEL FRANCIS, lawyer, banker, was born 
Sept. 5, 1836, in Waterville, Maine, and is a son of Rev. S. F. 
Smith, author of My Country, 'Tis of Thee, our national 
hymn. He had a large and successful law practice, but has 
now retired. In 1897 he was mayor of Davenport, Iowa ; and 



42 HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 

is vice-president of the Davenport National Bank. He is also 
president of the Public Library of Davenport, and president 
of the People's Union Mission. 

SMITH, SAMUP]L STANHOPE, clergyman, college presi- 
dent, author, was born March 16, 1750, in Pequea, Pa. He 
was a Presbyterian clergyman; and president of Princeton 
college in 1791-1812. He was the author of Lectures on the 
Evidences of the Christian Religion; Moral and Political Phi- 
losophy; Sermons; Comprehensive View of Natural and Re- 
vealed Relifoss. 

SMITH, SAMUEL W., educator, lawyer, state senator, 
congressman, was born Aug. 23, 1852, in Independence, Mich. 
He engaged in teaching school at sixteen years of age; and for 
the last twenty-five years has practiced law in Pontiac, Mich. 
In 1880-84 he was elected prosecuting attorney of Oakland 
county; and in 1884 was elected to the state senate. He was 
elected to the fifty-fifth congress as a republican. 

SMITH, SEBA, Jack Downing, journalist, author, was 
born Sept. 14, 1792. in Buckfield, Maine. He was a journalist 
of Portland, Maine; and after 1842 of New York city. He 
was the author of The Letters of Major Jack Downing; Pow- 
hatan, a metrical romance ; New Elements of Geometry ; Way 
Down East, or Portraitures of Yankee Life; and Dew-Drops 
of the Nineteenth Century. He died July 29, 1868, in Long 
Island, N. Y. 

SMITH, SOPHIA, philanthropist, was born Aug. 27, 1796, 
in Hatfield, Mass. She founded Smith college of Northamp- 
ton, Mass., for the education of women; which she endowed 
with nearly a half million dollars. She also bequeathed sev- 
enty-five thousand dollars to the town of Hatfield for the en- 
dowment of a school preparatory to Smith college. She died 
June 12, 1870, in Hatfield, Mass. 

SMITH, STANLEY B., banker. He is president of the 
First National Bank of Janesville, Wis., which was established 
in 1855. • He is prominent in the financial and business af- 
fairs of his city; is a director in several corporations; and has 
filled a number of positions of trust and honor. 

SMITH, STEPHEN DECATUR, educator, clergyman, in- 
ventor, was born Feb. 5, 1846, in Manchester, Mo. He has 
filled pastorates in the Congregational church in Iowa and 
South Dakota ; and now fills a pastorate in Orlando, FLa. He 
has edited a paper at Orlando, Pla. ; and has taken out a num- 
ber of patents on labor-saving machines. 



HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 43 

SMITH, T. GUILFORD, business man, was born Aug. 27, 
1839, in Philadelphia, Pa. He is prominently identified with 
the iron and steel business ; and is manager of sales for Car- 
negie Steel Company, American Steel Hoop Company, and 
National Steel Company of Pittsburg; and for the Illinois 
Steel Company of Chicago, 111. He is regent of the University 
of the State of New York; and prominent in business and 
public aflfairs. 

SMITH, THOMAS, lawyer, jurist, congressman, was born 
in 1745 in Scotland. In 1769 he was appointed deputy-sur- 
veyor ; and settled in Bedford, Pa. He was colonel of militia 
during the revolution ; and was a member of the constitutional 
convention in 1776. He was a member of the state legisla- 
ture; was a delegate to the continental congress in 1780-82; 
and was president judge in 1791-94. He was a judge of the 
superior court of Pennsylvania in 1794-1809. He died June 
16, 1809, in Philadelphia, Pa. 

SMITH, THOMAS, congressman. He was a representative 
in congress from Pennsylvania in 1815-17. 

SMITH, THOMAS, congressman, was born in Pennsyl- 
vania. He was a representative in congress from Indiana in 
1839-41 and 1843-47. 

SMITH, TRUMAN, lawyer, jurist, congressman, United 
States senator, was born Nov. 7, 1791, in Rocksbury, Conn. 
He was a member of the state legislature in 1831-34 ; and was 
a representative in congress in 1839-43 and 1845-49. In 1849 
he took his seat in the United States senate for a full term of 
six years. He was appointed judge of the court of arbitration 
in New York, under the treaty of 1862 with Great Britain. 
He died Mav 3, 1884. in Stam'ford, Conn. 

SMITH, VERNON H., lawyer, jurist, was born in 1838 in 
Norfolk county. Canada. In 1871 he was admitted to the 
bar and soon attained prominence as a successful lawyer of 
Michigan. For twelve years he was circuit judge of the 
eighth judicial circuit ; and has filled other positions of trust 
and honor. He still practices law in Ionia, Mich. 

SMITH, W. SCOTT, lawyer, jurist. He is a prominent 
lawyer of Tompkinsville, Ky. ; and was a member of the con- 
stitutional convention which made the organic law of his 
state. He noV fills the office of county judge ; is prominent 
in public and political affairs; and has held a number of posi- 
tions of trust and honor in the gift of his city, county and 
state. 



44 HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 

SMITH, WILLIAM, congressman, was born in 1730 in Bal- 
timore, Md. He was a delegate to the continental congress 
from Maryland in 1777-78 ; and was a representative in con- 
gress in 1789-91. He was then appointed auditor of the 
treasury. He died March 27, 1814, in Baltimore, Md. 

SMITH, "WILLIAI\1, lawyer, jurist, state legislator, United 
States senator, was born in 1762 in North Carolina. He was 
United States senator from South Carolina in 1816-23 and 
1826-31, officiating on two occasions as president pro tem. of 
the senate. In 1837 he received the electoral vote of Virginia 
for vice-president of the United States. He served in the 
legislature of South Carolina; was judge of the superior 
court of that state; and was a distinguished supporter of the 
doctrine of state rights. He died June 10, 1840, in Hunts- 
ville, Ala. 

SMITH, WILLIAM, diplomat, congressman. He was a 
representative in congress from South Carolina in 1789-99 : 
and resigned to become United States minister to Portugal. 

SMITH, WILLIAM, congressman, was born in Chester- 
field, Va. He was a representative from Virginia to the nine- 
teenth congress. 

SMITH, WILLIAM, lawyer, state legislator, congressman, 
governor, was born Sept. 6, 1796, in Virginia. In 1836 he 
was elected to the state legislature ; and was re-elected in 
1840. He was a representative in congress in 1842-43 ; and in 
1845-48 was governor of Virginia. In 1853 he was again 
elected a representative in congress, in which position he con- 
tinued until the brealdng out of the war of secession in 1861. 
He subsequently served as a brigadier-general in the Virginia 
army; and was wounded at Antietam. In 1862-65 he was 
the war governor of Virginia. He died May 18, 1887, in 
Warrenton, Va. 

SMITH, WILLIAM ALDEN, lawyer, congressman, was 
born May 12, 1859, in Dowagiac, Mich. He was appointed 
page in the Michigan house of representatives in 1879; and 
was assistant secretary of the Michigan state senate in 1882. 
He was a member of the republican state central committee 
in 1888, 1890, and 1892. He was a representative to the fifty- 
fourth and fifty-fifth congresses as a republican. 

SMITH, WILLIAM ALEXANDER, banker. He has been 
president of the New York Stock Exchange ; and vice presi- 
dent of the Continental Trust Company, of New York city; 
and has filled numerous positions of trust and homr. 



PIISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 45 

SMITH, WILLIAM ALEXANDER, agriculturist, state 
senator, congressman, was born Jan. 9, 1828, in North Caro- 
lina. He was a member of the secession convention of North 
Carolina in 1861. He was a representative in the state leg- 
islature in 1864 ; was a member of the constitutional conven- 
tion in 1865; and was a member of the state senate in 1870. 
He was president of the North Carolina railroad ; and of the 
Yadkin River railroad. He was a represelitative to the forty- 
third congress as a republican. 

SIMITH, WILLIAM CADID, lawyer, was born April 17, 
1857, in Howard county, Ind. He has attained success as a 
lawyer and counselor of Delphi, Ind. He has filled the offices 
of public prosecutor, master commissioner and city attorney. 

SMITH, WILLIAM E., state legislator, governor, was born 
in 1824 in Scotland. He was elected a member of the Wiscon- 
sin legislature in 1851 ; and re-elected in 1871, when he was 
made speaker of the house. Besides holding many other of- 
fices, he has been twice elected governor of Wisconsin, in 1877 
and 1879. He died in Fox Lake, Wis. 

SMITH, WILLIAM E., soldier, lawyer, congressman, was 
born March 14, 1829, in Augusta, Ga. In 1850 he was made 
solicitor-general for the southwestern circuit. In 1861 he 
entered the confederate army in the fourth Georgia regiment 
as first lieutenant; was elected captain in 1862 ; and lost a leg 
in front of Richmond. In 1863 he was elected to the confed- 
erate house of representatives; and continued in that office 
during its existence. He then engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits and cotton planting. He was a representative from 
Georgia to the forty-fourth, forty-fifth and forty-sixth con- 
gresses as a democrat. 

SMITH, WILLIAM FARRALL, soldier, legislator, was 
born June 26, 1845, near Liverpool, England. In 1850 he 
came with his parents to the United States; lived five years 
near Cincinnati, Ohio ; and in 1S86 moved to Audubon coun- 
ty, Iowa. He served four years in the civil war; as also did 
two of his brothers. In 1866 he went to Colorado; and in 
1882 settled in Wyoming. He has always taken an active 
part in politics; and in 1900 was elected a member of the 
sixth Wyoming legislature. He resides in Farrall, Wyo. 

SMITH, WILLIAM FARRAR, soldier, author, Avas born 
Feb. 17, 1824, in St. Albans, Vt. He was a brevet major-gen- 
eral in the United States army; and resigned in 1867. He is 
the author of From Chattanooga to Petersburg under Gener- 
als Grant and Butler ; and several other works. 



46 HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 

SMITH, WILLIAM G., lawyer, jurist, was born Sept. 
6, 1816, in West Haven, Vt, For many years he was states 
attorney of Du Page county, 111. ; and built up a large law 
practice at Wheaton. He has been justice of the peace ; and 
filled numerous other positions of trust and honor. 

SMITH, WILLIAM H., lawyer, jurist, state legislator, 
governor, was born April 9, 1826, in Georgia. He moved to 
Alabama; and was twice elected to the legislature. He was 
a presidential elector in 1856 ; and was appointed a circuit 
judge of the state. He was governor of Alabama in 1868-70. 

SMITH, WILLIAM J., soldier, agriculturist, state senator, 
congressman, was born Sept. 24, 1823, in Birmingham, Eng- 
land. He devoted himself to agricultural pursuits; and dur- 
ing the civil war was persecuted and arrested on account of 
his devotion to the union cause. He enlisted in the volunteer 
army as 'a private ; and rose to the rank of brevet brigadier- 
general. He was a member of the convention to reorganize 
the state government in Tennessee ; was subsequently elected 
to the state legislature ; and in 1867 was elected to the state 
senate. He was a representative from Tennessee to the forty- 
first congress. 

SMITH, WILLIAM JOHN, manufacturer, inventor, was 
born March 28, 1870, in W^exford, Mich. He is a manufact- 
urer of and dealer in lumber at Detroit, Ore. He is the dis- 
coverer and owner of the Gold Standard and Golden Eagle 
Gold ]\Iines, a part of the Green Horn mines. He is the in- 
ventor and patentee of the Twentieth Centiiry Mortises, a 
machine now in extensive use. 

SMITH, WILLIAM LOUGHTON, diplomat, congressman, 
author, was born in 1758 in Charleston, S. C. He was a rep- 
resentative in congress from South Carolina in 1789-97 ; and 
resigned in 1797 to become minister to Portugal ; and was 
minister to Spain in 1800-01. He was the author of Speech- 
es : Comparative View of tho Constitutions of the States, and 
American Arguments for British Rights. He died in 1812 
in Charleston, S C. 

SMITH, WILLIAM NATHAN HARRELL, la^vye^, state 
senator, congressman, was born Sept. 24, 1812, in Murfrees- 
borough, N. C. In 1840 he was elected a member of the state 
house of commons; and in 1848 was elected to the state sen- 
ate. He was solicitor of the first judicial district for eight 
years. In 1858 he was again elected to the house of com- 
mons, but resigned his seat ; and was elected a representative 



HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPPIICAL: 47 

from North Carolina to the thirty-sixtli congress. He took 
part in tlie civil war as a member of the so-called confederate 
congress; and was a delegate to the Philadelphia national 
union convention of 1866, and the New York convention of 
1868. He died Nov. 14, 1889, in Raleigh, N. C. 

S:\1ITH, WILLIAM RUSSELL, lawyer, congressman, 
author, was born Aug. 8, 1813, in Tuscaloosa, Ala. He is a 
lawyer of Tuscaloosa, Ala., and was a congressman in 1851- 
55 ; and during that period sat in the confederate congress. 
He is the author of The Alabama Justice; The Uses of Soli- 
tude, a poem; As It Is, a novel; and Condensed Alabama 
Reports. He died Feb. 26, 1896. 

SMITH, WILLIAM SOOY, civil engineer, was born July 
22, 1830, in Tarlton, Ohio. In 1853 he graduated from the 
United States ^Military academy. In 1857 he made the first 
surveys for the international bridge across Niagara river ; and 
constructed an iron bridge across Savannah river. He was 
active in the civil war; and was promoted brigadier-general 
of volunteers in 1862. He has built numerous steel bridges; 
has served on numerous engineering expeditions ; and in 1880 
was president of the civil engineers club of the northwest. 

SMITH, WILLIAIM STP]PHENS, soldier, lawyer, con- 
gressman, was born in 1755 in New York city. He was aid 
to General Sullivan in 1776 ; was lieutenant-colonel of the 
thirteenth Massachusetts regiment in 1778-79 ; and was sev- 
eral times wounded. He was then, for a short time, attached 
to the staff of Steuben, but left in 1781 to become aid to 
Washington. He was secretary of legation, under John 
Adams in England in 1785 ; was surveyor of the port; of New 
York; and served three years as a member of the New York 
assembly. He was president of the New York Cincinnati 
society in 1804. He was a representative in congress in 1813- 
16. He died June 10, 1816, in Lebanon, N. Y. 

SMITH, AVILLIA]\I YEARLY, educator, lawyer, jurist, 
was born Jan. 16, 1855, in Johnson county. 111. For several 
years he was county superintendent of schools; and attained 
a successful law practice in his native county at Vienna. He 
has filled with distinction the office of county judge ; has been 
master in chancery; and filh^d vai-ious other offices of trust 
and honor. 

S:\IITH, AVILMOT M., lawyei". jurist, was born in 1852 
in Suffolk county, N. Y. Since 1879 he has practiced law and 
has attained prominence at the bar at New York. In 1885- 



48 HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 

91 he was district attorney of Suffolk county ; and in 1892-96 
was county judge of Suffolk county, N. Y. Since 1896 he has 
been justice of the supreme court of the state of New York. 

SMITH, WORTHINGTON C, merchant, state senator, 
congressman, was born April 23, 1823, in St. Albans, Vt. He 
became an iron merchant and manufacturer. In 1863 he 
was chosen to the legislature of the state ; and in 1864-65 was 
elected to the state senate, officiating during the last session 
as president of the senate. He was a representative from 
Vermont to the fortieth, forty-first and forty-second congress- 
es as a republican. 



ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 49 

All proper names had originally a peculiar and 
appropriate meaning. Some persons might feel dis- 
posed to argue that there is nothing in the ordinary 
course of things to prevent the giving of names from 
sheer whim and v^ithout any meaning ; but it is quite 
as difficult to imagine the absence of motive and of 
fixed guiding principles in the choice of a name as it 
is in any other matter. It would be contrary to Man's 
nature to denote the object of his thoughts by sounds 
which produce no impression upon his memory, no 
representative idea in his mind, li the principle 
asserted, then, hold good in the matter of common 
nouns, much more must it be true with regard to the 
proper name, whose characteristic is, as we have said, 
that it places under our very eyes as it were, the 
individual object to which it is applied. 

