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D«¥ID «UIT, 57-59 Long Acre. 


NBW TOBE: BKENTANO'S, 5-3 Union Square. 

DVR3EN A PFEIFFER (F, W. Cbrirtem) Ifi Wwt 3SÜ Street. G. E. BTBCHEST 

& Co.. iae-138 Weal 2f>±, Street, E. STEIGEr'A CO.. 3B Park Pl»ce. 

BOBTON: C. A. E<EHLER k CO., USk. Tremont 9tr«el. 


julius groos. 
. , n)907.. 

■' ''■■] ^'- 7 

aaa6. Jfcî' 


I inp ARY 
MAY i«1959 

^jeÛ9c^ 4jU»*V\ >mİ»1J (^^^^J»»" •^■•-^1 ^J flj^'i V>* ^J^\ 

fr^ ^ ^y^^ji^ f-yj ' (jjûiı jJjl JijiUt* Jyu. ^Jui-L iljlj I 

The Gftgpey-Otto-Saner Method has become my sole property by 
right of purchase. These books are continually revised. All rights, 
especially those of adaptation and translation into any langruage, are 
reserved. Imitations and copies are forbidden by law. Suitable 
communications always thankfully received. 

Heidelberg. Julius Oroos, 





The Turkish language is of Tartar origin, as the 
Turks came from Central Asia, and is consequently 
quite distinct from Arabic and Persian, although it is 
true that in modern times the Arabic characters have 
been adopted for all three languages, and that the 
Turkish language is now half filled with Arabic and 
Persian words. Yet these words have been incorporated 
without affecting the nature or framework of the Turkish, 
which is as different from Arabic and Persian as Anglo- 
Saxon dialects are from Hebrew or Hungarian. In fact 
pure Turkish is Turanian, while Arabic is Semitic and 
Persian Aryan, and the resulting modern Ottoman-Tur- 
kish is compounded not only of three languages but 
of representatives of the three great families of lan- 
guages. The original Turkish tongue, which is called 
Chaghata (Jagatai), was somewhat barbarous, but extreme- 
ly forcible and concise when spoken. The adoption of 
Arabic and Persian words is arbitrary. To master the 
language it is necessary to have at least an elementary 
knowledge of the Arabic and Persian languages. 

It is an extraordinary and lamentable fact that 
the language of the Turks has hitherto received little or 
no attention in England, although it is spoken by mil- 
lions of people belonging to a vast empire with which 
we are closely connected by mutual vital interests, and 
i« more or less used, in official circles, from Tunis in 
Africa to the walls of China. It is the court language 
of Persia, and in many provinces of that country, of 
'^»uth Russia and Afghanistan is s])oken as much 


IV Preface ^ji* MouqaddemL i 

as Persian. It is difficult to account for the absolute 
neglect of the study of such an important language, con- 
sidering that it is used by a people who once influenced 
half the world, who overturned and established empires, 
who have possessed the thrones of Persia, Greece, Egypt 
and Arabia; whose power was once dreaded by Italy, 
Germany and France, and to whom our proud Queen 
Elizabeth applied for aid against the Spanish Armada. 
The Turkish has always been of the greatest consequence 
to us, owing to the importance of our political and com- 
mercial relations with the Ottoman Empire, and the 
complete ignorance of it on the part of our country- 
men has greatly impeded proper communication and 
intercourse between the two nations and given rise to 
most serious misunderstandings and difficulties both 
in the diplomatic and commercial world. [Dr. Ch. Wells.] 

Besides, not a small body of earnest men from 
the great Anglo-Saxon republic of the Trans-Atlantic 
continent have long been established in Constantinople 
and in the provinces of Turkey, labouring to unfold 
the treasures of modern science, temporal and spiritual, 
to the people of Turkey; losing no opportunity to place 
themselves in friendly communication both with the 
governing Ottoman element and with the numerous 
races and religious denominations subject to the Im- 
perial sway. 

To meet the need of the representatives of these 
two great nationalities in Turkey, there arose the ne- 
cessity for conversation-books, grammars and lexicons. 
There have appeared a number of Turkish grammars 
and other books in the English language, but they seem 
little fitted to acquaint the learner fully with Turkish, 
chiefly because they are not sufficiently practical in the 
strict sense of the word, or they are composed only of 
rules. The appearance of a new Ottoman-Turkish Gram- 

A Preface -uJuL. Mouqada^me, V 

mar which combines in itself the theoretical and the 
practical elements of the language, it is expected will 
be cheerfully welcomed. 

The so-called Conversation-method, originated by 
Drs. Gaspey and Otto, is now applied for the first time 
by the writer of this present book to the Ottoman-Tur- 
kish language also. It is his mother tongue and besides 
for more than 20 years he has practised this method 
in teaching the language in an important American 
institution to the natives of Turkey and to English- 
speaking foreigners. Therefore his own experience enables 
him to speak with some little authority on this subject. 
He thinks he has introduced a new element too in the 
Gaspey-Otto conversation-method, by inserting the word 
exercises which appear on pp. 121 — 125, 215, 256 etc. 

The First Part of this work is devoted to conver- 
sational language and in it all the peculiarities of the 
language are given in a very easy and comprehensive 
way. The study of the First Part being finished it will 
soon be seen that Turkish is a very regular language, 
and that it is far more easy than is generally thought. 

In the Second Part the elements of the Persian 
and Arabic languages are treated of as they are used in 
Ottoman-Turkish, and all the difficullies of both lan- 
guages are explained, in a concise way. This is the 
Literary and Official language. There are then added 
some very valuable matters and a vocabulary. 

As to the Exercises and Reading Lessons for 
translation, most of them are on subjects referring to 
Turkey and Turkish literature. Many characteristic speci- 
mens of poetry and prose illustrative of the literature 
and of the country, especially in modern phraseology, 
are given, so that the learner will feel himself in Turkey, 
and will have a glimpse into the geography, the hist- 
ory and the manners and customs of the country. 

VI Preface aajJU MouqqaddSme, j 

I recommend as a help to the student the excel- 
lent Turkish-English Dictionary of Sir J. Redhouse and 
the valuable Turkish Dictionary of Samy B6y, which 
latter is the most reliable guide to the student after 
finishing the First Part of this Grammar. And as a 
purely Turkish Grammar I recommend that of Mihran 
Efföndi Apigian (Miliri), to which I am much indebted. 

1 am much indebted also to Rev. Dr. W. St Clair- 
Tisdall, the C. M. S. missionary at Ispahan, Persia, 
who has carefully revised the MS. and has made valuable 
suggestions. Himself being a ripe scholar in the lan- 
guage, these have been of great service to me. 

I must also express my sincere thanks to Dr. J. 
Wright, of Oxford, for the kindness and care with which 
he has looked over the proofs of this work. 

V. H. Hagopian. 

Anatolia College, Merzifoun (Marsovan), Turkey. 

A List of Books Indispensable to the Student 
of the Turkish Language. 

Redhouse' 8 Turkish-English Lexicon 25/ — 

W. W. Peet: Bible House, Constantinople. 

Samy B^y's Turkish Dictionary (Qammisou Turhi) .... 8/ — 

Mihri's Larger Turkish Grammar {Moutawil Sarf) .... 1/ — 

Turkish Reader: 1, 2, 3 parts {Talimi Qra"at) 2/— 

Turkish Reader: With N^sikh and Rîqa {RdhbSri Qra'at) . — /8 

Turkish Reader: With 6 diflerent characters (Çra"«f JETo/asi) — ,'8 

Penmanship Master {Yazî Hojasî) — »4 

Blanks for Penmanship (RShbM Sûbian, by Mihri) 1, 2, 3 parts — /2 
Library Tefeyyüz, 36 Grand Rue de la Sublime Porte, 





Introduction. P&^e 

Â. Letters of the Alphabet 1 

B. Pronunciation of Letters 7 

C. Other Orthographic Signs 20 

D. Accent 23 

E. Euphony or Harmony of the Vowels 24 

F. Orthography 25 

First Part. Torkish Grammar. 

1. Lesson. The Definite and Indefinite Articles .... 27 

2. > The Substantive Verb 31 

3. » » » » (continued) 35 

4. » Declension of Nouns 39 

5. » The Pronouns 47 

1. Personal Pronouns 47 

2. Possessive Pronouns 49 

6. » The izafet .... 55 

The Family 58 

7. » The verb To Have 61 

-.8. 3» The Pronouns (continued) 69 

3. Adjectival Pronouns 69 

4. Demonstrative Pronouns 70 

5. Reflexive Pronouns 72 

9. » The Adjective 75 

Derivative Adjectives 75 

» Nouns 77 

10. » The Pronouns (continued) 82 

6. Interrogative Pronouns 82 

7. Indefinite Pronouns 84 

11. » Numeral Adjectives 89 

1. Cardinal numbers 89 

12. » Numeral Adjectives 94 

2. Fractional numbers 94 

3. Ordinal numbers 95 

4. Distributive numerals 96 

The Ottoman-Turkish Calendar .... 96 

18. » Degrees of Comparison 100 

14. » Nouns with Prepositions 105 

15. » The Substantive Verb (continued) 109 

16. » The Infinitives 114 

I Reading Exercise: The Story of the 

Cat and the Camel 117 

Vni Contents c^-^ ■^*'^^*5*- 


17. Lesson. Primitive and Derivative Verbs 

1. Oqoutmaq, 2. Tazdirmaqy î5. Ichir- 
meky 4. Taranmaq, 5. Yaztlmaqy 6. G6b- 
rüshmâk 121— 

r Reading Exercise: The Divisions of 

18. » Compound Verbs 

Potential Verbs . . 

Accelerative Verbs 

r Reading Exercise; The Provinces . . 

19. » The Derivative forms of the Infinitive . . . 

The Continuative Tenses 

20. » The Finite Verb 

The Moods of the Verb and Imperative 142- 

•u Reading Exercise: Religions and De- 

21. » The Present Tense 

Reading Exercise : The Use of Animals 

22. » The Aorist Tense . . . . , 

•\ Reading Exercise: Voices of Animals 

23. » The Past Tenses 

The Categorical Past 

The Dubitative Past 

24. » The Future Tense 

V Reading Exercise: A Sermon of Nasr- 

25. » The Optative Tense 

26. » The Suppositive Tense (Subjunctive) .... 

A Reading Exercise: A Sermon of Nasr- 
^d-din (Continued) 

27. » The Necessitative Tense 

^ Reading Exercise: The Marriage of the 

28. » The Participles 

I. Subjective Mood 


1 ♦ Reading Exercise : To hang flour on 

a line 

29. » The Participles (continued) 

II. Objective Mood 

Comparisons 195-5 

1 1 Reading Exercise : Jack's House . . 5 

30. » Gerunds Î 

The Table of — i 

I r Reading Exercise : The Distinction be- 
tween Man and Beast * 

J» Contents vi--^ Fihrist, IX 


31. Lesson. I^ouns and Adjectives derived from Verbs . 211 

1. The Regular Verbal Adjective . . . 211 

2. The Irregular > » ... 212 

3. The Noun of Excess 214 

4. » » > Location 214 

5. Instrumental Nouns 214 

tr Reading Exercise: An Anecdote . . 218 

32. » Prepositions v. Postpositions 219 

t *u Reading Exercise : The Village Room, a. 223 

33. » Adverbs 224 

t Reading Exercise : The Village Room, h. 229 

34. » Conjunctions 230 

t •! Reading Exercise : TheVillage Room, c. 236 

35. » The Interjections 236 

IV Reading Exercise: TheVillage Room, d, 

e,f>9 238 

36. » Appendices 241 

Salutations 242 

Congratulations 242 

Modes of Address 245 

Honorific Titles 247 

OnomatopcBİa 251 

Ezan 251 

The Christian Services 252 

Second Part. The Elements of Arabic and Persian. 

