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The Sacred Memory of 


About two decades back the historians had no knowledge 
of the Bhauma suzerain power of Orissa. During the recent 
years a large number of inscriptions of the Bhauma family 
have been edited by different scholars ; moreover Professor 
Sylvan Levi has brought to light an interesting event of the 
Bhauma age. But the problems connected with the said 
family have remained so far undiscussed. Therefore a 
discussion on the said problems has been initiated in this 
monograph ; and for easy comprehension of the subject by 
the readers the texts and translations of almost all the 
published Bhauma records have been given in the following 
pages along with those of three unpublished plates. 

I regret to draw the attention of the readers to the fact 
that the Hindi numerical figures have been used in the 
transliterations of texts to serve the purpose of signs of foot- 
notes since no better alternative could be provided by 
the press. 

In conclusion I acknowledge my indebtedness to Pandit 
Nilakantha Das M. A., who corrected the translation of some 
Slokas. My thanks are also due to my friend Mr. Paramananda 
Acharya B. Sc., who rendered me occasional help to bring out 
this work. 


H-l-34 . | B< MISKA 


SECTION I (Inscriptions) 


A Neulpur Plate of ubhakaradeva ... 1 

B Chaurasi Plate of Sivakaradeva ... 8 
C Ganea Gumpha Inscription of Santikaradeva's Time 10 
D Dhauli Cave Inscription of gantikaradeva's Time 11 

E Hindol Plate of ubMkaradeva ... 12 

F Dharakota Plate of gubhakaradeva ... 21 

G Dhenkanal Plate of Tribhuvanamahadevi 23 

H Talcher Plate of ubhakaradeva ... 32 

I Talcher Plate of ivakaradeva ... 4,0 

J Talcher Plate of ^ivakaradeva ... 51 

K Angul Plate of Dharmamahadevi ... 52 

L -Gan jam Plate of Dandimah&devi ... 57 

M Ganjam Plate of Dandimahadevi ... 59 

N Kumurang Plate of Dandimahadevi ... 60 

SECTION II (Historical Notes) 

A Chronology of the Kings ... 68 

B Chronological Table ... 7l 

C Dates of Plates ... 72 

D Origin of the Bhauma Family 80 

E Extent of the Bhauma Kingdom 84 

F Captital of the Bhauma Kingdom 87 

G Language and Literature ... 90 

H Art and Architecture ... 91 

I Price of Bice ... ... 92 

J Religion ... ... 93 

K "R ft v mi 11 * and Administration ... 

Additions & Corrections. 

Page I, line 11, for Paduma read Padma. 

9> 1* 17, for Maharaja read Maharaja. 

4, 6, for *RGf read qg? 

7, 3, for TOqjjFt read fl<|q$3 

7, foot-note (16), for efflgfc: read 

7, add. (23) Read 

8, line 12, for to the pravaras Vaijjvanara read to the Katyayanaa Gotra 

with the pravaras VaiiSvanara, 
12, 1S 9 for JS^lo read Noddtflo. 
12, 23, for devide read divide, 

12, 27, for dillapidation read dilapidation. 

13, 18, for Vendrakataka read Tendrataka. 

13, 33, for Augalread Angul. 

14, ,, 3, for <R5FZ*TFT read 

16, 11, for qrrr?T* read 

17, 9 for Guhesvara rm^Guhadeva. 
21, 22, for anupravara read anitpravara. 

23, ^, add The plate is now deposited in the Patna museum, 
23, 16, add The donor was styled as Paramamahesvuri Paramabbn^T- 
rika Mnharajadhiraja-Paramefevari. 

27, foot-note, put f in place o/* and vice versa. 

28, 34, for stircase read staircase*. 

29, 1, f or lilly read lily. 

29, foot-note, line 5, for skillful read skilful. 

34, line 9, for 3rd read 2nd. 

34, 15, for numeral read numerical. 

38, 24, /or diapella read dispels. 

42, 5, for Kubeda read Kavade. 

45, 7, for f^if !!& read ^Pf >rt^lWR*4l\ Slfe 

52, 8, for measure read measures. 

53, 9, for ?3R: read SR 
61, 5, omit and. 

61, 15, for Mahakale&vara read KaleSvara. 
1, 18, for Kaiimtasara readKariintsam. 

71, foot-note, /or Paramahe,4vara rcarf Paramamaheisvqiti. 

72, 23, for prabable read probable. 

77, 27, for Kayakubja read Kanyakubja. 
82, line 8, /or west read east. 





( YEAR 54, ) ' 

This plate, measuring 17" in length and 7" to 7" 
in breadth, was found among some old records of the Zamindar 
family of Darpan Estate in the Cuttack district and is now 
deposited in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. The late Professor 
R. D. Banerjee edited it in the Epigraphia /n</fca, Vol. XV 
(pp. 1-8), 

The orthography of this plate is very interesting ; for, a 
good number of Sanskrit words have been written in it after 
the fashion of Oriya pronunciation (cf . Third in /. 18, Pruoa 
in /. 23 and Paduma in /. 24, written for sihira, p&rooa and 
Padtima respectively). 

This plate was issued from Guhadevapataka, which has 
been wrongly read as ubhadevapataka by the late Mr.Baiierjee. 

Paramop&wka Ksemahkaradeva's grandson and Para- 
matathagata >'ivakaradeva's son Paramasauga ta fc'ubhakara- 
deva is the donor of this plate. He is styled simply as 

The donor is said to have quelled some disturbance, 
caused by his kinsmen, who wrongfully claimed the throne 


( //. 3 4 ). Again it is stated that Ksemankaradeva, the 
grandfather of the donor placed castes in their proper duties 

The plate was issued on the day 10,3=13 of waning 
moon of Margasirsa in the year 50,4=54. The first of the 
two figures of the day is expressed by a symbol, which has 
been interpreted as 20 by the late Banerjee. His interpreta- 
tion is untenable, first, because the number of days of a 
fortnight does not exceed 15 and secondly, this symbol fully 
resembles, in form, that, denoting 10, given in col. 3 of plate 
LXIII in the Prac'na-lipi-mala by Gaurishankar Hirachand 

The first of the two figures of the year is expressed 
also by a symbol, which succeeds the letter mva of samoa. 
The late Banerjee read this symbol as t to get the word samoat, 
But he had not compared the form of it with that of /, found 
in /. 1 of this plate (cf. t in patakat). The former form is 
quite different from the latter one. Dr. Bhandarkar has 
rightly observed that a numerical symbol and not the letter 
/ succeed* the letter moa of this plate. * But the inter- 
pretation of this symbol, suggested as 200 by him, does not 
appear to be accurate. In the light of the form of symbol, 
representing 50, found in the Tekkali plates of Danarnnava's 
son Indravarman, edited by Dr. Hultzsch, t the symbol, 
in question, can be interpreted as 50. The perpendicular 
stroke of the former symbol is quite straight, while that of 
the latter one is slightly curved ; otherwise there is no 
difference between the forms of these two symbols. 

The village Komparaka in the Panc&la visaya and the 
Tillages Dandanki and Yoka in the Vubhyujjlaya vka$a in 

* Eplgraphia Indica, Vol. XX (appendix) p. 248, foot-note 6 

} EpigrapWa Indica, Vol. XVIII, p. 310, L. 30 (plate i i i a, 1. 30) 

Northern Tosali were granted to two hundred Brahmins* 
Dandanki and Toka were combined as one village under the 
name of Salonapura. The late Banerjee interpreted that 
Dandankiyoka was one village and it was combined with 
Komparaka. The expression in the plate is Komparaka-grdma- 
(h*) Daydanki-Yoka-gramau. It implies that Kompfeaka 
is one village and Pandanki and Toka are two villages. If we 
accept the learned editor's interpretation that only two villages 
are mentioned, then it would appear that these villages were 
not included in one oisaya since two vis ay as have been mention- 
ed. In that case the combination of two villages belonging to 
two different uisayat |s improbable. Hence we can assume that 
three villages (two belonging to the same visaya) are mentioned. 

Mahaksa-pataladhikaran-adhikrta Samudradatta was the 
Dutaka of this plate. It was written by Mahaksapatalika 
Bhogi Brahmadatta, heated by peUapala $?&r&yana and 
engraved by Edadatta. 

The identifications of places, mentioned in this plate, are 
given below. 

Komparaka (in paroata-droni i.e., the valley of the hills) 
LKupari (20-l7"N, 86-25 ; E) in the Baiasore district. 
It is worth mentioning that Kupari lies in the close proximity 
of a hill and some Buddhist sculptures, dating back to the 
9th century A. D., are found there. 

Pancala-u/soya L Fancamala pergenna in the Baiasore 

Salonapura (the name, given to two combined villages 
i and Yoka) L Solanapura (20 -53% 66 - W*^) on 

the north bank of the Vaitarani near Jajpur. The donees 
settled in this village. The relics of antiquarian interest are 
now found at Solanapura. Again the majority of population 
of this village js* formed by the Bfahmins. 

Vul&yndaya /.Baghui^i (20 -54^, 88 d -30 v Ea about 
15 miles north-east of Jajpur. 




Represented by symboL t Another f| is superfluous, 
(2) The editor read VKHMMWI ; see E. L Vol % XX (appendix) 
p246 f Foot note 5 for correct reading (3) The plate 
(4) Read X (5) Read tt (6) Bead 99 (7) Read 

i awJIwimfr i mftrorfo i 

i ft i "itfu^ifr i f^(3|*n i *M **nfa i igira **ifa i 
i sftwnfo i n^fca i iW6kPi i 

I -l^F^^ I fR I ^q^ I *Rpll 1 

^nft i y^kawif*! i ^nfsfHn^iw i *fg^^i i *^*i*^ i 
i -5trc*rfri ifi^i^nf^i ft5i'raTPT i 

I Wl I ^F^l I 

I **gR|M4<^ I ^IlP^^iiS, f I ftiMlft f I 

i -^^r* i gffi^ir# i TO$rosn* i 

i it 1 Pw'wnt i 

i *ita&rerr[frtt] i 



(8) Eead (9) 

(10) Bead Rft ^WI (11) Bead ^ (12) Read 


I ^fti^i! [ft*] I Mf&4CW| [ft#] i 

i qwwpir{ftr*] i f***J* i nq^r* i 
i *CWRI[^*] i g^Karlfo* i 

I *W4l I 


i jOTi i 

(10) Bead Hr (U) Read 

(15) WIPI <nn(t begins from this word, 

(16) Read emfo: (17) Head t 
(18) Reader , (19) Read * 
(20) Read*?, (21) Superfluons. 
(22) Bead (t) 

( YEAR 73 ) 

This plate was unearthed in a sugarcane field at 
Chaurasi in the Sadar subdivision of the Puri district. 
Mr, Narayana Tripathi, B. A. edited it in the Journal of Bihar 
and Omsa Research Society, Vol, XIV (pp. 292306.) 

It was issued from Guhadevapatika. ivakaradeva [II], 
the son of Mah&rajadhiraja Bubhakaradeva and of the queen 
Madhavidevi and the grandson of Maharaja ^ivakaiadava [I] 
and of the queen Jayavalidevi was the donor. He belonged 
to the Bhauma lineage of the Utkala family and was styled as 
Parama-bhattaraka, Maharajadhiraja and Paramesvara. 

The village Vuvi-ada in the Antarudra otsaya in Daksina 
To.sali was granted to Jalubhatta, belonging to the praoaras 
Vaisvanara and Mitrakothakhilla of the Egveda. 

The places, mentioned in this plate, can be identified 
as follows : 

Vuvrada L Buhuruda (19-10"N, 85-58*B) about 
10 miles north-east of Puri. 

Antarudra Z. An tarodha, a fergenna in the Sadar sub- 
division of Puri. 

The plate was heated and written by Harivarddhana, a 
resident of Viraja, which has been misread as Chiraja by 
Mr.Tripathi. He reads also taslakara instead of taptakara 
in 7 t 14 of the second side of the plate. 

The plate was issued on the 12th day of the dark fort- 
night of Karttika in the year 70,3 (73). It is worth mention- 


ing that the numeral 70 has been expressed by a symbol. 
Mr. Tripathi interprets this symbol as 10. 

It should be noted here that different symbols were 
used in different countries to express one and the same 
numeral. In some cases different numerals in different 
countries were expressed also by one and the same symbol. 
(oiJe, Biihler's Table IX). But it is not probable at all that 
one symbol was used to denote different numerals nor that 
one numeral was expressed by different symbols in one and 
the same country. The symbol, used in Orissa, for express- 
ing 10 is found in the preceding plate. This symbol differs, 
in form, from that of the present plate. Therefore I am 
inclined to interpret the symbol in question with the help of 
Biihler's Table IX as 70. 

The published text of this plate is full of mistakes. I 
have found no opportunity to examine the original plate nor 
is its facsimile-print clear. Therefore, I could not reproduce 
here the revised text. 


This record, incised on the back wall of the right-hand 
chamber in the Ganesa-gumphzi in the Khandagiri at 
Bhubaneshwar in the Puri district, was edited by the late 
Professor R. D. Banerjee in the Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XIII 
(p. 167). It mentions that the physician Bhimata, the son of 
Nannata, born of the womb of Ijya, made a vow (yacate) after 
one year's practice of asceticism in the assembly (Punge) of sages, 
called Vedi, residing in every chamber (in the Khandagiri), 
and in the presence of pure being (i. e. the god) Ganea to 
practise agian from the time of S&ntikaradeva's good reign 
till the sun and the moon exist. I need mention here that 
owing to certain discrepancies in the reading, the editor 
has not given the interpretation of the text. 

The text is in the Sanskrit verse of the Anustubh metre. 


i * ^ i 

I - 

Implies teacher. 

( YEAR 93 ) 

This record, incised on the right wall of the cave 
close by As*oka's Dhauli rock edict at Bhubaneshwar, was 
edited by the late Professor B/. D. Banerjee in the Epigraphia 
Indica Vol. XIX (pp. 263 64). It mentions that the monastery, 
called Arghyakd-var&tika, was constructed in the reign of 
Sdntikaradeva in the year 93 by both Bhatta Loyomaka' 
and the physician Bhimata, born of the womb of Ijya" and 
a resident of Viraja, ( i. e. Jajpur ) who were the grandson 
and the son respectively of Nannata. The editor interpre- 
ted that Bhatta Loyomaka was the son of Nannata and 
the grandson of Bhimata. He probably did not consult 
the preceding inscription. 

t I 
^ I 

3 I 
V I 

^ I 
^ \ 

(1) The editor read $1 (2) The editor read 

(3) The editor omitted V (4) The editor read 

(5) The latter <? is suggested by me to get the word 

which implies the seed-vessel of lotus. 

(6) The editor read *stf <7> The editor read H** , my 

reading is not also accurate. 
(B) The editor read 


( YEAR 103 ) 

This plate was discovered at Chitalpur in the Hindol 
State and is now in possession of Raja Bahadur of the 
said State. I edited it in the Journal of the Bihar and Orissa 
Research Society Vol. XVI, (pp. 6983). There were some 
errors in the published reading, which are emended now. 

It measures 15.6"xl2.8". The seal of this plate is not 
in form of a lotus ; otherwise it resembles, in all points, 
that of plate H. 

The language is Sanskrit. There is only one word 
in this plate which has been written after the fashion of 
Oriya pronunciation ( cf. wcattha, written for asvattha, in /. 35). 
The style of composition is ornate. 

The plate was issued from Guhadevapataka by 
SubMkaradeva, born to TribhuvanamahMevi of the Mga 
dynasty. He was the son of S&ntikara and the grandson of 
Paramasaugata Sri-SubMkara, who flourished after the 
kings, such as Lasmikara and others of the Bhauma family. 

The record registers the gift of the village Nddilo 
in the Kankavirct visaya in Northern Tosali. The gift was 
made at Yavagulopatika at the request of Pulindaraja to 
the god Vaidyanatha-bhattaraka ( &va ), enshrined at the 
temple of Pulindesvara, built by Pulindaraja. The village 
was devided into two parts. The income of one part was 
allotted for perpetual offering of ablution, sandal paste, 
flowers, incense, lamp, vali, cant, and oblation to the god 
and for the maintenance of servants of the temple and again 
for the repair of dilapidation. The income of the other fart 
was set apart for supplying the Saivaite ascetics with satra 

IlINDOI tLATi) 13 

meal free of cost), koup'^nottafi ( garments ), sahga and 
medicines against the malady. The same income was inten- 
ded also to defray the cost, amounting to four panas of 
cowries, of the six adhakas of the husked rice for the main- 
tenance of Dmapati. 

The grant was issued on the 7th day of the bright 
fortnight of ravana in the year 103. On previous occasion 
the numeral 3 of the year of this plate was deciphered 
by me as 50. But after thorough examination I finally 
read it as 3. 

The plate was written by Mahak-sapatalika bhogi 
Haravara, heated by Peilapala Ramadeva and engraved by 
Vijayajiva, the son of Anandajiva. Mah&ksapataladhikrta 
Vrhadbhogi was the Dutaka. 

The village was bounded on the north-east by the 
DMnyam&da-jota, on the east by the Brgala-jota, on the 
south-east by Vanamandara, on the south by Panktapolld, 
on the west by Vendrakataka and on the north by the 

I need mention here that Subhakara the donor, has been 
called Simhadhvaja in /. 31. On previous occasion I inter- 
preted it as one, whose banner contains the emblem af a lion. 
It is now found in plate I that a king named Simhaketu 
was born to Tribhuvanamahadevi. It appears, therefore, 
that Simhaketu, the name of the donor, has been transformed 
to Simhadhvaja to meet the exegency of the metre. 

