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from information compiled by the following 
Committee on Electric Advertising and Orna- 
mental street-lighting of the Commercial Sec- 
tion of the National Electric Light Association: 

WILLIAM H. HODGE, Chairman, Publicity Man- 
ager of H. M. Byllesby & Company, 
Chicago, 111. 

C. W. BENDER, Secretary, Commercial Engineer 
of the National Electric Lamp Association, 
Cleveland, O. 

A. LARNEY, Manager of the New Business De- 

partment, Consumers' Power Company, 
St. Paul, Minn. 

C. L. ESHLEMAN, Publicity Manager of the 
Adams-Bagnall Company, Cleveland, O. 

B. W. MENDENHALL, Commercial Agent of the 

Utah Railway & Light Company, Salt Lake 
City, Utah. 

T. G. WHALING, Assistant Manager of the West- 
inghouse Lamp Company, Bloomfield, N. J. 

HENRY SCHROEDER, Assistant to Manager of 
the Lamp Sales Department, General Elec- 
tric Company, Harrison, N. J. 

PHILIP S. DODD (ex-officio), Director of Publi- 
city of the National Electric Lamp As- 
sociation, Cleveland, O. 

EUGENE CREED (ex-officio), Sales Manager of 
the Morris Iron Company, Frederick, Md. 

H. I. MARKHAM (ex-officio), General Manager 
of the Federal Sign System (Electric), 
Chicago, 111. 




The money value of a "Great White Way." 

Light is made to see by, not to look at. 

Lamp-posts must be beautiful by day as well 
as by night. 

The amount of money available is the govern- 
ing consideration. 



Sign-lighting advertises a thing far and wide; 
window-lighting attracts the passer-by ; street- 
lighting arouses the talk of a whole country. 

The wonderfully efficient and serviceable new . 


Dollars and cents. 




The kind of distribution aft'ects the cost of 
the installation. 


They have found that good street- lighting 



Write to any of them for information; it costs 



In Michigan Boulevard, Chicago has probably the most 
beautiful stretch of "white way" lighting in the world 

The Business Side of Street-lighting 

ONSIDER the case of The case of 


Minnesota Street, be- street. 

gloom and 

tween 4th and 7th Streets stagnation to 

light and 

in St. Paul. In 1910 it acti 
was a gloomy thoroughfare, flanked 
by dreary buildings, most of them 
dilapidated. In 1912 it is a prosperous street in which 
new buildings are taking the place of the old. 

Good street-lighting and nothing else did that. 

A hundred towns in the United States and Canada 
can point to dead Minnesota streets that have been 
electrified by light into life. Their myriad lamps 
mean civic pride, prosperity, cleanliness, health, safety, 
enterprise everything that a business man expects 
of the town in which he lives. 

Good street-lighting pays in dollars and cents 
pays tremendously in attracting business, pays in 
greater real estate values, pays in animating avenues 
that would die after sunset. It is light that has made 
Broadway, in New York, the most talked-of street in 

" Undoubtedly this method of lighting has been one 
of the influences contributing to an increase of 
population. It has given the city wide adver- 
tising and been an attractive force." 
W. G. N YE 

Secretary Dept. of Public Affairs 
Commercial Club 
Minneapolis, Minn. 


At Charlottenburg, Germany, may be 
seen a remarkably successful effort to 
harmonize the street-lighting installation 
with monumental structures. Note how 
admirably the monumental lighting pil- 
lars accord with the triumphal portal in 
the background. This is ornamental 
street-lighting carried to a wonderful 
pitch of perfection, a model for larger 
American cities to follow. 



North and South America and the most prosperous 
avenue in the world; light that causes newspapers to 
advertise it gratuitously as the "Great White Way." 

So markedly does light influence busi- Good street- 
ness that property on one side of a street 
is often worth more than on the other, 
simply because of the difference in lighting. estat| h vaiies! 
Several Cleveland business men, whose stores are on 
the north side of Euclid Avenue, between East 55th 
and East 66th Streets, installed a block of ornamental 
street fixtures. A few years ago the north side of 
the street had a practical monopoly of the business. 
Five walked on that side to one on the other. People 
crossed the street in order to walk on the north side. 
Why? Because that side was brightly illuminated, 
and the other was not. All that is changed now, 
simply because both sides are equally well lighted. 
Property along Euclid Avenue is worth just as much 
on one side as on the other, where the new system 
has been installed. 

A man is judged by the clothes he wears, the house 
he lives in, the business in which he is engaged. He 
creates the impression that he makes; therefore the 
impression is an index of his character. 

So, too, a city is judged by impressions. It may 
have the finest climate in the world; it may be for- 
tunately situated near rivers and railways; it may 
have every natural advantage that a business man 
may desire. Yet, if it be unattractive, dirty and 
gloomy, its development will be slow. When it does 
develop, the first impetus will be given by changing 
its appearance for the better; and in that change 
street-lighting will play an important part. 

"The effect of this has been the very great increase 
in the use of the street at night. The increase i/i 
realty values along the street has been nothing 
less than admirable." 


Secretary, Chamber <>f Commerce 

Raleigh, X. C. 


Despite the amount of light already pro- 
vided by other sources in Oklahoma 
City, this municipality of seventy 
thousand people proceeded to install 
ornamental street-lighting systems to 
which large extensions are being planned. 
The photograph was taken in 1909 before 
the ornamental street-lighting was put 
in. It is a view of Broadway from a high 
building. Who can doubt that crowds 
flock to this blaze of light like moths? 


There is a right and wrong way of Light is made 

,. i .. .. %, . to see by, not 

lighting a city. Experience has shown to look at. 
that. Good taste and the limitations of the eye are 
now considered where once they were ignored. 

Lighting Right and Wrong 

Take the mere matter of "glare," for example. 
Glare is the result of looking at a light instead of 
seeing by it. Better than any man, the motorist 
knows what glare is. When he drives from a dark 
spot toward an intense light, he finds that he cannot 
see beyond the light; accordingly he sits back and 
trusts to luck that there is no person or obstruction 
beyond. The illuminating engineer the man who 
specifies the kind of lights you ought to use and where 
they are to be placed now knows that glare is pro- 
duced by hanging an excessively bright light so low 
that the rays enter the eye nearly horizontally, with 
the result that every image on the retina is drowned. 
Therefore he avoids it so far as he can. 

