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Hieroglyfically, EtymologicaHy, and Topo- 
graficaily Defined and Fixed, 

After the Method of an 




An Historical PrePace^ 

An Hicroglyfical Definition of Character S| 

. A C E L T I c General Grammar, 

[ A;-N D ^ '*• . \.. \ /\4 ■ ,v. 

Various other Matters of AntiquiTv; 
Treated of in a MET\i.p.p !E V t I'i si r \ Re W. 

By R O W L A N n' ^^t^bf^E S, Efq; , 

Of the I N N E |l H'^ii p £-.Ei:: '• : 
tick i^ tkt MotU itr J^2^i^^iAJi}^^'o(-}th^L'pxsL^of X^n\'i 
"* And God faid. Let us make man in our image, after onr liken«ls. Gen. i . id. 

So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created hi 
him, male and female created he them. Ver. 27. 

And the Lord formed man of the duft of the ground, and breathed into 
his noftrils the breath of life, and man became a living foul. Gen ii. 7. 

And but of the ground the Lord formed every beaft of the field, and ever/ 
bird of the air, and brought them unto Adam to fee what he wouidxaiL 
"them^ and what Adam called every living creature that was th^ name 
thereof. Vcr. 19. - 

Ulillv4ih0UfiA4Tk. \ 

^^pntci t)Cj[.;H t; o h s, near L i k c l n'sLI n n-F x e 1 6 9/ 
^<^^y:^^jJ^tl>< MPCCLXIV, 



mill " V»' I' '1 ' 

PR E F A G E. 

THE following fheets beihg taken from thd^firft rude 
draught of a work compiled during a fliort recefs from 
many years clofe application in bufinefs, will not, 
I am fenfible, appear before the public in a drefs or form fuit-^ 
able to the tafte of the learned and polite reader ; nor perhaps 
without other ihiperfedlion?, from its being uporf a plan and 
of a conltruftion intirely nev/. However I have ftill fome 
room t6 hope' that the nature and defign of the Work will in 
Tome mcafure atone for any fuch defeSs with the candid 
and judicious reader;. for an attempt towards reftoring and 
fixing the ancient language, origin, and antiquities of the Cel* 
tic nations will not, I imagine, at this time, be deemed of 
little concern or utility to the public. If I could fuppofe my-^ 
fclf more capable than the public of pointing out the ma- 
ny advantages accruing from a work of this nature, I might 
here give a detail thereof v but as tliat cannot be the cafe, I 
■ Ihall decline the unneceflaiy talk, and haften to the execu* 
tion of what I have undertaken ; hoping for the proteftiom 
of the public, fo far as the merit of the work will admit of; 
4md fubmitting it in general, to their opinion, whether thfc 
illuftrating, defining, and fixing the ancient language, origin 
and antiquities of the prifocial Cumbri, the gallant Galli and 
the primaeval Celtes, with natural precifion,wni not accumulate 
honour, glory and dignity upon the Cumbri-Galli-Celtcs, aid 
the operations of the human underftanding, and tend towards 
the advancement of learning in general, or at leaft to therefto^ 
ration of ancient knowledge ; and as the confufion of Ian*- 
guage was produftive of great diforders, difputes and difunion 
amongft mankind, it is to be hoped, that a ftep towards re- 
ftoring their ancient language and antiquities may be a means 
of reconciling and reuniting fuch of them at leaft, as have 
fprung from the fame root, and branched on the fame ftem, 
like the Cumbri-Galli-Celtes, who appear to be the fathers, or 
founders of the firft nations of Afia Minor, Greece, Italy, 
ancient Gaul, Germany, Britain, Ireland, and moft other 
countries of Eiirope. 

The work in which I have engaged being to in- 
Veftigate the ancient langiiage, as well as the origin and 

[ A 2 2 aadQ^\v\^^ 



antiquities of the CumbrirGalli-Cckcs, -ml ly iettJk 
me, in the firft ftep, to take a view of the d?' t notions 
and opinions, which have prevailed amonft mar* . touching 
the origin ofipcech. Human hmguagc has been confidered 
byibme, as nothing more than that of the Hottentots, wbich 
they fuppofed to be mere inarticulate founds j others, v^^ith 
Mr. Lock, imagined^ that it confifted only of mere arbitrary 
founds, without any conne<9ion with nature. The ancient 
Romans fancied the origin and progreflionof language, to bo 
the effoaof. chance, cipnv.eniency, or necefSty ; many of the an- 
cient Greeks have with the divine Plato conceived language 
to be from divine infpiration; to which opinion many Chri- 
ftians and 3JI Mahometan^ have adhered ; but the prevailing 
general opinion at this time, in the Chriftian world, feems to 
diflFcr from them all ; for though they in fomc meafure admit 
fpeech to he an immediate gift from God to the father'of man** 
kind, yet they affert that that gift was nothing more than 
making Adam fenfible of a power, with which he had been 
indued to form articulate founds, by which he might expreft 
his conceptions, but that God left the arbitrary impoution 
of tbofe founds to mankind 5 who have attained the ufe of 
fpeech, by a. gradual invention of arbitrary founds. As I have 
engaged in this work, to Ihew the original formation and 
conftruaion of language, I fli^l poftpone the making of 
any remarks -upon thofe points, till after I fhall have defined 
the nature and origin of language j to which end I fhall be- 
^in .with fliewing the nature and fignificancy of the Celtic 
4;hara£ters and letters. 

Of Letters and CharaSfers^ 

The chara&er and letter o, being the alpha and omega, and 
as the indefinite circle of time and fpace, comprehending all 
nature, as well as all chara<9(rs and letters, ilands foremoft ■ 
in ftiy alphabet. 'This charafter and letter in a more coiv- 
fined fenfe in the compofition of language, feems to be a par- 
ticle, reprefenting a globe, the fun, a wheel, &c. in a pri- 
mary fenfe, as the fliape and figure of the charafier has fonie 
affinity or likenefs to the objefts themfelves ; and in a fecon- 
dary fenfe, motion, heat, light, &c. as they are qualities be- 
longing to the feveral epcternaJ objefis which this charafler re-» 
presents j when it happens to be the only vowel in a particle 
or word, other letters are added to fliew ,what kind of o it 
ftands for, as in the Celtic word ol, all, the 1 is joined to ex- 
prefs it to be the o extended, which will be farther explained 
under the letter 1 ; but when an o ftands by itfelf, it is either 
an interjeftion or a prepofition, as o from> becaufe the fun i» 


5 if a^iAsmJM from us; o^ a note of admiratio n, becauiethe.' 
fUn is admirable; o i& alfo a note of abborriiig » which is the. 

I^ £ane as te fay move from or away ; but the more natural 

h found of this letter feems to be the note of admii 'ation, which 

y foand feema'to be peculiar to man, as if healo ne of all ani- 

tt maid was to look upwards, from a, which is the '■ firft natural 

e note of other animals ; and in the Celtic It ought to be found* 

^ ed like the Englifh and Latin a; the w ftanding . in the Celtic "' 

4 in the place of oo, ou, and the great o, and tht refore made 

- ufe of to exprefs every admirable being,, as God, • man, gni- 
g mals, and other exiilencos, as appears in the leXi- con. The 
Qi o alfo exprefies the number which comprehends a II numbers, . 
t and was fo formed from its containing the feveral.p.. vrts of the 

- creation, &c. as appears in the lexicon under thefev ^raL words 
D ^vhich make up and exprefs the feveral numbers to the num- 
II ber ten* 

i The letter i ftfends next in my alphabet, and whi ch by its > 

1 long ftroke reprefonts a line, and by the dot over it t he fun, or 

t light, that Is, length or a line to the utmoft bounds i of fight ; 

: it is therefore made ufe of to exprefs heigbth, fire, a nger, fap, 

! ftreightnefs, &c. as appears in the lexicon, and fis a line 

i reaching to, it alfo fbuids for the prepofition to, 2lt id for the 

i pronoun m^, as an upright figure like a man, a pofl, &c. It 

- ought to be founded like the Greek i, or the Englifh and La- 
: tin i in the prepofition in. Of this letter was comp ofed the 

Celtic vowel y, that is, ij, which therefore is an at tendant ^ 

upon i, and a letter of found only, but it enlarges the ex- 

pref&on and the found of the charadter i ; and though it has 

I two different founds, they are both long, and mofUy 11' ce the 

I u in the Englifh word hut, and fometimes like i in hi/jt, but 

[ never as the i in like. The confonant j *is no Celtic letter,. • 

but its found is articulated by the particle Ji, The letter i alfo 
• exprefies motion, as the firfl natural caufe of fire, though God 
alone may be faid to be the efficient caufe ; hence it came, to- 
, gether with its auxiliary y, to exprefs firft, one, the firft day's 
work at the creation, number one, &c, as appears in the 

The figure of the two charadlers a and e fhould be a, and €, and 
they feem to be nothing more than a divlfion of the glol3e o, 
or the elements of earth and water ; the a is inclofed by the 
long fti^ke, but the % is left open, refembling a double c, or 
a&ion, to rcprefent the water under the earth fpringing up- 
wards, and forming the water above the earth. The letter a 
' having the confonant r or r added to it, makes the Celtic dr^ 
earth, or the a, or the founding a \ for the t i^ a XviXXvix cA 

f A 3 ] toMtA 

" P R E F A C E. 

found only^ foj -med out of the letter p, with an s added as a 
tail to it, figni fying that it is a found upon p, which expreff^ 
things and par( cs, as will appear in the lexicon under the words 
Res, Peth, a Thing, Matter, &ۥ but the r may perhaps re- 
femble the m< >uth of an animal uttering found ; hence r ftands 
in the Celtic for the particle the, as what founds is and the i$ 
the fame as r m exiftinji thing or being. When a ftands alone 
it is a conjur i6(ion, and of the fame fignification as the Englifh 
andj and it < 3ught to be founded like the a in the Latin word 
iw/, or the I inglifli at, but when it requires a longer or graver 
found it ou ght to be circumflexed, as in the word ar^ other- 
wife it wjl) . be ar, upon, formed from ar, be^aufe we are up- 
on the eai :th, as in the word Ararat, which in t{ie language 
of Noe fij unifies returned upon earth, as it does in the Celtic, 
as compou jided of ar-dr-at. The e has alfo the letter x added 
to it, to c .xprefs the element of water, to which the letter b, 
fignifying life, being alfo prefixed, the Celtic word ;ber for 
fpring wa ter was formed ; er is alfo of the fame fignification 
as the En glifli prepofition for^ but of itfelf it is a privative 
letter, frt jqucntly an attendant upon a, but never to be put 
for y, th( ?, as in feme lexicons ; it ought to be founded in the 
Celtic li ke the Greek cpfilon, and the Latin and Englifh c, 
and the ? ifpirate h may be added to it when it happens to be 
the radic al letter, or requires a long found. 

The 'ietter c, as the half of o, fignifying motion, exprefles 
aftion, to which a being prefixed, the Celtic term ac was 
fbrmcc^i, to exprefs the adlion of a, or aftion in general upon the 
earth; wherefore moft Celtic words, efpecially thofe or acSUon 
or th'j verbs partake of this term, either in their radical or 
termiiiative parts, though the a be frequently dropped, more 
particularly when a vowel follows the c in coippounded words, 
tis in the word ci, chief or firft, which is a compound of ac-i, 
the aftion of i or the fun, that is, the firft motion j the c alfo I 
in many words appears as ch or ex, g or ng> which ^re it^ 
auxiliary confonants. The letter c, by virtue of thefe auxi- 
liary confonanis, varies aiid infiefts, fo as to exprefs the cafes, 
genders, numbers and perfons, as well as the founds of 
grammar, according to the pronoun or prepofitive particle j 
Jis for inftance, the word ci, fignifying a dog, probably from 
his being the firft animal brought before Adani to be named, 
(the words "n th^ text, to fee what Adam (hould call the 
hearts and I irds, fignifying to overfce, or in fome fort to in-. 
ftru6l) which in 'he nominative cafe fmgular is ci, and in the 
plural cwn, inflefts thus, i-chi, her dog, i-gi, his dog, and 
ty-ngi^ mydog} but gaft, ^ bitch, forpied from ci-af-it, it i^ 


a female d6g> drops the initial confonant in the cafes, as o^ 
aft, from a bitch, at-aft, to a bitch, and or-aft, out of a 
bitch i and though the Celtic in hB: needs but few gramma- 
tical rules, it may be proper here to obferve, that the varia* 
tion of the initial confonants are only betwixt thofe of the 
fame organ of pronunciation, as gutturals with gutturals, af- 
pirates with afpirates, dentals with dentals, labials with labi- 
als, and linguals with Unguals ; and that in the Celtic the 
figure of the charader invariably determines the found of the 
letter 3 but in many diale£^s of it the pronimciation varies fo 
as to change a confonant from one clafs into another. The 
g is an affiftant to c in expreffing the lower kind of a^lions, 
as birth, growth, &c. whence it was fhaped like a iheaf of 
corn, a bundle of faggots, &c. tied up at the piiddle. Tho 
found of c in the Celtic feems to have been formed from the 
cracking of any thing, it being always to be founded like a 
k, which is no Celtic letter, but the foft found of the c be- 
fore the vowels e and i inthe£ngli(h and Latin are in the 
Celtic exprefled by the letter f ; and its auxiliary confonants 
g, X, and ng, ought to be founded as follows, viz. g as g in 
the Enriifh word give, the x or ch like the Greek x, or the 
guttural and palatal luh in the words whirl, why and when, 
and the ng like the flowing particle eng, in the word Eng- 
land ; and though the character x has been made uf^ of in 
the lexicon in the Greek and Celtic for the ch or x, it (lands 
for and ought to be founded like the eh, the £ng)i(h wh, or 
the Greek xi or chi. 

The vowel u feems to be a compound of a double i, having 
the force of y, and a c, fignifying adion at the bottom, but 
open at the top, and without the dot of i, to exprefs that the 
action is to be infinitely upwards j whence it was made ufe of 
to exprefs up, heighth, one, univerfe, and invifible qualities and 
beings, as the double or uu does God, man, anirrial^ and be- 
ings J the u like th^ i in the Englifh word him ought always 
to be founded long, and the w like the Engliih oo, or as a 
ijote of admiration. 

The letter b is an i with a c or a<Sion at the bottom, and 
open at the top without a dot, {hewing it to be the a(5tion of 
i upwards, and not downwards, like the letter p, to expreft 
dead things or parts of matter ; whence the letter b exprelTes 
life, food, bread, beings, fpring, &c. as a confonant i it 
ought to be founded alike in all Celtic diale<fts ; it has m and 
f for its attendants or auxiliary corifonants, as in the iniledlion 
of the Celtic bara, bread, into fy-mara, my bread, and ith* 
fara, thy bread -, but b is fometimes an auxiliary of p, ^a in 

[ A 4 ] ^^^^ 


pctif an end, high end or a head, i-ben, to the end, ttid fy« 
liihen, my end or head. 

The letter d in its primary fi^nification is a privative one, 
2(5 hnvi v^ its a<S^ion reverfed of b, as if d and b had been an 
] and an o ptit together thus, db, and again divided into two 
equal pavts, the one to exprefs an affirmative and the other its 
negative ; whence this privative is made u(e of as a confbnaitt 
tt) exprefs God, darknefs, without^ nothing, and various 
Other ideas privative of action, lile, light or fight. It is 
Ibunded alike in all the Celtic diale£is> and it has dd and n 
for its auxiliaries, as ii\ diw, God, at-ddiw, to God, and fy- 
niw, my God ; the dd is to be founded like the th in /A# ; It 
a^fo infle£ls into th, which fhould be founded like th in tiie 
Englifliword with. 

The letter m or M, from its (hape, feems to reprefcnt hilk 
and daks, and the waves of the Tea, and as a coftfonant fcrves 
in compofition to exprefs earth, fea, about, mother, &c. in 
Jits primary fenfe, and in a fecond^ry fignification, death, 
greatnefs, dumbnefs, a mule, a wall, mountain, myriad. 
Sec. it has no particular found in th« Otitic, but it has the 
tetter f for ks auxiliary, whi^h in the Celtic fupplics the 
place of, and bfts a labial lif{»hg found like the Englifli and 
Latin vconfonant, which is rtq Celtic letter, and its inflexion 
is as from niam, mother, to i-fam, his mother. 
• The letter n feems to b« ar diminutive or negative of 
m, as d ifr to h, and fo it is made fife of in expreiTion, as in 
the wprds unfeen, not, heaven, night, a neft, &c. It has 
tto particular found in the Celtic, nor any variation, but it is 
an auxiliary of d and f, as appears under the explanation of 
tbefe letters. 

The letter r is an i without a dot, with a c at tlie top of 
if, (hewing it to be fliut or covered at the top, and that the 
action is downwards ; whence it is made ufe of in compofition 
toexprefs ihefky, the horizon, a temple, sl thatch, a cover- 
ing, and whatever refemUes them in any rcfpe^t between a, 
the earth, aijd t, the fky, as appears by the Celtic word n/, 
to, which is compounded of a, the earth and t, the fky, that 
is, from the earth to the Iky, and fo in many other parts of 
the lexicon, where this letter is more fully explained. The 
radical or initial t changes into d, p or nh, and th, as in tad, 
fiither, i-dad, his father, fy-nhad, my father, and i-thad, 
ber father. The th |lways founds like the Greek theti/, and 
the th in the Engliih wonl thin 3 but the t alone has no par- 
ticular found in the Celtic. 
The letter p is an i, with a c at the top, and the reverfe 


P R E F AC E. 

d( h^ tofhew ^at the a£tion b downwards, and that it is ibut 
up at tcqpi ; whence it is made ufe of as a diviTor of t, and 
tfacnbe expr efTea all parts or things under the fky, as are of 9 
more material and particular nature than what are exprefled by 
b'OTLT, as a part^ a particular thing or kind of matter, a 
pttir,' a perfoO) the end, bead, firft, how many, &c. but fee 
the IcxisoTi under the words Matter, Part, Thing, &c,tt 
chances in the initial thus, pen, the end, i-ben, to the end. 
fjr-mhen, my end, and i-phen, her end or head. It has n^ 

(particular found in the Celtic, and its variation into ph founds 
ike the Englifh f, as does the Celtic double fF in the word 
ffon, a ftick ; but the Celtic fmgle f has a labial lifping found 
like the Englifh '^nd Latin v confonant, as in fon, a^ftem, 
root or ftock, formed from the infleftion of the radical b6n, 
which infleds into mon and* fon, fo as to exprefs in a ftock, 
tmd ftmn a ftock, as does the radical Brigia, a country fo 
ealled^ into Mhrig;ia, in Brigia, and o-Frigia from Brigia ; 
tcftYie lois of thefe inflexions, and the want of gutturals, may 
in a great meafure be imputed the great confufion in lan-» 
guages, and the mrftakes of etymologifts in defining names ; 
* for inftance, Herodotus could not tell why the Briges were 
called Brigians or Phrygians, as they were in or out of a par- 
ticukr country. 

The character or letter l is compounded of the upright t 
to fliew length, and a plane or fi>perficial i or line, to fighify 
breadth ; it might have been made like a t reverfed, if the 
ijppofite fide of bodies, or all the parts of the globe had been 
vinble or difcovered* It feems to exprefs extenfpn, as in the 
Celtic words for fp^ce, place, lefs, a yard, the ground, the 
floor, a line, a breadth, an army, a family, a flock, &c. but 
a double 11, for the fake of the natural afpirate found, is 
made ufe of in the Celtic for the radical, which inflefts into 
the fofter found of the fingle 1, as in lie, a place, o-le, fronx 
a place, and i-le, to a place. The fingle 1 is founded like 
the liquid 1 in the words mula or mule, but the double 11 is to 
be founded like Ih, as if 1 was prefixed to the Englilh word 
hifs, and founded without the fs. 

The h is an afpirate compounded of i and s, and it ought to 
bft founded like the h in the Englilh word hifs \ and it may be 
made ufe of with an e to exprefs a long e, but a circumflex 
might anfwer that purpofe as well. 

The letter s or co is a letter of found, formed probably 
from the flowing motion of the waves of the fea, and founded 
Jike their hifling found; which in the Celtic is fio, and fi-au 
is the^found of water ; whence probably the word &2u. 

4 -w^ 

The K, Q^ V, X and z, being no Celtic letters, their 
fevcral founds are exprcffed by c, cw, f, cs, and f, and if the 
andcnt Romans had not the letters ff, g, k, q, x, y, and z, 
as fcems to be proved by Daufquius, how is it they had not 
their letters, as they are faid to have had their language and 
origin, from the Greeks, but of this elfewhere ; for I muft 
proceed next according to my plan, to explain the formation 
and fignificancy of particles, in order to confirm the explica- 
tion given of charadlers and letters, and farther to illuftrate 
the original compofition of the Celtic language. 

Of Particles. 

The orderly method and propriety in the compofition of 
the Celtic language farther appears in the following definition 
of the Celtic particles, viz. ab by inflexion from ap, is a com- 
pound of a-p, or a, the earth, to the top of p, the Iky j whence 
it became an expreffion for from, and an offspring or a fon ; 
and alfoas p is a divifor of a, it fignifies a part, a thing, &c* 
ac is explained under the charafter c, to fignify aidion; ad, for 
at, to, is a compound of a, the earth, and t, the (ky, that is, 
from the earth to the fky ; ag is the fame as ac 5 ah is an 
a high, or an interjeftion ; al is a extended, that is, upon,, 
or on a, the earth ; am is about, or the place or country 
about; an is a negative particle formed of a-ni, that is, a 
no, or negative ; ap is explained under ab ; ar is explained un- 
der the letter a ; as, is from a-s, that is, a merely founded, 
which fignifies low ; at is defined under the particle ad \ au, 
in a fecondary fenfe, is water, but primarily from a-q, a 
fpring out of a, the earth ; eb, without, from the privative 
c and b, life; eg is the fame as ag, or a, in aftiop, or the 
earth growth, as under the word moots \ el out of or below 
extcnfion, or the furface of the earth j em is the fame as ym, 
which fee in the lexicon ; en is ancient, heaven, &c. being an e 
negative or unfeen ; er is from e, water, and r, the ; es is 
low, as the water is deep or low ; et is the fame as yet, and, 
&c. that is, from e to t ; eu is from e-u, water fpringing up ; 
ib is atranipofition of hi, and fignifies a termination, as the 
rcvcrfe of b ; ic is the fame as ig; id is the fame as the Greek 
verb ideo, to fee, and it is a compound of i-di, an adiion priva- 
tive or unfeen, thereby cxpreffing the internal fight or thought ; 
but fee di ; ig is i-g, or i, in aftion, as fire, heat, &c. il is 
1 extended at the dot of i, fignifying light in its primary fenfe ; 
im is a privative particle, or i mute or dead ; in is a negative 
particle, or i negative, tho' n is made ufe of as a pofitive 
rrz/jfonant to exprtfs heaven and all invifible beings or ex- 


P R E F. A C E. 

iftences $ ir is the founding i, or the founding fire, of the fire, 
fpr what founds is ; hence this particle is made ufe of in com- : 
pofition to exprefs fire, heat, anger, &c. it or ith is from the 
verb id by infleiStion ; iu from i-u, is the fpringing i, whence, 
it is made ufe of in compofition to exprefs adlion, as will be 
fhewn in this preface, when the verb]^ come to be explained ;. 
ob for ap is from the part ; och is the fame as the interjection 
ohj or oh fie, as appears in the lexicon ; od is the fame as os^ 
if, and it is a compound of o-id, as ' os is from Orfi, both fig- 
nifying it is ffoin, or it is action ; oe is the a£lioh of e, water^ 
to which an r being added, makes the Celtic oer, cold ; og is 
great, probably from the aiStion of o, the fun; oi is. the o 
bigh, bv way of a note of admiration ; ol is after, and com* 
pounded of o-il, from the light, a perfon walking after another 
jbeing out of the light ; on or oni is if not ; op is from the 
part; or is a border from o-r, the o or circle; os is explained 
lender od ; ub is the fame as up, foftened by inflection, 
is a compound of u-p, a fpringing to p or the (ky ; iix it 
higher, or the adion of u ; ud in a fecondary fenfei is the 
fowling of animals, from u-id, it is the animal ; ye or fe 
comes by inflexion from the Celtic be in ber, fpring water; 
yrhence the Latin ycr, a fpring ; ufF or huff is from u-cf, he" 
i& high or bold ; ug is the fame as ux, higher ; ui is from w-i> 
the man or animal is high ; ul is fometimes ufed for ux, high- 
er, that is 1 or extenfion at the top of the fpringing u ; um is - 
u mute or dumb ; un is from u-n, an u negative, that is, no 
fpring or a£tion, and therefore ufed in compofition as a nega- 
tive particle, but in the Celtic it likewife exprefles one, as has 
been defined in the lexicon ; ur or wr an animal or being, as 
ail ox, man, or a being of a fuperior nature ; us from u-fi, it 
fprings, or it is a fpringing thing ; vrhence in the Celtic it 
is made ufe of as an expreffion for chaff, as ud is from u-id, of 
the fame fignification, and both thefe terms alfo fignify grow- 
ing corn ; wy or uy is an egg, from w-y, the animal ; ba is 
from bi-a, the earth animals, and fignifies alfo the cry or 
calling of (heep ; fee the word Bala in the hiftorical part of 
the lexicon ; be in its moft general fenfe is the fame as pe, a 
part, from whence it comes by inflection ; but it may be ob- 
ferved here, that the e has no other fignification in this par- 
ticle, than to give the letter p a proper found, as will appear 
in the lexicon, where the letter p is explained, as fignifying a 
part, a thing, &c, without the addition of any vowel, and it 
further appears that this letter exifted before language ; hi figni- 
fies life, food, being, &c. that is, an active b ; bo tho' frequently 
ftanding as a radical particle, the vowd a is to be uaderftood 


trpftibcedtheretb, as in htt^y ai ftem, which is a compound of 
afat-ioay from Ion, or Japhot, a;nd Boi, the Bodans or Bavarians^ 
wh0 at firft were fettled with, and a part of the Cumbri of 
ItsAy^ is compounded of ab-io,- from Japhet, or the fons of 
Japnet ; whence the Celtic bonedd for nobility \ it alfo ftands 
for an anima), by a contraction of bi-i;^ ; ca is to furnound or 
inclofe the earth, and it alfa transfers itfelf in Compofition int<> 
ce, to keep or to fhut ; ci has been already explained under' 
the letter c ; co, tho' ftanding in words as a particle^ is a 
oOAtradion. of cau, to fhut or inelofe^ or of ci-u, men or 
animals together; but an a or ac is to be underftbod to be 
pr^xod to fignify aftion ; cu or cy fignifies together or firft^. 
2a has been already explained ; da^is good, from id-a, it is the' 
earth ;. de is an attendant on da, to expiefs the numbers, &C.. 
k is ■ alfo an afTiftant to the privative di, which is from d-i, 
WkhoutafUbn ; feed explained ; du is dark, from the privative 
di. It being not very material here toexplahl the particles 
fkfrmed with the letter fF or f, I (hall only dbferve thereupon, 
fhtft it is one of the letters that fprings from the radical con- 
fbniiints^ as if God Almighty had indued Adam with the 
knowledj^e of the radicals, with a power of infle£Kng them, 
fo as toincreafe his language, as his underftanding {hould from 
experience be inlarged ; the letter g is likeSKrife an attendant 
upon c, whereby words have been greatly multiplied, as in the 
word' genii which is from ag-in, afting in or to be borne ; ha 
isaninterjeilion of rejoicing, formed of hi-a; from the earth 5 
h is alfo an afpirate to the letter e, as in heb, without, but e 
being a privative letter, it fliould not be made ufe of with an 
h onl/, toexprefs a pofitive thing, as in theEnglifli word he^ 
which ought to be hi ; it is alfo joined as a confonant with an 
i^ to exprefs heigh th, whence high ; ho is an inteijeftion of 
Cillingv from hi-o, from high or far ; and which fenfe it re- 
tains as a particle in compofition, as all other inteijedions do 
when joined in compofition ; hence it appears that interjcc- 
tfons make up a confiderablepart of our language ; hu or hi is 
high or bold ; la is al tranfpofed, and in its primary fenfc fig- 
niftes high, up, above, &c. as in law, a hand, from al or la-w., 
a man's upper part ; but in a fecondary fignification it means 
powerful, ftrong, &c. le, a place, is from 1, extenfion, and 
the privitive e to give it a proper foiind, fo that this letter and 
thtf p may be called vowels as well as confonants ; liis alfo a 
tranfpofitkm of il, a particle formed of i-1, or i extended, fig- 
nifying Ugfat, or the rays of light ; whence it came to be made 
ufe of -io exprefs a multitude, a nation, army, &c. and 
from thence again in a f<!Condary fenfe, it is made ufe of 
io exprefs sl gicdt powtjr, ftrcngth, force, &.c* \o ^ffA.^ 



le as ludoeslitf ae ^pear^ in the ile^^icon ; miUatxa^^^ 
fition of am, aJt6ut,i)r th^ country orpl^oe ahout^ frojn whjenor 
it became an e3^p]f^$on for mother M the Celtic, ibe being tb# 
t:arth of animaU^ as pater and ^its inflexion &ther, ace p^it 
«arth, in their primary fenfe -, mis fignifies mi or i, as e is ahau 
jtendant upon i, mi as an auxiliary to a, it alfo fignifies poC- 
feflion; mo is frequently a negati.v.e particle, as being cpmpf>ie4 
pf am-o, out of pofloffion or exiftence; mudor myd, tKqm,»anii^ 
iignifies thatit is m^ mute orjuj^ibj n^ is not^ or a negati^j>aiti- 
c&, compofedof ni-iij, no earth or matter ^ ne is heaven^ probably 
from in-e, ^ privative exiftence^ or a place unf^^n; 'but £3^ 
the lexicon.; ni is alfo a negative particle formed of in-i, upon 
i, that is, out of light ; but fee the lexicon for another e^pU- 
nation ; no is freijuehtly made ufe of as na, but it is a GOfBrr 
pound of in-o, oiit of exiftcnc.e; pa is a part, froo) p*^^- $l 
part of the earth ; pe is the famc^ from p-e, part of the water j 
pi is a point, or p high ; po is ap-o, from the fun ; and there- 
fore as in the Celtic^ poeth, it exprefies heat ; for po^tb is a 
compound of po-ith, it is heat, or from the fun, id iafieAing 
into ith, or eth ; and pu and py affift pi, as in pur, purq, which 
is a compound of ap-ir, from the iire« 

Of V^bs. 

Having thus (hewn the formation of particles of two let' 
4ers, by way of a fpecimen, it feems fuffiipient to refer tbtf 
^reader to the lexicon for farther explanation of particles, iyi«- 
lables, and words ; but in order to render the wodc n^ore ier^ 
vicoable, I iball proceed on in this place to explain the Cel-" 
tic grammatically, as well as rsitionally; and firft of the 
.irerbs or word^ of a6lion contained in the Celtic .bnguage. 
The ancient Celtic language has only the following vearbs 
or words of aftion ; except thofe formed of fubftantives iii 
€onjun6tion therewith, namely ac, which has been already ex.-^ 
plained, as fignifying the a6tion of a, the earthy that is, aSioa 
in general, c being a part of o, which exprefles motion, &Qm 
■the fun's motion, &c« ai or hai afpirated, that is^ from a, 

the earth, to the top of i, and in Wales they ftiU.cry outbai, 
,and in England hie, \n. the action of driving c^ttle^ .&£• 

whence the Celtic acth, he went ; id is a verb fignifying : it is, 
.it feems or it is feen ; iu has been already explained^as.iigni^ 

fying the fpringing i, or i aAive ; idiu is alfo a verb comt- 
. pounded of id and iu ; mae is alfo a verb formed from am«-ai, 

fignifying it is about or in adlion ; o alfo moves in.exprjflioA 

as a wheel does upon the ground, as appears in the lexicon; 

fi>in the Celtic fignifies it is, it feems, or it founds, and was 

formed from the hifling found of the waves, therein exprefs- 


> R £ F A C fi. 

ing exiftences from found, as id does from feeing ; but it muft 
be here obferved, that there are no verbs, words, ol^^xpref-^ 
lions formed agreeable to the nature of fmell, tafte, and feel-^ 
ing, but thefe fenfations are exprefled by words framed fronl 
external objefts ; nor are colours exprefled any otherwife thaii 
by a different privation of the general term light, Thofe the 
grammarians would call irregular verbs ; but by being joined to 
tiouns, pronouns, prepofitions. Sec, they form all the verbs in 
the Celtic language, and all its dialers, as un, one, makes 
lino, to unite j cyd, together, makes cydio, to join together 9 
egin, (hoots of corn, occ makes egino, to fhoot up ; glan, 
clean, makes glanhai to cleanfe ; ub, up, with an ax, for an ac 
prefixed, niakes axub, to fave or fupport, the particle verb ac, 
changing bjr inflexion from ac into ag, ax, and ang, therein 
anfwering (everal of the rules of grammar. 

0/ the Celtic Cafes. 

The cafes in the Celtic are alfo formed by the inflexion of 
the confonants, as ty, a houle, or fy-nhy, my houfe, make 
i-di, to a houfe, o-dy, from a houfe, and yn-ty, in the 

Of the Numbers. 

The numbers of nouns are exprefled either by numerals, or 
with an addition of fome of the above-mentioned verbs by way 
of a termination to the noun fingular, where it is neither 
anomal, as guartheg, cattle, or want the fmgular number, 
as tad, father, and ty, a houfe, make tad-au, and tai in the 
plural, by adding au and ai ; cyn, a wedge, makes cynion, by 
adding the i-o-n^ the high firmament o, or the fun ; lef, a 
voice, makes llefoedd, and lief, a place, makes llefydd, from 
the verb id, by infle£iion of the d into dd, whence alfo 
the plural terminations od and edd j ag, eg, og, and ach are 
alfo made plural figns from the inflexion of the verb ac ; the 
plural is alfo formed by changing the a into e, its auxiliary, as 
cafegintocefig, or ei, as march, a horfe, intomeirch; an^ 
there are many other figns of the plural number formed from 
changing the radical vowel into its auxiliary vowel, as a into 
e, which may be feen in the lexicon 5 and many of the Celtic 
nouns being formed in the plural number, un, yn, or en, fig'- 
nifjring one, were added to form the fmgular number > 
but as it feems unneceflary for me here to obferve any far- 
ther upon this head, I (hall go on to explain the genders of 


Of the GendiTs. 

!T\tQf there may. he found five genders of nouns in the Celtic 
asin the Latin, yet theyfeemto me to be more properly reduci- 
ble to the mafculine and feminine dnly ; diftinguifliabie by the 
feminine gender. having the particle as ores fignifying lels 
or loweft, and (bmctimes the diminutive particle en for a 
termination ; and alfo where the radical mutable confonant> hav^ 
ing the particle y fet before it, changes into one of its auxilia- 
ry, confonants, as dynas a woman, iformed of dyn, a man, 
and as, lower, which not only ends in as, but having a y fet 
before it, it alfoinfle&s into y-ddynas, the woman. 

Of jldjeSlives. 

Nouns adje£tive are formed by adding to the fubftantive the 
following particles, viz. aid or aidd, gar, ig, lid, og and us, 
as ofn, fear, makes ofnus, fearful \ glaw, rain, makes glawog, 
rainy ; dyfr, the plural of dwr, water, makes dyfrlyd, wa- 
tery 5 fwrn, a furnace, makes firnig, fierce ^ gatael, a hold, 
makes gafaelgar, holding faft or ftickling ; morwyn, a maid, 
makes morwynaidd, maiden-like, and arian, filv^r, makes 
arianaidd, belonging to filver ; but thefe terminations are in 
fa£l nothing more than the abovementioned particle verbs, add- 
ed to the iubilantives by way of a termination, in order to 
exprefs adtion, inftead of being prefixed as they are to the nouns 
fot forming of verbs. The genders of nouns adje<Slive are 
ma&uline and feminine, the former is the noun in its radical 
jSate, but the latter is the fame word changed from its radical 
confonant into the auxiliary one, as da, good, into ddai 
and alio by changing the radical vowel into an auxiliary or pri- 
vative ohe, as i into e, in the word melin yellow, into melen, the 
feminine gender ; as to the numbers of nouns adje(Slive, they 
feem to have been formed in the fame manner exadtly as the 
noun fubftantives ; and with refped to the comparifon of ad- 
jeftives, melyn the pofitive degree, forms the comparative, by 
the addition of ux or ax, higher, making it melynach, an^ 
which in the fuperlative is melynaf, by the addition of the 

{^article af ; which probably is from a-fi, out of fight ; ifel, 
ow, is, lower, and ifaf, lowefl; and uxel, high, ux, higher, 
and uxaf, higheftj cyn, chief, and mdr, great, alfo exprei^ 
the degrees. 

Of Pronouns. 

^ Tbo' the pronouns are explained in the lexicon, and oujght 
in tbe Celtic to be looked upon as nouns, it may not be im- 


ptcperherc to give a fpccimen thereof, according to gfam^ 
inatical rules, as follows, viz. perfonal pronouns are mi, ni| 
ti, xwi, ef and h¥rynt, that Is, I, we, thou, you,'he, and 
they; the demonftratives are hwn, hon, hwnw, bono and 
hynu, that is$ this (male), this (female), this (diing), ' tiiat 
(man), dbat (woman), and that (thing). Th« pofibflnw^ 
.arefy,my^ or mine; dy, thy, or thine ; ei, his, or hor ; eia, 
our ; eu, their ; and eiddo, one's own ; which anfwer ^1 the 
pofieffives ; the interrogatives are pwy^ who ? and pa, whut ? 
the rdatives are yr hw^, yr hon, yv byn,yr un, andyr h|u, 
.that is, he who, flic who, that or that thing, the one^ and 
whofo or they that ; aiid the derivativBa feem tofiemiicltdte 
fame as the perfonals. 

Of th^ J^ticliS. ; , . 

The articles are y or yr, ihe^ inftead of which fome authonf' 
have errojieoufly made ufc of e and et ; y commonly preccdqs'U 
confonant, and yr, a vowel, bi^t the y is frequently cut dfF Vf 
zn apoftrophe, as the relative pronoun jfhzip for yr-hal. ' ' ^ ' 

Of Adverbs^ 

The adverbs are to be met with in the lexicon, of trhidl 
there are feveral forts, as thofe of place, yma, here, yna, there, 
and draw, yonder ; of time, as y-bore^ in the morning, y*fbnif 
to-morrow, and doe, yefterday ; of order, as yn-gyntaf^ jnrx- 
ail, yn-drydydd, yn-olaf, that is, chiefly or firft of all, ftccmtt 
ly, thirdly, and laftly j of alking, as pam, "why ? of odlm^ 
as o or hai, ho ; of denying, as na, ni or nid, not j of sS 
firming, as do, ie and felly, for yes, and it is fo; of fwearlng, ai 
myn-diw, by God ; of exhorting, as iddo,into it, atto, to blm^ 
ami arno, upon him ; of choofeing, as gwell, better j of for- 
bidding, as . na, do not ; of gathering, as cyd^ together j rf 
doubting, as agatfydd, ond-odid, perhaps, or by chance ; of 
warning, as dyd, hah or take care j of wifliing, as o-na-ba^ 
o that there were ; of feparation, as* ar-wahan, feparately j 
of diverfity, as amgen, on the contrary ; of vehemency, as 
rhy, too much ; of fliewing, as wele, lo or behold ; of quan- 
tity, as llawer, much, and yxydig, little ; of comparifon, at 
cyn, before; of likenefs, as felly or fal, like ; of explaining^ 
as fef, that is to fay ; and of interje£Uon^, as ha, hai^ ho^ hwi^ 
o, ox, hoho, gwae, &c. 

Of Conjun£ftoM^ 

The conjunAions are copulatives, as a or ae, and | na or 
liac»iior; and hefyd^ alfo, or likewife ; disjun^ves^ a^ai or 

I» r'E F A C E. 

]Wu, or; difcrct?ves, as er, though, eithr, but ot ixcept; 
tsSusiy as cau^ and gan, whereas, and becaufe ; conditionals, 
as o or OS, if i adverfativcs, . as er, oreifoes, neverthclefs 5 ex- 
cept! ves, as oni, if not ; eleftivcs, as no or il^, neither or 
iior ; intertogatives, as a, ai, oni, and onid, is it) or is it not ; 
:md redditives, as etto, and er hytiy^ yet or ftill. 

Cf Prepofiiions, 

The prepofitions are of two forts, viz. fuch ds afe fet in ap- 
pofition or feparable prepofitions, as am-^arian, for money, and 
tfaofethat are joined to and inseparable from the word, as 
anigylxU, to mrround ; as the \i&. fort may be all found in the 
lexicon, it will be unnecelEiry here to take any notice of them ; 
but it may be proper to give a fpecimeii of the former, as fol- 
lows, o or or, of or from \ at or i^ to ; yn or mewn, in j er or 
am, for \ wrth, by ; h'cb, without ; tros, over ; trwy^ thro* i 
cjXiy before ; drach, behind ; erbyn, againft ; ger, near to ; 
ux, above; is, under ; ofewn, within; oddiallan, without; 
oblegid, becaufe of; oflaeh, before ; ogulx, about; o'rtuol^ 
behind, or befide ; rhag, before; tu-ag-at, towards, and tu* 
ag-at-am, as concerning. 

Of Syntax. 

Syntax or the rules of conftruftion of words into fentcnces 
having nothing peculiar inuhe Celtic, befides what have beeri 
already explamed on the different parts of fpeech ; and the 
conjugations of verbs agreeing with tlie Englifh, I haveoirtit- 
ed alfthe other rules as unneceflary and tedious, being well 
affured that the propereft, if not the only method of attaining 
a perfea knowledge of the Celtic is from converfation, or 
reading the bible, whole duty of manor fome other Wdfli 
books, which may be had in the Englifh language ; nor does 
the Celtic or any uncomipt language need many grammati* 
cal rules ; but the chief bufinefs of grammars, is to ^d and 
fupply defefls and imperfedions in languages* 

Of Points. 

ITie points in grammar, which divide fentences into mem- 
bers and periods, commonly fuppofcd to be four, fcem to ms 
to be only three, namely a comma (,), a colon (;), which 
others call a femicolon, and a period (.). The term comma, 
from aiu-am, fignifies to fhut about or to inclofe, and the 
dharafler feems to be a c reverfed of the fame fignification 1 
the colon is probably from the Celtic calyn, to follow, per- 
tops from the figure, to follow the aftion towards a period, 

[B] ^^ 


or the dot of i, fignifying the fan, or a pure perfc£l ^d full 
action, when a 'flop muft necefiarily follow. Befides all na- 
tural adlions feem to confift of three parts, as when we bug^j 
we thrice exclaim the interje£lion ho; the firftkind of notes in 
mufic were the daftyl, confifting of three notes, called fcct,^ be- 
caul'e accompanied with the lo pceaii or round o dance, which 
confiftcd of three feet or fteps ; and as language ought to be 
a juft reprefentation of nature, fo a full aSion or a fentence 
ought to co^Uain three parts- 

Of the Origin of Numbers. 

The Celtic ^lethod of numeration are explained in the lexir 
con, as framed from the fix days creation^ and other parts QJ[ 
nature, a^ follows^viz. un, one, from the univerfeor all things; 
dau, tvy^p, from id-au, it is the water; tri, three,, from a ^fMitf? 
pofitior^ of ^he ^dtic tjr, land or earth; pedwar, four, frqn) pr 
id-o-ir, th^y a|fe the parts of the luminaries, that is, , the fi^ 
moon ^ud ftftrs^ which were the work of the fourth dayj ^yrja^ 
|iv«, frpm p-an\-p, the things in the parts of the woj^ld, wh^ 
cxprefl^s, the fiftn day's creation, namely fifhes and bir^Jri 
xwex, fix, from ox-w-ex, the a6tion of man and anirx^iiIS) . eaft: 
prefles the fixth day's creation, viz. man and animals ; faitS, 
feven, is from fa-ith, it is ftanding, or fa-aith, a<£i:ion ftandii^ 
ftill, which was the day after the creation or the ieventhday; 
wyth, eight, is from xwith wind; nau, nine, is from en-ay^ttic 
ficy or firmament water, that is, rain ; deg, ten, is from id^JS^ 
it is a heat or hjre, that is, fair weather. 

Of the Origin of Speech. 

... As in the coyrfe of this work, I have fhewn the origin;^ 

ean, and co^iftruiSion ofc human fpeech to be intelligent, regur 
r and r^itional, as the nature and qualities of fubftanccsi 
modes and relations of general fubjeds, are reprefented by ge- 
neral figns, either figuratively or orderly as the refpefliive in- 
vifible qualities center in hieroglyficalobjedfe, and thofe agai|[ 
abflradled and divided by circumftantial negative or priva- 
tive particles, agreeable to the order of nature, in its forma- 
tion out of the nrft elements, I fliall here only obferve in ge- 
neral, that it has been the opinion of the wifeft part of man- 
kind, that Adam was furniihed with a fcheme of language by- 
God himfelf i that this feems to be implyed by that pafiage 
of fcripture, wherein God is faid to have brougnt the beafts 
and birds before Adam, to. fee, or perhaps to overfee what 
he would call them, and by Adam's giving names to the feve- 
ral parts of nature agreeable to the property and qualities ther^- 

' " of. 

1» ft E F A C E, 

t>4 and ay the deity appears to have made ufe of a form of 
ipeech, previous to the formation of Adam, in giving names 
to the fcveral parts of the creation, which indeed feem to 
Comprehend the genera of human fpeech, and as man is faid 
to have beea- made after God's own image and . in his own. 
likenefs, I think that language ought not to be confidered as 
mere arbitrary founds, or any thing lefs than a part, at leaft^ 
of that living foul, which God is foid to have biiathed into 
man ; and though the organs of parrots and other birds are 
capable of articulate founds, they utter them only when the'y 
are taught, and that without any conception of what they 
txprefs- J eife their progrefe in language would have advan- 
ced, fo for as was neceffary for their own prefervation and con- 
Veniency ; nor can the: fagacity of the owl, whofe opticks 
aire adapted to fee beft in the dark, or the inftind of other, 
brute animals, wherein they ape l)uman nature, be any ob-. 
je^ion to the divine origin of language ; neither is it con- 
cdveablc that the human fqul, a portion of the univerl'al fpi- 
rit, could of itfelf modify or frame abftraft ideas or their 
figiis^ or thojfe of mixed modcsjand relations, without a pre- 
vious modTfication or interpofition of the deity i and thgfe 
primary ilgns tranfmitted from Adam amongft his poilerity, 
and preferved at all times in fome comer of the world, where- 
by fuch as once loft their language at Babel, might again re- 
cover a rational fcheme of fpeech. It is alfo remarkable, that 
man of all animals in the expreHion of joy and admiration 
makes ufe of the o, which fignifies eternity ; but other , ani- 
mals feem to found the letter a, fignifying the earth ; man 
alfo is upright, with his countenance towards heaven ; but 
beafts look downwards upon the earth, as if their utmoft 
joy and pleafure centered there. Befidcs all nature, according 
to the pfalmift, declares this handy work of providence, even 
the dull iheep, though perhaps infenfibly, calls out ba, which 
fignifies an earthly animal. 

Of- the firji Language* 
There have been many nations, who have put in their claim 
for the honour of the firft language ; and though the Hebrew, 
Arabic, Chaldee, Syriac, Armenian, Chincfe, Greek, 
Swedifh^ Coptic, Teutonic and Celtic have had their 
advocates, the Celtic feems to me to fupport the claim ^itb 
the beft proof. Hiftorians are of late generally agreed, from 
fome paffiiges in Ezekiel and Jeremiah, Jofephus, Berofus, Bo- 
chart and others, that the Cimbri, Gauis, Celies and Germans 
are the defccnclants of Gomer and liis eldeft fon Afkenas ; 
•' [B 2 J >«\isX^ 


whofe firft fettlcmcnts were in Phrygia. This fa£l feems to 
be confirmed in the lexicon, under the name Japhet ; where 
the names mentioned in Genefis, as of the fons and grUnd- 
fons of Noe, appear to be defcriptive of the firft nations and 
their fettlements in Afia Minor, Thrace and Peloponnefus ; 
and there are many other paflages in fcripture tending to prove, 
that thofe people inhabited the vireficrn parts, ftiled in fcrip^ < 
ture the ifles of the Gentiles, that is, the ifles or countries of 
the firft or moft ancient nations, according to the Celtic defi- 
nition of the terms. About 700 years before the incarnation of 
our Saviour, Pfammeticus king of Egypt, who had contended 
with all the world for this preference, was at laft obliged to yidd 
to the Phrygians, according to Herodotus, 1. 2. after pfOi- 
curing two infants to b^ brought up in a folitary cottage, 
where none were permitted to fpeak in their hearing, and their 
uttering the word bekos or bicos, which appeared to be a 
Phrygian term for bread; and as this term is ftill made'ufe 
of by the children in Wales, when they call for crum- 
bled bread and milk, fomc regard ought from thence to be 
had to the ancient tradition of the Weifh, being defcended 
from the Trojans or Phrygians, and that their language it the 
fame as that firft fpoken in Phrygia. There are many an- 
cient authors, who confirm this point of antiquity, as Arif- 
totle, who admits that the Greeks had their letters and learn- 
ing from the Gauls ; Wolfang, Lazius from the report df 
Marccllinus fays, that the Greek letters were fiurft brought to 
Athens from the Druids ; and Plato in Cratylo owns that 
the Greeks borrowed many words from the Phrygians, as 
pur, fire, ydor, water, and cynas, dogs 5 Monfieur Pezron and 
Mr. Sherringham have produced many Greek and Roman 
names, which are definable only in the Celtic, in ordier 
to prove that the Greeks and Romans borrowed their lah- 
^age from the Ccltes and Cifalpine Gauls, as Clodiui^ from 
* dod, praife, Cinna, an ancient chief, Caelius from ceki, hidden 
ahd divine, Cornelius, Drufus, Livia, Sylla, Saturn, &c. 
and as moft of the ancient names of perfons and places, both 
; of Afia and Europe, as well thofe before as thoie after the 
cbnfufion of language, are defined in this lexicon ; confidering 
alfo the peculiar frame and conftruAion of the Celtic, its re- 
tention of the original charafters, founds, and manner of com- 
pofition, and its independency of all other languages, there 
feems to be no room to doubt its being the firft fpeech of 
mankind ; unlefs fome Afiatic or other language (hould appear 
to have the like perfeftion, which neither the learned Bocnart 
nctr any other antiquary come to my knowledge have ae yet 


P R E F A G E. 

been able to ihew. Tbis ieems to account for that remark*. 
able pafTage quoted by Mr. Cambden out of Giraldus Cam- 
brenfea of an* ancient gentleman of Wales aflerting with fome 
confidence, before Henry IL that though his preparations a- 
gainft the Welfli were great, yet that he fhould not prevail, 
C nor fhould any other language o r nation anfwer at the laft 
i great day for the greater part of this corner of the world. It 
may Luther be observed from the learned and honeft Mr.Sher- 
rhigham and othiers, that Britain was unknown to the an- 
cient Greeks, that the Britifh language is the fame as the 
ancfient. Phrygian language, which was the parent of the 
Greek* and that the Saxons as well as the Cumbri came from 

Of the antediluvian TVorU^ by way of IntroduSIIon to the 
biflorical Connexion. 

Having fimflied what I propofed in refpcfl to language, I 
a0W proceed to examine into the origin and antiquities ofna* 
tions, in order to connefl the lexicon with hiftorical fads ; 
and by way of introduction to the poftdiluvian affairs, it may 
be proper here to make fome few remarks on the flate of 
mankind in the antediluvian world. It feems pretty clear, 
without a commentary, from the firfl chapter of Genefis, 
wherein the divine majefly is mentioned, as faying, " Let us 

- ** tooAis man in our own image and after our own likenefs, and 
** let them have dominion over the other creatures, and that 
♦* he had made man after his own image;" Gen. ii. 7, 
where God is faid '^ to have formed man from the dufk of the 
*^ earth, and to have breathed into his noftrils the breath of 
*' life;" and from the fignificancy of the antediluvian names 
mid numbers, as defined in this lexicon, that Adam was in-* 
dued with an underftanding capable of giving names to men, 
animals and things agreeable to the nature thereof; and was 

. pofTefTed of a method of numeration, formed from the mofl ma-^ 
terial occurrences of the firfl ten days o£ the world. This capaci- 
ty and judgment God himfelf farther pronounces in the third 
of Genefis ver. 22. by faying, that man was become to know 
good and evil like the deity ; and though Adan^ bad fin^ied 
he had been puniflied and pardoned, and the worfhip of the 
true God feems to haye continued by the facrifices of Cain 
and Abel, . till a fccond defection from God by the fall of 

. Cain ; who probably by way of punifhment for h}s crim^ was 
fuffered to continue a vagabond from the worfhip of the true 

■ God^ till the time of Enos ; when mankind again began to call 
OIK the name of the Lord, according to. Gen. iv. 26^ Th^ 

[B 3] ^^^-^x. 


great iength of man's age in the firft world, alio enable hiflf 
to make a greater progrefs in arts and iciences than the poft« 
diluvians ; uiilefs Adam communicated his knowledge to Me- 
thufalem, or fome other of his defcendants, and fo on to Noe, 
Japhct, Gomcr and the fucceeding Druids, who mi^t have 
arrived in Italy, Gaul and Britain, before the death of Go- 
mer. As to their religion and government, they are bcft guefr 
fed at from the praSice of the firft patriarchs and Druid$, 
Japhet himfelF being a Druid, and probably the iame ^ the 
Jupiter of the Heathens. 

Of the Deluge. 

After perufing many theories or conjeftures touching tfa^ 
cairfe and manner of the deluge of . Noe, formed from natu- 
ral caufes, traditions and heathen writers, I am at laft obliged 
to recur to the place from whence I fet out, namely, the 6th 
chap, of Gen. wherein it is faid that God, looking upon the 
earth as corrupt, told Noe, that the end of all fiefh was come, 
and that he would deftroy them with the earth ; that he 
would bring a flood of waters upon the earth, to deftroy all 
flefti, wherein was the breath of life from under heaven \ and 
that every thing that was in the earth fhouJd die, and every 
living fubftance that he had made he would deftroy from off 
the face of the earth ; that the waters in confequence thereof 
prevailed exceedingly upon the earth, and all the hills under 
heaven were covered ; fifteen cubits upwards did the waters 
prevail, the mountains were covered, and all flefli died that 
moved upon the earth, both man and animals, except Noe 
and thofe with him in the ark. Here we are informed of the 
univerfality of the deluge, which feems to be the moft mate- 
rial circumftance relative thereto ; this univerfality alfo ap- 
pears from the vifible effe<fts thereof ; as craggy rocks, gutts 
and dingles in the tops of the higheft mountains, adjacent foft; 
and earthy bottoms, and trees, nuts, pebbles and fliells ly- 
ing at a great depth under ground ; all caufed by the violent 
retreat of the waters. Hence it feems pretty clear, that we 
are all the defcendants of Noe as the facred hiftorian has 
informed us, the reft of the world having periflied by the 

Of the rejitng place of the Ark. 

The deluge being abated, the ark refted according to 
Gen. viii. upon the mountains of Ararat ; which according to 
Sir Walter Rawleigh, Goropius Becanus, and others, means 
Ao particular mountain; and fo it appears from the Celtic defini^ 


P R E Fi A C B: 

tftftt of dife ttrtn ; i^irhteh 'fignifies returned upbn earth ; Pcz- 
iM indeed iiti^gmed that^ though this term had puzzled Bo— 
thkfti ^t^m^ant Armenia ; but as the Celtic explains that term 
tb fignify a hilly coutttryi he muft have formed that notion 
fr<5tai the 'cohcut-rent teftimony of the feveral hiftorians quo- 
ttJd by Bo€hart, to prove that the ark refted upon mount 
Xdululf tjr Mafis in Armenia, under which runs the Araxes,- 
which in the Celtic fignifids below the ark } and where is alfo 
fituat^ the plain Araxene, fignify ing the country of the an- 
cient ark. Hence rejefting the Sybilline vcrfes, which plac- 
ed the ark in Phrygia, and fuch hiftorians as fixed it on the 
Garduchi mountains, or the Caucaftis, it feems moft probable 
tiiatMof^s did not mean by Ararat any particular hill of that 
2iame$ and that Noe's ark refted on mount Taurus or Mafis in 
Armenia ; which very well anfwers Mofes defcription of the 
migration towards Babylon or Shendr, as will be fhewn here- 

. 0/ the jirft Pajfefftons and Settlements before the Confufion 
and Difperfjon, 

In confequeiice of the inveftiture of the fons of Noe with 
Ae poffeflion and dominion of the earth by God himfelf ac- 
cording to the feven firft veirfes of the 9th chap, of Gen. their 
firft fettlements were in Araxene or the plains of Ararat, 
where they^ began to cultivate the earth 5 and from whence 
according to the names of places Shem and Cham fpread, a? 
tl^ey mcreafed eaftward along the banks of the Araxes, and 
fouthward on the eaftern banks of the Euphrates, fo as to 
occupy moft of the country lying between the two rivers, 
enft and north of Shindr or Babylon ; where they arrived af- 
ter a flow migration or fojournment of 400 years ; but Ja- 
phet with his family, except Madai, who remained behind, 
fettled at firft upon the weftern bank of the Euphrates, and 
from thence migrated along the coafts of the Euxine and Me- 
diterranean feas, and very probably had extended their borders 
over Afia Minor into Europe before the coitfufion of fpeech. 
Thus were the ifles of the Gentiles firft divided amongft the 
iiations and families of Japhet, according to Gen. x. 5; 
and as to their dwelling in the tents of Shem, which were the 
other parts of Afia, as the poflTeffions of Cham were in Afri- 
ca, that prophecy feems to have been chiefly verified by the 
migrations and conquefts, of the fons of Madai eaftward up- 
on Shem'^ pofterity, and afterwards thofe*of the Greeks snd 
Romans ; who alfo made the pofterity of Cham their fer-* 
vantsf, agreeable to Genefis ix ; but the enlarging of J^i^jVvct 

[ B 4 ] i<^^TGA 


ftens to fdate to all future acquiiitions, as the Weft IiuUc^"- 
&c. but it does not appear that Noe either had a right to giYO 
or did give away the new world amongft his children ;• or that 
he did any more than prophetically foretell what would be 
the lot of his fons, upon the indignity or injury done him by 
Cham ; for God himfelf, as appears by the 7 firft verfes oS 
Gen. ix. had before in veiled Noe's fons with the pofleffioQ 
and dominion of all the earth, and ver. 19 exprefsly lays that 
by Shem, Ham and japhet was the whole earth overfpread ; 
chap, X. 32. fajrs, that amongft them was the earth divid- 
ed after the flood, and chap. xv. 13 and 14. chap. xxii» 
ic. Numb, xxxii. 20. Dcuteron. chap. ii. 9> chap. iii. 
JO. chap, xxxii. A£b xvii. 26. and many other places in- 
Cbripture, clearly ihew that our times, poUe^ns and limits 
upon earth were affigned us by God. 

Of the Building and Confufan of BaheL 

l Tt is not very material where the ark refted, or whpre the 
firft fettlements were, if it be true that there was a fpreading 
eaftward before the fojournment towards Babylon men- 
tioned by Mofes, as moft probably there was from their not 
Inching Shinar till 400 years after the flood ; and if the firft 
fettlements are rightly fixed in the lexicon under the names 
Japhet, Shem and Cham, as they fcem to be according to fevc-. 
jral hiftorians colle£l:ed by Bpchart, it is very probably that 
many of Japhet's defendants had founded the kingdoms of 
Troy and Sicyon, and fettled in Europe before the confufion 
and difperfion at Babel ; the name of Troy, as compounded of 
t!re-io, fignifying the town of lo or Japhet, that of Javan the 
fTace of lo,and tnofe of Sicyon, Panonia, and many other names 
ftew that they were founded by Japhet himfelf, and that his 
l>prders extended into Hungary. However Nif^rod, wbofe 
niatne, from nim-rad, fignifies no grace, arriving at Shiniror 
iheS ancient land, miftrufiing God's prom ife of not deftroying 
jhe world a fecon4 time by water, and being fond of power 
^hd dominion, contrary to God's command in Gen. ix. r, 
for replenifliing the earth, perfuaded a great multitude to 
aflemble at Shinar in order to ereft a kingdom, with a famous 
tower, to preyent their being fcattered abroad upon theiace 
of the earth} upon which the divine majefty .thought proper 
tb go down and confound their language, fo that they might 
not underftand one another, or go on in building the tower j 
Whence it wa6 called Babel, that is, a confufion, or calling 
oiit like the noife of iheep ^ which was probably effected by the 
terrible appearance of the divine majefty in thunder and lightr 

4 ^"^» 

PR E F A C E; 

9uig».aod:by the tumbling down of the tower i ib that the Lord 
(catiered them upoa die face of the earth ; and though the 
earth was then of one lan^ge^ it does not appear that all 
mankind were prefent at this tranraAion ; . nor is it probabk 
^ajt after 400 years population they could all fubiift upoft 
one fpot» or Chat^the defendants of Japhet, who never mix'-* 
ed with the race of Shem or Cham^ and amongft whom the 
ifles of ti)e Gentiles had been divided, would have quitted 
the pofl^ons which God had allotted them to follow th* 
l;ribp ofNmrod.into a ftrange country;, but what tends moft- 
ly to prove that the Celtic received no adteration at Babel, is ita 
pecfedly retaining the firft frame and conftru£lion, and its de«- 
^ing all ancient names of perfons and places, before the 
confiifion, in Co natural, clear and ratiohd a mamier, as if 
thofe names w^re originally Celtic, without torturing either 
the fenfe or found ; which all other languages feem incapa* 
ble of. I may farther add as to the time of the confufioit*. 
that die names of the fons of Jocktan appear to be the firft 
dut are indefinable by the Celtic ; whence it may be pre*, 
fumed that they were the firft names that partook of the 
confufion, Mofes like a good and an honeft hiftorian» having 
made ufe of the fame names and appellations of perfpns and 
places as had been given them by the people themfelves i thiv 
rule fl^ould have been purfued by all other hiftorians. 

Of thefrji fettUments of Noe*s defcendants. afier the Coi^Jmi 

Though the |irft fettlements of Noe's defcendants feem to 
l)e fu^Eiciently fixed in the lexicon under the names of Japhctg 
Shem and Cham, it may not be improper here to fee how thia 
matter ftands upon the foot of hiftory. The facred hiftoriaa 
I^Us ns, in Genefis x. 5. that bv Japhet and his defcendants 
were the ifles of the Gentiles, tnat is, of the firft nation, di-< 
vided in their lands, every one after his tongue, after their fa- 
Oiilies, in their nations, as he does in another place as to the 
race of his brethren, whofe pofleffions, as appears from fun* 
dry hiftorians colle<aed by Bochart, were Alia eaftward of 
the Euphrates, and Africa, except what had been allotted to 
Madai» If the facred fcripture has thus fixed the general li- 
mits of the fons of Noe refpedlively, it would be very abfurd 
to feek for any of the defcendants of Shem and Cham within 
the general boundaries or limits of Japhet, more cft^ecially as 
Mq]^ has exprefly declared, that the families or lefier nations 
dwelt within the borders of the head nation ; and if it be true 
according to Jofephus, Bochart,* and fundry other hiftorians, 
jgeograpbers axid divines, that by the ifles c^ the Gentiles was 

P R E F A C Er 

m^tsmt Europe, it from thence muft fcdlow, that Gom^r At 
h» bonds firll fetdements were weftward 6f Media, To as to to 
at liberty to fsSs into £urope ; and Ei^ekid, chap. ickvS.- 
3txxviii. and xxxix. after mentioning Magog, Mefliech and* 
Tuba], as fettled together in the north quarters near thoie Aft 
dwelt in the ifles, probably meaning Gomer and hi^ defcend*' 
ants, Gomer and his bands are inentioned as dvrelling ilorA 
df Judea, and as having a trade to Tyre ; and Aftehas his feny 
who muft have been feated within the father's limits, is ilidb- 
tioned in Jeremiah li. 27. as fettled weftwar^ of Armenia | 
sbid the names of feveral places alfo fix Aikenas on the Eux^ 
ine fea. Riphath, 'I'ogarmah and Javan^ with their defceiid*' 
^nts, are placed by Jofephus, Bocbart and others, in the fiUnft 
parts of Afia Minor as they are in the iexicon<< Magogs Meu- 
ihech and Tubal they have fent together by mount CaucafuB 
into Ruffia, Tiras into Thrace, and Madai they left in Media. 
This origin, Pliny, Ifidore, and others confirm, and they 
further teltify, that the Gauls, Celtes and Cirnbri are defend-' 
ed from Gomer. It is farther agreed, that the inhabitants of 
Wales are, as the name Walfli expreffes them to be, defcerid* 
ti from the Gauls, and the / at this time know themfelves by 
BO Other name than Cymbri, or their language by any other 
flian Cymbraee ; and as they ftill continue to fpeak a language 
which will define all European languages, as well as the An- 
cient names of perfons and places, preferable to any other lan- 
guage, the people of Wales and their language ftill remain 
Eving witneffes of this part of antiquity. It is alfo reftiark- 
ible, that the bible makes mcnti'^n only of two nations or di- 
vifions of mankind in a religious view, namely, Jews ahd 
Gentiles, as in Ifaiah xi. 10. it is faid, that there fliould be » 
toot of *Jefle, which fliould ftand for an enfign of the people, 
and to it the Gentiles fliould fcek, and his reft fliould bfe glo- 
rious ; in chap. xlix. 6. Chrift is faid to be a light to the Gen- 
tiles to the end of time ; chap. Ix. 1. the glory of the church 
is promifed to the Gentiles abundantly -, chap. Ixii. that the 
Gentiles fliould fee his righteoufnefs, and that their church" 
fliould continue to the end ; Afls xiii. 46. fays, that it was 
ntceflary the word fliould be firft fpoken to the Jews, but they 
would then turn to the Gentiles, according to the Lord's com- 
mand, which when they heard they were glad and rlorified 
God; and Romans ii. 14, 15. mentions, that the Gentiles 
had the law in their nature, and did it. Tertullian alfo afTerts, 
that the Druids prepared the Britciis to receive the gofpcl. By 
the Jews are to be underftood the people of Judea, who were 
a mixt race of Shtm arid Cham 3 and by the Gentile*, the 




Sfft luthm, or tiie ddcehdants of Gomer, who were fihialnl 
weftward of the Euphrates in Afia and Europe. Hence thofe 
who placed the firft fetttements of the Celtes and Cumhri ia 
die eaflem parts of Afia, behind the Medes and Perfians, and 
in Scytfaia, as having pafTed uito Europe betwixt the Cafpiaa 
^nd Euxine feas by mount Caucafus, inftead of the Thraciaa 
Bofph(»:us, and by the way of Greece, appear to be much 
iniftaken ; and though fuch of them as went by the name of 
Ce!to-Sc)rth5 might have mixed with the Scythians in their 
firft migrations in Europe, along the Euxine coaft towards tho 
Palus Meotis and the borders of Scythia, it feems very clear 
^on 9uicient hiflpry, that the founders and firft planters <£ 
Greece, Italy, ancient Gaul, Britain and Ireland, pafled out 
of Aiia into Europe^ over die Thracian Bofphorus, and thio* 

Of ihi general limits of the Briges, Celtes or Cumbri. 

The leered hiilorian having declared that the feveral families 
or petty nations bad been fixed within the limits of the head 
QX chief nation^ it feems yery proper, before I begin to trace 
^ origin and migrations of particular nations, to endeavour 
to fix the general limits of the Briges, Celtes and Cymbrin 
who are generally allowed by ancient hiftorians and geogra- 
phers to be the founders of Gaul, Germany, Britain, and 
other countries of Europe* In order to which, I {haU firft 
take notice of fome of the various names by which they have 
been known in the feveral countries which they inhabited. As 
they were the defcendants of Japhet, they went at firft in Afia 
Minor, by the names of lones, Maeones and Trojans ; as they 
iacreafed and' multiplied, the eldeft branch of lonians, who 
were the elder defcendants of Gomer, as he was the eldeft fon 
of Japhet, aflumed the name of Briges, fignifying the firft 
nation, or the firft born; Javan's pofterity continued the name 
of Jones, till they aflumed thofe of Greeks and Helenes ; as 
did Corner's younger branches that of Maeones, or the great 
lonians, until they took upon thenifelves the name of Teuto- 
nes, as they were the defcendants of Gomer or Mercury, who 
conduced them into Germany, where they were fixed. Th« 
Briges alfo, forming themfelves into civil focieties, building 
cities, and dividing their countries into combs or comots, af» 
fumed the name of Cumbri or Cumbriges,. as appears from the 
names of their ancient cities in Afia and Europe, from the 
tanks of the Euphrates tp the moft weftern parts of Europe ; 
they were alfo called Gentiles, from the Celtic gunta-li, fig- 
nifying U^e firft nation 3 Briges ftill continuing the common 

2 ?c^^O\?iX\Qxv 


14)pelIatioii of the Ccltes and Cimbri ; but fuch of the Brige^ 
IS led paftoral lives, and hid themfelves in wood^ and ccSs^ 
as appears from the names of cells, woods, and places in Bri* 
tain and Ireland, as well as from the names themfelves, wcce- 
diftinguifhed by the names of Celtcs, Celdberi, Nemetse suaA. 
Demetae, fignifying that they had no fixed pofleffions, and hi4 
tiiemielves in cells, woods, and other hidden places, thoup^ 
within the limits of the Cimibriges, who always lived in cittes 
mnd regular focieties i but to fuch of them as intermixed witk 
the Scythians in the earlieft ages were given the names of 
Celto-oc3fths and Nomades. The Phrygians were aftcrwanb 
called Galli.and Galatians, on account of their valour 3 -aq4 
'various other names and appellations have been given to, ^ 
taken by them during their migrations in Eurcme, as the Biir 
cantes in Spain, Gaul, Germany, Britain and Irdiand, whi(;)i 
from bri-gunta, fignifies the iirft or foremoft Brigei) they bcr 
ing the firft or foremoft pofieflfors of thefe countries, and the 
Allo-briges, or the hilly Briges; but more of this matter 
when I come to confider of the feveral particular migratioiw 
in Europe. It appears from ancient hiftorians and geogra- 
phers, that thofe people were the fame, and that their naur^ei 
and language have been fixed all over Afia Minor and Europe^ 
as far as the borders of Scythia, of whom I will here inftanoe 
4 ftw, as Ezekiel xxvii. and xxviii. Jofephus Antiq. I. i. c 7. 
Bochart's Phaleg, 1. iii. c. 10. who fix the Gomeri or Cum- 
bri in the moft weftern parts of Afia Minor. That the Go- 
meri were from Gomer may be feen from Euffait. com. Ifidore,^ 
Origen, Hieron, Tradit, Zonaras, Bede, and others j He- 
rodotus, I. vi. and vii. mentions the Briges in Macedonia wi 
Thraoe, and that their chief city was Mefumbria in TbracCs, 
where Aey attacked Cyrus's army. Bochart has coUedied.a 
great many authors to prove that the Gomeri and Cumbri were 
Ae fame people ; and Hefychius, Pliny, and the fcholiafts of 
Ariftophanes (hew, that the Gomeri were alfo called Cerbed, 
and their country Cumerium Cerberion as well asCumerium; 
that the Umbri or Cumbri were the Aborigines of Italy, that 
they were of a Gaulifh original, that their language difFerjed 
but little from the Eolic dialed of the Greek, and that the 
Celtes, Gauls, Cimbri, Sabines and Aborigines were one and 
the fame people, appears from Catp in princip. origin, Servius 
in ^neid/I. 8. and 11, Dion. Hal. 1. i. Plin. nat. hift. 1. 3. 
c. 14. Solinus from Boch. c. 8. Ifidore, bifhop of Seville, 
origin. 1. 9. Tetzes Scholiaft 199. Pomp, Feftus, Varro, 
Strabo, Florus, Juftin, Jofephus and Bochajt^s Thaieg, 1, 3, 
akd Sacf « Gecgr. 1. 1^ Lycophron, Fliny> Strabo^ Euitathius, 


p R E F A e Ei: 

Servms and others have placed a colony of the Curh^ri 
in Italy; Caefar and Tacitus fay that there was an aiicicrit 
tradition that the Brigantes were the' Aborigines, and 
that they came into Britain from the oppofite coaft of 
Gaul, and the names Aborigines feem to have been given 
to the Briges by the Romans, who very reafonably conceived 
that the name Briges was formed from the Latin ab-origine, 
andfi£;niiied from the beginning; Caefar 1. i. c. 4. mentions 
the Allobriges and Latobriges as pofiefTed of a confiderable part 
of ancient Gaul ; Jofephus and Zonaras fay that the Gauls 
were formerly called Gomeri ; Cicero called the Gauls defeated 
by Marius, Cimbri ; on the fhield of Belus their gciijeral was 
wrote Beleos Cimbros; Lucan calls the perfon employed 
to kill Marius, a Cimbrian, and Livy mentions him t6 
be a G$ul ; the perfon whom Virgil in his Catalefts ftilcs 
the Brttifli Thucydides, Quintilian calls a Cimbrian; 
Pliny and Keinerius Reinecius fay that the Gauls and Cim- 
bri fpoke the fame language ; Appian in his Ulyrics fays, the 
Ccltes were called Cumbri, and fpoke the Cumbri language 5 
AeGaJatians of Afia Minor fpoke the fame language as 3iat 
fpoken at Treves, according to St. Jerome ; Otho Frifingenfis 
fa)rs, that a race of Cumbri fettled at the mouth of the Drave; 
Procopius de hello Goth, fays, that Britain was inhabited by 
the Frifians ; Bede, that thecrigantes were the firft inhabitants 
of Britain ; and that the Gauls or G^latians were a different poe- 
ple from the Scythians appears from Florus, Livy, Juftin, Po- 
lybius and Appian. But what makes this point ftill clearer is, 
that it appears from Davies, Llwyd, Lewis, Rowlands, Ed- 
•vrards,Williams, Sherringham, Pezron, Hicks, Wotton, Bullet 
and others, as well as from this lexicon, that the Celtic or 
Welihis the mother language of moft parf nf Fnmpff^ t^af 
It defines all ancient names'of perfons and places, and that 
the WeMh people, who continue to fpeak this language in 
great perfeSion, call themfelves Cumbri ; nor do the illite- 
rate in Wales at this time know the meaning of the tcrrtis 
Wales or WeJfti, which were given them by the Saxons, on 
account of their preferving the ancient Gaulifli or Wau- 
lifti dialed. And that ail the Celtic words contained in tijis 
lexicon are ftill to be found in the living language of Wales, 
mav be made appear, by examining a native of Carnarvonfhire 
or Merionethfliire, ignorant of every other language ; there- 
bymaking ufe of P&mmeticus experiment a fecond time, to 
prove t hat the ancient Brigiaiis. nowBritains, are the firft and 
moft ancient- nafinn ttpnn i>iirfh But left any fhould ftill 
fincy the Celtic vocables contained in this lexicon to be oC 

/ ; f,^: P R E F A C ^. ^ 

f r 

. r 

a Greek or Latin origina], they fhould confider the antiquity 
of the Celtic, that me Greek and Latin hiftorians thcmfclvc* 
own, that they borrowed a great part of their languages from 
the Gauts, of whom the Latins muft have had fucn parta 
of their language as differs from the Greek ; its defining the 
names of ancient pcrfons and places fbews it to be the fiift 
language of Afia Minor, Greece, Italy, ancient Gaul, Ger- 
many and Britain ; and that they were acquainted with the 
Roman and not with the Greek chanuSiers appears from Caefafs 
Comm. 1.-4. c. 48. where he fays, that ne had fent a |ett«r 
to Cicero, wrote in the Greek charafters, left by its being 
intercepted, his councils fhould be made known totheene* 
my ; nor had they any fuch intercourfe with the Greeks, as 
to form their language from the Greek j neither doth it fi) 
nearly agree with the Latin^ or the more modern Greek 
dialed, as the moft ancient ; but what feems fully to fettle 
this matter is the original regular and intelligent frame jaao 
conflrudlion of the language itfelf, as to cbarafters, letters^ 
vocables and fyntax, which are ftill preferved by the Welfh^ 
without any deviation from the primitive charaSers, letters or 
founds, whereas the Greek and Latin primitives abound witk 
modern charadlers as well as founds, and they have been alfofo 
refined, as to have lofl a great many of the primitive founds, 
whereof a judicious impartial reader will be fully convinced on 
a deliberate perufal of the lexicon ; he may from thence, witl^r 
out any further afliftance from hiflory, alfo conclude the Celtic 
to be the firft laiiguage of Europe, and the motlier of thfc 
Greek, Latin, German, and mofl other languages of Eor 
rope, and confequently the people themfelves to be defcended 
from the Celtes and Cumbri ; but it may be alfo proved from 
hiflory, that the more northern parts of Europe, up to the 
borders of Scythia, were firfl colonized from the fouthern part 
of Gaul and Britain 3 more efpecially from the fea coafts of 
Armorica, to theremotefl corner of Jutland, and all the coun- 
tries lying on this fide of the Hercynian foreft. 

Thus far I had proceeded, when I fent out propofals for 
publifhing this work, with confiderable hiftorical additions, in 
two volumes in quarto, wherein I fhould have attempted to 
explain and illuflrate the particular migrations and antiquities 
of every nation defcended from the Celtes and Cumbri, agree- 
able to the firfl: fcheme of providence in the divifion of the 
earth, whereby the people who have' gone by the names 
of Saxons, Angli, Norman, German, and others, would 
have appeared to be flill dwelling within the limits of the 
Celtes and Cunibri, according to Gen. x, 5, and 32. with- 



out any intermixture with other nations, except the P&osnli* 
cians. Moors and Carthaginians in Spain, the Hunns in Hun-^ 
gary, and the ftraggling Celto-Scythians or Nomades ten 
wards the borders of Scythia ; but not being fufHcien^y in- 
demnified as to expences, I have fent out this fmaller work, in 
hopes of engaging Tome abler pens and purfes than mine, in 
the hiftory of the Cumbri Galli Celtes, And tho' I have 
furniihed myfelf with feveral abftradls from the hiftorians and 
geographers, mentioned at the end of this preface, yet as the 
Welih have fo perfectly preferved their language and pedigree, 
and they were alfo pofleiTed of many ancient traditions con* 
cernins their origin, reh'gion, governihent and affairs, which 
are ftiUpreferved in the writings of their ancient bards, which 
may be met with in the hands of feveral families in England 
ana Wales, I thought that thefe writings ought to be con- 
fulted before any thing be farther attempted towards illuftrating 
the Celtic aiFairs and antiquities ; perhaps fome further aid 
ihay be had from the Scots, Irifh, and Gallic manufcripts ; 
aha as the druids and bai;ds when they were drove from their 
ancient feat in Britain, fettled atlaft in Denmark and Norway, 
fome helps might be expefted from thence. But I hope that it 
fufficientiy appears from this work, that the prefent inhabt- 
tants of the Britifh ifles, which are a part of the country ca]lc4 
in fcripture the ifles of the Gentiles, are the defcendants a» 
well as inheritors of th^ ancient Phrygians, who appear to be 
the people ftiled Gentiles inlfaiah xi. lO. and alfo the foun- 
ders of ancient Gaul and the Britifh ifles, and who, without 
doubt, under the direftion of providence, will remain in pof- . 
feflion of their refpe<9:ive allotments, until his reft fliall be 
glorious, not merely in an ecclefiaftical fenfe, bat before the 
end of time ^ fo then, as in Romans ix. i6. " it is not of him 
•* that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that Chew- 
*' eth mercy." 


The Anthers before referred unta^ with the times in which they 


15th Century fTl H E feveral books of the old tcftament 
before Chrift. J^ wrote by Mofes. 

9th Cent. Homer's Iliad. Hefiod's Theognis. Diftis Cre- 
tenfis de bello Trojano. Apollodorus bibliotheca. Orpheus 
hymns on the Titans^ and the Sybilline verfes. 

8th Cent. Ifaiih, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel. 

5th Cent. Herodotus nine hiftorical books, and Thucy- . 
dides hiftoria Graecorum. 

4th Cent. Plato in Cratylo. Ariftotle demundo, and Jofeph 
Ben Gorion. 

3d Cent. Berofus de antiq. regnorum totius orbis, and 
Xcnophon's expedition of Cyrus. 

2d Cent. Polybius de rebus Graecorum, Romanorum, Pae- 
noruiti et Celtarum. 

ift Cent. Alexander Polyhiftor. Diodorus Siculus biblio- 
theca univerfalis hiftoriae. Virgil's -/Eneid, Caefar's Com- 
mentaries. Dionyfius Halicamafus Roman antiquities, 
Cicero de natura deorum et divinatione. Strabo's geogra- 
phy. Livy. Ovid's Metamorphofes. Trogus Pompeius in 
epitome by Juftin. Phornutus de natura deorum, and Dio- 
nyfius orbis defcriptio. 

ril Cent, of Chrift. Jofephus Jewifli antiquities, wars, 
&c. Julius Solinushiftory from Bocchus. Pliny's natural hiftory. 
Tacitus of the Roman annals, the German cuftoms, and 
life of Agricola. Quintus Curtius de rebus Alexandri 
Magni. Lucan's Pharfalia, or of the wars between Caefar 
and Pompey. Pomponius Mela's geography. Elian's va- 
riae hiftoriae. Silius Italicus de bello Punico. Plutarch's 

2d Cent. Ptolomy's geography. Juftin's Hiftory from Tro- 
gus Pompeius. Appian de bellis civilibus. Minutius Felix 
Koman hiftory. Diogenes Laertius lives of the philofo- 
phers. Lucian. Maximus Tirius differtationes. Suetonius vitae 
Caefar um. Paufanias defcriptio Grascae. Tertullian. Origen 
againft Celfus. La6laniius inftitutiones. Ammianus Mar- 
cejlinus hiftor. Romanorum, Dion Caffius de rebus Roma- 
norum. Claudian, ditto. Julius Capitolinus, Lampridius, 
Flavius Vopifqus, Eutropius, Vopifcus, Spartianus, dc rebus 
& vitis Romanorum. Julius Firmicus de errore profanae 

41 h. La6lantlus opera omnia. Eufebius evangelica praeparati- 

[ C ] one 

Authors referred to. 

one & chronolog. Sidonius ApoUinaris varise narratlones it 
Gothis. St. Jerome. 

5 th. Procopius of the hiftory and wars of the Goths, &c. Gre- 
gory biihop of Tours de origine & rebus Francorum. 
Gildas de cxcidio Britonum. Jornandes de bello Gothorum. 
Llywarch Hen, an ancient Britifh bard. Trioedd, or Tri- 
ades. Merddyn or Merlin. Brut y Brenhinoedd, or the hiftory 
of Britifh kings. 

6th. Ifidcre bifhop of Seville origines Galli. Taliefin, 
a Britifh bard. 

7th. Bede's ecclefiaflical hiflory, and Saxon annals. 

8th. AfTerius Menevenfis annals and life of king Alfred. 
Nenius hifloria Britonum, viz. the monk of Bangor. 

9th. Howel-dda's law, compiled from the Molmutian and 
Martian, and publifhed in Latin and Celtic, by Wootton. 
Witikind de rebus Saxonum, 

1 0th. Suidas hiflorical Greek lexicon. Xiphilin epitome in 
Dion em. 

nth. Hen. Huntingdon, Hoveden, (Roger) John of 
Salifbury, Simon of Durham, William of Malmlbury, and 
other Englifli hiftorians. Tzetzes, the fcholiafl of Lyco- 
phron. GeoftVy of Monmouth hiftoria Britonum, tranflated 
fromTifilio's hiflory, with Merlin's prophecy, and fome ether 
things intermixed. 

1 2th. Geraldus Cambrenfis bifhop of St. David's topo- 
graphy. Gervas of Canterbury and Ralph de Diceto, Engliih 

13th. Walter, of Coventry. Math ew Paris, monk of St. 

I4h. Mathew of Weflminfler, or Florilegus. Chaucer the 

15th. Olaus Magnus de rebus Gothorum. Lcland's itine- 
rary. Bodin's method us ad facilem hifloriarum cognitionem. 
Sir John Price's hifloriae Britannicse defenfio. Humphry 
Llwyd's gloflary and topography of Wales, Ortelius geo- 
.grapny. Lewis Britifh hiflory. Sir Walter Rawleigh's hif- 
tory of the world. Caius of the antiquity of Cambridge. John 
David Rhys grammar. Powell's Britifh hiftory. 

1600. Bochart's Phaleg, Dr. Davis lexicon and grammar. 
Cluverius geography. Celarius ditto. Cambden's Britannia. 
Spelman's gloflary and relidls. Gale's works. Selden's works. 
Skimner's etymologicon. Somner's lexicon. Ufher's antiqui- 
tatcs Britannicarum ecclefiarum, or de primordiis, &c. 
Vaughan's remarks or Britifh chronology and antiquites. Bi- 
ftop Lloyd's hiftory of ancient church government, and Mac- 


AtJTHofts fefefred 16. 

kenfie, the Scotts advocate's, defence of their ancient Scottidi 
line of kings. Bilhop Stillingfleet's origines Britannicae. Ay- 
let Samm's Britilh antiquities illuftrated. Bifliop Bale's bre- 
viary of the Britifli writers. Heilor Boetius hiftoria Scoto- 
rum. Monf. Pezron antiquites des Celtes. Sherrlngham de 
origine gentis Anglorum. 

1700. Rowland's Mona antiqua. RoUin's ancient and Ro- 
man hiftory. Carte's hiftory of England. Dr. Stukely's 
works. Toland's letters. Baxter's gloflary. Edward Llwyd's 
archeologia Britannica. Bullet's memoires fur la langue Cel- 
tic. Pelloutire hiftoire des Celtes. Wynn's edition of Dr, 
Powel's !Britilh hiftory. Howel's inftitutes of general hifto* 
jy. Stephanus de urbibus and particular lives omitted. 

Sundry errata and dark i>aflages appearing upon a curfory reading oftbr 

Etymological Lexicon, are corre6led as hereafter, viz. 

T jNder Abbot, for aba read abatos. Abolifh, for aboleo read apol^ for tbe 
^ Greek term. Accent may be read hexos for ekos, and lo in ibme o- 
t{ier places, though not very material. Adieu, r. errofo for enoib. Alter- 
care, r. altercor for alterco. Ancient, fome may chufe antiquus for fene^i, 
and hen tor en, an obfolete Greek term. Anguft, as a fubftandre, ihonid 
hzve bad aviguftia and agonia clafTed therewith. Anxious, r, dufareftoi. 
^rah'e. r. arotos, for arato!;. Arm*;, r. olene for alene. Afiies, fpodos for 
iplycic;^^ Ad^^p, koimis is the fubftantive term made ufe of, becaufe the 
adjective differed in its origin from the other words, and lo probably in fome 
ether inltances. Au«.!acious, r. thrafus for thnifus. Bacon, r. farx for carx, 

' though the latter is more agreeable to the origin. Beard, though parda 
Has been commonly applyed as an exprefiion for a chin, and geneion for 
abeaixi, 1 take a contrary application to be nxort agreeal>le to the true 
fignlficuncy of the terras. Beget, for genua r. gennao. Bitch, for kunoi 
r. kuon. Blind, r. alaos for alas. Boil, forbrufio r. braflb. Bom, r. 
nalcor for nafco. Bottom, pilos may be read for peloton. Bowl, the 
Greek term phiala (hould be phiale. Branch, r. klon for klen. Breaft, 
for bnin may be read preon. Capon, kapelos is a huckfter, fo called 
from a capon, but alektruon is commonly made ufe of for a capon. Care, 
fcr kedo r. kedeo. Carve, carpo and kai'pifo fignify to carp at or rebuke 
only in a fecondary Icnfe, but primarily they mean to fcrape or carve. 
Catara6l, for lithos maybe read rhothos. Choke, for pingo r. pnigo. 
Cinders, for aithole r. aithale. Cleared, dele s in Hftor. Clufler, for 
flaphula r. ftaphule. Coffin, for thefa r. theca. Combat, dele the 
initial h in hamilla. Connive, r. kammuo for kaminuo. Dance, 
for xoreai r. xoreia. Define, r. kathorifo for katherifo. Dike, ditdi 
and hedge, r. lama for lamna. Dim and dirk, r. axluoeis for 
axluoefis. Dolorous, for deleros r. deleter. Dread, r. orrodeo 
for arrodco. Dry, r. faucos-forfankos. Father-in-law, r. ekuroi 
for erukos. Fathom, r. orgyia for orgyx. Fenn, r. xarax for xarox. 
Fierce, r. bruxo for.beuxo. Fig, for 2tuon r. fukon. Girdle, for can- 
ar-cau-w r. cau-ar-cau-is. Hang, r. fufpendo. Hear, r. kluo for clyo. 
Here, for idon r. idou. Journey, dele h in hodos. Kidney, nepbrosii 
the common Greek term. Kingdom, r. anaktoria. Known, tor high 
n^arch read high mark. Learn, didafko may be read for diikeo, though 
both of one original in a primary fenie. Liquid, xuios is liquor* 
Liiten, r. akroao for akrpas. Mock, r. mokao for mokas. More, 
for metas r. megas, or rather megale. Mule, for melon r. molos, 
or oureus. Orator, the h in rethor to be tranfpofed to the radical 
r» Prince, for pris read prife. She, for ante r. ante. Shove, dele 
the firft i in gwithio. Smoak, for pigo r. pnigo. Tafte, in the ^xft 
clafs, read geuo and gufto. Thumb, r. daktulos for daflulus. Wine, r. 
goinos. There are alio fome Teeming contradiftions and doubtful paf- 
fages in lihe topographical part of this work, as in the definition of the 
terms Greek and Cireece, which is owing to the corrupt pronunciation of 
the c, in Greece j but as the original term was founded like a kappa, both 
terms oiiginally meant the fame, namely, ge-r'-auc, the water nation, 
and mv giving levtral dtf.nitions of the fame terms, is not from any doubt 
J had of tlie tn»e origin, but in order to flu w every kind of etymon, that 
the ancient language wiil admit of, as the names Saxons, Batavians, Franks 
and Beiga:, who appear from hifloiy to he chiefly dcfcended trom the 
Morini, or Icnmen or Proper Gaul, are exneffiveof their origin, viz. the 
B;.lgx from ab-il-auc-ge, from the race of the water nation, the Saxoni 

tjoiii /;-aur-.biis, the fons of the fea, the Batavians from ab-ti au, from 
thcwau::' hju:e, and Franks irom fiee 'u\-av\c, Ux^w'^otv\Jatv<;i\t":, , 

■ • ■■----'■' ■" ■■" ■ ■' - --- -■ ■■ 







BBOT; Abod; Abba; AbBAS. Thefen^vr^salv 

from the particle a, and the Celtic primitive bod, an 
JL ^ abode) an abbot being Uways refideht at one place. 

Able TO BE; Dixon; Ixuein; Posse. Able is c6m« 
pounded of . the particles a-bi*al, the high life; dixon is fmni 
id-uxa-un, it is the higheft one; whence ixuein : pofTe is 
from p-o^ifa, a thing from beinr the loweft, 
' Able; Abl or Gallu; Alkei; Habicis. Gallu ii 
from ag-a}, an high a£tion; whence alkei; able and the reft 
are explained sunder the laft clafs x>f words. 

Able; Dixoni; Ixuo; Queo. The Latin term comet 
fyoisk the Greek or Celtic^ the reft are defined under the laft 

Abode or Habitation; Bdn; Oikbma; Habitation 
The Celtic word bod is a compound of bi-w-id^ it is man's 
living or dwelling ; whence abode, habitatio. and habitation: 
oikema is from w-cau-am, a fhut or covering about a man^ 
as oikos is from w-cau-fi, it is n^an's inclofure. 
• Abolish; Dileu; Aboleo"^; Abole6% The root of ?j-= -i^P 
thefe terms feems to be the Celtic word colli or olli, to be loft^ 
with ab) di and ap prefix'd^ fignifytng from ior without^ that 

. B ,. .: ; ^ : .; C .im% 

^ A B 

IS, to forgive; as for example, abolifh is from ab-oIli-C, ttb 
fEom..hfmgTnit«.. .. ., " ' si 

Above ; Ar or Gor j Yper ; Supra. Ar here ought to 
be pronounced fhort to diftingui(h it from ar or aar, fignifying 
earth; but it feems to have had i^ origin from this term, be- 
caufe we are upon or above the earth ; uper is from the Celtic 
y-pc-ar, the part above; fupra is from fi-p-ar, it is the part 
above, ar being tranfpofed into ra; above is from the Celtic 
ub-ef, it.i^ up) the "Celtic f'beii^ iT thp fimVefffSi: ip|th the 
Englifti y ^ohfohant. - v. , 

About; Am; Amphi; Circum. The Celtic am feems 
to be a primitive compofed of a-am, a round of hills, or fur- 
rounding mountains; whence siqij^hi, with the addition of phi 
fignifying me : circum is from the Celtic cirx-am, round a- 
bout; and cirx is a compound of ac-ir-ux, the radical vowel 
being commonly dropped in Celtic compofitions, though ge- 
newHy to be knierftpo<J. 

' Abrupt; Rhwycedig; Apporox; AbruPTus. Rhwyg 
a rent, compounded of ir-w-ig, an angry man's aftion, is^thc 
primitive here ; to which the prepofitions ab and ap being pre- 
fixed, the other words were formed ; fo that a rent is the con- 
fequence of an angry man's ai^^n. 

Abscond ; Dirgelu ; Sungkalupto ; Abscondo. 
Bir^lu i^.iiKttii di-ihrgel^ tp.farda^fromthe.liglti. wlUncdTthe 
Gre^k term wa6.fGained9mdii.«fn^l<variatiotft;< abfa>ndo.aDd 
abfcond; teem: ta he comfiooEiniied ot the par^de^^bflhac-^ 
k is without ading high,; on appoaring* . , .. r. . 
' Absence; Ab&ei^;^ AnouitAi;; Abssntya* l^fitwurif 
come from ab-fi-env withput being, fccn. 

Absolve ; Olliau:; Apoluo; A3soZiVo.. OUisha it 
from oil, all or. whole, and.bal adlion j; wbeoceithe relti Kith 
the addition of the feveral. prcpoAtive. particles; abs att(t;4|l| 
which feem to be altogether, unneceflary.hem; biit fiae^ tim 
words All and Whole. ; ' 

• Absolute.; Cwbl; Apolutos;. Aasaiajiiua** . .13)1 
Celtic word cwbl feems to be compounded of ac-o-bi-alf/lte 
aiftion of the high being; but th^ neft of the Woids arro&the 
fame origin with thofe in the laft preceding ciafft 

Absonant; ANCHYsoff; Kakoexos; ABaoNANs. Abi 
fonans. and abfonant are from al>fwn, from or -without founds 
anghyfon is^ from an-cv-fwn, a difa2reeing fdknd; kakoexot 
is from kakos bad, and echo a found. See the feveral primi- 
tives whereof thefe particles are compofed. 
: A^jsoRBBv JBLhythu; Rhopheo; Absorbeo. RhjrtiMI 
il^from or-ithj it is from) or drawing from> in its primary 

fenfe i 


ftofe^r tbq)heo is fiFom or-fe-iu, it is froth 6t drawing, irqnv; 
abforfieo and al^ibrbe are from ab from, andTorbeo to fup} 
-vebich in ita primary (cn(c from fi-or-be, fignifijjs t3iat it is froih 
gibing; and* rhythu ahd rhopheo in a fecondary fenfe fignify 
to widen, by ftuffihg till the thing be exhaufted. 

Abstain; Ymattel; Apalattomai; Arstineo*. 
TThefe are compoled of the feveral prepofltives ab, ym and ap^ 
fignifying from, and ftineo to ftand, and at-dal, to hold 
from; that is, to ftand or to hold from; but fee die feveral 

Abstrudb or Push AWAY; Ymwthio ; Ai*oTiiig6j 
Abstrudo. Thefe are compofed of the preppfidvcs men- 
tioned in the laft preceding clafs, ahd* tTic Cdtic troi-id,.i( 
ib turning, and wthio to pum or (Hove, cothpofed oftheCeltiii 
particle w-ithro, man to be from. 

Absurd; Anaddas; Amathos; ABsuRt>tM. ATj- 
furdus and abfurd are faid to come from ab and furdus, deaf;^. 
but its primitive meaning from a-p-H'-or-idiu is, that it is a 
thing, from feeing; anathos from an-addas is unapt ; whence' 
amamos. See Apt. 

Abundantly ; Helaeth ; Alis ; Abui^d?. Helaetli 
is from hi-al-au-ith, it is high water or a flood'; abundecomeV 
from ab-unda, from the waves, whence abuhdantly ; alis ir 
from als the ft'a; 

Abyss -j- Afpwys.; Abysqs; Abyssus. AflEWys comes 
from ffoes a ditch, which is from- fi-os, put of fijght; whence* 
the other' words probably come; and bythos, cbmniphlyi 
ufcd to exprefs a deep, is from be-ith-os, the part out oF figHt* 
See the word Ditch. 

AcANTHA or Thorn; DRAENprExTHYN; Akantha;^ 
iSipiNA. All thefe. words fignify the prickly part of a tKorn^ 
gprfe^ fnake, hedgehog, or any other prickl^ tTii'ng'; eitKiii! 
uxua eith-iii, fignifies, that it will go in; acahtha froiii ac- 
yntho, is adding into; draen or thorn feqms to be'compofea 
of drwy^un, through one; and fpina is from fl-pe-in, it is'' 
the part within. 

Accelerate; Brysio; Speudo; Accelero. Bryfio 
as from bry-is-iu, it is from the hill lower or downward': 
fpeudo is from if-pc-idiu, it is a thing, lower or downward ; 
accelero is from ac*al-or-iu, it is an adion from the height» 
or the motion of any thing defcending, 

Accrnt; Accen; Ekos; Accentus. Thefe are fronv: 
ac-en and eko, fignifying the found of echo, the noife of^ 
animals, the biffing of^waves^ the craciks of fire, thunder, &c. 
whence the found of ac was formed to exprefs motion ox' ac- 

B 2 .xvMv\ 


tion ; and therefore made uk of as the chief particle in die 
Celtic dialers for converting nouns into verbs. 


Cariadys and Xareis come from the Celtic cam to love, vAOxM 
is a compound of ac-ar-w, an adipn upon an animal, p^ toid 
to love is am-w, about an animal in a primitive fenfe; ^cep^ 
tabilis is from ac-capio, a taking or a feizing aAioh. 

Access j Adwedd or Fordd; EuEPHdDos ; Aditus 
or AccEssus. Adwedd is from adwedd, tb 'the prefence^' 
and wedd is a compound of vi-id, he is feen i a,ditus is from 
ad-eo to go to; acceiTus'is from ac-cado, to fall tdgethery 
whence accefs ; ffordd is from fi-&r id, it is feeing the coutitrji 
whence euephodos; via is from vi-a, of the fame meaniffg; 
whence way. 

Accomodate; Cyrxu; Xrao; Accomodo. Cynw- 
is from cy-erxi, to invite together ; whence xrao ; accomoda 
is from ac-com-modo, to be alike together ; whence accomo- 

Accompany; Cwmni or Cydganlyn; PARAKOLOtr-| 
THEO; CoMiTOR. Cwmni is from cwm-ni, we together,' 
or in a moire primary fenfe from cwm-ni our comot ; accom-. 
pany is from ac-cwm-pe-ni, together in our part of Ac 
tomot; cyd-ganlvn is to follow together; parakoloutheo is 
from para at hana, and koloutheo to follow. 

Accomplish; Cyflywni; Sunplethunoj Compleo. 
Thefe feem to be compounded of cy, fun and com, with of 
together, lawn full, and ni we; but the Celtic feems to be' 
Ae moft expreflive from cyfa whole, and lawn full, that is, 
to fulfill. 

Accord; Cytuno; Omonoio; Concordo. Accord. 
is from ac-cord, to tye together; cytuno ib from cyd-uno, to* 
Unite together, or from cy-tvnu to draw together; omonoiot 
is from om all, and monos alone; concordo is from con-chor«' 
da, to tye or chain together. 

According TO; in ol or Tuagat; Kata; SsctrN- 
bum; Secundum is from fecundus fecond, or after the firft;" 
yn ol is the fame as yn ail the fecond; tuagat Is from tu-ag- 
at, a<Sing towards ; hence kata by tranfpofition. 

Accost or Encounter; Ymgyro; Engxeireo; Ag- 
CRedior. Accoft comes from ac-hoft, the aftion of an ene- 
my, which fee; encounter is from eng-contra, a great oppo-* 
fition; ymgyro is from ym-cyro, to fight together, which fee; 
hence engxeircoj aggredior is from ag-cyr-id, it is an aftion" 
of fighting ; but cyr is from cry ftrong by meuthefis. 



. Account, Reckok 01 Compute ;Rhifo; Arithmeo; 
NuMSKO or Computo. Accompt is from ac-com-pe-k, it 
i$ a^ing or putting parts together; hence alfo computo and 
coniipute ; numero comes from nummus money, and rhifo to 
number ; rhif number is from r'-hi-ef, it is the higheft or 
chiefeft ^ and fummus and fumma, a fum, are of the fame fig* 

, Accrue jXwANEGu; SuNAUxoMAij Accresco. Ac- 
crue and accrefco fignify to ftrengthen, and the other words 
are id increaf^. 


Accumulo is from ac-ymlanw» the a£lion of filling up; 
whence accumulate; tyrru is from twr a heap, which feei 
athroifo is from a-tyrru-fi» it is an heaping. ^ 

' Accuse; Cyhudpo; Katheko; Accuse. The Celtic 
and Greek terms are from cyhoeddi to fummon together^ 
the method of accufuig being to publiih by a cryer a public 
meeting for determining by proof and argument, or battle, the 
matters in difference ; accufo and accufe are from ac-caufa^ 
a£Ung a caufe. See Caufe. 

Accustomed; Gnawd; Gnostom; Assuetum. All 
thefecome from ag-hynod, or gnoftos, both fignifying a notable 
or known aAion. 

Ache; Axos or Oxak; Axos; Dolor. All thefe ex- 
cept dolor, have their origin from theCelticox, an interje£lioA 
of weeping, which fee ; dolor is from the Celtic dolur | 
which is explained under the word Grieve. 

AcHOR; Crax; Axor; Achor. Tho' thefe terms 
may have b^ei^ poi&bly formed of the inteije£tion ox, fignify-* 
\ng oh fie ! or fro^^ achi? f^^n, it feems more probable that 
^ey have AOthing more in their compofition than ar-ux, higher 
upon, uiiilefs they come from ac-ar-ux^. a gathering upon the 
vpper, which f^ms moA Ukely. 

Acid ; Su& ; Oxus ; Acidus or Acer. It is difficult td 
^ the etymon of thde words, as well as all other expref^ 
fions made uf^. of to Signify t^Q fenfations of tafte, fmell,^ 
and feeling ; but they were properlv formed by the affiftanee 
of the othei: (^nfks^ ancj accordingly the Celtic fur, feems to 
be ^ compouixd of fi-i,,^ th^ found or hiffing thing ; hence acer 9 
acidus and acid are, a-fi-id,, it is the found ; oxus is from ox-f| 
it is ox ojc oh ^e ! that is, a note of exclamation made ufe of 
on tafting any thing fliarp, 

. Acknowledge ;CYDNABai>}EpfGiNosjico; Agnosco, 
Thefe fignify to know, think, or aflent together ; and are 
fiM;thci: exjplained. under the fev^raj primitives j fceti»-wit4 

A D 

BInow for a definition of the Celtic word wybod | «nd it rm^ 
farther obferved here, by way of example, that cvdnabod is nom 
cyd-ni-wybod, weknowor think together, and theEngUA term 
is from ac-know-all-ag, the a&ion of knowing all togedier. 


j^ is from is-mwy-etto, again more low; it being the eafier 
ftate, and the flatter or lower any thing be preflTed, thefmooAer 
it will become ; hence emmeuo fomewhat corruptly ; acquiefco 
16* from ac-quies the ^ion of reft, if it may be fo propeilj 
cxprefled ; and quies is from the xui-es you lower. 

Ac(>uiRB ; Cfiisio; Antexomai 3 Ac<^iRo. Acquim 
;ind acquire, feem to come from the Celtic gvrru to drtre; 
wiuch is from gyr, a flock or a drove of cattle, ccc, formed d 
cy-ir, the together, or in a more primary fcnfe, a colleftionaf 
the rays of light, by which any multitude is commonly exprdSU; 
ceiiio is from ac-y-fi, it is the adion of feeking or feeing for; 
Ae Greek term is from anti-exo-mai it is going forward. 

Acre ; Erw j Pl^thron ; Acra or Jucerum. Erw 
itotn ar-w is an ox land, or one day's plowing ; plethrqn bam 
to have been formed from pie in pleos, and the Celtic tro, l)ut 
13, a full turn ; acra is from ac-ir an a^io'n upon the landi 
tbat is» a cop:^leat or one day's a£Hon ; hence acre s jugenim 
is from the Celtic jau-ac-ar it is the yoke acre, 

ACTiONj GwAiTH; AiTiA; AcTio. The primitive 
tfirm for a£tion is ac ; gwaith is a compound of ag-w-itfa, 
it is loan's adion ; a£Ho and adion are from ac-it, itis aAion; 
aitia is from the Celtic hai-it, it is adion ; but fee the Celtic 
V^rbs in the preface for 9 fuller explanation hereof; wl^iere it 
is explained to be a verb exprefling the aftion of driving. 
: Adapt or Prepare ; CYMwyso or Darparu ; Epa«- 
TUoorARMoso; Prjeparo or Adapto. Cymwyfo uid 
^niofo are fropi the feveral prepofitions fignifying together, 
and pwyfo to weigh, the p inflcfting into m j adapto ana ad^pt 
toe from ad, here iignifyi|ig together, and apt or a-p-da dbe 
purts of good, is may be feeii Under the word Apt ; darparu 19 
from, it is upon the point or foremoit part, or to 
be upon a previous thing ; hence the reft, 
. Add; Dodi at or Xwaneou; Prosdidomi or Su- 
VAPTo; Apdo or AuGEo. Dodi at, addo, add, and 
profilidojmi are from do or dodi, to give,yith the addition of the 
feveral prepofitions a-at and pros ; xwanegu is from xvirant 
want, and ag ad^ion ; whence the reft, 

A^.^iPfl^P qr Stick ; Glynu ; KoLt ao ; Adh^reo. Glynu 
is frqin .tl)e fubftantive glyn, compounded of ag-al-yn, a£ling 
tQfA^^on; yfhtxi£^ l^oUao; adhaereo and adhere are from 



md-hai-ar afibix]^,toaad upon^^^^^^ from .fi-torac, riguifie^ 

from ag-ol^eaiignifyr the aSim o^tbe iirmainent^ which id l6 
attxaft, 2didCj 1^ Uicsiii.^ * ,^ 

AbiJEU^.ippiuj Ewoscfc Av^. ThefeComeifrpmi-cliUjeirrc 
to God, except ave, which leeipis to be From a-vi, Cgnifying 
away but live ; or enofo tnay be from en-w-C, be to the liigp 
car dtvinebeiii^. 

Adjoin J CysYLLTu J ICoLLAOMAi; Adjunco. Ad- 
jungo and adjoin are compounds of ad-jungo to join together } 
the other terms are from cy and ko together, and oil, or oUt^ 
£gnif)ring all, that is, altogether. 

Admit, Suffer or Tolerate ; Goddef j AnexomAij 
Admitto or ToLERO. Goddef is from aj^-di-ef, it is a pri- 
vative a^on i anexomai from an-ag-y-mai, it is a privative 
ai^on ; or from an-exo-mai, it is a privative exo, which is thg 
lame as e-ae, an a6^ion from, or to have; admitto and admit 
are from ad-mitto to fend to ; fuffer is from is-upper, lower 
than the higher, or from fi-o-fFer, it is bringing from j tolero 
is from dal-ar, to hold or keep upon ; whence tolerate. 

Adore or Pray TO; Gweddio, Dymuno, Addoli of 
AttolVgu i Deomai or Parakaleo ; AddAo. Attolyga 
is from at-di-ol-ag, an adion to God almighty ; addoli is 
from at-ddi-ol of the fame fenfe ; dymuno is from dy-am-uho, 
for uniting or appeafeing God; whence deomai; gweddio , 
is from gwedd, prefence or form ; parakaleo to call upon ; 
adoro and adore may be primarily from the Celtic ad-ior, to the 
Lord, or may be from ad-oro to pray to; pray feems to comfe 
from the Celtic parhai, to be upon or laA upon adlion* Set 
the word Pray, 

Adorn or Attire ; Gwisgo, Harddu, Amdano or 
Ymwisgo; Artuo, Kosmeo, Entyno orENSKEUAso; 
Adorno or Vestio. GwKco and Ymwifgo are from 
ag-w«is-cau, the aflion of putting a man under covering ; 
whence veftio and enfkeuafo; amdano is from am-dan, about thft 
under part ; thence entyno j harddu is from hi-ar-id, it is 
high bold or noble upon ; whence artuo. 

Advert or Consider ; Ystyrio i Epistrepho 5 Ad^ 
VERTO. The Latin term is from adverto to turn together; 
the other words are from ftyr confideration, or ftir, with thp 
fevcral prepofitions fignifying together. 

Adulterate or Counterfeit ; Cyfelybu ; Ca- 
PSLEUO; Adulter©. Cyfelybu is from cyfelib like ; which 
is a compound of cyfel-ib, to be alike together ; whence ca- 
pdeuoi ad^ulterate and adultero are from' ad- alter, to add 

B 4. ^TtfSvfcRW 

inqdier thing; ooimterfeit feems to be a modem temi of 
^ntra and 60, to tnake againft or to liken. 

^EQUiLrtRiTY or EQUAL Wbight ; Mantol; Ta- 
LANTiON ; ^qyiLiBRiUM. Msuitol 1$ from maint-oU, an 
equal quantity or weight9 or ail a quantity ; tabuitton feems 
to be fVom ol-^t^, 3l\ meeting ; aequtlibrium is from aequa- 
libra, equal weight; and aequus is horn y-ci-hi, it is the faine. 

Affi^ict; niiNo; Thlibq; Affligo. Blinoisfroni 
bi-lai-in^in lefs life ; whence the rdft, &c. affligo may come from 
a-fi-lai-ag, the life kfs ad:ing ; which gave us the Engliih word 

Affection ; Affaith ; Pathos ; Affectio. Theft 
terms exprefs a thing done or ^fieded ^ which feems tol|p 
the cauie of aiFe£tion. ' 

Afford; Rhoi; Poriso; Pr^beo orREDDo. Rhol 
is fromr*-hai-i, the afting to ; reddo is from r'-ad-o, the giving 
^om ; pprifo is from p-rhoi-fi, it is a thing ^6tins to ^ whence 
^[hercft. ^ 

Afterwards; Gwedi; Eitaj Postea. Gwedi U 
from ag-o-id, it is an a£l:ion from ; eita is fromhai-di, anadion 
paft or from ; poft is from p-bs-id, it is a thing from; fee tl^ 

After j Gwedi ; Epi ; Post. After feenis to be from 
af-tir, off the land ; epi from e-pi, fro.m the part; fee Ac laft 

Again ;^ EilWAitH; Au; Rursum. Eilwaith is from 
ail-waith, another work ; again b from ag-in, zSt in or ading;- 
au is the fpring or adion ; rurfum is from yr-fum, the fum, or 
rhoi-r-fum, to give the fum on the whole. 

Against ; Erbyn ; Anti ; Contra. Againft is from 
ag*b-un-j^, it is aifting from one; erbyn is from iror er-be-ui^ 
Yiot one, or a cont]:airy thing ; ai\ti is &om the negative an 
and id it is^ that is. What is not is againft what is ; contra is 
from co-un-draw,' far from being one together. 

Age; OEsorHANEs; fiNosorBios; Annus or -St as. 
The origin of thefe expr^ons is from the earth's annual mo- 
tipn round the fun ; the letter O exprefles a globe, is, loWiCP, 
being added to figni^ a lower globe, to diftinguifh this O omi* 
cron, or this wond,' or this Hfe, from the Q mega or great O, 
which fighifies the fun's motion, or uniyerfal motion, or the 
continuance of the world; age is from o-ag, the aftion of O, 
^ the annual courfe of the earth ; hanes, enbs, and annus, feem 
to be compoied of hen-oes, old age ; bios is from bi*oes, the 
age] of life i setas is from the Cekic hyd-oes, durtfig life, or the 

'^ * Agglutinate ; 


AooiUTiNATs; Gludio; PiibsttMlAd; Ao6i9tiiio^ 
Thefe feem to be &om.thc Celtic gliid^-^liie, or agral-kl, it* 
aAs upon, with the fcveral prepofitive particles. See Glue, : 

Aggravate f" PrVddhau ; EMARitHOi Aogravo. 
Pryddhau is from pfydd-hai, the aftion? of driving grave ^ 
cmbritho is from em-pryddhau, to incfeafe gravity jaggravo^ 
and aggravate are-fromag-gravis, the aftioii of making grave.- 
See Grave. • - . j 

AOGRfiGATE; Casgluj Aoelaso; A;ggreoo, Aggrc* 
go and aggregate are' from ag-gyr-^ic, the zA of drivrng a 
nock top;ether^ cal^ltt is to bring a multitude together ; whence^ 
sigielafo by tranfpohtion of letters. 

- Agile; Xwimwth; Eukinetos; Agilis. Agilis Is 
from ag-i-le-is^ ^filing towards a lower place, or downwards; 
whence agile-; xwiniwth is frpm ux-haf-mwy-aetli, the high- 
er the a£bon the greater go ; whence eukineCos. 

Agitate j C yhhyrfu or Laikio ; El auno or Kineo ; 
Agito. Cynhyrfu is from the fubftantive cynwr, a tumult 
6r diflurbance, which feems to he a compound of ac-yn-wr, 
an ai^on in man or animal ; whence kineo ; lainio is from 
al-in-w, a power in man or animal ; whence elauno^ agito 
and agitate are from ag-at-w, an adion towards man* 

Agony ; Ing ; Agonia ; Agonia. Thefe are from the 
Celtic particle ing, fignifyjng to be ftreightened. 

Ah or Alas i - Gwabfi ; O Mai ; Hei. Heland ah fig- 
oify from high} alas from al-as is high lower; ompi is oh me'; 
gwaefi is from ag-oh-fi, the adtion of woe, or of oh me. 

Aid, Strengthen or Corroborate; Cynorthwyo; 
Epikoureo or Rhonuo ; Corroboro or Auxilior, Aii 
is from the word add, which fee; ftrengthen, corroboro, cor- 
roborate, and epikoureo, are explained under the word ftrongi 
auxilior is from the Celtic auxi-le-r^ t-he increafmg of one'a 
place; cynorthwyo is to fiiare together ; and rhonuo is front 
the Celtic rhanu to ihara. 

Air; Awyr or Wybr; Aither or Aer; ^ther or 
Aer. Awyr is from au-ir, fire and water ^ wybr is a con- 
tra£lioAof au-bi-ir, that is, water rifen up as into life by fire ; 
air is the fame as awyr ; as is aer; atther and aether are from 
au-et-ir, fire and water; au, auc and aqua properly figw 
nifying fpi:ing water ; hence the air and aether feem to be no- 
thing more than water rarified by the heat of the fun, propor- 
tionable to its difbuice therefrom. 

Air good ; Awyr da ; Eudia ; Aeris bonitas. A» 
^o thefe terms fee Air and Good; but it may be here obferved, 
that IT in awyr being only a founding letter fignifying the^ the. 

Cckic ftwyr da, vrenby ^Greeks oarfvqrtti }t4» aiu4^*or 
corruptly i^to audia, as the i, fignifymg fir^ ought tpbavebfcv 
placed before the confonaot d* 

Alder; Gwsun $ Aigiiros; A1.NU8. Gwenitifirom 
gwy-er-in, an adion of growth upon the watcri wfacM)ce{^;eH 
fos ; alnus or arnus, as in Lucan and odiert, whd mentioii Ae 
arverni as living in alder groves ; alnus is fiom al^JnTay* h^ 
upon the water ; alder is from al-dwr, upon the W4t8r« 

Ale ; Cwrw ; Kourmi ; Cervjsia^ The wordj^e 
feems to be from die Latin word caleo, to fer^oencor tQ berho^ 
and to be compofed of ac^al-au, an a&ion Upon alu|ui4s €fv# 
is from ac-ar-au, an adion upon a liquid s kouimi is from ccr 
ar-au-m, a great a£tion upon a liquids cervjfia is from ^Q-jur- 
au-ii» it is an adtion upon a liquid. 

Alien -, Alltud ; Allotrios ; Aliskus. Alicsil Mi 
atienus sgre from the Celtic ail-un, anodier one ; altad i$ 
from ail-tu^id, it is another's pofleffion ; allotrios h £pm 
ail-ti— iu, it is another's pofleflion, ti andtir being of the.fiM? 
fignification in Celtic compofition, as tht r is a lettet of 
ibund only, and might be inferted or left OHt b$ wfis piidft juter 
able to the term tobe compofed. 

Alien; Arallu; Allotrio; Ai^IEKo, . Tkiaft :an 
explained under the l^ft clais. 

Aliment; Ymborth; Brooma; Alimiktvm* YtAt 
borth is from ym-porth, an increafe of feeding; brooma 
|s a great feeding ; aJiment and alimentum ;uie from allu-^taaint^ 
the power of growth or fubftance, and tho' commonly der 
fined from alo to nouriih, it is more^ likely that alo is from ^e 
Celtic allu. 

All ; Oll ; Olos ; Omnis. OH or ol is a Celtic (^rir 
mitiye, probably compofed of O, fignifying the circle of 
^ime, the univerfe, &c. and the chars^r L fignifying extenr 
ilon; that is, height and length by the upright line^,.aiid 
Dreadth by the plane one ; o-m in omnis is the omega> ttte 
great O or the univerfe, and ens exiflence. 

Alley or Lane; L6n orCADnsj Xustos or Stbnot 
Pos ; XisTus or Angiportus. Alley i$ compofed of ai)-le« 
a place for another, a fecond or two ; whence alley ; loe 
and lane are fromle-un a place for one; cad-lis is fromcad-lia, 
the palace fighting or exercifeing place ; xuftos and xiftus 
fignify the fwes^tine place, from the Celtic xwif-tu, the fwc$a^ 
ing poffeffion or place ; ftenopos is from fi-tyna-pej it is the 
Irigheft or ftrcighteft part j angiportus is from ing-porth, the 
yarrow part^ . - ' 

'i -.::.? 

Allow i 

law-fi-o, oiK-idf^flijr baftd^ oitimae ithc Ccaek atad EogliftL 
terms; exbibeo Is trom ex-habeo, to have out, <wliidi are 
explained ^ftwhtm, 

Al'LUDo, Tticft ave eK|ilain^ under iAq wtxd pky, wtth 
tbe additioHof thefartide figntfying at. 

Allmightys Ollalluog; Olotsles xxtOlok&atqs^ 
O^HfiPOTEMfs. Aiftiig^ is from ol-^m^ag>ti, tbe. ail great 
iSHng poww'i €ilalkk)g is from oH-^u^og, the all great 
j^iowers oiotiBles h -from ol-4i4i, al} paftik>n and power { 
tioflcratos fe from dl^iy-tu, alt ^flccngth and pofiefton ; om* 
nipotens is from omni-potens, all powerful. 
< Ax^Mosf ; bAiAK; XeD^K^ FfiRC. Fere is from the 
Celtic her; Aort ; xedoti is frcttn haau^ going on $ alnoft it 
frifm alnoioft, moft un^ or at the height. 

Alms; £i^y6£N; Elxemostki^ £le£mosyka. Thefe 
feem to come froni the Celtic e-lyf-en, the ancient palace, 
that is, the palace ufage ; or from ^^iyf-en-ipDs, the ancient 
CuAom of the i^dace ; it bein^ ufual for die great men of tbe 
palaces amongft the Cdtte to-give astray a great ihare of their 
fubftance by way of alms. 

Alone ; I huK ; Oios or Mokos ; Solus. Alone is 
from al-one ; i-hiin is the one, whence oios ; monos is from 
ini-un, me one ; folus is from fl^Uun, it is all one. 

Already; Eisoes; Ede; Jam. Eifoes is from if-oes, 
below or paft tbe age or prefent tiqfie ; jam ieems to come 
from the Celtic i-am, the about ; ede is from e-id, the exift* 
ing ; already is from all-ready. 

Also; Hefyd; Omoios;. Item or Etiam. Alfo b 
from the Celtic ail-fi, it is another, or another founding; 
Hefyd is from hai-fyd, the world or life going on, fyd being 
from byd by infle£lion ; omoio is from the Celtic mwy more | 
item is the fame as idem the fame ; etiam is from the Celtic 
€to-mwy, again more, or eto-am for more or again. 
- Altar; Allar; Ara; Ara. AUar is from al-ar, high 
earth ; altar is the fame, from al-t4r ; ara is from ar-^r upon, 
or high earth. 

, Alter; Arallu; Ailoioo; Altero. Thefe come 
from the Cekic pronouns ail another, and ar and tir, both 
iignifying country, pofleflion, property, &c. 

Altercate ; YMRYs6<ir ; Eriso ; AltercoR The 
£(igli{h and Latin* terms are from the laft preceding clafs of 
words, with the addition of dico, to fpeak; from 
aip-^befwm, d)Ottt reafoningj erifo is from refis, ratio or on 


fitlo; and iliefwm team to be from rhotrfmi, to pvethe 
ibm; and fwm is from fi^wni) to fee all, Qrradierfroaifi*-aoit 
to fee about. 

Alternately; Olynol; Enallax; Alternatim, 
Olynol is fnmi ol-vn-ol, after another, or .from ail^yn-pil, 
another in fecond $ tne Englifh and Latin are from 9iter*tim| 
another time or turn ; enallax is from the Celtic eilxwaiths 
aCnother or a fecond time or turn. 

Altitude ; Allt or Uxeldir ; Ypselotes ; Alti-. 
TUDo. Allt is a compound of al-ti, high pofleffion or landi 
uxel-dir is the lame ; ypfelotes is from v-pe-fi-al-ti, the part 
that is high land -, the Latin and Englifn terms are from the 
Celtic allt. 

Always; Byth; Aei; Semper. Byth is from by-id, 
it is life^ being or exiftence ; aei is from the Celtic hai> a^on 
or exiftence ; always is from all-ways > femper is from fi-ai9-> 
'p*ir,> it is the about or the round of the higher parts, or t^ 
motion of the fun, &c. 

Am or I am ; Wyfi j Eimi ; Sum. Wyfi is from w-y^ 
fi, me a man ; eimi is from y-mi, th^ me, or my exiftence. 
fum is from fi-am, it is the about or exiftence ; am is the 
about or exiftence. 

Ambiguous ; Amwys ; Amphibolos ; AmbiguusJ 
Ambiguus is from ambo-ag-iu, it is both, or a double atSlion; 
whence ambiguous ; amphibolos is frpm amphi-boule, a dou* ^ 
bk will ; amwys feems to be from amheuys, doubtful or fuf- 
pictous, which is a compound of am-hai-es, about action or 
reft. ' . . 

Amend; Cywiro; Katorthoo; Emendo. Cywirq 
i$ from cywir, right or truth j which fee; katorthoo is fromi 
kata-orthos, according; to right ; amend apd emendo are from 
am-min>da, for a good end ; and the Qreek term oj^thos feems 
to come from ortha, a good end. 

Amnesty; Anghof; Amnesteia; Amnestxa. A<^g-« 
hofF is from the negative an ^nd cof, remembrance ; the oth,ejf 
words are from the privative a ^nd mneftis remen[ibraj;icejL that 
is, forgetfulnefs or oblivion^ 

Ample ; Helaeth ; Flatus ; Amplus. Helaeth i^s^ 
from hi-al-ith, it is high or long a^d broad; platus is from 
p-al-id^, it is a part or thing broad ; amplus is from am-ple^ 
a broad place ; whence ample. 

Anchor ; ANGok ; Angkura ; A^chora. Thefc are 

from the privative an-ag-ar, a privative of a^Hon upon. 

lOj Ancient ; Hen ^k^N ; Senectus.* Hen and en are the 

fsjmt asbi^eayen, wbiqb is a^nciei^ti^ a^qiei\t i^_ ftoflj a^-ft-en? 

. - - ija 

l^> it Is an heavenSbr andent; fene£bs h from fi-eh-u:fi:. It Is 
the upper heaven^ and hSn is compofed of hi-en, the high? 
heaven ; and en of i-ni> to nothing, or the unfeen. 

Anclb; F^r; Sphyron; Talus. Ancle is from an- 
ewlm,* a knot; lalus is from da!-ui, it is a holding or joining^ 
together; fer Teems to be a cohtraifiion of ber-ar, the fbon 
Ihank ; fphyron is from fi-pher-un, it is the (hank one. 
' Akd; a or Ac; TEorKAi; Que orEr. Ac iii the 
. Celtic is a particle iignifying aSion tn general, and here ia 
particular it iignifies^ to continue the adion ; a is the fame a» 
dc, it being ^ufual in the Celtic to drop the confbhant c^ 
^hen it happens to be in the end of a word, and. a vowel 
ihtiuld fiicceed it in th6 next word; kai and que are from the 
two Celdc verbs ac-hai, both fignifying adion ; te and et are 
from die Celtic etto, again; and, is n-om the Celtic ond, but;* 
which fee. 

'.Angel; Ancec; Akgelos; Amoelus. Thefe terms 
feem to be compounded of an-gel, a great light ; but thefe- 
particles ought to be eng-il, according to the Celdc ortho- 

Angry; Digio or Broxi; Ixtheo or Bruxo; Iras— 
Cor. Mofl: of thefe verbs will be explained under dieir fub- 
ftandves in the following clafs ; but it may be obferved here 
that digio is from id-ig, it is fire or heat ; whence ixtheo; 
btoxi mm bro-ux*, die upper country ; thence bruxo. 

Anger ; Iredd or Dig ; Orgs ; Ira. Iredd is from 
Ir-id, it is fire or heat; whence ira ; orgeis from ir-ag, a hot 
aiflion ; anger is from ang-ir, a great fire or heat. 

Angle; Conol; Angkulos; Angulus. Thefe will 
Be explained under Corner ; but it may be obferved here, that 
the pardcle ang ilands here for narrow or ftreightned, as ang- 
le a flreightnol place, which in hA figniiies an extenfive- 
|flace ; but ii)g-le figniiies a flreightned or narrow place, as 
the letter reprdfents a line, a point, a pofl, &c. and a, always 
breadth, extenfion, grfcatnefs, &c. . 

Angry; Irllawn; Orgilos; Iracundus. See An-' 
gei*; but ir-Ilawn is full of anger or heat; orgilos b from ir* 
ag-il-iu, it is an a£Hon of high anger or heat; iracundus if 
from ira*ac-en-idiu, it is an adion of high fire or anger. 

Anguish; Axwyn; Axthos; Anoor. Angorisfrom 
ang-cyr, a great trembling ; cyr is from ac-ir, the afiion of 
heat ; axwyn is from axos, ache or pain ; whence the refl. 

Ancust; Anbng; A^)conias Angusta. Anengis* 
from an-eng, not extenfive or great ; whence angonia ; an- 
guft and angufia^ux from angonia. Here it may ^ remark^ 

once for aQ, thaUitfae pvtitle ang is extenfioat eiij^$(bp-a»tli« 
letter e is.sui auxiliary to-2u bu^ ing always,figm5es fireighfr> 
nefs, though ang is ipa4e u^ of in angle.. 

Animal; Anifal oc aiwiad; SooiCr; An«max. Am« 
M- k^e fame at^ animal^ the nt in mtl inlfoi^ng'into f in fai^ 
and' they am compofed.of a^ni-fal, to us like j but. a flanda 
here as in many other inftance^ for the Cdtic y> tlie-; biwiail 
k froQ) biAw-id, it is a IfMing animal > ibon is^ from fi-w-un, 
k i» aoi anknal ^ here st appears that the Cekic w an^esra to 
* the Gfeek oo^ and that they both fignify an-animaf. 

A^^iNT; IrootExiq^ Aleipho or Xrio ; Illiko or 
fjNOOb Ito is from ir^ and^lio from il) both particles to ex- 
prefs .fifi^: heat, &c« >;(4iick warms, nouriifaes^ anoiiits,- arbi 
g^S'Ap £cy every things, aogo is from yn-ig, at or in the fire 
or h^ap^ an(dnt feems to.^e tormed from the participle paffive 
of ungo ; the reft of the terms are frorfi the Celtic. 

AmTHfR; ARALi»|r Alm^s^; Alter. Arall is from yr- 
ail,, rii^ other or fecond^ ^}osis from ail; alter is from ail« 
ter, .another land^ or place; another is fropa an-o-ter, front 
the land or place. See the word Second for the primary kxiSi 
of ail.' .....(' 

Another Main's ; Estronol ; Ax.i,t)T^Rio5v Ai/ienus», 
Eftroilel is from er-tir-o-ui^-*ail,. the property of, one ot^er;^ 
whence the refi: ; but foe the laft preceding clafs of words. 

