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Author of The Table of Descent of Rainfohd of Rainfoei: 








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19U— 1919. 

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In attempting to give some account of the origin of this family, I am fully 
aware of my limitations and the numerous difficulties to be confronted. There are 
about seventy variants of the spelling, and corruptions not a few, and in some 
instances their identity has become obscured by the adoption of the names of their 
chief manors, a custom becoming prevalent about the time of King John 

Criticism favourable or adverse will be welcome, and it is to be hoped that 
genealogists, who have greater access to contemporary records than I have, will 
assist me to place upon a sure foundation the early history of our f\imily. 

The following are some of the variants under which the family occurs, viz. : 
H'raine, Rafred, Rainey, Radneny, Ranford, Randford, Ransford, Rodney, de Rain- 
ford, Raynford, Raynfry, Rainde, Rayne, Raven, Rainer, Renard, Rainfred, Fitz 
Reinfred, Reinfrie, iRainsford, Raynsford, Wraynesford, De Wrenford, Wrenford, 
AVrensford, Wainford, Wainsford, Ainfred, Ansfred, Ausford, Benhard, Baynhard, 
Banj-ard, Ranyard, Gainford, Kettell and Criuan. 

Of the last two forms, Kel or Ketil, from the mythological Kettle of the gods 
which enters into many old Norsemen's names, O.N. Biornkel, Kng. Barnacle, 
A.S. Beirnhard, Eng. Bernhaid (Ferguuson's "Surnames in Science") apparently 
signifies a bairn, son of. 

Ivo le Tailbois (signifying the Woodcutter) had a son or grandson Kettell 
Tailbois, though others say 'Kettell was the first of his line. In the time of Edward 
the Confessor (1042 — lOCG) one of the name held considerable lands in Norfolk, 
Suffolk and Essex. He held Hainford, Norfolk, about eight miles from Norwich, 
under Stigand, Archbishop of Canterbury, and was ejected by the Conqueror. He 
also held land at Ketteringham, Wreningham, Carleton and Bunwell or Hadeston, the 
latter place being the capital manor of his successor and kinsman Roger FitzRenard 
or Rainfred or Baynard, now known as Banyard's Hall, at present a fiirm house 
surrounded by a deep moat. The front is comparatively modern, the back half 
timbered and dating about the sixteenth century, situate about ten miles from 
Norwich. Carleton afterwards descended to the Stapletons, who were closely allied 
by marriage to the Lancashire FitzReinfrids. The name of Kettell still survives in 
Worcestershire in Kettell Hill or Kettell Keep (Symonds' " Malvern Chase ") near 
Longdou, and Castle llorton. The lands were owned afterwards by their successors 
the Wrenfords and Ranfords. The Kettells also denominated Kettelby, Line, 
afterwards in possession of Roger FitzReinf red, and also Kettlestoue, Norfolk, after- 
wards succeeded by the Raynes. Their ancestors the Hraefingas gave their name to 
Wreuingham, Rainthorpe, Ravingham, Raynham and Hainford, Norfolk, also 
Rayne and Braintree, Essex, Wrenside Ransdale in the Lake district, Rainford and 
Raynhill, Lane, Bransford and Branshill, Wore, and many other places too 
numerous to mention. 

There was a family of Braintree, Essex, who bore for arms. Argent, on a cross 
engrailed sable Jive eloiles or, being similar to the arms borne by the Lancashire and 
Oxfordshire branches, namely. Argent, a cross sable. 

The form Crinon or Corineus from Chrann, a Frankish form of Raban or Raven. 
Meldred son of Crinon had a son Gospatrick, created Earl of March by Jlalcolm, 
King of Scots, and his second daughter Grnnwelda married Orme son of Kettell 
Talbois (Burke's " Royal Descents "). 


It will be observed that the variants and forms fell into two divisions — simple 
(or stem) and compound. The former being the most ancient, from the Anglo- 
Saxon Kfefningas, derives the English surname Eaven, Ran or Raine, originally 
adopted as a personal name. We learn from Ferguson's Surnames that when the 
vocabulary of single words became exhausted, men began to make an abstraction, 
forming compounds by putting two names toEtether, as Eaine signifying Raven, 
(Bald=fortis), O.a. Ragebald, Eng. Ravboiikr; (wal(l=rule)— Lord Gliancellor, 
1050, Haydn— O.G. Reginold, A.S. Reinakl, Eng. Reynolds ; (Brit=famous), O.G. 
Reiginberc, Eog. Rainbird ; (Frid=peace), O.G. Rainfred, Eng. Rainford ; (gar= 
spear), O.G. Raingar, Eng. Ranger ; (Hard=fortis),O.G. Reynard, Ivainhard, Eng. 
Reynard ; (Hari=warrior), O.G^Regenhar, A.S. Reiner, Eng. Rayner; (Helm), O.G. 
Rainelm*, Eng. Raynham, etc. 

Hainford, Norfolk, at the Survey was held by Roger of Poictiers. He was third 
son of Roger de Montgomery, and according to Blomfield married Mabel Talvace 
(? Talibois), son of William, son of Ivo de Bellesme, by whom he had three sons : 
(1) Robert de Bellesme, who had the Normandy estates, (2) Hugh, Earl of Arundel 
and Shrewsbury, and (3) Roger of Poictiers, Earl of Lancaster. When after many 
invasions the Normans took possession of the land they called Normandy, Avi'anches 
became the western boundary of their duchy, and Ansfred the Dane the first Count, 
from whom the Norman Earls of Chester and Counts of Avranches descend. The 
connection of the Earls of Chester with the manor of Tew, O.xon, is worthy of 
note, as we shall see that the Rainfreds or Rainsfords held that manor continuously 
from about 1150 to 1650. Rauulph, Earl of Chester, who was descended from 
Ansfred the Dane (Norman people) in 1203, granted to his acknowledged cousin 
Sir John de Preux the manor of Great Tew (" Visitations of Oxfordshire," p. 169). 
The Preux were a branch of the FitzRainfred family settled at Coutances, Nor- 
mandy, and derived their name from their estate named Pratell and their castle of 
Preux Coutances. Walter FitzRainfred or de Coutances was Archbishop of Rouen 
circa 1189 — 1207. About 1350, for a period of fifty years the manor was held by 
a Le Strange. Bishop Rainer or Rainfred of St. Asaph bought from Le Strange 
of Knocking circa 1200 the village of Wilcot, and he or one of his descendants 
assumed tiie name of AVilcot, one of whom married his kinswoman Alice de Preux, 
and on the male line of Wilcot failing, his daughter Elizabeth, coheir, married 
Henry Rainford, Lord of Rainford, Lane, her kinsman, and the manor remained 
in the line of Rainsford till about 1650. We have a similar instance in Bradfield, 
Essex, which at the Survey was held by Roger de Rayne, and in 1306 (Middlesex 
Rolls) tenants of St. Bartholomew's, London. The village and church of Bradfield 
Essex, was held by Sir William de Reynus. John Reyneford in 1426 held the same 
manor of Humphrey Duke of Gloster. This John was Constable or Deputy 
Constable of the Cinque Ports, and the manor remained in the Essex line of Rains- 
fords till 1559 ; and in the will of Sir John Rainsford dated in that year he leaves 
the goods iu his house in Bradfield, co. Essex, called Bradfield Hall, to his relatives, 
and he bequeaths to " Francis, Earl of Bedford, his especial and singular friend, 
his best gown furred with sable." 

Parish of Checkeudon. "Reference to law suit in 1459 between William 
Gaynesford and John Catesby, plainuffs, and Edm. Rede, defendant, for the manor 
of Checkeudon." Oxford Arch. See, 1693, page 18. 

Jane Catesby married Gainsford of Castleton, Surrey. The ninth quartering of 
Catesby is that of Wilcot. (Oxfordshire Visitations, 126.) 

A branch of the Gaynesfords lived at Iiidlington and Idbury, Oxon., and were 
descended from Sir John Gaynsford of Crowlmrst, Surrey, who had a son George 
who married Anne, daughter of Nicholas Wareham and widow of Sir William 
Reade of Borestall in Com. Bucks., and his son Augustine Gaynsford of Kidliiigton 
and Idbury, married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Edward de Rawley (Raleigh). 
(Oxfordshire Visitutious, p. 155.) They bore Argent a chevron guhs betiveen three 

* Kaiuelm was Bishop of Hereford and Chancellor to the Queen in 1101, (Haydn.) 


greyhounds courant sable, collared, or; another coat similar to tliede Lancaster's or 
FitzReinfreds, Or three bars gules, a canton ermine. They appear to be closely con- 
nected with tlie Essex Eaynsfords, who bore for the crest a grey hound courant 
p.p.r. (i.e. dark russet colour), collared and ringed or, the badge of Sir Laurence 
Raynsford, being a silver grey hound. 

Crowhurst church contains several ancient brasses to the Gaynsfords. According 
to tradition Henry VIIL on his way to Anne Boleynat Hever Castle, visited Crow- 
hurst Place, the seat of the Gaynsfords, an old mansion surrounded by a moat. 
8ir John Kainsford had a grant of Hever Castle in 1463. William Raiusford the 
first of the Essex line held Colchester Castle in Knights fee of the Duke of 
Gloucester. The Rawleys or Raleighs, probably assumed their name from Rawly 
or Kayleigh, Essex, once the head of an honor or barony of a Dane named Sweyn, 
who built a magnificent castle there, some of the ruins of which still remain. 

In the will of Sir John Raynesford, dated 12th September 1521 he leaves to his 
son Thomas Darcy, at his age of 21, my lease which I have by the King's letters 
patent of the honor of Rayle and the Hundred of Rochford. His daughter Audrey 
married Thomas Darcy. There is considerable confusion with these Gaynsfords 
and Raynsfords. Some authorities state Sir John Gaiusford married Audrey 
daughter of Sir John Shaw, Mayor of London. The facts arc Sir John Raynsford 
married Ist Ann, daughter of Sir Humphrey Starky, Chief Baron of the Exchequer 
in I486, and 2nd Margaret, widow of Sir John Shaw, Mayor of London, daughter 
of Flam by his wife Julian. By his first wife Ann he had John, ob. 1559, and by 
his second wife he had Audrey and Julian. He leaves his household stuff (except 
his plate and ornaments in his chapel, jewels, &c.) to be divided between Dame 
Margaret, his wife, and his son John Reyneforth, and he leaves to his daughter 
Julian on her marriage five hundred marks (she married Sir William Walgrave, 
who died at Calais Dec 12, 1553, and left issue). He bequeathed to the High 
Altar of the Church at Bradfield 40/-, and requested his executors to buy a cross of 
silver to the value of £13 . G . 8. He desii'ed " to be buried within the monastry of 
St. John's, Colchester, within Our Lady Chapel, where his father lieth buried " 
(Sir Laurence Raynsford). He nominates as liis executors '" Sir Edward Ponynges, 
Knt. Treasurer of the King's Household, Dr. Tunstall, Master of the Rolls, Thomas 
Audly and John Strangeman, gentlemen." 

it should be mentioned that the connection with the Le Stranges and the 
Rainfreds, Salop, and the Wilcots of Tew came about thus : circa 1010 Berta dau. 
of Guido Rainfred, Lord of Albemarle, founder of the castle of Albemarle and the 
abbey of St. Martin, married Hugh, Count of Pontivy, who was of the House of 
Brittany. Le Strange was of the same race. 

Mr. Stapleton investigated and communicated some charters of the Abbey of 
St. Martin D'Auchy near Anmalc, which state " that Guy Renfred founded the 
church of St. Martin in the time of Richard, 4tli Duke of the Normans," ciixa 1020 
and the charter also states that the "Venerable Guy Renfred was the founder of the 
castle of Aibermarle near the river En (from whence derived the De Clares), in that 
part where it divides the province of Amiens from the land of the Normans, and 
that he had a daughter Berta who married Hugh, Count of Pontivi (slain 1052), 
and their son Engleranus, Count of Pontivi, married Adeliza (born 1028, ob. 1087), 
sister of William, King of the English," and goes on to say " the gifts of the 
Countess Adeliza, the mother of the Countess Judith, daughter of the aforesaid 
Countess ; of Roger de Berkley and of Rissa, his wife, and in others in tithes, 
church ornaments and the like, are all specified with the utmost minuteness of 

Roger de Berkeley is the Roger of Doomsday whose ancestors lived at Dursley, 
Glos., in the time of Edward the Confessor, with whom there was a close blood 
connection. They appear to be of the House of Albemarle, for in the certificate of 
Knights' fees returned by his grandson Roger de Berkeley 1166 (Liber Niger), 
consisting of two knights and a half, we find Roger de Albemarle held one virgata 
and Reginald dc Albemarle held three hides, 


I sui'mise that Gny Rainfred, lord of the manor of Albemarle, which consisted 
of ten knights' fees ia the diocese of Rouen, descended from Ansfred the Dane who 
accompanied Rollo, son of Rogenwald (probably a near relative), in the conquest of 
Normandy and was rewarded by him with a third of that province (Merk's "Nor- 
mandy Coast "). Rollo had a brother Eynar, Earl of Orkney, also a brother Drogo. 
Drogo or Drewe de Beurere or Brewse, who was the first lord of the great seigniory 
of Holderuess (Odericus), appears to have descended from Guy Renfrid, Lord of 
Albemarle (his kinsman William de Warren receiving the county of Surrey for his 
share). His successors, who succeeded to the vast estates of Ilolderness, were 
styled Earls of Albemarle. Many of the same lands were held later by tlie Raynes 
of Burton Pidsea and Witon. We find this Drogo claiming the two principal 
manors of Wickraere, Norfolk, as heir of Hainfred. Another part of the manor 
belonged to Ahnaror Albemarle (Bishop of Thetford). In 1607 Nicholas Reymes 
held it (Blonifield). The arms of Almar are Argent, a cross sahle between four 
Cornish choughs jiroper. Roger de Brewse, living about 1180, held estates in 
Somerset, his son being styled Rainfred Breure, sometimes called Roger FitzRain- 
fred, ob. 1207. Alice his widow married Richard de Clare, living 1211. The 
Somersetshire Breures have the same arms as the first Lord of Holderness, Gules, 
two lends wavy. The mopt important member of the Norfolk branch was Ralph 
Baynard of Merton or Martin, the head of whose barony was Barnard's Castle, 
London. He held sixty-four manors in Norfolk. One of this line settled at Mar- 
wood in the co. of Durham in the parish of Gaiaford, now called Barnard Castle. 
Time and space prevent me from dealing with this well-known branch,, which ended 
in Isabel, daughter of Fulk Baynard, living 1327, who married Thomas de Grey 
and had Carleton Bunwell or Haddeston for their share. 