Introductory Remarks 254 

37. Lesson. The Persian Plural 255 

I A Reading Exercise: The Match Girl . 256 

38. » The Persian izafet 261 

Persian Numerals 264 

S\ Reading Exercise: Franklin's Prin- 
ciples, a 266 

39. » Persian Compound Adjectives 267 

r» Reading Exercise: Franklin's Prin- 
ciples, b 272 

40. » The Persian Derivative Nouns 274 

r s Reading Exercise : The Storv of the 

Donkey and Fox ...*.... 277 

41. » The Persian Verb 280 

Objective and Subjective Participles . .281 

The verbal Noun 281 

Verbal Adjectives 282 

The Persian Roots 282 

rr Reading Exercise: A Supplication 

and Praise 287 

X Contents vi^^^ Fihrist. (i 


42. Lesson. The Persian Prepositions ........ 288 

Substitution; Omission 289 

rr Reading Exercise: The Hunter . . 292 

48. » The Gender of Arabic Nouns 294 

The Number of Arabic Nouns .... 296 

Dual; Regular Masculine; Fem. Plural . 296 

r«u Reading Exercise: A Poem. . . . 302 

44. » The Arabic Nisb^ 303 

Abstract Noun 305 

fo Reading Exercise: Columbus' Egg, a. 308 

45. » The Arabic Infinitive 310 

I. The Primitive Triliterals 313 

II. The Primitive Quadriliterals . . . 316 

fa Reading Exercise: Psalm 84 . . . 317 

46. » Nouns derived from Primitive Triliterals . . 318 

I. Nouns with Mim 318 

II. Noun of Location 319 

III. Noun of Instrument 320 

rv Reading Exercise: A Psalm of Life 322 

47. » Arabic Participles 324 

I. Subjective Participle (Fayil) . . 324 

n. Objective » {MefouT) . . 325 

III. Adjective of Quality {MushebbiU) . 326 

IV. Adjective of Colour and Defect . 327 
V. Noun of Superiority {Ismi Tafzil). 327 

VI. Noun of Excess {Mubalagha) . . 328 

fA Reading Exercise: A Litany of Praise 331 

48. » The Derivative Triliteral Infinitives .... 332 

II. Tefil = Tefqeel 332 

III. Mufa'aU = Mufaqali .... 333 

IV. Ifal = Ifqal 334 

V. Tefa'oul = Tefaqoul 335 

r^ Reading Exercise: Friendship . . 338 

49. » The Derivative Triliteral Infinitives (continued) 389 

VI. Tefa'oul = Tefaqqoul .... 339 

VII. Infi'al = Infiqal 340 

VIII. Ifti'al = Iftiqal 341 

IX. If Hal = Ifqilal 342 

X. Istifal = Istifqal 842 

r » Reading Exercise : True Nobility . . 345 

50. » The Participles of Derivative Infinitives . . 346 

ri Reading Exercise: Administrative 

Councils 352 

51. » Broken or Irregular Plurals 353 

rr Reading Exercise : Columbus' Egg, &. 360 

I Contents c--^ Fihrist. XI 


52. Lesson. The Agreement of Adjectives with Nouns . . 361 

rr Reading Exercise: The Inventions . 365 

53. » The Arabic Definite Article 366 

The Arabic Preposition 371 

r«u Reading Exercise: An Anecdote . . 875 

54. » Arabic and Persian Pronouns 375 

ro Reading Exercise: Regulations etc. . 380 

55. » Arabic and Persian Adverbs 382 

r*! Reading Exercise: Newton .... 385 

56. » Arabic Numerals 387 

I. Cardinal numbers 387 

U. Ordinal numbers 387 

III. Fractional numbers 388 

The Diminutive Noun 389 

rv Reading Exercise: Home .... 393 

57. » Arabic Compound Words 395 

I. Arabic svstem 895 

II. Persian system 396 

fA Reading Exercise : The Overthrow . . . 

(poem) 398 

58. » I. Synonymous Words 400 

n. Symphonious Terminations . . . 402 

in. Antonyms 402 

r^ Reading Exercise: Terkibi BMi . . 405 

59. » The Euphonic Changes of the Letters . . . 407 

I. The Assimilation of Letters . . . 407 

IL The Modification of Weak Letters . 410 

a. Modification of Vav 411 

h. Modification of T^ 413 

•u^ Reading Exercise: The Ceremony of 

the Coronation of the King of England 415 

60. » Miscellaneous Idiomatic Phrases 418 


The Ottoman Literature .420 

Sultans of the House of Osman 423 

Arabic Calendar 424 

Ottoman Financial Calendar 425 

Parsing 426 

•uf Reading Exercise: The Prophet's Speech . . . 426 

Conjugation of Turkish Verbs 431 

The Official Part. 

The Imperial Palace 434 

His Imperial Majesty the Sultan 434 

XII Contents c-^ Fihrist, v— j 


The Sublime Porte 435 

The Council of Ministers 435 

The Grand Viziriate 436 

The Council of State 437 

The Foreign Office 437 

The Ministry of Internal Affairs 437 

The Sheikh-ûl Islamate 438 

The Ministry of Finance 438 

The Imperial Mint 438 

The Customs Administration 439 

The Ministry of Public Instruction 439 

The Ministry of Justice and Public Worship 440 

The Prefecture of Police 441 

The Ministry of Commerce 442 

The Council of International Sanitation 442 

The Ministry of Religious Funds 442 

The Administration of Posts and Telegraphs 443 

The Ministry of War 443 

Military Grades 444 

Arms 445 

The Admiralty; Naval Officers 446 

The Imperial Arsenal 447 

Different Kinds of Ships 447 

The Provinces 449 

Diplomatic terms 450 

Festivals: Moslem Festivals . . .* 454 

Christian Festivals . 455 

Jewish Festivals 456 

Orders of the Ottoman Empire 456 

Medals 456 

The Ranks in the Ottoman Empire 457 

Civil Grades of Nobility 458 

Military and Naval Grades 458 

Grades of the Religious Hierarchy 458 

Official Titles 459 

Of Functionaries of Civil and Military Grades . . . 460 

Of Moslem Clergy 461 

Of Non-Moslem Clergy 462 

Commercial Terms 462 

Tocabulary 465 

General-Index 489 



A. Letters of the Alphabet. 

§ 1. The following table shows the shape of the 
Ottoman -Turkish letters, when they are connected with 
a preceding or a following letter, or with both, and when 
isolated : 

Names Î 














See § 29. 

W ; 







p6 i 






































Tur., Pers. 

^^ 1 










































J ' 


-> , 
















J ! 

A i 



7 ; 



1 Conv.-( 




Letters of the Alphabet. 




Medial Initial 




sin i 


















dad 1 





d, z 








t, d 


















» §35. 

ghayn j 





































Tur., Pers. 







































1 •• 



§ 2. The letters of the Ottoman -Turkish Alphabet 
are 32 in number, and consist of 28 Arabic letters, 
together with some which the Persians have added 

(^5 ^ ^). The Turks, as most other Oriental nations, 
read and write from right to left, instead of from left 

r Letters of the Alphabet. 3 

to right as we do; and a book consequently begins 
where it would end in English. Capital letters are 
unknown, and the punctuation marks have been adopted 
recently. They are the same as in EngUsh. 

§ 3. There are four kinds of writing: 

I. BXqa^ which is the ordinary current handwriting 

used in letters and in all kinds of civil and official 


n. Nesikh^ is the common print of books, news- 
papers etc. 

III. Divanee, is a style of large handwriting used 
in the Imperial Chancery for engrossing letters-patent. 

IV. Taliq, is the Persian model of Arabic characters, 
it is used by Persians, and also in documents of the 
Ottoman Canonical court. Examples of these and other 
forms of rarer occurence are given at the end of this work. 

§ 4. There is always more or less difficulty in 
representing the sounds of one language by those of 
another. This is true also in the case of the Ottoman- 
Turkish language. It belongs to a family or group of 
tongues different from the English, possessing sounds 
entirely foreign to English ears. To express these sounds, 
we have made some modifications of some of the English 
vowels and consonants. It is necessary to master these 
sounds before going on. They must be pronounced 
fully; all having only one regular sound. For instance: 
a has only one sound, and not five or more as in Eng- 
lish: e has only one, as in pet, though the name itself 
will cause some blunder, i, o, u also have only one 
sound each. 

There are eight vowel sounds in Turkish. 

§ 5. The vast population of Turkey, especially the 
Christians, do not all use the Ottoman characters in 
their writing. The Armenians and the Greeks have 
adapted them to their characters. There are books and 
papers in Turkish, in Armenian and Greek characters, 
pubUshed in Constantinople. Most of the Englishmen 
and Americans, resident in Turkey, find it easier to 
begin Turkish with English or Armenian characters, 
and after mastering the pronunciation and the elements 
of the language, they turn to begin it with the Arabic 


4 Letters of the Alphabet. «v 

characters, which they find very easy then. The method 
adapted by us in this work, will remove all these diffi- 

Single and Bonble Towels* 

§ 6. In reading the names in the above Table 
and in pronouncing the proper sounds, written in the 
English characters, the learner must always remember : 

ûl 1. Not to pronounce a, as in fate^ mortal or all; 

but as in far, art or father. 
t 2. 6 is always as e in met or send. Take care not 

to pronounce it as in mere, verb or cane. 
^ 3. i is always ?, as in pm or sJiip ; never as I, or 

as in tire/' *■ ^ ^^ 
l-f- 4. i must be pronounced as o in seldom and e in heaven. 

g 5. o must not be pronounced long as in oat, prose; 

but very short as in no. 
oy 6. ou pronounce always as in youth, bouquet, foot; 

and not as in pour, couple, about. 
^ 7. -w is not as that of pure, turn, 7^e; it has no 

equivalent in English, but is the French tu, sur. 
8. 60 has no equivalent in English, it is in French 

feu, coeur; or German ö in Zbllner, vbllig. 

Componnd Consonants. 

§ 7. Turkish orthography does not employ com- 
binations of two or three consonants and vowels to 
represent a single sound; we are under the necessity, 
however, of making use in this work of some combi- 
nations to represent Turkish sounds, for which there is 
no equivalent in English. These combinations are made 
by the addition of some vowels and consonants to h or y, 

kh has the sound of ch, as in the Scotch loch. 
K gh, as the Greek y» Armenian 7^. 
/ i^h must be pronounced as ^ in ai^ure. 

