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Printed by A. & R. SpoVfiswoode,
TRANSLATED INTO PROSE
FROM THE ITALIAN OF
INTERSPERSED WITH EXTRACTS
IV THE SAME STANZA AS THE ORIGINAL
WILLIAM STEWART ROSE
W. BLACKWOOD EDINBURGH
AND T. CADELL LONDON
HENRY RICHARD, LORD HOLLAND,
Who, at a late period of my labours upon the " Furioso, '
suggested the present work as its necessary prologue.
KIND peer, who, mid the tempest of debate,
Hast gladly wooed and won the Southern muse,
Where, crowned with fruit and flower of mingling hues,
She in a grove of myrtle keeps her state,
This I had entered by a postern gate,
Like stranger, who no certain path pursues,
Or garden's lord, that hath his own to choose,
Hadst thou not shewn a better entrance late :
That portal led me to Morgana's * towers,
Where fierce Orlando found the dame at play;
And though, too fast for me, from fields of flowers,
She flies to savage waste, and will not stay,
It will content me but to paint her bowers,
If this be granted by the scornful fay.
William Stetvart Rose.
* See the adventure of Morgana, the type of Fortune, who,
flying from her garden into a wilderness, is taken by Orlando,
IT is many years since I first entertained a
vague idea of translating the Orlando Furioso,
and circumstances of little importance to the
reader, led me more recently to undertake it
in earnest. This work was again laid down ;
and afterwards resumed at the instance of a
distinguished friend; and by an odd coinci-
dence, I am indebted also to the suggestion of
another eminent person for the idea of the
present translation of the Orlando Innamorato,
which, I should observe, is intended to be
auxiliary to that, my first and greater under-
taking, though I need scarcely say, that the story
of Boiardo is a necessary prologue to the poem
It was my intention to have translated the
first mentioned work, exactly upon the model
adopted by Tressan in his version of the French
romances, a scheme afterwards executed with
so much better success, by my late excellent
friend, Mr. George Ellis, in his English work
of the same description. A further consider-
ation of the subject, however, induced me to
imitate them only in their general plan of illus-
trating a compendious prose translation by
extracts, without seeking to add poignancy to
this, by what might give a false idea of the tone
of my original. I recollected that I stood in a
very different predicament from that of either
of these authors; that, to compare my work
with ihe one, which is most likely to be familiar
to m\ readers, the ' Specimens of early English
Romances,' the originals are composed in a
spirit of gravity which can hardly be confused
with the gay style of the translator, and there-
fore nobody can be misled by the vein of plea-
santry which runs through Mr. Ellis's work,
and which is sure to be exclusively ascribed to
the author of the Rifacimento. This, how-
ever, would possibly not be the case with me, as
the Innamorato is in a great measure a humour-
ous work, of which I might give a false im-
pression, by infusing into it a different species
of wit, from that which distinguishes it; a
consideration which induced me to adopt the
scheme I have pursued in the following sheets.
This project is to give a mere ground-plan
of the Gothic edifice of Boiardo, upon a small
scale, accompanied with some elevations and
sections of the chambers ; which I have sought
to colour after jny original : or, (to speak more
plainly,) the reader is to look for the mere
story in my prose abridgement, while he may
form some notion of its tone and style, from
the stanzas with which it is interspersed.
The story indeed, which seems most likely
to interest the English reader, is that which
took a strong possession of the imagination of
Milton, who refers with more apparent en-
thusiasm to the Innamorato, than to the Furioso,
and whose apparent preference is justifiable,
if a richer stream of invention, and more con-
summate art in its distribution, are legitimate
titles to admiration.
In this latter qualification more especially,
Boiardo, however inferior as a poet, must be
considered as a superior artist to Ariosto ; and
weaving as complicated a web as his successor,
it is curious to observe how much he excels him
as a story-teller. The tales, indeed, of Ariosto,
(and the want of connexion among these is, in
my eyes, his most essential defect) are so many
loose episodes, which may be compared to
parallel streams, flowing towards one reser-
voir, but through separate and independent
channels. Those of Boiardo, on the contrary,
are like waters, that, however they may
diverge, preserve their relation to the parent
river, to which their accession always seems
necessary, and with which they reunite, pre-
vious to its discharging its contents into their
common resting-place. A short example may
serve to illustrate what I have laid down. A
damsel in the Innamorato relates to Rinaldo the
adventures of two worthies named Iroldo and
Prasildo, a narration which is interrupted, and
which, though good in itself, at first appears to
be an insulated episode. Rinaldo, however, after-
wards falls in with Iroldo and his friend; and this
history, thus resumed, unites itself naturally with
that of the paladin. It is thus that all the
stories are dove-tailed one into the other, and
form a mosaic, as striking from the nice
union of its parts, as from the brilliancy of its
Boiardo's art, though here indeed he cannot
be said to excel Ariosto, is as conspicuous also
in the direction of the strange under-current of
allegory which pervades his poem, as it is in
the distribution of his stream of story ; while
the sort of esoteric doctrines conveyed by it,
gives a mysterious interest even to what we
Such indeed is the case with many of the
fables of the Odyssey, and even of the Iliad ;
where the allegory, moreover, is always sub
servient to poetry, and poetry is never made
subservient to allegory. This remarkable
piece of judgment in the Greek poet has, I
think, been well imitated both by Boiardo and
Ariosto, and it is the neglect of this principle
which has made allegory so often offensive in
the Faery Queene of Spenser. The obtrusive
nature of this has been well compared by Mr.
George Ellis, in his Specimens of the early Eng-
lish poets, to a ghost in day-light. It is, more-
over, destructive to all character; for Spenser's
heroes being mere abstract personifications of
some virtue or vice, we almost always know
what they are to do, though their actions are
often unnatural, if considered as the actions
of human beings. Hence it is that we are
never entertained with pictures of manners in
the Faery Queen, while these form one of the
great charms of the poems with which I am
It may however be said with justice, that we are
to ascribe this more picturesque effect of allegory,
rather to the spirit of the age than to that of the
fabulist. For it is perhaps true that all early
fable is purely allegorical ; that this is by
degrees mixed up with other circumstances,
and it is in this mixed character that it is most
conducive to poetical effect. But in a later age
and later process of refinement, when there is
a greater tendency to abstract, allegory is stript
of her adventitious ornaments, and is at last
forced upon us in poetry, painting, and sculp-
ture, unveiled, or unencompassed by that sort
of pleasing halo which is necessary to give her
But whether we are to ascribe Boiardo's
success in this particular to the character of his
age, or to his own superior judgment, there is, I
think, no doubt about the fact, and there is, I
think, as little difficulty in conceding to my
author, upon other grounds, the praise of skill
in executing the singular work of which he was
This extraordinary man was Matteo Maria
Boiardo, count of Scandiano, and a native
of Reggio in the Modenese, who flourished
in the beginning of the sixteenth century.
These are circumstances the more worthy
of mention, as some of them tend to explain
what may seem most strange in the com-
position of the Innamorato ; such as the pro-
vincial character of the diction, and more
especially that careless and almost contemp-
tuous tone between jest and earnest, which dis-
tinguishes his poem. It is doubtless on this
account that Ugo Foscolo observes, in an in-
genious critique on the Italian romantic poets,
in the Quarterly Review *, that he tells his story
in the tone of a feudal baron ; thus applying to
him more justly what M. de Balzac has ob-
jected to another ; of whom he says, " qu'il
s'est comporte dans son poe'rne comme un
prince dans ses etats. C'est en vertu de cette
souverainte qu'il ne reconnoit point les lois,
et qu'il se met au dessus du droit commun."
After speaking of the mode in which he ar-
ranged his work, it is a natural transition to
the substance with which Boiardo built. This
shews strong internal evidence f of having been
* In an article purporting to be a review of Whistlecrqft's
poem, (now entitled The Monks and Giants,') and The Court and
Parliament of Beasts.
f- A single circumstance, which I cite, because it can be
appreciated by every body, would convince me that such stories
as are to be found in the Innamorato, were not the growth of
Boiardo's century. No author of that age could have imagined
the friendly ties of alliance and consanguinity between Chris-
tians and paynims, though such fictions are justified by facts:
taken, in the main, from the old French ro-
mances of Charlemagne, or rather from Italian
works, raised upon their foundation. Hoole
mentions one of these, called Aspramonte, &c.,
of uncertain date, and we have the titles of two
others, which were anterior to the Innam&rato,
one called Li fat ft di Carlo Magno c del Pala-
dini di Francia, printed in 1481; the other
printed in 1491, and entitled La Historia real
di Francici) die tratta deifatti dei Paladini e di
Carlo Magno in sei libri. Some indeed would
seem to deny that Boiardo had dug in these
mines, and would wish us to believe, that he
not only compounded but manufactured the
thus we learn from Gibbon that like relations existed between
Greeks and Turks, and (as we are informed by Mr. Lockhart,
in the preface to his Spanish Ballads, a work which presents as
striking pictures of manners as of passion) between Spaniards
and Moors. Nor need such things surprise us, though the
barriers which now separate Christian and Mahomedan,
render them impossible. Nations are like individuals, and
when they are brought into close and constant intercourse, of
whatever kind, their passions, good or bad, must be kindled
by the contact.
materials with which he wrought. Such at least
would appear to have been the drift of one,
who observes that Agramant, Sacripant and
Gradassso were names of certain of the vassals
of Scandiano. But if he means to insinuate
by this, that Boiardo was not also indebted to
the other source for his fictions and characters,
as well might a critic of to-day, contend that
the author of the Monks and Giants., who writes
under the name of Whistlecraft, had not bor-
rowed the idea of their cause of quarrel from
Pulci, because he has given ridiculous modern
names to some of his giants; or that he had
not taken the leaders amongst his dramatis
persona from the romances of the Round Table,
because he has conferred " two leopards' faces,"
that is, his own arms, on the single knight,
who perishes in Sir Tristram's successful expe-
But if Boiardo has apparently taken his
principal fictions from the romances of Charle-
magne, he has also resorted to other known
quarries, and ransacked classical as well as
romantic fable for materials.
This edifice, so constructed, which Boiardo
did not live to finish, soon underwent alteration
and repairs. The first were made by Niccolo
degli Agostini, and later in the same century
a second and more celebrated rifacimento of
it, from which this translation is composed, was
produced by Francesco Berni; whose name
has given a distinctive epithet to the style of
poetry, in which he excelled, and of which he is
vulgarly supposed to have been the inventor.
This man was born of poor but noble parents,
in a small town of Tuscany. He entered the
church, to which he had evidently no dispo-
sition, as a means of livelihood, and, though as
unqualified for servitude as for the discharge of
his clerical duties, spent the better part of his
life in dependence. He appears, however, to
have been blessed with a vein of cheerfulness,
which, seconded by a lively imagination, ena-
bled him to beguile the wearisome nature of
occupations, which were uncongenial to him;
and of this he has left many monuments in
sonnets and pieces in terza rima, (styled in
Italian capitoli,} consisting of satires and various
species of ludicrous composition. The titles of
many of these sufficiently attest their whim-
sicality, such as his Capitoli sugli Orinali, sidle
Anguille, his Eulogy of the Plague, &c. &c.
But the mode in which he has handled this
last subject, will give the best insight into the
character of his humour. Having premised
that different persons gave a preference to
different seasons- as the poet to the spring,
and the reveller to the autumn, he observes,
that one may well like the season of flowers, or
the other that of fruits ; but that, for his part,
he preferred the time of plague. He then
backs his predilection by a rehearsal of the
advantages attending this visitation; observing
that a man is in such times free from solicitations
of borrowers or creditors, and safe from dis-
agreeable companions ; that he has elbow-room
at church and market, and can then only be
said to be in the full possession of his natural
liberty. He has rung all sorts of changes on
this theme, and nothing can be more humor-
ous than his details.
These are worked up with singular powers
of diction, set off by great apparent facility of
style, and are no less remarkable for music of
rythm, richness of rhyme, and a happy boldness
of expression. In this respect there is some ana-
logy, though no likeness, between Berni and
Dryden; and the real merits of both are there-
fore imperfectly estimated by foreigners, and
even by the generality of their own country-
men. Many Italians, indeed, consider Berni
as a mere buffoon, which the English reader
will think less extraordinary, when he hears
(as Lord Glenbervie * observes, I think, in his
notes to Ricciardetto,) that such an opinion
has been entertained in Italy, even with regard
Better reasons may seem to palliate such a
mistake of the real poetical character of Berni,
than of that of Ariosto. Some of these are of
a general description, and others of a nature
more peculiarly applicable to his case. We
may observe, as to the first, that whoever in-
dulges his wit, in whatever species of compo-
sition, is usually misjudged; for wit, in the
sight of the world, overlays all the other qua-
lities of an author, in whatever act or pursuit
he may be engaged. Thus a great English
painter, single in his walk, and distinguished by
his various powers, is looked upon by the mul-
* I state this on Lord Glenbervie's sole authority, which is,
however, a weighty one. Such an opinion was probably
current when he first knew Italy ; but I should imagine it
could hardly be entertained at present.
titude as a mere caricaturist, even where carica-
ture is intended by him only as a foil to beauty ;
and orators have for the same reason sunk into
jesters in the opinion of the mob, though they
may have been equally distinguished for argu-
mentative discussion or pathetic effect.
But other and more particular circumstances
have tended to fix this character upon Berni.
Few men have a delicate perception of familiar
expression, and still fewer yet have a nice feeling
of the delicacies of prosody,
Untwisting all the links that tie
The secret chain of harmony.
Now it is for the bold, however dexterous,
use of language, and rythm, that Berni is
principally distinguished ; and hence, as the
means through which he works are imperfectly
understood by the majority of his readers, his
object has been frequently mistaken. I should
cite, in illustration of this, his description of a
storm at sea, which has been often deemed
burlesque, but in which the poet would be
more justly considered as working a fine effect
by unwonted means.
Let us try this question by the rules of ana-
logy. Men in all countries resemble one
another in the main, and where they are not
guided by a natural taste and judgment, lean
upon some rule, which is to direct them as an
infallible guide. Depending upon this, they
seldom consider that it may be narrow, or of
insufficient support. Thus an Englishman who
has learned to think about verse, by the help
of a few simple precepts *, which he believes
* For example, there is no rule deemed more absolute, and
yet there is none which admits more exceptions than the
maxim forbidding a line of ten monosyllables. For mono-
syllables, in French and English, are often such only to the
eye, such words being frequently, in both languages, melted
into each other. Hence many good English verses consist of
to be absolute, is taught to look upon the
double rhyme as suited only to burlesque
poetry. Yet Drummond's
" Methought desponding nightingales did borrow,
Plaint of my plaint, and sorrow of my sorrow ;"
and the description of him, who
" Saw with wonder,
Vast magazines of ice and piles of thunder," *
might be cited to prove what widely different
effects are produced by the same weapon, as it
s differently wielded. But, impressed with the
notions of the laws of verse which I have speci-
fied, that is, not knowing that almost all such
ten words, as that of Dryden, which will be in the recollection
of every body,
" Arms and the man I sing, &c."
and the French cite as beautiful a line of Racine, which
is composed of twelve,
" Lej ur n'est pas plus pur rjue k fond de moil civiir."
* I quote from memory.
metrical rules as have been alluded to, are
merely conditional, some Italians *, and certain-
ly, almost all English readers of Italian poetry,
suppose the triple rhyme, (la rima sdrucciola]
or dactyl, as it is called by us, to be as exclu-
sively applied to ludicrous composition in Ita-
lian, as the double rhyme is imagined to be
in English ; and this is perhaps one cause why
some of Berni's stanzas, which abound in triple
rhymes, have been so utterly misconceived in
England. Yet Berni and Ariosto have fre-
quently employed the versi sdruccioli where
they have aimed at a bold or pathetic effect,
though they have also undoubtedly been used
by them to heighten that of comic or sati-
rical composition. Caro the cotemporary of
Berni is even profuse of triple rhymes in his
translation of the JEneid ; lyric poets, after the
Thus Goldoni in one of his comedies introduces a man
improvising in triple rhymes for the sake of producing a
ludicrous effect. Goldoui, however, 'it must be confessed,]
is no authority in questions of language or of versification.
example of Chiabrera, often insert them in
the sublimest of their odes ; and one, who
lately died full of years, managed the rime
sdrucciole so easily, as to compose whole poems
with them, and with such dignity, both of
versification and expression, as (in the opinion
of a distinguished Italian friend already cited)
to vie with Tasso and Petrarch.
Now let a man keep such doctrines in mind ;
let him come to the consideration of Berni's
storm with a memory imbued with the sights
and sounds seen and heard in one ; let him
consider all circumstances of metre, not abso-
lutely, but conditionally ; that is, in their relation
to each other and the thing described, and he
will then, I believe, enter into the real spirit in
which the poet executed this description, and
contemplate him with very different eyes from
those with which he viewed him before.
Another cause of misconception, to which
I have already alluded, has probably more
misled the mob of readers of Italian poetry,
natives as well as foreigners. I mean the lan-
guage of Berni ; and as to this, certainly few
very few, are capable of appreciating his skill, or
even of making out his track. There is indeed,
I believe, no poet of any country, who has at-
tempted so difficult a flight; a flight of unwearied
wing, struck out with courage, and maintained
only by the most incessant exertion and care.
Traces of these are seen in what may be
called the charts on which he has pricked out
his course, and which, I understand, witness
as much to his diligence, as Ariosto's attest
the care with which he accomplished his most
extraordinary voyage. The documents to
which I allude, are the original MSS. of
the Innamorato, preserved at Brescia. As I
was ignorant of the existence of these, during
two residences which I made in Italy, I can only
speak of them on the testimony of others ; but
an Italian critic, whom I have often quoted, and
from whose authority upon such points I would
almost say there was no appeal, once assured me
these are as much blotted as those of Ariosto at
Ferrara; and that Berni seems to have usually
clothed his thoughts in ornate language at first,
which he rejected on after-consideration, simpli-
fying, but at the same time improving, his diction,
as he proceeded, till he arrived at that exquisite
happiness of expression, that curiosa felicitas,
which makes his principal charm. It is hence
that he is the most untranslatable of authors ;
since in copying him, it is not only a question
of imitating colours, but the fine and more
elaborate touches of a peculiar pencil.
While, however, it is clear that the versi-
fication and diction make the great charms of
the Innamorato) these beauties should not throw
his other excellencies into shade ; and the open-
ings of the different cantos, which he has en-
grafted on the original work of Boiardo, some-
times original, and sometimes imitated from
the older poets, are not greatly inferior to those
which Ariosto has prefixed to the several cantos
of the Furioso, in imitation of him ; no, not even
in the higher claims of poetical merit.
These sometimes consist of moral reflections,
arising out of the narrative ; and the following
may remind the reader of one of those little
gems scattered through the plays of Shak-
Who steals a bugle-horn, a ring, a steed,
Or such like worthless thing, has some discretion.
'Tis petty larceny. Not such his deed
Who robs us of our fame, our best possession ;
And he who takes our labour's worthiest meed,
May well be deemed a felon by profession ;
Who so much more our hate and scourge de-
As from the rule of right he wider swerves.
Sometimes indulging in a declamation against
vices or follies, he makes his satire more poig-
nant by allusions to some prevalent practice of
the day: thus, in a sally against avarice, he
attacks those who masqued it under the dis-
guise of hypocrisy in the following stanza :
This other, under show of an adviser
And practiser of what is strict and right;
But being in effect a rogue and miser,
Cloisters a dozen daughters out of sight :
And fain would have the pretty creatures wiser
Than their frail sisters ; but mistakes them quite ;
For they are like the rest, and set the group
Of monks, and priests, and abbots, cock-a-hoop.
The following extract, illustrating a philoso-
phical dogma of his age, taken from the opening
of the forty-sixth canto, is of another description,
and may serve as a specimen of the variety of
his vein, and the odd ingenuity with which he
winds in and out of his argument ; sometimes
bearing up for his harbour when in the middle
of a digression ; and then, when he seems to
feel himself sure of a retreat, indulging in a
new sally, in which he however never entirely
loses sight of his port.
He who the name of little world applied
To man, in this approved his subtle wit:
Since, save it is not round, all things beside
Exactly with this happy symbol fit ;
And I may say that long and deep, and wide
And middling, good and bad, are found in it.
Here too, the various elements combined
Are dominant ; snow, rain, and mist and wind.
Now clear, now overcast. 'Tis there its land
Will yield no fruit ; here bears a rich supply :
As the mixt soil is marie, or barren sand ;
And haply here too moist, or there too dry.
Here foaming hoarse, and there with murmur
Streams glide, or torrents tumble from on high.
Such of man's appetites convey the notion :
Since these are infinite, and still in motion.
Two solid dikes the invading streams repel,
The one is Reason, and the other Shame.
The torrents, if above their banks they swell,
Wit and discretion are too weak to tame.
The crystal waters, which so smoothly well,
Are appetites of things, devoid of blame.
Those winds, and rains, and snows, and night,
Ye learned clerks, divine them as ye may.
Among these elements, misfortune wills
Our nature should have most of earth : for she,
Moved by what influence heaven or sun instils,
Is subject to their power; nor less are we.
In her, this star or that, in barren hills
Produces mines in rich variety :
And those who human nature wisely scan
May this discern peculiarly in man.
Who would believe that various minerals grew,
And many metals, in our rugged mind ;
From gold to nitre ? Yet the thing is true ;
But, out, alas ! the rub is how to find
This ore. Some letters and some wealth pursue,
Some fancy steeds, some dream, at ease reclined ;
These song delights, and those the cittern's
Such are the mines which in our world abound.
As these are worthier, more or less, so they
Abound with lead or gold ; and practised wight,
The various soil accustomed to survey,
Is fitted best to find the substance bright.
And such in our Apulia is the way
They heal those suffering from the spider's bite ;
Who strange vagaries play, like men possessed ;
Tarantulated *, as 'tis there express'd.
* The Tarantula is now known to be harmless. The cause
of its supposed mischievous effects, and the efficacy of the
mode of curing them are perhaps easily explained. People
For this, 'tis needful, touching sharp or flat,
To seek a sound which may the patients please ;
Who, when they find the merry music pat,
Dance till they sweat away the foul disease.
And thus who should allure this man or that,
And still with various offer tempt and tease,
I wot, in little time, would ascertain
And sound each different mortal's mine and vein.
are in all countries (though they are imagined to be peculiarly
so in England) exposed to attacks of melancholy, which arise
out of some physical cause, whether indigestion, or other
bodily complaint. The doctors of Calabria attributed this to the
sting of the tarantula, which is assuredly not more extravagant
than a popular English medical author's ascribing jaundice to
the bite of a mad dog. The patient, delighted to find a cause for
his complaint, was easily, by leading questions, brought to recol-
lect that he had, at some time or other, felt a prick, which pro-
bably proceeded from the sting of a tarantula. Dancing was
the remedy prescribed ; and this, as exciting the animal spirits,
fee. may very well have operated a cure of the real disease.
The patients were to be played to, as Berni states, till a tune
was struck which pleased their fancy, and animated them to
exertion. The Tarantella, an air supposed to be particularly
stimulating in such a case, is still a popular dance in the south
of Italy. Modern philosophers have found out that the
tarantula has no venom.
'Twos so Brunello with Rogero wrought,
Who offered him the armour and the steed.
Thus by the cunning Greek his aid was bought,
Who laid fair Ilion smoking on the mead.
Which was of yore in clearer numbers taught ;
Nor shall I now repeat upon my reed,
Who from the furrow let my plough-share stray,
Unheeding how the moments glide away.
As the first pilot by the shore did creep,
Who launched his boat upon the billows dark,
And where the liquid ocean was least deep,
And without sails impelled his humble barque ;
But seaward next, where foaming waters leap,
By little and by little steered his ark,
With nothing but the wind and stars to guide,
And round about him glorious wonders spied.
Thus I, who still have sung a humble strain,
And kept my little barque within its bounds,
Now find it fit to launch into the main,
And sing the fearful warfare, which resounds
Where Africa pours out her swarthy train,
And the wide world with mustered troops
And, fanning fire and forge, each land and nation
Sends forth the dreadful note of preparation.
THE next extract I shall give, though it com-
mences with his favourite figure of the barque,
will serve as a specimen of a different style.
It forms the opening of the second book.
The two first lines the reader will trace to
Dante, and will find in the remainder a trans-
lation of the JEneadum Genetrix of Lucretius.
Launched on a deeper sea, my pinnace, rear
Thy sail, prepared to plough the billows dark ;
And you, ye lucid stars, by whom I steer
My feeble vessel to its destined mark,
Shine forth upon her course benign and clear,
And beam propitious on the daring barque
About to stem an ocean so profound :
While I your praises and your works resound.
O, holy mother of JEneas ! O,
Daughter of Jove ! thou bliss of gods above
And men beneath ; VENUS, who makest grow
Green herb and plant, and fillest all with love ;
Thou creatures that would else be cold and
Dost with thy sovereign instinct warm and move,
Thou dost all jarring things in peace unite
The world's eternal spirit, life and light.
At thine appearance storm and rain have ceased,
And zephyr has unlocked the genial ground ;
Leap the wild herds ; 'tis wanton nature's feast,
And the green woods with singing birds resound ;
While by strange pleasure stung, the savage beast
Lives but for love ; what time their greenwood
All creatures rove, or couch upon the sward,
Discord and hate forgot, in sweet accord.
Thee, kind and gentle star ! thy suppliant prays ;
To thee I sue by every bolt which flies
Thro' the fifth planet*, melting with thy rays,
When panting on thy lap the godhead lies,
And lock'd within thine arms, with upward gaze,
Feeds on thy visage his desiring eyes :
That thou wilt gain for me his grace, and grown
Propitious, with his grace accord thine own.
Since 'tis of thee I sing, as I have said,
And only of thy praise and pleasures dream ;
Well pleased I to this fruitful field was led,
And sure I could not choose a sweeter theme.
Thou too, that down thy clear and ample bed
Dost run with grateful murmur, RAPID STREAM,
Awhile from thine impetuous course refrain,
While on thy banks I tune my mingled strain.
In the concluding address to the river, he
apostrophizes the Adige, on whose banks he
might be said to be writing, as he was then
living hi the town of Verona, which is watered
by it, in the service of the Cardinal di Bib-
One more specimen of his poetical prefaces,
and I have done. It is the introduction to his
third book ; and in this too the reader, who
will recognize a passage of the ars poetica of
Horace, may observe how well Berni translates
and applies his classical recollections.
As they, who their unhappy task fulfil
In mines of England, Hungary, and Spain,
The deeper that they dig the mountain, still
Find richer treasure and securer gain ;
And as wayfaring man who climbs a hill,
Surveys, as he ascends, a wider plain,
And shores and oceans open on his eye,
Exalted nearer to the starry sky :
So in this book, indited for your pleasure,
If you believe and listen to my lore,
You, in advancing, shall discern new treasure,
And catch new lights and landscapes evermore.
Then by no former scale my promise measure,
Nor judge this strain by that which went before:
Since still my caves and rugged rocks unfold
A richer vein of jewels, pearls, and gold.
And he who winds about my mountain's side,
Still spies new lands and seas, a glorious sight,
If patient industry and courage guide
Him from the valley to the frowning height.
Like prospect was the poet's who supplied
Flame out of smoke, instead of smoke from light ;
With wise Ulysses' acts to fill our ears,
To the more wonderment of him who hears.
So much for the poetry of Berni. His life
was not such as reflected any lustre on his
works. This, if we reject some foul imputa-
tions cast upon him, was, to say the least of it,
disreputable. It is, however, certain, that being
at last established in a canonry at Florence,
he lived there in high and accomplished society.
This fact, however, in a profligate age, like that
in which he flourished, proves nothing in his
favour ; and, it' we listened to the stories of his
biographers, we might suppose him even to
have been courted for some of his vicious pro-
pensities : for one of these writers tells us he
was excited by the cardinal Ippolito de' Medici
to poison the duke Alexander, against whom
he had a private pique; another, would have
us believe that he was tempted by the duke to
poison the cardinal ; and (to complicate the
matter yet more) that the cardinal or the duke,
or both, had poison administered to Berni
himself, upon his refusal. The dates, how-
ever, of their respective deaths, are at variance
with these strange assertions ; and if such
certain means of contradiction were wanting,
the internal evidence of Berni's character, how-
ever vicious, might be almost sufficient to refute
such improbable calumnies. It may be said,
indeed, that perhaps no one was ever selected
as a probable agent of guilt, who seems to have
been so little capable of engaging in the sort
of crimes which were expected of him.
As a proof of this we might almost refer to
the picture which he has given of himself, and
which carries with it every warrant of resem-
blance. In one of the cantos of the last book
of the Innamorato, he describes a number of
persons as having become the victims of a
tairy, of whom they afterwards remain the
voluntary prisoners. Among these he has,
in imitation of certain painters, introduced him-
self with another known character of the day :
a circumstance which, together with the nature
of the episode, might lead one to suspect
that Thomson was indebted to this fiction for
his Castle of Indolence. He has, however,
given the tenants of his " bowers of ease," a
character so much more intellectual than that
of Berni's actors, that he may very fairly pretend
to the praise of original composition, even if his
work be an imitation instead of a mere acci-
dental coincidence; which I am more tempted
to believe.* But I draw the curtain of Berni's
* I do not recollect any authority for Thomson's having
been conversant with Italian poetry ; and I think that a view
of his works would lead to a contrary supposition. Thus I
should say that though no man could copy what he actually
saw with a nicer hand or eye, no man had more need of study
in the Italian school of ideal picture than this English poet.
Jn his drawings from nature his colouring is as inimitable as
his design ; and his bird, who
" Shivers every feather with desire,"
is painted with the precision as well as the force of the Flemish
pencil. Yet he has personified Autumn as
" Crowned u-ith the sickle and the wheaten sheaf,"
thus putting on his head what should have been in his hand,
and presenting us a ludicrous figure surmounted by a " crum-
pled horn." No Italian poet would have painted from nature
with Thomson's marvellous precision; and no Italian poet
would have committed such gross offences against propriety as
he has, in his imaginary pictures.
BOOK III. CANTO VII.
A boon companion to increase this crew
By chance, a gentle Florentine, was led ;
A Florentine, altho' the father who
Begot him, in the Casentine was bred ;
Who nigh become a burgher of his new
Domicile, there was well content to wed ;
And so in Bibbiena wived, which ranks
Among the pleasant towns on Arno's banks. "
At Lamporecchio, he of whom I write
Was born, for dumb Masetto * fam'd of yore,
Thence roam'd to Florence ; and in piteous plight
There sojourned till nineteen, like pilgrim poor ;
And shifted thence to Rome, with second flight
Hoping some succour from a kinsman's store ;
A cardinal allied to him by blood,
And one that neither did him harm nor good.
* See Boccaccio.
He to the nephew passed, this patron dead,
Who the same measure as his uncle meted ;
And then again in search of better bread,
With empty bowels from his house retreated ;
And hearing, for his name and fame were spread,
The praise of one who serv'd the pope repeated,
And in the Roman court Datario hight,
He hired himself to him to read and write.
This trade the unhappy man believed he knew;
But this belief was, like the rest, a bubble,
Since he could never please the patron, who
Fed him, nor ever once was out of trouble.
The worse he did, the more he had to do,
And only made his pain and penance double :
And thus, with sleeves and bosom stuffed with
Wasted his wits, and lived oppressed with vapours.
Add for his mischief (whether 'twas his little
Merit, misfortune, or his want of skill)
Some cures he farmed produced him not a tittle,
And only were a source of plague and ill.
Fire, water, storm, or devil, sacked vines and
Whether the luckless wretch would tythe or till.
Some pensions too, which he possessed, were
And, like the rest, produced him not a groat.
This notwithstanding, he his miseries slighted,
Like happy man, who not too deeply feels ;
And all, but most the Roman lords, delighted,
Content in spite of tempests, writs, or seals,
And oftentimes, to make them mirth, recited
Strange chapters upon urinals and eels ; *
And other mad vagaries would rehearse,
That he had hitched, Heaven help him ! into verse.
* See his Cajntoli sugli Orinali, Sulk dtiqitille, etc.
His mood was choleric, and his tongue was vicious,
But he was praised for singleness of heart ;
Not taxed as avaricious or ambitious,
Affectionate, and frank, and void of art ;
A lover of his friends, and unsuspicious ;
But where he hated, knew no middle part ;
And men his malice by his love might rate :
But then he was more prone to love than hate.
To paint his person, this was thin and dry ;
Well sorting it, his legs were spare and lean ;
Broad was his visage, and his nose was high,
While narrow was the space that was between
His eye-brows sharp ; and blue his hollow eye,
Which for his bushy beard had not been seen,
But that the master kept this thicket clear'd,
At mortal war with moustache and with board.
No one did ever servitude detest
Like him ; though servitude was still his dole :
Since fortune or the devil did their best
To keep him evermore beneath controul.
While, whatsoever was his patron's hest,
To execute it went against his soul ;
His service would he freely yield, unasked,
But lost all heart and hope, if he were tasked.