So, too, a flickering light is bad. It compels the 
eye to adjust itself continually to ever-changing 
intensities. The incandescent lamp was never open 
to that objection. In recent years the arc-lamp has 
been so vastly improved that it no longer flickers 

The placing of lights in the right way uiSmSStt&n* 
to obtain the most uniform illumination not hi s h can - 

die-power in 

oners problems of its own. Twenty-five ?P ot8 is the 

. . * ideal to be at- 

years ago cities began to use the arc-lamp tamed, 
extensively. But the lamps, besides flickering, con- 
sumed much current. Hence they could be used only 
sparingly at wide distances apart. Because of their 

"7 consider the general advertising value to the 
community at large has been very good. It has 
had the effect of adding both to the artistic beauty 
and cleanliness of my city." 

Commissioner of Industries 
Hamilton, Ontario 


The ornamental street-lighting system 
of Puebla, Mexico. The standards used 
have commended themselves to many 
municipalities. The selection of a 
standard is not easy. What will it cost? 
Is it really practical in form? Is it well- 
designed? These three questions must 
always be answered by those who are 
commissioned to select electric-light 
standards. This type happens to meet 
the requirements of many communities. 


A> <AtS. 


high candle-power there were intensely bright spots 
immediately around the lamps and great dark spaces 
in between. If one of a string of lights failed the con- 
ditions were still worse. Moreover, the lamps had 
to be hung high above the ground, so that shade-trees 
in residential districts cut off part of their light. 

These difficulties are nowadays avoided by lamp- 
posts properly arranged. The posts may be planted 
either in a straight line on one side of the street or in 
the middle; or they may be staggered, in other words 
so placed that a post on one side lies midway between 
two posts on the opposite side. The straight line 
method is the cheaper; but the staggered arrangement 
distributes the light more evenly. 

Every city has its business section, its residence 
district, and its public parks and drives. For each a 
different system of lighting is usually required. 

The merchant in the business section wants much 
light to attract people to his street. The house-owner 
in the residential district is not concerned so much 
with the attainment of exceedingly bright illumination 
as with the proper distribution of the lights allotted 
to his section; in other words he must illuminate the 
greatest possible area with a given amount of money. 
In public parks and drives ornamental fixtures are 
required that give comparatively high illumination, 
so that the roads and paths can be seen. Everywhere 
the police value of lighting must be considered. 

How Business Sections Should be Lighted 

The lighting of a business section must Business con- 
be governed by business considerations. It gov^m 10 light- 
must be brilliant, so that people will be sections" 81 

" Well-lighted streets naturally lead to the necessity 
for cleaner streets, better store-fronts and other 
progressive tendencies. Realty values are 
enhanced by this more modern system of 
street illumination. 1 ' 


Industrial Agent 

Industrial and Publicity Committee 

Joliet, III. 

i/^^J I. 




Race Street, Cincinnati, Ohio. The 
standards are unusually graceful and the 
harmony of proportions lastingly attrac- 
tive. The installation consists of sixteen 
five-light standards spaced parallel, ap- 
proximately fifty feet apart. They are 
equipped with tungsten lamps aggregating 
one hundred and sixty candle-power. 
The artistic effect is most pleasing. In 
the base of each post is a cut-out and 
switch. The lamps burn from dusk until 
midnight. In this installation, the uni- 
formity of illumination is almost perfect. 
See page fourteen for the effect at night. 

: : .!>; 




attracted to the business streets; yet it must be uni- 
form to give the best results. The equipment must be 
decorative by day, so as not to mar a fine street. 

Some business men maintain that the front of a 
building should be illuminated as well as the street. 
That is true, but ordinarily only within limits. The 
proper and adequate lighting of the street should not 
suffer. Good effects can be obtained by employing 
pendent lamps, that throw most of their light down- 
ward and outward, and enough upward to illuminate 
the front of a building, particularly if an upright lamp 
be employed in combination with the pendents. 

How Residential Sections Should 
Be Lighted 

The amount of money available for a The amount 

. of money 

residence section usually determines the available gov- 
* ^. erns tne char- 

character of the illumination. One of two ; 

methods may be followed: Either a few tion's lighting, 
arc-lamps of great candle-power are placed at consid- 
erable distances apart; or many incandescent lamps 
are strung along the roadway fairly near one another. 
The problems that confront the illuminating 
engineer in lighting a residential quarter are various. 
Usually there are trees. Accordingly, the lights must 
be so hung that the foliage will not interfere with the 
proper illumination of the street. The choice of lights, 
too, may be difficult because the funds with which 
the engineer can work are usually limited. Again, the 
character of the lamp-posts must depend upon the 
amount of money available. Still, it is astonishing 
what remarkably artistic results can be achieved even 
with small funds. 

"The lights prompt us all to brush up and keep 
our premises cleaner. The tendency of the 
installation is to improve real estate values, for 
it attracts people and thereby increases sales." 
Secretary and Treasurer 
Commercial Exchange 
Burlington, Iowa 




Night view of Place Street, Cincinnati. 
The standards are surmounted with spe- 
cial shades fitted with glass reflectors and 
are spaced approximately fifty feet. This 
particular design will appeal to many; for 
it is highly efficient in illuminating the 
street surface. The wiring of the stand- 
ards consists of duplex lead-covered wire, 
connected with Edison tube-feeders by 
lead-covered cable in pipes. 



A park is a municipal ornament. Weil-designed 
Therefore its lighting must not only be arranged, are 

. * needed in 

adequate but decorative. A row of ugly parks, 
lamp-posts is no more appropriate in a park than a red 
four-in-hand tie in a ballroom. 

To illuminate a park or drive adequately, so that 
automobiles and carriages can see their way, so that 
paths and walks may be safe, and so that the best 
decorative effect is obtained is no easy task. What is 
more, the task is not completed with the selection 
of a suitable post and globe. 

The lights must be placed with the good judgment 
of a skillful landscape gardener. The topography of 
the park must be considered. If the boulevards and 
drives are curved, the lights must be placed to empha- 
size the curve. Not only is the effect good, but the 
automobile driver knows which way he must steer in 
order to keep to the road. Glare, of course, must be 
avoided to make the road safe at night, which means 
that a few high candle-powers placed far apart and low 
would be dangerously inappropriate. 

How Electric Signs and Window- lighting 
Affect the Street 

The blaze of light that marks the course of every 
enterprising city's main thoroughfare comes not only 
from the lamps in the street, but also from brilliant 
window displays and from signs. Sometimes, as in 
New York, the street-lights are all but blotted out. 
Why, then, waste time, money, and thought on orna- 
mental posts? 