That some definite idea should belong to the name 
when uttered, is so much needed by men in general 
that the natives of North America are in the habit of 
giving a name selected from their own language to 
any stranger deemed worthy of their especial notice. 
To them his own name does not sufficiently describe 
him, because it probably conveys no idea connected 
with his physical appearance. An anecdote is related 
of the Imaum of Muscat who when about to appoint 
a private physician asked his name. " Vincenzo," was 
the physician's reply. Not understanding it, the prince 
requested that its meaning should be explained in 
Arabic. The Italian gave the meaning, as Mansour, 
or Victorious, and the prince delighted with the happy 
omen offered by the name, ever after called him 
"Sheik Mansour." 

If we glance next at the records of travellers in 
distant countries, we shall find that whether they be 
private individuals or men engaged in scientific in- 
quiry, they never give a name to a people, a country, 



50 ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 

an island, or an unknown rock, without some defi 
nite reason. Some allusion is made in it to physical 
conformation, to dress, to customs, to external pecu- 
liarities, or to certain circumstances which made the 
discovery a remarkable one. This natural habit has 
rarely been deviated from except when a desire has 
been felt to erect some geographical monument on 
distant shores, in honor of some denizen of the heavens; 
or to record, in a lasting form, some contemporary 
event, or the name of some contemporary character 
of distinction; or, lastly, to perpetuate the memory 
of a benefactor of his kind, and to testify of a na- 
tion's gratitude to a fellow-countryman of great pre- 
eminence. The long catalogue of proper names, with 
a meaning, which may yet be found among our older 
'nations, in spite of mixture and corruption of races; 
and the longer catalogue disclosed by et3miological 
inquir^^, fully bear out these remarks. Schegel, a very 
learned philosopher, has traced descriptive epithets in 
almost all Hindoo names. So marked was the exist- 
ence of these meanings among the Hebrews, that 
their literature is strangely tinged by their influence. 
The older names among the Arabs, and those since 
introduced into general use, are highly significative; 
the face is acknowledged in the case of Grecian names, 
and the remark is equally true of all names derived 
from Teutonic origin. The most distant nations in 
our own more immediate circle of civilization exhibit 
no difference in this respect. Most of the natives of 
North America are named after some animal ; during 
their lifetime they receive another title when they 
have earned it by some deed of daring, which it ex- 
plains and of which it is the token. The name of a 
most powerful chief in one of the Marquesas Islands, 
contains an allusion to the shape of a canoe, in the 
management of which he excelled. Thunder is the 



ORIGIN OP THB SURNAME. 51 

name of the King of the Chenooks, a warlike tribe 
who Hve on the left bank of the river Columbia. The 
Kamtchadales, Koriakes, and Kuriles, have all of 
them significant names. 

SURNAMES. 

In the first ages of the world a single name was 
sufficient for each individual; and that name was 
generally invented for the person, in allusion to the 
circumstances attending his birth, or to some personal 
quahty he possessed, or which his parents fondly 
hoped he might in future possess. 

Christian names being given in infancy, and by 
friends and relatives, cannot, as a general rule, have 
bad significations, or be associated with crime or mis- 
fortune. It is otherwise, however, with surnames. 
These will be found to be of all shades, from the best 
to the worst, the most pleasing to the most ridiculous 
They originated later in life, after the character and 
habits of the individual had been formed, and after 
he had engaged in some permanent occupation, trade, 
or pursuit. They were given by the community in 
which he dwelt — by enemies as well as by friends. 

The first approach to the modern system of 
nomenclature is found in the assumption of the name 
of One's Sire in addition to his own proper name; 
as Caleb the son of Jephunneh. Sometimes the adjunct 
expressed the country or profession of the bearer; 
sometimes some excellence or blemish; as Diogenes 
the Cynic ; or Dionysius the Tyrant. 

A mother's name, that of a parent, or of some 
remoter ancestor more illustrious than the father, 
have in the same way been used to form new names! 
A like attention has been paid to sentiments of friend^ 
ship and gratitude. Sometimes the wife's name be- 
came the husband's surname. The name of the tribe 



52 ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 

or people to which a man belonged might also be- 
come a surname. If any particular name described 
the locality of a man's residence or propert3^, it may 
serve the same purpose. Personal acts and qualities 
have given rise to a great variety of surnames. 

Surnames are traceable to several chief sources. 
There will be seen evidences in phj^sical and political 
geography that the designations of countries, moun- 
tains, rivers, districts, towns, villages, hamlets, are all 
associated with the names of persons whom we daily 
meet, suggesting to the thoughtful mind most inter- 
esting topics regarding the histories of families and 
places. 

Though the majority of our ancient family names 
are territorial, we have many large classes of excep- 
tions, and the origin of most of them is not at all 
doubtful. 

Surnames can scarcely be said to have been per- 
manently settled before the era of the Reformation. 
The keeping of parish registers was probably more 
instrumental than anything else in settling them; for 
if a person were entered under one name at baptism, 
it is not likely he would be married under another 
and buried under a third ; in some instances, prior to 
the keeping of parish registers, persons were recorded 
as having different names at different periods of their 
life. As to the derivations of surnames, it should be 
remembered, that places were named before families. 
You have only to examine anj^ of those names which 
serve for lands and also for persons, to see this plainly. 
If you found the name of Cruickshanks, or Pretty- 
man, Black-mantle, or Great-head, you would not 
hesitate. These are evidently coined for persons, and 
you find no such names of land, or for the double 
purpose. But then you can have as little doubt that 
names like Church-hill, Green-hill, Hazel-wood, Sandi- 



ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 53 

lands, were first given to places ; and when you find 
them borne both hj land and persons, you will con- 
clude the persons took them from the territories. In 
general then, when a place and a family have the 
same name it is the place that gives the name to the 
people, not the family to the place. This rule, which 
will not be disputed by any one v^^ho has bestowed 
some study or thought on the subject, has very few 
exceptions. 

There is a class of fables, the invention of a set 
of bungling genealogists, who, by a process like that 
which heralds call canting — catching at a sound — pre- 
tend that the Douglases had their name from a Gaelic 
word, said to mean a dark gray man, but which 
never could be descriptive of a man at all; that the 
'Forbeses were at first called For beast, because they 
killed a great bear; that Dalyell is from a Gaelic 
word, meaning "I dare;" that the Guthries were so 
called from the homely origin of gutting three had- 
docks for King David the Second's entertainment, 
w^hen he landed very hungry on the Brae of Bervie 
from his French voyage. These clumsy inventions of 
a late age, if they were really meant to be seriously 
credited, disappear when we find from record that 
there were very ancient territories, and even parishes, 
of Douglas, Forbes, Dalj^ell, and Guthrie, long before 
the names came into use as family surnames. 

It was formerly customary to receive names from 
ancestors by compounding their name with a word 
indicating filial relationship. Names so compounded 
were termed patronymics, from Pater: father, and 
Onoma : a name — father being used in the sense of 
ancestor. When personal names merged into family 
appellations, patronymics became obsolete; or, more 
correctly, ceased to be formed. Before this change 
was effected, in case a man was called Dennis: born 



54 ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME, 

on the Day of St. Dennis, sometimes his eldest son 
would be called Dennison, which in some cases, be- 
came Tennyson; and a man from a village in which 
was a church dedicated to St. Dennis was called 
Dennistoun. After the period in which descriptive 
names flourished, each of his children, whether male 
or female, would be called Dennis, so that this be- 
came literally a patronymic, inasmuch as it was a 
name received from a father. Howbeit, only those 
names that were taken from a parent when such 
was not the rule are called patronymics. Personal 
names lead the van as to all others, and are the 
basis of half their successors. Long after personal 
names veere almost as widely diffused as persons, we 
find patronymics coming into use, the offspring of 
necessity arising out of multiplicity. 

But when we come to realize that nearly one- 
third of Englishmen were known either by the name 
of William or John about the year 1300, it will be 
seen that the pet name and nick form were no freak, 
but a necessity. We dare not attempt a category, 
but the surnames of to-day tell us much. Will was 
quite a distinct youth from Willot, Willot from Wil- 
mot, Wilmot from Wilkin, and Wilkin from Wilcock. 
There might be half a dozen Johns about the farm- 
stead, but it mattered little so long as one was called 
Jack, another Jenning, a third Jenkin, a fourth Jack- 
cock (now Jacox as a surname), a fifth Brownjohn, 
and sixth Micklejohn, or Littlejohn, or Proper] ohn 
(i.e., well-built or handsome). 

The first name looking like a patronymic is ante- 
diluvian, viz., Tubal-Cain: flowing out from Cain, as 
though O'Cain, given to intimate pride in relation- 
ship to Cain. During the Israelitish theocracy Gentile 
patronymics \vere in common use, as Hittites from 
Heth, but those personal came in later. As soon, 



56 ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 

however, as the New Testament opens we meet with 
Bar-Jonah, Bar-Abbas, names received from fathers in 
the conventional patronymical sense. It is, therefore, -i 
manifest that the chronology of patronymics, the 
period of their formation, lies about midway between 
primitive ages and time current. 

The Saxons sometimes bestowed honorable appel- 
lations on those who had signalized themselves by 
the performance of any gallant action, like the Ro- 
man Cognomina. Every person conversant with the 
history of those times will call to mind that England 
was much infested with wolves, and that large re- 
wards were given to such as were able by force or 
stratagem, to subdue them. To kill a wolf was to * 
destro3^ a dangerous enemy, and to confer a benefit 
on society. Hence several Saxon proper names, ending 
in ulph and w^olf, as Biddulph, the wolf-killer, or 
more properly " wolf-compeller," and some others; 
but these, among the common people at least, did 
not descend from father to son in the manner of 
modem surnames. 

Another early species of surname adjunct is the 
epithet Great, as Alexander the Great; with words 
expressive of other qualities, as Edmund Iron-side, 
Harold Hare-foot; and among the kings of Norway 
there was a Bare-foot. France had monarchs named 
Charles the Bald, Louis the Stutterer, and Philip the 
Fair. 

As society advanced more in refinement, partly for 
euphony, and partly for the sake of distinction, other 
names came into common use. 

Modern nations have adopted various methods of 
distinguishing families. The Highlanders of Scotland 
emplo3'ed the sirename with Mac, and hence our Alac- 
donalds and Macartys, meaning respectively the son 
of Donald and of Arthur. 



ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 57 

It would, however, be preposterous to imagine 
that surnames universahy prevailed so early as the 
eleventh century. We have overwhelming evidence 
that they did not ; and must admit that although the 
Norman Conquest did much to introduce the practice 
of using them, it was long before they became very 
common. The occasional use of surnames in England 
dates be\'ond the ingress of the Normans. Surnames 
were taken up in a very gradual manner by the great, 
(both of Saxon and Norman descent) during the ele- 
venth, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries. By the mid- 
dle of the twelfth, however, it appears that they were 
(in the estimation of some) necessary appendages to 
families of rank, to distinguish them from those of 
meaner extraction. 

The unsettled state of surnames in those early 
times renders it a difficult matter to trace the pedi- 
gree of any family beyond the thirteenth centur3^ In 
Cheshire, a county remarkable for the number of its 
resident families of great antiquity, it was very usual 
for younger branches of the family, la^dng aside the 
name of their father, to take their name from the 
place of their residences, and thus in three descents 
as many surnames are found in the same famil3\ 
This remark maj' be forcibly illustrated by reference 
to the early pedigree of the family of Fitz-Hugh, 
which name did not settle down as a fixed appellative 
until the time of Edward III. 

Although most towns have borrowed their names 
from their situation and other respects, 3'et with some 
apt termination have derived their names from men; 
as Edwardston and Alfredstone. But these were from 
forenames or christian names, and not from sire 
names ; and even almost to the period of the con- 
quest forenames of men were generally given as names 
of places. 



58 ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 

The Normans are thought to have been the first 
to introduce the practice of fixed surnames among us; 
and certainly a httle while before the conquest, some 
of these adventurers had taken family names from 
their chateaux in Normandy. "Neither is there any 
village in Normandy," says Camden, "that gave not 
denomination to some family in England." The French 
names introduced into England at the conquest may 
generally be knov^n by the prefixes de, du, des, de, la, 
St.; and by the suffixes font, ers, fant, deau, age, 
mont, ard, aux, bois, ly, eux, et, val, court, vaux, 
lay, fort, ot, champ, and dille, most of w^liich are 
coinponent parts of proper names of places, as every 
one may convince himself by the slightest glance at 
the map of Northern France. But that these Norman 
surnames had not been of long standing is very cer- 
tain, for at the Conquest it v^as only one hundred 
and sixty years since the first band of Northmen 
rov^ed up the Seine, under their leader Hrolf, whom 
our history books honor with the theatrical name of 
Rollo, but \vho was known among his people as 
"Hrolf the Ganger." 

But whether in imitation of the Norman lords, or 
from the great convenience of the distinction, the use 
of fixed surnames arose in France about the year 
1000; came into England sixty 3^ears later, or with 
the Norman Conquest; and reached Scotland, speak- 
ing roundly, about the year 1100. 

The first example of fixed surnames in any num- 
ber in England, are to be found in the Conqueror's 
Valuation Book called Domesday. "Yet in England," 
again to quote the judicious Camden, "certain it is, 
that as the better sort, even from the Conquest, by 
little and little took surnames, so they were not set- 
tled among the common people fully until about the 
time of Edward the Second." 



ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 59 

Those dashing Norman adventurers introduced to 
the British Isle the custom of chivalry and the sur- 
names they had adopted from their paternal castles 
across the channel. They made a rage for knight- 
hood and turned the ladies' heads. An English prin- 
cess declined to marry a suitor who "had not two 
names." Henry I wished to marry his natural son 
Robert to Mabel, one of the heiresses of Fitz-Hamon. 
The lady demurred : 

"It were to me a great shame 
To have a lord withouten his twa name." 
Whereupon King Henry gave him the surname of 
Fitzroy, which means son of a king. 

The era of fixed surnames does not rest only on 
the authorit}^ of Camden. It can be proved by a 
thousand records, English and Scotch. It is almost 
sufficiently proved when it can be shown the race of 
Stuart — already first of Scotch families in opulence 
and power, distinguished by no surnames for several 
generations after the Norman Conquest. Much later 
the ancestors of the princely line of Hamilton were 
known as Walter Fitz-Gilbert, and Gilbert Fitz- Walter, 
before it occurred to them to assume the name their 
kinsmen had borne in England. But surnames were 
undoubtedly first used in the twelfth centur3% and 
came into general use in the following one. 

THE SAXON PATRONYMIC 

Was formed by adding ing to the ancestor's name, as 
^Ifreding, which means Alfred's son; the plural for 
which is ^Ifredingas. 

THE ENGLISH PATRONYMIC, 

Which is exceedingly common, is generally indicated by 
affixing son to the name of a progenitor, and is in- 



60 ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 

capable of being used in a plural form or in the gen- 
eric sense. For instance, Gibson, a son of Gibbs, a 
contraction for Gilbert. Munson, a son of Munn, a 
contraction of Edmund. 

DE AND MAC 

Are from the Latin word De, which means of. This is 
a Patronymical sign common to French, Italian, and 
even German names. Thus Deluc, which means of 
Luke. Dwight means of Wight; and De Foe means 
of the Faith. 

FITZ. 

Fitz stands for Filius, a son, and received through 
the Normans. 

VAN AND VON. 

Corresponding more or less closel}^ with de, ac, is 
the Dutch van, and usually applied with the force of 
the, as Vandersteen, which means of the stone, hill, 
from which have sprung Folli, Fell, Knox. Vander- 
velde means of the field ; Van Meter means living on 
hired land; and Vandeveer means of the ferry. 

THE WELSH PATRONYMIC 

Is a form of the Celtic means mac, which the Cam- 
brian people made Mab or Map, and shortening it to 
a letter b, p, or its cognate f, gave it work to do as a 
patronymical prefix. Thus, Probart, son of Robert ; 
Prob^ai, son of Robin; Blake, son of Lake; Bowen, 
son of Owen ; Price, son of Rice or Rheese ; Priddle, 
son of Riddle; and Prichard, son of Richard. 