Nor musick, hunting-match, nor mirthful measure,
Nor play, nor other pastime moved him aught;
And if 'twas true that horses gave him pleasure,
The simple sight of them was all he sought,
Too poor to purchase ; and his only treasure
His naked bed : his pastime to do nought
But tumble there, and stretch his weary length,
And so recruit his spirits and his strength,
Worn with the trade he long was used to slave in,
So heartless and so broken down was he ;
He deemed he could not find a readier haven,
Or safer port from that tempestuous sea ;
Nor better cordial to recruit his craven
And jaded spirit, when he once was free,
Than to betake himself to bed, and do
Nothing, and mind and matter so renew.
On this as on an art, he would dilate,
In good set terms, and styled his bed a vest,
Which, as the wearer pleased, was small or
And of whatever fashion liked him best ;
A simple mantle, or a robe of state ;
With that a gown of comfort and of rest :
Since whosoever slipt his daily clothes
For this, put off with these all worldly woes.
He by the noise and lights and music jaded
Of that long revel, and the tramp and tread,
(Since every guest in his desires was aided,
And knaves performed their will as soon as said,)
Found out a chamber which was uninvaded,
And bade those varlets there prepare a bed,
Garnished with bolsters and with pillows fair,
At its four borders, and exactly square.
This was six yards across by mensuration,
With sheets and curtains bleached by wave and
With a silk quilt for farther consolation,
And all things fitting else : tho' hard to please,
Six souls therein had found accommodation
But this man sighed for elbow-room and ease,
And here as in a bed was fain to swim,
Extending at his pleasure length and limb,
By chance with him, to join the fairy's train,
A Frenchman and a cook was thither brought ;
One that had served in court with little gain,
Though he with sovereign care and cunning
For him, prepared with sheet and counterpane,
Another bed was, like his fellow's, sought :
And 'twixt the two, sufficient space was seen
For a fair table to be placed between.
Upon this table, for the pair to dine,
Were savoury viands piled, prepared with art ;
All ordered by this master-cook divine ;
Boiled, roast, ragouts and jellies, paste and tart :
But soups and syrups pleased the Florentine,
Who loathed fatigue like death, and for his part,
Brought neither teeth nor fingers into play ;
But made two varlets feed him as he lay
Here couchant, nothing but his head was spied,
Sheeted and quilted to the very chin ;
And needful food a serving man supplied
Thro' pipe of silver, placed the mouth within.
Meantime the sluggard moved no part beside,
Holding all motion else were shame and sin ;
And (so his spirits and his health were broke)
Not to fatigue this organ, seldom spoke.
The cook was master Peter hight, and he
Had tales at will to while away the day ;
To him the Florentine : " Those fools, pardie,
" Have little wit, who dance that endless Hay ;"
And Peter in return, " I think with thee."
Then with some merry story backed the say ;
Swallowed a mouthful and turned round in bed ;
And so, by starts, talked, turned, and slept, and
And so the time these careless comrades cheated,
And still, without a change, ate, drank, and slept
Nor by the calendar their seasons meeted,
Nor register of days or sennights kept :
No dial told the passing hours, which fleeted,
Nor bell was heard ; nor servant overstept
The threshold (so the pair proclaimed their will)
To bring them tale or tidings, good or ill.
Above all other curses, pen and ink
Were by the Tuscan held in hate and scorn ;
Who, worse than any loathsome sight or stink,
Detested pen and paper, ink and horn :
So deeply did a deadly venom sink,
So festered in his flesh a rankling thorn;
While, night and day, with heart and garments
Seven weary years the wretch in writing spent.
Of all their ways to baffle time and tide,
This seems the strangest of their waking dreams :
Couched on their back, the two the rafters eyed,
And taxed their drowsy wits to count the beams ;
"Tis thus they mark at leisure, which is wide,
Which short, or which of due proportion seems ;
And which worm-eaten are, and which are sound,
And if the total sum is odd or round. *
Having in the preceding part of this intro-
duction, given some account of the mode in
which I have executed my task as a translator,
it may be expected that I should give some
information respecting my labours as an editor.
To speak frankly, I have none to give : having
annexed no commentary, or, at least, nothing-
worthy of being called a commentary, to this
* I have already given a loose translation of this part of
Berni's acccount of himself in the Court of Bensts.
work. Some readers may, perhaps, think I
have in this neglected my duty, and reproach
me with not having pointed out the sources
from which many of the fictions in the Innamo-
rato are borrowed, or at least the points of
resemblance which may be found between many
of these and other ancient stories. It appeared,
however, to me, that my readers were as likely
as myself to be conversant with incidents to be
found in the Spectator, Persian Talcs, Arabian
Nighfs, and Bibltotheque Orientate. Others
who will, perhaps, thank me for sparing them
such a display of common-place knowledge
may, however, think I have erred in having
done nothing to illustrate the allegory of the
Innamorato. If I have not, the omission has
arisen from a conviction of the inutility of
such an attempt. I have read much that has
been written upon the allegory of the Furioso,
yet never met with any explanation of it,
which I considered as satisfactory to myself,
though I was persuaded that the commentators
were right. Holding obscurity to be one
source of the sublime in this branch of ima-
gination, though I will not venture to extend
the position further, it appears to me that
the reader always best fills up an indistinct
outline, according to his own fancy, and is
more likely to derive pleasure from doing so,
than from a solution which usually presents
him with something very different from
what he had preconceived. It is this con-
sideration which has restrained me from doing-
more than throwing out a few ideas which sug-
gested themselves on some parts of Boiardo's
allegory, and no wish to avoid any trouble
which I might have thought satisfactorily be-
stowed on it. Still less have I been influenced
by any fear of that ridicule which is so readily
discharged upon Italian commentators, or those
who report their lucubrations ; for I can safely
say, that I should have pursued the research to
which I have alluded, if I had thought I could
have done so with any satisfaction to myself,
though I had met with no better recompence
than that of being compared to the ass who
carried off the dead body of the sphynx, after
her enigma had been unriddled, and she herself
slain by CEdipus.
Page xlviii. 5th line of Stanza 43., lake out the semicolon
after "eye-brows," and place it after "sharp."
li. 7th line of Stanza 49., for " bed" read " sea."
5. line 8th from bottom, for " But" read " Yet."
71. line 1st, after " army" read " that."
Gradasso, king of Sericane, meditates the invasion of
France, in order to obtain Bayardo and Durindana. In the
mean time Charlemagne is holding a court plenar at Paris ;
where the appearance of Angelica excites much confusion
amid the assembled knights. She returns towards her own
kingdom, pursued by Orlando and Rinaldo. Rinaldo having,
however, drunk of the waters of Disdain, while she has unfor-
tunately tasted those of Love, is seized with loathing for the
damsel, and is, in his turn, followed in vain by her, whom he
before pursued. He is now sent by Charlemagne in defence
of Marsilius, king of Spain, whose territories were invaded
by Gradasso. in his progress towards France. He is here
separated from his army by a device of Malagigi, his own
brother, who is become the tool of Angelica, and his troops,
left without their leader, return home. Marsilius, in conse-
quence of this desertion, buys peace of Gradasso, by assisting
him in his invasion of France. Here Charlemagne and his
paladins are made prisoners in a thorough rout of the Chris-
tian army. Gradasso, however, offers him peace and liberty
for himself and followers, on the delivery of Bayardo, who
had been brought back from Spain by the French troops, and
on his promise to send him Durindana as soon as it is in his
power. Charlemagne of course consents, and sends to Paris
for the horse. This is, however, refused by Astolpho, who had
taken upon himself the government of the city, and who sends
a defiance to Gradasso. They meet, and the Indian king is
unhorsed, who, in compliance with the conditions of a previous
agreement, frees his prisoners and returns to Sericana. As-
tolpho, too, dissatisfied with the conduct of Charlemagne, de-
parts from France. He now enrolls himself amongst the de-
fenders of Angelica, besieged by Agrican in Albracca, in which
warfare he is made prisoner; Orlando, with other puissant
knights, takes the same side, and slays Agrican in single com-
bat. On the other part, Rinaldo (whose hatred to Angelica
equals his former love) joins the camp of the besiegers, and a
desperate battle is fought between him and Orlando. Ange-
lica, however, still enamoured of Rinaldo, separates them and
dispatches Orlando upon a perilous quest. Many other ad-
ventures are achieved by these and other knights, and many
episodes are connected with the two principal actions of the
book, viz. the invasion of France, and the war before
THE story says that there reigned formerly in
parts beyond India, a mighty monarch, who was
moreover so valiant and powerful in war that no
one could stand against him ; he was named
Gradasso ; he had the face and heart of a dra-
gon, and was in stature a giant. But, as it
often happens to the greatest and to the richest,
to long for what they cannot have, and thus to
lose what they already possess, this king could
not rest content without Durindana the sword
of Orlando, and Bayardo the horse of Rinaldo.
To obtain which, he determined to war upon
France, and for this expedition chose one hun-
dred and fifty thousand horsemen.
4- THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
But the author suspends the further mention
of this monarch, of whom we shall soon again
hear, to speak of Charlemagne, who had or-
dered magnificent jousts, and summoned thither
all and singular his barons. And to this
court plenar, besides his paladins, and greater
and lesser vassals of the crown, were bid all
strangers, baptized or infidel, then sojourning
at Paris. Amongst the guests were the* giant
Grandonio, Ferrau, the king Balugantes, a
relation of Charlemagne, Isolier and Serpen-
tin, who were companions, and many others.
And now was the day when the great festival
was to begin with a sumptuous banquet, made
by Charlemagne, who assisted at it in his royal
robes, and entertained, between Christians and
Pagans, twenty-two thousand and thirty guests.
The tables, spread right and left, were or-
dered with due discrimination. At the first
were seated the kings of Christendom, an Eng-
lish, a Lombard, and a Breton to wit, Otho,
BOOK I. JNNAMORATO. 5
Desiderius, and Salomon : and next these all
others, according to their dignity and the
esteem in which they were held. At the second
table were placed the dukes and marquisses ;
and at the third, the counts and simple knights.
Those of the house of Maganza were especially
honoured, and above all the others, Gano of
Poictiers. Rinaldo saw this with eyes of fire ;
the more so that these traitors, laughing amongst
themselves, were mocking him as not equally
distinguished by the king. Accordingly we are
But while his heart with smothered fury beats,
He feigns to trifle with the cups and glasses :
But, inly murmuring, to himself repeats
" False, ribald crew ! before to-morrow passes,
" This arm shall prove if you can keep your seats ;
" Spawn of a nest of vipers, idiots, asses !
" And well I wot to have you on the hip,
" Unless my weapon swerve, or courser slip."
THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
King Balugantes marked his discontent,
And reading, as he weened, his secret thought,
To him his trucheman with a message sent,
To wot if it was true, as he was taught,
That honour, not by worth and wisdom went,
But in this Christian court was sold and bought :
That he a stranger and a Turk, if true,
Might render each and all the honour due.
The good Ilinaldo smiled, and to the sable
Reporter of the royal message said,
" To solve the question, as I best am able,
" (If I in rules of court am rightly read,)
" Honour and place to glutton at the table
" Are duly yielded, as to dame in bed ;
" But in the field, where warriors spur their steeds,
" The worth of man is measured by his deeds."
While this conversation is passing, music sounds;
the meats are served up, and the feast is com-
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 7
menced with all the pomp and circumstance of
In the middle of this their merriment, four
giants enter the further end of the hall, having
between them a damsel of incomparable beauty,
attended by a single knight. Many ladies (some
of whose names are specified) were seated at the
different tables : but all were outshone by the
beautiful stranger. The Christians, lords or
simple knights, swarm about the damsel, and
every Pagan is in an instant on his feet. She
smiles upon all; but forthwith addresses herself
to Charlemagne. After a complimentary preface,
" Sir King," said the damsel, " before I show
" the motive which has brought us hither, learn
" that this knight is my brother Uberto, and
" that I am his sister, Angelica; both of us
" banished without reason from the paternal
" mansion. Upon the Tanais, where we dwelt,
'* two hundred days' journey from hence, news
8 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
" were brought us of this feast ; and we have
" traversed so many provinces to see your mag-
" nificence, and, if possible, to gain the wreath
" of roses, which is said to be the guerdon of
" the jousts.
" For this purpose, my brother awaits all
" comers, Christian or Saracen, at the stair of
" Merlin * ; it being premised that the war is to
" be conducted on the following conditions :
" Whoever is unseated in the tilt, shall be
" allowed no further course or trial, but remain
* It may be observed, that the abode of Merlin and the tomb
of Merlin are always placed by the first romancers, to wit,
those of the Round Table, in Britain ; and their constantly lay-
ing their scene in our island, and choosing their actors from
thence, has led M. de la Rue, and after him, Mr. George Ellis,
to suppose that these earliest romancers were subjects of
English kings, who wrote for the amusement of their court,
the language of which was Norman. The romancers, however,
who celebrated Charlemagne, and who were doubtless French,
very naturally chose their heroes from France, and transferred
the scene to that country. To these, I have already said, that
Boiardo and Ariosto are mainly indebted for their fictions.
BOOK I. 1NNAMORATO. 9
" the prisoner of him by whom he was un-
" horsed: while whoever flings my brother
" shall have me for his reward; and Uberto
" shall depart with his giants."
She remains kneeling awhile before Charles,
as waiting his answer. All behold the damsel
in mute admiration; but, above all, Orlando, ap-
proaching her with downcast eyes, gives the first
signs of the passion which was destined to be
his ruin. While Orlando is thus love-stricken,
he is not single in his folly ; and even the grey-
haired Namus, and Charles himself, participate
in it. But, while these and all the rest gaze
upon her in silence, Ferrau is so transported
with passion as to be about to snatch her up in
his arms, and transport her away from the
presence. Respect for Charlemagne, however,
restrains him. While this is passing, Malagigi,
brother to Rinaldo, a puissant magician, closely
observes the strangers, and reads in them some
10 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
mysterious purpose, different from what they
pretended to be the object of their expedition.
Charlemagne had now recovered from his em-
barrassment sufficiently to speak, and plied
Angelica with different subjects of discourse,
for the purpose of detaining her ; but at length,
not being able to prolong the interview with
decency, gave her a dismissal by according the
The damsel has scarce left the city, when
Still fearing for the king, and full of care,
Flies to his book, retiring from the revel,
To know the secret purpose of the pair,
And at what aim the knight and damsel level.
He reads ; and, as he reads, in upper air
Is heard a voice, and next appears a devil,
Who bids, in haughty tone, the wise magician
Proclaim his will, and give him his dismission.
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 11
Malagigi having proposed his questions, the
fiend informs him that Angelica is an enemy
come to put a notable scorn upon Charlemagne,
and that her father, who is an ancient Indian
king, called Galaphron, of Catay, has dispatched
her for this object, accompanied by her brother,
Argalia, and not Uberto, as she falsely desig-
nated him : that she is full of malice, and read
in every sort of magic, whilst her brother is as
valiant in arms, gifted with a courser of mar-
vellous swiftness, and armed with an enchanted
lance : the virtue of this is such, that no
knight (no, not even Orlando or Rinaldo)
could resist its push ; nor are his other arms
inferior to his spear. To this; he has re-
ceived from his father a ring, which, when on
the finger, makes enchantment of no effect, and
when placed between the lips renders the wear-
er invisible. Galaphron, it is added, reckons
much upon these gifts, but yet more upon the
12 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
beauty of his daughter. Hence he has dis-
patched Argalia with the damsel, in trust, that
she shall entice the Paladins into duel with her
brother, who, unhorsing them, will send them
prisoners to Catay. Malagigi is much disturbed
at the devil's news, and determines to seek the
damsel in person, and frustrate her design.
Argalia was already reposing himself under a
fair pavilion, pitched near the stair of Merlin,
Angelica beneath a pine was sleeping,
Her long light tresses scattered on the grass,
Beside a limpid font, whose waters, leaping,
Fell back into a pool as clear as glass.
A giant had the damsel in his keeping,
Who might for a reposing angel pass.
Her brother's ring the sleeping lady wore,
Whose hidden virtues were described before.
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 13
False Malagigi, borne on fiendish steed,
Meantime through fields of air in silence swept ;
And now, dismounting on the flow'ry mead,
Approached the weary damsel where she slept,
By that grim giant watched, who, for her need,
Good guard upon the sleeping lady kept,
While others of her following paced the sward,
And (such their charge) kept wider watch and
The necromancer smiles at seeing the whole
party, as it were, delivered over into his hands,
and opens his books for the purpose of be-
ginning his operations. Whilst he reads, a
heavy slumber falls upon the watchers; and,
having drawn his sword, (for he was a belted
knight,) he approaches the princess with the
intention of putting her to death. He yields,
however, to the enchantment of beauty, and
determines to make a different use of the op-
portunity. Not aware that the enchanted ring
was on her finger, which she had accidentally
14 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
received from Argalia, he conceives he has ren-
dered her sleep as fast as that of her followers,
and clasps her in his arms; but the ring, which
is proof against all spells, does its duty. Ange-
lica wakes with a shriek, and Argalia rushes to
her assistance. Being unprovided with other
weapon, he avenges the insult offered to his
sister with a cudgel ; but as he is bruising the
unfortunate Malagigi, Angelica cries to him to
bind the ravisher fast, while she holds him ; as
he is a potent necromancer, who, but for the
assistance of the ring, would laugh at chains.
Argalia runs immediately to wake the giant, but
finding, after some time, that this was a fruitless
attempt, he himself binds Malagigi, hands and
feet. The damsel this while possesses herself of
the magician's book, and having evoked his
fiends, bids them convey her prisoner instantly
to King Galaphron, and inform him that her
project goes well, since she has mastered the
only enemy whom she had reason to fear. Ma-
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 15
lagigi is confined by Galaphron, in a dungeon
under the sea. In the mean time, Angelica
dissolves the enchanted sleep of her followers.
While these things are going on, all is
uproar at Paris, since Orlando insists upon
being the first to try the adventure at the stair
of Merlin. This is resented by the other pre-
tenders to Angelica, and all contest his right to
the precedency. The tumult is stilled by the
usual expedient of casting lots, and the first
prize is drawn by Astolpho. Ferrau has the
second, and the giant Grandonio the third.
Next to these came Berlinghier and Otho, then
Charles himself, and (as his ill fortune would
have it), after thirty more, the indignant
The character of the holder of the first lot
is now developed, who is to play a considerable
part in the romance.
16 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
Astolpho, who the winning ticket bore,
Was nimble, and with youthful beauty blest ;
And, for these gentle gifts, was prized before
Christian or Pagan princes, east or west ;
With that, was rich, and full of courteous lore,
And always loved to go in gilded vest !
One only fault the prince's pride might humble ;
Sir Turpin tells us he was given to tumble.
Astolpho goes forth upon his adventure with
great gaiety of dress and manner, and Argalia
and he encounter, after having with much cour-
tesy renewed the engagements, which were
before specified as regulating the duel. They
engage; when Astolpho is immediately tilted
out of his saddle. His rage and surprise are
excessive ; but his painful feelings receive some
relief from the kindness of Angelica, who,
moved to compassion for his misfortune, and
somewhat touched by his gallantry and grace,
grants him the liberty of the pavilion; where
he is treated with every sort of kindness and
BOOK!. INVAMORATO. 17
respect. Here he is assigned a magnificent
bed ; the others retreat to their couches, and
thus passes the night.
The sleepers are awakened at dawn by Fer-
rau's bugle, who, as next upon the list, claims
the second course. Argalia goes forth to meet
him, clad in his enchanted arms, and mounted
on his horse Rabican, who is described as
blacker than a crow, save that three of his legs
were pie-balled, and that his forehead was
marked with a star.
Ferrau undergoes the fate of Astolpho; but
when unhorsed, refuses to abide, like him, the
established conditions, and springing upon his
feet, in despite of the protest of Argalia, renews
the battle with his sword. Argalia's giants
now rush between the combatants, and attack
him ; their master, however, in courtesy, retires
from such unequal fray, and stands apart till
his giants are overthrown. He then renews
the contest, and Astolpho, who had been waked
18 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
by the disturbance, in vain seeks to allay it.
Ferrau says that he is no vassal of Charles's,
and therefore is not bound by any pact respect-
ing the duel, which he may have made with
Angelica : and that he is resolved to win her
and wear her. In answer to the observation of
Argalia, that he is without a helmet, which had
been beat off and broken by the golden lance,
he observes, that without one, he is a fair match
for his opposite.
This dispute had been carried on by the
combatants on foot, but they now remount in
order to decide it on horseback, when Argalia
in his fury forgets his lance, which he has left
leaning against a pine. Many blows had been
given and taken without effect, when the two
knights paused in mutual astonishment, and
Argalia informed Ferrau that his efforts were
fruitless, as his armour was enchanted ; a
communication which Ferrau repaid by ob-
serving that his skin was invulnerable with the
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 19
exception of one side. The recital of these
gifts, which produces a sort of reciprocal re-
spect, leads them to a further parley ; in which
Argalia agrees to give Ferrau Angelica to
wife, provided she consents to the arrange-
ment. But Angelica, who is startled by
Ferrau's ugliness and fierceness, and more es-
pecially by his ill-shaped head and black hair,
her favour being especially set upon a light-
haired lover, entreats her brother, rather than
sacrifice her to such a man, to renew his battle
which had been suspended, while she transports
herself by magic to Catay ; she then observes
he may watch his opportunity, to escape and
follow her to the wood of Arden, where she
will wait his arrival.
He, in consequence, communicates to Ferrau
the refusal of his sister. The battle is renewed ;
and upon its renewal, Angelica disappears. She
is soon followed by Argalia, who turns his back
upon his adversary. Ferrau pursues, but sees
20 '1'HE ORLANDO BOOK I.
no traces either of the damsel or the knight.
In the meantime Astolpho, who finds himself at
liberty, puts on his armour, and his own lance
having been splintered in the joust, takes, un-
conscious of its virtues, that of Argalia, which
was left leaning against the pine. Returning
home, he meets Rinaldo, who had wandered
out to the wood, to learn the fortune of Ferrau.
He, too, hearing of the disappearance of Ange-
lica, gallops away in pursuit, while Astolpho
continues his road to Paris.
Here Orlando seeks him, and learns all that
has passed. Distracted with the news, and,
above all, jealous of Rinaldo, he too, waits, only
till evening to join in the pursuit; when he
makes his secret sally, and rides towards the wood
of Arden. Thus, three champions, to wit, Fer-
rau, Rinaldo, and Orlando are entered in the
This, while Charlemagne is proceeding in his
preparations for the tournament, the prize of
BOOK I. IXNAMOIIATO. 21
which was to be the Crown of Roses. Many fair
feats had already been wrought, and the knights
are in the heat of the jousts, when Astolpho
pricks forth into the medley * ; but his courser
falls w r ith him and dislocates his foot. All regret
this accident of the English prince, who is
carried to his palace where his foot is set. The
jousts are continued by the others, from whom
Grandonio the giant bears- away the honours of
the field, wounding and unhorsing knights on
all sides. In the meantime,
Astolpho was return'd into the square,
His single faulchion to his girdle tied,
And rode in gallant guise an ambling mare,
Unarm'd and weaponless in all beside :
And laugh'd and loiter'd with the ladies there,
And jested with the circle far and wide :
While he thus idly chatted, Gryphon fell,
Thrust by Grandonio from his lofty sell.
* Mischia, me!6e.
22 THE ORLANDO BOOK 1.
All who contend with Grandonio suffer the
same destiny ; while the outrageous Pagan over-
whelms Charles and his paladins with invec-
tive. On the other hand, Charles vents threats
and imprecations upon the absent Orlando,
Rinaldo, and Gano, expressing at the same time
his earnest desire to be revenged upon the
Astolpho, hearing this, retreats, unobserved,
to his palace, arms himself at all points and re-
appears amongst the combatants; not, as the
author observes, that he expects to do himself
much honour ; in which opinion he seems to have
agreed with the multitude who hailed his en-
trance with smiles and whispers, but with the
intention of doing his duty to his lord, and leav-
ing the event to Heaven. Accordingly
BOOK I. INNAMOKATO. 23
Firm on his prancing steed, he louted low
In graceful act, and " Know, Sir King," he cried,
" I come to venge thee of thy Pagan foe,
" Knowing that thou such wish hast signified."
As one whose mood was still fastidious ; " Go,
" Go in the name of God ;" King Charles replied :
Then, turning to the lords that hemm'd his seat ;
" There lack'd but this to make our shame
Astolpho, thus dismissed, pours a volley of
abuse upon Grandonio, and tilts at him in fury.
The golden lance works an unexpected miracle,
and the giant tumbles like a tower that is un-
dermined. King Charlemagne and all are in
amazement, while Astolpho, though no less
surprized at his own prowess, pursues his
fortune, and clears the field. These events
were immediately recounted to Gan, who was
in his own house, and who, having armed
24 TJIE ORLANDO BOOK I.
a party of his kinsmen and retainers, comes
before the king, and alleges some frivolous
pretext for his tardy appearance ; which, whe-
ther believed or not, is accepted by the sove-
reign. He now sends a message to Astolpho,
proposing to close the tournament, as the pay-
nims are defeated. To which the English
prince replies, ' that he considers him every
whit as false a Pagan as the others,' and imme-
diately attacks him with his lance. Gan, Pina-
bello and all their household are unhorsed; but
while Astolpho is in full career, a traitor as-
sails him from behind, and bears him to the
ground. He rises in fury, tilts at friends and
foes, and outrages all, king Charlemagne among
the rest ; by whose order he is at last surrounded,
mastered, and carried off to prison.
He was here ill bested, yet not so ill, says the
author, as the other three, who suffered the
pains of love for Angelica. These all arrived
by different roads, and at different times in the
BOOK I. INN AMOR ATO. 25
wood of Arden. The first comer was Rinaldo ;
who, penetrating into the forest, beheld a beau-
tiful fountain in the shade.
The alabaster vase was wrought with gold,
And the white ground o'erlaid with curious care ;
While he who look'd within it, might behold
Green grove, and flowers, and meadow, pictur'd
Wise Merlin made it, it is said, of old,
For Tristan when he sigh'd for Yseult fair :
That drinking of its wave, he might forego
The peerless damsel, and forget his woe.
But he to his misfortune never found
That fountain, built beneath the green- wood tree ;
Altho' the warrior pac'd a weary round.
Encompassing the world by land and sea.
The waves which in the magic bason bound,
Make him unlove who loves. Nor only he
Foregoes his former love ; but that, which late
Was his chief pride and pleasure, has in hate.
26 THE ORLANDO J5OOK I.
Mount Alban's lord, whose strength and spirits
For yet the sun was high and passing hot,
Stood gazing on the pearly fountain's brink,
Rapt with the sight of that delicious spot.
At length he can no more ; but stoops to drink,
And thirst and love are in the draught forgot :
For such the virtue those cold streams impart,
Changed in an instant is the warrior's heart.
Him, with that forest's wonders unacquainted,
Some paces to a second water bring,
Of chrystal wave with rain or soil untainted.
With all the flowers that wreathe the brows of
Kind nature had the verdant margin painted :
And there a pine and beech and olive fling
Their boughs above the stream, and form a bower,
A grateful shelter from the noontide hour.
BOOK I. INNAAIORATO, 2?
This was the stream of love, upon whose shore
He chanced, where Merlin no enchantments
But nature here, unchanged by magic lore,
The fountain with such sovereign virtue fed,
That all who tasted loved : whence many, sore
Lamenting their mistake, were ill-bested.
Rinaldo wandered to this water's brink,
But, sated, had no further wish to drink.
Yet the delicious trees and banks produce
Desire to try the grateful shade ; and needing
Repose, he 'lights, and turns his courser loose,
Who roam'd the forest, at his pleasure feeding ;
And there Rinaldo cast him down, at truce
With care ; and slumber to repose succeeding,
Thus slept supine : when spiteful fortune brought
Her* to the spot whom least the warrior sought.
28 THE ORLANDO BOOK. I.
She thirsts, and lightly leaping from her steed,
Ties the gay palfrey to the lofty pine ;
Then plucking from the stream a little reed,
Sips, as a man might savour muscat wine ;
And feels while yet she drinks (such marvel breed
The waters fraught with properties divine)
She is no longer what she was before ;
And next beholds the sleeper on the shore.
Enamoured of the slumbering knight, she
hesitates long between love and shame, but, at
length, no longer mistress of herself, pulls a
handful of flowers, and flings them in his face.
The gallantry is lost upon Rinaldo ; who wakes,
and flies from her with loathing. She pursues,
and entreats his compassion in vain ; and, at
length, wearied with the chace, sinks down upon
the turf, and weeps herself asleep. Ferrau
now arrives in the forest, in the hope of
finding Angelica, or wreaking his vengeance
upon her brother. Occupied with these
DOOK I. 1NNAMORATO. 29
thoughts he lights upon Argalia ; who, having
followed his sister, had dismounted, and was
also sleeping under a tree. Ferrau unties
the sleeper's horse, and drives him into the
thicket. His adversary's means of escape thus
intercepted, he watches till the sleeping man
should wake ; nor is his patience put to a long
trial. Argalia soon opens his eyes, and is in
great distress at finding his horse gone; but
Ferrau, who is as quickly on his feet, tells him
not to think of his loss ; as one of them must
not quit the place alive, and his own horse will
remain the prize of the survivor.
The two warriors now again engage in battle,
and closing, Ferrau, through a chink in his
armour, strikes Argalia to the heart. Argalia
sinks beneath the blow, and dying entreats his
adversary to have regard to his honor, and cast
him and his armour into the river; that his
memory may not be disgraced by the knowledge
of his having been vanquished in enchanted
arms. Ferrau, who compassionates his fate,
30 THE ORLANDO 1JOOK I.
promises compliance, with the reservation of
wearing his helmet till he can provide himself
with another. Argalia consents by a sign, and
soon after expires.
Ferrau, who had waited by him till he drew
his last sigh, now puts on the helmet, which he
had previously taken from his wounded adver-
sary's head in order to give him air ; and having
razed off the crest, places it upon his own. He
then, with the dead body under his arm, having
remounted his horse, proceeds sadly towards
the neighbouring river, into which he casts
Argalia, all armed as he was, conformably to
his dying request. He then pursues his melan-
choly way through the wood.
This while Orlando had arrived on this theatre
of adventures, and comes suddenly upon Ange-
lica, who is described as sleeping in act so ex-
quisitely graceful, that he gazes on the vision
hi stupid wonderment, and, at last, to contem-
plate her more closely, throws himself down by
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 31
Ferrau arrives at this juncture, and suppos-
ing Orlando, whom he had not recognized, to
be Angelica's guard, insults and defies him.
The paladin starts up and declares himself;
when Ferrau, though somewhat surprized,
making a virtue of necessity, stands to his arms.
A desperate duel follows : during this Angelica
wakes and flies : Orlando proposes a truce to
his adversary, that he may follow her ; but
Ferrau, whose courage was now up, tells him
she shall be the prize of the conqueror, and re-
fuses. The battle is therefore renewed with
more fury than before. The author here ex-
Gifted with odd half lights, I often wonder
How I should think of love ; if well or ill.
For whether 'tis a thing above, or under
The rule of reason, foils my little skill;
If we go guided by some god, or blunder
Into the snare, which warps our better will ;
If we by line and rule our actions measure,
And 'tis a thing we take or leave at pleasure.
32 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
When we behold two bulls each other tear,
A cow the cause of strife, with mutual wound,
It looks as if such foolish fury were
In nature and controlling instinct found :
But when we see that absence, prudence, care
And occupation, can preserve us sound
From such a charm, or, if you will, infection ;
Love seems to be the fruit of pure election.
Of this so many men have sung and told,
In Hebrew, Latin, and in heathen Greek,
In Egypt, Athens, and in Rome, of old,
Who govern'd by such different judgments speak,
That I can ill decide with whom to hold,
And cannot waste my time the truth to seek.
Let it suffice, that Love's a wayward god :
And so heav'n keep us from the tyrant's rod !
