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Full text of "Orissa: its geography, statistics, history, religion and antiquities;"

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ORISSA: 

ITS GEOGRAPHY, STATISTICS, HISTORY, RELIGION, 
AND ANTIQUITIES, 



ANDREW STERLING, Esq., 

LATE PERSIAN SECRETARY TO THE BENGAL GOVERNMENT. 

TO WICICH IS ADDED, 



A HISTORY 



GENERAL BAPTIST MISSION 

ESTABLISHED 

IN THE PROVINCE. 
BY JAMES PEGGS, 

LATE MISSIONARY AT CUTTACK, ORISSA; AUTHOR OF "INDIA'S CRIES 
TO BRITISH HUMANITY," &c., &c. 



LONDON: 

PUBLISHED FOR THE AUTHOR, BY 

JOHN SNOW, 35, PATERNOSTER ROW ; 

SOLD BY BROOKS, LEICESTER; NOBLE, BOSTON; NICHOLSON, HALIFAX. 

1846. 



ILKESTON: 

VRDTIED BY JXO. yrOMBELL, BAXH-SIKEZSV 



/ 



35S 



rilEFACE. 



The first missionaries to a country are like the spies which Moses 
sent to " spy out the land of Canaan," and the writer has often 
been reminded of the language which Moses addressed to the per- 
sons engaged on that important occasion, — " Get you up this way 
southward, and go up into the mountain : and see the land what it 
3 is ; and the people that dwell therein, whether they are strong or 
2 weak, few or many ; and what the land is tiiat they dwell in, 
^ whether it be good or bad, and what cities there are that they dwell 
in, whether in tents or strong holds ; and what the land is, whether 
it be fat or lean ; whether there be wood therein or not. And be 
ye of good courage and bring of the fruit of the land." Numb. xiii. 
17 — 20. The General Baptist Missionary Society, which was 
formed in 1816, commenced its labours in Orissa in the early part 
of 1822, and the writer, who has long survived the first missionary, 
his beloved colleague, the Rev. W. Bampton, has for several years 
been desirous of laying before the friends of the Orissa Mission 
both in Britain and America, " the geography and statistics, history, 
religion, and antiquities of Orissa," with the History of its mission- 
ary operations during the first thirty years of its labours. Very 
few of the Ministers who were present, or living at the formation of 
the Society have been "allowed to remain by reason of death," 
and hence the propriety that this effort for " the generation that 
shall be" should not be long delayed. 

It has been in contemplation for some years, by the Committee 
fji of the Society, to publish the interesting Account of Orissa by the 
3| late A. Sterling, Esq., and the Rev. J. G. Pike had revised it for 
cl that purpose, with additional information from Hamilton's Descrip- 



^\ tion of Hindostan, Col. Phipps' Description of Juggernaut's Tem- 
■^' pie. Festivals, &c., &c., but the apprehension of loss from its publi- 






IV PREFACE. 

cation has prevented its appearance. Through the liberality of a 
few friends, particularly Joseph Sturge, Esq., B. L. Ward, Esq., 
the Rev. T. S. Grimshawe, W. Evans, Esq., M. P., and the late 
Sir T. F. Buxton, Bart., the writer has been encouraged to under- 
take the task, (to him a very delightful one,) of presenting the 
claims of the Orissa Mission to the present and to succeeding 
generations. Seeley, in his "Wonders of Elora," thus adverts to 
this Account and its talented Author, — " A very valuable Essay 
has lately been presented to the Asiatic Society, on the country 
about Cuttack and Pooree, by Mr. A. Sterling. This young man 
when I was at Cuttack, was Assistant to the Commissioner, W. 
Blunt, Esq. After having stood at the head of all the oriental 
classes at college, he was selected for an important post. The 
work has not yet reached England, and the parts in my possession 
are too long to be inserted : and I feel I should not do justice to 
the valuable matter by abridging it. I have been sitting with him 
(in 1821,) while he was conversing in three languages with some 
Natives of consequence, himself writing in Persian, dictating to a 
Native Secretary, and at intervals speaking to me, and occasionally 
giving orders. The country entrusted to his sole care is •probably 
larger than Irela7id." An American writer says, " Posterity is eager 
for details." History supplies these details ; and it may be said 
■with peculiar propriety of the historian of a Christian mission, "i/e 
being dead yet spcaketh." Mr. Sutton's History of the Orissa 
Mission was prepared by him, aided by his excellent wife, during 
their voyage from India to America, in the early part of 1833, and 
■was written for publication in America. At that period the brethren 
began to be cheered by " the day-spring from on high visiting them, 
to give light to them that sit in darkness ;" but at this time, it 
shall be said with admiration and gratitude — "What hath God 
wrought ?" 

It is of great importance, that the claims of the Orissa Mission 
should be laid before the Ministers, Officers, and Members of the 
Churches which sustain it ; and likewise the Teachers and youth 
in our Sabbalh Schools, and the young in the families of our 
people. When Joshua was " old and stricken in years," he had 



PREFACE. V 

to admonish his people, tliat " there remained yet very much 
land to be possessed," saying, " How long are ye slack to go to 
possess the land which the Lord God of your fathers hath given 
you f" Thus in Orissa, in " the length thereof, and in the breadth 
thereof," how ^^much land yet reviains to be possessed !" More 
missionaries are required to bring the whole land under the cul- 
tivation of the gospel. Who can tell, but " the God of the whole 
earth," may honour the perusal of this volume, by making it 
the instrument of stimulating some pious persons to consecrate 
themselves to the work of God in Orissa? It is designed to 
send at least one hundred volumes to India for gratuitous circu- 
lation, and the profits of the work are devoted to the Orphan 
Asylums in Orissa. 

In conclusion, the writer would adopt the sentiments of an 
invalid Missionary, in his valuable publication, — " In visiting the 
churches, the vast importance and the urgent necessities of our 
Eastern Empire have constituted the great theme of his sermons 
and addresses ; the deliverance of Hindoos from priestcraft and 
superstition is still the burden of his thoughts, his prayers, and 
his toils ; and whether in the good providence of God he is di- 
rected to return to his field of labour, or is obliged to occupy 
a different sphere at home, — the claims, the welfare, and the con- 
version of India are bound up with his mortal existence, and 
must ever have a warm place in his heart. To the gracious 
care and blessing of that Master whom he desires to serve, the 
w^riter commends this attempt to advance the interests of his 
kingdom ; and he hopes a Christian public will receive it, in 
the spirit of the gospel, as the effort of one who reckons it his 
highest honour to be a missionary to the heathen, a friend of 
humanity, and an advocate of the rights, the liberties, and the 
sj)iritual interests of India." 

Burton-on- Trent, StafforJuhire, 
November 2nd, 1816. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAP. I. 

PAGE 

Introductory Sketch b}' Hamilton— General Description — 
Boundaries ancient and modern — Soil — Productions — Geo- 
logy — Rivers — Towns — Commerce . . . . . . . . . . 1 

CHAP. II. 

Casts — Character — INIanners and Customs of the Plain — 
Description of the Hill people — Coles — Khunds — Soars — 
Language— Population — Revenues — Land Tenures and In- 
stitutions . . . . 44 

CHAP. III. 
The Chronology and History of Orissa . .' 78 

CHAP. IV. 

Religion — Antiquities — Temples and civil Architecture, . . 109 



HISTORY OF THE GENEEAL BAPTIST MISSION. 

CHAP. L 

Hise of the Mission in Orissa. 

Introductory observations — Sketch of the History of the Gen- 
eral Baptist Denomination — Formation of the Foreign Mis- 
sion — Embarkation and Voyage of the first Missionaries to 
India^ — Approbation of the British Government obtained to 
proceed to Orissa — Abundant supply of Scriptures and 
Tracts for distribution 143 

CHAP. II. 

Estahlislimcnt of the Mission in Orissa. 

Arrival of the TMissionaries — Site of the Mission — Sketch of 
the Extcnt^nd Population, Manners and Customs of Orissa 
—View of the Idolatry of Juggernaut — Account of the 
Temple — establishment — festi\als — pilgrimages — piostra- 



COKTERTS, 



vn 



I'AOB 

tion iintlcr the cars — mortality — British Connexion witli 
IdoUitry — Prevalence of Suttee — Churuck Pooju — Infanti- 
cide — human sacrifices — various austerities — ncij,'lect of tlic 
dying and the dead — moral and spiritual state of the people 153 

CHAP. III. 

History of Missionary Operations. 

Rise and Progress of the Mission at Cuttack — Pooree — Bala- 
sore — Midnapore — Berhampore — Ganjam — Calcutta — 
Christianpore— Khunditta — Choga, Pipley — Native Schools 
— Orphan Asylums — The English Scliool — Circulation of 
the Scriptures and religious Books — Influence of the Press, 19 1 

CHAP. IV. 

The American Branch of the Mission. 

Rise of the American Mission in Orissa — Labours and success 
of the Missionaries at Sumbulpore, Balasore, Jellasore, 
Midnapore, &c 323 

CHAP. V. 

Success of the Orissa Mission. 

Its usefulness in the conversion of Europeans and ludo-British 
— Portuguese and Hindoos — Raising up of Native Preachers 
and Evangelists — Their ordination to the w^ork of God — ■ 
Students for the ministry and establishment of a College — 
Brief accounts of Erun, Gunga Dhor, Ram Chundra, Krupa 
Siiidoo, Doitaree, ^c * • . . . . 349 

CHAP. VI. 

Memorials of departed Friends, 

Brief record of departed Missionaries, both male and female — 
Christian Friends in Orissa, and Native Converts — Reference 
to departed Friends and Supporters of the Mission in 
England 3G2 

CHAP. VII. 

Preparations for the final Triumphs of Christianity in the East. 
Diffusion of education in the English and Native languages — 



Tin CONTENTS. 



Abolition of Infanticide — Suttees — Anti-colonization Regu- 
lations, and distinctions of colour and religion — Pilgrim Tax 
Abolition Measure — Abolition of Slavery — Disallowance of 
the Grant to Juggernaut's Temple — Suppression of the 
Churuck Pooja — Grateful review of past progress — Decay 
of Idolatry and INIahomedanism — Diffusion of Christian 
knowledge — Facilities of Britain for usefulness — Anticipa- 
tion of the final triumph of Christianity in the east — con- 
cluding appeal 386 

APPENDIX. 

Names of the Missionaries and Native Preachers — Recent Sta- 
tistics — Income of the Society 414 



REFERENCES TO THE ENGRAVINGS. 

The Temple and Cars of Juggernaut, Bulbudra, and Soobu- 

dra, before the title page 1 

Hindoo Devotees 46 

The ten Hindoo Avatars 109 

Festival of the Swinging of Krishna 118 

Temple of Juggernaut in Orissa 143 

A Hindoo School 162 

Pilgrims measuring their way to Juggernaut 177 

Hindoo self-torture at the churuck Pooja 187 

Infanticide among the Khunds at Goomsur 188 

Christian Orphan Girls . . 309 

A Brahmin and his wife at their devotions 344 

Gunga Dhor , . . . . 356 

Sebo Naik 361 

Tomb of the Rev. William Bampton 373 

The Suttee 392 

Death of Hindoos on the Banks of the Ganges 399 









OPvISSA: 

ITS CEOGRAPIIY, STATISTICS, HISTORY, 



CHAP. I. 

Introductory Sketch hy Ilnmilton — General Description — Boundaries 
Ancient and Modern— Soil — Produclians — Groloyy — Rivers — 
Towns — Commerce. 

Orissa is a large Province of the Dcccaii extending from the ISth 
to the 22nd degree of north latitude. To the north it is bounded 
hy Bengal ; on the south by the river Godavery ; on the east it has 
the hay of Bengal ; and on the west the province of Gundwana. 
In length from N. E. to S. \V. it may be estimated at 400 miles, 
by 70 the average breadth. According to the institutes of Akber, 
Orissa, in its greatest dimensions in 1582, was divided into five 
districts ; viz. Jellasore, compribing Midnapore and the British pos- 
sessions lying north and east of the river Suhunreeka ; Budruck ; 
Cuttack ; Culling or Cicacole ; Rajamundry. Besides this territory 
on the sea coast, Orissa also comprehended a mountainous unpro- 
ductive region on the western frontier, making part of the Jeharcund 
or jungly country, with the districts of Piuttunpoor and Suml)hul- 
poor ; but the two latter properly belong to Gundwana. At present 
the principal modern territorial subdivisions, commencing from the 
north, are the following ; but there are many other petty states and 
large zemindaries : — Singhboom, Kunjeur, Mohurbung'e, Balasore, 
Cuttack, Khoordah. 



8 

The tracts composing the districts of Ganjam, Vizagapatam, and 
and a portion of Rajamundry, are also included within the ancient 
limits of this Province, but the five northern Circars have been long 
a separate jurisdiction. The interior of this province remains in a 
very savage state, being composed of rugged hills, uninhabited jun- 
gles, and deep water courses, surrounded by pathless deserts, 
forests, or valleys, and pervaded by a pestilential atmosphere. It 
forms a strong natural barrier to the maritime districts, being only 
traversed during the driest season, from February to May, by the 
Lumballies or inland carriers. There arc only two passes, properly 
explored, in the whole length of the great mountainous ridge, ex- 
tending from the Godavery to the Mahanuddy rivers ; the one di- 
rect from Chanda to Cicacole ; the other oblique from Choteesghur 
by way of Kalahinki ; both uniting at the pass of Saloor or Sau- 
racca. By this pass, during the French possession of the Northern 
Circars in 1754, a body of Maharattas were introduced; more than 
half perished from the noxious air of the hills, and the remainder, 
rather than return by so noxious a road, made a prodigious circuit 
south by Rajamundry and the Godavery. With such a barrier to 
the west, and the ocean to the east, the defence of Orissa does not 
appear difficult ; the jealousies, however, of a people subdivided 
into many petty conununities, the absence of civilization, added to 
the habitual indolence and apathy of the natives, ever rendered it 
an easy prey to invaders, and they have passed from one yoke to 
another with scarcely a struggle. 

In ancient Hindoo history, Utcala or Udradesa was nearly co- 
extensive with the modern Orissa, the name Utcla, or Udcala, im- 
plying the great or famous country of Cala. According to tradition, 
it was then inhabited by a powerful and martial race, who were ex- 
tirpated by the Karnas or kings of Magadha (Behar.) In more 
recent times it was governed by a dynasty of Hindoo princes of the 
race of Gujaputty, who, in 1592, were conquered by Mansingh, the 
Emperor Akber's viceroy in Bengal ; to which dominion it was then 
annexed as a dependant government, extending from Tumlook on 
the Great Ganges to Rajamundry on the Lesser Ganges, or Gunga 
Godavery of the Deccan. From the accounts of ancient European 
travellers, fragments of national history, and a few remnants of 
former splendour, it was probably, at least on the sea-coast, a flou- 
rishing country before the Mahommedan invasion, but soon after fell 
into a comparitive state of depression. It does not appear, how- 
ever, that the Mahommedans, or any other invaders, ever completely 
occupied or colonized this province, which, still remains one of those 



ill which the Hindoo manners are preserved in their greatest pur If i/, 
and where the smallest proportion of Mahommedans is to be found. 
After die expulsion of the Afghans from the province of liengal du- 
ring the reign of the Emperor Akber, they retreated into Orissa, and 
retained possession of tlie maritime and more fertile portions, and 
also of the temple of Juggernauth, for many years. 

At present nearly one half of this extensive region is under the im- 
mediate jurisdiction of the British government; the other possessed 
by ti^ibutary zemindars called Ghurjauts or hill chiefs, who mostly 
jiay a fixed rent, and are under British protection, so far as refers 
to their external relations, and some iew are directly amenable to 
the European courts of justice. The first division comprehends all 
the lovp lands trending along the coast ; the second the hilly and 
woody interior. The British half is in general a plain, fertile, but 
not well cultivated or peopled ; the native section is either a barren 
tract or wild expanse of rock forest, and jungle, thinly inhabited, 
yet producing a surplus of grain beyond the consumption of its in- 
habitants. The inhabitants of the first may be estimated at 100 to 
the square mile; of the second not more than 30 to the same area. 
The principal articles of produce and manufacture in the British 
portion are rice and salt. The last, although a monopoly, affords 
much employment to the inhabitants on the coast ; the former is 
the staple commodity of the j)rovince, and is so abundant as to ad- 
mit of exportation. Every sort of grain and vetch is cultivated, and 
the common manufactures suffice for the frugal habits of the natives. 
Under such circumstances, and with a mild government, it is 
highly probable this division of the province is undergoing gradual 
amelioration, and that the inhabitants, although ignorant of the 
cause, are gradually advancing in the process of civilization. 
The tributary part of the province presents the reverse of this pic- 
ture, a great proportion being unfit for culture, and the lots, under 
cultivation yielding but a scanty return. In the wilder tracts the 
necessaries of life are not attainable, and frequently subsistence of 
any sort is only procurable with the utmost difficulty. Many of 
the natives are iron smelters and charcoal burners ; others make a 
livelihood by boat building and the felling of timber, thus protraetint/ 
a miserable existence under the iron rod of their rapacious chiefs, in 
whose eyes to be wealthy, or even comfortable, is criminal. 

The territories along the bay of Bengal are subject to frequent 
hurricanes, which greatly injure the farmer ; and the lowlands, in 
spite of embankments, liable to ruinous inundations from the sud- 
den overflowing of rivers. The buffaloes are a fine large breed, and 



10 

supply the natives Avith milk and ghee ; hut the oxen are of a vcry 
iuf'erior description, and the horses mere carrion. The low lands 
ahound with hogs, deer, tigers, and jackals; and the highlands are 
infested by wild beasts in such numbers, that they are in many 
places, reyaining the cowitry which had been wrested from them hy 
human cunning and comhinalion ! The rivers and waters swarm with 
fish, reptiles, and alligators ; the plains and jungles with winged 
vermin. The chief rivers are the Godavery, the Mahanuddy, and 
the Subunreeka, besides innumerable hill streams of a short course, 
and small channel. The principal towns are, Cnttack, Juggernauth, 
Ganjam, and Vizagapatam. 

The country between the rivers Gaintu and Bamoni is one of the 
finest parts of the province, and is inhabited by a considerable 
number of weavers, chiefly of coarse muslins for turbans ; sanaes 
are also a staple manufacture. The best bamboos for palanquins 
come from the pcrgunnahs of Tolchan and Hindole. They grow 
near the summit of the rocks, and spring in July, when the people 
who collect them, having selected the strongest shoots, tie them to 
stakes driven into the ground, and thus direct their growth to the 
proper shape. In this manner they grow from ten to twenty yards 
long, by the setting in of the dry season, when their tops are cut 
off. If sufTcrcd to stand longer, the hollow part increases, and they 
become weaker. 

Some of the native Ooreas in the back parts of this province still 
retain their semi-barbarous manners, are a fierce people, and possess 
a considerable degree of personal courage. They commonly go 
armed with bows and arrows, or swords ; the latter being generally 
carried naked, and are of a shape which is broad at the end, and 
narrow in the middle. Between them and the Maharattas a rooted 
antipathy has long existed. The Ooreas within the British terri- 
tories, having been long accustomed to peaceful, inoffensive habits, 
are good cultivators, and tolerably industrious, their chief character- 
istic being an effeminate timidity accompanied by much low cunning 
and dissimulation. The great body of them are Hindoos, distin- 
guished into the castes usually found in other parts of Hindostan. 
In a specimen of the Lord's prayer in the Orissa or Utcala language, 
examined by the missionaries, thirty-one of the words could be 
traced as being the same with those used in the Bengalee transla- 
tion of that prayer ; but notwithstanding its close afiinity to the 
Bengalee, its ])eculiar tcrniiuatious cause the whole specimen to 
differ much in sound.* 

* Hamilton's Hindostan, vol. ii. pp. 31-4. 



11 



The extent ami Itoundaiics of Ori.s.sa liave iindcrtrone many 
changes at different periods of its history, and remain to this day 
very ill-defined and imperfectly understood. The corresponding 
Puranic division of Utkala Desa or in the vulgar tongue Utkal 
K'hand reached on the north to Tumlook and JNlidnapore, taking 
in a portion of Rarha Des in Bengal, and south to the Rasikulia or 
Rasikoila Nadi which flows into the sea at Ganjam. On the cast it 
was bounded by the ocean and the river Iloogly, and on the west 
by Sonpur, Bunay, and other dependencies of Sumbulpoor and 
Gondwana. Or Desa, or Oresa, the old original seat of the (Jr or 
Odra tribe, had anciently less extended limits, the Rasikulia river 
marking its southern and the Ivans Bans which passes near Soro, 
in latitude about 21°. 10'. N. its northern extreme; but in the 
progress of migration andconquest, the Oreah nation carried their 
name and language over a vast extent of territory, both on the sea 
shore and in the hills, including besides Orissa properly so called, 
a portion of Bengal and of Telingana. During the sway of the 
Princes of the Ganga Vasa line, for a period of nearly /o?rr centuries-, 
the boundaries of the Raj or kingdom of Orissa niay be stated as 
follows, with sullicient accuracy for a general description. Norlli, 
a line drawn from the Tribeni or Terveni ghat above IToogiy, 
tlirough Bishenpur to the frontier of Patkum ; east, the river Iloogly 
and the sea ; south, the Godaveri or Ganja Godaveri ; and west, a 
line carried from Sinhbhurn to Sonepur, skirting Gangpiir, Sumbul- 
poor and its dependencies, and thence through Bastar to Jayapiu', 
and the Godaveri. Thus in the more prosperous days of theOrissan 
monarchy, and that too at no very remote period, it comprised 
within its limits four of our modern zillahs entire, and ])ortions of 
three others, viz. Midnapore, Cuttack, Ganjam, and Vizagapatam, 
with parts of the Jimgle Mehals, Iloogly, and Rnjanuuidry, besides 
a portion of the hills and woodland country of Gondwana. The 
degree of authority exercised by the sovereign power throi'ghout 
this extensive territory, fluctuated of course greatly at diiferent 
periods, depending on the personal character of the reigning Prince, 
the circumstances of the times, and the conduct, resources, and 
dispositions of the numerous dejiendant Rajas and feudatories, 
whose principalities or jurisdictions have at all times formed so 
remarkable and important a feature in the political geography of 
Orissa. Occasionally the conquests of the Gajapati Princes ex- 
tended into the more renu)te parts of Telingana, and even to the 
Carnatic, but it appears that they never obtained a firm footing in 
any acquisitions. South of the Godaveri, and during the last 



12 



Of ntury of their iiulepciidenco, tluMr possession even of Rajnmundry 
was much contested and disturbed by the Bahmini sovereigns of the 
Deccan. One of the first arrangements of the ministers of Akber 
on annexing Orissa to the Dewani of the jNIogul empire, was to join 
Iloogly and its ten dependant Mehals, to Bengal. The Mogul 
Subah of Orissa then comprised the whole country stretching from 
Tumlook and Midnapore on the north, to the fort of Rajamundry 
south, divided into the five unequally apportioned Sircars, called 
Jellasore, Budruck, Cuttack, Calinga, Dundpat, and Rajamundry. 
The vast range of hilly country bounding the Subah to the west- 
ward, from Bishcnpur down to the neighbourhood of Karronde, 
Bastar and Jayapur, w^as classed under a separate head in the reve- 
nue accounts of the empire, and was allowed for many years after 
the Mahommedan conquest, to remain entirely under the management 
of its native Chiefs, subject either to the condition of military ser- 
vice or to the payment of a light quit rent. Very early after the 
settlemennt of the Emperor Akber, if not indeed at the moment of 
its formation, theCircar of Rajamundry and that portion of Kalinga 
Des which lies south of Tikali Raghunat'hpur were dismembered 
from Orissa, by the successful encroachments of the Mahommedan 
Kings of Golconda, called the Kutteb Shahis, but of this 
event, no distinct account is given in the history of the country. 
At the opening of Mahommed Tacki Khan's administration, A. D. 
172G, who governed as the Naib or Deputy of the Nazim of three 
provinces, the most authentic Revenue records exhibit the Subah of 
Orissa as extending from Radha Dewal seven coss beyond the town 
of Midnapore to Tikali* Raghunat'hpur, one of the estates in or 
near the Mahendra Mali range of hills in Ganjam, a computed dis- 
tance 170 coss, and on the west from the sea at False Point to the 
Bennul Pass, 85 coss. Before the close of his government its limits 
liad become much reduced. The Officers of the Nizam of Hyder- 
abad intriguing with the powerful Zemindars of the Ganjam district, 
contrived to alienate from the Province the whole of the country 
south of the Chilka Lake. On the Bengal side, views of finan- 
cial convenience induced the Nawab Shuja Uddin Mahommed 
Khan to annex the mehals included in the old Jellasore Circar, as 
far as the Subunreeklia, to the territory immediately dependent on 
the !Moorshedabad Government with the exception of Pergunnalis 

• Mr. Grant in his Political Survey of the Northern Circars calls this place 
"Teckaly or llo;,a>naut'ii])oic on the sea coast 43 miles N. E. from Cica- 
cole, the inlicrilancc of.Jnsf^ut iJt'o another descendant of tlie royal family 
of Orissa but more inuuodialely brauchiuj; from that of Kiiiiedy." 



1.3 

Pattaspur, 8rc. It was boumlod liy tlicSubunrerklm ajid Pcrtfimnali 
Pattaspnr, S:c. north, and by tbe Chilka Lake on the soiUh ; I'^ast, 
])\- the ocean, and west by tbe Bernuil Pass, tliat Orissa was relin- 
qnished to the Berar INIabrattas, by the famous Aliverdi Klian in 
A. D. 1T5.)-G in lieu of the sums whieh he had stipuhated to 
pay as Chouth : and it is to this tract, the modern zilhih of Cuttack, 
which may not inaccurately be called Orissa Proper from its com- 
prising the ancient original country of the Uria or Odra nation, aiul 
from the circumstance of its retaining amongst the natives of the 
present day the exclusive appellation of Or Desa or Oresa, that the 
following description is intended chiefly to apply. 

The Purans and Upapurans are lavish in their praises of Utkal 
Kliand, "The famous portion or country," and not, the famous 
country of Kala, as rendered by a very high authority. It is 
declared to be the favourite abode of the Debtas, and to boast a 
population composed, more than half, of Brahmins. The work 
called the Kapila Sanhita, in which Bharadwaja Muni explains to 
his inquiring pupils, the origin, history, and claims to sanctity of 
all the remarkable Khctrs or holy places of Orissa, opens with the 
following panegyric : " Of all the regions of the earth Bharata 
K'hand is the most distinguished, and of all the countries of Bharata 
K'hand, Utkala boasts the highest renown. Its ivhole extent is one 
uninterrupted Tirfh {place of pilgrimage!) Its happy inhabitants 
live secure of a reception into the world of spirits, and those who 
even visit it, and bathe in its sacred rivers, obtain remission of their 
sins, though they may weigh like mountains. Who shall describe 
adequately its sacred streams, its temples, its khetrs, its fragrant 
flowers and fruits of exquisite flavor, and all the merits and ad- 
vantages of a sojourn in such a land ? What necessity indeed can 
there be for enlarging in the praises of a region, which the Debtas 
themselves delight to inhabit ?" The Annalists of Orissa are fond 
of relating, that when the famous Sivai Jay Sinh, the General of 
Akber, marched with an army into the country in A. D. 1530, he 
was struck with amazement at the sight of its sacred river IMahanadi, 
its vast crowds of Brahmins, its lofty temples of stone, and all the 
wonders of the ancient capital Bhuvaneswar, and exclaimed, "This 
country is not a fit subject for conquest, and schemes of human 
ambition. It belongs wholly to the gods, and is one entire Tirt'h." 
He accordingly interfered little in its affairs and soon returned to 
Hindustan, leaving a large share of authority in the hands of its 
Native Princes. The imjjortance of establishing Christianity in a 
country so highly esteemed by the inhabitants of Hiudostan, must 
strike every intelligent and pious mind. 



14 

The Hindus of modern times however, freely admit, tliat thr 
estimnlion in whicli Orissa is or was held, is to be ascribed entirely 
to its temples, places of pilgrimage, and its brahminical institutions. 
At all events, the European observer will soon discover, that not- 
withstanding its puranic celebrity, the soil of the country is gener- 
ally poor and mifruitful, all its natural productions of an inferior 
quality, and that its inhabitants rank the lowest, in the scale of 
moral and intellectual excellence, of any people on this side of 
India. This circumstance may probably be ascribed to the debasing 
influence of idolatry on a country so peculiarly devoted to its 
baneful sway. 

Modern Oiissa or Cuttack, comprises, as is well known, an 
extensive, imperfectly explored region, on the west, consisting 
chiefly of hills and forests, intersected by many fertile plains and 
valleys ; and a plain level country, extending from the foot of that 
barrier to the sea, evidently of alluvial formation, the uniform sur- 
face of which is not disturbed by a single rocky elevation throughout 
its whole extent — nor does a single stone occur between the beds 
of iron clay lying on the western frontier, and the ocean, if we 
except the curious spheroidal concretions of calcareous matter or 
limestone nodules which are found very generally dispersed. The 
Province may be considered as divided both naturally and politic- 
ally into three regions, distinguished from each other by their 
climate, general aspect, productions, and the institutions prevailing 
in them, viz : The marslnj ivoodland tract which extends along the 
sea shore, from the black Pagoda to the Subunreekha river, varying 
in breadth from five miles to twenty : the plain and open country 
between this and the hills, whose breadth on the north is about ten 
or fifteen miles, and never exceeds forty or fifty; and the hill 
country. The first and third are known to the natives as the 
Eastern and Western Rajwara or Zemindara,* that is, the country 
occupied by the ancient feudal Chieftains or Poligars-f- of Orissa; 
and the second, as theMogulbundi, from which the native sovereigns 
and the JNIogul conquerors of the country derived the chief part of 
their land revenue, and which at present pays a revenue to the 
British Government of Sicca Rupees 1,201,370 ; whilst the tribute 
yielded by the other extensive portions is fixed in perpetuity at 
Sicca Rupees 1,20, 411. J 

* Tlic Zemindars are landholders — Zemindara or Zcmindarcs, the 
estates of siicli landholders. 

t The Poli^rjirs are small triliutary landholders in the south of India, 
who were never llioroufrldy sul)dned by tlie Maliomnicdans. 

X Kluirda beloiifrs to the Uajwara, but is at present imdertlie immediate 
manafremcnt of tlie Enftlisli Revenue Olliccrs, and is not included in this 
statement of Land Revenue. 



15 



It will be convenipnt to describe the soil, produclionft, nnrl geo-' 
logical lorniation of" the country in the order just noticed. 

The first region has much of the character of the Sunderbands, 
in its swamps and marshes, innumerable winding streams swarming 
with alligators, its dense jungles and noxious atmosphere ; but 
wants entirely that grandeur of forest scenery, which diversifies and 
gives a romantic character to many parts cf the latter. The 
broadest part of it is divided amongst the Rajas* of Kanka and 
Kujang, and the Khandaits of Herrispur, Meriehpur, Bishenpnr, 
Golra, and others of less note. The Killah or Zemindari estate of 
Al likewise comes in for a share. Northward of Kanka the quan- 
tity of jungle diminishes up to the neighbom-hood of Balasore, but 
the whole space is intersected by numberless nullahs which deposit, 
and creeks which retain, a quantity of fine mud, forming morasses 
and quicksands higlily dangerous to the unwary or uninformed 
traveller. The surface of tlie whole is covered with coarse reedy 
grass, and brushwood, valuable as fuel to the salt manufacturers. 
Much of the Jhao or Tamarix Indica :s interspersed with quantities 
of a stunted dwarf Palm, called Hinlal (Phoenix Paludosa.) Gener- 
ally, where pure sand appears, mors especially about the black 
Pagoda, the surface of it is covered with a thick net work, formed 
by the interlaced stalks of a creepiiig convolvulus, with succulent 
loaves, which are for half the year Ipaded with large gay looking 
flowers of a bright reddish purple. The natives call it Kynsarilata. 
A delicate succulent plant with small bright green leaves growing 
thickly together, is also very common ; and the summits of the 
sand hills are for the most part crowned with tufts of the Asclepias 
Gigantea and a stiff" thorny gramineous plant known by the name 
of Goru Kanta. The prevailing timber is the Sundari. Extensive 
thickets of the thorny bamboo render travelling impracticable in 
most parts of Kujang, Herrispur, &c., except by water. The whole 
of the jungles abound with leopards, tigers, and wild buffaloes, 
and the rivers at the flowing of the tide are perfectly surcharged 
with large and voracious alligators of the most dangerous kind. 
The climate seems to be hurtful even to the natives, who are pecu- 
liarly subject to 'two formidable diseases, the Elcphuntiasis, and a 
species of dysentery called the Sul, besides the more common 
complaints of fever and ague. 

In this wild inhospitable tract however the finest salt of all India 
is manufactured, which under the monopoly system, yields annuaby 
to the Government a net revenue little short of eighteen lacs of 

* Raja, a kint;^, prince, chieftain. 
c 



10 



rupees. The produce, distingjiiished for its whiteness and purity 
before it has passed into the hands of the merchants, is of the 
species called Pangah procured by hoiliua;. The process observed 
by tjje ^Molunghees or manufacturers is rude and simple in the last 
degree. The sea-water which is brought up by various small chan- 
nels to the neighbourhood of the manufacturing stations, is first 
mixed and saturated with a quantity of the salt earth, which forms 
on the surface of the low ground all around, after it has been over- 
flowed by the high tides ; and which being scrajied ofi" by the Mo- 
lunghees, is thrown into cylindrical receptacles of earth having a 
vent underneath, and a false bottom made of twigs and straw. The 
strongly impregnated brine filtering through the grass, &c., is 
carried, by a channel dug in the groiind, to a spot at liand, sur- 
rounded with an enclosure of mats, in the centre of which a number 
of oblong earthern pots, generally about two hundred, are cemented 
by mud into the form of a dome, under which is a fire place or 
oven. The brine is poured into this collection of pots, and boiled 
\mtil a sufficient degree of evaporation has taken place, when the 
salt is taken out as it forms, with iron ladles, and collected in heaps 
in the open air. The heaps are afterwards thatched with reeds, and 
remain in this state until sold, or removed by the officers of the 
agency. 

Occasional patches of rice oultivation are to be met with in this 
portion of the Rajwara producing sufficient grain for local con- 
sumption, and the Raja of Kanka exports a considerable quantity 
both to Calcutta and Cuttack. The sea all along the coast of the 
bay of Bengal yields abnndance of fine fish, of which upwards of 
sixty-one edible kinds are enumerated, by the natives. Those most 
])rized by Europeans are the Sole or ]3anspatti, Tapsiya (Mango 
Fish,) /V//rZ:/ (Ponifret,) Gajkariaa {^Wnimg^,) Hilsa (Sable P'ish,) 
KItaravga or Mullet, a fish called the Bijay Ram something resem- 
bling Mackerel, and the Sal or Salia. The Chilka Lake produces 
noble Bhelcti or Cockup. The value of the excellent Turtle, Oys- 
ters, Crabs, and Prawns, found off False Point, and in other })arts, 
was unknown to the natives prior to their subjection to the l^ritish 
rule, but they are now of course eagerly sought after, to supply the 
stations of lialasore, Cuttack, and Juggernauth. The great season 
for fishing is in the winter months, from October to February, 
whilst the wiiul and the surf are moderate. At this time all along 
the northern coast the fishermen go out in parties of from twenty 
to thirty each, with large nets, which they set up before the com- 
mencement of flood tide, with the aid of bamboo poles, in the form 



17 



of a vast triangle, liaving the base open towards the shore. As tlic 
tide retires the fishermen take in and ch):,e up the nearest nets, thus 
driving the fish into the apex of the triangle where there is a net 
placed with a large pouch ready for their reception. The quantity 
obtained at a h;iul in this way is often prodigious. The produce is 
taken to the neighbouring villages for sale, after reserving a sufli- 
ciency for home consumption ; and a large quantity travels far into 
the interior, unprepared in any way, which it of course reaches in 
the last stage of putridity, but not on that account a bit the less 
palatable or acceptable to the nice and scrupvdous Hindu. 

On emerging from the insalubrious and uninteresting tract just 
described, you arrive at the second and most important division of 
Orissa, called the Mogulbandi, which is divided into 150 Pergun- 
nahs, and 2361 estates of individuals, recorded in the public ac- 
count of the British Government as Zemindars and proprietors of 
the soil. Though this region in general is highly cultivated, and 
produces most of the grains and vegetables common in Bengal, its 
soil is certainly for the most part of a poor and unfruitful descrip- 
tion. South of the r\Iahanuddy it may be characterised as generally 
light and sandy. Beyond that river, and especially in the neigh- 
bourhood of the hills, it acquires a clayey consistency, and appear- 
ance, and is often remarkably white. Often too, for miles together 
it has the surface strewed with a thin sprinkling of gravel or lime- 
stone concretions, called by the natives Gengti. This description 
of soil extends nearly to Alidnapore. It is generally speaking uiin 
productive, particularly near the hills; and large plains occur, aa 
about Dhamnager and Budruck, which are wholly unfit ftir cultiva- 
tion, growing nothing but low stunted brushvvood, chiefly the wild 
Corunda and tufts of the Bena grass. 

Rice is the great article of produce, and consequently of food, 
throughout Orissa Proper. In the Pergunnahs north of the Byterini 
river, it is almost the sole object of agricultural hibour. Th<^ grain 
is in general large and nutritious, but coarse, and is conyidered far 
inferior to the average produce of Bengal and Behar. The two 
great rice crops of Cuttack are called the Sared and Beali, Of 
these the first and principal is sown in May, and Jvuie, and reaped 
from the middle of November to the middle of January. The land 
which grows it rarely yields a second crop. The second in import- 
ance called the Beali is sown about the same time on the higher 
lands, and the produce is obtained from the end of August till the 
end of September. Afterwards a plentiful crop of the Ruhbea grains 
is derived from the same fields. There is another less abundant 



18 



crop called Satkia, put into the gromul in August and September, 
and reaped in November; and an inferior description of rice which is 
sown in low marshy spots at the opening of the cold weather, and 
by frequent transplantation and irrigation is rendered fit for cutting, 
in the following April. The cultivation of the latter sort called 
Dalo, takes place chielly in the Pergunnalis between Khurdah, the 
Chilka Lake and the sea. 

In the northern Pergiinnahs the Sared rice cultivation is occa- 
sionally but rarely diversified with a few patches of Sugar-cane, 
Tobacco, and Palma Christi, in spots suited to their production. 
In the Central and Southern parts however, abundant crops of 
pulse, millet, and vegetable oils, are raised during the cold v/eather. 
Next to rice, the culture of the Arend or Palma Christi is perhaps 
the most abundant. The natives use the oil in their common 
cookery, mixed with a snudl quantity of mustard seed oil, which 
latter they prefer for burning as being the most economical. Cotton, 
Sugar-cane, and Tobacco, are every where common South of the 
Byterini, but the produce is of a poor description. The I'icher 
natives will not condescend to use the Desi Tambaku and the cotton 
formerly required for the manufacture of the finer fabrics was nearly 
all imported from Berar. Good wheat and a small quantity of 
barley are grown in Pergunnahs Saibir and Asseresser. There is 
but little of the vegetables producing materials for dyeing, cordage, 
&c., reared in the district, the Sajfloioer, Pat (Hibiscus Cannabinus,) 
and Kasmira or Sana (Crotolarea Juncea,) being the only kinds that 
are commonly met with. The culture of the Poppy, Mulberry, and 
Indigo, is unknown in the plains of Orissa. Nor, were the peasantry 
acquainted with the method of cultivating the Betle vine, until 
taught by the natives of Bengal some generations back. The Piper 
Betle now flourishes in the gardens around Poorce and in the neigh- 
bourhood of a few Brahmin villages, but the produce can be adequate 
only to the supply of a very limited consumption, notwithstanding 
the assertion of the author of the work called the Ayecn Jkbcri, or 
Institutes of Akber, that "they have a great variety of the Ik-tle 
leaf in Orissa." The spots which are destined for the cultivation 
of Betle as also of Turmeric, Sugar-cane, &c., require laborious 
pre])aration and the application of a la:-ge quantity of manure, for 
which latter purpose the oil cake or Pire made of the refuse of the 
sesamum, mustard, and other seeds of the same family is generally 
u.sed. An occasional sprinkling of rotten straw, cow-dung, and 
ai.hes, is the only maaure expended in ihe iields which yield the 
ollu.'r kinds of produce. 



19 



Orissa has little to boast in the produce of its gardens, though 
praised by Abulfazl for the excellence and abundance of its fruit 
and flowers. There is no deficiency however of the humbler kinds 
of pot herbs, and cucurbitaceous plants, with the Hibiscus escu- 
lentus, the e(/g plant, the sweet potatoe, and Capsicum annimrn. 
The native lists likewise comprise most of the ordinary garden pro- 
duce of India. The more common fruits are as elsewhere, tlie 
Mancjo, the Phalsa, the Jam, the Guava, Custard Apple, the Hur- 
phaleri, the Chalta, the Kcndhu, the Pomegranate, the Cashewnut, 
the Jack, the Bel, tlie Kath-Del or V/ood Apple, and the Khuranj, 
from whose fruit an oil is extracted, used for burning by the natives. 
The Wine palm and the Khajur abound in particular quarters. 
We rarely meet with the Cocoanut and S'upari except near Brahmin 
villages, though they would tlirive every where in Cuttack, more 
especially the former. In all times Cuttack has been famous for 
its abundant produce of the fragrant Keora or Ketaca (Pandanus 
Odoratissimus.) It grows every where wild, and is much used, 
jointly with several kinds of Eupliorbia and Mimosa, for nuiking 
hedge-rows. The fruit borne in quantities by the female plant has 
much of the rich and tempting appearance of the pine apple, but 
the inside proves to be hard, stringy, and tasteless. Its pith is 
used when boiled, as an article of food by the poorest classes, but 
seems to be little prized even by them. An intoxicating spirit is 
distilled from the strongly scented flowers of the male plant, to 
which the lower orders have no aversion. 

Tlie surface of the Mogulbandi is in most parts south of the Kans 
Bans embellished and diversified with fine shadowy groves of 
Mangos, dense thickets of Bamboo, and the most magnificent 
Banyan trees. The better cvltivated gardens are loaded with Jes- 
samines, Sambacks, Marigolds, Bauhinias, the Hibiscus, China 
Rose, Michelia Champaca, &'c. About the huts of the natives we 
generally find in great qiuintities the Hyperanthera Morunga, Melia 
azadirachta and Sempcrvirens, /Eschgnomene S'csban, and grandi- 
flora, the Bombax HeplaphyUum, Nauclea orientalis, iLc, witli the 
usual proportion of Plainiains. 

The infei'ior quality and limited growth of many of the most 
valuable prodacts of agriculture in Orissa, are owing in a great 
degree to something unfavourable in the soil and climate, is clearly 
evinced by the indifferent success attending the eflbrts of the Euro- 
pean residents in gardening. Much however must be ascribed to 
the geueral poveity, ignorance, and want oi enterprise of its pea- 
santry and agricuituiisib. No one can entei the euclosures oi the 



20 

Villages held at a light qnit rent by colonies of a particular class of 
Brahmins, without being instantly struck with the wide diiFerence, 
which their precincts exhibit, as contrasted with the aspect of or- 
dinary Ooreah villages. The higher description of cultivation 
which pr^'vails 0:1 those lands, the superior value of their produce, 
and the flourisliing groves and gardens which extend all around, 
evince what may be effected by intelligent industry, secured in the 
enjoyment of an adequate return and undisputed proprietary pos- 
session, even in this little favoured soil and climate. It is in such 
situations only and in the neighbourhood of some of the well en- 
dowed temples, that the eye of the botanist is gratified by the pre- 
sence of those graceful trees and plants, which constitute the chief 
orn.ament of the Indian Flora, such as the Nagacesara (Mesua 
Ferrca,) the IMoulsari (Mimusops Elengi,) the Jonesia Asoca, the 
Ochna Squarrosa, the Sultan Champa or Calophyllum Inophylluin, 
the Jarool, (Lagerstroemia Flos Reginoe,) and the finer kinds of 
Ixora, interspersed with Cocoa and Areca nut trees, and plantations 
of the betle vine, turmeric, and ginger. The Sasan Brahmins in- 
deed are the only land proprietors of Orissa, Avho manifest any 
symptoms of a disposition to improve their system of agriculture, 
or to raise any plant or produce beyond what the wants of nature 
absolutely demand. 

The Domestic Animals do not rank higher in the scale of excel- 
lence than the produce of its soil. The horned cattle, sheep, and 
goats, are a miserable diminutive breed. A few fine buffaloes are 
dome.'iticatcd on the eastern frontier for the sake of their milk, but 
they are not at all used as beasts of burden. There is little Game 
to be met with, excepting (jrey partridges, hares, snipes, jungle 
fowl, and ducks of various kiiid.s, and that little is difiicult to be 
obtained from the nature of the jungle. Few districts in India 
perhaps possess fev/er attractions for the sportsman. The mention 
of the wild animals will more properly come under the description 
of the hill portion of the district. 

The third region to be described is that of the Hills which bound 
the Mogulbandi to the westward from the Chilka Lake to the 
Subunreekha river. A few groups extend into the plains, as at 
Derpen, Alemgir, Khurdah, Limbai, &c. In latitude about 21° 20' 
N. the hills take a direction considerably to the eastward for some 
miles, tlien turning north they compress the Balasore Chucklah 
within very narrow limits. The distance between the high land 
and th.e sea is no where more than from sixty to seventy miles. At 
Balasore a growp of line rocky hills project boldly forth, to within 



21 



sixteen or eigiitcen miles of tlie shores of the bay of Een<Tal, v/hich 
were known to the ohl navigators as the Nilgiri mountains, and 
between Ganjam and the Lalce a low ridge ai)pears actually to run 
out into the sea, though in reality separated from its waters by a 
•wide sandy beach. The whole of this region, reaching west as far 
as Sonepur, Gondwana, and its Dependencies, in breadth about one 
hundred miles, and from Sinhbhum adjoining Midnapore, north, to 
Goomsur in Ganjam south, a distance of certainly not less than two 
hundred miles, is, parcelled out mnongst sixteen Khctri or Khandait 
Zemindars, who have been recognized by the British Government 
as tributary Rajas. They mostly pay a fixed rent, and are under 
British protection as to their external relations. Along the feet of 
the hills extends a chain of twelve more Khundaitis held by a similar 
class, some of whom pay a light tribute, but are subject to the 
British laws and regulations, whilst others have been assessed at 
the ordinary rate. Their estates or feudal jurisdictions are entered 
in the revenue accounts, under the Mognl designation of Killah* 
or castle. The greater killahs within the hills, are subdivided again 
into a vast number of dependant Gerhs or estates, which are held by 
hereditary officers, called Khandaits, Dalbrchras, Naiks, subordinate 
to the chief Zemindar. 

The hills visible from the low country between the Brahmani 
river and Ganjam, are chiefly a granite formation remarkable for its 
resemblance to sandstone, and for its containing vast quantities)- of 
imperfectly formed garnets disseminated throughout, with veins of 
steatite considerably indurated. They occur generally in irregular 
scattered groups, having peaked summits, which seem to cross each 
other at all angles; or in isolated conical and wedge-shaped hills 
wholly disconnected at their bases, and are all covered with vegeta- 
tion to the very top. The greatest height of those seen from the 
Mogulbandi may be about 2,000 feet. Their ordinary elevation 
varies from 300 to 1200 feet. Ranges occur further in the interior 
of greater loftiness and regidarity, but I believe that an extended, 

* The orij^inal nieaninpf of Killa was a fort or stroiij? jilace on n l.ill or 
mountain, though in latter times it has Lecome ajjpliod to all kinds of 
places of defence. The class of estates here referred to alv.ays comprized 
some strong hold, diiricult of access, and more or less fortiiicd. The torin 
])roperly designating tlie piincipal residence of the chief, gradually be- 
came applied to his whole country in tlie revenue aceomits. 

f Having enjoyed an o>)portunity of submitting an extensive collection 
of Cultaek specimens to the examination of Mr. li. Voyscy, Surgeon arid 
Geologist to Col. Laml)ton's survey, I am enabled l)y his assistance to ex- 
press myself with some confidence in the little which I have to offer re- 
garding the mineralogy of the province. 



22 



continuous cluiin of mountains is no where to he mot with in the 
I{.ijvv;u-a of (3jiss;u The prevailing colour of the principal rock is 
red. As far as my observation goes it never occurs stratified. Its 
texture often approaches to slaty, and from its generally decomposed 
aspect, the quantity of red spots which it contains, being the in- 
formed garnets above noticed, and the frequciit veins of red and 
white steatite intersecting it, it presents altogether a most remark- 
able a])pearance. The sa.nie rock I apprehend extends throughout 
the Nortliern Circars and far into the Deccan. 

The rock most abounding in this division of the Province next 
to the granite, is that singular substance called Iron Clay by Jamie- 
son, and Laterite by Dr. Buchanan. It lies in beds of considerable 
dejith on the feet of the graiiite hills, often advancing out for a 
distance often or fifteen miles into the plains, where it forms gently 
swelling rocky elevations, but never rises into hills ; sometimes it 
is disposed in the manner of flat terraces of considerable dimensions 
which look as if they had been constructed with much labour and 
skill. The composition and aspect of the Cuttack iron clay are 
very remarkable, from the innumerable pores which it contains, 
filled with white and yellow lithomarge, and from the quantities of 
iron ore pebbles and fragments of quartz imbedded in it. By far 
the most interesting circumstance is, its complete and intimate mix- 
ture with the granite, which has been traced in several instances, 
exhibiting one rock entirely invested by the other, though it is not 
easy to pronounce which is the inclosing substance. We have here 
an instance of a rock of the Wernerian newest Foetz trap formation, 
resting upon the oldest primitive rock and in actual junction with 
it. The granite, at the place where the specimens were principally 
collected, appears to burst through an immense bed of the laterite, 
rising abruptly at a considerable angle. Numerous broken frag- 
ments are strewed all around the line of junction, and in some 
s]U'cimens the two rocks are so mixed as to form a sort of coarse 
breccia or rather conglomerate. 

South of the Mahanuddy, in Khurda, a few isolated hills of white 
and variegated s;indstone occur, curiously interspersed among the 
granitic ones. An indurated white lithormage is found in company 
with them from which the natives prepare a white wash to ornament 
their houses. 

In the estates of Keonjher, Nilgiri, and Moherbenj, which con- 
stitute the northern portion of the hilly division of the Cuttack 
Province, the half decomposed granite above described passes into 
fine white granite and gneiss rocks containing micaceous hornblende 



23 



as a cojistituent part, many of which differ little in composition and 
general appearance from specimens collected on the highest accessi- 
ble summits of the Himalaya mountains. The whole of the re<non 
now adverted to, furnishes a great variety of valuable mineral pro- 
ductions, and is well worthy of attentive exploration by a gcolo<nst 
qualified to describe adequately its most striking features and pe- 
culiarities. I'he granitic rocks are here highly indurated and desti- 
tute of vegetation, and present a bold and varied outline with 
frequent sharp peaks and abrupt craggy faces. They are moreover 
in many parts curiously intersected by trap veins, which seem to 
consist chiefly of green stone approaching often to basalt and horn- 
blende rock. In company wdth these rocks, talc slate, mica slate, 
and chlorite shist passing into serpentine and pot stone, are found 
in great abundance. Several of the chlorites are scarcely distin- 
gviishable from the latter mineral, and are much used under the 
general denomination of Mugni, for the manufacture of culinary 
vessels, idols, and sculptured slabs which decorate the temples and 
finer edifices of the Oreahs. The granites and gneiss rocks being 
too hard for the tools of the quarriers in this quarter, and the shists, 
with the exception of the chlorite, not being of a description appli- 
cable to any useful purposes, the natives have adopted a very sum- 
mary and comprehensive geological classification. They style the 
Mugni, karma, or useful, and all other rocks they banish into tlie 
class of akarma, or useless ; concerning the situation and history of 
which they are as provokingly indiiFerent as they are ignorant. 
Besides the substances above enumerated, a variety of corundum, 
or corund, is found in the Nilgiri hills, called by the quarriers Sila 
Dhar, which as the name implies, is used for sharpening their tools; 
also steatite, and Meerschaum in the state of a remarkably pure 
white powder, occur abundantly in Keonjher. The natives know 
no use for the latter substance, except to form the tika or streaks 
which particular classes draw on their foreheads.* 

Iron is abundantly diffused throughout the whole of the Cultack 
hills, in the state chiefly of pisiform iron ore, earthy red ditto, and 
ochry red ironstone. It is smelted principally in the estates of 
Dhenkanal, Angol, and Moherbenj. Some of the rivers of Dhen- 
kanal and Keonjher are said to have golden sands, but the report 

* This custom gives the natives a ridiculous appearance. It has been 
remarked of tlie late Mr. Ward, of Serani])oro, tliat when Hindoos came 
to him thus distigin-cd, he has sent them away to wash themselves before 
he would do business with them. The Author's Pundit one day asked a 
Native in his study, whether a bird had dirtied his forehead. The laugh 
naturally turned against the man. 



24 



Avants confirmation, and I have not been able to ascertain the exist- 
ence of any metal except iron in this Province. The only Ume- 
stoncs are the calcareous nodules which occur abundantly in beds 
and nests, both within the hills and in the open country adjoining 
them, consisting of a ball of tolerably pure limestone enveloped in 
a yellowish coating of indurated marl. 

The Hill estates vary much in the proportion of arable land 
which they contain, but, in most, a considerable quantity of rice is 
grown, and a few of the rubbee grains. In jiatches of jungle which 
have been recently cleared, and on the slopes of some of the minor 
hills, the Jowar and Bajera and the Mandia ( Eleusine Corocana,) 
thrive with great luxuriance. Moherbenj, Beramba, Dhenkanal, 
and Keonjher, grow a small quantity of indigo, and on the latter 
estate the poppy is cultivated. Keonjher (during the expedition 
against the Coles,) was found to be for nearly one hundred miles, 
an open cultivated country only occasionally interrupted by ridges 
of hills and patches of jungle. Generally speaking, the land fit for 
tillage bears a very trifling proportion to the vast extent of rocks, 
hills, beds of torrents, and forests which occupy this region. 

The woods of the interior produce abundance oi fine timber. A 
few teak trees are found in Despalla, but that valuable timber does 
not form forests nearer than the banks of the Tel river which flows 
into the Mahanuddy at Sonepur. The Sal trees of Angol, Dhen- 
kanal, and Moherbenj, are particularly sought after from their size. 
They are said to form forests of great depth and grandeur, through- 
out a large porportion of the latter estate. Good Oranges and 
Mangos are produced in many of the hill estates. The Mango tree 
occurs frequently in situations where it is obviously growing wild, 
and the natives are fond of ascribing the existence of this highly 
esteemed fruit, under such circumstances, to the benevolence or 
caprice of the debtas or gods. 

The trees seldom attain to a large height or luxuriant growth in 
the decomposed soil covering the granitic hills, which border the 
Mogulbandi, or in the woods that stretch along their bases. 
The jungles in the latter situations abound to a remarkable degree 
with trees and plants yielding drugs and medicinal articles,* or at 
least fruits esteemed such by the natives. The following trees like- 
wise very commonly occur, viz., Asin (Pentaptera tomentosa,) 
Geringa, a species of Pterospermum, Lodh, (query, Phyllanthus 
Longifolius ?) Patali (Bignonia Suaveolens), besides the steady 

* In RcimoH'R MS. of Orissa, the names of 2G5 medicinal plants are 
given, tlie viitues of which arc much extolled by the Natives. 



25 



companions of all Indian sylvan scenery, the Tamarind, Mango, 
Bamboo, Bur, and Peepul (Ficvis Indica and Religiosa.) The pro- 
duce of the above trees is collected by the wild inhabitants of the 
jungles for sale in the Cuttack market, by which traffic chiefly they 
gain a livelihood. A gigantic climbing Bauhinia forms a very con- 
spicuous object in these woods. The name given by the natives is 
Siahri. The leaves are much used for thatching their miserable 
huts, and the fibres of the bark serve to bind down the thatch, and 
to make mats. The fruit is a huge legume of a wooden consistency, 
containing from four to six round flat seeds, M'hich have a sweetish 
pleasant taste not unlike the flavour of almonds, and are eaten with 
great relish by the hill people. Amongst the underv.'ood one ob- 
serves, in great quantities, several species of Mimosas, Euphorbias, 
and Justicias, the Jataopha Curcas, Capparis trifoliata, a Cassia 
with a pale yellow flower, the wild Corunda which at most times of 
the j^ear is loaded with delicate white blossoms, the Samalu, and a 
vast number of thorny shrubs, which probably have never yet been 
honoured with a name and place in any sj'stem of botany. It is 
remarkable, that the natives have a name Jor almost every plant, 
however humble or devoid of beauty ; which may arise perhaps from 
the circumstance of their consuming the wild berries and fruits, to a 
very great extent, in aid of their limited means of subsistence. 
The Calamas Rotang, or ground Cane, is every where common, and 
seems in many parts to form a sort of nucleus, about v/hich the 
other brushwood and jungle collect in small patches. During the 
hot months and the rains the rich and gaudy flowers of the Capparis 
trifoliata, called by the natives Baran, and the scarlet blossoms of 
the Palas (Butea frondo-sa,) interspersed with quantities of the 
Gloriosa superba, which grows quite wild, lend an air of splendour 
even to these cheerless and uninviting tracts of jungle. In the cold 
weather they receive another brilliant tinge of colouring from a 
parasitical plant the Loranthus Bicolor, of scarlet and yellow hue, 
which covers the larger trees in great profusion, and from the young 
floral leaves as well as the flov/ers of a sort of creeper, the Com- 
bretum Decandrum, which ascends and overhangs the whole woods 
in large whitish masses, distinguishable by the contrast of their hue 
from a considerable distance. Amongst the bulbous, monandrous, 
and gramineous plants, which bedeck or clothe the surface of the 
ground, a species of Pancratium, the wild turmeric, and the Andro- 
pogon aciculatum and muricatum occur most frequently. In the 
pools and marshes, water-lilies of all colours, and also the true 
Lotus, sacred Beau Lily, are found in abundance. 



2G 

The vcfjetable dies procured from the hills, are chiefly the Bacain 
or Sappun wood, the Aal or Achu (Morinda citrifolia,) the culture 
of which is little attended to in the plains, and the (lowers of the 
Butea frondosa. Lakh, or wild silk, wax, honey, ami Dlnina or 
Indian pitch, are reckoned the most valuable articles of forest pro- 
duce, and are procurable in great quantities on nearly every hill 
estate. The Cocoons of the wild silk, are much larger than those 
of the real worm, and are found generally attached to the leaves of 
a tree called the Asin (Pentaptera tomcntosa.) 

The woods which skirt the western frontier of Cuttack, as well as 
the forests of the interior, are filled with wild aiiinials, such as 
Tigers, Leopards, Panthers, Hyenas, Bears, Buffaloes, Deer, Ante- 
lopes, Hogs, the wild Dog called Bali-a, the Ghoranga an animal 
resembling the Nilgao, and the wild Ox denominated here the Gayal, 
a ferocious beast of immense size with a noble pair of horns, which 
has been well described in the Asiatic Researches, vol. viii. AVild 
Elephants infested the jungles of Moherbenj and did great injury 
to the surrounding country, until very recently, the Raja, after 
having failed in every other attempt, hit upon the following method 
of getting rid of them. By the advice of a scientific byragee or 
religious mendicant, he caused a quantity of mineral poison to be 
mixed up in balls of rice such as are usually given to tame Ele- 
phants, which were strewed about in the places chiefly haunted by 
the wild animals. The bait took effect ; a great number of the 
Elephants were destroyed by the poison ; it is said that upwards of 
eighty dead carcases were found, the rest decamped in alarm, and 
have since made their appearance in the jungles of another quarter. 
From the inconsiderable size of the herds which frequented Moher- 
benj, it seems highly probable that the Elephant is not indigenous 
to the Province, and it is said that the breed had its origin in the 
escape of some of the tame animals from their keepers in fornijer 
ages. 

As it respects the ornitltoloyy of the Province it may suffice to 
say, of all the feathered tribe that I have seen, I have been most 
struck with the Dhancsa or Indian Buceros, which is found in large 
flocks in Khurda, and is there called the Kuchila-khai or Kuchila- 
eater, from the circumstance of its delighting to feed on the fruit of 
the Strychnos mix vomica. The bird has a most singular appear- 
ance, particularly when flying, with its long neck stretched out 
horizontally, aud the huge protuberance rising from the upper 
mandible of the bill distinctly visible from a great distance. This 
protuberance or horn, in the Khurda species, measures often seven 



27 



inches from base to peak, and about two and a half in height from 
the upper mandible. The flesh is much prized by the natives, who 
consider it a sovereign remedy for the rheumatic pains called Bat, 
and is often kept prepared in a particular way, with spices, for four 
or five years. The loud screaming and chattering noise wliich an- 
nounce always the presence of the Indian horn bill, well entitle it 
to its place in the Linnasan order Piece. 

The Province of Cuttack is watered by innumerable streams, 
which swell into rivers of magnitude during the rains, but few of 
them have any current throughout the whole year. I shall mention 
only the principal rivers, as it would be tedious to attempt an 
enumeration of the almost countless ramifications, which strike off 
from the larger channels about the centre of the ^logulbandi, and 
assume new and independent names. The chief stream in name, 
importance, length of course, and the associations connected with it 
by popular superstition, is the Mahanuddy, which is said to rise 
near Bastar, and after passing Sumbulpoor and Sonepoor, (at which 
latter place it receives the waters of the Tel river,) enters the Mo- 
gulbandi division at the city of Cuttack, where it throws off its 
principal arm the Cajori inclining to the southward, and another on 
the north-east face of the town called the Berupa. Afterwards 
pursuing an easterly course verging to south, it sends off to the 
northward another large river called the C'hittertola, and numerous 
smaller arms, until at Paradip, it divides into two or three consider- 
able branches, and empties itself by two principal mouths into the 
bay of Bengal a little south of False point, having completed a 
course of more than 500 miles. The breadth of this river at Sum- 
bulpoor, IGO miles distant from Cuttack, is nearly a viile during the 
rains, and opposite to the town of Cuttack its bed measures full two 
miles across. After this, the main channel narrows very considerably. 
It deposits universally a coarse sand (intermixed with numerous 
fi-agments of different coloured quartz and scales of Mica,) destruc- 
tive of course to the fertility of any land on which it may be carried 
by inundation, and its bottom is singularly irregular and uneven. 
During the rains the Mahanuddy may be navigated nearly as far as 
Ryepur, distant 300 miles from the point of confluence with the sea, 
though the passage is rendered difficult in the higher parts by rocks. 
A great portion of the bed however is dry for five or six months of 
the year, and it is fordable from January to June, even at Cuttack. 
The principal channel of the Cajori terminates in the Alankar 
which is deep and narrow, and pursues a singularly tortuous course 
until it is lost amidst a variety of smaller ramifications. About half 



28 



way between Cuttack and the sea, the Cajori sends off alar<?e branch 
■which after dividing, doubling upon itself, and again branching out 
in indescribable intricacies, enters the sea at last in a broad channel 
about forty miles north of the Black Pagoda, under the name of the 
Deh Nadi. Another large stream leaves the above opposite to 
Cuttack, and subsequently divides into three principal rivers, the 
Bhargabi, Dava, and Kushhadra, which flow south, inclining a 
little to the east. The latter enters the sea between the Black Pa- 
goda and Poorce. The two former uniting again into one stream, 
discharge their waters into the Chilka lake, called by various names 
at different stages of their course, and finally the Harchandi. All 
these deposit coarse sand like the parent stream. 

Next to the Mahanuddy, the Brahmani and the Byterini are the 
most important rivers. The former, soon after entering the Mogul- 
bandi, throws off a branch called the Karsua which equals either in 
size. All the three, after frequently dividing and branching off, 
unite with the Berupa at different points of their courses, and flow 
into the Mahanuddy in two or three large channels forming the 
Kanka Island or Delta near Point Palmyras. Some of these rivers 
deposit a portion of fertilizing mud near the mouth, as well as much 
coarse sand. To the northward of the above, the Solandi, Kans 
Bans, Burahalaug, and the Suhunreekha, are all respectable rivers, 
more especially the latter two. They deposit near their mouths a 
considerable quantity of fine mud as well as sand. " This river," 
says Hamilton, " has its source in the province of Bahar, district 
of Chuta Nagpoor, whence it flows in a south-easterly direction, 
until, after a winding course of about 250 miles, it falls into the 
bay of Bengal. For many years prior to the conquest of Bengal 
by the British, this river had formed the southern boundary of that 
soubah under the diflerent native governments, and continued to 
mark the boundary until 1803, when the acquisition of Cuttack 
brouglit the Bengal and INIadras Presidencies for the first time into 
contact."* 

The whole of the country between the Chilka lake and the Brah- 
mani river, is peculiarly suhjecl to inundation from its lyroxiniity to 
the hills, and the astonishing rapidity with which the torrents de- 
scend in the rains ; the strange conformation of the channels of 
some of the principal rivers, which are very broad within the hills, 
but divide soon after leaving them into a number of narrow streams ; 
and also from the practice which has existed from very old times of 
using embankments. As an instance of rapid rise, it deserves to 
• Hamilton's Hindoatan, vol. ii. p. 34. 



29 



be recorded that, during tlio heavy rains of 1817, the umtcrs of the 
Cajori rose in one night a height of eighteen feet, as ascertained by 
careful measurement. This immense volume of water, which was 
then perhaps one and a half mile in breadth by thirty or forty feet 
depth, over-topped the general level of the town by a height of nearly 
six feet, and was only restrained from overwhelming it, by a solid 
embankment faced with stone and supported by buttresses, the 
work of former governments. The defence alluded to, however, 
called the revetment, has yielded in places within the memory of 
man, and the consequences were of course most tremendous. The 
Cuttack rivers are generally swollen to an extreme height about 
three times during each rainy season, and at such periods the crops 
and villages in many parts are exposed to imminent hazard. To 
guard against the evil as much as practicable, embankments have 
been always maintained by government, at a large expense. Such 
works are indispensably necessary in the state to which things have 
been brought, but they obviously only aggravate the evil, and 
sometimes occasion direct mischief, by being injudiciously con- 
structed to suit the interests of particular parties, without a due ad- 
vertence to the general welfare. The embankments or bunds are 
solid mounds of earth well sloped and turfed on either side, the 
principal ones measuring {rom forty to fifty and sixty feet in breadth^ 
and eight to sixteen in height. The havoc occasioned by the bursting 
of one of these large bunds is generally most serious. The torrent 
rushes with a frightful roar and velocity, tearing up trees by the 
roots, prostrating houses, and washing away every trace of the la- 
bours of the peasantry. The devastations of the flood too are in 
general more permanently commemorated, by a deposit of coarse 
sand, which renders the soil in the neighbourhood of the breach 
unfit for tillage for several years. 

The Rev. A Sutton, Missionary at Cuttack, thus describes what 
he witnessed during a great swell of the river in 1826. He writes, 
— "In a few days the Cajori has risen from an insignificant stream 
to a river as large as the Thames. This rise is principally occasioned 
by the torrents of water which pour down the celebrated blue 
mountains, which we can see very plaiiily, though many of them 
are at a great distance. These torrents are again augmented by 
several rivers overflowing their banks and uniting with the regular 
stream. Trees of all sizes are seen floating down the stream, with 
the utmost rapidity, tov»'ards the sea, and the poorer class of people 
are busy enough swimming after them ; some go an amazing dis- 
tance before they can overtake them, or get suflicient command 



30 



over the force of the current, to get them asliore. It is a very 
amusing and picturesque scene from our verandali, (from our friend 
Peggs' house.) The river rises to an ahirming height, it is now 
■within an incli of overflowing the embankments opposite to our 
house ; the people begin to grow much aLarmed, and numbers are 
watching the rise or decline of the water. The country on the other 
side of the river is inundated for a considerable distance, and I have 
heard and seen that many houses have been washed away, and in 
some cases inhabitants and cattle altogether ; several roofs of houses 
have been seen floating down the river with the families on the top 
of the thatch, and have thus been saved. A sacrifice has been 
offered to day by some people of the shoemaking cast, for the pur- 
pose of appeasing the w-rath of the river, which they imagine is angry 
Avith them, and threatens to-deluge the town. It was a long un- 
meaning piece of business; the man set out from his house, attended 
by a great concourse of people, accompanied by the usual wretched 
apology for a band of music. A black he-goat of about a year old 
headed the procession, then the music, next the priest, and offerings 
consisting of sweetmeats, little ornaments such as paltry rings, 
necklaces, &c., and a looking-glass for the goddess, some red powder, 
different sorts of fruit, a remnant of red, and another of yellow, silk, 
some rice, spices, combs, and several other trifling articles. The 
man threw himself in the dust every step from his house to the 
river, he every time lay flat on his face, muttered something, often 
knocked his head aud arms ; of course he proceeded but very slowly. 
When they arrived at the waterside, the brahmin first arranged the 
articles, then kindled a small fire, into which he threw incense the 
whole time of the ceremony ; he afterwards went through the tedious 
formulas of presenting the offerings, sanctifying the offerer and his 
family by touching their foreheads, pouring water into their hands, 
&c. ; five lamps were then lit and waved before the river, the people 
took some grains of rice, and other trifles, after they had been 
sanctified, and threw them into the river, they then lay down flat 
on their faces, and worshipped the river. The principal offerer was 
in such a state of perturbation that he was obliged to be supported, 
his knees trembled like Belshazzar's. The principal part of the 
ornaments were then placed on a plaintain-tree stage and let down 
into the water, hut the sweetmeats were taken away, I suppose by 
the brahmin. The things floated for some distance down the river 
before they were upset ; some red and yellow powder was then 
smeared on the head of the goat, the man then presented it to the 
goddess, and when all was ready a man with a sword severed the 



31 



head from the body at a stroke, the blood was then poured in the 
river, and afterwards both head and body were thrown in after it. 
The struggling body appeared for a few moments, and then sunk, 
the people shouted their deafening hurra bol, saying it was well 
done, and dispersed. All night the people were assembled on the 
river banks with torches, &c., but the river began to decline the 
next day, the rain having ceased on the mountains. The alarm 
then subsided, and the people were satisfied that the goddess had 
been duly propitiated."* 

The C/iilka Lake forms too material a feature in the geography 
of Orissa, to be passed over unnoticed. The general opinion of 
Europeans, has been that it was formed by an irruption of the 
ocean, and it is worthy of remark that the native histories record 
the occurrence of such an event, about the beginning of the tJiircl 
century of the Christian era, to which they universally ascribe the 
formation of the Chilka. It is separated from the sea for many 
miles by a long narrow strip of sand, seldom more than three hun- 
dred yards in breadth, and discharges its waters by an outfall, 
which has been lately excavated about a mile north of iManikpatam, 
the old one having become nearly choked up with sand. Its form 
is very in-egular, the greatest diameters measuring from K. E. to 
S. W. thirty-five, and from E. by N. to W. by S. eiyhtccn miles. 
To the southward, it is divided into numerous narrow channels by 
large inhabited islands, and for a long way it can scarcely be dis- 
tinguished from the channel of the Harchandi, v.hich flows into it. 
The general depth is about four or five feet, greatest depth six feet; 
and it is considered to be rapidly filling up from the sand and mud 
brought into it by the Daya, Bhargabi, and various smaller streams, 
which empty their waters into this basin. The Pergunnahs Rahang, 
Seraen, Chowbiskud, Killahs Roreng, Kokla, Khurda, and the 
Jagir of Kerar Mahommed, encircle or touch its shores for nearly 
two thirds of the whole circumference. On the Ganjam side the 
hill estates of Calicote and Palur occupy the remaining interval. 
The lake is valuable for the salt which it yields, called Karkach, 
obtained by solar evaj)oration, of which nearly two lacs of iimunds\ 
are obtained annually, on the Jagir of Kerar Mahommed ; and to 
the inhabitants of its vicinity for its fishery, the produce of which 
when dried, forms a considerable article of export. On the Cuttack 

* Gen. Bap. Repository, 1827, pp. 141-2. 

t Maund, a measure of weight, — at Madras, 25 pounds ; at Bombay 28. 
Tlie factory uiaund in Bengal may be computed at SO pounds. 



32 



side its shnves avo flat, marshy, and dcstituto of pictiircsqup beaut}-, 
but the oi)posite banks from Ijanpur to Rb.amba cxliibit scenery of 
a very romantic and diversified character. The hills of Khurda, 
Goomsiir, and Calicote, are seen extending along the Avhole of the 
south western face in irregular chains, and groups of moderate ele- 
vation, some of which jut into the lake, forming low rocky ])oints 
or promontories. The Chilka itself, north of Palur, expands into 
a majestic sheet of water, interspersed with a few rocky Islands, 
and enlivened by boats sailing along before the wind, or fox'ced on 
by pimting with bamboo poles called laggis, or statioriary for the 
purposes of fishing. If the visitor is curious enoiigh to approach 
these islands, he will be struck with their singular conformation. 
They consist entirely of huge rounded blocks of a highly indurated 
porphj'ritic granite, containing large crystals of felspar, on which 
the hammer will scarcely make any impression, tossed and piled on 
each other in the v/ildest confusion, and exhibiting every symptom 
of violent convulsion. Some of the masses are arranged in the 
form of fortresses with huge round bastions, and others present 
much the appearance of some grand edifice of ancient days, in ruins. 
A scanty soil which has formed oh their summmit, by what process 
one cannot readly conceive, gives nourishment to a few peepul trees, 
mimosas, euphorbias, and gramineous plants. They are the resort 
of numerous aquatic birds, chiefly of the Saras kind, which en- 
joy undisturbed possession, except when roused occasionally by the 
aj)proach of a chance visitor. 

The principal towns in Orissa Proper are, Cuttack, Balasore, and 
Juggernaut. Jajpur, though a place of great sanctity in the esti- 
mation of the Hindus, and the site of an ancient capital, is merely 
a large village. Tlie more important Kesbehs, or head Villages of 
Pergunnahs are, Budruck, Soro, Kendrapari, Asserajasar, Harrior- 
poor, and Pipley, but these arc of small size ; and nearly all the 
rest of the Cuttack jMouzahs are mere hamlets, if we except the 
villages of the Sasan Brahmins. The country of Rajwara does not, 
I ])elieve, contain a single respectable village. 

The extent, appearance and population of the Town of Cuttack, 
are not unsuitable to its rank as the capital of a large Province. 
Its situation on a tongue of land or peninsula, near the bifurcation 
of the Mahanadi, is commanding both in a political and commercial 
point of view ; though these advantages have been in some degree 
counterbalanced, by the outlay incurred in defending it by stone re- 
vi'tments, from the encroachment of the rivers which wash two of its 
sides. The hiJly count:-y of ll.ijwa-.-a seen from its environs fur- 



33 



nishes a pleasing and picturesque prospect. The real etymology 
of the word Cuttack is Katak, signifying in Sanscrit a royal resi- 
dence, or seat of empire. It was one of the five Kataks, or Capitals 
of Gangeswara Deo, the second prince of the Gang Bans line, and 
is still distinguished by the natives as Katak Biranasi or Benares, 
by which name also it is mentioned in Fcrishteh's History of Bengal^ 
and in the Ayiii Ahberi. The denomination Biranasi, has been in 
latter times confined mostly to a village, or Patna, which stands 
near the point of separation of the jMahanuddy and Cajori rivers, 
about four miles distant from the town. Authorities vary as to 
the date of the foundation of the Katak Biranasi, but there seems 
good reason to think that it became a capital city as early as the 
end of the tenth century, during the reign of the Kesari princes. 
Chowdwar, Jajpur, and Pipley, divided with it at different periods, 
the honour and advantage of accommodating the Hindu court of 
Orissa. 

The only monument of the Gajpati Rajas which their ancient 
capital exhibits, is the fortress of Barabati, built probably in the 
fourteenth century by Raja Anang Bhim Deo. Some ascribe its 
erection to Telinga Mukund Deo, the last of the independent 
sovereigns of Orissa, and others refer it back to a period as early 
as the times of the Kesari dynasty. However that point may stand, 
its square sloping towers or bastions, and general style, bespeak 
clearly a Hindu origin. The Mahornmedan or Marhatta governors 
added a round bastion at the N. W. angle, and constructed the great 
arched gateway in the eastern face, which alterations are alluded to 
in a Persian inscription, giving for the date of the repairs and addi- 
tions, according to the rules of the Abji'd, the fourth year of the 
reign of Ahmed Shah or A. D. 1750. The fort has double wallg 
built of stone, the inner of which enclose a rectangiilar area mea^ 
suring 2150 by 1800 feet. The entrance lies through a grand 
gateway on the east, flanked by two lofty square towers, having 
the sides inclining inwards, from the base to the summit. A noble 
ditch faced with masonry surrounds the whole, measuring in the 
broadest part, two hundred and twenty feet across. From the centre 
of the fort rises a huge square bastion or cavalier sui;porting a flag 
staff. This feature, combined with the loftiness of the battlements 
on the river face, give to the edifice an imposing, castellated appcar- 
ance, so much so that the whole when seen from the opposite bank 
of the Mahanuddy, presented to the imagination of Mr. La Mofet-e, 
who travelled through the province in A. D. 17(37, some resemblance 
to the west side of Windsor Castle. No traoes of the famous palace 



34 

of Raja Mukand Deo nine stories in height, mentioned in the Ayin 
Akberi, arc to be found Avithin the \valls of fort Barabati, but the 
fragments of sculptured cornices, &c., -which have been dug up at 
different times, and more especially a massive candelabra, or pillar 
furnished with branches for holding lights, formed of the fine grey 
indurated chlorite or pot stone, are probably the remains of some 
large and splendid edifice. 

The only Mahommedan monuments worthy of notice at the 
capital, are a small neat mosque built by Ikram Khan, a governor 
during Arangzeb's reign, towards the centre of the town ; and the 
Kadam Rasool, an antique looking edifice standing in the midst of 
a fine garden, which contains certain reliques of the prophet com- 
missioned from Mecca by the Newab Nazim Shujaa ud Uin Khan, 
or his son Mahommed Taki Khan, the latter of whom lies buried 
within the enclosure. The Mogul and Marhatta Subadars always 
resided in the palace of the Lai Ikigh on the banks of the Cajori, 
whicli we must suppose to be the "Stately Court of Malcandy," 
described by Mr. Cartwright, who visited the "Governor of Coteke'" 
in 1632, though there are no traces of splendour remaining to war- 
rant the high wrought description of the palace, given in Bruton's 
Narration. 

The Town contains a population of about 40,000 souls, residing 
in 0,512 houses, exclusive of cantonments, amongst which are 
several fine mansions of stone that belonged formerly to the Gosain 
and Parwar merchants, who engrossed all the trade and principal 
official employments of the province under the Marhattas. It is 
divided into a number of Mehallas and Bazars, named after tlie 
Sirdars who founded, or the trades or classes residing principally 
in them, as the Tatar Khan, Ali Shah, Uria, Telinga, &c.. Bazar. 
The Chandni Chouk is a fine broad street, consisting of neat stone 
houses, disposed with much regularity, but owes its respectable 
appearance chiefly to European interference. There is of course 
no deficiency of small modern temples in and about the town, 
amongst which that dedicated to Seta Ram is the most conspicuous 
both in size and form ; and from its existence having been officially 
recognized by the British Regulations. Reg. Xll. 180o, sec. xxx. 

Balasore, distant about 100 miles from Cuttack, is a large strag- 
gling Town, containing several small brick houses inhabited by 
merchants, who carry on an inconsiderable traffic with Calcutta. 
Its situation is extremely unfavourable, on a low dreiiry plain, de- 
fornifd by numerous unsiglitly ridges and ant hills, near the muddy 
banks (jf tilt' Bura Bukuig, and il is eonsidered in consequence uii- 



35 



healthy during the rainy season. The number of inhabitants does 
not exceed 10,000, It is surrounded by an infinity of little ham- 
lets ; the whole neiglibourliood is covered with numerous little 
villages, which send forth an immense population, and which give 
it the character of the most populous part of the province. Balasore 
is the principal port of the district, and is provided with dry docks 
on the banks of the river, to which sloops, drawing not more than 
fourteen feet water, can be floated during the spring tides. It is 
frequented chiefly by three descriptions of country craft, viz., 
Maldive vessels, the boats employed in transporting the Company's 
salt to the Presidency, and a class of sloops built at Contai and 
Hidgelly called Hollas, which come in great numbers during the 
cold weather to carry off rice to Calcutta. 

The importance attached to this station, in the infancy of the 
commerce between the western hemisphere and Bengal, is attested 
by the remains of the factories of four European nations, Encjlish, 
French, Danish, and Dutch. Traces of a Portuguese establishment 
are also to be observed, in the ruins of a snicill Roman Catholic 
Chapel in the town, having a wooden cross over the principal door- 
way. The Dutch seem to have been settled here prior to l(i(iO A.l). 
at least that date is discoverable on two curious monumental pyra- 
mids of masonry, which rise near the Factory. The English formed 
their flrst Bengal establishment at Pipley on the Subunreekha in 
1640 A. D., and the date 1684 A. D. is to be observed on a tomb 
in the English burying-ground at that place. The magnitude of 
the Company's establishment here, may be estimated from the 
number of large obelisks and obituary columns still standing in the 
burying-ground, erected to the memory of our predecessors who 
ended their days in this remote confer. The English had likewise 
a fine country house surrounded with gardens, at a place called 
Balramgerhi near the sea^ the remains of which may still be seen, 
and will always be viewed with interest from its having afforded a 
temporary shelter to several of the Company's servants, when Cal- 
cutta was captured by the armies of Seraj ud Dowlah in 1 7i>() A.D. 
"On the 29th of November, 1688, during a rupture between the 
East India Company and Aurengzebe, Captain Heath landed a body 
of troops and seamen, attacked and took a battery of 30 pieces of 
cannon, and plundered the town of Balasore. The English factory 
was burned by the governor, and the Company's servants carried 
prisoners up the country, from whence it does not appear that they 
ever returned. On the breaking out of the war with the Nagpoin" 
Maharuttas in 180o, an expedition was dispatched against this place. 



36 



■when the troops ami stores were conveyed in vessels to within four 
miles of the town, where they were landed, and the fort and factory 
captured after a long contest, but with little loss on the part of the 
assailants."* 

The trade of the place was formerly important, from the Sannahs 
and fine Muslins manufactured there, and likewise at Budruck 
and Soro, the demand for which has now almost entirely ceased. 
The drugs and dies imported from the hills, may have constituted 
also a considerable article of export. Balasore, doubtless derived 
its principal consequence as the site of a factory, from its conveni- 
ence for carrying on commerce with Bengal Proper, before permis- 
sion had been obtained to establish settlements within that province. 

The Town of Pooree Juggernaut owes its size and importance 
entirely to its connection with the temple. It is situated on the 
sea coast in lat. 19° 49' N. long. 85° 54' E. 47 miles S. by E. from 
Cuttack. Travelling distance from Calcutta 311 miles ; from Be- 
nares 512 miles ; from Madras 719 ; from Delhi 910 ; and from 
Bomba)' 1052 miles. It contains 5741 houses. Every span of it 
is considered holy ground, and the whole of the lantl^is held free of 
rent, on the tenure of performing certain services, in and about the 
temple. Respecting the value attached to this reputedly holy 
ground, a resident in Orissa observes, — ' For about one hundred 
yards from the temple every square cubit is worth a row of rupees 
eight deep ; the space for the next hundred yards is worth a row 
seven deep; the next diminishes to six deep, and so proceeds till 
you get beyond the ground subject to these regulations.' The 
])rincipal street is composed almost entirely of the religious estab- 
lishments called Mat'hs, built of masonry, having low pillared ve- 
randahs in front, and plantations of trees interspersed. Being very 
wide, with the temple rising at the southern end, it presents by no 
means an unpieturesque appearance ; but the filth and stench, the 
swarms of religions mendicants, and other nauseous objects, which 
ofTend one's senses in every part of the town, quite dispel any illu- 
sion which the scene might otherwise possess. Fine luxuriant gar- 
dens and groves enclose the town on the land side, and produce the 
best fruit in the province. The stately and beautiful Callophgllum 
Inophgllum, called by Dr. Ainslie the Alexandrian Laurel, grows 
here in great abundance, and the Cashew-nut thrives with peculiar 
luxuriance. The environs exhibit some fine tanks, as the Indra 
Daman, Chandan, Msrkandeswar Talao, ^c., which are supposed 
to be very ancient; and the inquisitive stranger who may be 

• llaniilton's lliado^tan, vol. ii. p. 37. 



37 



disposed to explore amidst the sand hills situated between the sea 
and the town, will find many ancient and curious looking religions 
edifices, nearly overwhelmed with sand, to excite and reward 
attention. 

The climate of Juggernaut, is the most agreeable and salubrious 
probably in all India, during the hot months from. March to July. 
At this seasou the south-west monsoon blows from the sea in a 
steady and refreshing breeze, which seldom fails until the approach 
of the rains, and every door and window is thrown open to court 
its entrance. A visit to Juggernaut has in some cases proved, as 
beneficial to the European constituticm as a sea voyage. 

Buddrnck is situated on the north bank of the Cowah, or Soliin- 
dee river, which at one season of the year is here 300 yards broad, 
and at another, fordable, Lat. 21" 7' N. long. 80° 26' E. 38 miles 
S.S.W. from Balasore. From this part of Orissa, come most of the 
people termed in Calcutta, Balasore bearers.* 

Sinxjhoom, a town in the province of Orissa, governed by a Raja, 
independent within his own territories, but under ^political subordi- 
nation to the British government. It is bounded on three sides by 
the districts of Chuta Nagpoor, Midnapoor, and Mohcrbunge ; aud 
on the south by that of Kunjeur. The zemindars in this and other 
districts on^the frontiers of Midnapoor, were formerly many of them 
robbers by trade, kept robbers in their pay, and have still a hanker- 
ing after their old profession. While tributary to the Maharattas, 
they were under no external control, and were, at home, magistrates, 
with unlimited powers of life and death, and accustomed to make 
predatory inroads on British territories. The town of Singboom 
stands in lat. 22" 31 N. long. 85*' 40' E. 105 miles W. from Mid- 
napoor, and notwithstanding the etymology of the name of the 
pergunnah, it is notorious that there never was a lion seen within 
its limits. 

The town of Kunjeur stands in lat. 21° 31' N. long. 85" 32' E. 
92 miles N.N.W. from Cuttack. 

Ogurrapoora, a town in Orissa, 77 miles N.N.W. from Cuttack. 
Lat. 21° 21' N. long; 85° 24' E. 

Andwpoorcjhur, a town in the Orissa province, 48 miles west from 
Balasore. Lat. 21° 34' N. long. 86° 5' E.f 

Harriorpoor, the capital of the large zemindary of Mohcrbunge, 
and residence of the zemindar. It is situated in lat. 21°51'N. 
long. 8G° 42' E. 28 miles N, by W. from Balasore. + 

* Hamilton's Ilindostan, vol. ii. p. 38. | pp. 34-5. % p. 37. 



f^: T~ 4"i jr\ 5~u rf'"" 



38 



Biirwa, a town in Orissa, 27 miles N.N.E.from Ciittack, in lat. 
20o -15' N. lonp;. 800 21' E. 

CrnilaJiandi/, a town in Ori.ssa, 95 miles S. by W. from Sumbluil- 
poor. Lai. 10° 49' N. long. 83° 12' E. 

Jeffhedcrpoor, a town in Orissa, 20 miles south from Bustar. 
Lat. 19° 14' N. long. 82° 28' E. Under this town a considerable 
river runs, named the Inderowty (Indravaty,) the bed of which at 
this place is very rocky, and not fordable at any time of the year. 
There is a small fort on a peninsula formed by the v/inding of the 
river, which in the rainy season overflows its banks, and forms a 
lake of considerable dimensions. 

Narlah, a town in Orissa, 37 miles E. from Bustar. Lat. 19° 37' 
N. long. 83° 2' E. 

Jyapoor, a town in Orissa, 70 miles N. W. fjom Vizagapal.am. 
Lat. 18° 25' N. long. 82° 43' E. 

Aul, a town in the province of Orissa, district of Cuttack, 50 
miles from the town of Cuttack in a north-east direction. 

Jagejpoor, a town in the Cuttack district, 35 miles N.N.E, from 
the town of that'name. Lat. 20° 52' N. long. 8Go 24' E. It stands 
on the south side of the Byterini river, which is here in the rains 
nearly half a mile broad. This is a large straggling town, in which 
a good deal of cloth is made. During the Mogul government, it 
was a place of importance, and the remains of several MUhommedan 
edifices are still visible. The mosque was built by Abou Hassir 
Khan, who, in an inscription, is very extravagant in the praises of 
his own mosque, although it is remarkably ill proportioned, having 
a large dome and small pillars. The country around is much in- 
tersected with small rivers and water courses. The principality of 
Jagepoor in Orissa was invaded by Toghan Khan, the Mahomme- 
dan governor of Bengal, in A.D. 1243, at which period it appears 
to have been a state of some strength, as the Raja not only defeated 
Tohban Khan, but pursued him into Bengal, where he besieged 
Gour, the metropolis. The approach of reinforcements from Oude 
compelled him subsequently to retreat. The Mahommedans were 
again totally defeated by the Raja of Jagepoor, in 1253. There is 
no record at what time this place fell finally under the domination 
of the Mahommedans, who possessed it until expelled by the 
Maharattas. 

Kunka, a town in the province of Orissa, district of Cuttack, 80 
miles N. E. from the town of Cuttack. This is the capital of one 
ef the tril)utary estates in Cuttack subject to the British regulations, 
the exact limits of which have never been ascertained, but which 



39 



have been ronglily estimated at 75 miles from north to south, by 
50 from east to west. Prior to the acquisition of Cuttack by the 
British, the Raja of Kuiika, who possessed this inundated and un- 
healthy tract of country, had long baffled the Maharatta generals 
in all their attempts to subdue him. The Maharattas had been 
accustomed to embark troops and artillery on large unwieldy flat 
bottomed boats, unmanageable in large streams or near the sea ; in 
consequence of which, their ill-constructed fleets always fell a prey 
to the Raja's light armed vessels, which were long, narrow, with 
barricadoes to cover the men, and some of them having 100 paddles 
or oars. When these squadrons met, the Ooria boats moved quickly 
round the heavy Maharatta armada, and picked off" the men with 
their matchlocks, until the remainder were compelled to surrender, 
when they were carried into a captivity from whence they seldom 
returned, the perniciovis atmosphere of these morasses permitting 
none to live but the aborigi.nes. 

Point Palmiras, a small tov.'n and promontory in the province of 
Orissa, district of Cuttack. Lat. 20° 43' N. long. 87° 5' E. In 
favourable v/eather, Bengal pilot schooners for the river Hooghly 
are frequently met with as soon as this cape is passed. 

Dcknall, the capital of a tributary zcmindary in the province of 
Cuttack, 40 miles N. N.W. from the town of Cuttack. Lat. 20" 
58' N. long. 85° 48' E. 

Bamragliur, a town in the Orissa province, SO miles N. W. from 
Cuttack. Lat. 21° 3' N. long. 85° 2 E. To the south of this place 
are some iron mines and forges. 

Aiitghur. — This place stands in the midst of a wild and v/oody 
country, about 14 miles N. W. from the town of Cutlack. On ihc 
north it is bounded by the tributary state of Durpun, and on the 
west by the fortress of Tigria. Owing to the quantity and density 
of the jungle, the country is reckoned very unhealthy, and its ex- 
treme dimensions are 15 miles east to west, by 12 from north to 
south. 

Narsingah, a town in Orissa, GO miles W. by N. from Cul'ack. 
Lat. 20o 37' N. 85° 1 1' E. 

Oiu/olognr, the capital of a large zemindary in the Cntta^'k dis- 
trict, situated 59 miles W. from the town of Cuttack. Lat. 20° 32' 
N. long. 85° 11' E. 

Bankee, a town in the province of Cuttack, the capital of a tribu- 
tary zemindary, 30 miles west from the tov.n of Cuttack.* 

* Hamilton's Hindostan, vol. ii. pp. 46-7-8-9. 
r 



40 



KliQordali. — Tlio Khonrdah Raja is hereditary high priest of Jiig- 
geriiauLh, and keei^'r of the idol's wardrobe. Khoorduhghiir his 
residence, is situated about 20 miles S. W. of Cuttack, and 15 west 
of Piply. It is enclosed by a depth of impervious forest to the 
extent of many miles, carefully trained to grow in a close matting 
of the most thorny thickets, the only avenues to the interior being- 
through defiles strongly fortified. The principal entrance in 1804 
was from the eastward, communicating with the road leading to 
Piply, which was also strengthened in the native manner; and. 
there were two other accessible entrances, one from the north-west, 
and the other from the west. 

Soon after the conquest of Cuttack, this pergunnah became re- 
markable for its hostility to the British government ; and at length 
became so turbulent, that to preserve the tranquillity of the district, 
it became necessary to secure the person of the llaja, Mukund Deo, 
then 18 years of age, and retain him in custody at Midnapoor. 
For the accomplishment of this object, in 1804, three separate at- 
tacks were made on Khoordahghur ; on which occasion, the route 
pursued by the troops was along the banks of the Mahanuddy, 
through a picturesque country, diversified by hill, dale, and water 
scenery. After penetrating, with much physical difficulty but little 
loss, through a great depth of forest, the detachment reached a vale 
of an oval form, about three miles long by two in width, the whole 
under rice cultivation, and ready for reaping. This vale contained 
also a mango grove and neat village ; but the Raja resided on a 
hill at the south end, the approach to which was strongly stockaded 
and fortified with several barriers, and a M^ell constructed stone wall 
surrounding a portion of the summit, wdlhin which dwelt the Raja 
and his family, with their principal officers and domestics. By a 
series of well concerted operations, the whole multitude were here 
pent up, and a scarcity of provisions ensuing, a great proportion of 
them dispersed, leaving only a garrison of 1000 men. After three 
weeks' endeavours, rendered difficult by the comi)Hcated and unin- 
telligible form of the enemy's works, the external defences were 
stormed under a heavy but ill-directed fire, until at length the base 
of the stone wall and gateway were attained, leading into the body 
of the place, on the sunnuit of the hill. Another party which had 
gone by a more circuitous route, having got over the wall, proceeded 
to the gateway, and let in the rest, when they all proceeded against 
the Raja's dwelling, he having recently fled through another gate- 
way at the foot of the hill. With this terminated the siege of 
Klioord.igluir, but the troops being much exhausted were unable to 



41 



pursue, the Raja, who however, a short time subsequent, voluntarily 
came in and surrendered himself. 

Marickpoor, a town in the province of Orissa, district of Cuttack, 
40 miles S. E. from the town of Cuttack. 

Ahmedpoor, a town in Orissa, 11 miles north from Juggernauth. 
Lat. 19° 58' N. long. 85" 54' E, 

Piply, a town in Orissa, 27 miles south from Cuttack. Lat. 
20° 5' N. long. 85o 58' E. 

Boad, a large fenced village in the province of Orissa, situated 
on the south-side of the iNIahanuddy river, which at this place in the 
month of October is one mile and a half broad. Lat. 20° 32' N. 
long. 84° 10' E. 124 miles west from Cuttack. The face of the 
whole country, in this neighbourhood is mountainous, interspersed 
with valleys, from four to sixteen miles in circumference. The 
villages are fenced with bamboos to protect the inhabitants and their 
cattle from wild beasts ; and in the fields the women are seen 
holding the plough, while the female children drive the oxen. The 
Boad territory commands some of the principal passes into the 
Cuttack division. By the engagements concluded with the Boad 
Chiefs, in 1803, they were liberated from the payment of any tribute 
to the Maharattas, and guaranteed in the possession of their estates, 
on condition that they faithfully discharged their duties as tributa- 
ries to the British Government. 

Ramgur, a town fortified in the native manner in the province of 
Orissa, situated in the south-side of the IMahanuddy river, 10(5 miles 
west from Cuttack. Lat. 20° 2G' N. long. 84" 2G' E. By the ar- 
rangement made during the Marquis Wellesley's administration, in 
1803, the chief of this place was exempted from the payment of tri^ 
bute to the Maharattas, and had his territories guaranteed to him, 
on condition of faithfully fulfilling his duty as a tributary to the 
British government. 

Cooloo, or Kontiloo, a town in Orissa, 80 miles S. E. from Sum-, 
bhulpoor. Lat. 20° 31' N. long. 84° 39' E. This is a considerable 
mart for the inland trade, the Berar merchants bringing their cot^, 
ton to CooloOj from whence they return to the interior with a load 
of salt. 

Judimahoo, a town in Orissa, 58 miles W. by S. from Cuttack, 
Lat. 20° IG' N. long. 85° 13' E.* 

The following Towns are not within the limits of modern Orissa, 
yet some information respecting them may be useful. 

Midnapoor is a considerable town situated on the south side of 

* Hamilton's Hindostan, vol. ii. pp. 50-9. 



42 



the Booree Bellaun river, 70 miles W. S. from Calcutta, but travel- 
distance 141 miles. The Ibrt has recently been converted into a 
prison. 

Hijclle is situated on the west side of the llooghly river, 55 miles 
S. S.W. from Calcutta, and formed a part of the province of Orissa. 

Tumlook is about 35 miles S. W. from Calcutta. Major Wilford 
supposes there were kings of this place, one of \vh(<m, in A.D. 1001, 
sent an embassy to China. 

Gavjam is situated near the sea coast, lat. 19° 21' N. long. 85" 10' 
E. An awful epidemic raged in 1814, which occasioned the removal 
of the European residents to Berhampore and Chicacole. It has 
been considered more healthy of late years. 

Sumbhulpoor is the capital of the district of the same name, which 
is a part of the Gundwana province. It is situated on the eastern 
side of the Mahanuddy, 167 miles W. N. W. from Cuttack. Lat. 
21° 8' M. long. 83^ 33' E. Of this district, Hamilton observes, — 
" To the north it is bounded by Choteesghur and Gangpoor; on the 
south by various petty states in the province of Orissa, dependent 
on the British government; to the east it has Orissa; and on the 
west Choteesghur or Ruttunpoor. The climate of Sumbhulpoor is 
very unwholesome, owing to the quantity of jungle, and the vicissi- 
tudes of heat and cold. The soil in the valleys is said to be a rich 
loam, in which grain or pulse will thrive well, and the mountains 
have the reputation of containing diamonds. The natives wash 
the sand of the rills that descend from them, and procure consider- 
able quantities of gold. The diamonds are found about 13 miles 
beyond the town of Sumbhulpoor, near the junction of the river 
ilebe with the Mahanuddy, at which spot, after the rains, the natives 
search in the river for red earth, washed down from the mountains, 
in which earth the diamonds are discovered. The matrix containing 
the diamonds is a clay, which appears burned red, nearly to the de- 
gree that bricks usually are."* 

Some interesting circumstances connected with this town, are 
related by Mr. Lacey. \Vhen he mentions the distance from Cuttack 
he probably refers to the travelling distance. His statements are — 

" Suinbul])0()r lies about 300 miles west of Cuttaek ; and stands in a part 
very little cultivated, or indeed little known by Europeans. The road to 
il lies tlu-onprh a dense jungle, wliich renders the phice almost inaccessible. 
i lie inliabitants, however, being removed from the idol at Pooree, are 
miieli less Kui)erstiti()us and violent than the people in these parts ; which, 
last year, induced me to attempt to visit them by water. After seven days' 
journey we were attacked with fever and were'obliged to return. Ujider 

* Hamilton's Ilindostan, vol. ii. p. 20. 



43 



these cii-cumstances, to send Tracts were the only means left to us of com- 
nuinicatiiijjf the precious knowledge of Clirist to the people. I soon found 
a tradin^^ co;npany returning to Sumbulpoov, and to one of the merchants, 
a respectable Brahmin, I committed a good )uimber of tracts, and he pro- 
mised to distribute them. I afterwards met a professed Christian and gave 
him a number more, and he made the same promise ; and we ])ursued our 
homeward journey somewhat relieved, hoping and praying for the divine 
blessing on the books ; and the following incident will show that our hopes 
were not groundless. — 

" About a month ago, as I was preaching in the open bazar to the Oreahs, 
and speaking particularly of Jesus Christ, three strangers exclaimed, with 
apparent pleasure, 'O, that is the name! that is the name! And this is 
also the person who sent the books.' It was a circumstance so rare and so 
pleasing that such unusual joy should be manifested by these people at the 
name of Jesus Christ, tliat I immediatly questioned them vv^here and how 
they had heard of him ; when their re|)ly was, that they had heard about 
Jesus Christ from some books that had been sent to Sumbulpoor, and would 
I be so kind as to give them some for themselves? I of course complied 
with their request, and furnished them with books for themselves, and a 
few others for distribution. I asked the men particularly as to the use that 
ivas made of the books I had sent? and they answered that fliei/ ivere read, 
and their contents had become a subject of interest among their country- 
men, but that fhrji wished for more full and complete instruction from us. 
The truth of the aljove account seems clear from the men being familiar 
with the name of Christ." 

The Manufactures and Trade of Orissa Proper are very incon- 
siderable and unimportant. A sufficiency of the coarser cloths is 
made for the use of the inhabitants, in all parts of the district. 
The calicos of Balasore, Soro, Budruck, Janjipoor, and Ilarihurpoor, 
were once much prized and sought after under the name of Sanucdis, 
but the demand for the finer fabrics of that description having long- 
since greatly declined, tlie quantity now manufactured is very 
trifling. At Piply Niur a good sort of quilt is made. 

The province must certainly, a century or two since, have afforded 
some encouragement to the resort of European traders, as besides 
tlie large establishment at Balasore, the English had inferior factories 
at Cuttack and Harihurpoor. At present the wliole value of the 
exports and imports, which pay duty, is only Sa. Rs. 2,97,285, and 
the customs and transit duties collected at the several small ports 
and inland chokies from the Subunreekha to the Dhamra river, do 
not exceed Sa. Rs. 30,000 per annum. The exports liable to duty 
are as follow : — Piece goods, bees' wax, iron, kut'h (the inspissated 
juice of the khayar or mimosa chadira,) oil, lac, stone plates, sal 
timber, congni wood, kurbeli, shurbeli, and petty articles. 

A considerable exportation of rice takes place from the several 
small ports along the coast to Calcutta. The horned cattle and 
swine of the district also are carried out in large herds for the sup- 
ply of the Presidency market. The quantity of salt now trans- 
ported by private individuals, in the course of legal and open traffic, 



u 



does not perhaps exceed 20,000 maunds annually ; but formerly 
salt was an important article of export by way of the great road 
leading along the Mahanuddy to Sambhulpoor and Berar, and like- 
wise by that of the Bamangati pass in INIoherbunje, more than three 
lacs of maunds being exported annually. The dried fish and 
prawns of the Cliilka lake may be noticed as an article of traffic, 
between the inhabitants of the hills, and those of the low country 
in that quarter. 

Piece goods, silk, good tobacco, and every thing in the shape of a 
luxury, are imported from the adjoining districts of Bengal, and a 
small supply of couris, cocoanuts, coral, and dried fish is obtained 
from the few Maldive vessels, which resort annually to Balasore and 
Dhamra, to take on board cargoes of rice and earthen pots. Dhamra 
is a village situated at the mouth of the river, by which vessels sail 
for Patamoondy, with freight for Cuttack. 



CHAP. II. 

Casts — Character — Matiners and Ctistonis of the Plain— Description 
of the Hill People — Co'es^Khiinds — S'oiirs — Lanc/nac/e — Popu- 
lation — Revenues — Land Tenures and Institutions. 

The four great casts or tribes into which the Hindoos are divided, 
are of course the same in Orissa as elsewhere, and have the same 
origin ascribed to them. Tlic ordinary cast and professions of the 
province arc known by the name of thirty-six Pathaks " Chattis 
Pathah ;" the individuals composing which are all either Sudras, or 
of what is called the " Sankara Verna," that is, a mixed, impure 
race, proceeding from the promiscuous intercourses of some of the 
four tribes in the first instance, and again from their commerce with 
the desendants of such a connection, or the indiscriminate cohabita- 
tion of those descendants amongst one another. Pathak signifies 
literally a learner, it being the duty of the whole of these casts 
either to perform service to the three higher tribes, or if they cannot 
gain a livelihood in that way, to learn the various arts and trades 
which are useful to society. 



45 



The proper, genuine Khetris, are considered to be extinct, and 
those who represent them are by the learned held to be only Sudras. 
There are eight classes or families who claim to represent the military 
and regal tribe, known by the affixes or titles of Dhir, Dhal, To- 
wang, Mai, Bhanj, Rai, Rawat, and Khandait. The only pro- 
fessions of the pure Vaisya tribe, in Cuttack, are the two classes of 
Baniyas, called the Gandha Baniya, or druggist, and SwernaBaniya, 
or money changer. The following are considered apparently genu- 
ine Sudras, viv., The Gowala (Gopa) milkman ; Bhandari (napita) 
barber; Gowria (Gourakara) vender of sugar ; the Chasa(Krishha- 
kara) or husbandman ; and the Talica or seller of Areca nut. The 
designation of Or or Odra is applied as it were par excellence to 
the class of husbandmen, who are commonly called Or Chasa. 
Such of that tribe who perform the duties of Paiks in the hills, and 
of sirdar village watchmen in the plains, are called Or Paik and 
Or Khandait. 

The first set of the mixed casts springing from intermarriage of 
original tribes, chiefly Byse and Sooder, and which Vv'ith exception 
to the last two, rank next below the pure Sudra, is composed as 
follows ; viz. — 

Ooria. Sanscrit. Occupations. 

Mali . . . . Malacara . . . . Gardener. 

Lobar.. .. Karniakara.. .. Iron smith. 

Sankari .. Sanc'hacara .. Worker in Shells. „ 

Taiiti . . . . Tantraaya . . . . Weaver. 

Kuinliar . . Cumbhacara . . Potter. 

Kansari .. Cansacara .. .. Bi-azitr, or worker in bell metal. 

Barhai . . . . Sutracara . . . . Carpenter. 

Chitrkar . . Chitracara . . . . Painter. 

Sonar .. .. Swernacara.. .. Goldsmith. 

Kewat . . .. Caiverta .. .. Fislierman. 

Bed .. .. Vaidya .. .. Physician. 

Mainti . . . . Carana . . . . The Writer or Secretary Class. 

Bawari.. .. Berbera .. .. Labourers. 

Chandal . . Chandala . . . . Performs the lowest offices. 



The last mentioned, the Chandal, is described to be the offspring 
of a Sudra father and Brahmin mother, and is considered here as 
elsewhere, to be the most degraded of the human species. Some 
make the founders of the first nine trades to have sprung from 
Viswakarma by a Sudra woman ; and the physician they derive 
from the god Aswinikumar and a Brahmin female. The Pathariya 
or stone cutter and Kutwya or sawyer are likewise introduced into 
some enumerations, as forming separate trades, of the same origin 
with the carpenter and iron smith. 



46 



A second set is derived from the promiscuous intercourse of the 
above casts ^vith each other, and are as follow : 



Oor'ia. 
Tell . . . . 
Tiur , . . . 
Chainar . . 
Sundi 

Dhobi . . . . 
M agora . . 
Naik . . . . 
Shewala.. 
Dom 
Patra 

Tula Bbania . . 
Kandra . . 
Chunari . . 
Pandra or Pan 
Shipiiti . . 
BaldiaTeli ^ 
Cliaria Mar I 
Biiidhaiii | 
Hari J 



Sanserif. 
Tallica . . . 
Tivara 

Charmacara . 
Sundika . . 
Rajaka . . 
Yyadhi . . 
Jj'otislii . . 
Madbuka 
Doiidiba . . 
Patucara.. 
Tula Bbedara. 
Danda Pasika. 



Occiipatio7is. 
Oilman. 
Fisherman. 
Leather dresser. 
AVine seller. 
Washerman. 
Huntsman. 
Astrologer. 

Confectioner and toddy seller. 
Matmakcr. 

C'lotli seller and weaver. 
Cotton beater. 
Village watchman. 
Lime maker. 
Cane maker. 
Tailor. 

Perform the lowest offices. 



In some lists, the Rupacara or maker of gods, appears amongst 
the mixed classes, as the follower of a separate trade. The Patra 
or cloth seller and weaver, branches out into the following subdivi- 
sions, viz., Sakuli, Pagani, Hansi, Matia, Ashti, Gola, Sara, 
Bona ; and the fishermen as follows, Rarhi, Khatwa, Newnlea, 
Kartiya, Gokha, and Panua. The three tribes called Dom, Pan, 
and Hari, furnish the village musicians. They are termed in 
Sanscrit Antavasi, or those who live in the most abject state. 

The remaining caste are the wild tribes of the hills, called Kole, 
Khand, and Sour, by the Oorias, and in Sanscrit '^Pttlindr/' (a 
word signifying mlechcha and barbarian) who scarcely belong to 
the great Hindoo family. 

The Odra or Utcala Brahmins, are one of the ten original races 
of Saca Dwipa Brahman, taking their names from the countries 
which they inhabit, viz., Gaura, Saraswati, Canyacubja, Cajinouj, 
Mait'hila, Ulcala, Tailanga, Carnata, Maharashtra, and Dravira. 
Their duties are said to be Vaja7ia, Adliyayan, and Dan, or sacri- 
ficing, reading the Vedas, and giving alms ; and their regular means 
of subsistence Yajan, Adhyapan, and Pratigraha, or officiating at 
sacrifices, teaching the Vedas, and receiving charity. If they can- 
not gain an adequate liveliliood by the regular modes, they may 
eat at a feast in the house of a Sudra, or receive charity from one 
of that class ; also, they may cut firewood from the hills and 
jungles, and sell it. Should these resources fail, they may, after 








HINDOO DEVOTEES. 



47 



fasting for three days, steal a little rice from the house of a Brahmin 
or any other, in order that the king hearing of their distress by this 
means, may assign something for their maintenance ! Should all 
these expedients prove insufficient, they may engage in the duties 
of the Cshatviya and Vaisya, but as soon as they have collected a 
little property, they must repent and return to their original occu- 
pations. The Brahmins who confine themselves to the six duties 
and employments above noticed, are of course the most honoured and 
esteemed. Inferior Brahmins are those called Devalaca, and Grama 
Yajaka, who attend the village gods, and perform funeral obsequies 
for hire. There is another class known commonly in Orissa by 
the name of jSIahast'han or Mastan Brahmins, who form a very 
considerable and important class of the rural population. Besides 
cultivating with their own hands, gardens of the kachu (Arum In- 
dicum,) cocoanut, and Areca, and the piper beetle or pan, they 
very frequently follow the plough, from which circumstance they 
are called Halia Brahmins, and they are found every Avhere in great 
numbers in the situation of ^loqeddei^s and Serberakars, or here- 
ditary renters of villages. Those who handle the plough glory in 
their occupation, and affect to despise the Bed or Veda Brahmins, 
who live upon alms. Though held in no estimation whatever by 
the pious Hindu, and although not free from some of the vices of 
the Brahmin character, audacity, stubbornness, and mendacity, 
they are unquestionably the most enterprizing, intelligent, and in- 
dustrious of all the ryots or renters of land, in Orissa. Their 
moral and intellectual worth indeed, seems to rise exactly in pro- 
portion to their emancipation from those shackles of prejudice and 
superstitious observances, which narrow the minds, and debase the 
nature of the higher and orthodox class. T have not been able to 
trace satisfactorily the origin and history of these Mastan Brahmins, 
who I am informed resemble exactly the cultivating Brahmins of 
Tirhoot and Behar, but the point is one well worthy of investiga- 
tion. 

The Oorias as a nation are justly described by Abul Fazl to be 
very effeminate ; that is, they are extremely deficient in manly 
spirit, their figures are slight and delicate, and the costume of the 
males has little to distinguish it from that of the females, except 
the different manner of wearing the cloth fastened about the loins. 
They are moreover equally ignorant and stupid. Orissa might be 
termed the Bceotia of India, with reference to the intellectual dul- 
ess of its inhabitants, as compared with the people of any other 
rovince. A striking proof of the estimation in which their capacity 

G 



48 



has ever been held, is the fact, that in all ages and under all 
governments since the fall of the Orissan monarchy, the principal 
ofiicial employments throughout the province have been engrossed 
by foreigners — by Bengalees, north, and Telingas, south of the 
Chilka lake 5 owing I really believe in a great measure to the diffi- 
culty of selecting from its indigenous population, persons properly 
qualified for trusts of difficulty and importance. The mass of the 
people are little prone to the commission of crimes of a daring and 
heinous character, as might be inferred from the feminine spirit 
above ascribed to them ; but they are viell versed in all the arts of 
low cunning, dissimulation, and subterfuge; and the love of in- 
trigue forms a prominent feature in their character, however clumsy 
many of their attempts to mislead or circumvent. Their manners 
are sufficiently dissolute, a failing not to be wondered at considering 
the obscene character, and impure symbols, of the demoralizing re- 
ligion which they profess.* In justice however to the bulk of the 
agricultural population, it must be said that the ryots of Cuttack 
are extremely industrious, #aough they work with little spirit or 
intelligence ; and altogether the Oorias of the plains, whatever their 
faults, are certainly the most mild, quiet, inoffensive, and easy 
managed people in the Company's provinces. They furnish a valu- 
able class of servants known as the Balasore bearers, in whom the 
virtues of fidelity and honesty (according to their own conception 
of those qualities) are conspicuous. 

