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VOLUME III 



VOL. III. 



\ v. 



-^>. 




ORNITHOLOGICAL MISCELLANY 



EDITED BY 



GEORGE DAWSON ROWLEY, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

.MEMBER OF THE BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 



VOLUME IIL 




LONDON: 

TRUBNER AND CO., LUDGATE HILL, E.G. | BERNARD QUARITCH, 15 PICCADILLY, 

R. H. PORTER, 6 TENTERDEN STREET, HANOVER SQUARE, W. 

1878. 



[^All rights reserved.l 



FLAJIMAM. 




PRINTED BT TATLOK AND TEANCtS, 
RED LION COURT. FLKET STREET. 






DATES OF PUBLICATION OF VOL. III. 



Part XI. November 1877. 

Part XII. January 1878. 

Part XIII. February 1878. 

Part XIV. May 1878. 



N.B. — Subscribers are recomraeuded to have the front wrapper of each 
Part (containing the date of pubHcation) bound up at the end 
of the volume. 



NAMES OF THE CONTRIBUTORS, 

WITH THE TITLES OF, AND REFERENCES TO, THE SEVERAL ARTICLES OF EACH. 



VOLUME III. 



BoucAED, M. Adolphe. 

Notes on Pharomacrus costaricensis 



Page 

21 



GuENEY, J. H., Jun. 

On Flamborough Head 



29 



Meyee, a. B. 

Description of two Species of Birds from the Malay Archipelago 

Pejevalsky, Lieut.-Col. N. 

On the Birds of Mongolia, the Tangiit Country, and the Solitudes of 



163 



Northern Tibet. {Continued.) 

EowLEY, Geoege Dawson. 

On Flamborough Head 

On Colwnha livia .... 

On Odontopliorus ductus (Salvin) 

On Geotrygon costaricensis (Lawrence) 

The late Robert Swinhoe, F.E.S. 

On the Genus Ptilopus. [Continued.) 



47, 87, 145 



11 
19 
39 
43 
55 



59, 113, 171 



IV 



NAMES OF THE CONTRIBUTORS. 



Rowley, George Dawson {continued). 

On Sussex Heronries 

On C/ilonmas suhvinacm (Lawrence) ..... 

On Geotrijgon nt/ivenfris (Lawrence) 

On Leptoptila cassini (Lawrence) ...... 

On Coti/Ie riparia 

On Machcerirhynclms nigr/2)ectu.'i (Schlegel) 

On Domicella coccinea (Latham) 

On the Genus Citfura 

A few Words on Fen-land ....... 

On the Breeding-places of two Members of the British Anatidce 
On Larus tiidactijlics . . ..... 

Eemarks on the Extinct Gigantic Birds of Madagascar and New 
Zealand .......•• 

On Sceloglaux alhifacies. {Continued.) ..... 

Conclusion .......••• 



Page 

7-5 

77 

79 

81 

119 

123 

131 

203 

229 



2.37 
249 
2-51 



SCLATEK, P. L. 

On the American Parrots of the Genus Pionus 



5 



Sharpe, E. Bowdler. 

A Note on the Genus Artamus and its Geographical Distribution 



179 



TwEEDDALE, ARTHUR, Marquis of. 
On Poliohierax insignis 



169 



WoDziCK.1, Count Casimir. 
On Savi's Warbler 



223 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



VOLUME III. 



JE'pyornis &c., Fragments of Eggs of 
yEpyornis maximus. Egg of ... 

Chinese Kampong, or Quarter, in Menado, Celebes 
Chloroenas suhvinacea, Lawrence 
Cithira cyanotis 

sanghirensis 

Decoy at Friskney, Lincolnshire 
Dinornis crassiis, Egg of 

ingens, Egg of 

Domicella coccinea 

Flaraborough : RamclifF-end ; RamclifF-end in the 

Rock-Pigeons' Cave . . . 
Geotrygon costaricensis .... 

rufivenfris, Lawrence, .... 

Great Sowden Wood, Sussex 

Heronry at Great Sowden Wood, Sussex 

Kingstown Harbour, entrance of: Kittiwakes 

Leptoptila cassini, Lawrence 

Lincolnshire Geese at Home 

on their Journey 



distance 



West 



Scar 



; the 



Page 

238 '■ 

238 
116-^ 

75 ■ 
132 . 
132 
221 V 

244 ' 
244 ■ 
123 ^ 

11 

43 ■' 

77 ■■ 

65 

65 
233 

79 • 
214 
214 



VI 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Machcerirhynchus nigripectus .... 

Menado, with its Bay, and the mountains of Minahassa 
Odontophorus ductus 
Pionus corallinus . 

tumultuosus 

PolioMerax insignis 

Ptilopus migueli. Von Rosenberg 

mussclienbroeki 

speciosus 



Sand-Martin, Home of 

Taylor, Mr. John, his Flock of Geese (No. 1 & No 

Tondano, Celebes 

Tufted Duck, Breeding-place of the 



2) 



Page 
119 
133 v' 

39 
5 ■'• 
5 • 
169 

60 
113 
171 ^ 

81 
214 
134, 
229 



ERRATA IN VOL. III. 



Page 62 :— 

For " Ptilopus rivolii, Prov.," read " Ptilopus rivolii, Prev." 

Page 76 : — 

For "July 5th, 1877," read "May 1876." 



PART XI. 



" The cormorant on high 
Wheels from the deep, and screams along the land. 
Loud shrieks the soaring hern ; and with wild wing 
The circling sea-fowl cleave the flaky clouds." 

Thomson's Seasons (Winter). 



B 2 



ORNITHOLOGICAL MISCELLANY/ 




J.Str.it hth ^ 



H.-mhart imp 



PIONUS CORALLINUS. 



ORNITHOLOGICAL MISCELLATff. 




JSmit MtW. 



Tra.-n'h.ai-t 



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PIONUS TUMULTUOSUS. 



ON THE AMERICAN PARROTS OE 

THE GENUS PIONUS. 

By R L. SCLATER, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S. 
(Plates LXXX. & LXXXI.) 



In spite of what certain Indian criticizers may say, Dr. Finsch's ' Papageien ' 
is, in my opinion, one of the best bits of ornithological work of the present 
day ; and although it will no doubt be eventually superseded by a new 
monograph, it will ever remain as the leading authority upon the subject up 
to the time of its publication. Having constantly used Dr. Finsch's work for 
the determination of the Parrots in the Zoological Society's Gardens during 
the past ten years, I am able to bear good testimony as to its merits ; and I 
may add a wish that we had many other ornithological monographs of the 
same solid character. 

But our knowledge of the American avifauna has been much increased 
recently ; and as regards the Parrots of the genus Pionus I am able to make 
certain additions to what is given by Dr. Finsch in his work, from sources 
that were not accessible to him ten years ago. 

In the first place, I consider that the genus Pionus (founded by Wagler 



6 THE AMERICAN PARROTS OF 

in 1832) should be restricted to the American species for the reception 
of which it was originally instituted — i. e. Psittacus menstruus of Linnaeus and 
its allies, which form the second division of Dr. Finsch's genus Pionias 
(Papag. ii. p. 373). From these, however, I would moreover exclude 
Ps. accipitrmus as a peculiar form which should remain isolated under 
Wagler's title, Deroptyus. 

There remain, then, according to Dr. Finsch's views, eight species in 
this section. But, as I shall presently show. Dr. Finsch has in one case 
united two very distinct species under the same title. The true number of 
species of Pionus at present known to science is therefore, according to my 
views, nine. 

Dividing these into two groups according to the colour of the primaries, 
as proposed by Dr. Finsch, we may separate the nine species, by their most 
obvious external characters, as follows : — 

a. Remigibus viridibus. 

a', pileo caeruleo 1. menstruus. 

3. maximiliani. 
b'. pileo viridi 3. sordidus. 

4. corallinus. 

c' . pileo albo 5. seniloides*. 

d'. pileo rubro 6. tumultuosus. 

b. Remigibus cseruleis. 

e'. pileo dorso discolori, albo "^7. senilis. 

f. pUeo dorso concolori, fusco 8. violaceus. 

g' . pileo dorso concolori, purpureo .... 9. chalcopterus. 

The range of these species in the Neotropical Region may be conveniently 
shown as follows : — 



* Pionias gerontodes, Finsch, Papag. ii. p. 455, the name seniloides being rejected as a vox 
hybrida. 



THE GENUS PIONUS. 







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In the preceding lists it will be seen that I have followed Dr. Finsch's 
arrangement very closely, except in giving an additional species, P. corallinus. 
I will now say a few words on this subject, and as regards P. tumultuosus, 
of which Dr. Finsch was unable to examine specimens. 

First, as regards P. corallinus, as I have already had occasion to 
remark, I cannot but consider this species perfectly distinct from 
P. sordiclus of Venezuela. So far as I can tell from what Dr. Finsch says, 
it would appear that, at the time when he wrote his description of Pionus 
sordidus (Papag. ii. p. 452), he had never met with examples of the Venezuelan 
bird. His descriptions and notes seem to apply entirely to P. corallimis. 

The true P. sordidus, of which I have a skin from Venezuela, collected 
by Mr. Goering in 1868f, is immediately distinguishable from P. corallinus 
by the whole back, nape, and wing-coverts being of a sordid yellowish olive- 
colour with the edgings of the feathers lighter, instead of a uniform green 
as in P. corallinus. The abdomen is nearly of the same colour, only rather 



t See Proc. Zool. Soc. 1868, p. 169. 



8 THE AMERICAN PARROTS OP 

lighter, and there is less blue on the neck than in P. corallinus. Again, the 
basal part of the upper mandible in P. sordidus is black, passing into 
yellowish towards the cutting-edges, only the tip of it and the lower 
mandible being red ; in P. corallinus the whole of the bill is of a bright 
coral-red, which renders Prince Buonaparte's name for the species very 
appropriate. 

Besides my skin of P. sordidus, I have examined another similar 
specimen from Venezuela in Mr. Spence's collection; and in 1873 there were 
two living examples of the same bird in the Zoological Society's Parrot- 
House*. I am therefore pretty confident that I am correct in discriminating 
this species from P. corallinus. 

Of this last-named bird (through Mr. Rowley's kindness) I am now 
enabled to give a good figure, of the size of life, taken from a specimen in 
my collection obtained at Babahoyo, in Ecuador, by Fraser. 

The true P. sordidus is sufficiently accurately figured by Edwards 
('Birds,' iv. tab. 167). 

As a companion figure to P. corallinus I am enabled to give, by our 
Editor's courtesy, a representation of another imperfectly known species of 
this group of Parrots. P. tumultuosus, originally described by Tschudi, in 
his ' Fauna Peruana,' from examples obtained in the w^ood-region of Peru, 
was referred by Bonaparte and G. R. Gray to Chrysotis. After an 
examination of the typical specimen in the Museum of Neufchatel, I was 
enabled to assure Di-. Finsch that this determination was incorrect, and that 
Tschudi's bird was undoubtedly a species of Pionus. It was accordingly so 
arranged by Dr. Finsch, who had never himself met with an example of it. 

* See List of Animals in the Gardens of the Zoological Society of London (6th edition), 
p. 259. 



THE GENUS PIONUS. 9 

Nor, SO far as I am aware, have any specimens been more recently obtained 
until Mr. Buckley's expedition into Bolivia in 1875, when, along with many 
other new and interesting birds *, several new examples of this species were 
procured. From one of these, now in my collection, the accompanying figure 
has been prepared by Mr. Smit. A glance at it will be sufficient to show 
how distinct P. tumidtuosus is from every other known species of the genus. 
It belongs to the green- winged section of the group, and may be most conve- 
niently placed next to P. seniloides ; but it is immediately distinguishable 
from this and every other known species of the genus by its rosy-red head. 
This colour pervades also the sides of the face and throat, but is there varied 
by purplish margins to many of the feathers. As regards size there is 
apparently little difference between the two species. 

* Cf. Sclater & Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1876, pp. 253 et 352. 



VOL. III. 



^ 



ORNITHOLOGICAL MISCELLAWY. 








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ON FLAMBOROUGH HEAD. 

By Mr. G. D. ROWLEY. 
(Plates LXXXII.-LXXXV.) 



' They told how sea-fow^s pinions fail. 
As over Whitby's towers they sail. 
And, sinking down with flutterings faint. 
They do their homage to the Saint." 

Marmion. 



Flamborough Head is perhaps one of the most enjoyable places m 
England to the ornithologist, now that it is no longer a scene of slaughter. 
To this spot Mr. Keulemans went from London at my request; and I 
here set the results before the reader. 

The lithographs are from faithful sketches taken by him, June 5th and 
6th, 1877, for this work. 

Yorkshire has always been famous for its birds and the interest taken 
in them by its inhabitants ; for even the " fair ladies " of York formerly 
wore the blown eggs of Hedge-Sparrows as earrings. This we read in 
Ray's ' Willughby ' (Preface), a.d. 1678. It may be beheved that diamonds 
were scarce in those days. 

But these northern belles were surpassed in their love of birds by the 

c 2 



13 • FLAMBOROUGH HEAD. 

Vicar of Morwenstow, the Rev. Robert Stephen Hawker, of whom it is 
related by Mr. S. Baring-Gould that, in order " to obtain Rooks, he w-ent 
into his chancel, and, kneeling before the altar, besought God to give him a 
rookery where he wanted." 

One is curious to know if he did get it — when, reading on, we find that 
" the colony of Rooks subsists to this day." 

Perhaps one would hardly go the length of the vicar ; but then, having 
always lived under a rookery, the writer is hardly able to judge of the 
intensity of the desire for such a thing. 

The vicar, however, is quite beaten by those Christians in Persia who 
turned Mahometans for the sole purpose of being allowed to keep Pigeons, 
which as Christians they were not permitted to do. This is quoted by 
Mr. Harting ('Ornithology of Shakespeare,' p. 182) from Tavernier, 1677. 

In Allen's ' History of the County of York ' (vol. ii. p. 312) we find : — 
" The cliff^s at Flamborough are of tremendous grandeur, and from a 
hundred to a hundred and fifty yards in perpendicular height. They are 
composed of a mouldering limestone rock, of a snowy whiteness, and 
periodically covered with an astonishing number of birds, remarkable for the 
variety and brilliancy of their plumage." 

At the foot of the cliffs are certain caverns : — the principal is Robin 
Lyth's Hole, thought to have been named after a smuggler or pirate; 
Dovecot, the breeding-place of Rock- Pigeons ; Kirk-hole, said to extend 
from the shore under the church (but this is doubtful) ; &c. 

Of the spires of rock, the most remarkable are "the Matron" and the 
" King and Queen." 



3 



According to Murray, the birds choose the north side of the cliff to 



rLA.MBOROUGH HEAD. . 13 

breed on by preference, because it is that best sheltered from the sun's rays. 
The eggs are never nearer the ground than one hundred feet. 

The northern portion of the east coast of England is associated with 
numerous legends of more or less poetic beauty, relating to birds as well as 
other things ; and the ocean has always been closely allied to sacred 
and profane song. Thus Longfellow also, in 'The Secret of the Sea,' 
speaks of 

" Telling liow the Count Arnaldos, 
With his hawk upon his hand. 
Saw a fair and stately galley 
Steering onward to the land ; — 

" How he heard the ancient helmsman 
Chant a song so wild and clear. 
That the sailing sea-bird slowly 
Poised upon the mast to hear.^' 

It is not, however, necessary to enter into these well-known tales, such 
as that of St. Cuthbert and his Duck, &c. 



Perhaps the Guillemot (f/n'a troile) is one of the most characteristic 
birds of Flamborough. The mode by which the young bird, unable to fly, 
arrives safely at the sea, used to attract the attention of visitors, Waterton 
among others. It seems to be done in two ways — by the old bird taking 
its offspring on its back, and also between its mandibles. 

In the ' Zoologist,' 2nd ser., 1875, p. 4342, Mr. F. Boyes, Beverley, 
describes this circumstance, which he saw at Flamborough. The Guillemot 
" did this almost perpendicularly, and with very quick beating of its wings. 
My attention was attracted to it by the squeaking, or rather whisthng, of the 



14 FLAMBOROUGH HEAD. 

young one, as if it were much afraid. ... I could not see the chick ; 
but as soon as the old bird reached the water it dived, leaving the little 
one on the surface. . . . Now, as the old bird and its burthen reached the 
water within twenty yards of the boat, I had a good opportunity of seeing 
what took place." 

Mr. John Cordeaux has a series of remarks on Flamborough and its 
birds, with Guillemots among them (c/*. 'Zoologist,' 1867, 2ad ser. vol. ii. 
p. 1008 et seq.; continued, 1868, vol. iii. p. 1025; and again, 1871, vol. vi. 
p. 2822). 

In 'Birds of the Humber District,' p. 185, Mr. Cordeaux says of the 
common Guillemot (" Flamborough Scout ") : — 

" During the nesting-season it flies daily immense distances to and from 
its feeding-grounds, Flamborough birds going as far south as the Norfolk 
and Suffolk coasts, and northward to the Durham coast halfway between 
the Tees and Tyne, where they are joined by the Farn-Island birds." 

In ' Land and Water,' July 21, 1877, p. 49, we have the following :— 

" Departure of Guillemots. 

"The fishermen tell rae the Guillemots are already leaving this coast 
by hundreds ; they are coming off with their young, and going to sea ; they 
generally take a southerly direction. It is wonderful to see them bring down 
their young from the cliffs so great a distance. Now, when the tides have 
been great — that is, high spring tides — the sea approaches higher up the 
cliffs. You will then see them come down by wholesale. Those already off 
will not pay the cliffs a visit any more this season. 

"Matthew Bailey (Flamborough Head)." 

Mr. Henry Stevenson and Mr. J. H. Gurney, jun., have an interesting 



FLAMBOROUGH HEAD. 15 

joint article ('Zoologist,' 2nd ser. vol. vii. 1872)— " Ornithological Notes 
from Norfolk;" and the latter writer says (p. 3227) : — 

^'^ Guillemot (Sept. 1872). — In the beginning of the month some young 
were seen off Cromer by a fisherman. It appears that some of the young 
Alcadce wander down here from Flamborough long before they are able 
to fly." 

Mr. Robert Gray and Mr. Thomas Anderson remark (' Birds of 
Ayrshire and Wigtownshire,' p. 48) : — 

'" Towards the close of summer large companies of these birds 
occasionally congregate near the shore, and remain there for days in calm 
weather, over the sandbanks where their food is obtained." 



Mr. Robert Gray also (in ' Birds of the West of Scotland,' p. 421) says, 
at Ailsa Craig the keeper " has seen the parent birds daily taking " the 
young " down upon their backs to the sea, and unceremoniously pitching 
them off when within a few feet of the water. He has also observed them 
seize their young ones by the hind neck, as a cat would do its kittens, 
and, after a moment's hesitation, launch from their high perches, and 
descend with an unsteady flutter till they could drop them with safety." 



It will be observed in one of the lithographs that boys are descending 
by a rope ; this was the case at the time. It is needless to repeat a thing 
so often described. 

Waterton mentions, in his article on the Guillemot, that while at 
Flamborough " one of the climbers grinned purposely, and showed his 
upper jaw ... ; a stone falling had driven two of his teeth down his 
throat." 

Lives are lost at times. In Anderson's ' Guide to the Highlands and 



16 FLAMBOROUGII HEAD. 

Islands,' it is stated: — " On Foula (or Fughloe, or Fowl-Island), one of the 
Shetlands, it was formerly said of the Foula man — his gutcher (grandfather) 
guid before, his father guid before, and he must expect to go over the sneug 
too," — " guid before " standing for " falling over the cliff." 



If a person wishes properly to understand how a Guillemot acts under 
water, he need not go to Flamborough, or any other place than the Brighton 
Aquarium. I confess, when I first heard of these birds I did not think it 
worth while to look at what I supposed I had so often observed at sea. But 
once there, I soon changed my opinion. The spectator is at the bottom of 
the water, under the bird ; and the whole body of the diver appears to be 
in a mass of silver air-bubbles or iridescence ; and a stream of such remains 
in its track. In swimming it uses its legs, in diving its wings only ; and the 
motion does not seem rapid — nothing like the rapidity of the several species 
of Penguin (^Spheniscus^ which I have observed at the Zoological Gardens. 
The eye can hardly follow Spheniscus demersiis, for instance, as I noted 
May 31, 1872. This bird takes a fish across. 



During the time of moulting, as is the case with many other birds, 
the Guillemot is unable to fly. Cf. 'Zoologist,' 1873, 2nd ser. vol. viii. 
pp. 3454 & 3455 ; here Mr. Cecil Smith, of Lydeard House, Taunton, 
remarks: — "In September 1871 Mr. Gurney, jun., and myself had a chase 
after one in the same predicament. ... I have found common Scoters, 
off Dawlish, in October and November, quite unable to fly." 

In the 'Zoologist,' 1874, 2nd ser. vol. ix. p. 3907, Baron A. von 
Hiigel calls attention to a "curious habit these birds have of flying 
through the waves." He says, " I do not know if this has been noticed 
before." 



FLAMBOROUGH HEAD. 



17 



It is needless to go through all the sea-fowl. Perhaps, however, the 
Cormorant might have a word — 

"As with his wings aslant^ 
Sails the fierce cormorant. 
Seeking some rocky haunt. 
With his prey laden." 

Longfellow : Skeleton in Armour. 

A curious anecdote is mentioned in the ' Transactions of the Tyneside 
Naturalists' Field-Club,' 1864, vol. vi. part ii. p. 160. Under the head of 
Johnston's Hump-backed Whale QMegaptPra longimana, Rudolphi), we read 
that a female was thrown up on Holy Isle fifty-eight feet in length. " On 
opening the stomach six Cormorants were found in it, and another in the 
throat ; so that it w^as presumed that the whale was choked in the attempt 
to swallow the bird." 



VOL. 111. 



D 



COLUMBA LIYIA. 

(The Rock-Pigeon.) 
By Mr. G. D. ROWLEY. 



" Then it came to pass that a pestilence fell on the city. 
Presaged by wondrous signs, and mostly by flocks of wild pigeons, 
.Darkening the sun in their flight, with nought in their craws but an acorn." 

Longfellow : Evangeline. 



Evangeline did not receive any addition to her troubles from Columha 
livia, the original of our dovecot birds. It, however, once caused me 
some ; for, shooting this species in my earlier days, at Mingaree Castle 
(a ruin on the coast of Argyle, in the Sound of Mull), I had such a tumble, 
from rocks concealed in long grass, as kept me quiet for a time. 

Still worse was the bad luck of Edward Barttelot, of Stopham, who is 
stated, in the pedigree of that ancient Sussex family, to have been disinherited 
for eating a Pigeon on Good Friday (cf. ' Sussex Archaeological Collections,' 
vol. xxvii. p. 52). 

The speed of the Pigeon has often been noted ; but the following is of 
interest, taken from 'Land and Water,' July 21, 1877 : — 

" Race between a Pigeon and an Express Train. 

"A most interesting race took place last week, from Dover to London, 

D 2 



20 COLUMBA LI VI A. 

between the Continental mail express and a Carrier Pio;eon bred by Messrs. 
Hartley and Sons, Birmingham. As the train moved from the Admiralty Pier 
the bird was tossed into the air ; and for upwards of a minute it continued 
swooping round at a great altitude, and then sailed away in the direction of 
London. By this time the train had got to full speed ; and going at sixty 
miles an hour, the odds were evidently against the bird. But ' the race 
was not to the strong;' and by the time the train reached Cannon Street the 
bird had been home twenty minutes. 

"This is a truly wonderful feat, and well worthy to rank with the 
'Antwerp fly' and the toss from St. Quentin in May 1874, in which a bird, 
with the wind in its favour, accomplished ninety miles in ninety minutes." 

The illustration of the " Rock-Pigeons' cave " is from a sketch made by 
Mr. Keulemans for this work on the spot. 

The birds are not always safe in these places ; for Lieut.-Col. Irby 
mentions, in 'Ornithology of the Straits of Gibraltar,' p. 105, that, "in a 
cave at the back of the rock, which can only be entered by landing from a 
boat in fair weather," and is " very large and open, with sand at the bottom, 
sloping upwards for a considerable distance at a sharp angle," the floor is 
covered with " tail-feathers and pinions of numbers of Rock-Martins " 
[Cotyle rupestris (Scop.)], " mingled with those of a good many Swifts, Rock- 
Doves, and a few Lesser Kestrels." 

Mr. Gurney, jun., has provided me with an article on the birds of 
Flamborough ; and he has been there so recently that I now leave the 
subject in his hands. 



NOTES ON 

PHAROMACRUS COSTARICENSIS. 

By M. ADOLPHE BOUCARD*, C.M.Z.S. &c., 
Author of ' Catalogus Avium ' &c. 

Order COCCYGES. 

Suborder HETERODACTYLvE. 
Family TROGONlDiE. 
t Pharomacrus mocina. La Llave, var. costaricensis, Cab. 

Quetzal; Mexican name. 
Long-tailed Trogon, English name. 

This fine bird is found in the Repubhc of Costa Rica, and also in the 
Province of Veragua, near Panama. I have never yet heard that specimens 
had been seen in either of the Republics of Nicaragua, San Salvador, and 
Honduras ; it would be very interesting to know if the species occurs also in 
these countries. In Guatemala it is found in the highlands of the country, 
chiefly in the Province of La Vera Paz. It is also seen in the Province of 
Quezaltenango, now belonging to Guatemala. But in remote times this 
province was a tributary of the empire of the Mexicans ; and it is a well- 



* [M. Adolphe Boucard, who has lately returned from a scientific expedition in Central 
America^ has kindly forwarded to us for publication some personal observations on Pharomacrus 



22 PHAROMACRUS COSTARICENSIS. 

known fact that the tribute paid to Moctezuma, or Montezuma, by this 
province was composed chiefly of feathers and skins from the Quetzal and 
other brightly coloured birds found abundantly in that country. 

This Trogon was an emblem of royalty and deity among the Mexicans ; 
and I have seen many antiquities, representing gods or kings, in which the 
image of this bird was carved. With the feathers, the monarch and his 
household used to adorn their regal dresses. 

It is very curious to observe that after several hundred years the 
plumes of these magnificent birds are again used for ornamental purposes 
by the fair sex of the nineteenth century. 

There is not any doubt that it is the finest species of bird found in 
America ; and it can well bear comparison with the most superb Birds of 
Paradise from New Guinea. It was first described by La Llave (a Mexican 
naturalist), under the name of Pharomacrus mocitia*, which it still retains 
by the law of priority. It has also been called Paradisea resplendens, 
Couroucou resplendissant, &c. 

It is rather a rare species, although you can procure easily a large 
quantity of specimens ; but this is due to the great demand in Europe, which 
commenced a few years ago. 

Some naturalists have been hunting the birds in their most inaccessible 



costaricensis. Any fresh information respecting this magnificent Trogon must be interesting. 
M. Boucard has a genuine love of ornithology — a fact which impressed itself very strongly upon us 
in our conversations with him. He states that he has been very successful in the object of his 
journey, which was chiefly to observe the habits of birds. He retui-ns with fully 250 species and 
some good notes, which are valuable, because every rehance can be placed upon the accuracy and 
conscientiousness of M. Boucard as an observer. — Editok of O. M.] 
* Mocina, the name of a celebrated Mexican. 



PHAROMACRUS COSTARICENSIS. 23 

recesses, for the sake of a dollar or two (45. or 85.), which is usually paid 
for a bird in the flesh. When skinned it fetches as much as 20^. or 25s., 
as foreigners always buy some specimens before returning home. 

The hunting of these birds has been so extensive of late years that they 
are rather scarce now ; and I have not the least doubt that this species will 
be totally extinct before long, if the Governments of Central America do 
not adopt measures for their preservation. 

This extinction would be greatly to be deplored, as it is, without 
doubt, the handsomest ornament of the American forests. 

In Costa Rica, hunters of Quetzals generally start on Monday for the 
forest, and return on Saturday (the market-day). They bring sometimes 
only one or two, sometimes ten or twelve of these birds, which represent the 
hunting of the week. They sell them usually from one dollar to one dollar 
and a half each. Then you have to find a naturalist to skin them. This is 
done by one or two persons living at San Jose ; they charge from one dollar 
to one dollar and a half for each skin. These same persons buy some of the 
birds on their own account, skin them, and sell them to strangers at distinct 
prices, from three to six dollars. 

Perfect and adult specimens are very difficult to get ; there is scarcely 
one among twenty. During my stay in Costa Rica I procured a large 
number of specimens, nearly all of them from the Volcan of Irazu, Navarro, 
and Naranjo. 

I have also seen the bird at Sarzero, Candelaria, and Cervantes, always 
at the altitude of from 3000 to 6000 feet. 

When feeding, they go in small bands of from ten to twelve birds. 
They eat fruits, and are very fond of acorns. In May, these fruits being 
plentiful, the birds are more easily got at than at any other time of the year. 
Some of the specimens which I have skinned had acorns in the crop and in 



24 PIIAROMACRUS COSTARICENSIS. 

the stomach. One of these, of a very large size, I found entire ; and I 
have kept it as a curiosity. 

In the breeding-season they go in pairs (male and female), and keep 
together. They fly about in the forest, perching on the branches of high 
trees. Sometimes the female is alone ; in that case she will call her mate 
until he comes close to her and has a caress. After a little while the female 
will fly further on, and call him again ; and so on, the greater part of the 
day. They inhabit the dense parts of the forest, principally along the 
streams. What are called " barrancas " — deep ravines, difficult of access — 
are their chosen retreats. 

These birds are rare ; and it is only because of their being sought, as 
they are, for the sake of their value, that quantities are sent yearly to 
Europe. 

However, what better shows the rarity of the bird is, that about 
one hundred men, at least, are busily engaged all the year round in 
hunting it, and through all their exertions they are not able to kill more 
than about 500 to 800 specimens in one year, which gives a result of from 
Ave to eight birds in one year per man. This number of 500 to 800 
includes all the birds sent from every part of Central America and Veragua. 

They have two distinct cries — one dull, from the female, and one sharp, 
from the male. It is by imitating the cry of the female that the men of the 
country are able to entice males within shot. 

The female lays its eggs in old nests of Parrots, Woodpeckers, or any 
other hole found on the trunks of large trees, chiefly dead ones. 

This species is not easy to detect. Some few^ nests obtained by natives 
had one or two eggs in them, of the size of those of a Pigeon, and of 



PHAROMACRUS COSTARICENSIS. 25 

a uniform green, rather pale. I have seen one of them in the possession of 
Mr. J. Zeledon ; he intended to send it to the Smithsonian Institution. 

Although I tried very hard to get some, offering a high price and also 
searching for them, I could not succeed in obtaining any. 

The male sits on the eggs ; meanvv^hile the female goes out for food. The 
position of the bird then is very curious : its head appears at the entrance of 
the hole ; and the long feathers of its tail are spread over its head, and are 
seen outside the nest. 

I have heard that sometimes the nests have two openings — one to 
go in, and another to go out. But I do not believe it — first because it was 
not told me by persons of any authority, and secondly because there is no 
necessity for it. Besides, this bird could not dig a hole in the trunk of a tree 
as Woodpeckers do ; and it would be very difficult for him to find a nest in 
such conditions already made. But it is possible that now and then they 
build their nests in the forks of trees, as other species of Trogons do. 



The young male at first does not differ from the female; but when 
about one year old, green and red feathers appear at intervals on the breast 
and on the belly. When one year and a half old it is quite a mixture of 
green, grey, and red ; the underside of the tail also is black and white. At 
two years he is exactly like the old male, except that the long feathers of the 
tail are short. Every year after, these grow longer, until the tail reaches 
from one yard to one yard and a quarter. 



I have collected over a hundred specimens of males ; and every one of 
them, including some very fine adult birds, agrees in having a long and 

VOL. III. E 



26 PHAROMACRUS COSTARICENSIS. 

narrow tail. I do not know if this character is sufficient to separate it as a 
species from the Guatemala one ; but I am of opinion that the name of 
costaricensis may be retained for this bird as a curious local race, only found 
up to this time at Costa Rica and Veragua. 

These Trogons are seen all the year round in Costa Rica, where 
they breed ; and there is little probability that they emigrate to Guatemala. 
Neither do those of the latter place go to Costa Rica, because they would 
have to cross forests which are only a few hundred feet above the level of 
the sea ; and I am not aware that this bird has ever been seen anywhere 
else except in the mountains not lower than 2500 feet altitude. 

Excepting the four long feathers of the tail, which are much longer and 
nearly as broad again in the specimens from Guatemala, the two races 
are exactly alike. 

It has been occasionally domesticated, and kept for several months in 
private houses. Sometimes it used to go about in the yard with the 
chickens ; or it would perch on a branch and stay at the same place for 
hours. It was fed with seeds and fruits. 



At the time of dissection I have found on several specimens a species of 
parasitic Diptera, which I intend to describe shortly. It is very large and 
peculiar. 

In fact, there are few birds which are not infested with parasitic insects. 
Unfortunately, for want of time, I have not been able to secure all of them ; 
but scarcely any of the skins which I have prepared were without, and it 
would be very interesting to make a collection of them. New species 



PHAROMACRUS COSTARICENSIS. 27 

would surely be abundant. Sometimes I have been greatly annoyed with 
them. At the time of dissecting, these animals spread over me, went on 
my body, principally on my beard and on my hair, and annoyed me for a 
few days. 

In conclusion, I have urged strongly upon several persons living in 
Costa Rica and at Guatemala to do their utmost for the remittance of 
some living specimens of this Trogon to me. They have promised me to 
do so ; and I am in hopes that before long Europeans may be able to 
see this magnificent bird alive. 



ON FLAMBOROUGH HEAD. 

By Mr. J. H. GURNEY, Jun. 



I HAVE made two visits to this noted headland to study the birds that 
frequent it — once in the month of March, and once in June — and have noted 
down a great many interesting facts, a few of which are partly new. 

Flamborough is the largest nursery of our rock-breeding sea-fowl 
in England. It is also the best-known, and, I may add, the most accessible. 
Those of us who are naturalists and who have never seen it, would do well, 
the next holiday that they get, to take the train from Bridlington, and from 
there get over to the headland as best they can. A trap can easily be hired, 
though it is nothing of a walk. 

Yet it is not at the actual headland itself that the cliffs will be found to 
be highest. It is more to the west, about Bempton, that they attain their 
greatest elevation ; and there {B.t Bempton), in the summer time, no one 
who has come over to see the birds need fear that he will be disappointed ; 
for all up the face of that grand precipice, reaching to the height of 400 feet, 
will be seen a moving multitude of Guillemots and Puffins, Razorbills and 
Kittiwakes. It is a scene that the painter's brush alone can describe. 

I should like to draw a picture of Flamborough on a stormy day, when 



30 FLAMBOROUGH HEAD. 

the sea spends its wild fury on the rocks — hard as adamant, not to be moved 
by the force of the waters. In one place a tall column of spray, 400 feet in 
height, bounds over the summit of the cliff, and, like the uncertain jet of a 
fireman's hose, plays upon the fields and sprinkles the sheep that graze on 
the green pastures, perhaps also giving the unwary naturalist, who is not on 
the look-out, a good wetting. In another the foam is borne on the wind, as 
it were, miles into the air ; and occasionally an unwise Guillemot, which has 
miscalculated the distance, is whirled aloft, and for a moment or two there 
seems no chance of its getting down the cliff again. Fitfully the wind howls 
over the bleak old headland — now sinking, now dying almost away, and now 
swelling forth again with unequalled volume. Faster and faster the sea- 
horses scud across the horizon. The shriek of the birds and the wail of the 
Sea-mew are drowned in the uproar. 

Amid this terrible scene of the elements, a weather-beaten seaman, small 

but active, with sinewy arms, though slightly made, is seen standing with a 

rope on the edge of the beetling crags ; it is a long one, and is passed round 

an iron bar. He shakes his head. The old man has not the hardihood to 

venture down to-day ; but you may see him if you come again, when the 

storm has subsided, with his basket on his back to receive the eggs for which 

he is thus jeopardizing his life. From ledge to ledge, with measured tread 

and careful foot, and an eye that takes in all the peril of his situation, he 

pursues his giddy way. Nothing daunts him : the narrow platforms, 

which have blossomed in such various hues, are despoiled of their eggs in 

quick succession, until enough have been gathered. Then comes the 

part which it makes one's blood run cold to see — when the old man 

begins to ascend, with only two people to pull him up, and one of those 

a woman ; but he lessens their labour wherever he can, by helping himself 

with his feet ; and very soon we all breathe freely as we see him safe on 

terra firma. 



FLAMBOROUGH HEAD. 31 

THE GUILLEMOT. 

Let me first narrate my experience of the Guillemot (or " Skout," as it 
is called — a name which has been in use for centuries) as jotted down at 
the time of ray last visit, because it is par excellence the bird of these 
limestone cliffs. 

Craning over the verge of the mighty abyss, I perceived, hundreds 
of feet below me, as it were a nation of people coming and going, 
in an unceasing, endless stream. It was a sight so novel to me that in 
a few minutes it made my senses reel. Dizzy with the Babel of sounds 
and the maze of living forms, I was fain to cover my bewildered eyes, 
and turn away ; yet all the time I was so fascinated by the marvel of 
those short, squat, dapper little Guillemots, with their abbreviated wings 
(almost like fishes' fins) bearing them down, down, down, rapidly and 
straight, until it seemed as if they had gone too far and all hope was over for 
them, that the spectacle was focused in my mind for months after. Always 
they recovered themselves just when it seemed as if they must be dashed to 
pieces ; and in a few minutes there were scores and scores of them, which 
had been sitting before on the ledges, carrying on an aggressive war with the 
tribes of the deep. 

Of some the fishing-ground lies near ; but of many it is far away, beside 
the distant Dogger bank ; and there they fly, in little arrow-headed 
regiments, one after another, like winged missiles directed against an unseen 
and finny foe. 

Many more sit expectant on their rocky platforms, making unmeaning 
bows, or raising a shrill chorus of alarm as a successful fisher returns to his 
ledge and bowls off a couple of the nearest to make room for himself. 

Numbers swim in the water, in long meandering lines, in circles, stars, 
and crescents — in short, in all manner of patterns. 

There is an idea prevalent that they cannot fly upwards unless their 



.32 FLAMBOROUGH HEAD. 

wings are wet ; but this is quite wrong, as any one may see by putting them 
off. Some which I frightened from their places, and never took my eye off, 
made one or two wide circuits and returned to the chff below me without 
touching the sea. It is true that they have a great objection to seeing any 
thing under them except water ; but they certainly are not unable to 
fly over the land, although such good authorities as the Messrs. Strickland 
stated, at one of the meetings of the British Association, that such was ' 
the case. 

When once on the level ground they are almost incapable of getting off 
again, though not entirely so. For I know one reliable instance, at any rate, of 
a Razorbill which deliberately rose from the earth and flew away in front of 
the cliff- climber's cottage-door; and what a Razorbill could do, a Guillemot 
could do. 

Their position in the air, and the character of their flight, has always 
seemed to me something remarkable. The legs are very much used to steer 
by, as may be observed when a Guillemot is turning round in the act 
of alighting on the cliff. This is in default of sufficient tail*. 

The Guillemots are much the earliest birds to come. Mr. Bailey, of 
Flamborough, assures me that he now sees a few upon the cliffs as early as 
New Year's day. They always used to make their appearance in February. 
In March great numbers arrive ; and a tempestuous sea at the end of that 
month will drive hundreds and hundreds of them to the cliff. 

All that I saw on the cliffs on the 21st and 22nd of March were in their 
complete summer garb ; but a specimen obtained on one of those days out 
at sea had not begun to change at allf . 



* If any reader wishes to know further the purpose for which Guillemots were made with 
abbreviated tails, he may refer to the ' Zoologist/ 2nd ser. vol. ix. p. 4119. 

t On the 5th of April I obsei-ved some which were in winter plumage, in a poulterer's shop 
at Newcastle. On the 27th of April, 1869, Mr. Cordeaux observed others in winter dress at Flam- 
borough ('Zoologist/ vol. iv. p. 1737). 



PLAMBOROUGH HEAD. 33 

The egging-season lasts five weeks, and ends about the 21st of June. 
The dimbers rather hke wet weather, because when it is fine the Guillemots 
often lay their eggs out at sea. I was informed that about a week before 
my first visit a trawler had brought six into Burlington Quay, and that it 
was a very common thing for them to find them in their nets *. The eggs 
are deposited on such narrow ledges that the old Guillemots often knock 
them off; but I cannot seriously believe that when they begin to sit 
they knock them ofl^ on purpose. I do not understand why they are 
sometimes so dirty when brought up ; for I believe that at Flamborough 
they do not deposit them in foul places. 



Let us now hear the evidence of old Lowney (the Methuselah of cliff- 
climbers, the intrepid veteran of forty years), who has taken, perhaps, not far 
short of a million eggs. He tells ofi^ the ornithologists that he has sent eggs to 
in his day, the Ringed Guillemot's eggs (or " Silver-eyed Skouts," as he calls 
them) that he has taken at their desire from under the birds themselves, the 
three double-yelked Guillemot's eggsf, and the fourteen red Guillemot's eggs 
which in seven consecutive years he took from one particular spot, known 
only to him by a dip in the stone. Gravely the old man rebuts our statement 
that the Great Auk has never been seen at his cliffs. It was at Flamborough, 
he tells us, for two seasons following, and kept always near the same place, 
but never mounted onto the cliff. Who will venture to say that he is not 
right ? 

Lowney has seen two Guillemots fight, like a pair of gladiators, until 
the rocks which were their arena were dyed with their gore. He is quite 



* We have^ in our collection, an egg which was dredged up at Lowestoft at a depth 
of 24 fathoms. 

t He showed me a double-yelked Razorbill's egg, which he had at his house, measuring 
7 inches in circumference. 

VOL,. III. F 



34 FLAMBOROUGH HEAD. 

sure that the young Guillemots are carried down on their mothers' backs 
and in no other way {cf. ' Zoologist,' s. s. vol. x. pp. 4342 & 4666). 

Now for what Mr. Leng has to say. Mr. Leng is the professional 
shooter who went to Lundy Island. He has been bred to a gun; and if any 
one ousfht to know about sea-birds, he is the man. He tells me that all 
Guillemots know their own young ones. It is not uncommon to see an old 
Guillemot swim up to a young one which is not hers, immediately find out 
her mistake, and swim away. He also affirms that they know their own 
eggs ; and that I believe : for what other purpose can so great a variety of 
markings have been given to them ? {Cf. ' Zoologist,' vol. x. p. 3478.) 
Questioned as to their mode of carrying their young to the water, he affirms 
flike Lowney) that it is always done on the back. Asked if the descent is 
not at too abrupt an angle for the little ones to stick on *, he explains that 
at that time the descent is made at a less angle. It is not until dusk, he adds, 
that the performance generally takes place, which may most likely account 
for the discrepancies in the accounts even of those who have observed 
it themselves. What he has said of the Guillemot applies equally to the 
Razorbill — but not to the " Parrot " or Puffin, whose young remain in the 
holes and crannies until they are old enough to get down. 

Having now done with these two authorities, I shall conclude my notes 
on the present species by remarking that soon after my second visit to 
Flamborough, viz. on the 16th of June, I received a white Guillemot from 
Bailey. It was a hen bird, and seemed to have lately laid an egg. Strange 
to say, the eye was yellow ; the legs also were yellowish brown, darkest on 
the hinder part. 

* Cf. MacgillivTay, ' British Birds/ vol. v. p. 322. 



FLAMBOROUGH HEAD. 35 



THE GANNET. 

Anybody who has handled a Gannet knows what a heavy bird it is, 
and may judge with what force it would come down to the earth from 
a great height in the air. The splash which it makes in fishing, when it 
simply lets itself fall into the sea, and which is visible from, I should be afraid 
to say how far, shows what a weight it is. Some years ago I remember 
having a visible proof of this. I shot a Gannet, which happened to be flying 
almost directly over my head ; it was very high up, and it fell down onto 
the rocks among which I was standing, only a few paces from me : on 
going up to it, I found that its breast was completely rent open ; and it was 
wdth some difficulty that I sewed it up and cleaned it when I afterwards 
prepared it for my collection. 



Now the story which this leads up to was an adventure which happened 
to a fisherman at Flamborough Head ; and I will relate it as he told it to 
me. He had gone out with his gun ; and he saw two Gannets approaching 
him. They came within shot ; and he aimed at one, and killed it ; and then, 
without lowering his gun, he fired his second barrel at the other. It fell ; 
and at the same instant as it dropped in the air, the Gannet which had been 
killed by the first shot tumbled on him, and its pointed beak passed through 
the rim of his " sou'-wester " hat. The man's name was Thomas Leng ; 
and among all the escapes which that adventurous fellow has had, his 
friends may well reckon this one of the closest. If his Gannet came down 
with the force which mine did, I can readily believe that its beak would 
have gone through a man's skull ; and if it had been an inch on one 
side, Leng's days would have been numbered. 



F 'J 



36 FLAMBOROUGH HEAD. 



THE KITTIWAKE. 

Liver of fish is the best bait for Kittiwakes. They can scent this afar ; 
or perhaps their keen vision enables them to descry it. Boat-loads of them 
used to be shot to it ; and a great many are still. The smacks that go to sea 
open their fish, and toss out the refuse ; and the hungry birds come, and 
are killed. 

A Kittiwake will make two plumes, which are worth Is. each ; and the 
head and wings are useful for screens, penwipers, &c. The supply does not 
nearly equal the demand since the Act was passed ; and I was greatly amused 
at the shifts to which the plumassiers have had to resort — Larks, Starlings, 
and even Sparrows being cut up by them in default of any thing better. 
Guillemots, Razorbills, and Puffins are of no use for plumes : these birds 
ought soon to increase enormously. 

I hope the Act has not come too late to save the much persecuted 
Kittiwake, as it is almost the only sort of Gull which breeds at Flamborough ; 
I believe that the common Gull never does. That the persons who were 
making a rich harvest before should feel some animosity against those 
who passed the Bill is very natural ; but I am glad to say that all that 
is now dying away. One man, now dead, told me that he used to take 
£15 to £18 a week in feathers, and that with the money from that alone 
he built three houses ; but he confessed to me that, while he did it, he 
always thought it was an "infamous shame to cut up so many good 
birds." Another said, "You gentlemen ought to stand us £1000 for the 
damage you've done us." But there is a great deal of right feeling among 
the Flamborough men ; and I believe that many a one is secretly pleased that 
the slaughter is put a stop to. 

Boats full of excursionists from Sheffield, who could not hit a haystack. 



FLAMBOROUGH HEAD. 37 

might go out day after day and pepper away a pound or two of shot, and 
pay for it handsomely ; but a different class will come now — not to shoot, 
but to see — who will pay just as well, without endangering the lives of them- 
selves and all who accompany them ; and the beautiful birds will benefit by 
the change. 

Mr. Bailey tells me that sometimes, when the fishermen are shooting 
their lines, a Kittiwake will seize the bait and be pulled under with the 
sinking cord, in which case no more is seen of him until fair weather permits 
the fishermen to raise the lines again. 

I forgot to ask in what state such a bird would come up ; but probably 
the anatomizers of the sea, with their busy nippers, would soon make 
a skeleton of him, and he would return much in the condition of Montagu's 
Fulmar : — 

" Here hangs I, John Down, for ever, 
That often cross'd the bank for liver ; 
Now to my sorrow and great surprise 
Here I hang an^ anatomize.'''' 



THE ROCK-DOVE. 

This is a characteristic bird of Flamborough ; and the price set on its 
head by Pigeon- shooters alone would be enough to make it greatly sought. 

The most ingenious expedient I heard of was tried by Lowney, who 
thought that by letting down a net, with rings on iron rods, he would entrap 
them wholesale. Accordingly he selected a suitable night for the venture, 
and let the net down over Bempton Pigeon-cote, as one of the large caverns 
is called. Instantly it was full of Pigeons, and he made certain of getting 



38 FLAMBOROUGH HEAD. 

any quantity ; but though caught in a cage, it was another matter to get 
hold of them ; and Lowney soon found that he could not catch them — at least, 
not alive. But he knocked down fifteen with a stick. 

The guano, which was once got out in large quantities, is not now worth 
going for. 



All the Pigeons on the east side of the north landing are Stock Doves. 
This discovery was made by Bailey ; and I confirmed it* by shooting 
one. Bailey told me it was only about the third year that Stock Doves 
had nested in their cliffs. 



THE JACKDAW. 

One of the most abundant breeders on the cliffs of Flamborough, and 
a great enemy to the eggs of other birds. Before the Bird- Act, when 
the Guillemots were much shyer, the descent of a man was generally 
enough to frighten them off the ledges ; and then, Lowney tells me, the 
thievish Jackdaws made spoil of their eggs. I have seen the shells 
which these knaves have carried to the top of the cliff and left there f. 
Sometimes a Jackdaw more bold than the rest attacks a Kittiwake ; and 
then a hard fight ensues ; but the same authority tells me that the Kittiwakes 
get the best of it. As an old cliff-climber of many years' standing, he bears 
a great spite against these feathered rivals ; and the old chap never lets an 
opportunity slip of destroying both them and their eggs. 

* ' Zoologist/ s. s. vol. xi. p. 5040. f Cf. ' Zoologist/ s. s. vol. xi. p. 4957. 



ORMITHOLOGIUAL MlSCh'.LLAirf . 




J-G.KculemaTis litK- 



Hanhart -iinp. 



ODONTOPHORUS CINCTUS, Salv^iz.. 



ODONTOPHORUS CINCTUS [Sahin). 

By Mr. G. D. ROWLEY. 
(Plate LXXXVI.) 

The following appeared in ' The Ibis,' 3rd ser. vol. vi. (1876) pp. 379, 380 :— 

"XXXVI. — On two additional Species of Central-American Odontophorinse. 
By OsBERT Salvin, M.A., F.R.S., &c. 

"Through Mr. Boucard's kindness I have lately been able to add to our' 
Central-American collection of birds two species of Odontophorinse — one of 
which is the tolerably common South- American Eupsychortyx leucotis, the 
other a species of Odontophorus which I do not hesitate to describe below 
as new. The two specimens (one of each species) were contained in two 
collections evidently made by our late collector, Enrique Arce, in Veragua, 
one of which came directly, and the other indirectly into Mr. Boucard's hands. 
Both from the style in which the skins are made up, and from the birdskins 
associated with them, there cannot be the slightest doubt as to their origin." 

[Here follows the description of the specimen of E. leucotis, Gould, 
P. Z. S. 1843, p. 133, et Mon. Odont. pi. x.] 



" Odontophorus cinctus, n. sp. 



Capite, coUoj dorso antico et pectore Isete rufescentibus, auricularibus nigris : stria postoculari 
indistincta e punctulis albis formata : dorso postico cinereo, albo et nigro minute vermicu- 



40 ODONTOPHORUS CINCTUS. 

lato : supracaudalibus rufesccntibus, scapularibus externis nigris, scapis albis ct pogoniis 
externis rufescentibus : alis fuscis, secundariis rufo variegatis : gula et ventre medio albis, 
hypochoudriis ct crisso distinctc nigro transfasciatis : rostro nigro : pedibus fuscis : long, tota 
circ. 75, alfe 4*3, cauda; 1-8, tarsi IB, rostri a rictu '6. 

" Hah. Veragua (^Arce}. . 

" This species is quite distinct from any hitherto described. It is 
smaller than even O. thoracicus, to which it is perhaps most nearly allied. 
The white throat and belly, the strongly marked flanks, together with the 
deep rufous colour which encircles the whole of the anterior part of the body, 
neck, and head, render it a conspicuous species." 

The bird figured in the Plate is a male, in my collection, killed at Agua 
Dulce, December 1876. 

" Agua dulce " means " sweet water." Perhaps the name was given to 
•this place from its proximity to the river Rio de Agua Dulce. 

Round the place the hills are small ; and the nearest mountain is 
Calovevora. 

This small village is situated about ten miles from Panama, on the 
coast of the Pacific. In the ' Proceedings of the Zoological Society ' for 
1870, between pages 174 and 175, there is a map of the State of Veragua, 
belonging to Mr. Salvin's well-wrought article on the birds of that place; 
none that I can find, however, marks Agua Dulce. 



Mr. Boucard informs me that this species is found on the hills near the 
sea, in tropical forests, and is scarce. Small numbers of both sexes are seen 
together, always on the ground, feeding principally on worms, insects, and 
larvffi, perhaps also seeds. They run very quickly when frightened, and 
sometimes fly, but not more than a few feet above the ground, making a 



ODONTOPHORUS CINCTUS. 41 

great noise with their wings, " hke Snipes ;" but they cannot stay long in 
the air. 

It is only by accident that they are discovered, as they always keep in 
dense and dark forests. The eggs are laid upon the ground ; but Mr. 
Boucard did not find any. The flesh of these birds is splendid, solid and 
white, capital to eat. 

This skin was not sent by Arce. It is hard work hunting for 
specimens, as at Agua Dulce the forests are magnificent, the country quite 
tropical, and the heat excessive. 

Total length about 7 inches. 



VOL. III. 