MILESIAN PATRONYMIC. 

The Highlanders, Irish and Welsh hold mac in 
cominon. The Welsh delight to have it in the forms 
of mab, map, ap, hop, b, p, f. In Irish names mac 



ORIGIN OF THB SURNAME. 61 

tends toward mag, ma, and c. But Scotland took 
most lovingly to mac. The Milesians found a greater 
charm in Eoghan: a son, forming ua, and that used 
as O in the sense of eldest son, for he only was al- 
lowed to use it. The Irish developed a patronymic 
out of their Erse treasury more elastic and poetic 
than the Gaelic mac. The Celtic for young, offspring 
son, is, as above given, eoghan, whence Egan for 
Hugh, eoghan : son of Hugh; and also Flanegan, son 
of Flan. 

THE GALLIC PATRONYMIC 

Is mac, meaning a son ; and O from eoghan, for a fir «t- 
born son. The Gaels also had a patronymical affix 
derived from eoghan, known as ach, och, the sou/ce 
of our ock, as seen in hillock, which means little hill. 

THE SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE PATRONYMIC 

Is formed by az, or ez affixed. The two words are vari- 
ations of the tail Filius, a son ; as Alvarez, son of 
Alva; and Enriquez, son of Henr3'. 

THE ITALIAN PATRONYMIC 

Was sometimes formed by placing the name of* a son 
before the name of his father, as Galileo Galilei, which 
means Galileo, the son of Galilei; Speron Speroni, 
which means Speron, the son of Speroni. 

THE RUSSIAN PATRONYMIC 

Is itch for a son ; and of, ef or if for a grandson or 
descendant. Romanovitch Jourifif: son of Romain, 
grandson of Jour}^; and Romanoff, descended from 
Romain, son of Rome. 



62 ORIGIN OP THE SURNAME. 

THE MODERN GREEK PATRONYMIC 

Assumes the forms pulos, soula, as in the name Nicol- 
opulos, son of Nicholas. 

THE GERMAN, DUTCH, SWEDISH, AND LAPLAND PA- 
TRONYMIC 

Are sohn, zen, sen, son, zoon, and dotter, such as Men- 
delssohn, son of Mendel; Thorwaldsen, son of Thor- 
wald ; and Larsdotter, son of Lars. 

LITHUANIAN PATRONYMIC 

Is aitis, ait or at, used as affix, thus, Adomaitis, mean- 
ing a son of Adam. 

THE HINDOSTANEE PATRONYMICS 

Is piitra, added as an affix ; as occurs in Rajaputra, 
son of a king. 

THE CHINESE PATRONYMIC 

Is tse, or se, used as an affix, as Kung-fut-se, which 
means Kung, the son of Fo ; and Yang-tse-Kiang, 
river, son of the ocean. 

TPIE LATIN PATRONYMIC 

Is ilhis, -as Hostilius, son of Hostis. 

THE GREEK PATRONYMIC 

Is idas, modified to ida, ides, id, i, od. For instance, 
Aristides, son of Ariston. 

THE HEBREW PATRONYMIC 

Proper is ben, from the word Eben, a stone. The Chal- 
dees used Bar in the sense of lofty, elevated, superior, 
which was primarily applied to eminence, and is iden- 
tical with our Barr. As Barzillai, son of Zillai ; Ben- 
Joseph, son of Joseph. 



ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 63 

KIN. 

The primary sense ot kin seems to have been rela- 
tionship: from thence family or offspring. 

The next meaning acquired by kin was child, or 
"young one." We still speak in a diminutive sense 
of a manikin, kilderkin, pipkin, lambkin, jerkin, mini- 
kin (little Minion), or Doitkin. 

Terminations in kin were slightly going down in 
popular estimation when the Hebrew invasion made 
a clean sweep of them. They found shelter in Wales, 
however, and directories preserve in their list of sur- 
names their memorial forever. 

In proof of the popularity of kin are the surnames 
of Simpkinson, Hopkins, Dickens, Dickinson, Watkins, 
Hawkins, Jenkinson, Atkinson, and all the rest. The 
patronymics ending in kins got abbreviated into kiss, 
kes, and ks. Hence the origin of our Perkes, Purkiss, 
Hawkes, and Hawks, Dawks, Jenks, Juckes, and Jukes 
(Judkins). 

IN OR ON. 

This diminutive, to judge from the Paris Directory, 
must have been enormously popular with the French. 
England's connection with Normandy and France 
generally brought the fashion to the English Court, 
and in habits of this kind the English folk quickly 
copied. Terminations in kin and cock were confined 
to the lower orders first and last. Terminations in 
on or in and ot or et, were the introduction of fash- 
ion, and being under patronage of the highest families 
in the land, naturally obtained a much wider popu- 
larity. 

OT AND ET. 

These are the terminations that ran first in favor for 
many generations. 



64 ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 

This diminutive ot et is found in the EngHsh lan- 
guage in such words as poppet, jacket, lancet, ballot, 
gibbet, target, gigot, chariot, latchet, pocket, ballet. 
In the same way a little page became a paget, and 
hence among our surnames Smallpage, Littlepage, 
and Paget. 

Coming to baptism, we find scarcely a single 
name of any pretentions to popularity that did not 
take to itself this desinence. The two favorite girl- 
names in Yorkshire previous to the Reformation were 
Matilda and Emma. Two of the commonest sur- 
names there to-day are Emniott and Tillot, with such 
variations as Emmett and Tillett, Emmotson and 
Tillotson. 

Of other girl-names we may mention Mabel, which 
from Mab became Mabbott; Douce became Doucett 
and Dowsett; Gillian or Julian, from Gill or Jill 
(whence Jack and Jill), became Gillot, Juliet, and 
Jowett; Margaret became Margett and Margott, and 
in the north Magot. 



NAMES DERIVED FROM OCCUPATIONS AND PURSUITS. 

After these local names "the most in number have 
been derived from Occupations or Professions." 

The practice of borrowing names from the various 
avocations of life is of high anticjuity. Thus the Ro- 
mans had among them many persons, and those too 
of the highest rank, who bore such names as Figulus, 
Pictor, and Fabritius, answering to the Potters and 
Paynters, of our own times. These names became 
hereditary, next in order after the local names, about 
the eleventh and twelfth centuries. As local names 
generally had the prefix de or at, so these frequently 
had 7e, as Stephen le Spicer, and Walter le " Boucher. 



ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 65 

NAMES DERIVED FROM DIGNITIES, CIVIL AND ECCLESI- 
ASTICAL; AND FROM OFFICES. 

The same principle which introduced surnames bor- 
rowed from trades and occupations led to the adop- 
tion of the names of dignities and offices, which also 
became hereditary; as Emperor, King, Prince, Duke, 
Earle, Pope, Bishop, Cardinal, etc. 

SURNAMES DERIVED FROM PERSONAL AND MENTAL 
QUALITIES. 

These seem to form one of the most obvious sources 
of surnames, and a prolific source it has been. Noth- 
ing would be more natural at the first assumption 
of surnames, than for a person of dark complexion 
to take the name of Black or Blackman, a tawny 
one that of Browne, and a pale one that of White 
or Whiteman. But it was not from the head alone 
that names of this description were taken, for we 
have, in respect of other personal qualities, our Longs 
and our Shorts, our Strongs and our Weaklys, and 
our Lightfoots and our Heavisides, with many more 
whose meaning is less obvious. Among the names 
indicative of mental or moral qualities, we have our 
Hardys and Cowards, our Livelys and our Sullens, 
our Brisks and our Doolittles; and Brainhead, which 
later became Brainerd. 

SURNAMES DERIVED FROM CHRISTIAN NAMES. 

Everj'body must have remarked the great number 
of names of this kind. Who does not immediately 
call to mind some score or two of the name of Ed- 
wards, Johnson, Stevens, and Harrison, in the circle 
of his acquaintance. Many of the christian forenames 
of our ancestors were taken up without any addi- 



66 ORIGIN OF THE SURNAMB. 

tion or change, as Anthony, Andrew, Abel, Baldwin, 
Donald, etc. Others have been corrupted in various 
ways, as Bennet from Benedict, Cutbeard from Cuth- 
bert, Stace from Ustace. 

NAMES FROM MANORS AND SMALLER ESTATES. 

The surnames from these sources are almost in- 
numerable. There is scarcely a city, town, village, 
manor, hamlet, or estate, in England, that has not 
lent its name to swell the nomenclature of English- 
men. 

SURNAMES FROM VARIOUS THINGS. 

We find the names of the heavenly bodies, beasts, 
birds, fishes, insects, plants, fruits, flow^ers, metals, 
etc., very frequently borne as surnames; as Sun, 
Moon, Star, Bear, Buck, Chicken, Raven, Crab, Cod, 
Bee, Fly, Lily, Primrose, Orange, Lemon, Gold, 
Silver, etc. 

SURNAMES FROM THE vSOCIAL RELATIONS, PERIODS OF 
AGE, TIME, ETC. 

There are several surnames derived from consan- 
guinity, alliance, and from other social relations, orig- 
inating, from there having been two or more persons 
bearing the same christian name in the same neigh- 
borhood; as Fader, Brothers, Cousins, Husbands; and 
closely connected with the foregoing are the names 
derived from periods of age, as Young, Younger, Eld, 
Senior. From periods of time v^e have several names, 
as Spring, Summer, Winter. The following surnames 
may also find a place here: Soone, Later, Latter, 
Last, Quickly. 

A CABINET OF ODDITIES. 

There are a good many surnames which seem to 
have originated in sheer caprice, as no satisfactory 



ORIGIN OP THE SURNAME. 67 

reason for their assumption can be assigned. It is 
doubtful, indeed, if they were ever assumed at all, for 
they have very much the appearance of what, in these 
days, we are accustomed to call nicknames or sobri- 
quets, and were probably given by others to the per- 
sons who were first known by them, and so identified 
with those persons that neither they nor their im- 
mediate posterity could well avoid them. To this 
family belong the names borrowed from parts of the 
human figure, which are somewhat numerous; as 
Pate, Skull, Cheek, Neck, Side, Nailes, Heele, etc. 
Then there is another set of names not much less 
ridiculous, namely those borrowed from coins, and 
denominations of money, as Farthing, Money, Pen- 
ny. Besides these we have from the weather. Frost, 
Tempest, and Fogg; from sports, Bowles, Cards; from 
vessels and their parts. Forecastle, Ship; from mea- 
sures. Peck, Inches; from numbers. Six, Ten. 

It is really remarkable that many surnames ex- 
pressive of bodily deformity or moral turpitude should 
have descended to the posterity of those who perhaps 
well deserved and so could not escape them, when 
we reflect how easily such names might have been 
avoided in almost every state of society by the simple 
adoption of others ; for although in our day it is con- 
sidered an act of villainy, or at least a "suspicious 
affair," to change one's name unless in compliance 
with the will of a deceased friend, when an act of 
the senate or the royal sign-manual is required, the 
case was widely different four or five centuries ago, 
and we know from ancient records that names were 
frequently changed at the caprice of the owners. 
Names of this kind are very numerous, such as, Bad, 
Silly, Outlaw, Trash, etc. 



68 ORIGIN OF THB SURNAME. 

NAMES DERIVED FROM VIRTUES AND OTHER ABSTRACT 
IDEAS. 

To account for such names as Justice, Virtue, Pru- 
dence, Wisdom, Liberty, Hope, Peace, Joy, Anguish, 
Comfort, Want, Pride, Grace, Laughter, Luck, Peace, 
Power, Warr, Ramson, Love, Verity, Vice, Patience, 
etc., they undoubtedly originated in the allegorical 
characters v^ho performed on the ancient mysteries or 
moralities; a specie of dramatics pieces, which before 
the rise of the genuine drama served to amuse under 
the pretext of instructing the play -goers of the "old- 
en tyme." 

FOREIGN NAMES NATURALIZED IN ENGLAND. 

Various causes might be assigned for the variety 
that exists in the nomenclature of Englishmen. Pro- 
bably the principal cause is to be found in the pecu- 
liar facilities which that island had for many ages 
presented to the settlement of foreigners. War, royal 
matches Avith foreign princesses, the introduction of 
manufactures from the continent, and the patronage 
w^hich that country has always extended to every 
kind of foreign talent — all have of course tended to 
introduction of new names. 

CHANGED SURNAMES. 

The practice of altering one's name upon the oc- 
currence of any remarkable event in one's personal 
history, seems to have been known in times of very 
remote antiquity. The substitution of Abraham for 
Abram, Sarah for Sarai, etc., are matters of sacred 
history. In France it was formerly customary for 
eldest sons to take their father's surnames, while the 
younger branches assumed the names of the states 
allotted them. This plan also prevailed in England 
sometime after the Norman Conquest. 



ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 69 

In the United States they carry this system of 
corrupting or contracting names to a ridiculous ex- 
tent. Barnham is Barnum; Farnham (fern ground) 
Famum; Killham (kihi house or home), Kihum; Birk- 
ham (birch house) Birkum, and so forth with similar 
names. Pollock becomes Polk; Colquhoun becomes 
Calhoun; and M'Candish becomes M'Candless. 

HISTORICAL SURNAMES. 

By an historical surname is meant a name which 
has an illusion to some circumstance in the life of the 
person who primarily bore it. Thus Sans-terre or 
Lack-land, the by-name of King John, as having rela- 
tion to one incident in that monarch's life, might be 
designated an historical surname. To this class of 
surnames also, belongs that of Nestling, borne by a 
Saxon earl, who in his infancy, according to Verstegan, 
had been rescued from an eagle's nest. 

TRANSLATED NAMES. 

During the middle ages the Latin language was 
the language of literature and politics; accordingly 
in history and in the public records proper names had 
to assume a Latin form. The change was not al- 
ways a happy one. Authors were obliged to change 
their own names as well as the names of the persons 
they celebrated in either prose or verse. The history 
of France was still written in Latin in the seventeenth 
century, all names consequently recorded in Latin. 
In the sixteenth century the Germans used to trans- 
late them into Greek. The absurdity which it en- 
tailed undoubtedly hastened the disappearance of the 
custom. 

The chiefs of an American tribe in North America 
receive a new name when they have earned it by 
their exploits. 



70 ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 

A similar practice prevails in various negro tribes. 

The Greeks, in olden times, used to change their 
names on the smallest pretense, and v^ith the greatest 
indifference. 

The emperors of Japan and those of China after 
their death receive a new name. 

ON THE CHANGING OF NAMES. 

With us a woman changes her name when she 
marries; among the Caribs of the Antilles it was the 
custom for husband and wife to exchange names. 
In some formerly, and at the present day in Cape 
Verd Islands, a liberated slave takes the name of his 
old master; the adopted person substitutes the name 
of the person who adopts him for his own; the law 
allows that a donor or testator may require that 
his name should be taken by the person benefited. 

In 1568 Philip enacted a law that the Moors 
who lived in Spain should abandon the use of their 
peculiar idiom, and of their national names and sur- 
names, and substitute in their stead Spanish idioms 
and Spanish names. He hoped to make new men of 
them, to denationalize them, if we may use the term, 
and to merge them into his own people. He had a 
keen appreciation of the value of proper names, but 
like all despotic sovereigns, he was blind to the in- 
fluence of time, which can alone produce the gradual 
fusion of a conquering with a conquered people, more 
especially when differences in religion add their over- 
whelming weight to one side of the balance. 

The Moors obej^ed, but still retained their nation- 
al feelings and religious beliefs; later, however, when 
they \vere compelled to choose between exile on the 
one hand, and apostacy on the other, they returned 
to their old country-, and carried back with them a 
number of Spanish names. Accordingly, in several 



ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 71 

Mauritanian families descended from the Andalusian 
Mussulmans, we still find the names of Perez, Santi- 
ago, Valenciano, Aragon, etc., names which have 
sometimes led European authors into error, and made 
them fancy they saw apostates from Christianity 
among the descendants of the martyrs ot Islamism. 

The robbers whose trade it was to carry men 
away and sell them as slaves, needed no legal com- 
pulsion to change the names of their slaves. The 
precaution which they naturally took in this matter 
baffled the researches of disconsolate parents, who 
could only endeavor to recover their lost children by 
a description which was always imperfect and always 
uncertain. 