The inhabitants of the Hills, and of the Jungles on the sea shore, 
differ chiefly from the rest of population, in that they are more shy, 
sullen, inhospitable, and uncivilized than the latter. Their chiefs, 
the Khandaits or ancient Zemindars of Orissa, who claim to repre- 
sent the regal and military class, are grossly stupid, barbarous, de- 
bauched, tyrannical, and slaves of the most grovelling superstition. 
Whatever the cause of the degradation ascribed to them in a very 
curious passagp of the Institutes of Menu, if subjection to Brahmins 
could redeem their lost dignity, they have long since entitled them- 
selves to the recovery of their station amidst the four great classes 
of the Hindu nation. The passage above alluded to is this, — "The 
following races of Cshatriyas by their omission of holy rites, and by 

• "This witness is true." The figure of Seeb, or Maha Deb, the great 
pod, the iiii])ure figures on Juggornaiit's temple, the character of the dan- 
cing girls attached to it, the representations formerly on the car of Jugger- 
naut and still on other cars, the obscenities of the Doorga pooja, and the 
iiisuifeialjly vile images in stone seen at some of the temples and bathing 
jilaces, are demonstrations of the cause and depth of that moral degrada- 
tion wiuth has suH'eied such al)oi\iinati(»ns to t-xist from age to age. Juth. 



49 



seeing no Brahmins, have gradually sunk amongst men to the lowest 
of the four classes, viz. Paundracas, Odras and Draviras, Cambojas, 
F(ff<;«ra«s and Sakas; Paradas, Pahlavas, Chinas, Ciratas, Deradas, 
and Chasas." The Paiks or landed militia of the Rajwara, combine 
with the most profound barbarism, and the blindest devotion to the 
will of their chiefs, a ferocity and unquietness of disposition, which 
have ever rendered them an important and formidable class of the 
population of the province. They.comprehend all casts and classes, 
chiefly perhaps the Chasa or cultivating tribe ; occasionally indivi- 
duals of the lowest casts are found amongst them, as Kandras, 
Pans and Bawaris {Sanscritice Berber or Barbarians :) and the 
fashion has often prevailed of adopting into their order some of the 
more savage inhabitants of the remote hills, called Kands, as also 
even Mussulmans and Telingas. It is well known that they are 
paid by service lands, which they cultivate with their own hands in 
time of peace, subject to the performance of military and rude police 
duties whenever called upon by their chiefs. Abulfazl states the 
number of Paiks or zemindari militia (in the original, Sipah-i- 
zemindari) liable to be required for the service of the state according 
to the conditions of the tenure of the zemindars, at about 1,55,000 
for the present districts of Cuttack and Midnapore, M'hich probably 
formed but a small part of the entire force maintained by those 
chiefs. The Paiks of this part of the country are divided into three 
ranks, distinguished by names taken from their occupations, or the 
weapons which they use chiefly, viz : — 

The Paliris, who carry a large shield made of wood covered with 
hides and strengthened by nobs and circles of iron, and the long 
straight national sword of Orissa, called the khauda. They are 
stationed chiefly as guards. 

The Banna, who use the matchlock principally now (in lieu of 
their old missile weapons,) but have besides a small shield and 
sword. It was their duty to take tlie field principally, and go on 
distant expeditions. 

The Dhenhiyas who are armed with bows and arrows, and a 
sword, and perform all sorts of duties. 

The war dress of the Paiks consists, or did consist, of a cap and 
vest made oi the skin of the tiger or leopard; a sort of chain armour 
for the body and thighs ; and a girdle formed of the tail of some 
wild animal. Besides the terror inspired by these unusual habilir- 
ments, they farther heightened the ferocity of their appearance by 
staining their limbs with yellow clay, and their countenances with 
Vermillion, thus exhibiting as savage and fantastic an air, as one 



50 



can well conceive to invest the national army of any coimtry or 
people. However wild and motley their appearance, they certainly 
did not fight badly, when encouraged at least by the proximity of 
their jungles, since we find them constantly sustaining the most 
bloody battles with the Moguls, and it may be doubted whether 
they were not superior to any infantry which the Berar Mai'hattas 
ever brought into the field during their government of the province. 

Exclusive of the regular Ooria population of the Brahminical 
persuasion, there are three remarkable races inhabiting the hilly 
region, the Coles, Khands, and Sours. They are quite distinct, 
the two former at least, in language and features, manners and reli- 
gion, from the Hindus of the plains ; and the supposition seems 
plausible that their ancestors may have been the aboriginal inhabi- 
tants of the country, prior to the arrival of the Brahmin colonists 
from the north who now possess India. No such tradition or belief 
however exists. These three tribes should perhaps be considered 
merely as branches of the same original stock, but as the offsets, 
found under different names and circumstances in different parts of 
the province, it will be convenient to mention them separately. 

T\\Q Coles are divided into thirteen different tribes, viz., Kol, 
Lurka-kol, Chowang, Sarvanti, Dhurowa, Bahuri, Bhunian or 
Bhumiah, Khandwal, Santal, Sour, Bhumij, Batholi, and Amavat. 
Their original country is said to be Kolant Des, which the natives 
describe as a hilly tract lying between Moherbanj, Sinhbhum, Jynt, 
Bonye, Keonjher, and Dalbhum. They have however for many 
years gained possession of parts of Chota Nagpore, Jaspur, Tymar, 
Patcura, and particularly of Sinhbhum ; their encroachments upon 
Molierbanj have been felt as serious. Some tribes are found settled 
in the back parts of Nilgiri, and from their restless disposition and 
constant endeavours to extend their possessions, they have proved 
troublesome neighbours even to the powerful Keonjher Raja. The 
Coles are a hardy and athletic race, black and ill-favored in their 
countenance, ignorant and savage to the last degree; but their 
houses, built entirely of wood, are said to exhibit a considerable 
degree of neatness and comfort, and they carry on a very extensive 
cultivation. Their arms are the bow and arrow, and a small iron 
battle-axe called Tain/i, in the use of which they display much 
spn-it and dexterity. This people own none of the Hindu divinities, 
and indeed seem scarcely to have any system of reliyious belief; 
but four things are held by them in high veneration, the Sahajna 
tree ( Hyperanthera Murunyn,) paddy, oil expressed from the mus- 
tard seed, and the dug ! In all their contracts and ncgociations, 



51 



the leaf of the former is always introduced, and they rub each other 
with oil whicli is considered to give solemnity to the proceeding. 
They have also a curious method of striking a bargain or con- 
cluding a pacification, which will not fail to remind the classical 
reader of the origin of the word stipulation. I allude to the circum- 
stance of their breaking a straw ( stipula) between the disputants, 
a practice which always follows or precedes the final adjustment of 
any compact. The Coles are passionately fond of fermented li- 
quors, and eat all kinds of flesh and grain, as Avell as various roots 
which grow spontaneously in their jungles, called the Buenjkarba, 
Charmika, Tanka, Pachali, Pani Alu, Massia and Manhachu. The 
flesh of the hog is particularly prized by them, so much so, that al- 
most every house of the Coles is said to have the appendage of a 
piggery. They are governed chiefly by numerous petty sirdars, or 
heads of villages, called Manki and Munda, but acknowledge alle- 
giance, and in some cases pay tribute, to the hill zemindars in 
whose countries they are settled. 

The Kands are found in great numbers in all the hill estates 
south of the Mahanuddy. They form the principal part of the po- 
pulation of Killah Ilanpur which has thence been called the Kan- 
dreh Dandpat. The natives also have the idea of a district situated 
between Daspalla, Boad, and Goomsur, inhabited entirely by this 
tribe of hill people which they call Kandra. I apprehend that the 
vast unexplored tracts of mountain and forest lying at the back of 
the Ganjam and Vizagapatani hill estates, as far as the Godaveri, 
are peopled chiefly by Kands in a very savage state, who probably 
differ little from their neighbours the Oonds, though Captain ]>lunt 
observes on the authority of the Jaghirdar of Malud and Manick- 
patam, (vide Journal of his route from Chunar to Yertnac/oodini/,) 
that the Coands and Goands are to be considered quite distinct 
races.* 

The Sours are found chiefly in the jungles of Khurda, from 
Banpur to Cuttack, and in the woods of Atgcrh, Daljora, Sec, 

* The passap;e is as follows : " Having afterwards heard of a])eo])lo who 
in the northern Sircars are called Coaiids (Kands) and whose depredations 
into those provinces are attciuled with hiinilar acts of cruelty, 1 naturally 
conceived them to he the same trihc, but in conwrsation with Kunial 
Mahommed, the officer in charge of the Marluitta Pergimuah of Manick- 
patani, and who appeared to be well acquainted with the ditt'ereut trihes of 
mountaineers subject to the Berar government, he informed uio that these 
are a ditFerent race from the Goands. The latter he said are much larger 
men, and had in many instances been made good subjects, but the Coands 
are inferior in stature and so wild, that every uttcmpt which had been 
made to civilize them had proved ineffectual." 



52 



which skirt the foot of the hills for some way to the northward of 
the Mahanuddy. They are in general a harmless, peaceable race, 
but so entirely destitute of all moral sense, that, they will as readily 
and unscrupulously deprive a human being of life, as any wild beast 
of the woods, at the orders of a chief, or for the 7nost trifling remu- 
neration! Thus during the insurrection which prevailed in Khurda, 
they were the agents employed to carry into execution most of the 
schemes of revenge planned by its instigators, whenever helpless 
individuals were to be the sacrifice; and the quantity of blood shed 
by the hands of these ignorant savages without motive or remorse, 
during the above period of anarchy and disorder, is almost incredi- 
ble. In ordinary times they are considered very useful both by the 
zemindars and villagers, in clearing the jungles and providing fuel 
which are their chief means of gaining a subsistence. They like- 
wise collect the produce of the woods, and dispose of large quan- 
tities to the druggists and fruit sellers, in the neighbouring bazars. 
They are distinguishable from the other natives of the province, by 
their inferiority of stature, mean appearance, and jet black colour, 
as well as by an axe for cutting wood, the symbol of their profes- 
sion, which they always carry in their hand. Their language little 
resembles that spoken by the Oorias, and is scarcely intelligible to 
any but themselves. They are said to worship certain rude forms 
of Devi and Mahadeo or rather the Hindus so interpret the adora- 
tion paid by them to a few natural objects, as stumps of trees, 
masses of stone, or clefts in rocks, in which an impure imagina- 
tion may discern some resemblance to the Lingu. Some dwell in 
small villages called Sour Sais ; others lead a migratory sort of life, 
clearing annually spots in the jungle, where they erect huts of 
sticks, leaves, and grass, and sow different sorts of grain of the 
Millet kind, which sprout up with extraordinary luxuriance in such 
situations, 'i'hey will eat almost any kind of food, whether animal 
or vegetable. A great part of their subsistence is derived from the 
roots and produce of the jungles. The flowers of the Madhuka 
( Bassia latifolia,) and the Keora, yield them an intoxicating liquor; 
in lieu of rice they consume the seed of the bamboo, a very heating 
and indigestible food; the wild yams, arums, and other roots, fur- 
nish a nutritious and not unwholesome substitute for bread; and 
ibr a desert they have the wild mangoc, the fruit of the Bela every 
M'here abundant, and the seeds of the Bauhinia raccmosa, served up 
on the large ribl)cd leaf of the Ravya, which answers the purposes 
of a dish. " The Puttah Soar (says Rennell) cover their nakedness 
with Saul leaves, and inhabit the mountains. They do not cultivate 



5a 



grain, but subsist on wild herbs, roots, berries, and such like, and 
hold no communication with the villagers." 

The author of the work called Kholaset ul Towarikh, places in 
the neighbourhood of Orissa, the country called the Triya or Stri 
Raj, where females exercise the powers of government, and have 
the superiority in society, and in the management of all affairs. 
The fable of the existence of such a country in this part of India, 
seems to be a purely gratuitous invention of the Mahommedan 
writers, and is unsupported either by the histories or the current 
belief of the natives. 

The language of the Or or Odra nation is a tolerably pure dialect 
of the Sanscrit, resembling closely the Bengali, but far remote ap- 
parently from any affinity with the Telinga. Most of the titles of 
which the natives are so fond are pure Sanscrit; more than ih'ree- 
fourths of the nouns and roots of verbs may be traced to that lan- 
guage, and its few simple inflections are obviously founded on the 
rules of the Vyakaran or Grammar. The basis of the alphabet is 
'the common Hindi or Nagari character, somewhat disguised how- 
ever by a peculiarity in the mode of writing it. In the direction 
of Bengal, the Ooria language is used tolerably pure, following the 
line of the coast as far as the Hijellee and Tumlook divisions at 
least : I have been credibly informed that in the Mysadal Pcrgun- 
nah, all revenue accounts are written on tal patr or leaves of the 
palmyra tree in that dialect. On the western side of the Midnapore . 
- district, the two languages begin to intermingle, at Rani Sarai 
about twenty miles north of the Subunreekha. A very mixed and 
impure bhasha is used by the Zemindari of Naraingerh and the hill 
estates beyond it, which improves a little at Midnapore, and at 
that town becomes more decidedly Bengali. The inhabitants of 
the country on the north of Keerpoy (officially termed the Jungle 
Mehals) probably speak the language of the Bengal province quite 
correct and unmixed. To the westward the Gond and Ooria lan- 
guages pass into each other on the estate of Sonepur, the Raja of 
which country informed me, that half his people speak one and half 
the other dialect. On the south we find the first traces of the 
Telinga about Ganjam, where -a different pronunciation may be 
observed. The people there call themselves Oodiahs and Wodiuhs, 
instead of Oorias ; Gerh becomes Gadda, Juggernaut, Ja.gannada, 
&c. The language of Orissa Proper still however prevails at 
Barwa, forty-five miles south of Ganjam, on the low lands of the 
coast, and as far as the large estate of Kimedy in the hills, beyond 
which the Telinga begins to predominate ; at Cicacole it is the 



54 



prevailing dialect, and in Vizagapatam, Telinga only is spoken in 
the open country. In the mountains of the interior, however, the 
dialect of the Odras is used by the bulk of the inhabitants, from 
(ioomsur down to Palcondah, Bastar, and Jayapoor. The Oorea 
lan'ma^e thus prevailing iVom Tumlook to a considerable distance 
beyond Ganjam, or over an extent of country from three to four 
hundred miles in length, a wide field is furnished for the labours of 
missionaries wlio acquire that language. 

I know of no original composition deserving any notice in the 
language of Orissa, excepting the Epic Poem called the Kanji 
Kaviri Pothi, which celebrates the conquest of Conjeveram, one of 
the most distinguished events in the modern history of the country. 
There is no deficiency however of translations of the more esteemed 
writings of the great Hindu authors, both religious and scientific, 
and every temple of importance has its legend or Sthan Puran, 
every almanac maker his Panji, and Bansabali, composed in the 
local tongue. 

In estimating the amoitnt of the Population of the Cuttack Pro- 
vince, we have no means of forming even a tolerable conjecture of 
the number of inhabitants in the hill countries. Information on 
that subject could be procured only from the hill Rajas or zemin- 
dars; and such are their jealousy, contumacy, and untractableness, 
that we might be sure, even if they condescended to furnish any 
returns at all, that they would be entirely false. The estimate 
given for the Mogulbandi, and that portion of the Rajwara which 
lies between it and the sea, though mostly conjectural, is founded 
upon data of a nature which warrant some confidence in its accuracy. 
The total of villages has been tolerably well ascertained. 

The eighteen Police Thanas* of the Mogulbandi including the 
Rajwara estates of Aul, Kanka, Kujang, Herispur, Marichpur, 
and Bishenpur, with the whole of the smaller Killajat, contain 
11,915 villages (Mouzahs and Patnas,) and 243,273 houses, ex- 
clusive of the towns of Cuttack, Balasore, and Pooree. This 
enumeration yields an average of about twenty houses to a village, 
which although low compared with the Bengal average, is corro- 
borated by actual observation of the very small size of such villages 
of Orissa as ordinarily meet the eye. In the three northern Thanas 
which comprise the poorest and most unproductive portion of the 
Mogulbandi, tlie average is scarcely nineteen ; in the twelve central 

* They arc thus named : — Basta, Balasore, Soro, Clmraman, Badrak, 
Mattii or Talnial, Janjii)ur, Pataniandri, Asserassar, Arackpur, Cuttack, 
Puliarajpur, Taran, Harihurpur, Gopc, Piply, Pooree, Khurda, Banpur. 



55 



ones it is nearly twenty ; and in the three southern ones which 
contain the pergunnahs adjoining Pooree, filled with the large 
villages of the Sasan Brahmins, it is thirty. 

In the first mentioned division, the ascertained number of in- 
habitants, men, women, and children, in 1678 houses, is 9576 ; 
yielding an average of rather more than five and two-third inmates 
for each house. In the southern division, 19,930 hoxzses have been 
ascertained to hold 130,871 inmates; viz., men 33,518, women 
33,903, infants 36,450, that is five and a fraction of about one- 
fifth per house. Adverting to these data which have been prepared 
with much care and accuracy, more especially in the southern 
division, an average rate of five persons per house, for the whole 
district, would not appear too high. On this calculation, the en- 
tire population of the district will stand as follows : — - 

Village inhabitants 12,16,365 

Population of the tovrn of Cuttack . . . . 40,000 
Pooree 30,000 

Balasore .. .. 10,000 



Total, 12,96,365 

\ 
This calculation does not, as has been observed, include the in- 
habitants of the hill country, by some supposed perhaps as many 
more : nor does it include various districts in which the Ooi-ea 
language is spoken, but Avhich are not now reckoned parts of tlie 
province, as Ganjam, Tumlook, &c. 

The area of the tract now under consideration, has been estimated 
with tolerable accuracy at about 9,000 square miles, by counting 
the squares into which Captain Sackville's map is divided. The 
result of the above calculation therefore gives to the open and culti^ 
vated part of Orissa, a population of 135 sovls per square mile. 
That the estimate for Cuttack should fall much below that suggested 
for Bengal, viz. 203 per square mile, will not surprise those who 
have attended to the picture drawn in the preceding part of this 
history, of the general poverty of the people, and the paucity of 
large towns and villages. 

The statements for the pergunnahs Raheng, Saraen, Choubiskud, 
Uldhar, and Rorang, which are by far the most to be relied on, 
yield the following proportions of the principal classes, viz : 

H 



56 



Total number of Householders 19,930 

Cliasas or Husbandmen 7,432 

Brahmins . . 3,5(55 

Mahtis (Carana or Writer cast) Gil 

Gowalas (Cowherds) 537 

Baniyas, both Druggists and Shroffs 232 

Artisans, Manufacturers, Shopkeepers, &c , 4,887 

Low casts, as Fishermen, Kandras, Pans, Bawaris, Chandal,") ^ .^^ 

See, or common labourers, coolies, village watchmen, Scc.y ~' 
Balance composed of Mussulman, foreigners, mendicants, 7 ^.„ 

and casual residents 3 

It will not be altogether uninteresting to compare this estimate 
of the popvilation of Cuttack, with the sales of salt for the supply 
of the district. Salt is sold on the part of government at several 
golahs or store-houses in the interior, in quantities of not less than 
one maund, at the fixed monojooly price of Sicca Rupees two per 
maund, increased by charges of transportation, storing, commission, 
&c., which raise the price according to circumstances to from 2 Rs. 
3 As.^to 2 Rs. 6 As. per maund, at the storehouses. The average 
retail rate varies from about 2 Rs. 8 As. to 3 Rupees per maund. 
This system of supply has been established since the beginning of 
1818. During the last four years, the average of the public sales 
for consumption within the Mogulbandi, has been 2,00,000 maunds. 
Mr. Colebrooke considers the quantity of one-fourth of a chittack 
per diem to be an ample allowance for an inhabitant of Bengal. 
In Cuttack, an allowance of half a chittack is insisted upon by the 
people themselves as the usual average, when salt was cheap ; and 
the larger individual consumption of the article in this district, is 
explained by a reference to the peculiar diet of the people, the vil- 
lainous insipidity of which must necessarily require to be relieved 
by an additional mixture of salt. Abulfazl has observed of the 
Oorias, "After boiling their rice they steep it in cold water, and 
eat it the second day." This stale and unpalatable species of 
food is still universally used under the name of Panbhatta. As the 
enhanced price of salt under the British government, certainly 
amounts to from 400 to 500 per cent, may have somewhat reduced 
the former consvmiption by the poorer classes, that is the mass of 
the community, we shall perhaps arrive near the truth by taking a 
medium between the Cuttack and Bengal allowances. Some de- 
duction too must be made on account of children \inder ten years, 



57 



■whose numbers, adopting the average suggested by the Raheng 
returns, may be estimated at about one-third of the whole popula- 
tion. The calculation of the quantity necessary for the Cuttack 
people will then stand as follows in round numbers : 

Eight and a half lacs of adults, at between one-fourth and 

one-half chittacks per diem, consume annually . ,Mds. 1,75,000 

Four and a half lacs of infants, at rather less than one 

fourth ditto Mds. 5G,000 



Total consumption .. 2,31,200 

The balance required of about 80,000 maunds, may be supposed 
to be obtained by smuggling, independent of the government sales. 

The accounts remaining to us of the most important operation in 
modern Indian finance. Raja Toral Mall's settlement, called the 
Taksim Jamma and Tankhah Raqmi, are as imperfect and deficient 
in Orissa as in every other part of India with which I am acquainted. 
There can be no doubt but that ajarib or measurement of the lands 
of the three sircars Jelasore, Budruck, and Cuttack, was made, 
under the orders and superintendence of that distinguished minister, 
with what is termed the Bareh Dasti Padika or rod of twelve spans, 
and all the Ruqbeh accounts in the offices of the Sudder Canungos 
and their Gomashtehs, are stated to be founded on that measure- 
ment. The subsequent corrections and alterations that have taken 
place, are said to have been made by Nezir Andazi or guess work. 
What is curious, the standard of the' bigah, which was originally 
uniform, is now found to be different in every part of the district, 
to such an extent indeed, that in some pergunnahs the bigah is four 
times the size of that nominal measure in other divisions, and all 
the intermediate variations frequently occur. By what rule the 
other great step in the settlement was adjusted, viz., the determi- 
nation of the rates of rent to be paid by the husbandmen for a bigah 
of each description, I can find no evidence or information whatever. 
Abulfazl in describing the Emperor's settlement for Hindostan 
generally, says, that an average of ten years' collection was struck. 
But whether in this province which had then only recently been 
conquered from its Hindu sovereigns, and rescued from the de- 
structive anarchy of the Bengal Afghans, the ancient rates were 
maintained, or heavier ones imposed, I cannot venture to offer any 
assertion. My general impression is that the fixed and regular 
assessment of the Moguls was heavier than that of the Hindu Rajas, 
but the indigenous princes of Orissa seem to have had so many 



58 



methods of extorting a large revenue from their subjects, by extra 
deniaiuls, occasional requisitions, and irregular claims under various 
heads and pretexts, that the burthens of the ryot may be presumed 
to have been pretty much the same under either administration. 

I shall now proceed to furnish abstract statements of the land 
assessment of CuttacTc according to its present dimensions, translated 
from revenue accounts in the private possession of the family of the 
former Dewan of the Marhatta government, the authenticity of 
which I see no reason to doubt ; and it is on these only I should 
be disposed to rely, in forming any comparison between the former 
and i^resent productiveness of the revenues of Cuttack. 

Taksim Jamma of the Moguls. 

Tliirteen Sircars contain INIehals 297 

Deduct Tehsil Bengaleh, or collected under Bengal. . . . Mahals 27 

Remain, Mahals 270 

Kahans. Pans. 
Tankhah Raqmi or Jamma of the above .. .. Couris 59,01,499 8 

Under the Marhattas. 

Tashkhis Bhoonsla, or fixed Jamma imder the 
government of the Nagpore Raja Rupees 2,42,236 lO 

Couris, Kahans 47,36,803 

viz. Couris. 

Rupees. Kahans. 

Mahalat and Thanehjat (Khalesah Land).. .. 2,24,079 7 36,42,978 

Tribute of the Zemindarah or Killajat Estates.. 18,157 3 10,93,825 



Rupees, 2,42,236 10 47,30,803 

Dakhil Sircar or remitted to the Raja's Treasury at Nagpore, 

calculated in Rupees of sorts 6,00,000 

Kharch Sipahan o ghyrah, expenses of Troops and manage- 
ment 9,00,000 

Total Rupees, 15,00,000 

Equal to Sa. Rupees, 13,50,000 

The sum of Sicca Rupees 13,50,000, may be assumed as the 
standard revenue of Cuttack under the Nagpore government, and 
was certainly the highest amount ever realized by the Marhattas 
from the district, though their assessments were sometimes rated 
higher. The collections indeed I suspect very frequently fell short 
of the above standard, more especially during the last ten years of 



59 



the Marhatta administration. The proportions he tween tlie net ex- 
penditure, and the remittances to Nagpore, I take to have heen 
in a great measure nominal. 

The following are the results of settlements formed by different 
Subahdars, taken from authentic accounts which are still extant. 
Some indefiniteness must attach to the statements, from the uncer- 
tainty of the rate of exchange between couris and silver, which 
fluctuated td from three to four kahans per dch masha rupee, during 
the whole of the Marhatta administration. 

The settlement of Sheo Bhat Sautra for 1167 A. is entered as 
follows. 

Gold Mohurs 231 

♦ Rupees, of sorts 3,82,829 8 

Couris Kahans, 27,82,440 

Another settlement by Sambha Ji Ganesh in 1178 A. is entered. 

Ashrafis .. ., ., .. .. 110 

Rupees, of sorts .. .. .. .. 5,01,394 15 

Couris Kahans, 42,37,660 

Another by Raja Ram Pandit, 

Rupees, of sorts 1,10 318 14 

Couris Kahans, 53,37,685 

Another by Inkaji Suk'h Deo. 

Rupees, of sorts .. .. .. .. 1,51,435 9 

Couris .. .. .. ..Kahans, 57,78,224 

On the subjugation of the province by the British government, 
in 1803, a rate of conversion of four kahans of couris per Sicca 
Rupee was assumed, and the revenues have been invariably de- 
manded and paid entirely in silver, at least since 1807. Tlie as- 
sessment of the British government has been raised by two succes- 
sive and gradual augmentations, to the amount of 14,45,950 rupees. 

Mogulbandi (exclusive of pergunnah Pataspur, ccc, as- 
sessed under the Marhattas, at Rs. 30,000) . . . . 12,G4,370 

Killah Kurdah, held khas for political reasons, which 
paid latterly to the Alarhattas a Peshcash of Sicca 
Rupees 10,000 61,109 

Fixed tribute of thirty-one Kliandaitis or Zemindaris of 

the Military Chiefs of Orissa, styled Rajas . . . . 1,20,411 



Total, Sa. Rs. 14,45,950 



60 

"The IMogulbandi (says Hamilton,) or that portion of Cuttack 
paying revenue to government, and the rents of which are not yet 
fixed, is distributed into 83 pergunnahs or revenue divisions, of 
difterent and capricious magnitudes. The total amount of the 
Cuttack revenue termed Mogulbandi, is 1,363,668 rupees. The 
estimated measurement of the assessed lands in cultivation and 
arable, is only 1,200,220 bigahs ; the number of estates 2349 ; 
and of inhabitants 737,922, of which number only 21,932 are 
IMahommedans. The tributary estates, their annual payments to 
the revenue, and extreme dimensions, are given below, and those 
not subject to the British laws and regulations are marked with an 
asterisk (*). 

List of the twenty-nine Ghiirjaut or Tributary Estates. 

Dimensions. Tribute, per ann. 

Mohurbunge .. .. 150 miles by 100 .. .. 1,001 rupees. 

Kunka 75 by 50 .. .. 19,132 

*Autghur 15 by 12 .... 6,84.8 

Marickpoor.. .... 9 by 6 .... 3,120 

Aul 20 by 10 .... 26,680 

*Deknal 112 by 87 .. .. 4,780 

*Bankee 30 by 25 .... 4,162 

*Khandeapurah .. .. 25 by 12 .. .. 3,948 

*Jenmoo 17 by 9 .. .. 620 

*Neyaghur 75 by 25 .. .. 5,179 

*Nursingpoor 

*Neelgur 3,656 

*Ongologur ,. .. 125 by 10 .. .. 1,550 

*Hindole 17 by 12 .... 516 

Koorjung 50 by 25 .... 7,034 

Harrespoor 80 by 5 . . . . 34,083 

Sookundah 8 by 5 .... 1,272 

*Koonjeur 182 by 125 .. .. 2,790 

Muddoopoor .. .. 15 by 13 .. .. 5,813 

Chedra 3 by 2| .. .. 2,134 

Demparah 7 by 5 . . . . 776 

Durpun 15 by 13 .... 5,853 

Buttoo Dumparah 

*llunpoor 15 by 10 .. .. 1,313 

*Talchere 15 by 15 .... 974 

*Tegrah 13 by 12 .. .. 826 

Burmba 12 by 8 .. .. 1,310 

Bissenpoor 5 by 3 .. .. 1,740 

Kulkulla I5 V 1 .... 123 

The annual demand on the above 29 zemindaries is fixed at the 
aboNc sums. The sum total annually accruing to the British 



61 



government, from this source, amounts to 118,087 rupees; the 
supposed surplus of clear profit remaining to the landholders is 
estimated at 525,250 rupees, which is a mere trifle considering the 
immense tract of country from which it is derived. All these tri- 
butary zemindars assume the title of Raja in their respective terri- 
tories, and admit each others claim to that dignity. They also ex- 
hibit the insignia, go abroad with the retinue, and observe the forms 
and state of independent princes, according as their income suffices 
for covering the consequent expenditure. 

Some of the principal zemindars, to the number of sixteen, are 
at present exempted from the operation of the British regulations ; 
the remaining thirteen are within the jurisdiction of the laws. The 
exemption of the first sixteen, from the operation of the Bengal 
code, was not founded on any claim which the proprietors of these 
tributary estates had to the exercise of independent authority ; on 
the contrary, it originated entirely from the opinion that was enter- 
tained of the barbarous and uncultivated manners of these zemindars 
and their subjects, combined with the impervious nature of the 
country, consisting mostly of hills and jungles, which local circum- 
stances would have rendered it extremely difficult to execute any 
process of the courts of judicature, or to enforce the orders of the 
public functionaries. Experience, however, has demonstrated, that 
the liberality of this arrangement has not exempted it from much 
inconvenience and embarrassment. On the contrary, the tribes 
thus left to their own guidance have habitually addicted themselves 
to the perpetration of crimes of the blackest dye, and the zemindars 
who ought to have been the conservators of the public peace, and 
distributors of justice, have been the very persons most suspected 
of these atrocities, more especially of assassinations committed for 
the purpose of usurping estates, and acts of extreme cruelty exer- 
cised on the persons of their tenants. 

The Bengal government, however, not being prepared to extend 
the regulations generally to those estates, which without an efficient 
police might tend rather to aggravate than alleviate the sufferings of 
the inhabitants, determined to appoint a special officer to control 
the conduct of the Rajas ; both to serve as a check on their pro- 
ceedings, and with the view of obtaining an accurate knowledge of 
the country, a necessary step towards the introduction of an im- 
proved system of administration. A superintendent of the tributary 
estates was accordingly appointed, and invested with a general con- 
trol over the conduct of the proprietors. 



62 



A great outlay is annually necessary in Cuttack, for the purpose 
of keeping the embankments in good order ; the expense incurred 
by government on this account, in 1814, having amounted to 
40,514 rupees. Some of the principal embankments, especially 
that at the town of Cuttack, are indispensable; but the utility of 
many of the inferior ones is by no means equivalent to the dis- 
bursements they involve. INIore than one fonrlh of the circulation 
of the district is carried on by cov>'ries ; copper one tenth, gold one 
fortieth, and silver three fifths. Formerlj^, the revenue was calcu- 
lated in cowries, and annual importations of these shells are still 
made from the Maldives in return for grain exported.* 

The excess of regular receipts under the head of land revenue 
alone, may be stated at from one to two lacs per annum in favour 
of the British government, which increase may be fairly ascribed 
to the improved and enlightened system of management now- 
pursued. The country has unquestionably prospered under our 
administration, though much suffering Avas long experienced in 
particular quarters from injudicious measures, the errors of which 
have been jierceivcd and remedied : cultivation has greatly increased 
in every part : and if the ryot or husbandman has not benefited by 
the change of government, in proportion to the superior importance 
of that class of the community to which he belongs, and to the 
benevolent intentions of the legislature, his condition must certainly 
be considered on the whole better than it was under the native 
system, whilst the higher classes connected with the soil (now ac- 
knowledged as proprietors) have undoubtedly attained to a state of 
comfort, independence, and comparative opulence, quite unknown 
at any former period of the history of the country. 

The revenue derived from the salt monopoly, exceeds the total 
amount of the land rents paid to the state, and is entirely the crea- 
tion of the British government. The salt sold within the province 
yields a net return of about 3,00,000, and the quantity annually 
exported to Calcutta for public sale at the salt office, produces 
little short of from rupees 15,00,000 to 16,00,000. Under the 
heads of customs, tax on spirituous liquors, and tax on pil(jriws,\ 
a further net revenue of about one lac per annum is obtained. The 
value of Cuttack, after deducting expenses of management, may be 
fairly assumed at upwards of thirty lacs of rupees per annum. If 
a revenue of 3,00,000 rupees annually is derived from the people, 

* Hamilton's Ilindostan, vol. ii. pp. 41-2-3. 
t Repealed by Regulation, April 20, 1840. 



63 



how imperative the duty that sometliing upon a large scale should he 
attempted for the intellectual and moral improvement of the people. 
In surveying attentively the ancient Political Institutions of 
Orissa as connected with the tenure of land, it is impossible not to 
be struck with the marked resemblance which many of their features 
exhibit to the system of European policy called the feudal, at cer- 
tain stages of its progress. I am strongly inclined to think that the 
comparison might be extended to India generally, and that a care- 
ful enquirer would not fail to discern in every part of the country, 
obvious traces of the former existence of such a system, however 
irregularly defined, and liable to variation in the details, from local 
peculiarities. The subject has not hitherto met with that attention 
which its importance, more especially when viewed in connection 
with the much disputed question of Zemindari rights, unquestion- 
ably merits. Some writers indeed have treated with utter contempt 
and derision, the notion of the existence of any analogy whatever 
between the ancient institutions of India, and the feudal system of 
Europe. Others, however, of equal or greater authority, have not 
been able to resist the striking evidence of such affinity which pre- 
sents itself in every province of India, where the Hindu form of 
government has been little impaued or modified. Thus, Sir J. 
Malcolm, page 375 of his valuable Report on Malwa, observes, 
" The principle of this part of a Raj or Rajput principality, differs 
little from that feudal system which formerly existed in Europe, 
and is liable to the same vicissitudes in the relations and powers of 
the respective parties." But every one knows that the Rajput, is 
only one branch or epithet of the great Regal and Military caste 
amongst the Hindus, called the Cshetriya ( Khetri,) and anciently 
all principalities and kingdoms might in one sense be designated 
Rajput. Captain IMacMurdo in an excellent Paper on the province 
of Cutch, in vol. ii. Bombay Transactions, states, "The government 
of Cutch is that of a pure aristocracy, in which the power is vested 
in a variety of Chiefs on their respective territories, which bear a 
strong resemblance to the feudal baronies. These Chiefs have a 
head who is entitled Rao, to whom they owe the duty of military 
service with their relations and followers." The Chiefs in question 
are afterwards described to be Rajputs. Colonel Wilford expressly 
applies the title of Barons, to the inferior Khetris, in his historical 
Essays on ancient India. In the essay on Anugangam we find the 
following curious and apposite passage, — " Like Parasurama he 
(Maha Bali) either destroyed or drove out of his dominions the 
remnant of the Cshetris or Military tribe, and placed Sudras in 

I 



64 

their room. These were the Barons of the land who often proved 
troublesome. Raja Balwant Singh, the predecessor of Cheyt Singh 
did the same in the district of Benares with the Zemindars, who 
represented the Cshetris, and even pretended to be really so ; from 
an idea, that it was impossible to improve the revenues arising from 
the land tax xmder their management." 

In the preceding part of this account of Orissa, I have noticed 
generally the great territorial divisions, both natural and political, 
which exist in this province. The extensive hilly regions and 
forest tracts, jungle Pergunnahs and jNIehals, as they are now 
termed, reaching nearly from Bishenpur to the Godaveri, together 
with the woodland country on the sea shore of Orissa Proper, have 
been in all ages parcelled out among and occupied by a number of 
Chieftains of the Military class. These Chiefs may be safely con- 
sidered as de facto proprietors of their possessions under the native 
governments, that is, they held them hereditarily, exercised uncon- 
trolled territorial jurisdiction within their limits, and appropriated 
the entire revenues subject to the condition of preforming Military 
service, or other offices and duties, at the court of their superior 
Raja, the Gajapati, residing mostly at Cuttack, Avhich services have 
in latter ages been generally commuted for a light tribute or money 
payment. The more fertile and productive division of the province 
formed the Kot, Khaliseh, or domain of the prince, from which the 
Hindu sovereigns of Orissa like their successors the Moguls, Mar- 
hattas, and English, derive their principal revenues. There can be 
no question, but that this other great territorial division was the 
landed estate or property of the sovereign. It may be observed 
that such a state of things as above indicated, conforms exactly with 
the declaration contained in a well known passage of the digest of 
Hindu law translated by Mr. Colebrooke: " By conquest the earth 
became the property of Parasurama : by gift the property of the sage 
Casyapa, and committed by him to Cshatriyas for the sake of pro- 
tection, became their protective property, successively held by 
powerful conquerors and not by subjects cultivating the soil." 
So strikingly and universally true indeed is the maxim of the pro- 
perty of the soil vesting in the Cshstriyas, that we find them 
always either asserting a title to ownership in the land, which they 
occupy hereditarily, or in the actual enjoyment of the proprietary 
right, even when reduced to the situation of ' cultivating subjects' — 
witness the various casts and classes of Rajput village Zemindars 
in every quarter of Hindustan, and the western provinces. 

The feudal Lords of Orissa, for such certainly may the Military 



65 



Chiefs refeiTed to, be termed, are known and described by several 
different titles both in history, in official records, and in the common 
language of the country, and these are quite indiscriminately ap- 
plied, whence has resulted a corresponding confusion of ideas. 
They are called simply Khetris (Cshetriyas,) from their caste; 
Khandaits, an Orissa name for a branch of the same class, signifying 
literally persons entitled to wear the Khanda or national sword of 
Orissa ; Bhunia, Bhuyan or Bhumi derived from Bhu,* the earth, 
and synonymous with Bhvpati (Lord of the soil:) Poligar, a Te- 
linga word, derived from Pollam, a fief: Sawant, in Persian, Sirdar, 
meaning Chief and Lord : Sevakan Ami Dar, or servants and vas- 
sals holding tracts of country hereditarily, on the condition of ser- 
vice ; and finally Zemindars. Many of them were descended from 
the supreme Rajas of the country. We have Orme's authority in a 
remarkable passage of the 8th book of his History, for the belief 
entertained by the Poligars south of the Chilka lake of their origin 
as above intimated. He says, " These conquests (made by a Raja 
of Orissa, some centuries before Mahommedanism,) were distributed 
in many portions to his relations, officers, and menial servants, from 
whom several of the present northern Poligars pretend to be lineally 
descended, and to govern at this very time the very districts which 
w^ere then given to their ancestors." It is not improbable that 
many of the Orissan Khandaits and Bhunias first received estates 
during the 12th century of the Christian era, in Raja Anang Bhim 
Deo's time, who is said to have created sixteen Sawants or great 
Lords, but the tenure of the majority no doubt reaches back to a 
very remote antiquity. To describe a little more particularly their 
duties and offices, it may be observed, that they were posted all 
round and along the frontiers of the Raj, with the view to defend it 
from the irruptions of neighbouring powers, or the incursions and 
devastations of the savage inhabitants of the wild regions in the 
interior, such as the Kands and Coles, who to this day give serious 
annoyance in many parts of the hill estates, and if the belief of 
their origin and ancient situation be well founded, were doubtless 
in former ages far more numerous than at present. 

In this point of view their situations and duties resembled much 
that of the Lords of the Marches in Europe. Nor is the above the 

* Mr. Elliot, in his observations on the inhabitants of the Garrow hills 
transmitted to the Asiatic Society, observes, "The head people ot the 
villages are called Boonkiks a name used by the liead Rajas ot Bengal 
when the king resided at Gour." In the Ayin Akberi, the word lioomi, 
derived from Boom, the soil, is continually used as synonymous witn 
Zemindar. 



66 

only striking feature of analogy between the feudal lords of India 
and the western hemisphere. The estates or jurisdictions of that 
class in Orissa were always called by the Hindus, Gerhs, and by 
the Mussulmans, killahs or Castles. A certain part of the lands 
under the head Officer were parcelled out amongst several military 
retainers and dependents called Naiks, Dalais, Dalbehras, and 
sometimes Khandaits, Avho held of their superior on much the same 
principle, as he did of the supreme Raja, though generally speaking 
by a more limited and imperfect tenure. Under these again, a 
portion of the lands of each subordinate Gerh, were assigned as 
service land to the feudal militia of the country, called Paiks, who 
following equally the occupations of soldier and cultivator, were 
obliged at any moment when cnlled on by their leader, to take up 
arms, and accompany him to the field. In time of war the Khan- 
daits or nobility of Orissa at the head of their respective contingents 
of this landed militia, ranged themselves under the standard of their 
sovereign, and formed the main part of his military array. Thus 
we frequently read of the Gajapati assembling his chiefs to attend 
on a warlike expedition, and we find that the Sunnuds, gTanted by 
the Mogul government (in cases where they exercised the right of 
investiture,) always contained a condition that the Khandait should 
be ready to attend with his contingent, when sunmioned by the 
Military Officer of his division. The Paiks arc the local Infantry 
constantly referred to in the Ayin Akberi. The author observes, 
speaking of the imperial army ; " The Zemindari troops alone are 
in number upwards of four million and four hundred thousand, as 
will hereafter be particularized"— a fact which shews the extensive 
prevalence of the military tenure throughout the country, even as 
late as the 16th century. The proportion of laiided militia set 
down for Orissa Proper in the same work, is about one hundred 
thousand. Besides the general obligation of military service, the 
Indian feudatories were bound to do homage, and to perform certain 
nominal duties or offices resulting from their tenures, when in actual 
attendance on their liege lords, called by the expressive word Sewa^ 
Scva, or service, (in Persian Khidmat,) a consideration of which, 
reminds one strongly of some of the ancient forms of the Germanic 
constitution. Thus it was the business of one to bear the sioord of 
state; another held the shield; a third carried the umbrella or royal 
standard; a fourth presented the Raja's slippers; a Mth. fanned 
him with the regal chouri, &c. The above services are to this day 
performed in the presence of the Kluudah Rajas, by several of the 
hill Zemiudars, as often as they visit Poorcc, though the distinctive 



67 



character of the office appropriated to each, has hecome a good deal 
merged in the simple duty of hokling the chouri and pankha, 
in the presence of the representative of their ancient Lords 
Paramount. 

The estate of the Chief Khetri, or Lord Paramount, comprised 
the fairest and most fertile portion of the monarchy of Orissa. In 
every part of India it would seem that, even under the Hindus, the 
domains reserved for the crown constituted, if not the largest, at 
least the most valuable and productive share of the whole territory, 
and it was the uniform policy of the strong government of the Ma- 
hommedans, constantly to enlarge this share by the gradual subju- 
gation and absorption of the possessions of the lesser chiefs and 
princes. As it is the above-mentioned estate or concern, Avith the 
management of which the Officers of the British government are 
chiefly occupied, and from which nearly all its revenues are derived, 
it is of course of particular importance to enquire respecting the 
system and the rights anciently prevailing and still existing, in the 
tract known by the modern ajypellation of the Mogulhandi or Khaliseh. 
Whilst it yields to the state a revenue of between twelve and thir- 
teen lacs, in its real character of proprietor, the Rajwara or division 
occupied by the feudal chiefs, pays a light tribute of only 1,20,000, 
the difference between that and the actual net produce, which is at 
the lowest calculation in the ratio of one to ten, being enjoyed by 
the several Zemindars, in virtue of their proprietary rights. 

In the Cuttack territory, obvious traces exist to this day of a 
subdivision of lands into tracts held by military retainers, and those 
of the common ryots. Tenants of the former description are called 
at present Paiks, and lesser Khandaits, and the estates on which 
they are found are entered in the revenue accounts as '^ Khurdiah 
Gerjat," but whatever may have been their number anciently, they 
are now too few and unimportant to claim a particular notice. The 
ryoti land, paying a full rent to the sovereign, demands our principal 
attention. According to the uniform system of India generally, it 
was partitioned into numerous ^rfl??is, townships, or village societies. 
The larger revenue allotments or circles of villages known to the 
Hindus of Orissa, were denominated Khand and Bisi ox Bishe ; 
words meaning literally a portion or district. Each of these petty 
districts was under the management and control of two descriptions 
of hereditary officers, vested with police and revenue functions, viz. 
the Khand Adipati and Bishuya or Bissoee, (words signifying chief 
of a division,) who was the principal man ; and the Bhoi Mul of 
the Karau or writer cast, who had the more particular charge of 



68 



keeping all tlie accounts and registers connected with the land. In 
parts of the Deccan, the same description of officers still exist, and 
are called the Des Mukh and Des Pandiah, terms of precisely cor- 
responding import. They seem to have acted jointly in the dis- 
charge of some of their functions, and separately and independently 
in regard to others. One perhaps had the more especial duty of 
administering the police., the other of collecting the revenue ; whilst 
they hoth w^atched generally over the fiscal interests of the state, 
and acted as umpires and moderators of Punchaits, in investigating 
and adjusting disputes betvi^een inhabitants of different villages, or 
betvi^een the people of a village and their head man. Every re- 
spectable village had its chief and accountant, called the Padhan 
and Bhoi — but frequently several of the smaller hamlets of Orissa 
were associated under one set of officers of this name; much oftener 
the same individual performed both functions in a village ; and 
sometimes none of the kind existed, in which case the charge of the 
village affairs attached more immediately to the division officer. 
Where the Padhan and Bhoi existed, they discharged respectively 
much the same duty in regard to their individual village or villages, 
as the superior officers exercised in regard to their circle of villages. 
The Padhan looked after the police with the aid of the village 
watchman, who made his reports to a Sirdar or Sirdars called the 
Or Khandait, stationed with the Bisoi ; the Bhoi kept the village 
accounts and furnished information to the Bhoi Mul or chief 
accountant. All these functionaries held their situations here- 
ditarily, and were in the habits of mortgaging or even selling the 
whole or shares of them, with the sanction of the ruling power, 
just as we see the priests and officers in the temple of Juggernaut 
at this day, disposing constantly of their several shewas or services, 
with the emoluments thereunto annexed. To infer from these cir- 
cumstances any right of property in the soil, would seem equally 
rash and absurd. It is a nicer question, whether under the old 
Hindu system the actual occupants of the soil were considered to 
possess any subordinate title of ownership in land. There are no 
obvious traces of such a right now remaining in Cuttack, as we 
read of in Canara and Malabar. I have never yet been able to 
discover any well authenticated instance of the sale or mortgage of 
land by a Malguzari ryot of the province. The thani or fixed cul- 
tivators, however imdoubtedly possessed under the old Rajas the 
privilege of hereditary occupancy ; their fixed assessment was light 
and easy ; and there was then no one to dispute the matter with 
them, excepting the despotic uncontroled sovereign of the country, 



69 



who, whatever his claims in theory, of course required nothing from 
the land but an adequate revenue. 

The changes consequent on the subjection of the province by the 
Mogul government come next to be considered. It is well known 
that after the defeat of the Afghan usurpers, who had gained tem- 
porary possession of Orissa, by the armies of Akber under the com- 
mand of his General Khan Jehan and others, the celebrated Dewan 
Tural Mall visited the province A. D. 1580, to superintend the 
introduction of his settlement of the crown lands, founded on a 
measurement and valuation called the Taksim Jamma and Tankha 
Raqmi. The arrangements for the annexation of the Suba of 
Orissa to the empire, did not, however, receive their final comple- 
tion until the arrival of Raja INIan Sinh, the Imperial Lieutenant, 
who assumed charge of the government in 999 Amli, or Mahom- 
medan era. 

Under his administration the heads of the existing branches of 
the Royal family were acknowledged as Rajas ; they were invested 
with the rank and titles conferred by the Mogul Court on officers of 
distinction ; and extensive portions of country were assigned to 
them as hereditary fiefs in Zemindari tenure. No regular tribute 
appeal's to have been required from them on account of their own 
lands, but the right of investiture was i-eserved to the ruling power, 
with the privilege of levying such contributions on the accession of 
a new Raja, as it might be thought expedient, according to the 
circumstances of the times, to demand. The reigning prince was 
styled the Raja of Khurda, with the rank of a Commander of 3,500 
*^'Mansabi Seh Hazar Panjsad," and his estate was composed of 
the jurisdiction called Killah Khurda, with the Mehals Rahang, 
Limbai Pursottem Chetter, &c., alienated from the Khaliseh. To 
the two sons of Telinga Mukund Deo (the last independent mo- 
narch,) were assigned respectively with the title of Raja and rank of 
five hundred, Sarangher, Pattia, Sailo, Saibir, &c., and Al with 
Derabissi, and Uthar. A certain number likewise of the great 
Chiefs of Orissa were placed under the control of each of the above 
Rajas, who collected the tribute before due from them, or then for 
the first time imposed. Zemindar* is the obvious translation of 

* Even the powerful Rajas of Joudpoor, Bhartpoor, Src, were called 
Zemindars by the Mogul government down to the latest period, and we 
know from history the nature of their tenures. They were bound to at- 
tend in succession on the person of the Emperor at the head of a fixed 
quota of Troops. Their own countries were and are still subdivided into 
the lands of the Military retainers or Thakurs, and the revenue lands, on 
the same principle that prevailed under the Hindu government in the 
empire at large. 



70 



tlie word Bhunia, Bhyan, or Bhupati, llie common title of the 
ancient feudatories of this province, whose offices now received a 
Persian name, as well as their jurisdictions, the Hindi word Gerh, 
being exchanged for Killah. The more distant Zemindars were 
separated from the control of the superior Raja, and placed under 
seven principal Zemindars or Sawants, viz : the Zemindars of 
Kconjhar, iMoherbcnj, Bishenpur, Futtihabad, Naraingerh, Karran- 
gher, and Nag orBagbhum. The jurisdiction thus left to the Raja 
of Khurda, extended from the Mahanuddy to the borders of Kimedy 
in Ganjam, comprising 129Killahs, Gerhs, or hill estates, exclusive 
of those situated within his own Zemindari. The above number 
agrees exactly with that given in the Ayin Akber, — " In Cuttack 
are one hundred and twenty-nine brick forts (killahs,) subject to the 
command of Gajapati." The other two Rajas had under them al- 
together Jifty-two Zemindaris and seventy-nine killah divisions; 
and the seven Zemindars mentioned fifty-six ditto, containing one 
hundred and one killahs — all exclusive of their own estates, and 
the dependent killahs situated within them. 

Extract from Documents in Persian. 

Statement of Killajat, in the jungles and hills under Zemindars, 
subject to tribute (Peshkash) according to the allotment of Raja 
Man Sink in 999 Amli, (Mahommedan era.) 

Under the Raja of Khurda whose ]\Ianseb is that of 3500, are 
placed exclusive of Mehals, thirty-one Zemindars, and two hundred 
killahs. 

The Raja's own estate of Khurda, one Zemindari, contains 
seventy-one killahs, viz : Khurda, Rathipur, Ber Gerh, Sissupal, 
Jharpareh, Kuplipersad, Paterpareh, Nonepur, Jamkhely, Tapang, 
Chatarma, 1a\ Sinh, Gangpareh, jMaliparch, Dumduma, Palih, 
Ramesar, Manibandh, Mankgora, Mangoi, Kormati, Kalamatiah, 
Kondlogerh, Mangalajuri, Jaripareh, Rorang, Karm, IVIallipareh, 
Narsingpersad, Baran Gerh, Karang, Mirtunjay Gerh, Kaimattia, 
Usna, liaranda, Balbhadderj^ersad, Nowailee, Banjgiri, Tarkai, 
Seracn Gerh, Matiapareh, Bangro, Bhingro, Koklo, Karki, and 
eight killahs, in Limbai ; Andharua, Darutang, Kolapokhar, Tirah 
Sowri thirteen killahs, Nakhikot, Kaipadda, Bolgerh, Gumhapur, 
and Muljher. 

Under the Raja's command are thirty Zemindaris of Hindu 
Sirdars, containing one hundred and twenty -nine killahs. 



71 



Under the Raja of Sarangerh, -whose Manseb is that of 500, (ex- 
clusive of Mehals,) are placed thirty-one Zemindaris, containing 
fifty killahs. 

The Raja's own estate with Balanta, two Zemindaris contains 
twelve killahs, viz : Killah Sarangerh, Bajgiri, Talgiri, Gowaligerh, 
Raghunathpur, Pattiah, Kalabank, Atagerh, Motri, Garukun, Ba- 
lanta, and Nurkantiah. Dependent Hindu Sirdars, holding twenty^ 
nine Zemindaris and thirty-eight forts under the Raja's orders. 

Under the Raja of Al with the rank of 500 are placed twenty -four 
Zemindaris, containing /or;?/-/?i'o killahs. 

The Raja's own estate of killah Al, one Zemindari and one 
killah. Dependent Hindu Sirdars, twenty-three Zemindaris, con- 
taining /or<i/-o?/e killahs. 

Under the Zemindar of Keonjhar are fifteen Zemindaris and 
fifty-five killahs. His own estate one Zemindari, containing eleven 
killahs, viz: Anandpur, Sikri, &c., four killahs, Mitagher, and 
others name unknown. Dependent Chiefs fourteen Zemindaris, 
having twenty-four killahs. 

Under the Zemindar of IMoherbenj twelve Zemindaris containing 
forty-two\i.\\\a\\s. His own estate, one Zemindari containing eighteen 
killahs, viz : Bhunj Bhum, Mantri, Harriorpoor, Dewalia, Purnia, 
Karkachna, Bamanhatti, Sirhonda, and small insignificant forts, 
ten. Dependent Chiefs, eleven Z?mindaris having twenty-four 
killahs. 

Under the Zemindar of Bishenpur, are twelve Zemindaris and 
twenty-nine killahs. His own estate, one Zemindari comprising 
fijteen killahs. Dependent Chiefs, eleven Zemindars, having four- 
teen killahs. 

Under the Zemindar of Futtihabad, seven Zeminders containing 
seventeen killahs. His own Zemindari, Futtihabad, &c., containing 
two killahs. Dependent Zemindars six, containing fifteen killahs. 

Under the Zemindar of Naraingerh, six Zemindaris, containing 
seventeen killahs. His own Zemindari contains four killahs. De- 
pendent Zemindaris ^»;e, containing thirteen forts. 

Under the Zemindar of Karan Gerh six Zemindaris, having eight 
killahs. His own one Zemindari, containing two killahs. De- 
pendent ^re, containing six killahs. 

Under the Zemindar of Nag or Bagbhum. His own one Zemin- 
dari, containing two killahs. 

Badshahi Thanehs under Cuttack 21 

. — under Bengal 4 



I'Z 



Establised in old times by Raja Man Sinh 999 Amlee. Cuttack, 
Piply Nour, Talmal, Paclierah, Jajipoor, Budruck, Soro, Ramna, 
Bastah, Jellasore, Futtihabad, Narain Gerh, and Midnapore ; the 
last four under Bengal. 

Under Kam Garkhan : Malud, Telingapenth, Santrapur, Chat- 
tiah, Sarangerh, and Mahulpur. Under Hazim Beg Khan : Nal- 
tigri, Alemghir, Sliirgher. 

Under Shujaa-ud-din, Fatteh Gerh, Shujaa Gerh, Paikani, Ah- 
medpur, Andiyari, Tiran, Gope, Kujang, and Rynto, both of which 
latter ones were broken up by the Zemindars. Mohammed Taki 
Khan, after the seizure of Raja Ramchander Deo, planted twenty- 
two thanehs for the protection and subjugation of Rajwara from 
Bulwanta to Banpur, but they were all removed excepting Balanta, 
when Bir Kishore Deo succeeded to the Raj by order of the King. 



Wliilst the ministers of Akber thus wisely left the turbulent 
feudal chiefs or Khetri Zemindars, to the management of those who 
from their local rank and hereditary influence were best qualified to 
control them, they considered it expedient to adopt also, with very 
little variation, the system wliich they found existing for the ad- 
ministration of the affairs of the Kot, or as they called them the 
Khaliseh lands, that is, the country annexed to the Imperial Dew- 
anni. The only marked change which they introduced, indeed, 
was that of translating all the uncouth and harsh sounding Oorea 
designations of things and offices, into more familiar Persian terms 
of corresponding import. 

The Khands and Bissees now became Pergunnahs ; the Police 
and Revenue Officers, Chowdris* and Vilaity (Mofussil or Provin- 
cial) Canungos, or generally Talukdars, the heads of villages Mo- 
kaddams ; and the villages themselves Mouzas. The larger terri- 
torial division of Sircar was perhaps arbitrary, suggested by con- 
siderations of financial convenience, or may have been copied from 
the Oorea Dandpul. The term Mehal, or plural Mehalat, by 
which the Revenue lands were designated in contradistinction to 
Killajat or the Military ditto, comprised in Akber's time, each, 
several Pergunnahs, and answered nearly to the modern Chakleh, 
though it is now applied to every petty estate or interest separately 
engaged for with the Collector. 

• The autlior of the A.viii Akbcri says, speaking of the Subeh of Berar, 
— " In tills country they call the C/ioirdri, Dcsinookhec ; the Cnnungoe, 
Despondiah : the Mokaddum, Putayl and the Putwarce, Koolkurnee. 



7a 



Until the conquest of Orissa by the British arms, the functions 
and situation of the Chowdri and Canungo, Talukdars and the 
Mokaddams, remained precisely as I have generally explained them. 
All Pergunnahs in the Marhatta accounts (with very few exceptions) 
are found entered as divided into the Taluks of Chowdris and 
Canungos named after the holder, and the separated or Mazkuri 
villages of such Mokaddams as had been entirely emancipated from 
their control, with certain alienated lands known by names and 
revenue terms which it is unnecessary here to mention. On the 
introduction of the British Government and regulations, all parties 
■whose names appeared in the public accounts of the preceding ad- 
ministration as answerable for or intrusted with the collection of 
the public dues, were forthwith acknowledged not only as Zemin- 
dars, but as proprietors of the land comprised in their Zemindaris. 
Whatever may be thought of the policy of this admission and the 
advantages that have resulted from it, that it was founded on an 
erroneous view of the state of things under the native Government, 
seems to me to be beyond all question. How did this error, which 
seems to have been as generally prevalent every where else as in 
Cuttack, originate ? I think its origin and prevalence may be 
ascribed chiefly to three causes ; 1st, the want of a proper distinc- 
tion being made between the rights and circumstances of the real 
ancient Zemindars of the country, and those officers called by the 
Moguls Talukdars or by whatever other name, who exercised here- 
ditarily the management and collection of the domains of the state ; 
2.id, the confused and inaccurate application of the term Zemindar 
by the natives of the country themselves, long before the accession 
of the British Government, which was probably a principal cause of 
the want of discrimination above noticed ; 3rd, the failure to dis- 
tinguish between the inheritanca and sale of an office (a practice 
probably peculiar to the Hindus) and the iiiheritance and sale of 
the land with which that office was connected and concerned. 

Under the Mogul Government persons denominated Talukdars 
and Mokaddams held offices connected with the collection of the 
revenues derived from the land. In Cuttack, the offices of Taluk- 
dar and Mokaddam, were, in conformity with the universal Hindu 
practice, hereditary ; the rent or revenue of the lands payable to 
the state had been fixed with reference to the capability of the soil, 
and the established rules for the division of the crop ; and certain 
perquisites were allotted to all parties concerned in the business of 
collection and management, which rendered those situations, though 
less valuable than at present, still objects of ambition to the class 



74 

who alone were likely to hold them, under the native administration. 
Such being the case, it was a frequent practice of the Mogul Go- 
vernment, to oblige the Talukdars or Mazkuri Mokaddams, when 
they had embezzled the revenues, or otherwise fallen into arrears, 
to dispose of a portion of what they held, when the price obtained 
was invariably paid into the local treasury in discharge of balances. 
The custom may be considered to indicate a recognition of property, 
on the part of those classes of functionaries in their offices, but 
certainly cannot be held to establish any title of property in the soil 
itself. In most cases, the thing sold is carefully defined to be the 
whole or a share of the Talukdari and Chowdrahi, or of the Mok- 
addami of a village. Occasionally there is some ambiguity, where 
a single village only is disposed of, but I am persuaded that no 
person could rise from the perusal of a number of such deeds of 
sale of the old times, without being satisfied, that they transfer 
nothing more than a hereditary official tenure in a village or villages, 
or portion of a Taluk, the profits attaching to which are defined in 
the margin or endorsement, as well as the fixed revenue assessed. 
I observe, that, in the very first of the cases brought forward in the 
appendix to Sir J. Shore's Minute, on the permanent settlement, as 
an instance of the sale of lands in Bengal, the thing disposed of is 
distinctly stated to be, two sixteenths of the Choicdrahi of Kismat 
Pergunnah Fattehjanjpur, sold by Kamal Chowdri, to Hari Sircar. 
In like manner, I apprehend that the sense of the words Malik 
and Milkiat, which occur generally in the Cuttack deeds of sale, 
as in those of a similar nature in Bengal and elsewhere, must, in 
any consistent and intelligible view of the case, be held to apply 
only to the office and perquisites of the seller, implying that he en- 
joyed them hereditarily, by a tenure independent of the will of any 
local superior, in contradistinction to an office held by a mere 
Gomashteh, or ephemeral agent at the pleasure of another. In- 
deed, the Milkiat, or right of property asserted, is most commonly 
and distinctly stated to refer to the Chowdrahi, Canungoi, and 
Mokaddammi. If such were not the case, it would follow that the 
same land might have two difierent kinds of absolute proprietors. 
The difficulty vanishes when we view them, as, what they un- 
questionably were, offices connected with the land, of difierent 
degrees of authority and importance, each having its distinct duties 
and perquisites. In the southern Pcrgunnahs, formerly under the 
Khurda Rajas, where the heads of villages and accountants retain 
their old Hindi appellation of Padhan and Bhoi, we find them con- 
stantly selling shares of their Pad/ianee and Bohi Girt, or offices of 



75 



chief and accountant, with a proportionate allotment of the service 
lands and Rassum attached ; and these transfers, the real nature 
of which it is impossible to mistake, serve to throw a strong light 
on the character of similar transactions in other parts, where the 
use of terms of doubtful import, has invested the subject with a 
degree of ambiguity which probably will never be altogether dis- 
pelled. 

Actual sales of land were not however unknown under the native 
administration of Cuttack, and wherever it was clearly intended to 
sell such, so many bigas are plainly stated in the Qobalehs to be 
the subject of transfer, without any periphrasis as to the Zemindari, 
Talukdari, or Mokaddammi right in them. Such sales however 
were confined to a particular description of land called Arazi Ban- 
jar Kharij Jamma, or ground, Avaste, unoccupied, aiid unassessed, 
in the disposal of which the Talukdars and Mokaddams were al- 
lowed by prescription to exercise considerable privileges. If only 
two or three bigas were sold for the building of a house, patna, &c. 
or disposed of as rent free, the individual Talukdar or Mokaddam 
executed the deed, with the sanction of the ruling power, implied 
by the necesary attestation of the Sadder Canungo, or his agent : 
if a large quantity as a batti, or so, was to be assigned away, the' 
deed of transfer was executed jointly by the Chowdris, Canungos, 
and Mokaddam. This mode of transfer gave rise to a curious 
tenure in the district of Cuttack, called Kharideh or purchased, 
and Milk Kharideh, which often comprised much valuable land, 
owing to good land being fraudulently alienated, instead of the 
Banjar, which the deeds set forth, and they formed a constant sub- 
ject of scrutiny and resumption on the part of the Officers of the 
native government. The purchasers of such property often again 
transferred it to others, and the privilege of sale likewise seems to 
have been conceded to those who enjoyed rent free lands, under 
grants of the government, as milk, ayma, and madadmash. 

The following are translations of a few deeds of sale selected. 

Sale of a Chowdree's Talook attested by the Seal of the Cazee, and 
Signature of the Sadder Canoongoe's Gooinastah. 

I who am Ruttum Mtun Gujinder Chowdree, son of Hurdee Ram 

Gujiuder Cliowdree, son of inhabitant of M;i Slianisoonderpore, 

in Pergunnah Byaung Sircar Budrnck. Since I am altnpjetlier unable to 
pay the balances due from the Biswa Talook, including Mouzalis Shain- 
soonderpore, &c., in the above Pergunnali, and have been placed in con- 
finement on that account by the Olidedar Mirza Bengalee Beg, I do of 
my own free will and consent sell for the sum of 104 K. 10 P. as per 



76 



margin to RasLeharee IMahapatar, son of OordlmL Nurrinclei- Haee, son of 
MooiU'e Dliur Ilurricluindun, inhabitant of Mouzah Byaung Pcrgunnah 
ditto, tiie aforesaid four BiswaTalook, togother witli the Duftur Chowraee 
wliich I liave heUl to tliis day in proprietory possession. Let the purchaser 
as long as he lives, and after him his sons and his son's sons exert them- 
selves in bringing the same into cultivation and be careful to discharge the 
(jovernment dues. He will enjoy the profits and make good any losses 
that may ensue. Neither I, nor my heirs, nor my brothers, nor their 
heirs, will hereafter have any riglit or title in the Taiook. Should any one 
advance a claim, it will be false and unfounded. This is written as a 
Sunnnd Kobaleh Talookdaree. Dated 28th of the month Kubbee Ool 
Awwul 11G8 Umlee. 

2 Mouzahs or Villages and 13 Biswas, Mokurree 

lludpa Arazee Battees, 540 2 12 

Sa. Rs. A. G. C. 

Mokurrureh Tunka Uuqmee Rs. 9;37 11 

Junima Kemal Cowris K. 547 4 

Kuliitns P. G. C. 

Ryottee 524 5 

Moojraee 22 15 

Total two Mouzahs 13 Biswas, and the Diiftcr of 4 Biswas of the Per- 
gunnah, viz. Shamsoonderpore 1 Mouz-i — Kath INIuonda 1 ditto — Kistmut 
Husanabad 8 Biswas — Kismut Roopa 5 Biswas. 

Deed of Sale of Ground. 

I who am Sudahund Mahapater, son of Gopee Mahapater, son of 
Moorley Mahapater, Chovvdree of Pergunnah Byaung, in the Sircar of 
Biidruck, in the full possession of my senses, of my own free consent 
declare that I have sold a parcel of about 11 Bigas 19 12 of land Buiijur 
Khar'ij Jumina 2() Dustee measurement on the Rudba of Mouza Dhurin- 
kuntjjore, my Talooka, (or dependent on me) which as specified below, 
has to this day been in my possession, with every thing on and belonging 
to it to tlie revered Saeed ood Deen Moluuinnud. for the sum of Sicca 
Rujieus 19 3, the fair and current price. Let him dispose of it as he 
likes ; should the Hakim ever claim a Jumma from it, I will be answerable. 

Here follows a specification of boundaries. Dated lOth Rejeb, 1144 
Uiulee. 

Deed granting Ground free of Rent, hy Talookdars of a Pergunnah 
or District jointly. 

We who arc Futteh Khan Chowdree, Bamdoe Canoongoe and Kishen 
Canoongoe Zemindars of Pergniuiali Saced Al)ad in the Sircar of Cuttack, 
declare as follows: Since Bishnoo Cluu-n Doss Birjahashee, inhabitant of 
Mouzah Nujal in Pergunnah Deogaon Bissce has no means of subsistence, 
and is ur.able to give food to tlu' niunerous Fakirs and Byshnoos, who are 
constantly resorting to him, and thereby suffers extreme distress, we have 
therefore of our own accord and free will appointed 7 Battees 7 Bigas* 
11 Ghoonts Arazee Bunjur kharij Jumma, from the Rudha of the 
Mouzahs attached to our Talooks as below, to be hereafter held by him as 
Khyrat. I/ct the above-mentioned take possession of the Land and bring 
into cultivation and expend the profits in nuuntaining himself and other 

• A biga is at)Out a third of an English acre; 20 bigas or 6 acres two thirds form a battee. 
In Orissa, however, the standard of the biga, which was originally uniform, varies greatly in 
diflerent parts of the country. 



77 

Fakirs and Byshnoos; slioiild we or our heirs ever attempt to resume it 
may we go to hell. This is given as a Siinnud Khyrat. 

Here follows a specification of the Villages in each Talook from which 
the Land was granted. Dated 16th Jumadool Awwul, 1155 Umlee. 

Deed of Sale of tlte Zemindaree of a Village. 

I who am. Busnnt Raee, son of Sudashib Race, son of Jeet Race, inhab- 
itant of Knsbeh Pergunnah Ilurrihurpore, in the Sircar of Cuttack, in the 
full possession of my senses declare in this Mujlis, that the Zemindaree 
and Talookdaree and Moqudduinee of Mouza Naroo, in Pergunnah 
Athaees has been heretofore in my possession. Being unable from land 
falling out of cultivation to pay the i)ublic assessment, I have of my own 
free consent disposed of the Zemindaree of the said Mouza, for the sum 
of 500 Kahuns of Cowris of Luchmun Raee, son of Hur Raee, son of 
Baboo Raee, and have received the amount from the Tehvil of Narain 
Dutt Gundooah. Let the purchaser take possession of the Zemindaree, 
&'c. of tlie above Mouza, the Bhaghat, Khanabaree Land, the Cocoanut 
Plantations, &c. whatever in short attaches to it, and exerting himself to 
extend cultivation, and let him ])ay regularly the Government dues. 
Neither I, nor my heirs will hereafter advance any claim on the abuve 
Mouza. This is given as a Kobaleh and Ivubzool Wusool. Dated Rubee 
ool Awwul, 1208 U. 

Deed of Sale by PudJians of Village Odeypore in Pergunnah Liinhaee. 

\_Oorea.'\ 

Dated Wednesday, 27th Assin, in the 43rd Ank or year of the reign of 
Raja Beer Kishore deo Maharajah, 

We four pei'sons, Dhurnee Das, Koornee Das, Kesub Das, and Seba 
Das, Pudhans of Mouza Odeypore in Pergunnah Limbaee, having this 
day received from Kishen Patjoosee Mahapater, inhabitant of Putna 
Kishen Sarunpore Hat Delang in the above Pergunnah, the sum of lis. 
76 8 in cowris, or at the current rate of exchange of 2k. 4p. per rupee, 
altogether 172 kahuns, which is a fair price, execute the following deed 
of sale. We sell to you our Pudhanee or right of management in the 
whole of the said village of Odeypore, the Ruckba of whicli is about 1.5 
battees, 10 bigas, and also our Hita Pudhanee or service lands, whicli are 
3 bigas Dehee, 3 bigas Kala, and 7 bigas Sarud, altogether 13 bigas. You 
will hold tlie Pudhanee of the village as long as the sun, mo(m, and earth 
last. Should any Sawimt or chief, or our heirs or any other claimants 
advance a claim, we will be responsible, so long also you will enjoy the 
Hita Pndhanee or service lands, which we have sold, with every thing 
above and beneath, water, dry land, mineral productions, wells, wood, 
stones, fruit trees, &c. You may cut down and plant trees on the gromid 
and act as you please with the above Hita, also you will receive the cus- 
tomary Sarbee (Siropa) of Sri .luggunnath Jeo. This Deed will stand for 
ever as a Kiria Putr and Bishoduu or receipt. 

Witnesses, several Pudhans and Bhcoees. 

Deed of Sale by a Bhooee or Village Accountant. 

Dated Monday, 25th Assin, in the l7th Ank or year of the reign of 
Biresree Raja Dub Sing Deo Maharajah. 



78 



I who am Rugoo Natli Maintee, Bhooee of Mouza Gowree Pot Matia- 
para in Per.ijunnah Linibaee, execute in behalf of Sinikur Pufnaik, inha- 
bitant of ISionza Odeypcre the foUowing Di'ed of Sale, having this day 
received from you the sum of 35 rupees in cowris or kahuns 8.3-2 at the 
rate of 2-6 per rupee, which is a fair and even ])rice, I hereby sell to you 
in exchange for that sum the Bliooee Giri or OHice of Bhooee of the said 
Mouza, which was formerly jjurcliased by my father with the sanction of 
the Maharaja. The Ruckbah of the village is about 8.5 battees (or bigas 
1,700.) I sell you likewise mj' Hita lands which are established at the 
customary rate of 12-8 ])er battee, witli my Dustooree and Russoom. You 
will enjoy the oilice of Bhooee and tlie Hita land as long as the sun, moon, 
and earth last. Should any Sawuut or Huqdar, or neighbour or heirs of 
mine advance any claims, I shall be responsible for satisfying them. Till 
the day of resurrection you will possess the Hita land, and every thing 
above and beneath it — water, dryland, mineral productions, ponds, wells, 
trees, stones — you may cut down and plant trees at your pleasure. This 
is given as a Deed of Sale and receipt. 



CHAP. III. 

The Chronology and History of Orissa. 

The learned Natives of Cuttack maintaiu, that, in latter ages, 
upon the decline of that great monarchy of upper India, whose 
history seems destined to remain for ever buried in the darkness of 
fable and uncertain tradition, four principal thrones or races of 
Hindoo Princes ruled over the country, viz : the Narapati, the 
Aswapati, the Chatter or Chatrapati, and the Gajapati. By the 
first they understand the Ram Rajas or Sovereigns of Telinga and 
the Carnatic, who opposed the earlier Musselman invaders of the 
Dcccan, under Sultan Ala-ud-din ; the second throne they place in 
the Marhatta country, and intend to designate by the epithet, the 
old and powerful Rajas of Deogir or Tagara, of whom frequent 
mention is made in Ferishteh ; by the third, the celebrated line of 
Rajput Princes, whose descendants are found at Ambher and Jye- 
poor; the fourth is the title given to the Monarchs who ruled over 
Orissa, from the earliest times of which any authentic records are 
preserved. The origin of these sovereignties, they trace to the four 
great feudal vassals of an empire, which they believe to have ex- 
tended over the whole of Hindustan, from the commencement at 



79 

least of the Cali yiiga;* and they explain their titles by reference 
to the nominal offices held, or services performed by them, when in 
attendance on the Lord Paramount or supreme Raja at the court of 
Hastina (flastinapura) and Delhi. Thus the Narapati-|- is supposed 
by some to have been the commander of the armies : the Aswajoati, 
the lord or master of the horse ; the Chatrapati, the bearer of the 
imperial umbrella or standard of state : and the Gajapati, the master 
of elcj^hants. Others suppose the epithets were derived from the 
designations of the four gates of the palace, at which the chiefs in 
question took their stations, when present at the capital. 

The recollections preserved of these races of Princes are by no 
means confined to Orissa. In the Canara Raja Padhati translated 
by Dr. Buchanan, the fabulous monarchs are first described as 
usual beginning with Yudhisht'hira, and the author then states, 
"After this Narapati, Gajapati, and Aswapati, three thrones were 
established." He then details the Princes of the Narapati line, who 
ruled over that portion of the Dcccan. They are now probably 
forgotten in Upper India, but seem to have been perfectly well 
known and familiarly spoken of, even at Delhi, only two centuries 

* The Hindoos have four joog^ or ngos. The sntya joog, the golden 
era, they pretend lasted 1,728,000 years, and ])roduced four incarnations. 
It was tlie age of merit, and virtue was without alloy. Men died when 
they wished; their stature was 31i feet; they lived to the age of 100,000 
years! dined otf golden vessels ; and the name by which men oblained 
mooktee, or final deliverance, was Narayn. The treia joog lasted l,2fK),000 
years, and produced three incarnations. Actions of merit were then in 
comparison of sin, as three to one ; the human stature was 21 feet ; men 
lived to the age of 10,000 years, and dined off silver dishes ! Ram was the 
name by which men obtained deliverance. The dwarpnr joog lasted 
864,000 years, and produced two incarnations. Merit and sin were in 
equal proportion. The human stature was reduced to lOt feet; men lived 
1000 years, and dined off copper dishes ! The halee joog, the iron and 
present age, will last 432,000 years. Of this period 4,926 years are past. 
There will be one incarnation, the genius of degeneracy; merit will bo 
reduced to one fourth, while sin will rise to three fourths. Men will bo 
three cubits and a half in stature, live a hundred years, and dine from 
dishes without rule. Friend of India ( Quarterly Series) Oct. 1825. 

Infidels once seemed to hope for much aid from Hindoo records or 
chronology. Their earlier records are mere fable and fiction, and their 
chronology has been proved false and absiu'd to an extreme degree. The 
authenticity of the chronology of Scripture, is quite unaffected by the ab- 
surdly long periods attached to the Hindoo ages of the world. Major 
Wilford says — " With regard to history, the Hindoos have really nothing 
but romances, from which some truths may be occasionallj^ extracted." 
Sir W. Jones also remarks to the same efl'ect — "The dawn of true Indian 
history appears three or four centuries only before the Christian era, the 
preceding ages being clouded by allegory or fable." 

t The titles imply respectively, " Lord of Men" — " Lord of Horses" — 
" Loi-d of the Umbrella" — and " Lord of Elephants," or as v/e sliould say, 
" Master of, &c." 

L 



80 



Since. There is a higlily curioiis passage in the Ayin Alihcri, where 
treating of the game of cards with which the Emperor Akber recre- 
ated his royal mind, the writer observes, " This is a well-known 
game. At first the pack consisted of twelve kings with eleven cards 
dependent upon each in the following order. First, Aswaput, the 
king of the horses. lie is painted on horse back like the king of 
Delhi, with the Chuttcr, Alum, and other ensigns of royalty. 
Second, Giijpnt, the king of elephants, is mounted on an elephant 
like the king of Orissa. Third, Nurput, the king of men. Like 
the king of Vijayapur, he is seated on a throne and has different 
kinds of soldiers attending him on foot," &c. &c. 

It is the account of the fourth and probably least important race 
of Hindu monarchs of the middle ages, the Gajapatis* of Orissa, 
that is here narrated ; but to render the chapter complete, a sketch 
is added of the history of the province to the date of the British 
conquest, A. D. 1803. 

The earlier native histories of the country are of the legendary or 
fabulous class, copied from the Puranas, but embellished or dis- 
figured by a plentiful admixture of local traditions. Their later 
annals assume an air of authenticity about the date of the accession 
of the family called the Kesari Vansa, 473 A. D., prior to which 
the accounts are so replete with obvious falsehoods and contradic- 
tion, inconsistency and anachronism, as to be equally unintelligible 
and unworthy of notice. The memory of a few great names and 
events, only, has been preserved up to the fourth and fifth centuries 
of the Christian era, and to adapt these to their favourite system of 
chronology, the brahmins, who will never admit want of information 
on any subject, have been obliged to give an expansion to the 
reigns of their traditionary Rajas, in some cases of five or six hun- 
dred years, and in all, far beyond the natural or possible term of 
the human life. Yet these are the men whose tales infidels would 
with unblushing effrontery, still oppose to the consistent and ra- 
tional records of the Bible. As, however, it will not be uninterest- 
ing to those curious in researches into Hindoo antiquity, to learn 
■what traditions the natives have preserved regarding their history 
in the earlier ages, I shall begin my sketch of the contents of their 
annals from the remotest period to which they profess to go back. 
The sources from which my information has been chiefly derived 
are, 1st. A work in Sanscrit called the Vansavali, belonging to a 
learned brahmin of Pooree, said to have been originally composed 

• Derived from Gaja, an elephant, and pati, a master or potentate. 



81 



by some of his ancestors three or four centuries since, and continued 
in the family to the present date. 2nd. The chapter of the Man- 
dala Panji or Records preserved in the temple of Juggernaut, 
called the Raj Charita or "Annals of the Kings" in the Oorea 
language, which records are stated to have been commenced upon 
more than six centuries, and to have been since regularly kept, 
3rd. Another Vansavali or Genealogy written in Sanscrit on leaves 
of the Palmyra tree, procured from a brahmin living in the family 
of the Raja of Puttia Sarengerh, one of the branches of the royal 
house of Orissa. Less certain and trustworthy guides than the 
above, are to be met with in the numerous Genealogies possessed 
by nearly every Panjia or almanac-maker in the province. They 
in general abound with errors and inconsistencies, but occasionally 
a few facts or illustrations may be gleaned from them. 

Conformably with the notion, above stated, of the existence of a 
great empire at Delhi, to which all other Rajas stood in a feudatory 
relation, the annals of Orissa commence with the death of Krishna, 
the opening of the Cali yiiga or evil age, 3001 B. C. and the reigns 
of Jojishtee Deo, or Yudhisht'hira, Parikshita, and Janamejaya. 
Twelve years after the setting in of the Cali yuga, in the month of 
Cheyte, when the moon was in the lunar mansion called Purv 
Asarh, at the moment of the rising of the seven Rishis, or constel- 
lation, called the Great Bear, Parikshita the son of Abhimanyu and 
grandson of Arjun, is said to have ascended the imperial throne of 
India. He reigned 757 years, and his son Janamejaya 512 years ! ! 
There is an ancient temple at Agrahat in killah Daljura about eight 
miles north of Cuttack, which the brahmins of the place say was 
visited by this Raja Janamejaya during his progress over India, 
with all the feudatory Rajas of the country in his train; and they 
point out the spot where he performed the sacrifice for the destruc- 
tion of serpents, to revenge the death of his father. The circum- 
stance merits notice from its agreeing with a somewhat similar 
tradition, recorded in an inscription at Bednore, communicated to 
the Asiatic Society by the late Colonel Mackenzie (vide Researches 
vol ix.) ; and what is further curious connected with the place, is, 
that the ground around is strewed with numerous stone pillars, 
shaped like temples in miniature about three feet long, exactly re- 
sembling those found in Khurda at an acknowledged seat of Jain 
worship, which the brahmins of Agrahat say amounted formerly to 
several hundreds, and were set up by Raja Janamejaya to commem- 
orate the great sacrifice there performed ; or according to other 



82 



accounts, to stand as substitutes for those Rajas or Vassal Lords of 
India, who were not in attendance at the ceremony. 

After these celebrated heroes of Indian antiquity, we have a list 
of other Princes, whose names I have nowhere else met, viz : eight 
Rajas who reign for the moderate space of 1636 years ! Many of 
them are obviously merely Rajas of the province, but in relating 
the succession of reigns, no distinction is drawn between those per- 
sonages who were local or dependant princes, and those whom it 
is intended to represent as the monarchs of a large part of India. 
Goutama Deo, the second in succession from Janamejaya is said to 
have added the country from the Mahendra Mali hills in Ganjam, 
as far as the Godaveri, to his dominions. Mahendra Deo, his son, 
founds Raj Mahendri or Rajamundry. Shcwak Deo, a very reli- 
gious Prince, is assiduous in his devotion at the temple of Jugger- 
naut. In the reign of Bajranath Deo, the Yavanas are said to 
invade the country in great numbers from Babul Des, explained to 
mean Iran and Cabul, but they are finally driven back. Tlien fol- 
lows an incomprehensible story, involving some strange anachron- 
ism, about Imarut or Himarut khan, who comes from Dchli, with 
a large army and fights the Raja. His successor, Sarsenkha Deo, 
a warlike prince, is attacked by another Khan, whose name is vari- 
ously written, and always so incorrectly spelt, that it is impossible 
to unravel it. The Raja defeats the invader and emboldened by 
his success, advances upon Delhi, and reduces a great part of the 
country. In the reign of Hanas or Hangsha Deo, the Yavanas 
again invade the country in great force from Cashmir, and many 
bloody battles ensue. 

Respecting these Yavanas, who are so often mentioned in the 
legendary portion of Orissan history, it may be observed that the 
word in all the original Ooria accounts is written Jaban, and the 
natives whom I have employed to translate both these and the San- 
scrit Vansavalis, always render it Mo<jul. Wlio they really were, 
if they ever entered the country at all, may be plausibly guessed 
in some instances from their being said to come from Babul Des and 
Cashmir, by which the Hindus understand generally Persia, Aff- 
ghanistan, and part of Tartary. Nothing however can exceed the 
looseness and confusion of authorities, in speaking of countries and 
nations beyond their own immediate frontier. They often bring tho 
Yavanas from Delhi, by which appellation they seem to point to 
some great monarchy or monarchies lying to the northward and 
westward, of whicli they have preserved an indistinct notion, rather 
than to the particular city 30 named. Dr. Buchanan has remarked a 



83 



similar degree of confusion on this same point in the historical recol- 
lections of the brahmins of the southern countries of India. He ob- 
serves — "Who were these Yavanas? The word properly signifies 
an European, but as the Hindus speak with great confusion con- 
cerning the northern and western nations, it is often confounded 
with the Mlechchas and Turks, Arabs or Tartars, and all these 
terms are frequently applied to the Mussulman." (Vol. iii. chap, xv, 
page 113.) 

Next in the series of kings, comes Raja Bhoja, who is made to 
reign 127 years, that is from about B. C. 180 to B. C. 53. He 
was, according to the Orissan Chronicles, a brave, liberal, just and 
merciful prince. He conquered the whole of India and took tribute 
from all the Rajas of it. His Court was adorned by the presence 
of 750 eminent poets, the chief of whom was Calidasa, author of 
the 752 Ashloks called the Chanak or Chataka, and Maha Nataka. 
Raja Bhoja invented boats, the weaver's loom, and wheeled car- 
riages, or at least in his time the use of them first became common. 
In this reign the Yavanas from Sindhu Des invaded the country 
in great force, but Bhoja discomfited and destroyed them, and after- 
wards captured many of their possessions and cities. 

Sri Bickermajit or Vicramaditya succeeded to the throne, and 
reigned 153 years. He was master of all sciences and a great ma- 
gician. Having subjected the Ashta Vetala or eight demons to his 
control, he could perform many miraculous feats, such as travelling 
one hundred jojuns or four hundred cos per day, extinguishing fire, 
and stopping the current of water by the force of his incantations. 
So great was the fame of his wisdom, that he was on one occasion 
taken up to the heaven of Indra,* to settle a fierce dispute which 
had arisen amongst the Dcbtas, respecting the relative merits of two 
of the heavenly Choristers, named Rembha and Urvasi ! His deci- 
sion in the important matter submitted to his arbitration, obtained 
great applause, and the gods dismissed him with a present of tlio 
famous magic throne called the Sinhasana. On returning to the 
*'Ma)-fyaloka," or region of mortals, much edified by what he had 
seen above, he became sole and undisputed Maha Raja of the whole 
face of the earth, and received the title of Raja Adliiraj or Supreme 
Raja of Rajas. Through fear of his power, the Yavanas all left the 
country. At last came Salivahana from the Deccan, who attacked 
and conquered Vicramaditya, put him to death, and assumed the 

* Indra is the king of heaven in the Hindoo mythology. His body is 
full of eyes, a transmutation of the punishment of a crime, the account of 
which cannot be narrated in the ears of Christians. 



84 



reins of empire. From that period the era called the Sacabda pre- 
vailed, and was introduced into all the Panjis. 

I cannot pass over the above most important event in Indian 
history, marked by the introduction of a new epoch into all the 
southern countries, without specifying precisely how my different 
authorities express themselves regarding it, though they throw no 
new light on who this mysterious personage Salivahana really was, 
and whence he came ? The extract from the Mandali Panji says, 
" After many years Saca Deo Brahma Raja of Pratishthanapura, 
came with a large army, attacked the Maha Raja Vicramaditya, and 
having conquered and destroyed him, fixed the seat of his empire 
at Delhi." The author of the Yansavali states, " With the assist- 
ance of the Yavanas, a person named Nri Nikas Salivahana Saca 
Hera fought many battles with the Raja, and deposed him from 
the throne of Delhi. From that period begins the era called the 
Sacabda." 

It will be curious, and not altogether unprofitable, to compare 
these relations with a passage in Major Wilford's distinguished 
Essay on Vicramaditya and Salivahana. He says, page 123, — 
" In the seventh section of the Vrihat-catha, we read, that there 
was a king of Pataliputrapura, called Vicramaditya, who hearing of 
the growing power of Nrisinha, king of the consecrated city or 
Pratishlana, called to his assistance the Gajapati,* (lord of the 
Elephants or king of Thibet,) and the Aswapati, (lord of Horses or 
Horsemen, or the king of Persia.) The confederates took the field 
but were defeated by Nrisinha Nripa or Salivahana with an incredi- 
ble slaughter. Vicramaditya fled with the utmost precipitation," 
&c. In another part it is observed that Vicramaditya " obliged 
CatacafCuttack) to submit;" probably brought it into a dependaut 
and tributary relation to his government, which may account for his 
being classed amongst the ancient Sovereigns of the province. 

From the commencement of the Call yuga to the fall of Vicrama- 
ditya, thirteen Rajas are made to reign the monstrous term of years 

3173 ! viz :— 

Years. 

Yiulliisht'hira Dc'O 12 

Parikshita 757 

Jaiiainejiiya 516 

Sainbar or Sancara Deo 410 

Gautama Deo .37.3 

Mahindra Deo 215 

Ashti Deo 134 

Shcwak or Ashok Deo 150 

* Query, the Raja of Oriasa and the Sovereign of the Marhatta country? 



85 



BajraNcith 107 

Sai'sankh ] 15 

Hansh or Ilansa 122 

Bhoja 127 

Vicramaditya J35* 

Total 3,173 years. 

After tliat event, the era of Salivaliana which dates its commence- 
ment from A. D. 77 in Orissa, is used in all the accounts, and we 
now come to reigns of a probable and moderate duration, the first 
dawning of an approach to the authentic period of the native 
history. 

The Raj Charitra goes on to state, " Afterwards Karmajit, son 
of the above, (Query, Vicramaditya ?) ruled over Or Desa or Orissa. 
He was devoted to the worship of Juggernaut and died A. S. G5." 
Then follow four unimportant reigns remarkable only for mention 
of invasions by the Yavanas. The Rajas names are as follows : — 

Bata Kesari, reigns 51 years. 

Tirbhobun Deo 43 ,, 

Nirmal Deo 45 ,, 

Bhima Deo 37 ,, 

In the time of Subhan Deo the next in the series of kings, who 
succeeded to the Raja A. D. 318, relation is given of an extraordi- 
nary and incomprehensible occurrence, of which I am quite unable 
to offer any explanation. It has obviously been strangely distorted 
by popular tradition, though in all probability possessing a foun- 
dation in fact. 

The following is an outline of the story. A Yavana, or fo- 
reigner, named Rakta Bahu, (the Red-Armed,) having assembled a 
large army with the intention of invading Orissa, embarked his 
troops on vessels with numerous horses and elephants, and having 
made the coast, anchored at a distance from the town of Jacjannalh, 

* It maybe observed that a list of this description uniformly introduces 
the genealogies of every race of princes in tlie Deccau, and originates 
with an attempt to fill up a blank in the local liistories, with persons bor- 
rowed from the Pnranas or from tradition. Tlie age of Blioja is now well 
established as being assignable to the ninth or tenth century, this being 
made therefore anterior to Vicramaditya who lived before our era, shews 
■with what imperfect knowledge of dates and persons these lists are com- 
piled ; neither was a son of Bhoja named Vikrama which might form a 
plausible excuse for the confusion, it being ascertained by inscriptions, 
older probably than these lists, that the son and successor of that prince 
was named Kalabhoja. In jxjint of historj^ and cln-onology however, 
neither Vicrama nor Bhoja have any connexion with the dynasties in 
which the Chroniclers of the Peninsula have enrolled tliem. — Note by the 
Secretary of the Calcutta Asiatic Society. 



86 



hoping to take Pooree by surprise. The dung, straw, &c. of the 
horses and elephants, happening to float ashore in quantities, at- 
tracted the notice of some of the people of the town. They imme- 
diately reported the unusual appearance to the Raja, who guessed 
that some powerful enemy was coming to attack him. Seized 
with a panic, he took the image of Sri Jeo or Jagannath out of the 
temple, lodged it in a covered cart with all its jewels and utensils, 
and fled away to Sonepur Gopalli, the most remote town on his 
western frontier ! The Yavanas landed, and not finding the prince, 
plundered the town and temple and committed great excesses every 
where. The Raja's alarms increased on receiving intelligence of 
the proceedings of the invaders ; he now buried the image, planted 
a ber tree over it, and himself fled farther into the jungles. The 
Yavanas, unable to understand how he had escaped them, began to 
institute enquiries on the subject, when some of the low people of 
the coast informed them of the way in which their approach had 
been discovered. Enraged with the ocean for disclosing his secret, 
Rakta Bahu drew out his armies to chastise its waters. Tlie sea, 
on observing such formidable preparations, retreated for nearly a 
cos — the infatuated Yavanas rushed on — when the tide suddenly 
returning with tremendous noise and fury, swallowed up a great 
portion of the army and inundated the whole country to a frightful 
extent ! The flood reached inland as far as the Baronai Pahar of 
Khurda, taking with it immense quantities of sand. It was at this 
time that the Chilka lake was formed by the irruption of the waters 
of the ocean. The Raja died shortly afterwards in the jungles. 
His son Indra Deo succeeded to the title, but was captured and 
murdered by the invaders. A Yavana dynasty then ruled over 
Orissa for the space of 146 years. Thus were completed years 396 
of the Sacabda. 

Possibly the tradition may have some connection with the fierce 
religious disputes, which raged between the worshippers of Brahma 
and Buddha about the period in which the invasion of foreigners, 
and the flight of Juggernaut is placed, and which as is well known 
terminated in the expulsion of the latter from the continent of India. 
A real irruption of the ocean may have occurred in the same age, 
and this natural calamity, the ever active invention of the Brahmin 
Chroniclers chose to ascribe to the authors of the bloody wars, 
revolutions, and other moral evils, which afflicted the country at 
the time. But it were vain to speculate farther on the origin of nn 
account which is perhaps the work of imagination. 



87 



We come now to the accession of the Rajas called the Kesari Pat 
or Vansa, A. D. 473, from which period I should be disposed to 
date the commencement of the real history of the province ; but before 
entering upon the account of their reigns I should observe that there 
is nothing in the preceding relation to explain what is meant by 
the "eradicated race of Utcala," alluded to in the inscription on the 
pillar at Buddal, which Major Wilford refers to the expulsion of a 
martial race of Princes from Orissa by the Carna Emperors of Be- 
har, prior to the accession of the Gujapatis ; but it would obviously 
be easy enough to imagine a space for the occurrence of such a re- 
volution, in some of those chasms of upwards of a century's duration, 
which intervene between many of the early reigns. 

No information is afforded as to the origin and pedigree of the 
Princes called the Kesari Vansa or Kesari Bans. The founder of 
the dynasty of Kesari Vansa was Jajati Kesari, a warlike and en- 
ergetic prince, but who he was or whence he came we are not ap- 
prized. He soon cleared his dominions of the Yavanas who then 
retired to their own country. His court was held at Jajepur where 
he built a palace and castle, called Choudwar, or the mansion with 
four gates. The most important event of his time was, the recovery 
of the image and the restoration of the worship of Juggernaut. Di- 
rected by what was esteemed certain omens and supernatural appear- 
ances, he proceeded to the Purushottem Khetr to institute enquiries 
regarding the idol and the temple, when the brahmins of the place 
informed him, that a tradition existed amongst them of Sri Jeo 
(Jagannath) having been carried off, upwards of a century and a half 
before, to Sonepur Gopalli, on the invasion of a person called 
Rakta Bahu, where the former had ever since remained concealed 
from mortal eyes ! This intelligence induced the Raja to make a 
visit to the jungles of Sonepur. He discovered after some search 
the place where Sri Jeo had been buried, cuts down the ber or ban- 
yan tree which overshadowed the sacred spot, and finds the image 
or images encased in a stone vault, much decayed and disfigured. 

His next care was to search out the officiating priests, descended 
from those who formerly fled from Puri, and having discovered 
several of them in the Rattenpur country, he consulted with them 
how the worship of Juggernaut should be revived in all its ancient 
splendour. The formation of a new image being considered an in- 
dispensable preliminary, the priests proceeded into the woods to look 
for a proper piece of timber ; and having found one with all the re- 
quisite qualities indicated by the shastras, they brought it to the 



88 



Raja, who clothed both it and tlic old images in rich robes, and con- 
ducted them in great state to Puri. Anew temple was then erected 
on the site of the old one, which was found to be much dilapidated 
and covered with sand. The four images were afterwards duly pre- 
pared and set iip on their throne with much pomp and solemnity on 
the 5th of Kakara (Cancer) the thirteenth year of the Raja's reign, 
amidst the shouts and rejoicings of the multitude. At the same time 
the necessary officers were ap]^x>inted, feasts and festivals established, 
sasans founded, and the whole country around Puri assigned as en- 
dowments for the maintenance of the temple. On this memorable 
occasion the Raja received by general acclamation the title of the 
second Indradyumna. 

Towards the close of his reign, Raja Yayati Kesari began the 
buildings at Bhuvaneswar, and died A. D. 520. 

The reigns assigned to his two svicessors, Suraj Kesari and An- 
anta Kesari, are probably of too long duration, being altogether 
ninety-seven years, and are distinguished by nothing remarkable, 
excepting that the latter prince began the building of the great tem- 
ple at Bhuvaneswar. 

He was succeeded A. D. 017 by Lalat Indra Kesari, a personage 
of high repute in the legends of the Bhuvaneswar temple, in con- 
sequence of his having built or completed the great pagoda at that 
place sacred to Mahadeo under the title of the Ling Raja Bhuvanes- 
wara, in the year of Salivahana 580 and A. D. 657. He also founded 
there a large and populous city containing seven sais and forty-two 
streets which became the capital of the Raja. 

An uninteresting series of thirty-two reigns of the Kesari Princes 
follows, extending through a period of 455 years, of the history of 
which little is given excepting the characters of the Rajas, and some 
absurd stories connected with the temples of Juggernaut and Bhuva- 
neswara. A few particulars worth noticing however may be gleaned 
from the accounts, such as that the rate at which the ryots were taxed 
by the sovereign was five kahans of cowris per batti, or about one 
anna per biga. One of the Rajas named Bariya Kesari, in a time of 
emergency, raised the demand for revenue as high as one kahan of 
cowris per biga, or four times the former amount, but his successor 
Suraj Kesari reduced it to the old rate. Raja Nirupa Kesari, a martial 
and ambitious prince, who was always fighting with his neighbours, 
is said to have first planted a city on the site of the modern Cuttack 
about A. D. 989. The reign of Markat Kesari was distinguished 
for the construction of a stone revetment, or embankment faced with 
that material, (probably the ancient one of which the remains are yet 



89 



to be seen), to protect the new capital from inundation A. D. 1006 ; 
and Madhava Kesari has the credit of building a fortress of vast 
dimensions at Sarangher. 

Different stories are related of the extinction of the Kesari family. 
The Raj Charitra says, that the last of the line died childless, when 
at the suggestion of the deity, another family were brought from the 
Camatic by Basudeb Banpati and placed on the throne. The Vin- 
savali ascribes the change of dynasty to a dispute between the Raja 
and this same Basudeb Banpati, a brahmin and powerful officer of 
the court ; who having been driven with indignity from the royal 
presence, went to the Camatic and instigated a person named Chu- 
rang or Chor Ganga to invade Orissa. He conquered Cuttack, on 
Friday, the 13th of Assin, A.S. 1054 or A. D. 1131, and thus ac- 
quired the sovereignty of the country. Both accounts agree in 
giving the above as the date of the accession of Raja Churang Deo. 
This personage, whatever his real origin, is fabled to have been the 
offspring of the goddess Ganga Sana or the lesser Ganges (Godaveri) 
by a form of liiihadeo. AVith him began the race of princes called 
the Ganga Vansa, or Gangbans line, who ruled the country for 
about four centuries ; a period fertile in great names and events of 
importance, and which forms unquestionably the most interesting 
portion of Orissan history, if such terms may be applied to the an- 
nals of a hitherto unknown dynasty, governing one only, of the 
many provinces which now constitute the British empire in India. 

Churang, or Sarang Deo, held the reins of government for twenty 
years, and conformably with his supernatural origin is believed to 
have been a skilful magician. It is said of him that he established 
the records of the Juggernaut temple called the Mandala Panji, and 
was a great worshipper of certain forms of Devi to the neglect of all 
the other gods and goddesses. The memory of his reign and of his 
singular name, which is certainly not an Oorea one, is preserved in 
a Sai or quarter of the town of Pooree, with a tank called the Chu- 
rang Sai. Tradition also ascribes to him the building of forts and 
palaces both at Sarengher and Cuttack Choudwar. 

His son Gangeswara Deo succeeded A. D. 1151. His dominions 
reached from the Ganges to the Godaveri. He had five kutuks or 
royal metropolises, viz., Jajpoor, Choudwar, Amravati, Chatta or 
Chatna, and Biranassi, the modern Cuttack. The account which 
places Amravati, a town near the Kistna in the heart of the Deccan, 
amongst the capital cities of this Raja, is one of the commoner ge- 
nealogies to which I attach no great degree of credit. It is not 
improbable, however, that the place may have formed part of a 



90 



principality held by Cliurang Deo when invited to ascend the throne 
of Orissa, which thereby became annexed, temporarily to the latter 
Raj ; and claims and political relations arising out of the possession 
of it, may have been one cause of the frequent expeditions south of 
the Godaveri and the interference in the affairs of Telingana and the 
Carnatic, which we shall find to be henceforwards exercised by the 
Ganga Vansa Rajas. 

As a specimen of the morals of the Court of Orissa in this age it 
should be mentioned, that Raja Gangeswara Deo committted incest 
with his own daughter; to expiate which offence, he dug a superb 
tank by the advice of the brahmins, called the Kousala Ganj, which 
is still pointed out between Khurda and Pipley. 

After two short and unimportant reigns. Raja Anang Bhim Deo, 
one of the most illustrious of the Princes of the Ganga Vansa line, 
ascended the Gajapati Sinhasan or throne A. D. 1174. He resided 
during the early part of his reign in the palace called Choudwar at 
Jajepur, but was induced by some omen, to build a magnificent pa- 
lace on the site of Fort Barabatti, adjoining the town of Cuttack, 
where he afterwards held his Court chiefly. The construction of the 
present castle of that name should in all probability be referred to 
this period, though a later date is generally assigned to it. Raja 
Anang Bhira Deo may be called the Firoz Shah of the age and 
country, from the number and variety of public works executed by 
his orders for the benefit or ornament of his dominions. Having 
unfortunately incurred the guilt of killing a brahmin, motives of 
superstition prompted him to construct numerous temples as an ex- 
piation for his offence, whilst the suggestions of a noble and jorincely 
sj)irit urged him to a large expenditure on works of more direct 
public utility, as tanks, wells, and bridges. He is said to have 
built sixty stone dewals or pagodas, ten bridges, forty wells, one 
hundred and fifty-two ghats, and to have founded four hundred and 
fifty sasans or villages, containing colonies of brahmins, besides ex- 
cavating a crore or ten millions of tanks ! He more especially filled 
the whole khetr of Jagannath witli sacred edifices, and the great 
temple was erected by his orders under the superintendence of Pa- 
ramahans Bajpoi, at an expense of about thirty or forty lacs. The 
date of its completion was A. D. 119G. He at the same time en- 
larged considerably the establishment, added fifteen brahmin and 
fifteen sudra Shewaks or officiating priests, and gave fresh splendour 
to the worship of the idol of the place, by the institution of numerous 
bhogs and jatras (feasts and festivals.) 



91 



The most remarkable feature of Raja Anang Blum Dec's reign, 
however, is the measurement undertaken by him of the whole of 
the land comprised within his dominions, and the arrangements 
connected with that procedure. We are informed that under the 
superintendence of the principal ministers Damodar Bar Panda and 
Isan Patnaik, the whole country from the Ganges (Hoogley) to the 
Godaveri, and from the sea to the frontier of Sonepur, w^as measured 
out with the rods called Nal and Padhek. The results were as 
follows, viz. 

Total contents, (each batti containing 20 bigas). . Battis 62,28,000 

Deduct, ground occupied by sites of hills, beds of nul- 
lahs, towns, &c., and land irreclaimably waste .. 14,80,000 

Remains, 47,48,000 



Of this quantity 24,30,000 battis* are stated to have been re- 
served as the Raja's Nijharch, khaliseh or royal domain, and the 
remainder 23,18,000 battis were assigned for the support of his 
chiefs, armies, officers of state, brahmins, elephants, &c. 

Connected with and illustrative of the above proceeding, a highly 
curious speech of the Raja's is given in the annals of the Pooree 
temple, of which the following is an abstract translation. Having 
been warned in a dream by Parameswara (Sri Jagannath,) that it 
was proper he should offer his devotions at Pooree, the Raja pro- 
ceeded to that place in the 12th year of his reign. After performing 
the usual worship with great pomp and solemnity, he collected 
about him the princes of his family, vassal lords, and chief officers 
of state, and held the following discourse : " Hear, Oh Chiefs and 
Princes, the arrangements which 1 have established for the manage- 
ment of my empire, the expenses of state, the pay of my armies 
and religious establishments, and the support of the royal treasury, 
and attend to the counsel which I give you. It is known to you 
that the Rajas of the Kesari line ruled from the Kans Bans river on 
the north, to the Rassikoilah south, and from the sea on the east to 
the Dandpat of Bhimnagar west, from which tract of country they 
derived a revenue of fifteen lacs of marhs of gold. By the grace of 
Sri Jagannath, the Princes of the Ganga Vansa have, after subduing 

* The amount of the estimate in square yards or miles, must depend on 
the size of the biga, which is not indicated. If we assume it at the present 
average of the province, the dominions of the Gajapatis included at that 
period more than 40,000 square miles. 



92 



the khetris and bliuniyas, added to the Raj the following extent of 
country, viz., on the north that lying between the Kans Bans and 
the Datai Borhi river ; south the country from the Rassikoilah 
down to the Dandpat of Rajamundry ; and west to the confines of 
Boad Sonepur, from which an increase of revenue of twenty lacs has 
been obtained : my total gross revenues therefore are thirty-five 
lacs of marhs of gold. Out of this amount I have assigned stated 
sums for the payment of the Sawants (Commanders,) Mahawats 
and Rawats (chiefs of horses and elephants,) priests, brahmins, and 
the worship of the deity. For the maintenance of the Paiks, 
Shewaks (vassals or officers,) and other servants of the state, lands 
have been duly set apart. Oh Princes and Chiefs, respect my ar- 
rangements, and beware that you never resume the above grants 
and allowances, lest you become liable to the penalty denounced in 
the shastras against those who take back what has been given. 
Above all in the management of the country under your charge, be 
just and merciful to the ryots, and collect revenue from them ac- 
cording to the fixed and established rate. As I have by my own 
good fortune and exertions accumulated a large treasure, viz., forty 
lacs of marhs of gold taken from the countries of the conquered 
bhuniyas, and jewels to the value of seven lacs eightj^-eight thous- 
and marhs, it is now my intention to devote a portion to the service 
of Jagannath, by building a new temple one hundred cubits high, 
and bestowing a quantity of ornaments and utensils. Let me hear 
your opinions on this point." The ministers and courtiers all re- 
plied that so good a work could not too soon be taken in hand, and 
that after the sagacity aud prudence displayed by his majesty, any 
advice on their parts must be superfluous. An officer named Para- 
mahans Bajpoi was therefore directed to take the work in hand 
forthwith, and twelve lacs and fifty thousand marhs of gold with 
jewels to the value of 2,50,000 were set apart for the purpose. 

The marh of gold is stated to be equivalent to five mashas weight, 
a valuation which would raise the amount of the revenues of Orissa 
according to the above statement, far beyond what we can believe 
them ever to have realized, even allowing, as offered in explanation, 
that the gold of that age was very impure, and that the statement 
includes the gross rents of the whole of the lands of the country, 
both the royal domains and those now held by the hill Zemindars 
and Poligars. It appears unaccountable too, why the sum total of 
the revenues should be stated in gold, when we know that cowris 
always formed the principal currency of the district. As I am un- 
able to furnish any satisfactory elucidation of these points, I must 



93 



leave the statement as it stands, content with having presented a 
faithful translation. 

On the occasion of building the temple, a new coin and seal were 
struck by the Raja's orders, with the titles which are used to this 
day by the Khurda Rajas, who claim to represent the majesty of 
this once powerful race. Their pompons nature may amuse those 
who are unacquainted with eastern ostentation, and with its displays 
of the pitiful jiride of dying men. They run thus, — " Vira Sri Ga- 
japati, Gaureswara navakotikernatotkalavergeswaradhirai, Bhuta 
bhairava deva, Sadhusasanotkarana, Rawat Rai, Atula balaprakar- 
masangrama Sahasra bahu, KshetriyaKuladhumraketu," &c. "The 
illustrious Hero, the Gajapati (Lord of Elephants,) Sovereign of 
Bengal, Supreme Monarch over the rulers of the tribes of Utkala, 
Kernata, and the nine forts, a divinity temble as Bhairava to the 
wicked, the protector of the grants enjoyed by the pious ; king of 
kings ; like the lord of a thousand arms in the field of battle by his 
unequalled might, and a comet to the martial race." 

His son Rajeswara Deo reigned thirty-five j'ears and was suc- 
ceeded A. D. 1236 by Raja Narsinh Deo, surnamed Langora, a 
prince of great celebrity in the annals of Orissa, as well as in its 
legends and romances. His great personal strength, and skill in 
athletic exercises, seem to have invested him with a sort of super- 
natural character in the eyes of his subjects ; and popular tradition 
has exaggerated some peculiarity in his figure or dress, into tlie 
fable of his being provided with a tail, whence is derived the epithet 
Langora. He is said to have been of a very martial turn, and to 
have waged a long war to the southward. 

It was this Raja who built the famous temple of the sun at 
Kanarak, called by the Europeans the Black Pagoda, "thereby," 
observes the author of the Ayin Akberi, "erecting for himself a 
lasting monument of fame." The work was executed chiefly under 
the superintendence of the minister Shibai Santra, and is stated to 
have been completed in the year of the Sacabda 1200, answering to 
1277 A. D. 

After Raja Langora Narsinh Deo, five other princes named Nar- 
sinh and six with the title of Bhanu, whom some describe as a 
separate family called Suraj-bansi, ruled over Orissa, until A. D. 
1451. Their reigns are for the most part undistinguished by events 
of importance, but they have left some public works which coupled 
with other -lapnuments of the Ganga Vansa Rajas, give a favourable 
impression of the public spirit and munificence of that race. 
Amongst these is the bridge at the entrance of Pooree called the 



94 



Atliara Naleh, said to have been built A. D. 1300, by Raja Kabir 
Narsinh Deo. A dreadful scarcity is recorded to have happened 
early in the 14th century, when paddy rose to the (then) enormous 
price of 120 kahans of cowris per bharan — about three times its 
present average rate calculated in the same currency, but nearly 
sixty times the ordinary selling price of that age, if an account in 
my possession is to be credited, which states, that under the Bhanus, 
rice in the husk sold for two kahans per bharan, clean rice at ten 
cowris per ser, and cotton one pan ten gandas per ser. 