^ § 8. The combinations tch and dj, so often to be 
seen in the transUteration of Turkish words, are but 
French notations of the English ch and j in church 
and joy. 

§9-2/ must always be considered a consonant, 
and never allowed to degrade the sound of any vowel 
that may precede it; particular care must be taken by 

• Letters of the Alphabet. 5 

Englishmen in this matter. It is always as in yell^ 
yoke, huy, 

§ 10. y is combined with other vowels to form 
a diphthong as will be seen in the next Table. 
ay Ex.: qaymaq; as in lime, high, I. 

ey » 
iy » 

deymek; » » 
chiy ; » » 

fate, prey, hey. 
here, clear. 

iy » 
oy » 

ouy » 
ûy » 

eoy » 

qiyma ; » » 
doymaq; » » 
douymaq; » » 

eoylen; » » 

boy, toy, going, 
cooing, doing. 
Fr. essuyer, Guyot. 
Fr. deuil. 

§ 11. In the transliteration of Ottoman words, h 
must be emphasized at the beginning, middle and end 
of words; at the end of the syllables it is generally 
accented; as: Allah', qah'vc, hekim. This is a most 
particular rule and requires a good deal of attention 
and practice in Enghshmen; as a pernicious mode of 
orthography prevails among Englishmen, of intro- 
ducing h mute very frequently at the beginning or end 
of words; as in honesty Jehovah etc. (§ 49 V.) 

R is used as in English; except that it must 
never be allowed to be uttered obscurely; it must be 
pronounced fully and strongly; it is generally accented 
at the end of syllables. (§ 17.) Take care not to vitiate 
the pure sound of any vowel that may precede it. 

G is always hard; as in give, got, get, 

Nnmerals and Nnmeratiou by Letters. 

§ 12. The numerical figures, ten in number, have 
been adapted by the Ottomans from the Arabs. They 
are the same that we make use of, calling them Arabic, 
because we took them from the Arabs. Their forms, 
however, differ considerably from thoses, which our digits 
have assumed, as the following table shows: 

\ r r «v n V A ^ Î !♦ ' r* ' r* Î »♦♦ 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9; 10, 20, 30; 100 

They are compounded in exactly the same way as 

our numerals. ı^♦r = 1902. 

§ 13. The apparent strangeness of the fact that 
those numbers seem to be written and read not from 

6 Letters of the Alphabet. ^ 

right to left, but from left to right is due to the circum- 
stance that, in Arabic, the smaller numbers are read 
as well as written first. Thus an Arab would read 

ı^♦r 'two and nine hundred and a thousand'. This, 

however, a Turk does not do. (§ 691.) 

§ 14. If the Arabic alphabet is arranged according 
to numerical values, there appeares the ancient order, 
which is still used for notation and numeration. In 
this order, that of the old Phoenician, Hebrew, Syriac, 
Greek and Latin alphabets : the first nine letters represent 
the units; the second nine the tens; the third nine the 

hundreds and the last one f , one thousand; compare 

the Table of the Alphabet. î ^^oi*-- î j;Jû î Aa>- î jj^ • -J^' 

%\ki> Î J^ Î zJ^j JEbjed, hev've^, hout'ti, MUmen, safes, 

qareshet, saJche^, dazighi. Therefore the numeration by 
letters, is called Ehjed hisaht. 

§ 15. The method of numeration by the letters 
of the alphabet was a great task; it is fast going, if not 
entirely gone, out of practice, as puerile; but formerly 
great significance was attached to any combination of 
letters that expresses in one or more words an event or 

date. Thus ^ 1/ hharah is 600 + 200 + 1 + 2 = 803, 
the Hejira date when Timurleng laid Damascus in 'ruins'; 

and lUuU oJJb beldeyi tayyihe is 2 + 30 + 4 + 400 + 

9 + To + 2 + 400 = 857, date of the year when 
the 'Beautiful City', Constantinople, was taken by the 

Exercise a. 

Write and give the names of the following letters; 
they are arranged according to their numeral value: 

DİTİSİ0I1 of the Letters. 

§ 16. The Ottoman alphabet is divided into four 
classes: vowels; hard, soft, and neuter letters. 

V Pronunciation of Letters. 7 

Vowel letters: c5 « J '? which are vowels generally, 
when they are the second letter of the syllable. 

Hard letters '• 3 '^ ^^ ^ j^ j^ r'r- 
Soft letters: ^ <iS^ ^ ^ Zj- 

Neuter letters : 0(^J^J^53ji^r^f:^y»w) 
and (^ J I, when at the beginning of the syllables; as 
is the case with y and xv in the English language. 

B^ Pronanciation of Letters. 

§ 17. All the Ottoman letters in the Alphabetical Table 

are considered to be consonants, except ^5© j I, which 

are often used as vowels, and call for further elucidation. 
{§ 29 flf.) 

We now proceed to the phonetic value of the 

s^ h6 has the value of EngUsh 6, as: jd hed bad, j^lj; 

birader brother. But when ending a syllable or word, 
it sometimes, anomalously, takes the value of p, as: 

^^1^ sharap wine, Ijdl iptida beginning. Especially is 

this the case with the Gerunds in ^jj—, as: ^jjjlS^ 

gidip^ s^J\ alıp, (§ 435.) 

ej pe is the English p, as: jJb pider father. 

Zj tSi^ the German f, as: jtt tatar a Tartar; courier. 
It is sometimes changed into d in derivation when it 

is originally final; as: c^ git go, ^jS" gider \iq goe^. 

Also ^yjl (ju3) demir iron, ^ (a)^) depe a hill. 

Zj s€ is found in Arabic words only, and is pro- 
nounced as 8] as: c^t? sahit firm, J\!Ul <?m5a? proverbs. 

rji'ni is pronounced as j^ as: 0^ jff''^ soul. 

8 Pronunciation of Letters. A 

p cJiim- has the value of the English eft, in church; 
as: a\>- chant the pine, J^U chalî bush. (§ 8.) 

^ fta has the harshly aspirated sound of English 
h, in horse. It is chiefly used in Arabic words; as: 

^U haji pilgrim. 

T- Jchi has no equivalent in English. It is the 

counterpart of the Scotch ch in loch and German Eache. 
It is generally transliterated kh. But there are a good 
many words in which it is commonly pronounced as ft, 

as: A>-\j^ hoja teacher; 4jU. hane house. 

3 dal is German d, as: 3j3 derd, 

i i^al is found in Arabic words alone; its value 
is ;8?, as: ojS ^erre atom. 

J /»^ is in all positions a distinctly articulated hngual 

r as in rain. There are two important remarks, however, 
which is necessary for the English student to bear in 
mind with respect to this, to him, peculiar letter. Firstly, 
it must always be pronounced and accented (never 
dropped or slurred over, as in the pronunciation of 
part, pat) ; and secondly, the value of the vowel before 
it in the same syllable must never be corrupted (as when 
it is pronounced pot pat; for far; cur car), but always 

kept pure, as with any other consonant; thus jy qor\ 

ji qîr\ j\j zar \ not qo, qi\ za . (§ 49 V.) 

3 t^e is EngUsh », as: ^ gez. 

J lûıS is only found in Persian and French words ; 
it is of the value of the EngUsh s in treasure, and is 
transliterated »h\ as: o 3^ mûzhde tidings, j^jl azh'dâr 
dragon, Jtjjj ^/^OMr'wa? journal. It is often pronounced 

^ Pronunciation of Letters. & 

J, as: jl5CÎ3 J^^er verdigris, oyjjiva quicksilver, ^jIjGI^ 
jandarma a county policeman. 

^ sin is a soft «, always followed by a soft vowel 

in all Ottoman words, as: j^^ sebz word, 

^ shin is English sh^ as: ^1 tsA work. 

js sad is a hard s, it designates a hard vowel, 

as: i-U 5a^A right, J^ sol left. 

^.j> tîacî is used in Arabic words only. It is gener> 
ally pronounced as a hard »^ but sometimes as a hard 

d\ thus: ^viiblj ra^ee content, ^Ja-^ -s^op^e a gendarme^ 

^G qadi judge, ^Ul ^ii hhidir elyas St. Elias. 

i? ti is pronounced as f , thus : ^j^ ^op ball. But 
sometimes in Turkish words it is pronounced as d. 

^iL (J-b) dagh mountain, aL^jI (bjl) ocZa room. 

Ji ;8;l is used in Arabic words only, as a very hard i^y 
thus: Ilk zcdini cruel. 

^ ayw^, p. ghayn, J ga/, fj fc^/. See §§ 33—36. 

J^ fe is the English /, in all cases, ü fena. 

J îa^n. is the English I, in all cases. 

A mim is the Enghsh m, as: JU w^aZ. 

vj noiiii is like the English n, as: Ot nan bread. 
But before he ^j it is pronounced as i/i. Thus ^Jo 

Joew/ye light rose colour, J^Js ll-. I istanibul Constantinople 

§ 18. Note, The reason why so many s and » 
sounds occur in Ottoman is that Arabic words intro- 

10 The Orthographic Signs. $ • 

duced into the language have to be written as in Arabic. 
In the latter tongue the sounds of ^ ' ^j- ' ^ and 
again those of Ji ' ^J^ ' 3 ' i ^^e quite distinct from one 

another, as are those of t- and ^, of 1 and f-. But 
these distinctions are not observed by the Ottoman. 

C^ The Orthographic Signs. 

§ 19. There are five kinds of orthographic signs 
used in Ottoman -Turkish. The vowel signs, Jezma, 
Medda, Shedda and Nunation. These are put under 
or over the letters. 

The Towel Signs. 

§ 20. There are three kinds of vowel signs : ûstûn^ 
esre, edtre. These are named hareke 'movements'; but 
by the Europeans they are commonly called voivel points. 

§ 21. These three vowel signs have two values each. 

I. With a soft or neuter consonant, üstün has the 
value of e; and with a hard consonant a. 

II. With a soft or neuter consonant, esre has the 
value of i\ and with a hard consonant I. 

ni. With a soft or neuter consonant, ebtre has the 
value of ie, eo; and with a hard one o, ou, 

a) Hard Vowels. 

§ 22. Hard vowels are used with hard letters. 

I. Ustun is a diagonal stroke drawn from right 

to left, placed above the letter thus _^; it indicates 

that the hard letter over which it is placed, is to be 
followed in pronunciation by a, as in English har, star, 

^^ ^ L -^ ^ ^ ^ c c 

Key, Ha ûstûn ^a, khi ûstûn Ma, ayn ûstûn a, etc. 
n. This sign — is called es-re, under hard letters 
ît is pronounced e, as e in heaven. 

Key, Ha ^s-r6 hi, khî 6s-r6 Ml, sad 6s-r6 s%, etc. 

n The Orthographic Signs. 11 

in. This sign J- is ^tre, over the hard letters it 

is pronounced o or ou, as in cold^ cotild. 

> ^. > * * > > > > 

Key. Ha ebtr6 ho, hou, khi ebtr6 kho^ Ihou, dad 
ebtre do, dou, etc. 

b) Soft Vowels. 

§ 23. Soft vowels are pronounced with soft or 
neuter letters. 

I, Usfun when put over a soft or neuter letter, is 
pronounced like S, as in met. 