The places, mentioned in the plate, can be identified as 
follows : 

Noddilo L Nandelo in Hindol State. It is worth men- 
tioning that this village is set apart for the worship of a 
Saivaite deity, Called Kundesvara. 

Gangeti-jota L Oangeijoda in Hindol. Kankavira 
L Kar&vira in Angal. 





(1) Represented by a Symbol. (2) The metre i 

(3) The metre is pafa 9 , ( 4) The metee is 

(5) The metre is TOflfof \ 

(6) The metre is 


I - 



(7) Head ejf ^ 


^ I -ft: ?nro$ft: I IF 
m mqrtft qrffor: I 



* The metre is 
The metre is 

t The metre is 


i -ssrffaisf Tisf f2<R\2Tsgf?iite 

V^ I Tr^T HR 


LI. 1 3. Hail ! from the victorious camp, established 
at Guhesvarapataka, which resembles the sea on account of 
the great waves (of the moving) of big elephants in rut and 
horses in sport, occupying every inch of ground, and on 
account of the white umbrellas of numerous subjugated 
rulers, making it bright like a vast expanse of foam. 

Ll. 3 5. When the kings, such as Laksmikara and 
others who were like suns to the lotus pond of the family, 
sprung from Bhauma, and who owing to their virtue of 
hospitality, were fondled by the lord of gods, who seated 
them on his exalted seat had gone to heaven, in that family, 
there flourished the king Paramasaugata ri ^ubhtlkara, the 
conqueror of adversaries, whose glory pervaded the three 

Ll. 3 6. Though he was the protector of the people, 
yet he could be connected with Satyabhslmtt (who caused 
family dissension). It was heard that being an overlord, he 
was deserted by the soldiers (lit. horsemen), but his glory was 
never impaired by his adversaries and he was the best of men. 

Ll. 67. His son the king SAntikara, born like the 
lord of heavetf, vanquished the army of his formidable 
enemies, surpassed, in wisdom, all (rulers), and was powerful 

and renowned in the world, 


Ll. 8 9. Owing to widely praised charity of the king, 
who was the lord of wealth and whose prosperity was une- 
qualled, the name Dhanada (giver of wealth) was inambiguous 
(of its derivative significance) ; but now it is getting every 
where an unfaithful meaning. 

Ll. 9 11', His son Paramabhattaraka MahArAjridhirAja 
Paramesvara fc?ri ^ubhAkaradeva who meditates on his 
(Santikara's) feet who is born to the queen Tribhuvana 
MahAdevi, the daughter of the diadem of the NAga dynasty, 
who like the sun, gladdens the lotus-like good men who is 
exceedingly truthful who has acquired the profound know- 
ledge of all the AgamAntas whose lotus-like feet are kissed 
by the bowed heads of the numerous enemies, struck with 
terror by the adequate valour of bis arms who is not oppre- 
ssive of taxation (tlvakara), though (like t:vrak<*ra i. e. sun) 
causes the lotus of pleasure of all men to bloom by always 
promptly granting wealth who has made the arrogant rulers 
his tributary, but abstains from spending tribute on luxury 
who like the full-blossomed Kalpa tree, is free from the 
influence of the Kali age and who resembles the ocean of 
milk, which is full of snakes and Makaras (ahi-makara), for 
he has had the great glowing valour (a-Aima-ara) -is in 
good health. 

Ll. 15-17 (He) honours, orders and intimates the 
present and future MahasAmantas, MahArAjas, RAjaputtras, 
Antarahgas, Kumaras, Amatyas, Uparikas, Visayapatis, 
Syuktakas, DAndapflsikas, SthAnAntarikas and others inclu- 
ding the Cata-bhata class, living on the royal bounties in 
Northern Tosalt and again the Mahamahattaras, Vrhadbhogis, 
PustakapAlas, Kutakolas and SAdyadhikranas in the KAnkavirA 
visaya. o 

Ll. 1? 20 Be it known to you that the village Noddilo. 
included in this viwya, with the right of (collecting) addi- 


tional taxes, such as taxes from the weavers, cowherds, 
Haumjhikas and all other tennants and with the rivers, landing 
places, ferry-places, forests and hamlets, being exempted 

from all imposts, has been granted at the request of Pulinda- 
raja at Yavagulopatika for Ihe increase of merits of the 
parents, self and all other creatures, according to the principle 
of lekhan.-praossatay'd bhumi-ch/drapidhana and (it will continue) 
as long as the sun, the moon and the earth endure. 

LI. 2124. With half (of the income) of the village the 
offering of ablution, sandal paste, flowers, lamp, incense, 
oati, cant, and oblation of the god Vaidyanathabhattitraka, 
enshrined at the temple of Pulindesvara, built by him 
(Pulindaro-ja) will often continue and (with the same) the 
servants of the temple will be maintained and (again with 
the same) the dilapidation will be repaired. With the other 
half the Saivaite ascetics will be provided with garments, 
meals and msdicines against the malady and (with the same) 
the family of Danapati will be maintained every day with six 
a4hakas of husked rice at the cost of four panns of cowries. 

Ll. 2Ji 2 X This copper-plate grant has been executed 
by me according to the rules of Nividharmma &c and out 
of respect to religion it should be preserved by you. On the 
7th day of bright fortnight of ravana in the year 103. 

LT. 3032. Let this gift of the king Simhadhvaja, 
whose right hand is dexterous in the art of extorting the 
fortune from the formidable enemies, continue as long as the 
rays issue from the moon on the head of one, who holds 
crescent on his head (^iva) and as long as Lak?mi with lotus 
in her hands, sits in the heart of enemy of Madhu (Vismi). 

Ll. 323?. Mahaksapataladhikrta Vrhadbhogi is the 
Dataka. It wrfs heated by Peclapala Itamadeva, written by 
Mahtifoapatalika Bhogi Haravara and engraved by Vijayjiva, 
the son of Auandajiva. 


LI. 33 11 The boundaries of the village are described 

On the east (the boundary line) commences from a stone, 

planted in the middle of the stream of Dhftnyamftda-Jota in 

the north-east, then runs along its bed towards south, then 

touches the trees including the Karanja tree, then turns a 

little towards east, then reaches ^oattha tree, then proceeds 

like JXCrgajanu, then crosses the Bandha-jota and after running 

along the bed of Srg.tla-jot-i, reaches the stone, planted under 

the Vana-mand&ra tree in the south-east. Then on the south 

it runs along the Sima-jotika towards west like the movement 

of a serpent, then reaches the stone, planted, keeps the great 

Vana-mandara tree within, then passes under the mango tree 

at Panktupolla, then keeps Vanapolandaka within and after 

proceeding for some distance reaches the stone planted. On 

the west it touches the stones, planted at distance from each 

other and reaches the stone, fixed at Tendr.Uaka. Then on 

the north runs along the bed of the Gangeti stream, then bends 

a little towards south, then crosses the Jof-a and proceeding 

eastward reaches the first -mentioned stone. 


( YEAH 103 ) 

This plate was found at Balichhai in Dharakota Taluk 
of the Ganjam district, Mr. Satyanarayan llajaguru edited 
it in the Journal of the Andhra Historical Research Society, Vol. IV 
(pp. 189-194), But owing to shallow engraving, he was 
hardly able to publish the precise reading of it. I availed 
myself the opportunity of examining this plate when it was 
acquired for the Baripada museum. I found at a glance that 
the eulogical text of this plate is a replica of that of the prece- 
ding one. It was therefore easy for me to decipher the precise 
text of the present plato and emend the errors 'that I commi- 
tted in editing the preceding one on the previous occasion, 

It measures 14" X 12. 5". The seal of this plate is quite 
same as that of plate II. The donor of the present plate is 
undoubtedly indentical with that of the preceding one. I need 
not therfore mention here the genealogy, available from the 
former plate, which is same as that given in the latter one. 

The document records the gift of the village Gundaja in 
Jayakafaka visaya of Kongada-marulala in Southern Tosali, 

made to Bhatta Narayana and Bhatta Devakantha. The 

". t 

former donea belonged to the praoara Augirasa and to the 


anupraoara Aui'vva and Savarnnasa of the Mangalya gotra and 
the latter one to the praoara Visvamitra and to the anupravara 
DevarAta and Audalla of the Kausika gotra. They both were 
the students of Vaj-isaneya carana. 

The plate was issued on the 7th day of the bright fort- 
night of Bhadrapada in the year 103. 

The village Gundaja seems to be identical with Gundri- 
vadi (19 !3" N. and 81 - 27" E.) about 10 miles north- 
west of the headquarters of Dharakota Taluk. 


I need mention here that if we read Dak*ina 
Koiiyadamatidole instead of Uttara Tofalytini in /. 15, 
D/xopa instead of Kahkaolra-Dka'j& in /. 16 and GancLaja instead 
of 3\Cod(jilo in /. 18 of the preceding plate, we can get the 
entire text, running on lines 1 21 of the present one, in lines 
1 20 of the former. I, therefore, abstain from reproducing 
below the text, running on lines 121 of the present plate. 




: i iw i^z? I^T ir??rw ?ri w^i ^ 11 TT 

I - 

I >g BJH: 11 i l 

The second side of this plate is so damaged that a single 
letter is not discernible. 

-r *-,,: 

J r , *- ,7) 

? ;> I >' 

' -> ^ 
- -s ! -'^ 

C ,v 

-i ^ ''' 

PLATE F ( Obverse > 

( YEAR 110 ) 

This plate was discovered at Bhimanagari garh in the 
Dhenkanal State and edited by Mm. H P. Shastri in the Journal 
of the Bihar anl Orissa Research Society, Vol. II (pp. 4 19 - ). 
It measures 15.2" x 11.7". The seal of this plate resembles, in 
every respect, except the legend, that of plate H. It contains 
the legend Srimat-Tribhuvanamahtdevi. 

The language is Sanskrit. There is only one word, 
which has be^n wtitten in this plate according to Oriya pro- 
nunciation (cf. maha, written for maha, in /. 21). Some portions 
of the text cont lin Yirodhabhasa alah^ara. 

When the kings, such as Unmattakesari, Gayada and 
others of the Kara family had died, Tribliuvanamahadevi, the 
daughter of R-Vjamalladeva of Southern country and the wife 
of Lalitahara, being requested by subordinate rulers, who cited 
the instance of Gosvamini Devi's rule, ascended the throne. 
She issued this plate from Guhesvarapfitaka. 

The document registers the gift of the village Kontas- 
parA in the OLiivama visaya in TosaM, made to Bhatta Jagadclh- 
ara, who belonged to the pravaras Angirasa, \Mrhaspatya and 
Bharadviija o the Bharadvilja gotro. He was a student of 
Vajasaneya cormia and Kanva mkhti. The object of the gift 
was to bring down the rain. 

The dtitaka of the plate was Mahi A iksapataladhikrta 
"JBalabhadra, If was heated by Malinambuvaha Kavirasena, 
written by Mahiiksapatalika Nagadadeva and engraved by 
Natakara Harivarddhana and his sou Rabhasavarddhana, 


TribhuvanamahAdevi was a devout worshipper of Vimu. 
She can be identified therefore with Tribhuvanamahadevi of 
plate H, who is said to be a devotee of Hari (i. e., Visntu) and 
who is the great-grandmother of the donor. Apparently the 
present plate is earlier than plate II. 

The plate was issued on the 6th day of the bright fort- 
night of Kiirttika in the year 110. I need mention here that 
the numerals of the year are represented by symbols, which 
were read as la chu and interpreted as 35 by Mm. Shastri. On 
previous occasion I interpreted these spmbols as 160*. Dr. 
D. R. Bhandarkar interprets them also as 160t, 

The numerical symbols of the year of plate H are distinct 
and they represent 141. As the present plate is earlier than 
plate H, I revise my previous interpretation of th3 numerical 
symbols of the present plate as 110. 

The identifications of places, mentioned in this plate, are 
given below. 

Kontaspaw L KantaparA (20--S // N. 86 4" E) in the 
Guttack district. 

Olus'rama L Olftsa (20 9" N, 86 1" E ) in the 
Cuttack district. 


:R 11 

* J. B. O. K. S. Vol. XVII, p. 109. 

t E. I. Vol. XX. (list of inscriptions, No. 1434), appendix p. 192 

(1) Represented by a Symbol, (2) The metre is 

I - 

I - 
i - 

i -nr 


[|#] ^5- 

(8) The metre is W ( W5* I ( 4) The metro is 
(5) Unintelligible. 


ri fo^raf 

Read Hfl* 


I -'B^T'^rasn 5??RiT^?iii5i: u 


1 -T. qr 


I -^ftigqra^Jii ^fTFq^Tin^T^!] 'it ^nL^iRf \ ^ famwi 


: T 

i ^r^ sevnvta^i i wras* 3 n 



LI. 1-2, Hail ! from the victorious camp, established at 
Guhesvarapiitaka, which is rich with four colours (i.e. castes ; 

-i The metre is M3Z \ The metre is 

^ >a ** 

^ The metre is 


) but shines with white colour alone on account of sky- 
licking buildings, emulating the ever-lasting mass of fame 
and having on their tops the waving cdmaras (tails of a kind of 
deer) that resemble showers of merit and also on account of 
whitewashed city-walls that are uncle refulgent by the streak 
of moat, resembling the border of the sea. 

LI. 3-9. When the greatly eminent Mahir<Vj*is, such as 
Unmattakesari, Gayutla and others who were pleasurable to 
those who took refuge in them (samiipatrita-nandanexu)) al- 
ways shone forth in the company of distinguished scholars 
(sa^vad-vika^ita-lasat-sumanO'ganc^u), revelled in granting the 
desired objects of suitors, attained great achievements (mahciph- 
alezu) and thus resembled the lofty Kalpa trees, existing in the 
garden of heaven (samufxisrila-nandanctu), always shining with 
opening flowers (sa^oad-vik^it^asat^sumano-gan^u), promptly 
granting the desired objects of suppliants and bearing abundant 
fruits (mahaphaltsu) who, like the lion with fierce claws, cru- 
shed the elephant-like formidable enemies who were devoted 
to the restoring of those who lost their positions who like the 
swans (nljahawsesu), flying with white wings ($udguaat>ak*a- 
ptitiAu), were the excellent kings (rajahawsesti), for they suppor- 
ted the pure merits ($uci-gu)ia~pak*a-patixu), but unlike tho e 
swans, fond of the Mdnasa lake (mftnasa-wjasanfcu), they did 
not give their minds to luxury (mnnasa-vyasanisu) who like the 
lotus-tanks (padmakaresu), full of big lotus stalks (prathita-prlhu 
dancLa-vibhavem), were the very emporium of wealth (fiadma- 
karesu) as they possessed famous army (prathita-prlhu-Janda- 
vibhaoesu), but unlike those lotus- tanks, looking for the sun 

, they did not like the oppressive taxation 
exhausted treasures of their vast 
empire on religious works in order to enlighten their own 
country and others' who decorated the earth by constructing in 
unbroken continuity various maihas, monasteries and temples, 
which were stircases, as it were, for ascending the city of Indra 
and who were as mighty as Indra had passed away and the 


Kara family had to depend upon nothing but their past glory 
(the following happened). 

Ll. 9- '7. Observing and realising that the kingdom 
looks like the sky, bereft oE refulgent stars and resembles one 
(female),^ who has distressful heart, MahitrAjAdhir&ja Para- 
mesvara Sri Lalitaharadeva*, the best of men who was like 
the moon to the lilly-tank of the Kara family whose lipse, 
resembling the lotus, the seat of the goddess of fortune, was 
sanctified by the goddess of speech, fond of truth who made 
the supplicants wealthy by granting them wealth as much as 
they wanted and thus rightly resembled the touch-stone 
whose hands were perfumed by the flowers in the locks of 
enemies' wives, whom he dragged (by their hair) and whose 
foot-stool was radiant with the splendour of crest-gems of pros- 
trate kings received the palm (i. e. married) of the daughter 
of Rajamallacleva, the frontal mark of Southern region, who 
pulverized the mountain -like enemies by his thunder-like 
arms. The person ( of the daughter ) was adorned with hun- 
dreds of auspicious signs of sovereignty over the entire earth ; 
( she ) was like the ancestral seat of all fine arts, like the 
personification of magnanimity, like the bud of flowers of 
the tree of modesty, like the receptacle of honey of courtesy 
and like the shoot of the root of beauty, issuing for the 
conquest of the world. 

* Mui. Sbaslri took Hajamalladeva used in ihu text iu its genitive 
form, as the nominative of verbs snsft'R and aTTsfrsf. In tlio Sanskrit 
literature I have never met with such me of the nominative. It can, 
therefore, be held that the poet alluded to the dignity of Rujanwlladeva by 
narrating in a skillful manner that Lalitahilra sued for the hand of the 
daughter of Rajamalladeva in order to get help from him at the time of need 
and not Rajamalladcva requested Lalitahara to take his daughter in marriage. 
In the case of acceptance of such an assumption, Lalitahara appears to be a 
different person from Gayada and in consequence there arises a discrepancy 
in the chronology. We may, therefore, assume thai either the narration is 
wrong or Triblmvanamahivdevi is the nominative of the said verbs. 