In modern times the same system has been 
adopted, although it has not been dictated by eciually 
prudential motives. The laws of Christian Europe 
have even in our own times legalized the sale of 
slaves. As soon as a negro had landed in the colo- 
nies it was usual for his purchaser to give hin a new 
name. 

HEREDITARY NAMES. 

In England the middle classes acquired a decidedly 
important political influence as early as the year 
1258, or not later than 1264, the quarrels of the 
nobles and the king having opened the road to Par- 
liament for the representatives of the commons. More- 
over, an act that no tax should be levied without 
the consent of their representatives was passed before 
the year 1300, and accordingly, soon after that date, 
we find hereditary names commonly used in the mid- 
dle classes. 

For a contrary reason the change cannot have 
taken place in Germany until a much later period. 
In order to prove this, an instance is given which 



72 ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 

will be all the more conclusive from its being con- 
nected with an intermediate point between that coun- 
try and France. In the town of Metz, which in idiom 
and by union with the dominions of the descendants 
of Clovis and Charlemagne, was decidedly French, 
but which for thirty years had been Germanized in 
consequence of its political position, you might have 
noticed at the close of the thirteenth century that its 
chief magistrates, who were all knights, bore without 
exception individual or derived surnames instead of 
famih^ surnames. When we say derived, we mean either 
from the place in which they lived, or from the post 
w^hich their military duties obliged them to occupy. 
It was not until the close of the latter half of the 
fourteenth century that hereditar^^ names became 
common among men who were high in office, so that 
among their inferiors it is only fair to infer that they 
were rarer still. 

The et^niiology of hereditarj^ names in England 
and in Germany is generally the same as in France 
and Ital}'. The following remarks will embody the 
inferences to be drawn from their examination, for 
the use of philologists. In languages of Teutonic or- 
igin, when descent is implied merelv, the word son is 
placed after the father's name; such is the derivation 
of all the familj^ names in the languages of Sweden, 
Denmark, German^-, and England, which terminate in 
this way. There are some exceptions, such as Fergu- 
son and Owenson, which serve to corroborate the 
statement as to the possibility of the union of two 
languages to form one and the same proper name ; 
in the instances quoted above, a Saxon termination 
is joined to a Caledonian or a Welsh name. 

Attention has already been drawn to the custom 
of giving the father's name, in the genitive case, to 
the son as a surname. The addition of a final s in 



ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 73 

English, and of the syllable ez in Spain, sufficed to 
change Christian prccnomina into surnames, and 
afterwards into family names; Peters, Williams, 
Richards, Henriquez, Lopez, Fernandez, literally (son) 
of Peter, of William, of Richard, of Henry, of Lope 
(or Wolf), of Fernando or Ferdinand. 

D'Andre, Dejean, Depierre, have probably become 
family names in France in a similar way. The name 
of the writer who was perhaps the keenest apprecia- 
tor of the genius of the immortal Dante that ever 
lived, Giuseppe di Cesare, shows that a similar form 
was not foreign to Italian customs. 

As in Italy, so also in the greater part of Europe, 
the practice of drawing up deeds and charters in 
Latin was almost universal, and in these the son 
was designated by his father's name in the genitive 
case, hence we must attribute all the names which 
are characterized by such a termination to this cus- 
tom. Such names, for instance, as Fabri, Jacobi, 
Simonis, Johannis, etc., names which would be mul- 
tiplied without end if other languages had retained 
the old Latin termination like the Italian. The coun- 
tries where the greatest number will be found will be 
those (it may be quite safely conjectured) where the 
custom of writing legal documents in Latin prevailed 
the longest. 

Somewhat similar in Wales, the sign of descent, 
or rather of sonship, led to the formation of sur- 
names, which later again became hereditary names. 
The w^ord *'ab," when placed between two names, 
expresses descent, Rhys ab Evan (Rhys, the son of 
Evan); the vowel is gradually lost in common use, 
and the name becomes Rhys Evan, and, according to 
the same rule, successively takes the form of the fol- 
lowing patronymics, Bowen, Pruderrech, Price. 

It is still tiie same theory, only more simply car- 



74 ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 

ried out, which regulated the formation of family 
names in Ireland and in Scotland. As soon as the 
head of a clan had adopted some hereditary name, 
that name was given to all his vassals, whatever 
rank they might happen to occupy, and however re- 
motely connected they might be by ties of kindred 
with the head of the clan, and further, even though 
they had only entered it by enfranchisement or by 
adoption. The feeling of pride which suggested such 
a system is by no means an offensive one; we excuse 
it on the ground of its similarity to the old patri- 
archal customs; the head of the clan w^ho is so pow- 
erful, and such an object of reverence, is but the eld- 
est brother of a large family, and the name which he 
takes belongs to all its members. 

It will not be quite so easy to discover a reason 
for the feeling of vanity which in Spain and in Por- 
tugal led to such a tedious multiplicity of names. 
Birthplace, or the customary home, are not considered 
sufficient for a full description of a lordly title; alli- 
ances, adoptions, and the like, were all dragged in to 
increase the number of names. An ignorant phase of 
devotional feeling added to its proportionate share 
to their Christian pranomia; it may, therefore, be 
easily inferred what needless confusion must have 
arisen in the ordinary transactions of life through 
this two-fold prodigality of names. 

As the nobles in Sweden had not adopted heredi- 
tary names before the close of the sixteenth century, 
it followed as a matter of course that the middle 
classes did not use them until a still later period. 
The choice of names which this latter class made is 
worthy of notice. We know many names in France 
which indicate occupations, such as Draper, Miller, 
Barber, Maker, Slater, Turner,* etc. The same may 

♦Mercier, Meunier, Barbier, Boulanger, Couvreur, Tourneur. 



ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 75 

be found in England, but not in the same quantity; 
the oldest English commoners were freeholders of 
land rather than either merchants or manufacturers. 
There are few if any such, in Sweden; the greater 
part of their names are the names of properties, or 
of farms, or of forests, and were of that character 
because they were selected by a class who wished to 
approximate to the nobles by imitating their ways, 
and consequently not because they were the result of 
a need for distinctive signs — a need which is totally 
distinct from any individual w^ish or caprice. 

In Holstein and in Courland there are still many 
families who have no names peculiarly their own. 
In this instance, again, the scourge of feudalism is 
felt in all its severity. 

ORIGIN OF OUR FAMILY. 

Whatever concerns the origin of our family — from 
whom proceeded the sturdy men that planted our in- 
fant states has for all of us an especial charm, not only 
from what we know, but for what we hope to ascertain. 

Our ancestors, tracing back their lineage to Pict 
and Dane, to the legionaries of Rome, or to the sea 
kings of the Baltic, had gained strength from the 
fusion in their nature of various and opposing ele- 
ments, and combined what was best of many races. 

That our ancestors were fond of fighting when 
provoked, regardless of personal safety or private 
advantage, cannot be denied. For the five centuries 
following the conquest, wars at home and abroad 
succeeded with little cessation. Military duty was 
incumbent on all who could bear arms. Personal en- 
counters between knight and squire in mail with lance 
and battle axe, the rest in quilted doublets, with pike 
and bow, made men indifferent to danger, and induced 
habits of hardihood and daring. 



ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 

According to some authorities the history of man- 
kind began \vith Adam and Eve about six thousand 
years ago; and that their decendants spread over 
Asia first, then over Africa, and then over Europe. 
But science clearly points that the |,v^'orld and its in- 
habitants in some form must have existed for millions 
of years. 

It took primitive man four thousand years to learn 
how to make a hole in a stone, insert a stick in it, 
and use it for a weapon. Then he became master of 
the forest, with power readily to provide himself with 
meat-food. From fisherman and hunter man developed 
into a herder of flocks, a tiller of the soil, a cultivator 
of grain. Then came attachment to the family and 
the growth of the family into clans and nations. 

The first historical record is dated about three 
thousand seven hundred years ago, when a man bj^ 
the name of Inachus led a very large companj^ of emi- 
grants from Egvpt into Greece. These found that 
country inhabited by savages, who no doubt, were 
the descendants of those who had wandered there 
from Asia. 

Inachus and his companies established themselves 
in Greece, and from that point of time Europe gradu- 
ally became occupied by civilized people. 

Thus three quarters of the globe, Asia Africa and 
Europe, were settled. But America was separated 
from Asia by the Pacific Ocean, almost ten thousand 
miles across; and from Europe and Africa b3^ the At- 
lantic, about three thousand miles across. Of America 
in ancient times people knew nothing. 

The ships in olden times were small and feeble; 
and navigators seldom dared to stretch forth upon 
the boundless sea. Even the mariner's compass, that 
mysterious but steadfast friend of the sailor was not 
used by the Europeans until 1250. 



78 ORIGIN OF THE) SURNAME. 

THE FIRST SETTLEMENTS. 

It was in the year 1607 that the first emigrants, 
to successfully form a permanent colony, landed in 
Virginia. For twelve years after its settlement it 
languished under the government of Sir Thomas 
Smith, Treasurer of the Virginia Company in Eng- 
land. The Colony was ruled during that period by 
laws w^ritten in blood; and its history shows us how 
the narrow selfishness of such a despotic power would 
counteract the very best efforts of benevolence. The 
colonist suffered an extremity of distress too horrible 
to be described. 

Of the thousands of emigrants who had been 
sent to Virginia at great cost, not one in twenty 
remained alive in April, 1619, when Sir George 
Yeardley arrived. He bought certain commissions 
and instructions from the company for the "Better 
establishing of a cominonwealth here," and the pros- 
perity of Virginia began from this time, w^hen it 
received, as a commonwealth, the freedom to make 
laws for itself. The first meeting was held July 30, 
1619 — more than a year before the Mayflower, with 
the pilgrims, left the harbor of Southampton. 

The first colon3' established by the Plymouth Com- 
pany in 1607, on the coast of Maine, was a lament- 
able failure. 

The permanent settlement of New England began 
with the arrival of a body of Separatists in the May- 
flower in 1620, who founded the colony of Plymouth. 

The Separatists' migration from England was 
followed in a few years by a great exodus of Puri- 
tans, who planted towns along the coast to the 
North of Plymouth, and obtained a charter of gov- 
ernment and a great strip of land, and founded the 
colony of Massachusetts Bay. 



ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 'TS 

Religious disputes drove Roger Williams and Anne 
Hutchinson out of Massachusetts and led to the 
founding of Rhode Island in 1636. 

Other church rangles led to an emigration from 
Massachusetts to the Connecticut valle}-^, where a 
little confederacy of towns was created and called 
Connecticut. 

Some settlers from England went to Long Island 
Sound and there founded four towns which, in their 
turn, joined in a federal union called the New Haven 
Colony. 

In time New Haven was joined to Connecticut, 
and Plymouth and Maine to Massachusetts; New 
Hampshire was made a royal colony; and the four 
New England colonies Massachusetts, New Hampshire, 
Rhode Island and Connecticut— were definitely estab- 
lished. The territory of Massachusetts and Connecti- 
cut stretched across the continent to the ''South Sea" 
or Pacific Ocean. 

The Maryland colony was founded by Lord Bal- 
timore, a Roman Catholic, who was influenced in his 
attempts of colonization by a desire to found a refuge 
for people of his own faith ; and the first settlement 
was made in 1634 at St. Mary's, Annapolis was 
founded about 1683, and Baltimore in 1729. 

Meantime Henry Hudson in the employ of the 
Dutch, discovered the Delaware and Hudson Rivers in 
1609; and the Dutch, ignoring the claims of England, 
planted colonies on these rivers and called the coun- 
try New Netherlands. 

Then a Swedish company began to colonize the 
Delaware Bay and River coast of Virginia, which 
they called New Sweden. 

Conflicts between the Dutch and the Swedes fol- 
lowed, and in 1655 New Sweden was made a part of 
New Netherlands. 



80 ORIGIN OF THE SURNAME. 

The English seized New Netherlands in 1664, giv- 
ing it to the Duke of York; and the Duke, after es- 
tablishing the province of New York, gave New Jersey 
to two of his friends, and sold the three counties on 
the Delaware to William Penn. Meanwhile the king 
granted Penn what is now Pennsylvania in 1681. 

The Carolinas were first chartered as one proprie- 
tary colony but were sold back to the king and final- 
ly separated in 1729. 

Georgia, the last of the thirteen English colonies, 
was granted to Oglethorpe and others; as a refuge 
for poor debtors, in 1732. 

In 1774 General Gage became governor of Mass- 
achusetts; and seeing that the people were gathering 
stores and cannon, he attempted to destroy the 
stores, and so brought on the battle of Lexington 
and Concord, which opened the war for Independence. 
The English arm}^ was surrounded at Yorktown by 
Washington and the French fleet and forced to sur- 
render. A convention at PhiladeljDhia framed the 
Constitution of the United States. 



NATIONS THAT HAVE OWNED OUR SOIL. 

Before the United States became a nation, six 
European powers owned, or claimed to own, various 
portions of the territory now contained within its 
boundary. England claimed the Atlantic coast from 
Maine to Florida. Spain once held Florida, Texas, 
California and all the territor}; south and west of 
Colorado. France in days gone by ruled the Missis- 
sippi valley. Holland once owned Nev^ Jersey, Dela- 
ware and the valley of the Hudson in New York and 
claimed as far eastward as the Connecticut River. 
The Swedes had settlements on the Delaware. Alaska 
was a Russian possession. 



ORIGIN OF THE FORE-NAME. 81 



FORE -NAMES. 

CHRISTIAN names are so called from having orig- 
inally been given to converts at baptism as sub- 
stitutes for their former pagan appellatives, many of 
which w^ere borrowed from the names of their gods, 
and therefore rejected as profane. After the general 
introduction of Christianity, the epithet was still re- 
tained, because the imposition of names was ever 
connected with the earliest of its sacred rites. It is, 
nevertheless, most incorrect; since the majority of the 
personal names of modem times are borrowed from 
sources unconnected w^ith Christianity. With what 
propriety can we call Hercules and Diana, Augustus 
and Julia, or even Henry and Caroline, Christian 
names? They should be called forenames (that is 
first names), a term much more preferable to the 
other. Perhaps the word name, without any ad- 
junct, would be better still. We should then use the 
name and surname as distinctive words; whereas we 
now often regard them S3^nonyms. 

From the earliest times, names to distinguish one 
person from another have been in use. The names in 
the Old Testament are mostly original and generally 
given at the birth, in accordance with some circum- 
stance connected with that event, or from some 
pious sentiment of the father or mother. The Jewish 
child received his name at the time of circumcision. 
This practice is still adopted amongst the Jews, and 
has been followed by the Christian Church giving a 
name at baptism. 

The ancient Greeks used only one name, which 
was given on the ninth day after birth, and was 



82 ORIGIN OF THE FORE-NAME. 

chosen by the father, who also possessed the right 
of altering it. These names generally expressed some 
great quality — as bravery, wisdom, or skill. Thus 
Callienachus means excellent fighter; and Sophron 
means wise. In later times many names were derived 
from those of their gods — as Apollodorus, the Gift of 
Apollo. The eldest son usually bore the name of his 
paternal grandfather, to which was sometimes added 
the father's name, or the occupation, place of birth, 
or a nickname. 

The Romans at a very early date used two 
names, and later on each Roman citizen had three. 
The pr^nomen was, like our Christian name, per- 
sonal to the individual; as Caius and Marcus; in 
writing, the initials only were generally used. In 
early times it was given at puberty, but afterwards 
on the ninth day after birth. Women took no pras- 
nomen until marriage, when they adopted the femi- 
nine form of their husband's name. Every Roman 
citizen belonged to a gens and to a familia included 
in it. The nomen gentilicutn (the second name) 
usually ended in ius, cius, or aius. The third name 
was the hereditary cognomen borne by the family, to 
which was sometimes a second cognomen called 
agnomen, was added. The cognomen was often de- 
rived from some event in the family historj^ or from 
some personal defect. In common intercourse the 
preenomen and cognomen only were used, as C. 
Caesar, for C. Julius Cicsar. Many of the Roman 
names were of a much less dignified origin than the 
Greek, as Cicero (Vetchgrower), Crassus (Fat), Naso 
(Longnosed). 