The truth of these reflections the author
considers as strikingly exemplified by the
combat between the champions, which is
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 33
interrupted by the appearance of a strange
damsel upon a panting palfrey, who clamours
eagerly for Ferrau. She, perceiving him,
entreats Orlando to forbear his blows ; which
he immediately does upon the damsel's
request. Addressing herself to the paynim,
she informs him that she is his relation
Flordespina, and dispatched in search of him,
to say that Gradasso king of Sericane, a
fiend incarnate, has invaded the Spanish do-
minions; that king Falsiron is taken, Valencia
ravaged, Arragon destroyed, and Barcelona
besieged ; that poor Marsilius is broken down
by so many calamities, and that his last hopes
rest on him, in pursuit of whom she was wan-
dering. Ferrau balances for a moment between
love and duty, but at length determines to
suspend his combat, with the permission of
Orlando, who agrees to the proposal, and who
himself follows Angelica. Ferrau, on the other
hand, departs with Flordespina for Spain. The
34- THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
author here leaves each to pursue his separate
quest, and returns to Charles. This monarch
calls a council in consequence of intelligence
received, which was similar to that brought by
Flordespina to Ferrau. He observes in this
council, that Marsilius is his neighbour and
relation, and is yet more entitled to succour
from a consideration of common danger; and in
consequence, with the consent of his peers,
dispatches Rinaldo with a great charge of men
at arms against Gradasso, who had crossed the
streights of Gibraltar into Spain. He at the
same time constitutes Rinaldo lieutenant of his
southern provinces, who departs for the seat of
war ; and all the knights present at the tour-
nament assemble under his banner. His
coming, as well as that of Ferrau, (now arrived)
is highly gratifying to Marsilius, who had shel-
tered himself in Gerona. The greatest part of
Spain (as stated) had been already sacked, and
all the Spanish warriors (with the exception of
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 35
Ferrau) who had returned to the defence of
their country, were killed, or prisoners. Even
the giant-king, Grandonio, who we lately saw
braving Charlemagne and all his peerage, had
sought refuge in Barcelona. Marsilius, on the
arrival of the French succours, now marches to
his relief. The banners of the allied army are
no sooner distinguished by Gradasso, where he
lay camped, and served by giant-kings, than he
issues extravagant orders to his various vassals.
Four of these he dispatches with their followers
against Barcelona, with orders not leave a soul
alive in that city, with the exception of Gran-
donio, whom he wishes (as he says) to take alive,
that he may bait him with his dogs. Others
are sent forth, with orders to take or destroy
the most distinguished amongst the captains of
the confederates. This last command is given
to Faraldo, king of Arabia, who is enjoined to
bring him Rinaldo and the banner of Charle-
36 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
magne, which, it seems, was also one of the
principal objects of his expedition.
The battle now rages in the field, and within
the city of Barcelona, in which the army of
Gradasso had previously made lodgements.
While the warfare within the town is still
doubtful, the bands dispatched against the
confederates under Rinaldo, are, after a long
contest, defeated; and one of the surviving giant-
kings reports their discomfiture to Gradasso,
who immediately arms and goes forth against
the conquerors. His first object of attack is
Rinaldo ; but Bayardo, startled by the appear-
ance of the Alfana, a monstrous mare, on which
Gradasso rode, made a leap of twenty feet into
the air, and thus evaded the charge. Gradasso,
though somewhat surprized, gallops on, and
unhorses many of the best amongst the confede-
rates, who are immediately taken and bound by
Alfrera, one of his giant-kings, who serves him
as a lacquey.
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 37
Rinaldo now wheels Bayardo round, and
spurs him at Gradasso ; and both charge with
such fury, that the Alfana and Bayardo crum-
ble under their riders, who, however, preserve
then" seats. Gradasso, who first recollects
himself, gives immediate orders to Alfrera,
who was following him upon a camelopard, to
secure Rinaldo and his horse; and according
to his practice, himself follows up the pursuit
of the confederates.
Alfrera has,, however, a more difficult task
assigned him than Gradasso had imagined;
for Bayardo, having regained his feet, bears
away his rider, who was not yet himself. The
paladin, however, waking from his short stupor,
rides again hi chase of Gradasso, himself pur-
sued in vain by the giant Alfrera.
Rinaldo charges Gradasso just as he has un-
horsed his brother Alardo, and discharges a
furious stroke upon his head. Gradasso repays
the greeting in a way that would have ended
38 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
the strife, but for Mambrino's helmet, which
saved the knight from any worse evil than a
concussion of the brain ; while Bayardo again
galloped away with him in a state of half stupe-
faction. Recovering himself a second time,
and full of shame and fury, he returns to seek
Gradasso, and the combat is renewed with more
equality than was promised by its commence-
ment; Rinaldo, counterbalancing the strength
of his opposite, by his own superior dexterity,
and the quickness and docility of Bayardo.
The combatants are, however, separated, and
borne asunder by the tide of battle. After dif-
ferent adventures, they yet again meet, when
Gradasso observing that Rinaldo is surrounded
by the troops of Sericane, courteously proposes
that their duel should be deferred till the suc-
ceeding day, to be fought under the following
conditions, by both combatants on foot : " If
Rinaldo conquers, he is to have back all the
prisoners made by Gradasso ; and if Gradasso
BOOK I. IXNAMORATO. 39
wins the day, he is to have Bayardo for his
prize ; but is in either case to return home, and
never more set foot in Europe." Rinaldo wil-
lingly accedes to this, and a place is fixed on,
near the sea, for the combat, to which both are
to come, with no other than defensive armour
and their swords. But the author, while the
barriers are preparing, returns to Angelica,
who, being returned to India, determines on
setting Malagigi at liberty, and making him
her mediator with the disdainful knight. She
accordingly frees him from his dungeon, un-
locks his fetters with her own hand, and bids
him hi return to unloosen her own. She then
returns him his book, explains herself more
precisely, and promises him final liberty, on
condition of his bringing back Rinaldo.
Malagigi calls up a demon with the aid of
his book, mounts him and departs. He is en-
tertained, during his journey, with a relation of
Gradasso's enterprise, by the devil; who told
4-0 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
him, as the author observes, " all that had
chanced, and indeed more, which was so much
the easier, in that he lied." Malagigi arrived
at his destination, finds Rinaldo rejoiced to
see him, but immoveable on the subject of
Angelica; and hence, after many fruitless en-
deavours, vanishes with a threat. Having
reached a spot convenient for his incantations,
he opens his book, calls up a legion of demons,
and from these, selects Draghinazzo and Fal-
setta. The latter is -bid to take the appearance
of one of king Marsilius's heralds, the coat of
arms and battoon ; and thus equipped, to inform
Gradasso that Rinaldo expects to meet him at
mid-day. Gradasso accepts the invitation, and
gifts the false herald with a cup.
The same devil, again transformed, comes
now to Rinaldo, as if from Gradasso, but with
a very different appearance. He has a turban
on his head, wears a flowing robe, and has rings
in his ears, instead of on his fingers. His
BOOK I. 1NNAMORATO. 41
object is to remind Rinaldo, on the part of
Gradasso, to meet him in the morning, which
had been the time previously stipulated. Thus
each, on the supposed invitation of the other,
prepares for a different appointment. Rinaldo
necessarily is first at the place, but sees nothing
Small pinnace anchor'd by the shore.
He, however, immediately after, descries a figure
on the beach, in the garb and guise of Gra-
dasso, but which was, in reality, no other than
one of the fiends, Draghinazzo, evoked by
Malagigi, and thus transmogrified. The com-
bat immediately begins; and Rinaldo, after some
blows given and taken, making a desperate two-
handed stroke at the supposed Gradasso, buries
his sword Fusberta in the sand. The devil avails
himself of the opportunity to escape, flies to the
boat, and is putting off. Rinaldo, however,
42 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
follows him into his barque, and deals a blow
at him, but the demon leaps from prow to
Rinaldo chas'd him back from poop to prow,
The sword Fusberta flaming in his hand ;
But he from side to side, from stern to bow,
Flits, while the barque is drifting from the land.
Rinaldo marks it not ; who thought but how
To reach the foe with his avenging brand ;
Nor from his long day-dream of vengeance woke,
Till the false fiend was melted into smoke.
Yet the paladin will not give over his hopes of
finding him, and renews a fruitless search above
and below. In the meantime, the barque is
seven miles from shore, and Rinaldo observes,
too late, that she is scudding, self-steered, before
The vessel at length takes the ground near
a beautiful garden, and Rinaldo lands in front
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 43
of a palace, worthy of its grounds. Here,
says the author, I leave him, with less com-
punction, as he is in good quarters, and proceed
in pursuit of Orlando, who, having wandered
as far as the Tanais, in search of Angelica,
meets an old man weeping the loss of his son,
who had been taken prisoner by a giant. The
paladin delivers the youth, and the old man, in
gratitude, presents him with a book, which is
capable (he says) of resolving the questions of
any one who consults it. Instructed by this
book, he seeks a sphynx, who appears to have
been a yet better resolver of doubts, hi order
to obtain information of the dwelling-place of
Angelica. The monster tells him, that this is in
Albracca of Catay. In the meantime the sphinx
has her question for the interrogator, which it
is death not to interpret; and plies Orlando
with the riddle, solved by CEdipus. Orlando,
with intent to cut the knot which he cannot
untie, draws Durindana, attacks the monster
44 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
sword in hand, and at length slays and tumbles
her from the rock on which she made her
abode. He has now leisure to look in his
book for the solution of the sphynx's enigma;
and finds that her question of " What animal
" begins his career upon four legs, after a time
" continues it on two, and ends it upon three ?"
means Man; designating thus the child who
crawls, the man who walks, and the old man
who supports himself with a stick. Having
cleared up this point, he pursues his way still
poring upon the book, and soon arrives at a
river dark, deep, and dangerous, whose pre-
cipitous banks afford no means of passage.
Orlando rides along the shore till he comes to
a bridge, where he dismounts. This is kept
by a giant, who tells him that he who arrives
at that bridge, which is justly named the Bridge
of Death, has little while to live ; for that all
the roads which lead from it wind back to
that fatal water, into which either he or Orlando
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 45
must soon be plunged never to rise again.
Orlando, however, who seems little impressed by
this warning, springs upon the bridge, and attacks
him. A desperate combat now ensues, but with
the usual issue. The giant is slain. He, how-
ever, in falling, springs a clap-net of iron, which
closing on the paladin, beats his sword out of
his hand, and envelopes him in its folds.
As he lies helpless in this trap, a friar ar-
rives, who, after vain attempts to release him,
offers him spiritual consolation, which is ill
received : but the friar, having the sinner at his
mercy, continues to inculcate it ; and in illus-
tration of the powers of a protecting Providence
informs him of a late miraculous escape of his
own. He was travelling with certain of his
brothers, when they were surprised by a hor-
rible cyclops, who made a feast on one of his
companions, but cast him from a rock, as
worthless carrion ; when he luckily lighted
amongst the branches of a tree, where he lay
46 THE ORLANDO HOOK 1.
concealed till evening, and then effected his
escape. He is yet engaged in his narration,
when he breaks off with a scream and flies.
His sudden terror was produced by the sight
of the very Cyclops of whom he spoke, who
came armed with a club and three darts.
He, however, instead of pursuing the friar,
stops to consider Orlando. He then takes up
Durindana, which lies near, and hews the
chain-net in pieces, without injury to the
count, whose skin was enchanted. Orlando
instantly starts up, his bones aching with the
blows, which had not been able to penetrate his
flesh ; and seizing the giant's club, they, having
thus exchanged weapons, engage in a desperate
and equal combat. For if Orlando's skin was
invulnerable, the giant's armour, which was
made of griffins' claws, was equally impene-
trable. At length Orlando bethinks him of
the three shafts, which the giant had laid down,
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 4-7
as well as his club, when he possessed himself
Seizing these, and launching one of them at
his single eye, it penetrates his brain and
stretches him dead. At this juncture the friar,
who yet trembles with fear as well as joy, re-
appears, and entreats Orlando to accompany
him towards the dead cyclops* den, for the
purpose of liberating his companions.
This done, Orlando rides on ; when, arriving
at a place where many roads cross, he meets
a courier, and asking him news, learns that he
is dispatched by Angelica, to solicit the aid of
Sacripant, king of Circassia, in favour of her
father, Galaphron, besieged by Agrican, emperor
of Tartary, in Albracca. This Agrican had
been an unsuccessful suitor to the damsel, whom
he now pursues with arms. Orlando, who
learns that he is within a day's journey of Al-
bracca, now thinks that he is secure of Angelica,
and proceeds with rapture towards her seat.
48 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
Thus journeying, he arrives at a bridge which
united two mountains, and under which ran a
foaming river. Here a damsel meets him with
a goblet, and informs him, with much grace of
demeanor, that it is the usage of the bridge to
present the traveller with a cup, which she
offers to Orlando, and which the paladin, in
courtesy, drains. He has, however, no sooner
swallowed the julep which sparkles in it, than
his brain dances, and he is no longer conscious
of the object of his journey, or even of his own
existence. Under the influence of this fasci-
nation, he follows the damsel into a magnificent
and marvellous palace.
Here the author leaves the count to return
to Gradasso, who, deceived by the false herald
that appointed him to meet Rinaldo upon the
sea-shore at noon, in vain expects his arrival.
He waits there till night, when he retires full
of indignation at the supposed cowardice of
his opponent. In the meantime, Ricciardetto
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 49
(who had been left by his brother, Rinaldo, in
charge of Charlemagne's army), on the paladin's
departure for the false appointment according
to the instructions he had received, in case of
his not returning in a given time, withdraws
Charles's forces from Marsilius's camp, and
returns to France.
Gano immediately cries out upon Rinaldo's
treason, and all is dismay. On the other part,
Marsilius, thus deserted, has no means of safety,
but in making peace with Gradasso, and con-
senting to hold Spain as his liegeman. In
consequence of his so doing, Gradasso, strength-
ened by the accession of Marsilius, with Gran-
donio and his other vassal kings, marches upon
Paris. Charlemagne, with all his peerage,
sallies to encounter him ; but his army ex-
periences a disastrous rout, and he, with almost
all his paladins, is captured; while Paris is
immediately invested by the invaders.
Gradasso, however, does not abuse his vic-
50 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
tory : he takes Charles by the hand, seats him
by his side, and tells him he wars only for ho-
nour. Hence he renounces all conquests, but
insists on the monarch promising him Bayardo
and Durindana, both the property of his vassals,
the first of which, as he maintained, was already
forfeited by the treason of Rinaldo. To this ;
Charlemagne and his peers in acknowledgment
of their defeat, were to remain his prisoners for
a day : Bayardo, who had been brought back by
Ricciardetto, was to be forthwith delivered up,
and Durindana consigned to Gradasso in Se-
ricana, upon the return of Orlando to France.
To these terms Charlemagne readily accedes,
and sends for the horse to Paris.
Here, Astolpho had assumed the command,
having obtained his freedom during the con-
fusion, which followed upon the rout of Charle-
magne's army, and asserted an authority which,
in the absence of the other peers, there was no
one to dispute.
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 51
He receives with great indignation the mes-
senger dispatched for Bayardo, and throws
him into prison ; answering the embassy by
a herald, who says, on the part of Astolpho,
" that Charles has no right in the steed ; but
that Gradasso may come and fight for him ; in
which case he will meet him in the field."
The next day the two knights encounter,
having previously established the conditions of
their combat. The enchanted lance performs a
new wonder ; and Gradasso, the terrible Gra-
dasso, is unhorsed.
According to their previous agreement, Gra-
dasso is to give up his prisoners, and return to his
kingdom of Sericana. Astolpho, however, begs
him not to spoil a jest which he wishes to put upon
Charlemagne and his paladins, by making them
believe that the issue of the duel had been dif-
ferent from what it was, and that they, therefore,
(in consequence of the first proffer of Gradasso
not having been acceded to,) were still the pri-
52 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
soners of that sovereign. When Astolpho has
sufficiently bantered both king, count, and bishop
(for Turpin was amongst the captives, and one of
the objects of his raillery), he falls upon his
knees, begs pardon of Charles for his irrever-
ence, and observes, that as he is ill looked upon
in his court, he will leave the field to Gano,
and set out on the morrow in search of his
cousins Orlando and Rinaldo. Having said
this, Charles and his peers are freed, and Gano
is getting into his saddle ; when he is brought
back by Astolpho, who observes, that he only
gives him his liberty, (since the disposal of all is
at his option,) on condition of his swearing before
Charles, to constitute himself his prisoner for
four days, whenever he should enjoin it. Charles
undertakes for his compliance with such a re-
quisition, and seeks to detain Astolpho with the
bribe of Ireland ; but the duke is inflexible, and
departs. Gradasso also returns into Sericana.
The author now returns to Rinaldo, who
was landed by the self-piloted boat in what was,
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 53
it seems, denominated The Joyous Garden. He is
scarcely disembarked, before a lady appears, who
takes him by the hand, and conducts him into a
palace, where he is served by attendant damsels,
with everj r sort of luxury and magnificence. At
last, the chief of the servants tells him, that all
this is his which he surveys, being the pre-
sent of a lady, who, to have his love, has brought
him out of Spain. While Rinaldo stands lost
in astonishment, the name of Angelica, who is
proclaimed by this man to be the mistress of
the palace, breaks the charm, and he flies in
fury through the garden, till, arriving at the
landing-place, he leaps again into his pinnace.
The bark, however, remains immoveable, and
he is about to cast himself into the sea in de-
spair, when it darts from the shore and traverses
Arrived on the banks of a well-wooded
country, it again takes the land; and Rinaldo
disembarking, encounters a hoary and aged man
. r )i TUK ORLANDO BOOK 1.
upon the beach, who has a melancholy story for
the paladin, of a ravisher who had that moment
carried away his daughter. Pursuing the* thief)
Rinaldo falls into a pit-fall, and is carried away
prisoner by a giant ; who bears him to a cas-
tle, situate^ upon a promontory, the walls of
which were covered with maimed bodies and
heads, some of which yet quivered with the re-
mains of life.
The giant, entering the building, casts Ri-
naldo down before an old woman of stern and
forbidding appearance ; who thus addresses
" Haply, Sir Knight, thou hast not heard display
" Our castle's use," exclaims the beldame old ;
" In the short time thou hast to live, a day
" Is yet thine own, the story shall be told :
" Then listen to the legend, whilst thou may,
" And I the melancholy tale unfold.
" Thou in that space may'st hear the tale of
sorrow, ' ,-.
" And witness to its truth in blood to-morrow."
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 55
She pursues her story * thus : " Know, Sir
Stranger, that this castle was formerly held
by a 'rich lord, famous for his magnificence j
and hospitality, and yet more so, for the in-
comparable beauty of the lady whom he had
to wife. This castellan was hight Gryphon,
his castle Altaripa, and Stella was the name
of his wife. It was his favourite pleasure
to disport himself in the green-wood near the
shore, where thou arrived'st this morning, and
roving one day through this, he heard the
hunting-horn of a stranger, whom he invited
to his castle. The guest was Marchino, lord of
Aronda, and my husband ; who was so smitten
* I have thought it the duty of a translator, to preserve this
story j but I would say to my readers, in the Words of
Lasciate questo canto, che senz' esso
- Pub star 1* istoria, e non sara men* chiara.
Mettendolo Turpino, anch' io 1* ho messo.
Leave out tkit canto / tince the tale will tell
Without it, and the ttory it at dear:
Which, totdby Turpin, I relate a welt. .
56 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
by the beauty of Stella, that he could not rest
till he had made her his own. He, however,
dissembled his evil intentions, and took a
friendly leave of his entertainer. This was
only to return, as a treacherous enemy. He,
accordingly, bearing some resemblance to Gry-
phon, counterfeited his ensigns, and came back
with a party of his retainers, whom he concealed,
as well as those, in the neighbouring wood.
He, in the mean time, pursued the chace un-
armed. Gryphon again sought him out, and
finding him apparently distressed by the loss of
a hound, joined him in his search. He was
thus decoyed into the ambuscade, and assassi-
nated. Marchino, having disposed of his rival,
entered Altaripa under the disguise of Gry-
phon's ensigns, where he did not leave a soul
alive, with the exception of Stella. She,
while preserved by the conqueror, brooded in
secret over schemes of vengeance, and after
pondering some time, determined to have re-
BOOK I. INXAMORATO. 57
course to that animal whose wrath is the most
intolerable, namely, the wife who has been
once loved, and after slighted for another.
This was no other than myself, and the cruel-
ties which I perpetrated, well justified her ex-
pectation. Two children, whom I had by
Marchino, I killed and quartered. Think
upon this : yet know that I still triumph in the
recollection of my vengeance. Their heads
only, I preserved: the remainder I cooked,
and served up to the wretched father for his /ti;*S-.^-7 ^
supper. This done, I departed secretly for Tl~* s/Zy ,_
'./>- 1 * L-_ ^
the court of the king of Orgagna, who had
long been a wooer to me, without success.
Him I stirred up to vengeance against Mar-
chino, and brought in arms against his newly-
acquired castle of Altaripa,
While I was gone on this errand, Stella, with
dishevelled hair, a smile upon her lips, but
bitterness in her heart, presented herself before
the murderer of her husband, with the heads of
58 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
his two children in a charger, arid disclosed to
him the horrid tragedy, at which he had been
an unwitting assistant. The traitor hesitated
for a moment, as if suspended between the de-
sire of lust and vengeance, and then slew the lady,
and satiated both ; nay, as if in outrage of God
and man, pursued his impious loves with the
body, till I returned with the king of Orgagna.
After a desperate resistance, we possessed
ourselves of Altaripa, and Marchino, having
been made prisoner, perished in such tortures
as he had deserved.
The king of Orgagna now departed, leaving
me mistress of the conquered castle, with three
giants for my defence, having first buried the
unfortunate Stella, together with the body of
Gryphon, which had been left exposed and sub-
jected to outrage by the barbarous Marchino.
More than eight months had now passed
when a horrid cry was heard from the mar-
ble sepulchre, in which Gryphon and Stella
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 59
were laid, uud we fled in dismay from the
sound. Only one of my giants, more daring
than his fellows, approached the tomb, and
lifted the lid ; when a monster thrust forth its
claw, and having dragged him into the grave,
devoured him alive. We immediately walled
up the space about the monument, as a pro-
tection against its attacks, and the monster,
having made its way out of the sepulchre,
remains thus enclosed between the defences
which we have constructed. But such is his
rage and craving for human flesh, that we
supply him with this, lest he should tear
down the wall in his fury. Hence the usage of
this castle ; which is to seize on all strangers,
in order to provide him with food. The
.quarters which you see exposed on the walls,
are the leavings of the beast: for though the
custom sprung out of necessity, my heart is
become hardened with cruelty, and I now live
for no other pleasure.' 1 ifr .7."'
60 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
Rinaldp hears the hag with stern composure,
and desires no other favour than that of being
exposed to the monster, clad in armour, as he
is, and with Fusberta in his hand. This the
beldam grants, with a bitter smile of mockery,
and the night closes upon him in his dungeon.
The succeeding morning, he is lowered down
from the wall into the space tenanted by the beast,
the horrible fruit of Marchino's intercourse with
the body of Stella. A desperate combat now
ensues, Rinaldo being unable to make any im-
pression on the scales of the monster : while
he, on the contrary, shears away plate and
mail from the paladin. While he is engaged
in this hopeless struggle, the beast seizes Fus-
berta with his teeth, and disarms Rinaldo, who
is left without defence.
The author here leaves him, as he says, to
speak of a spirit hardly less afflicted, though in
another manner : he means Angelica; who ex-
pects in trembling, the effect of Malagigi's
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 61
attempt He arrives, and states his failure,
but would comfort the damsel with the thoughts
of vengeance; relating to what a perilous pass
he had brought the miserable Rinaldo; for
it was by his stratagem that he was conveyed
to Altaripa. She, however, is in despair at his
danger, and overwhelms Malagigi with re-
poaches. He tells her, it is not yet too late
to save him, and furnishes her with the means.
These are a rope, with a noose at the distance
of every palm, a cake of wax, and a file. Fur-
nished with these implements, and instructed by
Malagigi in the use of them, Angelica fliesr"
through the air to the succour of Rinaldo.
The miserable paladin had, in the mean
time, sprang upon a beam, which projected
from the wall, and thus remained hanging
between heaven and earth, with little hope
even of present safety ; since the monster con-
tinually leapt at him, and, often, all but
62 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
reached him with his claws. It was now even-
ing, when Rinaldo was surprised by the shadow
of a woman, and soon after by the sight of
Angelica, kneeling before him, self-suspended
in air. She reproaches herself for having
brought him into this peril, and opening her
arms, entreats him to take refuge in them, and
escape. Such, however, are the effects of the
fountain of hate, that Rinaldo spurns at the
proposal, and vows if she does not immediately
depart, he will cast himself down from the
beam. After long and fruitless efforts to move
him, she at length descends, throws her cake
of wax to the monster, and immediately flings
her rope, knotted with nooses, before him.
The beast, who takes the bait, finding his
teeth glued together by the wax, vents his fury
hi bounds, and leaping into one of the snares
is noosed by Angelica, who leaves him thus
entangled, and departs.
BOOK I. INN AMOR ATO. 63
Though the monster is delivered over to
him gagged and bound, so invulnerable is
his hide, that Rinaldo makes long and
fruitless efforts to destroy him ; till, at length,
leaping upon his neck, he squeezes his eyes
out of their sockets ; and the beast expires
under the gripe.
Another difficulty yet remained to be over-
come. The walls were of immense height, and
the only opening in them was a grated window,
of such strength that Fusberta was unable to
separate the bars. In his distress, however,
Rinaldo perceived the file which had been left by
Angelica on the ground, and, with the help of
this, effected his deliverance.
He is immediately discovered and surrounded,
but he charges and slays his pursuers ; and the
beldam, having witnessed the destruction of her
followers, throws herself headlong from a bal-
cony of three hundred feet in height.
64- THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
Departing hence, Rinaldo returns to the sea-
side; but, unwilling to trust himself again to
the bark, pursues his way along the shore.
The author now returns to Astolpho, who
had set out in search of his cousins, Orlando
and Rinaldo, splendidly dressed and equipt, as
was his use, and mounted on Bayardo ; in
the intention of returning him to his lord.
Having arrived in Circassia, he finds there a
great army, encamped under the command of
Sacripant, the king of that country ; who was
leading it to the defence of Galaphron, the
father of Angelica. Astolpho visits the camp
of this faithful, but ill-requited lover of the
princess ; and not having the leopard on his
buckler, which was of gold, is known through
the Circassian army as the knight of the golden
shield. Sacripant, much struck by the appear-
ance of Astolpho and his horse, accosts him
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 65
Demands how his assistance may be bought,
And bids him make his price of service known,
" With gift of this fair host, whom thou hast
" To war in Indian fields from tower and town ;"
The British duke replies, "With this, or nought.
" Leave me, or make me at this price thine own.
" Nor will I serve, sir king, for other pay,
" Born to command, unweeting to obey."
This, with other more extravagant speeches,
leads the Circassian captains to consider him as
a madman, and Astolpho is left to pursue his
journey. King Sacripant, however, has been
too much struck with the appearance of his
horse and armour, to part with him so easily,
and having divested himself of his kingly orna-
ments, he determines to pursue him.
Astolpho was in the meantime advanced a
day's journey upon his road, when he was over-
taken by a strange warrior :
66 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
The stranger knight was named sir Brandimart,
Lord of the Sylvan Tower and its domain :
Through paynim countries, and in every part
Bruited for glorious feats, by hill and plain.
Well versed in tilt and tourney's valiant art ;
In his appearance graceful and humane :
Courteous, with that : and over and above
His other virtues, famed for constant love.
A gentle damsel had the knight for guide,
Who with Astolpho bold encountered there ;
Blooming in early youth and beauty's pride ;
And in his faithful eyes as dear as fair.
Him from afar the British duke * defied,
And proudly bade him for the joust prepare
And wheel and take his ground, and guard his
' Or leave his lady love, a prize to better knight."
Brandimart is as ready for battle as Astolpho;
but observes, as the latter has no lady, he may
wager his horse ; as it was but fair that each
should deposit his stake. The proposal is
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 67
acceded to, and the knights encounter. Bran-
diinart is unhorsed, and his steed falls dead,
while Bayardo remains uninjured by the shock.
The paynim knight observing the discon-
solate looks of the damsel, is so overwhelmed
with despair, that he draws his sword and is
about to plunge it into his own bosom. Astol-
pho, however, holds his hand, and exclaims that
he contended but for glory, and having won
the honours of the fight, was contented to leave
him the lady.
While Brandimart is vowing eternal service
and gratitude, king Sacripant arrives, and now
longing for the damsel of the one as well as the
steed and arms of the other, defies them to the
joust. Astolpho, as mounted, meets the chal-
lenger, whom he instantly overthrows, and pre-
sents Brandimart with his courser ; leaving the
king to return to his army on foot. This dis-
position is scarcely made, when Brandimart's
damsel changes colour, and tells them they are
G8 THE ORLANDO BOOK T.
approaching the waters of Oblivion, and advises
them either to turn back, or to change their
direction. Both refuse; and pursuing their path,
arrive at the bridge where Orlando was left.
The damsel, as before, appears with the en-
chanted chalice, which is rejected by Astolpho
with contumely. She immediately dashes
it to the ground, and a fire blazes up, which
renders the bridge impassable. Upon this the
damsel, who accompanied them, seizes each by
the hand, runs with them along the river, and
brings them to another secret and narrow bridge,
which they cross in safety, and find themselves
beside the enchanted garden.
Brandimart instantly batters down the gate,
and the two warriors entering, are attacked by
sundry knights known and unknown, who,
having no recollection of any thing, join blindly
in the defence of their prison-house. While these
are engaged by Brandimart, Astolpho entering
the garden and pursuing his career, meets with
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 69
Orlando, who being, like the rest, mindless of
kindred or of country, makes at the English duke,
who only escapes by the activity of Bayardo.
He clears the wall, and bears off his rider.
The author pauses to tell us that the enchanted
water signifies the affection, impression, or opi-
nion which man takes from others, either at
sight, or upon trust; and the cup, which the
damsel lets fall, is that which gives its colour-
ing to the thing seen.
Bayardo, this time, continues to gain upon
Orlando's horse ; and while Astolpho is thus
born out of danger, Brandimart is overlaid with
fearful odds in the enchanted garden ; and his
lady, trembling for the issue of the battle, en-
treats him to yield to necessity, and comply
with the usage of the fairy. So saying, she
flies ; and Brandimart, obeying her commands,
yields, and drinking of the cup, becomes as
intoxicated as the rest.
Orlando returns from the fruitless pursuit of
70 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
Astolpho, and excuses himself to the fairy, who
was named Dragontina, for not having been
able to overtake her enemy ; who pursues his
way to Albracca, which Agrican is about to
besiege. Here he is welcomed kindly by An-
gelica, though she is somewhat outraged by
his rhodomontades. He is not long before
he attempts to put them in practice. For
having one night ordered the drawbridge to be
lowered, he sallies out alone, arrives in Agri-
can's camp, and unhorses his warriors, right
and left, by means of the enchanted lance.
Being, however, surrounded and taken, his cap-
ture spreads consternation among the besieged,
and the author says that no one dared sally from
the city. ^
Relief, was, however at hand; for, as the
burghers and soldiers, are one day, leaning
over their walls, they descry a cloud of dust,
from which horsemen are seen to prick forth,
as it rolls on towards the camp of the besiegers,
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 71
which lay between the town and the new army,
This turns out to be the army of Sacripant,
which, arriving the morning after the capture
of Astolpho, attacks that of Agrican, with the
view of cutting a passage through his camp into
the besieged city. Agrican, however, mounted
on Bayardo, taken from Astolpho, but not
armed with the lance of gold, with the virtues
of which he appears to have been unacquainted,
performs prodigies, and rallies his scattered
troops, which had given way to the sudden
and unexpected assault. Sacripant, on the
other hand, encourages his own by the most
desperate acts of valour, and, as an additional
incentive to his courage, sends a messenger to
Angelica, entreating that she will appear upon
the walls. She not only complies with this in-
vitation, but sends him a sword as an earnest
of her favour.
She arrives in time to see a single combat
72 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
between the two leaders, Agrican and Sacri-
pant: in this, however, her defender appears
to be rather overmatched, when the Cir-
cassians break the ring, and separate the two
combatants, who are borne asunder by the
crowd. Sacripant, who was severely wounded,
profits by the occasion, and escapes into Albracca,
where he is put to bed and carefully attended.
The duel is an omen of the event of the
battle, and the Circassians, who had at first
penetrated within their enemies' lines, are now
routed and fly in confusion towards the town.
Angelica orders the drawbridge to be lowered,
and the gates to be thrown open to the fugi-
tives. With these Agrican, who was not distin-
guished hi the hurly-burly, enters the place
pell mell, driving both Circassians and Catayans
before him, and the portcullis is instantly dropt.
Thus shut into the besieged city, the Tartar
king continues the chase, regardless of his re-
treat being intercepted, and deluges the streets
with blood. Sacripant, hearing the tumult, and
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 73
learning the cause, leaps from bed, naked and
wounded as he was, and armed only with his
sword and shield, opposes himself to his fury.
His example and his reproaches take effect.
Her allies the flyers, and, fresh forces coming
to his assistance, and pouring in upon Agrican
from all sides, the Tartar king slowly and re-
The author here suspends this story, to
speak ofRinaldo; whom we left issuing from the
castle of Altaripa, and pursuing his way along
the beach. Here he meets with a weeping
damsel, who, being questioned as to the cause of
her sorrow, tells him she wanders upon a hopeless
quest, and is in search of one who will do battle
with nine knights, amongst whom is Orlando.
This is the lady loved of Brandimart ; to whom
Rinaldo promises his assistance, trusting to ac-
complish the adventure either by valour or by
skill. The author here pauses from his nar-
rative, and exclaims,
74- THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
To the grim winter and the dismal night
Succeed the balmy spring and cheerful day.