Answer;. Eb, or atebj Epo; Dico. Digo i^ frfion kjriijf 
it is found ;. anfver is ffom.^-fi-vn^ a. nvan'^ found j^,eb is 
from e-bi). the life ; ' ateb is from id~eb, it is life ; whence epp*; 

Ant or Pi8Mirk.;.^Morgrygun; IWyrmex; MvKikEXfi. 
MbcgrjFgun is from maur-crygun, the great cruriiber ; niyr- 
meXf is from myr-mex or mira, a great cruipb; pifimireis froQif 
puif-mire, a great load or weight ; ant is iprobably from iVant^ 
{q c^led frog^ his great application in providing agatnft waf)dt. * 

A^vri/; Engion; Akmon; Ij^icus. Etigion- is from eniifl 
gi-ufi, the inlarging, orve'S w^c^ce incus and akmon; anvilt 
ought to be angvile or engyile, which;from engy-le fignifie^j 
the trAargmg places • . 

Anxioits, Sad OP Heavy; Trwm or.TRisT;^DusA-., 
irei'*t;^ETE§;. Abrxius or Gravis. Trwm is. from tir-wm^ i^ 
heavy groupd ; trift is from tir-is-it, it is the lower ground}.' 
whence dufaretes; anxius is from ing*if-iu, it is a lower 
ftreight ; whence anxious ; gravis is from ag-or-vi-is, to ga 
from the lower part ; heavy is from hi-a-vy, high with me ; 
iad is from if-id, it is low. 

Appear ; Ymddangos ; Phainomai; Appareo. Ymd-r 
Ami^ k from am-dajigos, for ihewing ; appareo and appear 


m^irqm;U|!rpA-fr» ^e ufp^r fart of the nound ;. i^ifwo 19 
£|^ t^rm» II ky^ view I ihine is from fiHea, tO:fee;kigh» 
or to look like the Iky. 
r/ Atl^E AsJBtof Q^^T ; Lhov!YM>v or Hebdyxv v Euhyo 

i^i-idf i«ilLqqtM||i; wbencQ ^ii^yiPs heddjpt is from hi* 
d^b^^ it W bmk. am^ h^; vfhenoa befuxalo, qi^iipico an4 
quiet by tranfpofitiMs complacfo is. ii^n>comrp-al-9c> an ac? 
ttt^of ikot^ng.up sm hi^ ^liiig; appfa^eis^fro^i^rp-i^est 

..liAAWkMi Mj>i^'^ MfiMm; Maaim* Thefe come from 
AeiGelliQ^lRQi^ me^' honey* ormcdu$:fweet» the^mia mebu 
infleding in f, (o as to change melus into felus, ^itaiii into 
fy$to3i&d](^the.partjick^, fluidiagfok-the, being prQ&L:t^madLes 
fc^ die^ hoMy or, ^ fw^ thing ; but iee Honejp. 


9mo$. TiiNEo or ApFfiBHBKDO. Cyx^edd is. from ac4r^^id) 
il 19 tli9: sSioii of the firmamient; whence krateo;. teneo ii| 
from t-en-iu, iti»the firinament; apprehend and s^prebendQ 
fKifroQi'arp^ii!-<9nri4> it.i» the firmaioeiit part or thing; hold 
hihomhi-ol^iii, itiiftdjefimj all figniiyii^probaWy &fam» 
MthS'^eltic tynu tp <k^w> or the ^fmdion of heat^ whicb 
lays hold of a thing. 

AppROivcjft; Cyrj&u orNfi^AUj NAsaorXoRSo^ Ac- 
CBDO .or AF?JLOPitfQUo. Neiau- is from nes ^l^er^ thecom* 
pnnatiiirfi of agos ni^, and compounded of inres, come near- 
er or lower; whence naflb; appropinquo is of the fame figni- 
i&^^Dn from a-prO'pen-ux-or; approach is from a-pro-ux, 
i^m the upp^ country; accedo is froni %-ci*id, it is a^ing oc 
eoming.togetfa^ ;^ cyrxu is from cy-r-ax, the su^ing togetheo^ 
; ApT;.AjwiA^i EuTHj&Tos; ApTUs. Addas is- from a- 
inrrn^ a.leiigoiod;. whence eudxeto^.; aptus and ^ptare^ from 
i^rprtft^.for dav apart. good; all iigniiymg a leller degree of good 
thdnet^ fuperl»tive. 

Arrable; Branar; Aroura; Arvum* Bjanaris 
iftQfn braunu-^) rotting earth ; whence- the reft, by tranfpo- 
$tiOQ>.aod inflection of the b into v confonant, foas? tom^e 
ir-vrau, the rotten earth, and ar-brau-le, the jdace of tho 

AjaRABi^Ei;. UvAK ; AkAToy^ Arrabilis,^ Hjrar ia 3rot^J 
eacdb turned up ; aratos feems to be from the Ceitio ardd^ the 
plow^ and thd reft: are. explained under the laft^ cla&. 

Arch or Chief ; Arx or Uxef ; Exatos; Sioy^Mim 
O^.ArcH* Uxef is the fuperiative degree of uxiel^ux being 
diei.QOiii{W^ves . compoundedrof y-ci>. the chiisf or nrft ;.. a^o^ 


h fr6m yr-tix, the chfef ; \chicf is frcW ci-cfj it: i» t&^ chkf 
or iirft ; exatos is from uxa-lt, it ii the highdR:. See for fuoH 

mus under the word Sum. 

' Argekt; Arian; AkcvRiON; Aroentum; Thele 

iKrorfis all come from' the Celtic yr-iiwti, the fziisbiEtionif 

Ark 5 Arx or CrsT; AoRTE or Kiste; Arca. Are 
is from ar^cau, the (hut upbir; cift is from csCu-eifte, afitttng 
cheft, a coffer, coftn, &c, whence the itsff. 

ArM; Braix; Bkaxipk; Brachium. . Braix Is fhm 
be-ar-cau, the part upon the chcft or trunk, that is a brahdi| 
whence the Greek and Latin terms $ arm- is from thfe Latin 
term ramus a branch, compofed of ar-am, upon the about o^ 

Armpit; Cesail; Maxale; Axilla. Armpit is die 
fame, as armhole or part hid ; cefail is from a bottom betwixt 
hillsi which in the Celtic is called cefail from cau-is-ail, the 
fun low^s or (huts, whereby the bottoms of countries 2Xt 
Ihaded by the hiHs ; max^e is from the Celtic maxlud, fiuH 
fetting ; axilla is from ac-es-il, the fun goes lower. 
^ Arms; Affle; Alen^; Ulna. As to arms fee Arm if 

affle is from afael, to hold ; whence the other words ; though 
they are faid to come from olios, fignifying the curvity of the 

Arms; Arfa; Entea; Arma. Arf the fingulatof 
arfau is from ar-fi, upon me ; arma and arms are from ar-mi^ 
upon me, mi changing into fi by infle<^ion ^ entea is from en* 
it, it is upon. 

Arrive, Reach or Extend to ; Cyredd ; Orego 
or Proserxomai; Extendo or Advenio. Cyredd is 
from ac-or-id, it is ailing to the border ; arrive is from the 
Celtic or-ev, it is the border ; reach is from or-ac, it adls to 
the border ; orego is from or-ag, it goes to the border ; whence 
the paflive proferxomai with the addition of pros ; and extendo 
and extend are from ex-tyn-id, it ftretches out, or from tXi* 
tanu-id, it fpreads out. 

Arrow; Saeth; Oistos; Sagitta. Arrow is fronl 
ar-row, upon a line or row ; faeth is from fyth, ftreight | 
whence the reft. 

Art; Dixell ; Texne ; Ars. Dixell Is from di-cel, a 
dark fecret ; texne is of the fame figtvification ; ars and art fecm 
to be from the Greek ares, iron ; the making of which being 

{probably the firft invention or art. See Iron and Craft for a ful^* 
sr explanation hereof. 

As, or As like ; Megis ; Os ; Sicut. As is from a-fi^ 
the fight; megis is from mi-gi-fi, it is or he is a companion to 

me I 


mc ; tike is from lui-ci, a fellow colour ; • ficut i3 from ii-ci-tu^ 
it is a fellow property. **" 

As or As WELL ; MoR or Fel ; Tosouton ; Tam of 
tJr. Mor is from mati-ir, the great light or iinhament; fel 
IS from fe-il, it is light; or fe-il, it is the high I or extenfion 
of light; tarn ii t-mau, the great T or horizon ; Ut is the T* 
or the horizon; ficut is froih fi-ic-t, It is from the horizon; 
tofouton is from tu-ifa-to-en, below the horizon or the fky. 

AscENDT or Lift up; Derj^afu; Anixo; ATtoLLoor 
AscENDO. Afcendo and afcend are from af-ac-en-id, it is 
low a£ling or goin^ high) or to the (ky ;^ attollo is from at- 
ol, to the fun ; lift is from al-ef-it, it is high ; anixo is from' 
en-uxa, the upper firmament^ or from in-uxa, uppermoft ; 
derxafu is from tir-uxaf, the higheft ground. 

Ashes; LIydw; SPLYDosyCiNis. Afhes is from as-hi-^ $0(^0, 
li, it is low high; cinis is from fi-eii-is, of the fame fignifica- * 
tion ; fplydos is from if- p>al-idiu, it is a low thing a£ling high ; 
llydw is from al-idiu, it is rifing ; fo that the Agnification of 
thefe terms feems to be^ a lower thing, that is, duft or earth 

AsK; Crefu; 3tRoso; Ro.GO. • Creifu is frotri ac-ar-fu^ 
ading upon a being ; xrofo is from ac-at-w-fi, it is aSing up- 
on a man ; . xo^o is from ar-w-ag, afting upon a man ; afk is 
a contraftion .<3^ the German acuan, which from ac-fi-un fig- 
nifies an a<^i6n uppn one« 

Asleep or Sj-Ecpy; Cysgadus ; fcoiMisis ; Sopo* 
RATUS. Cyfgadus is from cwfg fleep, which is a tompofund 
of cau-w-fi-^g, the aftion of fluitting an animal's -fight ; koi- 
mifis from cau-am-i-fi, diut about the fight; foporatus is 
from fopor, ileep, which comes from fi-ap-wr, that is, fight 
and found from it man ; afleep is from a-fi-al-ap, the fight 
and found is from being up. 

Aspect; Agwedd; Opsis ; . Aspectus. Agwedd ig 
from ag-w-id, the a£lion of a man's fight ; afpe<^us and af- 

pe£l are from a-fpi-aft, the aft .of the countenance ; opfis is 

from w-p-fi, a man's feeing part. 

Ass; AsYN i Onos; Asinus. Afu'n is from af-un^ the 

lower one ; as mule is from m-al^ the great and high ; whence 

afinus and afs ; onos is from un-as, the lower one. 

Assent; Cytuno; Sunaineo; Assentio. Cytuno is 

from cyd-uno, to unite together j whence funairio ; affentio 

and aflent are derivable from ad-fcntio, to feel together; but 

their origin feems to be from fynio or atlfynio, .to found toge- ^ 

ther ; from fi-un, one found. 

Assign J. Penodi; Apodtdomi; Assigno. Penodi is 

^ A O 

from pen-nodi, marking the head or end ; perhaps from marjc- 
ing the cattle; apodidomi is from apo-di-do-mi, from thee to 
me ; aflign and afligno are from y-fign, the fign. 

At or To ; I or At ; Eis or Para ; Ad. or Apud. I k 
length, to the dot over it, fignifying the fun; at is from a, 
the earth, to t the firmament ; para is from p-or-a, a part' 
from the earth ; to is a covering or the flcy ; eis is from c-i-fi, 
it is high; apud is from a-p-id, it is the p or the fky. 

'Attend orTARPV at a Place; Tario; Tereoj 
Servo. Tario, tereo and tarry are primarily from tri-^r-iu, 
it is plowed land ; attend is from at-hand ; fervo is from is-ar- 
ve, it is the lower ground. 

' Attract, Fail or Deceive; Faelu or Twyllo; 
Paleuo; Fallo or Attr/vho. Faelu is from fe-o-il, it is 
from the light ; whence paleuo,' fallo. and- fail ^ twyllq is from 
id-o-il, it is from the light; d'^ceivc is. froqi di-fi-ve, it is 
\arithout feeing; attraho and attraift'are from ad-traho, to draw 
to, or ad-troi, to'turn to. " 

"AvANT; Fi; Apei ; Apage or Abi. Fi is from f here 
Handing for p a part, and i for high or far ; whence ape! and 
ahi; apage is from a-p-age, go from this part; avantis from. 
a-vi-aent, from me let them go. 
r-'itrvi Audacious; RHyFYcus;'^HRusus; Audax* Au- 
dax is from hyd-ux, the length of height ; rhyfugus is from 
rhy-fy-ag-iu, he is too much exalted or lively ; tbrufus is from 
id^rhy-fy th, he is too upright or ftruttlng ; audacious is from 

Auger; Tar ADR; Teretron; Terebra. Taradr 
and teretron are from tori-tir, to cut the ground ; terebra is 
from tori-bro, of the fame meaning ; auger is from y-ag-ar, the 
afling in the earth, as if the firft auger was for boreing into 
the ground. 

Augur ; Dewin; Oionomantis; Augur. Dewin is 
from di-w-en, a dark or obfcure man of the heavens ; oiono- 
mantis is from oiohos and maint, the great birder; augur is 
from au for avis a bird, and gur man. 

Aurora; Waur or Auroera ; Eos; Aurora. All 
thefe come from the Celtic auf an hour, and oera the coldeft. 

Austere or Fiery; Gerwin; AGRiosor Austeros; ' 
Austerus or F^erox. Auftcros, aufterus and auftere are 
from w-if-tir, a lower countryman'; fierce is from fi-ar-fi, he 
is a country liver or dweller ; gerwin is from garw-un, a rough 
one ; agrios is from ag-ar-iu, it is a country aflion ; ferox is 
from fi-ar-ox, a filthy country dweller. 

Author; Audv/r, Gwaithwr or Cvfieithwr; 



AtJtotJRdoS } AtJcTbki Th^fefcem to come from the Cel- 
tic waith-wr, a wbtkMan^ dr from au, fignifying a fpring out 
t>f the earth, and id-ur, it is a mail, that is, he is a man 
that fprings out of dead matter* 


^AS. Thefe arc explained in the laft clafs. 

Autumn; Cynhauaf ; Oporaj Autumnus. Cyn- 
hai-ef, is the aftion of getting together } dpora is from y-p- 
ora, the hoiir or feafonable part) autumnus and autumn are 
from y*-tym, t^e time. 

Awe ; Ofn; Phobos ; MfitijS. Awe is from the inter* 
jeSion oh ; metus is from ma-tu, a great power; timer is 
from ti-moi', a great powef ; ofn is from the interjedlion oh ' 
^d fi-in, that is, ah me within ; phobos is the fame as phe-^ 
bpmai, to fe^f, which is cpmpOfed of phi-o-mi, life of me. 

Away ; Pell; Tele ; ProcXtl, Away is from a-way j' 
bell is from p-al, the part high or far; tele is from ti-aJ, the • 
pigh or far polTeffioiis ; proem is from pro-ac-al, go to the fat 

A.xli BWyAIL; PEi^kyS; A3CIA. Ax is from" thtt 
CJeltic hac, a tut"; bwyall is ftortt pwy-al, a powerful ftriking ; 
pe)ekus is froqi p-al-ac-iu, it is a powerful adling thing ; af- 
cla is frOni hac, a cut. 

AxleTree; ; Ex£L ; AkoM ; Axis* Exel and a^le are 
froi^ ac-el, the aftion of the fun ; axon is from ac-en, the 
a«5tipn of the fun or firmajftent ; and ax is from ac4s, a lower 
aAibn, the motion of the fuii being the higher. 

BABE; Bab AW; PaioIoM; Pupa. Thefe are from^ 
""bi-ah-an, a little offspring* 

Back; Cefn; Notos; Tergum. Cefn is from cau.- 
fin, the* Inclofing part; back is from be-cau, the inclofed 
•p^rt; tergum is from ti'-r-cau-ui, it is the inclofing fide ; 
notos is from in-to-fi, it is the covering* ^ 

Bacon ; Cigmox; Xx)iREiA'*tARX;LARDUM. Bacon U SB^J( 
from bi-hog-en, the hog food one ; cigmox andxoireia fignify 
hog*8 flefli ; fee Hog ana Flefti ; lardum is a dried thing* 

Sad or Evil ; Mall; Maxlo5; Malu-s. All ihefe 
come from fall, the devil, the m inl!e(ftmg;imb f, he^was caU^ct' 
fill, from afal, ormal,' an apple, on account of his tempting 
Eye with an apple; bad is from i)i-a2*to'<jmt'life"; cVlUs from* 
afki an apple. 

C a ^K% 


Bag or Sack ; Sax; Sakos; Sachus. Bag is frotn be- 
gan, a thing to (hut inorinclofc; fax is from fi-cau, it is a 

fliut ; whence the reft. 


Scalpo is frqnj fi-ac-al-pe, it is ading upon the part ; Knithio 
^nd knetho are from ac-in-ith, it is afting upon' it, ith being 
from id by inflexion ; nibble is from in-be-al, upon the part. 

Bait; Abwyd ; Edesma; Esca. Bait is either from 
bwyd, food, or be-at-it, to be at it ; abwyd is the fame as 
bwyd, and compounded of bi-w-id, it is the life of an ani- 
mal ; edefma and efca in a l.econdary fenfe, only fignify food; 
l)ut primarily they mean no more than the aftion of fitting 
down ; that being probably the ufud pofture at meals amongtt 
the Celts. ' 

Bait; Baeddu ; Bateuo ; Batuo. Thefe may come 
cither from the Celtic baedd, a boar, or from be-at, ^ thing att 

Bake; Pobi, Makddu orLAiNio; Matto, Leiaikoi 
Pepto orPTiso ; PiNso. Bake is. from bi-ac, the food anions 
pobi is from puyo-bi, to beat the food ; whence pepto and 
ptifo; maeddu is to beat; whence matto; lain io is to beat, 
whence leiaino ; pinfo feeriis to be from pi-in-fi, Jt is upon the 
food, p being put for b. 

Bald; Moel; Mitylos; Mutilus. Moel is from 
moel a hill, which is barren, compofed of m-al, great heights 
mitylos and mutilus are from m-ti-al-ui, it is the great hig^ 
lands or pofTcflions ; bald is from be-al-id, it is the high part. 

Ball; Pel; Palla; Pila. Thefe are compounded of 
pe-1, an extended thing, or from pe-ol, the fun thing, that b, a 
round thing. 

Bandy or Crooked Legs ;• B aol au ; Bl ausos ; Val- 
gus. Baglau is from be-gau-al, a thing fhutting upon ; leg 
i^ from al-ag, acting upon ; crooked is from cau-«-ar-ac-id, it ia 
the adlion of (hutting upon ; bandy is from bend-y, the be^d.^ 
whence the reft. 

Bank of a River ; Glan ; Agialos ; Ripa* Ript. 
is from r*-p-au, t^e water part; agialos is from gau-al-au-fi,. 
it is a {hut upon the water ; glan is from gau-au-le-in, a place;* 
fhutting the water within ; bank is from be-in-auc, a thing, or 
a part upon the water. 

Baptism; Bedydd ; Baptismos ; Baptismus. Bc-p 
dydd isfrom byd-iddo, life to time ; the other words are from 
bab-ti-es-au, a child under water. 

Baptize; Bedyddio; Baptizoj Baptizo. Thefe: 
are explained underthe laft clafs. 

Bar J BaRi Balbiss Repagulum. Barisfrombe-ar,. 

a thing 

B A 

Vl thijAg upon ; rep in repagum is the fame as bar tranfpored ; to 
which cauol-am has been added, to figilify fhutting about ; 
balbis is from b-al-bas, or be-is, a thing upon the has, or the 
lower thing, that is, the roof, which were the firftbars or 

Barbarous; Barus; Baros or Barbaros j Barba- 
Rus. All thefe are from the Celtic hi-ar-iu, itis a country 
life; but theterms inafecondary.fenfe, alfo fignlfy brutifh,- 
ferocious, voracious, &c. 

Bard; Bardd; Poietes; Poeta. Bard and Bardd arc 
from bi-ar-id, it is being upon, or the man upon aftion j 
poietes and poieta, are from poieo, to make ; which fee. 

Bargain; B arc an; Suntheke ; Pactum. Paftum 
is from pe-aft-iu, it \s a thing done or afted ; fyntheke is 
from fyn-tithemi, to» put together; bargen and bargain are 
from bi-ar-ag, the beings or men are upon a£lion ; or from 
bi-ar-gan, the men are upon the fong, from their noife at 
market time, or from its beings ufual to ring the bell in market 

Bark; Cyfarth; Knysao; Gannio. Bark is froni 
hi-hark, the animal hark ; cyfarth is from ci-a-frath, the dog 
will bite; knufao is from ci-'n-yfu, the dog will bite ; gannio 
is from cnoi, to bite. 

Bauk of Trees, &c. Plisg ; Phloios ; Cortex. Cor- 
tex is from cau-'r-ti-uxa, the upper flieet or covering ; bark is 
from be-ar-cau, the thing covering, or fhutting upon j 
plifg, is from pe-al-is-cau, the thing fhutting upon the lowefl; 
whence phloios. 

Barley ; Haidd ; Akoste ; Hordeum, Barley is from 
bara-li, that is, the family or houfhold bread ; akofle is from 
axos-ti, for the ufe of the hoiife ; hordeum feems to be from 
yr-ld-ti-iu, it is the houfe corn; haidd is from had-tu, the 
houfe feed. 

Barn; Yscybor; Apotheke or Sitophulakeion; 
Horreum. Yfgibor is from yfgib-ar, a covering upon the 
cornfheaves; barn is from bar-inn, the bread in; the Greek 
terms fignify the grain chefl ; horreum is from hordeum. 

Ba'rren; LlwM; Leios; Glaber. Barren is from ab-ar-en, 
from the high grounds ; glaber is from ag-a}-bri, from the 
high country or grounds ; 11 wm is from al-am the higheft pofie(- 
fions, of' the high about ; whence leios ; or 11 wm may come 
from ll;-um, a^s trwm, heavy, does from tir-um, up the hill or 

Barrek; Anfab^ Apais ; SteriliS:. Barren has beeil 

C 3 ^^'WCVR.^ 


defined under the laft clafs^ anfab and apai:^ are from the pr\r 
vatives an and a, and ^b or pais, a fon or child -, fterilis is from 
fi-ter-il, it IS high ground. 

Barrow ; Berfa j Phoreiok \ Vehiculum, Barroi^ 
is from the verb bear j berfa and phorion* arc of the fame figni- 
fication ; and vehiculum is from vcho to carry^ and the Celtic 
peuol, an inclofed thing *, but the primitive is hcr-ef» it is the 

Base; Bas; Basis j Basis. Thefc arc cpmpof(i»{ of 
be-as, the loweft part, 

Basinet; Cawell; JCax^athps ; Calathus. Gawrii 
is from cau-a], to (hut upot> ; Icalathos and calathus are froq 
cau-al-ith, it is (he {hutting upon; bafl^et is from ba, or b^-is- 
Cauad, inclofing the lower part. 

Bathp; Golxi; Klyso ; Lavo or Baineo. Golxj 
feems to be fromag-al-auc, an action upon the water 5 whence 
klyfoj'l^vo i$ froj|i al-au-ve, it is upon the water; balneoijs 
from b-al-jn-au, a thing upon ttxe ^atcf ^ bathe is from 
J)-au-ith, it is the water thing- 

Bathkeeper; Troxwr; LoqxRQXOs; Balkeatoi. 
Troxwr is from trwy-aucrwr^ the m^^n th^ro' tl^e water: 
Joutroxos is frcp[i louo to wafh, and troxwr; the ot)i6r ^rcnn 
are explained under the Jaft preceding clafs. 

Battle vPI'YMLlwyp;Polbmos;6ellum. Plymllwyd 
1$ from p-^-ma-allu-yd, it is an high gr^at ani^ powerful 
thing; polemps is from p-al-a-mau-fi, it is a great ^d po^frer^ 
ful thing ; bellum is from be-al-iu, it is an hieh or powerful 
thing ; battle is froni be-it-aL jt is an high or powerful 
thing. * . " 1 . . . . ... 

Batter ; Mathru; Ka^apateo ; Pes^undo, Mf>r. 
ithru is from mi-a-throed, I with a foot ; peffundo 13 from 
pee-in-do, to give the foot upon, or from pes-yntho, the fecit 
upon him ; katapateo is from kata-patep, to kick at j batter is 
from be-at-'r, the being at, o^: frorn pe-at-'r^ the foot at. 

Bawl; Gwai?3^i6 ; Jaxo; Vocifero, Gwauxio is 
from gwae-ux, |:he higher woe or cry ; bawl is from ba-w-al^ 
the high ba or cry of an animal ; jaxo is from iix in gwa'uxio : 
vocifero is from vox ferox, a fierce voice ; which fee. 

Bay Colour; Gwinau; Kuanqs; Badius^ Gwinau 
is from gwin-au, the whitenefs of water ; whence kuainos ; 
badius is from bi-au-idiu, it is the fight pr colour of water ; 
^hence bay. 

Beam; Garfan; Kerkis ; Tela. Carfan is from 
pau-'r-f^P^ to jnclofe the part; kerkis from cau-'r-cae, to in- 

' ' clofc 

B E 

doTe.the incloftire; beam is from be-am, to be about or to 
ihclofe; tela is from to-le, the covering place. 
. Bea^; Faian; KuAwros ; Fab a. Faian feems to come 
firom fi-hai-an, the food of the a£Hve one, that is, the bee ; 
bean is from be-an, the bee One ; faba is from fi-a-bi, the 
food of the an5mal ; kuamos is from keoenos a bee ; which fee. 

Bear j Arth ; Arktos ; Ursus. Arth is from ar-ithj 
it is the upon, that is, the animal upon ; bear is the fame by 
tranfpoliHoh ; atktos is frbfti ar-uxa-tu, on the upper fide ; 
urfus is from ar-ifa-iu, it is upon the ioweft 5 all implying it 
Jto be the aqimal that will b^ Up^rmoft. 

Bear ; Arwedd ; Airo ; Fero. Arwedd is from ar-w-id, 
it is upon an animal ; Whence airo ; bear is to be upon -, fero 
is from fc-ar; a thing upon. 

Beard; ^arf; Pareia; Barb a. Barf is from bi-ar-fi, 
life or growth upon me ; whence the reft. 

Beast; Bwystwl ; Biastes 5 Bestia. BwysfiHsFrom 
bi-w-fidd-fel, an animal that i^ like man ; the reft are front 
the Celtic particles bi-as-it, they are the lower life or ani- 

BEATjBAMoorPAY; Pwiroor Curo ; Paid, KairSo 
•or Krouo 5 PuLSO or Verbero. Beat is to be at 5 bang is from 
be-cng to be great or ftout; pay, pwyo and paio are from 
p-hai or hwi, to drive a thing, or to drive with the feet ; 
pulfo is from pe-al-fi, the foot or thing is high or up ; verbero • 
is from ver-bcr, to fpring the fliank ; curo and the reft are 
from ac-ar-w, an a^ion upon a man or animal. 

Beaver ; Afanc or Gastdwr ; Kastor ; Fiber; 
Anfanc is from a-fi-in-auc, a liver or dweller in the water ; 
kaftor is from the Celtic gaft-dwr, a water bitch ; beaver is 
from bl-a-ver, a liver or dweller of the fprings ; fiber is the 
fame from fi-ber. 

Beautify; Ymwisgo; Enskeuaso; Adorno. Ym- 
wifgoisfromam-wifg, a garment about ; whence enfkeuafo ; 
beautify is f. om be-aut-i-fi, to be out to fight ; adorno is from 
^d-orno, to d-corate. , See Deck. 

Because; Am; Eneka or Dia; Propter. See the 
prepofttion For ; bpcaufe is from bc-caufe ; am is from a-m, 
the hills and dales, or the parts Jibout which vifibly exift ; 
when^ce am is made ufe of to exprels about, for, &c. eneka is 
fromen-ux^ the higher parts ; dia is from icUa, it is the earth; 
whence da good ; prqpter is from pro-pob-tir, the parts about 
pr neighbourhood of every country or region. 

Beckon or Nod ; Amnod ; Neust aso ; Nuto. Amnod 
il frpm am-nod} for ^ mark ; whence the veft.-, ^"A.c^^x\i^OiL^t\..fc 

B fi 

ivhich feems to be compounded of be-gwn, be it known, it 
having no relation to the fign of nodding. 

Bed; GwELi; Ki^ine; Lectus. Bed is from be-hid, 
that is, covered or not feen ; gweli, which feepis to be the 
root of the other words, is from gwal-y, the form or feat of i 
hare, &c. which is alfo compounded of cau-w-al, covering an 
^imal, or in a more primary fenfe (hutting an animal from the 

Bedstead j Erxwin ; Erma ; Sponda, Bedftead is 
from bed feat, or fide ; erxwin is from er-cau-w-in, the (hut 
of a man in ; whence came erma^ fponda is from fi-p-w-untho, 
it is a thing tp put a man in. 

Bee; Gwenynen; Keoenos; Apis. Gwenyn, bees, 
is from ag-w-en the high or divine adling animal ; whence 
keoenos i bee and apis are from a-bi, the apimal ; that is, the 
eminent animal. Se^ Poifon, 

Beech ; Fawydd j Phegos ; Fagus. ^ Fawydd is from 
^-au-id, it is a watery growth or wood ; beech is from bi-auc, 
the watery growth ; phegos and fagus are of the fame figni- 
fication j but it feems poffible that thefe words may fignify the 
Springing tree, as the primary fenfe of au or auc is fpringing, 
find in a fecondary fenfe it was made ufe of to exprefs fpring 
water, and at length w^ter in general, as in the Latiix word 
^qua, water. 

Before i Rhag or Cyn ; Pro or Gar; Pro, Prje 
or Ante. Rhag is from r'-ag, the aftion; gar is the fame 
by tranfpofition ; cyn is from ac-»in, in acSlion ; ante is from 
an-ti, before pofleffion ; pro and prae come from the Celtic 
pri, firft, which is the fame as bro or bri, the firft country or 
pofleffions ; before is from be-fore, all being expreffive of the 
firft motion or aftjon, which went before other things. 
*hrtiC Beget; Geni ; Gena*; Gigno. Geni is from ag-in, 
gifting in ; or from ag-in-ni, our afting in ; whence the reft, 
except beget ; which is from berget, it is getting a being ; and 
get is from ag-it, it is an adion. 

Begin; Dexreu ; Arxomai; Incxpio. Begin is from 
bi"!«ag-in, a being in aftion; dexreu is from id-ac-ar, it is upon 
action; whence arxomai; incipio is from in and capio, or 
perhaps from in-ac-pe-iu, it is a thing in aftion. 

Behold or Observe ; Edrxx ; Derko ; Aspicio. Edrix 
is from id-ar-ux, to fee upwards ; whence derko ; afpicio is 
from a-fi-p-ux, the feeing a thing upwards on high; obferve 
is from ub-fi-'r-ye, it i$ the feeing upwards; behold is fronei 
t>i'bi-al-id, it is feeing high, . 

JJ^LABouR ; GwEiTHio or Camau ; Kamno ; Laborgu 


Gveeithio is from gwaith, work, which is a compound of 
ag-w-at, a man at a<Stion 5 laboro is from la^-be-ar, a hand 
upon a thing ; whence belabour. 

Belch; Bethbirio; Ptairo or Ereugo; Ructo. 
Belch is from be-al-ax, a thing ading up ; betheirio is from 
beth-hai-ir, ai9:ing up or high ; whence ptairo; ereugo is from 
er-hai-ux, thing z6ting up ; whence ru£):o. 

Believe or 'Confide; Hyderu; Tharreo ; Con- 
FiDO. Hyder is from hyd-ar, it is lying along upon, or re- 
lying ; whence tharreo; confido and connde are from con-fidd, 
faith together ; believe is from be-al-ve, it is a thing upon, or 
lying upon. 

Bell or Clock; Clox; Kodon; Camp an a. Bell 
is from pell, far ; clox and clock are from gal-ux, a high cal- 
ling ; kodon is from uxa-don, the higheft tone ; campana 
feems to be from ux-am-pena, high over our heads. 
."Bellow; Beixio; Boao or Mukaomai; Mugio. 
Bellow is from bi-rlow, the animallowing; beixio is from 
bi-ux,the animal's high; whence boao ; midcaomai and mugio 
are from my^ux, of the fame (ignification. 

Belly; Bol or Tor; Gaster or Koilia; Venter. 
Tor is the fame as twr, aheap, which fee; venter is ffonn 
vewn-tor, the within or inteftine heap ; bol is from bi-ol, an 
animal's hollow part ; belly is from bol-y, the animal's hollow 
part^ koilia is from. the Celtic cauol, hollow. 

Belong or Appertain ; Perth ynu ; Diateino ; Per- 
TiNEo. Perthyn is from parth-hyn, this part; whence per- 
tineo and appertain ; diateino feems to be a corrupt term form- 
ed of dia and thyn, in perthyn, or it may come from per and 
dia and tynu, or from parth-tynu to draw towards one's part^ 
a^ cattle do towards the part they were bred ; belong is from 
be-long, to be long at or accuftomedto a place. 


Maine feems to be from man-ux, the upper part or fituation ; 
whence bench and bancus ; . a(kantes is from the Celtic 
as-c2^mdda, a low ftep; whence fcamnum. 

Bend; Camu; Kampto;Curvo. Camu is from cau-am, 
to fliut about or to furround; kampto is from cau-am-^peth, to 
fhut about apart ;.'curvo is from cau-art-ve, toifhnt uponit^ 
bend is from theCdtic ben-in-id, it is the end inwards. 

BENEFfT or K^DNESs ; Caredigrivydd ;- Xaris ; 
Beneficium. '.Garodigrwydd isrfrQnix:anedig-rwydd, freeand 
beloved ; xaris is from caru to love; benefit and beneiicium are 
from bene-fio, . pr -fcicip, to do good ; or. weU-j kindnefs is: from 


kind. Set Kind, L6v^, &c. where thde coai(k>iiffd8 iilefo^ 
fher explained. 

Benevolence; Cariad.; Xrestotes; Bbk£volen« 
Ti'A. Thefe flgnify good will, and are exfrfa^ved under (i» 
feveral terms whereof they are compofed j but it may te 
proper here to obfcrve, that the adverb beiifr^ weU, comei 
from the Celtic pen or ben, chief. 

. Beside j Eithr ; AxAk ; PrAter. Eitlir is fix)m 
ci-tir^ the high land ; whence atar 5 praeter is frcin printer, 
the firft land, which was.' the high land ; befide is fix>m be- 

Better; Gwell ; Kallion ; Melius. Gwell tsfrom 
tix*b-e], the high firmanient; kaiiion is from ux-al^cn^^ of thiB 
iame meaning ; melius is the fame from m-al-iu; better U 
from bi-ter^ two lands, as da good is from id-a, jt is die 

. Between; Rnvrfc; En, Ei or Metaxu; Inter. 
Rhing is from r'-in-gau, the inclofnre; en is the fame as the 
£ngli(h in; inter is from in-ter, the in of the land ; between is 
from bc-tu>in, the thing that has the poflefiion withixi ; me- 
taxu is from am-tu-uxa, about the upper fide, or about the 
fartheft part of the poficffions ; ei is the high, that is, the hi^ 

' Bewail; Wylo ; Ololuo; Ejulo. Wylo is from 
w-yl-o, man from the light; whence the reft, with the ad» 
dicion of be in bewail. 

Bewitch; Swyno; Baskaino ; Fascino. Bewitch is 
from be-witch ; fwyno is from fi-w-cn, it is the man of die 
bca\'en ; fafcino is from fe-fi-en, he fees the heaven 3 baf- 
]^anio is the fame. 

-Beyond; Draw; Pera; Ultra. Draw is from 
drwy-au, thro* the water ; pera is from p-or-au, part out of 
the water ; ultra is from eu+le-trwy, the place ihro* the water j; 
beyond is a contraftion of be-yonder, which is compofed of 
ab-au*yn-tir, from the water into the land. 

Bib ; Yfed ; Pino ; Bibo. Bibo is from bi-ab-au, life 
{pom liquid; whence bib ; pino is from bi-'in^au, life in liquid ; 
y-tfed is from y-fi-id, it is the life. 

i Bible or the Book ; Bibl ; Biblos ; Liqer. Book is 
from be-o-cau, :^- thing from a covering, that is, the bark qf 
a tree ; liber is.fnomal-bor^ or bren, upon the tree ; which fee ; 
ind ja& xb'. the reft they, ieem to come from be^bi-al, upon si 
growing thing. .■ ' , 

. Bltti^ Anox> kAkoctoj- JuBEO. B:id is from he-id, ba 
. :-. it 4 


i( ; aaog Is ^om yit-ag^ in a6Hon j wHeme anpgaf juVecr te 
^rpm hairbiup beafitivc, or fromheibio, pafrbjr, 

fiiG; Hy.OR$ ilkOKOS.; Crassus, Hydr is bornkji-Xp 
|iie bold, lofty or confident ; whence adros ; big is front 
b-i-ag, an b^;b aftiyo»thiqg ; ^r;aljU is from vr-v-ila-iu, it is 
ai£ting above the lowers 

Bile; Uwjsids .Af^los; lUpus. Bile is from bi-^au-al^ 
^e powerful. water. of jife ; ^wefi i> ff jm anc-w-nl, thef pow«r 
(^rfuJ animal water ^ ^los is fron^ a-bi-al-au^ the powerful 
water of fife ; ulcu> h a c6rrupt term by a tranfpofition of 

^iLh or Beajc; Knifi^ ; itHZ^f s Rostrum. Bill 19 
from bi-al, and beak is from bi^iuc, both fig^ifying the xipperi? 
or the point i^rt ; ji^ is from r'-en, the higher part, or that 
next the firmamefit; roftrum is from the Cdtic r'-yfu-truyn# 
the confuming f>ofe ; a;^d rhiQ may come from rhing, he^ 
tween. a" 

BifjDiNG; Knysruiiifi tt^oKk^ Fibula, Rhwymttn 
U from rboi-amrun, tofut ahtuitcupip; perpne is from p-ar-un^ 
a .thing upon or apaut one ; biA4 i$ ^9^ be-in-id, it is a thing 
upon i iihuia is from &^bi-ajf, itjg^a tl^u>g.vpQn* 

fiiiNp or Chain; Tido ; Deq; Cateno or Ligo. 
Tido is from tidy a chain, which is a compound of t-id, it is 
(bp firmamei^t, . wUJch draws <>r attracts ;^ teo is from t-iu, it 
ifi 0ie firmament j cateno is ^pm ac-t-cn-iu, it is thea<9;ioii 
of the firmaoxent ; chain is from su^-^eisir the fiimament adion^ 
|igo from alren-ag, is the a^ioA of the Ornament, 

Bird; Adar or Adenj Drnis or Feteinos; Avis. 
Adar, birds, is from ad-auir, to the air ; aden, a wing, as well 
as a bird, is from ad-en, to the (kjr ; ornis is from w*-r-en-fi, 
they are the flcy animals ; peteii^os is from petheu-en-fi, they 
are the things of the flcy ; avis i« froip au-vi-fi, they are the 
ijcy livers or dwellers j^ bird is from bi^ir-id, it is the high or 
^he (ky liver. 

Birdlime ; Glud ; Gloios ; Vrscus. As to birdlime 
fee Bird and Lime ; glud is from gau-al-id, it is the covering 
pr ftxking upon ; whence gloios ; viicus is from ve-if-cau, it 
trovers the lower. 

Birth or Nativity ; Genedig aeth ; Genete ; Na- 
TiviTAs or Genesis. Thefe will be explained under the 
T^ords generate, generation, nation an4 nativity, except birth, 
which is from bi-r'-ith, it is. the life. 

Bishop ; Esgob ; Episcopos % Episcopus. Efgob is 
from ys-ca-o-b^, the keeper of lif? ; whence the reft, witt 
ipme tranfpofitioo of letter^. 

B L 

Bit;..Tam 6r Tamad ; Tomos ; Segmkntum. Bit is 
from bi-it, it is food -, tarn, tomos and tamad are from to-am, 
aind to-anv-id, the covering about, or what is covered j feca- 
mentum is from feco-maint, the cut fubftance. 

Bitch; Gast; Kunos ; Canis. Gaft is 'from ci-as-it, 
it is the lower or female dog ; as being the common expreffion 
for a female; and, being alfo commonly. ufed*for the Celtic 
verbid, it is; bitch is from bi-aft-it, tranfpdfed; kunos and 
canis are from the Celtic cian-as, the lefs, lower, and fem^e 

Bite; Cnoi; Dakno; Mordeo. Cnoi is either from 
ci-yno, a dog there, or from hac-in, a cut in ; dakno is from 
id-cnoi, it is a bite or cut; m6rdeo is from the Qsltic mdr-idiu, 
it is ravenous or voracious; bit is from bi-it, it is food, or it 
is eating. 

Bitter; XwERU; Pikros; Amarus.' Xweru is from 
ox-er-iu, it is an ox water, ox being a Celtic note of excla- 
mation made ufe of upon tafting; any thing bitter, or other- 
wife difagreeable to the tafle ; pikros is from p-ox-er-fl, it is 
an ox or bitter water thing; amarus feems to be from au- 
mare-iu, it i» fea water ; bitter is from bite-cr, the bitii^ 

• Black ; Du ; Aithos; Ater. Du is from the priva- 
tive di, dark; aithos is from a-thua-fi, it is the darkeft, thua 
being put for ddua, the fuperlative degree of ^u ; ater is from 
a-di-V, the darkeft, or perhaps from aith in aithos, with the 
addition of 'r fignifying the; black is from bi-lack, fight or 
colour lacking; and lack is from il-ac, from the .light. 

Bladder; Xwysigen; Kustis ; Vesica. Bladder is 
from b-dal-dur, a thing to hold water; xwyfigenis from auc- 
w-fi-cau-in, it is thelhut in of animal water; whence kuftis 
and vefica, though fomewhat imperfeftly. 

Blade; Palfais; Omoplate; Scapula. Pilfais is 
from p-al-fa-is, a thing upon a lower parti fcapula is from 
fi-cau-p-al, it is a covering upon a thing, or upon the uppejr 
part^ omoplate is from amvp-al-id, it is about or upon the 
Aipper part; blade is fromb-al-id, it is a thing upon. 

Blade; Llafn; Lamna; Lamina. Lafn and llamn 
are compdfed of lau^fin and min, the hand edge; and the 
.Engliih word here may be either frooithe fame original with 
that-defined under ^he-laft preceding clafs*; or it It may come 
from b-lau-id, it is the hand thing; but all theffe words arc 
;priniar^y from the fame origin. " 

i.: Bl^aaievBeio; Diaballo; Cul]?o. Bcio is from b- 
ei-iup it is a thing high; diabaHo is from-divballo, to eaft 


over; and ballo is frpm b-al-iu, it is a thing high ; culpo Is 
from ac-al-p, it is a thing ading high ; blame is from b-al*- 
. amy a thing high about. 

Blanch or Whiten; Cannu; Leukaing^ DEAtBo: 
Cannu is from cami, white, which is a compound of ac-cn^ 
from the firmament; leukalno is from liu-can, a white colour} 
dealbo is from id-a)bus, it is white, which fee; blanch is froin 
tlie Celtic particles iab-al-en-ux,' from the high firmament. 

Blandish, or Flatter^ Gwineithio ; Saino ; 
Blandior. Gwineithio is fronv gwin-hei-ith, it is a white 
adion ; faino is a corrupt term from kaino in the lafl clafs ; 
blandior is from ab-al-en-id, it is, from the firmament ; flatter 
is from f-al-id, ' itis a high thing or a white thing; blandifli is 
the fame as blandior.- - . 

Blaspheme or Prophane ; Difenwi or Halogi^ 
Bebeloo ; Prophano or Blasphemo. Dif-enwi is to 
mifhame; prophano and prophane are from prof-enwi, to 
name from or difFereht; blafphemp ^nd blafpheme are from 
bi-al-is-phemi, to call the high' Being lefler ; bebel6o is from 
ah-bi-al-w, to de^ra(% from Ae diviiieBeinff; halogi is from 
hi-ial-w-ag,* aftlng bold towards the divine Beings or a bold! 
callihg or language of the divine Being, 

Bleat; Balau; Blexo; Balo. Baku is from bi-** 
alw, the. animal call; whence the reft, with the iaddition of 
ux in the Greek, which makes it the^imal high call, and of .' 
out in-the Englifh, fignifying it is calling out. 

,Bl£$s; Bbnditpi.o; Euphemeo; Benedicd. Bendi- 
thio feems to come primarily from beA-teithio, the chief or 
beilgoing on towards the end ; blefs is from the CeltiC^blds, 
a tafte or relifh, or blys, a longing or lufting ; the Greek" and 
Latin Words fignify to fpeak well, and have loft their primary . 

' Blew or Green; Gwyrdd or Glas; Xloros, Ga- 
iASis or Glaucqs ; Glaucus or Viridis. Blew is from 
be-liii, it is a light thing; green Is from ag-^-in, the growth 
upon the ground, which is the gr^; das is from ag-al-as, 
the growth upon the lower part; the relr are from the Celtic, 
jind further defined under the word Green. 

Blind; Tywyll or Dall ; Typhlos or Alas^ Cje- al3c 
cus. Dall is from the privative di-il, without light ; tywyll ii 
from di-c^il, without the light of the fun ; caecus is from fi- 
cau-iu, the fight is fhut; blind is from ab-il-en-id, it being 
without the firmament light ; alas is from a-il-fi, ht is from 
the light; tvphlos is from di-phi-il-fi, he is- without the feeing" 
light. ' -^ ' 

. Blockish 

StoCKisH; l^wt; BtAXj Bardus. Pwl i> froiH ap-tf- 
il, from the light of the fun 5 Max is fr6in ab-ilruXy from the 
high light ; blockifh is frqm .ab-il-ux-ifli, h^ is from the )fi^ 
Jidit; oaridMS is from ab-ir-idiu, he is froiri the light or firie, 
jSpfe it may be rcmarlced once for all, that the Initial ahd final 
vowels are generally dr6pped jn the compofltion of words; or 
they may be from p-o-al^ a thing from high^ as under the 
yrord Burnt. 

Bj-oopj GwAEDi Aima; SAKGUIS4 Gwaed is from 
^uc-w-idj it is the animal ftring water; aimiis ftom, 
flay water; fangijis is from n-in-auc, it is the water of fpftoft 
yatjer within; blood is from bi-al-w-id, it is the high aninuu 
Ifirater of lif<^. 

B;,oWj Inspire or Breath; .XWrrtuj Phtjso 6r 
JCnuo; Flq, Funpq or Insi^iro. ICwthu is from ae-w-ith, 
)t is d^c animil ^ftioni phyfp is from phy-w-fi, it is the ani- 
caal life ; kpuo is ftofij ^wj-in-Wj it is the adibft iii aninid;i 
&>W2X\i blpw are from fi and 1^i-al-Wj an aninia?] 
fundo is ffonfli-untha, life yrithin him, or from fi-unda, ,Iij^ 
Vav^ing; infpiro and infoire ard from in-es-^p-ir, a lowtY 
thing within higher; breath is from the Celtic bi-r-with, fljii 

" BiuWT; PwL; AM^BLUfi; ObTUsis. Pwl is from pHO* 
^ a thing from being hlgja or from being the edg^; wh^rid^ 
amblus and blunt ; obtuus is from o-b6rtu-fi-eS, the part of 
tl^e Mp that is lower. 

. Blunt; Pylu; Ambluno; HeeeTo. Thefe are ex- 
plained und^r the laft clafs of words, but the letters are fome* 
•^rhat mifplaced, as in h^beto^ which feems to be from hi^ob* 

Boar; Baedd; XoiRds; Verre^. Xoiros is from 
jix^aa-w-ifi, the animal riding. the female; verres is frprii vl- 
ar>-C»» ^^ animal upon the lower or female; boar is fromt>lW- 
ar, tK© riding animal j baedd is fjoni bi-had^id, he is the 
feeding anioaal. 

BoAR0 or Tablb; Bwr,pd; UpEftoA; TabulatA, 
Bwrdi feems to be from hiw-r-id, it p the food upqrij' 
whence upeioa, with the addition of the Celtic y the, arid' 
alfo the EngUfli word board; tabulata arid table are fromTu- 
bu-al, the fide or part the food is upon, or they may ^ fi^J 
mfv the flat fide or the 'flat part. 

Boast or Glory; Auxiq; Auxeq; Glorior. Auxid 
i^from ux-iu, it is the higher or upper part or the edge of any 
thing; whence auxeo; glorior and glory are from ag-al-V, 
9a£igh aAioBs boaft i$ from bi-^as-it, it is lif^ from being low. 



Boat or Skiff ; Cwx or Ysgraph ; Kymbe o? 
Skafe j Cymba or Scapha. CWx is from cau-au~ux, a^ 
veflel upon the water ; whence kymbe. and cymba fomewhat 
corruptly; yscraff iS:from ys-cau-ar-au-ef, it is the veflel or. 
fhut upon the water; whence (kifF, (kafe and fcapha; boat is 
ftom b-au-it, it is the water thing. 

Bodkin or Needle; Gwael; Kalamis; Cx^Avrs. 
Bodkin is from b-ad-ac-in, a thing to aflr in ; needle is frcnn^ 
ni-id-il, it is not feen or in the light; gwael. is from ag-o-if, 
ading out of the light or fight ; clavis is from ac-Iervi, aftihg. 
out of the place of fight, or light; kalamis is ac-il-am-is, afl:- 
ine from the pi J^ce of light. , § 

^ODY or CoRl»; Corf; Xroos; Corpus. Body is 
from the Celtic bod-y, the abode, which is a compound of 
bi-w-id; it is- thq ilvihor,, dwelling, or abode of an anrimal ;, 
corf is from cau-*r-fii. the cheft of, llfd; whence the reft. 

Bqil; Penddyn; Elcos ; Ulcus. UJtus and elcoi arc, 
from w-al-cau-fi,^ it is a gathering upon a man ; boil is from 
be-w-al, a thing] upon amah; penddyn may be from pen- 
ddU-y,n, a black head. within, or froitt gen-ddyn, a head upon' 
a man, 

Boiling; Burw;. Brasma; Ebullitio. See the 

Boil; B^rwI:;, Bkusid^; fifiutLio. Berwi Is i^oax br^ 
ber-hwf, the wateir in a6Uon; whence brufo; ebullio and 
boil are from bi^au-al, the water fprihging up. 

Bolt; Bollt; Belos; T£lum. BoUt and bolt are 
from b-al-it, it is a thing high ; belos is from b-al-iu, it is 4 
thing high; telum is from it-al, it is high. 

BoNE; AsGORN; OsTOUN; Os. Bone is from bi-o-ni, 
the life of us ; afgorn is from as-.g6r-ni, the lower nouriCb- 
ment .or feeder of us; the Greek and .Latin terms are from as 
in algorn. 

Book or BarJc of aTree;.Lyfryn; Lepos; Libjer. 
Lyfryn is from al-y-fren, .upon the tree, fren coming from^ 
pren a tree, by 'ihfle<9jtbn; whence liber and lepos; bark is; 
from b-ar-cau, a thing, (hutting upon or covering; book i% 
from b-cau,. th& thing covering. 

Boot; Curan^ Kothornos; Sura. Boot is froiyta-. 
bout; curan is frpmgjar-un, ^the.leg or ffiank one; wlf^ncb:' 
kothornos ; fura is froni crus., the leg or iflfiank. 

Booty or PRey ; Helfa ; . Xeia>, PrjkDa. TSpox,^\^\ 
from about-y, the about; prey and praeda are from Ai Celtic* 
praidd, a prey, which is a comppiwid of pVy-idd, it js the yerV . 
mill,; belfa is from hd, to drive together, vrt>Jfc1iat(o"isV 

4 "- i;^m^^'M^ 

B O 

compound of hai-d, upon the driving; whence leia; dcokuti 
a Greek term for vermin, feems to come from the Celtic fldy- 
faeth» a prey. 

Border i Or or Cwr ; Orgs; Or a or Terminus. 
Terminus is from the Celtic tir-min, the land edge ; or, is 
from o-r, the o-indofure or circle which inclofes the infide^ 
cwr is from cau-'r, the inclofure ; border is from b-or-dir, the 
part of the land inclofmg ; oros and ora are from the Celtic 

Born; Geni; Ginomai; Nasco. Geni is from ag-^ 
• in, afting in; whence ginomai; nafco is from in-fi-ac, it i» 
adling in; born is from b-or-un, life from one. 

Both;'Deuodd; Dittos orAMPHO; Bini or Ambo» 
Deuodd comes from dau, two; dittos is from dau-it, it b 
two; bini is from ab-un, from one; whence ampho and am-« 
bo by tranfpofition ; bodi is from fci-ith, it is two. 
uU<; Bottom OF Thread; Pellen; PelotoM^ Glomus. 
PcUen is from p-al-yn, a diing upon or covering the within j 
whence peloton; glomus is from cau-al-am, covering upon 
the about ; bottom is from b-to-am, a tiling covering about. 

Bough or Branch; CXinc or Clofen; Kladoi^i 
Ramus. Cainc is from ac-in-ac, growth upon a growth ; 
branch is from the Celtic braix, an arm; clofen is from ac-al" 
ef-yn, it is a growth uppn; whence kladon; ramus is. from ' 
ar-am, upon the about or covering; bough is from b-ag-hi, a 
thing ailing or growing' higli. 

Bow; Bwa; Bios; Arcus. Bow, bwa and bios are faid 
to come from bw, a found of terror, becaufe the bow and ar- 
- row was a weapon of great terror before the invention of fire- 
arms ; but it feems more likely to come from its bending for ni ; ' 
or to be compofed of the Celtic biw-a, a fprihging or forcing 
from, as arcus is from or-ac-iu, it is afting from. 

Bowels; Colydd; Kolon; InteIstinum. Colydd is 
from cauol-id, it is the inclofed or inteftine ; kolon is from 
cauol-in, the inteftine or the fhut within; bowels is from b- 
o-w-al-fi, they are the things from being upon an animal, or 
fromb-o-ol, a thing from the light or out of fight; intefti- 
num is from intus-tu-yn, within the infide. 

Bowl, Globe or Ball ; Pel ; Palla ; Pit a. Thefe * 
fignify the fame as a bottom of a thread, or a part dr thing 
covered, which are expreffed by p-o-il, a thing from the ■ 
light, covered or unfeen ; round bodies being commonly ex- 
preffed by ftrata fuper ftrata, or coverings upon coverings, 
jile Bowl; Fiol; Phiala^ Phiala. Thefe are of the 
iame origin 'as thoic of the Isil preceding clafs. 

3 Box J 


tedx; BLVXdrBok; Bux'os; BuxuS. Thefc afd frotii 
b-al-cau, and be-cau, a thing fhuttin^ upom 

Boy; Bax orBAXGEN; Pais; ruER; Bachgehjsfroni 
bi-ac-in, life or being from generating j boy is from bi-w-yj 
the living man j piier is from ap-ur, frohi a man, oir the fon 
of man ; pais feeins to be frotn p-^hai-fij it is the adive of 
living thing; 


NisTER. Blrai3^iu is from braix-ar-iu, it is upon the arm | 
of which the reft f<*em to be coinpofed. 

Brag or Boast; Auxio; Auxeo; GtoRioRi Brag 
is from b-ar-ag» a thing upon aftion ; the reft are explained 
under the woM Boaft. 

Brain; MENYbD; Me^ynx; Cerebrum or MeI^-^ 
BRANA* Menydd is from am-isn-yd, the inclbfed high end j 
brain feems to be from bri-en, the highcft part j cerebrum^ is^ 
from cau-'r-bri-.enj the inclofed highcft partj whence the 

BraMbl&s or Bushes; Perth; BAtos} RuBui; 
. Perth is from p-ir-ith, it is the burning things ; brambles ar^ 
from be-ir-am-ble-fi, they are the burning things about the 
place; bufbes is from b-is, the lower things; batos is frpm 
b-it-es, they are the lower things; rubus is from r'-^be-es^ 
the lower things; 

Bran; Bran or Rixion; Pituron; FuRfur* Fut*- 
fiir fhould be wrote farferj it being compounded of fe^ar-far, 
it is upon the corn or bread, and which word far is from fi-ar^ 
food from the earth, or bread ; bran is from bara-in, upon 
the corn or bread ; rixion is from r'uxa-un, the upper fliell i 
pituron is from peth-ar-un, of the fame fignification; 

Branch; Clofen or Kangen; Klema or Klen**; f?:{oh 
Ramus. Thefe are explained under the word Bough ; but" ' 
it may be farther obfervied here,' thiat feveral parts of nature are 
named after the parts of the human bodys 

Brass; Pres; Xreos; JEs. Thefe fighify & thing 
lower or lefler than gold, from p-aur-es. See Golit 

Brave, Adorned or Elegant ; Tacclus ; Aola- 
os; Eleqans or Sl»f endiduS. Tacclus is from to^au-al- 
fi, it i3 the high covering, that is, like the fkyj which is ' 
beautiful ; aglaos is the fame from cau-ial-iu ; elegans is the 
/ame from al-cau-en ; fplendidus is from is-p^al-in-idiii, it is 
a high thing upon a lower ; adorn is from ad-or^en^ at the 
border of the fky ; brave is /rom b-ar-vi, a thing for f^ht^r 
ihew. ' 

D fi&AY^ 

B R 

Bray, Brefy; Bremo; Fremo. Theie are of die 

fame origin, and formed in confequence of hearing the cry 
or noifc of animals, as brcfy from bri-fy, fignifies the couih 
try dwellers. 

Bread; Bara or Biccos; Bora or Artos; Pakis 
or Esc A. Bara is from bi-or-ar, food from the earth; 
whence bora and bread ; panis is from p-in-as, a thing in the 
. ground ; efca is from as-ac, from the ground or the loweft 
part; artos is from ar-ti-asj upon the ground; biccos or hic- 
cus is from bi-auc-fi, it is the liquid food; and though none 
of the Cumbri or Celtic lexiographefs have adopted this fa- 
mous terni, it remains ftill a very common expreifion in North 
Wales; for when a child calls out for food, he cries mam 
tiaus mali, that is, mother or nurfe fome crumbled bread and 
milk; hence arifes a ftrong proof that the Celtic or Cumbri 
language is the fame as the Phrygian ; but of this elfewbert. 

Break ; Rhwygo ; Ereiko ; Franco, All thilb 
come from ir-w-ag, the aftion of an angry man > the coniis" 
quence of a hot or fiery adion being to break; but break is 
compounded of bi-ir-ac, the action of an angry beings aod 
frango of fi-ir-in-ag, an angry being in action. 

Break of Day, or Aurora; Waur or Auroera} 
AuRioN; Aurora, The Englifh is from break and day, 
which fee; the reft are from aur-oera, the coldeft hour, tbc 
morning being the coldeftrpart of the day. 
i/r i^r'on Breast ; Bron ; BRUN'f Pectus. PeSus is from p-ux- 
r it, it is the higher part; the other words fignify the fame a» 

the brow of an hill ; which fee. 

Breath ; Anadl ; Anemos ; Anhelitus. Sec the 
word breath under Blow ; and anemos under Soul ; and as ta 
anadl and anhelitus, they feem to come from en-ad-al, ens or 
exiftence rifmg up. 

Breaches; Bryccan; Rakos ; Bracca. Though 
thcfc terms in a fecondary fenfe may fignify a ragged garment, 
the force of the letters according to my rule of defining cx- 
prefs a covering ; perhaps from their covering the part* called 
the naked parts, rakos being from r'-cau, the covering, and 
the reft from b-yr-cau, the thing covering. 

Breed or Generate i Cenhedlu; Gennaoj Gignoh 
Thefe come from the Celtic geni, to be born;, which is com-' 
pofed of ag-in, a<Sing in or coming into exiftence; but breei 
is from b-ir-id, it is into life. See Generate. 

Bribe or Present; Rhodd;, Doron; Munus. Rhodd 
• ieems to be from r'-ddod, the gift ; whence doroh by tra^ifpor 


fition I hiuttus hitotti mi-i-un-'iu, it is me to one ; prefent is 
from pre-fent, to fend befote 5 bribe is from bri-be, a thing 

BuiDLfe ^ FrWYN; Xalincs; Fr^num. Bridle is 
from b-ir-'dal, to hold the angry or fpirited animal ; frwyn is 
from fe-ir-w*-yrt, it is upon an angry animal ; fraenum is the^ 
fame; xalinos is from cau-lin-w-fi, it is a line to keep an 

Brier j Miaren ; Batos ; Rubus. Batos and rubus 
are explained under Brambles and Bulh 5 miaren is from am- 
dl--en, the one about the ground ; brier is the fame as the Cel- 
tic mi&ren, from the infleftion of the radical confonant, ancf 
leaving out en one, which made the plural mieri or bieri. 

BftiNG ; Cyw AN ; KoMiso ; Gero. Gero is from ag- 
ar-ui, it is being upon aftion ; bring is from b-ar-in-ag, a 
thing upon adion ; cywan feems to be from cy-o-in, toge- 
ther from in ; komifo is from cwm-fi, it is together. 

Bristles ; Gwryx ; Xaite ; Set^. Gwryx is from 
ag-ar-ox, a growth upon a hog ; xaite is from ox-hai-ti» 
growth 6n a hog; feta; is from fuf-ty, a fow growth. j briftle 
is from bri-fi-ti-al, it is agrowth on the upper part. 

Brittle ; Bray ; Thraustos ; Fragilis. Brau is 
from brrhau, to fliorten, which is a compound of ab-ir-haiy 
an aftion from high ; brittle is from bri-ti-al, fliort of height ; 
fragilis is from fri for bir by inflexion, and agilis ; thraSlos 
feems to be a corrupt term from brau. 

Broad or Large ; Llydan or Rmwth ; Platus, 
Lauros or EuRus ; Latus or Largus. Lied and rhwth 
fignifying breadth feem to be the primitives here j and led is 
compounded of l*id, it is 1 ; and rhwth is from r'wyth, the 
wind ; lauros is from the Celtic lawr, the ground ^ largus and. 
large are from laur-ge, the furface of the earth; latus is front 
led ; curus is from r'wth. 

Brother; Brawd ; Adelphos ; Frater. Brawd is 
from bro-w-id, he is the fame country or neighbourhood, as 
coming from the fame mother, which fee ; brother is from 
brawdj and ur-man, by inflexion of the d into th ; frater is 
the fame by inflctftion of the b into f ; adelphos is adei^ nor 
in the Eofic dialeft, and a compound of ateilu-phro, th b in 
bro inflefting into ph or f, and the .final r being tranfpofcd. 

Brow of a Hill, &c. Bron ; Proon ; Cacumej^ 
Mo^NTis, &c. Bron is from bro-en, an high country ; 
whetKtr proon ; cacumen is from uxa-man, the higheft part ; 
montis is from mau-en, great and high ; brow is from broa, 
country ^ which fe^ 

D 2 ^^^^^\ 


. Brown ; LtiucoxDDu ; Leukophaios ; Fusctisi 
Leucoxddu is from liu colour, cox red,' and du black ; leu- 
kophaios is from liu colour, cox red, and phaios blade ; 
phaios is from fi-o-ft, it is from light or fight ; whence fiifcuSi 
with the addition of cox red ; brown is from bro-cn, thehig|i 
country, which is commonly brown from the heat and drynds 
of the fituation. 

Browse or Depa5Ture ; Fori ; Pherbo ; Pasco. 
Pori is from p-or-i, the end or head fr6m high, that is, the 
head downwards ; whence pherbo ; pafco is from p-af-ac, the 
head afting low ; departure is from id-p-af-tir, the head is 
low on the ground ; browfe is from b-'r-w-es, the animal's 
head is low or down. 

Bruise ; Clais ; Molops ; Vibex. Clais is from ac- 
al-is, an adlion upon a lower ; molops it from ma-al-p-is, ^ 
great thing upon a lower ; bruife is from bri-is, from the h^ 
country lower -, vibex is from ve-be-ux, it is from a hi^ 

Brutish ; Hurt ; Brotos ; Brutus. Hurt is from hi- 
ar-it, it is the high country, or from hi-ur-it, it is a bold 
man ; but rather the firft, as the other words are from bri-it| 
fignifying that it is the high country. 

Buck i Iwrx^ Dorx; Caper. Buck is from t>t>ux, an 
high animal j iwrx is from i-arw-ux, the higher rough one ; 
dorx is from id-arw-ux, it is the high rough one; caper is 
from cap-hrr, a long or high top. 

Bubble ; Boglyn ^ Pomph^lux ; Bulla. Boglyn is 
from b-ux-lyn, a thing upon the lake or water 5 whence the 
reft, wilh no material variation. 

Bud ; Blaguro ; Blastano ; Germino. Bud is 
from bi-id, it is alive j blaguro is from b-al-ag-ar, a thing up 
from the earth ; blaftano is from b-al-af-tan, a thing 5igh 
from under the ground ; germino is from ag-ar-min, afting 
or growing on the edge of the ground. 

Budget; Bolgwd; Bolgos; Bulga. Bolgwd is 
from bol-gwd, a belly bag ; whence the reft, except budget, 
which is from buyd-gwd, a meat bag. 

Buffalo ; Bual ; Boubalos ; Bubulus. Bual is 
from bi-al, an high or powerful animal ; whence the reft. 

Building; Adail; Oikodome; Edificium. Adail 
is from ad-a-il, adding from the earth or ground up or high ; 
building is from b-adail-eng, a great building thing ; oikodo* 
me is from uxa-tu-ma, the higlieft great houfe ; edificium is 
from e-tif-uxa-iu, it is the higheft houfe. 

Building Large; Amogr; Megaron; Edificium 


B U 

Magnum. Thefe are explained under the laft clafs of words, 
except amogr and megaron, the laft of which is faid to come 
from megas great, and airo to lift up; but amogr is from 
am-og-ir, great and high about. 

Build or Establish ; Sylfaenu ; Themelioo ; 
FuNDo. Sylfaen a foundation is from ifal-faen, the low. 
ftone ; build is from b-al-id, it is a thing high ; eftablifli is 
from eifta-be-al-i{h, it is a thing ftanding up ; themiloo is 
from thu-am-al-iu, it is pofleffion great and high ; fundo is 
from fe-untho, it is in or within it. 

Bull; Tarw; Tauros; Taurus. AU but bull arc 
from the Celtic taro,to ftrike; and bull is from bi-al, an high 
or powerful animal. 

buLLocK ; Bystax ; Moxos ; JuvKNCUS. Byftax is 
from bi-is-da-ux, an animal lefler than an ox ; bullock is 
from ab-al-yx, from the high ox ; juvencus is from jvanc, 
young ; moxos is from m-ux-o-fi, he is from the great ox. 

Bulwark or A Heap of Earth ; Carnedp ; Kor- 
THUS, Xarakoma ; Agger. Carnedd is from cae-ar- 
en-id, it is an inclofure upon a height ; bulwark is from be- 
al-ar-cae, a high inclofure ; agger is from a-gaer, an inclo- 
fure ; xarakoma is an high inclofure ; korthus is from caer- 
idiu, it is an inclofure. 

Bundle; Seldrem or Drem; Dragma ; Manipu- 
Lus. Bundle is from b-yn-dy-law, a thing in the hand; fel- 
drem is from ifal-dwrn, below or under the fift ; dragma is 
from dwm-cau-am» the fid (hut about ; manipulus is from 
manu6-p-al-iu, it is the hand upon a thing. 

Burthen; Baix ; Baros or Ax thqs ; ONUsorpAscis. 
Baix is from b-w-ux, a thing Upon or above a man, or ani- 
mal ; baros is from b-ar-w-fi, it is a thing upon a man or animal ; 
axthos is from ux-ith-w, it is above a man j onus is from yn-w- 
fi, it is upon a man ; fafcis is from fe-as^ux-fi, it is a thing 
above a lower ; burthen Is fromb-ar-ddyn, a thing upon a man. 

Burn; Losgi; Phlego ; Calefacio. Bnrn is from 
bi-ir-in, in the living fire ; Llofgi is from al-o-is-ag, the ac- 
tion of the high O or the fun below ; calefacio is from calidus 
and facio, making hot ; phlego is from fe-al-ig, it is the high 

Bury; Claddu; Glapho ; Sepbliq. Claddu is from 
cau-al-idiu, it is covering or (hutting upon ; whence glapho ; 
iepelio is from fi-p-al, it is a thing upon ; bury it> from b-ar-y, 
the thing upon. 

BusH; TwYN or Perth; Batos orDAMNOs; Dumu.s 
«r RuBUJt Twynis from ti-w-yn, a avail's V^dtevwxvovvs ^v\- 

D 3 vsxsjfe 

C A 

sius is from tu-mi-iu, it is my houfe ; damnos is from tu-am<* 
nos, a houfe for the night ; the reft are explained under 4e 
word Brambles. 

Buskin j Curan ; Kothornos ; Cothurnus. Cunn 
is from cau-ar-in (hutting upon or inclofmg ; whence kotkpr- 
no>, and cothurnus ^ buflcin is from be->is-caa-in, (hutting upon 
the lower thing. 

But i Ond 5 Aute j Autem or Sed. Ond is from o-en-id, 
it is the high or firmament O, or the fun, which moves^ as but 
does in difcourfe ; but is the fame as about ; aut is the fame 
as at, to it -, fed is fi-at, it is to it ; autem is from at-aoiy it is 
about it. 

Butter; Menin; Boutvron ; Butyrum. Mcnin 
feems to come from mai-en-yn, it is the may one ; boutyron 
is from bou-tyrru-un, the cow coagulated one ; whence thereft« 

Buttock ; Morddwyd ; Meros ; Femur, Mordd- 
wydd is from maur-ddwy-id, they are the great two j buttock; 
is from be-two-og, the two great things ; meros is from mawr, 
great ; femur is from fy-mawr, my great. 

Buy or Purchase; Prynu ; Priamai; Emo. Prynu 
is from pri, for pris, a price, and in, upon ; whence priamai; 
emo is from am for, and hai, afticn of driving ; buy is from 
b-hiiy^ driving a thing j purchafe is from p-ar-ac-fi, it is a thing 
upon aftion. 

By; Wrth; Para or Ana; Per. Per feems to be 
from p-ar, the part upon ; fo does para ; wrth is from yr-tu^ 
ith, it is the ftde ; ana is from the Celtic ynaj there; by U 
from b-y, the part or fpot. 

lAC or Shite; Caxu; Xaso ; Caco. Thefe arc 
explained under the word Shite, and lignify to put from 
or out, from ac^ac, acSing from. 

Cackle; Clwccian; Kokkuso; Glocitor. Tbefeare 
cither from the found, or from ac-a). wc, the ad^ion of cackling* 

Calends ; Calan ; Kalendai ; Calendje. Thcfe 
comes from the Celtic word glan or clan, the edge, aaargin 
or beginning. 

Calf of the Leg ; Croth ; Gastroknemia ; Sura. 
CrccU is from crwth, a hunch ; the Greek fignifies the belly 
of iha fhank ; fura is from crus a leg ; which fee ; caJf dgni^ 
fits the knuckle of the leg. 

Call ; Galw ; Kaleq ; Voco. Galw is from ac-al^w, 
/nan's high adtion; whence the reflj except voco, which i& 
tiom vox, a voiQt^ which fee*. 

C A 

Callotjs; Caled; Xalepos; Durus. Caled feems 
to be from u:?ca-le-id, it is the higheft part, which is the hard* 
€ft ; durus is ftom the Celtic dur, fteel; which feems to come 
from dau-ir, a double fire. 

Calumny or Cavil; Cabl ; Dtabqle ; Calumnia, 
Cabl is from eau-bi-al, a fhut upon fight, or deceiving ; 
whence cavil ; diabole is from dia-bi-al, againft the vifible 
light 5 calumnia is from cau-lui-mewn, fhutting in the light ; 
ivhence calumny. 

Camel; Camel; Kamelos; Camelus. Thefe come 
from cam-al, crooked upon. 

Candl^e or Link ; Canwyll; Lyxnos ; LYCHNusor 
Candela. L)^xnos and lychnus are from leuix-ftos, night 
light; canwyll is from cannu-o-yl^ to fee out of the light; 
whence the reft. 

Candlestick ; Canwylleren; Luxnon ; Candela- 
brum. See the laft clafs wherein candle is defined, to which 
has been added pren and ftick. 

Candour ; Gwinder ; Leukotes ; Candor. Gwin- 
der is from gwin-id-or, it is from white ; whence the Englilh 
and Latin ; leukotes is from lui-cox-id, it is a red colour, or 
the colour of fire. 

Cane or Reed; Corsen or Cawn ; Kanne ; Canna. 
Cawn is from ac-au-in, a growth in the water ; corfen is from 
corf-en, the fen one ; reed feems to be from ar-au-id, it is the 
watery ground ; hence the reft. 

CANCKERorCRAB; Cranc; Kar KINGS ; Cancer. Crab 
is from cr»u-ar-be, fliuttirig upon a thing; cranc is from cau-air- 
in-auc, fhutting u{ton in the water; whence the reft. 

Canton; Cantref ; Ekatontes ; Centuria. Can- 
tref is from can-tir-ef, it is an hundred poffeflions, towns or 
townfliips ; cailton is from can-ton, an hundred towns or 
pofTeffions ; but this ton in its primary fenfe, feems to come 
from the Celtic twyn, a bufli, which is a compound of ty-w-yn, 
a iftan's hoafe or habitation, or one man's abode. 

Cantred; Cantref ; Ekatontes ; Centuria. Thefe 
are explained under the laft clafs ; but it may be here farther 
obferved, that tir, ter and ti fignify pofleffionand property, as 
well its land, country or earth ; and that ton and town figni- 
fied the pofleftion of one family, at the firft divifion of coun- 
tries ; when that family increaled, it came to fignify a town- 
fhip, or the poffeflion of a multitude, but no determinate num- 
"ber ; and the cantref confifted of an hundred families, who 
were land proprietors. 

Cap ; Cap^ Kapa ; Capa. Thefe arc from cau-^^ t<^ 
cover the end or head. 

D 4 Ck^q^^ 

cRI^ATA Capon ; Capwl ; Kapelos ; Capo. Thefc come from 

p^p-al, the high top. 

Car ; Car ; Karron ; Carrus. Thefc arc from ac-ar, 
siting upon> either of fighting or carrying. 

CaivCase ; Celanj Telexos ; Cadaver. Celan is 
from cau-al-cn, the (hut cheft or cafe of one j carcafe is the 
iamc from cau-ar cai; ; cadaver is fo from caiad-ar ; telcxos is 
fo from ti-al-cau-w, n\:nv< houfe rov^rin^. 

Care ; Gofal o: O . v r*. -Ti: , aedos ; Cura, Cura 
^4 care are froqi the Celtic c: u-iii, tp fliut upon; cadwracth 
and kedos will be c.\pl:.ined in the next fucceeding clafs j gof4 
\^ from cau-ef-a}, ihuttinrr uppn him. 
}t.^ Care; Caj.w ; Kedo^ Curo. Cadw and kedo arc 
from caiad-iii, ir is (hut up ; the other words are explained i^ 
the iaft preceding clafs. 

Caress; Caru; Erao ; Amq. C^ru is from ac-ar-w, 
^n idlion upon an animal ; whence crao and carefs ; amo is 
from am-w, about an animal, as to furrour^d or clafp a pcrfoif 
within the arms. 

Carrier^ Cariwr ; 3?arqn; Portitor. The thrc? 
ixrft mentioned words are frqm car-wr, a car man ; portitor is 
from porth-wr, a portman or ferryman ; whence the Latin term 
pprto was framed ; a3 kartereo, carry, and cario, were from 
the Celtic word car. 

Carry; Cario or Cywen ; Kartereo or Komiso ; 
Fero, Porto or Veho. Veho is from ve-hai, he is upon 
aftion ; fero. is from fe-ar, he is upon; cywen and komifo are 
explained under the word Import -, and the reft under the Iaft 
preceding clafs. 

Cart or Car ; Car ; Karron ; 6arrum. See the 
word Car. 
'*' Carve ; Carfio ; Karpiso ; Carpo. Thefe comp 
*AT/ from ac-^r-fe, or pe, it is afting upon. 

Cask ; Cerwin ; Keramion ; Testa. Tefta is from 
to-is-to, a covering of a lower covering; cerwin is from 
cau-ar-win, a (hut or vefTcl upon wine ; whence keramion'; 
^a(k is fromcau-is-cau, a ftiutor covering upon a lower (hut; 
yeflel is from ve-ls-al, it is upon a lower. 

Casket; Cibin; or Cistan; KiBosor Kistis; Cis,- 
TELLA or Capsula. C\h\n is from cau-b-in, to (hut a thing 
within ; whence kibos ; ciftan is from cift a chcft, with the 
diminutive an ; whence killis, ciftella and cafket ; capfula i$ 
from cau-p-fi-lai, a Ihut that is lefs. 

Cast, Throw or Toss ; Llcxio or Taflu ; Thrul- 
JEO, ^ALLO or Megalauxeo ; Jacto. Taflu is from 


tHcf-^1, it is up to the fky ; Uixio is from al-ac-iu, it is an high 
a£lion ; megalauxeo is from mega-lixio, a great high a£lion ; 
ja&o is from j-ac-to, an a<^ion to the (ky ; ballo is from 
l)-ai-iu, it is a high diing ; caft is from ac-is-t, a£iing from low 
to the (ky ; thrulleo is from truy-al, thro' the height ; whence 
throw ; tofsis from to-fi, it is to, or to T or the (ky. 

Cat j Cath ; Kattes ; Catus. Thefe come from 
the two Celtic particles cadw-tu, to keep houfe, that is, the 

Cataract ; Rhai ADR ; RiTHos ; Cataracta. Rhai* 
adris either from rhuo-dwr, roaring water, or from rhyd-dwr^ 
the ford watery the Englifh and Latin words are from cad-dwr- 
ux-id, it is the felling of high water, or of water from, above. 
Cave j Ogof ; Oikiskos ; Cavea. Cavea and cave 
fire from cau-vi, a (hutting from fighl;^ ogof is from o for 
.y-cau-fi, the (hut or covering from (ight ; whence oikiskos. 

Cause ; Axos ; Axos or Aitia j Causa. All thefe 
(:ome from the Celtic ox, a complaint or lamentation; from its 
being made ufe of as a note of exclamation ; but from its cha- 
rasters it fignifies the ai^ion of oh, as axos from ac-o-(i, it is the 
a£tion of on ; aitia is from hai-it-ah, it is the adiion of ah ; the 
other words are nothing more than axos tranfpofed. 

Cease or Desist ; Gostegu or Peidio ; Aphistemi 
or Payo ; Discedo or Desisto. Peidio is from ap-idiu, it 
is from ; payo is from ap-iu, it is from ; goftegu is from 
jig-is-dig, a^ing lefs angry ; defift and the reft fignify to ftand 
i^om, and are explained under their component particles. 

Celebrate j Moli ; Melpo ; Celebro. Moli is from 

m-ol, the great all, that is, to magnify ; melpo is from m-al-p 

the great and high thing; celebro is from the Celtic celu-bro, 

' the hidden or divine country ; whence celebrate ; praife is 

from bri-fi, it is the high country. 

Celerity, Quickness or Swiftness ; Cynt or Cwit ; 
OKUTE.S5 Celeritas. Cynt is from cy-in-ti, the firft in 
poffeflion, or theforemoft; celerity is from cy-al-'r-ty, the 
firft upon the po(reffion j whence celeritas ; the reft are from 
the Celtic cwit, v^hich is from cy-w-it, he is the firft man or 

Cement, or Sand and Lime; Priddgalxj Xalix; 
^EMENTUM. Cement and cementum are from cau-mewn-it^ 
it is the flopping in ; priddgalx is from pridd-galx, earth, or 
fatid and lime ^ xalix and lin^e are defined under the word 

Censure or Carp ; Ceryddu ; Kakiso ; Carpo. C&- 
fyddu is from ac-ar-id^ it is an action upon^ cargo and c^x^^ 


is from ac-ar-p, an aSion upon a thing ; ccitfure is from 
ac-in-cur, an aciion in fighting ; kakifo is from Jcakds, bad ot 

Certain; Dilys ; Dflo:^ ; CEftTts. Dilys is from 
the privative di-lys, withour a rcjeftiort ; whence deiod; 
ccrtus and certain arc from fi-ir-idiu, it is fecn or clear light* 

Chafe or be Angry; Digio; Extheo; Indignor. 
Angry is from anger ; which is from cng-ir, a g;reat fire; 
digio is from dig, anger 5 which is a compound of id-ig, it if v 
fire ; whence indignor j extheo is from ig-xwithu, blowing the 
fire ; chafe is from xwaf, breathing. 

Chaff or Sweepings; Us orUscuBioNj Skubai,onj; 
AcusorQyiSQuiLLiiE. Chaff is from ac-of, jgoing orf*; nt 
feems to exprcis a lower kind of corn, which m Celtic isud; 
acus is from ac-us, iit/fi the corn j as to the other words fee 

Chain ; Cadwen ; Kathema ; Catena. Thcfc ccwne 
from the celtic cadw-in, to keep or inclofe within j and 
cadw-mewn, of the fame fignification. 

Chair; Cadr; Kathepra; Cathedra. Cadr is 
from cauad-ar, an inclofed feat ; whence the reft of dioft 

Chalk or Lime; Calx; Xalix; Calx. Calx is 
from acJux, the aftive duft, whence the reft, except lime, 
which is from al-am, high about. 

Challenge or Vindicate; Sialensio; Katelenxo; 
ViNDico, Vc-in-digio, he grows angry, feems to be the 
origin of vindico, and vindicate ; the other words fignify that 
the found grows louder. 

Chamber; Ystafell ; Kamara ; Camera. Yfta- 
fcll is from eilbf-le, the fitting place ; the other words are from 
the Celtic cau-mur, the inclofed wall. 

Change or Alter; Newidio ; Ameibo; -Muto. 
Ameibo is from the Celtic am-hcibio, for paifmgby; alter is 
from ail-tjr, another pofleflion ; newidio is from newidd, new, 
which fee ; muto is from the Celtic mudo, to remove, but 
fee Dumb; change is from ac-in-ac, action upon aftion. 

Channel; Canol; Solen; Canalis. Thefe fccm 
to come from the Celtic ceuol-in, hollow within. 

Chappel; Capal; Klisia ; Capella. Thefe are 
from cau-p-al, an high covered thing. 

Character or Letter; Argraff or Llythyren ; 
Xarakter or Gramma; Character or Litera. As. 
■ a right explanation of thefe words may be a ftep towards dif- 
cbvenng by whom letters were firft invented, or at leaft repiUi- 

C H 

lifhcd, it mgy h^ proper h^te fo rmafi^h^ t^at by a chara^r i^ 
megnt ^ r^ r^dknWiQn of n^ture^ and by a letter a call or 
&}und^ponn9$\ifPi fe^^ bfimgfrQxn ^1-tir, a call upon th« 
land, and charadler from ac-ar-tir, aflion upon the land ; bwt 
the Giieek9 hap^Bp fuch mm ^^ i^U ^ ^ ejipreffion for laud or 
e^rtH) nof th^ Rppafi^ 'jtill t^jsy ^rriyed in Italy, amongft the 
Gauls an4 (Qejites j neither had they nnade ufe of Uie particle 
f i S .^gf^J9^ i$ f<i(W ^-graff, a yiew of the earth ; which word 
grafF is coaa^v^ed q[ ag-ar-fi, an ^&ion upon life i whence it 
^ems prpbafaje |hat .engraving with charaders was the firft 
^lethpd of ^fljdng ; gramma is from grafu and ^n; atx^ut^ 
fignifyifi* J>yi«w of the worjd. 

Charge j Arxiad ; Arxe 5 Imferium, Arxi^d 1$ from 
f rxi to cpi|i|i^uid i which fee ; charge is ux-ar-ag, a6^ing 
^pon thp earth j arjire is the f^me gs anciad -, imperium isr 
from ain-p-^r-jiu, h.e is over wart of the earth. 

Chariot j Cerbyd j Kh ajdon 5 Rh^da. Chariot 
feern^ tq be nothing more than car-it, it is a car ^ rhaidon 
and rhe^a feem to co^ae from the (]!^ltic word rbed^g, to run ; 
which is acc^po^nd of ar-hyd, ag, an a<9:ion upon^theftretch 
or length 5 cerbyd i§ from car-byd, the life carriage. 

Charm or I^^chant j Swynoj Epaoo ; Incanto, 
Swyno is from fi-w-yn, to fee or fifig upon a man; charm is 
from fi-ar-mi, to fee or fing upon me -, incanto and inchant are 
of the fame fignificatipn ^ epado is from epi-ado, to fmg 

Chace ; Hela ; Helao ; Venor. Heia is from hel^ 
to drive together ; whence helao ; chace is from ac-ci-fi, it i& 
aSing or getting together ; venqr is from ven-ar, upon the 
coming in. 

Chastise or Correct; Cospi ^ Ekdikeo; Ulciscor 
or Castigo. Caftigo and chaftife are from the Celtic word 
gofteg, to filence, which fee ; correct is from the Celtic cyro, 
to beat i fee Beat and Corri^dt ; ukifcor is from al-fi-cau-ar, 
high found (hut upon i cofpi is from cau-fi-ap, to ihut found 
from, or to fdencc. 


Chat is from, an aition high atj goflip is from 
ag-w-fi-up, acSing a man's found up; dwndrio is from 
ton-dau-in-rhuo, the tone or found of two in roaring, or 
making a nqife; tonthorifo is from toh-dau-ar-y-ft, the 
tone of two upon the found i muffo is from mau-fio, muqh 

Cheap, Mean or Vile ; Gwael ; Phaulos ; Vilis* 
Gwael is fropi ag-w-o-il, an action of masxftoxs^ tJsx^Yv^^^ 


6r height ; whence {^aulos, vilis and vile ; mean is from 
mae-o-en, it is from high j cheap is from ux-ap, from high. I 

Chear i Hyfrydu I Phaidroo ; E^HiLARo. See the 

Chearful; Hyfryd; Euphron; Hilaris. Hjrfryd 
is from hy-fry-id, it is the high ground ; the Greek term is 
from the Celtic hy-fron, a high hill j hilaris is from the Cel- 
tic hi-le-ar, upon a high place ; chearful is from chear-fuU j 
and chear is from the Celtic ux-ar, the upper ground* 

Cheek ; Box ; Stoma ; Bucca. As to ftoma fee 
Mouth ; box in the plural boxau is from bi-w-cau, the cheft 
of man's food ; whence bucca ; cheek is from chew-cau, the 
chewing cheft. 

Cheek Bone ; Grudd; Gnathos; Maxilla. As 
to the Engli(h fee Cheek and Bone ; grudd is from cau-r-id, 
it is the cheek or cheft ; whence gnathos ; maxilla is from the 
Celtic moxa-le, the place of the cheeks. 

Cheese; Caws; Turos; Caseus. Cafeus and cheefe 
are from the Celtic caws, which is a compound of cau-^au-fi, 
it is clofed or coagulated liquid or milk; turos is from the Cel« 
tic twr, a heap. See Coagulate and Milk. 

Cherish or Indulge ; Emwythau ; Paramuthig- 
MAI ; SoLOR. Emwythau is from e-mwy-ith-hai, the 
making much ; whence paramuthiomai ; folor is from fol-ar, 
the fun upon ; indulge is from in-id-al-ag, it is making much . 
within ; cheriih is defined under the word Chear. 

Cherry; Cerysen; Kerasos; Cerasus. Ceryfen 
forrficd by adding en, one, to cerys, cherries, to form the fingu* 
lar number is from cer-is, a ftone under ; whence the reft. 

Chest ; Cist ; Kiste ; Cista. Cift and the reft of 
thofe words are either from cau-is-it, it covers an under, or 
from cau-eifte, the fitting cheft ; chefts or coffers being fliH 
tnade ufe of in many parts of Wales to fit upon. 

Chide; Ymryson ; Erison ; Jurgo. Chide is from 
the Celtic cyd, together, that is, ftriving together ; ymryfon 
is from am-refwm, or from am-rhy-fwn, for being noify; 
whence erifo; jurgo feems to be fromj-ir-ag, the hot adion. 

Chief or ExTREAM; CYorARx; Akros; Prjecipu- 
vs or ExTREMUS. Ci is from ac-i, the firft aftion or moti- 
on ; whence chief; arx is from yr-ux, the higheft ; whence 
akros ; extremus and extream are from ux and terminus, a ^ 
term or border ; praecipuus is from pri-ci-p-ux, the firft chief ', 
part above. 

Child.; Plentyn; Paidion ; Filiolus. Child is 
/Urorn sic-hiUidy he is from our race or our offspring ; plenty 



U from plant-dyn, man's plant; paidion is from pais^ a hoy* 
See Son. 

Chimnby; SimnaV; Kaminos; Caminus. Thefe 
iignify no more than (hutting or inclofing from cau-mewn ; but 
pibell feems to be the primitive Celtic term for a chimney^ 
which is compofed of p-ab-il-all, a pipe difcharging out from 
the fire. 

Chin ; Gem ; Geneion j Mentum. Mentum is ftom 
the Celtic mant, the jaw ; gen is from ag-en, the ading or 
opening one j whence the reft, 

Chissel; Cyn; Sphen ; CuNEUs. Cyn is from cau- 
yn, ihut in; whence the Greek and Latin terms ; chiflel is 
from cau-is-U, ihut under or below the light or out of fight* 

Choke; TAGUorMYGU; PiNGc*or Angxo; Suffo- Phi^o 
CO or Ango. M3^u is from mwg, a (moke ; fuffoco is from 
fi-fvvg9 it is fmoke; tagu is from it'^cau, it is ihut up; pingo 
is from p-in-cau) the thing ihut within ; angxo and ango are 
from yn^cau, (hut within ; choke feems to come froni fufFoco, 
or from fi-cau-ac> it is a (hutting a^on or chokeing. 

Choler; G£;iti; Xolera; Cholera. Geri is from 
auc-ir-i, the rifing hot water ; the other words from auc-al-ir, 
ar^ of t^ie fame fignification. 

Choose; Detholi; EkleCo; Deligo. Detholi is 
either from id-oth-li, it is from the multitude, or from da-oth-« 
li, the good from the multitude ; eklego is ek-li-ag, af^ing or 
chooiing from the multitude ; dcligo is from de-li-ag, choonng 
or a£ling from the multitude ; chooie is from ac-o-(i> it is add- 
ing from, or choofeing. 

Chop OFF; Tryxu; Ektruxo; Occido. Tryxuis. 
£rom-tory-ac, to cut from ; whence ektruxo; occido is from 
ec and caedo or cado, to kill or to fall ; chop is from ac-ap, act- 
ing from or chpping. 

Church; Eglwys; Ekklesia; Ecclesia. Church' 
or kirk is from the Celtic cyrx, a great meeting or concourfe ; 
eglwys is from cy-al-y-fi, it is being together upon fpeaking 
or preaching ; whence the reft. 

Chyle or Coagulation of Milk, &c. CEULEDf 
XuLOS ; Chylus. Ceuled is from cau-laeth, fhut up or co- 
agulated milk or liquid ; whence the reft ; but iee Milk^ 
where thofe terms are further defined. 

Cinders or Ashes ; Llidw ; Aithole^ Cinis. Llydw aithj 
W from al-idiu, it is an high or rifing thing; ai thole is from 
aeth-al, afting high; ciriis is from ac-en-fi, it afts high; 
cinders is from cinis-de-ir, the duft of the fire ; adhes is from 
m-hi'fi, it is a low thing high or fUxng high. 

' 3 C\ikQ^\-^V 

C L 

Ciftcife; Cvtx; Ktklos; CiRCutvi, Cytxisfmn 
cau-il-ux, the inclofure of the high light or the fun ; trhenct 
kyklos ; circulus is from cau-r^ the fbut, aiid cylx § \rhence 

City J Dinas; Asttj; Civitas. Dinas k from ti-jfies, 
the nearer pofl^cms or habitations ; whence aftu by tranfpo' 
fition of the particles and dropping the n, whereby the fcftfe 
is loft) pollefiiont together ; civitas is from 
ci'^vi'ti^ livite together in pofleffions. 

Clack; Ulecian; Klanooo; Clangof. Thefe come 
from ac-^d^ac, an a6Hon upon ac, that is, uStioh, 6r from 
ac-clec, the adion or found of dec. 

CjLAifooR; Clegr; Klangge ; CLAKG611. Tbefo 
are froih t^e words defined in theiaft precediilg dafs. 

CtAF or Clap Hands; Cyrodwylo;^ Krotaliso; 
Pl Acri>Q. Clap is from ac-al-api, an afiion upon a thiiig, or 
of founding ; cyrodwyio is ffoiW cyro-duy-W^ besltiAg &e 
two hands ; whence kratalifo ; plaiido is from p*al-idiu, it 19 
upon the part, or a founding upon tbe part ; al b«ing ih^ ^aftW 
cle commonly made ufe of to exprefs found, calling, &c. 

Claw or Scratch; Crafu ofCmoi; ICkao; Roti»d# 
Crafu is from ac-ar-fi, an aftion upon me ; whence ^ratc)l> 
knoi is from ac-in, aflting upon, or from ci-yno, bh dog ther^ ; 
whence knao; rodo is hom the Celtic Fhwd, tuiJt^ cl^v^ii 
from the Celtic ae-law, the aftion of the hand. 

Clay; Clai; Xali:;?; Lutum or Calx. See Cliatfe 
and Lime ; hut clai and clay feem to be froiti cau-al-y, fbtf 
fhutting or clofmg upon ; and lutum is from tbe Celtic k-tutiy 
a tight or cloie place, 

Ulean; Glan; Kalos ; PuLCHER. Gtan is from ag- 
al-en, an aftion upon the Iky, or from the fky, firmament §t 
lieaven ; whence clean and kalos ; pulcher is from ap-il-ux^f 
from the high firmament light. 

Cleanse or Purge; Glanhau ; Kluso; PuBL<5d/ 
Cleanfe, glanhau ana klufo are explained under the wtM^ 
clean; purge and purgo are from ap-ir-ag, from the a6Kon <rf 

Clear or Bright; EcLURorGLYw; Aglaos; Cla-^ 
^LUS. Eglur is from' ag-liu-ir, from the colour 6f fi#e|^ 
whence clarus and clear ; gly w is from ag-liu, from eoloitfis €# 
the aftion of colour or light ; whence aglaos ; the En^lh 
word bright is the fame as the Celtic berth, as appears in &k4 
word prydferth, which is a compound of bi-er-it, it isKfti iJHP 
the water, or from fi-er-it, it is feen in the water, or perha^ 
from bl or fi-er-ti, the property of feeing in the water. 


c o 

CwARKO fro OTj) CiiHioj KAttiEBifio; Lisroie* ji" t< 

See the word Clear. 

Cif AVE ^ Rhamu or Rhuygo j Rhegnumj ; Pundo, 
f^undo is from th» C^ic fe^yn^^cUur it is iii two s rhanu reein9 
to W fromiwr^uq, s^bovQ one ; as to the reft fee the following 


ScissURA. Rhwig is from ir-w-ag, the angry man's aiSlianj 
whence rbegma anl irhakos j breach is from ab-rhwyg, front 
an angry man^s action ;. cleave is fronfi the Celtic ac-li-ave, the 
a<9:ion of the faw with U. 

Cloak i Coxtj Xlamys^ CbplaM'Ys. Coxl i3 from 
cau*UK-al« a covering above the upon, or nppfcr coverings 
whence the rqft, . 

Cloath; Amdano^ Enduo; Induo. Amdano is 
about bin^> whence etiduo and induo; cloath ta from cau-al-* 
W'itha it is a covering -uppn a man or animaL 

ChotHi GwisG or Carp 5 Rakos pr Ethes; Vestis 
or PanniTs* Cloth is explained under the laft clafs ; pannu* 
is from the Celtic pannu^ to full ; carp (ignifies a long gar- 
ment, from caii-ar-p, a covering over die foot or lower part ; 
whence r^kos i gwifg is from cau-w-is-gau, man^s covering 
above the lower covering, or tlie upper drefc i whence ethes and 

Cloudy J Niwliog of Cymylog; Nepheloede-s or 
Omixlos> Nebulosus. Cloud is from cau-ol-id, it is 
fliutting out the fun or light i niwliog is from nifwl or niwl^ 
a fog or cloud, which is compofed of ni-ol, no fun or lights 
whence nepheloedes and nebulofus j cymylog is from cwmwl, 
a cloud, which is a compound of cau-am-ol, fliutting about> 
or covering the fun or light; whf?nce omixlos. 

Club ; Clwb ; Klaba 5 Cla va. Thefe feem to be 
from ac-law-b, a thing acting in the handy or from cai^-lau- 
b, a thing clofed in the hand. 

Cluck 5 Clwcian^ Kokkaso.;. Gloc^tor. The{e 
may be from the found. 

Cluster or a Bunch of Grapes; Swp; SxAPHULA^^jt^J 
Racemus; Swp is from is-up, above the lower,^ or a heap, 
from fi-wp ', ftaphule is from fti-a-^phe-al, it is a thing high -, 
racemus is from ar-if-am-iu, it is about the lower j bunch i» 
ffixn b-yn-cau, a thing covering. 

Coagulate; Ceulo otTyrru ; Turqo; Coagulo. 
Coagulate is from the Celtic ceuog-laeth, fliut or inclofed 
jBiilkor liquids whence alfo coagulo; ceulo is from ceuol-au» 


c o 

inclofcd, (hut or coagulated liquid; tymi is from twr, as 
heap ; whence tyroo. 

Coat OF Mail; Llurig; Lorikiok; Lorica. Llurig 
js from al-ur-ig, upon a fierce or angry man ; whence loria 
and lorikion ; coat is from cau-it, it is a covering, and nudi 
from ma-al, is great and powerftil. • 

CoBBLK ; Hassio ; Akeomai ; Sarcio. As to thofe 
terms fee Couple and Saw. 

CocK; Ceiliog; Alektor; Gallus. Cockfeemsto 
be from ceiliog, which is a compound of galu-og, the great 
caller ', and gallus is from the Celtic galu, to call ; alektor if 
from alu, to call, ac a£lion, and tor m tomis for omis a bird 
in the Doric diale£l, or from tor, and kaleo to caU, tranf- 
pofed iqto alek ; but it feems too abfurd to bring it from »• 
]e£t6r, abed. 

Cockle; Coccos; Koxlos; Cochlea. Whether th» 
be the fifh wherewith the Greeks and Phcenicians dyed the 
icarlet or not, the Celtic coccos feems to exprefs, the red or 
fcarlet cheft from cox-cau-ii ; and the other words the fame 
from cox-cau-al, but they may iignify nothing more than the 
covering of a water animal. 

Coffin ; Arx ; Theka ; TnESA^or Arka. Arx h 
from ar-cau, to fliut upon, the au being dropped, and the c 
converted into its auxiliary x, as is ufual in Celtic compofiti- 
ons in the forming of nouns ; coffin is from the Celtic cau-^* 
in, to fliut me within ; or from cau-fewn, to 0iut in ; area is 
from arx ; theka is from cau, to fhut, with a tH8 or theta, 
which are of the fame lignification. 

Cold; Oer; Rigos; Frigus. Rigos is from r'-ux-iu, 
it is the upper parts ; frigus is from fri-ux-iu, it is the higher 
country ; cold is from ac-ol-id, it is from the fun ; oer i» 
from o-ir, from the fire, or o-er from the water. 

Colewort; Caul; Kaulos; Caulis. Thefe terms 
exprefs many things befides colewort, as man's yard, the fhaft 
of a pillar, a ftalk or a ftem, &c. wort is the fame as herb^ or 
from a root, from o-root ; caul or cal is from ac-al, a£ting 
high or ereding ; whence the reft. 

Coli^ar; Tenyn; Desmion or Kephaledesmion; 
Capistrum or Vin^ctus. Tenyn is from tynu-un, the 
drawing or leading one, but tynu is from ti-en, the fire 
or firmament property, which is to attraft ; collar is frtna- 
ceuol-ar, (hutting upon; capiftrum is .from caput-fi-troi- 
am, it is to turn about the head ; vinftus is from vincio^ 
and dcfmion from defmeuo> to tye; kephaledefmion is to 


t^e about t&e head ; fee the fcveral primitives in their 

Collect 5 Casglu; Lego; Colligo. Cafglu is from 
cy-ys-ag-lu, the aftion of bringing a multitude together; 
KTolligo is from cy-oll-ag, bringing all together ; whence col- 
left ; lego is from li-agj afiing a multitude 5 or perhaps froni 
li-al-ag, 'afting upon a inultitude. 

Colour ; Lliw ; Xloa or Elbe ; Color. Lliu is from 
il-iu, it is light ; whence elec ; xloa is from ux-il, the high 
light; color IS from ux-oKor, from the high light j whence 

CoLT; Ebol; Polos; Pullus Equinus. Ebol, polas 
and the reft afe from ab, ap, and ac, the ofFsprine, and ful or 
mul, atiiule, the m, b and f exchanging in compoution and in« 

Column; Colen; Kolone; Columen. Colen is 
. from ac-ol-en, ading or holding all up or highj or towards 
the firmament or fky ; whence the reft. 

Combat; Cynen or Ymladd; Agonia or HamillajSITii'/? 
■ PuGNA. Ym-ladd is from am-ladd^ for killing; whence 
hamiHa ; cynen is from cy-in-en, together upon heat or high; 
whence agonia ; combat is from ac-am-be-at, an aflion for 
being at or beating. 

^^E ; Cynyrxu ; Erxomai ; Venio. Come is from 
cwiii or cum, together ; venio is from vi-in, me within ; cy- 
liyrxu and erxomai are from cy-in-yr-a<:, the adlion of coming 
in together. 

Command ; Erxi ; Arxo ; Impero. Erchi is from 
^rx-hai, the driving acSHoil of a chief; wheiice arxo ; impero 
may be either from ym-peri, bidding, or from am-p-ir, high 
^ver the part ; command is the fame as come-and ; but the 
moft primitive fenfe of the Celtic is from ar-ux, over the 


MisEREOR. Trygarhau is from truy-garu-hai, the aftion of 
loving thoroughly ; whence kataxarifomai ; the other words 
iignify to be ntiferable together ; but fee Mifery. 

Commit or Deliver; Traddodi; Epitrepo; Tra* 
DO or CoMMiTTo. Traddodi is from dra-dodi, to give over 
or from ; whence tiado ; epitrepo is to turn from ; com- 
iTiitto is from ac-omitto, to fend from ; deliver may in its pri- 
mary fenfe come from de-le-ver, from the place of the water, 
or from de-le-over^ from the place over, or over the water. 

Commodious; Cymwys or Cywir; XrestoS; Com- 
MOWs, Cymwys is from cy-mwy-fi, ivAs being moi^>^-» 


ther ; whence commodus and commodious ; cjrwir is from cy« 
wir, true together ; whence xreftos. 

Common; Cypfredin or Cynefin; Koinos; Com- 
munis. Cyffredin is from cy-fro-idin, they are the county 
together ; kcinos and communis are from cy-oinos and uniUy 
both fignifying one together j whence common. 

Commote; Cwm; Kome orONCKos; VicusofVal- 
Lis. Cwm is the parent of thofe as well as many other wordsi 
as cum with, and com together, as ufed in compofition, whidi 
alfo is a compound of ci-w-am, men together upon a fpot ; tI- 
cus is from vi-cum, dwelling together ; vallis is from vi-al-lc^ 
living upon a place ; kome and cohin\ot arc. from cwm $ o&- 
kos is from un-cae, one city. 

Communion* or Partaking ; Cymun ; Koimonia; 
CoMMUNio. Thefe are from cwm-un, one together uponi 
fpot, or living upon the fame part or country ; but tKe Gied 
fcems to be from cwm and monos, alone. 

Companion ; Cydymaith ; Koinonos ; Combs. 
Cyd-ymaith or ymdaith to go or journey together ; comes is 
fVom cwm; koinonos is from koi-oinos, alone together; 
companion is from com-p-yn-iu, he is together in the fame 
part or country. 

Company ; Cymdeithas ; Koinonia or Sysitiaj 
SociETAS. Company is from com-pe-in, in the fame pait 
or country ; cymdeithas is from cy-ymdaith, travelling togfr- 
ther ; fyfitia and focietas are from fy for cy, together, ud 
afteiotcs and civitas a city ^ koinonia is from cy-oinos, alooe 

Compare ; Cyffelybu ; Symballo ; Compare 
Comparo and compare are from com-par, together alike or 
equal ; cyfFelib alike is from cy-fel, together like j fymballo 
is from fym for cvm, together, and bal for fal, like* 

Compel ; Cymmell ; Sunelauno ; Compello* 
Cymmell, compel and compello are from the Celtic C]rm-pc$ 
together far; pell infle£ling into mell; funelauno is fromfuB 
inftead of cyn, together, and lainio to beat or drive. . 

Complain or Bewail ; Cwyno or Wylo ; Kooitvo P 
or Ololuo ; Ejulo. Wylo is from w-yl-o, a man homi. 
the light, that is, from being ferene, or fer-en, the firmamest F^ 
ftars ; whence ololuo, ejulo and bewail ; cwyno is the fameil •c 
axwin, a complaint, compounded of ox-w-in, a man in oztf, .^ 
woe ; whence kookuo ; complain is from the Celtic cwyn, i h 
complaint, and the Engliih word plain, that is, a plain ciyin| !^ 
out. ^ 

Comply s Heddyxu 5 Sunaresko i Complacbo. ' 


'fhefe Words come from the feveral prefk)fitives fun ahcl cotn^' 
and the particles xu and hedd, efuxia and pax, fignifying peacd 

Concave or Hollow ; Ceuol ; Koilos ; Concavus. 
Ceuol is from cau-ol, all fhut or inclofed ; whence koilos and 
hoJlow J concave is from con-cau, fhut together j whence 

Conceal ; ; Kalupto ; Celo. All thefe come 
from the Celtic eel, hidden oY fecret, compounded of ac-il, 
from the light i whence cell, a cell j coelum, heaven j Celtic 

Concord; Undeb or CYDGo&DiATHi Enosis; Uni- 
tas or Concordia. Undeb is from un-tyb, one mind ; 
whence unitas and enofis ; cydgordiath, concordia and con-^ 
cord are from cyd and con, together, and cordio, to tye. 

Concourse ; Ymgyrx ; Syntroxos ; ConcursuSv 
Thefe are compoic^d of ym, fyn and con, fignifying together, 
and cyrxu to force or drive, which alfo is a compound of ac- 
ir-ax, the action of the high fire or the fun. 

Concur j Ymredeg-j Syntrexo; CoNcuRkOi Thefe 
are from con, ym and fyn, together j and curro, redeg and 
trexo, to run j which fee. 

Condition; Cyflwr; Kleros^ Conditio* Cyflwr 
is from cyfle-wr, a man's flate i whence kleros ; conditio ii. 
from con and ditio, power; which is from dis, wealthy a 
compound of ti*-fi, it is poffeflion ; whence conditionv 

Condole; Cyddolurio; Synalgeo; CoNDOLEOk 
Cydddolurip is from cyd-dolur, grieving together ; condole is 
from con-doleo of the fame fignitication ; whende the refl* 

Confidence; Hydr ; Hetor; Fiducia. Hydr is 
from hyd-ar, to rely on> or to be upon at all lengths ; whence 
hetor ; fiducia is from fvdd-uxa, the chiefeft ; whence confi-* 
[ dentia and confidence ; Dut fee Faith. 

V Confirm, Corroborate or StRENCTHEN; Cryf-* 
; hau ; Krataioo ; Corroeoro. All thefe come front 
1 cryf and fbong ; which fee. 

J . Conform ; Furfio ; Diamorphoo ; Conformo. 
JJ Thefe are from the feveral prepofitives, and furf, forma and 
J morphe;, a form. 


Jf Tyrru is from twr^ a heap ; whence turoo ; trwxu is front 
J twr-ux, an higher heap ; congelo and congeal are from cau- 
•fc in-ag-al,'an a<£lion of fhutting or clofcing upon* 
A Conger; Conor ; Go^ggros ; Congrus. Thefe 
'jL C6iac from the Celtic congl, an angle, which feCi 

"I £ a CoNQL\JT\^K'^1L\ 



CoNGLUTiNo. Thefe come from con, or fun, and glud^ 
glue ; except ^yf)lltu, which is from cy-fi-ollt, they are all 
■ together. 

Congruous; Cymesurus; Armodios; Congruus. - 
Cymefurus is from cy-mefur, equal meafure; armodios is 
from ar-modios, upon a meafure j congruus is from con-gurU) 
to run or drive together. 

Conjoin j Cydio ; Seugnuo; Conjungo. Cydio is 
from cyd-iu, they are together; conjurgo is from con-in-ag, 
and feugiiuo from feu-ag-iii, both fignifying together in 
i)m<;o Connive ; Cammu ; Kaminuc^; Conniveo. Cammu 

is to bend ; whence kaminuo j but Uygad ganm is to- bend the 
eye or to wink; conniv,e and conaiveo fecm to be from camu* 
vi, to bend the fight, or from cannu-vi, to fee me. 

Conscience; Cydwybod; Suneidos; Conscientia. 
Cyd wybod is from cyd-wybod, felf-knowledge ; the other words 
are from fun-ideo, and confcio, to* fee or know together; but 
the Greek fun is from the Celtic cyn. 

Consent; Cydsynio; JJumphrosune ; ConskKsus. 
Cydfynio is from cyd-fi-in, being .together upon a found i 
whence confenfus and confent'; fumphrofune is from fum- 
j)hren-fi, they are of one mind.' 

Consist; Sefyll; Ephistemij Consisto. Thcfe 
fignify to ftand together. 

Consonant; Cysson; Sunphonos orEuExos; CoN- 
soNANS. Thefe are compofed of the feveral prepofitions fig- 
nifying together, alike or equal, and fwn, found, and phone, 
a voice ; except euexos, which is from eu-exos, a good or 
bold echo. " 

Constitute or Appoint ; Trefnu or Sefydiu; 
Aphoriso or Kathistemi ; Constituto. Thefe fignify 
to ftand together ; but fee the feveral component parts. 

Consume; Difetha or Ysu; Ethio; ConsuMO. 
Difetha is from di-ef-aeth, it is gone to nothing; yfu is from 
is-iu, it is lefs; whence ethio ; confumo and confume are 
from ac-in-fum, . adding upon the fum. 

Contend ; Ymegnio ; Egonisomai ; Contendo. 
Ymegnio is from ym-egni, for force; whence egonifomaij 
pontt nd and contendo are from con-tendo, to ftrive together; 
which tendo is from the Celtic tynu-id, it is drawing or 

Continual ; Digyfwng ; Dienekes ; Continuus. 
•^ Digyfwng is from the privative di, and cyfwng, feparationj 



^ienekes is of the fame fignification ; contlnuus feems to be 
from the Celtic cytuno, to unite together, compofed of cyd- 
lino, one together i whence continual. 

Contract J Cydgasglu; Sunelko; Contraho... 
Cydgafglu is from cyd-gafglu, tp colle6l or bring together ; 
whence fynelko j contraho and contraft are from con-traho, 
to draw together. 

Contumely or Reproach; Enllib; Lobe; Contu-? 
>I£LIA. Enllib feems to come from llibin, a foft or fappy 
perfon by tranfpofition ; whence lobe; contumelia is from 
con and temno, to defpife ; whence contumely; See Re- 
proach. . 

Convene or Meet together; Cyhoeddi or Cyfar- 
FOD; KuREo or Katheko; Convenio. Convenio is from 
con-venio, to come together ; whence convene ; fee Come j 
meet is from am-it, it is upon the about or the fpot ; cyfarfod 
is' from cyfar-fod, to be near ; or in a more primitive fenfe it 
may be aefined from cy-ef-ar-fod, living together upon the 
fame ground ; whence kureo ; cyhoeddi is from cy-hai-id, it 
is the action of driving or drawing together ; whence 
.' Converse ; Cydtroi ; Diatribo ; Conversor. Cydtroi 
' is from cyd-troi, to turn together ; whence the reft, varying 
only in the prepofitive particles ; but fee the word Turn. 

CpNVEY; Cywan; Komiso; Porto or VeHo. Veho 

is from ve-hai, it is acftion ; porto is from portus ; fee Import-,^ 

Carry, &c. where the words convey, cywan and* komifo are- 

alfo explained. 

^ * Coomb ; Cwm ; Kome or Ongkos ; Cumulus, or Acer- 

i vus. Though thefe words are commonly made ufe of as; 

? expreffions for a dead heap> yet in their primary fenfe they fig- 

nify a city or an inclofed place, in which qiaukind had their 

^ dwellings, as coomb from cau-w-am, is a fliut or an inclofurc 

* about a man ; cwm is the fame ; fo are kome, ongkos and 

cumulus ; acervus is from a-cau-ar-vi, the- Ihufr or inclofurc 

\ upon the dwelling. 

^ Copulation ; Cydiad ; Syndesis ; Cqpulatio. 

^ Cydiad is a fubftantive formed of cy-id, they are together ; 

whence fyndefis ; copulatio and copulation are defined under 

the word Couple. 

^[ Cord ; Cortyn ; Xorde ; Chorda. Cortyn is fronv 

cau-V-tyn, to ftiut or tye the dijaught ; whence the reftv. 

Corn ; Yd ; Sjtos ; Frugbs or Seges. Corn is from 
cer-ni, our food ; yd is from id,, it exifts,. and fignifies exiftence 
fc fuhfiftencei whence fitos.; feges is from fi-?ig-gey it is fcota 

E 3 v:^^ 


the earth or growth ; fifugcs is from fri-ag-ge, the growth tf 
the country. 

Cornel or Angle; Congl; Angkulos ofGloxin; 
Angulus or Uncus. Uncus is iFrom yn-cau, fhutting in or 
narrow; angulus is from yn-cau-lc, the place (hutting in; 
congl is from cau-ing-le, a place fhutting narrow or ftreight; 
whence the reft; but ing is alfo compounded of ixi-caui 
ihutting in, 

Corp or Dead Body; Corf; Xroos; Corpus. Corf 
is from cau-wr-ef, it is man's cheft ; xroos is from cau-r'-w, 
the man's cheft; corpus and corp are the fame as the Celtic; 
and hence the Celtic cor, food. 

Correct; Cerydpu; Kategoreo; Corrigo. Thofe 
words feem to come from the Celtic word cyro, to beat ; which 
|s from ^c-ar-w, an action upon a man or animal. 

Corrupt ; Llygru ; Aloxreo ; Coriiumfo. Llygra 
is from lle-gor, the place of corruption; whence aloxreo; 
corrumpo and corrupt are from gor-am-p, corruption aboat 
the part ; gor in a fecondary fenfe fignifies a rottennefs like that 
of addle eggs, but primarily nothing more than a g^theiing 
upon, from c:iu-ar. 

Corruption ; Gor } Ixor ; Pus or Sanguis, Crit- 
Dus. Thefe words are explained under the laft preceding 
clafs; and fomewhat farther under the word Achor. 

Cottage; Caban; Stege ; Casa. Caban is from 
cau-ben, a (hut or covered top, benig probably the firft kind 
of dwellings; ftege is from fi-ti-cau, it is a covered houfc; 
whence alfo cottage ; cafa is from cau-fi, it is covered. 

Cover or Appear FAIR; Teg; Stego; Tego. Cover 
is from cau-ovcr, fliut over ; teg is from t-cau, the covering 
at T, or the horizon ; whence the reft. 

Cover, Shut, or Inclose; Cau or Toi; Stego; 
Tego. Thefe are explained under the laft preceding clafs^ 
and under the words Shut, Inclofe, Thatch, &c. 

Covet, Want or Desire; Xwenyxu; Glixomai;^ 
CuPio. Cpvet and cupio will be explained under the follow- 
ing clafs, and the reft under the words Want and Defire, 

Covetous; Cvbyddus ; Kimbix ; Cupidus. Cy-. 
byddus is from cybydd, a covetuous man, which is from cy- 
byd, the world or lite together, or a hoarder ; whence all the 
reft, there being no other difference than what happened from. 
the inflexion of the confonants. 

Cough; Pesyx ; Bex; Tussis. Pefyx is from ap-es- 
yx> from low up ; bex is the fame ; tuflis is either froni thci 



Ibund 6f coughing, or a corrupt term from pcfyx ; cough b 
from ac-ofF, afting ofF. 

Cough; Pesyxu; Psyxo ; Tussio. Thefe arc cx- 
plrined under the laft preceding clafs. 

CouNTRYor Region^ Bro, Gwlad or Cyrreu j Pa^ 
TRis, XoRA or Kiima; Rus, Regio or Patria, 
Country is from cau-in-tir, the land inclofed ; region and re- 
gio are from ar-cau-in, the earth inclofed ; bro is from bi-ar, 
the living or dwelling part of the earth ; gwlad is from cau- 
le-id, it is an inclo.ed place, or a part poffefled ; of the fame 
fignification is klima, from cau-le-am ; cyrreu is from cwr^ a 
border, which fee ; patris is from peth-tir, part of a country ; 
xora is from cwr ; rus is from ar-iu, it is the country. 

Countryman or Husbandman ; Gwlad wr ; Geor- 
Gosj AGRicoLAor RusTicus,. Thefe are explained under 
the foregoing clafs, ur and man being added thereto. 

Counsel or Advice; Pwyllj Boule; Consilium. 
Pwyll is from ap-wyl, from the fun or light ; boule is from 
ap-oule, from the fun or light ; confilium and counfel are from 
con-fi-il-iu, it is feeing light together j advice, from ad-vi-fi, is 
to fee to it. 

Couple or Copulate ; Cydio j Syndeo ; CopuloI 
Cydio is irom cyd-iu, it is together; whence fyndeo ; the 
other words from co-p-al, fignify to be together with the part 

CousEN; Car; Ekuros ; Affinis or Soger. Car is 
from cam to love,w hich fee ; ekuros is from e-kar, the couzen ; 
focer is from fo, for co, together, and car, a coufen ; coufen is 
from co-fi-en, he is one of us ; affinis is from af-fin, border- 
ing together. 

Courteous ; Cyweithas ; Kosmios ; Comis. Cy- 
' weithas is from cy-w-aith, men going together ; courteous is 
from cy-wir-idiu, they are men together ; comis is the fame as 
comes a companion, and compofed of co-mi-fi, he is together , 
with me ; as kofmios is from ko-fi-mi, of the fame meaning. 

Cow ; Biwx ; Bous ; Vacca. Cow is from ux-w ; 
biwxisfrombi-ux ; bous is from bi-ux, and vacca from vi-ux,. 
all fignifying a higher or fuperior kind of animal, there being 
three forts thereof, viz. the bi-ox, or the filthy kind ; the 
bi-ux, or a fuperior or higher kind, and the bi-w, the admira- 
ble kind, or human kind. 

Cowhouse; Beudy ; Boustasion; Bostar. Beudy 
is frombiu-dy, an animal's houfe; bouftafion is from bous-ti- 
(i-yn, it is the houfe the cow or cattle are within ; bdftar is. 
from bos-to-ar, a covering upon the ox or other animal •, cov*- 

J£ 4 VwiSit 

C R 

tioufe needs no explanation, befides what may be met with uoh 
cler the component parts thereof. 

Crack; Agenuj Diaxiso; Scindo. Agenu is from 
ftg-in-iu, it is adting into or within ; fcindo is from {i-ac* 
yntho, it i^ a£ting within, or into it ; crack is from ac-r'-hac, 
the adion of a cut ; diaxifo is from dia-xifis, nigh a cut. 

Craft ; Dixell ; Texne ; Ars. Dixell and Texnc 
are explained under the word Art ; ars probably comes from 
the Greek term ares, iron, the making and fabricating of which 
being probably the firft art ; but fee Iron ; craft feems to be 
com|K)red of ac-ar-ef-it, it is afting upon a thing. 

Crane; Garan; Geranos ; Gnus. Garan is from, 
gar-un, the fhank one ; whence the reft ; and gar is from 
ag-ar, aftingupon* 

Cream; Hyfan ; Aphros; Aphrogala. Aphros is 
a froth or fcurn ; aphrogala is from aphro-gala, the froth o( 
mill^ ; cream is from cau-ar-am, a covering over a thing ; 
hyfan is from hy-fan, the upper part ; and aphros in a more 
primary fenfe ngnifies a thing high upon a lower^^ from a-p-. 

Create; Creu; Ktiso or Kreo ; Creo. Creu is 
from ac-ar-iu, it is an aition upon dead earth or matter j 
whence kreo, creo and create ; ktifo is from ac-ti-fi, it is aa 
aftion upon property ; and tho' the Greek term kreo has been 
commonly ufed as an expreffion for ruling or governing, it 
can bear that meaning only in a fccondary fenfe, viz. as rding 
is an aftion upon property. 

Creek; Grecian; Kre?:o; Crepo. Crepo is from 
cri-p, a crying thing ; the other words fecm to come from 
cri-ac, a crying adtion, or from ac-r'-ac^ afting the aflipn, 
ac, action, being formed from the found of a thing cracking. 

Creep; Cropian; Erpoj Serpo. Erpo is from ar-pj^ 
upon the part or feet ; whence ferpo and creep ; or they may 
all come from cropian; which is from crop-in, upon the 

Cricket; Cricciad; Krance; Tettigonia. TTiefc 
are from the found, or from the Celtic crecian to crack* 

Chronicle; Cronicl; Xronica; Chronica. Thefe 
aje fromxronos, time, which is from thecehic crwn-al, upon 
the round or time. 

Crooked or Crookbacked; Crythog ; Kyrtos ; 
Gibber. Sec the next. 

Crooked; Gwyr ; GYROSi Curvus. Curvus is from 
c;iu-ar-vc, to (hut or inclofe upon it, or to bend ; gwyr is 
from ag-o-ij*, an aciion downwards 5 whence the rcfl. 

Cross J 

c u 

:^ Cross ; Ci^oG ; Stauros ; Crux, Crqg 13 from cau-ar- 
Tax, to fliut or fix high; whence crux and crofsj ftauros is 
from fta-ar-ux, to put or fix upon high. 

Crown of the Hbad or Skull j Cruan; Kra- 
ON ; Cranium, Cruan the primitive word is from cau- 
^r-en, an incloftire fliut or covering on the higheft end ; from 
whence all the reft ; except fkuU ; which is from ys-cau-^I, the 
high or top fhut or covering. 

Crown ; Coron ; Korone ; Corona. Thefe are fron^ 
the Celtic crwn ; which fee. 

Cruel; Creulon; Xalepos; Sjbvus. Creulon is 
fironi aq-irral-yn, theaSionof the higheft fire or heat within; 
whence cruel and xalepos ; faevus feems to be from fi-w-vis, an 
animal founding force, that is roaring, fnarling, &c. or a vio- 
lent forcible animal. 

Crum; Brusion; Psixion; Mica. Brufion is from 
briwo, in the next dafs, and fi-un, it is one; hence pfixion; 
crum is from ac-ar-am, adding or throwing about ; mica is 
from micws or bicws, crumbled bread. See Bread. 

Crumble or Tear ; Torri, Briwo or Brifo ; Tribo 
or Thrauo ; Tero or Frio. Torri is from twr-or, from 
the heap, or tir-or, from the earth or matter; hence tear, tribo, 
thrauo, and tero ; briwo or brifo are from bri-ef-6, or bri-w-o, 
he is from the high ground ; wh^ce frio ; crumble is from 
Crum, in the laft dafs. 

CRysT; Crw3T; Ostracon ; Crust JE. Crwft is from 
cau-ar-ifto, a fhut or covering upon the lower or under ftrata ; 
whence the reft. 

Crv, LIKE a Child ; Cynixio; Knusomai ; Vagio. 
Cry is from the Celtic cri, a cry, which is a compound of ac-ir, 
an angry adlion ; vagio is from ve-igio, he is angry ; cynixio 
is from ac-yn-ig-iu, it is an angry aSion, from digio, to be 
angry, or dig, anger ; hence comes knufomai. 

Cry OUT, or Call aloud; Lleisio; Klaso or La- 
kiso ; Clamo. All thefe as well as the next clafs of words 
come from the Celtic primitives^ lla^s, voice, cri, cry and 

Cry ; Crio ; Kr aso ; Clamp. See the two next pre- 
ceding clafs of words. 

Cub or Whelp ; Cenau; Kunidion; Catulus. Cub 
comes from ci-ab, from a dog ; cenau is a compound of ci-. 
an*iu, it is a little dog ; kunidion comes from cian-idiu, it i» 
a little dog ; catulus is compoftd of the Celtic ci-y-tylu, the 
little family or houftiold dog, 
■ ^ucKoWi CoGojCv^^cwi KpKKux i Coccyx, Thefe 

words fccm to Be derived from the found of the bird ; but the 
Greeks and Romans here, as well as in muft other cafes, have 
di.ferted the true original fignification of words for the fake of 
a termination or a more pleating iour.d. 

CuPj Cwpan; Kupe or KuPELLONi Cuppa or Ca- 
Lix. Cwpan is a compound of cau-pe-un, to fhut or put a 
thing in ; the reft feem to be imperfeft dialefts thereof, except 
caljx, which comes from cau-al-auc, a fhut or cover upon a 

Curable; Jaxauol; Iasimos; Sanabilis. Jaxauol 
and iacimos come from the Celtic iax, well; fanabills is from 
fan us, found or well ; fan us is from fonus., a iound, that is,' 
tne found of an uncracked veflel; curable is from cyro,to beat 
or cure ; which fee. 

Curl; Cryxj Grupos; Crispus. Seethe next clafi 
of words. 

Curled Hfad; Pengryx ; Oulothrix; Crispus 
Capite. Penjj.iyx ccnies from pen-cryx, a curled head, and 
c. v'^ is a compound of cau-ar-cau, a (hut or clofure upon an 
inclofurc ; vhence the reft of thofe words feen^ to be derived; 
as curie from cau-ar-al, fliut upon another. 

Curl ; Cryxu, Kerxo ; Crispo. See the laft fore- 
going clafs of words. 

Custom or Manner ; Moes ; Meson ; Mos or Modus. 
Moes is from am-oes, the age or life about us ; fee Age j hence 
mefon, mos and modus ; manner is from mannor ; cuftom ii 
from cy-ft am, what always ftood about. 

Custom or Port Charges ; Portharian ; Porth- 
MEioN ; Portorium. Porth or port is from p-or-ti, a 
thing from the part poffefled ; portharian, porthmeion, and 
portorium are from porth-arian, the port filver or money ; or 

Sorthmeion may be from porth-mewn, the getting into portj fee 
be laft clafs as to cuftom. 

Cut or Flaw; Flaw or Hac j Phloios or Xisis; 
Secamentum or Fissus. Thefe words, tho' ufed proroif- 
cuoufly, feem to have different fignifications ; as hac, xifis and 
fifliis, an opening like a crack ; flaw and floios, a cut like a 
flit or flice almoft broke off; but fecamentum feems to fignify 
^•flice cut off*, or a fcantling, from feco to cut, and the Celtic 
\ja)rd maint, much or fubftantial ; cut is from ac-it, it is from j 
liac is from hai-ac, afting from. 

.Cutting; Rhwygiad ; Rhogme; Scissura. Sec 
cutting Undfer the word Cut ; fciffura is from fi-hac-is-ir, it is 
acut low into ; the Celtic and Greek terms are from r'-w-ig,* 
tlje ^yg^y man who rantSj^ t^ars, and cuts. 

D E 

Cut or Hurt; Brifo; Prio; Seco. Cut comes from 
the Celtic hac, a cut, as does feco ; hurt is from hy-dr-it, it 
is high ground, which is rough ; brifo is from bri-ef-iu, it ig 
the high country or rough ; whence prio. 


DANCE, Ball or Play; Xware; Xoreai^ Cho- xote 
REA» Dance is from id-en-is, it is up and down ; ball 
and play are from the Celtic pela, to play with a ball ; the 
other words are from ux-ar-hai, high or merry upon aflion. 

Darken,^ Tywylluj Elugiso; Tenebresco. See 
the next word. 

Darkness; Tywyllwx ; Axlus or LucE; Tene-' 
BRiB or Calico. As to the Englifh, Greek and Celtic 
terms fee the word Dim j caligo is from cau-il-ag, (hutting 
light from ; tenebrae feems to be from di-en-bri, from the high 
country or firmament. 

Dart, alfo a Falcon; Dart or Hobel; Obelon ; 
Telum. Dart (eems to come from the Celtic taro, to ftrike ; 
hobel is from hi-ob-al, bold from th^ height ; of the fame 
fignification are the reft. 