The last of the Rajas surnamed Bhanu, being childless, he 
adopted as his son and successor a youth, named Kapila or Kapil 
Santra, of the Suraj-bansi tribe of Rajputs. The boy became 
afterwards a prince of high renown under the title of Kapil Indra 
Deo, and the native chroniclers have not failed therefore to embellish 
the history of his early life, with flattering fictions and stories of 
supernatural occurrences, prophetic of his future rise and greatness. 
It is said, that when a child, he gained his livelihood by tending the 
cows of a brahmin. One day his master found him fast asleep on 
the ground at mid-day, and a huge snake standing erect near him, 
witli its hood spread out and held in such a manner, as to shelter 
him from the fierce rays of the meridian sun. This indication satis- 
fied the brahmin that he was destined to become something great. 
Shortly after, the Raja, whilst passing one day to the temple, took 
notice of him, enquired his name, and being struck with his answers 
and appearance, finding moreover that he was by caste and descent 
a rawat or leader of the Suraj-bansi Rajputs, he attached him to 
the royal household, where he speedily became a favorite. He was 
soon directed by Mahadeo in a dream to adopt him as his son and 
successor. The lad was now called Kapil Bhowarbar, and rose 
rapidly through several offices to the post of Pater or Prime 
Minister. The Moguls having come into the country from the 
north with a large army to demand tribute, the Raja feeling himself 
xmable to cope with them in the field, sent his favorite to negociate 
a treaty of peace. He was detained as a hostage for the payment 
of the sum agreed upon, but was well treated by the King or Nawab, 
and on the death of his patron soon after, he was allowed to 
return to Orissa, when he assumed the government, A. D. 1451, 
under the title of Kapil Indra Deo. His reign is described to have 
been one continued series of wars, sieges, and expeditions. He 
visited in person every quarter of his widely extended dominions, 
but was occupied chiefly to the southward, and resided a good deal 
at Kimcdy and Rajamundry. He also visited the city of Vijianagara 



9^ 



and founded there several Sasans, more especially one called Dam- 
oderpur Sasan. The Raja afterwards pursued his conquests as fur 
as Rama's bridge, opposite Ceylon, which the natives call Set 
Band Rameswara. 

Ferishteh relates, that in the time of Humayun Shah Bahmini, 
about A. D. 1457, the Telingahs prevailed on the Rajas of Orissa 
and Uria to afford them assistance against the IMohammedans, who 
sent a large army to their aid, with many war elephants. The con- 
federates completely defeated the armies of Islam, and pursued them 
from the field of battle for many miles. Under Nizam Shah, son 
of the above, the Rai of Orissa in conjunction with the powerful 
Zemindars of Khetris of Telingana, again invaded the territories 
of the Deckany sovereigns by way of Rajamandry and plundered 
as far as Kolas. The Rai of Orissa is said to have advanced in 
great state and splendour, with the declared intention of conquer- 
ing the whole of Telingana from the Mussulmans, aud compelling 
them to pay tribute. When he had arrived however witiiin ten 
miles of the Mohammedan capital Ahmedabad, the ministers taking 
courage sent him a message of defiance saying that "their king had 
long intended to subjugate Orissa and Jehannagar and render it 
tributary, but the idea of the distance of that country had hitherto 
deterred him from the undertaking : however as the Raja had now 
come so far to throw himself into the jaws of destruction, much 
trouble would be saved to the victorious armies of Islam." This 
bravado was followed up by a spirited sally of Patan horse, which 
cooled a little the ardour of the Hindus, and induced them to fall 
back. They were finally glad to purchase a secure retreat to their 
own frontier, by paying down a sum of five lacs of rupees. 

The Bahmini king, who had always wished to obtain a footing 
on the Godaveri, agreed to Himber's proposal, marched an army 
into Uria, defeated the usurper Mangal Rai, and restored the prin- 
cipality to his ally, taking for his own share the forts of Rajaman- 
dry and Condapilly. 

After some time Rai Uria seems to have repented of his connec- 
tion with the Mohammedans, and to have become desirous of re- 
turning to his old allegiance. One of those destructive famines 
noticed in the accounts of Raja Kapil Indra Deo's reign, having 
spread general ruin and consternation throughout the Dcccan, the 
conjuncture appeared to him favourable for making an effort to 
throw off the Musselman yoke, and he accordingly dispatched a 
message to the Rai of Orissa, saying, that "if he wished to recover 



96 



his hereditary dominions in Telingana, r.ow \vas the time." About 
A. D. 1471, the Raja of Orissa collected together an army of 
10,000 foot and 8,000 horse, and summoning all his tributary 
chiefs to attend him, proceeded into Telingana without delay, i^io- 
hammed Shah hastened to oppose the combined forces of Orissa and 
Uria, and soon compelled the Rais to retreat across the lake of 
Rajamandry, He then, says Ferishteh, resolved to punish the 
Idolater for his insolence and aggression, and taking with him a 
chosen body of 20,000 men, made a dash into Orissa, and pene- 
trated as far as the capital, plundering and laying waste the country 
on all sides. The Raja unable to withstand the fury of the storm 
which he had so rashly raised, fled before the invaders, and was 
soon obliged to sue humbly for peace ; which was granted on con- 
dition of his paying a large sum of gold and silver, and surrendering 
twenty-five celebrated elephants which he valued next his life. 
The Musselman prince then retired, with the same degree of rapid- 
ity as he advanced, to Condapilly, where he humbled his other op- 
ponent Rai Uria. 

The reign of Raja Pursottcm Deo who came to the crown A. D. 
1478, is rendered memorable by the most striking exploit recorded 
in the annals of Orissa, viz. the expedition to and conquest of 
Conjeveram, 48 miles S. W. from Madras. The circumstances of 
that transaction deserve to be rescued from oblivion, as well for 
the curious picture which they afford of the manners and opinions 
of the age and nation, as from their connection with an historical 
incident of some importance. The fullest account of the expedition 
is to be found in the poem called the Kanjikaveri Pot'hi. 

The story runs nearly as follows: " In the country of Dakhin 
Kanouj Kernat Sasan, there lived a powerful Raja who had a vast 
fortress and palace built of a fine black stone, called Kanjinagar 
(Conjeveram,) and a daughter so beauteous and accomplished, that 
she was surnamed Pudmavati or Padmini.* The fame of her 
charms having reached the ears of Maharaja Pursottem Deo, he 
became anxious to espouse her, and sent a messenger accordingly 
to the Chief of Conjeveram to solicit the hand of his fair danghter. 
That Raja was well pleased with the prospect of having for his son- 
in-law so great and powerful a prince as the Gajapati of Orissa, but 
considered it advisable, to make some enquiries regarding the cus- 
toms and manners of that Court before consenting to the alliance. 

* Tliis was the name of a Princess, Avhose amours with Khosru Perviz, 
are celebrated in several Indian and Persian Romances, and is in Sancrit 
indeed the general nauie of a particular class of beauties. 



97 



He soon found that the Maharajas were in the habit of preforming 
tlie duties of a sweeper (Chandal) before the image of Jagannath, 
on its being brought forth from the temple annually at the Rat'h 
Jatra. Now the Kanjinagar Raja was a devoted and exclusive 
worshipper of Sri Ganesh (Ganesa), and had very little respect for 
Juggernaut, the divinity of Orissa ; and conceiving the above 
humiliation to be quite unworthy of, and indeed utterly disgraceful 
to a Khetri of such high rank, he declined the alliance in conse- 
quence. The Gajapati monarch became very wroth at the refusal, 
and swore, that to revenge the slight cast on him, he would obtain 
the damsel by force and marry her to a real sweeper. He accord- 
ingly marched with a large army to attack Conjeveram, but was 
defeated and obliged to retire. Overwhelmed with shame and con- 
fusion, he now threw himself at the feet of Sri Jeo, and earnestly 
supplicated his interference to avenge the insult offered to the deity 
himself in the person of his faithful worshipper. The god promised 
assistance, says the author of the poem, directed him to assemble 
another army, and assured him that he would this time take the 
command of the expedition against Conjeveram in person. When 
the Raja had arrived, during the progress of his march, at the site 
of the village now called Manikpatam, he began to grow anxious 
for some visible indication of the presence of deity. In the midst 
of his cogitations on the subject, a milkmaid named Manika, came 
up and displayed a ring which she said had been entrusted to her, to 
present to the monarch of Orissa, by two handsome Cavaliers, 
mounted the one on a black, and the other on a white horse, who 
had just passed on to the southward. She also related some par^ 
ticulars of a conversation with them which satisfied the Raja, that 
the promise of assistance would be fulfilled ; and that these horse- 
men were no other than the two brothers Sri Jeo (Krishna) and 
Baldeo (Baladeva.) Full of joy and gratitude, he directed the- 
village in future to be called, after his fair informant, Manikpa- 
tana, and marched onwards to the Deccan secure of success. On 
the other hand the chief of Conjeveram, alarmed at the second ad- 
vance of the Gajapati in great force, appealed for aid to his protect- 
ing deity Ganesh, who candidly told him that he had little chance 
against Jagannath, but would do his best. The siege was now 
opened and many obstinate and bloody battles were fought under 
the walls of the fort. The gods Juggernaut and- Ganesa, 
espousing warmly the 'cause of their respective votaries, perform 
many miracles and mix personally in the engagements, much in the 
style of the Homeric deities before the walls of Troy ; but the latter 



98 

is always worsted. In reality, after a long struggle, Conjeveram 
fell before the armies of Orissa. The Raja escaped, but his beau- 
tiful daughter was captured and conducted in triumph to Puri. 
A famous image of Gopal, called the Satbadi Thakur, that is, the 
" truth speaking god,'' was brought off at the same time and set up 
in a temple ten miles north of Pursottem, where it may still be 
seen, a monument of the Conjeveram expedition. 

Conformably with his oath, Raja Pursottem Deo made over the 
fair Padmavati or Padmini to his chief minister, desiring him to wed 
her to a sweeper. Both the ministers, however, and all the people 
of Puri commiserated her misfortunes ; and at the next Rath Jatra, 
when the Maharaja began to perform his office of Chandal (sweeper), 
the individual entrusted with the charge of the lady brought her 
forth and presented her to him, saying, " You ordered me to give 
the Princess to a sweeper; you are the sweeper upon whom I be- 
stow her." Moved by the intercession of his subjects, the Raja at 
last consented to marry Padmavati, and carried her to the palace at 
Cuttack. The end of this lady's history is as romantic as the pre- 
ceding portion of it. She is said to have conceived and brought 
forth a son by Mahadeo, shortly after which she disappeared. All 
the circumstances were explained to the husband in a dream, who 
acknowledged gratefully the honor conferred on him, and declared 
the child thus mysteriously born his successor in the Raj. 

Pursottem Deo died after a reign of twenty-five years, and was 
succeeded by Pertab Janamuni, the son of Padmavati, under the 
title of Pertab Rudra Deo, A. D. 1503. The wisdom and learning 
of this prince soon became the theme and admiration of the whole 
country. He had studied deeply all the shasters, was very fond of 
disputing and conversing on points of theology, and introduced 
many curious constructions of his own, and doctrines that were al- 
together new. He was also devout, and built many temples. His 
skill in the arts of war and civil government, were eminent; he was 
equally celebrated as an able, learned, warlike and religious prince. 
A very curious anecdote is related of his conduct, which seems to 
shew that the followers of Buddha continued to form a sect of im- 
portance in this part of India until the beginning of the sixteenth 
century.* It is said that a serious robbery happened in the Raja's 

* As this is contrary to received opinions, to the inferences warranted 
by the works of Madhavacharya in the 13th century and the statement of 
Abulfazl in the Ifitli, it seems Hkely that the original authorities have con- 
founded, ns is very commonly the case, the Bauddhas and Jains, and that 
tlie hatter are here intended.— A^'o/e hy the Secretary C. A. S. 



99 



palace, and that he being anxious to discover the perpetrators, as- 
sembled together all the wise men, both of the Bauddhist and 
Brahminical persuasion, to obtain their assistance in prosecuting an 
investigation. The brahmins could tell nothing, but the followers 
of Buddha, through their knowledge of the occult art, were enabled 
to point out both the offender and the place where the stolen pro- 
perty was concealed. The Raja was induced by this incident to 
form so high an opinion of the learning and skill of the Bauddhists, 
that he became for some time a warm supporter of that sect. His 
Rani on the other hand espoused zealously the cause of the brah- 
mins. It was at last determined to make another formal trial of 
their relative skill as men of science, or rather magicians. According- 
ly a snake was secretly put into an earthen jar, the mouth of 
which being covered up, the vessel was produced in a great assembly 
at the palace. Both parties were then asked what the jar contained. 
The brahmins answered, "it contains only earth," and sure enough 
when opened it was found to contain nothing but earth. This spe- 
cimen of skill entirely changed the Raja's opinion, and he now be- 
came as violent against the Bauddhists as he had been before preju- 
diced in their favour ; so much so that he not only withdrew his 
protection and countenance, but violently expelled the whole sect 
from his dominions, and destroyed all their books except the pot'his 
called the Amer Singh and Bir Singh. About this time Chytunya 
or Chytan Mahaprabhu came from N;iddia in Bengal to visit the 
temple of Jaggannath, and preformed various miracles before the 
Rga. The key of the whole story is probably to be found in the 
visit of this celebrated Vyshnavite reformer or secretary, who doubt- 
less had some share in creating the hostile disposition of Raja Per- 
tab Rudra Deo, towards the followers of the heretical Budha. 

Another of those famines which have so often afflicted India, oc- 
curred early in the sixteenth century in Orissa. The Raja who 
could find leisure for schemes of conquest and ambition amidst his 
religious enquiries and controversies, marched with his army down 
to Setu Band Rameswara, reduced several forts, and 'took the fa- 
mous city of Vijayanagara. The Mohammedans of the Deccan also 
gave abundant occupation to his arms on the southern frontier of 
the Raj, and whilst he was occupied in repelling or provoking their 
attacks, the Afghans from Bengal made an inroad into the province 
in great force. They advanced as far as Cuttack, and pitched their 
camp in the neighbourhood of the city, when the Governor Anant 
Singhar finding himself unable to oppose any effectual resistance, 
took refuge in the strong fortress of Sarangcrh, south of the Katjuri. 



100 



After satiating themselves with the plunder of the capital, they pro- 
ceeded towards Pud, where they committed dreadful devastations ; 
but the grand object of their search, the Idol or Deo of Orissa, had 
been removed out of their reach, the priests having taken the pre- 
caution, so soon as they heard of the approacli of the invaders, to 
carry off Sri Jeo and the other images in boats across the Chilka in 
order to conceal them amongst the hills. Raja Pertab Rudra Deo 
on receiving intelligence of these disastrous occurrences, hastened 
back from the Deccan ; and preforming a journey of months in a few 
days, he came up with the invading army before they had left the 
khetr, gave them battle, and destroyed a great number. He was 
however himself so much crippled by the contest, that he was hap- 
py to conclude a peace nearly on the enemy's terms, when they re- 
tired and left the province. 

This prince died A. D. 1524, having reigned twenty-one years. 
"With him terminated all the glories of the Ganga Vansa dynasty, 
and the royal house of Orissa. The race itself became extinct soon 
after the demise of Raja Pertab Rudra Deo, and the independence 
of the country was not destined long to survive. Pressed at both 
extremities by the vigourand enterprize of the Mohammedan govern- 
ments of Bengal and Telingana, now in the full maturity of their 
strength, the downfall of the Orissan monarchy was further hasten- 
ed by intestine commotions, disunion amongst the chiefs, and a 
series of bloody and destructive contests for the supreme dignity. 

Soon after the death of Raja Pertab Rudra, the powerful mini- 
ster Govind barbarously murdered thirty princes of the royal house, 
and waded through blood to the throne. Various individuals suc- 
ceeded him; and in 1550 A. D. the last independent Raja ascended 
the throne with the title of Telinga Mukund Deo. 

All the native accounts concur in describing their last indepen- 
dent Raja as a man of courage and abilities. He has been honored 
with a notice in the work of the Jesuit TiefFen thaler, who extends 
our knowledge of his character by informing us, that "the last king 
of the Orissans was called Mukund, who was very polite to stran- 
gers and had four hundred women." The early part of his reign 
was employed chiefly in constructing monuments of jniblic utility or 
superstition, as temples, tanks, and brahminical sasans. Amongst 
other works of the kind, he founded a ghat and temple at the sacred 
spot called Tribcni, on the Hoogly, north of the town of that name 
which formed the extreme verge of his dominions ; and whilst so oc- 
cupied, frequent communications are said to have passed between 
him and the king of Delhi, or rather the officers of the emperor. 



101 



SoHaman Gurzani, the Afghan king or governor of Bengal, having 
assembled an army to invade Orissa, the Raja built a strong fortress 
in some commanding situation, and for this time opposed his 
endeavours successfully. At last however came Kala Pahar Gen- 
eral of the Bengal forces, the conqueror of Orissa, with his wonder 
working kettle drum, at the sound of which it is said the ears and 
feet of the idols would drop off for many coss all around. The 
Hindus say of this dreaded enemy of their images and superstition, 
that he was originally a brahmin, but lost caste through acontrivance 
of the princess of Gaura, who was smitten with the manly beauty of 
his person. He then married her, turned Musselman, and became a 
relentless persecutor of the adherents of the faith from wliich he 
had apostatized. Many dire omens preceded iind announced his 
arrival in the province ; amongst others a large stone fell from the 
summit of the great tower of the temple at Puri, and when he en- 
tered the precincts of the khetr, a general darkness overspread the 
four corners of the land. In short, Kalapahar invaded Orissa on 
the part of the king or governor of Bengal with an army of Afghan 
Cavalry, defeated and killed the Raja or drove him from the coun- 
try, and finally overthrew the independent sovereignty of Orissa, 
A. D. 1558. Two titular princes were set up after the expulsion 
of Mukund Deo, who both fell into the hands of the conquerors and 
were put to death by them. An anarchy of twenty-one years du- 
ration then ensued, during which the Afghan Mohammedans pos- 
sessed the whole of the open country, and there was no Raja. 

The several accounts which have been handed down of Kalapa- 
har's invasion of Orissa, differ widely in the details, though the 
main facts are well known and established. The story told by the 
Musselman writers is that, Mukund Deo, apprehending the designs 
of the king or governor of Bengal, encamped with a large part of 
his army on the Ganges ; but Kalapahar turning his position got 
a-head of him into Orissa, and began to plunder the country and 
attack the temples of the Hindus Avith relentless fury, before any 
force could be brought to check him. A battle at length took 
place at Jajipur in which the Raja lost his life. The Afghan chief 
then went on to Sumbhulpoor, where he was killed by some of the 
Bhuyans. Others say that on his passing the great temple of the 
Ling Raj at Bhuvaneswara, a swarm of bees issued from the throne 
of the idol and stung him to death. The Puri Vynsavali makes 
the Raja to have been busy in Khurda when the Afghan army 
suddenly advanced upon Cuttack, defeated the Governor Gopi Sa- 
want Sinhar, and plundered the palace and treasury, alarmed at 



102 



which news, Mukund Deo fled out of the province not daring to 
oppose so powerful a force, and died shortly after in the king of 
Delhi's dominions. 

All the native writers agree in speaking with horror of the cruel 
excesses committed by their Afghan conqueror, and the wide de- 
struction of images and temples occasioned by his unrelenting per- 
secution of the Hindu faith. Many demolished idols seen at various 
temples demonstrate the devastation caused by these invasions. 
Their conquerors gloried in the destruction of idols, and even made 
them stepping-stones to their mosques. 

The adventures of the great Idol form a curious episode in the 
history of this period. According to the Mandala Panji, when the 
priests at Pooree saw the turn which matters were taking, they 
again for the third time in their annals, hurried away the helpless 
god in a covered cart, and buried him in a pit at PariJcud, on the 
Chilka Lake, Kalapahar was not however to be defrauded of so 
rich a prize, and having traced out the place of concealment, he dug 
up Juggernaut and carried him off on an elephant, as far as the 
Ganges, after breaking in pieces every image in the Khetr. He 
then collected a large pile of wood, and setting fire to it, threw the 
idol on the heap. A bystander snatching the image from the flames, 
threw it into the river. The whole proceeding had been watched 
by Besar ]\Iainti, a faithful votary of Juggernaut, who followed the 
half-burnt image as it floated down the stream, and at last, when 
unperceived, managed to extract from it the sacred part, (Brahm or 
spirit in the original,) and brought it back secretly to Orissa, where 
it was carefully deposited in charge of the Khandait of Kujang. 

After twenty-one years of anarchy, the principal men of the 
country chose for their chief a person named Ranai Raotra, whom 
they raised to the rank and dignity of Maharaja of Orissa, A. D. 
1580, under the title of Ramchandcr Deo. With him begins the 
third and titular race of sovereigns called the Bhoi Vansa, or Zemin- 
dari race. The election was confirmed by Sewai Jye Sinh, the 
general of the Emperor Akber, who came into the province about 
the time, with his army, to look after the imperial interests. The 
sight of Bhuvaneswara, its numerous temples, the crowds of brah- 
mins, and the sacred character of every thing in Utcala Desa, is 
said to have impressed him with feelings of so much reverence and 
admiration for the country, that he determined to interfere very 
little in its affairs, and retired shortly afterwards, leaving a large 
share of authority in the hands of its Native Princes. The town of 
Midnapore was at this time made the northern boundary of Orissa. 



103 



Raja Ramchander Deo's first care was to recover the sacred 
relics belonging to the old image of Jagannath, which duty being 
accomplished with the assistance of their preserver Besar Mainti, 
the Daru Murat, or image made of the wood of the Nini tree, was 
fabricated according to the rules of the shaster, and again set up in 
the temple, on a propitious day, with much pomp and solemnity. 
The worship of Sri Jeo was now fully restored, all the feasts and 
endowments of the temple put on their old footing, and a number 
of sasans were founded in honor of the memorable event. It was 
disturbed again however almost immediately afterwards, by an in- 
vasion of Musselmans from Golconda, whose king or Adipati, as 
the Hindu writers call him, seems to have given the Raja a severe 
defeat, 

Ramchander Deo enjoyed his station and dignities for twenty- 
nine years. He was an able and respectable prince, and his memory 
seems to be much venerated by the natives of the province. From 
his time, the field embraced by the Orissan annals, becomes greatly 
narrowed, though they still aftbrd a vast deal of curious local in- 
formation. The necessary limits confine me to an exhibition of 
1st. A list of the names of the several Rajas and the duration of 
their reigns ; and 2nd, a brief outline of such part of their history, 
as has any connection with the general affairs of the Suhah of 
Orissa. The materials for an historical account of the country, 
under this new denomination, are very scanty and imperfect. The 
slender information extant of the proceedings of the Mogul officers 
from the retirement of Raja Man Sinh in A. D. 1004, to the dew- 
anship of the flimous Nuwab JafFer Khan Nasiri (A.D. 1707 to 
1725,) has to be gleaned from a few scattered notices in Persian 
histories of Bengal and scarcely intelligible revenue accounts ; 
though the century in question must be regarded as a most import- 
ant period in the annals of the country, when we consider the deep 
and permanent traces impressed on the state of affairs, by the ar- 
rangements, institutions, offices, and official designations, introduced 
by the imperial government during that interval. Subsequent to 
the elevation of JafFer Khan, we meet with tolerably full and de- 
tailed journals and records both of the Mohammedan and Marhatta 
administrations, composed in the Persian language. 

List of Khurda Rajas. 

Ramchander Deo, succeeds A.D. 1580 

Pursottem Deo 1^<J^ 

Narsinh Deo 1G30 



104 



Gangadliar Deo 1G55 

Balbhadder Deo 165G 

Mukund Deo 1664 

Dirb Sinh Deo » .. .. 1692 

Kislien or Harikishen Deo 1715 

Gopinath Deo 1720 

Ramcliander Deo 1727 

Bir Kishore Deo 1743 

Dirb Sinh Deo 1786 

Mukund Deo 1798 

The southern part of Orissa Proper must have suffered much 
from the constant wars, insurrections, and internal commotions, 
that prevailed dviring the early times of the Musselman government. 
The Moguls seem to have been actuated by peculiar rancour and ill 
will towards Jagannath, and lost no opportunity of annoying and 
disturbing the Hindus in the performance of their devotions at his 
temple. To say nothing of other fruitful sources of jealousy and 
animosity, this interference alone was sufficient to produce many 
bloody encounters between the~ two nations, in which success was 
often doubtful. On the whole however, the native Princes suffered 
the most severely, and gradually sank before the superior energy 
and civilization of the Moguls. The Rajas had at first established 
their residence at Pipley ; afterwards they retired to Rathipur ; and 
finally built their fort and palace in a naturally difficult part of 
Khurda, where they were found settled in 1803. During these 
contests in and about Pooree, the images so much venerated by the 
one party and abhorred by the other, were twice or thrice carried 
away across the Chilka lake, and concealed, amidst the hills, until 
the times appeared favorable for again setting them upon their 
thrones in the temple. This religious warfare was at last set at 
rest by the institution of the tax on pilgrims, which, if we may cre- 
dit the author of the work translated by Gladwin, under the title of 
History of Bengal, yielded to the Mogul government a revenue of 
nine lacs. Under such circumstances, religious antipathies however 
strong on the part of the ruling power, must have yielded gradually 
to considerations of self-interest. 

The Afghans did not disappear from the field as disturbers of the 
peace of Cuttack, until 1611 A. D., when having again risen under 
Osman Khan the son of Kattali, they were defeated with great 
slaughter on the Subunreekha by Shujat Khan from Bengal, and 
compelled finally to submit. They then settled peaceably in many 
of the principal villages of the district, and their descendants at this 



105 

day form a Musselman population, under the general denomination 
of Pathans. 

But the greatest of all their calamities overwhelmed the unfortu- 
nate Orissans about A. D. 1743. After some alarming demonstra- 
tions in the year preceding, the Berar Marhattas suddenly made 
their appearance in the Province, in large force. There being no 
power adequate to oppose them, they swept the whole country up 
to the walls of fort Barabatti at Cuttack, plundering whatever they 
could lay their hands on without mercy, — and the same scenes were 
repeated the year following, by a still larger army under Ragoji 
Bhonsla himself, and the famous adventurer Habib Ullah. Aliverdi 
Khan made astonishing eftbrts to relieve the Province, as well as to 
protect the adjoining districts from these destructive inroads, but 
the people of Midnapore and Cuttack enjoyed little respite from the 
Marhatta incursions and depredations imtil 1750. A fresh army 
invaded Orissa in 1753, under the command of Raja Janoji Bhonsla 
and Mir Habib Ullah, who in the same year, in their camp at Chou- 
dwar, near the Mahanuddy, projected and arranged a partition of 
the Province between themselves, for the maintenance of their re- 
spective armies. Its resources on this occasion were estimated at 
only ten lacs. 

Things remained in this miserable state till the next year, when 
a fresh treaty was entered into, between the Marhattas and Aliverdi 
Khan, at the instigation of the whole body of the Zemindars of 
Midnapore and neighbouring districts, who, worn out by the re- 
peated incursions of the Berar Marhattas, ofiered to pay any sum 
which might be agreed to as a composition for the Chout or tribute. 
Masalih ad Din was in consequence dispatched by the Court of 
Moorshedabad to Nagpore, with full powers to treat, and the fol- 
lowing arrangements were determined on — " The Chout of the three 
Subas was now settled at 12,00,000 annually. The Suba of Orissa 
from Pergunnah Pattaspur to Malud to be managed by a Subadar 
appointed from Bengal, who should yearly pay the surplus revenue 
of that Province, estimated at four lacs, to an agent of the Bhonsla 
stationed at Cuttack. The remaining eight lacs were to be made 
good from Moorshedabad, Patna, &c., by Hundis or Bills of Ex- 
change- The Marhatta armies forthwith to evacuate the Province.'' 
On the conclusion of the treaty. Raja Janoji quilted Orissa, Mo- 
hammed Masalih ad Din received the appointment of Naib Subadar 
and Sheo Bhat Santra, an cmiBent Gosain merchant, was named 
the agent for the Court of Berar to receive the four lacs from 



106 



Cuttack, and to look after the annual remittance of the balance of 
the Chout from Moorshedabad. 

The administration of the Marhattas in Cuttack, as in every other 
part of their foreign conquests, was fatal to the welfare of the people 
and the prosperity of the country, and exhibits a picture of misrule, 
anarchy, weakness, rapacity, and violence combined, which makes 
one wonder how society can have been kept together under so 
calamitous a tyranny. All the head offices of the district, as those 
of Subadar, Dewan, and the Killadarship of fort Barabatti, were 
openly bought and sold at Nagpore. It frequently happened that 
appointments were given to two or three persons at the same time, 
and still oftener the individuals in charge refused to retire under 
various pretexts. The different claimants, assembling their fol- 
lowers, would fight the most obstinate battles, and lay waste the 
country with their dissensions, before the right to succeed was 
settled. Pressed by the urgent irregular demands of the Court of 
Nagpore for remittances, and by the necessity of reimbursing them- 
selves for the expences incurred in obtaining office, the most ruinous 
expedients were perpetually resorted to, to wring a higher revenue 
from the lands, whilst their resources declined in proportion to the 
tyranny exercised over the cultivators. Notwithstanding that large 
military bodies were posted all over the district, the Marhattas were 
quite unable to retain the Khandaits and their paiks in any sort of 
order. Those of the seashore and the hills, not only laid the whole 
of the pergunnahs bordering upon them under regular contribution, 
but frequently the Paiks of several small killahs, combining to- 
gether, advanced into the heart of the district, and committed the 
most ruinous depredations up to the very walls of Cuttack. Every 
year regularly after the Dassera, the Marhatta armies took the field 
under the Subadar in person, and advanced into some part of the 
Rajwara, to chastise some insolence, or to enforce the demand for 
tribute. When successful, the most sanguinary punishments and 
destructive ravages were inflicted, — but they were frequently de- 
feated, and their weakness exjjoscd, by the Paiks of killahs which 
now scarcely retain a name. Besides, the continued marches and 
countermarches of a licentious disorderly Marhatta soldiery, in 
every direction across the Province, were in themselves evils of no 
trifling magnitude. Matters improved a little towards the close of 
the Marhatta period, during the long administration of Raja Ram 
Pundit ; but if the ryots were in a small degree better protected by 
his measures, he reduced, to the lowest stage of poverty and degra- 
dation, a powerful and important class, the hereditary Talukdars of 



107 



the Mogulbandi, wlio were ejected by him, very generally, from 
the management of then- Taluks, and left with scarcely even the 
means of subsistence. 

It would be impossible to render interesting to the general 
reader, the never varying detail of oppression, mismanagement, and 
suffering displayed by the Marhatta annals in this fourth stage of 
Orissan history. 

The first and most energetic of the Marhatta Subadars, was Sheo 
Bhat Santia, who exercised a disputed and precarious authority for 
a period of about eight years, from 1163 to 1171 Amli, and may be 
said to have been in full possession of the powers of government 
for about half that period. He made a settlement of the revenues 
of the Province, nominally at 18,00,000 of Arcot Rupees, of wliich 
14,00,000 were entered as regular land revenue, and the remaining 
4,00,000 as imposts under various heads. During his administra- 
tion, a farther dismemberment took place of the territories of the 
Maharajas of Khurda. In 1167 Amli, Narain Deo, the famous 
Zemindar of Kimedy,* a descendant of the royal family of Orissa, 
who had before asserted his preferable title to the Khurda Raj, in- 
vaded that district by way of Banpur, with the avowed intention of 
taking possession of it, and drove the reigning prince Bir Kisliore 
Deo before him. Unable to resist his powerful rival, the latter was 
thrown upon the dangerous expedient of claiming the assistance of 
the Marliattas, which was granted on condition of the payment of a 
large sum, to defray all expenses, in return. The aid of the Suba- 
dar proved effectual in clearing Khurda of the pretender's arn)y, 
but the Raja being unable to discharge the money bargained for, he 
was obliged to mortgage or surrender tempor-arily for its liquidation, 
the best portion of his dominions, viz. the Mehals, Limbai, Raheng, 
Pursottem Chatter, &e., — in short, the whole country lying between 
the Dya river, the lake and the sea, with the tribute of the fourteen 
Rajas or Khandaits of the hills, stiil subject to his control. The 
Marhattas were allowed to appoint their own Amils, and having 
thus gained a footing in the tracts in question, they never afterwards 
relinquished possession. The benefit of the acquisition seems 
doubtful, as the usurpation of Raheng, &c., involved them in a 

* Mr. Grant in his Political Essay in the Northern Sircars, says of this 
person: "Kimedy, fifty miles N.E. by N. from the town of Cicacole, is 
the capital of another tributarj' but more accessible dependant principality 
vested in a Raja of the royal family of Orissa, who actually hears the titu- 
lar designation of that ancient house under the proper name of Gujipati 
Deo, through the refractory imprudence of Narain Deo, father of the pre- 
sent occupant, in opposing the Company's authority." 



108 



state of unceasing hostility with the Khurda Rajas ; and the chxim 
to levy the tribute of Rajwara brought them yearly into disputes 
and battles with the hill Chiefs, in which, to say nothing of the ex- 
penditure of blood and treasure, they were nearly as often worsted 
as they were successful. 

Raja Ram Pundit, who had for many years filled the office of 
Deputy to the local governor, and had taken a leading part in all 
the arrangements for the management of the interior, succeeded to 
the office of Subadar, about 1185 Amli, His personal qualities 
and abilities were respectable, and, coupled with his extensive local 
knowledge, lent a character of dignity and stability to his admini- 
stration, with which no preceding one had been invested. The 
chief measure ascribed to him, is that of setting aside all the here- 
ditary Chowdris and Canungos, in other words the Talukdars of the 
Mogulbandi, and collecting the revenues through officers of his own 
appointing, either from the ryots direct, or through the agency of 
the head men of villages, where such existed. He was also the 
first governor who imposed a tribute on the jNlaharajas of Khurda. 
Raja Bir Kishore Deo, after a long reign of forty-one years, fell 
into a state of furious insanity, and committed such frightful ex- 
cesses, even to the extent of murdering four of his own children, 
that a general outcry was raised against him throughout the coun- 
try. The Marhattas did not neglect so favorable an opportunity of 
interfering. They secured the Raja's person, threw him into con- 
finement in fort Barabati, and refused to acknowledge his grandson 
Dirb Sinh Deo as successor, until they had obliged him to agree to 
the payment of a yearly tribute of Sa. Rs. 10,000. The expense 
of collecting this, must have been far greater than its value, for the 
Raja would never pay until compelled by the presence of a military 
force ; and so low had the character and efficiency of the Marhatta 
Infantry sunk, that the Paiks of Khurda often presumed to measure 
their strength with them, even in these last days of the power of 
the Rajas of Orissa. 

Chimna Ji Bapu's visit to Cuttack, with a large army in 1781 
A. D., is described as intended to enforce the claims of the Berar 
government against Bengal, for arrears of Chout. Having cantooned 
his force at Kakkar, opposite to Cuttack, he sent on Raja Ram 
Pundit with Bissembher Pundit Vakil to Calcutta, who is said to 
have negotiated a treaty with Mr. Hastings, by which the English 
government agreed to the payment of 27,00,000 Rs. on condition 
of all farther claims being relinquished. 



109 



In 1803, the Province was conquered by the English armies. 
The dominion of the Khurda Rajas was not finally extinguished 
till 1804, when a most unprovoked rising against the newly esta- 
blished English Government, drew down upon Raja Mukund Deo 
the vengeance of the British power. He was driven from his fort, 
seized, sent a prisoner to Miduapore, and his remaining territory of 
Khurda was brought under the management of the British collectors. 

Since that period the proud but insignificant representatives of 
the Maharajas of Orissa, have been officially acknowledged only as 
private landholders ; but the liberal policy of government has con- 
ferred on them a sufiicient pension, and an ofiice of authority con- 
nected with the temple, in the enjoyment of which they pass their 
days in retirement, within the limits of Jagannath Pooree. The 
complete subjection of the Province terminated in 180,5, by the 
conquest of Kunka. 



CHAP. IV. 

Religion, Antiquities, Temples, and Civil Architecture. 

UTCALA DESA which is believed or fabled to be itself so 
holy a region throughout its entire extent, contains four places of 
pilgrimage of peculiar sanctity, called the Hara Khetr, the Vishnu 
or Pursottem Khctr, the Arka or Padma Khetr, and the Vijayi or 
Parvati Khetr, within the limits of which will be found nearly all 
that is curious and interesting in its Religious Antiquities. 

The Hara khetr, sacred to Mahadeo Seeb under the titles of the 
Linga Raja Bhuvaneswara, and thence called by the vulgar Bho- 
baneser, contains several very ancient and remarkable monuments 
of the native princes of the country, and their system of religious 
belief. At Balwanta, on the new road, sixteen miles from Cuttack, 
the attention of the traveller is attracted by a lofty massive tower 
of stone, rising from amidst the thickets which skirt the adjoining 
frontier of Khurda. A path leads through the woods towards this 
object of curiosity, and conducts, at the end of about six miles, to 
a gently swelling rocky elevation or Tangi formed of beds of the 
iron clay, on reaching which you find yourself, with astonishment, 



110 



in the centre of a ruined city, consisting entirely of deserted and 
dismantled towers and temples sacred to the worship of Mahadeo, 
imder the innumerable titles, which absurd legends or the fancy of 
his votaries have assigned to that deity. From amidst the whole, 
the great Pagoda of the Ling Raj, or Lord of the Lingam, lifts its 
singular form, eminently conspicuous both for size, loftiness, and 
the superior style of its architecture. 

Bhobaneser is the site of a capital city founded by Raja Lalat 
Indra Kesari, the third of the princes bearing that surname, who 
reigned from A. D. 617 to A. D. GGO. If we are to judge of its 
extent and populousness, during the period that it formed the seat 
of government of the Rajas of the Kesari Vansa, from the almost 
countless multitude of temples which are crowded within the sacred 
limits of the Panj Kosi, we might pronounce it to have been, in the 
days of its splendour, one of the greatest cities which India ever 
saw. Standing near the chief Pagoda,* one cannot turn the eye, 
in any direction, without taking into the view upwards of forty or 
fifty of these stone towers. The natives say that there were origin- 
ally more than seven thousand places of worship consecrated to 
Mahadeo, within and around the city of Bhobaneser, containing no 
less than a crore of lingams, and the vestiges that remain, fully 
warrant a belief, that the place may have comprised some Mindreds 
of buildings of this description, when in its most flourishing state. 
A considerable number of the temples are still in a tolerable state 
of preservation, though entirely neglected and deserted. Many 
more are now screened from the view by the luxuriant foliage of the 
surrounding jungles, or present merely shapeless masses of stone 
buried amidst tangled brushwood and rank vegetation. 

Nor is the astonishing number of the Bhobaneser temples the 
only remarkable feature of this place. The style, size, and decora- 
tion of these singular buildings, add greatly to the wonder and 
interest of the scene. They are all constructed, either of reddish 
granite resembling sandstone, or else of the free stone yielded plen- 
tifully by the neighbouring hills, in the form of towers rounded 
towards the summit, with other edifices attached rising from a 
square enclosure, the wall encompassing which is now generally in 
ruins. Their height is never less than fifty or sixty feet, and the 
loftier towers reach to an elevation of from one hundred and fifty, 

* Mr. Ward mentionfs it in is work on the Hindus under the name of 
Ekainrakanuna, " a place, he says, on the borders of Orissa, containing 
Six Tlionsand temples dedicated to Shiva." Ekamra or Ekamber is the 
name g•i^'en to the surrounding woods. 



Ill 



to one hundred and eighty feet. Not a wooden beam it may be 
observed has been used throughout. The stones are held together 
with iron clamps. Iron beams and pillars are used where such aids 
could not be dispensed with ; but in general the architects have 
resorted, in the construction of their roofs, to the method of laying 
horizontal layers of stone, projecting one beyond the other like in- 
verted steps, until the sides approach sufficiently near at the summit 
to admit of other blocks being placed across. The exterior surface 
of the buildings is in general adorned with the richest and most 
elaborate sculptured ornament, and the ruined courts which surround 
them, are strewed with a vast variety of curious relics, as bulls, 
lingams, and other symbols appropriate to the worship of Mahadeo, 
representations of Gancsa, Hunuman, and various forms of Siva 
and Parvati, Durga, or Kali, Carticeya the god of war with his 
peacock, the female or energy of the same called Caumari, and the 
Narasinha and Baman Avatars. The more finished temples have 
frequently large well polished slabs of the grey chlorite slate, or 
pot stone, let into three of their sides, on which are sculptured, in 
alto relievo, nearly as large as life, some of the above personages, 
executed with no mean degree of skill and symmetry. Carved in 
the coarser stone of which the walls are constructed, one observes 
figures of Apsarasas, or dancing nymphs in groups or solitary ; 
forms of Mahadeo and Parvati sitting or standing together, generally 
in the most obscene attitudes ; representations of warriors, horses, 
and elephants, engaged in combat or arranged in state processions : 
monsters resembling lions, with grim grotesque countenances, 
in various attitudes ; and groups of a peaceful character exhibiting 
a Muni, or philosopher, imparting instructions to his pupils. The 
architrave of the door- way of every temple of Orissa is ornamented 
with the nine figures in a sitting posture, called the Nava Graha or 
nine planets, of which seven represent the divinities presiding over 
the days of the week, and the two remaining ones the brahminical 
ascending and descending nodes, Rahu and Ketu, 

The forms and character of all the principal temples at Bhobune- 
ser, and indeed throughout the province, being exactly similar, a 
more particular account of the plan and distribution of the great 
Pagoda will answer the purpose of a general description. The 
edifices which compose it, stand within a square area, enclosed by a 
substantial wall of stone, measuring six hundred feet on a side ; 
which has its principal gateway guarded by two monstrous griffins, 
or winged lions, in a sitting posture, on the eastern face. About 



112 



the centre, tlie great tower, Bara Dewal, or sanctuary, in wliicli the 
images are always lodged, rises majestically to a height of one 
hvmdred and eighty feet. It is composed of a cluster of stone ribs, 
alternately flat and semicircular, eight principal and eight inferior 
ones, springing from a square ground jjlan, which towards the 
summit curve inwards, without, however, meeting. They bear, as 
it were on their shoulders, a cylindrical neck, and this, with the 
aid of brackets in the form of eight immense griffins or lions, sup- 
ports the ornamented crest or head piece, shaped somewhat like a 
turban, which forms so distinguishing a feature in the temple archi- 
tecture of Orissa. It consists of a huge solid circular slab, called 
the Amla Sila, from some fancied resemblance to the fruit of the 
Amlika ( Phyllanthus Emhlica,) on which rests another circular 
ornament, in the form of a large inverted earthen dish, and thence 
indeed called the "Dihi BandJii.^' Sometimes the two ornaments 
are repeated. On the summit stands, either an urn, or the Chakra 
or wheel of Vishnu, according to circumstances, surmounted by an 
iron spike, to which pendants are attached on occasions of ceremony. 
The best illustration that can be given, of the shape and apjijcarance 
of the generality of these towers, is to compare them to a medicine 
phial, or comfit bottle with the stopper inserted ; though the com- 
parison does not do justice to the picturesque effect of the grand 
and massive building which I am now describing. From each face 
of the building, at different degrees of elevation, a huge monster 
projects to a distance of several feet, which has the body of a lion, 
but a most grotesque and unnatural countenance, resembling no- 
thing in the catalogue of terrestrial animals. The figure on the 
eastern face is by far the largest, and it has between its feet, an 
elephant of comparatively diminutive size, on which it is trampling. 
This, it may be observed, is the common mode of representing the 
lion of Hindu mythology, one of the epithets of which is, Gaja 
Machula, or the destroyer of the elephant. The entrance to the 
tower lies through a large square vestibule or antichamber, crowned 
with a pyramidal roof, and surmounted by the crest or series of 
ornaments above described, which is joined to the eastern face of 
the sanctuary, and rises to about three fourths of its height. It is 
called the Jagamohana, or that which delights the world, because it 
is from thence that the idol is generally seen and worshipped by 
pilgrims. These two buildings form the essential and most sacred 
part of the temples of Orissa. Farther in advance of the Jagamo- 
hana, and connected with it by a sort of colonnade, is another 
square edifice of precisely the same form, but smaller dimensions, 



113 



which is called the Bhag ^lantlap, or apartment in which the idol's 
food is served up, and afterwards distributed amongst the officiating 
priests, &c. The Court of the Ling Raj contains many other 
towers and temples apart from those already enumerated, in which 
a variety of the inferior deities, or less esteemed forms of the greater 
ones, are worshipped, and which add, by their style and number, 
to the general grandeur of its appearance, but do not need a separate 
description. The whole are adorned with a profusion of sculptured 
work, consisting of elaborately wrought cornices, headings, ara- 
besque and reticulated ornaments, and clusters of pilasters, with 
figures of men, animals, serpents and flowers intervening, arranged 
in such an infinite variety of devices, that the eye is absolutely 
bewildered in endeavouring to trace out any particular pattern or 
design. Amongst the ornaments on the great flat central ribs of 
the Bara Dewal, there is one peculiarly remarkable from its resem- 
blance to some armorial, bearing or heraldic device. The brahmins 
explain it to be a compound of the Gada, Padma, Sankh, and 
Chakra, or Mace, lotus, conch-shell and discus of Vishnu, and it 
would seem therefore rather out of place, in the conspicuous posi- 
tion which it occupies on the walls of the Ling Raj ; but, it may be 
observed generally, of these edifices, that the sculptors have by no 
means confined themselves, in their choice of ornaments, to em- 
blems peculiar to the deity of the place. 

The temple of the Ling Raj at Bhobaneser is both the finest 
monument of antiquity which the province contains, and likev/ise 
indisputably the most ancient. It took forty-three years to build it, 
and local tradition as well as the histories of the country, concur in 
fixing the date of its completion, as A. D. 657. We have no par- 
ticular accounts, of the period and causes of fixe decline of the city 
of Bhobaneser, and the worship of Mahadeo. Nearly all except 
the great temple, have been long since completely deserted ; and 
the establishment kept up there, is on a very small and inadequate 
scale, under the patronage of the Khurda Rajas, whose ancestors 
granted all the lands and endowments, by which the brahmins at- 
tached to it now subsist! It is occasionally visited by the Beiig;i- 
lee pilgrims on their way to Jagannath, and every year, at the Sheo 
Ratri, a considerable collection of Desi, or country pilgrims, are 
gathered together under its walls, to hold a mela or fair. 

The ruins of two extensive palaces, belonging to the Rajas of the 
Kesari line, are shewn at or near Bhobaneser. Tlicre is likewise 
a very superb tank, lying north of the temple, called the Bidu 
Sagar, which forms a conspicuous object in the scenery of the place, 



114 

and another, faced with stone, on the east, remarkable for its being 
bordered all round with rows of small antique looking temples, 
about thirty on a side, just large enough to contain the human 
figure in a sitting posture, in which sixty female ascetics, who had 
devoted themselves to the worship of Devi, are said to have lived and 
died many ages hack. Amongst the curiosities of the environs, the 
attention of the visitor is generally directed to a huge figure of the 
lingam, forty feet in height, at the temple of Bhaskaresar Mahadeo. 
It is formed of a single shaft of sandstone, situated partly in a sub- 
terranean vault, and part rising into the centre of a great tower, of 
the usual form, which is said to have been built round this impure 
and degrading object of worship, after it had been set up and 
consecrated. 

About five miles west of Bhobaneser, near the village of Jagmara, 
in the Char Sudhi Khandaiti of Khurda, and still within the limits 
of the khetr, a group of small hills occur, four in number, from one 
hundred and fifty to two hundred feet in height, which present 
many objects of interest and curiosity. These hills called severally 
the Udaya Giri, Dewal Giri, Nil Giri, and Khand Giri, (by which 
latter name the spot is now generally designated,) are composed of 
a silicious sandstone of various colour and texture, and are all curi- 
ously perforated with small caves, disposed in two or three irregular 
stories. Each of the caves is large enough to contain from one to 
two human beings in a sitting posture. Some of them appear to be 
natural cavities, slightly improved by the hand of man ; others have 
obviously been excavated artificially ; and the whole are grotesquely 
carved and embellished. In one part, a projecting mass of rock 
has been cut into the form of a tiger's head, with the jaws widely 
distended, through which a passage lies into a small hole at the 
back secured by a wooden door, — the residence of a secluded 
ascetic of the Vyshnavite sect. The ridiculous legend which the 
natives relate to explain the origin of these isolated hills, bears a 
resemblance to the tales of Popery, another kind of Paganism, re~ 
specting angels carrying to Italy the house of the lady of Loretto. 
The Popish tale is well known ; the Pagan one is, that these hills 
formerly constituted a part of the Himalaya, at which time they 
were inhabited by numerous Rishis, who dug the caves now found 
in them. They were taken up bodily, ascetics and all, by Mahabir 
Hunuman, with other masses of rock, to build the bridge of Rama, 
but, by some accident, were allowed to drop in their passage through 
the air, when they alighted in their present position. 



115 



The summit of the highest rock, is crowned by a neat stone][tcm- 
le of modern construction, sacred to the worship of Parasnath ; all 
around, and in the neigbourhood of which, are strewed a quantity 
of images of the Nirvanas, or naked figures worshipped by the Jain 
sect,* executed chiefly in the grey cholorite slate rock. At the 
back of these temples, a highly remarkable terrace is shewn, called 
the Deo Sabha, or assembly of gods, which is covered with num- 
berless antique-looking stone pillars or temples in minature ; some 
standing, others lying on the ground, about two or three feet long, 
having, on each of the four sides, a figure of the naked Jain deity 
rudely sculptured. The place is still frequented by the Jain or 
Parwar merchants of Cuttack, who assemble here in numbers, once 
every year, to hold a festival of their religion. 

A short way up the Udaya Giri hill, the Nour or palace of the 
famous Raja Lalat Indra Kesari, is pointed out as the chief curi- 
osity of the place. It consists of a sort of open court formed by a 
perpendicular face of sandstone rock, about forty feet in height, with 
shoulders of the same projecting on either side. Rows of small 
chambers having been excavated in each face, arranged in two stories, 
and divided by a projecting terrace. Both the exterior surface and 
the inner walls of the chambers are decorated with cornices, pilas- 
ters, figures, and various devices, very rudely sculptured, and the 
whole exhibits a faint and humble resemblance, in miniature, to the 
celebrated cavern temples in the south-west of India. The rude and 
miserable apartments of the palace, are now occupied by byragis 

• Mr. Ward thus describes this sect. "They take their name from 
jinii {jl to conquer,) he who has overcome tlie eight great crimes, viz., 
eating at night; slaying an animal ; eating tlie fruit of those trees wliich 
give milk, pumpkins, young bamboo plants; tasting honej', flesh; taking 
the wealth of others ; taking by force a married woman ; eating flowers, 
butter, cheese ; and warshipi)ing tlie gods of other religions. The sect is 
said to owe its rise to Risliubbu Devu, a Hindoo, who is said to have been 
incarnate thirteen times. The last of the Jain jogees was Muha Vt em, 
who is said to have l)een incarnate twenty-seven times. Tlic earth, say 
they, is formed by Nature, that is, by inherent ])roperties existing in itself. 
As the trees in an uninhabited forest spring up without a cultivator, so the 
universe is self-existent : and as tlie banks of a river fall of themselves, so 
there is no supreme destroyer. There are no such beings as creator, pre- 
server, and destroyer. The world is eternal ; it exists from itself, and de- 
cays of itself. Man does not possess an immortal spirit. The highest vir- 
tue consists in refraining from injuring sentient creatures. Every species 
of pleasure may be called heaven. Absorption is realized in death. The 
entire absence of desire or affection is the highest state of happiness. 
Their precaution to avoid injuring any being, is inculcated in the orthodox 
religion, but carried by them to a ludicrous extreme. They are sjiread 
all over India, but are not numerous any where except in Tooluvu, For- 
merly many powerful princes were their followers." 



116 



and mendicants of different sects, "who state that the place had its 
origin in the time of Buddha, and that it was List inhabited by the 
Rani, or Queen of the famous Raja Lalat Indra Kesari, favourer of 
the Buddhist religion. 

Farther up the same hill, on the overhanging brow of a large ca- 
vern, we met with an ancient inscription cut out of the sandstone 
rock, in the very identical character which occurs on the pillars of 
Delhi, and which as yet has been only very partially decyphered. 
There are I think two eminently remarkable circumstances connected 
with the character used in the above inscription. The first is the 
close resemblance of some of the letters to those of the Greek alpha- 
bet, and the second the occurrence of it on sundry ancient monu- 
ments situated in widely distant quarters of India. The Greek ou, 
sigma, lambda, chi, delta, epsilon, and a something closely resem- 
bling the figure of the digamraa. With regard to the second, any 
reader who will take the trouble of comparing the Khandgiri in- 
scription with that on Firoz Shah's Lat at Delhi, on the column at 
Allahabad, the Lat of Bhim Sen, in Sarum a part of the Elephanta, 
and a part of the Ellora inscriptions, will find that the characters are 
identically the same. 

A portion of the Ellore and Salsette inscription written in the 
above character, has been decyphered by the learning and ingenuity 
of Major Wilford, aided by the discovery of a key to the unravelling 
of ancient inscriptions in the possession of a learned brahmin, vide 
the eleventh article of vol. v. Asiatic Researches ; and it is to be 
regretted that the same has not been further applied to decyphering 
the Delhi and other characters. The natives of the district can give 
no explanation whatever on the subject. The brahmins refer the 
inscription with shuddering and disgust, to the Budli Ka Amel, or 
time when the Buddhist doctrines prevailed, and are reluctant even 
to speak on the subject. I have in vaia also applied to the Jains 
of the district for an explanation. 1 cannot however divest myself 
of the notion that the character has some connection with the an- 
cient Pracrit, and considering that it occurs in a spot for many ages 
consecrated to the worship of Parasnath, which the brahmins are 
pleased to confound with the Buddhist religion, and that the figure or 
characteristic mark which appears in company with it, does in some 
sort seem to identify it with the former worship, I am persuaded 
that a full explanation is to be looked for only from some of the 
learned of the Jain sect. 

The Vishu or Purushotama Khetr or Juggernaut extends, pro- 
perly fronj the Bytarni to the Rassikoila river at Ganjam, but the 



117 



more sacred part of it is comprised within a range of five coss, in the 
centre of which, termed fantastically the Sank'li Nabhi Mendel, and 
on a low ridge of sand hills dignified with the title of the Nilgiri 
or Nilachal (blue mountain), stands the famous temple of Jagannath, 
*' that mighty Pacjoda or Pagod, the mirror of all wickedness and 
idolatry."* The building in its form and distribution resembles 
closely the great Pagoda at Bhubaneswar ; nor do the dimensions 
of the two edifices greatly differ, but the Jagannath one has the ad- 
vantage in point of situation. Altogether its appearance is certainly 
imposing from its loftiness and the mass of masonry which it com- 
prizes, but the execution is extremely rude and inelegant, and the 
form and proportions of the principal object, the Bar Dewal or great 
tower, are, it must be acknowledged, by no means pleasing to the 
eye. The present edifice was completed A. D. 1198, at a cost of 
from forty to fifty lacs of rvpees, under the superintendence of 
Param Hans Bajpoi, the minister of Raja Anang Bhim Deo, who 
was unquestionably the most illustrious of all the Gajapati princes 
of Orissa ; and it seems unaccountable that in an age when the 
architects obviously possessed some taste and skill, and were in 
most cases particularly lavish in their use of sculptured ornament, 
so little pains should have been taken with the decoration and 
finishing of this stupendous edifice. Its appearance has farther 
suffered of late years from the exterior having been covered with a 
coating of chunam which has all been washed oflf excepting a few 
stains and patches, and still more from the barbarous practice now 
in force of marking out parts of the sculpture with red paint. The 
material used for the construction of the temple is chiefly the coarse 
granite, resembling sandstone, found abundantly in the soutlicrn 
part of Cuttack. The following is a sketch of the plan of it. The 
edifices composing and connected with the temple which are very 
numerous, stand in a square area enclosed by a lofty stone wall, 
measuring about six hundred and fifty feet on a side. A broad 

• Whoever thus describes the temple of Juggernaut, describes it justly. 
The name of the town signifies good men ; but every intelligent candid 
man, whether Christian, Mahominedan, or Hindoo, who is acquainted 
with the character of its inhabitants, knows it to be a great misiioiuer. 
The figures on the walls of the temple, the well known character of the 
Idol's attendants, male and female, the oppression of the deluded pilgriuis 
practised within its walls, the probable murder l)y poison of the individuals 
employed to remove the contents of the old Idol into the new one, the 
effrontery shewn to the true (iod by the i)rostration of millions in past ages 
before its mishapen gods, and the ]ioverty, want, suffering, and death, oc- 
casioned by pilgrimages to it from all parts of India, awfully confirm this 
description of Juggernaut's temple, as — "the mirror of uU wickedness and 
idolatry." — Auth. 



118 



fliglit of twenty-two steps leads from the Sinh Darwazeh or princi- 
pal gate of entrance, on the east, to a terrace twenty feet in height, 
enclosed hy a second wall four hundred and forty-five feet square, 
on which occurs the first apartment called the Bhog Mandap. In 
a line, and connected with it by a sort of low portico, is the great 
antichamber of the temple called the Jagmohan, which adjoins and 
opens into the tower or sanctuary. The tower itself rises to a 
height of one hundred and eighty feet from the terrace, or two hun- 
dred from the ground. The ground plan is a square measuring 
thirty feet on a side. Most of the other principal deities of the 
Hindoo Pantheon have temples at this place situated between the 
two enclosures. The eastern gate is flanked and guarded by co- 
lossal figures of lions, or more properly griffins, in a sitting posture, 
and by smaller images of the mythological porters Jaya and Vijaya 
resting on their clubs, sculptured on the side posts. In front 
stands a column of dark coloured basalt, with a base of the mineral 
resembling pot-stone, remarkable for its light and elegant appear- 
ance and the beauty of its proportions, which supports a figure of 
the monkey-god Hunuman. One might guess that this is the work 
of artists of a different class and era from those who raised the tem- 
ple of Jagannath, and the fact is really so ; it having been brought 
from the famous, but now deserted, temple of the sun at Kanarak, 
about sixty years ago, by a brahmachari inhabitant of Pooree, of 
great wealth and influence. 

Some ingenious speculations have been hazarded upon the origin 
and meaning of the worship of Jagannath and the causes of the pe- 
culiar sanctity of the place, but amidst the conflicting and contradic- 
tory legends and traditions which prevail, it seems scarcely possible 
to arrive at any satisfactory conclusion on the subject. The ac- 
counts given in the writings of the Hindus, more especially the 
Kapila Sanhita and the Khetr IMahaytmya of the temple, are simply 
as follows, divested of the load of declamation and repetition which 
embarrass the perusal of them. From the beginning of all things 
until the expiration of the first half of the age of Brahma, Parames- 
wara, Sri Bhagwan, or Jagannath, in other words Vishnu, dwelt 
on the Nilachal in Utcala Dcsa, in the form of Nil Madhava. 
The fame of this form of the deity having reached the Court of 
Indradyumna, Maharaja of Avanti or Oujein,* an eminently pious 

• Oujein a city of great celebrity in the Mabva country, Lat. 2?>°. 11'. N. 
long 75". 52'. E. By Abul Fazel in 1582 it is described as follows "Onjein 
is a large city on tlie banks of the Sopra, and held in high veneration by 
the Hindoos. It is astonishing that sometimes this river ilows with milk. ' 




?iiifcmA>ti>i.iiiii- ..-iiiiirlll T' 11111-ii-Hiiii-i.iX 




IlIl.i.Xi ll ■ i i 1 1 i ixAii_^kA^k^_4^ 



rESTlVAL OF the' SWINGING OF KIHSHNA. IN THE TEMl'LE OF 
JUGGERNAUT, IN ORISSA, ON THE BAY OF BENGAL. 



119 



prince in the Satya Yuga, he conceived a desire to perform worship 
at the sacred shrine, and accordingly set out on a journey to Orissa, 
with a large army, after having first dispatched a brahmin to make 
enquiry. Just as he reached the spot, on the expiration of a three 
months' journey, it was reported to him that the image of Nil Ma- 
dhava had disappeared from the face of the earth. The Raja was 
overwhelmed with disappointment at this intelligence, and fell into 
a state of the deepest melancholy and affliction until comforted in a 
dream by the deity, who informed him that although he had aban- 
doned his former shape, he Avould soon reappear again, (or that a 
fresh Avatar would take place), in a still more sacred form, that of 
the Daru Brahm whicli would remain to all ages. Shortly after, 
the Maharaja was apprized that a Daru,* or log of wood of the 
Nirn tree ( McUa Azadirachta ) was to be seen floating to the shores 
of Pursottem Chetr from the quarter of the Sitadwip island, adorn- 
ed with the Sankha, Gada, Padma, Chakr, or several emblems of 
Vishnu, viz. the conch shell, viace, lotus and discus, and bearing a 
most divine and beautiful appearance ! Transported with joy the 
prince ran to the sea shore, embraced the sacred log, which he was 
satisfied from the above symptoms must be a real form of Vishnu, 
and proceeded to deposit it with great ceremony in a consecrated 
enclosure. He then through the advice of Narad Muni, who had 
accompanied him, obtained the aid of Visvakerma, the architect of 
the gods, to arrange the image in its proper form. At the fii-st 
blow of the sacred axe of the Hindu Vulcan, the log si)llt of itself 
into the four-fold image or Chatur Murti. A little colouring only 
was necessary to complete them, and they then became recognized 
as Sri Krishna or Jagannath distinguished by its hlaclt hue, Baldeo, 
a form of Siva, of a white colour, Subhadra, the sister of these bro- 
thers of the colour of saffron, and a round stafl" or pillar with the 
chakra impressed on each and called Sudersan. The Ptaja's next 
care was to erect a temple and to establish the worship on a suitable 
scale of splendour. On the great day when all was ready for con- 
secrating the temple, Brahma himself, and the whole company of 
the deities of Indra's court, came down from heaven on their several 
appropriate vehicles to offer up worship at the shrine of the lord of 
the universe, which, say the Urias, has since that period, and espe- 
cially in the Kali yuga, maintained a rank and celebrity such as 

• Some accounts say that the Maharaja had first to preform a hundred 
thousand Aswa Mcd'h Jagya or sacrifices of tlie horse, before favored \\\i\\ 
a viev/ of this choice form of the deity, but as usual wilh every Hindu 
fable there is prodigious discrepancy in the several versions of it. 



120 



even Kasi, or Benares, Brindraban, or Setu Band Rameswar, cannot 
boast. 

j\Ir. Ward in his valuable work, thus describes the origin of the 
Worship of Juggernaut. " The image of this god has no legs, and 
only stumps of arms ; the head and eyes are very large. At the 
festivals the brahmins adorn him with silver or golden arms. 
Krishnu in some period of Hindoo history was accidentally killed 
by Ungudu, a hunter; who left the body to rot under the tree 
where it fell. Some pious persons, however, collected the bones of 
Krishnu and placed them in a box, where they remained till Indru 
Dhoomu, a king, who was performing religious austerities to obtain 
some favour of Vishnoo, was directed by the latter to form the 
image of Juggernaut, and put into its belly these bones of Krishnu, 
by which means he should obtain the fruit of his religious austeri- 
ties. Indru Dhoomnu inquired who should make this image, and 
was commanded to pray to Vishwukurmu, the architect of the gods. 
He did so, and obtained his request ; but Vishwu-kurmu at the 
same time declared, that if any one disturbed him while preparing 
the image, he would leave it in an unfinished state. He then be- 
gan, and in one night built a temple upon the blue mountain in 
Orissa, and proceeded to prepare the image in the temple ; but the 
impatient king, after waiting fifteen days, went to the spot, on 
which Vishwu-kurmu desisted from his work, and left the god 
without hands or feet. The king was very much disconcerted ; 
but on praying to Brumhu he promised to make the image famous 
in its present shape. He now invited all the gods to be present at 
the setting up of this image. Brumhu himself acted as high priest, 
and gave eyes and a soul to the god, which completely established 
the fame of Juggernaut. This image is said to be in a pool, near 
the present temple at Juggernaut-kettra in Orissa." 

The Hindus of Orissa endeavour, though with little foundation, 
to ascribe to the worship of Jagannath a more sjiiritual character 
than is generally claimed for their superstition elsewhere. They 
refer to the common title of tlie divinity of the place, which implies 
the Brahma or Divine spirit that pervades and sustains the universe, 
and are fond of quoting a passage in the legendary account of the 
temple, which runs thus, " Hear now the truth of the Dara Avatar, 
(the appearance of the deity in the form of Nim tree log). What 
part of the universe is there which the divine spirit does not pervade? 
In evei-y place it exults and sports in a ditl'ereut form. In the 
heaven of Brahma it is Brahma ; at Kylas it is Mahadco ; in the 
upper world it is Indra ; on the face of the earth it is to be found in 



121 



all the most renowned Khetis, at Baddrika as Badvinatli ; at Briii- 
daban and Dwaraka as Krishcn ; at Ayodhya (Oude) in another 
shape ; but in the Khetr of Pursottem it appears in its true and 
most sacred form." The brahmins also have a practice of dressing 
up the figure of Sri Jeo in a costume appropriate to the occasion, 
to represent the principal deities, on the occurrence of the yearly 
festivals held in honor of each, which are termed the dillerent 
Bhues, or Phases, of the Thakur. Thus at the Ram Navami, the 
great image assumes the dress and character of Rama ; at the Jan- 
am Ashtami, that of Krishen ; at the Kali Puja, that of Kali ; when 
the Narsinha Avatar is celebrated, that of Narsinh ; when the Ram- 
an Avatar, that of the mighty dwarf. This wovild seem to evince 
some symptoms of a belief that in offering up worship to Jagannath, 
his votaries do not confine their adoration to any particular deity, 
but adore the whole host of Hindu heaven, or rather the spirit which 
animates them, whilst at other Khetrs the divinity of the place alone 
is worshipped. Mr. Paterson's hypothesis refers the worship now 
under consideration to the adoration of the mystical syllable. A, U, 
M, coalescing into Om, and is certainly the most ingenious and 
plausible that has been suggested, but goes far beyond the know- 
ledge or comprehension of the most learned and intellectual of the 
present day. All the explanation which the more intelligent brah- 
mins can or will afford on the subject, is, that they worship at Ja- 
gannath Bhagwan or the supreme sjiirit itself, and not any subor- 
dinate deity ; that the images are shapeless, because the Vedas have 
declared that the deity has no particular form ; and that they have 
received their present grotesque and hideous countenances, witii. 
the view to terrify men to be good. The same fancy which harf 
invested the Khetr of Jagannath with superior sanctity, is the cause, 
of course, of the unusual virtue ascribed to the Muhaprasad, or food 
cooked for the deity, and consecrated bj' being placed before images. 
The Khetr Mahatmya says, that Malia Ijukshuii herself preparer 
and tastes it. He who eats it is absolved from the four cardinal 
sins of the Hindu faith, viz. hilling a cow, killinc/ a braJniiin, drinkiiy 
spirits, and commiiiing adultery with the female of a Gum or spiritual 
pastor. So great is its virtue, that it cannot be polluted by the 
touch of the very lowest caste, and the leavings even of a dog ;'.re 
to be carefully taken up and used. The most tremendous and in- 
expiable of all crimes, is to handle and eat the JMahaprasad, without 
a proper feeling of reverence. 

"Without going into any profound speculation as to the origin, 
nature, and meaning of the worship ol' Jagannath, there is one cause 



122 



sufficiently obvious ^hy all sects should here unite in harmony in 
the performance of their religious ceremonies, viz. that the temple 
instead of being consecrated exclusively to some form of the deity 
Vishnu alone, is in fact occupied, in joint tenancy, by forms of three 
of the most revered divinities of the Hindu faith. Balbhadra or 
Baldeo, (Balarama,) the elder brother, -who is treated with the great- 
est respect, though not so popular as his black relation, is clearly 
identified with ]\Iahadeo, both by his white colour, and the figure of 
the serpent Shesha or Ananta* which forms a hood over the back 
part of his head ; and Subhadra is esteemed a form of Devi or Kali, 
the female energy of the above. The precedence is always given to 
the elder brother ; he has a rath or chariot of equal size with that 
of Jagannath, and altogether the veneration paid to him is quite 
sufficient to conciliate the votaries of Siva, who are the only violent 
or bigoted sectaries. All the idol deities are allowed to occupy 
niches or temples within the precincts of the great Pagoda, and are 
treated with so much respect, that the most obstinate sectary 
could not with any decency or consistency refuse to join in the ge- 
neral worship of the place. Juggernaut's temple thus becomes in 
effect a Pantheon of the Hindoo idols. 

The legend above quoted regarding the establishment of the wor- 
ship of Jagannath, does not provide for or explain the sacred deposit 
which popular belief, sanctioned by the brahmins, places in the 
belly of the image. Some conjecture it to be a hone of Krishna, 
but how it came there is not explained. As the image has been 
often remade of the wood of the Nim tree, it seems not improbable 
that it may be a relic of the wood of the old original idol which is 
thus preserved. Col. Phipps who was stationed at Juggernaut in 
1822, in his account of Juggernaut's Temple {see Mis. Register Dec. 
1824,) thus describes the formation of a new Idol. " When two 
new moons occur in Assur (part of June and July,) which is said to 
happen, about once in seventeen years, a new idol is always made, 
a Nim tree is sought for in the forests on which no crow or carrion 
bird was ever perched ! it is known to the initiated by certain signs. 
This is prepared into a proper form by common carpenters, and is 
then intrusted to certain priests who are protected from all intrusion : 
the process is a great mystery. One man is selected to take out of 
the idol a small box containing the spirit, which is conveyed inside 
the new ; the man who does this is always removed from this world 
before the end of the year .'" 

• Both these words in Wilson's Sancrit Dictionary are explained to 
mean a serpent and a name of Baladeva. 



123 



The memory of Raja Indradyumna is iierpetuated by a superb 
tank which bears his name. Either the author of the Ayin Acberi, 
or his translator, has confounded things together, in calling him 
Raja Indra Dummun or Nilkurpurbut (Nilgiri Parvat,) instead of 
stating that he visited the sand hills at Puri called by that name 
in the Hindu writings. The assertion also of Abulfazl that the 
image of Jagannath is made of sandal wood, is founded apparently 
on some confusion between the material appropriated to that purpose, 
and a bar of timber used for closing the entrance of the temple 
during the Chandan Jatra, thence called the Chandan Daru or 
sandal wood. 

The monstrous idols of the place may be seen daily, with few 
exceptions, seated on their Sinhasan, or throne, within the sanc- 
tuary ; but they are publicly exposed to view on two occasions 
only in the year, the Asnan and the Rath Jatras. At the Asnan 
or festival of the bath, Jagannath and his brother, after undergoing 
certain ablutions, assume what is called the Ganesh Bhues or form 
of the elephant-headed god, to represent which the images are dres- 
sed up with an appropriate mask. Thus arrayed they are placed 
on a high terrace overlooking the outer wall of the temple, sur- 
rounded by crowds of priests who fan them to drive away the flies, 
whilst the multitude below gaze in stupid admiration. 

At the Rath Jatra, the images, as is well known, are indulged 
with an airing on their cars and a visit to the god's country house, 
a mile and a half distant, named the Goondicha Nour, after the 
Rani of Maharaja Indradyumna who founded the worship. The 
display which takes place on this occasion has often before been 
described, but some brief notice of it will naturally be expected. 

On the appointed day, after various prayers and ceremonies have 
been preformed within the temple, the four images are brought 
from their throne to the outside of the Lion gate — not with decency 
and reverence, seated on a litter or vehicle adapted to such an oc- 
casion — but, a common cord being fastened round their necks, certain 
priests to whom the duty appertains, drag them down the steps and 
through the mud, whilst others keep the figures erect and help their 
movements by shoving them from behind, in the most indifferent 
and unceremonious manner, as if they thought the whole business a 
good joke ! In this way the monstrous idols go rocking and pitch- 
ing along through the crowd, until they reach the cars, which they 
are made to ascend by a simular process up an inclined platform 
reaching from the stage of the machine to the ground. On the 
other hand, a powerful sentiment of religious enthusiasm pervades 



124 



the admiring multitude of pilgrims assembled without, when the 
imao-es first make their appearance through the gate. They wel- 
come them with the loudest shouts of joyful recognition and stun- 
ning cries of Jye Jaf/annaili, victory to Jagannath ; and when the 
monster Jagannath himself, the most hideous of all the figures, is 
dragged forth the last in order, the air is rent with plaudits and 
acclamations. These celebrated idols are nothing more than wood- 
en busts about six feet in height, fashioned into a rude i-esemblance 
of the human head resting on a sort of pedestal. They are painted 
white, yellow, and black respectively, with frightfully grim and 
distorted countenances, and are decorated with a head dress of diff- 
erent coloured clothes shaped something like a helmet. The two 
brothers have arms projecting horizontally forward from the ears I 
The sister is entirely devoid of even that approximation to the hu- 
man form. Their Raths* or cars have an imposing air from their 
size and loftiness, but every part of the ornament is of the most 
mean and paltry description, save only the covering of striped and 
spangled broad cloth furnished from the Export Warehouse of the 
British Government, the splendour and gorgeous effect of which 
compensate in a great measure for other deficiencies of decoration If 
After the images have been lodged in their vehicles, a box is brought 
forth containing the golden or gilded feet, hands, and ears of the 
great Idol, which are fixed on the proper parts with due ceremony, 
and a scarlet scarf is carefully arranged round the lower part of the 
body or pedestal. Thus equipped and decorated, it is worshipped 
with much pomp and state by the Raja of Khurda, who performs 
before it the ceremony of the Chandalo, or sweeping, with a richly 
ornamented broom. At about this period of the festival, bands of 
villagers enter the crowd dancing and shouting, with music playing 
before and behind, each cari^jing in his hand a branch of a tree. 
They are the inhabitants of the neighbouring Pergunnahs, Raheng, 
Limbai, &c. called Kalabetiahs, whose peculiar duty and privilege 
it is, conjointly with the inhabitants of Puri, to drag the Raths. 
On reaching the cars, they take their station close to them, and soon 
as the proper signal has been given, they set the example to the 

* Jagannath's Rath, called Nandi Ghos, measures forty-three and a 
half-feet high. It has sixteen wheels of six and a half feet diameter each 
and a platform thirty-four and a half feet square. The Rath of Bal- 
doo, called Thala Dhaj, is about forty-oue feet high and has foin-teen 
wheels. The Devior Subhadra Rath called Padma Dhaj is forty feet higli, 
the ])latform thirty-one square, and fourteen wheels of six and a half feet 
diameter. 

t This has ceased by the abolition of the Pilgrim Tax. 



12^ 



multitudes assembled, by seizing; on the cables, when all advance 
forwards a few yards, hauling along generally two of the Raths at 
a time. The joy and shouts of the crowd on their first movement, 
the creaking sound of the wheels as these ponderous machines roll 
along, the clatter of hundreds of harsh sounding instruments, and 
the general appearance of so immense a moving mass of human beings, 
produce, it must be acknowledged, an impressive, astounding, and 
somewhat picturesque effect, whilst the novelty of the scene lasts;, 
though the contemplation cannot fail, to excite the strongest sensa- 
tions of pain and disffust in the mind of every Christian spectator. 
At each pause, the Dytahs or Charioteers of the god advance for- 
ward to a projecting part of the stage, .with wands in their hands, 
and throwing themselves into a variety of wild and frantic postures, 
address some fable or series of jokes to the multitude, who grunt a 
sort of response at the proper intervals. Often their speeches and 
actions are grossly and indescribably indecent and obscene ! The 
address generally closes with some peculiar piquant allusion, when 
the gratified mob raise a loud shout as the final response, and all 
rush forward with the cables. The progress made varies greatly 
according to the state of the roads, the care used in keeping the 
Raths in a proper direction, the zeal and number of the pilgrims, 
and the will of the priests, or as they say of the god, the former 
having some method of choking the wheels, and thereby preventing 
the movement of the cars, notwithstanding the utmost efforts of the 
credulous multitude to advance forward. Generally from two to 
three days are consumed in reaching the Gondicha Nour, where the 
images are taken out. Before even this period has elapsed, the 
curiosity and enthusiasm of the pilgrims have nearly evaporated, 
they steal off in numbers, and leave Sri Jeo to get back to the tem- 
ple as he may. Without indeed the aid of the villagers before de- 
scribed, and of the population of Puri who hold their ground free of 
rent on condition of performing this service to the deity, the Raths 
would now-a-days infallibly stick always at the Gondicha Nour. 
Eve7i the gods' own proper servants will not labour zealously and 
effectually without the interposition of authority. I imagine the ceremony 
would soon cease to be conducted on its present scale and footing, if 
the institution were left entirely to its fate and to its own resources, 
by the offcers of the British Government, 

Hamilton enumerates the festivals at the Temple. At Jugger- 
naut there are 13 annual festivals : viz. 



126 



1. Chandana A sweet-scented powder. 

2. Snana The bathing festival. 

;5. Rntli The car festival. 

5. Bahura Ditto returning. 

ft. Shayana The lying down festival, 

G. Janma The birth festival. 

7. Kojugara The waking festival. 

8. Rasa The Rasa festival. 

9. Urana.. The warm clothing festival. 

10. Abhishaca The anointing festival. 

11. Macura A sign of the zodiac festival. 

12. Dola The swinging festival. 

13. Rama Narami Rama's birth-day festival. 

Such Hindoos as perform this pilgrimage contrive to arrive at 
four particular times, when the swinging, the sweet scented, the 
bathing, and the car festivals take place ; but much the greater 
number at the swinging and car festivals : some go and return im- 
mediately, while others sojourn for two or three months. After 
the preliminary ceremonies are gone through and the fees paid, the 
pilgrim goes and looks at the image ; he next bathes in the sea, 
and then returning to the temple, purchases some rice which has 
been recently offered to Juggernauth, and with it performs the ob- 
sequies of his deceased ancestors. During his stay he attends, the 
daily solemnities, and makes offerings through the Brahmins of 
rice and other articles to Juggernauth. For payment the officiating 
priests supply him with food ready dressed, which is particularly 
nutritious, as having been first presented to Juggernauth, who eats 
(by proxy J 52 tiines each day !! The penitent also feasts the Brah- 
mins, and eats with all descriptions of pilgrims, of whatever caste. 
Various reasons are assigned, and stories told, all equally irration- 
al, to account for the singular exception of permitting an act to be 
done here, which performed anywhere else would render the indi- 
vidual a miserable outcast. All Hindoos eagerly accept whatever 
has been offered to an idol, hence it is common to observe flowers 
which have been so offered stuck in their hair, and the water which 
has been offered to Juggernauth is preserved and sipped occasion- 
ally as a cordial. The appellation of Juggernauth is merely one 
of the 1000 names of Vishnu, the preserving power, according to 
the Brahminical theology. 

The concourse of pilgrims to this temple is so immense, that at 
50 miles distance its approach may be known by the quantity of 
human bones, which are strewed by the way. Some old persons 
come to die at Juggernauth, and others measure the distance by 
their length on the ground ; but besides these voluntary sufferings, 



127 



many endure great hardships botli when travelling, and while they 
reside here, from exposm-e to the weather, bad food and water, 
and other evils. Many perish by dysentry, and the surrounding 
country abounds with sculls and human bones ; but the vicinity of 
Juggernauth to the sea, and the arid nature of the soil, assist to 
prevent the contagion which would otherwise be generated. When 
this subject of their misplaced veneration is first perceived, the mul- 
titude of pilgrims shout aloud, and fall to the ground to worship 
it."* 

That excess of fanaticism, which formerly prompted the pilgrims 
to court death by throwing themselves in crowds under the wheels 
of the car of Jagannath, has happily long ceased to actuate the wor- 
shippers of the present day. During four years that I have wit- 
nessed the ceremony, three cases only of this revolting species of 
immolation have occurred, one of which I may observe is doubtful 
and should probably be ascribed to accident; in the other two in- 
stances the victims had long being suffering from severe excruciating 
complaints, and chose this method of ridding themselves of the 
burthen of life, in preference to other modes of suicide so prevalent 
with the lower orders under similar circumstances. The number of 
pilgrims resorting to Jagannath has I think been exaggerated, as 
well as the waste of human life occasioned thereby ; though doubt- 
less, in an unfavourable season, or when the festival occurs late, 
the proportion of deaths cavsed hy exposure to the inclemency of 
the weather, is very melancholy. The following is a statement of 
pilgrims of all classes who attended for the last five years at the 
three great festivals, procured from the most authentic sources, viz. 

1817-18, Paying Tax 35,941, Exempt 39,720, Total 75,641 

1818-19, 30,241, 4,870, „ 41,111 

1819-29, 92,874, 39,000, „ 131,874 

1820-21, 21,946, 11,500, „ 33,446 

1821-22 35,160, 17,000, „ 52,160 

The Khetr of Jagannath or Vishnu contains temples innumerable 
sacred to the worship of all the other principal deities, and some 
secondary ones rarely met with elsewhere, as the god Cuvera or 
Plutus, who has a curious antique looking temple amongst the 
sand hills on the coast. Shiva and his female energy are likewise 
fabled to reside constantly within its limits, in sixteen different 

• Hamilton's Hindostan, vol. 2. p. 53, 54. 

R 



128 



forms, eight male and eight females. Tlie male ones or Samhiins 
figured by images called Yameswara, Visveswara, Gopal Moclian, 
Markandeswara, Nilkantheswara, Trilochan, Bhuteswara, and Pa- 
taleswara ; the female figures or Chandis have the apellations of 
Mangala, Bimla, Sarvamangala, Kali, Dhatri, Karuakhya, Ardha 
Asti, and Bhawani. There is also a small Sikh* College amongst 
the sand hills, inhabited by three or four priests of that sect. The 
horrid practice of self-immolation of widows prevails less at Pooree 
than might perhaps have been expected, with reference to the 
general chai-acter of the place and the numerous families that resort 
there to pay their devotions, the average of Suttees not exceeding 
six per annum for the police division in which it is coraimzed. 
The concremation both of the dead and the living bodies takes 
jjlace on the sea shore, close to the civil station, at a spot impiously 
called the Swarga Dwara, or passage to heaven. There is this pe- 
culiarity in the rite of Suttee when performed here, that instead of 
ascending a pile, the infatuated widow lets herself down into a pit, 
at the bottom of which the dead body of the husband has been pre- 
viously jilaced, with lighted faggots above and beneath. The latest 
returns shew the whole number of victims who destroy themselves 
annually in the above revolting manner, to average from twenty to 
thirty for the entire district of Cuttack.f 

The Arka or Padam Khetr at Kanarak is distinguished by its 
containing the remains of the celebrated temple of the sun, called 
in our charts the black Pagoda, which is situated amongst the sand 
hills of the sea shore, near the site of the old village of Kanarak, 
eighteen miles north of Jagannath Puri. The Jagmohan or anti- 
chamber is the only part of the building which exists in tolerably 

* The Sikhs are so called from Shishy a disciple ; their founder was 
Nanuk, a Hindoo born in HG9, and at his deatli left 100,000 followers. 
He maintained the divine unity, that God dwells in the devout, and that 
this divine inhabitation renders tlie ascetic an object of reverence and 
even of worship. Their works advise the Sikhs to seek absorption in God, 
rather than tlie happiness enjoyed in inferior heavens, from whence the 
soul descends to enter on a succession of birtlis. As Ions as tlie soul is 
confined in the body, it is in chains, and whether the chains be of gold or 
iron, it is still a prisoner and enduring punishment. Nanuk taught — He 
who serves (jod, the fountain of all good, will ol)tain his blessing. God is 
served, by listening to his excellences, by meditating on them, and by 
celebrating tlieir praises, the method of which is to be obtained from a 
spiritual guide, wlio is above all gods, and who is in fact God himself. 
God has cieated innumerable worlds. The period of creation is not laid 
down in any writing ; it is known only to God. There are said to be a 
hundred Sildi Cliiefs possessing separate districts in the Punjab. — Ward's 
Vieic, vol. ii, p. i;}]. 

t Tiie Suttee was abolished by Regulation of the Bengal Government, 
Dec. 4th, 182y. 



129 



good preservation. The great tower has been shattered and thrown 
down by some extraordinary force, either of an earthquake or light- 
ning, and in its fall seems to have injured that side of the adjoining 
edifice which looks towards it. A small section however still re- 
mains standing, about one hundred and twenty feet in height, which 
viewed from a distance gives the ruin a singular appearance, some- 
thing resembling that of a ship under sail. The whole of the outer 
enclosures of the temple have long since disappeared, and nothing 
is left of tiie edifice called the Bhog INIandap but a heap of ruin, 
completely buried under a sand hill. 

The black Pagoda even in its present imperfect and dilapidated 
condition, presents a highly curious and beautiful specimen of the 
ancient Hindu temple architecture ; and as it has long been com- 
pletely deserted, we may here study at leisure and without inter- 
ruption, some of the most striking peculiarities of that style. 

The deity of the place is called by the vulgar Soorju Deo (Surya) 
and at full length, Chunder Soorju Birinji Narayan.* The origin 
of the worship of a divinity so little honored in India, generally 
speaking, is ascribed to Samba, the son of Krishna, who having 
been afflicted with leprosy, and banished from his father's Court at 
Dwarka, as a punishment for accidentally looking in upon the 
nymphs of the palace whilst sporting naked in the water, was cured 
at this spot by the Sun, to whose service he in gratitude raised a 
temple. The present edifice it is well known was built by Raja 
Langora Narsinh Deo, A. D. 1241, under the superintendence of 
his minister Shibai Sautra. I cannot discover any authority for 
the assertion of the author of the Ayin Acberi, that the entire 
revenue of twelve years was expended on the work, but doubtless 

* "Tlie Brahmins consider Smya, or tlie Sun, one of the greatest of 
the gods ; and he is at present worshipped daily by them, when flowers, 
water, &c., are offered, accompanied with incantations. On Sunday, at 
the rising of the sun, in any month, but especially in the month ul Magr.u 
(part of January and February,) a number of persons, clii'. fty wonun, 
perform the worship of Surya. Surya and tlie.other planets are fn quently 
worshipped, in order to procure health. This the liiiidoes call a sacrince 
to the nine planets, when flowers, rice, water, a burnt sacrifice, Src, are 
offered to each of these planets separately. The origin of obtainin.g relief 
from sickness (by worshi])ping the sun.) is ascribed to Shandju, the son ot 
Krishnu, who was directed in a dream to repeat, twice a-d.iy, the twenty- 
one names of Surya, then revealed to him. The persons \yho receive the 
name of Surya and adopt this god as llioir guardiaii deiiy, are called 
Souras : they never eat till tney have worshipped the stni, and wlu n tlie 
sun is eniirely covered with rlouds they fast. On a Sunday many Souras, 
as well as Hindoos belonging to other sccis, perform, in a more I'articular 
manner, the worship of this idol, and on this day some of them last. 
Surya has two wives Snvurna and Chaya (Shadow.) There are no tem- 
ples dedicated to him in Bengal." See Ward's View, vol. ii. pp. 42-6. 



130 



the cost was very serious compared with the state of the Raja's 
treasury. The natives of the neighbouring villages have a strange 
fable to account for its desertion. They relate that a Kumbha 
Pathar or loadstone, of immense size, was formerly lodged on the 
summit of the great tower, which had the eifect of drawing ashore 
all vessels passing near the coast. The inconvenience of this was 
so much felt, that about two centuries since, in the Mogul time, 
the crew of a ship landed at a distance and stealing down the coast, 
attacked the temple, scaled the tower, and carried off the load- 
stone. The priests alarmed at this violation of the sanctity of the 
place, removed the image of the god with all his paraphernalia to 
Puri, where they have ever since remained, and from that date the 
temple became deserted and went rapidly to ruin. As above inti- 
mated, the origin of its dilapidation may obviously be ascribed 
either to an earthquake or to lightning, but many causes have con- 
curred to accelerate the progress of destruction, when once a begin- 
ning had been made. To say nothing of the effects of weather on 
a deserted building, and of the vegetation that always takes root 
under such circumstances, it is clear that much injury has been 
done by the inhabitants of the neighbourhood, in forcing out the 
iron clamps which held the stones together, for the sake of the 
metal ; and it is well known that the officers of the Marhatta go- 
vernment actually beat down a part of the walls, to procure mate- 
rials for building some insignificant temples at Puri. 

Abulfazl's quaint, but lively and picturesque, description of the 
temple of the Sun, is of course familiar to those who have perused 
the Ayin Acberi with attention. Although however it aff'ords a 
good general idea of the character of the building, it is strangely 
inaccurate in respect to measurements, no less than in the descrip- 
tion of the emblems and ornaments which embellish it. Without 
noticing its several errors in detail, I shall first insert the description 
above alluded to, and then offer an account of the place as it appears 
to the visitor in the nineteenth century. 

The author of the Ayin Acheri observes, (vide Gladwin's trans- 
lation,) " Near to Jagannath is the temple of the sun, in the erecting 
of which, was expended the whole revenue of Orissa for twelve 
years. No one can behold this immense edifice without being 
struck with amazement. The wall which surrounds the whole is 
one hundred and fifty cubits high and nineteen cubits thick. There 
are three entrances to it. At the eastern gate there are two very 
fine figures of elephants, each with a man upon his trunk. To the 
west are two surprizing figures of horsemen completely armed, and 



131 



over the northern gate are carved two lions who having killed two 
elephants, are sitting upon them. In the front of the gate is a 
pillar of black stone of an octagonal form fifty cubits high. Tliere 
are nine flights of steps, after ascending which, you come into an 
enclosure where you discover a large dome constr\xcted of stone, up- 
on which are carved the sun and stars, and round them is a border 
where are represented a variety of human figures, expressing the 
different passions of the mind, some kneeling, others prostrated 
with their faces upon the earth, together with minstrels, and a 
number of strange and wonderful animals, such as never existed 
but in imagination. This is said to be a work of 730 years atiqui- 
ty. Raja Nursinh Deo finished this building, thereby erecting for 
himself a lasting monument of fame. There are twenty-eight other 
temples belonging to this pagoda, six before the northern gate, and 
twenty-two without the enclosure, and they are all reported to 
have performed miracles." 

The wall which formed the outer enclosure may have measured 
about two hundred and fifty yards on a side ; within this was a 
second enclosure having three entrances called the Aswa or horse, 
the Hasti or elephant, and the Sinlia or Lion gate, from the colossal 
figures of those animals, which surmounted the several side posts. 
The horses and elephants on the north and south, have long since 
been precipitated from their bases, but the lions, or rather griftins, 
still retain the attitude and position assigned to them by Abulfazl, 
except that they are standing, instead of sitting, on the bodies of 
elephants, and have one paw lifted in the act of striking. Fronting 
the Sinh gate, stood the beautiful polygonal column, formed of a 
single shaft of black basalt, which is now placed at the entrance of 
the Puri temple. It supported, at that time, the appropriate em- 
blem of Aruna, the charioteer of the sun, which has since given 
place to Hanuman, and measures about thirty-three feet in height, 
instead of fifty cubits. 

From the eastern gate of the inner enclosure, a flight of ruined 
steps leads to the only tolerably perfect part of the building now 
remaining, called the Jagmohan, or Antichamber of the Sanctuary. 
No one, certainly, can behold the massive beams of iron and the 
prodigious blocks of stone used in the construction of this edifice, 
without being struck with amazement. The ground plan is a 
square, measuring sixty feet on a side, or, if we take in the four 
projecting doorways, it should rather be called a cross. The walls 
rise to a height of sixty feet, and have in some parts the unusual 
thickness of twenty feet. They support a noble and curiously 



132 



constructed pyramidal roof, the stones comprizing which overhang 
each other, in the manner of inverted stairs, until they approach 
near enough towards the summit to support iron beams laid across, 
on which rests a prodigious mass of solid masonry, forming the 
head-piece or crowning ornament. The slope measures about sev- 
enty-two feet, and perpendicular height, sixty-three or sixty-four. 
The total altitude of the building, fi'om the floor to the summit, is 
about one hundred feet or a little more. The outside of the roof 
is divided into three tiers of steps, formed by slabs projecting curi- 
ously from the body of the building, which are all bordered with u 
very fine pattern of elephants, birds, and various figures executed 
with considerable skill and spirit. Each of the terraces between 
the tiers, is decorated with statues, placed at intervals, nearly as 
large as life. One of the two lower ones, are figures of nymphs 
and heavenly choristers, dancing and playing upon sundry instru- 
ments, but with countenances expressing very little passion or feel- 
ing of any kind. The third story has the usual mythological ani- 
mals, more nearly resembling lions than any thing else, which sup- 
port on their shoulders the outer rim of the huge turban-shape 
ornament on the top ; besides these, there is a four-headed statute 
over each of the door-ways, the crowns and sceptres of which, mark 
them as intended to represent the majesty of Brahma. 

Each face of the Jagmohan has a fine rectangular door-way, with 
a porch projecting considerably beyond and lined with superb 
slabs of the grey indurated chlorite, many of which measure fif- 
teen feet high by a breadtli of six or eight feet. The architrave of 
the door-way, as well as the roof of the passage leading to the inte- 
rior, and an enormous mass of masonry resting upon it, are sup- 
ported by nine iron beams, nearly a foot square by twelve or eigh- 
teen long, which are laid across the side ways in the most rude and 
inartificial manner. The whole fabric is held together by clamps 
of the same metal, and there is no appearance of any cement having 
been used. 

If the style of the black Pagoda betrays, in the rude and clumsy 
expedients apparent in its construction, a primitive state of some of 
the arts, and a deficiency of architectural skill, at the period of its 
erection, one cannot but wonder at the case with which the archi- 
tects seem to have wielded and managed the cumbersome masses of 
iron and stone, used for the works, in an age when so little aid w^s 
to be derived from any mechanical inventions ; and it must be al- 
lowed that there is an air of elegance, combined with massiveness, 



133 



in tlie whole structure, wluch entitles it to no small sliare of fidnii- 
mtion. There is much, however, about this remarkahle building, 
which it is difficult either to describe or comprehend. The interior 
is filled, to a height of several feet, with large blocks of stone, which 
seem to have fallen from above, and what purpose they answered, in 
their former situation, is a matter of great doubt and discussion. 
Amongst the heap are to be seen, two iron beams, measuring twenty 
one feet in length by about 'eight inches square, absolutely crushed 
beneath a superincumbent mass of stone, many of the blocks com- 
posing which, measure fifteen and sixteen feet in length, by about 
six feet of depth and two or three in thickness. It seems probable 
that they formed part of an inner or false roof, but neither is it easy 
to assign any precise place for such a ceiling, nor can one divine 
the motive or object of elevating such prodigious blocks of stone 
to a great height in the building, when lighter materials would 
have been so much better adapted to the w^ork. 

The exterior of the side walls, as of the roof, is loaded with a pro- 
fusion of the richest sculptured ornaments. A remarkably hand- 
some cornice or border occupies the upper part, all round, for a 
depth of several feet. Below this, the surface is divided by another 
fine cornice, into two tiers of compartments, parted off into inches 
by clusters of pilasters, in each of which are placed figures of men 
and animals, resting on pedestals with a sort of canopy overhead. 
The human figures are generally male and female, in the most lewd 
and obscene attitudes, **«***» Amongst the 
animals, the most common representation is that of a lion rampant 
treading on an elephant or a prostrate human figure. Generally 
speaking, the style and execution of the larger figures, are rude and 
coarse, whilst the smaller ones display often much beauty and grace; 
but it should be observed that the whole have suffered materially, 
from the corrosion or decomposition of the stone, of which tlie 
building is chiefly composed, viz. the coarse red granite of the pro- 
vince, which is singularly liable to decay, from exposure to the 
weather. 

The skill and labor of the best artists, seems to have been reserved 
for the finely polished slabs of chlorite, which line and decorate the 
outer faces of the door- ways. The whole of the sculpture on these 
figures, comprizing men and animals, foliage, and arabesque pat- 
terns, is executed with a degree of taste, propriety, and freedom, 
which would stand a comparison with some of our best specimens 
of Gothic architectural ornament. The workmanship remains, too. 



134 



as perfect, as if it had just come from under the chissel of the sculp- 
tor, owing to the extreme hardness and durability of the stone. A 
triangular niche, over each door-way, was once filled with a figure 
cut in alto relievo, emblematic of the deity of the place, being that 
of a youth in a sitting posture, holding in each hand a stalk of the 
true Lotus or Nelumbium speeiosum, the expanded flowers of which 
are turned towards him. Each architrave has, as usual, the Nava 
Graha, or nine brahminical planets, very finely sculptured in alto 
relievo. Five of them are well proportioned figures of men, with 
mild and pleasing countenances, crowned with high pointed caps 
and seated cross-legged on the Padma (Nelumbium speeiosum), 
engaged in religious meditation — one hand bears a vessel of water, 
and the fingers of the other are counting over the beads of a rosary, 
which hangs suspended. The form of the planet which presides 
over Thursday, (Vrihaspati or Jupiter,) is distinguished from the 
others by a flowing majestic beard. Friday, or Venus, is a youth- 
ful female, with a plump well rounded figure. Ketu, the descend- 
ing node, is a triton whose body ends in the tail of a fish or drag- 
on ; and Rahu, or the ascending node, a monster, all head and 
shoulders, with a grinning grotesque countenance, frizly hair dres- 
sed like a full blown wig, and one immense canine tooth projecting 
from the upper jaw ; in one hand he holds a hatchet, and in the 
other a fragment of the moon. These are doubtless the " sun and 
stars" mentioned by the author of the Ayin Acberi. Why they 
occupy, so uniformly, a position over the door-way of every temple 
in Orissa, sacred to whatever deity, I have never been able to 
learn. 

The walls of the interior are, as usual with Hindu temples, en- 
tirely plain and devoid of ornament ; but each of the projecting 
steps in the square pyramidal roof, has been curiously rounded, 
and formed into a sort of cornice, which gives a slight finish to 
that part of the building. 

From the fragment remaining of the great tower, it would seem 
to have been covered with rich and varied sculptured ornament, in 
the style of the Bhubaneswar temple. Like all edifices of the kind, 
too, it had evidently an inner false roof, of pyi-amidal shape, formed 
of the inverted stairs used by the old architects of the province, as 
a substitute for the arch. 

The Rev. A. Sutton thus describes this Pagoda. "I set off to 
the Black Pagoda about half a coss distant, where I expected to 
meet with a great many people, and get a sight of this ancient 
monument of idolatry, and was not disappointed, except in having 



135 



my expectations far exceeded. There was a very large assembly 
of people sitting round about the temple, and quite at liberty. This 
is by far the best spot for missionary purposes, and would amply 
repay the trouble of an excursion another year. I preached to the 
people in different places, and distributed the remainder of my books 
to very eager applicants. I had entertained the mistaken idt-a that 
Hindooism originally was comparatively a pure system to wliat we 
see it in our day ; and if any one entertains the same opinion, I 
would recommend them to visit the Black Pagoda on the Orissa 
coast. Here is one of the oldest temples in India, so old, that no 
account can be given of its origin or antiquity ; the natives believe, 
and told me repeatedly, it was the work of the gods. It is very 
magnificent in many respects. The carving in stone and marble 
work, is laboured and various to an astonishing extent ; but this 
sJcill and cost is principally bestoivcd on jicjures the most heastlif 
that can he conceived, and altogether, presents a tnass of ohsceniti/ 
which beggars all description ! The temple is now little better 
than a heap of ruins. The Idol, they told me, was stolen away, 
and it is now at liberty for any one's minutest inspection. On my 
entering it, the stench was extremely disagreeable, occasioned by 
the swarms of bats, bears, and other noxious creatures, which had 
taken up their abode in the holy place. It must have been a noble 
.gilding once. The stones of which the interior is built are many 
of them of an immense size, and excited my wonder and admira- 
tion how the Hindoos could have managed them. I measured one 
on which I stood, that lay clear of the heap, and on my return home 
found it to be twelve feet long, and nearly the same in girth. This 
stone had fallen with the inner roof or dome, and I have no reason 
•whatever to suppose it one of the largest. The Temple however 
served me for a very difTerent p\n-pose to that for which it was 
originally intended ; for, as there were many people inside looking 
about, our conversation led me to discourse at some lengtli on the 
universal destruction of Idolatry, and the spread of the glorious 
soul-restoring gospel of the Son of God, They listened with at- 
tention, and seemed to think I spoke the truth. I was afterwards 
struck at the idea of making a preaching-house of an Idol's temple. 
Before I left I clambered nearly to the top of this mass of obscenity. 
One of the beastly representations over which I crawled, and which 
had fallen down, was large as life, and there were many others 
like it." 



186 



The Birjai or Parbati khetr, comprizes the countr}' which stretches 
for five cos around the village of Jajipur (Yajyapura) on the banks 
of the Bytarini, as a centre. The sanctity of the place is, as usual, 
founded on a variety of ffinciful notions and v/ild traditions, wliich 
it v/ould be tedious to detail at any length. In the first place, its 
name, the " City of Sacrifice," is derived from the circumstance of 
Brahma having performed here, in ancient days, the great sacrifice 
called the Das Aswamed'h, at the ghat so called, to which all the 
gods and goddesses were invited. Amongst others, Gangaji was 
prevailed on to attend, and has since flowed through the district in 
the sacred form of the Bytarini, which, descending to the infernal 
regions by an opening near Jajipur, becomes there the Styx of the 
Hindu Tartarus.'^ At this same sacrifice, a particularly holy form 
of Durga, or Parvati, sprung up from the altar on which the burnt 
offering was laid, and adopted the title of Birja, whence the name 
of the khetr : from her, again, issued the eight Chandis, or repre- 
sentatives of the Sacti of IMahadeva ; and their appearance was 
followed by that of the eight Sambhus, or lords of the Linga, who 
with their dependent lingas, amounting in all to no less than a 
crore, are stationed at different points, over the whole khetr, to 
guard it from the intrusion of Asurs, Rakshases, and other malig- 
nant demons. The titles of the female energies above noticed, are 
Koth Vasini, Sidaheswari, Nibakhi, Uttareswari, Bhagavati, Kotavi, 
and Bhimaki ; those of the males, Trilochana, Someswara, Trilo- 
keswara, Pranaveswara, Isaneswara, Akandeswai-a, Agniswara, and 
Siddhiswara, which the learned reader may compare with the 
epithets of the same divinities who protect and sanctify the Bishen 
Khetr. 

Besides the afore-mentioned claims to veneration, Jajipur is far- 
ther esteemed, from its being supposed to rest on the navel of the 
tremendous giant or demon, called (he Gaya Asur, who was over- 
thrown by Vishnu. Such was his hulk, that, when stretched on 
the ground, his head rested at Gayn,f his navel (nabhi) at this 
place, and his feet at a spot near Piajamendri. There is a very 

* "The dead in soiiiir to the jnd.ujinon), hall of Yuniu or death, cross the 
B3'tunnioc, the India Stj'x, the waters of which like those of Pblegethon, 
the fourth river of hell, which the dead were obliged to cross, are said to 
be boiliiif!: hot. Tliis vivor encircled the infernal regions nine times. By- 
turinice encircles this hall six times." 

t This is the modern capital of Bchar. It is situated in Lat. 2Io 49' N. 
Long. S5o E, 55 miles south of Patna, a celebrated place of Pilgrimage, 
to release the souls of the dead out of purgatory. The Pdgrim Tax was 
abolished here April IbJlU. 



137 



sacred well or pit within the enclosure of one of the Jajipur temples, 
called the Gaya Nabhi or Bamphi, which is fabled to reach to tlie 
navel of the monster, and into it the Hindu pilgrims throw the Pin- 
da, or cake of rice or sweetmeats, which is offered, at particular 
conjunctions, as an expiation for the sins of their ancestors. The 
priests and inhabitants of Jajipur insist, that in 1821, a sudden rise 
of water took place in the well, which forced up the accumulated 
mass of sour rice cakes that had been there fermenting for months 
or years, and deluged the whole area of the temple with filth. 
The occurrence was regarded both as a miracle, and as the fore- 
runner of some great calamity. 

The numerous stone temples on both sides of the Bytarini river 
executed mostly in a very respectable style of architecture, bespeak 
the ancient importance of the place ; and history informs us that 
it was formerly one of the capitals of the Orissan monarchy. The 
Rajas of the Kesari dynasty held here their Court occasionally, as 
well as those of the Ganga Vansa line, and the remains of their 
palace, at present an undefinable heap of ruin, are still shewn. The 
Musselman writers seem sometimes to mention Jajipur as a separate 
principality, in the time of the Ganga Bans Rajas, but I can dis- 
cover no ground whatever for such a territorial division. Moham- 
med Taki Klian, the Deputy of Shujaa Khan Nazir of Bengal, 
held his Court at Jajipur, and built a fine palace and mosque on 
the banks of the Byterini, early in the last century, out of the 
materials of some dilapidated Hindu temple, the sculptured orna- 
ments of which may be still observed in many parts of the walls. 
His palace, again, has been in great part destroyed by the officers 
of the present government, to obtain materials for the construction 
of public works in the neighbourhood. The environs of Jajipur, 
present much to interest the curious, in its temples, khambas or 
columns in various styles, and fine remains of statuary. On one 
of the pillars, an inscription has been discovex-ed, which is said to 
be of the same character exactly as that on the brow of the Khan- 
digiri cavern of Khurda. The most eminently curious objects of 
the place however, are, the images of certain Hindu goddesses, 
carved in stone, which I shall now more particularly describe. 

At the back of a high terrace supporting the cejiotujjli of Syyed 
Bokhari, a Musselman saint, three colossal statues of the Hindu 
divinities, are shewn. They lie with their heels upi)ermost, on a 
heap of rubbish, in precisely the same position apparently that they 
assumed, when tumbled from their thrones above, by the Mussel- 
man conquerors of the province, who destroyed a celcbiated temple 



138 



at the spot, and further desecrated it, by erecting on its ruins a shrine 
and mosque of their own worship. The images are cut in alto 
relievo, out of enormous blocks of the indurated Mugni, or chlorite 
slate rock, and measure about ten feet in length. They represent 
Kali, Varahi the wife of the Boar Avatar, and Indrani the lady of 
Indra ; and though the subjects are grotesque, the execution is 
distinguished by a degree of freedom, skill and propriety, quite 
unusual in the works of Hindu sculptors. The first is a disgusting, 
but faithful, representation of a ghastly figure, nearly a skeleton, 
with many of the muscles and arteries exposed to view, invested 
with the distinguishing marks and attributes of the goddess Kali. 
She is seated on a car, or vahana, supported by a kneeling diminu- 
tive figure of Mahadeva. The second has a boar's head, and a 
huge pot belly, like that of Ganesa, and rests on a buffalo. The 
third is a well proportioned female figure, seated on an elephant, 
the animal consecrated by the Hindu Mythology to Indra, the 
lord of the Debtas 

On the banks of the river, we meet with a sort of raised gallery, 
filled with mythological sculptures, amongst which seven large co- 
lossal figures of the female divinities called the Matris, are parti- 
cularly remarkable. They are said to have been recovered, lately, 
out of the sand of the river^whcre they were tossed by the Moguls 
on their shrines being destroyed — by a mahajan of Cuttack, who 
built the edifice in which they are now deposited. They differ 
little in style and dimensions, from those above described, but 
appear to be cut out of blocks of basalt, or greenstone, instead of 
chlorite shist. They arc styled respectively, Kali, Indrani, Cau- 
mari, Rudrani, Varahiiii, Vaishnavi, and Yama Matri. The figure 
of Kali is sculptured in a very spirited manner; she is represented 
with an axe in one hand, and a cup full of blood in the other, 
dancing in an infuriated attitude, after the destruction of the giant 
Rakta Vija, and trampling unconsciously on her husband Mahadeo, 
who, as the fable runs, had thrown himself at her feet, to solicit 
her to desist from those violent movements, which were shaking 
the whole world. That of Jam Matri, the "mother of Yama," is 
also a very striking and remarkable piece of sculi)turc. Her form 
is that of a hideous decrepid old woman, seated on a pedestal, quite 
naked, with a countenance alike expressive of extreme age, and 
that sourness of disposition which has rendered her proverbial as a 
scold. There are likewise fine representations in this mythological 
gallery, of the Narasinha Avatar, and the Giant Ravana, with his 
hundred hauh and arms. 



139 



Under the head of Cicil Architecture, I shall, in conclusion, 
mention the Bridges of Orissa, which are certainly the most credit- 
able, though not the most magnificent, monuments remaining of its 
indigenous princes. Many of these works are to be found in differ- 
ent parts of the province, still in excellent state of preservation. 
The principal bridges which I have seen, are, that between Sim- 
leah and Soro, of fourteen nalehs or channels : the Athareh or 
eighteen naleh bridge, at Puri ; the Char naleh, in the same neigh- 
bourhood ; the bridge at Dclang, and another over the Dya, be- 
tween Kiiurda and Pipley. They are generally termed indifferently 
by foreigners, Mogul and Marhatta bridges ; but the latter race 
during their unsettled and disturbed government in Cuttack, cer- 
tainly never constructed works of so useful and durable a cliaracter; 
and besides the fact that the history of some of the principal ones 
is well known, it is quite obvious from a consideration of their style 
and architectural ornaments, that they are of pure Hindu origin, 
and belong to an age ignorant of the use of the arch. A sliort de- 
scription of the Athareh naleh bridge at Puri, will serve, to illustrate 
sufiiciently this part of the subject. It was built of a ferruginous 
colored stone, probably the iron clay, early in the fourteenth cen- 
tury, by Raja Kabir Narsinh Deo, the successor of Langora Narsinh 
Deo who completed the black Pagoda. The Hindus, being ignorant 
how to turn an arch, substituted in lieu of it the method, often ad- 
verted to above, of laying horizontal tiers of stones on the piers, 
the one projecting slightly beyond the other in the manner of in- 
verted stairs, until they approach near enough at top, to stistain a 
key stone or cross beam; a feature so remarkable in Hindu archi- 
tecture, that it seems strange it should not have been liilherto par- 
ticularly noticed, in any description of the antiquities of the country. 
The bridge has eighteen nalehs or passages for the water, each 
roofed in the way described. Its total length is 2<J0 feet, and 
height of the central passages eighteen feet, and its breadth fourLuen 
ditto ; of the smallest ones, at each extremity, thirteen and seven 
respectively ; and the thickness of the piers, which have been ju- 
diciously rounded on the side opposed to the current, eight and six 
feet; the height of the parapet, which is a modern addition, is six 
feet. 

Of the other native buildings of the province little need be said. 
The stone revetment at Cutlack, a work of magnitude and indis- 
pensible utility, is probably of Mogul origin, built in imitation of a 
more ancient. one, the remains of which are still to be seen. Foil 
Barabuti has been described in speaking of the modern capita'. 



140 



The ruins extant of the old palaces of the Rajas, at Cuttack, 
Choudwar, Jajpur, and Bhubaneswer, are mere shapeless masses 
of stone and mounds of earth, which it would be fruitless to attempt 
any detailed account of. The ancient fortress of Sarengerh, on the 
south bank of the Kajuri, opposite to Cuttack, is remarkable for 
the great distance to which its works may be traced, but no portion 
of it remains habitable ; and a modern killah, of the Musselman 
time, occupies the site of the citadel and palace of the first of the 
Ganja Vansa Rajas. 

The dilapidations of time, mouldering into oblivion and the dust, 
the proudest works of human power, forcibly remind us, that, as 
states and dynasties rise, change, and disappear, so we, and all we 
fondly call our own, are " going the way of all flesh." But let us 
remember — " God requireth that which is past." How ought the 
present then, to be devoted to those works of benevolence, piety, 
and zeal for the salvation of souls, the fruit and reward of which 
will remain when this vain world sliall be no more. The Mussel- 
man and Marhatta misrule in Hindostan, has most providentially 
been subverted by the British power. India is given to Britain for 
her welfare. Orissa, one of her most sacred and interesting Pro- 
vinces, now enjoys the increasing light of the Gospel. Colleges, 
schools, scriptures, tracts, preaching the gospel, &c., are scattering 
the clouds of darkness in almost every part of this region and 
shadow of death. It is " the morning light" of the sun of righte- 
ousness, which "shineth more and more unto the perfect day." 

" See, knowledge, slowly rising like the sun 
In early spring, upon the Lapland plain, 
Gives fortli faiftf light, but, lengthening days begun, 
Its growing rays do gather strength amain ; 
And clouds si)ring up and interpose in vain. 
The living princi])le asserts the sky 
Driv'n back, or scattcr'd wide in driving rain, 
To furthest corners of the heavens tliey fly, 
Shunning for aye the glare of day's all-lightening eye.' 



A BRIEF HTSTORY OF 

THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

OF 

THE GENERAL BAPTIST MISSION 

IN ORISSA. 



A BEIEF HISTORY, 



ETC., ETC. 



CHAP. I. 

Rise of the Mission in Orissa. 