"It has been our experience that our lighting 
system has called for considerable favorable 
comment throughout the United States, and 
we consider it a very valuable asset from an 
advertising point of view, and it has certainly 
added greatly to the general appearance 
of the city." 

Secretary Local Division 
St. Paul Association of Commerce 
St. Paul, Minn. 






Boulevard lighting according to the 
Washington plan. This is possibly as 
good an example of handsome, safe and 
efficient boulevard illumination as can be 
found. In wide drives the strip of park- 
ing is by no means essential. To illumin- 
ate a park or drive effectively, so that 
automobiles and carriages can see their 
way, so that paths and walks may be 
safe, and so that the best decorative 
effect is obtained, is the problem to be 
solved in all ornamental park-lighting. 



In the first place street-lighting is necessary to 
attract business. Without it no "Great White Way" 
can be created. When stores have been opened or 
improved because business men have been drawn to 
the highly illuminated street they are naturally tempted 
to outdo one another in devising ways of attracting 
attention to their goods. But at the beginning of the 
street's development stands the ornamental street-light. 
Window display-lighting and the electric window-iight- 

, . n , . . . ing attracts 

sign are essentially advertising agencies, the passer-by; 
Sign-lighting attracts attention to the store; S^Sf Ul 
window-lighting to the goods displayed. country. 

Properly placed, electric signs draw people to a 
street, particularly if they tower high above some roof 
and are seen from a distance. But the roof signs will 
neither illuminate the street nor induce people to pass 
directly by the particular stores over which they are 
mounted. On the other hand, if they are placed low 
enough to illuminate the street they cannot be seen 
from a distance. Hence they lose in advertising value. 
All of which shows that electric sign-lighting cannot 
take the place of street-lighting. Each serves its own 

Window display-lighting will attract Neither sign 

i . ,! i .. T . , nor window- 

people if they are close to it. It has no lighting can 

distant influence. It is intended to 

arrest the passer-by and to induce him to lighting. 

look at the wares displayed. 

Post-lighting attracts people to a street; electric 
signs emphasize certain stores or buildings; window- 
lighting leads to the inspection of goods in a window. 
Each method helps the other. But the basis of all is 

" There can be no question that these lights advertise 
a community most favorably. They attract 
attention on the part of the train patrons pass- 
ing through the city at night. They attract 
from the smaller surrounding towns con- 
nected with Joliet by trolley." 


Industrial Agent 

Industrial and Publicity Committee 

Joliet, III. 

1 O^^^J 9 



Arc-lamp posts in Toledo, Ohio. There 
are many varieties of beautiful arc-lamp 
standards to be found throughout the 
United States. Some companies and 
cities have spent large amounts perfect- 
ing posts of this kind. They are familiar 
to all who visit the large population 
centers. The style, spacing, and height 
of posts vary with the service expected 
and the equipment desired. Ranging as 
it does from fifty to one hundred feet, the 
size and number of lamps used per post 
and the degree of illumination desired 
govern the spacing. 


Electric signs vary in size with their position. When 
low they are small; when high they are large. A sign 
may be simply a small rectangle just above the door; 
or it may be an immense and wonderful structure on 
the top of a skyscraper. Between these two extremes 
is an endless variety of illuminated signs. Big or little, 
signs cannot be relied upon for uniform lighting of 
the street. 

Window-lighting illuminates the street, but only 
that part of the street in front of the window. Although 
it may be brighter than the street-lighting it will not 
illuminate the thoroughfare as a whole. 

Systems of Ornamental Street-lighting 

Ten years ago it was the fashion to string electric- 
light wires overhead. Consequently there was nothing 
for it but to hang arc-lamps along the center of the 

Ornamental street-lighting in the modern sense was 
introduced with the underground conduit. A post in 
the shape of a shepherd's crook proved to be an effective 
means of holding the lamp; and the curb came into 
its own. 

When the incandescent lamp was first why posts are 

. better than 

introduced for street-lighting someone festoons, 
started the fashion of hanging festoons of incandescent 
lamps across streets. The festoon system is good as a 
method of illumination at night; but in broad daylight 
it is an eyesore. At first the festoons were mere ropes 
of lights. Later, safer and more substantial steel 
arches took their place. But whether ropes or arches 
are employed it is difficult to clean and renew the bulbs. 

" Where the installation is already in, merchants 
tell me the loafers and undesirable citizens have 
been driven away. The light is not sought by 
this class of people. Approval of the use 
of the system is universal in Burlington." 
E. E. EG AN 
Secretary and Treasurer 
Commercial Exchange 
Burlington, Iowa 



Seven and one-half miles of Washington's 
streets are now embellished with single- 
light standards, set along the curb, bear- 
ing high efficiency tungsten lamps. The 
view shown is Pennsylvania Avenue, the 
White House grounds lying to the right. 
In public parks and drives ornamental 
fixtures are required that give compara- 
tively high illumination, so that the 
roads and paths may be seen. Every- 
where the police value of lighting must 
be considered. 


Next came the truly decorative system of street- 
lighting with posts that are efficient, ornamental and 
lasting and that are equipped with "Mazda" or tung- 
sten lamps or with the new arc-lamps. More than two 
hundred and fifty American cities have installed sys- 
tems of ornamental post-lighting, the fixtures being of 
various types and designs. 

What it Costs to Light a Street 

Like everything else in the world the cost Factors that 

*!!*. '^i i . i i i . enter into the 

of lighting varies with longitude and lati- cost of an in- 
tude. The price of labor, the material st 
employed, the way the current is distributed to the 
lamps all these factors must be considered, besides 
many others in determining costs. One city will 
approve expensive standards and bury the distributing 
lines in clay or fibre conduits, embedded in concrete. 
That method is not cheap. Another city will adopt a 
lower-priced standard and use iron piping without 
concrete. Then, too, the price of material varies in 
different cities with the cost of transportation. Lastly, 
the city's contracting power also affects the cost. 

The local electric lighting companies and all lamp 
manufacturers as well as makers of reflectors, globes 
and posts, are willing to give sound technical advice 
free on the character of an installation needed. The 
city engineer need not, therefore, engage expert counsel 
and thus add to the cost, unless, indeed, there is some 
special reason for engaging an outside illuminating 

The character of the distribution affects the 
amount of the expenditure. There are two ways of 

"I am sure that the White Way lights have made 
the city more attractive and drawn business to 
those streets thus lighted. This is shown by 
the fact that the property owners and merchants 
of other streets are trying to get the lights 
established there." 