Dawn or Break of Day ; Boredydd ; Pertor-. 
THRON ; DiLUCULUM. Borcdydd is from b-oera-dydd, the 
coldeft part of the day ; whence periorthron ; dawn is from 
da}^-in, the day in ; diluculum fignifies. it is a little light, from 
id it is, and luceo to fliine, which is from il-ac, the afl:ion of 

Pay ; Dydd ; Daos ; Dies. Dydd is either from di-di,^ 
without darknefs, or from id-id, it is feeing; whence the 

Dead ; Marw ; Moros ; Mortuus. Dead is from 
di-id, without being or exiftence ; marw is from mae-ar-w, 
he is an earth man or duft ; whence the reft ; of marw may 
come from m-ar-w, filence or death upon man or animal, the 
Jetter m being frequently ufed as an expreffion for filence, 
<lumbnefs, death, &c. 

Deafness ; Byddarwx; Kophosis; Surditas. Byd- 
darwx is from byddar, deaf, which is a compound of bi-ddaear^i 
a clod life ; deaf \s from di-fi, without life ; kophofis is from 
^au-phi, to {hut in life ; furdus is from the Celtic fwrth, 
(luggifti or blockifh. 

!^£Ar; Car^piqj Ka^heis; Charus. Caredig is 


D E 

defend and dcfendo are from the Celtic ti-fin-to, c6verixig tfa( 
borders of the pofleflions. 
ioris^ Defjn£ or Finish; Gorphen; KatheriscJ^ Definio. 
GorfFen is from gor-pben, upon the end ; katherifb is front 
katha-oros, like as the end ; fini(h is from fin-i(h, it is the 
end ; define and definio are from id-fin, it is the end; but the 
term fin was formed by the inflexion of the Celtic min, an 
edge, the outfide or the border; whence alfo the Latin words 
finis and terminus. 

Deformed; Gwrthun ; Amorphos ; Deformis. De- 
formis and deformed are from di-forma, without form ; gwr- 
thun is from gwr-thu-yn, upon a black man ; amorphos is 
from am-wr-phos, the covering of a black man ; and phaos is 
from the Celtic phi-os, from fight. 

Deity ; Diudod ; Theiotes ; Numen. Diudod is 
from di-w-id, he is the dark or obfcure being ; whence the 
Greek and Englifh terms ; numen is either from ni-w-m-cn, 
the great unfeen divine being ; or from en-m-n, the great one 
in heaven. 

Delay; Arcs; Mone ; Mora. Aros is from ar^-os^ 
tipon the from ; mora is from am-or, for being from ; mone 
jQiould be more ; delay is from di-al-y, the without being 

Dewcate; Blysig; Opalos; Delicatus. Bljrfig is 
from ab-il-is-ag, from the a£bien of the fun below, which is 
to ripen, fweeten, &e. opalos is from op-al-o-fi, it is from 
the high o or the fun; delicatus and delicate are from id-al-acy 
it is the action of the fun. 

Delight ; Difyrwx ; Truphe ; Delici^. Di- 
fyrwx is from id-fyr-ac, it is a fhort a£tion ; whence truphe ; 
deliciae and delicate arc from id*al-ac, or ti, it is an high 
aftion or property. 

Delight or Fleasantness ; Dicrifwx; Deukosj 
Dui-CEDo. See Delight. 

Delight, Play, Rejoice or be Glad; Difyru or 
XwARAU ; Xairo or EuPHRAiNo ; L^tor, Ludo, 
Gaudeo or Delecto. Thefe are explained under the words 
Dance and Delight. 

Delude; Gwatwar; Athuro; Deludo. Delude 
and delude are from the privative di, and ludo^to play ; gwat* 
war is from gwad-xwar, a denial of playing ; whence athuro. 

Demand; Dymuq;. Deomai; Requiro* Require 
is from re-quaero, to feek back ; dymuno is id-am-uno, it is fot 
uniting or making an end ; whence the reft. 



Den ; Fau ; Pholeos or Taphos; Fovea. Fau is from 
Fo-w, a flight of animals j fovea is from fovi the flight of animals j 
pholeos is from pho-le-w,the flying place of animals; taphos is 
from tu-pho, the houfe of flight ; den is from di-in, the dark 
inn. It may be here remarked that the w is an auxiliary of the u. 

Dense of Thick; Tew; Thames; Creber, Tew 
in its moft primitive fenfe is from tu-w, man's habitation^ 
which at flrft was probably a thicket ; the Englifli. word tnick 
feems to be from tewax, the comparative degree of tew, as the 
Greek thames does from the fuperlative tewa, with the ad- 
dition of the verb fi, fignifying it is ; whence denfe. 

Dent or Tooth ; Dant ; Odous ; Dens. Dant feems 
to come from di-untho, adivifion therein ; whence the reft; as 
appears clearer from the inflexion of the Greek and Latin terms* 

Deny ; Nacau ; Arneomai ; Nego. Nacau is from 
ni-ac, a negative adion; whence nego; deny is from id-ni, it 
is a negative; arneomai is from yr-ni-mae,it is the negative. 

Deplore; Galaru; Klaio; Ploro. Galaruis from 
ag-al-ir, an aftion of a high call ; klaio is from ac-al, a calling 
action ; ploro and deplore are from p-alar, a high calling thing"; 
or galaru in a fecondary fenfe may be from galar-w, a man's 
cry or call. 

Depreciate, Despise or Depress ; Dibrisio ; Athe- 
Riso; Depretio or Sperno. Dibrifio is from di-bris, 
without a price ; whence depreciate and deprefs ; defpife 19 
from di-y-p-fi, it is from the lower part, as the Celtic term in 
its primary fenfe may be from di-bri-is, from the lower 
ground, which is the moft valuable; and atherifo may be thus 
derived from a-tir-is, from the lower ground ; and fperno from 
is-p-ar-ni, not of the lower part of the country. 

Deprive or Dispossess; Difeddu; Tetao; Privo. 
Thefe are explained under the word Difpoffefs, except privo^ 
which is from bri-ve-o, from his own country ; and difeddu, 
which is from di-fydd, without livelihood or fubftance. 

Depute or Name; Henwi; Oimai; Nomino. De- 
pute is to put for; and the other words are explained under 
jhe word Name. 

Descend; Disgin; Katabaino; Descendo. Difgin 
is from id-is-ag-en, it is low from high ; whence defcend and 
defcendo ; katabaino is from kata-baino, to go back. 

Deserted; Difeithlid; Apoleiphtheis; Deser*- 
TUS. Difeithlid is from di-faeth-le-id, it is an uncultivated 
place; whence apoleiptheis ; defertus and defert are from di- 
lero, unfown ; faeth is i^-om maeth nurfcing, by infledion, 


knd maeth is a compound of ma-au«ith, it is the milk mottict 
f)r nurfe. 

Design or Guess ; Amcanu; Semeiomai; DESTiNb. 
Am-ac-in, for afting within ; femeiomai is from fi-am-mae, 
it is for feeing ; defign is from id-fi-ag-in, it is feeing an a£tion 
within j deftmo is from id-fi-ti-in, it is a feeing property with- 
in ; guefs is from ag-y-fi, the aflion of feeing. 

Desire br Prayer; Deisyf; Deesis; DeprecatiO 
or Desid£rium. Deifyf is from id-faf, it is the loweftj dc- 
fiderium is from id-ifdcr, it is the lower part ; whence deefis 
and-deflrc ; pray is from the Celtic parhai, to laft ; deptecatib 
is from id-p-ar-ac, it is a thing upon aftion. 

Desire; Dymuno; Epithumeo; Desidero. Dimu-» 
no is from id-am-uno, it is for uniting ; epithumeo is from 
cpi-thumeo, of one mind. 

Desist; Gorphwys or Peidioj Aphistamai ; De* 
siSTo. The Greek and Latin terms figni fy to ftand from^ 
peidio is from ap-idiu, it is from; gorphwys is from. gor- 
pwys,a weight upon or refting. 

Destroy ; Anrheithio ; Anaireo ; Perimo or Di- 
STRUG. Deftruo and deftroy are from the privative di, and 
ftruo to build ; anaireo is from the privative or negative an^ 
and aireo to lift or raife up; anrheithio is from the privative 
an and rhaith adion, which is a compound of r'-hai-ith, it ii 
the aftion, ith being from id by inflexion ; whence rhaith 
came to be a Celtic expreffion for law, and from thence cjr-» 
fraith or cy-ef-rhaith, it is equal a<3ion. 

Detest; Ymwrthod; Apomartureo; Detestor. 
Amwrthod is from am-wrthod, for refufing ; the other words 
fignify not witneffing. 

Dew; Arien or Gwlith; Erse; Ros. Gwlith is 
from ag-al-au-ith, it is from the high water; arien is from r'- 
au-en, the high water or the firmament water ; erfe and roS 
are from r'-au-fi, it is water ; dew is from id-au, it is water. • 

Dextrous; Dehauig ; Dexios; Dexter. Dehauig 
is the fouth fide, from dehau, the fouth ; which is a com- 
pound of ti-haul, the fun fide ; the other words are from ti* 
uxa-fi, it is the upper poffeflions ; and id-uxa-ter, it is the up- 
per country. See the word South. 

Dialect; Dadlawd; Dialektike; Dialectica. 
Thefe fignify various reading and difcourfmg in the fame lan- 
guage, peculiar to different countries ; alfo the art of logick. 

Die or Dye ; Dis ; Kubos ; Tessera. Dis in the plu- 
ral difiau is from di-is, without a lower ; dye is from dt-i, 
without a high ; teffera is from di-ifa-ar, without a loweft up- 
on j 

6ri ; kubos is froin cy^fefe-fl, they afe equal phrts. Hei*c in2Jf 
be obfervcd what has frequently occurred in the courfe of thii 
work, a wilful perverfion of tne mother tongue, in order td 
ipiit dleir true brigin, And t6 affume afioflier fupferior to that of 
their real founders, with whom they were in a kind of civil 
^ar, as between the low6r houfe of lonj which twre the 
Greeks, and the upper, who were the Phrygians or Trojans^ 
and between' the Romans afid the Gaiils, Germans ah'd Bri- 

Differ of QtJARREL • AmrafA^lio; AnabalLo ; 
DiFFBRO. Amrafaelio ial from am-rhyfel; for war; quarrel 
is from ac-war-al, an adion upon war ; anaballo is from ana-i 
ballo,. to caft hf ; differb and difFer is fr6m di-ftro, withbut 
bringing to. 

Dig or Delve- Palu, CtODtoio b'r CeibIo ; Skallo^ 
Phaleo, Glapho orKEPAO; FoDio. Palu is from p-al- 
iu, it is raifing up a thing ; whence phaleo ; glapho is front 
ag-al-ph, an iftion of raifing up a thing; ceibio and kepa6 
are from the Celtic word caib, a mattock ; whieh is a com- 
pound of ac-yb, adling or rifing up ; dig is from id-ag, it i^ 
an aftion, it being perhaps onfe of the firft aiSHons ; the reft of 
thofe words will be explained under Ditchi 

Dike or Ditch; Clawdd or Foes; Lakkos; Lam- 
NA*or Fossa. See Hedge, Dig, Ditch and Fofs, where thofe Umg 
words are explained ; and it may be here fatther obfervcd, that 
clawdd is from cau-al-id, is is an high inclofure ; whenci 
lakkos ; foes is from fi-o-fi, it is out of fight ; dike is froni 
id-cau, it is an inclofure. 

Dilate; Lledu j pLAttJNo 5 DiLato^ Lledu is froni 
le-du, a dark or obfcure place ; whence the reft; only platil^ 
no is from p-le-^du-in, in ad^rk part of a place. 

Diligent; Dyfal; Epimeles; DiLigens. Dyfal is 
from di-fael, without fail ; whence epimeles, tvith the ad- 
dition of epi and changing the f into hi, when joined in 
compofition according to Celtic rules ; diligent and diligens are 
from the Celtic dilis-ag-ynt, they are certain upon adion. 

Dim or Dark ; Ty wyll ; LugaIos or Axl\jo£sis*j 3xI</<' 
Tenebrosus or Caliginosus. Ti-wyll isYrom di-wyl* 
without fun or light ; dim is from the Celtic di-am, dark 
about; dark is from di-ir-ux, without the high fire or light ; 
the Greek words were formed by a tranfpofitioii of the Celtic 
liuyx, light ; as to the Latin terms fee Darknefs; 

Dip, Bath or Wash; Troxi; Xroso; Tingo. 
TThefe are explained under the wbrds Bath^ Tinge, and Wafli. 

DiRE^ ArutHr i Epa^aYes; Di^us. JDire and duviv 

F "^xti 

D I 

are from dc-ir-ui, it is fi^m the fire j arathr is from or-ith-ir,. 
it is from the fire j cparates is from ep-ir-it, it is from the 

Direct; Tywyso; Tituskomai ; Dirigo. Dirigo 
and direft are from id-ar-ag, it it ading upoaj tywyfo is from 
ty-w-is, lord or poflefibr of the lower man j whence tituf* 

Dirge or Mourning ; Godwrf ; Odyrmos ; Luctus* 
Godwrf is from go-dwrfy fome noife; whence odyrmos | 
luiStiis is from alu-ux-it, it is a high calling or noife; dirge 
is from id-ir-ag« it is a high adion ; fee Dire ; mourning tf 
from mourn-eng, to mourn greatly. 

Dirk or Dark ; Du or Tywyll ', Axluoesis ; Cali^ 
GiNOSus or Ater. Du is from the privative di, fignifyiog 
the privation of light; tywyl is from di-wyl, no light; axltt- 
oefis is from ac^ui-ft, it is from theUght ; caliginofus isfrooi 
ac-lui-igren-o-fi, it is from the adlion of the light of the fir- 
mament ; dark is from id-ir-ac, it is from the light ; ater is 
from a-it-ir, it is from the light ; dirk is from id-ir-ac, it is 
from the light. 

Dirt ; Baw ; Borboros ; Stercus, Baw h from 
ab-w, from an animal ; borboros is from baw-V-baw, thf 
dirt of dirt ; ftercus is defined under Dung ; dirt is from di-ar-ity 
it is dark or black earth. 

Dirty ; Bydr j Ruparqs ; Sordii>vs. Bydr is from 
b-hyd-ar, a thing along the ground ; ruparos is from r'-p-ar, 
the thing upon the ground ; fordidus is from is-ar-di-idiu, it i> 
the daik low ground. 

Discern; Canfod; Krino ; Cerno.^ Canfodisfrom 
ac-in-fi-id, it is an adlion of feeing within ; cerno and the 
reft may be; either from ac-r'-in, tne adtion within, or from 
fi-'r-in, the feeing within. 

Discourse; Xwf.dl v Koinologia ; Colloquium. 
Difcourfe is from id-ci-ac-aiVi, it is a joint aftion upon found; 
xwedl is from cy-dadl, a jointdifpute, or a talk together ; at 
to the reft fee the word Speak, where they are explained, but 
the particle CO is prefixed to thiy term, fignifying together. 

Diseased or Maimed ; Anavys ; Nosos ; Insanusoc 
Morbus. Anavys is fiom the privative an-vy-fi, it is a pri- 
vative, want or decay of life; nofos is fromne-foos, no life ot 
health ; infanus is from ni-fanus, unfound ; morbus is from 
am-or-biu, for out of life, or from mor-biu, a mortifying or 
dying life ; maim is from ma-am, for or about dying ; difeafe 
is from the privative dis and eafe. 
DisGRACfii Anmhajrx; Aixune ; Dedecus. Aimi- 



t. ^ ■ f ,. 

parx Is ftom an-parx, without honour or grace; difgrace U 
from the privative dis and grace ; aixune is from a-uxa-un, froni 
being tJie higheft or iipperone; dedecus is from di-decus, with- 
out honour or ornament.' . 

Dish j Di^gl ; Diskos ; Discus, Difgl Is from id-ifu^. 
gau-al, it is the eatirig covering or veffel ; whence the reft. 

Disjoin J DaDgySylltu or ANCHyDFOD; Diaseug- 
NU.Mi ; DisJUngo. Dadgyfylltu is from di-ad-gy-fy-ollt; 
without feeing or being altogether; anghydfod is from an-gyd- 
fod, without abideing together ; diafeugnumi is from the pri- 
vative di and feugnumi, to join ; wheiice disjuiigo arid disjoin* 
See Join. 

, Dispossess or Deprive ; Difeddu ; Tetao ; De^ 
Pi^ivo or Detrui5o. Difeddu is from di-feddii to cfifpoflefs 
i>r without poffeffion ; difpoffefs is the fame 5 tetao is from di- 
tu, without poffeffion ; detrudo is from di-tir-id, it is without 
■ poileffion ; deprivb is from di-bri-ve, he is without country i 
whence.depriire. * 

Dispute ; Dadlau ; DialegomXi ; Disputo. Dad- 
lau is from di-ad-al-au, an aftiort without leaving off or 
fceafing to fpeak or talk ; dialegomai is from dia-lego, to fpeak 
differeiit; difputo and difputjs are from dif-puto, to think 

Dissembling or Iro^y 5 YmddieithrAd ; Eiro- 
NEIA; DissiMULATio. The Latin and Englifh words are 
JFroiti id-fimuloi it is to liken; ymddieithrad is from ym- 
ddieithr, to enftrange ; irony and eironeia are from eiro-ni, a 
negative fpeakinff, or iii a more primary fenfe from yr-o-en-ni, 
hot the fun or firmament light, that is^ hot clear. See the 
C6mponent parts of thefe words in their places. 


Cbgailis from co-ag-al, the aiding together or winding upon; 
kalon is frdrti cau-al-un^ the winding Upon one ; col us i3 
from cau-al-'iu, it Is the winding upon ; kongkaloS is from 
cau-iri-cau-i^l^ covering upon a covering ; diftaff is fiom di-ftaff, 
the darkened ftaff. 

DiSTitt ; DiSTEtLU J Stalaso ; StilIo. Diftellii 13 
from id-ift-al-au, it is from or falls from the highdr ftanding 
Water, or the fea, whence the r^ft, 

^ Disturb; Te;rfysgu; TaAaso ; Turbo. Turbo is 
irom uirba, and tarafo, from taraxe, both fignifying a mul- 
titude^ which is compounded of the Celtic tur-bi, a living 
heap i difturb is from difturbo ; terfyfgu is from tur-fi-fi-ag, 
the afting founds or the nolle of a living heap. 
. DiTGU or Fence; Foes or Clay^dd'j Tkvwko^ ot 

D O 

Lakkos; Fossa or LAM^JA. Fos and fofla arc from fi-os, 
from view or fight ; fence is from fi-hence, view heflccj 
ditch is from di-fi-it, it is unfeen ; .claud is from cau-le-id, it 
is an rnclouirc, or a place (hut ; lakkos is from le-cau, a place 
fhut, or an inclofurc ; taphros is from tir-phos, inclofed pof- 
feffions ; lamna is from Ic-am, a place about or furrounded. 

Divers; Neilltuoi. ; Alloios ; Diversus. Ncilltuol 
IS from naill-tu-al, upon the contrary fide; alloios is from alios, 
another ; divcrfus and divers arc from ti-vcrfusy the fide againft. 

DivEL or Devil; Diawl; Diabolos; Diabolus. 
Diav/1 feems to be from di-ol, a being from the light j whsnce 
the reft ; but diafal, another Celtic term for the devil, feemt 
to fignify fatan, it being compounded of di-afal, the apple god. 

Divide; Rhanu; Diaireo ; Divido. Dividoanddi- 
vide are from di-vid, without being fcen ; that is, fmall ; 
rhanu is from ar-en-iu, it is from the earth to the fky j diarco 
is from tua-ir-o, towards the high o or the fun. 

Divine; Diwiol; Theios; Divinus. Diwxolis from 
diu-ol, all God ; divine is from diu-in, upon God ; whence 
the reft. 

Diviner; Dewin; Theasesios ; Divinus. Thefc 
are from di-w-en, the dark man of the heaven. 

Dog ; Ci ; Kyon ; Canis. Canis is explained under the 
word Bitch ; kyon is the chief one from ci-un ; dog is either 
from di-ox, the dirty god, or from di-og, the great God, the 
Perfians worftiipping the great God in this emblem ; ci is fitMn 
ac-i, the firft aftion or chief, probably fo called from hit 
being the firft animal produced to Adam to be named. 
etCr Dolorous; Dolyrus ; DoLERo^rDoLORosus. Thcfe 

come from the Celtic word dolur, dolor or pain, which is t 
compound of dial-ar, revenge upon. 

Dome or House ; Tu ; Doma ; Domus. Tu is from 
t-w, a man's coverhig; dome is from to-mi, my covering; 
doma and domus arc the fame ; houfe is explained under m 
word houfe ; t is the fky ; to is from t-w, a man's flcv of 

Door; Dor or Drws ; Thvra ; Ostium. The pri- 
mitive feiife in which thefe terms were compofed, is 'from dviT, 
water, and os a mouth, that is, the mouth of the watery 
oftium from of-ti-iu, it is the mouth of the houfe. 


Dryfor is from drwf-wr, the door man ; thyroros is from 
thy-wr-os, the houfe door man ; oftiarius is from os-ti-ur-iu* he 
is the houfe door man ; doorkeeper l^ from door and keeper, 
which fee. 



D R 

Double; Dwbl; Diplous; Duplus. Thefe word* 
are from duy-b-al, two things upon. 

Double; Dyblu ; Diploo; Duplico^ Thefe are from 
the laft preceding clafs. 

Doubter or Plattjrr; Dwbler; Trublionj Pa-' 
TIM A. 'jS,ee the nyord Patter. 

Doubt; Tybio; Distaso ; Dubjto. Thofe come 
frojpi the Celtjc tyb, a doubt .or opinion ; which is from di-bi, 
a 4ark feeing. 

Dough J Toe$; Sxais ; Farina Subacta. Dough 
and ftais are from toes, which conies from tafu to heap, or tas 
2^1 heap, as t3s o y4, a rick of corn ; farina is from fi-ar-in, 
food upon the ground or earth. 

Down or Plain; Rhos ; Amalotes or Isopepon; 
Planities. Planities is from ap-le-en-it, it is from the high- 
eft place ; ifopcdon is from ifa-p-dan, under the loweft part ; 
amalotes is from ymul-i-ti, near the houfe, which were ia 
bottoms ; rhos is from ar-au-fi, it is wet ground ; down is 
the fame as to be down, or low ; plain is from ap-le-en, from 
the high place. 

Dragon; Dra^g; Drakon; Draco,. Tbcfe wordsare 
from the Celtic drui-ig, the fiery piercer, or the fire thro*. 

Draw ; Llusgo or Tynu ; Elko or Teino ; Traho, 
Tynu is from ti-en, the power or property .of the firmament, 
which is todraw ; whence teino ; llusko is from il-is-ac, the 
^rfi action below ; whence elko ; traho and draw are from the 
Celtic tiro, to earth, tum the land,, or draw in a team. 

Draw or Cut out; Llinio; Platto; Lineo. Llinio 
is llyn, the Ihape or image ; whence lineo ; platto is from 
p-al-tyn, a thing uppn the draught ; fee Draw and Cut. 

D9.AW OUT; Tynu; Allan; Apantlao; Exhau- 
Rio,. See the words Draw and Out ; exhaurio is from ex- 
hai-ar-iu, it is upon the ailing out or drawing out. 

Dread; Arswyd;^Arrod£oH Reformido. Arfwyd orro^ 
is from ar-is-w-yd, it is the low country animal; arro- 
deo is from ar-w-id, he is the country animal ; whence 
dread; reformido is from r'-fi-ar-ni-id, he is the great coun- 
try dweller; but in a fecondary fenfc they may come from the 
Celtic arw, tcnible, which is from'ar-w, a country animal. 

Dream; Bkyddwydd; Okar; Somnium. Dream is 
from druy-mi, thro' me; onar is from the Celtic hun-ar, upon, 
fleep ; fomnium is from fi-omn-iu, it is feeing all ; bryddwyj 
is from bri-id-w-id, it is man's feeing the high couutry. 

P^Eps i Trwx ; Tiiux ; Fex. Tiwx is from tyru-ox. 

D R. 

toma(s, or gatlicr filth together ; whence dregs and trux ; ki; 
is from fe-ox, a filthy thing. See Fox. 

Drink; Yfedj Pino ; Bibo, Drink is from drau-in- 
auc, to draw in liquid ; yfed is from y-fi-id, it is lijfe or food; 
bibo is from bi-ab-au, life or food from liquid*; whence pino. 

Drink ; Diop ; Poton ; Potus. See the laft preceding 
clafs ; diod is from da-au-id, it is good liquid ^ pbton and po^ 
tus from p-au-it, it is a liquid thing. 

Drive or Expell; Hel, Gvru, Lainio, Yrlid; 
Elauno ; Ellao or Agyro ; Exjpello. Gyru and agy- 
ro are from ag-ar, upon adiiion ; hel is from hai-al, iipon Ac 
aftion of driving ^ whence ellao; elauho is from hn-in-itiV 
it is driving in ; lainio is from al-hai-in, lipoh'the driving ill 
or upon ; yrlidio is from yr-al-id, it is the upon; ekpelloii 
from ex-pello, and expcll is from ex-pcll, out far j drive is from 
the Celtic drali-ve, far with him. 

DaivE, Force or CofiPEL ; Gyrru ; Agiiro or Pho- 
Ruo ; SuBiGO or Aco ; fee £he words in the laft foregoing 

Drop ; Dafn ; St agon ; Still a. Dafn is from id-au- 
fan, it is the fmall water ; man, fraall, changing into-fin^ 
when joined in compofition ; ftagon is from ni-ag-^au-en, it 
is from the high water ; drop is from dur-op, from the virater. 

Drov^, Flock or Herd ; Our, Llu or Aig ; AgurE) 
Ele or Agale; Grex or Turma. Guir, agure and ffrcj^ 
are explained under the word Drive ; herd is from hai-ar-id, it 
is the action of driving; 11 u is a multitude, which fee; 
whence ele ; aig is from a-ig, the fun beam ; a^ale is from 
aig-lu ; flock is from flu, for llu and aig ; turma is from twr- 
ma, a great heap ; drove is explained under Drive. 

Drowned, to be; Boddi;Bvthiso ; MfiRGoorBAPTO. 
Boddi is from bi-au-di, life deprived by water; whence by- 
thifo and bapto ; mergo is from am-er-ag, the adlion of tnfe 
water about ; drown is in the water, from dwr-yn. 

Drunken; Meddw; Methusos ; Eijrius. Ebriusis 
from e-ber-iu, he is in liquor ; drunken is from draw-in-auci 
to draw in liquid ; meddw and methufos, arc from' m-au-id^ he 
is much in liquor. 

Dry; Syxu ; Psexo ; Sicco. Syxuis from fi-ac-auc, 
it is without liquid or wet. See the next, 
»;ko5 ' Dry; Syx ; Sankos"'; Siccus. Syx is from fi-ac-auc> 
it is without liquid or wet ;" whence the Greek and X.atia-> 
dry is from id-ar-hi, it is the high grounds, which are com- 
monly dry. ' 


D W 

Dryed up ; Grind ; Xei^aino 5 Aresco, ^ As to dried 
up fee Dry ; crino is from ac-irr«Q, an adion of the firma- 
^ncnt fire J whence xerakio^/ ""<> is from ar-fyx, dry 
grounds ^ 

Duck; Hwyad; Uas; Anas, x\.z{z fignify the wa- 
jter birds or water one, and they are compounded of wy or au, 
water, and ad, the root of the word adr, birds, which is 
from ad, to ; duck is from id^w-auc, it is the water animal ; 
^las is from w-au-ii, it is the water animal \ anas is from un* 
au-ii, it is the water one. 

Dugs or Udder; Pwrs or Tethau; Euphoros or 
Thete ; Uber. Dugs arc from id-au-gau, it is the liquid 
cheft or (hut ; udder is from au-id-ar, it is upon the liquid ; 
tethau is from to-ith ox id-au, the covering of the liquid ; 
jeuphoros is from au-p-ar-w, the liquid thing upon an animal; 
whence the reft. 

Dull; Pwl; Amblus; Hebes. Pwl is from p-o-il, a 
thing from the light or being high ; whence the Englifh and 
Greek; hebes is from the Celtic heb, without, compofed of 
hi-ab, fromhi?h. 

Dumb or NIute; Aflafer or Mud ; Alalos or Mu- 
tes ; MuTUS. Dumb is from id-um, it is the um or noife 
jof a dumb perfon ; mute, myd, mutes and mutus are from 
um-id, it is um ; aflafer and alalos are from a or ap, from or 
w^thouf , and llafar and lalos, (peech. 

Dung; Tail; Tilos; Stercus. Dung is from to- 
eng, a large heap ; tail is from to-il, an high h-ap ; whence 
telos ; .ftercus is from fi-twr-ux, it is an high heap. 

Durable; Parhays; Lipares; Sedulus^. Durable 
is from dur, hard, and able ; parhays is from p-ar-hai-fi, it is 
^ thing upon a£tion ; lipares is from al-p-ar-fi, of the fame 
.j^nification, as (edulus is from fi-id-al-ux. 

Dust; Llwx; Ilus or Konis ; Pulvis or Lutum. 
Llwx is from allu-ux, a power of rifing high; whence ilus; 
jpulvis is a thing of a rifing power ; lutum is from al-it-am, it 
is high aboat ; konis is from ac-en-is, the lower ading high ; 
duft is from the privative di, without, and ift, reft or ftand. 

Duty ; Dyled or Cymwynas ; Kathekon or 
Opheile ; Debitum or Officium. Dyled, opheile and 
4cbitum are explained under the word Debt ; cymwynas is 
from cy-mwyn-fi, it is to be kind together ; kathekon is frt)m 
kath-exo, to have together or in common ; oiEcium is from 
ob and facio, to a6t towards another. 

Dwell or Inhabit ; Aneddu ; Naietao ; Habito, 
*Habito is from bod^ an abode ; aneddu is from yn-y-tu^ m the 
* f 4 V^\aSfc\ 

E A 

houfe ; whence naictao ; inhabit is from in and habito ; dweU 
is from tu-w-al, the houfe over a man. 

Dye; Marw; Moira; Morior. Marw js from mi^ 
^r-w, me an earthly animal ; whence moirao and morior 5 dyp 
is from di-w, without being;' whence the Greek dye, to go 
under or difappcar. 


EAGER; Hegar; Agrios; Ferox. Hegarisfrom 
hy-ag-ar, an aftion of high ground, which is rough; 
whence eager and agrios ; ferox is from fe-ar-ux, it is the high 
ground ; there being no other method of expreffing theft ideas, 
ynlefs hy-ag-r fignines the bold or rough adlion. 

Eagle, or Hawk ; Erir or Gwalx; Terax or Ae- 
Tos ; Aquila or Accipite^l. Erir is from yr-ir, the high 
one ; gwalx is from ag-w-al-ux, an animal going the highdS 
height; whence the reft. . • : • . 

Early ; Bore ; Pkoi ; Mane. See Morning and 4e 
word Kar, whence early comes^ as daily does from day. 

Ear ; Clyst ; Ous ;' Auris. Ear is from hi-ar, the 
higher; auris, yr-fi, the found; ous is from y-fi, the found; 
clyft is from cau-al-fi-id, it \s the found veffel. 

Ear OF Cork'; Tywus; Staxus; Spica. See Ears 
and Corn ; tyus is from tyf-us, growing chaff, or tyf^fd, the 
jgrowing corn ; whence ftaxus | fpica is from uf-pica, th^ 
fpikcy chaff or fpikey corn, ' ' * ' 

Earth ; ar pr Daer ; Era ; Ter|la. a fignifies 
earth, 'r, a contradlion of yr, th?) being added thereto to 
exprefs the earth ; and with a farther addition of the, to* ar or 
car, as it is wrote in dacar,* it made the Englifti word earth*; 
da in daear fignifies good; era and terra are compofed of ar, 
ty tranfpofition, and the addition of the letter t, which will be 
farther explained in the preface. 

Ease; EsMWYTHAU; Eso; Sedeo. Efmwythau is the 
fame as the Englifti word fmppth, and comes from efmwydi, 
iinooth or foft, which is a compound of is-mwy, more low (hi 
lower ; the other words come frorh is, lower, which is a^ 
hiiich as to fay, the lower a'perfon fits the eafier, or the lower 
pr harder a piece of cloth pr any other tiling is preffed the 
fmoother it <vill be. ' . • \ . ■ 

Easy or Ready ; Rhwydd ; Rhadios ; Facilm. 
Rcp.dy, rhwydd and rhadios are from the Celtic rhydd, free, 
"v/hi^ch is from ar-hyd, at length ; eafy is from the Celtic if^ 
j'owcfi} faciiii is from fi-ifa-le-fi^ it is the lowcft place. 


Faster ; Pasc ; Pasxa ; Pascha. Thcfe come from 
pafco and e^t y fee the next clafs^ and the words Browfe an^ 
Feed. ' 

Eat ; BwYTA ; , Boo ; Pasco or Edo. Bwyta is from 
fewyd, which is from bi-w-id, it is the life of man 5 ^hence 
boo, edo and eat; pafco In its primary fenfe is froni p-af-ai^ 
the head low in aftion, that is, to browfe. 

Ebb or Reflov/ ; Treio; Anareo; Refluo. Treio 
is from tir-o, from the land, or from tiro, earthing, or the 
ground extended ; anareo is from an-ar-au, the ground or 
earth without wmter, as rheo, to flow, is from ar-au^ grounjl 
covered with water ; refluo and reflqw arc from rcr-ffuo, a re- 
turn of the flood ; fee Flow 5 ebb is from the Celtic heb, 
without, which fee. 

Echo ; Echo ; Exos ; Echo. Thofe come from the 
found, and are frequently ufed in the feveral dialeils, more 
cTpecially the Greek, in the compofition of words expreiEng 
found ; but the characters have alfq a meaning, as ac-ho, the 
action of ho, or the found echo. 

' Edge; Aux; Aixme or Ake; Acies. Though thcfe 
terms are applfed to exprefs a {harp or thfn edge, yet awx in 
fa<9: fignifies nothing more than y-ux, the higheit or upper 
part, iior edge any more than a hedge, which fee j the other* 
are of the fame meaning, all fignifying the outer part, as the 
"edge of a country, garment, or any other thing. 
/ EfiL; Llysywen; Engxelesis ; Anguilla. Enxe* 
lefis and ahguilia fignify an angle; eel feems to be a corrupt 
term formed from aqguilla ; llyfywcn is from Uys-w-en, the 
fflimy animal. See Conger. 

Effect; Grymhau; Xraino; Efficio. Grymhau 
fe from grim, force, which fee ; whence xraino ; efl&cio and 
efFeft are from y-fc-ac, it is an a6tion or a fa6t. 
• Egg; Wy; Oon; Ovum. Wy is from w-y, the ani- 
mal; oon and ovum are from w-uii, an animal; egg is the 
fame as ^l^e Celtic eg or egin, Ihoots of corn, feed, &c. Here 
it is to be obferved that the Celtic w is of the fame cffefl: as 
-the Greek 06, that the g in each dialeft is an auxiliary of c, 
which is a part of o, ,and as fi^ch expreflfes motion or aflion^ 
<as do its auxiliaries ch or x, g, k and ng. 
^ Eight; Wyth; Okto ; Octo. Wyth or xwyth Is 
tte Celtic wqrd for wind, out of which eight or eighth has 
CKsen formed; okto is from xwyth, which is a compound of 
%ix, higher, and wyth, wind. 

- Eighth; Wythfed; Oodos; Octavus. Seethe 
word Eight, and obferve d^at fed in wythfed, and vus lac£^^* 

Urns (ignify life, world or exigence; which confirms the figi 
nification here givvii to nuinbcis. 

Either i Ntu or Ai ; K or Eite ; Aut or Vel. Nea 
is from iii-ai, a<SUng or not aclin^ ; eite is from ai-di, a£Boii 
or a privative ; whence aut; either Is from ai-di-or, l^onor 
not adlion j vel is from vi-al, me or another. 

Elbow ; Elin or Pen Elin ; Olene ; Ulna* Elbow 
is from le-bow, the bosv place ; elin is from Jewn, the place 
that bends or goes in ; wh.iice all the reft ; pen is the cad or 
tiie head. 

Elegant; Hayax; Hagaios; Elegans* Elegansa 
from al-^-en, high acfting one ; whence elegant ; hayax k 
from hy-ac> a high or bold adlion ; whence hagaios* 

Elegy; . laeth; Elegeia; Elegia. Alaethisfrom 
al-actli, upon the gone or dead; the reft are from al-ag, upon 

Element; Elfydd; Elamos or Stoixeion; Eli- 
MBNTUM. Elfydd is from el for oi-fyd, all lifeor exiftence; 
elamos is from tl-am-fi, all that is or is feen about ; elemoi' 
p},m ^nd element are from eUmaint, all fubftance; ftoixeioa 
jb, it is within the upper covering, or the iky. 

Elephant; Elephant; Elephos; Elephas. Come 
/jtwtt hyll-i-vant, ugly mouth or fnout, or from hyll-i-faint, 
^^ ptrf>digious or terrible in magnitude. 

'Elevate ; Derxafu ; Epairo ; Elevo. . Derxafu is 
^ verb formed of tir-uxaf, the higheft ground ; whence epairo; 
fElevo is from al-a-ve, high with it ; elevate is from al-ev-it, 
xjf the fame meaning. 

Eleven; -Una Dec ; Endeka; Undecim. See One 
and. Ten, of which all thofe words except eleven are compofed ; 
hut eleven is from al-even, that is, above the even, ten being 
the even number. 

ELcctyENT; Llafarus; Lamuros ; Eloquens. 'Elb* 
quens is from al-voco or loquor, to call high ; whence elb- 
.iquent; llafarirs is from Uef-fawr, a loud found ; whence hr 
muros ; it is to be obferved that fawr comes by inflection from 
mawr, fo tliat lamuros is from Uef-mawr, and llafai:us from 
llcf-fawr. , 

Else ; Arall ; Alle ; Alias. Arall is from yr-ail, th^ 
iccpnd ; allc is from ail ; clfc and alias are from ail-fi, it is 
the fecond. '*^ 

Elsewhere ; Llearall ; Allotki ; Alibi. Llearall 
1$ from llc-cirall or ail, another place ; whence alJothi ; alibi is 
/ix>m ail and ibi, there; elfewhere is from ail or alios and xwr 
Q]cwr, p^-rt o;- corner. 

2 Embers 5 



EyB^Rs; .Marfor; Marila; Favill^. Marforit. 
fiom marw-fi-ir, the living fire dead ; marila from marw-il^. 
dead fire ; favilla from fov-il, fled fire ; embers from em-bi- 
ir, fire without kindling or burnjnjf. 

'" Embryo; Ymrain; Embryon; Embryo, Embryoj^ 
&c. are from am-bi-ir, and fignify about kindling ; fo doesf 
ymrain from am-ir-yn, the fire about being in. See Embers, 

EminIent ; Ardderxog j Exbxos ; Eminens. Ardderxog 
1$ from ar-tir-uxa, over the higheft land ; whence exokos ; 
jeminens is firom e-min-en, the edge of the Iky ; eminent is 
from e-min-cn-ti, at the top of the Iky or high poiFefSons ( 
ijut eminens makes eminentis in the genitive cafe. 

Empire; Arxiad; Arxe; Imperium. Arx and arxiad 
come from irx, the chiefeft ; imperiupi and empire copie from 
impel'O, to coinmand ; which is from the Celtic peri, to bid. 

Empty, Insipid or Impertinent; Cofg ; Kenos ; 
Inanis.' Ipanis is from ni-en-fi, it is notcxifting; coegi^ 
firpm cau-o-ag, jDbut from aftion ; whence kenos ; infipid is 
^m in-fi-p-id, it is an unfeen thing ; empty is from im-p-id, 
it 15 a privative thing ; impertinent is fripm im-p-ir-ti-na-ynt^ 
j^cy arc hot the things of an high property. 

ENfciRCtE or Encompass ; Amgylxu ; KuKtop; .CiR- 
cuLo or Ambio^ Circulo and encircle are from cn-circulus, 
ix) a hoop y fee the next as to the reft. 

'' EkcloJej Cau ; KuKLcd ; Ambio. Amgjrl^ is froiTi 
ain-qylx, a hoop or fhiit about ; ambio is from am-be-iu, it 
is about the part; kukloojs from cylx ; eticompafs is froni 
cn-^compafs, a round ; eylx is from ac-yl-ux, froiij the high 
light or the fun ; whofe figure feems round, or the aftion of 
the fun. 
' EncRease, ^Seclncrcafe. 

End ; Pe^ or Terfin ; Peras or Terma ; fim^ or 
Terminus. - Pen is from p-en, the firmament or fky part ; 
terv^n is from tir-fin, the land edge ; wjience t^rm,' finis and 
terminus ; end is From en-id, it is the firmament or iky ; pe- 
ras is from p-ar-as^ the loweft part of the earth ; fin and miri 
are botl^ the fame, biit^ changed by infleftion, or being put in 
compofition from the radical min into fin. 

Endure; Amiynedd ; Diameno; Duro. Duro and 
endure are from the Celtic word dur, fteel, which endures j 
kmynedd arid dtaineno are from am-uno, for uniting pr paci* 
fying onesfelf ; but the Greek term has the primitive di add- 
ed thereto, which renders the fenfe," fufFering, rather than 0911- 
tcntihg one's felf. 
*' Enemy; Esgar^ Exthros; Inimicus. Efgarisfrpnt 

E N 

itnCaTy the Icflcr friend ; wh^ence exthrosj inimicuS; is from 
t}ie negative in and amicus, a friend, enemy is from in and 
amo to love. 

Enigma; Dammeg ; Ainigma.; ^nixjma. -Pammeg 
is ffom di-am-ag, an aftion dark about j whence the reJJ:. 

Enjoy ; Lle}va ; Lauo ; Fruor. Enjoy is from in ^ 
joy, which fee ; llewa fepms to be frgm a lion, as fruor does from 
fry-wr, a countryman or ranger, both having the liberty of 
ranging tlie country at their wjl and pleafure i fee the word 
Joy, for a further explication. 

Enlarge; Mwyhauj Megathuno; Amplio. Mwy- 
hau is from mwy-hai, greater a6lion j megathuno is from 
megos and thuno, of the fame figniiication ; amplio is from 
am-p-1-iu, it is to extend a thing about j enlarge is from engr 
le-ar-gc, to extend a part upon the eartl?. 

Enlighten j Goleuo ; S^lageo ; Luceo. Goleuois 
from ag-ol, it is the adion of the fun ^ whence the reft, as 
felageo^ firom fi-il-ag, luceo from il-ux, and enlighten, in-il- 
ux-it-^en^ all of the fame fignification^ . . 

Enoble ; HynodI; Gnoriso ; NoBiLiTo. Hyruxli if 
from hy-nod, an high mark ; gnorifo is from gnorimos, and 
xiobilito from nobilis, noble, which' fee. 

Enough; DicoNorGwAL; ALisor. Ikanos; Satis. 
Gwal is from ag-o-al, theadlionof or from the fun; alis is 
from fhe i^e ; ikanos and digon are from i-ack-en, or id-ag- 
cn, it is ifrom or the ajftion of the firmament ; enough i$ 
froni en-o-ux, of the like fignification ; fatis is from {^t^ ^ 
compound of fi-a-t, it is from the firmament. 

ENcyJiRE; Ceisio; Exetaso; Inquiro. Ceifio, and 
cxetafo, are from ac-y-fi-iu, it is the aftion of feeing out ; in- 
quiro is from in and quero, inftead of quaefo, (the r and s be- 
iug both letters of found o^lyj fignifying the aft of feeing in<* 
to; whence enquire. 

Ens or Being ; Bod or B y w yd ; On ; Ens, Ens \p from 
en or in-fi, it is in' or exifting ; being is from bi-in, in life ; 
bod is from bi-w-yd, it is man's life ; by wyd, is from by-w-yd, 
it is the life of a man or an animal ; on and ens are the fame 
as the Englifti word ens, from in-fi, in being. 

Entangle ; Baglu ; Pagideuo ; Illaqueo. Baglu 
[s from bax-al, a hook, upon ; pagideuo is from bax-idiu, it is 
the hook ; illaqueo is froi^ al-cau, to flnit upon ; entangle is 
froni into-cau-le, to be fhut into a place. 

Enter, Go in, or Visit; Anerxu; Eiserkomai; 
Inhrrdior. Going is from ag-in ; vifit is from vi-fi-it, it is 
to .^e it ; enter is from in-tir, in the bnd ; anerchy i^ from 


E V 

in-ar-ac, to go upon the ground ; eiferkomal is from ys-ar-a(> 
mai, it is the. ad of going upon the ground; ingrcdiori^ 
from In-ar-ag-idiu, it is the ad of going upon the grownd. 

Entice or Alure ; Llithio ; Paleuo ; Allicio. It 
being ftill lifual to mix meal and milk to entice or call in the^ 
hogs, &c. which in the Celtic is called Uith, from llaeth^ 
milk ;. llithio is probably from thence ; paleuo is from p-alw, 
a calling thing ; ' allicio is from allu-fi, the calling found ; al- 
lure is from alu-yr, the calling ; entice is the houfe found. 

Entire or Whole; Oll, IAx orLLWYR, Ollcs; 
Ugies or OLdxLEROs; Integer or Totus. As towbole^ 
oil, and olios, fee AH ; Uwyr, is from ol-yr, the all ; olokle- 
ros is from ol-ac-lwyr, that is, all and llwyr ; iax is from 
y-ac or cy, to be all together- 

Entrails; Colyddun; Enkoilion; Intestinum. 
Colyddun is from ceu-ol-ddyn, a man's hollow parts ; fe^ . 
Hollow ^ hence comes engkoilion ; inteftinum is from intusr 
dyn, within man; entrails is from intro-Ie, the place wilhiii. 

Envy; Cynfigenu; PhthononExo; Invideo. . Sec 
the next. 

Envious; Cynfigenus; Akaios ; InVidiosus. Cyn- 
^gen is from ac-yn-ef-ig-en, an a£l in him hot within ; akaios 
is from ig-hai-w-ii, it is man's burning adion ; envy is from 
in-vy, within me; invideo is from in-fi-idiu, it is within 

EquiTY, Right or Justice ; Iawn ; Eunomia ; 
EquiTAs. Equity comes from e-ci-ti, an equal pofleflion or 
property; right is from yr-ci-ti, an equal property; jufticc is 
from i-w-ys-ti«-fi, to man the pofleffion is ; iawn is from y-a- 
w-yn, the earth in man ; eunomia is from eu-in-w-mae, it is 
a good in man. 

Erect; Derxafu ; Egeiro; Erigo. Derxafu is 
from tir-uxaf, the higheft land ; the reft come from ar-uxa, 
the higheft ground. 

Err; Pallu; Plaso; Erro., Pallu is from ap-allu, 
from power ; whence plafo ; err feems to be a verb formed 
from the primitive word ar, the Greek ear, the Latin terra, 
or the Englifli word earth, for to err is to wander up and down 
the earth. 

Esteem; Frisio; Eistimao; -^stimo. Eftimao is 
from ys-ti-ma, the great pofleffion.; hence eftimo and cfteem; 
prifio is from pris, a price, which fee. 

Evacuate or Empty ; Arloesi or Gwaeghau ; 
Xolaso or Kbnoo; Vacuo. Gwaeghau, kenoo, vacuo 


. Eic 

And evacuate come from the word cac, to fhite ; ^loeu Is bciA 
ar-Ioefi, upon fpuing; whence xolafo. 

Evade or Escape; Ymaxyb; Upbkdumi; Evado; 
Ymaxyb is from ym-axyb, to fave ; whence the Greek tenn} 
evado and evade are from e-au-id, the being out of, or from 
the water ; whence the Englifh word wade ; efcape is from 
js-ac-au-pe, the ading or coming from the water part^ 

Even or Equal; Gwastad; Kateikos; JEquvsi 
Equiis is from e-cy-iu, being togedier or equal ; gwaftad is 
froni cy-y-ibd, an equal ftate; whence the reft, except even^ 
which feems to be from e-van, the place, or en-van, Uie iam^ 

Evening ; Hwyr or Gosper ; EsPEkos ; Vsspbr. 
Evening is from e-van-in, the place in or fet in; hwjrr is from 
hwy-ir, the longeft light, or the fun's courfe ; gofper is from 
ag-if-p-ir, light going or a£Ung to the loweft part ; efperos. 
and vefper are from if-^p-ir, the loweft or latter part of 

Ever; Byth; Aei ; Semper; alfo P0B5 Pas; 
Every* Ever and every are from y-ver, the fpring j byth is 
by-ith, the life; aei is from ai, adion ; pob is from .p-o-beth^ 
part of a thing or part ; pas is from pas, all, or peth, a thing; 
femper is from fi-am-p-ir, it is the higher world. 

Eunuch; Spadydd; Spadon; Spado. Thefe aitl 
from fx-p-had, it is the feeding part, and di, o, or ni, withJ 

Exasperate; Gerwino or Cythruddo; Kerxo 
or Ex AGRi aino ; Ex aspero. Gerwino is from ag-ir-w-in^ . 
a hot a^on upon man ; whence exagriaino ; kerxo is from 
cyr-ac, a being in aftion ; cythruddo is a violent a£lion ; ex-^ 
aipero is from ac-fi-p-ar j it is an hot or rough a£tion ; whencd 

Excite; Cynhyrfu; Ageiro; Excito. Cynhyrfuis 
from cyn^hyrddu, the firft aflault, from hai-ir-id, it is an hot 
a&ion; ageiro is from a^-hi-ir, an high hot action; excitd 
and excite are from ac-hi-it, it is an high adion^ 

Exclaim ; Bloeddio; Anaboao; Exclamo. Blo- 
eddio is from bloedd, afhout; whence anaboao ; exclamo and 
exclaim are from ex-clamo, to cry out ; fee Cry, Shout, &c. 
where thefe wwds are defined. 

Exclude or Cull out; Cwlio; Ekkleio; Exclu-i* 
DO* Cwlio Is compofed of cau-o-li, to fhut from the multi* 
tude, or from caurO-il, to (hut from the light or fight in4t 
more primary fenfe; whence the word cull, and the reft, with 



Jic prepofitions ck and ex, fignifying out, which here ftetftf 

Excoriate ; Digrokni ; EKDfiRo ; Excorio. Thcfe 
ire compofedof the fcvcral pfepofitlons fignifying without, anj 
uroeo, fkitiy but ekdefo is from caiad-ar^ a covering upon. 
See Skin, Bark^ ice. 

Execrations or Curses; Rhegaij Arai; Dinjk* 
Rhegai is from ir-ag, an angry slftion ; whence arai ; diras is 
from id-ri-ai, it is an angry adtion ; curies is from ac-ar-fi, 
it is an angrjr a£tion ; execraticms i» from ex-ac-ir-it, it is aa 
angry a£Hon out. 

Exhale ; Tarthu or Twymno ; Anathumiaso j 
ExHALo. Twymno and anathumirfo are exjdained under 
the word warm j exhalo and exhale are from ex-au-le, out of 
the water place *, tarthu is frota id-au-ar-tu, it is the water 
upon the land. 

Exhort; Anog ; Anoigo 5 Exhorto or Aperio. Anoj^ 
is from in^ag, in a£tion, ot from an-nog, without ftartling 3 
l^hence aiioigo ; exhorto and exhort are from ex-hai-or-it, it 
is the aftion of driving out light j aperio is from a-p-ir-iu, ik 
is clearing a thing. 

Exile; DitRo; Exoristos 5 Exul. Difro is frorti 
di-fro, without country ; exoriftos is from ex-or-if-to, out of 
the lower border; exile and exul are from ex-il, out of- 

Exist ; Dyrxafu ; Uparxo ; Existo. Dirxafu is 
from tir-uxa-fi, dwelling or living in the upper country or 
poiTeffions. Uparxo is from y-p-ar-ux, the upper part of the 
country ; exlfto and exift are from ex-is-ti, out of the lower 
poflieffions ; but thefe terms in a fecondary fenfe fignify to ftand 
out, or to appear, tho* originally framed from the above men^ 
tioned objefts of fijght, whence moft pofitive terms were 

Expand; Ymdanu ; Ekpetanup; Expando. Ym- 
dan-en, about under the firmament ; ek-pe-tan-en, a thing 
out under the firma;ment ; whence the reft. 

Expect; Disgwylio; Ekdexomai; Expecto. Dif- 
■gwylio is from dis and gwilio, to watch ; expedo and expert 
are from ex and fpefto, to behold ; ekdexomai is from ek and 
dexomai, to^accept. 

Extend or I-nlarge ; Engu or Tanu ; Ekteino ; Ex- 
TTKNDO or Amplio. Tanu, ekteino, extendo and extend 
are explained under the word Expand ; engu is from cng-iu, it 
is cxtenfive or great ; as to amplio and inlarge, fee Large. 
£XTRE.AM; CwR; Akros ; Extremus. Cwr UftcSosk 


cau-ior^ the inclofcd border ; whence akr6s ; extfemusaiul 
cxtream are from ex-tir-am, the out border of the country. 

Eye 5 GoLWG; Goleini or Llycad ; Illos or Gle- 
NE ; OcuLUS. Oculus is from w-ac-il-iu, it is an animal ac« 
tion of light or fight ; goleu, &c. are from ag-Wi-il-iu,* it irdie 
animal adion of hght ; eye may come from e, the, And i in id, 
to fee. 

Eyebrows ; Blew r' Amrant ; Blephara ; Palpe- 
BR^. As to eyebrows, fee Eye and Brows j blew is from bi- 
al-iu, it is a growth upon, r' the, and am-ir-ynt, they arc 
about the light ; blephara is from blew-fi-ar, hair upon tlu 
fight; whence palpebraci 

F. . 

FACE; Wynebi Opsis ; Facxes. Wyneb is from 
w-yn-eb, man in fpeaking; fades and face are from 
fe-y-fi, the founding or fpeaking part ; opfis is from o for 
y-p-fi, it is the founding or fpeaking part. 

Fagot ; Fagel ; Fakelos ; Fasciculus. Fagot is 
from fe-ig-it, it is a fire thing ; fagel is from fe-ig-al^ a thing 
upon the fire ; whence the reft. 

Fail j Faelu ; Sphallo ; Fallo. ..Thefe arc fronli 
fi-o-il, the fight out of the light ; whence the reft. 

Fair or Clear; PRYDUsor Glan; Kalos or Abros; 
PuLCHER or Formosus. Glan is from ag-il-en^ the adion 
of the firmament light ; prydus is from ap-ir-idiu, it is from 
the fire or light ; kalos is from ac-al-o-fi, it is the a^lion of 
the high o or the fun ; abros is from ab-ir-o-fi, it is from the 
fiery o or the fun ; clear is from ac-al-ir, from the high fire ; 
clean is from glan ; fair is from fire ; pulcher is from ap*al- 
ux-ir, from the upper light. 

Fair or Market ; Fair ; Foron ; Forum. Thofe 
words were foimed from the people's appearing there. 

Faith; Fydd; Pistis ; Fides. Fydd from fy-id, fig- 
nifies my fight ; whence the reft. 

Falcon ; GwALx ; Phalkon; Accipiter. Gwalx 
comes from ag-w-al-ux, an animal acting high ; phalkon is 
from phi-alcon, or al-ac-en, an animal acting high in the (ky> 
whence falcon ; accipiter is from ac-capio-lir, the ravifl^ier of 
the land, or ac-ux-p-tir, ailing above the higheft part of the 

Fall ; Llithrad ; Olisthos ; Lapsus or Casus. 
As tocafus and fall^ fee the ne^t; lapfus is from al-pes-iu, tho 


,F A 

^^b^; llithradis from al-traed, the feet up; whencfl 

or Fail; Methu; Emuo; Cado. Fall and farl 
^ ifm fe-a-il, a thing from light ; cadd is from ac-ad, a£t-^ 
^^6r falling at ; methu is from am-ith^ it is on the giound ; 
^io is from am-iu, it is upon the ground* 
I Tamily ; Teilu or Llu ; Belos or Oikja ; Familia 
^r DoMus. Teilu is from tu-lu, a houfe> family, or multi'^ 
tude ; familia and family ire fromfama and lu^ that is, a fa-^ 
mous lu, or family ; belos is from bi-lu, a living multitude ; 
domiis is from tu-mi, my houfe ; oikia is from oikos, a boufe^ 
which fee; but llu figniiies a nation or multitude, rather than 
a domeftick family, tho' frequently made ufe of in compounds 
01 the former fenfe ; this term was formed by a tranfpodtion 
of il,^ which fignifies the extenfion of light, or the rays of 
the fun. 

Famine; Newin ; Peina ; Fames. Newin is from 
ni-win, i^o bleffing, or from ni-o-en, no fun, in its more pri- 
mary fenfe ; peina is from pe-en-a, a thing not from heaven j 
fames is from fi-am-es, food about leffening, whence famine. 

Fan, to winnow Corn ; Wvntyll ; Likmos ; Ven- 
TiLABRVM.^ Wyntyll is from wynt-tu-al, a high houfe 
wind, whence ventilabrum, with the addition of brun, a hilU 
Which is wrong ; likmos is from al-ac-mos, high afting wind 5 
fan is from vannus, which is from ven in ventum, wind, and 
iu it is. 

Far ; Pell ; Tele ; Procul. Prgul is from bro- 
llxel, a high country ; tele i^ from ti-al, a high poffeffion ; 
pell is from p-cl, the high part; far is from fe-hi-ar, it is the 
high ground. 

' Fart; Rhexan; Rhenxo ; Crepito. Fart is from 
fie-art ; crepito is from cri-p-idiu, it is a founding thing ; the 
reft are from r'-eco-un, the founding one ; but rhenxo has 
been commonly made ufe of as an expreffion for fnoreing. 

Fat; Pascus or Bras ; Liparos orPAXUS ; Pinouis. 
fee the next. 

Fatness; Brasher or Irwer; Arbine orSTEAR; Ar- 
VINA, Adeps, or PiNGUEDO. Moft of thofe are explained 
under the word Suet; fat is from fi-at, at or fticking to an ani- 
mal ; brafder is from b-ar-is-dwr, a thing upon the lower lir 
quid ; irwer is from ir-w-ar, frefli upon an animal ; arbine is 
from ar-bi-in, upon the infide of an animal ; hence the rcfff ' 
except pinguedo, which is from p-yn-cau-w-idiu, it is a thing 
covering an animal. 

G Father 


kurc^ Father m Law; Xwegrww ; ^Eruko^ Socer 
Xwegn^'n, is from uxa-gwr-yn, the upper man ^ erukdsis 
from yr-uxa-w-fi, he is the upper man -, focer is from fi-w^ 
es-ar, he is a man over the Ids. 
rdyi'^ Fathom; GwRYD ; Orgyx^ Oroya. Gwrydofgwr- 

hyd, the length of ^ man ; whence the Greek and JLatin, ex- 
cept the laft fyllable is cywx, as high, inflead of hid, 
length ; fathom Is from fi-ddyfn, my depth. 

Favour; Fafar; Euphemia; Favor. Thofewonb 
fignify to fpeak well of, and come from the Greek word phao^ 
and tne Celtfc lafar, to fpeak, which fee. 

Fawn ; Elain ; Ellos ; Hinnulus.. Fawn h fromfo- 
ai-un, it is an a£^ing one ; elain is from al-ai-un, an hig^ 
ading one ; ellos is from al-w-fi^ it is an high aniolal j hm- 
nulus is from hai-un-al-iu, he is an high a£tive one.r 

Fear or Av/ty Ofn; Phobos ; Timor. Ofni^fxota 
o-fi-un ; i. e. oh me within ; awe is from the mterje6tion oh y 
timor is from ti-mor, great power j whence the reft. 

FeaR} Ofni> Phobeo; Timso. See the laft pieced-' 
ing clafs. 

Feast or Banquet ; Cyfeddax; Euoxia ; EpOlum. 
Cyfeddax is from cy-fidd-ax, the chief living or feeding to- 
gether ; whence euoxia ; banquet is from bi-eri-ux-id, it is (M 
nigh living or feeding ; epulum is from y-p-al-'iu, it is die 
high thing ; feaft is from fi-eifta, the fitting life, or the fecdr 
ing fitting. 

Feather or Plume; Plyan;Ptilon; Piuma. Plyw 
is fromp-al-en, a thing high in the air or fky ; plunsa i» 
p-al-am, a thing high about; feather is from fe-at» the-air^ 
a thing to the air ; ptilon from peth-al-en> a thing high in 
the air ; plume is from plum^ 

Feed; Pesci ; BosKoj Pasco. Feed comes from die 
Celtic buyd, meat, or from fi-id, it is life j pefci and the reft 
come from pe-es-ac, the head down in action, as catt|^ in 
browfing. See Browfe. 

Feel or Touch; Cnithio; Thigo; Tango^ Cnidiia 
IS from ac-intho, aSing in or upon it. Thigo is from id or 
ith-ag, it is afting ; tango is from tan-ag, adding; 
feel is 'from fe^al, it is upon it ; touch is probably of the famv 
original with thigo; and alLthefe expreffions feem to have been 
framed from a fim touching the bait, and vary perhaps accord* 
ing to the different method of fifhing. 

Penn or Marsh; Cors; Xaro:^ Palus. Cots isfirout 
auc-ar-is, a wet low ground, whence xarox ; marfh is from 

A A 



ftiSr-fs, teloW ttic fea ; palus fciettis to be frotii its tcing thft 
pale or extent of the demeihe^ which was fenced or paled in | 
and fen is from fence* 

Ferry or CarrV oVer; PorthWeithio ; PoRTrt- 
MEUO ; Trajicio, Thefe are explained undelr the words 
Cany, Caftj Import, Port and Potter. 

Ferry or Boat ; Pont ; Pontos ; PonTus* Tho' pontus 

* has been iifed as an expreilion for a fea, it in fa3 ineans a 
bridge or ferry, over a fea, or other waXer; for pont from 

' p-6n-ti, fignifies to the part frctoi our fide 5 whence pontus 
euxinus muft have been fo called frotn its being the ferrying or 

* canying place ; ferry is from fcro to carry ; which fee ; boat 
is from b-o-at, and thing from to, or froin b-au-at, a thing at 

* the water-fide* 

Ferryman ; PorthwAs j PoktHMEUS ; PorthmIs* 
us. Thefe are explained under Ferry, Port and Man. 

Fertile VFrwythlon; Euphoros ; Ferax. Fertile 
is from fi-ar-ti-al, growth high upon the land ot poffeflions | 
ferax is from fi-ar-ux, the growth of the earth high ; frwyth- 
lon is from frwyth-al*in5 fruit high upon ; euphoros is from 
cu-phi-ar, high growth of the earth. See Fruifo ' 

.Fervent; Br WDus; BratHeis ; FERVEt" actus; Brwd, 
hot, is from b-ir-id, it is a hot thifig ; , whence bratheis 5 fer- 
vent is from fe-ir-ve*ynt, they are hot things j fervefa<Sus is 
from fe-ir-ve, and faftus. 

Fiction; Fug; Poiesis; FicTio. Fug Is from fi-cy, 
* To feemlike ; hence fi£lio and'fiiSion ; poiefis is from poieo to 
make, and fi for ci, a likenefs. 

Fie; Fi; Pheu ; Fy. Thefe are of the fime fignifica- 
tion as the words away or avaunt, that is to be high or far. 

Fierce, to be ; Broxi ; BeuxcJ'J Ferocio. All thefe trv>x< 
come from bro-uxa, the higher country ; either becaufe the 
'inhabitants were fiercer, or thecountry rougher than in the 
vale, where were the cities and citizens. 

Fifteen ; Pymthec ; Pentekaideka j Quindecim* 
Sec the words Ten and Five ; whence thofe are compofed. 

Fifth ; Pymed ; Pemptos j Quintus. See the word 

Fig 5 FyGis; Skuo!^ Ficus. Skuon is from fi-ig--un, s\j^0^ 
it is a fiery or hot one ; figis and the reft are from fi-ig-fi, it is 
a hot or nery growth. 

Fight ;. Cad; Maxe ; I*ugna. Cadis from ac-ad, at 
adion ; maxe is from ma-ac, a great action ; pugna is from 
p-ag-in, a thing in adion ; fight is from fe-ag-it, it is a thing 
in adtipn. 

G % "S^o-AT V 


Fight ; Ymladd orBAxu ; Maxomai or Hamillao' 
MAI ; PuGNo^ Yfnladd is from am-ladd, for killing ; whence 
the Greek term ; the reft are defined under the laft ekfs t( 

Figure, Form or Imagin"^ 1)yxymyg ; Xematisoj 
FiGURo. Figuro and figure are from fig-yr, the fi£tion or 
likenefs; dixy my g is from id-cy-am-agy it is for afting or 
making a likenefs^ whence xematifo and imagin ; fee the word 

Filled or Satisfied ; Corawgi ; Koreo ; Satio. 
Corogi is from cor-og, a great feeding 5 whence koreo ; faOa 
is from fi-a-t, it is from the earth to the (ky 3 whence fatisfieij 
fill i^from fi-al, high feeding. 

Filly or Foal ; Ebolas ; Polos ; Pullus Equi- 
Kus. Thefe are explained under the word Colt, with theaci- 
dition of as,- ilgnifying a lefler or a female. 

Filthy or to be Ioul ; Bydrau ; Rupao ; Sordeo. 
Bydrau is from bydr, dirty y which is compofed of b-hyd-ar, 
a thing along the ground ; fordeo is from is-ar-idui, it is the 
lower ground ; rupao is fr6m ar-p, the ground part ; filthy is 
from f-al-ti-ith, it is a thing upon the ground ^ foul is from 
f-o-al, a thing from high or clean. 

Find; Caffael; Alpho; Invenio. Alpho is from 
al-phi, upon view \ cafFael is from ac-fi-al, an action upon 
view ; invenio is from in-vi-ni-iu, it is within our fight v oxA 
is from fi-in-id, it is in fight. 

Finger or Thumb ; Bawd or Bys ; Daktulo* ; Digi- 
tus or Pollex. Bawd is from baw-id, it is the paw; hvs is 
from baw-is, the lefs paw ; pollex is from p^al.ux, the high- 
eft upon the paw ; digitus is from id-ux-i-ta, it is upon or 
above the covering ; daktulos is from id-ux-to-al, it is dbove 
the upper covering; thumb is from to-am-b(e» » thing over 
the covering ; finger is from fin-ux-ar, upon the upper edge« 

Fire ; Tan ; Pur -f Ignis; The word tan is peculiar to 
the antientCumbri language ; but ig and ir are therein, uied as 
particles in compofition, to exprefs fire, heat, ^nger^ &;c./jiti» 
a compound of ti-en, the firmament property; fire is from 
fi-ir, a living fire j pur is from p-ir, a fiery or hot thiBg^ 
ignis is from i-ag>en,^ the adionof the firmament, ox zJ^ofk 
of i or fire of the firmament. 

Firebrand; Tewin; Dalos ; Ditio. 't'ewin is frcim 
ti-o-en, it is the property of the firmament o or the fun ^ 
uitio is from id-ti-o, it is the property of the fun ; dalos x« 
from id-al-o, it is the high o ox the fun j firebrand is frqm 



Hre and brand, a compound of b-ir-end, a fire at the 

Firm or Stable; Safadwy or Sicr; Stadios or 
StEREos ; Stabilis or FiRMUS. Safadwy is from faf-idiu^ 
it is ftanding; ficr is from fi-cau-ar, it is fhut upon ; ftereos is 
from firto-ar, it is (hut or covered upon ; firmus and firm are 
from fir-ma, a great force or ftrengthj fee Strong; whence, 

First ; Cyntaf or Prif ; Protos ; Primus; Firft k 
from fir-ft, it is fire; praf is from p-^ir-ef, jt is the fire part; 
cyntaf is from ac-yn-ti-ef, it is the su^on upoii property ; 
protos is from p-ir-it, it is the fire part ; pqmus js from p-ir- 
jn-iu, it is the great fire thing ; ^ence it feeois |>robable that 
the filrft thing or a£):ion was God's moving on theface of cbaos^ 
which was before a cold, dead, coafufed and darjc nufs or 
* Jump. 

Fish a Pysg ; Ixthus ; Pi&cis. Pyfg is from p-i$-auc, 
things or h'vers under the water ; fifh is from fi-au-es, livers 
)>elow the water ; whence the reft. 

Fist or Fight ; Lainio ; Elauno ; Puono or Per- 
cuTio. Percutio is from per and qiiatio, to 0iake ; and per 
is probably fromp-'r, the foot, paw or part; lainio andelau* 
no are from lau-in-w, the hand upon man ; fee the next foU 
lowing clafs. 

Fist ; Dwrn; Drax ; Pugnus. Dwrn is from twr-ni, 
our tower or defence ; fift is from fi-ift, it is force ; pugnus is 
from p-ig-ni, our angry or forcible paw or part ; drax is from 
id-ir-ac, it is the angry aftor. 

Fit, Proper or Decent; Cymwys; Ikanos; Ido 
VEVs or Decens. Decent and decens are from id*ci-un, it is 
equal one; ikanos is from the Celtic digon, enough ; cymwys 
is from cy-m-iu, it is my equal ; idoneus is from id-un-iu, it 
is one or the fame one ; fit is from fe-it, it is a thing ; proper 
is primarily from bro-ber, land and witer. 

Five; Pimp; Pente; QyiNquE. Thefe terms were 
formed from the work of the fifth day's creation, viz^ fifhes and 
birds ; and pimp from p-am-p, fignifies beings or things in 
part of the world ; five from fe-vi, is part of life ; pente 
front p-in-ti, is part in the pofTeifions ; qu^nquc is from ac-in, 
ge, adding upon the earth. 

Fix or Fasten ; Baxu or PwyoyN ; Pecnumi or Pax- 
Ndo; FiGo or FiBULO. Fix is fron> fe-c^u, a thing fhut; 
Aften is from fe-fi-tyn, the thing is tight; baxu is from be- 
cCao, a thing fhut^ whence paxnoo ^nd pegnumi i pwyoyn is 

G 3 it<^xvv 

F L 

from p-w-yn, a man's paw upon ; figo is from fe*catf, a thing 
ihut ; fibulo is from fc-be-al, it is a thing upon. 

Flame; FLAMorFACELj Phlegma or Fjlox ; Flam* 
MA. Faecl is from fe-ig-al, a thing upon the fire ; floxis 
from fc-al-ig, a thing upon the fire ; phlegma is from phc-al- 
]g-am, a thing upon the fire about, that is, flamingo flam 
and flame may be from fi-il-am) the living fire about. 

Flaming; Flamio; Phlogeeisj Flammeus. See 
the laft preceding clafs. 

Flatter or Blandish ; Gwineithio ; Saino j Bi^an- 
X)ioR. Gwineithio is from ag-o-en-ith, it is thea^ionQf 
the fun in fhining ; faino is from fi-en-o, it is from tJie. {m\ 
blandior and blandifh are from ab-al-en-id, it is froin the fif« 
mament ; flatter is from fe-al^at-her, he is high at her. 

Flaw or Break; Rhwygo ; Rhegmuo or Phlao} 
Frango. Flaw is from f-al-o, a part for being ofF; frango 
is from f-ir-yn-ag, a hot thing in adtion; the oSi6t worcl$ are 
explained under the word Break. 

Flax ; Llin ; Linon ; Linum. Thefe are exp];aliie4 
under Line, whence they were framed, by re^on that lilies 
were madd thereof. 

Flea ; Blingo ; Glupho ; Glubo. Blingo is fi-om bi* 
al-in-cau-o, an animal covering from ; glupho is frcmir caih- 
al-phi-o, the covering on an animal from; whence glubo; flet* 
is from fi-al-o, upon the animal off. 

Fleece; Cnu; Kodion; Vellus. Cnu is from cau*> 
in-w, the covering upon an animal ; kodion is from cnu-id- 
ion, it is the fheep's covering; vellus and fleece are from vi-* 
^1-ui, it is upon the animal/ 

Flesh; Cig; Kreas ; Caro, Flefh is from flea-i£h, it 
is the flead or fleeced ; kreas is from cau-ar-as, under the co- 
vering upon ; caro is from cau-ar-o, the upper covering from} 
cig is from cau-ag, the covering oflF or from. 

Flexible or Plyant ; Hyblig ; Euplekos or Kam.** 
PULos ; Flexibilis. Hyblig is from hy-blig, many folds) 
whence euplekos ; kampulos is from the Celtic cam-p-al, % 
crooked or bent thing upon v plyant is from the Celtic p-alr 
ynt, tbey are things upon ; flexibilis and flexible are fitffli 
plig-be-al, a folded thing upon. 

Flight; Fo; Phuge; Fuga. Fo is from fi-6, out of 
view; phuge is from fi-ag, from view; whence fiigaj flight 
is from fi-il-ag-it, it is from the. view of the light. 

Fling; Taflu; Ballo; Jacio. Taflu is from di- 
^faelu^ to (juit bpjdj ballo is from ab-allu, to fuirce fronjr 


fling is from fi-al-eng, force greatly up ; jacio is from i-ac-J, 
the afiion up. 

Flock or Swarm; Llu orAiG; Agema or Laos; ■ 
Agmen or TuRBAv Turba is from the Celtic twr-bi, a ' 
living heap ; as to llu, laos and flock, fee the word Multitude; 
though flock feems to be from flu for lu, and aigj fwarm is., 
from fi-w-ar-am, it is the animals about ; aig is from y-cy, 
the company ; whence agema and agmen, widi the adaition 
of am, about. 

Flood ; Llif or Llanw ; Klusis ; Alluvies. Llanw 
is from al-au-in, the high water in ; klulis is from auc-al-fi, 
it is high water; llif is from al-ef, it is high ; whence alluvies; 
flood is from fe-al-au-id, it is the high waten 

Floor ; Lla wr ; Aloas ; Humus. Llawr is from lie- 
^r, the place upon ; whence floor ; aloas is from al-as, upon 
the lower part; humus is from y-am-iu, it is the part about 
or upon. 

Flow; Llifo or Lli^eirio; Reo; Fluo. Reois^ 
from ir-»au, high water ; the other words are explained under 

Flowers; Blode; Xloa; Flos. Blode is froin b-al- 
o-id, it is a thing from the fun ; flower is from f-al-o-yr ; xloa 
from ux-al-o-a; ttos from f-al-o-fi, all fignifying that it. is a 
thing from the* fun. 

Flow ; Llenwi, Llifeirio or Llifo ; Phleo or 
Rheo ; Abundo or Fluo. Rheo is from r-hi-au, the high 
.water; llenwi is from llanw, a flood, which fee; llifeirio is 
from lif-'r-au, the water flood ; fluo is from the Celtic lifo, 
to flow ; abundo is from ab-unda, from the waves. 

Flour of Meal; Peilliad; Paipale; Pollen. 
Mill being from m-il, the great light, from its likenefs to the 
fun in many refpefts, as its round moving flones, its divifiori 
of the corn into particles like thofe of light or the fun, and 
the . flour being of the colour of the firmament ; peilliad ia 
tompofed of ap-haul-id, it is from the fun ; pollen from ap- 
oL-en ; whence paipale ; meal is from ma-al, the fun. 

Fly away ; Foi ; Phugo ; Fugio. See Flight. 

Fog; Nifwl; Nephele; Nebula. Fog feems to 
come from fie-och, or oh fie, perhaps from the fmell of it; 
nifwl or niwl and the reft are from ni-ol, no fun; 

Foam ; Brox ; Aphros ; Spuma. Foam is from fe^w-» 
am, a thing about a man ; brox is from be-w-ar-ox, a thing 
filthy upon a man or animal ; aphros is from a-phe-ar-w-fi, it 
is a thing, upon a man ; fpuma is from ji-p-w-am^ it is a 
thing about a man. 

G 4 FQt.xi\ 

F R 

fi-o-id, of the fame fignification ; halog is from hi-al-o-og^ 
an adion from the light or cleanlinefs ; whence gloios j fouL 
is from fi-o-haul, a life without fuq or light, that is, the con- 
trary of clean, which fee. 

Fountain, Well or Pit; Fynok j Bothenos or 
Pege ; FoNs or Puteus. Fynon with its derivative arc 
from the radical term bon, a root or fource of any thing i 
whi: h from the nominative cafe bon, changes in the accufa- 
tive into mon, and in the ablative to fon or von, fo as to form 
thefe feveral dialcfts ; this being fo in various other inftances, 
it ought to be remarked as one of the principal caufes of thcfc 
different Uiles j pit is from p-hid, the pjrt or place hid; pegc 
is from p-cau, the part (hut ; well is from o-il, from the light, 
that is, a dark place* 

Four; Pedwar ; Tetor; Quatuor. Thefe fignify 
the fun, moon, and ftars, which was the bufinefs of the 
fourth day of the creation ; pedoar feems to exprefs as much 
by the letters, viz. pe-id, the feeing things or the ftars, o the 
fun, and a-ir, the earth's light or the moon. 

FpwL or Bird; Aderun or Adenun ; Orneon orPri- 
KON; Avis or VoLUCRis. Adair the plural of aderun, is 
from ad-auir, to the air ; adenun is from aden, a wing com-^ 
pofed of ad-en-un, one to the (ky, or the wing one ; bird is 
from bi-ar-id, it is an aerial being or liver ; whence the Greek; 
avis is from au-vi-fi, it is an aerial being ; volucris }s from 
vi-al-ux-ar-fi, they are the dwellers high above the earth ; 
whence fowl ; fee At and Air. 

Fox; Llwynog or Cadno; Kinados; Vulpes. Fox 
is from fie-ox, oh fie, or a filthy animal ; llwynog is from 
Iwin-ox, the bufh dirty animal ; vulpes is probably from vi-al- 
pes, fwift-footed animal ; but kinados and cadno are firom ci- 
nadu, the barking dbg. 

Fragment or Scrap; Darn; Thraustos ; Frus- 
tum. Fragment is from f-ar-ag, a great cut into a thing ; 
fcrap is from fi-ac-ir-p, it is a cut into a thing; darn is from 
tori-in, to break into ; whence thrauftos ; fruftum is from 
frango, to break. See Break. 

Frank, Free or Liberal ; RHVDDorHAEL; Eleu- 
theros ; Liberalis. Rhydd is from r'-hai-id, it is an high 
a6lion ; hacl is from hai-al, an high aiSion; eleutherosis from 
hael and rhydd, whence alfo liberalis and liberal ; free is fron) 
fe-rhydd, a free life ; frank is from free-in-ac, free in adlion, 
or free-in-auc, free on the water. 

Freedom ; FIaelder ; Eleutheros ; Libert as. Thefe 
are explained under the words Frank and Liberal. 


F R 

. Freeze ; Rhewi ; Rhiooo ; R^geo, All thefe except 
free;&e cope fr9m oer-ag, a cold a<5^iD^,; freeze is froiU free-fay. 
circulation at a flind or ftopt, 

vFREquENT ; KIynvx; SyxNos or Thaminos ; Fre- 
QUENs. Mynyx is frommanax> fmaller; frequens and fre- 
quent feemto be (derived from fri-xuant, want.tobe free j fux- 
nos is a word corruptly formed of ci, together, and nyx irt 
mynyx ; tbarhino3 is alio fropi mynyx, and tha for tbco, to run. 

: Friend; Car; Philps; Amicus. Car is formed of 
caru, to love ; which fee ; amicus is from 9m> in amo, and 
i-cy, the companion ; philos is from- phileo to loves friend is 
i^pm fri-un-it, he is a free one* 

Frog ot Toad; Llyfont or Ci^ouciWR; MyoxoSj 
Physalos or Batraxos ; Bufo or CARCHoqy los, J-ilyfont 
is: from lly-fbnt,the family or multitude of the fountains ; crou-. 
ciwr and carchoquios are from their croaking noife; the Latin 
varying a little from the natural found ; frog is fropi fer for 
ber, ^nd 6g, for ox, a filthy fpring- water animal ; muoxos i% 
from my-ox-au-fi, they are the numerous filthy water anir 
mals ; hufo is from bi-font, the fountain animus, fo is phy^ 
ialos ; batraxos fignifies the dirtied and filthieft water animals s 
fo^d is from id-au-ad, they are at the water. .. . : 

From; O; PEUor Apo; De, Ab, 6r;A. From is from 

fir-o-m, the great o or the fuu ; o is the fun, .which is at a 
diftance ; peu and apo are from ap-o, from o or the fun ; ob is. 

from o-ab, from o or the fun ; a fignifies and, rjather than 

from, but as and, fignifies to goon, fo inthatfenfe.a may fig- 

nify from. 

Front or Forehead; Tublaen, Tal or TuPEN-f 

Metopon or Telos ; Frons. Front is from fro-un, the 

country before us, or in poflefllon ; forehead is from fore and 

head ; tublaen, tal, tupen, telos, &c. in their primary fenfe, fig- 

iiify the country before us, or the parftof the country in poft 

jfeifion, which is the forepart, 

Frost; Rhew; Kruos; Gelu. Rhew is formed of 

ocr, cold, which fee ; hence kruos ; gelu is from ag-il-iu, it is 

from the light or heat ; froft is from fro-ft, the country at a 

ftand ; fee alfo the verb Freeze. 

Frujt ; Frwyth ; QpoRA ; Fructus Autumna- 

l^is or Fruges. Frwyth is from fi-ar-o-ith, it is food from 

the ground ; whence the reft, except opora, which is compofe<^ 

of ap-ar, from the earth or ground. 

l^RY ; Frio ; Phrugo ; Frigo. Frio is from fi-ir-iu. It 

is heating food ; whence fry ; phrugo and frigo are from fi-irr 

9g, the a<5l of beating food. 

G A 

Full ; Llawn ; Pleios ; " Plenus. Llawn is from al- 
in-au> the high water in ; whence the reft ; it having beea 
ufual in the diale£ts, to write ^ for the Celtic He, 

Fume or Fret; Digio or Dyxrynu ; Aganakteo or 
DuxERAiNo ; Stomachor or Ikdignor. Digio is from 
id-ig-w, he is a hot man ; dyxrynu is from id-ac-ir-yn, it 
is an adion of being hot within ; whence duxeraino ; aga- 
nakteo is from ag-in-ig-idui, it is an a^on of being hot 
within ; fret is from fire it, it is hot or burning ; fume is 
to fmoke ; indignor is from in and digio ; ftomachor is from 
fto-ma-ux-ir, it is from the great high tire. 

Furnace^ Fwrn; Phornos; Phurnus. Fwm is 
from fi-yr-yn, a living $re widiin ; whence the reft. 

Furlong; YstoD; Stadion; Stadium. Furloneis 
from fiir-long, the long or length of a furrow; yttod is 
from eifta-id, it is the ftoping or funding ; whence the reft; 

FuRR or Skin; Cen, PiL^orCROEN; SKUTOsorXRoos; 
p£LLis, Cutis, or Corium. Cen is from cau-in, a cover 
or jfhut upon ; whence (kin ; croen is from cau-ar-en, a ihut 
over or a cover on the upper part ; whence xroos and corium; 
fkutos is from fi-cau-to-is, it coders the lower flratas ; whence 
cutis ;.furr is from fe-w-ar, it is upon an animal; pil and 
pellis are from p-al, the part upon, or the upper part. 

Furrow ; Cwys^ OLKois ; Sulcus. Cwys is from ac- 
w-fii itis the aftion of the cattle ; olkos is from ol-cwys, it is 
the track of the cattle a£Uon ; whence fulcus; furrow is froi;} 
fc-or-w, it is a thing from the cattle. 


^^ AIN, Ynyll ; Oneomai ; Lucror. Ynyll is from 
Vt" yn-al, upon high or rifen ; lucror is from al-ac-yr, the 
jihng aft ; gain is from ag-en, rifing or a<3ing high ; oneomai 
is from en-y-mae, he is high or in the fky, 

Gale; Awel; Aura; Aura. Awel is from au-al, 
upon the water ; aura is from au-ar, upon the water ; gale is 
from auc-al, upon the water. 

Galley or Ship; Llong; Ploion orNAUs; Navis. 
Galley is from ag-al-au, afting upon the water ; fhip is from 
fhi-au-p, it is a water thing ; llong is from al-au-in-ag, adting 
upon the high water or the fea ; ploion is from p-al-au-yn, & 
tiling upon the fea ; naus is from yn-aw-fi, it is upon the 
water, whence navis. 

Gangrene; Cancr; Gancgraina ; Gancr-kna. 



Cancr is from cau-in-cau-ar, a gathering upoii the outfidc or 
covering ; whence the reft. 

Gaol or Butt ; Terfym ; Term a ; Termnhts. Ter- 
fyll is from tir-fyn, the land edge 5 whence tenna and termi* 
nus ; fyn in terfyn, being from the radical min, an edge, 
which in the Celtic compounds alwavs changes into fyn ; 
butt is from bi-out> out of fight ^ gaol is from ag-ol, froiti 
the light, or out of fight. 

Gape ; Agenu ; Xaino ; Hio. Agenu is from ag-in, 
a<Sting in or opening, whence xaino ; hio is from hai-o, acting 
from ; gape is from ag-ap, ading from. 

Garble or Cleanse j Carthu; Kathairo ; Expur- 
co. Carthi:^ is ac-ar-tu, an a£t.ion upon the houfe, or from 
ac-ir-ith, it is an adlion of fire ; whence kathairo ; expurgo 
is from ex-pur-ag, an a£lion from the fire, or a pure aAion ; 
garble is from ag-ar-bi-le, an adion upon the place of ani- 
mals ; deanfe is from clean-fi, it is clearing; fee Clean* 

Garden; Gardd or Cadlys; Orxos or Kepos; 
HoRTUS. Gardd is from ca-r*-tu, the houfe field ; whence 
garden ; cadlys is from caiad-lys, the palace inclofure, or from 
caiad-le-vs, the inclofed corn place ; orxos is from or-cae, the 
inclofed held ; kepos is from cae-p-iu, it is the inclofed part ; 
hortus is y-ar-tu, the houfe ground. 

Garment; Gwisg; Imation; Vestis. Gwifg is 
from cau-w-is-cau, man's covering of the lower covering ; 
whence veftis ; imation is from am-i*-ti-cn, about the upper 
part; garment is from cau-ar-mae-ynt, they are covering 

GAkNiSH ; GwisGo ; Skeuaso ; Exorno. Gwifgo 
and (keuafo are from gwifg, a garment ; exorno is from ex- 
arno, out covering upon one ; gamifh is from cau-ar-ni-fi, it 
is the covering upon us. 

Garth; Garth; Akra; Promontorium. Garth 
is from cau-ar-ith, it is inclofed ground ; whence akra by 
tranfpofition ; promontorium is from bro-meun-tir-iu, it is a 
ground within the land inclofed, or the parts poffeffed. 

Garter; Gardas; Sargane; Fascia. Gardasis 
from tau-ar-to-is, inclofing the lower covering ; whence gar- 
ter and fargane; fafcia is from fe-af-cau, a thing covering or 
inclofing the lower. 

Gate, Door or Port ; Drws, Dor or Forth ;. Thy- 
I^A ; Porta. Gate is from go-at, going at, or from th^ Cel- 
tic caiad, fliut; porth, port and porta fignify the ferrying place, 
from pe-or-ith,'it is the part from ; drws, dor, door and thyra 
fignify the mouth or entrance of the water, from dwr, water ; 

whence Dover came to te fo called from its being the fciryl/^ 
place, or the mouth or gate of the water. 

Generation; Genedigaeth; Genesis; Genera- 
Tio, See thefe defined under the following clafs. 

Generate; Cenedlu orGfiNi; Genag; G£i&er6. 
Geni is from ag-in, afting in, or getting Into being j whence 
genao ; genero is from geni-'r, the getting in ; whence gcni- 
,rate ; cenedlu is from geni-id-lu, it is bqgctting a family. 


Thefe are explained under the preceding clafs, and they figni- 
fy a numerous family,, as cenedlog from cenedl-og, a great 

Genial ; Hywledd^ Gamelios ; Genialis. tiywldJd 
is from, it is the adion of the firmament ; genialis 
and genial are from ag-^nr-al-fi, it is the a£Hon of the high 6^ 
fun or firmament; gamelios is from ag-m-al-o-uij it is Ac 
t£kion of the great high o, or the fun or firmament. 

Gentle or Slow ; Araf; Praos; Lenis. Arafis 
from ar-ef, it is the earth ; praos is from ap-ar-fi, it is km 
the earth ; flow is from fi-al-Oj it is from high ; lenis isfroin 
al-in-is, upon extenfion or the furface of the earth lower, or 
from le-en4s, below a high place ; gentle is from ag-en-ti-fcf 
from the firmament, or from genta-Ti, the firft family in a fe- 
tondary fenfe. 

Get or Obtain ; ExwiN or Cyraedd ; Exo or Kra- 
TEo ; Obtineo. Get is from ag-it, it is from ; obtinep and 
obtain are from ob-tyn, drawn from ; exwin is from ac-o-un, 
adling from one ; whence exo ; cyraedd and l;:rateo are from 
ac-or-id, it is an a<9:ion from. 

Giant; Cawr; Gicas; Gigas. Cawr is from ac-a- 
wr, a man from the earth ; gigas, which makes gigantis in the 
genitive cafe, and giant are from ag-ge-ii, he is earth born, or 
from the earth. 

Gift or Donation ; Dawn ; Danos ; Donum. Gift 
is from ag-i-fe-it, it is an action to him ; dawn is from da-w- 
in, the good in man ; lyhence the reft. 

Giggle; Crexwenu; Kangxaso; Cachinno. Crcx- 
wenu is from cryxu-wen, to wrinkle the face or countenance; 
whence the reft, except giggle ; which is from gig-al, upon 
the gig, or ag-ig, an high or hot aftion. 

Gills ; Cratcenau ; Branxea ; Branchije. Cragenau 
is from cau-ar-agen, a covering or ftiut upon an opefiing ; 
gills is from cau-al-fi, it is a fhut upon ; branxea and brancKue 
are from b-ar-in-cau, a thing (hutting upon. 

QjMLET or A Piercers Ebill^ Obelos ; VERuor 


■ at .. 

JTekebelivm. Ebill is from eb-il, from or out o( the light 
or fight; whence obelos ; terebellum is from tori, to break^ 
-and ebill ; veru is from vi-or-iu, it is out of fight ; piercer is 
from ap-ir-cau-ar, fliut upon, from, or out of light or fight j 
gimlet b from xrau-am-il-it, it is covered out of fight. 

Ginger J Sinsir ^ Zingibris; Zinziber. Thefe arc 
probably of a foreign origin^ 

Girdle or Girth ; Gyregis ; Kestos j Cestus or 
CiNTCi/LUM. Gyregis is from cau-ar-cau-Wf" fhutting uponc3u-il 
the lower or under covering j kqftos is from cau-if-to,. mutting C9«/ - 
the under covering j whence cetfus -, cingulum is from caur 
in-cau-al-iu, it is fhutting upon the covering; girdle is ,froiB 
cau-ar-to-al, an inclofure upon the coverings girth, is /rom 
cau-ar-ith, it is a fhutting upon. 

Give-; Do or Doni; Didomi ; Do. Give is. from ag- 
i-ve^ a£ting to him ; do is from id-o, it is from ; dodi is from 
do^ti,. it is from to ^ whence didomi. 

Glass; Gwydr or IolWrx ; Hyalos ; VjtruM. 
Vitrum is from vi-trui, to fee through ; glafs is from the Cel-» 
tic glas, green or blue ; gwydr is from cau-wy-drui, an in- 
dofure to fee through ; iolwrx and hyalos are from y-llcwirx>- 
the light. 

' .Glisten, Glister or Shine ; Disgleirio, Goleio or 
tiLEWxu; Selageo or Lampo; Luceo orFuLGEo. Thefe 
come from goleuj light, or ag-ol, the a6lion of or from the 
fun i . eglir^ clear, from ag-al-ir, the aiJiion of the high light ; 
llewix from il-ux, the high light ; fulgeo. from fe-il-ag, it is 
the adlion of light ; luceo is from il-ac-iu, it is the aftion of 
light ; felageo is from fi-il-ag, it is the aftion of light ; lampo 
is fromil-am-p, light about the parts ; fhine is from fi-en, it 
is the firmament. 

Glory i CLOtD; Kleiosj Gloria. Clod is from ac- 
al-id, it is an high aflioir ; whence kleios ; gloria is from ag- 
al-'r,j the high x&ion > whehce glory 5 klebs is from ac-d- 
iU) it is an high action. 

Glue ; Glud -, Glia ; Gluten. Glud is from ag-al- 
id, it is adling upon } whence the reft. 

Glue ; Gluj>io i Kollao> Glutino. See the laft 
(lafs of words. 

Glutton; Glwth;. Laimargos; Gluto. Glwth 
is from glud, glue, whieh flicks like a glutton ; whence the 
1^, except laimargos, which is from lai for glai-margos, a 
great, fticlder. 

Gluttony i Glythnij Lixneia; Gulositas. See 
the laft clafst 

G p 

Gnaw ; Ckoi ; Knao ; RoDo. Cnoi may be cithir 
from ci-yno, a dog there, or from ac-in, a6Hng^ in ; whence 
knao and gnaw ; rodo is from the Celtic rhwd, nift. 

Go; Hai ; Cerdded or Ewxj Eimi, Erxomax or 
XoREo; Eo. Eo is from c-o, the o or fun, which moves; 
cwx is from e-o-ux, ftic upper o, or the fun ; erxomai is from 
yr-uxa-o-mae, it is the upper o, or the fun ; whence xoreo; 
hai is explained in the preface to be the a^ion of driving ( 
whence eimi ; ccrdded is from ac-ar-hyd, an allien upon the 

Go AWAY ; Cyxwin ; OixomXi ; Abed. Thefc are 
compounded of ag-o, and fignify the a^Ion of the fun ; die 
Celtic is from cy-ux-en, the firJt of the firmament, that is, 
motion ; of which oixomai feems to be corruptly derived; 
abeo is from ab-eo, to go from. 

Goal; GsALorCEULE; Koile; Cavus. Thefemay 
come either from cau-il or vi, to {hut out from fight or ligh^ 
and fignify a dungeon or dark place; or fromcau-le, a Ihut up 
or inclofed place. 

Goat ; Gafr ; Kapros ; Caper. Goat feems to be a 
compound of ag-w-it, it is the adlive animal ; gafr or gafryft 
is from ag or ge-fryn, the hilly generation ; whence the reft. 

God; Diw; Dios ; Deus. God comes of the word 
good ; diw or diu is a compound of the privative di-w, figni- 
fying dark or obfcure being ; whence the Greek and jMn 
words are derived. See Good. 

Gold ; Aur ; Xrusos ; Aurum. Gold is from ag-(it> 
id, it is from the fun ; aur is from au-ir, the liquid fire ; whence 
aurum ; xrufos is from ux-ir-au, the higher liquid fire. 

Good; Da; Agathos ; Bonus. Agathos is compound* 
ed of ag-tha-fi, it is a good adion ; tha is from da, good, by 
infle6lion, and da is from id-a, it is the earth ; bonus copies 
from bon-iu, it is the origin or ftem ; da is probably from this 
origin, bccaufe God himfelf was pleafed to call the earth good. 

Goose ; Gwydd ; Xen ; Anser. Thofe words come, 
from the different founds of the animal, viz. goofe, gwyddf. 
and xen from their blowing or fighting found, and anfer mm 
the giggling or rejoicing they make when out of danger* 

GoRs or Thorns J Draen or Eithin; Akantha; 
Sentis or Spina. Thefe are defined under the word Acan« 
tha, except gors, which comes from the Celtic gors, fignifyr 
ing heath ; which fee. 

Govern or Reign; Rheoli; Kurieuo; Domin'oE*' 
Rheoli is from rheol, a rule or form, which is from rhi*di, a 
prince after, or from arol, after; reign is from rhi-yn, a prince 

upon i 


tipon ; kurieuo is from .the Celtic cyro, to beat or cure! ; gd-. 
Vcrn is from gov, inftead of cyf, fignifying chief or head, and 
ifeign ; dominor is from domus, and wr^ man^ whicH doihiis 
fignifies a houfe or poffeffion, from tu-mi, my houfe* 

Gown; tlvGANj Kaunai^e; Toga. Toga is from 
the Celtic to-uxa, the uppermoft covering ; kaunake is frorti 
cau-yn-uxa, the upper covering j hygarl is from hy-gau-in, 
tile higheft covering upon or garment; gown is frorti cau-w- 
in, a covering upon a man. 

Grace; GAas; Xaris; GRAtiA. Thefe ard from ag^^ 
aftion, and rhefwm, reafon, that is, the iftioii of reafon ; fee 
Reafort for a furtlier explication hereof. 

Graff or a Youkg Shoot ; Brigin ; Phryganon ; 
SuRCULUs. Graff is froni the Celtic craffii, td have a view 
6r glimpfe of any thing ; fhoot is fronl fee-oUt ; brigin is fronl 
bri-gen, the firft growth; whence phryganon; furciilus is 
Erom fur-cai-alj above the covering part. 

Grain; Grawn; Xondros ; GrAni^'M. The true 
brigin 6f thefe teriiis is from ag-ir-yn, the growth oh the 

• Granddaughter i WyRes; Uone; Nsptis. N^p- 
(is is from ni-peth-is, a lower part of us ; uone Is from un-o- 
hi, one of us ; wyres is from w-yr-is, it more diftant female; 
j^rand is from ag-ir-en-id, it is the aftiori of the firmameilt, as 
great feems to be from ag-ir-id, of the fame ^ fignification ; 
daughter is from id-w-ter, fhe is the mother of man. See 
Father and Mother. 

Grandmother; Nain; NennoS; AVia* As to 
grandmother fee Grand and Mother ; nain is from ni-a-in, 
our having been in ; whence nennos ; avia is from a-vi, have 
been, or perhaps the a in nain, &c. figilifies the worid, then it 
will read, fhe nas been the world or mother of us. 
. Grandsire; Taid; Pappos; Ayvs. 'Grandfire is 
from .grand and fire, or father, which fee ; tad fignifies the 
feeding po\Yer, and taid that he was the tad^ or the feeding 
power; >vus is from the Cdtic a-vii, he was; pappos feems 
to be an arbitrary term ufed by infants, perhaps from calling 
diem babies, or mentioning the pap of brcaft to them. 

Grass ; PoRfa or Gwellt ; Xloe or Phorbe ; Gra- 
MEN. Grafs is from ag-ar-fi, it is the aflion or gfowth of 
Chie earth ; porfa is'ftom ap-4r-fi, food from the earth ; whence 
fflhorbe ; gramen is from ag'-^-man, adtion or growth upon 
the ground part ; gwellt and xloe are from ag-o-al-ti, the 
gAion of fire on the land. 

Graze; Porfau; Pherboj D£fASC9, SceGrais. 


Grave; Prydd; Barus or Phronimos; G&avuot 
Frudeks. Prydd, barus, phronimos and pnidens come from 
pri-id, it is ancient ; gravis and grave are explained under t)ic 
word Heavy. 

Gray; LlwVd; Polios; Canus. Llwyd is fromal*' 
au-id, it is the cloud or rain ; polios is from ap-o-al, it is from 
the clouds; canus is from auc-en-iu, it is the clouds} 
gray comes from auc-ir-y, the clouds or the water of the fir- 

Great; Mawr; Magos; Magnus. Great is com- 
pounded of the Celtic cri-it, it is ftrong, or as under the ten 
Grand-daughter in a more primary view ; mawr feems to be i 
compound of m, cxpreffing the form of the world's furface, as 
hills and dales ; au, the water, and 'r, the ; whence m&r, the | 
fea ; magos and magnus probably come from m-auc, the grot 
water ; or great may come from auc-ar-it, it is the earth watcfe 
Greater; Mwy; Meison; Major. See Great, diii 
being the comparative degree of it. 

Greatest; Mwyaf; Megistos; Maximus. See 
Great, this being the fuperlative degree of it. 

Green; Gwyrdd orGtAs; Xloros; Viridis* Glii 
is from ag-al-as, growth upon the lower part, which is gralss 
xloros is from ac-al-ar-as, growth upon the lower grouM, ot 
the grafs ; green is from ag-ar-in, the growth upon the eardi| 
gwyrdd and viridis are from the fpring. 

Greet ; Annerxi ; Erxomai ; Saluto. Greet is fioni 
ag-ar-it, for id, the a(9: of feeing ; faluto is from fi-al-it, be, 
id, to be upon the fee or vifiting ; anerxi is from an-axi| 
without bidding ; erxomai is to go, but afpafomai, the coni- 
mon Greek term for greeting, is ^om.the Celtic hyipus, maitt* 
feft, or to make known. 

Grief; Oxain; Axos; M^ror. Grief comes froa 
the Celtic cri-cf, he is crying ; raaeror is from marw, to die; 
the reft come from the Celtic ox, or och, oh ! anintcJjedM 
of weeping. See O. . 

Grieve ; Dolurio ; Deleo ; Doleo. Grieve is cs» 
plained in the preceding clafs of words ; dolurio comes {nm 
the fubftantive dolur, dolor, which is a compound qf dia|| 
revenge or punifliment, and ar, upon ; whence deleo and Ah 
leo are corruptly derived. 

Grind; Malu; Muliao; Mold. Power, ibnA 
ftrength, motion, &c. being exprdOTed either by the fun or fif^ 
)iere the word grind is compofed of ac-ir-en-id, it is ill 
a£tion of the firmament fire, or of the fun ; the reft are fim 
m-olj figoifying ^ gtfat fttn> visi mgreat» and oljalvyiu- 


Mils movtfit 6fb$ tS which a mill hbd foAie refem^lance^ tfl 
Vtkt fliipe atid motion of itt wheels, but i^ibre in its ftpatatiiig 
^wer to the funs ray*s. 

Grind the TE«ttt ; RmNOctAK Daniod;. BruXo 
TAi« Odontas ; FRiMOi As to grind, fee Grind aM 
Teeth ; the other words feem to come ft^m the found* 


iMfA 'fHEEj A+Atii Atatai; AtAT4 Thefefigtilff 
XjL to thee. 

Ha H A ; Ha Ha I £ £ i Ha Ha; Ha is from hi-a, high 
Bpom the earth or death, which is to rejoice ; E is the water^ 
iprhich flows high as a perfon does in rejoicing ; whence th^ 
are broperly called notes or interjeftion* of rejoicing, 

IlABiTdr Custom; Defod; Desmos; Ritus. Defod 
Is from id-fyd, it is the world *, Defmos is from id'es-^xloes^ 
it is the paflr^manners or cuftoms *, ritus is from r'^^ti-fi, it is 
•rfaatis; hahit is from y-bid) the world. See Cuftom. 

Hail or Hailstones ; Cenllyso; Xalasai; Grak* 
bor Hail id frohi hai-^u-al, an adion upon the water ; Ceti'^ 
Uyfc is From ac-en-al-ls-auo, the ailiori of the firmament upott 
Ihe lower water ; whence xalafai j grando Is from ag-'r*en*au* 
ifiy it is the adlion of the firmament water* 
- Haih op the PaitY Parts; CedoHI KtBitoRlsj 
PuBES. Cedor is from ac-i-tor, the bdly growth; kleitoris 
U from ac-al*tor-fi3 it is a growth upon the belly ; pubes is 
ftom p-ub*as^ a thing upon a feinale ; hair is from hai-ar^ 
IfRywth upon* 

Hair j Gw allt or Qydun ; Mallos^ KodIon of 
Kf KSilNos ; Vellus or Cii^clKif us^ Gwalt is from ag«w^ 
«l«it^. it is a growth upon an animal ; whence vellus ; cyduA 
li from ac'-ci-kUun, it is one growing together; whence k<^ 
^Botii kikinnos is from Ciiu-*cau'^in, the inclofed coverings 
fHiefioe the reft* 

Hall j LlVs ; Aule ; Aula. Llys is from Ue'-Ti, it ijli 
dbe place or palace; aule is from y4e, the place; whence 
Mlft ; hall is from hi-^le, an high place. 

flAMorKKEE; GARorGLiN; GoNtf; OEi^t;. Gar Is 
tkMktg'lfff aAing upon ; glin is from ag-al«in, ading upqfn ; 

finu is from ag-in, a£ting upon ; whence genu and knee; 
til ig from hai^Mn^litting about or for a£Uon« 
Hanix; PalF or Llaw ; Palame, XbjLb or OtJALOf | 
JttAirtrs Of VoiAt Um is from allu^w^ * ndaft^t oow^t s 

Hz ^ ^^S. 


palf is from p-al-fi, my high or powerful part; xcle is frofl 
uxa-lc, the highcft place j gualon is from uxa-Ic-yn, the h^ 
part upon; pnJame is from p-al-mi, my high part; manusis 
from mi-en-iu, "it is my high part ; vola is from vi-law^ mj 
hand or high end ; hand is from hi-end, the high end. 
ji^njr; Hang; Crogi; Kremao; Susp£kd£o5 Hang is from 
^ hi-en-cau, to fix high in the fky ; crogi is from cau-ar-ux, ti 

fix upon high ; kremao is from cau-ir-mae, it is fixirtg h^h; 
fufpendeo is from fuf-p-en-idiu, it is to be up in the air. 

Hap; Fortune or Chance; Damwen; Daimoit; 
FoRs or FoRTUNA. Fors is from fe-or-fi, is a thing with- 
out fight ; fortuna and fortune are from fors-dyn, a rpah 
lot; (Tamwen is from id-am-o-en, it is in the world fromtk 
heaven ; whence daimon ; chance is from ac-hi-en«fij it b 
from heaven. 

Harbour; Aber; Poros; Portus. Aber in its piinu- 
tive fenfe is from a-ber, from a fpring, that isy a frefh water 
place ; whence harbour ; poros is from ap-oros, from a fpringj 
whence portus in a primary fenfe. 

Hard; Caled ; Xalepos; Durus. Hard is from, Kr 
ar-id, it is the high ground ; caled is from uxa-le-id, it is Ae 
higheft place ; xalepos is from uxa-le-p-fi, it is the higheft 
part; durus is from the Celtic dur, ftecl. 

Hare ; Ysgyfarnog ; Logoos ; Lepus. Hare is fion 
hi-ar, the high upon, or long-legged ; or from hai-V, the 
aftive; lagos and lepus fignify the fwift-footed ; yfgyfauiogis 
from ysgyrnog, the bony. 

Harm or Hurt ; Niwed ; Atao ; Noceo. Niwed is 
from in-w-id» it is upon man ; atao is from at-w, at nian; 
noceo is from in-w-ac, an aftion upon man; hurt is fromhai^ 
ar-it, it is an action upon. 

Harp, Lyre or Guitar ; Telyn or Crwth; Ki* 
THARis, Lyra or Xelis; Lyra, Kythara or Chelys. 
Telyn is from id-al-un, it is the high founding; xelys is from 
uxal-fi, an high found ; lyra and lyre are from al-'r, the hi^ 
found; harp is from hi-ar-p, a thing upon high; crwtbii 
from cru-ar-ith, it is a fhutting, gathering, or hunch-backed 
thing ; whence the reft. 

Harrow ; Og ; Bolokopema ; Occa. Og is from 
W-ag, cattle aftion ; whence occa ; harrow is from hai-ar-Wt 
adion upon cattle ; bolokopema is from bo-al-ac-p-mac^ It it 
a thing adting upon the cattle or oxen. 

Hart or Stag ; Carw or Anifal ; Keraps or Eu* 
FHOs ; Cervus or Elaphos. See the word Stag. 

Hasle i Coll qx Cyll ; Korylos ; Co^vlv$« Cofi tf 

■■ ^ 


tyll are from cau-ol, all fliut, as a thicket ; korylos and coiy- 
lus are from cau-r-yl> of the fame fignificatioil, or the h'ght 
fliut out i hafle is from h-as-les, high over the place. 

Hat; Het orPENTAs; Petasos; Petasus. Pentas 
is from pen-tas, the head covering ; whence the Greek and 
Latin terms ; het and hat are from hi-to, the high covering. 

Hate; Casau; Stugeo or Agaomai ; Irascor or 
Odi. Agaomai is from ag-o-mae, he is going from me ; ftu- 
geo h from ft-ag-o, he is going from ; odi is from o-id, he is ' 
oiF; hate is from hai-it, he is away ; irafcor is from ir-fi-ag^ 
or, it is from an angry a6lion ; as to cafau fee Hatred. 

Hatred^ Cas; Exthos; Odium. Cas is from cau-fit 
ihutting up found ; exthos is from exos or eco-to-fi, it is the 
covering or fhutting up of found ; the reft are explained in the 
preceding clafs. 

. Have or Hold ; Cael ; Exo ; Habeo or Obtineo. 
Cael is from ac-a-ail, an aftion from another ; exo is from ac- 
o, an aSion from ; habeo is from hai-ab, an aftion from ; 
•whence have ; obtineo is from ob-tynu, to draw from. Sec 
Hold, &c. 

Hauke ; Hoxio ; Xremptomai ; Screo. Thofe are 
froni the founds, or from hi-w-ac, man aSing up ; hoxio is 
from hi-ox-iu, it is oxing or afting up ; xremptomai is from 
xri-am-peth-mae, it is a noife about a thing ; fcreo is from fi- 
eri, it is a noife* 

• Haughty; Uxder; Brenthos; Superbus. Ux-der 
is from ux-tir, high hand ; brenthos is from briri-ti-fi, it is a 
hilly poffeffion ; haughty is from hi-ux-ti, the higher pofleflion; 
fuperbus is from fi-up-ar-bi, it is a view of the high country ; 
but in a fecondary fenfe they all fignify an high property. 

Hawk or Falcon; Gwalx; Phalcon; Accipiter. 
Gwalx is from ag-w>-al-ux, an animal aSing up high, or flying 
high ; hawk is from hi-w-ac, an animal ading high ; accipiter 
is from ac-hi-p-tir, afting to the higheft part of the land 5 
phalcon and falcon are from phi-al-ac-en, an animal a£ling 
high to the (ky* 

Hay J QwAiR; Xortos; Fjenum. Hay is from hi-ai, 
a high growth; gwair is from gwi-'ir, an high growth; fee- 
num is from fi-en-iu, it is an high growth ; xortos is fron^ ux- 
ac-ar*ti, the higher growth upon the pofleflions. 

He; Ef; Autos; Ille. 1 The firft pronouns, I fig- 
Thou.;Ti; Ty ; Tu. Sonifies exiftence, fi life, and 

I ; Fi ; Ego ; Ego. 3 ego, a£lion. The fecond pro- 
Bounsthou, ti, ty and tu fignify external pofleifions, properties, 
fiibftances, qualities, &c. under the (ky \ and tk^ tW\i4 \^xck- 
: H 3 vvQ>ix^ 

H E 

lioiuis are from hi, high j ef, a view •r Hf^kti miMii MrM 

pofl't iuons or the iky ; aiid ilk from il-le, tht place af thfe]i|jte 
or the fky. 

Hjead i Pen, Capen or Chuan ; Kifhali or KMii 
VON ; Caput or Cranium. Hea^l {s from l^i-id, it^skigh) 
pen is from p-en, the iky or hjgb part ; capen is from OMtr^poai 
the covered end ; kephale is from cau*p-al, covering the Ug^ 
part; cruan is from cau*ar-cn, covering ibfi high part; wheoct 
|:arenon and cranium ; caput is from cau-p^it, & iwlofcs thi 
part or the higher part; but cruan, Jbc. ratber Bffdfy tte 

Heal; Iaxau; Akeomai or Iaomai ; Sako. Sanois 
from fi-en, he is up; iaxau is from i-ux-hai, he g^ts iip| 
whence the Greek and Latin words \ heal is from h»-al, fcig^ 

Healthy ; Iax or Holliax ; Olokleros qt Htqiis j 
SoLiDus or Saluber. lax is defined under the word Bnti 
holliax is from hoU, all and iax ; wiience the Greek tcfms$ 
iblidus is from (i-oll-idiu, he is all found ; fatuber i» from ^ 
al-ub-ur, he is a man up high j healthy is from hi-al, Vi^ 

Heap; SwporTwR; Soros; Acervus. Sw^ts bom 
fi'Up, it is up or high ; heap is from high up; twr is freret^i 
ar, a covering^ up ; foros is from ii-ar-is, it is upon a lower; 
lyhence acervus. 

Heap of Stones ; Cromlex ; Kromax ; AcEnvvst 
Cromlcx is fronj crwm-lex, the bending flat ftones orflafee| 
whence kromax; as to heap and acervus fee the precedix^ 
plafs ; unlefs acervus comes from curvo^ to bend> wherein- il 
would agree in fenfe with the Celtic ; but carnedd from cae- 
ar-en-id, properly expreiTe^ an heap of ftones, or a ftope fer^ 

Heap or place together ; Tasu^ Tasso; Coux^ 
CO* Cplloco is to place together ; tafu and taiTo are from tOr 
p, to cover the lower. See Heap and Pface, 

Hear ; Clywed ; Clyo*5 Audio, Clywed is fr<im acr 
slvfy from calling ; whence clyo ; hear is from hi-ar, bqld up? 
pn ; audio froni hy-idiu, it it» bold, or they n^ay c^xnfi from 
clyft and ear, which fee. 

Heart; C^i-on ; Kear; Cor. Calon is from 9C-i|l« 
i^yn, a poweiful ^on in man or animal ; kear and cor are 
from the Celtic cyr, a beating ; heart is from hi*ar-it^ it ifi 
|)old or high upon it. 

Heat or Boiling ; Ias ; Se^is ; Fervor. las is frotai 
i^^^'h. ^^ W^^^^ founds; fefis is from ll-au-ii> the water if 



firuAdingK fcm>riS fmm fir^au-ar, the fire upon the water;; 
heat ia from hi-a4*it, the water is high ; fee boiling under 
Boil. Here it may be obfcrvcd that fir fignifics fire in life, or 
kindled, fromfi«ir. 

HjftAtH or Grig ; Qrug ; Ercike ; Erica. Grug ii 
from ag*ir-uxa, die growth of the hJgheft ground ; whence 
the reft, except heath, which is fron> high-at-id, it is at tilt 

HsA7£or Alleviate ; Yscafnu or Derxafu ; Epai- 
moO". or KouPHiso ; Allevo. Heave is from hi-a-ve, hig^ 
with it ; alleviate is from al-ve-at, high with it 5 yscafn ia 
from ys-ac-ef-en, from low with it lip ; derxafu is from tir- 
lixaf, the higheft l^d ; kouphifo is from yscafn -, allevo and 
idleviate are from al-a-ve, high j^ith jt. 

Heaven or Horizon; Nef or En; Neos, Ouranos 
or Kortoti; Coelum or Templum. There are many 
other cscpreffions made ufe of to fignify the ideas of heaven, 
which feem very confufed ; the Druids made ufe of un, oncj 
or the univerfe, formed of u-yn, the Deity's exiftence ; after- 
ivards it came to be en, nef, neos, alfo caelum or cel-en, th^ 
hidden en ; high-en, horis-en^ oura-nen, koil-en, and temple- 
en, fr<Mn the fky's appearing of a concave form, 'and temples 
having anciently no other covering. 

Hbavy or Humdrum j Trwm ; Amphibarus ; Gra- 
vis. Trwm is from tir-wm, dead earth ; humdrum is from 
hi-am^ high or hills about, and trwm ; amphibarus is from 
amphi-'b-ar-iu, it is the part furrounding the country ; gravis 
is from cau-ar-vi-fi, it is fliutting upon fight.j heavy is from 
hai*o^e, he is from a&ihg. See Dumb. 

Hedge ; Clawed '; Lakkos; Lamna.' Hedge is from 
htgh-cdge ; clawdd is from cau-le-id, it is an inclofed place ; 
whence lakkos by tranfpofition j lamna is from le-am, a place 
dhoi|t~oir furrounded, 

FfaoOEHOG; DRAEN0G3 Akantha Xoiros; Erina- 
CEUS, Hedgehog needs no explanation; draenog is from 
draetv*hdg, the thorn hog. 

Rbsl; Sywdl; Skblis; Pterna or Calx, Heel is 
^:om hi^-al^ high upon; fywdl is from is-id-al, it is the lower 
upon 5 Ikelis and calx are from,fi-ac-aI, and ac-al-ux, it is the 
fupporter; pterna is from p-tir-in, the ground upon. 

Hell or Furnace; Yffern ; Gehenna or Kaminosj 

Fornax, Infernum or Gehenna. YfFem is from y- 

fFwm, the furnace ; whence . fornax, furnace and infernum j 

kaminos is from oiu-mewnv Shutting within ; gehenna is frotn 

H 4 cau-eu^o^ 

H E 

taii-en-0» a fliut out of heaven ; hell is from hi-o-il, far bo/k 
the light ; but fwrn is compounded of fir-yn, a fire within. i 

Hem or Border of a Garment; Godre; Krossos; 
Fimbria. Kroflbs is from the Celtic c wr-ifa, the lo weft bor- 
der ; godre is from cy-dir, the ends or limits^ or firft of the ( 
poflefTions , fimbria is from fin-bri, the edge of the country, or ( 
the firft ends. 

Hemp; Cywarch or Canap; Kannabis; Canabis. 
Cywarx is from cy-wr-ux, a growth equal to man's height; 
cunap is from ci-'n-pe, high as our heads ; whence the Greek 
and Latin words j hemp is froni hi-am-pe, high as my head, 
or hempen. 

Hen or Cock; Ceiliog or Iar; Ai^ektor or Alei;? 
TORis ; Gallus or Gallin A. Hen is from the Celtic hen, 
ancient ; iar is cold ; ceiliog is from galw-og, the great caller; 
>vhcnce the reft ; or cock may come ifrpm the Celtic cog or 
cuckow; b'^t it feems more probable that it i§ a contra^onof 
ceiliog. See Cock. 

Herb; Llys or Llysieu ; Xloe ; Herb a. Herbaan^ 
herb arc frqm ar-bi, the life or growth pf the earth ; xloc 
feems to come from ac-al-o, a growth from or lefs than high; 
^he Celtic is the loweft growth. See the next. . . ^ 

Herd or Flock; Aig or Lliaws; Agema or Loxos; 
Agmen or Grex. Aig is from a-ig, the rays of the fun; 
\vhence agema, with the addition of man, fmall ; grc:^ is from | 
ag-ir-ux, from the higher fire; loxos, lljaws ^nd flock pome 
from il-ux, the higheit light ; herd is from hi-;r-id, }t is the 
l)ighcft fire, but this is the primitive fenfe. 

Here ; Hwde ; Idon^ Item tibi. Here is from hi-ur^ 
j)e brifk man ; hwde is from hi-w-ti, be thou briflc man ; idon 
IS from id-w, fpe man ; item tibi is from hi-am-ti, thou brilk 
about. ' 

Here ; Yma ; Entha ; Hic. Yma is from yram> the 
about, or i-3m, about the i, or a point ; entha is frojpi yntho, 
\vithin, or from i-in-ith, it is upon i; hie is from i-ac, thp 
aftion of the i or point ; here is from i-ar, upon the i or point. 

flERETiCK ; Heretic ; Airetucgs ; Hereticus. 
Peretic is from the' Celtic hir-dig, a warm or long fticider; 
"whence the reft, 

. Heritage; Etifeddiath orGLvpiAETH; Kleros; 
:H£redit as. Etifeddiath and hereditas are from etifedd and 
hseres, both * fignifying heir, or from y or yr-ti-fydd, the 
poflefror that is to be; glydiaeth is from glynu, to adhere j 
Jcjeros is from glynu and cro, to adhere to the pofleflbr. 



.- HctMiT; l^KMiD; Eremos; EMMiTAi ThofeMtt 
-to come from wr-mid, a mute or dumb man. 

/Hero ; Arwr ; Eros ; Heros. Arwr is from ar-wr, 
a great pofleffor of land, or governor, which was the origin of 
quality, as in the word tyrant, a prince, which is compofed 
cf ti-wr-en, an ancient poiTeiTor ; whence the other word^ 
are derived. 

. Hesitate or Doubt ; Petruso ; Aporeo ; Dubito or 
H-ffisiTO. Petrufo is from peth, fome, and rhufo to ftartle j 
dubito and doubt are from tyb, to doubt, which fee; a« 
poreo, is from ap-orao, from feeing ; haefito and hefitate are 
from hai-is-it, it is adlion or lefs ; the Latin for the Celtic hai, 
being hae. 

-Hew Of Hac; Haccio or Naddu ; Xiaso; Ascio or 
Decusso. Thofe come from the noife a perfon, makes in hew- 
ing, as bi«w ; and naddu is from nadu, to make a noife, and 
liac, &c. is either from the perfons noife, or as appears under 
the word Cut. 

HiCKET or Cluck ; Clyccio ; Luso ; Singultio# 
^hefe come from the found, but then the letters in all thefe 
cafies are adapted to the found, as here for example ; clyccio 
js from ac-al-ac-in, it is an aftion upon the ac, and not ac- 
iion upon, which would not be expreiEve. 
..Hide; Ctddio or Celu; Keytho; Occulto. Cyd- 
jjdiois.from ac-id-iu, it is from fight; of this primitive comes 
the word keytho, and from celu, occulto. See Conceal. 
. Hide or Skin; Croen; Xroas or Skutos; Cutis or 
CoRiUM. Hide comes from the preceding word hide, as co- 
■veriag or conceah'ng the body of an animal, and fkin, Ikutos 
.and cutis are from the Celtic ci or cidd, hidden ; but croen, 
:;^roas and corium fignify the covering or Ikin of an animal 
only ; fee the word Flefh. 

, iHicH or Lofty; Uxel ; Upselos; Altus. Alfo al, 
tal and gallt, in the Celtic ; al is from a-1, the a or earth ex- 
laended, that is, the furface of the earth ; uxal is from ux-al, 
^bove high ; high is from hy, high. See the preface. 
, Highest ; Uxaf ; Exatos ; Summus. Thefe are ex- 
plained under the word High ; fummus comes from fwm-mwi*- 
Uy it is a greater fum. 

Hill ; Bryn or Allt ; Bounos ; Collis. Hill is from 

, high-al ; collis is from uxel ; bryn is from bri-en, the 

country in the horizon, or a high country; whence bounos j 

though fomewhat imperfe£l: for want of an r, to make it bro. 

Hillock; Twmpeth; Thrombos; Grumus. 

Twmpeth is from twyn-peth, the bulh or heap part ^ throm- 


te is firoti twr-am-bedi, the heap a^mtdiingB; hiHack 
is above the hill or high j grumus is from die Celtic grymosi 

Himself ; £f or Ynteu ; Autos ; Ipse. Ef is front a 
far y&j the being ; ipfe is from i*pe-fi, the thing .that is ; 
jntcu and autos are from yn or au-ti, that is one property; 
himfclf fignifies his own life or being. 

Hinds Hart or Stag; Caaw, Ewio or Anital; 
Kerao, Afxx or Elaphos ; Cervus, Iber or Elaphoi 
Car w is i'rom the Cehic garw, or from ag-ar-w, countrified at 
rough animal in action; whence keraos, hart and oerms) 
cwig is from e-w-ig, the angry or hot animal ; whence afiz, 
ibex and flag ; anifal is from y-ni-fal, like unto us ; whence 
elaphos ; hind is from high-end, whence the Engliih advcAy 
behind, and the verb hinder. 

Hinder; Rwystro ; Eretuo; Impedio. AstohindcTi 
fee the laftclafs ; rwyftro is from rhwys-ftro, too much tunung 
and twifting ; whence eretuo ; impedio is from am-pe-id^ it 
is about the feet. 

Hinge; Colyn ; Ginglymos ; Cardo. Car&[ is 
from cau-ar-tu, a (hut upon the houfe; hinge is from ha^ 
cau, a fhut hang; colyn is from cau-hoel-in, the {hutting ill 
nail ; ginglymos is from cau-in, the fhuttrng, and colyn. 
• His; £i; Os ; Suus. Suus is from n-w, it is mans } 
OS is from w-fi, it is mans ; his is from he-fi, it is his ; ei i$. 
from e«i, to him. 

Hiss'; Sio; Size; Sibilo. Hifs is from hi-fi, a higb. 
found; fio is from fi-au, the found of the water; whence 
£zo ; iibilo is from fi-ab-al-au, found from the high water 
or the fea, as that of the waves ; the Celtic being nrom the 
hifiing of the waves, and the city of Sidon, being from fi<r 
don, the biffing of the waves. 

History ; Ystory ; Istoria ; Histgria. Thofc arc. 
from eiftc-rhu, a fitting chatt, or telling tales or ftories* 

Hit or Stroke; Palfod; Plege; Plaga. Palfbd if 
from palf-ad, the palm of the hand to or upon ; pl^ge and 
plaga, are from p-al-ac, an a£l or ftroke upon a thing j ftrej^Q^ 
is from fi-taro-ac, it is a ftriking adlion ; hit is from the Latin 
lAus a ftokc compofcd of i-ac-it, ailing high or bold, or faxti 
hi-at'ti, bold or high at thee or at a thing. * .." 

Ho ; Ho ; Ho ; Heus. Ho is an interjecElion of callinfiv 
compofed of h-o, fignifying the high o, or the fun, which w 
as much as to fay, look upon the fun or fee ; heus is from h^ 
o*iu, it is the high o or the fun. 

Hogs ; Mox ; XoiEos ; PoRCUS. As feveral of the fil- 


|hy kind of anhnftU derive^eir names from the CeTtIc Intef* 
jedion och, fignifying oh fie, as the m-ox or hi-ox, fof 
iiogs, and the fit-ax for a fox, fo here hog is from hi-c^ for 
px, and mox is from tn-^ofx, the large or great ox ; xoiros i| i 
fcom yr, tije, and ^x; porcus i^ from ap-jrr-ox-tu, i% k frojq^ 
|he ox or fow, that is a pig. 

Hold or Retains Dal; Doleuo^ Teneo pr Reti* 
KBO. Dal and teneo are from di or ti-al, or ti-lu, fignifying 
£rmaiiiei|t property, pr the attraction of the fun ; the wora 
4oId IS from high-ol-id, it is the fun or its ^ttra^io|i, or they 
puy be from id-al and }d-en» i( is upon. 

Hole j Twll or Ceudwll -, KoTiifE ; Cavita^^ 
"Tiril is from di-ol, without fun or light j' whence hole; 
(Bp^dwll }S from eau inclofed, and twU ; whence fcptyle; ca^ 
yitas is from cau-yi-it, it is fbuttine out fight. 
- Hollow or Ceiled ; Ceuol ; Konlqs ; Cavus. Cavuf 
18 from cau-o-vi, to fliut from the fight ; hoHow is from hi-o-, 
^ fer from the light ; the reft are from cau-o-il, Ihut froni , 
fhc light, 

Hollow ; CAuaLi 5 Koiloo | CAyo* Theft ^e ex- 
plained under tl^e laft clafs of words. 
^ mLLY; Celyn; Gleingsis; AgrifoliuMj Aeri- 
MAum is from yr^ri-folium, the ftrong or fortified leaf; ceiyn 
js from tau-al-yn, fliut up within j whence the reft, but 
Ibmewhat miftaken^ efpecially holly, from a fuppofition that 
crau in celyn fignified action, whereby ba^ij aftion, has been 
ptefixed to oily in holly^ 

JHoLYDiAY or Festival ; Gwiliau; Teletaij F^^Riir. 
GwiHaii is from gwyl, a hojyday, which 13 from a|;-o-haul^ 
ffle adlioa of funday 5 holyday is from hi-wyl, the high holy- 
di^y 5 hence teletai ; feflival js from faft-wyl, i. e, a holy feft| 

iac is from ifero ox offcro, or tl>e days for offering or bring-! 
to Ae altar. 

loKE ; Agaxemt *, Akokx ; Gos. Agalen is from zg-^t 
en, a£lio(j upo^i the highefl: part or edge ; hone is from har-y-i 
IMS an a^ion on th^ higher or upper part ; akone is from agr 
y-cn, an a<9:ion on the hi^er part 3 whence qos, cotis, in the 
genitive cafe, 

' Honest or Virtuous ; Daiqnus ; Dokimo? ; Probus, 
psuonus is from the Celtic word daiawn, right good; doki- 
9108 is from digon, fufficient ; virtuous is from virtus, which 

S* \ a compound of wyr, truth, and' idiu, it is j honcft- is from 
. onefi:us, or hi-en-eft, it is divine; probus feems to come 
Itom the Cekic ptofuifs approved*; ike it defined under thir 
W^td PjPove^ 


. HovEY; Mel; Meli; Mel. Mel is Hot expfeffive ot 
the tafte of honey, but merely of the colour of it ; this like 
all other terms made ufe of, to fignify any fpecies of tafte, 
sure formed by fome vifible property of the fubje<9:, as here, the 
word honey is compounded of an afpirate, fignifying high^aid 
o-en-y, the fun ; mel and the reft are from of m-il, the great 
fun, the world's fun or blefling. 

Honeycomb ; Cwybr ; Kerion ; Favus. Honeycomli 
is from honey-cau-am, to inclofe or fhut about the honey; 
favus is from the Celtic fau, a little den or cell; cwybr is 
cau-y-prif, the worm's inclufurc ; kerion is from keros, wax; 
which fee. 

Honourable ; Parxus ; Arxaios ; Antichjus* Ho- 
nourable is from the Celtic hen-wr-able, that is, an able 
old man ; antiquus is from hen-ti-ux, an ancient chief potkb 
for ; parxus is from p-arx-iu, it is a chief or ancient thing; 
whence arxaios and arxe, principium, beginning, &c. 