Introductory ohservations — Sketch of the History of the General 
Baptist Denomination — Formation of tlic Foreign Mission — 
Einbarkalion and Voyayc of the first Rlissionaries to India — 
ArriiHil at Seramjiore — Approbation of the British Government 
obtained to proceed to Orissa — Abundant supply of Scriptures 
and Tracts for distribution, 

IIiNDOsTAN presents a scene of deep interest to the politician, the 
philanthropist, and tlie cliristian. The rise and prcigrcss of tlie 
British empire in the east, is one of the most unprecedented events 
recorded in history. It has been observed, perhaps v/ith rather too 
much asperity — "Notwithstanding the solemn declaration made by 
the Legislature in 1782, that schemes of conquest and extent of 
dominion in India, are measures repugnant to the wish, the honour, 
and the policy of the British nation ; they have ever since been so 
eagerly and successfully pursued, that our dominions in the cast, 
now embrace the whole of the Alogul empii-e, comprising a popula- 
tion of ninety millions."* And more recently, the intelligent 
Editor of the Friend of India, has observed to the same efl'ect : — 

* East India Magazine, Feb. ISo.*?. 
T 



144 



" When we recal to mind tlie reiterated charges which have been 
brought in Parliament against our Indian statesmen, for the exten- 
sion of the empire within the Indus, and h)ok ujion the present 
course of alFairs which is leading us into new scenes, hundreds of 
miles beyond that river, how feeble and short-sighted do all human 
councils appear. There is surely a power at work in all these 
changes, mightier than any human agency ; and these grand move- 
ments which arc apt to strike the mind with awe, belong to higher 
and nobler plans than any which have been dreamed of in the 
councils of India."* 

The thoughtful and pious Christian, contemplating Orisaa as the 
scene of missionary operations, may be reminded of the scripture — 
"a goodly heritage of the host of nations." What a host of na- 
tions does Ilindostan present from the Brumapootra river to the 
Indus ; and from tlie mouths of the Ganges to Cabul ! And that 
Orissa should be, as by the special providence of God, and *' the 
consent of the tribes of Israel" engaged in missionary labours, 
allotted to the General Baptists as " a half tribe of the Israel of 
God," may bring to pleasing recollection, the language of Moses 
concerning the destination of his people in Palestine ; " When the 
Most High divided to the nations their inheritance, when He sepa- 
rated the sons of Adam he set the bounds of the people according 
to the number of the children of Israel." — Deu. 32, 8. Orissa, 
though comparatively a small principality, occupies a commanding 
position on the bay of Bengal, approaching Calcutta, the great 
metropolis of British power, and forming the connecting link be- 
tween the Bengal and jNIadras Presidencies. The popularity of the 
"mighty Pagoda of Juggernaut," adds in the estimation of the 
Christian, the deepest interest to this scene of philanthropic labour, 
which contemplates the fulfilment of the scripture, " The idols He 
shall utterly abolish." " He will famish all the gods of the earth ; 
and men shall worship him every one from his place, even all the 
idols of the heathen." At that time, even of the temple of Jugger- 
naut, it will be verified, " The fortress of the liigh fort of thy walls 
shall he bring down, lay low, bring to the ground, even to the 
dust." Who that has perused the previous history of Orissa, but 
must cherish a lively interest in its civilization, and especially, its 
evangelization ? 

The Report of the Mission for 1821, commences with the follow- 
ing eloquent paragraph, highly descriptive of the moral state of 

* Friend of India, 1839. 



145 



Orjssa, at tlie time the first Missionaries were proceeding to tluit 
" region and shadow of death ;" and of tlie inestimable boon they 
were honoured to bear to its teeming myriads. " Before the Son 
of God ascended from Bethany to heaven, he gave the most sublime, 
the most important, the most benevolent command that was ever 
delivered in this tiansitory world — Go preach the Gospel to cilery 
creature. When he uttered this divinely gracious precc2)t, Britain 
lay shrouded in gloom more melancholy than the gloom of the 
grave, and more desolating than the hand of death. A night of 
darkness that had been deepening for ages, covered all the land. 
Death, spiritual death, reigned triumphant over our hapless ances- 
tors. Not a gleam of light broke in upon the darkness, not a pulse 
of life was felt aniong the dead. The land was a golgotha, inha- 
bited by immortal beings, but by immortal beings "all dead," 
possessed of souls formed for eternity, yet as ignorant of true good 
as the brutes that perish, and less happy than the brutes because 
polluted with vices that never polluted them. At length some un- 
known friends of ours heard in the Saviour's command a voice as it 
were saying. Go preach the Gospel in Britain. They came — and 
when will the blessings of that day terminate ! The hoary druidical 
system of bloody superstition fell — the night of ages was dispersed, 
and the god of this world felt his British throne totter and moulder 
before the heralds of the Cross. What has been done for us it is 
our duty and happiness to do for others." 

It may be interesting, in passing, to give a little information 
respecting the Denomination of Christians to whom the evangeliza- 
tion of Orissa is committed by divine Providence. Of them it is 
stated in the First Indian Report of the Society, printed at 
Cuttack, — 

"The Missionaries laboiu-ing in Oriss.i whether from England or Amer- 
ica, belong to that section of the Baptist cluu-ch wliicli in England is de- 
nominated "General Baptist." Thuy are thus designated from li(,l(!iiig as 
their distingnisliing sentiment, tliat Clnist has by his sufferings uuto death 
made provision for the salvation of evtry man ; while the other seetion of 
the Baptist church is desiguaird " Particular Baptist" from liohling llie 
doctrine of particular redcmi-tion, or that Christ died only f"r the eh'ct. 
These designations were far more ajjiiropriatc fifty years ago than they now 
are ; within this period both sections have approximated so ch.scly to each 
other that the majority perhaps in either denoniination have little to dis- 
tinguish them but tiie name. 

The spirit of Missions wliich was first kindled in the minds of the English 
Baiitists by the labours of the apostolic Carey, soon spread its hallowing 
influence among the General Baptists. Indeed Dr. Carey was the pastor 
of a very ancient General Baptist church at Molton, Noithamptonshire, 
and with his venerated colleagues, he ever looked with pureutal allL-clion 
upon our infant Miisiun." 



146 

" The General Baptists of England, (says the Rev. A. Sutton,) were> 
during the 17th century,* an active, numerous hody of Christians. They 
were orthodox in sentiment, and fervent in piety, but unliappily the doc- 
trine of Socinianism cre])t into their churches, and while it ate out the vital 
spirit of Christianity, thinned their members, and spread a general torpor 
over the whole body. At length the indefatigable Dan Taylor, was 
raised up among them, and fanned the dying embers of piety into a flame. 
His spirit v/as grieved at the desolation of the churches; he wrote, and tra- 
velled, and preached and pi-ayed in behalf of the pure doctrines of the gospel. 
He succeeded in many instances, in confirming the wavering in the fun- 
damental truths of the Bible ; he gathered around him a band of brethren 
of similar feelings with himself ; they grew bold in defence of thi! faith 
oncedelivered t^ the saints; they o])posed the deadening influence of Soci- 
nianism, and when they could do no more in reforming the body, they 
separated and formed themselves into a distinct society uuder the name 
of " T//e A^civ Conned'iou of General Baptists." This important measure 
was effected A. D. 1770, and from that time the New Connexion has grad- 
ually increased in numbers and influence, while the old Gtueral Baptists 
have continued to sink into comparative insignificance. Th.e rise of tlsc 
Particular Baptist Mission in 1792 spread a new infiuerice tlu-ough the 
churches ; a higher tone of l>iety was excited ; a more active ^jrineiple of 
benevolence warmed the h.earts of British Christians, and zeal for the 
salvation of the world was called into exercise, which had lain dormant 
throiigh many preceding generations. The New Connexion of General 
Baptists partook of this revival of Primitive Christianity, though f;>r some 
years they supposed themselves too few in nmnber, and too limited in their 
resources to do any thing for missions, more than throw their mite into the 
treasury of existing societies. At lengtii providence raised up the Rev. J. G. 
Pike to advocate tlie cause of missions among the General Baptists. His 
whole soul was called forth in behalf of the perishing nations of idolaters. 
He pleaded their cause with such affecting importunity, and such invincible 
ardour, that opposition was silenced; ditHculties vanished ; friends were 
encouraged ; and the resolution to atten.ipt to do something among the 
heathen was formed at the Annual Association of the New Connexion, in 
A. D. ISIO. 

In turning over the pages of civil history, we cannot helj) reflecting 
that the mightiest nations arose from small beginnings, and that some of 
theinost famous heroes were once obscure and perhaps despised individuals. 
This remark is not intended to convey an idea that the Inunble memorial 
111)011 which we are now entering will yield to a more importp.nt history of 
mightier achievements performed by the little society to which it relates, 
(though in one view this will most assiu'cdly be the case,) but it may in- 
diice a salutary application of the question " Who hath despi.sed the day 
of small things?" and justify the attempt at preserving an account of the 
efforts of a body of Christians engaged in attacking one oi" the strongest 
holds of the prince of darkness ; and which under Providence extracted 
the first stones from the foundation of that " migl)ty pagoda" which after 
ages are destined to see crumbling into dust. Juggernaut, the (jrcat, the 
obsceiie, the hloodij Jnyijcrnant, must fa//; long, ])erhaps, will be the struggle 
and fierce the conflict, but he must fall ; and the place which knows him 
now will know him no more for ever. 

The Prophets and Apostles who foretold the triumphs of the gospel, and 
the blessings of Immanuel's reign, looked through many a bitter per- 
secution, and beyond successive ages of pagan darkness. They saw in 

* For an account of the Old and New Connexions of the General Bap- 
tist Denomination, see Manas.-ycf/yn Prize E;'c.ay, p. ;>3-44. 



14-7 



their prophetic vision the long nii^ht of antichrist, and the extended sway 
of the iron licartcd man of Mecca ; but we have passed tliose direful scenes ; 
we anticijjate no such obstructions to the s])read of liglit and trutli, we 
believe that the last struggle of exi)iring Idolatrj'has connnenced, and that 
the first kindlings of tbc glorious day of universal bliss have already dawn- 
ed to be obscured no r.iore. Or if a passing cloud shall for a moment 
spread the gloom of night over our hopes and prospects, it will soon pass 
away, and the full orbed glories of the Sun of llighteousuess, appear to 
diffuse eternal light, and life, and joy.'"* 

The formation of the ^lission, destined, it is Imnihly trusted, to 
undermine the Idolatry of Juggernaut, and to blot out its atrocities 
for evei', vi'as an event of great importance in the church of Christ. 
" A thought (says Dr. Cox, in his Ilistori/ of the Baptist Mission- 
ary Society,) arises in the mind of an individual. There it works 
secretly for a time, till it'irresistibly demands expression. Theii it 
calls into exercise the sympathies of other minds, till, attaching it- 
self to kindred elements around, it moulds into form, and stimulates 
into activity a series of efforts. These issue in the salvation of in- 
numerable souls, and by the various combinations of christian 
benevolence, send down an ever augmenting influence to distant 
ages. Some of the greatest events, both of secular and ecclesiasti- 
cal history, have been connected with circumstances apparently the 
most insignificant, or with men the most obscure and unpretending, 
that "the excellency of the power may be of God and not of man." 
The first publication of the Baptist TJissionary Society commences 
with the observation ; — " The origin of the Society will be ft)und in 
the workings of our Brother Carey's mind, which has been directed 
to this object for the last nine or ten years, with very little inter- 
mission. His heart appears to have been set upon the conversion 
of the heathen, before he came to reside at Moulton in 178G." — As 
the Particular Baptist Mission originated with the venerable Carey, 
so the General Baptist Missitni must be traced to the deep and 
anxious solicitude for the heathen of its Secretary, the Rev. J. G. 
Pike, of Derby, the author of so many valuable works on practical 
divinity. His name first appears in the Minutes of the General 
Baptist Association in 1809, as residing at Mr. Dan Taylor's, in 
London, or addressed at his residence. The following account of 
the rise of the Society, is extracted from " The Committee Book," 
and is in Mr. Pike's handwriting. "This Society arose in 181G. 
Some members of the New Connection of General Baptists had long 
felt a desire to see a Society for the propagation of the gospel among 
the heathen, established by the cliurclies of the Connection. The 

• Sutton'a Narrative oi the Mission to Orisaa, 1833, Iniio. p. 6-8. 



148 



writer of these lines has little acquaintance, from personal observa- 
tion with what passed in the body previously to 1809, but thinks 
that he has seen a statement that a case respecting a Foreign ISIission 
was sent from Castle Donington, to a Conference or Association 
before that time. If this wei'e the case no visible effects appear to 
have followed. In 1809 an anonymous letter on the subject was 
read at the Association at Quorndon, Leicestershire. This letter 
ap23eared to excite some attention ; Mr. Freeston spoke of it in 
terms of high commendation ; and Mr. B. Pollard, observed that 
he could almost have sold the coat from his back for the missionary 
cause, or to that effect. This letter was printed in the General Baptist 
Repository, No. 17. In 1813, a question to the following effect 
was presented as from the Church at Friar Lane, Leicester, to the 
Conference at Derby, — " Ought not the General Baptists to exert 
themselves as much as they can, in establishing, though on ever so 
small a scale, a Mission of their own ?" It is believed that the 
question was brought forward by the desire of an intimate acquaint- 
ance of the Minister; and in 1813 two letters apjjeared in the 
Repository on the importance of a Mission to the heathen. About 
1812 the present Secretary of the Society applied to Mr. Fuller, 
the venerated Secretary of the Baptist Missionary Society, to know 
if their Society would employ as a Missionary a person who might 
be a member of a General Baptist Church. His answer amounted 
to a negative. In 1814 or 15, Mr. Fuller was again inquired of 
respecting the formation of an auxiliary Baptist ]\Iissionary Society, 
which should include both the bodies of the Baptist Denomination. 
It was thought this might be supported by the Churches of the 
former description, and being a mere auxiliary would not interfere 
with the management of the Baptist Missions. His answer to this 
proposition v/as decidedly unfavourable. It now remained for the 
friends of the heathen among the General Baptists, to see a little 
done among themselves for the support of the Missionary cause as 
carried on by others, or to make a fresh attempt to form a Mission- 
ary Society in their own Connection. In the early part of 1816, 
another letter* appeared in the Repository, calling for the establish- 
ment of such a Society. This letter appears to have had some 
effect. The subject was taken up by the Lincolnshire Conference. 
This letter appears to have been read at a Church meeting in Stoney 
Street, Nottingham, and a case from the Church was presented to a 
full Conference at Wimeswould, June 4, 1810, requesting the Con- 

• It is most probable that Mr. Pike was the writer of these letters. 



149 



ferencc to take into consideration the formation of a Foreign Mission. 
After some discussion, which gave an unusual interest to the 
meeting, it was resolved that the subject appeared to be of such 
importance, that the Conference recommended it to the serious 
consideration of the next Association. It was determined that a 
copy of the resolution should be sent to every Church previously 
to the Association. The subject was accordingly taken up by the 
Association at Boston ; and though the design met with some op- 
position, the result was favorable, and a resolution was passed re- 
commending the friends of the measure to form a Society imme- 
diately."* 

The writer was present at the discussion in the Association, and 
also his late valued colleague IVIr. Bampton, and great was their 
satisfaction, in unison with the feelings of every friend of the infant 
Society, at its auspicious commencement. The Minutes of 181G 
contain the Resolution which was unanimously adopted, that, 
"JVe highly approve of a General Baptist Foreign Mission, and 
heartily recommend it to the Friends of this measure immediately 
to form themselves into a Society for the prosecution of this im- 
portant object." This event took place at Boston, Lincolnshire, 
June 26, 1816. Mr. Pike, of Derby, was appointed Secretary, and 
Mr. R. Seals, of Nottingham, Treasurer. The names of forty 
brethren were nominated on the Committee for the ensuing year, 
"with power if needful to increase their number." An admirable 
Address, of which 5000 were printed, was prepared and circulated 
for the promotion of a missionary spirit. Two or three paragraphs 
cannot but deeply interest the reader. 

" It is one of the glorious distinctions of our divine religion that it pro- 
duces in the heart, which enjoys its saving power, a spirit of universal 
sympathy and benevolence. It will not let us live for ourselves alimo, 
but teaches us to toil and live for others, as those who were before us ni 
the clmrch of Christ toiled and lived for us. Christianity teaches us to 
connect in oiu- views eternity with time, and to ])ehold in every liinnan 
being a creature formed to live when smi and stars expire. It teaelies us 
that such is the capacity of the soul for sulIVring or delight, that the whole 
mass of temporal happiness orinisery, which a thousaml nations could en- 
dure through ten thousaiul times ten thousand years, is but like a droi) to 
the ocean, compared with the ha])i)iness or misery which every soul nmst 
enjoy or sulfer in the range of eternity," 

" Within a few years many Cin-istians of diflercnt denominations have 
been exerting themselves to si;read the knowledge of the holy n.anie of 
.lesus; and, God he praised ! they have not lahoured in yaiii. ne re- 
joice in their success, and would "imitate their example. This has long 



See also the Baptist .Tuhilee Memorial, pp. 79-80. 



150 



been the desire of several among ns wlio are the friends of missions. That 
desire spread furtlier and wider, till it led to the formation of a General 
Baptist Missionary Socicli/; whose object is the sjjread of the };'lorions 
Gospel of Christ among the heathen. The earliest business of this Society, 
it is conceived, must be the acquirement and diffusion of information on 
missionary subjects; tlie awakening the consciences of their fellow christ- 
ians to aid its exertions; and the placing of themselves in a position to act 
when the providence of God sliall call them into action : and it is for tliis 
infant institution that wc s;;licit Bui)port. When its object is considered, 
can any decline supporting it with all the talents and all the power they 
possess? An eloquent friend t)f the heathen world has justly said, " Tlie 
cause of IVIissions is one that will sanctify everj' churcli, every house, 
everj- bosom in which it has a friend. It is a cause stani])ed with the seal 
of heaven, dyed in the blood of Christ, and impressed with the characters 
of eternity. The connnaiul of Jesus gave it birtli; the providence of God 
has watched its growth ; the agonies of the cross insurk its success ; and 
the happiness of countless millions through eternal ages, is the end it has 
in view. 

" The rapidity with which men are hastening to the judgment bar. A 
clergyman now emidoyed Ity the Church Missionary Society in a public 
meeting, observed, " While Britain deliberates, the world is perishing. 
It has been calculated, that in every moment of time, the soul of one hu- 
man being passes into eternity. How awakening this reflection! I am 
bound to call every liuman being my neigldiour, my friend, and ni}' bro- 
ther. My Saviour has taught me to do so. A kindred soul to mine is at 
this moment departing — he is dying — he is dead ! ere I can give utterance 
to the thought, anotlier— aiul anotlicr— and anotlicr is no more. O could 
I call up the spirits of those who have dei)arted this life, since the present 
assembly began its meeting. Could they tell you the scenes that in the 
last few moments have burst uj)on their view : some perhaps unfolding 
a tale that would harrow uj) the soul ; others animating us by a ray of that 
joy, wliich eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither hath it entered into 
the heart of man to conceive ; how gladly would I leave to tliem the plea- 
ding of this cause ! but they are dead — Still there are millions yet alive, 
and other generations yet unborn." 

The first Report of the Society presented to the Annual Meeting 
in June 1817, contains some striking observations well worthy of 
preservation and mature consideration. — "The oak which forms the 
pride of the stately forest, and whicli bears unmoved the storms of 
revolving centuries, creeps through the first years of its existence a 
feeble unnoticed plant ; while the gourd that has advanced to ma- 
turity in a night, has sunk to decay before the rays of one setting 
sun have shone upon it. The cloud that was repeatedly sought in 
vain, and which, when discovered, appeared small as a human hand, 
has afterward poured down its copious stores, and watered a nation 
with its fertilizing rains. If men do, the Lord doth not despise 
" the day of small things.'' — A missionary Society, it should be 
considered, resembles the stream that tends to the ocean; at first a 
rivulet that may be measured by a span, but wliich, increasing as it 
flows, swells till the insignificant brook expands into a mighty 
river ; and swelling still, before its course concludes, the river 



151 



becomes almost a sea. Thus, brethren, has it been with other 
Missionary Societies ; and let us hope that the little stream which 
last year sprung up at Boston, shall continue increasing as it flows, 
till some ages hence, when all who watched its rise are long forgot- 
ten, it shall, like a torrent, pour the waters of salvation through 
many a barren spot in the wide heathen wilderness." 

The Rev. W. Ward, of Scrampore, in his ^^ Farewell Leiters" 
refering to the Society, observes — " Your Missionary Society may 
not be so extended as to excite great public attention ; but a spirit 
of supplication may do more for you, than if your resources placed 
you at the head of all the Missionary Societies. I fear we do not 
perceive sufficiently, the immediate and inseparable connection be- 
tween divine agency and success in these efforts for the conversion 
of blind and infatuated heathens. 

" Prayer moves the hand that moves the world."* 

The arrival of the Rev. W. Ward in England, in May 1819, was 
an event of great interest to the Society. In his first letter to the 
Secretary, he wrote — " I am glad to hear you are going to engage 
in missionary work. If you will send a missionary to Bengal, I am 
sure he will be hospitably received at Serampore, and a place of 
labour recommended. The exact spot would be better selected 
after his amval. Any aid in the power of Serampore; — an asylum, 
advice, correspondence, &e., I am sure he may rely upon ; and so 
far as a brotherly concern for his welfare goes, he would be one of 
us." In a subsequent letter he said — " I shall be very glad of the 
company to India of one of your Missionaries, and would assist him 
on the voyage in Bengalee." The Committee received this as an 
ojiening in Providence highly favorable to the Society. The first 
candidates for missionary labours, whose names deserve honourable 
record, were Messrs. Slater and Glover, who offered themselves iu 
Sept. 1819. It was expected that Mr. Ward would return in the 
spring of 1820 ; and it was remarked that " the young men previ- 
ously engaged were not judged sufficiently matured in experience 
and literature to be so soon employed." Mr. Ward's visit to 
America, Holland, &c., &c., delayed his return till May 1821. It 
is one of the mysteries of providence, that those v-'ho are most ready 
to engage in the cause of God, are sometimes not employed, " the 
pm-pose firm being equal to the deed ;" and those who are rtiost 

* \\aYd'i3 Farewell Letters, 1321, pp. 310-12. 
u 



152 



diffident are pressed into the woik. Mr. Slater, visited France to 
do good ; and both he and his fellow student have long since rested 
from their laborers, finishing their course in their native land. Mr. 
Slater died in Aug. 1822. Mr. Bampton, then minister at Yar- 
mouth, in Norfolk, offered himself to the Committee, in a letter 
dated Jan. 11, 1820. A meeting w^as called, and "the offer unani- 
mously accepted." Not long after, the writer, then minister at 
Norwich, though with great diffidence, wrote the Committee — 
" This afternoon I have solemnly devoted myself to the service of 
God among the heathen." 7'he writer left Norwich in the April of 
that year, and continued at the Wisbeach Academy till a few weeks 
before the embarkation for India. Mr. Bampton also removed to 
Wisbeach, and subsequently studied medicine, surgery, &c., in 
London, which proved very useful to the jNlission. 

The Report of 1821, thus describes the ordination of the first 
Missionaries, at Loughborough and Wisbeach. These events were 
indeed, " a new thing in tlic land." 

" On May 15th, the ordination of Mr. Bampton took place at Long-li- 
borongh. The meetint,^ was one of a highly interesting and solemn dc- 
Bcription. Crowds of friends to the best of causes tloeked from the iieigh- 
bouring churclies, and some persons even from the distance of tlnrty or 
forty miles. Tlie cba])el lilled to excess, vv'as unable to receive all who 
scjught admittance, and a luimbcr were thus deprived of the pleasure wliich 
tliose enjoyed who v/cre happy enough to gain a place within its walls. 
The services were deeply impressive. Mr. Bampton with an innisual de- 
cree of firmness and,with much propriety, i-eplied to the questions proposed 
respecting his motives and principles. The congregation were tlien a.sked 
if thc-y would pledge tliemselves to support the mission and pray for tlio 
missionaries, and requested if they gave that pledge, to exin-ess it by 
holding up their hands. Such a show of hands v/as instantly presented as 
lias not been often seen. Never were so many raised at once before in 
our Conueetion ; and hand and heart seemed to go together. Before this 
scene the mission had many friends, now it has many who in the liouse of 
God, and in his solemn presence, have pledged themselves to be its pray- 
erful friends aud constant supporters. Surely tliis vow will not be forgot- 
ten ; the prayers of so many thus pledged to pray cannot be offered in vain. 
Mr. Smith offered an affectionate and earnest prayer, and Mr. Bampton 
was then set apart to the work ])y the iuiposition of the hands of tho 
brethren. Mr. Pickering delivered a charge full of important advice. In 
the afternoon, Mr. Ward called on all present to regard their morning 
pledge, by addressing them from the apostolic request, " l>rethren, pray 
lor us, that the v/ord of the Lord may have free course and be glorified." 
On the evening of this happy day, this day which may form a new era 
among our cluu-ches ; a missionary prayer-meeting was held. Collections 
were made at all the opportunities in aid of the sacred missionary cause, 
and though made merely at the gates of the burying ground, the amount 
exceeded £70. The spirit that prompted these liberal donations was the 
spirit of Christianity, which is not satisfied v/ith profes^^ions, but with the 
professions of the lips connects the prayers of the heart and the bounty of 
hands. 



153 

On tlie Thursday followins: Mr. Pop^ixs was sot apart at Wisbcacli, Aftet 
an introductory discourse I'rom Mr. jjissill, llic ordiuadon i)raycr was of- 
fered by Mr. 'J'lionias Ewcn, accompanied ])y tlie imposition of liands. 
Our esteemed friend who had I)een the Tutor of our Ixdoved brother, after- 
wards delivered a very instructive and appropriate rlian;e from Nehoni- 
ah's words, "lam doing- a j^rcat work, and I cannot come (h)wn." Tlic 
meetiuf^ was well attended — was a pleasino- and s(demn oi)portunity, and 
much tender solicitude for the comfort of the individuals engaging and 
for the success of the mission was apparent." 

In the very judicious Instructions to the Missionaries, presented 
in a written form, tlie following directions were giveti in reference 
to their future scene of labour. — "We caimot with propriety deci- 
sively fix on your future station, but suggest one or otlicr of the 
following, — Assam, tlie Punjab, Central Ilindostan, viz., the 
Country in the neigh])ourhood of Aurungabad, or one of the great 
Eastern Islands which may be as yet unoccupied. The first of 
these may probably be found the most eligible, the last the least 
advisable. When you reach Serampore consult the Missionaries 
there on the eligibility of the above stations, or if none of these 
should seem suitable, on any other that may appear eligible. 
Value their advice and treat it v.illi deference, yet you arc to consi- 
der it as advic{% and not as actual direction, but must endeavour to 
act as before God, seems most advisable to ynuv own minds." 
How important the decision to be formed — surely the angel of the 
Lord went before the lirethren, to seek out the lot of their inherit- 
ance, and to put them in possession of it. 

The jNIissionaries embarked at Gravesend, on board the Abberton, 
May 28th, in company with Mr. Ward, Mrs. Marshman and hct 
daughter and niece, Mr. and Mrs. Mack, jNliss Cook (afterwards 
Mrs. Wilson,) so valuable a benefactress to the females of India, 
and two youths named Feris, born in India. Three or four days 
were spent at Madeira, and after air agreeable voyage the vessel 
arrived at Madras Sept. 21th. It is not requisite to detail the 
events of the voyage, it may suffice to say, that the society of Mr. 
Ward and Mrs. Marshman, and their kind assistance in Indian 
studies, were very valuable to the missionary band. The vessel 
was detained at Madras ten or twelve days, and the missionary 
party arrived at Serampore Nov. 15th. It was the weekly mis- 
sionary breakfast and united prayer for the progress of the mission, 
and great was the pleasure with which the brethren and their wives 
were received by the missionaries Carey, Marshman, and Ward. 

After mature and prayerful consideration, in accordance with the 
advice of the Serampore brethren, it was determined to make 



154 



Orissa the scene of the society's operations. This decision arose 
from tlie unsettled state of Assam, the distance of the Punjab, the 
preparation of an improved edition of the New Testament in the 
Oreah language, the contiguity of Orissa to Bengal, &c. It was 
requisite that application should he made to the British government 
at Calcutta, for permission to proceed to Orissa and settle in the 
country. A previous application for two missionaries was unsuc- 
cessful on account of the imsettled state of the country ; but as 
peace was now restored, God gave his servants favour in the eyes 
of the Governor-General, the late Marquis of Hastings, and they 
were allowed to proceed to Cuttack the capital of Orissa. The 
writer remembers the pleasure which beamed in the countenance 
of Dr. Carey, when he first informed him of this important event. 
Did the Lord say of his people, as of the church of Philadelphia — 
*' I know thy works ; behold I have set before thee an open door 
and no man can shut it : for thou hast a little strength, and hast 
kept my word, and has not denied my name." 

The missionaries in their Journal record, — "Jan. 22nd, 1822. 
Prayer-meeting for us at Serampore, as we were expected to go to 
Calcutta in the morning, and embark for Cuttack on board the 
Cyclops. Brethren Ward, Carey, and Marshman prayed very af- 
fectionately for us, and in the language of one of the hymns, 
showed, 

They wish'd us in His name. 

The most divine success. 

We have been pleased with the respect and gratitude of our old 
Oreah Pundit. The Lord give him the knowledge of that gospel, 
which in his own language, he makes known to others. Our minds 
are affected at leaving our kind friends ; but the God of our fathers 
who will be called " the God of the whole earth," will we trust be 
with us and help us." 

The brethren were well supplied with good seed for the new 
field which they were about to cultivate. It is stated in the Report 
— " Previously to their departure from Calcutta, they were provided 
with a considerable quantity of tracts and copies of the Scriptures 
for distribution. From Serampore, they received a thousand gos- 
pels and epistles in Oreah, and five hundred tracts. From Mr. 
Pearce, of Calcutta, six hundred tracts, in different languages, fur- 
nished by the Calcutta Baptist Tract Society, From Mr. Thoma- 
son, the Secretary of the Calcutta Auxiliary Bible Society, between 
seventy and eighty copies of the Scriptures in English, Bengalee, 



155 



Persian, ,iiul Ilindostance ; and from ]\Ir. Keith, from the Inde- 
pendent Tract Society, two thousand tracts in Bengalee, and in 
Bengalee and English. ' Thus,' Mr. Peggs ohscrves, ' We go 
forth bearing precious seed : may we return, bringing our sheaves 
with us.' 

" Agreeably with the wish of the missionaries, your Committee 
judged it proper to offer some remuneration to the kind friends 
wliosc liberality had provided them with these helps for immediate 
exertion, and voted a donation of £10. to the Independent brethren 
at Calcutta ; of £5. to the Baptist brethren in that city, and of £5. 
for the tracts furnished from the brethren at Serampore. — The Oreah 
gospels and epistles, and the copies of the Scriptures, were paid for 
either by the Calcutta Auxiliary Bible Society, or from the funds 
of that magnificent Institution, the British and Foreign Bible 
Society." 



CHAP. II. 

Establishment of the Mission in Orissa. 

Arrival of the Missionaries in Orissa — Site of the Mission — 
Sketch of the extent and population, manners and customs 
of Orissa — View of the Idolatry of Juggernaut — Account of 
the Temple — establishment — festivals — pilgrimages — prostra- 
tion under the cars — mortality — British connexion with Idol- 
atry — Prevalence of Suttee — Churuck Poojah — Infanticide — 
human sacrifices — various austerities — neglect of the dying 
and the dead — moral and spiritual state of the people. 

The Brethren being encouraged, by the appearance and movement 
of " the pillar and cloud" in the direction of Orissa, engaged a 
country vessel named the Cyclops for 200 rupees, to take them 
and their luggage. They gratefully record — " We have received 
much kindness from different friends in Calcutta, through whom 
our store of provisions for the voyage has been increased. Mr. J. 



156 



Carey sent tis n ham from liis breakfast table, which with annthcf 
given us at Serampove, were very agreeable on the voyage. Mr. B. 
and I went on board the Abberton, and took onr leave of the sailors 
with prayer. When Ave returned, we weighed anchor, and thus 
were separated from our friends and brethren in this city." — There 
accompanied them into Orissa, as * a man of all work,' a native 
christian, named Abraham, born near Seringapatam, who had been 
baptized by ]3r. Marshman, a few weeks previously. He could 
speak several languages, and proved a very valuable acquisition to 
the mission for a number of 3'ears. Near the mouth of the river on 
the coast of Orissa, the vessel struck upon a sand bank, but provi- 
dentially sustained no serious injury ; and on Feb. 7th, they state 
- — " This morning on rising we found ourselves at anchor, about 
three miles from Patamoondy, the vessel not being able to proceed 
farther for want of water in the river." After much detention in 
disembarking their luggage, the distance to Cuttack the capital, 
about 50 miles, was travelled in native doolies constructed for the 
purpose, and they arrived Tuesday, Feb. 12th, 1822; a day ever 
to be remembered in the history of the Orissa Mission. 

The pious christian often exclaims with the prophet — " O Lord, 
I know that the way of man is not in himself: it is not in man that 
walketh to direct his steps." Jer. 10. 23. This is evident in refer- 
ence to the daily occurrences of life ; how much more so in that 
which concerns the eternal welfare of families, communities, and 
nations ! The missionaries w^ere directed — " With respect to your 
station, we beg you to consider it, a leading principle in directing 
your decision, that it shall be one, where the field for usefulness 
appears tvide, and as yet unoccupied by others. We wish you if 
practicable, to convey the gospel to some nation, for whom no man 
cares." Orissa fully realized these enlarged and benevolent views 
of christian philanthropy ; and succeeding years have shown the 
special guidance of Providence, in leading the first missionaries into 
this untrodden, benighted, and idolatrous land. The approbation 
of the selection, gratitude to God for his direction in so important 
a step, and particularly for the adoption of Juggernaut as a station, 
are well expressed in the Report of 182 1 ; — " It may be recollected 
by many, that when that distinguished friend of India, Buchanan, 
had witnessed the abominable Idolatries perpetrated at the temple 
of Juggernaut, he observed — ' From an eminence on the pleasant 
bank of the Chilka Lake, where no human bones are seen, I had a 
view of the lofty tower of Juggernaut far remote ; and while I 
viewed it, its abominations came to mind. Ruminating long on 



157 



the wide and extended empire of Moloch in the lieathen world, I 
chorishcd in my thoughts the design ol" some Christian Instiltilion, 
which heing fostered by Britain my christian country, might gradu- 
ally undermine this baneful Idolatry, and put out the memory of it 
for ever.' When the members of this society first read these observa- 
tions, little did they imagine, that ten years after the date of those 
remarks, a society would spring up among themselves, which 
should be so honoured, as to be allowed to fix the first Christian 
Mii^sionary beside the infamous temple whose Idolatries JJuchanau 
de])lored." 

The following extract from the speech of Col. Phlpps, at a pub- 
lic meeting in London, in May 1829, evidently refers to the com- 
mencement of the Orissa Mission. The interest of a child for the 
salvation of the heathen is worthy of emulation. 

"On my arrival at Madras, 1 expected to join a regiment re- 
turning to Bengal from the capture of Seringapatam ; and, notwith- 
standing I was afterward ordered to proceed by sea, I will relate 
what occurred on its march. On entering the district of Cuttack, 
which at that period belonged to a Hindoo Prince, the troops 
fouiul the inhabitants about to attend the great festival of the idol 
Juggernaut, whose celebrated temple lay in their route. Permission 
was asked by the Hindoo soldiers to stop and join in the religious 
rites. They were left in charge of two ofiiccrs : one, an intinuito 
Christian Friend, informed me, that no sooner had the soldiers 
joined the pilgrims, than the Hrahmuns of the temple thought that 
a safe opportunity ])resented itself of gratifying their hatred of 
Christians : the officers were insulted, and their lives placed in 
jeopardy. No sooner did the soldiers, hov/ever, perceive what was 
doing, than they ran to their tents — got their arms — returned speed- 
ily — surrounded their officers — and told the priests that they had 
been desirous of joining peaceably in the worship of the idol ; but 
felt indignant that those British officers, who had so recently led 
tliem to victory, should be molested ; and declared that they would 
shed the last drop of their blood in their defence. The Bralimuns 
perceived that it would be prudent to pacify the soldiers : the reli- 
gious ceremonies were resumed ; and vvhen the Sepoys were about 
to depart, they chose to mark their sense of the conduct of tho 
Brahmuns, and to leave some memorial of their having visited the 
temple. To eflect this, they went to a large pound, iu which the 
priests luxd confined many poor pilgrims, in order that their rich 
friends or any charitable persons might redeem them ; the pound 
was soon broken, and the pilgrims released, After this exploit, 



158 



the soldiers contlnuecl their march to Bengal. The sovereign of the 
country having joined a league against the British government, a 
war ejisued, which added this District to the British dominions : and 
the standard of England Avas planted near the temple of Juggernaut. 
In the course of my public duties, when on a visit to this place, 1 
well remember, that one evening an officer returning home with his 
family on a large elephant, some INIahometans were observed cele- 
brating their grand festival of the JMohurrum. The elephant was 
conducted close to the spot, in order that the ceremonies ^might be 
conveniently seen. A little girl, who was expected to take a lively 
interest in the pomp displayed, seemed rather absorbed in medita- 
tion ; and the moment she got home, she earnestly intreated her 
mother to allow her to oiler up a prayer to her heavenly Father, 
that he would have compassion on the deluded natives, remove the 
gross superstition and darkness in which they were involved, and 
teach them that there is no other name under heaven by which they 
can be saved, but that of the Lord Jesus ! Such was the deep in- 
terest excited in the bosom of a little child for the spiritual welfare 
of the people ! Some months afterward, tivo Missionaries, at the 
hazard of tlieir lives, came to Juffgcrnaztt ; and the gospel has been 
faithfully j)reached ever since. Thus the planting of the standai'd 
of England in the kingdom of Mysore, and the district of Cuttack, 
was followed, in the providence of God, by the lifting up the 
standard of the Cross !" 

The ample information respecting Orissa contained in Mr. Ster- 
ling's valuable work, render any enlarged account of the extent and 
population, the manners and customs of the Province unnecessary. 
The following interesting extract from " Sutton'' s Narrative of the 
Mission to Orissa,^' may abundantly suffice. 

" Ootkul K'hand or Orissa is supposed to be the ancient country 
of the Or, or Oreah tribe of Hindoos, and comprises an interesting 
and extensive portion of the Honourable Company's territory in 
India. It is situated between 19 and 23 degrees north latitude, 
and 81 to 88 degrees east longitude. But its boundaries have been 
so often enlarged and contracted in diirerent periods of Orissian his- 
tory, that at the present day it is difficult if not impossible to mark 
tliem with precision. The country of Orissa however as it is gener- 
ally understood, consists of a long narrow strip of land extending 
from Midnapore in the north, to a few miles below Ganjam in the 
south, and from the shores of the bay of Bengal in the east to 
Singboom, Sumblepoor, and Sonepoor, &c., situated amongst the 
vast range of mountainous country in the west, comprising a tract 



159 



of about 300 miles in length, and from 20 to 170 in breadth. The 
Orissa nation, however, has in different periods of its history, car- 
ried its arms and language to a much greater extent than is here 
described ; and at the present day some traces of its former power 
are discoverable in the neighbouring countries of Bengal and 
Telingana. 

" Orissa Proper may be considered as distinguished into three 
different regions. 

" First, a low swampy tract of land extending along the sea shore 
from the Rlack Pagoda nearly up to the Iloogly river, about 100 
miles in length and from five to twenty in breadth. The greatest 
part of this district is covered with impenetrable jungles through 
which numerous creeks and rivulets, abounding with ravenous and 
monstrous alligators, wind their way. The surface of the less jung- 
ly parts is covered with grass and reeds of an extraordinary length, 
which afford a fine retreat for the wild hogs, buffaloes, tigers and 
leopards that infest the country. Towards the Black Pagoda 
nothing but a wide barren sand is to be seen, excepting a strong 
kind of creeper bearing a gay purple flower, which with its exuberant 
arms enterlaces the ground in every direction, making walking over 
it very troublesome ; occasionally tufts of tall thorny grass are to 
be seen, and here and there a stunted scrubby palm or cocoa-nut 
tree varies the otherwise barren and dull uniformity of the scene. 
During the year 1832 a most alarming inundation deluged this 
part of Orissa, and swept away 15,000 of its wretched inhabitants. 
A famine followed this awful visitation of Providence, and subse- 
quently another tremendous storm, which have spread desolation 
and death over a great part of the district. 

The second and most valuable part of Orissa includes the present 
District of Cuttack and part of the territory of the Raja of Moher- 
bunge. Though this region is in general highly cultivated, and 
produces most of the grains and vegetables common in Bengal, its 
soil is certainly for the most part of a poor and unfruitful descrip- 
tion, particularly near the hills. Such are the general characteristics 
of this part of Orissa : occasionally however, grateful and interest- 
ing exceptions are to be made, and the eye is delighted and the 
senses regaled with fruitful fields, agreeable perfumes, fine shady 
groves of trees, and pleasant rivers. 

The third portion of Orissa is a long range of hilly country, ex- 
tending from near Midnapore in the north to the river Godaveri in 
the south, a distance of nearly three hundred miles in length, and 

w 



IGO 



one hundred in brcadlh. This extensive and interesting region is 
parcelled out to nearly thirty petty Rajas who pay tribute to the 
Bengal government. These are again divided into a variety of 
estates or small zemindaries subordinate to the Raja's chief zemin- 
dar. The population of that p;irt of Orissa Avhich is subject to 
the British sway may be estimated at about 1,200,000 of which 
number about 2o,000 are Mussulmen. The inhabitants of the 
tributary states and mountain districts, are chiefly Hindoos, Chooars 
and Goands. It is exceedingly difficult to offer any statement as 
to their number. The Orcah language is spoken among the hills 
as far to the southward as Rajamundry. But the mountaineers 
speak a language, apparently, entirely distinct from it. 

The Oriyas are pure Hindoos. Their Brahmuns are celebrated 
in the Pooranas as of a superior order, and are supposed to consti- 
tute one half of the population. The Mussulmans are chiefly de- 
scendants of the early conquerors of India. Some few are occa- 
sionally added to their number by conversions from among the 
Hindoos. The mountain tribes are supposed by some to be the 
aborigines of the country, who have been driven to their miserable 
retreat among the jungles and fastnesses of the mountains, by the 
present inhabitants of the plains. They differ essentially both in 
their language and appearance from their more civilized neighbours. 
Those toward the northern boundaries of the province, which the 
writer has seen, are of a dark slate colour, approaching the sooty 
black of the negro ; but those in the neighbourhood of Ganjam are 
brown and much resemble some of the Mug tribes. It is not un- 
likely that the present campaign among the hill tribes will bring 
some interesting particulars to light respecting these unhajipy 
people.* 

The religion of the Oriyas is the same as that of Hindoos gener- 
ally. The following brief sketch of their character contained in a 
letter to a friend, may not be unacceptable. No sooner is a woman 
pregnant than a regular round of religious ceremonies commences, 
for the future welfare of her offspring, Avhich continues, if the child 
should be a boy and the head of a family, long after his death ; I 
believe while any of his male progeny, to the most distant genera- 
tions exist. Previously to the birth of a child, various ceremonies 
are observed, and at the birth many more, and again on the 5th, 
7ih, or 8th day, when a woman is considered out of danger. The 
children both boys and girls go naked till three or four years of 

This has been done in reference to the Khunds. 



IGl 



age, and, if they are not taught to read, require nothing but a little 
food. About the age of seven to twelve years their boys and girls 
are betrothed, and the marriage ceremony takes place as soon after 
as the circumstances or inclination of the parents will admit. Mar- 
riage is an important affair, and great care is taken to select a 
proper match as to family, rank, &c. Comfort and happiness arc 
generally sacrificed for these, and the boy and girl are often married 
without having seen each other till the day when they are linked 
together! I need not say that this system is productive of incalcu- 
lable wretchedness. They generally are very iintractable and abuse 
their parents and one another in a way most shocking for civilized 
men to behold. Multitudes obtain no instruction at all. Girls are 
universally prohibited from learning to read, or from doing any 
thing in the way of mental improvement. They remain buried in 
their father's house till marriage, and after a girl has been united, 
without any choice as to her husband, for life, (often to a wretch 
who will never live with her,) she is shut up in the house of her 
lord. A woman of respectability seldom appears in the street, or 
if she should go out on any occasion, she is close muffled up, so 
that only her feet can be seen. She is not permitted to mention 
her husband by name, but calls him her lord, or the owner of the 
house, &c. She cooks her husband's food, waits on him while 
eating, and eats what he and the children leave. At night she 
shampoes him to sleep, (tliis is a sort of squeezing operation over 
all parts of the body.) Should she die before her husband, it is 
considered a blessing to her ; should her husband die first, she is 
often expected to burn herself with his corpse.* Should she not 
burn, she either becomes a prostitute, or has her head close shaved, 
and becomes the slave of the family. Sometimes young widow^s 
marry again, but this seldom occurs. The women are very abusive 
to one another, and those of the lowest classes, which are seen 
abroad, quarrel and abuse one another upon every trifling occasion. 
I have seen them often stand a long distance from each other with 
their hands on their hips, and rage and storm till they almost 
l)urst with anger. Their language is of the most extraordinary 
opprobrious kind, such as I cannot pen ; 'you strumpet, youwretcli, 
you destroyer of your children, eat your son's head, you vile 
hussy, may your complete destruction take place, may your father 
and mother die, may you be childless, may you have no one 
left in your family to light a lamp,' are extremely common, 

* This cruel rite has been abolished since the above account was written. 



162 



and even gentle wishes compared with many others which they use 
in their quarrels. Boys, about the time of marriage, or of being 
betrothed, or from eleven to twelve years of age, are clothed, that 
is have a cloth wrapper round their loins, which passing between 
the thighs, tucks up behind. This is the dress for life ; generally 
they wear nothing else, that is the lower classes, excepting when 
they are cold, then they use another cloth which covers their head 
like the hood of a woman's cloak and wraps round their bodies. 
Some casts wear a kind of jacket of thin cotton, and others a loose 
cloth carelessly thrown over their shoulders like a shawl. They are 
fond of gold and silver ornaments, such as ear-rings, nose jewels for 
the women, and for both sexes anklets, bracelets, finger rings ; some 
boys have silver chains or hoops for girdles to fasten their clothes 
to, and children often wear them for ornament. Women wear rings 
on the toes, and prostitutes often wear little bells round their an- 
kels, which tinkle as they go. The men are fond of smearing 
themselves with sandal wood, mud, and powders of different kinds. 
They generally wear the mark of their debta on their foreheads. 
Women have a red spot between the eye-brows, blacken their 
eyelids, and the eyelids of their children Avith alcohol, or black 
powder. 

Boys at about twelve years of age, if they are Brahmuns, are in- 
vested with the piota, and pass through a long round of ceremonies. 
The Brahmuns are the curse of Orissa. To these lords of creation 
all must submit ; they call themselves the peculiar recipients of 
the divine essence, and claim in many cases divine honours. The 
poor soodra esteems it an act of merit to drink a cup of water in 
which a Brahmun has dipped his toe. He prostrates himself at 
his feet, seeks his blessing, dreads his curse, and in every situation 
and engagement of life from infancy to death, must seek to jiro- 
pitiate him, and contribute all he can collect to satisfy his voracious 
appetite. Nothing is to be done without propitiating the twice 
born. 

The people generally are grave in their deportment, thrifty, and 
laborious; but they are, alas, very depraved in their morals, dishon- 
est in their dealings, and unfaithful in their engagements. Their 
food consists principally of rice, pulse, fish, milk, spices, salts, 
fruits and vegetables. Some of them will eat flesh, especially deer 
flesh, goats, and that of the wild boar and bufFaloe. There are 
many liyraggces and other religious mendicants in the country 
wlio live upon the people; these are usually base characters, prac- 
tising the vilcit crimes under the mask of peculiar sanctity ; they 



163 



are generally naked, excepting about six inclics of clotli, and have 
their hair long and sunburnt, sometimes lengthened by other hair, 
and their bodies smeared with ashes and dirt ; they spend their 
time in gambling, eating, chewing opium, singing and sleeping."* 

INIr. Sutton prepared an account of the Idol Juggernaut, the 
erection of the Temple, the scenes attending the Ruth Jattra or car 
festival, and the miseries consequent upon the accumulation of such 
masses of the population. This was published in The Calcutta 
Christian Observer, Oct. 1832, and cannot fail to be painfully 
interesting to the reader. 

" Juguturunth, Jugurnath, or Jugunhath, (Lord of the world,) is 
the name of the most celebrated idol in India. He is said to be 
an incarnation of Vishnoo, or Daru Bruhma, literally " wooden 
god,^' but meaning god who has revealed himself in a body of wood. 
There are a great many images of this god, set uj) in different parts 
of India; but the one established at Pooree in Orissa is the prin- 
cipal, and by far the most venerated. 

The origin of the idol is by the natives ascribed to Maha Raj 
Indradumana. This pious prince had been induced to set out from 
his own dominions in Hindoostan, upon a pilgrimage to a famous 
image of Nilu Madhuba, situated on the Nil Gri, or blue hills of 
Orissa ; but just before he reached the spot the image suddenly 
disappeared from the sight of the people. The prince was incon- 
solable at being thwarted in his pious designs of adoring the sacred 
image, when behold Vishnoo appeared to him in a dream, and con- 
soled him with a promise of soon re-appearing in a form which 
should be celebrated far and wide throughout the Kalee-joog. 
The prince, waited at Pooree for the advent of the new Abatar; 
at length, one propitious morn his attendant Brahmuns brought the 
welcome intelligence, that a most wonderful tree was making its 
way over the sea towards Swerga Dwar: and this could be no 
other than the new incarnation, as it was accompanied by the 
sacred insignia of Vishnoo, the chockra, i^adma, concha, and the 
goda. Indradumana, filled with joy, hastened to the spot, and 
most devoutly embraced the sacred log! A cloth of gold was then 
thrown over it, and immense sums distributed to the h(jly Brah- 
muns in attendance. The prince then by his pious su})plieations 
obtained the aid of Vishwakurma, the architect of the gods, who 
with one blow of his wonder-working axe formed the block into 
the chatoor moorti, or four-fold image. 

* Sutton's Narrative, pp. 25-30. 



164 



A temple was then built, and the images set up with great pomp 
and expense. The gods and goddesses all came down to worship 
them ; a number of rites and ceremonies were decreed, and from 
that time to this. Juggernaut has maintained his preeminence among 
the gods of India. Of the twelve annual festivals which are cele- 
brated at Pooroosootama, the proper name of Pooree, the RuthJuttra 
is by far the most important. The engraving which accomj^anies 
this volume furnishes an interesting representation of the commence- 
ment of this festival, and the remarks which follow are intended 
still further to explain or illustrate the principal objects presented 
to our view in the plate. 

The buildings immediately over No. 1. is a Muth or Hindoo 
monastry, belonging to the Raman uj a sect of Voishnobs. Most of 
the buildings, which line the principal streets of Pooree, are estab- 
lishments of a similar kind. .These establishments tend greatly to 
keep up the celebrity of Juggernaut, as most of them are devoted 
to him, and interested in drawing pilgrims to his shrine. They 
are generally liberally endowed, and many of them are very rich. 
Within their cloisters, the most learned professors of Hindoo my- 
thology arc found, and to see and converse with them, must with 
the pundits of other countries be as much an object of desire as a 
sight of Juggeniiiut : indeed, it is difficult to account for the visits 
to Pooree, of many learned men who despise the popular idolatry, 
but on this ground. Disputation with pundits of other parts of 
India has ever been a favorite pursuit with Hindoos, and their 
history furnishes us with many accounts of the travels of their 
ancient sages for this purpose, as the sages Sunkara, Ramanuja, 
Choitun, &c., who are said to have disjiuted with and overcome the 
professors of every opposing sect. 

It may be observed respecting the mahant or gooroo of the Muth 
in the plate, that when the late excellent Mr. Harington visited 
Pooree, just before he left India, the mahant called upon him. He 
is a venerable old man, with grey hairs, and on tluit occasion ap- 
peared leaning upon two of Ids favorite disciples. In reply to some 
questions respecting the connexion of government with Juggernaut, 
and the abolition of the pilgrim tax, he said, "that Juggernaut was 
never so popular as under the British protection ; that his glory 
was now spread through the three worlds ; and that it would be a 
pity for the Honourable Company to destroy all the holiness they 
had acquired by leaving him to himself!" 

No. 2 in the plate directs our attention to the " mighty Pagod." 
Here " the Lord of the world," impiously so called, has for siicces- 



165 



sive ages established his destructive sway. Here, from generation 
to generation, myriads of human beings liave fallen victims to his 
impious domination, and whitened with their bones the horrid plain 
where he dwells. Hither, in obedience to the mandates of his 
priests, they have bent their wearied steps, and dropt and died un- 
j)itied and unknown. This far-famed temple is said to have been 
built in A. D. 1198, by Rajah Anunga Bhim ])aib, under the super- 
intendence of his minister Bajpoi, at a cost of from 40 to 50 lacs of 
rupees. The principal tower is supposed to be 184 feet high, and 
upwards of 28 feet wide within the walls. It is surrounded by a 
stone wall 20 feet high, and nearly G.50 feet square. Within this 
inclosure are upwards of fifty smaller temjiles, devoted to the various 
gods of India. The walls of these temples, and especially of the 
great temple, are covered with the most filtliy representations in 
durable and massive sculpture ; and from fragments on the outer 
walls, it is probable they were once disgraced. These obscene 
figures and emblems are a very common appendage to the temples 
in Orissa; as may be seen at the Black Pagod, the temples at Jaji- 
poor, and a new temple, now building, dedicated to Juggernaut, at 
Rhumba, on the side of the Chilka Lake. But they abound all 
over the Province ; and in Pooree itself, it is easy to point out as 
much evidence of the above assertion as any man will feel disposed 
to contemplate. 

The land within 10 miles, or according to some accounts 10 kosa, 
of this temple is holy, and denominated the Shree Kshetra ; and to 
die within its limits is considered a sure passport to eternal bliss. 
Upwards of 3,000 families of priests and other servants of the idol, 
are supported directly by this temple, while about 15,000 of the 
inhabitants of Pooree are supposed directly or indirectly to profit 
by it. Among other servants of the idol in this temple are 300 or 
400 families of cooks, to prepare the idol's food, called muhaprasad, 
or "great favour ;" and 120 dancing girls, prostitutes of course, to 
dance before the gods. 

No. 3 may guide the eye to the principal gate of the temple, 
called Singha-dwara, or " the Lion gate." By this gateway the 
pilgrims enter when they go to worship the idol. There are three 
other entrances, one on each side of the square, but they are com- 
paratively little frequented. At each of these gates is placed a 
number of seufoijs or hnrkandasses belonging to the government, 
for the purpose of keeping off intruders and guarding the sacred 
idols. There is moreover a stone pavement, perhaps IG feet wide, 
before the Singha-dwara, on which no polluted Christian, or Mus- 



1G6 



sulman, or even a Hindoo of low caste, is permitted to set his 
foot. 

No. 4 is placed beneath the beautiful column standing immedi- 
ately opposite Singha-dwara. It is surmounted by an image ot 
Aruna, or the dawn personified. This chaste specimen of Hindoo 
sculpture formerly occupied an appropriate place before the temple 
of the sun, or Black Pagoda. It was removed from thence, and 
placed where it now stands, by a wealthy inhabitant of Pooree. 

Nos. 5, 6, and 7, point to the cars of Bullubhadra, Soobhudra, 
and Juggernaut. Bullubhudra, (No. 5) is called the BurraThakoor 
or Great Lord, and in several minor particulars enjoys the pre-em- 
inence, such as having rather the largest car, standing nearest the 
temple, being first brought out, &c. But he does not receive a 
tythe of the adoration, that is paid to Juggernaut. The face of 
Bullubhadra is painted ivhite. Soobhudra, the sister of Juggernaut, 
has the smallest car. She is made without arms, and is painted 
a yellow colour. There is little notice taken of her by the majority 
of worshippers. Juggernaut is painted black, with a red mouth, and 
red and white circles for his eyes. He is the great object of attrac- 
tion. Some of the pilgrims say, that he is more vindictive than 
Bullubhudra ; hence their extra endeavours to propitiate him and 
secure his favour. 

All the idols are made of the Nimh tree, and it is probable that 
the mysterious deposit within them is the Salgram. Some indeed 
have supposed that it is a bone of Krishnu, and others have fan- 
cied that it is a box of quicksilver. The images are as ugly and 
as monstrous in their appearance as any thing that can well be 
imagined. Their very distant approximation to the human figure 
does not extend below the bosom and all the rest is a mere huge 
block of timber Arms and feet they have probably none ; but 
these appendages, made of gold, are supplied on state occasion. 

All the images are profusely adorned with various kinds of or- 
naments, and their bodies arc clothed with rich silks and shawls. 
These images are brought out of the temple on two occasions, viz. 
at the Snan, or bathing festival, and at the Ruth Jattra^ or car 
festival. On the former occasion, they are placed on an elevated 
terrace to the east of the temple, within the sacred inclosure. 
Holy-water in brass lotas is brought in native pomp, with music 
playing, and the sacred canopy preceding it ; and then poured over 
the idols, which has the eliect of obliterating the lineaments of their 
misshapen countenances. While this ceremony is performing, 
many of the most zealous devotees rush forward, and with their 



167 



hands rub off the paint from the images, to smear on their bodies, 
and thus of course rapidly hasten on the work of spoliation. When 
the uncouth l)locks are sufficiently saturated with the holy-water, 
they are dressed up in the most captivating style. The crafty 
Brahmuns so manage to adjust the ornaments, that the face of the 
idols is almost hidden, and their faded beauty is scarcely perceived. 
Thus they remain till evening, receiving the adoration of the gaping 
multitude, while the Brahmuns pocket the offerings of manyakind, 
which the zeal of the worshippers prompts them to bestow. 

After this day's exhibition, the gods, (for gods they are, though 
subjected to " all the ills which flesh is heir to,") are reported ill, 
until the Ruth Jattra ; or in other words, they are kept secret, in 
order to be repainted, that they may appear with their freshest 
looks on that occasion. These cars are built new every year ; and 
when the festival is over they become the property of the pundas, 
or priests of the idol, who break them up, and sell them for a con- 
siderable sum. The writer of these remarks paid five rupees for 
one wheel only of Juggernaut's car. Bullubbudra's car is 43 feet 
high, and has sixteen wheels. Juggernaut's car is 41 feet high, 
and has fourteen wheels. Soobhudra's car is 40 feet high, and has 
fourteen wheels. The upper parts of these cars are covered with 
green, blue, red, yellow, and other gay coloured cloths, hung in 
strips fantastically arranged, and adorned with various devices, 
formed with silver spangles, 8cc. The tower of each car is sur- 
mounted by a globe and flag, while from various parts of it, birds, 
monsters, and flags project, producing a picturesque effect. The 
platforms on which the idols sit enthroned are about ten or twelve 
feet from the ground. These are decorated with varied coloured 
sliawls, and different figures of Hindoo mythology. Immense ca- 
bles are manufactured, with which to drag the cars, and are fixed to 
the carriage part of the vehicles. As it has been observed respect- 
ing the wheels of the cars, they are extremely ponderous, and the 
rough spokes project from Ig to two inches beyond the felloes, so 
that the poor wretches who may throw themselves under them are 
inevitably crushed to a horrid mass of flesh. Several such sacrifices 
have occurred to my knowledge within the last seven years ; and 
on one occasion, particularly, I was coming up to Juggernaut's car, 
as it passed over the body of an up-country Brahmun. The entrails, 
blood, and brains, of this infatuated victim were spirted about in 
everv direction ! 



168 



On the second day of the new moon in Asar (June or Jul)-,) the 
Ruth Jattra commences. The cars ai-e the previous day arranged 
in front of the Singha-dwara and purified for the reception of their 
holy burdens by various incantations and ceremonies. When the 
propitious hour arrives for the gods to take their annual ride, they 
are brought out of the temple — not with pomp and state, consistent 
with the divine honours they at other times receive — but as though 
they were the vilest dogs in creation ; some drag them, others push 
them, with as little ceremony as can well be imagined, they are 
thus rocked along to the cars ! Then oh ! what desecration ensues, 
a rope, yes, a rope is twisted round the neck of the great Juggernaut, 
and what with some tugging above, and others shoving him below, 
he is constrained to ascend an inclined plain to his station on the 
car ; then, however, as if to atone for the insult offered to his god- 
ship, the Brahmuns with the multitude prostrate themselves and 
worship him, while a shout, as of " the voice of many waters," 
shakes the earth, with " victory to Juggernaut our lord." The other 
idols are brought out in like manner. The Khoordra Rajah then 
sweeps the cars, and the purification process is completed, when 
suddenly a rush of some thousands of men, appointed to draw the 
car, who come jumping and shouting like so many wild infernals, 
announces, that the gods are about to commence their journey. 
They immediately seize the huge ropes, and range themselves in 
Older ; if peradventure any of them are found loitering by the way, 
a smart application of the ratan to their bare backs soon sends them 
to their posts. The scene now presents its most picturesque and 
animated appearance. The cars dressed in their gaudy colours, 
towering far above the vast wilderness of heads, have at a distance 
a very imposing air ; while the loud sounds of idol music, the ele- 
phants of the gods and their worshippers stationed here and there, 
adorned with gay trappings, the vast numbers of devotees from the 
house tops and elevated verandahs of the adjacent houses, waving 
their chowries, and the various acts of adoration practised by the 
zealous worshipjiers accompanied by their loud acclamations, com- 
bine to give an air of state to the festival, and stamp its character 
as a worshipping assembly. Here and there a few Europeans are 
to be seen, some on their elephants, and others on horseback, 
witnessing the ceremonies. Some few are engaged in company 
with those who Avere once idolaters, but now Christians, in dis- 
tributing the words of eternal life to the thousands of eager ap- 
plicants, who are perishing for the lack of knowledge. 



169 

The tremendous shouts of men, and the hissing and the hooting 
of the women announce, that the cars are about to move. All 
seems infernal revelry, and involuntarily reminds one, that this 
is the triumph of hell over the fallen souls of man ! Here satan 
seems to have carried his power to the utmost to insult the Majesty 
of heaven, and to laugh at the awful extent of his dominion over 
his deluded subjects. It is the very acme of his triumph. The 
object, which he has seduced the people to worship, is the ugliest 
and most senseless in creation ; and the service, which under the 
name of divine worship, they pay to him, consists of the most la- 
scivious gestures, and most obscene addresses. Buchanan in his 
Journals mentions these obscene songs and gestures, and the writer 
has heard and witnessed them many and many a time. Although 
it is a shame to speak of those things which are done by them, 
not in darkness but in the open front of day, and that too before 
upwards of 200,000 people, men, women, and children ; yet a par- 
tial exposure of these abominable songs may perhaps be necessary 
to their everlasting suppression, as well as to give an idea of the 
moral degradation of the people, who can listen to them with such 
evident delight. In the repetition of these songs, the speaker steps 
forward to the extreme verge of the platform, and addresses the 
crowd in boisterous language ; he has usually a long wand in his 
hand, with which he makes the action to accompany the words, 
so that his meaning is understood where his voice does not reach ; 
and occasionally some half dozen of obscene Brahmuns fall pell 
mell upon each other close under the nose of the idol, and repeat 
the filthy pantomime."* 

Gungadhor, the first brahmun in Orissa that received the gospel, 
assisted by another native, of the writer caste, prepared the follow- 
ing account, which may probably contain mare truth than any yet 
offered to the public. The late Rev. W. Ward justly observed, — 
"to know what Ilindooism is, a man must become a Hindoo." 
Here is the testimony of a Hindoo, enlightened by Christianity. 

" In Orissa, having cut down the Nim-pita tree, they (the Brah- 
muns and workmen,) by manual labour form it into an image. 
Then they paint it into the resemblance of a (human) picture, with 
Vermillion, yellow, black, white, and green colours. Thus making 
it with their hands, they anoint it with various kinds of per- 
fumes and sandal- wood, and adorn it with flowers and leaves ; 
after which, placing it in a stone temple, they serve and adore 
it. 

* Sutton's Narrative, pp. 58-67. 



170 

" About G30 years ago, Anunga Bliim Daib, Raja of Orissa built 
the first temple, at au expense of from forty to fifty lacks of rupees. 
Then the Brahmuns with various muntras from the Veds consecrated 
the images. They made a representation of the lotus flower on 
the back of the three moortis, under which is an excavation with a 
door. Having brought from the Gangootree river, at the bottom 
of the Chitrakote mountain, three round stones (the Salgrama,) 
they designated them Sila Vishnoo. Then within the images they 
place them under the lotus, which they paint ; they lock the door, 
and adorning the image with various coloured clothes, they worship 
it as Sila Vishnoo. From that time to this, they have cut down 
the nim tree, and made and worshipped this image fifty or one 
hundred times, or it may be oftencr. But the old images, having 
been thrown out (in the temple yard,) from the operation of wind 
and rain became rotten. But the stone they call Sila Vishnoo, 
with great secrecy, no one seeing it, they take from the old wood 
and place in the new. They then falsely assert that he who effects 
this removal dies. The Raja sometimes begs the old block, and 
taking it a way, places in it the Salgram, and worships it. 

*' At this present time, in consequence of the power of the English 
extending through the numerous countries, many causes of alarm 
are suppressed. On this account the pundas spread themselves 
through different parts for the purpose of collecting pilgrims. 
Having arrived at the respective stations, they repair to people's 
houses, and compel them to eat Mahaprasad (Juggernaut's food,) 
and by much flattery, induce them to receive various kinds of cakes. 
Having furnished themselves with stripes of cloth, which have 
touched the sacred limbs of Juggernaut, they suspend them round 
their necks, saying, ' See you are highly favoured ! sitting in your 
houses you have obtained these precious relics.' Then they say, 
' Gome, accompany me to my country. There God is revealed. 
There the goddess Lukshmee, Saruswuttce, Bimblee, and 10,000 
others constantly serve him; moreover, the gods of heaven, earth, 
and hell, all the o30 millions of gods worship him. His glory 
is immense. All casts before him eat out of one vessel. In the 
month of Asar is the Goondicha Jattra. He himself comes out 
of the temple and sits on his car. He himself causes the car to move. 
In one day, he eats 70 poata, (about a thousand pounds weight !) 
but all that he eats of different kinds who can declare ? Listen 
however to a truly wonderful fact. In the cook-house, they place 
seven cooking pots, one above the other, over one fire. The 
bottom pots are not cooked, but the top one is !" In this manner 



171 



they tell a number of tales, and persuade the people to come. 
Having arrived, they direct them to the different houses saying, 

* This is the holy land, here the fruit of your pious actions is 
enjoyed. Come, I will obtain for you an interview with Juggernaut. 
and cause you to bathe in the five holy places, viz, Indradunimun 
tank, Lokenath do. Seeta-gunga do. Chokerteeth Sea, and Mar- 
kunda tank, thus you will obtain salvation for seven generations 
of your ancestors : hut hear in mind how you will liropitiate me.' 
In this way they lead them to the temple, and give them a sight 
of Juggernaut. At that time many priests surround them, and 
stroking their heads, exclaim, 'Behold the visible god glorified! 
present him with an oflering of 25 rupees ; give lis a present of 
ten rupees ; come quickly, no delay.' In this way, by much talk- 
ing, they wheedle them out of their money, and take all they can 
get. Others come begging to their lodgings. If they have no 
more money, these piindas coax them out of a promissory note, 
and make them engage to pay when they reach home. They also 
make a number of cakes, and bring for the pilgrims to eat. For 
that which is worth four annas they extract 12 — for an anna's worth 
they take six annas. If they refuse to have them, they abuse them 
with filthy curses and speeches and say, ' You — where will you 
get such food as this !' Thus saying they cram it by main force 
into their mouths. Thus the pundas exceedingly oppress the people, 
and by a variety of cheating tricks get from them their wealth. 
Sometimes when the pilgrims enter the enclosure of the temple, 
they steal the ornaments from their noses and ears, and take away 
their clothes and money. If they resist, the pundas assemble and 
beat them till they make off, crying out, ' O father, O mother, I 
die, I die !' and thus they escape from the temple. Or if the piindas 
see a beautiful young woman, they allure her in the temple, and 
seduce her, let her go, telling her, ' This is a holy place, and I am 
a holy man. By having surrendered your person to me it is purified ; 
the sins of a million births are destroyed ; know that you have 
certainly enjoyed Juggernaut. God and his worshipper are inse- 
perable.' On other occasions giving the pilgrims some potion to 
eat, they render them insensible, and rob them of their wealth. 
I have seen from five to ten boys watch near the gate for a single 
pilgrim ; then laying hold of him, they beat him till he cries out, 

* Mercy ! mercy !'' but no one coming to his assistance, he sinks 
down througli nuich beating : then becoming insensible through 
fear, they rob him of his property and decamp." 



172 



It may be presumed that the establishment at the temple of 
Juggernaut must be very considerable. One of the head men stated 
to Col. Phipps, that the number consisted of 3000 families, in- 
cluding 400 families of cooks to pi'epare holy food. The following 
account was procured for the author, written on the leaf of a tree, 
by a native of Pooree. 

1. "The Moodeerut as the Rajah of Koorda's representative with Jug- 
gurnaut, at all the festivals moves about the light, performs the daily 
service before him, and makes the ottering of food. 

2. There are three head Pundas, who having poured out clarified 
butter on the fire, and worshipped the sun and the divine regents of the 
gates, present the sacrificial articles from the kitchen, to the three gods 
at three of the daily offices, until the period of Juggernaut's retiring to 
rest. 

3. There are three P/mhoo-palas, who perform worship between the 
periods of the regular service ; and ascending the throne of Juggernaut, 
clothe him in the three different dresses appropriated to the three services. 

4. The Bheet-hahoo guards the sacrificial food before it has been of- 
fered, prevents the crowd pressing on it, and should the smallest blem- 
ish be found in it, (such as an hair or an ant) he seizes and punishes the 
Pundas. 

5. The Tuluhu Purehchas guard Juggernaut when he retires to rest. 
In their absence the Pushoo-palas act in their stead. 

G. The Potee-muhapatra, at twelve periodical festivals, make the pro- 
per offerings, and move about the image of Soodha-budeu ; and at the 
great bathing festival, when Juggernaut moves out to the Neeladree 
beej, worship him during his progress, and during the fifteen succeeding 
days when ]te is supposed to he ill, not having recovered Jrom the effects of 
his bath .' 

7. The Patree-huroo arranges the sacrificial articles, and calls the 
Pundas to worship. 

8. The Gora-buroo, at the time of worship, places the water pot and 
presents the water to the officiating priest. 

9. The Khoofiya calls the Phashoo-paluhs who are appointed to wake 
Jtiggernaut, and bring forward the vestments and necklaces with which 
he is to be invested. 

10. The Paiieeya-melcah presents the ornaments to Juggernaut to the 
Pushoo-palii/:, and counts thein as they conie from Juggernaut's body ; 
and likewise coiuits to the Purcechus any new ornaments ofiercd by 
pilgrims. 

11. The Chaugra-melah carries the vestments of Juggernaut, and 
counts them oiU and puts them away. 

12. Tlie lilia)td(ir-mckab coiuitsout the ornaments when taken off from 
Juggernaut by the Paneeya-mekah. Tiie vestments, presented byi)ilgrims, 
pass into their custody after they have been worn. 

l.'J. The Sun-ar-buroo sweeps the place, and places the sacrificial dishes 
before Juggernaut, presents odours to those who wake him and distributes 
flowers among the servants and worship])ers. 

14. The Purcehha-buroo holds up a looking glass to Juggernaut during 
worship. 

15. The Uhhundu-nie/.ab, or lamp-lighter, places lights and removes 
the lamps, 

16. The Pureeyarecs watch at the gates and doors. 



173 



17. The Dah Ihal brinp^s out Jupcsernaut's bed ! 

18. The Puree ijnree of the southern gate cries out, ' the sacrificial 
food is coming." 

19. The Purceyarees of the gate watch the food, and when Juggernaut 
moves out, carry with liini the sweet smelling wood. 

20. The Juyn and J'/jiii/a-Piireei/arces allow no one to enter while 
.Juggernaut is at his meals ; and there are two watchmen at the door of 
the inner room where Juggernaut partakes of his food. 

21. The Khnrgu-nayiik, at the close of the daily offices, presents the 
paun to the officiating ]n-iests to be given to Juggeiaxaut, and on the occa- 
sion of the last daily office, offers it himself. 

22. The Khatsii)/a-)iH'/cab vtirr/es Juggernaut's bed to him at niglitfor 
him to deep on ; and carries it hack to its place in the morning. 

23. The Mook-pakhul pureeijaree presents tlie wafer and the tooth-pick 
to Juggernaut, and inspects ever}' tiling respecting the temple. 

21. The Suwar-Kota prepares the cakes, and delivers tlicm to the 
Alaha-Suwar. 

25. The Malta-Suwar 1)rings the first service of cakes. 

26. The Gopal-})uUuhha distributes it. 

27. The Bhatee-huroo places food of a particular description before 
the Idol. 

28. The Rosh-payeed lights the lamp in the kitchen, and expels the 
smears when they become unclean ; he accompanies the royal ofi'ering of 
food as far as the Juya and Vijuya gate. 

29. The Beeree-buha-suwar takes the articles of paun from the Sum- 
nrthas, and delivers tl.cni to the Suwars. 

30. The Dhoa-paklialiya brahmun washes and cleanses the kitchen. 

31. The Unga-buha brahmun removes the ashes from the cook-room, 
and throws them away. 

32. The Dita-suwaree carries the image of Juggernaut when necessary, 
and prepares the image. 

33. The Datya paints the image, and fastens the flags on his carriage. 

34. The Divar-nayuk is employed in opening and shutting the door. 

35. The Mahajhun carries the image of Juya and Vijuya, the two 
heavenly porters. 

36. The Beeman-huroo carries the image of Juggernaut and fixes it in 
its place. 

37. The Moodolee-hliandur guards the door, and puts the chamuramto 
the hands of the distinguished ])ilgrims who desire to fan Juggernaut ; 
and locking, guards the door of Juya and Vijuya, the two heavenly 
porters. 

38. The Chootar holds the umbrella over the great god when he 
proceeds on a journey. 

39. The Turasee holds before him the tnras (a large fan) when he goes 
on a journey. 

40. The Meg-dumboora proceeds with the Aleg dumhoora when he 
goes on a journey. 

41. The Moodra holds the lamp when an offering of flowers is made to 
Juggernaut. 

42. The Paneeya-pnt delivers the water pots to ihe Buroo, and washes 
them. 

43. The Kechulcea, at all the stated festivals, during the service and 
during the cflVring of flowers, performs worshij), and jilays the Aahulee. 

44. The Ghuntooa rings the bell during Juggernaut's meals, and when 
he goes on journeys ! 



174 

45. The ChvmpiUec-itmiiJcreeya, at the time oi pusooiva and during 
jounieys, plays the tumuk. , . , . , 

m. "The lioad Pinuki calls all the servitors to their duty, gives the 
golden scoi)tie to the Pureecha, and gives food to the Brahmuns of the 
Mooldcc mnndvpa. 

•17. The Glndnwarcc prepares the sandal wood and gives it to the 
mekaps ; and at one of the festivals, goes before the image with the 
incense. 

48. The Biiree Dccga supplies the water for cooking ; and removes 
the remains of food. 

49. The Sumundha pounds peas of one kind, and grinds peas of another 
kind. 

.50. llie Gnihii-mclah cleans the dishes after the principal meal. 

51. The Yogukuma brings forward the articles of tlie principal meal. 

52. The Tomahutee accom])anies the principal evening meal with a 
lamp, and brings the pots and cooking utensils. 

5.'J. The Chaulhacha cleanses the rice and the peas. 

54. The Elck carries the Chukru or discus of Vishnoo before the Idol 
when he moves out, and is a general superintendent. 

55. The Pft/roZ-, having dismissed the attendants, cleans the temples, 
and there retires to rest. 

56. The Chnonara serves the image of Guroora (the bird god,) has 
charge of the great standard of the temple, and lifts the great lamp. 

57. The Khiircja dhoaneeya cleanses the space between the western 
part of the temple and the place called Jugunmohun. 

58. The Nayadhya washes Juggernaut's linen, and hangs it up to dry ! 

59. The Daree ganee sings the songs which precede the anointing of 
Juggernaut with sandal wood. 

60. The Pooran-punda reads the Pooranas in the gate of Juggernaut. 

61. The Beenkar plays the beena, a musical instrument. 

62. The Tunuhohi/k dances in the spot called Jugunmohun. 

63. The Sunkhooa sounds the shell during the offices of worship. 

61. The Madolee plays on the madol, a musical instrument, -during 
worship. 

65. The Tooree-nayuk plaj^s on the tooree or trumpet. 

66. The Muhasetee washes the linen of Juggernaut- 

67. The Panecpaee vialiar removes all filth from within the enclosure. 

68. The JIakeemeeshristar-lnirii-pureecha is the great judge of all ques- 
tions ; he holds the golden cane." 

A London Paper in 1841 contained the following additional in- 
formation upon this subject. " From a return prepared for the 
House of Lords, we learn that there arc about sixty officers to dress 
and ornament tlie idol of the temple of Juggernaut, and three hundred 
watchmen, day and night, who, if they allow any one to enter who 
is not admissible, and thereby defile the food for the idol, have to 
make good the food if they do not secure the offender. There are 
twenty keepers of the wardrobe of the idol, forty to ornament and 
perfume the idol, three " duts" to paint the eye brows, &c., of the 
idol different colours, and three servants to see that the several officers 
perform their several duties. There are, further, three hundred 



175 

cooks, to prepare rice, &c., to make sweetmeats ar)d tlie like; tetl 
persons to take charge of the vessels with which the " pimdahs'* 
perform " poojah," and to hand them to the latter ; ten to supply 
water whenever required ; one to keep watch at the door whilst the 
idol is asleep, and to affix a seal on the door during the time. 
There is also a servant to witness the opening of the door " when 
the idol wakes," with the view of making sure that the seal on the 
door had not been broken during the slumbers of the idol ; and 
there are further twenty keepers of the keys, and twenty keepers of 
the doors, to complete the list of officers to the temple of Jugger- 
naut — there being, thei'efore, no fewer than Gil persons, whose sole 
duty it is to take charge of this celebrated Indian temple !" 

At the temple of Juggernaut there are thirteen festivals in the 
year, which have been particularized. The most popular of thenr 
are, the snan or bathing festival, when the idol Juggernaut is exhi- 
bited on some part of the wall of the temple, and the Xvater of the 
Ganges poured over it ; and the rtiih festival, when as previously 
described, the three idols. Juggernaut, Bulbudra his brother, and 
Soobudra his sister, are brought out of the temple, and taken iu 
large cars to the extremity of the city. These monthly festivals 
cause a constant ingress of pilgrims to the city, and it has been 
observed " Juggernaut is tlie great resort of pilgrims from all j^arts 
of India ; the number of which, according to a low calculation, is 
1,200,000 persons annually." I think this estimate is too high, 
but the number of these " weary wanderers after rest" is very great, 
and may well excite the deepest sympathy of the Christian heart. 
Mr. Lacey gives the following particulars of the ruth Jattra of 1838, 
which may be considered 'a peep behind the scene.' 

" I have gathered some information respecting the festival, pomcpavtof 
which I did not know before. The stupidity of tlie people is amazing. 
The Christian's faith gives existence to things f\it\n-o and luiseen ; tlie 
Hindoo's faith contradicts the senses. He sees a block of wood, but 
believes it a spirit ; a temple of stone, hut believes it gold ; a car of wood, 
but believes it gold; sand,but lielievesit particles of diamonds ! lilthy bira- 
gees andbrahmuns, but believes them holy and heavenly saints and gods; 
hears lying, unclean talk, cursing, blasjihemy, sees adultery, theft, robbery, 
murder, but believes there is no sin in Pooree ; sees disease, misery, or 
death, but believes that Pooree is Blicgkoiita, where neither disease, mis- 
ery, or death, comes; sees the car drawn by the strengtli of men, yet 
believes the god moves it liinisclf! Jnggornaut's temple is a])art from lii-; 
wife Lockslimee. She has a temple appro^iriated to herself and Surruswottce 
the daughter of Brnmha. When he takes his ride in Ins car at the Kutb 
festival, the greatest care is taken lest she should liear of his going, otiier- 
wise she would prevent it ; he steals away therefore unknown to bis wife. 
After he has been gone about four days, she gets to hear that her husband 



170 



is gone, and is in a terrible rnge and all her estaWishmcnt of priests and 
servants with her. This rage is vented by the lowest and most abusive 
epithets as, O tliat black-faced wretch ! O that vile destroyer * * * * 
A wretch, but I will reckon with the debauched wretch ! Lockshmee now 
orders preparations to be made for following her husband to beat him and 
l)riiig hiiii back. These pre])arations are set about with spirit by her priests 
and they frequently fight with Juggernaut's people if they meet them. 
AVhen ready she is conveyed with fiaming jealousy and wrath to the car of 
her husband, and there begins in the lowest manner to abuse him and 
curse him, and apply every possible epitliet of obscenity to him, and all 
her priests unite in abusing him and his servants. She then proceeds to 
attack his car, and sei-ious apprehension is entertained that injury will be 
done. Meanwhile Juggernaut confesses his crime, and says !iot a word 
in his own defence, and sends word to his enraged partner that he trusts 
that slie will moderate her anger. Tiiis she rejects with indignation, and 
at length Juggernaut is driven to employ tlie mediation of Mahadab to 
settle the matter. Messengers are sent with all speed for two gods named 
Sowkasmer and Markundasmer. These mediators are brought in haste 
and state, and are introduced to the lord of the world ; he is glad to see 
them, tells tliem his troubles with tears, and begs their interference. 
These tuidertake the task and proceed to the feet of the goddess. Here 
they unite their hands in humble posture, repeat hymns in b.cr praise, speak 
of the penitence of her husband, remind her that the salvation of thousands 
of poor sinners depends on his going abroad, and finally promise that he 
shall soon return. They barely succeed however in restraining her vio- 
lence, she consents to retiu'n to her temple, but vows vengeance on the 
guilty head of her husband, and that for herself she will never see his 
black face again. As she departs she throws handsful of sand, broken 
pots, &c. into Juggernaut's face, saying, O thou black-faced, who destroy- 
edst the virtue of 10,000 gopees, wlio was kicked and cursed for thy vile- 
ness, can I ex])ect to escape sorrow from thee ? O thou black monkey- 
faced wretcli who telledst thy wife was stolen in the jungle, and went 
about like a fool crying to this tree, and that monkey, " Saw you Seta, O 
saw you Seta!" O wretch, why should I think to escape sorrow! On her 
return she calls at the car of Juggernaut's sister, and abuses her freely, 
saying, O you ****** wbat he has put ornaments on your 
arms, and a beautiful sarceon your filthy body has he? O may firebeputinto 
your face, you shame-faced wreteii, who does not feel ashamed to elope 
with another woman's husband, and that her own brother, &c. Then she 
passes on to lier temple. Thus things remain till Juggernaut returns to 
his temple, wlieii, lo, the doors are closed against him. lie sends to know 
tlie reason of this, and is informed that Lockshmee is highly oftended 
and will not admit him. A great anxiety is now manifested by the poor 
lord of the world as to what is to be done ; message after message is sent 
to no efi'ect, he confesses, asks forgiveness, promises all she wishes, but all 
in vain; at last a happy thought occurs to one of his priests, that perhaps 
a present may api)eas{! the angry Loekshmce's mind. This scheme is im- 
mediately adopted, and ear-rings, nose-rings, armlets, anklets, beautiful 
sarees, &c., &'c., are arranged on spleiulid salvers, aiul carried in proces- 
sion to the feet of Lockshmee. When she sees all these nice fine things 
her anger becomes ap])eased, and she exhibits a half smile, and says to 
the messengers, O a black-faced wretch ! a * * * * Well open the 
doors and let him come in ! The doors are now thrown open, reconcilia- 
tion ])roclaimed witli acclanuition, and the lord of the world enters his 
tem])ie elicered by Ins devotees and worshippers, and even smiled upon 
by his angry wife !" 

Pilgrims are sometimes seen measuring their tvay to Juggernaut 
by constant prostrations. The writer saw three eases of this kind. 



177 




When Dr. Buchanan visited Juggernaut's temple in June 1805, he 
observed — " I passed a devotee laying himself down at every step, 
measuring the road to Juggernaut by the length of his body, as a 
penance of merit to please his god." Mr. Lacey some years ago, 
furnished an affecting account of one of these wretched pilgrims 
that he beheld. " I had my attention arrested by a poor creature 
who was measuring his way to Juggernaut, by his own body, or 
rather by half its length : he never rose upon his feet, but only 
upon his knees, when on his knees he reached his hands forward, 
and then drew his body forward a little ; every time he made this 
advance, he beat his forehead against the ground three times, look- 
ing towards the temple, which was now in sight. When I got suf- 
ficiently near I called to him, but he did not appear to hear what I 
said, aiul contiriued on his way without paying the least attention. 
I succeeded in stopping hiin : a deep mela'.icholy sat visible upon 
his countenance, his lips moving with prayer to his god, in a low 
grumbling tone of voice, Wlien I had surveyed him a few moments 
he gave over repeating, and T began to converse with him as well 
as I was able. I first enquired how far he had come in that manner? 
he answered 750 miles ; how long have you been on the ■way ? 
about eight months ; he appeared about twenty-one years of ;;ge, 
and was so emaciated l)y his austerities that his voice wa^i neaily 
gone." 



178 



Immolations under the wheels of the Cars appear to have been of 
frequent occurrence. The Brethren unite their testimony in con- 
firmation of this appalling fact. In July 1826, Mr. Lacey thus 
describes one of these horrid martyrdoms, " This afternoon I had 
an awful subject for my discourse, the body of a poor man crushed 
to 2)ieces by the car of Juggernaut. The massy wheel had passed 
over his loins, and had nearly severed his upper from his lower 
parts ; his bowels and blood had gushed out, and presented a sight 
too shocking to look upon. It was one of the most horrid spectacles 
I ever beheld ; and while standing by it, I became quite ill with 
sickness, and every limb shivered witli horror. The wheels of these 
cars are made for this work of death most effectually, as the spokes 
project three or four inches beyond the felloe. The poor wretch 
threw himself from the front of the car, and so became a voluntary 
sacrifice. He seemed a respectable man, ajDparently a Hindoo- 
stance and a brahmin. I felt myself very much indisposed this 
evening, but could not lose this opportunity of witnessing against 
the system, which produced such effects : I felt my own mind in a 
serious frame, took my stand over the body, and spoke with some 
feeling of the nature of the Hindoo religion, and compared it with 
that of Christ ; — and, perhaps, I never had a more serious congre- 
gation. Some hardened wretches said ' Sae, Sir, the glory of Jug- 
gernaut!' pointing to the mangled body. Concluded with recom- 
mending them to look to Jesus Christ for mercy and salvation, 
wliich Juggernaut could never give." 

The Report of 1841 refers to the same fact. " Messrs. Lacey 
and Sutton, from Cuttack, with Stubbins and Wilkinson, from 
Berhampore, accompanied by several native brethren, attended the 
last car festival at Pooree. As this was the first Jattra since the 
abolition of the tax, it was confidently predicted that the attendance 
would be overwhelming, but so far from this being the case, there 
were fewer pilgrims from a distance than they ever remembered to 
have seen. Some Europeans calculated the whole attendance at 
the festival at thirty thousands, and none at more than fifty thous- 
ands ; but on some former occasions the Missionaries have seen an 
assemblage of at least two hundred thousands. Though the con- 
course of pilgrims was so mucli smaller than formerly, the horrors 
of idolatry were not less apparent. One miserable pilgrim immo- 
lated himself under the wheels of Juggernaut's car. His brains 
were dashed out, and he instantly died. At another time during 
the festival, in consequence of a sudden rush of the frantic crowd, 
many persons were entangled in the ropes of the car. The car 



179 



rolled over dozens. Six were taken iip quite dead, several more 
insensible, who were sent to the hospital. This caused a perfect 
ecstacy of delight among Juggernaut's worshippers, because of the 
renown thus accruing to the festival of 18-10. — Reiterated shouts of 
triumph and loud flourishes from their barbaric instruments of 
music were heard till midnight." 

The mortallli/ attendant and consequent upon the filyriniages 
exceeds conception, and in its statements is almost beyond the 
bounds of credibility. " Idolatry," says Dr. Carey, " destroys 
more than the sword, yet in a way which is scarcely perceived. 
The number who die in their long pilgrimages, either througli want 
or fatigue, or from dysentery and fever, is incredible." Tlie 
Report of 1812, contains a very pathetic description how " their 
sorrows are multiplied that hasten after another god." — "A relation 
of the miseries and mortality of Juggernaut's pilgrims (says JNIr. 
Lacey) I consider to be a business which I may not resume or 
dismiss, as a reader's feelings may dictate : it is a duty, an imper- 
ative duty. And once a year at least, that is on occasion of this 
wasting festival, so long as I am spared to attend it, I nuistlet 
the world know, I must let the friends of humanity know, some- 
thing of what is going on in that part where God's providence has 
placed me. On the former part of my journey while the light of 
the day enabled me to see them, I met with many dead; some of 
them were in the mud of the road which was nearly knee deep, 
others had crept under trees, or under the eaves or sheds of houses 
by the way side, and died there, some lay on the grass beside the 
road with their eyes picked out by ravens and crows, others again 
seemed to have died in the act of drinking water from the jeels or 
pools, or from the trench which runs parallel with the road, not 
being able to rise from their position. In the towns, and near the 
saries by which I passed, there was a large collection of corpses 
about which the dogs howled, and the vultures screamed. The 
circumstances of the pilgrims were most pitiable, and greatly jiro- 
ductive of the fatal disease which was thinning their ranks. The 
incessant and heavy rain, had completely soddened their clothes to 
their skin. They lay by hundreds, in rows by the road side, and 
the pelting rain had battered their garments into the sand and mud 
of the ground. Weak and weary, and without proper food, they 
were fully prepared for an attack of the cholera, and they were 
presently carried off when attacked. When their companions 
arose to pursue their journey, how many they left v.ho were never 
to rise any more ! I\Iy wonder is, that considering the destitution 



180 



and exposure of the people, they are not destroyed in much greater 
numbers. When the light of the morning returned, the same mis- 
erable and destructive scenes presented themselves to my view, 
till I arrived at my house." 

Had this state of things been found in a part of the world 
before unknown to our countrymen, it would have been a subject 
of great surprise and pungent regret to the philanthropist and 
the christian ; bitt the darkest shade in this picture is yet to be 
laid — the climax of the description of a people " sitting in darkness 
and the region and shadow of death," is yet to be told, and it is 
this — "Be astonished, O ye heavens, at this, and be horribly afraid, 
be ye very desolate, saith the Lord" — Britain, the mother of nations, 
the patroness of civilization, the liberator of the slave, the messen- 
ger of Christianity to the nations over whom her sceptre waves — 
has been found regulating and supporting, promoting and amassing 
wealth from tlie absurd and cruel Idolatry of Juggernaut's temple. 
Hamilton, in his valuable ^Description of Hindostan," 2 vols. 4to., 
says, — " Possession was taken of the Town and Temple of Pooree 
by the British, Sep. 18, 1803 — the sacred loill of the Idol, being 
first ascertained tlirougli the medium of the officiating Priest /" — 
Is the historian in earnest, or in jest ? Did our countrymen in 
arms, act so unworthy a part as to tamper with the superstition of 
the people, by condescending to ask at the shrine of the modern 
Baal, whether they should be peaceably admitted or not? Proh 
dolor ! No British superintendence of the temple existed during 
the administiation of the Marquis of Wellesley, whose enlightened 
mind firmly objected to any connexion with Juggernaut ; but on 
his Lordship's return to England, a system was adopted in 1806 and 
1809, for the regulation of the temple, making it a source of wealth 
to its professedly Cliristian Rulers, the details of which, to use the 
language of scripture, should cause " the ears of every one that 
hearcth it to tingle." — This system, as Sterling shews, was a return 
to the mercenary and persecuting spirit of the Moguls, who gained 
possession of Orissa in the sixteenth century, and of their successors 
in power and opjiression, the Mahrattas — unworthy leaders of the 
policy of enlightened Britain. 

Tlie following sketch of this system (though now happily abol- 
ished) shows the entrenched power of Idolatry at Juggernauts 
Temple, on the arrival of the Missionaries. " The superinten- 
dence of the temple and its interior economy are vested in the 
Rajah ot" Khoorda. I'he Govenor General in Council posscses the 
power of lemoving the Rajah or any of his successors from this 



181 



superintendence, on proof of misconduct. The superintendent of 
the temple is authorised to punisli instances of neglect or misconduct 
by imposing small fines, or by removing the offender (if not one 
of the three head Piirchas) from his office : the (nnount of fines 
to he carried to the account of Government. The three devvul Pur- 
chas are to be appointed hy the Collector of Cuttack, subject to 
the confirmation of Government. In the event of orders being 
issued by the Rajah contrary to the recorded rules and institution 
of the temple, a representation is to be made to the Collector of 
the tax for the orders of the Governor General in Council, if it ap- 
pear necessary. The third dewul Purcha shall give account to the 
Collector of the tax of all offerings and presents made to the Idol. 
The Collection of the tax is intrusted to an officer with the official 
designation of " The Collector of the Tax on Pilgrims," subject 
to the authority of the Collector of Cuttack ; the general superin- 
dence of the collections, and the control of the officer in the per- 
formance of that duty, is vested in the Board of Revenue at Fort 
William. The avenues for the admission of pilgrims shall be con- 
fined to two Ghauts, Atturah Nullah on the north* and Ghaut Loke- 
nauth on the south-west of the town of Juggernaut Pooree. The 
pilgrims liable to the tax shall be divided into four classes — laul 
jattrees, nim lauls, hhurrungs, punj tirthces, including the following 
persons of low cast who are not permitted to enter the temple, j' 
The rate of tax payable by the difiercnt classes is as follows, viz. 
pilgrims of the first class from the north, passing the Atturah Nul- 
lah, pay a tax of ten rupees; from the south, passing Lokenaut, 
six rupees. Pilgrims of the second class from the north pay ^yFre 
rupees ; from the south three rupees. Pilgrims of the third class, 
from either north or south, pay two rupees. Pilgrims of the 
fourth class, passing either Ghauts pay two rupees. A pilgrim of 
the first class is allowed free access to the temple for thirty days, 

* We have authorised the disbui'sement of 10,20G rupees for tlie con- 
struction of a wall in the vicinity of Juggernaut's temiile, in the district 
of Cuttack. The work was stated to be necessary for tiic piu'pose of pro- 
venting the pilgrims from forcing tlu'ir way to the temple, and by tiiose 
means evading payment of the established tax. Par. Papers, ISl;}. j). 20. 
Hamilton's Hind. Vol. ii. p. 55—57. 

t These are kusbce, ^^z-o^^Z/w^es; cnllal, liquor sellL'r.i ; macho:nvn, fish- 
ermen ; numosoodor, boatmen; ghooskee, private bad women; gazur, 
labourers who carry burdens on their heads; baugdee //.v/fc/'A-, labourers; 
joogee, weavers ; kaliar \y,\wvy,bearers ; raujbunsee, different east of bonl- 
men ; chainar, shoe makers; dhouiec, washermen ; paun, basket makers ; 
teor, another cast of boatmen ; bhoinmalee, makers of garlands, S(c. for 
marriages ; haddee, maters. These sixteen casts arc not suil'ered to enter 
the temple to worship Juggernaut. 



182 



constnnlly attended by a punda. He may be exempted from the 
attendance of these officers by a further payment of ten rupees to 
the Collector ; and by surrendering his pass shall be allowed to 
remain in the town as long as he pleases. Pilgrims of the second 
class, at the Car Festival, are allowed access to the temple ten days ; 
at other festivals seven days only. Pilgrims of the third class, at 
the Car Festival, are allowed five days ; at other times but four ; 
and must be attended by a punda. Pilgrims of the fourth class are 
allowed to ivorsh'ip outside the temple sixteen days. Pilgrims may 
enrol themselves in either of the first three classes on paying the 
prescribed tax. Printed certificates shall be procurable on the pay- 
ment of the fixed tax, at the office of the Secretary to the Board of 
Revenue, the Collector of Cuttack and Ganjam, and at the two 
Ghauts. Form as follows : 

" y^. B. inhahitant of in the district of , having this day 

paid info this office the sum of sicca rupees, is entitled to pass 

through the Ghaut iinthout further interruption, as a laul jattree 

to the cutchery of the Collector of the tax at Juggernaut. On producing 
this certificate to the said Collector, he is further entitled to receive a pass, 
and to have access to the temple thirty days." 



Names, or designation 
of attendants. 



Amount of tax paid 
respectively. 



Period for which to 
visit the temple. 



Forms No. 2, 3, and 4, differ only in the names of the class of pil- 
grims, the rate of tax, and the period of attendance at the temple. 
A pilgrim of the first class, desirous of visiting the temi^le with bis- 
family and attendants, not exceeding twenty persons, these must 
first pay the tax of the second or third class, and then they may 
stop as long as their master. The certificates shall be dated and 
attested by the official seal, the blank places filled up, &c. A pil- 
grim presenting the printed certificate is to be allowed to pass with- 
out interruption. The molestation of such an individual by the 
daroga at the Ghaut, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding his 
salary for three months, and dismissal from office. The duty of 
the Collector of Juggernaut is to superintend the conduct of the 
darogas. Pilgrims of the first, second, and third classes, having 
passed the Ghauts at Juggernaut, are to apply to the Collector for a 
license of access to the temple, in the following form : 

" A. B., inhabit a}tt of in the district of , is entitled to 

perform the customary cercinonies, under charge of during 

days, that is to say, from the — day of the month of until 

the day of the month of ; and for that period you will 



183 



afford to (he holders hereof free access (o tfie temple of Juggernaut. At 
the expiration of the period granted, you will return tlie license into the 
office of the Collector of tax." 

The mischief of this unhallowed connexion of Britain with Idol- 
atry, was further increased by the adoption of a premium to be paid 
by the wretched pilgrims to the pilgrim hunters, who had deluded 
and brought them. What infatuation in our countrymen ! Hear 
the plea. The Collector of the Pilgrim Tax, in March 1800, 
wrote to the Governor-General at Calcutta—" As the pilgrims will 
never be well-treated by their conductors, unless they receive a 
present from their own hands, I beg leave to propose that the fees 
of the pundahs, &c., be publicly fixed, and collected by them- 
selves, separate from the tax, as was formerly done under the 
Mahratta Govt." To this it was replied — " The Governor-General 
in Council approves of your proposition for permitting the pundahs 
to collect a fee of the pilgrims, exclusive of the tax ; you will ac- 
cordingly fix the rate at which such fee should he levied, and 
publish the rates for general information at the temple, and in its 
vicinity.'^ Thus, a bonus Avas established upon the collection of 
pilgrims. Col. Phipps, who had been stationed at Juggernaut, 
informed the writer — "A purharee, in 1821, despatched 100 agents 
to entice pilgrims, and in the ensuing year, received the premium 
for 4000 pilgrims ! He was busily employed in instructing 100 
additional agents in all the mysteries of this singular trade, to send 
them into the Upper Provinces of India."- — Could any lino of policy 
have been more unchristian ? 

Harington's Analysis of the Laws and Regulations of the East 
India Company, vol. 3, p. 222, gives the following statement of 

JUGGERNAUT. 

liiipees. 
" Gross collection of Pilgrim Tax for 1815-lG (inchuling . . \ r., ^25 

seventy-two rupees mis. rccepts) / ■> ' 

Assessment of endowed lands 26,814 

Sale of holy food * 5,488 

8)86,027 

£10,753 



• " With the consent of the Purchas, I deputed an Aumeen to oversee 
and state the produce from the sale of holy food, the quantity and value 
of cloth presented for tlie purpose of being displayed on the wheel at 
the top of tlie temple, on which Government receives from the person 
presenting its full value as a fee, under the head of Dujja, exclusive of 



184 

Rujyees. 

Deduct charges for cstaLlislimcnt and contingencies ^''^'*'^ 

Expenses of Juggernaut's Temple 56,372 

English cloth for three cars 1,365 

74,880 



Net collection . . .. £11,147" 



Dr. Buchanan, in his "Christian Researches," states, from official 
accounts, the annvial expenses of the Idol Juggernaut, presented to the 

English Government, as follows : — 

Rupees, £,. 

" Expenses of the table of the Idol 36,116 or 4,514 

Ditto of his di-ess or wearing apparel 2,712 — 339 

Ditto of the wages of his servants 10,057 — 1,373 

Ditto of contingent expenses at the different seasons) j^ ggg j g^g 

of pilgrimage / ' ' 

Ditto of his elephants and horses .. _ 3,030 — 378 

Ditto of his ruth, or annual state carriage 6,713 — 839 

Rupees 69,616 £8,792 

"Thus (says The Friend of India, Oct. 1825,) a regularity, a 
splendour, an attraction, are given to the worship of this Idol, and 
an impetus to the delusion it originates, which it never possessed 
under the former dynasty ; an impetus too, which, fatal as it is in 
its consequences to so many of our Hindoo fellovir-subjects, is in- 
creasing with the gain it produces, which knows no bounds but the 
number of persons they are able to deceive from year to year ; and 
these have no bounds but the inhabitants of Hindostan itself." 
Such was the state of things, at this high place of Idolatry, — its 
population increasing, its votaries triumphing in the favour and 
support of their Rulers, and the influence and glory of Juggernaut 
extending through the whole of Hindostan ; when the Christian 
missionaries arrived in 1822, with the exhibition of gospel truth, 
to abash its nominally Christian Patrons, and with " the stone cut 
out of the mountain without hands, to smite the blasphemous 
Idol, till, like " the dust of the summer threshing-floor," the Idol 
and all its infamous atrocities, shall be found no more. Haste 
happy day ! 

It has been observed, ^^ If you ivould know the state of a people, 
look at the temple."~Vrom thus reconnoitering the metropolis and 
citadel of the enemy, where, as Chamberlain said of Benares — 

which, he has also to pay the fee of the Purchas and others, for their 
ministry during the ceremony." G. Webb, Collector of Tax, Dec. 1807. 
Par. Papers, 1813, p. 65. 



185 



"Satan sits enthroned," let us view the state of Orissa "in the 
length thereof, and in the breadth thereof;" and the necessity that 
existed for the introduction of Christianity, Avill be most evident. 
The Lord give "his word to have free course and be glorified," 
that, " his way may be known upon earth, his saving health among 
all peojile." 

The state of a people is most clearly seen in their peculiar man- 
ners and customs. Those that relate to caste, the degradation of 
the female sex, the comparatively stereotyped habits of the people, 
&c., &c., have passed under review in the general history of the 
country ; the customs which exhibit the nature and influence of 
Idolatry, naturally arrest the attention of the Christian philanthro- 
pist, viz., the Suttee, the churuck Pooja, Infanticide, Human 
Sacrifices, peculiar Austerities, the neglect of the dying and the 
dead, &c. No tongue can express, no pen depict, no heart con- 
ceive, the miseries of a people suffering from the sanguinary hydra 
of Hindoism. A brief description of these singular practices will 
demonstrate the value of Christian Missions. 

The Suttee, or the burning and burying alive of the Hindoo 
widow, prevailed in Orissa, though not so extensively as in the 
adjacent Province of Bengal and other parts of India. In Dr. 
Carey's Bengalee Dictionary, the rite is thus described ; " Suttee. 
From sut, good, chaste, jDure, &c. ; a woman who burns herself on 
her husband's funeral pile, being thought an irrefragable proof of 
her chastity." The Parliamentary Papers upon the Suttee, ob- 
tained through the late Sir T. F. Buxton, Bart., shew the number 
that perished in the different Presidencies. — " Total in ten years, 
(from 1815 to 1824,) 6G32, give for the Cuttack division in 1821, 
28 — 1822, 28 — 1823, 31—1824, 25." The author was present at 
a Suttee, at Cuttack, Aug. 19, 1824 ; but he prefers giving the 
account of one at the temple of Juggernaut, witnessed by his late 
colleague, Mr. Bampton. In Orissa, the woman was sometimes 
burnt in a pit ; the author saw one of these pits at Juggernaut, but 
did not hear of the horrid deed till it had taken place, "so swift 
were their feet to shed blood." — What an appalling exhibition of 
the horrors of Idolatry, does the following relation contain. The 
account is dated. Juggernaut, July 7, 1824. 

"The infatuated woman, whose cleath I witnessed, was the widow of 
a Brahniun who had died in the morning. The man's age seemed to have 
been about forty and the woman's thirty-five. The place where the Suttee 
took place was called Swurgu Dwar, which signifies the gate of heaven ; 
and when I reached it 1 found the coolies em])loyed in diggiug the hole, 
which was circular, about six feet deep, its diameter nt bottom perhaps a 



186 



little less than its deptli, and at top twice as much. Soon aftei- my arri- 
val, about twelve persons came, each bringing a load of wood on his or 
her head ; for several of them were women. I charged the labourers with 
being accessary to the crime about to be committed, and the general reply 
was, tliat they woi-ked for money, and did this work as they did other 
work because they were i)aidfor it. Carelessness or cheerfulness charac- 
terised all the Hindoos near or on the spot. The pit being finished, a 
quantity of water was mixed with cow-dung and sprinkled on the margin 
about one-third of tlie way down; two ropes were also well wetted with 
the same mixture. Inquiring tl>e use of two bamboos which lay near, I 
was told they were to stir the frc and turn about the bodies ! The bits of 
wood prepared for the occasion were between twelve or eighteen inches 
long, on an average five or six in circumference; a quantity of them were 
thrown into the pit, and a man at the bottom proceeded to set them up 
on their ends two or three thick round the sides ; upon this he placed a 
second tier ; and on the second, a third ; he also covered the bottom per- 
haps five or six inches thick, so that the pit was now two-thirds lined with 
wood. Soon after all was finished, the dead man was brougiit on a rough 
bier, which I supposed might have been made in less than quarter of an 
hour. I soon saw the procession (if it may be called one), halting a few 
hundred yards before me : the crowd was kept oft' the woman by a square 
made of four pieces of wood, five or six feet long. The rabble were pre- 
ceded by some of tlieir rude nuisic. Unwilling to see her burn herself, 
my worthy comi)anions, Lieut. \y. and T. B. Esq., tried several times to 
prevent the horrid deed, and I lent my feeble assistance, but all to no 
purpose. They halted twenty or thirty yards from the lianiing pit, where 
the last effort was made, and, that failing, her infamous coadjutors gave 
her a lighted lamp, which I think she put into an earthen pot under her 
arm. In a little time all was confusion ; and a scene, the most perfectly 
liellish that we ever saw, was presented ; and a way was made for the 
woman to the pit, and its margin was left clear ; she advanced to the edge 
facing her husband, and two or three times waved her right hand ; she 
then hastily walked round the pit, and in one place I thought the flames 
caught her legs; having completed the circle, she again waved her hand 
as befoi'e, and then jumped into the fire «•»*•* 

At this moment I believe the drums beat, and an infernal shout rent 
the air, but I can scarcely say I know — all was confusion. A dense 
smoke issued from the pit, entermixed at intervals with partial bursts of 
flame, occasioned by quantities of powdered resin thrown into the pit by 
handfnls. In a little time they allowed the fire to clear itself, and we then 
saw the wretched woman in the midst of it ; I think her posture was that 
of sitting on lier heels ; she sometimes moved gently backward and for- 
ward, as if she bowed. The poor creature still kept an erect posture ; but 
at length seemed partially to rise, and pitched forward with her head 
against the side of the pit, about two feet from her husband's left hand. 
The motion of her head in this ])osition indicated pain, and she continued 
to live two or three minutes longei-. Tlie gentlemen then went home, but 
I stayed a little longer and saw the bodies taken out : for though the 
women are burnt in these pits the bodies are taken out while distinguis- 
able, and consumed in two difterent fires (at least that is the case here), 
and we are told it is done, that the son may make sure of some fragments 
of both his parents to be throiru info the Ganges. Now the ropes came into 
use ; one was doubled and the middle thrown down to catch the man's 
chin, one or two bamboo levers were put under his head to raise it and get 
the ro])e round his neck ; tlie rope was then twisted, in order to fasten it, 
and tliey began to draw, but they failed, for the rope slipped oflT. Another 
man llien att('m])ted to fasten the rope; he succeeded, and they drew up 
the body, with the exception, I think of the legs ; but it was quiet dark, 
and nothing could be seen but by the light of the fire. They then tried 



187 

to raise tlie woman, but could not easily get the rope round her nock, so 
tliey jjut it on her arm, wliich projected in sucli a way as to favour tlieir 
doing so ; and, after twisting it widl, tliey drew lier nearly to the top of the 
pit : but they seemed afraid that they should lose her again if tliey trusted 
entirely to her arm, so she was held just below the edge of the jnt till 
another man jmt the other rope under her chin, and she was then drawn 
quite up. Some of the people em])loj'ed themselves in arranging the wood 
for the fires to consume the bodies, and I stayed perhaps ten minutes lon- 
ger, finally leaving the bodies on the brink of the pit. Such are the facts, 
and Heave them to produce their proper effect."* 

The churuch Pooja appears to have been as popular in Orissa as 
in Bengal. It is so called from churuch, a circle, the devotees 
being carried or whirled round in the air, suspended on a transverse 
beam, which turns on a pivot upon a substantial post in the ground ; 
some are even carried on a bakery, or native carriage. It is a most 
disgusting and brutal exhibition. A friend in Calcutta, in March 
1823, thus describes it: — "The places of the body which are 
pierced are, the back, the arms generally above the elbow, the 
sides, and the tongue. But the piercing is the least part of what 
is endured by the sufferers. The tongue being pierced, an iron rod 
is thrust through it, sometimes carried by the individual himself, 
and sometimes by one of the group of his attendants. One of these 
sufferers bad the point of a bayonet fixed upon a musket through 
bis tongue, and carried before him by the sepoy to whom it be- 
longed, and thus he paraded the streets. Another had a live snake 
of five or six feet in length, the tail of which was thrust through 
the man's tongue, the head and part of the body remained twirling 
in frightful shapes above his head. A singular instance of audacity 
was seen this year : among the numerous groups there was a man 
having the iron through his tongue with the upper part fastened to 
the leg of a woman of ill fame, who was carried upon the shoulders 
of bearers in a chair precisely even with the man's head, and he 
dancing and frolicking below. Some are so determined to excel, 
that in order to insert a thicker rod, the tongue has been so far 
pierced as to leave merely a shred on each side, and it has hapjiened 
that one side has given way, leaving the part of the tongue hanging 
on one side merely by a piece. The number of persons in Calcutta 
who thus torment themselves eaunot, it is supposed, be less than a 
thousand ; in all probability it is much greater. Europeans are not 
likely to hear the tenth, or even a hundredth part of the evil that 
occurs from these practices. The natives are not sufficiently at- 
tached to each other to think the maiming or death of their country- 
men of importance sufficient to induce them even to relate the fact, 

* See Suttee's Cry to Britain, 1828, pp. 8-9. 



188 



unless it is elicited by some special circumstance, or inquiry should 
lead to the subject." 

Infanticide was supposed to be almost confined to the Rajpoots 
of Western India, and it was not till Avithin the last few years, that 
it was discovered to prevail to an awful extent among the Khunds 
of Goomsur, in Orissa. The following information is deeply affect- 
ing. The Friend of India, July 1841, stated — 

" Mcria Pooja or Human Sacrifice, takes place once a year, in one or 
other of the confederate Mootasin succession. The victims are stolen from 
the low couutry, or are brought from some other distant ])art, aud sold to 
those Mootas wliere the sacrifices are performed. If children, they are 
kept until they attain a proper age. This cruel ceremony is thus per- 
formed. When the appointed day arrives, the Khunds assemble from 
all])arts of the country, dressed in their finery, some with bear skins thrown 
over their slioidders, others with tails of peacocks flowing behind them, 
and the long winding feather of the jungle cock waving on their heads. 
Thus decked out, they dance, leap and rejoice, beating drums and playing 
on an instrument not unlike in sound to the Highland pipe. Soon afternoon, 
the jani or presiding priest, with the aid of his assistants, fastens the un- 
fortunate victim 10 a strong post which has been firmly fixed into the 
ground, and there standing erect, lie suffers the cruel torture of having his 
flesh cut from his bones in small pieces, by the knives of the savage crowd 
who rusli on him and contend with each other for a portion. 

Great value is attached to the first morsel cut from the victim's body, 
for it is supposed to possess greater virtues, and a proportionate eagerness 
is evinced to obtain it; but considerable danger to the person of the oper- 
ator attends the feat, for it happens also that equal virtues are attri- 
buted to the flesh of the lueky holder of the first slice. To guard against 
so disagreeable an appropriation a village will geuerally de])ute one of its 
numl)er to endeavour to secure the much desired object, and they according 
arm him with a knife (mereri,) tie cloths roiuid him, and holding on by 
the ends, at the appointed signal, rush witli three or four thousand others 
at the miserable sacrifice ; when, if their man should be successful in his 
aim, they exert their utmost efforts to drag him from the crowd. Should 
he escape unhurt, the whole turn their faces to their homes, for in order 
to secure its efhcacj', they must deposit in their fields, before the day 
has (/one, the charm they have so cruelly won ! Tiie intent of this human 
sacrifice is to propitiate Ceres. 