Secretary Chamber of Commerce 

Atlanta, Ga. 


Faribault, Minnesota, is an example of 
what a town of nine thousand can do by 
co-operative effort. It has one hundred 
and six ornamental standards in the busi- 
ness district bearing three high-efficiency 
incandescent lamps, each as shown in the 
photograph. The city contracted for the 
service for ten years and the electric light 
company bore the initial expense. The 
posts are grouped, about twelve being 
controlled from one switch in the base 
of a post. A galvanized one-inch pipe 
serves as the conduit. A patrol turns 
the lights on and off. The color of the 
posts is olive green. 


supplying current to lamps the "multiple" and 
"series" methods. Usually the multiple system is the 
cheaper, but not always. 

The price charged for current is not the Wh y current 
,./. ... .11 ^i C08ts are not 

same in different cities, simply because the always the 

conditions under which current is generated s; 
are hardly ever the same. The cost of fuel, the size 
and character of the electrical market supplied, the 
way in which the current is supplied (overhead or 
underground), depreciation of plant (it varies with the 
climate), the load-factor (the ratio of average load 
during any certain period to the total power the station 
could have generated during that time), the magnitude 
of the investment all these must be considered in 
comparing the cost of current of two communities. 

Obviously it is utterly impossible to set down cost 
figures that will apply to every community. Costs, 
however, can always be discussed on the basis of 
average figures. Here they are, based on installations 
of five-light standards only and determined from data 
secured from fifty odd installations of ornamental posts 
equipped with incandescent lamps in cities in all parts 
of the United States: 

Average installation cost per post $100.77 

Average cost of operation and main- 
tenance per post per year 59.90 

Average spacing of standards . . 70 ft. and 9 inches 
This average installation cost includes such items 
as standards, lamps, sockets, globes, concrete bases, 
switches, lead cables, conduits, post-wiring and instal- 
lation labor. The average cost of operation and main- 
tenance per post per year here given is the average 

"So far as adding to the realty values, there is no 
doubt in my mind but lighting has been a great 
factor in enhancing them, and it has certainly 
increased the business of the merchants 
along the illuminated streets." 

Secretary, Local Division 
Saint Paul Association of Commerce 
St. Paul, Minn. 



An example of effective park-lighting at 
Newark, Ohio. Note how well the walks 
and ground are illuminated, shadows 
being negligible. The placing of lights 
in the right way to obtain the most uni- 
form illumination offers problems of its 
own. There is a right and wrong way 
of lighting a city. Experience has shown 
that. Good taste and the limitations of 
the eye are now considered where once 
they were ignored. 




revenue received by central stations. Therefore it is 
not applicable to any certain city. Maintenance 
includes lamp renewals, globe renewals, cleaning and 
the painting of the posts once each year. 

Posts for Ornamental Municipal Lighting 

An object is seen at night because it is The silhouette 
a source of light in itself; because the light ^""utfiized." 81 
falls directly upon it; or because it is silhouetted 
against a light or a lighted background. It is the 
silhouette principle that must be utilized in most 
street-lighting. The lighted background against which 
objects are silhouetted is usually the street surface. 
Consequently, the amount of light that falls on that 
street surface must be carefully considered. It is by 
no means necessary that the intensity of illumination 
be great. Rather should it be uniform. The full moon 
casts no very bright light; yet it illuminates the earth 
so uniformly that the impression of soft brightness is 
produced. The full moon, not the blazing sun, is to 
be emulated in street-lighting. 

To meet these requirements a number of manufac- 
turers, whose names will be found at the end of this 
book, have designed street-lighting apparatus which is 
both efficient and artistic. The following illustrated 
descriptions will serve as a guide to those types which 
have commended themselves to many municipalities. 

Standards Old and New 

The old conventional lamp-post, so long used with 
gas, still finds a limited place in present-day systems 
of ornamental lighting. Old gas-lamp posts have been 
reconstructed for incandescent lamps by providing 
them with suitable reflectors. 

"The store-keepers take pride in their decorations 
and endeavor has been made under the glare of 
light toward keeping the streets as clean as 

Commissioner of Industries 
Hamilton, Ontario 



A novelty in ornamental street-lighting 
is found in Bloomington, Indiana, where 
the one hundred and twenty standards 
were hewn from limestone, extensively 
quarried in the vicinity. Concrete lamp 
posts are durable and familiar, but natural 
stone standards are out of the ordinary. 
This system is an advertisement in 
more ways than one. It shows, among 
other things, that almost any material, 
handled with good taste, can be used to 
fashion a lamp-post. Standards are 
made nowadays to meet any appropria- 
tion, big or little. 



For new installations, no one would Almost any 

, ., . ,, , , durable ma- 

dream ol using anything that resembles teriai, handled 

a gas-lamp post. More decorative designs 
of many styles and materials can easily be a 2 ood P st - 
obtained. Cast iron has found a keen competitor in 
pressed steel, copper and bronze and concrete. Con- 
crete has been extensively utilized for parks and 
boulevards. Latterly it has been introduced with 
excellent results in business sections as well. Even 
wrought-iron pipe has been employed to produce 
inexpensive but neat designs. 

The choosing of a proper standard is Posts arc made 
not easy. What does it cost? Is it really tLe* and any 

practical in form? Is it well designed? appropriation. 
These three questions must always be answered by 
those who are commissioned to select electric light 
standards; and they must be answered differently for 
almost every community. Because of the different 
considerations that govern the adoption of an orna- 
mental street-lighting system, manufacturers have 
placed on the market post designs to suit any taste 
and any appropriation. 

The style, spacing and height of posts vary with the 
service expected and the equipment desired. In 
smaller cities three-light and five-light standards are 
most common the five-light standards at street 
intersections and the three-light between streets. In 
larger cities the five-light post is found almost 

The spacing of posts varies. Ranging as it does 
from fifty to one hundred feet, the size and number of 
lamps used per post and the degree of illumination 
desired govern the spacing. The wider the street, 

"Of course, anything that makes a street attractive 
and draws people to it will increase the value 
of property, which is regulated by the number of 
purchasers who pass a given point." 


Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce 

Atlanta, Ga. 