ORNITHOLOGICAL ¥TSCELLA>rf 




.^GKexilemans lith. 



Ha-nhai-t luip. 



GEOTRYGON CCSlTARICENSiS, iLaM'Tence^.J 



GEOTRYGON COSTARICENSIS (Lawrence). 



By Mr. G. D. ROWLEY. 



(Plate LXXXVII.) 



In ' A Catalogue of the Birds found in Costa Rica,' by George N. Lawrence, 
p. 136 (reprinted from the 'Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History in 
New York,' vol. ix. April 1868), we find : — 

"451. GeOTRYGON COSTARICENSIS, II. Sp. 

" Forehead and the forward part of the cheek next the bill of a brownish 
salmon-colour ; cheeks and throat white ; there is a bar of deep black on 
each side from the eye to the bill ; and a stripe of the same colour extends 
from the upper part of the throat along each side of the neck, and borders 
the white cheeks ; these black lines approach each other quite closely on the 
throat ; across the middle of the crown and adjoining the salmon-coloured 
front is a narrow band of greyish blue, which gradually merges into the dark 
green of the occiput and hind neck ; the lower part and sides of the hind 
neck, and the upper part of the back, are of a lighter and yellowish green, 
more lustrous and quite distinct from the deep green of the occiput ; 
scapulars and upper part of back rich purplish violet ; lower part of back, 
rump, and wing-coverts of a cinnamon-brown ; the upper tail-coverts are 

G 2 



44 GEOTRYGON COSTARICENSIS. 

darker, more of a vinous brown ; two central tail-feathers dull purplish 
brown, the two next of a duller brown, the outer three purplish black, 
terminating with ashy grey ; primaries and secondaries blackish brown ; the 
tertiaries have their inner Avebs blackish brown, the outer brownish 
cinnamon ; the under wing-coverts of a dusky brown ; neck and breast dark 
greyish plumbeous ; middle of abdomen testaceous white with a slight tinge 
of pale rose-colour, sides chocolate-brown ; feathers of the flanks and under 
tail-coverts brownish ash, ending in whitish ; thighs ashy brown ; bill hazel- 
brown, the under mandible yellowish at the end ; tarsi and toes yellowish 
flesh-colour. 

" Length about 10| in. ; wing 6|, tail 3^, bill f, tarsi t^. 

" Received from Dr. A. v. Frantzius : precise locality unknown. 

"Type in Mus. Smiths. Inst. no. 30431. 

" Remarks. — This beautiful Pigeon bears but little resemblance to any 
species of which I can find an account. It is allied to the group represented 
by G. caniceps, from Cuba. The colour of the breast, in each, is nearly the 
same ; but they are not alike otherwise. It has much longer and stouter 
tarsi and toes than G. caniceps." 



I have four specimens of this bird in my collection, received from 
Mr. Boucard — male and female adult, and male and female young. This 
gentleman informs me that they were all killed on the mountain of Candelaria, 
at an elevation of 2500 or 3500 feet, in the month of May 1877. He 
considers that the young, obtained at the same time, show that the breeding- 
season was over. He says : — 

" I always found them on the ground, scratching the earth like chickens, 
in search of insects. They have very much the same habits as Tinamidce and 



GEOTRYGON COSTARICENSIS. 45 

Odontophorina, are very scarce ; and it is only because I knew the great 
rarity of the species that I was able to procure several specimens ; I was 
quite satisfied when I could bag one in a day's hunting. The flesh is white, 
and delicious to eat ; it is one of the best birds for the table. 

" When dissecting, I found the crop full of seeds ; T am therefore more 
certain about this kind of food than about insects, although the probabihties 
are that they eat insects also. All those which I killed used to go singly in 
the dense forests ; but it is usually the case that, where one is seen, the other 
is not far off. 

"The Candelaria mountains begin about four miles from San Jose, the 
capital; and their greatest altitude is 5000 feet. The birds were killed on ?o-&ci4 ' (Im 
the other side of the mountains, at an elevation of 2500 or 3500 feet, but 
perhaps are found still higher. The summit of the one on which they were 
obtained is covered with a species of oak. 

" On the side of San Jose the plantations of coffee-trees, Indian corn, 
&c. reach the summit. On the other side, where the birds were found, there 
are dense forests of oaks, mixed with a great number of other tropical trees ; 
orchids are very abundant. Many streams spring from the mountain, and, 
some miles further down, form the Navarro river. The country has a very 
savage aspect, and deep, broad, hollow roads (called ' barrancas ') are 
frequent ; these are caused by the rain, which falls abundantly from May to 
December." 

In Geotrygon costaricensis the sexes do not vary ; I have therefore figured 
an adult male and a very young male. The latter, as will be seen, differs 
much in this stage from the adult. 

Description of the young male. — The isabeUine patch on the forehead has 
not yet appeared. The feathers on the head, like those on the chest, are 
brown, with black bars ; the same applies to those on the rump. The vivid 
green and purple of the back in the adult are much fainter ; the wings, instead 



4() GEOTRYGON COSTARICENSIS. 

of being chestnut-brown, are mottled with black and brown. The legs, as 
far as I can judge from a faded skin, instead of being bright red, are black. 
The white patch on the throat is almost absent. 

The young female is not in so interesting a dress, being too much 
advanced. It differs slightly from the adult. The isabelline patch on the 
forehead is rather smaller ; the legs not red, but dusky ; and a few mottled 
feathers remain on the flanks. 

Total length of adult male about I If inches. 



THE BIRDS 

OF 

MONGOLIA, THE TANGUT COUNTRY, 

AND THE 

SOLITUDES OF NORTHERN TIBET. 

By Lieut.-Col. N. PRJEVALSKY. 

[Continued from vol. ii. p. 438.] 

Order VI. GRALLtE (continued^. 

220. Grus monacha, Temm. 

Temm. & Schleg. Faun. Jap. pi. Ixxiv. 

Is very numerous during the spring migration in S.E. Mongolia — i. e. 
between Lake Dalay-nor and the town of Kalgan; further west it does 
not occur. It is very common about Lake Baikal, and must consequently 
migrate thither along the borders of the Gobi desert. 

We saw the first migrants in S.E. Mongoha on the 15th of March ; but 
the principal flocks appeared about the middle of April. A few of these 
Cranes were seen also about Lake Hanka in spring. 

221. Grus leucogeranus, Pall. Juravl heley or sterch. 
Temm. PI. Col. pi. cccclxvii. 

Only once (on the 9th of October, 1872) a flock of some fifty specimens 



48 THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 

was noticed by us about Koko-nor ; whether it got there accidentally, 
or not, I cannot state. 

In the neighbourhood of Lake Hanka it arrives towards the end 
of March, in small flocks of from four to ten specimens, and is not 
very common there, especially in summer, as only very few of them remain 
to breed in that locality. Its voice is very harmonious. 



222. Anthropoides virgo, L. Juravl maley. 

This is the only Crane that breeds in Mongolia, not only in the fertile 
districts, but also in the deserts of Ala-shan, where they frequent the wells, 
which they visit regularly to quench their thirst. This they usually do after 
the Mongols have driven their cattle to drink, and when small puddles are 
left by the latter at the edge of the well. 

When living in deserts their food principally consists of a species 
of Phnjnocephalus, n. sp., which are very abundant there. They arrive 
in Mongolia in spring, about the end of March, and leave early in 
September. Only a single flock appeared at Koko-nor on the 28th 
of February, after which we never met with any there, but saw a large ilock 
of them, on the 16th of September, in Kan-su, migrating in company with 
Grus cinerea. It does not occur in Ussuri country. 



223. Ardea cinerea, L. Zaplia seraya. 

Is tolerably abundant in Dalai-nor and in the Hoang-ho valley — i. e. 
in localities where marshes can be found. It arrives in S.E. Mongolia 
towards the end of March ; and about Gu-bey-key we noticed it even on the 
3rd of March. We did not meet with it at Koko-nor, but obtained a 
specimen in Kan-su about the middle of May. 

It is very common in Ussuri country, and arrives at Lake Hanka about 



THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 49 

the 10th of March in small numbers, whilst the principal migration takes 
place in the end of this month ; at this time the birds keep together in flocks, 
sometimes in company with Herodias alba, Grus leucogeranus, or Ibises. 

They are extremely cautious, and choose for their nesting-places the small, 
thick, reedy islands of the river Lefa, which runs into Lake Hanka. Here 
the nests are very numerous, close to each other, all being built of the same 
shape and very carelessly. Some twigs, without any lining, form the whole 
structure, which is of a flat shape and not elevated beyond two or three feet 
above the water-mark. It is difficult to understand how the eggs do not get 
injured in these nests during a strong wind. 

I visited the above-described locality in the middle of June, when the 
young had partly left their nests, whilst the others were just at the point of 
doing so. 

During the autumnal migration (i. e. in September and beginning of 
October) I met with many flocks of these birds on the coast of the Japanese 
Sea. 



224. Herodias alba, L. Zaplia helaya. 

We observed this bird in S.E. Mongolia only on one occasion, on the 
marshes of the Hoang-ho valley, in large numbers ; it apparently breeds 
there. 

The first migrants appeared in Tsaidam on the 18th of February, 
notwithstanding the heavy snowfalls and frost of 1 2° C. 

At Koko-nor we observed these birds only about the end of March, 
singly or in pairs. 

At Lake Hanka they are as common as the preceding species, and arrive 
usually at the same time with it, about the middle of March. 

H. alba does not form large flocks, but, as a rule, lives singly, in pairs, 
or in small flocks. In the middle of April, those which stop here disperse 

VOL. III. H 



50 THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 

themselves over the islands at the mouth of the river Lefa, of which I have 
spoken above. 

After the young leave their nests, early in July, they w^ander about the 
marshes, sometimes in company with "White Storks. 



225. BOTAURUS STELLARIS, L. Vip. 

We met with them only on the lakes of the Hoang-ho valley ; but in 
the Lake-Hanka basin they are very numerous, and find there a great many 
suitable localities in the impenetrable marshes, where they arrive about the 
end of March and beginning of April, when their voice can be heard not 
only at dusk but also at night and in the evening. 



226. CicoNiA BOYCiANA, Swiuh. ? Aist heley. 

We only once noticed this species in the northern parts of Gu-bey-key ; 
and, according to Dr. Dybowsky, it has also occurred in the Ussuri country. 
Daring my whole stay there I could not obtain a single specimen of 
C. hoycicma ; and when I first saw it 1 mistook it for C alba. 

At Lake Hanka these Storks arrive about the 10th of March, and 
commence breeding early in April, usually on high trees, along the shores of 
rivers and in the Sungatchin marshes. During the breeding-season, they 
are extremely shy. 

It is remarkable that a great many nests of the present species are 
destroyed by Tibet bears (^Ursiis tliibetanus), who climb up to the nests and 
eat the young birds. 



227. CicoNiA NIGRA, L. Aist cherney. 
An occasional visitor to S.E. MongoUa, and perhaps breeds in the 



THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 51 

wooded parts of Muni-ul. In Ordos and Kan-su it has been observed only 
in limited numbers during migration. 

At Lake Hanka these birds appear about the end of March in only 
limited numbers, and apparently do not stop there to breed, but rear their 
young in the more desolate parts of the Ussuri and Amur countries, returning 
to the south in large flocks vid Hanka. 



228. Platalea major, Temm. Kolpitza lolsJiaya. 

Temm. & Sclileg. Faun. Jap. pi. Ixxv. 

In the early part of April we met with some migrants at Dalai-nor ; and 
in July we observed them in the Hoang-ho valley, where the bird probably 
breeds. When travelling from Ala-shan to Urgey we met, in the midst of a 
desert, four young birds at a well, which evidently had lost themselves. 

In the Ussuri country we found P. leucorodia, and have brought home one 
specimen from Lake Hanka. There they are very common from the end of 
March until the beginning of April, and breed in similar localities at 
the mouth of the river Jeffa, as do Herodias alba and Ardea cinerea. The 
young leave their nests towards the end of June or beginning of July, and 
then commence to wander about on the marshes. 



229. Ibidorhyncha struthersii, Vig. 

Gould, Birds of Asia^, part viii. pi. 

Falcirostra kaufmanni, Sev. Vert, i gor. raspr. Turk. Jev. pi. x. figs. 1 & 2. 

This interesting bird (which was originally obtained in the Himalayas, 
and, later on, about Pekin and in the Thian-shan) was met with by us only in 
the Koko-nor and Kan-su mountains, keeping mostly to the brooks and 
rivulets of the middle circle. Each pair occupies its particular district, where 

H 2 



52 THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 

they rear their young. In its habits it is rather shy. When taking wing, it 
always utters a loud note, flying very low above the water, and following the 
curves of the rivulet. When wounded, it very cleverly hides itself among 
some loose stones, where, on account of its dull ashy plumage, it is difficult 
to find. 

This species is rather scarce in Kan-su ; and I do not know if it stops 
there for the winter, although Pere David states that, notwithstanding the 
severe frosts, it often winters in the mountains north-west of Kalgan ; and on 
one occasion we observed a specimen in the Koko-nor mountains in the 
beginning of November, when the frost amounted to 23°. 



230. NuMENius MAJOR, Tcmm. Croushnep holskoy. 
Temm. & Schleg. Faun. Jap. pi. Ixvi. 

Common in S.E. Mongolia from the end of March (or beginning of 
April) until the end of the latter month, on the shores of small lakes or in 
the burnt-out steppes, where some puddles are found. 

We found it breeding in the Hoang-ho valley in small numbers, and 
noticed the arrival of the first migrants at Koko-nor on the 15th of March; 
and at the end of that month numerous flocks of about fifteen or twenty- 
five were seen there : whether they stopped to breed or not, I am unable 
to state. 

Besides the present species, we noticed also a smaller one in the 
Hoang-ho valley, but did not succeed in obtaining a specimen. It may 
have been N. phceopus. 

About Lake Hanka these birds are rather common, arriving about the 
end of March, and some of them stopping to breed, which they do about the 
middle of April. 



THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 53 

231. LiMOSA MELANUROiDES, Gould. Verctennic. 
Gould, Birds of Australia, vi. pi. xxviii. 

It passes S.E. Mongolia in large numbers at the end of April ; and 
flocks of several hundreds were seen by us there, on the shores of lakes. 
We met with them also in the Hoang-ho valley, but only in August, in their 
winter plumage. 

At Koko-nor the first migrants were noticed on the 22nd of March ; 
whilst in Kan-su and Halka we did not see them at all. 

In the Lake-Hanka basin they are found breeding in rather small 
numbers ; but large flocks were seen on the coast of the Japanese Sea, about 
Possiet Bay, in the month of September. These birds were usually 
frequenting the shores during the ebb, and seemed to have quite disappeared 
in October. 



[To BE CONTINUED.] 



THE LATE 
MR. ROBERT SWINHOE, F.R.S 



We cannot pass over in silence the loss which Ornithology has experienced 
in the death of Mr. Robert Swinhoe, one of our contributors. It is not 
within the scope of this work to notice at length the many valuable additions 
to the science humbly advocated by us which have been discovered by 
Mr. Swinhoe. These will probably be enumerated by our contemporary 
'The Ibis,' and others; but we think we have the general assent of those 
best qualified to form an opinion when we say that not only Ornithology but 
Zoology itself has suffered a chill, and sustained a check, by the removal from 
our midst of the very painstaking and successful naturalist who has now been 
taken away from us. Some scientific men have to contend with inadequate 
pecuniary resources : the great Swedish naturalist, when a student at the 
University of Upsala, was forced to put folded paper into his old shoes to 
keep out the damp and cold — a state of things also not unknown to the 
greatest of English lexicographers. Others are doomed to struggle against 
ill health ; and Mr. Swinhoe, in consequence of his long residence in China, 
was among the latter. His absence will be acutely felt, not only by the 
Societies to which he belonged, and in particular by that one to whose 
members this work is dedicated, but also by all those to whom the science 
of Natural History is dear in every part of the world. 

Editor op the O. M. 



VOL. III. 



PART XII. 



■ States fall ; art fades ; but Nature doth not die/' 

Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, Canto iv. stanza iii. 



VOL. III. 



ON THE GENUS PTILOPUS 

(PTILONOPUS, Swains.). 



By Mr. G. D. ROWLEY. 



[Contiaued from vol. ii. p. 351.] 



PTILOPUS MIQUELI, Von Rosenberg. 

Ptilopus miguelii, Schlegel, Ned. Tijd. voor de Dierk. iv. p. 22 (1873). 

Ptilopus miqueli, Schlegel, Mus. P.-B. Col. p. 26 (1873). 

Ptilopus micqueli, Meyer, Sitzungsber. d. k. Akad. d. Wiss. Ixx. p. 128 (1874). 

Ptilopus miquelii, Salvador!, Prodr. Orn. Pap. Col., Ann. Mus. Civ. d. Gen. ix. p. 196 (1876). 

The beauty of Pigeons is great ; and our knowledge of the number of species 
increases rapidly. Mr. Alfred R. Wallace (in his most interesting article in 
'The Ibis,' 1865, N. S. vol. i. p. 365 et seqq.^ puts those of the Austro- 
Malayan subregion at fifty-four*; whereas Dr. Salvadori, in 1876 (Ann. 
Mus. Civ. d. Gen.), enumerated ninety species. How many will have 
been discovered fifty years hence .'' What the number would have been 
if the world had not seen a monkey, we cannot tell ; it is to this 
animal that Mr. Wallace, with much reason, attributes their absence 
in certain localities. As regards the genus under consideration, he says 
(p. 367) : — " New Guinea is their metropolis, whence they diminish in every 
direction, only one species occurring in Borneo and Sumatra, and the utmost 

* At page 372, however, he makes them eighty-four species. 

K 2 



60 ON THE GENUS PTILOPIJS. 

limits of the genus being reached in the southern part of the Malay peninsula. 
In the Pacific islands and in the Moluccas they abound, many even of the 
smallest islands having their peculiar species. These are the smallest and 
most beautiful of the Fruit-Pigeons ; their ground-colour is generally of a 
rich grass-green, diversified with bands and spots, caps, and shoulder-patches 
of the most vivid colours — crimson, pink, purple, white, or yellow, in endless 
diversity." 

The bird before us was named by Von Rosenberg after F. A. W. Miquel*, 
a learned Professor of Botany at the University of Leiden, where there is a 
fine botanical garden. He was the author of more than eighteen considerable 
works. 

The following translations refer to this bird. 

Schlegel, Nederl. Tijd. v. d. Dierk. iv. p. 22 (1873) :— 

" Ptilopus MiQUELii, Vou Roscnberg, in litteris. 

" M. von Rosenberg has recently sent us, under this name, a series of 
specimens of a Ptilopus related to P. rivolii, but offering very obvious cha- 
racters, and originating from other localities, where it appears to represent 
P. rivolii. These localities are the islands of Meosnoum and Jobie, which 
extend across the large Geelvink's Bay. This fact is the more curious, as 
this bird does not live on the other islands of the Geelvink's Bay, viz. 
Mefoor, nor on the group of Schouten (islands Soek and Biak), as the first 
is inhabited, in addition to P. rivolii, by a species with a white cross band, 

* " F. W. Miquel was bom on October 24:tli, 1811, at Neuenhaus, in Hanover (Germany), 
studied in Groniagen, became (1831) Physician at the Amsterdam Hospital, (1835) Master of 
Botany at the Chnical School of Rotterdam, (1846) Professor of Botany at the Athenaeum of 
Amsterdam, (1859) Professor at the University of Utrecht, (186.2) Dii'ector of the Government 
Herbarium at Leiden, died at Utrecht on the 33rd of January, 1871. Blume called after him the 
genus Miquelia." 




j.G.KeulemaiTs liL"h, 



Hanhart imp. 



PTILOPUS MIQUELI/r^/? Bosen^er^.j 



ON THE GENUS PTILOPUS. 61 

differing very much from P. rivolii and P. miquelii, a species which also 
inhabits the island of Soek, where P. rivolii is not to be found : it is 
P. speciosus, about which we shall treat immediately. 

" Ptilopus miquelii is distinguished from the other species by a white 
cross band on the breast, by the constant want of red on the breast and belly, 
these parts being coloured with the same green colour which occurs on the 
other parts of the bird. We add that the abdomen and the under tail- coverts 
are of a fine uniform citron-yellow, that the red on the upper part of the head 
in the male is a little darker and of a deeper purple colour, and that the bird 
in general is of a somewhat larger size. 

"Wing 4" 6'" to 4" 11"', tail 2" 9'", bill from the front 6i"'." 



Schlegel, Mus. P.-B. Colimba, p. 26 (1873) :— 

" Ptilopus miqueli, Von Rosenberg, in litteris ; Schlegel, Obs. Zool. 
in Nederl. Tijdschr. vol. iv. p. 22. 

" This species approaches Ptilopus rivoli, from which it is distinguished 
by the entire want of red on the breast, by its somewhat larger size, and by 
the red on the head being darker and more purple. Add that the under 
tail-coverts and the abdomen are constantly and in both sexes of a fine 
yellow. It remains uncertain whether this species is identical with Ptilopus 
strophium of G. R. Gray (List Columbse Brit. Mus. 1856, p. 6) or P. cinctus 
of Gould (in Jardine, lUustr. 1850, p. 105, fig. on p. 102). The bird bearing 
this name comes from the Louisiade, and differs (judging from the figure of 
Jardine) by the red on the head being restricted to the front and offering a 
rosy tint. 

"Wing 4" 6'" to 4" U'", tail 2" 9'" to 3". 

" Observed on the islands of Meosnoum and Jobie. (From Jobie two 
males and two females, from Meosnoum three males and one female — all 
killed in the year 1869.)" 



G2 ON THE GENUS PTILOPUS. 

Dr. Meyer remarks, in a letter to me : — 

" The Pigeons of the Eastern Archipelago belong to the choicest and 
most interesting birds of the globe, in consequence of the variety which they 
show as to gay colours and strange markings, and, from a scientific point of 
views as to the materials which they afford to prove the variation of species 
effected by isolation through insular conditions. 

" Among the very numerous species of Pigeons inhabiting the Papuan 
archipelago, there are four nearly allied ones which present a special interest, 
because, notwithstanding their being closely related to one another, they are 
yet very distinct in marking and colour — the more obvious as they live in 
close proximity ; they, indeed, form a small natural subgroup within the 
large group of the Ptilopi. These four species are, enumerated chronolo- 
gically in the order of their discovery, 

"1. Ptilopus rivolii, Prov., 

2. Ptilopus miquelii, Rosenb., 

3. Ptilopus speciosus, Rosenb., 
4 Ptilopus bellus, Sclater. 

" P. rivolii has a wide range over a part of the Moluccas, the islands in 
the west and north of New Guinea, and New Guinea itself. In the following 
diagram of the geographical distribution we only consider its occurrence 
on New Guinea and the islands of the Geelvink Bay : — 

"New Guinea. Mysore. Jobi. Mafoor. 
"Ptilopus rivolii .... 1 — — 1 

Ptilopus miquelii .... — — 1 — 

Ptilopus speciosus ... — 1 — 1 

Ptilopus bellus .... 1 — — — 

" The females of the four species are green nearly all over, differ a little 
in size, but are difficult to distinguish one from another. The males are all 
green on their upper parts, P. speciosus and P. rivolii shading a little more into 
bronze. Except P. speciosus, they all have a red patch on the head ; P. spe- 



ON THE GENUS PTILOPUS. 63 

ciosus shows only a small violet stripe ; but the colours of their underparts 
are such as to enable one to distinguish them at a glance. The most similar 
to one another are P. speciosus and P. hellus ; they have a white breast-shield, 
the upper part of which is citron-yellow. Besides, the belly has a large 
patch in P. hellus rosy red, in P. speciosus violet ; the abdomen and under 
tail-coverts are yellow, P. rivolii is more like P. hellus, but has the white 
breast-shield entirely without the yellow ; the belly has a rosy-red patch, like 
P. hellus ; the abdomen and under tail-coverts are sometimes yellow, some- 
times green variegated with yellow. Lastly, P. miquelii has neither yellow 
on the white breast-shield nor a red patch on the belly, notwithstanding it 
has the red on the head; abdomen and under tail-coverts yellow. But a 
small feature of P. miquelii, not to be overlooked or neglected, is a stripe of 
bluish- green feathers bordering the white breast-shield below — a character 
which contributes remarkably to the beauty of the species. 

"Except P. miquelii, all have been figured: — P. rivolii several times, 
among others by Mad. Knip, Pig. ii. pi. 57, and by Des Murs, Icon. Orn. 
pi. 4 ; P. hellus by Dr. Sclater, P. Z. S. 1873, pi. 57 ; P. speciosus by 
von Rosenberg, Reistochten, pi. xv. 

"The bird in the Plate accompanying Mr. Rowley's paper was drawn 
after a specimen killed on the island of Jobi, near Ansus, by myself in April 
1873, now belonging to the Dresden Museum. 

"To characterize the four species better than words do, they ought to 
be figured together on one plate. How Nature likes to vary the same 
character, would be apparent to all observers as it is striking to every one 
who sees the four birds together in skins. One cannot leave off speculating 
how these differences may have originated. As they nearly coincide with 
insular isolation, one might be inclined to connect these two circumstances ; 
but at present we are totally at a loss to say why the males have altered in 



64 ON THE GENUS PTILOPUS. 

this manner, and the females not : I mean, we have no satisfactory idea about 
the mode and process of the alteration of colour and marking. 

" By the above diagram of geographical distribution, it is to be seen 
that on New Guinea itself occur Ptilopiis rivolii and P. hellus ; but they 
have not, till now, been found together — P. hellus only on the Arfak mountains, 
P. rivolii on the coast of New Guinea, opposite Salawati. The Arfak 
mountains can perhaps be considered equivalent to an insular elevation. On 
the island of Mysore only P. speciosiis occurs, closely allied to P. hellus ; on 
the island of Jobi only P. miquelii ; on the island of Mafoor P. speciosus and 
P. rivolii together. This is obvious, Mafoor being a small island. But it would 
be premature to reason about the facts, as perhaps a more accurate know- 
ledge of the fauna of these parts of the globe than we now possess will show 
us that the real geographical distribution of these four interesting species of 
Pigeons is different from what we now suppose." 



The bird from which the Plate is taken is a good specimen, which was 
kindly lent to me for the use of this work by Dr. Meyer, Director of the 
Dresden Museum. It is represented the size of life. 



[To BE CONTINUED.] 




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OF.NITHOLOGTCAL M; 




J.G.K*>iilRrr.ar.s ciel. 



REHONHY IN GRI^AT SOWDRN WOOD/SUSSEX. 

PROM A. VH0T00RA!-H; TAKKN is AUG. 1S77. 



ON SUSSEX HERONRIES. 

By Mr. G. D. ROWLEY. 



It was almost the last victory which the Scots gained over the English 
(February 27, 1545, at "Ancram Muir"), and Angus was about to charge 
the shaken ranks of the invaders, when a Heron rose out of the moor. 
Now, though that Earl (the grandson of old Bell-the-cat) knew a Hawk 
from a Heronshawe, and was brother-in-law to Henry VHI., he had probably 
read but little of Homer; or the happy omen of a similar circumstance, 
since so well rendered by Pope, would have entered his mind. He did not 
quote it, neither will I ; but he shouted, " I would my good Gos-hawk were 
here : we should all yoke together." (C/. Fronde's ' History of England,' 
vol. iv. p. 397.) 

Leaving, however, that wintry day in 1545, and turning to the hot one 
of August 18, 1877, when the photographer went from Brighton and took 
the two photographs which have been reproduced, I will say a word on the 
heronry at Great Sowden Wood, near Brede, the property of Mr. Edward 
Frewen, of Brickwall, Northiam, Sussex, who kindly gave his permission, 
and placed his keeper at my service for the purpose. 

Mr. Harting puts the existing number of British heronries at more 
than two hundred, in a useful paper in the 'Zoologist,' 2nd ser. 1872, 
pp. 3261-3272. Concerning Sussex he enumerates them as follows : — 

" One at Windmill Hill, Hurstmonceux (Mr. Curteis); one formerly in 

VOL. 111. ^ 



66 ON SUSSEX HERONRIES. 

Park Wood, near Brede (Lord George Cavendish), and now in Sowden's 
Wood, Brede (Mr. Frewen), consisting of about 400 nests upon oak and 
aspen ; and one at Parham. 

" Concerning the last-named, the owner was good enough to write to 
me, in July last, as follows : — 'The heronry here consists of 117 nests, up to 
the 15th of April, mostly made of birch twigs, though they are built on fir 
trees. After the first batch are able to fly, the old birds repair the nests for 
a second incubation ; and the young birds one or two years old begin to make 
new nests, which are not nearly so large as the old nests. They rob the 
Rooks' nests to build their own ; and frequent battles ensue between the 
Herons and the Rooks, who also rob the Herons when they can. The 
ancestors of these Herons are said to have been brought from Coity Castle, 
in Wales, by the falconer of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, in Queen 
Elizabeth's time, to Penshurst, from whence they migrated, about sixty or 
seventy years ago, to Mitchelgrove, near Worthing ; and on the trees being 
cut there, they came to Parham in 1832.' " 

As regards the Parham one, Mr. Knox has described that colony so well 
in his ' Ornithological Rambles ' that nothing more need be said. 



In the ' Sussex Archyeological Collections,' vol. xxvii. 1877, pp. 110-116, 
the Rev. F. H. Arnold, LL.B., has an amusing article on the heronries of the 
county, with a woodcut of the " Heronry and Rookery at Windmill-Hill 
Place, the seat of H. M. Curteis, Esq." Here both species dwell in 
harmony. 

Of Brede, at Udimore, near Rye, the same gentleman says, " The ovnier 
has kindly supplied the following information : — 

" ' The heronry at Brede is situated in the north-east corner of the Great 
Sow-den's Wood. About twenty years ago some 400 nests could be counted ; 



ON SUSSEX HERONRIES. 67 

but at present there are barely 200 nests. I cannot in any way account for 

the decrease in their numbers, as the greatest care is taken to preserve them, 

and no timber or underwood in proximity to the heronry has been cut for a 

great many years, so as to avoid disturbing them. The trees in which they 

build are, for the most part, large oaks, under which nothing grows but 

brambles. The wood is about eighty acres in extent, and lies on the side of 

a hill facing the north. The Rye and Finchall turnpike-road runs along the 

top of the wood ; and by driving along the road, the birds can be plainly 

seen on their nests in the spring-time. The Tillingham, well stocked with 

fish, runs along the north side of the cover ; and about half a mile to the 

south the Brede river flows. 

" ' Yours faithfully, 

" 'Brickwall, Northiam, Sussex, " ' EdwARD FreweN.' " 

"'December 1876.'" 

Mr. Arnold adds a curious fact : — At Fyvie, near Turrifl^, Mr. Sim 
states, "Herons do sometimes have their nests in a rookery; one had its 
nest two years in succession in the Fyvie rookery, no other Heron's nest 
beino; known within six miles." 



•'a 



Rooks and Herons do not always live together in peace. Bewick states 
(vol. ii. p. 39, note) that " at Dallam Tower, Westmoreland, the seat of 
Daniel Wilson, Esq.," in 1775, there was a violent contest, which cost many 
lives and lasted two years. The Herons gained the victory; but it should 
be observed that they were driven into the fight by their own trees being 
cut down. 

At Sowden Wood one very remarkable fact is stated by Mr. Frewen, in 
a letter on the subject :— " There is no underwood below the trees, as nothing 
will grow but brambles, the Herons' droppings being most destructive and 
poisonous. It is a good find for a fox ; I expect they come there for fish &c. 

L 2 



68 ON SUSSEX HERONRIES. 

which are dropped." Perhaps also for the young ones, of which thirteen or 
fourteen were blown out last year. 

It would appear that the Heron does not condescend to pick up a fish 
when lost, in which respect it resembles the Fish-hawk, or Osprey, of 
America (^Falco haliceetus). Wilson mentions that one let fall a fine flounder, 
which served a whole family for dinner (vol. ii. p. 112). I say "American 
Fish-hawk," because the ornithologists of England and America are divided 
as to there being one or two species in the respective countries, and I always 
listen to American naturalists. These Herons drop a great many fish. 

The above is a case of foxes eating fish. In a book on the Country 
between the Danube and Black Sea, by Henry C. Barkley, p. 82, we find : — 

" On one occasion R and I determined to dig out an earth, with 

the hope of getting a young fox to tame. First the earth ran winding in for 
about five yards, where there was a bolt-hole ; and about three yards further 
on was an oven-shaped room, as big as a large hamper, the sides and floor 
of which were swept quite clean and free from dust. There were several 
rooms at the sides of the passages, in one of which we found the following 
provisions, all quite fresh — a leveret, a turtledove, seven roach, and three 
goose's eggs. We were greatly astonished at the time ; and to this day it 
remains a puzzle to me how the foxes caught the fish, and how they could 
carry such large eggs. The eggs were unbroken ; and the fish had not a 
mark upon them. We took them all home and eat them. I take it this was 
the first time a man had taken a dinner from a fox ! " 

The foxes probably obtained the fish in the same way that the Sowden 
ones o:et theirs*. 



&" 



* Foxes are not the only quadrupeds whicli assail breeding birds. We find the same done 
by bears, badgers, wolves, &c. ; for Colonel Prjevalsky says of Ciconia boyciana {cf. antea, p. 50) : — 
"A great many nests of the present species are destroyed by Tibet bears [Ursus thibetanus), who 
climb up to the nests and eat the young birds." Also Jacques Cartier, the discoverer of Canada, in 
his 'Voyages' (1534-1542), states, of the Polar bears {Ursus maritimus), that they will swim to an 



ON SUSSEX HERONRIES. 69 

A few Hawks and Carrion-Crows breed among the Herons ; and the 
Carrion-Crows are always masters. In the winter time the Pigeons associate 
with the Herons, which go away to feed upon the Winchelsea and Pevensey 
marshes. From Pevensey to St, Leonards you observe chiefly marshes full 
of black cattle. The space between the sea and the firm land is locally 
termed " the Swatchway ;" and it is on this Swatchway that the Herons get 
their living. Here you may see " a sege of Herons," to use the language of 
old writers {cf. Daniel's 'Rural Sports,' vol. iii. p. 314). 

About forty-five years ago, George Noakes, the woodman, who has been 
there sixty years, observed a strange circumstance : — Just where a small 
stream or drain ran onto the mud or Swatchway, there were congregated eels 
without number, on which some twenty Herons were feeding ; he obtained 
a rake, and raked up a vast many of the former. This place is now silted 
up ; and to the gradual reduction of the mud I should fancy the decline of this 
heronry might be traced. 

The woodman considers that these Herons chiefly feed on eels ; but the 
Rev. Richard Lubbock, in ' Fauna of Norfolk,' p. 137, says : — " The Heron, 
in Norfolk, gets half his subsistence from the fry of this fish \%. e. the Pike] ; 



island fourteen leagues distant from the mainland to devour the Razorbills {Alca torda) . Again, 
we find in the 'Times' report of the Arctic expedition, October 31, 1876, as follows: — "The 
Greenland shore, off which the ship lay, was infested with Owls, whose nests the sailors were very 
quick in discovering. When the spring set in they laid snares for the old ones, and determined to 
carry home a large consignment of owlets ; but when the young were all but fully grown, wolves 
descended on them in nearly every instance, and eat them. This was very strange, as there were 
not more than a couple of wolves seen in the neighboui'hood of the ship. Robbing the nests was a 
work of great danger, because the old Owls descended upon the men and darted at their eyes ; and it 
required no ordinary wariness to keep them off." 

The badger proves himself a member of the Ursidse in the same way ; for jNIr. Frederick 
Swabey, of Conyton Park, says, in the 'Times,' October 26, 1877, in a letter headed "Anti- 
badger:" — Badgers "every year take a great many of my domesticated Wild Ducks' eggs. This 
year they took two of my Wild Ducks off their- nests while sitting. Their tracks were very plain." 



70 ON SUSSEX HERONRIES. 

those which were taken by Falcons at Didhngton had always small pike in 
their maws." 

At Sowden Wood, in spring, the birds can be seen from the road 
standing in rows, like a regiment of soldiers. But it would be impossible to 
photograph groups of birds on the move; and even the young Heron which 
may be observed in his nest in the lithograph, would perversely open and 
shut his mandibles, to the annoyance of those taking his portrait ; while he, 
on his part, w^ondered why his fond parent failed to disgorge the expected 
eel from her own into his mouth. 

Noakes says the Herons chiefly feed at night, in which he is confirmed 
by Macgillivray ('British Birds,' vol. iv. p. 448), but adds:— "I do not 
think they see objects so well in the dusk ; for I have known two or three 
to pass overhead within shot whilst I was quite unconcealed. On another 
occasion, when I was down amongst the rocks by moonhght, one aUghted 
close beside me (at not a dozen yards distance, I suppose), and did not seem 
to be aware of me till I frightened it off." 

"When the Herons at Sowden Wood are sitting, you may pelt them with 
stones, but they will not rise from the nest, 

Noakes, the w^oodman, says that he has eaten a Heron in a dumpling, 
all except the legs *, and reports it " beautiful." Now I have done the same, 

* Noakes affirms that when the Heron stands in the -(rater the greasiness of the legs attracts 
the eels. But this is a very curious belief for a Sussex labourer to hold in 1877, because, if we turn 
to Lloyd's ' Scandinavian Adventures/ vol. ii. p. 388, we find it stated that " the common people 
in Sweden think that its legs have a peculiar odour, whereby fish are attracted to the spot." 
Pontopiddan says : — " Its long legs are a great help to it to get provisions. On these legs are a 
very few fine haii's, which play softly in the water ; and that motion entices the fish, who are not 
aware of the devom-ing beak." Lloyd quotes this, and observes : — " The real attraction consists 
probably in the droppings of the bird." This is perhaps the true solution ; for there appeai-s to be 
something in so widely spread a belief; and though Noakes has never read the work of the fine old 
bishopj yet, being a practical observer, his observation means something. 



ON SUSSEX HERONRIES. 71 

and found it taste like hare, but do not wish to try the dish again.- Our 
ancestors must, I think, have partaken out of sentiment ; and the Jews lost 
nothing by the Levitical prohibition, as it appears to me. 

Nevertheless, in the ' Boke of Kervinge,' printed by Wynkyn de Worde 
(mentioned by Daniel, in his ' Rural Sports,' vol. iii. p. 316), among other 
good dishes of which the technical terms are given — such as " Unbrace that 
Mallard," " Wynge that Fartriche," " Thye that Woodcock,"— we have 
" Dismembre that Heron." 

To obtain a heronry is not easy. We find, in the ' Architecture of 
Birds,' p. 184: — " Belon tells us that 'the Heron is royal meat, on which 
the French nobility set great value ;' and he mentions it as one of the 
extraordinary feats performed by the ' divine king ' Francis I., that he 
formed two artificial heronries at Fontainebleau — ' the very elements them- 
selves,' he adds, ' obeying the commands of the divine king (whom God 
absolve !) ; for to force Nature is a working partaking of Divinity.' " 

A really wild heronry, not protected, and perhaps the last vestige of a 
natural fen object of the kind, is mentioned by Pishey Thompson in his 
' History of Boston,' p. 676. 

He there gives an account of " a large tree, which formerly stood on 
the western border of the parish of Leake, and nearly adjoining the high 
road from Leverton." This " was for a long time the resort of a very 
considerable number of Herons." The tree was " literally covered with their 
nests ; it was taken down about twenty-five years ago" (i. e. from 1856). 

This is the famous Heronshawe tree of Leake. I went to the spot, and 
received an account of it from a person who remembers it well, and says it 
was an ash, and had about twenty-five nests upon it. Fifty-five years ago 
from March 1877 (J. e. in March 1822) an artist took a drawing of the tree ; 
and his sketch was afterwards spun or woven into a tablecloth. It was 
early in the morning, and the Herons were feeding their young. 



73 ON SUSSEX HERONRIES. 

T\ie number of nests on this ash is less than those on the celebrated oak 
of Cressy Hall, Spalding, on which Pennant counted eighty. Trees were 
scarce in the Lincolnshire fen; so the birds made the most of the one 
at Leake. Heronshawe Hall is mentioned in Pishey Thompson. 

Though British Herons prefer trees when they can get them, we must 
not forget that these birds build their nests upon the ground at times. In 
his account of this species QArdea cinerea), Colonel Prjevalsky says (antecl, 
p. 49), they "choose for their nesting-places the small, thick, reedy islands 
of the river Lefa. . . . Here the nests are very numerous, close to each 
other, all being built of the same shape and very carelessly. Some twigs, 
without any lining, form the whole structure, which is of a flat shape and 
not elevated beyond two or three feet above the water-mark. It is difficult 
to understand how the eggs do not get injured in these nests during 
a strong wind." 

Our common Heron (Ardea cinerea) cannot hold his own with the bird 
of Central America (^Ardea cocoi, Linn.). Some years ago I received one of 
the latter by ship, and presented him to the Zoological Society. Birds that 
have made voyages are usually tame ; the sailors soon make them so ; but this 
Heron proved an exception. Being placed in an aviairy with an English bird, 
" a difficulty " arose, and the stranger soon laid the Britisher dead at his 
feet. After this exploit he lived some years in the gardens of the Society ; 
and I used to see him at times there, where he may be still for aught 
I know. 

At the end of September 1877, outside Brighton, some clap-nets were 
set by a pond ; and a young Heron, having settled on the ground near, was 
driven into one of them and caught. This was the only instance I ever knew 
of this bird being so taken. 



ON SUSSEX HERONRIES. 73 

The Sowden-Wood heronry is illustrated by a woodcut by Mr. Pearson 
and a lithograph by Mr. Keulemans, both copied from photographs taken for 
this work. 

In the woodcut the general aspect is given as the spectator stands 
in the Rye-and-Finchall turnpike-road and looks down on the tops of 
the trees, which are not allowed to be cut. In the left-hand corner, on the 
opposite hills, may be observed certain hop-gardens, in which no " pickers " 
have yet arrived. Soon, however, will a quarter of a million* of such persons 
carry off the hops to be " oasted " (i. e. dried by a charcoal fire) at the 
oasting-house, of which every farm has one, some more. Here they will be 
put into "pockets ;" while he who treads them down comes out a "green 
man," and the steam and smell can be perceived to a long distance. 

In the lithograph, I ara bound to say (for pictorial truth should be most 
sacred, which it frequently is not !), the Herons had to be put in after- 
wards : though they were there, they could not be photographed. It is 
observable how late these nests of young Herons were. In a large wood, 
however, it is not easy to photograph the nests ; standing out in a park, they 
could be better seen. 

In conclusion, if an ornithologist w^ere to make out a list of birds 
prominent in classical or modern superstition, both as respects water and 
land (such as, notably, the Kingfisher and the Vulturef in the one, and the 
Petrel or the Magpie in the other), he would perhaps enumerate the Heron 
in both. 



* This number is founded on an estimate in an article published in the ' Times/ Thursday, 
August 30, 1877, where it is stated that from London alone at least 35,000 pickers start, and that 
Kent and Sussex employ a quarter of a million. The London, Chatham, and Dover Company takes 
these people at reduced fares. 

t Romulus and Remus. 



VOL. III. ^ 



OR'NITHOLOGICAL MiSCiiLLAMY 




J.GXeulemans lith. 



Hainliart imp 



CHLORyElTAS SUBVINACEA, {La.wr&nc>&)^ 



CHLORCENAS SUBYINACEA. Lawrence. 



By Mr. G. D. ROWLEY. 



The following is from 'A Catalogue of the Birds of Costa Rica,' by George 
N. Lawrence, p. 135 (reprinted from the 'Annals of the Lyceum of Natural 
History in New York,' vol. ix. April 1868) : — 

"448. Chlorcenas suBViNACEA, sp. n. 

" Male. Head, neck, and under plumage light purplish vinaceous, darker 
on the abdomen and sides ; the throat paler, and of a fulvous tinge ; back, 
wing-coverts, and rump brownish cinnamon ; tail of a fine dark brown, 
slightly purplish, except the two central feathers, which are rather lighter 
in colour and incline to olivaceous brown ; the upper tail-coverts are of the 
same colour as the central tail-feathers ; the quills are dark brown, the 
primaries blackish on the outer webs, which are narrowly margined with 
pale cinnamon, the inner webs of the quill-feathers are broadly marked with 
dull pale cinnamon to near their ends ; the under wing-coverts are vinaceous, 
V aried with cinnamon ; bill black ; feet yellow. 

" Length (fresh) 13i inches, wing 65, tail 5|, tarsi |. 

" Habitat. Dota. Collected by F. Carmiol, February 26th, 1867. Type 
in Mus. Smiths. Inst. no. 47575. 

"The female is a little smaller, 12^ inches in length, and differs in 

M 2 



76 CHLORCENAS SUBVINACEA. 

plumage only in being less vinaceous on the lower part of the hind neck and 
abdomen, where it is brownish cinnamon. 

" Remarks. There are four specimens of this species in the collection, all 
agreeing in plumage. It differs from C vinacea in being generally lighter in 
colour, the back and rump being cinnamon-brown instead of dull dark 
vinous ; the wings of C. vinacea are of an olivaceous cast, and the inner webs 
of the quills are not of a cinnamon-colour as in the present species. 

" C nigrirostris, Scl., is either this or C vinacea, and has the back and 
wings dark olive-brown." 



Mr. Boucard states to me that the specimen from which the Plate is 
taken, now in my collection, was killed at an altitude of 7000 feet, on the 
Volcan de Irazu, among a small flock of ten birds distributed on several 
trees ; usually about tw^o or four individuals rest on each tree. The species 
keeps to the mountains, and feeds on seeds. When acorns appear, as they 
do in May, this Pigeon is frequently seen in the oak forest ; and, Mr. Boucard 
adds, here it lives. 

The date on this skin, which is that of a male, is July 5th, 1877. 



w 

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ID 



GEOTRYGON RUFIVENTRIS, Lmcrence. 



By Mr. G. D. ROWLEY. 



The following appeared in a reprint from the 'Annals of the Lyceum 
of Natural History in New York,' vol. xi. February 1875 : — 

"IX. — Description of Four New Species of Birds from Costa Rica. 
By George N. Lawrence. (Read December 21, 1874.)" 

At p. 90 :— 

" 3. Geotrygon rufiventris. 

" Front and a line under the eye, extending as far as the occiput, light 
salmon-colour; crown, hind neck, upper part of back, throat, and upper 
part of breast of a rather dull violet-purple, on the lower part of the breast 
merging into brownish ash ; lower part of back, rump, and upper tail-coverts 
of a dull bronzy olive- green ; tail-feathers brownish black, the ends lighter 
or ashy brown ; abdomen, vent, and sides dull brownish rufous, on the 
middle of the abdomen is a patch of white feathers just tinged with rufous ; 
under tail-coverts dark brown, largely ending with rufous; wing-coverts, 
secondaries, and tertiaries olive-brown, primaries brownish black, the shafts 
of a reddish or hazel-brown ; under wing-coverts and axillars deep cinnamon- 
red ; inner webs of primaries at base dull pale cinnamon ; bill black ; feet in 
the dried specimen of yellowish flesh-colour. 

" The sex is not given. 



78 GEOTRYGON RUFIVENTRIS. 

" Length about 9 inches ; wing 5^ ; tail 3i ; bill from front |, from 
rictus 1, tarsus If. 

" Habitat. Costa Rica, Talamanca. Type in National Museum. 

" Remarks. The number of handsome species of this genus discovered 
in Central America within the last few years is quite remarkable, this making 
the sixth ; it is, how^ever, much more sombre-looking than most of its allies, 
the colour being darker and more subdued. It is so unlike all others of the 
genus that no comparisons are required." 



Mr. Boucard informs me that the specimens from which the Plate is 
taken came from Agua Dulce, Panama, The species inhabits the tropical 
forests, and keeps on the ground, feeding on seeds and perhaps insects. It 
is rather rare, and difficult to detect. 

The natives are very fond of these birds to eat, and have applied the 
name "paloma del monte " (forest-dove) to them. 

The skins are male and female, wdth date December 1876. 



H-1 

w 
o 

CO 



o 

I — I 

Q 

O 

E-i 
t — I 

o 







i 
CO 



LEPTOPTILA CASSINI, Lawrence. 



By Mr. G. D. ROWLEY. 



The male bird from which the Plate is taken was shot by Mr. A. Boucard 
at San Carlos, Costa Rica, February 1877. A curious fact is also stated by 
by him, namely that he killed it on the nest, which circumstance made him 
think that it was the female ; but he says that he took care to note the sex 
when dissecting the specimen, and he is quite sure about it. The female was 
very close to the spot ; but no shot was obtained. 

Although he killed this bird on the nest, yet the eggs remained 
uninjured, and were two in number. These have passed into my collection ; 
and very pretty they are. The long diameter is 1]^ inch, the short 
diameter f inch, and the shape most elegant ; while the colour is a delicate 
cream. 

Mr. Boucard informs me that the nest was built on the fork of a small 
tree, and, being only about five yards from the ground, was reached with 
facility. It was composed of small pieces of dry wood. 

Mr. Boucard saw several other birds of the same species, but could not 
obtain more than this specimen. He always observed them in dense forests, 
on the ground and in pairs, and found them capital to eat. 

San Carlos is a large valley which divides the Republic of Costa Rica 
from that of Nicaragua, and is quite tropical. The rancho where he was 
living is at the altitude of 500 feet ; and the valley itself is only inhabited by 



80 LEPTOPTILA CASSINI. 

four Costaricenses, or people of Costa Rica, who have made openings in the 
magnificent virgin forests, and follow the occupation of fattening cattle. 
The trees found here are mahogany, cedar, and india-rubber, with others ; but 
these are the most conspicuous. 

1 have had some doubts as to the identity of my skin ; it might possibly 
be Leptoptila cerviniventris, Sclater and Salvin ; cf. P. Z. S. 1868, p. 59, where 
those ornithologists have a joint article ; in it they say, under the head of 

"L. CERVINIVENTRIS, Sp. UOV., 
'•' Sim. L. cassini, sed pectore dilutiore et vinaceo tincto et ventre smnmo saturate cervino differt." 

The two species appear to run rather close. The authors say, in the 
above article, that they are acquainted with eight species of the genus 
Leptoptila, which, they state, "may be easily distinguished from all other 
genera of Columhidce (except Peristerd) by the peculiar acumination of the 
outer primary. All of them have the under wing-coverts deep cinnamomeous 
or chestnut, and the outer tail-feathers more or less terminated with white." 

In the ' Nomenclator Avium Neotropicalium ' (1873), by the same two 
ornithologists (pp. 133, 134), we find the eight species have become eleven. 



The Plate represents the bird the size of life. 



CO 



< 

o 

3 
o 

o 

n: 

!s 
PC 
o 




/^if\^ -^ 



COTYLE RIPARIA. 

(The Sand-Martin.) 
By Mr. G. D. ROWLEY. 



Where should we expect to find the Sand-Martin, if not at Sandy.? There 
are, however, not a great many ; the publicity of the place and the want of 
protection to the birds, together with the constant excavation going on for 
railway purposes, keep the numbers down. 

The lithograph is from a photograph taken on the spot, for this work, 
on the 27th of June, 1877. 

The colony established itself in 1877; and all the holes are fresh. The 
birds are quite tame, and almost touch the men when digging, or settle upon 
them. A pair take about a week to make a nest in the sand, which is here 
about eighteen feet deep. This railway-station has long been famous for 
Sand -Martins. 

When the ea-^s have been incubated a little while, the fleas abound to 
such an extent that I have seen them fall out like rain. White, of Selborne, 
mistook this insect for the common bed-flea (^Pulex irritans) ; whereas, 
according to Mr. Harting's note to his edition of the ' History of Selborne,' 
p. 200, " it appears even to be distinct from the flea of the Swallow, Pulex 
hirundinis (Stephens), and has been described as P. Ufasciatus (Curtis)." 

VOL. III. N 



82 COTYLE RIPARIA. 

The young of the House-Martin (^Hirundo urh'ica) abound with what 
seem to be Uce (Anoplura) ; and Mr. P. J. van Beneden says, in ' Animal 
Parasites,' p. 121, that Martins "are usually infested by many vermin, 
among which we find a fly of considerable size, which looks much like 
a spider — the Ornithomyia hirundinis. It moves about among the feathers 
with astonishing facility, and is not always confined to the same bird; it 
quits its host to establish itself upon another, and sometimes throws itself 
upon man to suck his blood. Some years ago these insects penetrated, in 
the middle of the night, through the open windows, into one of the 
apai^tments of the Military Hospital at Louvain ; and the next morning the 
skin of many of the patients, and especially the bed-linen, were covered with 
stains of blood. The physicians sent me some of these insects, not knowing 
whence they had come or whether they had been the cause of this 
annoyance. During the night these Ornithomyice had quitted their hosts to 
attack the soldiers." 





Stenopteryx hirundinis. Ornithomyia avicularia *. 

The woodcuts represent Stenopteryx hirundinis and Ornithomyia avicu- 
laria — the former drawn from an example in the Bi'itish Museum, the latter 
from specimens obtained by me alive at Brighton, in August, taken ofl^ the 
Brown Linnet (^Linota cannahina, Linn.), and said by the birdcatchers also 
to frequent the Stonechat and Yellowhammer. The two are very different, 
as will be seen by the illustrations. 