Hook ; Bax ; Xaiqn ; Baculum. Bax is from b-cau, 
a thing fhut ; xaion is from cau-un, a {hutting one ; baculum 
is from bax-ai-am:^ a fhut about a thing ; hook is from y-cau, 
the fhut. 

Hook, Bill or Sickle ; Cryman or Bilwg ; Kro- 
FioN or Pelekys ; Falx. Cryman is from cau-ar-y-man, 
to fhut upon a thing ; biwlg is from b-al-cau, a thing fhut- 
ing upon ; kropion is from cau-ar-pe-un, a fhut upon the 
thine within ; fee Hook. 

Hoop; Cylx; Kyklos; Circulus. Cylx is from cau- 
al-ux, an inclufure or fhut on the higheft or upper part; 
whence kyklos and circulus, the r ftanding therein, in die 
place of the 1 in cylx ; hoop is from high-up, but thefc in their 
primitive formation are from the fun. 

Horn; Corn; Keras;Cornu. Corn comes from cor- 
xii, our feeding ; whence the reft ; fee Bone ; or they may 
fignify no more than ac-ar-en, growing upon the higheft 
f^rt or top. 

Horn ; Cyrnio ; Kuriso or Kurebao ; Cornibus 
Jeto orPuGNo. Thefe come from the preceding clafs. 

Horizon ; Or or Wybren ; Orgs or Orison ; Ter-» 
MiNUM or Horizon. . Or is from o-r, the circle or utmoft 
bounds ; whence oros ; orifon or horizon are from or-is-cn, 
the border under heaven ; terminus is from tir-min-iu? it is the 
edge of poffeffion ; wybren is from wbr-en, the high fky ; but 
it IS to be obferved that the particle tir, ti or t, all fignify pri- 
marily the horizon, and poflTelTion or property in a fecondary 
fenfe, as all things are under the heaven, or horizon, or betw^a- 
earth suid heaven. Horrid ; 

H U 

Horrid ; Ofn ad ys ; Phob£ros j Horr xdus. Ofhadly* 
and phoberos are defined under the word Fear; horriduJBW 
from hi-wr-idiu, it is a bold man ; whence horrid* 

Horse; Ceffyl ; Kaballos; Caballus. CefFyl « 
from cifil, chief mule or animal ; m in mule changing into f^ 
by being joined to ci, whence caballus and kaballos ; but 
horfe feems to be of a different origin, viz. of hi-w-ar-fi, 
• a high animal to fit upon, as the Celtic marx is from m-ar-ci, 
my fitting dog, or from mar-ci, a great dog or a great horfe. 
• Hot or Heated ; Brwdus ; Bratheis 5 Fervefac- 
TUS orpERViDUs. Brwdus is from berw-idiu, it is boiling ; 
"whence the Greek and Latin terms ; hot, &c. is from hi-^au-it, 
it is high water ; or from hi-o-it, it is the high o or the fun. 

Hour j Awr ; Horaj Hora. Thofe arc from y-or, the 

House; Tu; £thos; Doma, Domicilium or Do- 
fAVs, Tu or tiw, is from ti-w, the pofleiTion or covering of 
a. man ; ethos from e, the, and tu ; doma and domus, my 
iio\ife ; domicilium, the houfe of me and my family- 
*. How MANY; Pasawlun ; Posoi; QuoT. The Celtic 
is from pe-fi-al-un, the or what thing is above one ; pofoi is 
from p-fi-o-i, the thing that is from one, or the figure of one £ 
guot, is from ci-o-it, it is from th firft; how is from quot; 
land many is from the Celtic man-y, the fmall. 
■ fiuNpRED ; Cant ; Ekaton ; Centum. Hundred if 
Itom Un-dre-id, it is one town, or cantred ; cant is from can- 
^pn, fo is ekaton and centum ; which was an inclofure or a 
ponjundlion of an hundred towns or villages ; which fee. 
.. Hungry; Newyn; Peinaon; Esuriens. Newyn 
^ Is from ni-wyn, no bleiEng ; whence peinaon ; hungry is from 
high-eng-or, high, or far from largenefs ; efuriens is from 
yf-or-eng, the being from largenefs. 

Hunt ; Helau ; Ei^auno ; Venor. Helau is from hai-^ 
iil, upon the adlion of driving ; whence elauno j hunt is from 
liai-ynt, they are upon aftion ; venor is either from venio-ar, 
upon the coming or bringing in, or from vi-inrar, upon ining 
the animal. 

. Hurt or Crush; NiWEDorSiGo; ATAoorAASKoj 
^oCEoor Comminuo. Hurt is from hi-ar-it, it is high upon; 
crufh is from ac-ar-is, an zQion upon a lower ; figo is from 
is-ag, a lowering action ; niwed is from in-w-id, it is upon a 
man ; aafko is from,figo ; fo is noceo, a compound of niw 
in niwe4 &nd figo; cgmminuo is from com and niwed; atad 
ieems to be from the Celtic atto, to him. 

Husbandman or Countryman i Gwlauwr h Gbor^ 

COS ; AcRicoi A. Gwkdwr is from gwlaii<i«it^ s ctPdafrj* 
man. The other words are of the like ori|^n. 

Husk; Cibj Kibisis ; Sacculus. Cib is fFom cau-U^ 
a Ihut for food ; whence kibifis, j hufk is from hi-us-cau, the 
chcft over the corn ; faced us is from fi-cau-al-us, it is tW 
cheft or covering upon corn, the Celtic term us, chaff, fig^ 
nifving corn as well as chaff in compofition. 

rlv or Hie ; Hwy ; Apage ; Apage. The Engliib aai* 
Celtic terms are from the Cdtic verb hai, which is defined ill 
the preface; apage is from ^>*ag, go from | buttfaoicarealfo 
farther explained in the introdu6Uon. 


I, Fi ; Ego; Edo» Thofe are defined under thepro* 
y noun He. 

Jarr or Disagree; Amryfaelio or Anghysonj' 
Anaballomai or DiAPHoNEo ; Discrepo. Amryfaelio ii 
from am-rhyfel, for war ; anghyfon is from an-cy-fwn, not 
confonant ; diaphoneo is d!flK>nant ; anaballomai is to differ | 
difcrepo is of the fame fignification, and difagree needs no ez<^ 
planation here: 

Jay; Cogfran; Korakias; Graculus* Co^franli 
from cog a cuckow^ and bran a crow ; the Greek and Latlii 
terms are from korax a crow, and the Celtic lu a family ; jay 
is probably from the gaiety of its feathers. 

Ice ; Rhew ; Kreuos ; Gelu. Gelu is from ceulo ttf 
.coagulate, or from ceuol-au, fhut up water ; rhew is £rom 
oer-au, cold water ; kruos is from auc-oer, cold water ; iec 
is from au-fa, ftanding water, it being eyfe in the German* 

Ichor or Corruption ; GdR ; Ixor ; Sanguis Cr0^ 
Dus. Gor feems to be a contraftion of cau-ar, a gadierin| 
upon; crudus is from cau-ar-idiu, it is a gathering upon^ 
ixor is from i-cau-ar, the gathering upon; corruption 
is from g6r*up-ti-en, a gathering upon the upper or out-ndef* 

Idea; Idiw ; Idea; Idea. Idiu is from id^ it b, ik 
feems, or it is feen, it being from its being feen ; foil fignifiet 
it is, becaufe itfouhds; but a fiarther explanation hereof is 
given in the introdu£tion ; and the Celtic word rhith^ cowa* 
monly made ufe of to exprefs an idea, is a compound or r^-ith^ 
for id, by infiedion, iignifying the idea. 

Idiot; Hyrtun; Idiotes; Idiota. Hyrtun isfroa 
bi-ir-di-ua, one without the high fire or light, as dull is from 
di-ol, without light ; the other words are Kom idca-o-itji he 1^ 
Without ideait 

4 I^»l 

Idle ; S£gur ; - Abrgos ; Securus. Ule is from Atf 
[>ltic hyd-le, along or about a place; fegur is firom £i^-cr« 
le is from adion ; whence the reft. 

Idol; Delw; Eidolon ; Idolum. Ddw is from di«: 
liw, the Ukenefs of a deity ; whence the reft. 

Jest or Joke ; Gwatwori ; Xarientisomai 5 JocoR.* 
Grwatwori is from ag-w-^t-xware, the a£Uon of man at or to- 
wards playing ; joke may be either from the Celtic gwaud or 
from io-ac, Sie aSion of 10, as gwaud is from ac-io*id, it it 
the a6Hon of io or Jupiter ; hence the reft ; but fee the vrotd 

If ; Os or Ai ; £j ; S|. Ai is from a-hai, it is a6lion cr 
goiag on ; whence ei ; ii is the fame from fi-hai, as os is from 
Q^& i and if is from y^-fi, the being. 

Ignoble; Anlydog; Aklees; Ignobilis. Anlydoy 
is from an-ly-id-og, he is not a great family ; aklees is from 
ac-lu-€s, from a low &mily; ignobilis and ignoble are from 
9g-noble, from noble; which fee. 

Ignorance ; Anysg ; Agnosia ; Ignoraktia* Anyig; 
is from the privative anand d)rfg, learning; whence agnofia, 
as to the other words fee the following cl^« 
. Ignorant; Anwybodus; Agnostos; Ignarus. An«* 
wybodus is from an-wybod, without knowing; the other 
words are from ac, from, and noftoa and gnarus, knowing* 
See Oulful. 

Image ; Delw ; Deikelon ; Imago. Delw is from 
di-Uii, the colour or likenefs of a deity ; deikdon is from dei« 
ac-lyn* making the fign of a deity; imago is from i«ma-gy^ 
Uh;e the great, whence image. See Idol. 

Imbrue ; Troxi ; Embrexo ; Imbruo. Troxi is front 
trwy-auc, thro' the water ; embrexo is from em-ber-ux, tht 
WHter over him ; whence the reft. 

Immense or Immensurable ; Anfesurol ; Ametros^ 
Immensus. Thefe are from the feveral privatives in, an, and 
^ snd mefur, metros, and menfura, a meafure, which fee. 

Immbrgb; Boddi; Buthiso; Meroo. Boddiisfrom 
bi*au-di, liife deprived by water; whence buthifo ; mergo and 
immergc are from mer-gau, the fea (hut about, or mer-ag, the 
•£Hon of water; but fee Drown, which is the proper fignifi^ 
Cttion of the Celtic and Greek terms. 


0r Akratos ; Immodicus. Difefur is from the privatiTe 
dif and mefur a meafure; gormod is from gor-modd, beyond 
or above meafure or manner ; the other words are of the £unt 
£g8ifi(9ttioA| bur (ce their con^ponent-parts. 

t M 

Immortal; Difarwol ; Aphthartes ; Immortaus. 
Pifarw is from the privative di, and marw, dead or mortal^ 
which in compofition inlle^ls into farw s whence the reft, witk 
a variation of the privatives. 

Immutable; Dianwadal; Ametabletes; Immu* 
TABiLis. Dianwadal is from the privative di and anwadal, 
uiconftant, which is a compound of the negative an, and adailj 
a foundation or building ; or adal, to hold to ; the other 
words are from the negative an and im, and the Cehic woid 
mydo to remove. 

Imp ; Imp or Brigin.; Phryganon ; Surculus. Biigin 
18 from bri-ag-in, the firft aSing in or growth ; whence phiy- 
ganon ; imp from i-am-p, fignifies the things about or upon 
the ground ; furculus is from fur-cau-al, above the covering 
or furface. See Graff. 

Impart or Commune ; Cymung ; Koinqneo ; Im- 
YERTio. Cymuno is from cy-mwjrno, to enjoy cquallyj 
whence the reft, except impertio and impart, which are fiaff 
am-p-ar-it, about the fame part of the country. 

Impede ; Gludio ; Koluo ; Impedio. Gludio is from 
glud, birdlime ; koluo is from ac-61-iu, it is an after a£tion ; inn 
pedio and impede are.from am-p-idiu, it is a thing about the fbdL 

Impious ; Diddiu ; Atheos ; Impius. Diddiu is froflor 
di-diu, without God ; atheos is the fame, from, the privative 
a, and theos, God ; impious and impius, are from im^pius, not 
godly ; and pius is from ap-deus, from God. 

Imply; Ymblethu; Empleko; Implico. Theft 
words are from ym and plyg, or pleth, a fold ; which fee. 

Import or Carry Home ; Cywain ; Komiso ; Impoi* 
TO. Carry is from carr, which fee; cywain is from cy-waiiif 
the meadow together; or ac-y-wain, 'the aftion of the mean 
dow; or perhaps primarily from ci-iu-in, it is together in ( 
whence komifo ; importo and import are from im-porto^ to 
bring or carry in. See Carry. 

Impossible or Insufficient; Anigon or Anixon|> 
Amexanos ; Impossibilis. Thofe are from the privative* 
im, in and an, and the feveral affirmatives, which fee. 

Impound; Gwarxe; GREGOREoorPHYLATTOj Ci»- 
TODio or ViGiLO. Gwarxe is from cau-w-ar-cae, fhutdiig 
the animal on the field ; whence gregoreo ; phylatto is fioor 
phi-al-atto, a view upon or towards it; vigilo is fpott 
vi^ca-al, a view of the {hut upon; impound is from aiiP>' 
p-yntho, to inclofe athing within ; cuftodio is from cau-is-to* 
idiu, it Ihutting below or under a covering. 

Imprudent or Unwise^ Anoeth^ Anoetos; Im«^ 


hflLUBSNS. Anoeth is |rofii the privatlyc an and doieth, wife ^ 
iy hence anoetos 5 as to the feft fee Prudent and Wife, 

In; Yn; ENorEpij In. Thefe fignify the firmament 
or the (ky^ whetrein things a^-e contained j biit fee the preface 
For a fuller cxplicatron hereof. 

Impudent; Hyfus; ANAiioEs; Impudens. rfyfus is 
from hy-ef, he is high or bold ; .^maides is a compound of the 
negative an and aides, which is from the privative a and ideo^' 
or idfu, io fee or to be ; impudens and impiideiit are from the 
privative im and pudens, Ihafiieful. 

Inability; AkcHRYFDER; Akrateia; Impoten- 
•riA. Anghryfder is from the privative an, and cryf, ftrong'; 
whence akrateia ; inability is fronl in and able, arid impoteri- 
tia is from the. diminutive jm and potens. See Able. 

Incense ; CvNEti or Faglu ; Anakaio or EkphlecJo 5 
iNCBNpo. Cyneu is from ac-en-iu, it is the afiiori of th<5 
iirmament or fire; whence anakaio, incendo and incenfe; 
taglu IS from fc-ig-al, a thing iipon the fire ; whence ek^ 

Incite or Exhort ; Ai^nog j AncJgo ; f Nctto or 
HoRTok. Annog arid aiiogo are either from ah-nog, with- 
•uC fi&rtling, or in-ag, in aaiori ; incite and incito are' froiii 
ih-ac-it, to be in aiflion ; hortor is from hai-ar-tir, iStmg lip^ 
to the ground ; whence exhprt. , . . * . ' . 

Incline; Gwyro; Repo; Inclino. RejJo is from ir- 

o, a thing from high ; gwyro is from ig-ir-o, afting froin 
igh ; inclino and incline are from in-ac-al-ni, in adiliig ho]: 

INiCtiNA^LE ; Hyblyg ; feuPLEKES ; Flexibili^. 
Theie come from the Celtic plyg, a fold, an^ incline^ which 

Inclose ; fcAu, Cloi oi: Argai ; Kukid, Eirgo or 
Klkio; CiRCUMCLitbo or t^LAUiid; Ci\x is from ac-au, 
the aAioh of water, which is fuppofed to furround the earth ; 
but fee the preface for ah explanation of thefe letters and jSar- 
ticles I cloi is explained under the word Lock ; argai is froni 
ar-eaif tolhut upon ; whence the reft. 

iKCodit ANT or Thoughtless ; Anyalj^Us; ALogi^- 
Tb.9 ; Jncogitai^s, Anhyalius is Frdm ah-'dyallt, without 
tmddrftandm^ ; aldglftos is frbih a-ldgos, without i^afon ; in- 
cdgitans and inqogitant are, from in-cogitaris, and thoughtlefs 
h<m thbught-ldTs ; fee the jfeveral parts of ihefe compounds. 

Inconstant or Uneven ; AnwAsTad ; AsTaTos ^ 
Inquxetus. Thefe are from the (evcral negatives in, un and 
lUa^ ahSeonftaht> (ycH; g1r?^d andqules^ which fee. 



Increase or Augment ; Tyfu cr Xwanecu ; ThbiJ 
Phyo or SuNAGo ; Cresco or AuGEo. Tyfu, thcio afij 
phyo arc from ty-fy, the iirmament life or growth j rwanega, 
funago, augeo, ana augment are from ux-en-ag, the zEdon i 
the upper fire ; crefco and increafe are from uc-ir-af-ac, -dx 
high fire ading upon the lower part. 

Increase or Prosperity ; Tycciant j Entuxiaj 
Incrementuw or Prosperitas.*. Thcfc arc explained «h 
der the words Increafe and Profperous. ♦ 

Indigent or Needy; An6hbnu9; Endens ; Ikdn 
CENS. Need is from ni-id, it is not; angheii is from aii(- 
cng, not large ; indigens, &c. 2u:€ from in and egeO^ to 

Indiscreet or Unworthy ; Awghymwys; Anazioij 
Indignus. Anghymwys is from the negative an and cyiiir 
wjrs, fit or proper ; anaxios is from an and axios, worthy; b 
is indignus from in and dignus, worthy; as is alfo indifofiCt 
from in anid difcreet, which fee. 

Infers Peri; Eisphero; Infero. Perils frofti p-fl^ 
to be upon a thing ; whence the rcil, with the particles js^ 
fixed, and the inflexion of the confonant p into ph and 4 ' 
ufual in Celtic compofitions^ according to the partide ]p^ 

Infidel; Diffydd; Apistos; Infideus. Thefest 
from the feveral prfvatives, and fydd, faith. 

Infinite or Boundless ; Aniben ; Apeiros ; li^niu* 
Tus. Thefe are compofed of the feveral privatives, atodpO^; 
fin, and or, fignifying end, edge or bounds, which fee. 

Infirm or Weak ; Anwastad, Egwan or ArosCoj 
Athenes or AX'j^osTos; Infirmus. Weak feems tbftp. 
egwan tranfpofec^ infirmus and infirm are from in and fiofl^ ; 
which fee; anwaftad is from an-waftad, unftea^; arafgd il' 
from ar-ofgo, tipon bending ; whence the reft. " . 

Inflame, Incense or Set on Fire ; CY>TEtJ ; AirA-* 
KAio ; Incendo. Cyneu is from ac-en-iu, it is the tSSai^ 
of the' firmament ; whence the reft, except inftattie, wUdi'tt'. 
from en-fi-al-am, the fire, all about, - -- ^-^ 

Inflect or Bend ; Camu ; Kampto ; iNFLEtto. It 
fiedlo and infled are from in and the Celtic plyg, a fold| ildF 
as to the reft fee Bend. ■ -/^jj 

Inhabit; Aneddu; Naio or Naietao ; TwHAMf^ 
Inhabit and inhabito are from in-a-b6d, in the abode ; aneSM 
is from an-e-tu, in the houfe or pofleffion ; whencethe nsftj?* 
or naio may be from in-iu, he is 'w^ and aaeddu may befHStm* 
in-id, he is in. : ■ ':./9!f 



tHitt Att ; tIitDJ3o I EnxbiAso i IkiTio* As td tbelb 
lee the word Ordain. 


irM* Inn Is (torn the prepofitien in ^ diverfodum is from di-" 
Vepfus, divers { lloxes is from lle-cau-ii, it is a fkut up place op 
a place for fhelter ; whence ioxe. 

Innocent } DiNiwed; Anaitiosj Innocens. Thefe 
aie eompofed of theprivatives inj di, and an, and niwed, t(B 
hurt, which fee. 

Innovate ; Newyddu i Ndo j Innovo* Thefe are 
fiomnewjFdd^ new, and in, which fee. 

Inquire or Seek; Ceisio; Eretaso] QyjBRoorlN- 
^iRo. The rand s being mere letters of found the(e terms 
are of the fame origin, via. <:ais^ to feek, ia from ac-y-fi, the 
adion of feeing for. 

Insipid; Dixwaeth; Duxumosj Insipidus. Dix- 
ymsA is fr<Mn di-xwa-ith, it is without tafte or breath; 
whenpe duxumos; infipidus and iniipid are from in-fi-p-idiu, 
it is a thing without tafte or without fight, for the fenfations 
rf taflie are ufually expreflcd by terms formed by the fight, 
though the Celtic feems to intend fomewhat more by the term 

Insist; Imegnio; Enixomai; 1n«i8To. Imegnio is 
iiQEBi ym-egnl^ to infdrce ; whence enixomai ; infiflo and infifl: 
are from in-fto^ to ftand upon* 

Inspect ; Craffu ; Ephorao ; Inspecto. CrafFu b 
ftom ac-ar-fu, aSing upon the fight or view ; whence epho- 
rao ; infpQ&Q and infpe(Sk are frpm in-fpeAo, to look: 

• JNflTXGAfTfis Anog; Anogoj Instigo. Inftigo and 
inftigate are from in-fto-ag, be upon action ; anog and anoga 
£gn^ in a£tion, or without flartling. 

Insult or Exult ; Ymlawenvxu ; AgalLomai ; 
]krsvtf*Q« Ini>ik and infulto are from in-falto, to leap up or- 
jUpoh 5 ymlawenyxu is from jmi, an increafing particle, lawen- 
UXa, the hi^hefl gladnefs or joy ; agallomai is from ag-allomai, 
it is die a&on of dancmg. 

Integrity; Anllycredigaeth; Olokleriaj In- 
TSqaiTAS. Anllygredigaeth is to be warm and incorrupt ; 
olokleria is the fame ; integritas and integrity are of the fame^ 
flgfii£k»don, ti.and li both exprefling' power or property. 
- .IwteXiLECt ; Sy^tiad; Synesis; Intellectus. Syni- 
iAaad fynefiis fignify feeing within; intelle£^ and intelledud 
ftae. from into-il-a£t, an ad of light within. 

• iMTWDj Y$TYtLlQi EPHISTEflli JkX£N»Q« Int^uA 

I 3k • VCv^ 


and intendo are from in-tendo, into an end; yftyrio is to Sir 
on^ whence ephiftemi. * " 

Intimate; Agos> Muxates^ Intimus. < Agosiifirom 
a^-oes, the a£lion of the age or of one year, that is,' near; 
muxates is from mi-agos-ti^ me near to thee -, whence tte 


Vallum is from the Celtic ewal a wall ; gwcrfiU is from cau- 
ar-fi-al, a covering or inlofure that is high or ftrong j fhuiw. 
is from fi-to-ar, it is a covering upon ; intrenchment is fipni 
in-tir-in-uxa-maint, the hieheft magnitude in the paffions. 

Invade 5 Amgyrxu ; Epixeiro ; Invado. Amgyixa 
is from am-cyrx, to furround with force ; whence epixeiros oc 
it may be from epi-xeir, hand upon^ invado and invade sc 
from in-vi-ad, me in at or upon. 

Invalid or Weak ; Dinerth ; Athenes j Invaii- 
Dus. Dinerth is from di-nerth, without ftrength; whenoca* 
thenes; invalidus and invalid are from in-vi^, not highfX 
powerful * See Weak. 

Invent; Amcanu or Cyxwin; Kixano ; Invbwo. 
Amcanu is from am-ac-in^ about a^ng; cjrxwin is fima 
cy-ac-yn, the firft adding ; whence kixano ^ invenio is fioa 
in-vi-in, upon feeing ; whence invent. 

Invite j Galw ; Kaleo j Invito. Galw is from ag- 
ah-w, an adion calling upon a man; whence kaleo s i&vitp 
and invite are from in-vi-it, it is in to fee. 

Involve ; Damblygu ; Engkuliso ; Involyc. Dam- 
blygu i^ from id-am-plyg, it is a fold about ; . engKulilb.ii 
from en-cau-al-is, (hutting upon a lower ; involvo arw invdve 
are from in-ve-at-ve, it is upon^ or to roll upon a thiog» fiom 

Join;Cydio; Seugnumi ; JuNGo. Cydio isfr6me]fl' 
iu, it is together ; feugnumi is from fy-ci-mi, they axe itogf' 
ther; jungo is from j-un-ci, the being one together.^ j^inii 
irom fi-un, they are one. ' 

Joint ; Cymal ; Kondulos ; Articulus; Cyinslf 
from cau-am-al, the high fhut or joint j jointis frooiJHDlieA- 
it is the uniting; kondulos is from cau-in-id-aj, it is';^ 
high {hut or joint; articulus is from yr-ti-cau-al, tfaejMlit 
ihutting upon. 

Joke; Cbllwar; Kleuaso; Jocor. JocorandjoU 

are from io-ac, the adion of lo ; fee Joy ; cellvirar is froma> 

al-w-ar, an high or merry adion upon a man ; kleuafo froia 

ac-al-w-fi, it is an a£Hon upon a man. ^ . . ; 

JovRNcxi Taith; Hooos] ly^ft. Tixt^^hfK^^ 


^th, it is a goings which aeth is a compound of hai-id^ it i^ 
Jm adion ; hodos is from hai-idiu, it is an action -, iter, 

from aeth-r*, the going ; journey is from go-ir*en-y, the go* 

ihg into the end. 

r- Joy j Gwaud or Xware ; Xara ; Gau dium. Xware 
'is from ac-w-ar, a man upon aAion; whence xara; joy is 
Nfrom io-y, the lo, a note of exclamation, probably from the 
lio pxan; gwaud is from ag-io*id, it is the a£i:ion of lo; 
Si^hence gaudium ; and indeed xware may come from ac-io-^ar, 
lipon the adion of lo. 

Ire ; Irspd ; Orgs ; Ira. Iredd is from ir-id, it is 
fim or heat> oi^ is from ir-t-ae, the a£lion of fire or heat ; 
whence iia and ire $ but ir is sQfo a compound of i-r, as may 
be feen in the preface. ' 

•' Iron ; • Haiarn ; Ares; Ferrum. Haiarn is a com* 
|K>und of hai-ir-en, the aAion ^of the divine fire, the art of 
■nking it being'accidentally found out from the wood of mount 
Ida's being fet on fire by lightning; whence the refl. 

Irrigate or Water the Ground; Dyfrhau; Ar- 
DECa ; ' IiutiGo. Dyfrhau is 'from dyfr-hai, the a^on of 
Vrater or watering ; whence the refi:. 

'^ Id; Si or Id; Esti; Est. Thofe are explained in the 

^. 'Island; Ynus; Nesos; Insula. Ynus is fromyn-au- 
fi, Tt is in ^e water; whence nefos; infula is from in-au-fi- 
lt9 it is a place in the water ; whence ifland. 
^ Judge; Justus; Dikastos; Judex. As to thefc 
jfcann« fee Juft, Juflice and Equity. 

, Juice; SuG^ Xulos; Succus. Thefe words are from 
fi-auC,^ It is liquid or moifture. 

...JvSTi CvFiAWNor DicoNUs; DiKAios; Justus. Cy- 
&Wn is from cyf'-iawn, equal right or fatisfaSdon ; digonus 
i^lEhnh digbn, uifiicient ; whence dikaios; juilus andjuflare 
are from i-w-fl-tu, to man is the paflion. 
- . Justics ; IsTUs ; Dikastos ; Judex. See the words 

."^..IVYj EiDpEW; KiTTos; Hedera. Eiddew is from 
'^ydj^w, upon or a long the yew ; whence ivy ; kittos is from 
W Celtic nid-derwi alon^ the oak, / 

BEN, Sharp or Rapid ; Awxus ; Taxus or Oxus ; 
' Act/tuS or Rapxdus. Auxus is from a-ux-\^^ ^Viw^ 
I 3 >ic^- 

flie lower, Tipper or outer ; rapid is frbm arrp--id, it 19 die put 
upon ; iharp is from fi-ar-p, it is the part upon ; keen is firooi 
ux-in, the upper upon ; whence the reft, 
. Keep ; Cadw ; Kedeo ; Curo. Cadw i$ ftom caiad* 
iu, it is (hut; whence kedeo ; keep is from cau-p^r to Ihuta 
thing ; curo is fro^ caa-ar-iu, it is fhuttiag upon. 

Key ; Agoriad ; Kleis ;^ Clavis. Key is from dn 
Celtic cau-y, the fhut; kleis ^d clavis are from tlie Celtic 
(:loi to lock ; agoriad is from agor to open $ Which is com- 
pounded of ag-cau-i-ar, the a£t of fhuttine upai|» or it mi^ 
be from a*cau-ar-id, it is the ihut upon, bee JLock. 

Kid or YOUNG gelt Goat; MYNorHYFR; £ltiPH0i; 
Hjedus. Hasdus is from Chs Celtic byd'-w^ii* it is the 
riding animal ; hyfr and eriphos are from by-fit^^ ^bold riders 
fnyn feems to be fron^ myi^ydd a mpuntain ; kid b^m Itc^i^i 
from being feen. 
^(ikhtA Kidney ; Aren ; Ren? Ren. Kidney is frcto iw-h;d* 
111, our ai^g upop or riding one ; aren is from ar^un» the 
upon or riding one ; whence the reft. 

Kill or Slay; Lladd; Pletto; Cadq, CiedQ it 
from fi-ad ; lladd is from il-ad ; flay is from fiA^j | plettDil 
from pril-at for ad ; all figniCying to reftore» return bad: or 
up the fight, fight, or fenfe ^ kill is from cau-il, to fhut (M^ 
^he light, ' . ■ , 

Kind ; Mwyn ; Eumenes ; Benignus, Aiwya il from I 
ni-o-yn, great fire within; wl^eace eumenes'; heojgnusil 
from ben, for pen-ignis, chief fire ; kind is from ac-en-id, 
it is an action of the nre, or a warm adlion ; fee Kindle^ Fiipi 
&c. ' ' " 

Kindle; Enyn; Anauo 5 Accendo. £nyn]sfromeih 
yn, the fire in, for eji is not only ufed for the firmameo^ 
heaven and horizon, but alfo for the element or quditjroi 
tiic; whence anauo ; accendo is from ac-en-id, it i^tbiet^ 
tion of the fire ; kindle is from ac-en-jd-jil, it is the a^ljoncf 
the high fire ; fee Fire, Rain, &c. 

King; Rhyx or Brenin; Anax; Rex, JCing b.fiqffl 
ci-eng, a great chief; rhyx is from rhi-ux, a'chi^f prince or 
governor ; whence comes rex ; anax is from ux)-ux, the 
t Kief one; brenin is from h"-en-un, the firft, chieforaa- 
t icnt one ; rhi is from wr-hi, a high man, or r'-hi, the high j 
ux is from v-ac, the action of v, or the fpring, which is up- 
wards. . \ 
k^^rij IfiXQDOM ; Teyrnas; ANGKTORiA^'or Arxe ; Reg- 
yu M. Kingdom is from king-dome, that is a king's poSMoU 
cjr dominion -, teyrnas is from ti-iwr-en-as, the country usda 


fch ancient poflbilbr ; f^um is from rex ; aixe it from ir-ge, 
|;ovemed land. 

Kiss ; Cysanu ; Kuo ; Osculor, Cyfanu is from ci- 
fi-yn, to make found togedier j. kuo is from ci-w, man toge-^ 
ther ^ ki'fs is from cys, in cyfan, a kifs ; ofculor is the fame 
tranfpofed) and lor, oovin^ or rather al-wr, upon a man, that 
is, a kifs upon a man* 

Kite 5 Bi?RciT ; Iktin ; M^lvvs. Barcit is from bar* 
cyd, the barbarous catcher; iktin is a tranfpoiltion of the let- 
ters in cit-en, the firmament one ; kite is from cit ; milvus is- 
from m-al-vi-iu, it is the great high animal* 

Knap; Cneifio; Knapto; Arrodo. Cneifip is from 
cni, a fleece; whence knap and knapto; arroflo is from ar-> 
W-id, it is the animal covering. 

Knead ; Tyuno ; Depso ; Depso. Tylino is from 
4au-lin, the adion of the two knees ; knead is from knee-id, 
to put the knees to ; depfo is from dau-pes-o, the action of 
the two feet. 

Knee; Glin; Gonu; Genu. Glinisthcfamcas glyim 
to flick) originally framed of ag-al-en, the a£Uon of the fun, 
viz. its attra£tive quality, whereby every thing flicking are 
defcribed ; the reft come from ag-en-iu, it is the adion of 
the firmament, but this definition feems to be too general for 
thefe terms, and they are beft defined here from ag-al-in, the 
acting or joining upon. 

JKnit, Weave, Plate or Wind up; Plethu, Dir- 
WiNorGwAU; Pleko, EiRooorAxTo; Necto, Texo. 
As to plait, plethu and pleko, fee the word Plait and Fold ; 
knit is from cau-in-it, putting in or together ; gwau is 
from gwe-hai, the web action ; whence weave ; dirwin is 
from di-ir-iu-jrn, it is to hide within ; wind is from y-in-id, 
if is the puttmg in ; ciroo is from y-ir-o-iu, it is the putting 
put of fight ; atto is from y-to, the thatch or covering; texo 
is from, to-ac, the adlion of covering ; ne^ is from yn*cau« 
it, it is Covering or Shutting in. 

Knock; Cobio ; Kopto ; Pulso. from p-al-fi, 
the foot or part is high ; kopto is from ac-o-p-it, it is an 
a£Uon of the foot; cobip is from ac-o-be-iu, it is an ac- 
tion of the foot; knock is from ac-in-ac, an adtion upon an 

Know; Adwen or Gwvbod; Ginosko or Eido; 
Scio or Nosco« All thofe cpqne from the Celtic primitive 
ydiu-un, it is one ; and from ^-w, it is man ; and gwvbod, 
jj^t is exifting. 

Known ;■ Nopot; Gnostos; Notus. Nodol is from 
' I 4 Yio\-iJw^ 


v^ K dM-aU » higb mdxcHt; the reft come from the Cdt^e hy-i^' 

^« a high mark'd a^on* 

LABOR ; PoEN ; PoNos ; Labor or Bjesa. Thp/e an 
all explained under the lyord Punifhmcnt. 
-Lacteal; Llaethoo ; Galaktikos ; Lactbus, 
Thofe come fcom le-auc-ti, the fiinuly or houfe liquid ; bul; 
fee Milk. 

Lad or Youth ; Gwits ; Pais ; Servus. Gwis if 
from ag-w-as, the lower a<%ng man ; pais is from pa-is, a 
lower thing ; fervus is from is-wr-iu, he is a man under or 
Jower ; youth is explained under Youth ; lad is from lai-id, 
he is the lefs. 

Ladder ; Ystol ; Stollos ; Sella. Ladder is firom 
al-addcr, the high adder, or the rifer; the reft arc from y^ 
ft-al, the high ftand; or rather from is-to-al, a covering jdwvc 
j^ lower, or a ftep above a ftep. 

. Lakle ; Llyn or Llac ; Lekos or Limne i^ Lacus. 
Lacus and lake are from the Celtic lac, a compofiBoir o( 'k- 
auc, a water place ; llyn is from Ue-au-yn, a place for Ac 
water within j whence the reft. 

. Lamb J Oenj Amnos ; Agnus# Oen fcemo'tobefrom 
w-en, a white or blefled animal; wyn is white in die Celtic, 
sind what is blefled, is therein called white, as du,' bbidc, or 
^ privation of white, fi|ni(ies bad pr wicked; 2^us isfiom 
ag' envois from the blefled (beep; amnos is from aqmen^ois, 
the world'&white or bleifed animid i lamb is from al-am-bi, of 
ihc fame fignification. 

. Lamej Cloffj^Xolos or KoLOBOs; Claudus. Cloff 
is from cloi-'ef, he is locked ; whence the reft ; but lame in- 
:ftcad pf lock is compounded of lo in lock, and am, upon,'^ IB* 
ilead ot cau, inclofed or (hut. See Lock. 

Lament or Cry out ; Gwaeddi pr Galaru j GoAt) 
c^ Klaio 5 LuGBo, Deploro or Lamentor." 'Liamentor 
and lament are from al for gal*maint, a great calling ^ g^wited* 
tl} 4nd goao, ^e from gwae woed ; lugeo ar^d kliiio, aire from. 
galw^ to call ^..allb galaru is from galw-ar,- to^call liponi de- 
.fjqrois from id-ap-alar, it is frbm/wceping ; fee the next. 
. .' Lamentation j 'GALA-Bt or Xlaeth ; lALEikfd^ ; La- 
MENtatio..' .Thefearedefinfed'iri the laft claf»of words j but 
f^e the word C^^l for a f^irther'^xplicatioh. 

Lamp; Lamp; Lampas; Lampas. Lamp is ifrom il- 
*a^-Pj a thirig'aboat the light 3 whence the reft. . 
' ■• ■ ^ Lam- 

* Lamphey; MoRKiDlt; MuraiKa; MuijeKAr X]^ 
prey is from al-am-pry, high for the prey; mornidr, isfironi 
tn6'r-nidr, the fdsi ihafee, or the fea hider or fneaker. . 

Lance; Llain; Lokgxb; Lakcea. Llain is from * 
Uau-in, in the hand, or from al-en, upon high \, lance and tho 
teft are from lau-en-ac, the hand a£ting hieh. 

Land ; Tyddum or TiR ; Era or Xthon ; Terra or 
Tenementum. Tir is from ti-r, the pofleffion; whence 
era and terra ; tyddun is from ti-ddyn, one man's pofleffion ; 
whence xthon, tenementum and tenement ; land is from le- 
umbo, the inclofed place, or more fully le-in-id, it is a place 
within or upon. 

- Lane j Lon or CwM ; Komion ; VicuLus. L6n and 
lane are from le- w-yn, man's refidence ; cwm, i«4ience ko- 
midn; is from ci-w*am, fhutting men together ; viculus is 
from vi-<ry-le-iu, it is a place to dwell togedier, the dwellings 
tof die ancient Celtes during their migrations being in long 
Areets running alongfide of Teas and rivers. 

Languishing ; Galaru^ ; Xalaros ; Lanouidus. 
Galarus is from a?-al-ar, an a£tion hieh or powerful upon; 
whence xalaros ; languidus and languiuing are from al-eng- 
idiu, it is great and powerful. 

Lap or Knee j Glini au ; Kolpos ; Gremium. See 
Knee; alfo ofoferve that premium is fr6m cau-ar-mewh, the 
fiiuttitie in or inclofing ; kolpos is from cau-^l-pe-fi, it is an 
indofea thing; lap is From al-p, to be upon a tiling; gliniau 
S8 firom glyn, a knee. 

*- Xap or LiCK; Lleibio; Lapto; Lambo. Lleibio is 
from Haib, a licking, compofed of al-au-bi, drinking up a 
Hquid ; whence the reft. 

'« '^aIice or Broad; Llyoan; Platus; Latits. Large 
isi fixmi lauf-ge, the furface of the earth ; broad is from bro<« 
id or ad, it is the furface of the country ; llydan is from lied, 
breadth, which is* from le-idj it id place ; whence the other 
-VCi^; orllydan may have been originally formed, of le-daDji 
;tiie j^acjS underneath. 

^'-Last; OhAti IrOiTHOs; Ultimus. Laft is from le^tis<» 
it, lit is the lower place; clave is from ol-ef, it is after ^ 
vrhick is from ol^ef, it is the fiiadow ; Whence the reft. 

Lasting ; Parhaus ; Lipares ; Assiduus. Lafting 

. is from laft and engj great ; aifiduus is from ifla-idiu, it is the 

loweft; perhaus i& from p-ar-bai, the part upon a^on; le« 

pares is from le, place, and parhaus. 

' ^ I»ATiTt;bE 5 Ll£x>i Platosj LATixyno, Ucd, the 


mmitivtt word» tiras formed of lle^ii^ it istbe place, but lei 
X^ie fiurttier explained in the preface. 

Lath, Lattice or Bar; Cjledr ; Kwithronj Claus; 
TRUM. All thofe come from cloi-tir, j. e. to inclofe the 
ground^ with laths or rafters, which were our firft buildingSi 
when there were no othear bars or faftenings, which has qcca^ 
fioncd a different application of this word. 

Laud; Clod; Kledon; Laus. ClSd which fecms td 
be the root of all tbt reft, is a compound of ac-al-id, it is a 
high a£b'on ; but the £ngli(h and Latin have lofl the fign^ca- 
tion of theJetter c here, as in many other ini^ces ; theLada 
word alfo wants the d, which the Englifh has ; fo that tht 
Engliih did not borrow from the Latin, but from die Celtic^as 
appears here and in various other inftances. 

Laugh; Gwenu orGwAUDio; Gelao orMfipAO; 
RiOEo. Gwenu is the fame as guin, white or pleaiant; com- 
pofed of ag-o-en, the a£iion of the fun ; fee gwaudio under 
joke ; laugh is from alrO-ag, the action of the fun ; gelao i| 
from ag-al-o, the a&ion of the high o or the fun^ which iiniles 
vpon us ; gwaudio is from ag>o-idiu, it is the a£Uon of the 
Am ; or a^-io-idiu, it is the a^ion of io or the fun ; meidao is 
from ma-id-o, it is the great o or the fun ; f ideo is from ir-? 
idiu, it is the fire or warmth. 

Law; Cyfraith or Deddf ; Themis; Lex. Let 
is from al-ac, high adlion ; law is from al-hai, high SbEtion, or 
rather from the Celtic lex, a ilate or flat ftone; which fee; 
. deddf is from id-a-fy, they are the things that are paft; ^le? 
nis is from ti-am-fi, it is about property or poflfeffion j fy- 
fraith is from cyf-raith^- a covenant or ading together. 

Lay Eggs ; Dodwy ; Otokeg ; Ovumpario. Dod- 
wy is frcxn dodi-wy, to give eggs 5 ovum is from wy an egg, 
and pario is from p-or-iu, a thing from ; otpkeo is from oon^ 
an egg, and tikto to bring forth. 

. Layman; Lyg; Laikos; Laicus, Lyg i^ frpiQ lu-og, 
the great people, or muhitude ; whence lail^os ^d laicus; 
layman is from llu-man, a man of the n)ultit|fde ; as dericus 
m clerk is from cau-or-laicus, to be ihut out of or .from $he 

Lazy; Diog; Oknodes; Piger pr Laxus. Diogii 
fnam di^ag, without action, or being ina^ive ; whence okno- 
des ; piger is from p-ag-or, a thing from adion 5 laxus is 
from iai.«ac-iu9 it is lefs adion; lazy is from lefs-hai, lei^ 



is From p-al-wm, a thing up, (rom wm^ m a dead or dark (Jacef 
vehence plumbum and molubdos ; lead i$ from al^ad^ up 

to. « 

Lbader or DujcE; TYWYSpOi^ Aoooos; Du;k. Ty*' 
wyfog is from tywys-og, a ^eat leader 5 agogos is fi»m ag^ 
w-og-iu, he is a great leader ; dux and duke are from duco } 
leader is from lead-wr, a leadmg man. See the next dafs. 

Lbad ; TwYSo or Arwin 5 Aoo or Ak2so% Duco or 
AuxiLioR. Ago is from ag-w^ the^ aAing man^ arefo is 
from ar-ifla, upon the lOweft ; twyfo is from ti-w-is, a lord 
of the Ipwer man; whence duco; auxilior is from ux^u^wr, 
ft man over the multitude; lead is from lu-head, the head c^ 
the multitude, 

; LfiAFi Dalen; Petalon; Fouum* Leaf is from al« 
ef, it is Ac upon or. upper part ; dalen is from id-^al-en^ it is 
the upon one; petalon is from peth-al-^on, the thing upoh$ 
folium is from fe-ai-iu, it is the upon thing. 

Lean; Pwyso; Pieso; Premo. Pwyfo is from pwys,' 
weight ; or from p-^w-is, a thing upon a man ; whence piezo f 
pemo is from p-ar-mb ^ thing upon me; lean is from al-un^ 
upon one, 

. Leap; Llammu; Allomai; Salio« Leap is from aU 
^Pf up from ; llammu is from al-am, up about^ i, e. ikipping 
fibout ; .whence allomai ; falio is from fi-al, it is up or high. ff^ 

Learn; Dysgu; DisKsd^ Disco. Learn comes from J ladS 
laii-arno, a hand upon him ; the Celtic difg, learning, is camr 
pbunded of id-is<-ag) it is the lowering a^ion; whence the 

Leave.; Gadel; Leipoj Relinc^uq. Gadel is from 
gg-id-il, the fun is from or return 'd to rdl; leipo is' from il-i« 
pe, the fun to its end ; linquo is f/om il-yn-cau, the fun fets 
or (huts; from il-o-ve, the fun from or out of 

Leave OFF, Let Pass ; Gadel Heibio; Paralei* 
po.; OMiTTOr Omitto is from fending; the reft are defined 
under the laft clafs ; omitto is compofed of the Celtic Oy and 
the Latin mitto, to fend. 

Leech or Horse Leech ; Gel ; Bdell a ; Hirudo« 
X^eech is from llexu, to hide ; geli is from celu, to hide ; 
bdella is from bi-daU» a blind anim^ ; hirudo is from bir^^diu^ 
it is long. 

Left Hand; Llaw, Xwith or Asw; Skaios or 
Laxos j Sinister or Sc^yus. Llaw is frqm aUu-w, a num^^ 
power, or al-w, heighth of man ; whence laios 5 afw js man's 
leafib whence (kaios and fcsvus^ jdnift^ and j^wyth ; hand is 

• . . . . ^^ 

JBrom high eni, or finiftcr tnajr come from fi^in-ifter, it 3 
in the Idweft parts fcaevus from is-ac-iii, it is the lowisft 

Leg* or Shank ; Gar, Goes or Clyn ; Skeios or 
Cleme ; Crus or Clunis^ All here feem to be a corrup- 
tion of the Celtic, except the eh^lifh word lee, which is from 
al-ag, a£ting upon ; gar is formed of ag-ar, arang upon ; coes 
is from cau-w-is, man's lower joint ; cljm is from cau-al-ynj 
the joints, fo that thefe words fignify, the knee, fhank and 

Legion; Lleng ; Legeon; Legio. Thofe words all 
come from the Celtic Ui-eng, a great or exttnfive family d 

■ Lend or Give ;Rhoi ; XRao; Mutuo,Do. L^dcomes 
from I'aW) hand, and end ; give is from ag-i-ve', a&ihg to him j! 
rhoi from or-hai, an a^ion from ; xrao from xeif, a hand, i. e. 
to hand ; mutuo from mi-y-tu or ti, me to thee, and do, to give. - 

Less; Llai; Elason or Meion ; Minor. Lefs is 
from le-is or es, the lower place ; as is elafon ; meion is fronf 
nuun, thin; minor is from main-'r; the leffer; llai is froih 
le*ail, the fecond place ; whence Uai and elao, to leflen* 
• Liberal, Frank or Free; Hael or Hardd; Eleu- 
fTHEROs ; Liber ALis. Hael is a compound pf hy-ael, upon 
being free or bold ; hard of hj-ar-dda, bold or free upon goodsi 
tdeutheros feems to be compofed of hael and hardd ; liberalis, 
&c. of liber, free, and all. 

Liberty; Haelder; Eleutheria;Libertas. Hin- 
der is from hael-der or tir, liberal pofleffion or property; frpflgi 
vi'hence the reft feem to be derived, except that liberty is to be 
free of land and water ; but thefe terms in their moft primitive 
ineaning, exprefs hael or haul-dir, fun-fliiny poflcflions. 

Libidinous or Lustful; Anllad; Aselgbs; Libi- 
piNOSUS. Libidinofus and libidinous, are from libido» - lu|^ 
which is a compound of al-bi-idiu, it is high life, or a pfea- 
fant thing; afelges is from y-fi-al-ag-cs, it is the ading MPQH 
the lower or female; anllad is from yn-al-hyd, upon all.v 
long ; Iw^ is from a}-is-it or id, it is tike high upon the I0W7 
«r^ or thfe ni^lc upon the female. 

Lick; Llyfu; Leixo; Lingo. Leixo is from al-auaj 
the Hquid up ; whence lingo and lick ; llyfu is from al-y-i^ 
up with th? drink, ; fee Drink. 

' Licking; Llaib 5 Leicma ; LiNCTus.;>'Llalb is from 
i^:.y*hi, -the drink up; the reft are explained in the lafl pre^ 
ceding clafs. : '' ' 

i^$ i^iD', Llexu; Lexo; Lateo, Llexu is from U-« 

"' ' cau. 

caU) to fbut upon y 7 whence (exo ;. lateo is from al-4o, a cofer* 
ingupon; lie bid is from al-hi-di, without being up high; > 
' /Lie along 5 ■ Gk)RWBDD y Kupto ; Cubo. Lie along 
is from al-long, to be upon the length ; cubo is frpm ac*ub-o^ 
from afting or being up; whence kupto ; gorwed4 is frota 
ag-or-wedd, ailing, or going out of fight or prefence* . 

Life; Bywydj Bios; Vita. Life comes from al-fi,- 
for vi or bi, upon being ; bywyd is from bi-w-id, it is a man 
or an animal life or being ; bios, from bi-w-fi^ of the lams 
meaning. ; ,f 

XiFT UP, As;cEND or Erect ; Dyrxafu ; Aiiixo or 
£g£iro ; Attollo or Erigo. AttoUo is a compound of 
at-oi, to the fun or high ; lift is from al-ef-it, it is high 5 
afcend from as-ux-en-id, it is from low above the firmament ; 
anixo is from yn-uxa, uppermoft, or the higheft ; . dyrxafa 
from dir, for tir-uxaf, the higheft land ; whence all ui^ reft 
of thofe words, in their primary fenfe; but another expla* 
nation may be feen under the word Heave. 

Light ; Goleu or Golcini ; Glune or Glenos ; 
Lumen. Thofe words all come from the Celtic particles ag^ 
ol, iu, it is the aAion of the futi or from the fun, and ag-ol-en^ 
from the fun or firmament ; the Celtic is frequently wrote goW 
eini ; whence gleini or light. 

Light ; Ysg afn ; Kouphos ; Levis. Yfgafn is from 
yf-cafn, the hollow ; whence kouphos ; levis is from Ic-vi, 
the fun V place; light is derived from the preceding clafs* of 

Lighten; Goleuo; Selageo; Luceo. /fhofeverb^ 
come from the fubftantives before mentioned. 

Light or not weighty; Yscafn; Kouphon; Lb* 
VIS. The word light is a transfer of the former word, lights 
yfcafn is from yf-cai-fewn, the fhut or hollow within i 
-^irhence koufon, and (ky, in fkyballon ; levis feems to have* 
i>c^n formed as under the word Light* ' • . 

Like ; Cyffhlib, Fal or Mal ; Omalos or Ikelos ; 
SiMiLis. Mal or fal are frommi-al, orfi-ail, me tp ino* 
ther,^ mi changing by infle£Hon into fi; cyffelib fiigriifies. 
together aKke,. from ci-fal; fimilis from fi-mi^ail,. it is me to 
pother; the reft are derived from the Celtic ail-ci, like an- 

Lilly; Alew; Leirioh; Lilium. Aleu is from al^ 
here fienifyinff the horizon, and liu, colour, white colour 
being deferibed from the horizon; lilium and'lilly, are from 
liuMl, light colour;' leiribn is from liu-ir, the fun^ fire or^ 
Ijfiht colour.- . • 


Limb i Aelod or Mal ; Melos ; Mimbrom. Maf if 
from mi-al, my upon ; adod is from al-i/r-id, it is the upm 
(^ man or animal; melos is from mal; limb is from al-mi^ 
be, die part upon me; membrum is compofed of me-am*lie« 
ir-ui, it is the part upon me. 

LiMBEE or Soft ; Ystwyth ; Nothes ; Lbnt^s. 
Yftwyth i3 from ys-ti-wy th, die wind property ; whence no- 
dies ; lentus is from li-ventus, the wind property ; limber it 
Ihim li-un-ber» the property in water ; foft feems to com^ from 
yftwjrth) as fi-wyth-ti, it is a property of the wind. 

Limb; Calx; Xaux; Calx. Calx is from 2c4fn^ 
Ae a6Hve duft ; whence xalix and calx ; lime is from al-am, 
iifirh about. See Chalk. 

Limit or Terminatb; Orphbn; Oriso; Dbfinio. 
Orphen is from or for yr-pen, the end ; whence orifo and de- 
&U0 ; terminate is from tir-min, the ed|;e of the land, and 
mlnb the nominative cafe of fin ; limit is from Ie*min-it, it 
is the edge of the place. 

Line or Thread; LLm or Llxnin; ItInon; Line^ 
erFiLUM. Llin.a line, Uinin and linon are from al-en, hig^ 
to the horizon, becaufe a line is upwards ; hence flax in the 
Cdtic was called llin, and llian, doth ; thread is from tiie-ir« 
id, it i$ of the horizon or firmament. 

LiKNEN; Llyan; Linbon ; LiNNEUS. - Thofc COB(je 
from the Celtic llin, aline, and Uinin, thread ; {^ thelafl 
dafs ; alfbthe word Flax. 

LiOKi Llew ; Leon; Leo. Llew the pirimidve, is com* 
pounded of Hi, for allu-w, a powerful animal ; or from IIU'^ 
ion, an Ionian race of animals. 

Lioness ; Llewess ; Leaine ; Lea. Thefe come from 
tiie word Uew-es, a lower lion, a female being always.expref« . 
led by as, es, or is, according to the degree. 

Lip; Gwefl; Xeilos; Labium. Gwefl isfromcau- 

w-fi-al, an animal veiTei or Ibut, in raifine drink ; xeila9 b 

from cau-ac-al-fi, it is tiie veffel raifing up liquid; labium is 

from al-bi-iu, it is the drink raifing ; lip is from al-bi, the 

drink raifer up. 

u LiQpiD; Glyb; XuLo^; Liquidus. Glyb is frMI 

^^ auc-al-bi, it is the fpring water or drink ; xulos is from auo« 

^3^val-fi, it is the fpring water; liquidus apd liquid, are from a^ 

auc-idiu, it is the fpring water. 

Lisping; Bloesg; Blaisos; Blasvs. Bloefg is. 
from bi-Iais-ag, from the living voice; whence the itfti 
fee Shout. 
-MC J4?T£Ni GwRANpo, Akroa/j Ausculto. GwraiM:.- 

tf Ts from ag-w-ar<-nid-iu, he is not in tiie action a mati U npidn l 
that is, he is not fpeaking ; akroao is from ac-w-ar«o> fromi 
the a6Kon a man is upon, or from fpeaking; liAen is ftoait 
aj-firdi-yn, not upon the al-fi, or hi^ found i aufculto i« froqi 
W-fi-ac-al-it, the man is from fpeaking. 

Little 5 Baxj Baios; Parvus. Bax is from bacli^ 
in bachgen, a boy, which fee; baios is from ap-^w-fi, it is 
from or the jfon ox man ; parvus is from ap-*r-vi-fi^ it is frmi 
life ; little is from ii-tili, the race or feed of a family. 

Live ; Biw ; Bioo' ; Vivo. Brvr andbioo come from bi«-w^ 

• life, being or animal; vwo from yt, life, andro infteadiof 

woroo'; live is from il-vi, living race. -^ 

Liver; Au ; Atosj Jecur. Liver comes from B or^il- 
, vcr, living or fpring water ; au is luring water ; atos^ is from 
kdor, water ; jecur is from jau-cur, the currngwater^ or froia 
i-auc-ir, the hot water, its office being to corredt the Mood. • 
• Lo THERE; Dyna; Idou ; En* Lo is from al-w^,fnaii 
high or far ; dyna is from dyn-a, man from ; idou is from id* 
tir, fee man ; en is from the Celtic yna, there ; which is x 
tompoimd of yn-a, one from or in yonder place. 

Load ; Baix ; Axthos ; Owus. Lroad is from al-w-ij, 
itis jupon a man or other animal ; baix jb from be-ux^ afhitig 
upon; whence axthos; onus is from^ yn 0f oa-w, uppii an 

Loaf ; To'R'TH ; Artos ; Tort a. Loaf is fr^sm al-«(i 
ft is large ; torch is from twr-ith, it is a heap; whence tll^ 
reft ; - or as tor is the Celtic word for belly, tordi may* iigtiify 
fhe belly heap. 

Lock or Shut; Cloi; Kleio; Claudo.^ Qo a locb 
leemsrta be the root here, the* in itfelf a derivative of cfl, which 
Irk^ife is a compound of cau^il, (hutting out the fim, or iM 
xecefs of the fun. 

Lock; Cxo*; KtErTHROK; Claustri/m. See the pre- 
ceding clafe of words. 

LacK o*" Hair ; Cudyn ; Khcikwo* or Kowe 5 Cin- 
ciNNU^ or Coma. Cudyn fignifies a man's lock; Jk^ rcA 
come from cau-ci, fliut together, and crinis, hair. 

L06 or Trttnic.; Trwnc or Gorf ; Kormos ; Tru!^ 
triTsr. Log is from al^cau, the fliut upon or the c^kcft v "C:^ 
h from cau-ar-ifi, the cheft of life, ormy cheft, w^henceixueu . 
mos; trunk, &c. are from trwy-in-cau, thoroHgkly {hu« 
in. . - .. : 

Ldttg; Maith; Mekes ; Longu6. Lo:ttg,and longus 
i^ome from le-eng, an extendve place ; maith and m^e& are 
i^Qtci ma for mawr-aeth> thatis> far or a^reat going; • •- 

LoKG WHILE ; PsLLA ; Palai ; Jamdxu. See Lon^aril 
While, as to longwhile) jamdiu comes from the Celtic i-am- 
idiu, it is the about or now going } pella and pblai are cbio" 
pounded of pe-al, the higheft part. 

Look ; Edryx ; Perko or Athereo ; Aspicio. Look 
is from il-o-ac, a^on of light ; edrux is from id-^ir-ux, it is 
the light ; whence derko ; afpicio is from ys-p-fi-iu, it is the 
feeing; athereois from at-ir-iu, it is to the fun, or td lee. 

Lose or to be Lost ; Colli ; D](.luo or Ollumi{ 
Perdo. Colli comes from ac-o-liu, a£Ung from the figlit or 
light i whence all the reft ; except perdo, which leems tolbe a 
compound of ap-ir-id, it is from or out of light or fight. 

Loosen ; Gollwng ; Xalao ; Laxo. QoUwng and 
loofen come from loofe and colli, with the addition of engi 
extenfive; laxo comes from xalao, which comes froin colli to 
be loft. 

Lord s Arglwydd ; Kurios ; Herus or Dominus. 
Kurios is commonly derived from kuroo', to govern, as domi^^ 
iiu$ is from domino.; arglwydd is from arx-lUwio-id, he is a 
chief governor ; lord is from liwio and ar in arglwydd, fonn* 
ed by metathefis ; herus is from hi-ur, an high man« to that 
this word in all the different diale£ts Agnizes a governor or 
(:hief governor ; but lord may come immediatdiy from al-wr« 
id, he is the man upon or over; there are two other remark* 
able terms by which the Celtes exprefled a lord, viz. ion, co^h 
pofed of lo-un, the lo or Japhet one, or the Ionian, and id''^ 
compofed of io-ur, the man. lo or Japhet, or the Ionian. 

Lot or Condition ; Cyflwr ; JLleros j Sors. Cy- 
flwr is from cy-fle-wr, an opportunity or meet place for man; 
whence kleros; lot is from le-w-it, it is man's place ; ibrsis 
from fi-wr-fe, it is man's feat ; condition is explained under 
the word Condition, which fee. 

Love ; Caru ; Erao ; Amo. Love is from al-w-ve, it 
is upon man or animal ; caru is from ac-ar-u, or w, an a£tioii 
upon an animal ; amo is from am-w, an a£lion about or en« 
circling an animal, as man, woman, &c. 

Lower or Suppress; Gwarhau; Aneiroo ; Reprx^ 
MO. Lower is from low, which is compofed of al-o, from 
high ; fupprefs is from fupra-is, above the lower ; repriiqp if 
from re-bri, down or back from the high country ; aneiigo 
and gwarhaU) are from ag-w-ar, an adtion upon iiisui d 

Lubber ; Lt abi ; Lobas ; Longurio. Loxigurio ia 
from longus->wr, lopg man ; Uabi and lobas are from al-bif it 
tall being or animal i lubber is fr^oi al-bi*ur> of the famii 
%nifik:atioii, I-\;citt i 

M A 

LocKY J Tycianus ; £uTux£$ } Faustu^. Lueky 
is from al-ac-hi, high upon aAion -, fauftus is from the Latin 
word faveo to favour ; tycianus and euiuxes are explained un*- 
der the word Profperous. 

Lump or Mass i Hercoo ; Ongkos; Moles. Moles 
is from ma-al-fi, it is great ind high ; hergod is from hi-ar- 
gauad) an high inclofure or {hut ; ongkos is from yn-cau-ii, 
it is an inclofure^ mafs is from ma-ii, it is great; lump is 
from 1-am-p, a thing high about. 

Lustful or Unchaste j Anllad ; Aselges j Libi- 
DINOSUS. Thofe are explained 'under the word Libidinous, 
except unchafte, which is from un-cau-is-it or id, it is upon 
or covering the lower or female. 

Lyre; Telyn or Crwth; Kitharis orLYRA; Ly- 
ra or Cithara. Thefe are explained under Harp. 


Mad; Ynfydj Anoetos; Dembks. Mad is from 
the Celtic myd^ mute or. dumb, which fee ; anoetos is 
from the privative a and noetos ; demens is from the privati/e 
di. an4. qiens ; yofyd is.from. yn-myd^ he is dumb^ or from yn« 
fi-id, he is without feeing. 

Magick ; Dywiniaeth j Maoika ; Maoica. As to 
dyviniaeth, fee Augur; the reft have no other figniiication than 
magaus, megos or great, and ac, adion, which fee. 

Magnitude ; Maint ; Megathos ; Magnitudo. 
Maint is from ma-in-ti, great in property, pofleilion or lands j 
as to t;he reft fee Great, to which ti, pofleiSion, is added, to form 
thcfe terms, 

Maid; Geneth ; Gyne; Virgo or Mulier. Maid 
b the fame as ma-id, fhe is a mother ; geneth and gyne are 
fr^oa ag-in-ith, fhe is an offspring ; virgo is from vir-ag, from 
a man or man's offspring; mulier is from ma-ii'>ur, the mo-^ 
therof rnan'srace. 

Makx; Gwneid i Ago ; Ago or Facio. Make is from 
m^-*ac, my a£Uon ; gwneid, is from ag-w-itiKid, it is man ia 
ft^ng,;. 2^9 i^pm ag-w, a man's a<SUon ; facio from ii-ac-iu, 
it is my %Sipn, mi infle<5ling into fi. 
^ Pallet or Hammer ; Gordd or Morthwl ; Air a 
>r Malleus. Mallet is from ma-al-it, it is the ^reat and 
ligh ; hammer is from, hi-ma-ar, high and great upon ; gordd 
s^rom^^-ar-idd, it isa^ihgupon; morSiwi is from maur* 
4^ iti^ the gre^t upon^ aira, is high upon j malleus is -great 

M A 

and high ; of the lame compdfition is the Celtic Word dul, a 
ftroke or blow ; which is a cOmpofcd of id-al, it is upon. 

Male; Gwrw; Arret:; Mas. Gwtw is from gwr, 
man, which will be cxphined under Man ; or it may be from 
ag-r-w, afting upon animal ; arren feems to fignify nothing 
more than ar-un, upon one; whence alfo the Celtic arenfor 
the reins, and miharcn, compounded of mi-ar-en, my upon 
one, fignifying ram ; mas comes from ma-fi, it is thegreat^ft; 
male is from ma-al, tiie great upon, or the great rider. 

Man ; Gwr ; Aker ; Vir. Man is compounded of mi- 
un, me one, as the Celtic dyn, man, is from id*un, he b oncj 
gwr is compounded of ci-wr, chief man ; or rather w-'r, Ac 
animal or being by way of pre-eminence ; aner is from en- 
wr, one man ; vir is from ur or wr a man ; or man may eomc 
from me-on, or mon, as will be explained under Germany. 

Manger ; Preseb ; Phatne ; Pr^sepe. Phatneisfrom 
pao or phao-in, the feeding or fattening place ; prefeb is £pom 
p-ir-fi-bi, it is the thing for food ; whence praeiepe ; manger 
is faid to come from the French manger, to eat ; but it feems 
more likely that the French comes from the Engliib, and'that 
manger is from the Celtic man-gwair, the y^ace of hay, or 
from man-ag-ar, afling upon or making fmall j for it enters 

Generally into the compoiition of the Celtic, but not the 
rench language. 
' Manhood; HyWredd ; Euanoria; Virilitas. Hy- 
ivredd is a compound of hi-wr-id> he is a bold or valiant man; 
whence euanoria 5 virilitas is from vir-li, fignifying a power&i 
man ; manhood is from man and hood, fignifying a manl; 

Manif-est; HVsPis'or DiLVg; As^phales or Deios^ 
Manifestus or Certus. Dilys is from di, a privative, and 
Jj'^s a rejedlion; whence afphales and ddos; certus is from 
ii-r-tu, it as a thing or property; hyfpis is from hy-ys-p-is, 
to raife up, or to (hew the part that is lowers manifeftils and 
manifeft are frommae-in-fi, it is feen. 

Manner or Method ; Modd ; Ethos ; Mos or Mi- 
THODtJS. Manlier comes from liiannor ; modd isifrom am- 
eedd, the Bge or life about ; mos is from mdes, or am-oes, 
the age or life about ; ethos is from hyd-oes, thro* or during 
the age or life ; mcthodus and' method are from am4iyd-ocSy 
for the length of an age or life ; fee Age, Cuifom^ Life, 
Mannor, &c. 

Mann^or or Hamlet ; Maenol or Faenol ; Epau- 
rioN ; Manerium. It is^ probable that maenol is from mac- 
yno-lu, there is ^tbere a family y manedum fi:om ma^nyno^ 


^ MA 

lit, tlicre is there a man j hamlet fs firorh hame-lu-ft, it h th?f 
hoiiie of a fitmilj' ; whence fhe leet j epaiilion h from y-pe- 
li-yit, the place the family is in ; whence palace. 

ManysLlawer; Polus orLAtJkos ; Multus. Ma- 
ny is from the Gdtic man-yj the fmall ; llawer is from oll- 
or, from all, whence laurOs ; polus is from ap-gl-iu, it is from 
aU ; mdtusisfrom m-ah-ia, it is greatly high. See how tht 
C^ttc keeps up to the firft rules of compofition, by a divifioA 
Cft diminution of the general term which was firft formed. 

Mark ; N6d j Desmos ; Nodus. N6d is from en-o-id, 
k is the firmament o, or the fun ; defaios is from Id-is-mau-o^ 
it is the lower great o» or the fun ; nodus is from nod ; mark 
IS from ma-ir-ac, from the great fire or the fun ; there are ma- 
liy words formed from the aifferept qualities and cfFefts of the 
fiin, as well as the elements, &c. 

Market ; Marxnad or Pryniad ; Emporeuma ; 
FoRtJM or Merc ATUSr. Marxnad is from mi-ar-ac-neid, ms 
upon making an aft; whence mercatus and market; pryniad 
is from p-ar-neid, the thing upon being made ; whence the reft. 

Marrow; Mer ; Muelos; Medulla. Mer is from 
nii-er, my water or juice; marrow is from mer-au, my fpring 
■water or liquid ; muelos is from mi-al-au-fi, it is my high or 
fpring water ;. medulla is from ^i-ld-al-au, it is my rifmg or 
fpring water or liquid. 

Marry ; Gwreica or Cydio ; Gameo ; NuBo, or Ux- 
OREM Ducere. Gwreica is hotn gwraig-ac, aftingfor a wife j 
cydio is from cyd-iu, being together ; gameos from ag-am-w, 
arang for a woman ; marry is fi'om mi-ar-hi, me upon her. 

M^rsh orPALE OF aCity,&c. GorsjAgros; Palas 
oip AoER. Marfli is the fame as theBelgic maerafch andcom- 
pofed o/ m-ar-auc-fi, it is the great water or fea ground ; gors if 
from auC"dr-fi, itis water or fea-ground ; whence agros and ager ; 
palus and pale are from p-aMu, itis apaxtorathfnghi|h,fromthc 
cuftom of paleing out the marfti out of the pale of the cities, 
or cwms ; or gors, &c. may come from cau-ar-fi, it is the in- 
dofed ground. 

• Martyr ; MisRTHYR ; Martyr ; Martyr. Thofe come 
from the Celtic marw-ir-tir, to dye for the landj becaufe the/ 
witneffed the trurfi for the good of their country, whereby 
future ages might be convinced of the truth. 

Massy; Tr:wm ; Stereos; Soupus. Maflyis from 
ma^fi, it js great ; trwm is from tir-wm^ mute, dumb, or 
dead earth ; ftereos is from fto-dr-iu, it is ftanding or ftill 
eirth ; folidtwj which Ihould be wrote colidus, is fitmi co-al- 
iShy it U altogether. 

K 2 \ilK^t^^\ 

M E 

Master; Meistr or Dyscawdr ; Didaskaloi; 
Magister. Mciftr is from mae-is-tor, he is a lower ty- 
rant or lord ; from thence comes mafter j magifter is from tnc 
Celtic megis-tor, like a lord or tyrant ; difcawdr is from id- 
is-ac-wr, it is the lowering adtion man ; whence didaflcalos. 

Matter, Thing or Fact; Peth; Poietes; Res or 
Opus. Peth is from p-ith, it is p, fignifyinga part or thing; 
hence poietes ; opus is from y-p-iu, it is the p ; res is a p^ 
with an s at the tail of it, to fignify a founding p ; thing 
is from ti-cn, fignifying the firmament or Iky, things, proper- 
ties and pofTcnions being contained therein ; matter is from 
ma-tir, the great earth. 

Mattock or Pickax ; Caib ; Kabelis; Securis. 
Caib is from ac-ai>b, a thing adding high or up ; kabelis is 
from ac-bc-al-fi, it is a thing afting up ; fecuris is from fi-ac- 
ar-is, it is acfting upon the low part or ground j pickax is 
from pick and ax ; mattock is from am-it-ac, it a6b about, 
or at the furface of the ground ; and caib may" be from ac-a- 
ib, aftingthe ground up. 

Maul ; Maeddu ; Matto ; Verbero. Verbero b 
from ver-ber, to fpring the fliank ; maeddu is explained un* 
der the word Beat, which fee ; maul is from malleus^ a mal* 
let, which fee ; matto is from maeddu. 

Me ; Mi; £mon ; Me. Mi is from am-i, about i, or 
the place of ones being or exiftence, whence me ; emon is al- 
fo from i-man, the place of i. 

Mead ; Medd ; Medos ; Medo. Thofe are compof- 
ed of mi-au-id, it is my liquor, which definition feems to be 
manifefted by another Celtic word for mead, viz. meddyg- 
lun, which is compofed of mi-id-auc-al-en, my divine U- 

Meal ; Elawd ; Alphiton ; Farina. Meal is from 
the Celtic nialu to grind ; blawd is from b-al^w-id, it b 
man's high or chief food ; alphiton is from al-phi-it-un, it is 
ones high food ; farina fhould be wrote falina, it being com- 
pofed of fi-al-un, ones high food, and the r being ufcd for the 
1, in alphiton, upon a fuppofition that al in alphiton figni- 
fied upon, as it does in many other inflances, as well as ar. 

Measure; Mesur ; Metron; Mensura. Thofe words, 
excepting the Greek, are from mi and fure ; metron is from sni 
and trwm, heavy; indeed the Latin has me, in, and fure, all 
fignifying, let me be fure of weight. 

Meat; Bwyd; Botos; Alimentum. B\yyd and bo« 
tos, are from bi-w-id, it is man*s or animal's life ; meat tt 

from mi, my, and eat ; allmentum is from all for alli-maint^ 
to fuppprt the bulk or fubftance. 

Medicable j Iaxus ; Iasimos ; Medicabilis. Ja-- 
Kaus and iaiimos, are frpm lax, healthy, which fee ; mcdica- 
bilis is from medd or medo mead, whence medicable i for no- 
thing was deemed a greater medicine than honey., by the , 
Greeks and Celtes. 

Meditate; Myfyrioj Merimnao or Meruo ; AIe- 
DiTOR. Mifyrio is from mi-fyr-iu, lam (hort lived; nlefuo 
is from mi-ar-iu, I am earth; merimnao is from marw-am* 
nae, I fhall dye ; meditor is from me-id-tor, for ter, I am earth ; 
whence meditate. 

Meek ; Gwar ; Praos ; Mitis. Gwar is from ag-w- 
ar, the adion of a man of the earth ; praos is from ap-ar-w- 
fi, he is a man from the earth, that is, flow ; mitis is from 
am-it-is, it is lower than the earth ; meek is from am-ac, an 
earthly or flow aftion. 

Meet; Cyfarfod ; Kureo; Convenio. Cyfarfod 
is from cyf-ar-fod, to be together upon the fame ground ; 
whence kureo ; convenio is from con-venio, to come together j 
meet fecms to be from me-hit. 

Melancholy; Melanxoli; Melanxolia; Melan*- 
CHOLIA. Thefe are from the Celtic, melan, yellow, and choler, 
which is compounded of auc-al-ir, water upon the fire, or boil- 
ing water. 

Menace; Bygwl; Apeile; Minje. Minae is from the 
Celtic adverb of fwearing, myn, by, as myn jou, by Jupiter; 
whence menace, with the addition of fi, it is ; bygwl is from 
pye-al, the goad or prick upon or at ; whence apeile. 

Mend, Amend or Correct ; Cywiro; Katorthoo; 
Emendo. Emendo, amend and mend, in their moft primi- 
tive fenfe, are from min-da, a good edge ; probably they may • 
alfo fignify am-min-id, it is the edge end ; katorthoo is 
from k:ata and orthos right, which is from ur-ti-w-fi, it is the 
man's property ; cywiro is from cywir, to fet right, from cy- 
wir, true together. 

Merchandize; Marxnadaeth; Emporia; Mer- 
CATURA. See the word Market. 

Merry or Joyful; Llawen; Elaros; L/etus. 
Llawen is from al-w-en, a man high in the fky ; elaros is 
from al-wr-fi, it is a man up or high ; laetus is from al-idiu, 
jt is high ; merry is from me-ir-y, the being high. 

Metal; Mbttel; Mettallon ; Metallum, All 
thofe come from the Celtic word meddal, foft. 

K 3 ^^T^^\ 


. Mettie; Rhif; Arithmos; Humerus. SeiethtTOd 
Ncmbcr as to thcTc. 

Muy^'j Mewian ; Miauliso ; Miallizo. Mcw is 
frc^n: the iic.lV of a cat, or from.mi-w, my animal, butthefiili 
moft pre Ix'.bjf ; nicwian'is from mew- un, the mewing GDfi\ 
the other worJiJ are from mcw-alw-fi, it it the mew calling 

Mile •, Milltir ; Milion ; Milliare. Tbefc arc 
compounds of mil-tir or ar, and fignify a thoufand paces o{ 
land ; but how the thoufand paces come to be called mil, is 
to be feen under the term Thoufand. 

Milk; Llaeth j Gala; Lac. The Celtic ketb is 
from li-au- ith> it is the family water or liquid ; lac is from li- 
auc, milk, from mi-li-auc ; and gala is nothing more tbaa 
jac, tranfpofed) and they all fignify the fame, viz. the fami- 
Jy liquor, or my family liquon 

Milky; Llaethog; Thelaso; Lacteo, Secd» 
preceding word. 

Mill ; Melik ; Myle ; Mola. See thefe expLucd 
under the word Grind. 

Mind ; Bryd ; Phren ; Mens or Prupentia, Mind 
is from itii-en-ed, it is my within or exiftence ; bryd is frombi-* 
ir-id, it is the living fire, or fire of life ; prudentia is frO© 
bryd-in-fi, it is the mind within. See Soul, 

Mine ; Mwn ; Nomisma ; Moneta. All thefe come 
from the Celtic word mwyn, kind, unlefs mwn is from mon, 
or ma-ion, the great lonians, who probably were the firft work- 
ers of mine. 

Mine ; Mau ; Emos ; Meus. Mine comes from mi-in, 
in me ; mau is from i-mi, to me ; emos is from i-mi, to mcj 
mens is from mi-iu, it is to me. 

Mint; Mint; Mintha; Mentha. Thefe fccm to 
fignify a growth at the houfe fide, from min-tu. 

Mirth or Gladness ; Llawenydd or Hoen ; Gavos, 
LiETiTiA, See the word Merry ; hoen js from hi-w-eo, a 
man high to the fky ; ganos is from ag-en-w-fi, he is a maa 
acting to the fky ; glad is from ag-al-id, it is ading high. 

Misery ; Ytlotta or Teulyboreua ; Athilq^tes or 
Talaiporia;Miseria. Ytlotta isfromy-tlotta, tkcpoprcftj 
whence athilotes ; teuliboreia is from teylu-borei;^ the ear- 
lieft family ; whence talaippria ; miferia and mifery are from 
mifer or m-is-wr, a lower great man. 

Mist; Niwl ; Nephele; Nebula, Mift is from 
mpift, which fee; piwl and the reft arc compounded ajfnj- 


^ nt>fuA^ A€phelcisiromni-;{)hi-aI^ no ieeing.bigh ; whence 


,.^ MyvK^'f Meitr; Mit^aj Mitra. Thefecome.frqm th^ 

Celtic mi-tor or tiaira^ a diadem, both being badges of fove- 

feignty worn by the Phrygian princes or tyrants j fee Tyrant 

and Matter. 

^ Mix ; MysGu 5 Misgo ; Misceo. Thefe come from 

the Celtic maes-cy, to hold lands together or promifcoufly. 

Mixture i Mysg ; Metaxu 5 Mixtura. Theie are 
from myfg, and tir, land j whence the Celtic ymyig and the 
Englifli amongft. 

. Mock ; Mqccioj Moxas^ Iriiideo. All thefe, except >^^k*' 
irrideo, come from the Celtic mox, a cheek ; irrideo is fron> 
i-rudd-id, it is the cheek or chin. 

Moiety 5 Manner i Hemisu ; Medietas. Banner is 
from hai-un-ar, an action upon one ; hemifu is probably from ^ 
Jhai-am-ifau, an a£^ion about lelTening ^ medietas frotp ipedius, 
^If, which is from the Gpeek, the s being changed into d ; 
x>r from am^jdi-iu, it is about dividing. 

Moisten ; Mwydo ; Mydao j Madeo. Thofe come 
from am-au-id, it is about the water. 

Moisture; Dagrau or Nodd; Ugrasia or No- 
.Tis ; Humiditas. Dagrau is from id-ag-yr-au, it is from 
the water; whence ugrafia ; nodd is from yu-au-id, it is 
the water upon it ; whence notis j moifture is from am-au-is- 
tir, about the water in the lower grounds ; humiditas is from 
jUB-au*idiu, it is about the water. 

Monastery; Monaxlog; Monasterion; Monas- 
terium. Monaftery is from monos-twr-idiu, it is a lonely 
living heap or multitude ; whence alfo the Greek and Latin ; 
but the Celtic comes from mon or man-cau-luog, a place co- 
vered, or a dwelling for a multitude. 

Money; Mwnai or Arian; Nomisma or Arguros; 
Moneta, Nummus or Argentum. Argyros and argen- 
tum are from the Celtic ir-iawn, the fatisfeftion ; money, 
mwynai, nomifma, moneta and nummus, are from the Cel- 
tic mwn, a mine or metal. 

Monody; Marwnad ; Monodia ; N-^enia. Marw- 
n&i^ a dying fong or noifc.; whence monodia and monody 5 
jiaenia is from nad, .a lamentation. 

- Month j Miis j Meis ; Mensis. Month is from moon- 
the ; mis is * from m-fi, it is moon ; whence meis ; men- 
fis is from m-cn-fi, it is the moon in the firmament, but in 
a more primary view; nu^ k from m-isr-fi, the loA^cr ereat 

K4 lighti 

M O 

light; and moon is fromm-o-cn, the great firmament li^ or 

MocN ; Lleuad ; Selene ; LuNA. LIuad is from aul- 
ad, the fun to it, or liu-ad, the light to it, thereby expreffing 
it to be the fun's reflcftion ; luna is fromliu, in lleu-ad, and 
en, fignifying the firmament light; felene has the addidofl 
of fi, it is ; moon is from m-o-en, the great globe in the fir- 
mament, but the Celtic fecms to be the beft expreffion. 

Moor, Marsh or Fen ; Morfa ; Elds or Passalos; 
Palustrum. Moor, marfh and morfa, are from m6r, the 
fea, and in the Celtic fa, fignifies a part or place ; fen is from 
the Celtic fan, a place ; pafTalos is from pa-als, the lea part; 
elos is from als, the fea ; paluftrum is from pa-als-trwm, the 
licavy fea part. 

More; Llawer or Mwy; Pleion or Metas* Plus 

3 or Magis. Llawer is the comparative degree of lliaws, 

Jd '^ much ; mwy is the comparative degree of mawr ; mort 

comes from mawr; pleion and plus, from lliaws ; metasaiid 

inagis, from mwyax, the fuperlative of mawr* See the feve- 

ral primitives. 

Moreover; Ymhellax ; PoRRo; PoRRo. Moreover 
is a compound of more and over ; porro, from ap-ar, from up- 
on or over ; ymhellax is a compound of ym and pellax, fig- 
nirying farther. 

Morning; Bore; Proi; Mane. Bore and proi come 
from the Celtic pe-oere, the coldeft part ; morning and mor- 
row, come from manoerp, a compound of man, a place, zni 
oere, coldeft ; from man, the Latin word, is probably a cor- 
rupt derivative, 

R4aRR0W; Yfori; AuRioN; Cras. The Englifli, 
Celtic and Greek here fignify the morning ; cras is formed 
out of cwr or oras, beginning, or from cwr-ifa, the loweft 

Morsel; Tam^d; Tomos; Morsellum. Tamad is 
from to-afn-id, jt is the covered about; tomos is from to-am- 
fi, of the fame meaning; morfellum and morfelare from 
am-rVifal, covering, or about the cover. 

Mortality or Death; Marwolaeth ; Moira ; 
MoRTALiTAS. All thofc conic from marw, to dye. Seeihie 
,word Death. » 

Moss ; MwsoGL ; Moskos ; Muscus. Mwfogl is from 
;im-au-fi-ag-al, it is a high growth about the water ; the other. 
yrords are from am-au-fi-ac, it grows about the water. 

Mother; Mam; Mamma; Mater. Mater is from 



ma-ter, my earth ; iriam is from mi-am, that is, my about, or 
my matrix or earth. See Father, 

Mother-in-Law J XwEGR ; Ekura ; SOCRUS. 
Thofe come from ux-y-gwr, above the hufband. ^ 

Move or Go ; Syflyd, Cyxwyn or Myned ; KiK£0 
or Saleuo ; Moveo. Myned is from mi-yn-hvd, me upon 
the length ; cyxwyn is from cy-ag-w-in, the nrft a£Uon in 
man ; (yflid is from fefyl-Or-id, it is thejland of o, which is 
to move ; faleuo is from fa-al-o-iu, it is the fland upon o ; so 
is from ag-o, the aftion of o; move is from m-o-ve, it is tne 
great o, or the fun which moves j whence the reft. 
• Mould ; Mamog ; M^tra ; Matrix. As to all ex* 
cept mould, fee Mother ; mould is from mouldy, becaufe 
mould inefs covers a thing like a mould. 

Mouldy; Llwyd; Polios; Canus. Llwyd Js from 
Jiu-au-id, it is the colour of water; polios is from p-au-liu, a 
ivater colour: thing ; mouldy is from m-au-liu-id, it is the co* 
lour of the great water or the fea ; canus feems to come from 
the Celtic cannu, which fee. 

Mountain ; Mynydd ; Oros ; Mons. Mynydid is 
from m-en-ydd, it the great and high ; mons is from m-en- 
fi, it is the great and high ; mountain is frommaint^en, of the 
fame meaning ; oros feems to be from the Celtic yr-ros, the 
morafs or moor ; or from ar-as, above the lower country. 
- Mourn ; Wylo ; Ololuso ; Mereo. Wylo is from 
•w-il-o, man from the light, that is, not ferene ; whence ololu- 
fo; maereo is from mi-ar-w, me an earthly being; mourn is 
from mi-ar-un, me an earthly one. 

Mournful ; Galarus ; Goeros ; Lugubris. 
Galar, a lamentation, is from galu-ar, calling upon; whence 
and from thofe in the preceding clafs are the other words. 

Mouse; Llygoden; Mus; Mus. Llygoden is from, 
Uy-goeden, the tree family ; the Latin mus, in the genitive 
cafe muris, is from the Celtic word mur, a wall ; whence 
moufe. Here the antiquity of the Celtic appears prior to the 
other dialects, the term llygoden bein^ formed befqre the 
building of walls, when mankind as well as mice dwelt in 

Mouth ; Genau or Safn; StqmAj Qs- Mouth js 
from mi-wyth, my breath place ; os is from w-fi, man's 
found ; fafn is from fi-w-fan, man's place of found ; ftoma is 
from fi-w-man, man's founding place. 

Mower; Medwr; Ameter ; Mksso^. Medwr is 
from am-yd-wr, a man about the corn 5 whence the reft, and 
amyd, bread corn. 

Much ; LlzavsI^ Poxus or Livunod i Mxjhvv^. Uiawf 
is from Ilu, a multitude ; lauros is from llawer, which is from 
Uu-'r, the mukitudc, or -from oU-yr, the whole ; much is fiDm 
m-ux, above great; raukus is from m-^tuS) mere high; 
polus is from p*al-fi, k is a hi^h thinjz:. 

•Muck, Dun<;, Dirt, Filth or Sweepings ; Scy« 
•IQN, Tail, Caxu or Baw ; Skybalon<» Kakkc cjr 
AWHO'DOS J- QvisQViLLiM or FiMUs. Mbft of thofe an 
•Xpl^in^ u')^^ ^^c ^^^^^^^^ words mentioned in this jdafs; 
toouck is from ma-ux, gneat height ; filth is from f-ai-it, it is.f 
high thing bra heap ; tail is ffomto-al, an high covering or 
lay ; qin<Squillia& is from cau-is-cau-al-iu» it is a covering upoii 
«le9<;er covering, or ftratum fuper ftrata. 

Mud or Slime ; Clai or Llaid ; Ilus ; Limus. Mu4 
iA hiovs^2,m^\ij it isabAut; dime is from fi-al-am, it is the 
4ibout upofi ; clai is frcm cau-al-y, the {hutting or ftickii^ 
ispoTi i llaijd is from al-id, it is upoa ; ilus is from al-iu, it is 
«pon5 timus is from al-am-iu, it is the about upon, or th| 
earth or foil flicking upon. 

' ' Mu-G oc Pot ; Mwg or Croxan ; Xutra ; Olla. 

-Cioxan is from ac-ir-cau-yn,. the aftion of fire or heat ihuf 

in ; whence xutra ; mwg and mug are from mwg» fmolce ; pot 

^ is, from p-hot^ a thing hot ; oUa is from louo or lavo, to walhi 

which are defined under the word Wa&. 

^loi Mule ; Mijl ; Melon*; Mulus. MuI is from mi-w- 

rtf V J al, my high animal ; the afs being the leffer ; hence the other 


Multitude; Llios, Lly orCywDi; Laos, Kydoi- 
Mos or Plethes; Mia/riTUDO or Populus. Liu and 
llios fignify a family or multitude ; whence laos and pletbis.; 
populus is from pob-lu, every family ; multitudo is from m-lur 
tu-idiu, it is jhe large or. great family or teulu; cywdi is 
from cy-w-idiu, it is a community, or men together ; whence 

Murder ; Mwrdr 5 Androphonia ; Homicidium. 
Homicidium h from homo and csedo, fignifying manfiaughter; 
androphonia is fromr^auer and pheno, of the fame fignifica- 
tion; inwrdr is from mur-taro-wr, the fecret ftriking of a 
man, or ftriking a man dead. 

Murmuring; Grwgnax; Gonggusmos or Mur« 
MYR ; Murmur. Murmur is from mur-mur, a fecret or 
dead humming, or dumb found ; or mu-r, that is, the mutely 
which fignifies found ; whence the Greek murmyro, to mur- 
* mur ; grwgnax is from cryg-nad-ox, a complaint in ahoarfeor 
giggling found j whence, gonggnfmos, 

MusiCK ; 

MuBicRj-MuHe'j .MousiKE ; MnsicA. Thefe come 
from the Celtic iMu-fi-ac, jin /i£Hon of great found ; but 
mufa is.from mu-fio a buioming found, mufing or ftudymg. 

MuT.UAi. ; Cyaei^ ; Kataixe|:-o8 ; Mutuvs. Cydol 
is from cyd-ol, all together ; whence katalkloj j rautuue U 
from my-a-tu, me and thee; whence mutual. 

Muzzle; Penor ; Phimos ; Fiscella. Muzzleis 
froixiiiiu-fi-a], a xlaaab upon the found ; fifceUa is of the fant 
origin ; penor is from pen-af, upon the head ; whence phimoK 

My§Ej.jF ; My?i ; Emauton ; Mbmb. Myfi is^ from 
in^yrfi, py life; myiielf is fix>m. my-rfirol-ii, it i$ my Ufc^ 
emauton is from am-y-dyn, about the man, all iignifying Qi]r 
fiwn QTii&^ncQ^ tho' .varying fomewbat in the expreffion. 

Myriad ; Mvi^tAiD ; Myriad ; Myriad or DscfE6 
Mn-t-E* As to deeies mille fee the feveral words ; the other 
jv<ror4s ^e compounds of mawr-ad, great addition s "V^^bcncs 
Jbhe f eft corruptly. 

Mystery or Secret; Dirgelwx; Must£RIon;>1»]V9- 
TERjyM* Myftery is acompoundof mau^ftir, fpr dir, a great 
fecret ; dirgelwx is from dir-gal-ux, a hi^h pawerfui <ecr«t.; 
and dif a fecret, is from the privative di-V, the ftivaiti^e or 


NAIL; EwjtN ; Onvx ; Unjduis. Nail is defined 
under the foHowing clafs of words ; the reft fignify no- 
thii^ more than the uppjermoft, as nails, fcales, &c. are. 

li/iih ; HoEL ; Helqs ; Clavus. Nail is from ni- 
il» P«> light ; as ioes bo-el, from o-il, from light, and aljfb 
helos ; clavus is irom ac-il-:ev, it is from the lifht. 

J^ake5> ; No£Tfj ; Negos; NuDrus. Thofe words oomc 
from the Celtic ni-di-id, it is not. hidden ; but naked may 
come from ni-c*U|-id, iit is oo covering. 

Name ; Enw ; On:oma ; NoMEjr. Eaw is compound- 
ed of e feu: y-yn-w, the upon being ; onoma has the addition 
of ma, figaifying great; whjcnce nomon; alfb name, 
by leaving out the laft nr, in i)omen ; the fignification of thcrfe 
M^prds feeqfi to be f^mp ^reat thiog upon beiqgs, from whence 
may be ui^^erred, tt^ language is not of a human compo- 

J>Jam^e,; Enwi; Onomaso; Nomino. Thofe are from 
the words in the j^ preceding clafs. 
' Narrate or Rkla2*£ 5 A^rid qf Dangqs ; AooREtia 

"N E 

ptDieCeomai ; Narro. Agorid is from ag-or-id, it is an 
»flion trom ; whence agoreuo ; dangos is from id-cng-w-fi, it 
is the enlarging a man's fight ; whence diegeomai ; narro h 
from in-ar, being upon, whence narrate ; relate is from 
r*-al-it, the upon it. 

Narrow or Streight ; Ing or Aneno ; Angonia; 
Angustia. Aneng is from the privative or negative an, 
inid eng, large or extenfive ; whence the Greek and Latin ; 
jng is a contraction of aneng ; narrow is from an-arrow; 
which goes ftraight forward, or in a line, as does a narrow 
|)Uce or pafTage ; ftreight is from fit right, it is right or 
■right, forward. 

Nation ; Cenedl; Genos ; Gens. Thefecome from 
the verb geni, to generate, in the moft primary fenfc ; but in 
a fecondary view they may be faid to come from ge-eas> 
icarthly beings, tho' ge itfelf is nothing more than a contrac- 
tion of gea, inftead of ear, earth, it being formed of ge-a^ 
the growing or generative earth, in order to diilinguifli it from 
the dead lumpifh element, which ear or ar, exprefss nation i^ 
from nafco, to be born. 

Nativity ; Genedigaeth ; Genete 5 Nativitas. 
Thefe are all explained under the words Born and Generate; 
fee alfo the laft preceding clafs. 

Nature; Natyr or Anian; Genea; Natura. 
Natyr is is from yn-y-tir, in the land ; whence natura and 
nature ; anian is from yn-y-en, under or within the (ky ; ge- 
nea is explained under the word Generate. 

Navel; Bogail; Omphalos; Umbilicus. Om- 
phalos is from am-phe-eilio-fi, it is the part folded about him; 
umbilicus is from am-bi- al-cau, it is the part fiiut or folded 
about him ; bogail is from b-cau-al, a thing (hut upon or 
round ; nafel is from an-ef-al, an upon him. 

Naught; Coeg ; Kakos ; Malus. Coeg is from 
ac-ag, from action ; whence kakos ; naught is from in-ad, 
unaftive ; malus is from im-al-iu, it is un^ert. 

Nausea or Loathing ; Nawsia; Nausia; Nausea. 
Loathing is from al-a-thing, to up a thing ; the other words 
are from naws, nature or difpofuion ; this word naws is from 
yn-au-fi, it is in the water. See Nature. 

Nauseate ; Nawsio ; Nautiao ; Nauseo. Thefe 
come from naufea, a loathing, and not from navis a {hip. 

Near; Gar; Para; Prope. Prope feems to come 
from pro-pe, the pjlrt or thing from; para from ap-ar, from 
the thing upon ; gar is from ag-ar, from the upon ; n^ar ia 
frpmni-ar, not the upon. See High. 


N E 

Nebulose or Cloudy ; Niwliog or Cymylog ; Nfi- 
PHELOEiDEs or Omixlos } Nebulosus. Thcfc are ex- 
plained under the words Cloudy and NubUous; which fee. ' 
Necessary ; Anghenus; Anangkaiosj Necessari- 
us. The Celtic and Greek words are from angen, and the 
other words from neceffitas, fate, or neccflity, defined in the 
nextclafs. • 

Necessity or Fate ; Rhaid or Anghen ; Anangks 
or Xreia 5 Fatum or Necessitas. Neceffitas and neceffity 
are from ni-ceffo, not to ceafe ; fatum and fate from fi-it, it is 
life ; rhaid and xreia are from r'-id, it is the or to be 5 ang- 
hen and anangke fignify want, and are compounded of an, a 
privative fignifying without, and eng, extenfivenefs or largenefs, 
. Niece; Mit.h; Uone; Neptis. Nith is from ni-ith^ 
ihe is us ; niece is from ni-fi, fhe is us ; neptis is from ni- 
p-ith, fhe is a part of us ; uone is from w-o-ni, a being 
•from us. 

Needle's Eye; Crau; Kyar ; Foramen Acus*. 
•Needle is from nid-il, not feen ; crau is from cau-ar, a fhut 
upon, that is, in a hole ; hence kyar ; acus is from a-cau, th6 
ihut or hole. 

Need, Want or Penury; Prinder or Angen ; 
Aporia or Anangke ; Penuria. Prinder is from prin-tiri 
fcarce of land ; angen is from an-eng, not large ; aporia is 
from ap-ar, from or without ground ; anangke is the fame a§ 
angen ; penuria is from p-ni-yr, the thing that is not ; need i^ 
from ni-id, it is not ; want comes from xwant, or defire '; 
which fee ; Tlawd j Tlas ; Egens ; Needy. See Indigent^ 
Want, &c. 

Neglect, Disregard or Look ill to a Thing j 
Llygrhau, Dyfrawu or Diamgeledd: Oliooreo; 
Kataphroneo or Ameleo ; Negligo. Negligo and ne- 
glcft are from ni-ag-al, not upon adion ; llygrhau and oli* 
goreo are from llygr, corruption or fpoil, which is from il-o- 
ag>ar, the fun from ading upon ; kataphroneo is from katar 
phren, a contrary mind ; diixawu is from di-fraw, without 
concern; diamgeledd is from di-amgeledd, without any care ; it 
is compofed of di-am-ag-al-id, he is without being upon adion i 
hence ameleo. 

Nest; Nyth ; Neottia; Nidus. Nith or nvd is t 
compound of ni-id, not feen ; from which the reft come ) 
the vowel y is only a double i, framed purely to enhance and 
lengthen the found of i. . 

Nestle; Nythu; Neotteuo.; Nidifico. Thofc verbs 
come fiom the fubftanpves explained in the lafl clafs of woids. 

N O 

Net or Riddle ; Rhuwd ; Grupkcs ; OsTPifEs. 
Net is from in-it; riddle is from ar-hyd-lu, upon or about the 
multitude ; rhw^d is from ar-w-hyd, upon or about the anf" 
mals ; gruphes ts from cau-ar-phi, to fliut upon animals ^ 
ivlience gryphcs. 

Nevertheless ; Either ; Autar ; Autem. Thcfe 
are explained under Still and Yet. 

New ; NfiWYDD ; Neos j Nevus. Newydd is from 
in-w-id» it is in being ; whence the reft. 

NiGH; Agos; Angys ; Prope. Agos comes fcomag^ 
OS, an a^ion from i whence angys ; nigh is from ni^, not 
/rom ; prope is from pro-pe, the part or a thia^ from. 

Night ; Nos; Nux» Nox. Thefeare A catapiofmM 
^ the Celtic prvr ative ni-oes, no life, hence nidoes, i^ni* 
fies, it is not. See the word Age and Life, and many mat 
words I and it is to be obferved that noSy in its origijial cam- 
pofition, was ni-o-fi, no fun feeing ; which is a better defini* 
Uon than the former, though oe$ is from the fame origin^. 

NiGHTiNGAL; Eos; Oos; LusciNiA. Nightingal isca» 
pofed of ui^t-in-gai, for galw, to call; lufcinia cannot 
come from lux or light, for it is a bird of night ; nor can 
there be any other original jfbund for it, than the Celtic liu-nos, 
moonlight, and c^uK> or camt, to fing, i. e. the ni^ finger^ 
and eos mid oos, were they wrote enos and onos^ might % 
mfy the night bird, but as they are, they (Tgnify the bird, fhffli 

Nightly j Nosawl ; Nukterinos; Nocturnus. 
As to thefe, fee the word Night. 

Nine ; Naw ; Ennea ; Novem. This term fignifiei 
the rain, and i» compounded of en-au, the Iky or Bmaancnt 

Ninth ; Nawed ; Enatos ; Nonus. Thcfe arc defi- 
ned in the lafi clafs of words. 

Nit ; Nedd ; Konis ; Lens or Dis. Nedd is a com* 
(Kmnd of ni-id, not feen ; konis from co-ni-fi, a companf 
not to be feen ; lens fisnifies multitude. 

NjETREj NiTR; Nitron; Nitrum* Thcfe are fron 
thjB Celtic yn-i-tir, in the earth. 

No or Not j Ni or Nid ; Ou ; Non. Thefe exprefi 
a privation of a^on, by their feveral vowels, o expreffing 
the motion of the fun, i, the fun, by the dot, at top, ana 
}x.y the fpring^ and the negative letter n ; nid indeed feems ta 
come from n-id, not feen or exifting ; and ou is from o froiBt 
bibcaufe the fun is from us. 

Nobles Ehiaiddus^ Gnqrxmos; Nobilis. Rbiaidi^ 



jus is from rEii, a lord ; the other words figfiify, to be well 
tnown, but the Greek word eugenes fignifies to be wett 
born ; which is the common notion of nobilli^y. 

Nod ; Amkod ; Neumaj Nutus, Nod is froixi Ac 
Celtic n6d, a mark ; smivod is from am-ndd, for mark ; 
ivhence the left* 

Nod or Wink j Amweidio ; Nuto ; Innuo. Wink 
IS from w-in-ac, the eye in aftion ; or from w*in-ac, a man 
Ln adion 3 the other words are explained under the laft preced- 
ing clafs of words. 

Nook, Cornejl or Bay of the Sea ; Cilf ax ; Kol- 
pos ; Sinus. Nook is from an hook ;. bay is from t>-au-hi» 
part of the fea high up ; finus is frpm fi-in-iu, it is.tfae inward- 
fea; cilfax and kolpos are from ceuol'-pe-iu, it is an inclofed 

North ; Gogledd ; Boreas ; Boreas. Gogledd 13 
compofed of .gog, fignify ing great, or in a fecondary fenfe^ the 
race of Magog, andje* a place, thajt is, the place of Magog, or» 
great place ; boreas comes from pe*nDera, the coldeft part ; the 
v^ord north is from in-oera-ith, it is the coldefl; weft is from 
y-es-ti, the lower pofleflions. 

Nose j ^Trwyn or Rhin ; Ruin ; Nas0s or RosT&t/M. 
Rhin is fiW rhing, between, .frotii: the .partkion therein^ 
tpwynis from trwy-in or rin, the tbn)' in or partition 4 nafu^ 
and nofe are from nao, to flow ; and roftrum is from r'-au-* 
fi, it is the wet or watery, and trwyn thoroughfare. 

Nostrils; FroENAuj Rhiiaes; Nares. SceNoie. 
- NoTj Ni or Nid ; Ov ; Nok. Nfdisa compound of 
lkt>-id, it is not, or hot (cen ; id is.acompoundof i-dt, wi^oitt&re 
or light ; ni is from n-i, no fire or light ; non is from jii-^o- 
«n, no firmament o> ^r the fun ; nut is from no-^t, itss no ; 
Qu fhould be oi, as compounded of 0% from fire qr Ught. 
i Notable ; Hynod ; Gnostos.^ Notabslis^ Hjmod 
is from hy-nod, a high markj whence the m^talhefify 
and changing the d into t. 

Nothing ; Dim ; Oupcy ; Nihil. Nothing is from 
no and thing ; dim, from the privative di and m, figuring the 
{wefacc 6f the globe, and from thence rfignifyin^g. great. ^ ,jh1» 
from ni-il, no light ; ouden from y-dim^ the notbiog. 
: Notice; Gwybodabth- Gnosis; Cqgnltiq. Thofc 
moords feem to have little or no origin, beiid^s, what:i3-:exr^ 
plained under Notable, except that gwybodaeth is a Qtmr 
pound of gwy»bid-aeth, to know the wofld or life.paft ', -t^is 
gJLVSs a fuller.light to notable, &c. 

Novelty of Newness j N£WY23i>; N^oTfisj NayjE- 


TA9. Novitas IS from newid-ti, to change pofleiSon ; tieotes^ 
the fame; newnefs, from newid; novelty, from newid, to 
change; whence new; and with the addition of id, it 
makes newid ; but its origin is in-w, in being or exiftence. 
Nourish, Support, Maintain or Uphold ; Cynal; 
XiLEUO ; Alo. Cynal is from ac-yn-al, aSing or holding 
one up; whence xileuo; alo is from al-w, an animal up; 
uphold is from up-hold ; fupport is from fi-up-port, it is the 
bearing up; nourilh is from in-our-i{h, it is the within us; 
maintain is from maint-yn, the fubftance within. 

Now; Yn awr; Inun ; Nunc Yn awr is frolnyn- 
awr, in the hour or this hour ; now is from n*-aw, inftead of 
yn-awr ; nun is from yn-in, in the inftant ; whence nunc. 

NuBiLous ; Niwliog ; Nepheloeides ', Nebulosus, 
Thofe come from the Celtic niwl and nifwl-og, a great fog; 
jiiwl is from ni-ol, no light or fun. 

Number; Rhif; Arithmosj Numerus. -Thofe are 
irom the fame origin as prif, primus, iirfl, whence pri^is de- 
fined to be a thing from the fun or fire, meaning probaUj 
the rays of light. 

Number ; Rhifo ; Arithmeo ; Numero. Thofe are 
explained in the laft clafs ; or rhif may come from r'-hi-e^ it 
is die heighth ; for it fignifies heighth as well as fire; and all par* 
tides have various meanings, anfwering the different quali* 
ties of the feveral bodies they reprefent. 

Nurse J Trin or Maethrin; Trepho or Diatre- 
PHo ; NuTRio. Trin is from troi-ni, to turn us ; mae- 
thrin is from m-au-ith, it is the milk mother, and trin ; tre- 
pho is to turn; nutrio is from ni-troi, to turn us, whence 

Nut ; Cneuen ; Karuon ; Nux. Cneuen is from the 
plural cnau, compofed of cau-in, fhut-in, and en, one ; ka- 
ruon is from ^u-ar-en, fhut upon one ; nux is in-cau, or xau^ 
ihut ujpon ; nut is from in-out, the outfide upon. 


Oor Oh j O or Ox ; O or A; Oh. Thofe are inteifee^ 
tions, or notes or founds of bewailing and abhorring; stat 
the Icttters, from Orhi, and o-ux, fignify from being high, that 
is, being low or fad ; o is alfo a note of admiration sis it ex-^ 
prefles the figure of the fun, which is admirable. 

O that there were; O bae le; Abale ; Uti- 
NAM. Thefe are interjeftions of wilhmg, fignifying (Ai tha( 
there were a place. 

Pail j 


Oak; pKKW; t)RYs; QjTfeActJS. Derw the plunl 
ftumbcr of derwen is from di-riw, the d*rk or fe<pret kind ; 
whence drys ; quercus is from ci-ar-ac-iu, it is the diief 
growth of the earth j oak is either from cus in quercus, or 
from the CeWc y-ci, the chief. 

Obedient J Yfydd; Eupeithes; Obediens. Yfydd 
is from hy-fo*di, it is ngt high or bold ; wheijce eupeithes ; 
the other words arc from ob-Jiy-idiu, it is from high or bold. 

Object i Bwrw Aj[.tAN ; Proballo ; Objecto. 
Thofe are compounded of the pi^epofitions ob, pro, and allan, 
£gntfying from or out, ^d bwrw, hallo and ja£lo, to caft or 

OBLiQirsy Crooked or Bekding ; Lleodp, Gwyr, 
OsGOF orPiYG ; L0X08, Gy^qs or Pl AGIOS i OsLiquus 
or CvRVus. The Celtic plyg is from ap-al-ag, afting from 
jhigh J whence plagios, obliquus and oblique i gwyr is from 
ag-o-if , ?w3:ing from high, which is bending ; hence gyros 
and curvusi crooked is from ac^or-ux-id, it is afiinjg from 
llighs bend is from ab-en-^d, it is from high; Ueddf is from 
«l-di-cf, it is from or with the heighth j loxos is from al-ax-o^ 
a^ng from high. 

Observe or Watch ; DjSGWYt ; Dok aso j Obser- 
yo. DifgWyl arid watch are defined under the word Watch ; 
pbferve and obfervo are from ob and fervo to keep 5 dokafp ia 
tjcor^. id-ac-fi, it is the action of feeing; 

Obstruct or Resist ; GwRTHSEFYtL 5 Anthiste** 
Ml ; Obstruo or Resisto. Gwrthfcfyll is from gwrth- 
fefyil, ftanding againft ; anthiflemi is the fame ; fo are refifta 
and rcfift ; left ftru£l or ftrufture (hould not be explained elfe^^ 
whcre,1t may by proper hereto obferve, that it is compofed of 
die Celtic particles is-tir-ax-it, it is adling from the lower 

Obtain ; Exwin or Cyraedd ; Epexo or Krateo } 
OpTJNEp or Porrigo. Exwin is from ax-o-un, an ading 
from one ; cyraedd is from ac*or-id, it is an afting from onei 
wkenec the Greek terms ; obtineo and obtain are from ob-tynu, 
drawing from ; porrigo is from p-or-ag, a thir\g adling from.* 

Obtb:ude, Push, Shove or Thrust; Gwthioj O- 
14IBO; Obtrupo. Moft of thofe words are explained un-^ 
der the word Shove ; but obtrudo is from the Celtic ob-troi- 
idiu, it is turning from j pulh is from p-o-fbi» it i^ a thing 
from ; thruft is from trudo, which is a compound of the Cel- 
tic troi-draw> to turn away or far. 

Occasion > Arfod ; Aphorme ; OccajBIQ. Occafio 
and ^cafion &re from gc-caufa, from ^ cauif^ fee Caufej ar-- 


fod is from" ar-fod, upon exiftence; aphormc is ifrom apo-or- 
nife frorti or- without force or violence. 

Ocean; Eigeon; Okeanos; Oceanus. Thofe words 
are from y-auc-en, the high fea. 

Occident or West ; Gorllewin; Dusis ; Occasus. 
Weft is from o-es-it, it is the fun's lowering or going down ; 
occafus and Occident are from o, the fun, and cado falling; 
gorllewin is from gor-lle-o-en, above or beyond the place of 
the firmament o or the fun, or from gor-Uu-ion, beyond the 
Ionian family, who were deftined weftward. 

Ode j Owdl ; Ode ; Ode. Ode is from o-di^ the di- 
vine round, which the pricfts performed round the altar dance- 
jng and finging in ptaife of the gods ; but the -Celtic feems 
to be compofed of y-o-di-al, upon the divine round. 

Of or From; O, Er, oiOddiwrth; Upo, Apo or 
Peri ; A, As or De. The Celtic ap is compounded of a-p* 
a part, which is farther explained in the preface ; whence apo 
and upo ; peri is from p-ar, a part of the earth ; o is explain- 
■cd in the preface ; of is from the Celtic o-ef, it is o ; from is 
•explained before ; er is from the Celtic ir, explained in the 
preface ; oddiwrth is from o-di-wrth, not near o. See thefe 
particles and letters defined in the preface. 

Offence; Lae; Blabe; Offensio. Lab is from law- 
ab, from the hand, or a ftroke from the hand ; whence blabe ; 
ofFenfio and offence are primarily from the Celtic fin-ac, 4n 
^(Sion from the edge ; whence the Engliih words fence and 

• Offer; Offrymu; Prosphero; Offero. Thofc 
words fignify to bring to the altar, and though ofFerinj;s were 
never difufedthey feem to be of modern compofition. * "^ 

Oysters; Wystres; Hyistres; Ostrea. 'Thofe 
words are from au-is-tir-fi, they are within or below th^ water 

Old Man; Gwrhet^; Gbron; Senex. Thefe sue 
explained under the words Old and Man ; which fee. 

Old Woman ; Gwrax ; Graus j Anus. As to thefe 
words, fee Old and Woman. • 

Olive; Olwydd; Elaia; Olea. Olvi^dd, in tHp 
fingular olwydden, is from oil-wydd, the oil wood ; and oU'ls 
from au-ll, the fun or hot liquid ; whence the reft. 
; Oil ; Oleu ; Elaion ; Oleum. See the word Olive. .. 

• Omit;-Gadel HEiBio; Paraleipo; Omitto. Gadel 
heibio is from ag-ad-al-heibio, to reft from adion ; omitto and 
<5mit are from o-mitto, from fending. 

; One) UN's En; Unus. . Un fignifies the-univerfe, or all 
-■ • ^ , things. 

O R ' 

tKing^i ks well as all numbers, as compofed of u-in, fpace xa . 
cxiftence ; but fee the preface fgr a farther ej^planation here- 

Only or Alone ; Unig ; Oios; Solus. Unig is from 
un-ag, the adlion of one j alone is from all-one j only is the 
fame by tranfpofition ; folus is from the Celtic fi-ol, it is all ; 
oios is from y-i-o, the high o or the circle of time and 

Open j AgoR ; Oigo j Aperio. Agor is from ag-or, 
an aftion from ; whence oigo ; aperio is from a-p-or, a thing 
from J open is from y-p-in, a thing into. 

Operate ; Gweithio ; Ergatho; Operor. Gweithio 
is from gwaith, work, compofed of ag-w-at, a man at adion; 
ergatho is from ar-gwaith, at work; operor Is from w-p-ar, a 
man upon a thing ; whence operate. 

Opportunity i Cyfarfodj Kairos; Opportuni- 
TAS. Cyf-4r-fo^> to be together upon the fame ground'; 
kairos is frohi cy-ar-iu, to be upon the fame ground ; oppor- 
tunitas is from y-parth-un-idlu, it Is the one or the lame 

Or; Neu; Nai; fix. As the Englifliand, is from the 
Celtic oftd, but, fo is or, from the Celtic. or,' from; the other 
words fignify in adion, from in-iu, or in-al. See And, But> 
Either, &c, 

Orationj Araith; Resis ; Oratio. Thefe in their 
primary fenfe are from r*iath, the language, and r*-fi, the 
found j but in a fecondary fenfe they feem to fignify reafoning, 
which fee. 

Orator; Araithwr; Rethoi^ Orator. Thefe are rHet< 
compofed of the terms in the laft preceding clafs, and ur^ 

Orchard; PerllAn; Pomerion; PomeR'ium. Perllan 
k from per-llan, the fweet yard ; pomerion is from pom-mur- 
yn, a fruit place walled in; whence pomerium; orchard isr 
from yr-xau-yard, the inclofed yard. 

Ordain or Initiate ; Urddo ; Armoso. or Engxei- 
»Eo; Initio or Ordino. Urddo Is from ur-ddli, holy 
man ; fee the word Sacrifice ; hence ordb, ordino and ardiofo ; 
cnxeireo is from eng-xeireo« to be greatly exalted ; initio is 
from in-thuo, to go into a holy ftate ; whence initiate. 

Order; Urdd; Ormathos; Ordo* Ortnathos is 
from ur-ma-thu, a great holy.mian; the reft are {torn urddo^ 
•xplained under the word Qroain. 
•Orphan; Ymddifyd; OrphakiA; OrbitAs. Thefe 

terms were formed from |hc child^s parent beipg. gone out^f 

L' a * "^ " " •^ 



the world, as orbitas from the Celtic or-bW, otit of the world, 
and ym-ddi*fyd, the deprived of life or the world. 

Origin ; Dexreu j Arxe j Origo. Dexreu is from 
id-creu, it is creating ; whence arxe and the reft. 

Ornament or Beautiful Covering 5 Casmai; Kos- 
Mos ; Ornamentum. Cafmai and kofmos are from cas- 
mau or mai, a great or a May covering ; omamentum and or- 
nament arc from or-en-maint, the great firmament border, or 
perhaps from or-en-mai-ynt, they are the May great firma- 
ment border. 

Other; Arall ; Eteros; Alter. Aral] is from yr- 
ail, the fecond ; whence the reft. 

Otherwise ; Arall ; Alle ; Alias. Th<rfe are from 
the fame origin as the words of the laft preceding clafs, ex- 
cept that the Englilh word has the addition of wife^ fignifying 
a way or manner ; which fee. 

Otter; Dtfrgi ; Enudris; Lutra. Dyfrgilsfrom 
dyfr, the phird of dwr, water, and ci, a dog, which makes 
gi by inflection'; emidris is from en-ydor, the water one; lu- 
tra is from lu-dwr,. the water family; otter is from w-dwr^ 
the water animal. 

Oven; Fwrn; Phournos, Kaminos or LiCDos; 
Fornax. Ligdos is from le-ig-toes, the dough heating 
place ; kaminos is from cau-mewn, (hut within ; fwnn 
phournos and fomax are from fyr-mi, the fir^ or hot one; 
oven is from o-viewn, the inclofed. 

Over ^ Tros ; Pera ; Trans. Over is from o-ver, 
out of or through the water ; tros is from trwy-rhos, through 
the mora& or wet ground; whence trans; ftiorafs is from 
!fi'6r-asj below the fea v rhos b from r*-iiu-as, the grouttti 6S* 
low the water ; whence the Celtic aros, tarrying or flicking 
in, as tros is to get through the morsife; pera is from p-of, the 
part from. 

Overcome or OuTRtm^ Cetnu or Trexw j Tkekp 


Cefnu is from cefii, the back, that is, to put one tipon his 
back ; trexu is from troi-ux^ to turn upwards ; whence treaco^ 
but how the Greek word came to be made ufe of as an expref*^ 
fibn for nmxiing does not appear,, imlefs to outrun mKv bo ta 
overcome ; and curro to run may come from the Celtic gym 
to drive aV/ay, 6r from cyro ta beat ; nicao is to back or -be 
fippermoft ; whence vinco and the lieft. - 

Ounce; yNs;OuNGKiA; Uncia. Thefe feem to he 
Compbfed of un-fi^ it is one. 

. Out; O or ODPrWRTHjEx or»Eo ; Ex, O and odcbi 


P A 

i*ith are explained under Of and From ; ek and cx^ ar? frpm ac, 
from ; out is from the Celtic o-it, it is o. 

Out of Doors ; Allan ; Aj^lote ; Alias. Allan is 
from o-lle-in, from the place within or in ; allote is from al- 
}au-ti, out of the place poflefled; alias is from o-le-fi, it is out 
of the place. 

Owe ; DiLSU 5 Opheilo ; Debeo. Owe is from o-iu, 
it is from ; debeo is from id-ab, it is from ; dileu is from daU 
y, the withholding J opheilo is from y-phe-aiJ, the thing 
of another i and dileu may be from id-ail, it is another. 

Owl ; Tylluan ; Elios, Glaux or Agiolios j Ulu- 
LA or NoCTUA. Owl is from w-o-il, an animal from the 
light ; tuUuan is from ty wyll-un, the dark one ; and ty wyll is 
from id-o-il, it is from the light j ulula is from w-il-o, an ani- 
mal from the light ; noQua is the night one ; elios is from 
«-il-o, the from the light 5 glaux is from ag-il-ux, from the 
tiigh light ; whence the reft. 

Ux J Ux ; Bous 5 Bos. Ux is from u-ux, the higher 
animal; whence ox ; bous and bos are frombi-ux, the high-- 
«r animal. 

: OziKR or Willow; Helygen; Helhcen ; Sxler. 
Helygcn, in the plural hclyg, is from hil-auc, the water kind 
or race ; ozier is from au-fi-ar, it is upon the water i willow 
is from »u-il-iu, it is the water race. 


PAIN ; PoEN ; PoNOS ; P^NA. Poen is from p-o-en, 
a thingfrom heaven ; whence the reft. 
■ Paints jFug; Phukos; Fucus. Fug is from fi-cau, 
ihutting out fight or light ; whence phukos and fucus ; paint 
is from pa-in-it, it is a thing upon. 

Palace; PlXs; Palation; Palatium. Plasisfrom 
p4ys, the court or hall part ; whence the reft ; hence alfo the 
wordlect; llys is alfo a compound of Uu-fi, it is the family; 
and llu is from 1-w, man extended. 

Pale orBLEwisH ; Glasog ; Xloros ; Pallidus. A» 
to tbolb fee the nextclafs of words, and the word Blew. 

Pale; Glaswin or Glasgox ; Xloros; Pallidus* 
pale and pallidus are from the Celtic pall-idiu, it is defective j 
glafwin is from glaf-win, a white or light blue; glafgox is 
fromglas-gox, a red or light blue; xloros is from ux-il-or-iu, 
it is mm the higher light or white ; and pale in its primary 
fcnfe may be from ap-ii, from the light or white. 

L 3 ^KVS^ 


Pale or Stake ; Pawl or Scolp ; Skolops ; Palus. 
Pale, pawl and palus figniiy a pole or a high thing; fcolpis 
from fi-cau-al-p, it is the fliut upon the part ; whence the reft. 

Palm of the Hand 5 Palf; Palame j Palm a. Palf 
is from p-al-fi, my high or powerful part; whence the reft, 
the m in mi. chapping by inflexion into f. 

Palsy 5 Parlys; Paralysis; Paralysis. Paralyfis 
is from para-luo, to loofen from; whence the reft ; but fee 
Loofcn, &c. for a more primitive definition. ' 

Pannier or Hamper ; Cawell ; Kalathos^ Cala- 
THUS. Cawell is from cau-w-al, a (hut upon an animal ; 
kalathos is from cau-al-ith, it is a Ihut upon ; whence cala- 
thus ; hamper is from am-^p-ar, about the thing upon ; pannier 
is from p-in-y-ar, a thing upon the upon. 

Pap; Bron; Brun; Mamma. Bron and brun ar« 
from the Celtic brun, a hill, which fee ; mamma is from the 
(he Celtic mam the mother; pap is from p- up, an big^ 

Paper, the Bark of a Tree or Rushes; Papyr; 
Papyros ; Papyrus. Thefe terms are either from the Cel- 
tic pabuyr,ruihes, or from fomc Egyptian word of the fame fig- 

Paradise ; Paradwys ; Paradeisos ; Paradisus* 
Paradwys is from pera-dwys, the moft profound fweetne(&> 
whence the reft. 

Part ; Parth, Peth or Rhan ; Moira or Poietes; 
Pars or Res. Parth is from p-ar-itb, it is a part of the earth; 
>vhcnce pars and part ; peth is from p-ith, it i§ p ; whence 
poietes ; rhan is from or-un, from one ; moira is fropEi miror, 
my from. 

Partridci^ ;Petris ; Perdix; Perdix. Thefe are fro(n 

fjeth-rix, the things in the furrow ; or from petji-ris, the ftart^ 
ing things. 

Passable; HyfoRDd ; Euodos ; Pervius. Thofearc 
from paff-able ; hy-ford, eu-o-dos, and per-via, fignifying 
high or bold on the way. 

Passover or Easter; Pasc ; Paxa ; Pasxha. Pafc 
from pe-as-ac, to pafs ; whence the reft. 

Pasture; Porfa ; Phorbp ; Pascuum. Pafture is 
from paf-tyr, the feeding land ; porfa and phorbe are from 
pori, to feed ; pafcuupi is from pafco, to fccd^ which fee. 

Path; Llwybr ; Tribos ; Callis. Path is from 
p-aeth, the part he went ; callis is from calx, a heel ; tribos is 
from tir-pous, the foot ground ; llwybr is from lle-w-briTar, 
fnan's place wppn the groi ni, 

" P E 

Patrimony ; Treftad ; Patroa ; Patrimonium. 
Treftad is from tref-tad, the father's poffeffions; the reft fig-' 
nify the fathers land, or poflTeiltons. 

Pavillion, Tent, Church or Tabernacle ; Eg- 
LWYs I Klisia; Ecclesia or Tabernaculum. Temple is 
from to-am-p al, a covering over the high part or the fky ; 
eglwys feems to be from cau-al-p-fi, a covering upon the place 
of found; whence klifia and ecclefia; tabernaculum is from 
taberna, an inn or tavern, with the addition of cau-al, to fliut 
upon ; fee Tavern ; tent is from t-yn-t, a houfe or covering 
within a houfe or covering, which was the (ky ; pavillion is 
from p-avi-al-en, a thing that was the fky. 

Pay; Talu; Teleo; LuoorSoLVo. See the next. 

Payment; Tal-; Telos; Solutio. Tal is from di- 
al, without being upon ; whence the Greek and Latin ; pay- 
ment is from the words pwyo and paio, to beat ; fee Beat. 

Peace; Heddwx; Hesuxia; Pax. Peace is fromap- 
ai-fi, it is from aftion; pax is from ap-ac, from a£lion; 
heddwx is from hi-di-ac, to ceafe being high ; whence he- 

Peacock; Paun; TaOn; Pavo. Thefe feem to be 
from the Celtic word pin, or pinna in Latin ; the p and t 
being frequently ufed for one another in the Greek and La- 
tin ; fo that this animal takes its name from its pins or fine 

Pease ; Pysen ; Pison ; Pisum. Pyfen, the fingula^ 
number of pys, is from p-ys, the end lower, that is, hang- 
ing down the head ; whence the reft ; or they may come from 
the Celtic p-us, the bill, or pecking corn. 

Pedigree or Genealogy ; Axau ; Genealogia ; 
Genealogia. Genealogia is from genea-logia, a treatife up- 
on generation, but fee the word Generate for a more primitive 
origin ; axau is the plural number of ak, by inflexion, from acj 
from ; pedigree is from peth-ac-ar, a thing upon the ax or ac ; 
this ac fignifies an offspring, and the Scotch and Irifh mac is 
nothing more than mi-ac, my fon, or my offspring ; nor their 
o prefixed to their names than the Celtic o, from, as in 

Penury ; Prinder ; Aporia ; Penuria. Prinder is 
from brin-tir, the hilly ground ; aporia is from y-p-oera, the 
coldeft part ; penuria is from pen-oefa, the coldeft end ; 
whence penury ; fo the Latin word parous, fparing, comes from . 
parous^ a park, which is a compound of p-ar-ux, the higheft 
part of th? ground. 

People; Pobl or Lixos; Laos; Populu^. Llios is 

L 4. SXQi«N. 

P H 

from lu, a family i and pobl is from pob-Ii» every family; 
whence the reft. 

Pi.ppER ; pYPUR; Peperi i PiPER. This cxprcffioo BBf 
be cxr,tic like ihc fpice which it expreffes, yet the term fcam 
to be fomcwhat Celtic, as if compofed of p-ap-yr» a dung 
from the fire or heat. 

PtRFECTi Pyrfeithio; Diapratto ; Peeficio, 
Thefe all come from the prepofition per, thro% and facio to 
make, and from pyr-faeth, pure ripe or finifhcd. 

Perhaps J Agatfydd; Taxa ; Fortasse. Perhapsii 
from per-hap, bv chance ; fortafle is an adverb fonned firom 
fors, chance or nap, which fee ; agatfydd is from ag*at-fe^id» 
it is a&ing towards a thing ; hence taxa, by tnu>4>ofition .of 
the two firft particles, fignifying a£Ung towards. 

Perilous or Dangerous ; Ekbydus ; Kini^uvodek 
Periculosus, Perilous is from pyr-ill-w-fi, he is a man <x 
animal very ugly ; enbydus is from en-byd-iu, he is ag«nft 
life i kindunodes feems to iignify that the dog is barkings from 
cy-yn-nydoj pcriculofus is from pyr-erxill-w-fi, he. is «a 
animal very terrible. 

PERIOD} Pyrnod; Periodos; Periodus. Thofe 
come from pyr-nod, a pure or perfeft mark 5 or from per- 
]:i6d, thro' mark, but moft probably from purnnod, a pureiiiU 
or compleat mark. 

Person; Person; Prosopon ; Persona. It fetma 
pretty clear that thefe terms were originally framed of p^r- 
ibn, fweet found j tho' the Greeks corruptly changed it firfi 
into profo-phone, a diftant found, and afterwards into prefo* 
pon, the face, which they derived from ops, the eye, or opto^ 
Tn^i, to fee; {5n alfo fignifies exiftence, as compounded of 
ii-un, it is one. 

Persuade or Exhort j Anog ; Anogo ; Exhorto^ 
Perfuade is from pcr-fi-w-id, it is a perfeS or fweet voice.or 
found of man ; anog and anogo are from an-ag, to incite; exf 
hortor is from ex-oro, to excite. 

Pettycoat; Pais; Xiton; Tunica. Pais is froai 
p-is, lower thing or part, called fo from its covering the lower 
part, or as being an under covering ; tunica is from tan^iixa* 
luid^ th^ uppermoft ; called fo from its being wore under the 
toga, which is a compound of to-uxa, an uppermoft covering | 
pettycoat needs no explanation here ; xiton is from uxa-tan, off 
tunica tranfpofed, fignifying under or below the upper. 

Phlegm ; Flem ; Phlegma ; Phlegma. Thefe come 
from the Celtic fy-il-in, my fire within ; or phlegma from 
phe-il-ig^ma^ of the fame meaning, 


p I 

PiEtCE or Bore ; TaRadhv <v EbiLlio; TiTRAd or 
Obelizo ; Terebro. Thofe come from taradr and ebUI^ 
which fee tmclfcr the words Auger, &c.. 

Pig ; PoRXBLL i XoiRos ; PoRCus. Porxell iX from ap- 
-r-oCh-il, the oiFsprtng of the hog race ; porcu3 is from ap-V- 
cch, the offspring of the hog or fow ; xoiros is from och-*r- • 
och, a hog from die fow ; pig is from ap-hog, the ofispring 
€>f a hog I thus you fee the Englifh abounding in the Weim 

- PioEov, Dort tM- Culver ; Clomen ; Kojlumbos ; 
CoLulyfx-us. Dove is the Celtic word for tame; pigeon is 
from pigo, to bill ; clon^en and the reft feem to come from 
dti-fnin, the bilii^ race. 

Pil; Pilio; Apolepo; Dxcortix:o. Pil, piUoand 
apolcpo, are from p-al-o, the high part off; decorticois from 
4e-cori«m, to put off the Mn. 

Pil or Rind; Pil; Phloios; Cortex. Cortex h 
from cau-ar^u*iux, the fliut on the outfide ; rind is defined 
mder the word Rind ; die reft are from p^al, the upper thingji 
or dM thing upon. 