LI. 1723. Paramabhattarika Maharajadhiraja 
ParameSvari Sri Tribhuvanamahadevi who meditates on the 
feet of her parents who is a devout worshipper of Visnu 
who resembles the goddess of fortune, having abode on corns 
(ak*ata-krla-sthilili), for ( her ) stability remains unimpaired 
a-ksata-krta-sthitih) who by delighting the people with 
light taxation (mrdu-kora) resembles the digit of the moon, 
delighting the people with soft ray (m-du-kara) who by 
causing the preceptor (guru), truth (dhruva) and friend (mitra) 
to shine, resembles the heavenly constellation, where the 
Jupiter (guru), Polestar (dhruoa) and Sun (mitra) shine who 
resembles the beauty of lotus-tank, for keeping officers, 
having ingrained pure characters and writing good hands 
(and thus resembling the lotuses) who, being entreated by a 
great circle of chiefs, anxious to see the quick celebration of 
coronation, to be pleased to protect the fortune of Kara 
kingdom, which had come by right of: succession and to 
favour the subjects as Bri Gosvamini, having the religion as 
her prime object, ruled the country in ancient times out 
of compassion towards the people, has ascended, like Katya- 
yini (mounted on a lion), the lion-seat (i. e. throne) and whose 
lotus-like feet are kissed by the heads of feudatory chiefs, 
bowed down with devoted loyalty is in good health. 

LI. 21-27 (She) duly honours, orders & intimates the 
present and future Mahasamautas, Maharajas, Rajaputtras, 
Antarangas, Kumaras, Amatyas, Uparikas, Visayapatis, Ayu- 
ktakas, D<tndapaikas, Sthandntarikas, and others including the 
Gata-bhata class, living on royal bounties in Tosala and again 
the Mahamahattaras, Vrhadbhogis, Pustakapalas, Kutakolas 
and Sadyadhikaranas in the Olasrama visaya. 

LI. 27-32 Be it known to you that the village Kontas- 
para, belonging to this Vitaya, with the right oof (collecting) 
additional taxes, such as taxes from the weavers, cowherds, 
Saurulhikas and all other tennants and with (the rights over) 


the landing places, ferries, and hamlets, being exempted from 
all imposts has been granted, with the libation of water for 
bringing down the rain, to Bhatta Jagaddhara, belonging to 
the praoaras Angirasa, V&rhaspatya and Bharadvaja of the 
Bharadvilja gotra and studying the Vajasaneya carana & Kanva 
*akha, according to the principle of lekhan/provesatayfi &c for 
the enhancement of merits of the parents, ~ self and all other 
creatures and (it will continue) as long as the sun, the moon 
and the earth endure. 

Ll. 32-3 ^ This copper-plate grant has been executed by 
me according to the principle of Nividharinma &c; it should be 
preserved by you out of respect to religion. On the 6th day of 
bright fortnight of Karttika in the year 110. 

Ll. 31-39 (usual imprecatory verses) 

Ll. 39-4 ILet this gift of Devi Sri Siddha Gauri, conti- 
nue as long as the heavenly stream (the Ganges), which shines 
like the festoon of Malati flowers, flows on the head of enemy 
of the love-god, as long as the tremulous shore of the sea, encir- 
cling the earth, continues to be agitated and as long as the 
stars, adorning, like jewels, the pavement of sky. shine. 

Ll. 4/1-42 The dutaka of this plate is Mahak*<*palala+ 
dhifota Sri Balabhadra. It was written by Mahaksaf>atalik<* 
Nagadadeva and heated by Malinambuvaha Kavirasena and 
engraved by Harivarddhana and his son Habhasavardhana. 


( YEAR 141 ) 

I am very much indebted to Raja Sahib of the Talcher 
State, who has very kindly sent to me three copper-plate 
records, which are edited below successively. My thanks are 
also due to his Private Secretary Mr. Jagamohan Misra B. A. 
for furnishing me with the following report as to discovery of 
the plates. 

Within the colliery area in the Talcher State there is a 
place, called Jagati, which contains a large mound of ruins of 
buildings. In the vicinity of Jagati there are lying some 
Buddhist sculptures. Some coolies, employed by the Manager 
of the Colliery Company, while redigging a well, close by the 
afore-said mound, found these plates at the buttom of it. The 
tradition, current in the locality relates that Jagati was the 
seat of the Pala ruling family of the Pal Lahara State in 
ancient times. 

This plate measures 14.5" X 12". On the top of the inscri- 
ption there is a seal of alloyed copper in the form of a full- 
blown lotus having two rows of petals one spreading hori- 
zontally and the other vertically. The depression, enclosed by 
the inner row of petals, is 2.2" in diameter. On the depression 
there is a figure of lotus over which the legend 'Sri-Subhuikara- 
devasya 5 is inscribed. Above the legend there are, in relief, 
the figures of a couchant bull, a conch and a candraoindu, the 
symbol of the sun and the moon. There are also two floral 
designs one in the front of and the other behind the bull. 

The lines of the writing run from the left to the right of 
the breadth of the plate. There are 31 lines of c inscription on 
the obverse and 17 lines on the reverse. The engraving on 
the obverse is deep, but on the reverse is shallow, 


In respect of orthography the only points that call for 
special notice are as follows : 

(>) The use of the guttural n instead of anuscUra before 
the dental s as well as before the palatal s occurs in /, 5 
( cf. aoataiise and vanse, in /. 5 written for aoatamse and (Jamie 
respectively ). 

(2) The letter o has been used throughout for b. I need 
mention here that this remark is applicable to the orthography 
of each and every inscription of the Bhauma family. 

(3) The use of tr instead of tri is found in /. 11 ( cf. 
Maya and Trbhuoana, written for tritaya and Tribhuoana 
respectively), I may mention here in this connection that 
the pronunciation of r as ri was in vogue in Orissa since 
eirly times till the end o the 13th century A. D.* It, there- 
fore, appears that the modern Oriya pronunciation of r as ru 
is due to some outside, probably the Dravidian, influence 
of later times. 

The language is Sanskrit. And in addition to the 
customary benedictive and imprecatory verses in lines 4348, 
there are verses in lines 4 10, 1217 and 24 26. But 
owing to omission of the marks of punctuation by the scribe, 
they appear as prose. 

The record opens with the description of the charm of 
Guhesvara-p.itaka, the place of issue of the plate. Then 
antikara (I), his son KusumahSra (I), his (latter's) mother 
Tribhuvanamahadevi and her grandson Lonabh.tra alias 
Pdntikara (II) of the Kara family are said to have ruled 
successively. After the death of the last-named king, his 
son Kusumahara (II) alias Subhakara, born to H ramahadevi, 
ascended the throne and issued the grant. He is styled as 
Faramabhatttlraha, Mabarajadhiraja, Para mam ihe.'vara and 

* J. A. 8. B. <N. 8.) Vol. XX, p. 43 ; see Krifjna, written for K^na. 


The object of the record was to register the gift of the 
village Addhendrakond in the Manera visaya in Daksina To.saU 
to Kulaputtraka Suryaplla, the son of Damodarapala and 
the grandson of Vamanapilla. The epithet Kulapuliraka 
indicates that the donee was born of a noble family. As the 
Gotra name has not been mentioned, the donee may be supposed 
to be a non-Brahmin. I am tempted to hold that he was 
the founder of the Pala ruling family of the Pal-Lahara State. 

The deed was executed on the 3rd day of waning moon 
of Bhadra in the year 141. It is worth noticing that the 
numerals of the year are represented by symbols. Unlike the 
symbol of the plates of the Kara family, so far published, 
the symbols of the plate under discussion are very distinct. 
The first symbol, denoting 100, is lu. The second symbol pia 
denotes 40. Then succeeds the numeral figure 1. 

The village Addhendrakorut h probably identical with 
Adhaigandi in the Narasinghpur State, about 25 miles south of 
the find-spot. 

I edit the text from the original. 



(1) Represented by symbol {*) Bead *tis*fa I (3) Superfluous 
(4) Readtfo I (,) liead ^ | (6) The metre is 

**$*:.. V- 

PLATE H ( Obverse 


r [i*] iftj at? i^r 


I s*HMKqar[<!WfliMm^i*i'Hn3 ^?T5I! I 

(7) The metre is 9*TO>l3f I (8) The metre is 

(9) Ueadftli (10) ltead*h 

(11) Tbe metre is OTfVfadffea I (12) The plate reads 
(18) The metre is W^ f f^f I (14) The metre is 


$o \ vwm ii Mw*tife^iwift<iMKi!jsqra[: *1 

$\ \ - 


i -iiFi^rw^i^ niMi<!}*^i i CTQ^iq^oo, v f ^ IHE i- 
i -f^ ^ [i#] 


i -W^T: 


i -f^a^ [i#] 

(15) Eiid rt T9 I (16) Bail qr?5T l (17) Tu mabra is 
(18) Bead COT* I (19) Bead * *r I (20) Head 
(21) Read wn l (<2) The metre is 

PLATE H (Reverse) 



LI. 1 4. Hail ! from the victorious camp, established 
at Guhesvarapataka, where the flames of various sacrificial 
fires, withdrawn from the countries around, annihilate all sins 
by their grace and which, magnificient on account of docile 
rulers, survivors in the battles, who had come forth from all 
directions, laughs to scorn the abode of Dhanada (the god, who 
gives wealth). 

LI. 4 6, In the family of the Kara kings, the orna 
ment of the bracelet-like world, there flourished a celebrated 
king, dntikara by name, whose commands were respectfully 
bowed to by countless rulers. 

LI. 6 8. After the departure of that renowned king 
for the land of gods, his son, known as Kusumahara, mighty 
as Manuja and like a garland of flowers, adorning the heads 
of all rulers, became the king, the best among the chiefs of 
men, skilled in causing the widowhood of enemies' wives and 
resembling the lord of gods. 

Ll. 9 13. When he had reached the end of his 
achievements his mother, known as Tribhuvana-mabidevi in 
the three worlds, took upon the burden (of administration) 
of the entire kingdom and shone like Fesa, holding up the 
entire earth on his hoods. During her rule the country ad- 
vanced in the three branches (of administration) the foes 
were extirpated, the glory spread abroad and there was 
harmony among the people. With the head, sanctified with 
the dust of lotus-like feet of Hari, she had enjoyed an unparal- 
leled fortune and thought that there was no other work for 
her to do. 

Ll , 13 19. Having considered her 'grandson Lonab- 
hara ' t to be sufficiently grown up to bear the burden, she 
bestowed the weight of the entire earth on him and attained 
the feet of Hari, propitiated by unflinching devotion. The 


lotus-like feet of this king were buried under the elevated 
altar, formed by the gems of crests of the hostile kings, who 
were offered as oblation to the fire of his valour. He satisfied 
the supplicants and on that account his treasures 'shone 
like a perennial spring. ( He was ) known in the world by 
the name ^riman Suntikara and was glorious and powerful. 
(He) made the people enlightened and joyful. After finishing 
the duties (of earthly career) he ascended the heaven. 

LI. 19-24 Then his son Kusumahara-deva, whose tem- 
perament is gentle, ascended the throne. (He) seems to be 
the final incarnation of Bbarata, Bhagadatta and Bhagiratha 
and possesses the valour, uncommon in the kings of other 
countries (He is) born to Maharij idhirdja ParameSvari ri- 
Hiramahadevi, who is magnanimous, who appears, like the 
moon, to gladden the world, who is a born inveterate of all 
royal accomplishments including the state-craft, self-discipline 
and success and who is capable of being bowed to by numerous 

LI. 21-26 "W hen the sound of Tarya, proclaiming his 
(Kusumahara's) coronation, w<is heard the heart of the hostile 
kings and the entire world, both were made empty of two 
things ; (the former) of the fortune and (the latter) of the 
apprehension of calamities. 

LI. 26-30 (He) dispells the Doiandhakara ( darkness 
of vice ; darkness of night) with the proper Kara (taxation ; 
light) and thus shines, like the sun, in all quarters and adorns 
the earth. ( His ) sharp faculty of understanding the spirit 
of the ( text of ) Sastras was manifested in his utterances 
during the childhood ; ( he is ) the foremost protector of the 
earth, extending on four sides up to the sea, has defeated 
countless foes with the valour of his own arms and has become 
the lord of manifold royal glories on account of his good be- 


LI. 30 35 ParamainaheSvara, Paramabhattaraka, 
Maharajadhira-ja and Paramefrara Sri Pubhakaradeva, being 
in good health, meditates on the feet of his parents, duly 
honours, intimates and orders the present and future 
Mahasamantas, Rajaputtras, Antarangas, Kumaras, A maty as, 
Uparikas. Visayapatis, Ayutakas, Dandapa&kas, Vallabha 
class and others in Southern To : aH and the Mahamahattaras, 
Vrhadbhogis, Sadyadhikaranas of the Manera visaya. 

LI. 35 11. Be it known to you that the village 
Addhendrakona, belonging to this visaya, with the ferry-places 
forests, and the "aundhika subjects and with the right of (co- 
llecting) the additional taxes, being made free from all encro- 
achments, has been granted to Kulaputtraka Suryapal-i, the 
son of Dimodaraplla and the grandson of Vumanapala 
according to the principle o lekhanl preoasatayl bhumi 
cchidrapidhana for the enhancement of merits of the parents 
and self. (It will continue) as long as the sun, the moon and 
the earth exist. 

LI. 41 13. Out of respect to religion this gift, made 
by me, should be preserved by you. On the 2nd day of the 
dark fortnight of Ehadra in the year 11-1. 

LI. 13 18 (The susual imprecatory verses). 

( TEAR 149 ) 

It measures 14.5" x 11.5". The seal, attached to the 
left side of the inscription, fully resembles, in every respect, 
except its legend, that of plate H. The legend of this plate 
is 'Sri c ivakaradevasya'. 

The engraving is not deep. Again some letters have 
been mutilated. The mutilation is probably due to the st ' okes 
of digging implements of the Coolies, who found the plates 
On account of tha mutilation of letters, I could not give tl>e 
precise informations, contained in this plate, when I noticed 
it in the "Dynasties of Mediaeval Orissa." Now I have fully 
deciphered it, but I think that there are still certain discre- 
pancies in my reading. 

The lines of the inscription run from the left to the 
right of the length of the plate. There are 25 lines on the 
obverse aud 21 lines on the reverse. The text is in the 
Sanskrit verse throughout, except the lines 11 12, 19 30 
and 30 40, which contain the Sanskrit prose. The style of 
composition is very ornate. The text, running on //. 2 4, 
conveys two different meanings ; in the first place the qualities 
of the remote ancestors of the donor have been enumerated 
and secondly the glories of the sun have been described in it, 

There are a few orthographical errors in the inscription. 
In I. 2, Guh&varaplttaka is written for Guh&toarapatakai 
Again we find fiithl (/. 7), pusya (I. 30) and fieda (/. 38), 
the Oriya forms of Sanskrit prthol, pama and pe$& respectively. 

The record opens with the description of the charm of 
Guhes*varap&taka, the place of issue of the grant. Then it 


mentions that in the glorious family of the Kara kings, there 
flourished a king, named ^rlmad Unmattasirnha, who was 
succeeded to the throne by his son ^ubhlkara (I), The former 
forcibly took to wife the daughter of the king of the Radha 
country and the latter subjugated the Kalinga people. Then 
Bubhakara's son Gayada (I), his son Simhaketu, latter's mother 
Tribhubanamahadev}, her (grandson) Gayada (II) and his son 
Kubhakara (II) are said to have ruled successively. The last- 
named king was succeeded by his younger brother Pivakara- 
deva, the donor, who was born to Hiramahadevi, the daughter 
of Hri-Simhamana. He is styled as Paramamahesvara, 
Paramabhattaraka, Maharajadhiraja and Paramesvara. 

The document registers the gift of the village Kallani 
in the Purvvarastra visaya in Northern Tosali, made at the 
request of E. inaka Vinitatuhga. The income of the village 
was divided into three shares. One share was set apart to 
defray the cost of offering snap ana (ablution), gandha (sandal 
paste), puxpa (flowers), dhupa (incense), d,pa (lamp), oali 
(oblation to the minor deity), caru (oblation) and puja (worship) 
of the god Buddhabhattaraka, enshrined in the temple, 
dedicated to the name of the same deity and built by Sri- 
Amubhattaka. The same share was also meant for the 
maintenance of servants of the god and for supplying the ten 
attendants of female mendicants with chlvara ( garment ), 
pindapatra (pot for offering the oblation), sayariasana (bedstead) 
and medicine against the malady. The second share was inten- 
ded for the repair of dilapidation. And the third share was 
allotted to defray the cost of maintenance of the family of 

The deed was executed at Jaya&ama vihara (Buddhist 
monastery) on the 2nd. day of the waning moon of Pausa in 
the year 149. I need mention here that the numerical symbols 
of the year of this plate was interpreted by me as 1 67 on 
previous occasion. Now I find after cleansing the plate that 


the first symbol and the second one are distinctly la and pta 
respectively. Then succeeds a figure, which looks like 3. 
Hence the year is 149. 

The village Kallani was bounded on the north-east by 
Trikata, on the east by Kaveda jola, on the south by a jota, on 
the west by TailakMta and on the north by the Mdsa river and 
by Bdghagarttikd. The places can be indentified as follows : 

Jayasrama-vihara was probably located at Jagati, the 
find-spot of the plate. 