Key. Sin ûstûn se, k^f ûstûn ke, gef ûstûn ^ff , etc. 

n. Esre when put under a soft or neuter letter, is 
pronounced i, as in pit, him. 

* * •• • 1 i 

Xi?y. Mim 68r6 mi, lam 6sr6 K, z6 6sr6 ^e-i, etc. 

III. Eotre when put over a soft or neuter letter, 
is pronounced û, eo, which have no equivalent in 
EngUsh. (§ 6, 7. 8.) 

JKet/. Dal ebtr6 dn, dS, p6 ebtr6 pii, p^, sliin 
ebtr6 shu, shS, etc. 

Exercise b. 

^\\-^\ ^ ^ ^ *' 

> ^ . - . > 

Tbe Connection of the Letters. 

§ 24. The letters of the Ottoman alphabet are divided 
into two other divisions : connected and unconnected letters. 

12 The Orthographic Signs. If 

I. The unconnected letters are j j3-> i ^ '» which are 

never joined to the following letter, and when they 
occur the word is broken ; that is, the pen is taken up, 
and the second part of the word is resumed unconnected. 
They may be joined only to the letter preceding them, 

as thus exhibited ©jbl idare (administration) ' ^-^1^, 
braqdim (I left). 

II. The connected or joinable letters are those which 
may be joined to the letters which follow or precede 
them; the remaining letters are connected letters; as: 

J.,aiu munfasıl (unconnected). 

Exercise c. 


• • 











• • 





Key. Dal kâf ûstûn dek, dal k^f 6sr6 eZi%, dal k6f 
^tr6 duk, dedlc, 

§ 25. in dealing with the letters of the Ottoman 
alphabet on the preceding pages, we have shown only the 
shapes they take when standing alone; when they are 
combined with other letters, they are sometimes slightly 
modified, according as they stand at the beginning, in 
the middle, or at the end of the word. These various 
changes will be seen from the Table of the Alphabet 
(P. 1 and 2). 

§ 26. There is also a compound character in use, 
which is always to be found inserted in alphabets, and 
which, for that reason, cannot be passed over in silence. 

It is the character V, called lam elif, being, in fact, 

nothing more than J lam joined calligraphically to a 

following I elif, in a similar manner to that whereby 

the English printers continue to join the f and ? in fl, 
or f and i in fi, etc. When this double character is 

ir The Orthographic Signs. 13 

connected with a preceding letter, it has the shape of 

% as: % bela (evil). 

Exercise d. 

^^ 1 ii ii cj' ^ ^ ^ >■ ^ L-itii: ii ii- Ji » 

Xİ5y. ye initial; noun initial, it final; te initial, Ihî 
medial; noun initial, ie Mî medial; noun initial, ye, /e, 
7am, he, se, ye, 72omw, ^e medial, elif final. 

Exercise (Connected Monosyllables) e. 

* rt V IL^ T V ^^ • J^ o) • ^^ Cj ^) ' jj (j^ 1)) 

iCey. B6 shin ûstûn besh] p6 r6 ûstûn ^;er; te lam 
ebtr6 tul, etc. 

Towel Letters. 

§ 27. Besides the vowel signs, sometimes the vowel 

letters <5 o j 1 are used, to indicate vowel sounds. 

I. JElif indicates the hard voted üstün, provided 
that it is the second letter of the syllable. Instead of 

Ji Jp r- is written lU ll^ U ; here eh'f is substituted 
for ûstûn. 

n. Ye, sometimes when it is the second letter of 

the syllable, indicates the vowel 6sr6. Instead of ^ J ^ 

is written «>. J, ^^i ; here ye is substituted for esre. 
ni. Vav, generally when it is the second letter 

of the syllable, indicates the eotre. Instead oi j9 ^ ^ 

is written ^^ ^ y^\ here vav is substituted for ^tre. 

IV. He, when it is the second letter of the syllable, 
generally indicates the ûstûn, either hard or soft. Instead 

of ej J ^ is written ^ oj o3 ; here he is substituted for 
ûstûn (pe, re,^ de). 

14 The Orthographic Signs. |«u 

§ 28. Note. The Arabic and Persian long vowels 

are represented by the Letters of Prolongation <5 j I. These 

letters correspond respectively with the vowel points: 
ustun, esr^, ebtr6 (§§ 29—31). But there are no letters 
of prolongation in purely Turkish words; the use of 
these letters iş hmited only to indicating the vowel signs, 
as has been said above. Therefore they are called in 
Turkish orthographic letters also, as they serve only for 
the correction of the orthography. 

Exercise f* 

Read and write the following exercises: 

jlJr^V -jP^^lp •^(^AİÖ -J^c^^ö^ 

Key. Be 6Hf ûstûn ha, b^ h6 ûstûn he, b6 yâ 6sr6 
hi, b6 vav ebtr6 hou, ho etc. 

' j^s = ji '■ Jjî = J'J^ = Ji' Js = J n. 

J-» Jl) • K^y ^J ^if • jj-y — ^ ^ — ^^ 

rjx (^x rx ' ^^^ rr r^ * ^-^. 

^cy. Qaf lam ûstûn qal, which is equivalent to 
qaf 6Iif lam ûstûn qal; qaf lam 6sr6 qil, or with a vowel 
letter qaf yâ lam âsrâ qil etc. 

• jL« Jj> • ^j>- jj>- • Jy J^,^ Short sentences. III. 

£^2/. Sad vav lam ebtre sol, qaf vav lam ^tr6 qol, 
sol qol etc. 

•^ * MM M y* y. 

JEi?«/. Chim 6Uf ûstûn cAa, qaf yâ âsrâ g-l, c/ia-gi etc. 

( ••<• l<«**l(, l( \ ((MMfMI^.MM -TT 

t • Pronunciation of Letters. 15 

Key. T6 vav ^tr6 tu, t6 vav noun ^tr6 tufiy 
til 'tun etc. 

B*. Pronunciation of Letters (continued). 

§ 29. I JEUf. There are four kinds of elif in 

a) The initial or Mmze elif., which is a consonant, 
not a vowel. Like any of the initial consonants, it 

takes the three vowel points and letters; as: ZJ^ et meat, 

C^»\ it dog, Cjj\ ot grass (§ 38). 

Note. Initial elif is not generally indicated in 
transcription, it being understood that whenever an 
Ottoman word begins with a vowel, in the original it 
begins with elif. 

b) Orthographic or vowel elify which stands to show 
only the hard ûstûn vowel: it is used exclusively for 

Turkish and foreign words; as: Jl 6aZ honey, ^J\i 

paris Paris, l>jjjl avropa Europe. 


c) Shortened elif which is written generally in the 
shape of ^^ ye, but pronounced short; it is used only 
in Arabic words; as: Vy* or ^^_^A mevla God, L^c or 

ee-sa Jesus. 

d) Elongated elif which is found only in Arabic 
and Persian words; it lengthens the hard ûstûn vowel; as: 

p. Ill» pasha, a. *y^\ a meen, p. ^U a bad. 

§ 30. J Vav» There are four kinds of vav in 

a) Consonantal vav., it has the phonetic value of i^; as: 

y ev house, cJ»3 vaqit time, J\ alev flame. 

b) Orthographic or vowel vav, which stands for the 
vowel eotre] it is used only in Turkish and foreign 

words; as: Jj) yol way, ojJujI londra London. 

c) Elongated vav, which lenghtens the vowel Stre^ 

16 Pronunciation of Letters. f '\ 

and is found only in Arabic and Persian words; as: 
p. w— j^ dost friend, a. ^^ memnoon glad. 

d) Silent vav^ which is found only in some Persian 
words, between the letters ^ JcM and 1 eh'f^ and is not 

pronounced; as: ^j^ Maje teacher, ©jcilji. hhanende 

§ 31. ij Ye has three sounds: 

a) Consonantal ye, which has the value of the con- 
sonant y, whether it be initial, medial or final, simple 

or reduplicated ; as : Jj yel wind, ju- seyr looking, ^ 
mey wine. 

b) Orthographic or voicel ye, which stands to show 
only the vowel esre, it is used only in Turkish and 

foreign words; as: ^JLİ qish winter, v>L3 Dublin. 

c) Elongated ye, which is used only in Arabic and 

Persian words and lengthens the esre; as: p. > peer 
old man, a. J^lj valee governor. 

§ 32. A> Se has three sounds: 

a) Consonantal he, which is a guttural and aspirated 

as the h in horse; as: p. jU hüner skill, ojj qahve coffee. 

b) Orthographic or vowel he, which stands for 

ûstûn; as: ^^1 asma vine, p. oJlIj hende slave. 

The vowel he, when in the middle or at the end 
of words, is never joined to the next letter in writing; 

as: ^^C>-44r gelejeyim, ^a.,.^1 asmaya. 

c) Substitutive he, which is changed from Cj te, and 
is found only at the end of iVrabic words; as: ^jISC^ 
hîkyaîye for il5C>. hihjaiyet story. 

§ 33. J qaf^ f] kef. The Ottoman alphabet 
•distinguishes sharply between the hard letter qaf and 


^ j 1Y Pronunciation of Letters. 17 



''■ ! the soft letter Icef, The transliteration of this present work 
, in accordance with the judgment of the ripest scholars, 

represents the J by ^ and fj with k. The common 

people pronounce the qaf as ghayn at the beginning 
and the middle of words, and as Tdil at the end. The 
Uf also at the end of words is pronounced hh by the 

common people. Ex. : J\9'^qochaq com. ghochakh (brave), 
jG qan com. ghan (blood), * > lî qayish com. gJiayish (thong), 

ö>6jS^ gidejek com. gedejekh (he will go). 

§ 34. il hef is appropriate only to soft syllables 

or words ; it is so pronounced as to represent in Turkish 
four diflFerent sounds; to distinguish these four sounds 
the letter may be slightly modified in form. But in 

• general, in Ottoman, the fj alone is used to express 

all four soimids, and the student can learn how to pro- 
nounce it only by practice. 

I. The first of these four forms is called kef or 
iaif (kefi Arabi, Arabic k6f, by the grammarians); it is 

pronounced as fc. Ex. : j} Iceor blind, ^llS^ Jcitab book, 

dfjcul ashes. 

n. The second is called gef or giaf (kefi Farisi, 
Persian k6f, by the grammarians), and it is pronounced 
as hard gr; it is sometimes distinguished by a modi- 
fication in shape, thus ^. Ex. : j^ geor see, of^ gedl 
lake, ^ gel come. 

Note. When fJ represents the sound either of fc or of 

9 hard, and is followed by an elif, it takes before the 
vowel a short and incipient sound of /, which we have 

united thus m. Ex. : opIs^ kiaghid paper, J^lS^ ktamil per- 
f^t, o^\ a-giah aware: not ka-ghîd, ka-mil, a-gah; be- 
cause f] being a soft letter cannot go with a hard 
vowel a (§§ 22, 37). 

îoriüsh Cony.-Grammar. 2 

18 Pronunciation of Letters. 9 A 

III. The third is called saghîr Jcef, or nef (surd k6f), 
and is pronounced as ng in the words ring, sing etc.; 
it is a nasal n, and is represented by n. It is some- 

times written £) ^ with three dots over it. It is never 

to be. found elsewhere than at the middle of Turkish 
words; and consequently never can be initial. Ex.: 

j^ denig sea, J.5C31 yalinU alone, IXl^ senin your. 