From the Baynards derive the Townsends, Marshams and Kerrisons of Norfolk, 
also the De Beaumonts alias De Newburghs (the Norman People). There were the 
Baynards of Blagdon, Somerset, not far from Rodney Stoke, and the De Weares, 
who are mentioned with the Rainfreds in connection with lands in that county, and 
are also mentioned in connection with the Baynard lands in Norfolk. 

The families of De Mortimer and De Warren descend from the Rainfreds of 
St. Martin, Albemarle. A Walter was lord of St. Martin circa 980. He 
married a daughter of Herfast, brother of Gonora, wife of Richard L, Duke of 
Normandy. (Die. Nat. Biog.) Hugh De St. Martin, Bishop of Coutances, was 
father of Roger, Lord of Mortimer, and of Ralph, Sir de Gareame or Warren. 
The De Warrens and De Mortimers succeeded to the lands of Roger FitzRenard 
soon after the grand survey. Both De Warrens and De Mortimers are mentioned 
in connection with the manor of Tew, Oxon. Ralph de Mortimer, Earl of 
Gloster and Hereford, bore for his arms Or, an eagle displayed vert, taken from 
his seal (1301). These are almost identical with the arms borne by Preanx Willcot 
and Rainsford of Worcester and Cumberland. A branch of the De Warrens lived 
at St. Albans and AlJenham, Herts. John de Raynford in his will 1361 refers 
to his manor of Aldenham and mentions John de St. Albans. Another considerable 
branch lived before the Conquest at their castle of Pirou or Preaux Coutances, 
and were sometimes called De Preaux or De Coutances in the Cotentin. From 
this branch descended the branch of Pakenhara, Suffolk, whose descendants took 
the name of the manor and bore similar arms to De Preaux and De Willcot. 

In "The History of the Norman People " it is stated that Rodney is not found 
prior to the fourteenth century. Corruption of Reiny or Rayney, afterwards 
Radenay, originally came from Champagne. Arms, Three pairs of icings, from 
which the present arms of Rodney (three spread-eagles) are derived. Roger de 
Reigny witnessed a charter of Bishop Roger of Sarum temp. Henry I. (1100—1135). 
(Mong. Angle i. 424, 1st edit.) 

There is a place called Remy, not far from Arras and near to Rancourfc and 
Reincourt, and it is probable that it is from this district some of our race is indebted 


for its name. From the " Calendar of Documents in France," by J. Horace Round, 
I extract the following : — 

Abbey of St. Martin Troarn, Lower Normandy. 

A.D. 10(i9. Nute of the property willed by K. William.—" At Tallivalli Robert 
son of Rainfrid and others have given all they held, for the weal of their lord and 
their souls," etc. 

A.D. 1150. Abbey of Savigny.— Charter of Rob., Bishop of Exeter, refers to 
" Pagano filio Rainfridi." 

A.D. 1175. Cathedral of Rouen.— Notification witnessed by " Gillebertus 

A.D. 1180. Public Library of Rouen, " Gilleberto filio Rainfridi." 

A.D. 1184— 89 Abbey of Silly 

Do. Abbey of Cherbourg „ „ ,, 

A.D. 1185-6. Abbey of Caen 

A.D. 1191 — 99. Rouen Cathedral, "Gisleberto filio Reinfridi." 

A.D. 1192. Abbey of Caen.— Final Concord made in the King's Court at 
Westminster 4 Richard before Walter, Archbishop of Rouen, and Roger son of 
Raiufred, and others. 

A.D. 1193. Rouen Cathedral. — Charter witnessed by " Rogerio filio Remfredi." 

The above Walter is styled de Coutances, and according to G.E.C. there is 
evidence to shew he is of the'FitzReinfred family ; but more of him later. 

Barber on British Family Names gives Reinfred or Rainfred as under-tenant of 
land temp. Doomsday. 

The three great stems of the family holding land, either as tenants in cnpi/e 
(i.e. directly of the King) or as sub-tenants of tenants in chief 1086, may be divided 
as follows, viz. : — / 

1. The Eastern, including Norfolk, Suffolk and Essex. I 

2. The North Western, including Lancashire and a strip of Cumberland. \ 

3. The South Western, including Somerset, Devon and Cornwall. 

I. Eastern. — This branch was founded by Roger FitzRenard, wlio was tenant 
in capite 1086 of thirteen manors in Norfolk, amongst which were, in the hundred 
of Grimshoe : Stanford, Buckcnham Tofte, Igborough ; hundred of Smethdon : 
Ingoldesthorpe ; hundred of Shropham : Attleboro, Rockland, etc.; hundred of Holt: 
Kelling; hundredof Lodden : Mundham ; hundred of Deepwade: Hudeston; hundred 
of Clavering : Ravingham. 

Roger FitzRenard also held Kirkenhall lloynes and Gurneys, which were at 
first distinct manors. The first was held by Udo the Sewer and the second by 
Riugull, at the Confessor's, and by Roger FitzRenard at the Conqueror's survey, 
and1n 1334 John Le Moyne's heiress had it, Sir John de Broxesbourne having 
married her, for he presented then. In 1377 Edmund son of Sir Edmund de 
Broxesbourne, Knt., had it, and in 1401 Richard Chamberlain and John Sumpter 
held it of Thomas de Bardolph, and he of the Earl Warren. In 1415 John Fitz- 
Ralph, Esquire, and Tliomas Elyngham settled it for life on William Rainforth and 
Eleanor his wife, who was the daughter of Edmund de Broxesbourne. Their son 
Sir Laurence married 1st Elizabeth Fiennes, daughter of James, 1st Lord Saye and 
Scale, and indly Ann Percy, dau. of Henry, 2nd Earl of Northumberland (son of 
the renowned "Hotspur") by Elizabeth Neville, dan. of Ralph Neville, K.G., 
1st Earl of Westmorland by Joan Beaufort (or Plaiitagenet), dau. of John of 
Gaunt. In his will dated 14'JO he gives to his son Edward "my manor called 
Rocklond Toftes in Norfolk to hold to him and the heirs of his body, with contin- 
gent remainder to ray son John," and he nominates John de Vere, Earl of Oxford, 

Roger FitzRenard also held Plassct or Plassingham, at whose death it was 


rejoined to the Castle (Old Buckenham). He also held Sciilton Mortimers and Old 
lands or Ollands. 

Koger FitzRenard's son and heir William assumed the name of Haddiston and 
was sub-tenant to his kinsman Earl Warren. He had a son William who died 
young without issue, and his sisters were his coheirs. Alice married William de 
Multon and Catherine became the wife of Roger Talbot, who released their rights 
in 1198 to Agatiia de Healston the sister, who married William de Boswell. At 
the Visitation of AVarwickshire 1G19 AVilliam de Huddiston is described as of 
Warwick and Guy's Cliff, and bore Gules, a chevron argent hettceen three imin of 
annulets interlaced. The arms of Huddiston are the ICth quartering in the shield 
of Beaufoy, and the 15th quartering being Argent, a cross sable, fur Rainsford of 
Tew Magna, and the 4th quartering Azure, an eagle displayed argent, for Wileotes 
of Tew. These latter arms, with a slight difference, were also borne by the Wren- 
fords or Rainsfords of Longdon, Worcestershire, five miles from Tewkesbury, which 
were Azure, an eagle displayed argent, ducallg gorged or. 

There was a well-known family of Ingoldstliorpe in Norfolk who took their 
name from that manor. They were also Lords of Raynham, Norfolk, and it is 
probable they derived from Roger FitzRenard the tenant in capite, temp. Doomsday, 
who was succeeded by Ivo Le Tailbois or Rainfred. This line ended in an heiress, 
dau. of Sir Edmund Ingoldsthorpe (ob. 1456), who married Sir John Neville, 
the grandson of Ralph, 1st Earl of Westmorland by Lady Joan Beaufort, dau. of 
John of Gaunt by Catherine Swinford. These Ingoldsthorpes sometimes wrote 
themselves de Snettisham ; they bore for arras Gules, a cross engrailed argent. 
This connection with the Neville family was again renewed in the seventeenth 
century, when Richard Rainsford, son of Sir Ricliard Rainsford, Chief Justice of 
the King's Bench 167(5-9, married Ann dau. of Col. Richard Neville of Billing- 
beare ; and, as already stated, the mother of Sir Laurence Rainsford's secend wife, 
Ann Percy, was a dau. of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland. Another daughter 
Cicily married Richard, Duke of Gloucester, father of Edward IV., Richard IIL 
and George, Duke of Clarence and Earl of Warwick. Sir Laurence's son Sir John 
Rainsford in 1520, with Sir Henry Marney, Sir John Vere, Sir John Tyrell and 
others attended Henry VIIL on the Field of the Cloth of Gold. 

Roger de Ramis came into England at the Conquest and had the honour of the 
Barony of Raines or Raynes consisting of ten knights fees in Essex ; he also held 
four manors in Norfolk, in conjunction with the Baynards of Merton, from whom 
descended the family of Rames or Reams of Overstrand. Morant says, " the name 
appears to be taken from Rayne or Little Rayne in Essex, but others say Rennes 
in Brittany, which seems hardly probable." Apparently he was a cousin of Roger 
FitzRenard the Norfolk Baron. 

II. North- Western. — From " the Norman People and their existing descendants," 
published in 1874, I take the following : " Preston or Tailbebois. Renfred Tailebox 
of Normandy circa 1050 had issue. 

1. Ralph Taileboise, Viscount of Bedford, a tenant in capite, Bedford 1086. 

2. William Taileboise of London aud Norfolk, 1086. 

3. Ivo Taileboise of Lincoln and Norfolk, 1086. 

4. Gilbert FitzReinfred, the latter was provided for by his brother Ivo who held 
Kendal Westmorland and inherited Barony temp. William I. 

His son William de Lancaster had issue Reinfred who was father of: 

1. William de Lancaster II. 

2. Roger whose son Gilbert married the heiress of William II de Lancaster aud 
dying 1219 left William III whose sisters were his heirs. 

3. Warren de Lancaster to whom Henry II. confirmed the estates at Preston 
formerly held by Gilbert FitzRenfred (his great grand father). In 1199 confirmed 
the rent of Preston to Henry FitzWarren de Lancaster (Baines IV, 2978). King 
John, in the ninth year of his reign (1208) gave to Henry FitzWarren de Lancaster 
un estate near Preston forming part of the possessions of the honor of Lancaster in 


exchange for Liverpool, upon which occasion he granted a charter to the place. 
(Lewis's Top. Die.) Rainford is about 8 miles from Jjiverpool. 

The Lancasters of Crackhouse, Cumberland, and Raynhill, Lancashire, bore 
m-gent tiro bars yules on a canton of the second a lion passant. Rainhill and 
Rainford are both situated in the parish of Prescot. 

At Rouen, July 20th, 1189, King Richard confirmed his father's grant of 
Helewise de Lancaster to Gilbert FitzReinfred, Sewer to the King's father. (' Gesta 
Richardi,' ii. 73 ; 'L'Histnire de Guillaume de Mareschal,' ed. Paul Meyer, ii. 
9379-84.) By this gift Gilbert became possessed of the whole barony of the 
family of Lancaster, which consisted of the extensive Lancashire manors of Garstang 
(a considerable number of Raynforths appear in the register of Weeton from 1540 
to 1850 ; Weeton is about three miles from Garstang), AYarton, and Ulverston ; 
the manor of Kirkby in Kendal, which extended over the greater part of the 
Westmorland parishes of Heversham, Beetham, and Burton in K^endal, the whole 
of those of Kirkby in Kendal and Ivirkby in Lonsdale, extensive lands in the 
Yorkshire hundred of Eucross, the entire parish of Barton in Westmorland, with 
other estates in that county. In 1190 Richard I. conferred upon Gilbert the whole 
of the lands in the valley of the River Kent which had not formed part of the 
barony of his wife's father and grandfather. This accession of territory was to be 
held of the King in Chief by the service of one knight. The lands of the barony 
in Lancashire were held of the lord of the honor of Lancaster by the service of one 
knight ; and all the remainder of the baronial lands in the districts of Kendal and 
Lonsdale were held as they had previously been held of the great Yorkshire barony 
of Mowbray. (' Red Book of the Exchequer ' Rolls Series, i. 420.) Rodney Stoke, 
it should be borne in mind, was part of the Somerset fief of Geoffrey, Bishop of 
Coutances, who was uncle to Robert de Mowbray, Earl of Northumberland, ob. 1125. 
He was son of Roger de Mowbray (in the Conteutin St. L6), whose sister Araecia 
married Roger of Albini. 