In Ouddapoor, another and equ;dly cruel sacrifice frequently precedes the 
one already described. A trench, seven feet long, is dug, in which a 
human being is suspended alive by the neck and heels, fastened with 
ropes to stakes firmly fixed at each end of the excavation, so that to 
prevent strangulation, he is obliged to support himself with his hands 
over each side of the grave. The presiding priest, after going through 
some ceremonies in honor of the goddess Manekisiri, takes an axe and 
inflicts six cuts at equal distances from the back of the neck to the heels 
repeating the nmnber one, two, &c., and at the seventh decapitates him — 
the body falls into the pit and is covered with earth, when the hellish 
orgies first described, are enacted. Women are sacrificed as well as men. 
Since the arrival of the troops in the Khund country, a female found her 
way into the Collector's camp at Pattingia, with fetters on her legs. 
She had escaped during the confusion of an attack on the Widsa or hiding 
place of the peojde who had charge of her, by our men, and related that 
she had hecnsoldby her brother toamooiikoo of one of the Pattingia Mootas, 



189 

f(>v the puvpofic of being saenficed ! ! I need not say that she was instantly 
released, and that she adjured all furtlier connexion with the people." 

The form of Invocation to the Khund Goddess, forms an 

INFERNAL HYMN. 

Hail, mother, hail ! hail goddess Bhobanee ! 

Lo, we present a sacrifice to thee, 

Partake thereof, and let it pleasure give, 

And, in return, let us thj' grace receive. 

With music's various sounds, on festive day 

Lo ! thee we worship, and thy rites obey. 

Hail all ye gods who in the mountain dwell, 

In the wild jungle or the lonely dell ; 

Come all, together come, with one accord, 

And take the sacrifice we have prepared. 

In all the fields, and all the plots we sow, 

O let a rich and plenteous harvest grow ; 

O all ye gods and goddesses give ear, 

And be propitious to our earnest prayer. 

Behold a youth for sacrifice decreed, 

Blooming with tender flesh, and flushed with blood ; 

No sire, no matron, says. This youth is mine. 

His flesh, his blood, his life, his all, are thine ; 

WithoutJthe pale of sacred wedlock thrown, 

We took and fed him for thy right alone. 

Now lo ! with rites from all pollution free, 

We offer him, O Bhobanee, to thee : 

Taste now this offering, satisfy thy heart, 

And bid us joyful to our homes depart; 

Taste now this offering, and ])ropitions be, 

And let us each, marks of thy favour see. 

This extract was repeated from memory, by Abraham, a Khund boy, 
in the School atCuttack, to Mr. Lacey, who translated it ; he was then a 
great fat boy, and would soon have been sacrificed, had he not been res- 
cued by the English Officers. He well remembers, and relates, how 
he was stolen from his mother. She was then a widow. They had laid 
down to sleep for the night, when the men entered the hut, and beating the 
mother and children, placed poor Abraham over their shoulders, blind- 
folded him, and carried him off". He is now sixteen years old and 
has been baptized." 

One of the British Authorities, thus describes the scene repre- 
sented in the engraving respecting Infanticide in Goomsur. — " They 
offer human sacrifices to their deities. The principal one is a pea- 
cock with three heads. From all I can learn, it w^ould appear that 
the Chieftains of the different Districts take it by turns to offer a 
human sacrifice annually, to ensure prolific crops ; but an offering 
is frequently made at other times, to avert or remove an evil. A 
spot being cleared in the immediate vicinity of the A-illage, a girl, 
the most common sacrifice, is put to death by the blow of an axe. 
The body is then removed to the village ; in the centre of which, 
a peacock carved in wood, with three heads, is placed on the top of 
a long pole, over which the blood of the victim is sprinkled. The 



190 



body is then divided into as many parts as there are villages in the 
Mootab : each of these parts is again divided, so as to give a por- 
tion to each family ; and these they again divide into the smallest 
possible pieces, -which they bury in their houses or around their 
fields! The JMolekoos frequently have a child, sometime children, 
purchased, or taken in tlieir marauding exhibitions in the low 
country, to bring up for this express purpose : they treat them with 
kindness, perhaps for years, till they are required for an offering : 
the more full-grown and perfect, the better : a male, though less 
common, is prefered."* 

Human sacrifices were found to exist, nor is this a subject of 
surprise, when it is known that they are formally enjoined in the 
Hindoo code of laws and religious ceremonies. Mr. Lacey wrote, 
in June 1827,— "A human sacrifice has lately been offered near 
Cuttack. Human sacrifices are more frequent than is generally 
apprehended. Every possible precaution is taken to keep them 
secret, so that few are heard of. In the present instance the sacri- 
fice was a young child, a boy. Ilis parents are of the soodra caste. 
He was either bought or stolen from them by the sacrificer. It 
seems probable, that the person who offered the sacrifice had made 
a vow to the goddess to offer a beautiful child in case of some 
favour granted. Hence, the boy chosen was of very respectable 
parents, about five years of age, and very handsome. How the 
ceremony was performed I do not know ; but most likely by cutting 
off the head, as bodies and heads of human sacrifices have been 
found. And the goddess Kalec, of the Hindoos, is represented as 
being pleased with the flow of blood. I have witnessed the sacri- 
fices of goats and buifaloes to Kalee, in Bengal, and this was the 
manner of sacrificing them. It is therefore most probable that the 
blood and head of the child, were carried immediately before the 
image and off"ered to her. The Brahmun, to conceal the murder, 
after ofiering the sacrifice, took the body of the victim, cut it into 
small pieces, and boiled it in a large earthen pot, in which it seems 
he intended to bury it. This was a most secure method, as the 
boiling disfigured tlie flesh, and no one here could suspect flesh 
being in a handy. It seems he was detected in boiling it. The 
perpetrator and the idol were brought before the magistrate of 
Cuttack, and a minute investigation ensued. The evidence ap- 
peared clear against the Brahmun, We, however, condemn no one 
without oaths ! and, the murderer being a Brahmun, not one of the 
witnesses would swear against him, as it would have taken his life. 
• See Infantici'Je in India, 1811, p. 22, 



191 



In this manner the murderer was quitted of all charges, though it 
appeared evident he was guilty of the crime."* 

" jNIr. N. told me (says JMr. Sutton,) that he feared human sacri- 
fices were frequent. He mentioned that a little while ago, when 
the cholera raged here, that several of the people declared that 
Kalee had appeared to them, and said if they would sacrifice a man 
to her, she would stop it. He afterwards mentioned another cir- 
cumstance, with which he appeared to be well acquainted. During 

the Ganjam fever, the servants of a Mr. M , who was often 

in the habit of giving them money for their ceremonies, asked him 
for 500 rupees, which he gave them. But another servant, a Mus- 
sulman, who I suppose, was jealous of their obtaining so much, 
went to Mr. M. and told him they were about to offer a human 
sacrifice. He immediately called them back, and told them he 
thought they were about to attend to some innocent ceremonies, 
but he would be no party in murder ; and of course made them 
return the money. "^ 

Mr. Lacey records the following appalling fact in his journal : — ■ 

" This morning Capt. C , a very respectable officer of the 

Company's service, called on us and related the following awful 
instance of human sacrifice, which he discovered about a year ago, 
in the neighbourhood of his own station. On the occasion of a 
new Resident, one of the Company's tributary rajah's vowed to 
sacrifice twenty men to Kalee, if she would grant him a prosperous 
interview. He set out for the residency, and twenty men were 
seized, shaved, fasted, and anointed. He obtained a favourable 
interview, and as soon as he returned home, the twenty victims 
were beheaded, and their blood poured out before the image of 

Kalee. This account may be fully depended upon ; Capt. C 

mentioned that human sacrifices are by no means uncommon in the 
part of India where he resides, which is in the Nagpore Residency. 
It is more than probable that human sacrifices exist under all tri- 
butary and independent rajahs. "J 

Lawson, in his Orient Ilarpings, describes one of these deeds of 
darkness. § The following are the concluding lines, — 

"Not so 
Died the pale boy this night, for he was led 
Through the dark village to the place of death, 
Where oft had died before him other boys. 
Steady, inflexible, the Brahniuns walk 

* Sutton's Narrative, pp. 288-9, + pp. 22,3-4. 
: Gen. Bap. Repository, 1830, p. 312.— § Vol. 1823, p. 103. 

2 A 



192 



Behind, before, on either side, and calm 

Chatter, and smoke, and smile. Some tliere are lean 

And wrinkled, who betray that they are old : 

With peevish self-conceit, they boast of skill 

In learned books and righteous acts, and sputter 

With toothless rage in pious controversy. 

Others of broad and brawny limb, and step 

Proud and majestic, toss tlie graceful poita ; 

And, unconcerned in matters of dispute. 

Swagger with bloated face, and ogling eyes, 

And muslin girded loins, and slip-shod heels 

Triumphant. Younger ones are there, who pert 

And slim, march in the infernal throng. No heart 

In tlieir brass bosoms throbs with shame, or fear, 

Or ])ity. Never do they inwardly 

Relent, or with reluctance plunge a soul 

Into eternity. — They have arrived ! 

Eager they come ! they urge the trembling youth ! 

Poor fellow ! how he falters with the cold sweat 

Bathing his forehead, and with speechless tongue 

And chattering teeth. Of curious arch and turret 

There stands the temple with its grinning queen, 

Kalee, of bottomless darkness born, obscene. 

There bends the neck of the poor quaking lad 

A human sacrifice. The hatchet falls ! 

The crash alone is heard — the guggling blood 

Is on the ground, the priests have done their work, 

And coldly walk away ; they find their home. 

Nor feel one sting of guilt." 

Various austerities are practised among the people, too justly 
descriptive of the system of Idolatry prevalent in India. At the 
temple of Juggernaut, persons may be seen having their heads 
covered with earth, so that it would appear impossible to breathe, 
or sitting between two or three fires ; or, (as the author has seen at 
Cuttack,) a man resting upon a piece of wood suspended from a 
tree, and not permitting himself to lie down for weeks ; or with his 
arm elevated till it has stiffened. " While I was talking (says Mr. 
Sutton,) a byragge passed me with his left arm stiff, and his fingers 
rotted off." 

The Exposure of the d<jing and the dead, strongly marks the 
character of the people. — " Pages (says Mrs. Lacey,) would not he 
sufficient to detail the miseries of the deluded worshippers of Jug- 
gernaut. The poor pilgrims were to be seen in every direction 
dead, and in the agonies of death ; lying by fives, tens, and twen- 
ties. Mr. L. counted upwards of ninety in one place, and in 
another IMr. Bampton counted one hundred and forty. In the hos- 
'pital at Juggernaut, I have seen thirty dead at once, and numbers 
in the agonies of death ; and even the living rising the dead bodies 
for pillows.'" — Oh the miseries of this horrible superstition! 
Where the Suttee has slain its thousands, Pilgrimages have slain 



193 



their tens of tliousancls ! Myriads die in journeying to reputed 
holy places, \inknown, unpitied, and unnoticed : — penury, famine, 
exposure, and sickness, lay numerous objects of superstition, at 
various stages of the destructive route, unnoticed and unburied, a 
prey to birds and beasts. The European who has visited Jugger- 
naut at the great festival, may be forcibly reminded of the appalling 
description: — 

" He saw the lean clogs 

Gorging and growling o'er carcase and limb, 

They were too busy to bark at him. 

From a pilgrim's skull they had stript the flesh 

As ye peel a fig when the fruit is fresh; 

And their white trunks crunsh'd o'er their whiter skull 

As it slipt through their jaws wlien their edge grew dull ; 

As they lazily mumbled the bones of the dead 

When they scarce could stir from the place where they fed; 

So well had they broken a lingering fast 

With those who bad fallen for that repast." 

It cannot be necessary to dwell upon the moral and spiritual 
state of such a people. This is most palpably evident in these 
harrowing details. Christianity, like an angel of mercy, enters a 
land thus filled "with mourning and lamentation and woe," and 
says, in the language of the apostle Paul to the jailer, " Do thyself 
no harm. Believe on theLordJesus Christ, and thou shalt he saved, 
and thy house.''' 1 know not better how to close this chapter, than 
in the touching appeal of Mr. Sutton, when, as an eye wdtnesb-, his 
heart was bleeding for the miseries of the Orealis. 

"Were the divine Saviour to travel through Orissa, as he did 
through Judea, it would doubtless be said of him, that he had com- 
passion on the multitudes becavse they fainted and were as sheep 
scattered abroad, having no shepherd. It is strikingly the case 
with this poor people, for though apparently the most religious peo- 
ple on earth, yet in reality they have no one to guide them ; they 
have no faith, nor confidence in any of their shasters ; and as to all 
the consolations of even a false religion, they are eminently without 
God in the world, having no hope. One perhaps jiicks up a few 
sentences from the fragments of some old poem. Another gets hold 
of a few sage maxims from some celebrated gooroo. A third has 
suflicient strength of mind to see the futility of all the popvilar nos- 
trums, and is constantly unhapp}' and unsettled till he settles down 
in infidelity respecting all religion. The majority go to the festivals, 
and receive the muntra from the gooroo, because others do so. 
But scarcely a man is to be found whose mind is at rest respecting 



194 



even the hopes held out to liim by his own system. So true is 

it, that — 

" In vain would boasting i"eason find, 
The way to happiness and God, 
Her weak directions leave the mind. 
Bewildered in a dubious road." 

*' Let the friends of the mission remember, that Orissa looks to 
them for all the knowledge of the way of life, that she can hope to 
receive for many years to come. Besides yours there is no eye to 
pity, no hand to save, not a soul cares for her idolatries, and per- 
ishing multitudes, but you : and will you cease to pity, will you 
cease to help, to pray, to feel for her deeply and constantly? Oh! 
no. I dare not think you will. It cannot, must not be. God has 
in his providence given us Orissa to cultivate, and I hope we shall 
cultivate it, and plant its jungles and its wildernesses with the rose 
of Sharon, till it shall flourish far and wide, and exhale a fragrance 
sweet and rich as the Paradise of God."* 



CHAP. III. 

History of Missionary Operations. 

Rise and 2'>rogress of the Mission at Cuttack — Pooree — Balasore 
— Midnapore — Berhampore — Ganjam — Calcutta — Christian- 
pore — Kunditta — Choga — Pipley. Native Schools — Orphan 
Asylums or Boarding Schools — The English School — Circula- 
tion of the Scriptures and religious Books — Influence of the 
Press. 

We have seen that the destination of the Missionaries in Orissa 
was Cuttaok, the capital, where they arrived February 12th, 1822. 
Cuttack is beautifully situated between the banks of the rivers 
Mahanuddy and the Katjoory, and contains a population of about 

* Sutton's Narrative, p. 393. 



195 



fifty thousand souls. It has been the seat of power both of the 
Native Princes, the Mahomedans, and the Mahrattas, as it is now 
of the British. It may be painfully interesting to place upon 
record, the following description of the conquest of Orissa by the 
British, and particularly the taking of the Fort of Cuttack, ex- 
tracted from " Plummer's Journal,'" a Sergeant in the 22nd regi- 
ment, whom the writer recently met with in Norwich. Alas ! how 
great are the horrors of war. The Lord " cause war to cease to 
the ends of the earth." 

" The expedition, which was 5500 strong, sailed from Bengal, Aug. 3rd, 
1803, and landed at Ganjam the 25tli. The army marched imder the 
coinniand of Col. t[arcoin-t and Col. Clayton. We began our march for 
the cajntal, and advanced to Cuttack, where we took possession of the 
black Prince's palace. His soldiers had fled into a fort at Barabatti, and 
the next morning our army encam])ed in front of it. We began to build a 
battery in the front of the fort, which was completed in three days. 

Oct. 14. At day-break we opened a fire upon the fort, but our gnns 
made but little impression u])on it, as the place was rendered strong by 
three walls one above another ; between each there was a deep trench 
full of water. The only entrance into the fort was over a bridge secured 
by three strong gates. We had made an entrance through the first gate, 
where, if the enemy liad had courage to sally out, we nnist all either liave 
been drowned or ])ut to the sword, which api)eared to have been their plan. 
Our battery guns threw a ball through the upper part of the fort gate ; but 
to prevent another occurrence of a similar nature, the Mahrattas had built 
a wall in front. I was ordered out with the storming party and one six- 
pounder. We began a smart fire upon the three-gun battery, and upon 
the enemy in the trenches. Our small gun threw a double-headed shot 
through the gate, but finding it would not give way, our officer put into 
the gun a blank cartridge, and brought the muzzle close ; it blew open 
the small door ; but the Mahrattas had dug a deep trench close to the 
threshold, that we might tum])le in while entering, and that they might 
have an opportunity of cutting us to pieces. But the door blew open so 
suddenlj', it took off the legs of the man, who was placed there with his 
drawn sword to defend it. IVe entered through the gate, one by one, till 
the whole storming party ivere in! The next object we had to encounter, 
was a gun loaded with grape shot, ready to five in our faces : but, i)rovi- 
dentially, one of our party shot the man with the lighted matcli in his hand, 
just going to the piece ; befell, but while attemjiting to rise, a sergeant 
killed him wdtli his pike, and brushed oif the priming. One of our men 
Avas shot through the knee, and another through the heart! The enemy 
ran to' shut the third gate, but before they could secure it, we forced an 
entrance. We then flew to the trenches and batteries, pidled down the 
flag, and hoisted in its place a soldier's jacket ! Many of the enemy 
threw themselves into the trenches and were drowned; 400 were killed, 
and the rest threw down their arms. One ])oor woman was so friglitened, 
that she jiunped into a well, with her child in her arms; but we got them 
both out alive. Well might the poor creature be frightened, to see her 
husband killed by her side. The dead bodies were carried out of the fort 
in small carts, and laid in heaps by the river side, where there flesh was 
devoured by jackals and vultures! ! It was terrible the first night to hear 
the groans and cries of the wounded men. How many were killed of our 
different regiments I never heard, but the two companies of the 22nd had 
two killed : the wounded all recovered, except one, who was disabled for 
service. 



196 



Tlic fort is an exact square, with a very handsome temple in the middle, 
wlicre tlie Malirattas worsliipped ; it was not injm-ed eitlier by the shots 
or sliells. The place was large enough to contain the whole army ; a part 
stayed, and anotlier division went to occupy tlie palace of the black Prince. 
Several of the othcers were wounded, and one black lieutenant killed. 
AVe had no sooner buried our dead, than the jackals rooted up the earth, 
and dragged the bodies from the graves. About a thousand of the army 
pursued the black Prince, whose army lay near the banks of the rivev 
which ran past the fort: they followed him to the hills, but could not 
come up with him. Many of the men caught the hill fever, and returned, 
and were quartered in villages belonging to the Prince's dominions. One 
of the chiefs offered himself to the Commander as a Collector of taxes. 
He was frequently at the Colonel's house attended with great pomp ; he 
was carried in a palankeen and a guard of his own running by his side 
with drawn swords and having pikes. He attended the Colonel to teach 
him the language of the country. He likewise waited upon Colonel Harcourt 
every day. There was a man who had frequently been in the Mahratta 
service, but liad deserted it, and enlisted into a Regiment belonging to 
the Company's service. Tlie black Collector, frequently gave the man 
money, and promised promotion if he would enter into his designs ; 
and promised to inform hiin of his plan. He told him iico days before 
the execution of the secret. He was to be a guide to the army of the 
black Prince, who would convey a letter by a servant to the other side 
of the river. The night of its execution was to be, when the Officers liad a 
hall where they iverc all to he murdered, and 10,000 men ready to rush into 
t]ie Fort and put aU the soldiers to the sword! The man when he heard 
the whole plan developed, went and gave information of the conspirators. 
An ambush was laid to intercept the letters whicli succeeded. The black 
Collector was confronted with his own hand writing, which was found 
upon the messenger, but he flatly denied the whole. He was seized 
and coniined in prison. Our army marched to Piph'y, where the enemy 
were then lying who engaged us with great fury. We charged their guns 
and took them and made a great slaughter. The rest fled to a Fort on the 
hill, took some of the conspirators and hung them. We had many killed 
in the fray and almost every Officer wounded. We returned to the fort ; 
and the principal conspirator was tried and executed." 

The intelligent and pious Christian, cannot with propriety appear 
as the defender or apologist of war. He ever looks upon it as 
' the act, the strange act,' of a mysterious Providence, 

From seeming evil, still educing good 
And better thence again — and better still 
In infinite progression. 

Happy day, when all people shall * heat their swords into plough- 
shares and their spears into pruning-hooks, v>hen nation shall not 
lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any 
more.' 

CUTTACK. 

The Jirst sabbath at Cuttack, is thus described in a Journal of 
that period. — " A soldier of the 7th Regiment of Native Infantry, 
with his wife and several females coming, Bro. Bampton delivered 
an address, and our servant Abraham rendered it into Iliudostanee. 



197 



He spoke afterwards from Col. iv. 3-G. A Mr. G., a Portuguese, 
whose two sisters have been baptized at JjaL-isore, by ]\Ir. Peter, 
attended. In the afternoon we partook of the Lord's Supper, tlie 
writer administered it. In the evening Bro. B. preached : the sol- 
dier brought his brother, who understands English. Now we see 
the day of small things, but who hath despised them ?" — This was 
indeed the day of small things, but at this time it shall he said, 
"What hath God wrought?" 

The Brethren purchased bungalows in the cantonments, at a mo- 
derate price, which proved comfortable habitations ; and afforded 
accommodation for the public worship of God. At first most of the 
Europeans attended English preaching on the Lord's Day evening ; 
but after a time, some little offence was taken at the faithful exhi- 
bition and application of gospel truth, and but few attended. 

Cuttaek being the capital of the province, employment was found 
in the Govt offices for a considerable number of Indo-British ; these 
form the connecting link of the European and the Hindoo, and 
constitute throughout India, a very interesting and important sphere 
of labour to the missionary. Within a few days of the arrival of 
the missionaries, a native presented a petition for English books, 
ascertaining his ability to read, he was presented with a New Testa- 
ment. The following was the petition — 

" The bearer, Roykoanauth Loll, being to inform before your honor, 
that he is learning English. Therefore he begs to desire, if you will be 
good enough to favor him with any books by which he will be duly bound. 

I am Sir, 

Your most Obedient Servant. 
Cuttaek, Feb. 24th, 1822. 

In the next month, reference is made to the commencement of 
an Enc/lish Sunday School, after morning service. A few days 
afterwards it is stated — ■" In the evening we went with Mr. Baptist, 
a writer, to look at a spot for a Native School. "We hope to pro- 
mote education, as preparatory to the reception of the gospel." 

On Lord's-day, ]\Iay 5th, Mrs. Renncl and her sister, baptized 
at Balasore, united with the church. One of the ^^lissionaries wrote 
on the occasion ; "I feel encouraged that our number in church 
fellowship is now seven and looked forward with cheerful hope 
to the time when it would greatly increase." — "June 1. To day 
our Oreah School commenced. Tlie schoolmaster preferred this day 
to Monday, that day been considered an uiducky day !" In the 
following month Mr. Charles made a present of a School-room 



198 



which he had built. July 12th, it is stated — " We have been here 
five months to-day, and after much consideration, and, I fear, too 
much delay, this evening our servant Abraham, baptized in Cal- 
cutta, -was introduced to his public work among the Natives." — 
The value of native help in the infancy of the Mission is self- 
evident ; and hence the special providence that provided it, in the 
person and labours of our servant Abraham. It is stated of him — 
" From twelve years service, under two gentlemen of the army, he 
speaks Hindostance almost like his native tongue. His action, 
tone, figure, and the attention he commands, have often caused 
surprise. We think it very likely to be useful to our mission, 
gradually to disengage him from service, that, supported by the 
Society at about eight or ten rupees per month, he may fully de- 
vote himself to the work among the heathen." 

On October 1st of this year, the practice was commenced of the 
monthly assembly of the school children, at each others' bungalows, 
for examination and reward. Considerable difficulty was experi- 
enced in dissipating the fear of both parents and children ; for ru- 
mours were in circulation that the children would be taken to 
Calcutta to make them Christians, or give them victuals, or in some 
way take away their caste. About fifty children were present at 
the first meeting, and several gospels Avere introduced into the 
schools. 

In reference to the aspect of the Mission at this time, the Report 
quotes one of the brethren saying — " As it respects the state of the 
IMission, what can we say ? Who can define the progress of the 
growth of seed, while buried in the clods of the valley 1 We have 
distributed tracts and scriptures, far and wide — have instructed a 
number of youthful minds in the schools established— have borne 
our humble testimony to the truth : how far this seed will thrive, 
it is not for us to say, God giveth the increase. You will not 
expect a fruitful field, a valuable estate, before we have been here 
one year. We rather suppose you to say — How thick did you find 
the woods ? What quantity of ground have you cleared ? What is 
the quality of the soil ? How much have you under cultivation ? 
Truly this is an uncultivated people, though capable of much cul- 
tivation. The Lord send forth labourers." 

Vigorous efforts were early made to promote the instruction of 
the rising generation. From June 1822 to Dec. 1823, fifteen 
Native Schools were established, three of which Avere at a distance 
from Cuttack. They contained 305 boys and 63 girls. In Aug. 
1823, a Fund was formed to promote Native Schools. It is 



199 



observed in the closing paragraph — " The paper now contains 
moiithli) suhscriplions to the amount of 35 rupees 8 annas, and may 
probably through the good hand of our God upon us, be enriched 
by some more subscriptions or donations from our wealthy neigh- 
bours. The means multiply ; may the Lord give effect to them, 
to the glory of His name." 

This hope was not extensively realized in reference to the Fund, 
but it was most delightfully exceeded, by the support afforded for 
the establishment of the Cuttack English Charity School, which 
commenced in Oct. 1823. 

It may be interesting to families in Orissa, to give the names of 
the first Scholars. In the first Report it is stated — " Since the 
commencement of the Institution, twenty scholars have been ad- 
mitted, whose names are, John, James, Charles and Charlotte Bap- 
tist, Henry l^iVans Kenny, William Mordick, Levi and Betsy Torrs, 
John and Lewis Emmanuel Xavier, Andrew Ransin, Maria and 
Mary Dermont, Neel iMahadab Haider, Gunga Naraign Chatoorga." 
Tliis Institution was honoured with the patronage and support of 
the Civilians and Military OlKcers of the Station and different parts 
of the Province, and has doubtless proved a blessing to many 
youths, both Native, Indo-British, and English. 

The first efforts to prepare books in the language, are noticed 
under date Nov. 1823. "Perhaps you will be expecting to hear 
that your Missionaries have begun to send something of their la- 
bours into the world. I have at last ventured to send to the press 
the elementary tables of the School Book Society from the Benga- 
lee ; a tract on Idolatry, v>holly Scripture Extracts ; a few select 
passages on the Laiv and the Gospel, for a sheet, or a small Tract 
for Schools and first distribution ; and four Hymns from the Benga- 
lee, for native worship. The Tables I expect will be printed in 
Calcutta ; the other pieces at Serampore. The Oreah language has 
only the Scriptures and three or four Tracts in it ; liow great must 
he the dearth of Christian knowledge /" 

The writer cannot forbear noticing the reference to the little 
Tract — " A few select passages on the Law and the Gospel," 4 pp. 
18mo., as this Tract* proved the seed of the first fruits of Orissa 
unto God. This will appear in the subsequent history of the 
Mission. " You will be pleased to hear," says one of the breth- 
ren, " that while one of our dear partners is engaged in the English 
School, the other is attempting a translation of our venerable Bro. 

• This Tract was sent to Serampore to be printed, Oct. 25th, 1S23. 

2 B 



200 



Dan Taylor's Catechism, which we should be happy to see intro-' 
diiced into our Schools." 

The first baptism took place April 27th, 1822. The subject of 
it was Mr. F. Rennell, son of the eminent Engineer, His wife and 
her sister were pious persons, and his conversion and union with 
the infant church was hailed with great delight, as * a token for good.' 

The Missionaries soon began to feel the need of more help. 
They say — " We are almost lost in this place ; and how much more 
as it respects the whole country. Pray for us — send others to our 
help — what are we for this Province ?" Early applications were- 
made to them to settle in different places. Under date^ Jan. 22nd, 
1823, they wrote — " Balasore on the Bay would be a good station, 
and we have been already invited thither." A few months after, 
!Mr. Ward offered them the purchase, or even gift of the mission 
premises at Midnapore, the missionary at that station being about 
to remove. But these invitations could not with propriety be ac- 
cepted. But help was soon experienced. Mr. C. Lacey^ formerly 
a member of the church at Loughborough, Leicestershire, devoted 
himself to the missionary work. He was ordained at Lough- 
borough, May 7th, 1823. The annual Report states — " The op- 
portunity was one of the most solemn kind. Never probably did a 
more solemn service take place in the Baptist denomination. All 
the interest that had been felt two years before by the ordination of 
]\Ir. Bampton, and the presence of Mr. Ward, appear-ed again in 
action. The spacious chapel was crowded, if possible, still more 
excessively than even on that affecting occasion ; and many after 
all, were unable to gain admission within its walls. Tears flowed 
from the eyes of hundreds of witnesses, which manifested the deep 
impression which they felt. The candidate for missionary labours 
passed through his trying part with much firmness and propriety, 
and gave in reply to the questions proposed, respecting his conver- 
sicm and his design in engaging inpul)lic labours, answers of a very 
satisfactory nature. The same pledge to support and pray for the 
Missionaries as had been given on the former interesting opportunity, 
was repeated ; and the uplifted hands of a multitude, declared that 
they would persevere in supporting with their property and their 
prayers, the great cause they have espoused." 

While help was thus preparing, to "lengthen the cords and 
strengthen the stakes," of tlie little tent pitched at Cuttack, Mr. 
Bampton, after mature deliberation, removed from Cuttack to 
Poorec, in Sep. 1823. Ho had visited this ' higli place' of Idolatry 
at the ruth Jattra, and in humble dependence upon the Lord, he 



201 



determined to take his stand l)cforc this fortress of heathenism, 
which he never finally relinquished till death. Mr. and Mrs. Laccy 
arrived at Cvittack, Dec. 19th, and were a very valuahle acquisition 
to the Mission. Mr. Peggs went to Patamoondy to meet his new 
friends, and on their journey home by water, which occupied 
several days, various opportunities were enjoyed of extending ' the 
savour of the knowledge of Christ.' Mr. Lacey's aifahility of 
temper proved of great importance in the acquisition of the lan- 
guage. He was at home every where, and with every body, and 
by this means soon made very great progress in the language. 
The advice of the venerable Dr. Carey to Mr. Lacey, before leaving 
Serampore, is too important to be omitted. Taking Mr. L. by the 
hand, he said — " My dear brother Lacey, though 1 cannot pray 
publicly for you, yet I have the same warm desires for you, and I 
give you my advice. PLcmember three things : — 1. That it is your 
duty to preach the gospel to every creature. 2. Remember that 
God has declared that his word shall accomplish that for which it 
is sent. 3, That, when he pleases, he can as easily remove the 
present seemingly formidable obstacles, as we can move the smallest 
particle of dust. Be not discouraged, but look constantly to the 
great reo©mpense of reward. Farewell, may the Lord bless you, 
and give you many souls in Orissa for your hire." 

The year 1 824 dawned upon the Brethren Peggs and Lacey, on a 
short tour of four days to establish some Native Schools in the ad- 
jacent villages. At Gungaswur, after dinner, Mr. Lacey, for a 
little amusement, and to shew contempt for idols, went up to a 
large tree as if ignorant of what was near him, laid hold of some of 
the little idols, and sat down upon them ! He called his com- 
panion, and taking up one of them, placed it for his seat The 
amazement of the stupid people was]^great. Inquiring of the cook 
what the people would say, he replied — " That the Sahabs are 
(jreat people, and fear nothing !" The connection of the British 
Government with Idolatry was referred to by a Native in one of the 
villages, who inquired — IFhy should the Company destroij Jugger- 
naut ; he is their cliachar or servant ? Alas! for the evils of this 
unholy alliance. 

After stopping some time at Cuttack, Mr. Lacey proceeded on a 
visit to Pooree ; but settled at Cuttack, to assist Mr. Peggs, whose 
health began to give symptoms of decay. He proved a very agree- 
able and valuable colleague to the close of his missionary course in 
India. The first years of missionary labour are usually character- 
ised by circumatances requiring ' the patience of the saints.' The 



202 



early history of the Orissa ]Mission afForcls no exception to this 

general rule. But there must be ploughing and sowing, before 

' the joy of harvest.' Reviewing the early years of the Mission, it 

is stated — " The first four years of the Mission in Orissa, saw the 

four original members strengthened by four others from England ; 

encouraged by the addition of four others, baptized in different 

parts of India, and were favored to baptize four more." In this 

l^eriod no Native convert cheered the heart of the Missionaries, 

though some cases occurred which awakened their hopes. 

The ordination of Mr. Sutton to the work of the ]\Iission, took 

» 

place at Derby, June 23rd, 1824. The Report of the Society 
stated — " At an early hour the chapel was crowded to excess. 
The ordination service was deeply impressive. Many were power- 
fully affected while the young Missionary detailed the progress of 
his conversion, and narrated the important change which took 
place in his state and feelings when he was brought from scenes of 
impiety, vice, and misery, to embrace the gospel, and to consecrate 
himself and his all to the service of God among the heathen. — 
Tears flowing from the eyes of hundreds testified the feelings of 
their hearts : the uplifted hands of perhaps a thousand persons of- 
fered the pledge given on former similar occasions, to pray for and 
support the mission. On the follov/ing evening, Mr. Sutton 
preached for the last time to his friends at Derby, and seven breth- 
ren engaged in prayer. The language of an eminent christian on 
another occasion, on this probably expressed the feelings of many ; 
" If I were so unhappij as not to he a Christian, I should now 6e- 
come one." 

After an unusually long voyage, Mr. Sutton arrived at Calcutta 
in February, and at Cuttack March 11th, 1825, where he was hailed 
with delight by the brethren. Mrs. Sutton, Avho had greatly en- 
deared herself to the friends of religion in Calcutta, Serampore, and 
Cuttack, was taken seriously ill, eight or nine days after the birth 
of her first-born ; and being removed to Pooree for change of air, 
she continued in a state af partial derangement, and died May 15th, 
1825. Death had previously invaded the Mission family twice, in 
the death of two of the autlror's children, and in a few days after- 
wards, in the removal of his third and only child. This was felt 
to be a very severe stroke, depriving the mission of one of its be- 
loved agents. 

Shortly after, the author, whose health had been declining for 
two years, was advised by the brethren at the Conference lield at 
Juggernaut, to try the effect of a journey to Serampore, and if that 



203 



was not attended with the desired result, to return to England. 
This appeared a very heavy stroke to the infant mission. Tlie 
parting scene is thus descrihed : — • 

July 15th, 1825. Last day at Cuttack. — Three years, five months, and 
three days, after arriving at my station, I was compelled to leave it from 
indisposition. I3ut "my times are in thy hand." I kissed sister L. and 
gave poor Abraham one hand, while L:icey had the other, and hurried to 
the palque. Indulged reflections on leaving this })lace, so painfully inter- 
esting ; thought of my departed cluldren, schools, English and ntitivc 
preaching, labour, defects, fears, hopes, temptations, &c. and then com- 
mended all to God. 

" Some natural tears I dropt, tlien wiped them soon : 
The world was all before us — where to seek 
Our place of rest — and Providence our guide." 

A few days previously, Mr, Sunder, the master of the English 
School, and Abraham the Native assistant, returned from a journey 
to Calcutta. It is observed; " Lord's-Day, July 10. r>Ir. Sunder 
and Abraham arrived to day; they are both married. Abraham 
has married the daughter of Solomon, a converted Jew at Seram- 
pore ; Brother Yates married them at Chitpore. I feel very thank- 
ful for this Providence. The young men and their wives, Mr. 
Sander's mother and brother, with Deena, have arrived safely, though 
much affliction and death were seen on the road." The two Sunders 
became useful characters in the mission, and served its interests for 
several years. Tlie mother, brother, and wife, also joined the 
church. Thus v/e often see, that when one mercy is taken away, 
others are frequently given in its place. 

The author may be permitted to occupy a short space relative to 
his farewell to India. — He arrived in Calcutta, the end of July, and 
spent three months and some days at Serampore, under the hospi- 
table roof of his valued friend Dr. Marshman. Mrs. P. was brought 
to the verge of the grave by fever, but mercifully restored. No per- 
manent improvement being experienced in hii own health, a passage 
was engaged in the Fort William for England, and a final leave was 
taken of India, Nov. 9th. Dr. Carey's parting advice was—" Com- 
mit thy way unto the Lord and he shall yive thee the desire of thine 
heart.'" Dr. Marshman, on being asked for his, said — '^ Look up- 
wards." The homeward voyage was long, but upon the whole, 
agreeable. The visit to St. Helena was very interesting and re- 
freshing. The complaint at the chest rendered preaching, conver- 
sation, and even vocal prayer, almost impracticable. The voyage 
terminated uu Mondav, Mav 1, 1S2G, bv landin"; at Deal iu Kent. 



204 



The Lord be praised for the special mercies of the past years. Mr. 
Sutton, in his Narrative, kindly referring to the author's labours for 
the jNIission, adds ; — " But our friend and brother still lives. The 
remembrance of him and his beloved partner, is cherished Avith 
affectionate esteem. May they long live to benefit mankind, whether 
in England or India, and at length obtain "an abundant entrance 
into the everlasting joy of their Lord." 

The first Chapel at Cuttack built for the worship of God, was 
opened Nov. 6th, 1S2G. Previously divine service was held in the 
houses of the Missionaries. Of its dimensions it is said — "It is 
forty feet long and twenty-two wide, exclusive of the vestry, and is 
described as a neat respectable building. It stands on the ground 
on which an idol temple, dedicated to one of the most impure of 
the Hindoo idols, once stood. How changed the scenes that pass 
upon that spot of ground ! Once it witnessed the abominable and 
untold impurities of Hindoo worship, now the voice of prayer is 
lieard, the accents of prtiisc rise there to the ear of the Eternal, tho 
heart feels his love, and the aspiring soul exults in his salvation. 
Surely in the circumstances connected with this house, the friends 
of the Mission may behold an earnest and an emblem of that more 
glorious change, which sluill one day be effected, and for which the 
efforts of this Society are, as far as Orissa is concerned, preparing 
the way : — the change that will be visible on that rapturous day, 
when the hist idol shall be hurled from his seat, and the last idolator 
renouncing former abominations, shall bow in penitence at the Re- 
deemer's feet. The day on which this meeting-house was opened, 
is represented as one to be remembered with gratitude. INIessrs. 
Sutton and Laeey preached : a few more than usual were present ; 
but the happy and enlivening influences of the Divine Spirit were 
more than usually enjoyed. Besides what was raised in the Pro- 
vince towards the exj^ense of this erection, Mr. Sutton, when on a 
visit to Calcutta, collected G2() rupees. The Deputation of the 
London Missionary Society generously presented him with 100. 

Mr. V presented for the service of the chajiel a handsome set 

of wall shades, worth at least 100 rupees." 

In the latter part of the year 182G, ^'the day daivned, and the 
day atar'' appeared, the hapjiy precursor of " the sun of righteous- 
ness with healing in his beams." ]\Ir. Sutton gratefully describes 
' the sun the mountains touching, gilding now the spacious lawn.' 
" The God of grace and glory has declared, that his word shall not 
return unto him void, but shall accomplish that which he pleases. 
Of this truth, during the present year, the missionaries at Cuttack, 



205 



were favoured with a peculiarly pleasing illustration. From an 
obscure village they were rejieatedly visited by some inquirers of a 
hopeful description, whose attention was directed to Christianity 
by means of some tracts and portions of Scripture." He writes, — 

October 10, 1S2G. The last three days have been the most interesting 
I have ])asscd in India. On Saturdaj' brother Lacey sent for nie to come 
and see some people respectini;; wlioni we liavc, for a considerable time, 
been interested. It appears that abont eiglit or nlnt' viontlis a<i;o, they met 
with a tract containing- the Ten Covimandments, whicli arrested their at- 
tention : more especially the attention of an old man, who, like many 
others in India, is a gooroo, or spiritual guide, to a number of people whi> 
call him t!u-ir religious father, and themselves his religious sons. Some 
of them came to Cnttack, made some interesting inquiries and obtained 
other tracts, a gospel, and a testament. During brother L"s visit to I'ooree, 
they made one or two calls, and soon after bis return another, which in- 
creased our interest in them. Brother L. and myself determined on pay- 
ing them a visit to see and converse with the old man, their gooroo. It 
appears that they had read the books with great attention, and to a sur- 
prising degree luiderstood their meaning. A Brahmun in particular was 
well acquainted with them, and quoted in the course of our conversation 
many very striking and appropriate passages, such as " Not every one 
that saith unto me Lord, Loi-d," &c. and the difterent characters that 
should enter heaven ; the necessity of anew heart, and others too nume- 
rous to write in detail. But the Ten Commandments to which they are 
■wonderfully attached, winch they make the standard of their moral con- 
duct, and to wliich they refer incessantly, they all seem to have at their 
tongues' end. One principal object of "their present visit was to ask ouv 
advice in an important affair. It appears that in addition to keeping tlie 
.Sabbath, and assembhng on that day to read the dhurma shasters, (winch 
they learn from their favourite Dos ylc/ea, or Ten Connnandments,) the 
gooroo thought it their duty to spread the knowledge they had obtiiined, 
throitgh other villages. Accordingly he sent some of his disciples for that 
purpose. But the Brahmuus in perfect consistency with what the friends 
of religion have always experienced, were filled with cmnity ; and assem- 
bling and incensing the villagers they loaded the disciples with abuse, and 
beat two of them unmercifully. They wanted our advice as to what coarse 
they had best pvn-sue. We told them that such treatment they must cer- 
tainly expect if they loved the Saviour, and chose the way of liie ; ajid 
that it was what the friends of Jesus had ever met with. We read to tbcni 
the tenth and eleventh verses of the fifth cliapter of Matthew, and other 
similar passages, and recommended patient suffering under their perse- 
cutions. In this they seemed to have antici])atcd our advice, niul were 
quite willing to abide by it. But as we had already determined on visiting 
them and their holy father on Monday, we proposed a farther consider- 
ation of the subject at that time. 

On the next day, (Loi-d's-day,) eleven of their number came down to 
my house during oxn* English service. After tliat was over, we had anotlu r 
long interesting conversation of several ho\u-s ; when it was agreed that 
most of them shoidd return, and one remain to accompany us in the mor- 
ning. I accordingly went to brother L's to sleep, in order to be able to start 
early in the morning. Just as we were about to have our eveinng wori^bii^ 
three of them came in and joined us, one a nu'sscnger from tlie old man. 
It was exceedingly interesting to see them bow with their faces to the 
ground, and in tliat position join us in the worship of the blessed and 
glorious God, to whom all iiesh shall assuredly come. We seemed trans- 
])orted back to the times of Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob. After wor- 
ship, two departed, and the messenger alone remained to be oiu guide. 



206 



In tlic morninjT, we were up al)otit five ; .incl after prajcr for our heavenly 
Fatlier's blessing, we set ofi'. The place appeared to be about nine or ten 
viiles distant in a veri/ retire sllual'ion, wliich we reached about nine o'clock. 
On our arrival wc found some course cloths s])read on the ground, beneath 
a wide spreading tree, wliich was the spot prepared for our conference. 
Several of the disciples and villagers were assembled. The old gentle- 
man soon made his appearance. He appeared to be about hfty years of 
age, rather below the middle stature, and inclining to corpulency. Round 
his waist he wore an iron chain, to which was attached a small piece of 
cloth, which passed between the legs and fastened or tucked up behind. 
Over his shoulders was thrown his capara or mantle, and his head was 
quite bare and shaved close. On approacliing us, he saluted us by pros- 
trating himself on the gi'ound, and knocking the earth with his forehead. 
We of com-se did not let him remain long in that position, but raising him 
up, sr.luted him in European stjle, by a shake of the hand. He expressed 
himself nuich ])leased at our visiting him, and after some preliminaries, 
we seated ourselves, tailor fashion, on the cloth. Our conversation, of 
course, soon turned upon religion. Although it appeared that the old 
man could not read, yet, we were frequently surprised at the correct scrip- 
tm-al knowledge he jjossesscd on many subjects. The Brahmun, to whom 
I formerly alluded, it seems had read over to him attentively the books we 
had given them ; and bj^ the help of a strong mind and retentive menmrj', 
the old gentleman had acquired much iiiformation. Although we fomid 
that he was sLill in error on several important points of doctrine, yet the 
correctness of his ideas on others, and his peculiar method of conveying 
them, often drew forth tears, and smiles, and wonder, and gratitude. We 
Bpent the whole day with him, excepting about an hour, when the old 
gentleman went to eat; during which brother L. and myself ate a meal of 
rice and milk, and spent the remainder of the time in talking to the peo- 
ple, wlio, it seemed would not leave vis for a moment. When the old man 
returned, we again seated oiu'selves on the cloth, and the disciples around 
us; the old gentleman's instructions, and generally his replies, were de- 
livered in the form of parables or fables, which were often very striking. 
He frequently referred to the Dos Agea, or Ten Commandments, which 
were his standard. In referring to the death of Christ, he illustrated it by 
supposing the case of a criminal condemned to die, for whom another 
offers himself as a substitute. In speaking of the folly of the distinctions 
of caste, he pointed first to some clothes of a bearer in the place, which 
were spread out to dry. In another place to some clothes belonging to 
Rome other castes, and lastly to some maitre's clothes, and said they would 
be dcfded if they touched each other ; but pointing to the sun, said, it 
dried thi-m all! 11 is observations were generally introduced by 'Hear! 
licar ! hear! children, atteiul.' Not thinking of returning that night, we 
did not bid the old gentlenum farewell when we parted ; but afterwards 
tliinking it better to go home and come again another day, we followed 
him to his little hut, where we found the old man at prayer. We waited 
U7itil he had finished, and then took an opportunity of looking into his 
house, but could see nothing in the shape of an idol. We then parted 
with nuitual good wishes, and after some trouble in breaking awaj' from 
the people, we reached home in safety. We have seen several of the dis- 
cij)les, at diff'erent times since, and have tried to give them more correct 
notions respecting the individuality of the soul, which seems almost, if not 
entirely unknown in Hindooism. * * * 

"We paid another visit to the old Gooroo, hut found it was an imfa- 
vourable time, as most of his disciples were absent on various occasions. 
We talked with the old gentleman five or six hours on religious subjects, 
and was better ])leased with liim than on our first visit. We proi)osed 
establishing a school in the village if he would superintend it. He seemed 
to approve of the plan, but it was not quite decided upon. He was to 



207 

SPiul tlie Bralinuin about it. He proposed our buildings a small bungalow 
ill tlio village, and paying occasional visits, for a month or so togcthcT, 
The plan is not a bad one, and will have our serious consideration." 

Of what passed at the first interview of the Missionaries with these in- 
teresting inquirers, Mr. Lacey's journal furnishes some additional in- 
formation. The old gooroo's remarks on the New Testament, are worthy 
of being long remembei'ed. 

"The gocn-oo said to his disciples, 'Mi/ children, there is iruih, and 
great truth. This is the great truth. There are gifts of rice, of cloth- 
ing, and of n-isdoni ; tliis is tvisdom, the highest gift : rice decays, clothing 
perishes, bid wisdom never dies. Talce this my children, and let this he 
your guide ; all the silver and gold cannot purchase this.' He said many 
more things that gave us pleasure ; and would have eaten or done any- 
thing with us that would take his caste, but this we forbore at present. 
About four we left the place ; he took a most aiTcctionate leave of us, 
which created in us a love for him, and a regret at leaving him. Certani- 
ly he is a very hopeful person, and has much knowledge of the sacred 
Scriptures. We distributed books and tracts among the inhabitants, and 
came away rejoicing for this encouraging intimation. These people are 
already sufi'ering persecution for Christ's sake. We rejoice, but with 
trembling, knowing the deception of the human heart; the many tailurea 
in like instances ; and the many discovu'agements and obstacles to^ the 
profession of Christ by natives. We leave our cause in the hands of the 
Lcnxl, with ardent desires, and fervent prayers. To the residence of this 
man, our way was through a rocky wilderness covered with jungle, with 
here and there a beautiful flov^-er ; a true picture of the moral wilderness 
in heathen lands. Among the millions of idolaters, there is here and there 
a disci))le of Jesus ; but when shall the wilderness become like the garden 
of the Lord — full of flowers, with here and there a weed!"* 

On Dec. 2-Uh, 1826, three persons were haptized in one of the 
rivers that skirts the city of Cuttack. One was the wife of Abra- 
ham, the others the mother and brother of Sunder the English 
Schoolmaster. The Report of 1827 refers to the marriage of Mr, 
Sutton with INIrs. Colman, widow of an American Missionary in 
Burmah. — " An important addition has been made, in the course 
of the year, to the number of the Society's female Missionaries in 
India, by the marriage of Mr. Sutton to Mrs. Colman. This lady 
is an American ; she was the widow of an American Baptist Mis- 
sionary to Burmah. whose labours soon terminated, by dying in Ar- 
racan. After his death, she continued her exertions to benefit the 
benighted natives of the east, by acting as the Superintendent of 
Female Schools in Bengal, under the direction of the Independent 
and Baptist Brethren. By those who knew her in Bengal, Mrs. 
Sutton was much esteemed ; she is represented by Missionaries, 
who have come from India, as a truly estimable woman," 

This year may be said to have closed auspiciously. The erection 
of the chapel — the diffusion of light among the followers of the old 

* Sutton's Narrative, pp. 238-43. 
2 c 



208 

gooroo — the addition of Mrs. Sutton to tlie missionary band — and 
the additions made by baptism, gave promise of abundant increase. 
Herein is that saying true — " One soweth and another reapeth," 
but " he tliat soweth and he that reapeth may rejoice together." 

Of the inquirers among the disciples of the old Gooroo, Mr. Lacey 
states — " There is good reason to hope that their minds are serious- 
ly and well disposed towards the truth, and that eight, or ten, are 
more particular than the rest ; these have repeatedly visited the 
Missionaries during the year for instruction, and their views as it 
respects Christianity, and their own idolatrous system, are exceed- 
ingly improved. They have diligently read the Scriptures, and 
other religious books ; the majority of them have devoted the Lord's 
day to religious instruction ; many of their heathenish customs and 
superstitions have been laid aside, and christian practises siibstituted : 
this is particularly applicable to the poor old gooroo himself, his 
beads are broken off, his chain is cast aside, and he sits clothed in 
good white raiment and in his right mind. They thought them- 
selves a part of God ; now, they acknowledge themselves sinners 
against God, liable to punishment : they offered idolatrous sacri- 
fices, esiDecially to fire, these have ceased ; and "the stir they have 
made, and are continuing to make, is producing a very wide and 
strong impression on the part of the province they inhabit." Of 
these inquirers one of the most interesting is Gunga, the intelligent 
Brahmin mentioned in the Society's last Report. He, after up- 
wards o£ two years deliberation, has requested baptism. The hopes 
of the brethren were alternately raised and depressed respecting 
him : his attachment to the gospel seemed sincere ; but formidable 
obstacles lay in the way of his professing Christianity : to be the 
first that should break the chain of caste in the vicinity of Jugger- 
naut needed resolution and christian fortitude. While his mind 
was exercised on the important subject of renouncing the super- 
stitions of his fathers, his friends, and his country, various inter- 
esting circumstances contributed to encourage the hopes of the 
Missionaries." 

The following letter fiom the old Gooroo, dated Cuttack, Nov. 
1827, shews the dawn of Christian light. This man has certainly 
proved the precursor of gospel light in Orissa.* 

A letter from Sundra das Bargee, to Christians in general. 

" O ye favoured people, who are blessed with the Divine Spirit, 
ye have existed 1800 years, and what have ye done for this dark world? 

• See the account of Dulol in Cox's History, vol. i. pp. 77-80. 



209 



I am a Hindoo Boistub, poor and destitute, but ask of you neither land 
nor elephants, nor horses, nor money, nor pahuuiuees, nor doolies ; but I 
nsk, what can be done to teach the people to obey the laws of God? O 
holy people this I ask. 

"Pooree is the heaven of the Hindoos; yet there the practises of 
mankind are, adultery, theft, lies, murder of the innocent, whoremonf!;cry, 
eating fish with maha presaud, disobedience and abuse of parents, defi- 
ling of mothers, defiling of sisters, defiling of daughters! Such is thereligion 
of Juggernaut ! For these crimes the people are visited with rheumatism, 
swellings of the legs, leprosy, scrofulas, grievous sores, and acute pains, 
blindness, lameness, and such like! Such are the servants of Juggernaut. 

" And now holy people hear the names of the gods of this 
people — gods which the people, when they have eaten rise and worship — 
these are gold, silver, brass, cedar, stone, wood, trees, fire, water, &c., 
these be the names of their gods, and these be their servants. To serve 
these gods, they burden themselves with expensive ceremonies and costly 
rites ; they affiict their bodies, and their souls with pilgrhnages and many 
cruelties. The Brahmuns no longer observes the Vades, nor the devotees 
keep merc}\ O ye Christian Rulers, ye feed the rich, the proud, and the 
great ; while the poor and the destitute are dying in want ! O good fathers ; 
good children! good people ! hear the cries of the poor, O good people ! 

" The thief is judged, the mtirdei-er is judged, the perjured is 
judged, and all the wicked are piuiished according to their crimes. A 
large army is kept in obedience to your orders; but why are not the 
people made to obey tke Saws of God ? Ye are the seed of the good, ye 
keep God's word, cause the subject to keep it. The Mahrattas wei-e rob- 
bers, but they relieved the distressed. Europeans are faithful rulers, but 
in their Governm.ent falsehood abounds. Children, Fathers ! the fate of 
of all in the four quarters is in your hands ! O good people ! the subject 
has become wicked, having ffjlen into error, and in consequence get not 
food nor raiment. 

" Rulers are the example of the people. O good people teach 
them God's commandments by your example. If ye will do this, then it 
will be well ; if ye will not then ye are stones to them. What more shall 
I write ? Do as ye will, still religion is true, religion is true, religion 
is true!"* 

The indefatigable labours of Mr. Bampton in scattering the seed 
of the kingdom far and wide, were honored by the "baptism of the 
first Hindoo convert. This important event took place at Berham- 
pore, Dec. 25th, 1827. It is thus described — "Owing to the 
operations of various causes, the minds of Hindoos are genenally 
weaker than the minds of Englishmen ; but there are few, if any, 
English Christians who have been called to display so much Chris- 
tian heroism as is displayed by a Hindoo who gives up his caste, 
especially if he be the first in the neigbourhood who receives the 
Gospel. And Erun's remaining fear, after again wishing to he 
baptized, showed itself in a proposal that I should tell the truth if 
asked whether he had eaten with me or not, but say nothing aboufc 

* Pilgrim Tax Pamphlet, p. 7G. 



210 



it if I were not asked. But this I felt myself obliged to refuse, and 
I told him that if he determined to remain unbaptized, no sum of 
money, nor any consideration -whatever, should ever induce me to 
publish his having eaten with me ; but that if he was baptized I 
would certainly publicly declare that his caste was gone. For I 
told him, the caste ivas an enemy to Jesus Christ, which none of his 
friends could spare ; and stood like a stone wall across the road to 
prevent the progress of the Gospel. This firm but fair and honest 
way of treating him, manifestly pleased him, and he soon expressed 
his determination to face every difficulty. 

''^December 'loth was fixed for his baptism, and between three and 
four in the afternoon, to our no small satisfaction, he came to the 
tent, bringing with him a change of apparel ; between four and five 
we proceeded to a tank called the Ramalingum tank, and on our 
arrival, including ourselves and servants, there were not present 
perhaps above ten persons ; before we had finished there might 
be twenty. In an address I delivered, I briefly pointed out the 
way of salvation : said that Jesus Christ reqi;ired, first faith and 
then baptism — that my friend Erun had forsaken Hindooism — that 
he had c/iven tip his caste — that he believed in Jesus Christ and 
wished thus to connect himself with his followers. Then 1 asked 
Erun if this was not the case, and he said it was. I had not given 
him notice of my intention to ask him any questions at the water ; 
but I proceeded to say ^lat I should request his answers to a few, 
which, with his replies, I shall subjoin, — 

"Do you honour the Hindoo gods?' — 'No.' ' What do you 
think of the Hindoo shastras ?' — 'They are all false.' 'Are you a 
sinner?' — 'Yes.' 'Who saves sinners?' — 'Jesus Christ.' What 
did Jesus Christ do to save sinners ?' — 'He died for them.' 'Who 
will be saved ?' — ' Those who rely on Jesus Christ.' ' Do you be- 
lieve in Jesus Christ i*' — 'I do.' 'Do you wish to obey Jesus 
Christ ?' — ' I do.' ' Jesus Christ requires his followers to abstain 
from worldly business every Sunday, and devote the day to reli- 
gious exercises : do you engage to comply with this requisition ?' — • 
' I do.' ' Do you wish to be baptised ?' — ' Yes.' 

" We then prayed, and after prayer went into the water, when I 
said, Peeta poolra dhiirmatmar namorai amhhai toomhokoo doobo 
dayee ; i. e. 'I baptize thee in the name of the Father, and of the 
Son, and of the Holy Ghost ; and my friend thought that as he was 
addressed it would be right to reply, as he said Acha, i. e. ' Very 
good,' and I baptised him ; and on coming out of the water much 
wished, that we had a host of Christian friends present to vent, in a 



211 



song of praise, those feelings which the event couhl not fail to excite. 
After changing our clothes we returned to my tent, and Erun 
drank tea with us." 

Of the state of Erun's mind under his subsequent trials, Mr. B. 
gives a pleasing account. 

" When any new trouble arises, he seems to come regularly to 
my tent, and it is pleasing to observe, that he commonly goes away 
more cheerful than he came. I have exhibited to him the promises 
made to those who are persecuted for righteousness' sake, and they 
cheer him. One day soon after his baptism, I went to his house 
to see how things w'crc going on ; a number of people collected to- 
gether, and 1 happened to say to Erun, ' If all these people forsake 
you, the Lord will not.' On which he turned to the people and 
said, ' If any of you had a son who ran about and lost his caste, 
when all his neighbours disregarded him, would you refuse to notice 
him and take him in?' to which they said, ' No.' 'Thus' ' if you 
all forsake me the Lord will not.' Sometimes he magnifies his 
profession and tells the people he is not a low caste, his caste he 
says is God's cade.'" 

To the preceeding particulars respecting Erun, IMr. B. adds 
some other information, which while it may excite a smile at the 
new convert's simplicity, pleasingly shows how great, in his esti- 
mation, should be the power and efficacy of the Gospel. 

" He is of course a child in knowledge, and has some wild fancies. 
He once thought of going to Pooi'ee, and he thought that the Rajah, 
himself, and I, might all go into the temple, and if Juggeraaut 
refused to give us some proof of his divinity, we wei'e I think to 
kick him, and show all the people that he was nothing ! Again, he 
wanted a commiKsion to go about the country and break all the idols. 
Another of his schemes was to go to England, and by means of an 
interpreter, to prevail on the Honourable Company to fill all the 
ofiices in this country with pious men ; and on itsbeing hinted that 
the Company wanted money, he seemed to think that a propensity 
of that kind might soon be cured, as money is of use for so short 
a time. It is, he says, teen deenoro kotto: i. e. a three day's 
word." 

The Society's Report of 1827, contains reference to a new source 
of support, which has proved very productive — this was, the pre- 
paration of a Missionary Bazaar. These items are now interesting, 
viz., " By Miss Roberts, from sale of articles at Quorndon and 
Leicester Ordinations. By Mrs. Peggs, from sale at Derby in the 
Association week," &c. Thus, as in the erection of the tabernacle 



212 



in the wilderness, a spirit of liberality was cherished, which has ren- 
dered great service to the good cause. 

The first Oreah convert was a Brahmun, named Gunga Dhor. 
Erun is a Telinga. This very interesting event of his baptism 
took place March 23rd, 1828, a day long to be remembered. See 
the account in the Society's Report, 1829, pp. 11, 12. 

In the early part of the year 1828, Mr. Cropper arrived in 
Orissa, to strengthen the Mission. He was ordained at Leicester, 
April 25th, 1827. "On this occasion Mr. Burditt prayed. A 
short but appropriate discourse w^as delivered by Mr. Payne. Mr, 
Derry proposed the questions, and received the young Missionary's 
replies. The ordination prayer was offered by Mr. Peggs ; and a 
charge, grounded on 2 Tim. iv. 1,2, was delivered by Mr. Pike- 
In the evening an animated discourse was delivered by Mr. Steven- 
son, of Loughborough. Both services were highly gratifying, and 
excited considerable interest and feeling. May the prayers offered, 
be answered in continued blessings on the sacred missionary cause 
through successive years." This interesting young man was in- 
deed "a burning and shining light," and many were the tears shed 
at his early death, before the close of this year. The Rev. Mr. 
Brown, of Calcutta, said to Henry Martyn — " You burn like phos- 
phorus, and you may as well burn in Persia as in India." Alas ! 
that this promising young man should have so much imitated him 
in his consuming zeal, and early removal from the missionary field. 
His course was short, but it was not in vain in the conversion of 
souls, and in "preparing the way of the Lord," both in Britain 
and in India. The Report of the Society contains the following 
just encomium upon his character : — 

"God often moves in a mysterious way: one of the mysteries 
of his providence has been this year seen at Cuttack, in the unex- 
pected removal by death of Mr. Cropper. He had begun to travel 
through the villages of Orissa proclaiming the Gospel, and afforded 
fair indications of eminent usefulness. Not many weeks before his 
death a brother Missionary wrote, — "As far as I can judge, brother 

C promises to be eminent as a preacher in Oreah. I have 

observed his serious and affectionate addresses produce much effect 
on his hearers." Alas! the last of those affectionate addresses is 
finished. He, whose ways ai'e not our ways, has called the labour- 
er to his rest. How much the Missionaries felt at his removal is 
evident from their correspondence. Short as was his course, that 
brief course contributed materially to advance the interests of that 
kingdom that will endure for ever. As far as India is concerned 



213 



Mr. Bampton writes, — " With respect to our work it will perhaps 
appear eventually that our lamented brother Cropper, by turning 
our attention to one subject, has been of immense use ; that subject 
is, the expectation of success.'" In England liis brief Ministry was, 
it is known, blessed to the conversion of many individuals. In his 
short life the value of early religion was impressively displayed. 
He tvas a fervent Christian, a tiseful /Minister, and a devoted Mis- 
sionary ; and all this before tiventy-one years from the day of his birth 
had rolled away. This Society was the favoured instrument in 
bringing him forward to public usefulness, as he had not preach- 
ed a single sermon before his connection with the Society com- 
menced." 

But while one labourer was removed, the great Head of the 
Church soon raised up others. " In July, 1828, a Conference was 
held by the Missionaries at Pooree, *and it was then part of their 
pleasing business to call forth other brethren to the work of the 
ministry. They determined, after mature consideration, that Mr. 
John Sunder, at that time the English Schoolmaster, at Cuttack, 
and one of the fruits of their labours, should be liberated from his 
employ, that he might devote himself to the Ministry of the Gospel. 
It was further agreed that he should spend some time with Mr. 
Sutton. He has accordingly left his former situation and proceeded 
to Balasore. These two young men are natives of Arracan, but 
have received an English education. 

"Another interesting helper in the w^ork of the Gospel is Guno-a 
Dhor. His mind had long been exercised on the great truths of 
Christianity, and he became mighty in the Scriptures, even before his 
baptism. The brethren at the Conference at Pooree unanimously 
agreed to call him forth, and employ him as a native preacher in 
the service of the Society. Respecting his talents and spirit Mr. 
Lacey writes at different times : — " Gunga Dhor has been unani- 
mously received on the funds of the Mission on a salary oi seven 
rupees per month. The sum is trifling, and could some individual 
Church, or some rich friend take him as their labourer, and support 
him at this rate, they would perform a most important service to the 
cause of God, and free the Mission from the expense. Our Church at 
Cuttack proposed to support him, but we thought it would be bet- 
ter for him to feel responsible to us as the agents for the Society than 
to the Church here. His preaching is very simple and very alFect- 
ing ; i:)rincipally consisting of a relation of the Saviour's death. 
He has a very superior mind, and with a little attention, will be- 
come a very efficient Minister of Christ ; and his knowledge of the 



214 



language, of the manners, religion and experience of the natives 
gives him a vast advantage. We not unreasonably look upon 
him with great hope, and we and all our friends have reason, great 
reason to bless our Master's name for raising us up such a convert. 
Guuga Dhor has not constantly laboured in Cuttack, but only as 
he stayed with us a few days before and after the administration of 
the Lord's supper. His sphere of labour has been around his own 
neighbourhood, and in his own village, where there are two large 
markets in the week. The Gospel has hence in this direction been 
widely proclaimed by him." 

"A fourth individual, whom the brethren assembled at Conference 
esteemed gifted with suitable talents for promoting the great objects 
of the ]\Iission, is Mr. Beddy. His conversion and baptism were 
announced in the last Report. Talents for the Ministry of the 
Gospel were soon apparent in him, and a zealous desire to pro- 
mote its interests among his heathen servants and other pa- 
gans. Being in the service of Government, he was, soon after 
his baptism, ordered back to Calcutta. In the Conference at Poo- 
ree, the brethren considered what means could be adopted to facil- 
itate his becoming a candidate for missionary labour, and decided, 
that he should be requested, if practicable, to obtain a four months' 
furlough, that he might spend three months clear with Mr. Bamp- 
ton on probation ; having particular reference to his progress 
in the language, and his missionary habits. The illness of Mr. 
Bampton frustrated part of this arrangement, and it was then decided 
that Mr. Beddy should study at Cuttack. One of the Missionaries 

w'rites, — " Brother B. is a superior Christian, and possesses 

superior abilities as an English preacher, and we hope his zeal for 
souls will enable him to apply these powers to Oreah labours." 

The conversion and baptism of Ram Chundra, gave an in- 
teresting character to the year 1829. This important event is 
detailed in the Report of 1830. The following account of the 
Schools, both Hindoo and English, at this period, cannot fail to 
interest the reader. Mr. Lacey writes of the Schools at Cuttack. 
" Of these there are seven, containing upwards of 300 children. 
About 100 read the Scriptures — the History of Christ — Jewel 
Mine of Salvation — the conversation between Father and Son — the 
Essence of the Bible ; and the Catechism. Many of these have 
committed all these tracts to memory, and, from time to time, re- 
peat different parts ot them. They have generally a very pleasing 
and correct knowledge of the doctrines and precepts of the Gospel, 
much more correct than tlic country-born Christian youth in India, 



215 

and I think generally superior to the same class of youth in Eng- 
land. Tliere are few important questions which they cannot an- 
swer. Another class of these children read the Conversations between 
Father and Son, and the Catechism, preparatory to being introduced 
to the first class ; of these there are about eighty or ninety. 
The remduder are writers on the ground. There are a very few 
girls among the number, but they are small, and always leave 
school before they have obtained any good instruction. On a Lord's 
Day, the larger boys are brought by their masters to the Mission 
bungaloii', to ottr Oriya worship, which, from the books they read, 
and the instruction they receive, they very well imderstand, and 
we have good reason to expect they will be profited. This plan 
also introduces a proper regard for the Lord's Day ; instead of 
running about the streets and fields in play, they attend the worship 
of God. We have been obliged to discontinue the Bhulbudrapoor 
School for the attempt was hopeless, but have commenced another 
in Chowlia-gunge, with much better prospects of success. Mrs. 
L. also expects to commence a girl's school at another village near 
Cuttack ; but we have had so many promises and failures of this 
kind, that it would not be well to speak of it yet. Mrs. L. has 
had the whole conduct of the Native Schools, except that I have 
assisted her *in the accounts and payment of the masters' wages, 
and have sometimes gone vvith her to address and examine the 
children. We have occasional examinations of all the schools ; 
the last was on the 4th, 5th, and Gth, of December, 1829; which 
was very numerous and encouraging. A number of rewards, in 
clothes and pice, w^ere distributed among the poorest and most 
deserving children. Several of the elder boys have left the School 
for the purpose of obtaining employment, and others have been 
taken by us and placed with other masters, to prepare them to 
become teachers ; which plan if we can succeed, will be a great 
advantage to our schools, as the class of men we are obliged now to 
employ, often leave their work to beg, whereas the other will not 
be able do so, being of a different class of people." 

Respecting the English School at Cuttack, the Missionary at the 
Station furnishes some pleasing information. It appears in a state 
of progressive improvement, and when it shall receive the advan- 
tage of the Superintendence of an English master, is likely to be- 
come extensively useful. The following is the information to 
which reference is made : — 

2 D 



216 



" This Institution has received the decided approbation of the 
English community at Cuttack ; it is supported by the most in- 
fluential and respectable residents. A boarding school, which pro- 
vides for ten destitute children, has been added : these children 
are taught, fed, clothed, and lodged, entirely at the expense of 
charity. Mrs. Pigou clothes the children entirely herself, besides 
liberally subscribing to the school. Besides this improvement, a 
subscription has been made to build a new school and house for the 
Master; 1,100 rupees have been obtained, which, though it will 
not complete it, will do most of the work of the building, and we 
propose to raise the rest as hereafter noted. The building is as 
follows, — a house for the master, containing two principal rooms 
and two smaller ones, with a good veranda, all of pucka. A dining 
and sleeping room and school-room for the boarding girls, the whole 
ninety feet long by fourteen wide inside, and tliirteen feet high, all 
of pucka. A school-room for the day-school, and a lodging room 
for the boarding boys, the same dimensions as the other side, and 
of the same materials. This will be a spacious and substantial 
building for the institution. It is now forward, and we shall have 
it ready for use about July, 1830. The school-master has been 
dismissed, and, indeed, no country-born person will do for the 
school, and till we get a master and mistress from England we have 
the school in our own hands. I take a general superintendence of 
it, and emjiloy an assistant to do the greater part of the labour, 
they allow him twenty-five rupees per month ; and the surplus to 
seventy rupees, will be devoted to finish the school-house. The 
funds of the school, in consequence of its increased expenditure, 
are not so large, but we have no reason to fear that it will not be 
supported. Mrs. L. conducts the girl's school, but it is very de- 
sirable that the Missionaries should be liberated from the school, 
as it takes more labour and time than is consistent with their 
more legitimate labours, and particularly as it keeps us out of the 
country." 

To supply this defect, Mr. W. Brown was appointed to the 
work, which he fulfilled for a number of years ; but ultimately 
settled at Balasore, in the service of the Government. He was de- 
signated to the work of the jNIission, in Stoney-street Chapel, 
Nottingham, May 25th, 1830. " Various ministers engaged in 
the services of the day. The charge was delivered by Mr. Steven- 
son. Mr. Brown's peculiar department is to be the management 
of the English Benevolent Institution, at Cuttack, for educating, 
and in some instances boarding destitute Indo-British or Hindoo 



217 



children ; and liis support is expected to be derived from funds 
raised in India." Mr. and Mrs. Urown, and their daughter, em- 
barked for India in the Elphinstone, shortly after the ordination. 
They arrived in Calcutta, Nov. 14th, and were guests with Mr. 
Pearce till their departure for Orissa. 

" The premises recently erected for the English School at Cuttack, 
have been secured to the Society, with the entire concurrence of the 
donors and subscribers. Much friendly feeling and liberality ap- 
pear to have been manifested by the European residents to this 
Institution. When the buildings were completed a remaining 
debt appeared of 670 rupees. The report of the Institution, and 
a circular, were sent round, and on the first day between 300 and 
400 rupees were subscribed ; and the whole was expected to be 
procured without difficulty, Mr. Pigou, the pious judge at the 
Station, materially assisted the design, by employing convicts to 
labour in levelling the ground, and in various other ways. Au 
expense of at least 500 rupees Avas thus saved. Mr. Lacey states, 
that this gentleman thus " finished off the grounds, and garden, &'C., 
in a very complete manner." The whole imparts a character to the 
town. May the spread of the knowledge of the Saviour, and the 
glory of God, be subserved by it ! I trust they will. The house 
is now ready for Mr. Brown. I^Iay he long occupy it happily 
and usefully ! It lies well for the bazaar, the chapel, and for us." 
The second Native Preacher raised up in Orissa, was Ram Chun- 
dra. It is stated in the Society's Report; "In May, 1830, the 
brethren finally concluded to receive Rama as a native preacher, 
indulging the hope that, if he continued steadfast, he would be very 
useful. He was then represented as preaching the Gospel clearly, 
with great affection and force, and as making Christ and his cross 
the essence of his discourses. He paid much attention to the in- 
spired volume, and in his addresses to his countrymen frequently 
read a verse and then explained, applied, and enforced its doctrines, 
and in that way would hold a congregation together in the street 
for two hours daily. Before he was accepted as a native labourer, 
he spent a short time with Mr. Bampton, and the opinion of that 
lamented brother respecting him is highly satisfactory. Writing 
to Mr. Lacey, he remarked: — "I was glad to see bim, and am 
much pleased with him. I think I never heard a native preacher 
that I liked so well ; at Pooree, he does not show the slightest 
want of courage, and he preaches Christ. He has been in the 
habit of going into the bazaar, sometimes before I go, and he 
speaks so loud that I am really afraid of his hurting himself. 



218 

I think the good man is humble and intelligent, and I should wish 
him to know that I think well of him, but it may not be prudent 
to tell him, that I think so highly of him as I do." 

In Oct. 1830, Mr. Lacey gives some pleasing information respect- 
ing our native brother, and in Sept. expresses his hope of sending 
Rama on short tours of six or eight days at a time, into the coun- 
try, throughout the cooler season that was then approaching. 
" Down in Boro bazaar we met a large and interesting congre- 
gation. Rama preached well ; as he has always done of late. He 
improves, and particularly in his application and invitation. The 
people, on our returning, were mad for books, and I readily and as 
I believe usefully, distributed all I had. Last evening Rama 
went to Telinga bazaar early, and when he had done there he join- 
ed me in Chowdry. I never heard him so eloquent. He almost 
astounded the people. He has not so much sarcasm as Gunga, but 
is more powerful and more clear. He used a very striking figure 
last night, which produced great effect ; speaking of the righteous 
andthe wicked he said, ' The servants of God, true Christians, are 
like beautiful trees by the river side ; their leaves are young and 
green, their fruit tender and abundant, and their shade grateful. 
The wicked are like the skeletons of trees, on the rocky mountains 
in May, which have been bui-nt up by the devouring element, and 
their vicinity presents not a leaf.' The people felt much, and were 
eager to have books ; gave away satisfactorily all I had." 

In 1832 the annual Association of the General Baptist Churches 
was held at Boston, Lincolnshire, the Town in which the foreign 
Mission was formed. The retrospect is thus hapjiily expressed 
by the Secretary. — " Sixteen years have elapsed since the day that 
witnessed the formation of the Society, within this house of prayer. 
Its first years were years of weakness, and compared with most 
kindred institutions, it is still weak ; yet it was not formed in vain. 
Ten years ago, the Society's first Missionaries opened their heaven- 
ly commission in broken accents on the plains of Hindostan, and 
there Oreah converts have been gathered to the Saviour, and Hin- 
doos now proclaim the unsearchable riches of Christ. The 
grand contest between light and darkness in one of the darkest 
regions of India, has thus commenced. Even in the land of the 
modern jSEoloch of the P^ast, satan no longer maintains an unmo- 
lested empire. The first trophies of redeeming grace have been 
snatched from his power. The first fruits unto life eternal have been 
gathered into the garner of the Lord. Future vears, and distant 



219 



ages, will yield the copious harvest ; and eternity will display the 
whole result." 

The conversion of Krupa Sindoo, and the progress of the work 
generally, is thus recorded in the Report of the year. — " At Cut- 
tack most of the baptisms of natives have taken j^lace, though none 
of the converts were previously inhabitants of the town. During 
the past year several pleasing additions have been made by bap- 
tism to the little Christian band in Orissa. Some of the persons 
thus added to the flock of Christ are Europeans, or of European 
and Hindoo extraction. The greater number, however have been 
Hindoos. In April one interesting native convert was baptized. 
In June and July ordinance of baptism was administered thrice at 
Cuttack, and on each occasion two Hindoos were baptized. The 
circumstances under which some of the converts made the solemn 
profession of Religion have been peculiarly interesting. Krupa 
Sindoo had gradually renounced all his idolatrous practices, and 
continued to read the Scriptures and improve in scriptural know- 
ledge, though backward to avow himself a Christian. At length 
he became so miserable that he could neither sleep nor eat. His 
friends wished to relieve the gloom of his mind, by taking him to 
an idolatrous festival. He felt this would add to his sorrows, and 
determined to confess the Saviour. " He told his wife and child 
that he should never be happy if he neglected to follow Jesus Christ ; 
that he had given his life for him, and that he must obey his com- 
mandments. His wife for the first time consented that he should, 
and said she also was a sinner. He then went to all his relations 
and acquaintances, and informed them of his resolution, saying 
that he did not wish to leave them secretly, but that he was de- 
termined to leave them if they would not follow the truth with him. 
He also went to his landlord, and told him he need not fear for 
his rent, for that he should be paid, and he told two or three per- 
sons to whom he owed some two or three rupees, that he did not 
wish to go away secretly, lest they should say he intended to cheat 
them ; that they should see that true religion would make him 
punctual in all his payments. Having thus fiiirly and openly 
declared his design, some persuaded, and some dissuaded, and some 
wondered at the man. A number came with him to the outside 
of his village, and there they parted. At that moment he renounced 
all that is dear to man on earth. His wife, sister, and children 
were among the number. Thus this man after Jive years' strvg- 
^Zf?, broke at length through his difficulties, to embrace the Gospel.". 



220 

He went to Cuttack, and there, in the waters of the Mahanuddy, 
confessed the Son of God as his Lord and Saviour." 

To alleviate in some degree, the trials of the converts, and to 
render them mutually helpers of each other, the foundation of a 
Christian Village was laid at this time in the vicinity of Cuttack. 

Another plan adopted for the diffusion of the gospel, Avas the 
formation of Country Bungalows and Circuits. — Mr. Lacey wrote 
— " I have long been im^^ressed with the conviction that circuits 
in the Country would be greatly advantageous to the spread of the 
Gospel light. Pursuant to this impression, we have erected a small 
Bungalow at Bhogerpoor, a place about eight miles north of Cut- 
tack, surrounded with villages and markets to a great extent. Bho- 
gerpoor is the neigbourhood from which most of our converts have 
come, and where great inquiry is abroad in regard to Christianity. 
We shall spend some time every year at this Bungalow, and besides 
that, shall visit it occasionally through the year. We intend also 
to erect a small place of worship, where we shall occasionally col- 
lect the native converts in the neighbourhood for divine worship, 
and thus afford means of comfort and improvement to them, as well 
as exhibit the ordinances of the Gospel before the mass of people ; 
and as it is one of their first inquiries, 'How shall we worship God 
whom we cannot see V it will be of use to them. We hope to 
enter into our new circuit house on the 3rd of January 1832. The 
place will cost about sixty rupees, but will last for forty years or 
more, with a little yearly repair." 

The usefulness of the English services of religion is gratefully 
recorded at this time. The Secretary observes—*' From the com- 
mencement of the Mission in Orissa, the Missionaries have laboured 
to promote religion among the European residents, nor have their 
labours been in vain ; several individuals have been converted. 
]Mr. Beddy, one of the first fruits of Mr. Sutton's ministry, who, 
soon after his baptism, removed to Calcutta, and joined the Lai 
bazaar church, has recently resigned his secular employments, and 
devoted himself to Missionary labours. He is engaged as a Bap- 
tist Missionary ; was publicly set apart to the ministry and soon 
aftei-wards jjrocceded up the country. The following information, 
respecting the English services and the progress of religion, has 
been received ; — 

" The English worship has been kept up twice every Lord's-Day, 
i. e. in the forenoon and in the evening. The attendance on the 
former occasion has generally been good, but on the latter scanty. 
Some good impressions have been made by these means on the 



221 



niiiuls of several European hearers ; tlie piety of others has been 
nourished and strengthened ; while a few have been we trust saving- 
ly converted, and have owned the Saviour in his own appointed 
way. From the English congregation two have been added to the 
church by baptism, and are now walking consistently with their 
profession, though they have been removed from Cuttack to Cal- 
cutta by their employers. Mr. S. who had been separated from 
the church for some time, has been restored to his place, and has 
evidently benefited by the discipline of tlie church exercise over him. 
We hope his spirit will be saved in the day of the Lord. His bro- 
ther, who was formerly a member, has lately died. Good is more- 
over doing among our European neighbours with whom our chapel 
is now well and regularly attended. After a sermon from John xxi. 
17. the other Sabbath, one of the officers wrote for a Bible. He 
has since called and purchased a hymn-book, the Guide and first 
volume of Sutton's Sermons, and we gave him Baxter's Saints' 
Rest. He looked over and took several religious tracts. Lieut. 
C. is decidedly pious, and sits down at the ordinance with us with 
Mr. Pingle, and thus we form one of the most pleasing appearances 
a christian can behold on earth. Our poor dark native brethren 
and sisters, ranged round the same table on the same seats with the 
civil and military officers of Government. You would be better 
able to judge of this, were you able to witness how the poor black 
natives are generally despised and avoided. Around our Lord's 
table, however, we find one level. Lieut. C. when spending the 
evening with us the other day observed, in the course of conver- 
sation, that he perceived lately a great improvement in the Euro^^ean 
residents, for, that wherever he went, they had something to say 
about religion. — The conversation and devoted life of a European, 
among these idolators, is a circumstance of great importance to the 
cause of religion in India, The regular and pretty general atten- 
dance of the civil and military servants of the Government, makes 
a very favourable impression on the native mind. They thereby 
discover that their Ilulers, and professed Christians in general, at 
least acknowledge the obligations of religion. There are numbers 
who stand to witness our sacred exercises on the Lord's Day." 

It is pleasing at this period of the Mission, to observe the pre- 
paration and circulation of useful books and tracts, before a press 
was established in the Province. It is well observed by Mr. Pike ; 
— " When our great English Martyrologist refers to the wounds 
inflicted on the Papal system, by the invention of printing, he re- 
marks, "I suppose that eithcE. the Pope must abolish printing, or 



222 

he must seek a new world to reign over, for else, as tins world 
staiideth, " printing will doubtless abolish him." Subsequent 
ages have evidenced the truth of these remarks. The advocates of 
the Romish Antichrist, in the martyrologist's day, conii^lained of the 
"pestilent little books," with which the Reformers were deluging 
beni^dited lands. The Missionaries in Orissa have been furnishing 
the brahmuns with similar causes of complaint, and printing appears 
to be one of the means by which the God of truth will abolish them. 
At the annual Conference held at Cuttack, several resolutions were 
adopted on the subject of tracts, and other publications. It may be 
more interesting to furnish the minutes of the Conference, than to 
present the details in another form. 

" 1st. Resolved, That brother Lacey print 300 copies of his tract, 
^ Am la Chrstian?^ presented at a former Conference. This tract 
is an abridgment of ' Alleine''s Alarm,'' translated from the Bengal- 
lee. 

" 2nd. That brother Sutton print 5000 copies of ' The True Re- 
fuge,'' a dialogue translated and improved from the Bengallee. 

" 3rd. That brother Sutton print 5000 copies of his revised edi- 
tion of ' The Jewel Mine of Salvation.'' 

" 4th. That brother Sutton prepare a MSS. Hymn-hook in Oriija, 
to be presented next Conference ; and that he adopt as many plain 
metres as possible. 

" 5th. That brother Lacey print 3000 copies of the First Cate- 
chism, a second edition. 

" Gth. That brother Sutton print 2000 copies of the Second Cate- 
chism. 

" 7th. That if the School Book Society will print a second edition 
of brother Sutton's Oriya ' Easy Readiiig Lessons,' we will take 500 
copies at half-price. 

" 8th. That brother Sutton prepare and print 2,500 copies of 
An abridgment of the Bible; about forty pages, 12mo. 

" 9th. That an extra 2000 copies of ' Pctumher Singh' be printed." 

Besides the publications referred to in the preceding INIinutes, 
several others, from the pen of Mr. Sutton, have issued from 
the press, or are in a state of preparation. Some of these are ex- 
pressly on the momentous subject of religion, and others are design- 
ed to promote that useful knowledge which, from its contrariety to 
the notions inculcated in the Hindoo shastras, cannot be diflFused 
without preparing the way for the fall of Ilindooism. The follow- 
ing may be mentioned, — 



223 



In English. 

The History of the Hindoo Fonndlinff Girl.- -The Family Chap" 
lain, or Preachers' Substitute, a volume of sermons designed to 
assist domestic worship in English families in India, that are so 
situated as not to enjoy the puhlic means of grace. A considerable 
number of copies of this work have been subscribed for, at from 
six to eight rupees per volume ; 200 copies have been sent by Mr. 
Sutton as a present to the society. It appears that he contemplated 
the publication of a second volume. 

An Oreah Grammar, compiled by the request cf Government, 
and of which the Honorable Company subscribed for 100 copies, 
at five rupees each. Of this INIr. Sutton remarks to a friend, " I 
have endeavoured to simplify the language as much as possible. 
That no improvement can be made I do not suppose ; however, I 
did the best circumstances would allow." He further remarks that 
he hoped the Government subscription would about clear the ex- 
pense, and that the Mission and the cause of humanity would re- 
ceive sufficient benefit to justify the labour employed on the 
publication. 

In Oreah. 

Natural Philosophy and History ; thirty-two pages, octavo. 
Printed by the Calcutta School Book Society. 

A Geography, with maps ; about sixty pages, octavo. 

Neeta Cotta (or fables,) before the Committee of the School 
Book Society. 

The Durma Postock Sar ; second edition." 

The return of Mrs. Bampton is referred to in the following terms, 
— " The widow of our much valued and laborious Bro. Bampton 
has returned to her native land after a voyage, on the whole agree- 
able, and about four months long. She has declined charging the 
Society with the expense of her passage home. This generous act 
would at any time have rendered the Society much indebted to her, 
for what in fact constitutes so considerable a donation to its funds ; 
but in consequence of their depressed state, is peculiarly acceptable 
at this time." Some stringent observations are made on the de- 
crease of the Society's funds, and " the friends of the Institution 
are entreated to weigh well the remark of Mr. Sutton, ' The only 
thing I fear for Orissa is, a decline of zeal and ^j/t'/// icith refer- 
ence to the cause at home.' In a Committee INIeeting held at this 

2 E 



22i 



inne, it was suggested that as Mr. John Goadby had offered himself 
for the work of the INIission, a special appe.'d should be made to the 
churches. See G. B. Repos, Jan. 1833, The Misses Barnes, of 
St. Tves, Hunts,, gave £50, and various individuals and congrega- 
tions responded to the call. The amount of this special subscription 
appears to have been about £280, besides the ordination collection;, 
and the expense of outfit,- passage, &c,, about £300 ; so that the 
"whole expense would be defrayed by the different contributions far 
that purpose." 

In the Report of 1835, reference is made to the ordination of two 
Native converts as Evangelists. *' This is such an event in con- 
nection with the progress of the Gospel in Orissa, as may excite 
the most pleasing emotions. The ordination of two Christian Na- 
tives of that country, to the solemn work of Evangelists, is doubt- 
less, what that long benighted land has never before witnessed.^ 
Let us praise God for the first solemn service of this kind, that 
Orissa has witnessed; and rejoice in believing that it will be the 
precur&or of thousands of such solemn services, that, through suc- 
cessive ages, will there take place, when we are gone to our eternal 
home ; and when the idolatry of the dark land, into which we have 
been permitted to convey the light of life, shall have vanished like 
a dream, nor left a wreck behind," 

FIRST NATIVE CHRISTIAN MARRIAGE, 

Wherever the religion of the Lord Jcsus Christ prevails its pro- 
gress is marked by the blessings that follow in its train. Not only 
does the Gospel enrich the soul with peace and hope for an unseen 
world, but it becomes the source of numeroais benefits in the pre- 
sent state. Its influence in reference to the connection of man-iage 
is most important Only where Christianity prevails is woman 
placed upon her proper level ; and only in such countries are the 
marriage tie and the mutual obligations and duties of the married 
state, appreciated aright. The past year has witnessed another 
step in the progress of the christian cause in Orissa, by presenting 
the pleasing spectacle of the first native christian marriage. The 
event is too interesting to be passed lightly over, and the details- 
of it, as given by Mr. Lacey, must gratify the members and friends 
of the Society, lie thus writes in November 1833 : — 

Mahadab and the daughter of Krupa Sindoo wish to be married 
T have appointed the 20th as the day on which I marry them. This 
vill not only be the first native christian marriage in Oiissa, but 



225 



most proLably the first marriage of reason and affection. He is a 
■\vidower of about 30, the girl is about 1(3 years of age. 

This forenoon at half-past t-en o'clock, I married Mahadab to 
Comela the daughter of Krupa Sindoo. Kearly the Avholc of the 
native christians v/ere present, and the native school masters ; be- 
sides a number of peoj^le from the town. jNIahadab and Comela, 
sat forward before the table. They where dressed in clean white 
dresses which reached down to the floor. The native Christian 
females and their husbands sat around, dressed clean and white, 
and the scene was solemn and imposing ^ so much so, that the wit- 
nesses could scarcely write their names. This marriage is a dread- 
ful smashing npof Hindooism. By it, it is discovered that Hindoos 
can be marri-ed who are of far different castes, and that without 
brahniuns, boistnobs, proctors, gifts, bades, or expensive festivals 
and noisy tom-toms for days or weeks together. An ordinary 
Hindoo cannot celebrate a marriage without involving himself in 
expense which often ruins him ; but here is a marriage without any 
expense whatever ! A certificate of the marriage was prepared, and 
after signature by the officiating missionary, the contracting parties* 
and the witnesses of the solemnity, was delivered before the congre- 
gation to the female. A duplicate was also prepared and signed 
in the same w^ay, and recorded in a book belonging to the body 
of christians connected with us. The marriage form which was 
used, and which we have agreed to use among the natives, is, I 
consider impressive and scriptural. 

After the parties were seated, they were asked in a tone sufficient- 
ly loud to be heard by the whole congregation, whether they desired 
to be united to each other in marriage ? and they answered in the 
affirmative. Then ]\Ir. Brown commenced with a few words of 
prayer in Oreah. When this was concluded, myself, and the man 
and woman stood up, and they repeated after me in an audible 
and distinct tone the following form. " We will love, and support, 
help, and comfort each other. We will dwc41 together, and hence- 
forth we will have no separate riches, or possessions. If one of us 
be sick, or afllicted, or in any other difficulty, then, the other shall 
stay near, and according to ability shall help and comfort. For the 
purpose of committing adultery, we will go to none else ; but until 
death we will never leave each other ; and whatever God has com- 
manded, according to that will we proceed. Into this covenant 
we enter." 

They then sat down, an.d the following ^^ils read aloud, and the 
places in which the difterent passages are recorded pointed out. 



226 



" Concerning marriag-e, and the duties of husbands and wives, 
it is thus and thus recorded in the Holy Book. 

" Before man had connuilted sin, when God made the order of 
man, then he gave this commandment, that leaving father and 
mother, a man shall cleave unto his wife ; and they shall be one 
flesh." Gen. ii. 24. 

" And our Lord Jesus Christ giving testimony to that word says, 
' For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall 
cleave to his wife ; and they twain shall be one flesh. Wherefore 
they are no more twain but one flesh. What therefore God hath 
joined together let no man put asunder.' Mat. xix. 5, 0. Mark x. 
7, 8, & 9. Again, by the inspiration of Paul, God says, ' Marriage 
is honourable in all, and the marriage bed undeliled ; but whore- 
mongers and adulterers God will punish." 

(Then follow Rom. vii. 1-3. 1 Cor. vii. 1-3, 10, 11. 1, Cor. vii. 
39. Ephes. v. 22-23. Col. iii. 18. 19. 1 Pet. iii. 1, 2, 7.) 

After distinctly and slowly reading over these scriptures, the 
two persons stood up, and Mahadab in his right hand, taking the 
right hand of Comela, repeated deliberately after me to her. 

"I Mahadab, taking thy hand in my hand, am thy husband. As 
God has commanded, so will I, to the utmost of my ability, preserve, 
and support, and comfort, and in a proper manner love thee; and 
until death I will not leave thee." 

Then loosening their hold, she in like manner took Mahadab's 
right hand in hers, and after me, to him, repeated as follows : 

" I Comela, take thy hand, and before these witnesses acknowledge 
myself thy wife, and as God has given commandment, so will I to 
the utmost of my ability, serve and help, and comfort, and in every 
proper way love thee ; and till death will not leave thee." 

In the afternoon the new married couple had their christian 
friends to dinner at the house of the bride, and we also went and 
eat a little rice with them ; but of this part of the transaction Mr. 
Brown will give a more detailed account, and so I refrain from 
saying more about it." 

Mr. Lacey communicated some intci*estiiig information respecting 
the old Gooroo, SundraDas, and the manner in which he undesign- 
edly promoted the diffusion of some measure of Gospel truth. 
" The old Gooroo is again contributing greatly, but undesignedly 
to the spread of the truth. Perhaps there never was a case nearer 
that which the Apostle mentions of some preaching Christ of envy 
and strife, than the old gooroo's. Phil. i. 15. He receives our 
Scriptures and tracts, compares them with the Hindoo books, com- 



227 



mantis the kecpin<^ of the ten commandments, — speaks of tlie in- 
structions, miracles, and death of Christ ; and many other things 
that are useful. He has no proper view of the gospel, and so 
cannot make it known further than by these means; nevertheless 
a degree of light gets abroad which soon exposes these designs of 
the old man, and makes his disciples wiser than their teacher ; 
and when this discovery is made, they cannot remain attached to 
him, and are too much enlightened to turn again to their own books 
and old observances ; and in consequence, those who really desire 
to find and follow the truth, turn their thoughts towards us. What 
shall we therefore say, to the conduct pursued by the old gooroo ? 
Why, although we cannot commend his motives, yet with the 
Apostle we say, " Notwithstanding every way, whether in pretence 
or in truth, Christ is preached ; and therein we do rejoice, yea, and 
will rejoice." Our English congregation remains low, though not 
so much so as some weeks past. If it shall be for the good of the 
cause of religion, and for the glory of God, I trust he will bring 
them back again, for it is distressing to have the preaching of the 
gospel closed, where such a number of persons reside; but if it will 
not, I hope God will prevent it. I hope I can truly say, imless 
these great ends can be answered, I have no desire to make a show 
in connection with the rich. 

" Sundradas asked Ilamara why we cut the corn he had sown 
and cultivated with so much care ? (referring to the baptism of the 
two females,) to which Rama replied, that sometimes the master 
might set one servant to reap that corn which another servant had 
sown with much labour and anxiety ; that we must not look so 
much to what we reap here, as to the approbation of our master at 
last ; but really we had reaped that corn which he could not have 
reaped, but which hud it been left to him, he would have suffered 
to spoil in the wilderness. 

" The old man is very zealous in enforcing the Ten Command- 
ments and the Christian Scriptures, and does much good : however 
his disciples grow wiser than their teacher, and pass beyond the line 
in which he would confine them ; and then he involves himself in 
persecution. I am persuaded the old man knows the truth, but it 
is hard work, after all this reverence to take up the cross, and be- 
come an ordinary and despised Christian." 

It was a subject of great thankfulness, that the year 1833 sav/ an 
addition to the number of the labourers in Orissa. " It is a matter 
of sincere congratulation (says the Secretary,) that this year a small 
addition has been made to the number of the Society's Missionaries. 



228 



Mr. John Goadby, the second son of the esteemed pastor of the 
Baptist Church, at Ashby-de-la~Zouch, has long luid an earnest 
desire to devote himself to the work of Clirist among the heathen. 
Three years or more ago, he offered himself as a candidate for mis- 
sionary service. The circumistances of the Society then prevented 
any favourable attention being paid to his application. Soon af- 
terwards he commenced regular studies in the Academy under Mr. 
JaiTom, of Wisbeach, but still his mind was directed, should a door 
ever be opened to him, to labour among the heathen. At length, 
in the providence of God, his way was made plain. He was so- 
lemnly set apart to the important work of the Mission, at Lough- 
borough, on the 29th of JNIay ; when his Father with much feeling 
and force, addressed to him an important charge ; and his worthy 
Tutor presented an ordination prayer, im2:)loring numerous blessings 
on him, and the partner of his course. The day was one long to 
be remembered. It was apprehended that more persons were pre- 
sent, than at any ordination of any previous Missionary of the 
Society. Much holy feeling was excited. Many, by their uplifted 
hands, declared their determination to pray for, and support the 
Missionary. Mrs. Goadby's mind had long been directed to the 
same great object. In fact, so devoted were both of them to this 
object, that notv.'ithstanding the sacrifice of country and friends, to 
which they are called, it appeared to them a cause of joy that the 
way was open for them to go, and in their spheres of operation to 
make known the Saviour's love. They proceed in the ship, Alex- 
ander, Captain Waugh. 

" That this esteemed brother and his partner are thus proceeding 
to strengthen the Mission, is, under (Jod, to be ascribed to the zeal 
and liberality of those friends, principally in a few churches, who, 
by an extra suh-scriplion, for the express purpose of defraying the 
expense of outfit and passage of another Missionary, have enabled 
the Committee, at this important crisis, to send them forth ; and 
thus to strengthen the weakened hands, and encourage the hearts, of 
the brethren in Orissa, almost drooping for Avant of more aid. Let 
the subscril)ers to this object, reflect with pleasure, that divine 
goodness has tlius permitted them to give to India two more Mis- 
sionaries ; and that India is indebted, under God, for this benefit, 
not to the Society generally, but to them, and them only, whose 
extra exertion and additional liberality, have sent these Mission- 
aries forth." They arrived in Calcutta, Nov. 15lh, the anniversary 
of the arrival of the first jMissioiiaries in 1821. 



229 



The additions to the church this year, were of an cncoxirnp;in,^ 
character, particularly in the case of Pooroosootura, from Vizaga- 
patam. It is thus narrated iu the Report of the Society, " During 
the past year, several more Hindoos have been gathered into the 
Redeemer's fold, and have displayed their strong attachment to the 
Gospel by enduring sorrow and privations on its account. One of 
them is named Pooroosootum ; and he appears to be the first fruits 
of the labours of the Missionaries of the I.or.don Society, who v.ere 
stationed at f'izagnpatam. This young Hindoo has furnished an 
interesting narrative of his own history, lie appears to have been 
early initiated into the superstitions and idolatries of his country- 
men ; and was zealous in his regard to idols, idolatrous rites, and 
abominable practices. Yet while following these, he represents him- 
self as desiring earnestly, "to know the source of true Religion," 
On one occasion he met with a tract, which had fallen into the 
hands of a bo}.'. Pooroosootum obtained the tract, read it and laid 
it aside. Some time afterwards he obtained two other tracts ; and 
at length a fourth, and this directed him to the Saviour. After 
passing through various scenes and trials lie wished to avow him- 
self a disciple of Christ ; but the Missionaries were dead ; and had 
died without witnessing any apparent success of their labours ! Poo- 
roosootum at length became acquainted with a jnous officer, and 
he thought of sending him to Madras, a distance of not less than 
four hundred miles, to be baptized ; but afterwards determined to 
send him to Cuttack, a distance of three hundred miles. lioiv aw- 
ful is the state of a country, how deplorahle the dearth of Mis- 
sionaries in India, lohcn a converted Hindoo coidd find, in no 
direction, a recognized Christian instructor, loithin less than three 
hundred tniles of his otcn dwelling! How pleasingly this interenting 
Hindoo was taught of God is evidenced from his own narrative ! 
He gives the following description of his experience of the Saviour's 
care, previously to his becoming acquainted with his Christian 
Friends. 

" The Lord Jesus Christ through infinite grace and mercy, made 
my soul to thiive and strengthen in fai;h and knowledge ; and 
enabled his servant within me (the soul) to resist with firmness 
those friends of the devil, shame and anxiety about the mortal 
body, which had long caused me to struggle in sin; and had often 
thrown me into darkness and the most dreadful apjjrehension ; and 
would have thrown me back for ever, had it not been for the help 
obtained of my gracious Saviour ! He has freed me from the power 
of these two wicked enemies. Now as soon as my near relatives, 



230 

as my brothers, mother, wife, several kinsmen and friends, as well 
as merchants who had from time to time lent me money, heard of 
my wonderful change, they began to afflict me. Some spoke ill of 
me ; some execrated me ; some calumniated me ; some were en- 
raged at me ; some gnashed their teeth at me ; some intended to 
imprison me ; and others sought in various ways to injure me. 
Notwithstanding all this, the Lord Jesus Christ, on whom I repose 
my whole trust, and whom I followed as my heavenly Instructor, 
encouraged me with sufficient patience, to answer with reason, all 
the revilings of the persecutors ; and to stand fearless, undejected, 
and unperplexed. And with firm purpose I avoided the society of 
such people as would perplex me ; and for such mercy, I with 
wonder and delight praised the kindness of the blessed Saviour, 
who thus delivered me from my persecutors." 

By letter he was introduced to Mr. Lacey, who furnishes an in- 
teresting account of his baptism, and offers some judicious remarks 
on his singular case. 

" Lord's Day, October Gth, 1833, was fixed upon as the day for 
his baptism. The Circuit Judge readily granted us the use of the 
large tank, near the kutcheeree, which being in a central place, close 
to the large road, and near the bazar, was well suited for the ad- 
ministration of the sacred ordinance. We had a hymn, a prayer, 
and an address in the native language ; and there were certainly not 
fewer than a thousand persons present. As soon as the previous 
service was over, the crowd involuntarily placed themselves on the 
grassy sloping banks of the fine tank, and the scene was most in- 
teresting. The multitude was silent, and the administrator and 
candidate descended the steps into the water, and the ordinance 
was administered. The sacred names were repeated, both in the 
English and native languages. The reasons for so public a place 
being fixed upon were, first, that a large company miglit be brought 
togetlier and addressed ; and then, that by seeing how baptism was 
administered, the people might be disabused of a number of ridicu- 
lous notions, which the interested have industriously propagated 
for the purpose of prejudicing the public against the ordinance. 

" The same evening our new friend approached the Lord's table, 
and learned the meaning of that gracious institution. He has since 
that time up to tliis day, (when he starts off for his own country,) 
talked and walked so as to lead us to hope well of him. lie is 
at present, humble, and diligent in reading the word of God, 
and zealous for its propagation amongst others. lie appears to be 
the first fruits of the labours of our Independent Brethren on the 



231 



coast ; and on liis first visit to Vizagapatam, when his intention \va§ 
to profess the Saviour, Mr. Dawson, though very ill, was still 
alive. lie speaks well of several others in his neighhourhood, and 
it is not unlikely that from henceforth, some important fruits will, 
in that direction, be gathered to the fold of the Lord Jesus. 

" The case affords a fresh instance, that while we are moiii'ning 
over our apparently fruitless labours, and even dying without seeing 
one single individual turn to the Lord, there are those, who are not 
only enquiring the way to Zion, but who have by means of some 
tract or gospel which we may have distributed, obtained a clear 
knowledge of the way of life, and are walking joyfully therein. 
And how cheering the persuasion, that after a life of labours in the 
Saviour's vineyard, v/e shall meet, perhaps many, whom v/e have 
been the unknown means of guiding into the way of life I How 
joyful the announcement will be I How delightful the interview ! 
And how such a persuasion ought to stimulate us, still to pursue 
our object ; leaving our ' work with the Lord,' either to be rewarded 
with visible fruit here, or only hereafter, as he shall see most fit, 
for he best knows what we can bear. 

" We see also in this instance, the utility of Tract Societies ; here 
is a young man, enlightened, convinced, and brought to trust and 
rejoice in the Saviour ; and all effected through the instrumentality 
of religious tracts, without having once had an opportunity of con- 
versing with a Christian ! The distant consequences are still more 
important ; for this young man will henceforth commence the 
preaching of the gospel to his fellow countrymen ; and from the 
grace vouchsafed to him, and the sanctification of his naturally 
excellent abilities, he will demand great attention, and exert great 
influence : and so may, if he continue faithful, be a means of turning 
many to paths of holiness and life. 

"He left Cuttack for his country, Oct. 21st, in company with 
Radhoo, whom I have dispatched with him for the two-fold purpose 
of accompanying him on his journey, of seeing his brothers who 
are well disposed towards Christianity, and also for the purpose of 
seeing several enquirers at Beihampore. He was rather sorrowful 
at leaving the society of the native Christians, among Avhom he has 
been very comfortable since bis arrival. He is no ordinary addition 
to the Christian cause ; and will be very useful among his Tcloogoo 
countrymen, and very helpful to our friends of the London Societ}*, 
on the coast." 

2 F 



232 



The approach or arrival of one missionary, is often attended by 
the removal or death of another ; and before Mr, Goadby arrived 
in, or even had embarked for India, jNIr. Sutton, com])elled by 
sickness, sailed from Calcutta, and arrived at Boston, in America, 
in ]\Iay of this year. 

The Society's Report of 1835, commences with an account of 
Mr. Sutton's return from England, to his missionary labours in 
America and India; and the ordination of the new missionary, Mr. 
John Brooks. "A few days after the last annual meeting, Mr. 
Brooks was solemnly ordained at Derby, as a Missionary. The 
day was one of very peculiar interest. A multitude of friends from 
neighbouring places, flocked into the town. The services were 
solemn and delightful in a high degree. Many tears were shed, 
while the young missionary narrated his religious history, and the 
circtimstances that had led him to devote himself to labour for the 
perishing heathen. Fervent prayer was offered for him and his 
partner. Mr. Sutton delivered a deeply impressive charge. The 
evening service had also its peculiar interest. On that occasion 
jNIr. Sutton bade farewell to multitudes that felt deeply the solemni- 
ties of the day, and a most numei'ous assembly united in singing a 
hymn, expressive of their hope that, ' when days and years are 
passed, they all should meet in heaven.' Since that time one year 
has nearly passed, and, already many that were present, have 
finished their earthly course. May it be the concern of all now on 
earth, that enjoyed attendance at those solemn services, to uphold 
the missionary cause, and love and serve the Saviour till he calls 
them to an unmerited, yet infinite reward." 

It was found necessary this year, for Mr. and Mrs. Lacey to 
return home for a time, to recruit their health. Mrs. Lacey wrote 
to a friend — " Before this arrives, you will pi'obably have heard 
that it is my intention to sail for England in January next. For 
several years I have been urged to this step by all who know what 
1 have suftered in health, and the danger I have been in ; till this, 
I never could prevail on myself to leave the field, but have at length 
concluded to do so, and I make no doubt but you will also ap- 
prove of the step. I have been aaxious as much as possible myself 
to pay the expenses I shall incur by my voyage, and am happy to 
inform you that I have two little girls to bring with me, which will 
enable me to pay sixteen hundred rupees of the passage money. 
I now begin to feci my approaching dcpai'ture very much ; the 
native Christians are weeping and dissuading me from leaving them 
almost every time I see them. The other evening I called at 



2S3 



Guiiga Dhov's, to see his wife, and she wanted to know if I was 
going of a truth, I told her 1 was ; and she burst into tears, saying, 
— I was her mother, her sister, her reprover, and old friend ; 
what should she do ? do not go, do not go, do not leave us ; when I 
do wrong you come and reprove me, and bring me to a better mind, 
who will instruct us like you ? I replied I was obliged to go for the 
sake of my little children, who doubtless would be left motherless 
if I stayed to have another illness in this climate, and their ends 
would be defeated by my death. That all my doctors said Go, flee 
for your life ! all my friends said the same, and I believed it to be 
the will of God also ; but that they must look to and listen to our 
other missionaries, and put their trust in God." 

" Even now (says Mr. Goadby, referring to Mr. Lacey's depar- 
tui'e,) we seem to be losing our strength. Lacey is returning to 
England, and Sutton is not returned ; still the work will go on, the 
most efficient part of it cannot now so easily be stopped ; our books 
are widely circulated, and we have every reason to believe much 
read ; our Native preachers are the most efficient labourers in the 
field, and they are zealous and devoted to the work. European 
guidance and instruction they indeed want, and I have now suffi- 
cient of the language to make myself generally understood, though 
not enough to warrant me to attempt a public address." 

Of the circulation of Tracts, it is stated — " During the year, 
about twenty-eight thousand tracts have been distributed. The 
American Tract Socieiy has voted a second grant of five hundred 
dollars to assist the Missionaries in the wide distribution of religious 
publications. The Religious Tract Society has continued its annual 
grant of paper for the printing of tracts. That grant this year is 
forty -eight reams of paper. In addition to this, the Committee of 
the Tract Society has voted ffty pounds towards the printing of 
the Pilgrim's Progress in the Oreah language, for the use of the 
native Christians. This work is now in hand, and Mr, Lacey hopes 
to be able to proceed with the translation, during his stay in Eng- 
land. This estimable work has, for almost two centuries, amused 
the young, and delighted and instructed the more mature, in its 
once persecuted author's native land. It has instructed many in 
other European countries ; and now begins to speak in the lan- 
guages of India, to guide the pilgrim in liis way to God." 

" In October, Cuttack was visited by a dreadful and destructive 
inundation. The waters of the Mahanuddy rose higher and higher^ 
till at length, the lofty banks, that guard the city, were overflowed, 
and gave way, and the waters deluged the neighbouring country. 



234 



Many lives were lost. Beasts of variovis kinds, as elephants, cows, 
sheep, together witli men, women, and trees washed from the hills, 
were seen floating down the torrent. The lives of the missionaries 
were graciously preserved, hut much damage was done to the So- 
ciety's premises. Mr. Brown states, — ' The storms which are so 
frequent here, have unroofed the English School House, and left 
me almost in ruins. The great flood which happened in November 
inundated all the lower places of the district, including the town of 
Cuttack itself. Many thousands of poor people are, by this sad 
calamity, rendered houseless and destitute. The water rose several 
feet in our yard, and was for some days in the house. We took 
refuge Avith brother Goadby, till the waters subsided. The same 
flood which was so destructive in other places destroyed our chapel, 
which is now being rebuilt. We sent a circular to the Europeans, 
and they have generously enabled us to rebuild the chapel in an 
improved form. Thus, amidst judgments, the Lord remembers 
mercy. I trust the whole of the Mission property will be restored 
without any assistance from the missionary funds." 

Of Cuttack in the year 1835, it is stated by the Secretary of the 
Society — " This city, being the first Station occupied by the Society, 
has of course continued a principal scene of the exertions of the 
brethren. jMr. and Mrs. Brooks arrived here, to reinforce the 
Mission, in a favourable state of health, on April 1st, 1835 ; and 
continue to be favored with that inestimable blessing. Mr. B. in 
his latest communication, states that both Mrs. B. and himself are 
well, that he had escaped fever, enjoys better health than he did 
in England, and hopes, by avoiding exposure, to enjoy many years 
in India. The evening after their arrival, they were introduced to 
the native brethren at Christianpore, among whom Gunga Dhor, 
though unable to utter a word that Mr. B. could understand, pe- 
culiarly interested him. Mr. Brooks appears to preach with con- 
siderable acceptance to the English congregation. The English 
congregation has much improved. It is observed, " Last Sabbath 
evening it was considerably better than usual ; on the following 
Monday evening we had a large missionary prayer meeting, nearly 
as many as on the Sunday evening." 

On April 12th, the English Chapel, having been nearly Tcbuilt, 
in consequence of the injuries it sustained from the desolating flood, 
of the preceding year, was re-opened. Mr. Brown preached in 
Oreah at four o'clock, and Mr. Goadby in English at seven. Both 
services were well attended. The place was rebuilt by subscrip- 
tions, kindly contributed in the neighbourhood. It is represented 



235 



as a great improvement upon the last. Mr. Goadby remarks that 
it looks very well, and that there is not, he apprehends, much 
reason to fear dilapidation from a future flood, unless it were very 
violent indeed. 

In the same month, a new native chapel was opened at Chris- 
tianpore. Mr. Goadby states that it is a very neat commodious 
place. Mr. Brown remarks, — " This morning I preached for the 
first time in the new chapel at Christianpore ; it was full, and we 
all seemed to enjoy the opportunity. The place was built entirely 
by the liberality of one gentleman, who has expended, within the 
last few months, some hundreds of rupees upon our Mission. The 
text was chosen for me, and one suitable to the peculiar circum- 
stances in which the place was built. Luke vii. 5, 'He loveth our 
nation, and hath built us a synagogue,' which 1 ajoplied to the ^jar- 
ticular occasion. This is a neat native chapel, and is beside a great 
ornament to the Christian village. I am to preach once on a v/eek- 
night here, and once on the Lord's day in the other chapel. May 
these places be blessed to the conversion of many a benighted 
heathen." 

The native preachers chiefly officiate in this chapel. One of 
them preaches at ten o'clock on the sabbath morning, and another 
at four o'clock ; excepting on the Sabbaths when the Loi-d's supper 
is administered ; one of the native preachers, also regularly preaches 
at Bhirapoor. At these places the congregations are good. It 
may be interesting to state that a piece of ground contiguous to 
Christianpore has been added to it. The old ground is stated to 
be about full. " This addition will be found highly useful The 
expense will be supplied here, and I hope this increasing Christian 
village will soon be doubled in size." 

THE ENGLISH SCHOOL. 