Pile or Dart ; Pic all ; Pilos; Pilum. Picall b from 
picsd, a point hi^ ; whence the reft ; except dart, which is 
from the Celtic' word taro, to ftrike; or picall, in its pri- 
mary cooQpofitioji) may be from p-ac-al, a thing adding 

PitLAR or Column ; CoLOFw; Kolone ; Columna, 
Tliofe are explained under Column ; except pillar, which is 
Jfoitt p^d-^, a thing with a higher upon it. 

PsNE or Languish 5 Clafyxu or Teneio; Xalao or 
AtmirfiO ; LakOueo. Clafyxu is from claf, fick, compo^ 
ied of ac-al-fi, an a<9dan upon life or healthy whence xalao ^ 
lai^eo and languifli are defined under the word Languifti $^ 
fencio aid atoneo are from tenau, to thin, which fee ; pine 
is from ap-in, from exifting. 

Pipe ; Pib 5 Itto ; Fistula. Pib is from p-ub, up to 
p, or the (ky, that is, a long thing; whence pipe ; itto is from 
i-^^ to the Armament, or fky, that is, long; fiftula is from 
f inftead of p-ys-t-id, a thing to the high ty or the fky. 

Pirate ; Preibdiwr ; Pbirates ; Pirata. Thofo 
eome from the Celtic word praidd, pcaeda or pey ^ which 


Piss; Dvfrio ; Oureoj Meio. The word pifs waa 
formed from the hifling found of piffing ; dyfrio comes from 
the Celtic word dwx-fi, my water; meio is a compound of mi-« 
ao) my water ; oureo is Sbool wi-au, a man's water. 


P L 

Pitch ; PvG ; PissA J Pix, Thofc are explained imilcr 
the word Tar. 

Pit of the Arm; Cesel ; Aissella; Axilla. Cc- 
ic\ is from cau-is-il, (hut from the fetting fun; cefelisdie 
fame, as a bottom in a country, which being furtounded by 
hills, is foon covered from the fun. 

Place ; Lle ; Le ; Locus. Place is a compound of 
three Celtic fyllablcs, viz. pe-le-fi, it is a particular place; 
lle, le or 1 fignify place in general, fpace or extenfion, the 11 
being ufed inftead of the fmgle 1 here for the fake of the af- 
pirate ; fee the L, the word All and the particle Le in the pre* 

Plague ; Pla; Plege ; Plaga. Pla feems to comefrom 
p-al^a, a thing upon the land ; the reft are from p-al-ag-a, a 
thing a<^ing upon the land. 

Plain, Polish or Smooth; Llyfnhau; Leaino^ 
Allj^vo or Polio. See the word Smooth. 
. Pl AisH ; Pleth ; Plecma ; Plica. Pleth and plait 
, are from pe-al-ith or it, it is the part upon ; plica is from p- 
al-i-cau, the part fhutting upon it ; plegma is from p-al-cau- 
mae, it is the part fhutting upon. 

Plank ; Plangc ; Plax i Planities. Thofe are ex- 
plained under the word Table. 

Plant ; Planu ; Phyteuo ; Planto. Plana is from 
pe-al-in, it is the part upon the within ; whence planto and 
plant ; phyteuo is from p-tyfu, the growing thing or part. 

Platter, Dish or Doubler; Disgl or Dwbler; 
DisKos or Trublion ; Discus or Patina. Difgl is from 
dif-ag-al, with the adlion or motion upon or fteady ; whence 
difkos, difcus and difli ; dwbler is from dwbl-yr, the double 
one 3 whence troublion and doubler; patina is from patens, 
lying wide open ; of which fignification is platter j or difel, 
&c. may be from id-is-cau-al, it is a covering upon alower^ 
or a vcfl'el for the lower. 

Play or be Glad ; Xwarau ; Xairo ; Ludo. Xwa* 
rau, (whence xairo) is a compound of ux-ar-hai, high up- 
on acSion ; ludo feems to be from al-id, it is high, or it may 
be the fame as owdl by tranfpofition of letters i fee the word 
Ode; glad feems to come from ag-al-id, it is an high a£tion ; 
play is from p-al-ai, a thing acting high. 

Pleasant ; Hyfryd ; Euphron -, Hilaris. Hyfryd 
is from hy-fry-id, it is high ground ; hence euphron ; hilaris 
is from hi-al-ar-is, high upon the lower ground ; pleafant is 
from p-al-as-ynt, they are things high, but hyfryd in a fecon- 
<lary fenfe fignifies a high or bold mind or intention, from hy- 
fryd. Plough; 

P o 

* Plough; Aradr ; Arotro^x ; Aratritm* Plough is 
from p-al-w-ag, a thing afting upon oxen or cattle ; the c 
ther words are compounded of ar-troi, to turn earth, both 
from the Celtic. 

Plough Share or Coulter ; Cwlltr ; Eulaka ; 
CuLTER. All thofe words are derived from the Celtic cylleU- 
lir, the land or ground knife. 

Plough; Arddu ; Aroo; Aro. Thofe verbs are form- 
ed of ar, earth j the Celtic arddu comes very near in found 
to the £ngli{h word earth ; but plough comes from ploughing. 

Ploughman; Arddwr; Aroter ; Arator. Ccwme 
from the laft clafs, and wr, man. 

Pluck or Root UP; Diwreiddio; Ekrisoo; Vello. 
jDiwreiddio is from the privative di and grwaidd or wraidd, 
roots ; pluck is the fame as the Celtic pal-ux, to dig up; or 
from pe-al-ag, adling a thing up. 

V .Plume or Feather; Plyan; Ptilon; Pluma. Thofe 
are defined under the word Feather. 

Poet; Prydydd; Poietes; Poeta. Poet, poietesand 
poeta are from poieo, facio, to make ; prydrydd is from ap^ 
4ru-ydd, the offspring of the druids, and druydd is from di- 
riu-idd, he is a dark or divine fort or kind ; whence the oak 
trees came to be called derw. 

' Point; Blaen; Belone; Acus or Cuspis. Acus is 
from a-ux, the upper part ; cufpis is from ax-p-fi, it is the 
upper part ; blaen and belone are from bi-al-en, the higheft 
part or a thing up to the firmament ; point is from the Celtic 
word pvirynt, compofed of p-o-en-it, it is the part at the fun 
or firmament, which is the upper end of length or at the point. 

Poison; Gwenwyn ; Ion; Venenum. Gwenwyn is 
from gwenynen, a bee ; whence venenum ; or they may come 
from ag-w-en-w-yn, an aftion of an animal uptm or into man, 
\vhich may be a bee; ion is from i-w-in, the animal in; poi- 
fon is from p-fi-yn, a thing that goes in; venenum may 
come from the Celtic vewn-un-ni, it is a thing that goes into 

Pole; Pawl ; Pattalos ; Palus. Pawl is from pa- 
w-al, a thing in man's hand ; whence pole and palus; patta- 
los is from p-atal-w, a thing to fupport a man. 

Polish or Smooth ; Llyfnhauj Leiaino ; Poleo ^r 
ALL-ffiVo. See the word Smooth. 

' Pollute or Defile ; Diwyno or Halogi; Miaino or 
Alisgeo ; lNc>yiNo. Diwyno and ipiaino are from the 
privative di-wyn, from white ; halogi is from hai-al-ag, from 
being a high adion ; whence alifgeo ; defile is from di-fe-aU 

P o 

Ke is not high ; pollute is from p-o-al-k, it is a tliiiig bm 
high ) inquino is from in-ac-en, not an a£tion high. 

PoKD ; Llyn ; LiMfii^ ; Lacus. Llyn is from k-au-yOf 
a place for water widiin ; limne is from le-au-am, a water 
in place clofed ; lacus is from le-auc, a water place i pond is 
from p-au-in-id, it is a thing with water within. 

Poor or Miserable; Ilawd; Tlas; Pauper. Mi- 
fer is from mi-i8*ur, me a lower man ; poor is from ap-w-ir, 
from a high-man ; pauper is from ap^w-p-ir, from a man of 
a high part ; tlawd is from di-al-w*id, he is from a high ma 
tlas IS from di-al-w-fi, he is from a highman. 

Port; Forth; Porthmos; Portus. Thofe are firom 
p-or-ithy it is the part from. 

Porter or Ferryman; Porthwas; Porthmeus; 
PoRTiTOR. See Port and Man. 

Possess ; Meddu ; Medeo ; Possideo. Meddu is 
from am-idd, it is the about or pofleffion ; whence medco; 
poffideo is from p-as-idiu^ it is the lower part or pofleficns 
pofleis is from p-as*fi, it is the lower part. 

Post; Post; Parastos; Postis. Poft is from p-eiflc^ 
a (landing thing ; parados is from p-ar-eifte, a thing upoa a 

Pot or Kettle; Croxan; Xutra; Olla. Potii 
from p-hot, a heating thing; kettle is from cau-it-fl), it is 
fliut or covered upon ; croxan is from cau-ir-auc-in, indofiiif 
the hot water within ; whence xutra ; oUa is fromau-al, upon 
the water or water veffel. 

Potent; Caparn ; Karteros; Potens. Cadamii 
from caiad-ar-ni, an inclofure or a fortification upon us; kar* 
teros is from cau-ar-tir, inclofure or fortification npoa Ac 
]and ; potens and potent fignify to inclofe the ground part. 

Pound; Pwys; Mna; Pondo. Thofe fignify wciEht 

Pound or Knock ; Dilio ; Thlao ; Tundo.. IKUo 
is from dil a ftroke, compounded of id-al, it is upon; whence 
thlao ; tundo is from the Celtic tyn, ti^t ; knock is fimmthe 
Celtic cy-in-ac, together in adlion ; pound is defineduniesr 
the laft clafs. . . 

Pour out; Berwi; Bruo; Fundo. Bcrwi is from 
ab-er-hwi, from the aiStion of water ; whence bruo i pour ii 
from p~au-or, a part or thing from the water ; fundo is from 
fi-au-in-jd, it is life in water. 

Power, Force or Strength ; Gallu; Alke; Vir'ss. 
Gallu is from ag-al, an high or powerful zStion ; whence sU 
ke; vires isfromver, fpring; whence force; power. is from 
ap-vcr, from the fpring ; ftrength is from ftrong, which fee. 

Pkate i 


Prate ; XwedleuA ; KouTillo ; Fabulor. Xwed- 
leua is from xwedl, a difcourfe, compofed of cy-w-ddadl, men 
-talking together ; whence koutillo ; prate is from p-ar-it, it 
is a thing upon it ; fabulor is from fe-bi-al-ar, he is high up« 
on life. 


Llafarwr is from llef-ar-wr, a man upon the voice ; wheacd 
lamyros ; pratler is a contra6Hon of the Celtic parhai-at-al-ur^ 
a man laAing upon calling or talking ; loquaculus is from !o« 
quax, which is compofed of alu-acrux, an ai^on of fpeaking 

Pray or Petition ; Dymuno or Gweddio ; Aitio or 
Deomai ; Peto or Org. Pray is from parhai, lading in 
a£idon; dymuno is from diu-am-uno, for pacifying God; 
oro is from ior, lord ; deomai is from dymuno i as to the reft 
fee the word Adore. 

Pre; Rhag or Wrth; Pro, Upo or Dia; PtLX4 
Thefe are prepofttions ufed in compofition, compofed of r'ag^ 
the aftion ; pre, pro and prx are firom pri^ firft, which fee ; 
upo is from y-p*o, the fun part ; dia is from di-a, from tht 

Pregnant, to be ; Ciwa; Kuo; Prjegkan* sum* 
Ciwa is from ciw, a chicken ; whence kuo ; praegnans and 
pregnant are from the Celtic pri-ac-geni, the firfl aft of ge-^ 
neration y and ciw from ci^w iignifies the firft of the ani- 

Pkrvakz or Manage ; Darparu, Parotoi or 
Trefnuj Entrepiso or Epartuo ; Prjeparo. Parotoi 
is fwim p-ar-it, it is a thing upon ; darparu is from id-ar-p-'r, 
it is the thing upon; trefnu is from id-ar-fian, it is upon the 
fpo(^ptraiparo and prepare are from pri-p-ar, the firil thing 
upon ; manage is from mae-in-ag, it is in aftion ', whence 

. Fkeserte; DirFiN; Diasoso^ Preservo. Diffin b 
(fom dt-(i% without end; diafofo is from di*yfu» without 
fionftitiiing s the other wonls are from pri^fervo, to keep as alt 

Press or Weigh down; Pwyso; Pieso; Premo. 
Firy(b i& from pwys^ weight ; whence piefo ; premo is from' 
|Mfrr«mae, it is a thing upon; prefs is i&om p-ar-is^ a thing 
i^K)n alower ; weigh downis from o-higbr-down, from higtt 

Prbsumb ; Rhagflaenu; Prolambano; Pr^sumo* 
Rhfl^flaenu is from rhag-flaen, ading before the firfl, or chd 
fi^remoft a^on ^ the -Greek term iignifies. to take before ; xh» 


other words arc the fame, from prz-fumo. Se6 the primitive 

Pretend ; Ymdanu ; Proteino ; Prbtendo. Thcfe 
are from the feveral prepofitions ym^ pre and pro, here onij 
Increafing the fenfe, and tanu, to fpread about. See Spread. 
• Pretty ; Tlws ; Leptos or Asteios ; Lepidus. 
Tlws is from t-al-w-fi, he is a man like the fky ; leptos is 
from al-p-to, the high covering part ; whence lepidus 5 afteios 
is from after, a ftar, rather than from afteios, a city; prettj 
is from the Belgic braxt, compofed of p-ar-uxa-t, a thiq; 
upon the upper covering or the flcy. 

Prey ; Helfa j Leia ; Pr-sda. Hclfa is from hel-fi, 
driving the animals ; whence leia ; prey is from the Celtic 
pry, a vermin j praeda is from pry-id, it is the vermin, or to 
fee for the vermin. 

Price ; Pris; Prasis ; Pretium. Thofe are from p- 
ar*fi, it is a thing upon; 

Prick or Urge ; Pico; Epeioo ; Stimulo or U^geo. 
Pigo is from pig, a prickle, compofed of p-ig, a warming or 
Simulating thing ; whence epeigo ; urgeo and urge are 'Aom 
ir-ag, heating adlion; prick is from p-ir-ac, a hot adUng 
thing ; ftimulo is from fli-am-al, it is a thing for raiiing. 

Priest; Offeiriad; Iereus ; Sacerdos. Ofiarisil 
is the bringer to the altar ; facerdos is from facer-dos» thejiGH 
ly gift ; iereus is holy ; prieft is from pri-eft, he is the fifft or 

Prime or First; Pri or Pris; Protos ; Primus. 
See Firft. 

Private; Priodol; Idios ; Privatus. Priodol is 
from pri*id-ol, it is all his own ; privatus and private are froijii 
the Celtic bri-ef-it, it is his country ; idios is from the Celtic 
idiu, it is, or it exift&. 

Procure or Obtain; Exwin orCYRAEDDj Exo er 
Krateo; Obtineo or Procuro. Exwin is from acH>-^i 
an ^flion from one ; whence exo ; cyraedd is from ac^orridd^ 
it is an aftion from ; whence krateo ; obtineo and obt^n,.aj|:iB 
from ob-tynu, to draw from ; procuro and procure are frojn 
pro-euro, to care for. /,■: \ 

Produce ; Tynuallan ; Epekteino ; Prod.ucpa 
The Celtic and Greek terms are explained under the vnjffA 
Draw; the Latin and Englifh are from pro-duco> to le^ 
from. See Draw and Lead. /\ 

Profit; Lleshu; Lusiteleo; Prosum* Lleihuis 
from lie-is, a lower or eafier place ; ludteleo is frt»m ij^fu^ 
teulu, to e;^fe a family ; profit is from bro-fit^ a fit CQimfjry,^ 


P R 

^ofum is from bro-is-am, the low coiirifry furtou/ided, that 

is, a valley. 

r' Promontory; Rhin ; Rhion ; PROMoJjfoRiuM. 

iRhin and rhion are from ar-en^ high ground ; the reft arc froni 

bro-maint-ar-en, a great country upon the height. 

. Proof 5 Prawf 5 Peira ; Probatio. Thefe come 

from the Celtic profi, to prove ; which fee. 

Proper ; Ydiw ; Idios s Proprius. Proprius in its rnoft 
primary fenfe is from bro-ber-iu, it is land and water; whence 
proper; ydiw and idios are fromid-iu, it is feen, or it exifts, 
exifting being always expreffed by the fame terms as are made 
life of to exprefs feeing. 

• Property ; Eiddo ; IpioTEs ; Proprietas. Propri- 
^las and property are from bro-ber-ti, pofleffion of land and 
water; eiddo and idiotes are from idiu-ti, it is pofleffion or 

Prophet ; Prophwyd ; Prophetes ; Propheta. 
Prophwyd is from bro-fi-w-yd, he is the country feeing man 5 
whence the reft. 

"Prosperous; Tycianus; Eutuxes; Prosper. Pro- 
sper is from bro-is-per, a country low at the water part; 
hMic&profperoiis ; tycianus and eutuxesare from ty wax, thickei* 
or fatter, the comparative of tew, thick or fat, which comes 
'from the fubftaiitive tywn, a thicket, or one man's houfe or 
abode, which was a thick bufli of fruit trees and flowering 
flirubs-fituated at the river fide, where the birds reforted, re- 
fembling paradife ; which is a compound of peradd-dwys, 
the moft profound fweetnefs. 

Protect ; Amddiffin ; Proamyno ; Protego. 
Atnddlffin is from am-ti-fin, to furround or defend the edge 
or ' borders of poflieffions ; proamyno is from bro-am-min, to 
furround the country edge or borders ; min and fin both fig- 
nifying edge, end or border, the m changing into f, by being 
joihed in compofition or inflexion ; protego and proteft are 
from bro-tego, to cover a country, or in a more primary fenfe 
from bro-ti-cau, to fhut or inclofe the pofleflions or poflifled 
part of the country. 

Proud; Balx orFRosTUs; Phroudos or Blax ; Su- 
FERBUs or Stolidus. Balx and blax are from bi-al-ac, be- 
ing adlJng high ; fuperbus is from fuper-bi-iu, it is a being 
alwvchigh; ftolidus is from ftultus, a fool, which fee; the 
other words are the fame- as proud, compofed of p-ir-w-id, he 
is a man of a high part. 

Prove; Profi; Peiraomai; Probo. Profi is from 
pro-fi, for fight j whence the reft. 



VIDEO. Provideo is from pro-video, to fee for; whence pro- 
vide ; prynu is to buy, and compofed of pryn, a putchafe, 
which is from pri-yn, the price upon; whence the Greek} 
fee parotoi under the word Prepare. 

Provoke or Irritate ; Ymherio or Galwallak; 
Erethiso or Eicaleo ; Provoco or Irrito. Ymherriois 
from am-hy-ir, for high fire ; galwallan is to call out $ whence 
ekaleo ; provoco and provoke are from pro-voco, to call fromj 
crethifo is from ir-tho-fi, it is putting one on fire ; whcDCt 

Prudent; Hybwyll ; Eubou;.os ; Prudeks. Hyb- 
wyll is from hy-pwyll, good counfel; whence euboulos; pru« 
dens is from pryd-cn-fi, it is an ancient, grave or divine font 
or countenance ; whence prudent. 

Publish; Cyffredino; Phaneroo; Publico. PiA- 
lico is from pobl-ac, a£iing to the people or nuiltitude; 
cyffiredino is from cyiFroi-din, to move the multitiides 
phaneroo is from phaino-yr-w, to (hew men or people. 

Pudding, hasty ; Wyd ; Poltos ; Puls. Wyd is 
from au-yd, corn and water ; pudding is from p-wyd-ing, I 
thing of corn and water ; poltos is from p*au-al-toe8> mC 
water upon dough ; whence the Latin word puis. 

Punish or Belabour ; Poeki ; Poinao ; Laboeo ^ 
PuNio. See the next dafs of words. 

Punishment; Poen; Poinos; Labor or Pjena. Pom 
is from p-K)-en, a thing from heaven ; whence ponos and p9« 
na ; punifhment having the addition of iih-maint, it is gieiCs 
labor is from law-ber, the thing of the hand. See Pain. 

Pure ; Pur; Agnos ; Purus. Pur, pure and punis M 
from ap-ir, from the fire; agnos is the fame as ignis, a firf; 
or primarily from ig^n-o-ii, it is from the firmament fice, or 
the fun. 

Purge; Carthu; Kathairo; Puroo. Piirgo and 
purge are from pur-ag, a pure or clean a&ion, or the a&oa of 
fire ; carthu and kathairo are from ag-ar-tu, an a&ion upon 
the houfe. 

Purify ; Pyro ; Phyro ; PuRO." Thofc are from the 
word pyr, pure, which is from ap-ir, from the fire, the Greek 
pyr and the Englifh fire being from ap*ir, or fir-ir, the Uying 
or part of fire, or of the element of fire, which i$ esp* 
preAed by ir, or tan, i. e. ti^en, the property of the firmt* 

Purple; Pyrffor; Porphura; Purpura. Pyrffor 

is from ap-ir-fi-ir, the view or colour from fire^ as red or 

4 fcarkt 

fcarlet !s dox, from ac-o-ux, from the upper o or the fun ; 
purple is from ap-ir-p-liu, a colour from a part of fire. 

Purse ; Pwrs; Burse; Bursa. Thofe are all explain- 
ed umJer the word Dugs» 

Put J Do or Dodi; Tho or Tithemi ; Pong. Put is 
frbm ap-yt, it is from ; pono is from ap-yiio, from there ; do 
is from id-o, it is from; whence tho, and titfiemi. 


from pwdr, rotten ; whence the other words, with the addi- 
tion of fio and facio, to do or make. See Rotten. 

Putrid; Pwdr; Sapros; Putris. Pwdr is from^p- 
o-dwr, a thing from the water ; fapros is from fi-p-or-au, it 
is a thing from the water ; whence the reft. 

Pye or Magpye ; Piod ; Kitta ; Pica. Pica is from 
pig-ac, the aftive bill ; piod is from pi-w-id, it is the bill, 
dnimal ; kitta is from ac-id-w, it is the aftive animal ; mag- 
pye is from m-ag-pi, it is the great aftive bill ; all fignifying 
* a chatterer. 

QvkJtt or Shake j Crynu ; KradAino ; Quatio. 
As id the Latin and Englifli fee the word Shake ; kradai- 
iio is from crynti, which Is from ac-ir-en, the aftion of the 
finnament firei 

' QyAtitY ; Dull or PeTh ; PoiEtES ; Qualitas* 

Pcth is from p-ith, it is p, or a part ; whence the Latin word 

X15S, by adding ati f to thep; thence alfopoietas; dull is from 

id-Ii, it is property >. qualitas and quality are from xuali-^ti^ 

•ftparattiig pr6perty. 

Quantity ; MaInt ; Posotes ; Qjjantitas. Quan- 
tltas ahd (Quantity are from cau-yn-ti, the compafs of property^ 
jtiatt^r Or a thing ; maint is from maw-yn-ti, the greatnefs of 
ffopeity, thing or matter ; pofotes is from pofos-quantus, or 
peth, a p^rt, and ti, property or thing. 
' Quarter or Fourth Part; Ypedwaredd; Tetar- 
TfiM ofttoN; QtlADRANS. Thofc fignify that it is the fourth. 
See Four and Fourth. 

• QtjAs^H ; YscYDio or SiClo ; Seio; Quasso. Thofc 
aire explained urtder the words Q^iake and Shake* 

Quests Ceisio ; Xercuo ; Qy-ffiso. X^ercuo ia from 
the Cqhic cyrxu, which, \vith the other words>are explained 
under the words Seek, Shake' and Shock. 

• Quiet or GlENTLi; Arafj Praos; Cici/r. Araf is 

R A 

from ar-ef, It is the earth ; praos is from p-ar-fi, it is an 
earthly thing ; ficur is from fi-ac-ar, it is an earthly a&ion; 

?uict is from quies, reft, which fee; fee alfo the word 
Quire ; Cor ; Xoros ; Chorus. All tho(e wprds arc 
compounded of the Celtic words cau-w-ar, a {hut upon or 
inclofure upon a man or animal ^ flail comes from eifte-al, to 
fit upon, as bovile, an ox ftall, &c« is from bQvi'le, an ox 
place or a ftall. 

Quoin ; Cyn ; Konos j Cuneus. Thrfe come from 
cau-yn, ihut in. 


Lus. Gynengan is froni cyn-engy, an enlargiog 
wedge ; coney is from cyn, a wedge; fo is cuniculus ; dioru^ 
is from the Celtic word diaru, to earth ; rabbet is from ar-bet» 
to bite or eat the earth, or from ar-bi-it, it is the earth 

Rafter; Cledr ; Kleithron; Tiqnum. Cledr, or 
cledren in the fingular number, feems to be framed of cau-al- 
tir, a (hut upon the houfe or poiTeflion; whence kleithron; 
tignum is from ti-cau-un» to fhut in a houfe ; rafter feems to 
come from r'-cf-ti-ar, it Is upon the top of the houfe. 

Rain ; BwRW ; Ombreo ; Plug. Rain feems to come 
from r'-au-en, the firmament water ; pluo is from, ap-al-au, 
the water from high ; bwrw and ombreo are from ab-ir-au, 
the water from high. 

Rainbow; Enfis; Iris; Iris. ItIs is from ir> fire; 
enfis is from en-fis, the finger of heaven, i 

Ram; Maharen; Arren; Aries. Maharen comei. , 
from ma-ar-en, the one upon the ma or flieep ; arr^ from | 
ar-en, the upon one; aries is froni ar-i-es, upon the lower or. 
female ; ram is from ar-am, for ma, upon the fheep. 

Rapid; Rhaibus; Arpaleos ; Rapidus. Rhaibus is 
from r'-hai-be-iu, it is an adive thing ; whence the reft, 
though fomewhat corrupted. 

Rare or Excexlent; Rhagorol; Araios^ Rarus. 
Rhagorol is from r'-hi-ag-wr, the high ading man; rarus. 
and rare are from r'-ir-w, it is the high man ; excellent is 
from ac-fi-al-ynt, they are adlion '> high. 

Rash; Byrbwyll; Aboulos; Temerarius. Byrbwyll^ 
is from bir-pwyll, liiort of counfel; whence aboulos } raihV 


k E 

,frbtti ir^ifhj it is hot ; tcmerarius is from twy-m-Wr-iii, he is 
(a warm man. 

Rashness ; Amhwyll ; Aboulia ; ImpbLudentja* 
i-Raflineis is explained under the word Raflii fo is aboulia ; 
amhwyll is from am, a negative particle^ and pwyll j advices ; 
imprudentia is from the negative im and prudens^ compound-^ 
.ed of prad-^ennfi^ it is an ancient or grave form; 

Ravish or Snatch; Rheibio ; Rapaso ; Rapio. As 
to all thofe, except fnatch, fee the word Rapid; (batch is 
• fi'om'fl-en'*atch5 it is the attra£tbn or force of fire. 

Ray or Sun-beam ; Pelydr 5 Aktin ; Radius. Ak- 

tin*is.fromac-ti-enj frotn the- property of the firmament ;. fun- 

.beamisfrom its refembling a large beam ; ray is from ir-ary, 

.from the fun; pelydr is from .p-al-ad-ir^ a thing high to the 

fun; radius is from ir-ad-iu, it is to the fun, or ray may be 

. &^hai, it goes or afts up to the fun. 

:Re; Ad ; At? a; Re^ As ir, fire, is the caufe of aflion or 
Ltnotion, fo ir, reverfed or tranfpofcd, makes re, fignifying the 
rcverfe of adion that is matter ; ad is from at, which fee; ana 
iis from a-en^aj that is, from the firmament to the earth. 

Realm or Kingdom ; Teyrnas ; TYRAKiffis ; Reg^ 
'ifUM. See Kingdom, Tyrant, King, &c. 

Reach ; Ystun ; Ektein6 ; Porrigo. Yftun is 
.from ys-tun^ the ftretch or tightnefs ; ekteino, to ftretch out ; 
■ porrigo is from pa-or-ag, the part ading from ; reach is from 
or*ac-fi) it is adting from. 

Read; Dar£L£n orCASGLU; LEGoorSuLLEGo; Lego* 

Read is from ar-id, he is upon it ; lego is from al-ag, upon 

adion; darllen is from id-ar-al-in, he is upon calling or fpeak* 

ing; cafglu is from ac-y-fi-galu, the adion of the calling 

'. found. 

Reap ; Medi.j Amao ; Meto. Medi is from am-yd, 
about the. com ; whence amao and metb ; reap is from r'-ap, 
. the from or drawing from. 

Reason ; Rheswm; Rhesis ; Ratio or Oratio, 
-: Rhefwn is from rhoi-fwm, to give the fum ; fwm is from fi- 
om, to fee all* 

Rjsconcile ; Anialeddu ; DiALLATTo ; Reconcilio. 
- Anialeddu is from the privative an-dial, no vengeance ; dial- 
Jatto is from the Celtic dial-atto, vengeance to himfelf ; re- 
concilio and reconcile are from re-con-fi-al-iu, it is to be 
: back upott- the found together. 

REDDiK;. Rhyddo; Eruthraino; Rveefacio. Thofe 
are explained under Red and the feveral othcx word$ whereof 
^ey are compofed; 

R E 

Red; CoX ; Kokkos ; Coccus. Cox is from ac-oint» 
from the high o or the fun ; whence the Greek and Latin 
words ; red is from ir-id, it is fire. 

Reed; Calaf; Kalamos ; Calamus. Calaf isfrom 
cal-ef, it is a thing to call upon ; reed is from ar-id^ it is die 
upon ; whence the reft. 

Region ; Bro ; Ora ; Ora. Bro is from bi-r*-w, the 
man's dwelling ; region is from r'-ge-yn, the nation witlun; 

• ora is from w-ar, a man upon, or from o-r, the border. 

Rejoic* or BE Glad ; Gwaudio ; Gadomai ; Gau- 
DEo. Thofeare explained under the word Joy. 

Rein OF a Bridle; Awen; Henionj Habeka. Aw- 
en is from y-w-in, the animal in ; whence enion ; habena h 
from y-bi-in, the animal in ; rein is from r'wrin, the ajumal 

• in ; as to bridle, fee Reftrain. 

Reins; Arenau; Ren or Nephroi; Renes. Arenau, 
the plural of aren, is from ar-^n, the high or upon one; 
whence renes and reins ; nephroi is from in-phe-ar-i, the 
inward thing that is high or eredied. 

Relate ; Agorid ; Agoreuo ; Narro. Agorid is 
from ag-or-id, it is an a6lion from ; whence agoreuo ; rdatc 
is from r'-al-it, it is the upon ; narro is from in-ar-iu, it is 

Rent or Rag; Rhwyg ; Rhogme ; Scissura. 

Rhwyg is from r'-w-ig, the angry man, or the confequence 

of being angry; whence rag, and rhakos; fcindo is from 

. (i-ac-en-id, it is the aSion of the firmament; whence fciflura; 

rent is from ir-en-it, it is the firmament. 

Repress j Gwrthpwyso ; Katapioso ; Reprimo. 
Gwrthpwyfo is from gwrth-pwys, oppofite weight j whence 
katapiofo; reprimo is from re-premo, toprefsback; whence 

Reproach or Reprimand; Sennu; Epexo; Repri- 
mo. Epexa is from ap-cxo, from having, that is, lefTening; 
reprimo and reprimand are from re-pri-mae, it is from a price 
or valuing ; reproach is from re-pri-ux, from a high price ; 
fcnnu is from fi-en-ni, it is not high or divine. 

Reqjjest ; DyiMuno ; Deomai ; REqjJiRO. Requiro 
and requeft are from re-quero, to feek back ; dymuno and de- 
omai are explained under the word Pray. 

Rest. or Ease ; Esmwyth ; Hesuxia; Qjjies. Reft 
is from r'-is-it, it is the lower ; eafe is from e-is, the lower ; 
1 cfmwyth is fron:i is-mwy-ith, it is more low ; efuxia is from 
; i-fax, lower; qiiics is from efuxia by tranfpofition. 

Rest or Sxeep; Cysgu; Esuxa;jo or Aesai, ab Aeo; 


DoRMio or QyiEsco. Sfeep is from fi-al-ap, it is from up; 
domiio is from to-ar-mi, a covering upon me; cyfgu is 
from ac-ifax, afting lower ; whence, and from the preceding 
dafs, the other words. 

Restrain or Bridle; Frwuyno ; Frasso ; FR-ffiNo. 
Frwyno is from frwyn a bridle, which is from fe-ir-w-in, a 
thing to keep in an hot animal ; bridle is from bi-ir-id-al, it 
is upon an angry or hot animal ; whence the reft. 

Retain or Hold ; Dal or Attal; Doleuo; Reti- 
KEO. Dal is from t-al, the high firmament, that is, the at- 
tra£l:ion of the high firmament ; attal is from at-dal, to hold 
to ; doleuo is from dal ; hold is from hi-ol-id, it is the fun, or 
the attraftion of the fun ; retineo and retain are from r'-ti-en, 
the firmament property. 

Retire ; Cilio ; Klino ; Recedq. Cilio is from cau- 
' ii, the light fliut, or the fun fet ; whence klinio ; recedo is 
'from re-cado, to fall back; retire is from or-tir, out of the 
1^ land or pofleffion. 

Revenge, Vindicate or Justify ; Cyfiawnhau ; 
? Dii^Ao ; ViNDico or Justifico. Cyfiawnhau is from cif- 

- A awn-hau, an adfcion of equal right ; dikao is from ti-cy-iu, it is 
» equal property ; juftifico and juftjfy are from juftus and fio or 

^ £icio, to make juft ; vindico is from vi-in-dico, to fpeak up 
c" on life ; whence vindicate ; revenge js from r'-iawn-ag, the 
K right acflion. 

Reverend; Anrhydeddys; Aidesimos; Reveren- 

^ DUS. Anrhydeddys is from un-rhydd-idiu, he is a free one ; 

wbeacp aidefimos ; reverendus i^ fron> r'-ur-en-idiu, he is an 

2 ancient or divine man ; whence reverend. 

K' Reward; Gwobr ; Geras; Premium. Gwobr is 

- from ag-o-bri, an action from before, that is, a prefent, or 
a thing fent before a vifit ; premium is from pri-mcwn, before 

» going in ; geras is from gyru to fend ; reward feems to be 

V from r'-e-ir-id, it is the from to. 

E RiB; AsEN; Osteon; Cost a or Os. Afen is from as- 
^ en, the roof or covering bone ; cofta is from cau-os-it, it is 
■ the covering bone ; rib is from ar-pe, the thing upon ; os- 
2 teon is from os-ti-en, the bone on the upper fide, 
;. Rick of Cork; Tas ; This; Strues, Pas and this 

are from to-as, covering the lower, that is, an heap upon a 
t heap ; ftrues is from fi-to-ar-is, it is a covering upon the 
» lower; rick is from ar-ux, upon the higher; fej Heap ; and 
X though the Greek term has been applied in a different fenfc, 

yet it feems to be from the fame origin as the verb tafib, 

tg heap or j)]ace tog ether, 

V Ms ^^^^\ 


R O 

RrcH; Berthog; Euporos ; Divm. Bcithog- |s fraii 
berth-og, a great heap ; euporos is from eu-p-foroe, a great 
•heap J dives is from ti-ve-fi, it is a property j rich is ifrom f-- 
ux, the high or an heap. 

Ridge, Top or Crown of th? Head, Hill, &c, 
Bron pr CoRYN ; KoRYMBos or Proon ; Cacumeh. 
Bron is from he-ar-en, apart upon the fky ; whence proon; 
cacumen is from cau-uxa-man, covering the upper part j cer- 
yn is from cau-ar-en, a covering upon the flcy ; Hdge is frota 
r'-uxa-id, it is the uppcrmoft j top is froni tx)-up, the upper 
covering. See Crown, 

Rift i Agen ; Regma; Rima. Agen is fromag*int 
acting into ; rift is from ir-ef-it, it is into it ; the other words 
arc from the Celtic rwyg, a rent. 

Right; Iawn^ Dikaios; Justus or Rectus. lawn 
is i-w-yn, the in man ; dikaios is from ti-ci-iu, it is equal 
property; juftus is from i-w-fi-ti, it is the property of man; 
J eft us is from r'-ac-tu, the act of property. 

Rigid; Gerwin ; Rigios ; Ri6idus. Gerwin is from 
garu-un, a rough one ; the reft are compofed of r'-ge-id, it 
is the countrj'. 

Rigour or Cold weather; Rhin; Rigos; Rigor. 
Rhin is from ar^en, the high country ; the other words are 
from ar-ux-oer, the high cold country. 

Rind or Bark ; Rhisg or Flaw ; Phlqics ; Cortex. 
Rhifg is from ar-is-gau, a covering upon the Iowcjt; barkb 
from be-ar-cau, a covering upon a thing ; rind is from ar-in- 
id, it is upon the within ; the reft are explained under the 
word Pil. 

River ; Avon ; Potamos ; Flumen, Avon or afbn 
IS frpmau-fon, the root or fpring-watcr, or-from a-fbn, from 
a fpring ; river is from r'-ver, the fpring ; flumen is from fluo, 
to flow and man, a place ; potamos is from potos-au*m6ii, the 
fpring drinking water. 

Roar ; Rhuo ; Oruo ; Rugio, Rhup is from r'-w, 
the animal ; whence oruo ; rugio is from r'-w-ag, the animal 
action ; roar is from r'-w-ar, the animal upon it, or r^-w-dr, the 
country animal. 

Roast or Dried ; Cras ; Xeros ; Aridus. Aridus is from 
ir-i^ii!, it is hot or dry ; cras is from ac-ir-fi, it is the a£Honof 
fire ; v/hence xeros j roaft is from ir-p-eft, it is from the fire. 

Roast or Dry ; Crasu ; Xeraino ; Torreo. Cra- 
fu is from ac-ir-fi, it is the aftion of fire; whence xeraino; 
jiry is from id-ir-y, it is the fire. See the laft clafs. 

JlpBusT ; Agwrdd ; IxuRos; Robustus. Agwrddii 

R O 

from ag-wr-id, he Is in z&ivt marl ; rbbiiftus is from wr-biu- 
eft, ^ he is an a<aive man ; whence robuft; ixuros is from ux- 
ur-fi, he is a high man. 

Rock; Craig; Rhox; Petra. Craig is from cau-r*- 
ux, covering the heighth ; rhox is from r'-ux, the heighth ; 
petra is from peth-ir, the high part ; rock is from r*-ux, the 

Roe ; IwRXES; DoRKAs ; DoRCAs. Iwrxes is fromi- 
w-ir-ux, the high hot animal ; dorkas is from id-iwrxesi fht 
is a roe ; roe is from r'-w, the animal. 

Roll ; Rholio ; Kukloo ; Roto. Rh'olio and roll are 
from r'-ol, the wheel; kukloo is from the Celtic cylx, a hoop; 
roto is from r'-o-it, it is the fun, which turiis round. 

Root ; Gwraidd ; Rhiza ; Radix. Gwraidd is from 
gau-ar-id, it is the covered part; rhiza is from r*-ifa, the low- 
eft ; root is from i^-o-out, the from out ; radix is from r'-di- 
11X, the riot up. 

Root up; Diwreiddio; Ekrisoo; Eradico. Thofe 
. are explained under the laft clafs. 

Rose ; Rh6s ; Rhodon ; Rosa. It being ufual to ex- 
prcfs any fweethefs of fmell or tafte as hohey, by the fun or 
fire, fo here thefe terms are c6'mpofed of ir-o-fi, it is the fir- 
mament o, or the fun. 

Ro^iN; YstoR ; RetinS ; Retina. Yftor is from is- 
to-ar, covering or flicking upon the lower ; rofin is from r*- 
is-in, upon the within ; the reft are from r'-^to-en, the cover- 
ing or fticking upon. 

Rot or make Rotten ; Pydru or Braenu ; Marai- 
Ko or PUTHOMAi ; Marceo or Putreo. Pydru is from 
ap-y-dwr, from the wet; whence puthomai and putreo ; brae- 
nu is from b-r'-au-in, a thing with the wet within ; whence 
maraino and marceo ; rot is from r'-au-it, it is the wet. 

Rough; Garw ; Xeros; Asper, Garw is from ag- 
^&r-w, the aftion of a country man or animal ; afper is from 
as-p-ir, the lower part higher; whence the reft 

Round; Crwn ; TrOxlos ; Rotundus. Crwn is 
from ac-r'-o-en, the adlion of jhc fun ; troxlos is from tro-ux- 
ol, the turn of the fun ; round is from r'-o-en-id, it is the 
fun ; rotundus is the fame. 

Rout or Snore; Rhoncian; Rhencxo; Rhongchizo. 
Thofe feem. to come from the different founds of fnoring. 

Row; Rhwyfo ; Eresso ; Remigo. Row and oar arc 
the fame as rhwy in rhwyfo and or in ordo, fignifying a 
jow or order; ereflbis from the Celtic rhefi, rows; this Celtic 
jrbes is compounded of r'-hai-fi, it is an adlion ftraight for- 

M 4 ^-JiX^V 


ward ; rhwyf is alfo from r'-hwi-ef, of the tame meanings 
remigo is from rem-ag, the a&ion of the row. 

Row or Oar j Rhwyf j Eretinos j Remus. See the 
laft clafs. 

Rub; Rhygni or Cnithio; Knetho or Thryga- 
NAO ; Frico. Rub is from r-ub, upon ; rhygni Is from r'- 
ag-in, the acting upon ; whence the Greek word ; frico is 
from fe-ar-ac, a thing afting upon 5 cnithio is from ac-in-IdiU) 
it is ailing upon 5 whence knetho. 

Ruddy; Rhydd ; Eruthros ; Ruber. Rbydd isar- 
1' y-idd, it is the high ground ; which is of a ruddy colour; 
wIkhcc tiie reft 

Rue ; Rhuv ; Rute ; Rut A. Thofe feem to come fixmt 
the Okie rliiu-da, a good kind, and from rhiw, a compound 
of i -iu, ii is hot ; or ir-id, of the fame figniiication. 

Rumour; Son; Phasisj Rumor. Son is from f«ni| 
ai und. which fee -, rumour is from the Cehic rhu-roawr) a 
great roaring ; phafis is from ph- (a, for) ar-fi, a thing upon 
the found. 

Run or Ride ; Rhedeg or Gyrru; Kvreo,.Reo or 
Trexo ; CuFRo. Rhedeg is from ar-hyd-ac, an aftion 
upon the length ; whence reo, ride and run ; gwyrru is from 
ag-ar-hai, an action upon the driving ; whence kyrco and cur- 
ro ; trexo does not exprefs running, but out-running, or over- 
coming, it being compounded of troi-ixa, to turn upper- 

Rush; Pabwyr or Brwyn ; Bruillion orPAPURONj 
Papyrus or Juncus. Pabwyr is from pe-bi-au-ar, things 
growing upon watery ground ; brwyn is from bi-ar-au-yn, 
growing in watery ground ; whence the Greek ; rufh is from 
ar-au-ifh, it is upon the water j juncus is from in-auc-fi, it is 
in the water. 

Rush violently ; Rhythro; Orouo ; Ruo. Rhythr, 
an aflault, feems to come from ir-hi-taro, it is an high, angry, 
or hot ftroke ; whence the reft. 

Rust; Rhwdj Erusibe; Rubigo. Rhwd may come 
from from ar-hyd, all along, or all over it ; or perhaps from 
ar-hai-it, it is acfting upon it ; more efpecially as rubigo is from 
ar-b-ag-iu, it is a thing ading upon it j hence the other 

Rustling ; Trwst ; Psophos ; Strepidus. Trwft 
is from trwi-fi-it, for id, it is a found thro* ; ftrepidus is from 
fi-trwi-p-idiu, it is a found thro* a thing ; pfophos is from 
p-fi-o-phos,* a thing it is from found j ruftling is from ruft, 
in trwftj and al-eng, high and great. 


S A 

, S. 

SACK; Sax; Sakos; Saccus. All thofe come frono &« 
cau, it is a (hut, or an inclofed thing. 

Sacrifice ; Abbrthu ; Thuo or Ieroo ; Sacrifico* 
Thofe words feem to deferve a more particular diilertation 
than this place will admit of; facrifico is to make holy» but how 
does not appear from the term itfelf ; ieroo is to anoint rather 
than to facrtiice ; thuo feems to be the fame as thu, in aberthu ; 
but aberthu comprehends the manner of ancient facriii9es ; for 
tho' her in the Celtic fignifies fpring water, from bi, life, and 
er, the element of water, yet berth is the only Celtic word for 
a bufh, except twyn, which (ignifie&the habitation of a man ; 
thu, formed from diu, God, (ignifies holy ; God, as it is faid 
by Mofes, appeared to the Ifraelite^ in a burning buih, proba-* 
biy as a holy place, or a place of facrifice ; is it not therefore 
likely that the ancient method of facrifice was to fet a bufll on 
lire, with the addition of holy water, perfumes, &c, 

Sad; Sad or Trist; Thraustos ; Tristis. Sad is 
from fi-ad, found ceafed or at reft, for when a thing is at, it 
is at reft ; trift, &c. are from tir-ifa-it, it is the lower ground* 

Saddle ; Shadell ; Satto ; Sella. Thofe fignify 
a fteady place of the feat, from fad-le, and fi-at. 

Safe; Sawys ; Soos ; Salvus. Sawysandfoos are from 
li-w-fi, it is a found animal ; falvus is from fi-al-ev-iu, it is 
all found; fafe is is from fi-a-fe, he is found. 

Sail; Hwylio; Elauno or Pled; Agitor or NAvr-, 
GOt Sail is from fi-au-al, it is upon the water; hwylio is 
from hai-au-al-iu, it is to drive upon the water; elauno is 
al-au-yn-iu, it is upon the high water ; pleo is from p-al-au, 
a thing upon the water ; agitor is from ag-i-dwr, acting up- 
on the water ; navigo is from navis-ag, the ihip action > fee 

Salt ; Helio or Halltu ; Aliso ; Salio. Thofe 
<ome from the Greek and Celtic terms als and halt, the fea or 
fait water, but being ufed for the fea merely on account of 
its height or largenefs, they don't aftually exprefs the fenfa- 
tion of faltnefs ; nor can any of the fenfations of tafte be ade- 
quately exprefied in thefe or any other languages. 

Salt; Halen; Als; Sal. Thofe are from als or lyr, 
the fea, which fee ; but it may be obferved here that lyr is 
from al-yr, the high ; and als is from al-fi, it is high, 

Salve ^ Eli ; Elaion ^ Uncuemtum. Eli is from 

S A 

y-al, the upon ; unguentum is from un-uxa-*n-to, the up- 
permoft on the upper covering ; whence the reft. 

Same ; Efs or Hi^ Autos; Ipse or Idem. Thofeare 
the fame as himfclf, hcrfelf, or itfelf, which are explained 
under the word Himfelf, 

Sanctity ; Sanctaidd ; Agiotes ; Sanctitas. Agi- 
©tes fecms* to be from ae-i-6-ti-fi, it is the aAion of the fiery 
o, or the fun ; the reft are from fi-cn-ig-ti, it is the pro- 
perty of the firmament fire. 

Sand; Tywod orTvwiN ; Amathos; Arena. Ty- 
wod is from ti-au-id, and tywin is from ti-au-yn, the fide or 
poflfeffion upon the water ; amathos is from am-au-tu, the pof- 
lefTions about the water ; arena is from ^-in-au, the ground 
upon the water ; fand is from fea-in-id, it is upon the fea. 

Sap ; Syg ; XuMos ; Succus, Thofe are all explained 
under the next following clafs. 

Sappy ; Gwlyb ; Xulodes ; Succosirs. Gwlyb is 
from ag-au-al-b, the adion of water upon a thing ; whence 
xulodes; fappy is from fi-au-ap-y, it is from the water; fuc- 
cofus is from fuccus, which is from fi-auc, it is the water. 

Satisfy ; Corawgi ; Koreo ; Satio. Corawgi is 
from c6r-og, great feeding; whence korea ; fitio is fix)mfat, 
enough ; whence fatisfy, with the addition of fio, to make. 
See Lnough. 

Savour ; Sawyr or Xwaith ; Xumos ; Sapor. 
Xwaith is from xwa, a breath or fteam ; whence xumos ; fa- 
por is from fi-ap-au-ir, it is from hot water ; whence favour; 
Of from fi-a-au-ir. 

Saw; Luf; Kleithron ; Sera. Llif is from llif, 
flood, from the flowing of the faw-duft ; whence kleithron ; 
fera is from fero, to faw, from the flowing of the feed out 
of the hand ; whence alfo faw. 

Saw; Rhygnu, Llifo or Briwo ; Rhegnumi or Prio; 
Serro. Serro and faw are explained in the laft clafs ; llifo, 
the moft ufual Celtic tertn for fawing, is from lif, a faw ; 
the other words mentioned here fignify nothing more than 
the afting in or upon, from r'-ag-in, and b-ar-iu. 

Say or Declare ; Dywedyd ; Deiknumi; Dice. As 
to dico and deiknumi, both are of the fame root, and explain- 
ed under the termAnfwer; fay is from fi-hai, the aftion of 
found ; dywedyd is from id-w-id, it is the man's fceirtg ; de- 
clare is from dico-al-ir, the fpeaking upon a thing. 

Say I; Eb ; Eipe or Phemi ; iNqyio. Say is from 
fi-hai, the founding adion or fpeaking ; eb is from e-bi, the 

. life 


Jiffe or feeing 5 phemi is from phUmi, my life or fight; In- 
qiHO is from in-ac-iu, it is to be upon action* 

Scabby; Craxogj Traxodks; Scabiosus. Craxog 
is from cau-ar^ux-og, a-great covering or gathering upon the 
outfide ; whence traxodds^ or from the Celtic craxod, of the 
fame fignification as craxog-; fcabby and fcabiofus are from 
fcabies, a fcaby which fte under the next clafs. 

Scab or Scar; Crax ; Axqr; Scabies. Scar^ crax^ 
and axor, are defined under the words achor and corruption ; 
fcabies is from fi-cau-ub, it is a gathering upon ; whence fcab. 
Sg are-Crow ; Bw»ax j Phoberon ; Terriculambn- 
n'UM. Bwbax is from bw, a terrifying particle of found oii- 
ly^ ufed iij the EngUlh as well as the Celtic, as when they fay 
]he cannot fay a bw^ or a bo to a goofe, ^d bax, a child, that 
i?, the frightful child ; phoberon is ftoid^phobeo, to terrify, as 
js terriculamentum, from terro-cau-al-maint, a great thing co^ 
vercd over to terrify ;• fcare is from fi-cau-ar, it is a thing co- 
vered upon or drefled. 

- Scare; Tarfu ; EiRCa; Arceo, Arceo, (bare, and 
leirgo are from ar-cau ; or fi-ar-cau, it is a thing dreifed or co- 
vered-; tarfu is from to-ar-ef, it is covered over, as a fcare« 

Scatter ; Ysgwyd ; Skedao ; Dispergo. Thofe ar« 
from the fame original figriification, as the terms ihake, 
quake, quafli, &q. as for example ys-ag-o-id, it is the action 

School; Yscol ; Xole; Schola. Thofe come from 
ts-ac-le, the place of lowering the a£tion or teaching. 

Scion or Young Shoot ; Impin; Emphuteu^ma ; In- 
siTUM. Shoot is from fee-out; fcion is from fi-en, it is up ; 
impin is from un-pen-en, one end up ; the reft are from phu- 
teuo apd fero, to fowor plant, which fee. 

Scolloped ; Yscolp ; Skolops ; Pr^acutus. Prae- 
^cutus is from pre and acutiis, fharp, which fee; the reft are 
from ys-uxa-al-p, the uppermoft'upon a thing, or above the 
edge, which fee. 

Scrape or Carvf; Crafu or Carfio; Xaratto ; 
ScuLPO or RoDO. The original term is from the Celtic 
crafu, which is a compound of ac-ir-fe, an aftion into a thing ; 
fculpo is is from fi-ac-p-al, it is afting on a thing; rodo is 
from ir-hai-id, it is afting into ; whence the reft. 

Scratch; Cost; Kniso; Scabo. Cofi isfromac-is- 
fi, it is the adiori of eafing ; fcratch is from fi-ac-ar-atch, 
for itch, it is an a£lion upon the itch ; whence the reft. 
Scribble or Wmtr; Sci^ifenii; Grapho; Scribo. 

S E 

Scrifena is from fcrifeii, Writing ; which tomes from crafu, to 
fcrape, which fee; write is a compound of w-ar-it, the man 
is upon ; or from ar-it, upon it ; the reft come from crafu. 

Scull ; Cruan ; Kranion ; Cranium. Scull is from 
fi-cau-al, it covers the upper part ; cruan is from cau^r'-en, 
the top covering; v/hcncc the reft. 

Sea; Mor ; Als; Mare. M6r is from maur, great; 
whexKe mare ; als is from al-fi, it is or founds hi^h ; fea is 
cither from ii-au, it is the water ; or a tranfpofiaon of the 
word hifs. 

Sea Bank; Tywin; Things; Littus. As tothofe 
fee the word Shore. 

Seal; Sel; Sphragis ; Sigillum. Sphra^is is from 
fi-ph-ar-ag-is, it is the a£t of figning or feeing a thmg upon a 
lower ; the other words are from fi-al, to be or to be feen 
. Seat ; Gorsedd ; Xqros ; Sedes. Gorfedd is from 
gor-is-id, it is above the lower ; xoros is from ux-r'-is, above 
the. lower ; fcdes and feat are from fedd in gorfedd. 

Second; Ail; Allos; Secundus. Ail is fromau-al,- 
the high water ; whence alios ; fecundus and fecond are from 
js-auc-en-idiu, it is the water below the firmament. 

Secret ; Cyfrinax ; Kruphon ; Secretum. Cy- 
frinix is from cyf-ar-in-cau, fhutting upon them together ; 
kruphon is from cau-r'-phon, fliutting the voice ; fecretand 
fecretum are from fi-cau-ar-it, it is ftiutting upon the found. 

See or Behold; Edryx, Idiu or Gweled; Blepo, 
Derko or Ideo ; Video. Idiu, idco and video are from the 
particle id, it is, explained in the preface ; fee is from the par- 
ticle fi, it is, alfo explained in the preface ; edryx and derko are 
from id-ir-ux, it is or to fee the high fire or light ; gweled is 
from ag-il-id, it is thcaftion of light ; blepo is from ab-il-P) 
a thing from the light ;f behold is from bi for vi-hi-ol-id, it is 
feeing the highlight oiun. 

Seek; Ceisio; Etaso ; Qu^so. Ceifio is from ^c-. 
y-fi„ the aflion of feeing for ; whence the reft. 

Send away ; Danfon ; Aphiemi ; Mitto. panfon 
is from id-en-fon, it is to the end ; mitto is from am-y-to, 
about the border ; aphicmi is from a-phe-am, out of the 

Sense; Synwyr; Aithesis; Sensus. Synwyrisfrom 
C-yn-w-'r, the fight in m^n ; fenfus and fenfe are from fi-in- 
fi-w, it is man's- infight ; aithefis is from eitha-fi, it is the ut- 
rnoft fight. 

Separate; GwAHA^^u ; Xaino ; Dehisco. Gwa|;ia* 



nu is from ag-o-hai-In, an a£Uon from afting in or joining j 
whence xaino ; feparate is from fi-p-or-it, it is a thing from ; 
dehifco is from id-hi-is-ac, it is high from the low. 

Sepulchre; Bedd; Abathus or Taphos; Sepul-j 
CHRUM. Bedd is from ab-idd, from being feen ; whence aba- 
thus ; taphos is from the Celtic tu-phoes, the ditch houfe ; the 
reft are from fi-ap-al-ux-ir, it is a part out of the high light. 

Serene or Gentle; Arafdeg orGLAN; Aithrios or 
Galenos ; Serenus. As to thofe fee the nextclafs, and the 
words Fair,' Clean, and Air. 

Serenity or. Calm Air ; Awyr araf ; Aithra ; Se- 
RENITAS. Awyr, air, is from au-ir, fire and water; araf is 
flow, and compofed of ar-ef, it is the earth ; whence aithra ; 
ferene is from fi-ir-en, it is a warm or clear horizon. 

Serpent ; Sarph ; Ophis ; Serpens. Sarph is from 

. fi-ar-i-ph, a found at his end ; whence the reft. 

Servant; Gwas ;. Doulos ovi Uperetes; SERvusor 
Famulus. Gwas is from ag-w-as, the lower afting man ; 
doulos is from tuli-as, under the family ; fervus is from is-ur- 
ve-iu, he is an under man ; whence fervant ; uperetes is from 
yper-i-tu-es, the lower over the houfe. 

I Set or Place ; Sefydlu ; Uphist am ai ; Pong or Lo- 
co. Sefydlu is from fef-at-le, it is to a place; pono is from 

• p-uno, a thing there ; fet is from fit,, which is from is-ti, low- 
er thou ; place is from a place ; loco is from the Celtic le-acu, 

•a place there ; as to uphiftamai fee the word Stand. 

Seven; Saith ; Epta; Septem. Thefe terms are 

" taken from the day of reft after the lixth day of the creation ; 

. and the Celtic is from fa-ith, the adion fending ; feven is 
from fav-in, in or upon a ftand ; feptem and epta fignify to 
^fift from the world, from, ap-da, from the world, and fa- 
ap-da-am, ftandingfrom the world ; fee; Good. 

Severe; GERWiN.or Trist;. Austeros ; Seyerus. 

; Gerwin is from ag-arw-in, a terrible aftion upon ; trift is 
from tir-is-it, or ifder, it is the low ground, or low, fad, or 

.heavy; whence aufteros ; feverus and fevere are from fev- 
ar-is, it is the lower ground, or fad, &c. 

Shadow; Cysgod ; Skotos ; Umbra. Cyfgod is 
from cau-y-fi-ag-id, it is the fhutting up or covering from 
feeing ; whence (kotos ; ibadow is from (hade, which is com- 
pofed of fhi-p-id, it is from feeing ; umbra is from am-be-ir, 

■ about the fhining part. 

: Shake; Sigi-q; Saleuo; Quatio. Siglo is from fi- 
ag-al, it. is an afltion upon; whence faleuo ; quatio is from 

. ac-idig, it is an action i ibake is from fi-ac, it is action ; but 

It is to be obferved that fi in its primary fignification fighi^ 
found ; for what founds is or exifts. 

Shank; Esgair; Skelos; CruS; Efgair is from ef- 
gar, the ham, or the lower ham, and gar is from ag-ar, adling 
upon ; (kelos is from is-ac-al, the lower a6):ing upon ; fh2nlt 
is from is-in-ac, the lower afl:ion upon j crus is from'ac-ar-is, 
the lower aSing upon. 

Sharp i Tost; Thoos j Acutus. There are nb adj5-» 
quate terms to exprefs the fenfations of tafte, fo thofe were 
framed from the fliarpnefs of a weapon, viz. (harp, from fi-hi- 
ar-p, it is the high or uppermoft upon a thing ; toft is from 
to-is-it, it is the covering or edge upon the lower ; whence tbin 
os ; acutus is from uxa*tu, the upper fide ; nor could an edgei 
be expreifed any otherwife than a hedge, or the upper or out-" 
fide. See Hedge and Edge. 

She ; Hi ; Ante^ III a. Hi is the fame as high ; the is 
fi-hi, it is high; ante and ilia are the fame, all exprefling a 
creature of an high value. 

Shear or (Jlip; Cneio; Knao; Tondeo, Cneiois 
from cnu, a fleece of wciol ; whence knao ; Ihear is from cau-*' 
or, the covering from, the Celtic c in cau being founded like an 
f by the Englilh, they at length wrote (hau for cau, as Ihirtf 
for caer ; tondeo is from tunu-idiu, it is drawing ; fee Draw^. 

Shears ; Gwella ; Xele ; Forfex. Shears is explain-' 
ed in thelaft foregoing clafs.; gwella is from ag-w-al, aAing 
upon an animal ; xele is from ac-al, adling upon ; forfex is fe*^ 
^r-fi*ac, it is a thing adting upon animals. 

Sheep ^ Dafad ; Ois ; Ovis. As the cattle are called 
by the name of higher animals, fo fheep are diftinguiflied by the 
lower animals ; as ovis from w-is, the lower animals ; whence 
ovis ; fheep is from ifa-pe, the lower things or from fi-hi-ap^ 
it is from the high ; da£ad is from di-w<-ef-id, it is a diminu- 
tive or the lefler animal. See Lamb. 

Sheet ; Llenllian ; Lineos ; LintbuI^. ZJenllian 
k from.-Uen-llian, the covering linnen ; iheet is from cau^kj 
it is the covering, the c in cau being exchanged for the f ; benct 
the other words. 

Shell ; Crogen ; Kongxe; Concha. Cfogen is from 
cau-ar^auc-en, a covering or fhut upon the fea one j kongzft 
is from cau-^n-auc, the water ihut one; ihell isfrom ihe^dy 
inftead of cau-al, a fhut upon. 

Shepherd; Bigal; Boukolos or Boken ; UpiLiO'4)r 
Pastor. Bigal is from birgal, the cattle caller ; whence 
boukolos 3 boken is from bi-cau-in^-lhe cattle fhutterin; 


S tt 

uipilio is from y-bi-alw, the cattle caller; paftor Is the feeder'; 
uid fhepherd is from fticep-herd. 

Shew; Dangosj Deiknumi ; Monstro. Dangos is 
Erom id-eng-fi, it is enlarging fight ; deiknumi is from the 
wcltic difcu-ni-mae, it is teaching us ; fliew is from fi-w, nian 
Teeing ; monftro is from mons-tir, the high or mountain part. 

Shield ; Aes or Tarian ; Aspis or Thureos ; Scu- 
tum. Tarian is fromtaro-in, ftri king upon ; whence thu- 
-eos ; aes is fromai-es, lowering aftion or force; fhield is from 
Is-hai-al-id, it is lowering the adion upon ; fcutum is from 
[i-acrto-am, it covers about force or afiion. 

Shift or Strain ;• Nithio or Hidlo ; Hethho ; Ex- 
AC ERG or Colo. Strain is from the Celtic fi-trui-un, it i$ 
K^. thorough one ; fliifr is from cau-fe-out, fhutting a thing 
Qut ; nithio is from un-hai-if h-o, it is the one afting or throw- 
ing from ; whence hetheo ; hidlo is from hyd-le, fpreading 
ailong a place ; colo is from ac-al, adiing upon ; exaeero is 
£rom ex-ac-ar, a£Kng out upon. 

Shilling ; Swllt ; Stereos ; Solidus. Thefe iri 
febok primary fenfc fignify the founding fun, but fecondarily 
fehie; founding all or folid, as (wilt from fi-allt, it is the fun ot 
all ; whence folidus ; (hilling is (i-ol-€?ng, it is the great all i 
aod ftereos is from ft-ir-o-fi, it is the fourkling fun. 

Shine ; Llewrxu; Lampo ; Luceo. Llewrxu is froni 
Uui-ir-ux, the colour of the high (ire or light; luceo is from 
Itti-uxa, the upper colour or light; lampo is from il-am-p, the 
light about the parts; (hine is from fi-en, it is the firmament. 
Shining; Goleu; Aigle; Eulcor. Shining is from 
fireiL-eng, it is an extenfive firmaiAent ; goleu is from ag-ol- 
iu, it is the acSion of the fun ; whence aigJe ; fulgor'is from 
fc-ol^ag-or, it is from, the adlion of* the fun. 

Ship; Llong ; Ploion; Navisc Navis is from the 
Celtic novio to fwim ; (hip is from fi^hi-p, it is a high thing ; 
ploion is from p-al-au-in, a high, thing upon the water; Ifong* 
IS from al-au-eng> large upon the \^ter, this being the larger 
&rt of (hips. 

■ Shirt, Shift or Waistcoat ; Crys or Cryspas ; 
KyPAssis or. Priomion; Supparum. Crys is from, 
cau-r-is, the lower covering; cryfpas is froiri cau-ar-is- 
pp^fi^ it is a covering upon the lower part ; whence ky- 
paffis ; fupparum is from ifa-p-ar, the ]owe(l thing upon ; pri- 
Qwion. is . from.pri*mi-am) the- fiiil about me; mirt is from' 
is-ar-it, it is the lower upon ; fliift is from is-ef-it, it is the' 
lowier thing ; waiAcoat is froip waifi; and coat, which fee. 
JShite; CAxui Xgzoj Caco. Caxu is from ac-ac, 


aQing from ; or from ac-ox, the filthy adion ; whence ikt 
Greek and Latin terms ^ the £ngli(h word is from fi-hai-out, 
it is acting out. 

Shock or Conflict ; Ymgyrx ; Suncjkrousis ; Cok- 
TLICTUS. Ymgyrx is from am-ac-ir-ux^ an aAion of the 
high fi^e about ; whence the Greek term, only varying the 
prepofition; (hock is from (hake; confIi£l and conflidus 
are from con-flo-ac, an adion of blowing or breathing to* 

Shoe; Esgid; Askera; Pera. £fgidisfromis-<raiiad, 
the lower covering ; afkera is from is-cau-ar, the lower cover- 
ing upon I pera is p-ar, upon the foot ; fhoe is from is-iu, it is 
the loweft) or from fi-hi-o, it is from high. 

Shoot 5 Saethu ; Toxeuo;'Sagitto. Saethuisfrom 
li-aeth, it is, or the found is gone ; fhoot is from fi-out, it is, 
or the found is out ; fagitto is from fi-ag-it, the founding 
2.& s toxeuo is from id-exo, it is found. 

Shoots, BuDsor Sprouts ; Egihs Gennema ; Gbr- 
MEN. Egin is from ag-in, acting in ; geimema is from ag-in- 
mae, it is adling in ^ whence germen ; moot is from fi-out, it is 
out ; bud is from b-o-id, it is part out s fprout is from is-^p-or" 
it, it is from the lower part. 

Shore j Tywyn j Thines ; Littus* Shore feems to 
come from fea-ar, the fea ground ; tywyn is from ty-au-yii, 
pofTei&ons upon the fea ; whence tywed, fand, and thin ; lit' 
tus feems to be compounded of kral-au, the place at di& 

Short ^ Byr; BRAXtxs; Brevis. Bir is acompotmdof 
ab-ir, from high ; whence braxus and brevis ^ ibort is from 
fi-hi-or, it is from high. 
A Vn-. Shove; Gwithic/^ Otheo ; Trudo* Cwithio is 

compounded of ag-o-ith, it is an a£tionfrom ; whence otbeoi 
trudo is from troi-id-o, it is to turn from; fliove is from Ihi' 
o-ve, it is from him. 

Shoulder; Ysgwydd, Omos ; Humerus. Shoulder 
is from fhi-al-der, it is the high upon ; humerus is from hi- 
mi-ar, it is high upon me ; omos is from aio-mi, my bearing ; 
yfovvydd is from ys-ag-w-iddj it is the man's action 3 or man's 
aSing under. 

Shout; Cydfloeddio ; Sumboao ; Conclamo« Shout 
comes from fi-out, the found out ; cydfloeddio comes from" 
cyd-floedd, to found or fhout together ; the reft are defined 

Shower; Cafod or BwRW GlAw -, OmbrosoiHye* 



TOS; Imber brpLUViA. Bwrw, ombros and imbcrarc^e* 
fined under the word raih *, cafod is from auc-cf-id, it is ihi 
water thing; fliOvc^cr is from fi-au-if, it is the high \v2ltef^ 
glawio is from ag-al-au, all aftion of the high water ^ vWiienci 
pluvia ; hyetos is froni hj-au-it, it is the high water; 

Shroud ; Amdo ; oindon ; Sindon. Amdo is froiii 

- am-to, a covering about ; findon isr from fi-in-to, it is a co-» 

^ Vering upon ; (hroud is from fi-tir-w-id, it Is upon a man. 

2 Shut or Include; AMciot bi Arg/iu; Eirgo oi* 

Kleio ; Includo or Claudo. Thofe are explained undei* 

* the word Inclofe ; but it mzv Vlt fartljer obfervtd Her6, that c 

* in cau, as a part of o not only fignifies a lefler (hut or Inclo- 
= furc than o, the univerfal circle, Mxit alfo Icfief motion of Ac- 
tion, as the motion of oj is the greater br univerfal^ the ii add- 

5 ed thereto fignifies the welter, which is fiippofed to inclofe or 
^ furround the world ; but ftte the preface, 
s Sickly; Clafus; Xalepos ; JEgkL Clafus is froril 
ac-al-fe-fi, he is from being upon high or found ; whence xa-» 
^ lepos ; fickly is from fi-ac-al,- he is from up or high ; agre i^ 

* from ag-ar, from high or up. 

^ Side ; Tu or OxoR ; HoRos j Gra; Side h front fi'-tu, 
-i it is the fide ; the reft come from o for y-cwr^ the edge or bol- 
der, and from or, a border, 
t. Sieve; GogR; Koskinon; Cribru'm; Gdgr is front 
^ cau-o-cau-*r, the inclofures or holc^ from fhuttifig or keeping; 

* kofkinon is from cau-of-cau-iil, fhuts without keeping within ; 
■ iieve is the fame as fift, which fee ; cribrum is from cau-r'-ber- 

the water fhut or veffel, perhaps ironically, or for want of a 
better word; or from ac-ar-y-brin, theaftion upon h?gh ground^ 
• it being ufual to fift corn on high ground. 

Sight; SvLworTREM; Skope or TriEorRfiMA ; Spe- 
cula. Sylw is from fi-il-w, it is man or an anrmal's Hght ; 
fight is from fi-ag-it, it is the feeing aft ; trcm is from, id-ir- 
am, it is the fire or light about; whence th^oremaj ikopehf 
from fi-ac-op, it is from the eyes j fpfeculais frorri fi-ap-oc^ul^ 
it is from the eye. 

Signify; Mynegi} Menvo; Significo. Myn^giisfrom 
mi-yn-ag-i, mehigh in adion ; whence rtienyo; fignifico is froni 
fi-ag-ni-fi-ac, the fdu^nding ad w^ are ading ; whence fignify. 

Silence ; Gosteo or ARAFW:t; Sige or Arresia ; 
Sil-ENTIUM. Arafwx is frotii araf-ac, a flow or dead aftioili 
mrrefia is from the Celtic afra-fi, it ih flow ; gofteg is from ag-* 
£'di*ag, a privative aflion of the aftion of fodrid ; as to tSo 
xeft fee the next clafs. 

SiLSNT or TO B£ STILL ; SlO or DiSTIWI ; SiGAd; 

N Si«o 


SitEO or Taceo. Sio is from fi-o, from fouiul; iHtffwih 
from id-is-tcwi, it is a lower holding ones peace ; figao b 
from fi-ag-iu, it is from found j filco is from fi-al-o, from 
high found ; taceo is from id-fi-o, it is without or from found) 
filent is from filco ; ftill is from fi*di-al> it is from high, or 
from fli-al, upon a ftand. 

Silk ; Sidan or Sirig ; Serikon ; Sericum. Sidan 
Js from fi-tu-en, it is the upper fide or the upper covering; 
lirig is from is-ar-gau, a coveiing upon the lower; whence £e 
Greek and Latin -, filk is from is-al-cau, a covering upon dit 

Silver ; Arian ; Argurion ; Argentum. Thofe 
are explained under the word Argent, which fee. 

Sin.; Pexu; Ptaio ; Pecco. Pexu is from p-uxa, tlie 
hieheft thing ; ptaio is from peth-ai, the higheft thing; peco» 
is from pexu; fin is from fi-en, it is high. 

Sincere; Didwyll; Adolos; Sincerus. Didwyll 
comes from di-dwyll, without deceit or darknefs, which word 
twyll is compofed of id-o-il, it is from the light ; whence ado- 
los ; fmcerus is from fi-in-ac-ir, it is an invirard warm adion; 
whence fincere. 

Sincerity; Diragrith; Anupokritos; Sinceri- 
TAS. Sinceritas and fmcerity are from certus, certain; 
which fee ; diragrith is from di-r'-ag-rith, v^thout the adion 
of fhew or appearance. 

Sing ; Canu ; Kanaxiso ; Gang. Sing is compofed 
of fi-eng, a high or great found ; canu comes from can, a ibngy 
which is a compound of ecco-en, a high or divine found; 
from whence are derived the Greek and Latin vocables. 

Singe; Deifio; Typhoo ; Ustulo. Singe is from fi- 
in-ig, it is in the fire ; uftulo is from ys-ti-ol, it is the pro* 
party of the fun ; the reft are from id-ef-i-o, it is a thin{ 
from the fire. 

Single or Simple ; Unplyg ; Aploos ; Simplex* 
Unplyg is from un-pljrg, one fold, fee Fold ; whence aplooH 
fimplcK and fimple ; imgle is from fi-un-cau-al, it is one ihutt 
covering, or fold upon. 

Sinister; Anhylaw or. Asw ; Skaios or Laios; 
Sinister. Anhylaw is from an-hi-law, without a free tf 
ready hand ; the reft are explained under Left Hand. 

Sink ; Syddo ; Kathisano ; Sido. Sink is if-iii- 

auc, to lower in the water ; fyddo is from if-au-id, it is to 

lower in the water ; fido is from fyddo ; kathifano is from 

cau-tu-ifa-in-au, to be covered in the infide of the water» 

Sirrah ; Ha} A; Ha. Sirrah is from fir and ah, an 


S L 

^tMt&ion of forbidding } ccmpofed of hai-a, from 2£&otk 

br aaion to the earth, that is, a privation of adton. 

Sit ; Eistedd ; £zo or Kathizo i Sedeo. Eiftedd^ 

fit, and fedeo, are from the Celtic is^ti, lower thou > ezo is 

from the Cekie ifa, low^ ; kathizo is from ac-ti-is, ad, or 

come thou lower. 

Six ; XwEX } Ex ; Sex. Theft terms are formed from 
: the flxth day's creation, viz. that of man sind beafts, xwex 
: fully exprefling it, as compounded of ac-w-ox, the aftion of 
i tnan and animals; whence the other terms; 

Sixth; Xwexed; Ektos; Sextus. Thofe are nothing 
' taore than the fixth day's €!reation of man and beafts;. 

* Sky; Wybren; Ourancs^ Coelum. Sky is from fi- 
. cau-y, it is the high covering or thfc bounds of fight ; coelum 
- ii from cau-al-am^ the high covering about ; ouranos is from 

gwyr-en, and fo is wybren* See Air and Sky. 
; Skiff or Ferry-Boat; YsGRAFF; Skaphe; Scapha. 

Yfgraph is from ys-cau-ar-aii-fe, it is a veffel upon the water j 
» whence the reft, except ferry, which fee in its place. 
; Skilful or Ingenious ; Cywrant ; Gnorimos ; 

Gnarus. Cywrant is from ac-wr-en-id, it is an high aftioh 
I of man, or a manly a£lion ; ingenious is from en-ag>in-w-fi^ 
, it is an high aftion in man ; gnorimos is from ag-en-wr-y- 
. inae, it is an high aft of man ; gnarus is from ag-en-wr-fi, it 

18 an high aft of man ; fkilful is from fi-ac-al, it is an high 
. aftion, and fulL 

[ Skin; CENorCROEN; Skutos, Rhinos or Xroos ; 
j Cutis or Corium. All thofe come from the Celtic cau-yn^ 

or cau-ar-yn, both fignifying a ftiut in, an inclofure, or a 
J covering. 

J. Skip; Llamu ; Allomai ; Salio. Llamu' is from al- 
j'am, high about; Whence allomai ; falio is from fi-al, it is 

high ; fkip is from fi-ac-up, it is an aftion up or high. 
^ oKULL ; Shiol, Coryn or Cruan ; Kranion^; Cra- 
j NiUM. Coryn, cruan, kranion, and cranium, are from cau-^ 
I ar-en, a Ihut or covering upon the high part or top ; (kull is 

from fi-cau-al, it is a fliut or covering upon. 
■i Sky ; Wybr ; Aither ; ^Ether- . Wybr is from au- 
2'bi-ir,. water brought into life or fprung up by fire or heat ; 
I aither and xther are frotn au-et-ir, water and fire ; Iky is 
* 'from fi-cau-y, it is high covering or the boutids of fight, or 

fi-auc-y, it is the high water ; but fee Sky and Air. 

Slack ; Llac ; Xalaros ; Laxus. Llac is from Ilai- 

ac^ lefs aftion ; xalaros is from lac-^r, lefs aftion or force 

upon 3 whenfe all the reft, as flack from fi-lac, it is flacky 

S L 
and laxus from lacau, to flacken, or ficken In the C^ 

Slacked; Llacau; Langeo; Pigresco ofLan- 
GUEO. Sec the laft mentioned clafs of words. 

Slate or Stone; Llex ; Lithos j Lapis. Thofeait 
explained under the word Stone. 

Slaughter; Lladdfa; Klatos; Clades. Thofc 
are explained under the word Kill. 

Sleep or Nap ; Cwsg or Hyn ; Koitos or Upnos; 
Sopor or Somnium. Cwfg is from cau-w-fi-ag, tofhuts 
man or animal from feeing, thinking, &c. hyn is from lud- 
yn, adion within ; fopor is from fi-ap-wr, fight from maa} 
fomnium is from fio-mewn, found widiin ; koitos is from can- 
tu-fi, (hutting the houfe of fight. 

Sleep; Hung; Upnoo; Dormio. Dormio is fromto^ 
ar-mi-iu, it is a covering upon me ; huno is from hai-in-W| 
acSion within man ; upnoo is from y-bi-in-w-o, the life in 
inan from ; nap is from in-ap, from being in or exiilio^ 
fleep is from fi-al-ap, fight is from being up. 

Slender; Main; Minyos ; Tenuis. Tenuis is fjram 
tena, thin, which fee ; flender is from fi-al-en-d wr, it is die 
firmament water; main and minyos are from the Celtic mini 

Slice or Slit ; Sgyren; Skiros; SECAMENTUifc 
Sffyren is from fi-ag-or-en, it is afting from the upper part; 
wnencc fkiros ; fecamentum is from fi-ac-maint, it is ftiw 
the fubftance or bulk ; flice is from fi-le-ac, it is from its 
place ; flit is from fi-le-di, it is divided from its place. 

Slip; Llithroj Olitheo ; Labor. Llithroisfroa 
al-y-troed, the foot up ; whence olitheo ; labor is from al-b' 
yr, the foot up ; flip is from fi-al-p, the foot is up» 

Slit or Cj^eave -, Agenu, Rhanu or Rhwyoo ; Kso 
or Rhegnumx ; Findo. Agenu is from ag-en, from the upr 
per part ; rhanu is from or-yn^ from the upon ; findo is ftoa 
fe-in-di, dividing the part upon; keo is from ac-o, adifl{ 
from ; as to the reft fee Slice, Part, Divide, &c. 

Sloe; Eirinen; Erineon; Prunum. Eirin, floes, af 
well as the flirub, are from ar-yn, upon the ground, or low; 
whence erineon ; floe is from fi-low, it is low ; prunum i 
from p-ar-yn-iu, it is a thing upon the ground. . 

Slothful; Swrth; Nothros ; Iners. Sloth is 
from fi-lo-ith, the fight is low ; fwrth is from fir-or-ith* tk 
fight is from, or it is from feeing; whence nothros,; iners i$ 
from in-ars, without art> or rather from ni-ar-fi» ' not up(* 


S N 

StiTMBER; Hepiak; UpNdo; DoRMiTo. Slumber IS 
from fi-al-umb-yr, it is the being upon the dumb j the reft 
are expkincd under the word Sleep. 

Small j Byxan or MXn ; Minyos or Elaxys ; Exi- 
cuus. Byxan is from ab-ux-en, from the firmament or the 
fun's rays; man and minyos are from ma-en, the great firma* 
ment ; fmall is from fi-am-il, it is the great light about ; 
claxys is from il-uxa-iu, it is the higheft light i eKiguus is 
IJFom ux-ig-iu, it is the high fire, all fignifying the furfs rays, 
which are fmall. 

Smell ; Froeni ; Osphrainomai ; Odoror, Froeni 
is from froen, a noftrii ; whence the Greek, with the addi- 
tion of OS for ys, the ; fmell is from fi-am-sd, it is all about ; 
odoror is from hyd-awyr, along the air. 

Smile ; Gwenu or Gw audio ; Meidao ; S.ubrideo. 
Xhofe are explained under the words Laugh, Joy, Joke, Sec* 
Bjccept the word fmile, which is from fi-m-il, it is the great 
light or the fun which fmiles upon us ; and though there may 
be fome iittle doubt whether gwenu, &c. fliould not be ex- 
plained ag-w-en, the aftion of the divine being, the contrary 
ieems moft probable -, meidao is from the Celtic amnod, a 

- Smoak; Mygu-, Pigo^ Suffoco. See the next clafs, f^*\^ 
and obferve that the m in mygu is in fuiFoco changed into an 
F, which is ufual in the Celtic, f being an auxiliary letter to 
the radical m, which thus changes in infledlion or compo- 

Smoke ; Mwc 5 Thumos ; Fumus. Mwg is from am- 
ig, about the fire ; fmoke is from fi-am-ig, it is about the 
nre ; thumos is from the Celtic twym-am, about the heat j 
vrhence fumus by transferring the th into an f, which was a 
common practice with the Latins. 

Smooth; Llyfnj Leinosj Lenis. Smooth is from is-' 
mwy-ith, the being more low or lefler ; llyfn is from He-fan, 
the place or part fmall ; whence the Greek and Latin words. 

Snail ; Malwen ; Xelene ; Testudo. ' Snail is from ► 
(i-in-a-il, it is within from the light or fight ; malwen is 
From am-il-o-un, one inclofed from the light j xelene is from 
cau-al-en, one (hut upon i teftudo is from it-^is-toy it is un-< 
der a covering. 

Snatch ; Rheibio ; Arpaso ; Rapio. Thofe are de- 
fined under the words Ravifli and Rapid. 

Snoreing ; Rhwngc; Rhongxos j Ronchus. Thofe 
come from the found. 

Snort i Xwrnu ; Rhongxo j Roxchizo, Thofe 
N 3 ^^\Skft 

s o 

cnme from the founds without aoy farther fipdfiau 

Snow; 6d or Eira; Niph^tos ; Nxx. Thofcfignify 
no heat, as 6d, from o-di, without fun ; eira is from oer, 
cold, which fee; niphetos is from ni-pheth-o-fi^ there is no 
part fun ; nix is from ni-ig, no fire or h^t ; (how is from fi-> 
nl«o, there is no fun ; but it is poflible that 6d may alfo figufy 
whitenefs, as o-id, it is the fun. 

So or As ; Fel or Felly ; Os or OvTPS ; Sic or Ut. 
Fel or felly are from fi or vi-al, the high fights <>a is bom o- 
fi, the bounds of fipht; fie is fron/fi-cau, the ihut or bounds 
of fight, or the horizon ; ut is from y-t, the iky ; fo is from 
fi-o, the bounds of fight ; whence the reft, as outos fiom ut 
and OS, and as from, a-fi, from fight* 

Soap ; Sebon ; Sapon ; Sapo. Thofe fcem to have 
been formed from the found made therewith in wafbing, and 
as wafhing is compounded of ^u, «the water, and im, dw 
fbimd made in wafhing, fo the word febon may be from fi-b- 
yn, the founding one ; whence the reft ; or they may alt coom 
from fi-b-au-in, it is a thing in the water. 

Sober; Difebdw ; Nephon ; Sobrius. Difeddwisa 
pompound of di«feddw, without being drunk, fee meddw,, 
drunken ; nephon is from ny-pbi-yn, no drink within ; fobri- 
us is from fi-o-ber, he is from or without liquor. 

Soft; Meddal ; Molakos or Amalos; Mollis. 
Soft is from fi-of-ti-en, it is from the property of the firma- 
ment ; molakcfS a^d amalos are from am-al-cau-fi, it is about 
Ithe firmament; meddal is from am-ti-al, about the higher 
parts or pofieffions ; mollis is from am-ol-fi> it is about the 
heighth ; all fi^nifying the air. 

Soften; Meddalu; Malazzo; Mollio. Thofe are 
explained under the laft clafs of words. 

Soldier, Fighter or Warrior ; Capwr or Ym- 
DRpxwR ; Maxetes or Stratiotes ; MxLEs or Pugna- 
TOR. Cadwr is from ac-ad-wr, a man at a£tion; ymdrexwr 
is from am-trcxu-wr, a man for overcoming ; as to fight and 
fnaxetcs fee the word Fight; warrior is from yr-w-ar, die man 
fipon it; foldier is from fi-al-id-wr, a found and powerful 
man ; miles is from m-al-fi, he is a great power ; ftratiotes is 
from ftratos, an army, or a great flock, compofed of fi-twr^ it 
is a powerful he^p or multitude. 

Solid ; Ollawl or Ollgwbl ; Olokleros or An- 
TALL?s; §onDus^ Integer or Universus. Thofe are 
explained under All, One, Whole, &c. except folid, which 
\s from fi-ol-id, it is all found. 



Sometimes; Weithia; Euta; Aliquando, Some- 
limes is from fom^ and time, which fee ; euta feems to come 
from the Celtic etto, yet; aliquando is from ail-ac-yntho, 
another a£^ion therein ; weithia is from y-cithia, the feveral 
goings, from the verb aeth, he is gone 

Son; Mab; Yios; Filius. Sonisfrom fi-own, it ishis 
own; mab is from mi-ab, from me, or my offspring; yios is 
from y-o-fi, he is the from, that is, an offspring ; nlius is 
from n-lu-iu, he is my familv. 

Somewhat ; Peth ; roi or Tis ; Alk^uo. Peth is 
from p-ith, it is the p ; tis is from t-fi, it is the t ; poi is from 
p-iu, it is the p ; aliquo is from al-ac-iu, it is an high a^on; 
fomewhat is from fome and what; but fee the preface for a 
ferthcr explanation hereof. 

SooT; HiDDiGL; LiGNYs; FuLiGO. Hiddigl is from 
hid-ig>le, about or along the fire place ; lignys and fiiligo are 
compofed of al-fg-iu, and fe-al-ig, it is all along the fire ; 
foot is from fi-o-hit, for hid in hiddigl, it is all along the 

Sordid or Filthy; Budr, Aflerus orGLWTHUs; 
Rhuparos, Analleutheros or Gloios ; Sordidus. 
Budr is the fame as pwdr, rotten ; aflerus is from i-fieu-ar, 
Kis hair upon him ; glwthus is the fame as glwth, a glutton ; 
fiirdid is from a fore or ulcer ; as to filthy fee Foul ; the other 
-words are from the fame origin. 

Sore ; Arxoll ; Elkosis ; Ulceratio. Thofe figni- 
fy a gathering upon, from yr-cai-al, &c. 

Soul or Mind; En aid; Nous; Mens or Animus. 
Here is to be feen the conceptions had of the foul of man ; 
fhc Celtce called it the divine fight or exiftence by en-id; the 
Engliffa, by fi-oul, to fee all ; the Romans by mi-en, or en- 
imi, both ngnifying my exiftence ; nous is either en-w, a di- 
vine being, or ni-w, our being. 

Sound ; Swn or Ton ; Phthongos, or Phone ; So- 
nus. Swn is from fi-w-yn, found in man or animal ; ton is 
from to-en, the firmament found or thunder ; found is from 
fwn ;• fo is fonus ; phthongos is from ph-thon-ag, the aftion 
of living found ; whence phone. 

Sour ; Sur ; Oxus ; Acer. All thofe, except oxus, 
are from the found of acid in fermentation, fi fignifying the 
found, and ur, the whirring noife it caufes; oxus is from och, 
a note of exclamation, uttered at the tafting of acid, and au, 

South; Dehau; Mesembria ; Meridies. Dehau 
is from di for ty-hau for haul, i. e. the fide of the fun ; the 

N 4 Greek 

s p 

Greek and Latin words, figaify noon ; or the place of tbf 

fiyo ^z noon j fouth fcems to be of* the fame fignification with 
tpe Celtic, and compofed of fi-o-tu, it is the fun's iide. 

Sow; Hwx ; Hus; Sus. Hwx is frona hy-w-ox, hig!| 
dirty nijimal 5 whence hus and fus ; fo^y is from fi-oh-w, it 
is a dirty animal, as fox is from fy-ox, or ph-fie, an inter- 
jeflion exprefling a dirty animal or a dirty thing. 

Sow or Fasten together j Gwnio pr Hassio ; Kas- 
&Y0 or A1UOMA15 Suo or Consuo. Haflio, kaffyo, cop- 
fuo, fuo, and fow^ are from ci or cau-fi-iu, it is a pjitting to^ 
g^ljier J gwnio and pkeomai are from ag-y-in-iu, it i^ the ale 
dun of j iping or putting together. 

Spare; Peidio ; Pheidomai ; Parco. Spare is from 
fi-p r, Ii i'. the p, or p?-rt ; peidio and pheidomai are from pc- 
idiu, ic is a part ; paieo is from p-r*-ii, it is the p, or a part. 

JSpawn; Had or Sil j Sperma; Semen. Sil is from 
fi-hil, it is tl\e race ; hil is alfp a compound of hai>al, to get 
high"; femcn is from fi-am-in ; fperma is from fi-p-ar-am; 
£)aw» i» from fi-pe-yn, all fignif^ing that it is a thing from 
the earth ; had is from hai-a-id, it is adUng from the earth 5 
mankind and animals .beipg the earth of their feed. 

Sp£ak^ SiARADorLLAFARU; Phraso or Laleo; Dit 
CO or LoQUOR. Llafaru, laleo, and loquor, are from theCel? 
tic Ilof-r'-w, the human voice ; phrafo is from fc-ar-fi, he 
vpon found; fiarad is from ii-ar-id, he is upon the found; 
dico is from id-fi, it is the found ; fpeak is from fi-pc-ac, the 
adiing part of foupd- 

Spear ; Safwy ; Sibunp ; Hasta. Spear is from fi- 
ber, or fi^pe-ir, it is a thing into; fee Spit ; fibune is fr<wi fi- 
b-yn, it is a thing in ; fafwy is from faeth-fe-iu, it is a dartr 
ing thing ; hafta is the fame. 

' Spin ; Nyddu ; Netho ; FiLO or Neo. Filo is of the 
&me fignification as the Greek piloo, to place thick together, 
fo as to become pe-il-o, that is, the part from the lighth oc 
' covered ; fpin is from fi-ap-in, the feeing from in or within, 
that is, the thing covered; nyddu is from ni-idd, not feenj 
whence the reft come ; another derivation might be given 
of thefe terms, as they are expreilive of a line, as en-idd, or 
fi-iU but the fiift feems to be the beft. 

Spit; Ber-, Qbejlos ; Yekv. Ber and veru are ex- 
plained under the word Bear, unlefs they are derived from he- 
ir, a thing into; fee Spear; fpit')s from fi-put, it is to put} 
<q^belf»s is from o for y-b.elos, tne dart, which fee. 

Spit; I^oeri ; Ptuo; Spuo. Poeri is a compound of 
^"Otty a cold thing, or from ap-oer^ from a cold ; the other 
' ' ^ word* 

SP _ ■■.:'• ■:. 

VTorAs have no other original ; though they feem to dilfer (bme^ 
•wjiat in the found. 

Spittle; Poer; Ptuelon ; Saliva, Saliva is from 
fi*al-au, it is a rifing water 5 ptuelon is from peth^-au-al'-iu^ 
lome rifing water within ; fpittle is from fi-peth-al-in, it' is 21 
thing rifmg within) poer is a thing from a cold^ and oer in 
poer is from o-er, from the water. 

Spleen 5 Bleddyn 5 Splen 5 Splen. Blcddyn is from 
bi-al-ddyn, a forcer of man's life or being; the other words 
are frote fi-p-al-en, it is a thing forcible within. 
. Splendid; Gloiw ; Aglaos; Splendidus. Splendi* 
dus.Js from u-ap-il-en-idiii, it is a thrn^ from the firmament 
or high light ; gloiw is fromag-il-iu, it is the aftion of light 9 
hence the Greek and Englifh words. 

Splinters or Chips; Ysglodyn; Skedion; Sb- 
CAMENTUM. Yfglodyn is from ys-ag-al-ydyn, they are the 
cuttings from the upper part ; whence flcedion ; chips is from ac- 
hi-p-fi, they are from the upper part; fecamentum is from fi-ac- 
mcwn-ti, they are thfe cutting in a thing ; or from is-ac-inaent, 
they are from die lower part ; Iplinter is from fi-p-al-in-ter, they 
are the things from a ftroke, or they may fignify great cuttings. 

Spoil ; i spail or Anrhalth ; Syl^ , Skulon or En- 
ARA ; Spolium. Yfpail is from ys-p-o-iJ, the thing without 
the fun, light or truth ; whence fpoil, fpolium, fyle and iku- 
lon ; anrhaith is from an-rhaith, without law ; whence 

Spoil; Yspeilio; Sylao ; Spoliq. Thofe arc defined 
under the laft preceding clafs. 

Spout or Spring out abundantly; Pistillio; Blu- 
SO; ScATEo. Piftillio is from p-is-^t-al-iu, it is. a thing 
from low, high-, or upwards ; whence blufo ; fcateo is from 
is-ac-t, a low thing to the (ky ; fpout is fi-p-out, it is a thing 
out ; fpring is from is-p-ir-en-ag, a lower thing afling to the 
heighth ; but fee Spring for a farther explanation. 

Spoon ; Llwy; Coxlos; Cochlear. Llwy is from 
law-y, the hand ; coxlos is from cau-ix-law, an utenfil, or 
a veffel for the hand ; cochlear is from cau-ix-law-yr, the u* 
tenfil for the hand ; fpoon is from fi-p-ou-yn, it is a thing for 
Uquid within. 

Sport ; Cellwar ; Xleue j Lusus. Cellwar is from 
ac-al-w-ar, a man upon adting high ; xleue is from ac-al-iu, it 
is an high aftion ; lufus is from al-is-iu, it is a lower high ; 
fport is from is-p-ir-it, it is a lower thing high. 

Spread or Ej^tend ; Tanu ; Teino ; Tendo. Tanu 
is from tan, a fire, which fprcads ; fpread is from fi-p-ir-ad. 

S T 

it Is the part at the fire^ whence the reft ; but fee Fire for a 

further explanation. 

Spring or Prosper ; Fynnu ; Phyomai ; Oriok. 
Fynnu is from fi-in, into life, whence phuomai ; orior is from 
or-ir, from into ; fpring is from fi-p-ir-ing, it it a thing 

Sprout; Blagyrunj Blastos; Gbrmek. Thofc 
are explained before. 

Spunge ; Yspwng; Spongos ; Spongia. Yfpwngis 
from ys-p-au-in-cau, the thing wherein water lodgesy or is 
inclofqd ; whence the reft. 

Spur ; Yspardyn ; Sphyron ; Calcar. Yfpardtin 
is from ys-p-ar-dyn, the thing for or upon driving or drawing; 
fphyron is from (i-ph-yru, it is the dnving thing ; fpur is 
from fi-p-yru, it is the driving thing, for yru is to dnve iir 
the Celtic; calcar is from c, lor f-al-ac-ar, it is the raifingof 

Spy; Spio ; Skopeo; Speculor. Spy is fromii-p7i 
it is the feeing thing ; fpio is from fi-p-iu, it is a feeing thing; 
fkopeo is from fi-ac-p-iu, it is a thing ading to fee ; (peculor 
is from fi-p-ac-al-yr, it is the thing adding upon nght or 

Spy or Informer ; Profwr ; Phoros ; Expjlorator. 
Spy is from fi-p-y, it is the feeing thing; informer is from 
in-fi-wr-am-r*, the feeing man for fight ; phoros is from phi- 
wr-fi, he is the feeing or fearching man ; profwr is from profi-wr, 
the proof man. See Form and Proof; but the Greek term 
feems to be the fame as phor, a thief, fo that the Greeks de- 
fpifed informers. 

Squander or Dissipate ; Gwascaru ; Skorpiso; 
Dissipo. Gwafcaru is from a^-w-is-cau-ar, an a£Uon of i 
man to lower a heap ; fkorpizo is from fi-cau-ar-p-is, it is to 
lower an heap ; diflipo is from id-ifa-p, it is Jowering a thing; 
whence diflipate ; fquander is from is-ac-yn-twr, a lowering 
action upon a heap. 

Stable ; Safadwy ; Stasimos ; ' Stabilis. TTioft 
come from faf-idiu, and fta-be-al, fignifying to ftand or ftand 
upon. See the word Stand. 

Stack or Heap ; Tas ; This ; Acervus or Strues. 
Tas is from to-as, or is, a covering or lajr upon an under one; 
this is from to-is, of the fame fignification ; acenrus is from 
y-cau-ar-ve-iu, iris the covering upon a thing ; heap is frort 
hi-pe, a high thing; ftack is from is-to-cau, to cover a lower 
covering or ftratum. 

Staff; Bagl or Pastwn; Baktron; Baculus. 

S T 

Bagl Is from b-cau-al, a thmg (hutting upon^ or with a hook, 
or from be-ag-al, a thing to s^ upon; whence baculus; bak- 
Iron is from be-cau-trwyn, a thing crooked at the nofe or at 
the end; paftwn is from p-yftun, a thing to reach; ftaffit 
from fta-fe, a fleady thing, or a thing to ftand with. 

Stag ; Carw ; Elaphos ; Cervus or Fera. Carw 
is from garw, rough or terrible ; flag is from ft-ug, it is ug- 
ly ; ela^ios is from hylla-phi, for fi, or vi, that is, die* ug- 
Iieft life or animal ; fera is from fl-arw, a terrible animal; cer- is from garw. 

Stain ; Staenu ; Spiloo; Maculo. Staenu is from 
fi-to-au-in, it is a covering or fpreading a liquid or wet up^ 
on; whence ftain; ipiloo is from fi-p-al-au, it is a liquid ox- 
wet thing upon; maculo is from am-auc-al, liquid or wet 
^bout the part. 

Stalk of a Tree ; Bonpren ; Premnon ; Stirps. 
fionpren is from bon, a root or ftump, compofed of b-b* 
en, the part from high or the fky, and preri, a tree, from p-ar- 
en, a thing upon the fky or heighth; whence the Greek; ftalk 
is from ft-al-ac, it is from high 3 ftirps is from ft-ir-p, it ia. 
the ground part. 

Stand; Sefyll; Istemi; Sto. Sefyll is from fi-cf-al, 
lie is up ; (land is from ft-en-id, he is up ; iftemt and fio are. 
from the Celtic fyth, upright. ' [ 

Star ; Ser ; Aster ; Astrum. Thofe feem to be of] 
the fame compofition, viz. fi or ft-ir, the ftanding fixed, or 
feen fires or lights. 

Starve with Cold ; Rhynu ; Rhigeo ; Rigeo. 
Rhynu is from oer-in-iu, it is cold within ; rhigeo is from 
oer-ag-iu, it is from the cold ; whence rigco ; ftarve is from 
ft-oer-ve, it is a cold thing, or from ft-oer-vi, it is a cold life. 

State; Ystad ; Stasis; Status. Yftad is fromy- 
fta-id, it is the ftand ; whence all the reft. 

Steal; Lledrata; Klepto; CLEPoorFtjROR. Fiiror 
is from fe-ir-or, it is. from the light or out of fight ; clepo is from 
ac-il-p-iu, it is a thing from the light or out of fight ; klep- 
to is from ac-il-p-iu, it is a part from the light ; fteal is from 
fi-di-il, it is without light ; lledrata is from lleia-twr, the leaft 
ftir, or in its primitive compofition from lle-di-ir~id, it is the 
place without light or fight. 

Stealth; Lledrad; Lathraios ; Furtivus. Thofe 
are explained under the preceding clafs of words. 

Steep ; Mwydo ; Mydao ; Madeo. Mwydd is from 
am-au-idiu, it is the water about ; whence the Greek and 
Latin words ; fteep is from fi-dip, it is dipped. 

Steer V 


Steer ; Bystax ; Moxos ; Vitulus. Vitulus is from 
vi'tal-iu, it L> a tall animal ; moxos is from ma\r-yx-iu> it is 
a great ox ; byftax is from bi-ii-it-joc, it is an animal lower or 
IcSer than ox ; ftcer is from is-it-ir, it is the lower, or rather 
from fi-di-ir, it is not the higher. 

Stem or Trunk of a Tree, Family, &c. Trwnc, 
Cyff or Cenedl; Kormos or Genea; Truncus, Cau- 
PEx, Cippus or Progenies. See Trunk, Corp, Body, 
Generate, &c. where moft of thofc words are explained 5 cyfF 
is from cau-ef, it is a fliut or cheft ; kormos is from cor-am- 
iu, it is the covering about ; caudex is from cauad-ux, die 
upper covering or {hut. 

Still 5 Etto ; Eti ; Tamen or Adhuc. Etto is from 
c for y-t-to> the covering t, or the flcy or firmament ; eti is 
from y-t, the t, fky or firmament ; tamen is from t-am-cn, 
the covering about the Heighth or firmament, flcy, or the ho- 
rizon ; adhuc is from a for y-t'-ux, the high or upper t. 
See At» 

Sting; Conyn or Draen; Konos, Ongkos orA- 
THERix ; AcuLEUs OF CusPis. Conyn is from ac-yn-un, 
a&ing in one ; whence konos and ongkos ; draen is from 
drwy-un, thro* one; atherix is from a-drwi-ac, the a£ling 
through ; cufpis is from ux-p-ls, higher than the lower parr, 
that is, an edge ; aculeus is from aux-al-iu, it is the upper 
edge ; fting is from ft-in-ag, it is acting into. 

otink; Sawrio; Ozo; Oleo. Sawrio is from fi-awyr- 
o, it is from the air ; ozo is from au-fi-o, it is from the air ; 
oleo is from au-al-o, from the high water or the air ; ftink is 
from fi-t-cn-ac, it is from the high t, the firmament or the 

Stink ; Drwgsawyr ; Dusodia ; F/etor. Drwgs- 
awyr is from drwg-is-awyr, it is the bad lower air ; whence 
dufodia ; factor is from fe-it-aer, it is the air thing. 

Stir or Tumult ; Terfysg ; Thorubos ; Tumul- 
tus. Stir is from fi-tur ; terfyfg is from twr-fyfg, fignify- 
ing amongft the living heap ; whence thorubos. See Tu- 

Stir or Move ; Cyxwyn ; Kineo ; Movf.o. Cyx- 
-•A^in is fi om cy-ac-in, the firft or beginning of an aftion ; 
hunce kineo ; moveo is from am-o-ve, he is about o, or mo- 
tion ; hence move ; ftir is from fi-tyrf, it is a multitude. 

Stomach or Breast j Tor; 1'horax; Thorax. 
Tor is from to-r% the ihnt bag or chefl: ; the Greek and La- 
lin zic from tor-ux, ihc unpc: covering or cheil ; ftomach 19 


S T 

from fto-ma-ux, of the fame fignificatian j brcaft is fromliri^ 
firft, and fto, for ftoijiach. 

Stone ; Llabyddio ; Lithoboj.eo j Lapido. Litho^ 
boleo is from lithos and boleo, to caii: a ftone ; ftone is ex- 
plained in the next clafs ; lapido is from lapis, a ftone ; lla« 
byddio is from lau-hi-idiu, it is an high forcible or ftrong 

Stone or Slate ; Llex ; Laas or Lithos ; Lapis. 
Llex is from lle-ux, the higheft part or place ; ilate is from: 
ii-^al-ti, it is the higheft poueilion ; lapis is from al-p-Ii, it is 
the higher part ; laas is from al-as, upon the lower ; lithos 
is the fame ; ftone is from ft-en, ftanding high, or it is the 
high pofleiEons, from fi-ti-en. 

. Storm ; Tymestl ; Thyella ; Procella, TymeftI 
is from tym-fi-ti-al, a time that is high or powerful ; procd- 
la is from bro-uxel, the high country ; thyella is the (ame^ 
from ti-al ; ftorm is from ft-ir-am, it is angry about, or ty- 
meftl may fignify that the furrounding fky is high. 

Stout J £adarn; Krateros; Fortis. Fortis is de- 
fined under Strong, fo is krateros ; ftout is from ftand and 
out ; cadarn is from caiad-ar, a flxut upon or fortified. 

Strain or Sift ; Hidlo or Nithio j Hetheo; Ex^ 
ARCEo or Colo. Thofe are explained under the word 

Straw ; Gwellt j Kalamos ; Culmus. Gwellt is 
from ag-al-ti, growth upon the ground ; kalamos is from ac- 
al-am, it is a growth upon the part about, or the country j 
whence culmus j ftraw is from fi-tir-o, it is from the land. 

Strawberry; Mefis; Komaron ; Fragum. Mefis 
is from am-fe-is, about the lower parts ; komaron is from ac* 
am-ar-un, the one growing about the ground ; fragum is from 
fe-ar-ag-am, it grows about the ground i ftrawberry is from 
ftraw and berry, which fee. 

Strength 3 Crifderj Kratos; Fortitudo. See 

Stretch or Strain ; Rhythu or T^anu ; Euruno of 
Tanuo ; DiL ato or Extendo. Stretch is from ft-^ar-t-ux, 
it is upon the upper t, or the fky, which is extended ; ftraia 
is from ft-ar-en, tanu is from t-en, dilato, from Jd-al-to, eu- 
runo from ir-en-iu, rhythu from ir-hy-ith, all fignify ing to 
be under the horizon., or extended under the (ky. 

Strides Cams Bemaj Gressus, Cam is from ac- 
;im, to aft or move about ;' greflus is from ag-ar-fi, it is ail- 
ing or going ; ftriJe k from flir-id, it is to ftir. 

Strife; Amladds Awillaj Certamen. Strife is 



from ftir-ef, it is a ftir ; amladd is from «n-Iad3, lor VSKngt 
whence amilla ; certamen is from the Celtic am-drex, a fbw^ 
by tranfpofitiony which is compounded of ali\-troi-i2X, for tum* 
ine uppermoft. 

Strike ; Taro ; Trauo ; Fbrio. Taro is from if* 
ar-w, it is upon man ; whence trauo ; ftrike is from fi-taro- 
«c, it is a ftriking adion ; ferio is from fe-ar-w, it is a thing 
Upon man; alfo pwio, paio, to pufh^ and diIio> dilao to 
knock, of the fame fignincation. 

Strive ; Fight or Contend ; Ymegnio, Teirt er 
Ymladd; Agonisomai, Deriao or Athleo; Cer- 
To. See Strife. Fight is from fi-a^-it, it is a living or forcibk 
a£Uon ; ymegnio is from ym-e^i, for force ; whence ago- 
nifomai; athleo is from aitb-li, driving force, power, or 
ftrength ; alfo teiry and deriao to contend at high words. 

Stroke ; Lab j Plege ; Ictus. For ftroke fee Strike; 
lab comes from law-ab, from a hand ; or al-ab, from high 
power or force ; whence plege, with the addition of ag, ac- 
tion ; iftus is from ig-ti,an angry power, or rather from i-ac- 
idiu, it is the action, fighting being called the aftion. 

Strong i Crif; Krataios or Ixuros; Fortis. Crif 
feems to be a compound of ag-ir-ef, it is the a£lion of the 
fire, or an hot adion ; ixuros from ac-ir-iu, it is an hot ac- 
tion J fortis is from fe-ir-it, it is an hot thing; ftrong is from 
tl-ir-eng, it is a great fire or heat -, krataios is from ac-ir-itiu, 
It is a fiery or hot action. 

• Struggling; Ymafel ; Pale; Lucta. Ymafel is 
from am-afel, for a hold ; and afel is from gafel, a hold, com- 
pofed of ag-ef-al, an a^ion upon him ; pale is from p-al» a 
thing upon ; lufta is from al-ac-id, it is afting upon ; ftnig- 
gling is from ft-wr-ag-al-eng, it is a great a£tion upon man. 

Stubble ; Sofl ; Staphule ; Stipula. Sofl is from 
is-o-fi-al, the lower from the upper growth ; whence the 
reft, fti being frequently put for fi, which is wrong. 

Study; Ystidio ; Spouda$o; Studeo. Thefe arc 
from the Celtic aftud, ftudious, which is a compound of as- 
idiu, it is lowered or learned, lowering and learning being the 
fame thing, as appears under the words Teach and Learn. 

Stump or Stock of a Tree ; Cyff or Trwnc ; 
KoRMOS ; Caudex. As to thefe fee Stem, Trunk, &c. 

Stupid ; Syn ; Asunetos ; Stupidus. Syn is from 
fi-ni, not feeing ; afunetos is from a-fyn-idiu, it is from fee- 
ing ; the other words are from fi-di-pi-idiu, it is a thing witb« 
out feeing. 

Stutter or Stammer ; Baldordd ; Trauliso or 
2 Pselliso i 

J^s^Ltisoj i^ALBUTib. Stuttef U from fi-di-iitter, it ^ 
without uttering ; ftammer is, from fti-hammer, it is ham- 
IBering; baldordd is from bal-uk'-id, it is a bleating man J 
whence balbutioj; pfellifo is from ap-ifal-fi, from a low founds 
traulifo is from troi Jais, tqj^irn one's voice. 

Sublime ; Uxal ; Upselos ; Sublimis or Altus. Ux- 
9I is from ux-al, above high j upfelos is from up-is-al, u^ 
above lower j altus is from al-tu, the high poffeffions ; fublimc, 
and fubliniis are from fi-ub-al-ami it is up about the heighth. 

Succeed ; Dynesu ; Upoduo ; Succedo. Dynefu is 
from dau-nefa, the two next; or from dyn-nefa, the next man i 
fuccedo is from is-ac-idiu, it is going lower j whence fucceed j 
• upoduo is frojoi upo-duo, to go under or lower. 
.^ Suck; Sugno; Museo; Sugg. Sugno is from fi-auc- 
ih-w, it is the animal liquid ; mufeo is from mu-fi-au, it is 
the cow liquid ; whence the reft. 

SuET; GwERj Stear; Sevum. Gwer is from gau-w- 
ir, a covering upon an animal ; fevum is from fi-w-ami it is 
about an animal ; fuet is from fi-w-hyd, it is all along ah ani- 
mal ; whence the reft. 

Suffice; Digoni ; Ikanoo; Sufficio. Sufficio and 
fiiiEce are from fub and facio ; and the other words are ex* 
plained under the word Sufficient. 

Sufficiency ; Digonedd ; Ikanotes ; Sufficien- 
TIA. Thefe words are explained under the words Sufficient 
and Suffice. 

Sufficient or Just ; Daionus or Digonus ; Dikai- 
os or Ikanos ; Justus or Sufficiens. Daionus is from 
4a-iawn-iu, it is very good and right ; digonus is from digon, 
enough ; fo are dikaios and ikanos ; juftus and juft are from 
i-w-u-ti, to man is the poffeffion ; as to the reft fee Suffice. 

Suffocate; Mygu; Pnigoj Suffoco. Thofeareall 
explained under the word Smoke. * 

Sugar ; Siwgr ; Sakxaron ; Saccharum. Thofe, if 
of a Celtic original, are from fi-auc-ir, it is a liquid fire, all 
fweet things being from the fire. 

Sum ; SwM ; Sumpan ; Summa. Thofe feemtobe from 
fwm, which is from fi-ma-in, it is the greateft in or the ut- 

. Summer ; Haf ; Theros ; -Sstas. Summer is jFronl 
fum-ir, the chief heat ; haf is from hi-au-ef, it is the high 
fpring ; thereos is fr<Mn it-hi-ir-au, it is the hot fpring ; aef- 
tas is heat. 

Sun i Hayl ; Helios ; Sol. The Celtic is alfo wrotie 


S W 

boy}, and it is scompeunci of h-o-yJ, tbat is, the high&q 
o extended ; whence helibs ; fol is from fl-o-I, it is the o a* 
tended ; fun is from fi-un, die {being one. 

Sunny; Heulog; £i7ELios; Apricu^. Apricusii 
from ap-ir-ux, from the high fire ; as to the reft fee tfa6 hi 
clafs ; the Celtic word for funday is didd-ful, wheAcedieli- 
tin die-folis. 

Sup, Exorb or Exhaust; DifrodI; Rmophio; 
SoRBEo or ExH AURIC. Sup is from fi-up» itisiip; difiofi 
is from di-fro-id, it is without country, rhopheo is from or-pid^ 
out of life or exiftence ; forbeo is from n-or-bi, it is out of 
life or exiftence ; exhaurlo is from ex«ar-iu, it is out of dv 
earth ; whence the reft. 

Supper; Cwynos ; Koinos; Cjena. Supper isfrool 
fwp-hir, a long fupping ; cwynos is from cy-w-yn-nos, mes 
meeting together in the night ; whence the reft. 

Sopine, or THE Face Upwards ; Wyneb i Fynu; 
TJpTios ; SuPiNUs. The Celtic fignifies the face upwards; 
and fo do the reft. 

Surely; Ynddilis; Alethos; Certe. Thefe arc 
explained under the word Certain. 

Swallow, Glut or Devour; Glythu orLLYNCu; 
Glyzo or Leixo ; Glutio or Lingo. Glythu is from 
dwth, a glutton ; whence glut, glyzo and glutio ; leixo and 
lingo are from Uwnc, a fwallow, which is from lawn-auc, 
full of liquid ; fwallow is from fi-alMow, it is. all low. Sec 
the word Glutton. 

Swallow ; Gwenol ; Xelidon ; Hirundo. Gwe* 
nol is from ag-w-en-al, the aftive animal on the (ky ; xelidon 
is from uxel-hyd-en, the high along the fky ; hirundoisfrom 
hir-en-id, it is the high in the fky ; fwallow is from fi-w-al, it 
is the high animal. 

Sweat ; Xwys ; Idros ; Sudor. Sudor is from fi-w- 
dwr, it is man's wet ; idros is from the Celtic i-dwr, the wet; 
xwys is from ux-w-au-fi, it is the wet upon man; fweat is 
from fi-w-wet, it is man's wet. 

Sw^EPj Scybo ; Skopeo or Sairo ; Scopo. Scybofa 
from is-ac-ub, afting or taking the low up ; whence the rdl, ex- 
cept fairo, which feems to be from is-ir, the low up ; but foopeo 
is commonly made ufe of as an expreffion for to fearch fbr* 

Sweet ; Melus ; Meliedes ; Melleus or Dui* 
CIS. Melys is from mel-iu, it is honey ; whence melleus aocf 
meliedes ; fweet is from fi-o-it, it is the fun ; dulcis is from 
id-0-il-fi, it is the fun; but fee Honey for a farther explanation i 






T A 

'ftiiJ mehiSj tcq. may be derived immediately from m-il-ys, the! 
great Am below. . , 

Swell; Xwyddo; 0ngroo or Oidao ; Tumeo^ 

wXwyddo is from ux-w-idd-o, it is the adjon of an animars' 

growing higher ) fwell is the fame, from fi-w-al ^ tumeo is 

from the Celtic twynuio, to wanh or heats whence the 


Swelling or Tumour; Xwydd or Cnwc ; Kuphos; 
GiBBUs or Tumor. Cnwc is from cau-in-wx, a high ga* 
thering upon ; kuphos is from cau-rcf-iu, it is a gathering 
^*ng ; gibbus is from cau-ub-iu, it is a gathering upon ; as 
to the rm fee the laft preceding clafs. 

Swift ; Cywit or Cyntaf ; Okus ; Celer. Thofe 
. are explained under the word Celerity. 

Swim; Nofio ; Neo or Netho ; NoorNATo. No- 
fio is from in-au-fe, he is in the water ; the Greek and Latin 
-are the fame, from in-auand in-au-ith ; fwim is from fi-au-am^ 
• it is the water about. 

Syllable; Sylaf; Syllabe; SylLaba. Sylaf is 
from fy*al-fe5 it is putting found together ; whence the reft. 

Syringe ; Xwistrell ; Klyster ; Syrinx. The 
Englilh and Latin terms arc from fi-rhyr?g, a found, or it 
is between ; xwiftrell is from xwis-trwy-le, a wet thro' • 
. place, whence klufter. 


TABLE or Board ; Bwrdd or Planc ; IIperoa or 
Plax; Tabula or Mensa. Bwrdd is from bi-ar-idd^ 
It IS the food upon ; whence board ind uperda; table and ta- 
bula are from to-b-al, a thing for a covering upon ; planc is 
from p-al-in-cau, of the fame figaification ; fo is irienfa, from 

Tabor ; Tabwrdd orTYMPAN ; Tympanon; Tym- 
panum. Thofe are from to-bwr<id, and to-am-p-yn, a. co** 
vered board, or a covering about a things within. 

Tail; Cynfon or Rhonell; Uura ot Kerkos ; 
.Cauda. Tail is from the Celtic tu-ol, the hind part ; cyn- 
fon is from cau-in-fon, a covering of the lower end ; rhonell 
Is from rhawn-al, the hair upon ; cauda is from cau-id^ it is a 
■ covering; oura is from w-ar, upon an animal ; kerkos is frofti 
cau-r'-cy-fi, it is a covering oil the lower end.' 

^AKE or Drao; Cymeryd, Llysgo or CiPio; 
' AiREo or Alisko ; Capio. Llyfgo is from al-is-ag> a<airig 

O ixi^a 

T A 

tiponalower; whence alifko i ctpio is ftoa ac^i-p^i, aA^; 
the thing from ; whence capio ; cymeryd is from ac-am-or- 
jdf it is an adion about ^oin^ from; cake is from it-ac, it is 
from; aireo is from or-iu, it is from ; or frcnn a^ir-iu, its 
from the earth up ; drag is from id-or-ag, it is ading from. 

Talent 5 1 alent ; Talanton ; Talbntvm. The* 
are from to-al-ynt, they are a great heap. 

Talk or Gossip ; Xwedleu a ; Kotillo ; Qa&rio or 
Fabulor. Xwedleua is from xwedel, a difccmrfe, fo ii 
kotillo; talk is from it-al-ac, it is an a£tion of calUug ; fft 
iip is from ag-i-it-ap, it is from the a£Uon of (bund ; g^mob 
from ag^-w, a man upon a^on ; as to the reft (ee die wwk 
Prate, Difcourfe, &c. 

Tall ; Tal or Uxbl ; Upsilos ; Altus. Tal is froa 
t«al, the high t> or the fky ; the reft are defined before un* 
der the word Sublime. 

Tallow ; Gwer ; Ste ar ; Sevum. Tallow is froa 
to-al-w,. a covering upon an animal ; the other words are Or 
plained under the word Suet. 

Tame; Dofi; Damao; Domo. Dofi b from tna-fi 
towards me ; damao is from tua-mt, towards me ; domo it 
from tua-mi, of the fame fignificatioa» orfromcii-fi, and to- 
am, a houfe about. 

Tapestry ; Tapin ; Tapes ; TAPkTuaii Tapin n 
from to-p-in, a covering upon a thing ; tapes is from tof- 
esy a covering a fewer thing ; tapetum is from to-pedi-am, 1 
covering about a thing ; tap<^ry is from to-p-ifder, a coverisg 
upon a lower. 

Tar ; Tar or Pyo ; Piss a ; Pix Liqu|i>A. Tar is from te- 
ar, a thing covering ; pyg is from p-gau, a thing covering; or 
fticking upon ; whence the reft. 

Tardy or Slow ; Araf ; Okncros ; Tardus* Anf 
isfromar-ef, it is earth; whence the reft, except flow, wiuck 
is from fi-low, it is low. 

Tares ; Efrau ; Aira ; Lolium. Efrau is from ef- 
ir-hau, it fows the earth ; whence aira by traiifpofitioo; 
tares is from it-aira^ it is tares ; lolium is from le-d*-ami iB 
about a place. 

Target ; Tarian ; Derma ; Tergus.- Tarian ii 
from to-ar-uR, a couering upon one ; tergus is frona tt-ar-g^ 
it is a covering upon ; whence the reft. 

Tarry ; Tarrio or Ymdroi; Diatrxbo, TftREOor 
Meno; Maneo. Ynldroi is from amdroi, turning about; 
whence the reft, except manso, which is from man-iu^ beio; 
upon a placc» 


TASfc J Tasicu ; Axioo ; Taxo. Thofc wmds feem 

l^rfmarily to be fpdm it-af^ae, it is the lower adion, the/ 

the Greek term has been ap^ed toexpreis aitthoiitjr^ worthy 


KA^lTAstE ; XwAiTHu; GeiTsisU Gtfstyst JB&thfe nbtt 

Taste ; Xwaeth ; GfiUsis 7 OusVcrs^. Xwaethisfrom 
icwae, breath, whence the reft. 

Tavehk; Tafbrn; Oikbma y Tf'ABP*NA. Oikcmar 
fignifies a large houfe or an inni^ tafernisfrom ttl-fer'2ixi» a 
.liouie for liquor within ; whence the reft. 

Teach ; Dysgu ; Didasko ; Docbo; Dyfgu is from 
id-is-ag, it is the lowering a^on i vr'bciice &ic reft^ See 
Matter. . 

Tear ; DaigR ^ DakryonV Lachryma. Dafgr isfroia 
id-au-ag-ir, it is wet from hesttor fire,' whence dakryon; la-* 
)idirvma is from at-au-cri-ma, the ^et upon a great cry ^ teaif 
ir from it-au-ir, it is the acngry wet 6r water* 

Tear; Rhwygo or Torri ; Tribo or Ek'EiiCO ; Te-^ 
*B0. Rhwygo is from r'-w-lg/ the sLti&tymzii j whence ^rct- 
ko J the other worcfs are from torri^ td bitak, w'hich is front . 
k-or, it is from* 

Teat j TstH j TitTHe 5 B^uma. Tethf fe fitmrto-au^ 
fth, it is the mi)k coverhig ; whence tittb^ and teat ; •I'u'ma isr. 
from r'-aa-am, about the milk^ 6r thie ifiilk coi^erhig. 

Temperate ; Tymerus j Mbtrios ; Temp'eratus. 
Tymcriis h from thn-ir-fu, it is the tJme of f*un-fliine ; me- 
trics is from am-?-tir-o-fiy the fun is about the country ; tem- 
peratus and temperate are from tim-p->ir4diu, it is a* warm 01: 
/ierene time^ 


FESTUosus. Tymeftlog fe from tym-fith-al'-^g, a thne that 
k, adltnghigh; whence the reft. 

Temple ; Teml; TEi^ENosy Tj^mPlum. Teml ib^ 
from t-am-le, a place covered alfout; tetnettos is from t-a)h- 
in, a part covei-^d upon y whence the reft. 
• Ten ; Deo -, Deka 5 Decbm ; Dfeg fignifics^^fi^ weather^ 
abdit is compounded of ij-xg, it fs beat or ftre^ whence de- 
ka and decemv ten is from t-eny the horizon v fee the feveral 
;animbers whkrh make up teh« If ft could be imagined that tb^ 
^nt»diiuvian method of reckonmg diiSe/ed from At prefent, ft 
^would ieem probable that the months of the former coiififled 
only of ten days, which ilj the firft rerolution' of the o, ojr 
number tisxt; t!ut it is more likely that the method, of reckon-^ 
ing was aJwajfs the fame. 


Tender; Tyner ; Teren; Tener. Thofc arc from 
t-en-er, the horizon or (ky water, that is the air, which is . 

Tenement; Tyddyn ; Ktema ; Tenementum. 
•Thofe are from ty-ddyn, one man's pofTcffion. 

Tent or Pavillion ; Pabell ; Papilion; Tento- 
.JLIUM. Pabell is from p-bc-al, that is, p at the high part or 
the horizon ; tentorium is from t-en-to-ar-ui, it is the t-cn 
povering upon, that is, the hcxrizon or fky; whence the 

Tenth; Decked; Dekatos; Decimus. Thofe art 
from ten. 

Term, End or Border; Terfyn; Term a ; Ter- 
minus. Thofc are all explained under the words Border, 
End, &c. 

Terrible; Ofnadwy or Erxyll ; Deinos ; Tbrri- 
.BiLis. Terrible and terribilis are from taro-bi-al, to ftrib 
with high force ; erxyll is from er-uxel, the high, or from cr- 
ac-al, the high or powerful adion ; ofnadwy is from o-fi-yn- 
idiii it is oh me within ; deinos is from id-yn-o, it is the 
within oh. 

Terrify ; Dyxrynu ; Tereo ; Terrifico. Tc- 
reo is from the Celtic taro to ftrike ; whence terrify and ter- 
rifico; dyxryn a fright, is from id-ac-ir-en, it is an adlionof 
high anger, or of the firmament fire. 

Territory; Tiriogaeth or Cyrion ; XoRioNor 
ToPARxiA ; Territorium. Tiriogaeth is from tir-i-gau- 
ith, it is the inclofed land ; toparxia is from it-p-ar-cau, it 
is the part fhut upon or inclofed ; territory and territorium 
are from tir-i-to-ar-iu, it is the land inclofed about j cjrrioa 
is from cwr a border, which is a compound of cau-r% the in- 
clofure ; whence xorion. 

Testify ; Tystio ; Paristemi ; Testificor. Pa- 
riftemi is from para-istemi, is to ftand out or upon a thing; 
the other words fignify to ftand on one fide. 

Thatch or Covering ; To ; Tegos; Tectum. To 
IS the fky or horizon, which was the firft covering ; but fee 
the preface ; tegos is from to-gau, the flcy covering ; te&us is 
from to-ux-it, it is the upper covering; covering is from cau- 
ar-in, to (hut upon the within ; thatch is from to-atch, it hi 

Then; Yna; Tote; Tum. Yna is from yn-a» from 
ill, or from the preient time ; then is from the-in-ni, the not 
in; tum is from tu-am, afide of the about i tote is from it-o- 
tu, it is the fide or one fide, 


T H 

.Thence or- from thence ; Oddiyno; Enthen; 
Inde. Oddiyno is from o-ddiyno, from thence; whence, 
enthen by tranfpofition, and alfo the reft ; but in a more pri- 
mary fenie thefe terms fignify the firmament. 

There; Acw; £kei ; Illic. Acw is from ac-o, a<ft- 
ing from ; whence ekei ; illic is from i-le-ac, ading to a 
place ; there is from the-ir, the heighth. 

Therefore; Ahhynu; Arage; Igitur. Amhynu 
is from am-hyn, for this ; arage is from ar-ag, upon action ; 
igitur is from ag-iter, going a journey; therefore is from there 
and for. 

Thickness or Density ; Tewder ; Tarphos ; Den- 
sit as. See the words Denfe and Thick. 

TniCKETor Overgrown Bushes; DRYSNiorTwYN; 
Drumos, Temenos or Thamnos ; Dumus or Lucus* 
Thicket feems to be the fame as tewax, thicker ; twyn is . 
compofed of ty-w-yn, one man's poffeflion or abode; as lucus, 
a grove, and llwyn, fignify the habitation orpofTeffion of one 
family, from llu-w-yn, and from Uu-w-cau, a man's family 
inclofure ; dryfni is from deru-is-in, in below or under the 
oak trees ; the Greek and Latin words come from the Celtic 
ivord twyn and dryfni. 

Thief; Lleidr; Leiestes; Latro. Lleidr feems to 
bethe primitive, and to be compofed of lleia-dwr, leafl flir ;. 
thief is from di or thi-fi, the not feen ; but fee the word Steal 
for a more primitive definition. 

Thigh ; Morddwvd or Clun ; Mercs or Gloutos ; 
■ Femur or Cluxes. Thigh is compofed of two and high ; 
morddwyd of mawr-ddwy-id, it is the two great ; meros of 
mawr, and femur of f^rmav/r, m}^ great things. 

Thin; Tenau ; Endees; Tenuis. Thofe are com- 
pounded of it-en-au, it is the firmament water or the air, 
which is thin. 

Thine ; Tau ; Teqs ; Tuus. Tau is -the primitive of 

* all here ; and as mau, mine, is. from m, fignifying the earth's 

furface, and au, water, fo is tau. from t, fignifying the fky, 

and au, water, that is, mine are the polTeflions of land and 

water, but thine is the air. 

Thing or Something ; Peth ; Tis;' Alic>uis. Thing 

. is from t-en-ag, from the high t, or the fky ; fome is the fame 

as fum ; peth is from p-ith, it is p, or a part ; tis is from t-fi, 

it is t, which means any thing under the fky ; aliquis is from 

. al-ux-is, under or belowr the fky. 

Third; Trydydd; Tritos; Tertius. All thofe 
' come troai thrice and day, which fee, 

O 3 'Xwx^Vv 


Thus ; Hwn ; Ode ; Hic. Hmi is frdm hal-v*y4, the 

man or animal prefent in a£tioA ; hie is from hi-ac, he adtog; 
ode is from w-id, it is the man; this is from it-hi*fi, iti$ 

Thistle; Yscall; Skolosj CA&i>tJUs* Yfesfl is 
from yf-^-al, covering upon the lower part ; whence ftotos; 
carduus is from cau-ar-idiu, it is a covering upon ; thiltie ii 
from th-is-to-al, the covering upon a lower. 

Thorn; Aithjn; Akantha; Spina. See Acan? 

Thou; Ti or Tydi ; Tv or Tydb ; Tu. See ttiGfe 
.defined under the pronoun He ; but tydi and tyde feem to car- 
ry the fenfe fomewhat farther tlian what is there explaji^ as 
Ij-di, thy pofleffions, or the pofleflions on thy fide. 