Portland, Oregon, has more than eight 
hundred ornamental lamp-posts bearing 
high efficiency incandescent lamps. This 
view shows the lighting of Alder Street, 
which for years was a dark and gloomy 
thoroughfare by day as well as night. 
Since the cluster posts were installed it 
has become a popular and thriving street. 
Portland's system dates practically from 
July, 1910. Several different styles of 
posts are used throughout the city. The 
most popular are those with five lights. 
According to Charles K. Henry, Presi- 
dent of the Portland Realty Board, 
"Realty values in the down-town dis- 
trict have increased twenty-five per cent, 
as a result of the light furnished for 
illumination upon these avenues." 



the closer should the posts be. If luminous arcs are the 
chief elements in the ornamental system, the posts are 
staggered and separated from eighty to ninety feet on 
a side. It is preferable, however, to arrange the posts 
parallel rather than to stagger them, because, in a 
truly ornamental system, the appearance of the instal- 
lation is much improved. 

Generally a post is twelve to fourteen feet high to 
the center of the pendent lamps. The standards 
should be placed just inside the curb line. On the 
corners it is best to place the units opposite the build- 
ing line, thus making eight units, one at each 

Globes and Reflectors 

In some installations all the lights are A *ngie up- 

right lamp 

upright. More frequently there is but with from two 

one upright lamp fitted with a sixteen-inch 
glass ball and two or four pendent lamps best results - 
encased in twelve-inch glass balls more frequently, 
because the single upright lamp illuminates the front 
of a building and the pendent lamps throw the major 
part of the light down upon the street. With either 
pendent or upright installations, opal shades, fitted 
with inside prismatic reflectors, may be used instead 
of the globes. The upright glass ball should enclose a 
hundred- watt lamp. The lamps within the pendent 
glass balls should be at least sixty watts. While the 
filament of a lamp must not be visible through the 
balls, yet the absorption must be less than twenty per 
cent, of the light. With single-light units, such as 
"Mazda" or tungsten lamps in the residence sections, the 
light ordinarily radiated upward must be directed 

" Kalispell is receiving a good deal of valuable 
advertising from the effect that it produces upon 
visitors who come to our small but beautiful 
young town." 


Secretary, Kalispell Chamber of Commerce 

Kalispell, Mont. 





The wonderfully effective park installa- 
tion of Puebla, Mexico. To illuminate 
a park, the lights must be placed with 
the good judgment of a skillful landscape 
gardener. The topography of the park 
must be considered. Glare of course, 
must be avoided to make the roads and 
paths safe at night, which means that a 
few high candle-powers placed far apart 
and low would be dangerously inappro- 



down on the street. For that purpose reflectors are 
advocated. There are a number of excellent types of 
both glass and metal reflectors. 

Very effective and ornamental conver- A new use for 

i , i . i . . .. old gas lan- 

sions have been made irom gas to electricity terns, 
in residential sections by retaining the old gas-lanterns, 
but modifying them. The best examples for such 
conversions are to be found in Germany; but our own 
communities are not behindhand. In the suburbs of 
Boston, for example, gas-lanterns have given place to 
ornamental electric lanterns mounted on the old iron 
posts. In a court along the Charles River embank- 
ment, such fixtures are used with pleasing effect. 

Accessory Apparatus 

The system of distribution used materi- The kind of 

distribution . 

ally affects the cost of installation. Usually affects the cost 

, . . . .11 of the installa- 

the multiple system is the cheaper to tion. 
install. In the first place the cost of lamps is less; in 
the second place, series-sockets with film-cutouts are 
more expensive than the socket which is designed for 
multiple lamps. The cost of wire, cable and labor is 
practically the same. But where the series system is 
installed the necessity of providing some means of 
current regulation is required; and that is expensive. 
If constant-current transformers, regulators and similar 
forms of regulating apparatus are already installed 
and their capacity is large enough to take care of the 
increased load, which results from the installation of an 
ornamental system, the expense of providing regulation 
does not apply. In the multiple system the lamps must 
be extinguished either singly or in groups with regard 

"Merchants in other parts of the city have been so 
impressed with the virtue of the system that we 
have been able to secure contracts for its exten- 
sion so as to cover our entire business district." 
E. E. EG AN 
Secretary and Treasurer 
The Commercial Exchange 
Burlington, Iowa 




One of the earliest forms of ornamental 
street-lighting was of a spectacular char- 
acter for special occasions. The picture 
shows an example at Spokane, Washing- 
ton (Riverside Avenue). Business men 
of that city say it has produced hundreds 
of thousands of dollars in trade. Spec- 
tacular lighting for festivals and celebra- 
tions can be combined with curb post 
lighting with splendid effect. 



to the posts; in the series system they may be con- 
trolled as a unit from a distant point. 

When series incandescent lamps were first intro- 
duced they were usually placed upon the circuit with 
the arc-lamp, and they received the current directly 
from the generators. Later the "bankboard" method 
of regulation and the dimmer reactance-coil were both 
used. Later still, the shunt-box was introduced, to be 
superseded by the constant-current reactance-coil. 
Finally the constant-current transformer, which is in 
extensive use at the present time, was placed on 
the market. 

A great number of transformers are constant-cur- 
manufactured. They vary in design, but 

accomplish the like result of compensating compensate 

. ^ i i for increased 

for increased voltage when a lamp burns voltage when 
out or breaks on the circuit. A number out^^re'a'ks? 
of constant-current regulators are also manufactured, 
which, used in connection with a constant-potential 
transformer, answer the same purpose. With these 
systems various compensating resistance and reactance- 
coil arrangements are combined, which tend to keep 
the proper voltage impressed across the terminals of 
the lamps. All of these systems regulate well to nearly 
short circuit, so that any number of lamps upon the 
circuit may be out without disastrous effects to those 

In order that the entire circuit may not be broken 
when a lamp burns out some device is required to 
establish the circuit around the break. "The film- 
cutout" is the most common device of that kind. This 
consists of a very thin piece of mica or other insulating 

"The down-town streets, where the lights have 
been installed, seem to have taken on new life, 
and no doubt, with the opening of spring and 
the extension of the system in Joliet, the present 
satisfactory results will be greatly enhanced." 
Industrial Agent 

Industrial and Publicity Committee 
Joliet, III. 