Kalldni L Kalwm (20 -15" N, 85 -24") in Keon- 
jhar State* 

The estern portion of the territory of the Tunga Rulers 
was probably known as PiirvvarAstra oixaya. 

The plate was engraved by Rabhasavarddhana and his 
son Ramavarddhana and was heated by pedapala Kayevadeva. 
Mahaksapatalika Bhogi Devapyaka and Mahaksapataladhikrta 
Rdnaka Bri-VicitrMhya were the scribe and the dutako 



(1) Represented by symbol ('2) Bead *ft " 

(3) The metre is nefaft% I (4) ' Read TO I (o) Read WT I 

(6) Head'wi * (7) The plate reads 3 1 

PLATE I (obverse) 



(8) The metre is WNT I 
(10) The plate reads IT I 
(12) The mstre is w;r I 

t The plate reads at I 
(15) The plate reads *ft I 
(17) Bead 3 I (18) Read 

(20) The metre is 
(22) Read 1 \ 

(9) The plate reads 
(11) Read ^ I 
(13) Read * g I 
(14) The metre is 
(16) The metre is 
(19) Read ft I 
I (21) Read fc! I 
(23) The metre is 




(24) The metre is *T^jfofl% | (25) 

(26) The metre is WCPftfm I . (27) The phte reads l: 

(28) The plate reads fir \ (29) The mstre is *W I (30) Read 

(31) Feadltl (32) Bead R I (33) Bead f I 

PLATE I ( Reverse ) 


I iR 


^v* | [||] 

u i- 
i f^r i 

^ u 


i - srom: i 

(34) Read 9 I (35) Read * I 

(36) Bead I I (37) The metre is 

(38) Bead **! I (39) Read W I 

(40) Read IT I (41) The metre is 

(42) The plate reads S9S$fo I (43) The metre is 

iw u 

u ^r T^rajqz^rf tr^ifr^rgq: i 



i - 


LI. 1-2 Hail ! from the victorious camp, established at 
Guhesvarapataka, which for the rays of varied gems, thrown 
upwards by the (gemmed) towers of lofty buildings, shines 
like innovated rainbows, presented, as it were, by the lord of 
gods after his subjugation by the valour of the king. 

LI. 2-4 It is the family of illustrious Kara kings who 
diffused culture (a/ofca) whose prosperity (sn) increased day 
by day who extorted ememies' fortune (grasta-dvisat-sampa- 
dam) with the power of their bright sword (nirmmla-mandalagra- 
mahima) who trampled the proudly heaved heads (ucca- 
tirasam) of the kings (bhubbta) who swelled their treasures. 


(padim-kar-ollasinam) who were extremely skilled in getting 
rid of any leaning towards vice (dosasahga) and who were thus 
like the suns, diffusing light (o/o&a) on all sides, having always 
full-grown lustre (m), devouring the enemy-like darkness with 
the great splendour of its resplendent orb (nirmala-maiicLalagra- 
mahima), attacking the lofty peaks (ucca-sira) of mountains 
(bhnbhrla), causing the cluster of lotuses to bloom (padma^aro- 
llasinam) and skilfully shunning contact with night (dosasahga) 

Ll. 4-6 In that family there was the king Unmatta- 
simha who was famous for his great glory and equal in pro- 
wess to Faura and who made slaves of all his enemies by dint 
of the prowess of his own arms ; (he) alone in a battle, formid- 
able with vast numbers of warriors, poured forth sharp arrows 
from his bow, drawn up to his ears and took away in victory 
the daughter of the king of Rarjha like the latter's kingly 

Ll. 6-7 To him was born the renowned king RubhA- 
kara, who destroyed the patrahkura decoration, adorning the 
cheeks of enemies' wives, who brightened the regions and who 
being intent upon enjoying the whole earth, ignited the intense 
fire of valour and after extirpating the rulers of the earth 
subjugated the Kalihgas. 

Ll. 7-9 His moon-like high-souled son ^ri-Gaydda, 
who was renowned for his great fame and whose fascinating 
lotus-like feet shone with the crownless heads of subjugated 
rulers, which (heads) resembled (in colour) the bees, became 
the lord of the earth. 

Ll. 9-10 Sri-Simhaketu, the renowned son (of Gay Ada) 
whose glory scorned the brilliance of a forest of full-blown 
lilies, became the king and wisely distributed the results 
obtained from the practice of six measures of warfare by assig- 
ning shelter to his ally, the prosperity to himself and the 
decline to his enemies. 


LI. 10-12 His prudent mother Tribhuvanamahadevi, 
who made her three energies (safc/fc*) shine perpetually and 
who loved the state-craft and her son very much, ascended the 
throne, when her son (Siinhaketu), the very moon of the sky of 
his family, had ascended the heaven, after he had scattered the 
wealth of his glories like Dhanada (the wealth-giving god). 

LI. 12-13 To him (Simhaketu) was born the king 
Gayada, who was as glorious as Vaikuntha (Vi.snu) and the 
frinze of whose golden feet glittered with the refulgent rays of 
crest-gems of prostrate chiefs and whose unblunted sword cut 
necks of all his enemies. 

LI. 13-14 His son G ubhakara, who obtained eminence 
for crushing the lotus-like heads of irresistible enemies inherited 
the kingdom, when the crest-gem of the kings (Gayada), who 
was the source of truth, charity and courage and whose glory 
spread abroad, had reached, as ordained, the end of his 

LI. 15-16 ivakara, the younger brother (of ubhakara), 
who dispels the heat of the world with drizzles, spreading 
out from the rapid tears of wives of his enemies, crushed by 
valour of his arms, adorned the throne, when tbat king (^ubha- 
kara), who was beyond the delicacy in the matter of crushing 
the lotus-like heads of irresistible foes, had gone to heaven. 

LI. 16-18 Are the brilliant fames of the king, which 
form themselves, as it were, into the lines of the divulged 
peaks of the Himalayas, vying with the Vindhya mountain, 
after being afraid of the gods in the heaven, the lustre of the 
person of the lord of serpents, delivered of the pressure of the 
earth ; or the waves (of sea) caused by the (winds of) banners, 
resembling the serpent having quick respiration ?t 

LI. 18-23 Paramamahesvara, Paramabhattaraka, Maha- 
rajadhirAja and Paramesvara Sri Bivakaradeva, born, like 

* Prablui Sakti, Mantra btikti and Ulaaha Sakti. 
f The meaning it not clear. 


Kum&ra, to Hiramahadevi, the daughter of !rl Simhamana, 
being in good health, meditates on the feet of his parents, duly 
honours, orders and intimates the present and future Mahasam- 
antas, Mah&rajas, B/djaputtras, Antarangas, Kumdras, Uparikas, 
Visayapatis. Ayuktakas, Dandapasikas, Sthanantarikas, and 
others including the Cata-bhata class, living on the royal 
bounties in Northern Tosali and again the Mahamahattaras, 
Vrhadbhogis, Pustakapalas, Kutakolas and the Sadyadhikaranas 
of Purvvar&stra Visaya. 

LI. 23-26 Be it known to you that the village Kallani, 
included in this visaya, with additional taxes, such as taxes 
from weavers, cowherds and Baundhika subjects, with (the 
rights over) ferries, landing places and forests, being made free 
from all encroachments, has been granted at the request of 
Kanaka Sri Vinitatunga according to the principle of lekharii- 
pravesatayd bhumi cchidr'dpidhana for the enhancement of merits 
of parents, self and all other creatures (and it will continue) 
as long as the sun, the moon and the earth exist. 

Ll. 26-29 The village has been divided into three shares. 
One share is (allotted) for perpetual offering of ablution, sandal 
paste, flowers, incense, lamp, vali, cam and oblation to the god 
Buddhabhattaraka, enshrined in the temple, dedicated to 
Buddhabhatt&raka and built by Amubhattaka and for the 
maintenance of the servants and again for supplying the ten 
attendants of female mendicants with garments, pot for offer- 
ing the oblation, bedsteads and medicines against the malady. 
The second share is (intended) for the repair of dilapidation. 
And the third share is (set apart) for the maintenance of the 
family of Dauapati. 

Ll, 29-30 This copper-plate grant has been executed by 
us at Jayaframa monastery according to the rules of Nivi 
dharma. Out of Aspect to religion this gift should be preserved 
by you, On the 2nd day of the dark fortnight of paum of 
the year 


LI, 31-35 (The usual imprecatory verses). 

LI. 25-36 Let the religious endowment of Sivakara, 
whose glory has pervaded the three worlds, remain as long as 
the brilliant moon brightens the regions, as long as the sun 
rises in the sky and as long as the stars, the wives of the moon, 
get the best lustre and scorn the brilliance of the lilies. 

LI. 36-37 MaMksapatolMhikrta Blnaka Sri Vicitr^dhya 
is the Dutaka. Mahaksapatalika Bhogi Devapydka is the 
scribe. (The plate) wss heated by PedSpiUa Kayevadeva and 
engraved by Natakara Rabhasavarddhana and his son Rama- 

LI. 37-46 The boundaries of the village are mentioned. 
(The line) commences from Trikatd on the north-east, runs 
towards Valmika-vilepana plot, then proceeds like the move- 
ment of a serpent, then enters and crosses the Jota, then proceeds 
zigzag for some distance, then enters the Eavade . jota and 
touches a point in the middle of its bed on the south-east. 
Thence it runs towards the south-west' for some distance, then 
crosses the same Jota, then keeps Gohiri within, then proceeds 
zigzag for some distance and reaches, going like Mrgajdnu, 
the Garttika. Thence it runs towards the north-west for some 
distance, then turns a little towards west, then reaches VitavirA, 
then proceeds zigzag for some distance, then turns towards 
south for some distance, then reaches Tailakhata, then proceeds 
like the movement of a serpent for some distance and reaches 
Trikata on the north-west. Thence in the north it takes a 
curved course towards east for some distance, then proceeds 
towards north for some distance, then jumps over Baghagarttika 
then proceeds like the movement of a snake for some distance, 
then enters the Masa river and reaches the point whence it 
commenced first. 

Date in line 6 after 5th letter 

PLATE J ( Reverse ) 


( YEAR 149 ) 

The description, text, donor, object of the gift, date and 
the officer? of this plate are quite same as those of the preced- 
ing one. The former differs from the latter only in the point 
of some place-names. The village Suraddhipura in Madhya- 
inakhanda vkaya in Northern Tosalt was granted by the present 
plate. The village was bounded on the north-east by Tamala- 
khandaksetra and the Sumeyi river ; on the east by the Deva- 
laya jota as well as by the river close by Pustariyapura ; on the 
south-east by the same river ; on the south by the river close 
by Gayadapura ; on the south-west by Trikata and the river 
close by Kalyanipura ; on the west by the river close by Hasti- 
napura-ksetra and Korandiya-ksetra ; on the north-west by the 
river close by Sankhapura ; and on the north by JanapangsL 

As the text of the present plate is a replica of that of 
the preceding one, its next is not worth publishing. The iden- 
tifications of places, mentioned in it are given below. 

SuradhipuraZ.Sird&rpur (2lM5" N ; 85-ir) in Talcher 

Tam&a L Tamur (21-18" N. 85-14" E.) in Pal-Lahara 
State. Sumei R. L Somakoi R. in Pal-Lahara State. Devalaya 
Jota L Duli& R. in Keonjhar. Korandiya L Kolanda (21-14"N. 
85-ll" E.). Sankhapura L Sonkmur (21-15' / N. 85-10 v E.). 
Janapanga L Jonapard (21-15 /7 N. SSMS" E.). 


This plate had been in possession of Babu Shyam Sundar 
Garhnayak, an inhabitant of the village Santri in the District 
of Angul. It was purchased for the Indian Museum, Calcutta, 
a few years ago. Mr. Faramananda Acharya B. Sc. f Archaeo- 
logist of Mayurbhanj State, has kindly supplied me with its 
text, deciphered by him, as well as with its ink-impression for 

It measure 9. 2"x5 *5*. On the left side of the inscrip- 
tion there is a projection with a sq uare hole in it, The seal 
was pephaps attached to the hole, But neither seal nor legend 
was found with the plate. 

It contains 13 lines of writing on the obverse and 15 
lines on the reverse. It is worth mentioning that the first 20 
lines of the text of the present plate have been copied letter 
for letter in the succeeding plates. 

The text is in the Sanskrit verse and the style of com- 
position is very ornate. Some xlokas contain two different 

A few orthographical errors that have crept in the 
plate under discussion, represent the Oriya spelling of some 
Sanskrit words, {cf. varihaspatya in /. 22 and dasama in /. 25, 
written for Varhaspatya and dasama respectively). 

The plate was issued from Guhesvarapataka. It men- 
tions that there was a king, named Srimad-Unmattasimha ; in 
his family flourished the king GayMa and others. Then Lona- 
bhdra, his son Kusumah&ra and the latter's younger brother 
Lalitahara ruled successively. The ' last-named king was 
succeeded to the throne by his son S&ntikara and the queen 

i . Hfv 
>* ^ - 

!ri. r : 

v ; _. \^vv 

. .. C : - 


^ u 

*^i- ' 
V* ri 

PLATE K (Obverse 


Dharmmamahadevi issued the grant. She was probably the 
wife of Santikara. 

The record registers the gift of the village De&la, made 
at Bakemba on the Sankranti day to Sridharabhatta, the son of 
Nitebhatta and the grandson of Bhatta Arttihara. The donee 
belonged to the Sdndilya Gotra with the three pracaras Varhas- 
patya, Tamadagni and Devalya. He immigrated from 



V I 

x i 


(1) Represented by symbol (2) The plate reads it ft 

(3) Bead * ft I (4) Tbe metre is 

(5) The plate reads *s^fe I (6) The plate reads 

<7) The metre is WTj'*foft%8M (8) The metre is 

(9) The metre is 



LI. 1-4 Hail ! from the victorious camp, established at 
Guhesvarapataka, which always shines, as it were, with the 
beauty of the beginning of autumn on account of innumerable 
white umbrellas like the rain-clouds, scattered about ; on 
account of manes of (white) horses like opening K'asa flowers 
and on account of the diffused fragrance of the rut of 
ruttish elephants, resembling that of Saptacchada flower. 

LI. 4-7 There was a king, named Srimad-Unmatta- 

t The plate reads 9 I 

(10) The metre is q^fofrb I (11) The metre i 

(12) The metre is TO33&I3R6 I (13) The plate reads 

(14) The plate reads ftftifcf: I (15) The plate reads 

(16) The plate reads Jrabn* i (17) The plate reads 

(18) The plate reads &' \ (19) The plate reads 

(20) The phrase is unintelligible. (21) Bead *T I 

PLATE K (Reverse) 


simba who had great liking (rue/) for satisfying the wishes of 
all (sarvvaSa-paripurana) who delighted the people by re- 
dressing their miseries ( fapamastannayan ) who extirpated 
ignorance ( lama ), opposing the wisdom ( sad-drsii ) who 
acquired the ever-lasting renown and who thus resembled 
the Moon, covering all regions (sarvoasaparipurana) with great 
lustre ( ruci ), delighting the people by dispelling the heat 
( tdpamastannayan ), possessing the ever-lasting renown and 
extirpating the darkness (tamo), opposed to good sight (sad- 

LI. 7-11 In his family (oamsa), there flourished the 
kings, such as Gayada and others who being well-behaved 
(sad-vrtta), peace-loving (sukha-sltala), affable (saiigata) and 
peerless in quality (anindita-guna) resembled pearls, which 
coming from bamboo ( vamsa ) are nicely round ( sadvrlta), 
pleasurably cool (sukha-sltala), joined together (sangatd) and 
strung in beautiful strings (anindiia-guna) and who lovers 
as they were of the pose in embracing the necks (of lovely 
women) were carried away by the ladies of heaven, who atta- 
ched them to their own bodies like necklaces to assuage the 
agony of their hearts. 

LI. 11-14 In that family there flourished the power- 
ful and renowned king Sri Lonabharadeva, who made scholars 
happy and was the very sun, as it were, to the moon-like 
faces of the wives of his enemies and whose flames of fire- 
like great valour destroyed the arrogant kings in all quarters 
and spread quickly wherever they willed. 

LI, 14 16 His son, named Kusumahara who art- 
lessly put his feet on the crests of numerous prostrate kings 
and whose name conveyed its derivative significance, because 
he spread and filled all quarters with the fragrance of his 
(flower-like) qualities became the king. 

LI. 16-18 After him, his powerful younger brother 
Lalitahara assumed the burden of the earth and shone like the 


great lord of snakes. The overflowing stream of his fames 
whitened even the black-collyrium-tainted tears of the wives 
of his enemies. 

LI. 18-20 When he had gone to heaven, his son, 
named Santikara, became the ruler of the kingdom and lived 
happily as fearless he was after the extirpation of all adver- 
saries by him. 

LI. 20-26 The village Desala has been granted by 
means of copper-plate, executed at Sakemba on the Sankranti 
day to Bridharabhatta, the son of Nitebhatta and the grandson 
of Bhatta Arttihara, belonging to the three pravaras Varhas- 
patya, Yamadagni and Devalya of Sandily Gotra and immi- 
grating from Kolafica, for the increase of merits of Bri 
Dharmmamahadevi and of her parents. 