Thousand; Mil; Xilia; Mills. A mile being a 
dioufand paces comes from this word mil ; which though it be 
the root of thofe words, was formed of the Celtic word mi! or 
laelin, as if it fignified the diftance from the cwm to the ipiBt 
or rather the large power of the mill in multiplvf ng and di* 
viding ; thoufand, faid to be of decem, ten, ana cent, hun- 
dred, feems in its primary fenfe to come from the Celtic ti« 
eitlia-cant, on the upper ude of or beyond hundreds. 

Thrash ; Dyludo ; Aloao ; Trituro. Dyludo is 
compofed of dil-yd, to knock the com ; aloao is the fame as 
the tTcltic allu^ powerful ; trituro is from the Celtic taro, to 
ftrike ; whence alfo thrafli, with the addition of fh^ figi^fy- 
ing it is, that is, it is a ftroke. 

Thread J Edeu; IxHosprNEMA; Filum. Thread 
}s from tro-edu, twifted thread ; fome of the reft are defined 
under the feveral verbs, which fee under the word Spin ; but 
edeu may have been formed of mythu, to fpin, by leaving 
out the ny, not, and putting e^ the, before deu, wherel^^ ii^ 
to fee, is tranfpofed into di, not to fee, that is, the not Ken; 
;iema is from am>ny, the about not feen. 

'J'hreatenj Bygylu; Apeileo ; MiNiToR. TTircat- 
en is a Celtic compound of troi-at«un;^ to turn at one; mini- 
tor is from min-taro, upon the edge of ftriking; bygyla 
{whence apeileo) is a contra£Hon of bygwth-lau, to lift up 
the hand as if going to ftrike ; feems to come from 
pyg.w-ith> an animal's, bill or beak, which in birds ferves 
for a prick or point as well as a mouth. 

Three; Tri; Trei; Tres. Thofe are the fame as 
jhe word tir, land, the letter i being tranfpofed, and fgnify 
earth'y poircillons, or the land and water in the earthy the fc^ 
pdrauon of whi(.h was the bufmcfs of the third day of the 


creation; it k comfKHuid^ of t-ir, die t or flqr, which con- 
tains therein the land, water, and all earthly poflefllons. 

Thr££-hsad£D i Triffbnig J Trikephalos j Tri- 
csps. See l^hree and Head ; trifienig is from tri-pen, thre^ 
heads or ends ; trikephalos is from tri*kephalos and triceps is 
from tri and caput. 

Thrjbr Days Space; Tridiau ; Triemsria ; Tri- 
x>uuM. See Three and Day, whence thofe were com- 


See Three and Fold, and Fordd, a way. 

Three HukdredTimcs; Trixanwaith; Triako- 
8IAKIS; Tricevties. See Three and Hundred. 

Tmrice; Texrowaith; Treis; Ter, See Three. 

Through; Trwy; Dia; Per. Trwy and through 
arc from t-'i-wy ; T by its upright line is heighth, the top one 
ibews that the upright is to extend ho farther than the (kyy 
and therefore is made ufe of to exprefs worldly poifeffion, 
property, &c. r fignifies found, and wy, the air, that is, a 
found vom the earth, through air, to the top of T; per is the 
air part; dia is from t-a, &om the earth to the fky ; but fee 

Throat; Owddw; Xvter; Guttur. Throat is 
&om through it; xuter and guttur are from xwyth-trwi^ 
breath through ; gwddw i4 from xwith-w, man's breath. . 

Thrush or Black: Bird ; Myalxen ; Kixla ; Tur- 
OU&. Mialxen fignifies my high finger ; the reft fignify the 

Thrust ; Gwthio ; Otheo ; Trudo. See the word 

Thumb; Bawd ; Meg as, Dactulu^ Pollex. Thofe ijlt^v] 
stri explained under Finger. 

Thunder ; Taranu or Cyranu ; Brontao or Ke- 
«aun6o ; ToNO or Fulmino. Tyranu is from twr-en, 
Che found of the firmament or flcy ; cyranu is from ac-yr-ent 
the action of heaven or firmament; whence keraunoo ; tono 
is from ton, a found, or ti-en, the firmament property i bron- 
tao is from the fame ; thunder is from ith-en-twr, it is the ikv 
or firmament found; fulmino is from fe-al-am, it is high 

Tick, in Cattle ; Torooen ; Kroton ; Ricxnus* 
Tick is from thick ; torog is big-bellied ; whence kroton by 
tranfpofition ; or they may all fignify the aiding in animal. ; GOGLEISIO ; GaNOALISO ; TiTILLO. 
O 4 GogJeifi^ 

T O 

Goglcifio is from gog-lais, a great bawling ; whence gismga- 
lizo, tickle and titillo. 


7|o. See the laft preceding words. 

Tide, or Flow and Ebb; Llanw and Trai; Salos 
and DxARRoiAj Fluxus or Refluxus. Tide fignifies it 
is high, fee the word Flow ; ebb is from eb or hcb, without; 
lianw is from Uawn, full} trai isfromtroi, to turn; or from 
tiro, to earth ; whence diarroia; falos is from fi-ai-au^ it is 
high water ; fluxus is from fluo to flow i and refluxus is to 

Tiger; Tigr; Tigris; Tigris. Thofe are from 
die-r*, the eager or angry. 

Tight ; Tyn; Stenos; Tensus. Tyn is from ti-en, 
the attraftive property or power of the firmament; tight 19 
from ti-ig-it, it is the property or power of fire; whence the 

Time; Term or Hour 5 Tymor, Awr or Amser; 
Hora or Xronos; Hora or Tempus. Temporis in 
the genitive cafe; awr is from a-or, the circle; whence 
hora and hour ; tymor is from it-am-or, it is the about circle; 
whence tempus, time and term ; amfer is from am-is-or, the 
tbout lower or leiTer circle ; xronos is from the Celtic crwn, 
round, whfch fee. 

Timid ; Caxad ; Kakos ; Timidus. Timid and ti- 
midus are from the Greek deima, timor, dread or fear, which 
is compounded qf the privative di-ma-id, it is without great- 
;icfs ; caxad and kakos fignify fhitten ; which fee. 

Tinge ; Troxi ; Xrooso ; Tingo. Tingo is from to- 
Jn-auc, covered in water ; whence tinge ; troxi is from t'o-i'- 
auc, the water covering, whence the Greek. 

Tire or Vex ; Lainio ; Elauno ; Vexo or Agito. 
Vexo and vex are explained under the word Vex ; tire is from 
the Celtic tarp, to ftrike ; lainio and elauno are from al-yn-w, 
high upon man; agito is from ag-at-w, ading at man. 

To, Into or Unto; I or at; Pros, Para orEis; 
Ad or In. To fignifies the fky or firmament, fo do into and 
unto ; i is heighth or length ; at is from a-t, from earth to the 
iky ; whence ad ; eis is from i-fi, it is i ; in is the firmament; 
pros and para are from p-or-a, that is, to the top of p from 
the earth, which is the fky ; but fee the preface, where thefe 
inatters are explained. 

Toad ; I^lyfant; Muoxos ; Bufo. Llyfant is from 
llu-tbnr, the. family of the fountains ; muoxos is from am-au- 
jp;;-li, they arc the filthy animals about the water ; bufo is 


from bu-fo, the beings of the fountauns; toad isr from it«w*' 
au-ad, they are the animals at the water. 

Toasted or Dried ; CrAs ; Xeros ; Ar^pus. CrSs . 
is from ac-ir-fi, it is from or the aaioji of the fire j whence 
xeros ; dry is from id-ir-hi, it is the. fire high^ aridus is from : 
a-ir-idiu, it is from the fire. 

Together; Ynghyd ;;- Simul. *Ynghyd is 
from yn-cy-id, it is being together ; fimul is from fi-am-le> 
it is upon or about a place or fpot; ama is from am-a, the' 
about or the fpot; together is from it-cy-at-ar, it is being to- 
gether upon a ground. 

Toll or Tingle ; Tincian 5 Kodoniso ; Tinnio. 
Toll is from to-al, a high found ; tingle is from t-en-ag-al, 
an high adlion of foimd ; tincian is from t-en-ac-yn, found 
or ton. in high adlion ; whence the reft. 

Toll; Toll; Telos ; Telonium. Thofe come from 
the Celtic tal, payment, which fee. 

Tone ; Ton ; Tongs ; Tonus. Thofe are from to- 
en, the firmament found or tJiunder. See Toll. 

Tongs or Pinchers; Gefel; Xele ; Forceps. For- 
ceps comes from the Celtic forx, a fork ; gefel is the fame as 
gafal, to lay hold of; whence xele; pinchers is the fame as 
die word pinch ; tongs, formerly tangs, is from tan-cau, 
to fhut about the fire. 

Tooth ; Dant ; Odous, Odontos ; Dens. Dant 
is from dau-ynt they are two or dented ; tooth from two-ith, 
it is two ; odontos is from o for y-dau-ynt, they are two i 
whence dens. 

To? ; Uxelfa, Coryn or Crib ; Kolophon, Kory- 
PHE or Keraia ; Fastigium or Apex. Top is from to- 
p, the fky or firmament part; uxelfa is from uxel-fan, an high 
place ; whence kolophon ; crib is from uxa-r'^b, the higheft 
part ; coryn is from uxa-r'-yn, the' higheft one ; whence the 
Greek ; apex is from y-p-ux, the higheft part ; faftigium is 
from f-as-ti-ux-iu, it is a part above the lower pofleiions. 

Toss ; Llixio ; LiAso ; Jacto. Llixio is from al-ac-iu, 
it is an high a<Sion ; whence liafo ; javSlo is from i-ac-it, it is 
an high aStion ; tofs is from to-fi, it is the (ky. 

Towards; Ttj AG AT; Kata ; Adversus. Towards 
comes from tu-wr-ad, to a man's dwelling ; tuagat is from tu- 
ag-at, to go to the houfe ; kata is the fame by metathefis ; 
adverfus is from ad-verfus, turned to. See Turn. 

TowARDLiNESs; Tyedd; Ethos ; Indoles. Toward- 
linefs comes from tov/ards ; tycdd is from tua-idd, it is to- 
wards ; indoles is from in-tylu, in the family, the pri-nitive 

fonntdott of Urn fcrtB» eentained in die two lull anntkMl 
daftf being from a pciibiit getdi^out of a wildftrag^iog te 
of a life into a regular ftmily wayof living. 

TowBR J TwR i Timsis i Turris. Twt is a heap ia 
the Celtic $ but this word, may have been originalljr coinpo- 
ied of ti-WTt a man's houfe, but the modem fi^ifiottiaiii 
thereof feems to be the pofleffion or houfe of a tyr or tor^ a 
prince, lord or tyrant. 

Town ; Tr£f $ Polis ; Urbs. Town is the iame as 
the Celtic twyn, a bufli or grove, wherein mankind at fiift 
xefided, and it feems to be compounded of d-w-jrn, it is man's 
houfe or pofleffion ; fortified buihes and |roves, being the 
lirft towns of the Cdtes ; tref comes from tirnrf*, they are die 
the pofleffions ; polis is of the fame fignification, as many or 
multus, which fee; urbs comes from twr or tunis-bt, aheap 
of beings or a living heap ; or from the Celtic ur-bi, men's 

Trace ; Olrhio ; Ereunao \ Indago. Olrhio anJ 
ereunao, feem to fignify to roar after, or from ol-rhuo, after 
the cry » indago is from in-id-ag-w, it is in the aAion of the 
animal ; trace is from it-ar-fi, it is upon the found. 

Tradition; Traddodiad; Paradosis; Traditio. 
Traddodi is &om tra and dodi, to give or deliver over i whence 
the refl. 

Trample or Tread upon; Troidio or Mathrv; 
Koletrao; Proculco. Troedio is from troed, afoot; 
whence tread, mathru, koletrao, &c. proculco is from pro 
and caU, that is, from the foot. 

Treason; BrXd; Prodosia; Proditio.^ Prodofiais 
from pro and didomi togive up his country ; proditio is from pro 
and do, but primarily they come from brad, a compound of 
bro-ad, to dcfert the country ; treafon is from tir and refign, 
that is, to quit or defert his country. 

Treasure ; Trysor ; Thesauros; Thesaurus. 
Tryfor (whence the reft) is from drus-wr, a door man or 
door keeper, money, &c. being called treafure from its being 
heaped and locked up. 

Treasurer; Trysorwr; Thesauros; Thesauari- 
Rus. Thofe fignify primarily a door keeper, but fecondarily the 
keeper of trealure, or any valuable matters heaped together. 

Treble; Treblj Triplous ; Triplex. Trebl or 
triblig is from three and plyg, fold ; whence the reft. 

Tree ; Pren ; Dendron ; Arbors Pren is from ap- 
ar-cii, a thing from the earth high ; tree is from it-ar-hi, it is 
from the carih high ; dendron is from it-en-dir-o^ it is high 
ilrom tht ground j arbor is from yr-bi-hix^ the high growth. 


Tremble; Ci^YmT; ItAiocAito; Trimo* Ctynlb 
from cyr-in, a lhaking i^khin ; karkairo is from cyr-oiirp^ 
a beating (hake ; tremo is froifi taro^ain^ ftriking or lhaking 
about I whence tremble^ with the addition of Ue for pob4e, 
aU over, that is, ftiikiiig dr ihaking ab6ut> in every part. 

Trxitch ; GwERSYtL ; StayRos or Karax ; Val- 
lum. Gwerfyll is from cau-or-is-al, inclofing from the low 
part 3 trench is from tir-yn-ux, the earth higher up; ftauros 
js from fto, for to-ar-fi, it is a covering or incloiure upon; 
Valium is from vallis, fignifying ditch ; korax is from catH 
ar-ux, a high covering upon. 

Tribe ; Teily or Tyrfa ; Phyle or Turbe ; Tri. 
BUS. See Troop, Tyrant and Tower; alfo obferve tfiat tei-' 
ly is fronfi ty-ly, a houfe family ; and Uiat phyle is from phi^ 
inftead of vi of bi-ly, that is, a living multitu<ie. 

Tribulation; Trallod; Taraxos; Tribulatio. . 
Trallod is from tar-al-w-id, it is a ftroke upon a man ; ta* 
laxos is from taro-ac, a ftriking a£tion ; tribulatio is from 
taro*bi-al-id, it is a ftroke upon a being ; whence tribulation. 
Tribute or Toll ; Treth or Tal ; Telos ; Tribu* 
ruM. Treth is from tir-ridd, freeing the land; tal, toll and 
telos are from talu, to pay, which fee ; tributum and tribute 
feem to come from tribe and utor, accuftomed, or tribuo, to 

Trident or three-forked Spear; Tryfer; Tri- 
AINA ; Tridens. Tryfer fignffies three fpits or fyezjfs^ 
which fee ; the reft fignify three-toothed. 

Triennial; Tf.irblwydd; Trietes ; Trxennis* 
As to thofe fee Three and Years. 

Tripartite ; Trifarth ; Trimeres ; Triparti- 
Tus. Thofe come from three and part. 

Trivet ; Tribedd ; Tripous ; Tripus. Thofe arc 
from three and feet. 

Troop ; ToRF ; Turbe ; Turba. Thofe being from 
the fame origin as tyr or tor, in the word tyrant, as well aa 
twr a heap and fi or bi living, fignify an heap or company of 
people, with a tyrant, prince or lord, at their head ; alfo byddin^ 
pitana, aig, agale, lliaws, &c. bear the fame fignification. 

Trough; CaFn ; Kongxe ; Concha. Cafn is Arom cau* 
fewn, jQiut or hollow within; whence the Greek and Latins 
trough comes from trwy-cau, fhut or hollow through. 

Trunk ; Trwnc ; Kormo^ ; TrUncus. Kormos it 
from cor or cau-ar«am, the inclofed or (hut upon about or oa 
all fides ; trwnc is from irwi*n*'*cau, thoroughly hollow or 
ihut ; wheoc; the re^. 

T W 

True ; Cywir ; Atrekes ; Verus. Cjrwir is. from 
aic-y-wir, the a<Sion of truth, or primarily of man ; whence 
the Greek and Latin ; true is from it, it is, and rue inftead of 

Truly; Neu ; Nai ; NiE. Truly is from true-Ii, true 
power i neu and the reft moft likely come from the Celtic 
lieu, heaven. 

Tryal; Prawf; Peira ; Tentatio.' Tentatio is 
from tynu-ati, to ftrip to it ; tryal is from try-al, upon try- 
ing 5 peira is from p-ai-ar, a thing upon a<Stion ; prawfi is 
from p-ar-hai-ef, it is a thing upon adHon. 

Trouble ; Blino or Taro ; Teiro ; Affligo. Bli- 
no is from bi-al-un, force upon one ; taro is from ti-ar-w, 
power or force upon man ; whence teiro j trouble is from ta- 
ro-bi-al, to ftrike with great force ; affligo is from a-bi-al-ag, 
a force afting upon. 

Tumult j Terfysg or Twrf j Thorybos ; Tumul- 
TUs. Twrf is a multitude ; terfyfg is from twrf, and fyfg, 
dmongft ; whence thorybos ; tumultus and tumult are from 
tu-mmtus, many in a houfe, place or poffeffion. See Stir. 

Tun; Kerwin or Tinell ; Pithos or Keramosi 
DoLiUM. Tynell is from t-yn-al, a covering veflel or in- 
clofure within high or large ; tun is from tyn, in tynell ; doli- 
um is from t-al-iu, it is a large veflel ; pithos is from p-i-to-fi, 
it is a thing of high covering. 

TuRBANT or Tiara; Talaith; Tiara ; Tiara. 
Turbant comes from twr-ben-it, it is the head heap ; talaith 
comes from to-al-ith, it is the high covering ; tiara is a com- 
pound of to-ar, a covering upon ; and as ti alfo fignifies pro- 
perty, power or poflcflion, turbant may be an emblem of pow- 
er or property. 

Turn ; Twrn ; Tornos ; Turnus. Thofe are from 
troi-un, to turn once or one turn. 

Turn ; Troi ; Trepo ; Verto. Troi is from tro, a 
turning round, which is formed of it-ir-o, it is the round or 
motion of the firmament fire or the fun ; whence the reft, 
though fomewhat corruptly, the n in turn, p in trepo, and v 
in verto, being unnecclTary. 

Turn Wood ; Tyrnio ; Torneuo ; Torno. Thofe 
come from troi-un, a turning one. 

Twelfth; Deuddegfed; Dodekatos ; Duodeci- 
MUS. See Ten and Two, whereof thofe are compofed, ex- 
cept twelfth, which is made up of two-ail-fifth, a fecond ani 
two f.ves. 

Twelve; Deuddeg; Dodeka; Duodecimo Tv/elve 


V A" 

ftnd the reft arc explained under the lafl iit^rd, favC that the 
laft fyllable therein is five inftead of fifth. 

Twenty; Ugain; Eikosi; Viginti. Twenty li 
from two tens 5 as deg fignifies fair weather or a cledr fky, 
fo ugain is from ux-en, the upper firmament ; eikofi is from 
uxa-fi, the higheft view or fight; viginti feems to come from 
A^e-gutita, the firft fight, that is, the element of light, or thfe 
firmament. ' 

Twice ; Dwiwaith or Deuodd ; Dis ; Bis. Twice 
is from two-fi, it is two; bis is from bi-fi, it is two ; dis is 
from dau-fi, it is two ; deuodd is from dau-idd, it is two; 
dwiwaith is- from dau-aeth, two aftions or goings. See the 
following clafs. 

Two ; Dau; Duo ; Duo. Dau is from id-au, it is wa- 
ter, both in and above the earth, or air and water ; whence 
the reft. 

Tye or TO Link ; Tido ; Deo ; Ligo. Tido is from 
tid, a link, a compound of t-ad, t fignifying the firmament, 
or the drawing property thereof, and ad to add or put to"; 
whence deo and tye-; ligo is from il-ag, the aftion of fire, 
which is to draw. 

• Tythe; Decwm; Dekat-s:; Decim-K. Degwm feems 
to come from • deg-cwm, the tenth of the canton or comot ; 
the reft fignify tenth. 

Tyrant ; Teyrn ; Tyranos ; Tyrannus. Teyrn 
is a compound of ti-wr-en, an ancient pofleffor or proprietor ; 
whence the reft. 


VACANT or Empty ; Gwag ; Kenos ; Vacuus. 
Gwag is from cau-o-ag, fliut up or hollow from ac- 
tion ; kenos is from ac-in-o, from being in aftion ; vacant 
is from ve-a-ac-int, thefy are things from a£Hon ; vacuus is 
from ve-a-ac-iu, it is a thing from adlion. 

Vain ; Ofer ; Atheros ; Irritus or Vanus. Ofer 
is from o-fer, from a fpring, or the current which exhaufts 
the fpring; atheros is fromaeth-er, the going or running wa- 
ter; irritus is from ir-er-idiu, it is the water ; vanus and vain 
are from ve-en, he is high; and irritus may be from ir-idiu, 
he is high. 

Vale; Cwm, Glyn or Diffryn; Angkos or Aulon; 
Vallis or Vicus. Cwm is from cy-w-am, men together 
upon a fpot, or from cau-w-am, man's inclufure; glyn is 



Cnm ctta-ll»yitf ta Aut a funily in^ or fiftN» cyAiJfB^ ii(tx» 
W ti^etber widiin; whence aidan; vicus is fitxa vi-cwn, 
Oiecwm wi]r<»rewaidwelJine; anffkosk an indufttres difiryn 
ia from di-firyn, without a hill or a bottom i vallia aad takttt 
lirom m-le-Uy a way in a low place. 

Valiantly ; Crvfhaus i Ixuros ; Valxdb. Cryf- 
haus is^ fix>m cryf, ftrong ; whence ixuros ; vaKde is boaivr 
al-id, it is high or powerful life $ whence valiantly* 

Vallky; Glynn; Aulon; Vallis. Tlhole aie «• 
.phased under the word Vale, and ace <^ tdie fame BgaOar 

Vapour j Tarth ; Athma 5 Halitus. Vapour ii 
from au-up-o-ir, a water up b^ the fun ; halitus is from bd- 
au-al-idiU) it is the water raifing up ^ athma is finom au-idi- 
am, it is die water about ; tarth is from t-au-ir-ith, itistk 
water raifed up by the firmament. 

Various or Chanceablb ; Anwadbl ; Aiolos ; Va- 
RIU8. Anwadel is from an*w-del, a refUefs man^ or a loan 
without any hold ; whence aiolos ; varius and various ait 
from vi-ar-iu, it is being out of the way. 

Udder or Duo ; Pwrs or Teth 5 Euphoros or Tit- 
THS i Uber. Teth is from t-au-ith, it is the milk cover- 
ing ; whence tittbe ; uber is from w-ber, the animal liquid; 
whence udder ; dug is from id-w-gau, it is the animal's veflcl 
or purie ; pwrs is from p-w-ar-fi, it is a thing upon an ani- 
nial ; euphoros is from u-phwrs, the purfe. 

Veil ; Llen ; Laiphos ; Velum. Lien is from llai- 
cn, lefs iky or light, or from al-en, the one upon ; laiphos 
ts from lai-fi, leS fight ; velum and veil are from vi-al-en, or 
vi-al, a covering upon the fight. 

Venom j Gwenwin ; los or Manganon; Venenum. 
Thofe feem to be derived from the Celtic gwen}^, bees i but 
fee Bees, Poifon, &c. 

Verily, Certainly or Indeed ; Ynddilus or Ynd- 
PiAU ; Etoi or Alethos ; Certe or Quidbm • As ta 
thofe, fee Certain 

Vertue j Rhinwedd or Rhindda ; Arete ; Virtus. 
Arete, virtus, and virtue, are from ear or ver-ti, CgnifyiBg the 
property of the fpring, or frOm ver or er-id, it is the fpriog 
or truth ; rhinwedd b from yr-^n-wedd, the countensice w 
the heaven or horizon^ and rhin-dda, a ferene iky. 

Very or Greatly ; Ynfawr ; Mala or Megauos^ 
V ALDE or Magnifice. Very feems to come from vtr, the 
fpring ; as to greatly and ynfawr, fee the word Great; mala 
is from m^-au, the great high water Oir.the fea; msgalios is 


from' m*auc-al, the greathij^ wate orthe (at ; inldidui fmn 
au-al-id, of thefiuhofignificatioh. 

Vbssel; Cib( Kisos; Vasculuic. GSr it fiomctit* 
bi, a covering or indofure for drink i whence ktbos ; vafiai- 
lum is from vi-fi-cau-al, it is acovcriagor cheft fbrfooiior 
drink; whence veflcl. 

Vest; Gwisg; ImaTismos; VtsTiTOt. Gwifg is 
from cau*w-is-cau, a msoi's covering over the hy^ner ; tmatiT- 
mos is from am-y'-ti^is^macy itis^atout die lower oovenbg ; 
yeftitus is from y-es-d-to, a covering for the loivvcr fideor part^ 
whence veft. 

Vetches; Gwig; Bikia; Vicia. Gwig is from ag- 
o«e2, an a^on of growth without a feed ; whence the reft* 

Vex or Torment ; Nyxu or Cbthru; Nirsso otKbm- 
TEo ; PuKGO or Vexo. Nyxu and nyflb are from ni-cau, id 
ihut us up ; cethru and kenteo are from cau*tt*ar*w« to fliat 
up man ; pungo is from p-in-cau, a thing (hut in. 

Vigour; Egni; Akme; Vigor. £gni i» from ig«yn« 
vij the fire or force in us; ak-me is from ig-me, my &c or 
force ; vigor is from ve^ig-wr, it is man's fire, heat or force. 

VtLE ; Gw AEL ; Ph AULos ; ViLis. Gwael is from ag* 
o-al, aiEiing from high; whence the reft ; or phaulos inay be 
from ph-al-^o-fi, it is a thing from 1>etng high. 

Village; PENTREForCwM; Koomb or Ankos; Pa- 
cus or Convallis. The cwms were the head-quarters of 
a tribe, fortified with a bank of earth ; and penti%f fignifiea 
as much from pen-tir-ef, it is the head of the pofTeffions ; fee 
Tribe ; cwm feems to be a primitive of the fame meaning with 
the combs of the bees ; vicus or vicum is from vi-cwm, living 
or dwelling together; vills^e is from vi-Ie-gi, a place <» 
dwelling together ; pagus is from pe-gi-iu^ it is a place or part 

V iNE ; GwiNWYDDEN ; OiNE ; ViTis. Gwinwyddcn 
is from gwin-wydd, the wine wood ; vine and oine are from 
gwin ; vitis is from vi-it, it is life or food ; whence vita, 

Vinegar ; Gwinecr ; Oxos ; Acetum. Gwinegrand 
vinegar are from wine, and eager or egr ; the other woras are 
. from oxifo and aceo, to be eager, which were formed from the 
-exclamation ufuaUy made on tafting any acid liquor. 

Viol; Fiol; Phialb ; Phiala. . Thofe feem to befiom 
' phi-le, a drink place. 

Violence ;. Rhythr ; Rhoisos ; Impetus. Rhythr h 
(rom* ir-hi-taroy a high or bold (biking ; whtn^ rhoifos i^ 



violence is from vi-ol-en-fi, it is the force df the fun ; impe* 
tus is from im-peth-iu, it is a thing of force ; and the' this 
fignification of im was unknown to the Latins, it is fiill pre- 
ferved in the Celtic, and in its primary fenfe is from i-m^ die 
great i, or the motion of the fire.. . 

Violent ; Biwioc ; Biaios ; VioLEhfTus. Violcntus 
and violent are from vi-ol-en-it, it is life from the firmament ; 
biwiog is from biw-og, a great life ; whence biaios. 

Virgin; Gwiryfj Korb; Virgo. Gwyrif is from 
. ag-wr-ef, flic is from or free from man ; kore is from ac-wr, 
fiom man j virgo is from vir or wr-ag, from man ^ whence 
virgin. " 

Voice ; Llajs or Swn ; Logos or Phone ; Vox or So- 
nus. Swn is from fi-w-yn, found in man or animal ; whence 
fonus ) phone is a living ton ; vox and voice are from vi-exo, 
a Irving-exo ; llais is from al-fi, a high found ; logos is from al- 
og-fi, an adion of high found. .. , 


wr is from dido-wr, the man chofenj whence dlaitetes; 
umpire feems to be from w-am-p-r', the man about the mat- 
ter ; arbiter is from ar-peth-wr, the man upon the matter. 

Un ; An or Ym ; An or Em ; Im or In. Thofe arc all 
negatives or privatives ufed in compofition, from u-n, no fprii^ 
or adion. See un under the explanation of the particles in the 

Unanimity; Unoliath ; Omonoia; Unakimitas. 
Thofe fignify all one, or all of one mind. 

Uncertain; Anilys; Adelos ; Incertus. Anilys 
is from tlie privative an and dilys, without being certain or 
fure ; whence adelos ; incertus and uncertain are from in and 
certain, which fee. 

Unckle; Ewythr; Theios ; Avunculus. Ewvthr 
is from y-wr-ti, the of the houfeor family; theios is from 
tu-w-fi, he is a man of the houfe ; avunculus and unckle are 
from y-vc-yn-ix-lu, he is of your family. 

Under ; Tan; Upo ; Sub. Tan is from t-in, within t, 
or the horizon; under from un-tir, within the poffeffions; 
upo from up-o, from up ; and fub is from is-ub, below up. 

Unequal; Anwastadol; Aesulos; Iniquus. Thofe 
are from the feveral privaiivcs and negatives, and the expref- 
fions for equal, which fee. 

Union ; Undod ; Enosis ; Unio. All thofe words aic 
formed out of the number one, without any addition, favc 
dod in undod, which tho' commonly taken for a termination, ifr 
from id, it is. 



Unite 5 Uno; Enoo j Unio. Thofe words, come from 
un, or en, one. 

Unity ; Undod j Enosis j Unit as. Thofe words are the 
fame as Union. 

Unkind or Ungentle ; Anfwyn ; Apenes ; Immi- 
tis. Thofe are from the feveral privatives, and fwyn from 
mwyn, by inflexion, fignifying kind. See Kind, Gen- 
tle, &c. 

Unlearnep; Anyscedig ; ApQxos ; Indoctus. Thofe 
are from the feveral privatives, and dyfg, learning, which fte. 

Unless ; Oni ; Eime ; Ni or Nisi. Oni is from Orni, 
if not, which fee, whence the reft, except unlefs, which is 
from the privative un and lefs, which alfo fee. 

Until ; Hyp ; Eos ; Usque. Hyd fignifies length, and 
it is a compound of hi-i-id, it is the high i ; eos is from i-o-fi, 
it is the high o, or the fun ; until is from unt-il, unto the 
fun ; ufqtie is from o-fi-ux, it is the upper o, or the fun. 
- Vocal; Llafar ; Lamuros ; Vocalis, Vocalis and 
^ocal are from vox, voice, which fee ; Uafar and lamuros Jirc 
from the Celtic llef-mawr, or fawr, a great voice. 

Voice ; Swn j Phone ; Vox. Vox and voice are from 
fcri-exo, a living echo or found ; fwn is from li-w-in, a man 
founding; whence phone With a phe for fe, inftead of fi, which 
[Jgnifies it is. 

Void, Vacant or Empty; Coeg or Gwag ; Ke- 
Mos; Vacuus or Inanis. Void is from vi-o-id, it is from 
Qght ; coeg and gwag are from cau-o-ag, fhut out from 
iSion; or from cau-ag, a hollow a<ftion; whence ke- 
nos, vacuus and vacant ;' empty . is from the privative im- 
p-id, it is a privative an, that is, nothing ; inanis is with- 
out exiftence, from in-an-fi, it is without exiftence or be- 
ing in. 

Vomit or Belch; Xwdu ; Ereugo ; Eructo. Vo- 
mit is from ve-o-mi, the thing from me ; belch is from be-al- 
ox, the rifmg filthy thing ; xwdu is from ox-w-id, it is man's 
filth; whence the reft, having wr, inftead of w, for man. 

Up ; Ub ; Uper ; SuPER. U is compofed of two i's 
jvithout a dot, having a c, fignifying a6lion at bottom, but 
oprn at top, fo as to extend beyond the dot of i, fignifying 
the fun, that is, without a ftop, or infinitely, fo as to exprefs 
Lnvifible qualities or beings ; b is an i without the dot, or any 
lop upwards, having the adlion at bottom ; hence thefe two 
etters exprefs up, as o-b, do down ; but this appears fuller in 
:he preface. 

P Upbraid ; 

W A 

Upbraid ; Danod ; Oneidiso ; Exprob&o. Danodit 
from dan-nod, under a mark or notice ; whence oneidifo -, ex- 
probo is from ex and probro, to prove ; upbraid is from up: 
pro^'ed. See Proof or Prove. 

• Upon' ; Ar ; Ari or Uper ; Super. Upon is from up 
and on ; uper and fuper are from up-ar, above the caith; a£r 
and ari fignify the earth upo^ which we ftand. 

Uproar or Stir (to make an) 5 Tyrfau; Thori- 
beO ; Tumultuor. Tyrfau is from twrf, a found i whence 
Hit and thorubco; uproar is from up and roar; tumultuorii 
explained under the word Tumult. 

Upwards; Yfynu; And; Sursum. Upwards i$ 
from ub-ar-id, it is above the earth; yfynu is from y-fijm-u, 
the highcft place or part ; ano is from in-u, fignifyingin the 
fpring or upwards j furfum is from is-ar-is-am, it is above or 
ii]X)n the lower part. 

Urine ; Dwrdyn ; Ouron j Urina. Thofc words 
are compounded of dwr-dyn or un, man's water, dyn beiog 
A compound of id-un^ it is one; but wr is the moft ancient 
Celtic word for man. 

Use or Accustom ; Arferu or Cyfarwyddhauj 
Xraomai; Utor. Ufe is from y-fi, the thing that is; 
icuftom is from ac-y-fid-am, the a<ftion that is about or of the 
world ; arferu is from ar-fe-r', the thing that is upon ; cy- 
ferwyddhau is from cyf-ar-wydd-hai, adting upon a thing prc- 
fcnt togctlicr ; whence xraomai ; utor is from y-it-ar, the 
thing that is uppon. 

Utility; Lles; Lusiteleia or Ophelos ; Utili- 
tas. Utilitas and utility are from y-tili-ti, the family pof- 
fcfTion ; lies comes from li-es, the family eafcment ; ophelos 
is from o inftead of y, phi inftead of bi, and li, the food of the 
family or multitude ; lufiteleia is from the Celtic lefu-tilu, to 
profit a family. " 


WALL ; Mur, Parad or Caer ; Teixos or Moi- 
Roii ; Murus or Paries. Miir is from am-r', the 
jnclofure ; whence moiros and murus ; parad is from p-ar-idt 
It is a part upon ; whence paries ; caer is from cau-r*, the 
fhut upon or inclofure ; teixos is from tu-xau, a houfe inclo- 
jfurc ; wall is from the Celtic gwal, compofcd of cau-w-al, 
^n inclofure upon man or animal. 

' 'Wak'cer'; Alltuo or NtiLLTUo ; Alaino ; Vacor 


^ W A 

in Ekko. Vrigor i8 frgm vi-agror,' acEiing Out of the way j 
\erro is from ar-o, out of the land ; winder is from w-on-tirj^* 
a man out of our land ; allttio is from ail-tu, another fide, fo 
is nailltuo from naill-tu^ and alainio ail-in, of the fame ilghl-^ 
ficatiori. . . 

Want J XwenYxuj Xatboj T^geo. Xwenyx is froni 
xwant, want, compofed of aux-yntho, an ed^e or defire irt 
him ; whence th6 other words, . 

Wanting (to be) 5 Pallu j Lkipo ; Linc^o or De- 
SUML* Pallu is fronii ap-allu^ from power 5 leipo is from lai- 
pe, lefs thing; wanting is from want; linquo is fromlai-in-' 
ac, lefe in adtion ; . defum is from di-fwiii, without or priva- 
tive of a fum or fubftance; 

Want; Xwant j FdTrfos or Xetosj pEsiDERiuivi 
or Penuria. As to want, xwant and xetos, fee Need anct 
Want ; penuria is from pe-ni-yr, the thing without being i 
defiderium is from di-fidd-yr, the thing that is riot, or a pri*- 
vative ; pothos is from peth-o-(i, a thing that is from^ 
. Warm; Claiar;" Xliaros ; Tepidus. CUiar is 
from ac-il-ar, the aftipn of fire or heat upon ; wWdce xliaros 
tepidus feems to be corrupted, but tepor is from id-ap-ir, ic 
te from Ae fire or heat ; warm is from o-ir-am, tlie high o, 
61* the fun abouti '■ u. 

. Warm; Claiaru, Gynhbsu or Twymnoj Thy-^ 


frt'sco'or Calefacio^ Twimno is from to-ani;, a covering 
upon or about; whence thymiao; cynhefu is from cy-nes, 
riearer together; whence karigxaino; calefadois from claiar 
andfacio; tepefco is from tepdrj excand^fco is from ex and 

■ Warm (to be ) ; Claiar ymae > Xliaros tiMi i 
. Tefeoj See the two laft claffes. 
, Warp or Thread in tHe Doom; Ystof; Istos; 
Stamen. Iftof is from is-to-ef, it covers the lower;" whence 
iftos, alfo ftameri^ with the additionf of ant, ab'ourt j warp is 
from the Celtic we or gwe, and" ar-pe, upon a thing. 

WAsh; Golxi; LouoorKLUSO; Lavo. Wafh is 
from wa for au,' water, -and rfh, the found nfiade in wafhing ; 
golxi is from golx or gwlyx, wet^ which are compounded of 
ag-au-il-ux, the adion of Water and fire; whence klufoj 
k>uo and lavo are frpm al-au-o, from the high water or rain ; 
wetting is from au-it, it is the water. 

WASf»; Cacwn; Sphex; Spheca. Wafp fignifies aiu 
jMiimal with a fting ; fphex and fpKeca are from fi-pig-it, it 

W A 

IS a prick or a point ; cacwn is frcnn cac-tc^w-in, the ihittct 

Waste; ; Raid; Proflico. Oferuisfrom 
o-fer, from a fpring ; raio is from or-au, from the fpring wa- 
ter ; wiifte is from wa for au-is-id, it is lowering the Ipring 
water; profligo is from pro-flo-auc, the water flowing 

WATCHruL ; Effro ; Phroura 5 Vigil. EAto is 
from c-fi-fro, the feeing the neighbourhood j w hence phrou- 
ra ; vigil is fromvi-ag-il, to fee after fun-fet or dark; watch- 
ful is from w-at-fi-fS, man at full fight. 
'Watch; Gwilio ; Luxniso ; v igilo. As towatdi 
and vigilo, fee the laft clafs of words ; gwilio is from ag-o- 
il, aftmg out of the light ; luxnifo is mm lewix-nos, the 
light of the night. 

Water; Difrhau; DEuoorBRExo; Rico. Seethe next 
^Vord ; rigo is from er-ag-iu, it is the adion of water ; brcxo 
is from ber-ac-iu, it is the a^Hon of fpring water; dyfxfaauii 
from dyfr-hai, the aftion of water. 

Water; Dwr ; Ydor ; AquA. e, as the half of' o, 
fignifies the element of water, to which the founding letter r, 
fignifying the, being added, it makes er, the water, to which 
the letter b, fignifying life, motion, &c. being prefixed, it 
makes ber, fpring water, whence the Latin ver, a fpring ; 
au alfo in compofition fignifies water, liquid, &c. thoagb 
in its primitive fenfe it means only a fpring; dwr is fromU- 
au-cr, it is fpring water ; ydor is from the Celtic y-dwr, tfcc 
water; c being added to au, to fignify z£tion or motion^ 
makes auc, fpring water, whence aqua ; water is from au 
and dur. 

Wave; Ton;'*Dume; Unda. Wave is a compound 
of wa for au-ve for fi, living water ; ton or don, in every 
calc but the nominative, is from ton, found; whence dune; 
alfo unda by tranfpofition. 

Waxj Cwyr ; Keros ; Cera. Thofe come fromac- 
w-ir, an ointment from the animal. 

Wax ; Cwyro ; Keroo ; Cero. See the laft clafe. 

Way ; FoRDD ; Poreia ; Via. Fordd is from fi-or-id, it 
is feeing from, or fe-ar-id, it is the part upon ; whence poreia; 
via is from vi-a, feeing from or feeing the country ; whence 
way; the Celtic term is ftill preferved in the Engl i{h word 
ford and forth, a way through a water. 

Weak ; Egwan ; Xaunos ; Debilis. Weak feems 
to have been formed by a tranfpofition of the letters in egwan ; 


fkbyi? is.frotn fte privative dj,. without, and bjHs, the bile or- 
cholcr, which is a con^pound of bi-li, powerful life j gwati.. 
is from ag-w-en^ the adion of an old man. 

Wealth y Golud ; Olbos or Ploutos ; Opes or Di-. 
YITI^. Wealth i§ fcom w^ fpr vi-al-ith, it is all life j olbpS; 
is from ol-bi-fi, it is all life ; ploutos is from p-ql-tu, part of all 
poffcffioqs ; divitiac is from id-vi-ti, it is life or worldly poflcf- 
fion; golud is from gy-ol-id, it is gathering all together j opes- 
is from q-prfi.ipfteadiof li, th^ thing? together, 

Wbary., StAQKEN or.G|io>^ l/vzy i Llae&u orLLEs- 
Gi; Enoxleg; Lasso. Weary is from the Celtic word;. 

3arhaja, to low^ ; llaefu is from liaes, (l^k, which is ffom 
-is, high lowe:r ; wheace the other words. 
■ Weeping or Waiwnq j Wylofepp or Gwaedd %. 
GoosorOLOLUOMOs; LircTUS. See Mourn, &c. aivd obr 
fcrve that wylo and gwaedd, tfce primitives he^e^ are from ly- 
o-il, a man from the lightt ^nd' ag-w-p, a man's a£lion ofi 
. W30e or oh. 

Wedge or Coin ; Cyk; K^ONOs.i Cuneus* Prob^ly. 
tjfiis word wa& framed frpqi a woman's,. \yhich was the ik^;, 
coin, and is:acompQuiyl.Qf csLQ-yp, to Qmt int 

Webk.; Wythnp5 5 EfippMAs ; Hejbj>o^as, Wyth- 
nos is from wyth-nps, ^h^. nights; week i? from wytl^-ac,^ 
eight ai5lbn3» or ^rth's rou(i4 or courfe ; the other words fig- 
2ufy feyen days.; here the Ci^ltic and En^lU^i agree, but they 
both difagree with the Greek a|id Lsjitin, the former, having; 
begua to reckon at th^ creation, and the Utter having loft the 
original way of reckoning. 

Wji^U. or Sound; Iajc; Uqies; Vivus or Sanus. 
Sound is from fi-untho, a found in him ; well is from w-al» 
the man is up ; fahus is from fi-en, he is up ; vivus is from bi 
qr fi-iii, he is living; iax is from i-ux, the up; whencO; 

Well or Well done ; Wi ; Euge ; Euge, See the 
laftclafs.; wi is from w-i, an high mau ; euge is from cu-ag, 
an high a£Uon. 

West; Gqr,llewin; Dusis; Occasus. Weft is from 
o-es-it, it i^ th^ fun fetting ; gorllewin is from gor-lle-o-en> 
abovje the place, of the fvin, or from gor-lle-ion, beyond thc; 
place of the lonians ; occafus is from the fun's going down, 
cir froixi:og-ge-is*iu, it is lower than the nation of iVIagog; 
dttfis is fr-om id^g-is, it is the fun's lowering, or going down. 

. What; Pa un; Hoion ; Qujd. Qind and what are- 
from the Celtic ix-id, it is yours, the Romans having changed 
tte guttm:al ch or x into q> a^d the English intQj,vh,.. in which 


they ftill perfeftly retain the primitive (buml of ch or Xj pa- 
lin fignifies whicn one ; whence poion. 
'Wheat; Gwenith or Pyrud; Puros; Triticum; 
Gwenlth is from gwyn-yd, white corn ; pyrud is from pyr- 
ud, pure corn ; whence puros j triticum is from tori or tero, 
to break or grind. 

Who or What; Pwy, pa, pa un; P0103, Poia, 
PoioN J Qyis, Que, Quid. Pwy is from p-w-y, the par- 
ticular man ; pa, the particular matter ; pa-un, the particular 
one ; whence the Greek j as to the reft fee Who or Which 
and What. 

Wheel; Rhod or Troell; Troxos or Tornos, 
TuRNUs or Rota, Wheel is from wh, inftead of ch, both 
being of one 'found, with an a prefixed, making ax, ach or 
see, fignifying a£tion and eeJ, the fun, i. e. the a£tion of the 
fun ; rhod is from r'-o-id, it is the fun ; fo is troell of troi-ell, 
the turning fun ; whence all the reft. 

Whelp ; Cenau ; Kunidion ; Catultts. Whclp 
feems to come from wh, inftead of ax, fignifying from or an 
offspring, and yelp ; cenau is the fame as ci-an, a little dog^' 
which is a diminutive of ci, a doe, as is catulusof canis, tod 
kunidion of kuan-idiu, he is a little dog ; or whelp may be 
derived from whi for chi-il-ap, the offspring of a dog. 

When ; Pan ; Otan ; Quum. Pan is a compound of 
pa-yn, the part of in or exittence ; quum, when, and otan^ 
are of the fame figniflcation, from ax-in. 

Where ; Ple or Pa ; Pou ; Ubi. Pie is compofei of 
pa-le, what or the particular place ; pa, pou, and Xibi, Come 
from the fame original ; where is a compound of what-lr,* 
what earth. 

Whet; Hogi; Akonao; Acuo. Hogi id from hai^' 
aux, afting the edge ; whence the Greek and Latin terms ; 
whet is from aux-it, it is the edge, the wh and ch or x being 
of one found. 

' Whether ; Ai ; Eme or Eite ; An or Utrum, Ai is 
from a-i, earth or aftion ; an is from a-ni, earth or not ; eite 
is from ai-it, it is ai, that is, earth or adtion ; eme is fiom 
ai-am, earth or aftion; utrum is from ai-tir-am, aAion, of 
the part pofl'elTed; whether is from xwith-ar, earth or 

Whirlwind ; Cyrwint or TrowinIt ; Troxos or 
KoRUFE ; Vertex or Turben. Whirlwind is from whirls 
to turn and wind ; cyrxwint is a violent wind; trowint is a 
turning wind ; whence the Greek and Latin. 

White ^ Gwin ; Xioneos -, Niveus# The only deri' 



yation of the Greek and Latin words is from xion and- ijix,. 
ifnow ; but as xion comes from xeo, fundo, to pour out, which, 
has no relation to the idea of whitenefs, fome better etymo- 
logy fhoi^ld be given ; this word then feems to me to be st^ 
compound of xeo, to pour out, and neos, the flcy or firma-' 
ment ; niveus as well as nix come from neos ; gwin fecms to., 
be from ag-o-en, the action of the firmament j white is from 
' gwi in gwin, and it, it is. 

Whiten; Cannu; Kaio; Candeo. Thefe feem to 
be compofed of ag-en, fignifying the adion of the firmament 
or fire. 

Whiting; Gwniad; Kobios; Gobius. Whiting 
^ and gwniad are from white ; kobios and gobius are from cy- 
bi-au-fi, it is the chief water food. 

Who or Which; Pwi orPA; Poios, Poia; Quis, 
Qu-ffi. Who ^nd which, and quis and quae, are from the Cel-. 
tic y-xwi, is it you ? the other words are from p-w, what, ox 
the particular man, or p-a, what, or the particular thing. 

Whole or Intire; Ollawl; Olokleros; Integer. 
Integer is from in-ti-ag-er, in earth and water ; intire is from, 
in-tir, in the land ; whole is from ollawll, which fignifies all. 
property, as oloklejrps does all lots or fortunes, which fee in 
the proper places. 

Whore ; Pytan ; Porne ; Meretrix. Pytan is from 
py-tan, a filthy or dirty under, or from pe-tan, an under 
thing ; porne feems to be from p-arni, the thing- upon her ; 
pr from phy-arni, the phye upon her ; whore is from who- 
?i'r,.all upon her, who, as in whole, here fignifying all ; mCf/ 
. jre.trix is from merx-trix, an unfortunate woman. 

Wide; Rhwth; Eyrus ; Latus. Rhwth is from 
yr-with;, the wind ; eyrus is from eyros, the eaft wind ^ wide 
as well as wind come from the Celtic wyth ; latus is from le- 
idiu, it is place or the furface of the ground ; byt rh\yth, &c. 
are. more probably from r'-o-ith, it is the o, or bf'eadth. 

Wife or Woman ; Gwraig or Merx; Oar or Gvne, 
GuNAiKos; MuLiER or UxoR. Woman is from w-o-. 
Oaiv, an animal from man ; \yife is from w-y-fi, my animal ; 
gwraig is from gwr-ag, frpmnian; merx is from mi-ur-ax, 
jiiy offspring ; oar is from wr, man ; gune is from ag-un,, 
fjroni one ; uxor is from ax-ur, from man ; mulier is from". 
UU-il-wr,. the great race of man. 

Will ; Ewllysio ; Ethelo ; Volo. ..EwUyfio 13 from: 
cwyllys, the' will, which is compofed of y-w-al-fi, the mair 
ypoii feeing or thinking; volo is from viral- w, man upon' 

fceixig ;■ 

W I 

feeing ; tvhcncc will j cthelo i|s from id-al, man upon fecli^ 
or thinking. 

Wind ; Gwynt; Anetes ; Ventus. Gwynt is a com- 
pound of ag-wy-hynt, the puffing aft ion of the air ; whence 
the other words were formed, though very little of the original, 
found now remains ; fo fond were the Greeks and Romans of 
foft, fmooth, and fweet fonnds, that they relinquifhed the 
fignificancy of their vocables for the fake of it, but the Ccl- 
tts and Hebrew nations abhorred it. 

Winding or Turn ; Tro ; Strophe ; Versura. 
Tro is from t-ir-o, it is the firmament o, or the fun ; whence 
turn and ftrophe ; as to winding fee the next clafs of words ; 
and as to verfura, fee the word Turn. 

Wind up Thread, &c. Dirwin; Eir6o; Glomero. 
Dirwin is from id-ir-o-n, it is the high o, en, the firmament 
o, or the fun ; eiroo is from ir-o-iu, it is the high o, or Ac 
fun ; glomero is from ag-al-o-itiawr, the a<S(ion of the great 
high o, or the fun j wind is from o-en-id, it is the firmament 
o, or the fun. 

Window; Fenestr ; Phos; Fenestra. Feneftris 
from fi-en-es-tir, the fight or light of the fky in the lower 
pofleflions or houfes ; phos or ^hofter is from phi-o-is-ter, and 
fencftra is from fi-en-ef-ter, of the fame fignification ; win- 
dow is from o-en-idiu, it is the light, or the o-en. 
ci'ht; Wine ; Gwin ; Gonio^; Vinum. Gwin i* from ag-o- 
cn, from the fun i or firnfiamcnt o ; whence the refl/ It is 
obfervable here, as in all other inftances of bleffings, that they 
are faid t& come from the fun, fire, firmament or heaven. 

Wing ; Asgell ; Masxale ; Ala. Afgell is from as- 
ag-al, lower ading or going high or up ; whence the Greek 
and Latin words ; wing is from w-en-ag, an animal ailing or 
going high to the fky. 

WrNTER; Gauaf; Xeima; Hyems. Gauaf IS from 
• cau-haf, to fhut up fummer ; xeima is from xei-ma, fhatting 
in, whence hyems ; winter is from wind-er, wind and wa- 

; Wipe or Cleanse ; Syxu ; Smexo; Tergo or Si ceo. 
Tergo is from it-ir-ag, it is the aftion of fire; cleanfe is ex- 
plained under the word Cleanfe ; wipe is from o-i-pe, a thing 
from the high o, or the fun ; fyxu is from fi-ux-o, it is the 
upper o, or The fun y fmexo is from fi-m-ux-o, it is the ^eat 
high o, or the fun. 

Wisdom; SrNwiR ; SophRosune; Sapientia. Syn- 
wir is from fi-in-wir, to fee in truth i whence fophrofune ; fa- 



i>icntia IS from fi-pe-ens, to fee a thing In its exiftence ; wIP 
dom is from w-fi-dom, a man's feeing power. 

.Wish or Desire greatly 5 Xwenyxu ; EuioMAi ot 
GtixoMAi ; or Glisco. Xwenyxu arid eiixomaiare 
from xwant) want, which fee ; glixomai and glifcb tivc frofh 
ag-al-xwa, ah aftion frdm want ; opto is from d-p-do, oh 
the. thing give ; wifli is from o !-iflij it is the o or oh } as to 
defire fee the word Defire. See the preface. 

With ; Cy or Cyd ; Xun or Sun ; Cum or Com^ Cv 
is from ac-ij the.firft aftion or mbtion ? cyd is from cy-id,' it 
is the firft or chief ; the others are frorti cy-am, together, 
about, or upon the fame fpot ; but with may be from within J 
which fee. 

., WiTHii^) Yn or Yntho; Entos; Infra or Inttts* 
■ Within^ yntho, entos, and intus, are from iii-ti, in the hoiife ; 
infra is from in-fro, in the country ; as to yn fee In. 
» Without ; Heb ; Aneu ; Sine. Sine is fro'm fi-ni it 
b not ; without is from wyth-out, the breadth out, or from 
withaand out ; aneu is from an-iu, it is not ; heb is formed of 
hai- b, from a£lion. 

Woe ; GwAE 5 Onai ; V^. Gwae is froni ag-o-ai, the 
a^ion of oh ; whence the reft were imperfeftly formed. 

Wolf j Blaidd j Lukos ; Lupus; Blaidd is from bi- 
ladd, the animal killer; lupus is from lukos, by changing the 
^ k into p ; lukos is from la-kcs, the flieep killer j wolf is from 
: W-la-ef, it is the animal killer. 

Woman or Wife ; Merx or Gwr aig ; Gyne or Gu- 

: NAlKos ; MuuER or Uxor* As to mulier fee Maid ; uxor 

is from ax-wr, from man ; gyne is from ag- un, from one or 

- an ofFspring ; wife is from w-fe^ my animal j woman is from 

r- w-o-man, an animal from man ; gwraig is from gwr-ag, from 

man ; merx is from mi-wr-ax, my ofispring^ 

Wood J Coed; Kalon; Lignum. Coed is from ac- 
O-id, the aftjon or growth of the fun, or an high growth ; 
whence wood ; kalon is from ag-al-en, and fo i« lignum, fig- 
nlfying an high growth • 

Woodcock ; Ysgyffylog ; Skolopax ; GalIikago. 
"XVoodcock is from wood and cock ; gallinago is from gallina, 
^ hen, and coed, wood ; yfgyfylog is from ys-gilf-^og, the great 
bill one ; whence (kolopax. 

Wool ; Gwlan ; Lends ; LanA, Gwlan is from ag- 
Vr-Iari, the growth upon the clean animal ; whence the reft* 

Word; Gair ; Rema; Verbum. Gair is from ag-» 
"Vr-uer, the fpring or truth from man ; or from ag-wr, the a<ftion 
^f man ; whence gwir, truth ; verbum is from vcv-bi-um. 

W R 

my living fpring ; or from ur-bi-iu, it is man*s life; mlieiipe 
rcma, by" tranlpofition ; word is from w-er-id, it is the fpring} 

or friim wr-iJ, it is man. 

World or (;ru; Bvd orpL^RFAFEN; Sphaira or 
OiKoUMi-NK ; Orbis. Byd is from bi-id, it is life; ojbis 
and orb arc from yr-bi, the life ; world is from wor, for or, 
in orbic, and le-id, it b the place; furfafen and fphaira arc 
from fi-ir-fa<-f£n, the great high place of life j oikoumeneis 
from cikos-nia-en, the high great houfe. 

Work ; Gwaith ; Ergasia ; Operatic. ' Work is 
a compound </ w-ar-ag, a man upon aftion ; gwaith is from 
ag-w-ith, it is man's a^fiion; ergafia is from ur, or er, and 
guaich, the work; operatio is from w-p-ar, a man uponi 

Worthy ; Addas; Axios ; Dignus. Add^ is from 
a-dda-a£, a leiTcr i^ood ; fee Apt; worthy is frrm wr-dd*a-y, 
the good mnn ; a.rios is from ac-ux-w, an high allien of man; 
dignus is from id-ag-cn-w, it is an high aftion of man. 

Wound; Gweli ; Oule ; Vulnus. Wound is from 
w-yntho, within or into man ; gwcli is fromag-w-al, an aftion 
or cut in or upon a man; oule is from w-al, upon a man; 
vulnus is from vc-al-in, it is into or upon. 

Wrap or Enfold; Ymblygu; Empleko; Implico. 
Thofe come from the Celtic word plyg, a fold, with the feve- 
ral particles prefixed, except wrap, which is from th& word 
v/arp, fi^nifying to bend, as the warping or bending of boards 
by the fun. Sec Wrap, Fold, &c. 

Wrath, Heat or Anger ; Iredd, Gwyth or Twym ; 
Orge or Thymos; Ira or Tepor. Iredd is from ir-idd, 
it is the fire ; orge is from ir-ag, from the fire ; ira is from ir; 
anger is from ang-ir, a great heat or fire ; wrath is from o-ir- 
ith, it is from the fire ; gwyth is from ig-o-yth, it is ffora 
the fire or heat ; as to the reft fee Warm, Heat, &ۥ 

Wreath or ToRquEs; Torx ; Streptos^; Torquis. 
Torx is from to-ar-ux, a covering upon the upper coat or co- 
vering ; whence torques ; ftreptos is from flo-ar-p-to-is, of the 
fame fignification ; wreath is from wra in wrap, and ith, it is. 

Wrestle ; Amaelyd ; Sumpalaio ; Colluctor. 
Amaelyd is from am-al-id, it is for being upon or upper; 
fympalaio is fiom fym-p-al-iu, it is for being upj>er ; colluftor 
is Irom ac-al-ux-it-wr, it is a man for being uppermoft; 
wreftlc is from wr-Is-it-al, it is the man for being upper, or 
upper upon the lower. 

Wrinkle; Cryxu or Rhyxu ; RuTiodo; Rugo. See 
the following clafs of words. 

2 Wrinkle; 

Wrinkle; Rhvx; ^^hiknos; Rugostji,^^ 
from cau-ai*-ux, tofliut or cjofe upon the upper fmt-vrxT$amm-^^^' 
ik from ar-in-cau-al, to clofe or ihut upon the higheft.part ;. 
/whence the reft. 

Writing; ScrifenjGraphe; Scriptur'a. Scxifenia 
from ys^crafu-yn, the fcrapine in or upon ; graphe is froni 
prafu, to fcrape; writing is from ar-it-in-ag,. it is a«£iing a. 
thing. ; ifcriptura is from fcript-ar, a fcraping upon. 

Wry or Crooked ; Gwyr or Cam j Gyros or Kam-. 
PULOs ; CuRvus. Cam is from cau-am, to fhut abt>ut$. 
kampulos is from cam-pe-al, to fliut upon, a thi/igj gwyr is 
fnavn c'au-yj*, the bent or fliut ; whence gyros an4.curvus ; or; 
fflom ag-o-ir, afting from high j wry is from 0'if.-y> thefroa|, 
high. See Crooked. 


YARD OF A Man ; Cal ; KAUtos ; Caulis. Yard 
comes from the Celtic yr-hyd, the length ; cal, &c. 
come from ag-al, ading high, that is, a power of being 
crefted and lengthened. 

YARD-orAREA; Llanj Aloa; Area. Yard is of the 
fame origin as above ; area comes from ar, upon ; llan and 
aloa are from a-un-llc, fignifving a or one place ; or perhaps 
may come from Ue-yn, an inclofcd place. 

Yard for Sheep j Corlan 3 Aule; Caula. Thofe 
come from the above with the addition of cor, to llgnify in- 
clofed, from cau-ar, a fliut upon. 

Yeaj Ia; Allate or Eia ; Imo. » Yea and Eia are 
from y-a, the earth • imo is from y-am^^ the about or the 
-world ; allate is from al-a-it, it is upon the earth ; all expref- 
fions of affirming the.exiftence of things from what is feea 

Year; Oed or Blwydd ; Etos ; ^Etas or Annus. 
All thofe, excepting blwydd and year, are explained under the 
word Age ; blwydd is from bi-al-oed, the prefent life or age; 
year is from y-ar, the upon. 

Yellow ; Melyn ; Melinos ; Melinus. This term 
is borrowed from the colour of honey, which in the Celtic is 
mel, with the addition of yn, in, or upon ; yellow is from 
y-ell-ow, for iw, it is the honey. See Honey. 

Yesterday; Ddoe or Doe ; Xthes; Heri. Doe is 
from di-o, the day from ; xthes is from ac-thi,r the day from ; 
hei i is from hai-or, the gone from ; yefterday is from yeft- 
heri, it is yefterday. 



myYivir ^St^l Eti ; Adhuc. Etto, cti^ ondyet^ art cMk 
jRAindis'oT and, to or at ; adhuc comes from the Celtic wood 
atox, to thee. See the feveral privatives ; this is their com- 
mon fignification, but their original fenfe appears under the 
Word Mill. 

Yoke; Iau; Zeugos; Jugum, Yoke is from y-w-ac, 
die animal or cattle adion ; jau is from i-w-ai^ the cattle 
adion; zeugos is from fi-w-ag, it is the ^animal or cattle ac^ 
tion ; jugum is from irw-ag-iu, it is the animal or cattle; 

Youth ; Iv'engctid ; Neotes ; Juventus,. Neotes 
is from newydd, new,; ivengtid is from ivanc, young, whid| 
is from i-ve-yii-ac, he is afted or come in j whence juventutf ' 
youth is from i-w-ith, it is a man. 





BARIS or Apris^ an Egyptian king. Teems to come 

from ab, for ap, and Rhys, the K>n of Rhys, or a 

prince; be might have been a defcendant of Rhefus^ 

liracian prince, who affifted the Trojans at Troy when be- 

d by the Greeks. 

Ilbidus, a city of Phrygia Minor, comes from ab-ida-iut 
from Ida, the inhaoitants being; from thence* Here 
nder and Xerxes's armies pafled me Hellefpont. 
Lbram the patriarch is from ab-tram^ his dwelling being 
at H^ram, or ir-ham the land of Ham i or from ab*ar-ham, 
from the great Terah his father, for terra and ar-am both fig- 
nify land about, or a place poflefled ; biit after he had quitted 
Haram he was called ab-ar-ham, from the land of Ham. 

AcAiA, lying weft on the Ionian fea, and eaft on Sicyon, 
is from a-caua, the fields. Here is a fea-port called Olenusy 
from Olenus the fon of Jupiter its founder, whofe name from 
o-li-en-iu figniiies it is from a divine race or family. 

AcALiDS, wife of Tros, prince of Troy, is from uxaJi'* 
ida^ the upper family of Ida* 

Achilles, a Grecian prince at the fiegc of Troy, is from 
ac-hil-li-es, from the race of the lower ramily or nation, he 
being a defcendant of the lower houfe of Ion, and the Phry« 
glan being the upper houfe of Ion or Japhet. 

AcuiT AiN, or AquiT AiN, is faid to come from aqua water, 
and tania a country; but tania doth not mean a country, and 
this term fignifies a country under, or at the water-fide, from 
the Celtic auc-tan, as tan y mynith is at the foot of the 

Adam» the firft man, i^^from had-am, or ad-am, the feed 

b of 

of the world j his female companion was called Eve, orE-ve, 
him, bccaufe (he was taken out of him ; their firft-boni, 
whom Eve faid (he had gotten from the Lord, was called 
Cain, io from ac-cn, from the heaven 5 Abel from ab-el, 
from or the fon of the light; that is, the fame as Apollo, or 
the fon of the fun. The next name mentioned in Gencfis is 
the land of Nod, to which Cain retreated after God had fet 
his mark upon him ; now Nod in Celtic or ancienf Bridlh fig- 
nifies a mark. The next is Eden, which from id-en, figni- 
fics it is the heaven. Then follows the defcendants of Cain, 
viz. Enoch, from en-uch, the upper firmament or heaven; 
Irad from ir-ad, the firmament, or at the fire ; Mchuiacl is 
from me-hu-lael, the great high light, or the fun ; Metnufed 
]s from me-tu-ifa-el, the great poffeffion bcloAV the light or 
firmament; Lamech, from al-am-ac, from the high covering, 
or the flcy; or from ie-ma-ux, the great high place; he had 
two wives, Adah, from had-ah, the feed of the earth, or the 
good feed; and Zillah, from if-il-ah, the lower race of the 
earth. Adah bare Jabal, from i-^ab-al, the high fun, or from the 
high light; he was tjie father of the dwellers in tents; Jubal 
his brother, and a mufician, is the fame as Apollo, and com- 
pofed of i-ub-al, the high light, or the fun. Zillah's fon 
Tubal is from ti-ub-al, below the firmament, or from tu-ab- 
al, from the high houfe. His fifter Naamah is from ni^am-ab, 
our earthly mother. Adam had another fon called Seth, or 
fi-id, or, ith, it is a feed; God having appointed him as ano- 
ther feed inftead of Abel; his fon Enos was fo called fitHn 
cnw-fi, he is a name; for then men began to call on the 
name of the Lord. His fon Cainan fecms to be from ac-cn- 
\m, one from heaven, or from or the fon of Enos. His fon 
Mahalaleel is from ma-hal-al-cel, the race of the high grtat 
IlgHt, or the fun. His fon Jared Is from ir-ad, the- firmament 
fire, or at the fire. His Ton Enoch is from cn-uch, the upper 
firmament or heaven. Thefe are all the names mentioned by 
Mofcs previous to the birth of Noah and the deluge. 

JE^GiSA^ an ifland in the Saronic gulph, is from auc-in-a, 
V/ater within the land. 

iEoLis, or Ionia, a part of Afia Minor lying on the-Sgeafl 
fca, is from io-lu, the family of lo or japhct. 

Africa^ .one of the four continents, is cither from a-fri- 
ig, a hot country, or from a-fri-auc, or aqua, a country oft 
the water, auc being a Celtic term for water.. ** ' 

-fl^NEAs, fon of Anchifcs, is from y-w-en-fij he is an anf. 
cient man, 



AgamemnoW, a Grecian prince, who commande<J thel 
Greeks at the fiege of Troy as generaliffimo, is frofal ag-am- 
ttia-ion, afling over the great lohians. 

Albania, or Scotland, is from al-ben, the high or hilly 

AleCtryon, whom Mars triifted to watch the door whilff: 
he lay with Venus, fignifies^acock j which fee under the word 
Cock. • . 

Alexander, is from a-lu-uxa-yn-tir, the upper family in 
the land, which was Phrygia, as Ionia was called the lower 
country. There have been many famous perfonajges of this 
name, but the chiefeft was Alexander the Great king of Ma- 
' cedon, who was J)robably defcended from the houfe of Phry- 
gia or Troy; perhaps from Paris of Troy, who was alio 
called Alexander. There were feveral cities of this name, as 
in Phrygia Minor, at the foot of the mountains Amanus, 
on the Mediterranean fea, &c. which may be derived either 
from the name Alexander, or from al-auc-in-tre, a town 
upon the high water or the fea. ' / *' 

Allobroges, fignifies the hilly Briges; they were the 
people of Savoy and Dauphiny. 

Alpes, means hilly partsj and the hills dividing Italy froni 
France are fo called. 

• Alyxothoe, king Priam*s firff queen, is from a-Iy-uxa* 
oeth; {he was from higheftor upper family. 

"Amalthea and Melisa, the daughters of Meliffiis king 
of Cretei faid to have nurfed Jupiter with milk and honey, 
^re from a-nra-laetha, the milk mother, and melis honey, oyp 

Amulius, king of the Latins, • is" from a-mau-li-ui, he is 
the great family. 

Anacus, firft king of Phrygia, is from ena-ci,. themoft 
ancient chief. ■ 

Anas, a river of Spain, is from an-as the lower. 

Anchises, a Trojan prince, is from en-ci-fi, he is an an- 
cient chief. 

Andros, an ifland in the iEgean fea, iar from in-dwr-cs, 
in the lower water. 

Ancus Martius, fourth king of Rome, is from en-ci-iu, 
he is an ancient chief, and martius martial. • " 

Akaxagoras, a noble phildfopher, is from en-uxa-gwr, 
a high ancient or divine man. 

iGiTiocH; a city at the foot of mount Taurus, in the up- 
per part of Syria, is from yn-tu-ux, in the upper poffeffions. 

b 2 Antenor, 

AR . 

Antf.nor, a Trojan prince, is from an-ti-cn'-wr, an an- 
cient or divine man from an ancient boufe. About bis time 
■pcrbaps began tbc fabulous defcents from the gods, who are 
laid to have been intimate with the mothers- 

Angel,' faid to be derived from the Greek verb angelic, to 
carry meffages ; but whence angeJlo does not appear, its com*- 
poncnt particles not being to be met with in the Greek in anf 
iuch fenfc; but as the Hebrew ma-il-ux, is an angel, era 
greatfhigh light, it is more probable that angellos is from the 
Celtic ang or cng-il, a great light or an angel, thereby ex- 
■preffiK^r the only vifible appearances of fuch fpiritual beings. 

Antiphus, fon of Priam and Hecuba, is &om an-d-ap-itt, 
he is from the ancient houfe. 

Apamene, in Syria, furrounded by the river Orontes, if 
from a-p-au-am, the part with the water about. 

Apollo, is from ap-haul, the fon of the fun. 

Apuli, in Italy, is from ap-io-li, the defcendants of lo, or 
from the Ionian family. 

. Ararat, is from ar-dr-at, returned upon earth ; it means 
no particular place, though Pezron thought it fignified Aroc- 
.nia, but of this more clfewhere^ 

Argonauts, fignifies the failors of Argos. 

Armenia, divided by the Euphrates into major and minor, 
and the latter only poflefled by the defcendants of Japhet, » 
from ar-mini, the country of rocks, or a mountainous coun^. 

Armorica, is from ar-mor-ifa, upon the loweft fea, and 
*not upon a fea, as it has been defined by others. 

Aradius, a fmall ifland and town of Phenice, is probably 
from ar-au-idiu, it is the water country, an ifland beingTo 

Arisba, a city of Phrygia Minor, is from ir-is-be, tke 
lower country part. 

Arar or Saon, a river of France, is from ara-r the flow, 
and Saon is from fa-un, the ftanding one, it being a very flow 

. Argos, an ancient city of Pcloponnefus, to which Homer 
gives the epithet of thirfly, is from ar-auc-os, a country fr<wi 
the water, it being an inland country without rivers. Here 
were feveral cities called Mycena, from maes-ena, the moft 
ancient field; Troefen, from trc-is-en, the old lower town; 
Nemea from nim-au, no water; Epidaurus from e-p«-id«au- 
ar-iu, it is the part upon the water; and Nauplia frofnin^ni- 
p-li> a place of a multitude, or a city upon the water. As 
moft of the names of the Argive kings are defined under Sicyon 


A R 

and other places, they need not be repeated here. Thofe that 
are omitted are as follows, viz. Sthenelus from ft-hen-lu, he is 
an old family; Danaus from, da-ena-iu, he is good and an- 
cient; Lynceus from ly-enax-iu, he is the older family ; Abas •' 
from ab-as, from the lower or low; Pratus from pri-tu, the 
firft pofleiTor; Acrifius is from ac-yr-ifa-iu, he is the lower 
born; Perfeus is from ap-ar-i a-iu, he is from the lower coun- 
try, which was the Ionian ; Talaon is from tylu-ion, the Io- 
nian family ; Ampliytrion is frgm am-ph-y-tyr-ion, over part 
of the land of Ion ; Euryfthenes is from yr-is-ty-cn-fi, he is 
from the lower ancient houfe ; iEgifthus is from ag-is-ti-iu,* 
he is from the lower houfe; Oreftes from or-es-ti, from the 
lower houfe ; Penthilus is from pen-til u, the head or chief 
fiimily; ^giolus is from ag-io-lu, from the Ionian family 5 
Temenus it from ti-m-en-iu, he is a great ancient pofTeflor 
or lord; Cifus from ac-is-iu, he is from the lower; Lacidaus 
is from lu-is-da-iu, he is from the lower good family; and 
Meltas is from m-al-ti-es, the great and high of the lowQr 

* Arcadia, fituated in the heart of Peloponnefus, famous 
for breeding of cattle and its fhepherds, is from ar-cadu, the 
feeding country, or rather grazing ground. Here were feve- 
ral high mountains, as C)nlene, from cy-al-en, even or to- 
gether with the (ky ; Pholoe from ph-o-liu, part out of light 
or fights Stymphalus from fty-am-ph-al-iu, it is (landing 
over the higheft part ; Parthenius is from parth-ena-iu, it is 
ibc m<^ ancient pa^ ; Lycaeus from le-uxa-iu, it is the high- 
eft place ; alfo called Olympus, from ol-am-p-iu, it is high 
over or above the parts. There were likewife feveral ancient 
cities, as Megapohs, from mega-p-o-lu-fi, it is the greateft 
place of a multitude, that is, the greateft city 5 Mantinea or 
Gpriza> from main-tu-yn-a, the part on the water-fide, or 
cwr-jf^ the ioweft borders ; Pallantium, from pella-in-ti-iu, . 
it is the fertheft in the pofleflions ; Maenalus from the mount 
it flood upon, is from ma-en-le-iu, it is a great high place; Te- 
gea from ti-ag-au, the pofleffions from the water ; Orchome- 
jion is from yr-uxa-man-un, the upper pkce one 5 Clitorium 
from the river on which it flood, which inclofed the country, 
and therefore compofed of cau-al-dwr, the water (hutting upon, 
or from cy-aj-dwr, a city upon the water ; Nonacris flood on 
the hills from whence the river Styx defcended, which was 
^unous. for the ftrength as well as coMnefs of its waters, is from 
nen-au-ori-fi, it is the fummit of the flrong water; Horaa 
froin hir-au, the long water, from its ftanding on the long ri- 
YCr Alphcus, or from hi-ar-au, high upon the water; Stym- 

b 3 '^i&A>\^ 

A S 

phalus IS from fti-am-ph-al-au, ftanding at the end of the up- 
per water ; and Phialoa is from phe-al-au, part upon the up- 
per water. The principal rivers here were the Styx, from 
fti-hi-auc, it is the higlier water ; Alpheus, from al-ph-au, 
water upon the upper parts ; Neda, from nid-au, the unfccn 
water ; and thofe mentioned before. The ancient kings here 
were Pclafgus, from pella-if-ge-iu, he is the fartheil lowr 
nation; Lycaon from ly-uxa-ion, the upper family of Ion; 
Niftymus, un-uxa-ty-ma-iu, he is one from the upper great 
houfe ; Areas is ar-cau, inclofed ground, but his name piore 
probably is from Arcadia; his three fons, Azan, Aphydas, 
and Eiatus reigned together, and from thence their names 
from as-un, a-ph-yd-as, and a-al-tu-fi, fignify the lower one, 
the part that is low, and, it is the upper poflei&ons j Clitor is 
from cli for li-tor, a prince's family ; Epytus 13 frcin ap-hv- 
tu, from the higher houfe or poffsfTion 5 Aleus is from al-iu, 
he is the upper j Lycurgus is from ly-cur-ux-iu, he is the up- 
per border family ; Echemus is fi om ux-am-iu, he is the up* 
per part .; Agapenor is from uxa-pen-or, from the upper end } 
Hippothous is from hi-ap-tu-iu, he is from the upper poileffi- 
©ns ; Cypfelus is from cy-p-ifel-iu, he is a chief of the low 
parts ; Laios is from le-as, the lower part ; Bucolion is from 
b-ux Ji-un, one of upper part family ; Phialius is from p- 
Jiia-li-iu, he is a family of the higher parts j Pompus is from 
ap-m-p-iu, he is from, or the fon ot the great part; Poly- 
meftor is from ap-ly-m-ef-tyr, from, or a fon of the great fe- 
mily of the lower land ; Echmis is from ac-m-is, from, or the 
fon of the great lower ; Ariftocrates_ is from ar-ifa-tu-cry-it, 
he is the chief upon the ftrong lower pofieffions ; and Hicetas 
is. from hi-ci-ti-as, a high chief of the lower pofleffions, 

Aron, fon of Amrani, is probably tlie fame as the Celtic 
liren, a divine, rather, than a niountain of praife, as is com- 
monly fuppofcd. 

Arethusa, being fond of hunting, was fo called from ar- 
thes, a fhe-bear. 

Aristotj^e, a famous philofopher, is from ar*is-teulu} 
the lower country family. 

Arthur, a king of Britain, is from arth-ur, a man bear, 
Araxene, a large plain in Armenia, through which tb 
river Araxes runs, is from ar-arx-ena, the land of the ancient 
ark, and Araxes is from arx-es, below the ark. 

AscANius, fon of iEneaa, is from ^f-gen-iu, he is the 
loweft nation, viz. the lower lonians. 

AsTEKiA, daughter of Cpcus, on w-hom Jupiter is faid to 
im^ begotten Hercules, fignities a ftar, 


B A 

Asia, the firft inhabited part of the earth, is from a-fi for 
ci, the firft or chief country ; but fee Syria, Myfia, Perfia, &c* 
^"Athens, or Attica, art ancient Greciah ftate, are from, 
a-ti-en, the ancient poffeffions, and a-ti-uxa, the upper pof- 
fiflions ; the rivers are Afopus, from au-^s-p-ui, it is ^\ater 
from the lower part ; Cophitliis is from auc-ph-ifa-ui, • it is the 
Ibwer end water ; Ibiflus from i-b-is-ui, if is the lower fpring ^ 
and Eridanus is from er-hedn-ui, ft is the winged or fwift. 
There at firft were feveral kings, as Cecrops, from ci-ux-yr-p, 
a chief over the place \ Crahaus from ci-yr-ena-iu, he is the 
moft ancient chief; Amphidyon, from am-ph-ux-ty-ion, 
over part of the upper houfe of Ion 5 Erifthonius from er- 
uxa-ti-ion-iu, he is the upper houfe of loh ; Pandion is from 
pen-ti-ion, the head of the houfe of Ion ; Ereftheus is from 
^r-uxa-ti-iu, he is the upper houfe ; ^geus is from ag-io-iu, 
he is from lo ; Thefeus is from ti-ifa-iu, he is from the lower 
hbufe ; Mneftus is from m-cn-ifa-tu, a great ancient of the 
lower houfe ; Demophon is from^ id-am70-ph-ion, he is over 

J)art of Ion ; Oxyntes is from ux-y-en-ti-es, over the ancient 
ower houfe ; Aphydas is from a-ph-yd-as, he is the lower 
part ; Thymates is from ty-^ma-o-ti-es, a great lord or tyrant 
of the lower houfe ; Mclanthus is from am-al-en-tu-cs, a high 
over, or a chief of the ancient lower houfe ; and CodruS from 
•fci-o-dir-is, a chief of the lower houfe or pofleflions. 

AVERNUS,^ a lake in Campania, and the Arverni of Gaul, 
are from er-wern, the alder water, or ar-wern, the alder 
•country. ■ ■ • ' 

' ' Aurora, the goddefs of light, or the morn, is from aur- 
oera, the coldeft hour. ' 

Austria, a country of Germany, of which Vienna is the 
capital city, fignifies the eaftern country. 


BABEL was called fofrom ba-bi-e!,b-'ings calling like has, or 
flieep ;.it does not appear clearly whethq* there was a total 
.'deietion of the old langu'j^gc, or a temporary impediment of 
Tpeech, occarioried by thunder an'd lightning, or other terrible 
appearance, wherein the divine m^efty was pleafed to vifit thole 
doers cf iniquity, who had prbfeUedly undertaken to build this 
tower, in order to prevent their being fcattercd abroad upon 
the face of the earth, contrary to God's exprejs command, 
as in Genefis ix. ver. 7. and Gen. xi. ver. 4 and 8. wherein 
Mofes confiders the building of Babel as a violation of God*s 
Command i hence this cannot be called an indilfercnt a<5t. It 
' ' ' • U 4 ■ fcems 

B oe 

feems probable that the elements, at leaft, of the ori^iud Ian- 

giage were preferved, as the names and appellations of per* 
ns and places previous to the confufton, as well as thofefub- 
fequent, are denned in this lexicon; unlefs the Celticmtion 
had no concern in the Babylonian affair ; but it is likely dist 
this language, as it thus defines the prediluvian as well as tbe 
poftdiluvian names, and gives the etymology of languans 
preferable to any other, muft have cxifted before the conra- 
hon of languages i and if all the world then fpoke in one Ian* 
guage, this muft be it ; nor can it be true that the Pboemciam 
were firft poilefled of letters, or that Cadmus carried them 
from the Phcenicians into Greece ; but it feems moft liketf 
that he had them from the Druids, Etrurians or Umhri m 
Italy, the anccftors of the Ccltcs, where he had been in queft 
of his After nation Europa ; bcfidcs, it remains a doubt what 
country Cadmus was of; tho' fuppofed to be an Egyptian, AxMi 
his naming the city he built in Bceotia Thebes, aiter the naiiie 
of the Egyptian Thcbais. 

Babylon city is from Babel and Ion, a ftreet, which being 
the firft fort of towns or cities. 

Bacchus, the god of wine, is from bi-auc«-iu, he is (he 
watry or liquid liver. 

Barnstaple in Somerfetfhire, formerly called Abertaw, 
from the river of that name, which feems to be the (aoie tt 
Abertavi, or Cardigan, in South Wales. This tends to prove 
that both places were inhabited by the fame people, but whidl 
. was firft poftefted is not very clear, tho' Mon or Aaglefiy is 
faid to be the mother of Wales, and Abertavi as it is d^id 
under Britain, feems to have a local fignificatbn. 

Beleus, Pul, or Apollo, faid to be an Afiyrian ffod> 
fignifies the fun, from ap-haul, from the fun, or the fon of the 
fun. This Pul was the firft Aflyrian king. 

Berhaa, a country lying on the upper part of the fea 
in Syria, compofed of ber-hi-a, the country upoa die higher 

Berytus, si city of Phoenicc, from ber-ydiu, it is d» 
harbour or watering place, which in Wales b a-ber, the har- 
bour, or the fpring or watering place. 

Bernicii, from bri-yn-ucba, the upper hills. 
Bceotia, joining on the eaft to Attica, but parted from it 
by the mountain Cithaeron, or Cau-tir-ion, inclofing the land 
of lion, faid to have been fo named from Bceotus, fon of Nep- 
tune, fo called from ab*au-ti*iu, it is the pofleffion from or but 
of the water. Her^are feme remarkable places, as Thefpiaa 
town, from ti'-es-pe, the lowtr part, or from tires-p-au, pof- 


B R 

feffion under or below the water; AuIiSjafeaportjfromau-li-fijit 
is the water place j due ftreights of Thermopyle, fromtir-ma- 
is-li» the land of the great family of lis ; the city of Thebes from 
ti-be-es, poflefCon of the lower part, or perhaps poiTeflbrs from 
the lower family, from ti-ab-es ; the river Ifmenus, on which 
it was fituated, is from ifa-man-iu, it is the lower part ; here 
were feemingly by their names fome of Cham's race, as Cad- 
mus from cy-ad-mau-is, a great water or fea chief; Polydo- - 
rus from ap-lu-dwr-iu, he is from or an offspring of the water 
family, that is, Cham, or Neptune; Labdacus is from 
lu-ab-id-auc, it is the family from the water; Laius is from 
lu^-au-iu, it is the water family ; Amphion is from arii-ph-ion, 
over an Ionian part, or over a part of Ion; Zethus from if-ti-iu, 
ke is a lower poffeffor; Oedipus feems to be from au-ap^idiu^ 
he is from or the offspring of the water, but the letters are 
femewhat difplaced ; Polynices is from ap-lin-auc-fi, h^ is the 
water-line; Eteocles is from e-ti-o-auc-lu-fi, he is a poffeffor 
of the water family. 

^ Bjsbicds, a Grecian ifland near the mouth of the Rhinda'* 
cus, is from b-es-bi-auc, a part below the two waters ; ^hd 
ilbindacus is from rhing-^au-auc, between the two waters. 

Bohemia, environed with the Hercynian foreft, is from 
the Boii of Itali and Gaul ; Prague, its chief city, is from pro, 
for btforaug, for auc, the neighboiu-hood of the water, it be- 
ing fituated on the river Muldau, which is from ma-al-daii, 
<he high great water. 

r BoNDUCA, or Bon, da, ucha, queen of the Ifeni, from 
tHMlt ftein, da, good, and ucha higheft, that is, of the high- 
eft and beft race ; and not from du, black, as by Camden. 
• BosPHORUs CiMMERi, Ivin^ between the Euxine and 
•Tanais north and.fouth; the Cinftri are fuppofed to have been 
drove from thence to the Cimbrica Cherfoncfus, now Jutland : 
' their habitations here have been fabuloufly reprefented by the 
Roman poets as an inhofpitable country, as fceltered from the 
fun by thick forefts, fo as to occafion a continual fog ; whence 
the faying of Cimmerian darknefs, but the names bemg Celtic, 
and the inhabitants a part of the Cimbri, who paffed into 
■ Europe over the Thracian Bofphorus, they named this Bof- 
phorus after the name of the other ; and it appears that the 
mig;racron of Gomer and his party extended thus far from 

Bracca, otBraccata, or Gallia Braccata, fome 
derive from their trowfes, but it feems to me to come from 
bro, country, and i^cha, higheft. 

Brioe* Qt PHRyoiANS, diftinguiihed by Apulius with the 


epithet of.£rft-bom>-i5 from bri-gc, the firft nation or firft- 
born; ihcy being from Gomer, Japhet's eldcft fonj whence 
the country came to be called Br}'gia or Phrygia, the radical 
b chaKging into ph by infleciion, which gave ground to what 
Herodotus obfcrved on this occafion. 

Britain', inchiding Kngland, Scotland and Wales, for- 
xiicriy cJlcd Albion from Albania the ancient name of Scot- 
land, compofcd of al-bcn, the hilly end, is from bri-ti-en, the 
ajicient poffcfijons of the I3iigcs, a name given by them to fe- 
veral other of their pofleffions in Afia as well as in Europe, viz. 
in Myfia, Spain, Gaul and Germany. In Caelar's time the 
people of Britain were diftinguilhed by the following names, 
viz. the Dunmoni, who were the Cornifli and Devonfluit 
people, fo called from dun-moni, that is, the men of Moh, 
now Anglefcy, which fee ; or from dun-mwn, the mining 
men ; the Durotriges of Dorfetfhire, fo called from dwr-i- 
trigc, the inhabitants of the water ; the Belgae of Someifet-; 
ihire, Wilts and Hamplhire, from the Belgae of Gaiil, which 
ijbe ; the Attrcbgti whopofreffed Berks^ from the Attrebati of 
Gaul, which fee ; the Rcgni are mentioned in feveral coun- 
tries, as Italy, Gaul and Germany, but they took this name 
/Only from their fituation, as dividing theBelgae from the other 
Britons ; the term being from rhing, between; the Cant! arp 
from cynt or kynt, the firft or foremoft, or rather from cyn- 
ti, the firft poffeffions ; the firft landing in this ifland beinglit 
Dover by the Brigantes ; the Iceni ot Suffolk, Norfolk aaji 
Cambridge, and I rnay add Eflex, are from if-ceni or cyni, (fiat 
is, bclov/ the Cantii or the firft pofleffors ; the Coritani, whoie 
borders extended over Northamptonfliire, Leicefterfhire, Rut- 
landftiirc, Lincolnfliirc, Ncttinghamfliire and Derbyfhire, are 
from cyrau-taiii, the fpreading borders; the Dpbuni of Ox- 
fordlhire and Gloucefterfliire are from tu-ben-ni, our upper- 
fide; the Cornavii of Warwickfliire, Worcefterfhire^' oc^- 
fordfhiriE, Shropfliire, and Chefliire are from curra-ni-vi, 
dwellers on our borders ; Cattiuxlauni of Buckinghamfbiie* 
Bedfordfliire and Herttordftiire, are from cau-ti-iix-Iaw-ni, 
lliutting or inclofing the poflefiion on the upper hand, or above 
us ; Tiinobantes of London, to which part of Middlefex and 
Eflex belonged, are from tre-in-i-bant, the town in the bot- 
tom, or from tir-in-i-bant, the land in the bottom, or per- 
haps from trinovant, the new town; the b p and v being 
made ufe of promifcuoufly in the Celtic; but the former 
is moft probable, as the name of London feems to be firom 
Ion-din, that is, a long town, or a town of one long ftrcet; 
perh;ips cxicnding on die Thames fide through a great part of 



Rliddlefcx and Effex; the name Longborth, given it by Tali- 
efin, fignifying the port of (hips, being no objeftioh in this 
tafe, for as London was at that time grown eminent in that 
refpeft, it was a Very proper defcription of it by the poet. 
The Demet^, whom Pliny fixes in the coirtitry of Caermard- 
den, Pembroke and Cardigan, are from dim-tu, nopofleffions 
or habitations 5 they being the fame as the Celetes and Meme- 
tes fixed on the b^nks of the Rhine, but according to Ptold- 
Ttiy all North Wales was' inhabited by the Silurcs, who by 
their name are defcended from the Ordovices ; it being com- 
.pofed bf fil-uyr-es, the family or race of the lower peo- 
y\e ; and what induced Pliny to think they were the Noma- 
^es, was from thofe of the mountainous parts, as Radnbli^ 
(hire, &c, leading a paftoral life, like the Nomades ; and in^ 
dedd there temains'fome ground to call the people of Radnor* 
%ire the Demetes, for that county is ftill called by the Welfh 
^yvcd, from di-«-vyd, fignifying without abode, habitation or 
"'livelihood ; Ordovicus is a Roman name given to the Cumbtt 

■ of North Wales, and formed of or, from,' and devifes, the 
'DeVifes of Wilts, which fee; it was intended to exprefs .the 
•fame as Cumbri, or the men of the Comots, or regular 

* dwellers in towns or villages; an4 ias it was the feat or the 
"Druids, learning, government, &c. according to Csefar, 

■ Tacitus, and other hiftorians, it muft be fuppofed to be the 
"inoft regular and pbltte part of Britain in Caefar's time. The 
' Brijgantes, who as it is faid inhabited Lancafhire, Weftmorc- 

* land, Cumberland, Yorkfliire, and the bifhoprick of Durham, 
•-is from bri-gunta, t;he firft Brigian poffeflbrs ; the Attadeni of 
' Northumberland, whb were the fame people as the Brigantes, 

is from y-tu-dan-ni, the pofleffions b^ow or under us ; the 
Selgove, or perhaps Celgove, a people feated between the 
Sol way and Dunbritton frith, according to Ptolomy, feems to 
he either from sil-i-ge-o-vi, the race of the nation without 
habitation or being, or from cel-ge-o-ve,the(kulking or hiding 
nation without a being, who were the Celetes. As to the rclt 
pf the andent names of the Britons, fee Scotland. 

Here follows a definition of the ancient names of rivers, 
townsi mountains, &c. as Vohiba, now FalmoL«!i, is either 
from vella-be for pella-pe, the fartheft part, or voel-be, the 
barren hilly part ; Uxcella or Leftuthiel is faid to come from 
uxa-le, the higheft plade ; but as it was called Uzela by Pto- 
lomy, which from"au*-ifa-lc, is the lower water place or fliorc, 

■ it feems more likely that Uxfella is from auc-ifa-le, of the fame 
figAification ; and the rather becaufe Leftuthiel is from le-es- 
tu-au-^a a l&W plac^ on the watei-fide, which better agrees 


with the fituatinn ; Pcndinas is from pen-dinas^ a city at Aff 
hipih end, or fonictimcs the head city; Cenionis oftium isfirom 
cau*in, ihutting in; Penrhyn is a promontory; Truro was 
probably (o named before it had three rows or ureets, ndther 
was row a Corniih word ; therefore as it ftands upon the i^ 
tcr, it may be dehned from trc-ar-au, a town upon the vateri 
as Arwcna' fcated hard by is from ar-cn-auc, upon the att- 
cicnt water; Roicland is from rhos-land, a morafs or marib* 
land, and not the land of rofes, which feldom grow plenti- 
fully alon^ the fca coafts ; P'owy is from fe*au-y» the water 
part; LciKard feem^ to be from le-es-auc-ar-id, it is alow 

Srt upon the water ; Bodman is from bod-mon, the abode of 
on, Dunmon or Comwal, it being probably the cbief Cows 
of the Dunmonii ; or from bod-mwn, the refidence of mi- 
ners ; Lancefton is from lan-ca-es-tu-in, an inclofed town or 
city on the lower Ade ; the river I'am-ar fignifies a {hutting in 
or inclofing the country ; as the Thames is from tu-am-is, i 
ihutting in or dividing the lower part, or the Cantii from the 
Iceni ; Penfans is from pen-ifa-au-in, the lower end within 
the water, or a peninfula or peninif ; as the Cheronefe call- 
ed Meneg is from meun-auc, within the water ; Tregony is 
from tre-auc-in-y, the town upon the water ; RofeccarocK ii 
from rhos-cerig, the ftony morafs ; Penrofe, the end- of the 
morafs ; Lanhidrock, from lan-hyd-ir-ux, an inclofed village 
upon the height ; Treriu is from tre-riu, riiing town; Com* 
wal is a Weilh corner. Devon from devn, deep, the coun* 
try being a bottom ; Taviftoke is from tave-is-ti«auc, the 
lower fide of the tave water ; the river Ifca is from is«auc, 
the lower water; Exeter is from is-auc-tir or tre, the land or 
town upon the Ifca; the combes here fignify valleys or 
bottoms, in which were villages, which made up the comot 
or combe, fo that the additipii to the word comb is to diftiiH 
guifti the villa^rc or the particular part of the great conaoc 
Borfetfliirc is from dwr, water, and fet for fcite j Lyme is 
from le-au-am, a place upon the water; Weymouth is from 
au-y-ith, it is the water mouth, port, gate or open- 
ing ; Mclconibc is the fame as honeycombe ; Dorchefter is 
from dwr water, and Chefter; the ^verStour from is-dwr, 
the lower water ; Bridport feems to be from brit-porth, die 
Britifh port ; Aukford is from auc-ford, the water way or 
a ford; Blanford from blaen-ford fignifies the foremoft,.as 
Hindford does the hindermoft ford, and fo of the reft. 
Somcrrctfhire is from fumer-fite-fhire ; Glaftonbury is from 
lafa-in-hro, the grecncft in the country, called aJfo in the 
ritiih inis-wyrdd, the green ifland; alio Avalon from aval- 



-im, the apple one; Bath is from the old Brltifh'boeth, hotj 
the river Avon fi^nifies a river j Briftow is from bri-is-tu-au, 
'a country on the Tide of the lower water ; it has been called hy 
fome Caer-dwr-nant-badon, that is, the city on the water of 
Bath valley ; Wells may be either from the wells or fprings 
thereabouts, or from its being inhabited by the Comi^ or 
Wellh; it was called Theodorodunum, the town of the di- 
vine water. Wilts is faid to have its name from the river Wi- 
ley, or the town of WiJton, but they all feem to me to come 
from the ancient Britifh willt or wilt, wild; Chippenham is 
from cau*pen-ham, fhuttine up the end, or an inclofed place 
at the end of a valley or village, ham in its primitive fenfe be^ 
ing from hi-am, the part furrounded by hills, but afterwards 
figniiying home, as the firft hahitations were fixed in bot- 
toms; Devices is probably of the fame origin as Ordovices, 
that is, the dwellers in ftreets ; the river Nader is from nid'- 
cr, the not feen water ; Stonehenge is from ftone-eng, the 
^reat ftones ; they were alfo called caer-gaur, the city of gi- 
ants; Ambrefbuiy is from umbri's-bri, the Cumbri neigh* 
"bourhood or country, which Matthew of Weftminfter calls 
Pagus Ambri, or the Cumbri ftreet or village; Cumerford is 
from cumbri-ford, the way of the Cumbri. Hampfhire is 
' from ham-p, the ham part, or the part of hills and dales» 
'tvhich form valleys or hams, and (hire from the Britifh caer, 
a city or inclofed place or limits, by changing the c for an s ; 
Venta Belgarum and Trifanton, but now Southampton and 
Winchcftcr, are from gcnta Belgarum, the firft of the Belgae, 
or foremoft pofleffions of the Belgic Britons ; and from tre- 
ifa^in-tu, the lowermoft town in the poffeffions ; there are 
alfo Venta Silurum or Monmouth, and Venta Iccnorum of 
the Iceni of the fame fignification, they being the firft cities 
founded or poffefEons fixed in thofe feveral places ;. here were 
the Mcanviri, or the men of Mon or Angleiey, or from man- 
ion, the great lonians, or perhaps the miners in a fecondary 
fenfe, as the loniahs might be the firft miners; here were alfo 
the SeTOntini, the men of Caernarvon, which city being 
called Segont, here alfi ftood Caer Segont, or the firft city 
or part pofTefled; Vindohium from vin-dun-iu, it is a town 
upon the confines; Brittendun, a Britifti town, and Silchef- 
ter from fi-al-chefter, it is an high city; the ifle of Halen^ 
where fait was made, is from halen, fait; the iile of Weight or 
of weighing, in Latin vccla, or of carfying, and in the an- 
cient Sritlm gwaith, of the work, it being probably the 
ifland mentioned by Died. Siculus, to which the Britons 
were; accuftomed to carry their tin and lead for exportation s 


B R 

here ftanJs Cacrcfbrokc caftle and city, which from caer-«:' 
bro-auc, fignilics a city of the lower water country, or rf 
the lower idand; here was a great wood called Ringwood, 
from rhing-wood, that is, the wood between, as divi£nj?tk 
Khcgni from the Belgx. Barkfhire is from b-or-auc-lnixe, 
a part from the water; fee Attrebati under Gaul ; Walling- 
i'ord from wal-eng-ford, fignifies the Wales great road ; and it 
may be obfcrvcd here that the Englifli word ford in its pri- 
mary fenfe means a way, from fi-ar-id, it is the view upon, 
and a ford only as a way through a water, and fomctimes per^ 
haps a rivulet, as the Celtic frwd ; Spina is from fi-p-cna, it 
is the moft ancient part ; Dunington is from dun-eng-ton, a 
great town ; but ton feems to be a repetition of dun ; New- 
bury is from new burrow in a modern fenfe, but the primitive 
jfignificatlon of burrough, bury, &c. is a particular part or 
place inhabited as a neighbourhood; Reading is from rhyd- 
en^, the great ford ; Inglefield is from eng-le-field, a great 
field, or from engli-field, the Englifli field ; the Bibroci of 
.the hundred of Bray is from bi-bro-uxa, dwellers, in the up- 
per country; here ftand Windfor and Eton, 'which from 
au-ton, fignifies a water town ; Abingdon is from ab-eng- 
dun, from or out of the great or old town. Surry or Surthiy 
is from fouth-ar-y, the fouth country ; Homesdale is from 
Ham-es-dale, the lower ham valley; Chertfey is. fromCwr- 
ifa-ty, theloweft part of the pofleffions ; Woking is frpi^nauC' 
eng, the great water ; Guilford is from auc-al-ford, the fori 
upon the water ; whence guild came to be made ufe bf as an 
expreffion for a company. The river Wey is from au-y, tijc 
water ; Oakham, fignifies the oak, or water ham j Reygatc 
is from R'-auc-at, at or upon the higher water ; the river van- 
da-le, apart of a good place, or a water in a dale ; Mertonis frotn 
am-er-ton, a town upon the water; Kennington is from 
Kin-eng-ton, an ancient great town; Southwark is from 
South- ar-auc, ibuth upon the water. Suflex is from South- 
es-auc, under the fouthern fea; Andrad's wald feems to fig- 
nify the wild hundreds ; Chichcfter is from cau-chefter, tbe 
key city, or a city (hutting up the boundaries ; and in the old 
Britifh, caer-cei or the key town ; Lewes is from al-au-es, 
upon the lower water or upon the fea ; Rye is* from ar-au-hi» 
upon the high water or the feaj Arundal is from ar-en-dale, 
above. or upon the ancient dale. Kent is from Slynt or Cynt, 
the firft or /orcmoft, that is, . the firft poflcfled part ; Dover is 
from dwr, water,, or from dor-ber, the gate of the water, or 
the pprt ;, Ritqpium is from rhyd-pe-iu, the higher ford, or 
the way port, »ow Richborrow, frpm r'ux-bro, the upper 



r ■-..,. ^ .. ... • ^ 

country; Deal is from d61, ah open pliih or iheadow; Linne 
. or L^manis Portus is from le-au-am, a place upon or about 

.the water ; Rumricy h from R'-au-am-nii the water about us; 

, Anderida maybe from en-dir-ida, the anqieht town or pofleffi- 
ohs of Ida ; Rochefter is from r'-auc-chefter, a city upon the 
water ; Canterbury is from ciinta-bri, the firft of the Briges 
or Brigantes ; it is remarkable that the cuftom of gavel or 
holding in kind, prevaljed here and in North Wales. Glofter 
is from cloi-is-ter, a key or lock of the lower country; but 
there are two other plaufible definitions thereof, that is, from 
the^e^iperor Claudius, or from Gloiu aftd Chefter, the bright 
or clear city. See Chefter, Aventon or Avon on the Se- 
vern fide, the river town ; here was a ferry which the Welfh 
poffeffed till Athelftan's time ; Tewkfbury feems to be from 
. dwi, or two-auks-bri, the country region or neighbourhood 
of the two waters; Corinium, C^rau, or Ciren-chefter, from 
cyrrau-ni-iu, fignifying that it is^ a city upon oiir confines or 
borders; here was a Roman military way towards Glofter, 
and another croffing it ; the river Churne is from cau-kr-ni, 

.ittiutting us in, that is, our borders, which fomevl^hat lower 

, joins the Ifis, fignifying below the lower 5 Aiift is from au-es- 

'.ti, the poflbflion on the . lower water; Camden is from auc- 
am-dun, a town upon or about the water; the Severn or 

. Havren is defined under Worcefterfhire. Oxfordlhire is faid 

. . to be compofcd of Ox and ford, but to derive it from asuC-ford, 

. the water ford, is more natural, as Berford is from ber-ford, 

.the fpring water ford, and Dorchefter ffom dwr-chefter, is 
the water citv. Buckinghamlhire is from be-aufc-en-ham, the 

freat hani valley or village at the end of the water ; as Wick- 
am is from auc-ham, the water ham ; and there are many 
more places in this country derived from the wat^r and ham; 
Stoney Stratford, the ftony ftreet ford ; it was alfo called 'Lac- 
torodun from lex-dur-a-dun, the town or ftreet of ftones and 
water; Marlowis from the old Britifli and Englifli word marl. 
Bedfordftiire is from bod-ford, an abode at a ford; Dun- 
ftable , faid to have its name from Dun, a famous robber in 
this part, but more likely from dun-ftable, a town of inns or 
ftables. Hertfordfiiire is from hart-ford, the harts ford ; Ve- 
ruJam is from ver-a!-am, high upon a' fpring; Durocobrivae 
or KLedborne is-fromdur-cox-bri, the country or neighbour- 
hood of the red water. Middlefex is from middle^ice-auc, the 
middle of the water of the Iceni, or the Thames, or from 
piiddleres-auc, the middle below the watery it not being fitu- 
atcd. in the middle of thp Eaft Snxon kingdom*; London is 
froal lOri-dunj the long or ftreet. town 5 Chd fey is- from cau- 


B R 

«]-ri, a fliutting upon the city ; and Putney li fnim p-out^li 
a part out of us, or rather from p-o-ti-ni, a part from our pdt 
fefilon. Eflex is from es-auc-iu, lower on the Thames or 
Iceni water, as the limits between the Canti and the keoii 
or from cs-auc, below the water; \Valtham» a dwelling in t 
wildornefs, or a wild ham; Camalodunum, nowMal£ii,ii 
from auc-am-al-dun, a town upon the water f umounding the 
part i here dwelt Cynobelin, fignifying a king or chief or Ac 
line of Beli, from cy*o-beli-Iin ; Harwich is from hi-ar-inci 
upon the high water or fea. Suffolk is from fouth-fidk, dtf 
fouthern people; Sudbury, fouthern burrough; the river 
Stour from es-dour, the lower water; the river Breton ii t 
Britifh or Cumbri town; Ipfwich is from i-p-is-auc, the part 
on the lower water; Rendilifham is from r'-en-di-lis-am, die 
ham or home of the ancient palace; Dunwich is fromdun- 
auc, a tovK*n on the water. Norfolk fignifies the northern 
people ; Windham from wyn-de-ham, the home of Wynn, 
who changed their names to Albinys, both fignifying wiiite^ 
and were earls of Arundel ; Venta Icenorum is from eettta 
Icenorum, the firil of the Iceni, or the firft city of tKe Xceni, 
it being called Caer Gunta, the firft city in Bridfh audmiSi 
now Caefler ; Canterbury or Cantabrigia is named after tlie 
fame manner; the Ordovices, according to Polydore Virgil, 
Ange! .lS Capellus, Dr. Caius and others, lived here ; the river 
Jare is from j-ara, the flow; Brancafler is from br&n-cafkr, 
the crow cafUe, and Branodunum is from brin-dun, the crow 
town, there being feveral places in Wales fo named ; the 
Lyns or Lens here are from lyn, a pool, as Lincoln feems to 
be, or if not, they muft come from Ian, a church, pariih or 
village. Cambridge or Cantabrigia is from cunta-brige, die 
firfl of the Briges or Brigantes. See Canterbury. The river 
Cam, from cum, a valley or bottom, on whidi flood Cam' 
briton, a town of the Cumbri ; Vandelbiria mav fignify d* 
ther the place of high ruined walls, or the Vandal neighbour- 
hood ; the ancient Gcrii of the Fens fignify the water gene* 
ration, from ge-er-y, over whom reigned Tombrit in the 
time of the baxons, perhaps a Welfh Thomas ; Andre is 
from an-dre, the old town; Ely is probably from au-al-y, 
the high above the water, and rather than from helig, wil- 
lows, wherein the g is loft ; it feems more likely that it cooiet 
from heli, fait water ; Thorney may be from tir or tre^au-in- 
y, the town or land in the water, as well as from a thorn, as 
moft of die towns hereabouts are defcribed from their watr^ 
fituation ; here are Gogmagog hills and camps, which fienify 
hills «ind camps of the Scythians, who were the defcendant^ 



of Magofi;/and whom the fcriptureme^nt by.Gog and Magoe; 
Huntingdonihire, from its being woody, and abounding with 
all forts of game, was called the hunting tovyn ; the river 
oufe is from ou-is, the lower water ; Qormancheff er called alfo 
Durofipontee, from dur-ila-pen-ti, the lower or oiifewater at 
, the head of the pofleffions. Northamptonihire is from north- 
ham, or home j Brackley is from bri-auc-al, a country or 
neighbourhood on the water ; Trepontium or Tourcefter is from 
tre-pontydd, the town of bridges 4 Tourcefter Is from tur- 
chcfter, the tower city.; Benavena is from bena-vanau, the 
..head-quarters; Yardley is from hy-ar-ti-al, high upon the 
upper pofieffions ; Oundle, from avondale, the vde or dale of 
the river Avon ; Durobrivae or Dormancheftcr fignifies the 
■ city or place of the fmall waters. Leicefterfhire is from ]c- 
ifa-ter, the Ipweft place of the land or pqiTeffion ; rather 
than from le and chefter, the place of the city; Duningtoa 
as from dun-eng-ton, a large town ; Loughburrough is from 
. al-auc-bro, a burrough country or neighbourhood on the water; 
- Mowbray is from am-au-br i, a burrough or country furround-' 
ed by water ; or from maw-bri, the greateft country or poflef- 
iions ; Verometum fuppofed to be burrow, h from ver-am-i-tu,= 
. the fprings about the pofieffions, or pofleffions about the 
iprings ; moft places in this county being named from the wa- 
ter, Rutlandfliire, from its being no county, but a fr: pre- 
cin<^ or from the rottennefs or ruddinefs of the foil, was 
. called rhydd or rhudd-Iand, a free land, or a ruddy foil ; 
but the former moft likely from the cuftom of the horfe- 
fhoe, Lincolnihire is from ]in-cwlm, a deep winding poolj 
or agulph; it is divided into three parts, viz. Holiahd, called by 
Ptolomy Malraethy iignifying quickfands, is from hollow 
land; Kefteven is a bay, or from keft-viewn, .within the 
coaft ; and Lindfey, the lower pool pofleffions ; Belvoif caftle^ 
in the pofleffion of the Manours, defcended froni the ancient 
Britains, Albanys or wynns, and the rous or rhys fign:fying 
a._beautiful profped; Stanford is from fi-tan-fo a, it is below 
the fold or way ; Glanford is from gian-ford, the fide of th6 
ford or way* Nottinghamfliire is from nryth-eng-Kam, or fi- 
nyth-eng-ham, that is, a ham, or home of a large heft, or it is 
larjge neft home ; the river Trent is from truy-n-ti, thro' our' 
pofleffions ; Tuxford is from ti-auc-ford, the pofleffions or ha- 
bitations at the waterway, or ford ; Welbeck is from wd-bi- 
auc, a fpring water well. Derbyftiire is from deei-by, the 
living, being, or dwelling of deer; Buxton is , from "bi-auc- 
ton, the town of the water of life. Warwickfhire fecrtis to 
he from war and wick, fignifj'ing a war foniftcation, buc wick 

c feenis 


feems to be a corrupt rerm ; Henly is from hen-Ie, an andot 
place, or from hen-ly, an ancient family ; whence the river 
Alne is called from au*le-en, the water of the ancient place; 
Brimicham is from bri-ma-auc-ham, a great burrougb intk 
watery ham or home ; Rugby is from ?-auc-bv, an aMeupoi 
the water \ Barford is from bi-ar-fonl» an aoode on die tM 
or way ; Alcefter feems to come from al-auc-is-ter, upon di 
water of the lower land, cefter here not fignifying a citji« 
in many other inftances ; Coventry is from convent, anl tri^ 
town. Worcefterihire, Wigornia, or Brangonlum, itfiaa 
au-ar-cefter, the city upon the water, and auc-flr-iii| I 
country upon the water ; and brin-auc-in, a bill upon tk 
water ; or from bro-n-cau-ni, it is the pofleffions inddb* 
jng us ; Malvern hills is from m-al-vren, great high hiDfi 
the river Sev%rn or Havern is from fi-au-*>vren, it is tk 
water of the hills, and hai-au-vren, water driving tf 
coming from the hills ; or in a fecondary fenfe, die water c( 
the Malvern hills ; the Tame river along the Herefordihiiettl 
Shropfhire fide is from ti-am, furroundmg or about the pot 
feiTions ; hereon ftands a town called Temebury, from teme-hOi 
the country, neiglibourhood or borough upon Tame, at ii 
Henley upon Thames in Oxfordfhire ; Shelfey feems to t^ 
fy the boundary, as Chelfey in Middlefex does. Stafibrdw 
is of the fame fignification as Waterford, but of a coirqiti 
feemingly Danim compofition, of fti inftead of fi-au-foii 
it is the water ford or way ; Wolverhampton is from Al-nr* 
Hampton, the high fpring ham town; the river Trent ii 
from tru-yn-ti, thro' our poileffions ; whence Trentham'; Uttn* 
eter is from at-auc-cau-ter, upon the water (hutting thepofif 
fions y Litchfield is probably from lech, a fhme, and fidJ* 
Shropihireis fromfi-au-ar-p-mire,itis a fliire inclofingtbepifty 
and ihire is fromlhe old Britifh caer, by changing the c,tf ^ 
it had a foft found, into f, and and adding h purely to enhAe 
the found, as is commonly done in the £ngli{h ;' here onOC 
river Clune, fromglyn, a valley, is fituated the fianious h3 
of Caraftacus, in W elfli Caradog, the beloved, from whoa 
the Newtons of England are defcended ; BnigmoHe, cdkd 
Bridgenorth, is from bri-auc-mor-fe, it is a town onthegreit 
water ; Urioconium, now Wroxcefter, is from yr-cau-in, die 
inclofure or boundaries ; or from yr-au-cau-in, the water fiiut* 
ting or inclofing ; the river Tern feems to be from ter-in, in or 
upon the poffeflions, as probably dividing the ancient Cumbrii 
from Eni?land ; Drayton is from tri-au-ton, a town upon the 
water polibflions ; Shrewfbury was called by various names bc- 
fides that already defined^ as pengwcrn, the chief alder grovei 


^aloprfrom fi-al-pj it Is the uppef part} YmWj^ig is frdffk 

ftm-maith-auc, about or furrOunded by the great water ; Scro* 

, jiclbury from fi-auc-ar-pc, it is the inclofijig place, or the key 

tbwij or burrough j Ofwcftry is from Ofwald J Elefmcr is pro- 

l>ably from y-lilis-maur^ the great palace^, this being fettled by 

lung John with his filler on prixiceLewellin ; Cherbury is from 

~caa-ar-bri, a town upon the borders^ or a Icey towh. Chefhirtf 

ir Ch^fter fignifies the city, and it Is a corrupt cbiiipofitioft 

jfrpm caer, which is from cau>ar, ihutting upon or itbout ; the 

\iver Dec is frotn the Britifli duy, double, to which the Welfh 

"idd dur, which makes dur-duy, the double water ; Nailtwlch 

lis froiii nant-au-ux« the fait or high water bottofil i Daven« 

port ieems to fighify a deep port or gate* Herefordfhire, ot 

^Ib the ancient Britiih Henfoxdd, is from hen-ford, the ancienC 

' jway, and hir-ford, the long continued way or road ; here ard 

"%hree large rivers, the Wye from au-y the water ; MunoW 

;^mmyn«^au, the boundary water j and Lug frOmal-auC, the 

^^per or higher water. Kadnorfliire or EMvid is from rdd- 

^Ji»-or, grace or blefling from us ; and di-vyd, without being 

j^JMT livelulood s their anCien tRptnan name being Dimetse, from 

fllim-tu, no pofTefllons fixed or habitations -, Knighton or tref-clo^ 

Jticar OfFa's dike, froni key-ton, a key town^ and tref-y-cloj 

^&t lock or key town ; the lands weftward and northward ar^ 

^'^odlled Meillicnydd, from the meillion or trefoils growing there j 

^^Khaider-wy fignlfies a catara£i without wy, liot from the wa* 

^tcr's falling, but the found it makes, from rhuo-dur, the roaf-* 

* jng water ; vy is from au-y, the water ; here are fome of the 

'Carnes or Carneddaus, which Mr* Llwyd, in his notes uport 

""Jtismifihy feems to think to be barrows, or places of burials, 

'fcecapfe it was ufual to heapftones on the graves of malefadlors ; 

- iKrhence as he thinks came the worft of traitors to be called carn- 

',yradur, and the mofl nbtorious thiefs to be called carn-lla-' 

[ ciron ; but the word itfelf, from cau-ar-en, imports an indo-- 

* jure upon an hill or heighth j and that they were fortified places 

^is confirmed by thofe alone the coaft of the Irifli Sea in North 

Walesf, which the Welfli people call cyttieu gaeddelod as 

.' well as carneddau, fjgnifying that they were the huts of 

the Celtes, or the Irim who infefted that country 5 and the 

meaning of earn vradur, and earn lleidr, is an acceiiliry to thofd 

crimes j earn in the old Britifh fignifying the handle of ^ 

weapon, and in a fecondary fenfe an acceuary, as the handle is 

' an acceffary to the blade, with which the wound is made 5 but 

it is not unlikely that many were buried at thofe places, as the 

people made them their ch^ef refidence, and rcpofitorv cf 

themfelves and their plunder. Brj^cknockfliire, frem the large 

c a Y*^^^ 


pool therein, is compofcd of bri-ux-en-auc, the countif 
about the great water ; the river Uflc is from is-auc, 
the lower water ; and fo are Oufe, E(k, &c« Monmoutk 
is fo called from its fituation at the ihouth river Munowoc 
Mynwy; it was alfo called Vcnta Silures inftead crfGea-' 
ta Silures, the firft city of the Silures ; Abergavcny (■ 
the confluence of the river Ufk, fs from aber-auc-vana, the pat 
ferry or harbour at the water parts j the Romans called itGoh* 
nium, from auc-ban for van ; the part of the water ^ at Newpoit 
in this county was a military way; here as well as in manyfAtf 
parts, are many places called Wenfet, Wcntland, &c. fromtta 
the old Britifh guent for gynt, fignifymg firft fet or pofifii 
See Kent, Canterbury, Cambridge, &c. Glamorganlhire B 
from Glad morgan, the land of Morgan, or from gla-mor-* 
In, the land of the feafaring nation ; Cardiff fituated on W 
river Taf or Tav, is from caer a city, and the, river Tav, whidii 
from ti-au, the water of the pofleffions ; Caerpheli caftle is fica 
cacr-beli, the city of Bel i, the radical changing into for [K 
when joined in compofition, Caermarddenfhire is eidier fifOV 
caer-merddyn, the city of Merlin, or from caer-mor-ddyn, tie 
feaman's city ; here is a place called Cantrevexan, or the litdc 
canton or hundred, cantred being an hundred villa^ 
Penbrokefliire is from pen-bro-auc, the end of the maritunf 
country; Milford Haven, the great high harbour, port or waf} 
Haverford is from hi-ver-ford, the fea harbour; in this counif 
are many of the cromlex's, fuppofed to be druidical places of 
worfliip ; maen figl, or the fhaking ftone, thirty or for- 
ty tons weight, and Menevia or Menau or St. David's, fiom 
mina-au, the narroweft fea. Cardiganfhire, which the Ro- 
mans called Ceretica, and the old Britains Aber Tcifi ftoo 
the river of that name, fignifying the water of the pofleffiooS} 
is from caer-ti-auc inftead of ti-au, from whence Teifi, fig- 
nifying the city of Teifi, or a city upon the water of theprf- 
feUions ; Aberiftwith is from abcr-is-ti-au-id or ith, it is the 
harbour or port of the lower water of the poflTeffions. Mont- 
gomcr^fhire, orTrefaldwin, from Baldwin's town, and Mont- 
gomer, which probably was the name of the hill before die 
town was built, from whence Roger de Montgomery, earl of 
Shrcv/fbury, took his furname and title of earl j Trallwynis 
frcn tre-ilvv vn, tlic grove tov/n, or rather tre-llyn the pool 
town, it bemg in Knglifh called Welchpool. MerioncA- 
i]V\ve^ i> fiiid to have been fo named from Merion the fo» 
of fiincc Conan ; but to me it feems to come from ma-wyr- 
ion, the great iTiCn of Ion -, whence the Meones or Phry- 
gians of Afia Minor i Dolgelly is from dol-gelly, the ccD 



vale ; Arlech^ called Caer Coll win, is from ar-Iech, upon a 
Hate or jrock ; Dovi river is from ti-au, the water of the pof- 
feifionS) or from to-au, the inclofing water ; Bala is from ba- 
le, the place of ibeep ; Sarn Halen atFeftiniog, Craig Ber- 
"win at Llanbaderodyn in Cardiganfliire ; alfo from Brecknock 
to Neith in Glamorganihire ; it is fuppofed to go over Sarn, 
Aberglaflyn to Cymmaes in Carnavonfhire, and fignifies the 
lalt caufcway. Carnarvonfliire is from caer-n-arvon, the 
city Arvon, or upon Mon or Anglefey 5 it was called Snowd- 
cn-foreft, from Snowden hill ; the comot of Llyn, called in. 
Latin Langanunj, is from llyn-cwm, the lake comot or 
hundred, it having been formerly covered by the Tea ; Pul- 
hdi is from pwl-heli, the fait pool ; Nevin from in-au-van, 
a place in or upon the water ; Mena is from mina, or main«> 
au,* the narrow water ; Bangor from ben-chor, the head chor 
or choir ; the river Conway is from cau-in-au-y, the inclo- 
fing water ; whence Conway town j Diganwy is from ti-uxa- 
conwy, the upper fide of or beyond Conway. Anglefey or 
Mdn, from Englifh, and mon, a root or ftem, or ma-ion, 
the great lonians ; from whence the word mon feems to have 
been formed 5 Beaumares is either from beaumarfti a pretty 
marfh,. or be-au-marfh, the water part marfh ; Aberfraw is 
from aber-fro-au, the harbour in the water neighbourhood. 
Denbighfliire is from the Britifh dinbach, whicih is from de-in- 
bcrux, upon the upper part of the river Dee ; Dyfryn Clwyd, 
or the vale of Clwyd, is from di-fryn-auc-al-hyd, without 
bills and water all along. Flintfliire 15 from the flint-ftones, 
which are very plentiful there. Yorkfliire is from y-bro-auc, 
the Jieighbourhood of the water, the city being on the river 
Ouie, and it being in Latin Eboracum ; Halifax is from hi- 
al-i-fe-auc, high upon the water part ; it was at firft, as it is 
faid, called Horton, from hi-er-ton,a town high on the water ; 
the river Are is from ara, flow ; Oufe from au-ifa, the lower 
water j Penigent mountain is from pen-y-guynt, the windy 
end ; Aberford, a harbour or flielter at the ford or way ; the 
river Nid is from ni-id, not feen ; Nidherdale is from nid-er- 
dale, a valley of the Nid water ; the river Ure is from uer a 
fpring ; the river Calder is from auc-al-der, the high land 
water ; the river Rhy is from r'-au, the water j whence Rhi- 
dale ; Therfk is from ter-es-auc, land below the watci ; 
Stanemore is from fi-tan-more, it is the fpreading or exten- 
five moor, or below the moor ; Durham is from dur^ham, for 
am, upon or furrounded by water ; the river Tees or llefis is 
from ti-au-es, the water of the lower fide; Stockton is from fi- 
tee-auc-ton, it is a town upon the Tees water \ xhs. ^^\^'\% 

c 3 Ucktci 

B R 

from vfr, a fpring ; Aukland is from auc-lanJ, the water laxriv 
Yarum is from ver-am, upon the water, or the fpring. Lan* 
caihire is from lanceftcr, which comes from lan-auc-es-ter, 9 
country below the water fide ; whence the river Lone] Wu^ 
jir.f'.rnn i^ v nn au ar-eng-ton, a great town upon d&e water; 
the li ei Dii^^lcfs is from di-auc-lefs, the fmall black water) 
M.r.cheiu-r to be from man-cheftcr, the part of thed^i 
Wt.'r:-iio'?:i:i:Td fe* ms to be from weft-mdr-land, thewd 
err. it la r^r land ; Kendale and the river Can are from cyD,dr 
fi! Tr or forcmoft part poffeffed ; Abcllabe, or Apelby is 60a 
a-bella-be, the fartheft part ^ Amboglana is from atn-be-aoe- 
al-en, about the upper end of the ffreat wate ; Kirby is froa 
auc-ar-be, a part on the water. Cumberiand is from ciiD' 
bri*land, the land of the Cumbri ; the Romans called it Cub* 
bria, it being then a part of Cumbria or Wales ; Raveflgbn 
is from r-avon-glas, the green water; Tindale is fromti-iii' 
dale, poflfeflions in a vale ; Carlifle is from cau-ar-is-le, t 
key or (hut of the lower part 5 Workington is from ar-auc* 
eng-toHj a town upon tnc great water or the fea ; Egremontii 
from auc-ar-mont, a hill on the water j Holm js from au-al* 
am, upon the fea; Langdale is from le-eng-da-le, a large 6- 
jnily in a good place ; Penrith is a* promontory ; the Efke is fM 
cs-auc, the lower water; Kirkfop is from cau-ar-auc-is-pe, the 
water inclofmg or fhutting upon the lower part ; the Lcvcnis 
(rom al-vin, upon the edge ; Vallum or Pifts wall is from the ohl 
Britifh waly a wall made of earth ; mur bein^ a ftone wall 
Northumberland is probably from north-umbri-land, the land 
of the northern Cumbri, and not from the river Humber, 
which was never a part of that country, but is divided thcr^ 
from by Yorkfhire and Durham ; the river Tine, rather tban 
from tin, tight, fcems to be from ti-ni, our pofleffions, as 
many other boundary rivers are named ; Berwick is from bcr- 
auc, the water harbour or port ; Hexam is from hi>auc-aiBf 
the high water ham ; Beltingham is from bi*al-ti-eng-haiD) 
an abode on the fartheft great pofleffions ; Morpeth is frcw 
mor-peth, the fea part or port ; Alnewick is from al-^en-auc, 
upon the high water or the fea ; Rothbury is from r*-au-ti- 
bri, a country region or neighbourhood, and perhaps in pro- 
^eCs of time «i burrough upon the water ; Rheadfdale is from 
r/il-if-dale, the lower valley ford; Glanoventa, inftead of 
Cjiana-genta, the firft ftiorcs, or the firft poffeffed fea coaftsj 
GilJeniale is from gil-dwr-dale, a valley on the w^ter-fideor 
ed^e ; Morwick is from maur-auc, the great fea ; but thefe 
wicks came a/tcrwards tp fignify fortified villages ; Tweed ii 
Nom ti'ikii'ij, it is the water o^ the (ide or borders. 


C A 

Bystuif an ancient city of Pbenice, comes from pybl-iu> 
it is populous. 

Bythinia, called alio Bebrycia, Mygdonia and Marian- 
dynia, fituated weftward on the Tliracian Bofphorus and the. 
jrropontis, ibuthon the river Rhindacus and mount Olympus,' 
north on die Euxine, and eaft on the river Parth^nius, is from 
ab-'y-ti-hena, from the moil ancient houfe ^ Bebrycia is from 
ab-brigia, from Phrygia; Mygdonia is from mau-ge*di* 
ionia, a great nation of the bDufe of Ion; Mariandynia is 
from maur-en-di-ionia, the great ancient houfe of ionia; 
Rhindacus is from rhin^-dau-ac, between two waters ; Olym- 
pus is from o-al-am-p*iu, it is a part or the end about the 
ijUX-l Parthenius is from parth-ni-iu, it is our parts ; here arc 
cither ancient cities, rivers and mountains, as Myr-lea, fromi 
myr-le, the fea-port or place; Drepane from tre-pena, the 
bead town; Chalcedon from cae-al-fi-ton, a city upon the 
found of the waves, which was before called rroperuftis, 
firom bro-cau-ar-af-ti, a region (hutting up the lower poifeffi-' 
Ons ; Heracka is from hira-clu, the longeft family. There 
are few of the ancient names, of the kings of this country to 
be met with, and thofe feem to be of the race of the lower 
houfe, that is, Javans, as EWdalfus, from ty-da-lu-ys, the 

tood houfe of die lower family ; Bpteras,' from ab-y-tyr-as, 
rom the lower pofTeflionsV and Bas, from ab-as, from the 


CADMUS, fonof Agenor, king of Phenicia, ^s from 
ci-ad-m-au-iu, he is a chief of the great water ; he is 
laid- to have brought fixteen letters, viz. a, 'b? c, d, e, i, k, 
1, m, n, o, p, r, f, t and Uj into Greece, on his return 
from Europe, where he had been in fearch of his fifter Eu- 
ropa, with whom Jupiter had run away in the fhape of a bull ; 
this feems to be a material circumftance towards fliewing that 
Cadmus found thefe letters in Europe, and as they were 
brought to Greece, there was no other place in Europe more 
likely for him to find them than in Italy, or fonie of the Me- 
diterranean iflands, where he had been in fearch of his fifler, 
or rather his fifter nation of Europe ; for the notion o£ Jupi- 
ter's running away with his fifter feems to be a fable, fignify- 
ing that Jupiter, like a terrible bull, had drove away part of 
the Phenicians into Europe, from whence Cadmus was to 
bring them back. See Europe and Deities. 

C 4 CaDWALA£>£R, 

C A 

Cadwalader, from cadw, t6 keep, wlad, land and ari 
m^n, i. e. defender of the land. Tacitus mentions one Cat- 
walda, a prince of the Suevi, whom Wolfengius Lazius calls 

Cadwgan, governor, or rather chief governor, 

Calchas, a Grecian foothfayer at the time of bcficging 
Troy, is from ac-lu-uxa-fi, he is from the higheft or upper 

Calidonian Wood in iEtolia, a country in Pelopos- 
nefus, where Meleager killed the Calidonian boar, and Her- 
cules married Deganira, the daughter of Ocncus, is from cd- 
y-dynion, mens cells or hiding places ; there were odur 
V oods, countries and places of that name, as in Scotland, 
the Celidonian iilands, and promontory near mount Taunit, 

Caius, the name of divers chief men of Rome, isfiom 
ci'^iu, he is a chief. 

Cambria or Cumbri, Cimeria, &c. are from die 
Cumbri people, who have been in poffeffion of moft partxtf 

C^s AR, tlie firname of the Julian family at Rome, whidi 
from Julius Caclar became that of the fucceeding Roman em- 
perors, is from ci-ef-ar, a chief of the lower world or coun- 

Camillus, a Roman chief, is from ci-ma-lu, the chief or 
lord of a great family. 