South Salina Street, Syracuse, New York, 
is a typical American business street 
equipped with five-light curb standards. 
Dozens of pictures could be shown but 
none more representative of this particu- 
lar form of ornamental street-lighting as 
at present developed in America. The 
equipment of the posts of the Syracuse 
installation here shown consists of forty- 
watt high-efficiency incandescent lamps, 
fitted with four twelve-inch opal balls 
and one sixteen-inch opal ball. The 
lamps burn from dusk to midnight. To 
cover the cost of installation and main- 
tenance, the merchants are assessed 
monthly according to the foot frontage. 



material, so placed in the series-socket that the ordinary 
lamp voltage is applied across the film. Because a 
much higher voltage is required to break down this 
film than that impressed across the lamp, the film does 
not puncture until the burn-out occurs. Hence the 
total voltage of the circuit is impressed across the 
insulating material, so that it breaks down and closes 
the circuit. 

Another form of automatic cut-out shunts a high- 
resistance coil of such value around the lamp that 
about 0.01 of an ampere flows when the lamp is burning. 
When the lamp fails, the total current is sent to this 
coil, which, in turn, exerts a pull on an armature, closing 
the circuit, through a compensating resistance equiva- 
lent to that of a lamp. With such a cut-out the line 
may be fed from a constant-potential transformer. 

"It has been enthusiastically accepted by our 
people and has become very popular. It has 
even been suggested that some of our most 
beautiful residence avenues install this system 
of lighting. I do not believe that our people 
could be induced to go back to the old 
system of lighting." 


Secretary Chamber of Commerce 

Kalispell, Mont. 


New Haven has a remarkably successful 
system of magnetite arc lamps on orna- 
mental single-light posts. The system is 
a staggered one, the seventy-eight lamps 
being spaced eighty-seven feet apart on 
a side. The lamps give a wonderfully 
uniform illumination. They are of the 
six and six-tenths-ampere type; the posts 
are eleven feet and five inches in height. 




Ornamental street-lighting is not an 
experiment. Three hundred cities in 
the United States and Canada have 
tried it and approved it; three hun- 
dred cities whose inhabitants have 
worked together whole-heartedly in 
the effort to make their streets more 
attractive; three hundred cities that 
have found that every dollar invested 
in an ornamental lighting system for 
business sections, residential districts, 
and parks is not only returned mani- 
fold in higher real estate values and in 
greater prosperity, but returned in 
prestige, in heightened civic pride, and 
in better citizenship. In the following 
pages you will find a list of these 
cities. Is your city among them? 




Dayton, Ohio, has thirteen thousand 
five-hundred feet of ornamental street- 
lighting. For this service the local light- 
ing company supplies power to three 
hundred and five five-light standards. 
The top light burns all night; the 
other lights from dusk to midnight. 
One post is located at a point on the curb 
line, opposite the building line, thus 
making eight standards at each crossing. 
Four intermediate posts are then placed 
on each side of the street, so that the 
distance between standards is approxi- 
mately eighty feet. 



These Cities Have Ornamental 
Street-lighting Installations 

Aberdeen, South Dakota. 
Ackley, Iowa. 
Adel, Iowa. 
Akron, Ohio. 
Albert Lea, Minnesota. 
Albia, Iowa. 
Alexandria, Louisiana. 
Algona, Iowa. 
Alhambra, California. 
Alton, Illinois. 
Altoona, Pennsylvania. 
Ames, Iowa. 
Anniston, Alabama. 
Ashland, Oregon. 
Atlanta, Georgia. 
Atlantic City, New Jersey. 
Auburn, New York. 
Aurora, Illinois. 

Baltimore, Maryland. 
Battle Creek, Michigan. 
Beloit, Wisconsin. 
Belvidere, Illinois. 
Billings, Montana. 
Binghamton, New York. 
Bloomington, Indiana. 
Boston, Massachusetts. 
Boone, Iowa. 

Bowling Green, Kentucky. 
Brooklyn, New York. 
Buchanan, Michigan. 
Bridgeton, New Jersey. 
Buffalo, New York. 

Canton, Ohio. 
Carroll, Iowa. 
Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 
Central City, Iowa. 
Champaign, Illinois. 
Charles City, Iowa. 
Charlottetown, Prince 
Edward Island, Canada. 

Chariton, Iowa. 
Cheyenne, Wyoming. 
Chicago, Illinois. 
Clarinda, Iowa. 
Clarion, Iowa. 
Clear Lake, Iowa. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 
Clinton, Iowa. 
Columbus, Georgia. 
Columbus, Ohio. 
Coon Rapids, Iowa. 
Creston, Iowa. 

Dallas, Texas. 
Danville, Illinois. 
Davenport, Iowa. 
Dayton, Ohio. 
Decatur, Illinois. 
Des Moines, Iowa. 
Duluth, Minn. 

Eagle Grove, Iowa. 
East Liverpool, Ohio. 
Edgar, Nebraska. 
Ellsworth, Iowa. 
Elmira, New York. 
Enid, Oklahoma. 
Estherville, Iowa. 
Eugene, Oregon. 
Evansville, Indiana. 

Faribault, Minnesota. 

Fargo, North Dakota. 

Forest City, Iowa. 

Fort Arthur, Ontario, Canada. 

Fort Atkinson, Wisconsin. 

Fort Dodge, Iowa. 

Fort Morgan, Colorado. 

Fort Smith, Arkansas. 

Fort Wayne, Indiana. 

Fort William, Ontario, Canada. 

Fort Worth, Texas. 



The lighting of a business section must 
be governed by business considerations. 
It must be brilliant, so that people will 
be attracted to the business streets; yet 
it must be uniform to give the best results. 
The equipment must be decorative by 
day, so as not to mar a fine street. 
Properly placed, electric signs such as 
that seen on the roof in the background, 
draw people to a street. But they 
neither illuminate the street itself nor 
induce people to pass directly by the 
particular stores over which they are 
mounted. Their function is to advertise 
and not to illuminate. 


Frederick, Maryland. 
Fremont, Nebraska. 

Galesburg, Illinois. 

Galveston, Texas. 

Gary, Indiana. 

Geneva, Nebraska. 

Glen wood, Iowa. 

Grand Forks, North Dakota. 

Grand Rapids, Michigan. 

Grant's Pass, Oregon. 

Great Falls, Montana. 

Green Bay, Wisconsin. 

Green Field, Iowa. 

Grinnell, Iowa. 

Grosse Pointe Farms, Michigan. 

Hamilton, Ohio. 
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. 
Hankinson, North Dakota. 
Hannibal, Missouri. 
Harlan, Iowa. 
Hartford, Connecticut. 
Hillsboro, Texas. 
Holland, Michigan. 
Hoopeston, Illinois. 
Houston, Texas. 

