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\ '. 


\ ; •- 

* -«m« ' 



A Practical Treatise 

Explanatory of A System of Molding Ornamental 
Concrete Units With Templates j Containing Ad- 
ditional Information on The Proper 3*rci^'ra£ioi$ of 
Concrete for Ornamental Work; Proportionate Sfcevof 
the Various Units and The Reinforcement jitWayk, 


•S + * 4 

+ » • 



A uthor of "Clay Models and Plaster Molds for OrfoytfHtai thn-J 

r~*** »» 'T**.*,*** f~**~ C«<.// M,///r » " J>~„r*ir*l* * - * 


' Concrete front Sand Molds , ' 
Use of Concrete" etc. 


* 4 

A Working Manual, 
Containing everything that a concrete worker needs to 
know to perfect the many styles of ornamental con- 
crete work without the purchase of expensive molds. 



132 Nassau Street 

• •, 

■i : 
i . 

' . . .'.I 

7»>-; f * -J <> I 

T.: ,. .l 

.. "^ 


•• V .-- •" " 

v s. *■ * 

t; Copyrighted 1910 


Tmb Norman W. Hbnlby Publishing Co. 

NOTE— The text in this book being entirely original and the illustra- 
tions contained therein having been specially made by the publishers 
for this book, it will be considered an infringement if either is made 
use of without permission. 


Tms book is intended for the concrete worker 
and the small contractor who cannot well af- 
ford to purchase expensive molds for the many 
varieties of work he is called ii|^i'tp:do^ as- 
well as for the artistic workman who wants "a 
surface that is absolutely perfect ftir&otiE the 
many "air bubbles" and other ctef ggfjs :qf eon- 
crete, cast in the ordinary molds/*" " * J ; " J - - 

The template system gives you at all times 
absolutely full control of the surface of your 
work, so defects are impossible; the time 
necessary to employ this system is no more 
than to tamp the concrete properly into a mold, 
with the added advantage that you do not 
have to risk the breakage or spend the time to 
remove the work from the mold. 

The workman with a complete set of these 
templates, which he can easily * carry in his 
tool-chest, is always prepared to execute the 
usual concrete work demanded by his cus- 
tomers or the building he is employed upon, 


• • • ... 

• • • 


without a moment's time wasted in building or 

purchasing molds for the work. 

A proper reinforcement is desired for all 

work; with this system the heavier portion is 

molded at the bottom, but the top should have 

at least the wire reinforcement; so until it has 

permanantly set or hardened it will not settle 

out of sh&pe- •• 
.... .*, • • \ . • %£;•: 

,: — : . : Welgfll" djaifcfe changes; but all our every-day 
.•jTjethrJjJl Kcx e a t one time new, and I feel that 
••tRe; : j$$,£tical. ideas I have presented in this 
V ybbft&i\jj31 .secured by my own personal ex- 
perience and tests, together with my past work 
which has appeared in some of the largest 
trade journals in the concrete field, will be an 
all-sufficient assurance to you that this system 
will be of the greatest value and use in your 
every-day work. 

I shall consider it my duty to explain any 
point of which you may be in doubt if you 
address me personally in care of the pub- 

Yours very truly, 

May, 1910. 





Advantages of This System . . . .11 

Construction of Templates 13 


Preparing Concrete and Operating the Tem- 
plates ........ 18 


Making the Templates for Cornice of the Tuscan, 
Doric, Ionic, Composite and Roman Corin- 
thian Orders 24 

Molding Dentils; Triglyphs; Modillions; Mu- 

TULES, ETC. •••••••• 44 

Explanation of Moldings Used . . . .54 


Archivolts and Arches with Templates for 

Molding 56 


The Doric, Ionic and Corinthian Columns; Pro- 
portions; Method of Molding and Fluting 62 


Bases and Capitals for Doric, Ionic and Corin- 
thian Orders; Method of Molding . . 73 


Table of Contents 



Pedestals; Piers and Imposts with Templates 

for Molding 81 

Machine for Rapid Molding . . . .89 

Concrete Urns or Lawn Vases, with Templates 92 


Molding Ball and Cap; Water Tables; Facing 
Work ,98 

Monuments; Molding; Lettering, etc. . . 100 

Hitching Posts; Grave Markers, etc. . . 105 


Molding Concrete Fountain; Templates for 

Same ......... 107 

Molding Garden Seats and Benches . .111 


Balusters; Lavatories; Jardinieres and Flower 
Pots 114 

Reinforcement of Work; How to Make . .118 

Ornamental Moldings 122 




Advantages of this System 

Art stone is a necessity for our concrete 
buildings if we desire to secure beauty and 
artistic appearance; formerly it was necessary 
to purchase expensive cut stone for this pur- 
pose, as the labor and expense of preparing 
molds for the many different pieces, and the 
fact that these molds would be used but a few 
times on the one job and then destroyed, as 
they were too bulky to transport without large 
expense, made it too expensive to use orna- 
mental units molded from concrete; more 
strongly was this so in the case of the small 
contractor who would use a certain mold but 
a few times in the season. 

By the simple and practical method ex- 
plained in this book, the concrete worker is 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

enabled to mold or model in concrete any 
cornice, archivolt, column, pedestal, base cap, 
urn or pier in a monolithic form right upon the 
job; he may also model these in units or blocks 
and then build up to suit the specifications 
demanded; this is accomplished with but very 
little lumber or wood forms, and these may 
easily be supplied in a few moments' time and 
need not be transported from the previous jobs. 
The templates for all varieties of work will 
easily go into a tool chest, and thus are always 
ready for instant use as well as solving the 
problem of ease in transporting the molds 

The expense of these templates is but a 
trifle, the average cost but a few cents each; 
they are best made of metal or zinc or gal- 
vanized iron or steel and are then mounted 
upon wooden forms with bolts or screws so they 
may be operated; where cheapness and not 
too close results are required the template 
may be cut from hardwood, but will not give 
the results or satisfaction obtained from the 
use of metal entirely. 


Construction of Templates 

The templates made be easily made by any 
one, even with a slight knowledge of tools, as 
the design is first drawn to the exact size upon 
a sheet of heavy paper; this is placed in po- 
sition and fastened to the zinc or galvanized 
plate; then with a pointed punch or even a 
nail follow the lines of the design and punch 
a hole through the paper so as to leave a 
good mark upon the surface of the metal 
plate. The paper is removed and the metal plate 
placed upon a hard surface, preferably an 
anvil or an iron with a large smooth surface; 
with a cold chisel the metal plate is cut to con- 
form with the design punched upon same. 
The cutting is done one-eighth to one-fourth 
inch outside of the lines of the design, so that 
all rough edges may be removed by the use of 
the round, square and flat bastard files to fit 
the part you are working upon. The metal 
is filed down carefully, using care to have the 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

corners even and without rough edges and to 
the exact lines of the draft or design. 

Holes are now drilled or punched along one 
side and the two ends if required, and the tem- 
plate is ready for mounting upon its wood 
base or carriage, for operating same. It is 
very essential that the template be backed up 
strongly with wood, so that it will bear the 
strain of forcing the concrete into position 
without bending out of shape. This is accom- 
plished by cutting a wooden backing from one- 
inch lumber and fastening to one side of the 
template with bolts or screws as shown in 
Fig. i; this braces the metal so that it will 
remain rigid, and where the strain is exceed- 
ingly heavy, it may be so braced by two wood 
strips or boards placed transversely to each 
other, and also securely fastened to the wooden 
beam or carriage, so that it will withstand 
any strain you will place upon it. The wood 
backing must not interfere with the edge of 
the template. It is best cut so that it will 
not come within less than one-half inch from 
the cutting surface of the template. 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

Fig. i . — Construction of Template. 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

The template is mounted upon a wooden 
arm or carriage as shown in Fig. i ; this rests 
upon and is controlled by the guide boards . 
when molding straight work, as shown in Fig. 
2; the guide boards are erected and braced 
in position so that they will support the tem- 
plate and carriage at the correct height. 
These guides are best made of two boards 
nailed together as shown in Fig. 2, so that the 
template has every chance to model the con- 
crete evenly to the edges. Where the one side 
of work is to be slanting, as in water tables or 
cornice, small wood wedges may be inserted 
between these two boards at the top as shown 
in Fig. 3, thus holding the boards apart at 
the proper angle. The guide boards are cut 
the length the blocks are to be molded and each 
end closed with a board cut the shape the face 
of block is to be, or exactly the reverse of the 
template; this end board need not be ex* t, 
just so the template will easily run over same 
and yet near enough to the design to hold the 
mortar in place and secure an even joint. 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 


Fig. 2. — Operating Template on Straight Work. 



Preparing Concrete and Operating the 


The concrete is placed between these guide 
boards and tamped down until the last course, 
which is filled upon the mortar previously 
placed and formed into "the general shape of 
the design as much as can be roughly done 
with a shovel. Care should be taken to spread 
the mortar as evenly as possible and, while 
you have a surplus, do not have so much that 
it is impossible to draw the template through 
same. As soon as the last mortar is ready, rest 
the template carriage upon the guide boards 
and holding it down to same draw it toward 
the opposite end of the form; do not attempt 
to hold it down tightly the first few times, but 
by sweeping it back and forth several times 
it will compress or pack down the concrete to 
conform to its shape and at the same time 
work the surplus mortar toward each end of 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

the wooden form; in this manner you work 
the template carriage from one end to the other 
and back again until the block is molded to 
a perfect shape to conform to the template. 
Where there is a lack of mortar it can be added 
with a trowel during this operation, thus mold- 
ing work that is more positive to be perfect 
than by the use of the ordinary forms; for the 
design is plainly in sight at all times and the 
many slight imperfections that are not known 
until the usual forms are removed, here show 
themselves plainly to the operator and can 
be remedied before the block is finished. 

The template has a tendency to work the 
excessive moisture or any surplus of same to 
each end of the form in the operation of pushing 
it back and forth; this leaves upon the face of 
the work the semi-dry concrete which is more 
susceptible to the action of the template and 
more capable of retaining its shape without 
undue shrinkage, and also without pin-holes 
or air-bubbles, than the too wet mortar. It 
is possible by this method to secure work that 
is far more true to shape and which will have 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

a more perfect face than can be secured by 
the use of wood or any composition mold that 
is not strong enough to allow the concrete to 
be thoroughly tamped until it is forced into 
every crevice or part of the mold, and by this 
method of pressing the face of the design into 
shape, or modeling it as it may be termed, there 
is no possible chance of having air-bubbles 
in same, as is often the case when too wet a 
mix is used even in iron or steel molds. The 
design is entirely under the operator's eye 
from the start to completion, thus insuring 
more perfect results than many of the old 
methods allowed. 

It will be noted that the aggregate must be 
screened to work properly with the method; 
all pebbles over one-eighth inch in diameter 
. should be -removed from the sand where a very 
even and smooth face is desired to the work ; 
at the same time the face mix should be made 
richer and can be improved by the addition 
of hydrated lime to make it more plastic, so it 
will retain the shape given by the template with 
greater ease. The moisture should be supplied 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

with care, as it is far easier to wet the surface 
of the work when operating the template than 
to overcome the effect of too wet a mix; the 
best results are obtained when the mortar has 
the consistency of very damp sand, so it can 
be pressed with the hand and will retain the 
imprint of the fingers sharp and clear with- 
out immediately crumbling. This must depend 
upon the judgment of the worker, for the vari- 
ation of the moisture in different sand and also 
in the atmosphere at different stages of tem- 
perature makes it impossible to have any set 
rule for measuring the quantity of water to 
secure just the exact consistency demanded 
for perfect work under the varying conditions 
the worker must contend with. 

As stated before, it is far better to have the 
mortar too dry than too wet, as the extra moist- 
ure needed may be added in a fine spray from 
a sprinkling can, while there is no satisfactory 
way to overcome the surplus moisture where 
the mix is made too wet. 

Where cornice blocks and water tables are 
molded by this method in large blocks, it is 

Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

advisable to lighten them by molding hollows 
in same by the aid of cores; this not only saves 
material, but will conform to the hollow block 
wall when the work molded by this method is 
to be used with same. 

This is easily accomplished by building cores 
of wood which are attached to the guide boards 
and removed with same from the completed 
work. The secore forms are made slanting so 
that they will be the easier removed from the 
concrete, and by attaching same to both guide 
boards it is possible to mold the hollow entirely 
through the block. In this manner the cor- 
nice may be made to conform to the blocks 
in wall with the same dead air spaces for the 
entire height of the building; this will be 
of value in modeling the ornamental lintels, etc., 
to employ in a wall made up of hollow concrete 



Making the Templates for Cornice of 
the Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Compos- 
ite and Roman Corinthian 

While the template method allows you to em- 
ploy your own wishes as to the sizes of the differ- 
ent units to make up the cornice, yet to secure 
a uniform basis for measurement, the drawings 
in Figs. 4, 5, 6, and 7, are based on the estab- 
lished scale for the five Orders of Architecture 
given, with such slight changes as are made 
necessary to make them adaptable to the 
template method of molding the ornamental 

In reducing the measurements to inches for 
the use of the average worker the general form 
has been retained, but the units are slightly 
varied, so as to give a pleasing effect and yet 
work successfully by this system. Thus, in 
Figs. 4, 5, and 6 two sizes are given, the first 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

based on a column 6' 8" in height and the sec- 
ond based upon a height of 8' 4", and in Fig. 
7 the two orders are based upon the 6' 8" 
height only : ; from these measurements the 
worker may easily design the proportions of 
a template to suit his needs and the work he 
must demand of it; and while these two sizes will 
fill the needs for the average work, yet any 
larger size or one smaller, for use upon lintels 
can be made. 

In the plates shown, the architrave, frieze, 
and cornice are shown upon the one plate for 
convenience in explaining, but in large work 
it will be necessary to separate these different 
units, constructing each separately; for while 
in lintels they may be molded together, yet in 
the cornice the weight would be too great to 
allow them to be easily handled other than as 
separate blocks; these are so planned that 
when laid in wall the joints will be broken, 
thus making , them as easy for the mason to 
handle as cut stone. 






























Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 


In the Tuscan order in Fig. 4 A the measure- 
ments of the units of reading from right to 
left are as follows. The achitrave is 6" wide, 
ending in a fillet of 1" and a conge of »"; the 
frieze is 6tV wide, ending in a conge of H"\ . 
the cornice is 7K" wide, beginning with a fillet 
of H"\ a quarter round of 1 X"; a band of Y%"\ 
the corona has a width of 2^, ending in a 
conge of ?6" which replaces the Y%" depth of 
the band at beginning of soffit; this ends in a 
fillet or drip of f"; the next unit is a band of 
2K", ending in a conge of X"; above this is a 
band of X" with a cavetto of 1 X" which has a 
projection at bottom of X"; the fillet at top 
is 1" wide and the slant to top of cornice f", 
making the total height of the architrave, 
frieze, and cornice or the entablature 20x0" 
to which a width of 2" has been added to the 
left end of template, so that it may be braced 
more securely. 