That battle had so fill'd me with affright,
That I was all confusion and dismay :
But now the strife is over, and 'tis light,
Of ladies and of love shall be my lay ;
And I will piece my broken tale and tell
What good Rinaldo and the maid befell.
The damsel, on their setting out together on
the adventure, insists upon Rinaldo's taking
her horse. This he refuses, and a contest of
courtesy follows, which is ended by Rinaldo's
accepting the palfrey, on condition of her
mounting upon the croup. This she does,
in some fear for her honour ; but finding the
cavalier cold and silent, at last proposes to be-
guile the way with a story. To this he con-
sents, and she begins her narration as follows :
" There lived of late, in Babylon, a cavalier,
called Iroldo, who had for his wife a lady named
Tisbina, to whom he was passionately attached.
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 75
Near them dwelt a Babylonian gentleman,
named Prasildo, rich, gay, courteous and va-
liant; who, making one of a party of both sexes,
in a garden, where a game was played which
admitted familiarities between them, fell desper-
ately in love with Tisbina, whom he vainly solicited,
by every kind of gallantry and magnificence.
" All his efforts were however unavailing ;
and, disappointed in his hope, he fell into a state
of melancholy which rendered life intolerable.
One only occupation seemed to afford him some
little relief. This was to brood over his sor-
rows in a wood, situated at a small distance
" As he here one day indulged his grief,
(and it grew by indulgence,) he fell into such
a fit of passion, that he determined, after a
broken soliloquy, to slay himself and die
with the name of Tisbina on his lips. By a
strange accident, his intention was overheard by
Iroldo and Tisbina herself, who were walking
76 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
together in the wood. They were both moved
to compassion; and Iroldo insisted upon Tis-
bina's offering some consolation to the despair-
" Her husband leaving her, that she may exe-
cute this purpose, she comes upon him as if by
accident; pretends that, though modesty has
hitherto restrained her, she has not been insen-
sible to his tenderness ; and assures him, that, if
he will give her an indubitable proof of his de-
votion, in undertaking an adventure which she
has at heart, she will reward him with the pos-
session of her person. :
" She then tells him that beyond the woods of
Barbary, there is a garden, which is surrounded
by an iron wall, to be entered through four
gates. These are respectively called the gate
of Life, of Death, of Riches, and of Poverty.
" In the centre (she said) was a tree, whose
top was an arrow's flight from the ground, with
leaves of emerald, and golden fruit. Of this
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 77
tree she required a branch, and again renewed
her assurance of the price which she would pay
for the acquisition. Prasildo joyfully promised
it, and would have promised sun, moon, and
stars, as easily as the achievement of the ad-
venture ; upon which he immediately departs.
" The lady, it appears, dispatched him
to the garden of Medusa*, for so it was called,
that he might find a cure for his love in ab-
sence and in travel : or, if he reached the spot,
might find there a yet surer remedy for his
distemper. For the sight of Medusa, who was
to be found standing under the wonderful tree,
occasioned every one to forget the errand he
came on, and, if he had any speech with the
dame, his very name and self.
" Prasildo, departing on this forlorn enter-
prise, traversed Egypt, and arriving near the
* Designed, I suppose, as the type of conscience ; as one
" whose sight would make him forget the errand on which he
78 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
mountains of Barca, encounters an old man, to
whom he relates the object of his expedition.
" The old man assures him that fortune could
not have directed him to a better counsellor, and
immediately furnishes him with his instructions.
" He begins by telling him that the gates of
Life and of Death are never used as entrances
to the enchanted enclosure ; and that it is only
through the gate of Poverty that man can pene-
trate into the garden of Medusa. He next
informs him that Medusa herself guards the
marvellous tree; whose appearance deprives
whoever sets eyes on her of his memory ; but
that she is to be terrified into flight by the re-
flection of her own face.
" He therefore counsels Prasildo to provide
himself with a shield of looking-glass, being in
other respects naked ; for such appearance is
a fitting guise for entering the gate of Poverty.
This (he observes) is the most terrible and the
most severely guarded of all, being watched by
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 79
Misery and Shame, Cold, Hunger, Melancholy,
and Scorn. " There," said he, " is to be seen
Roguery stretched upon the ground, and cover-
ed with itch, and (in strange union,) Industry
and Laziness, Compassion and Desperation.
" Having succeeded in the enterprise,
and torn off a branch of the tree, you will
seek the opposite gate," he pursues, " by
which you are to retreat; and will there find
Wealth seated, and on the watch. Here you are
to make an offering of a portion of the branch,
that Avarice, who plays the porter, may open to
you quickly ; a wretch who asks the more, the
more you give. Here, too, you will see Pomp
and Honour, Flattery and Hospitality, Am-
bition, Grandeur, and Favour : then Inquietude
and Torment, Jealousy, Suspicion, Fear, So-
licitude, and Terror. Behind the door stand
Hate, and Envy with a bow for ever bent."
" Prasildo having received his full instructions,
now crosses the desert, and, after thirty days'
journey, arrives at the garden. Here he easily
80 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
passes the gate of Poverty, the entry of which
no one defends. On the contrary, there ever
stands some one near it, to encourage and invite.
" Having entered the inclosure, he advances,
holding his shield of glass before his eyes ; and
reaching the tree, against which Medusa was
leaning, the Fairy, who raises her head at his
approach, and beholds herself in the mirror,
takes to flight ; scared, it seems, by seeing re-
flected in it the head of a serpent; though
in other eyes her beauty is divine.* Prasildo,
hearing the Fairy fly, uncovers his eyes, which
were before protected by his shield, and leaving
her to escape, goes directly to the tree, from
which he severs a branch. Then, pursuing the
directions received, makes for the opposite gate,
* The circumstance of Medusa not being able to contem-
plate the reflection of her own hideous appearance, though
beautiful in the sight of others ; the fact of no one being able
to win the golden bough which she kept, but by refraining from
looking her in the face; and other circumstances, confirm the
conjecture which I have hazarded in a preceding note.
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 81
where he sees Wealth, surrounded by her fol-
lowers. This gate, which is of load-stone, never
opens without noise, and is for the most part
shut : Fatigue and Fraud are the guides who
conduct to it. It is, however, sometimes open ;
but requires both luck and courage to enable
any one to profit by the chance. It was open
the day Prasildo came, and he made the offering
of half the bough, as he was instructed, and
escaped with the remainder of his prize.
" Transported with pleasure, he issues from
the garden, passes through Nubia, crosses the
Arabian Gulf with a fair wind, and journeys
day and night till he arrives in Babylon.
" Arrived there, he sends immediate news of
his success to Tisbina, who is in an agony at
learning the unexpected result of her device.
Iroldo is rendered equally miserable, but insists
upon the necessity of her redeeming her
promise, though he knows he cannot survive its
execution. She feels that she can as ill survive
82 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
Iroldo ; and they at last resolve, that faith must
be kept with Prasildo, and that they will both die.
They accordingly send to an aged apothecary
for a deadly draught, which they divide between
them ; and each having swallowed a due portion,
Iroldo covers his face and throws himself on
his bed, while the yet more miserable Tisbina
proceeds to the residence of Prasildo. Here
she attempts to dissemble her sorrow and to
feign a cheerfulness, foreign to her heart. But
Prasildo detects the imposture, and at last ex-
torts a full confession of the truth. This de-
clared, he reproaches her, as having little faith
in his generosity, with a bursting heart renounces
the proffered happiness, and dismisses her with
an affectionate kiss.
" Tisbina, who had assured him that if she
had known him first, she should have loved
him as devotedly as she did her husband,
now departs, overflowing with gratitude, and
returns to Iroldo who was still unaffected by
the draught, but prostrate on the bed. She
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 83
relates to him the sacrifice of her lover. The
husband springs from his couch, thanks God
for this last mercy, and invokes every blessing
upon the head of Prasildo. While he is yet
praying, he sees the countenance of Tisbina
change, who sinks, as if overcome by sleep.
The husband sees the operation of the drink
with horror, and is transported from his short
fit of pleasure, to a state of the most agonizing
" The situation of Prasildo is scarcely
less intolerable ; who locked himself up in his
chamber, in order to indulge his grief in soli-
tude, upon the departure of Tisbina. While
he is shut up in darkness, the ancient apothe-
cary calls, and tells his valet that Prasildo's life
depends upon his immediate admission to him.
The valet was a native of Casazzo, of a merry
humour and full of faith and attachment, diligent,
active, and experienced in all his duties ; but of
a frankness which sometimes gave his master
84 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
offence. This man, having a master-key, ad-
mits the apothecary ; who excusing the intru-
sion by his zeal for Prasildo's repose, informs
him that he had that morning furnished the
chambermaid of Tisbina with a potion, by her
mistress's order, which he believed was des-
tined for his destruction, as Tisbina had been
shortly afterwards traced to his house ; but adds,
that he need be under no apprehension, even if
he has swallowed the draught: since, in the
apprehension of mischief, he had substituted a
mere sleeping-potion, the effects of which were
only calculated to last for a few hours.
" Prasildo, transported with joy, immediately
flies in search of Iroldo, whose stronger con-
stitution had as yet resisted the soporific, and
informs him of the joyful tidings of the apothe-
cary. Iroldo receives the news in such a manner
as might have been expected, and concludes with
making Prasildo a return such as he had never
looked for. In a transport of gratitude, he
HOOK I. INNAMORATO. 85
insists on his receiving Tisbina, and accordingly
departs from Babylon, leaving her yet asleep.
On waking, she is combated by opposing feel-
ings ; but at length, as the generosity of Pra-
sildo had made more impression on her heart,
than she was willing to confess, even to herself,
yields to Iroldo's will, and takes Prasildo for
her husband." rs
The damsel was yet speaking, when a loud
cry was heard, which filled her with con- Jr
sternation. Rinaldo however, re-assuring her
as he best could, pressed forward through the
wood (for they were then in the centre of one)
towards the quarter from which it proceeded.
He soon perceived a giant standing under a
vaulted cavern, with a large club in his hand,
and of an appearance to have struck the boldest
spirit with dread. On each side of the cavern
was chained a griffin, who, together with the
giant, were stationed there for the protection of
the horse which was once Argalia's.
86 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
This monster of enchantment was the creature.
For of a mare, composed of spark and flame,
(Strange wonder, and beyond the laws of nature)
Made pregnant by the wind, the courser came ;
Matchless in vigour, speed, and form and feature.
Such was his birth, and Rabican his name :
Who, with his fellow-steeds, disdain'd to share
The proffer'd corn or grass, and fed on air.
This marvellous horse being driven away by
Ferrau, in the wood of Arden, previous to his
fatal encounter with Argalia, who had possessed
himself of him by enchantment, on finding him-
self at liberty, returned to his native cavern, and
was here stabled under the protection of the
giant and the griffins. Towards these Rinaldo
advances with deliberate valour, over ground
whitened with the bones of their victims. He
is the first to smite at the giant, but his stroke
is rendered of no effect by the enchanted helmet
of his adversary. In a second blow he is more
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 87
fortunate; but his adversary, though wounded
near the heart, escapes, and looses his griffins.
One of these immediately seizes the giant by
a foot: rises with him into the sky, hovers
over Rinaldo's head, and at length drops
his burden, with intent to crush the intruder.
Rinaldo, however, who was as remarkable for
his activity, as for his strength and courage,
shuns the descending mischief, and the giant
falls to the ground crushed, without harm to the
paladin. In the meantime, the other griffin,
having towered in air, pounces upon Rinaldo,
who, watching his opportunity, wounds her des-
perately in her descent. She has, however,
strength enough to soar a second flight, and
swooping upon Rinaldo's helmet, loosens its
circle with her claws ; tear it she could not,
since this was the enchanted helmet, which was
once the head-piece of Mambrino.
In this manner the griffin repeats her attacks,
and Rinaldo fends and parries as he can ; while
88 THE ORLANDO BOOK J.
the damsel stands trembling near, and witnesses
The battle still continued, rendered more ter-
rible by the approach of night ; when Rinaldo,
fearing he should not be able to distinguish
his enemy, determined upon a desperate ex-
pedient, in order to bring it to a conclusion.
He fell, as if fainting from his wounds, and on
the close approach of the griffin, dealt her a
blow, which sheared away one of her wings.
The beast, though sinking, griped him fast with
her talons, digging through plate and mail :
but Rinaldo plied his sword in utter desper-
ation, and at last accomplished her destruc-
The damsel now entreats Rinaldo to mount
and proceed; but he thinks the adventure ill
accomplished, and proceeds towards the en-
trance of the cavern. This was secured by a
BOOK I. JNNAMORATO. 89
Whose marble pannel a mosaic fill'd
Of pearl and emerald, sown with care so nice ;
That he who saw the piece, if little skill'd,
Might deem it was a treasure passing price.
In the mid-picture lay a damsel kill'd ;
And, writ in golden letters, the device
This legend bore : " Let whoso passes, plight
" His word to 'venge my death, and do me right ;
" Or he shall die the death ; but if he swear
" To slay the traitor who my death design'd ;
" The enchanted courser shall the warrior bear,
" A courser that is swifter than the wind."
The prince stopt not to think ; but plighted there
In solemn form, his promise, as enjoin'd ;
His promise to avenge, alive or dead,
The slaughter'd damsel's blood, unjustly shed.
90 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
Then enters, and beholds the courser tied
With chains of gold, so famous for his speed.
With foot-cloth of white silk he was supplied,
And all things else convenient for his need.
Tho' coal-black all the rest, the tail was pied,
And starred with white the forehead of the steed ;
And white one foot behind. Bayardo's might
Was more : but this had pass'd a dart in flight.
Rinaldo is delighted with his adventure, and,
while surveying the steed, beholds a book,
secured by a chain, in which was written in
blood the history of the damsel's death.
The book related that Truffaldino, king of
Baldacca, had a count for his neighbour, dis-
tinguished for his virtues and accomplishments,
whom that evil-minded prince misliked on that
very account. His name was Orisello, and
Montefalcon was that of the castle where he
resided. This lord had a sister as distinguished
for her merit, called Albarosa, who loved Po-
lindo, a noble knight of equal virtue and daring.
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 91
The castle was built upon a rock, and so well
fortified, that Truffaldino, who had warred
upon the count, though he had made several
assaults upon it, had always been defeated in
Things being in this state, Polindo, who had
a great love for travel, and often wandered from
court to court, arrived at that of Truffaldino;
who, for his own evil views, shewed him great
favour, and having acquired his confidence,
promised him assistance in his designs upon
Albarosa. As a means of forwarding these, he
presents him with a castle of pleasure, situated
a day's journey from Montefalcon ; and Po-
lindo having persuaded Albarosa to elope with
him, carries her thither ; but while they are
supping together, with infinite delight, Truffal-
dino, who had entered the castle by a subter-
raneous passage, unknown to its new possessor,
breaks in upon them with a party of his retain-
ers, and binds them both. He then dictates a
92 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
letter to the lady, which he orders her to send
to her brother Orisello, in order to decoy him
into his hands. She refuses ; when the tyrant
puts her to the torture, in the presence of
Polindo, before whose eyes she expires, re-
fusing compliance with her latest breath.
Rinaldo, having read this dreadful history,
swears anew to avenge the treason, and, mounted
upon Rabican, issues forth from the cavern.
He and the damsel, however, have not ridden
far, when the light fails them in a forest, where
they dismount, secure their horses, and compose
themselves to rest.
Beside the maid with zest Rinaldo sleeps ;
For him, nor time, nor place, nor beauty move.
From whence we learn the antidote, which keeps
The heart and mind from that which is above
All other cure ; that he, who sows and reaps,
Or tilts and tourneys, never dies of love :
But in this book I am ill read, nor can
Bolt, as I would, such matters to the bran.
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 93
And now the air on every side grew light,
Though the sun shew'd not yet his golden ray ;
With few and fading stars the sky was dight,
And the glad birds rang out their matin lay.
Such was the season, neither day nor night ;
When the maid view'd Rinaldo where he lay ;
Who from her grassy couch before had crept,
And watch'd the weary warrior as he slept.
Of lively visage, though composed to rest,
The lusty knight in early youth appear'd,
Light in the flanks, and large across the chest ;
And on his lip scarce bloom'd the manly beard.
On him the damsel gazed with alter'd breast,
To her by new-discovered gifts endear'd :
For slumber ever gives the sleeper's face
I know not what of loveliness and grace.
While the damsel is engaged in contemplat-
ing the knight, she is startled by a loud roar,
and turning, sees a centaur with a live lion,
which he had just taken, hi one hand, and a
94- THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
club and three darts in the other. Rinaldo is
at the same time awakened by the sound,
and grasping his shield, or rather the rem-
nant of it, which had been left by the griffin,
advances to her assistance.
The centaur now leaves his prey, and flying
to a little distance, launches his darts at the pa-
ladin. These he avoids by his agility, when the
monster returns and charges him with his club.
Rinaldo, thus pressed, shelters himself, by
placing his back against a pine, and maintains
the combat with Fusberta. The centaur, who
had at first seemed to have the advantage, in
being able to curvet about the knight, and
threaten him behind and before, finding himself
deprived of this double means of annoyance,
leaves him, and gallops after the damsel, who had
in the meantime seated herself upon her palfrey.
From this he snatches her in fury, throws her
on his own croup, and flies with her through
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 95
Rinaldo, who is this while engaged in mount-
ing Rabican, follows ; and, such is the swiftness
of his horse, is almost immediately up with the
beast ; who, being overtaken on the brink of a
rapid river, casts his burden into the stream,
which carries it away. Rinaldo and the cen-
taur again join in battle ; at first on the shore,
and afterwards in the water. The paladin at
length slays his savage opponent : but having
slain the monster, is in doubt what course to
He at last determines to proceed in the
adventure in which he had embarked, being
especially moved thereto, by the hope of de-
livering Orlando. Deprived then of the guid-
ance of the poor damsel, he resolves to steer
the same northern course in which she had
before directed him.
Here, however, according to the author,
Turpin leaves the story to return to Albraccn.
Agrican was left there, surrounded and alone,
96 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
in the midst of his enemies. Whilst he is thus
reduced to the last extremities, he is saved by
the very circumstance which threatened him
with destruction. The soldiers of Angelica,
closing upon him from all parts, had deserted
their defences, and his own besieging army enter
these pell mell, in a part where the wall is
In this way was Agrican rescued, the city taken
by storm, and the miserable inhabitants put to
the sword. Angelica, however, with some of
the kings who were her defenders, and amongst
whom was Truffaldino, saved herself in the cita-
del, which was planted upon a rock. Hither
also came Sacripant when all beside was lost.
But though the situation of the fortress ren-
dered it impregnable, it was scantily victualled
and ill provided with other necessaries besides
food. Under these circumstances, Angelica
announced to those blockaded with her in the
citadel, her intention to go in quest of assist-
BOOK 1. INNAMORATO. 97
ance ; and, having plighted her promise to
come back within a certain period, set out,
f*"- L*. } 2.
with the enchanted ring upon her finger. **?"** *
Mounted on her palfrey, the damsel passed
through the enemies' camp at night, without
having occasion to avail herself of the talisman,
and by sun- rise was many miles clear of their
She at length arrives near Orgagna in Cir-
cassia, and here encounters an old man weeping
bitterly, who entreats her assistance on behalf
of his only son, who is dying of a fever. The
damsel, who was well skilled in medicine, pro-
mises succour, turns her palfrey, and accom-
panies the elder.
This old man was a traitor, and his story * \
a fiction, formed for the pui'pose of getting
her into his hands. He was, it seems, employed
to inveigle and capture damsels for the king
of Orgagna, and for this purpose brought those
who followed him to a tower, built over a river,
98 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
which served him as a dungeon for his prison-
ers. Angelica following him thither, the door
closed upon her, and she found herself a cap-
33 live with many other dames and damsels.
^2 d Amongst these was Flordelis, the lady of Bran-
dimart, who, when cast into the river by the
centaur, had drifted with the current, and was
taken up more dead than alive, by the wicked
elder. She now relates her adventures to An-
gelica, and tells her how she was going, accom-
panied by Rinaldo, to the garden of Dragontina,
where Orlando, Brandimart, and many other
valiant knights were enchanted by that fairy.
Angelica treasures up their history in her
mind, as useful to the purpose which she had
^ \ in hand, and on the door of the tower opening,
to admit a new victim, slips the ring into her
mouth and escapes.
Being again at liberty, she sets out for the
garden of Dragontina, and, entering it unseen,
disenchants Orlando, Brandimart, and the rest,
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 99
by a touch of her talisman. These she con-
jures to assist her in the recovery of her king-
dom, and all depart together for Albracca.
In the meantime a revolution had taken place
in the citadel of that metropolis. Truffaldino,
always false, had surprised Sacripant, and the
other wounded princes in their beds, and
cast them into prison. This done, he sent a
messenger to Agrican, with an offer to deliver 6 2-
the fortress into his hands. Agrican, however,
received the proposal in a manner little ex-
pected by Truffaldino, whom he reviled as a
traitor and a coward ; declared that he would
never be indebted to fraud, for that which he
could have by force; said he knew the extre-
mities of the garrison, which must soon be his,
and declared, that as soon as the place was in
his possession, he would hang up Truffaldino
by the heels.
Soon after this, Orlando, with his friendly ^ *>
squadron of knights (nine in number), with
100 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
Angelica in the midst of them, arrives before
Albracca; and charging through the camp of
Agrican, arrives at the foot of the citadel : this
is, however, kept against them by Truffaldino,
who appears upon the walls, and declares that
he will only admit Orlando and his followers,
on their swearing to protect him for ever from
the vengeance of Sacripant and the others;
whom, for his own safety, he has been under
the necessity of casting into prison. Orlando
indignantly refuses ; but, conjured by Angelica,
consents ; as do the others who accompany
him ; and after the oath has been taken as en-
joined, the squadron enters the fortress.
This, however, is found so destitute of food,
that a sally is resolved upon for the purpose of
provisioning it : it is to be made by Orlando,
Brandimart, Adrian, Clarion, and Uberto of the
Lion ; while Gryphon and Aquilant remain at
home for the protection of Angelica and the
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 101
Orlando and his friends having made the
warder lower his drawbridge, ride boldly to-
wards the enemy's camp ; and Agrican, mark-
ing their scanty number, bids his squadrons
stand apart, and leave a fair field for himself
and Orlando, who engage in a desperate duel.
While they are employed in this, with little
vantage on either side, and to their mutual as-
tonishment at finding themselves so equally
matched, a loud larum is heard from the citadel,
which announces the arrival of succours.
This was an army, raised by Galaphron, for
the relief of Albracca ; the vanguard commanded
by a vassal giant; the second body by Mar-
phisa, a young Indian queen, who had made
a vow in her infancy, never to lay aside her
armour, till she had taken three kings prisoners,
to wit, Charlemagne, Gradasso, and Agrican ;
while the rear-guard was conducted by Gala-
phron himself. The van-guard, led by the
giant, is immediately engaged with the besiegers;
102 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
and its leader, armed with an immense hammer,
deals such destruction amongst their ranks, that
all is speedily in confusion and disarray.
Agrican, witnessing the rout of his followers,
now entreats Orlando, for his lady's love, that
their combat may be suspended till the morrow,
in order to give him an opportunity of rallying
the fugitives. This Orlando not only grants,
but offers to assist him in his design. The
offer is, however, courteously declined by Agri-
can, who, flying in pursuit of the giant, unhorses
him, and leaves him desperately wounded to
the daggers of his followers. He himself
charges the troops who come under the giant's
conduct ; and the tide of battle is turned.
No attempt to stop the confusion of the van-
guard is made by Marphisa, who this time was
retired from the field, and sleeping under a
BOOK I. 1NNAMORATO. 103
But first the queen her chamber-wench bespoke.
" Attend to my command," Marphisa said,
" And when thou seest our Indian army broke,
" And Galaphron, its royal leader, dead,
" When all these things shall be, 'twere time I
u Then, bring my steed and rouse me from my
' But till these things shall be, such care delay,
" 'Tis then this single arm shall change the day."
Galaphron now observing the rout of his van-
guard, determines to retrieve things, or perish
in the attempt. With this resolution he spurs
towards the enemy ; when Angelica, beholding
his danger from the walls, sends a messenger to
Orlando, to entreat his assistance for her
father ; reminding him that he fought beneath
The author here leaves the story suspended, \
and returns to Rinaldo ; who journeying. north-
ward, in the direction which Flordelis, the
1 04 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
damsel of Brandimart, had first given him,
arrives at a fountain ; where he finds a cavalier
weeping upon the ground. Having long ob-
served his grief in silence, he at length dis-
mounts from his horse, and entreats the sorrow-
ing knight to inform him of its cause.
The stranger tells him that his misery is such
as can find no remedy but in death : nor does
the fear of that oppress him ; but the know-
ledge that his death must be followed by that
of another, llinaldo entreats him to explain
how this can be, and prevails on him to relate
his history at length.
This the stranger began in the following
manner : " About twenty days' journey from
hence is situated the famous city of Babylon,
of which Tisbina was the wonder ; a lady
alike renowned for her charms and virtues.
Of this treasure I became the possessor; yet,
having possessed her, found it my cruel duty to
vield her to another. For two vears afterwards
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 105
I wandered, almost deprived of my reason ; but
time at last brought with it some alleviation of
my sorrow. To this common remedy of grief
was united the reflection that I had resigned
her to the most viituous and most courteous of
men ; and that, however dear it might cost me,
it was impossible to repent my sacrifice.
" While I was thus wandering, my evil fortune
led me into Orgagna, whose rightful king, Po-
liphernus, was absent with the army of Agrican ;
his kingdom having, during his absence, fallen
into the possession of an evil woman, who makes
all strangers her prey. This enchantress (for
such she is), whose name is Falerina, has a
beautiful garden, which is only open towards
the east; where a serpent keeps the gate, to
whom Falerina gives her unfortunate prisoners
to be devoured. The names of these are
paired, a cavalier and a lady, according to the
order of their arrival ; and a couple is thus
every day offered to the monster.
106 THE ORLANDO BOOK T.
" I was amongst the prisoners of Falerina ;
when tidings of my imprisonment, for my
greater misfortune, reached the ears of Prasildo,
the noble gentleman to whom I had relin-
quished Tisbina. Unknown to me, he imme-
diately set out for the enchanted garden, loaded
with treasure, with which he attempted to
accomplish my release. All his endeavours,
however, were vain ; and desperate of accom-
plishing it in any other way, he offered himself
as a victim in my place. This offer was ac-
cepted : I was thrust out of the dungeon, and
he remains a prisoner in my stead. This day
is that appointed for his sacrifice, which shall
not be consummated, whilst I am alive : for it
is my resolution, when he is led out of prison to
be conducted to the place of punishment, to
attack his guards and perish in his defence.
My single source of grief is, that I shall not be
able to purchase his deliverance with my life."
Rinaldo bids the stranger be of better
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 107
cheer, and offers to join him in the attack of
Prasildo's guards, to which Iroldo, who con-
ceives this will be a useless sacrifice of life, very
The issue of the attempt is, however, very
different from what Iroldo had anticipated.
The rabble, who were conducting two prisoners
to the place of execution, are set upon by the
knights, and scattered on all sides ; principally
by the valour of Rinaldo.
In the male prisoner Iroldo recognizes Pra-
sildo, as he had expected ; and the damsel turns
out to be Flordelis. Rinaldo is now impatient
to crown his victory with the destruction of
the enchanted garden ; but the damsel, his
former guide, after vainly seeking to terrify him
by a description of the various monsters and
enchantments by which it was guarded, reminds
him of the imprisonment of Orlando, and his
unaccomplished promise to achieve the destruc-
tion of the garden of Dragontina. This con-
108 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
sideration prevails over his anxiety to demolish
that of Falerina; and in company with his
two friends and the damsel, who all become
Christians in admiration of his prowess and in
gratitude for their deliverance, proceeds on his
journey towards the garden of Dragontina.
This however had been previously de-
stroyed and effaced, even to the last vestige, by
the talisman of Angelica.
The knights, pursuing their journey towards
its former situation, meet on their way a fu-
gitive from Agrican's army ; who gives such an
account of the prowess of a champion who
fought upon the part of Angelica, that Rinaldo
is persuaded this must have been Orlando ;
though all are at a loss to imagine how he
could have been freed. They had not pro-
ceeded much farther, when they saw a warrior
under some trees, to whom a damsel was pre-
senting a horse. This warrior Flordelis recog-
nized by her bearings for Marphisa, and who* 1 "
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 109
she especially counselled her companions to
avoid. They, however, and more especially
Rinaldo, treated the caution with contempt,
and made boldly towards the virago.
As she is just mounting, to defy them to the
joust, she is approached by an elderly man, all
in tears, who relates the overthrow of Gala-
phron's vanguard, and entreats her assistance;
which she promises to bestow, as soon as she
shall have unhorsed and taken the approaching
Advancing against them, she first encounters
and overthrows Iroldo and Prasildo in suc-
cession, who are made prisoners by some of
Marphisa's followers, that were in waiting, to-
gether with the attendant damsel. She next
meets Rinaldo, and breaks upon him an enor-
mous lance, which had never yet failed her.
Rinaldo too breaks his upon the damsel, and
both, casting away their broken spears, encoun-
ter with their swords. Here Rinaldo's dextrous
110 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
skill in defence, and the superior temper of
Fusberta, give him a temporary advantage ;
and in parrying a blow of his opponent, he
beats the faulchion out of her hand. Full of
fury, the virago deals him a deadly blow on the
face with her gauntletted hand in return, and
makes him reel in his saddle; while Rabican
wheels round and carries off his half-stupefied
rider. Marphisa instantly springs to ground
and regains her sword, and Rinaldo recovering
himself again spurs his courser to the en-
In the mean time, Orlando, at the command
of Angelica, had galloped to the assistance of
Galaphron, at the head of his brave companions,
and had again changed the fortune of the day.
He and Agrican now meet a second time in
the medley, and renew the contest with more
fury than before; and Agrican, being at last
convinced that it will be impossible for him to
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. Ill
effect any thing against Albracca but by the
destruction of Orlando, determines to bring the
battle to a desperate issue, and in order to get
his adversary into a place where they shall be
secure from interruption, feigns to fly; and is
followed by Orlando to an open space in a wood,
in the middle of which is a fountain. Here,
after mutual reproaches, they again charge
each other with their swords, and still with
doubtful success. Night closes upon the com-
batants, who have passed the greater part of
the day in the interchange of blows.
The two champions again suspend their
combat almost of necessity, and agree upon a
truce till day-light. They accordingly lie
down together and engage in a friendly con-
versation. During this Agrican makes out his
antagonist to be Orlando; and Orlando seizes
the opportunity to attempt his conversion.
Agrican, however, receives the proposal with
112 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
utter contempt, and observes that love and
arms are the only subjects of conversation
becoming a knight.
This change of theme almost necessarily
leads to the mention of Angelica, and the
rivals, being kindled by the discourse which
ensues between them, into new animosity, re-
mount their horses and attack each other in
The contest is thus continued with various
success, and day breaks upon this desperate
and unheard-of duel. At length, however, the
fortune of Orlando prevails, and he after re-
ceiving many desperate contusions (for wounded
he could not be), inflicts a deadly gash in his
Agrican is now deserted by his lofty spirit,
and demands baptism from the hands of
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 113
While tears descending bathed his manly face,
The gentle count dismounted to his aid,
Then locked the wounded knight in his embrace,
Upon the fountain's grassy border laid :
And kiss'd his fading lips, and sought his grace,
And of the mischief done forgiveness prayed.
The speechless Tartar king his head inclin'd,
And with the cross his brows Orlando sign'd.
When having to his sorrow found that he
Was breathless, and all vital warmth was fled ;
He weened his gallant spirit was set free,
And by the crystal fountain left him dead ;
Clad as he was in armour cap-a-pe,
With sword in hand, and crown upon his head :
Then first towards his courser turn'd his view,
And in that steed the good Bayardo knew.
He is assured of this by a closer examination
of the gentle horse, who comes neighing to
greet the kinsman and comrade of his master.
114 THE ORLANDO BOOK 1.
Mounted upon him, and leading his own Brig-
liadoro, the count leaves the place, but has not
rode far, before he hears the clash of weapons ;
when, having first secured Brigliadoro, he rides
in the direction of the sound ; and, guided by it,
discovers a damsel, whom three giants were
conducting, with a camel and much treasure,
which they had carried away by force. One of
the giants had charge of the lady ; while the
other two maintained a combat with a cavalier :
but this story is broken off, by the author, who
hastens to tell the effects, produced by the death
All was rout and dismay in the Tartarian
army; and Galaphron entering the enemy's
camp, set free Astolpho and the other prison-
ers, who were detained there. Astolpho is
scarcely presented to Angelica, before he de-
mands the means of avenging himself on the
enemy, and being furnished with a horse and
arms, immediately returns into the field. Here
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 115
he is fortunate enough to meet one clad in his own
armour, and armed with the enchanted lance.