Indianapolis, Indiana. 
Indianola, Iowa. 
Independence, Iowa. 
Independence, Kansas. 
Iowa City, Iowa. 
Iowa Falls, Iowa. 

Jacksonville, Florida. 
Jacksonville, Illinois. 
Jamestown, New York. 
Jamestown, North Dakota. 
Jefferson, Iowa. 
Jewell Junction, Iowa. 
Joliet, Illinois. 

Kalamazoo, Michigan. 
Kalispell, Montana. 
Kankakee, Illinois. 

Kansas City, Missouri. 
Knoxville, Tennessee. 
Kokomo, Indiana. 

La Crosse, Wisconsin. 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 
Lansing, Michigan. 
Laramie, Wyoming. 
Leavenworth, Kansas. 
Lenox, Iowa. 
Lincoln, Nebraska. 
Long View, Texas. 
Los Angeles, California. 
Louisville, Kentucky. 

Macon, Georgia. 
Manchester, Iowa. 
Manila, Philippine Islands. 
Marion, Iowa. 
Marshall, Michigan. 
Marshalltown, Iowa. 
Mason City, Iowa. 
McKeesport, Pennsylvania. 
Medford, Oregon. 
Miles City, Montana. 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 
Minneapolis, Minnesota. 
Mishawaka, Indiana. 
Mobile, Alabama. 
Montgomery, Alabama. 
Monticello, Iowa. 
Moorehead, Minnesota. 
Morristown, New York. 
Mount Clemens, Michigan. 

Nashville, Tennessee. 
Nashwauk, Minnesota. 
Nevada, Iowa. 
Newark, New Jersey. 
Newark, Ohio. 
New Britain, Connecticut. 
New Hampton, Iowa. 
New Philadelphia, Ohio. 
New Sharon, Iowa. 
New Ulm, Minnesota. 
New York, New York. 




1 A beautiful single-lamp standard 
which has been used with remarkable 
success in the city of New Haven, 
Connecticut. The light is a mag- 
netite arc, which burns with a fine 
steady flame and gives uniform 

2 A two-lamp standard of simple and 
graceful design, used in Euclid Ave- 
nue, Cleveland, Ohio. Thanks to 
these lights, property along Euclid 
Avenue has increased remarkably in 
value. On page seven of this book 
will be found the story of that increase. 

3 Six lamps on a tall, slender post. 

4 An old gas-post can be equipped with 
tungsten or Mazda lamps. This 
shows the pleasing effect of the trans- 
formation to be found in a court along 
the Charles River embankment, 


Niagara Falls, New York. 

Niles, Michigan. 

North Yakima, Washington. 

Oakland, California. 
Ogden, Utah. 

Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. 
Omaha, Nebraska. 
Osage City, Kansas. 
Oskaloosa, Iowa. 
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 

Parkersburgh, West Virginia. 
Pasadena, California. 
Pasco, Washington. 
Paulina, Iowa. 
Pella, Iowa. 
Pensacola, Florida. 
Peoria, Illinois. 
Perry, Iowa. 
Peru, Illinois. 
Phrenix, Arizona. 
Pine Bluff, Arkansas. 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 
Portland, Maine. 
Portland, Oregon. 
Portsmouth, New Hampshire. 
Poughkeepsie, New York. 
Pueblo, Colorado. 

Racine, Wisconsin. 
Raleigh, North Carolina. 
Redlands, California. 
Red Oak, Iowa. 

Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. 
Richmond, Indiana. 
Richmond, Virginia. 
Rochelle, Illinois. 
Rochester, New York. 
Rochester, Minnesota. 
Rockford, Illinois. 
Roseland, Illinois. 
Roseburg, Oregon. 

Sac City, Iowa. 

St. Catherines, Ontario, Canada. 

St. Paul, Minnesota. 
Salem, Ohio. 
Salem, Oregon. 
San Antonio, Texas. 
San Diego, California. 
Sandusky, Ohio. 
San Francisco, California. 
Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. 
Savannah, Georgia. 
Scranton, Pennsylvania. 
Seattle, Washington. 
Seneca Falls, New York. 
Seymour, Iowa. 
Shawnee, Oklahoma. 
Sherman, Texas. 
Shreveport, Louisiana. 
Sigourney, Iowa. 
Sioux City, Iowa. 
South Bend, Indiana. 
Spencer, Iowa. 
Steubenville, Ohio. 
Spirit Lake, Iowa. 
Spokane, Washington. 
Springfield, Missouri. 
Springfield, Illinois. 
Stony City, Iowa. 
Superior, Wisconsin. 
Syracuse, New York. 

Tampa, Florida. 
Terre Haute, Indiana. 
Texarkana, Arkansas. 
Tipton, Iowa. 
Toledo, Iowa. 
Topeka, Kansas. 
Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 
Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

Urbana, Illinois. 

Vancouver, British Columbia, 

Victoria, British Columbia, 

Vinton, Iowa. 
Virginia, Minnesota. 


1 A type of five-light post which has 
been widely used for the ornamental 
lighting of many communities. 

2 The advance in ornamental street- 
lighting for non-business thorough- 
fares developed by the District of 
Columbia (the central station co- 
operating) is admirable. This post 
has a single light, a transparent street 
sign, and a fire-alarm box. Other 
posts have police-alarm boxes. 

3 Poughkeepsie, N. Y., has one and a 
quarter miles of street lighted by 
such combined standards and trolley 
poles. This style of installation is 
sometimes desirable in narrow streets 
and where the initial cost is otherwise 

4 The city of Washington has devel- 
oped a commendable system of orna- 
mental street-lighting. The standards 
and globes harmonize with the archi- 
tecture of private and public buildings. 
This is one of several standard designs 
used. Note the name-plate and the 
arrow above it to indicate the direc- 
tion of the street. 




Waco, Texas. 
Walla Walla, Washington. 
Warren, Ohio. 
Washington, D. C. 
Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. 
Watertown, South Dakota. 

Wausau, Wisconsin. 
Webster City, Iowa. 
Wichita, Kansas. 
Wilmington, Delaware. 
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. 
Winterset, Iowa. 

Wymore, Nebraska. 

Cities That Have Decorative Arch-lighting 
in Their Streets 

Appleton, Wisconsin. 
Birmingham, Alabama. 
Butte, Montana. 
Canton, Ohio. 