* In the ' Insecta Britannica/ by Walker, is a long description of this fly. It has been 
described as 0. viridis, Latreille and ^Nleigen, and 0. fringiUina, Curtis. 



COTYLE RIPARIA. 83 

The agility and quickness of the latter fly is astonishing : it runs in under 
the feathers about the shoulders ; and although the bird may flutter a good 
deal, the insect is not disturbed ; nor does its presence cause uneasiness, 
though it is said to make quite a sore place at times, and red spots. When 
driven out, which it is with difficulty, it resumes its position immediately. 
Sometimes these flies, of which the body is hard, will slip through the fingers 
and get into the men's whiskers. 

It is to be presumed that when the Swallow and the Linnet migrate 
they take their respective parasites with them ; but this I am unable to state 
as a fact. They would seem to quit a dead bird very shortly after its life is 
gone, and to have an immediate apprehension of something wrong when you 
handle their living host. Both are figured and described in Francis Walker's 
' Insecta Britannica ' (vol. ii. pp. 287—289, and pi. xx.) ; also in Curtis's 
'British Entomology' (vol. xiii. pi. 585). 

I have specimens of these flies found on the Starling, Wheatear, 
Blackcap, Whitethroat, &c., but have not determined the species in each 
case. All taken this season. 

Two Whitethroats were caught, and put into a cage. One was 
examined, and a fly came out, but escaped ; instead, however, of going 
in another direction, it immediately made straight for the other Whitethroat, 
and went under its feathers. This bird was so marked as to be known, 
and was allowed to depart on a Monday. Next Saturday it was again 
captured ; and on it was seen a fly, supposed (but, of course, only supposed) 
to be the very individual above mentioned. The bird was certainly the same. 

As regards Sand-Martins, it seems strange that an insect-eating 
species should be infested with external parasites to such an extent ; but 
they appear to do no harm, any more than internal ones, of which 
Van Beneden mentions a most remarkable instance (pp. 90 & 91) : — 
" Nathusius speaks of a Black Stork which lodged twenty-four Filarice 
lohatcB in its lungs, sixteen Sijngami tracheales in the tracheal artery, 

N 2 



84 COTYLE RIPARIA. 

besides more than a hundred Spiroptera alatce within the membranes of 
the stomach, several hundreds of the Holostommn excavatum in the smaller 
intestine, a hundred of the Distoma ferox in the large intestine, twenty- 
two of the Distoma Mans in the oesophagus, and a Distoma echinatum in 
the small intestine ; yet the bird did not appear to be in the least 
inconvenienced." 

Mr. John Wolley (in the ' Ootheca WoUeyana,' edited by Alfred Newton, 
M.A. &c., p- 19) relates an amusing adventure with the fleas of the Golden 
Eagle, though he does not determine the species. He jumps into a nest of 
that bird, and says : — " Resting on my hands and knees, I felt, as I thought, 
a lot of flies crawling on my hands. On closer inspection, I saw they were 
fleas, and my arms and legs were swarming with them. I beat a retreat. . . . 
With the help of flint and steel a fire was made with moss and heather ; and 
I stripped to the skin. After an hour or two's hard picking and smoking, the 
clothes were handed over to me, one by one, as I sat at some distance, and I 
extracted a few score more, but still put many around me." 

In one or two cases, at Sandy, the Sand- Martins had been obhged to 
yield their habitations to Starlings ; and a similar instance is mentioned in the 
' Zoologist,' 3rd ser. July 1877, p. 301, by Mr. C. Matthew Prior (Bedford) :— 
" I was greatly surprised one day, in passing a sand-pit, to find that Starlings 
had taken possession of all the Sand-Martin's holes. On coming again a 
month later, most of the birds had young ones. It was very amusing to see 
the way in which they entered the hole: on getting about 150 yards from 
the entrance, they sailed gracefully into it, giving a few hurried flaps with 
their wings on gaining the aperture." 

It is curious that a Robin should seize a Sand-Martin's nest ; but so 
we find in Mr. Dresser's 'Birds of Europe' (part xxxii, September 1874, 
Cotijk riparia, p. 6), on the authority of Mr. Cecil Smith, who has a quarry 



COTYLE RIPARIA. 85 

on his property, and says : — " When the earth was beinp; taken off, a pair of 
Eobins were found to liave taken possession of one of the Sand-Martin's 
holes, and had akeady laid three eggs in it." 

Mr. Dresser also states that the Sparrow will sometimes hold and 
occupy a gallery*. 

The bird under examination is a true miner ; and if we examine its bill, 
we see how well adapted it is for the work. Insects, such as sand-wasps 
{Sphecklce, Leach) and some bees, excavate galleries in hard sand — the 
former with caliper-like mandibles ; but the process is different. The bird's 
mode of mining has been so often described that it is needless to repeat it. 

The range of the Sand-Martin is fully given in Mr, Dresser's ' Birds of 
Europe ;' and Mr. Sharpe's table of distribution of African HiruncUnidce may 
be consulted with advantage (P. Z S. 1870, p. 320). The same writer says 
also (p. 297) : — " Our well-known Sand-Martin only extends into North- 
eastern Africa. Dr. von Heuglin states that it is rather rare in N.E. Africa 
and Arabia." 

One thing is much to be wished, that in our country all classes of 
people would protect such beautiful and harmless colonies as those of this 
charming and useful little Swallow. Pallas says that " on the high banks 
of the Irtish their nests are in some places so numerous that when 
disturbed they came out in vast flocks, and filled the air hke flies." Why 
should we not have such scenes as this ? Kindness to poor little birds 
ought to be a part of all religions, and isf. 

* It does not appear that the nest of the Sand-Martin ever became a popular sign ; the 
'' Martin's Nest " at Thornhill Bridge, Normanton, mentioned in Larwood and Hotten's ' Sign- 
boards/ p. 178, was probably the House-Martin's. 

t Mr. L. Lloyd, in ' Game-birds and Wild-fowl of Sweden and Norway,' p. 175, mentions an 
amusing instance of the way in which religion protects the Partridge in Sweden : — " On the last 
Sunday in Lent the Governor's order, prohibiting the capture or shooting of Partridges from 
November to August, was notified from all the pulpits within the diocese of Gotland. Scarcely was 



86 COTYLE RIPARIA. 

The maxim " Be merciful, because you have need of mercy," is one 
thing ; but I would rather put it on this ground, " Be merciful, because vou 
feel your Divine origin." So Father Felician to Evangehne, in Longfellow's 
story — 

" O daughter ! thy God thus speaketh T\'ithin thee ! " 

Before leaving the subject of Sandy station and its birds, I may say I 
have rarely seen any place presenting so many interesting features. Here 
you may dig up bones of extinct animals, Roman pots, coins, &c. pretty freely. 
One day, having to wait some time for a train, I said, " Let us spend the interval 
in excavation ;" having, therefore, obtained a spade and man from a cottage, 
we soon turned up a Roman coin, which I now have. While looking at the 
Sand-Martins' nests, the diggers brought me a human skull, which they had 
just found ; and I gave them a trifle to bury it again. Not a single stone 
occurs in this fine bed, except perhaps a black pebble or so at the bottom. 



the reading of the above announcenieiit concluded in B chui'ch, when a fine cock Partridge, 

as if aware of the powerful protection just accorded him, boldly entered the sacred edifice, and, 
marching up the middle aisle, stationed himself for a couple of minutes in front of the pulpit. 
Here this unwonted church-goer was, for the time, carefully taken in charge, and afterwards 
restored to liberty, it being contrary to the law just promulgated to detain him a prisoner." 



THE BIRDS 

OF 

ONGOLIA, THE TANGUT COUNTRY, 

AND THE 

SOLITUDES OF NORTHERN TIBET. 

By Lieut.-Col. N. PRJEVALSKY. 



[Continued from p. 53. J 

Order VI . GRALLiE (continued). 

232. ToTANUS ocHROPUS, L. Ulit travnic. 

Occurs throughout Mongolia, except the Ala-shan mountains, and seems 
to arrive there about the middle of April, when it can usually be seen, either 
singly or in pairs, on the shores of rivers or on marshes, but does not stop 
to breed, although a few specimens have been noticed in the Hoang-ho valley 
in the month of July. In Kan-su we saw it once in the end of September, 
and never at Koko-nor, perhaps on account of our having been there only 
late in autumn and early in spring. 

T. ochropus is rather common in spring in Ussuri from about the 20th of 
April, when we met with a few birds at Lake Hanka. The autumnal 
migration takes place in August. 



88 THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 

233 TOTANUS GLAREOLA. 

Common in S.E. Mongolia about the end of April, when migrating, and 
is plentiful in summer in the Hoang-ho valley. We did not find it in 
Kan-su and Koko-nor, but several times observed it in Gobi, about small 
rain-puddles. 

Is extremely common about Lake Hanka during the spring migration, 
v\4iich commences in the latter part of April and lasts until the middle of 
May. The autumnal migration takes place in August; and although T. 
glareola has been found breeding on the Ussuri, it never came under my 
observation in summer anywhere about Hanka. 



234. ToTANUS CALiDRis, L. UUt nttstojashchey. 

Breeds sparingly in the Hoang-ho valley and about the shores of small 
rivers in S.E. Mongoha, whither it migrates in the end of March, about which 
time it was also numerous at Koko-nor, and in August, during migration, 
about the rain-puddles in Gobi. We did not find it in the Ussuri country. 



235. ToTANrs fuscus, L. Ulif temney. 

We met wdth this species in S.E. Mongoha during the spring migration, 
in the end of March. At Lake Hanka it arrives early in March, but is not 
common until the beginning of April (when it for some time keeps in small 
flocks), and does not stop here to breed. 



236. ToTANUs Gi.oTTis, L. UUt holshoy. 

Is an occasional visitor to the Hoang-ho, and a migrant through Gobi 

about the end of August. We did not observe it anywhere else in Mongolia. 

It appears in limited numbers at Lake Hanka late in April ; and single 



THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 89 

ones are to be met with throughout the summer there, as well as on the 
Ussuri. In August it becomes again more abundant ; and in September and 
the early part of October it was not scarce on the coasts of the Japanese Sea. 



237. Tringoides hypoleucos, L. Beregovnic serey. 

Sometimes it breeds at the rivers of S.E. Mongolia, is more common on 
the Hoang-ho, but does not occur in Ala-shan. In Kan-su and Halha it was 
met with only on its autumnal migration. It is extremely abundant in the 
Ussuri country, and arrives at Lake Hanka in the middle of April, leaving 
again in September. 

238. Recurvirostra avocetta, Bonn. Shiloduvka. 

This is a tolerably common spring migrant to S.E. Mongolia, about the 
end of March, when it principally keeps to the shores of saltwater lakes, in 
small flocks of from five to fifteen individuals ; and not being pursued, it 
becomes tame. 

We found it breeding on the Yellow River, and noticed that the first 
birds arrived in spring in Koko-nor on the 17th of March, where they were 
not scarce throughout the month. 

It does not occur in the Ussuri country. 

239. Htmantopus candidus, Bonn. Hudulochnic acatJca. 

H. candidus breeds on the Hoang-ho only about small lakes and in 
marshes. Some birds were observed on the 23rd of April, although others 
might have been there before that date. 

The bend of the Hoang-ho most likely forms the northern limit of this 
bird's distribution, as it has not been recorded either from Lake Baikal or 
from the Amur. 

VOL. III. . o 



90 THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 

240. Tringa temminckic, Leisl. Pesochnic Temmincka. 

During the spring migration, which commences about the middle of 
April, this species is tolerably common in S.E. MongoUa; and in the 
summer, in July, we met with it in the Hoang-ho valley, where it probably 
breeds. In Gobi a few migrating individuals were observed during the month 
of August ; they kept mostly to the small rain-pools. It does not occur in 
Kan-su ; nor did we find it at Koko-nor ; but its absence in the latter place 
might be accounted for by our being there only late in autumn and early in 
spring. 



241. Trtnga subminuta, Midd. 

T. subminuta inhabits the whole of S.E. Mongolia, with the exception of 
the Ala-shan. We did not observe it at all in Kan-su and about Koko-nor. 



242. Tringa subarcuata, L. Pesochnic crivonosoy. 

A few^ birds were obtained in the Hoang-ho valley in summer ; it most 
likely breeds there. 

In the Ussuri country, one was seen by me near Lake Hanka. 



243. Gallinago scolopacina, Bp, Becas barashec. 

Is rather a rare breeding bird in the Hoang-ho valley, and probably also 
in S.E. Mongolia, where great numbers were seen on migration. This 
commences very late, namely about the 10th of April, and lasts until the 
beginning or middle of May. 

On account of the scarcity of marshes, G. scolopacina inhabits the shores 
of lakes. When there are morning frosts (which last until the end of 
April, and occasionally even until the beginning of May), the shores of 



THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 91 

the lakes being slightly frozen over, these birds depart into the deserts, 
or hide themselves betAveen the clumps of moss in the marshes, and wait 
until the sun has melted the thin ice, when they again return to the lakes. 

We saw this species only once in Kan-su, in September. At Koko-nor 
the first migrants appeared on the 23rd of March, and were very abundant 
there in the end of that month. In crossing the Gobi desert w^e did not 
meet them, as they most likely migrate, like so many other birds, along the 
eastern edge of Gobi. 

At Lake Hanka they appear early in April, and are very numerous 
about the middle of that month. Few stop, however, to breed there, 
most likely on account of the scarcity of suitable localities in the marshes, 
which are usually overgrown with high grass. 

It is remarkable that during the principal migration I several times 
noticed, about Lake Hanka, small flocks of from five to ten individuals flying 
northwards, about 200 yards high. 

244. Gallinago solitaria, Hodgs. 

We met w^ith G. solitaria on the unfrozen brooks in the mountains of 
S.E. Mongolia, in Northern Tibet, about Burchan Budda at an actual height 
of 12,000 feet, and also in Kan-su and about Koko-nor. It was scarce in 
all the above places, and was usually found singly in the most solitary 
localities, commonly on dry shores of mountain-brooks, but never on clayey 
ones. 

Its spring migration occurs at Koko-nor between the 27th of February 
and about the middle of March. 

In the Ussuri country I met with it on the brooks free from ice near 
Japanese Sea. 

245. Gallinago heterocerca, Cab. 

Is only scarce in S.E. Mongoha, during migration about the beginning 

o 2 



92 THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 

of May, and has not been seen in the Hoang-ho valley, where the following 
species breeds numerously ; but as it is very difficult to distinguish it from 
the latter when on the wing, we cannot state the above with certainty. 

In Gobi we several times observed it during migration ; but perhaps it 
might have been G. megala. It is doubtful. Neither occurs in Kan-su and 
about Koko-nor. 

It breeds in tolerable numbers on the Ussuri, but is still more plentiful 
during migration, about the 10th of April and in the end of August. 

In the latter half of April the birds choose their nesting-localities in the 
thinly overgrown marshes, and their peculiar courting commences. Rising 
into the air, similar to our G. scolopacina, and describing large circles above 
the spot where the female is sitting, it suddenly dashes downwards Avith 
great noise (which is most likely produced by the tail-feathers, like that 
made by our species, and somewhat resembles the noise of a broken rocket). 
As the bird approaches the ground the noise increases, until it has got 
within a hundred yards, when it suddenly stops the sound and quietly flies on, 
uttering a note something like " tiric, tiric, tiric." Courtship lasts until the 
middle of June, and is mostly heard or seen in the mornings and evenings, 
but occasionally in the daytime, and even at night in clear weather. 



246. Gallinago megala, Swinh. 

G. stenura, Radde, Reisen im Siiden von Ost-Sibirien, ii. pi. xiii. 

Breeds abundantly on the marshes and lakes in the Hoang-ho valley. 
We also noticed some of the present and preceding species in the western 
portion of the Urot country, where they probably were breeding. 

At Lake Hanka G. megala appears later than G. heterocerca, namely in 
the end of April ; but the principal migration takes place about the middle 
of May. It stops to breed there only in very limited numbers, but becomes 
again numerous in August during migration. In spring it keeps to the 
burnt marshes, and in autumn to the damp steppes. 



THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 93 

247. ScoLOPAX RUSTicoLA, L. Valdshnepp. 

Was observed by us only in the Muni-ul mountains, in the middle of 
April 1872, when we several times met with them at dusk. They were all 
flying northwards. They breed in the Ussuri country ; and, according to the 
statements of the sportsmen, they are very numerous there during migration, 
especially at the mouth of the Ussuri and about Vladivostoc. 



248. Rhynch^a bengalensis, L. Pastuskoc zolotoy. 

We met with a female for the first time on the 5tli of May, on a small 
marsh in S.E. Mongolia, not far from the Kalgan-Kiachta road, and afterwards 
found it breeding at Lake Tsaidemin-nor. 

As far as I know, this species chooses for its habitat damp marshes, but 
avoids very thick reeds. It only takes to wing in case of necessity, usually 
moving for not more than a hundred yards ; and its flight is heavy. 

It does not occur in Kan-su, Koko-nor, and the Ussuri country. 



249. Rallus iNDTCUS, Blyth? Pastusheh vodianoy. 

It is very probable that this species, which inhabits the whole of Eastern 
Asia and is so closely allied to the European R. aquaticus, was obtained 
by us (in November 1872) in Tsaidam, on the unfrozen wells amidst some 
marshes, where it was wintering. The bird shot by us was very much 
knocked about, and therefore not preserved ; a second one we did not succeed 
in kiUing, but later on observed it in the Hoang-ho valley in the beginning 
of May. 

At Lake Hanka it arrives in the end of April, and also breeds there in 
limited numbers. 



94 THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 

250. Ortygometra pygm^a, Naum. Kiirotchka vodianaya- 

Is rather a common breeding bird in Ordos, on the marshy lake 
Tsaidemin-nor, but does not occur in Kan-su or Koko-nor. 

In August 1873 we saw one (an old female) in Gobi, near a small well. 
On account of the want of marshes, it was flying about, together with some 
Sandpipers, over the muddy ground, and on the approach of danger hid 
itself in the plants that were growing there. How could this bird, with such 
a weak flight, get into the centre of this desert.'* Most likely it had 
got there by mistake. 

It breeds tolerably abundantly in the Ussuri country. 



251. Gallinula chloropus, L, Camishnitza zelenonogaya. 

Breed? at Lake Tsaidemin-nor, in company with the preceding species. 
In July the young could not fly, and were only about half as large as the old 
birds. 

We did not observe this species in Kan-su and Koko-nor ; nor does it 
occur in the Ussuri country. 



252. Fulica atra, L. Lisuha chernaya. 

We met with this species at Dalai-nor during migration, on the 1st of 
April, 1871, and found it breeding on the marshy lakes in the Hoang-ho 
valley. Not being pursued at all by man, it is very tame. They were 
very often swimming about at a distance of about a hundred yards from 
our tent. 

It does not inhabit Kan-su, Koko-nor, and Halha. 

At Lake Hanka these birds arrive early in April, and breed numerously 
on the lakes overgrown with reeds, w4iich abound there. 



THE BIEDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 95 



Order VII. NATATORES. 



253. Anser cinereus, Meyer, var. rubrirostris, Swinh. Gus 
gumennic. 

We found A. cinereus breeding in S.E. Mongolia and in the Hoang-ho 
valley, where we discovered nearly fledged young on the Tsaidemin-nor, as 
also adult birds— the males moulting so completely that they could not fly, 
but tried to escape from our dog by running, when they performed all sorts 
of tricks, making short turnings or suddenly stopping and running back- 
ward, in order to mislead the dog ; and in the most hopeless cases they tried 
to hide themselves in the uneven ground. 

In spring these Geese arrive in S.E. Mongolia about the middle of 
March, or perhaps earlier, and in Tsaidam about the 18th of February. At 
Koko-nor they were rather common in the latter part of March ; and in the 
middle of October we also noticed there several migrating pairs. In the 
Hoang-ho valley the autumnal migration commences in the end of August : 
and in Kan-su it did not come under our observation ; for we only noticed 
six water-birds there, one of which (Ajiser indicus) stops to breed about the 
sources af the river Tetunga. 

Their migration to the basin of Lake Hanka takes place in the middle 
of March, where they also remain to make their nest, but are not very 
numerous in autumn, when all the other species of Geese are abundant. 

It is not so shy and wild as its congeners, and usually keeps in small 
flocks. 



254. Anser segetum, Gmel. Gus pashemoy. 

A male obtained by us at Dalai-nor does not diff^er in any respect from 
European birds. But Mr. Swinhoe says (P. Z. S. Lond. 1871, p. 417) that 



96 THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 

the East-Asiatic specimens are a race (var. serrirostris^ Avhich, with the 
exception of China, are to be met with to the east of Lake Baikal. It is 
very likely that this variety inhabits also Mongolia ; but I am sorry to 
say we have not a specimen in our collection to solve the question. 

It is the most numerous representative of this family in S.E. Mongolia, 
whither it migrates from the beginning of March to the end of April ; whilst 
the autumnal migration takes place from the end of August until the middle 
of September. 

In Northern China, near Kalgan, they appear in the end of February, 
and inhabit, together with other water-birds, the flooded fields. On a clear 
morning early in March, flock after flock can be seen migrating towards 
Mongolia ; but finding it cold there, these restless flocks come back again 
towards the evening, and wait until the weather gets warmer. 

It does not breed in Mongolia, and did not come under our observation 
either at Koko-nor, in Tsaidam, or at Lake Hanka ; but large migrating 
flocks were noticed at Possiet Bay. 



255. Anser grandis. Pall. ? 

I think we saw Anser grandis in rather large numbers on Dalai-nor in 
spring 1871, and on the flooded fields of the Hoang-ho valley in April of the 
following year, although we did not succeed in obtaining a single specimen ; 
but, by the large size and the peculiar bass voice, we could easily distinguish 
these birds from A. segetum. 

On Lake Hanka the present species is very common during migration 
in spring (A. grandis. Pall, nee Midd.) from the middle of March until the 
middle of April, where they usually keep in small flocks of from three to 
seven specimens, and only very rarely are they to be seen in company with 
other Geese ; they are also w^ilder. Very few pairs stop to breed in the 
Hanka basin ; and even those retire to the most desolate parts. 



THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 97 

256. Anser indicus, Lath. Gus indeyskey. 

Gould, Cent, of Birds, pi. Ixxx. 

Anser skorniakowi, Sev. Vert, i gor. raspr. Turk. Jev. pi. x. fig. 4. 

We found this beautiful Goose at Lake Koko-nor, where the first 
migrants appeared on the 6th of March ; and in the course of the whole 
month small flocks of from five to twelve in number are to be seen frequently. 
Also at the sources of the river Tetunga we saw some A. indicus, w^hich were 
breeding there ; and a female Avhich we killed on the 6th of April was already 
laying. 

The voice of the present species is diff^erent from that of A. cinereus, 
which two only are found at Koko-nor. In spring the male chases 
the female on the wing, and occasionally makes peculiar darts, resembling 
those of our common Raven ; and when the female is shot, the male usually 
flies long about its dead mate, until it shares the same fate. 

This Goose is also very curious ; and I several times shot it by 
performing the following manoeuvre : — As soon as I noticed a pair flying I 
at once lay down on the ground and commenced waving my hat at them. 
The Geese came usually quite close to me then. Altogether it is very tame ; 
but when pursued much by men it gets very shy. 

As far as we can judge from our observations, the northern limit of the 
distribution of this bird is formed by the Koko-nor basin and the river 
Tetunga ; and the same localities are probably also the eastern boundary, as 
this species does not occur in China proper. 



257. Anser cygnoides, Pall. 

Temm. & Schleg. Faun. Jap. pi. xxxi. 

We met with a few birds at Dalai-nor in April, and in the Hoang-ho 
valley and at Lake Tsaidemin-nor in summer, young as well as adult birds ; 
the latter were moulting. In crossing the Gobi desert at the end of August 

VOL. III. p 



98 THE BIRDS OP MONGOLIA ETC. 

we repeatedly observed migrating flocks. In Tsaidam and at Koko-nor it 
does not occur. 

It is very abundant during migration, especially about the beginning 
of April, at Lake Hanka, where it usually assembles in flocks from twenty 
to forty in number. When on the wing they often fly in a pattern, like 
Storks and Ducks. It is the most common breeding species of the whole 
genus on the marshes of Lake- Hanka basin, and rears usually from five to six 
young, but rarely three or four. Early in June I found some young ones, 
not exceeding a Duck in size, which, as usual, were accompanied by their 
parents. It very often happens, also, that two or three families join together ; 
and when approached by any one, the old birds make use of all sorts of 
tricks in order to take off attention from their brood, which latter try to 
escape by hiding in the reeds, or when on an open lake dive as well as any 
young Ducks. This species, also, is very inquisitive ; and on perceiving a 
dog or a sportsman, if there are not more than two birds, they usually come 
within range. 



258. Cygnus musicus*, Bechst. Lehed clicun. 

Is only a migrating bird in S.E. Mongolia, at Koko-nor, but may 
perhaps stop to breed in the reedy marshes of Tsaidam, where the first 
migrants were observed to arrive on the 14th of February, although they 
appeared only in the middle of March in S.E. MongoHa. The principal 
migration through Koko-nor takes place also in March. 

* [In Mr. E. Delinar INIorgan's translation of Colonel Prjevalsky's Travels (a -sYork -which should 
be read in coujunctioa with this article), vol. ii. p. 4, we find, in the northern part of Ala-shau, an 
account of an immense lake-bed of sedimentary salt, called by the Mongols " Djaratai-dabas." The 
salt is from two to six feet thick. He adds that " the sparkling sui-face of Djaratai-dabas appears 
like water in the distance, and resembles ice when you are near it. So deceptive is its appearance 
that a flock of Swans, apparently attracted by the sight of water in the desert, descended before our 
very eyes almost to the surface of the false lake, but discovering theix' mistake rose again in the air 
with affrighted cry, and continued their flight." — Editor of the O. M.] 



THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 99 

It is the first bird to arrive in spring at Lake Hanka, as a rule either 
late in February or early in March, whilst the principal migration occurs 
about a month later. Only a few pairs remain to breed, in the marshes 
overgrown with reeds. 



259. Cygnus BEwiCKii, Yarr. Lehed maley. 

Together with the preceding species it was noticed at Dalai-nor in 
spring ; but it was also seen in the Hoang-ho valley, on Lake Urgun-nor. 
Tn Ala-shan w^e also occasionally saw migrating flocks in October, which 
w^ere flying very high over a desert. At Koko-nor some flocks were seen, 
which probably belonged to C bewickii ; and a few pairs evidently stopped 
to breed there. 



260. Cygnus olor, Gmel. ? Lehed shipim. 

This species is mentioned with a ? on account of our not being able to 
secure a single specimen, although we met with it at Dalai-nor, as well 
as the two preceding ones ; the present bird very much differs from 
C. musicus by its voice. 

On the 11th of April, on a small lake not far from Dolon-nor, we found 
a Swan's nest containing one egg, which, according to its shape and colour, 
belonged to the present species. It is an egg with a roughly grained but 
tolerably smooth dirty-greenish shell : large diameter 3"'78, small diameter 
2"-68. 

Besides, in S.E. Mongoha, I think we saw C. olor migrating over the 
Koko-nor basin early in March. 

At Lake Hanka they appear much later than C. musicus, namely in the 
beginning of April, and in larger flocks. They breed in similar locahties as 
the preceding Swan. 

p 2 



100 THE BIllDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 

261. Tadorna cornuta, Gmel. Utka peganca. 

Inhabits all the saltwater lakes of Mongolia, and arrives in the south- 
eastern parts of this country, in small flocks of from ten to twenty, late in 
March. Very soon after their arrival they disperse in pairs, and probably 
breed in holes on the ground. During the breeding-season the males 
frequently fight, commonly making use of their wings and bills ; the 
conqueror expresses his satisfaction by nodding and bowing towards 
the female. 

At Koko-nor the first migrants appeared about the 14th of March, but 
were rather scarce until the end of that month. 

In Mongolia T. cornuta is not at all shy. 



262. Casarca rutila, Pall. Turpan. 

Lama shubu, Mongols. 

The Mongols consider this bird sacred. It is very common in the 
country, and is found breeding about the lakes, rivers, and even at the 
mountain-brooks ; whilst in Kan-su it has only been observed during the 
spring migration, at the sources of the river Tetanga, in limited numbers, 
but is abundant in spring and autumn at Koko-nor. 

The earliest birds were noticed inTsaidam on the 10th of February, and 
in S.E. Mongolia early in March ; but in the Hoang-ho valley they even 
stop to winter, although in only limited numbers. 

During migration these Ducks assemble in large flocks of over a hundred, 
but .never mix with any other kind. Each pair keeps very strictly to them- 
selves ; and probably such a bond is formed for life. During the breeding- 
season the males very often fight, and attack even drakes of other species of 
Ducks. They build in holes or clefts in the ground, and sometimes even in 
the fireplaces of villages deserted by the Mongols ; and in the latter places 
the female birds, whilst hatching, get almost quite black with soot. The 



THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 101 

male apparently does not assist the female in hatching ; but as soon as the 
young are hatched, it most vigilantly watches them. The earliest young we 
saw on the Suma-had mountains, on the 4th of June. 

In Mongolia this bird is tame ; but at Lake Baikal, where it has been 
much pursued, it is very shy. 

263. Ma-RECA PENELOPE, L. Uthtt svias. 

Durinar mio-ration we found these Ducks in rather limited numbers at 
Koko-nor, where they arrived about the 21st of March. 

At Lake Hanka they appear late in March or early in spring, and only 
a few remain to breed. 



264. Dafila acuta, L. UtJca shilohvost. 

Is very common throughout Mongolia during migration — which takes 
place in the end of March and the beginning of April, and late in August. 

Very large numbers of the present species were observed by us in spring 
at Dalai-nor, where most likely part of them remain to breed. It is also 
abundant on the lakes of the Hoang-ho valley. In Tsaidam the earliest birds 
were seen on the 18th of February, and at Koko-nor in the first days of 
March ; but towards the end of that month they had quite disappeared. At 
Lake Hanka they arrive early in March ; but the principal migration takes 
place in the end of that month, about which time these Ducks are extremely 
abundant and usually mixed together with other kinds in large flocks, 
although only very few remain to breed. 

265. Anas boschas, L. Utka hriakha. 

Is the most common of the family in S.E. Mongolia, where it breeds in 
all suitable localities, but most numerously in the Hoang-ho valley ; and 



102 THE BIEDS OP MONGOLIA ETC. 

althouo-h we were at the latter place in the end of July, many young birds 
were still unable to fly. 

In Tsaidam it stops for the cold season on the unfrozen streams and 
marshes. The migration there took place about the 13th of February. 

At Koko-nor, where only very few migrants pass, we did not see 
a single flock of Anas boschas consisting of twenty or thirty in number, 
although it occurs there. 

In Ussuri country Anas boschas is the commonest species, and is the 
most numerous Duck not only during the breeding-season but also during 
migration. About Lake Hanka the earhest migrants appear early in March ; 
but the principal migration takes place in the latter part of that month and 
early in April, and at this time the numbers are astonishingly great. 

For whole days, but principally in the mornings and evenings, one can 
see everywhere large flocks of Ducks flying in a northerly direction. They 
stop in the middle of the day, for a short time only, in order to feed and rest 
as quickly as possible, and then again resume their flight. Storms or cold 
weather force them to interrupt their journeys, in which case they usually 
settle down in some locality to wait for fairer weather. 

We got the same results from our observations on Dalai-nor and in 
Mongolia, where, during the cold and stormy weather, enormous flocks of 
Geese and Ducks assemble ; but on the appearance of the first clear day 
every lake becomes quite desolate, until the arrival of fresh birds. 

In Monvoha, as also about Lake Hanka, the wild Ducks leave in flocks 
consisting of the present species, or also in company with others ; and on 
several occasions we observed flocks of drakes only. 

In Ussuri country it begins breeding about the middle of April ; but 
during that time we have here very often fires over large districts covered 
by grass. These tires sometimes last all May, and even as late as the middle 
of June. They destroy a great number of Ducks' nests, which explains the 
late broods met with so often in Ussuri country and about Lake Hanka, 
where we saw young in down late in June or even in the early part of July ; 



THE BIRDS OP MONGOLIA ETC. 103 

but in such cases the broods consisted very seldom of more than from three 
to five specimens. These small numbers again show that it is a second 
brood, the first having probably perished during a fire. 

In Ussuri country large flocks of Ducks assemble in August, doing 
great damage to the cornfields, whither they resort for feeding at night. 

The autumnal migration at Hanka takes place in September and 
October, a few birds remaining for the winter on the shores of the Japanese 
Sea. 



266. Anas zonorhyncha, Swinh. 

Anas poRciloi'hyncha, Temm., nee Lath 
Temm. & Sehleg. Faun. Jap. pi. Ixxsii. 

Tolerably common in S.E.* Mongolia and the Hoang-ho valley, where 
we also found it breeding. The first migrants appeared at Dalai-nor about 
the 1st of April, although a few may have arrived even earlier. We did 
not observe this species in Kan-su, Koko-nor, or Tsaidam. 

At Lake Hanka it is scarce, and only occasionally appears during 
migration early in April ; but whether it remains there to breed, or not, I do 
not know. 

Mr. Swinhoe's opinion (P. Z. S. 1871, p. 417) is quite correct, that the 
present Duck forms a separate species, and is not the result of the inter- 
breeding of A. hoschas and A. pcecilorhyncha, as was supposed by Temminck. 



267. QuERQUEDULA ciRciA, L. Utka chiroc. 

Like the preceding, this Duck is common in S.E. Mongolia, and was 
observed by us there on the 11th of April. It breeds in the marshes and 
near lakes in the Hoang-ho valley, but does not occur at Koko-nor. 

At Lake Hanka it appears later than any other, namely in the end of 



104 THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 

April and beginning of May. During migration it is not numerous at 
Hanka, and is at least ten times as scarce as the following species, although 
young birds are rather abundant there. 



268. QuERQUELULA CRECCA, L. Utka chiranha. 

During migration, in March, Q. crecca is extremely abundant in 
S.E. Mongolia. At Lake Dalai-nor we fell in with large flocks, composed of 
the present species and Eiinetta glocitans, but did not find it breeding any- 
where in Mongolia, though in winter some individuals were observed at 
Tsaidam, where the migration commenced on the 15th of February. At 
Koko-nor it was the commonest of all Ducks in the month of March. 

At Lake Hanka, Q. crecca appears already early in March, but principally 
at the end of the month, in such large numbers that, with the exception of 
A. boschas, it is the most numerously represented species there. Only very 
few remain to breed, as the extensive marshes do not offer them suitable 
nesting-places. 



269. EuNETTA FALCATA, Pall. Utka kosatchca. 

In March and April it is common at Dalai-nor, and has been noticed by 
us also in the Hoang-ho valley, where it also breeds sometimes, but apparently 
does not occur at Koko-nor. 

At Lake Hanka it appears early in March ; but the principal migration 
takes place late in that month or early in April, when this Duck is very 
common, and usually forms flocks with other kinds, but very rarely alone. 
Its voice is a tolerably loud and piercing whistle. 

It breeds numerously at Lake Hanka, but, like its congener, usually 
late. 



THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 105 

270. EuNETTA GLOciTANS, Pall. Utka cloctun. 

Temm. & Schleg. Faun. Jap. pi. Ixxxii. 

During migration, in the end of March and the beginning of April, we 
met with it in large numbers at Dalai-nor, but did not find it further 
west, although it can easily be distinguished from the other Ducks by its 
voice. It also occurs about Lake Baikal, whither it most likely migrates 
from China proper, probably crossing the desert in a direct line, or else 
following its edge. 

At Lake Hanka it is one of the most plentiful Ducks, and arrives there in 
very large flocks from the 8th to the 15th of March. 

When migrating, these Ducks fly very low, following the plains which 
abound with lakes ; and as soon as one is perceived that is not frozen, 
especially in cold and stormy weather, they at once settle down on it. 
The presence of such a flock is always known at a good distance, as the 
drakes keep calling even when on the wing. 

The abundance of this species on Lake Hanka continues during all the 
time of its miration — i. e. all the latter half of March and the first week of 
April ; but after that time their numbers decrease quickly, and in the middle 
of May there is not a single one to be seen. 



271. Chaulelasmus STREPERUS, L. Utka pohiha. 

We only fell in with a few migrating individuals in S.E. Mongolia early 
in April, and but one single bird at Lake Hanka towards the end of the 
same month. 



272. Spatula clypkata, L. Utka socsiin. 

A few birds were seen on Lake Dalai-nor, where the earliest migrants 
w^ere noticed on the 30th of March; but some few may have come even 

VOL. III. ^ 



106 THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 

earlier. In the Hoang-ho valley, on Lake Tsaidemin-nor, towards the end 
of July, we killed a male bird, which was moulting very quickly. At 
Koko-nor these Ducks appeared on the 14th of March, and were common 
throughout that month. 

It migrates to Lake Hanka early in March, and becomes most abundant 
towards the end of that month, leaving the locality about that time in flocks, 
together with other species of this genus ; and only a few pairs remain to 
breed. 



273. FuLix CRisTATA, L. Niroc chernet. 

Is not scarce during the spring migration in Mongolia and at Koko-nor. 
At the latter place Fulix cristata appeared on the 5th of March, and perhaps 
even earlier still, and, together with Bucephala clangula, inhabited the river 
Buhain-gol ; but towards the end of the month most of them had left. 

At Lake Hanka the migration takes place between the SOth of March 
and the middle of April ; and only a few pairs remain to breed. 



274. Aythya ferina, L. Niroc crasnogolovoy. 

We once met with some migrating pairs at the northern bend of the 
Hoang-ho at the end of April 1872, and, another time, at Koko-nor in 
March. It does not inhabit Lake Hanka. 



275. Bucephalus clangula, L. Niroc gogol. 

Tolerably common at the Dalai-nor at the end of March and beginning 
of April, on those parts of the lake which are free from ice ; and when shot 
at they rise, but very soon settle down again. 

At Koko-nor they arrive about the 4th of March, and get rather 



THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 107 



« 



numerous towards the middle of that month, but are only singly distributed 
in Kan-su, at the sources of the Tetunga. 

We found them wintering at Lake Hanka, on the open parts of 
the river Sungatch, in small numbers ; but in spring, late in March and 
early in April, they are very plentiful, but always in small flocks of from five 
to twenty birds, and never mixed with other species. 

The autumnal migration from Ussuri country occurs in September and 
October ; and in the latter month we often saw flocks of these Ducks on the 
Japanese Sea; and in December some wintering ones came under our 
observation at the port of St. Olga. 



276. Mergus merganser, L. Crahal holshoy. 

During the spring migration in March and April we noticed some 
specimens at Dalai-nor, on the 14th of February atTsaidam, early in March 
at Koko-nor, on the Buhain-gol, and in April in Kan-su, on Buguk-gol. 

On its autumnal migration this species was observed only on the river 
Tola, near Urgey, in the first half of September. 

At Lake Hanka it arrives early in March. The principal migration, 
however, takes place at the end of that month and early in April ; and by 
May not a single specimen is to be seen there. When migrating they 
usually form small flocks together with other species. 

In its habits it is very shy, and therefore difficult to shoot. 



277. Mergus serrator, L. Crahal cllinnohvostoy. 

Is scarcer even than the preceding species, having been observed by us 
in Mongolia only on Lake Dalai-nor. 

In Kan-su, also, only one young one migrating has been obtained ; and 



Q 2 



108 THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 

oa Lake Hanka it is also the scarcest species of the whole genus, passing 
there only during migration early in April, and a few individuals stopping 
till the end of that month on the Sungatch. 



278. Mergus albellus, L. Crahal lutock. 

We met with some birds at the end of March and beginning of April on 
Dalai-nor, where it is commoner than the two preceding species. 

At Lake Hanka it is very numerous towards the end of March, but does 
not form large flocks, as we usually saw small numbers only, which consisted 
of Smews and Teals. They leave Lake Hanka early in April, and quite dis- 
appear at the end of this month. 

279. PoDiCEPS CRisTATUS, L. N'wetz hohlatey. 

A single migrating bird was met with in April near the lower Dolon-nor ; 
and some, I think, were noticed on Lake Urgan-nor, in the Hoang-ho valley. 
To Lake Hanka it migrates at the end of March, and breeds in small numbers 
on the solitary ponds. 

280. PODICEPS AURITUS, L. 

I think we saw this bird in April at Dalai-nor, and in the spring of the 
following year in the Hoang-ho valley, but did not succeed in obtaining a 
specimen. The present species is very rare in Mongolia, as is the pre- 
ceding one. 

281. Larus niveus, Pall. Chaika sizaya. 

Larus canus, var. major, Middend. Sib. Reise, ii. part i. pi. xxiv. fig. 4. 

We found L. niveus in April in the Hoang-ho valley and in S.E. Mongolia, 



THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 109 

several times also in the Ala-shan plains, whither they probably go in search 
of lizards, as we often found in their stomachs the remains of these reptiles. 
We did not find it either in Koko-nor or Halha. 



282. Larus occiDENTALis, Aud. Chaika sapadnaya. 

Extremely common during migration in S.E. Mongolia about the end of 
March ; and Ave repeatedly met with them about that time at Dalai-nor, 
where they probably breed. We did not see any on the Hoang-ho valley in 
summer, but came across a small flock in September about Din-hu. It does 
not occur in any other locality traversed by us. 



283. Larus ichthyaetus, Pall. Chaika ribolov. 

Obtained only at Koko-nor, where the earliest migrants appeared on the 
5th of March, and became very abundant about the 15th of the same month. 
'J'hey very often occupied themselves in large flocks, together with Graculus 
carlo, in taking fish out ofXake Buhain-gol ; and as soon as a fish was 
caught a fight was certain to ensue. The voice of these birds is very loud, 
and highly disagreeable. 

In China proper, as well as on the Amur and all over Eastern Siberia, 
these Gulls do not occur; and therefore not only the northern, but also 
the eastern boundary of their distribution is formed by the Koko-nor. 



284. Chroicocephalus brunneicephalus, Jerd. 

Henderson & Hume, Laliore to Yarkand^ pi. xxxii. 

During the spring migration, which commences about the middle of 
March and continues until the middle of April, we often met with these birds 



no THE BIRDS OP MONGOLIA ETC. 

on Lake Dalai-nor ; \Yhilst on the other lakes of Mongoha they appeared to 
be rather scarce. 

Many were in their winter plumage even as late as March ; i. e. they 
had at that time a white head. They breed plentifully on the lakes of the 
Iloang-ho valley. At Koko-nor the earliest migrants appeared on the 6th 
of March ; and afterwards, from the 20th of the same month, they were 
abundant, but not so numerous as the preceding species. 

In Ussuri country the closely allied species of Chroicocephalus ridihundus 
is very abundant. It commences to arrive at Lake Hanka about the middle 
of March ; but the principal migration takes place early in April. These 
Gulls can be seen, high up in the clouds, flying in a northerly direction in 
small flocks, or even singly. On the coasts of the Japanese Sea I often met 
with C. ridihundus in October and November, and saw a few wintering birds 
in December at St. Olga. 

285. Sterna anglica, Mont. Kratchka chernonosaya. 

Inhabits Mongolia, Ordos, and Ala-shan, and breeds in the two latter 
localities — i. e. in the Hoang-ho valley on Lake Urgun-nor, and in Southern 
Ala-shan on a small marsh, Bayan-bulik. It does not occur in the Ussuri 
country, and has not been observed in China proper. 



[To BE CONTINUED.] 



PART XIII. 



I come from haunts of coot and hern ; 

I make a sudden sally. 
And sparkle out among the fern. 

To bicker down a valley." 

Tennyson : The Brook. 



VOL. III. R 



w 
o 



O 

o 
o 

o 



o 




to 



o 



o 

CO 

CO 

o 



■2 



CO 



ON THE GENUS PTILOPUS. 

(PTILONOPUS, Swains.). 
By Mr. G. D. ROWLEY. 

[Continued from p. 64.] 

(Plate XCV.) 
PTILOPUS MUSSCHENBROEKI, Von Rosenberg. 

Ptilopus musschenbroekii, Rosenb. in litt. 

Ptilopus viridis, sth'jys ffeelvinkiana, Schleg. Nederl. Tijdschr. Dierk. iv. p. 23 (1871). 

Ptilopus viridis geelvinkianuSf Schleg. Mus. P.-B. Col. p. 23 (1873). 

Ptilopus musschenbroekii, Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. ix. p. 195 (1876). 

The following is a translation of a notice of this bird (Schlegel, Nederl. 
Tijdschr. Dierk. iv. p. 23, sub Ptilopus viridis, stirps geelvinkiand) -. — 

" M. von Rosenberg sent ys, under the name of Ptilopus musschenbroekii, 
a fine series of a Ptilopus observed by this naturalist and traveller on several 
islands of the great Geelvink Bay — viz. on Mafoor, Meosnum, and Soek 
(Mysore). This bird recalls perfectly P. viridis, observed on the Ceram 
group, including Buru, Amboina, and the subgroup of Goram. There are, 
in fact, no other differences than the following : — The whitish grey colour of 
the head is darker, and washed with green ; the patch of the throat is of a 
more vivid red and purple colour, lighter and less shading into brownish ; the 
whitish grey on the wing above extends to the first scapularies ; finally, not 

R 2 



114 ON THE GENUS PTILOPUS. 

only does each of the large wing-coverts close to the back present a grey 
patch, but there is also a similar one on each of the tertiaries. 

" We confess that these characters did not appear to us important 
enough to separate this bird from P. viridis under a specific name ; it is 
therefore, in our view, only a local race, of this species." 

Schlegel, Mus. P.-B. Col. 1873, p. 23, sub Ptilopus viridis geelvinkianus -. — 
" Very similar to Ptilopus viridis ; but the grey of the head is darker and 
washed with green ; the patch of the throat is more vivid, the red lighter 
and shading less into brownish ; the whitish grey on the wing above and on 
the tertiaries is more extended ; the grey of the apical part of the tail is not 
bordered with yellow, and passes more or less into green ; finally, it is some- 
what smaller in size. 

"Wing 4" to 4" 2'"; tail 2" 2'" to 2" 3'"." 

Dr. Meyer sends me the following remarks : — 

" There are four nearly related species of Ptilopus, which represent each 
other in different localities, viz.: — P. pectoralis in New Guinea and some 
neiofhbourina; islands to the west and north-west ; P. musschenbroekii on the 
islands of the Geelvink Bay ; P. viridis on Cerara, Burn, and some islands 
in the neighbourhood ; and P. eugenice on the Solomon Islands. 

" It does not appear at all probable to me that P. pectoralis also occurs 
on Mafoor and Mysore, as stated by Von Rosenberg (Schleg. Mus. P.-B. 
Col. 1873, p. 24), and that P. musschenbroekii also occurs on New Guinea 
itself, as stated by the same traveller (/. c. p. 23). Should this be really the 
case, these two species could not be looked upon as representing each other, 
which I strongly believe they do. I got P. musschenbroekii only on Mafoor 
and Mysore, and P. pectoralis only on New Guinea itself — viz. near Rubi, 
Passim, and Andei, which last locality is also given to P. musschenbroekii by 
Von Rosenberg. 

" As to the sexual coloration of the last-named two species, I have to 



ON THE GENUS PTILOPUS. 115 

make a few remarks. Sehlegel (Nederl. Tijdschr. Dierk. iv. p. 24, 1871) 
says that the females of the four species enumerated above offer the same 
coloration as the males. But of P. musschenhroeki, according to the Leiden 
Catalogue (Mus. P,-B. Col. 1873, p. 23), there were only the males in the 
hands of Prof. Sehlegel ; and the female specimen which I possess, from 
Mafoor, has neither grey on the wing nor red on the throat, and appears to be 
an adult. Further, of the two female specimens of P. pectoralis which I 
possess, from Passim and Rubi, neither shows a trace of red on the throat, as 
all males do (the younger less than the adult) ; but they have the grey on the 
tertiaries. I therefore do not share in Schlegel's view that the females of 
these four species are all like the males, but restrict this opinion for the 
moment to P. pectoralis and P. musschenbroekii, having no personal experience 
as to the two others." 

Prof. Sehlegel only separates Ptilopus musschenhroeki from P. viridis as 
P. viridis geelvinkiamis, therefore giving no full specific value to it. Salvadori 
first did this, in his ' Prodromus Ornithologise Papuasige et Moluccarum ;' 
and it appears, according to his remarks, that Dr. Meyer also does so, and, 
in my opinion, correctly. 

Mr. S. C. T. van Musschenbroek, after whom Von Rosenberg named 
this fine species from the islands of the Geelvink Bay, has been for many years 
a Dutch official in the East, and is a gentleman of high scientific attainments. 
He served for years on the island of Java in different official positions, and 
last at Buitengorz, near Batavia, as Assistant Resident. From there he 
advanced as Resident (Prefet) to Ternate, the chief place of the Moluccas, 
near Kalmahan, and a good starting-point to New Guinea. The Dutch 
Government planned an expedition to New Guinea under his care ; but the 
war in Atchin, on Sumatra, prevented it. Mr. van Musschenbroek then 
became Resident at Menado, in North Celebes — that is to say, Govermental 
Chief of the Minahassa, the countries round the Tomini Ray (Gorontalo), 



116 ON THE GENUS PTILOPUS. 

the Sangi Islands, &c. ; and at this moment he is in Europe, and occupied in 
writing a book on Celebes in general. 

Mr. van Musschenbroek was always remarkably ready to sustain and 
help every scientific traveller in the Dutch possessions — he himself 
being a very good zoologist, botanist, and linguist, and therefore knowing 
the wants of such travellers by his own experience. The Leiden 
Museum possesses a good many of his collections made in the East ; and 
Mr. von Rosenberg, indeed, could not do better than attach his name to a 
bird of the rich Papuan fauna. 

As this bird has been named after Mr. Musschenbroek, a woodcut of 
his residence (a large house in the town of Menado, situated on the right, in 
the Chinese quarter) is here given, with an account of the attack upon it. 
It may also be interesting, as this place is so often mentioned in these articles. 
It is from a fine photograph of the spot. The Chinese "kampong," or 
quarter, contains about 1000 Chinese ; the rest of the population is about 
3000. 

"On Thursday, the 26th of August 1875, the chief place of the 
Minahassa, in the north of Celebes, Menado, was attacked by a band of 
mutineers. 

" In the morning, at 8 o'clock, there arrived from the west three native 
prauws in the roadstead of Menado, and forty-eight men came ashore, all in 
white clothes, with red girdles and turbans, and armed with lances and swords. 

" After having said a short prayer, the band entered the village, the 
whole time dancing and shouting. All this did not much awaken the 
attention of the inhabitants, as it is common in Menado that the rajahs 
belonging to the district should pay a visit to the Resident in this style. 
But soon the intention of the visitors became apparent ; for they killed and 
wounded several persons in the market. They then tried to surprise the 
small fort which Menado possesses, but were driven back by the soldiers 




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ON THE GENUS PTILOPUS. 117 

with shots, and now proceeded to the Resident's house, which some years 
since was left without mihtary protection. 

" The Resident, Mr. van Musschenbroek, was not at home, but in the 
Government Office. About thirty men entered the house, and destroyed 
everything in their way. The doors, hastily closed, did not keep them back 
a long time ; and no doubt they would have killed Mrs. van Musschenbroek 
and her children, had not this lady contrived to keep them a short while 
aloof by her calmness and firmness. Soon fourteen soldiers from the fort 
arrived. The band now turned against these, but were driven back and took 
to their heels to reach the prauws, two of which had been taken in the 
meanwhile by a Dutch captain. Now the -inhabitants of Menado began to 
pursue the rebels, and also captured the last prauw. Twenty of the forty- 
eight men were killed, and all the others made prisoners. 

" The trial of the survivors proved that the whole band belonged to 
Bool, in the south of the Minahassa, nearer to Gorontalo, and that they 
intended to kill the Resident — not Mr. van Musschenbroek, who then had 
not yet been a long time in Menado, but his predecessor, Mr. van der Crab. 
They said that a larger force was en route ; and the Government of Menado 
therefore did every thing to protect itself and the country. But nothing 
happened ; and later Mr. van Musschenbroek visited Bool, to punish the 
natives there, and then to make friends with them." 

The above little account, from a Java paper, shows that even a place like 
Menado has its dangers ; and what with earthquakes, storms, snakes, fevers, 
and sickness of all kinds, the life of a naturalist is not without great risk in 
those regions. 

The Plate is taken from a fine male in my own collection, and is of the 
size of life. 



ORTStlTHOLOGICAL MISCELLAITY 




J.Smitliti. 



HanliaTt -mip. 



MACILEEIRHYHCHUS MGRIPECTUS, {Sahlefel~) -& . 



MACH^RIRHYNCHUS NIGRIPECTUS (Schlegel). 

(Black-breasted Flycatcher.) 
By Mr. G. D. ROWLEY. 

[Continued from vol. ii. p. 59.] 

CPlate XCVII.) 