Carinu a people of Germ^y, and of Scotland, is frwn 
car-i-ni, coufm to us. 

Cambridge, or Caktabrigia, is faid to have been 
built by king Cantabrius, expelled Spain 375 years ante 
Chrifti, but more likely by the Brigantes, whoie name it 
bears, and which from bri-gunta, iignifies the firft Phrygians, 
Brio;ians or Brigcs, 

Cappadoci a, a copntry bounded by Pontus on the North, 
bv part of Armenia Minor and Lycaonia on the South, by 
Galatia on the Weft, and by the Euphrates and part of Ar- 
menia Minor on the iiaft, is from cau-pe-ti-og-fi, it fhuty'up 
the part on the houfe or fide of Og or Magog. Pliny fays, 
that thi^ term was borrowed from a barbarous word. 

Carolus or Charlfs, is from caru-ly, a dear or beloved 
family, or from chi-ar-le-es, a chief of'the lower part, or 
fioni clii-ar-Iy-es, a chief of the lower family. 

Carthago or Carthage, is from cae-wrth-auc, a city 
t/ the waicrlKie. 
' CA^^ACTAcySj is from the Britiih word carcdig, fignifyr 



ing aficftion, and hot from teg, a lively colour^ as pci^ 
Campdcn in folio 30 ; teg having no Tuch fignification. 
' Caria, acountiy of Afia Minor, lying on the Egaean fca, 
and joining to Ionia, called fo from the Carian people, who 
being deemed neighbours and coufins to the lonians, they 
were fo called from car-ion, Ionian couiinsj whence the 
Germans arc partly defcended. 

Carpathis, a Grecian ifland, is from auc-ir-peth-ys, an 
ifland in Ac lower part, auc-ar fignifjring water-land, or an 

Cassandra, a daughter of king Priam and Hecuba, fo 
odious to the Trojans that they would not believe her, though 
propheticaliy infpired by Apollo, is from cafa-in-dre, the 
moft odious in the town. 

' Castor and Pollux, who having freed the feas from 
pirates were worfliipped as gods of the fea, are from auc-eP 
tor, lord of the lower water, and pe-al-auc, the head of the 
higher or upper water or fca. 

- Catilina, a nobleman of Rome who confpired againft 
bis country, is from ci-ti-li-en, a chief or head of an ancient 

Catanonia, a country on the Euphrates and Lycaonia 
in Afia Minor, is from cau-tu-en-ionia, inclofing die ancient 
Ionian polTeflion, that is, the Ionian borders ; and Lycaonia 
is from ly-uxa-ionia, the upper Ionian family. 

Catamelus, a prince of the Carni, feems to be the fame 
as the Britifh cadwel, and compofed of cadw-ma-lu, a gover- 
nor of a great family or nation. 

Cato, a Roman name, is from" cadw, to keep or preferve, 
and might mean a governor. 

Cecinna, a nobleman of Rome, is from ci-is-ena, the 
moft ancient head or chief of the lower houfe. 
■ Celethi, a people of Threfprotia, bordering on Theflaly, 
is from celi-ti, the hidden pofleflbrs, as Theffaly is from ti-iia-i 
lu, the family of the lower houfe ; Threfprotia is from tre- 
cf-pro-fi, it is a town or polIeiEon of the lower country, 

Celtiberi, a people of Spain, is from celtes-bri, the celt 
Phrygians, who were a mixture of Cimbri, Phrygians and 
Celtes, or hidden Phrygians. 

Centauri, the firft horfemenj are from centa-uir, the 
firft or fwifteft men or horfemen, they appearing on horfeback 
as one creature with the horfe, which went fwift j they were 
alfo called the Hippocentaur, or the horfe Centaurs. 

Cent, Kent or Cynt, fignifies firft or foremoft, it being 
the firft landing place of the firigantes in Britain. 


QiLTKiy aeoordifig:to Pcsron and Carte, fignifietwarlikfi 
dhen derive them from gala, iiiilk» on account of their living 
qpimtlkt hot it fcema to me to be derived from oelu, to hide, 
apd ti, pofleflion, on account of their living in woods and 
ccU^i as appears from the names of various phcea in Waleii 
Scotland, and other countries. 

CitUBRi, in Italv, is from cdu, to bid^t and hri, dlQ 
Bng,es> who went alfo hy the name of Celibri and Celiil^nt 
they being the fame as the Celtcs or hidine Pbrygiaos. 

CaEBERUs, faid to be a three-headed dbg of hell, is.frpA 
ci-ctebus, the dog'of' Erebus or hdl. 

Ceres or Iris, theL goddefs of com, daughter of Saturn 
and Ops, and mother of Proferpine by Jupiter, are {com ir- 
is, the corn, and ci-r'-is, the chief of the. corn* 

Charon, iaid to be the ferryman of bell, is from aiic« 
ar^un, one upon the. water. 

CssRsoNESus, of which there were feveral, as that, of 
Thrac ., frum whence the others took their names, and thofe 
4f' Beloponncfus or Morea, Cimbrica now a part of Dmi- 
mfnk^. Tauhca lying between- the Euxine fea and the Fen 
Meotis and A urea in India, is defined under the word 

Chiroiv^ £ud to bp the fon of Saturn and Phylira, whofe 
upper part irrcmbled a man and the lower a horfe, is from 
cii-ur-in, a man upon a horfe ; he muft have been one of 
the Centaurs. Phylira fignifies upon a filley or a young 

Chios, a Gfi:cian ifland, is from chi-au-fi, it is the chief 

Chedorlaomer, mentioned in fcripture to be the firft 
lung of Ekm or Pcrfia, is from chy-id-ar-lu-mar^ he is a 
kiiig or chief over a great nation. 

Chalcis, a city in Chalcidine, a midland country of Sy- 
ria, is from cau-al-fi, or cau-al-fi-idin, a city (hut up, or 
ihut up within, i. e. a midland country. 

Chalybonitis, lying at the bottom or foot of Chalci- 
dine, is from chalcis and bon-idiu, it is the root of Chalcis, 
or from cbalcis-bon-y-ti-fi, it is the root of the pofieffions of 

Cham or Ham, the youngeft fon of Noah, is from hi- 
am, the upper country, or the part about, i. e. where they 
then dwelt ; but it is to be obferved here, that though the 
names of Shem and Cham fecm to exprefs the country they 
had poflefled, it does not appear but that they were left toge- 
the:, to pofleCs \vbat they could, without any exprefs title 


c o 

from God by the voice of Noah, for the tenth chapter of 
Genefis feems to be nothing more than a ftate and pedtgree 
of Noah's defcendants and of their firft pofieffions, as nations 
and fiamiUes. There feems to be fome ground for fujppbfmg 
that Cham was the fame as Neptune^ the lord or poneflbr of 
the fea and fea coafb; but this will be further treated of un- 
der the word Neptune, Here we may obferve, that Agenor- 
the firft king of Phenice, is faid to be the foh of Nep« 

Chrysorrhoas, a river in Syria, fo divided as to become 
a b6g or morafs, compounded of auc-yr-thos^ the moraia 

CiLiciA, bounded on the eaft by Syria, and the Mediter- 
ranean on the fouth ; where Tarfhis is (^d to have firft fetded 
and built Tarfhifti, from ci-lu-ifa, the firft of the loweft' 
liation, viz. the lonians^ as lying on the Mediterranean fea^ 
which was deemed the loweft, as the Euxine was the higheft, 
where the Phrygians or Gomerians were fituated, or from the 
Phrygians reckoning themfelves the chief or upper family, as ^ 
coming from Gomer, the firft botn of Japhet. Here lie the 
^cient cities of Celendris, from ci-le-in-dir, the chief place 
in the land ; Soli, from fi-io-Ii, it is an Ionian family; Tar- 
ftis from tir-ifa-iu, it is the loweft country, or from Tarihifh, 
whofe name is defined under Japhet ; liTus is from ifa-iu, it is 
the loweft ; Alexandria is from a-li-uxa-in-dir, the upper- 
moft family in the land, or from al-auc-in-dre, a towii 
on the water. The rivers here are the Piramus, from 
p-yr-am-iu, it is the part inclofing ; the Cednus is fix)m auc- 
cdn-iu, it is the flying river, or it may fignify the waters of 
Eden; Lamus is from le-am-au, the waters furrounding n 
place ; they were at firft governed by the Trojans, according 
to Jofephus, Strabo, &c. Homer mentions ^tio, father of 
Andromache, a prince at the fiege of Troy, which is froni 
y-ti-:io, the houfe lo. 

CissEUS, king of Thrace, father of Hecuba, king PrUm*« 
fecond queen, is fVom ci-ifa-iu, he is a chief of we lower 

Cjeio-Syria, may come from Celu-Syria, the hidden^ 
hollow or inclofed, or the divine Syria, but the former is moft 
likely, it being alfo called Syria Cava, the hidden and hol- 
low, as furrounded with mountains. 

CoMMAG£N£, a country in the upper part of Syria, com- 

S^fed of cwm, or com-mag«-en, the upper great comot. 
ere probably the Cumbri or Comotbriges had an early iet- 

C R 

Colchis, from Golchi, towafli, thcfea wafliingitscoafts; 
it is bounded by Iberia on theeaft, and theEuxine on the weft, 
the n^oncs of perfons and places feem to be Celtic. 

Colore, a city of Phrygia Minor, from cae-o-Iu-ion, a ci- 
ty or citizens of the family of Jon or Japhet ; Cynthius, fiud 
to be the firft Trojan prince, is from cynt-iu, he isthe.fore- 
noft or the firft. 

CoMATA or Gallia Comata, in which Juliu9 Cseiar 
included all that remained of Gaul unconqucred in his time, 
18 from cwm or com, a comot, a flrcet or village ; from whence 
the Latin vicus, making vipum in ihe acCufative cafe, vi, lik, 
being added to cum, to fi^nlfv living together, not knowing 
that ciun' alone, as compounded of cy-am, fufficiently expref- 
fed it, and it will appear by the name of Gomer, which is 
from com-mawr, the great comot and commagene in Syria, 
wher» his nation dwelt, at the time of the confufion and fun- 
dry other names of perfons and places, defined in this work in 
Aua Minor, Gaul and Britain, that the Gallia Comata, where 
the Cwm-bri, or Cum-briges or the comot Phrygians, who 
were always regular dwellers in cities, as appears alfo from 
the names of the cities, villages and ftreets, from Afia Minor 
into Gaul. 

Corinth, at firft called Ephyra, is fituated at the ifthmus 
of Corinth, is from caer-in-ti-hi, a city on the upper poilef- 
fions J Ephyra is from e-ph-yr, the higher part ; its citadel 
fiood on a hill called Acrocorinthium from a-cri-corinth, 
the ftrenghth of Corinth ; there alfo ftands the mountain Py- 
rene, called fo from pyr-hen, very ancient ; there are alfo two 
port to^^ns, the one called Leckseum, from le-auc-iu, it is the 
water place, and the other Cenchrea, from cau-in-aiic-ar, an 
inclofure upon the water ; there does not appear to be any 
names amongft their kings different from thofe defined of other 
parts of Greece. • 

Corcyra, an ifland of the iEgcan fea, is from cwr-is-ar, a 
part of the lower country. 

Cornelius, a Roman name of their nobility, from ci-r*- 
cn-li-iu, he is a chief or head of an ancient family. 

Cret£, a large ifland lying between the Archipelago and 
the African feas in the Mediteraneam, fo called from the Cu- 
retes. who firft fettled there : but it is now called Cimdia ; 
fee Curctes ; here are many ancient cities, as Ceratus, alfo 
called Gnoflus, from cur-y-tu, on the edge of the polfcf- 
fions; Cydon, from cy-don, thchifling of the waves, as ftand- 
ing within their found, but afterwards it came to exprefs a city 
on the waves or fea fide 3 Gortina, from cwrt-hyna, the moit 


c u 

ancient city, or in its primary fenfe, the refidencc of the moA 
ancient citizens or fellow dwellers, who probably were the 
Cimbri ; Lycus, from le-ux, the upper place, or from ly- 
ux, the upper fiunily; Cyrra' the borders^ Apteron from 
ap-tre-ion, from the land of Ion or from ap-tir-ion, the off- 
fpring of the town of Ion ; Heraclea is from hira-clu-au, the 
longeft fea family ; Rhithymna is from rhyth-y-man-au, the 
fea coafting breed ; Hierapytna is from hira-peth-en, the 
longeft divine part ; here are two high moutains called Ida 
and DiAcj which are not eafily to be defined ; they feem to 
me to have been fo framed, as to exprefs different ideas, as 
perhaps in the moft primary fenfe Ida might mean nothing 
more than I-da, the feeing place, or the place ofprofpeift, or in 
a fecondary fenfe, the place of the vifionaiys ; I-da fignifies 
the good, or the ground, the good ground or the place of 
the good 'y but Di<9:e feems to lijgnify the higheft pofTeffions 
of ida, from id-uxa-ti ; the names of thofe faid to be ancient 
kings of Crete were Cretes, fo called from the Curetes, which 
fee; Tales from tu-lu-is, the lower family; Vulcanusjs from 
ve-o-lu-can, he is from the colour of white ; Rhadamanthus 
from rhad-a-maint-iu, he is gracious and great j Milinus is 
from m-lln-ys, the great lower line; Melilleus is from m-Ii- 
ifa-iu, he is the great lower family ; Cydon from cy-ton, it 
lord of the fea or waves ; Apteras from ap-tyr-as, irpm the 
lower country ; Lapithas is from li-ap-ti-as, a family from 
the lower poiFeflions ; Aflcrius is from as-tir-iu, he is the 
lower country ; Minos is from m-en-au-fi, he is great upcJn 
the fea; Lycaflus is from ly-ac-as-tu, a family from the 
lower poflTeffioBs ; Deucalion is from di-auc-al-ion, the dc» 
luge or dark water upon Ion; Idomeneus from ida-m-iu, he is 
the great Ida ; Meriones is from maur-ion-es, the great lower 
lonians ; and Etearchus from e-tyr-uxa-iu, be is from tHe^ 
upper country. Thofe people, from their names, don't feem to 
have, had a regular hereditary fucceflion of kings ; but being 
mixed with the Phcnicians and other foreigners, they dege- 
nerated from their anceftry into a corrupt trading people, 
and at lafl fettled in Sicily, 

Cryse, an ifland of the iEgean fea, is from cwr-ifa, the 
loweft border, or part of the country. 

Curetes, or Idaei Daftyli of Crete, Corrybantes of Phiy- 
gia, Telchines of Rhodes, and the Cabiri of Samothrace. In 
rhrygia they attended the myfleries of Cybele, and in Crete 
thofe of Jupiter; Bochart thinks they were called Curetes 
from the Crethims of thePhiliftine people ; but they are more, 
ancient; their name is faid to be derived from the Hebrew 



word cabir, mat or powerful* tn^ mantr fnort defifliriM 
there are i tneir numbers by fotne are connned to Jupiter Spi 
Bacchus, others tnendnn Ceres, Proferpuie, Pluto and Merca« 
fy ; I (hall take the h*bertv to differ in the explanation of diofe 
names fitxn others, as follows ; Idaei Da£lyli, the moft. an- 
cient name, feems to come from ida-da-ucba-tyli, the eood up- 
per family, or lords of Ida, the Da^l or round ode oeing (b 
called from them, rather than they from the ode ; the Cory** 
kantes are from the old Britifh cyro, or the Greel; kyrieuOf 
to govern, and ben-ti, the upper houfe, which was tfaatbf 
Plurygia; Cabiriis to fuccour in the old Britifh | Curetes is 
from curo-ti-es, to govern the lower houfe or poflidlioiUi 
in which Crete was fituated ; and as they are allowed to be 
fdligious men, it is not probable that they made ufe of any 
cither fhield than that of religion ; unlefs they fung the odes 
for the prefervation of Jupiter; and as to his beiA|; bred ia 
Crete^ that appears to be fabulous ; Telchynes is from tilu- 
ux-in-es, the family or lords over the lower poflfeflions, to 
- Whkh Rhodes belonged. 

Ctnbelinb, chief or king Beli ; not as fome would have it 
from cynvelin, a yellow prince, but from cyn-o-fcH-lin, a 
ki^ from the line of Beli. 

Cyrrhus, a city on the lower border of Commagcnc in 
Syria, is compofed of cwr-is, the lower border. 

Cybeib, a Phrygian goddefs, alfo called Berecynthia, Din- 
^Ijrme, and Idea, is from cy-beli, the companion of Beli, Be- 
lus or Apollo ; Dindymene is from din-da-m-en, the good, 

geat and divine one ; Berecynthia is from bri-r*cynta, the 
ft Phiygian; Idea fignifies a vifionary; the poets and hiflo- 
rians call her the mother of the ^ods, and that (he had hef 
name from a cymbal, a mufical mftrument ; but it is more 
likely that the inftrument was named after her ; becaufe made 
ufe of at her feftivals ; Ihe is likewife faid to be the daughter 
of Meon, the firft king of Phrygia, got with child hy AttiSf 
whom Meon thereupon putting to death, ihe became intimate 
with Apollo,! whereby Ihe was ranked amongft the gods ; iheis 
likewife {aken to be the wife of Saturn, or Time ; and the fame 
as Rhea, Vefta, and the Bona Dea ; (he is faid to be the fam& 
as Aftarte, the Afiyrian goddefs, or Venus; it is alfo faid that 
ihe had a fon called Corybas, from whom came the Corybantes; 
the Sibylline oracles are from cybeli-line, the line of Cybele. 

Cy AXARES, a king of Media and Syria, is from cy-ux-ar< 
a chief or king over the earth ; tho' this may be the primitive 
fenfe of the word, the Medes probably carried the meaning 
fiill farther J for as they made yfe of the Anubis^ reprefented 

a by 

D A' 

liy tbe finpe of a: dog, in idieir faingtii^ caUed ciy diey pof* - 
fiUy inftead of I;ing of the eardi, meant a god of the eami i 
cfpedally as it appears firooli Hoodotus that they called the 
people after the name of does, as Cyrus Nurle» Crao, kcm 
and in the name of Darius die ci is changed into di, ^icli 
makes it di*ir-iu, he is the god of the earth i fee A&pigs^ 
Darius, Cyrus, &c. kings of Perfia ; and what is rerj lemark^ 
able, the names of the lungs of Perfia,' in a litteral tranlla* 
tion, fignifir dogs, both mate and female, as here Cy-a-xare9» 
is adog ana his couiin« 

Cyprus is from cy-p-ar-p, the chief part oF die lower 
countries, it being a large fruitftd ifland in the Mediterranean^ 
wherein the Phenecians, as well as lonians, feem to hare 
been originally fetded ; its firft chief ci^ Cidum, is from cy« 
d-iu, it 18 the firft pofifeffion ; the reft ot the nameif feem to m 
sioftly of Ionian original. 

Cycl ADEs, feveralGredan Iflands lying between dio Egean 
feaand the Myrtoum, b from cy-auc-al-ad-es, a company 
from the higher to the lower fea. 

Cyth£EA, an iHand in the Ionian fea, is from cy-tir^au» 
the chief ifland or water land i there is another in die bay oT 


DA CI A, Iving between die Borfayftenes and Sarmada to 
the nortn, me Danube to the fouth, Hungary weft« 
ward, and the Euxine fea to the eaft, feems to be nothine 
more than a tranfpofition of geta into da-ge, fignifying a gooo 
nation, or the nadon of Ida. 

Dactili. See Curetes and Ida. 

Dani or Danes are from da^n, die good and aiici^nt, ot 
the ancient dae; they are faid to be defcended from the^im^ 
bri ; probably by the dae or geta, wJiich came from Phrygian 
which fhews them to be a nation of Ida. 

Diana, the daughter of Jupiter, the chafte goddefs of 
hunting, is from dia-en, the divine or heavenly goddefs, ra^ 
ther than from diana, fpodefs. 

D ARD ANi A, Teucria and Troas, ancient countries of Phry* 
gia Minor, come Arom dr-da-yn*U), the eood land in lo or 
Ionia 9 ti-criMo, the'ftrong pofleffionsof &| andtir4o, tht 
land of lo, or tre-io, the town of lo. 

Darius, king of Perfia, is from di-ar-iu, he is the god of 
the eirth ; fee Cyaxares, and the names of other Per&ui 
kings i Dciphobus, a fon of "Priam and Hecuba, feems to ftg^ 



viify a divine fon, or divine ofFsprin^ ; bat if the letren Me 

in :iieir proper places, it would fignify he is am offspring from 
the houfe of lo, from tu-ab*io-ob-iu. 

Deio!;, a Grecian ifland in the loweft part of the ^gean 
fea^ is from ti-al-au-fi, it is a pofleffion upon the high water or 
the fea ; this ifland was famous for its temples and oracles, 
efpecially that of Apollo ; here lies mount Cynthius from cy- 
cn-ti-iu, it is the firft or chief high poffeffion. 

Dfities, Heathen. Celus or. Ouranos, faid to be die 
father of Saturn or Kronos, fignifies heaven^ not iii point tf 
locality, but of time only, in which Saturn was bom of Vefla, 
or Terra, the earth, who was alfo faid to be the wife of Saturn'; 
Orpheus and other hiftorians, collefied by Bochart^ the beft 
of antiquarians, in the firft chapter of his Phale|;9 tend to prove 
Saturn to be the conunon father of mankind after the deluge; 
the feveral names of Saturn herein defined under his name is a 
concurrent proof of his being the fame as the perfon by Mo* 
fes called Noe, for they all exprefs that he was the fon of the 
ancient water, he is mentioned by Hefiod, and other andent 
authors, as having no lefs than forty-five brothers and fifbrs, 
but as they all iignify the different planets, elements, and parts 
€f the earth and water, as Titan the lower pofleflions, and 
Rhea the earth, by a tranfpofition of the Celtic ar, earth, and 
feem to be a fabulous invention of the ancient Greeks, who 
were extravagantly fond of a great original, a definition of 
them would be ot no fervice to hiftory j to go on then with 
Saturn, his depriving his father of the power of generation, 
may allude either to the deluge, which cut off all mankind, 
except what was produced by the froth of the fea, a^d the mu- 
tilated members of Caelus, or to Ham's expofing of his &• 
ther Noe, or perhaps robbing him of his generative powers, 
as Mofes fays in Genefis, that the world was peopled only by 
Noe's fons ; the many actions and circumftances attributed ta 
Saturn by the heathen writers, are by Mofes imputed to Noe ; 
which Bochart in the above-mentioned chapter has fet in a 
comparative view, is a farther proof that Noe and Saturn were 
not different perfons ; tho' the Greeks for the fake of appear- 
ing ancient, have multiplied their gods, and out of Saturn 
made a Cxlus ; as out of Jupiter they made fevef al Jupiters, 
Belus,. Apollos, &c. hence it will follow, that Japhet and 
Jupiter \vere the fame, of which their names feem to be a 
ftrong confirmation ; for both names were originally lo, or 
Ion, as appears by Javan, Ionia, lo paean, and many other 
' names defijied in this Lexicon ; and Mofes by lo or la meant 
the fame thing as the Greeks did by calling Jupiter Apollo or 


Belus, and the Syrians and other nations in calling him Bal, 
that is the funj and tho* Mofes in defcribing the hrft poffef- 
fions added phe-at, to fignify the part at, the Romans wercJ 
miftaken in converting uiis fat into pater, father, for Javan 
was their proper father or founder, as Gomer was that of the 
Celtes ; the Greeks have made a god of him under the name 
of Zeus, a Term borrowed from the Cehic diu, from whence 
came the Latin deus ; he was alfo the Bal, god, or father of 
nations ; and the jou-pater. Or divine father of the Romans^ 
formed perhaps ot jou the vocative cafe of diu in the Celtic, 
but the ancient Britains called him jou, as in di-jou, the day ot 
Jupiter or Thurfday ; Cybele is defined in another place, where- 
by tho' flie was called the mother of the gods, and the wife 
of Saturn, (he feems to be the companion of Beli, Belus, 
Apollo or Jupiter, the fon of Sol or Saturn ; all thofe names 
from ap or ab aul, or io-ap, fignify the fon of the fun, 
or ap, from, and o-ll, the high o, or the fun ; Juno and 
Venus feem to be the fame, both fignifying white, fair or di- 
vine ; and tho* Juno is faid to be the wife of Jove, and Ve- 
nus of Vulcan, the former feems to be her name whilft fhe 
was living, and the latter after fhe was cOrifecrated into a ftar ; 
as was the cafe with Mercury, who was called Mars, after his 
demife, there being flO Other Mars befides Mercury j and the 
name being of the fame fignification, and cpmpofed of mere 
in Mercury, -ivhich i^ great ; aind alfo with Diana, who bore 
that name on earth, and after her tranflation into heaven that 
of Luna, or the moori ; Mercury is defined under Gomer; 
Bacchus is defined under the name, but there does not feem to 
have exifted any fuch perfon 5 fo of Aurora, Minerva, Pallas, 
and the other fuperior goddeffes • Vulcath is explained under 
Crete, he being a king of the Country ; Neptune feems to 
be the fame as Cham, as will appear under the word Ham and 
Neptune ; Piuto the brother of Jupiter and Neptune was pro- 
bably Semj who v^as fo called from his refiding in Spain, to 
which place he might have been drove with his Phoenicians 
by his brother Jupiter ; where the Phceniciaris may have re- 
mained *till the time of Hercules, who drove them into their 
own country, under the name of Geryon's cows ; the demi- 
gods of Greece and Rome were nothinjg more than their 
princes and great men j thofe of the Gaul^ and Germans were 
riie fame, tho' of different denominations, as Seat^ for Sa- 
turnus, and Sol, the moon, for Luna j Teutat and Woden for 
Mars and Mercury, and Friga for Venus, it being probably 
a corrupt term for the Celtic vener ; befides many more petty 
deities i thus the fecming difference betwixt the Germans, 

d Britains, 


E B 

Brltains, Greeks and Romans as to the days of the week, tieir 
ods Woden, Teutat, Mercury and Mars, fcem to be ful- 
y reconciled. 

Dido or Eliza, the daugther of Belus, king 6f Tyre is 
from ti-at-au, poflefTors at the water and e-li-ifa, the Wer 
family or dido may^fignify to cull oiit, as a colony from Tyre 
fettled at Carthage, and it fecms probable that Tyre was found- 
ed by the defcendarits of Tyras, after they had acquired the 
dominion of* die Mediterranean fea, though Siaon'migbt 
have been founded by t)ie defcendahts of Shem. 

Doris or Dover, from dur, water. 

DuRovERNUM, a town and port in Kent deriv^ front 
dwr, water and wern, alder, or perhaps from the Arverni's 
fettling there. 

Doris, fituated on the fouth of Theffaly is from dwf, water. 

Doris, a fea-nymph, daughter of Oceanus and Thetis, 
is from dwr, water. 

Druids, Druidas or Dryades, faid to be fo called from 
deru, an oak,' which they held in great veneration j But it 
feems to me to come from di-riu-id, \t is a dark or divine fort 
or kind. See God. 

Drusus, a Roman name, feems to come from dru-fi-es, a 
lower or under druid. 

Dunmonii, or Cornifhmen, arc from diiri, a hill, and 
ition, end, i. e. hilly end, or from dun, men, and Mon, An- 
glefey, that is, the men of Anglefey j but fee Britain fpr 2l ful- 
ler explanation. 

Dumnorix, from dun, man, and rich, chief, 

DuRius, a river of ancient Gaul, which fells into the At- 
lantic ocean at Oporto, is from dur, water, in a primary fenfe, 
but here, it ought to be taken to mean a doorgate or port, frofl| 
drws, a door, which is alfo from dwr, water, in a fecondary 
fenfe, from its being an opening into the water. 

Dyrachium, a city of Macedonia, is from tre-uxariu, it is 
the uppermoft town, or from tir-uxa-iu, it is the upper pofleffioilK. 

EBoRACUMor York, is from y-bro-auc, the neighbour- 
hood of the water, it lying on the river Oufe j York is 
from ar or yr-auc, the water, or upon the water ; to which 
the ancient Britains added.caer, a city, and called it car-yfi:oc» 
or yr-fro-auc, a city in the neighbourhood of the water. 

Ebro or Iber, a river rifing in Cantabria in Spain, and. 
difcharging itfelf into the Mediteran^an, i$ from i-ber, the 


t A 

•water ; E-ber is from tBe fpring $ and Ebro is frdm e-bei-air, 
water from the fpring. 

Edgecomb, formerly wrote Eggcombe, feems to be from 
y, the, and cum, a canton or comot, or from auc, water, and 
cwm, or edgecWhi, a comot at the edge. 

EioNEUS, OENi;r3 or Owen, ancient names of Greece as 
well as Britain^ Oeneus was father of Dejanira; who was 
married to Hercules; Eioneus was father of Rhesus or Rhys 
of Thrace ; there was another of that name at the fiege of 
Troy. See Oenus. 

Elis, a country and city in Peloponefus, lying weftward 
ori the Ionian fea, is from e-lu-is, the lower family ; Pelo- 
ponefus is from pella-pen-ifa, the ferthcft lower part; Olym- 
pia is from olympus ; Salmone is from fi-al-mon, it is at the 
root or lower end ; Heraclea is from hira-cau-le, the lonjgeft 
inclofure or oldeft city ; Epine is from e-pen, the upper end ; 
Tryphales is from tre-ph-al-is, a tov/n upon the lower part ; 
Samicus is from fi-am-auc, it is the part vbout the water 5 
Hypana is from hy-pena, the high or upper ends, and Phrixa 
IS from phri-uxa, the upper country. The ancient kings of 
this country were CEtelus, from y-tuli-es, the lower family ; 
Eleus from e-lu-es, the lower family ; Augeas from o-ge-asy 
from the lower nation ; Phyleus is from ap-y-lu-es, from the 
lower family ; Agaftenes is from ag-as-ti-hena-fi, he is from 
the ancient lower houfe ; Oxylus is from uxa*li-fi, he is of 
the upper family, being of the race of Hercules; and Lafus 
from lu-ifa-fi, he is from the lower family. - 

English Names of perfons. The Englt/h firmimes being 
very numerous and mdftly taken from the common Englifh 
names of colours, animals, towns, places and things, whofe 
meaning are obvious to every Engliih reader, I fliall confine 
myfelf to a few only of fuch as are ancient and hiftorical ; 
which feem to be of two forts, that is, thofe that have beem 
framed out of the ancient Britilh or Celtic, previous to the 
exiftence of the Englifh name and language, and themoft anci- 
ent of thofe fmce brought into ufe by the Saxons, Normans^ 
Germans and Danes, many of which will be found explained 
under the words Saxons, Welfh, and Scotch ; but a ^tw more 
are here added as follows, viz. Abdy is from ab-dy, the fon- 
of a houfe or femily ; Arundel from the name of a place, ex- 
plained under Kent ; Aftely and Afion, fignify the lower fa* 
milyj and the lower town in point of fituation ; Aubin is fron* 
die ancient Britifti particles au-ben, the water end, or a chief 
or head of the water ; Bagot is from bigod, faid to be compofed 
of by-god I Bampfylde is from ab-ham»fidd, from the homei 
.' : dx ., S\OA\ 


field ; Barrington is from barrc-cng-ton, Bany*s great town; 
but Barre is from the Wclfli ab-barri ; Berkly is the old Brr- 
tifli ber-cly, the water family 5 Bertie is from ber-ti, water 
pofleflbrs j Bofcawen is from ab-es-auc-owcn, the fon of 
Owen on the lower water ; Bromley is from bro-ma-ly, the 
family of the great jpofleffions or country; Browfe and Bruce 
from ab-rhys, the Ions of Rhys ; Burgoyne feems to be from 
ab-ur-guyn, from the man Gwyn ; Burt from ab-ur-ti, the 
fon of a man of poflfeffion ; Barrel is from ab-ur-il, from die 
man of a family or a race ; Butler or Boteler from bod-teilu* 
ur, the abbot or refiding family man ; Byron from ab-yrien, 
the fon of Urien orUranus ; Cadogan is explained amongft the 
Welfli; Calvert is from ac-il-vert forbert, from a Bertie, or 
from a high water poffeflbr ; Carey and Carew are from the 
Britifh caiw, a ftag, or caru, to love ; Carteret is from carter, 
a compound of cau-ar-tir, a borderer -, Cafwall is amongft 
the Welfh ; Cavendifh is under Ireland, but it may be from 
any ridge or back of hills in England or Wales ; Chetwynd 
is from ac-ti-wyn-id, he is from the houfe of Wynn ; fee 
Wynn amongft the Welfli ; Cholmley is from cwm Jy, inftead 
of cwm-bri, the comot family ; Cholmondely is from cwm- 
mon-deily, a family of the comot ftock, or an ancient Mon 
or Angleley family. See Cumbri. Clinton is from cH-en- 
dun, a man of an ancient clan or family ; Clifford from cli- 
ford, the ford family j Clive from the old Britifli cli-ve, he 
is a family ; whence Cleveland ; Cocks, Cox, Coke and 
Cooke, are from the old Britifli coch, red; Codrington is from 
coed-r-eng-ton, a'wood of the great town; Colley, Collet 
and Colleton, are from the old Britifli cly, a family j Compton 
and Campden are from camp-dun, a camp-man or borderer 5 
Cornwall, Cornwallis and Cornifli, are from the name of Cbm- 
wall, which fignifies a corner of Wales ; as Conway is from 
the town of Conway; which fee under Carnarvonfliire ; 
Cotton is a very ancient name, either from the old Britifli 
gyttun, a fociablc one, or from cy-tu-en, a chief of the an- 
houre ; Courtenay is from the Britifli cwrt-ena, the moft an- 
cient court ; Craven is from- cau-ar-ven, inclofing or fliut- 
ing up the part ^ Cunlifte from auc-In-li-ef, he is a femily 
upon the water ; Cuft is from cau-Js-ti, inclofing the lower 
poflciTions 5 Darner from tu-mer, the great houfe or the fea 
houfe; Dafliwood is the fame as under wood ; Dawkins is the 
houfe of Hawkins J De Grey is from the colour, or rather from 
the Celtic de-cri, the ttrong ; Devereux is from de, from, and 
eureux in France ; Dick, Dickfon and Dickenfou, are from 
Richard, defined under the Welibi Dwm^r way Cgnify a Tea. 


port or a great gate ; Duficombe is from dun^cwm, a man 
of the comot or valley ; Edgcombe or Egcombe is cither from 
edge-combe or auc-combe, the comot on the water ; Eger- 
ton is from auc-ar-ton, a town upon the water j EIwiU is 
from il-will, the race of Wiiliam ; Evelin is either from eve- 
lin, the line of Eve, or from ev-line, he is a line ; Fane or 
Vane is from vin, the place, or from Wynn, a Welfh name ; 
Fanfhaw, a place below the water ; Fazakerley, a family on 
the lower end of the water ; Fiennes is the lower confines ; 
Fermor is from fir-mor, a great man, or a feaman ; Fitzherbert, 
die fon of Herbert; Fitzwilliam, the fon of William j Fitzmau- 
rice> the fon of Maurice ; Fortefcue is a man at the water fide ; 
Garth is a garden, or a home- field ; Glanville is from glan* 
ville, the edge of a village, and feems to be the fame in the old 
Britifh, as l^ownfend in the Englilh ; Godolphin is the fon or 
the a£lion of a dolphin ; Gore and Gower are the names of 
feverai places in Wales; and they may come from gwr, man 
Grenville is a green valley ; Grcville is a grey valley ; Grofvenor 
is either from gro-es-van<>ur, a man below the land part, or 
from croes-van-ur, a manof thecrofs place or crofs turning, 
or perhaps from Ofweflry ; Hanbury is from hen-bri, an ancient 
mountain pofleffbr j Harcourt is high over the court ; Harley is 
high over a family, or from hir-ly, an old family; Harvey is high ' 
in life; Hayes is from Hay, defined under the Scotch ; Henly is 
literally the Welfh hen-ly, an incient family, the Romans hav- 
ing added fama to ly, which in the Celtic fignifies a family, and 
hen is the common word for ancient, and the Englifh adjeftive 
an-cient is formed of the Celtic an-fi-hen-it, it is an ancient 
or heaven ; Herbert is another Britifh name, from hir-bert, a 
long continued water pofTefTor, or an ancient Bertie, or per- 
haps an ancient Britain ; Hobart is a bold Bertie ; Holburne is 
from hil-bryn, tiie hilly race ; Holmes is the fame as home ; fo 
is Hume; Holt is ancient; Howard is from Hugh or hiw-^ard, 
a high ward, or hy-ar- ti, high over the poffeffions, or a bold 
governor ; Howe, is from the Welfh hiw ; Hunt and Hunter 
are from hi-ynt, they are high ; Jackfon is the fon of Jack ; 
Jeflrys is from JefFry ; Jenkinfon is from Jenkins ; Jcnins is 
from jcny-cn-fi, he is an ancient Jenny or Jane ; whence 
Jenifon and Jenings ; St. John is under the Welfh ; Ingram is 
from ing-ar*am, great over the neighbourhood ; Ifliam is the 
lower home or ham ; Irby the high liver ; Irwin the Wynn ; 
Keppel or Capel, a chapel ; Kni^^ht is' from the Latin E- 
quites ; Langdale is from li-eng-da-le, a great family in gotd 
place ; Lane is fair ; Lafcelics is a populous race ; Laurence 
is from laur-en-is, he is the ancient lower ground ; Lee is 
from Ic, a place j Lenox is from li-en-ux^ the high or ancient 

d ^ V^^^ 

E N 

family *, Liddel is from li-da-lc, a family in a good place^ or i 
well fituated family ; Lutterell is from luther-il, the race of 
Luther i Lyfter is from ly-cs-ter, the family of the lower 
country ; Manners is from mannor j Martin is from the 
Britiih Merddvn or Merlin ; Maiham is from maes-ham^ the 
home field; Melliih isfweet; Molineux is from ma-lin-ux, 
a great high race; Monfon, the fon of man, or mon; Monta- 
gue is from nionta-ge» the mountain nation, perhaps the Al- 
lobriges a Celtic people ; Mordaunt is from mor-da-ynt, 
they are great and good ; Neville fignifies new ; Noel is from 
en-o-il, ancient of raccj Norris is from ni-ar-es, we arc 
from the lower country, or from en-wr-es, a low or humble 
old man ; Norton is from nor-dtm, a northern man ; Palmer 
ifi from ap-ailmer, the fon of Ailmer ; Paterfon is the fon of 
Padem, a Welib name; Pelhamis the fartheft ham or home; 
Pcnton and Pennington fignify the town's end ; Percy is defin- 
ed amoiigft the Wclfli ; retre and Peters is a rock ; Pettyt 
Per it and Pit, fignify little; Perceval is under Welfti ; Por 
cock is from ap-cock, 'he fon of a ^ ock ; Poulet is froni ap- 
au-li-it, he is a fon of the water family ; Praed is from ap- 
rad, a gracious fon • Prowfe is the fame as prys the fon of Rhus; 
Pultney fignifies upon the high part, or from ap-al-ti-ni, it may 
fignify from our high or an ancient noufe ; Raihleigh is the 
lower place; Reynolds is the ancient holder; Rolt is fromr'* 
hold, the holt ; Rofs is from rus ; Rufhout is from rhysr 
out, out of Rhus ; Ruffel is from rhys-il, the race of Rhys j 
Sackville from is-auc-ville, is a village on the water fide ; 
Saville is the fame, from is-au-ville ; Sandys, he is the. ancient 
houfe i Saunders is an ancient poffeflbr ; Scawen is the fon 
of Owen, or from is-auc-owen, Owen at the water fide j Scu- 
damore is the great houfe ; Selwin is from' fil-win, tha 
the race of Winn ; Sewell is from fi-au-il, he is the fea race ; 
Seymore or St, Maur the great faint ; Sherrard, he is over the 
country ; Shelley is a high family ; Shirley a governing fami- 
ly ; Sibthorpe is from fi-ab-thorpe, he is the fon of Thorpe ; 
Spenfer is from fi-pen-fir, he is the head of the country > 
Stanhope is from fi-ti-en-hope, he is from the houfe of an an- 
cient family, or the ancient houfe of Ffope; Stanley is 
from fi-ti-henly, he is from the houfe of Henly ; Stanwix, he is 
at the water fide ; Starkie, he is upon the water ; Staunton, he is 
below the town; Stourton, it is the water town; Sturt, acon- 
tij6iion of Stuart ; Sutton and Hutton are from the ancient 
Iwitifh hyttun, a bold man; whence alfo Totton ; Talbot is 
from tilu-abot, the abbot family ; Thynne, the ancient houfe; 
Trciie, the lower tov/n ; Trelawney, the fujlcft or largeit 



town ; Trevanion is the ancient townftiip ; . Trift is fadnefs ; 
Venabics, he is from tiie honfe of Vane or Wyn; Verney and 
Vernon, out fpring or offspring ; ViUicrs, a villager ; Wal- 
ler is a Wclflunan j Walter is Welfh land j Watfon, his fon ; 
Whitemore, a great ivhite; Wilbraham, a William of the 
ham neighbourhood j Wilkinfon, the fon of Wilkin, or Wil- 
liam's iSn 5 Willoughby, a William water dweller ; Wil- 
ley, a William ; Wilfon, the fon of William j Winnington, a 
great Wynn town or man ; Wodehoufe, the houfe of wood ; 
Woriley, from the lower family ; Wyndham is a Wyn of the 
ham i York is a fea coafter or a feaman, or from the city of 
York. See Saxon, Scots, Wellh and Irifh. 

EoLis or loLis, from io-Ii-es, the lower family of lo, 
Epirus, fituated on the weft by the Adriatic fea, Eafi: 
by Etolia, on the fouth by the Ionian fea, and north by 
T^elTaly and Macedonia, is from e-p-oera-iu, it is the Coldeft 
part ; this was an ancient kingdom of the ^acide, or the 
fons of Idse from « for y^cjda. H^re were feveral ancient 
cities, aS'Oricum from oera-cum, the coldeftcomot; which 
was fituated in Chaonia or Ux-ionia, the upper Ionia ; Pan- 
dofia from pen-to-ifa, the head of the lower borders j Caffio^ 
pe from cac-ifa-pc, a city of the loweft part i Antigonia from 
«n-ti-ge-ionia, the ancient poiTeffion of the Ionian nation ; 
Wioenice from pen-ifa, the loweft part ; Elaus from y or e- 
lu-is, the lower family ; andChimera from chim-ri for Cum- 
bri, a firigian comot ; Ambracia from um-bri-cae, a city of 
the Cumbri, which was fituated in -Thefprotia, or id-es-brar 
ti, it is a country of the lower houfe ^ Mseandria is from ma- 
ion-dir, it is the land of the great lonians, which lay on the 
river Maeander ; Caeftria is from cae-is-tir, a city in the lower 
country ; (whence our Chefter) j Charadra from cae-aradr, 
the plough city. In Moloffis or Mau-lu-ifa, the great loweft 
family, there are Dodona from to-ti-ion^ the borders of the 
houfe of Ion ; Paffaron from p-ifa-r'-ioij, the lower part of 
Ion ; Tecmon is from ti-ac-mon, from the houfe of the great 
Ion ; Phylace is from ap-hyl-ifa, from the lower race ; and 
Horreum from oera-ui, it is the coldeft. Here were the 
rivers Acheron, or auc-ar-ion, the water of the Ionian coun- 
try ; the lake of Acherufia from auc-ar-ifa, the water of the 
lower country ; and the Geraunian mountain from cau-ar- 
ion, it fliuts upon Ion. The kings here feem to have been the 
fame as the Thracian ; as Pyrrhus from ap-rhys ; Moloflus 
from mau-lu-ifa-iu, it is the lower great family j Pielus from 
ap-y-lu-es, from the lower family, &c. 

Ephori, the Lacedemonian magiftrates, who were five in 
d 4 number^ 


number, and like the tribunes to the Roman confuls, thef 
were to the Icings, from whom thev could receive die people^s 
appeal, is from e-phe-ar, the heaa or chief oven 

Erichthonius, a king of Troas, is from cr-ixa-thun- 
iu, he is the higheft or upper man, or from eurych-thun-iu, 
he is the goldfmith, perhaps a tradefman and chief magiftrate 
rather than a king, though fo called -, but the former etymolo- 
gy feems moft probable. 

£r£Bus or Eberus, faid to be a river of hell, is from e* 
ber-iu, it is the water ; or from er*eb-ys, the water without a 
bott >m. 

EuROPA or Europe, bounded fouthward by the Mediter- 
ranean, wcftward by the weftern or Atlantic ocean, and e^ 
and north by the northern fea and the river Tanais ; fome de- 
rive it from the Tynan Europa, but it feems to me to cofne ' 
from oera-pe, the coldeft part ; fee Epirus, and other places of < 
Greece. This Europa is faid to be the daughter of AgstnoF^ 
king of Phenicia, whom Jupiter in the fhape pf a bull cani^ ' 
into Crete ; this proves that a colony of Ph^piahs . icttkd 
very early in Crete. i .; :.»^ 

tuPHRATEs, a large river riling in the mountains of >Ar^' ' 
menia, and continuing its courfc through Armenia, and Syr|i^ 
and dividing Arabia, Chaidea and fiabylon from Meibpota- - 
mia; thence falling with the Tygris into thePerfian g;iilph, ' 
and called by the Arabs Schat-al-arab, fromSi*auc-a]-arab, it h •' 
a water upon Arabia, feems to come from auc*ph&4r-aity ' 
waters fpringing in Armenia or Ararat ; this circumftance fa- 
vours thofc who fix the refting place of Noah's ark on one of *' 
the mountains of Armenia; it likewife feems very probable^ • 
that the firft migration of Noah and his people frond A^irat - 
wafc along the banks of the Euphrates to 3abvlon; for it ' 
clearly appears from this work, that all the firft migrations in*'- 
to Europe were along the fea coafts and the b^ks pf ri- " 

EuBEA, an ifland on the coaft of Boetia, tpok 'm name 
from Boetia. The chief city here is Chalcis, lying srt thil ; 
lower water fide, which is from cy-au-al-es, a city on the " 
lower water ; there arc other fmall iflands hereabout$ not - 
worth mentioning. 

EvANDER, faid to have flain his father and fled from Afca- -^ 
dia into Italy, is from evan-dir, the land of Ion orjavan; - 
Evan, Ion, Javan, John, and Owen or Oen, being of Ae '" 
fame fignification in the ancient language, and Evenus -and < 
Oenus appear to be ancient Greek names, ^ 

EuROP£, Herodotus, 1. 4. and other hiftoriam couId^4i&- '•■' 


G A 

rive from no other original than the Tvrian Europa, but it 
comes from oera-pe, the coldeft part of tne earth. 

Exeter, faid to come from the river Ifca, or from the 
Roman legion Augufta fecunda being ftationed there, is 
compounded of is^ lower, and auc, water. 


GA D E S, Cadiz or Cales, the lower part of Spain, 
are from cau-ti-es, or cau-al-es, inclofing the lower 
part; whence Gaditanum Fretum, or theStreights of Ca« 

Gallus, a river nmning from mount Olympus through 
Bithynia into the Euxine fea, the waters of which it was be« 
lieved, infpired the priefts of Cybele called the Galli bv the 
firength of its minerals, fo as to fufFer caflration in order to 
be qualijGed for the priefthood, is from gallu, powerful. 

CrAVtj the ancient country of the Cimbri, (vauls, and 
Celtes, included ancient Iberia, now Spain and Portugal, 
Gallia or France, and the Low Countries, &c. Germany, part 
of Denmark, Switzerland or Rhcetia, Vlndelicia and Nori- 
cum. Savoy and Lombardy ; alfo Gallia Cifalpina, contain^ 
ing Piedmont, Milan,. Parma, Mantua, Venice, Genoa, 
and a)fo Great Britain, Ireland, and other iflands. Cxfar 
mentions only Gallia Belgica, Acquitanica and Celtica, or 
Armorica, which were the countries remaining unconquered 
when he entered Gaul. The other parts, confilting of ^pain, 
Portugal, Cifalpine Gaul or Gallia Togata, and Gallia K ar- 
bonerms orBracata, now called Gafcony, Languedoc, Pro- 
vence and Dauphine, and the fea coafts weftward, bad been 
before reduced- by the Romans ; nor has he mentioned the 
Gei:man country, &c. beyond the Rhine, as a pait of Gaul, 
but he fays that the Romans gave the name of Gauls only to 
fucb of the Celtes as lived between the Seine and the Loyre, 
and that the name Galli was of a Latin original ; but by the 
bye it muft have been a Latin word formed out of the Britiih 
or Phrygian word gallu, powerful or valiant ; the firft men-» 
tion of this term being of the river Gallus iriPhrygia, whofe 
waters were fo very powerful as to make the priefia of Cybele 
run mad. I (hall here take notice only of Tranfalpine (raul, 
which lies weftward of the Alps, and is bounded by the Rhine, 
|;he German and Britiih feas, the weftern ocean and the Py-« 
renean mountains, though it feems pretty clear that the Cel- 
tic couxitrieii extended eaftward b::yund the Danube, at leaft 

G A 

fs far as die Neifler and Cytnbrica Cherfonefus, beyond 
which were a ncixmrc of Celtes and Scythians called CeJto- 
icythar» but the countries beyond the Rhine ;tre to be treated of 
imder Germany ;ind Scythia. The principal rivers of thif 
country a»-;- t'^cTRhinc, which is from rhing, between, as di- 
viding tb Gauls and Germans; the Sequana, now the Seine, 
\vhic!id»viJcd the Dwlj^acfromGallia Propria, is compofedof fi- 
auc {^uana, it Is ihc wcakeft water ; as the Liger, now Loyre, 
diviiiji,;^ ^liiidlc Gaul from Acquitania, is from lai-ag-cr, the 
lefs acting water; the Garunana is froai the Celtic gai^, 
rough ; the Rhodanus, now Rhone, from Rliedan-iu, it is dii 
iycr ; and the Arar f'-^m ara, flow. Thofe peopljc are caliej 
by various n::mes, a:> Ivi'^ica, from ab-il-au-ge, the ofispripg 
of the water natioo* viz. the people of Britany, or fiooi jbi- 
al-auc, dwellers upon the water, which was the German ica# 
Armorica is tfom ar-mor-ifa, upon the lower water^ other- 
wife called Acquitania, from auc-tan, bdow or under the 
water, and Lugdunenfes from le-auc-dan-A, it is a place 
iinr!:.T or below the water ; the Pyrenees from pyr-hen, very 
ancient ; the Narbonenfcs from ni-or-bonen-fi, we are fiDpa| 
the root or ftem ; the AUobriges, the hilly Briges j the Hdvd^ 
from hil-y-ti, the race of the pofleflbrs j Britannia frombii- 
ti-hena, the moft ancient poiieflion of the Bribes. Thefi; 
countries were alfo divided into Bracata, from bro-ucha-tj^ 
the poffcffors of the upper regions, and comata from cwm- 
ma-ti, the great comot poffeffors j the Cifalpine part of Gaul 
being called Togata, not till after they had put on the Ro- 
man toga, when they were made a province of Rome, and 
it not being to be fuppofed but that the manners of the Co- 
mata and Braccata were alike. Here were many other ancient 
divifions and deicriptions of people and cities, as Mar? 
feilc, either from mar-fil, the great race, or from mor-fil^ 
the feafaring race ; Glanateua, from glan-y-tu, the edge or 
borders of the pofleffions ; Geneva, from gcnc-au, the mouth 
of the wattT ; Lingones from lin-ge-ion, from the line of the 
Ionian nation ; Scquani from fi-auc-guana, it is the flow 
water, perhaps from their jiving upon the river Arar, or the 
ilow river, or near the fource of the Sequana ; Rauraci from 
ar-yr-aii-uxa, upon the upper water, they being feated near 
the foiiicc of the Rhine, which w;is Hkewife the upper river; 
the 7*iib'^.cci fron\ •■ir-bc^-:uic~i, tlic lands or pofteffii>ns upon 
ihe upper part of ihe w^iUr ; tlie Ncinetcs ni-am-ti-fi, 
tlicy ;i!e without iived polll'flioiis or habitations; 
from van-^e-jont;u the defjeiKianf.s or (ono of the Ionian na- 
ti'-.n ; theVbij i'voii^. au-bi. thf in oi»upon the wa- 

G A 

ter; Batavi, frombi-ti-au, dwellers on water pofleiSphs ; the 
Toxandfi, from tu-aucrin-tir, in the country on the water 
fide, or pofleflions of a water country j Menapii, from mina- 
pe, the narroweft part ; Morini, from mor-in, upon the fea ; 
Aduatici is from a-tu-auc-ti, the pofleffions on the fide of 
the water ; the Nervii, from in-er-vi, Hvers or dwellers in 
or upon the water; the Attrebates from a-tjr-abr-au-ti-es, the 
country from the water of the lower pofleffions, which was 
the £riti£h ocean j Ambinani, from am-be-au-en, about the 
end of the higher water, or the German ocean ; the Vel- 
locafesj; from vi-al-auc-es, dwellers or livers in or upon the 
lower water; the Lexovji, frcxn al-auc-vi, livers upon the 
water; the Eburovices is from e-bro-y-auc-es, the country 
•or neighbourhood of the lower water ; the Auterci, from a!* 
er*is, upon the lower water ; Biducafle is from bi-at-auc-ifa^ 
dwellers at the lower water; the Unelli is from yn-au-al, in 
the fea or high water; the ifland Piduna from p-id-un-au, it 
is 4 part in the water; Abrincatui is from a-bri-in-aug-ti-iu, 
they are Brigians in the water pofleffions ; the Rhadones are 
b<fm rhyd-iones, the Ionian ford or pafTage ; thofe of Vor- 
ganluaji from vor-ge-in-iu, they are the nation in or upoa 
the water ; Ingena from in-ge-in-au, an ancient nation upon 
tfajs vmter; the Veneti are from vi-in-au-ti, livers in or upoQ 
the water pofleffions; the Brivates, from bri-au-ti-es, the 
fiift water of the lower pofleffions ; Oifmii is from au-is-am, 
about or the borders of the lower waters ; the ifland Uxan- 
tes, from uxa-in-ti-au-es, the uppermoft in the lower water 
pofTcifions ; Curiofolites is from cur-ifa-al-i-ti-es, the lower 
end or corner upon the lower pofleffions; Nannetes, from 
niram-ti-fi, they are without fixed polTeffions or habitations', 
who were the Celtes ; Andres from yn-tlr-es, within the 
lower pofleffiops; Piitones is from pe-ux-ti-au-in-fi, it is a 
part of the upper pofTefllons upon, the water ; Santones is. 
from fi-en-ti-au-in-es, it is a high pofTeflion on the lower 
water ; Petrocorii is from peth-or-cyrra, part of the borders ; 
the Bituriges from bi-dur-ixa-fi, they are dwellers on the 
higher water; Uafatcs from yfa-ti-fi, it is the lowefl pofTef- 
fion; Tarbelli is from tir-bella, the farthcfl: land; ElufateS 
from al-yi'a-ti-fi, they arc above the lowefl pofTeffions; the 
Aufcii from au-fi-uxa, the water that is uppermoft; the 
Convenae, from cau-in-vanau, the {hutting in ' or inclofing 
the parts; tlie Teftofagcs is from tu-uxa-to-ifa-ge-fi, it is 
the upper fide, top or covering of the lower country ; Tolo- 
fatcs, from to-al-ifa-ti-fi, it is the top upon the lower pbfTef- 
fions; Volca; is from yi-al-cau, dwellers or livers upon the 

G E 

snclofures or borders; Vdca; Arecomici is from voice-/* 
cwm-uxa, the Volcae of the upper comet; iJbe Caiuucs 
from cau-ar-es, inclofmg or (hutting up the lower parts; 
Voconti is from uxa-yn-ti, the uppermoft in the pofieffions} 
Tricorii is from tir-cyrau, the land borders ; Segalauni is from 
sfa* ge-al-au-en, the loweft nation , upon the hi^ water, 
which was the Rhofne; Ruteni, from yr-ti-en, the high 
pofiemons ; Gebena, the /iixgh ends ; Devona, finom iim^ 
the deep, or from ti-von, the houfe of Mon^ or the grot 
Jooians ; Arverne, from ar-vem, upon the alders or aMer 

S roves ; Xemovices is from le-ma-vi-iixa, the great place of 
le upper dwellers, or from lu-mau-vices, the great comot 
family, or the Ordovices, which fee ; the ^£dui, from j-^UXf 
the Ida men or Trojans ; the Boii, from ab-io, the fons of 
lo; Segufiani, from fi-auc-ifa-in, the race upon the lower 
water ; the Leuci, from lu-uxa, the upper family ; Treyiii» 
the townfmen ; Sueflbnes, from fi-ifa-ione^, they are die 
lower lonians ; Gerforiacum, from ge-ifa-r'-cum, the lower 
nation of the comot ; here was Portus Iccius or Calais, bm 

E>rth>uxa>iu, it is the upper port, and gal-uxa, the upper 
aulifh port, which implies a lower; thofe were the frft 
poffeflbrs of Britain; Parifii, from p-ar-ifa, part of the 
lower country; Lutetia, from li-ti-ifa, the family of tBe 
lower pofTeffions ; Rhemi is from R'-am, the part about or 
furrounding ; Trecafles, from tir-auc-ifa, the land of tie 
lower water; the Cornutes, from carnedde, ivhich were 
coped heaps or mounts of ftones brought together for the 
purpofe of facrifices, omens and burials; ute Caletes of 
Belgia, from celi-ti, the Celtes, or the hidden poflefibrs» 
who dwelled in woods and cells, leading a paftoral life ; but 
fuch of them as went by the names of Cumbri and Galli 
were regular dwellers in cities from their firff foundation in 
Afia Minor, as appears from the names of their ancient ci- 
ties, from thence down to the moft weftern parts of Gaul, 
Britain and Ireland. 

Gepide, a Gothic or a Getic nation, is from ge-ap-ida, 
a nation from Ida, 

Get^e, or Goths, defcended from the. Daae, who were 
the Phrygians of mount Ida, and confequently Cekes, n 
compofed of ge-da, the Ida nation, or a good nation, da 
being the Celtic term for good ; it is a compound of id-a, it 
is the earth ; and God faid that* the earth was good ; hence 
rhe Englifli term good, as well as the Greek agathcs, was 
fonned in confequence of the modern naipe Goth, aflumed 
by the Geta: or Daae, and alfo the modern word God. It 



inay be here obferveJ, that fuch parts of the Englifli dlaleft a^ 
differs from the Celtic, of which thcfe terms feem the mod: 
diftant, have been framed from the names and great adlions of 
the people, as will appear from a perufal of the Saxon names 
of perfons and places. 

Germans, Teutones, Gomeri or Cumbri, and Mar- 
comanni appear by their names to be the fame people; 
the name Comer mentioned in Genefis, and defined in 
this Lexicon, feems to be the firft appellation j whence pro- 
bably was formed the name Mercury, by a tranfpofition of 
Gomer into mer-co, with the addition of ur, man, rendo'ing 
the fignification a Gomeri or a Gomerian man ; the name 
Marcomanni is the fame as Mercury, with a variation only of 
' the old Celtic word ur into the modern term man, formed from 
the Celtic mpn,. a root, ftem, or race ; which alfo comes from 
the ancient Phrygian term Mseones, compofed of ma-iones, 
iignifying the great lonians ; hence thofe names become con- 
iiedled with' the term Teutones ; which is fromtcut, a contrac- 
-tion of Teutat, the name of Mercury, in the Celtic fxgnifying 
icthe divine father, and lones, which renders the fenfe the 
*:ioniaDS of Mercury, Teutat or Gomer, the eldeft fon of Ja- 
■i^phet or Jupiter, the eldeft fon of Noe or Saturn; and who 
■: as all hiftorians are agreed were the anceftors of the Gomeri or 
"• ^ Cumbri, briin Cumbri being only a different way of expref- 
•■ fing the fame people, as the Briges were the anceftors of the 
'Meones; thence probably arofe die notion that the Germans 
: were fo called from their oeing coufins of the Cumbri; this 
• ftili confirms my notion, which is, that the name German comes 
from guyr-mseon, the great men of Ion ; but as the language 
i of the Cumbri, which is that of this Lexicon, gives the eti- 
men of the German language, and defines' the names of an- 
cient perfons, places, &c. there feems to be no doubt of their 
being of one and the fame original ; I fliall therefore herepror 
cced to explain thofe names. Firft then as to the principal rivers 
of Germany, viz. the Danube or the Ifter, and the Tyrasor 
. Neifter, are from dan-ub, below the upper ; if-ter, the low- 
er country ; tyras, the lower country ; and in-ef-ter, within 
the lower country ; this country was called the lower country, 
or the country of Tyras, as may be {een defined under Japhet, 
where it likewife appears that this country was part of Tyras's 
allotment, fo that the German boundaries at firft extended to 
the Neifter ; the Rhine is . from rhing, between, it being the 
divifion betwixt Proper Germany and Belgic Gaul ; the V iftu- 
la or the Weichfel, are from vi-is-tu-al, upon or above the 
dwellers of the lower poiTeftions^ and uch-ifsl^ above the low, 



which Implies that it was the boundaries of the Germans, wli 
were apart of the lower pofTeflions, or the Cdt^s ; the Dm 
3s from drwy-au, the thorough water; the Morau is bom !n()^ 
au, the great M'at' r ; Nab from en-ab, from theheighth ; tk 
Neckcr is from cn-auc-ar, the water in the high country; Rcga 
fron^ r'-auc-en, the high water ; Vefer from au-is-r, the low 
water ; the Elbe orElvc is from al-bi, or al-vi, both fignifying 
the liigh fpring; the Ems or Amifia is from am- is, or am-ifa,fur- 
rounding the low, or loAveft partK ; the Lippe is fiiom a)-pe,the 
higli part, as the Yfel is the low ; at the fource of the Rhine ii 
the lake Brigantinus, from Brigunta, the firft Phrygian^. Here 
follow the names of the ancient places, cities and people of 
Germany 5 that is to fay, the Trebochi, whofe city is Stnfbiirg^ 
from fi-tra-ux-bro, it is a town or poiTeffion in the upper cbUAtrjT) 
formerly Argentoratuiti, from r'-gimta-tre-iu, it is the fim 
town , or from trc-bro-uxa, the town of the upper country ; Tricn 
is from tre-r', the town by way of [^eeminence, and whofe inlui- 
bitants were called Trcviri, the towns men j Ratifbon, as ly- 
ing on the river Regen, fe.ems to be from ar-au-ti-es-bon, 
upon the water rifmg or having its root in the lower poffef* 
fions ; or perhaps on the water on the lower part of the conn- 
try of the Boii j the Ambriones is from Umbri or Cuifibri 
and Tones, that is, the Cumbri lonians; fee Umbri explain- 
ed under Italy; the Vandali from van-da-li, the ions of the 
good family, or the fons of the Daae or Getae ; which fignify 
the good and the good nation ; Getse-iones were the fame as 
the Gothones ; who were a mixture of the Getse and lonians ; 
Vangioncs from van, fon, and lones the lonians j Hermseo- 
nes horn hir-maeones, the ancient or long continued Mxor 
nians ; Ingevones from en-ge-veones, the ancient Maeonian 
nation ; a part of Carnarvonfhire is called after this name ; 
Hejinunduri from hir-mason-dyr-i, the ancient Maeonian pof- 
fcflions ; the Varini were the fame as the Morini of Gaul, 
fignifying feamen or fea-coafters, the m changing into v by 
ihiledlion ; Saxones from fi-ac-iones, they are the fons of the 
lonians, or fi- auc-iones, they are the fea lonians, or fi-auc- 
fons, the fons of the fea ; the Angli from eng-li, an extcn- 
five family ; the Cimbri from cum-bri, the comot Brigians, 
or the fociable Phrygians, who always dwelled together in 
towns, which fome of the Celtes did not ; the Nemetes from 
n -am-ti, no fixed poffeflions, who were the ftraggling Cel- 
tes ; Foii from ab-io, the ions of lo; tburones from ab- 
uyr-ionts, from the men of Ion; Brigantes the firft Phry- 
giins 'y Chauci from ge-auc, the water nation ; Ubii from 
au-bi, water dwellers ; Bru6ti is from bri-auc-ti, the water 


G O 

firigian poffeffoni ; Frifii is from bri-ifa, thclowfef firigfailj; 
Ciiamavi from iuc-aiti-vi, the dwellers about the water j 
Jl^arfi, the feafiieti ; U/ipi from ifa-pe, the loweft part ; Si** 
ouhbri, the fea Oumbri i luhones from Tones, the lontatls ; 
Semhones is from fi-am-lones, the lonians about the water j 
Tubahtes is from ti-baflt-es, the pdffeflbrs of bottoms; the 
tJulgibini from dol-ge-bi-in, the nation dwelling in vales ; 
IVlattiaci is from am-tu-uxa, about the upper part or fide ; 
AUemani, the high or upper parts or upper men ; MatnapiJ 
from mina-pe, the riarroWcft part; Carini fr6m tatt-ar-cn, in** 
cloffng the higher country; who had the towns of Corlin, from 
*au-ar-le-eh, inclollng the upper place ; and Camin> fimft 
cau-am-en, ihclofing or fhutting about the upper part; Com- 
magene from com-ma-gc-cn, the great ancient cotfiof nsH 
Gon ; there was another Commagene on the banks of the £u«' 
phrates; Lemovi is from le-am-vi, dwellers upon the bor- 
ders; Caviones, the lonians on the bord«rs; Ijongobar- 
di^ either the fhip bards, or the nation of an exteniivc 
country; Finingia is from fin-en-ge, a nation upon Ae 
borders; Hilleviories is from hil-viones, for maones, the radical 
m chajiging into v in compofition, as in Vionedd inCamarvoa 
fliire^ fieni^'ing the race of the Mafeoncs, or the great loninas; 
Sitorics Trom fi-ti-iones, the water poffeflion lonians, or lonians 
«inthe water fide; Nerigon is from in-oera-ge-ioit, the Ibninas 
of the coldeft country ; Marchiofinl is frofn marc-io-finia, 
the mark of the Ionian borders ; Scritoiinni is from fi-cau- 
tir*finniau, it fhuts the borders of the country; Lapiones 
from al-y-pe-iones, the lonians of the upper part ; Bru6ieri 
from bro-auc-tir, the poffeflbr of the water country ; ifta- 
vones is from ifa-ti-viones, the loweft Ionian poffeflions ; 
Marfi, the marflics, or Foffa Drufiana, from foefi-dwr-ifa-in, 
the dykes on the lower water ; and the Quadi from auc-ti, 
the water poffeffion. 

Gig ANTES, according toPezron, means fprung from thfe 
earth, and according to Carte from gugproud, but gug figni- 
fies to frown, and the true definition of this word feems to be 
cither from ge-gunta, the firft born, or the firft nation, orfr om 
«g-ge-fi, they are from the earth, but the latter moft probable. 

Glaucus, fon of Hippolocus, a fifliermanj who having 

laid his filh on the bank, they no fooncr tafted of an herb, 

than they leaped into the fea ; which Glaucus perceiving, and 

tafting of the fame hcib, he alfo leaped into the fea, is fronr 

lau-ac-iu, it is the aftion of rain ; which is drawn out of 

e fea, moiftexjs the ground, and returns to fea again. 

GoRbil;s,a kin]g of Phr\'^gia, from a ploughman, who con-* 
_ " 2 ' fecratcd 

H E 

fccrated his cart in the temple of Jupiter, was therefore calM 
gwr-diu, the man of God ; to the beam of this, cart was tit' 
tened the Gordian knot, whicli Alexander the Great cut. 

GoMER, or Gomer Galfus, is on all hahds agreed to be die 
founder of the ancient Gauls, Celtes and Cimbri ; there hirve 
been various attempts to define this name, and manv are of 
opinion that Gomer and Cimbri are of the fame upAior 
don ; but it feems to me that Gomer is from gom or com-mer 
for maur, that is the great comots, and that Cumbri is 
from cwm-bri, the comot Bri8;es, or in a more primitive 
fenfe from go-am-wir, the men dwelling together, or ci-am- 
bri, the Briges dwelling together, as in comots and villages; 
It is probable that the Gomerian nation were, at the time of 
the confuflon at Babel, in Commagene in Syria, Commagene 
being of the fame fignUication with his name, and the names of 
the fcveral comots, divifions and cities in Syria, being pure- 
ly Celtic, as appears by this Lexicon, 

Greece, is Irom ge-ar-is, the nation of the lower coun- 
try; the people were aufo called Pelafgi, from pella-as-ge, the 
iartheft lower nation; Hellenes from hil-en-es, the lower 
ancient race; Achsei from ach-i, a high offspring, Thofeare 
further exemplified under the names of the different fhtes of 
Greece ; but the name Greek may come from ge-r'*auc, Ac 
water nation. 

GwRTHEiRK, is from gwr, man, and heim, irony a hardy 

Gyarus, an ifland of Greece in the lower part of die 
^gean fea, is from auc-ar-as, the lower water country or 


TT ALONESUS, a Grecian ifland in the upper part of 
IX *^^ -^gean fea, is from hi-al-au-nefa, up the heareft 
!w, or the near high water. 

Hamadryades, is from am-y-dryades, about the oak 
trees. See Druids. 

Hebe, daughter of Juno, without a father, fo called firom 
heb, without. 

Hebrew and Celtic vocables, which have any affinity, ac- 
cording to. Dr. Davies, who underftood both languages, and 
endeavoured to prove them of one origin, are as follows, vis. 
abreth, zcbach, facrifice ; ach, iachaf, aftem; achwyii, hori- 
ach, accufaticn ; adciladwr, ardecal, a builder; ad rodd,dauar, 
declaring i addoli, haddar, adoring ^ aethji adia^ he wenti 



H E 

afangc, ariakah, abe'avcr;awch, jehah, edge; agen, chageu- 
ah, a chipk ; agos, nagas, nigh ; anedd, naueh, an inn ; anos, 
anas, incite; ar, al, upoh^ arch, argaz, cheft ; archolli, cha- 
laj, wounding; afgen, nczek, mifchief; afgrwn, gorem, a 
bone; ^thro, thorah, a teacher; attal, atal, withold ; baban^ 
babah, baby ; bachgen, bachur, boy ; bagad, gad, company ; 
bagl, makel, a crutch ; bala, balang, bleat ; barr, bc^riach, 
bar ; bara, barah, bread ; bargen, macar, bargain ; bawd, 
bohen, thi^mb ; bedd, beth, grave ; ber, beriach, a fpit ; bore, 
boher, morning ; bras, bari, fatt ; brawd, bcrith, brother ; 
brith, barudh, pied ;. bryfio, barach, fpeed ; buwch, bacar, a 
cow ; bychan, pachoth, little ; cadarn, cabhir, ftrong ; 
caer, gadher, a mire or city; ceifio, kafliafh, feek, calleftr, 

' chalamifb, flint ftone ; cammu, caphaph, crooken ; camel, 
gamal, camel ; canu, nagan, fing ; parrai, kefher, latchet ; 
cas, caas, hatred; cafglu, kafhat, colle£l ; .cau, gaiaph, {hut; 
cawn, kaneh, a cane ; cawr, gouer, a giant ; cefn, gouah, 
back ; ceg, diec, palate of the mouth ; cell, cele, cell ; cerd-* 
ded, darac, going ; cerydd, gearah, correction ; cipio, caban^* 
catch; clafychu, chalah, languifh; clai, chol, . clay ; clein-* 
ach, celach, an old churl ; cliw, koU, call ; coppa, gaph, a 
cap ; corlan, cala,, fheepfold ; corn, keren, a corn or horn ; 
cnap, kanaph, a knot; crach, garau, a fcab ; crafu, garadh, 
fcrape; crio, kara,ciy; croen, ngor, (kin or coverings croth, 
cerefh, womb ; crif, gafar, ftrong ; cuchio, iacach, chide ; 
cudd, cahadh, concealing ; cwys, fliucha, a cave, or a fur- 
row ; cylch, gelil, a circle ; cynull, canas, coUeft ; cyfgod, 
fuccath, (hade; cyfgu, Ihacab, fleep ; chwant, chamudah, 
want ; chwech, fhefh, fix ; da, tau, good ; daear, erets, earth ; 
dafn, nataph, drop ; dagr, dakar, dagger; dail, dalifli, leaves ; 
d^, gadis, ftack ; dawn, neden, donation ; delw, tfelem, 
idol ; diffig, fug, defeS ; diden, dad, teat ; dilyn, dalah, fol- 
low ; dinas, medinah, city ; draen, dardar, thorn ; du, deio, 
dark ; dylluan, helil, owl ; dyrchafu, arach, ereft ; egori, 
karang, open ; efori, mahar, morrow; ellyll, elil, idol ; eme- 
nyn, hemah, butter ; enaid, anaph, mind ; ewyllys, hoil, will ; 
frwyth, peri, fruit ; fydd, pittah, faith ; fyfg, chaphaz, fpeed ; 

, gadael, chadal, leave; gafael, kibbel, a hold; gafr, car, a 
goat or ram ; galw, koll, call ; gallu, iakol, valour or value ; 
giau, gieh, finew ; gobr, copher, reward ; goer, karar, rigour ; 
gofal, aual, care or wailing; gorwedd, gahar, lie along; go- 
fod, iatfag, fet; gwael, kalal, vile; gwag, bakak, vacant; 
gwaith, ngeth, work ; gual, cothel, wall -, gwarr, ngaraph, 
nape of the neck ; gweled, galah, look upon ; gwin, iain, wine , 
gwifg, fuccah, veil; gwlad, alii, land ; gwr, geuer, mazi ; 

H E 

gyrni, garafli^ run or race ; hafn, hoph,. haven'; Harldgi, MA^ 
unhallowed; halan, melach, Salt; bardd, hadhar, adorAi 
haul, halal, the fun or to lighten ; heddiw,- haiom, tUs dtaj; 
hcligy alah, willow; hcrlod^ ieled, lad; hi, hi, ihe; hikoi 
iaiad, multiply ; hir, ercc, higher ; hoedl, hedhd^ life-; ItoSt 
ahaf, favour ; hynod, nodang, known dr notable; jaich^ dw^ 
healthy; ing, nganah, narrow; joli, hillel, haDtfuT; hdi^ 
lapidh, lamp; Ilacau, tfalach, flacken ; Uaeth, ch^ay^ mlk; 
llafn, lahaV) blade; Hen, lahag, learning; Helg, ngafccali 
flack; lleuad, levanah, moon ; Hew, Iaui,lion ; Uews^laduHBi 
fwaUow; llorgi, falach, to burn; Ilyfy, lakak, lick; duk, 
ben, a boy ; maen, even, a mount or rock > malu, cjnlliub^ tnf 
mill ; mam, em, dam ; marc, marak, matrk ; mafthntfdy 
macar, market ; mawl, mahalel, laud ; meius, malatSy ad- 
low or melifluous ; mefur, mefurah, meafitfe'; mettxl, incdy 
metal ; morthwyl, haimuth, a mallet ; mniid, ddm^ dimib; 
myfgu, mafak, mix ; nag, manang, a ne^tion ; apdi^ nodtftt, 
to note; nofio, naah, to navigate or fwioi; ocd^siu^ ^^<^i«9 
afigh;oes, jefli, is there ; ogof, gevch, cave; oU^^colytd; 
pabell, pelilah, pavillion; palfu, peladi, ddve ; - psftth^ be- 
ther, part; paradwys, pardes, paradife ; pafg, pefsK:hy paff^; 
paffio, pafach, psUs; pechod, pafach, iin ; pedwUr^.a^b*^ 
four; pig, pi, beak; pinagl, pinnah, pinftacte ^.-^ygy pdac, 
a plait; pori, bier, feed; portb, pethach, pUrf; pMieAjbeC^ 
ten, paunch ; pur, bar, pure ; rhedeg, r^haf, ntfi ^ r^ 
feder, row; rhodio, radaph, ride; rhv/yd^ reffate«ti^ rUGic; 
rhwymo, rath am, wrap; rhyfcddu, hafu-, admire*; .^jekfiaky 
fack; faer, harafli, ariiticer; faith, chetz, fhaft ; > fakl^^flMit^ 
feven; fal, zabel, vile; farph, faraph, ferpent; fevytl^-^tfor, 
ftand ; fidan, fadin, filk ; fio, fhoa, founding ; iSiQ. fbeoOf 
found; fugno, janak, fuck; fur, feor, four; fy, je&i- jesj 
iych, tfichch, dry ; fymud^ mut^ move;' f^i^u,. ihaiMiiy 
amaze; tarn, taam, mouthful ; tarrio, taradhy tarry ; Uftt* 
tab, thou ; tlawd, dal, poor ; tomen, d9men, dunghill ; trcf, 
tfor, a town or territory ; trcfn, tur, order; troi, jamt^ tkm; 
twylU hctel, beguile; uchell, ngalah, lofty; uchmud, 
anacha, afigh; yd, hittah, feed or corn ; yfori, lA^hii^iiv- 
morrow; ymadroedd, imrah, oration;- ymud, mQr,,fltove; 
ymofgor, magur, habitation; yfgekr, facal^ wicted; yfjUo, 
tfaphah, efpy ; yftlus, tfad, fide; yftof, fhtWi^ Itaflr ia 
the loom ; yilor, tfari, rofm ; yftun, jaihat, e)||;t<ifld« Ai f 401 
wholly unacquainted with the Hebrew, I flMlIl *iiolf pre- 
fume to give any judgment thereof, but leave it to wife 
who have been at the pains of ftudying it ; but I will veit**' 
lure to fay, that it is as like the French^ Germany En^iAf 



et any othcf language as the Welfh ; and if 1 might judge of 
it from the ancient names of perfons and places, or from the 
origin of language, upoiimy plan of fpeech, I ihuft needs fay 
that it feems to be a very corrupt dialed. 

Hellbspctnt is from hil-ef-pont, the bridge or ferry of the, 
lower or European race.; it being die ancient paflage of the 
Phrygians into Europe. Sfce Japhet, 

Hecate, jGgnifies the moon, from hi-auc-ti, the high- 
water houfe. 

Hector, a Trojan chief, and fon of kingPrlam, who af- 
ter he had done many feats at the fiege of Troy, was killed 
Ay Adrilles, and his. bddy dragged roimd the city, is from hi- 
ac-tor, high afting lord. 

Helena, faid td camt frbm y lana, the faireft, and to have 
fceen daughter of Jupiter, by Leda, married toMenelaus, and 
ieduced from him by Paris, ismoftlikeljrfromhil-en, themoft 
andent'cflr divine race, eprdiets of ancientry being the moft 
ufual in the Trojan and Greek names of Women. 

HeliInvs, fon of PHam and Hecuba, is from hil-cn-iu, he 
is of divine or ancient race.- 

Helena, an ifland of Greece, is from hll-hena, the moft 
iteciertt race. 

HeSl veti A, the thirteen cantons of Switzerland, fignifies the 
race of the poflfeffors, or from hil-veneti, the race of the Ve- 

Henoist' and Horfa, two fea captains or chiefs of thofe 
Saxons, who came to the relief of Vortigerh, or rather re- 
Cttfned to their ancient feats, which they quitted when the Ro- 
ftiithi took poflefBon of the country, are from hen-gueft, art 
ancient coafter, and wr-fea, a feaman, gueft or keft ngnifying 
a cdaft or bay, as that betwixt Carnarvoiifhire and Merioneth- 
flihre, and Keftevan in Lincolnfhire. 

'Hercules, in a fecondary fenfc, as he was a terrible war- 
rior, is from erxill-li, a terrible family j but in a primary fenfe, 
s^ he is faid to be the fon of Jupiter and Alcmena, it ngnifies 
from yr-uxa^li-fi, he is the upper family, viz. the Phrygian, 
for r take it that the name Hercules means a nation or family, 
and hot ahy particular perfon. 

HERMiOftES, a people of Germany, is from hir-tneones, the 
long continued or ancient Meones, or great lonians. 

Hesperus, fon of lapetus, arid brother of Atlas, being ex- 
pelled Kis country fettled in Italy, and went to the top of 
ftioiint Atlas, the better to obferve the courfe of the ftars, is 
from hcfperus,thcevening. 

e 2 Hesus*. 

J A 

IIfsus or Mars is from huad, a dog, he being the barking 

Hi£RAPOLis, a city of Phrygia, is from hira-pdis, the 
loneeft or molt ancient city. 

HiPONEUs, a fon of Priam, and Hecuba of Troy, is from 
hi-ap-ion-iu, he is the boldeft fon of Ion. 

HoMERUS, the famous poet, faid to be (b called from his 
being blind, was alfo called Melefigines, from melefig-en, the 
fwect one. 

HoR ATIUS9 a Roman name, is from hi-ar-ti-iu, he is a boM 
governor ; whence alfo Howard. 

HoRTENSius, a Roman name, is from hi-ar-ti-«n-es-iii) 
he is a bold or high man, or governor over the lower ancient 
iioufe i which was that of Ionia or Greece. 

Hungary, or the ancient Panonia, lying on the Danube^ 
is from Hun-ge-ar-y, the country of the Hun nation. 

HuNNi or Hunns, a Scythian people, who after doing 
much mifchief in Italy, Gaul, aud other parts, about die 
year three hundred and feventy-fix, at laft fettled in PanQoia, 
which they called Hungary, is from ht-un, the high or boU 

Hyperborei, a remote people to the northward frcm 
Greece, is from uper-pe-oera, above or beyond the coldeft 
parts, which muft be antient Gaul and Britain. 

Hyllus, fon of Hercules, by Deianira, from whom th9 
people of Illyria were called Hyllieixfes, is from hyll, terrflble 
or ugly. 

Hydrusia or Tenos, an ifland in the ^gean {ea, are 
from hy-dwr-ifa, the loweft in the high water or tea,.aii(l 
ti-eii-au-es, a poflcffion in the lower water. 

Hymelus, a prince of the Marcomani, feems to bt the 
fame as the Britifh Hy-wel, or Howel, in Engliih,. that is 
bold and hardy, or rather from hy-w-al, a bold valiant 
man. . . 


JA P H E T, tlie eldeft fon of Noe, is from I-o-ph-at, tfe 
part the fun is at, that is, the weft. Mofes in Cjen. xJ 5. 
exprefly iays, that amongft his defcendants were divided the 
iflesof the Gentiles, thereby meaning Europe, as is agreed on 
all hands. It feems to be a part of that wherewith- Japhet 
was to be inlarged,, and excepting Madais, the fettlements 
of all Japhet's defcendants, are fixed in Afia and Europe, 
^eftwvd of the Euphrates, by the moft approved hiftorians 


J A 

and geographers ; the pofterity of Shem and Cham feeing 
fettled promifcuoufly in the weftern part of Afia and Africa. 
Japhet had feven fons, Gomcr, Magog, Madai, Javan, 
Tubal, Mefhech and Tiras ; Gomer the cldeft had three- 
fons, namely Afchenas, Riphath and Togarmah ; Javan had 
£li{ha, Tarihifh, Kittim and Dodanim, who were all the 
defcendants of Japhet concerned in the firft divifion of the 
world. ^ In order to fix the firft fettlement of thofe people, it 
ought to be remarked on Genefis x. 5, that the meaning 
of thofe expreffions, *' every one after his tongue, after their 
** families, in their nations,'* is, that the grandfons and their 
defcendants who were the families, were fettled within the 
limits of the fons who were the nations ; fo that Gomers fol- 
lowed Gomer, and Javans their father Javan. It feems uni- 
verfally agreed that Tyras's firft fettlement was in Thrace, 
cxtenaing his borders from the Thracian Bofphorus along the ' 
northern coaft of the Euxine fea eaftward, 2ls far as the river 
Tyras, which his nan^ confirms, as compounded of tir-as, 
the lower pofleffions. It is alfo agreed that Madai's firft- 
poflefllons was Media 5 which his name, the fituation of the 
country, and feveral paflages in Daniel, Efther, and other 
©arts of fcripture, which call Media Madai, lifcewife confirm. 
Kext to Madai were Magog, Tubal and Mefhech, of whont 
Ezekiel, chap, xxvii. and xxxviii. makes but one nation, 
which die beft hiftorians and geographers have fixed in the 
upper countries lying betwixt the Cafpian and Euxine feas ;. 
this their names confirm, for Magog is a compound of am- 
auc-og, fignifying about the' great fea, which was the Caf- 
pian ; Tubal is from tu-be-al, on the hilly fide ; and Me- 
Ihech from maes-auc, fignifies the fields or campaign coun- 
try upon the water. Upon this country weftward is the Leffer 
Armenia and Cappadocia, where Togarmah has been placed 
by ancient hiftorians, as will appear froni Bochart, and as 
his name exprefies him to be, it being compofed of ti-og-ar- 
am, upon the confines of the houfe of Og, or Magog the 
great Og, and Cappadocia from cau-pe-tu-oc-fi, fignifies that 
i^ihut or inclofed the part upon the houfe of Og. On 
Togarmah weftward along the Euxine fea, in the country 
called PapHagonia, hiftorians have placed his brother; Riphath^ 
of which his name is defcripttve, for it is conipoftd of ir-phe^ 
au-ith, fignifying that it is the higher water parts. Still far- 
ther weftward on the Euxine fea in Bithynia and Phrygia 
Afchenas, one of our anceftors, has been placed, and th Ci 
his name alfo fixes him, for it is compofed of af-auc-en-;s, 
lower on the lower higher water, which was the Euxine, the 

c- i Caiij^iatiL 


Cafpian being the upper of the other higher water^ and the 
Mediterranean being deemed the lower water ; near hia, at 
Troas, ib fuppofcd to be the refidence of his father Goineft 
being there conveniently placed in the van for condu£Bng his 
bands or defcendants thus fixed in his rear^ over the Thndan 
Bofphorus into Europe, where he had fent Ttras befere lum 
in order to clear the country of woods and wild beafls i {bdut 
Gomer and his bands, as they are called in fcripture, iixmtD 
have occupied this country and the pais of the Tfaradaa 
Bofphorus in the form of an axmy, and fo that none buthis 
own people could poffibhf pafs into Europe diat way. Mft- 
gog, Mefliech and Tubal, had in like msuiner po&ed 
diemfclves at the pars by mount Caucafus, between the Caf- 
pian and Euxine feas, fo that no other people could theie psis 
into Ruflla and the other northern ports of Europe. Jaivani 
whofe name from Jo-van, fignifies the place of lo or j^fbftf 
feems to have been fettled with bis defoendants along the 
Mediterranean coaft, from Phenicia to the mofl weftempart 
of Afia, feating himfelf in Ionia the frontier country* and 
having likewife fent before him into Europe his fon Efiiha, 
who from the name feems to have founded the city of Ells in 
Peloponnefus ; and as the mofl wefiern parts were deemed the 
lower, from the fetting or j^ing down of the fun in die wcft^ 
fo here it appears from Eliiha's name that he was the loweft 
family, it being compofed of e*li-ifa, the lowefl fiunily. In 
Javan's rear, that is, upon Ionia eaflward, within their h- 
ther*s limits, were feated his three other fons, which their 
names as well as ancient hiftory manifeft, for Tarfkifh, fiom 
tir-is-fiii, fignifies the lower country or pofleffions, diofe on 
the other fide of the Euphrates belonging to Shem and Cham 
being the upper pofTefHons ; fo that this country muft be Ci- 
licia, where he built Tarfus. Kittim is from auo»ti-am» 
poflcfTions about the water, and Dodanim, or rather Rhoda- 
nim, from ar-au-id-am, the country furrounded by the water, 
which feems to be the ifle of Rhodes, with the adjacent 
coaft. Madai feems to have been left behind to pufh the other 
Japhetan nations forward into Europe, as he afterwards 
eiiedually did ; fo Magog atxi his bands or families pafied in- 
to Ruffia, &c. Gomer and his bands into Thrace, Illyricum, 
Paiionia, Italy and Gaul, driving Tyras before them ull their 
arrival in Tyrrhepum or l^ufcany, in feveral bands jalong the 
banks of the Adriatic and the Danube, as Rhiphath and To- 
garmah did another branch of the Thracianor Tyrafian nation 
or faiuilies along the Euxine coaft, as far as the river Tyras, 
uiid fo on over the northern -parts of ancLent Gaul, whilft 

2 Aikenas 

I L 

Aflsenas drove the Italian branch of them from Italy into 
Spain, and from thence again over the fouthern parts of 
Gaul ; fo that they Uved» Nomades like, without fixed poflef- 
ikms {.butiifter the peopling and cultivation of Europe they 
Wieip coniblidated into one nation with the defendants of 
Gomei:* Javan and his families continued in their iirfl poflef- 
fions,. from whence they fent coloaiie^ into Greece, Macedo- 
liia, italy^ and fome parts of ancient Gaul. This account 
will fcaxce}y admit of a contxadi^Uons becaufe the living lan- 
guage, of the Cumbri of Wales, who are owned by all to be 
tte .ddfcendants o( Qomer, feems to be the language of thofe 
&ji: pofTe/Tocs of the earth ^ nor is it probable that Gomer's 
drfcendants, who were to poiTefs the ifles of the Gentiles, 
and now appear to be in pofleifion thereof, had their firft poflef- 
(ions fixed eaftward of Madai, and the pofterity of Shem and 
£ham. But fee Shem and Cham. 

Iapj5.tus, faid to be the fon of Ccelum, a valiant man of 
Theilaly,,and father of Prometheus, is cither the fame as Ja^- 
pbetf or derived from i-ap-tp, the ion of the high covering 
oc,lky. . 

Iapyges, were prpbably the nation of Japhet, who were 
.tbjSffifft .Curetfis.and Idxi Dadili of Crete; who afterward^ 
iu« faid to defert. their religion, wherefore they were confum- 
ed by Ane from heaven. 

Ji^y^N» la or lo, and van, fituatipn, that is, lo's fettle- 

.. JpiJUA, y, the, and ber, water, the watery country ; it 
..lies caftuKard on Albania, weftward on Colchis, and north on 
\0uiuot Qaucafui > the names here feem to be Celtic. 
. JUi^R, a nver of Spain. See Ebro. 

liCABjA^ ,a Grecian iflanid famous for its pafture, alio caU- 
cd Ooliche, is from i-auc-ar^ the water country ; and Doli* 
.che is bom dol-auc, the water or wet meadows. 

IcBHif the inhabitants of Eflex, come from is, below^ and 
ctofip .the Keiuiih. 

Icus, a Grecian ifland in the lower part of the iEgean f€;a> 
if firom i*auc-€3, the lower water. 

JXnAf a ipounuin near Tioy in Phrygia, and Crete, fo 
called from Idei Da£Uli, refiding there, or the mountain of 
the^ Kifionari^. 

l»Mi JDactzli, bii to be tons of Minerva and Sol, or of 
Saturn and Alciope, calli^ alfo Corybames, are defined under 
Curet^^aAd Ida. 

IxciUM or Troy, a city of Phrygia Minor, comes from 
hil or ilnoa, the raceLp/I^or Japm* 

/. '^ e 4 Illyki* 

I R 

TiLYRicfM, extending along the northern coaft of thcAd- 
riaiic from MaccJonia anaMaua, on the caft to the confines 
of Inly a:> ' Voiicum wettward, having Panonia on the north, 
and only M;t fia and Thracia betwixt it and the Thracian 
Bofphoru?, is from hil .wyr-y-cwm, the race of the comot 
men, who wcij the Cumbri, or the comot Brigesj but in a 
Iccondary feme it may be defined from hilj-wyr-y-cwm, the 
terrible m^n of the comot. Thofe people were called Li- 
burnians and lapydes, from li-bri-en-an, ancient Brigian fia- 
mily, and lo-ap-ida, the Ida fons of lo, both fignifying the 
Trojans or Phrygians ; their cities alone the fca coaft were 
Sicum, from fi-aiic-am, it is furrounded by -water ; Salona, 
from fi-al-au-cn, it is upon the high water or the fca ; Tra- 
gurium, from trc-auc-ar-iu, it is a town upon the water ; 
Narona, from nar-aii-in, upon the water of the Nar river; 
OnxMim is from au-in-iu, it is within the water ; Epidaarus 
is from e-p-ad-au-ar-iu, it is the part of the fea coaft ; Rizi- 
num is from ar-Is-in-au, the lower country upon the water; 
Budua or Budoa is from by-ad-au, dwelling at the water; 
Olchinium is from al-auc-en-iu, it is upon the higher water; 
LifTus or Alefia is from a-le-ifa, the lowcft place ; Soodra 
or Scutari is from fi-auc-tir, it is the water country ; Dalmi- 
nium IS from ad-al-min-iu, it is at the edge or border; Fia- 
nona is from fin-ionia, the edge or confines of Ionia ; Tar- 
fatica is from tir-ifa-ti-auc, the lower land of the waiter pof- 
fcfiions ; Scnia is from fi-in-au, it is upon the water; Lop- 
fica is from al-p- ifa-auc, upon the lower part of the water; 
Pefchas is from p-es-auc, a part below the water ; ^nona is 
from cn-au-in, within the high water or the fea ; Scordona is 
from fi-caer-dona, it is a city uppon the waves ; ladera is 
fromi-au-dir, the water country ; and many more names of 
lefTcr note, which may be cafily defined. 

Imrrus, an ifland oppofite the Thracian Cherfbnefas in 
t*hc JEge2Ln fea, faid to have been facrcd to Mercury and the 
Cabiri, is from imbri-au-es, thft Cumbri or Brigian lower 

loLE, daughter of Hyrtus, whom Hercules took from her 
father and gave to his fon Hyllus, is from io-li, the Ionian 
line or race. 

I OKI A, fituated on the JEgcsm fca in Afia Minor, took its 
intiie from Japhct ; here Javan fettled after his father's remo- 
val, and was thence called Javan or io-van,the place of lo. 

IPHicENrA, daughter of Agamemnon, who by the advice 
nf Calchas a foothfayer was to have been facrificed to Diana, 
io from i-ap-uxa-gcai, Ihe is from the higheft birth* 


IrENi, of Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridgefliire and HunU 
ingdonfhire, is from ir-heni, the moft ancient^ or from er-in, 
in or upon the water, ^ « 

Ireland, called by the inhabitants Erin, is from er-en, 
the water one, or from the Ireni of England ; which fee ; 
Hibernia is from y-ber-un, the water one, that is, the ifland ; 
cr-land is the water land, or an ifland ; the Iberi of Spain 
were fo called from their dwelling on the Iber, which from 
i-ber, fignifies water from the fpring or a river. This ifland 
contains five different provinces, which feem to have been 
inhabited by as many different people. AsMunfter, from mon* 
ifa-tir, the root of the lower land, or the loweft poffeflion of 
Mon or Anglefey ; in this province are the counties of Ker- 
ry, from caer-y, the city or fhire ; Dcfmond is from tu-ifa- 
mond, the loweft part of Munfter; Cork is from caer- 
auc, the city upon the water; Waterford is from water-ford, 
the water way or ferry ; Limerick is from le-am'-r-auc, a 
place furrounded by water ; and Tiperary is from ti-pe-ar-y, 
the country fide. Leinfter is from le-nefa-in-tir, the near- 
eft place in the land ; or as it is alfo called Lein, it may be 
from lein, a part of Carnarvonfhire oppofite thereto ; which 
fee under Britain j this country was firft inhabited by the Bri- 
gahtes, and Mcnapii or Mina-pe, the narroweft part ; Kil- 
dare is from kill-da-ar, the good hazle country ; Kilkenny it 
from kill-ken -y, the ancient Cells, or the ancient hazle 
groves ; Carlogh is from caer-le-auc, the inclofed place, or 
the. city upon the- water; Meath feems to be from ma-ti, the 
great poffeffions. Conaght or Conaghtia is from cau-in-auc-ti, 
poffeilions inclofed by water ; Tumond or Clare county, from 
tu*mond, the ]V(unfter fide ; Gall way from ge-al-au-y, the 
nation upon the fea ; Maio is from am-au, about or upon the 
water; Sligo from fi-al-auc, it is upon the fea; Letrim is 
le-ttr*am, a place upon the land ; Rorcommon is from ros-cwm- 
cn, the heath or high morafs comot. Ulfter or Altenia is 
from al-is-ter, above the lower land, or al-tu-en, upon the 
higher fide; Louth county is from al-au-ti, pofieffion, upon 
the water or fea ; Cavan is the inclofing end ; it is alfo call- 
ed Breany, the hills ; Fermanagh is from fer-mannau, the 
water parts ; Monaghan from mon-auc-in, at the foot of the 
watery or from my-ux-en, the high mouiitain ; Armagh is 
from ar-ma-auc, upon the great water ; Antrim is from an- 
en-tir-am, a country upon or about the higher water ; Colrain 
is from cau-al-ar-en, fhutting up or inclofing the higher coun- 
try ; Tiroen, is the land of Oen or Owen ; Donegall or Tir- 
concl, from tu-en-cau-al, inclofmg the upper fide and Tir- 

I T 

congi, the comer land ; and indeed Tirc^n may be from tir- 
au-en, the land upon higher water or the upper fea. Some 
of the people of this iuand were called the Brigantesand 
Menapii from thofeof Britain ; the Luceoi from le-xfariii^our 
lowcft parts; Velabri from vella-bri, the fartheft Brigantes; 
Uterini from y*tir-ni, the land of us ; the Oudiae from au-ti-b» 
they arc the water poficfTors ; they were alfo called theGoqon^ 
the borderers; but the Luceni and Velabri were alfo of. Spaing 
die Iberi from i-ber, the dwellers lyxin the water ; the Me- 
napii from mina-pe, the narroweft part, which was dut 
between St. David's and the province of Leiofter ; Blani is the 
fbremoft; the Cauci, from cau-auc, the water indofingpart. 

Irish names of perfons are all Englifb, Scots or WeUh« 
when they are ftripped of their o's, fitz'9 and mac'sy which 
iignity fon, as Obnan, Oneal and Ohara, are the {oos of firir 
an, of Neal and of Harry; Fitzwilliam, Fitzgerald, Msi 
Fitzmaurice, are the fons of William, Gerald, and of i/Lm- 
rioe; and Macklin, Macklean and Macgra^ are the fans of 
Glin, Lane and Gray -, neither have I )^n able to difcoser 
from the names of places, or otherwife, that the jxople jof 
this jfland have a different origin from thofe of Great Britaia^ 
unlefs, as their hiftorians contend for, fome Spaniards haveia- 
termixed with them ; but it would contribute veiy little to 
the honour or virtue of the nation, to be mixecl with,J()ic 
blood of Moors, Phoenicians and Carthaginians. 

Italy, is from i-teuly, the families, or from Idj^Iy, die 
Ida family or nation ; whence alfo the Rutuli, as cooipdbdof 
r'-tuli, the family ; it was alfo called Saturnia, from Saturn. 
This country is bounded by the Tyrrhenian, Ionian and 
Adriatic feas, and the Alpine mountains, and it -is confideofid 
as inhabited by three different people, called the Cifaipine 
Gauls, or thofe within the Alps, in the moft weftern parts; 
'Proper Italy, which was the middle part ; and thofe pf 
-Magna Grecia, or the moft eaflem parts next onto 
Xireece. I fhall follow thefe difHndions in order to iee, Jf 
there be any grovind for fuppofmg Italy to have been at fiift 
'planted by fo many different people. To begin then with 
Cifaipine Gaul; the ancient names of people, cities agd 
-countries to be met with here are as follow, viz. the Le- 
pontii, from lu-pen-ti, the family at the top of the.poflaf- 
:fions, one of whofe cities was Brigantium, from bri-gunta, 
rthe firft Brigians ; Sulaffi, from fi-ifal-ly, it is the family in 
,the lower part, whofc city Ofcala is from ifa^le, the loweil 
-place y Vcdiaiiti, from vi-tu-cn-ti, dwellers on the upper isr 
-high-rr ildi; o: the no^cfHonsi the Taurira is from twau-ar- 


I T 

en, pofleflbrs an the higher fide of the water ; Segufiani is 
from fi-auc-ifa-in, they arc on the lower water j the Cottiac, 
from, cyttia, the cottagers} Lifaicu are from lu-be-ifa, the 
family of the lower jpart i they were alfo called VerceUa, the 
men of llie lower part» from wir-iia-le ; alfo Laumellum, a 
powerful &mily». iicom llu-m-allu; the Canuii,.from auc-<n* 
in, upon <he higher .water; LiguKs are from li-auc-ar-es, 
the .£unily .upon the lower water ; their ancient cities were 
Genoa and Savona, both fiznifying the mouth or gate of 
the w^ter or fea ports.; and Monaeci m^ mon-ifa, the loweft 
^^ft. :The Cifpadana are from cis-pa-dan-^au, within the 
paxt lu^der the wat^, that is, the Po^ or from' cis-pordan-au, 
iKithih the Po's lower water ; thofe are called Boii, frpm ab-io, 
the fon3 of lo ; Lingones, from lin-ge-ion, the line of the Io- 
nian nation ; and ^nones from fen-iones, the old lonians ^ 
their cities were, fiononia, the Ionian root ; Ravena from 
ar-vanrau, upon the water place ; Parma from p-ar-ma> the 
great country part ^ Placenda is from pla-ifa-in-ti, the loweft 
part of the pofleffions ; Nuceria from nefa-r-au, the neari^ft 
tp the water; and Mutrina from mau-ti-en, the great moun«- 
tain or high pofieffipns. Tranfpadana iignifies the part a- 
h9ve.thePos there were the cities of Comum, acomot; £er- 
gomum, the water cx>mot; Brixia from bri^uxa, the upper 
xegion; Mantua from man-tu-au, a place at the fide of the wa- 
ter ; Verona is either from ver, a fpring, or wir, or viri-men, 
^d Zoma. The Cenomanni here from Senones*man, the 
place of the Senones ; the Veneti from van-en-i-ti, the place 
gf the ancient poflTeffions ; Euganaei from y-ge-hena, the old-* 
f& nation; Luvi is fromlu-hi, the upper family; Infubres 
fcoai in*ifr-bri, in the loweft regions ; and the Orobii from 
arrau^bc-i, upon the water of the higher part ; and Carnii 
, from cau-ar-ni-i, fliuttiAg up our higher part. In Italy Pro* 
per, or Middle Italy* are Umbria, or Cumbria, thee being 
dropped, either to diftinguifh it from the other Cymbri, or in 
, its infledioo, or being placed in compofition, as when the word 
preceding it ends in g, the c in Cumbri is dropped in the pro-* 
nunciation, for inftance, Gwraig Cumbri, a Welfh won: an, is 
|ironounced gwraie-umbri ; Etruria from e-tir-r~au, the land 
Aipon the water, alfo called Tufcany, from ti-cs-auc-yn, pof- 
lefEons on the lower water, and Tyrrhenia from tir-hen, the 
^cient land, it having been iirft pofleffed by T) ras, the fon 
of Japhet ; Sabini from ifa-beii-i, the loweil end ; Latimim 
from le-tien-iu, it is the place of the ancient poffeflbrs j 
Piccnum is from pe-ifa-ni-iu, it is. our loweft part ; Velti* 
jni, from vi-es-ti-ni, the dwellers below oar poffellions > Mar» 
f ucini from mor-uxa-ni, the dwellers on our uppejf fca ; Pe- 

I T 

ligni from pc-al-auc-ni, a part upon our water ; Samnites 
from fi-am-in-ti, it is about or inclofin^ our pofleifions ; Fren- 
tani from fryn-tan-ni, under our hills 9 Marfi, dwellers in 
marflies ; Hirpini from hi-ar-pen, upon the high end ; and 
Campani from cau-am-pen-ni> {hutting about our borders 
or ends. Umbria is faid to contain the cities of Arminium 
from ar-min-iu, it is upon the edge or borders ; Pifaunim, 
from p-ifa-ar-iu, it is the loweft part of the countxy ; Fanum 
Fortunae, from fan-fortun, the fortune place -, Sena Gallia» 
the ancient Gaul; Cacfeno, from cae-fena, the oldeft 
city ; Sarfina, for Carfina, from caer-fena, the oldeft city; 
Urbinium, from ur-be-ni-iu, it is our part ; Metaurenfe is 
from am-tyr-ni-fi, it is about or upon our land ; Hortenfe 
from hi-af-ti-ni-fi, it is higher upon our land ; Seminum is 
from fen-ti-ni-iu, it is our ancient poflcffion ; ^fis from au- 
i-fi, it is the lower water ; Camerinum from cau-am-ar-ni- 
iu, it is inclofmg our country ; Iguvium from uxa-van-iu, it; 
is the upper part ; Mevania is from' am-au-vanna, about the 
water parts ; Spolctium is from is-pe-al-ti-iu, it is the loweft 
part upon the poflcffions ; Tifernum is from ti-fer-ni-iu, it 
is our water poileffions ; Neuceria is from ni-uxa-ar-iu, it is 
our upper country; Camellaria is from cau-am-al-ar-iu, it 
is inclofmg the high or upper country ; Alifium is from a-ifa- 
iu, it is the lowelt ground ; Hifpellum is from hi-es-pe-al-iu, 
it is upon the part below the high ; Fulginium is from fe-al- 
auc-ni-iu, it is a part upon our water ; Tudor is* from tu- 
dwr, the water polTeflions ; Nami.a is from in-ar-ni, it is our 
country; Ameria is from am^er-iu, it is about the water; 
and Ocriculum is from auc-r-cau-al-iu, it is the water inr 
clofing or {hutting upon. There are the Apehnine hills, 
which are from a U>r y-pen-en-in, the head or high end in the 
iky. Etruria is faid to have contained the followiug cities or ra- 
ther families, viz. Volfini from vi-al-nefa-iu,the high dwellers 
next to us ; Clufium is from cau-al-es-iu, it is inclofmg or {hut- 
ting upon the lower part; Perufia is from p-ar-ifa, a part of the 
lower country ; Cortona is from cur-ti-ionia, the borders of the 
Ionian pofTcflions ; Arciium is from ar-i-ti-iu, it is upon the pof- 
fcilions ; Falerii is from fc-al-er-iu, it is the part upon the watery 
Volatene from vi-al-tir, dwellers on high land ; Vetulonium the 
old Ionian family ; Rufl'ellas is from rMfa-le, the loweii place; 
Tarquinii is from ti-ar-auc-ni, pofl'eflions on our water j Caere 
from Caere, a city ; Veii, from vi-au-i, the dwellers on the higher 
or upper water ; Luna from le-yn-au, a place upon the water > 
Tife trom p-ifa, the loweft part, or pc-is-au, the lower water 
part ; Populonia is from pobl-ionia, the Ionian people ; Ta- 
i;imon from tu-lu-mOn, the family of the Mseones or of Mau- 

3 loa^ 


Ion, the great lomans; Cofa, from auc-i/a, the lower water; 
and Alfium from al-is-au-iu, it is upon the lower water j the 
Sabines arc either from ifa-ben, the loweft end, or from fi- 
alb-en, they are an ancient offspring. The Sabine cities were. 
Cures frgm cwr-es, the lower borders ; Nurfia from ni-ar- 
ifa, our k) weft. ground j Eretum from ar-y-ti-iu, it is upoa 
thepofleffions; Cutiliae is from cjr-tylu, the firft or chief fa- 
mily; and Amiternum is from am-i-tir-ni-iu, it is about or in- 
clonng our land« In old Latium were the cities of Tibur, 
compofcd of ti-ber, pofleffions on the water; Praenefte, from 
bri-nefa-ti, the country next our pofleffions 3 Gabii, from ge- 
ab-i, a nation from the upper part ; Equi, from e-uxai, the 
upper ; or Equiculi, from e-uxa-li, the upper family ; A- 
ricia is from ar-uxa, the uppef. country ; Tufculum is from 
tu-ifa-ux-lu, thp lower pofTeifion^ of the upper family; La- 
jiuvium is from le-en-vi-iu, it is tW higheft dwelling place ; 
Alba is from al-be, a high or upper part; Rutuli are from 
r'-tu-ly, the family; Volfcii from vi-al-es, the dwelling be- 
low the heighths or hills ; Aufones is from au for y-is-iones, 
the lower lonians ; Samnites is from fi-am^ni-ti-es, it is a- 
bout or furrounding our lower pofleffions ; Sabini i$ from 
ifa-ben -ni, our lower end. In Magna Grecia, the names 
feem to be of the fame original ; as Apulia from ap-y-lu, 
from the family; Lucania from lu-uxa-nj, our upper fa- 
mily } Calabria from cau-al-bri, fhutting or incloung the 
country ; Brutii from bri-ti-i, the upper or high fide of the 
country; or rather from bri-ti, the Brigian pofTefHonsj Rhe- 
gium is' from rhing, between ; Locri from al-auc-ar-i, upon 
the water of the upper country ; Crotona may be from cwr- 
tyna, the higheft corner ; Elea from al-au, upon the water ; 
Geryon is from -gwyr-ion, the men of Ion ; Pucetia is from 
p-ifa-ti, the lower end of the pofTeffions ; and Cerille is front 
cwr-i-lli, the corner of the family. The rivers of Italy ar^- 
Po, or p-au, the water part, alfo called Erjdanus, or the flying- 
one ^ Druria, or rather dur-i, the high water ; the Seffites^ 
from . fi-ifa-ti, it is on the loweft fide or loweft pofle/iion ; 
the Ticinum from ti-is-ni-iu, it is our lower fide ; Adda ia 
from au-ad, an addition of water ; the Ollius from au-al-iu, 
it is the high water ; Minaus from man^is^iu, it is the lower 
part; the Tanarus from tan-ar-iu, it is from the lower 
ground ; the Trebiais from tir-bi, the land part, or frona tre- 
bi, the town part; Rheniis Bononienfis is from rhin-bon- 
itm^ between the nice of Ion; Arnus is from ar-n.-iu» 
it is our country ; the Tiber is from ti-ber, the water, 
pofleffions ; the Lyiis from al-ar-is, upon the lowc^; 

country 'f 

L A 

country ; Vultomus is from atr-ul-tft'-ni-iui It is iSX w r te 
upon onrpnQeiTions; Silarus is from iM-D--iu, h » t£elow 
ground ; Syt^aiis is from fi-btf-ar-iu, it is upoil die hyw^ pzrt^, 
Crathis is from auc-ar-ti-es, water lipon the lower pOTcf- 
fions ; Auftdus is from au-fi-idlu, it i$ tfifl Mratcr of liftj or 
my water ; Atcrnus is from a for y-tir-ili-iir, ft is ottt" lauri; 
and Mctaixrus is from am-y-tir-iu, it is aboiit'br fixmniH^ 
our hnd. The mountains arc ddln^" dfcwherc/ Tfete 
were other appellations given to die flrft iiihabitsOlts.df dA 
countrj", as Aborigines, cither front a-brijriaiis«' or frbiifil^ 
ori^ines, from the origin^, or a natibh from* toe dHginsd Vl 
point of time, and liot Terrigenz dr ^atth-lMirhv ft^x" ge ibdf^ 
endy did not fignify earth, but biith or generatiofi', wteft^ 
the Greeks made ufc of it to expreft tfarth inAe^ cfftel 
which iigniiied dcs^d, and riot generadng eatth dr gfxnOiiiJti 
lb appliM in Pelafgi, a name of foiiie of the ancitet p^tfe 
of Italy, Which fignifics that it was the^fertheft of theI(Hiit[ 
nation, from petla-if-ge ; the Coriolani is frorti CWr-^y-^-ifs 
die comer of our paft. There git a ftw 6f the ancient hsMi 
kings of this country mentioned, as of Etfuria, Latitib and 
AHm ; Picus from ap-auc-iu, he is from the Water ; FatDMC^ 
from af for ap-au-un-iu, he is one from the watery fb'it 
feeiiis probable that they meant one and the fame fierfoirt; 
Ladnus, from al-ti-en-iu, he is upon or' over the skndient 
poflefibrs, in whofe time iEneas is faid to bave arrived^ fat 
Latium ; befides thofe of the Aborigines, whofe names art 
defined elfewhere. 


LACEDEMON, or Laconia, fo called fixmi the riafne 
of the chief city fituated on the fouth' eaft of Pdopon- 
nefus, is from li-ifa-ti-meon, the lowfeft family of the M»= 
enian houfe; Laconia is from lu-ac-iorria, a* family from 
Ionia; Sparta is from is-parth, the Ibwcfr part or p^ifj 
Peloponnefus is from pclla-pen-ifa-iu, it is the fardieft loWiflr 
end. Here were alfo other towns ; as Leuftrum froml^-aRte^ 
tre-iuit it is a town upon the water place ; TrinafRM^'^ffom 
tre-nefa-iu, it is the next town ; Gythium, from' cjp-fi^ite^ 
it is the firft pofleffion; Heles, the city of the Helocsj-^ who 
were enflaved aiid fled from Greece; Thiilaila-is fitxii' AH 
.for hil-en, an ancient race ; xMeilenia is from maef-^henaj ^e 
moft ancient fields or champain country; * Thtf • rivers -Tfere 
are the Eurotas, from au-r'-ti-as, th^ water of the lower 

poileffions ', 

LA' . 

pbtBstSieUi I Smefiiiis^ feoA iraHman-iu, It is the low^ pstrti 
Thtafus is from thi«i»ifa*iir, it is the lower poffeffion; and the 
Scyras front ii:^uc^ftr-a^, it is the water d the lower coun- 
try.* The firit kings here were of Ae Lacedemonian line, ad 
fbtlowi, viz. Lacedemoit, defined before; Amyclas is from 
am-y-du-as, over die lower family; Argalus is from ar-uxa-^ 
itt^ over the upper family j Cynoftas is trom cyn-or-tu-as, a 
chief from die. lower houfe; OebaluS is either from heb-al-^ 
lu, without a. high family, or from o-ba*lu, from what 
family; Hippocoon is from hi-^-ap-o-cyn, the high fonx>f a 
king ; Tymareus i^ from dyn-da-riu, a good fort or a virtu- 
ous man, probably becaufe Jupiter was fuppoied to have iain 
with his wife 3 Leda, from lu^da, a gdcd family ; Pdlliix is 
from ap-io-lu<^ux, die foil of the upoer Ionian ^imily, Jupitet 
being faid to be his filther ; but Canor his brother, faid to be 
the km of Tindarettsf By Leda, is from ae-af-tor, the fon of 
a lower lord or tyrant; Mendaus is from ma-en«lu-iu, he is 
die great. andent family; Nicoftratusis from in-uxa-ftir-it^ 
he is one of the upper houfe orpofleffions; Megapenthes is 
from mega-^pen-ith,^ he is a great head; Oreftes is from dr« 
cf-d-fi, he is from the lower houfe ;.Tifamenes* is from ti- 
ifa-man-fi, he is a lord, prince or pofMbr of the lower part. 
To thefe fucceeded the Herculean line, as fellows, viz* 
Eur]rfthehes, from or-vi-ti-hen-li, he is from the ancient 
lower houfe; Agis is irom ag-is, from the lower ; Echeflra- 
tus is from ac-ef-tor-tu-fi, he is a poSkfhr from the lower ty- 
rants or lords ; Labotas is from lu-ab-tu-as, a family from 
the lower houfe ; Doryffus is from tor-ifa-iu, he is a lower 
prince ; Agefilaus is from ag-ifa-lu-iu, he is from the lower 
family ; Archelaus is from yr-uxa-la-fi, he is the upper fa- 
mily; Proclos is from ap-yr-clu-cs, from the lower fiimily; 
Sous is from ii-o-ys, he is from the lower ; Eurydon is froflt 
or-^d-£on, from the houfe of Ion ; Prytanis is from pry-u- 
en-fi, he is from the firft ancient houfe ; Eunomus is from 
un-o-m-iu, he is one from the great; Polydec^ is from 
ap-ly-d-uxa-it, he is from the family of the upper houfe; 
and Chkrilaus is from cy-ar-ir-lu-iu, he is a chief over the 

LABifiKT7s,.a Roman name, is from lu>-ben-iu, he is a 
head -or chief family; 

Laodzcea, is from luod-uxa, the upper families, as is 
tmodice, the dai^hter of Priam. 

LARissAy a citv of Phrvgia Minor, is from l^urri&^ the 
lowefl groundy dtner as a bottom or die loweft part of die 


L Y 

^ Larbs, the houfiiold gods, from H-ar-es, the' family of 
the lower country, or from their mother Lara, who to evade 
Jupiter's addreiTes hid herfelf upon the bank of a river, and 
was thence called le-ar-au, the place upon the river. 

Lavikia, the daughter of Latinus, king of Italy, is from 
li-vin-iu, flic is the family of Venus or Juno. 

Lesbos or Pelafgia, a Grecian ifland, is from le-€s-b- 
au, the loweft water place, and from pella-ef-auc, the fer- 
theft lower water. 

Lemngs, a large ifland in the^gean Tea, is from le-m-in^- 
au-es, a large place In the lower water; it was firft inhabited 
by the Sapeans from Thrace, whofe name is from ifa-pen, the 
lower end, as the Sabines of Italy were fo called from their 
being at the lower end of theUmbri or Cunibri. 

Leros, a Grecian ifland, whofe inhabitants were veiy 
corrupt, is from lu-r'-au, the water family. 

Leucas, an ifland in the Ionian fea, is from le-auc-as, a 
place in the lower water, 

Lecraux, or Campus Lapideus in Narbonenfes, where 
Hercules fought the giant Albion, is from le-craug, the 
rocky place. 

LiGER or Loire, a river of ancient Gaul, is from lai'-ag- 
er, the Icfs afting water 5 Garon being the rougheft and jthc 
Seine the floweft, I am apt to think that the name Loegria 
was given to England from the name of the people inhabiting 
upon this river, who pafled this way from Italy into Bri- 

. LocRis, a country of Peloponncfus, is from li-ac-ar-is, a 
family of the lower country. 

LoNGOEARDs. See Scandinavia. 

LucRETiA, a Roman lady, is from lu-cri-ti, a family of 
the flrong houfe. 

LucuLLUs, a nobleman of Rome, is from lu-ux-il-iu, he 
is of the race of the highefl family. 

Lycians, were a people fcatcd in the loweft part of Afia 
Minor, on the Mediterranean fea, whofe name feems to be 
compofed of ly-ifa-ion, the Jowcft family of Ion, or from 
ly-ila, the loweft family, for the lonians deemed themfelves 
the only good families ; the Phrygians, the firft nation, and 
the Thracians, Daae, Getas, Heneti, &c. the moft ancient 
great pofleflbrs, which is exprefled by the particles bri, li, 
and ti, which are commonly made ufe of in the names and 
appellations of the people; thofe people are faid to have come 
into this country from Crete, but the firft names of the coun- 
try were Mylia and Tremile, that is, the great family, froci 


L Y 

iha-ly, and the town or poffeffions of a great family or natioit 
from tre-ma-ly. 

Lycaonia, a country of Ada Minor, fituated eaftward 
of Ionia and Lydia, is. from ly-uxa-ionia, the upper Ionian 
family ; ^s Lycia waS the loweflr, • 

Lydia, a part of Afia Mi|ior, at firft called Maeo|i, froth 
ma-ion j the great Ion or Japhet, is from ly-ida, the Ida fa- 
mily j or ^vhich is the fame, thing, from ly-da, the good fa^ 
mily, as the Trojans or Phrygians deemed themfclves the 
iirft nation j asdefcended from'Gomer, the eldeft fon of Ja-. 
phjet 5 biit the firft definition feenis more primitive. The kings 
of Lydia were i:iiCmed as follows^ viz. the firft was Manes, 
from mon-es, the lower ftepi j then Cotys, his fon, from 
ci-o-ti-es, a chief of the Igvyer Jioufe or poffeffions; his fon 
Atysj from a-ty-es^ the lower houfe or poffeffions 3 Lydus, 
from ly-ida, . the family of Ida j Alcymus, from a-ly-ux-maujj 
the high great family j Tniolus, from t-m-io-lu, the great 
houfe .of the Ionian nation i Theoclymenus, from ti-ux Jy- 
m-en-iu, he is the family of the ancient upper great houfe 5 
' Marfyas is from m-^-fi-as, he is the lower great country j 
lardanes, from i-ar-da-n'-es, the lower good country; Alcaeus 
is from a-li-uxa-iu, he « is the upper family ; Ninus is from 
in-ea-'iu, he is the ancient one; Argeon is from ar-ge-ion,, 
over the Ionian nation; Leon is from li-ion,^ the family of 
Ion ; Candaules is from ac-en-da-lu-fi, he is from the ancient 
good or Ida family, thefe three laft being of the race of Her- 
cules, and called Attyadae^ from a-ty-ida, the houfe of Ida 5 
then fucceeded the Me^rmnad^e, of whom Gyges, who flew 
Candaules at his wife's requcft, for expofmg her to Gyges 
when fhe was undreffed, was the firft; his name is from ci- 
ge-es, a chief of the lower nation, or of a low birth ; Ardyes 
is from ar-ti-es, over the lower houfe ; Sadyattes is from fi-y- 
ti-es, he is the lower houfe ; Alyattes^ from al-yrtu-es, over 
the loweft family ; Crsefus is from ci-aryef-iu, he is a chie^ 
over the lower country ; but his fon Pantaleon, from penteuli- 
ion,.the head of the Ionian family, was fet afide, and afn end 
put to the Lydian kingdom by Cyrus. 

Lyturses, king of Phrygia, defcended from Oneus^ 
who came from Gordius thej)loughmanj aiid is faid to have^ 
been fond of reaping and other ruftic employments, is from 
Jy-tyr-ifa-fi, he is th«^ family of the lower country^. 


M A 


MACEDONIA, fituatcd between the JEgezn feaotithe 
caft, and the Adriatic and Ionian fea on the weft; 
fouth on Theflaly and Epinis, and north on the rivtf 
Strymon, is from maefod-ionia, the Ionian fields, a» it' 
fea is called the Ionian fea ; and Apollonia one of the cinef 
cities, from a-pc-lu-ionia, a part of the Ionian fanulj or na- 
tion ; Torone from tir-ion, Ionian land ; and Thcflalonica 
from tu-ifa-lu-ion-uxa, the lower part of the upper Ionian 
nation ; Epidamnus, which the Romans igaorantly ima- 
gining to be an unlucky name, on account of the fuppofa) 
particle dam therein, changed itintoDyrrhacium, is frome^p. 
id-au-am-iu, it is the place furrounded by water, as Dynli- 
cium is from tre-auc-iu, it is the water town ; or from tre-iuc- 
a-iu, it is the uppermoft town ; Pella, the fartheft ; Pydna, 
is from p-yd-in-au, it is a part upon the water ; tyriia fipoa 
tyr-ifa, the loweft country ; and many more towns, too nu- 
merous to be here inferted. This country was divided into dif- 
ferent provinces, as Mygdonia, from mau-ge-id-ionia, it is die 
great nation of Ionia; Pelagonia, from pella- ge-ionia, die 
fartheft Ionian nation ; Cyrrheftis, from cyrreu-is-ti-fi, it is the 
borders of the lower poffeiSons ; and Deuroppius, from tu- 
oerau-p-Iu, it is the part on the coldeft fide; andPaeonia isfroai 
pe-ionia, the Ionian ends or borders ; Greftonia, from cwr- 
ifa-ti-onia, the lower borders of the Ionian pofief&ons; 
Emathia, from am-au-ti, poffeffion about the water; andv^ 
rious other names of parts of countries not worth inferting. 
Here are feveral mountains, as Pangeus from pen-ux-iu, it is 
the higheft top or head ; Scardus from fyx-ar-idiu, it is the 
dry country ; Ha?mus from hi-am-ui, it is the upper inclo- 
fure ; Athos from at-hi-o-fi, it is at the fun ; and Olympus 
from ol-am-pe-iu, it is a part about the fun. Here are manjr 
rivers, as Pen-ifa-au, the water of the loweft end ; Aous from 
ih-au-is, the lower water; Pepylicus is from pe-pella-auc, the 
fartheft part water ; Aliacomon from al-auc-mon, the water of 
tlie high fpring; Erigon is from ar-auc-ion, upon the Ionian 
-water, which feems to be the Axus, from ux-auc, the upper 
•water ; and Ethedorus from uxa-dwr-iu, it is the higheft 
^wjater ; and feveral more lefler rivers not worth mentioning. 
Tlie firft inhabitants are thought to be from Argos, hut from 
the names this country feems to have been planted by different 
natio-"is, as Phrygians, Thracians, lonians, Greeks, &c. 

4 Their 


^^ir laiftguage was riot underftood by the Greeks ; tlieiiathes 
of their kings were as follow, viz, Garanus, from cy-r*-en-ittj 
he is an ancient chief; Gienus, from ci-en-iu, he is aft an-* 
tieiit chief; Thixrimas, from tyr-ma-fij he is a great lord^ 
prince^ -or tyrant V P«rdicas is from pyredig, purified; Argaeus 
is from ar-ge-ia, he is over the natioh ; ^ropas isfrom wr-o- 
p-asj a maft^from the lower part; Alcctas from a-lu-uxa-ti-as, a 
' chirf family of the lower pofleffions ; Amyntasj from a-ma-un^ 
ti-as, a great one of the lowfir pofleffions ; Alexander, from 
Si-lu-yxa-ln^tir, the higheft family in the land ; Archelaus ia 
frbmyf-uxa-lu-fi, be is the higheft family ; Oreftes is from or- 
ifa-ti-fi^ he is from the lower houfe or pofleffions ; Areopas is 
from dr-y-p-iiisy from the lower part; Paufanias is from p-yfa- 
im-iu^ he is from the lower part; Ptolomaeus is from ap-teulu- 
hiaii-es^ from the great lower family ; andPhilipus is from ap- 
hil-i-p-ys, from the race of the lower part. . 

Manis^ i kitig of Phrygian is from ma-en-fi, he is great 

Manlius; a Roman nobleman^ is from ma-en-li-iu, hc5 
is thfe grfeat ancient family. 

, M ARCELLUs, a noble Raiiniii tiame^ is from mars-il-iu, he 1$ 
from the race of Mars, or from a great race. 

Marius, a noble Roman name, is from mar-iu, he is Mars| 
Or he is grfeat } br from ina-rhi, a great prince. 

Maro^ Virgil's filrname, is from ihar-iu; he isgreat. 
Mars, iaid to be the god of war^ is from mar-fi^ he is great J 
BC is alfo f^id to have been born of JmiOj without a ifather, asi 
Minerva was of Jupiter without a mother ; but he feems to mq 
to be the fatneas Mercury* 

MARiANJbYNi^ in BTthyriiaoh the Euxine fea^ is from mor- 
cin-dynion^ men of the ancient water. See Bithynia. 

Meander^ a river of Afia Minor,' is from mon-dir^ tKe 
land of Meori, the firft king of PJhrygia, .probably for its be^' 
ing the boundaries of the country of Phrygia, or from meon^ 
dur, the water of Meon. See Meon. , 

Mena!>ii of Gaul, Britain and Ireland, from miha, harrow- 
eft, and pe, part^they dwelling in thofe parts where thepaflages 
over the fea were narroweft,' as from Calais to Dover ; from 
Garnarvonfhire to Anglefey -at Abermena ; from Meiiau or St. 
David's to the country of the Menapii, in the county of Wex- 
ibrd, in Ireland^ and Abravain or Abermenauj at Galway iri 
Scotlarid, on the narrow fretum, oppofite Ireland* 

Meon^ faid to be the firft king of Phrygian ahd father of 
the e;oddefs Cybelcj is from ma-ion, the great Ion or Japhct; 
Memnonj whoaffifted the Trojans, isfrom ma-am-en-ion, 
great over the ancient lonians. 

f a ^^"^^vKVi^^ 


Mekelaus, kin^of Sparta, married to Heleaa^ is fiom 
tna-en-Ii-iu, he is of a great ancient family. 

Mercury, Hermes, or Teutaith, comes from mi-ur- 
cur, my man runner, or my meflfenger, and teutaith or teu-* 
tat, from diu-tad, the divine father ; and teu-taith fignifiestfae 
god of journies ; he might have been properly called merchant 
in a fecondary fenfe^ or it may be primarily a tran^pcifitioaof 
the name Gomer^ with the addition ur, man, viz. mer-cb-nl'. 

Mjesta, lying between Macedonia, Thrace, and the Da- 
nube, is from maefa, the champain country ; it being of die 
fame origin as Macedonia, and of Myfia in Afia ; from whence 
this country was peopled. See Myua and Macedonia. 

Messalina, the wife of Claudius Csefar, is from m-ifa« 
lin, the great lower line. 

' Metellus, a Roman name, is from ma-teiiu, the great 

Midas, a king of Phrygia, is from ma-ida-fi, it is (he 
great Ida; he being inftru£led by Orpheus in religious myfk* 
ties, and extremely religiQUs as well as rich. See 'Ida, 

Minerva, from min, edge, and arva, arms, metaphori- 
cally fignifyinff a fharp or witty perfon. 

Minos of Crete, from miny, mountains, projbably from 
his dwelling in the mountainous part. 

Moccadelis, a people of Myfia, from ma-ux-da-li, tbc 
great upper good or Ida family. 

MoLis and Cymolis, two Grecian iflands, are from m-au- 
d-is, upon the great lower water or fea -, and Cymolis the 
companion of Molis. 