The Celtic and Teutonic names were originally 
very significant. Many were derived from "God," as 
Gottfried, Godwin, and others from genii or elves, as 
Alfred Elfric (Elf King). Personal prowess, wisdom, 



ORIGIN OF THE FORE-NAMB. 83 

and nobility of birth, were the origin of many names 
still in use, as Hilderbrand (the War Brand), Arnold 
(Valiant Eagle) Osborn (God bear). After the intro- 
duction of Christianity many of the old names were 
superseded by those taken from the Scriptures, These 
names in course of time became much altered; as for 
example, Owen, Evan, and Eoghan are different 
forms of Johann or John. A change of name was 
sometimes made . at confirmation, and amongst 
Roman Catholics an additional name is given at the 
first communion. Sir Edward Coke tells us: "If a 
man be baptized by the name of Thomas, and after 
at his confirmation by the bishop he is named John, 
he may purchase by the name of his confirmation. 
And this was the case of Sir Francis Gawdye, late 
Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas, whose 
name of baptism was Thomas, and his name of con- 
firmation Francis; and that the name of Francis by 
the advice of all the judges in anno 36, Henry VIII, 
he did bear, and often used in all his purchases and 
grants." Another instance is that of Henry III of 
France, who, being the godson of Edward VI of Eng- 
land, was named Edward Alexander at his baptism 
in 1551; but at his confirmation in 1565 these 
names were changed to Henri. 

In Germany the names are mosth^ of Teutonic origin, 
or connected with the earh^ history of Christianity. 

Double Christian names were not much in vogue 
before the nineteenth century. A very early instance 
is that of "John Thomas Jones," a runaway thief, 
mentioned in a collection of autograph letters from 
Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, and his son (1601); Charles 
George Cook, Judge of the Admiralt}^ in 1665; and 
Henry Frederick Thynne, brother to Lord Wey- 
mouth, 1682, are other examples, which might 
easily be extended. 



84 ORIGIN OF THE FORE-NAME. 

In France and Germany when surnames became 
universal, the prefix of De or von to a common ple- 
beian name was considered as a mark of nobilit\\ 
In Britain the De was not considered the test for no- 
bility, for the names of some of the best families were 
not territorial; as Butler, Stewart and Spenser, 

SCRIPTURAL NAMES ALREADY IN USE AT THE REFOR- 
MATION. 

It now remains simply to consider the state of 
nomenclature in England at the eve of the Reforma- 
tion in relation to the Bible. Four classes may be 
mentioned. 

MYSTERY NAMES. 

The leading incidents of Bible narrative were 
familiarized to the English lower orders by the per- 
formance of sacred plays, or mysteries, rendered un- 
der the supervision of the Church. To these plays is 
owed the early popularity of Adam and Eve, Noah, 
Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Sara, Daniel, Samp- 
son, Susanna, Judith, Hanna or Anna, and Hester. 
But the Apocryphal names were not frequently used 
until about 1500. Scarcely any diminutives are 
found of them. On the other hand, Adam became 
Adcock and Adkin; Eve became Evott and Evett; 
Isaac became Hickin, Higgin, Higgott and Higgett; 
Joseph became Joskin; and Daniel became Dankin and 
Dannet. 

CRUSADE NAMES. 

The Crusaders gave several prominent names. To 
them we are indebted for Baptist, Ellis and Jordan; and 
John received a great stimulus. The sacred water, 
brought in the leathern bottle, was used for baptis- 
mal purposes. The Jordan commemorated John the 



ORIGIN OF THE FORE-NAME. 85 

Baptist, the second Elias, the forerunner and bap- 
tizer of Jesus Christ. Children were styled by these 
incidents. Jordan became popular throughout Western 
Europe. It gave to England, as already observed, 
Judd, Judkin, Judson, Jordan and Jordanson, Elias, 
as Ellis, took about the eighth j)lace of frequency, 
and John for a while the first. 

THE saint's calendar. 

The legends of the saints were carefully taught 
by the priesthood, and the day was as religiously ob- 
served. All children born on these holy da3^s re- 
ceived the name of the saint commemorated. St. 
James's Day, or St. Nicholas's Day, or St. Thomas's 
Da}'-, saw a small batch of Jameses, Nicholases, and 
Thomases received into the fold of the church. In 
other cases the gossip had some favorite saint, and 
placed the child under his or her protection. Of 
course, it bore the patron's name. A large number 
of these hagiological names were extra-Biblical — such 
as Cecilia, Catherine, or Theobald. All the apostles, 
save Judas, became household names; John, Simon, 
Peter, Bartholomew, Matthew, James, Thomas and 
Philip being the favorites. Paul and Timothy were 
also utilized, the former being always found as Pol. 

FESTIVAL NAMES. 

If a child was born at Whitsuntide or Easter, 
Christmas or Epiphany, like Robinson Crusoe's man 
Friday, he received the name of the day. Hence our 
once familiar names of Noel or Nowell, Pask or Pas- 
cal, Easter, Pentecost, and Epiphany or Tiffany. 

It will be observed that all these imply no direct 
or personal acquaintance with the Scriptures. All 
came through the Church. All, too, were in full tide 



86 ORIGIN OF THE FORE-NAME. 

of prosperity — with the single exception of Jordan, 
which was nearly obsolete — when the Bible, printed 
into English and set up in the churches, became an 
institution. The immediate result was that the old 
Scripture names of Bartholomew, Peter, Philip, and 
Nicholas received a blow much deadlier than that 
received by such Teutonic names as Robert, Richard, 
Roger and Ralph. 

The subject of the influence of the Bible upon 
English nomenclature is not uninteresting. It may 
be said of the "Vulgar Tongue" Bible that it revolu- 
tionized the nomenclature within the space of forty 
years, or a little over a generation. No such crisis, 
surel}^ ever visited a nation's register before, nor can 
such possibly happen again. Every home felt the 
effect. 

THE DECAY OF SINGLE PATRONYMICS IN BAPTISM. 

The introduction of double baptismal names pro- 
duced a revolution as immediate as it was uninten- 
tional. It put a stop to what bade fair to become a 
universal adoption of patronymics as single baptis- 
mal names. This practice took its rise about the year 
1580. It became customary in highly placed families 
to christen the eldest son by the name of the landed 
estate to which he was heir. Especially was it com- 
mon when the son succeeded to property through his 
mother; then the mother's surname was his Chris- 
tian name. With the introduction of second baptis- 
mal names, this custom ceased; and the boy or girl, 
as the case might be, after a first orthodox name of 
Robert or Cecilia, received as a second the patronj-mic 
that before was given alone Instead of Neville Clarke 
the name would be Charles Neville Clarke. From the 
year 1700 this has been a growing custom, and half 
the present list of treble names are thus formed. 



^X<T 


-'ay-jj9**:«»#rf»««*-.i.^5«i^ 


M 


^-■' -*P 




m 


*i^ 


sii^^ea 


\%iyaaiH'\>iiui\^i-r'i-*;iri>'ti\imi' 3 



88 ORIGIN OF THE FORE-NAME. 

Until about the commencement of the seventeenth 
century, no material change in the designations of 
Englishmen had occurred since the days of the earlier 
Edwards, when surnames were generally adopted. 
John de la Barre, it is true, had become plain John 
Barr, and Roger atte Hylle had softened to Roger 
Hill, but still the princiiDle of a single Christian name 
and a single surname had been maintained through- 
out. About the period alluded to, the imiovation of 
a second personal name occurs, though but very rarely. 
The practice was imported to Great Britain from the 
Continent, where it seems to have originated among 
the literati in imitation of the trianomina of antiquity. 
The accession of the man^' -named house of Brunswick 
may be said to have rendered it somewhat fashion- 
able; and during the last century it has become every 
year more common. Should the fashion continue, it 
is probable that at the dawn of the twentieth centu- 
ry it will be as difficult to find a hinominated person 
in America, as it is in France at the present day. 

Another innovation belongs to the seventeenth cen- 
tury; that of the use of some family name as a bap- 
tismal appellation, as Gouldsmith Hodgson, Boscawen 
Lower, Cloudsley Shovel. This practice as well as the 
other is highly to be commended, as serving to iden- 
tify the individual w4th the designation. The genealo- 
gist will at once see its utility; and it is suggested to 
parents the desirability of inserting the maternal fami- 
ly name between the proper name of baptism and the 
surname, as James Morton Wilson, Henry Smith Brad- 
ley. Indeed it would be w^ell to go further and add 
the maiden family name of the wife to the surname 
of the husband ; thus if a Charles Harrison married a 
Mary Bradshawe, they should thereupon write them- 
selves respectively Charles Bradshawe Harrison and 
Mary Bradshawe Harrison. If Vanity unites in the 



ORIGIN OF THE FORE-NAME. 89 

same escutcheon the arms of the wnfe with those oi 
her lord, ought not Affection in like manner to blend 
their names ? This usage is voluntarily followed at 
Geneva and in many provinces in France; and it serves 
to distinguish the bachelor from the married man. 

In some districts, where a family name was orig- 
inally applied at the font instead of the usual James, 
Peter, or John, that family name has come to be re- 
garded as a regular christian name. For example: 
about Lewes, Tra3^ton is fully as common as Samuel, 
Nicholas, Alfred, or any name occup^-ing the second 
rank in point of frequenc}^ and only less usual than 
Henry, William and John. In the sixteenth century a 
famil3^ of this name, from Cheshire, settled in Lewes, 
and continued to reside there for several successive 
generations, during the latter part of which period 
they became so popular that a host of children re- 
ceived the baptismal name of Trayton in compliment 
to them. The spirit of imitation succeeded; and there 
are at the present day scores of Traytons, "who have 
neither an3^ idea of the origin of their name, nor any 
doubt of its being as orthodox as the very common 
appellatives alluded to. 

We have seen that the Christian name, once im- 
posed, cannot be altered at the option of the bearer, 
as the surname may; at least not without the sanc- 
tion of episcopal authorit3^ Towards the close of the 
eighteenth centurv. Sir William Bridges exchanged the 
name of William for that of Brooke, b_v license from the 
Archbishop of Canterburj-; but this is almost a solitary 
instance in modern times, as the occasion for it rarely 
arises. Before the Reformation, the unauthorized change 
of a Christian name was a grave offence. It is recorded 
in the consistorial acts of the Bishop of Rochester, that 
on Oct. 15, 1515, one Agnes Sharpe appeared and con- 
fessed that she had "of her own motion and consent, 



90 ORIGIN OF THE FORE-NAME. ' 

voluntaril}' changed, at confirmation, the name of her 
infant son to Edward, who when baptized was named 
Henr3% for which she submitted to penance. " The 
penance enjoined was to make a pilgrimage to the 
famous Rood of Grace, at the neighboring abbey of 
Boxley, and to carry in procession on five Lord's days, 
a Hghted taper which she was to offer to the image 
of the Blessed Virgin. 

THE PAUCITY OF NAMES. 

There were no Scripture names in England when 
the Conqueror took possession; even in Normandy 
they had appeared but a generation or two before 
William came over. If any are found in the old Eng- 
lish period, thej^ were undoubtedh^ ecclesiastical titles, 
adopted at ordination. Greek and Latin saints were 
equally unnoticed. 

Before many generations had passed, Bartholo- 
mew, Simon, Peter, Philip, Thomas, Nicholas, John 
and Elias, had engrossed a third of the male popula- 
tion; yet Domesday Book has no Philip, no Thomas, 
only one Nicholas; and but a springling of Johns. It 
was not long before Jack and Jill took the place of 
Godric and Godgivu as representative of the English 
sexes, 3'et Jack w^as from the bible and Jill from the 
saintly calendar. 

Without entering into a deep discussion, it may 
be said that the great mass of the old English names 
had gone down before the year 1200 had been reached. 
Those that survived only held on for bare existence. 
From the moment of William's edvent, the names of 
the Normans began to prevail He brought in Bible 
names. Saint names, and his own Teutonic names. 
The old English names bowed to them, and disap- 
peared. 

A curious result quickly followed. From the year 



ORIGIN OF THE FORE-NAME. 91 

1150 to 1550, four hundred jxars in round numbers, 
there was a very much smaller dictionary of English 
personal names than there had been for four hundred 
years before, and than there has been in the four hun- 
dred 3'ears since. The Norman list was really a small 
one, and 3'et it took possession of the whole of Great 
Britain. 

A consequence of this was the Pet-name Epoch . 
In every community of one hundred Englishmen about 
the year 1300, there would be an average of twenty 
Johns and fifteen Williams; then would follow Thomas, 
Bartholomew, Nicholas, Philip, Simon, Peter and Isaac 
from the Scriptures; and Richard, Robert, Walter, Guy, 
Henry, Roger and Baldwin from the Teutonic list. 
Of female names, Matilda, Isabella and Emma were 
first favorites; and Cecilia, Catharine, Margaret and 
Gillian came closely upon their heels. Behind these, 
again, lollowed a fairly familiar number of names of 
either sex, some from the Teuton, some from the He- 
brew, some from the Greek and Latin Church, but, 
when all told, not a large categor3^ 

This is not enough, for in common parlance it was 
not likely the full name would be used. Besides, there 
might be two, or even three Johns in the same family. 
So late as March, 1545, the will of John Parnell de 
G3n-ton runs: 

"Alice, my wife, and Old John, my son, to occupy 
my farm together, till Old John marries ; Young John, 
my son, shall have Brenla\''s land plowed and sowed 
at Old John's cost. " 

The register of Raby, Leicestershire, has this entry : 

"1559. Item: 29th day of August was John, 
and John Picke, the children of Xtopher and Anne, 
baptized. 

"Item: the 31st of August the same John and 
John were buried. " 



92 ORIGIN OF THE FORE-NAME. 

Mr. Burns, who quotes these instances in his "His- 
tory of Parish Registers," adds that at this same 
time "one John Barker had three sons named John 
Barker, and two daughters named Margaret Barker." 

If the same family had but one name for the house- 
hold we may imagine the difficulty when this one name 
was also popular throughout the village. The diffi- 
culty was naturally solved by, firstly, the adoption 
of nick forms; secondly, the addition of pet desinences. 
Thus Emma became bj' the one practice simple Emm, 
by the other Emmott; and any number of boys in a 
small community might be entered in a register as 
Bartholomew, and j^et preserve their individuality in 
work-a-day life by bearing such names as Bat, Bate, 
Batty, Bartle, Bartelot, Batcock, Batkin, and Tolly, 
or Tholly. In a word, these several lorms of Bar- 
tholome^v were treated as so many separate proper 
names. 

It was, of course, impossible for Englishmen and 
English women to maintain their individuality on 
these terms. Vai'ious methods to secure a personality 
arose. The surname was adopted, and there were 
John Atte-wood, John the Wheelwright, John the Bigg, 
and John Richard's son, in every community. Among 
the middle and lower classes these did not become 
hereditary until so late as 1450 or 1500. 

This is easily proved. In the wardrobe accounts 
for Edward IV, 1480, occur the following items : 

"John Po3mtmaker, for pointing of XI dozen 
points of silk pointed with agelettes laton. 

"Jehn Carter, for carriage awa^^ of a grete loode 
of robeux that was left in the strete. 

"To a laborer called Rychard Gard3'ner for work- 
ing in the gard\'ne. 

"To Alice Shapster for making and washing xxiiii 
sherts, and xxiii stomachers. " Shapster is a feminine 



GENEALOGY. 93 

form of Shapper or Shaper — one who shaped or cut 
out cloths for garments. 

All these several individuals, having no particular 
surname, took or received one from the occupation 
they temporarily followed. 



GENEALOGY. 

None of the sciences is less generally studied than 
that of Genealogy. Like all the others, though dry 
and repellant at first, when perseveringly followed out 
it becomes, in the research, full of interest, and pro- 
ductive of great results. 

An account of the origin, descent and relations of 
families is often a principal auxiliarj^ to the true ap- 
preciation of history. In treating of persons who 
have distinguished themselves in their country's an- 
nals, not onlj^ are all those actions of their lives which 
have a bearing upon the character of the age in which 
they lived, or the well-being of the nation and com- 
munity to which they belonged, to be considered, but 
their own family and personal extraction, standing 
and descent. 