When I published the Plate of this interesting species in the second volume, 
I was unable to determine the sex — a thing always with me much regretted. 
The male has now fallen into my hands ; and I am able to state that the 
one already figured, first by me and then by Mr. Gould (in his ' Birds of 
New Guinea,' part iv.), is a female, as is also the second example in Mr. 
Gould's plate, which he obtained from Dr. Meyer. 

By comparison of the fresh illustration which accompanies this, the 
difference of the sexes may be remarked. 

With reference to the translations which I have caused to be made, and 
which follow below, I may observe that I doubt if Prof. Salvadori is right in 
saying that the adult female has a large black area on the breast like the 
male. The females have a black shield on the chest, it is true ; but this is 
neither as black nor as large as in the male, nor has it any gloss. Besides 
the other differences, the yellow of the underparts in the males is much 
deeper and brighter than in the females; it is even deeper than in 

VOL. III. s 



120 MACHiERIRHYNCHUS NIGRIPECTUS. 

M. albifrons, except the deep-yellow patch on the throat behind the white 
chin in M. alhifrons. 



The following translations refer to this bird. 

T. Salvador!, " Intorno al Genere Macheerorhynchus, Gould," Nota estr. 
dagli Atti della Reale Accad. delle Sc. di Torino, vol. x. pp. 369-379 (Jan. 24, 
1875). 

Page 378 :— 

"Sp. 4. Mach^rorhynchus nigripectus, Schleg. 

" Macheirhynchus nigripectus, Schleg. Nederl. Tijdschr. v. d. Dierk. iv. p. 43 (1871). 
" Macheirhani2)hus nigripectus, Schleg. op. cit. p. 58 (1871). 

" Fronte gi'isea, gula flava^ macula pectoral! lata nigra. 

" Mas. Fronte grisea ; pileo, cervice et supracaudalibus nigris ; uropygii plumis apice flavo, fasciam 
uropygialem flavam constituentibus : loris nigris ; fascia superciliari, lateribus capitis, gula 
cum gastraso reliquo, macula lata pectorali nigra excepta, flavis ; alis nigro-fuscis ; tectrici- 
bus mediis et majoribus et rectricibus tertiariis late albo-marginatis, primarus exterioribus 
et secundaiiis ultimis limbo tenui externo albido ; subalaribus albis ; tibiis nigris ; cauda 
nigra apice albo, rectricibus duabus extimis utrinque etiam margine externo albo ; iride, 
rostro pedibusque nigris. 

" Foem. Pileo fusco-cinereo ; dorso et uropygio cineraceo, olivaceo-tincto ; fronte sordide grisea ; 
loris et auricularibus fuscis ; fascia supercUiari, genis et gastrseo toto ut in mari pictis ; 
alis fascis, tectricibus alarum mediis et majoribus apice tantum albis, remigibus primariis et 
secundariis sordide griseo-limbatis, tertiariis albo-marginatis ; cauda nigro-fusca, apice albo, 
rectricibus extimis duabus utrinque margine externo etiam albo ; rostro pedibusque nigris ; 
iride nigra. 

" Long. tot. 0-130 millim. ; al. 0-057, caud. 0-053, rostri 0-013, tarsi 0-017. 

" Hab. Nova Guinea, peninsula septentrionalis {Von Rosenberg) ; Atam [D^ Albertis) . 

"This species is at once to be distinguished from the others by the 
large black patch in the middle of the breast and by the yellow throat, this 
being of the same colour as the underparts ; besides, the yellow is deeper 
than in the other species. 

"The female differs from the male chiefly by the upper parts being of 



MACH^RIRHYNCHUS NIGRIPECTUS. 121 

a dark grey colour, with a very slight oHvaceous tint on the back, by not 
having the yellow band on the uropygium, and by the dark ear-feathers. 

" Schlegel has only described the female ; the male was not known till 
now. I have examined four specimens of this species (three males and one 
female), collected by D'Albertis near Atam, on the Arfak Mountains." 



Salvadori, Ann. del Mus. Civ. di St. Nat. di Genova, x. p. 135 (1877) : — 

" MaCH^RORHYNCHUS NIGRIPECTUS, Sclllcg. 

" Macheirhynchus nigripedus, Schleg. Nederl. Tijdschr. Dierk. iv. p. 43 ($) (1871). 

" MacheirJiamphus nigripectus, Schleg. op. cit. p. 58 (1871). 

" MacfuBi-orhynchus nigripectus, Salvad. Atti R. Ac. Sc. Tor. x. p. 378 ( d et § ) (1875) ; id. 

Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. vii. p. 768 (1875). 
" Machcerirhynchus nigripectus, Dawson Rowley, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 414; Gonld, Birds of New 

Guinea, iv. pi. x. (1877). 

" Schlegel has only described the female, which has the upper parts of 
a dark ash-colour. I have also described the male, which has these parts 
of a dark, somewhat glossy black colour. Gould, lastly, has given two 
figures of this species, saying that he believes that they represent male and 
female ; but in reality these are the same, and only represent the not quite 
adult female, with the upper parts ashy and with some small black patches 
on the middle of the breast : the adult female has on the middle of the breast 
a large black area, as has the male. Gould, who has done me the honour of 
quoting me, appears not to have paid attention to the sexual differences 
which I pointed out ! " 



s 2 




J.GKoulemans lilh- 



Ha.ntart Ittip- 



DOMICELLA COCCINEA, Latham.. 



DOMICELLA COCCINEA [Lathmi). 



By Mr. G. D. ROWLEY. 



Domicella coccinea, Finsch, Pap. ii. p. 800 (1868). 

Lorius coccineus, Schlegel, Mus. P.-B., Psitt. p. 128 (1864) ; id. Mus. P.-B. Psitt. Rev. p. 58 

(1874). 
Lorius histrio, Bniggemann, Abh. d. naturw. Ver. Bremen, v. p. 41 (1876). 

Though this bird has been figured before, yet such a fine species deserves 
an illustration corresponding to its beauty, which I hope has now been 
eifected. 

The full synonymy is given in Dr. Finsch's ' Papageien,' vol. ii. p. 800 ; 
I have not repeated it here. 

The following translations refer to this species. 

Briiggemann, " Beitr'age zur Orn. von Celeb, und Sangir " (Contributions 
to the Ornithology of Celebes and Sangir), in Abh. d. naturw. Ver. 
Bremen, v. p. 41 (1876) : — 

" Fifteen specimens, two through Von Rosenberg. Two specimens, in 
the collection of Dr. Fischer, do not bear the mark 'Sangir;' and it is 
therefore to be supposed that these two birds were shot on Celebes itself. 
The others are all from Sangir. 

"Male and female are alike. The last one has somewhat smaller 
measurements ; the wings are, in the average, 10 millims. shorter. The blue 
varies considerably as to its extent ; and in one female there is only one feather 



124 DOMICELLA COCCINEA. 

on the head blue. It is quite erroneous to consider the specimens with less blue 
to be younger birds ; on the contrary, it is in the highest degree probable 
that these are very old individuals. 

" Very remarkable is the coloration of two males, which I take, without 
hesitation, as young birds. The black of the back and of the wings is more 
extended ; the small upper wing-coverts have black patches on their tips ; 
the red feathers of the underparts are irregularly spotted with dirty violet ; 
the band of the breast is also of the last colour. The whole upper part of 
the head and the neck are violet-blue ; on the front and in the neck the tips 
of the feathers already begin to change into red. Vice versa, the upper part 
of the back is carmine-red, and changes into violet. Uropygium dark 
carmine-red (brownish red in the old ones). Bill of a light brownish horn- 
colour (yellow in the old ones). 

" It appears that blue juvenile dresses occur in all red species of 
Lorius (Eos group). They are known already for L. ruher (as L. squamatus^, 
L. cyanogenys, and L. riciniatus. But that at the same time the blue of the 
old bird is represented by red in the young ones, is, as far as I am aware, 
nut yet observed ; and it is a fact which can be placed as an analogous one 
side by side with that mentioned above under the head of Tanygnathus 
luzoniensis." 



Under the head of Tanygnathus luzoniensus (L.), Briiggemann says 
(p. 38) :- 

" From the series in my hands (six specimens), which contains different 
stages, according to age, it is to be seen that the blue on the head increases 
in intensity and extent with age ; while the same colour fades away more 
and more on the uropygium (the feathers being worn out by use), and at last 
disappears entirely. This remarkable fact can only be understood in this 
way — that we possess in the juvenile dress a stage of development of the 
species." 



DOMICELLA COCCINEA. 125 

Dr. Finsch says (Papag. ii. p. 800) : — 

" DoMicELLA COCCINEA (Latham). Der blaubrilstige Breitschwanzlori. 

" Variety. Wings green. 

" Diagnosis. Carmine red. Breast, mantle, lower back of the neck, 
stripe across the middle of the crown of the head, and on each side a stripe 
from the eyes up to the region of the ear fine blue ; tail, spot on the thigh, 
and shoulders violet-black. .... 

" According to a former note in the Leiden Museum, Halmahera would 
be the fatherland of this splendid species. Dr. Forsten sent specimens from 
there, but which were evidently bought. Neither Dr. Bernstein nor Wallace 
saw this bird on Halmahera. But Wallace collected it on the small island- 
group of the Sanghir Islands (Siao and Sanguir), about five geographical 
miles north from Celebes ; and this situation is to be considered the sole 
certain locality to the present time. Professor Schlegel doubts it, because 
he did not find a single specimen of D. coccinea in a large collection of 
bird-skins which the Leiden Museum received in the year 1864 from there. 
He supposes that the real habitat will be found to be more to the east, 
perhaps on the group of Karekelang. But for me the reason that the Dutch 
travellers did not find the bird on the Sanghir Islands is not a sufficient one 
for considering Wallace's notice erroneous. According to a communication 
which I received in a letter from Mr. von Rosenberg, this bird inhabits 
the Talaut Islands, in the north of Sanghir. 

" Von Rosenberg formerly enumerated this species only from Hal- 
mahera ; but this island was not visited by himself Dr. Bernstein has 
already called this notice a totally erroneous one. 

" I prefer the somewhat later name of Latham (^coccineus) to that of 
Gmelin (indicus), because names which have a geographical signification 
ought to be right, or they totally mislead. 

" The ' Indian Lory, var. a,' of Latham, described in the ' General 
History,' I consider to be a variety of this species, notwithstanding the 



126 DOMICELLA COCCINEA. 

green colour of the wings is totally different. Latham saw the bird only 
once living." 

Measurements (p. 810) :—" Wings 5" 10'" to 6" 2'", tail 4" 4'" to 4" 7'"." 

Schlegel, Mus. P,-B., Psitt. 1864, p. 128 :— 
" LoRius cocciNEUs, Stephens. 

" Middle of the crown of the head, region of the ears, lower part of the 
back of the neck, mantle, and breast cobalt-blue ; feathers of the shoulder, 
feet, and abdomen blackish, more or less cobalt-blue ; wing-coverts and 
secondaries red, these last terminated with black. Wing a little more than 
6", tail 4" 4'". 

" Inhabits the Sanghir Islands, between Celebes* and Mindanao. 

" Collected by Forsten and Wallace." 

The same, Psitt. Rev. 1874, p. 58 :— 

" Collected by Hoedt and Duyvenbode on Siao." 

Dr. Meyer remarks : — 

" Domicella coccinea, from the Sanghi Islands, to the north of Celebes, 
must be considered an outlying Moluccan form, no allied species occurring 
on the Philippine Islands or on Celebes. It is true the bird has been 
recorded several times as also living on the last-named islands ; and, no doubt, 
it has been shot near Manado, in the north of the Minahassa. I myself got 

* [The name Celebes has long been a puzzle to me. It is said to be derived from " sula," an 
island, and "besi/' iron, just as we have the Sula Islands east of Celebes. Some writers, knowing 
the above, make it " Selebes " (but it is always better to retain the received spelling ; so I have 
kept to "Celebes") — the iron island. Its strange and remarkable shape must strike every 
observer. — Editor or 0. M.] 



DOMICELLA COCCINEA. 127 

several specimens in the plantations and forests near that town ; neverthe- 
less it is not a Celebesian species. It is a fact which I witnessed several 
times myself during my half-year's stay in that dehghtful part of Celebes, 
that, I may say, any number of these handsome birds were brought aUve 
from the Sangi Islands to Manado by native sailors, traders, &c., for the 
purpose of sale. The Sangi Islands are under the Government of Manado ; 
and the chief trade of their inhabitants consists of cocoa-nuts, mats, hampers, 
&c., and goes to Manado. Therefore com.munication, by small native prahus, 
is always going on ; and there seldom arrives a boat without bringing some 
living birds or the like *. 

" Every one must be fond of the genus Domicella (^Eos) in captivity. 
They are not lazy or grumbling, Hke the Cockatoos, but active and agile, 
graceful and fondling, always ready to play, and inviting their master 
to occupy himself with them. As, therefore, on Celebes itself no ' Lory ' 
(as the natives call them) occurs, and as the Sangi ' Lory ' is the nearest 
(Ternate, with its Domicella riciniata, being further off), one can understand 
why masses of them are introduced. Many of them, no doubt, escape, and 
live in freedom (but I suppose they do not thrive very well, because one can 
seldom find them) ; and, according to my experience, most of the specimens 
of Domicella coccinea procured from Celebes show that they have been in 
captivity, their tail-feathers, for instance, not being in a perfect state, and 
so on. Nevertheless it will not be wonderful if at some future time 
Domicella coccinea should be considered a bird which has occupied Celebes ; 
and as the proof that it is not indigenous will be lost, I wish to record the 
fact that it is introduced by men from the Sangi Islands. 

" Another not quite similar fact of the recent extension of the 
geographical range of a bird was asserted by myself in the case of Tanygnathus 
viegalorhynchus (Bodd.), a widely spread bird, from the Sangi Islands to New 
Guinea, but which does not occur on Celebes, where we have Tanygnathus 

* I even saw a pair of Domicella coccinea on the island of Cebu (Philippine Islands), whither 
it had been brought by a Sangi man. 

VOL. III. T 



128 ' DOMICELLA COCCINEA. 

miilleri (Temm.)*; but quite in the neighbourhood of Manado are some small 
islands, not more than an hour's row (or less) distant from the mainland, 
and there occurs Tanygnathus megalorhynchus. I shot it myself there, but 
could not succeed in finding a specimen on Celebes itself on the near 
opposite shore. I suppose that if these birds on Mantrau (this is the name 
of one of the small islands to the west of Manado) are not a colony which 
established itself there, originating from one or two (impregnated female, or 
a pair) escaped from captivity from Celebes, they must have come over from 
the Sangi Islands, where they abound This would be a case of extension 
of geographical range by natural circumstance. I have no doubt that 
Tanygnathus megalorhynchus also will, after a time, be permanently established 
in Celebes. 

" To recur to Domicella cocc'mea, we had for a long time a living 
specimen, brought over by a friend from Siao. It accompanied us to 
Gorontalo, to Macassar, and almost as far as Manilla, dying on the passage 
from Singapore to Manilla. It was quite tame, not liking me very much, 
but being fond of my wife and always near her ; it would bite every one 
except her. 

" Most of the species of this genus, and some of the genus Trichoglossus, 
have a very agreeable scent about them, like pine-apple and hyacinths. 
I remember that, on my voyage to New Guinea, having hung up during the 
night, in my small cabin on board the ship, a specimen of Domicella 
cyanogenys (Bp.), to skin it the next morning, the whole room was scented 
deliciously after it. 

" These Lories learn to speak, but not so easily and well as the 
Cockatoos and, for instance, the Eclectus. They prefer to scream and crj^ 
and do not repeat those words or sentences which they learn as distinctly 
as other Parrots. They are very delicate, and cannot stand cold or 

* Brliggemann calls this bird Tanygnathus sumatranus (Raffl.) ; but I agree with my friend 
Dr. Finsch that it is not advisable to retain a geographical name if it is not a right one. The 
species does not occur in Sumatra. 



DOMICELLA COCCINEA. 129 

draughts ; and therefore they are rarer with us in Europe. Most die on 
the passage ; I succeeded in bringing one specimen over to London in the 
year 1872 (together with a new species of Loriculus, see P. Z. S. 1872, 
p. 789), which perhaps still lives in the Zoological Society's Gardens. 

" Domicella coccinea inhabits Siao and the island of Great Sangi, from 
which two localities I procured the bird How far it is spread over the 
smaller islands of the group I cannot say. The island Tagulanda is a 
somewhat larger one, between Siao and Celebes ; it would be interesting to 
know whether it also occurs there, or not. 

"The nearest allies of Domicella coccinea are D. ncmia^a (Bechst.), from 
Halmahera, Batjan, and the neighbouring islands, and D. cyanogenys (Bp.), 
from Mysore and Mafoor, besides some other, less-known species. 

" Natives of those islands sometimes tell curious stories about the 
animals and birds of their countries. Thus I have noted down in my 
diary one about D. coccinea and D. riciniata, related to me by one of 
my best hunters, who was very familiar with the Sangi Islands and 
Ternate. He said that these two species have this in common, that there 
exist two different kinds of birds of each : viz., if the female has but one 
egg there appears a large bird ; if it has two, the birds remain small. He did 
not speak of young and old ones, but of two different kinds. He was quite 
convinced of the truth of his story, because the way in which the natives 
get the birds is only this — that they rob the nests of the young ones and 
rear them. 

" I abstain from investigating what may or may not be the truth of this 
story, or what was meant by it." 

The Plate represents a female in my own collection. 



T 2 



ON THE GENUS CITTURA*. 

By Mr. G. D. ROWLEY. 

(Plates XCIX., C.) 

Mr. G. R. Gray, in his ' Hand-list,' 1869, pt. i. p. 89, says:—" 296. Cittura, 
Reich. 1851." 

The genus Cittura, however, is not Reichenbach'sf, but Kaup'siJ:. 
Kaup described the genus in his ' Naturliches System,' Darmstadt, 1848, 8vo, 
Famihe der Eisvogel, p. 8. Reichenbach says (1851), in his ' Handbuch der 
speciellen Ornithologie,' Alcedinece, p. 38 : — '' Cittura, Kaup." Therefore 
" Cittura, Reich.," is a mistake. 

Gray took his date from Reichenbach, who cites Kaup without a year. 

Mr. Sharpe, in his ■• Alcedinidse,' p. xx, writes thus :— " Cittura, Kaup, 
Farn. Eisv. p. 8 (1848). Type C. cyanotis." 

J. Kaup says, in " Die Familie der Eisvogel (^AlcedinidcB)," in ' Verhand- 
lungen des naturhistorischen Vereins fiir das Grossherzogthum Hessen und 
Umgebung,' 2. Heft, Darmstadt, 1848, p. 68, "Dacelo cyanotis, Temm., is the 
type of my subgenus Cittura, with flattened Flycatcher-hke bill and Magpie- 
like tail." 

* Th. KiTTa, a Jay, and ovpd, a tail— i. e. having a tail long and graduated, like that of a Jay. 

t Dr. H. G. L. Reichenbach was Director of the Dresden Museum. He is still living in Dresden, 
and was born in 1793, at Leipzig. He is a zoologist as well as a botanist, and has written a great 
number of works. 

J Dr. J. J. Kaup was Administrator of the Darmstadt Museum, and died some years ago. 
He was born in 1803, at Darmstadt, and has written a long series of zoological and palfeontological 
works ; they fill more than two pages (pp. 620, 621) in the ' Catalogue of Scientifi.c Papers ' pub- 
lished by the Royal Society of London, vol. iii. (1869). 



132 ON THE GENUS CITTURA. 

There is nothing more unsatisfactory to an ornithologist than to have to 
describe and figure a bird of unknown sex ; yet in many cases, as in unique 
specimens quite new, it is impossible to do otherwise. 

In my opinion Mr. Sharpe did good work in his ' Monograph of the 
AlcedinidcE.' To bring together so large and beautiful a group, and not 
only put them before us by description, but also by portraiture, was a very 
meritorious undei'taking. Of necessity, with some of the birds, the facts 
which the monographer could state were few, little being known ; and so 
it was with the genus Cittitra, with its two species. It struck me, there- 
fore, that Dr. Meyer's experience might aid in an attempt to glean some- 
what closer as regards these two interesting forms. 

I have here figured two females, both in my collection — one of Cittura 
cyanotis, and the other of C. sanghirensis. To figure the males would be a 
work of supererogation, as it would only be repeating Mr. Sharpe's two 
fine illustrations. The sexes, however, were not differentiated by that 
Alcedinidist ; they are now. 

Mr. Wallace puts the metropolis of the Alced'midce in the eastern 
half of the Malay archipelago, from Celebes to New Guinea (cf. ' Geogra- 
phical Distribution of Animals,' vol. ii. p. 315). 



CITTURA CYANOTIS (Temm.). 

Cittura cyanotis, Sharpe, Monogr. Ale. pi. 119, p. 301 (1868-1871). 
Cittura cyanotis, Walden, B. of Celeb. Tr. Z. S. viii. p. 4.4 (1872). 
Dacelo cyanotis, Schlegel, Mus. P.-B. Ale. p. 14 (1871). 
Cittura cyanotis, Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. vii. p. 654 (1875). 
Cyanotis cyanotis, Briiggemann, Beitr. Abli. N. v. Bremen, v. p. 54 (1876). 

CITTURA SANGHIRENSIS (Sharpe). 

Cittura sanghirensis, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1868, pi. xxdi. p. 270, and Monog. Ale. pi. 118, p. 299 

(1868-71). 
Dacelo sanghirensis, Schlegel, Mus. P.-B. Ale. p. 14 (1874). 
Cittura sanghirensis, Salvador!, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. ix. p. 53 (1876). 



ORT^ITHOLOGICAL MISCELLANY. 




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CITTURA CYAN OTIS, {re7-n?n.j 9 



HaiiKar-L imp. 



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ON THE GENUS CITTURA. 133 

CiTTURA CYANOTIS. 

This species belongs to that four-armed island, Celebes, with its 
suggestive form and triple gulf, and particularly to the northern part of it, 
Minahassa (which Mr. Wallace calls a "sweet native name ")*. He describes 
it as quite a garden, full of fine coffee-plantations and rice-fields, with capital 
roads. In the ' Malay Archipelago,' vol. i. p. 387, is a map of Minahassa, 
with Menado (the chief town) and the lake Tondano, near which Cittitra 
cyanotis occurs. 

Dr. Meyer sends me the following notes as descriptions of these 
woodcuts : — ^, 

" The first is a view of Manadof, the chief town (if it can be called a 
town) of the Minahassa, on the bay of Manado and on a part of the 
mountains of the country — the part through which one generally enters 
the ' bovenlanden ' [i.e. the 'highlands']. The view is taken from a 
little to the north of Manado, and it looks to the south. The more marked 
houses or streets are not to be distinguished, they being partly covered by 
the trees. To the right, near the sea-shore, is a group of cocoanut-trees, one 
of the finest adornments of the tropical landscape;};. To the left of this 
group stands the bridge. Rarely do steamers come quite near it ; in the 
greater part of the year the winds blow so hard from the sea that the 
Manado road cannot be used at all. The ships anchor near Kema, on the east 
shore of North Celebes ; and one goes on horseback from Kema to Manado 
in some hours. The lower mountain in the background, to the left, is the 
' Empung ' (' empung ' means ' God ') ; the higher, to the right, is called the 

* "Minahassa" is compounded of asa, "one" (often pronounced esa) ; with maha the sig- 
nification becomes " to make one " (or " to be joined ") ; and maha-assa is contracted into mahassa. 
Putting in into the word, the signification becomes " made one ;" it is equivalent to " a league or 
confederation ;" and thus mahassa becomes minahassa. (It should have the double ss.) 

t It is often written "Menado/' but " Manado" is more correct. 

X It is known that the cocoanut-tree only thrives well near the sea-shore, and does not grow 
high up the mountains. 



134 ON THE GENUS CITTURA. 

' Lokon,' and it is about 5000 feet high. This chain can be reached 
from Manado within a few hours ; and yet in this neighbourhood the 
seasons differ considerably. Both mountains are volcanoes, as most of the 
mountains of the Minahassa are (the volcano-chain coming from the east, 
from the Moluccas, and continuing over the Sangi Islands to the Philippines) ; 
but the last noteworthy eruption here took place in the year 1832. 

" I mentioned before that the river of Manado comes from the lake of 
Tondano. The view shows this outlet; it is taken from the side of the 
lake, looking down the river — i. e. to the north. The large lake of Tondano 
is at about 2000 feet altitude ; and the country around it belongs to the 
finest in the Minahassa. In particular, the south point of the lake (a place 
called Kakas, where no European resides) is a garden of rose-bushes and 
coffee-trees, the climate being cool and agreeable in consequence of the high 
level above the sea and the neighbourhood of the lake. The only drawback 
is the rain : water pours down nearly all the year ; perhaps only two months 
are without rain. I here took a longer sojourn, having chosen the place 
as headquarters for my highland trips. The shores of the river of Tondano 
are densely covered wdth tropical plants : among others, large tree ferns (to 
the left) and bamboo (to the right) can easily be recognized About one 
hour from Tondano, near Tonsea lama (a small village), the river forms a 
fine cataract about 100 feet in height, which many persons consider to be 
the finest in the Dutch possessions ; but I rather prefer the waterfall in the 
neighbourhood of Maros, in South Celebes, which is not so high, but is 
broader, and appears always to have a larger volume of water. The 
Minahassa possesses many lakes ; that of Tondano is the largest, and 
contains many fish, but not of many species." 



Dr. Meyer tells me that the name which the natives of the Minahassa — 
that is to say, the " Alifuros " (not the Mahometan Malays, from the coast) 
of the interior — give to Cittura cyanotis is " Kikis talun," talun meaning 



< 

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o 

o 
o 

o 
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O 

o 



ON THE GENUS CITTURA. 135 

"forest." Like Dacelo princeps, this Kingfisher is only found in the forest, 
not near the rivers of the coast or the sea-shore. 



One thing strikes me in the genus Cittura, though not pecuUar to it 
(for the same is observable in Melidora, Dacelo, &c.) ; and that is the 
enormous strength at the base of the upper mandible. 

This reminds me of a specimen of a British Kingfisher (Alcedo ispida) 
which I examined on the 5th of August, 1877. The circumstances of the 
bird's death were unusual. It had a small jack (^Esox Indus), 4| inches 
long, Avedged into its mouth, head foremost. For a Kingfisher to be choked 
by a small fish is not rare (various instances have been recorded) ; but in 
this case the shock of the bird going one way and the fish the other (viz. 
the flying impetus and the swimming one) was so great that the skull and 
one of the mandibles of the Kingfisher were fractured. It was a bird of the 
year ; both mandibles were wholly black ; perhaps, therefore, the more 
solid skull of an old bird might have had a better chance. 

It is probable, then, that great strength at the base of the upper 
mandible may be a valuable factor in the structure of the genus Cittura, 
though, at the same time, I am well aware of the difference of food and 
habits of the various genera of the Alcedinidse from those of our solitary 
fish-loving species. 

Without following the subject too far, I may say that Mr. Sharpe 
(quoting Mr. Wallace), in his ' Monograph of the Alcedinidse,' p. xlv, says 
of the genus Tanysiptera : — " They rest on branches three to five feet from 
the ground, and dart down upon their prey, often with such force as to stick 
their bill into the ground, as shown by its being often covered with mud." 

This habit must require considerable strength in that organ. 

Mr. Dresser has some remarks on this subject (' Birds of Europe,' 
part xlv., Alcedo ispida). Quoting Dr. KUtter (J. f 0. 1866, p. 38), he says 

VOL. III. u 



13G ON THE GENUS CITTURA. 

that, in digging;, " the bird appears from choice to use the upper mandihle 
only ;" and " the upper mandible is fixed fast to the skull, whereas the 
■weaker under" one is " attached to the skull only by joints and sinews." 
The whole is too long to give in full. 



Dr. Meyer remarks : — 

" I observe in my field-notes from Celebes the following remarks on 
Cittura cyanotis : — 

" ' Mr. Wallace says that this species is a rare one ; but I did not find 
it so, and could procure as many as I liked. 

"'Male and female are differently coloured, and easily to be distin- 
guished by the colours of the wing-coverts : they are fine blue in the male, 
black or black with a hght bluish tinge in the female. The colour of the 
eves is rosy red. Bill and feet dark red ; claws brownish black. I found 
in the stomach insects, beetles, Crustacea, worms, &c. 

" ' The bird mostly sits, apparently dreaming and nearly always alone, 
on the branches of trees. Its cry is, five or six times, one after another, 
kebekeJc. I only got it in the Minahassa, i. e. in the north of Celebes, not 
more to the south. Cittura sanghirensis is certainly a different species, larger, 
and coloured otherwise on the neck and breast. In the whole time which I 
spent in the Minahassa, from December of the year 1870 till July of 1871, I 
never got a specimen, among the large number of individuals, which had a 
similar coloration as the Sangi bird. The young, also, were living in my 
possession, and they already showed the characteristic sexual difference in 
their colours.' 

" According to these notes, there c-an, in my opinion, be no doubt as to 
the sexual difference in C. cyanotis ; but nearly all authors w^ho have written 
about the species either are not aware of this difference, or attribute another 
sense to it. C. sanghirensis, from the Sangi Islands, offers a similar sexual 



ON THE GENUS CITTURA.' 137 

difference, which likewise has not yet been clearly recognized by the various 
authors. But before proving this assertion, I wish to state these differences 
in these two closely allied yet conspicuously distinct species. 

" Cittura cyanotis, from North Celebes. — The male has the sides of the 
head deep blue, and no white spots on the superciliary feathers ; it has deep- 
bine wing-coverts. The female always has white superciliary spots, and the 
sides of the head and the wing-coverts black or bluish black. Already the 
young, with bills still black, show these sexual differences in a marked 
manner. 

" Cittura sangMrensis, from Siao and Great Sangi (both Sangi-Island 
groups). — Both male and female have white superciliary spots ; the male has 
the sides of the head and the wing-coverts blue, the female black or blackish. 
As in C. cyanotis, already the young birds with black bills show these sexual 
differences. 

" Authors do not agree about these points, as the following quotations 
will show. First, as to C. cyanotis. 

" Prof. Schlegel (Mus. P.-B. Ale. 1863, p. 22) enumerates male, female, 
and young, without mentioning the differences. In his ' Vogels van 
Nederlandsch Indie,' Alcedinidce, 1864, p. 19, this author says that the young 
males are coloured like the old birds, but with duller tints, and that the 
young females appear to get the blue of the wing-coverts later than the males. 
But, as my specimens prove, already the quite young birds show the 
differences stated above. A male is figured by Prof. Schlegel on plate vi. 
(fig. 1), and a young bird (fig. 2), without mentioning its sex; but it is a 
young male. 

"In 1874 the same author (Mus. P.-B. Ale. p. 14) enumerates seven 
more specimens of different sexes and ages, and recurs to the coloration, 
under the head of C. sangMrensis, saying that the white superciliary spots 
only occur in the adult of C. cyanotis. But it is the female which shows this 
character, and as well the young as the adult. 

u 2 



138 ON THE GENUS CITTURA. 

" Mr. Sharpe, in his excellent Monograph (1868-71), figures on pi. 119 
a male, without stating its sex. He does not mention at all (p. 301) sexual 
or other differences in the coloration. But under the head of C. sanghirensis 
(p. 300), some remarks are added by Dr. Finsch, who describes the female 
of C. cyanotis (without knowing it to be the female) and a male of 
C. sanghirensis, and comes to the conclusion that they are one and the same 
species, the differences being caused by age. Mr. Sharpe therefore concludes 
that C. sanghirensis also occurs on Celebes. This is not the case ; but the female 
of C. cyanotis agrees with C. sanghirensis in having white superciliary spots. 

"• Lord Walden, in the year 1872 (Tr. Z. S. viii. p. 44), says : — ' It is not 
improbable that the differences whereon Mr. Sharpe founded his C. sanghi- 
rensis will prove to be common to the Celebean bird in certain phases of 
plumage.' This sentence is not quite intelligible to me. Perhaps the author 
meant that the two species- are different, but that they have some characters 
in common ; all the differences whereon Mr. Sharpe founded his C. sanghirensis 
are never common to both species. 

"Count Salvadori (Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. vii. 1875, p. 654) first said that 
it did not appear improbable to him that the white superciliary spots are a 
sexual character ; but he agrees with Prof. Schlegel, that by this character 
the two species cannot be distinguished. This is partly true, as the female 
of C. cyanotis bears the white spots, and male and female of C sanghirensis ; 
but the male of C cyanotis can be distinguished at once from C. sanghirensis 
by the want of the spots. 

"Mr. Briiggemann, in 1876 (Abh. naturw. Ver. Bremen, v. p. 54), 
speaks of two different stages, according to the season, relying upon the 
view of Mr. van Duy venbode, a native of the country ; but one need only to 
have been in the East to have experienced that no great stress can be laid 
upon such views. The two stages which ]\Ir. Briiggemann describes 
correspond to the sexual differences. 

" From this summary it will appear that the sexual differences of 



ON THE GENUS CITTURA. 139 

C. cyanotis are not yet clearly recognized, and that the female has never been 
figured. 

" Now as to C. sanghirensis : — 

" This species was first figured by Mr. Sharpe (P. Z. S. 1868, pi. xxvii.). 
This author says (p. 272) that the figure has been drawn from the type 
specimen in his collection, and coloured from a very fine example in the 
Leyden Museum. As the same typical specimen was afterwards figured 
in Mr. Sharpe's 'Monograph' (pi. 118), these two figures ought to agree; 
but they appear to me not quite to do so, the first having the sides of the 
head and the wing-coverts blackish, the latter blue. Can the Leiden specimen 
be a female ? Mr. Sharpe's typical specimen decidedly is a male ; but no 
reference has been made to any sexual diff'erences. 

" Neither does Prof. Schlegel, in the year 1874 (Mus. P.-B. Ale. p. 14), 
consider sexual differences, notwithstanding he enumerates five males and 
three females. 

"Nor does Count Salvadori, in 187G (Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. ix. p. 53), 
enumerating three specimens with blue wing-coverts and two with black 
ones. 

" Therefore, also, the sexual differences in C. sanghirensis have not yet 
been noticed, as far as I am aware ; and as at all events an authenticated 
female specimen has not as yet been figured, we may look upon Mr. Rowley's 
Plate, which represents such a one, with satisfaction. 

" At all events, the two species are very ' good ' ones, in the same sense 
that all insular variations are, or even more so. Which of the two may have 
been the parental form cannot be said in the present state of our knowledge ; 
but perhaps other allied ones are still to be discovered somewhere on Borneo 
or the neighbourhood, and will clear up this question. 

" Prof. Schlegel and Count Salvadori knew only the habitat of the Great 
Sangi for C. sanghirensis. I also got this species from Siao, in the south of 
Great Sangi, north of Celebes ; and it is perhaps of value to remark that the 



140 ON THE GENUS CITTURA. 

Siao specimens quite agree with the Great-Sangi ones, and show no tendency 
at all to approach the Cclebean species. 

" Another fact is perhaps worth especial mention : it is this, that a 
character in one species (viz. the white superciliary spots in C. sanghirensis^ 
belongs to both sexes, in the other (in C. cyanotis) only to the female. Also 
the fact as to its genesis remains to be ascertained by any one who wishes 
to know in which way the variation of species proceeds ; but we cannot at 
this time enter deeper into the subject." 



The following translations refer to these species. 

Schlegel, Mus. P.-B. Ale. 1864, p. 22:— 

" Dacelo cyanotis, Temm. PI. Col. 262. 

" Wing 3" 8'" to 4" 2'", tail 3" to 3" 6'", bill 13'" to 14"'. Bill large, flat- 
tened above, reddish. Head and tail reddish yellow above. A supercihary 
stripe and cheeks of a pale rosy colour. A very broad postocular stripe and 
wing-coverts dark cobalt-blue, in the young blackish. The other upper 
parts of a yellowish-brown colour ; the underparts white, turning to reddish 
yellow. 

" Observed on the island of Celebes. 

'•' Collected by Forsten." 

Schlegel, Mus. P.-B. Ale. 1874, p. 14 : — 

"Collected by Von Rosenberg and Van Duyvenbode." 

" Dacelo sanghirensis, Schlegel. 

" Cittura sanghirensis, Sharpe. 
We owe this discovery to M. Hoedt. I had distributed, in the year 



ON THE GENUS CITTURA. 141 

1866, duplicates, under the name of Dacelo sanghirensis, some of which came 
into the British Museum and to Mr. Sharpe. It reminds one nearly perfectly 
of Dacelo cyanotis, but has the front and a spot at the base of the lower 
mandible continued to the eye black, all the colours of the plumage much 
more vivid, and the bird of a somewhat larger size. Wing 3" 9"' to 4" 2'", 
tail 3" 9'". He adds that the character drawn from the white spots, which 
ornament the black superciliary stripe, is also to be found in the adult of 
Dacelo cyanotis. 

"This bird has only been observed on the island of Great Sanghir, in 
the north of Celebes. 

" Collected by Hoedt and Van Duyvenbode." 



Briiggemann, Abh. naturw. Ver. Bremen, v. p. 54 (1876): — 

" CiTTURA CYANOTIS (Tcmm.). 

"This species occurs in two different dresses, which are rather similarly 
gaudy. It seems probable to me that also here a change in the coloration 
takes place, according to the season ; for we meet specimens in the dress 
No. 1, which are apparently older than others in the dress No. 2, 
possessing evidently more slender bills. Besides, Sharpe got the commu- 
nication, through Duyvenbode, that C. cyanotis varies very much according 
to the season. 

" Dress No. 1 Superciliary stripe rusty yellow. Region of the ear and 
small wing-coverts dark blue. 

" Dress No. 2. Superciliary stripe clean white. Region of the ear and 
small wing-coverts deep black. In the dress of transition the white tips of 
the feathers become smaller, and the blue on the wings appears. 

Younger bird. Bill much shorter and more obtuse, blackish red. Bears 
perfectly the dress No. 1." 



142 ON THE GENUS CITTURA. 

Schlegel, ' De Vogels van Nederlandsch Indie,' Haarlem (Krusemann), 
1864, 4to, p. 18:— 

" Dacelo cyanotis. (Plate 6. figs. 1 & 2.) 

" This species is readily recognizable by its lance-shaped feathers on the 
head, by its rather short and fiat bill, and by the colours of its plumage. 

"Its length is about 9", wing 3" 8'" to 4" 2'", tail 3" 6'", bill 13'" 
to 14'". 

"The bill is red, rather short, broader than high, and above provided 
v^dth a flattened ridge, which protrudes only a little. The feet appear to 
possess, in life, a yellowish-brown colour. The upper part of the head and 
the tail-feathers are yellowish rusty. A stripe on each side of the head, 
cheeks, and throat yellowish rosy-coloured, but lighter on the throat. 
Behind the eye a broad dark-blue stripe, which continues (but much 
narrower) above the eye to the nose, and also under the eye. Wing- 
coverts of the same colour. Neck, mantle, feathers of the shoulder, and 
back yellowish brown, changing into a rusty colour upon the upper tail- 
coverts and into ochre-yellowish white on the outer web of the shoulder- 
feathers. The wing-feathers are blackish brown, turning to blue on the 
secondaries. Underparts, below the throat and under wing-coverts greyish 
white, turning to rusty yellow. 

" The not yet adult males show a plumage differing only by somewhat 
duller tints from the old ones ; but the bill is for the greater part blackish. 
The young females appear to get their full dress, especially the blue of the 
wing-coverts, later than the males. 

" This bird is found in the northern part of Celebes, and belongs to the 
rare species." 



As regards the birds figured in the two Plates, C. cyanotis was collected 
in March 1871 by Dr. Meyer, in the neighbourhood of Manado, in the 



ON THE GENUS CITTURA. 143 

Minahassa. There are, some miles from the town, several small rivers, 
w^here he often shot the species in the forest. 

The Sangi bird, C. sanghirensis, is from Great Sangi, and vv^as collected 
in 1875 by one of his hunters, who remained in his service when he returned 
to Europe in 1873. His name is Kamis; he accompanied Bernstein, 
Wallace, and Von Rosenberg on some of their journeys, and later went with 
Dr. Meyer. Kamis is a native of Ternate, and is described as a most trust- 
worthy, capital fellow — the best man Dr. Meyer had in his employ. 

Small shot is used to kill the birds ; and they are not difficult to find 
in the forest, near rivers or small waters. 



VOL. Id. 



THE BIRDS 

OF 

MONGOLIA, THE TANGUT COUNTRY, 

AND THE 

SOLITUDES OF NORTHERN TIBET. 

By Lieut.-Col. N. PRJEVALSKY. 

[Continued from p. llO.j 

Order VI. GRALL^E (continued). 

286. Hydrochelidon nigra, L. KratcJiha chernaya. 

We found it breeding on the marshy Tsaidemin-nor lake. The young 
were not fledged towards the end of July. Some stragglers were also 
noticed by us in N orthern Ala-shan, but in no other locality visited by us 
except the Lake-Hanka basin, where these birds breed in abundance. 



287. Hydrochelidon indica, Steph. Kratchka helosheJcaya. 

Gray, lUustr. Ind. Zool. i. pi. Ixx. fig. 2. 

We met with it only in the Hoang-ho valley, where it was breeding 
abundantly at the Tsaidemin-nor lake. 

x2 



146 THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 

288. Graculus carbo. Badan hohhoy. 

During the vernal migration, late in March, we saw large numbers of 
these birds on Lake Dalai-nor, where they probably remain to breed, and 
about the end of April in the Hoang-ho valley, from which they disappear 
for the summer. At Koko-nor the earliest migrants appeared on the 12th 
of March, and were very plentiful later on in the month, especially on the 
Buhain-sol : but towards the end of March their numbers diminished consi- 
derably, as only a few pairs breed here, on account of the want of high over- 
hanging rocks. 

At Lake Hanka they arrive early in March, and are very numerous 
about the middle of that month on the Sungatch. For whole days their loud 
hoarse voice and the fluttering of their wings are to be heard. After feeding 
they perch on some overhanging willows ; and often w-hole flocks can be seen 
at night roosting on dead trees. 

Not being pursued by man, these birds get very tame in Mongolia and 
the Ussuri country, but are not very easily shot, as they can carry a heavy 
charge ; and even when mortally wounded they very often escape by diving. 

About the beginning of April almost all these birds leave Hanka for the 
north ; a few probably remain, but do not breed. On the coasts of the 
Japanese Sea they have young on the rocky shores, and sometimes even stay 
there for the winter. 



289. Pelecanus crispus, L. ^ Pelican kudriavey. 

Most likely it was Pelecanus crispus that P^re David discovered. We 
saw it on the Dalai-nor and in the Hoang-ho valley : in the former place we 
found only one, on the 29th of March ; and in the latter, two in summer and 
one in spring. 

We did not come across any Pelicans in any other locality which we 
visited. 



THE BIRDS OP MONGOLIA ETC. 



147 



Geographical Distribution of the Species in the Localities 

EXPLORED DURING THE EXPEDITION. 

Note.-T:hese statements must only be accepted as approximative and incomplete, as our observations 
did not extend m any locality through a whole year. 

' s =:sedens := resident. 

n =nidulans = breeding, i. e. migrating to breed. 
h -hiemmis = wintering, i. e. migrating to winter. 
Syjibols.<| t = trarisvolmis =m\gr&img. 

e —erratkus = occasional visitor. 

: = common. 

. = not common but not very rare. 







LOCALITIES. 


Halha 
















(lat. equal 
to Urga). 


S.E. 
Mongolia 


Ordos. 


Ala-shan 


Kan- 


SU. KOKO-NOR 


TSAIDAM. 


North 
Tibet. 


It 






a 




^ in 1 
O rt O 








i5 ..s fl S 


^ 


Iri 




i=^=s' 


'H-l 




iacIita-Kalga 
and Ala-slia 
Urga road. 


om Lake Da 
to the nortli 
of the Iloa 
and Hara-na 


>■ 

o 

bX) 
C 
CS 


TO -l-J 


g 
3 


ce, South Ko 
lountains as 
le sources 
ling. 


Western portion 
marsliy plains 


5 s 
II 


W 


Pq 


K 






o 








J 


ilONTHS lA 


WHICH 


THE 


birds w 


ERE OBSERVED. 


d vi 

00 00 
(—1 f— t 


00 00 
1— 1 r— 1 


t— H 

CO 
(— t 


'-H W CO 
1^ 1^ l^ 

SO 00 00 
r-l ,—1 r-l 


CO « 

^H r- 


3 OJ M 

3 00 00 
■1 f— I p— 1 


W CO 

X CO 
1— 1 r— 1 


C^J CO 

00 00 

r-H ,— 1 


: 




2 O 




















s 




41 




































§« 




"Si 




>.o 




















p 










'3 >^ 

O O CS 


>< 
















3 






bD 
P 
-=1 


jf g^ 


o 




i^ 










S 2 


j: V - 




i --^S 


o 


S !>. 


^ >. 


> be 


o o o 






r^ 3 

fZJ ^ 1-5 






si 


S § 

II 


a § 



148 



THE BIRDS OP MONGOLIA ETC. 



List of the Species, with their Geographical Distribution. 



NAMiis or Species. 



1 . Gypaetus barbatus, L 

2. Vultur monacbus, L 

3. Gyps bimalayeiisis, Hume 

-i. Archibuteo berailasius, Temm. ^ 

Schleg 

5. Aquila chrysaiitos, L 

G. imperiaUs, iJe(?As< 

7 . bit'asciata, Gray 

8. clanga, Pall 

9. Circaetus galliciis, Gmel 

10. Pandioii baliaetus, L 

11. Habaetus albicilla, i 

12. macei, Cuv 

13. Falco beudersoni, Hume 

14. Hypotriorcbis subbuteo, L. 

15. sesaloii, i 

16. Tinuunculus japouicus, Schlcu... 

17. Erytbropus aniurensis, Radde ... 

18. Milvus VL\e\a,\\ot\s,Temm.^ Schleg . 

19. Astiir palumbarius, L 

20. Accipiter nisus, L 

21 . Circus spilouotus, Kaup 

22. Strigiccps cyaneuSj L 

23. Athene plumipes, Swinh 

24. Bubo maximus, Slbb 

25. Caprimulgus jotac?i,Temm.S^-Schl. 

26. plumipes, n. sp 

27. Cypsebis apus, L 

28. pacificus, Lath 

29. Cbsetura caudacuta. Lath 

30. Hb'undo gutturabs, Scop 

31. Cecropis daurica, L 

32. Cotyle riparia, L 

33. rupestris, Scop 

34. Cbelidou casbmirensis, Gould 

35. Upupa epops, L 

36. Sitta villosa, J. Verr 

37. siueusis, J. Veir 

38. amurensis, Swinh.* 

39. Certbia famiHaris, L 

40. Tichodroma muraria, L 






s . 
s . 



b. 



u . .'' 



?t . 

s . 
n . ? 

11 . 

n : 



t : n ? 
t . n ? 



n : 

■? 
t . n ? 



t:u? 



o 
a 

O 



s . 
s . 



b:ii. 
s : 

s . 

n : s ? 

n . 

n . 

t.'nV 

s . 

n . 
h : n ? 

s : 

u . 

n : 
n.? 
n.? 
u .b 

h. 

s . 

u : 

II : 
n : 
t . 
n : 
n : 
u : 
n : 
t.u? 
n : 



n . 



t . 



n . 
s : 



n: b. 

s : 
■? 

n.? 
t 



< 
a 

en 
I 

■< 



t . 
n . s? 

n . s? 



n . .'' 

s . 

11 . 

n : 

n.? 

t . 
n . 
s : 



n : 
u : 

n . 
n : 
n : 
u . 
n : 
u : 
s : 



w 



s : 
s . 
s : 

n .? 



t . 

t . 



n . 

s • 
11 . 

II : 

n . 
t . 

s . 
s . 
u . 

n.? 

11 : 



n : 

n : 
u . 
s : 



o 

1 

o 
a 

o 

ui 


Vi 




S : 


e . 


s : 


S : 


e . 


s : 


s : 


c . 


e . 


b: 


b. 




b. 






b: 


... 


h.s? 


?t . 






t.n? 






b : s •? 


t . 


h.s? 


s . 




b . s ? 


t:n? 






t . 


b: 
b: 




s . 




s . 
s . 



* Found only on tbe N.W. slope of Gubey-key, /. e. not actually in Mongoba. 



THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 



149 



Table of the Geographical Distribution {continued). 



Names of Species. 



41. 

42 { 

43. 
44. 
45. 
46. 
47. 
48. 
49. 
50. 
51. 
52. 
53. 
54. 
55. 
56. 
57. 
58. 
59. 
60. 
61. 
62. 
63. 
64. 
65. 
66. 

67. 
68. 
69. 
70. 
71. 
72. 
73. 
74. 
75. 
76. 
77. 
78. 
79. 
80. 
81. 



Troglodytes fumigatuSj Temm. . . . 
Rhopophilus pekinensisj Swinh. . 

, var. j3. major, nob.... 

Calamodyta orientalis, Schleg 

Arundinax acidon, Pall 

Dumeticola affinis, Hodgs 

Locustella certhiola^ Pall 

Sylvia curruca. Lath 

aralensis, Eversm. 



Phillopneuste plumbeitarsaj Siv 

xantliodryas, Swinh 

borealis. Bias 

fuscata^ Blyth 



Abi'ornis armandii, Milne-Edtu. 
affinis, Hodgs. 



Reguloides proregidus, Pall. 
supei'ciliosuSj Gmel. 



Regulus himalayensis, Blyth 

Ruticilla aiirorea^ Pall 

rufiventris, Vieill 

frontalis, Vig 

schisticepSj Hodgs 

hodgsoni, Moore 

alaschanica, n. sp 

f uliginosa, Vig 

erythrogastra, Gilld 

Chsemarrhoniis leucocephala, 

Vig 

Larvivora cyane, Pall 

N emura cyanura, Pall 

HodgsoniusphcEnicuroideSj/ZV/^s 

Cyanecula ciBrulecula, Pall 

Calliope kamtschatkensis, Gmel. 

tschebaieivi, n. sp 

Grandala coelicolor, Hodgs 

Saxicola oenanthe, L 

morio, Ehr 

atrogularis, Blyth 

isabellina, Riipp. 






t. n? 



t . 



Pratincola indica, Blyth . . . 
Accentor nipalensis, Hodgs. 

montanellus, Pall. . . . 

f ulvescens, Sev 



n . 
n . 



£ i 

. o 



n , 

s : 



n : 
n : 
n . 



n : 
n . 



O 



n : 



n ; 
n : 



t : 



n , 
n . 






< 



n . 
n : 

n : s? 



t . 

t . 



n , 
n . 
n : 



< 



n : 
n : 



n . 

? 

t.n? 
n : 
n : 
n : 
t . 
n . 
n . 



n : 
II . 

n : 
n . 
n : 



n . 
n . 
n : 



O 
I 

2 
o 



h. s? 



h.s? 



150 



THE THIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 



Table of the Geographical Distribution ( 


contin 


ued'). 






Names or Species. 


Halha (lat. 
same as 
Urga). 


1 


M 

o 
n 
« 
O 


< 

M 

< 

< 


p 

1 
< 


a! 

O 

z 

1 

o 
o 


p 
'A 


a 


82. Accentor multistriatuSj David 

83. rubeculoides, Moore 

84. Parus minor, Teinm. £f Schleg... 

85. Pwci/c affinis, n. sp 

86. siiperciliosa, n. sp. . . 


t:n? 
t . 

t : 
t . 
t . 

n . 
? t . 


?s: 
s : 

n . 

n : 

n . 

n : 

n . 

t . 

t . 

n . 
n.? 

n : 
?n. 

t . 

t . 

t : 
t . 

u : 

s : 

n : 
u . 

t . 
t.n? 


?s . 

s : 
s . 

n: 
n : 
t . 

t . 

n : 

t . 

t . 

s . 

t . 

?n. 
11 . 


s : 

n . 

t :' n ? 
n . 

t . 

t . 
n . 

t : 
t : 

t . 
n. 

s : 

nV? 

t . 

? 
n . 


n . 
n : 

s : 
s : 
s : 
s . 
s . 

? 

s : 
n : 

t . 
t . 

u : 
n. 

n. 

n . 

t : 

n: 
n: 

n : s? 
n.s? 

s : 

s : 

?t. 
n. 


s : 
n . 

t : 

t . 
t . 


s : 
9 

h. 
t . 


s . 

h.s? 
b.s? 


87. Lophophanes dichroidt's, n. sp... 

88. rubidiventris, i?/!/<i% ? 

89. Orites caudatus, L 

90. Suthora webbiana, Gray 


91. Panui'us biarmicus, i 


92. Leptopoecile sophia, Sev 

93. ]\Iotacilla luzoniensis, Scop. . . . 

94. dukliunensis, Sykes 

95. ocvXsiXis, Swinh 

96. Budytes cinereo-capilla, Sav. . . . 

97. citreola, Pa// 


98. Calobatcs melanope, Pall 

99. Anthns spinoletta, L. 


100. pratensis, jL 


101. rosacens, Hodgs 


102. Pipastes agilis, Sykes 


103. Agrodroma campestris, Bechst. 

104. Corydalla richardiij Vieill 

105. Turdus naumanni, Tenim 

106. fnscatus, Pa/Z. 