Moses, the Jewifh lawgiver, born in Egypt, fo called bc- 
caufe Pharaoh's daughter had drawn him out of the water, 
feems to be a compound of mi-au-fi, he is mine by the water* 
He is faid to fly to Midian, where he was married. x 

Moravia, or Marcommannia, a part of Bohemia^ and 
faid to have its name from the river Mora, is from ma-ar-vi, 
dwellers in the great country. 

Myconus, a Grecian ifland, is from m-auc-yn-es, in the 
lower fea or lower great water. 

Myrle A, a city on the Propontis in Bithynia, is from mor- 
le, a fea-port ; it was alfo called Apamea, or a-p-am-au, the 
part furrounded by water. 

My si A, a country of Afia, adjoining to Phrygia, by Stra- 
bo called Abrettana, having the iEgean fea weftward, feems 
to be from ma-fi-a, the great chief or firft country, or the 
great Afia, and in a fecondary fenfe it may mean the land of 
the cities, as well as the firft land j Abrettana is from a-bri-ti- 



cna, the moft ancient Brygian pofleffions 5 wh^ncQ the naipe 

N.. ' 

T^TAIADES, the water nymphs, is from navio, to fwim. ' 
jr\| Narbonensis, or Grallia Narbonenfis, or Bracata from 
Ni-or-bonen-fi, i, e, we are from the root or ftcm. It con- 
tains one of the four parts of France, viz. Savoy, Delphiny, 
Provence and Languedoc, 

Naxus, a Grecian Ifland is from yn-auc-us. In the lower 
water or fea, 

Nemetes, a people inhabiting about Spires on the Rhine, 
is from ni-am-ti-fi, th^y are without fixed poffeflions. 

Neptune, is faid to be a chief of the race of Ham, is 
from neo-pe-ton, to fwim on the top of the wave ; he was the 
fpn of Saturn and Ops. . • - . • .. . 

NisROCH, the chief deity of the ancient Aljyrians, fup- 
pofed to be Saturn or Belus, feems to fee of the fame prigin as 
Saturn, from a corrupt compofition of letters, as en-fa-r'- 
auc, it is the ancient water. 

NoE, is defined under Saturn. There are many places call-' 
cd .after his name, as Genoa in Italy ; Noe in Theflaly^ 
Noega in Spain ; and Noemagus in Narbon, 

NoMADES, a people of Scythia in Europe, who were fliep- 
herds; alfo a people of Afia near the Cafpian fea, and of Nu-r 
midia in Africa. 

NuMA Pompilius, fecond king of Rome, of the Sabine? 
tribe, and chofe by the Romans, is froii^ en-ma, great and 


OCEANUS, faid to be the god of the fea, and fon of 
Ccelum or Uranus and Vefta, is from auc-en-iu, it is th^ 
ancient water, or high water. 

Oeneus, king of Etolia, is from ion-iu, heisani en, 
or from o-ion-iu, he is from Ion. 

Olysses, or Odyffeus, a prince of Ithaca, at the fiege of 
Troy, afterwards drove to fea by a tempeft, which kept him 
from home ten years, according to Homer's odyffey, is from 
o-Iy-ifa-fi, he is from the lower family, and o-tu-ifa-fi, ho 
is from the lower houfe or pofTelfions. 

Oricum, the chief city of Epirus,- from oera, coldeft, and 
cum, comot, or canton, Epirus being divided into, three can<- 
tons, according to the fcholiaftof Ariftophanes, 

Orontes, a very, rapid river of Syria, whofe water and 
fifh are unfit for ufe, feems to come frooi or, fpr yr-hynt-fij 
it \$ tfhe traveller. 

f 3 Q^-.:^ 

Ops, the daughter of Cclwn and V«fta, and wilb «f 

Saturn, is from au-p-es, the water female off-fprin^ 

Orpheus, fon of Apollo, is from or-p-hi-iu, he is from 
the higher or upper parts, 

Otrjsus, a Phrygian king, conies from o-tir-iu, he is fioBi 
the earth, as. beinff the grandlbn of Gordius the ploughman | 
but Gordius and^idas were diftinguiibed by their virtue. 

Oxford, or Rydychen in Britifh, is faid to mean the ford of 
oxen i Mr. Leland thought it fhould have been called Oufeford, 
as (landing on the river Ifis ; but it feems to me to come from 
auxVford, the water way or ford, as many other Britifl) 
towns do, which terminate in ford, 


TJALLADIUMp the image of Pallas, at Troy, which die 
JL Trojans imagined to have fallen from heaven, is from 
palla-idiu, it is Pallas, or from ap-al-idiu, it is from high, as 
rallas is from ap-al-as, a female from high ; flie was alfocaJlecJ 
Minerva, and faid to be the daughter of Jove. 

Palmyra or Tadmor, a ruinous city and country in a 
great defart of Syria, where it is faid Adam was created, arc 
compounded of tad-mor, the great father, and of p-al-maur, 
the great head, p-al in the Celtic being equal to tad, as it fig- 
n-fies the high part, which is the head or parent, to whicl^ 
mawr or mor being added, they both fignify, whether Adam 
was created there or not, a great parent. 

Pathmos, a Grecian a Grecian ifland, is from p-at-au-es, a 
part upon the lower water. 

Paros, a Grecian ifland, is from pe-ar-au-fi, it is a 
part furrounded by vvrater. 

Panonia, bounded on the Eaft by Upper MaeHa, on the 
weft by Noricum, on the fouth by Dalmatia, and north by 
the Danube, being a part of the kingdom of Hungary, lying 
to the fouth of the Danube, is from pen-ionia, the Ionian end 
or part ; it had the following ancient cities, viz. Amona, from a 
fory, the, and me-on from ma-ion the great loniaus ; Vindonia, 
from vin-ti-ionia, the edge of Ionia; Scarabantia, from il-cau- 
ar-ben-ti, it inclofes the end or head of the pofleffions ; Sir- 
mium is from' fi-ar-^m, it is about or upon the confines of the 
country; Carniola, from caer-in-io-le, a city in or inclofing 
the Ionian part ; Croatia is from caer-io-ti, a city in the iQniai) 
pofiefEons, or inclofing the Ionian pofleffions. 

Pan, the god of fhepherds, is from apnen, the fon of hca* 
yen or the flsy. ' ' 


P H 

Paris^ fon of Priamus, king of Troy, alfo a king of the 
Gauls, who bulk Pari^, fome derive from the Britifh word par, 
a fpear, but moft likely it^omes from ap-rhys, as he may have 
bce» a defcendant of king Rhefus mentioned by Homer to 
have aflifted the Trojans, pa, by metathefis being wrote in- 
ftead of ap ; alfo the Egyptian king Apries feems to come 
from the fame original root. 

Parthia, a country in Afia, called aracfli or ar-arch, fig- 
nifying the land of the ark, 

Parthen^us, a river in Bithynia, being its boundary on 
the eaft, is from partha, parts or borders, and ni, our. 

Penates, the houfhold gods, is frompena-ti, the heads of 
the houfe. 

Penelope, daughter of Icarius and wife of Ulyfles, is 
from pena-li-ap, the offspring of the chiefeft houfe ; Icarius 
is from ix-ar-iu, he is the chiefeft country. 

Perena, or Annaperena, a heathen goddefs is from per- 
ena, very old or ancient. 

Persia, alfo called Pars or Paras, Achemenia, Arfaca, and 
Iran, comes from p-ar-li for ci, the firft or chief part of the 
earth ; Pars or Paras from p»ar-ci, contracted ; Achemenia is 
from a-cy-ma-en-iu, it is the ancient chief great country ; 
Arfaca (bould be ar-ca-fi, it is the firft or chief country, and 
Iran is from ar-en, the old couutry ; but this Perfia muft in- 
clude Syria, which was the firft country poflefled after quit- 
ting Armenia, as well as Media, and not that where Elam 
the fon of Shem was firft fettled. See Syria, Afia, &c. 

Pearethus, a Grecian ifland on the Theflalian fide of 
the ^gean fea, is from p-ar-y-tu-es, a part upon the lower 

Philyra, faid to be the daughter of Oceanus, by whom 
Jupiter is faid to have begotten Chiron, is from ap-hil-yr-au, 
the offspring of or from the nice of the water j Chiron is from 
ac-ir-au-in, the offspring of the water. 

Phrygia, a country of Afia, bounded by Caria, Lydia, 
and Bithynia, is from bri-ge, the firft nation, that is, the 
people who {ir& fonned civil government, wjio were the 

Phocis, lying between ThefTaly and the bay of Corinth, 
is from ph-auc-is, part on the lower water; here lies Mount 
Parnaffus, from p-ar-en-ifa-iu, it is a high part of the lower 
country ; alfo Helicon, from hi-al-auc-un, one high upon 
the water ; and Cytheron, from fytha-'r-un, the highcft or 
uprighteft ground j the river Cephi:lus in this country is from 

f 4 auc-ph-ifaj^ 


ftuc-ph-ifa, the lower end water. The only great citj icrc is 
Delphos, dcj iving its name from di*a]-phos, a pofleffion upoa 
Phofi:,, or Delphi, from ti-al-p-hi, a poflcifion upon the high 
part; hci'i fat the court of Amphyftiones, fo called ftoni 
Amphidlion the founder, whofe name is compounded of ain- 
ph-uxa-dyn, over the part the upper man ; here were oilier 
cities called Cyrra, the borders, Cwr-ifa, the lower border, An- 
licyra, from yn-;i-cyrra, the pofleflions upon the borders, and 
Elatca, from a!-au-ti, pcflliTions upon the water. 

Phoenice, a country in the lower part of Syria, is from 
pcn-ifc, the lowcft end, pen becoming phen by inife£lion. *'• 
Pluto, faid to be the god of hell, from his being king of 
Spain, which was fo called from its lying wcftward where the 
fun fcts, is from pclla-tu, the fartheft pofleflions, or pella-to^ 
the fartheft borders ; Pollux, faid to be the fon of L^, and 
brother of Helena by Jupifor, is from ap-ol-ux, the fon of 
the high light, or th- chief of the higher water. 

PolVxena, a daughter of king rriam, is from ap-io»ly- 
ux-ena, from or the offspring of the moft ancient family of lo, 

Pga^ytes, a fon of Priam and Hecuba, i^ from ap-io-ly-it, 
he IS a man from the family of lo. 

PoRTHj a port, of which there are many, as Porthguiiij 
the white port, and Porthifa, the loweft port in Cornwall. 

PoNTUs EuxiNUS, a fea dividing Afia from Europe, north- 
ward, is from auc-in-as, the lower upper water or fea; 
Pontus is explained under propontis ; here the Afkenas nation 
were firft fettled. . 

PoNTUS, a country lying on the fouth coaft of the Pontus 
Euxinus, between Bithynia and Paphlagonia, which the ri- 
ver called Halys, from halen, fait, divides from the former, ac- 
*:ording to Strabo, derives its name from the Pontus Euxinus, 
or from its being the ferrying place into Europe out of Afia, 
pont beij:g the Celtic word for a bridge or ferry, 

PoRTius, a Roman name, is from ap-r-ci-iu,he is a chief 

Pro CONES us, a Grecian ifland in the Propontis, is from 
bro-auc»nefa, the neareft ifland, or the nearcft water country. 

Priam, a prince of Troy, when it was befieged by the 
Greeks, is from pri-am, firft or chief over. 

Propontis, a fea dividing Thrace in Europe, and Bithy* 
nia and Myfia in Afia, and joining the Hellefpont with the 
Bofphorus of Thrace, is from bro-pont, in the neighbour- 
hood of the bridge or ferry, which fecms to have been over the 
"Gc fphoras, from whci.ce comes Pontus, in Pontus Euxinus^ 


for pont Is never made ufe of to exprefs any thing in the Cri- 
tic, befidcs a bridge or ferry. 

Prometheus, ion of lapetus, faid to be father of Deucalion, 
js from ap-r'-ma-ti-iu, he is an offspring of the great houfe* 
. Proserpine, daughter of Jupiter and Ceres, is from ap-r*- 
fer-p^ria, the offspring of the head Ceres, 
- 'Protevs, faid to be the fon of Oceanus, is from ap-r'-au- 
tu-iu, he is an offspring of the water houfe, or the boufe of 

»- PxoLOMiEUS, king of Egypt, defcended of I^agusa Gre- 
cian, ip Alexander's army, is from ap-teulu-ma7iu, he is the 
offspring of a great family. 

PuL or Belus, faid to be the firft Syrian king in the reigi| 
ofManheim, kingoflfrael in the 770th y^ar before Chriu:^ 
and 1570th after the flood, is defined under Belqs; it feems 
^o me, that there was always an Affyrian empire, and that 
the fcripture mentioning the then king of Syria by the name 
ofPul, meant a king of Pul, or Japhet nation; but this king- * 
dom of Syria don't comprehend Nineve, which was founde4 
by Affur, of the line of Shem, from whence he was called Ni- 
nys ; if this be fo, chronologifls may be much miflaken ij| 
their chronological calculations. 

PvRHENiAN mountains, dividing France and Spain, i^ 
from pyr-hen, very ancient, that is, anciently inhabited, 

RHadamanthus, king of Crete and Lycia, is from rhad- 
a-maint-iu, he is gracfous and great; he was fuppofe^ 
to be the fon of Jupiter and Europa, and one of the judges of 
hell, on account of his feyerity and juflice, 

Rhea, faid to be Jupiter's mother's name, was formed by 
a tranfpofition of the word ar earth. 

Rhene, a Grecian ifland in the ^gean fca, is from r-au-« 
ena, the moft ancient water. 

Rhesus, a prince of Thrace, who appeared at the flege 
of Trqy with an army for the defence of the city ; whofe 
defcenoants fccm to have fettled in Italy, Gaul and Britain, is 
from rhi-as, a leffer prince, rhl-ux, or rex, a king, being the 
upper or chief prince. This feems to be the origin of fome 
of the befl Celtic names now in Britain ; as Rhys, Rife, 
jlice, Roos, Rou^, Rofs 5 then with the addition of'^ap or ab, 
fignifying a fon or an offspring, were formed the names Pr3's, 
Prife or Price, Peircy, Percival, Proufe and Proffer; with 
the particle raau, great, prefixed, it made Mauris, Morris, 


R O 

Morry and Mtfrnn' ; and with the sddfrion of hil, a race, it 
formed the name of Ruflcl, Rouflel, Rofswell, &c. It is fome- 
what mnarka'ble, that the Wclfii Mauris and Morris anfwer 
the Scotch Murrey and Moreys, and that they are h^ the 
fame as Marias, the Roman general. 

Rhindacus, a river dividing Bithyniafrom Myfia in Afia 
Minor, rifing near Mount Olympus, and falling into the 
Propontis, is from rhing-dau-auc, the water between two, or 
a boundary water. 

Rhike, a river of ancient Gaul, rUing in the mountains 
of Swizterland, running through Germany and HoUand into 
the Britifh fea, is from rhing between, it being the boundary 
betwixt the Celtic Belgx, and the Germans. 

RiiiNOCORURA, mentioned by Epiphanius to be thecky 
where Noe divided the earth amongft his fons, before the con- 
fufion of languages, is from the Celtic rhanu-y-curra, dividiog 
the borders or confines. 

Rhodanus or Rhofnc, a river riAng in Switzerland, run- 
ing upwards through the laffce of Geneva Southward into Ae 
Mediterranean fea, near Marfcille, is from r'-hedan, the flying 

Romulus and Remus are from r'-mau-lu, the great fami- 
ly, and r'-m-iu, he is great; or from rom-mau-iu, Rome's 
great family, and rom-iu, he is a Roman. 

RuTHENi, a people near Auvern in ancient Gaul, is from 
r*-tu-hena, the moll ancient houl'e ; whence probably Ru- 
then in Denbighftiire. 

RuTUPi, a port near Sandwich, at the mouth of the river 
R other, is from rud-y-pe, the ford part. 

Roads, ancient Britifh. It appears to me from the names 
of places in Britain, that many of the roads fuppofed to be 
Roman, were the works of the ancient Britains 5 but as this 
place will not admit of a long difiertation on this fubjeft, I 
will here give only one inftance ; which may be a means of 
fixing the reft. This fecms to be an ancient road leading 
from the ifle of Weight to the ifle of Anglefey, hitherto un- 
Vnown ; tliough feveral parts of it have been taken notice of, 
by feveral antiquaries as Roman works, leading a different 
courfe. This being to eilablifli a new fa£^, and perhaps a ma- 
terial one towards fixing the antiquities of Britain upon a 
better footing than has hither to been done, I {hall take the 
liberty to obferve, fiom Diodorus Siculus and others, that 
the Britains carried their tin, filver, lead, copper, iron, and o- 
ther produce of their mines, by land to a certain ifland in or- 
der to be ihipped off for Gaul, from whence they were con- 

R O 

y«y€4 by land to the Mediterranean coaft ; and afterwards by 
the Greeks and Phoenicians fhipped bfF for Greece, Tyre 
and other countries ; as no ifland from its fituation will anfwer 
this defcription, but the ifleof Weight ; and its name, in En- 
glifli, fignifies the weighing place, in Latin the carrying place, 
and in the aacient language the place of the works, there 
ieems to be great probability, of its being the ifland meant by 
l^iodorus Siculus ; whence it muft follow, that there muft have 
been good ro;ids to it, at leaft from the different mining parts 
of the kingdom, as Cornwall and Wales ; fo that nothing 
more remaixiS;, than to ihew the courfeof thefe roads. As to that 
leading towards Anglefey, the diredion and cou^e thereof 
^pears ffom thje names of places fituated upon it ; but before 
I enter upo» an eatplanation thereof, I muft here take notice, 
that the ancient Celtic word for a road, is fordd or ford ; 
though in Engliib it ftands only for away orpaflage through 
a water ; hence this term whenever it be met with in 
the nan:jes of ancient places, means a way or a road 5 though 
perhaps in fome motre modem names, it may mean a ford, 
or a way through a water ; this term is not only found in 
the names of places, fituated in a dire£t line from the ifle of 
Weight towards Anglefey; but it is alfo accompanied with an- 
other term or particle, exprefling what road it was. I fhall 
begin at Milford, from whence probably at low water there 
was a dry paf&ce to the ifle of Weight, over a Britifh farn, 
©r caufcway ; Milford or Malford, from m-al-ford, fignifies 
the great high road'; from thence it paflTed on by Tadiford to ' 
Fordingbridge, or the bridge of the great road ; then to Char- 
ford, or the carriage road, where ii left Hampfhire, and en- 
tred Wilts at Langford, or the place of the great road, from 
le-eng-ford, it went on to Burtford, or the Britifli road, 
then to another Malford, and to Stratford, or the ftreet road 
or way; next it entered Old Sarum, or corruptly Sorbiodunum, 
from Caerbodun^ the refiding city ; from thence it went by 
Dernforcf and Wilford to Ambrelhery, fignifying the country 
or neighbourhood of the Umbri or Cumbri, and called by 
Matthew of Wcftminfter, Pagus Umbri, or the village or ftreet 
of the Umbri or Cumbri ; bere flood an ancient Druid ical 
temple, built by the Umbri, who pafTed here out of Italy, 
after the Tufcan order; the name Stonehenge fignifying no- 
thing more than the great ftones, gives no light upon this 
matter ; but I take Dr. Stukely, and Sir Inigo Jones, to have 
given the beft account thereof, now extant ; the road went from 
thence through Enford, or the ancient road to the Devices, 
or the divided greets ; where it feems to be divided into three 
branches ; of which one went weftward, aiuotK^i i^cyw-^^.^ 

R O 

South Wales, and the third towards North Wales. Here before 
I proceed it ought to be obfervcd, that the ancient Cumbri, for 
the fake of water, and other necefiaries of life, and to avoid 
mountains, fixed their roads as well as refidence, in vales and 
bottoms, as appears from the names of ancient places, both 
in Gaul and Britain ; and whenever they were to pafs a deep 
river, and no proper materials to be had on the fpot for ered- 
ing bridges, they fpread the water by widening; the channd, 
and laid therein pebbles and gravel, which made the river flill 
Ihallower, and alfo afforded a good and firm pal&ge, as fbll ap- 
pears by many fuch fords, as well as their ancient names ; when 
they came to a morafs, they made a farn or caufeway of timber, 
bruihwood, earth and gravel. Thus far, though fomewhat 
crooked, and therefore in fome parts of Merionethihire, call- 
ed the crooked fait road or fordd Gam r' Halen, had its 
courfe along the banks of the Avon, which fignifies thenvei^ 
and empties itfelf at Milford, To purfue this road £sirtherto^ 
wards Anglefey, I find it near CaJne, at a place called Cu- 
merford, or the Cumbri-road, fituated on another Avon, or 
the river that runs by fiath to Briilol i it continued its courfe 
with this river by another town called Malford to Malmfbu-. 
ry, where it entered Glocefter, and fo to Durfley, or the 
low or little wiiicr on the river Cam, and by Cambridge over 
the Severn ; which being the moft ancient ferrying place, was 
moft probably the Trajcdus of Antoninus, though fome have 
placed it a little lower down the river ; it from thence ran a- 
long another fmall river, through the foreft of Dean to Welfli 
Biikford on the Wye, and fo along the Wye by Walford or road, Rofs or the morafs, Hew-Capel or Chappie to 
Moidford, or the great road, where it croffed the Wye, and 
entrcd Herefordlhirc, and fo on to Hereford, or the long road, 
or as in the ancient Britifli Henford, the ancient road ; it run- 
ing through the middle of this country, it followed the Wye 
by Monington, or the great mine town, Winforton or Min- 
forton, the town on the road fide, and Rhaiadr Gwy, the 
Wyefords in Radnordfhire, to its fource at the hill of Plym- 
y llimon, the great place of the Mon or Anglefey family, in 
Montgomeryfhire, probably a place of worfhip of the Mon 
Druids. This being alfo a great mining country, the road 
feems to be divided here into feveral branches, as over 
Sarn Halen, or the fak caufeway, at Llanbadern Odyn 
in Cardiganfhire, and by Dinas Mywthy in Merio- 
nethihire, through Rhyd'r Halen or the fait ford over 
Sarn, or fordd'r Halen, or the fait road or caufeway, at 
Mikneint, by Feftiniog, to Aberglaflyn in Caernarvonmire | 


s A 

it afterwards followed the river Glaflyn by Kemeys to its 
fource at Snowden hill; from whence it paffed along 
the river Segont to Caerfegont, the firft city, probably fo 
called from a city of the fame name in Hampfhire, but this 
town has been fmce called Caernarvon, and the other Sil- 
chefter ; and fo over Mena or the narrow water, by a ferry 
into Anglefey, and fo on to Aberfro, or the town or 
harbour upon or in the neighbourhood of the water ; which 
has been the capita! town of Anglefey, and the refidence of the 
kings or princes of Gwynedd. Here it may be farther re- 
marked, that the reafon of calling the Welfli part of this road 
Fordd Halen, or the fait road, was the Welfli bringing back fait 
from the ifle of Halen in Hants, in return for their ore, and 
of calling it the mine road in 'England was, becaufe it 
brought mine t)iither. The city of Segont, in Caernarvon- 
Ihire, was probably, fo called from another of the fame name in 
Hampfbirje,^ where alfo flood the city of Brettendu|i. Here 
were alfo a people called the Meanviri or the miners, or 
the men of Mon; thofe were the people who poffefled the 
ifle of Weight, and fo often defeated the Romans at fea j 
they of North Wales were alfo called Ordovices by the an- 
cient geographers and hiftorians, from their being of the 
Devize^, and dwellers upon the ftreets and in villages ; they 
of HantSj^ Suflex and part of Surrey, were called Regni, 
from rhing, between, becaufe they lived upon this fi:reet, which 
divided the Cantii, Iceni, Coritani, &c. from the Belgae ; 
the viTood Anderida in Suflex, and Ringwood in Hants, feem 
to be their boundaries eaft and weft ; whether the flrft inha« 
bitants of this place were the Brigantes of Kent, or the Bri- 
tains of Armorica, who traded in the Britifli mines, they 
were both the Brigantes of Gaul ; and whether thofe of Kent 
came over into Britain before the commencement of the mine 
trade, is not very material ; but it feems moft likely that the 
people of Kent were the firft inhabitants of this ifland, arid 
that they paflTed here from Calais to Dover. 

S. ' 

SACSONS, rather than Saxons, a medley people, feated 
on the coaft of Hainpfliire, in the north of Scotland and 
^ong the Baltic and German fliores, who, whilft Britain 
remained under the Roman government, grew fo great at fea, 
as to oblige the Romans to keep on foot a confiderable army 
and navy under an ofiicer, whom they ftiled the count of the 
Saxon more, for the purpofe only of oppofing the warlike 

Saxons ; 

S A 

Sax6ns ; whence thofc fons of the fca mighf give themfelves 
the name of Sacfons, which from fi-auc-fans, figBifies Ac 
fons of the water ; or it is poflible that they called themfelvcs 
Sacfons, from fi-auc-ions, we are the water lotiians, as may 
be fcen under Germany ; and from thence the Roman6) who 
had then the ufc of the letter x, might call them Saxons, or 
facking fons, or from the Latin faccus, a faek, becaufe they 
were accuftomed to make depredations upon the Roman pro- 
vinces, and carry away their plunder in facks or bags, but to 
derive the name from their wearing a weapon called feaxes 
fecms very trifling, that kind of weapon beilig then in uft 

{generally amongft the Britnins, Gauls and GernFians, and die 
etter x not bemg in ufe amongft the Germafts, Cdtes Of 
firitains. As gloflarifts fcem to be much nfiiftaken in their 
definition of Saxon names, which has mifled mankind, fo as 
to fuppofe them to be of a different origin frcHn the old inha- 
bitants of this ifland, it may be proper here to give a fpecioen 
thereof ; though there are many more German names explain- 
ed in this lexicon. I (hall follow Mr. Cambden, who has made 
the largcft colleftion of this fort ; he fays that Alberic fignifies 
all rich or powerful ; it fhould be here obferved, that names 
in their primary fignification are appellative of countries, fa-J 
milies, &c. but thofe of illuftrious men have acquired a fecon- 
dary meaning, confequential to their great aprons, whereby 
new kind of dialedls have been arbitrarily framed out of thofc 
names, merely from analogy, without regarding the origin of 
language, or the manners of the people, with eonfiftency ; as 
here in Alberic, which was originally compofed of the Celtic 
particles al-ab-ric, the high fon of a king j Alan^ from al-en, 
a high one, or a divine, which Mr. Cambden fays fignifies a 
hound y jElwin, from al-win, a high Win, (a Britifh name) 
or highly blefTcd, which, according to Cambden fignifies a 
great conqueror, as if the Englifh word win came from the 
Latin vinco, to overcome; Albert, in its primary fenfe, from 
al-ber-ti, fignifies a high or great water poffefTor, or it may be 
from al-brit, a high Briton or highlander ; but in a fecondary 
fenfe it may fignify all bright, or all illtiftrious, according to 
Cambden ; Aldrad, in its primary compofition might be al- 
dir-id, he is a highlander, but Aldrad may alfo fignify all 
gracious, but Cambden defines it altogether reverend, which 
is judging merely from analogy or gueffing ; this etymology 
feems to be confirmed in the name Alfred, which fignifies, he 
is the high country, from al-fri-id ; Alfwin, oriE.rwin, faid 
by Cambden to fignify victorious aid, was origirially formed 
of al-of-win, the high offspring of Win, a britonj but as 


S A 

Win alfo fignifies bleffed, this name admits oi^ a fecoiicllry 
lnc^iing> without deftning the moft- illuftriou)& Saxon names 
£o abfurdly^ as to make fome to fignify hounds, dogs and 
Aonfenfe, and others princes, kings and gods v Alben and 
Alphons, from al-ben, the high or hilly end or Sqotlandt 
which as per Cambden is white or high ; Amery or Emerick 
are the fame as the name Murry, and are compofed of e, thc^ 
me for ma, great, and ri and rich, a king or prince, or 
from e-murry-uK5. the chief Murry; whence the Latin rex^ 
a king; but Cambden fays at random that it means always 
rich or powerful ; Arnold or Ernold, as by Cambden> ho-i 
n^ft, feems primarily to come from the ancient Britiih name 
ur-en, in Latin uranus, fignifying a divine man, to which 
bas been added the Engliih word old ; befides Arnold is an 
ancient Britiih name ; bujt in what dialed or language Arnold 
ilgnifies honeft, v^ill be . difficult to fini out ; Athcl ward, a 
noble protedor, according to Cambden, is from a-tili-iward^ 
the family of ward, or a governing family ; Atheling^ a great 
family ; whence the female name Adelin ; AthS[rad and 
Athelard flgnifies a gracious family, though Cambden fays 
that it means noble in council, making ard to fignify natural 
difpofition ; but if ard fignifies any thing more than a termir 
nation, it muft be the fame as ward or rad tranfpofed ; Bald^ 
win, according to Cambden, is a fpeedy conqueror, but to mo 
it feems to be a compound of bold-win, a bold \Vin, a Cim- 
bri Briton ; Bert or Bertie might fignify in its firft fenfe a 
great water pofleffor, or a Briton ; but when the name became 
famous it was made ufe of to convey the idea of bright, and 
thence the^ word bright was formed ; Bardulph or Bertulph, 
according to Cambden, fignifies fair hclph, thereby afferting 
that ulph, elph and wolph mean help, but it feems to me to 
come from bert-al-ap, or aph, the high fon of a Bert off 
Berti, or the bigh fon of a great water pofleffor, or of a. Bri- 
ton ; Mr. Cambden conjeftures that Bede fignifies a man that 
prayeth, from faying beads, but it is as likely that it comes 
from the Latin pater, or the old Britifli beder or bader, a 
father, or from the Britifh name Bedow ; Cambden fays, thac 
Bernard, a Saxon name, was the anceftor of the royal family 
of Brus of Scotland, and therefore defines it froqi the north 
Britifli name bern, a child, and ard, a natural difpofitiony or 
a childlike difpofition ; and could it be poflible for me to con-i 
cur wholly in opinion with Mr. Cambden, I might add, that 
this is a farther confirmation that the Saxon names and words 
are of a Britifli original, the word bcrn being from the 
VVelfli bir or ber, little, and un or en, one, Bernard,- 


in this way of defining muft mean, the (on of XVard, of of i 

governor; but I (hall choofe to define it confifient with Mr; 

Cambden's hiflorical fad, from bru-en-ard, an- ancient go-* 

vcrning prince, or an ancient governing brus ; fee Rhys ; from 

the Bernards Mr. Cambden alfo brings the Harringtons and 

Cottons, who are generally fuppofed to be ancient Britons; 

Bertran, fair and pure, per Cambden, feems to me to be from 

bcrt-un-cn, an ancient Bcrtu one ; Botolph is a help fhip^ 

according to Cambden, but I would bring it from bot-al-aph^ 

the high fon of an abbot, monk or refidcnt; whence Talbot; 

Charies, as per Cambden, is ftrong or valiant, but I fhould 

define it either from charu-li, a dear family, or from chi-ar- 

]i, a chief over a multitude ; Conrad, per Cambden, is able 

counfel, but to me it feems to be a compound of cy-en-rad, 

an ancient gracious prince or chief; Cambden fays that Cuth- 

bert fignifies either (kill or knowledge, but I take it to be in 

its primary fcnfc from cy-ti-bert, a chief of the houfe of 

Bertie, as Cuthwiii is a chief of the houfe of Win ; he fays, 

that Cenric or Kenric is powerful in kindred, but I think 

that Kenric and Henry are of one and the fame origin, and 

compounded of hen-rhi, or ci-en-ri, or ric, both fignifying 

an ancient prince j he fays that Kenelm is the defence of his 

kindred, and that Kenard is a kind afFeftion- to his- kindred^ 

but I take the former to fignify an ancient leader, from ken- 

dm, and the latter from ken-ard, an ancient • governor ; 

Dunftan, from dun-fi-ti-en, is a man of an ancient or divinef 

houfe, but Mr. Cambden fays that it fignifies the fame as 

Aron, a mountain of fortitude ; alledging withal that ftan is 

the fuperlative degree of any thing ; this to nie appears to 

be fuperlative nonfenfe, and a great miftake, occafioncd from 

his not knowing the origin of language, for ftan from fi-ti-en 

fignifies that it is an high or ancient houfe ; Eadgar is from 

id-ge-ar, he is over a nation j but according to Cambden it 

fignifies happy or honourable, and to prove it he fays that 

ar in Earle is of that fignification, but Earle comes from ar or 

ear-le, over a place; Edmund, as he fays, fignifies happy 

peace, and to prove it he produces an ancient law term 

mundbrech, for breach of the peace, but mundbrech fignifies 

a fair or clear breach, and Edmund, from id-mund, fignifies 

that he is fair ; as Elmund is all fair ; Ethelmund is a fair fa-^ 

mily, and Pharamund very fair ; Eadulph, per Cambden, is 

happy help, which to me feems to fignify an high offspring j 

Eadwin, as he fays, is an happy viftor, but to me it feems to 

fignify that he is a Win, or a bleffing, from id- win; Edward, 

by Cambden, is an happy keeper, but by me it is id-ward, he 


S A 

governor ; EaJdred, according to Cambden, is all reverend 
, and Ealred, all counfel, but I take them both to fignify 
grace, or a high governor; pf Egbert or Ecbert he 
:es always bright, but it feems to come either from eg- 
:, the race bir feed of Bertie, or a bright race, or front 
>ert, a bright fon, or the fon of Bertie, or a Briton ; 
ler and Etfhelmer he renders noble and renbwhed, b^t to 
the former feems to be e-li-mer, the great family, and the 
;r, e-ti-li-mer, the great houfe, as Merwin, of which he 
:es a rehowned viftor, fignifies a great Win. or a fea 
n ; Engelbert, he fays, is a bright angel, which I render 
ight Eftglilhtnan, or rather from eng-li-briti a great Bri- 

family ; Erchenbald, according to Camboen, is a 
erful, bold and fpeedy learner, but 1 make it frbm ur-ucha- 
)old, the valiant chief one ; he makes of Ethelbert, noble 
ht, but with me it fignifies the Britifh houfe, or the 
ht houfe, or the houfe of Bertie; Ethfelftan is from e- 
fi-ti-en, a family of an ancient houfe, of which Cambden 
:es a noble jewel ^ Ethelward, he fays, is a noble keeper^ 
vhich I make the ward, or a ebvernor's family, from e-^ 
ward 5 Ethelwold, as he fays, is a noble governor, which 
1 e-ti-li-old, means an ancient family, as Ethelwolph 
; a noble offspring of an high family, of which he makeii 
►ble helper, as he does well reportea of Everard, which I 
ler a bold governor, from eu-ur-ard ; Frederic is from 
lir-ric, a king of the free country, but Cambden makes of 
ch peace, as he does free peace of Freemund, which^ 
1 fri-muhd, fignifies a fair or free country ; Fulke, from 
-auc, dwellers on the water, Cambden makes noble and 
int; Fulbert, he fays, is full bright, and Fulcher, lord 

{People, which in my opinion ngnify fea&ring men; 
)ert is from ag-il-bert, from the race of a Briton or Ber- 
or from a bright race, whereof Cambden makes gold-like^ 
ht ; Giles is frOm ag-il-es, from a lower race ; obdard, 
)od governor; Godwin, a good Wih ; Godrich, a good 
;; Godfrey, i good country ; Grimbald, bold and flrongi 
ebert is from ag-is-li-bert, from the lower Britifh, Bertie 
right family, which, according to Cambden, fignifies an 
Irious pledge ; Henry or Hefiricus is from hen-rhi or ric, 
mcient prince, which jJer Cambden is ever rich ; Hen- 
i is an old coafler, froin hen-gueft -, Horfa is from wr- 
a feaman, of which Cambden makes horfemen ; Har-* 

is from hi-ar-hold^ high over the land or poffeilions, o^ 

:h Cambden makes a love of the army j Herbert is from 

)ert| an ancient or long continued Beiti^ Briton^ or wa-* 

g tAC 


tpr pofleflbr ; Herwin, an ancient Win, of which Cambdeiv 
makes a bright lord and a vi£lorious lord ; Harman or Har- 
mon is from hi-ar-man, high over the country; Hildebert is 
from hil-di-bcrt, a race of the houfe of Bertie, or Britiih, 
or bright houfe, of which Cambden makes a famous lordj 
Hilary is fr.:m hil-rhy, a princely race, which Cambden 
makes merry and plea ant ; Hugh is from hy-iu, he is high or 
bold, which Cambden fays is a cutter or flafher ; Humphry 
is from hi-am-phrie, high over the country, which according 
to Cambden is houfe peace.; Hubert is from hy, high, and 
bcrt ; Horatio is from hi-ar-ti-iu, he is high over the poflct 
fions ; Ingram is from eng-aram, great over the land ; Lam- 
bert is from al-am, high over, and Bert, probably from bcr- 
ti, fignifying their water poffeflions, or from al-am-bert, high 
over Britain; Leofftan is from li-of-fi-ti-en, he is of the &- 
mily of the ancient ^offeflbrs, which per Camden is moftbi- 
lovcd; Leofwin is from li-of-win, thefamilv of Win, or a 
bleflfed family, wliich according to Cambden is win love; he 
lays that Leonard is a lionlike mfpofition, which feems to me 
to come from li-o-en-ard, the family of an ancient governor; 
Cambden makes Lcodcgar, Leodwic and Leodpold, gatherer 
of the people, defender of the people, and a famous warrior, 
butt they fceni to fignify the fea coaft family, and ancient &« 
mily, from Icod-auc-ar or leod-auc, and leod-ap-old i Liwin, 
he lays, is beloved, but it is more likely from li-win, the familj 
of Win, or from a contra£lion of the old Britifh Lewelin; 
Marmaduc is from mar-madoc, a great Madoc, who was i 
Britifh prince, which Cambden fays is more mighty ; Norman 
is from ni-or-mon, we from the root or firft flock, but 
Cambden, from northern men; Oftern, Ofbert, Ofmund, 
and Ofwold, according to Cambden, fignify a houfe child, 
domeftical brightnefs, houfe peace, and houfe ruler ; if os 
really meant a houfe they might have been better defined, 
born of a houfe or family, a bright houfe, a fair houfe and 
an old houfe, but they will admit of a different definition, as 
appears from what has gone before, befides os is an oflEspring 
from o-s; Othes is from o-ti-es, from the lower houfe; 
Philebcrt, from ap-hil-bert, from the race of Bcrti, is by 
Cambden defined very bright ; Philip, from ap-hil-ip, fjpom a 
high or upper race, Cambden fays is a lover of hbries, pro* 
bably from the Greek, but fee the term defined under Mace-* 
donia ; Randal is from r'-en-da-lu, the good old famih', 
which C^nbden fays is corrupted from RanuTph, and figni£[es 
fair help, but Ranulph is from r'-en-Iu-aph, from the ancient 
iamily ; Rhcinhold is from r'^hon-bold, the ancient holder or 



3 A 

ft-eehoider, wliich Cambdeh fays is purt love; Rich^trd^ 
which per Caipbden is a ridh or powerful difpofition, is frbifl 
t'-ich-ard, the upper g<)vernor ; Robert, per Cambden, fa- 
mous In coimfel, is from wr-bert, a great pbffeflbr on the lijra* 
ter, as Orland 6t Rolatid, from wr-Tand, is a land pofleiH^r. 
and Roger, from wr-gfe-ar, is a man over a nation ; Reinfrro 
is from r'-en-fri-id, it is the old countryman ; Sigifmund is 
froth fi-ge-if-fnund, he is of the nation of the lower world j 
Sigebert is from fi-ge-bert, he is of the Britifh or B^ie ha- 
tioft; Sigwatd is from fi-ge-ward, he is of the Ward, or 

foverning nation j but Cambden fays' that SIg is victory ; 
withih is from fweed-en, a S Weed man, of which Cambden 
inakes very high ; Thfepbdd or Tibald is frotti ti-^bold, a higitf 
cr bold poffeflor) Theodore 3nd Theodoric are the fame aa 
the old Britifh Tudor, which comes frqift tuod-wr, a man of 
a great hdufe oi* family j Tfiftram is from trift-ur-am, a grave 
governo/; Turftan, unlucky; Uchtred is from u^t-tre-id, 
he is ov6t or above a town or tir^ land 5 a^ Wales by thcJ 
Britifh poets is called Guilt Wallia, wild Wales, or a wild 
tQuntry, I take Walter^ or GiialteruSj t9 be from guilt-ter» 
the wild country ; Walwiii, from wal-wiii, and Walguin, a 
WeMh Winn or Guiri j Wafrert or Guafinus is from thd 
Britifil gerwin^ terrible,' if ijl- %q not the feme as Urien, an, 
ancient Britifh nsime; WiTJiaiii fertiis to be from the oldBri- 
tifh guillym, fignifying to Wafch over^ as Willifrid is to 
watch over the country ; Wifchard or Gulfchard may be ei- 
ther from guifc-hardd, a h^dfome drefs or appearance, 01^. 
from ge-if-auc-ar-id, it is the nation below the water coun« " 
try; Wolftan is from au-al-fi-ti-en, he is art ancient pofleflbr 
upon the water ; Wulpher is from au-al-ap-hir, an ancientf 
fon of the waiter ; Wimund is from au-mUnd, the watery 
world, as is Wibert, the water Briton of water poflefforj 
and many more names are defined in other parts of this Lex- 
icon, which when they are compared with Mr* Cambden's 
definitions, will, it is to be hoped, juftify the liberty I have 
here taken, to expofe his laborious attempts of darkening the 
Bfitifli antiquities, aiid defitting the names of the people 
without any knowledge of the ancient language; buf in this 
he is not fihgular, for it has been cuftomary for moft Englifh 
antiquaries to gueft at things, rather than retort to their an- 
cient language, which would have unraveUed the darkeft parts 
of their affairs. 

S ABiNfis, of Italy, are from ifa-ben-ni, our lower ends of 
borders^ that ks of this? Cimbri or Umbri of Italy. 

g a $ALM0II£Ud5 

S A 

SALM0NEUS5 faid to be king of EoHs^ 19 from (il-moihiU) 
he is from the race of the Mxonians, or the great lonians. 

Saces or Scythians; as toSacet, fee Scythians. 

Saturns is from the Celtic fadwrn, which is compofed of 
fi-a-dwr-en, he is from tjie ancient water. He was worfliip- 
cd by the Sabines preferable to Jupiter, by the name of San- 
cus, which from fi-cn-auc, fignifies that he is from the an- 
cient water. The Greeks called him kronos, from ac-r'-au- 
fcn, from or the offspring of the ancient water ; Mofes men- 
tions him by the name of Noe, which from en-o-e, fignifies 
from the ancient water. 

SciPio, a nobleman of Rome, is frcnn fi-ci-ap, he is from 
or the o^sprin^ of a chief. 

Samos, anifland of Greece, near the continent of Afia, 
iirft inhabited bv the Carians, is from fi-am-au-es, it is fur- 
rounded by the lower water; Tembrio, its founder, is from 
tu-m-bri-iu, he is from the great Briigian houfe ; its nobles 
tvere called Geomeri, and they arc faicTto have made the firft 
voyage to Tarte{a or Spain, under Coleusf ; whofe name feems 
to be the fame as the ancient Britiih Cocl. 

Samothrace, an ifland in the ^gean fea, near thecoaft 
of Thrace, is from fi-am-au-thrace, it is furrounded by the 
water of Thrace ; it was alfo called Imbri, probably from 
Cymbri. Diodorus Siculus fays that they had anciently a lan- 
guage not underftood by any other people of Greece, whereof 
lome words were then ufed in religious worfhip. It was fa- 
cred to the Cabiri, whofe name in Celtic, asi well as the He- 
brew, fignifies great and powerful. 

Sciathus, a Grecian ifland on the fide of Magnefia, in 
the JEgezn fea, is from fi-auc-ti-es, it is the water of the 
lower pofTcflions, or the water of the lower fide. 

Salamis, an ifland in the Saronic Gulph, is from fi-al- 
au-am-is, it is furrounded by the lower feaj| it was alfo called 
Porthmos, from porth-m-au-es, the gate or mouth of the 
lower great water. 

ScYROS, an ifland in the lower part of the -^gean fea, is 
from fi-auc-ar-es, it is the lower water land or ifland, auc-ar 
b^rino- a common expreflion for an ifland. 

Scotland, or Albania, is from is-coet-land, the land be- 
l()w the v/ood, that is, the Caledonian wood, where fome 
of the ancient Britains, inhabited, and to whom the fouthern 
Bi itains gave the name of Scots ; the firft name Albania, is 
frpm al-ben, the hilly end ; from whence the whole ifland 
li.ul the name of Albion. Thofe people in ancient authors, 
iikv^the other Britains, are mentioned by diifercnt names, as, 


s c 

tiic Gadcni oiF Edenborough from ge-eden, the people of E- 
den or paradife ; Selgovae of Solway from eel -ge-o-vi, the- 
lurking people without a being, who were the Ueltes 5 the 
Novantes of Galway, &c. were probably from the Pidts, or 
fome other new colonies fettling there ; or from forming the 
ftraggling Celtes into a regular fixed way of living, like the 
Brigantes their neighbours ; the Damni, of Clydfdale, Ster- 
ling, Lenox, Fife, &c. feem to be from tu-am-ni, the pof- 
feffions indofmg us, as if it was the boundary betwixt Scot- 
land and England ; Caledonia is from celu-dynion, the hid- 
ing men, who were the Celtes ; Vefturi or the Highlanders are 
from vi-uxa-tir, the dwellers in the higheft land j the Horefti 
from yr-ifa-ti, the lower poffeffions ; the Meatae from mau- 
ti, the great poffeiEons ; the Attacoti from a-ti-coed, the 
wood poffeflbrs, or the Scotch houfe ; and the Pi<fts from p- 
tix-to, a thing upon the covering or outfide. Their nobiii^ 
ty were called Thanes, from ti-en, the ancient pofleflbrsj 
and ab Thanes their defcendants. The names of places 
iiere are much like thofe in South Wales, as the river Teify, 
whence Teifydale ; the Tweed from the Taw in South Wales, 
and id, it is ; whence Tweedale, and as the Scots lay claim to 
the Britifh king Caraftacus, who was from Card iganfliire, it is 
probable that a colony from South Wales fettled in Scotland, 
after the battle between Caradlacus and the Romans ; the 
Merchian are from marc, the marks or boundaries ; Lauden 
is from al-eden, upon Edenj Bodeira is from bod-r-aii, an 
abode on the water ; Borthwic, the water port ; Newbottle 
from neu-bod-le, a place of a new habitation ; Edenbrough 
from eden-bro, the region of Eden ; Leith from le-au-ith, 
it is the water place ; Caer Guith or Quid from caer-guith, 
the city of the works ; Linlithgoe is from lin-leith-auc, a 
lake of the water of Leith ; Teviotdale another place feem- 
ingly from Dale and Teivy in South Wales ; as Lauderdale 
is from the river Leider; the Duns are from Tuyn, a town 
or bwfli; as Dunglafs, the blue town; Dunhill, the hill- 
town; Dunbar, the buorrugh town ; and Dundafs, the town 
in a dale, or in a good low place ; Cariddin fcems to be the 
fame, as a place of that name in Caernarvonfhire ; Anan- 
dale is from the river Annan, and dale ; Anan is from an- 
au-in, a water within, and dale from da-le, a good place; 
Nidfdale is from nid's-dale, the dale of the river N4d ; 
which is from ni-id, not feen or hidden • Caer Laverocki 
is from caer-lauer-auc, a city or an inclofed place with much 
water; Glancarn from glan-carn, at the fide of a hill, i.e. 
in a bottom at the fide of a hill ; Wachopdal- is from dale 

g 3 , i:vvi. 

tni die river Wtchop from auc-im, the upptr er l^gher Water} 
PenpoAt is the name of a paiifh in South Wales, (b called 
from pen-pont, at the bridge qnd ; Sanchar is from (i-en^caer^ 
it is Bn ancient city i Drumlanrick is from dru-ma-lan-r'-». 
siuc, the great Diuid at the water fide ; Dumfrife is from dunr 
fri-is, a town in a lower country ; Galloway or Galwallia, 
the Gauls or Welfli Gauls, it being certain tnat the Menapii 
pafied over into Ireland from St. David's head, as the Brigantq 
did from Mona or Anglcfcy j Leucopibia, or rather Leucobi- 
thia, the red or white cottages ^ where, as it is faid, the £n- 
glifli inhabited ; Bargeny, perhaps a contradlion of Abergeny 
in South Wales; Dunur caftle from dun-ar, upon the Dun; 
Carrift feems to be from caer-uxa-ti, arcity at the upper or 
high fide ; Ucheltre is from uxel-tre, a high town j there is 
a place of this name in Merionethfhire; Cunningham is from 
cyn-ene-ham, a Icing's home, or the . home of a great chief; 
Arran from ar-au-in, a country in the water j Clyde from 
auc-al-hyd, water all along ; thofe people are a part of the 
Novantcs, which confirms their being a colony of rifls ; Ster- 
ling is from fi-tir-lc-eng, it is a lare^ poflfeilion, or from ii- 
tre-le-eng, it is a town in an extcniivc plac^ ; Aven is from 
Avon a river ; Cumbernald feems to be from cum-bri-en-aU, 
an old Cimbrian town, where dwejt the barons of Fleming; 
it is alfo certain that fome Flemings fettled in a part of Wales; 
this barony is faid to be given them by the Brus's, who may 
be defcended from the Prys's of Wales ; Clydsdalc is from the 
river Clyd mentioned before ; Ranfrew or Reinfraw is from 
r'-en-fro, the ancient country or region ; Lanrick is the fame 
^ the Welfli Lanerch, an upper cr higher yard, or inclofure ; 
Gumrock is from cum-ar^auc, a valley upon the water; 
Glafgow feems to be from glas-ge, the blue nation ; Dum- 
barton is from dun-bro-ton, a borough town, or a hill or a 
high borough town ; Loch Lomond is from le-auc, a place 
of water, and le-mond, a great place ; Levinftone is from 
lef-eng-es-ton, a town in a low extenfive place ; Fife is from 
fi-fe, a place of livelihood; Dunfermling is from dun-ferm- 
le-eng, a farm town in a large place ; Lundoris is the fame 
as Luyn-dirus, in Walesf fignifying a thicket or overgrown 
buflies ; Banbrich from ben-bri-ix, at the top cr end of the 
high country ; Strathern is from fi-traeth-ern, it is the ftrand 
of Ernor the river Ern ; which is from er-en, a high or an- 
cient water; Tulibardin feems to be from tuly-barddyn, 
Merlyn's family ; Argyle or Argathel is from ar-g-wyddel, 
the Irifliman's country; which is likewife called Dalreudini, 
from dal-reuda, th: holding or tenure of Reuda, who brought 


s c 

fl colony thither out of Ireland ; Alcluith is from a!* 
cluyd) upon or above the Clyde ; Cantire may be either from 
can-tir, the hundreds, or from cau-in-tir, (hutting in the land i 
Loghfinon is frpm logh-fin, a logh at the edge or confines ; 
Lorn is from le-ar-en, a place upon the heighth ; Braidalbin 
h from bro-hyd-al-ben, a country along the hilly or high end; 
Drumalbin is from trum-albin, tne heavy albin, or the heavy 
hilly end ; Bryn-albin, a hill at the hilly end ; Perth is from 
perth, a bufh or a thicket ; Dunkell is from dun-kyll, the 
town of hazles ; Ruthven feems to be the fame as ruthun 
in Denbighfhire, fignifying a fre^ or rotten rock or foil ;'^ 
Gowry is from gwyro, floping ; Scone is from fi-cae-en, it 
16 an ancient city ; Arrol is from ar-au-al, it is upon the high 
or large water 5 Angus is from en-auc-iu, it is upon the v^a- 
ter; Forfar feems to be from fordd-faur, the high way; 
Dundee is from dun-dee, for tai, the Dee town, which is 
probably from the river Dee in Wales ; for they both muft 
come from the privative di, dark or unfeen 5 or from di-au^ , 
water unfeen ; Brochtycrag is from bro-ux-ti-craig, a country 
above the rock fide ; Aberbroth is from aber-bro-ith', it is a 
Country upon the water, or upon a haven or harbour ; Mon-* 
trofe is from mont-rhos, the morafs hill ; Merins is front* 
mor-in-es, low upon the fea ; Marr is froni ma-ar, the great 
country. Here are the rivers Dee ; Aberdeen, is from aber 
deerjn, that is, a harbour or port upon the river Dee ; the ri- 
ver Ratra is from r'-au-troi-ar, the water turning earth ; the 
river Doue is the fame as that in Cardiganfliire ; Mufray is ^ 
from Murry," the name of an ancient family, which fee ; here 
were feated the Vacomagi, a part of the Ordovices or Cum- 
bri ; Loquabre is from logh and aber, the mouth, port or bar-* 
bour of the lakes ; of this country was Fleance, who married 
Nefla, the daugther of prince Griffith ap Llewelin, of North 
Wales, whence the royal family of Stuarts ; Rofle is from 
rhos, a large morafs, or a wet heath ; there were a people here 
fettled called Cante, which fignifies the firft or foremoft, 
being' probably a part of the Brigantes, who firft landed in 
Kent, and were from thence called Canti ; Admanoch is from 
ad-man-ux, an upper country part ; Tarborth Is the fame as 
Treborth in Anglefey, which is from tre-r'-borth, the port 
or ferry town; Cromer feems to be from cum-mer, the 
great comot ; here were feated a people called Cerones, pro- 
bably from car-ioncs, coufins of the lonians, who were the 
people of North Wales, as the Merion or Mer-Jon, the 
great lonians of Merionethfliire ; Ma-ion, the great lonians. 
of Anglefey J and Caernarvon the fame ;• it being compofed 

g 4 Qf 


of c2tT a city, ar upon, and mon chan^ng into v6aiii com*^ 

gfition; Celinus or Killan, is the fame as CeiUy-hen and 
ilaii in Caernarvonfhire, fienifying an ancient cell or grove of 
bazles ; Cathnes and Catini the inhabitans thereof, are from 
^au-ti-ni, inclofinz our pofleflions or the borderers ; but this 
name was from the Brigantcs, Germans, &c. Strathnavem 
feems to be a corrupt term formed of fi-traetb-navern, it is 
the Northern fhore, or the (hore of Navern ; here were the 
Comabii as in Cornwal and Britany fignifying from com-bi, 
dwellers in a corner ; Tarvifium is from tervin-ifa, the lower 
confines ; Thule is from ddu^le, a dark plac^ -, Ockil hills 
ftx)m uxel, high or a high hill j Glen Lyon from glyn-ly-ion, 
die vale of tl^e Ionian family ; Drumond is froni dru-mond, 
the great Druid, or the Druid hill, or from dai-mon-id, he 
js the Anglefey Druid ; ' Dumblane is from dun-rblaen, the 
foremoft or fartheft to^n ; Loghfine is a lake upon the con- 
fines ; Lochau }s the water lake ; Kintyre and Kinter, arc 
from k^i-tir, the firft land, or can-tir, the hundreds ; Dun* 
dee is from dun-dee, a town, and not a hill upon the Dee, 
dun being by miftal^e made to fignify a hilL becaufe the 
towns anciently f{:ood upon the bills, as well as our groves 
and bufhes 5 Brechin is from bri-auc-in, a country or poflfef- 
iions upon the water ; Aberbrothock is from aber-bro-at-auc, 
the port or harbour of the country or region upon the wa- 
fer ; Mearn is from ma-au-ar-in, a country upon the great 
"Vvater; Dunotir is from 4^n-P-tir, a town out of the land; 
Inerurie is from in-au-ar-iu, it is land upon the water j 
pamf may be either from be-am-fife, the part aboi|t Fife, or 
be-au-am-fe, it is a part furrounded by water j Elgin is from 
^I-gc-en, the ancient highland nation ; Nearne is from in- 
au-ar-ni, our land upon the water ; Killoffe is from kill-ifa, 
the lower ha^le grove; Badenoch is from be-at-en-ux, the 
part at the upper heighth ; Inerneffe is from in-ar-nefle, the 
Country of the river JNefle; and Nefle is from ni-au-is, our 
lower water ; the river Narne is from in-ar-ni, in our coun- 
try ; whence the country of Nearne ; the Brae of Marr, the 
country of Murray ; Dornoch is from darn-ux, the upper 
part. Here are the river3 Portneconter from porth-ni-ux-in- 
tir, our part in the upper lands ; Unes from au-ni-es, our 
Jower water; Strathnaver is from fi-traeth-ni-au-ar, it isouy 
fhore upon the water ; Cathnefle is from cau-ti-ni-es, indof- 
\ng our lower pofleffions or fide ; befides may other lefs re- 
markable places, which may be eafily defined. 

Here follows a fpecimcn of Scots names, viz. Adam, 
Adams and Adamfon, faid to be of an Hebrew origin, is de- 


Sned in the Celtic, to be the feed of the world; Archibald U 
high and bold; Alexander is a Greek name, defined under Ma* 
cedonia; Andrew, Andrews and A nderfon, feem to be of an 
Hebrew origin ; though made ufe of very frequently in Scot- 
land; Abercrombie, from aber-r-combe, is thecomot harbour; 
Acourt is the court ; Broderic is from th^ old Britifh ab-rode- 
rick, the fon of Roderic ; Boyd is the fame as Abbot, bojli 
£gnifying an abode, from the Britifh bod ; Bruce and Brus, 
are from ab-rus, the fon of Rhus ; Blair feems to be a cor- 
rupt term for an ancient family ; Cochran from coch-ur-cn, 
is the ancient red man, or a red prince ; or from ci-ux-ar-en, 
a chief over the high lands; Cerr or Kerr is from the old Bri- 
tifh car, a coufin or a dear perfon ; Cenneth or Kenneth it 
from ci-en-ith, he is an ancient chief; Campel is from ci- 
>im-p-al, a chief on the high borders ; Conyngham is a chief 
of a great home or ham ; Coutts is from cy-i-ti-es, a chief 
of the lower houfe or poflefllons ; Craufurd from ci-ar-y-ford, , 
a chief upon the road or paflage; Charles from chi-ar-li-es, 
is a chief over the lower family ; Cay is from ac-hay, the fon 
of Hay ; Cennedy or Kennedy is from ki-en-idiu, he is a an- 
cient chief; Cardonel is from car-donel, Donel's coufin; 
Carmichael is Michael's coufin; Carnegy is a highland 
chief; Cathcart is a governor of the borders; Cinloch or 
Kinloch is from ci-en-Ii-ux, an ancient chief of the up- 
per family ; Ceith or Keith, he is a chief ; Kintofh is from 
kin-tafh, Tafh's coufm ; or in a more primary fenfe from 
ci-en-tu-es, a high chief of the lower houfe ; Kinard from 
ci-en-ard, fignifies an ancient chief over the pofTeflions ; Col- 
vil is a chief over a village ; Creighton from cry-dun, is a 
ftrong man, or from cry-ton, a flrong town ; Dalrymple from 
fial-yr-ham-ple, is a holder on the ham or vale part ; Dalzel 
is from da-li-is-il, a good family of the lower race ; Donald 
is from dun-en-al-id, he is an highlander ; David from da-vid, 
a good life ; Dun, a man ; Dundafs from dun-da-es, a good 
lowlander ; Drummond feems to be from dru-mon-id, he is 
a mon Druid, or from drummond, a mountain Druid, or the 
great Drujd, it appearing from hiflory that many of the An-r. 
glefey Druids retreated to Scotland, and thence to Denmark,, 
when the Romans entered Anglefey or Mon; DufFfeemi 
to be the fame as the Irifli Taffe, both formed from the Welfh 
nickname TaiFee for Davy or David, or from duf, black 5^ 
Douglafs is black and blue, or from tu-glafs, the houfe 
pf Glafs ; there being another houfe of Glafs in Wales, called 
Guidel-; Elpbingfton from al-phen-cs-ton, ahead over the 



lower town) Erlktne from er-es-ki-cn, an ahdisftit chief be^ 
lovr the watery Elliot from e for y, the, and liod, families; 
Forbes is from fc-ar-bi-cs, he. is over the lower dwellers; 
Fordyce from fe-ar-dy-es, he is over the lower hoofe; Flet* 
cher is from fe-li-tu-uxa^ar, he is over the family of the u{^ 
^pcr hoafe or pofleifions i Frazer is from fe-ar-ifa-ir, he is (h 
vcr the lower country 5 Fergus and Fergufoh are from fcr- 
gy, a chief man ; Garden and Gordon may be either a vali- 
ant man, or a chief over a town ; Grant from a^-r'-en-ti, is 
the fon of the ancient or upper faoufe ; Guthrie is from ag-y- 
tir-hi» fon of the high poiieffions ; GUmor is from ag-il-mor, 
the fon of a great race, or from the race of Miirry y Graham 
from ag-r'-ham, is the fon of a Home ; Gray bom ag-r'-hay^ 
is the fon of a Hay ; Grcgor from ag-cri-giir, is the fon ot a 
ftrong man ; Hamilton is a high mikon, or a high warrior; 
Hay is bold or noble ; Haw&y> the Hay family ; Home <x 
Hume are great pofleflbrs ; Hope from hy-ap^ is an hi^h off- 
Wing ; James, though a very common Scotch name, is of an 
Hebrew original ; Irwin is a win or the blefed 1 Johnfloneis 
from John's (own ; Ingram is an aacient pof&fibr ; Lenox 
fr^n li-en-ux, is an ancient high family ; Loyet is a little 
love ; Lefley from le-es-ly, is the lowland family ; Lyon is 
from ly-ion, an Ionian family, rather than from the Engiifli 
word lion; Lindfay from li-en-dy-ifa, an ancient family 
of the lower houfe or poffeiRons ; Levingflone, a laroe town, 
l^ace or poiTeffions ; Lynch, an ancient high family ; Macken- 
zie from mac-ci-cn-es*au, a fon of an ancient chief on the 
lower water ; Mackay is the fon of Cay ; Macdonald is the 
fon of Donald ; Macdonel, the fon of Donel, or of the upper 
houfe '^ Macduff, the fon of Duff; Macdaniel, the fon of Da- 
niel ; Macglaflian, the Ton of an ancient Glafs ; Mackworth, 
the fon of Worth ; Maxwell is from mac-fewel, the fon of 
Sewel ; Macpherfon is from Mac-parfon, the fon of Paribns, 
par changing to pher in compofition ; Macphedris is in like 
manner the fon of Peters ; Macleod is the fon of Eliot, or 
of the clans or families; Macneal, the fon of Neal ; Mac- 
lean, the fon of Lane ; Macfhene, the fon of Jane; Macgre- 
gor is the fon of Gregory ; Macmorris, the fon of Morris ; 
Macgrais the fon of Gray ; Macnamara is from mac-en-mur- 
ly, the fon of the ancient Murry ; Macgrath is the fon of 
Garth ; Macklin is the fon of Glyn ; Mackintolh is the fon 
pf Kintofh, which fee ; Middleton and Milton are from mid- 
dle town, or fignify a great warrior ; Michel is from m-ichel, 
great and high j Molineux from ma-lin-ux, the great upper race; 


s c 

Morton Is from mor^dun, a ereat man; Morejr Is a great prlnoei.- 
Murrey is the fame ; Melvilfroin ma-li-vil, is a great town or 
village family; Montgomery is from mont^gomer or Comer's 
hill in Wales; Maitland from maith, land, enlarged pof- 
fel&ons ; Maule from mau-Ie or mau-li, is a great family, or 
a great place or poffeffions ; Nairn from in-ar-en, in the hilly 
country; Napier from in-y-pe-ir, is in the higher parts; Qgil*. 
vey from uxel-vy, the high dwellers ; Obrien is the ion of Brians 
Ofwald from o-es-'wlad, is a defcendant of the lower country $ 
Primrofe ia the chief Rofs ; Pringle is the chief of an ancient 
family ; Rofs is from rhys, a lord ; Rpllo is from rhi-al-iu, 
)ie is a high prince ; RadcliiFe is from rad-cli-'ef, he is a gra*- 
cious family ; Scott from the Scotts nation ; Sutherland from 
the name of the country ; Sinclair is |;he fame as St. Chir y 
Stuart is from il-tu-wart, |t is a boufe warden ; Sommerville ia 
a furamer village ; Sempil from fi-am-^p-al, he is over the 
higheft part ; Saiidilands is the fame as fandy land ; Strahan 
is from ii-tir-hen, k is the ancient poileffions ; Seton is froni^ 
from fi-ti-en, it is the ancient pofieilions ; Talmafh is from 
ti-al-mafli, pofleflions upon the marfh ; Weir is from wyr, 
the men ; and Wemyfe or V/emys is from y-am-is, the lowey 

Sc AMANDER, a rivcr of Phrygia Minor, is from fi-*auc-anw 
dir, it is the water about or furrounding the poiTeifions* It 
is faid that this river was named Xan^hus by the gods ; thofe 
gods muft have been.the Phrygians, for the term Xanthus ia 
of a Phrygian original, and compofedof auc-in^tu-iu, it is tha 
water upon the polTeiiions. 

Scandinavia, comprehending Sweden, Norway, Fin-^ 
mark and Lapland, anciently fuppofed to be i (lands, is from 
fi-caurti-in-au, they are poffeffions inclofed within the water; 
this country was alfo called Baltia, Baiilia and Scandia, all 
fignifying poffeliions in or upon the fea or water; but the 
Romans after they became acquinted with the Goths, who 
then were called, or went by the name of Cumbri, therein 
including Jaitlaiid, or the Cimbrian Cherfonefus,. whi^h ha» 
been dehneJ elfewhere, called them the Cimbrian iflands. A& 
all ancient names of perfons and places of this country were 
Celtic, the founders liiuft have been the Germans, and Bri- 
tifli Celtes, who were alfo called Cymbri as- might be illuftrat- 
cd by the Triades, and other Britifh manufcripts, notwith- 
ftanding the northern hiftorians, to the, great prejudice of the 
Celtic antiquities, would fix the origin of the Goths, Viii-^ 
goths, Oftrogoths,. Gretae, Dacians, Gepidae, Vandals, Sue- 
yes, tiie Franks, Heruli^ Dacians and Lombards, or Longo- 


s c 

bards, in this country, as dcfccndcd from the Scythians; and 
it is probable, that the name Longobard may be from llong- 
bard, the (hip bards, as well as from long beards, it being 
laid in hiftory, that they landed in this country in three (hips. 

ScYTHiA, is from fi-uxa-ti, it is the upper pofleffions. 
Here it may be proper to define the names of fuch of their 
ancient kings as have come to our knowledge j as Scythes the 
firft is from fi-ux-ti, he is the upper poffetorj Napisis from 
cn-p-is, upon the lower part ; Pithra is from p-itha-ar, he is 
over the farther part; Sagillus is from fi-ag-al-lu-is, he 
a£b over the lower families ; Madyes is from am-ty-es, over 
the lower poffeffors ; Thomyris is from ty-maur-is, the lower 
great houfe } lancirus is from an-ci-ar-iu, it is a chief over 
or upon the earth, or perhaps from un and cyrus, a cyrus one; 
Indathyrfus is from un-da-tyr-is-iu, he is a good one of 4c 
lower pofleffions ; Targitus is from tir-ux-idiu, he is the up- 
per pofleffions ; Calaxais is from cy-al-ux-is, a high chief 
above the lower ; Scholipethes is from fi-chy-al-y-peth-is, 
he is the chief above the lower part ; Panaxagoras is from 
pcn-ux-y-gwyr-as, the head over the lower people, that is, 
a chief over the people ; Tanais is from to-yn-as, covering 
the lower country ; Saulius is from fi-al-y-is, he is upon or 
above the lower ; Spargapifes is from fi-p-ar-ux-p-li-es, he 
is a thing above the thing that is lower, but there is a tranf- 
pofition of a fyllable, for it ought to be fi-p-ux-ar-p-fi-es, 
it is the thing or head high upon the thira that is lower; A- 
rypcthes is from ar-y-peth-es, upon the lower part ; Scyles 
is from fi-cy-al-es, he is the chief over or upon the lower; 
Oftamafades is from ux-tu-ma-ifa-id, he is over the great 
lower houfe; Ariantes is from ar-ynt-es, over thofe that are 
lower ; Atheas is from a for y-ti-hi-as, the high lower houfe, 
Lambinus is from al-am-ben-ys, high over the lower part. 
It may not be improper alfo to define a few names of places, 
&c. as mountains, viz. the Alaini Rhymici is from aJ-en-i, 
high in the fky, and rhym-yxa, the upper edge or circle; 
Noroflus is from en-ar-ifa-iu, it is high upon the lower part; 
Afpifii is frorti as-p-fi-hi, it is the high part; Tapurini is 
from it-p-arrcn, it is the part on the iky ; Sybees is from fi- 
hi-Be-es, it is higher than the lower part; and Anarei is 
cn-ar-hi, high in or upon the fky; As alfo of other 
countries or nations, which are not formed out of the 
names already defined, vfz. the Saetiani from fi-ti-en, 
they are the higher poflfeffions; Maflei from maefau, the 
champ^in or open country ; Afmani from asrman-ijj the 
lower parts; Afiotae from if|i-ti, the lower pofleffions ; la- 


S E 

yarte from ixa-r*-ti, the upper pofleffions ; Malagcnr frcftn 
jma-al-og-eeni, the natioq of Magog; Samnita is from fi- 
am-ni-ti, it is die pofiefllon about us ; Coraxi is from cwr- 
yxa, the upper borders; Galaftophagi, the milk eaters; , 
Qaenes is from wya-cn, the egg ones or egg eaters ; Ariace 
is from yr-uxa, the uppermoft ; Anarici is from yn-r'-uxa, 
upon the uppermoft ; Namaftae is from in-am-as-ti, the low- 
er poffeifions ; Sagaraucse is from fi-og-ar-uxa, it is Magog's 
upper country; Rhibii is from r'-hi-be, the high part, or 
perhaps from Rhiphath; Davaba a city is from da-va, for van- 
bi, the dwellers in a good place ; Mafagetes is from Mefh- 
ech, which fee under Japhet ; Iberia, the water country ; Si- 
beria, it is the water country, or perhaps from Iberia ; Bac- 
tt^ians is from bi-ux-tir-en, the dwellers above the high coun- 
try ; Sogdians is from fi-og-ti-en, it is Og's' upper polleffions ; * 
Sacks feems to be a contraction of feck in Mefheck, their 
being ufed to plunder, giving it that figniScation in a fe- 
condary fenfe, or perhaps, though not fo likely, from fi-ac-ge, 
it is the adlive nation ; Sarmatia is from fi-ar-ma-ti, it is up- 
on the great poffeffions or poffeffors ; Albania is from al-ben, 
the (lilly end ; Colchis is from golchi, to wa£h, it being the 
lea coaft of the Euxine ; Circaffia is from cwr-ux-afia, the A- 
Hatic upper borders, or from cau-arrafia, to fliut upon Afia. 
Alfo as to rivers, Rha may be from r'-hi-au, the higher wa- 
ter 5 as Volga is from ve-al-auc, it is the higher water ; Oby 
from o-b-y, from die high part, or from au-bi, the fpring- 
ing water ; Lena is the faireft or clareft ; Amur is from amyr, 
impure, or from am-au-r, the water inclofing ; Helum, from 
hi-al-am, the water inelofing the high or hilly country ; lax- 
aft^s is from i-auc-ar-ti, the water upon or bounding the 
pb0eflions ; Oxus is from auc-iu, it is the water ; Tyras 
fi:bm tyr-as, the lower country, as Neifter is from in-es'-tir, 
in the lower country ; Palus Maeotis is from p-al-u, part 
upon the water, and am-au-ti, poffeffions about the water, 

. Sertorius, a nobleman of Rome, and a confederate in 
Sylla's faftion, is from ci-ar-tir-iu, he is a chief over the land. 
Semir AMIS, queen of Aflyria, is from fi-maur-am-is, fhe 
is a great governefs. 

; Seneca, an ancient Roman philofopher, is from ii-ena-ci, 
he is a moft ancient chief. 

' Seleucia, a city and country lying on the Mediterranean 
fe^, towards Syria, is from fi-al-au-uxa, it is the uppermoft 
on the fea. 

Sequana, or the Seine, a river dividing. the ancient Belg» : 
frl>m the other Gauls and Celtes, is from fi-auc-gu^, it is 


t)» tlrealccft water, the Garon being ttie roQg^, stni tki 
Loire or Liger the lefs a£Ung water. 

Shem* the fecond fon of Noah, is from ii-is-ham, he is 
below his brother Ham, or the couhtTy about ; in Gene-' 
fis ix. 26 and 27* Noah did not blefs Shem with any woild' 
ly pofleffions ; but curfing Cham or Ham in his fen Canaan, 
be bleflcs Japhet, by faying that he (hould be enlarged, diat 
he fhould dwell in the tents or pofleffions of Shem, and that 
Canaan alfo ihould be his (ervant; whereby it appears that 
he was in effedl invefted with the inheritance or dominion d 
the whole earth, without any expreft gift eithtrr to Shem or 
Cham, except by implication, only for a limited tone ; but 
the bicffing (if any) belonging fo Shem Wsls of a me^rfpi- 
ritual nature ; fuch aa was afterw^s beftowed b7 the patriarchs 
upoo their defcendaots as a birthright ; which Ifaac could not 
recall in favour of Efatt^ though he coutd give Mm pofieifions, 
in confequence of the call of Abnun. The feveral names 
mentioned in Genefis, as the defcendants of Shem, fignifV the 
feveral nations defcended from him, and their refpedive iitua- 
tions ; and dicy are named as follows, viz* thofe csdied hi^ 
fona wereEIam, Aikur^ Arphaxad, Lud and Aram ; Aram's^ 
three fons were Us, Hull, Cjethur and Mafh ; Arphaxad had 
Sbelah> M'ho had Ebcr, -f whom came Peleg and Jocktanj 
but as the names of their defendants feem to partajbs not a 
little of the Babylonian dialed):, and Mofes has exprefly fixed 
their pofleffions to lye between Mefha and Shephar, a mount 
of the eaft,' it may not be worth my labour to give myfdf 
a«y trouble concerning them ; but as the other appellatives 
are of a Celtic original, I undertake the e;:^plication of them 
as follows, viz. Aram is from ar-am, the country about, or 
ac-ham, the land, of Ham, which was probably Shinar or 
Babylon ; Elam is from al-am, upon the about$ or the coon- 
try about ; which was Aram*s ; Lud is from al-ad, adjoin- 
ing to £lam's ; Aihur is from afli-^^r, the lower coantry ; 
Arphaxad is kom ar-ph<-au€-is-id, he is on the parts of the 
lower water; Shelah, his fon, who muft have been fixed 
within the father's limits, is from iflia-le, the loweft place; 
Eber is from e-ber, the water, i. e, the Euphrates ; Peleg 
his fon, who fettled in part of his father^s pofiefHons accord- 
ing to Mofes, is from p-al-aug, the part up the water; and 
Jocktan his other fon, is from i-auc-tan, down the water, 
th^t is, one up the river Euphrates, and the other down 
that river ; the four fons of Aram muft alfo have been fettled 
in different parts of their father's country, as Us in a low, 


16 1 

HWJ in a high^^ Getber in a wet or ;Vater,. anjI^Mill^.aich^n^ 
pain country, vfl^ich their names impart. Sec Euphrates and. 

?tber Aflyrian names of perfoxi* and places j alfo. Japliet,: 
^ham and Adam. 

Shenaar or Sennaar, a country on the Euphrates, ta 
which Noah and his defendants removed from Ar.^at9. th^ 
refting place o£ the. ark, and built Babel, is from fhi-ei>-ar^ 
lit i& 3ie ancient country, probably from its being theiif ^t^r 
diluvian abode, whi^r^ the ark wa$ built, or from its b^ing 
-tt^e paradife of Adam. 

SiCAMBRi, a people of Guelderland, fituated b^.^>!^n the. 
Maes and the Rhine, is froi^ifi-cumbri, the fea Cumbriis 

SiBYLLiE or Sibyls, is from Cybele, which fee. 

Sicily, a large ifland in the Mediterranean, is from Sicy« 
on-ly, the family or nation of Sicyon, or from the Sicani-ly^ 
the Sicani nation. 

SiRACUSE, a city of Sicily, is from fi-ar-auc-fi, ifcisi a^cilyv 
upon the water* 

SiDON, a city of Phoenice a province of Syria, fai^tohave* 
been founded by Sidon, the eldeft fon of Canaan, i§ from ii- 
don, the found of the waves, it lying upon the Mediterranean: 
ihorc within the hiifing found of the waves of the fea; wbfinos^ 
it was called Sidpn, and from whence Sidon' had« 

SiMois, a river of Phygia, is from ii^am-au, the fur^. 
rounding or boundary water. 

SiRiA,.or Syria, the iirft inhabited partof Afia^ 19 (riomff 
for cy-ar, the firft cojai>try. This country lyes weftw^rd of 
t{ie Euphrates^ but Ailyria is fituated eaftward on th^t river $ 
where A{hur the fon of Shem founded a natioa, who. neere 
called Aibur or Aifayrians, rather than the countiy froxa. 
Aikur, as fome antiquarians have imagined. 

SiCYON, an ancient little kingdom in the north part of; 
Peloponnefus, is from fi-cy-ion, th? chief or firft city of Ion j. 
fee Peloponnefus j it was alfo called ^giola, probably froof^ a^*. 
gy-io-lu, the firft or chief Ionian family j who is f^4to baye* 
been the firft king thereof in the time of Terab i bi^ fuccef--. 
for Europs is from ar-y-p-is, over the lower patt 5 TelchiA 
is from teulu-ux-en,, the upper ancient family. Apis fro^i M 
for y-p-'is^ thip lower part, or from ap-is, from the lowfifc. 
or the lower fan^ily S Thelxiot^ is from teuli-ux-ion^ thf up.^ 
per family of Ion 5 ^girus is. from io-gur-iu, he is a^ Ioni- 
an man ; Thuriouchus is froni tyr-ma-uxa, the g^-e^t vpp^ 
pofleflpr or lord ; Leucippus is from lu<uxar-p-i% bf i^ th«i 
upper family) MofTapius is from ma-ifa-p-iu^ h^. is of thf 
great jk)wefkpaf.ti Pefatus is frgfli ap-jf nu-es, fepgi^^lpw. 


eft pofleflbn I Pltmnevis is from ap-iu-ma-en-Iu^ he is froiti 
a great and ancient family; Orthopelis is from wr-ith-ap^lu-^ 
is, a man he is from the lower famflt' ; Marathon is horn 
mar-a-thu*ion, a §reat from the houfe of Ion ; .£ch3n:tus is 
from uxa-ar-iu, he is the upper country ; Corax from cy-5r-ux, 
a chief of the upper country ; Epopeus is from ap-io-pe-iu, 
be is from lo's part; Laomedon is from lu-io-ma-dyn, a 
great man of the Ionian family ; Polybius is from ap-io-'ly- 
biu, fprung from the Ionian fiunily ; Inachus is from un-uxa- 
iu» he is the upper one ; Phaeftus is from ap-is-tu-ii, he is 
from the lower houfe ; Adraftus is from a-dir-as-idiu, he is 
from the lower country ; Polyphides is from ap-io-lu-pe-id^ 
he is a chief of the Ionian family ; Pelafgus is from pella-is- 
re-iu, he is the fartheft or lower nation ; Zeuxippus is froia 
u-is-uxa-p-iu, he is the lower of the upper parts. 

Socrates, an Athenian philofopher, is from fi-o-cry-ti- 
es, he is from lower flrong houfe. 

Solon, an Athenian lawgiver, is ff oni fi-t>-]u-ion9 he is 
of the fanuly of Ion. 

Spain, leparated on the north towards Gaul by the Pyr- 
henian mountains, and on the other fides bounded by the Me- 
diterranean fea, the bay of Cadiz, the flreights of Gibraltar, 
the weftern ocean, and the fea of Cantabria, is from is-peiij 
the lower end j it was alfo called Iberia, from i-ber, the water, 
rather than from any Iberian colony from Mount Caucafus 
fettling there ; whence alfo the river Ebro ; it was called 
Tartefa from tir-ty-ifa, the country of the lower poileflions 5 
Lufitania is from lu-ifa-tan-au, the loweft family or nation 
upon the water. Some of the towns here have Celtic names^ 
as Orabriga, which from ar-au-brigc fignifies Briges upon the 
water; Talabriga is from tuly-brige^ aBrigian family; Lan* 

fobriga is from lan-auc-briga, Brigians on the water fide ; 
lerobriga is from mer-o-briga, Briges from the fea ; Neme- 
tobriga is from nim-tu-briga, no poUefRon Brigians ; Ifallsc- 
Cus is from ifa-le-auc, the loweft water place ; Amea is from 
am-au, about the water; Ebora is from e-bro-au, the neigh- 
bourhood of the water; Bletifa is from ble-ti-ifa, part of th« 
loweft pofleiSons ; Olifipo is from y-le-ifa-pe, the place of 
th» loweft part; alfo cadledLifl»n, from le-is-bon, a place 
at the lower root ; Coimbrica or Coimbria is from Cumbri^ 
the comot Briges ; Tarraco is from tir-uxa, the upper coun- 
tky ; Saguntum is from fa inftead of cae a city, and gunta^ 
firft or foremoftx the ifjand Erytha is from er-eitha, the far- 
theft or utmoft bounds ; Cantabria is from cynta-briga, the 
firft or foremoft Briges; Hierabriga is from, hira-briga, the 


T H 

oldeft dr longeft Brigesj the mountain Herminius is fronv 
hir-mini-iu, it is the long mountain; the river Durius is from 
dvrr, water; the Celtiberi is from celti-bri, the hiding Brigi- 
ans ; Brigones is froin brig-iones, the Ionian Brigians, or 
the firft or chief nation of lonians, Briges, from bri-ge, figni- 
fying the firft nation. 

, Strophades, two fmall iflands at the lower part of the 
Ionian fea, is from (i-tir-au-ph-at-es, it is water land, or an 
ifland at the lower water part. 


TACITUS, Cornelius, a Roman hiftorian and an ora- 
tor, is from ti-ifa-idiu, h€ is from the loweft houfe, 
who were the Greeks; and Cornelius is from ci-or-en-li-iu, 
he is a chief froin the ancient family, who were the Umbri, 
Sabines, &c. the Aborigines of Italy, fo called from their 
firft name of Brigines, of the fdme nghification as the Ladn 
ab engines, that is, from the origin, or the firft nation. 

Tadmor, an ancient city of ralmyrene, which is fuppofed 
to be the place where Adam was created, is from tad-maur, 
the great father. 

Tagus, a river falling into the Atlantic ocean at Lifbon, 
is from tagii^ to choak. 

Tarixia, fituated at the moiith of the Nile, is from tir- 
uxa, the upper poflef&ons. 

Tartessus, a river of Spain, emptying itfelf into the gulph 
of Cadiz, is from tiir-ti-ifa, the land of the lov^er pofTeffions. 

Telchines, who, according to Ovid's Metamorphofes, re- 
moved from Crete into Rhodes, is from teilu-ux-en, the 
chief divine houfe or family. 

Tel AMON, king of Salamis, and one of the Argonauts, 
•who is faid to have been at the fiege of Troy, is from teilu* 
maeon, the family of the Maeones j whence the Celtic term 
2n6n for a root or ftem, the Maeones being the moft ancient 
nation defcended from Japhet, and the name fignifying the 
great lonians or Japhetans. 

Tenedos, an ifland oppofite Troy, in the ^gean fca, is 
from ti*in-au-id, it is a pofleffion or Country in the water ; 
it went at firft by the name of Leuchophrys, from le-auc-phri, 
a Phrygian water place. Here the Grecian fleet ufually lay 
conceated, at the fiege of Troy, according to Homer. 

Teucer, a Trojon prince, is from tu-uxa-ur, a man of 
the upper houfe* 

Thasus, an iilanil on the coaift q( Thrace, in the JE- 
. . i ■ "^ ■ ' • ft " ' - .8«^ 

T H I 

gcan fen, IS from ti-au-as-iU) it is the lower Watier poflei&oi^ | 
or a water poflcffion of the lower country^ Thrace bcine id i 
call;.d, and this illand mtghc have been probabfy called Thm- 
fus, and not Thafus. i 

THEt" \, a GrL'cian ifland, Is from tir-au, water poffiifioM. 
Here ..?,a fituatcd the city. Cyrene, ip called from caer-eoa^ 
the ir.oft ancient city ; near it lay the ifland of Melos, ¥4uch 
is from arti-al-au-fi, it is furrounded by the fea of high 

Thess ALY, a country lying between the iEgean fta on the 
eaft, and Epirus to the weft, is from ty-ifa-ly, the houfe or 
pofTefHons of the loweft family. The mountains here arc 
Olympus, from ol-am-p-iu, it is the part about the fun; 
Otnrys, from o-tyr-is, from the low ground; PeKon, from 
pe-al-tin, the high top one ; Ofla is from o-ifa, frotn or iiot 
the loweft. Here is the plain of Pharfalia, firoixi pk-^-&i- 
iu, it is the low part of the country. Here are axfo ievc^d 
great rivers, as Pencus, from pen-au-es, water with its had 
in the lower part ; Aliacmon is from al-auc-man, the tnter of 
the higher part ; Erigon is from er-auc-en, the upper watff ; 
and Axius, from auc-is-iu, it is the lower Water. The dm 
cities were Larifla, from laur-ifa, the loweft ground or hot- 
torn ; Demetrius feems to be from te-am-au-tre, it is a town 
upon or about the water ; Pegafa is from p-auc-iia, the Iowa 
water part; Hypatha, from hy-pctha, the high parts, and 
Pythion, from petha-ion, the Ionian parts. The kings hat 
were iEfon, from ifa-un, the loweft one; Jafon the feme; 
' Pelias, from ap4i-as, from the lower family; theiAt]gonauts, 
or the failors of Argos failed from this country in puiifuit rf 
the golden fleece to Colchis, on the eaftern fide of the Eux- 
inc fcaj Acaftus is from ac-af-tu^ from or the fan of the 
lower houfe ; Achilles, the famous fon of Peleus, is from ac- 
hil-li-es, from the race of the lowtr nation, vizv tbe Qnck 
nation, the Trojan being the higher, 

Thrace, bounded on the north by "mount Haemos, OA'fAs 
fouth by the Egean Tea, on the eaft by the Eiixine iea, the 
Heilefpont and Propontis, and on the weft by Macedon 9nii 
the river Strymon, is the fame as Tyras, the; younger ibn V 
nation of Japhet, whofe name from tyr-as, fignified the Io<r$r 
poireffions, this nation or family being the iirft ifaat-fetd^ 
there, as appears under Japhet. There wete (evexal aiideat 
cities here, as Abdera, fronv ab-tiras, froto Tins^ Oefiina, 
from y-ifa-'mae, it is the loweft ; Neapolis, " ftopa yn-^u-paj- 
fi, it is upon the water part_; Tirid^ is the larid oflda, or tbt 
^ood land ; ^HymBria Is from £l-^ymbri^ thePhirygilan lorCym- 



briai) taJde ; M^fembria is from ma^s^^umbri^ the Cymbiian 
' .^dds ; ifmaros; from if-mar-iu-fi, it is below the great water ; 

■ JEn9Sy from yji-svu-fi, it is upon the water ; Maronea is froqi 
ttiar-a-U-in? upon the great water ; Styma, frain fi-ty-ma, it 

• -is the great poiflTeffion ; Difcea is from ti-is-au, a poffeffion be^ 

• -low the. water; Hericka is from hlra-cli, the longeft family j 

• -Phrygia is frqm bri-ge, the firft nation ; Philea is from'phe- 
i .al-au, a p^rt upon tjie water ; Anchialus is from yn-ux-al-au- 

.11, it is (he uppermoft on the water ; Auleum is from au-Ie- iu, 
' .it is ^bc- water plade ; N^ftiiis, from yn-ef-tu-fi, it is in thp 
- .lower, yoflei6pi)s ; .Hebrus is from hi-ber-iu, it is the high wa« 

■ .tier; bcifides Qther more modern cities. The mountains here 

are'Hasnusy.fcQCQ.hi-am-iu, it is the high or upper inclofure 

i .or bovwdary ; Rhodope^ from r'-hyd-y-pe, the length pf the 

: -part or country ; and Orbelqs, from yr-be-al-iu, it is the high 

J ..{Mut. The livers of ^y npte are the Hebrus, from hi-ber-iu^ 

i it is, the jbigh water, or high fpring water; Strymon, from fi- 

i; -tyr-y-tnon, it is the land of t-he Mepnes, the great Ions, or 

? .the firft land ; the Paayfus, from pen-ifa, the .lower end; an4 

t .others of. l^er note. Here is a peninfula called the Thiracian 

! .CbecfonefuS) from tir-as, Thi;ace, and cwr^fy-^nefa, the pact 

i ,dr CQcner that is nearpft, perhaps of the lower country, and 

; ,{v it is to. the continent pf Afia* It feems probable that a part 

! of this country was firft peopled bv the Phrygians, who alfb 

; 4^anted Sit leaft the upper part of Macedonia before the Creeks 

got thither, and fo prevented their getting over into Italy over 

.thp ftr^ights by fea, till njany ages after they had got along 

/the Adriatic co^ft into Italy^ and ftocked it with inhabitants 4 

--This. country was divided between feveral fmall nations, as th^ 

DoIonaci{ from dol-^hen, the ancient dwellers in valleys orvil- 

dagcs^ fbe.€eletae, from celu-ti^ the hidden poileflbrs, which 

-Were: from TyrsiSr ^3 all were who had a ti in their names 5 thw 

Denceletae5 wrote by miftake Denfeletas, is from ti-en-celetae, 

:the ancient poffefEons of the Celetes ; the Biftiones, from ab-» 

:Ss*-ti-iones, from the lower houfe lonians; from whom came 

'-'tbe'fidE, fignifying from abrifa, from. the lower; Odoman- 

-tcs Js from o*tu-ma-ynt-e8, they are from the lower great 

ifacmfe; Gicones is from ci-ac»iones, the chief oitspring 

pf the lonians ; Edones is from ida-iones, the Ida lonians ; 

^Srigi ()r;Biigsafls fignify the ftrft nation or firft born ; Thyni, 

•ft»m.ti-fta?d^^tbc.9ocientpofreffors; Pieres, from ap-rhis, that 

is, the defcendants of Rhys, or of princes or fovereigns, or 

.a people- governed by kings ; Odryfae feems to be from o- 

tyras, deflsendants of Tyras, or pf th? Ipwer pofleiTors ; ap^ 

h 2 o» 

r H 

o, mac and fitt^ at this day, Unifying (bus or defirejadants k 
Great Britain and Ireland; Medi is from ma-ti, tlie grqi 
pofleflbrs ; Sapaei is from fl-ap-sei, it is from the high, that is, 
the upper houfe. Here were many kings, whofe names aic 
partly the fame as the Britifh names, as Khefus; Pirous, lor- 
brafus and Rignu's, mentioned by Homer, which were die 
fame as our Rhys, Rhix-mau, and Imbri-iu, that is, a Icfe 
lord, a great lord, and he is of the Cumbri or the Phrygians; 
Teres, from tyras, a lower poileiFor ; Sitalces, from fi-tUii-afi- 
es, he is from the lower family ; Scuthes^ from fi-cy-ti-ei, 
he is a chief of the lower houfe ; Perdicas, from pura% 
purified; Amadocus, from a-ma-tu-ux-fi, he is fiom tbb 

freat upper houfe, which feems to be the fame as the Biidik 
4adoc or Madox ; Mefades is from m-ifa*ti-fi, he is the great 
lowefl houfe; Cotys is from ci-o-ty-es, a chief from the W- 
er houfe ; Cherfobleptes is from cwr-ifa-ble-ap-ti-es, the low- 
eft end of the place of the lower pofleflbrs; Ariophamesis 
from ar-y-ph-ar-nes, over the neareft part of the lower cooa- 
try ; Diegylis is from ti-uxa-ly-ii, he is a pofleflbr or lord of 
the upper family ; Sothymus is from fi-o-ty-mau, he is firoffl 
the great houfe ; Safales (s from fi-ifa-lu, he is from the lower 
family ; Rhymetalces is from rhv-ma-tylu-ux, he is the great 
rhys, or prince of the upper family ; Rhafcioporis is from 
rhys-ux-ap-rhis, he is a high.Rhis ap Rhis. 

TiMoN, an Athenian, is from ti-mon, or meori, the houfe 
of Maeon, or the great lonians.] 

TiMoTHEUs, an Athenian, is from ti-mau-tu-iu, Beisa 
pofieflbr or lord from the great houfe, which was that of Mx- 
on, or the great lonians or Phrygians ; the Greeks or Javans 
being the lefTer houfe of Ion or Japhet. 

T I s R I, a people of Italy, fo called probably from 
Tyras, as being from Thrace, the firfl poficffions of 

Titans, according^ to Peanron, fignifies bom of the earth; 
Rowlands fays that it is a compound of tyd-tan^ the earth 
fpreading, but the true etymology thereof in my opinion is ti- 
tan, the lower poffeflions, Europe being efteemed the lower 
poflefEons, becaufe the fun appeared to go down in fetting in 
the weft. 

Titus, a Roman emperor, is from . ti-tu-es, a lord 6r 
pofTeiror of the lower houfe, which was the Roman, the an^ 
cient Italians being the upper. 

Tritons, is either from trui-don, through the waves, or 
*from tri-dant, three toothed or trideyit. ... 


W A 

• Troy, a city «f Phrygia, is from tre-io, the town of Iq 
or Japhet; whence the name Trojans. 

Troilus, fon of Priam of Troy, is from tre«io-Iu, the 
fiamily of Troy. 

TuLLiA, daughter of Servius TuIIus, a Rcnnan emperor, 
is from teidy, the family, flic being probably from the Italian 
family. See Italy. 

Tyndarbus, a prince of Laconia, in Peloponhefus, 
married to Leda, the mother of Pollux and Helena, begot 
by Jupiter, is from dyn-da-riu, a good or divine fort of 

Tyre, a city of Phcenicia, is either from the Celtic tir or 
tre, a town or land poffeffed, or from Tyras, the youngeft fon 
or nation of Japhet, who feems to have given names to va- 
rious other places, through which his nation migrated, as 
Thrace, the river Tyras, Tirfi, and Tyrrhenium in Italy, the 
Mediterranean fea, and probably to Tyre, after they attained 
tke dominion of the Mediterranean fea ; and though Sidon 
had been founded by the defcendants of Shem, it is not clear 
to me, that the Tyrians ox Phoenicians of Tyre were the de- 
icenc|ants of Shemt 


WALES, a name ftill unknown to fuch of the inha- 
bitants as are unacquainted with the Englifli Ian- 
'guage, it being given to them by the Saxons, on account of 
their fpeaking the Gaulifli or Waulifli language i but the na*- 
tives call this country Cumbri, and their language Cumbri- 
acg, or the language of the Cumbri. The Romans called 
North Wales Genounia, that is, the ancient Ionian nation^ 
which the Welfli alfo exprefs by the name Guynedd. A3 \ 
there have been many attempts to fliew, that this language, / 
which I call the anpient Celtic, or the language of theCel-* v 
tes and Cumbri, is not the firft genuine language of Gaul 
and Britain, 1 am obliged here, from the natu^*^ of thisi /^ 
work, and to prevent future miflakes amongft qur antiquaries,^ \ 
who have of late been greatly mifled from the righ^ tra6l of J 
antiquities, more efpecially the Scots and Iriflj, by feeking 
after a diflF^ent origin from the Welfli to remove the grounds 
of this error ; and as every thing that appe^s plaufible in this 
refpefl: has been advanced in the Archeologia firitannka by ^ -^ 
Mr. Edward Llwvd, a native of Wale s, by the influence of '~ ^'*'3 
Dr. Hicks and Mr. Wariley, and by m augnyjjiQjus writer^? j?/tV 4 

h 3 ^^^f^'^^^^%.^,;p/iA 

W A 

Enforcing Llwfd's fchcme for ieRroyix^ the aiiticpufy of fbi 
Wciih, I (hall confine myfelf to atn examination of what 
thofe gentle nVen have been pleafed to offer an this octafion. 
^ Mr. Llwyd, in order to prove that the Irifh, ahd not the 
Welft, wtftc the firiV pofleflbrs of Brirahi, has attempted tq 
fhew, that the ancient names of places in firit^inv aretoix 
defined only in th^^ Iriih language, and therefore inflancei 
Ifc, Ufc, or Efc, as names of rivers,; whi^ the Romans 
called Ifca and Dfca^ and the Englifh Eit, Ux, &c. but if 
Xlr.- Llwyd had looked into Dr- Davis's lexicon, he wouH 
have feen under tiic word Fluxus, the Welfh word Jac^ a 
flood, which is a compound of dl-auc^ high water; and in 
many other places of that valuable worky He would have 
found, that auc and au in all compounded wotxts figniffm' 
tcr 5 whence the Latiri term aqua ; he might tl^^re haveleanit 
that is is the tommoh VVcIfh won! for lower, which partidet 
being joined, madelfauc, or Ifc, fignifjing the lower water, 
without being Obliged to force his definition out of the Iiiii 
Uifk, which feems to fignify a liquid nit her thah water in 
general^ and it may be here vcfy properly retorted, thit 
though there arc many more rivers in England, Scotland ani 
Wales called Avon than Ifc or Ufc, yet the word Avon is not 
underftood in the Irifh language to fignify a river, thou<yh it 
be pretended that the Irifli gave names to the Britifh rivers, 
and were the firft pofleflbrs of the country ; but in the old 
BritiSi, au-yon is a water from the fdunt or fpring ^ "fee the 
words Water and River for a more cle^r definition of thcfc 
matters. So are the Irifh words Jitx, kinuy, ban, driai' and 
Icxlia, wb>ch he produced for the like purpofe, to fee found ih 
the old Britifh, as lac, a lake ; kin-au, a great watcir or ri- 
ver; ben, the top or high end ; drem, a ridge, as in feldrcmj 
and Icxi, flates or grey fl:ones. Thus We fee from 'Mr. 
Llwyd's Archeblogia Britaimica, how neccflary the frifh bn- 

Suage is towards writing the Britifh antiquities, and nnder- 
anding the ancient Britifh language. He goes on with fay- 
ing, that it was unneceflary for fatisfaftion therein, to lorfc 
farther than the Britifh common names for a fheepfold and 
milch cattle ; for who, fays he, fhould know the reafon for 
calling a fheepfold korlan, although he knew that Ian Tignir 
ned a yard, if he did not knov/ that the Irilh called fheep • 
caor. Let the Irifh call a fheep what they will, I beg leave 
to fay, that corlan or korlan is altogether a Wclih word, 
compofed of kor-lan, a flail or feeding yard, as kor-yxen, an 
ox itall, &c. As to his guarthcg blithion for milch cattle, 
guartheg is the common Sritifh word for cattle, and blkfaiofa 

4 is 

W A 

is from the old Britiih bi-laetliion» milk cattle; fo that 

Ssfc. dcfedi in the old BritHb may proceed from . Mr. 
wyd*s being lefe acquainted with iv than the Irifli, Hif 
next ftep towards proving the Iriflj, whom he calls Guii- 
deliansg, to be the only Celtes or Galh', is the produ^on of 
the follo\ying Celtic names, which, as he fays, are to be 
fxplaiaed only in the Iriflx ; he fays, that Allobrox is from eile- 
bruach, another country ; but it feems more probable, a< 
thofe people were dwellers in the upper country, diat it conies 
from the old Britifli a-lu-bro-ux, fignifying the family of 
ihe upper country, they being Celtes, as well as the Iriflx ^ 
Aremorici, he fays, is from the Irifh armhurich, a m^itime 
people ; but I have defined it under the word Gaul, to be from 
ar-mor-ifa, upon the lower feaj which cbrrefppnds with 
the other Oaolifli names of places; Alpes is from al-pe, the 
hilly part ; the river Axona he brings from his Uifk, which 
i may as well derive from my auc-en, the upper or higher 
water | Bardus may be from the old Britifli bardd, as well 
as from the Irifli baird ; Belgae he does not define ; but fayai 
the Irifli called them fir-bolg, but I have defined this name 
irnder Gaul ; Benna is faid to fignify a cart ; "but for what 
purpofe it was inferted, does not appear, unlefs it be to en- , 
large the catalogue ; Bondincus, as he fays, is from bon a 
))ot(om, and gan without ; but more likely from bon-di-in- 
auc, water without bottom; Bracca according to LlwycJ 
meant the highland plaid, called brckan ; but it is diiFerently 
defined under Gaul, viz. the upper country, and not the upper 
at } he produces Bolg and Bulga, which are from, the 

Britift bd-gau, abelly-baff; his Cateia a dart fe^ms to be' 
9 Perfic word j which would tend to prove the Irifli to be Perr 
ilans; fo I can find nothing nearer it in the Britifli, than 
cath, a cat, which darts at the mice ; ox cad, a chain, which 
to that fort of inftrument was ufually fixed ; Celtae is as 
ke fays the fame as the Cedil, in the plural Keiliet, but It is 
more likely from the old Britifli particles celi-ti, hidden pof- 
fefibrs, which feveral names of places, as Keli, a cell, celi-r 
dinion, the men cells, or the Caledonian wood, &c. fe;em to 
warrant ; Crupellarius, a coat of mail, he derives from the 
Welfli and Scots, in which we agree ; but not as to his bring? 
ing it from cruban or crubell, a crab fifli ; for cruban fignifie^. . 
crooked, and crupellarius is from ciu-pe-al-ur-iu, it is a 
ilrong thing upoii a man ; Divltiacus he fays is common to the 
Welm and irifli ; but as he has not attempted to define it, I 
will ; it is to be obferved that vaethu or faethu, in the old 
Srit^i is to nurf<?, to which, the priv:itivQ dib^ing ptefixed, it 

h 4 KtiakfiL 

W A 

makes unnurfcd or uncultivated ; and cy, a chief, beiAgaddr 
ed, niakes a chief or king of the uncultivated country 3 or as 
ne was king of the Belgse as well as the Hedui, it may come 

{rom di-vaeth-auc, the uncultivated water place ; but the 
brmer fecms moft probable, the country of the Hcxiui bring 

J)ruidd, Druids, a Britifh word, he brings from the kifh 
draoidhe, but how does not appear ; Dunum in tiie names of 
the Gallic towns, as Uxellodunum, 2^c. as he thinks, is an 
hill, but it fecms to mc to fignit'y a town ; and Uxdtodu- 
num from uxel-Ic-dun, a town upon a high place; feeim- 
dcr Gaul ; and Llwvd himfelf in other places in a manner ad- 
mits it? Goefus a cnampion, he fays, is from the Irifh gaif- 
geath, but more likely from the old Britiffa gwas,' a fcr\'ant, 
which is a compound of ag-w-as, a qian z6ting under ; h 
that it fignifies any fort of a deputy, as a champion, &c. at 
well as a common fcrvant ; Leudus, an ode, he brings from 
the Irifh laiodh, but fee it ptherwife defined under the word 
Ode in the lexicon ; Magus he fays is the fame as the Irift 
magh, a field ; but Magus feems to me to come from ma-ge, a 
^reat country ; for maes has been conflantly ufed in Greece, 
Scythia, Italy, Germany, Gaul, &c. as well as in Britain, to 
lignify a field or champain country, as appears in this lexi- 
con ; Matifco, a town in Ciafcoine, he takes to be the fame 
as' the Irifh mathuifgo, fignifying good water, but it feems to 
me to come from am-ti-ys-auc, about the fide of the lower 
water ; Palla he make^ to be the fame as fallain, a mantle ; but 
i take it to be compo.'ed of pe-al, the upper thing or cover- 
ing, or a thing upon ; Vercingctorlx, a general of the Ar- 
verni, he fays is the fame as the Irifh fear-cean-turus, the head 
man of the expedition ; the Welfh makes it yr-cen-ge-tor-uxi 
the chief lord or prince of the head nation ; and VcrgafiHau- 
nus the under general, from yr-cy-ifacl-un-iu, he is the 
lower or ui^der chief one ; but he makes it the fame as the Irifh 
fear-go-faelen, the flandard bearer ; Vergobretus, which he 
fays tirfl induced him to believe that the Irifh came from the 
Gauls, is according to him from the Irifh fear-go-breath, the 
man that judges ; if this was an occafion for his thinking that 
they are defcended from the Gauls preferable to the WelSi, it 
may be cafily removed ; for the "Welfh language explains it, 
at leafl in as clear and fatisfaAory manner as the Irifh j ur- 
i?V\reth, being the man of law, or the pronouncer of the 
law 3 perhaps it will filfo agree as near with the origin of the 
"' ' ' '• term 

W A 

term cyfraeth, the law, which is from cy-fraedi> the chid 
fpeaking ; but fee the lexicon. Such has been the force of 
Mr. Llwyd's etymologies, as unhappily to miilead man/ 
Britifh hiftojrians, fo as to deftroy the true antiquity of their 
country. The anonymous writer who advanced fomewhat ^ 
on Mr. Llwyd's plan in the etymological way, was the author 
of an e&y on the antiquities of Great Bntain and Ireland, 
printed at Edinburgh in 1738; he, after inforcing Llwyd's 
arguments, wjthn^^^ any Icnnyjedge of fhe any'g"<' ^^}^f^ ^ 
language , propoies the following inftances ; he fays that the 
i>evern is from the Inttx fab, ftrong, and rian, the fea i how 
thefe particles came into any diale£l of the Celtic, I cannot 
find out ; for fab is certainly of an eaftern original, and risin in 
the Celtic fignifies the roaring one, and in the Iriih dialed 
rian muir, may properly exprefs the roaring fea ; be this as it 
Will, >the Severn took its name from the Malvern hills, where 
it has its fource, as appears in Worcefterfhire under die word 
Britaio ; .he derives the origin of . the Thames from Tamh-uif^ 
ge, which he fays is Irifh for tame or flow water ; but I will 
venture to affirm that Tame is as much a German or Engliih 
term as Irifh ; and uifge, as has been before obferved, is a 
compound of the old Britifh particles is-auc, the lower water;, 
but how it came to be applied as a general term for water, does 
not appear, unlefs it be compofed of the old Britifh ys-auc» 
the water; however the Thames being the borders of the 
Iceni, is from ti-am-ice, that is, about or inclofing the pofief- 
fions of the Iceni ; fee Iceni and Thames under the word 
Britain. He brines the river Ouze, at York, alfo from the 
iriih uiige; but 1 have defined it from au-is, the lower wa- 
ter. He produces feveral names in Cumberland, which he 
calls a part of Cumbri or Welfh land, as the river Der- 
went or Derhene, which he defines from dear, great, and 
can, water; but without criticizing on the Irifh dear,, for. 
great, and ean inflead of au, for water, it clearly feems to me 
to come from the old Britifh dur-eng, the great water, or dur- 
cn, the high water ; the town Kefwick he fays is from ca- 
faigh, compounded of the Scottifh cas, the foot, and aig, a 
hill ; if this fhould appear to be a true Scottifh name, it proves 
nothing more than that fo^ne Scotch people have been in pof- 
feflion of this place, as they have been in other parts of 
Wales intermixed with the Welfh, as well as the Welfh 
amongft them in Scotland, or that both languages were ori- 
ginally the fame ; but this name happens to be alfo found 
in the Welfh dialeft, it being compofed of cae-is-auc, a city 
or town below the water 3 aiad the name of Skiddow hill in 

W A 

CiMbtfUnd Ke brings fromfe, the, cead» firft, andi>ftineuA« 
tain ) in flM 0td BritMh altb fi-ldd figni/ics ieis the chief ; hA 
how hec«iiild nnkc it out that the letter a expired a motiA- 
tain, ckxrs not appear to me, tho* the charaAer a taqpnSa 
Ac earth* He produces from Llwytfs letter to Mr. Rowhuub, 
the names Pjchs for hkes, and bannx for tnountamsinRad* 
norftrire, but erery body knows that the WcMh hare hcc, i 
lake, frxnn le^auc, the place of water, and benna for high ends, 
or hills, whence the Irifh names feem to be derived, vriikh 
-V proves the people to be from the Wel(h- The great antiqua* 
/'i^^^j/bat Mr. Cambdcn, for want of a due knowledge of tte 
BritMh, hat been the means of mifleading his country in xt* 
fyc& to thdr origin and antiquities; his definitions of'^ancicnt 
> perfbns and places being very trifling, inconfiflenty and un- 
) htftorrcal ; as in the word Britain, which he brings from the 
Britifc word brith, painted, or rather fpotted ; in fupport of 
which definition he derives all the names of the Britifh chie6 
from colours, as Cogidunus, Argentoraxus, and Segonax, 
from coch, red ; but from my knowledge of the Celtic, ajwl 
iJte correspondence they (hould bear with thd other Celtic 
names of princes, they leem to me to be compofed of cy-uxz- 
dun, the firft chief man ; ar-genta-cy-ux-iu, he is the iirft 
chirf above or over ; and fi-ci-en-ux, he is an high and an- 
cient chief; Maudubratius, Cartifmandua, Togodumnus, 
Bonduica, and Cogidunus, over again, from du black ; but 
they fcem to me to come from mau-du-brys-iu, he is Ae great 
houfe of Pr}'s ; cy-r'-ti-ifa-mau-idiu, he is the chief of the 
lower poffellions ; to-cy-dun, the chief man over, or chief 
lord ; and bon-da-uxa, the higheft and beft ftem root, or 
race ; Wynn he fays is the fame as Vcnufius, and Immanu- 
cntius, and fignifies white ; but it ought to be obferved that 
wynn is alfo blcfled ; and as Venius and other Roman names 
come from wynne, it fecms unlikely that they took thofe names 
from their painting thcmfelves ; and whatever may have been 
alledgcd about the ancient Britains painting themfelves, it is 
not likely tbat any bcfides the Pifts did fo. He fays that 
Gwcllw, inWeMh, is a water colour; and that Vellocatus, 
Carvillius, and Suclla, arc from thence ; but vella-cy-idiu, cy- 
ur-vclla-iu, and cy-ell, inftead of vella or bella, all import 
the moft diftant or fartheft chiefs ; or from veli-uxa-tu, the 
upper houfc of Bolus, He fays that Cuniglafus is from glafs, 
blue; but I Would derive it from cy-en-clu-is-iu, he is an 
ancient chief of the lower clan ; aur, gold, is, as he fays, the 
primitive meaning of Arviragus, and Cyngctorix, but they 
wort likely coqic fropi r'-ur-uxaniu, he is the chiefrft man, and 



iei-^-^r-iuC| in aftcient cHief oter tii^ mnltitude. . He fiiytf 
l^t a lively coloiir is caUed teg» and that PrefutagUB attd Cft^ 
j:i£lac»a is .froAa thence; but teg.iigmiiefi £ur or gentle^ aoi 
(^ra^acus feems to be from cared ic beloved ^ andProfiitagusis 
fiopi pryf-y-tu^ux, a prkc or prince of the upper houie % 
Mclinus Jbie brings from melin, yellow ; but it comes front 
iDa^li-un^ oot bf a great Une or race; Admiaius he fovcea 
from minrunt^y ivHick he fays fignifies vdrmillion, but in what 
language does Aot appear ; thereftxre I fhall prefume that it 
comes &om the. Celtic a^ti-ni-in^iu, he is one frotn the great 
bcruie. , It maj^ j»e proper here to add a few more najnes ia fiips 
port of and concurring with my own definitions^ as Cynobelin^ 
from ^yn-o*beIinIin^ a chief of the line of Beli; Orgetorix^ 
ah Helvcuan chief, from yr-ci-tor-ux> the chief over z 
nniltitude ^ Dumnorix, the Heduan, from dun-mor-ux, a gttat 
inan .above or over ; Iccius, TOvernor of Rheims, is from ixa^ 
fu» he is the uppermofl ) Viridovix, of the Unelli, or winn4l^ 
the race of Wiiui, is from ur-i-tu-ux, over the upper houfei 
womitt»i6f Aras is from ci-^m-iu, he is a chief over ^ Indi*« 
ciomarUs is from is from iin-tu-uxa-mar^iu, he is one of tbi 
]xpper^reat faoufe, probably the houfe of Mauris or Murrys | 
as Viridomaurus is from ar-y-tu-maur-iu, he is over the great 
houfe ; Caifivdianus king of the Iceni, is from cy-ifa-velio 
lin^iu^ a ^king of the Iceni of the line of Beli ; Cativul* 
giis king of the EburoAes, is from cy-ti-vcli-ad-iu, he is A 
chief from the houie of fieli or Apollo ; Ambiorix is from 
am-i-bro-ix, over the upper country ; Tafgetus king of ibt 
Carnutes, is from ti*ifa^i-idiu, he is a chief of the lowet 
)ioufe. or •pofTeiSons ; Conetodunus is from cynta-dun-iu, h% 
is die chref man ^ Ollovico and Teutomatus kings of tte 
Nidc^riges^ or Initio-briges, the firit Plxrygiatis^ ate fr&Si 
Prllu-ui, from the upper family or nation, or from 0-31ti«- 
vico, from the Combe family, and y-to-ma-t«, the Idrd "rf 
t-he, great houfe; Convi6tiolanas, a i.hief ancient magittrate^ 
the Hedui, is from cyn-rux-tilu-en-iu^ he is a chief oVef aa 
jmcient family or nation ; Cotug is from ci-o-tu, chief of the 
Jioufe ; Dunmacus general of the Pi£|:ones, i$ from ^vkii^axA* 
ux, a great man o\^r. 

Welsh names Teem to be of a Phrygian and Gri^cian ori- 
gin, except fome few fcriptu-re namts, which tho' comd[i'»n'ly 
fuppofed to come from the Hebrew, feem to me to %e^ a 
Celtic origin, as David, John, Peter, &c. which thte Jevl^ 
might borrow from the Phrygians 5 but a fpecittien of the 
moft ancient Britifh names, are derived as iFollows, viz. Alati^ 
whence AUfon, &c, is ftom a)-'en, a high oat ^ Aldraen 

'W A 

It from al-dir-ion, the high land or houfe of Ion ; Aled u 
firom al*]d, he is high ; Anarad, is from an-ar-yd, he is an 
ancient governor ; Anearad is from ang-ar-yd, he is a great 

X>vernor; Anwyl, beloved} Arthur, a bear or fierce man; 
rviragus from yr-ur-ux-iu, he is the chief man ; Aubri, is 
from au'bri, a water Briton ; Bevan is from ab-eva^i, the fon 
of Evan ; Beli and Belin are from ab-il, or il-en, die fon of 
the fun, fielus, Apollo ; Beynon is from ab-eineon, die fon 
of Eineon, which fee ; Bodvel is from bod-vel, ahandfome a- 
bode, or like an abbot ; Bowen is from ab-owen, the fon of 
Owen ; Brennus is front brenin, the common Wc^ word 
for a.king, and compounded of ab-rhi-en, the fon of an an- 
fient. prince; Bleddyn is from blaidd-un, a Wolfe one; Ble- 
deric is from bli-dir-ux, a family of the upper country ; Bri- 
tael or Brettel, {igniiies a Briti(h race, or from bert-ael, the 
fea-faring race ; Brychvael or Maelvrich is from milwr-ux> a 
phief warrior ; Bulkly is from ab-al-cly, the offspring of a 
iiigh clan or family ; Budec is from bdd-ux» the upper abode; 
C^cll or Catellus is from cadu-li, the governor or keeper of 
« people ; Cadvael or Maelgad is from mael-cad, a fighting 
^hicf or governor ; Cadvan is from cadu-van, the governor 
of a particular part ; Cad waladr and Cadwalon are from cadu^ 
wlad-ur, and cadu-wlad-un, a governor of a country; 
Cadwgan is from cadw-cy-en, an ancient chief governor; 
Caius is from ci-iu, he is a chief; Caradoc or Caradatus is 
from caredig, beloved ; Carreg a ftonc ; Carne and Gamon, 
whence the Cavendifh family, is a rock or rather fortifica- 
tion on a rock ; Catigcrn, is the keeper or governor of 
the fortification on a rock ; Cemeys is from cwn^ys, the 
lower valley or comot ; Cloff or Clough, the lame ; Clotten 
is from cli-ti-en, a clan or family of an ancient houfe ^ Coch 
whence Cox, Cock, &c. is red ; Cael or Coilus is froni cy- 
al, an high chief, or from ac-io-il, from the race qf lo ; Co-' 
X^tn or Cynen is from cyn-en, an ancient chiefs or JFrom ac-io- 
nian, an high offspring of an Ionian ; Coittpore is from coed, 
or coet-maur, the great wooc} ; Conway is from the town of 
Conway, which js from the riypr, and fignifies the inclofing 
water ; Corbet is from ac-herbet, the fon of Herbert ; Cyr 
naflon or Kinafton a chief or a coufin of Afton ; Cynobert is 
from cyn-o-bert, a chief or ancient water poffelTor, or a chief 
ffomBerti; CyiEn, a borderer; Cyfnerth the chief flrength ; 
pr a flrong chief; Cynedda, a good ;uicient chief; Cynddelw 
aworfhiplul chief; Cynfin, a chief on the borders, of which 
Origin the Finch's feem to be ; Cynval an ancient Beli chief ; 
Cynv^lin, a chief of the race of Beli, being the fame as Cim- 


W A 

belind; Cynric, an ancient chief or prince; hence many 
^axon names ; Cynvarch or Marchyn, a great high chief j 
Cyfvelin or Cafwallon, the lower chief of the race of Bell j 
Davydd, David, Davy, Davies, Davifon andDavidfon, n 
good liver ; Daniel feems to he of an Hebrew original, though 
a common ancient name in Wales ; Dinant or Dinam, a deep 
,or dark bottom ; Dolben, is the head or chief valley, or 
meadow ground J Diinwal, aftrongman, or a wall of a man | 
•whence Weldon, by tranfpofition of particles j Dubricius he 
is Ji bold one ; Edern, the water one, or a feafaring one j Ed- 
;xnund, whence Edmondfon, he is fair; Edwal, he is a waU^ 
or a valiant one ; Edwin, he is bleffed, or he is Winn ; Ed- 
ward, he is a governor ; whence Edwards j Enicon, whence 
Bennion is from en-ion, a divine or ancient Ion or John | 
Eyton or Heaton^ a bold man ; Mytton is from ma^-eton, 9. 
great Eaton ; Elis, Elias, Elifon, is a Greek name, fignify- 
mg ,the lower family j Evan is the fame as Javan, Ion or 
John, that is, the fon of Ion, which fee; Gam is from cain^ 
^crooked ; GeofFry, feems to be the fame as Jeffry or Siaphry, 
which fee ; Goch, from whence the Chomli family, as it is faid, 
fignifies red; Gough, afmith; Glyn, avalle)r; GriiBth^ 
Grlfiin and Griffiths, from cri-ffidd, ftrong faith ; Guyit^ 
white, fair and bleffed ; Guynis, a lower Guyn ; Gugan CX7 
preffes ab ig frowning terrible giant ; Gurvil or Milur, a wai> 
rior; Guinwynwyn is guyn-wyh wyn, wyn thrice repeated; 
whence Gwen ; Grorio is the lame as the Greek cronos or 
coron a Crown ; Guythelin is from guith Elen, the vein ot 
blood of Helen or ancient blood ; Guendolen is from guin- 
deuli-en, one of the ancient family of Wynn ; Guilim or Wil- 
liam and Williams are from ag-il-ma, from a great race^ 
Gradlon is from gur-radJon, a gracious man; Guiderius or 
Guider is the fame as Glafs ; Gurgant is from gur-gy'nta, the 
foremoft or firft man ; Gualchmai is the May hawk or thb 
great hawk; Guenhofar is from gueno-fawr, the great 
Gwen ; Guaul is from ag-y-aul, the offspring of the fun qr 
.Apollo; Gytun, a fociable one, from cytuno to agree or be 
one together ; Haryfpogius is from Harris-ap-og-iu, he Is 
the great fon of Harris or Harry ; Hawys is from hiw-is, 
a lower Hugh, as Guinis is a lower Guyn; Helena, 
Elen, Elenor, Nelly, Neale and Nelfon, fignifies an aa- 
cient race; Heilin is from haul-en, the high or divine 
one or Apollo ; Helic is from hil-ux, a high race; Hen- 
ry, Henric, Harry, Harris, Harrifon and Parry, from ap 
Harry, Pery and Perrin, an ancient prince; Henwin, 
from hen- win, an ancient Win 3 Hoel or Howel an^ 

. , Powcl 

W A 

Powel are from llaul, the foa and ab fjTaul, tBe fon f£ 
the fon J Hiw or Hugh, Hughes and rugb, are from hi-w^ 
a high or bold man ; Holland from the name of HoUand, in 
•Lincolnfhirc } Humphry, Humphrys, from Hy-am-bry, high 
over the land; Holbwrch or Holbrooke is from hil-bro-ux, mt 
the race of the upper country ; Jago, James, are commoa 
WeMh names, though probably of Hebrew origin j Idwal, 
he is the valiant i Juftin, is a common Welfli name, but pio* 
bably of the fame origin as Juftinus 5 Jenkin, Jenkins, Jen- 
kinfoni are from i-en-cyn, the ancient chief j Jcffi-qrs,'|c6' 
fcrfon, are from i-aph-rys, the fon of Rhys ora^priiice; Ithd, 
Birhel or Bethel, from ab-ithel, are from 1-teili, the family ; 
Ibil is froni i-ab-il, the fon of a family, or race ; Ini figni-> 
lies ours or us ; Ion, Joan, John, ap Jbhn, Jonea, John- 
fon, are from io-im, an lo one j Jorworth is from io^wc- 
arth, an Ionian bear, or a fierce or bold Ionian ; Ivor is fioq^ 
i-wr, the man; Lewelin, Liond, Lepline, are fromJirio* 
Itn, a family of the Ionian line ; Lewis, Lew«fon, -areiiiio];! 
li-rio^es, the lower Ionian family ; Ludd or Lud is from lu-id^ 
iie is a family; Lucius is from lu-is-iu, he is the lower £uiii- 
iy; Lwydor Lloyd is eithepfromlu-io-id, he is an Ionian ia* 
miJy, or from lw)'d, brown ; Lvwarch is from llyw-aixJi, a 
chief governor ; Maejor or Mellor is the feme as Milur, 
a warrior; Maeloc is from ma-il-ux, the great upper race, qf 
mil-ux, an high warrior ; Mahacl is from ma^hil, jche great face; 
Madoc, or Madox is from ma-du-ux, the great upper tioufe; 
Maelgwn or Cynvael, by tranfpofition, a chief warrior ; Ma- 
drin is from ma-dir-en, the great high pofleffions ; Manfcl Is 
from ma-en-fil, the great ancient race ; Madan is from ma- 
Hla-un, the great good one ; Mathew, Miathews, is from ma^ 
ti-iu, he is the great houfe; Mauris, Morris, Morrifon, 
Murrey, are from mawr, great, and rhi or rhis, a prince ; 
Marchydd is from mar-ux-id, he is a great chief or govep* 
©or ; Meilir, Miller, are the fame of Maelor, fignifying a 
warrior; Meredith is from maur-idiu, he is great; Miltwif, 
Milton, or Middleton, is from mil-dun, a fighting man, oir 
perhaps the fame as Hamilton, which is a high muton from 
hi-milton ; Meiric is from maurric, a great prince, it is tbfe 
'fame as Murrey, Morris, &c. Mervin or M^eriin, Mervin is 
mer-vin, the edge of the fea, and Merlin, is the fea line; 
Morgan or Cynvor tranfpofed, is from mor-gyn, a fea chidf^; 
Morvid is from mor-vid, a feafaring \\f6', Mpikvynog Is 
from ma-li-wyn-ag, an offspring of the great-Wynn-fBrnily-j 
?M^rtimer, Vortimer, Morty, are from mor-ti-mia-Hr, . a great 
man .from a great houfe ; Moftyn is the fame asmanners^ and 
'figAifies the ancient manor place; Nenius is from en-un* 

\ i«s 

ill, lie is an aiKripftt fMie..; Neft h froip iu--ewt!i, not a loir 
hoiifc 4 Niohol, Nicb^as,. Jikshofe are ^kom ni-ac-^r-Iiraa^ 
not from the lower famUy 5 Oexi, Owen, Oeaust Oweas^ 
fiowen, arc from o-ion,. the foft of lonj Palern or Patenu^a 
k from ap-Edern, the fon of Edeun j hence Pateiibn^ .&C* 
Parry, Perry, Perryn^ are from ap-Harry, or from ap'-hari-en^ 
from an ancient liarry/; Pen, a bead or c^f ; Brus, ^rySg, 
Price, Peircc, Peircy, Peirfon, Pcrcival, from ap-Uy«, .whxcli 
fee; Philip, Philips, Philjpfon, &c. from ap-hi-iJ-^ from 
the race of the upper part or cQuatry 5 this ts of a-Greciaa 
original, vi3e Macedonia ; Petec, Peters, P^terfoi^, %;nl% 
a rock,, and thou^ not of a BritijCh original^ is y^ a very 
common Welfh name ; Penant ox pen-nan^, the mid. iorrtbp 
of a bottom or valliBy ; Pill is froni^p-^HiU from ^Hiilu^ A^ 
the terrttdc fon of Hercules ; whence Hill ; Povwell or ap^How- 

51, the fon of Howell, ApcJlo or Belus, a Greciaia Ti«me:j ^ 
^>wis is fixkmap-Hawis, tl^ fon> of H^wk, fee Hawis.; P^ichr 
ai^d, .from ap-Kidnrd, tfacfon of Richard, fee Ridhsird.; 'Pi^k 
frbm ap-Hugh, the fisn of Hugh, &e Hugh ; Rydderch and 
Piyddiercb, are from rhyHdir-riuc, he is a locd of 4;he tm)er 
country.; Rhydd is from rhy-id, heisalojr4> ana ancieAt v^e« 
cian and Xhcadan name.; from i%-«n,''an ai)«ien( 
lord or a prince, a Grecian and Thracian name ; Rhjrwallon 
is from rhy-wal-en, an ancient valiant lord, a Grecian and 
' Thracian name ; Ricard, Ricart, Richard, Richardfon, and 
i Prichard, is from Rhicard, a princely governor ; Rhys, Rice, 
^ Rus, Roos, Rous, Rofi, RuiTel, and th6fe under Prys, fig- 
nify a prince or lord ; from thofe the family of the Ma- 
nors are defcended ; Robert, Robertfon, Robins, Robinfon, 
Probert, from ap-Robert, is from Orbert, from Bert, or 
from ri-o-bert, a prince from Britain or Bertie ; Rhithmarch 
is from rhi-tu-mar-ux, " a prince of the upper great houfe j 
Roderic is fypm ri-dir-ux, ^a lord or prince of the upper houfej 
Roger, Rogers, Roger fon, &c, arC Trom r'-hi-gur, the bold 
or a noble man ; fronvfi-al'-ma-ion, he is the high 
and great Ionian 5 Sdftri or SaKlbujy, is from fi-al-is-bri, 
he is above the lower country ; Sifyllt, or Cecil, is from fi- 
is-allt, he is below the hill, oj?an under iifll ; Stodart is from 
is-to-dur-ar-ti, below the incl^illng water upon the poffef* 
lions J Sylien is the fame as Sifemis, 'from fi-li-en, he is an an- 
cient family; Taliefm or Tiffifimus is from teili-ys-en, the 
ancient lower family ; Trahern is the fame as Teirn, or ty- 
ranus, a tyrant or prince ; Trevor is from tre-ur, a towns, 
man ; Tomas, Thomas, Toms, Tomfon, Thomafin, &^^ 
feems to be from tu-ma-as, the lower great houfe j Tud^/ 


Theodore, TKeodoric, from tu-di-rick, A princely god 
houfe, and not from theds doron ; Tudwal is from tu-d«-' 
wal, a good and valiant pofleflbr ; William, Guiflm, Wi'Ui- 
imfon, Wills, Wilfon, &c, feeGuillim; Urien or Warren, 
is from ur or wr-en, an ancient or divine man ; whence Ura- 
nus i Uther is from ^-ti-hir, the ancient or long continued 
pofleflbr ; Vortigcr is from vaur-ti-gur, a man of the great 
houfe; Vortiper is from vaur-ti-p3rr, the pure great houfc; 
Vichan or Vaughan, is little; Vortim^ or Mortimar, fee Mor^ 
timerj Wynn,Gwvn, Wjmdham, Sec. Wyn is explained un- 
der Gwyn; Wyndham is from wjm-de-luDn, a Wyn of the 
luun ; Wdgan is from wal-ge-^n, a valiant old family or 
nation; Walter, Walters, Watts, Watfon, Watcrfon^ 
Watkins, &c. the Wellh land; Wynefrid is from win-i-ftid, 
iL white^ fair or blefled countenance ; Welfli, Walfh, Wal- 
lis. Wells, thofe come from the name of the country, as 
Scott does from Scotland, Ireland from Ireland, Engliih 
fmn England, Comifh, Cornwall and Comwallis, from Com- 
wal, French from France, and Denis from Denmaik. 

Wandals or Vandals,, a Gothic or Getic people de^ 
fcended from the Pae, is from van-da-li, the fons or defcen- 
dants of the Dae nation5 who came from Mount Ida in 


' **-# 9 M^ f m^ t^ 9^^%-.^ 


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This btifik in under no ciroumatanoeft to be 
taken from the BuLildlnf 



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