The genealogist confines himself to tracing family 
lineages, or the course of succession in particular fami- 
lies. That is his peculiar department. He leaves to 
the annalist the chronicling of events in the order of 
their occurrence, and to the historian the filling up of 
the details and circumstances to which these dry facts 
refer, and the description of the causes from which 
they spring, as well as the consequences to which thev 
lead. The sole purpose and pursuit of the historian 
is to be able to show "Who is Who " and to distinguish 
those who are somebody' from those wdio are nobody. 

The principal nomenclature of genealogy is as 
follows : 



94 HERALDRY. 

All persons descended from a common ancestor con- 
stitute a isLxmXy. 

A series of persons so descended is called a line. 

A line is either direct or collateral. 

The direct line is divided into the ascending and 
descending. 

The projenitors are father, grandfather, etc. ; the 
other ascendants not in a direct line are called ancestors. 

The descendants are son, grandson, etc. ; the other 
descendants not in a direct line are generally termed 
Posterity. 

The Collateral comprehended all those which unite 
in a common projenitor. 

Some affect to hold in contempt the study of suc- 
cession of families. Others undervalue it, without being 
fully aware of the importance of genealogical research. 

There are some people, says Dr. Lindsay Alexan- 
der, in his "Life of Dr. Wardlaw, " who say they 
attach no importance to a man's descent, or to family 
honors, and despise those who do. Perhaps they may 
be sincere, but their judgment in this matter is cer- 
tainly erroneous, and their feeling unnatural. "The 
glory of children, " says the wisest of men, "are their 
fathers;" and a honorable descent should be highly 
valued. 



HERALDRY. 

Heraldic devices, truly so called, made their first 
appearance in Europe in the middle of the twelfth 
century ; and about one hundred years later Heraldry 
became a science in high repute, without being able to 
trace its intermediate progress, or discover the names 
of those who first laid down its laws, or subsequently 
promulgated them. The earliest Heraldic document of 
which even a copy has come down to us is a roll of 



HERALDRY. 95 

arms, that is to say, a catalogue of the armorial bear- 
ings of the king of England, and the principal barons, 
knights, etc., in the reign of Henry III; and, from in- 
ternal evidence, supposed to have been originally com- 
piled between the years 1240-1245. This transcript 
w^as made by Glover, Somerset Herald, in 1586, and 
is preserved in the College of Arms. Other rolls are 
to be found both there and in the British Museum, of 
nearly the same date, but none earlier; and no w^ork 
explanatory of the science has been yet discovered of 
a period anterior to the reign of Edward HI. In the 
reign of Henry HI, armorial ensigns had become hered- 
itary, marks of cadency distinguished the various 
members of a family, and the maj ority of the present 
Heraldic terms were already in existence. 

THE USE OF ARMS 

At that period was to distinguish persons and prop- 
erty, and record descent and alliance, and no modern 
invention has \'et been found to supersede it . For this 
reason alone, as we have remarked elsew^here, of all 
ancient usages it is one of the least likely to become 
obsolete. Hundreds of persons may be entitled to the 
same initials, may possess precisely the same name ; 
but only the members of a particular family can law- 
fully bear certain armorial ensigns, and the various 
branches of that family have their separate differences 
to distinguish one from the other. After the lapse of 
centuries, the date of a building or the name of its 
founder or ancient possessor, ma3^ be ascertained at 
the present da}-, through the accidental preservation 
of a sculptured coat of arms or heraldic encaustic tile ; 
and the careful study of early rolls of arms enables 
the historian to discover matrimonial alliances and 
familv connections, of which no written record has 
been found; and thereby not only to complete the 



96 HERALDRY. 

very imperfect genealogies of many of the bravest and 
wisest of English nobilitj^ and gentry, but also to ac. 
count for sundry acts, both public and private, the 
motives for which have been misunderstood, or alto- 
gether unknown to the biographer or the historian. 



VARIOUS SORTS OF ARMS . 

Arms are not onlv granted to individuals and fam- 
ilies, but also to cities, corporate bodies, and learned 
societies. 

Arms of Dominion or Sovereignty are properly the 
arms of the kings or sovereigns of the territories they 
govern, which are also regarded as the arms of the 
State. Thus the Lions of England and the Russian 
Eagle are the arms of the Kings of England and the 
Emperors of Russia, and cannot be properly altered 
by a change of djmasty. 

Arms of Pretension are those of kingdoms, prov- 
inces, or territories to which a prince or lord has some 
claim, and which he adds to his own, though the king- 
doms or territories are governed by a foreign king or 
lord ; thus the Kings of England for many ages quar- 
tered the arms of France in their escutcheon as the 
descendants of Edward III, who claimed that king- 
dom, in right of his mother, a French princess. 

Arms of Concession are arms granted b\^ sovereigns 
as the reward of virtue, valor or extraordinary ser- 
vice. All arms granted to subjects were originally 
conceded by the Sovereign. 

Arms of Community" are those of bishoprics, cities, 
universities, academies, societies and corporate bodies. 

Arms of patronage are such as governors of prov- 
inces, lords of manors, etc., add to their family arms 
as a token of their superiorit}-, right jurisdiction. 



HERALDRY. 97 

Arms of Famil}^, or paternal arms, are such as are 
hereditary and belong to one particular family, which 
none others have a right to assume, nor can they do 
so without rendering themselves guilty of a breach of 
the laws of honor, punishable hy the Earl Marshal 
and the Kings-at-Arms. The assumption of arms has, 
however, become so common that little notice is taken 
of it at the present time. 

Arms of Alliance are those gained by marriage. 

Arms of Succession are such as are taken up by 
those who inherit certain estates by bequest, entail, 
or donation. 

THE SHIELD. 

The shield contains the field or ground whereon 
are represented the charges or figures that form a coat 
of arms. 




PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES 99 



PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES IN THE UNITED STATES. 

Within the past few years there has been a remark- 
able "movement in the United States, which has re- 
sulted in the formation of many patriotic hereditary 
societies of large membership, with chapters in every 
State in the Union. Those only are eligible to mem- 
bership who can prove their descent from an ancestor 
of Colonial or Revolutionary times, Irom an officer or 
soldier or seaman of the various wars, from a pilgrim 
in the Mayflower, an early Huguenot emigrant, etc. 
These societies bring men and women of like traditions 
together, and organize them in an effective way for 
acrion. The action contemplated is patriotic — never 
religious or related to party politics. The general so- 
ciety from its headquarters issues charters to branch 
societies in the different States. Each State society 
forms an organized group of persons well known to 
each other, by name at least, and often personally. 

Certain of these societies have been very active in 
preserving old monuments, buildings, landmarks and 
historic documents, or in erecting tablets and monu- 
ments at historic places, or in marking the sites of 
battles or the graves of Revolutionary soldiers. Others 
have founded prizes to be given annually to school 
children for essa3^s on events in American history. 
Others, again, formally celebrate the nation's anni- 
versaries. All of them foster patriotism and historical 
research, and teach organization — the sinking of indi- 
vidual desire in a common loyalty. There are proba- 
bly too man}' such organizations at present, and more 
are forming. The weaker societies will, however, die ; 
and those that remain will represent some real aspir- 
ation of their members. 



100 PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES. 

As the entrance to such societies is through descent 
from some ancestor, geneaology has been powerfully 
stimulated, and thousands of family records have been 
examined and summarized in print. Our Colonial and 
Revolutionary history has been studied in its details, 
which is the only way to fully realize it. The men of 
to-day have been connected with Colonial and Revo- 
lutionary times. The children of the coming century 
will find their ancestral records all prepared for them, 
and they will be face to face with high standards of 
duty and effort. 

THE SOCIETY OF COLONIAL WARS, 

Instituted in 1892, is open to lineal male descendants 
of civil or military officers, or of soldiers, who served 
the colonies between May 13, 1607 (Jamestown) and 
April 19, 1775 (Lexington). 

THE SOCIETY OF A_MERICAN WARS, 

Founded in 1897, includes the lineal male descendants 
of soldiers or civil officers from 1607 to 1783, and of 
officers of the War of 1812, of the War with Mexico, 
and of the Civil War. 

THE ORDER OF THE FOUNDERS AND PATRIOTS OF 
AMERICA , 

Founded in 1896, is open to any male citizen of the 
United States who is lineally descended in the male 
line of either parent from an ancestor who settled in 
any of the colonies between 1607 and 1657, and whose 
intermediate ancestors adhered as patriots to the cause 
of the colonists throughout the War of the Revolution. 



PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES. 101 

THE SOCIETY OF THE CINCINNATI, 

Instituted in 1783 is composed of descendants of offi- 
cers of the Revolutionar}^ army, usually the eldest male 
direct descendant. 

THE AZTEC CLUB, 

Founded in IS^T, is open to the descendants of offi- 
cers of the army who served in Mexico, usuall^^ the eld- 
est male direct descendant. 

THE MILITARY ORDER OF THE LOYAL LEGION OF THE 
UNITED STATES, 

Founded in 1865, is composed of officers who served in 
the War of the Rebellion, and of their eldest direct male 
lineal descendants. 

THE SOCIETY OF THE WAR OF 1812, ORGANIZED IN 1814-, 

Is composed of lineal male descendants of soldiers or 
sailors of the War of 1812. 

THE NAVAL ORDER OF THE UNITED STATES, 

Instituted in 1890, is open to officers of the navy who 
have served in war, and to their male descendants, etc.; 
and also to enlisted men who have received a Medal 
of Honor from the United States for bravery. 

THE SONS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION, 

Instituted in 1875, must prove their descent from a Rev- 
olutionary ancestor. The Sons of the Revolution (1876) 
is organized on the same basis. It is expected that 
these two large societies will be consolidated. 

THE HOLLAND SOCIETY, 

Incorp6rated in 1775, is composed of the direct male 
descendants of Hollanders resident in America before 
1675. 



102 PATRIOTIC SOCIBTIES. 

THE HUGUENOT SOCIETY OF AMERICA, 

Organized in 1883, admits descendants of Huguenots 
who came to America before 1787. 

THE SOCIETY OF COLONIAL DAMES OF AMERICA, 

Organized in 1891, is composed of women descended 
from an ancestor who held an office of importance in 
the colonies previous to 1750. 

There are various other societies for women, of 
which the most important are Daughters of the Am- 
erican Revolution, founded in 1890 ; and Daughters of 
the Revolution, founded in 1891 ; and there is also a 
society of Children of the American Revolution, founded 
in 1895. 

THE SOCIETY OF "MAYFLOWER" DESCENDANTS, 

Organized in 1894, includes male and female descend- 
ants of the passengers of the Mayflower (1620). 

MEDAL OF HONOR LEGION. 

The one decoration that is given by the government 
of the United States is the Medal of Honor, which was 
authorized bj^ acts of Congress of 1862 and 1863 to 
be aw^arded to officers and enlisted men of the army for 
"gallantry in action and soldier-like qualities during the 
present insurrection." It has been bestowed onh' for 
conspicuous services. For example the Twenty-seventh 
Regiment of Maine Infantr}^ was present on the field 
where the battle of Gettj^sburg was fought, and its term 
of service had expired. The entire regiment, to a man, 
volunteered to remain on the field and fight the battle; 
and for this gallant conduct a medal was awarded to 
each officer and man. A Naval Medal of Honor is also 
awarded by the government and it is highly prized. 



FORE-NAMES OF MEN 



103 



FORE-NAMES OE MEN. 

AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE. 



Aaron : Lofty ; inspired. 

Abdiel ; The servant of God. 

Abel : Breath, vanity. 

Abiathar: Father of plenty. 

Abiel: Father of strength. 

Abiezer: Father of help. 

Abijah: To whom Jehovah is a 
father. 

Abner: Father of light. 

Abraham: Father of a multitude. 

Abram: Father of elevation. 

Absalom: Father of peace. 

Adam: Man; earth-man; red earth. 

Adiel: The ornament of God. 

Adin, or Adino: Tender; delicate; 
soft. 

Adolph or Adolphus: Noble w^olf; 
i.e., noble hero. 

Adoniram: Lord of height. 

Alaric: All-rich; or, noble ruler. 

Albert: Nobly bright, illustrious. 

Alexander: A defender of men. 

Alfred: Elf in council; good coun- 
sellor. 

Algernon: With whiskers. 

Allan: Corruption of yElienus, 

Almon: Hidden. 

Alonzo: Same as Alphonso. 

Alpheus: Exchange. 

Alphonso: All-ready; willing, 

Alvah, or Alvan : Iniquity. 

Alvin or Alwin: Beloved by all. 

Amariah: Whom Jehovah prom- 
ised. 

Amasa: A burden. 

Ambrose: Immortal; divine. 

Ammi: My people. 

Amos: Strong; courageous. 

Andrew: Strong, manly. 



Andronicus: A conqueror of men- 
Anselm, or Ansel: Protection of 

man. 
Anthony or Antony: Priceless; 

praiseworthy. 
Apollos: Of Apollo. 
Archelaus: Ruler of the people. 
Archibald: Extremely bold; or, 

holy prince, 
Ariel: Lion of God; valiant for 

God, 
Aristarchus: A good prince. 
Arnold: Strong as an eagle, 
Artemas: Gift of Artemis, or 

Minerva. 
Arthur; High, noble. 
Asa: Healer; physician. 
Asahel : Made of God. 
Asaph: A collector. 
Asarelah: Upright to God. 
Ashbel: Fire of Bel. 
Asher: Happy, fortunate. 
Ashur: Black, blackness. 
Athanasius: Immortal. 
Athelstan: Noble stone. 
Aubrey: Ruler of spirits. 
Augustin, Augustine, or Austin: 

Belonging to Augustus. 
Augustus: Exalted, imperial. 
Aurelius: Golden. 
Azariah: Helped of the Lord. 

Baldwin : Bold, courageous friend. 

Baptist: A baptizer; purifier. 

Barachias: Whom Jehovah has 
blessed. 

Bardolph: A distinguished helper. 

Barnabas or Barnaby: Son of con- 
solation. 



104 



FORE-NAMES OF MEN. 



Bartholomew: A warlike son. 
Barzillai: Iron of the Lord; firm 

true. 
Basil: Kingly; roval. 
Benedict: Blessed. 
Benjamin: Son of the right hand 
Benoni: Son of grief or trouble. 
Beriah: In calamity. 
Bernard: Bold as a bear, 
Bertram: Bright raven. 
Bethuel: Man of God. 
Bezaleel: In the shadow of God, 
Boniface: A benefactor. 
Brian: Strong. 
Bruno: Brown, 

Cadwallader: Battle-arranger. 

Caesar: Hairy; or blue-eyed, 

Cain: Gotten, or acquired. 

Caleb: A dog, 

Calvin: Bald. 

Cecil: Dim-sighted, 

Cephas: A stone. 

Charles: Strong; manly; noble- 
spirited. 

Christian: A believer in Christ, 

Christopher: Bearing Christ. 

Clarence: Illustrious. 

Claudius, or Claude: Lame. 

Clement: Mild-tempered, merciful. 

Conrad: Bold in council; resolute. 

Constant: Firm, faithful. 

Constantine: Resolute, firm. 

Cornelius: Horn. 

Crispin, Crispus, or Crispian: Hav- 
ing curly hair. 

Cuthbert: Noted splendor, 

Cyprian: Of Cyprus. 

Cyril: Lordly, 

Cyrus: The sun, 

Dan: A judge. 

Daniel: A divine judge. 

Darius: Perserver. 



David: Beloved. 
; Demetrius: Belonging to Ceres. 
Denis, or Dennis: Same Dionysius. 
Dexter: The right hand. 
Dionysius: Belonging to Dionysos, 

or Bacchus the god of wine, 
Donald: Proud chief. 
Duncan: Brown chief. 

Eben: A stone. 

Ebenezer: The stone of help. 