.So, vat 






tt X 

? . 3 

Aet 4 




( YEAR 180) 

This plate was preserved in the office of the Collector 
of Ganjam and is now deposited in the Madras museum. It 
was edited by Dr. Kielhorn in the Epigraphia Indica. Vol. VI 
(pp. 133140). 

The genealogy of this plate is quite same as that 
of plate N. But the editor misread Hri MangapMa (/. 7), 
Kusumabhara (/. 13) and Lalitabh&ra (/. 13) instead of Frimad- 
Gayada, Kusumahara and Lalitahfira. 

The plate was issued from Guhesvarapataka. It records 
the gift of the village of Vilvat in Purvvakhanda of the 
Varada-khanda visaya in Kongada-mandala, made on the occa- 
sion of Samkr&nti to pratihara Dhavala, the son of V*isude(va*) 
and the grandson of Apratidaghosa. The donee belonged to 
the anupravara Audala and to the pra\>ara Devarata of the 
Visvamitra gotra. He was a student of Kanva sakha and an 
immigrant from Vehgipataka$. The plate was executed on the 
15th day of the dark fortnight of Margasirsa in the year 180. 

The numerical figures of the day were read 5(?) by 
Dr. Kielhorn. Dr. Bhandarakar has not revised nor accepted 
this reading (vide, E, I. Vol XX, Appendix p. 193. No. 1413). 
I find after scrutinization that the word vadi is succeeded by a 
perpendicular stroke, which can be read 1. Then follows a 
similar stroke with a curved right limb. I read it 5. Thus 
the day is 15 and not 5. I need mention here that the said 
perpendicular strokes are slightly curved and therefore distinct 
from the mark of punctuation, found in other places of the 
inscription under discussion. 

+ The editor read Villa $ The editor read Viflgipataka. 

Dr. Bhandarakar reads 280 <vide, E. I. VoL XX, appendix p. 193, 
No. 1413) 


The village was divided into four parts out of which 
Dhavala, the donee, gave away one part to the Brahminst 
on the occasion of Samkranti. 

The boundaries of the village are described. The villages 
Hondala and Khairapata are mentioned among the boundaries. 
But other place-names, except the peak of a hill on the 
north of the boundary, are not legible. 

The plate was engraved by 8tambhaka. Mahasandhi- 
vigrahi UgrMitya, Pratihara Prabh&sa, Mahaksapatal(ika*) 
Nr(simha*) and Kanaka Dana(na)rnava$ were the officers. 
It should be noted here that the word Ranaka (/. 39) is 
preceded by a word, which has been read as punaka by the 
editor. I am tempted to read it as punatra. It is probable 

that puna, the Oriya form of the Sanskrit puna/6 has been 
used here. 

The prasasti was composed by the poet Jambhana, the 

son of Jay&tmana. He composed the praSasti of plate N. 
But the last portion of prasasti, beginning with Ya raja-candra 
in /. 19 and ending with laksmlh in /. 25, of plate N is not 
found in this plate. 

The peculiarity of this document lies in the fact that the 
order was addressed to pratyeka-Mahastimanta-sthana-karji- 
pramukha-nioasino J ana pa Jan of Purvvakhanda in the Varada- 
khanda visaya (I. 27) and not to Mahamahattara &c. as 
found in other plates. Again a line of the imprecatory verse, 
beginning with soadanat and ending with anupalane, is omitted 

in this plate. 

The places, mentioned in this plate, can be identified 
as follows : 

Vilvagrama Z.Belagan (19-20"N, 84-5rE) in 
Athagarh Taluk of Ganjam. 

Hondala LHundalu (18-3"N, 84. -53"E) in Ganjam. 

A portion of the Ganjam district, near Aska, is still 
* called Purvvakhanda. 

f The text ia 'Vra<Bra)hmana<m-u^ddeSe' ; published reading is 


Sambhaka. $ The editor read Danalavn, 

PLATE M (Obverse) 


This plate was preserved and is now deposited along 
with the preceding one Dr. Kielhorn edited it in the 
Eptgraphia Indica, Vol. VI (pp. UO 142). 

The prasasii and the genealogy of this plate are same as 
those of the preceding one. But the name of the poet, who 
composed the prasasti, is not mentioned in it. 

The village Rasambha* in the Arttani visaya of Kongada- 
mandala in Daksina Tosalat was granted by this plate on the 
occasion of ut tar ay ana to Bhattaputtra Purusottama of the 
K&fyapa gotra, with the pravaras K&fyapa, Avatsara and 
Naidhruva. He was a member of the Vajasaneya ozrana and 
a student of the Kanva s&khd. 

Purusottama, the donee, made over half of this village 
to Ravika, belonging to the pr a oar as Audaly, Vi^vamitra Und 
Devarata of the Kausika gotra. The plate is not dated. It 
was issued from GuheSvarapataka. 

The plate was written by Mahaksapatalika Bhogada and 
engraved by Kanthakaka. 

Of the localities, mentioned in this plate, only 
Rasambha can be identified with Rambha in the Khalikota 
Taluk of the Qanjam district. 

The editor nag <Ga)ra*ambh!, I tbink there is a mark of punctuation 
and not *h letter Ga. t The editor misread as Ko&la. 


(YEAE 187) 

This plate was in possession of Gobind Sarangi, an 
inhabitant of Kumurang, near Banpur in the Puri district. 
Hie late H. Pandey, B* A. edited it in the Journal of the 
B&ar and Orisfa Research Society Vol. V (pp. 564577). 

The plate was purchased for Baripada musuem in 1932. 
Since then I have got the full advantage of examining it. 

I visited Kumurang on various occasions and heard that 
a potter, while preparing the clay, unearthed this plate at 
Ghantaftla about 70 years ago. He subsequently gave it to 
Pandit Dasharathi Kabichandra, the grandfather of Gobind 
Sarangi, to decipher it. 

Ghantaila, the find-spot, is situated on the bank of the 
rivulet ali&. It contains a large number of remains of 
antiquarian interest. The broken brick-walls bear testimony 
to its past prosperity. The tradition, current in the locality, 
relates that in ancient times Ghantasila was the principality 
of the territory of Banasura. It should be noted here that 
Ghantasila is half a mile west of Banpur and one mile north 
of Kumurang. 

The seal of this plate contains the legend 'Srimad- 
DandimahMevi'. The form of and the figures on the seal are 
the same as those described in the prefatory note to plate H. 

It is described in this plate that there was a king, 
named Unmattasimha. In his family there flourished the 
kings, such as Gayada and others. Then Lonabhara, his son 
KusumaMra, the latter's younger, brother .Lalitah&ra, his 
(Lalitahara's) son Siintikara, and his (^antikara's) younger 
brother &ubhakara flourished successively in that family and 

PLATE M (Reverse) 


ruled the country. After fee death of tbe 
his queen ascended the throne. Then she was succeeded 
throne by her daughter Dandimahadevi, who issued the 
from Guhesvarap&taka. She is styled as Paramamaheifra*! 
Paramabhattankii, Maharajadhir&ja and Paramesvari. 

The document registers the gift of the village Kamntsas$ 
nagari in the Khidihgahara visaya of Kongadamandal* IE 
Southern Tosala*, made away to the Brahmins, named KakA 
Dugada, Vankullavaivova", lvara, Sarvvadeva and Vange& 
vara of different gotras including the Bharadvaja gotra. 

The village extended up to the boundary line of 
Vasimliccheda. It was bounded on the west by Paydda and 
on the east by a bridge (seta). It included Sottrabandha 
Samudrakarabandha (probably an embankment on the sea shore 
where taxes were being levied), the village, called Mahakalt 
goara and a Tola (palm) tree. The suffix nagari. added to the 
name, indicates that the village contained a large population. 

The village Kamntasara. is probably identical witt 
Ghantaila, the find-spot, which is about 5 miles west of tin 
Chilkalake. Khidingahara can be identified with Khedaj- 
hari which is about 10 miles north-west of the find-spot. 

The plate wad executed on the 12th day of the brignl 
fortnight of Jyaistha in the year 187. The numerical symbol 
denoting 100 and that denoting 80 are quite similar, in . fora* 
to those found in the plate L. Dr. Kielhorn has rightlj 
interpreted them as 180. But Dr. Bhandarakar and the late 
Fandey interpreted them as 280* and 380 respectively. Aftei 
careful scrutinization I have accepted Dr. Kielhorn's inter 
pretation as correct. I need mention here that the digital 
has been expressed by gra which is also found in plate P. 

The readers should take note of the fact that the si 
of woids /$&,* in /. 38 and etc in /. 45 represent 

194, 14116, 


Onya pronunciation of the Sanskrit jyaistha and tied res- 

The plate was engraved by D&modara, the son of 
Devadatta. Mahaksapataladhikrta lUnaka j?ri BhuBananaga 
and Mahaksapatalika Bhogi Padmasena are mentioned in the 
plate. The great poet Jambhana, the son of Jay&tmana, 
composed the text. 

The text, running on //. 1-20 of plate K, has been 
reproduced in //. 1-14 of the present plate. I need not there- 
fore reproduce below this portion of the text. 


- - II 

(1) The plate reads ft?rnft I (2) The metre is 
(3) Themetreis4*Pffft9*| (4) The msfcre'is 
(5) The metre is aq^ | (6) The metre is 3 



(7) The metee is 
(9) The metre is 

I (8) The metr6 is 
I (10) Superfluous, 




^f itil 8 ^ MI 

x ii flsin ?[Fai^n $ M^it i 
*. i 

HOT 5^u w 

t &<^L -M..- 

**9 wvi wnf 

: i ru3r*<^] ^r: u 

Beadlftl (13) The metre is 

, Tl^e metre is gfamrr I (15) The metre is 
The metre is 9^ I (17) Bead TO, | 



LI. 14-15. (3dntikara) acquired masses of glory and his 
behaviour was admirable. Then his younger brother, who 
was rightly called Hri ubh&kara, because he was the sole 
repository of all kinds of prosperity, became the lord of the 

LI. 15-17. When the king (^ubMkara) had departed 
for heaven, his queen (probably named Gauri) at whose lotus- 
like feet was prostrate the entire population (of the kingdom) 
and who shone, like (the goddess) Gauri, with the brilliance 
of glories, resembling the pure. (i.e. white) moon-beam, adorned 
the throne for a long time. 

LI. 17-19. Then her great daughter DandimahMevi, 
who does not lack in power, is ruling the country for this long 
period, shines like the indicating engisn (so to say) of the 
family of the Kara kings, which is long-lived (lit, tall) with 
unbroken (succession of) discendants. 

LI. 19-21. She possesses a person beautiful for its 
overflowing ambrosia-like grace (and at the same time she) is 
growing beautifully in her moonshine of glory as she is the 
royal moon (so to say). The brilliance of her lotus-like feet 
is reddened afresh unexpectedly witb the great splendour of 
rubies, set on the Maiijira (i.e. an ornament for feet) washed 
as the fresh red dye decoration (of her feet) by the tears of the 
formidable and hostile kings, humbled by her prowess. 

LI. 21-23. During her suzerainty in the world, jingles of 
sword (sllimukha) is confined to gardens (where silimukha, i.e. 
bees, hum) ; loose women (mukta) to necklaces (where mu&a, 
i.e. pearls, remain strung) ; leaning towards vices (doxasahga) 
to the moon (who has dosasahga, i.e. contact with night) ; 
enemical disposition (saJoesata) to learned men (on account of 
their liking for sadoesata i.e. debating) ; taking of oppressive 
tax (tlkma-kara-graha) to Rdhu (who devours nksna-kara i.e. 


the sun) ; terror to bad gems (for, very prosperous as the 
kingdom was no body would want them) ; and crookedness 
(kutilata) to profusely waving hair (which is kutila i.e. curly) 
of lovely women. 

LI. 23-25. She is a (lighted) candle of ambrosia, giving 
pleasure to eyes, anxious for good light ; (she) is a female 
swan in the lotus-tank of the assemblage of kings, devoted to 
her personal service ; (she) is the gold stick, as it were, used 
as the prop by (the personified) virtue, withered in the heat of 
Kali and to all suitors (she) is like the beauty of Nandana 
garden to gods. 

LI. 25-26 Paramamahesvari, Paramabhatt&rika, Mah&- 
r&j&dhiraja-ParameSvari Brimad-Dandimahddevi, who meditates 
on the feet of her parents is in good health. 

LI. 26-29 (She) duly honours, orders and intimates the 
present and future Mahdsdmantas, Mahar&jas, Rajaputtras, 
Antarangas, Kumaras, Amatyas, Uparikas, Visayapatis. 
Xyuktakas, Dandap&ftkas, Sthanantarikas and others including 
the Cata-bhata class, living on the royal bounties in Southern 
Tosala and again the Mah&mahattaras, Yrhadbogis, Pustaka- 
palas, Kutakolas and Sadyadhikaranas in the Khidingahara 
visaya of Kongada Mandala. 

LI. 30-31. Be it known to you that the village KamtsarA- 
nagari, adjoining to the boundary of Yasimliccheda, with the 
additional taxes, such as taxes from weavers, cowherds, and 
^aundhika tennants and with hamlets, landing places, ferry- 
places and forests, being made free from all encroachments 
has been granted for the increase of merits of parents, self and 
all other creatures, to the Brahmins, named Kak&, Dugada, 
V&nkullavaivovd, ISvara, Sarvadeva VdngesVara, belonging 
to different Gotras including the Bhdradv&ja Ctotra, according 
to the principle of lekharii-pracesataya <S-c. and (it will continue) 
as lone as the Sun, the Moon and the Earth exist, 



LI. 34-36. This copper-plate has been executed by me 
according to the rules of Nlvldharma &c. on the 12th day of 
bright fortinght of Jyaistha in the year 187 and out of respect 

to religion it will be preserved by you. 
LI. 36-41. (Usual imprecatory verses) 

LI. 41.42 Let this order of rimad-Dandimahadevi 
continue as long as the nether lands, earth and heaven which 
contain the serpants, human beings and gods respectively 
endure. This eulogy has been composed with brief accounts 
by the great poet Jambhana, the son of Jayatmana. 

LI. 43-44. Kanaka Hri Bhusananaga is the Maha- 
ksapataladhikrta. Bhogi Fadmasena is the Mahaksapatalika. 
Damodara, the son of Devadatta, is the engraver. 

Ll. 44-45. The village Kalesvara, one palm tree 
Sottrabandha, Samudrakarabandha, the bridge in the east, 
and Fayada in the west all these have been given away to 
the Brahmins. 




The difficulties that hitherto hampered our conclusion 
regarding the chronology of the Bhauma Kings have been 
minimised now to some extent by the revised interpretations 
of the numerical symbols of the dates of plates. Moreover 
the newly discovered plates (H to K) throw much light on 
the chronology. I, therefore, hope to succeed now in recons- 
tructing the chronology of this dynasty with some certainty 
and precision. 

It can be said beyond a shadow of doubt that the donor 
of plate H and the elder brother of the donor of plate I are 
identical with each other, first because both of them are said 
alike to have been born to one Hiramahadevi, secondly the 
date of one coincides with that of the other and thirdly they 
assumed alike the name Subhakara ; again they are both 
said to be the great-grandson of one Tribhuvanamahadevi. 
Now in the light of the pedigree of the donor of plate BT, 
we find that Gayada I, Simhaketu, Gayada II and Subhakara II 
of plate I were also called Sdntikara I, Kusumahara I, 
Santikara II alias Lonabhara and Kusumahara II respectively. 

It is not stated in plate K that Unmattasimha's imme- 
diate successor was Gay&da nor that the latter's successor was 
Lonabhara. It can be assumed therefore that $ubhakara I, 
Simhaketu and Tribhuvanamahadevi, mentioned in plate I, 
are omitted in plate K simply for abridging the text. 


However, there arises no discrepancy ,Jif we identified Eusuma- 
h&ra and his younger brother Lalitahara of plate E with 
Pubhakara II and his younger brother Bivakara respectively 
of plate I. It is needless to say that Subhakara II is already 
proved to have been called Eusumhara II and therefore his 
present identification with Kusumahara of plate E is tenable. 

The engraver Rabhasavarddhana of plate G seems to be 
identical with the engraver of the same name of plate I. 
Apparently R&mavarddana, the other engraver of the latter 
plate, was the grandson of Harivarddhana, the other engraver 
of the former one. Hence it appears that the donor of plate I 
was removed in time from Tribhuvanamahadevi, the donor 
of plate G. This assumption is also borne out by the revised 
interpretation of the numerical symbol of the date of the 
latter plate. 80 we can unhesitatingly identify Tribhuvana- 
mahadevi, the donor of plate G, with Tribhuvanamahadevi, 
the great-grandmother of the donor of plate I. In that case 
Gay&da I of plate I, who is proved to have been called 
Santikara, appears to have assumed again the name Lalitahara. 
It is needless to mention here that Subh&kara, the son of 
Santikara and Tribhuvanamahadevi of plate E, is distinctly 
identical with Simhaketu of plate I. 

I am tempted to assume that the donor of plate A and 
the grandfather of the donor of plate E are identical with each 
other, because they are called alike Parama-saugata 
Subh&kara, It should be noted here that the donor of plate A 
is said to have quelled some disturbance, caused by his 
kinsmen (//. 3-4) and the grandfather of the donor of plate E 
is said to have caused family dissension (/, 5). The disturbance, 
mentioned in the former plate, has probably been alluded to in 
the latter "one. There is therefore ground to identify the donor 
of plate A with the grandfather of the donor of plate E. 