In Fig. 4 B the architrave is 7 X" wide with 
a conge of 1" and a fillet of \%" which has a 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

projection of i"; the frieze has a width of 8K" 
ending in a conge of K"; the cornice begins 
with a fillet of l A"\ a quarter round of iK"; a 
band of K"; the soffit 2X" ending in a conge 
of y£" and a drip of 1"; the fascia s l A" with 
the conge of y 2 "\ a band of H") a cavetto of 
2", which has a projection at bottom of K" 
and a fillet of i><" with the slant to cornice 
1", thus making the entire entablature exactly 
26" without the 2" added to template at left 

The Tuscan order is one that is very adapt- 
able for this work as the plain and simple lines 
permit the molding to be accomplished with 
ease and satisfactory results, as well as making 
the construction of the template more easily 


In the Doric order shown in Fig. 5 C the tem- 
plate is composed of the following members: 
At the right the architrave begins with a band 
of 1 K 7/ , the second band is 2%" wide and with 
a projection of %" over the first band, this 




'+ ■+ 

Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

is connected with the fillet at top of architrave 
by a band of X" and the fillet has a total pro- 
jection of %". The frieze is 7M" wide and is 
perfectly flat upon the space between the fillet 
at top of architrave and the band at beginning 
of cornice, the triglyphs are molded as shown 
by XX and will be explained by Fig. 8; 
the spacing of these is shown in Fig. 10. 
The cornice begins with a band X" which 
has a projection over the frieze of H", which is 
the depth of the triglyphs when they are added ; 
next is a band of Y^ with a projection of yi"\ 
a quarter round of f£"; a band of 1" which 
has a projection of X" and ends in a conge of 
X" It is upon this band that the dentils are 
molded if the denticular order is desired, in 
which case the conge is omitted and replaced 
by a band of the same projection and the 
quarter round below band is replaced by a 
cyma reversa of the same size as the quarter 
round ; a band of H" is placed under the soffit 
which has a projection of 4X" ending in a 
drip of X"; the fascia has a width of iH" 
and above this is a cyma reversa of W which 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

has a projection at bottom of yi"\ a band of 
X" and a cyma recta of i %" ending in a fillet 
of i" and a slant to top of cornice of H". This 
gives the total height of entablature 20 X" 
and requires a plate 22X" x 10 >6" to make the 
template for same when it is to be molded 

In Fig. 5 D the first band of architrave 
is 2)4," wide, the second 3" with a projection 
of H"; a band of X" and a fillet of 1" with a 
total projection of 1". The frieze is 9" wide. 
The cornice begins with a band of 1" which 
has a projection over frieze of X"; a second 
band of X" with a projection of X" ; a quarter 
round of H"; a band of iH" with a projec- 
tion over quarter round of X" and ending in 
a conge of X"; a band of X"; the soffit has a 
projection of 5X" ending in two bands of X" 
each and a drip of H"\ the fascia is 2" wide; 
cyma re versa X"; band X; cyma recta iX" 
and the fillet iX" with the slant to top of 
cornice X" This makes the entire entabla- 
ture 27'' in height and requires a plate 29" x 
14 X* to make the template. 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 


The Ionic order in Fig. 6 E has an architrave 
with a width of 6" and composed of a band of 
iM"; a second band of iH" and with a pro- 
jection of H" ending in a cyma re versa of X"; 
a third band of itt"', a bead of %"\ a second 
cyma reversa of ffl and a fillet of K", which 
has a projection of iH". The frieze is 6* 
wide and is entirely flat and may be replaced 
by a course of plain faced blocks in a hollow 
block wall when the architrave and cornice 
are molded in blocks to conform to same. 

The cornice begins with a cyma reversa of 
K" which has a projection over frieze at bot- 
tom of X"; a band of l A"\ a second band of 
iW\ upon this band are molded the dentils, 
when it is desired, in the manner shown in 
Fig. 8. The next member has a projection 
of i" with a drip of X" and a width of K"; 
above this is a band of X"; a bead of H n and 
a quarter round of i"; these may be ornamented 
with a design with very good effect if so desired. 
The soffit has a projection of 3* with a de- 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

pression of X" ending in a conge and a drip 
of J4"; the fascia is i%" wide, above this a 
cyma reversa of X" and band of X"; a cyma 
recta of iX" and fillet of i", the slant to top 
of cornice being X" This makes the entabla- 
ture a total height of 21 H" and the metal plate 
to make the template 23 X" x 1 2" when all three 
parts are molded together. 

In Fig. 6 F the first band of architrave is 
iX" wide, the second, iX" with a projection 
of X" and above this the cyma reversa of X", 
and the third band of 1 X": bead of X' 7 ; cyma 
reversa of V\" and fillet of 1", which has a total 
projection beyond frieze of 2". 

The frieze is 7 X" wide and is without orna- 
mentation. The cornice begins with a cyma 
reversa of 1"; band of X"; second band of 
iX" (used for dentils), a projecting member 
of 1 X" which had a depression of X 7 ' end- 
ing in a conge and drip of X"; the width 
of this member is X"; the band above same 
X 7 '; bead of X"; quarter round of iX"; band 
of X" which makes the depression of soffit, 
which is 3X" projection ending in a conge of 





Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

W and a drip of i"; the fascia is 2^*, above 
which is the cyma re versa of X*; band of K*; 
cyma recta of i X" and fillet of i %" with thb 
slant to top of cornice M". This makes the 
total height of entablature 28 X", and for the 
template would require a plate 30 X" x 13K". 

The Doric is molded quite easily as there 
is very little undercutting and the effect is one 
that cannot be but pleasing where the plan of 
building permits its use. 

The templates illustrated in these plates are 
shown without holes for bolts or screws along 
the sides, which should be used, for any metal 
plate that can be worked would be too light 
to mold a cornice of this size without a strong 
wood backing to same to hold it rigidly in 
position. The height of template above open- 
ing, where it is fastened to the carriage is placed 
at 2". This is ample if the beam of carriage is 
not more than i#" thick at this point; the 
size of the plate from which the template is to 
be cut should be increased if the beam of car- 
riage must be of greater thickness, unless it is 
cut away at this point. 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 


At Fig. 7 G is shown the template for the 
Composite order of Architecture and is made 
up of the following members: The archi- 
trave is 6" wide with first a band of iH"; a 
cyma reversa of X"; second band of 2%"\ 
bead of K"; second cyma reversa of yi" and 
fillet of X"? which has a total projection over 
the frieze of ij£" and a projection over the 
second cyma reversa of M", as illustrated. 
The frieze is 6" wide and begins with a scape 
of iX", which is the projection of fillet on 
architrave. The cornice begins with a cyma 
reversa of X" which has a projection over 
frieze of %"\ next a band H" wide, which has 
a projection of H"\ a listel of K" and above 
this a quarter round of X"; the soffit has a 
projection of 2 l A" and is without the usual drip; 
the band above this is X" wide; a quarter- 
round of H": and a second band of %" with 
a second quarter round of X"; the projection 
above this is iK" and the fascia above same 
is iK", ending with a cyma reversa of X"; a 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

band of % n and a cyma recta of i %" with a 
fillet of i". It will also be noted that the top 
of cornice does not have any slant and that 
the entire design is of the most simple as well 
as giving a pleasing and artistic effect. The 
entire width of entablature is 20" exact, and 
the metal plate required for making the tem- 
plate must be 22" x 10", unless it is desired at 
the top of cornice to have the guide boards 
mold the projection of the cornice; this may 
be used as well with the other styles, that have a 
slant, by the use of wooden wedges inserted 
between the two guide boards as shown in 
Fig. 3, which is the best method in molding a 
large cornice as the guide boards then support 
the weight of concrete and make the work far 


In the Roman Corinthian order shown at 
Fig. 7 H, the architrave is 6" wide, begin- 
ning with a band of i l A"\ a quarter round of 
l A" ; a second band of 1 H" ; quarter round of 
X", and ending with the third band of iM"; 








: ^ | 

ST | 



























Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

bead of X", above this a cyma reversa of H" 
and fillet of X", which has a total projection of 
i H" over frieze and X" over the cyma reversa, 
next to same on architrave. The frieze is 6" 
wide and begins with a scape of i Y%" which is 
the projection of the fillet on architrave over 
the frieze. 

The cornice is 8" wide and begins with 
a cyma reversa of X"; band of X"; listel 
of X"; quarter round of %" and second 
band of i"; the soffit has a total projection 
of 4X" and is without the drip, the same 
as the composite order; the fascia has a 
width of iX", above this a cyma reversa of 
X"; band of X" and cyma recta of t \i", end- 
ing in a fillet of 1", and with the slant to top of 
cornice H" in width. The total height of en- 
tablature is 20", using a plate 10" x 22"" for 
the template; this completes a design that is 
exceedingly pleasing. 



Molding Dentils; Triglyphs; Modil- 

lions; mutules, etc. 


The addition of dentils and triglyphs to the 
Doric and Ionic orders, after the cornice has 
been molded with the template is fully ex- 
plained in Fig. 8. these are bonded to the cor- 
nice as shown in Fig. 9, which is accomplished 
by embedding in the concrete, while it is yet 
green, small screws which are allowed to pro- 
ject the proper distance above the face of the 
concrete and so they will be covered with the 
new mortar placed for the dentils or triglyphs. 
When the latter are to be molded it is best to 
overbind the screws, when the concrete has 
hardened enough to stand the strain, with fine 
wire twisted from one to the other, thus making 
a strong reinforcement that will hold the new 
mortar, added, in place securely and with as 
good results as if molded at the one time, as 
far as appearance goes and practical use under 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

ordinary usage and conditions. The reinforce- 
ment must be added with care, so that the screws 
and wires do not project beyond the face of the 
mortar and are in the center of each dentil or 
triglyph. This method of reinforcement will 
be of value in attaching mutules, the project- 
ing flat blocks with ornamented under-surface 
placed under the corona of the Doric order, 
also in attaching the modillions, which is a 
projecting bracket that has to the Corinthian 
and Composite orders the same position under 
the corona as the mutule has in the Doric 
cornice, the screws for these being long enough 
so as to project and securely hold them in po- 
sition, as a reinforcement to the bonding of 
the concrete. 

As illustrated in Fig. 8, the dentils are 
molded by a flat strip of the right height, placed 
at the bottom of the dentils and the space be- 
tween each dentil is taken by a small wood 
block of the correct size as shown by (a) in 
Fig. 8; the concrete is filled into the space 
between these wood strips and blocks and thus 
molds them perfectly. 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds. 


The triglyphs require beveled strips as shown 
at (b) in Fig. 8; the space between the archi- 
trave and the cornice on the frieze is where 
they are placed, and as the projection of these 
two outside members is equal to the thickness 
of triglyph on the cornice side, and more than 
this on the fillet that crowns the architrave, 
the triglyph does not require either a top or 
bottom strip as in the case of the dentils. 

The triglyph is usually composed of three 
flat bands with a beveled depression between 
same, running perpendicular on the frieze and 
with the outside bands beveled; these are 
placed exactly in the center above the column 
or pier and are molded by erecting a beveled 
strip on each outside, which is placed at the 
correct distance apart to conform to the com- 
pleted work. As will be noted, the bevels do 
not reach entirely to the top or next to cornice, 
but are complete to the fillet that crowns the 
architrave on the bottom; the bevels on side 
strips are cut to mold in this manner, and of a 


Fas. 8.— Molding Dentils and Triglyphs. 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

length so they will exactly fit in the space on 
frieze provided for same. The mortar is now 
filled in between these two side strips, nearly to 
the top, and then the two inside beveled strips 
are embedded in this mortar at equal distances 
apart, so as to divide the triglyph into three 
bands of equal width, and with a beveled de- 
pression between same as shown in Fig. 10. 
In this manner the work may be accomplished 
with ease, as the wood strips remain until the 
concrete has hardened. 


The method of adding modillions and mu- 
tules is very similar; in the former the form 
shown in Fig. 9, or one you may wish in its 
place, is cut from wood, cutting two alike; 
these are joined on one side with a strip of tin 
bent into the same shape, so as to leave a space 
between each wood strip of the exact size the 
modillion is to be, and with the top open for 
placing the mortar; the cornice is left in the 
position molded, with face up, and the rein- 
forcement added at the proper point where 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

Fig. 9. — Bonding Work and Wood Form for Modillions. 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

the modillion is to be placed; the wood and 
tin form is then placed in position against 
the soffit, or under-surface of corona, and the 
concrete mortar filled into the form and when 
it is hard enough this is removed, perfecting 
a bracket that is far more perfect than may be 
made in any other manner, for if the mortar 
is filled in with care the shape will be perfect 
and as the mold is a small section it is the 
more easily removed without danger of injur- 
ing the work molded. 


The mutule is best molded by turning the 
cornice so it rests upon the top, or slanting side 
down, which will bring the soffit horizontal; 
three pieces of molding are now cut and mi- 
tered so as to fit together into a square form of 
the size the mutule is to be. This is placed 
upon the soffit at the proper point and the con- 
crete filled into same ; to produce a modification 
of the guttae or small projecting circular orna- 
ments that ornament the under-surface of the 
mutule, cut a %" thick board of the size of the 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds. 

mutule form or moldings; in this bore holes, 
arranging them in rows six each way and with 
each opening finished with sand paper to make 
a smooth molding surface. This is placed upon 
mutule form and these holes filled with con- 
crete, and when this has hardened the board 
is carefully lifted up so as not to break them off, 
and the main form for mutule removed. While 
the guttae cannot be molded in this manner 
in correct form, with the greatest width or 
diameter of circle at the bottom, yet it will 
give a neat effect. 

The guttae beneath the triglyphs as well as 
the regula, to which they are attached, are 
easily molded by small wood blocks in the same 
manner as for dentils as illustrated in (a) 
Figure 8. 

The usual size of dentils and triglyphs is 
shown in Fig. 10 which is based on a column 
height of 8V\ the Doric in this case are i" 
wide and i %" high with a space between same 
of y 2 n and a space below same on the band 
to which they are attached of %". The Ionic 
are i %" wide and i K" high with a space between 



Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 




'-■ r-n"-^---i!"--'-u-.'.ir- 


Yl 1Y1 fYl "TyI tF? 

— Spudng Ucnlils and Tnglv;>:is 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

same of tyi" and they extend to the extreme 
edge of the band to which they are attached. 