Charleston, North Carolina. 
Charlotte, South Carolina. 
Columbia, South Carolina. 
Columbus, Ohio. 
El Reno, Oklahoma. 
Fond du Lac, Wisconsin. 
Grand Rapids, Michigan. 


Green Bay, Wisconsin. 
Hobart, Oklahoma. 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 
Macon, Georgia. 
Marinette, Wisconsin. 
Menominee, Michigan. 
Mobile, Alabama. 
San Francisco, California. 
South Bend, Indiana. 
Tacoma, Washington. 
Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. 
North Carolina. 

Cities With Decorative Arc Installations 

Baltimore, Maryland. 
Boston, Massachusetts. 
Buffalo, New York. 
Chicago, Illinois. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 
Council Bluffs, Iowa. 
Detroit, Michigan. 
Louisville, Kentucky. 
Newark, New Jersey. 
New Haven, Connecticut. 
New York, New York. 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. 
Pueblo, Colorado. 
Reading, Pennsylvania. 
Rochester, New York. 
St. Louis, Missouri. 
San Francisco, California. 
Syracuse, New York. 
Toledo, Ohio. 
Washington, District of 




Manufacturers of Ornamental Standards 

The following manufacturers make street-lighting 
apparatus of the kind that has been most successful. 
They will be pleased to forward catalogues and price- 
lists and to give free of charge information on street- 
lighting not contained in this book. 

Adams-Bagnall Electric Company Cleveland, Ohio 

American Concrete Pole Company Richmond, Ind. 

American Steel and Wire Company Chicago, 111. 

American Woodworking and Machinery Company . . Aurora, 111. 

J. G. Birtness Sons Company Davenport, Iowa 

Butte Engineering and Electric Company . . . San Francisco, Cal. 

The George Cutter Company South Bend, Ind. 

Dearborn Foundry Company Chicago, 111. 

Electric Railway and Equipment Company . . . Cincinnati, Ohio 

J. W. Fiske Iron Works New York City, N. Y. 

Flour City Ornamental Iron Works Minneapolis, Minn. 

Hollow Concrete Pole Company Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Independent Foundry Company Portland, Ore. 

Joshua Hendy Iron Works San Francisco, Cal. 

Kramer Brothers Foundry Company Dayton, Ohio 

Love Brothers Aurora, 111. 

McDonnel Iron Works Des Moines, Iowa 

Minneapolis Steel Machinery Co Minneapolis, Minn. 

Morris Iron Company Frederick, Md. 

J. L. Mott Iron Works New York, N. Y. 

Ornamental Lighting Pole Co New York, N. Y. 

Paxton and Vierling Iron Works Omaha, Neb. 

Pettyjohn Company Terre Haute, Ind. 

Phoenix Iron Works Portland, Ore. 

Smith and Watson Iron Works Portland, Ore. 

Union Metal Manufacturing Company Canton, Ohio 

United Iron Works Oakland, Cal. 

Wallace Machine and Foundry Company .... Lafayette, Ind. 
Western Gas Construction Company Fort Wayne, Ind. 


Manufacturers of Transformers, Regulators 
and Compensative Apparatus 

Adams-Bagnall Electric Company . . . Cleveland, Ohio 

General Electric Company Schenectady, N. Y. 

J. H. Hallberg, 36 E. 23d St New York, N. Y. 

Helios Mfg. Co Bridesburg, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Maloney Electric Company St. Louis, Mo. 

Packard Electric Company Warren, Ohio 

Pittsburg Transformer Company .... Pittsburg, Pa. 

Western Electric Company Chicago, 111. 

Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co. ... Pittsburg, Pa. 

Write to 
firms for 


Glassware for Ornamental Standards 

Gillinder & Sons Philadelphia, Pa. 

Haskins Glass Company Wheeling, W. Va. 

Jefferson Glass Company Follansbee, W. Va. 

Macbeth-Evans Glass Company .... Pittsburg, Pa. 
Nelite Works of the General Electric Co., Cleveland, Ohio 

Opalux Company New York, N. Y. 

Phcenix Glass Company New York, N. Y. 

Write to 
firms for 


Steel Reflectors for Street-lighting 

Adams-Bagnall Electric Company 
Benjamin Electric Manufacturing Co. 

George Cutter Company 

Federal Sign System (Electric) . . . 
General Electric Company .... 
Philadelphia Electric Company . . . 
Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co. . 
Wheeler Reflector Company . ... 

. Cleveland, Ohio 
. . Chicago, 111. 
. South Bend, Ind. Write to 

. . . Chicago, 111. firms for 

Schenectady, N. Y. logues 


. Philadelphia, Pa. informa- 

Pittsburg, Pa. 
Boston, Mass 



Manufacturers of Incandescent Electric Lamps 

. . Hartford, Conn. 
. . . Harrison, N. J. 

Franklin Electrical Manufacturing Company 
General Electric Company (Lamp Works) 
National Electric Lamp Association 

Composed of the following Works of the General Electric Com- 

American Electric Lamp Works . 

Banner Electric Works . . . . . 

Brilliant Electric Works 

Bryan-Marsh Electric Works . . . 

Buckeye Electric Works 

Buckeye Electric Works, S. A. . . . 
The Colonial Electric Works . . . 
Columbia Incandescent Lamp Works 
Fostoria Incandescent Lamp Works 
General Incandescent Lamp Works 
Monarch Incandescent Lamp Works 

Munder Electric Works . 

Packard Lamp Works 

The Peerless Lamp Works . . . . 

Shelby Lamp Works 

Standard Electric Works 

The Sterling Electric Lamp Works . 

Sunbeam Incandescent Lamp Works 
Westinghouse Lamp Company 

. Central Falls, R. I. 
. Youngstown, Ohio 
. . Cleveland, Ohio 

( Central Falls, R. I. 
/ Chicago, 111. 

. . Cleveland, Ohio 

. . . Mexico, D. F. 

. . . Warren, Ohio 

. . .St. Louis, Mo. 

. . . Fostoria, Ohio 

. . Cleveland, Ohio 

. . . . Chicago, 111. 

j Central Falls, R. I. 
| Chicago, 111. 

. . . Warren, Ohio 

. . . Warren, Ohio 

. . . Shelby, Ohio 

. . . Warren, Ohio 

. . . Warren, Ohio 

( New York, N. Y. 
} Chicago, 111. 

. Bloomfield, N. J. 



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