Hence descended the important family of Ue Preston in Lancashire who bore 
the arms of the de Lancasters with a slight difference. A younger son Phillip 
settled iu L-eland, temp. Edward L 1272 — 1307, and adopted the arms of Butler 
with a alight variation probably as a feudal tenant or from inter-marriage. 

Yeatman's History of the House of Arundell's says : — 

Gilbert a son of Reiner or Reinfrid settled at a very early period in Lanes. 
for he returned himself early in the reign of Henry IL (see certificate of knights 
fees) holding then the very estates mentioned as having been granted to Gilbert 
FitzReinfred by Richard L from which it would seem that the King was only 
regranting an ancient possession of the family. He also states that Roger filius 
Reinfred married Rohaise, niece of Ranulf, Earl of Chester, widow of Gilbert de 
Gant, Earl of Lincoln. 

The eldest brother of these de or le Taillebois or Reinfred's of Lancashire in 
1086, was Fulk, Earl of Anjou, father of Geoffrey Plantaganet, by Millicent 
de Burgh who were the parents of Henry IL Geoffrey marrying the Empress 
Maud, daughter of Henry I. and widow of Henry V. of Germany. 

There are numerous pedigrees of the de Lancasters in the " Westmorland and 
Cumberland Archasological Society's Journal," but I think the one given in "The 
Norman People" is intelligent and sufficient for my purpose. There is an old 
charter in the B. M. case of 1176 which mentions Richard Giffard, Roger Fil 
Reinfrid and John de Cardiff the King's Justices. 

In Haydn's Dictionary of Dignities is given 1174-5 and 1178-9 Roger Fitz 
Reinfrey, Justice, who was Sheriff of Sussex 23 to 33 Henry IL (1177 — 87), and of 
Berks. 1188 and 1199. Constable of Tower of London, temp. Richard I. 1189—99, 
Dover Castle, temp. John 1199—1216. King John granted to him the keepership 
of the whole forest of Westmorland, Kendal and Furness. 

Similai positions were held by Sir Richard Rayney or Rodney, who was 
Constable of Bristol Castle iu 1322, John Reyneford, Constable or Deputy 
Constable of Dover Castle 1426, and in 1579 Hercules Rainsford of Clifford 
Chambers was Constable of the Castle of Dublin and sometime of Limerick. In 


1676 Captain Francis Rainsford was Deputy Constable of the Tower of 
London, and in 1676-9 Sir Richard Rainsford was Chief Justice of the King's 
Bench. In 1750 Major Charles Rainsford was Deputy Lieutenant of the Tower 
of London. 

Roger's son Gilbert FitzReinfred ob. 1219, who married his cousin Helwise de 
Lancaster, heir of William de Lancaster 2nd Baron of Kendal, by Helwise de Stute- 
ville temp. Henry IL He was great grandson of William de Lancaster, 1st Baron 
of Kendal, by Gundred de Warren, Countess of Warwick, danyliter of William de 
Warren, Eai-1 of Surrey by Elizabeth de Vermandois. Gilbert, who died 1219, was 
a favourite Baron of King John who in 1200 granted him the Keeporship of the 
Forests of Lancashire and in the same year, he was made Trustee of Theobald le 
Buitiler, and his sister Maud was also committed to Gilbert and his son till 1220. 
(Rot. Pat 4 Henry III). 

In 1215, he was compelled, on account of his enrolment with the rebellions 
Barons to give hostages for his future conduct, which hostages were the sons, 
daughters and heirs of the principal mesne lords, holding under the Barony of 
Kendal. (Burke's Landed Gentry, Vol. II., p. 1318). He wa^ fined 12,000 marks, 
1215-16. Sheriff of Lanes. 1209-15. He left a son AVilliam III. whose sisters 
were his heirs ; Helwise who married Peter de Brus ; Alice who married William de 
Lindsey, who, by this marriage became Barons of Kendal ; and Cerota, who 
married de Multon. 

John de Lancaster of Rydal in co. Westmorland summoned to Parliament, 
1300-1 as Lord of Rydale, is called son of Roger of Rydal, natural son of Gilbert 
FitzReinfred and bore on his seal in 1301, Tivo bars and a cantmi, a passant lijon and 
the shield vertiny argent, three lillies of France ("Some Feudal Lords and their Seals," 
Plate page 179). 

From the Calendar of Charter Rolls I take the following : — 

" 1294, Charter of Gilbert son of Roger, son of Gilbert Rainfrey cited con- 
firming grant to the poor men of the Hospital of St. Peter, York, of lands at Kendal 
given by William de Lancaster." 

1327. Reinfrey, R., son of (Rie. I.). 

1341. Reinfred, Gilb., son of (Hen. IL). 

There was also tlie Sockbridge Branch which continued for many generations 
till the reign of James I. 1603 — 25, and these became e.xtinct iu a daughter. They 
probably denominated Newton Raigny in Cumberland about a mile from Sockbridge. 
Kendal Barony at the time of the Conquest was included in Amouuderness, com- 
prising South part of Westmorland and a narrow strip of Cumberland along with 
all Lancashire north of the Ribble, Sockbridge Hall, Parish of Barton, was included 
in the great Kendal Barony bestowed by the Conqueror on Ivo de Tallibois. 
William de Tallibois, the fifth in succession by licence of Henry II. (1154 — 89), 
took the name of De I-ancaster. Arms, Two bars gules, a lion passant, or (Cumberland 
and Westmorland Antiquarian Soc). 

Arms of liancaster of Sockbridge, as we have already seen, were A chevron 
charged icith three annulets hetiveen three escallopes ; also, A chevron charged with three 
fieur de lis. 

I am inclined to think that it is from tliis branch that the Rainfords of Essex 
descend. Tlie first of this line being William de Raynford who circa 1380, held 
the Manor of Alpheton, Suffolk, of John of Gaunt and is identical with William, 
who had the grant of Kirkenhall, Moynes, and Gurneys, Norfolk, in 1415. For an 
account of this line see "The Essex Visitations," Harvey's "Suffolk Green Books," 
and Morant's " History of Essex." 

In order to understand the settlement of the Rainfords in Rainford, it will be 
necessary to give a short account of the History of Lancashire temp. Conquest. 

It was given by King William to Roger de Poictou who was Srd son of Roger 
de Montgomery, Earl of Arundel and Shrewsbury, and Mabel de Belamy, his wife. 
This Roger de Pojctou bestowed various parts upon his followers, but at the time 
of Doomsday the lands between the Ribble and the Mersey are described as the 


property of the King, having been forfeited by the defection of that nobleman. 
The hononr of Lancaster was restored to him by William Eufus, in whose reign 
(1087 — 1100) he again forfeited it by rebellion and this Princely inheritance was 
transferred to Stephen, Connt of Blois who, on ascending the throne (1135 — 54), 
bestowed it npon his son AVilliam do Blois, Earl of llontaignc and Bonlogne, and 
on the death of this nobleman, Richard I. (1181) — 99), assigned it to his brother 
John, afterwards King of England (1199—1210). Henry III. (121fi— 72), gave 
the hononr and estates to Eannlph, Earl of Chester from whom they descended to 
William de Ferrers, who married Agnes, one of the Earl's danghtcrs. They were 
forfeited to the Crown by Robert de Ferrers, grandson of AVilliam, who had taken 
part in the rebellion with Simon de Montfort, Eai-1 of Leicester. Henry then pre- 
sented them to his son Edmund, surnamed Ci-ducliback, I'^arl of Lancaster ob. 1272. 
From him, they descended to Thomas, 2nd Eail of Lancaster, who was beheaded 
at Pontefract foi' rebellion in the reign of Edward II. (1307 — 27). In the 1st of 
Edward IIL (1327 — 77) the estates were granted to Henry, brother of Thomas, 
and his son Henry was created Duke of Lancaster in 1352. John of Gaunt, 
Edward's son, having married Blanch, daughter of Henry, Duke of Lancaster, the 
title was revived in bis favour. Edward III. in the year 1363 advanced the County 
to the dignity of a Palatine, with all the powers and privileges appertaining 
thereto. Under the authority of the Duke, the Duchy has now for ages been 
annexed to the Crown. (Lewis's Topographical Die. of England). 

In the Victoria County Histoiy, Lancashire, vol. iii., it is stated that the early 
history of the manor of Eainford is obscure. In 1324 it was held by Robert de Lathom 
in socage without any service. It descended from the Ijathoms to the Stanleys, 
and the Earl of Derby was Lord of the JIanor. The land was early divided among 
a number of free tenants, one or more, of whom, took the local surname. Ralph 
de Rainford appears in 1202. The number of fiee tenants in 1240 is indicated by 
the complaint' of' R"ic.''Whitehand or Witan and Alice his wife, and Henry de 
Lascelles and Agnes his wife, against Adam de Wiude and twenty others, including 
Cicely de Rainford. (The connection of this Ric. Whitehand with the Lanes, de 
Rainfords will be seen in our account of the South Western Stem). The Bishop of 
Lichfield in 1391 granted to John de Rainford a licence for the celebration of 
Divine Service by a Priest in the oratory of his manor house at Rainford, Lich. 
(Epic, Reg. vi., fol. 127). Henry brother of John de Rainford held the Manor in 
1443. His brother's widow, Marjory held part in Dower (Knowsly D. Bundle, 301, 
vi., 12). In 1451 the heir of John de Rainford paid id. to Cockersand for the 
Abbey's Manor in the township ; and in 1501 the Earl of Derby paid it (Cockersand 
Chartal iv., 1242-7). Cockersand Abbey is 7 miles from Lancaster, it was endowed 
by William de Lancaster temp. Henry III., 1216 — 72. It is from Henry de Rain- 
ford, who held the Manor of Rainford in 1443 that the great branch of the Kainsfords 
of Tew Magna descend. 

In an intei-esting pamphlet on the Wilcot's Monument in Great Tew Church 
written 1907 by William F. Carter, B.A., Oxon. of the Inner Temple, Barrister-at- 
Law, will be found an account of the descent of the Manor of Great Tew from 
John de Preaux who in 1203 had the grant of land there from Ranulf de Meschines, 
Earl of Chester. In the grant he describes John de Preaux as his cousin. This 
Ranulf dies 1232. John who had the grant in 1203 was probably a near kinsman 
to Osbert de Preaux who married Matilda a daughter of Hamlin Plantaganet by 
Isabella de Warren, who was widow of William de Blois of Montaigne in Normandy, 
natural son of King Stephen. Hamlin was the illegitimate son of GeoflTry Planta- 
ganet, Count of Anjou, and therefore half-brother of Henry II. By his marriage 
■with Isabelle de Warren he became 4th Earl of Warren and Surrey. He died 1201. 
John de Preaux, who had the grant in 1203 was succeeded, probably by his son 
Ralph, who in 1249 — 50 held 4 carucatres of land in Great Tew of the Earl of 
Arundel. He appears to have been Lord of the Manor and was succeeded by John 
de Preaux probably his son, who is found in the Hundred Rolls in possession of the 
same estate, 1278. In 1303 he entailed the estate upon his sou Ralph and in 1332 



obtained confirmation from the crown of the entail. Soon after this he died and 
his Inquisition Post Mortem taken in 1333 shews that he left a son and heir- 
William de Preanx, age 16, who appears in 1340 and 1345 in connection with Great 
Tew as son and heir of Ralph. From this date down to the 21st year of Richard II. 
Carter goes on to say when John and Alice Wilcote made what was doubtless their 
marriage settlement the researches of both Dr. MacNamara and himself had failed 
to discover anything further concerning the de Preaux and their Manor of Great 
Tew, except that in 1398 when John and Alice were in pos.>:ession of it the 
Inquisition Post Mortem of Roger Mortimer, states that "the heirs of Ralph de 
Prewes" held of him one Knight's fee in Great Tew. In the Le Strange Records 
by Hamon le Strange, M.A., F.S.A., published in 1916, it is there stated on page 
329 that Roger Le Strange died on July 29th, 1349 and his heir was found to be 
Sir Roger then at the age of 23 years. Tiie Manors held by him in chief, at his 
death were Middleton in Cambridgeshire, Biscester, Middleton and Tew in Oxford- 

From the public records we learn thut John Wilcotes was a soldier of fortune in 
the service of Thomas, Lord de Spencer, who in about 139C granted him an annuity 
of £10 out of the manor of "Brodeton," Wilts. In 1400 he represented Oxford- 
shire in Parliament, and held the office of Receiver General to the Duchy of 
Cornwall. He represented Oxfordshire in several other Parliaments in the reigns 
of Henry IV. and V., but in the Parliament of 1415-16 sat for the county of Kent 
in conjunction with William Cheney, the brother of his second wife. He was a 
Btaunch supporter of the House of Lancaster, and on his fine brass at Great Tew is 
depicted the famous S.S. Collar. Henry V. appointed him three times High 
Sheriff of Berks and Oxon ; he was also High Sheriff of Gloucestershire 1421. He 
attended the Privy Council with the Duke of Bedford, Archbishop Chicheley, the 
Bishop of Durham and others, and was one of the witnesses to the will made by the 
King before his departure, for the last time, from England. 