The triglyphs are 9" high; the band above 
the bevels is X" wide and each face of the bevel 
is X" thus making same the exact width of 
the bands, between same, or one inch in width; 
the bevel at end of each bevel face is X" in 
width at the center and is formed by planing 
off the end of the strips used to mold bevel 
in that manner. 


Explanation of Mouldings Used 

In Fig. 1 1 are shown the mouldings used in 
the different members of the templates de- 
scribed, for the reference of the worker not 
familiar, with same. The first row, a, b, and c, 
show the crowning mouldings, of which (a) is the 
cavetto ; (b) the conge and (c) the cyma recta. 
The supporting mouldings are shown in the sec- 
ond row, of which (d) is the quarter round ; (e) 
ovolo; (/) echinus; (g) the cyma reversa. In 
the third row are shown the binding mouldings 
of which (h) is the half round; (J) the torus, 
which is also te/med the half round as well; 
(;) thumb. In the fourth row are shown the 
separating mouldings of which (k) is the half- 
hollow ; (/) the fillet ; (m) the bead and (n) the 
scotia. In the fifth row we have the prone 
mouldings of which (0) is the cavetto ; (p) the 
scape; (q) the cyma recta and (r) the cyma 
reversa. To the worker not familiar with same 
these sections will permit the form of the mem- 
bers of templates to be the easier recognized. 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

Fig. ii. — Plain Mouldings. 






Archivolts and Arches with Templates 

for Molding 

In Fig. 12 is shown the method employed in 
molding an archivolt by the use of a carriage 
and template; this is mounted upon a beam 
which swings in a circle at the correct height 
and thus models the concrete in a circular or 
elliptical form, as you may desire, with the same 
principle as employed in straight work. The 
" horse" or wooden carriage is built in the form 
shown in illustration which permits it to de- 
scribe a perfect circle if required and any form 
of ellipse or oval may be molded by placing the 
pivot so that the template will describe but 
a segment of a circle if an elliptical arch is 
demanded and by moving the pivot with a beam 
of proper length, so as to bring the center 
directly under the span springer or skewback, 
the common forms of Gothic or Tudor arches 
may be molded as well as the equilateral or 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

—Molding Elliptical Arch. 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

pointed arches of varying shapes. In this 
manner the template and carriage have all 
the adaptability of the compass in describing 
curves of varying angles and when you consider 
that it is carrying a template which molds in 
concrete the ornamental form cut from same, 
along the lines of these curves you can see the 
great adaptability of this tool to the ornamental 
concrete worker. It may be made adjustable 
by arranging the pivot so that it, together with 
the block it passes through, may be moved up 
and down the beam or carriage, thus enabling 
you to use the same carriage for circles or ovals 
of various sizes. 

The arch may be molded in a manner that 
permits of being easily placed in the wall, by 
erecting boards to make a square form equal 
to the largest outside diameter of the arch, and 
in height equal to the thickness of the wall; 
if desired or the body or wall thickness is so 
that it will be a hard matter to keep this amount 
of concrete in place, bend a board or metal 
strip in the form of the intrados or inner curve 
of the arch. This board is the same width as the 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

soffit of arch is to be and so makes the molding 
of the body of arch, or the part that goes in 
the wall a mere matter of filling in this box form 
up to the top and then upon this the concrete 
is placed for molding the projecting portion 
of arch, or archivolt; the extrados or outer 
curve is easily retained in position by the oper- 
ating of template. This makes the section of 
arch that sets in wall in a convenient square- 
cornered form on the outside of the spandrel 
edges, which is much easier to place. 


The proportions of templates for the archi- 
volts are shown in Fig. 13 based on an average 
height of piers to be %'$", which for the Doric 
would make the width of the first band 2X"; 
the second band 2X" with a projection of X" 
and ending in a conge of X", above this a band 
of X"; quarter round 1" and a fillet of 1" in 
width which has a projection of 2". This 
makes the total width of archivolt 7 X" which is 
such that it is easily molded in one section for 
the average size. 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 


The Ionic begins with a band of i K"; above 
this is a cavetto of X" and a second band of 
2)i"\ a quarter round of H" and above this 
a cyma reversa of X" with a fillet of X" width 
which has a total projection of 2". This makes 
the total width of template 6 K". 


In the template for the Corinthian archivolt 
the first band is 1" wide ; the second band is 1 %" 
wide, divided from the first by a quarter round 
of %" and ending in a conge of yi"\ above this 
is a quarter round of X" and a third band of 
1 K" ending in a cyma reversa of K" and a 
fillet of X". The total width of template is 
5X" and the total projection of the crowning 
fillet is 1 X". 

In constructing these templates the projec- 
tion to the right designed to mold the soffit of 
the arch may be omitted and thus the template 
may be adapted to the use of molding lintels 
for a door or window in the manner employed 
for cornice work. 









• i . N — 




1 1 

! i 

Fig. 13.— Templates for Archivolts. 



The Doric, Ionic and Corinthian Col- 
umns; Proportions; Method of 
Molding and Fluting 

As illustrated in Fig. 14 the molding of 
a plain column is easily accomplished by 
the following method: A template is made 
in a quarter segment of a circle equal to one- 
quarter of the total circumference of the 
column at the bottom or just above the base; 
this is mounted upon a carriage as illustrated 
in Fig. 14. A pallet is now prepared of the 
exact height the column is to be molded. This 
is accurately dressed down so its two sides are 
the width of the diameter of the column if it 
was cut accurately through the center; in this 
board the taper of the column or entasis is 
represented by its outside edges so it serves 
for an accurate guide for the template. 

Upon this board two strips are placed with 
the inside edges at least 2" or 3" apart and bev- 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

eled as shown in Fig. 14 and the outside edges 
cut to conform to the pallet or bottom board. 
These should be fastened to the pallet by 
screws that go through pallet and into strips to 
hold same in place when molding the work, 
and when it is hardened you simply roll over 
upon its circular side and by taking out these 
screws the boards are easily removed without 
the least danger of injuring the "lock" that 
is molded in the half column. Two boards are 
cut into a half circle, one the size the column 
is to be at the bottom and the other the size 
of same at neck or top. These are fastened to 
the pallet so as to remain upright and rigid, 
which insures the top and bottom of column to 
be even and true. 

It is now a simple matter of piling the mortar 
upon the pallet and passing the template up and 
down each side until it has molded the concrete 
into the half circular shape desired. You will 
note that the entasis of the column makes the 
diameter at the neck slightly smaller than the 
bottom or the lower one-third of the column; 
noW as your template is the exact size of the 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

bottom it will make the upper one-third of 
column with a slight raised point in the center. 
To avoid this the template must be raised so 
the center of same rests upon the center of 
column and by carefully passing it up toward 
the top; then by repeating the operation with 
the center at a 45 degree angle on each side you 
can work the concrete down to a perfect and 
even contour with a gradual taper from one- 
third the height to the neck. If the pallet 
rests upon " horses" or a bench, so you can 
the more easily reach all sides, this will not 
be difficult to accomplish. 

When the one-half section is sufficiently 
hard it should be mounted in concave blocks 
as illustrated in Fig. 14, with the flat side up; 
no pallet is now necessary as the first section 
of column serves as the guide to template 
which is operated in the same manner as for 
first section. You will note that each section 
"locks" together in the center and may also 
be reinforced at different points with iron pins — 
these are not absolutely necessary — which with 
the natural bond of the concrete will hold it 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 


Fig. 14.— Molding Columns with Template. 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

permanently together. As there will be on 
each outside edge of the column a slight seam 
similar to the marks of a mold, where -the two 
sections join, it will be necessary for a perfect 
job to finish by rubbing to make perfectly 
smooth with a rubbing brick or carborundum 
stone and then finishing with a neat cement 
coat, which will cover up the joint as well as 
give the column the smooth even effect demanded 
for beauty. Where it is desired to use crushed 
granite as a facing to the column, a smaller 
template should be first used and when the 
shape is secured in the ordinary mixture, the 
facing may be added and finished with a larger 
or full-sized template; by using care the joint 
can be hidden so the neat cement coat is not 
needed, which of course would spoil the attract- 
ive effect of the crushed granite aggregate. 


A simple method of proportioning the column 

will be of interest to many and the simple 

rules below will give satisfactory results for all 

ordinary usage. The taper or entasis of the 



Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

column begins at one-third of the height above 
the base and continues in a gentle tapering 
curve to the neck or top; this as well as the 
two diameters should be in correct proportion 
to the height of the shaft. In the Doric column 
the diameter just above the base and to one- 
third the height is equal to one-eighth of the 
total height of the shaft, including the base and 
capital; the tapering is approximately f 2 " on 
each side for each foot of the total height: 
Thus if the total height is 8' 4" of shaft with 
base and capital, the shaft would be 12X" in 
diameter at the bottom and for one-third the 
height and 11" at the top or neck, the taper 
would total X" on each side at the neck. In 
the Ionic column the diameter of the bottom 
of the shaft and for one-third the height is 
slightly less than one-ninth of the total height 
of shaft, base and capital. Thus in an 8' 4" 
column the bottom would be 11X*; the neck 
gX" and the taper would total X" upon each 
side for two-thirds the height of the shaft, 
the same as the Doric. The Corinthian is 
slightly different as the diameter of the bottom 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

of shaft is equal to one-tenth the total height of 
shaft, base and capital and the tapering is j 6 " 9 
approximately, for each one foot of the total 
height. Thus a column 8' 4" high or ioo" 
would be 10" at the bottom and 9" at the neck 
in diameter, and the taper would be X" on each 
side of the shaft. These easy and simple rules 
will be an aid in making your columns of 
the correct proportions. 


Where it is desired to mold a fluted column 
or one with segmental channels in the surface, 
the surface is first molded in shape as for the 
plain column ; the wood blocks at each end are 
replaced with blocks, from the edge of which 
is cut a pattern for the channels. Two strips 
are now nailed together with a space between 
same the width of the channel, as it is to be 
molded between the sharp raised edges or 
" arris ;" this form is the length of the shaft 
and rests upon the wood blocks at each end. 
A small block or carriage holds the template, 

as shown in Fig. 1 5 ; this is the shape of one- 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

Fie. 15.— Method of Fluting Columns. 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

half of the channel and rests upon the frame- 
work, made previously; by passing this up and 
down between the two wood strips, reversing 
the carriage each time, you cut the channel 
accurately into the green concrete. You will 
note that the template molds but one-half of 
the segmental channel for the reason that the 
channel is more narrow at the neck than at 
the base, to conform to the taper or entasis of 
the column; hence the necessity of molding 
but one-half of same at each upward or down- 
ward stroke. 

In Fig. 1 6 is shown the fluting of the Doric 
and Ionic columns with the corresponding size 
of same at base and neck for a height of 8' 4". 
The number of channels in the Doric column 
is always twenty and are so placed that one is 
always seen in the center of the column on 
each of its four faces. These channels do not 
extend the total height of column but end in a 
head slightly under the capital and are ellip- 


tical in form with sharp raised edges. Fig. 16 
also shows the different measurements with 
the method of drawing the channels. 




Fig. i 6. — Spacing Fluting on Columns. 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

The channels of the Ionic column are sep- 
arated by a narrow band or fillet which is equal 
to one-third the width of the channel. The 
number of channels varies from twenty to 
twenty-four, with twenty the more often used; 
the method of molding is the same as for the 
Doric only that the strips must be closer to- 
gether and the template smaller and more 
circular in shape. The method of designing 
the different flutings or channels as well as 
the measurements for an 8' 4" shaft are shown 
in Fig. 16. 

The channels for a Corinthian column are 
twenty-four in number with the fillet separating 
them equal to one-third the width of the chan- 
nel and with the form of the fluting semi- 
circular in shape, thus requiring a template to 
mold same, that is, a quarter segment of a 



Bases and Capitals for Doric, Ionic 
and Corinthian Orders; Method of 


The method of molding bases is shown in 
Fig. 1 7 ; the template is mounted on a carriage 
so it will swing in a circle, the pivot of same 
is a wooden block or core which is set upright 
upon the pallet, allowing the template to re- 
volve around same as the concrete is placed 
in position for molding. This wooden core 
is withdrawn ' when the work is sufficiently 
hard and the space may be filled with mortar 
when setting the base. 


The base for Doric column shown in Fig. 
1 8 is based upon an 8' 4" shaft or column. 
The plinth is 3" high with a projection of 2" 
over the width of the shaft at the bottom. 
Above this is a torus of 2%"\ a bead of K"; 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

a band of yi" and a scape of %" ; this is mounted 
upon the carriage- so the outside edge of the 
plinth will be 8%" from the pivot or center 
of base. 


The Ionic base is 2" in projection at the 
plinth over the column at bottom with the 
height of plinth 2", the torus above same 1 X" ; 
band or listel of yi" ; scape of X" ; second band 
of y%" and a second torus of 1" with the third 
band above same of K" and ending in a scape 
of %". The template is mounted upon the 
carriage so that outer edge of plinth will be 
exactly 7 H" from the pivot or center. 


The Corinthian base has the same projec- 
tion ; 2 n beyond the column and begins with a 
plinth of iX"; a torus of iX"; above this a 
listel of l A"\ a scape of H"\ two beads of %" 
each; a second scape of yk" and torus of K"\ 
a listel of %" , and scape of %". This is 
mounted on carriage so that the outer edge of 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

f ' .' ■ . 'i v. 1 . 1 ' I 1 . 1 ."T. 1 : J .' '. '.' . ' ■ ■ A 

-•«* • • • • ■ ^ • - . » ■•■ •• • 

e v* i '. ' >yt* * >v » ii m ly f «■ * t •; '>'m> ■■ ' ■ 

' I'M » > ft » 

:■* ■!■ # 




V ' M'i' ! 

• . • 


'••••| , • v 

• • i • • • -1 

• • • 




Fig. 17. — Molding Bases and Plain Capitals with Template 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

plinth will be just 7" from the pivot or center of 
the base in the event this is used for an 8' 4" 

Where it is desired to have the plinth square 
with the upper part of base circular, the method 
illustrated in Fig. 19 (c) may be employed; the 
plinth is molded in a square box form and this 
used as the pallet in modeling the circular 
portion of the base with template. 

The method of modeling the abacus or 
crowning member of the capital is also shown 
in Fig. 19; the wood form is used and a tem- 
plate made to conform to the edge to be molded. 
This is mounted upon a carriage as shown in 
the same illustration and by operating this 
along the edges of the box form the concrete is 
molded into the correct form accurately and 

In molding capitals by this system the same 
method is employed as for bases as illustrated 
in Fig. 17 with the form of template changed 
to conform to the work to be done. 

The Doric capital is similar in form to the 
base and is molded complete by this method. 