107. auritus, J. Verr 

108. ruficollis. Pall 

109. pallens. Pa/; 

110. Merula gouldii, /. Ve7'r. 


111. kessleri, n. sp. 


112. Oreocincla varia. Pa// 

113. jNIonticola saxatilis, Z 


114. Hydrobata caslimirensis, Gould 
115. sordida, Gould 


116. Pterorbinus davidi, Sivinh 

117. Trocbalopteron ellioti, J. Verr.. 

118. Oriolus cliinensis, // 


119. Erythrosterna leucura, Gmel 

120. Hemicbelidon sibirica, Gmel. ... 

121. AniDclis srarrula. L 


122. CoUyrrio spbenocercus. Cab. . . . 

123. pallidirostris, Cass. 


124. teplironotus, Via 





THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 



151 



Table of the Geographical Distribution (continuecT). 



Names of Species. 






s ^ 
St- 



o 

iZ) 



o 
p 
« 
O 



I 



1^ 



PS 
O 

I 

o 
o 









125. Lanius phcEnicurus, Pall 

126. arenarius, Blyth 

127. Garrulus brandtii, Eversm. . . . 

128. Podoces hendersoni, Hume 

129. humilis, Hume 

130. Pica media, Blyth 

131. bottanensis, Deless 

132. Cyanoi3olius cyanus, Pa// 

133. Corvus corax, L 

1 34. orientalis, Eversm 

135. Fi'ugilegus pastinator, Gould... 

136. Lycos dauricus, Pa// 

137. Pyrrhocorax alpinus, Vieill. ... 

138. Fregilus graculus, L. 

139. Temenuchus daui'icuSj Pall. ... 

140. Sturnus vulgaris, L 

141. cineraceus, Temm 

142. Fringilla montifringilla, L. ... 

143. Chlorospiza sinica, L 

144. Pyrgita petronia, Z 

145. Montifringilla adamsi, Moore... 

146. Fringillauda nemoricola, Hodgs. 

147. Onychospiza taczanoivskii,Ti.sp. 

148. Pyrgilauda davidiana, J. Verr. . 

149. ruficollis, Blanf. 

150. Passer montanus, iy 

151. ammodendri, /Sew 

152. Mycerobas carnipes, //brf^s. ... 

153. Pyrrhula erithacus, Blyth 

154. Carpodacus erythrinus. Pall. ... 

155. rubicilla, Giild 

156. rubicilloides, n. sp 

157. davidianus, Milne-Edw.... 

158. Carpodacus dubius,n.s^. 

159. Erythrospiza mongolica, Swinh. 

160. ohsoletdi, Lie ht. 

161. Uragiis sibiricns. Pa// 

162. Pyrrhospiza longirostris , n. sp. . 

163. Linota brevirostris, Gould 

164. Acanthis linaria, Z 

165. Euspiza aureola. Pall 

166. Emberiza spodocephala, Pall.... 

167. pityornis, Pall 



t . n ? 



s? 



s . 
s : 
s : 
n . 
n : 



n . .'' 

t . 

t . 

n . 

s : 



s? 
n? 



9 

n? 
t : 
t . 



s : 
s : 



n . 



n 
n . s ? 



s . 



s : 

s : 

n : si 

n : 



n : 
n : 

s . 



s : 

? 

s : 

S : 

s : 

s : 

n : 

n : s ? 

s : 

s : 



n 
s 
n 
n : 



s : 

n : s ? 
s . 
n : 

n : 
n : 

n : 



n . 
n 



s : 
s.? 



s . 
t . 



s : 



s : 
s . 



n . S : 



s . 



s . 

b. 



ii . s y 



h •. s ? 



VOL. III. 



152 



THE BIRDS OP MONGOLIA ETC. 



Table of the Geographical Distribution (continued). 



Names of Species. 



168. 
169. 
170. 
171. 
172. 
173. 
174. 
175. 
176. 
177. 
178. 
179. 
180. 
181. 
182. 
183. 
184. 
185. 
186. 
187. 
188. 
189. 
190. 
191. 
192. 
193. 
194. 
195. 
196. 
197. 
198. 
199. 
200. 
201. 
202. 
203. 
204. 
205. 
206. 
207. 
208. 



Eraberiza ciopsis^ Bp. .. 

godlewskii, Tacz. 

pusilla, Pall 



Cynckramus sclioeniclus, L. 
polaris, Midd. 



Urocynchramus pylzoivi, n. sp. 
Plectrophancs lapponicus, L. . . 

Otocoi'is albigula, Bp 

nigrifrons, n. sp , 



Alauda arvensis, L. 
Galerida leautungensisj Swinh. 
Alaiidula cheleiinsis, Swinh. . . 
kukunoorensis, n. sp. 



Melanocorypha mongolica, Pall. 

maxima, GomW 

Picus mandarimis, Gould 

leuconotus, Bechst.* 

Dryocopus martius, L 

Cuculus canorinus, Miill 

Columba rupestris, Pall 

leuconota, Vig 

Tm-tur nipicolus, Pall 

vitticollis, Temm 

hiimilisj Temm 

Syrrhaptes paradoxus. Pall. ... 

thibetanus, Gould 

Phasianus torquatus, Gmel. ... 

vlangalii, n. sp 

strauchi, n. sp. 



Crossoptilon auritum, Pall. 
Ithaginis geofFroyi, /. Vei'r. 

Perdix barbata, J. Verr 

sifanica, n. sp. 



Coturnix communis, Bonn. ? 

japonica, Schleg 

Caccabis cbukax, Gray 

magna, n. sp. 



Tetraogallus tbibetanus, Gould 
Tetraophasis obscurus, J. Vei~r. 

Tetrastes sewerzoivi, n. sp 

Otis tarda, Z(.? 



(U 53 



h: 
8:h 



. o 



n : s? 
n . s? 

t : 

n . 
n.h. 

h: 
s:h: 

n : 

s . 
s : 



t 
n : 

s 



o 
» 

O 



n . 
n.b, 

h": 

9 

n':'h. 

s : 
s : 



n:h 






n . s r 

n : s ? 
t . 



n.h. 
s.h: 



s : 
s : 



n. 

s : 



n. 
n . 

s : 



t . 

s . 



M 



s . 
n : 



s . 

n : 

s : 

n : s? 



s ; 
s : 
s . 
s : 
s ; 

n : 
s . 

S : 
s ; 
s ; 



o 

o 
1-^ 



s . 
n ; 






s . 
t. n? 



s . 



s . 



s : 



* Found only north of Gu-bey-key. 



THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 



153 



Table of the Geographical Distribution (continued). 



Names of Species. 



209. 
210. 
211. 
212. 
213. 
214. 
215. 
216. 
217. 
218. 
219. 
220. 
221. 
222. 
223. 
224. 
225. 
226. 
227. 
228. 
229. 
230. 
231. 
232. 
233. 
234. 
235. 
236. 
237. 
238. 
239. 
240. 
241. 
242. 
243. 
244. 
245. 
246. 
247. 
248. 
249. 



Otis macqueeni, Gray ? 

Vanellus cristatus, Meyer . 
Chettusia inornata, Schleg. 
Charadi'ius fulvus^ Gmel. . 
Eudromias veredus, Gould . 
iEgialites curonicus, Besck. 

cantianus, Lath 

Glareola orientalis. Leach . 

Grus cinerea, Bechst 

nigricollis, n. sp 

leucauchen, Temm 

monacha, Temm 

leucogeranus, Pall.. 



Anthropoides virgo, L. 

Ardea cinerea, L 

Herodias alba, L 

Botaurus stellaris, L 

Ciconia boyciana, Swink. ? * 
nigra, L 



Platalea major, Temm 

Ibidorhyncha struthersii, Vig. 

Numenius major, Temm 

Limosa melanuroides, Gould . . 

Totanus oebropus, L 

glareola, L 

calidris, L 

fuscus, L 

glottis, L. 



Tringoides bypoleucos, L 

Recurvirostra avoeetta, L 

Himantopus Candidas, Bonn. . . 

Tringa temminckii, Leisl 

subminuta, Midd 

subarquata, L 

Gallinago scolopacina, Bp 

solitaria, Hodgs 

beterocerca. Cab 

megala, Swinh. 



Scolopax rusticola, L 

Rbyncbaea bengalensis, L. 
Rallus indicus, Blyth ? 



5 bD 



t 



? t 
? t 



. o 
m 



n : 
t.n? 

t : 

n . 

n . 
t.n? 

t : 

t.n? 
t : 

n : 

t:n? 
t . 



t.n? 
t.n? 

t : 
t : 
t.n? 
t : 
n . 
t . 

n . 
t : 

t : n? 
t:n? 

t : 

b. 
t.n? 
n.? 

t . 

t . 



O 
P 

O 


< 

< 


Kan-su. 


o 
z 

o 

o 


< 
< 




n. ? 












n : 


t . 




t.n? 


t.n? 




n : 












t . 


t . 










n. 


n . 

n. 




t:n? 






n : 














t : 


t : 


t . 
n. 

t . 






n . 


n. 




t . 






n : 




t . 








n : 


t . 


y 


t.n? 


t.n? 




n : 












t . 




t.n? 








n . 




n. 


n. ? 






n . 






t:n? 






t : 






t . 






n.? 




t . 








n.? 












n. 






t : 






n. ? 












n : 




t . 








n . 






t : 






n : 












n.? 












n:? 












11.? 












n . 


t . 


t . 


t : 










t . 


t : 




h. 


?n. 












n : 












n. 












t . 








h. 


• 



Found only nortb of Gu-bey-key. 



154 



THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 



Table of the Geographical Distribution (^continued). 



Names of Species. 



250. 
251. 
252. 
253. 

254. 
255. 
256. 
257. 
258. 
259. 
260. 
261. 
262. 
263. 
264. 
265. 
266. 

267. 
268. 
269. 
270. 
271. 
272. 
273. 
274-. 
275. 
276. 
277. 
278. 
279. 
280. 
281. 
282. 
283. 
284. 

285. 
286. 
287. 

288. 
289. 



Ortygometra pygmsea, Naum. . 

Galliiiula chloropus, L 

Eulica atra, L 

Anser cinereus, Meyer, var. 

nibrirostris, Sivinh 

segetum, G7nel 

grandisj Pall. ? 

indicus, Lath 

cygnoides, Pall 

Cygnus musicusj Bechst 

bewickii, Yarr 

olor, Gmel. ? 

Tadorna cornuta, Gmel 

Casarca rutila, Pall 

Mareca penelope, L 

Dafila acuta, L 

Anas boschas, L 

pcEciloryucha_, Temm. nee 

Lath 

Querquedula circia, L 

creccaj L. 



Eunetta falcata. Pall 

glocitans, Pall 

Chaiilelasmus strepenis, L. 

Spatula clypeata, L 

Fulix cristata, L 

Aytliya feriua, L 

Bucepbala clangula, L 

Mergus merganser, i 

serrator, L 

Mergellus albellus, L 

Podiceps cristatus, L 

aiu'itus, i. ? 



5 to 
^ O rt 

tt a I' 



!2 

O J, 

. o 



Lams niveus, Pall 

occidentalis, Aud 

iclitbyaetus, Pall 

Chroicoccphalus bruuneicepha- 

lus, Jerd 

Sterna anglica, 3Iont 

Hydrocbelldon nigra, L 

indica, Steph 

Giaculus carbo, L 

Pelecanus crispus, L 



t . n r 
n . 

t . 
t: n. 



? t 



t.n? 

n . 

t : 
t . 

t.'n? 

t : 

t . 
t : n ? 

n : 

n : 

t:u? 
n : 

n : 
t : n . 
t : 
t : 
t : 
t . 
t . 
■? 

t : 
t . 
t . 
t : 
t . 
t . 
t . 
t:n? 



t:n? 

t . 



t : n: 

t . 



o 

n 
cs 
O 



n . 
u . 
n : 

n . 

t : 
t . 

n . 



n : 
n:h. 

n : 
n : 

n : 

n : 

t : 

t. n? 



.''n , 
t . 
t . 

t . 



n: 
n : 
n : 
n : 
t . 
t . 



< 





rt 




o 


t> 


ir. 


1 


o 


S: 


•x 


<! 


o 


i4 


W 



n. 



n ; 
e . 



t.n? 



n : 

t : 
?t:n? 
?t. 
n. 
n : 
t . 
t : 
n : 



t:n? 
t : 
t . 
t : 
t : 



n : 



t:n? 



t.n? 



t.n? 



t: n? 

t . 
b. n. 



t :h 



CQ 



THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 



155 



List of the Birds during Spring M igration. 

Note. — The date given is the day on which the first specimen was noticed. The mark * means that 
the species may have passed even earlier. All dates are Old Style. 



FEBRUARY 1873. 



Feb. 10.. 

„ 13.. 

.. 14 j 

„ 15.. 



Tsaidam. 



Casarca rutila. 

Anas boschas. 

Tardus ruficollis. 
Mergus merganser. 
Cygnus musicus. 

Querquedula crecca. 



Feb. 17.., 
„ 18 -j 

„ 28.. 



Tsaidam. 



Vanellus cristatus. 

Dafila acuta. 

Herodias alba. 

Anser cinereus, var. rubrirostris. 

Anthropoides virgo. 



MARCH. 



1871. 

Mountains north of Pekin 

and S.E. Mongolia, as far 

as Dalai-nor. 



1872. 

S.E. Mongolia, 
Kalgan to Hoang-ho. 



1873. 
Lake Koko-nor. 



March 1. 
„ 4. 



6. 

7. 

9. 
10. 
11. 

12. 

13. 

14- 



Ciconia nigra . 



Querquedula crecca 



Anser segetuni. 
Casarca rutila. 



Accentor rubeculoides. 

Bucephala clangula*. 

Fulix cristata*. 
Larus ichthyaetiis. 
Chroicocephalus brunn'eice- 

phalus. 
Atiser indiciis. 

Milvus melanotis. 



Upupa epops. 



Ciconia boyciana ? 

Bucepjhala clangula *. 
Vanellus cristatus * . 
Cygnus musicus * .... 



{ 



Cygnus musicus. 

Milvus melanotis . 
Vanellus cristatus . 
Larus occidentalis . 

Saxicola morio. 



Gracuhis carbo. 



Tadorna cornuta. 
Spatula clypeata. 



VOL. III. 



THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 



List of the Birds during Spring Migration (^continued). 



March {continued). 






1871. 

Mountains north of Pekiu 

and S.E. Mongolia, as far 

as Dalai-nor. 


1872. 

S.E. Mongolia, 
Kalgan to Hoang-ho. 


1873. 
Lake Koko-nor. 


March 15 < 

„ 16 j 

„ 17... 
„ 19... 

„ 20... 
„ 21... 

„ 22... 

„ 23... 

., 24 1 
„ 25... 
„ 26 1 

„ 27... 


Grus leucauchen ~ 


Saxicola isabellina 

Upupa epops. 
Motacilla ocularis 


{ 


Aythya ferina. 
Numenius major. 

Grus cinerea. 
Recurvirostra avocetta. 

Mareca penelope. 

Halia'etus macei. 
jEgialites cantianus. 
Limosa nielanuroides . 
Totanus calidris. 

Motacilla dukhunensis. 
GalUnayo scolopacina. 
Graculus carbo. 

Ardea cinerea. 


liTofnciUn ociilnri^ 


T)fjiilfi noifn ^ 


Eunetta glocitans 

Eunetta falcata* 

Chroicocephalus brunnei- 

cephalus 

Larus occidentalis 

Anser segetum * ^ 

Chettusia inornata. 
Anser cinereus, var. rubri- 
rostris. 








Ruticilla aurorea. 


1 
{ 

:) 








Saxicola isabellina. 
Anthus pratensis. 

Saxicola morio. 

Tadorna cornuta . . . 


Anthus spilonetta 

Ardea cinerea 

Grus cinerea. 
Anthropoides virgo. 
Tadorna cornuta. 
^gialites cantianus. 
Recurvirostra avocetta. 
Chroicocephalus brunneic 

phalus *. 
Cygnus beiuickii *. 


Numenius major 


f- 





THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 



157 



List of the Birds during Spring Migration (^continued). 



March {continued). 



1871. 

Mountains north of Pekin 

and S.E. Mongolia, as far 

as Dalai-nor. 



1872. 

S.E. Mongolia, 
Kalgan to Hoang-lio. 



1873. 
Lake Koko-nor. 



March28... 
„ 29 1 



30- 



jEgialites cantianus 

Totanus fuscus 1 

Pelecanus ci'isjms? j 

Fringilla mpntifringilla ...~) 

Spatula clypeata * > 

Recurvirostra avocetta . ..) 



Collyrio sphenocercus ': 



Totanus calidris. 



Coturnix japonica. 
Grus nigricollis. 



APRIL. 



April 1 



2. 
3- 



■{ 



7. 
8, 

9 



{ 



10. 
11 



{ 



1871. 
S.E. Mongolia, from 
Dalai-nor to Kalgan. 

Anas poecilorhyncha 

Grus cinerea 

Platalea major 

Fulica atra 

Mergus serrator *. 

Chaulelasmus strrperus ... 1 
Podiceps auritusl J 

Anthus spilonetta "^^ 

Anser cygnoides * J 

Lanius sphenocercus 

jEgialites curonicus 

Limosa melanuroides , 

Gallinago scolopacina 

Querqiiedula circia * ) 

Budytes citreola J 



1872. 

Muni-ul mountains and 

the Hoang-ho valley. 



1873. 
Kan-su. 



Chettusia inornata . 



Cicon 



la nigra. 



{ 



Larus niveus 



Cotyle rupestris. 
Saxicola mnanthe. 
Chaulelasmus streperus *. 

Turdus ruficollis 



Saxicola isabellina. 



Carpodacus davidianus . 



Ruticilla rufiventris. 

Pratincola indica. 
Urocynchramus pylzowi. 

Ciconia nigra. 

Ruticilla frontalis. 



Anthus rosaceus. 
Budytes citreola. 



158 



THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 



List of the Birds during Spring Migration (continued^. 



April {continued). 



1871. 
S.E. Mongolia, from 
Dalai-nor to Kalgan. 



April 12... 

„ 13 .. 

,, 14,., 

„ 16... 

„ 18... 

,, 20... 

„ 21... 

09 

„ 23... 

„ 24.... 

„ 26.., 

„ 27.. 

,3 28.. 



Podiceps cristatus * 
Totanus ochropus .. 



Anthropoides virgo *. 
Tringa temminckii. 
Herodias alba *. 

Totanus glareola. 



Hirundo gutturalis. 
Cotyle riparia 



Agrodroma campestris 



{ 



1872. 

Muni-ul mountains and 

the Hoang-ho valley. 



r 



Cypselus pacificus J 

Reguloides superciliosus . . 



{ 



1873. 

Kan-su. 



Pandion haliaetus. 
Ruticilla erythrogastra. 
ChcEinarrhornis leucoce- 

phala. 
Emberiza pityornis. 

Merula kessleri. 
Accentor nipalensis. 
Upupa epops. 



I 



{ 



Emberiza pusilla. 

Calobates melanope. 

Hirundo gutturalis. 
Agrodroma campestris. 
Budytes citreola. 

Budytes cinereo-capilla * 

Cliaradrius fulvus 

Tringa temminckii * 

Graculus carbu * 

Sterna anglica * 



Cotyle riparia. 

Chcetura cavdacuta. 
Lanius phcenicwus. 



Chelidon cashmiriensis . 
Grandala ccelicolor. 
Troglodytes fumigatus *. 



Carpodacus dubius *. 



Cotyle rupestris. 
Nemura cyanura. 
Calobates melanope. 



THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 



159 



List of Birds during Spring Migration (continuecT). 



MAY. 




1871. 


1872. 


1873. 




S.E. Mongolia, from 
Kalgan to the Hoang-lao. 


Valley of the Hoang-ho 
and Northern Ala-shan. 


Kan-su mountains. 


May 2 ... 
„ 3 ... 




Cypselus apus. 
Sylvia curruca. 




Chatura caudacuta 




„ 4 ... 


Gallinago heterocerca * --A 


CheUdon cashmiriensis * . . . 
Erythrosterna leucura 


Corydallus richardii. 
Cuculus canorinus. 


„ 5 ... 


RhynchcBa bengalensis 


Monticola saxatilis *. 




„ 6 ... 


Euspiza aureola 


Calliope kamtschatkensis *. 




„ 7 ... 


Charadrius fulvus. 




8 




Cyanecula ccerulecula. 




„ 9 ••• 


Turdus pallens. 




„,.{ 


Cypselus pacificus * '\ 

Larvivora cyane * >- 

Cuculus canorinus J 


Cecropis daurica. 




.,.{ 


Cypselus apus. 
Emberiza spodocephala. 






„ 14 ... 




{ 


Cypselus pacificus. 
Cecropis daurica. 




„ 15 






Caprimulgus jotaca. 


„ 17" ... 




Emberiza spodocephala. 





VOL. III. 



2a 



160 



THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 



List of the Birds during Autumn Migration. 

Note. — The period of migration is reckoned at the time when the principal migration took place. 



. 20J 



Aug. 10 

to 
Aug 



Aug. 


20 


to 


\ 


Sept. 


1 



AUGUST. 



1871. 

Ordos ; the Hoang-ho 
valley. 



Liinosa melanuroides . 



{ 



Cypselus apus 

Cotyle rlparia 

Cyanecula coirulecula .. 
Carpodacus davidianus . . 

Ciconm nigra 

Numenius major 

Budytes citreola 



1872. 
Kan-su mountains. 



Cypselus pacificus . 
Chelidon lagopoda . 



Calobates inelanope . . 
Montifringilla adanisi 

Cuciihis canorinus 

Tringoides hypoleucos 



1873. 

Road from Ala-shan to 
Urga, through Gobi. 



Cypselus pacificus. 
Cyanecula ccerulecula. 
Heguloides superciliosus. 
Totunus ochropus. 
Tetanus glareola. 
Totanus calidris. 
Budytes citreola. 

Cypselus apus. 
Upupa epops. 
Cotyle riparia. 
Circus spilonotus. 
Motacilla ocularis. 
Calobate melanope. 
Anthus spinoletta. 
Dafila acuta. 
Casarca rutila. 
Qiierquedida crecca. 
Grus cinerea. 
Tringoides hypoleucos. 
Totanus glottis. 
Gallinago heterocerca ? 
Anser cygnoides. 
Anser cinereus, var. rubri- 

rostris. 
^gialites cantianus. 
Otis tarda. 



THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 



161 



List of the Birds during Autumn Migration (^continued). 



SEPTEMBER. 



Sept. 1 

to 
Sept. 10 



< 



1871. 

Ala-shan 

(desert and mountains) . 



Sept. 10 

to 
Sept. 20 



i 



Sept. 


20 


to 


^ 


Oct. 


1 



Upupa epops 

Larvivora cyane 

Hemichelidon sibirica . . . 

Euspiza aureola 

Emberiza pusilla 

Anthropoides virgo 

Gi'aculus carbo 

Anser cinereus, var. rubri- 

rostris 

Anser segetwn 

Corydalla richardii 

Charadrius fulvus 



Turdus pallens 

Grus cinerea 

Frugilegus pastinator 



Accentor montanellus 

Turdus ruficollis 

Vanellus cristatus 

Herodias alba 

Ruticilla alaschanica. 



f 



1872. 
Kan-su mountains. 



Upupa epops 

Accentor nipale?isis 

Fringillauda nenioricola . 



1873. 
Northern Halha. 



Cecropis daurica ^ 

Archibuteo hemilasius . . 

Ruticilla fuliginosa 

Grus cinerea | 

Troglodytes fumigatus ... J 

Circus spilonotus. 
Strigiceps cyaneus. 
Haliaetus macei. 
ChcBinarrhornis leucocephala 
Lanius sphenocercus"^ 
Turdus ruficollis. 



Hirundo gutturalis. 
Mergus merganser. 
Ciconia nigra. 
Anser segetum. 



Strigiceps cyaneus'^ 
Turdus naumanni. 
Monedula daurica. 



OCTOBER. 



Oct. 1 ■) 

to V 

Oct. lOJ 



1871. 
Ala-shan and Ala-shan mountains. 



Monticola saxatilis 
Carpodacus dubius 



1872. 
Kan-su mountains and Lake Koko-nor. 



Ruticilla alashanica. 
Ruticilla erythrogastra. 
Urocynchramus pylzoiui. 
Bucephala clangula. 
Mergus serrator. 
Grus leucogeranus. 
Ciconia nigra. 



162 



THE BIRDS OF MONGOLIA ETC. 



List of the Birds during Autumn Migration (continued). 



October [continued). 




1871. 
Ala-shan and Ala-shan mountains. 


1872. 
Kan-su mountains and Lake Koko-nor. 


Oct. 10) 

to V 

Oct. 20 j 


< 


Anser cinereus, var. rubrirostris. 

Anas boschas. 

Querquedula crecca. 

Fuligula cristata. 

Casarca rutila. 

Larus ichthyaetus. 

Larus niveus. 

Halia'etus macei. 

Totanus calidris. 

Vanellus cristatus. 

-1 

1 





[We have now finished the task of setting the ornithological results of Colonel Prjevalsky's 
travels before our readers ; and we must thank Mr. Craemers for the efficient way in which he has 
translated his author. 

According to ' Nature' (Jan. 17th, 1878, p. 234), this Russian officer has penetrated to Lake 
Lob-Nor, in the very centre of Asia, and " he reports that it is impossible to conceive the enormous 
number of migratory birds which, on their journey from southern countries to the north (or vice 
versa), select Lake Lob-Nor as a halting-place." 

It is much to be wished that these fresh and interesting discoveries should be, in the interests 

of our science, made available to Englishmen. 

Editoe of the O. M.] 



DESCRIPTION OF TWO SPECIES OF BIRDS 
FROM THE MALAY ARCHIPELAGO. 

By a. B. MEYER, M.D., C.M.Z.S., 
Director of the Royal Zoological Museum of Dresden. 

ZEOCEPHUS ROWLEYI, n. sp. 

Schistaceo-cyaneuSj subtus pallidior, albescens. 

Upper parts bluish, brighter on the back ; wing-feathers blackish grey, 
margins of the outer webs greyish blue, of the inner whitish. Underparts 
light pale blue, somewhat whitish on the belly ; wing-feathers beneath grey, 
margins of the outer webs and under wing-coverts white. Rectrices bluish 
grey above, outer webs blue, of the same colour as the back ; beneath grey. 
Bill blackish, under mandible paler. Bristles very long, some reaching the 
tip of the bill. Feet and claws greyish. 

Total length 180 millims., bill 13, wing 96, tail 92, tarsus 21. 

Hah. Great Sangi, Sangi Islands. 

The Dresden Museum possesses one specimen of this apparently new 
species, which may perhaps belong to the genus Philentoma, Eyton, or 
another genus allied to Monarcha or Myiagra. The bill is rather short 
for a Zeocephus, and rather broad for a typical Philentoma. The species 
appears to agree in coloration with Zeocephus cyanescens, Sharpe, from the 

VOL. III. 2 B 



164 DESCRIPTION OF TWO SPECIES OF 

island of Palawan, Philippines (see Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, Zoology, vol. i. 
p. 328, plate 48. fig. 2, 1877) ; but it is smaller, the underparts are lighter, 
and there is no black on the lores, the front, the chin, and the base of the 
mandible. 

Zeoceplms rowleyi also reminds one somewhat of Hypothymis puella 
(Wall.), from Celebes, and it may, perhaps, be regarded as representing this 
species on the Sangi Islands. But I will not discuss this question now. 

The specimen belongs to a collection of birds which one of the hunters 
in my service made on the Sangi Islands. I hope soon to be able to give a 
list of this collection, as it raises the number of the species known to inhabit 
this island-group considerably, viz. to about 70 ; whereas, till now, it was 
not much more than half that number — at least, from trustworthy sources. 

The specimen is marked "male;" but I, of course, cannot guarantee the 
correctness of the sex. The exact locality is Tabukan, on the island of Great 
Sangi, which lies between Siao and Celebes, to the south, and Mindanao 
(Philippines), to the north. 

I cannot say any thing certain about the coloration of the bill, the feet, 
and the eyes in life ; the colours above mentioned are those which the dried 
skin presents ; but I suppose that these parts are blue, as is the case with 
Hypothymis puella (Wall.), Zeocephiis cyanescens, Sharpe, and allied species. 

I take the liberty of calling this pretty species after the Editor of this 
Journal, in acknowledgment of the services which he renders to science by 
editing his ' Ornithological Miscellany.' 



SURNICULUS MUSSCHENBROEKI, n. sp. 

S. lugubri (Hoi-sf.) similis, sed major. 

Black, with greenish-blue metallic gloss on wings, mantle, and tail. 
Head, neck, back, uropygium, and underparts black, but velvety, not 



BIRDS FROM THE MALAY ARCHIPELAGO. 165 

glossy. Underside of the wing-feathers brownish, white spots on the basal 
third of the inner webs forming a band. Tail of Dicrurns-like shape ; short 
outer rectrices spotted, and partly banded with white. On the thighs a 
thick plumage of splendidly white feathers wdth greyish base. (One white 
feather on the neck appears not to constitute a specific character*.) Bill 
black. Feet blackish above, light below. 

Total length 265 millims., wing 140, tail 155, bill 19, tarsus 16. 

Hab. Batjan, Moluccas. 

The single specimen which the Dresden Museum possesses was procured 
by one of the hunters in my service, on the island of Batjan. It is marked 
"female." 

No species of the genus Surniculus was till recently known to occur 
more to the east than Borneo, where the wide-spreading S. luguhris (Horsf.) 
resides, which ranges from India, through Ceylon and Malacca, Java, and 
Sumatra, to Borneo (^see Schlegel, Mus. P.-B. Cucidi, 1864, p. 28, and 
Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. 1874, v. p. 63). Sharpe has described a 
new species of Surniculus from Malamaui, in the south of Mindanao (see 
Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, Zoology, vol. i. 1877, p. 320), viz. S. velutinus ; and 
it is therefore not to be wondered at that we find the genus represented in 
the Moluccas, which (viz. Halmahera) are not very far from Mindanao. 

Surniculus velutimis appears to agree a good deal with S. musschenhroehi ; 
but the former is much (about 3 inches) smaller. S. musschenbroeki is also 
remarkably larger than S. luguhris, the size of the wings of which species 
Salvadori (J. c.) gives as 120 millims. (140 in S. musschenbroeki), of the 
tail as 10 millims. (15*5 in S. musschenbroeki) ; Schlegel (/. c.) states that the 
wings and tail vary between 4" 4'" and 5" 2'", and 4" 3'" and 4" 1 1'", respectively, 

* Some specimens of Surniculus lugubris (Horsf.) also show a white neck-feather^ which rises 
to a real specific character in Caliechthrus leucolophus (Miill.), from New Guinea, with its white 
crown and neck. 



\r>r> BIRDS FROM THE MALAY ARCHIPELAGO. 

in S. lugiihris. From this species (S. musschenhroeki, besides, differs in the same 
characters as S. velutiniis does — viz. the yelvety black, not glossy, plumage 
of the upper and underparts. 

I call this species after my friend Mr. van Musschenbroek, the late 
Resident of Ternate (Moluccas), and, no doubt, in every respect the best 
acquainted with the Halmahera group. His rich collections from those islands 
are yet undescribed ; but it is to be hoped that he will soon favour the 
scientific world with at least a catalogue of his zoological specimens, as this 
is just the thing we want now — complete lists of local faunas. 

I am personally indebted to Mr. van Musschenbroek for his kind 
reception on Ternate, when I returned from New Guinea, in the year 1873, 
badly ill with intermittent fever ; and I shall never forget his kindness then 
bestowed upon me. 

January 1878. 



PART XIV. 



To-night she 's mew'd up." 

Romeo and Juliet, Act. iii. sc. 4. 



VOL. III. 

2c 



ORIIITHOLOGICAL MISCELLANY. 




J-GKeuIemans litli 



Ka-Tih. 



art mxD. 



POLIOHIERAX raSIGElS, 1(?,2 2. 



POLIOHIERAX INSIGNIS. 

By ARTHUR, Marquis of TWEEDDALE, F.R.S. 

(Plate cm.) 



Polihierax insignis, Walden, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 627 ; Ibis, 1872, pp. 467* & 471. 

Lithofalco feildeni, Hume, Pr. A. S. B. 1872, pp. 70 & 71. 

Poliohierax insignis, Walden, Sharpe, Cat. Accipitres, Brit. Mus. 1874, p. 370. 

Polihierax feildeni, Hume, Str. F. 1875, pp. 14, 19, & 269. 

Polihierax insignis, Walden, Sclater, Str. P. 1875, p. 417. 

Poliohierax insignis, Walden, BIyth, Birds of Burma, 1875, p. 59. no. 14. 

The subject of the accompanying Plate was first discovered by my friend 
the late Major Lloyd, Assistant Commissioner at Tongoo, in British 
Burma. Examples of both sexes were sent by him to me in the month of 
August 1871. As I was unfortunately prevented from exhibiting them 
myself at the next scientific meeting of the Zoological Society, on the 7th of 
November, I intrusted them to Mr. Sclater, with a short description and a 
proposed title— the designation adopted above. Mr. Sclater exhibited the 
specimens, read my notes on them, and before the meeting announced the 
title I proposed. In due course these facts were recorded in the ' Proceedings ' 
of the Zoological Society (I. c). 

In the month of May 1872 Mr. Hume, having received specimens of the 

* In the British-Museum Catalogue (vol. i. Accipitres), page 200 is quoted in error. 

2c 2 



170 POLIOHIERAX INSIGNIS. 

same bird from Captain Feilden, described them as belonging to an unknown 
species, and bestowed the title of Lithofalco feildeni. 

To Captain Feilden we are indebted for valuable remarks on the various 
phases of plumage this Falcon assumes, and for a full description of its 
habits (/. c). 

Mr. Oates has also added to our knowledge of the species. 

From a zoo-geographical point of view, the occurrence of this bird in 
Burma is of the highest interest. It belongs to a genus the type and only 
other member of which occurs in Africa, P. semitorqiiatus (Smith). 

At present, P. insignis is only known as an inhabitant of North Burma. 



^1 
w 

o 

g 

S 
t— ) 
o 
o 
h^ 
o 

E-i 

o 




^ 



Ot- 






O 

W 
w 

M 
P 
Pu 
o 

I — I 






ON THE GENUS PTILOPUS. 

(PTILONOPUS, Swains.). 
By Mr. G. D. ROWLEY. 

[Continued from p. 117.] 

PTILOPUS SPECIOSUS (Von Rosenberg) 

AND 

PTILONOPUS BELLUS (Sclater). 
(Plate CIV.) 

Ptilopus speciosus, Schlegel, Nederl. Tijdschr. v. d. Dierk. iv. p. 23 (1871) ; Meyer, Sitzungsb. 
d. k. Akad. Wien, Ixx. p. 128 (1874) ; Rosenberg, Reistochten, p. 143, pi. xiv. fig. 1 
(1875) ; Salvador!, " Prodr. Col." Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. ix. p. 197 (1876). 

At the risk of tiring my readers, after having already figured several 
Pigeons, I cannot refrain from taking one more ; for the richness of the 
Malay archipelago in this beautiful group appears to be inexhaustible, and 
P. speciosus equals and perhaps exceeds every other by the extraordinary 
arrangement of its lovely colours. 

This bird is from the islands of Geelvink Bay, in the north of New 
Guinea. It had already been discovered by Von Rosenberg, on the island of 
Mafoor, in the year 1869 ; nevertheless it is still rare in collections, and the 
male has been only imperfectly figured. 



172 ON THE GENUS PTILOPUS. 

Professor Schlegel first described the species, in 1871; and the 
following is a translation of the description in his 'Observations Zoo- 
logiques :' — 

" This species is the most beautiful of the genus. It has been discovered 
on the island of Mafoor " [as was stated by Dr. Meyer, anted, part xii. 
p. (54, under the head of P. miqueli*], "and also on the island of Soek, 
where it appears to represent both P. rivoU and P. miqueli from the islands 
of Meosnoum and Jobie, — though P. speciosus is smaller than either and is 
distinguished in a remarkable manner by the fine and vivid citron-yellow 
w^hich occupies more than the upper half of the large white band of the 
breast-feathers, further because the large red patch on the breast and belly 
is much lighter than in the other species and offers, instead of a dark purple- 
red or violet, a fine purple-lilac, also because its head, green and bronzed on 
the sides, does not present any other trace of red than a dark violet patch on 
the lores ; finally it is known by the total want of blackish patches on the 
scapularies. The abdomen and the under tail-coverts are both of a fine 
citron-yellow. 

" The female is coloured exactly like the females of Ptilopus rivolii and 
P. rosenhergiif, from w^hich it is distinguished by its small size ; the yellow 
on the abdomen and the under tail-coverts is less pure than in the male ; and 
the green of the belly is varied with yellow up to the breast. 

" M. von Rosenberg has sent us a very fine series of this species, which 
has the following measurements— wing 3" 11'" to 4" 3'", tail 2" 1'" to 2" 3'", 
bill from the front 6'" to 6i"'." 

The same author, in the year 1873, before he knew of Signor d'Albertis's 
discovery of Ptilopus bellus (Sclater) on the Arfak mountains {cf. P. Z. S. 

* By this name Prof. Schlegel designates Ptilopus prasinorrhous (G. R. Gray) ; P. nvolii 
(Prevost), according to Salvador! (Prod. Col.), only occurs on Burn, 
t The author, uo doubt, means Ptilopus miqueli. 



ON THE GENUS PTILOPUS. 173 

1873, p. 696, pi. Ivii.)? in the Catalogue of the Leyden Museum (Mus. P.-B. 
ColumhiB, p. 27) writes : — 

" General tint green, slightly bronzed on the sides of the head. Least 
primaries with a large apical patch of a green-greyish white colour. Under 
tail-coverts and abdomen citron-yellow. Male adult easily known by the 
following characters — breast and abdomen of a fine purple-lilac, a large fine 
citron-yellow band on the breast, passing below into white, and a dark violet 
patch on the lores." 

Herr von Rosenberg only gives the following note in his ' Reistochten,' 
published in the year 1875, p. 143 : — 

" Male. Green ; the halfmoon-formed breast-shield lively citron-yellow, 
with a broad white band below ; in the middle of breast and on the belly a 
light-purple-lilac patch ; on the lores a little dark-violet patch ; abdomen 
and under tail-coverts pale citron-yellow. 

''Length. Wings 3" 11'" to 4" 3'", tail 2" 1'" to 2" 3" 

" Habitat. Mafoor and Schouten Eilanden." 



In the letterpress of his interesting work the traveller says, in the 
chapter on Mafoor, p. 37 : — 

" Among the two Parrot-Pigeons, the one of which I named Ptilopus 
speciosus, the other P. musschenbroekii, the former is conspicuous by its grey 
colour. It is related to P. rivoli, but has a golden-yellow shield on the 
breast. P. musschenbroekii is unlike P. viridis from Amboina. According to 
Prof. Schlegel, in Nederl. Tijdschr. v. d. Dierk. iv. p. 23, P. musschenbroekii 
is only a variety of P. viridis*. Both species, which I again found on Soek, 
together with my Lamprotornis magniis, are less common." 



* Later (Mus. P.-B. Columba, J873, p. 23), Prof. Schlegel called the species Ptilopus viridis 
geelvinkianus, showing that he considers it, if not a species, something more than a variety. 



if" 



174 ON THE GENUS PTILOPUS. 

Ill his chapter on the Schouten Eilanden, Von Rosenberg says 
(p. 47) :- 

"To the series of species which this group has in common with Mefoor, 
belong all species of Pigeons and Parrots which I mentioned as occurring on 
this island — as Loris cyanonegia*, Ptilopus musschenhroekii and P. speciosus, 
Lamprotornis magnus, &c." 

The figure of Ptilopus speciosus which Herr von Rosenberg published 
(' Reistochten naar de Geelvinkbai op Nieuw-Guinea,' plate xv. fig. 1) is one 
third of the natural siz(3, and does not give a sufficient idea of this extraordinary 
species ; therefore I have had it figured to correspond with Mr. Sclater's 
bird from the Arfak mountains, to which it is closely aUied (^Ptilopus hellus, 
P. Z. S. 1873, plate Ivii.), by the same artist. 

I have specimens of both the male and female of this species now before 
me. In the male I observe, behind the red on the head, a characteristic dark 
bluish green tintf , which the plate does not show, and which is not mentioned 
in the description ; perhaps the specimen I now examine may be in finer 
plumage. 

I also figure the female of Ptilopus speciosus. The difference of the 
females of the five closely allied species, P. speciosus, P. hellus, P. rivoli, 
P. prasinorrhous, and P. miqueli, is small, but not, therefore, less interesting. 
It is an often repeated circumstance that the females of difl^erent species are 
much alike, while the males are not : among others, I may mention several 
Birds of Paradise which show this in a striking manner. The females of 
the other four species are not yet figured, as far as I know ; and the female 
of P. hellus is not yet described. I may therefore mention that it is quite 
green, more or less bronzed on the upper parts ; the head is darker than 

* The author means Eos cyanogenys, Bp. 

t P. miqueli does not present a darker green behind the red cap, as does P. bellus and 
P. prasinorrhous. 



ON THE GENUS PTILOPUS. I75 

the body, and of a somewhat blue-green, the same shade of green as on 
the head of the male (just as is the case with the female of P. prasinorrhous : 
cf. Schlegel, Nederl. Tijdschr. Dierk. iv. p. 22) ; and the belly and under 
tail-coverts are variegated with pale citron-yellow, the edges of the feathers 
being marked with that colour. 

As to the affinities of Ptilopus speciosus, cf antea, part xii pp. 62, 63 
(Dr. Meyer's remarks). I also reproduce Dr. Meyer's contribution to his 
fifth paper on the ornithology of New Guinea and the islands of Geelvink 
Bay, in the Sitzungsb. d. k. Akad. of Vienna, Ixx. (1874) p. 128. He there 
says, under the head of Ptilopus rivoU, Flor. Prev. : — 

" P. rivoli and P. prasinorrhous, and the allied forms, present an interest 
as to geographical distribution in this sense, that two such closely allied 
ones as P. hellus, Scl., and P. rivoli occur together in New Guinea, and 
both P. speciosus, Rosenb., and P. rivoli in company on the small island of 
Mafoor — a remarkable fact ; whereas on the island of Mysore only P. speciosus, 
Rosenb., appears, and on the other island, Jobi, only P. miqueli, Rosenb., 
has yet been found (according to Schlegel, after Von Rosenberg) — a fact 
which my own researches affirm. 

" But whereas P. speciosus and P. rivoli indeed live together on the small 
island of Mafoor, P. hellus, Scl., only has been found up to this time on the 
Arfak mountains (D'Albertis and myself), and P. rivoli on the west coast of 
New Guinea. It would be interesting to make out whether P. rivoli is 
represented by P. hellus on the Arfak mountains, or whether they occur 
together there (an analogous case to P. speciosus and P. rivoli on Mafoor)." 

Dr. Meyer further informs me, in a letter, that he is not able to detect 
the slightest difference between the specimens of P. speciosus from Mafoor 
and those from Mysore ; but he says that some of them from both localities 
differ in the extent of the bronze-green tint on the head : there are examples 
in which it occupies the whole head and spreads more or less to the back, 

VOL. III. 2 D 



176 ON THE GENUS PTILOPUS. 

and even specimens where nearly the whole of the green of the bird is 
slightly bronzed. Dr. Meyer supposes these differences to be nothing but 
individual variations, depending on some unknown cause, and that they have 
no reference to age or sex. 

As to the appearance of the handsome adornment of the underparts, the 
same gentleman tells me that his specimens teach that already the young 
males show traces of the violet, yellow, and white colours, the violet of the 
belly appearing first here and there, and gradually forming a patch, and only 
in the quite adult bird occupying nearly the whole abdomen ; the yellow at 
first does not form a band, but is only a patch in the middle ; and the white 
gradually develops itself below the yellow. 

Dr. Meyer finally says that the yellow of the thoracic band in some 
specimens of P. speciosus appears to be deeper than in P. hellus. 



Mr. Sclater (P. Z. S. 1873, p. 696) remarks, under the head of Ptilopus 
hellus : — 

" This fine Pigeon belongs to the group of P. rivolii, P. prasinorrhous, 
and its allies. It seems to resemble P. speciosus of Schlegel (Ned. Tijdsch. 
Dierk. iv. p. 23) in having the upper part of the thoracic band yellow, but 
differs much from that species in having the whole crown of the head of a 
fine rosy red, like the patch in the middle of the abdomen." 

In the composition of this article, I have to thank Dr. Meyer for much 
valuable assistance. 



I conclude my remarks on the handsomest Pigeon in existence 
(P. speciosus~), with P. hellus, by expressing a hope that some traveller, urged 



ON THE GENUS PTILOPUS. 177 

by love of birds, may explore completely these marvellous regions, and clear 
up, by a series of patient notes and numerous specimens, our misty ideas as 
to the causes of these variations, and may also inform us concerning- the 
breeding, nestling-plumage, and other particulars. 

The specimens of P. speciosus figured are a male and female in my own 
collection ; and the descriptions of P. helliis are also from a male and female 
belonging to me. 



2d 2 



A NOTE ON THE GENUS ARTAMUS AND 
ITS GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

By R. BOWDLER SHARPE, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c. 



The recent discovery of some fine Artami has directed considerable 
attention to the genus; and I accede with pleasure to the request of 
my friend Mr. Dawson Rowley to jot down a few notes on the Wood- 
Swallows for the ' Ornithological Miscellany.' It would be supposed that 
in the case of a genus of which the members are by no means rare, as 
a rule, we should be in a position to speak very positively on the subject 
of the species ; but such is by no means the case, and there are several 
points in regard to the Australian Artami to which I particularly invite 
the attention of Mr. Ramsay and other workers at the antipodes. 

In Mr. G. R. Gray's 'Handlist' we find 22 species included in the 
genus Artamus alone, and in the Artamida are placed four genera, as 
follows : — 

1065. Artamus. 

a. Subgenus Artamus, with 16 species. 

Of these I consider the following to be synonymous: — 4269. A. leu- 
corhynckus, L. ; 4273. A. leucoffaster, \a\enc. ; 4279. A. leucopygiaUs, Gould ; 
and 4282. A. papuensis, Temm. A. arnoiixi, Bp., 1 cannot make out from the 



180 ON THE GENUS ARTAMUS 

miserable description, " entierement grise." A. albiventris, Gould, is doubt- 
fully distinct from J. cinevens, from which A. melanops, Gould, will be also 
with difficulty separated. To the number must be added the lately discovered 
A. maximus, Meyer, and A. insignis, Sclater. 

1066. I. ? 



The only species placed in this unnamed section is A. minor, which is, 
in my opinion, a small but true Artamus. 

1067. c. } 



Whether Mr. Wallace, whom I follow, is right in putting the Artmnida 
where he does, is a question to be settled later on (cf. Ibis, 1874, p. 412) ; 
but I think there is no doubt at all that Mr. Gray was wrong in placing 
such a bird as Leptoptenis chahert in the Artamidce at all. This is the sole 
species he assigns to his unnamed section no. 1067 ; and why he did not 
call it Leptoptenis, Bp., of which L. chahert is the type, I am at a loss to 
conjecture. A glance at the wings of this and the succeeding species will 
show that they are more truly Laniine than Artamine in their affinities (^cf. 
Sharpe, Cat. B. iii. p. 282). 

1068. d. ? 



The usual name for the next two species is Artamia ; but Mr. Gray 
seems to show that a change is necessary. If, as is generally allowed now, 
Oriolia lernieri is the young oi Artamia viridis, the former generic name must 
be employed, and the species called Oriolia viridis. Of the second species, 
A. riifa (L.), I make a Vanga (cf. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 319). 

1069. e. Cyanolanius, Bp. 

C. bicolor is no Artamus, but goes along wath the other birds above 
mentioned. 



AND ITS GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 181 

1070. /. Anats, Lesson. 

J. clemencicB, from Borneo, is the type ; and I know nothing of the 
species ; nor does Count Salvadori (Ucc. Born. p. 142), to whom tlie Marquis 
of Tweeddale suggests that it may be a manufactured bird. 

1071. Oriolia, Isid. GeofFr. 

This genus is kept distinct, though the species is the young of Artmnia 
viridis (vide antea). In justice to Mr. Gray it must be remembered that he 
had not seen an example. 

1072. PsEUDocHELiDON, Hartl. 

I think Mr. Gray has found out the right position of this genus, which 
is not far removed from Artamus. 

1073. Analcipus, Swains. 

As I have endeavoured to show in my ' Catalogue of Birds ' (iii. p. 188), 
this genus, containing the Blood-coloured Orioles, is not really separable 
from Orioliis. 



With these few preliminary remarks, I propose to give a short note on 
the species oi Artamus known to me, as represented in the British Museum. 
The following species are unknown to me, or have been wrongly placed in 
the genus Artamus : — 

Artamus leucorhynchus. 

La Pie-grieche de Manille, Briss. Orn. ii. p. 180, pi. xviii. fig. 2 (1760). 

Lanius leucorhynchus, Linn. Mantissa, p. 524 (1771, ex Brisson) ; Gm. S. N. i. p. 305 

(1788). 
La Pie-grieche dominiquaine des Philippines, Sonnerat, A'^oy. N. Guin. p. 54 (1776). 



182 ON THE GENUS ARTAMUS 

Lanius philippinus, Scop. Del. Flor. et TaTm. Insnbr. ii. p. 85 (1786, ex Sonnerat). 
Lanius dominicanus, G-m. S. N. i. p. 307 (1788, ex Sonnerat). 

A species said to be from Manilla, concerning which vide infra. 

ArTAMUS AUNOUXl. 

Artamus arnouxi, Bp. C. R. xxxviii. p. 538 (1854) ; Gray, List B. Trop. Isl. Pacific Ocean, 
p. 23 (1858) ; id. Handl. B. i. p. 289. no. 4284 (1869). 

All that is known of this species is the statement that it is " entierement 
grise," and that it was brought by Dr. Arnoux to the Paris Museum along 
with a second species from New Caledonia ; but whether A. arnouxi is from 
the latter island we are not informed. 

Artamus, sp. 

Artamus leucorhynchus , Hartl. & Finsch, P. Z. S. 1868, p. 116, and 1872, p. 99. 

Hab. Pelew Islands. 

The question of the Pelew-Islands Artamus is discussed further on, 
under the heading of A. leucogaster. 

Artamus cucullatus, Nicholson, P. Z. S. 1851, p. 196, pi. xliii. 

A species described as an Artamus from India, and figured by Mr. Wolf 
with a thorough Artamus-YikQ, bill ; but it is disposed of in the following 
manner by Mr. Blyth (Ibis, 1865, p. 43), who says that is nothing but a 
male of Sylvia orphea, " being founded on a bad native drawing, which Dr. 
Sclater kindly showed to me." 



ARTAMUS. 

Tj-pe. 

Artamus, Vieillot, Analyse, p. 41 (1816) A. hucocjaster. 

Ocypterus, Cuvier, Regne Anim. i. p. 339 (1817) . . A. leucorhynchus. 
Leptopteryx, Horsf. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 143 (1821) . A. leucoyaster. 

Range. Confined to the Indian and Australian Regions, 



AND ITS GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 183 



Clavis specierum. 

" . Uropygio imo et supracaudalibus pure albis : pectore albo. 
a'. Dorso nigro vel brunnescente. 

a". Capite undique cinei'aceo : dorso toto brunnescentiore leucoyaster . 

b". Capite undique nigro. 

a'". Major, ala 6"3, nigerrima dorso concolori maximus. 

b'". Minores : ala 5*2, nigricante, sebistaceo lavata. 

a*. Gutture circumscripte nigro : genis posticis, regione parotica 

et colli lateribus concoloribus melaleucus. 

&*. Gutture nigro, genis posticis utrinque albis : regione parotic^ 

tantum et colli lateribus concoloribus mentalis. 

b'. Dorso pure albo. 

c". Capite undique, alis caudaque cinerascenti-brunneis monachus. 

d". Capite undique, alis caudaque nigris insignis. 

b. Uropygio brunneo dorso concolori : supracaudalibus cinerascenti-albis : pectore 

pallide vinascenti-brunneo fuscus. 

c. Uropygio et supracaudalibus clare cinereis, dorso concoloribus. 

e". Subtiis vinaceo-castaneus : supercilio lato albo superciliosus . 

/". Subtiis pulcbrfe cinereus : supercilio lato nullo ....... personatus. 

Uropygio et supracaudalibus nigris. 
c' . Subtiis cinerascens : mento nigro. 

g" . Linea angusti frontali nigricante : gula summ^ et mento nigricantibus. 

c"'. Major : subcaudalibus nigris late albo marginatis cinereus. 

d'". Major : subcaudalibus albis albiventris. 

e'". Minor : subcaudalibus nigris anguste albo limbatis : facie latiiis 

quam in prsecedentibus nigra melanops. 