In the Doomesday Record there are eight entries relating to the Tews, the 
chief Giantees are, Odo, Bishop of Bayeux (half brother to King William), the 
Bishop of Lisieux (Lisieux is about four miles from Preaux). The Bishop of Lisieux 
(Gilbert Mamiuolk), holds one hide of the King in Tew. In 1206 Great Tew was 
a fief of Ranulph or Randle, Earl of Chester, great grandson of Ranulph de 
Albrincis (Le Meschin) who succeeded to the Earldom on the untimely death of 
his cousin Richard, Son of Gaz, who married a sister of Hugh Lupus (another 
Bister, Albride, married Baldwin de Brion) nephew of the Conqueror, to whom lie 
gave the Earldom of Chester for valued service. 

Clementia, the wife of Ranulph Le Meschin ob. s. p. 1233, her great grand- 
mother Lucia, wife of Jordan de Say, probably sister of Cecelia, wife of William, 
brother of Ranulph, Earl of Chester, gave the Chapel of Tew and tithes of the 
desmesne 1125 to the Abbey of Aunay, but in 1206 the last mentioned Ralph had 
the advowson. 

"The King confirms to John de Pratelles the grant from Ranulph, Earl of 
Chester, of all his lands in Magna Ty wa for homage and service, with the capitoU 
messuage, and all rents appertainintr in and out of the village excepting the land 
of Hugh de Colonce." (Charter Rolls VII. John, m. 2.) 

(Colonce signs as a Norman Baron with Ranulph Earl of Chester, the treaty 
between Richard I and the Count of Flanders.) In the Charter, John de -Pratelles 
is described as " consangitieneus of Ranulph, Earl of Chester." 

The lords subsequent to Randle, Earl of Chester, ob. 1232, held through Isabel, 
his sister, viz., her husband William de Albini, Earl of Arundel, ob. in Italy, 1221, 
their son, Hugh, Earl of Arundel, ob. s. p. 1243, who married Isabella, daughter 
of William de Warren, Earl of Surrey, whose heirs were his four sisters. Isabel, 
the sister of Hugh who married John'Fitz Alan of Chin, Earl of Arundel, ob. 1240, 
she obtained the honour and castle of Arundel, and theji to her son John Fitz Alan, 
then to Roger de Somery who married another sister Nicola, and their four 
daugliters : (1) Margaret de Somery, married 1st., Ralph, Lord Bassett, of Drayton, 


slain at Evesham 1265, she mnrried 2nd., Ralpli de Crumwell, ob. 1289, whose 
great grandson, Johu Hodington, married Margaret daughter and heiress of John 
Golafre (Glos. Visitations, p. 277). (Part of the estates of the Wraynesfordes of 
Longdon, were Icnown as GuUers or Golafres End.) : (2) Joan married John Le 
Strange (iv), ob. 1275 : (3) Mabel married Walter de Suleye or Sudely, co. Glos. : 
(4) Matilda, ob. 1.S02, married Henry de Erdington of Shawbury, Salop, ob. 1294. 

Koger de Mortimer held later in 1398, in which year the manor passed to John 
Wilcots. The mesne lords and chief proprietors were John de Pratelles or Preaux, 
Ralph de P. and John de P. and others of the name, from whom the manor 
descended through female heirs to Johu Wilcots. Families had land in Great Tew 
connected, it may be, witli Le Meschin or with the de Pratelles or de Albini, such 
as Baldwin de Ver .and Roger Le Strange. 

" Margaret, daughter of Edward de Ludlow, married Sir Baldwin Le Strange, 
Margaret died 1419. Elizabeth, daughter of Margaret, is described as next heir 
aged 14 years. She was even then the wife of Robert Molyneux. Since her 
mother's death, John, Duke of Bedford, son of John of Gaunt who married Margaret 
Holland, daughter of Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent, by main prise of John Wilcotes 
and William Massy by letters patent, Henry V. (1420), occupied the Manor." 
(Campdeu). Of the portion that fell to Ralph de Crumwell and Margaret his wife, 
daughter of Koger de Soniory and Nichola, I am unable to give an account." 
(Extracts from Bristol and Glos. Archeeological Society.) The manor la early 
times was held of the Earls of Chester. 

For the earlier account of the Manor of Tew, I am mainly indebted to a paper, 
with additions, read by Mr. D. Royce to the members of the North Oxfordshire 
Archseological Society, on the occasion of their visit to Great Tew in 1875. 

"Walter de Coutances, Archdeacon of Oxford 1 175, Bishop of Lincoln, 1188, 
who was of an influential Norman family, was Sheriff of Sussex under the Earl of 
Arundel, and was succeeded by his brother Roger Fitz Reinfrey. He was 
sigillarius to the King" (Checkendou Rectory Page 1, North Oxfordshire Arch. 
Soc. Transactions, 1898.) 

Additional Notes re Checkendon Rectory. Foot note re Constance, Fitz 
Reinfred and Arundel (Oxfordshire Arch. Soc. Report, Vol. 1912, p. 105). 

In 1249-50 four carucates of land in Great Tew were held of the Earl of Arundel 
by Ralph de Preaux. 

Sir Laurence Rainsford held the Manor of Moynes, in Rockland Tofts, from the 
Earl of Arundel (Inq. P. M., Jan. 20, 6th, Henry VIL, 1491). 

" Manor of Shreves, held by Fitz Reyners and then Roger Tewe, ob. 1483, 
Liq. L, Richard IIL" (Moraut IL, 220). 

Undoubtedly these Tewes were of the family of Preaux, Lords of Great Tew. 
In the church of Shreaves are the arms of Tewe, Azure, afesse charged ivUh three 
plales, betiveen two chcveronels, argent. Besides the eagle, winch was borne by the 
de Preaux of Tew, they also bore, Or, a chevron braced in base sable, on a chief 
gules, three 2)lates, which are quartered on the shield of Hercules Rainsford, Lord 
of Clitford Chambers, Glos., another instance of their identity being veiled by 
adopting the name of their chief manor. We have seen the manor of Tew was 
hekl by Rainfreds from circa 1150 to 1650, first by Reinfred or Rainulph, Earl of 
Chester, and followed by his kinsmen, the Preaux, Wilcots Raynsfords, who were 
all ultimately Rainfreds. 

In the History of Newbury, by Walter Money, F.S.A., appears the following : — 

" William, King of the English, 106G-1087, to Remigius (? another form of 
Raine or Raiufred) the Bishop, 10G7-1092, and Robert de Ode, etc. 

Know ye that 1 wish that Saint Peter de Pratellis may hold the alms which I 
gave to him, namely, the lands of Ansleni and of Uluric de AValtintona as (|«ietly 
and peaceably as otiier saints who have enjoyed alms of me." 

And grants also for the redemption of his soul and his wife Queen Matilda and 
his children, those things which Arnulph des Hesdench (Jumeges speaks of the 
ancient name of Arques or Auches, near Dieppe, being Hasdans). (The Abbey 


of St. Jlartin, fouuded by Guy Reinfred, circa 1020, was situated in the town of 
Auclies.) gave to Saint Pe'ter de Pratellis for his soul, viz., the Church of Newburi. 

Eniulph de Hesding was a brother of Turcliill, Lord of Warwick, temp. 
Conquest, son of Aluynus or Alfred, Viscount of Warwick, lemp. Edward the 
Confessor. Turchill's daughter Margaret, married Henry Beaumont or de 
Kewburgh or Newbury, Lord of Newbury, 1st. Eai-1 of Warwick after the conquest, 
1123. Arms, checqiiy, a chevron, ermine. A branch settled at Hungerford, Wilts., 
from whom the Hungerfords seem to descend. The Visitations of Warwickshire, 
pp. 1(56-177, Ernulph or Ainulph is said to be another form of Ainfred, and 
Kandle or Reinulph the same as Heinfred " Alan Fitz Raudle de Bainford occurs 
1175." (See Lancashire and Cheshire Historical and Genealogical Notes, Vol. 
L and IL, p. 178.) To put it in another way Alan Fitz Reinfred de Rainford. 
The Pipe Rolls, Vol. I., 12G0, 44 Henry III., refer to Henry fil. Ranulph de 
Reynesford living in Chaddesden. (Feudal Historv of Derbvshire by Yeatman.) 

William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, married Isabel, only child of Richard de 
Clare (Strongbow), was second son of John Marshall, ob. 1164? by his second 
wife Sibly, sister of Patrick, Earl of Salisbury, born 1146, a great grandaughter of 
Ernulph de Hesding. Stephen beseiged John Marshall at Newbury 1152, the 
young William was given as an hostage for surrender of castle. In 1167 he joined 
his uncle, p]arl Patrick. In 1170 Henry chose him as guardian of his eldest sou 
Henry. In 1191 the Earl was sent home with AValter de Coutances. Walter 
appointed himself Justice, wich William as his chief subordinate. Marshall is 
mentioned in connection with the manor of Rodney Stoke, 1216. John de Rain- 
ford, ob. 1361, mentions in his will Robert le Marshall. The head of Ernulph's 
Barony was Newbury, Berks. 

A story is told by William de Newbury (Lib. IL, cap. S3). " Our forefathers 
were Robert de Sutville, Ranulph de Glanville, William de Vesci, then Lord of 
Alnwick, and their retainers." 

'•Towards the end of his reign, Henry II. bestowed the young heiress Hawise de 
Lancaster, daughter of William de Lancastei-, ob. 1184, upon Gilbert, son of Roger 
Fitz Reinfred 'our sewer' by Charter, attested by Geoffrey, our son and chan- 
cellor, and William Marshall. The young heiress "had previously been in ward of 
William Marihall." (Register of Deeds at Levens Hall, Westmorland.) Marshall 
was created Earl of Pembroke, 1199. As we have noticed elsewhere Sir Henry de 
Rainy or Rodney, held the position of sewer to Henry, son of Henry II. 

A later Charter in 1189, confirming the previous one of the church and tythes 
of Newbiiry, the Pnory and Manor of Tofts in Norfolk and also land in Wolfamcote 
in Warwickshire to the Abbey of Preux, or Pratellis in Normandy. Among the 
witnesses^ are William Fitz Ralph (it was his descendant John Fitz Ralpl^ who 
granted Ivirkenhall Moynes to William Rainforth and Elizabeth his wife). Seneschal 
of Normandy, Osborne was Seneschal at the conquest and was connected with the 
ducal house of Normandy, and his sou. Sir William Fitz Osborne was Earl of 
Hereford. 1067—71. He built the Castle of Chepstow. His daughter Emma 
married Ralph de Gander, sometimes called de Weare, Earl of East Anglia, a 
Breton or Angivin on his mothers side, though his father was a Norfolk man, lie 
lost his great estates by rebellion in 1175. His wife's brother Roger succeeded to 
the Earldom which afterwards passed to Walter of Gloucester, ob. 1135, who 
married Bertha, daughter of Hamlin de Baliani, son of Drogo or Drue de Baliam, 
Baron of Abergavenny, 1086, and was succeeded by his son Milo, who uuirried 
Sybil, heiress of Brecon, dam^hter of Lord i;<'rnanl and Allies of Xewmarch. The 
Eai'ls of Hereford were kiiisiiKii ol the I'oliots. l;i<hop.s oV lluieloid. Sir Richard 
Foliot was Lord of Birtsuioitoii, cuca 1l';;(), nnd his son Sir William was Lord of 
Birtsniortou and Longdon, Worcestershire (Worcestershire Visitations), and was 
followed later by the Wrenfords. The Bernards belong to the family of the Counts 
of Alencon, their descendents bore three eagles on a/ess which nearly resembled the 
arms of the Montgomerys, Earls of Alencon, and also three fleur de lis, also borne by 
the Montgomerys, who were relatives of the Arundels (Norman People). This Charter 


Was also witnessed by Gilbert Fitz Reiiifrid ; Waller, Arclii'lsliop of Rouen (alias Fitz 
Eeinfrid or de Contances, uncle to Gilbert Fitz ReintVid) ; Alfred de Sancto Martino, 
and William, Earl of Salisbury, 1168— 1196. (Sibella de Cadurcis, a grand-daughter 
of Ernulph de Heading, married Walter of Salisbury. Cadurcis, taken from the 
town of Caliors or Ca<iurcoe in Gnienne, the change to Chaworth being a mere Anglo- 
caiiisra. The earliest mention of Patrick de Cadurcis who mariied Matilda, presumably 
third daughter of Ernulph de Hesding by Emelena, is mentioned in the Records as 
" Patrick de Cadurces, born in Britany, who had the Manor of Kempsford Glos." 
John de Constancia, Archdeacon of Oxford, 1186 — 1187, probably a near kinsman 
to Walter de Constances or Constancia, who was Arclid'jacon of Oxford, 1175), 
and William de la mara (from la mare near Pont Audemer near Preux, la castle 
built on poles in a lake (Norman People). His ancestor William married a 
daughter of Hugh Lupus. The name was afterwards spelt Lechmere, some of 
whom took the name of Aylworth from a manor in Gloucestershire so named. A 
branch lived at Hanley Castle near Longdon, where lived the last of the de Clares, 
and part of the estate sold in 1G06 by Thomas Wrenford of Fare End, Longdon to 
Roger Dowdeswell, was known as Aylworth's Lands. Among the arms borne by 
the de la Mares are azure two bars danrettee and sable a cross argent. 