Fig. 18. — Templates for Bases. 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

The template for an 8' 4" column is made by 
having a listel of %" and a bead of K" just 
above the neck of shaft, the listel having a 
projection of %"\ this is usually molded with 
the shaft but by this method cannot well be 
done, so if used must be added to the capital. 
Above this is a band of 2"; three annulets or 
small fillets with a width of %" each and a total 
projection of W for the three ; a quarter round 
of iX"; band of iK" and cyma reversa of 
l A n with the abacus of yi" width; the total 
projection from neck to shaft should be 2%" 
from the outside edge. This capital is as eas- 
ily molded as the base with the template and 
when complete makes a very attractive crown- 
ing member to the column. 

The capitals of the Tuscan order may also 
be molded in the same manner all complete, 
but with those of the Ionic and Corinthian 
orders, they are best produced from some other 
source as the regular molds for same or with 
plaster molds. It may be accomplished by 
using a template for the circular portion of 
the capital and adding the volutes as well 


I 79] 

Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

as the cauliculi, leaves or stems projecting from 
surface of the Corinthian capital, by the aid of 
plaster molds made from a wood composition 
capital. While this is possible yet it is slow and 
not so practical as to produce in some other 



Pedestals; Piers and Imposts with 
Templates for Molding 

One method of molding the cymatium or 
cap of the pedestal as well as the base of same, 
when it is to be in a square form, is shown in 
Fig. 20 ; this, as you will note, may be molded 
in quarter sections by the use of template and 
a trihedral form made of boards. The four 
quarter sections are joined together with wire 
or rods molded in same as shown by the 
diagram (b) in same illustration; the space 
in center is filled with mortar when it is 
placed. Where the weight is to be very great 
that is placed upon them, this method should 
not be employed, but the second method 
which consists of building a square box form 
as shown in Fig. 19 for the abacus and then 
mounting the template in the same manner as 
for the molding of abacus, then by placing 
the concrete in the center of form in a rough 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

shape of the cap the template will work quite 

In the molding of the three faces of an im- 
post, or a cap to the pier upon which the archi- 
volt rests, this same method may be used with 
success for all orders, as well as in molding 
the bases or plinth to the piers and pedestals. 

Where it is desired to mold the piers or the 
die to a square pedestal by the template system, 
it is operated in the manner employed for a 
cornice, with the exception that the guide boards 
do not touch the concrete upon each side, and 
the template models the sides as well as the 
face of same. It is useful when the pier is 
to be molded with a section of wall or when 
it is to be semicircular in shape; in the latter 
case the template is the easiest and best method 
of molding. 


Fig. 2 1 shows the base of pedestal, cymatium 
or cap of pedestal and the impost for the Doric, 
Ionic, and Corinthian orders, with the measure- 
ments of the different members that make up 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

the templates for molding same. At (a) is 
shown the base of the Doric pedestal ; the tem- 
plate for same has a first plinth of 6 X" height 
and a total projection of 2"; the second plinth 
has a height of 2X" and iX" projection; 
third plinth X" height and iX" projection; 
above this is a cyma recta of i X" ; a band of 
X" and ends in a scape of X". The total 
height is 1 1 X"- The cap of pedestal is 3 X* in 
height with a projection of 2%": From right 
to left there is first a conge of X" ; band of X" ; 
quarter round of X"; second band of iX", 
which has a projection of %" over the quarter 
round and ends in a conge of H" ; the cap end- 
ing with a fillet of X" as shown by (b) in Fig. 21. 
The impost or cap to pier shown at (c) has a 
conge of X"; band of %"\ bead of X", which 
has a projection of X" ; next a band of 1 X*, 
ending in a conge of X"; quarter round of X"; 
band of 2", ending in a conge of X" and with 
a projection of X", the impost ends with a fillet 
of X" and is 6X" high with a total projection 
of 2". 














: b 


i ^y 


.! 'ij< 



k 6-h- 


o o 




|- - 3«— -*■ 

' it 

I- 5% H 





1- 5J*---*| 

Fig. 21. — Templates for Base and Cymatium of Pedestal; also 



Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 


The template for the Ionic base to pedestal 
shown at (d) has first plinth of 6%" with a 
projection of 2"; a second plinth of 2%" with 
a projection of iK"; a torus of ]/i ,f with the 
same projection as second plinth; band of X"; 
cyma recta of 1"; band of H" and template 
ending in a scape of X"- The total height is 
nX". The Ionic cap to pedestal shown in 
template at (e) begins with a conge of X"; band 
of M"; cyma reversa of *A"\ listel of X"; 
band of 1 H", this has a projection of X" and 
is crowned by a cyn a recta of X" and a fillet 
of X". The total height of cap is 3M"; and 
the total projection is 2 X". The impost shown 
at template (/) has a conge of X" at right; 
band of X"; bead of K", which has a pro- 
jection of H"', a second band of. iH", ending 
in a conge of yi"\ band of X"; quarter round 
of ^" ; second band of 1 X", which has a pro- 
jection of X" ; cyma reversa of yi" and fillet 
of X". The total projection is 2", with 5^" 

for the total height. 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 


The template (g) shows the Corinthian base 
to pedestal, which has a first plinth of 6" in 
height and i K" in projection ; a second plinth 
of iX" in height and \Y%" projection; above 
this is a torus of ]/%" in height and the same 
projection as second plinth; a band of X"; 
cyma recta of Y%"\ bead of yi"; listel of y%" 
and scape of %". The total height is 10K", 
with the total projection of i J4" over the outside 
diameter of die set upon the same. As 
there is but slight difference in the pedestal 
cap and the impost for the Corinthian order, 
they are shown upon the one template (h), 
for the fraction of an inch difference in measure- 
ment would not be noticed in the molding. 
The first member is a conge of ]/%" and listel 
of yi n \ bead of H" with the same projection; 
band of i H" ending in a conge of yk" and listel 
of H"\ bead of X"; quarter round of M"; 
band of iX", which has a projection of X"; 
cyma reversa of y 2 ft and fillet of H". The total 
projection is 2" with $yk" for the total height. 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

The right-hand member of each cap or im- 
post template is equal to the outside measure- 
ments of the die or pier it is used upon. The 
basis of measurement is an 8'4'' column on the 
above templates, from which you can easily 
plan a template for a larger or smaller column 
or pier. 

The base of pier or plinth is in all three orders 
the same as the first two plinths of the base 
of pedestal as shown by the dotted lines in 
Fig. 21. 


Machine for Rapid Molding 

It is advisable to mold one-half of the die 
with the base or cap of all the circular pedes- 
tals as shown in Fig. 22. This makes but one 
joint and simplifies the work of setting in place. 
Where the column height is not too great it 
may also be employed by molding the base 
and one-half the column in one section and the 
capital and balance of column in the same man- 
ner, thus making but one horizontal joint to 
the entire column. 

Another valuable point is also illustrated 
in Fig. 22. As you will note, the template has 
a double beam to the carriage ; one swings on 
the iron rod that extends up through the work 
and the other also revolves around the post 
used to support the pallet. This is accomplished 
by using a second block fastened to the lower 
beam and both cut out to make a bearing for 
it to revolve upon. The supporting post is also 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

cut down to fit this bearing, thus supporting 
the carriage in position. By having a brace above 
the work to hold the iron rod rigid and using a 
liberal amount of grease to the gearings, the 
carriage will revolve easily and thus enable 
a larger amount of small work to be done. 
This is exceptionally valuable for all small work 
as balusters, caps, bases, etc., and may be em- 
ployed with urns or lawn vases as well. A 
hopper may be placed above the work so as to 
be out of the way of carriage, with a gate for 
letting the concrete down as wanted. This en- 
ables you to place the concrete and mold the 
work in a very short time. With this pallet 
cut to fit the base of the article molded, the tem- 
plate can work up close to same, preventing 
the concrete from falling, and by having the 
pallet removable the finished work may be 
removed from the machine to make room for 
another; for this the iron center rod must be 
drawn each time. 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 


• • • 


«» 9 

FlG. 22. — Machine for Rapid Molding with Templates. 



Concrete Urns or Lawn Vases, with 


The method of molding the concrete urn or 
lawn vase by the template system is fully shown 
in Fig. 23. The perpendicular iron rod is sup- 
ported by the concrete core of urn as shown by 
the horizontal lines in Fig. 23. This with a sup- 
port or brace above the work will make it rigid 
enough for a pivot to the template carriage, ( r 
the double beam carriage illustrated in Fig. 22 
may be used with excellent success. In mold- 
ing lawn vases or urns in one section it will be 
found difficult to retain the mortar in position 
for the base. This may be done by the use of 
the wire reinforcement illustrated at (e) Fig. 30, 
which spreads out into a fan shape and thus 
holds up the mortar. The most successful method 
is to mold the urn and base without the pro- 
jections as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 23 ; 
the base may then be added in the manner 




. T 


1, . „ o „ 




1 : 

FlC. 23.— Molding Lawn Vas? with Template. 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

shown at (a) Fig. 23. This is bonded by in- 
serting the wire reinforcement, (d) Fig. 30, into 
the opening left by the removal of the iron 
center rod, then bending out in the form shown 
at (e) Fig. 30. The urn is now supported in 
position and a box form for base placed around 
same and the concrete filled in as shown by 
(a) Fig. 23, the wires also serving as a rein- 
forcement to the base. 

The bowl of base may be molded in one 
section with a "lock" or mortise on the bot- 
tom into which the stem of the base is inserted ; 
this is the most satisfactory in large work, as 
the bowl is usually demanded to be removable 
so that it may be cleaned. 

In Fig. 24 are shown two styles of templates 
for urns with the measurements to serve as a 
guide in perfecting any design you may fancy. 
These are shown in one template and may be 
so used or divided at any point on the stem. 

The urn shown (/I) Fig. 24, is 24* high 
and 24" in diameter at the widest point of the 
bowl; the rim is 22" in diameter thus making 
a 1" bevel around same; the bowl is made up 


. 3-|. — Templates for Lawn Vasts or Un 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

of a cavetto 8" high and an ovolo 6* high ; at the 
end of the former the bowl is 18" in diameter 
and at the end of the ovolo 12"; the stem is 
formed with two cavetto forms and one bead of 
1" height and the former 3" in height; their 
greatest diameter 12" and their least 6"; the 
plinth or lowest member of base is 2" high and 
1 2" in diameter. 

Another style is shown at (B) Fig. 24. On 
this the rim is 1" in a quarter round form, 
below this is a half hollow 2" in height, the next 
member is an ovolo form 9" high and the first 
section of stem is a avetto 6" high, below same 
a 1 X" bead ; a 3" band ; aiK ;/ cyma reversa ; 
a 2" cavetto with the base 2" high and 16" in 
diameter; the smallest diameter of the stem is 
6" and the greatest diameter of the bowl is 28" 
with the height 28". These urns are used with 
a pedestal nearly or quite equal to their own 

In molding over the concrete core a coating 
of paraffine wax should be placed on the core 
first or wet newspapers pressed upon same, so 
as to permit the easy removal of the core from 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

the work. It is also advisable to coat the 
center rod with wax, or grease may be used, 
so it can be withdrawn from the work with 
ease and without danger of injury; when re- 
moved the opening it makes may be filled with 
liquid concrete. 




Molding Ball and Cap; Water Tables; 

Facing Work 

A ball mounted upon a pedestal or base 
may be molded in three sections, of which one 
is the top section of ball in which you have ar- 
ranged a "lock" similar to that used for the 
columns in Fig. 14, by the use of bevel strips 
on pallet ; the second section of ball is molded 
in the same manner as the second section of 
column, only the template for ball is a quarter 
segment of circle revolving around an iron rod 
set in the center of work as a pivot, as used for 
base in Fig. 17. The base upon which ball 
rests is modeled in the form you wish, with a 
socket for the ball to rest in. This is an ex- 
cellent ornament for many purposes and one 
that is easily molded. 

This system is also valuable in molding water 
tables, as it permits any shape plain or orna- 
mental to be given to the outside edge, as well 

[98 j 

Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

as securing a more smooth and even finish than 
can be secured by wood molds. 


By this system a rough mixture can be used 
for the core or center of much of the work; 
by providing a wood template, smaller than 
the finishing template, which presses the con- 
crete into the general form and then a more 
expensive finishing coat may be added and 
worked into form without the least waste of 
material, which is not possible when plaster- 
ing over the surface of work molded in "wood 
molds; the center of columns, bases, cornices, 
archivolts and other work may as well be made 
with the use of aggregate in the proportion 
you would use for ordinary molding; then, by 
adding a rich facing coat of cement and crushed 
granite or marble flour, your outside surface 
will be perfect with the minimum of expense 
and no waste of material. 


7003 ' 

Monuments; Molding; Lettering, Etc. 

The system of molding concrete with the 
use of templates, explained in the preceding 
pages, can as well be applied to the manufac- 
ture of concrete monuments and grave markers, 
hitching posts, ornamental fountains, lawn 
seats and benches, balusters and concrete lava- 
tories as well as many other forms of concrete 

The drawing (A) in Fig. 25 shows the tem- 
plate for molding an ornamental cap as the 
crowning member of any shaft as illustrated 
in Fig. 26. 

When made to mold a part of the shaft the 
whole length is 23" ; witha band of 10K"; a 
~bead or astragal of K"; band of 1"; cyma re- 
versa of 2"; torus of 1" and cavetto of 1" end- 
ing in a ball of 9" in diameter which has a 
projection above cavetto of 8" only. These 

dimensions are for a diameter of shaft not to 


Fig. 25. — Template for Ball and Cap to Monument; also Hitch- 
ing Post. 101 

Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

exceed 12" and make a very ornamental and 
pleasing crowning member to this style of 

The monument shown in Fig. 26 may be 
molded in eight sections or, if you wish and 
the size permits, in only five sections. The tem- 
plate for molding base is easily made. This only 
extends to the dotted line shown in section 
(1) and the top is simply a bevel and a cyma 
recta in proportion to the size of the work. 

The die extends from the base to dotted 
line (2) and has at top a cyma reversa and torus 
ending in a small bevel. 

The base of shaft extends to dotted line (3) 
and has a torus (large) and above this a small 
half round that is but one-third the height 
of the one below it; ending in a cavetto that 
is on top the exact size of shaft. 

The shaft may be molded in four sections 
as shown, or it can be made neater by extending 
from base of shaft to dotted line (7) in one 
section, with the astragal in section (7) molded 
one inch below the neck of shaft. 

The cap is the same as explained for (A) in 

[ i° 2 l 

FlC. 26.— Completed Monument as Explained. 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

Fig. 25. This is a very easily molded design 
and may be varied to suit the customer's wishes; 
from the suggestions offered the worker can 
easily construct templates to mold other styles 
as well as many small grave markers; one of 
the most popular styles of these is a small roll, 
which is molded in the same manner as a 
shaft, and then placed horizontal on a square or 
oblong base. 