Harivarddhana, the engraver of plate B, seems to 'be 
identical with the engraver of the same name of plate G. 


Harivarddhana engraved the latter plate with the assistance 
of his son, but he engraved the former one without any one's 
assistance. It can be assumed therefore that the latter was 
removed in time from the former. This assumption is also 
corroborated by the dates given in these two plates. 

$ubhakara and his father Sivakara of plate B can be 
identified with personages of the same names of plate A and 
Sivakara, the donor of the former plate can be taken as the 
elder brother of Gayada I of plate I. I need mention here 
that Santikara of inscriptions C and B is identical with 
Gayada I of plate I, who is also called Santikara I, because in 
the light of plate E, which was issued in the year 103, the 
date of Gayada I can be assigned to the year 93. So we can 
put the chronology of the Bhauma kings in the order as 
shown in the succeeding table. 


Paramopasaka Ksemankaradeva, Maharaja 

Paramatath&gata ivakaradeva I alias Unmattasimha, MahZraja 

(Queen Jayavalidevi) 

Paramasaugata Subh&karadeva, P. P. M. P.* 
(Queen Madhavidevi) A. D. 660-61 

Sivakaradeva II, S&ntikaradeva I alias Gayada I 

P. P. M. P. alias Lalitahara I, P. P. M. P. 

A. D. 679-680 A. D. 699-700 

Queen Tribhuvanamahadevi, P. P. M. P. 
A.D. 716-17 

ubhakaradeva II alias Simhaketu 
alias Kusumahara I, P. P. M. P. 
A. D. 709-10 

Santikaradeva II alias Gayada II 
alias Lonabhara (Queen Hiramahadevi) 

Subhakaradeva III Sivakaradeya III 

alias Kusumahara II, P.P.M.P. alias Lalitahara II, P.P.M.P. 

A. D. 747-48 A. D. 755-56 

Santikaradeva III Subhakaradeva IV 

(Queen Dharmamahadevi) He was succeeded to the 

throne by his Queen 

(daughter) Dandimahadevi, P.P.M.P. 
' A.D. 787-94 

* Pantm$hegvara Paramabhaftaraka Mahii5jadhi*5ja-Param^vam, 


It is revealed by the Sonpur plate 1 of Kumara Somes*- 
varadeva that the donor acknowledged the supremacy of one 
Mahdbhavagupta who belonged to the Somavamfo ; he 
issued the plate from Suvarnnapura (modern Sonpur) in Southern 
KoFala which was granted to Abhimanyu by Uddyotakesari. 
We learn from the Baud plate 9 of Somesvaradeva II of the 
Cola lineage that the donor was the feudatory of CandrMitya 
and issued the grant from that very Suvarnnapura. This 
CandrSditya is identical with the personage of the same name 
of the Barasur inscription in the Central Provinces, whose 
date falls in 1060 A, D. 3 It can be concluded therefore that 
the supremacy of the Somavamsi kings ceased to prevail in 
Sonpur some time before 1060 A. D. 

TTe know definitely that the supremacy of the Gangas 
prevailed in Orissa in the last quarter of the llth 
century A. D. and lasted for a period of about four 
centuries. It is stated in the Ramafiala-carita by Sandhya- 
karanandi that Jayasimha, the general of Ramapala, defeated 
one Karnnakesari of Orissa and subsequently Ramapala 
bestowed Orissa on one Bhavabhusana-santati, that is, the 
scion of both the Moon and the Ganges. The Ganga family 
is said in the copper-plates to have emanated from the Moon 
as well as from the Ganges. It is prabable therefore that 
after the defeat of Karnnakesari by Ramapala, who is 
supposed to have flourished in the 2nd half of the llth 
century A. D. 4 , Orissan monarchy passed into hands of the 
Ganga kings. 

(1) E, I. Vol. XII, pp. 23742. (2) E. I. V 1. XfX. pp. 97-99. 

(3) Descriptive lift of inscriptions in G. P. and Berar by Rai Bahadur 
Hirelal, p. 144, No. 198 ; see also E. I. Nol, XIX, p, 98, footnote 3 

(4) J. B, 0. R. 8, Vol, XI, p, 538 


Weldarn from an inscription 1 of 1075 A, t D. that *be 

jGtanga king B&jarAja. subjugated a king of Orissa. It can be 

assumed now that Bajar&ja's opponent Jdng was Kairnnaksari 

-who .may have suffered defeat being simultaneously attacked 

by the general of Bamap&la from the north and by R&jaf&ja 

son of Anantavarm& ( Vajrahasta V ) from : the south. ;4.s 

-Ananta (cobra) is an ornament of Siva, I am tempted ,to 

assume that Bhavabhusana-santati of Bamapala-carita refers 

to B&jaraja. It appears therefore that Karnnakesari flouri- 

shed some time before 1075 A. D. 

Karnnakesari was probably a descendant of Uddyota- 
kesari, mentioned in the Sonpur plate of Soma vamsl Somelva^a- 
deva. I need not mention here that this Uddyotakesart was 
the same as the donor of Narasinghpur plate , who , is idercti- 
cal with the personage of the same name of the Brahmeswar 
stone-inscription 9 . It can be gleaned from Some^varadeva*s 
plate which must have been issued before 1060 A. D. that 
the donor's overlord Mahabhavagupta was a descendant pf 
Uddyotakesari-mahabhavagupta ; for, it is stated in it that 
Abhimanyu, who got Ko&ila from Uddyotakesari, was .not 
alive at the time of issue of the plate*. As the titles of the 
Somavamsl kings alternate between Mahabhavagupta arid 
Mah&slvagupta, SomesVaradeva's overlord Mahabhavagupta 
can be assumed to be the grandson of Uddyotakesari-mahabha- 
vagupta. Again it can be gleaned from the inscriptions that 
Uddyotakesari was a powerful ruler. He can be assigned 
therefore to 1020 A. D. at the latest when the Somavanisl 
supremacy in Orissa remained unimpaired. 

Uddyotakesari was 6th in. descent from Janamejaya, 
the founder of the Somavamsl supremacy in Orissa. Now 

<5) & I. Vol IV, pp. SL448 (8) J.B.O.R.S. Vl XVII, 

<7) JA.8.B. Vol. Vin (1838), pp. 557-61 



r; an average reign of 25 years to each ancestor of 
; we'^ 

i* - ' It may -we" BJe^ts|^ilftw'' : liere that 
>'the Slst 

year^o* ^y4ti l's to f l*li year ^tttmaratha's 1 l f 3rd year 
of YayAti IPs 1 * ^and 18th year of Uddyotmkesari's 13 . 
iA.ppafeiitljrthfif assumption that Xanamejaya ascended 'the 
throne in d5 . A. B cannot be far from iruth. 

' The accompanying facsimile-print of the . fragmentary 

stone-inscription at Govindpur in the Nayagarh State points 

taihefactfthat ; oneftanakesari was exercising suzerain power 

in : Orissa mV*be year '811 of an unspecified era. I am often 

"tempted to identify this Ranakesari with the younger brother 

of tte k>mavamsl Bai&r juna-mahasivagupta of the Sirpur stone- 

ioscri|>tidn 14 and take this unspecified era as the aka era. 

In the case of acceptance of the aka era the year 811 corres- 

^ponds to 889 A. D. Apparently the Somavam& supremacy 

'prevailed' ita Orfesa in the last quarter of the 9th century A.D. 

"The titles Paramabhattdraka, Paramamabe^vara, Mahd- 
r&]^hiraja and ParamesVara assumed by the Bhauma kings, 
point to the fact that they (Bhauma kings) had the suzerain 
powers. As the suzerainty of the Somavainsl kings and that 
of the succeeding Qa&ga kings prevailed in Orissa from the 
end of the 9th century A. D. .onwards, it can be assumed 
thatthe Bhauma family preceded the Somavainga. 

-Among, the Bhauma plates hitherto discovered, Dan<Ji- 
mahAdevi's plate N is the- latest The Brahmeswar stone- 
inscription discloses that Janamejaya 


'**l*tat*ifl'*' l ii'~'' 

' *&: 

(t) EX Vol. mi" p. 345. " s " (io) J.A.S.B. : (t9osx v<d. i; pp. 19-23 

(11) E. I. >tMII^ pp. 31445 OS) JAO.R^. VoL II, pp, 52-55 

(U) E,LVoLXm,pp.l*6 a^E.LV^XF, pp. 190-04, 

- ' *\ V '**.? . 


.*...,-- i,V . . - _ - 

f 0^1 .- i 

J I *- .Jl ' T i i ' > r ' 

assumption be tenable, Dan^imab&devl < can be, assigned to the 

Th plate G afeo throws light to some- 

Bbauma rule. TribhuvanamahMeri, the donrpis*aid <' 
in this plate to be the daughter of Rijamalla, the froaUt mark- 
of the so a them region. A^aia she is said in plate B to be- the 
daughter of the diadem of the Niga dynasty. Except 
PallavAmalla of the Pallava dyna4y, we find no other Iking' 
in the history of Southern India wifch whom Rijamalla^oaa 
be identified. The Pallava family is said to have emanated 
from a daughter of one serpent king. 15 The Pal lava people 
are also supposed to have belonged to Nag* race. 1 
Pallavaraalla is called Ksatriyamalla in an inscriptio^i, 1 7 
the word raja is a synonym of Ksatriya* , it can ba held; 
the latter has been substituted for the former, probably to, 
meet the exegenoy of the metre of the verse in the, text of i 
inscription. In support of such assertion I may v cite an> 
instance that Simhaketu, the name of the donor, has been 
substituted by Simhadhvaja in plate E. 

Pallavamalla is assumed to have flourished between- 
690-740 A. D. 1 8 Hence the date of his daughter Tribhuvaaa- 
mah^devi can belong to the same period, 

Another reference as to the date of the Bhauma rule is 
obtained from the Chinese source. Thanks to Professor Sylvan 
Leyiior bringing to light that the emperor of Ghina received 
as present the autograph manuscript of the Ganjafyuha, 
the. last section of the Budhaoatamsa, from the king of 
Orissa. 19 The name of this Mug of Orissa has been rendered* 
into the Chines language. Professor Sylvan Levi renders 
this Chinese translation into Sansbrit as well as into English. 

-*^.. r * ^ . /. - *,'<*'**'.. *,'_ ' . ' ' 'A 1 '-'.^ ' .-. " '. >i '-'r* 

(15) South Indian Inlcrtption.; VdL 11,^ > : 5dt^ 

Poadkheti 1917 (17) 8m& Xe^iiw. Jn<ptionf V^ II, p. 
(18) 33. -L Vtd. V, p. 157 


Abcttrtling r| to his renderings the name was Sabhakara ( Simha 
or one, who does vthal is pure, Lion. He indentifies thfa* 
Sttfchalcara Simha with the donor of plate A and suggests that 
th$ ntme of the said donor may be read as ubhakara and- 
1196*9 Subh&kara, which means the store of purity and not one, 
utko Joes what is pure* But no king under the name ubhakara - 
is -mentioned in the Bhauma plates, although several kings 
having the name Subh&kara are mentioned in them.* 
Apparently ubhakara, the name of the donor of plate A, 
caenot possibly be read as Subhakara. 

Pr4jna, a native of Kapis*&, had studied Toga at the 
monastery of the king of r Orissa and thence proceeded to China < 
where he reached before 788 A. D. He was entrusted there 
with the work of translating the Gandaoyiiha. But it is not 
kh j own whether Prajna's journey to China and the presenta- 
tion of the manuscript of the Gandaoyiiha by the king of 
Orissa were two connected ocourences. Assuming that they 
were so, we can identify the king of Orissa, known from the ' 
Chinese source, with the donor of plate I ; for, he is represent 
ted in his plate as a patron of Buddhism and his name 
Sivakara implies one, nho does tonal is pure. 

In the case of acceptance of Professor Levi's identifica- 
tion of the king of Orissa, known from the Chinese source, 
who may have flourished in 770 A. D. at the earliest, with the 
donor of plate A, we find that the date of plate N, which is 
138 years later than the former, falls in the begining of the 
lth century A. D. when the Somavamsl supremacy was 
prevalent in Orissa, Hence the identification, suggested by 
him, is not acceptable. Be that as it may, the king of Orissa, 
known from the Chinese source, seems to Have belonged to 
the Bhauma family; because in no other ancient ruling 
dynasty of Orissa such name as that of the sail! king is found. 
Ifefeoo & ettrf be said uatawitatiagly that a Bhauma king 
flourished ij^W&*te*t A. D, 

XfctfttS Oft* PfckTBS 79 

TKe^dnbr^f 'plftte A. has been identified wita'l6ttbhAkaraF 
I, whbse father is credited with the conquest of : the 
i that is South-West Bengal. The Bftla family 
rose to power in- Bengal in 760 A. D. It is not probable that 
alter i the rise of. the Bala power, the father of the donor of 
plate A, conquered -the R&dha country. Hence the date of the* 
said plate seems to be earlier than 760 A. D. 

It can be gleaned from T&rftn&tha's aeoount i that there > 
was a political chaos in* Orissa in the 9th century A* D., , 
several ruling: families trying to assume independence,* The - 
eradication of 'the Utkalas in Southern Bengal by Devapala 
infth&lst; decade of the 3th century A. D. as recorded in the 
inscription, fll lends support to TaranAtha's aeoount that 
there was no -powerful ruler in Orissa. So it 'can be assumed > 
tbft* the Bhrnuma rote terminated by about 800 A. D. 

It is stated in the Life of Hiucn Tslang that Harsa 
assigned' the revenue of 80 large towns of Orissa to the 
Buddhist monk Jayasena, who declined the offer. 89 Again, 
it is stated that after the subjugation of Kongada, Harsa 
returned to Orissa, where he was approached by some priests 
of Hinaydna, who denounced the doctrine of Hah&y&na, 
favoured ia< the Nalandft monastery, patronised by Hara. 
These ^priests urged upon Harsa , to convene a conference of 
the exponents both of Mahayanic as well as Hinayanic doctrines 
in order to decide whether the former doctrine is superior to 
the latter or vice versa. 93 Thereupon Harsa convened a con- 
ference at Kay akubja in which the Mahdyftii 

We get a glimpse of the fact 
that Harsa established supremacy, 
doctrine of Hinayan was very popula 
that Harsa's contemporary king of Oi 

(20) Ind. Ant VoL IV, pp, 360-69 

(2lj;He FSE4 of Bengal by R 0. Binerjee, c 


for* ft is not probable that a king, . who did . not , embrace the 
Binayanie faith, lent support to its spread -in his own country; 
I need not mention hero that in&neient times every, religion 
required the royal support to acquire popularity. 

Again it can be gathered from the above account that 
during the time of ascendency of the fflriayana, the caste 
system, denounced by the Hinayanists, disappeared from Orissa ; 
it may have been revived after the spread of Mahay ana, which 
seems to have penetrated into Oissa after the conference held 
at Kanyakubja. If these assumptions be tenable, Kseman- 
karadeya, the grandfather of the donor of plate A, can be 
assumed to be Haraa's contemporary king of Orissa ; because 
he is said to have revived the caste system. He probably 
embraced the Mahayanio faith after the assembly had been 
held at Kanyakubja and then revived the caste system in his 
own country (plate A). 

That the unspecified era used in Bhauma plates is the 
Harsa era is, therefore, not only probable but there is no other 
alternative. There is no ground to assume that the Bhauma 
kings started their own era. If any Bhauma king had started 
an era, he would have associated his own name to it. But we 
find no name in association with the era, found in the Bhauma 
plates. The forms of scripts, found in the Bhauma plates, 
preclude the reference to the Ganga era, which started 
in 496 A. D. 4 

There arises no discrepancy, if we accepted the Harsa 
era. according to which the year of plate A, corresponds to 
660*61 A. D. (603-07+ 54). Apparently the time of Ksemanka- 
radeva, the grandfather of the donor, coincides with that of 
Harga, It is needless to say that he was already assumed to 
be the contemporary of Har^a. 

In the case of acceptance of the Harsa era, the date of 


plate G falls in 716.17 A. D. when Pallavamalla, who has 
been identified with B&jamalla, the father of the donor of 
the said plate, was powerful in Southern India. Again accor- 
ding to the Har.?a era the year of plate N corresponds to 
793-91 A. D when neither the Somavam$ supremacy nor the 
political ohaos prevailed in Orissa. It can be gathered from 
plate N (/, 18) that the Bhauma family became extinct after 
Dandimah&devi, the donor. There is therefore ground to 
suppose that each of the minor ruling families of Orissa made 
efforts for its elevation to suzerain power in the 9th century 
A. D. We can^therefore. give credence to Tar&n4tha's account 
so far as it relates to the political chaos in Orissa. 

I need mention in conclusion that the era of plate L 
is taken as the Harsa era by the late Dr. Kielhorn". Dr. D. E. 
Bhandarakar is also inclined to take the era of ^the Bhauma 
plates as the Harsa era 16 -. 