Of these he immediately repossesses himself,
and joins Galaphron and his troops, who had
pursued the flying enemy to the banks of a river,
fast by where Rinaldo and Marphisa were still
engaged. Marphisa was protected by enchant-
ed harness, yet was armed with but half a
sword ; which, as related, was severed by Fus-
berta. On the other hand, the greater part of
Rinaldo's defensive armour had been hewed
Galaphron instantly knows Marphisa by her
cognizance, but is at a loss to distinguish Ri-
naldo; till, observing Rabican, who had be-
longed to Argalia, he conceived that he saw in
him the murderer of his son. Under this
persuasion he rode at Rinaldo, and smote him
with all his force, when Marphisa, enraged at
this interference, immediately turned her arms
against her aged commander. Brandimart and
116 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
others coming up, rescue him from the hands
of the virago, whom they take for some war-
rior of the Tartar troops ; when Rinaldo, as
generous as Marphisa, not enduring to see his
former enemy overlaid with odds, joins her
against those with whom she is now engaged.
The main body of Galaphron's army coming up,
reinforces the enemies of Marphisa ; who is on
her part supported by the arrival of her own
division, by whose succour, joined to that of
Rinaldo, she is enabled to repel the assailants.
All this time, Iroldo, Prasildo, and Flordelis,
were standing at some distance, and the damsel
of Marphisa, was entertaining them with a
history of the feats and prowess of her mis-
tress. Flordelis is by this alarmed for the
safety of Brandimart, one of the first who had
assailed Marphisa, and goes in search of him
amongst the warriors, whom the virago and
Rinaldo had scattered, and who were making,
in utter rout and confusion, for Albracca. She,
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 117
however, to her infinite content, finds him safe
and standing apart from the fray, he having
separated from the enemies of Marphisa,
after she was oppressed by numbers. The
happy lovers, thus re-united, retire into a
neighbouring wood, and after giving a loose
to their mutual tenderness fall asleep upon the
Here, however, a new and unexpected peril
was impending. Their caresses were unfortu-
nately overseen by a hermit, who dabbled in
necromancy, and who, excited by the beauties
of Flordelis, determined on making her his
prize. Among other secrets, he was possessed
of a root, which had the faculty of throwing
the person to whom it was applied, provided
it touched any part of the naked body, into a
profound and indissoluble sleep. Armed with
this, he approaches Flordelis, lifts her coats,
and applies it to her thigh. Having thus so
riveted her natural slumber, that he was sure
1 1 8 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
she could not wake for an hour to come, the
hermit snatches her up, and bears her off;
being afraid to try the virtues of his root upon
Brandimart, lest he should awake before the
charm was consummated.
Brandimart slept soundly till he was awaken-
ed by a loud noise. At the same moment he
missed Flordelis : yet, notwithstanding his un-
utterable grief, approached the quarter, from
whence the sound proceeded, in which he dis-
tinguished the cries of a woman in distress.
On his arrival he found three giants, who
were conducting a file of camels. Two of them
followed, and another preceded the string,
leading one, on which was seated a damsel,
with dishevelled hair and weeping bitterly. In
her Brandimart believed that he recognised Flor-
delis, and galloped in fury against the ravishers.
The giants instantly prepare to resist him,
and in the combat which follows, he is put to
great peril, and loses his horse.
BOOK I. INN AMOR ATO. 119
It is at this moment that Orlando, who had
lately slain Agrican, comes to his succour. His
assistance renders the combat more equal : but
Brandimart, though he has killed one of the
giants, is beaten down by another. Orlando,
however, avenges him on his enemy, and clears
the field. He has now leisure to look to his
bleeding friend, and finding there is yet life in
him, consigns him to the care of the rescued
damsel, who applies the proper medicaments to
. Marphisa and Rinaldo were this while still
in full pursuit of their enemies, who found
refuge within the citadel of Albracca. Marphisa
having chased them up to the gates, menaced
Galaphron with vengeance; and, indeed, she
and Rinaldo had now a common cause. Mar-
phisa on account of her recent quarrel with
her former leader; and Rinaldo since the
fountain of hate had disposed him to enmity
with Angelica, and the oath, he had sworn on
120 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
winning Rabican, bound him to take vengeance
on Truffaldino, one of her defenders. They
accordingly sit down before the place, and,
on the second day, Rinaldo appears beneath
the walls, sounds his horn and defies TruiTal-
dino, king of Baldacca by the titles of traitor,
renegado and tyrant.
There were at. this time, within the fortress,
many warriors who had sworn to defend him
against Sacripant and Torindo, whom he had
imprisoned, and against all others whatsoever.
Truffaldino calls on these to fulfil their engage-
ment, and several knights, with the traitor king
in the midst of them, descend from the citadel
to do battle with Rinaldo, on his behalf.
These were the brothers Gryphon and
Aquilant, who had enchanted horse and armour ;
Uberto, Adrian, and Clarion. They attack
Rinaldo singly and successively. He soon
defeats the two first comers, but he finds him-
self better matched with Gryphon of the
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 121
enchanted arms ; with whom he engages in a
long and doubtful battle, after a fruitless ex-
postulation and attempt to negotiate on the part
of Gryphon. ^)
Leaving these, the author returns to Brandi-
mart ; who, restored to life by the skill of the
damsel, whom he and Orlando rescued from
the giants, is rendered desperate by the dis-
covery, that she is not Flordelis. He curses
the hour in which he was rescued from death,
as well as that in which he was born, and
recapitulates all the circumstances of his life in
the following apostrophe :
" Thou took'st me, Fortune, from a royal dome,
" (Such early blow thy deadly malice gave ;)
" And I, thus ravished from my noble home,
" In other lands was sold to be a slave ;
" And now, long doomed in foreign climes to roam,
" But her remember to whose breasts I clave ;
" (My father's and my country's name effaced,)
" My mother's in my mind is only traced.
122 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
" Never did evil destiny so lour,
" As upon me ; to early bondage sold,
" With one, entitled Lord o' the Sylvan Tower :
" When, but to make me suffer sevenfold,
" Softened awhile appear'd the faithless Power ;
" And the good Master of the Sylvan hold
" Freed me ; and having none his name to bear,
" Of his broad lands and living made me heir.
;< But Fortune had so marked me for her prey,
" That to fill up the bitter cup of woe,
" Fairest among the fair, a damsel gay
" She chose in her displeasure to bestow ;
" Simply to take the precious prize away.
" Then can I choose but sink beneath the blow ?
" O thou, that hast renewed my fleeting breath,
" Undo thy work, and give me back to death."
Orlando, and the charitable damsel sympathise
deeply in his grief; and the lady, to prove,
at least, that he was not single in his sorrows,
begins the narration of her own adventures.
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 123
She informs him, that she was daughter and
heir of the king of the Distant Isles, where all
the treasure of the earth is accumulated. Gifted
with beauty and destined to inherit such riches,
two lovers came to demand her in marriage on
the same day, Ordauro and Folderico ; the one
handsome and the other more than seventy
years old. The first distinguished by his
prowess, the second by his wisdom and riches.
The damsel's father inclined hi favour of Fol-
derico ; but the damsel hoped by a sleight to
transfer herself to Ordauro.
She had accordingly obtained a boon from
the monarch ; and this was, that no one should
have her to wife, who had not previously
vanquished her in the foot-race. By this, she
considered herself as secure of success; but
Folderico countermined her stratagem. Being
paired with her in the course, he had recourse
to the expedient of dropping three golden
apples, and the damsel was distanced by the
124- THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
same means as Atalanta. Thus the old man
won his wife ; who, however, determined on
taking such vengeance as was in her power.
Here the lady, who was her own histo-
rian, observed Brandimart's distraction ; who
being charged with it, confessed that he had
neither eyes nor ears but for Flordelis, and
that he should never regain possession of him-
self, till she was found. On this the damsel
and Orlando, who was mounted on Bayardo,
and had resigned his Brigliadoro to Brandi-
mart, as before related, offer to accompany him
in an attempt to recover her, and they imme-
diately proceed upon their search.
Flordelis, in the interval, had been carried off
by the hermit to a cave ; where she woke at
the moment that a lion, who harboured there,
sprang forth to punish the intrusion of the
ravisher : who instantly dropt his plunder and
fled. The beast, however, passing-by the prof-
fered prey, follows and tears in pieces the
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 125
hermit who had cast it down. Flordelis, while
he is thus employed, escapes.
She, however, only gains a present respite
from misfortune ; for, flying at random, she
falls into the hands of a hairy savage in the
forest, who binds her to a tree with twigs ; and
then, gazing stupidly upon her, casts himself
down at a little distance.
Brandimart was this while in pursuit of her,
in the same wood, accompanied by Orlando
and the damsel of the golden apples, who was
seated upon his courser's croup. Orlando now
entreats that she will finish her story, which she
Folderico who had won the damsel, carried
her to a tower, which he possessed upon the
sea-shore, called Altamura, where he kept her,
together with his treasure, under lock and key,
and utterly secluded from the sight of man. *
* As the author is indebted to Greek fable for the begin-
ning, so he is to Norman story for this subsequent adventure,
THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
But what will not love ? Ordauro who was
also rich, though not so wealthy as Folderico,
purchased a sumptuous palace in the imme-
diate neighbourhood of Altamura, and at an
immense cost made a subterraneous passage
from his palace to the damsel's prison ; by
which he visited and enjoyed her without
danger. At last, however, the lovers, tired of
the restraint under which they carried on their
intercourse, and emboldened by success, de-
termined to make a desperate effort to escape.
With this view Ordauro communicates to
Folderico news of his approaching nuptials with
another daughter of Monodontes ; for so was
called the king of the Distant Isles ; and invites
him, as his brother-in-law, to the marriage
feast. Folderico having carefully secured the
gates of his tower, goes thither, and rinding his
which is taken, with some variation, from an old fabliau.
See Barbasan's or Le Grand's fabliaux. The story would
seem to be of Eastern origin.
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 127
wife installed as bride, becomes ferocious at
the sight. Ordauro, however, with great diffi-
culty, succeeds in appeasing him, by the assur-
ance that she was a twin-sister of his own wife,
to whom she bore a perfect resemblance ; and,
by bidding him return to his tower and satisfy
himself of the fact. The means of proof appeared
decisive, and accordingly Folderico accepts them.
He finds his locks as they were left, and his wife,
(who had returned by the subterraneous passage
and changed her dress,) alone and overcome
with melancholy. He again takes the way,
which was somewhat circuitous, to the palace of
Ordauro, and again finds her there, shining in
all the festivity of a bride. He can no longer
resist the conviction that the two persons, whom
he had seen, were different women ; lays aside
his distrust, and even offers to convoy the
bridegroom and his bride on a part of their
journey towards Ordauro's natural home, to
which he was returning.
128 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
A certain advantage was thus gained ; since
Folderico never left his tower, though locked,
for above an hour, and consequently would
have soon discovered his loss, if the lovers had
eloped in secret.
The party set out together ; and at the end
of the first day's journey, Folderico turns back
and gallops to his tower. He is now first
assured of his disgrace. Full of rage, he pur-
sues his rival ; but does not dare make any
attempt to recover his wife, till he has separated
Ordauro from his adherents. Having effected
this by a stratagem, he attacks his retainers,
and repossesses himself of the lady. He is
destined to a short possession of the prize; for
he is, on his retui-n, beset by giants, who seize
her, and all his treasure ; which the wife was
carrying off as a dowry to her new lord. He
Orlando listened with curiosity to this re-
lation : but Brandimart, who only thought upon
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 129
Flordelis, separated from his companions in
order to pursue a separate search. Whilst he
is engaged in this, he hears her cries, and, di-
rected by them, finds her bound to the tree.
He dismounts from his horse to assist her, and
is about to loosen her bonds, when he is at-
tacked by the savage, armed with a rustic club
and shield. This strange woodman is described
as gifted with extraordinary strength of body, and
distinguished by some strange propensities :
He dwelt in woods, and on their produce fed,
And drank the limpid brook which bubbled by :
And (such his nature) ever, it is said,
Wept, when he saw a clear and cloudless sky :
Since, fearful of the sign, he lived in dread,
That tempest, clouds, and cold, and rain were nigh,
But joy'd in thunder and in hail ; since he
Hoped warmer suns and happier days to see.
This savage, but for the exclamation of Flor-
delis, would have surprised Brandimart in the
act of untying her. Being warned by her of his
130 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
danger, he guarded himself against his attacks,
which required all his skill and courage to repel.
He indeed hewed in pieces the rustic weapon
with which he was armed ; but the monster,
closing with him, grasped him in his arms,
and attempted to cast him down a precipice,
when he fortunately escaped from his embrace.
The savage finding himself foiled in this
hope, and weaponless, now flew to a sapling,
which he was trying to pluck up by its roots,
when the knight killed him while engaged in the
attempt. Brandimart now releases Flordelis,
seats her on his horse's croup, and goes in pur-
suit of Orlando, from whom he had separated.
Whilst he is thus engaged, the author re-
sumes the story of Albracca. Rinaldo was left
in close combat with Gryphon, whom he at last
stunned with a desperate blow. When Aqui-
lant, believing his brother killed, took up the
conqueror. Gryphon, however, reviving from
the effects of the stroke, returned to the charge.
BOOK I. 1NNAMORATO. 131
Marphisa seeing Rinaldo thus oppressed with
odds, came to his assistance ; and others
again of those sworn to defend Truffaldino,
who was an unwilling spectator of the fray,
took part against her and Rinaldo. Orlando
was, this while, pursuing his way in search of
Brandimart, while Brandimart as vainly sought
him through the forest.
Whilst Orlando is thus engaged, he sees a
damsel issue from a wood upon a palfrey, who
bears a book and horn. Addressing herself to
the count, she tells him, that, if he is what his
countenance bespeaks him, the fairest adventure
awaits him, which ever was achieved by knight;
and which, indeed, had hitherto foiled the
prowess of all who had attempted it, who
remained prisoners in the enchanted garden,
which she invites him (if he has the courage
sufficient for such an adventure) to attack.
Orlando accepts the proposal with rapture ;
the damsel presents him with the book and
132 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
horn; both necessary for the achievement of
the enterprize; and, having instructed him in
the use of them, retires to a distance.
Orlando accordingly, having first disposed of
the other damsel whom he carried behind him,
sounds the bugle, and a rock opens, from which
issue two ferocious bulls, with horns of iron, and
strangely coloured hair turned contrary to the
natural grain :
And sometimes green ; now black, now white it
Now yellow, and now red ; and ever gleamed.
Orlando learned from the book, by whose
rules he was to proceed, that he was to bind these
beasts ; and this done, was to enter the opening,
from which they sallied, and plow with them the
space within. Such was to be his first labour.
The bulls long maintained a severe fight with
the champion, and often tossed, though they
could not gore him : at length he so fatigued
them by repeated blows from Durindana, (for
their skin was as impenetrable as his own,) that
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 133
he was enabled to master them, seized them by
their horns, and bound them separately, with
Bayardo's bridle, to an adjoining column, which
was the monument of the king Bavardo. He
then made a plow of Durindana, the point of
which served as a share and the hilt as a handle,
yoked the bulls to the instrument, and having
torn off the limb of a tree for a whip,
ploughed the field, as he was directed. The
work accomplished, he loosed his beasts, who
ran roaring through the wood, and disappeared
behind a mountain.
Orlando now devoutly thanks God for his
first success, and the damsel of the book and
horn, having dismounted from the palfrey in the
meadow, wreaths her brows with the flowers
which it produced. Orlando, however, does
not allow himself a longer truce, but sounds a
second challenge on his enchanted bugle.
Upon the second sound, the earth trembles,
and a neighbouring hill vomits forth flame;
which is followed by the appearance of a fiery
134- THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
dragon. The damsel of the golden apples is
now about to fly ; but she of the book and horn
" in faith and hope, stand near,
" For only he who proves the quest need fear."
The damsel of the golden apples, who re-
sented Orlando's coldness during their journey
through the forest, observes she is glad that he
only is in danger, and that she cannot regret
what may happen to him ;
" In that there lives not a more worthless wight."
This reproach reaches Orlando's ears, as he con-
sults his book. This guide taught him that his
only means of safety consisted in cutting off the
dragon's head, before he was consumed by the
flame and venom, which issued from her mouth.
The head cut off, he was to perform the labour
of Jason, and sow the field in which he had
laboured with the serpent's teeth. From these
was to spring a crop of armed men ; and, if he
saved himself from their swords, he might es-
teem himself the flower of chivalry.
BOOK K INNAMORATO. 135
He has scarce learned his lesson, when the
serpent is upon him. Orlando protected him-
self from her assault with his shield ; but this
and all his armour was consumed by the flame
which she vomited forth. He contends long
with the monster, enveloped in fire and smoke,
but at last separates her head at a blow. He
immediately draws the teeth, puts them into his
helmet, and sows them as the book had enjoined.
The effect followed which had been foretold.
First, feathers sprouting from the ground appear,
By little and by little ; then a crest ;
And next is seen the bust of cavalier,
Furnish'dwith manly limbs, and spreading chest.
Foot in the front, and horsemen in the rear ;
They rise and shout, and lay the lance in rest ;
And, drums and trumpets sounding to the charge,
Level the spear, and lift the covering targe.
Orlando, however, though he had neither
lance nor shield left him, soon reaps this har-
136 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
vest with Durindana ; and the seed of the ser-
pent thus springs and perishes in a day.
The victory achieved, he blows the third
and last blast upon his horn, which the author
thus prefaces :
These dragons and these gardens, made by spell,
And dog, and book by witch or wizard writ,
And savage hairy man, and giant fell,
And human face, to monstrous form ill fit,
Are food for ignorance, which you may well
Decypher, that are blest with shrewder wit :
Then muse upon the doctrine sage and sound,
Which lies conceal'd beneath this rugged ground.*
Such matter as is excellent and rare,
And things of scent or savour, rich or fine,
In open hand we do not loosely bear ;
Nor cast such pearls to be defiled of swine.
Nature, great mistress, teaches better care,
Who loves the flower with fencing thorns to twine ;
And covers well her fruits, and things of mark ;
The kernel with its stone, the tree with bark ;
* The Italian reader will here again trace some lines of Dante.
BOOK I. INNAMOKATO. 137
A safe defence from bird, and beast, and storm ;
And has conceal'd the yellow gold i' the ground,
Jewels, and what is rare for tint or form ;
That these may be with cost and labour found.
And vain and witless is th' unwary swarm
Who show their wealth, if they with wealth
The mark, at which knave, thief, and cheater
And so by matchless folly tempt the devil.
As duly would it seem to square with reason,
That good should be with toil and trouble bought.
And to obtain it otherwise were treason,
Than by activity of deed and thought.
'Tis thus we see, that art and labour season
The victual, which without their aid is nought ;
And simple viands, in their nature good,
Convert to sweeter, and more savoury food.
138 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
If Homer's Odyssey appear compounded
Of lying legends, deem not these unfit ;
Nor, reading of some god or goddess wounded,
Let this aught scandalize your weaker wit :
For who the secrets of the sage has sounded,
Well knows, that for the sage, the poet writ ;
And veils a different thing, from that which lies
Open to them, who see but with their eyes.
But stop not ye, content, at the outer rind ;
Be not as these, but seek what is within ;
For if no better nourishment you find,
You will have made small progress for your sin ,
And see in these strange emblems ill-divined,
But sick men's dreams, and fables. Then begin
A better task, their secret meaning measure,
And turn the stubborn soil for hidden treasure.
Returning to the story, Orlando sounded
his horn a third time ; and, on the echo dying
away, was disappointed by the appearance of
a little white bitch-hound.
This, the damsel of the book, in hopes to
stay the count, who was now disposed to depart,
BOOK I. 1NNAMORATO. 139
assured him was that which was to crown his
She explains herself, by informing him, that
in a neighbouring lake is an island, the resi-
dence of the Fata, Morgana, whom God has set
over riches ; which she
" Distributes in the bowels of the mount,
" Whence they are dug with long fatigue and pain ;
" And hides them in the river and the fount,
" In India ; where ants work the golden vein.
" Nor let the tale seem strange, which I recount,
" Since two fair fishes feed upon the grain.
" Now good Morgana the bitch-hound has sent
" To guerdon thee with treasure and content :
" The wondrous Fay, for various riches vaunted,
" Mistress of all that seas or earth enfold,
" Is owner of a hind, in this enchanted ;
" That she is white, and armed with horns of gold ;
" And that by her no forest long is haunted,
" Still restless and impatient of a hold.
" Her many hunters vainly seek to catch ;
" But you may take her with this little brach.
* K 6
140 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
" Who soon shall rouse her from her secret lair,
" Yelping upon the trail with questing cry :
" Thou shalt pursue, thro' holt or desert bare,
" Though hound and hart more swift than arrow
" Six days shalt thou pursue the flying pair ;
" But on the seventh cease the chase to ply.
" Since in a fount the milk-white hind shall soil,*
" And thou be guerdon'd for thy tedious toil.
" Six times a-day (such riches shalt thou measure)
" She sheds her horns ; which yield an hundred
" And thus shaltihou collect such mighty treasure
" As may defy the wit of man to rate ;
" Thrice blest, if countless wealth can purchase
" To this perchance deserve a happier fate ;
" And with the hind obtain what is above
" That precious prize, the beauteous fairy's love."
* The technical phrase for a stag taking the water : as he
usually does when distressed. Hence our view-hollo of " Tayo ! "
for the stag, is taken from the old French cry of" Taihors," or
' out of the swamp !" as our " Tally lio !" for the fox, is derived
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 14-1
Orlando however treats the temptation with
contempt, and unwillingly seating the damsel of
the golden apples behind him, casts down the
book and horn, and departs.
Proceeding with her, he arrives at a bridge,
where he meets with an armed cavalier, who
claims the damsel as his own. This turns out
to be Ordauro, to whom Orlando resigns her
with great satisfaction, and pursues his journey
Here the strife was still continued between
Rinaldo and Marphisa, united on the one
part; and Gryphon and Aquilant, and all
those confederated to defend Truffaldino, on
the other. Rinaldo having in this gained some
from " Taillis hors .'" or " out of cover !" which last etymology
we learn from Lady Juliana Berners. All our hunting
phraseology indeed is Norman ; even where we should be least
inclined to trace it to such a source. Thus the cry of " Hi-
loicks! Hiloicks !" used by us in trying a cover, we find in her
precepts to be " Illocques, Illocques !" or " There ! There !"
The Normans indeed formed both our hunting code and hunt-
ing vocabulary. See many well founded allusions to this in
14>2 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
advantage over his immediate opponents, Truf-
faldino, who was present, fled into the citadel.
This put a short stop to hostilities, and the
combat was suspended till the ensuing day ;
when Truffaldino was to be again produced,
and to abide its issue.
In this interval two important circum-
stances occur. Astolpho (who was Agrican's
prisoner, when those, who entered Albracca
with Angelica, took the engagement to defend
Truffaldino) learning from Gryphon, that Ri-
naldo had been his antagonist, changes sides,
and goes over to his cousin.
To counterbalance this loss to the besieged,
Orlando arrives in Albracca, and is received
with open arms by Angelica.
On the ensuing day the combat is renewed
between the former parties with the addition
of Astolpho on one side, and of Orlando on
the other. In this Orlando and Rinaldo single
each other out, and after bitter reproaches,
BOOK I. INNAMORATO.
Rinaldo reproving Orlando for his defence of
a traitour, and Orlando twitting Rinaldo for
his robberies and evil life, engage in a furious
combat; but here Orlando is ill seconded by
Bayardo, who will not advance against his own
At this moment Rinaldo sees Truffaldino
treacherously unhorse Astolpho, and pursuing
him, (for the traitour flies upon his approach,)
comes up with him before he is overtaken by
his defenders, makes him prisoner, and ties him
by the feet to Rabican's tail. With the wretch
thus suspended, he gallops off at full speed;
the superior swiftness of Rabican rendering all
interference on the behalf of Truffaldino impos-
sible ; and drags him at his horse's heels till
he is dashed in pieces.
Whilst he is running this cruel course,
Rinaldo thunders out reproaches and threats
against the abettors of the tyrant ; and Orlando,
who had now obtained his own horse, Briglia-
144 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
doro, through the arrival of Brandimart, who
joins him, renews his battle with Rinaldo on
personal grounds, the others considering them-
selves released from the necessity of fighting
him by the death of Truffaldino.
Night however separates the two combatants,
Rinaldo returning to Marphisa's camp, and
Orlando to the citadel of Albracca.
Here Orlando is received with all love and
honour by Angelica ; who is, however, sighing
in her heart for Rinaldo, and, with this view,
declares she will attend the duel which was to
be renewed on the morrow, and sends Sacri-
pant, delighted with the task, to demand a safe-
conduct for her from Marphisa. Previously
however to Orlando's taking the field, she de-
mands of him a boon ; swearing she will make
him lord of her person, if he will promise to
undertake an adventure upon her bidding; and
avails herself of this promise, the next day,
when the strife is at its hottest ; telling Orlando
BOOK I. INNAMORATO. 145
that enough has been done for honour, and
entreating him now to depart upon the promised
quest ; which was no other than the destruction
of Falerina's garden hi the kingdom of Orgagna.
The combatants being separated, and Orlando /]
departed, Angelica seeks to communicate with
Rinaldo, but in vain ; and returns disconsolate
to Albracca, from whence she sends a damsel
to Rinaldo with Bayardo, whom Orlando had
dispatched to that fortress on receiving Brig-
liadoro from Brand imart ; but Rinaldo remains
unmoved by these various acts of kindness.
The scene is now again changed, and Or-
lando, whom Angelica had dispatched upon
what she conceived a fatal enterprise, pursues
his way towards Orgagna.
He arrives at a bridge, on which is seen a
cavalier, armed at all points, and mounted, as if
for its defence. Near this was seen a beautiful
damsel, suspended by her hair to a pine, and
weeping bitterly. Orlando immediately moves
146 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
to her relief; but is exhorted by the armed
cavalier to leave her to a fate, which she had
well deserved by her wickedness. In proof of
which he proceeds to relate her adventures.
" My name," pursued the knight, " is Uldano,
and hers Origilla. We were both born in the city
of Bactria, and I, from earliest infancy, conceived
a passion for her, which grew with my growth,
and derived strength even from her fickleness.
Another youth, of the name of Lucrino, loved
her equally with myself; and both were so well
kept hi play by her artifices, that each believed
himself to be favoured.
" Being at length impatient of longer delay,
I threw myself at her feet, and entreated her to
take compassion on my torments. She appear-
ed to meet my passion half-way ; but told me,
there was but one mode in which I could gra-
tify my desires without the sacrifice of her
honour, and suggested the following stratagem
as the means.
BOOK I. INNAMOIIATO. 147
" * You know,' said the damsel, * that my bro-
ther, Corbirio, though scarcely arrived at man-
hood, was slain by Oringo in combat, a man grown,
and trained to arms. To avenge this treason,
my father has offered a large reward to him who
shall take the murderer, and would soon find
one who would undertake to execute his revenge.
You shall bear the cognizance of Oringo, shall
suffer yourself to be taken, and thus procure
admission into my father's house. Here you
shall receive the reward of your constancy, and
I will afterwards effect your deliverance.'
" I, senseless as I was, gave into the snare,
and had scarce departed, in order to assume the
device and arms she suggested, when the trai-
tress called to her my rival, Lucrino, and told
him, that now was the time to win her by the
death or capture of the murderer of her bro-
ther; for she knew his motions, and where he was
to be found, indicating to him the place whither
she had sent me with his borrowed ensigns.
148 THE ORLANDO BOOK I.
" To complete her purpose more effectually,
she furnished him also with the ensigns of a
third lover, named Ariantes, to w\iom her father
had promised her in marriage, on condition of
his avenging him on Oringo.
" In the mean time, this Ariantes met and
attacked me, taking me by my cognizance
for Oringo, and I' yielded myself a prisoner,
after little resistance, in the hope of the reward
promised by Origilla.
" Lucrino, who was, this while, dispatched
by her in pursuit of me, fell in with the real
Oringo, and both were desperately wounded in
the combat which ensued. Lucrino had, how-
ever, strength enough left to master his opposite,
and was bringing him away prisoner, when he
was met by the father of Origilla, who at first
judged him to be Ariantes; but when unde-
ceived on a nearer approach, offered him his
daughter in marriage, whom he had pres
viously promised to Ariantes on the same con-
B <>OK I. 1NNAMORATO. 149
ditions, provided he would deliver up his
! The offer was scarcely accepted, when
Ariantes arrived, bringing in me, disguised in
the arms of Oringo ; and the whole stratagem
was now apparent.
" The clearing up this led to new contests :
for Ariantes complained of Lucrino's having
taken his bearings ; and Oringo thought him-
self wronged in that his had been usurped by
"'Now, to wear the ensigns of another is
death by our law, unless the penalty be re-
mitted by him who has been offended ; and the
cause being brought before the king, we were
all condemned ; Oringo, for having slain (as
before told) Corbino, who was a youth scarcely
capable of defending himself; Ariantes, for
having bargained away the life of another; and
Lucrino and myself, for having usurped arms
and ensigns, which we were not entitled to wear.
150 THE (MILAN UO BOOK I.
" Origilla was condemned to a yet heavier
punishment ; to wit, to be hanged up by the
hair till she was dead; while we, in the ex-
pectation of our sentence, were to assist in the
execution of hers ; and to keep watch and ward
over her, as she wavered in the wind. My lot
(for we drew lots to determine the order of our
guard) happened to be the first, and I have
already slain seven knight 4 ?, that would have
relieved her ; whose arms and bearings may be
seen fastened to the tree."
The knight had scarcely ended, when the
wretched woman gave the lie to his assertions,
and denounced him as having slain those he
mentioned by treachery, hoping by the show of
these trophies to terrify others from attempting
to defend her.
Orlando believes the lady, and defies and
unhorses Uldano. He is no sooner conquered,
than a horn sounds, whicli a dwarf winds from-
a tower's top; when another knight takes up
BOOK I. 1NNAMORATO. 151
the conqueror; and the four concerned are
all successively encountered, and dismounted,
by Orlando, who now cuts down the damsel,
and departs with her seated on his horse's croup.
Thus riding together, and beguiling the
way with talk, they descried, in the middle
of a meadow, a huge rock of marble cut into
steps, and bearing an inscription in letters of
gold ; when the damsel informs him they are
near a notable wonder, which well deserves his
examination ; since, if he will take the pains of
climbing this pile, which is hollow within, he
may from the top descry Hell and Paradise,
opened to the sight below. Orlando believes
the tale, and ascends the steps, when Origilla
having possessed herself of Brigliadoro, laughs
at him for his folly and departs.
Orlando, now examining the inscription,
finds it imports nothing more than that this
was the tomb of Ninus, the founder of Nineveh.
Little satisfied with the discovery, and cursing
152 THE ORLANDO INNAMOHATO. BOOK I.
the damsel from the bottom of his soul, he
departs on foot, in order to prosecute his
But here the author closes his first book,
with the promise of treating of higher and
worthier matters in his second.
Agramant, king of Africa, assembles his council for advice
respecting an intended invasion of France, and is exhorted to
seek out Rogero, as necessary to the success of his enterprise.
Rinaido, with Astolpho, Iroldo and Prasildo, leaves the camp
before Albracca, in search of Orlando, with whom he is im-
patient to terminate his quarrel. On his way, he falls in with
a damsel, in whose behalf he combats with an enchanted man,
who plunges with him into a lake, in which they both disap-
pear. Agramant, in the meantime, is unable to find Rogero,
and Rodomont of Sarza, one of his vassal kings, determines
to undertake the expedition alone. Orlando, who had been
dispatched by Angelica on a perilous quest, achieves this and
other adventures. She is in the meantime robbed of her magic
ring by Brunello, who steals his horse from Sacripant, and
her sword from Marphisa. Rodomont, who threatened to
invade France alone, embarks for that country in a storm,
and makes good his descent. Orlando now falls in with the
enchanted man, who had regained the shore after leaving
Rinaido below the waves, and a long combat ensues between
them on land and under water. Orlando at length vanquishes
him, and makes the conquest of Morgana's garden, of which
he was the champion. From this Orlando delivers all her pri-
soners, except Ziliantes, son of Monodontes, her minion ; and
more especially Rinaldo, to whom he is reconciled. The Christian
knights delivered, excepting Orlando, depart to the succour of
Charlemagne ; but Rinaldo, with his friends, soon falls into a new
snare. Orlando, accompanied by Brandimart, returns towards
Angelica, in Albracca; but, by the way, encounters Bru-
nello, pursued by Marphisa, and is himself plundered by the
fugitive of his sabre and his horn. He is afterwards entrapped
by the same spell as the others, and carried prisoner to Damogir,
in the empire of Monodontes. This adventure leads to the
discovery, that Brandimart is the eldest son of Monodontes; for
whom his younger son, Ziliantes, is also recovered by Orlando,
who a second time makes himself master of Morgana. Ri-
naldo, Astolpho, and the rest, again delivered from prison
by him, pursue their way to France ; but Astolpho is seduced
from his companions by the devices of Alcina. Rinaldo
and Rodomont meet in battle in France ; but are sepa-
rated. The invasion of this country is to be attempted
by a yet more formidable force than that of Rodomont;
for Agramant, having received from Brunello the booty he
had made, discovers, by help of the magic ring, the abode
of Rogero, and allures him into his service. Orlando, with
Angelica, whose covert object is the pursuit of Rinaldo,
takes his way to France: she, drinking, however, of the foun-
tain of Disdain, while Rinaldo now drinks of the fountain of
Love in the forest of Arden, the two exchange passions ; he
becomes her lover, and she now mortally detests him, who
is involved by his present pursuit of her in a desperate duel
with Orlando. Charlemagne, to end the strife, gives An-
gelica in charge to Namus, duke of Bavaria. Agramant hav-
ing this while landed in France, pursues the war with various
success. The main actions are, as in the first book, diversified
with a great variety of episodes.