The lettering is best done by imprinting 
in the " green" concrete, although it may be 
cut into the monument when cured as with 
any stone; the letters used can be the same as 
employed in imprinting sidewalks and several 
alphabets should be used, so as to give the 
proper display to the inscription. By laying 
a ruler or straight-edge upon the work the lines 
may be made neat and straight and with your 
letters wet each time before pressing into the 
concrete, they will "draw" more cleanly, with- 
out disturbing the surface of the concrete. 

[ !°4] 

Hitching Posts; Grave Markers, Etc. 

The template shown at (B) Fig. 25 may be 
employed for molding a hitching post or even 
for a small grave marker as desired, for it is 
a very neat design. The base is 1 2" to center, 
thus making it 24" in diameter; the band is 
6" high with two small X" inch beads at top; 
the slanting sides are 12" high and at top are 
ornamented with two or three X" beads as 
desired. The cavetto that supports the ball 
is 4" high and the ball is 8" above the cavetto; 
but as in the case of the cap at (A) it is 9" in 
diameter, thus completing a neat design that 
the worker may employ for several purposes. 

The templates for this kind are the easier 
used when with a carriage as illustrated in Fig. 
22, so that both top and bottom of the template 
are held rigid and both hands are free to revolve 
same rapidly and easily. Where many kinds 
of work are to be made on the same carriage, 

[io S ] 

Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

two uprights may be bolted to the frame-work, 
outside the sweep of template and carriage; 
a cross-piece is placed on these uprights and 
bolted so it will carry the bolt through the upper 
arm of carriage; this obviates the use of the 
rod through work, as the bolt through cross- 
piece replaces that and as the cross-piece may 
be shifted up or down on uprights as need 
demands, you can mold any size of work in the 
same machine. 



Molding Concrete Fountain; Templates 

for Same 

The concrete fountain shown in Fig. 27 is 
very easily molded by the use of four templates, 
which are illustrated in the same drawing. 
The one shown at (a) has a radius of 24" at the 
bottom, thus molding the lower basin 4' in 
diameter ; the edge to rim is 4" with the cavetto 
above same 12", the bottom of this section has 
a radius of 14", thus molding the base 28" in 
diameter. The core of basin is easily made 
of the correct size for each section by piling up 
clay, plaster or concrete into a rough form of 
the size and shape basin is to be made and then 
smoothing with a trowel; a round iron or strip 
of wood should be set exactly in the center of 
core and long enough to project up above the 
finished section of fountain ; to mold the open- 
ing for the inlet pipe, which is set up and con- 
nected, then the sections of fountain set down 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds. 

over same; thus making it a simple matter to 
set up and take down fountain for storage in 
winter. The outlet pipes can be arranged in 
the first section in the same manner. 

The second section shown at (6) has a radius 
of 12" at the top and 6" at the bottom, thus 
giving the second section a diameter at top of 24" 
and bottom of 1 2". The rim is 3" high and the 
cavetto 13", when a projection is arranged in 
the center of the section below. This may be 
done by building the core in a circle and leav- 
ing space in center for a pedestal for the next 
section to rest upon, or the upper sections may 
be increased in length, to equal the depth of 
the basin in the section below same, and as 
this part is under water it will not show. 

The third section (c) has a radius at top of 
6" and at bottom of 3*; thus making the diame- 
ter 12" and 6" of this section. The rim is 2" 
and the cavetto, that shows above water, 12". 
The fourth section shown at (d) has a radius of 
3" at top and 1 X" at bottom or with a diameter 
of 6" and 3* with the rim 2" and the cavetto, 
above water, 12" in height. The fountain is 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

thus exactly 5' high above ground level ; and as 
the spray will keep the basins filled with water, 
that from the upper sections running into the 
lower basin, the effect is very pretty; when four 
small pipes are placed just below the rim of 
the second basin, the four jets of water pouring 
into the lower basin is an added beauty to the 
fountain. Where the room will permit a large 
basin or pool may be built of concrete below 
ground level and to surround the lower section; 
this should be 8' in diameter and may be 16' 
if desired, thus making a more attractive 
fountain. This pool is easily built with a tem- 
plate in the center, pressing the concrete into 
the form desired against an outside form or 
centering, which is placed below ground level 
at the point the basin is to be built. 



Molding Garden Seats and Benches 

At Fig. 28 is. shown the template and model 
for a very pretty garden seat, which is simply 
and easily molded; the entire height from 
ground is 36", the radius at top is 11", thus 
making the diameter 22". The base is 7" in 
radius thus giving 14" to rest upon the ground. 
The seat and back are molded 22" outside and 
18" inside, with a height of 16"; this is done 
over a core form as shown at (a) (b) in Fig. 
28. A round block of wood is prepared 18" in 
diameter, upon this the forms for the curved 
arms are nailed as shown by the curved line 
at (a-b). This may be done by using small wood 
blocks nailed to the core along this line and 
upon same a strip of Unfastened that projects 
at right angles to the core 2", thus making a 
solid and perfect mold for the seat and back 
and one that also permits the template to re- 
volve around same in molding the work. The 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

seat is 3" thick and the outside edge is a half 
round ; below this is a cavetto of 3" ; a quarter 
round of 1"; a band of 6"; in the center of same 
is a bead of X"; below this is a quarter round 
of 1" and a cyma reversa of 2", ending in the 
band on base of 4" in height. 

The same template with the exception that the 
seat and back are omitted may be employed in 
molding the legs for a garden bench; these 
are molded and placed at the proper distance 
apart, and a concrete slab, which has been 
molded in a box form, laid upon them, thus 
making a substantial and beautiful concrete 
ornament to any garden. The same template 
may also be employed in molding a pedestal 
for a plant, either for use in the garden or 
upon the lawn, simply by omitting the back 
to chair. 


FIG. a8.— Garden and Template for Molding. 



Balusters; Lavatories; Jardinieres and 

Flower Pots 

In Fig. 29 at (a) is shown the template for 
molding a concrete baluster, which is employed 
in the manner as illustrated in Fig. 22. This 
size may be too massive for some work, but 
an explanation of the parts will serve as a guide 
in constructing templates for others. The 
band at base is 2", above this is a bevel of W 
and a band of W making this member 1" as 
shown; the next member is a cavetto of iK"; 
torus of 1"; above this an echinus of 3K"; 
cavetto of 6K"; bead of X; band of M"] an- 
other band of %" which has the same projec- 
tion ; a quarter round of 1" and fillet of 1", 
which has a radius of 3". The total height is 
19" and the greatest diameter 7"; this is useful 
for large work and may be employed as small 
columns below the floor in piazza construction, 
as well as for many other purposes. Simply 


Flo. ig. — Template (or Balusler and Lavatory. 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

reducing the dimensions will give you a baluster 
of the size you demand for the work you wish. 


The template for molding lavatory shown 
at (b) Fig. 29 is shown upright, and may be em- 
ployed in that way, but it is the easier molded 
when reversed, so as to bring the heaviest 
part of the concrete downward. The radius 
of the base is 7", thus giving it a diameter of 
14"; the height of the base is 4", above this is 
a cyma reversa of 2" and a quarter round of 
1"; the die or shaft is 12" high and has a radius 
of 4", thus making the smallest diameter of 
the lavatory 8", which permits of a core large 
enough for all pipes to be used in the center of 
same. Above the die is a bead of X"; band of 
K"; a quarter round of 1"; and a cyma reversa 
of 2"; fillet of 1" and the bowl ending in a 
quarter round of 5* which has a radius of 10"; 
thus making the total height 29 X" and the 
greatest diameter 20". 

The bowl is easily molded by making a core 
as used for the fountain sections, and the 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

center of the lavatory should be hollow so as 
to allow the inlet and outlet pipes to be placed 
in same; this is best done by arranging them 
before molding the lavatory and thus bending 
the inlet pipes so they will go around the outside 
edge of the bowl in the concrete. As the con- 
crete is then molded around these pipes they 
are out of sight and have only to be connected 
up at the bottom. 

The template system is very useful in mold- 
ing many styles and shapes of jardienires and 
flower pots, the templates for which are so 
simple that the reader can easily make them 
from the instructions given in the preceding 


Reinforcement of Work; How to Make 

In Fig. 30 are shown the different special 
reinforcements used with this system of mold- 
ing; these are used when necessary in addition 
to any usual reinforcement that can be used 
in the straight work, as cornice, column, etc., and 
are designed to act as an aid in holding the con- 
crete upright as well as retaining it there until 
hardened. The wire form shown at (a) Fig. 
30 is of use in the bowls of urns and also in 
the stem of same ; it can be used in the sections 
of pedestals when molded in two sections as 
well as columns. 

The principle is two wire circles joined by 
perpendicular wires and in the spaces between 
these smaller wire is woven. This when placed 
in position on the pallet aids in retaining the 
center of the work in the upright position 
demanded, holding the concrete so its weight 
will not press it out of shape. The facing course 


Fig. 30. — How the Wire Reinforcement is Made. 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

covers the wire form and when the work is 
used acts as a strong reinforcement, as the 
wires have the general shape of the design, hence 
they strengthen the concrete in all directions. 

The rings are made of No. 9 wire as well as 
the perpendicular wires so it will hold its shape, 
while the cross wire may be lighter to easily 
bend into position. 

The strap-iron reinforcement shown at (b) 
is of value in joining the two sections of columns, 
balls, etc., together; in using same a slot is cut 
in pallet so as to be one-half the length of the iron 
and they are slipped into same before molding 
the section and as they are in a straight line, 
the pallet is removed by drawing it to one side, 
thus slipping the irons out of the slot or groove. 
The twisted or braided wire shown at (c) may 
be purchased more cheaply than it can be made 
and is of valuable use, when not too tightly 
twisted, in making the forms for the reinforce- 
ment as shown at (a) and (d) as the open loops 
of the wire permit the concrete to bond securely 
around same, thus giving a greater resistance 
to the strain it must withstand. 

[ 12 °] 

Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

At (d) is shown a number of wires bound 
together with a wire wrapped around same 
tightly for a portion of its length; this is em- 
bedded into the concrete and the loose ends 
of the wire bent down at right angles thus 
making a reinforcement that is circular in shape, 
when the wires are of even length; this is 
valuable in reinforcing the bases of urns, col- 
umns or capitals. It may be made double by 
binding the wires in the center and bending 
both ends at right angles, which is best for a 
reinforcement for plinth blocks, etc. This 
form is of value where it is desired to support 
a projecting mass of concrete in molding as 
well as for the purposes given above. 


Ornamental Moldings 

In the cyma, bead, and quarter round mold- 
ings in the cornice as well as other work the 
appearance can be greatly improved by orna- 
menting with any of the simpler forms for this 
class of moldings. 

The method is simple as the concrete is where 
it can be easily reached while "green," so by 
having the design cut from a wood block with 
the outlines sharp and clear, you can press it 
into the concrete, leaving the impression, and 
by repeating thus cover the entire molding 
with the classical "leaf and dart," "egg and 
dart," "beads and reels," or any of the modi- 
fications of the "fret" or band ornaments or 
acroter. The majority of these are easily carved 
in a wood block and thus print a perfect outline 
of the ornamentation into the surface of the 

concrete. By having the block but a few 


Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

inches long, you can the easier press it around 
a curved surface or any circular work. 

If you cannot secure the wood carving then 
purchase at a picture-frame store several short 
pieces of moldings of the size and design you 
wish; place a form around each one and fill 
in with plaster of Paris, mixed thin, allow this 
to harden and then trim the edges and coat 
with shellac, several coats. This, when it is sev- 
eral weeks old, or baked in an oven for a few 
hours, will become quite hard and with ordi- 
nary care will be capable of use as a die or 
stamp in imprinting the design into the "green" 
concrete for a long time. As the cost is slight, 
a number can be easily secured and you can 
ornament your work with a variety of attractive 
designs that will greatly improve it from an 
artistic standpoint. 

From the practical ideas presented in the 
foregoing chapters the concrete worker may 
easily apply this system to many other kinds of 
ornamental concrete work with success, for 
while it will not replace a mold where the mold- 
ing is an every-day occurrence on a few certain 

[ I2 3] 

Ornamental Concrete Without Molds 

articles, yet to the man who appreciates con- 
crete work that is entirely different than that 
made by the other fellow, or who has a demand 
for a large number of various designs this system 
will the most strongly appeal. 

[ I2 4] 


Abacus 77» 79 

Annulet 78 


elliptical 56-59 

Gothic and Tudor 56 

templates for equilateral 61 


designs 26, 27, 30, 36, 37, 41, 42 

proportions 25, 88 


composite 39 

Doric 29,33 

Ionic 34.35 

Roman Corinthian 40 

Tuscan 28 


Corinthian 60 

Doric 59 

Ionic 60 

Arris, how molded -68 

Atmospheric influence on concrete 22 

Automatic carriage for templates 90 


Backing, use of 14 

Balusters, how molded 1 14-1 16 

Band ornament 122 




Corinthian 74, 76 

Doric 73-76 

for urn 92-97 

Ionic 74, 76 

molding 75 

Bead moulding 54, 55 

Benches, Lawn 111,112 

Bonding 44, 49 

Box molds, 

archivolt 59 

base and capital 78 

cornice 20 

pier 81 

Bracket, how molded 48, 49, 50 


Capital, how molded 73~8o 

Carriage for template 56, 58, 90 

Cauliculi 80 

Cavetto moulding 54, 55 

Channel, details of 70 

Circular arch 58 


molding in blocks 89 

molding monolithic 62-65 

rules for proportioning 66 

Composite order, details and template 39> 4 * 


composition and mixing 21 

finishing 99 

moisture and tests 22 

Conge moulding 54, 55 

Cores for, 

blocks 23 

lavatories 115 

urns 92 



Cornice 23 , 24 

Crazing (checking, cracks), to avoid 23 

Cyma-recta moulding 54, 55 

Cyma-reversa moulding 54, 55 


Corinthian 87 

Doric 82, 84 

Ionic 86 

molding 82 


Decoration of moldings 122-124 

Denticular order 32 


details of 51 

molding 44, 45 

Doric order, details and templates 29, 32, ^^ 


Echinus moulding . . . ; 54, 55 

Egg and dart molding 122 

Elliptical arch, how molded 57 


Composite 39 

Corinthian 41 

Doric 29 

Ionic 34 

Tuscan 28 

Entasis of columns, 

how molded 63-64 

rules for 67 

Extrados ^9 


Facing work 66, 99 

Fascia 29-43 

t I2 7] 


Fillet moulding 54, 55 

Flower pots ;.... 117 

Fluting, ... 