" This useful Institution has been proceeding during the last 
year, and the fruits have been seen in two young men having 
joined the Church. One is at present a scholar in the School and 
the other received his education here. The number of scholars 
on the books is not so large as last year, I have struck oil" the 
names of several who did not regularly attend ; so that though 
the names on the books are less, the real attendance is better than 
last year. The engagements have been the same as in former 
years, embracing the usual branches of an English education, 
reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar, geography, and history. 
Their acquaintance with Scripture History and the general doctrines 



236 



of the Christian Religion has been highly spoken of by persons 
competent to jndge. Upon the whole our cause of thankfulness 
is great, that in this poor benighted country an Institution which 
has been so useful still continues to exist. A School at Pooree 
has been established, but this, though matter for rejoicing, has in- 
jured the subscriptions to this Institution. We have found excel- 
lent friends in the Collector and his Lady, who have frequently 
visited the school. Our examination passed off well, though as 
usual the attendance of the great was not large. The boys answered 
a multitude of questions apparently to the great satisfaction of those 
present. j\Iany of the native Christian children attend the school, 
and besides English are learning to read and write their own lan- 
guagein the Roman alphabet, a system lately introduced and applied 
to all the Indian languages." 

The year 1837 reported the return of Mr. Sutton and the arrival 
of Mr. and Mrs. Stubbins. It is gratefully observed — " The 
operations of the Society's Missionaries, and the sphere of their 
exertions, are now considerably more extensive, than they could 
be reported last year. An interesting addition has also been made 
to the number of the Society's Missionaries, by the return of Mr. 
and Mrs. Sutton to Cuttack, and the arrival of Mr. and Mrs. Stub- 
bins in India. The week after the last annual meeting Mr. Stub- 
bins was solemnly designated to his important work as a Mission- 
ary to India. The ordination service took place at Fleet, Lincoln- 
shire, when an instructive charge to the young Missionary Avas 
delivered by Mr. Rogers, the estimable pastor of that Church. 
A few w^eeks afterwards he and his partner proceeded to India, in 
the Broxbournebury, Captain Chapman. In this fine vessel their 
accommodations were of the most agreeable description, and the 
kindness and attention of the excellent Captain of that ship, render- 
ed their voyage peculiarly pleasant, which was also pleasant in every 
other respect. Mr. Stubbins by Captain Chapman's permission, 
had frequent opportunities of preaching on board, and also of 
endeavouring, by other methods, to promote the spiritual benefit 
of the sailors ; and, previously to leaving the ship, Mrs. Stubbins 
collected ten pounds for the Mission. After having been ten weeks 
at sea, they reached the Cape of Good Hope where the ship touched. 
The passengers going for a few days on shore, the Missionaries 
took lodgings and pleasantly spent the short time they passed in 
Africa. 

In the latter part of December, the Broxbournebury entered the 
river lloogly. On the 4th of January, the Missionaries landed, 



237 



and were kiiully welcomed by Mr. Yates, and were then directed 
to the house of Mr. Thomas, tlie successor of ]Mr. Pearce, where 
tliey found lodgings, ready provided for them, and where they 
were treated with great atfection and entertained most kindly." 

On April 27, 1836, Mr. Sutton wrote to the Secretary representing 
his feelings on again beholding tlie wide wastes of spiritual desola- 
tion and death, presented iit Hindustan, to the Christian's view. 

" I wrote to yon from Calcutta announcing our arrival in India, and 
giving an account of our Missionary p;;rty and voyage. The Hrethren 
and Sisters destined For Burmiih, Shun, and China, left us at Kcdjcroe, 
wliile we came up by the steam boat to Calcutta. It was an affecting 
parting with so many in whom I felt so deeply interested. 

Our company now consisted of Mr. and Mrs. Day, destined for the 
Telingas, (their colleague Mr. Abbot, went on with the other party to fetch 
his intended wife from Burmali,) Mr. and Mrs. Noyes, and Mr. and Mrs. 
Phillips, myself, and Mrs. S. and Mary for Orissa, and Mrs. Tondin for 
Calcutta. Never did I feel more tlie spiritual wretcliedness and dcsti- 
tiUion of India than during this trip. The contrast between the blasting 
influence of Idolatry, and tlie blessed cft'ects of tlie Gospel were probably 
more vividly impressed on my mind from my having just left the sliores of 
a christian land. Oh it is grievous to contemplate the wide wastes of this 
beniglited country, over wliicb no Missionary's foot has ever trod, and 
where the joyful gospel sound lias never been proclaimed. How did I 
long for one more opportimity of pleading with Christians in behalf of the 
wretched lieatlion ! and how did I feel humbled and abased tliat I liad 
allowed ni)' golden opportunity to pass away with so poor an improvement! 
my feelings alas! too much resembled what tiiej^ have ever been ; regret 
and self abasement for the past, mingled with resolutions of more faithful- 
ness and diligence for the future. How enviable the attainment, to have 
a conscience void of offence both toward God and towards men ! 

All the way from the sea to Calcutta, the banks of the Hooghly are 
crowded with villages, but not a single Missionary is there. Manj- a 
scheme did I revolve in my mind, for supplying these perishing multitudes 
with the bread of life ; whether any one will prove fruitful time must 
reveal. We spent a fortnight in Calcutta, which was fully emploj-ed in 
making preparations for our journey, and future residence in Orissa. 
I preached four sermons, two in the Circular Road Chapel, one on board 
the Bethel, and one for Mr. Robinson, at Bow Bazaar. The first two I 
have since heard were not in vain. Two j'oiuig men baptized last ordi- 
nance day, by Mr. Yates, both mentioned being benefited by my labours. 

We at first proposed that tlie whole of our Missionary party should 
travel together over land, as far as Cuttack, but an op])ortunity having 
offered for brother and sister Day to go by sea, as far as Vizagapatam, they 
embraced it and are now waiting there for their colleague from Birma to 
join them. The rest of us acted upon our first agreement, and travelled 
over land to Balasore. Brother and sister (Joi'.dby were just settled here, 
and gave ns a cordial welcome ; as this was the case, and as brother and 
sister Philliiis seemed to think favourable of Jellasore, a large village 
about tliiity miles from Balasore, it was agreed to leave them witli Brother 
and Sister G. to nc([uire the language, and otherwise fit themselves for this 
new station. This plan I ardently hope will be acted upon. After spen- 
ding a few days with our friends at Balasore we prosecuted our journey to 
CiUtack : liere we arrived in safety and liealth on Saturday evening 12/A 
March, and were cheerfully entertained by Brother and Sister Brooks." 



238 

At tills period it was stated — " The English congregation had 
increased. Several fresh Europeans attended. Several among 
them seemed hopefully serious, and Mr. Williams, the Judge at 
Cuttack, with his pious lady, appeared truly the friends of Religion. 
The latest reference to the state of the English congregation repre- 
sents it as very serious and as numerous. Of one of the most 
solemn of Christian acts of worship, Mr. Sutton remarks, — 

" Our assembly at the Lord's Supper presented a most interesting 
appearance ; and cold must be the heart which is not affected at 
the sight. Our Chapel is almost filled with Euroj)cans, Americans, 
East Indians, and Hindoos, who eat of the same bread and drink of 
the same cup. We are all one in Christ Jesus." 

At another time he records the singular, but pleasing fact, that 
on a day when three Hindoos had been baptized, at a most refresh- 
ing opportunity at the Lord's table, they had in their company, 
communicants from Mahratta, Bengal, Orissa, and other parts of 
Asia ; from Portugal, France, America, England and Scotland. 
Haste happy day when the nations to which these converts, uniting 
at one table at Cuttack, belonged, shall be all one in Christ Jesus !" 

At a Committee Meeting in 183G, held at Loughborough, it 
was suggested, that a Press would be of great importance in Orissa. 
The suggestion was cordially adopted, and the annual Report stated, 
" To give more efficiency to the book and tract department of the 
Society's operations, the Committee have determined that a jinnf- 
ing press shall be established at Cuttack, and placed under the 
immediate superintendence of Mr. Sutton. The Committee have 
accordingly detemiined that Mr. Sutton continue to reside at 
Cuttack, where, besides taking part in other departments of Mission- 
ary labour, he will take the especial supervision of the press ; and 
it has also been arranged that Mr. Sutton and Mr. Lacey be joint 
pastors of the Church at Cuttack. This arrangement has been made 
with Mr. Lacey's cordial concurrence and approbation. 

The Religious Tract Society has made its usual grant of paper 
for the printing of tracts : the grant is increased to ninety reams 
of paper, part of which the Missionaries are authorized to devote 
to the publication of Baxter s Call to the Unconverted. The 
American Tract Sociey, has announced to its supporters, that they 
considered it necessary for the year then passing, to appropriate 
the sum of one thousand dollars to the Orissa Mission, and to that 
of their Baptist P'riends, in the same district of India. 

During Mr. and Mrs. Lacey's sojourn in their native land, they 
received the following letter, from the native brethren and sisters, 



239 

wiiom the_v liacl left for a time, ' like sheep in the wilderness.' — But 
the great Shepherd, through the care of his under shepherds, pfc-^ 
served them from ' the lion and the bear.' 

" Continually and for ever, may the grace atid consolation of God oui* 
Father, and our Lord Jesus Christ, be with tliee. 

To our greatly beloved, our crown and our joy, even to Padree Lacey 
Sahib, and also to his Lady Sahib, do we address this epistle. All the 
fbristian bretliron and sisters, wlio compose the Chm-ch of Christ in. 
Cuttack, namely, Rama Chnndra, Gunga Dhor, and Doitaree, with all 
tlie rest, send you much much love and christian sakitation. On the foi^ 
lowing account have we written to thee: By the grace of God, atthe 
present time, we are all wellj and we desire to receive a letter, containing 
agreeable intelligence, from thee. Tliou has shown unto us^ the great 
and gK)rious way of salvation. In the midst of darkness, by thy instruc- 
tions we obtain to see a great light ; thou hast been to us an example in 
the ways of lioliness. Tlie mercy M'hich God intended before the world 
began, even that Gospel liast thou preached unto us. Affording U9 
various help, and all kinds of excellent instructions, thoU hast firmly 
settled and established our minds ; and therefore by thy means, in the 
Lord Jesus Christ, we have obtained a new birth unto life. We are be- 
come of the household of God, and continually rejoice in the Lord Jesus 
Christ, offering praise to the Lord our God. Moreover, we enjoy the 
sweet hope of everlasting life ; and therefore, O oiu- greatly beloved, 
since the day thou didst depart from this place, and set out on thy 
journey to thine own country, taking with thee thy wife, and chddren, 
even from that day tears have not ceased to run down from our eyes lot* 
thee ; for as a father and mother protect their children, so hast thou, _ with 
all knowledge, and uiiderstanding, and love of God, fed and nourished 
our precious souls. This instruction, even now, we daily digest in our 
minds. For thee we never cease to pray to God, that thou mayest obtain 
his grace ; that as with thy wife and children thou didst leave this country, 
so thou mayest safely arrive in thine own, and there enjoy an affectionate 
meeting with all yoiir brothers and sisters. 

Give our affectionate christian salutation to all the Churches of Christ. 
May their prayers be to God on our behalf, for we are weak; then shall 
we be strong in the strength of the Lord. O may we remain steadfast in 
the good way even unto the end, and remain declaring the Gospel in thi^ 
benighted land, till at length, in the day of the Lord, we shall all find 
grace from Him. That we obtain this grace, O pray for us. O, beloved 
brother, we heard of the affliction which happened unto you while you 
remained in Calcutta, namely, that you heard there how tiiat thy father 
had gone to heaven ; we were on that account much concerned tor thee. 
Also we heard how that Boxoo stole some of thy property, being un-' 
grateful, as well as how you had not money sufdcient for your joumey^ 
and were greativ distressed. But most of all we heard of the affection 
wdiich you manifested for us at the moment of yov.r departure, even by 
your tears. We heard also that thy children, and thy lady Sahib, wept 
at the remembrance of us. All this we heard ; and vdien the intelligence 
reached us, we gave ourselves up lo grief, and were as though we siiould 
not again see pleasure. Goaaby Sahib read to us the 1/tter you sent 
from on board, which letter informed us of the illness of Willie baba, and 
we all united in prayer that God would recover him from sickness, and 
protect and save yon ail ; nor shall \Ve feel our minds at rest till we re reive 
a letter from thee. In the cold season we went out with the missi.mary 
brethren to preach the Gospel, and we distributed many tracts. We havs 

So 



210 



preached on tile Lord's -day to the Native Clirlstian congregation, and 

iMr. Brown has also dons so. Mr. \V. has greatly assisted the Church, 

being very kind and us-f'ul. In Christiani)oor he has built a chapel for us, 
new, and of substantial materials. Here we have divine worship, while 
a large verandah in front serves for a school-room for the Native Chris- 
tian children, where they obtain wisdom. He has inorever opened a 
well in the new christian village, where our brother Hurree Paree lives; 
he allows our aged brahmuiiee sister something to eat ; and has agreed 
to sui)port Krnpa Sindoo as a Native Christian preacher, as well as ex- 
l)resses himself generally very favourable towards all the brethren and 
sisters. From these iatiinatioiis, we hope that his heart towards the Lord 
is well afiected. 

Since thy departure Sebo has been baptized, and now lie and his family 
live in the house of Bumadab at Nokora. The rice you left has been 
fccld, and the money deposited in the hands of Goadby Sahib. Padree 
Goadby went to Calcutta to seek for a wife, and from America there came 
a wife for him, and to her he was married, and returned in one month to 
Cuttack. Padree Brooks has arrived at Cuttack, and lives in the Bunga- 
low belonging to Mr. Brown, where he is studying the Oriya under the 
])undit Bhagnutty-misser. We are all well. The chapel near the house 
of (Junga Dhor, whicli you know was destroyed by a flood, has been rebuilt 
and there is English worship therein. On Lord"s-day, at four o'clock in 
the afternoon, we continue to have Oriya worship in this chapel, when Mr. 
Brown officiates. We have divine worship at Bhogerpoor, in the little 
chapel there ; we preach by turns on every Lord's-day. Mahadab-das 
has not been restored to fellowship; his mind is not at present in a right 
state. Gunga Dlior, he who laid hold upon the river Gunga, and Rama 
Cliundra, Ram, who is of the nature of brightness, and Doitaree, he who 
conquers demons, and Krapa Sindoo, he who is a sea of mercy, and Bam- 
adab, he who is as a god of comfort, and Rahadoo, he who destroys Rahoo, 
and the Bniddhee-bltoonee, she who is the aged sister, and Dahanee, she 
who reduces to ashes, and Knmllee, she who is softness, and Ilurreeparree, 
he who is the saviour or deliverer, named Hurree, and Treelochitn, he who 
is the three-eyed, and Coranusowa, he who bears mercy, and Seba-purree, 
he who undei-stnudaSeho, (Hid Bolcruni, he who is the strength of Ram, 
and Soobanee, he who is the sweet worded, and Sodanunda, he who is the 
ever-joyful, and all the rest of the men, women, and children, are well. 
Truly some are occasionally indisposed in body, but get well again. All 
these brothers, sisters, and children, to thee, and to thy lady Sahib, once 
more much much affectionate salutation send. Also to the child Hannah, 
and to the child Willie, and to the child Charlie, all the above persons 
send kisses of love. 

To all the brethren and sisters believing in Christ, of the churches 
in Kngland, the brethren and sisters believing in Christ who are of the 
church in Cuttack, send their endless endless salutation. We are all in 
one mind, proceeding in the path of the Gospel, and are praying and 
labouring for the extension of the kingdom of God. The brother who 
came from Bisak-patna, (Pooroosootum,) and was baptized, has sent us 
a letter. He has had much inconvenience in travelling from place to 
place with his wife and children ; but has been finally appointed to one of 
the mission stations on the Coromandel coast, along with Mr. Gordan, 
whom you saw at Madras. There he is preaching the Gospel. Bainadab 
and Krupa Sindoo have been chosen to preach the Gospel here ; and the 
rest of the brethren are in the offices they held when you were here. 

The charge which thou didst deliver to us, a written copy of which we 
received from thee, the same have I read, and in all things think of thee 
and long after thee. Please give my salutation to the other ministers of 
Christ there, and to my christian brothers and sisters. About many other 



241 



things we intend to write to thee again in a short time. Favour us soon 
with an answer to this letter. Tell us where you are — the name of the town 
or city, and about tliysclf. We have some inquirers, who are obtaining 
instruction, and things are much as they were wlien you saw them. And 
now what more shall I write ? all things here are known to thee. Pardon 
the liberty we have taken in writing to thee." 

April oth, \83o, Cuttack. 

Appropriate reference is made to tlie new feature in missionary 
proceedings, occasioned by the consecration of Miss Kirkman to the 
good of her sex in India. It is stated — " The Committee received 
an application from Miss Kirkman, a young lady, who is anxious 
to consecrate herself to the promotion of the spiritual welfare of the 
female population of India. The peculiar departments of exertion, 
to which, it is conceived, she may devote her efforts, are female 
education, and the instruction of Hindoo v.oiuen. The Committee 
unanimously and ivith much jtleasure accepted Miss K's. offer of 
herself. Her estimable parents, in a spirit of consecration to the 
cause of Christ, like that of their beloved daughter, much as they 
feel the sacrifice, cheerfully resign her ; and with a similar devotcd- 
ness to the Redeemer's glory, engage to allow her anniudly such a 
sum as will be sufficient for her support. Surely the friends of the 
mission will pray, that His favour, v.hose presence fills the heart 
with nobler joy than even the society of the most affectionate and 
pious child, may rest abundantly upon them ; and that they may 
rejoice in the confidence, that whether in this uncertain world they 
meet again or not, the interval, at the longest, will be but short 
before they meet in heaven ; and there feel that every sacrifice they 
could ever make, was infinitely more than merited by Him who 
bought them with his blood. May they part in the spirit of that 
eminent Christian, who leaving, for a scene of danger and death, 
the beloved wife of his bosom, calmly said, ' We have an eternity 
to spend together.' " 

The Report of 1838, announced the return to India of Mr. and 
Mrs. Lacey, accompanied by Miss Kirkman to Orissa. It is stated 
— "Amidst the numerous population of this first station of the 
Society's labours, the glad tidings of redeeming love have continued 
to be proclaimed, and some additions have been made to the 
Saviour's flock. Daring the past year, Mr. and Mrs. Lacey have 
returned to their former station, accompanied by their devoted 
young friend I\Iiss Kirkman. The farewell services connected with 
the departure of these friends from England, took place at Leicester, 
August 22nd, 1837 ; ^nd early in September they left England for 



242 



India, in the Royal Saxon, Captain Reiiner. During the voyage, 
they had many opportunities for public and social worship, the 
Captain encouraging iNIr. Lacey to conduct divine service. 

*' As the Commanders of some East India ships are so unfavour- 
able to religions worship, it should be known that Captain Renner 
manifested a very different spirit. He always endeavoured to make 
way for divine service ; the men were generally present ; but when 
they could not be spared from the management of the ship, the 
Captain and others attended ; and besides Lord's day morniiig 
worship, lectures on Lord's day evening and on Wednesday evening 
were delivered by his request. Among tlie sailors, books and 
tracts were distributed ; and hope was entertained that salutary 
religious impressions were made upon the minds of several indivi- 
duals during the voyage. 

" They reached Calcutta in January ; they received a kind wel- 
come, and were entertained at tlie house of My. Hughes, Balle- 
gunge. During their stay in Calcutta, Mr. Lacey had frequent 
opportunities of addressing numbers of Oreas on the great truths of 
the gospel. So many of the natives of Orissa resort to Calcutta, 
that he found himself every where surrounded by persons who 
could understand him. By many he was recognised as 'the 
Cuttack Padree Sahib, who preaches against Juggernaut, and ex- 
horts the people to worship Jesus Christ,' and felt it not unpleasant 
to be thus recognised. 

" On the 19th of February, Mr. Lacey and his companions em- 
barked for Tumlook, and thence proceeded to INIidnapore. While 
there, for a few days, Mr. Lacey preached to large and attentive 
crowds in the Bazaar. Thence they proceeded to Balasore, and 
Cuttack. Of their arrival at the latter place, Mr. Lacey states, — 
'About eight o'clock in the morning of the first of March, the 
bearers set us down at the school-house, where brother and sister 
Sutton are located, and thus our long journey ended. We were 
glad to see our old friends and fellow labourers, and joined sincerely 
and fervently in thanksgiving to our kind heavenly Preserver, that 
he had so long preserved us by land and by sea, and had at length 
brought us together again, where many of our best days have been 
spent, and much interesting labour bestowed. As we passed 
through the town, the people ran to express their pleasure to see 
us again, and throughout the day numbers of persons arrived, to 
say how glad they were to see us again in Cuttack. Komile and 
Danee were here, when we arrived, and were much affected, when 
ve a^'uin spoke to them ; and the native Christians one by one 



243 



dropped in to pay us a visit. I need not say there was a mutual 
pleasure from once more seeing eacli otlier. lirothcr Stubbins post- 
poned his departure till our arrival ; he is now gone to Berhampore, 
where, judging from the place and the labourer, there is every 
prospect of his usefulness. I found the native church better than 
I anticipated, the number of the members has considerably increased. 
The native Christian children's boarding school, forms now an 
interesting feature of the Mission in Cuttack. The first sai>bath 
after my arrival was of great interest. I preached in the morning 
in Oreah, with much liberty and pleasure, in the chapel in Chris- 
tianpore. Almost all the Christian community was present, and 
the chapel was well filled. In the afternoon I administered the 
Lord's Snppcr to the Church, composed of Natives, Indo-British, 
and English, in Oreah and English. O what a pleasing sight ! a 
large chapel full ! At night preached again in English, chapel full. 
JVe must have a new and larger chapel, and are setlincj about it. 
We thank God and take courage. I am much engaged in the 
Bazaar and at Mellas." 

The return of Mr. and ]\Irs. Goadby to their native land, is 
referred to, and the expected ordination of Mr. Wilkinson to the 
great work in Orissa. 

The blessed cause of the Redeemer gained ground in the follow- 
ing year. The first Tract printed at the Cuttack Press, was hastily 
composed for the Ruth Jattra of 1838, and was entitled — " The 
wonderful advantages of a Pilgrimage to Juggernaut." The evil:i 
of this pilgrimage are there detailed. Many of these Tracts have 
been circulated. 

Of the manner in which church business is conducted, one of the 
brethren gives an interesting statement, in furnishing an account of 
a church lueeting. " This evening we had one of the most inter- 
esting Church Meetings I ever attended. The members were al- 
most all native. Of Europeans there were only ourselves. Captain 
Bamfield, and Mr. Palfreyman. After singing and prayer in Oreah 
and English, an application for re-admission was dismissed on ac- 
count of the individual having been discovered to make too free a 
use of gunga, so much so as to become intoxicated. A candidate's 
name also was struck off the list. The names of eight candidates 
were then read over. Some were fresh ones. Their cases were 
considered, and their experience, profession, and conversation can- 
vassed with much prudence and christian feeling. Four were re- 
ceived, Mr. Harris, schoolmaster, Komilee, the wife of Mahadab, 
Rosikaront, and Ilarree, the wife of Boliakonta. The baptism to 



244 



take place next Lord's day ; the natives to be baptized in the open 
air, where heathen natives can come to see and hear, and the 
European in the chapel after the evening sermon." The baptismal 
services took place as appointed : Mr. Harris was baptized in the 
chapel, and the Hindoo converts in the open air, when, it was 
supposed, about eight hundred spectators were present. 

The enlargement of the chapel is particularly referred to at this 
time. "The chapel at Cuttack has been enlarged to more than 
double its former size. Its present dimensions are fifty feet long 
by thirty wide, with a verandah ten feet wide on the sides and 
front. This enlargement was rendered necessary by the increase of 
Europeans at the station ; by the additions made to the native 
church, and by the increase almost every month of the native con- 
gregation. This rendered the former chapel inconveniently small, 
especially on those sabbaths when the Lord's supper was adminis- 
tered. Mr. Sutton collected for the object about seven hundred 
rupees, which he transferred to the hands of Mr. Lacey, who had 
much of the superintendence of the work. A circular was sent to 
the Christian residents in Cuttack and the vicinity, which soon 
raised about five hundred rupees more. To this, subsequent addi- 
tions were made, and the v/hole expense, amounting to one thousand 
four hundred and twenty rupees, has been defrayed. Above an 
acre has been added to the chapel ground. A tank has been 
opened in the centre of this ground, for use on baptismal occasions. 
This tank is about one hundred feet wide. With the soil taken 
from the tank, thegi'ound in the old chapel yard has been improved, 
and the whole of the ground enclosed with an embankment, to 
prevent the ingress of the flood in the rainy season. The whole of 
the ground which has been enclosed, is planted round with cocoa- 
nut trees of five years growth, which add much to the appearance 
of the place, and will hereafter add to the usefulness of the addi- 
tion. The cocoa-nut plant being the exclusive perquisite of the 
sacerdotal class, and being usually planted around the temples of 
the land, their appearance around this christian sanctuary produces 
a favourable impression on the natives. 

The chapel was re-opened on Lord's day, August 19th. Mr. 
Sutton preached in the morning, from 1 Cor. iii. 9. In the after- 
noon the native congregation assembled at four o'clock, and Mr. 
Lacey preached on Isa. liii. 11. A goodly company of natives, all 
clean and orderly, were present, and many were in tears. Mr. 
Lacey preached again at seven in the evening, from Isa. liv. 2, 3. 



245 



The attendance was good, the attention serious, and the whole a 
day of mnch holy pleasure. 

After relating these events Mr. Lacey remarks, — " It is just 
twelve years since the chapel was first opened. 1 laid the foun- 
dation stone in May 1826, and on Novemher 5th of that year 
delivered the first sermon. Brother Sutton was at Cuttack at the 
time, and assisted, and we have been spared through twelve event- 
ful years, in an Indian climate, and are now permitted together to 
re-open the Chapel after an enlargement to more than twice its 
former size. This is what is seldom seen in India. We were 
then without a single native convert, and yesterday the coldest 
heart must have been warmed, to have beheld our native christian 
congregation." 

The ordination of Mr. Wilkinson, is mentioned at the close of 
the Report. " The ordination took place at Wisbeach, Cambridge- 
shire, August 1st, 1838. The services of the day were of an inter- 
esting and solemn nature. Mr. Wilkinson's account of his religious 
history, excited much deep feeling throughout a crowded and nu- 
merous congregation. His conversion from sin and infidelity was 
connected with circumstances of a singular kind, and strikingly 
displayed the power of divine grace. An introductory discourse 
was delivered by Mr. J. B. Pike, then of Boston. The ordination 
prayer was off"ered by Mr. Jones of March, and was very solemn 
and appropriate. The questions to the young Missionary were 
proposed by his warm friend Mr. Peggs, of Bourn, and a short 
charge was addressed to him by the Secretary of the Society. 
During the solemn services of this important day, the presence of 
the Lord was enjoyed. On the morning of the day, Mr. Wilkin- 
son was united in marriage to Miss Desborough, a valuable young 
friend, much esteemed and beloved in the church at Wisbeach, to 
to which, like her partner, she belonged. They were to have 
sailed for India in a few days, but various delays took place, so 
that they did not finally leave their native land till late in Septem- 
ber. They then sailed in the Moira, Captain R. M. Carthy. 
Another Baptist Missionary and his wife went in the same ship. 
They touched at the Cape, and from thence Mr. Wilkinson address- 
ed a letter to the Secretary. 

The Society was, this year, much indebted to a kind friend, the 
late Miss Barnes, of St. Ives, Hunts, for two bequests, one for 
a thousand pounds, to be paid without needless delay. The other for 
four hundred and fifty pounds at the decease of an individual, who 



246 



is to receive the interest during her life. IMiss Barnes had long 
been a warm friend to the Society. She has left the larger legacy 
for the expressed purpose of sending out additional INlissionaries. 
The subject has been laid before the Committee at a recent meeting, 
when tlie following resolution was adopted, " The Committee 
pledge themselves to appropriate the money left by Miss Barnes, 
to the purposes specified in her will, on the receipt of it." 

Mrs. Wilkinson has given an interesting account of tlieir first 
interview with the Native Ministers, which took place at Cuttack, 
March 30th, 1839, where the brethren were assembled for their 
Annual Conference. 

" The native preachers soon heard of our arrival, and came to 
see us. They had assembled in an adjoining room. Brother 
Lacey led lis to them. All were seated on the floor, but they in- 
stantly arose, and presented a noble army on the Lord's side. I 
was truly delighted to see their intelligent faces, and hear their 
solicitude for the best interests of their countrymen. Gunga, in his 
figurative manner of speaking, asked Mr. "Wilkinson "7/ any other 
Missionaries were hanfjing to his tail .''" We said, " Why are you 
so anxious that others should come ?" Ke gave three reasons, — 

First. — Because there was a great sinking in the well of igno- 
rance, and more ropes were wanted to pull the people out. 

Second. — Many were drowning in the sea of sin, and more ships 
must be sent to rescue tiiem. 

Third. — He desired that many more Christians should follow the 
example of Christ, who left heaven that he might do good to men." 

The year, whose proceedings are thus in part detailed, proved 
on the whole an important and encouraging year. Foi'the measure 
of success that has been enjoyed, much gratitude and praise are 
due to God. lliis is the view taken by our estimable brother, 
Sutton, vv'ho observes, " On the whole we consider the year to 
have been one of general prosperity, and which in many views calls 
for our fervent thankfulness to the Author of every good and per- 
fect gift. Let us labour on, taking fresh courage from the past, 
and present success ; and animated by the hope, " that when we 
have fought the good fight, kept the faiih, and finished the 
Course, there is a crown, in reserve, which the Lord the righteous 
Judge, shall give us at that day." 

In reference to the future, Mr. Stubbins takes a very encoura- 
ging view. He writes, " Aly conviction is, that Orissa is white" 
niny to the harvest, and we want only men to gather in the pre- 
cious and innnorlalgrain.^' Thus encouraged by mercies received, 



247 

and bv hopes excited, the Society is bound to use every effort to 
send other labourers into the harvest." 

An anonymous donation of £G0. was, a few months ago, sent 
to the Secretary, to assist in sending out Missionaries. A consi- 
derable part of Miss Barnes's legacy, for the same object, has also 
been paid to the Treasurer; and John Wright, Esq. of Birmingham, 
with singular liberality, offered to the Committee, to defray one 
third of the expense of the outfit and passage of four Missionaries. 

The statistics of the church at Cuttack in 1840, is stated — 
"Since the year 1828 when the first Hindoo was baptized the record 
of baptisms is — Europeans and East Indians 53 ; Hindoos 95. 
To the above are to be added nominal Christians and Enquirers 
196. — The Report of 1845 states — "The number in connection 
with the Society's stations, that are freed from the shackles of 
Hindooism, cannot now be much, if any, below one thousand; 
for according to statistics furnished by your senior Missionary, 
the number at Cuttack, and the locations more especially connected 
with the station amounts to 816. Of this number there are at 
Cuttack 409. Christianpore 89. Laceycie 34. The Asylum 92. 
Societypore 39. Khunditta 39. Choga 44. Bhogerpore 15. 
Indo- British 55. It is not pretended that all these are really 
christians, but many of them are such, and the rest, including 
children, are delivered from the chains of Hindoo superstition and 
idolatry, and are brought under christian instruction. This is 
not a trifling measure of success, though small compared with what 
is needed." 

The year 1841, saw the mission considerably assisted by the 
ordination of Mr. and Mrs. Grant, the appointment of ]*Ir Vv . Brooks 
as a Printer, and of Miss Derry as assistant to Mrs. Stubbins, (for- 
merly Miss Kirkman.) — " These brethren with their wives and 
Miss Derry, sailed for Calcutta, June 17th, in the Pekin, Captain 
Laing. The service in which Mr. Grant v/as set apart to this great 
work, and in which all this interesting party were reminded of then- 
duties, and commended to the divine blessing, took place at Not- 
tingham on Tuesday the first of June. The day was one of much 
sacred pleasure. Numbers displayed a lively interest for the object, 
to which this band of young disciples of the Saviour were devoting 
themselves. Mr. Grant in his answers to the usual questions, 
manifested much intense concern to be employed as a Missionary 
labourer, declaring that he would prefer being a Missionary to the 
highest earthly dignity, and that his desire was in India to live, 

2 II 



248 



in India to die, and in India to be buried. Tlie Committee have 
determined that his station shall be fixed by the next Orissa Con- 
ference, Mr. Brooks is placed as a Missionary Printer upon the 
same footing as a Mi«sionary in every I'espect. In the first instance 
he goes to take the superintendence, and whole management of 
the mechanical part of the Printing Establishment ; but as he has 
manifested talents for preaching, it is deemed most probable that 
he will by degrees, engage in other Missionary labours. Miss Derry 
goes out to assist INIrs. Stubbins in promoting female education, 
and instructing Hindoo women. The expense of her outfit and 
passage has been defrayed by the Ladies' Society for advancing 
education in the East. The managers of this Society have mani- 
fested the interest they take in JNIrs. Stubbin's labours, and their 
satisfaction with her efforts, by a grant of twenty pounds to assist 
her schools." 

The year 1842 terminated the first twenty years of the Society's 
actual labours in Orissa. Mr. Pike in his own peculiar style, de- 
scribes the position of the Society, and his views are happily con- 
firmed by Mr. Lacey. — " When your Society was just struggling 
into life, it was remarked, that a Missionary Society resembles a 
stream tending to the ocean : at first a rivulet, that may be 
measured by a span, but which, increasing as it flows, swells till 
the insignificant brook expands into a river, and swelling still, 
before its course concludes, the river becomes a sea. A hojie was 
then expressed that this then little stream might, in some distant 
age, long after those, who saw it rise, were forgotten, — pour the 
waters of salvation, through many a barren spot, in the wide hea- 
then wilderness. The events of the past twenty years furnish 
evidence that this hope was not presumptuous. You may look for- 
ward to a lime when thousands of chrii^tian churches, as so many 
centres of light and love, shall bestud that portion of India, which 
falls to the lot of your Society. Then the land will have its tem- 
ples, but they will all be temples of Jehovah. It will have its songs 
and its offerings, but its songs will be the sweet hymns of Zion, 
and its offerings millions of renewed and consecrated hearts. It 
will have its pilgrims, but they will all be pilgrims to the city of 
the living God. Prophecy predicts these triumphs, the zeal of the 
Lord of hosts will accomplish them ; and their commencement is 
found in your humble yet expanding efforts. Your little rivulet 
has already swelled to a brook. On this fact one of your brethren 
^n India has remarked ; — " Twenty years have now elapsed since 
our brethren and sisters, Bampton and Peggs, with one native 



219 



christian attendant, Abraham, trod their uurriciulcd way to this 
phice. The darkness of Idolatry was then universal and un- 
broken ; and compared with what then existed, in relation to the 
good cause, our present circumstances must induce the exclamation, 
^iVhathath God wrought?' It is the Lord's doing, and is wondrous in 
oureyes ! From this spot, where five souls formed the little christian 
band, the cause has spread from the centre to the uttermost north- 
and south of the land; nor overlooking intermediate places, and 
more local settlements. At Berhampore, we have three European 
and two native labourers, with a native christian church of more 
than twenty members : and the Gospel is being made known through- 
out a wide and populous district. At Ganjam, sixteen miles north 
of Berhampore, we have two European and three native labourers, 
with a church of ten or tivelve members ; and through a wide field 
the empire of Idolatry is being invaded by the light of divine 
truth. At Balasore, there are two American and one native labour- 
er, with a church of some tivelve or fourteen christians. At Jella- 
sore, a few miles north of Balasore, there are two American and 
two native labourers ; all actively employed in circulating that 
knowledge which in its progress subjects all mankind to the love 
and service of God. At Midnapoor, although no results have 
appeared, yet books have been put in circulation, and to some degree 
the tidings of mercy have been made known. And now, at Cal- 
cutta, amidst a population of more than a million souls, we have 
four European and two native labourers ; with a church of sixteen 
or eighteen members, seeking the eternal salvation of some forty 
thousand of the sons of Orissa, who have wandered there in search 
of the bread which perisheth. While at Cuttack, from whence 
these branches have generally shot forth, we have six European 
and four native labourers, with a church of one hundred and twejit// 
two members; and three minor stations, where native preachers 
are labouring for the edification of the native christians placed 
under their care, and for the instruction of the multitudes of liea!- 
thens all around them. And the movement of all these Stations, 
(except Midnapoor, now for a time vacated,) is onward. The 
preaching of the Gospel, is awakening enquiry, the tracts are dis- 
tributing knowledge, and the numerous schools are instructing the 
young, while our Press is pouring forth a tide of instruction to be 
let into a thousand channels to fertilize the wliole land. Upon 
the whole, there is reason to say, " The Lord has done great tilings 
for us, whereof we are glad." 



250 

The efforts of the Missionaries to diffuse the Gospel in Cuttack, 
and its vicinity, have continued through the past year, and have 
not been in vain. Sixteen have been added to the church by 
baptism, fourteen of them Hindoos, and the other two Indoo-britons. 
Mr. Laeey states, that the year has been marked b)' no circum- 
stances of unusual interest in the progress of the sacred cause, but 
it has offered no reason for discouragement. He justly observes, 
that in India the progress of christian light is like the dawn of a 
morning, darkened by dense and universal fogs. On such a 
morning the light struggles long with the darkness, but its pro- 
gress though imperceptible, is certainly, and finally triumphant. 
Thus the dawn of a bright and blessed day has broken upon the 
benighted Oreas ; and that dawn has advanced during the past 
year. 

On the first Lord's day in December, five candidates were 
baptized, four of them young persons. The other was a widow 
of an enquirer from Choga, who died while he was seeking in- 
struction. She assists in cooking for the girl's department of the 
School, and is very steady and consistent. On the day of baptism 
the chapel was crowded. Mr. Lacey preached and baptized, and 
afterwards administered the Lord's supper. He observes, it was 
a happy, " a very happy opportunity, a day long to be remem- 
bered." 

On the first Sabbath in February, a Telinga convert belonging 
to the sixth Madras Native Infantry, was baptized, being the 
eighth baptized from that regiment during its sojourn at Cuttack. 
" They are now," the Missionary writes, " called to China, but 
they value the word of God, and can use it with great ease, and 
I hope and think they will be able to go forward in the good 
path." 

Of Missionary Students and Native Ministers, it is stated — " The 
last Report announced that Somnath, Damudar, and Sebo Naik, 
had been placed under Mr. Sutton's care, as students for the 
ministry ; the two former were boarders, and the latter being mar- 
ried was a daily attendant. They thus continued till a special 
Conference in October, when it was agreed that they should be re- 
ceived as assistant preachers, Damudar to accompany Mr. Sutton to 
Calcutta ; and Sebo to go to Berhampore, and assist Mr. Stubbins ; 
and Somnath to remain at Cuttack. Mr. Lacey referring to them 
observes, "We have added three to the number of our native 
preaclicrs, who are all men of more than ordinary promise." 



251 



Mr. Sutton referring to them and to the period of their continuance 
•under his care writes, " It was a short experiment, but long 
enough amidst all the imperfections attending it, to show its 
importance, and what results may lie expected from a proper 
and thorough system of training. These young preachers bid 
fair to make useful men, and fully justify our selection of them 
to the office they sustain. Still it were to be wished, the two 
youngest could have had a year or two of close study of several 
subjects, immediately bearing on their work." He adds, — ■" Khum- 
boo has not been received as a student yet, but I have still hopes 
of him. The next most promising class on our premises, are 
four of the youths recently converted, but they are still so very 
young, that nothing can be said of them as preachers for several 
years, though I am determined on commencing a course of pre- 
paratory studies with them, so soon as I can find a master. My 
pundit that I employed in teaching them Sanscrit, is retained by 
Brother Lacey, and I have not yet been able to find another. 
At present, therefore, I can only report on the past, and say but 
little as to what may be done during the current year. I hope 
however, to lose no opportunity of promoting this important branch 
of our work, so far as I can do it, or secure co-operation in it. 
May the Lord raise up and send forth during the present year, 
a class of Damodurs, and Somnaths, and Seeboos." 

The subject of cultivating native talent, and of training up 
suitable converts as native ministers, has been frequently referred 
to, in letters from the Secretary, especially in correspondence 
addressed to ]Mr. Sutton. In a recent communication he express- 
ed his strong feelings upon this subject, and made a proposal to 
which the Committee have most cheerfully acceded. 

" I suppose I may do something in the matter of Government 
translations ; and this, in connexion with my probable return to 
Cuttack, leads me to make a proposal to which I beg your kind 
attention. I find that it is vain for me to expect to do much, 
(excepting on the Sabbath), beyond my daily labours in trans- 
lating and correcting the press, and taking the general oversight 
of our educational department; and that the little time I can spare 
from writing, may be most advantageously employed in endeav- 
ouring to train up a class of young men as native preachers. Now 
we can have little hope of permanently and extensively benefit- 
ing Orissa, without raising up an efiicient native ministry ; but 
to do this involves considerable expense, both for their education 



252 



and support. My question therefore, is, Will the Committee sanc- 
tion me in endeavouring to increase and improve this department, 
and in devoting to it any funds that I may realize by my labours 
in translating and printing, beyond what is necessary for my own 
support? or, if we should be unexpectedly prosperous, beyond that 
of the support of Brother William Brooks also ? Teachers of some 
kind must be employed in this department, and if we should pros- 
per so as to get any thing of a class, it will be well worth a con- 
siderable portion of the time of the best qualified man the Commit- 
tee can send. We want no display either in our establishment or 
our men, but the means of raising up a body of hardy efficient 
labourers, who need not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word 
of life. I cannot expect to do more perhaps than get such a branch 
of our Mission into operation, and lay the foundation for its con- 
tinuance ; but to do this is worth living for, and I should feel that 
it is an object worth all the time and labour I can spare, and happy 
should I be to commence it, and then hand it over to some Brother 
better qualified by talents and grace, to carry it on to perfection. 
Most Christians may by a little extra exertion and self-denial, do 
something more than they would otherwise in b-chalf of a favourite 
object. We, I suppose, are no exception to this general law ; it 
rests with the Committee to supply the necessary stimulus to 
exertion." 

At the Conference the following arrangement for the labours 
of native ministers was made for the coming year. — Calcutta, 
Gunga Dhor, Seebo Sahoo, and Damudar. — Cuttack, Rama Chun- 
dra, Ramadab, and Somnath — Midiiapore, No application.- — Khun- 
ditia, Luckindas and Doitaree, in succession — Piplcj, Doitaree 
and Luckindas, in succession. — Ganjam, Balage. — Berhainpore, 
Pooroosootum and Sebo Naik. — Ballasore and Jellasore, Bickbaree. 
In case of Gunga not going to Calcutta, Bamadab takes his place. 

The Society was this year ninch indebted to the Religious Tract 
Society, for the grant of 200 reams of paper, part of which was to 
be appropriated to the publication of Earth's Church History, and 
two volumes of Tracts for the use of the Native preachers and 
others. The Bible Translation Society made a grant of £150, and 
the American and Foreign Bible Society, the handsome grant of 
1300 dollars, or £265. 18s. 2d. Of this sum 300 dollars were 
directed to be given in copies of the Scriptures, to the American 
Brethren at Balasore and Jellasore. 

The Report for 1814, gave a favourable view of the parent 
Church at Cuttack.— "At this first station, christian truth has 



253 



continued to exert and extend its influence. Several converts 
have been added to the church tliough not so many as in some 
preceding years. The long-tried Missionaries have on the whole 
been favoured with a large measure of health. Mr. liacey in his 
annual Report records the divine goodness in having permitted 
him to spend another year in India in the enjoyment of almost 
uninterrupted health. He remarks : — " I have felt much less of 
that lassitude and weakness which are so natural to this climate 
in the past year, than in any former years of my Indian existence, 
and have consequently been able to spend most of those months 
among the people, during which the weather admits of our 
being out with safety. I have not felt it to be either unpleasant 
or injurious to be out in the sun all day long, in communication 
with the people, or in going to and returning from their places of 
resort. I have, I believe, no greater desire than that my time, 
my health, and my life should all be devoted to the cause of God ; 
and I hope as He has hitherto, so also, in time to come He will 
enable me, every year of my remaining existence, to do something 
for the spread of His knowledge, and the promotion of His glory. 
I feel that as the past portion of my life recedes and mingles with 
the ages that are past, never more to be available for serving God 
or benefiting man ; the small portion that may remain is infinitely 
important ; and the more so as my capabilities henceforth for doing 
good will not increase but decrease." 

" Our personal labours (says Mr. Sutton) are carried on in a 
narrow space, but I would hope are destined to have a wider 
influence. Formyself I have been "nailed to the wood" pretty closely- 
all the year. The past year like all the years which have preceded it, 
has had its lights and its shadows, its sorrows and its joys. The 
conditions of our warfare are present toil and future rest — present 
sorrow and future joy — presefft expectation, and oft disappointment, 
but future realization and fulness of delight. He who now '^ gocth 
forth weeping hearing precious seed, shall doubtless come again with 
rejoicing, hearing his sJieaves ivith him." 

The church contained 140 members, of which eleven had been 
added during the year. Amidst the defects of which their pastor 
complains, the fact that family worship prevails among these dear 
people is an interesting evidence of the reality of their religion and 
a token for good. INIr. Lacey observes that the means for improv- 
ing in christian knowledge, which the possession of the Scriptures 
and other religious books furnishes are daily used, and he adds, 
" Their family worship has generally been attended to with regularity, 



254 

and on a morning visit I have sometimes found — everT/ house 
in the village engaged at their devotions. The head of the family 
sings a hymn, reads and prays.'' 

The following is the arrangement for the labours of the Native 
Ministers : — 

" Caleutta, Bikharee. 

Balasore, Seeboo Naik. 

Khundilta, Somnath and Parasua, on trial. 

Choga, Bamadab and Doitaree, if restored to his office. 

JeUasore, (belonging to our Society,) Rama, junior, 

Berhampore and Ganjam, Balagee and Denabundcr. 

Cnttach, Gunga, Rama Chundra, and Damadur, in part. 

Neiv Station, Sebo, and Damudar partly. 

Pippley, No supply." 

In the Report of 1845 it is stated — -"At the conference at 
Cuttack it was agreed that the Hindoo brethren, Seboo Sahoo, 
Sebo Naik, Balagee, Damudar, and Somnath, should be ordained 
to their work as native evangelists. To this number Denabunder 
was afterwards added. Most of these brethren had satisfactorily 
passed a probation of three or four years as assistant preachers. 
At the same time it was agreed to receive Prasa Rout as an assist- 
ant preacher. 

Several English friends have forwarded presents to the native 
ministers, which have not only administered to their comfort, but 
been received with gratitude as expressions of christian union and 
love. Friends at Nottingham took a leading part in this labour of 
love, and very pious and interesting letters have been received from 
their Hindoo friends ; several of which have been published in the 
Repository. One of the Hindoo brethren writing to a lady at 
Nottingham, observes, — "The articles which, on account of the 
grace of Jesus Christ, you sent to me and my wife as tokens of your 
regard to us, we have duly received.- — For these tokens of your 
love, what return can I make ? When I look upon the articles, 
be assured I will not forget your kindness. The warm clothing 
has been a great comfort to me. In the cold season when we were 
travelling about with our dear pastors, it protected me from the 
cold and rain, and thus aided me much in attending to the Lord's 
work. Though we may never see each other in this world, through 
the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, I hope to meet you in heaven." 
It appears evidently desirable that manifestations of love, 
like that to which these lines refer, should from 'time to time 



255 



be repeated by christians in England to their brethren and sisters 
in India. 

Of Mr. Buckley's ordination to the work of a Missionary it 
is stated — "In imitation of Apostolic example as recorded in 
Acts xiii. 2, 3, he was solemnly set apart to this work by prayer 
and the imposition of hands on j\Iay 29th. The service took 
place in the new and spacious chapel at Derby. On no occasion, 
it is believed, not even when tlie Society's first Missionary was 
ordained, did a greater number of friends, attached to the sacred 
cause assemble. The service was solemn and impressive, and 
when the congregation were requested, if they would pray for 
and support the Missionary, to express this, by standing up, nearly 
the whole assembly instantly arose. Let all who then, before the 
Lord, expressed their determination to support his cause, remember 
that the vows of God are upon them. That day week, your devo- 
ted brother commenced his voyage, by going on board the Well- 
esley, Captain Toller, which with the divine permission, is to land 
him at Vizagapatam, thus diminisliing his travelling by land, and 
lessening his voyage several hundred miles." — The voyage was 
very favourable, lie writes from ]\Iadras, Sep. 10th, 1844, "I have 
had a remarkably propitious voyage ; it is with one exception 
the quickest ever made. We lost sight of dear Old England 
shores June 1-1 th, and 78 days after, August 31st, we anchored 
in Madras roads." The voyage and journey to Vizagapatam and 
Berhampore, were attended with many mercies. May this beloved 
brother long prove a great blessing to India. 

The Society's Report of 1845, gratefully records the return of 
Mr. Stubbins and also the ordination of Brethren iMiller and Bailey. 
" The home proceedings of the Society, during the year, liave de- 
manded an unusual degree of attention and exertion. The number 
of missionary services attended by diHerent bretlircn, and especially 
by the brethren Stubbins and Hudson, has been very considerable. 
The calls on the Committee have been more frequent, than in most 
preceding years, and it is trusted that they have not laboured in 
vain, in endeavouring to carry out the resolutions announced in 
former Reports, of sending iMissionaries to China, and coiisiderably 
increasing the number in India. The result of their efforts on the 
former subject is before you. And towards the accom.plishment of 
the resolution of sending five additional missionaries to India, 
some pleasing progress has been made. The attention of the Com- 



256 



mittee having been directed to ^Ir. William JMiller and Mr. William 
Bailey, as candidates for missionary service, their applications were 
considered, and after much enquiry and deliberation, the Committee 
determined on accepting them as candidates for the important 
office, and of placing them, on probation, under the care of the 
estimable Tutor of the academical institution at Leicester. The 
improvement they made under his tuition was so encouraging, and 
his report and that of other friends, as to their spirit, deportment, 
diligence, and mental ability, so satisfactory, that the Committee, 
at a subsequent meeting, cheerfully accepted them for the great 
work to which they wished to devote their lives. To that work 
they have since been solemnly set apart. The designation services 
of JNIr. William Bailey were held in Broad-street, Nottingham, 
where a most crowded and deeply interested audience attended. 
The ordination of Mr. William Miller took place at Heptonstall 
Slack, where, as at Nottingham, much holy interest and sacred 
feeling were experienced. Soon after these interesting and mo- 
mentous days, the farewell services of Mr. Stubbins were held at 
Leicester. These were solemn and impressive in no ordinary de- 
gree, and will not be soon forgotten. Multitudes of friends from 
neighbouring towns and villages crowded the house of God. In- 
tense feeling pervaded the breasts of many who went that day to 
receive and bid farewell, in the case of numbers a last farewell ! to 
their beloved and devoted missionary brother and sister. Hun- 
dreds then again pledged themselves to pray for, and support their 
missionary friends, and many prayers were offered, which it is hoped 
will be recorded in heaven, and answered through future years. 
All these brethren, with Mrs. Stubbins and ]\Iiss Collins, who is 
sent out to assist Mrs. Sutton, sailed in the Wellcsley, Captain 
Toller. In their way to Portsmouth they passed a few days in 
London, where they experienced the kindness and hospitality of 
some of the London friends. At Portsmouth they were welcomed 
with equal cordiality, and experienced a most hospitable reception 
at the hotel of Mr. Tottcrdell, who had previously welcomed and 
treated with equal kindness your missionaries for China. Letters 
have been received from some of your friends since they went on 
board. Mr. Stubbins observes, " I believe we are all devoutly 
thankful that we are on our way to India — 

" I would not change my blest estate 
For all the world calls good or great," 

is I believe the feeling of all our hearts. I have spoken strongly 



257 



at many of our meetings, but never too strongly, never stronger 
than I would Avish to do on a dying bed. INIy only regret has been 
that I could not more fully depict the state of those to whom, 
blessed be Jesus ! we are carrying the gospel. I should like to be 
at the meetings next week, but I had rather be where I am." 
Influenced by such feelings, your brethren and sisters go to the 
burning plains of distant India. Surely you will think of them, 
pray for them, and support them !"' 

In reference to the progress of religion at Cuttack, it is observed 
— "At this first station, it is trusted that the word of truth has 
made some advancement. The number of the real and nominal 
christians at this station has been already mentioned, as ahotit five 
hundred, including the young persons in the Asylum. The num- 
ber in communion at Cuttack itself, is stated to be one hundred 
and thirty-seven, — but this evidently does not include those mem- 
bers that are connected with the six christian locations in the 
neighbourhood, for the whole number of members is stated to be 
one hundred and eighty-nine, though the number at each of these 
jilaces is not distinctly named. During the year 1844, fourteen 
were added to the church by baptism, and four by restoration ; 
■while two were separated from it by exclusion, and one by death. 
Various information is given respecting events that have transpired, 
the labours pursued, and the effects resulting from them." 

At an experience meeting. Ram Chundra spoke of ' the delight- 
ful contrast that was exhibited between what he then witnessed of 
the progress of the gospel, and the gloomy scenes of his early 
pilgrimage.' 

" I bless God for what my eyes have seen and my ears have heard ; 
things which I never believed I should see, yea, of v.-hich I always^ des- 
paired. When the first brother Gnnga became a christian, and Krupa 
followed, and next by the grace of God, I v/as brought in, bow few and 
feeble we were. Of knowledge we bad very little, of right conce])tions 
how few. We met witli our instructors and tried to profit, but all our 
services were in so small a way! All around seemed dark; there v/ere 
none but ourselves to speak to ; none to bid us God speed. Whenever 
we past the door of those we knew, they pointed and said, cV.e ! ciio ! 
fie ! fie ! I used to have a thousand fears whetlier I was right. Some- 
times I wondered what was b;'fbre us, how our familifs would be p/CM i ved, 
where I should get a wife for my son, and to wliom I shoubl give my 
daughter! No otliers seemed to come forward and I despaired of them 
coming. If I went to a distance I used to have a thousand fears. Satan 
disturbed my peace by suggesting, your wife is dead, your house is 
burned, some misfortune has befallen your children ; while every where, 
from every bodj', we met with opposition. But God has been better 
to us than all these apprehensions. Here I can m<'et with two or three 
hundred brethren and sisters, a thhig I could no: have believed would ever be. 
We can read and pray and tell of our experience, and help each other. 



258 



Til? gospel has bronglit down our pr'ule and levelled cm* distinctions; 
and we can marry our children withont difHcuUy and as we please. I see 
our yonng folks arrowing \ip to sncceed ns old ones. Yea, I have heard 
our children* preach to nie the gospel, and seen them go forth with us to 
the work. Again, then, I bless God for what my eyes have seen, and my 
ears have heard." 

The writer fears that this sketch of tlie history of the Mission, in 
reference to Cuttack, may be thought too full and disproportionate ; 
but it is hoped, its intimate connexion with every movement of the 
cause of Christ in Orissa, will render this record of the mother 
church valuable for reference and example to her sons and daugh- 
ters for generations to come. May " the little one become a thou- 
sand, and the small one a strong nation. The Lord hasten it in 
his time," 

POOREE, OE JUGGERNAUT. 

This celebrated seat of Ilindooism in Orissa, is the second mis- 
sionary Station of the Society. An invitation had been given by 
the Serampore Brethren to settle at Midnapore, but this great high 
place of Idolatry, appeared more central and important. As the 
English Government might disapprove of a Station so near the 
Temple of Juggernaut, the Brethren consulted their valued Friends 
at Serampore. They replied under date August 18th, 1823. 

Very dear bretliren, — After giving your case every degree of attention 
in our power, we are of opinion that one of you is warranted to remove 
to any otlier place in Cuttack,t or even near "it, without any new appli- 
cation to government. Indeed, we think such a step in reality more 
]ilcasing to them, to do it without them than with any frcsli a])plication. 
Our ideas are, (altliough we may be mistaken,) that while an application 
is necessary at the first entrance into a country, the less tiiey are troubled 
afterwards thebcttcr they are pleased. Perm'isshm is at all times anthnrl- 
zing to a certain degree, and this relative to missionary efforts seems like 
an attempt on the part of government to change the religion of their 
native subjects; every apparent advance towards which they wish to avoid, 
even while they may in reality wish it effected, on the ground of human- 
ity alone. Hence as you have their permission to reside in Cuttack, we 
think you need not apply for any minute permission as to the part of 
Cuttack you may choose ; or whether you may occupy, jointly or sepa- 
rately. Tlie land is before you ; arise and possess it in the name of its 
Maker and Lord. Pooree we think a good station." 

Mr, Bampton first visited this city, during the Ruth Jattra, 
,Tuly 1823, a full account of which is given in the Report of the 
following year. He thus described his removal from Cuttack to 
his new scene of labour. " Mrs. B. and myself left Cuttack in a 

Yomigcr members coming forward to engage as preachers, 
t 'I'liat is, the District so called. 



25a 



boat, Sept. 17th, and arrived here in about twenty-three liours. 
We should have waited till the rains were over, but the river from 
Cuttack to Pooree unexpectedly becoming navigable, we thought it 
best to take the opportunity ; I should however be more careful 
about removing in the rains again, for many of our things got very 
wet, and it has cost us much care and labour to prevent books and 
other articles being much injured. Our bungalow stands on the 
barren sand, about a furlong from the sea, and twenty minutes' ride 
from Juggernaut's temple ; it contains six rooms, and we can see 
the temple from five of them; a hill of sand twenty or thirty yards 
from the house, partially hides the pagoda, but ascending that, we 
have a view of it. T shall not now attempt a description of the 
temple; unless it could be put to abetter use, we should triumph in 
its downfall. The people, however, are by no means willing that 
it should be dilapidated. A wealthy native has just given fifty 
thousand rupees towards repairing and perhaps beautifying it : and 
no wonder, for it is the residence of his god.'' 

In a later communication, he writes : — " During the first few 
weeks I went about the toAvn to make myself acquainted with it, 
and daily, or nearly so, gave away some books ; numbers took the 
books very readily, though I had reason to conclude that some 
w^ere shrewd enough to regard them as so many stones thrown at 
the great idol. Thus, comparatively inactive, I was not very com- 
fortable, and began to open my mouth quite as soon as my judg- 
ment would admit of it ; and 1 now talk a little to them every 
evening. Besides the resident population, the town is important 
as a place of great resort. We had many pilgrims here a few weeks 
ago, <at the Kartiku festival. Besides going out in the evenings as 
usual, I was amongst them several hours in the day time for three 
successive days ; I went in a palanquin, and kept as much in the 
shade as I could, but was obliged to stay at home the next three or 
four days. In the present state of things, European Missionaries 
are indispensable ; but Ave are poor creatures in the torrid zone. 
There are in Pooree, several tanks or pools, in which the pilgrims 
bathe, and they are thought very sacred ; one of them, called 
Sagtee Gunga, is said to have a subteranean communication with 
the Ganges. They also bathe in the pea, at a place (perhaps a mile 
from my house,) called Swurgo Dwaro, literally translated, heaven 
gate. When I was going out this morning, I was told there was 
an assembly at that place ; so taking thirty or forty pamphlets and 
tracts, I repaired thither, and soon disposed of them ; the assembly 
was so numerous, that I wished I had had many more. I generally 



260 



lioar every one read a few words before I give a book, and Avhere 
there is a crowd, this is not only necessary for its most obvious 
reason, but also to preserve order, which, on two or three occasions, 
lias been so far interrupted as to render it difficult for me to prevent 
the people's taking the books away from me by force." 

Of the labours of 1824, the Reijort of the Society stated, "At 
Juggernaut, Mr. Bampton continues to labour with an assiduity 
worthy of the cause in which he is embarked. His station is in 
many respects peculiarly important, yet peculiarly painful. Cut 
off almost from christian intercourse, banished even from European 
society — surrounded only by idolaters, who are mad upon their 
idols — beholding sand plains strewed with human bones, and the 
lofty tovv'er of the horrid temple in which Satan seems to entrench 
his power ; this, circumstance from day to day, from month to 
month, from year to year, the Missionary has peculiar need for 
confidence in heaven, and exercising that confidence ; even at 
Juggernaut, our brother declares he expects great things. His 
labours, like those of his bretliren, were for some months inter- 
rupted by an alarming illness, which brought him apparently to 
the brink of the grave. At this critical period the medical knowledge 
wliich he acquired previous to leaving England, appears to have 
been of considerable advantage ; with a firmness which few would 
have displayed, he bled himself repeatedly, till he had extracted 
from his veins nearly five pints of blood, and thus cheeked the 
I)rogress of a fever, which otherwise would probably have termi- 
nated fatally, before medical assistance could have been procured. 
On two occasions his knowledge of medicine appears to have been 
the means used for preserving the life of the Native assistant, Abra- 
ham. In about two months from the period when his illness 
commenced, ]\Ir. Bampton v,-as sufficiently recovered to resume 
his labours, and appears to devote himself with unabating fervour 
to his work. His labours among the Natives are abundant — his 
perseverance in pursuing those modes which may qualify him for 
extensive usefulness, appears great." 

Not content with the sphere of his immediate vicinity, from a 
letter recently received, it is learnt that he was about to undertake 
a journey that would occupy a fortnight, into another part of the 
benighted regions around him. The Natives manifest, in many 
cases, the utmost eagerness for tracts and the scriptures ; in fact, so 
much eagerness, that the distribution of those little messengers of 
mercy becomes a task of considerable difficulty, yet their distribu- 
tion at Juggernaut is peculiarly important, as thence they will be 



261 



carried to the remotest regions of India. At tin's station vnr'ous 
difficulties obstruct the progress of education, yet two schools have 
been established. A biragee who had received a grant of land 
from the l.igh priest of Juggernaut, has actually given a part of 
that land for the erection of a school-room. Tiiere heathen 
children will be taught those sacred scriptures, which are adapted 
to benefit men in every age and clime, and of wliich a converted 
African once said — These are the weapons that will conquer Africa 
— they have conquered me. 

Mr. Bampton speaks of a greater degree of attention, as paid by 
the Hindoos, to the sacred instfuction he delivers. At another time, 
he mentions an inquirer coming from a distance, to acquire some 
knowledge of the new religion. To those painful feelings which 
spring from disappointed hopes. Missionaries must be subject, and 
he has experienced these. Amidst labours and trials, privations 
and difficulties, he, and Mrs. Bampton persevere ; and Avhile he 
feels the weakness of human eftorts, he leans on the Almighty, and 
expresses his confidence of final triumph." — In this year, a most 
horrible Suttee was reported, of which, our brother was an eye 
witness. It occurs in a former part of this history. 

Though exposed to insult and contempt, Mr, B. was through 
divine grace, enabled to pursue with una'oated zeal, his benevolent 
labours. He wrote in 1825 — " If the violent partizans of Jugger- 
naut imagine, that either clamour or bitter reproach will deter me 
from preaching the Gospel among them, they have formed a false 
estimate of my character ; or else I have formed a false estimate 
of it myself. Though I have sometimes thought whether it were 
wise to attack the strongest holds first : if, however, the result be 
a failure, it may resemble a blow at the heart. I am in the hand 
of God, and if he say, go hence, I must go ; but I hope the poor 
Hindoos will find a friend, and the Idols an enemy, wherever my 
lot is cast. On the whole, I never was so happy in the ministry 
before, and I never was so much given up to it. Except a news- 
paper, I read nothing that is not closely connected with my work ; 
and though this people oppose, opposition strengthens the spirit 
that contends with it ; and the Lord being my helper I shall doubt- 
less be a match for them : and the time may come when they will 
find me out a little more. I do not wonder at a spirit of opposition 
shewing itself, for besides what Abraham does, the people have 
what English preachers would call four or six short sermons every 
day, in difterent parts of the holy city ; so that, as my pundit 



262 

once s;ii(l, llicy have notliing but Yesoo Kreest, Ycsoo Kreest, 
Ycsoo Kreest." 

In IS'2'), a pt.or wretched woman was resciicd from the burning 
|)it, in which, at Juggernaut, the Suttee was accustomed to be 
imniohited. This was an event of considerable importance, contri- 
butin«' to the suppression of the practice, which a few years after 
crowned the labours of the friends of India. A description of the 
.scene bv Mr. Sutton, is given in the Society's Report for 1S2G, 
pp. 12, 13. 

This vear was peculiarly affecting to the indefatigable missionary 
at the station, by the affliction and death of J\Irs. Sutton, who had 
Ikcu in the country so short a time. The following extract of a 
letter from the author, will briefly record here this mysterious 
event. '* I accompanied brother and sister Sutton to Pooree, April 
28th, and coniinued there till May 12th, endeavouring to bear my 
part of the affliction that lay upon us through the continued delirium 
of our dear sister. I took my leave of her with forebodings that I 
should see her no more in this world, and events soon ratified the 
truth of them ; O what a heavy cloud was now passing over us! 
On the 13th I arrived early at Cuttack, and before 12 o'clock that 
morning, saw my third sweet babe expire, aged five months and 
nineteen days. How mysterious are these dispensations to us, but 
" He erreth not in council." The next morning early, the Collector 
lent us his palanqueen carriage, and we conveyed the dear remains 
to the depository of the dead. Three years that day our first child 
was born ; thus in three years, three dear children have been born 
and buried at Cuttack, but " He doth all things well." On the 
day following. Lord's day, 15th, our dear sister Sutton was re- 
moved — her imprisoned spirit escaped from its chains of mortality, 
insanity, and affliction, and bowed before the eternal throne. — 
Help Lord, and let not the heathen say, Why are the Padres so 
afflicted, if tlieir religion be true, and God love them ? Dear 
brother Sutton will inform you fully of these painful circumstances. 
Thus purified, may we bear much fruit." 

Though Pooree, (says the Secretary of the Society,) is considered 
Mr. Hampton's station, yet he by no means confines himself to it, 
but travels about spreading the tidings of the gospel, during several 
months of the year. In the early part of 1820, he finished an ex- 
cursion of three months, during which he had left Mrs. Bampton 
at Pooree. In some later journeys he has been accompanied by 
Mjs. IJampton. Of his views on the subject of such excursions to 
make known the gospel, and of his assiduity to become increasingly 



263 

qualified for the great work he has so labouriously pursued, some 
information from one of his journals must be gratifying. — 

" Some people talk of staying and cultivating a small spot well, 
and so on : for my part, I think that a town containing thirty or 
forty thousand is nothing like large enough for any one healthy 
active IMissionary. And I think travelling a great deal the plainer 
path of duty ; the difficulties of it are the greatest hinderance. 

^^ Aug. 23rd. — Ganjam. 1 arrived here with Mrs. B. yesterday, 
having spent six days on the road. Previously to leaving Pooreo 
I had filled three sheets of paper with objections to Ilindooism, 
luider the following heads : — Idolatry is contary to the shastras. 
It is contrary to reason. A number of actions connected with 
Hindooism are ridiculous. Many of the Hindoo religious senti- 
ments and practices are very grossly wicked. Many others are 
chargeable with having a very wicked tendency. The examples of 
the gods have a tendency to encourage sin. The shastras have 
also a wicked tendency. The shastras contradict one another. 
Hindooism exposes its adherents to much pain and expense when 
they have been guilty of any faults. There is much in it, which 
renders it probable that it was invented by brahmins 'for their own 
advantage. The first of these heads contains ten sections. The 
second, five. The third, four. The fourth, five. The fifth, four. 
The sixth, fifteen. The seventh, thirteen. The eighth, three. 
The ninth, eight or ten particulars ; and the tenth, forty-five. 
Perhaps several of these heads will be enlarged, and I have more 
matter which wants arranging. I commonly carry my notes with 
me, when I go among the people, and read them, sometimes among 
my very perverse hearers at Pooree, with considerable advantage. 
Besides them, I carry with me five sheets of notes on evangelical 
subjects. I walked the greater part of the way hither, and ]\Irs. B. 
rode my horse. I hope to be out a good deal, and think that there 
is nothing either very reasonable or scriptural in my wife spending 
a deal of time alone at Pooree, while I am wandering alone about 
the country. Peter and some others of the Apostles led about 
their wives, and I am at present favorable to modern Missionaries 
doing the same. During our journey we slept three nights in 
places built for the accommodation of travellers. Their exterior 
looks better than most buildings in the country, but their interior 
is not half so desirable as those of an English barn ; but they were 
the best lodgings we could get, for being the rainy season, I dare 
not trust to my tent." 

k2 



264 

Tlius several months in the year were employed by Mr. and Mrs, 
I?anipton, in travelling through the distant parts of the country to 
publish the glorious gospel. These journeys must necessarily have 
been connected with much fatigue ; but the seed sown will assu- 
redly bring forth much fruit. 

In 1829, the first reference is made to the illness of the invalu- 
able missionary at Juggernaut. It is stated — " One of the trials 
experienced by the Society has been the severe illness of the inde- 
fatigable brother, who was stationed at this emporium of idolatry. 
This illness being loiig continued, has prevented, in a great degree, 
his exertions during the past year. Probably those exertions have 
been too great for his frame, notwithstanding his constitution ap- 
peared so peculiarly adapted to India. On one occasion his journal 
contains the following statement, — ' I was walking, chiefly barefoot, 
and preaching nine hours and three quarters^ only stopping a few 
minutes to eat some biscuits I had with me. I am almost always 
barefoot, partly because it makes me more like the majority of the 
people; partly because it adds to my hardihood, and partly because 
it is very coiij-enient. One is stopped by no sort of roads ; and if 
one is at any time up to the ancles in mud, one is probably soon 
after up to the knees in water, out of which I come clean and 
comfortable, whilst in an English dress all this would be miserable." 

Reference is here made to the adoption, to a considerable extent, 
of the native dress, for the advantage of travelling and conciliating 
the people. No one doubted the sincerity and the magnanimity of 
Mr. Iiampton in this proceeding ; but the writer's convictions, in 
unison with other brethren, are unfavourable to such a line of con- 
duct. When Capt. Minchin, his neighbour, first met him in this 
dress, he had to assure him that he was compos mentis. Such ex- 
planations to various individuals and classes of society, must be 
any thing but desirable or useful. Indeed it is not improbable, 
that his health was seriously undermined by this step. His 
labours however were enough in a few years to have worn down 
the best constitution. 

We have seen that on Dec. 27th, 1827, he was honoured to 
baptize the first Hindoo convert. This important event occurred 
at IJerhanipore. By the itinerant labours of Mr. B. the land was 
searched out," — and both Ganjam and Bcrhampore have become 
interesting stations. A trip to the sand heads was found useful, 
and in Sep. or Oct. 1828, he returned by sea to Pooree, his health 
for a time improving. During part of this year, Mr, Sutton de- 



265 



voted liis labours to Poorce, and met with less opposition than 
formerly. 

At the great festival in 1830, the Missionaries could not do so 
much as in some former years ; some exertions, however, were 
made by preaching and the destribution of Religions Tracts to 
pilgrims on their way, to diftuse the Gospel. At this festival 
an impressive illustration was furnished of the inefTiciency of mere 
human science for effecting the destruction of idolatry. ^lany 
wealthy, learned, and respectable Bengalees were present, who 
had been educated in the colleges and institutions of European 
literature in Calcutta and its vicinity ; yet these learned heathens, 
notwithstanding their acquaintance with European science and 
their cultivation from European manners and customs, could 
adore the detestable wooden idol, with as much apparent devotion 
as the most ignorant idolater. A friend remarks, " I had many 
opportunities of witnessing this fact, for scarcely a day passed but 
I had a dispute in English, with one or more learned Bengalees on 
the subject of Idol worship." 

It is with pungent feelings of regret, that the death of dear 
Bampton is recorded. " The severe illness of the estimable Mission- 
ary who laboured here, has terminated in his removal to a better 
world. He died in peace, Dec. 1 7, and his mortal remains rest, 
till the resurrection of the just, near the temple of that modern 
Moloch, whose infernal rites he laboured to destroy. He has fal- 
len in the sacred warfare, but doubtless the confidence he indulged 
in the anticipation of such an event, will hereafter be realized ; 
that strong-hold of superstition itself will fall: and in some future 
age, when that temple has lost its votaries, Oreah Christians may 
gaze on its deserted ruins, or stand on the spot that covers the 
dust of Charlotte Sutton and William Bampton, and thank God 
that they loved not their lives unto death ; but went forth to India, 
bearing that precious seed, from which will spring the copious 
harvest of many following years." 

In the Report of 1832, the notice of this station is very brief. 
It is stated — " At Pooree Mr. Sutton spent a considerable part of 
the past year. Gunga Dhor assicited him during a part of that 
time, and after leaving, spoke encouragingly of a few pcoj^le there. 
Mr. Lacey says there has been good done to some of the Pooree 
people, but as usual opposition has run liigh. In March, 
Mr. Sutton remarks, — "Our daily work in the bazaar has not 
been neglected. The congregations have been usually less than at 
Balasore, but they have behaved pretty well for Pooree people. 



266 



The people are awfully sunk in sensuality, infitlelity, and sin. 
Were it not for the pilgrim hunters, I apprehend the numbers who 
come would be very small. The op])osition in the way of ob- 
scene abuse, runs very high, and has probably deterred one or two 
from making a public profession. Oh the abominable expressions 
shouted out against Gunga and me this evening ! It would frighten 
half England to hear them. Still I have no doubt it produces a 
favourable effect. All reasonable persons see that abuse is not 
argument, and that we do not deserve this treatment." 

Of the following year it is said — "At this high place of the 
abominations of idolatry, efforts to diffuse Gospel light have been 
continued during a considerable part of the year. In 18.32 the 
brethren remaining in the province assembled hei'e, and held their 
annual Conference, at which a variety of business of importance 
and interest in connection with the cause of religion was trans- 
acted The senior missionaries engaged in public labours, and were 
assisted by several of the native brethren, who at times addressed 
to great numbers the message of heavenly mercy. Rama Chundra 
on one occasion was supposed to have as many as 7000 hearers, 
and was engaged in preaching the Gospel or in disputation with 
its opponents most of the day : yet opposition here continues 
violent. For at this place not only human depravity and satanic 
rule support idolatry, but the same principle which led Demetrius 
and his coadjutors to excite the madness of the mob at Ephesus, 
influences the pundas and brahmins at Juggernaut. " Ye know," 
said Demetrius, " that by this craft we have our wealth. This our 
craft is in danger to be set at nought." Just thus at Juggernaut 
all the worldly interests of a most abandoned, impure, and depra- 
ved people, are connected with the support of their demoralizing 
idolatry. 

Pooree had been for some time the scene of Mr. Sutton's labours, 
but illness obliged him to vacate this station. He visited Calcutta 
in the latter end of 1832, where he was attacked with fever, and in 
accordance with the advice of his medical advisers, sought renewed 
liealth and iisefulness in a voyage to America and England. From 
this time this station has not been regularly occupied, but has been 
the scene of occasional exertion. At the great car festival, the 
Brethren generally, with the Native evangelists, improved the 
opportunity afforded by the immense concourse of pilgrims, of 
disseminating far and wide the good seed of the kingdom, the fruit 
of which they have gathered in various parts of the great field. 



267 

In a letter after the festival of 1833, one of the Missionaries 
wrote, — " The evil of the unnatural connexion of the Government 
with temples and the system of worship, is more and more apparent, 
and more and more operative. Tlie support and protection of 
Government is the great huhvarh of Juggernaiit's strength, and the all 
prevailing plea for his divinity. An attempt has been made to 
remove the odious union, by a pious, good man the Secretary of the 
Board of revenue, but the opinion and advice of interested persons 
have been asked, and at present seem to prevail. The advice, &c. 
you may suppose was not the abolition of the tax, and was sup- 
ported by various specious arguments : yet surely the time will 
notbelong, ere the tax will be abolished and the people left to support 
their own idols. When this shall be the case Juggernaut will fall ; 
but the measure will be received as a boon by the people, and 
none will complain but the interested Pundahs and Riragces." 
Two months after making these remarks the writer had the pleasure 
of stating, — "September 16. Orders have been received from the 
Court of Directors to do away with the tax upon all holy places ! 
From hence does Juggernaut's fall commence and he Avill rise no 
more." 

Great was the triumph of Christian principle over a system of 
wicked, worldly policy, when it was determined that Britain should 
no longer postitute her power in the East to support the abominable 
idolatries of Hindostan. Let this event be regarded by the ^lem- 
bers of this Society, with unfeigned delight ; and while they praise 
Him, under whose blessing every desirable event is accomplished, 
let them be thankful, that their institution has contributed in part 
to accomplish a good so great, as the dissolution of British connec- 
tion with Indian idolatry." But it was not until April 1840, that 
the pilgrim tax was repealed, and this good work was marred by an 
annual "Government Donation of 60,000 rupees to the Temple." 

Of the year 1836, the Secretary states — '* As usual this detested 
seat of the iMoloch of India has been the scene of exertion, though 
no one of the Society's Missionaries has recently resided here. 
In July Mr. Sutton, accompaincd by his /fmerican brother Noyes, 
visited Pooree, to embrace the opportunity for diffusing divine 
knowledge, afforded by the confluence of pilgrims at the ruth jattra. 
The festival was unusually late, and, in consequence, a much 
thinner attendance, than Mr. S. had ever previously witnessed; 
but it was, as heretofore, a most heart-sickening sight. Death 
triumphed before the close of the festival ; and iiimself and fellow 
labourer were glad to hasten from the scene of blasphemy and 



268 



cruelty. They distributed a considerable number of tracts to the 
pilgrims, especially as they were leaving the town to bend their 
steps homewards. INIr. S. remarks, " My companion Avas much 
ailccted by the scenes he witnessed ; for myself I could not help 
contrasting this vast worshipping assembly with the holy convo- 
cations, I attended in Exeter Hall, and in New York. O how did 
I wish they could be seen in contrast by the Christian world. 
A glance at the festival 0/ Juggernaut, one would think would he 
enough to rouse the Church, and especially to send home the atten- 
dants on our religious anniversaries, watering their path with precious 
tears of gratitude for the blessings of the Gospel." 

At a special Meeting of several of the brethren this year it was 
determined, that Pooree should be visited at its various festivals by 
the neighbouring IMissionaries ; and that the bungalow formerly 
belonging to Mr. Eampton, and subsequently to Mr. Sutton, 
should be retained and repaired for their accommodation, at such 
times. This arrangement was approved at the Cuttack conference 
in 1837; and has since been sanctioned by the Committee. The 
propriety and importance of this arrangement are evident, when it 
is considered, how numerous are the idolatrous festivals at this 
horrid place ; how vast the crowds that assemble at some of these 
festivals ; and how desirable it is that the IMissionaries should 
attend at such times, to circulate religious truth ; and to have the 
opportunity of meeting with those weary wanderers after rest, that 
are occasionally found among the crowds that are attracted to Pooree, 
by the fame of Juggernaut." 

At the great festival in 1838, no less than seven brethren were 
employed in diffusing gospel light among the myriads of benighted 
pilgrims. The brethren thus engaged were Lacey and Stubbins, 
Gunga Dhor, Ram Chundra, Pooroosootum, Bamadab and Bik- 
haree. About 200,000 pilgrims were computed to be present at 
the festival. One of the Pundas of Juggernaut, exclaimed, — " If 
the hopes of the worshippers of Juggernaut be all a delusion and 
we are all deceivers, why does the Company levy a tax and sup- 
port the Idols in all this glory?" — Proh dolor! 

In the Jleport 1812, it is stated — "At this high place of Hindoo 
idolatry, the labours of your brethren have resembled those of 
former years. The brethren Sutton and Lacey, with Bamadab, 
Rama Chundra and Seboo Naik, attended the last great festival, 
which presented scenes of the most appalling miser)'. It being the 
third year of the famine in the district, so much scarcity of food 
existed, that the Magistrate at Pooree sent notice to various parts 



269 



of India, warning the, people of tlie danger, to -wlilch they would 
expose themselves, by undertaking the pilgrimage. This is sup- 
posed to have lessened the attendance at the festival, which, not- 
withstanding, is stated to have amounted to at least two hundred 
thousands. Mr. Sutton states, that as he approached Pooree, 
there was no crowd at the gates, as in former j^ears, the tax office 
being removed ; but he was surprised at the number of dead and 
and dying lying about in all directions. He observed, " Never 
did the place appear to me so disgustingly wicked, and miserable. 
The filth every where was abominable ; the atmosphere was loaded 
with the effluvia, every spot seemed redolent of cholera, while the 
multitude of cadaverous countenances, and extenuated framework 
of human bodies, seemed a perpetual comment on the text, "Their 
sorrows shall be multiplied who hasten after another god." — I was 
glad to leave Pooree again. It never looked to me so inuch like 
the habitation of devils, and the abode of every unclean and hate- 
ful thing. I did not see the idols nor the temples this year excep- 
ting from a distance, my work lying in a different direction. I 
found the roads excessively muddy; nevertheless the people laid 
themselves down to sleep in the muddy places, by hundreds and 
perhaps thousands, all the way to Cuttack. While the day-light 
lasted on my journey I saw many dead by the road side, and many 
more of the living, or rather dying, who ere the morning dawned, 
would be added to their number." 

In 1825 the Society adopted measures to remove British con- 
nection with Idolatry in India. ' ' A Petition founded on a draft was 
brought forward by the Secretary to be presented to the House of 
Commons and the East India Directors, against British support of 
Hindoo Idolatry, and a copy of the petition to be forwarded to the 
Secretaries of the other Missionary Societies." This vitally im- 
portant object has been steadily prosecuted to the present time, and 
with considerable success. In reference to Pooree, in 18-13 it is 
observed ; "Of the labours of the brethren at this high place of idola- 
trous resort, the information received this year, is much scantier 
than usual. Petitions have been adopted from the Committee to 
the two Houses of Parliament, against the unholy connection be- 
tween the British Government in India and the idolatry of that 
superstitious land. And memorials on the same subject, have been 
forwarded to the Court of East India Proprietors, and to the 
President of the Board of Control. The first of these memorials 
was presented by Mr. Poynder, who however postponed a motion 
on the subject till September, in consequence of Sir Robert Peel 



270 



having stated, in the House of Commons, that a dispatch upon the 
question at issue, had already been sent to India. The memorial 
to the President of the Board of Control, was presented to the Earl 
of Ripon, by Wni. Evans, Esq., Member for North Derbyshire, 
and ]Mr. Peggs. His Lordship read the memorial carefully, and 
expressed his interest in the proper settlement of the question, to 
which he engaged to pay attention." 

The Report of 184.'3 refers to the visit of the Brethren to Pooree, 
and fully details, "the sorrows of those who seek after another 
God." It is added ; " The public prints have announced that the 
efforts of Christians to dissolve the wicked connexion between the 
Indian government and the temple of the Moloch of the East, have 
been at length successful. It is stated that the British government 
have renounced all connexion with the Temple, have withdrawn 
their money, and surrendered the temple lands to the votaries of 
the idol. This is another triumph of christian principles over a 
system of wicked worldly policy." 

BALASORE. 

This is the third station occupied by the Society. In the first 
Report of the Orissa Baptist Mission, printed at Cuttack, reference 
is made to the occupation of it by different Missionaries. — " In 
1814, Mr. Peters, an East Indian, under the patronage of the 
Serampore brethren, commenced missionary labours at this station, 
but it was not occupied by the Orissa Missionaries till 1825. Early 
in January, Mr. and Mrs. Sutton visited this place on a missionary 
tour, and eventually decided on making it our third station. At 
that period, and for many years previously, nearly all traces of Mr. 
Peters labours had disappeared, and the whole town had undergone 
an entire change. The five factories of the Danish, Dutch, French, 
Portuguese, and English, had mouldered into ruins, and the walls 
of an old Catholic Chapel alone remained to testify that it had ever 
been visited by the professed ministers of Christ. Mr. and Mrs. 
Sutton continued to labour at Balasore until the death of Mr. 
Bampton, when the weak state of the mission obliged them to 
leave a field that seemed "white unto the harvest," in order to be 
near their solitary colleague at Cuttack. The station wa# subse- 
quently occupied by Mr. and Mrs. Goadby, and after their return 
to England, in 1838, it was made over to the American Mission- 
aries." 



271 



The Report of 1828 announced the formation of this station. 
*' The Society has now the satisfaction of possessing a third mission- 
ary station in Orissa. This is at the populous town of Balasore ; 
and was established by Mr. and Mrs. Sutton, who removed thiiher 
in the early part of the year 1827. Of this station letters of Mr. 
Sutton furnish some interesting information. " Balasore, in point of 
size, is the first town in Orissa Proper, and contains about 10,000 
people. It is surrounded by an infinity of little hamlets; the whole 
neighbourhood is covered with numerous little villages, which send 
forth an immence population, and which give it the character of 
the most populous part of the province. The town is situated 
about 170 miles from Calcutta, 100 from Cuttack, and 150 from 
Pooree. It has been in its day one of the most important of the 
European settlements, before the way was opened to Calcutta. 
At this day may be seen the remains of the British, French, Dan- 
ish, Dutch, and Portuguese Factories ; and many of the inhabitants 
remember the flags of these five nations all flying at the same time. 
Very little now remains of all the glory and authority of the last 
four, besides the tombs of their adventurers. There are indeed two 
very high triangular pillars, with the word 'Copenhagen Factory;' 
and the ruins of a Catholic Chapel. The Danes also have about 
an acre of ground and a few trifling buildings ; just enough to give 
them authority to hoist the Danish ensign on Sunday morning. 
I have seen nothing particular belonging to the French ; and the 
general trade of the place is now nearly annihilated. The inhab- 
itants of the town are a mixt community of Oriyas, Bengalees, 
Mussulmen, and a few low Portuguese. One of the principal 
inconveniences which I at present experience from the distribution 
of the people, is the want of a focus or meeting place, where the 
people are to be met with in large numbers, similar to the principal 
bazaars at Cuttack or the vicinity of Juggernaut's temple at Pooree. 
I have not as yet discovered any temple or object of worship re- 
markable for either its size or popularity, though there is a great 
variety of objects which share the veneration of the people — Jug- 
gernaut, Krishnoo, Mahadaive in different forms: Doorga Punch- 
unun, (five faces), and Ade Mata (first mother), seem the most 
popular. My acquaintance however is as yet but superficial. The 
general character of the people, however, seems to proclaim them 
exceedingly depraved. The lasciviousness of their character seems 
to be more glaring than in other places." 

1.2 



OTO 



Besides direct misbionarj- efforts, Mr. Sutton preached to a small 
congregation of liuropean and Indo-British that assembled at the 
house of a military officer, Col. D'Aguilar ; which led to the pub- 
lication (;f his Family C/ioplain, in two volumes, a work which has 
been extensively and usefully circulated in India. Mr. Bamptou 
died at Pooree, Dec. 17th, 1830, and a few weeks after, Mr. Sutton 
removed to that station. He left Balasore with regret, and mis- 
^onary operations were thus suspended for some time. That town 
with its vicinity, was the scene of a dreadful inundation, by which, 
according to the Magistrates' reports, upwards of 20,000 persons 
perished ! Mr. Sutton's house was swept away. At the annual 
Conference, to the enquiry, " Can Balasore be occupied ?" the 
missionaries were compelled to say, " We regret, that with our 
present strength, it cannot." 

Mr. John Goadby removed to Balasore in Jan. 1836. It is 
stated in the Report—" But for long and severe affliction he would 
have removed thither at an earlier period. Since his settlement in 
India, he has experienced a large portion of affliction. Having 
lost his estimable partner, he some time afterwards married an 
American lady, who went out from the Western American Mis- 
sionary Society in company with Mr. and Mrs. Brooks. In 
August last, Mrs. Goadby was taken seriously ill and was con- 
fined to her bed nearly three months ; during which time, of course, 
she demanded a large share of her husband's attention. Previously 
to her illness commencing, disease was insidiously attacking his 
constitution, and scarcely had she left her bed before he was obli- 
ged to call in medical aid. He suffered much for several months, 
but in February last, stated that his general health had greatly 
improved and was better than previous to his illness. 

At this time Mr. Goadby contemplated fixing in a populous 
neighbourhood entirely away from European example. He re- 
remarked, — " I have begun to entertain very serious thoughts of 
going from Cuttack, to some thickly populated neighbourhood, 
and commencing a station away from European example. This 
appears to promise more success, and that will be an abundant 
compensation for the increase of privations and difficulties. The 
only serious objection is distance from medical aid, but God is 
able and willing to preserve us as well in the wild, as in the cul- 
tivated spot. And I am happy to say I shall not meet with any 
opposition from Mrs. G. indeed it is what she wishes as well as my 
own desire. It is worth all the vexation attendant upon travelling in 
this country, to be far away from Europeans, surrounded by jungle, 



273 



to feci that though there he no loved ohject near us, no friend with 
whom we can take sweet counsel, God is witli us; our union to 
Him seems closer, our intimacy witli Him increases, and lie 
becomes our I'riend and comy)anion. These have often been my 
feelings, and I doubt not the feelings of many others engaged in 
the same good work." 

Soon after the time wlien these remarks were penned Mr. and 
Mrs. Goadby experienced their long afflictions, after which it 
appears tliey determined on fixing at Bahisoi-e. For this ste]) the 
following among other reasons are assigned. " Balasore is 
a populous neigbourhood and the key to Orissa, as important a 
station quite as Cuttack. All pilgrims from Bengal and upper 
Hindostan must pass it to Pooree ; and of all the pilgrims, who 
visit that Moloch of the East, neai-ly ninety nine hundreths come 
from those parts." Gunga Dhor, with his family and another 
Christian convert, accompany Mr Goadby to Balasore, and thus 
will form a little Church there. This other native brother is likely 
to be employed in Mission work, according to his ability. Mr. G. 
referring to him and to his own plans, remai-ks, — ■" I have some 
thoughts of stationing him at the ghat or ferry over wdiich all 
travellers entering Orissa must pass, to distribute tracts, &c. to 
them ; it is aboiit two miles from Balasore, and I should visit him 
frequently. Res2;)ecting Schools I cannot decide anything yet, 
but hope that in addition to the native one we shall be able to raise 
an English School, if we do, I intend it shall not be liable to be in 
any way chargeable to the Society. At present the Gentlemen are 
all absent from the station, therefore I cannot make a beginning in 
any thing of this kind. I shall begin an English service as soon 
as I am able to preach, wliich I hope will not be long. Mrs. G. 
is extremely anxious to. obtain a native female school but this 
requires time. You are aware that there was many years ago a 
Christian church here, there are no remains of it now." 

In 1838 reference is made to the station being again destitute. 
— "This station has been a second time deprived of a resident 
Missionary. For some years it formed the scene of ]\Tr. Sutton's 
labours. After his removal had taken place, the station was, for 
a time, unoccupied. At length Mr. Goadby removed to this place, 
and, though he suifered much from illness, hopes were entertained 
that he would be able to persevere in his important labours. These 
hopes, however, have been disappointed. The ill health of himself 
and Mrs. Goadby rendered it absolutely necessary for him to leave 
Balasore, _which was thus, again, deprived of the services of a 



274 



resident Missionary. WTiile there he was assisted by the native 
minister Giinga Dhor, who, besides frequent preaching, visited 
the Schools, that were established, and examined the children. 
Some pleasing appearances were presented during Mr. Goadby's 
residence at Balasore. When for about two months he seldom 
went to the Bazaar, and Gunga not frequently, the people flocked 
to his house, and would sit in the verandah, sixty or eighty daily, 
from two or three o'clock till evening. They came from different 
parts of the county, and hundreds of them carried home the word 
of life, while many fervent prayers were offered that it might make 
them wise unto salvation. 

In the cold season, before the time of his leaving India, Mr. 
Goadby made several missionary journeys, but at length was al- 
together laid aside by illness. In visiting various villages, he felt 
much encouraged by the attention of the people. In the beginning 
of December he crossed the river, and visited ten or twelve other 
villages, and spoke in most of them. He then went to Seragun, 
and after spending ten happy, and he trusted useful days there, 
removed to Buddruck, where he continued till sickness drove him 
home. In that district he spent nearly a month, went round the 
whole neighbourhood, and had many pleasing and many painful 
opportunities with the people. During the latter ten or twelve 
days of his stay there, Doitaree and Bambadab were with him and 
laboured well. Thus the good seed of the word was scattered far 
and wide. Three men offered themselves as candidates for bap- 
tism, but none of them were received ; there being reason to appre- 
hend that they were not truly converts to Christ." This interesting 
station, after the return of Mr. Goadby to England, was occupied 
by the American branch of the Mission. 

BERIIAMPORE. 

This Tovm, though not permanently occupied for some years, 
early enjoyed the visits of Messrs. Bampton, Sutton, Goadby, 
Lacey, Brown and Stubbins, and much good seed was sown which 
has rewarded the toil of the labourers. Mr. Bampton often visited 
this Town and its vicinity. 

Mr. Sutton thus describes his visit Dec. 1825, Christmas-day 
and Sabbath. " I arose to go into the Bazaar according to my 
promise ; but the natives gave me no opportunity. Early in the 
morning they came in flocks, of all ages and pursuits, from the 
proud byraggee Brahmun, to the little child, Oriyas and Telingas, 



275 



to hear about the new doctrine and get a book. T never had such 
a day in my life ; as soon as one group left, another came, so that 
I was perpetually engaged from morning till night, to difTcrcnt 
sets, in preaching and giving away books. Indeed I talked till 
I could talk no more, and was obliged to steal away in my pal- 
anquin for a little ride and relief. On Monday morning many 
more came for books before I left. I think altogether, I may say 
the whole city came together to hear me. Mr. N. was highly 
delighted with the feeling which had been excited, and was very 
sanguine of good being done. Before leaving I examined the 
language, with j\Ir. N's learned man, and had my own ideas of it 
confirmed ; namely, that it was the same language which is spoken 
at Pooree, with a different pronunciation of two or three letters. 
I was informed that the language was spoken nearly 100 miles 
beyond Berhampore. Mr. N. then walked with me and pointed 
out a piece of ground where, if I should come and labour in tlie 
place, he would build a school-room ; and at my suggestion, 
he engaged to make it large enough for a place of worship on 
sabbath days. At ten o'clock I took my leave of these kind 
friends, with the conviction that, if my brethren approved it, I 
ought to return as soon as possible and commence my labourj. 
Berhampore is nearly seventy miles from Pooree, and is the last 
station in the Northern Circars under the ^Madras preside:i.cy. 
It is in a very high situation, surrounded with hills, inhabited by 
a wild race of Oriyas, under six or seven independent rajas. The 
population is less than at Pooree or Cuttack ; but the vilia'^es near 
it are numerous and populous. The inhabitants, of Avhich tliive 
fourths are Oriyas, and one fourth Telingas, are not so tenacious of 
their caste as in other places; and many features in their character 
seem favourable for I\lisRionary labour." 

In the early part of 1S26, Mr. Sutton paid a second visit to 
Berhampore. In November he was out on a missionary excursion, 
for nearly three weeks, accompamied by j\Trs. Sutton, and Gunga 
Dhor, then a hopeful inquirer. In this journey he made known 
the truth in a number of villages, and proceeded as far as Koutiho, 
or Cooloo, which he apprehended would be an important station. 

In December 1834, Mr. Goadby visited this town, and baptized 
the wife of Mr. Cadogan. He preached in the mess bungalow, and 
nearly all the Europeans of the station were present — the text on 
the occasion was, '^ The redemption of the soul is precious." The 
opportunity is thus described — "All paid very great attention, and 
seemed pleased with the opportunity. At half-past four, baptized 



276 



Mrs. Cadogan, in a large tank, and afterwards administered the 
Lord's Supper ; only six communicants, Gunga, Baniadab, Erun, 
John Cadogan, his wife, and myself; a refreshing opportunity." 
Mr. Goadbv spoke very favourably of Berhampore as a station. 

In the annual Report of 18;57, it is stated — " This town, situated 
about 3G0 miles from Calcutta, was several times the scene of the 
occasional labours of Messrs. Bampton and Sutton. Mr. Brown 
has spent some time there. It appears that, independent of the 
Cuttack people, a small church of ten members was formed. Of 
these, one is Irish, two English, one Scottish, two Indo-British, 
and four Hindoos. Erun is one of these, and though aged, as 
lively and active as a young man. 

A place for native worship has been opened. It was formerly 
a small heathen temple. Where idols once were worshipped, the 
word of salvation has been proclaimed. It was obtained after 
many disappointments, and difficulties, and in the midst of a 
populous part of Berhampore. Many of the heathen were drawn 
together by curiosity, at the time of their deserted temple being 
opened, as the first place for Christian worship, in their idolatrous 
town. But few Europeans reside at Berhampore. The spirit of 
kindness, and in some cases of affection, displayed by some of them, 
is said to be truly delightful. 

It is a reason for satisfaction and for gratitude to God, that 
Berhampore has become a regular station of the Society, and that 
the appearances are pleasing and promising, yet it should be 
remembered that the field is there so wide, that an English Mission- 
ary and one native Brother, or even more can do bnt little. Mr. 
Brown observes, that the field of the Missionary at Berhampore, 
extends over a space, perhaps as large as all England ; at any rate 
large enough for twenty Missionaries. One Christian marriage 
has taken place at Berhampore, — Debaka, the daughter of Doitaree, 
was married by Mr. Brown to Bhikaree the son of Bhugaban." 

Mr, Stubbins and Miss Kirkman were united in marriage at 
Cuttack, Jan, 23rd, 1810, and soon after left for Berhampore, 
where they found Mr. and Mrs. "Wilkinson and the Native Chris- 
tians well and happy. In February INIr. Stubbins wrote — "I think 
the disposition to hear, and trust in many cases, to regard the Gos- 
pel, is not at all abated, but rather increased. "We now scarcely 
know what it is to be interrupted, though our congregations were 
never larger. It is almost as common as Idolatry in India, for the 
peo])le publicly to acknowledge while we are preaching, that idola- 
try in ail its forms is sin. Though some of the Brahmins oppose 



277 



Christianity, it is very evident to all present, that their motives in 
doing so are merely sinister, consequently they are not much re- 
garded. Pooroosootuni said the other night, " I have seen many 
different places, and preached the gospel in many different parts, 
but in none have I seen such general interest as in the neighbour- 
hood of Berhampore." 

Mrs. Stubbins' report of the Orphan Asylum at this time was 
very pleasir.g. " ^ly present charge at Berhampore consists of 
nineteen girls ; this number includes Pooroosootuni's daughter, 
and the child of an enquirer. They live on the same compound 
and enjoy advantages equal with the other children. Three chil- 
dren have lately come to us in consequence of the famine which is 
beginning to be felt severely. One was half starved, having for 
several days subsisted upon a few handsful of kunda, (the husks 
of rice) which she had begged in a neighbouring village. The 
other two are from a village about eight miles from Berhampore. 
Havin"- spent a day there when on a missionary tour, j^the poor 
children followed us to another village. On being discovered two 
days afterwards, they said they had nothing to eat at home, and 
wished to go with us. Their mother proved to be a widow with 
four children, and said she found it impossible to support them in. 
the present scarce season. The eldest is about ten years old, and 
her sister about five ; they appear quick children and are prepos- 
sessing in their appearance. After the eldest had been with us a 
few days her mother came, and as a pretext to gain a little money 
said she would take her daughter away. The child wept much, 
said she would not go, and then hid herself; as her mother's 
object was not reaily to remove her, she at last quietly gave up 
the contest. Three of the girls are members of our churches. 
The third, who requested baptism just before leaving Berhampore, 
was baptized at Cuttack., 1 trust that though young in years, 
they are really interested in a Saviour's love. j\Iay they be pre- 
served faithful unto death, and shine as lights in a dark place." 

This station, which has become a very interesting one, has 
suffered several trials in the removal of Mr. Stubbins, on account 
of ill health, and the death of the young Missionary Mr. Grant, 
which unexpected and solemn event, occurred Feb. 18th, 1843. 
When Mr. Stubbins left, — -"there were twenty members who were 
growing in grace and meetening for the church above." IMr. Sut- 
ton took a journey thither in consequence of the trials of the 
station. His report of his journey is very interesting. 



278 



*' It is, I bolicve about eleven years since my last visit to 
Bt'rliamporc, but the scenery appeared to me as familiar as though 
it were but so many clays. But how many eyes that eleven years 
ago gazed on the beautiful Chilka or wandered over the vast 
mountain range, are closed in death ! As I sailed slowly up the 
lake, I thought of my early associates, and every now and then 
involuntarilv exclaimed, O that Eampton were with us now ! But 
there is something like murmuring in this. "What we know not 
now we shall know hereafter. " My Father's hand prepares the 
cup, and what he wills, is best." I reached Berhampore about 
twelve on Saturday, and Mr. Wilkinson about two o'clock. Found 
our friends as well as I could expect, our sister Derry still wearing 
her English roses, but sister Wilkinson had assumed the Indian 
lily. Poor sister Grant was very much cast down. The day 
however glided swiftly away, and much of the night in talk of 
auld lang syne, and the next day was the sabbath. 

At eleven o'clock I preached to an interesting little gathering 
in the Chapel in English, but a few steps from where the old bar- 
rack room, my former preaching place, stood. In the afternoon, 
the Oorea flock assembled, and brother Wilkinson and myself 
united in administering the Lord's supper, and again in the even- 
ing I preached in English. Seventeen years ago I preached, what 
1 was told, the first sermon ever preached at Berhampore, from 
" Behold J brine/ you glad tidings,''^ &c. From that time to the 
present the word of life has been more or less preached in it. 
Some of the preachers are far, far away — some of those who heard 
and received it are, we trust, in heaven, and some on their way 
thither, and a few still remain to form a little church. O that it 
■were larger. Yet still, though our progress here has been slow, 
it is matter for thankfulness that there has been progress. Here 
is a chapel now, there was none then ; here is a little church, 
there was none then ; here is a school, there was none then ; above 
all here is a resident Brother, there was none then ; and so, though 
oft have changes taken place, it has been for many years. — Berham- 
pore however is a striking illustration of Christ's church militant. 
It may not improperly be likened to a spring in a desert, at which 
the weary pilgrim may delight to halt and refresh himself, but where 
he has no intention of taking up his abode. Thus at diiferent 
periods the number is not small of those who have been refreshed 
liere. Some indeed have drank to thirst no more. Some are with 
joy drawing waters from the wells of salvation, a few press around 
the brink, and some alas have forsaken the fountain of living 



279 

waters and have hewed out to them cisterns, broken cisterns that 
can hold no water. Yet who would wish this fountain closed, who 
that looks around him upon the myriads that must drink or die, 
does not pray that the blessed Holy Spirit may speak by our 
Brother who shall be stationed here, " Ho 1 every one that thirstetli 
come ye to the waters !" 

The Report of 1844 speaks favourably of the progress of the 
cause of Christ in this part of Orissa. " This station having been 
deprived of its own missionary, has during the year received much 
attention from Mr. and Mrs. Wilkinson, who principally reside 
here. Some circumstances of a pleasing, and others of a painful 
nature, have marked the progress of the year. The principal cir- 
cumstances of the latter kind, is the fall of two individuals, who 
have been excluded — one of these is Pooroosootum. But consi- 
dering that the element in which the Hindoo lives is impurity, that 
their gods, their shasters, their religious festivals, and most sacred 
worship, are distinguished by lewdness ; that it is the atmosphere 
in which they 'live, and move, and have their being,' it is not sur- 
prising that such cases should occur. It is a matter of thankfulness 
that they have not been more frequent. 

" The chapel that had been prepared at Berhampore, having been 
seriously damaged, Mr. Wilkinson has been engaged in the erection 
of another, near to the Schools. An eligible site was purchased for 
one hundred and five rupees. In April he mentions that the erec- 
tion of the chapel was proceeding, and that the building of new 
school-rooms was nearly completed. Three young persons in- 
structed in the asylum were married in February or ]March, two of 
them to young men that had been instructed in the school at 
Ganjam. One of them named Dootee, the daughter of Bamadab, 
was married to Juggernaut, a member of the church, employed as a 
schoolmaster, and likely it is thought to become a preacher. She 
was for several years in the Cuttack School, whence she was re- 
moved to Berhampore. Mrs. Wilkinson pronounces her a very 
worthy young woman, says that her conduct in the school had been 
most exemplary, and adds. We hope they will be happy and adorn 
their profession." 

In reference to these marriages, Mr. Wilkinson adds, — " The 
day of the marriage was one of great enjoyment to all the native 
Christians, all seemed to strive to make it as much unlike a Hindoo 
marriage as possible. Captain ^Slacpherson made the girls a pres- 
ent on their wedding day of ten Rupees each, this was given for 

M 2 



280 



the purpose of makina; a feast, but all who wished to join in par- 
taking of it thought it would be better that the dinner should be 
paid for by subscriplion and the ten Rupees be used to build houseg 
for the new married people ; it is a very unusual matter, if 
a native does not involve himself in debt for many years ; our plan 
not only avoided this but turned to a useful account, the money 
which was intended for the feast, at the same time it added to the 
harmony and pleasure of the whole party." To this Mrs. Wilkin- 
son adds, that Captain M. not only made the presents mentioned 
to their young friends, on this occasion, but promised similar sums 
for six others. 

A circumstance very encouraging to the missionaries at Berham- 
pore, has been the interest taken in their work by a young officer. 
He was educated at one of the English Universities, but is stated 
to be in principle, a Baptist. He appears to possess considerable 
ability for the acquisition of languages, having made himself 
master of three Oriental languages in less than four years, and 
made such progress in Oorea, in six months, as to write and 
compose with ease in that language. Occasionally he has con- 
ducted worship with the children, when the missionary has been 
absent. He has translated several little books for the school and 
delivered addresses to the scholars. He makes great sacrifices, it 
is stated, to serve the cause of God and the mission. Ought not 
the friends of the mission to pray that one promising so fair for 
usefulness, where eternal interests are concerned, may be rendered 
willing to sacrifice his worldly prospects, and to devote him-self 
wholly to advancing the cause of Immanuel ?" 

Mr. Buckley, whose favorable voyage to India has been noticed, 
safely reached Berhampore, Feb. 20th, 1814, the vessel landing 
him at Vizagapatam, distant 150 miles. Mr. Wilkinson and 
another European friend met him there, and accompanied him to 
the station. On October 9th, 1844, Mr. Buckley and Miss Derry, 
who had been so usefully employed in the Native schools, were 
united in marriage in the new chapel at Berhampore. May these 
dear young friends long prove a blessing to this part of India. It 
is pleasing to observe the occasional visits of missionaries leading 
to the permanent occupation of missionary stations, and the diffu- 
sion of the gospel around them to teeming myriads of Idolaters. 

The Report of 1815 states — "During the year the Missionaries 
from Ganjam have resided and laboured here. Mrs. Wilkinson 
observes, ' This year we have to record the goodness of the Lord 
in restoring our health, and enabling us to attend to our various 



281 



duties with interest and delight.' To these sources of satisfaction 
a new one was added, by the arrival of their former companion and 
friend, Mr. Buckley. He reached Berhampore on the 24th of 
September, a day that he declares he shall ever deem one of the 
bright and sunny days of his life. His first sabbath there was a 
day of holy enjoyment. " On Aug. 11th the new chapel was open- 
ed. Mr. Wilkinson states that it was to them all a most delightful 
sabbath. Not many strangers were present, yet the congregation 
presented an unusually interesting appearance. AVorship had 
previously been conducted in a private room, which was so crowded 
that several usually sat outside ; and on this account, before the 
chapel w^as opened, their number appeared much smaller than it 
really was. He preached in Oorea morning and afternoon. The 
subscriptions exceeded their expectations. The influence of Chris- 
tianity on a people, in their unconverted state eminent for selfish- 
ness, was strikingly manifested by several of the native Christians 
contributing each one month's income towards the erection. 
This, though the sum was not large, manifested much liberality 
of mind." 

Denabunder and Balagee have been ordained. Mr. Buckley 
thus describes the service. " Friday, Dec. 13th, was a high day at 
Berhampore. Two of our native brethren, who, as we trust, were 
inwardly moved by the Holy Ghost to take upon theinselves the office 
of the Ministry, and who in some good measure have proved their 
fitness for it, were solemnly set apart to the holy and blessed work 
of preaching the gospel. Rama Chundra read the Scriptures and 
prayed in a very comprehensive and aj^propriate manner. Bro. "Wil- 
kinson followed with some introductory remarks explanatory of the 
work of the day, and shewing the propriety of a public designation 
to ministerial work ; he referred at the close, with much feeling to 
the labours and trials of Bampton — to the baptism of Erun, vvho 
was present, and to what Bampton's feelings would probably have 
been, if he could have witnessed the sceiie jircscnted that day. He 
proceeded to ask the two brethren as to their conversion — call to 
the ministry, and the doctrines they intended to preacli. The first 
question elicited statements, pleasingly illustrating the manner in 
which the " marvellous light" of divine truth obtains its first en- 
trance into the dark mind of an idolator ; the other answers were 
satisfactory; the last was very concise, wisely so in this case. It 
was in substance, that the Bible contained all truth, and Avhat they 
found there, that they would make known. Bro. Lacey offered 
the ordination prayer ; many important blessings were supplicated 



282 



for our native brethren, and supplicated -with much fervency. 
Rama Chundra, Bro. Lacey, Wilkinson, and myself, united in the 
imposition of hands. Thus ended the morning service. Eri^ji 
said, at the close, O, if Bampton (whom he still thinks of with 
much affection) had lived to see that day, how rejoiced he would 
have been. We assembled again in the evening, when Seboo Naik 
read the hymns, Somnath prayed, and Bro. Lacey delivered a 
charge containing much important instruction, from " 1 charge thee 
therefore, before God and the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge 
the quick and the dead, at his appearing and his kingdom ; preach 
the word ; be instant in season and out of season ;" some judicious 
remarks were addressed at the close to the wives of the native 
brethren, who may do much to help or hinder their husbands in the 
■work of the Lord. Doubtless the Son of God beheld what was 
done with complacency, for it was to publish His glory — make 
known His gospel, and enlarge the boundaries of His kingdom, that 
these dear friend were set apart. My mind was much impressed 
during this day with the immense importance of native agency. I 
rejoice that God has blessed our Mission so much in this respect, 
and trust that there are indications of others rising up that will 
be useful." 



MIDNAPORE. 

This station is situated at the northern extremity of Orissa, and 
contains a mixed population of Bengalees and Oreahs. During 
the occupancy of Balasore by Mr. Sutton, he made one or two 
lengthened visits to this place ; and several brethren in their jour- 
neys to and from Calcutta, have occasionally preached there, both 
in English and Ooreah ; but it was not till the year 1836, that Mr. 
and Mrs. Brooks removed from Cuttack and occupied it as a regular 
missionary station. Its distance from Calcutta is about seventy 
miles. Mr. Brooks gives the following information about the 
station. 

" This is a very large and populous city, containing upwards of 
fifty or sixty thousand inhabitants, principally Bengalees. There 
is a considerable number of Oreah people in Midnapore, but they 
live chiefly in small bazaars, and are generally of low caste. There 
are nearly fifty European residents, civilian and military, besides a 
considerable number of East Indians, of Portuguese origin. 

" The climate of Midnapore is very dry and healthy, but exces- 
sively hot, partly owing to the extensive beds of ironstone, Avhich 



283 



extend on all sides for several miles. Its elevated situation 
(standing higher than almost any other part of Bengal,) contributes 
much to the healthiness of the place, though of course this subjects 
it to greater degrees of heat and cold. The thunder and lightning 
storms here are very dreadful. Soon after my arrival the officers 
of the 24th N. I. engaged a large room for Divine service, which 
would have been continued, had not the owner's circumstances 
rendered it necess^ary for him to let the whole of his house at a 
higher rent. Service is now held in Mr. Pennington's house, which 
was immediately offered for that purpose. The congregations have 
been very good and encouraging. Colonel Simpson and his lady 
have been most exemplary in their attendance, scarcely ever absent. 
The time of service is Sunday evening, the Church service and a 
sermon being read in the morning by the Collector of the station. 
There are several Portuguese living in the neighbourhood, w^ho of 
course are Catholics, but generally attend our worship." 

The chapel at this station is a neat building, fifty feet in length 
by twenty-five in breadth, with a verandah ten feet wide on each 
side. Its cost was 1500 rupees, which the INIissionary collected 
and paid. He also raised some money towards the erection of a 
commodious English school-room, and if possible a school-house 
attached. In the Report of 1840, it is observed — 

"Since my coming to Midnapore, I have confined myself chiefly 
to the numerous bazaars in the city, rather than travel a great 
distance to villages. Generally I have attended bazaars from tliree 
to six days in the week, as , the weather or state of mind allowed. 
I have been to several villages, but they c<mtain so few people that 
w^e can obtain a much larger congregation in the bazaar, chiefly 
of persons from the country ; and the villages of any consequence 
being situated from eight to twelve miles from Midnapore, there 
would be no possibility of visiting them in the best part of the day, 
viz. the evening. I wish to keej) in mind what is the main work 
for which I am sent to India, and am, though slowly, endeavour- 
ing to carry into effect the wishes of the Society, as well as to ful- 
fil my engagements on the day of my ordination ; and above all 
my solemn dedication of body, soul, and spirit, to the great head 
of the Church." 