Preux is about five miles south of Pont Audemer and in 1879 it contained 390 
inhabitants. There were two monasteries, the Abbey for Monks, called St. Pierre 
de Preux or Notre Dame, and the Couvent of St. Lcger de Preux, both were 
founded by Humphrey de Villes, son of Torold of Pont Audemer, and father of 
Roger de Beaumont, and the Abbey, shortly before the departure of Duke Robert 
for the Holy Laud in 1035, and the Couvent soon afterwards. A story is told in 
the Records " that the Monastery was levelled to the ground by the invasion of the 
Danes, and that a noble knight Humphrey de Villes began to rebuild it from its 
foundations, with the assistance of his wife Alvereda on an estate of his called 
Pratell, in honour of St. Peter and liberally endowed it. Ansfred was appointed 
Abbot." Thirty six parish churches were at at one time subject to the monastery. 
A branch of the Wrenfords were living at Newbury, Berks, about the middle of 
the 18th century. Newbury is about 3 miles from Rainsford farm, Thatcham, 
near railway station, now called Hensley's Farm. The church contains an altar 
tomb to the memory of William Danvers, Chief Justice of the Court of Common 
Pleas. Alice, daughter of William Danvers, kut., and Ann, heii'ess of John Pusy 
of Chamber House, Thatcham, Berks, married John Raynsford, Lord of Tew 
Magna, who was succeeded by his son, Sir Williiim Ra\ii>ford. Dame Ann Danvers 
survived her husband many years, died 1531. Li her will dated 1530 "she leaves 
to her son John Raynsford my 2 salts guiked and bequeathed to her godson John 
Raynsford my new house lately builded in Thatcham witii all the lands within the 
pale, and nominates her daughter Alice Raynsford her full executrix." John, the 
grandson, married Katheryn Mondey, by whom he had (1) Giles, buried at 
Thatcham, 1598 ; (2) Thomas of Little Compton, Glos., who married Barbara, 
daughter of Dr. Bentley, Physician to Henry VIIL ; (3) Edward, who is men- 
tioned in the Churchwardens' accounts, Thatcham, 1GU5-6. Giles had two sons : 
Ambrose, baptised at Thatcham, July 24, 1565, ijuried at Albrighton, Staffs., 1639, 
S.P. ; and Edward of Moor Hall, Staffs., living there 1027, and left numerous issue. 
Edward R., the third son of John by Katheryn Mondey, may be identical with 
Edward Raynsford, who died at, Chipping Norton, about three miles from Tew, 
where administration was granted of his goods to Thomas Raynsfurd, his brother, 
Oct. 3rd, 1611. His brother Thomas died at Cbippinji- Norton and in his will dated 
8 Oct. IGU and proved April 7th, 1615, in which he mentions his two sons 
Thomas and William, leaving to his son William his gold signet ring, his best 
cloak and cassock, jerkin, and best rapier. His sons were then under the age of 23. 
He also mentions his wife Jane. Another possible line uf descent of these Chipping 
Norton Raynsfords is from John Raynford, vicar of Glymton, Oxou, 1568-1577. 
Whether these Wrenfords living at Newbury in the 18th century descend from the 
Rayusfords of Tew or from the Wrenfords or Rainsfords of Longdon, Wore, 


cannot at present be determined. The Danvers were connected both witli the 
Lonsjdon and Thatcham estates. Amonoj the living representatives of this line are 
the Rev. Herbert St. John Edmondson Wrenford, rector of Clannaborongh, North 
Devon, and Major Arthnr L. P. Wrenford, Worcestershire Regiment, son of 
William and Mrs. Wrenford, of Fleet, Hants. 

In a notable will of John de Rainford dated 11 July 1361, Rector of the church 
of St. Clement, Hastings, in the diocese of Chichester, he " grants the Friars of 
Preston in Aniounderness 40s. To the Prior and Convent of Bnrscongh 1005. To 
the Prior and Convent of Holland lOQs. He also bequeaths £8 to find a chaplain 
for two years in the said churcli of Prescot in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary 
and All Saints. (Prescot is the mother church of Rainford, Lancashire.) These 
and other bequests that they may pray and celebrate the souls of my lords, that is 
to say, principally for the soul of Sir Thomas de Holland, late Earl of Kent, and 
Sir Otto de Holland, brother of the said Earl, and also for tlie souls of my father 
and mother, etc., and he nominates, amongst others. Sir John de Ditton, John de 
Holland and Thomas de Molyneux his executors." 

The de Hollands and de Rainfords iield adjoining estates in Lancashire. The 
former originated from Upper Holland, Lancashire, and Holland in Lincolnshire. 
Sir Thomas Holland, E.G., who died in 1360, married Joan Plantagenet, the Fair 
Maid of Kent, dau. of Ednuind of Woodstock, Earl of Kent, and sixth son of 
Edward I. She afterwards married Edward the Black Prince, brother of John of 
Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, and was niece of Joan Plantagenet or Joan of Acre, 
born there in 1272, a daughter of Edward L She married 1st Gilbert de Clare, 
and 2iidly Ralph Mortimer.' She was mother of the last Gilbert de Clare, slain at 
Bannockburn 1316, leaving his two sisters his heirs, when Sir Richard de Rainey 
or Rodney with others was made trustee of their vast estates. John Holland, the 
son of Sir Thomas Holland (ob. 1360), Duke of Exeter 1352— UOO, in 1386 gave 
evidence with John of Gaunt, John de Rainford, John de Merton and others at 
Plymouth in the Scroop and Grosvenor controversy respecting a coat of arms. In 
January UOO he entered with Thomas de Spencer his nephew and Thomas, Earl of 
Kent, into a conspiracy against Henry IV. for tiie restoi-ation of Richard II. His 
eldest brother Thomas, 2nd Earl of Kent, married Lady Alice FitzAlan, dau. of 
Richard, Earl of Arundel. From this great branch descend the Raiusfords of 
. Ireland, the Rainsford-Hannays of Scothuid, the Raiusfords of New Brunswick and 
i the Raiusfords of Clifford Chambers, amongst the living representatives of whom 
' are: Brigadier-General Fredk. Rainsford-Haunay, C.B., Col. Marcus Edward Read 
Rainsford, C.B., and Mr. F. Vine Rainsford, the well-known genealog:ist, who has 
devoted between fifty and sixty years to research work in connection with our 
family, and without whose untiring zeal this pamphlet could not have been written. 
Various pedigrees of this stem will be found in " The Visitations of Oxfordshire," 
" The Visitations of Warwickshire," " The Visitations of Gloucestershire," Baker's 
" History of Northamptonshire," " The Genealogist," and " Miscellanea Genealogica 
et Heraldica," etc. 

Before commencing the South-AVestern stem I would draw attention to Pagano 
Filio Rainfredi, who in the charter of Robert, Bishop of Exeter, to the Abbey of 
Savigny in 1150 refers to him. What little I have to say is more in the way of 
enquiry and conjecture, and would suggest that he is identical with Pagan de 
MoMtiloul>k'au, who made his return of certificate of knights'. fees (see " Remarks on 
the Liber Niger or black book of the Exchequer," by Sir Henry Barkiy, K.C.B., 
G.C.M.G., wiiicii appeared in the " Bristol and Glos. Arch. Soc. Mag." for the year 
1889-90). He stales that " Pagan of Montdoubleau, so styled from a castle in 
Franco, was head of the family of Cadurcis, or Chaworth, which liad acquired a 
footing in Eugland towards the close of the eleventh century tlirough the marriage 
of Patrick de Cadurcis with one of the daughters of Ernulph de Hesding, a great 
Doomsday baron. Another daughter was wife to Alan son of Flaald, ancestor of 
the FitzAlans of Clun. Le Strange Records give the name as Adelina. After the 
decease of a second Patrick de Cadurcis late in the reign of Henry I., the bulk of 



Ernulpli's property passed to Earl Patrick, whose father Walter of Salisbury had 
married Sibella dau. of the 1st Patrick of Cadurcis, but on the accession of 
Henry II. this Pagan do Montdoiibleau had obtained a charter Rrantinsr to him all 
tlie lands in England which his f/randfalher Patrick de Cadurcis had held." 

I suggest that the maternal great grandfather of this Patrick Ernnlph de 
Hesding was a Raiufred. .Saviiigy appears by the map to be abonfc five miles 
from Montdonbleau. This line ended in an heiress Maud who married Henry 
of Monmouth, Duke of Lancaster, son of Edmnnd Crouchback (ob. 1272). 
Mand was dau. of Sir Peter Chaworth by Isabella Beauchamp, dan. of 'Willirtin, 
Earl of Warwick, and had issue Blanch Plantagenet or de Lancaster who 
married Jolm of Gaunt. Another dau. Eleanor married Richard FitzAlan, Earl 
of Aruudel, widow of John, Lord Beaumont. The de Brewers or Bruse, who 
lived in Somerset, sometimes called Rainfred, had a cousin who married William de 
la Ferte, and their dau. married Pagan or Pain de Cadurcis or Chaworth, 
buried in Gloucester Abbey 1237. (Baker's "North Hants.,"vol. ii., p. 239.) 

III. South-Wesleni Stem. — Early in the 12th century, members of the family 
were holding land in Cornwall, Somerset and Gloucestershire, for in the certificate of 
Knight's fees, William Earl of Gloucester, who was a son of Robert Earl of 
Gloucester, halt-brother to the Empress Mand, we find Robert de Reini, 5 Knights. 
The fief of Walter, son of Raamer 2 Knights, the fief which was Geoffrey de 
Ragensfords 1 Kuigiit. 

From "Selden Soc" publications : 

Vol. I., "Pleas of the Crown," temp. John. 1201. Reference to Phillipus 
frater Reinfridi. 

Vol. II., 1203. Somerset. The jury to try if Reinfred (the nncle of Christiana, 
formerly wife of Hamou de Weare) pledged to Ralph de Sparkford land in Badgworth 
when he, Reinfred set out on his journey to Jerusalem, &c." A grant was made to 
Wrangheye by Bishop Roger of land near Rodney 1256. Badgworth is about one 
mile from Rodney, which is a small island in Wedmore near Merk. Weare is the 
adjoining parish to Badgworth. Sparkford about five miles from Islesbrewers. 

As we have already seen Rodney was not found prior to the 14th century and 
was a corruption of Reiny or Rayney, but as we have noticed in the certificate of 
Knight's fees 1166, Robert de Reini made a return and Walter son of Raamer 
also made a return, and there is a reference to Reinfridi in connection with 
Badgworth in 1201. Rodney appears for the first time about 1300. Collinson in 
his History of Somerset states, that " Backwell, Lamyat and Rolston were given by 
the Empress Maud to Walter de Rodney." 

About 1350 Rolston belonged to the family of Weare. Walter de Coutances 
(ob. 1207), Bishop of Lincoln and Archbishop of Rouen is said to have been of 
English birth a son of Raiufred and Gonilla or Corcella. John de Scalby in his 
composition of the Lincoln Records states that he was a native of Cornwall. His 
eldest son is styled Chaplain of Blythe. In 1188 he took the cross, and was at the 
Council of Le Mans, where the Saladin tithe was levied. In the Peerage by G. E. C. 
under Arundel it is there stated that " there is evidence that Walter de Coutances, 
Archbishop of Rouen was of the Fitz Rainfred family being possibly brother or 
brother-in-law of Roger Fitz Rainfred." 

Among the i\Iauors held in capite by Bishop Coutances in Somerset 1086 was 
Stoke Giffard afterwards called Rodney Stoke. This, with other Manors came to 
the Crown in 1095, not long after his death, by the forfeiture of liis nephew Robert 
Mowbray, Earl of Northumberlaud, and was afterwards included in the honour of 
Gloucester. Inquisitions taken in the reign of Edward I. and Edward II. mention 
Stoke Giffard among the fees of the de Clares, who were then Earls of Gloucester and 
Hertford. Roger Witen is named in Doomsday as under tenant of Bishop 
Coutances, not only of Stoke but of Friforda, Sanfort and Wenfrod — identified as 
Freshford, Saltford and Winford respectively, all part of the same Doomesday fief. 
Mr. Ejton insists, more than once tliat Roger de Witen was identical with Roger 


de Corcella alias Clmrchhill wbich I take to be a variant of Gonilla. He was tenant- 
in-cliitf of a great number of Somei'set Manors and under-tenant of several more, 
and it was tlu'ougb tbe influence of bis Kinswoman, tbe Empress Maud, and of bis 
alliance, l)y niai'iia^'e witb tbe great family of de Witeii alias de Corcella tliat tbe 
family of Raiiifrcd became prominent in Somerset, Devon and Cornwall. At a very 
early date, aliuut tbe middle of tbe litli Ccninry the Rainfreds became connected, 
by marriage, with the illustrious family of Arundel in Somerset and Cornwall. 
"Roger Arundell described in Doomsday Book as bolding Manors in Dorsetsliire 
and Somerset 20 "William tbe Conciuevor, had issue Gilbert de Arundel), first son, who 
married Rosamond daughter of John de Novant and had issue Richard Arundell, 
wbo by bis wife Juliana had issue Sir Reinfric Arundel, married to Alice daughter 
of Sir J. Lanlierue of Lanberne Cornw (anotber pedigree says Jobn de Umfravile 
married tbe widow of Sir J. Arundell, viz., Alice de Lanberne) by wbom be had 
issue Sir Humpbrey A. wlio mar. a dau. of John Umfraivil and bad a son Sir 
Reinfric A., temp. II. III., Sir Ralpb A., bis son. Sheriff of Cornwall, 44 Hen. III. 
mar. Eve dan. of Sir Ricbaid de Rupe, Lord of Tremodrut, Cornwall, wbo by two 
deeds dated Oct. 9, 1259, granted tbe manors of Trembleth and Tredreysowe to 
Sir Ralph de A. on bis mariiage witb Eva bis da." Visitations of Cornwall, p. 274. 
Communicated by Lord Arundell of Wardour. 