(25) E. I Vol. VI, p. 134, foot-note. end 6 

(26) E. I, VoL XXr Append ^IftSi '!$ Mrtl |h iW Nft M16, 


'The origin of the Bhauraa family is shrouded in obscurity. 
In the *Purana$ several ancient ruling families are mentioned. 
But nowhere has the Bhauma family found mention. How- 
ever it is significant to note that one Bhauma tribe 4s mention- 
ed in the Puranas. It is stated in them that a king, named 
Guha, protects the Kalingas, M&hisyas and Mahendra Bhauma*' 1 , 
'The expression Mahendra Bhauma implies theBhaumas, inhabi- 
ting the Mahendra region. I need mention here that thfrhill 
ranges, extending from Qrissa .and Northern Circars to Gond- 
wana, the principal peak of -which in the Gap jam district is 
still called ACahendra, were, known as Mahendra-giri-mala : jin 
ancient times 9 . It appears therefore that the people, .inhabit- 
ing the hilly tracts of Orissa, have been referred to as Mahen- 
dra Bhaumas in the Puranas. It is needless to say that the 
people of the seaboard districts of Orissa have been mentioned 
as Kalingas along with the Mahendra Bhaumas in the Puranas. 

The BhuyanSf now inhabiting the northern hilly tracts 
of Orissa, seem to be the representatives of the Bhaumas of 
the Puranas. The word BhUyan can be taken as the variant 
of Bhauma, 

It is stated in the Mahavagga and Majhima Nikaaya of 
the Pali literature that two Bhiiyana Tapusa and Bhallika 
of the Utkala country, while on their way to Magadha with 
cartloads of merchandise, met Buddha at Bodhagaya who 
just emerged from deep meditation and offered him foods. 
Then they were initiated in Buddhism by Buddha himself. 
It can be gathered from this account that the Bhuyafis have 
been living in the north-west hilly tracts of Orissa since re- 

(1) Dyna*tH* of KaU B^e b/ Pttglter. 


mote past and they had come into the pale of civilisation 
e?en befora Buddha's time ; for, the Bhuyans would not have 
carried XTO lucrative trade with Jkfagadha, if they had not beep 
m civilised as Ma^adba of those days. We can, therefore! 
assume that the Bhauma family emanated from the Bhuy&ft 
tribe, This assumption is also corroborated by the fact that 
each of the Bhauma kings took a name after his grandfather 
as the Bhuyans do to-day. 

It should be noted here that the BhSfAos should not 
be confounded with the Bhumijas of the north-west hilly 
tracts of Orissa ; for, the Bhuy&os are ethnically and linguist!* 
cally different from the Bhumijas. It is the Bhuyans belonging 
to the class of land-lords who are identifiable with the BhujAffe 
of the Pali literature and with the Bhaumas of the Parana*, 

The editor of plate A suggested the connection of the 
Bhauma family of Orissa with the Naraka family, which 
traces its descent from the demon Nararka 8 of the Puranas 
who was a son of Visnu and Bhumi and in whose family 
flourished a king, named Bhagadatta. Apparently the demon 
Naraka was called Bhauma. There is therefore ground to 
connect the Bhauma family of Orissa with the Naraka family 
of Assam. But it cannot be assumed that the former family 
hailed to Orissa from Assam ; for, it is expressly stated in 
plate B that the Bhauma family emanated from amongst the 
people of Utkala. 

L. 3...Bhaumyasya mahati khyaie guna-mdl=Otkalc u/e n?- 
Xi. 4. f>=obhu,d=abhit(d)=af>urvt)=osmm... 

(In the well-known Utkala family of J&aumya having 
thft wreath of glories, there flourished an unprtoodented king X 

It can be gleaned from the above text that different Unfit 
of the Bhauma family wave ruling in different part* of India 
and the Utkala line of tttem waa Tory famous. 

piH.Vid.XU, p. 7 


Hie <Puranas* that Utkala and Gaya, born to IU, who was 
roaming in the forest, founded two kingdoms. The importance 
df this Paur&nic legend lies in the fact that these two king- 
doms lay contiguously in the hilly tracts and were ruled by 
the descendants of lid, It can be assumed now that thd des- 
cendants of 114 and the Bhauma people are identical with each 
other ; for, the word lid is a synonym of Bhumi and the south- 
west hilly portion of the Gaya District as well as the north** 
west hilly tracts of Orissa contain today the Bhuyan people, 
who have been identified with the ancient Bhaumas. More-: 
over a certain class of people in the tracts, lying to the south 
Of the Mahanadi, call themselves" Mati-oamsa (family sprung 
from the Earth). They are probably identical with the Bhauma 
people of the Puranas. It can be concluded therefore that 
the Bhauma people principally constituted the ancient Utkala 

It can be gleaned from the text running on //. 18 19 
of plate N that the Bhauma family ruled with unbroken con- 
tinuity for a pretty long time. Guha, who protected the 
Mahendra Bhaumas, is assigned to the 4th century A. D. by 
Pargiter. He is also said in the Puranas to be a non-Aryan. I 
am now, tempted to assume that Guha was the founder of the 
Bhauma rule in Orissa ; for, Guhadeva-pataka or GuhesVara- 
pajtaka, the place of issue of the Bhauma plates, seems to have 
owed its origin to Guha. I need mention here that the word 
pata implies generation in the Mundari language. 

The donor of plate H is said to be the final incarnation 
of Bharata, Bhagadatfca and Bhagiratha. ' Had the donor be- 
longed to the family of Bhauma Bhagadatta of Assam, he 
would have mentioned Bhagadatta in a different way. Again 
the Orissan Bhauma kings have addressed orders In one way 
and the Bhauma kings of Aassam in the other. Moreover .the. 
imprecatory verses of the Orissan Bhauma plates are not 

1 A. ^ 

6i? tfris j^Aictti^ 83 

found in the Bhauma plates of Assam. Besides the Bhauraa 
family of Assam professed Sahism and that of Orissa Buddhism 


Apparently there is no clue, which can lead' us to assume that 
the Bhauma family being ousted from Assam ruled in Orissa. 
It is recorded, in the Kathmandu Inscription 5 that the queen 
Rjyam*ti of 757 A. D. was the daughter of Harsadeva of the 
family of Bhagadatta and this Har^adeva was the king of 
Gauda, Udra, Kalinga and Koala. It does not appear from 
this statement that the Bhauma family of Orissa hailed from' 

It is worth mentioning that the Bhauma family has been 
called Kara family in some plates. The suffix Kara, added to 
the names of the Bhauma kings, became the appellation of 
the family in later times. 

We learn from plates I and J that Gayada II married 
Hiramah&devi, the daughter of Simhamana. I hold that 
Simhamana was a descendant of Udayamina, who founded a 
kingdom on the north-east of the Gaya District 6 ; for, there 
is found no other family in the history of India, the names of 
the rulers of which end in the mono suffix. Udayamana is 
said to be a merchant and not a Ksatriya in origin. The ma- 
trimonial alliance of the Bhauma family with the Fallava 
family on one hand and with the HAana family on the other 
points to the fact that the Bhauma family did not belong to 
the kwtrtya class of Aryan origin. 

<5> lad., Vol. IX, pp. 178 ff. (6) E I. Vol. II, pp. 343-47. 


It is described in tha Raghuoama by K&lidasa, who 
flourished in the 5th century A. D. that the soldiers of Raghu 
were shown their way to Kalinga by the people of Utkala 
alter they had crossed the river Kapi&, which is identical with 
the modern Oossai in the Medinapore district. The northern 
limit of Utkala seems therefore to have been demarcated by 
the Cossai in ancient times. But the Bhauma kingdom can 
be suppossed to have extended beyond the Oossai in the north ; 
first, because Unmattasimha is said in plates I and J to hare 
conquered the Bidha country, which is now represented by 
South-West Bengal and secondly the possession of Southern 
Bengal by the Utkalas in the end of the 8th century A. D. can 
be gleaned from an inscription of the Pala family of Bengal* 1 

We learn from plates F, L, M and N that the Bhauma 
kings granted lands in Kongada. Apparently they held 
supremacy over Kongada. But their contemporaneous ailod* 
bhava rulers of Kongada mention nothing in the plates as to 
the Bhauma supremacy over Kongada. The ^ailodbharas 
assumed no suzerain title, although they made land grants 
without referring to any overlords. The readers should tain 
note of the fact that Vinttatunga, who is known from plates I 
and J to be a feudatory of the Bhauma kings, issued also a 
grant without referring to his overlord. 9 It appears therefore 
that the rulers of minor families in Orissa enjoyed the right 
of granting lands without referring to their overlords during 
the Bhauma supremacy. Hence there arises no discrepancy, 

(1) The Pala* of Bengal by R. D. Banetjee, p. 65, vepe, 13. 

It is recorded in this veins that. Devapala eradicated the Uikalat 
from Southern Bengal. Evidently the Utkalai acquired Southern Bengal prior 
to Itefr eradication. (2) J.B.O.EA V*l VI, pp. 186-349 

titrttra Of T&E KlNGDOk 8$ 

if we assumed that the $ailodbhavas of Kongada acknow- 
ledged the supremacy of the Bhaumas. 

The places, mentioned in plate B, are now traceable in 
the neighbourhood of Pud. They are not said in the plate 
to have been included in the Kohgada-mandala. It is quite 
probable that Kongada lay to the south-west of Purl The 
hill ranges, running westwards from the Kaluparaghat Station 
on the Bengal Nagpur Railway, probably formed the northern 
limit of Kongada. It should be noted here that there is no 
pass through these hill ranges. Moreover the places, mentioned 
in the plates of the Sailodbhava rulers, are now traceable 
between Kaluparaghat on the north and the Mahendra 
mountain on the south. 

Subhakara I is said in plates I and J to have conquered 
the Kalinga country. I am tempted to hold that this conquest 
has been alluded to in the text, running on /. 7 of plate B. 
I suggest to read this text as follows : 

Ko-aJiimna<Ja-Kalihga-\)(b) adh-aradadhah 3 

(How could he sustain no injury in vanquishing the 
irresistible Kaliogas ? ) 

It is worthy of mention that no Ganga ruler of Ealinga 
assumed suzerain titles during the Palmy days of the Bhauma 
kings. However, assuming that the Bhaumas could not 
firmly establish their supremacy in Kalioga, we may conclude 
that the Mahendra ranges formed the southern boundary of 
the Bhauma kingdom. 

The Bhauma kingdom was known as either TosaU or 
Toaala.. In the Nalya-Sfotra Tosala is linked with Kalinga 
and Kosala*. This Kosala probably refers to Southern Kosala, 
which comprised the Sambalpur district. There is therefore 
ground to hold that the Bhauma kingdom was bounded on the 
west by the district of Sambalpur. I may mention in this 
connection thai; the places mentioned in plates E, I and J 
are now traceable in the proximity of the Sambalpur district. 
(3) The Utor read. "Kwii mvadal^i 9 riT dhinidi3bak"<4)Ck 15, V 27 


In the Dhauli rock edict of Bhuvaneshwar in the Far! 
district Afoka addressed the order to the Governor of Tosalt, 
while in the Jaugada rook edict of the Ganjam district he 
addressed the order to the Governor of Samipl It can be 
gathered therefore from the rook edicts .that the district of 
Ganjam was known as Samipi and not as Kongada and it 
was not included in the Tosali country in Afoka's time. 

Hiuen Tsiang mentions Wu-ch'a. It is probable that 
Ujra, the Sanskrit name of Orissa, has been written as "Wu-ch'a 
according to the Chinese pronunciation. But there is no 
mention of Toiali in Hiuen Tsiang's account, although Baja- 
sekhara mentions in his Kaoya-mmzmsa Utkala and Tosala 
as two separate countries 5 , Again Subhakara of plate B has 
been called Utkalendra ( lord of Utkala ) in /. 9, while the 
Bhauma kingdom is known either as To ?ali or as To.?all It is 
worthy of mention that Toiali as an extensive country (Amita 
Tosala) in Dakfinapatha is mentioned in the Gandaoyuha 9 . 
But K&lid&sa describes that the soldiers of Raghu reached 
Kalinga, proceeding through Utkala. It is probable therefore 
that the districts of Puri and Guttack were known as Tosali in' 
Afoka's time. During the supremacy . of the Bhaunu family 
the name Toaalt was applied to an extensive tract of land. 
Utkala probably lay to the north of the Vaitarani in Afoka's 
time. Again it can be gleaned from the Dhauli rock edict as 
well as from Kharavela's inscription that Toiali was a part 
and parcel of Kalinga. It was probably separated frdm 
Kalinga by the founder of the Bhauma supremacy. 

Tosali as a metropolis has been shown in Ptolemy's map. 
It is stated in the Gattfavynha that a hill, named Surabha, 
stands to the east of the city called Tosali and this hill con- 
tains numerous abodes of sages. Toiali seems therefore to 
be identical with Dhauli, where Afoka's rook edict exists. 

(5) Gaikwar'a Oriental Series, No. 1, ch. 17 p. 93 (6) Early Inscription! of Bihar 
y A.nan*pm*d Banerji Saatri M.A. <0al) D. Phil. (Oxon),p, 148 


The earlier plates of the Bhauma kings were issued from 
Ouhadevapataka while the later ones were issued from 
GuheSvarapataka. Apparently Guhadeva-pataka is the earlier 
and GuheSvarapttaka is the later name of the same town ; 
and evidently all plates were issued from one and the same 
place. Moreover it can be gathered from the description of 
the place of issue of plates that Guhevarap&taka was the 
capital of the Bhauma kingdom. 

It is described in the Oriya Mahabharala by Barala Das, 
who flourished in the early part of the I5th century A. D. 
that one Visnukara founded the rule of the Kara family over 
a holy land, called Bivapura, with the aid of Bhima, the 
brother of Yudhisthira. This Bivapura can be identified with 
Sivaddsapura, which is a part of Jajpur town in the Cuttack 
district. It should be noted here that the trace of an ancient* 
fort is now found at Bivadasapur. 

"We find in the Viraja-mahatmya the mention of some 
shrines, called KusumeSvara, Lalitegvara and I)an.disvara. 
Virajl is another name of Jajpur. But now there are no such 
shrines at Jajpur as Kusumevara, LalitesVara and DandisVara. 
They are probably extinct. However the names of these 
shrines seem to have owed their origin to Kusumahara, 
Lalitahara and Dandimahadevi of the Bhauma family. 

One Jayasimha issued a plate in Yamagarttamandala. 1 
The numerals of the year of an unspecified era are expressed 
in this plate by symbols. The editor of the plate interpreted 
them as 99. But I am inclined to interpret them as 73. 
However, Jayastmha seems to be contemporary of a Bhauma 
king. We find the following line in his plate : 

J.B.O.R.8. Vol. II, pp. 41749 ^^" 7 ' 


L.L Svasti 

This line implies that Jayasiniha got five great sounds 
from one residing on the bank of the Mandakinl But 
according to editor's interpretation the plate was issued from 
the camp, established on the bank of the Mandakiui. This 
interpretation is probably untenable, because there is no mark 
of punctuation after vasak^t- Again the place of issue is not 
mentioned in plates of the Tunga rulers of Yamagartta- 
mandala 8 . It appears therefore that the practice of mentioning 
the name of place of issue in the plate was not in vogue in 
Yamagartta-mandala, So we can assume that the recognition 
of rulership of Jayasiniha by one residing on the bank of the 
Mandakini has been alluded to in the line, reproduced above. 
In the case of acceptance of such an assumption, the 
Handakini becomes identifiable with the stream of the same 
name flowing at Jajpur. It appears also that Jayasimha's 
rulership was recognised by a Bhauma king, who can be 
assumed to be his (Jayasiniha's) contemporary, since 
Yamagartta-maudala wa* included in the Bhauma kingdom. 
It should be noted here that Vinltatuiga, who is known from 
plates I and J to be the feudatory of the Bhauma king, was a 
ruler of Yamagartta-mandala. 8 

Hiuen Tsiang mentions that on the south-west frontier 
of Orissa there is a mountain, called Pu-fpagiri where a stone 
stupa exhibits miracle. On fast-days it emits a bright light. 
The people from far and near flock together here and present 
as offerings beautifully embroidered canopies, Bodhisri is 
said in the Naga^nnakonda inscription 4 to have erected a 
monastery in the Puspagiri. We learn from the Tibbetan 

(2) J.A..S.B. (1W VoL XH pp. 181-95; Ibid, VoL V (1039) pp.347-50 

(3) J.B.O.&S. Vol. VI, pp, 236-40 


account that Bodhi&i practised Yoga at Batnagiri*. Now if 
Puspagiri is identical with Batnagiri, we can hold that the 
capital of Orissa was situated somewhere near Jajpur. I need 
mention here that there are lying a large number of Buddhist 
sculptures at Batnagiri in the Outtack district. 

The engraver of plate B was a resident of Viraj&, which 
is distinctly identical with Jajpur, It can be concluded 
therefore that Jajpur was the capital of the Bhauma kingdom* 
In that case, Guhe6varap&taka can be identified with 
.Godhanes*varap4tan&, which is half a mile from the aforesaid 
SivadSsapura. Guhevara was probably transformed into 
Godhevara in later times. 

(5) Pag Sam Jon Zang by Pal jor, edited by Rai Bahadur 8*ratchnndnv 
Das, B, A., C. I. $. 