IV. The fourth is called yaf, and is pronounced 
like the English y consonant; it is found only in Turkish 

words. Ex.: J> 3 deyil it is not, ^f\eyri crooked» 

dl bey prince. 

Exercise g. 

Z*(p«/. Qaf 61if vav ûstûn qav, g6f 61if vav ûstûn g'lav; 
aqmaq, ekmek, eymek, anmaq; qol, gSl; qar, ktar etc. 

§ 35. p- ^ayn. The ayn has no equivalent in 

European languages ; it characterizes only Arabic words. 
Its phonetic value in Arabic and in the mouth of an 
Arab, is a harsh guttural catch or hiatus. As pronounced 
by a Turkish scholar the letter is either entirely 
silent or only the slightest hiatus is perceptible. The 
common people pronounce it like an elif, and there is 
no harm in pronouncing so. In this work sometimes» 
when necessary, the vowel sound is accompanied by 

the sign ^ , and it is generally marked by an apostrophe. 

A^MA ma-lum or ma-^-a-lûm, iW 'a-lem or a-^-a-Um, 

§ 36. 9- ghayn is represented by gh\ as IpI a-ghd 

1^ |^ Pronunciation of Letters. 19 

or com. a-a sir, i\ hagh vineyard, o^^^j' oghlan com. 

^ olan, ou'lan boy. After a vowel vav j, with the sounds 
o, ou, i- has very much the sound of iv; like the gh 
of throughout. Thus J^U^jl ov-laq or ogh-laq kid; *p^ 

got'tt not lî'ö^Aa (a pail); J^i^ sovouq not soghouq cold; 

jZ-y qovmaq to expel; J^V<c^jl ovdamaq to rub. 

§ 37. J^^o^e. In the transliteration of the foreign 
proper names or nouns, the hard gr, when followed by 

a hard vowel, is represented by i- and not by f . Ex. : 
Hugo jpyb hou-gho, Gladstone J^L^^^^ ghladtston, guar- 
dian ol»^j^ ghardiyatij gazetta <r^ ghazeta newspaper, 

gas 3l^ ^^a-s". 

§ 38. * Semze. The ^^^/i/'at the beginning of words 
is a consonant (§ 29), which is called hem^e or hemze 
elif^ because naturally there is a sign of hemze over the 

elif, which is not generally written. Jjl ol is originally 

Jji, j\ e-ser is ^i, Jl is Jl, z^i\ is c^A . 

§ 39. The combination of hemze elif with a vowel 
elif (I I) is expressed by tnedda, which is the vowel ^lif 
put over the consonant hemze elif (§§ 29 d, 47) \= T; 
as: Jill = jll almaq, CJ^ et, CJ\ = CJ^ or Ol • 

§ 40, But when hemze is found in the middle of 

words, if it ends the syllable, it is like an accent or 

» *. 

a hiatus. Ex.: >t te-e-sir influence, jj^U me-e-moiir 

§ 41. At the beginning of syllables it is pro- 
nounced as y consonant; as: J* S qayil, j\^ dayir. 
'^ Note, The pronunciation of hemze and the changes 

20 Other Orthographic Signs. f* 

it undergoes, are in accordance with the rules of Arabic 

C*. Other Orthographic Signs, 
a) Jezma ^J>- 

§ 42. The letters in a syllable are either vo welled 
or quiescent; the first letter of any syllable is naturally 
vowelled, the others quiescent. The voweUed letters are 
accompanied by a vowel sign, but those which are qui- 
escent, are marked with the sign (•), called J6zma. Ex. : 

dlli} ¥sh-l%: the letters ^ b and J Z are vo welled, 

as they are the first letters of the two syllables; ^J- sh 

and f] Jc are quiescent; therefore marked with Jezma. 

s ^ a 

J J ¥r"¥r (barber): the two ,^ bes are vowelled 
and both of the j res quiescent and therefore marked. 
^S^% m^k-t^b (school) a mim and Cj te are vowelled, 

i) kef and ^ be quiescent. 

§ 43. The vowel letters cannot have the mark of 
quiescence, as they are substituted for the vowel signs, 

and indicate their kind; as jll bH'^q (fish), where elif 
stands for ustim, and does not need the sign. 

Exercise h. 

Read and write the following exercises: 

> o > 

iTe?/. Sin ^lif ûstûn sa, ayn t6 ûstûn af, .ça-a^; 
Lam 61if ûstûn la, y6 qaf 6sre «//g, la-yiq] Tî elif ûstûn 
fa, vav qaf ebtr^ vouq, ta-voııq: ye and vav are consonants, 
because they begins the syllable. 

f) Other Orthographic Signs. 21 

• ^ 

cTjt^ V>^ -^->r^ 

Key. Elif khî ûstûn a/t^, shin ^lif mim ûstûn sham 
^kh'Sh^m; *s4'^m, ^q-r^r, ^q-hH, h-b% 's-r% ^n-s^'n; i^h-dH, 
t^sh-r^f etc. 

Key, K6f 6sr6 Jci, t6 61if be ûstûn tab, ki-tab; k6f 
6sre A^, t6 61if ûstûn ^a, W-^a, b6 y^ ^sre 61, li-ta-bi] 
kitaba etc. 

Key. Shin r6 ûstûn sA(?r, b6 t6 ûstûn 6e^, sher-bei, 
jim y6 6sr6 J^', sher-bet-ji; ki-ta-bi-nin, ki-tab-ji-da etc. 

§ 44. In most cases, indeed, the vowel points are 
not inserted, except in quotations from the Qoran, or 
in writing a foreign word or name, and in some poetical 
works. This at first causes a little embarrassment to 
the learner; he must accustom himself to pronounce 
the word as if such vowels did not exist, until he can 
supply them by a knowledge of the word. The diffi- 
culty will vanish by dint of a little practice. 

b) Shedda J^.a^^ 

§ 45. A consonant which is to be doubled without 
the interposition of a vowel, is written only once, but 

marked with the sign jl.^ which is called sMd'da or 

tesh'deed (strengthening). This reduplication is not a 
mere matter of orthography as it is in the English 
language; when a letter is doubled in writing, it must 
be doubled in pronunciation, as is done in English 
with the letters d, I, n in the words mid-day, mad dog, 
fuU lips, thin nose. 

22 Other Orthographic Signs. rt 

§ 46. The sign shedda belongs only to Arabic 
(700), in Turkish words the letter is simply written 

twice, as: j^iUl^ saV-la-maq not as j^Vl-^. Ex.: 

J1j^jl>j is changed into the form J1jJl>: hid'det (anger), 

ciLt = jJL* mil'lct nation. 

Exercise i. 

Write and read the following exercise: 

'^p'iiJJ ' iL' '^l: 'ct* 'iJv's v^' 

£>«/• Ji^^ ^^ ûstûn j(^r, r6 61if ha ûstûn rah\ 
jer-rah' etc. 

c) Medda 'lu 

§ 47. This sign is called m^d'da -=l^ which means 

long; it is put over elif to show that it must be pro- 
nounced with hard ûstûn a, and not as e, i, o. In 
Arabic and Persian words it serves to lengthen the 

elif (§§ 39, 603, 701 d); as: t. 3I ez (crush), but jT az 
is few\ Zj^ et (meat), Zj\ at (horse), a. 4jul emeen 

(faithful), a. (jul a meen (amen). 

Read and write the following exercises: 

^ ^ ^ 

t>\ eh well! Jl el hand ^J-l esh companion 

o I all alas J I aZ take ^\ ash food 

J I ev house ^1 ey hallo! fjl f?Z; sow 

J I av hunting ^1 ay mouth J I ag white 

aİTî .jJT î a. ^^T Î p. 3IT Î a. j,)T Î p. J::T 
Key, Elif h6 ûstûn (?A, 61if h6 medda ûstûn aA etc. 

d) Nnnation ^ ^Ij 
§ 48. The marks of vowels when doubled, are 
pronounced with the addition of the sound n, -1- ew, 

r rr Accent. 23 

^ — in^ — ün. This is called tm-veen i. e. 'giving the 

sound of noun ; it occurs only at the end of an Arabic 
word. The vowels thus doubled are spoken of as iki 
ûstûn, iki esre,, iki ebtre respectively (§§ 670, 681). Ex.: 

^ * * * , 

Zj t6 ûstûn te: Zj OT l OT i tû iki ûstûn ten. 

^ dal ûstûn de: ^ dal iki ûstûn den. 
J^ fğ ebtr6 fû\ J^ fâ iki ebtr^ fûn. 

Lit ' Uj» * UJL) ' Jii>. * G^ ' ^Ua^ ' Ub 3 ' UIÜ 

ügy. Noun esre m, zî elif ûstûn ^«, «V-^a, mim 
elif iki ûstûn mew, ni-za-men ete. 

D. Accent. 

§ 49. It is difficult and wearisome to give absolute 
rules and their exceptions in regard to the accent in 
Ottoman Turkish, as it varies much. Some general 
rules are given in the following lines, while in all 
cases which cannot be included under these rules, the 
accent will be indicated. 

I. Usually every Turkish word is accented on the 

last syllable; as: jl ev house, stX^ k^-pek\ J^M&I agh- 

II. Words with double consonants have the accent 

on the first consonant; as: j^MIl,^ saV -la-maq to shake, 

a. J»\j^ sar -raf banker, y^ is-siz lonely, ^oS te- 
qad'-dtim progress. 

Note, The shedda in Arabic words serves as an 
accent (§ 45). 

' ni. In Persian and Arabic, the vowel letters or the 
Letters of Prolongation are pronounced long and are 

accented (§ 28); a. JaU ja -Ml ignorant, a. ^^ ke- 

reem merciful, p. t^\ a -tesh fire, a. ^-^j-^ khou-soos 
a point, respect. 

24 Euphony or Harmony of the Vowels. f*^ 

IV. In case of emphasis among words the accent 
is on that word which receives prominence. Ex.: 
1. Shi dun mii geldin? Was it yesterday that you 
came? 2. Dun sen mi geldin? Was it you that came 
yesterday? 3. Sen dun geldin mi? Did von come 
yesterday? (§ 66). 

V. The letters /i, r, when they are in the middle 
and at the end of words, are accented; as ji\ aA%r\ 
^ili aVlah\ ©^ qalive cofiTee (pp. 5, 8). 

E. Euphony or Harmony of the Towels. 

§ 50. A y^vy remarkable pecuharity of Ottoman is 
the attention paid to euphony in pronunciation, and the 
changes of the sounds of vowels and consonants which 
take place in consequence. Thus the coUision of hard 
and soft letters in the same word is always avoided. 
And when one declines a word or adds a particle or 
letter to it, whatever be the leading letter the others 
must be pronounced so as to agree vnXh it (§ 87). 