It would seem probable, altbougb I have no evidence to shew that this Richard 
Arundell's wife Juliana was a Reinfred, naming ilu- son Ibiiifred Arundell. This 
name of Reinfred in tbe Arundell family has ]iersi>ied li-oin the above time down 
to the present day. Under Arundell of Lanberne (Cornwall Visitations) we find 
Sir L. Arundell's dan. Emmott mar. Renfrid de Reswalter 5th Edward III., 1332, 
and under Bevill of Gwarmarcbe, Jobn Burden 13G8 mar. Lucy dau. of Wrentford 
and sister of AVrentford of Efford, she died 1360. 

In Polwbeles Hist, of Cornwall, 1816, vol. iv., p. 112, mentions Nic. Wainfovd, 
M.P. tPinp. Edward III. Pedigree shews inter-marriage of Tbomasinia dau. of 
Richard Remfry of Polgno. 

Parochial History of Cornwall, vol. iii., 16. " The Manor of Efford or Ebbing- 
ford (in Bude Bay) belonged in an early period to tbe \Vaumfoi-ds or Waunfords^ 
thence by heiresses, through Durants "tn Arnndclls of Tievice." Wainford and 
Waunford are variants of Wrenford. Rainl'ivd. b'aiiifVv. .'(c. lor we have an interest- 
ing illustration of these variants in the ICtli c. iit'iirv. From the P.e-ister of 
Bromsberrow tlnee miles from Longdon wliieli is five miles iVom Tewkcsbuiy, where 
the Wrenfords, Raiufords or Ransfords were seated, from circa, 1290 to 1830, I 
e.xtract tbe following : " 1578, February 28tb, Rowland Rainford and Ann Cousins." 
In the will of Rowland Wrendford dated 9th October, 1622 (probably a son of tbe 
first Rowland) be leaves a bequest to tbe poor of Longdon, where he was born." 

Gould in his History of Free Masonry in referring to the attendance of 
Wainsford Esquire, at the Lodge meeting in 1682, at Mason's Hall, London, says : 
"probably meant for Rowland Rainsford." The last Rowland I surmise was 
grandson of the first. In the pedigree of Wyrall (Gloucestershire Visitations), we 
find that Joyce was the wife of William Warnford. The marriage is given in the 
English Bicknor Register as follows : "1564, AVilliam Wramford and Joyce Worrall 
mar. 8 August." This William Wramford is identical witb William Wrenford who 
married Joan Gilbert 25th November, 1542. This Joan was buried at Longdon, 
10th December, 1563. F7rfe Longdon Parish Register. Tbe Gilberts were seated 
at Chambers Court the adjoining estate to Longdon Manor. 

The probable exiilanation of tbe spelling of Wainford and Waumford is their 
early connection with the Manor of Wenfrod afterwards spelled Winford, Somerset. 
In the Lygon pedigree (Worcestershire Visitations) we find that " William Lygon 
mar. Elizabeth dau. to Rainford Arrundell," and in the pedigree of Carr it is stated 
that "Nicholas Carr of Tewkesbury mar. Winiffrid dau. of John Lyggon of 
Batclicott in Com. Salop, and his sister Elizabeth was wife of John Wrengsford of 
Langdou (Longdon) in Com. Worster." 


To return to the family of Arundell. From Gilbert's S. of C. Carew says : 
"The name is derived from Horindille, in French a swallow, but we are inclined to 
believe, was obtained from a Lordship of Arundel, co. Sussex. Richard supposed 
to have been a son of Simon Pincerna, «?/«« Butler, left two dans. One of these, 
Alice married Renfrid Arundel of Tremblcth. John de Arundell, ancestor of this 
Kenfrid de Arundell (most probably his father) became connected throiiajh the 
marriao-e with the heiress of Trembletli. He was most undoubtedly a descendant 
of the de Albanys or their successors the FitzAlans, many of whom according to 
York, bore the name of de Arundell and gave for their arms or, a Hon ravipanf gules. 
According to Leland, these were borne by the Arundells of Trerice temp. Henry VIII." 
The connection of the Rainsfords with the Arnndells is seen much later, in the early 
part of the 16th Century when Honor Gi'enville married first Sir John Bassett, 
and secondly in 1528 Arthur Plantaganet Lord Lisle a natural son of Edward IV., 
by Elizabeth Lucie. It was through Lady Lisle's influence that John and William 
Rainsford were appointed gentlemen ushers to Henry VIII. and Alice, presumably 
their sister, was maid of Honour to Ann Bolleyn. One of these gentlemen ushers 
was mentioned in the will of Henry VIII. Lady Lisle's sister married an Arundell 
of Lanherne, and in the 17tli century William Wrenford, son of Robert and 
grandson of Thomas of Fare-End, Longdon is lineally descended from Reymfrey 
Arundell who married Joan dau. and heir of Sir John Coleshull, knight. She 
married 2Mdly John Nanfan of Birts llorton Court, about 2 miles from Longdon 
Manor. The descent is through the Baudes, the Danverses and the Stradlings. 

In Birts Morton Church there isamonumentalinscription to Lord John Arundell, 
Bishop of Chester and son of Renfreye Arundel ; side compartment gives Renfreye 
Arundell, Knight, and Oumphrey Arundell. (Nash, vol. i., p. 85.) 

From Eyton's " Antiq. of Shropshire," vol. .x., p. 289, we find that soon after 
Doomsday, Feunymere was given by one of the northern Earls to Reiner the 
Provost — probably the first recorded Provost of Shrewsbury, who conveyed the 
estate in 1121. 

Reinfred was of Worthln in 1086. 

Worthin is about five miles north of jMontgoraery and about ten north 
of Clun, the Shropshire seat of the FitzAlans. About 1204 — 10, as we have 
already noticed, Reiner, Bishop of St. Asaph, bought from John Le Strange the 
whole township of Willcot, a member of Ness, at the enormous price of 70 marks 
in order that he might bestow it upon the hospital which he was founding and 
richly endowing at Oswestry (Le Strange Records, 70). As we have already seen. 
Tew in Oxfordshire was one of the manors in chief held by Roger Le Strange, who 
died in 13-19. 

Ralph de Constantine or Coutances was seated in Salop, 1086, descended from 
Nigel, Viscount of Coutances, 1047, when he revolted against Duke William, and 
lost his vast estates. Ralph had a son Hugh, who granted lands to Salop Abbey 
before 1121. Umfrid de Coutances witnessed its foundation charter 1093, and 
Richard Coutances that of Haghmond Abbey, 1099. The family long flourished in 
Salop, and temp. Henry II. sent a branch to Ireland, of which Geoffry de Coutances 
witnessed the Charter of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1177, and founded Tristernagh 
Abbey (Norman People). They bore or, six flenrs-de-Us sable, three, two and one. 
Crest, a sivord in bend sinister proper, surmounted by a cross crosslet, azvre. 

In 1074 Reginfrith or Reinfridus, a monk of Winchcombe, became first Prior 
of Whitby Monastery, and is mentioned in one of the charters of Hugh, Earl of 

From the Whitby chartulary, vols, i.-ii., pub. 1878 — 79 by the Surtees Soc, 
edited by the Rev. J. C. Atkinson, Danby, Yorks, 1879, we learn the Abbey was 
restored in 1075 by William de Percy. Reinfred is named as the first Prior. He 
was a soldier of prominence, holding directly from William the Conqueror, that i?, 
a personal follower of the King, a man under authority having soldiers under him. 
Turning aside from tlie direct lines of a jouiney on march through Northumber- 
land, in order to visit Whitby, he was struck with compunction caused by the 



ravages of the merciless pirates Ingwar and Ubba, leaders of the Danes (some say 
Ingwar is identical with Eaenger or Ainsfred, son of Lodbroc, King of Denmark), 
circa 890. Probably ancestor of Kainfred the first Prior. He became a monk at 
Evesham and Winchcomb. After a time he returned to Northumberland with the 
clearly conceived design of reviving monastic religion there, and coming eventually 
to "William de Percy was well received by him, and had a grant of that baron's 
lands of the ancient monastery of St. Peter the Apostle. AVilliam de Percy hel(i 
Whitby of Hugh, Earl of Chester. Charlton himself makes him out to have beei. 
Dapher, that is, as he explains it, butler or cupbearer to the family of de Arcubus, 
and this with no better authority that he holds under Osbern de Arches. His 
frequent presence at the execution of important charters by members of the 
Percy family, it would always have appeared more probable that he was Dapher to 
that great family, to Alan de Percy himself; but the question is set at rest by a 
simple entry in the manorial " Ex dono Folconii Dapiferi Alani de Perci dnas 
cirucatas terrae in Thoulcstune." (This connection with tlie Percy family is 
closely renewed in the fifteenth century, when Sir Laurence Raynsford marries Ann 
Percy, daughter of Henry, second Earl of Northumberland, as we have already 
seen.) Charlton's sagacity led him to infer that Fulco filius Rayafredi was a son 
of Piaynfred the Prior. A fact that is jilaced quite beyond doubt by the entry 
of his name in full as " Fulco Dapifer filius Rayufridi Priores de Whitby." The 
facts then are patent that Prior Eayiifred's son held an office of distinction in a 
great family, and that he was sufficiently well feoffed under another great family to 
be able to bestow a donation of two carucates upon the rising Abbey of Whitby. 

We find that Fulcho filius Raynfredi is father of Robert and Gilbert, and we 
also find that Alicia de St. Quiutin, who was daughter of Aymer (? Almar or 
Albermarle) de Arches, Founder of the Monastry of Keeling (Almar, Bishop of 
Thetford, who held part of the Manor of Wickmere, Norfolk, with Drogo, heir of 
Hainfred, was half brother to Stigand, Archbishop of Canterbury), and that her 
son Fulcho was the father of Robert and Gilbert. Raynfred was buried at Hackness 
having lost his life through an accident. After Prior Raynficd's death, Serlo, the 
brother of William de Percy was created Abbot." I suggest that Pi-ior Rainfred 
■was a near kinsman to the Percys who descended from Mainfred ? Rainfred the 
Dane. There can be little doubt that Rainfred was a member of the Baronial 
House of the Rainfreds or Talibois, Barons of Kendal, 108G. It will be remem- 
bered that Ivo, Lord of Kendal, had a son Fulk, who was father of Geoffrey 
Plantaganet, and a brother, Gilbert Fitz Reinfred, ancestor of Gilbert Fitz Reinfred, 
Baron of Kendal, 1200 — 19. Referring to the family of de Arches, or de Arques, 
near Dieppe, from whence the de AVarrens (Norman People). I think it is but 
another form of de Auchy. The Abbey of St. JIartin de Auchy, near Albemarle, 
which was founded by Guy Renfred. 