It has been pointed out in the prefatory notes to each of 
the plates that some Sanskrit words are written in the plate 
after the fashion of oriya pronunciation. The names of the 
kings, such as Unmatta and Lonabh&ra, seem to be the Pr&krta 
forms of Sanskrit Unmatta and Lavanabhara. Hiuen Tsiang 
mentions that "the words and language (pronunciation)" of 
the people of Orissa differ from those of Central India. He 
mentions further that the people of Orissa "love learning and 
apply to it without intermission." It can be concluded 
therefore that Oriya as a distinct Provincial language came 
into existence during the Bhauma supremacy. But it was 
not used as a literary language. The Gan^avynha, which 
was presented to the Chinese emperor, is written in Sanskrit. 
The texts of plates are also in Sanskrit, Apparently Sanskrit 
was used in the courts as well as in the literature of Orissa 
during the Bhauma supremacy. 

The rhetorical style of composition of the texts of plates 
points to the fact that the Sanskrit culture was in a flourishing 
state in Orissa under the Bhauma kings. Moreover it can be 
assumed that the love for rhetorical composition in Orissa is 
not of later origin. The rhetorical composition which charac- 
terises the ancient Oriya literature owes its origin, in all pro- 
bability, to the Sanskrit literature of Orissa. It should be 
noted here that Vivantha Kavir&ja of Orissa who flourished 
in the 13th century A. D. must have drawn inspiration from 
the environment to write his famous treatise on the rhetoric, 
called Sahitya-darpana.* But to our misfortune the Sanskrit 
works, written in Orissa in ancient times, have not been 
hitherto brought to light. So now sufficient data are not 
available to trace the origin and development of the Oriya 
rhetorical composition. 

* a a 71 onai No 2. w>, 146-47 


We learn from lines 7-8 of plate G that various temples 
and monasteries were built during the reign of the predecessors 
of the donor. In inscription D there is also a reference to the 
construction of a temple during the reign of a Bhauma king. 

According to Rai Bahadur R. Chanda's view the date 
of sculptures, found at Ratnagiri, goes back to the 8th century 
A. D. The date of R&meSvara temple at Bhuvaneshwar has 
been assigned to the 8th century A. D. by the late Professor 
R. D. Banerjee 1 as well as by Rai Bahadur R. Chanda*. We 
find in Hiuen Tsiang's account that there were 50 deva temples 
in Orissa in the 7th century A. D. There is therefore ground 
to hold that art and architecture flourished in Orissa during 
the Bhauma supremacy. 

(1) HUtory of OrUii. Vol. II, p. 

(2) Aa*u*l Beport of Archaeological *umy of Ifldia, 1923*34, *> ifQ. 


It is significant to note that we get a glimpse from plate 
D as to the price of rice during the Bhauma supremacy. This 
plate discloses that the price of 6 adhakas of husked rice was 
4 panas of cowries (II. 23-24). The adhaka, now called atfa, is 
used even now in Southern States of Orissa to measure the 
grains. We can take 6 adhakas as 4 seers. Again the value 
of cowry can be ascertained also from those States. Although 
the cowry is not now used there as a coin, yet the poor rural 
people equal the value of a pice to 2 panas of cowrie* ( 80 
cowries make one pana), while shopping. They often ask the 
shop-keeper for salt worth one pnna and oil or such like 
worth another pana after paying a pice. Again Sir W. W. 
Hunter mentions that 4 kfihanas^ of cowries were taken as the 
official rate of exchange per rupee 9 (one pana to a pice) when 
the British Government obtained Orissa. But this rate was 
complained of, on the ground that the value of a rupee is 
equal to 5 or 7 Kahanas (l or if panas to a pice). The fluc- 
tuation in value of silver was often responsible for that in the 
rate of exchange of cowrie* in ancient times. We may, 
therefore, take 2 panas per pice as the lowest standard value 
of the cowry. Hence it can be concluded that the husked rice 
was selling at the rate of 4f seers to two pice during the 
Bhauma suprema'cy. 

(1) 16 POQ&S make one 

<S) History of China by W. ft; Hotter, > 827, foot-note 32. 


It has been pointed out in the previous pages that the 
Hinayana sect of Buddhism predominated during the early 
part of the reign of Ksemankaradeva and the Mah&y&na sect 
obtained a stronghold subsequently in Orissa. We know that 
^ubh&kara I and his predecessors were all Buddhists. But 
it is significant to note that Tribhuvanamahadevi, the 
daughter-in-law of Subhakara I, was a devout worshipper of 
Visnu (plate H, /. 14 and plate G, /, 23). ^Her son Subhakara 
is known from plate E to be a patron of Paivism. The sudden 
change of the religion of the Bhauma family was probably 
due to its matrimonial alliance with the Pallava family. 

The donee of plate G propitiated the Lord of Clouds and 
brought down the rain probably by performing the Vedio 
rites. The observance of Yedic rites by the Bhauma kings 
can be gathered also from the description of place of issue 
of plate H. It can be concluded therefore that different 
religious sects flourished side by side in Orissa during the 
Bhauma supremacy, 

Prajoa, who was born in KapL4a on the western verge 
of the Indian World, is said to have studied Yoga in the 
monastery of the king of Orissa prior to his journey to China. 1 
It is also recorded in the Tibbetan account that Bodhi&i and 
Naropa practised Yoga at Batnagiri in Orissa. 3 Again we 
find in the Ganjavyuha that Sudhana, the disciple of Manju&i 
was advised by Acalasthird to go to the Surabha hill 
in Tosala to study Yoga. 8 Although I have not seen the 

..... . .. . . .^ _ _ 

(1) El. Vol. XV. p. 364. (2) Pag 8am Jon Zang, Part 1 by Pal. Jor. 

edited by Rai Bahadur Safat Chandra Das B.A.OlE. 
(3) Early in tcriptioni of Bihar and Oritia. , 

OBISSl ttNIK&B Tflfl 

which treats of the practice and the vow of the 
Itadhisattva-Samantabhadra, yet I gather from the brief note 
on its subject matter that it inculcates the Yoga system. We 
find abundant teachings on the Yoga system in the ancient 
Oriya Literature. The Yoga system is surviving now in the 
Ativadi sect of Vaisnavism, founded by Jagannatha Basa of 
Orissa in the 16th century A. D. It is probable therefore 
that foe Yoga system was elaborated in Orissa during the 
fihauma supremacy. 


The Bhauma kings bestowed on the grantees the rights 
over additional taxes (uparikara), weavers (tantrav&ya), 
cowherds (gokuta),* distillers of spirituous liquors (laun^A/^a), 
hamlets (sakheta), landing places on the bank of the river 
(ghatta), ferry-places (nadltara-sthdna) and thickets (gulma^a). 

We do not know what right was over the weaver*, 
cowherds and the distillers of spirituous liquors. The majority 
of the population of a village must have been formed by the 
agricultural people. But they are omitted and the people 
whose number was, in all probability, very insignificant, are 
mentioned. We can assume therefore that there was no need 
of mentioning the names of tenants, who were paying the land 
taxes ; because the gift of the village implied the bestowal of 
right of enjoying the land taxes of the village. But it did 
not expressly implied the taxes levied from the weavers for 
weaving cloths, from cowherds for tending cows on the State 
land and from the ^aundhikas f or distilling the spirituous 
liquors. Hence the right to these taxes can be assumed to 
have been bestowed to the donee by the specific mention of 
those people, liable to pay such taxes. The right over the 
ferry-places, thickets and landing places probably refers to the 
collection of toll, forest* cess and license fee from the boat- 
men respectively. Evidently the treasury of the Bhauma 

kings was replenished by the revenue, collected from various 

The description of boundary of the village as found in 
plates (E and I) points to the fact that some sort of survey was 
in existence in the Bhauma kingdom. The stones were plan- 

* pu> 0riy twm Gau^a hap, probably, tera SanfkritJH- 


ted to demarcate the boundary of the village. A group of 
villages formed a uisaya which probably corresponds to the 
modern pergenna. Several visayas formed a man^ala, corres- 
ponding to the modern district. 

In the list of officers, found in the Bhauma plates, the 
Mahasamanta is followed by the Maharaja. If we assume that 
a S&manta was similar in status to a chieftain, then it would 
appear that a Mahasamanta was a lord of chieftains. A 
Maharaja was no doubt superior in status to a Mahasamanta 1 
and he was probably the supreme ruler of a mandala. 1 It is 
therefore significant to note that the officer of inferior rank 
is preceded. by .that of superior rank in the list. 

The Damodarpur plates, 9 belonging to the reign of 
Kum&ragupta, disclose that Kumaramtya Vetravarman was 
appointed by Uparika Maharaja Jayadatta to carry on the 
administration of head-quarters of Kotivarsa visaya. It appears 
therefore that the title of Uparika was superior to that of 
Kumaramatya. But in the list of officers of the Bhauma 
plates the .title Uparika is preceded by Kumaramatya, 
Hence the assumption .that the officer of superior rank is 
preceded by that of inferior rank in the afore-said list is 
thus corroborated. But in the case of acceptance of such an 
assumption the Uparika having the 7th place in the list 
appears to be superior in rank to that of the Maharaja having 
the 2nd place. As the case was different, I hold that the seven 
different groups of officers including the feudatories are entered 
in the list in a peculiar order. The superior group of 
officers probably preceds the inferior in the classification while 
ip each group, the officer inferior in rank preceds the superior. 
I am therefore inclined to classify the officers as follows. 

(1) A Maharaja could address hi* or.ler to a Mahasamanta. (see J.B.O.B.S; 
Vol. XVI, p, 181). But no Mahaaatnanta could address his order to a 
Maharaja (see ibid VoL II, p. 397). Apparently the latter wap 
superior in statu* to the former. 



Group I. 

(1) Mahds&manta (lord of chieftains) 

(2) Maharaja (supreme ruler of the district) ' ., 

* .' . 4 * J . 

Group II. , .'.' r } 

(I) Rajaputtra ( descendants of degenerated ruling 
families). In Orissa a class of people call themselves Tfo/puf, 
which seems to be the contracted form of R&japuttra. Prior 
to the conquest of Orissa by the British Government the 
militia of the country used to be recruited from amongst these 
people. The tradition relates that the Tfc/pufe are the descen- 
dants of some ruling families. But now there has bee a a 
tendency in Orissa to trace the derivation of Rajput to Raj- 
putana in Northern India, supposing it fancifully to be the 
place of immigration. (2) Antaranga (kinsmen of the ruler); 
(3) Kumara ( prince ). In Orissa the son of the younger 
brother of a ruler is still called Kumara. (4) Am&tya 
(minister). A Kumara carrying on the function .of minister 
was probably called Kumar&matya. (5) Uparika (probably 
.prime minister), A prime minister carrying on the function 
of a Maharaja was probably known Uparika Maharaja. 

Group HI, 

(I) Visayapati (chief of the tribe). In Orissa the head,- 
man of a caste is called visoi, which seems to be the contracted 
form of oisayapati. In the plates Visayapati is not associated 
with the officers of a visaya. I am therefore reluctant to take 
Visayapati as lord of a oisaya. (2) Ayuktaka (probably the 
lord of tribal chiefs). 

Group IV. 

(1) DAndapa^ika (police officer). In the ArthaSastra the 
law, relating to the suppression of crimes, is called dan4af>asa 
(of. Oriya Dcfycfvasi, corresponding to the modern village 
chowkidar. (2) Sthan&ntarika (probably the officer in charge 
of the criminal department). . ; 

""""*' ' ' ' 

Group V. 

(1) Cdta (irregular troops). (2) Bhata (regular troops). 
In Orissa the military attendant of a ruler is still called Bhata. 
(b) Vallabha (favourite of the king). 

Group VI. 

(1) Mah&mahattara ? (2) Vrhadbhogi (chief headman). 
In the Jtrtha&stra the headman of the village is called bhogl. 
(3) Pustakapala (record-keeper), now called Paiijift in Orissa. 

Group VII. 

(1) Kutakola (garrison, stationed at the fort). In the 
Arthasastra Ku f : a denotes fort. (2) Sadyadhikarana (commander 
.of the cavalry). 

Besides the above officers, the minister for war and peace 
was known Mah&sandhivigrahi (plate L). The officer having 
charge of supervision of work on gold and silver was desig- 
nated as MahAksapatalMhikrta. His subordinate was Mahft- 

The appointment of various officers .points to the fact 
that the Bhauma kings established a well-organised Govern- 
ment. Evidently the Bhauma age was one of the brilliant 
periods in the history of Orissa. 


Abhimanyu King 




Acalafithtra Buddldst 


Guha K 

80, 82 

Inandajiva Officer 
Anantavarma K 

A MM*4-/] f\ 

34, 36, 39 
13, 16, 19 


Harivarddhana 8, 23, 


13, 16, 19 
27, 31, 69, 70 
77, 78, 79, 83 

Apratidagnoa O 
Jrttihara Donee 

53, 54, 56 

Hiuen Tsiang 
Hiramahadev) Q 33, 

86, 88, 91 
35, 38, 41, 44, 
49. 68. 83 


A X.I... 

81, 82, 83 



Vv, WJ, W 




ISvara D 

61, 64, 66 

Balabhadra 23, 27, 31 
Balarjuna K 74 
Bballika S 80 
Bharadvaja Gotra 23, 26, 31,61, 64, 66 
Bhagadatta K 35, 38, 81. 82, 83 
Bhagiratha K 35. 38, 82 
Bharata K 35, 38, 82 
Bhimaratha K 74 
Bhimata 10, 11 
Bhoga<ja 59 
Bhuananaga 62. 64. 67 

Jagaddhara D 
Jalubhafta D 
Janamejaya K 
Jayasena S 
Jaynsiriiha B 
Jayavalidevi Q 

23, 26, 31 
58, 62, 64, 67 
41, 42, 45, 49 
58, 62, 64, 67 
72, 87, 88 





BodhiiH B 

88, 89, 93 

Ealinga 41,48,47,80, 

83, 84, 85, 86 







Ka&kavira 12, 

13, 15, 18. 22 

Candraditya JET 





75, 76, 93 


76, 84, 93 



Karnnakesari K 


Dakinapatha 86 
Damodara 62, 64, 67 
Damodarapala . 34, 36, 39 
Danarnava 58 
Dandaiiki 2, 3, 4 
Dan^imahadevi Queen 57, 59, 61, 62, 
63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 74, 75, 79, 87 
Defela 53, 54, 56 
Devadatta 62, 64, 67 

Katyayanasa (? 
Kau^ika G 
Kola ca 
Kongada 21, 57, 59, 

21, 22, 59 
23, 27, 31 
42, 45, 50 
61, 63, 66 
53, 54, 56 
61, 63, 66, 84, 

ftfi fcfi 

Devakantba D 

21, 22 



_^_ m u^^^KJci Kn 

Devalaya Jota 


Kont -BDarii ^|J\O 1 


Devapala K 


JCVVllv' Bj|/IUci f^ \M^ ^^/* 

Koirtla V>V" 



42, 45, 50 



Dharmamahidevi Q 

53, 54, 56 

K^atriy ^ 
Kseman tL>^ , 


Dugada D 

61, 64, 66 

lT^?HTTTfi | 

IZTiiiTiQ ^^ "V 




xvuiiicl rf^ \ * 

Kiumm M/35, 


Gaaga . 72, 73, 

74, 78, 85 

LV,- && 

W R 
Of, Do, 

Gtrifeti / 





Gsid.vyuba W 75, 76,, 86, 03, 94 



' 63, 63, 53, 

<X 48,39,70 











Nitebhatia J) 





Palkvamalla K 
Pmjfia B 

Purufottama D 

Rajamalla JT 
Rajyamati Q 


' - - " 11 

- ;: ':.: ! 8 

. : 88 





12, 14, 18, 75 




10, 11 

3, 7, 21, 22 

53, 54; 53 

12, 13, 15, 18 


23, 24, 26, 30 

62, 64, 67 





76, 93 

12, 15, 19 

57. 58 



45, 50, 69 

41, 43, 47, 77, 84 


23, 25, 29, 75, 79 

. 86 


72, 73 . 

: 13,16,19 

4% 45, 50, 69 



i 17 

n * 34, 35, *7 

>; Ii2, 

D RO. "1C 9- ' 
Jf l/OTf 'Vt'y 

^rala Daw * "** ' %%$ ' g? 

Sarvvadeva 61, 64, 66 

Suiihaketu K 13, 41, 43, 47, 69, 7;6 
Simhamana K 41. 44, 49. 83 

givakara K 1, 4, 8, 41, 44, 48, 69, 70 
Somegvara "K 72. 73 

y r ** 

Siidharabhntta D 53, 54. 56 

Stambhaka O 58 

&ibbakara K \, 4, 8, 12, IS, 17, 18, 

OXI OC QQ /J | AC\ Aft AA />A fiA 
O3, O0| DO, 41, 4dj *l THOy DVj W*> 

CT 65, 68, 69, 70, 76, 77/85, 88, 98 
Sudhana B 93 


. 86,93 
34, 36, 39 


Suryapala D 

Tapuaa B 

Tribhuvana mahadevi Q 12.13, 14, 18, 
48, 08, 69, 75, 93 
Udayanjana JET 
Uddyotakesari K 

Unma^akegarj K 


Vaigvanara O 
Vamanapala D 
Vangefcraia D 

Vinltatunga & 


72, 73, 74 

23, 25, 28 

41, 43, 47, 52, 53, 

54, 60, 68, 84 


34, 36, 39 

61, 64, 66 

> 61, 64, 66 



42, 45, 50 
13, 16, 19 
57, 58