A". Linea angusta frontali nulla : mento ipso et angulo anteoculari 
tantum nigris. 
/"'. Major : rectricibus duabus medianis albo terminatis in eodem 

modo quam laterales coloratis perspicillatus. 

g'". Minor : rectricibus duabus medianis omnino nigris : reliquis 

albo terminatis venustus. 

d! . Subtus sordide brunneus : mento vix saturatiore. 

i". Multo major : suprk brunneus, supracaudalibus nigris, uropygio 

dorso concolori : subalaribus albis swdidus. 

k". Multo minor : supra brunneus, supracaudalibus uropygioque nigris : 

subalaribus pectori concoloribus vix pallidioribus minor. 

VOL. III. -2 E 



18J- ON THE GENUS ARTAMUS 

1, Artamus leucogaster. 

Ocypierus leucogaster, Valenc. Mem. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. vi. p. 21, pi. vii. fig. 2 (1820). 

Leptopteryac leucorhynckus, Horsf. Tr. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 244 (1821, nee L.). 

Lanius leucorhynckus, Raffles, torn. cit. p. 386 (1821). 

Leptopteryx leucogaster, Wagler, Syst. Av. Leptopteryx, sp. 2 (1827) . 

Ocypierus leucorhynchus, Kittlitz, Kupf. Vog. p. 23, Taf. xxx. fig. 1 (1832). 

Artamus leucopygialis, Gould, P. Z. S. 1842, p. 17; Gray, Gen. B. i. p. 285 (1845) ; Gould, 

B. Austr. folio, ii. pi. 33 (1848) ,• Blyth, Cat. B. Mus. A. S. B. p. 199 (1849) ; Bp. 

Consp. i. p. 344 (1850) ; Reichenb. Vog. Neuholl. p. 171 (1850) ; Gould, P. Z. S. 

1863, p. 233 ; id. Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 154 (1865) ; Walden, P. Z. S. 1866, p. 555 ; 

Gray, Hand-1. B. i. p. 289. no. 4279 (1869) ; Masters, Pr. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. i. 

p. 48 (1877) ; Castelnau & Ramsay, torn. cit. p. 380; Ramsay, torn. cit. p. 392; id. 

op. cit. iii. p. 179 (1878). 
Artamus leucorhynchus, Gray (nee L.), Gen. B. i. p. 285 (1845) ; Bp. Consp. i. p. 343 (1850) ; 

Cab. Mus. Hein. Th. i. p. 208 (1850) ; Cass. U.S. Expl. Exp. Birds, p. 140 (1858) ; 

Gray, P. Z. S. 1860, p. 354; Wallace, Ibis, 1860, p. 141 ; Gray, Hand-1. B. i. p. 289. 

no. 4869 (1869) ; Walden, Ibis, 1872, p. 371 ; id. Tr. Z. S. viii. p. 67 (1872) ; id. Ibis, 

1873, p. 309; Hume, Str. F. 1874, p. 214; id. Nests & Eggs Ind. B. p. 195 (1875) ; 

Salvad. Uce. Born. p. 140 (1875) ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1877, p. 21 ; Tweeddale, tom. cit. p. 313. 
Artamus leucogaster, Gray, Gen. B. i. p. 285 (1845) ; Bp. Consp. i. p. 343 (1850) ; Horsf. & 

Moore, Cat. B. Mus. E.I. Co. i. p. 161 (1854) ; Bernst. J.f O. 1859, p. 268; Wallace, 

P. Z. S. 1863, pp. 28, 485 ; Sclater, tom. cit. p. 217 ; Beavau, Ibis, 1867, p. 324; Gray, 

Hand-1. B. i. p. 289 (1869) ; Salvad. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. \'ii. pp. 656, 770 (1875) ; 

id. op. cit. viii. p. 377 (1876), ix. p. 28 (1876), x. p. 138 (1877). 
Artamus papuensis, Bp. Consp. 1. p. 344 (1850, ex Temm. MS. in Mus. Lugd.) ; Gray, 

P. Z. S. 1858, p. 179, & 1861, p. 435 ; id. Hand-1. B. i. p. 289 (1869) ; Beecari, Ann. 

Mus. Civ. Gen. vii. p. 709 (1875). 
Artamus leucorhynus, Walden, Tr. Z. S. ix. p. 174 (1875) ; Sharpe, Tr. Linn. Soc. ne-vr ser. 

i. p. 323 (1877) ; Tweeddale, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 544. 

Ad. supr&, brunneus, vix chocolatinus, uropygio et supracaudalibus pure albis fasciam transversam 
exhibentibus : pileo et collo undique cineraceis : loris et margine frontali magis nigricantibus : 
corpore reliquo subtiis cimi subalaribus et axillaribus purfe albis : scapularibus dorso conco- 
loribus : ala saturate schistaeea, remigibus nigris : cauda nigra vix apicabter palbdiore : 
rostro pallide cyanescente : pedibus pallide plumbeis : iride saturate chocolatina. Long. tot. 
7'5, culmen 0-8, alse 5'35, caudse 2"55, tarsi 0*75. 

S ad. mari siniilis : rostro cyanescenti-griseo, apicaliter nigro : pedibus viiidisceati-griseis : iride 
brunnea. 

Hah. S. Andaman Islands (^Hume, Davison, Ramsay}, Little Coco Island 



AND ITS GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 185 

(^Davisori) ; Sumatra (^Raffles, Wallace), Lampong District (^Buxtoti) ; Java 
{Horsfield, Wallace). Philippine Islands : Luzon (^Meyer), Negros {Meyer), 
Guimaras (Meyer), Cebu (Everett), Dumalon, Mindanao (Steere). Mangsi, 
Sulu archipelago (^Peale) ; Labuan (Motley, Ussher) ; Borneo — Sibu, Santu- 
bong Bay, Marup, Bruit. Bintulu (Everett), Sarawak (Doria 8^ Beccari), 
Banjerniassing (Motley) ; Bali (Wallace) ; Lombock (Wallace) ; Flores 
(Wallace); Timor (Miis. Lugd., Wallace); Celebes — I'ondano, Menado, 
Macassar (Wallace); Batchian, Gilolo, Morty Island (Wallace); Bouru 
(Wallace); Goram (Wallace); Kh Islands (Beccari). Mysol (Wallace); 
New Guinea (Wallace) ; Sorong (D'Alhertis), Arfak Mountains (D'Albertis, 
Laglaize), S.E. New Guinea (Ramsay) ; Port Moresby (Broadhent ^ Petterd); 
Naiabui (D'Albertis) ; Aru Islands (Wallace). Australia — Port Darling and 
Port Essington, Gulf of Carpentaria, Cape York, Rockingham Bay, Port 
Denison, Wide-Bay District, Richmond and Clarence- River District, New 
S. Wales, Victoria, S. Australia (Ramsay), N.W. Australia (Elsey), Peron's 
Peninsula, Shark Bay, W. Australia (^Rayner). 

This is the species called by recent writers Artamus leucorhynchus (L.) ; 
but on carefully comparing the description, I believe it will be impossible to 
recognize in the present bird Brisson's " Pie-griesche de Manille," on which 
Linnseus founded his Lanius leucorhynchus. 

I think that the title of leucorhynchus cannot be retained for the Philippine 
bird, as its colours are stated to be black and white ; and any one examining 
the ordinary Indo-Malayan Artamus, which is the species of the Philippines, 
will find that Brisson's description does not tally; nor does Sonnerat's 
account and figure ("La Pie-grifeche dominiqaine des Philippines," Voy. 
Nouv. Guinee, p. 54). The question is somewhat complicated by the fact 
that there are certain black-and-white Artami, such as A. melaleucus 
(Forster) from New Caledonia, and A. maximus, Meyer, from N.W. New 
Guinea, &c. ; but it is highly improbable that either of these species formed 
the subject of Brisson's or Sonnerat's description. It appears, too, from the 

2e 2 



18fi ON THE GENUS ARTAMUS 

paper of Drs. Hartlaub and Finsch on the birds of the Pelew Islands, that 
the latter group actually contain a black-and-white Artamus, which the above- 
named authors identify with the Lanius leucorhynchus of Linnaeus (c/". P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 116). It will be only fair to them to quote their exact words : — 
" The fact is that there are two species of Arfamus in the Philippines, and 
more especially on the island of Luzon. One is the old Brissonian Lanius 
manillensis, figured also by Sonnerat. This is the large species, black above 
and white below. It is certainly this species which is found on the Pelew 
Islands. The other is the well-known Javan species — a somewhat smaller 
bird, with the upper parts of a more or less greyish or purplish brown. We 
have examined many specimens from the island of Luzon, where it appears 

to be more common than A. leucorhynchus " My own experience 

goes with that of the Marquis of Tweeddale (cf. Walden, Tr. Z. S. ix. 
p. 174), in so far that I have never seen but one Artamus from the Philippines ; 
and that is the same as the ordinary Indo-Malayan bird, called in this paper 
Artamus leucogaster (Valenc). The reason why I adopt this title is that 
it is the first recognizable description of the species. So long as there is a 
doubt about the Brissonian bird from the Philippines, I think that the name 
ought to be discarded, though Lord Tweeddale says that he has " no doubt 
that from it Brisson and Sonnerat took their descriptions." Here I can only 
sav, " Not proven ! " 

What the bird from the Pelew Islands really is cannot be determined 
without a specimen. 

Having examined a large series of this Artamus, from nearly every 
locality mentioned above, I have come to the conclusion that only one species 
can be admitted, under the title of A. leucogaster, with a record of certain 
differences of size. Thus some examples from Celebes are larger, while the 
Australian birds are generally the smallest. Even in the Celebesian specimens 
the variation in size is more apparent than real, the length of the closed 
wing being in a Bornean bird about 5"35. I find that a specimen collected by 
Mr. Wallace at Tondano has the wing 5'3 inches ; others from Macassar and 



AND ITS GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 187 

Menado respectively have it 5"25. Some individuals from N.W. Australia 
(J. leucopygialis, Gould) measure only 4 95 inches in the wings; but there 
is no corresponding difference in plumage. 

As regards the distribution of the species in Australia, I have given 
above the localities as determined by Mr. Ramsay in a paper on the birds 
of that continent, with a proof of which he has favoured me, I also append 
the note in Mr. Gould's ' Handbook ;' but it must be observed that this 
Wood-Swallow does go to Western Australia, as is evidenced by the 
specimen procured in Shark Bay by Dr. Rayner during the voyage of 
H.M.S 'Herald.' Mr. Gould writes : — "Tasmania and Western Australia 
are the only colonies in which this bird has not been observed ; its range, 
therefore, over the continent may be considered as very general : in South 
Australia and New South Wales it would appear to be migratory, visiting 
these parts in summer for the purpose of breeding. Among other places 
where I observed it in considerable abundance was Mosquito and the other 
small islands near the mouth of the Hunter, and on the borders of the rivers 
Mokai and Namoi, situated to the northward of Liverpool Plains ; in these 
last-mentioned localities it was breeding among the large flooded gum-trees 
bordering the rivers." 

Spec, in Mus. Brit. 

a, ad. Philippine Islands [Cuming), b, ad. Java [Horsfield) . c, ?. W. Java [Wallace), d, 6 ad. 
Sumatra [Wallace), e, ad. Sibu Island, May 5, 1874 [Everett), f, ? ad. Bali [Wallace). 
g,h, d ad.,i,juv. Lombock [Wallace). k, ad.,l,juv. Plores [Wallace). m,n,o,p,ad. 
Timor ( Wallace) . q, 6 juv. Timor ( Wallace) . r, d ad. Macassar, Celebes ( Wallace) . 
s, 2 ad. Tondano, Celebes [Wallace), t, 2 ad. Menado [Wallace), u, v, ad. Batchian 
[Wallace). w,ad. G\\o\o [Wallace) . x, ad. Morty Island (?F"a^/ace). y, ? ad. Bouru 
[Wallace). z,d,ad.,V ,juv. Goram. [Wallace). c',ad.,d',j'w. Mjsol [Wallace). ^,$ad. 
Aru Islands ( Wallace) . f, ad. New Guinea { Wallace) . g\ ad. Island of Batanta [Laglaize) . 
hi, i'. Australia [Sii- T. Mitchell), k', ad. Australia [J. Gould). I'. Port Essington [Capt. 
Chambers) . m'. N.W. Australia (/. R. Elsey) . n' , ad. Mangrove Swamp, N.W. Australia 
(/. R. Elsey). o'. Peron's Peninsula, Shark Bay, May 1858 [F. M. Rayner). 



188 ON THE GENUS ARTAMUS 



2. Artamus maximus. 



Artamus maximus, Meyer, Sitz. Akad. Wien, Ixix. p. 203 (1874) ; Sclatcr, Ibis, 1874, p. 417 ; 
Beccari, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. vii. p. 709 (1875) ; Gould, B. New Guin. part vi. (1878). 

cJ ad. supril nigerrimus : uropygio et supracaudalibus tantum pure alhis : alis omnino nigris : 
rectricibus nigris, apicaliter angustissime albido limbatis : capitis et eolli lateribus, gutturc 
toto et praepectore nigerrimis, dorso concoloribus : corpore reliquo subtus purissime albo : 
subalaribus albis, extimis parvis nigris : remigibus infra cineraceis. Long. tot. 7-5, culmen 
0-8, als3 6'3, caudse 2"8, tarsus 0"75. 

Hah. New Guinea : Arfak Mountains (^Meyer, Beccari, Laglaize). 

This fine and distinct species has recently been figured by Mr. Gould 
(/. c.) ; and the above description is taken from the type specimen; lent him 
by Dr. Meyer. 

Spec, in Mus. Brit. 

a, (J ad. Arfak Mountains, N.W. New Guinea {Laglaize) . 



3. Artamus melaleucus. 

Loxia melaleuca, Forster, Icon. ined. 40 ; id. Descr. Anim. p. 272 (1844) . 

Leptopteryx melaleuca, Wagler, Syst. Av. Leptopteryx, sp. 1 (1827) . 

Ocypterus berardi, Bp. C. R. xxxviii. p. 538 (1854). 

Artamus melaleucus, Gray, P.Z. S. 1859, p. 163; id. List B. Trop. Isl. Pacific Ocean, p. 23 

(1859) ; Finsch, P.Z. S. 1877, p. 739. 
Artamus melanoleucus , Gray, Hand-1. B. i. p. 289. no. 4280 (1869). 

(J ad. suprS, saturate fuliginoso-brunneus, pileo toto nuchaque, capitis lateribus et gutture toto 
nigris : uropygio et supracaudalibus piu-e albis : scapiilaribus dorso concolorilDus : ala totu 
schistaceo-nigra, remigibus intus cano lavatis : rectricibus nigi-is anguste albo apicaliter 
limbatis : corpore reliquo subtus cum subalaribus et axillaribus pui-e albis : remigibus infrk 
cinereis, inti\s cano lavatis. Long. tot. 7-2, culmen 0-75, alse 5*2, caudae 2-8, tarsi 0-6. 

$ ad. mari similis : pileo brunnescentiore, vix cucuUato. Long. tot. 6'2, alse 5-15, caudte 2-7, 
tarsi 0*65. 

Hah. New Caledonia (^Forster^ ; Loyalty Islands (JVhitmee^; Api, 
New Hebrides (^AJurray). 



AND ITS GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 189 

Spec, in Mus. Brit. 

a, b, cj, ? ad. Nu, Port de Prance^ New Caledonia, May 13th, 1858 (/. Macgillivray, Esq. c, ad. 
Lifu, Loyalty Islands {Rev. S. J. Whitmee). 



4. Artamus mentalis. 

Langrayen de Viti, Hombr. & Jacq. Voy. Pole Sud, pi. 9. fig. 1 (1843). 

Artamus mentalis, Jardine, Ann. N. Hist. xvi. p. 174, pi. viii. (1845) ; Bp. Consp. Av. i. p. 344 

(1850) ; Cass. U.S. Expl. Exp. Birds, p. 141 (1858) ; Gray, List B. Trop. Isl. Pacific 

Ocean, p. 23 (1858) ; Finsch & Hartl. Faun. Centralpolyn. p. 84, tab. 1. fig. 5 (1867) ; 

Gray, Hand-1. B. i. p. 289. no. 4281 (1869) ; Layard, P. Z. S. 1875, p. 434; id. Ibis, 

1876, p. 392. 
Ocypterus mentalis, Peale, U.S. Expl. Exped. 1848, p. 84, pi. 23. fig. 2 ; Hartl. in Wiegm. 

Archiv, 1852, p. 98. 
Artamus vitiensis, Hombr. & Jacq. Voy. Pole Sud, Zool. iii. p. 73 (1853) . 

d ad. suprk fuliginoso-niger, pileo vix saturatiore, scapnlaribus dorso concoloribus : uropygio imo et 
supracaudalibus pure albis : rectricibus nigris, intus ad apicem conspicue albo terminatis : 
ala tot& nigrS, : facie laterali gulaque nigris : genis posticis, guttiu'e imo et corpore reliquo 
subtiis cum subalaribus axillaribusque pure albis : praepectoris lateribus fuliginoso-brunneis : 
remigibus infra sordide cinereis, intus versiis basin albis : rostro pulchre cyanescente, apica- 
liter nigro : pedibus corneo-nigricantibus : iride brunnea. Long. tot. 7"2, culmen 0'9, alse 
5"05, caudse 2'8, tarsi 0-7. 

Hab. Fiji Islands — Ovalau, Waikaia, Mokani, Vanua Levu, Taviuni, 
Loma Loma, Mango, Viti Levu (J^ayard). 

Spec, in Mus. Brit. 

a, (J . Island of Ovalau, August 1856 {F. M. Rayner). b, c, ^ . Island of Ngau, October 1853 
{F. M. Rayner) . d. Ndreketti, Fiji (£. L. Layard) . 



5. Artamus monachus. 

Artamus monachus, Bp. Consp. Gen. Av. i. p. 343 (1850, ex Temm. MS. in Mus. Lugd.) ; 
Wallace, Ibis, 1860, p. 141; id. P.Z.S. 1862, p. 340; Gray, Hand-1. B. i. p. 289. 
no. 4272 (1869) ; Walden, Tr.Z. S. viii. p. 67, pi. vi. fig. 1 (1872) ; Gould, B. New 
Guinea, part vi. (1878) . 



190 ON THE GENUS ARTAMUS 

9 ad. Capite, nucha, facie lateral! et gutture toto pallide umbrinis, pileo summo saturatiore : coUo 
postico, dorso toto, scapularilms, uropygio ct supracaudalibus pure albis : alA saturate 
ciucrasceuti-brunneil, tcctricibus minimis et medianis umbrino lavatis : cauda saturate 
cincrasccnti-bi-unuea : praepcctore et corpore reliquo subtus pure albis : subalarlbus albis : 
remigibus infril cineraceis, intus albis. Long. tot. 75, culmen TOS, altc 6-3, caudse 2-9, 
tarsi 0-75. 

Hah Celebes, Menado (^Wallace) ; mountain-districts of North Celebes 
(^Wallace) ; Sula Islands {Wallace). 

For the opportunity of describing the above specimen I am indebted to 
Mr. Gould, who received it in exchange from the Leiden Museum. It is 
marked " ?. Celebes : Duyvenbode, 1866." On comparing it with the Sula- 
Island skins in the Museum, I can find no differences in plumage ; but the 
size is rather smaller, the wing measuring 575 to 5-8 inches. 

Spec, in Mus. Brit. 

a, b, ad. Sula Islands {A. R. Wallace). 



6. ArTAMUS INSIGNIS. 

Artamus insignis, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 101, pi. xv.; Gould, B. New Guinea, part vi. 
(1878). 

(J ad. pileo toto nuchaque, facie later all et gutture toto nigerrimis : coUo postico, interscapulio 
et scapularibus, dorso toto, uropygio et supracaudalibus pure albis : alis caudaque nigerrimis, 
rectricibus intiis angustissime albido limbatis : prsepectore et corpore reliquo subtiis pure 
albis : subalaribus albis, minimis externis nigerrimis : remigibus infi-a cineraceis, intiis ad 
basin albis : rostro cyanescente. Long. tot. 7'3, culmen 1*0, alse 5'6o, caudae 26, tarsi 0"8. 

Hah. New Ireland (G. Browri). 

The description is taken from the type specimen kindly shown to me by 
Dr. Sclater ; it is now in the Marquis of Tweeddale's collection. 



AND ITS GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIB UTION. 191 

7. Artamus fuscus. 

Artamusfuscus, Vieill. N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xvii. p. 297 (1817) ; Gray, Gen. B. i. p. 285 
(1845) ; Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv. p. 299 (1846) ; Gray, Cat. Mamm. &e. Nepal Coll. Hodgs- 
p. 98 (1846) ; Blyth, Cat. B. Mus. A. S. B. p. 199 (1849) ; Bp. Consp. i. p. 344 (1850) ; 
Horsf. & Moore, Cat. B. Mus. E.I. Co. i. p. 161 (1854) ; Cass, in Perry^s Exped. Japan, 
Birds, p. 238 (1856) ; Gould, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 151; Jerd. B. Ind. i. p. 441. no. 287 
(1862) ; Swinh. P. Z. S. 1863, p. 287; Beavau, P.Z. S. 1865, p. 692; Gray, Hand-1. 
B. i. p. 289. no. 4270 (1869) ; Godwin-Austen, J. A. S. B. 1870, p. 100 ; Swinh. Ibis, 
1870, p. 247; id. P.Z. S. 1871, p. 377; Holdsw. P. Z. S. 1872, p. 440; Ball, Str. F. 
1874, p. 403; id. Str. F. 1875, p. 291 ; Hume, torn. eit. p. 102; id. Nests & Eggs 
Ind. B. p. 194 (1875) ; Blyth & Wald. B. Bum. p. 126 (1875) ; Armstrong, Str. F. 
1876, p. 321 ; Hume, torn. eit. p. 458, & 1877, p. 30 ; Da\dd & Oustalet, Ois. Chine, 
p. 101 (1877). 

Ocypterus rufiventer, Valenc. Ann. Mus. vi. p. 25, pi. vii. fig. 1 (1820). 

Leptopteryx rufiventer, Wagler, Syst. Av. Leptopteryx, sp. 3 (1827). 

Artamus leucorhynchos, M'Clell. P. Z. S. 1839, p. 158 (nee L.). 

Ocypterus leucorynchus , Jerd. (nee L.), Madr. Journ. x. p. 237 (1839). 

Ad. supra sordide brunneus, supracaudalibus grisescenti-albis faseiam transversam angustam 
formantibus : pileo colloque undique elare cinereis : linea angustissima frontal! lorisque 
nigrieantibus : mento summo et genis antieis etiam nigro adumbratis : eorpore reliquo 
subtiis pallide vinaceo-einerascente, subcaudalibus albicantibus : subalaribus albis, ala sordide 
schistacea, remigibus nigricantioribus : cauda nigra sordide albido terminata : rostro pulchre 
pallide cyaneo, apicaliter brunnescente : pedibus schistaceo-cinereis, unguibus saturate 
' cornels : palpebris cinereis : iride saturate brunne^*. Long. tot. 6"3, culmen 0'8, alae 5'3, 
caudse 2"3, tarsi 0"65. 

Hah. India generally and Ceylon {Jerdon) ; Nepal QHodgson) ; Assam 
(Jerdon) ; Arakan (^Blyth) ; Tipperah (^Irwin) ; Khasi hills (^Godwin- Austen) ; 
Burmah (^Blytli) ; Tonghoo and Karen hills QVardlaw Ramsay) ; Upper Pegu 
(^Oates) ; Siam (^Schomhurgk) ; Cochin China (^David 8^- Oustalet) ; S. Hainan 
QSwinhoe) ; Macao (Perry). 

A more detailed account of the geographical distribution of the Indian 
Wood-Swallow may be gathered from the writings of Jerdon and Hume. 

* In adding the soft parts of the species of Artamus, I have taken the best field-notes I could 
find. In the above instance the colours are derived from Mr. Oates's observations ; and he adds : — 
" Inside of the mouth black in some, bright yellow in others. I have not yet discovered the reason 
of this." 

VOL. III. 2 P 



192 ON THE GENUS AllTAMUS 

It is not until one begins to study the distribution of Indian birds that one 
becomes sensible of the great work which is being done in ' Stray Feathers ' 
by Mr. Hume and his coadjutors. 

Mr. Jerdon writes : — "This Swallow-Shrike is spread throughout the 
whole of India and Ceylon, being very numerous in some localities, but 
locally distributed ; for you may pass over large tracts of country, apparently 
well suited for them, and not see one. It extends into Assam and Burmah. 
It is most abundant in wooded districts, especially where palm trees abound, 
more particularly the Palmyra palm, from which, indeed, it takes several of 
its native names. Where they are numerous several may be seen seated on 
the same branch ; but they fly off independently of each other, and after a 
flight of some few minutes return either again to the same perch or to another 
tree. At times I have seen an immense flock in the air all together, hunting 
for insects, and remaining on the wing for a much longer period. A small 
party may occasionally be seen skimming over the surface of a tank, picking 
up an insect now and then, and returning to a high bough of a tree over- 
hanging the water. They live entirely on insects of various kinds. I have 
found them most abundant in the Carnatic, the Malabar coast, the Northern 
Circars, and Bengal, very rare in the Deccan and Central India. To my 
great surprise I found them on the sides of hills at Darjeeling, on cleared 
spots, up to above 4000 feet of elevation." 

Captain Beavan also met with it in the last-named place ; and Hodgson 
obtained many examples in Nepal. 

Mr. Ball observes, in 1874 : — " The Ashy Swallow-Shrike is rather rare 
in Chota Nagpur. My only specimen from the division was found in 
in Sirguja. This bird also occurs in the Rajmehal hills, where it is, I think, 
less rare. I have recently met with it in the Satpuras." In a later paper 
(1875) he writes: — "It is perhaps not so rare as I stated. In November 
last I came across a large flock in Singbhum, out of which I shot some 
specimens. From Mr. Levin I hear that he got a bird of the year in 1873, 
and subsequently both nest and eggs, in Palamar." 



AND ITS GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 193 

In Ceylon, according to Mr. Holdsworth, it is " generally distributed 
over the low country, but is locally abundant at certain seasons. It is very 
common at Aripo and in the neighbourhood of Colombo during the N.E. 
monsoon. I have always found it in small parties, and easy of approach." 

Dr. Armstrong also met with the species, on the island of Ramesuram. 

In a paper on the birds of North-eastern Cachar, Mr. Inglis says : — 
" The Ashy Swallow-Shrikes are often seen, in flocks, throughout the year. 
I have not seen their nests." 

The range of the species in Burmah is given in the list of localities ; and 
it goes as far down as Upper Pegu, where Mr. Gates says that it abounds 
throughout the plains. Eastward it extends through Siam to Cochin China 
and Hainan, where Mr. Swinhoe got specimens. 

The American expedition to Japan met wdth the present species at 
Macao, in China, where, however, all Mr. Swinhoe's efforts to procure the 
bird proved futile. 

Spec, in Mus. Brit. 

a,b,c,ad. N.W. Himalayas [PinwilT). d,e,ad. Behar [Hodgson). f-i,ad.,juv. Nepal (flbc^grsow). 
k, ad. Darjiling [Jerdon). l,m,n,ad. Madras [Baber). o, ad., p, juv. Kandy district^ 
Ceylon [White). 



8. Artamus superciliosus. 

Ocypterus superciliosus, Gouldj P. Z. S. 1836^ p. 142; id. Syn. B. Austr. part i. (1837). 
Artamus superciliosus. Gray, Gen. B. i. p. 285 (1845) ; Reichenb. Vog. NeuhoU. p. 169 (1848) ; 

Gould, B. Austr. folio, ii. pi. 32 (1848) ; Blyth, Cat. B. Mus. A. S. B. p. 199 (1849) ; Bp. 

Consp. i. p. 344 (1850) ; Cab. Mus. Hein. Th. i. p. 169 (1850) ; Pelz. Reis. Novara, Vog. 

p. 82 (1865) ; Miiller, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 279 ; Gray, Hand-1. B. i. p. 289 (1869) ; Ramsay, 

Proc. Linn. Soe. N. S. W. iii. p. 179 (1878). 

6 ad. suprk schistaceus, uropygio et supracaudalibus cinerascentibus : ala cineracea, remigibus 
omnibus nigro terminatis : rectricibus cineraceis albo terminatis et fasciam apicalem exhi- 
bentibus : supercilio lato albo ab oculo antico usque ad nucbam ducto : loris, facie laterali 
et gutture toto scbistaceo-nigris, boo infrk clarius schistaceo : corpore reliquo subtiis 

2f 2 



194 ON THE GENUS ARTAMUS 

vinascenti-castaneo : tibiis clare cinereis : su})alaribus albis, margine alari schistaceo : 
remigibus subtus pallide cineraceis intus canis : rostro cyanescente, apicaliter nigro : pedibus 
saturate plumbeis : iride nigiicante. Long. tot. 7-5, culmen 075, alaj 5'05, caudse 2-85, 
tarsi 0'8. 

? ad. mari similis sed palKdior : dorso magis brunnescente, et capite scbistaceo nee nigricante : 
• corpore subtus pallidiore vinaceo, et gutture toto schistaceo distinguenda. Long, alae 4*75, 
caudte 2'8, tarsi 0"8. 

Juv. adultis dissimilis : cinerascens, plumis omnibus anguste albo striolatis : remigibus albo termi- 
natis : rectricibus vix albo apicatis : loris et regioue parotica fuscescenti-schistaccis : corpore 
subtus cinerascente, plumis albido striolatis, abdomine fusco marmorato, plumis hoc colore 
limbatis. 

Hab. Australia. 

Mr. Gould gives the following note on the range of this species : — 
" I am unable to say what is the extent of its range ; but I am induced 
to believe that it is confined to Australia, and that in all probability it 
seldom leaves the interior of the country — the extreme limits of the colony 
of New South Wales, particularly those which border the extensive plains, 
being the only parts where it has yet been observed. I first met with it at 
Yarrundi, on Dartbrook, a tributary of the Hunter, where it w^as thinly 
dispersed among the trees growing on the stony ridges bordering the flats." 
Mr. Ramsay's list of localities are the following : — " Wide-Bay district ; 
Clarence-and-Richmond- Rivers district ; New S. Wales ; Interior ; Victoria ; 
South Australia." 

Spec, in Mus. Brit. 

a, b, d, ?. S. Australia {Sir G. Grey). c,d,d,2. Australia {Sir T. Mitchell), e, $ ad. Sydney, 
N. S. W., November 1876 {Sydney Museum). /, 6 ad., g, $ juv. Homebush, N. S. W., 
January 1877 {Sydney Museum), h, 6 ad. Bankstown, N. S. W., December 1876 {Sydney 
Museum). 



9. Artamus personatus. 

Ocypterus personatus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1840, p. 149. 

Artamus personatus, Gray, Gen. B. i. p. 285 (1845) ; Gould, B. Austr. folio, ii. pi. 31 (1848) 



AND ITS GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 195 

Bp. Consp. Av. i. p. 344 (1850) ; Reichenb. Vog. Neuholl. p. 170 (1848) ; Cab. Mus. 
Hein. i. p. 208 (1850) ; Gould, Haudb. B. Austr. i. p. 150 (1865); Pelz. Reis. Novara, 
Vog. p. 82 (1865) ; Gray, Haud-1. B. i. p. 289. no. 4277 (1869). 

6 ad. supr^, saturate schistaceus, dorso postico et uropygio magis canescentibus : tectricibus alarum 
dorso concoloribus : remigibus nigricanti-schistaceis anguste albo apicaliter limbatis, omnibus 
subterminaliter conspicue cano adumbratis : rectricibus canis albo terminatis fasciam latam 
formantibus : fronte lorisque, facie laterali tota et gula nigris, vertiee quoque nigro adum- 
brato : corpore reliquo subtxis cinerascente, torque guttui'ali indistincta a regione postauri- 
culari ducta : tibiis einerascentibus : subalaribus et axillaribus albis : remigibus subliis 
cinereis, versiis apicem nigricantibus, intiis basaliter albis : rostro cyanescente, apicaliter 
nigro : pedibus lactescenti-plumbeis : iride nigricanti-brunnea. Long. tot. 7"2, culmen 0'75, 
alfe 4-9, caudse 3"15, tarsi 0'8. 

$ ad. mari similis sed sordidior : dorso alisque brunnescentioribus : subtiis brunnescenti-cinerascens, 
torque gutturali indistincta cinerefi : facie laterali gulaque sordide schistaceis. Long. tot. 7, 
culmen 0'75, alse 4*85^ caudse 3'05, tarsi 0'75. 

Hab. Australia. 

Mr. Gould observes : — " My knowledge of the range of this species is 
very limited. A single specimen w^as sent me from South Australia ; while 
fine examples were killed by Gilbert in the colony of Swan River." 

Mr. Ramsay has the following list of localities : — " Wide-Bay district : 
Richmond- and Clarence-River districts : N. S. Wales : Victoria : South 
Australia : West Australia." 

Spec, in Mus. Brit. 

a, b, d , $ ad. South Australia {Sir George Grey), c, S ad. West Australia (/. Gould), d, 2 ad. 
Between the Avon and Salt Rivers^ W. Australia (/. Gould), c, d. Central Australia {Capt. 

Sturt) . 

10. ArTAMUS CINEREUS. 

Artamius cinereus, Vieill. N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xvii. p. 297 ; Gray, Gen. B. i. p. 285 (1845) ; 
Gould, B, Austr. folio, ii. pi. 29 (1848) ; Reichenb. Vog. Neuholl. p. 168 (1848) ; Bp. 
Consp. i. p. 344 (1850) ; Gould, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 233 ; id. Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 147 
(1865) ; Gray, Hand-1. B. i. p. 289 (1869) ; Ramsay, P. Z. S. 1875, p. 584. 

Ocypterus cinereus, Valenc. Mem. Mus. vi. p. 22, pi. is. fig. 2 (1820). 

Leptopteryx cinerea, Wagler, Syst. Av. Leptopieryx, sp. 4 (1827). 



196 ON THE GENUS ARTAMUS 

c< ad. suprit bninneiiSj pileo vix pallidiore : supcrcilio et regionc parotica pallidioribus brunneis : 
corporc subtus cincrasccnti-brunneo : frontc angusta, loris, palpebruj gcnis et regionc 
paroticil antica. gulaque nigricantibus : ala tota sordide cinerea, phimis cxtus angustissime 
pallidioribus : dorso imo et sujiracaudalibus nigris : rectricibus duabus ccntralibus nigris, 
reliquis nigris lat^ albo terminatis : erisso et subeaudalibus nigricantibus, his albo terminatis : 
tibiis extus albis, intiis nigricantibus : subalaribus et axillaribus et remigibus intus albis : rostro 
pallid^ grisescenti-cyaneo, apicaliter nigro : pedibus virescenti-plumbeis : iride nigricanti- 
bruiinea. Long. tot. 7'5, culmen 0'7o, alse 4'95, eaudae 3"0j tarsi 0'85. 

? baud a mari distinguenda. 

HaJ). Australia. 

"In Western Australia," writes Mr. Gould, "it is a very local but by 
no means an uncommon species, particularly at Swan River, where it inhabits 
the limestone hills near the coast and the ' Clear Hills ' of the interior." 

Mr. Ramsay gives " West Australia " and " Port Darling and Port 
Essington " as the habitat of the species. 

Spec, in Mus. Brit. 

a, b, ad. South Australia {Sir T. Mitchell). c. Central Australia [Capt. Sturt). d, juv. West 
Australia (/. Gould). 



11. Artamus albiventris. 

Artamus albiventris, Gould, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 31 ; id. B. Austr. foUo. ii. pi. 30 (1848) ; Bp. 
Consp. i. p. 344 (1850) ; Gould, Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 149 (1865) ; Eamsay, P. Z. S. 
1868, p. 383 ; Gray, Hand-1. B. i. p. 289. no. 4276 (1869) ; Masters, Proc. Liun. Soc. 
N. S. W. i. p. 48 (1877) ; Castebiau & Ramsay, torn. cit. p. 380 (1877). 

A. similis A. cinereo, sed subeaudalibus albis distinguendus : rostro flavicanti-comeo, apicaliter 
nigro : pedibus nigricanti-brunneis. 

Hah. Australia. 

" Two examples of this species are all that have come under my notice : 
one of these was killed on the Darling Downs, in New South Wales ; and the 



AND ITS GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 197 

Other some distance to the northward of that locaUty, it being one of the 
birds procured during Dr. Leichardt's expedition to Port Essington." 
(Gould, /. c). 

This is a species -with which I am unacquainted, as the only specimen 
in the Museum referred to it by the late Mr. G. R. Gray appears to be 
only A. cinereus with a little more white on the under tail-coverts, possibly 
a variable character. 

Mr. Ramsay gives the following localities : — " Gulf of Carpentaria ; 
Rockingham Bay; Port Denison; Wide-Bay district." He appears to 
regard it as a good species. 



12. Artamus melanops. 

Artamus melanops, Goiild, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 198; id. Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 149 (1865) ; id. 
B. Austr. foUo, Suppl. part v. (1869) ; Gray, Hand-1. B. i. p. 289. no. 4283 (1869). 

A. similis A. cinereo sed minor : facie latius nigricante et subcaudalibus nigris angustius albo ter- 
minatis distinguendus. 

Hab. Australia. 

Mr. Gould writes as follows in his original account of the species : — 
" The specimen from which the above description was taken has been kindly 
sent to me by Mr. S. White, of the Reed-beds, near Adelaide, South 
Australia, who informs me that it was shot by him at St. a Becket's Pool, 
lat. 28° 30', on the 23rd of August, 1863, and who, in the notes accompanying 
it, says: — 'I have never seen this bird south. It collects at night, like 
A. sordidus, and utters the same kind of call. It seems to be plentiful all over 
the north country, and particularly about Chambers Creek and Mount 
Margaret.' " 

Mr. Ramsay considers it to be confined to the " Interior, Victoria, and 
South Australia." 



198 ON THE GENUS ARTAMUS 

I am very doubtful about the species, as we have in the Museum two 
specimens from Cape York received from Mr. Gould as his Artamus melanops : 
and these two individuals I can hardly separate from^i. cinereus. They have 
a little more black on the face, and narrower white edgings to the under 
tail-coverts : this appears to be the best character ; but, as I have already 
hinted, it appears to be somewhat variable. At the same this species is so 
little known that perhaps A. venustus. nob., may turn out to be only the 
adult stage. 

Spec, in Mus. Brit. 

a, I), ad. Cape York (J. Gould) . 

13. Artamus perspxcillatus. 

Artamus per spUlatus, Bp. Consp. i. p. 344 (1850, ex Temm. MS. in Mus. Lugd.) ; Wallace, 
Ibis, 1861, p. 348 ; id. P. Z. S. 1863, p. 485 ; Gray, Hand-1. B. i. p. 289. no. 4271 
(1869). 

Ocypterus albovittatus, Kittlitz, Kupf. Vog. p. 23, pi. xxx. fig. 2 (1832). 

d ad. supr^ cinerascenti-brunneus : pileo undique colli lateribus et corpore subtiis clariiis 
cinerascentibus : mento ipso, loris et palpebra, nigris : uropygio imo et supracandalibus 
nigris : rectricibus nigris, late albo terminatis : ala tota saturate cinerea, remigibus versiis 
apicem uigricantibus et anguste albo terminaliter limbatis : hypochondriis sordidiiis cinera- 
scentibus : tibiis clariiis cinereis : subcaudalibus nigris : subalaribus et axillaribus albis : 
remigibus infr^, sordide cinereis, intus versiis basin albis. Long. tot. 8, culmen 0'85, alje 
5"05, caudje 3'1, tarsi 0'9. 

2 ad. vix h mari distinguenda. Long. tot. 8, alse 5'2, caudae 3'2, tarsi 0'95. 

.Tuv. similis adultis, sed marginibus plumarum albidis varius : subtus magis canescens, plumis cano 
terminatis. 

Hah. Timor. 

Spec, in Mus. Brit. 

a, h, d , c, 2 ad., d,juv. E. Timor {Wallace). 



14. Artamus venustus, sp. n. 

Ad. supra cinerascens, pileo undique, capitis lateribus et corpore subtiis toto clarioribus et magis 



AND ITS GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 199 

canescentibus : genis anticis, loris et mento ipso nigris : uropyg:io imo et supracaudalibus 
nigris : rectricibus duabus mediis omnino nigris, reliquis nigris late albo terminatis : ala tota 
cinerea, remigibus subterminaliter nigricantibus, angustissime albo apicaliter Umbatis : 
abdomine imo et subcaudalibus nigris, his longissimis apicaliter albis : tibiis clare cinerascen-' 
tibus : subalaribus et axillaribus et remigibus intiis albis : rostro plumbeo, ad apicem nigro : 
iride saturate brunnea. Long. tot. 7, culmen O'T, alse 4-65, caudae 3, tarsi 0-7. 

2 mari similis, sed magis brunnescens. Long. tot. 7-5, alae 4-75, caudse S'O, tarsi 0-7. 

Juv. suprk brunneus, pilei dorsique plumis medialiter ochraseenti-brunneo striatis et terminatis : 
dorsi postici uropygiique plumis et supracaudalibus ochrascenti marginatis : tectricibus alarum 
ut in dorso marginatis : remigibus latiiis albo terminatis : subtiis cinerascens, subcaudalibus 
paUide brunneo terminatis. 

Hah. North-western Australia. 

Five specimens of this bird are in the Museum, brought by Dr. Elsey 
during the expedition to North-western Austraha. Some of them were 
determined by the late Mr. G. R. Gray as A. perspicillafus, and some as 
A. cinereus. They appear to me to be neither the one nor the other. The 
white tips to the under tail-coverts and the two entirely black central tail- 
feathers sufficiently prove that they are not A. perspicillatus. From A. cinereus 
the females of the north-western bird are more difficult to tell ; but they are 
smaller, and do not have the black so extended on the cheeks ; and this 
character seems to prevent their being A. melanops. 

Spec, in Miis. Brit. 

a, b, S ad., c, 2 ad., d, d juv. N.W. Australia [Dr. Elsey) . e, 2 ad. Depot, N.W. Australia, Nov. 
29, 1855 {Dr. Elsey). 



15. Artamus sordidus. 

Sordid Thrush, Lath. Gen. Syn. Suppl. ii. p. 186 (1801). 

Turdus sordidus. Lath. Ind. Orn. Suppl. p. xliii (1801). 

Artamus lineatus, Yieill. N. Diet. xvii. p. 297 (1817). 

Ocypterus albovittatus , Valenc. Mem. Mus. vi. p. 23, pi. viii. (1820) ; Less. Traite, p. 37, pi. 44. 

fig. 2 (1831) ; Gould, Synopsis B. Austr. part i. (1837). 
Artamus albovittatus, Vig. & Horsf. Tr. Linn. Soc. xv. p. 210 (1826). 
Leptopteryx albovittata, Wagler, Syst. Av. Leptopteryx, sp. 5 (1827). 

VOL. III. 2 G 



300 ON THE GENUS ARTAMUS 

Ariamvs sordidus, Gray, Gen. B. i. p. 285 (1845) ; Gould, B. Austr. folio, ii. pi. 27 (1818) ; 
Blyth, Cat. B. Mus. A. S. B. p. 200 (1849) ; Rciclienb. Vcig. NeuhoU. p. 168 (1848) ; 
Bp. Consp. i. p. 344 (1850) ; Cab. Mus. Hein. i. p. 208 (1850) ; Gould, Ilandb. B. 
Austr. i. p. 143 (1865); Ramsay, Ibis, 1866, p. 327; Gray, Hand-1. B. i. p. 289. 
no. 4274 (1869) ; Muller, P. Z. S, 1869, p. 279 ; Ramsay, P. Z. S. 1875, p. 584. 

6 ad. suprk chocolatinus, dorse postico et uropygio saturatioribus, supracaudalibus paullo nigricanti- 
bus : loris et genis anticis obscur^ fuseescentibus : subtus chocolatino-brunneus, abdomine imo 
et bypochondriis luagis rufescentibus, subeaudalibus nigris, subalaribus albis : ala schistaceo- 
cinerea : remigibus saturatiiis cinereis, primariis extus albis : rectricibus nigris, albo termi- 
natis, duabus mediis omuino nigris, rectricis extima; pogonio interuo tantum albo : remigibus 
infrk sordid^ cinereS, : rostro cyaneo, apicaliter nigro : pedibus lacteseenti-plumbeis : iride 
saturate brunnea. Long. tot. 7, culmen 0"7, alse 5"1, caudte 3'1, tarsi 0'75. 

2 mari similis : vix minor. 

Hah. Australia ; Van Diemen's Land. 

The distribution of this species is given by Mr. Gould as follows : — " No 
species of the Australian Artami with which I am acquainted possesses so 
wide a range as the present ; the whole of the southern portion of the 
continent, as well as the island of Tasmania, being alike favoured with its 
presence. The extent of its range northward has not yet been satisfactorily 
ascertained, beyond the certainty that it has not hitherto been received in 
any collection from the north coast. It may be regarded as strictly migratory 
in Tasmania, where it arrives in October, and after rearing at least two 
broods departs again in'a northward direction. On the continent of Australia 
it arrives rather earlier, and departs later ; but a scattered few remain 
throughout the year in all the localities favourable to their habits, the 
number being regulated by the supply of insect food necessary for their 
subsistence. I may here observe that specimens from Swan River, South 
Australia, and New South Wales present no difference either in size or 
colouring; while those from Tasmania are invariably larger in all their 
measurements, and are also of a deeper colour." 

In Mr. Ramsay's paper the range is tabulated as follows : — " Rockingham 
Bay ; Port Denison ; Wide-Bay district ; Richmond-and-Clarence-Rivers 
district ; New S. Wales ; Interior ; Victoria ; South Australia : Tasmania." 



AND ITS GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 201 

Spec, in Mus. Brit. 

a, b. Australia (/. Gould), c, ad. Australia (Cooper), d, ^ ad. South Australia {Sir G. Grey). 
€,juv. Perth, Western Australia (/. Gould). f,g, 6, ? ad. Tasmania [Antarctic Expedi- 
tion), h, i, k, ad. Tasmania [Ronald Gunn). I, pull. Georgetown, Tasmania (/. Gould). 



16. Artamus minor. 

Arfamus minor, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xvii. p. 298 (1817); Gray, Gen. B. i. p. 285 
(1845) ; Gould, B. Austr. folio, ii. pi. 28 (18 18) ; Reichenb. Vog. NeuhoU. p. 168 (1848) ; 
Bp. Consp. i. p. 344 (1850) ; Gould, Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 146 (1865) ; Ramsay, Ibis, 
1866, p. 327 ; Gray, Hand-list B. i. p. 290. no. 4285 (1869) ; Ramsay, P. Z. S. 1875, 
p. 584. 

Ocypterus fuscatus, Valenc. Mem. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. vi. p. 74, pi. 9. fig. 1 (1820). 

Leptopteryx minor, Wagler, Syst. Av. Leptopteryx, sp. 6 (1827). 

Ocypterus minor, Gould, Synopsis B. Austr. part i. (1837). 

Ad. minimus : chocolatino-brunneus, facie laterali et colli lateribus pileo concoloribus : subtiis 
magis rufescens vix castaneus, linea angusta frontali mento lorisque nigris : uropygio imo, 
supracaudalibus et subcaudalibus nigris : alis Cauda que plumbeo -nigris, rectricibus intus ad 
apicem albis, duabus centralibus et rectrice extimS, baud albo terminatis, concoloribus : sub- 
alaribus pallide cervino-brunneis : rostro pulchre violescenti-cyaneo, apicaliter saturatiore : 
pedibus vix nigris : iride nigricante. Long. tot. 5"9, culmen 0"55, alee 4'55, caudse 2-65, 
tai'si 0'5. 

Juv. similis adultis, sed plumis ochrascenti maculatis, corpore subtus fasciato, maculis caudae api- 
calibus minoribus et griseo lavatis. 

Mr. Gould writes as follows : — " I found the Artamus minor abundant on 
the Lower Namoi, particularly on the plains thinly studded with the Acacia 
pendula and other low trees in the neighbourhood of Gummel-Gummel, 
where it had evidently been breeding, as 1 observed numerous young ones 
whose primaries were not sufficiently developed to admit of their performing 
a migration of any distance ; besides which, they were constantly being fed 
by the parents, who were hawking about in the air over and around the 
trees, while the young were quietly perched close to each other on a dead 
twig. I have received two specimens from Port Essington ; and there are 

2g 2 



202 ON THE GENUS ARTAMUS. 

examples in the Paris Museum from, I believe, Timor*. It is evident, there 
fore, that this bird has a wide range." 

Mr. Ramsay gives us the following localities : — " Port Darling and Port 
Essington ; Gulf of Carpentaria ; Rockingham Bay ; Port Denison ; Wide- 
Bay district; Richmond-and- Clarence-Rivers district; New S. Wales." 

Spec, in Mus. Brit. 

a, ad. Australia {Sir T. Mitchell), b, 2 ad. Gilbert, lat. 18° 30', long. 143° {Dr. Elsey). c, d,S , 
S juv. N.W. Australia {Dr. Elsey) . e, $ ad. Peron's Peninsula, Shark Bay, W. Australia, 
May 1858 {Dr.Rayner). f,ad. Port Essington {Capt. Chambers), g, h. New South Wales 
(/. Gould). 



* This locality is erroneous. 



A FEW WORDS ON FEN-LAND. 



By Mr. G. D. ROWLEY. 



(Plates CV. to CIX.) 



" What tribute from the goose is paid ! 
Does not her wing all science aid ? 
Does it not lovers' hearts explain^ 
And drudge to raise the merchant^'s gain ? " 

Gay. 
" Or, last, among its virtues many, 
The pages o£ this ' Miscellany ' ? " 

Anon. 



Fen-land is almost a thing of the past. Little Huntingdonshire has lost 
her noble meres ; and though her sister Norfolk still retains her broads, 
they shrink. Doubtless, in a practical sense, these changes are much to be 
applauded; yet I ask forgiveness if, as an ornithologist, I cast a glance 
behind, while in my secret heart I harbour a regret. 

Mr. Stevenson, in that charming introduction to his ' Birds of 
Norfolk ' — after lamenting that the gossard's occupation is gone, that 
the fenman no longer snares his Snipes or nets his Ruffs and Reeves 



204. A FEW WORDS ON FEN-LAND. 

(^Machetes pugnax), and has ceased to eat his Sunday Bittern QBotaurtis 
steUaris~)—didds that, alas ! the three Harriers are now no more, that the 
hurried twittering of the Sedge-bird (Salicaria phragmitis), the reeUng note 
of the Grasshopper-Warbler (Acrocephaks ncevius), and the harsher melody 
of the Reed-Sparrow (^Emheriza schoeniculus) have given place to other 
sounds. 

These, with that pretty little bird of disputed affinity, Panurus 
biarmicus* (^once so common at "Whittlesea Mere), are gone; and the 
habitat of many a strange fen-fowl has ceased to be. 



Too Ions: would it take me to enumerate all the losses we have 
sustained : Mr. Stevenson well describes them, and winds up with the bold 
and honest declaration that the modern condition of the fen district is, to 
the ornithologist fond of ancient memories, almost the " abomination of 
desolation." 



With the vanished fens various kinds of English shooting will soon 
have disappeared, and the remark of Thompson ('Birds of Ireland,' 1850, 
p. 273) that "in many parts of England Snipe-shooting is still obtainable" 
will not apply ; there was, however, some fun in the observation at that 
period. At this time the bird is found in non-natural places : thus, in 
November 1869, Lord Lansdowne picked up one on the Esplanade of the 
Horse-Guards, under a lamp (c/". ' Land and Water,' Jan. 5, 1878) ; also a 
full Snipe was shot at Oulton Park, Tarporley, November 10, while running 
about the slate roof of a building, apparently probing the eaves with its bill 
in search of food (cf. 'Field,' Nov. 20, 1875). 

* Wtat I believe to be the last Huntingdonshire bird (a male) of this species (shot 
at Eynesbuiy, November 1866) is now in my collection — a sad reminiscence ! 



A PEW WORDS ON FEN-LAND. 205 

Pishey Thompson, in his 'History of Boston' (1856, p. 644, family 
edition), has a quaint illustration of " fen slodgers," with their goose-hooks 
over their shoulders, returning from a tramp. 

The days are much changed since a man could squat on some out-of- 
the-way part, and run up a hut *, perhaps catch a few wild Geese and turn 
them into tame f , then feed his flock at free quarters, living on fish and wild 
birds dressed by a peat fire. Rates and taxes he looked upon, as William 
of Deloraine did prayers and penances : 

" Penance^ father, mil I none ; 
Prayer know I hardly one ; 
For mass or prayer can I rarely tarry, 
Save to patter an Ave Mary." 

Lay of the Last Minstrel. 

In short, he lived a kind of semi-savage life, not without its attractions. 
He had an endless supply; for Dugdale says of Ramsey Mere ('Imbanking,' 
p. 364) :— " Though both fishers and fowlers cease neither day nor night to 
haunt it, yet there is always of fish and fowl no little store." 