Now we must return to the Reyneys, Rainfreds, Radneys or Rodneys of Rodney 
Stoke, Somerset. From Bird's article on Rodney Stoke which appeared in the 
" Genealogist," N.S., vol. xxvi., pt. 1, we find that in 1159 Roger Witeng occurs in 
the Bruton Chartulary as Lord of Stoke, and in 11G6 he was holding seven knights' 
fees of William, Earl of Gloster. Richard de Rodney is first mentioned about 1300, 
his immediate predecessors in connection with Stoke being Anslem Basset and 
Bartholomew de Empnebergh. These names are also mentioned in connection with 
Winfrod. (For fuller particulars see article referred to.) Another article by the 
same author on the origin of the Rodnej's, which appeared in the " Genealogist," 
N.S., vol. xxvi., pt. 2, gives Collinson's descent of Sir Richard de Rodney the first 
owner of Stoke, which states he was descended from Walter de Rodney, a famous 
partisan of the Empress Maud, by whose gift he had the manors jf Backwell, 
Lamyat and Rolston, besides other estates in this county, Cornwall and Devon, 
which descended to his son and heir Sir Henry de Rodney, Knt., which Sir Henry 
was Steward to Henry son of King Henry II., and is mentioned in that reign as 
arbitrator between the Dean and Chapter of Wells Cathedral. He had issue Sir 


Richard de Rodney, Kiit., who i Ric. I. was slain afc Acre in Palestine and was 
succeeded by William de Rodney his son, who was sent by King John as Ambas- 
sador to the Court of Rome, and dying on his journey thither was buried at Viter- 
borne. His son and heir was Sir Ricliard de Rodney, Knt., who in the year 1234 
was slain at Hereford by Llewellyn, Prince of Wales. He married Jane, dau. of 
Sir John Eastley, Knt., by whom he had issue two sons, Richard and Tiiomas, the 
eldest of whom losing his life at the same time with liis father, this estate descended 
to the younger son Thomas, which Thomas was also a Knight and married Mar- 
garet dau. of Sir Arnold Montenay, Knt., by whom he had issne Richard de Rodney, 
who in 131G was knighted. He goes on to say that readers of the " Genealogist" 
will not have forgotten the history of this family (" Genealogist," N.S., vol. xvi., 
pp. 207—214, ex. vii. fi— 12. 100— 106) written for his daughters in the seven- 
teenth century by Sir Edward Rodney. Sir Edward dealt respectfully but very 
guardedly with these six generations. " It hatii been a constant tradition in our 
family that wee came into this land with Maud die Emprisse, from forraigne parts, 
aud that shee gave them lands and estates witliin this Kingdome. I confess I have 
no evidence by mee to prove this tradition besides the pedigree ; yet my want 
thereof will not make it false in itselfe though it gaine the less credit with others." 
And again, " I call those Ancestors the roots whicii lived before Sir Richard Rodney 
who lived Henry III., Edward I. and Edward II., for they all, like rootes under- 
ground, have left to posterity a very uncertain knowledge and remembrance of 
them and such as a diligent searcher after truth can hardly rest satisfied withall 
. , . for that Richard de Rodney wee have testimony both public and private as 
cleare as the snnne. Beyond him the times are dark and cloudy without any 
furniture for this argument. The Publike Records reach no further, neither 
amongst my private evidences doe I finde anything besides the Genealogie or 
Pedigree."' Bird asked the question, " Where is Rodney ? and says tiie name on 
the face of it is a place name — English by its form." He searches the Public 
Records for an answer, and says "If in the Empress Maud's time Records are 
scarce : from the accession of King John downwards many are accessable in print. 
He complains that the search of index after index reveals nothing but a strange 
conspiracy of silence in regard to a line so distinguished." When Sir Edward 
Rodney was informed by one Dr. Pierce that he had found the name of Rodney at 
Wells as ancient as tlie foundation of the Cathedral Church there. Sir Edward 
observes, with pleasant irony, " Whether his posteritie went into the parts beyond 
the seas and at last came over with Maud the Em|)ressc according to the tradition 
aforesaid is a thing uncertain I shall mention no further, yet it is possible it might 
be so." 

Bird quotes in full a document taken from the Liber Albus i.. fo. 123, 
Wells MSS. i., 160 (see "Genealogist," N.S., vol. xxvi., pt. 2, p. 95). From this 
document, in which the place name of Rodney is mentioned, lie comes to the con- 
clusion " that it is to this holding that the Rodneys are indebted for their name, 
and is satisfied that Sir Richard was the true founder of the family, and his 
ancestors are to be sought not among knights and nobles, at the Court of an 
Empress, but among the husbandmen who tilled the lands for the Deanery." 

There is one name constantly mentioned in connection with the Rodney lands, 
viz.. Bans, sometimes spelled Baiuse or Baiocis or Bayeux. I think probably these 
are but vai'iants of Baugh or Bawde. Baughs were seated for many generations at 
Twining Manor about two miles from Tewkesbury, and on two or three occasions 
tlie Wrenfords or Rainsfords of Longdon Manor intermarried with this family. 
AVe find from the Public Records that Sir Richard de Rodney was one of the 
executors of Bishop William de Marchia, who died 1302. In 1306 Rodney 
acquired from William de Esthalle and his wife an important estate in Claverham 
and Backwell, formerly Le Soor's, and from Thomas de Baiocis a moiety of the 
manor and advowson of Saltford, to which church he presented. 

From 1307 to the end of his life Rodney was constantly employed in the King's 
service. In 1314 he was Conservator of the Peace in Gloucestershire. In 1316 he 


was kuighted at Keynsham, and in December of that year he was appointed with 
others to keep the land of Gilbert de Clare his chief lord, Earl of Gloster and 
Hertford, who had been slain at Bannockburn — an appointment renewed in May 
1317 by consent of the coheirs pendint; a partition of the estate. In 1:'>l'2, after 
Boroughbridge, he was commissioned to render judgment upon two traitors at 
Bristol, being Constable of Bristol Castle, as seen from a writ of August that year. 
He and Lucy his wife were buried at Backwell, but in 1337 their son had licence 
to exhume their bodies and translate them to Keynsham Abbey. 

In conclusion he refers to the well known arms of Rodney and points out, " they 
date back to the time of Sir Richard de Rodney the founder of the family for we 
have it from Sir Edward that he sealed with three eagles temp. Edward II. Now 
we should expect to find a novufi homo of that date adopting a coat derived from 
that of some family with which he was connected by marriage, tenure of land or 
otherwise," and he goes on to say, " that the suspicion will arise that to the vain 
glorious imagination of some herald of the decadence Rodney's eagles suggested 
Imperial patronage, a suggestion out of which may have grown the story of the 
Empress Maud and the pedigree of six illustrious generations, purporting to fill the 
time between her return to England and the authentic date of the rise of Sir 
Richard Rodney." 

I may say at once, with the material I have at my disposal I can arrive at no 
other conclusion than that the account given by Collinson in hia " History of 
Somerset," and the pedigree of the Rodneys to be found in the visitations of that 
county and the account of this family written by Sir Edward Rodney for his 
daughters in the 17th century are substantially correct. The confusion has arisen 
by the extraordinary vagaries and variants of the spelling of the name. We have 
already referred to "The History of the Norman People," where it states "that 
Rodney is apparently not found in the records prior to the lith century, that it is 
a corruption of Reiney or Rayney afterwards Radenay and that the family of de 
Rainey or Rigny came from Champagne." We have also noticed that Walter de 
Coutances who died 1207 and was appointed Archbishop of Rouen, 118-1 succeeding 
his relative Robert de Newburgh or de Beaumont who died 1183, who was son of 
Henry de Beaumont, Earl of Warwick and Patron of the Abbey of Preaux, was of 
the FitzRainfred family, a son of Rainfred by Gonilla or Corcellii, who immigrated 
into Cornwall early in the 12th Century. Bird says "that in the search of the 
Public records from King John downwards index after index reveals naught but a 
strange conspiracy of silence in regard to a line so distinguished." AVhen he says 
that a Dr. Pierce had found the name of Rodney at Wells as ancient as the 
foundation of the Cathedral there, no doubt the Doctor was right, but the name 
was disguised under other forms, such as Rayner, Raamer, Rainfred, Rainey, or 
Wrangheye, Ranyard, etc. 

Who was this Rainfred who married Corcella and father of Walter the Arch- 
bishop ? I think there can be little doubt that he is identical with Rainfred alias 
Kainfrey, son of William (1) de Lancaster, Baron of Kendal by Gundred de 
Warren, Countess of AYarwick, who was a daughter of William de Warren by Eliza- 
beth de Vermandois. Her brother William de Warren married Ella de Belshme ; 
their daughter Isabel married Hamlin Plantagenet, natural son of Geoffry, Count 
of Anjou, whose daughter Matilda married Osbert de Preaux, Lord of Preaux, his 
grandfather being Gilbert FitzRainfred who was provided for by his brother Ivo de 
Tallibois, Baron of Kendal. Gilbert afterwards inherited the barony. They were 
uncles of Geoffry Plantagenet (ob. 1158) who married the Empress Maud, and, on 
the authority of Sir Henry Ellis, were nephews of the Conqueror. Rainfred's 
eldest son was William (II.), who by licence of Henry II. took the name of 
de Lancaster and bore for arms, An/enf, two bars and a canton i/ules, the latter 
charged with a lion passant or. Another son was Roger FitzRainfred, a Justice of 
the King's Bench, who married Rohaise, a niece of Ranulf, Earl of Chester, and 
widow of Gilbert de Gant, Earl of Lincoln. Another sou was Warren de Lancaster, 
from whom descended the important family of de Preston. A branch of the 


de Laiicasters settled at Milverton in Somersetsliiie at the time of the Yioitation 
and bore arms, Argent, two bars gules, on a canton of the second a lion passant or. 
Tlie father or brother of Rainfred's wife, Roger de Witen alias de Corcella, held 
seven kuights' fees in 1166 of William, Earl of Gloucester. 

The Raiiifred who went to Jerusalem circa 1190 is probably identical with 
Richard de Rainey, Knt., who -4 Richard I. was slain at Acre, Palestine, according 
to the traditional pedigree. 

I suggest that Wrangheye or Rainey was given to the island or islet near Merk 
by its first holder, and became corrupted into Rodney on account of its close 
proximity to a village named Godney. At a much later date — the early part of the 
seventeenth century — we have a similar instance, when a grant was made to Robert 
Kainsford of London from Warwick House under date 2 December 1631, " who 
had undertaken, wiih others, to build a town in New England " (State Papers, 
Colonial Series). This was Boston, U.S.A., and an island outside the harbour is 
still known as Rainsford Island. In connection with Kendal Castle it should be 
borne in mind that it was the birthplace of Catherine Parr, the last wife of 
Henry VIII., who was buried at Sudely Winchcombe, where a branch of the Rains- 
fords were living at that time. She was a daughter of Sir Thomas Parr by Maud, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Green of Greens Norton, Northants. The arms of Green 
is the fifth quartering on the shield of Rainsford of Clifford, the sixth quartering 
being that of Glanville alic(s Butler. Theobald Butlei-, who died 1205-6, as we 
already noticed, left a son Theobald, born about 12U0, whom his grandfather was 
ordered by King John on 2 March 1206 to deliver up to Gilbert FitzReinfred 
(Pat. John, m. 3), and a daughter Maud was also committed to Gilbert and his 
son till 1220 (Rot. Pat. 4 Henry III.). 

Theobald Butler was the first Bntler of Ireland to whom that dignity and vast 
estates were granted by Henry II. ; he also possessed the barony of Amounderuess, 
Lanes., whicli he held in 1165 by service of one knight (Lib. Nig.). Preston, 
Lanes., is situated iu Amounderness, where the FitzRainfreds held estates. 
Warren FitzRainfred de Lancaster is, I expect, identical with Warenger Reine of 
Normandy found mentioned in the Magn. Rotul. Scaccarii 1180 — 95. It would 
appear that this Rainfred or Raiufrey son of William (I.), Baron of Kendal and 
Governor of Lancaster Castle, probably forfeited his estates iu Lanes, when 
Stephen, afterwards King, had the grant of Lanes, from the Ribble to the Mersey, 
when Roger de Poictou, Earl of Lancaster (third son of Roger de Poictou, Earl of 
Montgomery, Arundel and Shrewsbury), was deprived, on account of his rebellion, 
of his great Lancashire inheritance, and owing to Rainfred's or Rainer's support of 
the cause of his cousin, the Empress Maud, was rewarded by her with a number of 
manors, as stated by tradition, in Somerset, Devon and Cornwall. When he had 
the gift of the manors of Backwell, Lamyat and Rolston he would become associated 
with Roger de Witen or de Corcella, who in 1166 was holding the manor of Stoke, 
wiiich his father or grandfather held as sub-tenant of Roger de Mowbray, Bishop of 
Coutances, a near relative to the Empress Maud's stepfather AVilliam de Albini, 
Earl of Arundel, and it is through this connection with his wife's family, with 
Bishop Roger, that Walter the Archbishop of Rouen is styled De Coutances. 

Not only was Rainfred the founder of the Western stem, cousin to Queen 
Maud, but was also a cousin to her husband Geoffry Plantagenet, and was allied 
directly by marriage at and soon after the Conquest with some of the most powerful 
families, including the Norman Earls of Chester, do Brus, de Sutville, de Corcella, 
de Warren, Talbot, Neville, Arundel, Percys, Pinnes and De Clare, etc. His son 
Gilbert appears to have been reinstated in Lancashire, for he returned himself in 
1166 as holding the same estates as held by his ancestors. 

Now for an explanation of the well-known arras of Rodney, the three eagles 
displayed, which were also borne, in a modified form, by the Wrenfords or Rains- 
fords of Longdon and the Wilc^ts of Tew Magna and a branch of the Rainsfords of 
Cumberland, viz.. Azure, an eagle displayed argent, ducally gorged or. If I am 
correct iu my surmise, when Rayner, Bishop of St. Asaph, bought the township of 


Willcott about 1204 — 10 from John Le Strange, some of the family assumed the 
name of Willcot, and this accounts for the arms of Willcot being identical with the 
Rainsfords of Longdon and who, as I shall shew later, inherited some of the 
adjoining lands, or the actual lands, held by the Longdon Rainsfords. 