§ 51. There are two simple rules of euphony in 
the language for the words of purely Turkish origin: 

a) If the first syllable of the word contains a hard 
vowel, all the vowels in that word should be hard* 

^jJjl ol'dou it became, ^1 (d-ti six, ^iJ^aII a-la-ja- 
ghl-mi-zi our credit; not oZ-rf/, al-ti, a-U-je-glıi-mi-si etc. 

b) K the first vowel be soft, then the others should 

be soft also. ^53^- s^-m the word, ^^j^ gedr-du he 

saw, ^1 el'ler hands, y^>.e>yu^^ g^s-te-re-je-yi-miz; not 

so-^i, el-lar etc. 

§ 52. Bemark: 1. On the above principles, whea 
one declines a word or adds a particle to it, the vowel 
of the syllable added is generally so pronounced that: 

Î comes after a: -ulL ' ^iL * aIL dam, damî, dama; 

i » » e: aII'JI' Jl el, eli, e-le; 

ou » » o : 4Jy ' J,y * Jy qol, qolou, qola ; 

r • Orthography. 25 

Û comes after ed: jjjy iX^ geölû, geörûr; 

a » :» o,ou: 4Jy ' -Jj^ choiUa, qola; 

€ » » w, ^; ^y i)j} giUen, georen, 

2. On the same requirements of euphony, in words 

of Turkish origin which end in f], J, Zj these letters 
are changed into y, gh, d (§§ 88, 89). 

§ 53, When a word ending in a vowel receives 
a grammatical ending beginning with a vowel, a hiatus 
results, which is practically a dıflâculty in pronunciation. 
This is very common in Ottoman. To avoid this diffi- 
culty it is necessary to insert a consonant iS V (see 
§§ 91, 284, 287, 528, 543 etc.): 

tl ana: ^ul'l anaya^ p. Ijl ara: l)b' arayish. 
§ 54*. As a Ust of words supposed to be exceptions by 

some grammarians, we note HI elma, which was originally 
alma 'apple', and is still so pronounced in many places; 

while o^ qah'-ve coffee, jMo pi-lav, Jy,^Jcim-yony 

OmJ li-mon (lemon) are not Turkish. 

§ 54^. As real exceptions to these rules are the 

ending of the Present tense jj>~", which is always 

pronounced — gor, and the pronominal particle ^ — Z;e> 
which is never changed (§§ 140, 319). 

F. Orthography. 

§ 55. As the orthography of every Arabic and 
Persian Ottoman word is fixed and unchangeable, it is 
only in pure Turkish and foreign Ottoman words that 
the orthography varies. The Vowel or Orthographic 

letters (I , j , o » ^) as they are called in Ottoman without 
any inflexible rule are added or left out arbitrarily ; as : 

oyy, and oP butun] ^jjuU ^S-uLî (^xJS qilindi, are 
all admissible. 

26 Orthography. f^ 

§ 56. The true nile is: 1. Never introduce a 
vowel letter into a Turkish or foreign Ottoman word 
without removing a possible doubt as to pronunciation; 
2. Never leave out a vowel in such a word, if bv omission 
a doubt is created as to the pronunciation. 

§ 57. The following two points must be regarded 
as exceptions to this rule: 

a) In any syllable which is composed of two 
consonants, if the vowel is soft iistthi, none of the 
orthographic (vowel) letters is added; but if it is 

composed of one letter » he is added to indicate the 

vowel; as: ^jio gel-di, ^ bes/i, dl«4l^>i is-^-mek. 

b) None of the grammatical affixes take the ortho- 
graphic or vowel letters; as ^jS^ gcl-dim, ^l bash-lar, 

Note. Tlie use of the orthographic or vowel letters 
is fully discussed and shown on pages 13 — 16. 

§ 58. There are some words in Ottoman, the or- 
thography of which is the same, but the pronunciation 
and meanings are different; as: 

oj* on ten; oiin flour; thi fame. 

1 shekfr sugar; a. shûkûr thanks. 
3^^ g^2 eye; gtiz autumn; kedz an ember. 
J.>. choul sackcloth; ch^l desert, wilderness. 

Jy qoul sen^ant; qoJ arm; a. qavl word. 

^t <^ gevrek biscuit; ktirk fur; kurek shovel; kedmk 
-^^y bellows. 

J> gel come; kıl scald-head; p. gûl rose; a. kull all, 
jljl &IÛ dead; oidou big. 

rv 27 

First Part. 

Turkish Grammar. 

^ u^^ Lesson 1. 

The Definite and Indefinite Articles. 

§ 59- There is no Definite Article in Turkish ; all 
nouns, when used alone in a sentence, are usually 

considered as definite. Ex.: U haha the father, t i ana 

the mother, J^by qardash the brother. 

§ 60. The Indefinite Article is j bir a, an. Ex.: 
Ûİ X ^^ öt^ a horse, dl ^j bir Tcedpek a dog, ji j^ bir 
qîz a girl, /»^l j; bir adem a man. 

§ 61. The Adjective always precedes the noun. Ex. : 

ü)f^ güzel beautiful, ^»1 ' ^1 eyi good, y^ JcStii bad, 

güzel qiz the beautiful girl, e-yi adem the good man, 
hir kedtu chojouq a bad boy. 

§ 62. As in English, there is no unnatural dis- 
tinction of Gender in Turkish, that is to say: the names 
of males are masculine; those of females feminine, and 
those of inanimate objects, neuter. Thus: baba is mas- 
culine, ana feminine, ji qiz feminine, O^^j' ogh-lan 'the 

boy' masculine. j5^ de-niz the sea^ ^, j^ she-Mr the city, 
^f kedy 'the village', are neuter. 

§ 63.' The Personal Pronouns are: J»^ ben I, ^ 

«m thou, ji he, she, it. } biz we, •-* siz you, ^jl 
onlar they. 

28 \ u^j^ Lesson 1. rx 

§ 64. The Demonstrative Pronouns are: y bou this» 
j!L sJiou that (near by), jl o that (distant). 

§ 65. The Present Tense of the Turkish Substantive 
Verb is the following: 

Affirmative Present 
^\ i>^ 5en' im I am J^\ y^ hiz iz we are 

i>- ^ sen' sin thou art j>^ J- siz' siniz you are 

j^ j\ o' dour he is. Jj^ ^j\ onlar dirlar they Sire. 

Interrogative Affirmative Present. 

^ ri^ L^ Oi ^^ '^ ff Ck ^^ ^^ yim? (§ 53). 
?û^- j_^ ^^- » ?v>«w» ^y^ sen' mi sin? 

?j>- ^- J- » ?j^-^ ^ stV wt sifiiz? 

?Jj-> c" J^-^^ * ?Jj-^^ji onZar' wii dirlar? 
Am I? art thou? is he? etc. 

§ 66. As will be seen, the question is expressed 

by adding ^ mi, mou after the word emphasized by 
the question (§ 49 IV). Ex.: 

?^ Oî ^^'»' ^* 2/*»»-^ Am I? (§ 53). 
?jju* ^/?Li J> flfwZ beyaz' mî dır? Is the rose white? 
? jju* J$^^. ji ÖOM 6ir flfwZ' mü dur? Is this a rose? 
?jA-* ^ Jf gul hou m,ou dour? Is this the rose? 

§ 67. The third person j3 is the Copula; its 

pronunciation, like that of mi ^, is governed by the 

preceding vowel, and is: dir, dir, dour, dtir^ as the 
case may be (§ 52). 

AliJ LoughitUr, Words. 

J vS and jl ^v the house 

ojl ct?'-v/^ yes JJ^j\ ^-Icûz the ox 


The Definite and Indefinite Articles. 


J^^ qoush the bird J\ aq white 

a. pJb qaUm the pen »^ qara black 

a. \jA hava air, weather <^J*^ girwrn red 

v^b^ Jo gî<2r qardash a sister a. ^niJ /"agtr poor 

^jlji h^-yuk great (>^j zingin rich 

i)^^^ M-c^iufc little Ts-^ genj young 

Ç-U» ( M^ ) da^r^i mountain (j^^=?^ stjag warm, hot 

jOji Oi^^rag far t3j*^ so-vouq cold (§ 36) 

vjoLi ^agin near p. «j^ d^r^ valley. 

Note 1. These words, as well as those contained in the 
preceding rules, must be thoroughly committed to memory, before 
doing the exercise and translation. 

Note 2. Those words without any mark are Turkish in 
origin, those with an a Arabic, those with a p Persian, and those 
with an f foreign in origin. 

N xJlftb Taleenif Exercise 1. 

Black) jS^ojî ♦ ^(Montenegro) i-lU o^î . (eagle) J^y «>^ > © 

•f-ll? jT* (vulture) II jT» (Mediterranean) jS^ jT» (Sea 
* Observe that a parenthesis (. . .) encloses a word to be 


\ LrJ-> LesBon 1. 

Y Ajt-j TSri^mi, Translation 2. 

1. The horse. A horse. A good horse. The good 
horse. A horse and an ox. 2. A house. A large house- 
The large house. The house is large. 3. A man. Tho 
man. A white man. The white man. 4. The Black 
Sea. The Black Mountain. The White Sea. The White? 
Mountain. 5. A white rose. The white rose. The red 
rose. 6. A bad boy. This is a bad boy. This is the 
bad boy. 7. The house is near. The city is far. 
8. A horse, a bird and an ox. The good horse and 
the big ox. 9. This bird is white. Is this bird white? 
It is black. 10. The brother is youug. He is a good 
man. 11. The eagle is a large bird. That bird is Sb 
beautiful eagle. 12. The Mediterranean is a great sea. 

Correct the following sentences. 

. ^ 1 

4İ|^ Mûkialâmâ, Gonyersation. 

Jl^ Sival, Question 

S6n z^ngin'mi sin? 
Qardash faqir'mi dir? 
Ogh'-lan 6-yi'mi dir? 
S^n ^-yi'mi sin, k^tû'mû sun? 
Qiz qardash 6-yi'mi? 
Bou dagh yûks^k'mi? 
Onlar g^nj'mi dir? 
Siz faqir'mi sifiiz? 
Aq-D^niz b^yûk mû? 
Aq baba b^yûk bir qoush'mou 

^ij>. Jevah, Answer 

Ev'v6t, z6ngin'im. 

Ev'v^t, faqir'dir. 

Ev'v^t, oghlan ^-yi'dir. 

B^n iyiyim (§ 53). 

E v' v^t, qiz qardash 6yi'bir qîz dîr. 

Ev'v^t, yûks^k'dir. 

Ev'v^t, g^nj'dirl^r. 

Biz z6ngin'iz. 

Qara-D6nİ7/ kûchûk dûr. 

Ev'v^t, b^yûk bir qoush'dour. 

translated^ or an annotation, whereas brackets [. . .] signify 
"leave out". 

^ In such answers the predicate cannot be omitted. It must 
be evv4t, sijaq dîr. 

n The Substantive Verb. 31 

^ u^^ Lesson 2. 

The Substantive Verb. 

§ 68. The Turkish Plural is formed by adding 

the affix J to the singular. This affix is pronounced 
hr, after hard vowels, and Ur after soft ones. Ex.: 
»iLT^ diynek stick: Ji>:5^ dSyneklSr sticks. 

6^ kedi cat: J^jS^ kedili cats. 