To this kind of individual succeeded the class of which " old Merry " is 
a good type. 

According to the account in Daniel's 'Rural Sports,' "old Merry, of 
Stretham Ferry " had the utmost knowledge of the haunts of the species of 

* Creamer's hut (now called Brampton hut) , Huntingdonshire, a great meet of the Fitzwilliam 
hounds, and Kisby's hut, near Papworth, a famous meet of the Cambridgeshire pack ; also Kate's 
Cabin, near Norman Cross, about seven miles from Peterborough, a meet of the former pack. Who 
Creamer was, and the pedigree of Kisby, are things now lost in obscurity, like that misty and 
mysterious mother, Mrs. Carey. Kate selected a good situation on Ermine Street for herself (?). 

t Such a flock is mentioned by Mr. Robert Gray (' Birds of the West of Scotland,' p. 340), 
in Long Island (1867), on the farm of Mr. John Macdonald Newton : — "There were about thirty 
birds in it ; and they had all been hatched from eggs taken on the moors." These were semi- 
domesticated Grey-lag Geese. 



206 A FEW WORDS ON FEN-LAND. 

birds which visited the fens. "As a marksman he was extraordinarily 
expert. With a gmi upwards of six feet in the barrel, and that placed in its 
stock by the villasje carpenter, and altogether of a weight which nothing but 
a most powerful arm could extend and elevate, would he kill a Snipe flying. 
Before exhibiting this proof of dexterity, he usually requested to be supplied 
with a fresh charge in lieu of what he threw away (as he termed it) after so 
worthless a bird "*; " the wadding was a little dry sedge, of which he always 
took a wisp in the punt." 

"Old Merry had not been troubled with much education" — not 
" school-hoarded," in short ; but the Rev. Mr. Daniel never heard of that, and 
poor Merry, doubtless, is much to be pitied (!) for the loss he sustained. 

Latham gives the best account of w^hat Mr. Wallace calls " that 
cosmopolite bird, the Goose," in the ' Geographical Distribution of Animals ' 
(c/". Latham, vol. x. pp. 252 et seqq.^. He enters into the plucking process 
for quills and feathers (which need not be repeated), and says that the 
feathers f contributed to the fame of the English archers. 

" An Englisli archer bent his bow. 
Made of a trusty tree ; 
An ari'ow of a cloth-yard long. 
Unto the head drew he. 



* In this opinion he was quite at unity with that of our ancestors, who placed a higher value 

on a Blackbird than they did on a Snipe ; but while the former has greatly increased in numbers, 

the latter has rapidly diminished. Daniel says the price of a Snipe in Cambridge market used to 

be from Zd. to 5rf. (' Rural Sports,^ vol. iii. p. 179). Shakespeare quite bears out this idea in the 

lines — 

" For I mine own gained knowledge should profane. 

If I would time expend with such a snipe. 

But for my sport and profit." 

Othello, Act i. sc. 3. 

t " These feathers should consist of the second, thii-d, and fourth of each wing." — ArchtBol. 
vii. p. 52 [«]. 



A FEW WORDS ON FEN-LAND. 207 

" Against Sir Hugh Montgomery 
So right his shaft he set^ 
The grey goose- wing that was thereon 
In his hearths blood was wet." 

Chevy Chace. 



Latham states "that this bird is very long-lived, and we have full 
authority for its arriving at no less than a hundred years." 

Daniel says that the old ganders and geese which have been plucked 
pretty frequently are called " cagmags." He relates a curious anecdote of 
the aflFection of a gander to his owner, an old blind woman, in Germany. He 
used to lead her every Sunday to church, taking hold of her gown with his bill. 
" When he had introduced her to her seat, he retired to graze in the church- 
yard ; and no sooner was the congregation dismissed, but he returned to his 
duty and led her home." 

In Thompson's ' Birds of Ireland,' vol. iii. p. 31, mention is made of a 
like friendship between a gander and an old blind mare. 

In Lincolnshire there are several sayings relating to Geese, such as : — 
"The bairns to bed, and the Goose to the fire;" "More Geese than men 
in the Lincolnshire fen." Also they used to forecast the weather by the 
breast-bone of the Goose : if it looked cloudy, a severe winter was said to 
follow. 

Pishey Thompson, though he mentions many of these provincial sayings, 
does not allude to the above ; still he works his subject pretty close. 

I have said that Geese are on the decline, one reason being that free 
quarters can no longer be had for them by the fenman ; and another is that 
the feathers now are not in such demand. Feather beds are out of fashion, 

VOL. III. 2 H 



208 A FEW WORDS ON FEN-LAND. 

and horsehair ones have come in. (Horsehair has risen fifty per cent, in 
value; and the supply comes from South America.) 

Daniel says (vol. iii. p. 248): — "Some wing them [i.e. Geese] only 
every quarter, taking ten feathers from each Goose, which sell for 55. 
a thousand. Plucked Geese pay, in feathers*, Is. a-head in Wildmore 
fen " f . 

* The following was, in 1871, the value of feathers in London : — Raw Goose-feathers, best 
grey, from Is. 2d. to Is. 4d. per lb. ; white. Is. 8d. to 1*. lOd. These feathers lose about a quarter 
of their weight in dressing, and are then usually retailed at 26'. 6d. or 3s. 6d. per lb. 

The best feathers are from Enghsh Geese, supphed by Lincolnshire, Cambridgeshire, and 
Norfolk ; and those taken from the living bird excel the others ; but the supply of this quality is 
now very trifling, the custom of plucking them having fallen into disuse. Next to English come 
Russian feathers in value. The largest supply of British ones is obtained from the south of Ireland. 
The proportion of foreign feathers is about two thirds, to one third of our own. The imported 
feathers in 1871 were 775 tons, and the home production 300 tons ; but with the former were many 
Fowl's feathers. Since 1871 the imports have greatly increased, while our own have decreased. 

t I have been at some pains to find out something about Goose-quills at the present day. It 
is a common but erroneous notion that quill pens have been quite superseded by steel, and that at 
the present time scarcely any are used. Had the metal pens not been introduced, the use of the 
good old quill would, doubtless, have been infinitely larger than it is ; but, notwithstanding all that 
has been done, there are probably nearly as many quills manufactured to-day as there were before 
the introduction of the Birmingham rivals. 

This is explained by the great increase in the manufactm-e of all kinds of stationery in this 
country, and by the opening up of a large colonial and foreign trade. Many millions of quills and 
quiU pens are sold annually in the United Kingdom; and many more are exported to India, 
America, Australia, &c. 

Some years ago many English and Irish quills were used ; but at present very few of these 
are made into pens. The principal supply comes from Russia, where immense droves of Geese are 
reared for their quiUs and feathers. These quills are harder and better than English ones : the 
cold climate appears to make the barrel of the quill stronger. A further illustration of this 
is seen in quills from the Hudson's-Bay Territory, where the cold is intense, and the quills 
are almost like iron. These are particularly prized, and command very high prices, some of the 
primest being worth £2 per hundi-ed. Hudson's-Bay pens are supplied for use in the House of 
Lords and to Her Majesty's Judges. 

The manufacture of the quiU is of great importance. The ban-el is naturally opaque, or nearly 
so; and to render it transparent heat is applied. This is done in various ways. The simplest is by 



A FEW WORDS ON FEN-LAND. 209 

The price of Geese is stated in the ' Northumberland Household 
Book':—" Item, it is thoughte goode to by Geysse so that they be good, and 
for iijd. or iiijt/. at the moste, seynge that iij or iiij Meas may be served 
thereof." 

The price in Boston market at Christmas 1877 was \s. per lb. 

Something might here be said of the "pate de foie gras;" but the 
idea of eating these diseased livers* is so unpleasant that I refrain. 
Daniel goes into it (vol. iii. p. 250) ; and it has nothing to do with 
the fens. 



means of hot sand, after the quill has been soaked in water for several hours. A second method is 
by placing the quUls in an oven or pot. In the third and most approved method the quill is put 
into a hollow fire, and then subjected to pressure on a hot steel plate. 

The pens manufactured are usually hand-cut, with a simple penknife. Men and women are 
employed solely in this one branch of the manufacture. A good workman can cut 1200 pens in a 
day. 

Small Goose-quills are largely used for making camel-hair brushes and floats for fishing. 

* The celebrated "pate de Pithiviers " is hardly less disagreeable, though the original house 
for this fabrigue is said to date from a.d. 1500 j and we must shut our eyes to a knowledge of what 
portion of the Lark is used. 

Of the same kind is the famous bird's-nest soup of China, concerning which Charles Montague, 
Earl of Halifax, the eminent statesman of King William III., was commented upon. Macaulay 
remarks thus [' History of England,' vol. iv. chap, xx.) : — " He was said to revel in Tokay firom the 
Imperial cellar, and in soups made out of bird's-nests from the Indian Ocean, costing three guineas 
a-piece." And again (in vol. v. p. 159) : — " Only six bird's-nests from the Nicobar islands were to 
be had in London ; and all the six were smoking, in soup, on the board." 

Probably the said Earl of Halifax had no idea of the ingredients of which these nests are 
composed — viz. viscous saliva. They are cheaper now. 

These remarks do not, however, apply to the famous "pate de merles de Corse" (of. Ibis, 
3rd ser. vol. vi. p. 381), made of Blackbirds [Turdus merula and T. musicus) "of three qualities : — 
1st, those that feed on the berries of the myrtle ; 2nd, those that subsist on the fruit of the juniper ; 
3rd, those that feed on the olive." It is stated that their value is in the above order. The following 
appeared respecting them in ' The Times,' Wednesday, November 28, 1877 : — 

" Ingratitude. — The British Consul at Ajaccio notes among the annual exports from Corsica 

2h 2 



210 A PEW WORDS ON FEN-LAND. 

The evidence of a large Goose-feeder, as taken down by me, May 24, 
1877, at Boston, runs as follows : — 

"I had one thousand Geese to fat last year; in 1862 I had seventeen 

hundred. Not so many are kept in this day, because the cottagers used to 

feed them on the banks, where they are not allow^ed to be now " *. [Thus 

'Hudibras' — 

" The law condemns the man or woman 
Who steels the goose from off the common^ 
But lets the greater felon loose^ 
Who steals the common from the goose."] 

between 350,000 and 400,000 Blackbirds. They come to that island in vast numbers every winter 
to feed on the berries of the myrtle and arbutus, with which the mountains are covered. Here they 
become very fat ; and their flavour and perfume as food cause them to be much esteemed by the 
gourmets of Paris." 

The Turdi of the Romans, fattened by thousands on figs and bread, were not the Thrush and 
Blackbird, but the Fieldfare and Redwing. 

* The habit of keeping Geese is as old as Egypt ; and the tablet in the British Museum, 
representing the flocks of them possessed by a large landowner, is well known. 

In 'Notes and Queries,' Dec. 8, 1877 (quoting the 'Pall Mall,' Dec. 3 previous), it is stated 
that St. Martin's Day, " the Martinmas of our peasants, and not the modern Michaelmas, is the 
orthodox goose-day. At all the great markets in French provincial towns the farmers' wives may 
still be seen rivalling one another in the sleekness and whiteness of their best-bred and best-fatted 
Goose. Goose-eating has gone out of fashion in France, and fat Geese are at a discoimt." 

In London I have obtained, from a well-informed source, the following statistics as to the 
number of Geese consumed at Christmas 1877, on which I can rely : — 

In Leadenhall market arrived about 38,000. These were thus divided, viz. : — 

French 20000 

Dutch, fed in England 5000 

Irish, fed in England 5000 

Irish, killed in Ireland 5000 

English natives 1000 

Hambm'g and Belgium (very large) .... 2000 
A great many Geese, both English and foreign, were sold direct to cooperative stores and 
clubs, which never came to market. 

It is calculated by the above authority that about 100,000 Geese passed through the London 
trade; each Goose averaged from 10 to 11 lb., and sold at from Bid. to Qd. per lb. These figures 
show how much the breeding of English native Geese has declined. 



A FEW WORDS ON FEN-LAND. 211 

" One thousand Geese will consume five 12-stone sacks of oats per night ; 
they eat turnips and oats, and make good manure. A Goose-house smells, 
no doubt; hut I like it. We send a few birds alive to town still, for the 
Jews, and some fowls also. The Dutch and French Geese are not so good 
for the table as the Lincolnshire ones ; ours are the best. When they used 
to travel by road, a man drove a few first ; the rest would then follow. A 
cart used to go behind to carry the corn, and to pick up the sick — though 
some Geese improve on the road. Their pace is one mile per hour, and the 
journey ten miles per day." I have seen the baby asleep in the goose-house. 

Another person states that they were driven by men with long sticks, 
each of which had a red flag to it, and it is now about thirty-one years since 
the journey by road was quite given up. They were caught with a hook 
round the neck, and marked with blue on the head, and some on the back. 

Thirty-nine years ago (i. e. about 1838) is given by a different source as 
the last time Geese walked to London. All agree that they "made bad 
neighbours ;" they used to come into the corn-fields in the night and at day- 
light, and were sad marauders *. 

Holinshed, in his ' Chronicles,' vol. i. chap ii. p. 374, has the following 
account : — 

" In the countrie, where their geese are driven to the field like heards 
of cattel by a gooseheard, it is strange to me to see or heare of geese to be 



* This habit was not confined to tame Geese, or even to Anser ferus ; for Daniel says (' Rural 
Sports,' vol. iii. p. 356) that in the winter of 1740, on the coast of Picardy, the Brent Geese spoiled 
all the corn on the sea-coast. He appears to have taken the account of this prodigious flight of 
birds from Latham (vol. x. p. 260), who remarks that they tore up by the roots all the corn near 
the sea. " The inhabitants attacked them with clubs, and killed numbers ; but the quantity was 
so great that it did not avail much ; nor were they relieved from this scourge till the nortli wind 
which had brought them had ceased." 



212 A FEW WORDS ON FEN-LAND. 

led to the field like sheape, yet so it is, and the gooseheard carrieth a rattle of 
paper or parchment with him when he goeth about in the morning to gather 
his soslinffs too-ether, the noise whereof cometh no sooner to their ears than 
they fall to gagling and hasten to go to him. If it so happen that the gates 
he not yet open, or that none of the house be stirring, it is ridiculous to see 
how they will peepe under the doores and never leaue creaking and gagling 
till they be let out unto him to ouertake their fellowes." 

Of all counties, perhaps Lincolnshire* maybe called the Goose-country ; 
but here these birds decline. 

It is worthy of remark that Geese in ancient times were not looked 
upon as poultry, but as cattle. This is frequently mentioned in the Boston 
orders for the 800 fen in the Parts of Holland, confirmed and agreed to, 15th 
May, 1627, when the " Comoners " met together " on ye feast of ye Virgin 
Mary, to make Orders and By-laws." 

Here beasts, horses or mares, sheep, swine, or geese always are classed 
together. The forfeit for putting a false brand upon his goose and sending 
it to pasture in the fen was 105. No fowler was allowed to take dogs into 
the place, or " improperly set spriniks or lyine wands." No one was to 

* The siga of "the 'Goose and Gridiron' occurs at Woodhall, Lincolnshire, and in a few 
other localities. It is said to owe its origin to the following circumstances : — The ' Mitre ' was a 
celebrated music-house in London-House Yard, at the N.W. end of St. Pauls. When it ceased 
to be a music-house, the succeeding landlord, to ridicule its former destiny, chose for his sign a 
Goose stroking the bars of a gridii'on with his foot, in ridicule of the ' Swan and Harp,' a 
common sign for the early music-houses. Such an origin does the 'Tatler' give." — History of 
Sign-Boards, by Larwood and Hotten, p. 445. Another theory of its meaning is also given. 

The design of the two Geese hanging a fox, in Sherborne ]Minster and Wellingborough, 
alludes to an ecclesiastic and liis flock : the former was not unfrequently so represented, while 
the Geese stood for the people [cf. ' History of British Humour,' vol. i. p. 206) . 

A notable instance of the use of the Goose as an emblem occurs in the case of " Avalos, 
Alfonso d'. Marquis del A'asto or del Guasto (-1-1546), Commander of the army of Charles V." {cf. 



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A FEW WORDS ON PEN-LAND. 213 

fire " with hail shoot at any fowle.'' For this oflFence he paid £o to the lord. 
" Any commoner might fish and fowle " in the fen with lawful nets, snares, 
or other " engins " at proper times ; and eighteen fengraves were elected, to 
enforce these rules. , 

A Lincolnshire gossard, with his long "driving-stick" over his shoulder, 
tipped with a red rag at one end and a hook at the other, cried formerly, and 
still continues to shout, " Lag 'um, lag 'um," as he slowly plods his weary 
way, at the rate of a mile per hour, through the fens. 

The flock are said to be much afraid of the red rag ; but what did 



Mrs. Bury Palliser's ' Historic Devices, Badges, and War-cries,' p. 38, fig. 30. I quote the account, 
and, by permission of Messrs. Sampson Low, Son, & Marston, am able to reproduce the illustration, 
which refers to a curious habit of this bird) . 




" A Goose is here representing plucking a plant with its beak, with the motto Deficiam aut 
perficiam (I will perish or succeed)." 

Pliny says of this bird : — " Their own greedie feeding is their bane ; for one while they will 
eat untill they burst againe, another while kill themselves with straining their owne selves ; for' 
if they chaunce to catch hold of a root with their bill, they will bite and pull so hard for to have 
it, that many times they breaks their own necks withaU, before they leave their hold'" (Book x. 
chap. 59). 

This is a strange, though ancient notion ; I wonder if any one ever saw a Goose which had 
died from this cause. 

In England they did not appear to approve of the bird so well as did the iMarquis, if it is true 
(as stated in the 'Daily Telegraph,' March 1, 1878) that the Heralds amerced and imprisoned a 
wealthy citizen for having called an heraldic Swan a Goose. 



214 A FEW WORDS ON FEN-LAND. 

that ancient cry mean, handed down by tradition for countless generations ? 
The Geese know the meaning, though I do not ; for it urges them on, as 
"gee" does the British horse. Has the word an affinity to the "lag" in 
Grey-lag Goose?— concerning which cf. vol. i. p. 114 ; I suspect so. 

The " 'um " is said to mean " them ;" therefore we have only " lag " to 
interpret, which bears a resemblance to the old Norse " lagda'' (laid by the 
lea-). Probably it is something of this sort — " Catch them by the leg," as 
nurses say to children " I'll catch you." 

Such a scene is here depicted in Mr. Pearson's faithful woodcut taken 
from a sketch made by Mr. Vernon Howard, Master of the Boston School of 
Art, on the road from Kirton to Boston, near to the former place, November 
1877. (Plate CV.) 

The coloured lithographs of Mr. John Taylor's flock of 800 Geese were 
photographed on purpose for this work, and have been faithfully reproduced 
by Mr. Smit. They give a real representation of a Lincolnshire flock, and, on 
a small scale, a good notion of the great droves of old days. The road is 
the Horncastle one; and the Avater is Bargate drain, which divides Boston 
from Skirbeck. (Plates CVI., CVIL, & CVIII.) 

At p. 113, vol. i., I have recorded the famous bet between the Lords 
Rockingham and Oxford for 500 guineas. What do we learn from that 
anecdote ? This, that the winner and the loser in that race were contending 
about a thing constantly before their eyes. No one would make such a bet 
now, because the state of things does not exist. 

It has been my endeavour in former articles to place upon record scraps 
of bird-lore relating to the manners and customs of times quite gone, or only 
just impinging upon my own day. 

Many of us can recollect the Christmas condition of the coaches on the 




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A FEW WORDS ON FEN-LAND. 215 

great North road in the pre-railway era. They were hung round with 
Turkeys and Geese to such a degree that you could hardly look out of the 
window or into it. 

So common in former days were droves of Geese on the road, that, when 
the parishes were inclosed, small strips of ground were left at the side as 
" Goose greens," on the principle of Arabian hospitality — a sort of religious 
duty. 

Mr. W. T. Lighton, of Frampton, informs me that a small parcel 
of pasture-ground, now a plantation, with one or two ponds in it, called 
" Grey-Goose fleet," near Frampton Church, Lincolnshire, was believed to 
have been formerly "a refuge" for Geese on their journeys to and from 
Frampton marshes. 

In Norfolk, I am told, the same custom prevailed. 

In Mogg's map of the neighbourhood of London, at the fourth milestone 
on the Camberwell Road, at the left hand, turning to Peckham Rye, appears 
a green plot, marked " Goose Green." 

In the parish of Leake, Lincolnshire, I have myself seen such a bit of 
ground by the roadside, now taken in ; but I am not sure that it was a 
goose-green, though it looked like one. 

The Goose, in fact, ruled all things ; the French even called the mark 
near the eye of fading beauty, by us known as the " crow's foot," patte d'oie 
("goose-foot"). 



In Fen-land, or close upon it, all things are fenny. Thus, in the local 
press, at this time we read at Huntingdon of a man stealing " a glaive," or 
eel-spear ; at Boston a boy shoots himself while " tenting birds ;" at Lincoln 

VOL. III. 2 1 



210 A FEW WORDS ON FEN-LAND. 

a place is described as at the back of the " Pye-wype Inn,"*—" Pye-wype " 
being the name for the Lapwing (^Vanellus cristatus), and in old household 
books simply " Wype " f . 

In Norfolk we have "Bustard's lode" (Dugdale, on Imbanking, 
p. 286). 

Thouo-h it would swell this article to an inconvenient length to notice 
half the birds of Fen-land's former days, yet one (the most rare and curious) 
must have a few words. I allude to Acrocephalus luscinioides, the Warbler of 
the Italian Savi. 

Perhaps in the 4th edition of Yarrell (c/*. vol. i. pp. 391, 392) there is 
no subject which has been more ably handled than that of this bird ; and 
among the condensed information there given, as far as I am a judge, this is 
the most interesting, viz. the evidence of Mr. Bond and Mr. John Brown, of 
Cambridge : — 

" A large extent of fen in the neighbourhood " [«'. e. of Baitsbight, on the 
river Cam, where Harvey, the lock-keeper, lived, a man I well remember when 
at the University] " was overgrown with one of the social sedges, Cladium 
mariscus, which, towards autumn, was regularly cut, and being made into 
bundles was carried by water to Cambridge to serve as kindling for fires," — 
in one case to load a gun, as stated of old Merry by Daniel. " The sedge- 
cutters used commonly to find many old nests, of singular construction, in the 
course of their work — nests which could not be assigned to any of the known 
fen-birds ; and this fact was learned by Harvey, who dealt in various objects 
of natural history. The people of the district were also aware of a reddish- 
brown bird, having a peculiar song, often heard at night (not altogether 

* We have also " Pye-wype ferry " near Lincoln, " Crane End " near Freiston, and " Snipe- 
bank," — and in Huntingdonshire : — " Gosling's Island," Whittlesea Mere, " Wild-goose leys " twicCj 
near Great Stukeley and close to Buckden ; also " Hawke's-den leys," S. Neots. 

t In Sweden the bird is still called " Vipa " [cf. Harting's ' Ornithology of Shakespeare,' 
p. 222). 



A FEW WORDS ON FEN-LAND. 217 

unlike that of the Grasshopper-Warbler, or Reeler, still quite distinct) ; and 
this bird they called indifferently the ' Brown,' ' Red,' or ' Night-Reeler.' " 
Harvey at last got these birds and eggs. They will never more be obtained 
now. 

The Editor states that Mr. Bond has the merit of pointing out the 
species as British. 

In Huntingdonshire, at Wood Walton, in 1849, a nest and eggs w^ere 
taken {cf. Yarrell, 4th edit. p. 392); and it lived at Whittlesea Mere, 
whence an adult bird is figured in Mr. Dresser's ' Birds of Europe,' 
part xxxviii. (April 1875). I need not, however, say that these localities 
will never see the species again. 

A few additional places in other counties are mentioned in the above- 
quoted works ; but this was one of our rarest fen-birds, and its extinction, 
with its curious nest, made of one material only, must be now, and ever will 
be, to British ornithologists for generations to come, a source of the deepest 
and most bitter regret. Count Wodzicki's account of its habits, in the 
' Journal fiir Ornithologie,' is so interesting that I have had his remarks 
translated, and they follow this article. 

Professor Newton has provided me with a few observations, as a 
supplement to the chapter on Savi's Warbler in the 4th edition of Yarrell : — 

"The pair of birds obtained by Mr. Joseph Clarke, of Saffron Walden 
(p. 391), must have been killed in 1840 (see 'Annals and Magazine of 
Natural History,' p. 525). 

" Mr. Bond had, in all, two nests and six birds. Of the latter, two are 
now in his collection ; one he gave to Mr. Henry Doubleday, who afterwards 
parted with it, one to Capt. Johnson, of Walton House, near Carlisle, one to 
Mr. Charles Thurnall, from whom it has passed to Mr. Newcome, and the 
sixth to Mr. Ingall, of the Bank of England, whose collection was subsequently 
sold at Mr. Stevens's auction-rooms, when the specimen was not there. 

2i 2 



218 A FEW WORDS ON FEN-LAND. 

"The nests had each four eggs in it; one he gave to the British 
Museum, and it is that figured at p. 397. Of the eggs, Mr. Thurnall had 
four : one was given to Mr. Yarrell, and was bought by me at his sale ; the 
remaining three were in Mr. Bond's collection when he sold it. 

" I know of two other British specimens of the bird which are not 
mentioned by me. These are a pair obtained in this county in 1845, and now 
in the collection of Mr. Thompson, of Winlaton ; while the nest and three 
eggs, procured at the same time, are in that of Mr. Hancock." 

I may add that 1 have one supposed British specimen, detected in a 
case among other old and ragged specimens of Reed-Warblers, Sedge- 
Warblers, &c. from Cambridge ; but I never think much of such things if 
there is the least doubt about them. 



Another bird, more common than the last, but now rapidly becoming 
more and more scarce, is the Spotted Crake (Crea? porzana). In the 
Huntingdonshire and Cambridgeshire fens its eggs were obtained Avhen I 
was a young collector. The last nest, near Whittlesea Mere, in the former 
county, is stated by Mr. Stevenson, on Mr. Newton's authority, to have been 
found in 1849 (' Birds of Norfolk,' vol. ii. p. 394, note). 

I have a male specimen of this Crake in my collection, shot at St. Ives, 
Huntingdonshire, December 2, 1868 ; Mr. Stevenson says that, in Norfolk, 
they take their departure to the south about the end of October. 

Such a marsh- and reed-loving species must soon become extinct 
in England. 



'&* 



Daniel states (' Rural Sports,' vol. iii. p. 2G4) that in the fens an annual 
driving of flappers into nets took place, and records that at Spalding, in two 
days of what is called "the ducking," 2646 Mallards were taken. 

By the Act 10 George II., c. 32, this is not allowed from June 1st to 
October 1st. 



A FEW WORDS ON FEN-LAND. 219 

A bird still numerous, but much diminished, is the Coot (^Fiilica atra). 
Formerly the numbers were countless ; and Mr. Stevenson tells us of the 
"Coot-custard fair" at Hornsey, held in the spring, when nothing but 
Coot's and Black-headed Gull's eggs were used to make the puddings &c. 
('Birds of Norfolk,' vol. ii. p. 429). 



In this short paper many birds of the fen-district must be passed over ; 
but a notice of the heronry of Whittlesea Mere, now that both it and its 
birds are gone, must not be left out. 

In some old MS. notes, in the handwriting of the late John WoUey, a 
good authority, which have been kindly lent to me by Professor Newton, it 
is stated that Herons formerly bred "amongst the reeds at Whittlesea Mere, 
afterwards in Monkswood, Alconbury Hill, Huntingdonshire; but being 
unprotected there," they "went to Lord Fitzwilliam's, Milton Park, near 
Peterborousfh." 



*&* 



There was a fine shore of reeds at the Mere, a quarter of a mile deep, 
which in former days would be a paradise for Herons. 



I cannot quit this subject without a word upon the Starling. While 
all around is decay, he at least promises to hold his own ; and with joy I 
recoirnize the fact. 



'&' 



The damage to the reeds when, in autumn, heavy flights of Starlings 
came to pass the night was considerable. 

Pridmore, a good authority on fen matters, before quoted by me (in 
" Bird-nets "), among other heavy shots tells me of one in particular, from 
a boat, at daybreak, on the north side of Whittlesea Mere, on a reed-bed. 



220 A FEW WORDS ON FEN-LAND. 

Forty-two dozen were picked up at once ; and subsequently several dozen 
more, with broken wings, were secured. The owners of the reeds were 
obhged to erect high platforms to stand on and shoot ; otherwise they would 
break down acres. The discharge used to plough a lane in them ; to use the 
words of an eye-witness to me, " the shots used to cut a road through both 
reeds and birds." 

The same is done in Egypt at the present day. " To protect the growing 
crops, the fellaheen often construct little stands for boys armed with slings, 
who acquire a wonderful dexterity in bringing down their feathered game " 
('Land of the Pharoahs,' by the Rev. S. Manning, LL.D., p. 87). 

The gyrations and changing figures of a large flock of Starlings as they 
rise from the ground, and rapidly alter the form of their dense cloud, is to 
me one of the most beautiful objects in nature. It has been so well described 
by the Editor of the 4th edition of Yarrell (part xi. pp. 237 & 238) that I 
cannot repeat the process ; that description should be read. | 

Next to the pleasure of watching their flight is that of hearing the sound 
of their voices. Hence the term in old writers, " a murmuration of Starlings." 
It is the noise of a multitude, each member of which chides, soothes, or 
complains, according to his special wants in the struggle. 

This " murmuration " has been described to me by an old fenman at 
Whittlesea Mere, as coming from its deep reed shore ; and he assured me 
that, under the wind, you could hear the sounds of the congregation a 
quarter of a mile ofl^. 

Even a well-used Sparrow-roost (in old laurels, perhaps) has its charms 
at sundown. It contains an immense number of birds, each of whom fights 
for a good place to pass the night in the common shelter ; and the chatter 
which goes on can be heard for a long distance. Such a one, familiar to me 
in the days of childhood, comes back now to my mind. 



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A FEW WORDS ON FEN-LAND. 221 

Hardly any thing is more characteristic of the fens than the decoys, 
which have been so often described that it is needless to repeat the process. 

Lubbock says (' Fauna of Norfolk,' p. 105) : — 

" Blomefield names one of a distinguished Norfolk family as the founder 
of decoys : — ' Sir Wilham, son of Sir William Woodhouse, Uved in the reign 
of James the First, and is said to have been the first person v^^ho, in England, 
invented and erected decoys for taking wild Ducks.' " 

Pishey Thompson states C History of Boston,' p. 676) : — 

" In one season, a few years previous to the inclosure of the fens, ten 

decoys, five of which were in the parish of Friskney, furnished 31,200 Ducks, 

Widgeon, and Teal for the London market." 

Decoys are fast going out of fashion ; they will hardly last much longer. 
The woodcut of the one now at Friskney is from a sketch in my own collection 
of such things, recently taken by Mr. Vernon Howard, School-of- Art Master 
at Boston. (Plate CIX.) 

At Whittlesea Mere, a good authority tells me that fifty dozen Ducks 
have been taken in one day, and two hundred dozen in seven days. As for 
Coots, "which came in moonlight nights in great lumps," they used to 
take their eggs in bushels. When the water rose into the nest they would 
start again, and build a fresh one on the spoilt sitting of eggs. 



ON SAYI'S WARBLER. 



By Count CASIMIR WODZICKI. 



['Journal fiir Ornithologie,' 1. Jahrgang, 1853^ Extraheft, in a paper by Count Casimir Wodzicki, 
with the title " N. 7. Einige Beobachtungen iiber die drei schwirrenden Rohrsanger : Salicaria 
locustella, fluviatilis, und Calamoherpe luscinioides" (as continuation of the article by Dr. 
LudvT. Thienemann, in the second part of the Journal 'Rhea/ 1848, p. 216), page 48.] 



3. CALAMOHERPE LUSCINIOIDES (Savi). 

All the upper parts rusty brown ; underparts tinged with rusty yellowish 
colour, darker on the flanks as well as on the lower tail-coverts. Bill rather 
slender, compressed ; above the eyes there is an indication of a light fine 
stripe. Length of the bird from 5" 6'" to 6" 2'", most individuals about 
5" 9'", the breadth 9". The birds are smaller and more slender than Salicaria 
fluviatilis ; the tail is less broad ; upper mandible brownish black, under 
mandible yellowish ; the tarsi are of a fleshy colour, as well as the mouth ; 
eyes dark brown ; on the tail are some darker stripes. Most of the males offer 
indistinct spots on the throat, of a darker colour than that of the breast ; but 
this is no characteristic. 

Calamoherpe luscinioides is a true bird of the reeds (which it never 
leaves), quarrelsome, always in motion — now on the ground, now on the 

VOL. III. 2 K 



224 ON SAVI'S WARBLER. 

reeds. It is never seen sitting quiet; in spring-time it often flies into the 
air, roves about, and throws itself down again, with the wings folded back- 
wards, like the Hedge-Sparrow, but without singing. I often saw it, like 
Parus biarmicus, moving on the stalk of a reed from below to the top. Much 
more confident than S.Jluviatilis, it is also more curious. Hearing a noise it 
flies from the ground, sits down on the reed, and looks astonished at the dog 
or the hunter. With quiet dogs it is easily induced to stir ; and then it can 
be shot on the wing. 

C luscinioides and P. biarmicus have this in common with the Crossbills, 
that in some years very few of them come to breed, in others indefinitely 
large numbers. Last year only two pairs bred, whereas this year there are 
hundreds. It is just the contrary with S. Jluviatilis ; last season they 
occurred frequently, in this only rarely in the same localities. 

Calamoherpe luscinioides is further distinguished by its temper. It 
is extremely passionate, eager for combat. In the breeding-time male and 
female, or rivals, pursue each other close to the feet of the observer, even 
after a shot ; they even make their reeling noise while in danger. Male and 
female sit so steadily on the nest that they can be looked at very well ; 
frightened away, they return immediately wdthout constraint, either on the 
wing or hopping from branch to branch up to the nest. They leave in the 
same way, but seldom on foot, as is the custom of S. Jluviatilis ; this is only 
done when the nest is near the ground. 

The nest is in the old high reeds, in the midst of the dense grass, only 
exceptionally in the high grass or on a grass-tuft. Without being inter- 
woven it rests firm, on broken reeds, commonly six inches above the level 
of the water, sometimes also two or three feet ; and it is very well concealed. 
If one sees the small bird, and on the other hand the rough material of the 



ON SAVrS WARBLER. 225 

nest, the diligent work really must be declared wonderful; for the nest 
consists of broad carefully interwoven leaves of the reed, and it is so polished 
inside that the eggs roll. An inexperienced person would take it for the 
nest of the smallest Moor-hen, so much is it similar to this, only smaller. 
The greater number of the nests are pointed, broad above, quite conical, 
4" high, 3" 6'" broad, 2" 6'" deep. The depth varies much— from 2" 6'" to 
3" 9'". The deepest must excite admiration ; they are hardly 2" 6'" broad, 
and one can scarcely believe that the breeding female touches the eggs with 
its belly. 

I often observed, when these tender birds build their nest, how 
troublesome it is for them to bring the material together. In the beginning 
this is done by male and female ; later the female does it alone, while the 
male takes the leaves from the bill of the female and alone continues weavino^. 
The male is gay and diligent at work, and continually utters the monotonous 
" hrrr, hrrr." 

The call of both male and female is like that of S.Jluviatilis — a short ''krr." 
This noise has an agreeable tone ; far off it appears to be in one's own ear. 
He who has heard, on fat morasses, the noise of the bubbles which quickly 
ascend to the surface of the water, can well imagine the song of Calamoherpe 
luscinioides. Often the sound is higher or lower, without the dominating 
" r ;" just as if one repeated quickly the letters " gl, gl, gl, ffl, gl." Here, as 
in S.Jluviatilis, the voice has the singularity that it misleads the ear; for 
often one attempts to follow the sound in a wrong direction. They sing 
high or low, but sit quiet, the head bent somewhat back, the neck stretched, 
the throat much dilated : the exertion is evident. 

During the breeding- season the song is continued diligently the whole 
day, till sunset ; later, in the night, I did not hear it. 

2k 2 



226 ON SAVl'S WARBLER. 

The bird's activity in running and creeping about in the day-time rubs 
the plumage very much. In the month of July, therefore, it is entirely worn 
out ; the tail especially always is defective. 

The young ones are similar to the old ones ; but they are much more 
rusty red on the belly, and may easily be confounded with C. arundinacea 
before they are full-grown. 

When the family is grown up, all emigrate into the high grass, the reeds 
are left. There they remain till late in the month of September, always on 
the wet ground. 

C. luscinioides is perhaps the reed-bird which remains longest with 
us. 'I he number of the eggs is mostly five, sometimes four. The bird only 
breeds once in every summer, either at the end of the month of May 
or in the beginning of June. The later young ones are from disturbed 
broods. 



The eggs vary very much in form and colour. They are rounded, 
bellied, seldom lengthy, never pointed, always without gloss. In the same 
nest the eggs are similar to each other. The ground-colour is whitish, often 
quite chalky white, with fine points (just as on the eggs of S. fliiviatilis) at 
the end. Those coloured in this way are most similar to the eggs of the 
species before named. 

Other eggs are chalky white, sparingly sprinkled with larger, yellowish- 
brown and blackish-violet points ; the crown cannot be well seen, because 
it originates from spots of the inner shell. These eggs could be confounded 
with those of S. curruca. 

Finally, there occur others with a dirty -white ground, which hardly can 



ON SAVrS WARBLER. 227 

be seen on account of light-brownish and violet spots covering the end 
totally. Such specimens remind one of those of Anthus or Alauda arborea. 

The length is 8j"' to 11'", the breadth 7'" to 9'". They differ so much 
that, of the eight sets which I collected in the spring, only two show any 
resemblance. Their weight is 1| to 2 grms. ; but most remain under 
2 grms. 

The nests are not at all lined inside, and have not the least similarity 
to those of the Sylviads, Salicarias, or Calamoherpes ; for they show the 
material, the structure, and the form of the nests of the small Moor-hens. 



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ON THE BREEDING-PLACES OF 
TWO MEMBERS OF THE BRITISH ANATID^. 

By Mr. G. D. ROWLEY. 

(Plate ex.) 



ANAS FULIGULA. The Tufted Duck. 

The woodcut which illustrates this article is copied from a photograph sent 
to me by Mr. Whitaker, whose communication on the subject appeared in 
'The Field,' May 19, 1877 :— 

" Tufted Duck breeding in Nottinghamshire. 

"Judging from the numerous letters which have appeared in 'The 
Field ' lately on wildfowl breeding in England, it seems to be considered 
rather a rare event for the Tufted Duck to be found nesting in this country. 
Mr. Harting, in his very interesting paper on wildfowl last week, mentions 
a few counties in which they breedj and, amongst other localities, names some 
in Nottinghamshire. 

" Now, so far as my own experience goes, it is not at all an uncommon 
event for this Duck to stay and nest in Nottinghamshire, at least in this 
neighbourhood. At the present time, within a mile of where T am sitting. 



230 ON THE BREEDING-PLACES OF 

there are from twelve to fifteen pairs of Tufted Ducks staying to nest. Only 
on Sunday last, when walking round the lake here, I saw eight pairs of these 
birds. 

" Tufted Ducks have bred in this water for the last thirty-five years. A 
great many breed at Newstead Abbey. They may also be found breeding at 
Thorsby, Rufford, on the ponds in the forest, Park Hall, and Oxten Bogs — 
in fact, in most suitable places near here. 

" This Duck begins to sit very late, seldom before the last week in May 
or the beginning of June. Last year about fifty young ones were bred on 
the lake here. 

" Rainworth Lodge, Mansfield." " "^ ' WHTTAKER. 

It was intended to photograph or draw the Ducks, with the young ones, 
in the lake ; but this was not found to be possible. 

Bewick (quoting Latham) says : — "The French allow these birds to be 
eaten on maigre days, and in Lent." 



ANAS FERINA. The Pochard. 

I have mentioned (anted,, vol. ii. p. 411) that this Duck used to breed 
at Scoulton, on the authority of Mr. Morris ; but I find, in the first edition 
of Yarrell, that Messrs. Sheppard and Whitear, in their ' Norfolk Catalogue 
of Birds,' mention the fact in 1825 ; while the Rev. R. Lubbock (' Fauna of 
Norfolk, p. 112) says, in 1845; — "I have heard from an accurate observer 
that he has shot young Pochards at Scoulton, and that flappers of this species 
were not uncommon there, but that the quagmire where they were found 
was so rotten, and the reeds so high, that the difficulty of shooting them was 
very great." In a note, he remarks that "the Pochard has ceased to breed 
at Scoulton;" I am sorry to add that in 1877, when I visited the place, it 
had not returned. 



TWO OF THE BRITISH ANATID^. 231 

Wassand Mere, Yorkshire, near Hull, is, perhaps, as famous as any 
breeding-place of this bird. Here it is protected by Henry Strickland 
Constable, Esq., of Wassand, and may be seen in great numbers. He has 
kindly furnished me with the following particulars : — 

" The mere is nearly five hundred acres in extent ; and the deepest part is 
about fourteen feet. It contains two islands ; and the country round is rather 
flat. Three years ago [i. e. from 1877] the Pochards laid at the usual time in 
the reeds ; but the rain fell so continuously that all the eggs were destroyed 
by the rising waters of the mere." 

I have in my collection, a sitting of eggs from this spot, presented to 
me in 1841 by the late Mr. H, B. Milner ; but these need no description. 

Mr. J. C. Mansel-Pleydell has kindly sent me a copy of his list of the 
rarer birds of Dorsetshire. In it he does not mention that the Pochard 
breeds there; but in the ' Zoologist,' 3rd ser. Sept. 1877, p. 385 ("Ornitho- 
logical Notes from Dorsetshire "), he says : — 

" At one of these lakes [Poole and Studland] Pochards have bred for 
the last three years. In the spring of 1875 a male Pochard, incapacitated 
from accompanying his companions northwards by a fractured wing, was 
fortunate enough to induce a female to remain with him, and a brood of young 
red-heads appeared on the lake, which was so carefully and successfully 
watched that the following year (1876) three broods were hatched." 

At p. 386 Mr. T. M. Pike, of Westport, Wareham, mentions, in an 
interesting article, that on a pool in the above county thirty Pochards had 
been hatched this year ; " but the eels, or other fish, had destroyed the greater 
part of them." 

A writer in 'The Field,' November 17th, 1877 (p. 574), records an 
unusually late brood of the common wild Duck at Rhiwlas, Bala : " last 
week," while out shooting, he came across an old bird with twelve young 
ones. 

VOL. III. 2 1. 



ORNITHOLOGICAL MISCELL/^JIY. 




J frlieiil emails Utn 



Ha.-ahart -ixrrD 



ENTRANCE OT KINGSTOV/N H/JIBOUR. 

SKETCHEr JULY 1S50. 



LARUS TRIDACTYLUS. 

(The Kittiwake Gull.) 

By Mr. G. D. ROWLEY. 

(Plate CXI.) 



The lithograph is taken from a sketch made off Kingstown Harbour, Ireland, 
in 1850. 



On the south coast round Brighton we get fewer Kittiwakes than other 
Gulls ; and I find them difficult to keep in the gullery here. One has con- 
trived, however, to hold its own for some years, and waddles about on its 
short legs among the more graceful Black -headed and common Gulls. 

When once the feeding-ofF is done (a dangerous time — just after their 
arrival), we rarely lose an individual. 

Matrimonial differences, in spite of all precautions, sometimes cost a 
life in the spring ; but our birds are very healthy, and we have some aged 
ones among them. 

2l 2 



234 LARUS TRIDACTYLUS. 

On a bright day, with plenty of sun, a lot of Kittiwakes crowding onto 
a buoy is at once a common and a pretty sight off Kingstown ; and I have 
watched them often. 



Mr. W. Mattieu Wilhams, in his book 'Through Norway' (pp. 109 & 
110), describes a breeding-place of Kittiwakes near the North Cape- 
"Spirte Njarga Sverholtklubben." 

He says, " the Fuglebjerg, forming a part of this promontory, presents 
one of the most wonderful displays of animal life to be seen in any part of 
the world." 

He speaks of a series of ledges above a thousand feet high. " On these 
ledges, which extend along the face of the rock for more than a mile, and 
are about two or three feet apart, are perched hundreds of thousands of sea- 
birds, all squatting side by side, and equidistant from each other, about eight 
or ten inches apart, in horizontal rows, their white breasts contrasting 
strongly with the black rock behind. 

" The regularity of their arrangement on the ledges is very grotesque ; 
they appear like an audience of a million or two of male pigmies in evening 
dress — all shirt-front — occupying accurately measured seats. They are, for 
the most part, the Kittiwake. 

" On blowing the steam-whistle a roar of wings is heard, mingled with 
harsh wailing screams, and a huge cloud rises from the face of the rock and 
darkens the sky. I have seen great clouds of sea-birds on the coast of 
Scotland, but nothing approaching this astounding multitude. I dare 
not estimate their numbers, not having any means of estimating the 
area of the living cloud, and the number of strata composing it, nor any 



LARUS TRIDACTYLUS. 235 

experience of the appearance which a milhon or two of such rapidly- 
moving Hving things would present. The sight was worth a special journey 
to behold." 



Captain H. W. Feilden says (Ibis, October 1877, 4th ser. vol. i. 
p. 409): — 

"We did not observe it [the Kittiwake] to the northward after 
entering the ice of Smith's Sound; and in 1876 no specimen was seen as 
the expedition returned south, until the north water of Baffin's Bay was 
reached." 



REMARKS ON THE EXTINCT GIGANTIC BIRDS 
OF MADAGASCAR AND NEW ZEALAND. 

By Mr. G. D. ROWLEY. 

(Plates CXIL to CXV.; 

With much regret I find that the ' Ornithological Miscellany ' has arrived 
at a conclusion without any papers on Fossil Ornithology — a subject, as I 
apprehend, yet in its infancy, but one, to my mind, almost exceeding ia 
interest that of the more recent period, as the facts which it is gradually 
unfolding are of an astonishing nature. 

In truth, with respect to fossil ornithology, and extinct birds in general, 
we may repeat the sentiment of Newton's regret before his death, that " the 
great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before him." Not that I am 
oblivious of such labours as those contained in M. Milne-Edwards's 
magnificent ' Oiseaux Fossiles de la France,' or of the exertions of such men 
as Owen, Haast, Hector, Alfred Newton, and Marsh in America, in this 
happy field of useful toil ; but the view opened out is so vast that I may 
justly regard fossil ornithology as hardly begun. With what joy Linnajus, 
that man of almost faultless character, that saint of science, would have 
received these things* had he lived in this day. 

* I mean such bii-ds as these : — Odontopteryx, in the Mesozoic strata, with processes not 
teeth but resembling them ; in Cretaceous strata Hesperornis regalis, a Grebe six feet high, with 



238 THE EXTINCT GIGANTIC BIRDS OF 

Taking Mpyornis of Madagascar first, I have figured the perfect egg of 
Mpyornis maocimus in my own collection. 

This specimen (Plate CXIL), when I purchased it, was one of the very 
few then discovered, and quite new to England. Reading a paper* upon it 
before the Zoological Society, November 28, 1867, I pointed out, from the 
fragments of other eggs kindly presented to me by M. Alfred Grandidier, of 
Paris, the certainty that another species must have existed ; and I further 
stated that the new one, which I named M. grandidieri, must have been much 
smaller than yE. maximus. 

In the lithograph (Plate CXIII. no. 3) the difference of granulation 
between these two species, and thickness of shell, may be observed, jE. 
grandidieri being half that of jE. maximus. 

In the interesting article by M. Alphonse Milne-Edwards and M. A. 
Grandidier, received from them December 22, 1869, I find that they have 
clearly established three very distinct species — jE. maximus, JE. medius, and 
JS. modestus, the last by no means a large bird. With which of these, if 
any, jE. grandidieri corresponds, I am not at present able to state for certain : 
M. medius looks like it. 

These very competent authors deliver it as their opinion that, " if the 
Mpyornis was not the tallest among birds, it was evidently the largest and 
heaviest — the most elephantine ;" and this has always accorded with my view. 

In passing, I may call attention to the enormous thickness of the shell 



teeth set in grooves, and Ichthyornis, a Pigeon, also with teeth in sockets j in addition^ Archaopteryx 
macrwus, Owen, of the Lithographic limestone at Pappenheim, near Solenhofen, Bavaria (a rock 
of the Upper Oolite) , with its wonderful tail of twenty vertebrae ; and many another, too numerous 
to mention here. 

* Cf. my translation of M. Grandidier's paper, " Observations sur le gisement des ceufs de 
VEpiornis," Ibis, 2nd ser. vol. iv. (1868) p. 65. Also a paper upon the egg oi Mpyornis maximus, 
by G. D. Rowley (Triibner, 1864). 




lErxieLen 'ix'Oti. 



^PYORKIS¥AXIMUS MADAGASCAR, IN the coLLiiCTioii 

•DRAWN FROM THE 



ORNITHOLOGICAL MIS CELL AFT YOL IIL 











' G D.ROWLEY, actual size, with the thickness of the shell. 

NAL F."EB. 3 18 78. 



Hankart imp. 



ORNITHOLOGICAL MISCELLAM^' VOL III 





J.'Erdeljen iiiK. 



'-■SSSSKi^S! 



frtsSW»"r~- 



^PYORNISMAXIMUS MADAGASCAR, IN the collection o^M" GDRqwley ,rru.r 

■DRAWN FROM THE cwgjm^j^ ^^^ ^. AC i UAL SIZE, WITH THE THICKNESS OF THE SHELL. 



MADAGASCAR AND NEW ZEALAND. 239 

of the egg of the largest species*. What prodigious strength must have been 
necessary in the young bird to enable it to burst forth when ready to be 
hatched ! It is possible that a very strong temporary sheath was furnished 
to the tip of the beak for this purpose. 

In Col. Henry Yule's fine work, ' The Book of Ser Marco Polo the 
Venetian,' 1st edit. vol. ii. pp. 349 & 350, we have some account of the 
" Rukh"f ; and he says : — "The circumstance which for the time localized 
the Rukh in the direction of Madagascar was, perhaps, some rumour of 
the great fossil JEpyornis, and its colossal eggs found in that island." 

However this may be, I must here express my opinion that the Rukh, 
Rue, or Roc never had any thing to do with the Mpyornis. The Roc, if any 
thing (and I think it was something), clearly appears to have been a bird of 
flight, which the JEpyornis certainly was not ; neither was it a bird of prey, 
as is proved by the bones. 

To clip the wings of the Roc is to un-Roc him. "What, then, was the 
Roc ? Have we any knowledge of enormous powers of flight in a fossil 
raptor ? We have, in Harpagornis moorei'l, lately discovered in IS ew Zealand ; 
and it is not impossible that some other gigantic raptor may turn up in 
Madagascar, which, with plenty of exaggeration, may be the origin of the Roc. 
Such should be looked for ; but, in any case, Mpyornis was not the Roc. 

The fine illustrations of the bones of JEpyornis with which M. Milne- 
Edwards and M. Grandidier have accompanied their article are most valuable. 

* M. Milne-Edwards and M. Grandidier mention one specimen, on the authority of 
M. Sganzin, the greater axis of which was pierced by a stick in order that it might be used 
to crush rice. 

t Col. Yule has figured one of the eggs of ^. maximus, now in the British Museum. This 
illustration does not appear in his second edition. The artist seems to have made the specimen too 
pointed. 

X Cf. papers by Prof. Owen ; also Dr. Julius Haast's article on the extinct genus Harpagornis, 
Trans. New-Zeal. Inst. vol. vi. p. 62. 

VOL. III. 2 M 



240 THE EXTINCT GIGANTIC BIRDS OF 

DINOENIS. 

Among the most interesting relics of these enormous inhabitants of 
New Zealand, the Moa-stones may be ranked. I have figured six (Plate 
CXIII. no 1), of the actual size, selected from a lot of fifty belonging to the 
same bird (i. e. found in one heap) and kindly sent to me from New Zealand, 
in the 'True Briton' ship, direct, by Dr. Haast, received October 20, 1874. 
Some of these are very pretty, and could be set into a pin. 

I have other Moa-stones of larger dimensions, but not belonofins: to 
this lot, 

Plate CXIII. no. 2, represents similar stones taken out of a King 
Penguin (Aptenochjtes pennanti) from the Falkland Islands, and brought to 
Plymouth in 1867, being the second living bird ever seen in England. 

These stones were mixed with beaks of cuttlefish, and were presented 
to me by Mr. F. Bond (cf. 'Land and Water,' October 25, 1873; also 
'Zoologist,' December 1868, p. 1483, ahd February 1874, p. 3883). 

The transparent nature of the Moa-pebbles and the opaque* character 
of the Penguin-stones are well given, and show the different localities in 
which the two birds lived. 