THE theme, announced as I before stated, begins
with the threatened invasion of France ; to con-
sult on which, Agramant calls a council of his
tributary kings. Here Sobrino strongly opposes
the measure ; but finding his opposition useless,
observes that the only thing which can render
it effectual, will be to get possession of Rogero,
a youth who is the cousin of Agramant by the
mother's side, and now detained a prisoner by
the African, Atlantes, on the mountain of Ca-
rena. This advice is better listened to than the
former, and the council breaks up after it has
been adopted, and the king has commanded a
search to be prosecuted for him, on whose
presence so much appears to depend.
The scene now again shifts to Albracca,
from before the walls of which, still besieged by
156 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
Marphisa, Rinaldo departs in pursuit of his
new enemy, Orlando, accompanied by Astolpho,
Iroldo, and Prasildo.
Astolpho was at the head of this party when
they fell in with a weeping damsel, who, being
questioned as to her cause of sorrow, related
that, on lately crossing a neighbouring bridge,
a wretch had issued from a tower which com-
manded it, and seized upon her sister that ac-
companied her, whom he made prisoner, and
whipt bitterly ; having first stript her, and tied
her naked to a cypress. Astolpho immediately
places the weeping sister behind him on his
horse, and all proceed together to effect the
deliverance of the damsel.
The damsel, bridge, tower, and scourging
warder are soon descried. Iroldo and Prasildo
first encounter the oppressor, but are succes-
sively defeated ; and the ruffian casts their
bodies into a lake, into which the river, bestrid
by the bridge, disembogues itself Rinaldo
BOOK II. INNAMORATO. 157
now attacks him with as little success, and is
beat down with an iron mace ; but when the
conqueror attempts to dispose of him like the
others, he makes such violent efforts to free
himself, that the savage, being unable to throw
him, springs with him into the lake ; where they
Astolpho remains a long time in affliction
upon the banks, but is at last persuaded by the
two damsels (for one sister had in the meantime
freed the other) to depart.
He accordingly mounts Bayardo, gives Rabi-
can to one of the damsels, and one of the Baby-
lonian knights' horses to the other; and they
both, thus mounted, go forth under his guidance.
At this tune, Brandimart (who, it may be
remembered, was in Albracca) hearing of
Orlando's departure, determines to pursue him.
The same resolution is taken by Gryphon
and Aquilant; and these, arriving at the shore,
find a castle situated upon the beach, with an.
158 THE ORLANDO BOOK IT.
open gallery towards the sea. In this, damsels
are dancing ; and the brothers are informed bv
two maids, who are passing with hawks upon
their fists, that it is their usage to detain even-
passenger ; who is obliged to join in then- dance,
and to pass a night under their roof.
The brothers consent to submit to this joyous
usage, but have soon reason to repent their
complaisance. They soon see a damsel ap-
proaching upon Brigliadoro, which she had
stolen from Orlando, as was told in the former
book, and who, being interrogated as to the
manner hi which she had become mistress of
him, said that he was the horse of a knight
(describing his ensigns as those of Orlando)
whom she had found dead upon a plain, with
the body of a giant by his side.
The two brothers are much distressed by this
falsehood, which leaves them little inclination to
enjoy the festivities of the castle, in which they
had been compelled to join.
BOOK II. INNAMORATO. 159
To add to their misfortune, they are surprised
the ensuing night in their beds; and, having
been detained for some days in chains, are,
together with the damsel, who had also arrived
mounted on Brigliadoro, led forth for execution.
As they are however conducting to the place of
punishment, a stranger knight is seen approach-
ing ; but here the author breaks off, and carries
his readers back to the war before Albracca.
Marphisa had now encountered and worsted
every one of the defenders of Angelica, in an
attack which they made upon her camp, when
she was assailed by Sacripant, who had hitherto
been confined to the fortress from the effects of
a former wound.
A desperate combat ensues, in which the
Circassian is much assisted by the speed and
docility of his horse Frontilatte. In the heat
of this a courier brings him news of the in-
vasion of his kingdom by Mandricardo, the.
son of Agricaiu As he and Marphisa, however,
160 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
cannot agree upon the conditions of a truce,
this occasions but a short interruption of the
duel ; which is at last only broken off by the
author, that he may give some account of the
search made for Rogero, in consequence of
what was determined at the council of Agra-
The emissary of the king returns, reporting
the inutility of his journey, made through the
mountain of Carena, and Rodomont, enraged
at the delay, sets out with his own forces for
the invasion of France. In the mean time
Agramant is assured that Rogero is upon
Mount Carena ; though the garden, where he
is confined, is invisible ; and that the possession
of Angelica's ring would enable him to succeed
in his enterprise.
Agramant now promises a kingdom to who-
ever shall obtain for him this prize, and the
theft is confidently promised by a dwarf, who is
BOOK If. 1NNAMORATO. 161
This while, Orlando, robbed by the damsel
of Brigliadoro, was plodding upon his way
a-foot : when he one day fell in with an escort
of armed men, leading two knights as prisoners,
whom he immediately recognized for Gryphon
and Aquilant, and the damsel who had carried
off his courser.
The escort was, it seems, carrying off these
to be devoured by the serpent of the garden
of Orgagna; but Orlando immediately routs
the guard, and sets the prisoners at liberty.
He has scarcely looked the damsel in the
face, when he forgets the wrongs he has re-
ceived; and Gryphon, who had exchanged
hearts with her, almost at sight, is yet more fas-
cinated by her graces. Orlando observing this,
under some pretence sends the two brothers
away, that he may keep her to himself; and
sitting down by her on the grass, begins to
woo her with such courtesy as he can. :.
162 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
While he is thus engaged, another damsel
approaches on a white palfrey, who warns
Orlando of impending danger, and informs
him he is close to the garden of Orgagna.
Orlando is delighted at the intelligence, and
entreats her to inform him how he is to procure
She promises him full instructions ; and, as
the first of these, tells him he must keep himself
chaste for three days, previous to attempting the
adventure, if he would preserve himself from
being devoured by the dragon, who guards the
gate. She then says she will give him a book,
in which he will find painted the garden and
all it contains, together with the palace of the
false enchantress, which she had only entered
the day before, for the purpose of executing a
magic work in which she was engaged.
This, which was the manufacture of a sword,
capable of cutting through even enchanted
substances, she only pursued on moonless nights.
HOOK If. INN AMOR ATO. 163
The object of this labour was the destruction of
a knight of the west, hight Orlando ; who, she
had read in the book of Fate, was destined to
demolish her garden. To this, the damsel
adds, that the garden can only be entered at
sunrise ; and, having presented him with a book
of instructions, departs.
Orlando, who finds he must delay his enter-
prize till the next morning, now lies down, and
is soon asleep. In the mean time, Origilla,
who was still with him, meditated her escape,
in order to rejoin Gryphon; and yielding to
the impulse of her evil nature, was about to
slay Orlando with his own sword, which she
had drawn for the purpose. Afraid, however,
to execute her design, she mounts Brigliadoro,
and gallops off, carrying away Durindana.
Orlando wakes, in such indignation as may
be supposed, on the discovery of the theft ; but,
like a good knight and true, is not to be di-
164 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
verted from his enterprise. He tears off a huge
branch of elm to supply the place of his sword,
and, the sun rising, takes his way towards the
eastern gate, where the dragon was on his
This he slays by repeated blows upon the
spine ; but finds that the wall of the enchanted
garden, which he had entered, was closed upon
him. Looking round him, he saw a fair foun-
tain of water, which overflowed into a river,
and in the centre of the fountain was a figure,
on whose forehead was written,
" The stream which waters violet and rose,
" From hence to the enchanted palace flows."
Following the banks of this flowery stream,
and rapt in the delights of the delicious garden,
Orlando arrives at the palace, and entering it,
finds the mistress, clad in white, and with a
crown of gold upon her head, in the act of
viewing herself in the surface of the fatal sword.
BOOK II. 1NNAMORATO. 165
He surprises her before she can escape, deprives
her of the weapon, and holding her fast by her
long hair, which floated behind, threatens her
with immediate death if she does not instruct
him in the means of retreat.
Falerina, however, was firm of purpose, and
refused. Hence Orlando, being unable to move
her either by threats or kindness, was under the
necessity of binding her to a beech. Having
thus secured his prisoner, he renewed his
questions, but she still refused to point out the
gate of the garden.
He now bethinks him of his book, and con-
sulting it, finds there is an entrance to the south
but that it is watched by a bull, with one horn
of iron, and another of flame.
Moreover, before arriving at this, there is
another impediment: a lake is to be passed,
pregnant with new danger; but to provide
against this, he is instructed by his book.
According to its directions,
J66 THK ORLANDO BOOK. Jl.
He, still his path pursuing, gathers posies
Of flowers, which every where about him spring,
And filling well his casque and ears with roses,
Lists if he hears the birds in green-wood sing :
He sees the gaping beak, the swelling throat,
And ruffled plumes, but cannot catch a note.
Having thus proved the force of his defence,
he proceeds towards the lake, which was small
but deep; and so clear and tranquil, that the
eye could penetrate to the bottom.
He is no sooner arrived upon the banks,
than the waters are seen to gurgle ; and a syren,
rising midway out of the pool, sings so sweetly,
that birds and beasts troop to the water-side,
attracted by her song. Of this the count
hears nothing; but feigning to yield to the
charm, sinks down beside the water ; from
which the syren issues with the intent to accom-
plish his destruction. Orlando, however, seizes
BOOK II. 1NNAMORATO. 167
her by the hair, and, while singing yet louder
(song being her only defence), cuts off her head,
and (so instructed by the book) stains himself
all over with her blood.
Having done this as a protection against
the horns of the bull, and taken the roses from
his helmet and ears, he proceeds towards the
Here he is encountered by the bull, whose
horn of iron he severs at a stroke. His horn
of flame was however yet left, and by this Or-
lando, but for the virtue of the syren's blood,
would have been consumed. Guarded by this,
he pursues his advantage, and at last slaughters
his enemy. The bull is, however, no sooner slain,
than the gate, of which he is the guardian, dis-
appears, the wall closes, and Orlando again finds
himself a prisoner, without the means of escape.
Again resorting to his book, he finds that another
river, running westward, leads to a gate formed
of jewels, which is kept by an enchanted ass.
168 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
Taking his course towards this, he arrives at
a tree of surprising height, and again consulting
his book, razes off his crest, and makes a pent-
house of his shield for the protection of his sight.
Covering himself with it, he advances with his
eyes fixed upon the ground, towards the mira-
On approaching it, a harpy with a beautiful
female head, and crowned with strangely co-
loured plumes, flutters out from the branches,
and hovering above the count, squirts her ordure
at his head. This is fortunately protected by
his shield, on which it hisses like boiling oil.
Orlando, distracted by the yells of the harpy,
is often tempted to raise his eyes : he how-
ever perseveres in keeping them fixed to the
ground till he is near the tree, when he falls,
as if blinded by the burning liquor. The bird
now swoops to the ground, and having darted
her talons into his breast-plate, attempts to
drag him towards the trunk. The count sees
BOOK II. INNAMOKATO. 169
his time is come, and dispatches her with a
back-handed stroke of his sword.
The harpy demolished, he re-adjusted his
crest, the gift of Angelica, braced his shield
anew, and took his way towards the western
gate. Nothing was ever seen more beautiful
than this, with respect to the materials, or the
workmanship. Nor was the animal who kept
it less extraordinary ; being an ass, armed with
scales of gold, and ears of such length and
strength, as to be able to seize, and drag to
himself by the aid of them, whatever was within
his reach ; his tail cut like a trenchant sword,
and his bray made the forest tremble.
Though his golden scales had resisted all
other weapons, they were not impenetrable by
Orlando's steel, and he smote off his head at a
A strange wonder followed ; the earth swal-
lowed the carcase of the ass, this gate too disap-
peared, and the walls again closed upon Orlando.
170 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
He is now directed by his instructions to a
a northern entrance, and, strong in patience,
proceeds in this direction. On his way thither
he sees a table spread in the wilderness. He
is tempted by the viands ; but recurring to the
book, is informed of his danger, and refrains.
From this he learns that a faun lay conceale
amongst the neighbouring thorns and roses,
provided with a chain, with which she snared
whoever tasted of the banquet. She fled
from Orlando on his approaching her haunt,
dragging after her a serpent's tail, till then con-
cealed, which was as loathsome as her face was
lovely. Being overtaken, she made no defence
and was slaughtered at a blow.
The count now arrives at the northern gate,
which he finds guarded by a giant. Orlando
had so often been engaged with enemies of this
description, that he thought little of the combat
in which he was going to engage. In effect,
his expectations were in part justified, as he
HOOK II. INNAMORATO. 171
slew liis adversary. This was, however, but the
beginning of his labour; for, from the blood of
the slaughtered enemy sprang a fire, and from
this issued two other giants yet fiercer than the
first. Orlando sees that to spill the blood of
these, would be but to multiply his foes, and
accordingly, changing his mode of proceeding,
grapples with one of the two in the hopes of
squeezing him to death. He is, however, still
interrupted by the other, before he can accom-
plish his purpose ; and at last sees the necessity
of separating them .
To effect this, he feigns to fly, but the giants,
instead of pursuing, return to keep guard over
the enchanted gate. If, however, Orlando was
disappointed in his hope of dividing them, his
stratagem was productive of another advantage.
He saw the chain lying on the ground, which was
spread for his destruction by the faun. Return-
ing with this, he nooses the giants and then again
recurs to the book for his future proceedings.
172 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
This informs him, that the total destruction
of the garden (the task imposed by Angelica)
can only be accomplished by tearing off a cer-
tain branch of a lofty tree, in which was in-
volved the destiny of this fairy creation.
According to the rules which he received, he
returned through a spacious valley towards the
palace, passing Falerina, whom he had left
fastened to the beech. He soon descries the
fatal tree, which is of an immeasurable height :
while the stem, even at the bottom, is no more
than a palm in girt.
No thicker ; but from this close branch and spray
Bristled, whence foliage green and narrow grew.
The leaves which died and sprouted every day,
Conceal'd within sharp pointed thorns from view:
Apples of gold the loaded twigs display ;
Apples in form, but burnish'd gold in hue,
Suspended from small stalks, so slight in show,
The man had periled life who walked below.
BOOK II. INNAMORATO. 1 73
To obviate this danger (and we are after-
wards told that the fruit was as large as the
human head), Orlando forms a sort of grating
of boughs of trees, and, under cover of this,
proceeds towards the tree, amidst a shower of
the golden apples, which fall, loosened by the
vibration of the soil beneath his feet. Having
reached it, he severs the trunk close to the
root, and every thing is instantly involved in
The cloud at length clears away, and the
sun shines forth upon a wild landscape ; where
no vestige is to be seen of the garden, or
trace of the adventure, except in the appear-
ance of the fairy Falerina, who remains in
the middle of the wilderness, fastened to the
Her tone is now changed, and she entreats
Orlando's mercy, assuring him that many lives
depend upon the preservation of hers. She
explains herself by saying, that she had con-
174 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
structed the garden and a neighbouring snare
in a bridge over a torrent, in order to be re-
venged on a knight called Ariantes, and an
infamous woman of the name of Origilla, who,
though many had fallen into her toils, had both
" Many," pursues the fairy, " were entrap-
ped in my garden, and yet more at the bridge ;
and here it was that I took a certain enchan-
tress, daughter of king Galaphron, who by some
secret means escaped, and effected the deliver-
ance of her fellow prisoners. Many more,
however, have been taken since, and all these
will perish, if you are resolved on my destruc-
tion." Orlando immediately promised her life,
upon her pledging herself for the deliverance of
With this view they proceed together, towards
the bridge ; but the author snaps this thread,
to take up that of the story of Albracca.
Here Sacripant and Marphisa were left en-
BOOK II. INNAMORATO. 175
gaged in a single combat, which was still con-
tinued with mutual animosity; while Angelica,
surrounded by a group of warriors, sate con-
templating the fight from the ramparts of the
citadel. While the attention of all was thus
engaged, Brunello, who (it will be remembered)
had undertaken to steal Angelica's ring, arrived
beneath the walls of Albracca, scaled the rock
and walls of the fortress, while the crowd
was watching the duel, and disputing on its
probable result, approached the princess unob-
served, and, slipping the ring from her finger,
escaped amid the confusion which followed.
Having descended safely to the ground, and
swam a water by which the citadel was sur-
rounded, the dwarf perceived that the two
combatants had separated for an interval of
repose, and immediately meditated a new ex-
ercise of his art. With this view, he approached
Sacripant, who, absorbed in an amorous reverie,
sate apart, upon his courser, and having
176 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
first loosened the girths, and supported the
saddle by a piece .of wood, withdrew the horse
from under him. *
Marphisa, who was at a little distance, wit-
nessed this with wonder, and, before she re-
covered from her astonishment, was herself
plundered of her sword. Marphisa is no
sooner aware of the theft, than she pursues
the robber; but he, mounted upon Fronti-
latte, his new acquisition, soon distances the
While Angelica, who felt her misfortune yet
more than the others, is in despair at the loss
of her treasure, an alarm is given by the warder,
who reports the arrival of a new army before
Albracca. This was a Turkish force, led by
Caramano, brother of Torindo, one of the
princes who had been seized and imprisoned by
* The reader will recollect the imitation of this absurd
incident in " Don Quixote," whoso squire's ass, Dapple, is
stolen in a similar manner.
BOOK II. 1NNAMORATO. 177
Truffaldino, and who, having refused to enter
into the engagement to which the others agreed,
on his delivering them from durance, now
brought this brother against Albracca.
Angelica's last hopes of deliverance rest
upon Gradasso; who, it seems, was her re-
lation, and who was meditating anew the inva-
sion of France. Hence Sacripant undertakes
a secret embassy to this prince, with the view of
soliciting his succour.
Rodomont, this while, who was too impa-
tient to wait for Agramanfs attack upon Charle-
magne, had already sailed for France. A tre-
mendous storm wrecked his fleet upon the coast
of that kingdom ; but he, landing with such
force as the tempest had left him, made good his
footing, and routed the Christians in more
engagements than one: though the balance at
last turned in their favour.
Previous, however, to this, Gano, or Ganelon,
(as he is sometimes called) enters into a traitor-
178 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
ous correspondence with Marsilius, whom he
invites into France.
While great events are preparing in this
quarter, the author resumes the story of
Orlando, who was journeying with Falerina
towards the bridge, where so many prisoners
were entrapped. On their way thither, however,
they arrived at a yet more perilous pass : this
was the bridge, and lake into which the felon
warrior leaped with Rinaldo in his arms. Fa-
lerina, enchantress as she was, turned pale at
the sight of this place, and cursed the hour in
which they had taken the road which conducted
them thither ; informing Orlando that they were
approaching a snare, laid by Morgana; who
plotted revenge against a knight who had de-
stroyed many of her spells, and set at nought
her riches and her power.
For this purpose she had formed the lake;
and selected, as a defender of the pass, a man
named Arridano, a churl of the most ferocious
BOOK II. INNAMORATO. 179
and pitiless character she could find. Him she
had clothed in invulnerable arms, and charmed
in such a manner, that his strength always in-
creased in a six-fold proportion to that of the
adversary with whom he was matched. Hence,
no one had hitherto escaped from the contest ;
since, such was his strength and power of en-
durance, that he could breathe freely under
water. Hence, having grappled with a knight,
and sunk with him to the bottom of the lake, he
returned, bearing his arms in triumph to the
While Falerina is explaining the danger of
the enterprise, Orlando sees Rinaldo's arms,
erected in form of a trophy, amongst other
spoils made by the villain ; and forgetting their
late quarrel, determines upon revenging his
friend. A desperate contest ensues between the
churl and the knight, during which Falerina
flies. The combatants (as in the case of Rinaldo)
180 THE ORLANDO BOOK If.
both grapple, and sink together in the water.
Arrived at the bottom, Orlando finds himself
in another world, upon a dry meadow, with the
lake overhead, through which shone the beams
of our sun; the meadow being on all sides
surrounded by a crystal wall. Here the battle
was renewed, and in this Orlando had an ad-
vantage, which none had hitherto possessed.
Besides that lie was himself invulnerable, he
was now in possession of the sword, tempered
by Falerina, against which no spells could
avail. Thus armed, and countervailing the
strength of his adversary by his superior skill
and activity, he had the good fortune to lay
him dead upon the field.
Orlando having slain his foe, discovers a gate
in the crystal wall ; and having passed through
a dark labyrinth, comes at last where it is lighted
by a carbuncle, whose lustre was equal to that
of day. This discovered to his view a river
little less than twenty-yards over, and beyond
BOOK II. INNAMORATO. 181
this was seen a field as thickly covered with
precious stones as the sky is full of stars.
Over this was thrown a bridge, only half a
palm wide, and at each end was stationed an
iron figure with a mace. Orlando no sooner
attempted to pass this, than the figures smote
upon it, and it was instantly engulphed in the
stream. Orlando however, being resolved to
accomplish the adventure or perish in the at-
tempt, leapt the river and arrived in the field,
which contained the treasures of the fairy.
When he had arrived at the other extremity
of this, he entered a building, where he beheld
the likeness of a king, surrounded by his peers,
and encompassed by all the pomp and magni-
ficence of royalty. The monarch appeared to
be seated at a banquet, with a naked sword
suspended over his head, and on the table before
him was a live coal, supported on a golden lily,
which gave light to the apartment. On his left
182 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
stood a figure with a bended bow in guise of one
who waits the crossing of the stag ; and on the
right, the form of one, who, from his likeness
to the king, appeared to be his brother, and
who bore in one hand a writing illustrative of
the vanity of his worldly pursuits.
The troubled countenance of the king seemed
to bear witness to the truth of the inscription ;
and Orlando, having satisfied his curiosity, de-
parted through the door opposite to that by
which he had entered. He was however no
sooner out of the apartment, than all was
After wandering for some time at random,
he bethought himself of the coal, which was
burning before the king, and returned in or-
der to take it. He had however no sooner
laid his hand upon this, than the archer let fly
his arrow, which extinguished it, and night
followed. This was rendered terrible by an
BOOK II. INNAMORATO. 183
earthquake, which shook the world to its centre.
The earthquake at last ceased, the light re-
kindled of itself, and all was as before. Again
Orlando issued through the dark passage, again
was compelled to return in search of the coal,
and again witnessed the same effect.
A third attempt was more successful : he
intercepted the arrow with his shield, and car-
ried off the light in safety. Using this as a
lamp, Orlando arrived where the way divided ;
and turning to the left, instead of the right
(which would have conducted him out of the
building) took the road which led to the dun-
geons of Morgana. Here were imprisoned Ri-
naldo, Dudon, Brandimart, and others who had
fallen into the power of Morgana; but the
count did not immediately arrive at their place
of confinement. Still guiding himself by his
light, he came to a cleft in the rock, through
which he passed into a flowery meadow, planted
184 THE OllLANDO BOOK II.
with trees covered with fruit and flowers, and
full of all imaginable delights.
In the middle of this was a fountain, and fast
by it lay Morgana asleep ; a lady of a lovely
aspect, dressed in white and vermilion gar-
ments ; her forehead well furnished with hair,
but with scarcely any behind.
While Orlando stood in silence, contem-
plating her beauty, he heai'd a voice exclaim,
" Seize the fairy by the forelock if thou hopest
fair success ;" Orlando turning, and advancing
in the direction from which the voice came,
discovered a prison of crystal in which he
beheld the captives of Morgana.
At the sight of these, he raised his sabre to
smite the wall ; but was advertised by a female
prisoner that all attempts to release them would
only be productive of new misery to those he
sought to benefit, unless he could take Mor-
gana herself, and force from her the keys of
BOOK II. INNAMORATO. 185
Thus admonished, he returned towards the
fountain. But the fairy, who was awake and
risen, was now dancing round its border with
the lightness of a leaf, and timing her steps to
the following song :
" Who in this world would wealth and treasure
" Honour, delight, and state, and what is best,
" Quick let him catch me by the lock of hair
" Which flutters from my forehead, and be blest;
" But let him 'not the proffered good forbear, >-
" Nor, till he seize the fleeting blessing, rest. ,
" For present loss is sought in vain to-morrow,
" And the deluded wretch is left in sorrow."
The fairy, however, no sooner set eyes on the
count, than she bounded off, and fled from the
flowery meadow over a high and inhospitable
mountain. ^. Orlando pursued her through
thorns and rocks, though the sky, on her gain-
186 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
ing this dreary scene, became overcast, and he
was assailed by tempest, lightning and hail.
While Orlando thus pursues, enveloped in
storm, a pale and meagre woman issues from
a cave, armed with a whip, and treading close
upon the pursuer, scourges him, till his skin is
raised in furrows. She infbrms him, while she
inflicts this discipline, that she is Penitence, and
sent to punish him for having neglected to seize
Morgana, when he found her sleeping by the
fountain. Orlando, determined to resist this
chastisement, turns upon his tormentor; but
might as well seek to wound the wind.
Convinced at last of the shadowy nature
of his persecutor, and observing that Mor-
gana gained upon him, while he was thus
hopelessly engaged, he determines to pursue
the fairy without being diverted by the molest-
ation of Penitence.
Chasing Morgana, then, over rock and hill,
he mode sundry snatches at her white and
BOOK II. INNAMORATO. 187
vermilion garments, which still eluded his grasp.
On the fairy, however, turning her. head for an
instant, he profited by the chance, and seized
her by the forelock. In an instant the tem-
pest ceased, the sky became serene, and Peni-
tence retreated into her cave.
Orlando now demanded of Morgana the keys
of her dungeon ; and the fairy, feigning a com-
placent aspect, told him that these were at his
disposal; entreating him, though he should
free all her other prisoners, to leave her a
youthful son of Monodontes, who was her darl-
ing. Orlando consented to this, and the fairy
delivered up a key of silver, bidding him be
cautious in the use of it; since, to break the
lock, would be to involve himself and all, in
inevitable destruction; a caution which gave
the count room for long meditation, and led
him to consider
How few amid the suitors, who importune
The dame, know how to guide the keys of Fortune.
188 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
Keeping the fairy still fast by the forelock,
Orlando proceeded towards the prison, turned
the key without occasioning the mischief ap-
prehended, and delivered the prisoners.
Amongst these were Brandimart, Rinaldo,
and all the knights, baptized or infidel, who
had been taken at the bridge. The only
unhappy person amid this joyous band was
Ziliantes, the minion of Morgana. This youth
remained behind weeping ; and time will come,
says the author, when Orlando will repent of
having yielded to the entreaties of the fairy.
The others, now delivered from their cap-
tivity, together with Orlando, ascending a lofty
stair" issued into the field of treasure, where
was to be seen the king and his court, all com-
posed of the richest materials in the world.
Rinaldo, on finding himself amid this mass of
wealth, could not resist the temptation of seizing
a gold seat that stood in his way, which, he
BOOK II. INNAMORATO. 189
observed, would feed his hungry garrison of
Mont Albano. This he was bearing off, notwith-
standing the remonstrances of Orlando, when
a violent wind blew him back as often as he
approached the gate, by which they were re-
tiring. Rinaldo at length yielded to necessity^
rather than to the entreaties of his comrades,
and cast away his prize. All now climbing
another immeasurable stair, ascended into the
upper world, and found themselves in the field
decorated with their arms.
Here each knight resumed his own ; and all
except the paladins and their friends, separated,
as their inclinations or duty prompted. It
was now that Dudon informed the cousins
that he had been made prisoner by Morgana,
when in the discharge of an- embassy to them
from Charlemagne, who called . upon them to
return to the defence of Christendom. Orlando
is too much fascinated by Angelica, to obey tin's
summons ; and, followed by the faithful Bran-.
190 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
dimart, returns towards Albracca. Rinaldo,
accompanied by Dudon, Iroldo and Prasildo,
takes his way towards the west.
These, though unprovided with horses, (for
their coursers were lost at the bridge,) went
laughing and talking on their way. Their
journey was without adventures till the sixth
day, when they heard a horn sound from a
neighbouring castle. From this they were
divided by a river, and near the opposite bank
was a small bark, with a damsel in the stern,
who proflercd them a passage.
Arrived on the other shore, she tells them
they must account for this with the warder,
who was then approaching. This was an old
man mounted on a heavy steed, and surrounded
by a numerous escort. He informs the knights,
that they are upon the territory of the king
Monodontes, from which they will not be suf-
fered to depart, before they have rendered him
a day's service. This was to avenge him
BOOK II. INNAMORATO. 191
of a certain enemy named Balisardo, at once
a giant and enchanter, who kept a bridge,
flanked with towers, near the mouth of the
river which they had crossed, and who had
put many scorns upon that monarch and those
who travelled to his realm.
Nothing more agreeable could have been
proposed to the warriors, and they reimbark in
the damsel's skiff for the purpose of seeking
The event of the combat was, however, very
different from what they had anticipated.
Encountering the giant singly, they all became
the victims of his enchantments, and were cast
into his dungeons, already peopled with illus-
trious knights, amongst whom' was Astolpho
This prince, in company with the two damsels
before mentioned, had gone about the world,
with Bayardo and Rabican, weeping the loss of
Rinaldo, whom he saw go to the bottom of the
192 THE ORLANDO BOOK If.
enchanted lake with Arridano. Wandering
thence, he had arrived on the same spot where
Rinaldo and his comrades afterwards found
themselves ; like them he had ferried the river
in die damsel's boat, like them, had been dis-
patched against Balisardo ; and, like them, had
been made prisoner by the wizard, who en-
snared him, under" the form of a damsel.
In the mean time, Orlando, who had parted
company with Rinaldo, and the rest, was re- .
turning, with Brandimart, towards Albracca
On his way thither he, to his surprise, saw
Marphisa in chase of Brunello, and contemp- ,
lating the two, was himself robbed of his horn,
As both he and Brandimart were on foot, to
chase the robber was useless; leaving, therefore,
Marphisa still in pursuit, the two warriors pro-
ceeded on their way. Pursuing this, they too
arrived at die same ferry as Rinaldo had, and
there found two damsels assailing each other
HOOK II. INNAMORATO. 193
with reproaches, the one in a boat, and the
other on horseback. Orlando immediately
recognized the latter for Origilla, who had
stolen Brigliadoro and Durindana, previous to
his entering the garden of Orgagna. His re-
sentment, however, was forgotten on seeing her ;
and he received her again into his company,
embarking, as the others had done, for the
adventure of Balisardo.
In this his usual fortune deserted him, and
having been vanquished by the enchantments of
the giant, he was cast on board a miserable
prison-ship, in order to be transported to some
From this he is, however, delivered by the
valour of Brandimart*, who slays the giant,
* The reader will have remarked that a vein of allegory,
more or less apparent, runs through the whole of the romance.
This observation will, perhaps, serve to explain the defeat of
Orlando, and the subsequent triumph of Brandimart. O r -
lando, by his love of vice, as figured in Origilla, has derogated
194 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
and rescues Orlando from captivity. The two
champions now interrogate the master of the pri-
son-ship; who tells them that the wizard-giant was
the instrument of a certain king, called Mono-
dontes, who dwelt in Damogir, an island situ-
ated in the ocean; where he had amassed
riches, which surpassed the imagination to
conceive. As, something is always wanting to
the completion of human happiness, this prince
was miserable in the loss of his two only sons,
the first of whom was carried off, in his child-
hood, by a slave of the name of Bardino, and
the second taken and imprisoned by a fairy
named Morgana, who was said to be ena-
moured of the youth.
The ship-master, pursuing his story, stated
that the fairy had offered to surrender the
from his natural self, and forfeited the protection of Pro-
vidence, while Brandimart t the model of purity and constancy,
is proof against all the powers of hell.
BOOK II. INNAMOUATO. 195
stripling to his father, upon his putting her
in possession of a certain knight, entitled Or-
lando, with whom she was at enmity, on ac-
count of his having destroyed her enchant-
ments. This the necromancer, overcome by
Brandimart, had offered to effect for Mono-
dontes, but had never succeeded, though he had
crowded his dungeons with champions ; amongst
whom were Rinaldo, Astolpho, Dudon, Gryphon
and Aquilant, and others, too many to mention.