Edgar: A javelin (or protector) of 

property. 
Edmund: Defender of property, 
Edward: Guardian of property. 
Edwin: Gainer of property. 
Egbert: The sword's brightness; 

famous with the sword. 
Elbert: Same as Albert. 
Eldred: Terrible. 
Eleazer: To whom God is a help, 
Eli: .\ foster son. 
Eliab: God is his father. 
Eliakim: Whom God sets up. 
Elias: The same as Elijah. 
Elihu: God the Lord. 
Elijah: Jehovah is my God. 
Ehphalet: God of salvation. 
Elisha: God my salvation. 
Elizur: God is my rock. 
Ellis: A variation of Elisha. 
Elmer: Noble, excellent. 
Elnathan: God gave. 
Emmanuel: God with us. 
Emery, Emmery or Emory: Pow- 

ful, rich. 
Eneas: Praised, commended. 
Enoch: Consecrated, dedicated. 
Enos: Man. 

Ephraim: Very fruitful. 
Erasmus: Lo.vely; worthy to be 

loved. 
Erastus; Lovelv, amiable. 



FORE-NAMES OF MEN. 



105 



Eric: Rich, brave, powerful. 
Eriiest, Ernestus: Earnest. 
Esau: Covered with hair. 
Ethan: Firmness, strength. 
Eugene: Well-born; noble. 
Eusebius: Pious, godly. 
Eustace: Healthy, strong; standing 

firm. 
Evan: Same as John. 
Everard: Strong as a wild boar. 
Ezekiel: Strength of God. 
Ezra: Help. 

Felix: Happy; prosperous, 
Ferdinand or Fernando: Brave, 

valiant. 
Festus: Joyful, glad. 
Francis: Free. 
Frank, Franklin: Contraction of 

Francis. 
Frederic or Frederick: Abounding 

in peace, peaceful rule.r. 



Hannibal: Grace of Baal. 

Harold: A champion; general of 
an army. 

Heman: Faithful. 

Henry: The head or chief of a 
house. 

Herbert: Glory of the army. 

Hercules; Lordly fame. 

Herman: A warrior. 

Hezekiah: Strength oi the Lord. 

Hilary: Cheerful, merry. 

Hillel: Praise. 

Hiram: Most noble. 

Homer: A pledge, security. 

Horace, Horatio: Oak wood; or 
worthy to be loved. 

Hosea: Salvation. 

Howell: Sound, whole. 

Hubert: Bright in spirit; soul- 
bright. 

Hugh, or Hugo: Mind, spirit, soul. 

Humphrey : Protector of the home. 



Gabriel: Man of God. 
Gad: A troop, or company. 
Gains: Rejoiced. 
Gamaliel: Recompense of God. 
Geoffrey: Same as Godfrey. 
George: A landholder, husband- 
man. 
Gerald: Strong with the spear. 
Gershom: An exile. 
Gideon: A destroyer. 
Gilbert: Yellow-bright; famous. 
Giles: A kid. 
Given: Gift of God. 
Goddard: Pious, virtuous. 
Godfrey: At peace with God. 
Godwin: Good in war. 
Gregory: Watchful. 
Griffith: Having great faith. 
Gustavus: A warrior, hero. 
Guy: A leader. 



Ichabod: The glory is departed. 
Ignatius: Ardent, fiery. 
Immanuel: Same as Emmanuel. 
Increase: Increase of faith. 
Ingram: Raven. 
Inigo: Same as Ignatius (Spanish 

form). 
Ira: Watchful. 
Isaac: Laughter. 
Isaian: Salvation of the Lord. 
Israel: A soldier of God. 
Ishmael: Afflicted her. 
Ithiel: God is with me. 
Ivan: Same as John (Russian 

form). 

Jabez: He will cause pain. 
Jacob: A supplanter. 
Jairus: He will enlighten. 
James: Same as Jacob. 



106 



FORE-NAMES OF MEN. 



Japheth: Enlargement. 
Jared: Descent, 
^ason: A healer, 
Jasper: Treasure master. 
Javan: Claj, supple. 
Jedediah: Beloved of the Lord. 
Jeffrey: Same as Godfrey. 
Jeremiah, Jeremias, or Jerome: 

Exalted of the Lord. 
Jerome: Holy name. 
Jesse: Wealth. 
Jesus: Same as Joshua. 
Joab: Jehovah is his father. 
Job: Afflicted, persecuted. 
Joel: The Lord is God. 
John: The gracious gift of God. 
Jonah, or Jonas: A dove, 
Jonathan: Gift of Jehovah. 
Joseph: He shall add. 
"oshua: The Lord is welfare. 
Josiah or Josias: Given of the 

Lord, 
[otham: The Lord is upright. 
Judah: Praised, 
Julian: Sprung from, or belonging 

to Julius, 
Julius: Soft-haired. 
Justin, or Justus: Just. 

Kenelm: A defender of his kindred. 
Kenneth: A leader, commander. 

Laban: White. 

Lambert: Illustrious with landed 
possessions. 

Lancelot: A little angel; other- 
wise a little lance or warrior; or 
a servant. 

Laurence or Lawrence: Crowned 
with laurel. 

Lazarus: God will help. 

Leander: Lion man. 

Lebbeus: Praise. 



Lemuel: Created by God. 

Leonard: Strong, or brave as a 
lion. 

Leonidas: Lion-like. 

Leopold: Bold for the people. 

Levi: Adhesion, 

Lewis: Bold warrior. 

Linus: P laxen-haired. 

Lionel: Young lion. 

Lewellyn: Lightning. 

Loammi: Not my people. 

Lodowic: Same as Ludovic or 
Lewis. 

Lorenzo: same as Laurence (Span- 
ish and Italian form). 

Lot: A veil, covering. 

Louis: Same as Lewis. 

Lubin: Beloved friend. 

Lucian: Belonging to or sprung 
from Lucius. 

Lucius: Born at break of day. 

Ludovic: Same as Lewis. 

Luke: Light-giving. 

Luther: Illustrious warrior. 

Lycurgus: Wolf-driver. 

Madoc: Good, beneficent. 

Malachi: Messenger of the Lord. 

Manasseh: Forgetfulness. 

Marcellus: Diminutive of Marcus] 

Marcius: Same as Marcus. 

Marcus or Mark: A hammer, other- 
wise, a male, or sprung from 
Mars. 

Marmaiuke: A mighty noble. 

Martin: Of Mars; warlike, 

Matthew: Gift of Jehovah. 

Matthias: Gift of the Lord, 

Maurice: Corruption of Amabuc. 
(himmelreich); the kingdom of 
heaven. 

Maximillian: The greatest Aemili- 
anus. 



FORE-NAMES OF MEN. 



107 



Meredith: Sea-protector. 
Micah: Who is like the Lord? 
Michael: Who is like to God? 
Miles: A soldier. 
Morgan: A seaman, a dweller on 

the sea. 
Moses: Drawn out of the water. 

Naaman: Pleasantness. 
Nahum: Consolation. 
Napoleon: Lion of the forest-dell. 
Nathan: Given, a gift. 
Nathanael, or Nathaniel: The gift 

of God. 
Neal or Neil: Dark, swarthy; 

otherwise (Celtic) chief. 
Nehemiah: Comfort of the Lord. 
Nicholas or Nicolas: Victory of 

the people. 
Noah: Rest, comfort. 
Noel: (Dies Natalis) Christmas; 

Born on Christmas Day. 
Norman: A Northman, native of 

Normandy. 

Obadiah: Servant of the Lord. 

Obed: Serving God. 

Octavius or Octavus: The eighth- 
born. 

Oliver: An olive tree, 

Orestes: A mountaineer. 

Orlando: Same as Rowland. 

Oscar: Bounding warrior. 

Osmond or Osmund: Protection 
of God. 

Oswald or Oswold: Power of God. 

Owen: Lamb, otherwise, young 
warrior. 

Ozias: Strength of the Lord. 

Patrick; Noble; a patrician. 
Paul, Paulinus, or Paulus: Little- 
Peleg: Division. 
Peregrine: A stranger. 



Peter: A rock. 
Philander: A lover of men. 
Philemon: Loving, friendly, 
Philip: A lover of horses. 
Phineas, or Phinehas: Mount of 

brass. 
Pius: Pious, dutiful, 
Polycarp: Much fruit, 
Ptolemy: Mighty in war. 

Quintin: The fifth, 

Ralph: Same as Rodolphus. 
Randal: House-wolf. 
Raphael: The healing of God. 
Raymond, or Raymiind: Wise pro 

tection. 
Reginald: Strong ruler. 
Reuben: Behold, a son. 
Reuel: Friend of God, 
Reynold: Same as Reginald. 
Richard: Rich-hearted, powerful. 
Robert: bright in fame, 
Roderic or Roderick: Rich in 

fame. 
Rodolph or Rodolphus: Famous 

wolf or hero. 
Roger: Famous with the spear. 
Roland or Rowland: Fame of the 

land, 
Rudolph or Rudolphus: Variations 

of Rodolphus. 
Rufus: Red, red-haired, 
Rupert: Same as Robert. 

Salmon: Shady. 

Samson, or Sampson: Splendid 

sun, great joy and felicity, 
Samuel: Heard of God; asked for 

of God. 
Saul: Asked for. 
Seba: Eminent, 

Sebastian: Venerable, reverend, 
Septimus: The seventh born. 



lOS 



FORE-NAMES OF MEN. 



Sereno or Serenus: Calm, peace- 
ful. 

Seth: Appointed, 

Shadrach: Rejoicing in the way. 

Sigismund: Conquering, protec- 
tion. 

Silas: A contraction of Silvanus. 

Silvanus: Living in a wood. 

Silvester: Bred in the country 
rustic. 

Simeon, Simon: Hearing with ac- 
ceptance. 

Solomon: Peaceable. 

Stephen: A crown. 

Swithin: Strong friend. 

Sylvanus: Same as Silvanus. 

Sylvester: Same as Silvester. 

Tertius: the third born. 

Thaddeus: The wise, 

Theobald: Bold for the people. 

Theodore: The gift of God. 

Theodoric: Powerful among the 
people. 

Theophilus: A lover of God. 

Theron: A hunter. 

Thomas: A twin. 

Timothy: Fearing God. 

Titus: Honorable. 

Tobiah or Tobias: Distinguished 
of the Lord. 

Tristram: Grave, pensive, melan- 
choly, sorrowful, sad. 

Tybalt: Same as Theobald. 



Ulysses: A hater. 

Urban: Of the town; courteous; 

polished. 
Uriah: Light of the Lord. 
Urian: A husbandman. 
Uriel: Light of God. 

Valentine: Strong, healthy, pow- 
erful. 
Vicesimus: The twentieth born. 
Victor: A conqueror. 
Vincent: Conquering. 
Vivian: Lively. 

Walter: Ruling the roast. 

William: Resolute helmet, or hel- 
met of resolution; defence; pro- 
tector. 

Winfred: Win-peace. 

Zabdlel: Gift of God. 

Zaccheus: Innocent, pure. 

Zachariah, or Zachery: Remem- 
bered of the Lord. 

Zadok: Just. 

Zebediah or Zebedee: Gift of the 
Lord. 

Zebina: Bought. 

Zebulon: Dwelling. 

Zedekiah: Justice of the Lord. 

Zelotes: A zealot. 

Zei<as: Gift of Jupiter. 

Zephaniah: Hid of the LoreL 



FORE-NAMES OF WOMEN. 109 

FORE-NAJSIES OF WOMEN. 

AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE. 



Abigail: My father's joy. 

Achsa: Anklet, 

Ada: The same as Edith. 

Adela, Adelaide, or Adeline: Of 
noble birth, a princess. 

Agatha: Good, kind. 

Agnes: Chaste, pure. 

Alberta: Feminine of Albert. 

Alethea: Truth. 

Alexandra, or Alexandrina: Femi- 
nine of Alexander. 

Alice, or Alicia: Same as Adeline. 

Almira: Lofty; a princess. 

Althea: A healer. 

Amabel: Loveable. 

Amanda: Worthy to be loved. 

Amelia: Busy, energetic. 

Amy: Beloved. 

Angelica, Angelina: Lovely, an- 
gelic. 

Ann, Anna, or Anne: Grace. 

Annabella: Feminine of Hannibal. 

Annette: Variation of Anne. 

Antoinette: Diminutive of Anto- 
nia. 

Antonia,or Antonina: Inestimable. 

Arabella: A fair altar; otherwise, 
corruption of Orabllia, a praying 
woman. 

Ariana: A corruption of Ariadne. 

Augusta: Feminine of Augustus. 

Aurelia: Feminine of Aurelius. 

Aurora: Morning redness; fresh; 
brilliant. 

Azubah; Deserted. 

Barbara: Foreign ; strange. 
Beatrice,6r Beatrix : Making happy. 



Belinda: From Bella, Isabella, Eliz- 
abeth. 

Benedicta; Feminine of Benedic- 
tus. 

Bertha: Bright ; beautiful. 

Betsey: A corruption of Elizabeth. 

Blanch, or Blanche: White. 

Bona: Good. 

Bridget: Strength. 

Camilla: Attendant at a sacrifice 
Caroline: Feminine of Carolus or • 

Charles. 
Cassandra- One who inflames with 

love. 
Catharina, Catharine, or Catherine 

Pure. 
Cecilia or Cecily: Feminine ov 

Cecil. 
Celestine: Heavenly. 
Celia: Feminine of Coelus. 
Charlotte: Feminine of Charles. 
Chloe: A green herb; blooming. 
Christiana, orChristma: Feminme 

of Christianus. 
Cicely: A variation of Celia. 
Clara: Bright, illustrious. 
Clarice, or Clarissa: A variation of 

Clara. 
Claudia: Feminine of Claudius. 
Clementina, or Clementine; Mild, 

gentle. 
Constance: Firm, constant. 
Cora: Maiden; a form of Corinna. 
Cornelia: Feminine of Cornelius. 
Cynthia: Belonging to Mount 

Cynthus. 



110 



FORE-NAMES OF WOMEN. 



Deborah: A bee. 

Delia: of Delos. 

Diana: Goddess. 

Diantha: Flower of Jove; a pink. 

Dinah: Judged. 

Dora: A variation of Dorothea. 

Dorcas: A gazelle. 

Dorinda: Same as Dorothea. 

Dorothea, or Dorothy: Gift of 

God. 
Drusilla: Dew watered. 

Edith: Happiness; otherwise rich 
gift. 

Edna: Pleasure. 

Eleanor, or Elinor: Light; same as 
Helen. 

Elisabeth, Elizabeth, or Eliza: Wor- 
shiper of God; consecrated to 
God. 

Ella: A contraction of Eleanor. 

Ellen: A diminutive of Eleanor. 

Elvira: White. 

Emeline, or Emmeline: Energetic, 
industrious. 

Emily, or Emma: Same as Eme- 
line. 

Ernestine: feminine and diminu- 
tive. 

Esther: A star; good fortnne. 

Ethelind, or Ethelinda: Noble 
snake. 

Eudora: Good gift. 

Eugenia, or Eugenie: Feininine of 
Eugene. 

Eulalia: Fair speed. 

Eunice: Happy victory. 

Euphemia: Of good report. 

Eva: Same as Eve. 

Evangeline: Bringing glad news. 

Eve: Life. 

Evelina, or Eveline: Diminutive 
of Eva. 



Fanny: Diminutive of Frances, 

Faustina: Fortunate; lucky. 

Felicia: Happiness. 

Fidelia: Faithful. 

Flora: Flowers; goddess of flowers 

and spring. 
Florence: Blooming; flourishing. 
Frances: Feminine of Francis. 
Frederica: Feminine of Frederick 

Georgiana, or Georgina: Feminine 

of George. 
Geraldine: Feminine of Gerald. 
Gertrude: Spear-maiden. 
Grace or Gratia: Grace, favor. 
Griselda: Stone; heroine. 

Hannah: Same as Anna. 

Harriet, or Harriot: Feminine of 

Henry. 
Helen, or Helena: Light. 
Henrietta: Feminine diminutive 

of Henry. 
Hephzibah; My delight is in her. 
Heiter, or Hestha: Same as Esther. 
Hiiaria: Feminine of Hilary. 
Honora, or Honorfa: Honorable. 
Hortensia: A lady gardener. 
Huldah: A weasel. 

Ida: Happy. 
Inez: Same as Agnes. 
Irene: Peaceful. 

Isabel, or Isabella: Same as Eliza- 
beth. 