" As regards English Services, I have but one on the Lord's-day 
Evening. I had two, one morning and evening, previous to the 
very hot weather, and intend to commence with two services 
again, as soon as the weather permits. On the Thursday evening 
we have a Bible class, one of the most interesting meetings I ever 



284 



attended. Several Officers of the Corps attended, and others that 
I think highly of. Before I leave this subject, I must say the 
English Services do not in the least interfere with Native labour, 
as they are invariably held at a time when it is impossible to hold 
service in the open air. The chapel being at a great distance from 
the Native population, a congregation could not be obtained for 
Native Service. Besides I prefer open air, and see no possibility 
of obtaining a Native congregation in the chapel until more are 
induced to attend from princijile. I do not despair of seeing 
good done in Midnapore, sliould the Almighty spare my life." 

In December 1841, Mr. Brooks, with the concurrent advice of 
the Orissa INIissionaries and the Committee in England, removed 
from Midnapore to co-operate v.'ith Mr. Sutton in the new station 
recently formed at Calcutta, through the Christian munificence of 
Mr. Alexander of that city. Mr. Brooks thus describes this im- 
portant step : — 

" An important measure was recommended to be takerr by the 
last Conference, in reference to the extension of the Orissa Mission. 
Previous to the Conference held at Cuttack, I wrote a letter, asking 
advice of the Missionary brethren as to whether or not I should 
proceed to Calcutta as Bro. Sutton's colleague in this rrew enter- 
prise. I was recommended to do so, and am now settling myself 
m Calcutta. You will expect me to give my reasoirs for wishing 
to leave an important and now deserted sphere of labour. One 
chief reason was, I have been almost isolated from the other Mis- 
sionary brethren since my residence in India, and heartily wished 
to be brought closer to them both in labour and affection. Another 
reason was, the very discouraging prospects in Midnapore, so far at 
least as the conversion of the heathen may be considered. None 
seem willing to take up the cross, though hundreds upon hun- 
dreds have visited me, received the Scriptures, and heard the glorious 
Gospel of the blessed God. I hope some are halting between two 
opinions, but nothing seems to decide the matter with them. 
"When the number of years I have spent there, is taken into con- 
sideration, with little or no positive success, perhaps a remove 
might be deenred necessary. Nothing would give me greater 
happiness than to see one more fitted than perhaps 1 am to labour 
alone, entering that field and reaping a rich harvest. I wish to 
draw the attention of the Committee especially to Midnapore and 
its neighbourhood. Another reason which led me to wish to leave 
Midnapore for a season, was the necessity which appeared to me, 
that Mrs. Brooks should have a little change. She has never been 



285 



from home since our entering Midnapore, and on many accounts 
it was desirable she shoukl liave a change of scene. There was 
no otlicr Missionary who coukl with so little inconvenience, occupy 
Calcutta, as myself. I shall fur the present, have charge of Native 
Preachers and Preaching, I sincerely hope with greater prospect of 
success than heretofore. I might urge other reasons, but the chief 
object I have in view, at least if I can trust rny own heart, is a 
hope of being more useful as a Preacher of the gospel, a Missionary 
to the Heathen." 

Mr. Stubbins being compelled by ill -health to leave Berhainpore, 
the southern extremity of Orissa, visited this station in the oppo- 
site part of it, hoping that it might be beneficial to him. This 
hope was disappointed. But under its influence, he took up his 
abode and laboured to diffuse the blessings of the gospel. Of his 
labours and prospects he thus wrote : — 

" We started for ]\Iidnapoi"e, where we arrived on Nov. 5th, 1842, 
and were hospitably entertained by a gentleman in the station, 
till we were able to secure a house. The gloomy and depressed 
state of our minds on our arrival, will be more readily conceived 
than expressed. Among the tens of thousands of Idolaters, not 
one Christian could be found — not one to welcome us or greet, 
us with a smile — -not one to gladden our hearts by asking the 
way of life, (of course I refer to the Hindoo population). We 
felt like a person cast upon a wild barren rock, without any thin"" 
to please or interest. After we had been here about a Aveek, we 
w'ere joined by our dear native brother Langham Das and his 
wife, from Balasore. He had no sooner arrived than we com- 
menced in good earnest in the bazaars, &c. and the jjeople were 
not long before they commenced in as good earnest with us ; 
for they soon " became as cheerful in their minds as a bear 
robbed of her whelps in the field," and about as furious. How- 
ever in spite of all their vociferations of Huri Bol, Huri Bol, 
&c. &c. with handfuls of dust, gravel and the like, we have 
been able to visit them almost every day, (Sundays excepted) 
and to exhibit to large congregations the word of life. When 
I remember that on my arrival at Berhampore I had to witness 
similar scenes, and experience similar treatment, I feel cncourao-ed 
to hope this storm will blow over, and that our sky here will yet 
become clearer. But whether this should be the case or not, our 
duty is to preach the Word — to be instant in season and out of 
season — to sow beside all waters — and the Lord helping us, neither 
the opposition nor rage and fury of men or devils, shall prevent us. 



286 



O for grace to instruct with meekness them that oppose themselves 
—to endure hardness as good soldiers ! 

"On Jan. 1 1th, I baptized three people here, two of them ac- 
companied us from Berhampore. Their minds have long been im- 
pressed with the truths of Christianity, and have long since aban- 
doned all regard for Idols, but I did not feel sufficiently satisfied 
with their experience to admit them to baptism ; but lately their 
whole conduct has been so unexceptionable, and the statements of 
their experience together with their anxiety for the means of grace 
and religious ordinances, have been so fully in accordance with the 
spirit of the gospel, that I could no longer refuse them admission 
into the Church of Christ. The other candidate was an East Indian. 
She seems to have been under serious impressions for some time, 
and had a desire to be baptized, (her parents were Baptists,) but it 
was not till she came into the station ill, and had been frequently 
visited by myself and Mrs. Stubbins, that she was enabled fully to 
lay hold upon the hope set before her. After she recovered, she 
desired before she returned to her residence, about forty miles dis- 
tant, to be baptized. I trust we may say with confidence of them 
all, they are brands plucked out of the burning. O that in this 
fearful, benighted, and depraved place, our divine Redeemer would 
get unto himself a great name — that he would breathe upon 
these diy bones the breath of life, and here establish his own 
kingdom." 

]\Ir. Stubbins was unable to occupy this populous place, but 
was compelled to return home to recruit his health. The station 
has been recently adopted by the American brethren. 



The first Report of the Orissa Mission printed in India, con- 
tains the following account of this Town. " This was once a 
very important and populous European settlement, but in con- 
sequence of the growing prosperity of Calcutta, and subsequently 
of a destructive visitation of providence, called the Ganjam fever, 
but which was in all probability the plague introduced by the 
shipping from Arabia, it has been for many years nearly forsaken 
by Europeans, while the Native population is much reduced. 
The splendid but desolate European residences still attest the 
former importance of the place, while its now healthy climate, 
its salubrious breezes, its gcograpical position, and commodious 
harbour, invite a rcoccupancy by Government, of this once 



287 



valuable port. It is still however a large town ; and situated as it 
is between the Berhampore and Pooree districts, forms an important 
as well as a convenient station for a missionary. After nearly two 
years' testing of the place, iNIr. and Mrs. Wilkinson have come to 
the decision that it is their duty to accord with the wishes of the 
Missionary Committee in occupying this place, and in which deci- 
sion our conference concurs." This town had been occasionally 
visited by Messrs. Bampton, Sutton, Stubbins, S;c., before its 
occupancy by Mr. Wilkinson. It is another proof of the utility of 
exploring a land to ascertain the most eligible sites for more perma- 
nent missionary labour. 

In the Society's Report of 1841, Ganjam is first mentioned as a 
regular station. It is stated — " Besides labouring at Ganjam, ]\Ir. 
and Mrs. Wilkinson have been out on several missionary tours, in 
which they have visited numerous places to convey to them the 
gospel of salvation. An Orphan Asylum has been formed at Gan- 
jam. It began with one poor destitute child. This number had 
increased to eighteen. As Itlrs. Stubbins has an asylum at Ber- 
hampore for girls, it was judged best to let that at Ganjam be espe- 
cially for boys in the first instance. It is remarked, ' our great 
concern is their spiritual welfare,' but while attentive to this, they 
"were desirous of communicating to them habits of industry. A 
christian schoolmaster, who had been converted under the ministry 
of Mr. Stubbins, was obtained. Mrs. W. adds, — "We have a 
number of excellent elementary books in the language, amongst 
which, are 'JVatts' and Pinnock's Catechisms.' In reading, we have 
' Henry and his Bearer,' ' Pilgrim's Pro(/rcss,' (Bunyan's,) ' Rise 
and Progress of Religion,' Sec. &c., besides a variety of tracts. 
At present we do not contemplate teaching English, as this, unless 
it be a thorough English education, does not really benefit the 
children. We are anxious to make them industrious and worthy 
members of the community, and to this end, would like they should 
learn such trades as are here most useful, as carpenters, Aveavcrs, 
&c. Mrs. Stubbins' girls are industriously employed spinning 
cotton, and when some of our boys can weave, the children of the 
two stations will be able to make clothes for themselves. The 
native loom is the simplest imaginable. And weaving after their 
manner, is such very slow work that a man here is not able to do 
one-sixth part of what a boy can do at home with a hand-loom : 
should any friends of the Indian yoxith be disposed to make our 
school a useful and most acceptable present, I beg to say that no- 



288 

thing could be more tliankfully received than a good weaver's loom, 
that is, all the parts of one except the wood, which is very cheap 
here, and can easily be supplied, also three or four shuttles. We 
should be delighted to find that our expected brethren had brought 
this out for us. I might add that our school children cook for 
themselves ; it is done by the elder boys alternately. We are very 
pleased with the progress that some of them have made in their 
learning. I trust, before another year has passed, I may be able 
to speak with some degree of certainty respecting the piety of some 
of these dear children. Several appear well disposed." 

The first fruits of the gospel in this new field of labour were 
early gathered. It is stated " At Ganjam, as elsewhere, the 
Missionaries have had their discouragements, but Air. Wilkinson 
observes that when they were almost ready to despair, several 
enquirers may their appearance, of whom they had heard nothing 
previously, and one of them soon applied for baptism. This con- 
vert, who may be regarded as the first fruits of the mission at 
Ganjam, is a respectable man of the writer caste, who has been 
employed for eighteen years, as tutor to the sons of Brahmins. He 
was brought to read the new Testament, and, at first, tried to 
convince Air. Wilkinson that there was a little difference between 
the Word of God and the Hindoo shasters. He soon however 
abandoned this opinion, and declared that such truth and holiness 
were no where to be found but in the Bible. He had frequent 
conversation with the missionary and the native ministers. At 
length he removed the signs of idolatry from his forehead, 
and forsook the temple he had long frequented every morning and 
evening. This conduct aroused the suspicion of his neighbours, 
who, at first, disputed with him, and then commenced a series of 
petty persecutions. They refused to allow him to have any water 
from the public well, and made his home so uncomfortable that he 
at length Avent to the Missionary, and said, "He could no longer 
live among the bralimins, but must leave his wife and home, and 
live with Christians, if he could only have a place as good as a 
horse." He was asked, why he wished to leave his home ? and 
answered, * Tigers and sheep cannot live in the same place. When 
I was a heathen it was my custom to sit in my house, and read 
the shasters, when many would come around me to listen, and 
join in the singing ; but last night as I was reading the word of 
God, many came not to hear, but to insult me, and I was so pelted 
with mud and stones that I was glad to make my escape.' A place 
was found for him. For a while his wife and children lived with 



289 



his brother, and a party of her female relations visited her to mourn 
with her for the loss of her husband, and they recommended her 
not to think of enduring such disgrace, but to drown herself. Not 
long after this, his baptism took place. That solemn service was 
then, probably, administered in Ganjam for the first time, since the 
ascending Saviour gave the great^ commission. On this account 
that baptismal day must be in Ganjam a memorable day, and will 
be contemplated with pleasure, in distant years, by christians, 
that are yet unborn." 

Mr. Sutton, in a recent journey, gratefully observed—" At 
Ganjam where we have been accustomed to halt, yea, in the very 
house we passed our solitary interval between one stage and 
another, Ave have now a missionary brother and a little church, and 
a cluster of school boys. I siiould judge from my imperfect obser- 
vation of things, that the prospect of raising a native church at 
Ganjam is quite as encouraging as at Berhampore." 

Referring to some recent conversions, the Annual Report states : 
" By these pleasing, though not large additions, to the little flock 
of Christ, at Ganjam, your Missionaries have been privileged to 
gather fruit to life eternal ; fruit that, doubtless, will be gathered 
there much more extensively, as years and ages roll onward, and 
the period of millenial day approaches. Mrs. "Wilkinson, in the 
letter containing the account of j\Ioni Ma, states that there were 
then several enquirers, three of whom were very hopeful. One of 
them, a sister to the young man last baptized, had in a short time 
learned to read the word of truth, and was a quick intelligent girl. 
Her early years having been passed without any restraint, when she 
first came under their care she was at times troublesome, but they 
had for some time had the satisfaction of seeing a pleasing change 
in all her manners. 

A neighbouring Rajah had paid a visit to the ^Missionaries at 
Ganjam. He was attended by his retinue, ar.d during his stay 
large companies of the people, sometimes thirty or forty together, 
frequently went to converse on religious subjects. He received a 
new Testament, and seemed interested in the accounts Mr. Wilkin- 
son gave him of the state of manners and religion in England. 
Mrs. Wilkinson's sewing work attracted his attention, and when 
informed what English ladies could do, and what kind of education 
they received, he appeared astonished, and said if any of their 
females were such, " they would be esteemed perfect goddesses." 
But alas ! woman there is dreadfully degraded and debased. 
Mrs. Wilkinson's statements furnished frequent illustrations of this 



290 

truth. On one occasion, -^vhen she was conversing with some 
Hindoo women, IMr. "Wilkinson passed at a little distance. The 
woman said, " Dare you remain, now your husband is left? Did 
he give you leave to come ?" ' These remarks,' she observes, 
' shew the servile subjection in which the poor women are held.' 
The more recent information refers to Mr. Wilkinson's indisposi- 
tion ; but his health appears to have improved in answer to the 
prayer of his friends. It is stated of the station generally : — 
" Ganjam has latterly appeared less healthful than it was supposed 
to be, and fears began to be entertained that it would be necessary 
to withdraw the native ministers from the station. Bamadab was 
stationed there with Balage, and was obliged to leave ; death enter- 
ed one of their families. The sickness to which they were exposed 
gave an opportunity for an interesting display of christian sympathy, 
in the little band of Hindoo christians. Mrs. "Wilkinson states, 
" Conversing the other evening with the native preacher's wife 
respecting her recovery, I was much pleased to find that she refer- 
red all to the goodness and mercy of God ; and to learn from her, 
that when the complaint seemed not subdued by the use of ordinary 
means, the brethren met for special prayer on her account," and 
with much feeling she added, " The good Lord was pleased to hear 
our prayers for I have not had fever since that day — how greatly 
it delights us to see these dear people going to the proper source 
of all health and blessings." Those who are familiar with the 
history of the sainted bands, of Puritans and Nonconformists, that 
form the glory of Britain, will remember that they frequently set 
apart seasons for such special pi-ayer, for suffering friends, and 
attributed, as Baxter does, much success to such intercessions. 
It is pleasing to behold Hindoos in the infancy of their piety, 
adopting the practice, that English christians loved in the best days 
of theirs, but which has been less frequently followed in later years. 
To the preceding statement Mrs. "Wilkinson adds some information 
and mentions their loss of a kind friend by shipwreck. 

"There has lately been so much sickness at Ganjam that many 
of the natives have become alarmed and Irave left the place. The 
other two Europeans who reside there, have also been obliged to 
leave, they are here, but are both recommended by the medical 
officer to go to England. About nine months since our friend 
Mr. Adams was afflicted with dysentry, which obliged him to leave 
G.anjam for the purpose of visiting his native land ; but, we are 
gri-'ved to add, the vessel, in which he sailed for Madras was lost : 
from our intimate knowledge of his character, and from the progress 



291 



of his religious feelings while at Ganjam, we have no doubt hut 
his end was peace, though what were the feelings when encounter- 
ing the last enemy, or where " he sighed Jiis soul atvitij" is not 
known to us ; not one was left to tell the talc ; he was accompanied 
by a Missionary, IMr. Smith of the London Missionary Society." 

Amidst these various trials, your estimable sister states, that 
they had much which demanded gratitude. Their minds were 
kept in perfect peace, being stayed upon God, nor could they call 
in question his wisdom and love ; nor were they without some 
encouragement as to the progress of the work of God. In February 
one convert was baptized. Mr. Wilkinson mentions that another 
candidate from this place had been recently baptized. She is a 
relative of Denabunder, the first convert, and had been an enquir- 
er more than two years. There were then two other candidates 
for communion from Ganjam, who had been enquirers for some 
time. 

Mr. Wilkinson mentions another very interesting fact in con- 
nection with Ganjam. He states that there were three young men, 
who were members of the Church, whom he deemed it desirable 
to bring forward for the ministry. He had been thinking of em- 
ploying them in studies for this purpose. Tama, one of them, had 
been with the Missionaries ever since they were in the country. 
Another, named Juggernath, was a schoolmaster in the neighbour- 
hood. Joysing, the third, was with a pious officer, assisting him 
in the study of the Oorea and the Khund languages. He judged 
it desirable that they should continue in that district as thev would 
thus keep up their knowledge of the Teligoo language which there 
adds to the usefulness of the native preachers, and he apprehended 
that their instruction would fnrnisli interesting employment for 
himself, and Mr. Buckley to whose ari'ival he was looking forward. 
In this same letter he states that Mrs. W. and himself were thank- 
ful their health is so much better than it was last year. 

Mrs. Wilkinson's Report of the Ganjam Orphan Asylum contains 
some pleasing information. Some Khund boys rescued from the 
murderer's knife have been added to it, in whom the Missionaries 
find more to interest and encourage them than in the children from 
the plain country. 

CALCUTTA. 

In this great metropolis of British power and influence in the 
East, it was ascertained that from twenty-five to thirty thousand 



292 



Oreahs were living, for whose religious instruction no adequate 
means existed. This state of things attracted the attention of a 
pious and benevolent Gentleman, J. W. Alexander, Esq., who 
opened a correspondence with the Orissa Missionaries ujDon the 
subject of extending their labours to the myriads of Oreahs in 
Calcutta. Upon this important subject the Secretary of the Society 
observed — " In the latter part of 1841, Mr. Alexander, a gentleman 
of eminent liberality, resident in Calcutta, encouraged Mr. Sutton 
to attempt the formation of a station in that city, with the especial 
design of conveying the gospel to many thousands of the natives of 
Orissa dwelling there. To effect this object he offered if his life 
were spared, to guarantee for three years, about £480 a year to 
meet the expenditure. An offer so noble and Christianlike could 
not but command attention. !Mr. Sutton visited Calcutta, and after 
mature deliberation judged it advisable to remove thither. A special 
Conference was held at Cuttack, in October, when the brethren re- 
commended his complying with Mr. Alexander's liberal proposals, 
and agreed to the removal of the printing office. In reference to 
his removal, the brethren considering the time it would occupy, 
and the pi'eparations to be made for the accommodation of the 
establishment, during the cold season, recommended that it should 
take place as soon as arrangements could be made. The minutes 
of the Conference add, ' In reference to the above important mea- 
sures, the brethren, and especially Bro. Lacey (who was present at 
a discussion in the home Committee, relating to a former proposal 
for Bro. Sutton to remove to Calcutta,) feel a full conviction, that 
they are acting in accordance with the views and wishes of our 
Brethren and friends in England, and have therefore proceeded with 
confidence in the business.' 

Mr. Sutton accordingly removed to Calcutta, with several of the 
native christians, and was joined there by Mr. John Brooks, from 
Midnapore. Previously, however, to any proceedings of this kind, 
he had forwarded much information upon the case, that the subject 
might be brought before the Committee. They discussed the 
subject, and though they perceived various advantages in a Calcutta 
station, and could not but admire the generous offer of Mr. Alex- 
ander, yet they objected to Mr. Sutton's removal. On one impor- 
tant point in Mr. Sutton's account of the case, misconception existed 
in the Committee, and this had great influence on their decision. 
They however judged it desirable as far as could be, to embrace 
Mr. Alexander's most liberal offer, and judged that Mr. John 
Brooks might remove from Midnapore ; accordingly they determined 



293 



on his removal, if agreeable to Mr. Alexander, and resolved that 
one or more of the native preachers sliould accompany him. This 
resolution with the reasons for its adoption, was forthwith forwarded 
to India. Soon after another letter on the subject was received 
from 'Sir. Sutton, giving additional information on the business, 
Jind entirely removing the misconception on the one important 
point, not so clearly explained in the former letter. The Commit- 
tee again met, and, after mature deliberation, agreed to sanction 
j\Ir. Sutton's removal to Calcutta; .but particularly wished that 
it should be made subservient to the training up of native preachers, 
who, it was supposed, might enjoy educational advantages in 
Calcutta, while under INIr. Sutton's general care and direction, 
that they could not so fully at Cuttack. On this subject particular 
stress was laid, but, as will be seen, this hope was fallacious. 

As it was desirable for Mr. Sutton to avail himself of the cold 
season for removing, the delay, that would have been occasioned, 
by waiting till he could hear from England, might have occasioned 
great inconvenience ; he therefore removed to that city. He observes, 
" We felt the fullest conviction, that we were acting in accordance 
with the "wishes of our home Committee, or we should never have 
consented to abandon our intei'esting labours, our home, and many 
advantages for the toil and anxieties and discomforts we saw before 
us. So confident were we all, that we thought it worse than need- 
less to lose the best season for their journey, in order to write for a 
reply from home. In all this it seems we were wrong." Mr. Brooks 
also removed, and this, as it will be observed, met with the entire 
approbation of the Committee, and was according to their vote, 
though it took place before he could gain information of the reso- 
lution they had adopted. 

The Report of 1S43 contains some interesting information. A 
few extracts will gratify the pious reader. " In this city, the me- 
tropolis of British India, Mr. John Brooks is labouring, and has 
been assisted by Bikharee and another native preacher. The ex- 
pense of this station is not at present defrayed by the Society, but 
is met by the funds furnished by, or through, that liberal friend of 
the heathen, J. Alexander, Esq. Some communications by no 
means devoid of interest, have recently been received from Mr. 
Brooks. He states that the Oreah population in and near Calcutta, 
amounts to from twenty-Jive to thirty thousand, and observes that 
the hope of conveying the blessings of the gospel of peace, at least 
to some of these benighted multitudes, had borne him up amidst 
discouragements and trials. His own health had been generally 



294 

good. IMrs. Brooks had been attacked with the fatal cholera, but 
after beins; brought very near the grave, was mercifully restored. 
lie and the native brethren have preached in various bazaars, and 
other public places ; their congregations varying from twenty per- 
sons to two hundred or more, and varying as much in the manner 
in which they received the heavenly message : sometimes violent 
opposition has been manifested, at others, silent and respectful 
attention. 

" In January Mr. Brooks visited the bathing festival at Saugur, 
so infamous for infant murders. Tlie bathers were chiefly widows, 
many of them young. Others were old, emaciated, and scarcely 
able to support themselves; and mournful was it to behold these 
so near the grave, clapping their hands, and attempting to dance to 
the honor of their idol. Some were shivering in their wet clothes, 
worn in penance, or because they had no change of raiment. 
Numbers of hypocritical, whining beggars were calling out to differ- 
ent parties, to remember their forefathers, not to forget the departed, 
but to make offerings for the dead. This part of the idolatrous 
scene strikingly harmonizes with scenes beheld at popish funerals 
in Ireland, where offerings for the dead are solicited, and the voice 
of the priest is heard exclaiming ' Who will give for the soul of 
the faithful departed ?' and when contributions slacken, ' Will 
nohodij (jive more for the soul of the faithful departed ?' 

Other sickening scenes of idolatry and sin were beheld. A num- 
ber of Bengallee and Oreah books were distributed. On the whole 
the missionary's impression was that the fame of this place of idola- 
trous resort is declining, " and that Saugur in a very short time 
will lose its sacredness in the estimation of the people of India." 

Mr. Brooks has met with an interesting field of Oorea labour at 
Gloucester Mills, by water, twenty-one miles from Calcutta. 
Here upwards of two thousand Ooreas are employed in spinning 
cotton. At this place he was well received. He met with several 
tliat luvd received tracts at Trehini, about fifty miles distance, some 
months before. Several could repeat Christian Tracts from memory 
alnu)st from the beginning to end ; and here was evidenced the 
advantage of extensively distributing religious publications. At 
his first visit to this place, he distributed a great number moi'e of 
books. Gospels, and tracts. He and his fellow labourers had a 
congregation near their boat all day, with whom one or another 
was incessantly employed in preaching the truth, as it is in Jesus. 
Tlie people were glad to hear their own language spoken. Mr. 
Brooks proposed that himself or the native preachers should 



295 



frequently visit this place. Subsequently he adds, that he had 
been to Gloucester Mills, to make arrangement with the overseer 
for a school and place of worship. The overseer was very kind, 
and willing to further the efforts in behalf of the gospel. The 
people connected with the mills, are not allowed to work on the 
Lord's day, which gives a good opportunity for Oreah service on 
that day. The missionary adds, ' There are several in a very en- 
couraging state of mind, and I have hope that something will arise 
out of an attempt to introduce the gospel among them, which will 
cause our hearts to rejoice.' 

In Calcutta, a school was established by Mr. Brooks, for Oreah 
boys. Also at their own request, a reading class for adults both 
male and female. There are in it, three women and about twelve 
men. On Lord's day afternoon he has worship in his own house, 
and a ' pretty good attendance.' Four persons had applied for 
baptism. It is stated that one is an encouraging young man, and 
that the other three are very steady ; the missionary adds, ' I hope 
soon to receive them into the fellowship of the church of Christ.' 
On the prospects of the station generally, Mr. Brooks states that 
he thinks there is not in Orissa a more encouraging field of present 
labour, than that which he now occupies in the metropolis of India; 
but he observes, ' One thing is certain, I require help, nor can I 
possibly do what is necessary to be done." 

The Report of 1843 (says the Secretary,) annovmced that Mr. 
John Brooks was labouring in Calcutta, under the sanction and at 
the expence of J. W. Alexander, Esq., having ceased, on his re- 
moval to that city, to draw any support from the Society's funds. 
Since the information contained in the last Report, no communica- 
tion whatever has reached the Committee from Mr. Brooks, nor has 
he sent any intimations of his future ph'ms. A few months ago, 
the Committee received a letter from that very liberal friend of 
India, Mr. Alexander. This letter announced that if the Calcutta 
station were continued, an arrangement must be made to defray 
its expence from the Society's fund:?, as Mr. Alexander's engage- 
ment to support it for three years, would terminate before the 
close of the present year. Considering the great liberality that 
that gentleman had manifested, the case was felt to involve 
difficulty and perplexity. After serious deliberation the Commit- 
tee judged it needful to adopt in substance the following resolution : 
"That we consider Orissa as the more immediate field of our mis- 
sion in India, and, being anxious to strengthen the mission there, 

o 2 



^m 



feel that it AV^oiild ex'pose to considerable difficiilty, to take the 
responsibility of the station in Calcutta: the difficulty is further 
increased, because no one of the Brethren in Orissa can possibly 
be spared for Calcutta. A further obstacle arises from the consider- 
ation, that we da not understand the effect of Mr. Brooks' labours 
in Calcutta to have been such,, as to give much promise of success. 
From him we have heard almost nothing, and we have understood 
that before Mr. Alexander left India, Mr, B. had not satisfied him,, 
that he would prove an effective missionary to' the Oreahs in Cal- 
cutta. Under these circumstances, while we admire Mr, Alex- 
ander's liberality, cordially thank him for past aid^ and trust that 
in a better world, his Lord will acknowledge with approbation, 
the desire that was in his heart, we do not see our way clear to 
continue the Calcutta station imder the care of Mr. Brooks."' 
After a copy of this resolution had been forwarded to Mr Alexan- 
der, a letter was received from him coBtaining one from Mr. Brooks 
to himself in which Mr. B. wrote, "I should be glad to know 
whether it is your intention to carry on the Mission in Calcutta 
beyond the time understood. I do not think the General Baptist 
Society has any intention of maintaining a Mission here, and if it is 
to be relinquished finally, I should suggest the sooner the better." 
Mr. Alexander, referring to the Committee's resolution, expressed 
his persuasion that their determination would be even strengthened 
by the information he then sent, and added, " Such being the case 
the sooner it is carried into effect the b-etter. Some seed has I trust 
been sown which the Lord of the harvest will in his own due time 
bring to perfection. The most promising part of the field has 
been the manufactory at Fort Glo'ster.'^ Two of the native min- 
isters were employed among the Oreahs in Calcutta, but it was not 
a field of exertion that was pleasant to them — one of them died 
there, and of Damudar the other, Mr. Sutton, under date of April 
17, 1844, writes, that he had just returned from Calcutta and 
required nursing both for body and mind, and that he certainly 
ought not to return to that city." Mr. Brooks returned to Eng- 
land in the early part of 1845. See the testimonals respecting him 
in the G. B. Repository of the same year, pp. 317. He afterwards 
settled at Manchester. 

CHRISTIAN VILLAGES. 

It is a pleasing stage of progress in a Mission where the convei'ts 
can " come out from among the ungodly and be separate," and 



297 



3'rke Israel of old " dwell alone and not be reckoned among t'he 
nations" of Idolaters around. The Report of the Society for 1832 
gratefully refers to tliis event. Thetlrst Village to which reference 
is made, is 



CIIRISTIANPORE. 

To alleviate in some degree, the trials of the converts, and t® 
render them mutually helpers of each other, the foundation of a 
^Christian village has been laid in the viciuity of Cuttack. The 
annual statement furnishes the following pleasing iinformation on 
this subject : — "Another plan which we have ado^ited at Cuttack, 
is the settling of the native converts together. Hitherto they have 
ibeen scattered any where^ where they could get a place to reside 
in, and have, on that account, been unable to render each other 
any assistance, and have not been recognised by the people. I 
have purchased a piece of land, near the military bazaar, sufficiently 
large to form a tolerable sized village, and the native Christians 
;are to build their houses in a uniform manner on this ground. The 
houses will form two rows outwards, leaving a space for a road 
down the centre, and there will be a chapel provided for their 
worship. The advantages of this plan will be, that the brethren 
will be nearer each other ; and, as they are outcasts, and none 
■will assist them, they will be able to render mutual help ; and they 
will form a visible body of the people, and their place of residence 
will be known. It will moreover be very convenient for their 
assembling for worship). They have already named the place 
Christianpore, i. e. the place of Christians. Ramara's house stands 
now at the head of this piece of ground." 

The Report of 1815 referring to this station says, — "Of the 
school at Christianpore, Mr. Lacey states that about twenty-five 
children, partly heathen, w'ere receiving instruction in the rudiments 
of the native language, and in the elements of Christianity, and 
that a school had been commenced atOdyapoor, chiefly for tlie 
benefit of the native children." 



Mr. Lacey thus describes the vocation of the native Christians at 
this place, about eight miles from Cuttack. — "At Choga 1 have 
taken a piece of ground containing ten acres, for the purpose of 
locating the native christians. This land forms a mountain in the 



298 

midst of a large rice plain, of many thousand acres. The crops 
are always sure in Choga, and this hill is just separated from the 
heathen villages around. Our friend Mr. Hough, has erected a 
small house, which serves for a residence, and a chapel, and the 
kind donation of J. Miller Esq. which you sent me, as well as 
another from W. Brown, Esq. of Balasore, will assist in settling 
a christian village in this place. On our late visit we discovered 
the retreat of the divinity of the mountain, fixed under the shade 
of a large mangoe tree. It is a form of Doorga, and she was 
surrounded with inferior deities, elephants, camels, horses, sacred 
stones, and other appendages of Doorga. The image was too heavy 
to be removed, but her numerous attendants were soon dispersed. 
Our children soon mounted on the horses and elephants, and the 
school boys some of Avliom were with us broke others, and brought 
some to Cuttack. This Doorga has in this mountain, been the 
patroness of neighbouring thieves. Her glory is now ended, and 
the jungle is being cleared to make way for the habitations of chris- 
tians. Thus may all the idols be famished, and the dark places of 
the earth, the abodes of ignorance and crime, become full of light 
and righteousness. 

I have paid a visit to Choga, and last Lord's-day we had a 
baptism. The object of my visit to Choga was to visit the native 
Christians, to see some enquirers, and to settle the locations of a 
christian colony there. I found two enquirers, one of whom is very 
hopeful. He is a poor man, though of a good caste, and was 
formerly not only a devoted idolater but exceedingly superstitious. 
About seven years ago while on ajourney to Patamoondy with Mr. 
Goadhy, the latter happened to touch a piece of lighted stick 
with which the man was boiling his rice, whereby he gave great 
offence. The poor man esteemed his meal as contaminated, and 
threw it to the dogs, and took himself away from Mr. Goadby's 
neighbourhood, lest he himself should contract the like defilement. 
While at Cuttack I had many conversations with him, but his stub- 
born ignorance preserved his heart from all impression, and his 
understanding from all light. He has lately been located at Choga, 
has been in constant communication with the christian natives there, 
moreover God has visited him with a long affliction. The latter he 
interprets as a warning to him, and with tears in his eyes, he con- 
fessed to me the alteration which had taken place in his views ; the 
long and stubborn resistance which he had made to the gospel, and 
that now he would resist no longer. His wife is as wild as an ante- 
lope, and withal abundantly ceremonial. To me she was unap- 



299 



proachable, and Mrs. Lacey had much ado to obtain an audience 
with her. She told her she knew she was a sinner, that she knew 
Jesus Christ was the only Saviour, that she knew her husband 
would become a disciple of Christ, that she believed in Christ also, 
but could not bear to think of losing caste, and becoming unclean." 
In 1844 some very pleasing circumstances are mentioned con- 
nected with Choga. " At this place a native christian village has 
been established. Reference was made in the last Report to pro- 
ceedings intended to effect this desirable object. Mr. Lacev now 
states that the christians have removed from the heathen village, 
where they formerly lived, and have located themselves on the 
ground he had procured from the Rajah of Autghur. Here they 
form a christian village, have a small chapel in which they attend 
the means of christian instruction and worship every Lord's-day ; 
and now a school is being provided for tlie instruction of their 
children. About sixty have renounced idolatry at Choga. They 
have named their village Odyapoor, or the village of rising. "I 
hope," writes the Missionary, " the light of the celestial sun will 
rise and shine upon this place." The idol formerly worshipped on 
this hill has been cast out and its residence pulled up and burned. 
Messrs. Sutton and Lacey assisted by the school children obtained 
levers and raised it out of the earth from which it was said to have 
sprung, and cast it into the open plain, where it lay neglected, till 
some of its former votaries from another village took up their god 
and carried it away. Mr. Lacey has visited Choga several times, 
and furnished various pleasing statements respecting the progress 
that Christianity is making. In Dec. 184.3 he v/rites: — -"Yester- 
day I visited Choga, and am encouraged, not to say delighted 
with my visit. Just before I sot oif Rama returned from his weekly 
visit to that place, and mentioned several persons who appeared 
seriously disposed, and to those I found several more ; there are 
in fact about ten individuals more or less well disposed towards 
Christianity, and some of them appear not far from the kingdom 
of heaven. One man who has for years known much of the gospel was 
some time since heavily afflicted, and he looked upon his affliction 
as a visitation from God to punish his disobedience; he resolved if 
God would spare him, to attend to the concerns of his soul. God 
has spared him, and raised him up from affliction and now he wishes 
to serve God. Another man, who has for years been lingering on 
the verge of Christianity, and of whom I think I have written to 
you in past years, appears resolved 7ww to dec'de. His wife has 
left him in consequence of his determination, and is irrecoverably 



300 



iost. Besides these, there are two or three heathen who are earn- 
estlv enquiring after the truth, and several nominal christians who 
appear very serious ; upon the whole Choga, or, as we have called 
jt Odyapoor, (the city of rising) is in an encouraging and improv- 
in"- state. One of our native friends there named Purasua, is a 
very active and we:ll informed maa, and, has much talent for im- 
parting instruction/' 

Five or sax weeks later he remarks, that several ef the nominal 
Christians at CShoga appeared deeply concerned ahout their eternal 
salvation and confessed their sinfulness with many tears ; while 
they expressed a confidence in Christ, so as t;o give good hope .thai 
they are not strangers to his grace. Several heathen also are much 
•concerned for their salvation, and are struggling between the loss 
of caste and credit on earth and a profession of Christ. Some 
«f these have gone too far t© retract. At a later period he announ- 
(ces that several at Choga were enquirers.. Oae man had come 
forward, broken his sacred necklace, and renounced caste, his 
wife appeared in a still more encouraging state than himself, and 
Siad urged him forwarcL ^Others appeared en the point of coming 
out to the Christian party- One 'has recently put on Christ by 
baptism. In February the wife of one of the Choga Christians was 
baptised. It is stated that she appears to be a quiet and sincere 
christian, and had long seemed to possess good feeling before she 
iippeared the subject of converting grace." 

KIIUXDITTA, or BEECnER-'NAUGUB- 

■In 18-10 reference is made to the formation of this station. 
— " Tliis is another new and important station ; for which the 
Committee have agreed to sei>d out a Missionary, as soon as can 
be. The last Report related the baptism of Seeboo and two other 
converts in .tiiis .place,; to these, others Jiave since been added. 
Hitherto they have formed a bxanch of the church at Cuttack, 
though the distance between the places is considerable, being about 
forty miles. Doubtless after the station shall be more regularly 
occupied, .they will form a distinct church. Seboo and Luckindas, 
two of the native ministers, are stationed here. The Committee 
of an auxiliary missionary fund at Cuttack, have determined ta 
•appropriate a liberal sum for the erection of a bungalow, a Chapel, 
and a native preacher's house. The bungalow has been completed 
at a cost of about one hundred and fifty rupees, and the chapeJ 
iand preacher's house were in progress. George Beecher, Esq. late 



301 



ofCutfacIc, who has been a warm friend to the mission for several 
years, has given twenty acres of good land for the location of a 
christian village. Several other friends have assisted to provide 
cottages for the converts. The. native chapel is erecting in the 
centre of the settlement. The prospects at Khunditta are stated 
to remain very encouraging : the christians are respected and the 
truth is raaliing a wide and deep impression on the surrounding 
population. ]Mr. Lacey has visited the district several times 
during the year, and for about eight months divine worship has 
been conducted on the Lord's-day by Doitaree, who was for a time 
stationed there. Several converts have been baptized. 

Sir. Sutton mentions that of the last natives baptized, three were 
from Khunditta, making six, in that new field, to which a further 
addition has been subsequently made. — At this place, Sebo-saho 
and Lockhundas, have been received as preachers, nor have their 
labours been in vain. Mr. Lacey has furnished an account of the 
settlement. The ground given by Mr. Beecher, which forms the 
site of the settlement, is eastward of the great Juggernaut road. 
The land is fertile, but has some drawbacks in consequence of 
being infested with monkeys from a neighbouring jungle, and from 
its nearness to the Juggernaut road, being liable to the petty plun- 
derings of the idol's pilgrims. About eight professedly christian 
families appear to be located on the spot. Four of these families 
have each two acres of land allotted to them, a quantity, it is stated, 
equal to the maintenance of six or seven persons, and as much as 
one man can well cultivate. On Lord's-day, Nov. 1, Mr. Lacey 
opened the small village chapel. He states, — " I preached in the 
chapel, which has been erected in the midst of the village. My 
congregation was but small, but combined much interest. There 
were present all the christians, nominal and real, amounting to 
about thirty-two or thirty-three souls, and a number of heathens 
sitting and standing around the door. My text was selected from 
Acts V. 20. The people paid good attention, and appeared im- 
pressed. In the afternoon Bamadab preached from " Blessed are 
they that mourn, for they shall be comforted." In the evening for 
the first time in this place, we had the Lord's-supper. I spoke to 
the Christians about remembering Christ, his love, his sufferings, 
and especially the object of the latter ; and pointed out the eilect 
such remembrance should jijroduce on the affections and the cha- 
racter. The opportunity was solemn, and useful. This morning 
some enquirers arrived to whom something was said, and they 
were invited to stay and attend worship. Also early this morning, 



302 



Narabaree walked over to his village and brought away his wife. 
He effected his object without molestation." 

A very pleasing instance is related of success crowning the 
labours of the native brethren.-^" One day about the middle of 
November, as Sebo-saho and Lockundas were preaching to the 
passing pilgrims on the large road at Khunditta, a person named 
Kessari Naik, going to his field to reap his rice croj), stood with 
a number of others, to hear what was being said. The preachers 
were reading and explaining one by one the ten commandments, and 
showing how all men had broken them and were consequently, 
exposed to the wrath of God. As they proceeded the mind of 
Kessari Naik was powerfully arrested, and he found the truth 
applying itself to his conscience ; he felt himself a guilty sinner, 
and became greatly distressed. After the native preachers had 
laid open the guilty state of man, they adverted to the remedy for 
sin, the death of Jesus Christ, as an atonement, and exhorted 
sinners to withdraw their trust from idols, and believe in the only 
Saviour. Kessari Naik felt that this intelligence inspired him with 
hope, and he thought in his mind. Who then have I hut Christ ! in 
him I will put my trust : he shall he my Saviour. Instead of pro- 
ceeding to his field that day, he returned to his house, and entered 
on a more deliberate consideration of the resolution he had taken. 
He examined the claims of his own books. In this examination 
some of the instances of monstrous fiction recorded in the shastras 
occurred to his remembrance. When Urjoon, thought he, balanced, 
the whole earth for nine days upon the end of his bow, where did 
Urjoon stand ? He soon became entirely convinced of the false- 
hood of those records, and at once renounced them for ever. His 
people soon perceived the anxiety of his mind, and he explained 
his feelings and determination to them, especially to his wife and 
children. They entreated and threatened, but to no purpose, and 
after about four months spent in such exercises as above ; he tied 
up a little rice and salt in his cloth, and set out for Cuttack, where 
he requested to be baptized, and where he now stands a hopeful 
candidate for christian fellowship." He has since been baptised. 
An American missionary travelling in Orissa, stopped at this 
oasis in the moral desert. He administered the Lord's-supper, 
and fifteen sat down to that holy feast. He says,- — " No sooner 
had they received intelligence that a Padre had arrived, than they 
came running to me with great glee, and spent the evening with 
me in religious conversation and prayer. After this, as I intended 
to start early the next morning, 1 visited their houses by lamp light: 



303 



found all in the neatest order, not even a straw on their floors or in 
their door yards ; and their little gardens exhibited a taste which 
does not exist with ' the heathen.' This brief but gratifying testi- 
mony to the effects of the gospel at one of your minor stations, it 
may be remembered comes from a stranger, and was sent not to 
England but to America. 

Mr. Lacey's testimony when he visited the station while on his 
way to Buddruck, is not less favorable than that of the American 
traveller. " This morning we moved into Khunditta, our little 
christian settlement. Found some of the native christians sick, to 
whom I administered medicine. They were all very glad to see 
us, as I am sure we were to see them ; and it is very refreshing 
amidst the wild wilderness of idolatry, to come upon a little chris- 
tian garden planted with the trees of righteousness — amidst the 
darkness of Hindooism, to enter upon a little spot filled with chris- 
tian light and principle. Our people here are growing in the confi- 
dence of the heathen around them, and the little colony is doing 
well. The twenty acres of land which, when the christians entered 
upon it, was one third waste, is now all under cultivation ; the 
large ant-hills have disappeared, the patches of jungle have been 
rooted up, and fertility smiles all around the little spot. The people 
have corn in their houses, have added cows, bullocks, and hackeries 
to their little stock, and the whole place abounds with marks of 
prosperity." Of their spiritual condition he elsewhere adds, " The 
little native christian band have maintained their christian profession, 
and have generally increased in knowledge and piety, and in the 
respect of the heathen around them." 

Mr. Lacey's recent account of Khunditta is, that the native 
christians are " consistent, respected, and in their temporal circum- 
stances thriving." This place has been repeatedly mentioned as 
an important sphere for the location of a missionary. It should be 
remembered as an interesting field of labour, and prayer should 
ascend to the Lord of the harvest to send forth labourers into his 
harvest. 

PIPLEY. 

In the Report of 1840, this Town is mentioned as a native 
station. It is said — " At the last Conference in Orissa, it was 
determined to occupy this place as a regular thoiigh subordina'.e 
station. Pipley is situated oa the Juggernaut road, about half way 

p 2 



304 

between Cuttaclc and Pooree, and is near the ancient city of Blio- 
baneswar, so celebrated for its numerous temples. The neighbour- 
hood is populous ; several markets and mellas, or superstitious 
festivals, are held in the vicinity, and the place is excellently 
situated for meeting with pilgrims on their way to or from Pooree. 
Rougburdass had a house and ground at Pipley, which he offered 
to make over to the missionaries for a native preacher. Doitaree 
has accordingly been appointed to labour there for the present 
year." 

At the Conference in 1842, Doitaree and Luckindas, in succes- 
sion were appointed to labour at this place. Lying on the greatt 
north road from Cuttack to Juggernaut, it has doubtless been fre- 
quently visited. Much seed has been sown, and in ' due season 
we shall reaj?, if we faint not." 

The Report of 1840 makes the following reference to these 
places, describing them as colonies. "What a delightful thought, 
that these villages may grow into colonies, and colonies into towns,, 
and towns into cities ; fulfilling the promise to the ancient church, 
" Thou shalt break forth on the right hand and on the left ; and 
thy seed shall inherit the Gentiles,^ and make the desolate cities to 
be inhabited." Of the locations of native christians, Mr. Lacey 
says — " Of these interesting and important institutions, I have to- 
note more than at any former period in the history of the Orissa 
mission. They form the criterion of its outward enlargement and 
prosperity. Christian natives must form themselves into colonies 
and separate communities. They have no possessions when they 
embrace the gospel, and they are not permitted to mix with the 
population of the country. Our four colonies are Christianpoor^ 
Khunditta, Bhojerpoor, and Choga. The latter is in the territory 
of the Athgur Raja. In Christianpoor there are eighteen families^ 
in Khunditta four, in Bhogerpoor five, and in Choga one ; besides 
these, at all these places there are families of inquirers ; and other 
christian families are either separately located^ or are living upon 
our compounds, Choga is five, Bhogerpoor is eight, and Khun- 
ditta is forty miles from Cuttack. Choga is the village whence 
Bamadab, Hurree-jiare, Kinapore, and Treelochun came, more 
than six years ago. Christian light has been at work ever since, 
Prosua has since been baptized from Choga, we have three inqui- 
rers now at Cuttack from the same place, and hear af many more 
upon whose minds tb.e light of truth is breaking. Prosua has 
obtained permission to retain his house and farm there, and as he 
is permitted to do so, others will have the same privilege, Bhog- 



305 



erpoor remains without alteration. We hope the time is not very 
far off, when our christian colonies will be able to be recognized 
as separate churches, and support their own n.itive ministers." 

In the Report of 1844, Mr. Lacey says, "The increase of 
nominal christians, or of such as have joined the christian commu- 
nity, but have not been baptized, has been greater in proportion 
ihan the number added by bajjtism. The natives are held to idola- 
try by their caste, and their social relationsliips. "When therefore 
they see their way clear to prosecute their employment, so as to live 
in the world among christians, they, or many of them, are very 
willing to renounce idolatry and nominally to profess Christ, and 
attend the means of christian worshij)- Sevend families have 
joined the christian communities in the past year. They have 
located themselves among the christians and form a part of their 
body, and their children have been taken into the school. Eight 
couples have been married during the year, and have either com- 
menced a separate household, or have gone to their friends into 
ihouses already prepared for them. 

"In this way' our native christians will soon form a numerous 
?body of people in this land, without the prejudices of caste or 
idolatry. The habits induced even by a nominal profession of 
•tihristianity, are greatly conducive to increase, and will soon in this 
country extensively multiply the christian natives. They ate very 
much more hopeful to labour among than the darkened and pre- 
judiced heathen, and their increase therefore is a real accession to 
:the good cause. On this account I have felt, and do still feel very 
anxious to encourage the location of such people in separate villages, 
and this encouragement I think should not bo confined to such as 
are converted, but to any and all who will forsake their idolatry, 
lose their caste, and attend means for christian instruction. The 
whole of the nominal christian natives attend the means of chris- 
tian worship, and have laid aside every idolatrous practice." 

It is a very gratifying fact that seven Christian locations, or small 
■villages of professed christians, are already formed, containing iu 
the whole fifty-four households. They are as follows : 

•Christianpore, seventeen households. 

Laceycic, six and about four more to commence. 

Societypore, six. 

Khunditta, eight. 

Bhogerpore, three besides six or eight who have dctacilied divellings. 

Choga, six. 

Qdyapoor, eight." 



306 

An interesting account of these places is given by the same pen, 
under date March 1844. He writes — 

" I wish I could give you an account of 

Our Locality at Cutfack. 

Conceive then, first, a hill about eighty yards in circumference, 
and about eight feet above the surrounding level, standing in the 
middle of five acres of ground, belonging to the Cuttack canton- 
ments. On this hill, which is named * The Mount,' stands a mo- 
derate sized pucka-house, one story high, surrounded by a veran- 
dah, and fronted by a portico. This is our residence. To the 
eastward of my house, and at one hundred yards distance, is the 
printing office and school premises, on a piece of ground about four 
acres. Here Mr. and Mrs. Brooks reside ; and here Bro. Sutton 
has built him a house. The old school-house is now occupied by 
the press, and the school abolished. On these premises are loca- 
tions for about eighty boys and girls, under the care and instruction 
of brother and sister Sutton. The devotion of sister Sutton to these 
childi-en is Ijeyond all praise, and she has been rewarded by many 
of the children becoming pious. Several couples have been bap- 
tized, married, and have set up their household in life. Connected 
with these schools, and on the same premises, I must now mention 
tliat there is 

A neat little Chapel 

erected. This Chapel was opened for divine service, with the 
children, only yesterday. Brother Lacey preached in Oriya from 
Leviticus xxvi. 11., "And I will place my tabernacle among you." 
Returning to our own house, twenty or thirty yards to the west 
of us, is the little native Christian village called 

Society-poor, 

Having at present in it five or six families. These are fast increas- 
ing. Again, to the south east of us, distance about 300 yards, 
and joining the Press compound, is another Christian village, which 
has been denominated 

Lacey-cie. 

Here there are already four families located ; and, two days ago, 
I portioned out land for three young men, who want to be married, 
and build themselves houses here. Here also increase is proceeding. 
Haifa-mile east of us, brings us to our oldest Christian village, 



307 



Christianpoor. 

This comprises about two acres, and lias long since lieen filled. 
Increase is here rapidly going on, and some of the branches have 
been obliged to migrate to other places. In Christianpoor stands 
a house, ■which serves the double purpose of chapel and school 
room. Mrs. Lacey has a school here, containing Christian and 
heathen children. They are in number about twenty-five — they 
read the scriptures, Christian poems, and catechisms. Turning 
from the road which leads to Christianpoor, and directing our steps 
southerly, after walking about 150 yards, we come to the residence 
of Gunga Dhor, our senior Christian, senior native preacher, and 
the first native I baptized. On the ground now occupied by his 
house once stood a temple of Hoonuman. I purchased the god's 
house over his head, and then pulled it down upon him, and for 
several days the divine monkey was exposed to the piercing rays 
of an Indian sun ; but such was his power of endurance, that he 
never, no, not once cried out, or manifested any signs of uneasi- 
ness! The owner at length carried oif the godship in a cart, but 
that owner afterwards becoming a Christian, he was brought again 
to Cuttack, and with other divinities and divine things, was 
delivered up to me. He stood for some time at my door, and my 
little boy John, and my little girl Harriet, one day got a hammer, 
and by way of amusing themselves, knocked off the arms, and ears, 
and nose, of the unfortunate Iloonuman ! But even, then, he mani- 
fested no signs of pain or uneasiness, and the natives said as they 
say of Juggernaut, that he was a god of "great patience." Gunga 
Dhor, you are aware, proceeds from this place to proclaim the 
Gospel every day, in the streets and bazaars of Cuttack. Ten 
yards beyond Gunga's house stands our chapel. It also is erected 
on the site of an ancient temple of ]Mahad:;b, or Sebo ; and in the 
chapel compound are located two other families of native Christians. 
Five miles due north from our residence, and visible from " the 
Mount," is the village of 

Oodt/a-poor, 

The village of rising, or, what we commonly call Choga. It is a 
Christian village, and has about twelve families located in it. 
The village is situated in the middle of a large rice-plain, and 
stands on a hill, a prominent object in all views to all around. 
We have had many converts from Choga, but some have become 
preachers, and are at work in their stations, and others are use- 
fully employed at the press, schools, S:c. North-west from 



^ 308 



ta^, 



Cutta^, on the large Juggernaut road, and forty miles distant is a 
village named 

Khu7iaitta. 

Near this village a piece of ground has been given to me, hy ISfr- 
Beecher, a friend to our mission, for the purpose of locating native 
Christians. Here are eight native Christian families, and they 
are fast on the increase. We have at this village a small chapel, 
a hunffalovv, and a house, for the native preacher. A native prea- 
cher is stationed here, and looks after the Christians, as vv^ell as 
peregrinates about in the thickly populated neighbourhood. I 
•should have mentioned Bhogerpoor but I have mentioned till my 
paper is full and I must cease. Lying on our south, and com- 
mencing 200 yards from my door, is the city of Cuittack, popu- 
lated by 50,000 inhabitants." 

NATIVE SCHOOLS. 

We have seen that the first native school commenced at Cuttack, 
in May 1822. The establishment and superintendence of these 
schools formed a very useful employment in the infancy of tlie 
mission — preparing the way for the dissemination of the gospel, and 
the cultivation of their own abilities for its promulgation. In the 
Report of 1828, the missionary at Cuttack wrote of the Schools in 
that populous city — " We have seven schools at Cuttack, which 
contain 233 children ; of these, sixty-six read the New Testament, 
•commit the History of Christ to memory, and repeat other religious 
tracts and poems : these also learn to write on the tall pottra. The 
greater part of these sixty-six boys have obtained as good a know- 
ledge of the sacred Scriptures as cliildren in England of their privi- 
leges and circumstances ; and particularly are they informed of the 
way of salvatiou by the atonement of Jesus Christ. We are, on the 
whole, much encouraged Avith their general information, industry^ 
and improvement. Of the above number, thirty-six are learning a 
catechism and writing ; and the remainder, except ten boys, ai-e 
writers of the lowest classes. They have all succeeded in commit- 
ting some Christian poetry to memory, which may be useful to 
them in future life." 

In 1840, "a native heathen school was established, under the 
tuition of a christian master, and the progress it has made is de- 
cidedly pleasing." Less attention appears to have been given re- 
cently to native Schools, from a deep impression that the great work 



309 



of a ]\Iissionary is the preaching of the gospel. Several schools 
are supported at Cuttack, but the establishment of Orphan Asylums 
have been found the most efficient means for the instruction and 
conversion of the rising generation. 

ORPHAN ASYLUMS. 

These valuable Institutions commenced in Feb. 1829. Mrs. 
Lacey writes from Cuttack ; — " On Feb. 2nd, we commenced a 
Boarding School, for the indigent Christian children of the station. 
We have placed twelve boys and girls with the master already, 
and others are making application for admission. These children 
are very destitute indeed, generally fatherless. Their friends have 
no care whether they be able or not to obtain their bread respectably, 
and they are equally careless about their eternal welfare ; so that 
the condition from which they are taken is wretched indeed in all 
respects. By being placed in the school they will not only be 
taught the importance of religion, but have the means of obtaining 
a living put in their power. The board of these children will be 
of considerable expenee monthly ; but our excellent Judge and his 
lady, whom we may truly call fellow helpers in the Lord, exert 
themselves to the utmost in behalf of the school. They subscribe 
largely themselves and obtain subscriptions from others, with whom 
we could not succeed. Mr. and Mrs. Pigou subscribe £16 yearly 
to the school, besides finding money for beds and clothing for the 
children. They also visit the school once a fortnight, and give 
rewards to the children according to their diligence. We have 
made it a rule, that the children attend our chapel morning and 
evening on the Lord's-day, and it is very pleasing to see the bojs 
and girls arranged in rows en each side the pulpit ; it reminds us 
of the Sunday Schools in England ; surely these children will rise 
up a better generation than their parents." 

At Berhampore similar Lislitutions are formed. The Secretary 
observes. — " A condensed view of the progress of these benevolent 
Institutions, furnishes a powerful claim for their support. They 
were commenced ]\Iay 3rd, 1830, with ten or eleven children of 
both sexes. Since that time upwards of one Imndred children, 
including eighteen for a time sent from Berhampore, have found 
a refuge in them, for a longer or shorter period. Some have 
completed the system of education their kind friends could aftbrd 
them, and are now entering on the active duties of life. One that 
belonged to Mr. Sutton's senior class is now the native preacher 



310 



at Balasore ; one his employed by Mr. S. in is study, as a copyist ; 
six arc in the printing office, preparing, it is remarked, " to use 
the mi"htv press in enlightening their country !" Four of the 
girls have been married to native christians. Several received in a 
state of extreme exhaustion or disease, have died, and thirty males 
and thirty-six females, still remain in the different asylums. 
Within two years eleven of the native pupils and five from the 
English department, including the master and his wife, have been 
baptized, and of course united to the church. To this may be 
added, three or four more baptized by Mr. Stubbins. From the 
different Schools at Cuttack three have been baptized during the 
vear, viz. Ghunu Shyan, a son of Doitaree, the native preacher, 
from the English School department, Khumba from the boys' asy- 
lum, and Moola from the girls'. Two candidates, Boi^hnub, a for- 
mer pupil in the boys' department, and Dooke, now in the girls', 
have long applied for baptism." 

The Report of 1844 contains very interesting information. "At 
Christianpore and Odyapore there are day schools, the former 
having about thirty scholars, the latter about twenty. In these 
schools the children have been partly those of Christian parents 
and partly of heathen. No native books are allowed. The scho- 
lars read the Scriptures and other Christian books. At Christian- 
pore the master's salary is three rupees eight annas per month; the 
other master has one rupee per month less. The Cuttack asylums 
maintain their importance as benevolent Institutions, eminently 
adapted to benefit the rising generation. The whole number of 
scholars during the year has been fifty hoys and forty-seven girls. 
Many of the earlier scholars have become men and women. The 
girls especially, it is observed, go off fast to take charge of their 
own homes ; and so quickly rolls on human life in India, that many 
who were pupils in the asylum a few years ago, are now heads of 
families, and their children are springing up in rapidly increasing 
numbers. None from the female Asylum have been bajJtized 
during the year. Indeed most of the elder scholars are members of 
the church. From the male Asylum five youtts have professed 
Christ in baptism. Seven of the eldest are employed in the printing 
and binding offices, and three others are learning other employ- 
ments. One interesting youth has finished his short course. He 
was a candidate for baptism, and died the very evening on which he 
was accepted for Christian communion. Mr. Sutton saw him, and 
gives an interesting and encouraging account of his last interview 
Willi him. His name \\as Senjama," 



;ii 



Of the Girls' Asylum, Mrs. Sutton states, "The number of 
scholars reported as having attended in whole or in part during last 
year, 1843-4, was of boys fifty, and of girls forty-seven. This 
year the record gives, boys sixty, and girls forty-six, making a 
total of one hundred and six. Several however it will be seen 
were but for a very short time in the school." 

These Schools have been liberally supported. — INIr. Sutton thus 
refers to the success of his appeal under date July 1844. " Last 
July I published a brief account of the first seven years of our 
orphan asylum in the Calcutta Christian Observer, and in a post- 
script gave a hint that assistance towards building a chapel for the 
use of the Institution, would be acceptable. Our first contribution 
was from Mr. Alexander, our generous Calcutta friend, 100 rupees; 
Col. Eckford, who was baptized at Cuttack, fifty rupees ; J. W. 
Skipvvorth, — now a pious magistrate, but when I was at Balasore 
a wild young man who, with three others, use to turn their hounds 
loose to hunt close at our door nearly every Sabbath, (three out 
of the four, I have heard, have become changed men,)— 100 rupees. 
Anonymous 100 rupees ; Capt. H. Lyall (perfect stranger), 50 
rupees ; George Thompson, Esq., sent to me from Delhi with a 
little commission ; I saw Mr. Thompson in the United States of 
America, twenty rupees. James Alexander, twenty-five rupees ; 
Mr. Robert Trotter, says he saw that Mr. Skipworth had given 
and therefore he sends 100 rupees ; Captains Martyn, Towns- 
hend, and Mac Cleghan, from the banks of the Indus, 50 rupees. 
A reply to my note thanking these gentlemen brought another 
which led me to copy these subscriptions ; the note being short 
I copy it. Enclosed was a draft for fifty rupees. 

" My dear Sir, — I had the jileasure of receiving a very nice 
letter from you enclosing one to Col. Eckford, which I forwarded 
to Sheh-jehan-poor. The Lord has been very bountiful to me, 
and I would humbly present the enclosed for his service, and place 
it at your disposal. Let us return thanks for his goodness". 

I apprehend the gentleman and his brother officers, who united 
in sending the first contributions, have passed through the dreadful 
Affghan campaign. Col. Eckford was shut up with the illustrious 
garrison at Jellahabad, there also was Dr. Marshman's youngest 
daughter's husband, the gallant captain Havelock, a pious man. 
Col. E. was very busy in his attempts to do good. Mrs. E. in a 
note lately received speaks of his collecting a large company of 
officers and men, and reading my sermons to them, (forgive this 

Q 2 



312 

personality) and goes on to say, "I doubt not at the last great 
day, when we shall see clearly all the way the Lord has led us, 
we shall then bless him for sending my dear husband to Jellahabad." 
He was then in daily attendance upon the sick soldiers in the 
various hospitals, and I rejoice to say many heard him gladly. 
One man, who died, wrote to his wife in the provinces to tell 
her, if she was every near the 6th regiment, to go to it and tell the 
good colonel " what joy and peace he had been the means of 
im[:arting to him." The poor man died soon after leaving Jella- 
habad. 

You will forgive me quoting these letters, notwithstanding per- 
sonal allusions, as they seem to show something of the liberal spirit 
of Christianity in India ; for all these donations were voluntary, 
and most of them from perfect strangers ; while the quotation 
referring to Col. Eckford will, without I hope trespassing too far 
upon private communications, show how widely christian influence 
may be spread, and that even amidst the most appalling wickedness 
(for such was the Affghan war) there may be an under current 
for good." 

THE ENGLISH SCHOOL. 

This school commenced October 1823, and has doubtless been a 
blessing to many. In the Annual Report of the Society for 1828, 
Mr. Lacey states — " The English Charity School has this year 
continued under the care of the Missionary at Cuttack. The num- 
ber of Christian children is abo'.;t as last year : the native children 
have increased. Three have finished their education ; two have 
retired to their homes ; and one has obtained a situation as English 
writer in the Commissioner's office at Cuttack. All these have left 
the school with some good degree of religious knowledge, and have 
taken with them that word which is able to make them wise unto 
salvation. The prospects of the school are, however, not pleasing, 
for the income is a good deal below the expenditure, and the little 
fund in hand is nearly exhausted. We hope some friends will be 
raised up to support so useful and promising a cause but the pre- 
judices which prevail over the minds of Europeans in India against 
every thing connected with Missionaries, has done our school much 
injury. 

" I have made an effort for fresh subscribers, and have succeeded 
in getting three: the Rev. D. Garide at thirty rupees per quarter; 
Dr. Brandee, Pooree, at ten rupees per quarter ; and Thos. Garide, 



313 



Esq., Madras, at twenty rupees per quarter; as well as a few dona- 
tions, the principal one from the lion. J. II. Harrington, 1 GO rupees: 
however, I much question whether we shall now keep on, as we 
must have a school- room soon ; but we will leave this for the pre- 
sent, and see how we stand, if spared another year : we may have 
new friends springing up by that time. How well it would be if 
we could have an English Teacher : he might be a great help to our 
mission, and would bring forward the children much better. If our 
Society could select a pious young man who would devote himself, 
as Penney does, to the work, and send him out, allowing him some 
forty or fifty rupees per month, which, with the present salary of 
eighty, would be sufficient, they would render a most efficient help 
to the mission and the school. The passage money is the greatest 
difficulty. You can mature your thoughts on this subject, and so 
act accordingly. I believe the gentlemen would have no ol)jection 
to such a measure, though I have never mentioned it to them. 

" The progress of the children, particularly the Bengalee children, 
has been encouraging in all the brandies of learning taught in the 
school. "We held the aimual examination of the school on the first 
of March, in our chapel. It was attended by Thomas Pakenham, 
Esq., Acting Commissioner ; Dr. Stiven, Civil Surgeon ; and Mr. 
C , who, I believe, was then Acting Secretary to the Com- 
missioner. The boys exhibited some very neat specimens of their 
hand-writing, also their account books, which gave great satisfaction 
both as to proficiency, correctness, and neatness. They also were 
desired to work sums before the Commissioners, and although a 
good deal disconcerted before the above-named persons, they 
managed exceedingly well, particularly James Sunder. After this, 
they repeated some moral pieces of poetry, which was the least 
acceptable part of the performance ; for although they understood 
well the drift of the pieces, their pronunciation was defective, par- 
ticularly that of the native children. It is extremely difiicult to get 
a native to pronounce English well. Poor lads, they were extremely 
desirous to pronounce well, and had endeavoured to prepare them- 
selves for the occasion, but the presence of the gentlemoii quite 
disconcerted them. This evening they declined and compared some 
pronouns, adjectives, and substantives, and conjugated verbs in 
diff"erent moods and tenses, and parsed, repeating at large the syn- 
tactical rules. Upon the whole, the examination gave great satis- 
faction, and evinced a good deal of improvement. The gentlemen 
present assured me they were much pleased, and hoped succeeding 
years would bear equal testimony to the improvement of the insti- 



314 



tution. TIic lower classes read, exhibited their copy-books, spelled, 
&c. The examination lasted for three hours and a half, and would 
have been longer had I not curtailed the lessons ; the gentlemen 
expressed their desire to be at liberty as soon as possible. Mr. C. 
promised a donation of 100 sicca rupees for the school, and ex- 
pressed his best wishes for the welfare of the institution in future. 
He seemed surprised that we had been able to accomplish so much 
as he thought it ; but he was little aware of the pain we ourselves 
feel tliat we have done no more. Perhaps it is well that it is so. 

" Hearing of a vacancy in the Commissioner's cutcherry, I re- 
commended Hurree Chund Bhose to Mr. Pakenham, who placed 
him in it at a salary of twenty rupees per month. I hope this 
young man, through the instruction obtained in the school, has be- 
come acquainted with better feelings than the Hindoo system 
imjiarts." 

In 1841 this Institution was merged into a larger Government 
School. Mr. Sutton states, — " I would first advert to the now 
defunct English School, defunct so far as relates to our Mission. 
About two years since the Bengal troops were withdrawn from 
the province, and their place supplied from the Madras presidency. 
Up to this period, since the time of my taking charge of the School, 
the contributions had met the expenditure, but our iMadras friends, 
partly from being accustomed to less liberal contributions than 
their predecessors, and partly from feeling themselves to be but 
temporary occupants of the station, reduced their subscriptions 
to a very low scale. Still as there were two regiments, we man- 
aged by close economy to meet the expences ; but on the removal 
of one regiment to Midnapore, and some of our best friends in the 
other to England and distant parts of India, there was a sudden 
fall almost to nothing. While this process of pecuniary reduction 
was going on, conversions in connexion with the schools in different 
parts of India, so alarmed the wealthy natives, that they chose 
to be at the cxpence of employing private teachers, rather than 
send their children to a mission school. 

To these causes operating within, there were others without, 
especially the determination to remove the Government school 
from Pooree to Cuttack. This last determination turned the scale. 
The Government school promised to give a better education than 
\ve could do, and upon a scale of expenditure to which we could 
make no approach, and would moreover absorb the funds upon 
which we had hitherto depended. Even the abolition of the pilgrim 
tax affected us, for on its abolition, the funds from which five 



315 



boarders had been supported were withheld to keep up tlie pilgrim 
hospital. Under these circumstances Messrs. Lacey and Sutton 
proposed to make over the School to Government, on condition, 
that the managing Committee on the part of the subscribers should 
relinquish all right and interest in the school premises in favour of 
the Society. To this they agreed, and the premises are now the 
l)roperty of the Society. Thus after running its useful course for 
seventeen years, distributing the stream of knowledge through many 
parts of this desert province, the stream has swollen to a river, 
whose waters if less limpid, will yet form a vaster body swelling 
on we trust with increasing power, and bearing on their bosom 
the ark of knowledge through the length and the breadth of the 
land." 

Circulation of the Scriptures and religious Books. 

The necessity of such exertions is shewn in the Report of 1827, 
furnished by the autlior, on his return from India. " To shew the 
necessity of this department of missionary labour, it may be inter- 
esting to the friends of the Mission to know the whole number of 
printed Books and Tracts in the Oreah language in 1822. It 
appears to have been as follows; — 1. The Oreah Bible, by Dr. 
Carey, in five vols. Svo. 2. A Vocabulary, Oreah and English, 
by a Native. 3. A poem of 100 pages on the Christian religion, 
written by a Bengalee Christian. 4. A Tract on the stopping of 
Juggernaut's car at Serampore, by Mr. "Ward, written to prevent 
a human sacrifice that the car might proceed, 5. A Tract upon 
the folly of the worship of Juggernaut. G. Scripture Extracts. 
(one leaf). A copy or two of another Tract has been found in 
Orissa. Behold, dear brethren tlie whole of a Christian Oreah 
Library on the arrival of your Missionaries in Orissa. In addition 
to several pieces, in diff'erent degrees of preparation for the press, 
the following have been printed at Serampore and Calcutta: — 1. 
Elementary Tables of the Oreah language. Printed at the expcnce 
of the School Book Society, Calcutta. 2. On the Law and Gos- 
pel. (Scripture Extracts). 3. Ilalf-a-dozen Hymns, from the 
Bengalee. 4. The Word of God concerning Idolatry. Scripture 
language relative to its nature, absurdity, wickedness, &c. 5. A 
Catechism from one in Bengalee. 6. A Word for Christianity, (one 
leaf). Thousands printed. 7. Death and Resurrection of Jesus 
Christ. 8. Serampore Copy-Books, partly printed." To this list 
may be added, 9. A Harmony of the Gospel in verse." 



316 



We have seen that IMr. Lacey took out a Press M'ith him on his 
return to India in 1837. Mr. Lacey states that on the arrival of 
the Press, several persons called to look at it, and appeared to view- 
it as half a miracle. Mr. Sutton soon announced that one press 
was insufficient for their work. In consequence of these additional 
facilities, the Missionaries carry on their operations in the printing 
department, on a more extensive scale. Previously to the arrival 
of the printing press, ISIr. Sutton, who has the care of the publishing 
department, felt increasingly the extreme inconvenience of being 
placed three hundred miles from the place where the Society's pub- 
lications were printed, and expressed an opinion that it would be 
needful for him to remove nearer to the press, or to have that 
brought nearer to him. Unless this were done, he stated, that the 
work of revising the scriptures would occupy a long life, and even 
then be very imperfectly performed. The establishment of the 
printing office, has, of course, removed the inconvenience com- 
plained of. 

The Report of 1845 contains a very interesting account of the 
labours of the press. The Secretary observes — " In this depart- 
ment of labour the past year has witnessed important progress. 
Mr. Sutton, as has been mentioned, has been enabled to complete 
his new version of the Old Testament. This has been carried 
through the press at the expense of the British and Foreign Bible 
Society. For his personal labours as translator, Mr. Sutton has 
received 5,000 rupees, which he has carried to the credit of the 
Society, thus displaying most honorably his disinterested zeal for 
the Mission, of which he is so faithful and efficient an instrument. 

The Committee of the Calcutta Auxiliary Bible Society thus 
refers to this work :— " Your Committee are happy in being able to 
announce the completion of the new version of the Old Testament 
into the Oriya language, which the Rev. A. Sutton, of Cuttack, 
has been preparing for the Societ3\ The edition, which consists 
of 2,000 copies of the entire Old Testament, in three volumes, 
besides 3,000 copies each of Genesis, the Psalter, and Proverbs, 
has been printed at the mission press at Cuttack, under the imme- 
diate superintendence of Mr. Sutton ; 1,000 copies of Isaiah, in 
a separate form, have also been struck off while the work was 
passing through the press. It is pleasing to observe the steady 
progress of the work of God in this country ; every year adds 
something to the great cause; and your Committee look, with 
thankful feelings, to every additional version issued. In the pre- 
sent instance, where missionaries have been labouring for a number 



317 



of years, and where already Christian congregations have hecn 
gathered from among the multitude, it is especially a matter of 
gratitude to be able to supply those faithful labourers, and the 
people whom they have been the instruments of bringing under 
instruction and training, with the Oracles of God. To Mr. Sutton, 
who, by his indefatigable labours for the last four years, has, 
almost single handed, accomplished this important work, the 
especial thanks of your Committee are due." 

IVlr. Sutton furnishes the following report respecting the publi- 
cations of the year :— " Since the completion of the Old Testament 
Scriptures, I have been at Calcutta and presented my accounts 
for printing, &c., which I expect will be paid at the next com- 
mittee meeting of the Bible Society. In the mean time they have 
paid me the last instalment of 2,000 rupees for my personal 
labour as translator, making the sum of 5,000 ruj^ees, which I 
have carried to the credit of the General Baptist Missionary Societv. 
I trust it will not be deemed unbecoming in me, here to record my 
humble thankfulness to Him, who has been to me so much better 
than my fears or deserts, and permitted me to accomplish an imder- 
taking of so responsible and important a character. May it still 
further please Him, that neither the imperfections of the work, 
nor the sinfulness of the workman, shall be permitted to operate 
against this translation of the Holy Bible being rendered an ex- 
tensive blessing. 

" The Sanscrit and Oriya Vocabulary for the Government schools, 
announced in the last Report as having commenced, has, during 
the year, been finished, printed, and paid for. 

' The Oriya and English Grammar, with idiomatical exercises, 
&c., intended to furnish a compendious and easy introduction to 
the language, and especially designed for missionary students and 
candidates, has also been completed, and a hundred copies have 
been taken by Government, which will cover the expence of pre- 
paration. 

" The third volume of Tracts, entitled ' controversial series,' 
intended as a ' Guide for enquirers,' containing 244 pages, has also 
been finished, and a number of copies of this, as also of the two 
preceding volumes, have been put in circulation. One other vol- 
unae of miscellaneous tracts yet remains to complete the series. 

"Our Hymn book in Oriya, has been completed, and is now in 
constant use at our different stations. It contains three hundred 
and ten hymns by various authors, chiefly native metres, and 
an appendix for children of a hundred and forty hymns and poems, 



18 



some oriTinal and the rest taken from Watts, Doddridge, &c. This 
appendix has been transhited into Bengalee, and has been j)rinted 
for general use at the Serampore press. 

" Two or three tracts have been revised for new editions, and 
added to our stock for distribution. Our tracts on 'Drunkenness' 
and 'bein"- in debt,' have been adopted by our Calcutta brethren 
and are published in Calcutta by the Tract Society. The intro- 
ductory part of a little treatise on ' Remedies for Bodily Diseases,' 
pointing out the disease and remedy of the soul, has been drawn 
up by me and accepted by the Calcutta Tract Society, but has not 
yet made its appearance. 1 anticipate much good from the dis- 
tribution of siich a work, both among native christians and heathens. 
In publishing a book of this kind among a people who suffer so 
much from ignorance of the most common remedies, I trust we 
are follov/ing in his steps, who went about doing good. At the 
same time, it may be hoped that under circumstances of bodily 
alfliction, some will be willing to attend to the things which belong 
to the welfare of the soul. 

"We are going on with the printing of revised editions of the 
New Testament, but hitherto our progress has been but slow. 
While I write, the proof embracing the last chapter of Mark is 
lying before me. If spared to complete this edition, with the folio 
edition of fifty copies for the pulpit, I deem it probable that my 
labours in biblical translation will be pi-etty well concluded, atlea^^t 
my long cherished plan will be accomplished. But a report calls 
for history, not prophecy. 

" I may however add in concluding this brief statement, that I 
have been at times during the year, engaged in the compilation of a 
work similar to the Tract Society's ' Companion to the Bible,' with 
a ' Summary of Scripture truth.' I hope to finish this during the 
current year, for the use of our preachers and students. 

" In connexion with this department of labour, it may be stated 
that Government have concluded to establish a number of vernacular 
schools in the Province, and there will probably be a call upon us 
to assist in furnishing books.* The call has in fact been made 
upon me for some time, but I have hesitated about compliance with 
it while I had so many other engagements on baud. Indeed I had 
cherished the hope of being liberated somewhat from the desk, and 
having ihe opportunity of doing more in the direct preaching of the 
gospel. My way however seems hedged up for the present." 

* " Wl)ilc writirif? this paper the Government order for the translation 
of a book of 200 pages has reached me." 



319 



The following testimony from the Englishman Newspaper, may 
show the estimation in which some of the important publications of 
your valued brother are held in India. The unknown author re- 
marks, — "A very useful Dictionary also, of the Oriya language, in 
three volumes, has proceeded from the Cuttack mission Press, 
which both in the literary and typographical departments reflects 
the very highest credit on the ability and perseverance of the gentle- 
man, to whose exertions every individual in the District, native or 
European, is debtor." 

Of the amount of printing done during the year, Mr. Brooks 
sends the following; abstract ; — ■ 



SCRIPTURES. 
Third vol. Bible, (Psahns to Malachi,) 8vo. 
Gospel by Matthew, 12mo 



TRACTS. 

Oriya Prose Tracts, vol. 3, 12mo 

Christ's Invitation 

Tlie Gate Thrown Open 

Jewel Mine of Salvation, royal 32mo 

Instruction to Religions Inquirers, 12mo 

Brief View of the Cliristian Religion; I2nao 

God is a Spirit, 12mo 

Address from Hindoo Christians to their Heathen 
Brethren 



SCHOOL BOOKS, &c. 

Poetical Dialogues for Children, royal 32mo 

Oriya Hymn Book, (second edition, enlarged,) .. 

Goveriunent Regulations, (13,) 8vo 

Introductory Lessons and Idiomatical Exercises, 

(Oriya and English,) 12mo 

Vocabulary of Sanscrit Terms, 12mo 

Earth's Church History, 12mo 



Total., 



Pag es 
508 

100 



228 
12 
12 
24 
20 
20 



12 



252 
36 

256 
226 
236 



„ . Total No. 

Copies. ofPaRPS. 

2,000 1,016,000 

5,000 500,000 



3,000 
10,000 
5,000 
10,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 

10,000 



250 

1,000 

300 

250 
400 
500 



684,000 
120,000 

60,000 
240.000 
100,000 
100,000 

40,000 

120,000 



2,000 

252,000 

10,800 

61,000 

90,000 

168,000 



2,058 62,500 3 566,800 



WORKS IN HAND. 



New Testament, (2nd edition,) and separate Gospels. 
Oriya Geography, (Rev. J. PluUips'.) 
Amara Kosha, Sanscrit. 
Reprints of Tracts, &c. &c." 



Usefulness of Religious Tracts. 

The Report of 1839 states — ''"Yhe first tract printed at the 
Cuttack Press was hastily composed for the Jattra iu 1838, and 



320 



•was entitled " The wonderful advantages of a Pilgrimage to Jug- 
gernaut." Tlie evils of that pilgrimage are there detailed. Many 
of these tracts were circulated. 

" One pleasing proof that the tracts circulated at this horrible 
place are not circulated in vain, has recently occurred. Referring 
to it, Mr. Lacey writes, — ' Yesterday a very interesting enquirer, 
or rather convert, arrived. He is from Nuaga Siloe. He received 
his first information on Christianity from me at Pooree, on occasion 
of a Ruth Festival, and took a book. He make no progress from 
this for some time, and though he could read, he could not com- 
prehend the book. Afterwards he received a tract from Rama in 
the Telinga Bazaar, Cuttack — he read and understood it. Then 
he met with Gunga, in Chowdry Bazaar, and questioned him and 
received much information. His views of his own religion and on 
scripture truths are very correct. He has no hope of pardon and 
salvation except through Christ crucified for his sins. About bap- 
tism he kncv.- nothing till he arrived here yesterday. He is a wi- 
dower, and has a son about twelve years of age. He seems deter- 
mined not to burden any one, and though a man of reading, he 
this morning engaged as a common coolie about some work in 
Christianpore. O for money to purchase some pieces of land now 
at liberty all around us. Our native converts are anxious to get 
their bread, are ashamed of asking help from us, but we know not 
how to help and assist them.' "* 

" Last week (says Mr. Lacey) the following cheering incident 
came to my knowledge. A person of Kasenpoor, a small village 
four aniles from Cuttack, about six years ago heard the gospel, and 
had conversation on the way of salvation it reveals. He went 
away and I saw him no more. He dwelt with his brothers, and 
attended his calling as usual, but remembered what he had heard, 
and read the books which were given him. By these means he lost 
his regard for idols, and placed his trust on the Saviour. About a 
year ago he was taken ill, and his recovery appeared doubtful. As 
he grew worse his mind clung to the Lord Jesus, and in vain his 
brothers offered him the mysteries of idolatry. He became anxious 
to sec me and the native christians, that he might talk on religion, 
and profess Christ, but his relations strenuously opposed his desires. 
His resolution however increased, and apprehending he would by 
some means become contaminated and involve them in loss of caste ; 



1 * J'*''^oJ>J<-Ft was realized through the liberality of some friends in En' 
land and India. 



;1 



llioy stinted lum in liis food, and thereby increased his weakness so 
nuicli that he soon expired. Mis mind continued firm, and at the 
hist hour lie persisted in his trust in Jesus Christ, and refused all 
their idolatrous rites. Thus he died, partly half murdered and 
wasted by disease, but placing his trust in him who has compassion 
on the weak, and who can see those who put their trust in him 
though they may not be known to his people. This information 
was owing to a conversation apparently accidental with a neigh- 
bour of the man's brothers, who compliment themselves on having 
cleverly escaped family disgrace. How many such instances there 
undoubtedly are, though we hear not of them, and they ought to 
encourage all whose hearts are set on the missionary cause, and 
whose hands are employed to support it. In eternity, we shall 
meet unknown thousands to whom we have been the means of 
conveying the word of salvation. 

" I cannot say exactly the number of tracts distributed by all the 
Brethren this year 1835. I have distributed in all about ten 
thousand, principally in those parts of the Cuttack district not 
lately visited by other Missionaries. Several instances of their 
great usefulness have appeared. To mention no other, a man 
now a member of our Church some years ago received a tract. He 
read it till literally worn to tatters. He at length left his wife and 
village, and came to Cuttack to enquire of us the way ; assigning 
as a reason the wonderful things written in the paper. We did 
not like his manner, a trifling circumstance increased our prejudice 
against him, and so we dismissed him. But he would not leave us. 
To whom, said he, should I go, my own people are in sin, and 
their minds, dark, you have the way ? I will work and do any 
thing you wish me, but I will not leave you. At length coa\inced 
of his sincerity, we received him into the Church." 

The Report of 1844 contains the following encouraging instance 
of the usefulness of a religious tract. " One instance of usefulness 
has just been brought to my knowledge by the person who derived 
the benefit. A certain man of his acquaintance, who lived about 
eight miles from Cuttack received a tract named the Jewel ivline of 
Salvation, but could not read it. This little book he sent to our 
friend, desiring him to read it. He soon applied himself to read 
and comprehend the tract. It was in easy poetical measure, and 
he presently understood all it contained. The tract made a bene- 
ficial and powerful impression on his mind. The first thing that 
attracted his attention was the unity of the design, and uniform 
oneness of the book in compai'ison with his own shaitruo. The 



322 

more lie read, the more his judgment opened, and the greater his 
approbation became ; till, to use his own very descriptive language, 
his own shastras looked like a tangled and intricate jungle which it 
is impossible to penetrate, and like a cow pasture, which in this 
country is intersected by a thousand paths, neither resulting from 
or conducting to one place, but after circuitous windings termina- 
ting in nothing. The receiver of this tract sought and obtained 
others, till he finally became a consistant disciple of Christ, and 
is now baptized and become a christian preacher."* 

Influence of the Press. 

Of the establishment and influence of the Press, The Friend of 
India observed, — " We have received a copy of a tract printed at 
Cuttack, at a press which the Missionaries have this year established 
at that station. It is printed in the Oriya character, and for neat- 
ness of execution is not exceeded by any other similar brochure 
which has issued from the metropolitan press in Calcutta. It does 
no little credit to those, to whose feelings of public spirit and chris- 
tian benevolence, the district is now indebted for an efficient press. 
The establishment of a press in any province is an important era in 
its history. It is delightful, thus to contemplate the rapid increase 
of the means of intellectual and religious improvement, through 
means of this mighty engine in the various and even remote pro- 
vinces of this empire. We now witness the establishment of 
presses, at the opposite extremities of the Bengal Presidency 
through the spirited exertions of Missionaries ; but for whose 
labours those provinces might long have remained destitute of them. 
Looking down to the southermost of the provinces, we find a press 
set up in the country of Orissa. 

"We rejoice that a press has been established in that country 
capable of executing any work in the Oriya language and character. 
The extent to which the language is used has only been discovered 
of late. We find that it is spoken and written through an extent 
of country three hundred miles in length from the sea, to one hun- 
dred miles in length west of Sumbhulpore, and more than two 
hundred miles in breadth from Midnapore where it melts into 
Bengalee, to Ganjam where it meets the Teloogoo. It was indis- . 
pensable therefore to the completeness of missionary operation to 
that kingdom, that means should be provided on the spot for 

• Sec G. B. Repository, 1831, pp. 4G7, and 1832, pp. 436. 



OQO 



multiplying boolcs in a language so extensively tised. But why 
should the benefits of this local press be confined to missionary 
operations? "Why should not Government avail itself of the means 
of communication with the people which have thus been provided, 
by publishing its own acts and notifications through the same 
channel ? We know that a strong disposition exists in the highest 
quarter to provincialize the public service in Orissa. It is the 
wish of Government, that those who are appointed to this pro- 
vince should apply themselves earnestly to the acquisition of the 
vernacular tongue, and should move in a circle of promotion within 
the Province itself. In this arrangement there is much wisdom. 
Indeed since the principle has been adopted, that the people can 
be more efficiently governed through their own language than 
through a foreign medium, it has been necessary to consider the 
civil officers in Orissa as in a measure individualized from the 
rest of the service ; this is a great step towards the improvement 
of the Province. But to render it eflicient, it is necessary to 
follow it up by the translation of all orders which the people are 
required to understand and act on into their own language, and 
by a liberal use of the press which has now been established in the 
Province." 



CHAP. lY. 

The American Branch of the Orissa Mission. 

Rise of the American Mission in Orissa — Labours and Success of 
the jSIissionaries at Sumhulpore, Balasorc, Jellessore, Midna- 
2')ore, S)-c. 

Dr. Cox in his valuable " History of the Baptist Missionary 
Society from 1792 to IS !2," has the following beautiful observa- 
tions on the rise of the Society from a very small beginning. "At 
the Kettering meeting, Oct. 2, 1792, the society was formally in- 
corporated ; and the first subscription, made on the spot, amounted 
to £13. 2s. 6d. This sum though really small, was comparatively 
large ; for it was the contribution of a few poor, but enlightened 
servants of .Tesii?; Christ. It was such as to free it from all charge 



324 



of ostentation in the motive, and yet such as to evince the faith and 
self-sacrifice of those who had laid it on the altar of God. The 
■warring world was at the time expending millions in sanguinary- 
conflict, which exhausted nations and terminated in death and deso- 
lation ; these men were contributing to enhance the happiness of 
the earth, and promote the glory of the Redeemer. " What" said 
the objectors of the time, " is thirteen pounds the mighty sum with 
which it is proposed to undertake so vast a scheme ?" " And were 
these the men and the means," have said opponents since, of fifty 
years of reiterated scorn, "with which the conversion of the world 
was to be attempted ?" Precisely so, we reply ; for means are ac- 
cepted of God, when they are proportionate to possessions, and 
blessed with success, when they are employed in faith." 

It has been well remarked, — " We are really what we are rela- 
tively ;" and the importance of the mission whose history is here 
narrated, must be estimated by this rule. The first persecutors of 
Christianity " doubted ivhereunto this wozild grow ;" and the early 
friends of missions could not have conceived the mighty influence 
they wielded for the benefit of their own country and of the distant 
nations of the earth. When this mission was contemplated, little 
was known of the brethren of similar views in religion, residing in 
America ; nor was it probably expected, that any resources for the 
promotion of its great objects in the east, would arise from that 
country. At a Committee Meeting in Aug. 1821, it was resolved 
— " That the Secretary write a letter, accompanied by a few Re- 
ports, to the American General Baptists." It may be presumed, 
that this tended to prepare the minds of our distant brethren for 
co-operation in the great work. It must be considered a very inter- 
esting circumstance, that the claims of India should have been laid 
before myriads in America by an invalid jMissionary; and valuable 
aid contributed to the dissemination of the gospel in Orissa. These 
efforts are worthy of distinct and honourable mention ; and may fully 
occupy the following chapter. 

In January 1833, Mr. and Mrs. Sutton, embarked at Calcutta 
for the United States. This step was considered requisite on 
account of the state of his health. In a letter dated Jan. 7th, he 
says, — " To morrow I expect we shall embark for America, by the 
ship Fenelon. My own health is much better than it was, and 
under this consideration, I have felt great reluctance in leaving 
India; but then I am perpetually receiving fresh intimation of a 
relapse, which obliges me to concur in the opinions of the Doctors, 
that there is no prospect of a permanent recovery without taking a 



325 



long sea voyage. I do hope that you will be enabled to obtain 
three or four well-qualified young men, to return with me to India 
within the next eighteen months ; and that our American brethren 
will send as many. O let the cry from the dying millions of Hin- 
doos be heard and felt : Come over and help us. I once heard of 
one of our ministers being terribly afraid lest one of several sons 
should become a missionary. I hope this feeling will never wither 
our hopes again. Domestic union and comfort are too dearly pur- 
chased at the price of the blood of souls, and the Saviour's favor!" 
How far these pious and enlarged views were realized, it will be 
interesting to state. 

On the voyage from Calcutta to America, i\Ir. Sutton, aided by 
his amiable and beloved amanuensis, prepared the MS. of a verv 
interesting volume, entitled — " A Narrative of the Mission to 
Orissa, the site of the Temple of Juggernaut ; supported by the 
New Connexion of General Baptists in England." Of this work, 
3000 copies were published at Boston in America, and has doubt- 
less extensively promoted the missionary spirit, in that section of 
the church of Christ for which it was principally intended. The 
character and design of this work will appear by the following brief 
advertisement, dated Ship Fenelon, April 20, 1833. 

" When the compiler of this Narrative first turned his attention 
to the work, he had not suflliciently considered the delicate situation 
in which he was about to place himself, by narrating the progress 
of a Mission with which he stood so closely connected. But as he 
advanced he felt this difficulty so sensibly, that many times he had 
nearly resolved to abandon his task. When, however, he reflected 
upon the weak state in which he left the Orissa mission, and the 
sweet hope that his American brethren would render some assistance 
was present to his mind, he was again induced to prosecute his 
work. The praise or censure of mankind, so far as respects himself 
only, he feels to be of little consequence, provided the cause which 
he has espoused is not injured; but should the Narrative of this 
Mission have the eifect of eliciting the prayers of God's people in 
its behalf, or of adding to ils means of benefiting the immortal 
myriads of Orsssa, he will have accomplished his design. 

On the ground of authorship the compiler begs to state explicitly, 
that he lays claim to nothing. His task has been to arrange such 
materials as he could obtain from printed documents or private 
memorandums ; these he has connected, sometimes by remarks of 
his own, and not unfrequently by the remarks of others which 
have been so blended with his own observations, that it v.as diffi- 



326 

cult to mark them with precision. He hoped to accomplish his 
luimble labours more carefully, but his floating study was so throng- 
ed with passengers, and rendered so incommodious by the variety of 
business transacted in it, that very little opportunity for literary 
pursuits was allbrded liim. Indeed, he could not have accomplish- 
ed his task, but for the willing services of Mis. S. as his amanuensis. 
But too much has perhaps already been said respecting this Nar- 
rative. May the Lord of the vineyard condescend to employ it 
as a means of benefiting his cause ; and to him, as is most 
due, shall be the praise." 

The work has been reprinted in Scotland, and the Narrative is 
introduced by a well-written and powerful Essay, on the subject of 
missions to the heathen, by a Scotch minister. In a review of it in 
the General Baj^tist Repository, 1835, it is said — " The work is 
well-v.'ritten ; the publication may be considered very cheap ; and 
it ought to have a place in every church and congregation, in evei'y 
school and family connected with the interesting Christian Mission 
in Oriasa." 

Mr. Sutton's visit to America was well received, and the follow- 
ing letter was addressed to the Committee in England. 

"North Parsonsfield, State of Maine, Oct 14th, 1833, 

To the Rev. J. G. Pike, Secretary of the Committee, of the G. B. 
Foreign Missionary Society. 
Dear Brother, 

AVe have had the satisfaction of receiving a visit from Brother 
A. Sutton, your Missionary in Orissa ; wliose coming lias been greatly 
blessed to tlie awakening of the spirit of Missions amongst us. We have 
heretofore done nothing in this cause; but many of our brethren are 
now disposed to do what they can ; and we think if brother Sutton could 
labour with iis, a few months longer, he might render essential services 
to the cause in which he is engaged. 

HOSEA QUINSBY." 

The Committee approved of the proposal and passed the follow- 
ing resolution — " That in compliance with this request, Mr. Sutton 
be recommended on leaving England, to revisit America, and to 
endeavour there to ])ut the missionary cause on a permanent footing, 
by the formation of Associations, &c ; not extending his labours 
beyond twelve months, without a further vote of the Committee." 

It was stated by Mr. Sutton that in 183"2, there were in America 
"loo Free Will Baptist Churches, 300 Ministers, 10,000 Commu- 
nicants, and a population of 150,000 souls." In 1846 the Connex- 
ion consisted of "1193 churches, 107 Yearly Meetings, 801 



327 



ordained Preachers, 233 licensed Preachers, Communicants 58,174." 
(Free Will Baplist Hcgisler, IS-IG, p. 70. J Among so numerous 
a people, it may be hoped that much aid will be rendered to the 
evangelization of India. 

The Report of the Society for 1835, gives information of JNIr. 
Sutton's labours in America. It is stated — " Early in August, Mr. 
Sutton and ]\Ir. and Mrs. Brooks sailed for the United States. 
They arrived there towards the end of September. It was soon 
determined that Mr. and Mrs. Brooks should take an early oppor- 
tunity of proceeding to India. During their continuance in America, 
they enjoyed many christian privileges, and experienced much 
christian kindness. Early in November they left the United States. 
Three jNIissionaries from American Societies, with their wives and a 
single lady, were appointed to sail in the same vessel in which a 
passage for our friends was engaged. Previously to their going on 
board, a united meeting of the friends connected with these different 
Missionaries, was held. On this occasion Mr. Sutton gave an 
address, which afterwards appeared in several of the American 
religious newspapers. They sailed from Boston, November 4th, 
and had every prospect of a pleasant voyage, in consequence of 
having much christian society on board. 

jNIr. Sutton soon after his arrival in the United States, recom- 
menced his assiduous labours, to promote a missionary spirit in that 
body of American Baptists among whom hehadbeen introduced. To 
promote this object, he accepted for one year, the office of Corre- 
sponding Secretary to their newly formed Missionary Society. In 
this office he has been actively engaged, in visiting different 
churches, making collections for the IMission Fund, and diffusing 
information. Thus employed he has travelled over some large sec- 
tions of the Union. Still however, his attention and that of Mrs. 
Sutton have been directed towards their Indian home. Their hearts 
have been in India. Tha Missionary Society, that Mr. Sutton has 
been instrumental in forming, has had several applications from 
young men desirous of being employed as Missionaries. Mr. 
Noyes, one of these, has been accepted, and is expected with his 
wife, to sail with Mr. Sutton. It was also hoped, that at least one 
other Missionary would accompany them, though no decision had 
been formed upon the other offers for missionary service that were 
before the Committee." 

The Report of 1836, narrates the departure of Mr. Sutton and 
his new colleagues for Orissa. " Mr. Sutton was successful in 

s 2 



S2S 



exciting a considerable degree of missionary spirit, in some districts 
of the United States. In September last he left that country, on 
Jiis return to India. A considerable number of Missionaries sailed 
in the same vessel. Of these Mr. and Mrs. Noyes, and Mr. and 
Mrs. Phillips, were going out to be fellow labourers with our 
brethren in Orissa. The Missionary Society, which sends them 
forth, appears to possess an honour, which does not belong to the 
American Baptist Missionary Society. Its friends and supporters 
are the enemies of Slavery ; and are not like many of the supporters 
of that, and other American ^Missionary Societies, raising thousands 
of dollars annually to send the Gospel to Birraa and India, while 
they are mad upon supporting that cruel and murderous system, 
which by law, dooms millions of Africans, not only to the tempo- 
ral horrors of Slavery, but to live and to die in a state of heathen- 
ish ignorance. Mr. Sutton appeal's to have been highly esteemed 
by many professors of religion in the United States. As far as 
this was the esteem of the truly pious in a land of Slavery this was 
desirable. But no consistent christian could desire the esteem of 
persons who are in reality robbers of mankind, and by the word 
of God described as " menstealcrs," who themselves trample under- 
foot or support others in trampling upon, all the rules of immu- 
table justice ; and who rob the negro of his liberty, of his children, 
of his privileges, of his opportunites of acquiring divine knowledge, 
and, in many instances, of his life. If such persons profess to be 
Christians, or Baptists, with them, consistent English Christians 
can neither desire nor hold communion. Information has just ar- 
rived of the safe arrival of Mr. and Mrs. Sutton in India. Of their 
departure from the Uuited States ; of the views and feelings with 
which they contemplated resuming their Indian labours, and of 
their arrival at Calcutta jMr. Sutton thus writes. 

" Ours is the largest party of clerical Missionaries that ever 
sailed from America, and this circumstance added to the celebrity 
which some of our party have acquired in America, excited con- 
siderable attention. On the Sabbath Evening we had our farewell 
services in Dr. Sliarp's spacious IMeeting House. It was crammed 
in every part long before the services commenced, and many hun- 
dreds went away, unable to get a hearing. "We expected to sail 
the next day, but received notice of our detention till Tuesday, in 
time to announce a prayer-meeting at Mr. Stow's (Dr. Baldwin's) 
meeting-house on Monday evening. This proved a still more in- 
teresting scene. 



!29 



" I do not know tliat I have anything particular in the way of 
incident to record. You will see that goodness and mercy still 
follow us, and that we are constantly meeting with fresh reasons 
why we should unreservedly devote ourselves to Him, who died for 
us and who rose again. The 2)rospcct of resuming our labours in 
India looks very pleasant to us. It is indeed a drawback on our 
pleasure, that our Brother and Sister Laeey will not be there to 
welcome us. Yet still it seems a piivilege, to look forward to a few 
more years of labours and sorrows in that benighted land. We 
know now what we have to expect, but yet beyond the trials and 
discouragements of the present generation of Missionaries, we see a 
delightful succession of seasons of enlarged prosperity ; churches 
upon churches rising up to glad the land ; thousands and millions 
of happy converts travelling on to glory ; and idolatry with all its 
guilt, and all its wretchedness, passing away into everlasting forget- 
fulness. O it is an honor to labour and die in this divine enter- 
prize ! Our most ardent wish is to live worthy of it. We know 
that we shall soon fall in it, but we resolve by God's grace to sell 
our lives as dearly as possible : to do Satan all the injury, and the 
cause of Jesus all the good, we possibly can, before we quit the 
field. 

"We safely arrived in Calcutta, Febc Gth, 1835. We once more 
were welcomed by our beloved friends in tliis great city. We are 
all well. I have heard from Cuttack and Balasore. The Goadbys 
have been ill, but they are pretty well again. W^e hope to see 
them in eight or ten days." 

Mr. Sutton received a grant of one thousand dollars from the 
American Bible Society, and grants of three thousand three hundred 
from the American Tract Society. 

The character of these brethren is very strongly drawn in the 
succeeding Report of the English Society, which describes the com- 
mencement of their labours in Orissa. " It is knov/n to many of 
the members of this Society, that Mr. Sutton was instrumental in 
establishing a Foreign Missionary Society, among a numerous body 
of American Baptists, that from their viev.-s of tlie general provision 
which is made by the Saviour's death for human salvation, were 
denominated free-will Baptists, a name by which they are generally 
designated. They are a body of Baptists, with which jou may 
cheerfully co-operate, for they are the enemies of the system which 
renders America, in a great degree, a land of tyrants and of slaves. 
They have no triennial Convention at which those who hold not 
slaves themselves trim to those who hold them ; and treat as dear 



830 



brethren in Christ, men who live violating the most golden precepts 
of the Saviour, and robbing injured Africans of their dearest rights. 
They are not a community partly made up of men-stealers and 
men-sellers, and partly of those who tolerate and palliate the op- 
pressing and thieving propensity of others, who are very good chris- 
tians, except that they are thieves ; and thieves not merely of a 
little cash, but of the daily labours and of every civil right their 
injured victims might possess. Your American brethren are not 
liaptists of this description. Their accredited organ, the Morning 
Star, is a decidedly abolition paper. It pleads the cause of the 
negro, and exposes the cruelty, the murder, and the lewdness of the 
system, which allows no marriage tie — which sells young women 
for prostitution — which rears human beings for sale, as in your land 
of real liberty cattle are reared ; and which tortures and works to 
death multitudes of men and women far more estimable than their 
iron-hearted, and in many instances, hypocritical oppressors. For 
those persons can be nothing else who boast of liberty and cling to 
slavery ; who talk of religion, while they trample underfoot the 
grandest and most equitable precepts given by the God of love. 
So well known are your American friends to be abolitionists, that 
the State Legislature of New Hampshire recently rejected a bill for 
the incorporation, according to Amei-ican usage, of their Home 
IMissionary Society, because there were so many abolitionists among 
them. As Mr. S. was instrumental in establishing a Missionary 
Society among them, they have now become your fellow-labourers 
in India. Their first two missionaries, Messrs. Noyes and Phillips, 
■with their wives, proceeded to India with Mr. Sutton. Mr. Phillips 
for a time resided with Mr. Goadby at Balasore, and proposed to 
commence a new station at Jellasore, about thirty miles from the 
former town. Mr. Noyes, for a few months, acted as master of the 
English School at Cuttack. Mr. Sutton, referring to these Mis- 
sionaries, remarks, " Our friends the Noyes are promising labourers 
— we have spent a very hap]:)y twelvemonth with them, and part 
with great regret. The Phillips' have been but a little time with 
us, we hope however they will be very useful." 

From a recent number of the jNIorning Star, we learn, that a 
meeting was held at Cuttack, to consider the propriety of the 
American brethren entering upon a new field of labour. At this 
meeting Mr. Sutton presided; and it is stated that "the most 
perfect harmony and unanimity of views and feelings prevailed 
among the Missionaries. The place selected for the field of their 
labours is Sumbulpore, far in the midst of a great population en- 



331 



tirely heathen, there being only one europcan settler within one 
hundred miles of their location." Sumbulpore is described as a 
very interesting and important station. Some of the tracts issued 
by your Missionaries, a few years ago, reached that neighbourhood, 
and appeared to excite, in some minds, considerable alteration. 
The Executive Committee of the American Society have found it 
necessary to appoint an agent to travel among their churches, to 
raise subscriptions, form associations, establish monthly concerts 
for prayer, &c. A brother named Mack, has been appointed as 
their first travellins: ajrent. 



SUMBULPORE. 

" Sumbulpore is a large city pleasantly situated on the east 
bank of the Mahanuddy, about two hundred and fifty miles from 
Cuttack. It is on the government mail road between Calcutta 
and Bombay, which with the present method of shortening com- 
munication between Bombay and England, renders it an important 
and promising station. As it regards the population of this place, 
like the most of Hindoo towns and cities any thing like an exact 
census is unknown, but I should suppose it could not fall short of 
thirty thousand. The inhabitants are usually more dark than in 
Cuttack and their features more spare. — They are very timid, but 
unaccommodating and ungrateful. The bands of caste I have 
understood are not so strong as in Cuttack. Thehigh caste brahnums 
eat flesh of almost any kind, and do any kind of respectable laboui". 
The females of respectable families are not kept very close, but 
it is common for them to stand and listen to our conversation, 
and sometimes ask questions. There are more temples than I 
have seen in any place except Poorcc, and the people are strangely 
prejudiced in favour of tlieir idcjls. Sumbulpore is the capital of a 
fine country, governed by a Rajah, who, though under a small 
tribute to the English government, exercises almost unlimited power 
in his dominions. All land is considered his property and at his 
disposal ; hence he frequently takes the land of one man and gives 
it to another. It is not probable that the English government 
would interfere in case of the greatest anarchy, providing their 
mail, which runs through the country, should not be obstructed. 
The desirableness of conciliating the favour of a prince, having 
such unlimited sway, is readily seen ; and though at first, we did 
not on his account apprehend much danger in forming our stations, 



332 



j-et it seems that the Rajah's suspicion has been made to rest upon 
us. Being himself a devoted follower of Juggernaut, he is much 
concerned lest we should change the custom of the times, in detract- 
ing from the honour of his god. When we walk out we are gen- 
erally watched by his emissaries, who often come near and ques- 
ion us in regard to our plans. They show us some respect, because 
Ave wear the fearful white face, but his repeatedly refusing us some 
small favours shows plainly that he wishes us out of his country. 
— Without his favour we see no way to get along, since without 
his command we cannot get men to build us houses, or even a single 
article of provision from the market." 

On their removal thither, Mr. Sutton accompanied them for a con- 
siderable part of their journey ; they then pursued their way and 
travelled through, and fixed themselves in a district, which is not 
British territory, though the Rajah is tributary to the British govern- 
ment. They experienced considerable inconvenience from being 
thus situated. In fact the difficulties to which they were exposed, 
may render more conspicuous the wisdom and goodness of God, in 
subjecting the greater part of Hindostan to Great Britain. 

Notwithstanding their difficulties they commenced their labours 
of love, and experienced more of the Rajah's favour than they 
expected. Your brethren sent the native Evangelist Doitaree, 
to their assistance. From recent accounts however, it appears 
that they have been so tried with affliction, as to have removed from 
Sumbulpore, and it would seem without the intention of returning. 
Mrs. Phillips one of the little band, has finished her short course. 
Mr. and Mrs. Noyes have both been dangerously ill, and for change 
of air visited Cuttack, where their health improved. After they 
left Sumbulpore, Mr. Phillips had an attack of illness. From the 
latest information it appears that they were then at Balasore. 
At Sumbulpore, there was but one European, within one hundred 
miles of their abode. Some of the information they gave respecting 
that part of India, and their situation there, must excite the 
interest and sympathy of those who love the gospel. 

The Rev. E. Mack, the travelling agent of the Society, represents 
the exertions of Mr. Sutton, when in the United States, as having 
been productive of very considerable good. 

"We regard the past correspondence with your Connection, and 
the actual help which you have as instruments of divine Provi- 
dence afforded us, to be of incalculable value to us ; rather might 
I say, to the interests of our Redeemer's kingdom, as the interests 



333 



of that kingdom are connected with our Denomination. The assist- 
ance rendered ns by the visits of Mr. Sutton, vtill never, we hope, 
cease to be remembered and appreciated ; — appreciated to some 
degree at least, for it must remain for the day of judgment and 
eternity, to develope the vast amount of good eflTected through this 
instrumentality in all its fulness. Our Mission must still continue 
dependant on yours to a great extent. You must continue to be 
a father in the gospel, unto us, at least in respect to our India 
Mission. The establishment of your India Printing Press especially, 
will afford you increased facility for laying us under obligations 
yet greater and more numerous. Indeed by recent letters from 
our Missionaries, we are informed of the reception by them, of 
some hundreds of Testaments of Mr. Sutton's translation, and 
some hundreds of tracts — and yet further your IMission had fur- 
nished them with a native preacher of a character, such as justified 
the expectation of much assistance from him, in the labours of their 
Mission." 

From the brethren at this station, the writer received the follow- 
ing letter, which shews the circumstances of missionaries in the 
beginning of their labours. 

" Sumbulpore, Aug. 18, 1837. 
Beloved Brother Peggs, 

With much pleasure I received yours by the hand of brother 
Stubbins, and should have replied long ago, had not my time been com- 
pletely taken up with the building. Probably you are aware brother 
Phillips and myself have taken up our residence at this place, and we 
think it, in many respects, a promising field for missionary exertions. 
But there is one advantage we had fondly anticipated, we are extremely 
sorry to say we have not realized. We thought, at such a distance from 
Juggernaut, the people would, in a great measure, be unacquainted with 
the manner in which the government supported idolatry ; but alas, even in 
this dark corner, we have it thrown in our teeth. This vice is twin 
brother to American Slavery ; and it is hard to tell which is the worse — 
the manner in which the English Government betrays its imwary sub- 
jects into the hands of the cruel pundas, or the manner in which America 
holds her 2,700,000 subjects in the most abject and cruel bondage. 

But, dear Sir, enlightened as our countries are, they are the king- 
doms of the world. Tlie policy of our rulers is entirely averse to that of 
him, whose kingdom is not of this world, and, like oiu- divine Redeemer, 
we must testify that their works are evil. Let us, therefore, while we 
mourn over the present sad state of tilings, fix oin- eye on tlie day-star of 
prophecy, till the Sun of Rigliteousness shall arise, when it shall be lost 
in his resplendent blaze, 'fhen shall Christ reign king of nations. We 
must now pray and labour, for tliis is not to be accomplished all at once. 
I bid your books God speed; may the truths therein prove effectual to the 
conversion of Christendom from Idolatry. 

You will wish to hear a word of our prospects : — In company with 
Doitaree we daily visit the bazaar, and the people usually hear with 



334 



attention, and often come to our house to converse and to get books, 
lam sensible many are already convinced as to the gennineness of our 
religion, and were it not for their strong worldly attachments would become 
Christians. As we have had much fine weather this rainy season, we 
have had several short excursions in the country ; and at such times our 
hearts have been peculiarly refreshed, from the good attention which the 
villagers paid to the word. We intended to commence boarding-schools 
innnediatel^'. We have already four children which we have adopted as 
our own, and expect to take more. Brother P. has the same number. 
Our interest is the same with your Missionaries ; our sentiments are one ; 
our cause is one, and we are one. O may nothing ever take place to 
disturb our union. 

Remember me to all my Christian brethren in your Society. Tell your 
friends to write to me, and I will be punctual in replying, though my 
epistles may sometimes be short. When you can make it convenient 
please send us your pamphlets and papers. Yours, &c. 

E. NOYES." 



The propriety of the occupancy of the station is strongly urged 
by Mr. Sutton. " This station is situated in the centre of the hill 
district of Orissa, in the direct route from Calcutta, via Midnapore 
and Bombay. It is a large and populous town, stated by Mr. 
Babington to be nearly as large as Cuttack, while there are many 
large towns and villages at an easy distance from it. It was occu- 
pied for a short time by our American brethren, but scarcely had 
they completed their habitations, when death and disease broke up 
the Mission and drove them to Balasore. During the residence of 
Messrs. Noyes and Phillips at Sumbulpore, the importance of the 
station grew daily more apparent, and the prospect of extensive 
usefulness was very cheering. They had enquirers visit them from 
the neighbourhood of Ruttenpoor, upwards of one hundred miles 
so the north-west, who speak the Oriya language, and who asserted 
tliat it was commonly spoken in their neighbourhood ; while the 
wide fields of Gundwana and the Khund districts on the west, with, 
the whole Cole country on the east, strongly invite the Missionary 
of the Cross. At present, however, we can only hope and pray 
that God will raise up the men who are able and willing to enter 
upon this field, and connect our stations on the plains with those 
on the hills." 



BALASORE. 

This station we have seen had been successively occupied by the 
Brethren Peters, Sutton and Goadby. After the return of the latter 
to England, in 1838, it was made over to the American Breth- 
ren. The Report of the Orissa Mission, printed at Cuttack, 1841, 



33i 



contains a full account of the Missionaries' operations. Mr. Noycs 
states — " Upon our arrival we found no native christians, nor any 
visible traces of our predecessors labours, though the almost un- 
paralleled antipathy of the people to the Gospel appeared to evince 
that they were not strangers to its doctrines. We make this re- 
mark not to undervalue those labours, but to explain why we have 
to report so little success. At first we could seldom get a hearing 
in the bazaar, but the people soon changed their method of attack 
and strove by silent contempt, and occasional sneers and curses, to 
do what they were unable to perform by raising tumults. Their 
unusually intemperate habits, such as using ardent spirits, opium, 
and other intoxicating drugs, appear to render Balasore less hope- 
ful than many other stations. 