Orlando listened to the narration in silence :
then, after some secret conference with the
ship-master, bade him make sail for Damogir,
as he and Brandimart were now masters of the
vessel, for he was minded to put this Orlando
into the hands of Monodontes. He obeys his
command, and the ship, after traversing the
ocean, arrives with them at the island.
Here the proposal was renewed by the
knights, and accepted by Monodontes ; who,
waiting the accomplishment of their promise,
196 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
lodged them in a magnificent palace near his
own. Here too was guested the infamous
Origilla, who was privy to Orlando's de-
sign. She having her mind entirely set upon
Gryphon, who (it will be remembered) was
amongst the prisoners of Monodontes, and
thinking she was possessed of sure means of
delivering him, secretly presented herself before
the king, and informed him that Orlando was
in his power.
As the covenanted reward of her service,
Monodontes ordered Gryphon to be delivered
up to her; and he refusing freedom, unless
Aquilant was at the same time freed, both were
set at liberty, and departed with Origilla.
To take Orlando was a more difficult enter-
prise ; but this was accomplished through the
means of a potion, by which both he and Brandi-
mart were put to sleep, and, while stupefied by the
liquor, lodged in the dungeons of Monodontes.'
In the solitude of their prison Orlando converts
BOOK II. INNAMORATO. 197
Brandimart to the Christian faith; and this
knight, who appears to be the type of friendship
and virtuous love, upon the guards of the mo-
narch coming in search of Orlando, announces
himself as the person sought for, and as such
presents himself to Monodontes.
This monarch tells Brandimart, whom he
imagines to be Orlando, that he seeks the
liberation of his son Ziliantes ; and as he knows
no method of obtaining him from the fairy, but
by such a sacrifice, is reluctantly compelled .
to offer hun in exchange for the royal captive.
To which Brandimart replies, that if he only
seeks this, he may obtain his end without
such a breach of hospitality, as his comrade
is ready to descend to the dungeons of Mor-
gana, where he has already been, and rescue
him by force. That in the meantime he will
remain as his hostage, and if he whom he is to
free does not, within a month, return with
Ziliantes, the king can, at the worst, accomplish
198 TliL ORLANDO BOOK II.
die deliverance of his son, by giving him up
(the king believing him to be Orlando) to the
vengeance of Morgana.
Monodontes accedes to this proposal, and the
real Orlando is suffered to depart.
In the meantime Brandimart, always under
the name of Orlando, remains for some time a
prisoner at large ; when the secret is discovered,
through the indiscretion of Astolpho, and Mo-
nodontes in fury orders Brandimart to be cast
into a dungeon, preparatory to his expiating
his imposture by death. Orlando this while is
bound upon his adventure, and arriving at the
lake formerly kept by Arridano, finds upon its
banks a beautiful lady weeping over a dead
While Orlando contemplates this spectacle
with surprise, the lady snatches up the dragon
in her arms, and embarks with it in a Little
pinnace, which was moored hard by. She now
loosens from the shore, sets her sail, and having
BOOK II. INNAMORATO. 199
reached the middle of the lake, sinks to the
bottom with her enchanted barque.
Orlando was yet absorbed in wonder at what
he had witnessed, when another damsel ar-
rived upon the bank, mounted on a palfrey,
and accompanied by a single sergeant, who
called upon the count by name, and expressed
the greatest pleasure at his sight.
This damsel was no other than Flordelis, the
lady-love of Brandimart ; the damsel of the
barque, it will be easily divined, was Morgana.
This fairy, upon the departure of Orlando
from her enchanted garden, transformed Zili-
antes, by the aid of certain witcheries, into a
dragon, meaning that he should supply the
place of Arridano and keep the avenues of her
territory. Whether, however, from some error
in her enchantments or other cause, the trans-
formation was no sooner completed than the
youth uttered a shriek and expired. Hence
the fairy, distracted with her loss, had embarked
200 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
with him in the pinnace, and descended to the
bottom of the lake, hi the hope of re-animating
him in her world below.
As soon as Flordelis, who was immediately
recognised by the count, had set eyes upon
him, she conjured him to lend her his assist-
ance ; and, that he might understand for what
purpose, entreated him to listen to her story,
which she began in the following words.
" I was wandering in search of Brandimart,
when I fell in with the sergeant, whom you see
with me ; and who, by a strange fortune, turn-
ed out to be one who was also in search of him.
His story was yet more extraordinary than the
accident which brought us together, and is the
cause of my present distress. He informed me
that he was formerly a slave of the king Mono-
dontes, and named Bardino; who, to avenge
himself upon the monarch for some wrong, con-
veyed away from him his eldest son, and sold
him to the lord of the Svlvan Tower ; who
BOOK II. INNAMORATO. 201
conceived such fondness for him, that he brought
him up as his son, and dying, left him his pos-
" His love of arms, however, carried him
away from the Tower, of which he had made
Bardino castellan; and this was attacked by
a neighbour named Rupardo, in his absence,
with such forces as rendered a defence hopeless.
Under these circumstances Bardino, had cast
lots to learn the fate of Brandimart, and found
that he was prisoner to Morgana. Hence it is,"
pursued the damsel, " that I entreat you to lend
your assistance to recover him from her power."
Orlando related in return what had since
happened to Brandimart, and, lastly, how he
had left him in the power of Monodontes,
meaning to redeem him, by the recovery of
Ziliantes, from the prisons of Morgana.
The damsel heard Orlando's recital with
gratitude, and, throwing herself on her knees,
202 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
prayed devoutly for the success of his under-
He immediately entered upon his adventure.
Descending by the entrance, through which
he had formerly ascended into the upper
air, and which he remembered, though con-
cealed by briars and thorns, he again traversed
the field of treasure, and saw the golden seat,
lying in the very place where Rinaldo had been
obliged to abandon it.
Thus pursuing his old path, he came upon
Morgana near the fountain, where he had for-
merly found her disporting herself.
She was this time engaged in a very diffe-
rent occupation, and was caressing Ziliantes,
who had now resumed the human form, but
remained yet pale, and terrified by the effects
of the metamorphose. The count does not
again neglect his opportunity, but, seizing the
fairy by the forelock, compels her to abandon
BOOK II. 1NNAMORATO. 203
her prisoner. Orlando returning into light
with Ziliantes by the ancient staircase, finds
Flordelis yet engaged in prayer, and now all
journeying to the coast, which was near, and
embarking upon the ocean, arrive safely at
The delight of Monodontes at the recovery
of his two sons, when he had despaired
of even retrieving Ziliantes, may be easily
imagined: king and people become Christians;
Rinaldo, Astolpho, Dudon, and the other pri-
soners are set at liberty ; all is festivity, and the
offence of Bardino is forgiven, in consequence
of his subsequent attachment to Brandimart.
To complete the general joy, a lady arrives at
this period, who is recognized as the daughter
of Monodontes and the damsel of the golden
But human life is chequered by light and
shade. The long continued festivities of
Damogir are broken in upon by Dudon
204- THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
the Dane, who reminds the princes of their
obligation to hurry to the defence of Christen-
Rinaldo and all the Franks obey the sum-
mons, with the exception of Orlando ; who,
accompanied by Brandimart, his inseparable
companion, returns towards Albracca. In
the meantime Rinaldo, Iroldo, Prasildo, and
the others, with Astolpho in the midst, armed
with his lance of gold, set forward on their
return to France.
Travelling thus, north about, into Europe,
the knights found themselves one morning in
front of a beautiful castle and garden on the
sea-shore. This was the domain of Alcina,
sister of Morgana, and queen of the Atarberi.
The fay herself was standing on the beach,
and amusing herself with taking fish, which she
inveigled by her enchantments.
She herself was ensnared by the beauties of
Astolpho, whom she invited to pass into a
BOOK II. 1NNAMORATO. 205
neighbouring island, in order to hear the music
of a syren who frequented it.
Astolpho crosses on horseback into the
island, which lay close to the shore ; but this
is in motion as soon as he reaches it, and proves
to be a large whale, which was a minister
of the fairy. Rinaldo and Dudon instantly
swim off to his assistance, but the horse of
Dudon sinking with his rider, Rinaldo is
. compelled to swim Bayardo to the relief of the
Dane, whom he succeeds in bringing to shore..
Meantime the whale floats out of sight, and a
terrible tempest obscures both sky and ocean. -
To succour Astolpho' was now' impossible, 1
and the confederated champions continued their
journey to the westward.
Pursuing this, they at last arrived at Buda
in Hungary, whence the king of that country
was dispatching his son Ottachiero with a large
army to the succour of Charlemagne. De-
lighted with the arrival of Rinaldo, he placed
20G THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
his son and troops under this conduct, and
these having, after long and distant marches,
united themselves with the troops of Desiderius
king of Lombardy, passed the Genovese Alps,
and poured down into Provence.
The confederate armies had not marched
many days through this gay tract, before they
heard a crash of drums and trumpets behind
the hills, which spoke the conflict between the
paynims, led by Rodomont, and the Christian
Rinaldo, witnessing from a mountain the
prowess of Rodomont, leaves his troops in
charge of his friends, and gallops towards him
with "his lance in the rest. The impulse is
irresistible, and Rodomont is unhorsed. Ri-
naldo, however, in a high spirit of chivalry,
gallops back to the hill from which he had
descended, secures Bayardo amongst the bag-
gage, and returns to pursue the combat with
his former antagonist on foot.
BOOK II. INNARIORATO. 207
During this interval the battle had become
general, the Hungarians were routed by Ro-
domont, and Rinaldo, on his return, had the
mortification to find that Ottachiero was.
wounded, and Dudon a prisoner.
He now again engages Rodomont ; when in
the midst of their strife, a new sound of drums
and trumpets was heard, and die army of
Charlemagne was descried advancing in bat-
Rodomont, who had in the meantime
mounted the horse of Dudon, leaves Rinaldo,
who was on foot, and gallops to the attack
of the enemy. A desperate battle ensues, but
night separates the combatants.
Rodomont now thinks only of Rinaldo, and
deceived by a false report, sets off in pursuit of
him towards the forest of Arden.
Rinaldo, however, having this time gone in
search of Bayardo, was returning towards the
field upon that courser, when he fell in with
208 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
the Saracens, engaged in carrying aboard their
ships the plunder, and the prisoners made in
battle. Some of these had already sailed for
Africa with Dudon, while Rinaldo, still seeking
Rodomont, makes a tremendous carnage among
He at last learns that his adversary, following
a false scent, is gone towards Merlin's fountain,
in the forest of Arden, when he quits the pur-
suit of the Saracens, in order to follow him.
Rodomont was in the meantime far advanced
upon .his way, when he fell in with a strange
cavalier, that proved to be Ferrau, who had, it
seems, returned to France, in search of Ange-
lica. The two knights mixing in conversation,
their talk, according to the practice of chivalry,
turned upon love, when Ferrau spoke of Do-
ralice, daughter of Stordilano, king of Granada,
as a lady to whom he had been a suitor. Ro-
domont, kindling at this, avowed his passion for
her, declared he would bear with no rival in his
BOOK II. INNAMORATO. 209
love, and bade him resign all pretensions to
her, or take his ground and defend himself.
Ferrau replied, that he had loved her and left
her; but that he would now love her in his
A duel ensues, but the author leaves the
knights engaged, in order to pursue the story
of Rinaldo. He, still seeking his pursuer,
Rodomont, misses him, whilst he is engaged in
combat with Ferrau; and wandering into a
sylvan lawn, in the middle of the forest of
Arden, is surprised by the vision of a beau-
tiful child, dancing naked, with three damsels,
as naked and as beautiful as himself. While
he is lost in admiration at the sight, the child
approaches him, and smiting on his helmet with
a bunch of roses and lilies, strikes him from his
horse. He is no sooner down than he is seized
by the dancers, by whom he is dragged about
and scourged with flowers till he falls into a
swoon. While he is yet absorbed in this, one
210 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
of the group approaches him, who says her
name is Pasiphae; that his punishment is the
consequence of his rebellion against that power,
before whom every thing bends ; and that there
is but one remedy that can heal the wounds
which have been inflicted ; and this is, to
drink of the waters of Love.
Rinaldo, sore and faint, drags himself into
the neighbouring wood, and being parched with
thirst, drinks greedily, and almost unconsciously,
of a spring which he finds there. After repeated
draughts of the water, which is sweet to the
taste, but bitter at the heart, he recovers his
strength and recollection, and finds himself in
the same place where Angelica had formerly
awakened him with a rain of flowers, and
whence he had fled in contempt of her courtesy.
His remembrance of the scene is followed by
the recognition of his crime; and, repenting
bitterly of his ingratitude, he leaps upon Bay-
ardo with the intention of following Angelica
BOOK II. INNAMORATO. 211
to India, and soliciting his pardon at her feet.
He has not ridden far with this intention,
when he beholds, at a distance, a damsel
mounted upon a palfrey, attended by a cavalier
who bore a burning mountain for his device :
but, before explaining who were the damsel and
knight, the author returns to Marphisa, lately
left in pursuit of Brunello.
She had now hunted him for fifteen days.
Her horse had sunk under her during the
chase ; and she had cast away her arms, to be
the better able to pursue him.
Her pains were thrown away. Brunello
arrived before her at the sea-side, and finding a
vessel ready to sail, embarked, and arrived at
Biserta, in Africa. Here he found Agramant,
who was impatient for the ring, which was to foil
the enchantments of Atlantes and to put Rogero
into his hands. The dwarf, now kneeling be-;
fore die king, related his story, and presented
him with the ring of Angelica, and the horn
212 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
stolen from Orlando; when Agramant, delighted
at the success of his mission, crowned him, in
recompense, king of Tingitana.
All are now anxious to go in quest of Ro-
gero, nor will Brunello be left behind. The
cavalcade accordingly departs, and having
traversed the Great Desert, arrives at the
mountain of Carena.
At the bottom of this was a fruitful and
well-wooded plain, watered by a large river,
which traversed it in its way to the sea ; and
.from this plain was descried a beautiful garden
on the mountain-top, which contained the man-
sion of Atlantes : but the ring, which discovered
what was before invisible, could not, though it
revealed this paradise, enable Agramant or
his followers to enter it. So steep and smooth
was the rock by nature, that none could scale
it; and even Brunello was obliged to renounce
the attempt. He did not, however, for this,
despair of accomplishing the object of the en-
BOOK II. INNAMORATO. 213
terprise; and, having obtained Agramant's
approbation, caused the assembled courtiers
and knights to celebrate a tournament upon the
plain below. This was done with the view of
seducing Rogero from his fastness, and the
stratagem was attended with success.
Rogero joins the tourney, presented by Bru-
nello with Sacripant's horse, Frontilatte, (whose
name is afterwards changed into Frontino,) and
with Balisarda, the sword of Orlando. In the
medley he is treacherously wounded, but avenges
himself of the traitor ; and, returning to the
summit of the mountain, is healed by the skill
and attention of Atlantes, having previously
learned from Brunello the preparations which
were making for the invasion of France, and
having indeed received his horse and arms, as
an earnest for his service in the expedition.
The author now leaves him again on the
mountain of Carena, to accompany Orlando
' 214 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
These two, having separated from Rinaldo,
Astolpho, and the rest, were pursuing their
journey through India, when they found them-
selves near a stone, situated by a fountain, where
sate a lady, having her eyes fixed upon the
ground, while a bridge, which divided two
roads hard by, was kept by an armed knight.
While Orlando and Brandimart were en-
gaged in a friendly contest, who should first
encounter him, a pilgrim advanced towards
the bridge, notwithstanding the prohibition of
him who kept it ; and finding that the knight
approached in order to enforce his threat, cast
off his pilgrim's slough, and showed that he
was armed cap-a-pe. A fierce combat now
ensued, between him and the warder of the
bridge, whom both Brandimart and Orlando
thought they had seen before, but could not
recognise, through the strangeness of his dis-
guise. In this strife the pilgrim at last sue-
BOOK II. INNAMORATO. 215
ceeded in making the warder give ground, and
retire slowly from his post.
On the other side of the bridge, and near
the fountain which formed the stream, was a
monument, which an inscription proclaimed to
be the sepulchre of Narcissus.
Contemplating himself in the neighbouring
fountain, he had pined away ; and his death was
productive of new calamities. The fairy Sil-
vanella, as her evil destiny would have it, pass-
ing near the body, fell in love with the dead
youth, whom she entombed in this mausoleum
of alabaster. Here, too, consumed by hopeless
passion, she perished, and left this dying curse
upon the waters ; that who contemplated them
should see pourtrayed there such a vision of
beauty, that they should become incapable of
departing from the place.
Many, who had arrived upon the banks of
the river, in consequence of her malediction,
remained gazing upon the stream, till they
216 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
expired. Among these was the gentle king
Larbiho, who came there with his leman Cali-
dora, who remained inconsolable for his loss,
and took up her dwelling in the meadow, where
he died. This is she, who sits weeping by the
water-side, and whose champion maintains the
bridge against all comers.
And such was the tale she told Orlando,
whom she conjured, in favour of her pious
intentions, to aid her cavalier, hard pressed by
Orlando, moved by her prayer, thrust him-
self between the combatants, whom he separated,
and recognized one for Sacripant, and the other
for Isoliero. Isoliero had accompanied the lady
from Spain to India, for the purpose of render-
ing her this service ; and Sacripant had been
dispatched (as was said) by Angelica, to king
Gradasso, for assistance, towards whose king-
dom he was now upon his way.
When the count had learned from this mo-
BOOK II. INNAMORATO. 217
narch the object of his journey, and the peril
of Angelica, he fled with Brandimart, from the
dangerous water, mindful of the fate of those
that had perished there ; leaving Isoliero, who
had been severely wounded by Sacripant, in
the company of Calidora.
While Orlando took his way to Albracca, Sa-
cripant took up the pilgrim's garb and staff, and
pursued his towards the kingdom of Gradasso.
Orlando, arriving before Albracca, finds it
closely beleaguered. He, however, makes his
way into the citadel, and relates his adventures
to Angelica, from the time of his departure,
up to his separation from Rinaldo and the rest,
when they departed to the assistance of Charle-
magne. Angelica, in return, described the
distresses of the garrison, and the force of the
besiegers; and in conclusion, prayed Orlando
to favour her escape from the pressing danger,
and escort her into France. Orlando, who
did not suspect that love for Rinaldo, who had
218 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
returned thither, was her secret motive, joyfully
agreed to the proposal, and the sally was resolved.
Leaving lights burning in the fortress, they
departed at night-fall, and passed in safety
through the enemy's camp. On the ensuing
day, however, the besiegers discovered the de-
ceit, stormed and sacked the citadel, and then
pursued the deserters.
Of these, Orlando went first, escorting An-
gelica and Flordelis, while Brandimart covered
their retreat. In consequence of this arrange-
ment, Brandimart was separated one night
from his companions, while Orlando and the
two damsels were advancing on their way.
As these last, sorely tormented by hunger,
were entering a valley at sunset, they saw, at
the other extremity, a party of Lestrigonians,
seated at their supper, and immediately gal-
loped towards them ; Orlando first, but fol-
lowed by the damsels. Arriving amongst these
cannibals, he prayed them, either for courtesy
BOOK II. INNAMORATO. 219
or hire, to give them food ; and, being re-
ceived with a feigned hospitality, had already
dismounted from his horse, in order to take
some refreshment, when the leader of the party,
coming behind him, dealt a blow with his club,
that laid him senseless on the ground. The
damsels, who had just come up, terrified at
this catastrophe, fled different ways, pursued
by a party of the Lestrigonians.
During this time, the. others had stript Or-
lando of his arms ; and were handling him, to
see if he was fat, when he was awakened by the
operation. Possessing himself of Durindana,
he soon cleared the field of the cannibals, and
was seeking an outlet from the valley, when
he recognized Angelica, hunted by those who
had pursued her and Flordelis. To save her,
and avenge her of the miscreants, was the
work of a moment.
It was said that the two damsels separated
in their flight ; in directing which, chance con-
220 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
ducted each towards her natural protector ; for
Flordelis, flying east, whilst Angelica fled west,
galloped towards a wood, where Brandimart
was sleeping, after having long sought his com-
panions in vain. Brandimart was as prompt in
rescuing her, as Orlando was in saving Ange-
lica. It is needless to describe his transports
on this occasion : these were, however, of short
duration ; and he heard, with the bitterest
regret, the narrative of Flordelis, who, relating
what she believed she had witnessed, informed
him she had left Orlando dead upon the field.
Returning with Brandimart towards the spot
where she had left the count, a strange adven-
ture for a long time delayed their search ; for
they had not ridden far, before they fell in with
a cavalier on foot, unarmed, except as to his
sword, who defied Brandimart to battle ; and
while he, in a spirit of generosity, refused
the challenge, snatched Flordelis from her
palfrey, and running up a steep rock with his
BOOK II. INN AMOR ATO. 221
burden, threatened to throw her down a preci-
pice, unless Brandimart ransomed her with his
armour and his steed.
As Brandimart's armour rendered it impos-
sible for him to pursue, he consented to the
sacrifice; and the stranger appropriated the
spoils. This was Marphisa, who had thrown-
by her arms, in order to pursue Brunello, and
who, finding the chace hopeless, took this
method to equip herself anew.
Brandimart, now reduced to his tunick, and
deprived of his courser, mounted the damsel's
palfrey, seated her on the croup, and pro-
ceeded on his way.
They were doomed to experience new dan-
gers and interruptions. For journeying thus,
they fell in with a band of robbers, from whom
Brandimart fled, in the hope of finding some
means of defence. His hope was realized ; for,
penetrating a wood, he arrived at a fountain,
near which a king lay dead, who was armed
222 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
cap-a-pe. Providing himself with his sword,
Brandimart turned to bay, and soon made his
pursuers repent of their temerity. These slain
or put to flight, he clothed himself reluctantly
in the other arms of the monarch, leaving him
his crown and regal ornaments. This king was
no other than Agrican, so preserved by a visible
An after-combat with the captain of these
corsairs put the knight in possession of a steed,
and thus re-equipt, he accompanied Flordelis
in search of Orlando.
This paladin, having recovered Angelica
(as has been related) had journeyed as far
homeward as the sea-coast of Syria without
impediment. Here he found a vessel ready to
carry the king of Damascus, Norandino, to the
island of Cyprus, where he was to make his
first essay of arms.
This was to be made for love of a lady
whose name was Lucina, and whose father, Ti-
BOOK II. INNAMORATO. 223
biano was king of Cyprus. This sovereign had
proclaimed a tournament, of which the princess
was to be the prize, and thither went Noran-
dino, who invited Orlando to accompany him.
The count, disguising his name and country,
and feigning himself a Circassian, called Roto-
lante, accepted the offer, and, together with
Angelica, joined Norandino, who was accom-
panied by a brilliant train of adventurers. He
was scarcely on ship-board before a breeze
sprang up from the land, and the galley was
For the tournament which was preparing,
many Greeks and many Pagans had assembled,
among whom were Basaldo and Morbeco,
Turks, and Gostanzo a Greek. This Gostanzo
was the son of Vataron, emperor of Constan-
tinople, and had brought Gryphon and Aquilant
in his company, who, together with Origilla,
had sought the hospitality of the Grecian court.
In the tourney the combatants are ranged
224 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
under the banner of this Gostanzo on the
one side, and that of Norandino on the other.
Gryphon and Aquilant serve under the first,
and Orlando under the second. They are,
however, disguised from each other by borrowed
devices, and Gryphon only suspects a knight
who bore away the honors of the first day, to
be Orlando, from his superior prowess, and
from the presence of Angelica, whom he had
observed seated amongst the ladies that
honoured the spectacle with their presence.
Imparting his suspicions to Gostanzo after
the trumpets had blown to lodging, the wily
Greek determined to rid himself of so formid-
able an adversary. He accordingly introduced
himself secretly to Orlando, and informed him of
a treason which (as he said) the king of Cyprus
meditated against him, at the instigation of Ga-
nelon, offering him at the same tune the means
of escape. This was a pinnace moored in a
creek, in which Orlando, breathing vengeance
BOOK II. INN AMOR ATO. 225
against the Maganzese, embarked with Ange-
lica, for France.
Disembarking in Provence, they pursued
their way by land, and arriving hot, and weary,
in the forest of Arden, where Rinaldo had
lately drunk of the fountain of Love, chance
directed Angelica to the waters of Disdain, of
which she drank.
Issuing thence, the count and damsel en-
countered a stranger knight. This was no
other than Rinaldo, who had missed Rodomont,
then engaged in combat with Ferrau ; and who,
on a nearer approach, recognised Angelica with
joy, though his new arms and ensigns disguised
Orlando, who accompanied her. The conse-
quences of such a meeting are easily foreseen.
Angelica views Rinaldo with disgust, and a new
cause of strife is kindled between the kinsmen.
Terrified at the combat which ensued, An-
gelica fled amain through the forest, and came
out upon a plain, covered with tents. This was
226 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
the camp of Charlemagne, who led the army of
reserve, destined to support the troops which had
advanced to oppose the descent of Rodomont.
Charles, having heard the damsel's tale, with
difficulty separates the two cousins, and then
consigns Angelica, as the cause of quarrel, to
the care of Namus duke of Bavaria, promising
she shall be his who best deserves her, in the
first battle with the Saracens.
The author here returns to Agramant, who
was left holding a tournament at the foot of
Mount Carena in Africa. He having heard of
the knight who was slain, and that, contrary to
his orders, (which were only to employ courteous
weapons,) determined to take vengeance upon
his murderer, and supposing Brunello to be
the criminal, (since Rogero had appeared with
his arms and steed,) ordered him to be hanged
upon the spot.
The danger of him who was about to suffer
for his sake, now again brought "Rogero from
BOOK II. INNAMORATO.
his retreat. He routed the troops appointed
to watch over the execution, rescued Brunello,
and then, presenting himself to Agramant, re-
lated every thing as it had passed.
Agramant, too happy to find the object of
his search in the youth who had performed
such wonders, forgave the death of the
slaughtered cavalier, knighted Rogero, and car-
ried him off to Biserta, where his vassal kings
and barons assembled for the invasion of Chris-
While they are in the midst of their revelry,
a messenger reports the return of Rodomont's
fleet, whose followers brought with them, as a
prisoner, Dudon the Dane; but could give no
account of Rodomont their leader.
He was this while engaged in battle with
Ferrau, with whom we left him quarrelling
about Doralice ; but their strife was soon inter-
rupted by the arrival of a messenger, who
brought news that Marsilius was, at the insti-
228 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
gation of Ganelon, besieging Mount Albano.
On hearing this, the duellists make peace, and
ride together to join the besiegers.
On their way they fall in with Vivian and
Malagigi, sons of duke Aymon, of Mount Al-
bano, who are proceeding towards Paris, to
demand succour of Charlemagne; and Malagigi,
retiring with Vivian into a wood, performs a
magic rite, by which he ascertains the design of
the approaching warriors Rodomont and Ferrau.
To frustrate this, he conjures up a bevy of fiends,
armed and mounted as knights, divides them
into two squadrons, takes the command of one
himself, and gives that of the other to Vivian.
Thus accompanied, the Christian knights
charge their adversaries. But the Pagans are
too strong for them, take Malagigi and Vivian
prisoners, and send their demons howling back
BOOK II. 1NNAMORATO. 229
Here the author exclaims,
But that I would not seem with folly tainted,
I own I would have fain beheld the attack ;
So great is my desire to be acquainted
With those the wizard brought his cause to back :
And prove with my own eyes, if truly painted,
The devil be so very foul and black ;
More ; that his pictures differ as to nail,
And horn, and hoof, and length and breadth of
To return to the story, Rodomont and Ferrau
arrive in the Spanish camp before Mount Albano,
which is shortly afterwards attacked by the
army of Charlemagne. Divers feats of prowess
are achieved on both sides ; but the most in-
teresting circumstance is a single combat
between Rodomont and Bradamant ; which the
author breaks off in order to resume the story
of Br andimart.
This knight, having obtained a steed and
230 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
armour, as has been before related, proceeds
with Flordelis towards Europe.
Thus journeying, the pair arrived in front of
a magnificent palace. Here a damsel, standing
in a balcony, motioned to them to take another
way ; but in vain ; for Brandimart, feigning not
to understand the purport of her signs, rode
boldly up to the gate. He is now opposed by
a giant, armed with a serpent, which he uses as
a sword. Him the knight vanquishes after
a long battle, in which he is opposed by a
variety of enchantments ; the giant and serpent
exchanging forms, as one or the other is slain
He next kills a knight who kept a sepulchre
in the inner court, and opposed his further
He and Flordelis, who had followed her
lover, now seek the gate by which they had
entered, but all appearance of it was lost.
While they are vainly seeking the means of
BOOK II. 1NNAMORATO. 231
escape, they are addressed by the damsel who
had at first waved them from the palace ; and
who informed Brandimart, he must open the
sepulchre, and kiss whatever issued from it,
if he expected deliverance from his prison.
Brandimart, little terrified by the injunction,
promised compliance ; but started back, and put
his hand to his sword, on the appearance of a
dragon. Reproached by the damsel of the
castle for his breach of promise, he manned his
spirits for the encounter, and kissed the monster
in the mouth. A sudden cold ran through his
bones at coming hi contact with her : but what
was his surprise, on seeing the dragon trans
formed into a beautiful damsel !
This was a fay so transmuted, who, grateful
for her deliverance, offered to enchant the
horse and arms of Brandimart, at the same time
entreating him to conduct the lady of the
castle, who was named Doristella, into Syria.
This promised, the gate re-appeared, the fay
232 THE ORLANDO BOOK 11.
enchanted the steed and arms of Brandimart,
and he, accompanied by the two ladies, de-
parted upon the quest enjoined.
They had ridden some time in silence, when
Doristella, rallying the knight for his taciturnity,
proposed to beguile the way with the relation
of her adventures. The offer was gratefully
received, and the damsel began her story as
" My father, king Doliston," said she, " had
two daughters, the eldest of whom, while yet a
child, was carried off by a thief from the shore
of Lissa. Of this daughter, who was the pro-
mised spouse of Theodore the son of a neigh-
bouring king, nothing was ever afterwards
" And what was the name of the mother ?"
exclaimed Flordelis ; but Brandimart having
checked her for her interruption, Doristella
continued her narrative in her own way. " My
intended brother-in-law," said the damsel, " still
BOOK II. INNAMORATO. 233
kept up his connection with my family, and he
and I soon became mutually enamoured of
one another. The young man at length un-
bosomed himself to my father, and demanded
me in marriage; but my father, to his morti-
fication, told him, that he had that very day
promised me to the wretch, whom you slew in
" To this wretch, named Usbeck of Bursa,
a Turcoman by nation, was I wedded ; a man
valiant in the field, but, as to the rest, little
capable of winning a lady's love. This man,
who was jealous in proportion to the grounds
he gave me for disgust, was compelled to join
an expedition against Vatarone the emperor of
Greece. Departing, he left me in care of a
slave called Gambone, a monster of deformity,
whom he commanded never to stir from my
side. He had not been long absent, when
Theodore arrived at Bursa, and having cor-
rupted Gambone, obtained access to my bed.
234 THE OKLANDO BOOK II.
Our intercourse was long continued, to our
mutual satisfaction, when Usbeck arrived sud-
denly one night at Bursa, and demanded instant
entrance into his house. Our courage did not
desert us under these circumstances, and Theo-
dore, slipping down stairs in the dark, escaped
at the same time that Usbeck was admitted.
Our danger, however, did not end here; for
my husband's suspicions had been awakened by
his detention at the door, and searching every
part of my chamber, he found a mantle which
my lover had left behind him in his retreat.
His suspicions being now confirmed, he burst
into a transport of jealous fury, and ordered the
slave Gambone for instant execution. According
to the custom of the country, his other slaves
were conducting him for that purpose, through
the city with a horn sounding before him, when
Theodore met the procession, and falling upon
the criminal, reproached him, amid a shower of
blows, with having robbed him of his mantle.
BOOK II. ' INNAMORATO. 235
Tliis trick of Theodore's, who was unknown to
Usbeck, saved the slave, and effaced the sus-
picions which he entertained of my fidelity.
New offences, however, on my part, for I still
continued my intercourse with Theodore, re-
newed his jealousy, and he at last shut me up
in the enchanted palace whence you delivered
me ; though it was not then kept by the giant
and serpent, which were the afterwork of a
necromancer who wrought for him."
The damsel was here interrupted by an out-
cry, and the party was instantly set upon by
thieves. These were, however, beaten off, and
their leader taken- prisoner by Brandimart.
He, throwing himself at the feet of the cavalier,
entreated him not to carry him to Lissa, as
he dreaded the vengeance of Doliston, the
prince of that country, for having formerly
carried off his eldest daughter, whom he had
sold to the lord of the Sylvan Tower.