Corinthian 74, 76 

Doric and Ionic 73, 74 

Fountains, details and templates 107, no 


Composite 39 

Corinthian 40 

Doric 32, S3 

Ionic 34, 35 

Tuscan 28, 29 


Garden chair 111,113 

Granite, crushed, use in facing 99 

Grave marker, details and template 101,105 

Gravel in mortar 21 

Grease, use of 90, 96 

Guttae 51 


Half-hollow moulding 54, 55 

Half-round moulding 54, 55 

Hitching posts, details and template 101, 105 

Hollow blocks 23 



Corinthian 87 

Doric 82, 83 

Ionic 86 

templates for 85 

Inclined surfaces, how to mold 16 

Intrados 58 

Ionic order, details and templates 34~3^ 



Jardinieres, 117 


Lavatories, details and template 114,117 

Lawn vase, how moided 92, 93, 94 

Leaf and dart molding 122 

Lime, use in concrete 21 

Lintels, how molded 60 

Listels 74 

Lock to column, how molded 63, 64 


Machine for rapid molding 90 

Marble flour for facing work 99 

Modillions 48, 50 

Molding ball and cap 98, 99 

Molding with templates 18, 20 

Monolithic construction, advantages of 12 


details and templates 100, 104 

lettering 104 


mixing 21 

moisture in 22 

placing 18, 20 


plain 55 

ornamented 122, 124 

Mutules 50 


Necking of columns 67 



Orders of architecture 24-43 

Ornamental designs 123 

Ovolo moulding 54. 55 



Corinthian 87 

Doric 82, 84 

Ionic 86 

Piers, how molded 82-85 

Plain capitals 75 

Plinth blocks, how molded 74, 78 


of columns 66, 67 

of entablature 26 

Protecting cores 96, 97 


Quarter-round moulding 54, 55 


Rapid molding 89-9 1 

Regula 51 


kinds used 120 

necessity of 118 

placing 121 

Rims, how molded 94, 96 

Roman Corinthian order, details and templates. . 40-43 


Sand used in concrete 21 

Scape moulding 54~55 

[ 130] 


Scotia moulding 54-55 

Semi-circular arch 56, 58 

Shaft, how molded 102 

Skewbacks to arch 56 

Soffit 28—43 

Spacing, triglyphs and dentils 5 1-53 

Spandrel to arch 59 

Spheres, how molded 98 

Surface of work, finishing 20, 2 1 

Swell of columns 67 

Taper of columns 66 

Templates for, 

archivolts 60 

baluster 114 

bases 73 

chair 111,113 

column 65 

Composite order 39, 40 

Corinthian order 40, 43 

cost of 12 

cutting 14 

cymatium 85 

designing. * 24 

Doric order 29, 33 

fountain 109 

imposts 85 

Ionic order 34-38 

lavatory 115 

marking 13 

monument 10 1 

mounting 16 

operating 19 

pedestal and pier 85 

Tuscan order 26,27 

urns and vases 95 



Thumb moulding 54, 55 

Torus moulding 54, 55 

Triglyphs, spacing and molding 32, 46-53 

Tuscan order, details and templates 28, 29 


Under-cutting, how molded 92 

Units, molding work in 25 

Urns, details and templates 94, 95 


Vases 94. 95 

Volutes 78 


Wall, molding block for 23 

Warping of templates, to prevent 14 

Water in concrete 22 

Water tables, how molded 98 

Wire reinforcement, 

how to make 120 

placing in concrete 121 

value of 118 

[ J 3 2 ] 

aagHSHP.v '-' w , ;;tnwjiv&>£^M 



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By T. H. Byrom, Fellow of the Institute of Chemistry, Fellow 
of The Chemical Society, etc., and J. E. Christopher, Member 
of the Society of Chemical Industry, etc. A handbook for 
those engaged in Coke manufacture and the recovery of By- 
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The subject of Coke Manufacture is of rapidly increasing in- 
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Contents: Chap. I. Introductory. Chap. II. General Classi- 
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Sampling and Valuation of Coal, Coke, etc. Chap. V. The 
Calorific Power of Coal and Coke. Chap. VI. Coke Ovens. 
Chap. VII. Coke Ovens, continued. Chap. VIII. Coke Ovens, 
continued. Chap. IX. Charging and Discharging of Coke Ovens. 
Chap. X. Cooling and Condensing Plant. Chap. XI. Gas Ex- 
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Chap. XIV. Treatment of Waste Gases from Sulphate Plants. 
Chap. XV. Valuation of Ammonium Sulphate. Chap. XVI. 
Direct Recovery of Ammonia from Coke Oven Gases. Chap. 
XVII. Surplus Gas from Coke Oven. Useful Tables. Very 
fully illustrated. t8.«0 net 



Gardner D. Hiscox. This is the most complete book on the 
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subject in a comprehensive manner, no phase of it being omitted. 
Over 500 illustrations, 5th Edition, revised and enlarged. 
Cloth bound; S5.00, Half morocco, 96,80 



Houghton. The process for making ornamental concrete with- 
out molds, has long been held as a secret and now, for the first 
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employing wood and metal templates of different designs, to 
mold or model in concrete any Cornice, Archivolt, Column, 
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upon the job. These may be molded , in units or blocks, and 
then built up to suit the specifications demanded. This work 
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CRETE USERS, By Myron H. Lbwis, C.E. This is a con- 
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manufacture and use of cement in all classes of modern works. 
The author has brought together in this work, all the salient 
matter of interest to the user of concrete and its many diversified 
products. The matter is presented in logical and systematic 
order, clearly written, fully illustrated and free from involved* 
mathematics. Everything of value to the concrete user is given. 
Among the chapters contained in the book are: I. Historical 
Development of the Uses of Cement and Concrete. II. Glossary 
of Terms employed in Cement and Concrete work. III. Kinds 
of Cement employed in Construction. IV. Limes, Ordinary and 
Hydraulic. V. Lime Plasters. VI. Natural Cements. VII. 
Portland Cements. VIII. Inspection and Testing. IX. Adul- 
teration; or Foreign Substances in Cement. X. Sand, Gravel 
and Broken Stone. XI. Mortar. XII. Grout. XIII. Con- 
crete (Plain). XIV. Concrete (Reinforced). XV. Methods 
and Kinds of Reinforcements. XVI. Forms for Plain and Re- 
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XXIII. Concrete in Water Works. XXIV. Concrete in Sewer 
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XXIX. Concrete in Bridge Work. XXX. Concrete in Docks 
and Wharves. XXXI. Concrete Construction under Water. 
XXXII. Concrete on the Farm. XXXIII. Concrete Chimneys. 
XXXIV. Concrete for Ornamentation. XXXV. Concrete 
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Concrete Work. XXXVII. Waterproofing Concrete Work. 
XXXVIII. Colorinr and Painting Concrete Work. XXXIX. 
Method of Finishin' Concrete Surfaces. XL. Specifications and 
Estimates for Cone i-eWork. _, •B.SO 



O'Conor Sloane. An indispensable work to all interested in 
electrical science. Suitable alike for the student and profession- 
al. A practical hand-book of reference containing definitions 
of about 5,000 distinct words, terms and phrases. The defini- 
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progress of this branch of science. Complete, concise and con- 
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Woodworth. A new book by a practical man, for those who 
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It shows how dies are designed, made and used, and those who 
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ING IN PRESSES. By T. V. Woodworth. An encyclo- 
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T. C. Kraus. This work gives the theory and practice of linear 
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Jr. The business end of any dynamo or motor of the direct 
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This machine when used as a dynamo has an output of fifty 
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BOOK. By Sydney F. Walker. This book puts in conven- 
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of the making at home of electrical toys, electrical apparatus, 
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can be the agent in lighting our streets, to tell what the volt, ohm 
and ampere are, and what high and low tension mean; and to 
answer the questions that perpetually arise in the mind in this 
age of electricity. 172 pages. Illustrated. 91.00 


By Prop. T. O'Conor Sloans. An interesting book from cover 
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202 pages. Illustrated. 91.00 

son. A handbook of theory and practice. This work is arranged 
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pages, 117 illustrations. 91.60 

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SWITCHBOARDS. By William Baxter, Jr. This book 
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Radclippe and H. C. Cushing. This book gives the principles 
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WIRING A HOUSE. By Herbert Pratt. Shows a house 
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By James Erskine-Murray. This work is free from elaborate 
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Glossary of Technical Work. Cloth. «1.00 



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metals, for signs, for china and porcelain, for wood, etc. Thor- 
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MENT AND MANAGEMENT. By 0. E. Perrigo, M.E. A 
work designed for the practical and every-day use of the Archi- 
tect who designs, the Manufacturers who build, the Engineers 
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OF SMOKE. By Wif. M. Barr. To be a success a fireman 
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To do this, he should know how coal burns, how smoke is formed 
and the proper burning of fuel to obtain the best results. He 
can learn this, and more too, from Barr's "Combustion of Coal." 
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Booth and Kbrshaw. As the title indicates, this book of 197 
pages and 75 illustrations deals with the problem of complete 
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Royle8. A practical treatise for the use of gas engineers, gas 
managers ana students. Including among its contents — Prepa- 
rations of Standard Solutions, Coal, Furnaces, Testing and 
Regulation. Products of Carbonization. Analysis of Crude Coal 
Gas. Analysis of Lime. Ammonia. Analysis of Oxide of Iron. 
Naphthalene. Analysis of Pire-Bricks and Fire-Clay. Weldom 
and Spent Oxide. Photometry and Gas Testing. Carbur- 
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Useful Tables. S4.50 

Horse-power Gas Engine. By Parsbll and Weed. A prac- 
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half -horse-power gas engine, with illustrations of the work in 
actual progress, together with dimensioned working drawings giv- 
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Hiscox. Just issued, 1 8th revised and enlarged edition. Every 
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right up-to-date. The only complete work on the subject. Tells 
all about the running and management of gas, gasoline and oil 
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Explosive motors for stationary, marine and vehicle power are 
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Ignition by Induction Coil and Jump Sparks are fully explained 
and illustrated, including valuable information on the testing for 
economy and power and the erection of power plants. 

The special information on producer and suction gasbs in- 
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The rules and regulations of the Board of Fire Underwriters 
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power. A list of United States Patents issued on Gas, Gasoline 
and Oil Engines and their adjuncts from 1875 to date is included. 
484 pages. 410 engravings. 89.60 net 



PLANTS. By R. E. Mathot, M.E. A practical treatise of 
po pages, fully illustrated by 175 detailed illustrations, setting 
orth the principles of ■gas engines and producer design, the selec- 
tion and installation of an engine, conditions of perfect opera- 
tion, producer-gas engines and their possibilities, the care of gas 
engines and producer-gas plants, with a chapter on volatile 
hydrocarbon and oil engines. This book has been endorsed by 
Dugal Clerk as a most useful work for all interested in Gas Engine 
installation and Producer Gas. S2.A0 


BETEL GEAR TABLES. By D. Ao. Engstrom. No one 
who has to do with bevel gears in any way should be without 
this book. The designer and draftsman will find it a great con- 
venience, while to the machinist who turns up the blanks or cuts 
the teeth, it is invaluable, as all needed dimensions are given 
and no fancy figuring need be done. 81.00 

CHANGE GEAR DEVICES. By Oscar E. Pbrrigo. A 
book for every designer, draftsman and mechanic who is inter- 
ested in feed changes for any kind of machines. This shows what 
has been done and how. Gives plans, patents and all information 
that you need. Saves hunting through patent records and rein- 
venting old ideas. A standard work of reference. 81.00 

DRAFTING OF CAMS. By Louis Rouillion. The 
laying out of cams is a serious problem unless you know how to 
go at it right. This puts you on the right road for practically 
any kind of cam you are likely to run up against. JB5 cents 


A treatise on the properties, power, and resources of water for all 
purposes. Including the measurement of streams; the flow of 
water in pipes or conduits; the horse-power of falling water; 
turbine and impact water-wheels; wave-motors, centrifugal, 
reciprocating, and air-lift pumps. With 300 figures and dia- 
grams and 36 practical tables. 320 pages. 84.00 


ING, By A. J. Wallis-Taylor. This is one of the latest and 
most comprehensive reference books published on the subject 
of refrigeration and cold storage. It explains the properties and 
refrigerating effect of the different fluids in use, the manage- 
ment of refrigerating machinery and the construction and insula- 
tion of cold rooms with their required pipe surface for different 
degrees of cold; freezing mixtures and non-freezing brines, 
temperatures of cold rooms for all kinds of provisions, cold 
storage charges for all classes of goods, ice making and storage of 
ice, data and memoranda for constant reference by refrigerating 
engineers, with nearly one hundred tables containing valuable 
references to every fact and condition required in the installment 
and operation of a refrigerating plant. 81.50 



PAT. This is a book designed as a guide to inventors in per- 
fecting their inventions, taking out their patents, and disposing 
of them. It is not in any sense a Patent Solicitor's Circular, 
nor a Patent Broker's Advertisement. No advertisements of any 
description appear in the work. It is a book containing a quarter 
of a century's experience of a successful inventor, together with 
notes based upon the experience of many other inventors. 81.00 


E. Perrigo. An up-to-date book on American Lathe Work, 
describing and illustrating the very latest practice in lathe ana 
boring-mill operations, as well as the construction of and latest 
developments in the manufacture of these important classes of 
machine tools. 300 pages, fully illustrated. 92.SO 

A work of 404 pages, fully illustrated, covering in a comprehen- 
sive manner the modern practice of machining metal parts in 
the lathe, including the regular engine lathe, its essential design, 
its uses, its tools, its attachments, and the manner of holding the 
work and performing the operations. The modernized engine 
lathe, its methods, tools, and great range of accurate work. The 
Turret Lathe, its tools, accessories and methods of performing 
its functions. Chapters on special work, grinding, tool holders, 
speeds, feeds, modern tool steels, etc., etc. 93.00 

vin. There are two ways to turn tapers; the right way and 
one other. This treatise has to do with the right way: it tells 
you how to start the work properly, how to set the lathe, what 
tools to use and how to use them, and forty and one other little 
things that you should know. Fourth edition. 26 cents 



By T. O'Conor Sloanb. Theory, history, biography, practical 
applications, manufacture. 365 pages. Illustrated. 92.00 


AIR-BRAKE CATECHISM. By Robert H. Blackall. 
This book is a standard text book. It covers the Westinghouse 
Air-Brake Equipment, including the No. 5 and the No. 6 E T 
Locomotive Brake Equipment; the K (Quick-Service) Triple 
Valve for Freight Service* and the Cross-Compound Pump. 
The operation of all parts of the apparatus is explained in detail, 
and a practical way of finding their peculiarities and defects, 
with a proper remedy, is given. It contains 2,000 questions with 
their answers, which will enable any railroad man to pass any 
examination on the subject of Air Brakes. Endorsed and used 
by air-brake instructors and examiners on nearly every rail- 
road in the United States. 23d Edition. 380 pages, fully 
illustrated with folding plates and diagrams. 82.00 




.-.'■ ' ■•:: 

everything cfearhyni: in; 
breakdowns and repairs. 14) pa) 


,lj-j-« on ,-f.riii„,uiicl5 published, 
balanced compound. Makes 

es. ' (1.00 

TO LOCOMDTIVKS. i!y K-miiRr (iAit-tK. A practical book. 
Contains special chapters on Generation of Highly Superheated 
Steam; Superheated Steam and the Two-Cylinder Simple 

I']tll;]mo; l'i.TT>,>.v:ui,i]|' ■:. ' S r;-...:i . 