* Curiously enough, as I write this article, I observe the follo-n-ing in 'The Field/ 
March 9th, 1878 :— 

At the meeting of the Zoological Society on Tuesday, March 5, " Professor Newton drew 
attention to the statement of Leguat that every Solitaii-e {Pezophaps solitaria) contained a large 
single stone in its gizzard, and exhibited one of three stones found by Mr. Caldwell associated with 
the remains of as many bu-ds of that species in the caves of Rodriguez. Each of these stones was 
found under the breast-bone of the skeleton of this extinct animal. The largest specimen was 
about 2| inches in length by 2 inches in breadth. All were alike composed of basaltic lava, which 
does not occm- in the immediate neighbourhood of the caves in which the remains of the Solitaire 
are found." 

The fact that the stone was single is worthy of remark, and means something. 



ORNITHOLOGICAL MISCELLAOT. 




''^mu 



■'%. 






«fe>^i 






J. Smit lith.. 



KaTitart unp. 



1.GIZZAEI3 STONES OF THE MOA. 

2^ Do Do. OEKIN& PENGUIN APTENODYTESPENNANTII. 

3 TEAGMEET OF THE EGG OF ^PYORNIS MAXIMUS 
4, Do. Do. ^PYORNIS GRANDIDIERI. 

SHOWmG THE DIFFEEENCE OF GRANULATION &. THICKNESS INEACH SPECIES. 



MADAGASCAR AND NEW ZEALAND. 241 

I have examined and made collections of similar stones from various 
birds, such as Wood-Grouse (Tetrao urogallus), Norway Blackcock, 
Ptarmigan, tame Goose, &c. ; but no particular results present themselves. 

The general function of these stones, and their use in the gizzard of 
the possessor, may be understood by refei'ence to the article by Mr. A. H. 
Garrod, Prosector to the Zoological Society (P. Z. S. 1872, p. 525, with two 
figures). He gives an explanation of the action of the gizzard, " as a simple 
crushing-organ " which produces " a most powerful compression of the 
contents." 

The Prosector speaks twice of " sharp-pointed stones ;" I may, how- 
ever, remark that though doubtless some may be sharp-pointed when 
swallowed, they quickly become rounded, and that I never took one other- 
wise than smooth out of the gizzard of a bird. In this condition it appears 
to me best adapted for the crushing process which is well described by the 
Prosector, and increasing the triturating-power. 



It is not my purpose to enter into the history of the Moa. Those who 
wish to go into the subject will doubtless read the valuable series of memoirs 
on the various species by Professor Owen, in the ' Transactions ' of the 
Zoological Society, and also the articles by Dr. Haast and Dr. Hector in the 
New-Zealand ' Transactions,' to which may be added Mr. W. T. L. Travers's 
paper on its extinction, in the same work 

There is, however, one point I would mention. Hitherto the abortion 
of the wings of Dinornis, Jpteryx, and other New-Zealand birds has been 
attributed to the circumstance of the non-existence of any destructive 
mammal or great raptor in those islands. Hence, it has been said, a luxurious 
ease was engendered, and there was no necessity for flight. 

But how is this to be reconciled with the discovery of Harpagornis 

2m 2 



242 THE EXTINCT GIGANTIC BIRDS OF 

moorei*? What a nice feast would an Aptenjx be to this bird! When 
once we embark in the region of speculation, we find ourselves in danger. 
Dr. Rudolf Virchow has well said, with reference to such a thing . — 
" Do not take this for an estabhshed truth ; be prepared to find that it 
is otherwise ; only for the moment we are of opinion that it may possibly 

be so " f. 

Certainly, " for the moment," I am of opinion that destructive agency is 
a factor no longer to be regarded as having been absent from the area of 
the Moa — provided always, however, that the Apteryx and Harpagornis were 
contemporaneous, as would appear. 

Respecting the debated question of the antiquity of the Dinornis, after 
careful perusal of such evidence as we have, I am convinced that the bird 
belonged to very ancient days, but that favourable circumstances prolonged 
its existence to a quite recent period. We shall probably never know its 
true history, any more than we shall learn the wonders of Mr. Sclater's sunk 
continent Lemuria : the former is obliterated by the waves of time, the latter 
by those of the Pacific Ocean. 

The thin shell of the egg of the Moa, resembling that of the Apteryx, 
must strike the ooloo;ist who is familiar with the frao-ments of the 
species of jEpyornis; nevertheless the bifid character of the feather of 
the Moa (N.Z. Trans, vol. iv. pi. 7) is very diverse from that of the 
Apteryx (cf. Ornith. Misc. vol. i. p. 24, plate vi.), whilst it resembles that 
of the Emu. 



* For au account of this species, read Dr. Julius Haast's interesting article, Trans. N.Z. Inst, 
vol. vi. 1873, p. 63. 

t " Die Freiheit der Wissenschaft im modernen Staat " (" The Freedom of Science in the 
Modern State"), 'Times,' January 29, 1878. 



MADAGASCAR AND NEW ZEALAND. 243 

Before leaving these gigantic eggs, it may be well to remind my 
readers of the Russian StruthioUthus chersonensis, whose ess far exceeds 
that of the Ostrich, without, however, rivalling, except in the most distant 
degree, that of the Mpyornis (cf. Ibis, 1874, 3rd ser. vol. iv. p. 4). 

I have in vain tried to trace this unique specimen, with a view 
to make it available to science, but without success. The granulation, as 
described in the above article, appears to me peculiar and to need further 
investigation. 



It is always desirable to know what has become of type specimens, so 
that they may be available for future reference. I therefore mention that I 
have in my collection the bones of Dinornis maximus, figured by Professor 
Owen in the 'Transactions of the Zoological Society,' vol. vi. plates Ixxxix. 
& xc, being a femur, metatarsus, and tibia, concerning which he says 
(p. 497):— "In March 1867 I was favoured by Major J. Michael, of the 
Madras Staff Corps, with the opportunity of inspecting . . . . " [the above], 
"which had been discovered, in August 1865, on the Glenmark estate 
of ' Kermode & Co.,' about 45 miles from Christ Church, Canterbury 
Settlement, Middle Island, New Zealand," about four feet below the surface, 
in a bog, in such juxtaposition as to lead to the inference that these 
were the bones of the same leg (the left). I purchased these of Major 
Michael's agent for £25. They were supposed to be the largest ever 
found ; I do not know if others of greater dimensions have since come 
to lisfht. 



'»* 



In my possession are many other bones of different species of Moa ; but 
they have no historic interest. 

It remains only to say a few words on the Plates of the two eggs of the 



244 THE EXTINCT GIGANTIC BIRDS OF 

Moa. The one of D. ingens (Plate CXIV.) is the unique specimen, now in 
ray collection, Avhich I purchased for £100. The other lithograph, of Dinornis 
crassus (Plate CXV.), has been kindly presented to me by Professor Owen, 
for the purpose of this article. Both are of the actual size. These will be 
published in the quarto work, in two volumes, by the Professor, ' Memoirs 
on the Wingless Birds of New Zealand ' *. 



My own egg has a hole on the underside, made by the pickaxe of the 
finder, which does not much injure its appearance. The following account 
was in the ' Times,' October 17, 1865 : — 

" Curious Ornithological Relic. 

" Mr. G. D. Lockhart's ship ' Ravenscraig,' Captain D. B. Inglis, of 
London, just arrived from New Zealand, reports having brought home a 
curious relic of the ancient ornithology of those islands, in the form of an 
egg of the Moa, or Dinornis, of New Zealand. 

" The egg is alleged to have been discovered under somewhat singular 
circumstances. While some labourers were marking out a site to build 
upon, in the Wairakie district, a pick struck upon a cave. On opening it, 
it was found to contain the skeleton of a Maori, in a crouching position, 
holding with both hands the egg, and in such a manner as if death came 
upon the unfortunate native while in the act of partaking of the contents of 
the egg. 

" Although the shell is slightly broken, the gigantic proportions of the 
egg yet remain perfect. It measures about 9 inches in length and 7 inches 
in diameter. 



* ' Memoirs on the Wingless Birds of New Zealand/ 2 vols., 4to, with 124 plates (4to and 
folio) and numerous woodcuts, published by J. Erxleben, 2 Henrietta Street, Brunswick Square, 
London. 




i 



/ ' J 



Aff"- 



1 

Wat, size. 











Promnat onstonelij JBiadeLen. 



EGG OF DINORNIS MGENS, 



M*,N Hajiliarl ; 



2. 




ri^-H^'*^ "*■ -^'" 






» > 



IT 






^^iH' 



Nat size. 



X 



\ 



uh 



I n 







J Endeben de] el Kth. 



M&,N.HarJiart i 



EGG OF DINORNIS CRASSUS. 



MADAGASCAR AND NEW ZEALAND. 245 

"The ' Ravenscraig ' left Wellington June 21, Pernambuco August 25, 
and arrived in the Downs on Saturday. On July 3 she was struck by a 
tremendous sea, which swept her deck, doing a great deal of damage. On 
July 14, in ]53°S., 113° W., James Faddie, the second officer, fell overboard 
and was drowned, while the ship was running in a heavy gale. — Renter s 
Express." 

This specimen was put up to auction at Stevens's rooms, Covent 
Garden, on November 24, 1865, where I bid 100 guineas. It was, however, 
at that time bought in for £200. 



A description was issued by the vendors, which is as follows : — 

"The following account of the singular discovery of this egg was 
published in the Wellington papers : — 

" ' Discovery of a Moa's Egg at the Kai Koras. 

" ' There is at the present time being exhibited at Messrs. Bethune and 
Hunter's stores, for the benefit of the curious, an object of no less interest 
than the egg of a Moa, another relic of the rara avis of New Zealand. The 
egg is of itself an object of no common interest to ordinary people; but it 
must be still more so to those who watch narrowly the development of 
natural history in its relations to this colony; and the circumstances connected 
with the finding are calculated to lend a still greater, not to say romantic, 
interest to it. 

" ' It appears from what we learn from Captain Davidson, of the schooner 
' Ruby,' which trades between this port and the Kai Koras, that a man in 
Mr. Fyffe's employment at the latter place was digging the foundation of a 
house, and when on the side of a small mound he suddenly came upon the 
egg in question and the skeleton of a man, supposed of course to be a 



246 THE EXTINCT GIGANTIC BIRDS OF 

Maori. The body had evidently been buried in a sitting posture ; and the 
egg must have been placed in the hands, as when found the arms were 
extended in such a manner as to bring it immediately opposite the mouth of 
the deceased. This, it is assumed, was in accordance wdth the Maori 
custom, and was done for the purpose of giving the individual w^ho was 
buried an opportunity of sustaining himself if he thought proper, or if in the 
course of things he required sustenance. 

" ' Between the legs of the skeleton were found numerous tools, cut 
from greenstone, including a spear, axe, and several implements, which would 
lead to the belief that the man to whom the bones belonged must have been, 
in some way or other, connected with the wood trade — that is to say, 
if carpenters, cabinetmakers, &c. flourished in his time. 

" ' All the bones were in excellent preservation, one arm and hand being 
entirely without blemish. The skull bore evidence of its proprietor having, 
at some time or the other, received some hard knocks, probably in the 
battle-field, while taking his part in some of those terrific encounters which 
are supposed to have taken place in ancient times. 

" ' Unfortunately, before the man who was digging discovered the 
natural treasure, the implement he was using came in contact with the shell 
and broke a small piece out of the side of it ; but the fragments have been 
carefully preserved, and might readily be fitted into the aperture. The egg 
itself is about 10 inches in length and 7 inches in breadth, the shell being of 
a dirty-brownish colour and rather better than the thickness of a shilling 
coin. The inside is perfectly clear, and free from all traces of decayed 
matter. 

" ' From what Captain Davidson tells us, we should suppose that the 
Sfround where this relic was discovered must have been used as a cemetery 
at some distant period of the past, as Mr. Fyffe had previously found some 
interesting Maori emblems about the same place ; but none of the natives 
about there (and some of them, we are informed, have arrived at very 
mature ages) have the slightest recollection of ever having heard, as a 



MADAGASCAR AND NEW ZEALAND. 247 

matter of history, that any of their ancestors had found a final resting-place 
in that particular locality.' " 

I was informed, in a letter from New Zealand written by the owners to 
rae, that they had insured the specimen for £2000. It took about three 
years to conclude the purchase. I have given the above accounts, but by 
no means wish to add my authority to them, because things pubhshed in 
newspapers are frequently mistakes, and these statements have not been 
investigated. 



VOL ixr, 2n 



SCELOGLAUX ALBIFACIES. 

(White-faced Owl. 



By Mr. G. D. ROWLEY. 
(Plate VIII.) 

(Continued from vol. i. p. 36.) 

The two birds whose portraits (taken by Mr. Keulemans at once on the 
stone, in my house here) appear in Plate VIII. are still ahve, and each 
spring lay eggs, on which they sit ; but as these have never proved fertile, I 
may with some confidence now name their sex as female in each case. 
I was unfortunately unable to do this at the time ; and, as far as I know, no 
specimen of this rare species, with the sex given, has ever been figured. 
They seem very healthy, and likely to continue so, but have not been 
heard to utter a sound. This is perhaps quite as well, the noise being 
described as pecuharly disagreeable. After a time they usually destroy 
the eggs ; and I let them do as they please. 

The air of Brighton appears to agree with our birds ; for they live to 
great ages in my aviaries. 



2n 2 



CONCLUSION. 



By Mr. G. D. ROWLEY. 



" And now this pale swan in her watery nest, 
Begins the sad dirge of her certain ending." — Lucrece. 

Harting's Ornithology of Shakespeare, p. 201. 



Birds have played a conspicuous part in the history of mankind. If we 
look at classical times we see the twelve Vultures of Mount Palatine, the 
solemn flap of whose wings before the vision of Romulus decided the fate of 
the Roman world ; later again, we notice the Goose which saved the 
capitol. If we turn to Holy Writ, we read of the solitary Thrush of the 
Psalmist, and the two Sparrows of Christ's illustration. 

In modern times, and in the pages of this work, we have seen the three 
Protestant Quails of Steenwick, the loyal Larks of the siege of Exeter, Sir 
David Lindsay's Parrot (that precursor of the Reformation), the Robin of 
the coffin of Queen Mary II., the lost Parrot of King Charles's daughter, 
and the faithful companion of the Duchess of Richmond*, whose resting- 

* Another historic bird was that belonging to the unhappy Jane Dudley, Duchess of North- 
umberland (1555), mother-in-law of Lady Jane Grey. In her will she bequeathed to the Duchess 
of Alva, Lady-in-waiting to Queen Mary, her " green Parrot, having nothing else worthy of her " 
('Walks in London,' by A. J. C. Hare, vol. ii. p. 439). 



252 CONCLUSION. 

place is Westminster Abbey — reminding us of the consort of King Athelstan, 
who, in an ancient sculpture in the church of Milton Abbas, Dorsetshire, 
appears with her Falcon on her Royal fist (cf. Pennant's ' Arctic Zoology,' 
Yol. i. p. 239). We have also noticed the Crows of Cressy ; and I may 
mention that " Passer solitarius," as she was called by Cecil, the last of the 
Tudors, Elizabeth. 

In Part V. (p. 105) there is an illustration of Mother Carey and her 
chickens. This may appear somewhat childish ; but it represents not her so 
much as the superstitious belief connected with the Petrel, which has 
influenced more or less the minds of men. 

" Outflying the blast and the driving rain, 
The Petrel telleth her tale^in vain ; 
For the mariner curseth the warning bird. 
Who briageth him news of the storm unheard. 

" Ah ! thus does the prophet of good or ill 
Meet hate from the creatures he serveth still ; 
Yet he ne'er falters : so, Petrel, spring 
Once more o'er the waves on thy stormy wing." 

Barry Cornwall. 

In the pages of the ' Ornithological Miscellany ' I have humbly endea- 
voured to notice not only birds but bird-lore, and the bearing the feathered 
race has had upon our lives and fortunes. 

Thus the Jewish archer MosoUam, taking his life in his hand, shot the 
bird from which the soothsayers were drawing their auguries. Yet he aimed 
not at it ; for religious superiority, with some skill, caused the bold bowman 
to pierce with his arrow erroneous belief, and level it into the dust. Dean 
Stanley alludes to this, ' History of the Jewish Church,' p. 245. 

When in former days a man felt embarrassed, he did not put his hands 



CONCLUSION. ^53 

in his pockets, as in a London ball-room, but he turned to his Falcon. 
Thus did the Earl of Angus, when pressed by Mary of Lorraine to give up 
a castle, and Henry IV. when urged to sacrifice the life of Richard IL 

I must repeat the latter story, though well known; for Froissart is so 
quaint that one never tires of him when he lifts the curtain of those 
chivalrous days, and discloses a scene so different from our own. 

" The King's Council speaks : ' Sire, so long as Richard of Bordeaux 
lives, the country will never have peace.' ' I believe what you say may be 
true,' replied the King ; ' but with regard to me, I will never put him to 
death. I have given him my word that no bodily harm shall befall him ; 
and I will keep my promise until it shall appear that he enters into any 
plots against me.' ' Sire,' answered the knights, ' his death will be more to 
your advantage than his life : for so long as the French know he is alive, 
they will exert themselves to make war against you, in the hope of replacing 
him on the throne, on account of his having married the daughter of their 
king.' The King of England made no reply, but leaving them in conversation 
went to his falconers, and placing a falcon on his wrist forgot all in feeding 
him " [" appeared to forget " would be nearer the truth]. 



Again, a man thinks little when he knocks over a Pheasant at the warm 
corner, and does not condescend to pick it up. This is the abundance of 
A.D. 1877 ; but AD. 1454 tells another story, and a somewhat different scene 
rises before our vision when Philip the Good (" Good at need," we must 
presume, like Sir William of Deloraine) gave the celebrated banquet called 
the " Fete du Faisan," and in a way which would make a modern keeper 
laugh (though it might be rather dangerous to laugh then). A Pheasant was 
brought into the hall by the King-at-arms, having around its neck " a collar 
of gold richly garnished with pearls and other gems " (Kirk's ' History of 
Charles the Bold,' vol. i. p. 88). To witness this very simple incident all 



254 CONCLUSION. 

the chivalry, the valour, and beauty of Burgundy had assembled — a court 
without equal at that time for its riches. 

Turning from feasts and revelry to scenes of Irish misery and blood, 
we find James Anthony Froude (in his ' History of England,' vol. v. p. 223), 
after describing how the English burnt the cottages and killed the inhabitants 
of Kerry, with Ormond to aid, says : — " Here Sir Nicholas White, Fulke 
Greville, and Capt. Bingham climbed a crag to fetch an Eagle from its 
nest ;" in short, they went out bird's-nesting. 

Was it not Sparrow-catching which made the fortune of the House of 
Luynes of Dampierre, in France at least ? for Felix M. Whitehurst (in ' Court 
of Napoleon HI.,' vol. ii. p. 137) says that though previously, in Italy, the 
family was of the " casa illustrissima of the Alberti," yet " Albert, Due de 
Luynes, obtained his nomination as page to Louis XIII. because he was very 
cunning in the art of training Shrikes to catch Sparrows." His subsequent 
history w^e know. 

When the people of Paris taught their Parrots to scream all day the 
scurrilous refrain "Perette et Peronne " in the ears of that ablest of the 
Valois, Louis XL, after his narrow escape from the grasp of Charles the 
Bold (which, considering the knack that crafty king had of shutting up men 
in cages, instead of birds, was, to say the least, a risky proceeding), they 
turned their pets into politicians. 

One might run on to great length in this way ; it is not, however, 
necessary to exalt the influence which the feathered race has had upon us in 
the eyes of the members of the British Ornithologists' Union, for wdiom this 
work has been published — a work which claims no editorial merit, unless it 



CONCLUSION. 255 

is the endeavour to be accurate, concerning which I cannot quote a finer 
saying than that of the late Mrs. Bury PalUser, an authoress of no mean 
merit — " It is better to raise doubt than to sow error." 

I must now conclude by expressing my best thanks to the Subscribers 
and readers of the ' Ornithological Miscellany,' to its very able Contributors, 
and to all those skilled persons whose professional labours have aided me in 
my course. The work comes to an end in consequence of ill health ; and 
I confess to a pang of regret as I write this last word. 

GEORGE DAWSON ROWLEY. 

Chichester House, Brighton, 
March 7th, 1878. 



VOL,. HI. 2 o 



INDEX TO VOL. III. 



AcROCEPHALUS luscimoides 



ncevius 



Adventure in an Eagle's nest 
^'pyornis not the Koc . 
Mpjornis grandidieri ... 

maximus . ... 

medius .... 

Albertis, Signer d', on Pfilopus hellus 
Alca torda ..... 

Alcedo ispida .... 

Allen, Mr., on the cliffs at Flamborough 
Alva, Duchess of . 

American Parrots, P. L. Sclater on the, of the 
Anais ...... 

Analcipus ..... 

Anas hoschas .... 

ferina ..... 

poecilorhyncha 

zonorhyncha 

Anatidce, G. D. Eowley on the breeding-places of two British 

VOL. III. 



genus Pionus 



101, 



102, 



Page 
216 
204 

84 
239 
238 
238 
238 
172 

69 
135 

12 
251 
5 
181 
181 
103, 104 
230 
103 
103 
229 



2p 



258 



ORNITHOLOGICAL MISCELLANY. 



Anderson, T,, bird-nesting in the Shetlands 

, on the Guillemot 

Angus, Earl of . . . 
Anser cinereus, var. rubrirostris 

cygnoides 

grandis 

indicus 

segetum . • . 

Anthropoides virgo 
Anthus arborea 
Aptenodytes pennantii . 
Ardea cmerea 

cocoi .... 

Armstrong, Dr., on Artamus fuscus 

Arnold, Eev. F, PL, on heroirries 

Artami, list of specimens in the British Museum 

Artamia viridis 

Artamus, K. B. Sharpe on the genus 

Artamus albiventris 

arnouxi 

cinereus 

clemencice 

cucullatus 

fuscus 

insignis 

leucogaster . 

leucopygialis 

leucorhynckus 

maximus 

melaleucus 

melanops 

mentalis 

minor . 



180 





Page 
16 




15 




. 65,253 




. 95, 97 




97 




96 




. 95, 97 




. 95, 96 




48 




227 




240 


i. 


iS, 51, 72 




72 




193 




. 66, 67 




187 




180, 181 




179 


180. 


183,190 




179,182 


,183, 


195,199 




181 




182 




183,191 




180,183 


179, 


183,184 


, 


179,187 


179, 


181,182 


180, 


183,188 




183 


180, 


183,197 




183 


180, 


183, 201 



INDEX TO VOL. III. 



259 



Artamus monachus 

papuensis 

personatus 

perspicillatus 

sordidus 

superciliosus 

venustus 

Athelstan, King, effigy of the consort of 
Aythyaferina .... 





Page 




183 




179 


183 


194 


198 


199 


183 


199 


183 


193 




198 




252 




106 



B. 

Badgers eat Ducks' eggs 

Bailey, Matthew, on Guillemots . . . . 

Ball, Mr., on Artamus fuscus . . . . 

Baring-Gould, S., novel method of obtaining Rooks 

Barkley, H. C, anecdote about foxes 

Barttelot, Edward, disinherited for eating a Pigeon 

Beavan, Capt., on Artamus fuscus 

Belon on the heronry of Francis I. . . . 

Bernstein, Dr. ....... 

Bewick on a fight between Herons and Rooks 
Birds from the Malay Archipelago 

of Flamborough Head . . . . . 

of Mongolia «fec. ...... 



, extinct gigantic, of Madagascar and New Zealand 

, parasites of . 

Black-breasted Flycatcher ..... 
' Boke of Kervinge,' good dishes mentioned in the 

Bond, F 

Bond and Brown, Messrs., on Savi's Warbler 
Botaurus stellaris 



47 



69 
14 
192 
12 
68 
19 
192 
71 
125 
67 
163 
11,29 
87, 145 
237 
82 
119 
71 
240 
216 
60, 204 



2 p 2 



260 



ORNITHOLOGICAL MISCELLANY. 



Boucard, M. Adolphe, on Pharomacrus costaricensis 


Fage 
21 


, on Odontophorus cinctus 


40 


, on CMoroena suhvinacea 


76 


, on Leptoptila cassini ....... 


79 


Boyes, F., on the mode by which young Guillemots reach the sea 


13 


British Museum, list of specimens of Artami in the 


187 


Briiggemann, Mr., on Cittura cyanotis ..... 


138, 141 


, on Domicella coccinea 


123 


Bucephalus clangula 


106 


Buckley's expedition to Bolivia ...... 


9 


Bustard's lode ......... 


216 



Cagmags .... 
Calamoherpe luscinioides 
Caliechthrus leucolophus 
Casarca rutila 
Cavendish, Lord Geoi'ge 
Celebes, derivation of the name 
Central-American Odontophorince 
Chaulelasmus streperus . 
Chlorosnas subvinacea 
Chroicocephalus hrunneicephalus 

ridibundus 

Ciconia hoyciana . 

nigra .... 

Cittura, G. D. Eowley on the genus 
Cittura cyanotis 

sanghirensis . 

Columha livia 

Concluding remarks, by G. D. Rowley 



207 

223, 224 

165 

100 

66 

126 

39 

105 

75 

109 

110 

50,68 

50 

131 

132,136,140 

132, 137, 140, 143 

19 

25] 



INDEX TO VOL. III. 



261 



Coot-custard fair at Hornsey 
Cordeaux, John, on Guillemots 
Cornwall, Barry, verses on the Petrel 
Cotyle riparia, G. D. Kowley on 

, H. E. Dresser on 

rupestris . . . 



Couroucou resplendissant 
Crab, Mr. van der .... 

Crex porzana ..... 

Curious ornithological relic 

Curteis, Mr. 

Curtis's ' British Entomology,' Bird-parasites figured 
Cygnus beioickii ..... 

musicus ..... 

olor ...... 



m 



Page 
219 

14 

252 

81 

84 

20 

22 

117 

218 

244 

65,66 

83 

99 

98,99 

99 



D. 



Bacelo cyanotis. Prof. Schlegel on 












140, 142 


princeps 










135 


sanghirensis ..... 












140 


Bafila acuta ..... 












101 


Daniel, Eev. Mr., on feathers of Geese . 












208 


, on prices of Snipe at Cambridge . 












206 


Davidson, Capt. ..... 












246 


Dinornis, antiquity of . 












242 


, relics of . . 












240 


Dinornis crassus . . . 












244 


ingens 












244 


maximus bones figured by Prof. Owen 












243 


Distoma ecJiinatum .... 












84 


ferox 












84 



262 



ORNITHOLOGICAL MISCELLANY. 



Distoma Mans .... 
Domicella coccinea, G. D. Rowley on 

cyanogenys 

riciniata 

Double-yelked Razorbill's egg 
Dresser, H. E., on Alcedo ispida 

, on Savi's Warbler 

Ducks' eggs eaten by Badgers 
Dugdale, Mr., on Ramsey Mere 



Page 
84 

123, 127 

128,129 

127 

33 

135 

217 

69 

205 



E 

Eagle's nest, adventure in an . 

Eggs of Hedge-Sparrow worn by ladies . 

Elsey, Dr., his expedition to N.W. Australia 

Emheriza schoeniculus 

Eos cyanogenys 

Esox lucius . 

Eunetta falcata 

glocitans 

Eupsychortyx leucotis 



84 
11 
199 
204 
174 
135 
104 
104, 105 
40 



Faddie, James, death of 
Falcirostra kaiifmanni . 
Faico halicvetus 
Feilden, Capt. 

, on Kittiwakes 

Fen-land, a few words on. by G. D 
Fen slodgers 



Rowley 



245 
51 
68 
170 
235 
203 
205 



INDEX TO VOL. III. 



263 



Filaria lohata .... 
Finsch, Dr., on Domicella coccinea 

, on the genus Pionus 

Fischer, Dr. .... 

Flamborough Head, G. D. Rowley on 

, J. H. Gurney, jiin., on 

Flycatcher, Black-breasted 
Forsten, Dr. 
Frantzius, Dr. A. von 
Frewen, E., heronry belonging to 

, letter from . 

Froissart, anecdote out of 

Fronde, James Anthony 

Fronde's ' History of England,' extract from 

Fulica atra . . 

Fulix cristata 



Page 
83 

125 
6 

123 
11 
29 

119 

125 
44 
65 
66 

253 

254 

65 

94,219 

106 



. G. 

Gallinago heterocerca 

megala 

— — scolopacina . 

solitaria 

Gallinula chloropus 
Gannet, J. H. Gurney on the 
Garrod, A. H., on birds' gizzards 
Geese, how driven 

, number of, Christmas 1877 

Geographical distribution of the genus Artamus 
Geotrygon costaricensis, G. D. Rowley on 

caniceps ..... 

rufiventris ..... 



91,92 

92 

90,92 

91 

94 

35 

241 

211 

210 

179 

43 

44 

77 



264 



ORNITHOLOGICAL MISCELLANY. 



" Goose and Gridiron," sign of the 
Goose-feathers, present value of 
Gould, Mr., on Artamus leucogaster 

. on Artamus melanops . 

, on Artamus minor 

, on Artamus superciliosus 

, on Australian Ay'tami . 

Graculus carlo .... 
Grandidier, M. A., on JEfyornis 
Gray, E., on domesticated wild Geese 

, on the Guillemot 

Great Sowden Wood 
Grus leuGogeranus 

monacha 

Gull, the Kittiwake 

Gurney, J. H., jun., on Flamborough Head 



Page 
212 
208 
186 
197 
201 
194 
200 
146 
238 
205 

15 

65 
47,49 

47 
233 

29 



H. 



Haast, Dr., on Ilarpagornis . 
Halifax, Earl of, and bird's-nest soup 
Harpagornis moorei 
Harting, Mr., list of heronries 
Hawker, Rev. R. S., prays for a rookery 
Hedge-Sparrow eggs worn by ladies 
Henry IV. and Richard II., anecdote of 
Herodias alba . . . . 
Heron caught in a clap-net 
Heronries, G. D. Rowley on Sussex 
Herons breeding at Whittlesea Mere 
Heron's legs, curious belief about . 
Heugiin, Dr. von, on Sand-Martin 



239 

209 

239 

65 

12 

11 

253 

49,51 

72 

65 

219 

70 

85 



INDEX TO VOL. III. 



265 



Himantopus candidus 

Hirundo lorbica .... 

Hoedt and Duyvenbode 

Holdsworth, Mr., on Artamus fuscus 

Holinshed on driving Geese . 

Eolostomum excavatum 

Hop-pickers, number of 

Hiigel, Baron A. von, on Guillemots 

Hume, Mr., on Lithofalco feildeni 

Hydrochelidon indica 

nigra .... 

Hypothymis puella 



Page 
89 

82 

126 

193 

211 

84 

73 

16 

169 

145 

145 

164 



Ibidorhyncha struthersii 

Irby, Lieut. -Col., on nesting in caves 



51 

20 



Jackdaw, J. H. Gurney on the 
Jerdon, Mr.^ on Artamus fuscus 



38 
192 



K. 



Kai Koras, discovery of a Moa's egg at 
Kamis, Dr. Meyer's hunter 
Kaup, Dr. J. J., account of . 
King Penguin, stones taken out of a 
Kittivpake, Mr. Bailey on the 

VOL. III. 



245 
143 
131 
240 
87 



t^Q 



266 



ORNITHOLOGICAL MISCELLANY. 



Kittiwake, J. H. Gurney on the 

Kittiwake Gull 

Kiitter, Dr., on Alcedo ispida 



Page 
36 

233 

135 



Lamfrotornis magnus .... 
Lanius dominicamos .... 

leucorhynclms .... 

])Mlippinus ..... 

Lansdowne, Lord, a Snipe found by, at the Horse-Guards 
Larus ichtliyaetus . . . 

niveus ...... 

occidentalis ..... 

tridactylus, G. D. Rowley on 

Latham on the Goose .... 
Lawrence, G. N., on Oeotrygon costaricensis 

, on Geotrygon rufiventris 

Leake, Heronshawe tree of . 
Leguat on Solitaire .... 

Lemuria, Mr. Sclater's .... 
Leng, Mr., on Lundy Island . 
Le])topterus cliahert .... 

Leptopteryx 

riifiventer ..... 

Leptoptila cassini, G. D. Eowley on 

cerviniventris .... 

Lighten, W. T., on " Goose greens " 
Limosa melanuroides .... 
Lincolnshire sayings, old 
Linota cannahina . . . . 

Lithofalco feildeni .... 



173, 174 
182 
181 
182 
204 
109 
108 
109 
233 
206 
43 
77 
71 
240 
242 
34 
180 
182- 
191 
79 
80 
215 
53 
207 
82 
170 



INDEX TO VOL. III. 



267 



Lloyd, Major 

Lloyd, L., on Herons in Scandinavia 

, on Partridges in Sweden 

Longfellow, quotations from 
Loris cyanonegia 
Lorius coccineus 

cyanogenys 

histrio 

riciniatus 

ruber 

sguamatus 

Louis XL and the political Parrots of Paris 
Lowney, Mr., on the Great Auk 
Lubbock, Mr., on decoys 
Luynes, Albert, Due de 
Lyth's Hole, Flamborough 



12? 



Page 
169 

70 

85 
17,19 
174 
,126 
124 
123 
124 
124 
124 
254 

33 
221 
254 

12 



M. 

Macgillivray on Herons . . 

Maclmrirhynchus alhifrons ...... 

nigripectus, G. D. Eowley on ..... 

Machetes fugnax •-....... 

Madagascar and New Zealand, G. D. Rowley on the extinct gigantic 
Bii'ds of ......... 

Malay Archipelago, A. B. Meyer on two species of Birds from the 
Mansel-Pleydell, J. C, on birds of Dorset .... 

Mareca penelope ......... 

Marquis del Vasto, badge of ...... 

Mary of Lorraine ........ 

Megaptera longimana ........ 

Mergus albellus . . . . 

2q 2 



70 
120 
119 

204 

237 
163 
231 
101 
213 
253 
17 
108 



268 



ORNITHOLOGICAL MISCELLANY. 



Page 
Mergus merganser ........... 107 

serrator ........... 107 

Meyer, Dr. 64 

, on Domicella cocdnea 126 

, account of Manado ......... 133 

, on two species of Birds from the Malay Archipelago . . . 163 

, remarks on Cittura cyanofis . . . . . . . 136 

Michael, Major J . 243 

Milne-Edwards's ' Oiseaux Fossiles ' 237, 238 

Milner, H. B 231 

Minahassa, the attack upon ......... 116 

, the meaning of the name ........ 133 

Miquel, F. A. W., account of 60 

Moa-egg, how discovered 244, 245 

resembles that of Apteryx ........ 242 

Moa-feather, character of ........ . 242 

Moa-stones 240 

Mongolia, on the Birds of 47, 87, 145 

Morgan, E. Delmar, translation of Prjevalsky's anecdote of wild Swans . 98 

MosoUam, Jewish archer ......... 262 

Musschenbroek, S. C. T. van, account of ...... 115 



N. 



New Zealand and Madagascar, G. D. Rowley on the extinct gigantic 
Birds of ...... 

Newton, Prof., on gizzard-stone of Solitaire 

, remarks on Savi's Warbler . 

Noakes, George, his belief about Heron's legs 

, on Herons ...... 

Northumberland, Duchess of, Parrot belonging to 



237 
240 
217 
70 
69 
261 



INDEX TO VOL. III. 



269 



Nottinghamshire, Tufted Duck breeding in 
Nwnenius major ..... 
phceoyus . . 



Page 

229 
52 
52 



O. 



Oates, Mr 

Ocyptei'us allovittatus .... 

leucorynclms .... 

rujiventer ..... 

Odontoj)horin(B, O. Salvin on Central- American 
Odontojjhorus cinctus .... 
" Old Merry " . . . . 

Oriolia bernieri .... 

viridis ..... 

Ornithological relic, a curious 
Ornithomyia avicularia 

fringillina ..... 

hinmdinis ..... 

viridis ..... 

Ortygometra pygmoea .... 
Owen, Prof., on Wingless Birds of New Zealand 
Owl, White-faced ..... 



170 
199 
191 
191 
39 
39 
205 
180 
180, 181 
244 
82 
82 
82 
82 
94. 
244 
249 



Palliser, Mrs. Bury 

Panurus biarmicus ....... 

Paradisea resplendens .....-• 

Parasites of birds ......■■ 

Parrots, P. L. Sclater on the American, of the genus Pionus 



213,255 

204 

22 

82. 

5 



270 



ORNITHOLOGICAL MISCELLANY. 



Parus biarniicvs .... 
Pate de Pithiviers .... 
Pearson, George .... 
Pelecanus crisjms 

Pezo2)haps solitaria, gizzard-stone of 
Pharomacrus costaricensis 

modna . . . . 

Philip the Good, " Fete du Faisan " 

Pigeon, race between a, and an express train 

Pike, T. M., on Pochards 

Pwnias gewntodes 

Pioniis, P. L. Sclater on the genus 

Pionus clialcopterus 

corallinus 

maximiUani 

senilis . 

seniloides 

sordidus 

fumidtuosus 

violaceiis 

Platalea leucorodia 



major 



of the 



Pochard, breeding-places 
Podiceps auritus . 

cristatus 

Poliohierax insic/nis 

Pontopiddan on Herons 

Prior, C. Matthew, on Starlings in Sand-Martins' holes 

Prjevalsky, Lieut.-Col. N., on the Birds of Mongolia, the 

and the Solitudes of Northern Tibet 
Pseudoclielidon ....... 

Psittacus menstruus ...... 

Ptilopus, G. D. Rowley on the genus 



Page 
224 

209 
73 
146 
240 
21 
21,22 
253 
19 
131 
6 
5 
7 
7 
7 
7,8 
7 
7,8 
7 
7 
51 
51 
230, 231 
108 
108 
169,170 
70 
84 
Tangut Country, 

47, 87, 145 

181 

6,7 

59, 113, 171 



INDEX TO VOL. III. 



271 



Ptilopus hellus 

cinctus 

— — miqueli 

musschenhroeki 

pectoralis 

prasinorrhous 

rivolii . 

rosenhergi 

speciosus 



Prof. Schlegel 



strophium 

— viridis 

Pulex hifasciatus 
kirimdinis 

irritans 



on 



Page 
63,64,171,172 

61 

59,61,63,172 

113, 173 

114 

174, 175, 176 

60,61,175 

172 

61,62,64,171,175,176 

172 

61 

113, 173 

81 

81 

81 



Querquedida circia 
crecca . 



Q. 



103 
104 



E. 



Eace between a Pigeon and express train 
Rallus indicus ...... 

Eamsay, Mr., on Australian species of Artamus 
Eamsey Mere, Mr. Dugdale on . . . 
' Eavenscraig,' the ship, brings egg of Moa 
Eayner, Dr., on the Wood-Swallow 
Eazorbill's egg, double-yelked 
Becurvirostra avocetta ..... 

Eeichenbach, Dr. H. G. L., account of . 



187, 



21 

93 
195, 197 
205 
244 
187 

o o 
DO 

89 
131 



372 



ORNITHOLOGICAL MISCELLANY. 



BhynchcBa aquaticus 

hengalensis .... 

Hoc, ou the identity of the 
Rock-Dove, J. H. Gurney on 
Rock-Pigeon .... 

Rosenberg, Von, on Ptilopus miqueli 

, on Ptilopus speciosus . 

Rowley, G. D., concluding remarks 

on CJilorcenas subvinacea 

on Columha livia 

on Cotyle riparia . 

on Domicella coccinea . 

on Fen-land 



on Flamborough Head 

on Geotrygon costaricensis 

on Geotrygon rujiventris 

on Lams tridactylus 

on Leptoptila cassini 

on MachcBrirhynclius nigripectus 

on Odontopho7-us cinctus 

on Sceloglaux albifacies 

on Sussex Heronries 

cm the breeding-places of two members of the British Anatidcp 

on the extinct gigantic birds of Madagascar and New Zealand 

on the genus Clttura ........ 

on the genus Ptilopus ....... 



59, 



Page 
93 
93 

239 
37 
19 
60 
171,173 

251 
75 
19 
81 

123 

203 
11 
43 
77 

233 
79 

119 
39 

249 
65 

229 

237 

131 
113, 171 



Salvadori, Count 

■, on Cittura cyanotis 

. on Cittura sanghirensis 

, on IlachcBrirhynchus nigripectus 



59 
138 
139 
119 



INDEX TO VOL. III. 



273 



Salvia, O., on Odontophorus cinctus 
Sand-Martin .... 

, range of the 

Sand- Wasps . 

Savi's Warbler, Count C. Wodzicki on 
Sceloglaux albifacies, G. D. Rowley on 
Schlegel, Prof., on Cittura cyanotis 

, on Ptilopus 

Sclater, P. L., on Ptilcypus bellus 

, on the American Parrots of the genus Pionus 

Scolopax rusticola 

Sharpe, E. B., on the genus Artamus and its geographical distribution 

, on the genus Cittwra 

, table of African Eirundinidce 

Solitaire, on gizzard-stone of 

Sowden Wood, Great 

Spatula clypeata .... 

Spheniscus demersus 

Spiroptera alata .... 

Starlings in Sand-Martins' holes 

, flight of a flock of 

, Pridmore on . . . 

Stenopteryx hirundinis . 

Sterna anglica .... 

Stevenson, H., on the Fen-district 

, on the Guillemot 

Strickland, Henry, on Pochards 
Struthiolithus chersonensis 
Surniculus luguhris 

musschenbroeM 

velutinus 

Sussex Heronries 
Swabey, F. 

VOL. III. 2 R 



Page 

39 

81 
85 
85 
223 
249 
137 
115 
176 
5 
93 
179 
132 
85 
240 
65 
105 
16 
84 
84 
220 
219 
82 
110 
204 
14 
231 
243 
164, 166 
164, 166 
165, 166 
65 
69 



274 



ORNITHOLOGICAL MISCELLANY. 



Swinhoe, Robert, notice of the late 

, on Anser segetum, var. serrirostris 

Sylvia curruca .... 

fluviatilis .... 

Syngmnus trachealis 



Page 
55 

95 
226 
224 

83 



T. 

Table of the geographical distribution of Prjevalsky's birds 
Tadorna cornuta .... 
Tangut Country, on the birds of the 
Tanygnathus luzoniensis 

megalorhynchus . . . 

mulleri .... 

sutnatranus .... 

Tanysiptera, a habit of 
Taylor, John, Geese belonging to . 
Tetrao urogallus . . . . 
Thompson, Pishey, on decoys 

, on " Fen slodgers " 

, on the Heronshawe tree of Leake 

Tibet, on the Birds of Northern 
Totcmus calidris 

-fuscus . 

glareola 

glottis . 

ochropus 



Train, race between a Pigeon and an 
Travers, W. T. L., on the Moa 
Tringa suharcuata 

subminuta .... 

temmincMi .... 



express 



47 



47 



145 
100 
,87,145 
124 
127 
128 
128 
135 
214 
241 
221 
205 
71 
, 87, 145 
88 
88 
88 
88 
87 
19 
241 
90 
90 
90 



INDEX TO VOL. III. 



275 



Tringoides hypoleucos ..... 
Tufted Duck breeding in Nottinghamshire 
Tweeddale, Marquis of, on Poliohierax insignis 



Page 

89 

229 
169 



Uria troile at Flamborough 
Urms maritimus 
thibetanus 



U. 



13 

68 
50 



Vanellus cristatus . 

Vasto, Marquis del, badge of 

Virchow, Dr. Rudolf, saying of 



216 
212 

242 



W. 



Wagler on the genus Pionus 
Walden, Lord, on Cittura sanghirensis 
Walker, Francis .... 
Wallace, Alfred R. . . . 

, on the Alcedinidce 

Warbler, Savi's 

Wassand Mere . . . , 

Waterton on the Guillemot 

Whitaker, J., on Tufted Duck 

White, Sir Nicholas, and others go bird's 

White-faced Owl .... 

Whitehurst, Felix M. . 



nesting 



5 

138 

83 

59 

132 

223 

231 

15 

229 

254 

249 

254 



376 



ORNITHOLOGICAL MISCELLANY. 



Whittlesea Mere, Herons breeding at 
Wild Duck, late brood of . . . 
Williams, W. Mattieu, on Kittiwakes . 
Wilson, Daniel ..... 
Wodzicki, Count Casimir, on Savi's Warbler 
Wolley, John, his adventure in an Eagle's nest 

, on Herons breeding at Whittlesea 

Wood, Great Sowden .... 

Wood-Swallow in Australia . 

Wynkyn de Worde .... 



Page 
219 

131 

234 

67 
223 

84 
219 

65 
187 

71 



Y. 



York, ladies of, wear Hedge-Sparrows' eggs 
Yule, Col. H,, account of the Rukh 



11 

239 



Zeocephus cyanescens 
rowleyi 



163, 164 
163,164 



PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



/** 





ORNITHOLOGICAL MISCELLANY 



EDITED BY 

GEORGE DAWSON ROWLEY, M.A., RL.S., RZ.S., 

MEMBER OF THE BEITI8H OKNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 



CONTENTS. 



On the Ameeican Paeeots of the Genus Pionits. 
By P. L. Sclatee, M.A., Ph.D., F.E.S. 

On ELAMBOEOireH Head. By Mr. G. D. Eowlet. 

Coetjmba eivia. By Mr. G. D. Eoweet. 

Notes on Phaegmacetis costaeicensis. By M. 
Adoiphe Boecaed, C.M.Z.S. &c.. Author of 
'Catalogus Avium' &c. 



On Flamboeoegh Head. By Mr. J. H. Gtjenet, 
Jun. 

Odontoehoees cincies (Salvin). By Mr. G. D. 

EOWLET. 

Geotetgon costaeicensis (Lawrence). By Mr. G. 

D. EOWEET. 

The Bieds oe Mongolia, the Tanget Coentet, 

AND THE SOIIIEDES OF NoETHEEN TiBET. By 

Lieut.-Col. N. Pejevalskt. (Continued.) 




LONDON: 

TRUBNER & CO., LUDGATE HILL, E.G. | BERNARD QUARITGH, 15 PIGGADILLY 

R. H. PORTER, 6 TENTERDEN STREET, HANOVER SQUARE, W. 

1877. 

[^All rights reserved.'] 



PEIHTED BY TATLOB AND FBAHCI3, RED LION COUET, FLEET STHEET. 




[Price Ten Shillings and Sixpence."] 



LIST OF PLATES &c. 



LXXX. Pionus corallinus. 

LXXXI. Pionus tumultuosus. 

LXXXII, Flamborough: Ramcliff-end. 

LXXXIII. Flamborough : RamclifF-end in the distance. 

LXXXI V. Flamborough : West Scar. 

LXXXV. Flamborough : The Rock-Pigeons' Cave. 

LXXX VI . Odontophorus cinctus. 

LXXX VI L Geotrygon costaricensis. 







PART XII.] 



[JANUARY 1878 




ORNITHOLOGICAL MISCELLANY. 

EDITED BY 

GEORGE DAWSON ROWLEY, M.A., RL.S., RZ.S., 

MEMBEE OF THE BEITISH OENITHOLOGISTS' UNIOIf. 



CONTENTS. 



On the GEinis PiiLortrs. By Mr. G. D. Eowixt. 
(Continued.) 

On Sussex Heeoneies. By Mr. G. D. Rowiet. 

Cbxoecenas stibtinacea (Lawrence). By Mr. G. 

D. EOWIET. 

Gbotetgon eupitenikis (Lawrence). By Mr. G. 
D. Eotvlet. 



Lepiopiila cabsini (Lawrence). By Mr. G. D. 

RoWiET. 

Cottle eipaeia. By Mr. G. D. Rowley. 

The Bieds of Mongolia, the Tangut Countet, 
AND THE Solitudes of Noetheen Tibet. By 
Lieut.-CoL IS". Pejevalsky. (Continued.) 



LONDON: 

TRUBNEE & CO., LUDGATE HILL, E.G. | BERNARD QUARITCH, 15 PICCADILLY 

R. H. PORTER, 6 TENTERDEN STREET, HANOVER SQUARE, W. 

1878. 

l_All rights reserved.] 




PEINTED BY TAYLOE AND FEAUCIS, EED LION COUET, FLEET STBEET. 




\_Price Ten Shillings and Sixpence.'] 



LIST OF PLATES &c. 



LXXXVIII. Ptilopus miqueli, Von Rosenberg, 

LXXXIX. Great Sowden Wood, Sussex. 

XC. Heronry at Great Sowden Wood, Sussex. 

XCI. Chloroenas suhvinacea, Lawrence. 

XCII. Leptoptila cassini, Lawrence. 

XCIIL Geotrygon riifiventris, Lawrence. 

XCIV. The Home of the Sand-Martia (^Cotyle nparia) 



ORNITHOLOGICAL MISCELLANY. 

EDITED BY 

GEORGE DAWSON ROWLEY, M.A., RL.S., F.Z.S., 

MBMBEE OF THE BEITISH 0ENITH0L0GIST8' UNION. 



CONTENTS. 



On the Gents Ptiiopits 
(Continued.) 

Mach^kiehtnchus NKJEiPECTtrs (Schlegel). 
Mr. G. D. EowLET. (Continued.) 

DoMiCELLA cocciNEA (Latham). By Mr. G 

EOWLET. 

On the Genus Ciitura. By Mr. G. D. Eowlet. 



By Mr. G. D. EowLEr. 

By 
D. 



The Bieds ok Mongolia, the Tangui Countet, 
AND THE Solitudes op Noetheen Tibet. By 
Lieut.-Col. N. Pexevalbkt. (Continued.) 

Description of Two Species op Birds prom the 
Malay Archipelago. By A. B. Meter, 
M.D., C.M.Z.S., Director of the Eoyal Zoolo- 
gical Museum of Dresden. 




LONDON: 

TRUBNER & CO., LUDGATE HILL, E.G. | BERNARD QUARITGH, 15 PIGGADILLY 

R. H. PORTER, 6 TENTERDEN STREET, HANOVER SQUARE, W. 

1878. 

[All rights reserved.] 



PEDJTED BY TAYLOB AND FRANCIS, RED LIOU COUET, FLEET STREET. 




[Price Ten Shillings and Sixpence^ 



LIST OF PLATES &c. 



XCV. Ptilopus musschenhroeki. Von Rosenberg. 
XCVI. The Chinese Kampong, or Quarter, in Menado, Celebes. 

XCVII. Macharirhynchus nigripectus, Schlegel. 

XCVIII. DomiceUa coccinea (Latham). 

XCIX. Cittura cyanotis. 

C. Cittura sanghirensis. 

CI. Menado, with its Bay, and the mountains of the Minahassa. 

CII. Tondano, Celebes. 




PART XIV.] 




[MAY 1878 



ORNITHOLOGICAL MISCELLANY. 

EDITED BY 

GEORGE DAWSON ROWLEY, M.A., RL.S., F.Z.S., 

MEMBEB OF THE BRITISH 0ENITH0L0GI8TS' UNION. 



CONTENTS. 



PoLioniEEAx iNsiGNis. By Aethue, Marquis of 

T-^VEEBDALE, E.E.S. 

On the Genits Ptilopus. By Mr. G. D. Eowlby. 

(Continued.) 
A Note on the Genus Aetamus and its Geo- 

GEAPHICAL DlSTEIBITTION. By E. BoWDLEE 

Shaepe, r.L.s., r.z.s., &c. 

A JEW WoEDs ON Fen-land. By Mr. G. D. 

Rowley. 
On Sati's Waeblee. By Count CAsnnR Wodzicki. 



On the Beeeding-places of Two Membees of the 
Beitish ANAHDiE. By Mr. G. D. Rowley. 

Laeus TEiDACTYLTrs. By Mr. G. D. Rowley. 

Remaeks on the Extinct Gigantic Biedb of 
Madagascab and New Zealand. By Mr. G. 
D. Rowley. 

ScELOGLAux ALBiFACiEs. By Mr. G. D. Rowley. 

Conclusion. By Mr. G. D. Rowley. 

Titlepages, Indexes, etc. 




LONDON: 

TRDBNER & CO., LUDGATE HILL, E.G. | BERNARD QUARITCH, 15 PICCADILLY 

R. II. PORTER, 6 TENTERDEN STREET, HANOVER SQUARE, W. 

1878. 

l^All rights reserved.] 



PKINTED ET TAYLOU AXD FKAJCCIS, RED I,IOX COURT, FLEET STREET. 




[Trice One Pouvd.'] 



LIST OF PLATES &c. 



cm. Poliohierax insignis. 
CIV. Ptilopus speciosus (Von Rosenberg). 
CV. Lincolnshire Geese on their journey. 
CVI. Mr. John Taylor's Flock of Geese. No. 1. 
CVII. Mr. John Taylor's Flock of Geese. No. 2. 
CVIII. Lincolnshire Geese at home. 
CIX. The Decoy at Friskney, Lincolnshire. " 
ex. Breeding-place of the Tufted Duck, 
CXL Entrance of Kingstown Harbour. Kittiwakes 
CXn. Egg of Mpyornis maximus. 
CXIIL Fragments of Eggs of Mpyornis Sec. 
CXIV. Egg of Dinornis ingens. 
CXV. Egg of Dinornis crassus. 



NOTICE TO THE BINDER. 



The three Frontispieces of the " Rebus of Rowley," the "Roe," 
and the " Ley or Field," are to be placed one for each volume. 



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