236 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
Brandimart, however, who has secret reasons
(as will be shortly seen) for being pleased at
this account, insists upon carrying him to Lissa;
and arriving before Doliston's capital, finds it
besieged by Theodore, in revenge for the
monarch's having refused him Doristella. All
now is cleared up. Flordelis turns out to be
the missing daughter of Doliston, who had been
wooed by Brandimart in the Sylvan Tower;
and no further obstacle existing to the union of
Theodore and Doristella, these two, as well as
Brandimart and Flordelis, are united in mar-
riage; Doliston and Theodore having previously
After long festivities in honour of these double
espousals, Brandimart and Flordelis, still anxi-
ous to pursue Orlando, embark for France with
a prosperous wind. This, however, changes ;
increases to a tempest ; and finally drives them
on the shores of Carthage. Here Brandimart,
BOOK II. INNAMORATO. 237
less anxious for his own safety than for that of
Flordelis and his companions, conceals his
being a Christian, and announcing himself only
as son of Monodontes, king of the Distant
Isles, declares that it was his purpose to visit
Agramant in Biserta.
He accordingly sets off, always attended by
Flordelis, for that capital; where he is mag-
nificently received, and is afterwards carried off
by Agramant, together with Rogero, on his
expedition against France.
Agramant, leaving Dudon a prisoner at large
in Biserta, which was to be governed in his
absence by a vice-roy, embarks upon his long
meditated enterprise, disembarks in Spain,
and arrives, by forced marches, near Mount
Albano, in the neighbourhood of which the
armies of Charlemagne and Marsilius were left
Tlie strife was still continued with unabated
2.S8 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
fury ; and in this llinaldo was matched with
Ferrau, king Grandonio with tlie marquis
Oliviero, Serpentine with Ogier the Dane, and
Marsilius himself against Charlemagne. .
These duels were, however, of little account,
compared with that which raged between Ro-
domont and Bradamant. Of this desperate
contest Orlando was a witness ; who would not
-turn his arms against Rodomont while he was
engaged with so formidable an adversary.
While Orlando thus played the part of a
looker-on, he was surprised by the sound of an
approaching enemy, and casting his eyes in
that direction, saw a plump of spears, with
banners and pennons, descending (he sides of
* mountain. He immediately stooped from
his saddle to pick up a weighty lance which was
lying on the ground, and thus prepared himself
for the encounter of what proved to be the army
of Agramant. <..-. // ; a ._> .,. . /
BOOK IF. INNAMORA'fO. * 239
This sovereign had in the meantime dis-
patched one of his vassal kings, named Pina-
doro, towards the field of battle, with orders to
bring him one or more prisoners, who might
inform him of the state of the Christian army.
Pinadoro and Orlando meet and tilt together:
but the feudatory king, instead of accomplishing
the orders of his sovereign, remains the prisoner
of the count He is, however, no sooner taken
than liberated by his conqueror, who bids him
return to his army in peace. The report of his
ill success does not frighten Agraniant from his
purpose; and the Moorish army descends like
a torrent into the plain.
At the sight of these new enemies, Charles left
Marsilius, who was closely pressed by him, and
ordered Rinaldo also to give a respite to Fer-
rau, and lead a squadron against the approaching
troops, whom he divined to be what they really
were* Other divisions of the army followed in
240 THE ORLANDO BOOK II.
support of one another, and a bloody battle
ensued, with various and very doubtful success.
Meantime Orlando, who wished such measure
of misfortune to Charlemagne as should make
his assistance necessary, and ensure him the
possession of Angelica as his reward, had re-
tired from the medley into a neighbouring
wood, and was praying devoutly for the dis-
comfiture of the Christians. By accident, Fer-
rau, fatigued by his long contest with Rinaldo,
and lately as hard pressed by him as Marsilius
was by Charlemagne, had sought shelter in the
same retreat Here, stooping to drink from the
banks of a river, he dropt his helmet in the
water, and was engaged in a vain attempt to
recover it, when he was discovered by Orlando.
The count, however, was too generous to attack
an enemy under such disadvantages, and
weakened as Ferrau evidently was by the
combat he had previously waged against Hi-
BOOK II. INNAMORATO.
naldo. He accordingly, after a short conference
with him, in which he learned the state of
things, spurred his courser, in order to join the
army of Charlemagne.
Here he performs high feats of valour, and,
after the slaughter of many adversaries, is ad-
vancing against Rogero, when Atlantes, who
had accompanied the youth, (since he could not
restrain him from following his destiny,) diverts
Orlando from his object by the vision of a tri-
umphant Pagan squadron, and of the personal
danger of Charlemagne. Fascinated by this
illusion, he follows the supposed Saracens into
the forest of Arden. Here the vision dis-
appears ; and the count, wearied with the fruit-
less chace, lights from Brigliadoro near a fountain.
Stooping to drink, he sees a crystal palace at
the bottom, through the walls of which he
beholds a dance of ladies, and, unable to resist
the temptation of an adventure, plunges, armed
as he is, into the fountain.
The third book opens with the introduction of a new cha-
racter, Mandricardo, son of Agncan, the Tartar king, who,
pursuing his way to France in order to avenge his father's
death, is made the prisoner of a fairy. He frees himself,
acquires the arms of Hector, and is, as well as other knights,
involved in various adventures, till the story returns to the
invasion of France, which is suddenly interrupted in the
THE author opens this book by stating, that
he is called away to the north. Here a mighty
storm was gathering ; and France, already sore-
bested, was suddenly threatened by a new storm
from the remote quarter of Tartary.
The emperor of this region, named Mandri-
cardo, having wasted it by his violences, was
proceeding in a course of imperious tyranny,
when an old man threw himself in his way, and,
reproaching him with his outrages, bade him
desist from warring upon the innocent and
defenceless, and seek to revenge the death of
his father upon one who was worthy of his
246 THE ORLANDO BOOK III.
wrath ; to wit, upon Orlando, the murderer of
Stung to the heart by the old man's re-
preaches, Mandricardo, determining to owe his
success in the enterprise on which he resolved
to his own individual valour, leaves his king-
dom incognito, and departs, without horse
or arms, towards the west. Travelling thus
alone and a-foot, he had passed the confines
of Armenia, when he spied upon a day a pavi-
lion, pitched near a fountain ; and imagining
that he might there find what he was deter-
mined to win by force, entered it, with the
view of searching for the horse and arms of
which he stood in need. There was none to
defend the entrance, and he was already
within the pavilion, when a voice was heard
to murmur from the waters, that he was a
prisoner to the power, whose possession he had
BOOK III. INXJLMORATO. 247
Mandricardo, however, heard not, or else
disregarded the voice ; and pursuing his search,
found a suit of armour, disposed upon a carpet,
and a courser fastened to a neighbouring pine.
He immediately clothed himspJf in the
arms, and seized upon the steed, with which he
was departing, when a fire suddenly * sprang
up before him, that, spreading itself, de-
stroyed the pine, and left the fountain and
pavilion alone untouched. Mandricardo is
himself embraced by the flames, which destroy
his armour and clothing even to his shirt.
To escape the torture, he leaps from his horse,
every thing which he had on him being con-
sumed, and casts himself into the water. Here,
he is received into the arms of a naked dam-
sel of incomparable beauty, who kisses him,
and bids him be of good cheer, informing
him that he is taken in the snare of a fairy,
but that if he has heart and discretion, he
24-8 THE ORLANDO HOOK 111.
may rescue not only himself, but so many dam-
sels and cavaliers, that he shall reap immortal
glory from the achievement.
She pursued her story, informing him, that
the fountain was the work of a fairy, who had
imprisoned there king Gradasso of Sericane,
Gryphon and Aquilant, and many other knights
and ladies. " Beyond the hill," said she,
" which you see before you, is situated a castle,
where this fairy has laid up the arms of Hector,
with the exception of his sword. On his being
slain treacherously by Achilles, a queen, named
Penthesilea, possessed herself of this. At her
death it passed to Almontes, and from him was
taken by Orlando. This weapon was called
Durindana. The remainder of his arms was
saved and carried off by ^Eneas, from whom they
were received by her, in recompence of a mar-
vellous service which she had bestowed upon
him. If you have the courage to attempt the
BOOK III. INNAMORATO. 249
acquisition of these arms, secured in yonder
castle by enchantment, I will be your guide."
Mandricardo was enraptured at the pro-
posal, and only hesitated at the idea of exposing
himself naked. This difficulty was, however,
got over by the lady, who, letting down her
hair, which was bound about her head in
braids, furnished a complete covering for her-
self and the cavalier. Being sheltered from
sight by this, they issued, linked arm in arm,
from the water, and took their way together to
Entering this, which, as was said, remained
untouched by the fire, they reposed for some
time upon flowers. At length the damsel gave
the signal for departure, and having clothed
Mandricardo in armour, conducted him where
a courser was in waiting. Upon this he leapt,
all armed as he was; and the lady having
mounted on a palfrey, both set forward on their
250 THE ORLANDO BOOK III.
They had ridden about a mile, when the
damsel, explaining the dangers of the quest,
informed Mandricardo that he would have to
combat with Gradasso, the conqueror of
Gryphon, who had at first maintained the field
against all comers.
Thus speaking, they arrived at the castle,
which was of alabaster, overlaid with gold.
Before this, on a lawn, enclosed with a barrier
of live myrtles, sat an armed knight on horse-
back, and who was no other than Gradasso.
Mandricardo, upon seeing him, dropt his vizor,
and laid his lance in the rest. The champion of
the castle was as ready, and each spurred
towards his opponent. They splintered their
spears with equal force, and again returning
to the charge, encountered with their swords.
This contest was long and doubtful, when
Mandricardo, determining to bring it to an
issue, threw his arms about Gradasso, and the
two horsemen, grappling together, tumbled to
BOOK III. 1NNAMORATO. 251
the ground. In the struggle, however, Man-
dricardo fell uppermost, and preserving his
advantage, made Gradasso prisoner. The
damsel now interfered, proclaiming the victory
of the new comer, and consoling the vanquished
as she could, for his discomfiture.
In the meantime, the sun had set upon the
strife, and it was too late for Mandricardo to
enter the enchanted castle, which the damsel
informed him would be only accessible after
sunrise. She invites him, therefore, to lie down
amongst the flowers with which the meadow is
enamelled, proffering to be his guard ; but
informs him, that there is harbourage to be
obtained at a neighbouring castle, though it can
only be purchased by exposure to notable peril.
This, she says, is kept by a kind and courteous
lady, who is often disturbed, in the exercise of
her hospitality, by a giant named Malapresa,
whom he would do well to avoid, as he has
already sufficient toil and danger on his hands.
252 THE ORLANDO BOOK III.
Mandricardo rejects this kind intimation,
and insists upon being guided to the lady's
He and the damsel accordingly set off in that
direction, and soon arrive at the palace, which
is illuminated with a thousand lights. It ap-
peared as if a watch was kept for friends or
foes ; and a dwarf was posted in a gallery over
the entrance, whose duty it was to give notice
of all comers. On the winding of his horn, if
there were cause for suspicion, the house-
hold, armed with missile weapons, assembled in
the balconies : but if it were an errant knight,
in search of hospitality, damsels came forth to
salute him, and conduct him into the castle.
In this manner was Mandricardo received,
who was afterwards magnificently entertained
by the lady of the mansion. Their festivity is,
however, interrupted by the dwarf's horn, which
sounds an alarum. The signal is hardly given,
before Malapresa has forced the gate, and
BOOK III. INNAMORATO. 253
appears in the middle of the guests, armed with
an enormous mace. A furious combat now en-
sues between him and the Tartar king, in which
the giant is slain, and cast into the castle ditch.
This event occasions only a short interruption
of the festivity, which is prolonged late into the
night. The revellers at length retire; and
Mandricardo amongst the rest, who is as mag-
nificently lodged, as he had been feasted, by the
lady of the castle.
At sun-rise he starts from his couch, descends
into the castle-garden, washes himself at a
fountain ; then puts on his armour, and, guided
by his former conductress, proceeds upon his
On arriving at the eastern entrance of the '
outer wall of the enchanted castle, which was
not more magnificent than extensive, and which
entrance Mandricardo found undefended, he
was informed, that he must plight an oath upon
the threshold, to touch a shield which was sus-
254- THE ORLANDO HOOK III.
pended. there from a pilaster of gold. The bear-
ing of this was a white eagle on an azure field,
in memory of the bird of Jove, who bore away
Ganymede, the flower of the Phrygian race.
Beneath was engraved the following legend :
Let none, Mth hand profane, my buckler wrong,
Unless he be himself as Hector strong.
The damsel immediately, alighting from her
palfrey, inclined herself to the ground; the
Tartar king bent himself with equal reverence,
and afterwards passed the threshold without
Advancing through the eastern entrance of
the enclosure towards the shield, Mandricardo
touched it with his sword. An earthquake
immediately shook the place, and the way by
which he had entered closed. Another, and
an opposite gate, however, opened, and dis-
played a field, bristling with stalks and grain of
gold. The damsel upon this told him, that he
BOOK. III. INNAMORATO. 255
who had entered had no means of departure
but by cutting down the harvest which was
before him, and in uprooting a tree which
grew in the middle of the field. The cham-
pion, without answering, prepared himself, for
his work, and immediately began to mow the
harvest with his sword. A strange effect fol-
lowed; and every grain was instantly trans-
formed into some ravenous animal, lion,
panther, or unicorn, who all flew in fury at the
Mandricardo, thus assailed, snatched up a
stone, without knowing what virtue resided in
it, and cast it amongst the herd. This stone
was party-coloured, green, vermilion, -white,
azure and gold. A strange wonder followed :
for it no sooner lighted amongst the beasts,
than they turned their rage one against the
other, and perished by mutual wounds. Man-
dricardo did not stop to marvel at the mi-
racle, but proceeded to fulfil his task, and
256 THE ORLANDO BOOK III.
uproot the tree. This, which was lofty and
full of leaves, he embraced by the trunk, mak-
ing vigorous efforts to tear it up by the roots.
At each of these fell a shower of leaves, which
were instantly changed into birds of prey, who
attacked the knight, as the beasts had done
before. Undismayed, however, by this new
annoyance, he continued to tug at the trunk till
it yielded to his efforts. A burst of wind and
thunder followed, and the hawks and vultures
These, however, only gave place to a new
foe ; for from the hole made by tearing up the
tree, issued a furious serpent with many tails,
who darted at Mandricardo, wound herself
about his limbs, and was about to devour him*
Fortune, however, again stood his friend; for,
writhing under the folds of the monster, and
struggling to free himself, he fell backwards
into the hole, and his enemy was crushed
beneath his weight*
BOOK. III. l^NAMORATOrf 257-
Mamlricardo, when he had somewhat re-
covered from the shock, and assured himself
of the destruction of the dragon, began to con-
template the place into which he had fallen, and
saw that he was in a vault, encrusted with
costly metals, and illuminated by a live coal.
In the middle was a sort of ivory bier, and upon
this was extended, what appeared to be a knight
in armour, but what was in truth, an empty
trophy, composed of the rich and precious
arms, once Hector's, and to which nothing
was wanting but the sword. While Man-
dricardo stood contemplating the prize, a door
opened behind him, and a bevy of fair damsels
entered dancing, who bore him away to the
place where the shield was suspended, and
where he found the fairy of the castle seated
in state. By her he was invested with the
arms which he had won, he first swearing, at
her injunction, to wear no other blade but the
sword Durindana, which he was to ravish from
258 T1IE ORLANDO BOOK III.
Orlando, and thus complete the conquest of
The adventure was now accomplished, and
the champion departed in order to achieve die
great purpose, for which he left his realm of
Tartary. Many illustrious knights issued at
the same tune from the dungeons of the fairy,
who had remained prisoners on a failure of
their enterprise, and who had been now liber-
ated by his success. Amongst these were
Gradasso, Isolier, Sacripant, Gryphon, and
Aquilant, with many others.
Mandricardo himself pursued his journey, in
company with GradasSo. Of the others, Gry-
phon and Aquilant, who knew the language of
the Saracens, travelled through strange coun-
tries ; and thus journeying along the sea-shore,
fell in with two damsels, the one clothed in white,
and the other in black, and attended by two
dwarfs. As the colour of their respective ladies,
such was that of their dwarfs, and of the palfreys
BOOK III. INNAMORATO. 259
which they rode : saving in this, they were so
alike, as to be undistinguishablc one from the
other ; and were equals in beauty and grace.
" Sister," said one of these, addressing her-
self to her companion, " there is no defence
against destiny ; yet wisdom may in some sort,
controul fortune : then let us detain these,
at least awhile, from the fate which is reserved
for them in France." Thus spoke the sable
to the white dasmel, unheard of the two knights
who were approaching, and who saluted them
with all the courtesy due to their bearing and
One of the ladies demanded a boon of the
two cavaliers ; who both as instantly vowed to
perform whatever was enjoined them. This
was to take the field against a miscreant, named
Orrilo, engendered of a goblin and fairy, who
inhabited a tower upon the Nile, where he
kept (says the story) a kind of dragon, termed
a crocodile, and fed it with human flesh. . The
260 THE ORLANDO BOOK III.
damsels go on to state, that hitherto no one
has been able to prevail against the wretch,
who, in dying, renews himself like the phoenix.
This account does not discourage the brothers,
who again proffer their assistance.
Aquilant accordingly encounters Orrilo, where
he keeps the way against travellers; and he
being sore pressed, flies to the tower, and turns
out his crocodile.
Gryphon now deems himself justified in
assisting his brother; and the crocodile is at
length slain. Orrilo, however, though often
worsted, appears to be irresistible : for though
he is frequently unhorsed, and is actually se-
vered into two parts by one of the brothers,
he constantly re-unites himself, and renews the
contest. The day is now closing, and the two
.brothers are in despair.
\Vhile things are in this state, a new per-
former appears upon the theatre. This is
.a knight, who dragged a giant captive: but
BOOK III. INNAMORATO. 261
here the author leaves Gryphon and Aquilant,
as well as the knight and his prisoner, and
resumes the story of Mandricardo and Gra-
dasso, who were left journeying together towards
This pair, after traversing various regions,
arrive upon the sea-coast, where they find a
lady chained and exposed upon the beach.
On their interrogating her, she tells them,
that she awaits the approach of a furious
Ork, who will devour her alive ; and entreats
them, as an act of compassion, rather to put
her to an immediate death, than to leave her
exposed to so horrible a fate. The only favour
that she requests of them, besides this dreadful
grace, is, (should they fall in with him,) to
inform Norandino, king of Damascus, of her
death, and dying sentiments of affection to him.
The knights, however, insist on defending
her, and a dreadful conflict ensues between
them and the Ork, who is represented as some-
262 THE ORLANDO BOOK III.
thing indistinct, monstrous and gigantic. Gra-
dasso is soon overpowered, and Mandricardo,
who, in conformity to his vow, was unprovided
with a sword, is obliged to fly before the pest.
He, however, finds his deliverance in flight ;
for, speeding his steps along the cliffs, he ar-
rives at a frightful chasm, at which he springs
in utter desperation. The Ork following him,
is unable to clear it, and tumbles down the
Mandricardo quit of his foe, descends to the
shore, in search of Gradasso and Lucina, (for
so was named the lady chained to the rock,)
and proceeds in company with them along the
beach. From this they behold a ship in the
distance, which bears the flag of Tibiano, king
of Cyprus and Rhodes, the father of Lucina, and
who was then seeking his daughter. Lucina,
overjoyed at the sight, makes a signal of her vest,
and waves the galley to the land. On board this
she embarks, together with her defenders ; but
BOOK III. INNAMORATO. 263
the vessel has scarcely shown her stern to the
shore, when the Ork re-appears, with a mon-
strous fragment of a mountain on his shoulders :
This he heaves into the sea, which flashes above
her topmast head, and all cower at the bottom
of the vessel for refuge ; but the mass misses
the mark at which it was hurled, and a loud
land-wind rising at the moment, the vessel is
blown off to sea.
One danger is only substituted for another;
the storm increases, and all is darkness and
dismay. In this situation, the night closes
in, during which they drift at the mercy of the
winds. The succeeding day dawns upon them
under better auspices; and they find them-
selves, in the morning, upon the shore of Acqua-
morta, where a mountain separates France and
Here they land in the neighbourhood of a
cave, called Runa, without having any know-
ledge of the coast upon which they are cast.
264 THE ORLANDO BOOK III.
Leaving there Tibiano and Lucina, Graclasso
and Mandricardo proceed, armed and mounted,
in search of intelligence.
They have not proceeded far, before they
hear the noise of battle, and pushing their
horses towards the sound, find Agramant en-
gaged with Charlemagne.
The main story is thus brought back to the
point where the Christian and paynim armies
were left, and where the tide of conquest was
fluctuating between the hostile forces. Retiring
from the medley, Ferrau had withdrawn into
a neighbouring wood, and was fishing for his
helmet, in a stream in which he had lost it as
he stooped to drink. At this period fortune
declares decisively in favour of the infidels ;
and, while Rogero and Rinaldo are engaged
in a single combat on foot, Charlemagne's
forces give way at all points, in irreparable
The duel of the two champions is inter-
BOOK III. 1NNAMORATO. 26*5
ruptcd by the crowd of fugitives and pursuers ;
and Rinaldo, now seeing Bayardo loose in the
field, attempts to get possession of him. The
horse, however, will not be taken; and Rinaldo,
following him into a thick wood, is left there by
the author, who returns to Rogero.
Rogero was also a-foot, and grieving for the
loss of his own horse, Frontino, whom he how-
ever recovered in the rout. He now finds
Bradamant and Rodomont engaged in combat.
Though he knew not who they were, he could
distinguish that one was a paynim, and the
other a Christian ; and, moved by the spirit of
courtesy, approached them, and exclaimed,
'.* Let him of the two, who worships Christ,
pause, and hear what I have to say. The
army of Charles is routed, and in flight; so
that if he wishes to follow his leader, he
has no tune for delay." Bradamant, who is
thunderstruck with the tidings, desires imme-
diately to leave the field; but this is refused by
266 THE ORLANDO BOOK III.
her antagonist : and Itogcro, indignant at his
discourtesy, insists upon her departure, while
he takes up the quarrel with llodomont.
This, long and obstinately maintained on
both sides, is interrupted by the return of
Bradamant, who, not being able to overtake
the fugitives, and being divided in her feelings,
as to what she owed on the one side to her
emperor, and on the other to the stranger who
had so generously taken her part, yields at last
to what was the stronger impulse, and comes
back to his assistance.
She arrives, however, when he was least in x
need of it ; and when he had smote his enemy
such a blow, as obliged him to drop both his
sword and bridle. Rogero, however, disdaining
to profit by his defenceless situation, sate apart
upon his horse, whilst that of Rodomont bore
his rider, stunned and stupefied, about the field.
Rogero was at this juncture approached
by' Bradamant; who conceived a yet higher
BOOK III. INNAMORATO. 267
notion of his valour, on beholding such an
instance of forbearance. She addressed him,
by excusing herself for leaving him exposed to
an enemy from his interference in her cause,
pleading her attachment to her sovereign as
the motive ; and was engaged in conference with
him, when Rodomont recovered from his con-
fusion. His bearing was however changed,
and he disclaimed all thoughts of further con-
test with one tf who he said, had already van-
quished him by his courtesy." So saying, he
quitted his antagonist, picked up his sword, and
spurred out of sight.
Bradamant was now again desirous of retir-
ing from the field, and Rogero insisted on ac-
companying her, though yet unconscious of her
As they pursued their way, she enquired
the name and quality of her new associate ;
and Rogero informed her of his nation and
family. Beginning from the destruction of
2G8 THE OHLANDO BOOK III.
Troy, he told her that Astyanax, who was pre-
served by a stratagem of the Greeks, having
established the kingdom of Messina, in Sicily,
perished by the treachery of a priest, named
(Egystus. The widow of this prince, being
then big with child, flying from her enemies,
escaped to Rheggio. Here she brought .forth
a son, who was christened Polydore. From
this Polydore descended Polydantes, and from,
him twin branches, who gave origin to two
other families of renown. From one of these
sprang the royal race of Pepin and Charle-i
magne; and from the other, two illustrious,
houses, one of which took root at Rheggio,
(* once called Risa') and the other at Ancona.
" From that of Rheggio am I derived," continu-.
ed he ; " and am son of Rogero, the son of Ago-
lant and Gallicella.. She "flying when big with
me, from a horrible persecution which she.
endured during the absence of her husband,,
then, engaged ,in war, brought me forth in a.
BOOK III. INNAMORATO. 269
foreign land, and died in giving me life. It
was here that a magician took charge of me,
who trained me to feats of arms amidst the
dangers of the desert and of the chace."
Having thus ended his tale, Rogero entreated
a similar return of courtesy from his compa-
nion ; who replied, without disguise, that she
was of the race of Clermont, and sister to
Rinaldo, the fame of whom was perhaps known
to him. Rogero, much moved by this intel-
ligence, entreats her to take off her helmet;
and, at the discovery of her face, remains
transported with pleasure.
Whilst he is contemplating this with rap-
ture, an unexpected danger hangs over the
future lovers. A party which was placed in a
wood, in order to intercept the retreating Chris-
tians, breaks from its ambush upon the pair;
and Bradamant, who was uncasqued, is wounded
in the head. . Rogero is in fury at this attack ;
and Bradamant, replacing her helmet, joins him
270 THE ORLANDO BOOK III.
in taking speedy vengeance on their enemies.
Of these they clear the field, but separate in
the pursuit; and the author first resumes the
story of Rogero.
Quitting the chace, and wandering by hill
and vale, in search of her whom he had no
sooner found than lost, Rogero now falls in
with two knights, whom he joins, and who
promise to assist him in the search of his
companion, whose arms he describes, con-
cealing, from & vague feeling of jealousy, her
quality and sex.
It was evening when they joined company,
and having journeyed together through the
night, the morning was beginning to break,
when one of the strangers, fixing his eyes upon
Rogero's shield, demanded of him by what
right he bore the device pourtrayed upon it*
Rogero, in return interrogated the enquirer
as to his pretensions to the bearing of Hec-
tor, who proclaimed himself to be Mandri-
HOOK III. INNAMOIIATO. 271
cardo, declared how he had won it, and pro-
posed that arms should decide which of the
two was most worthy to bear the symbol of
the Trojan knight.
Rogero felt no other objection to this pro-
posal, than die scruple which rose out of the
observation, that his antagonist was without a
sword. Mandricardo, however, insisted that
this need be no impediment; and then in-
formed him of the vow which he had taken,
never to wear a sword till he had completed
the acquisition of Hector's arms by the conquest
This was no sooner said, than a new anta-
gonist started up in Gradasso, in whom the
reader will have recognised the companion of
Mandricardo. Gradasso now vindicates his
prior right to the quest of Durindana, to obtain
which he had embarked (as was related in the
beginning) in that fearful war upon France.
A quarrel is thus kindled between the kings of
272 THE ORLANDO BOOK III.
Tartary and Sericane. Mondricardo uproots
a young elm-tree, to supply the place of a,
sword; and Gradasso, disdaining to combat
with unequal weapons, arms himself with a
pine. Being thus furnished for offence, they
encounter . one another with fury, while Rogero
laughs and looks upon the strife.
He, nevertheless, several times attempts to se-
parate the combatants, but always without suc-
cess. While the conflict is thus raging, a
knight arrives upon the ground, accompanied
by a damsel, to whom Rogero relates the cause
and progress of the strife. This turns out to be
Brandimart," accompanied by Flordelis. He
also interposes his mediation, and succeeds
better in bringing the two champions to accord.
This he effects, by informing them that he can
conduct them to the presence of Orlando, the
master of Durindana.
" If," said he, " you can heal him of a strange
enchantment, it is from him that you may
BOOK III. INNAMORATO. 273
claim the sword ; nor is he one who will refuse
you a fair field for obtaining it. Two leagues
from hence," continued Brandimart, " is a
water, called the River of Laughter, but which
would be better entitled the Stream of Tears.
Here Orlando is enchanted. An African ma-
gician made this known to me, and I had
already disposed myself to free him, or perish
by his side, but being insufficient by myself
for such an enterprise, Heaven has willed that
I should light upon you to assist me in the
Gradasso and Mandricardo instantly make
truce, in order to accompany Brandimart in his
quest, nor will Rogero be left behind.
This resolution, however, gave rise to a
serious difficulty ; for the number to be em-
ployed in the adventure was to be unequal, as
Brandimart was instructed ; and one must
therefore necessarily be rejected. Who should
lie rejected, it was now determined to decide
274 THE ORLANDO BOOK III.
by lot ; and chance pronounced against Man-
dricardo, who departed with reluctance from
the field, and wandering long, arrived at last
in Agramant's camp, who had sate down before
The story of Orlando is now resumed, where
it was left by the author at the conclusion of
the second book. The count having plunged
into the fountain, termed the River of Laughter,
is so delighted with the company of Naiads,
and with the pleasures which he finds beneath
the waters, that he remains there a willing
About this water extended an enchanted
wood, thick with evergreen trees; and here
arrived Rogero, Gradasso, Brandimart, and
Flordelis, determined to attempt the deliver-
ance of Orlando.
This forest seemed impenetrable; but by
the advice of Flordelis, the knights descended
from their horses, and determined to cut them-
BOOK III. 1NNAMOKATO. 275
selves a passage. Rogero, in pursuance of
this resolution, hews down a laurel with his
sword. The tree is no sooner overthrown,
than a beautiful damsel starts from its trunk,
and claims the compassion of the knight.
She informs him, that the trees which he be-
holds, as well as that which he has felled, con-
tain sister nymphs, the victims of enchantment ;
the nature of which is such, that they remain
transformed till liberated, as she had been, by
the destruction of the plant in which they are
imprisoned. " This deliverance is, however,
as yet incomplete," pursued the damsel ; " and,
to perfect it, you must accompany me to the
water, if you would not see me again rooted
in the forest." Rogero yields to her prayer,
accompanies her to the water, and, seduced
by the enchantment, leaps hand in hand with
her into the fountain.
In the meantime, Gradasso, attempting to
clear his way, cuts down an ash, which is
276 THE ORLANDO BOOK III.
converted into a courser. He immediately
mounts it; when the horse transports him
through the air, and plunges with him into the
enchanted stream, where he remains a prisoner
with the rest. *
Brandimart, counselled by Flordelis, pur-
sues the adventure with better success ; and
resisting every species of temptation which is
presented to him, at length arrives at the banks
of the fountain. Here, however, he would have
yielded to the same fascination as the others,
but for the wise precautions of Flordelis,
Who, for a safeguard, round his brow disposes
A mystic garland of enchanted roses, f
* The reader will see in this adventure, more especially in
the author's fitting the temptations to the character of the
knights, the hint which Tasso turned to so much better account
in his creation of the forest of Armida.
f The idea of roses being a solvent of enchantments, is as
old as Apuleius and Lucian ; and, like most of the mysticisms
to be found in those authors, is probably to be traced to a
much more ancient source.
BOOK III. 1NNAMORATO. 277
She had also furnished him with the same
ornaments for the others whom he was to
deliver from the pool. Armed with these
wreaths, he approaches the knights, whom he
finds in the bowers of crystal, into which he
plunged, and crowns them with the garlands.
The charm forthwith operates ; their perverse
inclination ceases, and they gladly return with
their deliverer to the surface.
They are scarcely safe from the spell, when
Gradasso bethinks him of his long quest, and
a fierce battle ensues between him and Orlando,
for the possession of Durindana. They are,
however, induced to suspend this by the in-
stances of their companions, and the entreaties
of a stranger dwarf, who appears, mounted on
a palfrey, and entreats the assistance of some of
These accordingly divide ; Orlando, attended
by Brandimart and Flordelis, taking his way
towards Paris, and Rogero and Gradasso ac-
companying the dwarf.
278 THE ORLANDO BOOK III.
The author accompanies Orlando and his
friends, who arrive before Paris, besieged by
the forces of Agramant, amid whose ranks
were to be found assembled, Rodomont, Man-
dricardo, Ferrau, the newly arrived Gradasso,
and all the worthies of the paynim army.
Flordelis now retires into a wood for safety,
while the two champions approach the camp
of the besiegers. At this crisis Charlemagne
makes a desperate sally, which is seconded by
Orlando and Brandimart, and the fortune of
the day seems balanced between the contending
The author here leaves things thus suspended,
and takes up the story of Bradamant, who lately
separated form Rogero, in repulsing the am-
buscade of the paynims. She journeying alone,
and still suffering from her wound, at length
reaches a hermitage, the tenant of which ex-
amines her head, cuts off her hair and with this
bandages, and finally heals the gash which she
BOOK III. JNNAMORATO. 279
Departing from his hermitage, and still pur-
suing her way alone, she alights from her horse,
and reposes herself in a wood, where she is
surprised sleeping by Flordespina, who, de-
ceived by the appearance of her hair, takes
her for a man. This princess, who was engaged
with her damsels in the chase, by a strata-
gem detains Bradamant in the forest, where
they pursue their sports in company.
But, exclaims the poet, while I sing these
lays of ladies and of loves, I see France arming
against Italy, and the horizon bright with
flames. Hereafter, if it shall be permitted me
I will piece the tale which I leave unfinished.
So ends the story of the Orlando Innamarato.
" To-morrow to fresh woods and pastures new."
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS-URBANA