S.\[^,'L-h.:.t..r-: '. ■ ■ti-.'t K.,;' , 1 : i, . 
Superheated Slcam; Experimental ;m 1 WoiW.v.-,- K.r.uUs. illus- 
trated With folding plates and tables. K.SO 


OFSMOKI ];v W>, M El.wit. Tu :.,- a sii,«« a fireman 
must be -Light on Coal. " He rr^=:,t t:,,i, hi, jirt- in youd eon- 

To Wthis, he shouMknow^wcoaf burn's. hcVsTn°olfc is^r 1" V. i 

andtheproperburning-.f lu.-i it. ..r-l IK,- [,l-m faults, He 

conlearn this, ^..a ,,.,,:.> m, ,,:>., ::■,!!. >:. • "C-m bullion of Coal." 

!■ .■ ■ ■■ ■ :■■ ■ ■■.■■ ■■!,, i- . , .. 

of a Locomotive. Nearly 350 pages, iully illustrated. (LOO 


Fred H.Colyin. Associate Edi 

... .■.,■:■.; 
Piston and slide valves of rlilfi 
explained. A book that every 


ir of "An-trk-an Machinist. 

v:,iv,- •:,■! ;:,!,;. 
iw, In."' ;lity ivork.amlwhy. 


A. KtBlSHASS. The only book showing 
boilers are built in modern shop'. Sh,w.-« 1 

life 01 rfyeting 'punch™ and dies", work done' 

lars.'to any "railrold man. 431 pages, H a 

ON. By Frank 

1 types of boilers 
al facts, such as 
er day, allowance 
a that means dol- 


EDIES. By Ceo. L. Fowler. Revised b 
Air-Brake Instructor, lust i'iHuer! 1...0 Kevi 
It is out of til.- .jin-Mio.i 10 If and t -_■ 1 1 vim a 

ili:il 1 

Just Imagine all the common troubles that an 
pect to happen some time, and then add all 
ones, troubles that , , nul.l occur, but that you 

best methods of repair. \Y*K-!",;irri 1. 1.011 
Troubles, Eiectric HeadliphtTr-.r ■ 
Answers on the Air Brake are all iiulu k-.l. 


Wm. W. Wood, 
ed pocket edition, 
jout every subject 
live Breakdowns. 

>f the unexpected 
ad never thought 

itive V«l»» Rear 
as Questions and 
904 pages. Fully 



J7th revised and enlarged edition. This ma> 

encyc!nt*iiir; of !'"■ '■"■■•ri'.n:v,\ (.'nntiiiiB o\ 


well be called an 

monp them those 
's Examinations. 




H. Blackall. This is a complete treatise on the New York 
Air-Brake and Air-Signalling Apparatus, giving a detailed de- 
scription of all the parts, their operation, troubles, and the 
methods of locating and remedying the same. 200 pages, fully 
illustrated. $1.00 


CUM. By Frbd H. Colvin, Associate Editor "American 
Machinist.' ( Different from any book you ever saw. Gives clear 
and concise information on just the points you are interested in. 
It's really a pocket dictionary, fully illustrated, and so arranged 
that you can find just what you want in a second without an 
index. Whether you are interested in Axles or Acetylene; Com- 
pounds or Counter Balancing; Rails or Reducing Valves; Tires 
or Turntables, you'll find them in this little book. It's very 
-complete. Flexible cloth cover, aoo pages. 91.00 

Contains the standard code for both single and double track and 
explains how trains are handled under all conditions. Gives all 
signals in colors, is illustrated wherever necessary, and the 
most complete book in print on this important subject. Bound 
in fine seal flexible leather. aai pages. $1.60 


Wm. W. Wood. If you would thoroughly understand the 
Walschaert Valve Gear, you should possess a copy of this book. 
The author divides the subject into four divisions, as follows: 
I. Analysis of the gear. II. Designing and erecting of the gear 
III. Advantages of the gear. IV. Questions and answers re 
lating to the Walschaert Valve Gear. This book is specially valu- 
able to those preparing for promotion. Nearly 300 pages. $1.50 

Instructor. A practical work containing examination questions 
and answers on the E T Equipment. Covering what the E T 
Brake is. How it should be operated. What to do when de- 
fective. Not a question can be asked of the engineman up for 
promotion on either the No. 5 or the No. 6 E T equipment that 
is not asked and answered in the book. If you want to thor- 
oughly understand the E T equipment get a copy of this book. 
It covers every detail. Makes Air-Brake troubles and examina- 
tions easy. Fully illustrated with colored plates, showing 
various pressures. $2.00 


practical treatise on the designing, constructing, use, and in- 
stallation of tools, jigs, fixtures, devices, special appliances, 
sheet-metal working processes, automatic mechanisms, and 
1 abor-saving contrivances; together with their use in the lathe 
milling machine, turret lathe, screw machine, boring mill, power 
press, drill, subpress, drop hammer, etc., for the working of 
metals, the production of interchangeable machine parts, and 
the manufacture of repetition articles of metal. 560 pages, 
600 illustrations. $4.00 


G. Horner. A.M.I.Mech.I. This work covers the entire prac- 
tice of Civil and Mechanical Engineering. The best known ex- 
perts in all branches of engineering have contributed to these 
volumes. The Cyclopedia is admirably well adapted to the needs 
of the beginner and the self-taught practical man, as well as the 
mechanical engineer, designer, draftsman, shop superintendent, 
foreman and machinist. 

It is a modern treatise in five volumes. Handsomely bound 
in Half Morocco, each volume containing nearly 500 pages, with 
thousands of illustrations, including diagrammatic and sectional 
drawings with full explanatory details. 925.00 for the com- 
plete set of five volumes. 96.00 per volume, when ordered singly. 

Most popular book for shop men. Shows how all shop problems 
are worked out and "why." Includes change gears for cutting 
any threads; drills, taps, shink and force fits; metric system 
of measurements and threads. Used by all classes of mechanics 
and for instruction of Y. M. C. A. and other schools. Fifth 
edition. 131 pages. 60 cents 

VICES. By Gardner D. Hiscox. This is a collection of 1890 
engravings of different mechanical motions and appliances, ac- 
companied by appropriate text, making it a book of great value 
to the inventor, the draftsman, and to all readers with mechanical 
tastes. The book is divided into eighteen sections or chapters 
in which the subject matter is classified under the following 
heads: Mechanical Powers, Transmission of Power, Measurement 
of Power, Steam Power, Air Power Appliances, Electric Power 
and Construction, Navigation and Roads, Gearing, Motion and 
Devices, Controlling Motion, Horological, Mining, Mill and 
Factory Appliances, Construction and Devices, Drafting Devices, 
Miscellaneous Devices, etc. nth edition. 400 octavo pages. 



Gardner D. Hiscox. This is a supplementary volume to the 
one upon mechanical movements. Unlike the first volume, 
which is more elementary in character, this volume contains 
illustrations and descriptions of many combinations of motions 
and of mechanical devices and appliances found in different lines 
of Machinery. Each device being shown by a line drawing with 
a description showing its working parts and the method of opera- 
tion. From the multitude of devices described, and illustrated, 
might be mentioned, in passing, such items as conveyors and 
elevators, Prony brakes, thermometers, various types of boilers, 
solar engines, oil-fuel burners, condensers, evaporators, Corliss 
and other valve gears, governors, gas engines, water motors of 
various descriptions, air ships, motors and dynamos, automobile 
and motor bicycles, railway block signals, car couples, link and 
gear motions, ball bearings, breech block mechanism for heavy 
guns, and a large accumulation of others of equal importance. 
1,000 specially made engravings. 396 octavo pages. 82.60 

SPECIAL OFFER These two volumes sell for $2.50 each, 
* *.******- urrbn but when the two volumes are ordered 
at one time from us, we send them prepaid to any address in the 
world, on receipt of $4.00. You save $1 by ordering the two 
volumes of Mechanical Movements at one time. 


MENT AND MANAGEMENT. By Oscar E. Perrioo. 
The only work published that describes the Modern Machine 
Shop or Manufacturing Plant from the time the grass is growing 
on the site intended for it until the finished product is shipped. 
Just the book needed by those contemplating the erection of 
modern shop buildings, the rebuilding and reorganization of old 
ones, or the introduction of Modern Shop Methods, Time and 
Cost Systems. It is a book written and illustrated by a prac- 
tical shop man for practical shop men who are too busy to read 
theories and want facts. It is the most complete all-around book 
of its kind ever published. 400 large quarto pages, 325 original 
and specially-made illustrations. 90.00 


W. H. Vandbrvoort. A work of 555 pages and 673 illustra- 
tions, describing in every detail the construction, operation, and 
manipulation of both Hand and Machine Tools. Includes 
chapters on filing, fitting, and scraping surfaces; on drills, ream- 
ers, taps, and dies; the lathe and its tools; planers, shapers, 
and their tools; milling machines and cutters; gear cutters and 
gear cutting; drilling machines and drill work; grinding ma- 
chines ana their work; hardening and tempering; gearing, 
belting and transmission machinery; useful data and tables. 


book might be called a compendium of shop methods, showing a 
variety of special tools and appliances which will give new ideas 
to many mechanics from the superintendent down to the man 
at the bench. It will be found a valuable addition to any machin- 
ist's library and should be consulted whenever a new or difficult 
job is to be done, whether it is boring, milling, turning, or plan- 
ing, as they are all treated in a practical manner. Fifth edition. 
320 pages, 250 illustrations. $2.50 

MODERN MECHANISM. Edited by Park Benjamin. A 
practical treatise on machines, motors and the transmission of 
power, being a complete work and a supplementary volume to 
Appleton's Cyclopedia of Applied Mechanics. Deals solely with 
the principal and most useful advances of the past few years. 
959 pages containing over 1,000 illustrations; bound in half 
morocco. S4.00 

Horner. This book describes and illustrates the Milling Ma- 
chine and its work in such a plain, clear, and forceful manner, 
and illustrates the subject so clearly and completely, that the 
up-to-date machinist, student, or mechanical engineer can not 
afford to do without the valuable information which it contains. 
It describes not only the early machines of this class, but notes 
their gradual development into the splendid machines of the 
present day, giving the design and construction of the various 
types, forms, and special features produced by prominent 
manufacturers, American and foreign. 304 pages, 300 illustra- 
tions. 94.00 

" SHOP KINKS." By Robert Grimshaw. This shows 
special methods of doing work of various kinds, and reducing 
cost of production. Has hints and kinks from some of the largest 
shops in this country and Europe. You are almost sure to nrd 
some that apply to your work, and in such a way as to save time 
and trouble. 400 pages. Fourth edition. $2.50 



Joseph G. Horner. A practical treatise of 340 pages, fully 
illustrated and comprising a general description and classifica- 
tion of cutting tools and tool angles, allied cutting tools for 
machinists and woodworkers; shearing tools; scraping tools; 
saws; milling cutters; drilling and boring tools; taps and dies: 
punches and hammers; and the hardening, tempering and 
grinding of these tools. Tools for measuring and testing work, 
including standards of measurement; surface plates; levels; 
surface gauges; dividers; calipers; verniers; micrometers; 
snap, cylindrical and limit gauges; screw thread, wire and 
reference gauges, indicators, templets, etc. $3.50 


Rouillion. The. only book that gives just the information 
needed by all interested in manual training, regarding buildings, 
equipment and supplies. Shows exactly what is needed for all 
grades of the work from the Kindergarten to the High and Nor- 
mal School. Gives itemized lists of everything needed and tells 
just what it ought to cost. Also shows where to buy supplies. 



AND CONSTRUCTION. By Dr. G. Bauer, Leslie S. 
Robertson, and S. Bryan Donkin. This work is clearly 
written, thoroughly systematic, theoretically sound; while the 
character of its plans, drawings, tables, and statistics is without 
reproach. The illustrations are careful reproductions from 
actual working drawings, with some well-executed photographic 
views of completed engines and boilers. $9.00 net 


son. This book gives a condensed account of the ore-deposits 
at present known in South Africa. It is also intended as a guide 
to the prospector. Only an elementary knowledge of geology 
and some mining experience are necessary in order to under- 
stand this work. With these qualifications, it will materially 
assist one in his search for metalliferous mineral occurrences 
and, so far as simple ores are concerned, should enable one to 
form some idea of the possibilities of any they may find. 