What then is the explanation of the Rodney arms ? Bird says, " If the parentage 
of Sir Richard's wives were fully known to us, it would furnish a clue to the mean- 
ing of the Rodney arms." It is not the wives of Sir Richard Rodney which give 
answer, but the wife of Reinfred the first settler in the west, who was, as we have 
seen, a dau. of Roger de Witen alias de Corcella. In the " Visitation of Glouces- 
tershire " we find in the pedigree of Holford of Churchdowne that Richard Holford 
married Mary dau. of Walter Winchcombe alias Wliiteing of Payneswick. On 
page 73 the second quartering of Hall is given as Azi/re, on a chevron engrailed 
between three lapwings or, as many cinqvefoih of the field, on a chief of the second a 
fleur-de-lis between two spearheads of the field, Winchcombe. The wings or lap- 
wings being allusive to the name of Witing. Another theory as to the origin of 
the arms borne by the Rodneys and Rainsfords is that they are allusive to the 
Abbey of St. Martin near Albemarle, which Guy Reinfred founded circa 1020. 
About the same date there was a family of Warren living at Snowshill about three 
miles from Winchcombe, who bore for arms Ermine, a fez chequi or and azure 
between three falbots passant sable. These arms indicate that this family derived 
from Warren de Lancaster alias FitzReinfred. 

Henry Rainsford bore arms Argent, a cross and a bordure sable at the siege of 
Caerlaverock 1800 (Edward I. Roll) ; aaother coat Argent, a cross sable (Jermyns 
and Ballard Rolls). Their earlier arms were probably Gules, a chevron engrailed 
belireen three Jleurs-de-lis argent, as borne by the Rainfreds of Sockbridge and the 
Rainsfords of Essex with slight variations and tinctures for difference. The Rains- 
fords of Cumberland, as we have already noticed, bore Azure, an eagle displayed or, 
and the Rainsfords or Wrenfords of Longdon bore Azure, an eagle displayed argent, 
ducally gorged or, being identical with the arms borne by the Wilcots of Tew ; and 
lastly, the Reyneys or Rodneys of Rodney Stoke bore three eagles displayed with 
wings inverted purpure, these armorial identifications evidencing their common 
origiu. The families who followed Prince Edward, afterwards Edward I. (1272 — 
1307) on the last crusade adopted the cross, among whom were the well-known 
families of De Vere and Berkeley. The Rainsfords of Tew and their descendants 
have always borne for their arms Argent, a o'oss sable. 

In a very interesting series of deeds published by the late Canon E. R. Dowde-s- 
well, M.A., of Pull Court, Tewkesbury, in the Bristol and Glos. Arch. Soc. 
publications, we find that Robert Cardiff or Kerditf granted a tithe of hay on his 
lordship of Walton (Walton Cardiff) to the monks of Tewkesbury 1182 — 1202. 
This Robert recites a promise made by his father William in his lifetime, which 
William de Cardiff held half a knight's fee in Walton, under William, Earl of 
Gloucester, 1166 (Liber Niger). This Esrl of Gloucester was a son of Robert, 
a natural son of Henry I., and therefore half-brother of the Empress Maud. In 
the next deed mention is made of William de Cardiff, Knt., son of Sir Robert, who 
quotes his father's deed word for word. Among his witnesses are Nicholas Pont, 
Seymour de Cardiff and Cfecilia my wife, and Robert Pister. Csecilia may be 
another form of Corcella. In a later deed we find William de Cardiff died 1331-2, 
when he was seized of Queen Hill and also of Walton. He left a widow Joan, also 
a daughter Joan. One of these married Sir John Wincott or Wilcot ; Fosbrook 
says it was the widow. Canon Dowdeswell thinks it was the daughter, who was 
born' 1317. The estates of Walton, Cardiff and Queen Hill descended to the 
Bassetts, probably through the marriage of a Cardiff heiress, for in 1396 we find 
John Bassett dies and is found seized of half the manor of Queen Hill. The 
Bassetts remained at Walton until 1588, in which year William Bassett was lord of 
the manor. I am tempted to conjecture (and after all conjecture is often a finger- 
post pointing in the direction of truth, and, as Le Strange has said in his Records, 
•' A stray sliot sometime hits the mark ") that these de Cardiffs were ultimately of 


the FitzReinfred family and went from the neighbourhood of Rodney Stoke to 
Cardiff with their chief lord AVilliam, Earl of Gloucester, where he resided for some 

It is from these Raineys or Rodneys of Rodney Stoke that I claim the Wren- 
fords or Rainsfords of Longdon descend. There were Wrenfords in Worcestersliire 
as early as liid'S, and from the Lay Subsidy Rolls, co. Worcester, 1 Edward III. 
(1327), Martin Folet cum memlirie (Castle Morton), de Thoma de Wrenford occurs. 
They remained at Castle Morton and Longdon until 1805, when they and others 
presented to the churches there. Tlie last male of the Longdon line was Major 
Wrenford, J. P., of Longdon Manor, who died in 1805. Another branch descended 
from these Wrenfords of Longdon JIanor, and resided at Gup's Hill Manor on the 
field of Tewkesbury (1471) from circa 1G50 to 1850. 

The Manor House is only about a quarter of a mile from the site of the ancient 
castle known as Holme Castle, the cliief seat of the de Clares and de Spencers. 
The lands of Gup's Hill Manor join the lands of Walton Cardiff. Tlie line at 
Gup's Hill usually spell their name Raynsford or Ransford. Tradition says Queeu 
Margaret of Anjou slept at Gup's Hill Jlanor (in olden times Gobes Hall) on the 
eve of the battle of Tewkesbury. The last owner of Gup's Hill was Edward 
Ransford, Esq., of Bristol circa 1850. Queen Hill, Tewkesbury, was part of or 
joined the lands of Hill House (about two miles from Longdon), which the 
Dowdeswells held of the Wrenfords in the sixteenth century. From a deed, of 
which Canon Dowdeswell sent me a copy, I am able to give the following 
particulars : — 

" 160G. Thomas Wrenford of Faire End P. of Longdon esquire of the first 
part. Robert Wrenford gentleman, his son and heir and Ann his wife, eldest 
daughter of Ferdinando Baude of the second part of Thorpe Underwood 
CO. Northants esquire, Ferdinando Baude, William Lord Padget of Bewdesert. 
Henry, Lord Danvers of Dauntsey. John Baude of Thorpe Underwood esquire. 
John Danvers of London esquire. John Ireland of Great Bowden, co. Leicester 
third part. Parties 1, 2, 3 demise to Roger Dowdeswell, Hill House messuage and 
land in Bushley Longdon and Pool, Gullivers or GuUersEnd messuage and lands in 
Longdon, lands etc. in Longdon heretofore belonging to Hill House, part of the 
inheritance of William Wrenford father of Thomas known as Aylworths lands." 

Henry Danvers, K.G., was a son of Sir John Danvers, Cirencester Park, created 
Baron 1603 and Earl of Danby 1626. He built Cirencester House, now the seat 
of Earls Bathurst, and died at Cornbury Park, Oxon, 1644. 

From earliest times there has always been the closest connection of the Rans- 
fords with the Earls of Gloucester and the Earls of Warwick, and wherever their 
chief seats were we find the Ransfords holding lands, viz.. Gup's Hill, Tewkesbury, 
Longdon, Castle Morton, Hanley Castle, Elmley Castle and Warwick Castle, also at 
Bisham, I3erks, the burial-place of " Tlie last of the Barons," Richard Neville " the 
King Maker," 1471. The name of AViten took the form of Whitehand, and we 
have seen that these Whitehands were mentioned in conjunction with the de Rain- 
fords of Lanes, in connection with the land there in the early part of the thirteenth 
century. It appears that one of the Lancashire Rainfreds gave their name to 
Rainford, Lanes., probably sometime before the Conquest, and it was first called 
Rainfred's Manor, and finally Rainford, as we have already seen in the evolution of 
the spelling of their holding in Somersetshire, first in Doomsday as Wenfrod, then 
Winfred, AVynfred, Wynesford and Winford. 

The following shews the connection of Hawise de Lancaster, wife of Gilbert 
FitzReinfred, who was the son of Roger FitzReinfred who had the grant of 
Hanworth Marsh, Line. In 1288 Adam de Rainford claimed common of pasture 
for certain lands for which he alleged Robert de Latham had disseized him 
(Assize Roll 1277, m. 32 a). There were at that time two Adams, one being 
the son of John, and the other the son of Benedict (Assize Roll 408, m. 65). 


The former Adam was the great grandson and heir of John Westleigh who 
had been enfeoffed of land in Eainford by a certain Hawise, grandmother of 
Eichard son of Henry at the Cliff, claimant 1292. Adam son of John de Rain- 
ford in 1292 granted to John de Rainford land in the Luud (Bliuulell of Crosby 
Evidences, K 277 ; Victoria History of Lanes., vol. iii.). The Luud is about two 
miles from Preston, to wliicli Ik'iiry II. confirmed the estates of Preston to Warren 
de Lancaster 1154—89, foinierly held by Gilbert FitzReinfred his great-grand- 
father, and as we have already .seen, Jolin de Raynford in his will 1361 made a 
bequest to the Friars of Preston in Amounderness. 

From this Western stem descend the Reyneys or Rodneys of Rodney Stoke, the 
Wrenfords or Rainsfords of Longdon, and the Rainsfords or Ransfords of Gup's 
Hill, Tewkesbury ; and among the living representatives are Lord Rodney of 
Rodney Stoke, the Hon. Thos. H. Rainsford, Member of the American Senate, and 
Vernon Seymour Ransford the notable Australian batsman. Pedigrees of this line 
may be seen in the "Visitations of Somersetshire," "Misc. Gen. et Her.," and a 
detailed table of descent of Rainford of Rainford published in 1907. 

To those who are desirous of continuing a further search into the origin of the 
family the line suggested is the one descending from Malahulcius, uncle of Rollo, 
first Duke of Normandy, from whom lineally descended Ralph, Count of Coutances, 
1011, who had a son Roger de Toesni, surnamed de Espagne, whose brother Hugh 
was surnamed de Lindsey from his Norman seigneure, living 1060. Among the 
arms of Lindsey are Or, an eagle displayed pvrp. membered gvles, also ffides a fess 
chequy ar. afid az. between three garbes of the second, banded of the first. The de 
Albini's also descended fiom this line, and probably the Giffard's, Lords of Bi'ims- 
field Gloucestershire, 1086. 

I have endeavoured to take long and comprehensive views in rescuing from the 
misty past the early history of our race, and weave what materials I have into an 
intelligent whole, so that future generations of our family may take a legitimate 
pride in the lines of knights and gentlemen who have long since passed away, but 
whose memorials in ruined castles, ancient halls, manors, monuments and brasses 
remain with us to this day. I cannot do better than close with the words of 
Sir Matthew Hale, sometime Chief Justice of the King's Bench, and whose imme- 
diate successor to the same position was Sir Richard Rainsford, Knt. : " The very 
concurrence and coincidence of so many evidences that contribute to the proof, 
carries a great weight." 

The accompanying chart may be helpful in shewing the descent of the early 
generations of the Barons of Kendal and their issue. 


The former Adam was the great grandson and heir of John TVestleigh who 
had been enfeoffed of land in Rainford by a certain Hawise, grandmother of 
Richard son of Henry at the Cliff, claimant i202. Adam son of John de Rain- 
ford in 1292 granted to John de Rainford land in the Lnud (Bliindell of Crosby 
Evidences, K 277 ; Victoria History of Lanes., vol. iii.). The Lund is about two 
miles from Preston, to which Henry II. confirmed the estates of Preston to Warren 
de Lancaster 1154—89, formerly held by Gilbert FitzReinfred his great-grand- 
father, and as we have already seen, John de Raynford in his will 1361 made a 
bequest to the Friars of Preston in Amounderness. 

From this Western stem descend the Reyneys or Rodneys of Rodney Stoke, the 
Wrenfords or Rainsfords of Longdon, and the Rainsfords or Ransfords of Gup's 
Hill, Tewkesbury ; and among the living representatives are Lord Rodney of 
Rodney Stoke, the Hon. Thos. H. Rainsford, Jlember of the American Senate, and 
Vernon Seymour Ransford the notable Australian batsman. Pedigrees of this line 
may be see'n in the "Visitations of Somersetshire," "Misc. Gen. et Her.," and u 
detailed table of descent of Rainford of Rainford published in 1907. 

To those who are desirous of continuing a further search into the origin of the 
family the line suggested is the one descending from Malahulcius, uncle of RoUo, 
first Duke of Normandy, from whom lineally descended Ralph, Count of Coutances, 
1011, who had a son Roger de Toesni. surnamed de Espagne, whose brother Hugh 
was surnamed de Lindsey from his Norman seigneure, living 1060. Among the 
arras of Lindsey are Or, an eagle displayed pirp. membered (juIes, also gides a fess 
chequy ar. and az. between three garles of the second, banded of the frst. The de 
Albini's also descended fiom this line, and probably the Giffard's, Lords of Brims- 
field Gloucestershire, 1086. 

I have endeavoured to take long and comprehensive views in rescuing from the 
misty past the early history of our race, and weave what materials I have into an 
intelligent whole, so that "future generations of our family may take a legitimate 
pride in the lines of kniglits and gentlemen who have long since passed away, but 
whose memorials in ruined castles, ancient halls, manors, monuments and brasses 
remain with us to this day. I cannot do better than close with the words of 
Sir Matthew Hale, sometime Chief Justice of the King's Bench, and whose imme- 
diate successor to the same position was Sir Richard Rainsford, Knt. : " The very 
concurrence and coincidence of so many evidences that contribute to the proof, 
carries a great weight." 

The accompanying chart may be helpful in shewing the descent of the early 
generations of the Barons of Kendal and their issue. 




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