" The place is important. Its proximity to Calcutta, both by 
land and water, its populous vicinity and good country roads, are 
advantages. The population of the zillah, from Jellasore on the 
north to Budruck on the south, a distance of seventy -five miles, is 
said to consist of half a million. On the west are the countries of 
several Rajas, some of which are very populous. Since our resi- 
dence at B. we have made several excursions into these countries 
for the purpose of preaching the gospel and distributing books. 
We found the Oriya language spoken by the people, excepting the 
Santals and Bhomyas, races who though interspersed with the 
Oriyas, have a language and religion peculiar to themselves. In 
1839 a chapel for English and Oriya worship was erected, the ex- 
pense of which was defrayed by the liberal donations of European 
friends. This year two natives were baptized. One was a man 
from Budruck, of the Khundait caste, who is now a preacher of the 
gospel. 

"At the commencement of 1840, Mr. Phillips and his wife re- 
moved to Jellasore, about thirty miles north, and formed a second 
station, since which time 1 have laboured alone at Balasore. 

*^Bazar preaching and distribution of Books. With few excep- 
tions Prasaram and myself have visited the bazar daily, for the 
purpose of preaching and distributing books. The people usually 
hear with good attention. It is indeed seldom the case, that we 
are prevented from proceeding with our discourses with all that 
composure we enjoy in the chapel. Within two years a change 
has taken place in the manners of the people. The reason I sup- 
pose is, that we have so long been unmoved by their noise, that they 
despaired of putting us down in this way. We have had many 

T 2 



S36 



interesting ciiseu^.sions, and met with many promising hearers ; hut 
I must not pass over the case of one man, with whom I formed a 
most agreeable acquaintance more than a year since. While travel- 
ling through the country I came to his village, about 10 miles 
from Balasore, when he sent for me to come and pray in his house. 
I did so, and an acquaintance commenced, which I trust will yet 
become more sacred. He accompanied me to Balasore, and would 
have broken caste, had be not been prevented by bis family con- 
nections. For several months, I had heard nothing from him, when 
one evening, I saw him in the crowd to which we had been preach- 
ing. He told me he had been in the constant habit of reading our 
books, and wished to live a christian life, asking me if he could 
not bcome a christian without breaking caste. I of course replied 
that he could not, at which he appeared seriously affected. I gave 
him a copy of the New Testament which he promised to read atten- 
tively. I might refer to several similar cases of persons who are 
almost persuaded to become christians. I cannot give the number 
of gospels and tracts distributed, but it is certain that thousands 
have been scattered throughout the Zillah and the Mohar Bunge. 
That they are read, the inquiries and objections of the people 
clearly evince. 

*' Enquirers. I could refer to more than 20 who would have 
been willing to break caste and profess Christianity the past year, 
but as it was evident they had sinister motives, they met with no 
encouragement. There are two, a man and his wife, who have 
for the last year lived on my compound, who have at times mani- 
fested some sincerity. In addition to these, I have had frequent 
visits from some of the most respectable classes, who have desired 
books, and wished to converse upon religious subjects. 

^^ Changes in the Church. During the past year five native members 
have been dismissed to Jellasore, three have been added by bap- 
tism, and one excluded. Our present number of members is eight, 
\Ve were joined by the Rev. O. R. Bachelor and wife and Miss 
Cummings in Se])tember. 

^^ Candidates for Baptism. We have at present three candidates for 
baptism, who have been waiting some time for an opportunity to 
be baptised. These are "children from our Boarding School. The 
case of one, a girl about 15 years old, deserves notice. For a long 
time she had manifested deep conviction for sin, when one day she 
came into my study, and with tears, said she had often wished to 
open her mind to me, but fear prevented her ; but now as God had 
forgiven her sins and given her a hope of eternal life, she could 



337 

no longer keep silent. Indeed I never saw greater evidence of a 
work of grace than she manifested. 

Boarding School. We have about 30 boarding children, 20 girls 
and 10 boys, who live on our compound, and are taug}i!t by a 
native christian, also seven children of native christians. Of these 
I have a class of eight who have made good proficiency in the 
Oryia gospels, Geography, History, Arithmetic, S:c. I spend an 
hour or two with them daily, and have reason to believe that these 
children form no small part of the hope of our mission. The girls 
are taught to cook, clean their houses and spin, and spend frona 
three to four hours a day with Mrs. Noyes, who teaches them to 
sew, &c. 

" If the gospel is a system that must be learned, it is evident 
that those who commence in childhood have a great advantage over 
such, as come under 3.ts influence at an advanced period of lifa^ 
They may be unaffected by innumerable disadvantages that must 
follow the converted heathen to the grave. Though the whole 
expense of food, clothes, &e. for each child, has not exceeded two 
rupees per montli, yet we have not been able to meet this expense 
the past year without incurring debt, as our society was not aware 
of the rapid increase and consequent greater demands for our 
schooL 

"■ State of naUve schools. There was about 30 Oriya schools in 
Balasore, each containing from 15 to 30 boys, I have of late 
fcpent much time visiting and examining most of them. Saying 
nothing of the impure books, it is evident their system of education 
is very deficient. The situation of a schoolmaster is far from 
being respectable, hence no well informed native will engage in 
the profession. The books read, though calculated to engage the 
memory, contain nothing to call into action, and strengthen the 
rational faculties. This appears to be one reason why the people 
so lightly esteem our books, which are generally argumentative. 
Their taste is formed from early childhood, for narrative, stories, 
fables, &c. 

" Need oj help. Though we are in the habit of itinerating as 
circumstauces will admit, yet we are far from being able to answer 
the demands of a million of souls. There are several large towns 
in this Zillab, where it is highly desirable to establish missions. 
We have often sent urgent appeals to our society, and to some 
extent have been gratified ; but alas ! laboui'ers are few, and means 
insignificant for the accomplishment of so great a work as lies 
•before us. Several European friends have liljerally contrilnited 



338 

towards the support of our Boarding school and native preacher, 
for which they have our grateful thanks, and we pray that the 
blessing of many ready to perish may rest upon them. Any ad- 
ditional donations from friends in India will be thankfully received 
and duly acknowledged. 

" Present state of the Church. Baptised Europeans two, East 
Indian one. Natives seven, excluded two, present number eight." 

Recent communications indicate the steady progress of the cause 
at this station. A baptism of two interesting individuals is reported 
in the Morning Star, Jan. 4, 184G, published in America. 

JELLASORE. 

The Indian Report of 18-11, contains Mr. Phillips' account of 
this station. He says — " It is one year this month since I removed 
to this place, and commenced my missionary work here, though a 
part of the previous cold season had been spent in travelling and 
preaching in the neighbourhood. 

•' Jellasore is a pleasant country town situated on the east side 
of the Subunreeka river, 46 miles from Midnapore and 33 from 
Balasore, the nearest European station to it. It is about fourteen 
miles inland from the Bay. Including Patna and Lukanath, two 
villages situate on either side of it, the population is estimated at 
about 6000 inhabitants. The Oriya language is spoken as purely 
here as at Cuttack or Pooree. Immediately on becoming settled, 
regular meetings of worship were commenced. These are attended 
by the native christians, school children, and some of our servants, 
with occasional visitors from the heathen. !My usual practice has 
been to preach a familiar discourse on some practical subject on the 
Sabbath school lesson, which the elder children have learned during 
the previous week. Evening meetings for prayer and religious 
conversation have been held twice a week, with pleasure and I trust 
profit to all concerned. In these meetings all the native brethren 
take a part. 

" On the 7th of last month, with the assistance of my esteemed 
brother and colleague Mr. Bachelor, we were organized into a 
church, there being six native members. Three of these were ori- 
ginally from the church at Cuttack, and one, a native preacher, is 
soon to leave. One of the others is our eldest school-boy, who was 
baptised and received into the church at Balasore in October 1839. 
The two remaining ones have been baptised the past year, one for- 
merly a brahmun was baptised in October last ; the other a Talee 



339 



(oilman,) in February. These are both youngj men, and appear 
studious. The former is very amiable, possescs some talent, and 
bids fair to become useful. 

" During the year, preaching in the bazar aiul at the country 
markets, (of which there are not less than twelve witliin reach of 
home, and most of them held twice a week) has been attended to so 
far as other important duties would allow ; with what success tlie 
future must determine. We have often had our hopes very much 
raised, but about as often disappointed, as it regards real conver- 
sions. Still we have good reason to believe the truth is gaining 
ground. 

*' Since tlie cnmnienc ment of the Inst cold season, about 12,000 
tracts, 1000 single gospels, about 40 New Testaments, and numerous 
other portions of the sacred word have been distributed among oagfr 
applicants. Most of them have been given at the different markets 
visited, and thus must have been scattered very extensively over 
the country. Oh, may the precious word thus sent forth jirove th.e 
savour of life unto life to many undying souls. A few of these 
tracts and scriptures were in the Bengalee language, and generously 
furnished by the kindness of our B;iptist brethren in Calcutta. 
The greater part however were in the Oriya language, and kindly 
supplied from Cuttack. The judgment and propriety manifest in 
the selection and compilation of these publications, and the neatness 
and taste displayed in their execution, prove the ability of the Cut- 
tack press to supply the demand for books of this kind in the 
language. 

" Native Boarding School. A year ago we had twelve children 
in school ; the number has since increased to twenty-six, besides 
bix who have died and three who have run away. The progress of 
the children in their studies has been such as to afford much en- 
couragement. Thirteen are able to read in the New Testament, 
and a number of the oldest have advanced very well in a variety of 
elementary studies. As before remarked, one of the boys is a 
member of the church. One of the girls is now a candidate for 
baptism. The manual labour system is adopted as far as we have 
the means. 

" My sheet is about full, but I cannot close without a word re- 
specting the Santals, whose villages Mr. Bachelor and I visited on 
the opposite side of the river a few weeks since. Beside visiting a 
number of their villages, we attended an anniial donu which hap- 
pened to take place at the time. There were about six hundred 
people assembled, both men and women. In the centre of a circle 



340 



were placed a number of small images, &c., around which the fe- 
males marched with a slow step, and outside of them the men 
formed a ring, and moved on with great glee. They were equipped 
with swords, clubs, &c., and a variety of feathers about their heads, 
and some of them carried horses' tails in their hands. A liquor 
made of rice, which made all very merry, was served out in cups 
made of leaves. The perspiration ran freely, and mingling with 
the dust on their bodies looked like muddy water. These are a 
very simple and peculiarly interesting people. INIany of their cus- 
toms reminded us of the North American Indians. May they soon 
be blest with a knowledge of the glorious gospel. A missionary 
situated at Patna would have very ready access to their villages. 
O may we soon have the happiness of welcoming a Brother here, 
who will gladly devote all his energies to labour for their salvation. 
At present they haveno wiitlen language, and we could only speak 
to them through the medium of Oriya, of which many of them can 
speak a little. They certainly must be far less shackled v/ith idol- 
atry and superstition than their Oriya neighbours. JSIay " the day 
spring from on high" soon rise upon them !" 

The supporters of the American missionaries in Orissa are free 
from the plague spot of Slavery, which Wesley designated — " The 
execrable sum of all human misery." The English Report of 1840 
and 41 contain some tremendous charges against this national sin 
of America, and highly commends our brethren for washing their 
hands from its guilt. The Rev. J. G. Pike, states, — 

" Though acting under the direction of a distant Society, the 
American brethren in Orissa, as to their object, are but one with 
your Missionaries. No reference would here be made to them, if 
they were connected with those American Baptists, who support 
the atrocious and infamous system of American Slavery. Nothing 
can be more inconsistent than for persons, who support a system 
of perpetual robbery, and slow but extensive murder, to j^rofess 
anxiety to diffuse the heavenly system of Christianity- No taunts, 
"with which the missionaries of such professors could be met in 
India, would be too severe. The priests of Goomsur, when 
shedding tlie blood of human victims to their gloomy goddess, 
might exclaim, *'We offer a few victims to Kalee, you offer 
myriads to your idol ! — Covetousncss — the love of dishonest gain. 
We fertilize our fields with pieces of human flesh, you fertilize 
yours with the sweat and agonies of many victims destroyed for 
one that we slay." Tlie Thugs, those robbers and murderers by 
profession and descent, might exclaim, " We murder hundreds 



341 



that we rob, and -when detected suffer death for doing so. You 
murder by lingering cruelty thousands, that you have robbed all 
their days, and yet boa?t yourselves freemen and christians, and 
profess to send teachers to us." Even the prostitutes of Jugger- 
naut's temple might upbraid such missionaries. " You denounce 
the lewdness of our land, and the prostitution of a few hundreds 
at our temples in honour of our gods, but you maintain a system 
of lewdness not less atrocious and far more extensive. We devote 
ourselves willingly to the life we lead; you breed human beings 
for sale, deny to hundreds of thousands of your female population, 
the ties of marriage, and rob them of their honour, and then vaunt 
your love of freedom and Christianity. Away with such teachers 
sent from such people ; India needs them not." Every Missionary, 
sent from America by pro-slavery men, deserves to be met with such 
rebukes as these ; and wei-e the American Missionaries in Orissa 
sent by such professors, no reference would be made to them. 
Were that the case it would dishonour and pollute this page to 
acknowledge them as fellow labourers, but they are men of a differ- 
ent class, and sent by men, who advocate the abolition of the 
wicked system, which fixes such a stigma on various bodies falsely 
called christian churches. This being the case, we acknowledge 
them as brethren and fellow labourers in the Lord. 

"At Balasore, their first station, they have a native church con- 
sisting of seven members. A few months back they baptized an 
intelligent and respectable man from Buddruck. He subsequently 
remove to Balasore, with his wife and family, and appeared en- 
couraging. They have also baptized the wife of Bikhari, a daugh- 
ter of Doitaree, the native preacher. They were when Mr. Sutton 
wrote, daily expecting a reinforcement from the United States. 
An extract from the Report sent from Balasore, by Mr. Phillips, to 
the last Conference at Cuttack, narrates their progress. 

" It has been my practice during the hot and rainy seasons to 
visit almost daily one of the bazaars, or some village or market in 
the neighbourhood, for the purpose of teaching the way of eternal 
life to my heathen brethren, and distributing among them tracts 
and portions of the Sacred Scriptures, 

" During the present season, I have been able to itinerate more 
than in any previous year, since being in the country. As the 
cold weather set in early, I commenced a tent life by the middle 
of October, and continued it but with little interruption till the 
11th Jan. when other duties required my attention at home. I 
have no exact account of the number of villages visited, but during 



342 

the time I attended more than twenty country markets, where the 
word of God was preached and tracts and Scriptures distributed. 
]\Iany of these phiccs were unknoMn to missionary efforts before 
the present year; but if liil' and health are spared me, 1 hope to 
visit them agai:i and again, and to enL>rge my circuits as I may be 
able. 

" On the first of IMay, I commenced a small Boarding school, 
consisting of the four native children which had been given me at 
Sumbulpore. Since then Vv'e have received into the school six 
other poor destitute children, but three of them have either run 
away or been bribed away after remaining a time. Our number 
is seven, three boys and four girls. The proficiency made by those 
longest in the school is truly gratifying. The eldest boy, an inter- 
esting lad about twelve years old, has given evidence of decided 
piety, and been baptized, and received into the church the past 
3'ear. A day School was commenced at the same time on ray 
compound, in which two masters were employed. The average 
number of daily attendants was forty, and the proficiency made 
was quite pleasing. 

" In accordance with the views of brother Noyes and myself, 
in relation to the propriety of occupying separate stations, and of 
making Patna our next, I have made arrangement for removing 
there for the purpose of commencing a new station. At this place 
my work will be entirely among the natives. This circumstance 
renders an efficient native preacher a great desideratum. Should 
you not be able to spare Gunga Dhor, I trust you Vv'ill do the best 
you are able to send another efficient native brother." 

In the following year reference is made to the return of Mr 
Noyes, through ill health, but hopes were entertained that his return 
would be for " the furtherance of the gospel." The American 
brethren at Balasore and Jellasore, persevere in their honourable 
efforts to diffuse the light of truth, nor have those efforts been in 
vain. Several Hindoos have become converts to the Gospel. 
They have had some striking and highly pleasing instances of 
conversion. That they are in heart one with your brethren, may 
be inferred from the fact that in this arrangement of native ministers 
for the current year, it was agreed to send one these brethren to 
assist them. They have experienced a trial in the return through 
ill health of Mr. Noyes to the United States, though probably he 
may there be instrumental in exciting so much missionary spirit, 
as shall cause his return to be for the furtherance of the Gospel. 



S43 



Some interesting facts respecting the usefulness of religious 
books, and tracts, have been given by the Brethren, -which may 
"well encourage " to sow in hope." " All who are acquainted with 
the history of this mission are aware, that the religious publications 
issued have been, in the hand of tte Eternal Spirit, one of the 
principal means for enlightening many benighted minds, and 
subduing many hearts to Christ. The distribution of tliis sacred 
seed has been extensively carried on, from year to year. Mr. Lacey, 
when giving areportof the Cuttack Station, writes, "The distribution 
of religious publications has been attended to on every occasion of 
our preaching the Gospel, aud though I cannot speak with certainty 
about the number of tracts which has been put into circulation, yet 
I do not think fewer than thirty thousand have been given away. 
Our books have been readily received, and many we know have 
been read. The festivals and markets have been our best oppor- 
tunities for distributing tracts — then the rush to get them has been 
overwhelming. Several instances of good arising from this means 
have come to my knowledge during the year. " 

One pleasing instance of this kind is the following : — "Down near 
the sea coast, nearly ninety miles from Pooree, Mr. Phillips, an 
American Missionary, discovered a number of people, who appeared 
far advanced in christian knowledge. Soon after this discovery 
Mr. Phillips dispatched a native preacher to see them.. He went, 
and returned with a very pleasing report of the knowledge and pro- 
ficiency of the people, and bore a request from three of them, for 
baptism. On further inquiry Mr. Phillips learned that ticelve or 
thirteen years before, these people had received some tracts at 
Pooree, in the midst of the noise and bustle of the Car Festival." 
After referring to this narrative, i\Ir. Lacey remarks, — " How 
plainly we read in such instances the divine precept, 'In the morn- 
ing sow thy seed, and in the evening withhold not thy hand, for 
thou knowest not which shall prosper, whether this or that.' How 
often have I, with our native brother, been pelted with cow-dung 
and sand, followed with the abusive vociferations of the infatuated 
multitude ; almost speechless with hoarseness, and sore with the 
crowding of the people, retired from the town of Pooree wearied 
and discouraged, and ready to conclude that these people are ac- 
cursed of God ! But while we have been thus discouraged, the 
precious seed we have sown in tumult and persecution has been 
quietly carried away, and has taken root and brought forth the 
fruits of eternal salvation.' 

V 2 



344 



Encouraging as is the preceding fact, another, very similar hut 
still more interesting, has heen narrated by Mr. Noyes, whose ill 
health compelled him to revisit his native land. The fact is evi- 
dently connected with the labours of the brethren at Pooree, though 
the narration has not been received from them, but from the United 
States, Avhere it v/as published in a recent Report of the Freewill 
Baptist Missionary Society, Mr. Noyes v/rites,— 

" One day as 1 was sitting in my house, Lokanath was introduced 
to me by one of the native Christians, as an enquirer after salvation. 
The following conversation took place between him and myself: — 
V7ell, my brother, from whence have you come ? 'About one hun- 
dred and forty kos' — two hundred and fifty miles. For what pur- 
pose have you come all this distance ? ' Sir, I heard you could 
tell me about the invisible God, and the means of finding him.' 
But your people all v/orship idols, so how has it happened that you 
should think about the invisible God ? ' O Sir, will you hear my 
message ? — Three years ago I went to see Juggernaut, and as I v/as 
returning, 1 saw a European, who with three or four Hindoos, was 
teaching the people from a book. I came near them, and they put 
three small tracts into my hand. These books I took to my village, 
where they were read openly. We found that they were about one 
true, invisible God, and one Jesus Christ, who was said to be his 
Son, and the Saviour of sinners. Thus things went on. The books 
were daily read in the centre of the village, till some of us began to 
conclude, that if the books were true, then the religion of this country 
must he false. At this, many were displeased, and said, they were 
the books of the Englishman, and that by reading them, we should 
become outcasts. Only eight of us remained firm, and as we met 
with much persecution, we commenced the habit of retiring once or 
twice a week to the jungle, where we read the books, and suppli- 
cated the invisible God. We also gave up the worship of idols, 
and broke all the badges of idolatry. Thus passed nearly three 
years ; when we began to conclude that we needed some one to 
teach us the new religion. Now, my comrades said to me, you are 
the oldest, and we will send you in search of a Teacher. You shall 
go to him and become a Christian, and then return and tell us, and 
where you go, we will go, and what you do, that we will do. So 
saying, they all took an oath by the book of the invisible God, which 
they held in their hands, and I immediately took my dejiarture. 
1 knew that there Avas a Padre Sahib at Bcrhampore, but as I had 
maiiy relatives and acquaintances there, I was afraid of their re- 
sentment. So I came on to Cuttack, where I arrived late in the 




'"^ ; p^i^Wlii l|l,f |J''i;i'ij''! !i '!l'iti.|;i*:;i''^ ■'■ 



315 



evening, and left early llie next morning, the people telling me 
there was a Padre Sahib at Balasore. [It appears that in his short 
stay at Cuttack, he did not hear of the missionaries and native 
Cliristians there.] Thus hearing, I came immediately to this place, 
and enquired for your house, which I at length found — and now 
sir, / wish to hear the word of the Lord, by ivhich I and ivy com- 
rades may be saved." After remaining some weeks at this station, 
and affording satisfactory evidence of piety he was baptized by 
brother Noyes, and departed for his country, to communicate the 
results of his journey to his associates in seeking for the kingdom 
of heaven. 

One of the publications of the English Tract Society in 1844 
contains this statement, — " Mr. Phillips, stationed at Jellasore, 
has communicated the following facts : — Upwards of thirteen years 
ago, a man from the eastern corner of the province travelled up- 
wards of 200 miles to Pooree to attend the car festival. He then 
obtained a tract and carried it back to his village, where the pe- 
rusal of it introduced light into a mind hitherto dark as midnight. 
He continued to read it till his convictions induced him to abandon 
idolatry, and follow the teachings of the tract. Whether he ob- 
tained any other tract or further intormation I know not, but he 
continued to walk in the way of truth, so far as he had been able 
to discover it, till he died, which was a year or two since. His 
younger brother then, amidst the loud lamentations of his aged 
mother, adopted the same course, and has recently found his way 
to Jellasore, where he avows his intention to become a Christian, 
and gives this account of his brother. This, we are happy to 
believe, is only one among many similar instances of the influence 
of these silent messengers of mercy. 

" In an interesting revival of religion in our native boarding 
schools, several of the boys referred to our tracts and books as 
first inducing serious impressions. Little Henk-Y and his 
Bearer was n\entioned by one or two, but upon inquisy of Sol- 
omon (our dear Khund boy) what first impressed his mind, he 
replied it was the Call to Ukconverted Sikneks, (in Oriya of 
course,) and especially the vvords, " Turn or die." He afterwards 
becam.e a candidate for baptism, and v/e hoped to add him to the 
visible church, but he was, with tvv^o other dear boys suddenly 
cut down by the cholera. We grieve not for him, however, as for 
those of whom we have no hope. But shall I thus dismiss the 
record of our poor boy ? May not some eye glance on this brief 
notice, to vrhom the words which first impressed his rnind are as 



346 



applicable as to the poor barbarous Khund ? Yes, ye young, ye 
gay, ye refined, ye amiable, whether in America or England, you 
must " turn or die." Oh may these words prove to be one of the 
arrows of the Holy Ghost, piercing your heart, and leading you 
to turn and live !" 

The following interesting letter from Gunga Dhor to Christians 
in America, will be read with deep attention. In a letter to an 
American friend, Mr. Sutton observes : " The duplicate of your 
letter of June 5th, reached me a few days ago. Gunga Dhor was 
with me when it arrived ; so I explained the purport of it to him. 
His eyes filled with tears at the mention of the liberality of Chris- 
tians in America for people whom they have never seen. He is a 
man of exquisite sensibility and generous sentiments. I immedi- 
ately proposed to him to write a short letter to jour Society, to 
which he readily assented ; and the next day handed me the ac- 
companying, (written in the Oiiya language,) to which I have an- 
nexed a literal translation. 

TRANSLATION OF GUNGA DHOR's LETTER. 

April 3th, 1838, Pooree, Orissa. 

" To the Friends of the Lord Jesus Christ, rendered benevolent 
through his love, delivered from sin, and by the power of the Holy 
Spirit reconciled to God, even to you, the holy people dwelling in 
America, Ghunga Dhor Suring, a Christian, sends this congratu- 
latory epistle. 



env 



"O my fellow-heirs of everlasting life, a short time since my soul was 
^xiveloped by the gloom of sin, and through violating God's law, I was 
deserving of perdition ; but God having mercy upon my country, sent 
missionary brethren to preach the Gospel of his Son. They circulated 
many tracts, and in consequence I obtained one or two. By continuing 
to peruse them I discovered the wickedness of my heart, became acquain- 
ted with Christ, and learned to know that God is a Spirit, dwelling in 
heaven and separate from matter. What I worshiped, even created things 
and men — all these forsaking, and believing in the name of Christ, I 
was baptized. According to my ability I now preach the gospel ; and 
should God bestow the blessing of the Holy Spirit, then will my country- 
men yield good fruit. As I have obtained a knowledge of the Scriptures, 
so will they ; and from those shasters from which I have turned, they 
also will turn. For I plainly perceive that the books of my native land 
are false ; there is no truth in them. 

But alas ! there are none to teach the true wisdom, or bestow the true 
sbaster. They wander like forlorn sheep. O my beloved brethren in 
eternal life, if you pray for my countrymen, if you are concerned for 
the salvation of their souls, then I entreat your aid, according to your 
a,bility, in behalf of my brethren and sisters. The sacred book, which 
like a sun is able to irradiate their hearts and minds, which is able to 



347 

convert them to everlasting life iti heaven, which can save from the fear 
of death and from the torments of hell, and deliver from the evils of sin 
and the temptation of Satan — even that holj- bo(ik bestow, and we may 
distribute it and scatter it like seed. As the wealthy in India in this 
time of famine, are bestowing their thousands of ru;)ees to save men's 
bodies, so, or even in a superior degree, bestow your aid for the salvation 
of men's souls. Communicate of that property whicli you have acquired, 
for those souls in whose behalf Christ endured incalculable anguish. 
Commit it to the custody of my missionary brethren. 

At this season thousands of people, leaving their homes, accompained 
by their wives and children, are going on pilgrimage. In some places 
one hundred thousand assc'.uble; in others eighty thousand; in otliers 
fifty tliousnnd; in others thirty thousand; in others fifteen thousand; 
in others five thonsand ; and in others three, two, or one thousand. 
Exceedinggreat sin is committed, and daily increasing. On this account, 
we saj% furnish us with religious books and tve tvill distribute tliein^&o 
shall we free our garments from tlie blood of souls. The misssionaries 
will explain this matter to you. What more can I write? Accept from 
me, man)', very many salutations. !May blessings rest upon j'ou. 

Postscript — The last seventeen days, with the Rev. Mr. Sutton, I have 
been at Pioree. We go day by day to the b^.zaar, and preach to four, 
five, or six hundred people. Many acknowledge that our doctrine is 
true ; others niakirig various excu,<es, blaspheme. The people come fror.i 
different countries — Oryias, Bengalees, Mahrattas, Telingas, Hindoos- 
thanees. Tluy experience great suffering through this pilgrimage. 
Many children are bereft of parents, and many people die of various 
diseases. Their skulls and bones lie scattered on the four sides cf iha 
city. On both sides of the great road also, from Pooree to their homes, 
their skulls and bones are seen. This God sees. This while I write, 
I also see. For tliem there is no cry, 'alas!' nor any to bury them. 
The birds of the air and dogs of the field devour them. It is for a sight 
of this Juggernaut at Pooree, all these miseries are endured. The Pun- 
das go and invite and induce the people to come, that they may get their 
monej' and obtain presents from tliem. Taking all they possess, they 
send them emptj-handed away. All the people receive, is a rag of cloth, 
a little dry rice, a stick, and a little sweet-meat (relics from Juggernant}. 
These taking, they return, begging along the road as tluy go. How 
much might be said! but were I to 'vrite it you could not endure it. My 
object in writing is that tracts in Oriiia, Benrjnli'e, Persian, Hindooee, 
Maliaratla, SjC. &c. may be printed, and distributed among these icnorant. 
and apostate people. This would indeed be a good work. Wlio can tell 
but tiiey may one day see, and hear, and understand, and turn to God? 
1 think in my mind that in the last day thej' will say : ' It was by means 
of the dwellers in America, that, liaving obtained the (^.ivine word, we 
knew the Lord.' " 

It is added in the English Kcport of 1843 — "The American 
Brethren continue to act as fellow-labourers with your Missionaries, 
in an adjacent, but distant field of exertion. They have been en- 
couraged by some pleasing instances of converting grace, and one 
of those gathered from heathen darkness to Christ, if not more, has 
become an assistant to them in preaching the glorious gospel. To 
their small band of missionaries they have made some addition, 
and, according to recent accounts, are expecting some others to join 
them." 



348 



An interesting letter from one of the American missionaries to 
the writer, may not improperly be referred to here, on account of 
the information which it contains. The reference to the connexion 
of the British Government with Idolatry is very important, and 
shews the magnitude of this evil in India. See G. B. Repository, 
1844, pp. 250-51. 

MIDNAPORE. 

This station has been relinquished to the American Missionaries. 
The English Report for 1844 states, — The last Report announced 
that this Town had no longer a resident missionary. It has proved 
an unfruitful and barren spot, no one that has been occupied by 
the Society more so ; and in consequence of the Oorea language 
been spoken here to a veiy small extent, the opinion was strongly 
and decidedly expressed to the Committee, that it would be advis- 
able to relinquish tliis place to the American Brethren, who from 
its proximity to their stations, felt desirious of becoming its occu- 
pants. The Committee therefore adopted a resolution authorizing 
the Brethren in India to transfer the station to the American 
Missionaries if they deemed it desirable to do so, on receiving 
a reasonable sum for the chapel which belonged to the Society. 
Brethren Lacey and Sutton have adopted measures for carrying 
this arrangement into efiect. The chapel having suffered much 
damage since it was unoccupied, they judged that four hundred 
rupees would be a reasonable compensation for it. They thought 
it improper to put this sum into the general treasury, but pro- 
posed to appropriate it as follows : 

Ihipees. 

To assist in rebuilding the Chapel at Berhampore 100 

To assist in liquidating the debt on Cuttack Cliapel 100 

To build ])reniises necessary to commence a station east- 
ward of Cuttack 100 

To build a Chapel at Choga, leaving the present small 
mud building for the accommodation of the native and 
European preachers at their visits . . . . 100 

Tliis branch of tlie mission has been honoured in the conversion 
of souls, the details of which as reported to the Society in America 
are doubtless interesting. The narrative of the conversion of 
Prasuram is of a highly encouraging nature. See G. B. Repository 
1843, pp. 348-350. — "May the little one become a thousand, 
and the small one a strong nation, the Lord hasten it in his 
time.'* 



349 



Tlie English Report of the mission for 1844 contains a brief 
reference to these zealous and beloved Brethren. — " The American 
Brethren have co-itiniied to occupy the field that your Missionaries 
resigned to them. The most harmonious feeling appears to exist 
between the Missionaries of the two Societies, who act as fellow- 
labourers, though acting distinctly. From the last Report of their 
Society it appears that Mr. Phillips was stationed at Jellasore, and 
Mr. Bachelor at Balasore. There were two native preachers, 
Prasuram and Rama, part of the fruits of the mission. A few 
converts have been baptized during the year, but some previously 
received have fallen. In September 1843, Mr. C. Dow w-as 
ordained as a ]\lissionary, and was to sail from Boston for India 
in October. Mr. Noj-es, who had been com.pelled by ill health 
to return to America, was then editing a publication designed to 
promote a missionary spirit." 



CHAr. Y. 

Success of Tiii; Orissa TnIission'. 

lis usefulness in the conversion of Europeans and Tndo-Brilish — • 
Portuguese and Hindoos — Raising up of Native Preachers and 
Evangelists — Their ordination to the work of God — Students for 
the ministry — Brief accounts of Erun, Gunga-dhor, Ram- 
chundra, Krupa-Sindo, Doitaree, t^-e. 

It cannot fail to be interesting, to refer particularly to various 
instances of conversion among the diflerent classes of European and 
Indo- British, Portuguese and Hindoos, with whom theJ.Iissionaries 
both English and American come in contact, and to whom their 
labours, through the divine blessing have proved useful. In the 
early history of missionary operations, it is stated — " We have 
preaching regularly morning and evening, in English, on a Lord's 
day, though the congregations are small ; but we hope some good 
will be done, as the hearers are regular and serious in their attend- 
ance. A converted Samaiitan may be the means of introducing 



;o 



the gospel to many." The " first-fruits" of Orissa unto God were 
among the Indo-British, the descendants of the Portuguese ; viz, 
Messrs. Rennell, Baptist, George, De Santos, De Sozo, &c. 

In the Report of 1827, it is observed by Mr. Lacey, after re- 
ferring to the baptism of Mr. De Santos, " Tiiere are others whose 
minds are under serious impressions, and who seem hesitating and 
halting between two opinions: who, from the improvement in their 
deportment and particularly as it respects feasting, the observance 
of the Lord's-day, and their own observations, are evidently the 
subjects of a work of grace, and we hope we shall soon have the 
pleasure of informing you of their union witli us. Among all 
those to whom we have access improvement is apparent. The 
Sabbath, till now neglected by them through the example of 
superiors and the imperious, commands of men, is now generally 
regarded ; and if broken through the above causes, it is with riiuch 
expostulation and difHculty, Avhich will increase in proportion 
as the sense of obligation to God appears above that to man; and 
the Natives themselves have observed the change." 

On Dec. 24th, 1820, three persons were baptized, in one of the 
rivers that skirts the city of Cuttack. One of these was a conver- 
ted Jewess, the v/ife of Abraham, the native Preacher. Mr. Sutton 
wrote — " Her experience seems plain and satisfactory. Her mind 
has been convinced of her sinfulness for some time, and that the 
Lord Jesus Christ was the only Saviour; but within these last 
four months, from reading the third chapter of John her convictions 
have been much deepened, and she has fled in earnest to the blood 
of Christ. On being asked her reasons for wishing to be baptized, 
she said, that when a seapoy enlisted in the Company's service, he 
puis on the badge bclongivg to their army, and she u'ished in the same 
ivay to enter into the service of the Lord Jesus Christ. She is by 
birth a daughter of Abraham, and does not speak English." 
Another is the mother of Sunder, a native of Arracan, she had 
become a Roman Cntholic. The third candidate baptized at that 
time was a steady youth, the brother of Sunder. 

The same Report refers to tlie conversion of Mr. Beddy, who 
became a useful missionary. It is stated — " Four individuals of 
the Ordinance department went to reside at Cuttack, and of the four 
three appear to have felt the influence of divine truth." 

Mr. Beddy laboured with considerable acceptance in Cuttack and 
Calcutta ; and was subsequently accepted as a missionary by the 
Society belonging to the other part of the Baptist Denomination. 
See an interesting letter from him in the G. B. Repository, 1841, 
pp. 221. He has resided for some years at Patna. 



351 



An OrJiua-.ice day i:i 1832 is thus desicribe:!, in grateful, glowing 
language. 

" Tlie more interesting service of lliis saLhatli, however, was the evening 
service of the Lord's Supper. We sat down wiih a goodly number of dear 
native Christians at the sacr.nl feast. Tlicre were (iunga, and his wife; 
Krupa Hindoo, and his wife ; Kuranasaw, and his wife ; and the < ther 
Kru])a Sindoo ; Boodee, Purama, Radoo, and Bjtsies Maha, all natives 
won from s:it:in and idolatry; celebrating the ni' st s jlema Christ! in ordi- 
nanc?, forni'njj the foundation of the Ciiurch of Chr s;, w I'ch w ii s.jread 
wider and wider — forming a leaven which will work until it has leavened 
the whole lump. Yes, our hearts experienced no ccmnion emotion when 
we surveyed them in their various characters and bearings. Bio. Sutton 
administered the ordinance, and spoke in English, and Bro. L. spoke to 
the Oriya communicants. Another thing which gave no small interest to 
this pleasing opportunity, was, that two dear friends, one of the civil, and 
the otlier of the military service of the Hon. Company, requested to com- 
municate with us. So here the highest and the lowest, the polished and 
honorable European, and the rustic humble native, dro])])ing their dis-^ 
tinctions, mixed in one communion, partook of one feast, actuated by one 
feeling, i. e. love to Jesus Christ, in whom there is neither Jew nor dreek, 
harbarian, Scythian, bond nor free." 

One of the most remarkable features of primitive Christianity ,* 
■was the ability of the converts to diffuse the gospel, and their readi- 
ness to engage in this sacred work. It is written, " They that 
were scattered abroad went everywhere preaching the word ;" and 
again, "Now they that were scattered abroad upon the persecution, 
that a:-ose about Stephen, travelled as far as Phenice and Cyprus 
and A.ntioch, preaching to none but the Jews only. And some of 
them were men of Cyprus and Cyrene, which when they were come 
to Antioch, spoke unto the Grecians, preaching the Lord Jesus. 
And the hand of the Lord Avas with them ; and a great number 
believed and turned unto the Lord. Acts viii. 4, xi. 19, 21. It 
is a subject of devout thankfulness, that a goodly number of the 
converts have been blest with wisdom and utterance to make 
known the gospel of the grace of God. In the Report of 1829, 
after paying a just tribute to the memory of the lamented Cropper, 
reference is made to the raising up of the help fur " the work of the 
ministry." 

Ordination of Native Preacheks. 

The first ordination of Native Brethren to the work of the 
Evangelist in Orissa is very fully described in the Report of the 
Society for 1835, p.p. 18-21. 

A third ordination was in 1841, when Bamadab was set apart 
to the work. " Messrs. Brooks and Stubbins conducted the 

w 2 



firiO 



former p.irts of the service. Mr. Sutton offered the ordination 
prayer, and Mr. Lacey delivered a charge." 

It is stated "Thus after several years of trial, five have been 
ordained. Six are still employed as assistant preachers, and 
three are missionary students." Mr. Lacey states, — " Six 
native brethren have been entirely employed in preaching and 
disputing among the people, and others occasionally engaged. 
In the character of their ministry, I believe the native brethren have 
lately a good deal improved : their knowledge of christian truth 
has enlarged, and a corresponding improvement in their public 
administrations has exhibited itself. In the past year, moreover, 
their usefulness has been more apparent in several pleasing in- 
stances, wherein knowledge has been communicated and convictions 
implanted. Many of the native christians, and the enquirers 
have been able to bear testimony to their usefulness ; and one 
instance of good to an idolater, now a candidate for baptism, 
is well calculated to encourage all who are interested in the labours 
of our native preachers." Several ordinations have occurred in late 
years. 

As enemies to the Gospel have often urged that none but out- 
casts would embrace it, it may be stated that of these, three were 
Brahmuns. — Three Naiks. — One a pure Boisya. — One a Byragee. 
—One a Maharatta, son of the last Killadar of Cultack. — One a 
Bengalee (unknown). — One a Farmer. — One a Mahantee or pato- 
vari. — There has been but one of a low caste baptized. 

Native Students. 

The Report of 1841 makes reference to this interesting class of 
Native converts. — These young men continued under I\lr. Sutton's 
care till a special Conference in Oct. when it was agreed that the 
three should be received as assistant Preachers, Damadur to 
accompany Mr. Sutton to Calcutta, Sebo to go to Berhampore 
and assist Mr. Stubbins, and Somnath to remain at Cuttack. 
Mr. Lacey states, — "We have added three to the number of our 
native Preachers, who are all men of more than ordinary promise." 

At the Conference held in Cuttack, April 25, 26, 1845, other 
Tsative Brethren were appointed to aid in the great work of evan- 
gelizing Orissa. — Their names were Baligee, Subra Sahu, Subra 
Nuik, Damadur, Somnauth and Bikhari. Dena Bundo and Prasu 
Rant were accepted as assistant native Preachers. (See G. B. 
Repository, March 1845, p 104.) The Lord give the word and 



353 

increase *' the company that publish it." The most recent infor- 
mation, speaks of the increase of these valuable hibourers, and the 
establishment of an Academy at Cuttack, which was opened, with 
eight students, January 1st, 1846. 

The following accounts of some of the most remarkable indivi- 
duals among the Hindoos, who have been converted to God in 
Orissa, cannot fail to shew the friends of the Mission, both at home 
and abroad, the success of their efforts, and to lead them with the 
church of old to say — " At this time it shall he said. What hath God 
wroitfjht?" The records both of the living and the dead, demon- 
etrate the power of divine grace. 

Erun. 

Oungadhor was probably the first convert in Orissa ; but the 
first Hindoo who broke the chain of caste, and put on Christ by 
baptism, v.as Erun, a Telinga, converted at Berhampore, by the 
labours of Mr. Bampton. The first reference to this person occurs 
in Mr. Bampton's Journal, in March 1827. He says — " On Tues- 
day evening a man came and said, with an apparent air of levity, 
that he would go with me and continue with me. From what I 
saw of the man I supposed that he was only in jest, and rather ap- 
prehended that he really meant to ridicule me. But as he seemed 
like a man with whom I could make free, I told him that if he 
"went with me, he must wash the marks off his face and breasts. 
These marks were made, I suppose, with powder of sandal wood 
and water, and some of them were peeling off of themselves, so 
I took my finger nail and picked them off. The man seemed very 
careless about his marks, and I proceeded to say that, if he went 
with me, he must throw off and break his lingu. He expressed 
his willingness to do so, and not only expressed his willingness, 
but proceeded to take the case off his neck, and, taking out the 
little bit of wood, (the lingu,) laid it dov.m, and gave me the liberty 
of breaking it. But as 1 did not know what clTects it might pro- 
duce among the people, I hesitated, and advised him to break 
it himself, on which he took my chair foot and did so. I did not 
then know that these little lingus are revered so mvich as I have 
since heard that they are ; and it struck me that, as the case was 
silver, it might be of more consequence than its contents, so I ad- 
vised him to break that too ; to this he said that, it was silver, and 
he seemed to think that it need not be broken ; but I said it was 
unclean on account of its use, on which he immediately laid it 



354> 



down, and taking the chair foot broke it ! ! 1 soon after saw a man 
exhibiting some parts of the broken thing, and requested to see 
them ; they were immediately put into my hands, one of them was 
the principal part of the article, and the other a little bit that had 
been broken off; so I asked the owner if 1 might have them, to 
which he not onl)^ replied in the affirmative, but said that I might 
have the case too, and immediately gave it me. 

"March 3rd. Erun, Avho broke his lingu, has been with me a 
good part of the forenoon. He says that the people are highly dis- 
pleased with him for what he has done : they threaten to pull down 
his house and stone him. They say that the Sahib has given him 
forty rupees, and he may go with the Sahib, for they do not want 
to see his face in Berhampore. The man is afraid of them, and re- 
quested me to apply to tlie authorities for protection. Among other 
things my disciple (as the people call him,) told me that his father 
died at the age of 105, and his mother at 90. The old man, he 
says, retained his sight, hearing, and teeth to the last ; his father 
despised the idols, but his mother did not." 

His baptism and subsequent conduct are thus reported, — "Owing 
to the operations of various causes, the minds of Hindoos are 
generally weaker than the minds of Englishmen ; but there are 
few, if any, English Christians who have been called to display 
so much Christian heroism as is displayed by a Hindoo who gives 
up his caste, especially if he be the first in the neighbourhood who 
receives the Gospel, And Erun's remaining fear, after again 
■wishing to be baptized, showed itself in a proposal, that I should 
tell the truth if asked whether he had eaten with me or not, but 
say nothing about it if I were not asked. But this I felt myself 
obliged to refuse, and I told him that if he determined to remain 
unbaptized, no sum of money, nor ajiy consideration whatever, 
should ever induce me to publish his having eaten with me ; but 
that if he was baptized I would certainly publicly declare that his 
caste was gone. For I told him, the caste was an enemy to Jesus 
Christ, which none of his friends could spare ; and stood like a 
stone wall across the road to prevent the progress of the Gospel. 
This firm but fair and honest way of treating him, manifestly 
pleased him, and he soon expressed his detemination to face every 
difficulty. 

*' December 25th was fixed for his baptism, and between three 
and four in the afternoon, to our no small satisfaction, he came 
to the tent, bringing with him a change of apparel ; between four 
and five we proceeded to a tank called the Ramalingum tank, and 



ODO 



on our arrival, including ourselves and servants there were not 
present perhaps above ten persons ; before we had finished there 
mii^ht be twenty. In an address I delivered, I briefly pointed 
out the way of salvation ; said that Jesus Christ required, first, 
faith, and then baptism — that my friend Eruu had forsaken 
Hindooism — thatThe had given itp his caste — that he believed in 
Jesus Christ and wished thus to connect himself with his followers. 
Then I asked Erun if it was not the case, and he said it was. 
I had not given him notice of my intention to ask him any ques- 
tions at the water ; but I proceeded to say that I should request 
his answers to a few, which, with his replies, 1 shall subjciin. 
'Do you honour the Hindoo gods?' — ' No.' — ' What do you think 
of the Hindoo shastras V — ' They are all false.' — ' Are you a 
sinner V — ' Yes.' — ' Who saves sinners V — ' Jesus Christ.' — ' What 
did Jesus Christ do to save sinners V — ' He died for them.' — * Who 
will be saved V — ' Those who rely on Jesus Christ.'—' Do you 
believe in Jesus Christ?' — ' I do.' — 'Do you wish to obey Jesus 
Christ?' — 'I do.' — 'Jesus Christ requires his followers to abstain 
from worldly business every Sunday, and devote the day to relig- 
ious exercises : do you engage to comply with this requisition ?'— - 
' I do.' — ' Do you wish to be baptized ?' — ' Yes.' 

" We then prayed, and after prayer went into the water, when 
I said, Pp.eta pootra dhurmatmar namorai ambhai toomhokoo doobo 
dayee ; i. e. 'I baptize thee in the name of the Father, ard of 
the Son, and of the Holy Ghost;' and my friend thougl.t that as 
he was addressed it would be right to reply, so he said, Acha, i. e. 
* Very good,' and I baptized him ; and on coming out of the water 
much wished, that we had a host of Christian friends present to 
vent, in a song of praise, those feelings which the event could not 
fail to excite. After cli^ngirg our clothes we returned to my tent, 
and Erun drank tea wi.h us." 

The consistent profession of this first convert is frequently no- 
ticed in terms of respect. In 1840 it is stated in the Annual Re- 
port — " Erun, who was baptized by Mr. Bampton, and was tho 
first Hindoo baptized by the brethren, continues to pursue his 
spiritual pilgrimage. The probity produced by christian principles, 
has secured him the respect of his idolatrous neighbours ; and, not- 
withstanding tl^e opposition he once encountered, he is now' much 
encouraged in his trade as a weaver. A lillle time ago he was em- 
ployed to weave some beautiful cloth dresses for the Rajah. These 
were a kind of guaze about eight yards long, and an ell wide, some 
yellow, others a light or dark green, the n-.iddle parts plain, with 



356 



gold thread woven into the sides and ends, and various pretty de- 
signs in coloured cotton. 

" Erun is now aged, he cannot read, but his son reads the Bible 
to him ; he dwells at times with much delight, on the kind instruc- 
tions he received from Mr, and Mrs. Bampton. After a sermon on 
the judgment, Erun was asked by a friend, " Why he hoped to go 
to heaven ?" He replied, " There was a flock of goats that the 
tigers and bears had seized, the good Shepherd rushed in among 
them, and brought him out; and now if he, till death, continued to 
love and follow that good Shepherd, he should be taken to dwell 
with him iu heaven." 

GUNGADIIOR. 

The first Oreah convert, whose conveision has been attended 
with the most important results, is the beloved individual whose 
history has now to be sketched. In the Society's Report for 1827, 
Mr. Lacey thus speaks of him. " I invited Gunga Dhor, our 
brahminical inquirer, to accompany me to the bazar, and he gladly 
acceded. He sung a geet, the ''Jewel Aline of Salvation,' to a 
great number of people, who were astonished to hear such things 
from a brahmin. This piece exposes the ten incarnations of the 
Hindoos, and introduces Jesus Christ, as the Saviour of sinners ; 
and speaks very feelingly of his sufferings and death. I have had 
it written on the tall potta for distribution, and was much benefit- 
ed while putting it into Oreah from the Bengalee. Gungadhor 
<lwelt particularly on some parts which mark his sense of their 
importance. Having finished the poem I put the catechism into 
his hand, when he read over the Ten Commandments, and made 
some severe remarks from them upon th# moral conduct of the 
Hindoos, as, ' God here commmands you to worship himself alone 
and you have all worshipped wood and stone; — not to commit 
adultery, but you have all committed uncleanness with your 
neighbours' wives ; — not to steal, but you have all stolen ; — not 
to covet, but you are all full of covetousness, &e. &c. Will 
God endure this disregard of his commandments ? nay, but he will 
not my brethren ; and we all have sinned. But hear, Jesus Christ 
died to deliver us from the wrath of God, and let us believe on 
him: his is the true salvation.' While we stood and heard these 
things from an Oreah brahmin with such feeling and effect, we 
could not withhold the tear of pleasure, but tears involuntarily 
flowed from our eyes. We have experienced feelings not known 




GUNGA DHOn, 



357 



before, and surely angels have ; and if ever tliey weep for pleasure, 
it must be to witness scenes like these. O that this dear man 
may have grace to continue steadfast even unto death : — should 
he do so, there is no doubt of his abilities as a preacher, and that 
of an acceptable kind. After this opportunity the people were 
almost mad for books : ' Give me the Ten Commandments, Give 
me the Ten Commandments,' was the cry from all sides." — lie 
has returned from a visit to his family. Went out with us boldly 
in the evening, and preached the Gospel. Sat with him afterwards 
till about eleven o'clock, talking upon a variety of subjects. 
Giving up his cast and connections is a most serious obstacle, 
and it requires much prudence to lead him. I could not encourage 
him to do so till he is better established in his mind, for in the 
event of his forsaking us afterwards, the loss of his cast would 
produce a most unfavourable effect on the mind of the public." 

Gunga's baptism took place March 23rd, 1828, a day that will 
be recollected with pleasure in the annals of the Missions. See 
Mr. Lacey's hymn on the occasion, G. B. Repository, 1829, p, 195. 

Mr. Lacey during his visit to England, prepared "An account 
of the conversion of Gur.ga Dhor, the first-fruits of Orissa unto 
God," which is very interesting. See the Gen. Bap. Repositorv, 
1836, pp. 192-95. 

The writer was favored with an interesting letter from Gunga, in 
Nov. 1833, but want of room forbids its insertion. See G. Baptist 
Repos. 1837, pp. 185-9. Tlie experience of this eminent servant 
of the Lord, is given in the Report for 1845, pp. 32-3, and is very- 
striking. 

Recently two interesting letters have been received from Gunga, 
addressed to the Rev. W. Pickering, of Nottingham. They are ex- 
cellent, and expressive of a rich acquaintance with the word of God. 
G. B. Repository, 1845, p. 102. 

The author finds it impossible to do justice to the character and 
labours of this and other evangelists, in the space which he has pur- 
posed to devote to this department of his histor}'. He fears his 
book will prove too large, and on that account its circulation and 
perusal be too limited to do much good for the evangelization of 
Orissa. 

Ram Cuundra. 

Tliis individual is the second upon the list of Native Evangelists. 
His history is very fully told by himself, the perusal of M'hich 



358 



carnot fail very deeply to interest the reader. Kis father was kil- 
ladar of the Fort of Cuttack, in the tiine of the Marhattas. His 
conversion and baptism are referred to in the Report of 1830, pp. 
8-10. 

A very full account of his conversion to the Christian faith, writ- 
ten hy him self, and sent to his Christian brethren and sisters in 
England, is aj)pended to the Report of 1834, and has appeared 
in the Quarterly Papers. 

The following brief letter to the supporters of the mission, is 
very interesting. 

^'Letter of Ram Chundra to Christians in Englaiid, giving praise to 
the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. O alt sincere brothers and sisters 
in Jesus Christ, to you llama Chundra, a sinner and a Christian, now 
sends much salutation ! 

" In former times I was involved in works of darkness, but, by the 
mercy of Gocl, 1 obtained to huar of the great good news. After 
having heard it sin spnmg vip in my mind greatly, and my soul nuich 
dreaded the punisluuent of hell; hence, remaining in my house, I had 
much sorrow, and wept. My heart feared this world, and hence I 
prayed to tire Lord in secret, and asked the Holy Spirit's help. The 
Lord, in mercy, granted me to obtain some help of the Holy Spirit. Ai'ter 
this, calling my wife and children, my household and relatives, and my 
neighbours and acrjuaiutances, 1 said to them, " I am dead to the 
customs of this your world; and by tire death of Christ Jesus, I am 
determined to flee into the mercy of God! I will save my spirit from 
sin, and the torments of hell!" After I had said this, they wept and 
lamented with a loird voice ; as when one is dead in a Irouse so they wept. 
I came to Cuttack, and there many peojjle attenrpted to convince me, 
but I disregarded their word. On the Jiord's-Day I was baptized by 
Lacey padree sahib After this the people of the country, my own 
household and friends, abused and persecuted me much. None gave me 
a place to sit down upon ; thrrs much affliction came on me, but the 
Lord kept me from all danger. All the rest left me, but my wife and 
children came and joined me. 

From that day I have proclaimed the good news unto the people. 
What the Holy Spirit pirts into my mind, that I proclaim. Every day 
I read the holy book, and worship three times ; once in secret I pray 
unto the Lord, and twice, with my wife and children assembling, I bless 
and praise God. I pray with my mind always, and in this manner, 
through pain and pleasure, 1 have maintained life. I die to sin daily, 
and try to live to hohness. Satan daily condemns me before God, and 
creates difference between my brethren and sisters, and makes me 
without hope ; but by the mercy and grace of God, the Lord Jesus 
daily increases my faith. From hence, with my body, I serve sin, but 
t.ikiiig my s])ii-it, J serve and praise God through oirr Lord Jesus Christ. 
Tims 1 daily live, and those days that I neglect to preach the good news, 
and do not pray, on those days my mind is in pain ; on those days my 
spirit has no pleasure. Thus I have tried to tell you a little of my mind, 
and I will, hereafter, tell you my experience in full. Pardon my free- 
dom in writing, and to the Lord, for our brothers and sisters in Orissa, 
you must pray, for we are all of weak minds. 

Cuttack, Sep. 30, 1831. 



359 



KRUPA SIXDOO. 

The "Report of 1S30 gives an interesting account of the conver- 
sion of tliis native brother. Mr. Lacey wrote, " We have baptized 
Krupa Sindoo, a respectable man, a Khyetra, of Sutyabag. He 
was first disposed towards Christianity by hearing in the street 
at Poorcc, of the love and sufferings of Jesus Christ for a sinful 
world. This is the gospel, and, as far as we can judge, after 
a year's trial and observation, it has been to him the power of 
God to his salvation. I have felt encouraged from this circum- 
stance, to preach much, and indeed principally, the ' Cross of 
Christ.' 1 have observed it to produce seriousness hundreds of 
times, and who can tell its effect on many whom we may never 
know. Krupa Sindoo maintains his family (eight persons beside 
himself) by dealing in a few articles. We are having some goods 
of him for our new school-house. He chose to reside at his own 
village, of which we were glad ; he will be useful, for he is able 
to give a reason of his hope. His new religion, however, has made 
his neighbourhood very warm for him ; he meets with the greatest 
opposition from his own mother, who tells him that he has sent 
his whole race to hell, and, ' O that he had died long since.' 

In reference to Krupa, who resides ten miles from Pooree, 
Mr. Sutton who resided there, furnishes some pleasing informa- 
tion ;—" Krupa Sindoo, the last baptized, who lives within ten 
miles of Pooree, has been two or three times ; he evidently grows 
in scriptural knowledge, but I fear he is in pecuniary difficulties, 
which hinder his growth in grace. He came up to me in the 
town one evening, and spoke boldly, and generally very evan- 
gelically, to the people assembled." 

Grateful reference is made to the spirit of the native converts 
in their trials and preservations. — " They have, since their pro- 
fession, conducted themselves so as to give us pleasure. Krupa 
Sindoo can read, and instructs his family and neighbours in his new 
religion. Rama is very zealous, and promises fair to become a 
useful preacher. They have suffered a good deal of persecution 
for the Gospel's sake, and are still persecuted. The washerman 
has refused to wash their clothes, and the barber to shave them, 
which, in this country, are some of the highest marks of disgrace, 
as these people are of very low castes. Krupa Sindoo bore this 
shame best, and wore his long beard and dirty clothes without a 
complaint; and as the persecution arose only from a spirit of ma- 

x2 



360 



lice, they soon came to him and proposed to assist him as usual. 
Rama felt this disgrace most keenly, and applied to a native officer 
for redress ; but finding him of the same malicious disposition, he 
gave up, and submitted to tlie disgrace, and no doubt the difficulty 
will pass away. For some time Rama's mother, wife, children, and 
brethren, refused to eat or associate with him ; they have now lost 
caste with him. and appear reconciled." 



BOYTAREE. 

iMr. Lacey furnishes the following account of this native convert. 
"Doytaree is a respectable man of some considerable learning and 
judgment. His caste is a naik, and his business a physician. He 
is of mature years, and has a wife and four or live children, three 
of whom, I believe, are at home. He has long since known the 
Gospel, and observed its ordinances, and, I have reason to trust, 
enjoyed its spirit and blessings ; but his last married daughter was 
much beloved by him and his wife, and they found it difficult to 
give her up. Pie at length resolved to do so, and came on Satur- 
day afternoon to be baptized. I had long considered him a fit 
subject, and as sending him back might involve him again in all 
his difficulties, we concluded to baptize him. I saw him in the 
morning, early, at the house of Ramara, and from conversation 
with him, on his views and from what I could judge of his feelings, 
I was confirmed in my hopes respecting his Christianity. Mr. 
Brown acceded. At five o'clock in the Afternoon, the natives, in 
a good number, the native Christians, some country-born, and 
some Europeans, assembled on the river's bank, below our com- 
pound, to witness the ceremony. Mr. B. gave out a hymn, and 
I addressed the people, and prayed in Ooriya ; the people listened 
tolerably, and, towards the last, asked several questions and dis- 
puted, but behaved, on the whole, very orderly. The candidate 
then followed down into the water, amidst the laughs and hisses 
of the crowd. Arrived at a proper depth, he took oft" his mala, and 
and gave it into my hand, and I threw it down the stream ; some 
said, Well, others groaned and hissed. He next broke his poita, 
and gave that into my hands, also, and after holding it up for a 
moment, it followed the mala down the stream. He was then 
baptized in the sacred names, repeated first in English and then in 
Ooriya. Coming up from the water, the people pretty generally 
hissed at him, but he went through all very well. It was a very 




SEBO NAIK. 



361 

interesting baptism. Doytaree will, I hope, be very useful to us, 
being just the man we wanted for the native Christian Ooriya 
school. Of this situation we purposely kept him ignorant, before 
he was baptized, that he might not be influenced in his decisions 
by it. His wife is well disposed towards him, to say the least, 
and several others, at a village distant from the neighbourhood of 
our native Christians, are thinking of Christianity. 

Mr. Sutton describes a visit to him when seriously ill. "Doy- 
taree is very ill. Mrs. Sutton and I went to see him last evening. 
He spoke very feelingly of the contrast in the circumstances of his 
children, and his own youthful days. To what an excess of riot he 
ran, and how his children have neither the will, nor the power to 
<lo so, so delightfully had Christianity changed the whole course of 
their life. He then sobbed out his thanks for the gospel, saying 
how he was enveloped in darkness, and we came sixteen thousand 
miles to shew him the way to heaven. " Yoti," said he, " are 
Apostles to me, just as much as Paul was to the Corinthians and 
Galatians, ^-c." He added, "I often think when I first became 
ii chris'.ian, of the time I spent in travelling with you and James 
Sunder. I then knew not how to pray, and was so ignorant I 
knew not what to do ; but — blessed, blessed, blessed be the Lord. " 

To this affecting statement our brother adds, " Here I would 
rest the appeal for Missions. Let a man who can appreciate the 
change, look at the contrast between a living and dying heathen 
Hindoo, and a living and dying christian Hindoo, and he must 
exclaim, O what a precious boon to sinful man, is the glorious 
gospel of the blessed God." 

The various Reports of the Society contain interesting details of 
the conversion and baptism of Pooroosootum, Atmaram, Hurree, 
Rahhoo, Mahadab-das, Hurree Paree, Balogec, Sebo Sas, Rogu- 
rond, Damoodur, Rogubunduba,* SomnatJi, Damiidar, Deenabunder, 
&c. &c., but it is impossible to insert them in this History. The 
Lord God of our fathers make us a thousand times so many as we 
are, and bless us as he has promised. — Deu. i. 11. 



* The writer feels peculiar interest in the conversion of this individual, 
on account of the recollections ot the Idol of Honooman, near his omu 
house, which he has passed hundreds of times. How delii^htfui the 
thought, that its owner should have become a christian, and tliat on the 
site of the temple Gungadhor should be residing. — See Report, 1839, p. \o 



362 



CHAP. VI. 

Memorials of departed Friends. 

Brief records of departed Missionaries, both male and female — 
Christian Friends in Orissa, and Native Converts. Brief 
reference to departed Friends and Supporters of the Mission 
in England, 

The writer feels that he has advanced to a very important and 
solemn stage in his work ; — to review and record the career of de- 
parted brethren and sisters, with some of whom " he has taken 
sweet counsel, and walked to the house of God in company," is 
indeed a very solemn and affecting task. But " Who am I ?" and 
** What is my father's house ?" that I should be favored and honored 
to be present at the formation of the Society, one of the first mis- 
sionaries, and now the historian of the Mission ? May the Lord 
enable his servant to perform this "labour of love" to the appro- 
bation of his brethren in Britain and America, in India and China; 
and greatly to " the furtherance of the gospel" both at home and 
abroad. Reflecting upon the chronological order of the events to 
be detailed in this chapter, it very forcibly occurred to him, that 
the Infants in the Mission family were the first martyrs — the first 
to take possession of " the lot of our inheritance," as Abraham's 
first possession was " a burying place." Will the kind reader ex- 
cuse the insertion of the following 

Infant Obituary. 

" Insatiate Archer! could not one suffice? 

Thy shaft liew thrice, and thrice my peace was slain." Youno. 

Parental affection desires to rescue from oblivion, the names of 



3G3 



the following dear children, who, for a short period, solaced the 
minds of the missionary family in India. They, like Abraham's 
beloved wife, Surah, by right of sepulture, have taken possession 
of the land of our inheritance in the East. They were born and 
are buried at C attack. 

Frances Smithee Peggs, born May 14, 1822, died August 
17, 1822. 

Elizabeth S.mithee Peggs, born September the 2nd, 1823, died 
July 28, 1824. 

Mary Smithee Peggs, born November 25, 1824, died May 
14, 1825. 

*' Verilij thou art a God that hidcst t/i//self.'" Thou destroyest 
the hope of man ; but " Thou docst all tilings well." A seed sliall 
serve thee, though not the first born of thy missionary servants ; 
and these painful events shall best promote thy purposes of mercy 
to Ofissa. May angels watch the dust of these^ infants ! may 
myriads of saints slumber wiJi them ! and, in the morning of the 
resurrection, may multitudes of Oreah christians congratulate ihem 
as the first-fruits to God of the dust of Orissa. 

Amos Sutton, the son of the Rev. A. Sutton, Missionary 
in Orissa, was born at Cuttack, April 3, 1825 ; and died and was 
buried in that city, September IG, following. 

"Behold! happy is the man whom God cojrectcth : therefore 
despise not thou the chastening of the Ahnighty." 

As Memoirs of a number of our departed brethren and sisters, 
and some of them of considerable length, have been published in 
the Missionary Observer, it is the less iiecessary that much space 
should be occupied by this department of the History. I'ut the 
writer feels this a very difficult part of his undertaking, and with 
much anxiety throws himself upon the candour of his readers. 

Mrs. Sutton. 

Mrs. Charlotte Sutton was a daughter of Mr. James Collins, 
resident for a number of years at "SVolvey, in Warwickshire. She 
was born at Smockington, near Hinckley, in Feb. 1801. Of 
her earlier years the writer knows little. She appears to have 
possessed naturally a cheerful, engaging and aflectionatc disposition 
To her parents she was loving, dutiful and kind ; submissive to 



364 



their instructions, and peculiarly a comforter in trouble. Her 
father, after her death, observed that in times of trouble he pecu- 
liarly felt her loss ; as consolation administered by her had enabled 
him to bear many burdens* with more patience than he could other- 
wise have done. As a sister and friend she was truly affectionate. 
Her mind was improved by reading, of which she was fond. In 
her nineteenth ■ year, Charlotte Collins appears to have become 
decidedly pious. Her parents attending the Baptist Meeting at 
Wolvey, she probably felt religious impressions from her child- 
hood, but passed a number of her youthful years before, under 
divine grace, she made the choice which fixed her happiness for 
time and eteniity- 

Scarcely had she felt the decided influence of real religion, 
before her desires were excited for the eternal salvation of others. 
The missionary cause soon engaged the attention of her ardent 
mind, and before she actually joined the Christian church she 
commended her efforts to promote its intrests. — In May 1821, 
Messrs. Bampton and Peggs, the first Missionaries sent out by tha 
General Baptist Missionary Society, proceeded to India ; the ordi- 
nation of the former took place at Loughborough, on May 15th. 
The day was a day of peculiar solemnity and heart-thrilling emo- 
tions. Charlotte Collins attended the solemn services. Her im- 
pressions were deep, her attachment to the cause of Missions, 
strengthened to a desire to consecrate herself to its interests. A 
young man of respectable character and circumstances had pre- 
viously sought her hand ; but on the return from the ordination 
she absolutely declined receiving his addresses. Then and for some 
years afterwards, she had no prospect of devoting herself to Mis- 
sionary services, but appears to have formed a determination not to 
enter into any connection, however flattering as to worldly circum- 
stances, which would permanently bind her to her native land. 
Her correspondence in 1822 appears very scanty. In the only 
letter that year now before the writer, there appears an allusion 
to the circumstances mentioned above, as well as a description of 
her inward conflicts. 

She accepted the hand of Mr. Sutton who was contemplating 
the missionary work. In June 1824, Mr. S. was ordained at Derby, 
and he and his beloved wife embarked for India, in the Euphrates 
Aug. 12. Many interesting circumstances occurred during the 
voyage. The Captain and passengers were peculiarly agreeable, 
and many opportunities of usefulness were enjoyed. 



365 



"Sbort as was the period of Mrs. Sutton's sojourn in India, 
(says Mr. Pike), yet her worth was highly appreciated there." A 
BaptistBrother at Calcutta ohserved, — "I assure you we have very 
seldom indeed seen a female in our view, more adapted for useful- 
ness in this country than Mrs. S , and we felt towards her and 

her hushand the highest regard and esteem. "We therefore affec- 
tionately sympathize with you in the loss you have sustained, — ■ 
a loss, we feel, to the general interests of Christianity in this coun- 
try. But he who knows best, and feels most deeply, the necessi- 
ties of his Church, has removed her ; and we humbly hope, he 
will raise up many more with equal zeal, affection, activity, and 
faith, to supply her place." 

Mr. Peggs, in a letter recently addressed to the writer, remarks, 
— "I trust I shall never forget Tjord's-Day, March 13th, when 
our mission family were at my house and we had worship at noon 
in my study. There were brother and sister Bampton, brother 
and sister Lacey, brother and sister Sutton, Sunder, Abraham, and 
Mrs. Peggs, and myself. That dear woman, whose early death 
we lament, was much interested with tliis interview ; I recollect 
her attention to poor Abraham, and the very important advice she 
gave him — not to be unequally yoked with an unbelieving wife. 

" In Orissa and Bengal, the memory of our valued sister is ' as 
ointment poured forth.' There was a vivacity, activity, sweetness, 
simplicity and piety in her, that were very pleasing. On arriving 
at Serampore in August 1825, I heard her spoken of in terms of 
much respect, and her death was greatly regretted. I know the 
spot near the detested temple of Juggernaut, where the first martyr 
to our Mission lies. But I correct myself, my first-born was the 
fir&t martyr and Cuttack our first Station in Orissa, the spot 
where we first took possession of that land of our inheritance. 
Our beloved sister has not lived nor died in vain. The cause of 
Missions is endeared, when embalmed by the martyrdom of departed 
friends ; and shall this cause decline in our estimation, affection 
and support ? Visit the sandy grave of departed friends in the 
Mission field, and think. Has life been laid down in this cause ? 
For this cause have Apostles, Confessors, Martyrs, and 'the noble 
army of martyrs, laboured and 'resisted unto blood,' yea, has 'the 
Captain of our salvation' 'poured out is soul unto death :' and 
shall I 'sit still,' and not go up 'To the help of tlie Lord, to the 
help of the Lord against the mighty V What pious heart, what 
zealous mind, but must exclaim, as respects the promotion of the 
cause of Christ both at home and abroad, 'If I forget thee, O 



S66 

Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning. If I do not 
remember thee, let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth ; 
if I prefer not Jerusalem above my chief joy.' Ps. cxxxvii. 5, 6, 
O may the great Head of the Church, who watches the ashes of his 
saints, 'till all that dust shall rise,' when he looks down upon the 
ashes of our sister, entombed near the Temple of Juggernaut — 
blast the system of Idolatry pursued within its walls — banish British 
support of its cruelties and obscenities, and in the morning of the 
resurrection, give our dear sister to rise, amidst myriads of believ- 
ing Ooreahs ; whose eyes have seen in successive ages, the deso- 
lations of that horrid shrine of idolatry ; — 

' O'er wliich the plough hath pass'd, and weeds have grown.' " 

Mr. Joshua IMundy Cropper. 

Joshua Mundy Cropper was born at Oxford, of religious parents, 
on December 10th, 1807. He was put to school very early in life, 
and cannot remember the period when he could not join with the 
family when reading the Scriptures ; and read his chapter in his 
turn. At five years old, with his younger brother, he was sent to 
a boarding school about ten miles from Oxford, where he continued 
a twelvemonth. During this time he had frequent serious and 
striking ideas about religion ; but getting among other children 
whose parents never thought of religion, nor ever pressed it upon 
their offspring, these impressions wore off as the early dew. Be- 
tween the j)eriod of eight and ten years he had many serious con- 
victions, particularly of the dreadfully awful state of the lost ; fre- 
quently when rolling about his marbles, he would burst into tears 
at this tremendous state. 

Led forward by the grace of God, Joshua Cropper became deci- 
dedly pious, and by a variety of circumstances, evidently taking 
place under providential direction, which he detailed verbally at his 
ordination, but of which no written account appears to exist, his 
mind was directed to missionary labours; and he became acquainted 
with the individual who subsequentl}' was his tutor. On the 26th 
of June, 1825, he was baptized at Derby, with several other young 
friends, some of whom are still following the Saviour on earth, and 
some of whom, like him, have reached their eternal home. Soon 
after this he was admitted on probation as a missibnary student, 
and placed under the instruction of the minister of the church to 
which he belonged. He was now in his eighteenth year ; his heart 



367 



was set on publishing the glorious Gospel, but he had not preachcfl 
a single sermon. He applied, with considerable diligence, to study, 
and speedily became an acceptable and useful preacher. 

This dear young brother was ordained to the work of the Mission 
at Leicester, April 25th, 1827. The Divine blessing upon his la- 
bours in his own country, were ' a token for good' that he would 
be a blessing to India. 

Mr. C. arrived in India Oct. 10th, 1827. The vessel touched 
at ^Madras, where he spent a few days, and he had the pleasure of 
meeting Messrs. Bennett and Tyernian. He reached Calcutta 
November 2nd ; and after speiuling a few weeks pxcceeded to 
Balasore. 

The journals of this brother, display great devotedness to his 
work, but our space will not permit extracts from tliem. His 
early and lamented death may probably be traced to the following 
circumstance. He says — " Arrived at Cuttack, after a few mis- 
haps. Going through a branch of the river on my horse, he sunk 
in the mud, and thus I was compelled to dismount in the midst 
of the stream, and I walked to the other side ; coming to the shore 
I was obliged to Avait a considerable time in my wet clothes, for a 
boat." — The following letter details the circumstance of his death. 

Cuttack, Dec. 10/h, 182S. 
" Dearest Brother, 

" I have heavy tidin<?s to communicate ; I cannot g:ive you the par- 
ticulars now, but will' perhaps forward them to you in a few days. But 
I must tell you ; — I would willinjily spare my own feelin,<?9 and yours, 
dear brotlier, aiid those of our dear friends in general, for he was, (fer4r, 
very dear to ui^ all; but what will be the use of withholding ? it is true ! 
yovi must hear it ! It has so paralyzed oiu* very hearts that we are almost 
dead to every thing but the dear, the amiable youth who has fled from us. 
I never felt such sensations before. His amiable disposition had attached 
our hearts to him with the strongest affection, and this was doubly 
strengthened by the promising and important character which he sustained 
in reference to the dear and sacred cause ; this rendered him so dear, 
so desirable, that we feel lost, hopeless. Ah ! perhaps here was a reason 
for the divine procedure : but should we not esteem piety, humility, good- 
ness, zeal, ability, and universal amiableness of character? Our dear, 
our amiable Joshua is gone ! is goue to the Saviour he preaclied ; gone 
to that heaven where his heart had long been fixed ; gone to realize all 
he believed : to enjoy all he hoped for. The dear fellow died of a jungle 
fever, on Monday last, Dec. 8, 1828, at 12 o'clock at noon. He died 
happy in Jesus, trusting for mercy in his atoning blood. He was favour- 
ed with the clear and full use of his powers of mind to the very last mo- 
ment, which, in Iiulian fevers, is a wonderful circumstance. He had 
every possible assistance, both from the civil and military doctors of the 
station; but all human help was vain, for his fever advanced to its final 

y 2 



368 



consummalion with awful strength and rapiditj'. He is a vast loss to us ; 
there are few Joshua Croppers. We had ample opportunities of seeing 
him, nearly in every shade of character, hut particularly as a Christian 
and a Missionary — we saw him and admired. He fled swiftly on his 
course, and soon has he arrived at the goal. Adieu. 

Sorrowfully yours in Christ, 

C. Lacey." 



The Report of the Society for 1829, thus humbly aclcnowledges 
the mysterious character of this dispensation. " God often moves 
in a mysterious way : one of the mysteries of his providence has 
been this year seen at Cuttack, in the unexpected removal by death 
of Mr. Cropper. He had begun to travel through the villages of 
Orissa proclaiming the Gospel, and afforded fair indications of emi- 
nent usefulness. Not many weeks before his death a brother Mis- 
sionary wrote, — "As far as I can judge, brother C promises to 

be eminent as a preacher in Oreah. I have observed his serious 
and affectionate addresses produce much effect on his hearers." 
Alas ! the last of those affectionate addresses is finished. He, 
whose ways are not as our ways, has called the labourer to his 
rest. How much the Missionaries felt at his removal is evident 
from their correspondence. Short as was his coiu'se, that brief 
course contributed materially to advance the interests of that king- 
dom that will endure for ever. As far as India is concerned 
Mr. Bampton writes, — " With respect to our work it will perhaps 
appear eventually that our lamented brother Cropper, by turning 
our attention to one subject, has been of immense use ; that sub- 
ject is, expectation of success.'" In England his brief Ministry 
was, it is known, blessed to the conversion of many individuals. 
In his short life the value of early Religion was impressively dis- 
played. He was a fervent Christian, a useful Minister, and a 
devoted Missionary ; and all this before twenty-one years from the 
day of his birth had rolled away ! This Society was the favoured 
instrument in bringing him forward to public usefulness, as he 
had not preached a single sermon before his connection with the 
Society commenced. See Mr. Sutton's Lines on the death of dear 
Cropper, G. B. Repository 1829, p. 230. 

Mr. Bampton". 

" The immediate influence" says Professor Parish, " of the 
labours of a Missionary will, in all probability, be much less than 



369 



he anticipates ; he will perhaps go down to the grave as one 
disappointed of his hope. But, like Abraham, he must, against 
hope, believe in hope. He- has planted a seed, which will push 
itself forth on all sides. He has excited a spark, which will raise 
a flame through a kingdom. He thinks he has done little ; but he 
has, in fact, effected that which calculation cannot follow. We 
can scarcely entertain too contracted an expectation of the immediate 
effect of his labours, and scarcely too exalted an idea of their 
ultimate efficacy. The flame once excited, shall spread from breast 
to breast, from family to family, from village to village, from 
region to region ; in time, from kingdoms to empires : and, at 
length, from empires to continents. But that flame must first be 
lighted from the fire that burns on the altar of God. How will 
the faithful Missionary rejoice before the Judge of quick and dead, 
when he shall meet at the right hand ot Christ, not a straggling 
individual or two, whom he was the means of persuading, in the 
days of his flesh, to turn to God ; but perhaps a nation of converts 
to whom his self-denial, and, at the time, unpromising labour, 
had been the original means of bringing salvation !" 

The subject of this Memoir had the ha])piness of beholding a 
few, in one of the most benighted lands on the earth, gathered 
to the Saviour ; what the whole result of his labours, under the 
divine blessing, shall be, the judgment day will discover. 

William Bampton was born at Bourne, in Lincolnshire, in the 
year 1787, and was the son of parents in humble life. His first 
twelve years were spent under the parental roof; partly at 
Bourne, and at Thirlby, a neighbouring village, whither his parents 
had removed. He is described as having been, at this period, of a 
gay and volatile disposition, but strongly desirous of the acquisition 
of learning, in whicli he is stated to have made as much improve- 
ment as could be gained from the instructions of the village school 
masters, whose pupil he was. In his thirteenth year he left bis 
father's dwelling, and obtained a situation at Boston. Here, for 
some time, he continued negligent of the great interests of eternity ; 
but having been accustomed, with his parents, frequently to attend 
on the ministry of Mr. Binns, the Baptist Minister at Bourne, he 
was induced, at Boston, to attend on that of the late venerable 
Mr. W. Taylor, the Pastor of the General Baptist Church, whose 
instructions were happily rendered conducive to his eternal welfare, 
and whom he afterwards regarded as his father in the Gospel. 

How solemn and important are the events that, in this trans- 
itory state, occur within a few short years. The pious Minister, 



370 



\vhose instructions were thus sought, was then in the vigor of life, 
lie has since felt the decays of age, and descended to the tomb. 
The awakened youth, that inquired for the way of peace, has since 
become a Christian, a Minister, a INIissionary ; has taught others 
the way to heaven, and has, like his revered Instructor, finished 
his labours, and sunk into the grave. These are events that ex- 
tend an influence through the vast diiration of eternity. Thus 
viewed, how momentous such events appear, when crowded into 
a span of time. Under the Ministry of INIr. Taylor his young 
friend was directed to the atoning death of the Son of God, as the 
foundation of a sinner's hope. He learned that 

" Tliere is a fountain filled with blood, 

Drawn from Iiiniianuors veins ; 
And sinners plung'd beneath that flood, 

Lose all their guilty stains." 

Believing the ability and willingness of the Lord Jesus Christ 
to save to the uttermost, he sought peace in him, and found and 
enjoyed that peace which the world had never imparted, and which 
it could not take away. Having surrendered himself to the divine 
Saviour, he applied for baptism and communion with the church, 
and was cordially received into Christian fellowship. 

In 1808, " at the request of a member of the church, he com- 
menced preaching occasionally at Swineshead Fen houses near 
Boston," and in Jan. 1809, he was encouraged by the Church 
to exercise his talents for usefulness. In 1811 he took up his 
abode in the hospitable dwelling of the late Mr. J. Bissill, the 
Baptist Minister at Sutterton, who was then labouring under a 
protracted disease. There he continued for three years, being 
favoured with admirable opportunities for personal improvements, 
and ministerial usefulness. — On the recovery of Mr. Bissill's health, 
Mr. B. removed to Gosberton, when the writer first became ac- 
quainted with him in 1815. In 1818, he removed to Yarmouth 
in Norfolk, where the high resolve was formed, in the divine 
strength to devote himself to the missionary cause. After serious 
consideration, Mr. Bampton determined in Jan. 1820, to ofl'er him- 
self as a candidate for the Mission. So high was the estimation 
i"n which Mr. B. was held by his brethren, that on the receipt of 
his letter, offering to devote himself to missionary labours, a Com- 
mittee Meeting was immediately summoned. The Meeting was 
held Jan. 18, 1820, and he was unanimously received. On the 29th 
of May, 1821, the brethren Bampton and Peggs, with their wives, 



371 



in company with Messrs. "Ward, and Mack, Mis. Marshman, &c. 
sailed for India on board the Abbcrton. They touched at Madeira, 
landed at ^Madras, Sep. SoLh, and safely arrived at Serampore, Nov. 
loth, wlicre they were entertained with much hospitality and af- 
fection. Orissa having being fixed upon as the scene of labour, 
the brethren embarked at Calcutta for Cuttack, Jan. 20, 1822, 
and reached that city, Feb. 12. 

In Sep. 1823, Mr. Bampton removed to Pooree, the great scat 
of the Idolatry of Juggernaut. On this important step it has been 
remarked by one of his colleagues, — " After mature deliberation 
and prayer, he left Cuttack to form a new station at the temple 
of Juggernaut, distant fifty miles ; the great emporium of idolatry 
to Orissa, and the surrounding countries. This important and 
eventful step is thus noticed by the writer, in his journal ; — ' Sep- 
tember IGth, 1823; Monday. Yesterday brother B., determining 
to take advantage of water in the river, prepared to go to Pooree. 
The boat, with the furniture and books, was sent off" to-day, and iu 
the evening brother B. delivered his farewell sermon from, / am 
pure from the blood of all men. The attendance was considerable, 
and I felt the opportunity very impressive. The Lord give me 
grace to be faithful to the souls now left to my care, and succeed 
my brother in his new station. 

^^ September 17th. — Eventful day; about three o'clock this after- 
noon, brother and sister Bampton parted from us, with much feel- 
ing, to go to the new station at Pooree. The river was unexpec- 
tedly full of water, and they took the opportunity of going. May 
the Lord not only ' lengthen our cords,' but ' strengthen our stakes.' 
ISIay the complete triumph of Christianity over idolatry, at this 
' seat of Satan,' render the record of this fact, in the future history 
of CIn-iitian churches in India, peculiarly interesting, 

" The station of Juggernauih or Pooree, is one of peculiar 
difficulties and deep interest ; a blow at Idolatry here, will pr(jve 
*a blow at the root.' No man in India, with whose character the 
writer has had any acquaintance, was so well adapted for this ' high 
place' of superstftion, as the indefatigable Bampton. His firni, 
temperate, regular habits, and particularly his well-disciplined 
mind, rendered him peculiarly suitable to go on the forlorn hope, 
and plant the banner of the cross upon the battlements, or rather 
within the precincts, of Juggernaut's temple. A very inadequate 
idea can be conveyed of the singularly appallingaspect of this station. 
The few bungalows belonging to the Europeans, are built upon 
the sands which lie between the city and the mighty waters of the 



372 



bay of Bengal ; and four or five families, not unfrequently as 
many individuals, constitute the European society, during the 
principal part of the year. Here idolatry was found, regulated 
and pampered, by the mistaken policy of a Christian Government ! 
Happy day ! when Britain, in reference to Hindoo idols and their 
temples shall regard the divine admonition, ' Touch not, taste not, 
handle not /' The poverty, misery, sickness, death, and brutal 
exposure of the dead, here exhibited, were enough to appal any 
heart but that of a man well taught in the school of Christ, and the 
writer can scarcely forbear to add, accustomed to the scenes in the 
anatomical rooms of a London hospital ; yet in this ' Golgotha,' 
and this ' valley of the son of Hinnom,' from its numerous Suttees, 
did our departed brother and his estimable wife, of temper attun- 
ed to that of her beloved partner, reside from September 1823, to 
December 18150, when his labours closed by nobly falling upon 
the 'high places of the field.' Doubtless his 'reward is on high,' 
and his spirit, with those ' under the throne,' is crying, ' how long, 
OLord!'" 

Mr. Lacey, under date, Dec. 18 1830, describes the last, the 
closing scene. — " It seems to be my lot to bury our beloved 
dead, and to report their death and burial to you. It is now my 
painful duty to inform you of the death of our long affiicted and 
greatly loved Bampton ; yes, he is gone at last! gone to Jesus, 
whom having not seen he loved — gone to be with his Lord, and 
where He is, there is fulness of joy; — gone to receive the reward 
of his privations a:;d labours here — gone to hear the Redeemer say, 
'Well done, good and faithful servant; thou hast been faithful 
over a few things, I will make thee ruler over many, enter thou 
into the joy of thy Lord.' — Gone to join Charlotte Sutton, dear 
Joahua, and Brother AUsop, in glory ! — O! I can conceive of him 
now, having just emerged from the gloom of death into the light of 
life, surrounded with the light and glory of heaven — his Saviour 
smiles upon him — the glorified friends who loved him on earth, 
joyfully crowd around him to hear all the way through which he 
has been led to their bright abodes ; while adoring angels at dis- 
tance wondering stand ! ' O blessed interview, how sweet !' But 
let me leave him there, and relate to you some particulars of his 
latter end on earth. About the IGth, all the symptoms which in 
his complaint indicate the fatal termination of the disorder appeared, 
as short breathing, diarrhoea, shaking, and fainting fits; with an 
increase of the hectic fever. The diarrhoea and fever, reduced his 
little remaining strength amazingly fast. He was carried from his 



373 



study couch to his bed, that he might have more room. This was 
on the evening of the IGth; from seven o'clock that evening till 
near eleven, he slept soundly. About eleven be awoke, bad three 
attacks of diarrhoea, from the first two be was able to reasccnd bis 
bed by banging on Mrs. Bampton's neck ; but from the last his 
strength failed. However, with the help of a bearer she succeeded 
in getting him on the bed, from which be no more removed till 1 
removed him into his coffin. After be was laid on the bed, Mrs. ]?. 
supported him, and he laid bis head on her breast till she could 
sustain him no longer, and on bis looking towards the pillow, she 
gently laid him down upon it. His breathing now became shorter 
and shorter, till just about three o'clock on Friday morning the 
17tb, when be calmly breathed his last. He suffered no convul- 
sions whatever, but appeared to depart quite easily, insomuch that 
not one feature was distorted." 




TOMB OF THE REV. WILLIAM BAMPTON. 

Mr. Sutton thus briefly sketches the charater of this devoted man. 
" It may with truth be said of him, that 'be was a good man, 
and full of the Holy Ghost and of faith.' May all your mission- 



374 



aries be found at last with the spirits of Charlotte Sutton, of Crop- 
per, and of Bampton. So far as earnest, faithful, persevering 
labours for the salvation of the Hindoos can render a man worthy 
of our esteem, our admiration, and our imitation, Bampton ranks 
with the foremost of Christian philanthropists, and deserves to be 
had in everlasting remembrance. What he was as friend and brother, 
the hearts of his colleagues can best testify. But this I must add, 
than beneath an aspect and address less prepossessing than many, 
was contained the kindest heart, and the most exquisite sensibility 
that ever a friend displayed." 

Mrs. John Goadby. 

The Report of the Society for 1835 contains an interesting 
account of this departed friend, from a Calcutta Periodical, and 
pays a just tribute to lamented worth. — " Marianne Goadby was 
the eldest daughter of the Ilev. Robort Compton, of Isleham, in 
the county of Cambridge; she was born August 18th, 1809. 
At the age of seven she lost her mother, who died very suddenly ; 
at the age of fifteen, the care of three brothers and a sister devolved 
upon her, towards whom her conduct was such as to gain from all 
of them the most ardent attachment. They regarded her as sus- 
taining the place, and performing the offices, of their dearest 
relative. 

From early life her mind seemed directed to things of eternity, 
and, as her character was developed, it became evident to all who 
knew her, that she had been affected by the precepts and doc- 
trines of the gospel. Previous to her making a public profession 
of religion, she had been some years an active teacher in a sabbath 
school ; she was baptized by her father, and added to the church 
under his pastoral care about Midsummer, 1827, from which time 
to her leaving England, her exertions became more general and 
extensive; distributing religious tracts, visiting the sick and dying, 
reading and praying with them, conversing with female candidates : 
in short, she was engaged in all those acts of piety and mercy 
which are proper for an active and devoted female. 

In every department of her work she was the same zealous and 
indefatigable Christian ; rain and cold were never obstacles in her 
way, if duty, or a prospect of being able to speak for Christ, led 
the Avay ; and v.heu asked wliy she exposed herself so much, she 
would answer, " That others may not be more exposed. Should 
my fear of getting wet and taking cold, or suffering a little incon- 



vpnienco for a short time, prevent iiic from (lischai-ging my duty, 
and doing my Master's work ( 1 think not, nor shall it, while I 
can go aboiit." At the age of eighteen, her mind was directed 
to the heathen world by reading the Memoirs of ^Irs, Newell ; 
this subject for a time engrossed nearly the whole of her attention, 
until she came to the settled determination, should ever Providence 
open a way, that she would embark in the good and great work. 
"When talking on missionary subjects, the question was started, 
Should you like to engage in that arduous work ? She answered, 
lier countenance beaming with divine benevolence, " Were I 
qualified, and had au opportunity, nothing would delight mc so 
much." 

Not till several months after tlie acquair.tancc between her and 
he» now bereaved husband was formed, did she know that he had 
any desire on tlie subject ; when she knew, her desire never 
varied; she would often say, "If this desire has been imparted 
from above, God will doubtless opeiF a way for our going ; to the 
present period I have all the evidence I desire, for he has directed 
to me one wliose desires arc like my own, though I knew it not at 
tlie time." 

She was married on the 9th of May, 1S33, and on the 9lh July 
bid a final farewell to the shores of her beloved country. Her only 
object was to promote the glory of God and the eternal welfare of 
the deluded heathen ; no other object could have reconciled her to 
])reaking her earliest tics, and quitting without hope of return the 
land of her birth. 

"With feelings of peculiar pleasure she hailed her approach to the 
shores of India; full of anxiety to commence those studies which 
w-ere requisite for future uscfidness ; high in hope of being the 
means, directly or indirectly, of alleviating distress and exhibiting 
the Lord Jesus as the only Saviour, to some of the wretched inhab- 
itants of this wretched land. But alas ! how shorted-sighted are 
the children of men ; she landed at Calcutta on the loth of Novem- 
ber, and in less than eight months was numbered with the dead. 
Consumption, that always flattering and fatal disease, made its ap- 
pearance in January. In her breast the spoiler nestled too firmly 
to be removed by any means art and experience could suggest ; she 
gradually sunk under its influence, her vivacity left her, and gave 
place to a not unpleasant melancholy — a melancholy such as they 
feel who know they are declining to the tomb, and have nothing to 
fear for the future ; but whose dejection, if it can bear the name, is 

2 z 



'6 



for the dear friends they arc leaving to mourn in this vale of tears.. 
Such was hers ; she feared not, nor mourned for herself, hut for her 
beloved husband, and friends at home ; but even this was mixed 
with hope of meeting them again in a better and infinitely happier 
world. 

During the last six weeks of her life she conversed very little ; 
her voice was quite gone, and she spake only in whispers ; her 
cheeks became flushed, and pulse quick and feeble. Daily she 
grew weak-er till the 7th of July ; about mid-day on the 12th, she 
suddenly became worse. Towards evening she became delirious, 
but still continued at lucid intervals, to recognise all who were 
about her. On the 13th, the longest interval of sanity was about 
eleven o'clock, and it continued but little more than a quarter of 
an hour ; during this time her husband told her, that her end was 
near ; she was quite happy and resigned^ haxl no doubt to becloud, 
and no fear to terrify her mind, but expressed her willingness to 
die, her confidence in the atoning blood of Christ, and her assur- 
ance that God would support her in the moment of dissolution. 
Her happy spirit took its flight to the regions of unclouded glory 
at 7 P, M. In labours, in practice, in perseverance, in piety^ 
and in devotion to the work of the Lord, she was a pattern worthy 
of imitation. " There is no person," said a pious young minister,. 
*■' whose removal from the church would be an equal loss, her 
father excepted ; her equal in labour, perseverance, and usefulness- 
will not be left behind," 

Mrs. Stubbins. 

Mrs. Stubbins was a native of Wisbeach, Cambridgeshire, and 
accompanied her husband as a missionary to India, in the summer 
of 183G. One fact is mentioned indicative of her zeal ; " previously 
to leaving the ship, Mrs. Stubbins collected Ten Pounds for the 
mission." — Short as was her course there is very pleasing evidence 
of her usefulness. On arriving in India she addressed the follow- 
ing letter to her mother, but she had then departed this life, 
having died at Whittlesey, Nov. 14, 1836. She was thus spared 
the pain connected with the arrival of such intelligence. Mrs. 
Goadby was similarly favoured iu reference to the death of her 
father. 

" Calciiila, Jan. Vlih, 1837, 

" My very dear Mother, 

"It is now six months since I saw you, and doubtless you have 
Ivad many anxious thoughts concerning me, and have been ready to say, 



377 



Anne lias forgotten me. But ivot so ; and never, till tliis pulse sli.ill cease 
to bout, and these now active limbs be still in death, shall I forget you. 
No : a mother's name is alwaj's new. I hope, ere this, you have recovered 
from your alHietion, and ean say with the Psalmist, ' It is good for me 
that I was alHicted.' 

" On the 6th of August we left England, in the hope of reaching India's 
shoi-es, with a nice breeze in our favour ; but 1 soon began to be affected 
"with the sickness from the constant motion of the ship, and continued 
in a sickly state five or six weeks. J>ut it was a mercy, for which 1 
felt very thankful, that Mr. S. suH'ered so little, tliat he was not prevented 
ivaiting iipon me the whole time. We have indeed been the subjects of 
many mercies, and, through tlie goodness of (nu"'C)od upon us, we arrived 
at Calcutta in health and happiness, on the 4th of January. Our voyage 
was long but pleasant, not having ex])erienced either storm or gale. The 
passengers were extremely kind : there were eight ladies onboard, and 
most of them made me very handsonn' presents : their kiiidness opened 
my way for ])leading that cause which I have espoused, and which 1 trust 
will ever lie nearest to my heart. One young lady ap])eared under 
rcry serious impressions ; may the Lord deepen them, and may she be 
converted. 

" We touched at the Cape — spent six days there, and enjoyed them very 
much. We boarded with a member of Dr. P. 's church; she is a most 
amiable woman. Mr. S. preached twieo on the sabbath ; but I cannot 
tell you how much I enjoyed meeting with christian friends, and in the 
sanctuary of the Lord, having been deprived of it for ten weeks. I was 
much delighted to see a number of the sable tribe sitting attentively to 
hear what the Lord had to say unto their souls. O that the time may 
soon arrive when all natii»HS sliall know tlie Lord. I feel sometimes 
ready to sink under the responsibility which lies upon me : may that God 
in whom I trust grant me grace and strength ec^ual to my daj'. I cannot 
describe to yon the sensation I felt at the first sight of the natives of India. 
Tiiey approached the ship in boats apparently ready to sink, and them- 
selves almost naked. O what a degraded condition! Christian friends, 
send thcin the Ciospel to change their inward and outward man : cotdd 
you but see them you would notecase to i)ray and strive fVn- them. Mr. 
Brooks has just come in. O how delightful to meet a dear christian bro- 
ther and fellow labourer in a foreign land: he resides at Midnapore, about 
seventy miles from Calcutta. In a few days more we shall accompany 
them home, when I hope to see our dear sister B. And nov\', my dear 
niothtr, I commend you to (iod, praying that his presence may be with 
you in life, in deatii, and for ever. 1 intreat also an interest in your 
prayers, tliat the gooil Lord nray establish the work of our hands, and 
nuike us a blessing to uuiny. • • • 

Your aflectionate daughter, 

Annb Stuebins." 

Mr. (loadby remarks, — "' During the whole of her afflictions, which 
were heavy, slie manifested the greatest patience and resignation ; not a 
murmur esca])ed her lips. Sometimes she woidd exclaim, ' Oh riij- head, 
my head ! ' but she was, throughout the whole, uniformly peaceful aiul 
happy. Her ccmlidence was strong and unshaken — her hope bright and 
cloudless to the last. She was much engaged in prayer, and her expres- 
sions of confidence in God, and submission to liis will, were of the most 
pleasing kind. Our hopes of her recovery were never entirely gone until 
three boms before her death, when she appeared to sink very ra^ndly, but 
was still calm and peaceful, and said, with peculiar emphasis, 'The Lord 
is my help and my shield he is my strong tower,' and then, peaceful awd 



378 

noiseless as tlie falling dew, hex- redeemed spirit left its worn-out taberna- 
cle to join the glorious assembly above. Death assumed his least repul- 
sive form, and while we hung over, watching with painful and intense 
anxiety, we could not help feeliug, ' Let my end be like hers.' 

Mr. Sutton observes, — " My dear wife and I had been fondly cherishing 
the idea of welcoming them to a participation in our labours and trials at 
Cuttack. Wc had prepared our house for them, their goods and furniture 
had arrived, for they were to be stationed with us, when, as they ludted at 
Balasore, sister Stubbins was attacked with fever : slic lingered for about 
a fortnight in a most happy and peaceful state of mind, and then gently 
died in Jesus, on the Sabbath. Tlius all our fond anticipations are cutoif, 
and our plans again frustrated, at least to human api)earance ; and yet I 
have had too much experience in the results of these atllictive dispensa- 
tions, not to know that God is often most favorable to our l)est hopes when 
he seems most adverse, and most kind when he appears to be most severe. 
Let not our friends despond, but still 'Onward, onward,' and so much 
the more as we see the day approaching. 

" The words of Scripture have been much on my mind since this event 
first appeared probable : 'And his servants shall serve him.' Do they not 
seem to say, ' Mourn not that 1 have removed your aiiectionate iVHow- 
labonrer ; I have another vineyard, and there, in a liiglier grade of ser- 
vice, I have appointed your sister to serve mc. 'I'liink not then all is lost; 
far, far from this ; did you know all, you would see that very nuich is 
gained.' This, dear hrotlier, is another call to live and labour yet more 
diligently, seeking that honor which cometh from God only : so shall it 
be said, ' Well done, good and faithful servant.' 

" You will doubtless pray for, and sympathise with, our afllicted bro- 
ther : we expect a mournful meeting with the solitary widower, instead 
of a hajjpy greeting with the beloved wife and husband. To my wife es- 
l)ecially, this is a heavy disajipointment : she is much over-worked, and 
])as never yet been permitted to have a sister to labour with her. But not 
our will, but our Father's be done." 

The Society's Report for 1838 contains mucli valuable informa- 
tion in reference to our departed sister, pp. 3 — G. 



Mr. Grant. 

In the armies of Immanuel, as well as those of earthly 
Ijrinces, there arc soldiers of various degrees, both as to their rank, 
their success, and the period of their service. As none who enlist 
under the banners of the cross, and are laudably andntions to 
take the "high places" in the field, can possibly be excluded from 
public notice, a record of their names, and their spirit, even 
though they fall in the first onslaught, is due both to them, and 
the glorious cause to which they were devoted. Of this class, 
was the subject of this brief memoir. Though he was in the 
mission field for the short space of twelve months, he fairly en- 
tered on his work, and is now to be numbered with the honoured 



379 



names of those who have borne the (Jospcl to the benighted 
inhabitants of Orissa. 

Thomas Grant was born at the village of Biu^bage, near Hinek- 
ley, lieicestershire, Jan. 2o, 1817. His parents were in thehninbler 
M'alks of life, but his mother, whose maiden name was Clarke, 
appears to have been respectably edncatcd. At the age oi thirteen 
he was apprentieed in his native village. His Master was a Wes- 
leyan, and Thomas was led by him to worship. Abont the age 
of sixteen he became united with that body of christians, and after 
a short time began to preach. 

" I believe, (says one of his friends,) almost immediately after 
his conversion, he received a powerful impression, that the great 
head of the Church designed him for the work of the Ministry, and 
it appeared as though he could scarcely have lived did he not 
preach or promote the salvation of sinners in some way or other ; 
and to the momentous work of saving- souls he was soon called, 
not only by God, but also by his Church. But, before he was 
formally called to the work by the church, he did, in a sense, 
preaeli the Gosjiel every day ; for he warned all who came in his 
way, of the folly and danger of sin, and earnestly and affectionately 
cxhorted them to flee to Christ, as their only refuge from eternal 
death. And such v/as his zeal, such his solicitude to do good, that 
in less than twelvemonths, he was put upon the plan of the Wes- 
leyan preachers in the Hinckley circlut, as a Local Preacher. The 
first time he went out to preach, I went with him. He commen- 
ced the great work in which he expired, on Clu-istmas day, at 
Sharnford, a village about three miles from Hinckley. His text 
was "God is love;" and considering it was the first time, he 
preached with liberty and enhirgemuHt. I heard him several times 
after, and thongli I did not think he possessed first-rate abilities, 
I was (jiiite convinced he was calculated to be useful." 

Mr. GiiuU's views on the subject of baptism, became decidedly 
opposed to tho?,e entertained by the Wcsleyaji body, and he, with 
his master, united themselves to the General Baptist Church at 
Hinckley, and were baptized Aug. 7, IHoG; after this, his ven- 
erable pastor states, " He continued to preach, and v/as well- 
beloved for his steadiness, as well as his punctual attendance on 
divine worship. His character was good. He was a pious young 
man, industrious, and for his opportunity, assiduous in learning." 
He soon manifested a desire to become a Missionary, and was 
received by the Committee in the latter end of 1840. He took 
for his companion in life. Miss lloss of his native village, to whom 



380 



iie was married in May, 1841. On tlic first of June, he was 
solemnly set apart to his work, at the Stoney Street Chapel, 
Nottingham; on the 17th of the same month, he bid farewell to 
his friends in England ; and on the 2Gtli of the following Novem- 
ber, the " Pekiii," cast anchor, in the Iloogly near Calcutta. 

With commendable diligence, and considerable success, Mr. 
Grant applied himself to the study of Oreah, after his arrival at 
the missionaiy Station at Cuttack. He frequently visited the 
bazar, with brother Lacey, and in the Autumn of 1842, went a 
missionary tour with brother Wilkinson, and two or three native 
preachers. Before he returned home, Mr. Grant had symptoms 
of illness. On January 23rd, 1843, he was so far recovered as 
to preside at the Lord's table, and deliver a short address in Oreah. 
He afterwards visited a Hindoo festival with the native preachers ; 
but, on Thursday, January 30, he was again afflicted. On Tues- 
day, recourse was had to more decided medical treatment, and he 
appeared to rally. But on Saturday, February 4th, he was sud- 
denly seized with the pains of death, and in about half-an-hour, 
ills liberated spirit M'inged its way to the regions of the blessed. 

Thus, when he was entering on his saered work, and the pros- 
pect of extensive usefulness was before him, Mr. Grant was taken 
from his labors, and another breach was made amongst our already 
too weakened Missionary band ! May the Lord who does all things 
well, stimulate our Churches to increased zeaJiind devotedness iu 
his cause, and raise up amongst us a succession of devoted Mission- 
aries, who shall be his witnesses to the cuds of the earth ! 

The Report of 1843 contains Mrs. G's. account of her bereave- 
ment, and Mrs. Lacey 's testimony to the value of this di'parted 
labourer in the Lord's vineyard. Mr. Lacey writes, — " Brother 
Grant was a devoted Missionary ; and, except on the score of his 
health, he pronnscd to be useful. His acquisition of the language 
was not rapid, but very correct ; every letter he could, and did 
properly ])ronounce. He had just commenced to address the 
people. He did not venture into large crowds, but conversed 
with six, or eight, or ten, on the subject of Christianity. He had 
also commenced liis labours in the instruction of the christian 
natives; and his address was understood, and liked. He had for 
some months, exerted himself in distributing tracts, and had 
given away some thousands. He has been permitted to sow some 
seed, which, by the divine blessing, may hereafter spring up and 
bring forth mucli fiuil. O that this may prove to be the case." 



38: 



Mns, Piiir.Lirs. 

We have seen that the American brunch of the Orissa Mission \ra5? 
first located at Snnibulporc. At tlie beginninpj the prospect was 
encouraging, but lieavy afllictions befel tlie infant mission, nnd 
it was ultimately abandoned. Balasore was tlien fixed i\])on 
as the scene of its operations. At Sumbulpore tlic infant of Mrs. 
Noyes died, and afterwards Mrs. Phillips. Tixe writer regrets 
that he has no account from her friends of her missionary course. 
The only infoniiation posessed is a short account appended to 
a letter of Mr. Sutton's, to Mrs. John Goadby, dated Cuttack 
Nov. 11, 1837. Ke says, — "Oar Sumbulpore friends have been 
very ill, and when just recovering their little girl was suddenly 
taken from them. Since then Mrs. Phillips has finisht;d her short 
course, a few days after a premature confinement. Poor Phillips 
seems greatly afflicted, and I rather expect, they will all come 
down to Cuttack for a season. Thus a dark cloud is passing over 
the brightning prospects of that long neglected region. Poor 
wretched, degraded, oppressed land. AMieu shall the day of its 
visitation dawn .'' Is it to be now ? So I hoped ; but it is now 
hoping against hope. Yet I expect there would be great good 
done in that neighbourhood could the friends prosecute their 
labours. The people listen well, and Doitaree is very respectfully 
treated. Our friends in Calcutta are as bad off for labourers as we 
are. I cannot help thinking that the Baptist Society acts wickedly, 
in leaving their few men to sink into the grave neglected and un- 
aided, while, to gratify a very questionable public sentiment, 
they send all their men and means to the West Indies. It is just 
so much practical infidelity." 

Mrs. Bachelor. 

Mrs. Bachelor, the wife of the American Missionary at Jellasore, 
died Jan. 20th, 1845. See an affecting account of her career in 
the General Baptist Repository, 1845, p. 251. 



SIr. Allsop and Mrs. Hudson. 

There are two more names dear to tlie friends of Missionaries in 
our ehuiehes, which cannot be omitted in this record. It does not 
full within the limits of this History to give an account of the West 



382 

India Mission, mul therefore, Avitlv great reluctance, hnt witli reeliiu-s 
of niucli afTection to tlie memory of his beloved brother-in-law, and 
of the wife of our valued IMissionary now in China, he can do no 
more than refer to their interesting Memoirs by the Secretary of 
the Society, in the G. Baptist Rcpos. 1831 and 1833. May their 
children possess a ' double portion of their spirit.' 

The Apostle Paul when recounting the deeds of departed saints, 
exclaimed — " And what shall I more say ? for the time would fail 
me to tell of Gidc^on and Barak, and Samson and Jephtha, David 
also, and Samuel and the Prophets ?" Thus the author is arrested 
in his labours, and much as he loves the memory of his departed 
friends, he finds it impossible here to present their memoirs and 
obituaries, though he had sketched many of them. Grateful is the 
memory of Messrs. R,ennell and Baptist, Abraham the first native 
preacher, and Luckshmeebie, the wife of Ramachundra, Purama, 
Dalimba, Scnjama, Cassia, Suttura, Lockindas, &c. It was once 
asked in a Missionary Meeting, rather abruptly, but very forcibly, 
by Mr. Rogers, of Fleet — ■" //ow do they die ? Tell vs how the// 
die." Well is it said — "Ask death beds, they can tell." Their 
simple, touching narratives, demonstrate the power of the Gospel 
to support the Hindoo in his conflict with " the last enemy." 
Surely we may adopt the language of the poet Lawson, in his 
* Dying scene of the converted Bengalee," to several of the dear 
departed in Orissa. 



" O, born too soon to die ! ea^er to quit 
This mortal state, careless of all its blaiulishments ! 
Tired, not ef thy new life, but of its ills. 
'J'ho wreck of thy old nature : thou aspircdst 
To lieaven to see thy Lord so lately known. 
Enough to say of tliee, thou livedst a life 
Worthy thy Christian name, and diedst a dealli, 
(Oh, may 1 die like thee) so calm, so still — 
' Twas imperceptible ! It came upon tliee 
Like tlic sweet dream of lieaven, it caught thy soul, 
And drew thee gently from the fading regions. 
Stealing the breath that wliispered the last hymn 
Of praise fo Him whose mercy saved thy soul. 
"J'was night, 'i'he moon was in her coiu'sc, and blest 
With her fair glimmerings the wreathy cloud 
'J'hat hung about her, and the breathless air 
l"'ound 11(1 distnrl)aiice, when they dug a grave 
And laid him there. They loved him well, and wept 
And hojied that soon (for fhey were Christians too) 
Tliemselves should lie beside him, and await 
The blessed judgment day." 



383 



The writer has felt miicli in erecting this monument to the me- 
mory of his departed friends in Orissa, and tears have flowed copi- 
ously, while he has been inscribing their names upon it. There is 
yet space for other names, and a thought has glided through his 
mind, — would it not be interesting both in this country and in 
India, to record the names of llie departed friends and supporters of 
the Mission? But how can this be done? His space will not 
allow him to do it ; his knowledge of the extent of the missionary 
spirit in the churches of our ' half tribe of Israel' is unequal to the 
task. The prevalence of the missionary spirit has been too exten- 
sive, deep, and effective, and many now sleep in Jesus whose names 
are and were to ' fortune and to fame unknown.' To discriminate, 
where so many have done well, is a very delicate and diflicult duly. 
But their ' record is on high,' and the ' day shall declare' their love 
to Christ, their pity for the heathen, and the result of their labours 
for their good. The founders of the New Connexion deserve the 
first and most honored place in this record, viz. — Messrs. Taylors, 
Deacons, Tarratt, Smith, Thompson, Grimley, Donisthorpe, &c. &c. 
See the History of the General Baptist Denomination, by A. Taylor, 
2 vols. 8vo., and J. Taylor's Statistics of the G. B. Churches, 1844. 
They possessed a missionary spirit, and were in ' labours more 
abundant,' though the state of the church required their energies to 
be employed at home, to be, as of old, ' a repairer of the breach, a 
restorer of paths to dwell in.' Mr. A. Taylor, in his history de- 
scribes the character of these fathers of the Connexion. Truly, 
* other men have laboured, and we have entered into their labours.'* 

The example given by the other part of the Baptist Denomina- 
tion had doubtless considerable influence upon the churches of this 
Connexion, and when Mr. Fuller declined the proposal to form a 
Society to be supported by both parts of the Denomination, Mr. 
Pike felt no rest in his spirit till the General Baptists came up ' to 
the help of the Lord, to the help of the Lord against the mighty.' 
In 1809 a letter upon the subject was read at the Association at 
Quorndon. INlr. Frceston of Hinckley, spoke of it in ternis of liigh 
commendation, and Mr. B. Pollard of Quorndon, we have seen, is 
stated to have said — "he could almost have sold his coat from his 
back for the missionary cause." The writer cherishes an affection- 
ate recollection of interviews with Mr. Felkin of Kegworth, and 
Mr. J. Deacon of Leicester in 1820, and particularly of the hospi- 

* See Manasseh, pp. 41 -3. 
A 3 



3S4- 



tality of the latter, and his lively interest in the missionary cause' to 
■ivhich he was then devoted. Mr. A. Taylor, the editor of the 
Repository , speaking of the formation of the Missionary Society at 
Boston, Lincolnshire, in June 1816, states — " The zeal and liber- 
ality displayed at these meetings yfeve highly encouraging, and 
afford good ground to hope well of the future success of this infant 
institution. As the noble efforts made by others,, for carrying the 
religion of Jesus to the benighted nations of the heathen have al- 
ways claimed the peculiar attention of the Editor of this Miscellany, 
it will certainly afford him greater pleasure to record the progress 
and success of the General Baptist Mission ; and he trusts that the 
transactions of this Society will give additional interest to his future 
numbers." It is an interesting circumstance, that the venerable 
Founder of the Connexion, the Rev. Dan Taylor, then in his 78lh 
year, presided at the Association when the Society was formed, and 
thus lived to see the dawn of foreign missionary operations among 
his people, He was invited to preside at " a general meeting of all 
the London Ministers," in reference to the persecution of the Pro- 
testants in the south of France, on Nov. 21, 1816. This was his 
last public service : in five days afterwards, he ' rested from his 
labours.' It is enough to say of him — ' His praise is in all the 
churches.' 

When the Society was enabled to commence actual operations by 
the ordination and departure of its missionaries to India *in 1821, 
the zeal of its friends, both lay and ministerial, male and female, 
was highly encouraging. The ordinatiojis of the first Missionaries 
at Loughborou