Among the chapters given are: Titaniferous and Chromif- 
erous Iron Oxides — Nickel — Copper — Cobalt — Tin — Molyb- 
denum — Tungsten — Lead — Mercury — Antimony — I r o n — Hints 
to Prospectors. Illustrated. 82.00 

portant work, containing 428 pages and 213 illustrations, com- 
plete with practical details, which will intuitively impart to the 
reader, not only a general knowledge of the principles of coal 
mining, but also considerable insight into allied subjects. The 
treatise is positively up to date in every instance, and should 
be in the hands of every colliery engineer, geologist, mine 
operator, superintendent, foreman, and all others who are in- 
terested in or connected with the industry. 82.50 



Btrom. A practical work for the use of all preparing for ex- 
aminations in mining or qualifying for colliery managers' cer- 
tificates. The aim of the author in this excellent book is to place 
clearly before the reader useful and authoritative data which 
will render him valuable assistance in his studies. The only work 
of its kind published. The information incorporated in it will 
prove of the greatest practical utility to students, mining en- 
gineers, colliery managers, and all others who are specially in- 
terested in the present-day treatment of mining problems. x6o 
pages. Illustrated. 92.00 


BRONZES. Henley's Twentieth Century Receipt Book con- 
tains many practical formulas on bronze casting, imitation 
bronze, bronze polishes, renovation of bronze. See page 34 for 
full description of this book. 93.00 

one who appreciates the effect of such great inventions as the 
Steam Engine, Steamboat, Locomotive, Sewing Machine, Steel 
Working, and other fundamental discoveries, is interested in 
knowing a little about the men who made them and their achieve- 

Mr. Goddard has selected thirty-two of the world's engineers 
who have contributed most largely to the advancement of our 
civilization by mechanical means, giving only such facts as are of 
general interest and in a way which appeals to all, whether 
mechanics or not. a 80 pages, 35 illustrations. SI. SO 

LAWS OF BUSINESS, By Thbophilus Parsons, LL.D. 
The Best Book for Business Men ever Published. Treats clearly 
of Contracts, Sales, Notes, Bills of Exchange, Agency, Agree- 
ment, Stoppage in Transitu, Consideration, Limitations, Leases, 
Partnership, Executors, Interest, Hotel Keepers, Fire and Life 
Insurance, Collections, Bonds, Frauds, Receipts, Patents, Deeds, 
Mortgages, Liens, Assignments, Minors, Married Women, Arbi- 
tration, Guardians, Wills, etc. Three Hundred Approved Forms 
are given. Every Business Man should have a copy of this book 
for ready reference. The book is bound in full sheep, and Con- 
tains 864 Octavo Pages. Our special price. $3.50 


This is a very complete and entirely practical treatise on the 
subject of pattern making, illustrating pattern work in wood and 
metal. From its pages you are taught just what you should 
know about pattern making. It contains a detailed description 
of the materials used by pattern makers, also the tools, both 
those for hand use, and the more interesting machine tools; hav- 
ing complete chapters on The Band Saw, The Buzz Saw, and The 
Lathe. Individual patterns of many different kinds are fully 
illustrated and described, and the mounting of metal patterns on 
plates for molding machines is included. 93.00 


Hiscox. The most valuable Techno-Chemical Receipt Book 
published. Contains over 10,000 practical Receipts many of 
which will prove of special value to the perfumer, a mine of in- 
formation, up to date in every respect. Cloth, 93.00; half 
morocco. See page 34 for full description of this book. 94.00 



Askinson, Perfumer. A comprehensive treatise, in which 
there has been nothing omitted that could be of value to the 
Perfumer. Complete directions for making handkerchief per- 
fumes, smelling-salts, sachets, fumigating pastilles; preparations 
for the care of the skin, the mouth, the hair, cosmetics, hair dyes 
and other toilet articles are given, also a detailed description 
of aromatic substances; their nature, tests of purity, and 
wholesale manufacture. A book of general, as well as profes- 
sional interest, meeting the wants not only of the druggist and 
perfume manufacturer, but also of the general public. Third 
edition. 312 pages. Illustrated. 93.00 



Starbuck. The author of this book, Mr. R. M. Starbuck, is one 
of the leading authorities on plumbing in the United States. The 
book represents the highest standard of plumbing work. It has 
been adopted and used as a reference book by the United States 
Government, in its sanitary work in Cuba, Porto Rico and the 
Philippines, and by the principal Boards of Health of the United 
States and Canada. 

It gives Connections, Sizes and Working Data for All Fixtures 
and Groups of Fixtures. It is helpful to the Master Plumber in 
Demonstrating to his customers and in figuring work. It gives 
the Mechanic and Student quick and easy Access to the best 
Modern Plumbing Practice^ Suggestions for Estimating Plumb- 
ing Construction are contained in its pages. This book repre- 
sents, in a word, the latest and best up-to-date practice, and 
should be in the hands of every architect, sanitary engineer 
and plumber who wishes to keep himself up to the minute on this 
important feature of construction. 400 octavo pages, fully 
illustrated by 55 full- page engravings. 94.00 


ner D. Hiscox. Contains upward of 10,000 practical receipts, 
including among them formulas on artificial rubber. See page 
34 for full description of this book. S3.00 

OF INDIA RUBBER. By T. O'Conor Sloane. This book 
gives full details on all points, treating in a concise and simple 
manner the elements of nearly everything it is necessary to under- 
stand for a commencement in any branch of the India Rubber 
Manufacture. The making of all kinds of Rubber Hand Stamps, 
Small Articles of India Rubber, U. S. Government Composi- 
tion, Dating Hand Stamps, the Manipulation of Sheet Rubber, 
Toy Balloons, India Rubber Solutions, Cements, Blackings, 
Renovating Varnish, and Treatment for India Rubber Shoes, 
etc.; the Hektograph Stamp Inks, and Miscellaneous Notes, 
with a Short Account of the Discovery, Collection, and Manufac- 
ture of India Rubber are set forth in a manner designed to be 
readily understood, the explanations being plain and simple. 
Second edition. 144 pages. Illustrated. 91.00 




Robert Grimshaw. A practical hand book on filing, gumming, 
swaging, hammering, and the brazing of band saws, the speed, 
work, and power to run circular saws, etc. A handy book for 
those who have charge of saws, or for those mechanics who do 
their own filing, as it deals with the proper shape and pitches of 
saw teeth of all kinds and gives many useful hints and rules for 
gumming, setting, and filing, and is a practical aid to those who 
use saws for any purpose. New edition, revised and enlarged. 
Illustrated. SI. 00 


Stabel. This clears up many of the mysteries of thread- 
cutting, such as double and triple threads, internal threads, catch- 
ing threads, use of hobs, etc. Contains a lot of useful hints and 
several tables. 25 cents 



Wood worth. A new book by a practical man, for those who 
wish to know the latest practice in the working of sheet metals. 
It shows how dies are designed, made and used, and those who 
are engaged in this line of work can secure many valuable 
suggestions. 93.00 

ING IN PRESSES. By J. V. Woodworth. A work of 500 
pages and illustrated by nearly 700 engravings, being an en- 
cyclopedia of die-making, punch-making, die sinking, sheet- 
metal working, and making of special tools, subpresses, devices 
and mechanical combinations for punching, cutting.^ bending, 
forming, piercing, drawing, compressing, and assembling sheet- 
metal parts and also articles of other materials in machine tools. 




E. Crank. A new book by a well-known author. Begins at 
the boiler room and takes in the whole power plant. Contains 
the result of years of practical experience in all sorts of engine 
rooms and gives exact information that cannot be found else- 
where. It's plain enough for practical men and yet of value to 
those high in the profession. Has a complete examination for a 
license. 92.00 

BOILER ROOM CHART. By Geo. L. Fowler. A Chart 
— size 14x28 inches — showing in isometric perspective the 
mechanisms belonging in a modern boiler room. Water tube 
boilers, ordinary grates and mechanical stokers, feed water 
heaters and pumps comprise the equipment. The various parts 
are shown broken or removed, so that the internal construction 
is fully illustrated. Each part is given a reference number, and 
these, with the corresponding name, are given in a glossary 
printed at the sides. 1 his chart is really a dictionary of the 
boiler room — the names of more than 200 parts being given. 
It is educational — worth many times its cost. 25 cents 



shaw. Tells how to erect, adjust, and run the principal steam 
engines in use in the United States. The work is of a handy 
size for the pocket. To young engineers this catechism whl be 
of great value, especially to those who may be preparing to go 
forward to be examined for certificates of competency; and 
to engineers generally it will be of no little service as they will 
find in this volume more really practical and useful information 
than is to be found anywhere else within a like compass. 387 
pages. Sixth edition. 82.03 


J. Buchetti. This work fully describes and illustrates the 
method of testing the power of steam engines, turbine and 
explosive motors. The properties of steam and the evapora- 
tive power of fuels. Combustion of fuel and chimney draft; 
with formulas explained or practically computed. 255 pages, 
1 79 illustrations. $3.00 

HORSE POWER CHART. Shows the horse power of any 
stationary engine without calculation. No matter what the 
cylinder diameter or stroke; the steam pressure or cut-oti ; the 
revolutions, or whether condensing or non-condensing, it's all 
there. Easy to use, accurate, and saves time and calculations. 
Especially useful to engineers and designers. 50 cents 

PRACTICE. By Gardner D. Hiscox. This is a complete and 
practical work issued for Stationary Engineers and Firemen 
dealing with the care and management of Boilers, Engines, 
Pumps, Superheated Steam, Refrigerating Machinery! Dyna- 
mos, Motors, Elevators, Air Compressors, and all other branches 
with which the modern Engineer must be familiar. Nearly 
200 Questions with their Answers on Steam and Electrical 
Engineering, likely to be asked by the Examining Board, are 
included. 487 pages, 405 engravings. S3. 00 

This volume of 413 pages is not only a catechism on the question 
and answer principle; but it contains formulas and worked-out 
answers for all the Steam problems that appertain to the opera- 
tion and management of the Steam Engine. Illustrations of 
various valves and valve gear with their principles of operation 
are given. 3 4 tables that are indispensable to every engineer and 
fireman that wishes to be progressive and is ambitious to become 
master of his calling are within its pages. It is a most vamable 
instructor in the service of Steam Engineering. Leading en- 
gineers have recommended it as a valuable educator for the be- 
ginner as well as a reference book for the engineer. Sixteenth 
edition. 93.00 

Cheney. A practical pocket book for the Steam Engineer. 
Shows how to work the problems of the engine room and shows 
"why." Tells how to figure horse-power of engines and boilers; 
area of boilers; has tables of areas and circumferences; steam 
tables; has a dictionary of engineering terms. Puts you onto 
all of the little kinks in figuring whatever there is to figure 
around a power plant. Tells you about the heat unit; absolute 
zero; adiabatic expansion; duty of engines; factor of safety; 
and 1. 00 1 other things; and everything is plain and simple — 
not the hardest way to figure, but the easiest. 50 tents 



*— ■'■ ■-■ — ■■■ ■ ■ - , ■ m MM ,.,!■. , m* 

VENTILATION. By A. G. King. This book is the standard 
and latest work published on the subject and has been prepared 
for the use of all engaged in the business of steam, hot-water 
heating and ventilation. It is an original and exhaustive work. 
Tells how to get heating contracts, how to install heating and 
ventilating apparatus, the best business methods to be used, with 
"Tricks of the Trade" for shop use. Rules and data for esti- 
mating radiation and cost and such tables and information as 
make it an indispensable work for everyone interested in steam, 
hot -water heating and ventilation. It describes all the principal 
systems of steam, hot-water, vacuum, vapor and vacuum- 
vapor heating, together with the new accelerated systems of 
hot-water circulation, including chapters on up-to-date methods 
of ventilation and the fan or blower system of heating and venti- 

You should secure a copy of this book, as each chapter con- 
tains a mine of practical information. 367 pages, 300 detailed 
engravings. 93.00 


TION. By Wm. H. Booth. The work is well illustrated in regard 
to pipe joints, expansion offsets, flexible joints, and self-contained 
sliding joints for taking up the expansion of long pipes. In fact, 
the chapters on the flow of Steam and expansion of pipes are most 
valuable to all steam fitters and users. The pressure strength of 
r>il>es and method of hanging them is well treated and illustrated. 
Valves and by-passes are fully illustrated and described, as are 
also flange joints and their proper proportions. Exhaust heads 
and separators. One of the most valuable chapters is that on 
superheated steam and the saving of steam by insulation with 
the various kinds of felting and other materials, with comparison 
tables of the loss of heat in thermal units from naked and felted 
steam pipes. Contains 187 pages. 92.00 



The standard work on hardening, tempering and annealing steel 
of all kinds. A practical book for the machinist, tool maker or 
superintendent. Shows just how to secure best results in any 
case that comes along. How to make and use furnaces and case 
harden; how to handle high-speed steel and how to temper for all 
classes of work. 82.60 

FORGING OF STEEL. By T. V. Woodworth. A new book 
containing special directions tor the successful hardening and 
tempering of all steel tools. Milling cutters, taps, thread dies, 
reamers, both solid and shell, hollow mills, punches and dies, 
and all kinds of sheet-metal working tools, shear blades, saws. 
fine cutlery and metal -cutting tools of all -descriptions, as well 
as for all implements of steel both large and small, the simplest, 
and most satisfactory hardening and tempering processes are 
presented. The uses to which the leading brands of steel may be 
adapted are concisely presented, and their treatment for work- 
ing under different conditions explained, as are also the special 
methods for the hardening and tempering of special brands. 
3 20 pages, 250 illustrations. 92.60 


ner D. Hiscox. The most valuable techno-chemical Receipt 
book published, giving, among other practical receipts, methods 
of annealing, coloring, tempering, welding, plating, polishing 
and cleaning steel. See page 34 for full description of this book. 



Gardner D. Hiscox. Contains upwards of 10,000 practical 
formulas including many watchmakers' formulas. S3.00 

WATCHMAKER'S HANDBOOK. By Claudius Saunier. 
No work issued can compare with this book for clearness and 
completeness. It contains 498 pages and is intended as a work- 
shop companion for those engaged in Watchmaking and allied 
Mechanical Arts. Nearly 250 engravings and fourteen plates 
are included. * $3.00 



By James Erskinb-Murray. This work is free from elaborate 
details and aims at giving a clear survey of the way in which 
Wireless Telephones work. It is intended for amateur workers 
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duction of Alternating Currents of High Frequency — How the 
Electric Waves are Radiated and Received — The Receiving 
Instruments — Detectors — Achievements and Expectations — 
Glossary of Technical Words. Cloth. §1.00 


Henley's Twentieth Century 

Book of 

| Recipes, Formulas 
and Processes 

■ Edited by GARDNER D. HISCOX, M.E. 
Price $3.00 Cloth Bindini $4.00 Half Mor K » Bindint 

Contain* over 10,000 Selected Scientific, Chemical, 

Technological and Practical Recipes and 

Proceitei, including Hundreds of 

So-Called Trade Secrets 


for Every Business 

THIS book oE 800 pages is the most complete Book of 
Recipes ever published, giving thousands of recipes 
for the manufacture of valuable articles forevery-iijy 
use. Hints, Helps, Practical Ideas and -Secret 1'rocesscs 
ate revealed within its pages. It cavers every branch of 
Uie useful ana and tells thousands of ways of making 
money and is just the book everyone should have at his 

The pages are filled with matters of intense interest and 
immeasurable practical value to the Photographer, the 
Perfumer, the Painter, the Manufacturer of Glues, Pastes, 
Cements and Mucilages, the Physician, the Druggist, the 
Electrician, the Brewer, the Engineer, the Foundryman, 
the Machinist, the Potter, the Tanner, the Confectioner, 
the Chiropodist, the Manufacturer of Chemical Novelties 
and Toilet Preparations, the Dyer, the Elect roplater, 
the Enameler, the Engraver, the Provisioner, the Glass 
Worker, the Goldbeater, the Watchmaker and Jeweler, 
the Ink Manufacturer, the Optician, ihe farmer, the Dairy- 
man, the Paper Maker, the Metal Worker, the Soap Maker, 
the Veterinary Surgeon, and the Technologist in general. 
A book to which you may turn with confidence that yon 
will find what you are looking for. A mine of informa- 
tion up-to-date in every respect. Coi-ta 
number of formulas that every oneought to have that 
not found in any other work. 

r .