6jj^k^pru bridge: J^t^^^jT^ kebprulSr bridges. 

jJ qapou door: J^J qapoular doors. 

p-rfi. A:/iî-8tı» relative: J*.'»^^- khî-sîmlar relatives. 

§ 69. Titles of respect are given to persons 

according to their dignity, office and occupation. ^xi\ 
^ffendi Sir, Mr., is peculiar to clergymen and educated 

people. Ul a-gha or vulg. a-a, to tradesmen, labourers 

and old men; it means Mr., Esq. di bey^ prince, is 

given to civil functionaries and popularly to any per- 
son of supposed distinction. Each of these titles is 
put after the name of the person himself, not after his 

family name, as in English (§ 495). Ex.: ^X3\ juj>.U 
Itl JL^I , ii, j^^j>.| All med eff endi, AKmedaghuyAKmedhey^ 

§ 70. When the subject is a pronoun it is often 
omitted (§ 120).^ Ex.: ^\y\ ^^ hen eyi'yim or ^-l jjI cyi'yim 

I am well; J5CL JJS j^ siz tmbeV siniz or j5CL Jut> 
tmbel' siniz you are idle. 

§ 71. In Turkish, as in Enghsh, the adjective 
precedes the noun, and never varies, being the same 
whether it qualifies a singular or a plural substantive,. 

a mascuUne or a feminine noun. Ex.: dipc^ Jjy 

gi^izel chichek beautiful flower: J^C^c^ (}j^ güzel chickeMer 

32 r cr-j^ Lesson 2. rf 

beautiful flowers; 7:\pI fj^j» bedyuJc a-ghaj a big tree: fİjpj» 

^Icl h^yuk aghajlar big trees. 

§ 72. The Negative of the Present Tense of the 
Substantive verb is as follows: 

Negative Present. 
pi\ J$\> or J^:> deyil'im, J'J J$3 or J.)S^ deyiViz, 

O;- Jp 3 » O^-JS^ deyil'sin^ J^- J$3 > J>JS^ deyiVsifiiz. 

J 3 Jp i » jJJS^ deyiVdir, Jj^ J$\> » JS^ dey iller . 
I am not, thou art not, he is not, etc. 

Interrogative Negative Present. 
? ^t\ jj. J^ or ? r;*-K^ deyiVmi yim ? 

? (>- j^ jr\> * ? Ck-«-^1S^ deyiVmi sin ? 

?j3 (j*Jf^ » ?j-4*JS^ deyiVmi dir? 

^ Jii ijjp^ ^^ ? JOS^ deyil'mi yiz? 

?j5C- j»J^ » ?j5w-^JS^ deyil'mi sifiiz? 

?Jj^ L^cP^ * ^J^-^^ dei/i/'mi dirUr? 
Am I not? art thou not? is he not? etc. 

^ofe. It is very useful for the learner to conjugate the 
adjective with the verb and to write the latter in both its forms, 
the full and the abbreviated ones; as: 

pi \ oy-Jx ^^ ^y-^y, * ^- 0>Jji or i>^-^j^i ' j^ û>->ji or 

J Jjj&jji i ? pi\ (^ 0>Jji or ? ^>jji * 0^-^^j^_ ! p)S^ 0>Jj: ' 

JCil Words. 

J ^y. ! ^ Tchayr no! ! ^xil ^khayr effendim! No, 

. " Sirl [Sir t 

t. ! o3\ ev vet yes! ! ^ j:3\ oji ^^-^^f. iff^ndim! Yes, 

j-^^y qon-sliou neighbour J^^^ yapraq leaf 

p. ^;;^^ dûshmen enemy p. <^^i bdh'-je^ garden 

p. si^-j^ <?os^ friend <L\ a-rfa island 

1 This is the common pronunciation, the correct pronun- 
ciation is : khas'-ttty ikh'-ti-yar^ khosh'-noud, bagh'-che (p. 8). 

The Substantive Verb. 


a. ^x--fr asker soldier 
•j^ qah've coflFee 
^ J ver give 
i>7^\ Artin Pascal 
<, 3 * <ç7 tepe, depe hill 

j^ sou water 
a. ^^ ?ja;jir' ready, present 
JJtj ySshit green 
lip* very 

ûy-Jjt yorghoun tired 
^^^ j^merd' generous 
a. p. jlx««.l» ^ama'X;iar avaricious 
p. 0^ *«^^ fresh 
(jli*JU» chaUshqan diligent 

jLo-l ih'-ti-yar^ old (age) 

.«. /io«/i'-noMdi content, 
P- ''.^-^ happy 

p. 4i^ hasta ^ sick 

^\ »^ pefc eyi very well! 

V Jli5 Exercise 8. 
di» (Artin) ObjT >r ♦ jjJfS ^jJ^^ * j3 ^^»âi. j JU--J3 cJXil 

* See the Note page 32. 
TurkiBh Cony.-Grammar. 


84 r ^j^j> Lesson 2. 

1 Ajt'j Translation 4. 

1. Little hills. Red flowers. The green leaves and 
the beautiful gardens. 2. Is not the house large? — 
Yes, Sir, it is large. 3. The islands are small. That 
island is not small. 4. The coffee is very good. It is 
not 3(a) ivery ggood ^coffee. 5. The gardens and the trees 
are very nice. 6. Is the coffee ready? — No, Sir! 7. Are 
you ready? — Yes, gentlemen I I am ready. 8. Who 
is Mr. Charles? — He is a good neighbour. 9. Is the 
water fresh? — No, Sir, it is not fresh. — Give (a) 
fresh water. 10. Is the garden very far? — No, Sir, it 
is not very far, it is near. 11. Ahmed Bey is a good 
soldier. 12. He is a generous man. 13. That gentleman 
is not avaricious. 14. Master Georgie is very young. 

To be corrected. 
a1|^ Conyersation* 

^iy>- Jevah Answer Jl^ Sival Question 



JJ3 (jltt.>.> 

The Substantive Verb, i 

§ 73. The Preterite or Past Tense oi 
Verb is as follows: 

f Jüıl JJÎ hen idim I was iJjui\ Jj 6i/ tdifc wt 

^^i ^>- 5^' tdt/l thou wast J^-4^ J- ^^-sf' idiûiz you > 
t^-^il jl o' id» he was Jjjul J}j\ onlar idiler they were. 

The Negative Past Tense, 
^M JfS Cx ^^^ dSyiV idim iJju\ J$3 J. hiz diyii' idik 

^^\ JfS ^ sin diyiV idifi J^-^1 J^ J- si-gr d^yir irft^i<2f 

^^\ y^ j\ diyiV idi J^^M J$^ J^j\ onlar diyü' idiUr. 

*•'■ I was not, thou wast not, he was not, etc. 

The Interrogative Forms of the Same, 

Bin' mi idim? sfn' mi idifl? o mou idi? 
I Biz' mi idik? siz mi idifiiz? onlar mı idiUr? 

Was it I? was it thou? etc. 

Bin dSyiV mi idim? sSn diyil' mi idifi? o diyiV mi idi? 
Biz diyiX mi idik? siz diyil' mi idifiiz? onlar diyil' mi 
idilir? or diy itler miyidi? 

Was it not I? was it not thou? etc. 

§ 74. The Numerals are used just like all other 
adjectives. Like them, they precede the noun. The 
noun qualified by cardinals always remains in the 

singular (§71). Ex.: olj; bir adem aman, 3j>-j>- ^J^J 

'it chojouq two boys. 

Jm\ iki two jl \ altî six 

»-j\ ûch three tiJ^ yidi seven 

viiji dSbrt four jS.- sekiz eight 

^j hish five jji^ doqouz nine 


36 r u^j^ Lesson 3. rl 

oj\ on ten ^^ ^j\ on bir eleven 

^i\ (jj\ on iki twelve, etc. 

§ 75. The English word ''half" is expressed in two 
ways, by <jl yarîm and by Jj>-y^ bouchouq (§ 207). Tarîm 
is used before a noun like an adjective: b^ f:^ yarim 
gun half a day, c^L- ç^^ yarîm sa'at half an hour, j 
HI ^jl yarîm elma half an apple. 

Soucfiouq is always used in connexion with a 
number. Ex. : Jj>-ji ^^Cl iki bouchouq two and a half, 
wpL, J^>-j» pjl uch bouchouq sa'at three hours and a half, 

vj^ J^ji ^ I 0^'^^ bouchouq gun six days and a half. 

§ 76. The English phrase "there is, there are" etc. 
is expressed in Turkish by ^jlj var 'there is, exists': 
its negative being Jjj yoq 'there is not' (§ 126 a). 

J-> jij '' j\^ '^o.Ty var dîr there is, 

jjijj * ^JJl 1/oq, yoq dour there is not. 

iSM j\j var idi, varîdî there was, 

(iJu\ Jji yoq idi there was not. 

( J-> ) j\j ^^^^, hir Mtab var (dirj there is a book, 

iSM JİJ v-jliSO &i> kitah var îdî there was a book. 
- u<^ f - \.<^ bir kitah yoq^ hir kitah yoq dowr there 

(iJu\ j ji v»jli5\;j 6tr fciiaft yog trfi there was not a book. 

§ 77. The Locative case is made by the addition 
of o3 de, da to the end of the word (§ 84). Ex.: 

o3jl evde in the house, »Jot^ kitabda in the book, 

* The w^ord var is called the Verb of Existence and Non- 
existence, or Verb of Presence and Absence by some European 
Grammarians, but there are no such verhs in Turkish. 

rV The Substantive Verb. 37 

o3-btpl» hdh'-je-de in the garden. Evde bir adem var, — 
dîr, there is a man in the house. 

II - . u^ I Ö kitabda tCLSvirUr var dir^ there are 
J^J^^J^.j^ »-^^ J\ pictures in that book. 

- ^^\^^ -I Bah'-jSde chiMk yoq dour, there are 

-^-^Ji ^-^^t?" •^*^« no flowers in the garden. 

.... ^ .1 BaK'jidi bir gut var idij there was 

- ^'-^ v-'^ >-^- ^^ . a rose in the garden. 

iİJü\ i 1 il % i ' ^ ^^^ güze I vS hSbyûk' ivdi idik, we were 
.» • Ji Jiji J üJy j'. in a nice [and] big house. 

§ 78. İn asking the hour, it is said: 
?jJb-S j>L- sa-at qach'dtr? What o'clock is it? 

jJL^Cl c^L- sa-a^ iki'dir, it is two o'clock. 

But .ivL. r i^^^' s^'^^ d^^^ means: How many 
-^ 5r hours are there? 

jJCcL- ^/Cl î'i't' sa-at dır, there are two hours. 

Sa'Ot means also 'a w^atch': c.^^ j, ^^^^ e^-^rr bir 

sa-at an old watch, c.pL j»yjl j: &«V altouri sa-at a 
gold watch. 

JCil Words. 

p. oL- si'ydh' black a. ^^L &eya-2r white 

t^^l i-ri large, big jljjl ou/ag small 

^ ye-^i new ^5^1 es-gi old 

J[^ c^iog much, many j\ a^f few, &ir a^ a little 

i^jU «ari yellow ? p^ fcm.^ w^ho? 