Jane, or Janet: Feminine of John. 
Jaqueline, Feminine of James. 
Jean, Jeanne, or Jeannette: Same 

as Jane or Joan. 
Jemima: A dove. 
Jerusha: Possessed, married. 
Joan, Joanna, Johanna: Feminine 

of John. 



FORB-NAMES OF WOMEN. 



Ill 



Josepha, or Josephine: Feminine 

of Joseph. 
Joyce: Sportive 
Judith: Praised. 
Julia: Feminine of Julius. 
Juliana: Feminine of Julian. 
Juliet: Diminutive of Julia. 
Justina: Feminine of Justin. 

Katharine, or Katherine: Same as 

Catharine. 
Keturah: Incense. 
Keziah: Cassia. 

Laura: A laurel. 

Laurinda: A variation of Laura. 

Lavinia: Of Latium. 

Leonora: Same as Eleanor. 

Letitia: Happiness. 

Leitice: A variation of Letitia. 

Lillian, or Lily: A lily. 

Lois: Good; desirable. 

Lorinda: A variation of Laurinda. 

Louisa, or Louise: Feminine of 
Louis. 

Lucia: Same as Lucy. 

Lucinda: Same as Lucy. 

Lucrece, or Lucretia: Gain; other- 
wise, light. 

Lucy: Feminine of Lucius. 

Lydia: A native of Lydia. 

Mabel: A contraction of Amabel. 
Madeline: French form of Magde- 

lene. 
Magdalene: A native of Magdala. 
Marcella: Feminine of Marcellus. 
Marcia: Feminine of Marcius. 
Margaret: A pearl. 
Maria: Same as Mary. 
Marianne: A compound of Mary 

and Anne. 

Marion: A French form of Mary. 



Martha: The ruler of the house; 
otherwise,sorrowful,melancholy. 

Mary: Bitter; otherwise, their re- 
bellion; or, star of the east. 

Mathilda, or Matilda: Mighty bat- 
tle-maid; heroine. 

Maud: A contraction of Matilda; 
or Madalene. 

May : Month of May ; or Mary. 

Mehetabel, Mehitabel: Benefited 
of God. 

Melicent: Sweet-singer ; otherwise 
working strength. 

Melissa: A bee. 

Mildred: Mild threatener. 

Miranda: Admirable. 

Miriam: Same as Mary. 

Myra: She who weeps or laments. 

Nancy: A familiar form of Anne. 
Nora: A contraction of Helenora; 
Honora; and of Leonora. 

Octavia: Feminine of Octavius. 
Olive, or Olivia: An olive. 
Ophelia: A serpent. 
Olympia: Heavenly. 

Paula, Paulina, or Pauline: Femi- 
nine of Paulus or Paul. 
Penelope: A weaver. 
Persis: A Persian woman. 
Phebe, or Phoebe: Pure, radiant_ 
Philippa: Feminine of Philip. 
Phillis, Phyllis: A green bough. 
Polly: A diminutive of Mary. 
Priscilla: Advanced in years. 
Prudence: In Latin Prudentia. 

Rachel: An ewe. 

Rebecca, or Rebekah: of enchant- 
ing beauty. 
Rhoda: A rose. 
Rosa: A rose. 



112 



FORE-NAMBS OP WOMEN. 



Rosabel, or Rosabella: A fair rose. 
Rosalia, or Rosalie: Little and 

blooming rose. 
Rosalind: Beautiful as a rose. 
Rosamond: Horse protection; or 

famous protection. 
Roxana: Dawn of day. 
Ruth: Beauty. 

Sabina: A Sabine woman. 

Sabrina: The river Severn. 

Salome: Peaceful. 

Salva: Safe. 

Sara, or Sarah, A princess. 

Selina: Parsley; otherwise moon 

Serina: Feminine of Serenus, or 

Sereno. 
Sibyl, or Sibylla: A prophetess. 
Sophia: Wisdom. 
Sophronia Of a sound mind. 
Stella: A star. 

Stephana: Feminine of Stephen. 
Susan, Susanna, or Susannah: A 



Tabitha: A gazelle. 
Theodora: Feminine of Theodore. 
Theodosia: The gift of God. 
Theresa: Carrying ears of corn. 
Thomasa, or Thomasine: Femi- 
nine of Thomas. 
Tryphena: Delicate; luxurious. 
Tryphosa: Luxurious, dainty. 

Ulica: Rich. 
Urania: Heavenly. 
Ursula: She-bear. 

Valeria: Feminine of Valerius. 
\ ictoria: Victory, or feminine of 

Victor. 
Viola: A violet. 
Virginia: Virgin; pure. 
Vivian: Lively ; cheerful. 
Wilhelmina: Feminine of Wilhelm, 

German form of William. 
Winifred: A lover of peace. 
Zenobia: Having life from Jupiter. 




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PATERNAL HEAD [ and^£aternal ] oF THE HOUSEHOT.T). 

My full name is : 



Place of mjj birth: 


Date of mil birth: 


School attended : 


Residence: Occupation: 



Positions held, traits of character, etc. 



*SS= Information of 

Place of my marriage: 


my forefathers given oa pasres B, D, F. 

Date of my mar ri ape: 


Full maiden namt 


of my wife : 






Place of her birth 






Date of her birth : 


School attended: 


Her attainments, traits of character 


etc.: 






j8S" Information of her forefathers g-iven on papes C, E, G. 


Christian Names of Our Children: 
1st Child: 


Full Names to Whom Married: 

Married to: 


Born: 


D'rd: 




Date of marriasre: 


2ndClnld: 






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Born: 


Died: 




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3rd Child: 






Married to: 


Born: 


Died: 




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4th Child 






.Married to: 


BorM- 


Piofi: 




Date of marriag-e: 


5th Cliild: 






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6th Child: 



Died: Date of marriage: 

Married to: 



Died: Date of marriage: 

fltyWhen married further information g-iven on pages H, I, J. 



B. 

MY PARENTS. 



My father's full name is: 




Place of his birth: 


Date of his birth : 


Residence: 


Occupation : 


Positions held, traits of character, etc. : 




Place of his death: 


Date of his death: 


Hber" laformation of his forefathers given on page D. 

Place of their marriage : Date of their marriage : 


Full maiden name of his wife: 


Place of her birth : 


Date of her birth: 


Her attainments, traits of character, etc.: 




Placeof her death: 


Date of her death : 


SS' Information of her forefathers given on page F. 


Christian Names of Their Children : 

1st Child: 


Full Names to Whom Married: 

Married to : 


Born: Died: 


Date of niarriaire: 


2nd Child: 


Married to: 


Born: Died: 


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Srd Child: 


.Varried to: 


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ith Child: 


Married to: 


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5th Child: 


Married to : 


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Date of marriage: 


6th Child: 


Married to: 


Born: Died: 


D-\te of marriage: 



c. 

MY WIFE'S PARENTS. 

My wife's father's full name is: 



Place of his birth: 




Bate of his birth: 


Residence: 




Occupation: 


Positions held, traits of character, etc: 






Place of his death 




Bate of his death: 


Mkm' Information of his forefathers g-iven on page E. 

Place of their marriage: Date of their marriage: 


Full maiden name 


of his wife: 




Place of her birth : 




Bate of her birth: 


Her attainments, traits of character, etc.: 




Place of her death 




Bate of her death: 


SS' luformatioti of her forefathers given on page G. 


Christian Names of Their Children : 

Jst Child: 


Full Names to Whom Married: 

Married to: 


Born: 


Died: 


Date of marriage: 


2nd Child: 




Married to : 


Born: 


Died: 


Date of marriage: 


3rd Child: 




Married to: 


Born: 


Died: 


Date of marriage: 


4th Child: 




Married to: 


Born: 


Died: 


Date of marriage: 


5th Child: 




Married to: 


Born: 


Died: 


Date of marriage: 


6th Child: 




Married to: 


Born: 


Died: 


Date of marriage: 



D. 

MY FATHER'S PARENTS. 

My Father's fathefs full name is: 



Place of /lis 


birth: 




Bate of his birth: 




Residence: 






Occupation: 




His father's 


full name was: 






His mother'' 


? full maiden 


name was: 






Place of his 


death: 




Date of his death: 




Place of their marriage : 




Date of their marriage: 




Full maiden 


name of his 


i'ife : 






Place of her birth : 




Date of her birth: 




Her fathefs 


full name iras: 






Her mother\ 


• full maiden 


name 7ras: 






Place of her death : 




Date of her death : 






Christian Names of Their Children : 


Full Names to Whom IVIarried: 

.Varried to: 




Born: 




Dlrd: 


Date of marriarr: 




2nd Child: 






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E. 

MY WIFE'S FATHER'S PARENTS. 

Ul wife's Father s father's full name is: 



^lare of his birth: 


Date of his birth: 


Residence: 


Occupation: 


Us father s full name jras: 


fis mother's full maiden name was: 


'lace of his death: 


Date of his death: 


'lace of their marriage: 


Date of their marriage: 


iUll maiden name of his irife: 


lace of her birth : 


Date of her birth: 


Jer father's full name was: 


ter mother's full maiden name was: 


'lace of her death: 


Date of her death: 




Christian Names of Their Children: 

st Child: 


Full Names to Whom Married : 

Married to: 


Born: Dipd: 


Date of marriaere: 


nd Child: 


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Born: Died: 


Dateof marriag-e: 


rd Child: 


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th Child: 


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th Child: 


Married to : 


Born: Died: 


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ih Child: 


Married to: 



Date of marriag-e: 



MY MOTHER'S PARENTS. 

My Mother's father's full name is: 



Place of his iirth : Date of his hirth . 



Residence: 

Ills father's full name was: 

His mothers full maiden name was: 

Place of his death: 

Place of their marriage : 

Full maiden name of his wife: 

Place of her birth : 

Her father's full name was: 

Her mother's full maiden name was: 

Place of her death : 



Occupation. 



Date of his death: 
Date of their marriage: 



Date of her birtli 



Date of tier death: 



Christian Names of Their Children : 
1st Child: 



Full Names to Whom Married : 

Ma Tried to: 



Died: 



Born: 

2nd Child: 

Born: Died: 

3rd Child: 

f Born: Died: 

ith Child: 

Born: Died: 

5th Child: 

Born: Died: 

6th Child: 

Born: Died: 



Date of niarriaere: 

Married to: 

Date of niarriag-e: 

Married to: 

Date of marriaere: 

Married to: 

Date of marriafre: 

Married to: 

Date of marriage: 

Married to: 

Date of niarriaere: 



G. 

MY WIFE'S MOTHER'S PARENTS. 

My wiffs Mothefsfaihef^^^^ 

^«^^.^^.^f^^!^.:: P^^i£^}iMi:!^.-. 

Residence: Occitj>aiion: 

Fis father s full name iras: 

I/is mother's full "''^'d^njamej''a^.:. 

Place olJils death: P.^li^I.]B.!!^!^!l:. 

Pla^.j^LlMLJ^^m^l!!'^.!. ML!!fJ^L^}^inSS^-. 

Full maiden name of his wife : 

mce of her birth: '. P^^^AJI^LMJ:^:.. 

Eer father' s fuU namejcas: 

Her mothers fall niaMe±namejvas: 

Place of her death :_ ; :R^^^.^.!^L^^^^I'-. 

Christian Names oTfheiTchildre.^ Full^mes to Whom Married: 
Jst Child: ^Hf'^'^.h- 

„ niorl- Date of marriage: 

Born: A:Ar.": 

2ndChild: :^<^lM:^f'.- 

„ Diprl- Dateof marriape: 

Born: .„.'.....: 

3rd Child: :^Eli^J''.!. 

Born: ...B"^^}. ?;>^teo_f marriage: 

m Child: ¥hu'^.1'>-. 

„ -niprl- Date of niarriatre: 

Born: A^."^: 

5th Child :_ ^^^^./?.:. 

„ niPfl- Date of marriage: 

Born: .r..°...: 

mcwdi r^^/:M.^^ 

B^jrn: Died: .P.?l^..?ln?5H.'M?.: 



RECORD OF MY - 

Ml/ th Child's full name is: 



H. 

-TH CPIILD'S MARRIAGE. 



Place of birth. • 


Date of birth: 


School attended: 


Residence: 


Occupation : 


Traits of character, etc-: 


Place of marriage : 


Date of marriage : 


Full name to whom married: 


Place of birth : 


Date of birth: 


School attended : 


R°sidence: 


Occupation: 


Traits of character, etc. : 


Father' s full name: 


Mother's full maiden name: 


■ 


Christian Names of Tlieir Children: 

1st Child: 


Full Names to Whom Married: 

Married to: 


Born: Died: 


Date of marriage: 


2nd Child: 


Married to : 


Born: Died: 


Date of marrtagre: 


3rd Child: 


Married to: 


Born: Died: 


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m. Child: 


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5th Child: 


Married to: 


Born: Died: 


Date of marriage: 


61h Child: 


Married to: 


Born: Died: 


Date of marriage: 



I. 

RECORD OF MY TH CHILD'S MARRIAGE 

My ih Child's full name is: 



Place of birth. • 






Bate of birth: 


School ati ended: 


Residence : 






Occupation : 


Traits of character. 


etc.: 






Place of marriage : 






Pate of marriage : 


Full name to whom 


married 






Place of birth: 






Bate of birth: 


School attended: 


Residence: 






Occupation: 


Traits of character. 


etc.: 






■Father' s full name: 


Mother's full maide 


1 name. 






Christian Names of Their Children : 

1st Child: 


Full Names to Whom Married: 

Married to : 


Born: 




Died: 


Date of marriag-e: 


2nd Child: 






Married to: 


Born: 




Died: 


Date of marriag-e: 


3rd Child: 






Married to: 


Born: 




Died: 


Dateof marriagre: 


Ath Child: 






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Born: 




Died: 


Date of marriage: 


5th Child: 






Married to : 


Born: 




Died: 


Date of marriage: 


6th Child: 






Married to: 



Date of marriage: 



RECORD OF MX - 

My th Child's full name is. 



-TH CHILD'S MARRIAGE, 



Place of birlh: 


Date of birth: 


School attended: 


Residence: 


Occupation: 


Traits of character, etc.: 


Place of marriage: 


Date of marriage : 


Full name to whom married: 



Place of birth : 
School attended: 



Date of birth. 



Residence: 




Occupation: 


Traits of character, etc. : 


Father's full name : 


Mother's full maiden name: 




Christian Names of Their Children : 

1st Child: 


Full Names to Whom Married: 

Married to: 


Born: 


Died: 


Date of marriace: 


2nd Child: 




Married to: 


Born: 


Died: 


Date of marriag-e: 


3rd Child: 




Married to: 


Born: 


Died: 


Date of marriaye: 


4ih Child: 




Married to: 


Born: 


Died: 


Date of niarriag-e: 


5th Child: 




Married to : 


Born: 


Died: 


Date of marriatre: 


6th Child: 




Married to: 


Born: 


Died: 


Date of marriagre: 



RECORD OF MY - 

My th Child's full name is: 



K. 

TH CHILD'S MARRIAGEo 



Place of birth. ■ 
School attended: 



Date of birth : 



Residence . 



Occupation . 



Traits of character, etc 



Place of marriage: 




Date of marriage: 


Full name to lohom married: 


Place of birth: 




Date of -birth: 


School attended: 


Residence: 




Occupation: 


Traits of character, etc. : 


Father's full name: 


Mother's full maiden name: 




Christian Names of Their Children: 

1st Child: 


Full Names to Whom iVIarried : 

Married to : 


Born: 


Died: 


Date of marriagre: 


2nd Child: 




Married to: 


Born: 


Died: 


Date of marriajre: 


3rd Child: 




Married to: 


Born: 


Died: 


Date of marriag-e: 


^th Child: 




Married to: 


Born: 


Died: 


Date of marriatre: 




'5th Child: 




Married to: 


Born: 


Died: 


Date of ttiarriag-e: 


6th Child: 




Married to: 



Born: Died: Date of marriage: 



NAMES ANB ADDRESSES OF RELATIVES 

OK OTHER FACTS WHICH SHOTJLD BE RECORDED. 



O^'^ 




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