? 1^:15 gac?».^ how many? ?r^ ^. ^♦'' 2^<^^ some 

ij- 8tid milk a. ^\^ sharab wine 

p. »j^ meyve fruit a. ^^z>j» niekteb school! 

Prop, names, a. ^>*. Hasan a. ^w J^ fcerim Grace, 

^j3 Exercise 5. 

38 r u^ji Lesson 3. 

olî-utu 1 • jj3 o^ji jiş>rjt ^-«-^-^ *^^^. j^>rjt --V 

? ^^ JUTS o3jl Ju-^aİ j ©jJIj ' jJi) ^ »Jr,! j;4-İ3 oJLU-^3 j 

o3ji ju-ati • Jj^ o^ji ojJb J j-^ ^ ^jLii jvi. — • (? Jjju.irs) 

^ Ajt-j Translation 6. 

1. Was he sick? — No, Sir (Be-yim), he was not 
sick; the soldier was very sick. 2. Is x4hmed B'^^y at 
home? — No, Sir, he is in the garden. 3. Who is 
there at home? — Hassan Effendi is at home. 4. Seven 
days and nine hours. Eight and [a] half days. 5. Was 
the coffee hot? — Yes, Sir, the coffee and the milk 
are hot; they are not cold. 6. Who is this young 
gentleman? — He is Kerim Effendi. 7. Three and 
seven are ten; five and six are eleven. 8. There are 
twelve hours in a day. 9. Aq-Shohir, Esgi-Sh^hir and 
Yefii-Shehir are large [and] fine cities. 10. How many 
islands are there in the Mediterranean Sea? 11. How 
many islands are there in the Black Sea? — There are 
two [or] three bad islands. 

To be corrected. 

r^ Declension of Nouns. 39 

aI|^ Conrersation» 

Selam m%^ Salutation 

Sabah'lar khayr' olsonn! Good morning! 

Akh'shamlar khayr' olsoun! Good evening! 

Vaqltlar khayr' olsoun! Good day! 

Na'sll sl^iz, ^yi'mi sifiiz? How do you do? 

Eyi'yim, t^ehök'kûr ^d^rim. I am well, thank you! 

Siz na'sîl eîfiîz, ^yi'mi siniz? How are you? are you ^fcll? 

Choq'^yiyim ^fifiândim. I am very well, Sir! 

El-ham'dûMah' ^yi'yim. Thank God, I am very well. 

Rija'^d^rim, otourouTiouz'. Please take a seat. 

Th^sh^k'kûr ^d^rim. Thank you! 

Bouyou'roufieff^ndim,otou'rou&. Come in, Sir; take a seat. 

Hassan' EflFendi, n^r^6 siîiiz? Mr. Hassan, where are you? 

Bouyou'roufi eflPândim! Yes, Sir. 

G^j^l^r khayr' olsoun! Good night! 

Hosh' g^ldifiiz. You are welcome. 

^ u^i> Lesson 4. 

^\ J 1^1 Declension of Nouns. 

§ 79. There are two numbers in Turkish: Singular 
and Plural; and six eases, expressing the diflferent 
relations of words to each other; namely: the Nominative, 
Genitive, Dative, Accusative, Locative and Ablative cases. 

§ 80. The Nominative case (or the Subject) answers 

to the questions : who? or what? ^ Urn? Ai ne? as the 
subject of the verb; as: Who is learning? — The boy 

o^^j' ogh'lan, 

§ 81. The Genitive (or Possessive) case answers 
to the questions : whose? ot of which? d\^ Jcimin? db4i 

40 H. wJ> Lesson 4. «l* 

nenin, Ex.: Whose book? — The boy's book dtütp^l 
(J,\:^ oghlanîn'^ kitabî, 

§ 82. The Dative answers to the questions : to whom? 
to which? Ji^Mme? AiA» ne-ye? Ex.: To whom shall I 
give it? — To the boy mj^IpjI oghlana, 

§ 83. The Accusative (or Objective case) marks 
the object of an action, and answers to the questions: 

whom? or what? ^^S^ Jcimi? J^^ neyi? Ex.:- Whom or 

wha#(io you see? — I see the boy, the house 4^5\pjI 

ogh'lanî^, ^j\ evi^, 

§ 84. The Locative answers to the questions: where? 
wherein? ©3oJ nerede? Ex.: Where is the boy? — He 
is in the school oJlI^C» mektebde, 

§ 85. The Ablative answers to the questions: from 

wJwrn? from what? cs^ kimden? o^^ neden? Ex.: 
From whom did you take this book? — From the boy 

oJû^Ujl oghlandan. 

§ 86. There is only one declension in Turkish, with 
four variations: 

First Form. 
§ 87. The first form comprehends all nouns 

ending in consonants (except f] k, and J q): 

a) Nouns ending in soft syllables. 

Singular ^y^ Mufred' Plural »jh Jem 

G. i)jju pMMn of \ ^ ^Jjj.. p^dMeHn' of ig 

I o \ Q^ 

D. ojjü pdddrS' to J -^ •Jjj. pidSrUri' to ) 5 

1 The Genitive and the Accusative do not always take the 
terminations -in, -i. These are required only when the noun in 


Declension of Nouns. 




ı^jjü pdderi' 
•jijju pdd^rdS' in 




(ijjjü pidirliri' 
•ijjju pid^rlirdS* in 
A. û-^-^H P^^^^' from ) -a û-^Jj-H P^dirUrdin from 

b) Nouns ending in hard syllables. 

JLİ.U. ta«/iZar' 

ilJilL «owWarln' of 

oJl^lU tashlara to 

(ijliU» tashlari' 

ojJl^lL tashlarda' in 

jjjJiilL tashlardan' from 

c) Nouns ending in syllables which have the hard 
vowels ow or o in them. 


^l^ tasK 
«lit.U> iashtn' of 

Aİ'U» JcM^a' to 

^^U. tasM 
•Jl^IL tashda in 
o-^^ to^/tdan' from 

> « 


N. Aj* motim' 
G. *UU^ moumote/i' of 
AAj» mouma to 

oX»j» moumda' in 




A. o-u^ fftotiifician' from 

^^ moumlar 
iJjl*^ wıoMW?îarC#»' of 

•JL.^ moumlara to 
iSj^j» moumlar i' 
»^J^j» moumlarda in 
^jjjjL^ moumlardan from 


> « 


d) Nouns ending in syllables which have the soft 
vowels ed or û in thera. 


>^ 8Ûd' 

J^^ sûdUr 


^^j^ BÛdûfİ' of 


ûj^j^ sûdlMn' of 



»^j^ 8Ûde to 

»J^j^ sûdUrS' to 



(i^j- «MCÎH' 

iSj^j^ sudUri' 


o^^j^ siiddS' in 


»^J^j^ sudUrdS' in 



jjü^^ suddSn' from 

o-^J-^,^ sudUril^n from 

the Genitive or Accusative is definite. When the in or -i is omitted, 
the Genitive or Accusative is the same aa the Nominative in form 
(§§ 109, 251). When the Indefinite form of these two cases is to 
be described, it is styled by some Orientalists the Nominatival 
form of the Genitive or Accusative. But the indefinite forms of 
those two cases are called by the native grammarians simply 


•l u^j^ Lesson 4. 


Second Form. 

§ 88. The second form of declension comprises 

all consonants ending in J q. The difference from 

the first declension is this, that J g' is changed into 

i- gh, whenever it is followed by a vowel (§ 52, 2). Ex.: 

jIL ba-Uq: here J q is not followed by a vowel, because 

it stands at the end of the syllable, âi ba-U-qa: here 

the third syllable begins with J q and is vowelled, 

therA^re it changes into i- gh, thus we have a^I 6a- 
U-gha. This change takes place in the Genitive, Dative 
and Accusative cases: in the Locative and Ablative cases 

and in the plural the J q remains unchanged, because 
in those cases q is not followed by a vowel. 

Note. In Arabic and Persian words and in all words borrowed 
from foreign languages, the j q remains unaltered. 

^ 1' 

Singular ^Jl^ Mtifred 

N. 'jJli ha-Uq 

* r 


^ * 

ha-ll-ghlfi of 
ba-ll-gha to 
ba-Uq-da in 
ba-liq-dan from 




The fire-place 


o-jaq-dan o-jaq-da o^ja-ght 

The boy 
cho-jou-glwu cho-jowgha 


Plural njh Jem 

JLiJL ba-Uq-lar 

4JLÂİli 6a-h*g-7a-rt/l of 

•JLilli ba-liq-la-ra to 

(iJJii ba-Uq-la-H 

•jJLiJlj ba-ltq-lar-da in 

oJijlilL ba-Uq-lar-dan from 

4İ.Uj\ dlfrUjl (iV^i 
O'ja-gha o-ja-ghtil o-jaq. 






Declension of Nouns. 


'T'hird Form. 

'n contains all the soft syllabled 

^ letter Tcef is changed into 
'^at is, when the syllable 

he A* is changed into 

^ot vowelled, it is 
'^l ^r-de-he is 
with f] A;; 

I edr-de-ye 

jaf (§ 34). 

native cases 

at thb 
wrong, for 

therefore the k m. 

(§ 52, 2). This is n. 
as there are no diflPerent . 

In the plural and in the jLv 
fe is unchangeable, as a vowel »^ 
foUow the k (§ 88). 

Singular ^jIa Mufred' 

N. 'i)ijj\ ibr-dik the duck 

G. ^t\^jj\ ^r-di-yifi of the duck 

•I). <rSjjl ^r-di-yi to the duck 

^' i^Jj\ ^r-dS-yi the duck 

L. •jiXjjl ^r-dSk'di in the duck 

A. oS^^jj\ ^f'dik'den from the duck. 

Plural njf Jem 

N. J^^jj\ ebr-dik-Ur the ducks 

G. ÛJS^jj\ ior -dSk'liriü of the ducks 

D. »J^jj\ edr-dik'U-re to the ducks 

A. iSj^jj\ ebr-dSk-le-ri the ducks 

L. «jj^lSojji ebr 'dSk'Ur-di in the ducks 

A. o^J^Jji Sbr-d4k-Ur'den from the ducks. 

The bread 

ûJ^ 0^^:15^ ^^Crî <^:lr\ dı^lrî iiu^ 

fi-mik-din ^k-mik-di Sk-mi-yi ik-mi-yi ik-mi-yifi ik-mik. 


*L u^j^ Lesson 4. 


Tlte whistle 

dû-dû-yû dû'dûyi 




Note, Jj\ og arrow. J^ toq satiated, J^ ç^rg forty, iJj* 

ywfc load, ^^hedk a root, are exceptions to the above rules, as 
they do not change q into gh, and k into y. 

Fourth Form. 
§ 90^ The fourth form comprises all nouns 

ending in the vowel letters ^J © j I . In the singular, 

the Genitive is formed by adding dU -nin; in the Dative 

Ai -ye is added to the Nom., in the Ace. (j, ^yi (§53). 

No change takes place in the remaining cases or in 
the plural (§§ 88, 89). 

§ 90^. When a word ending in a vowel receives 
a grammatical ending beginning with a vowel, a hiatus 
results, which is practically a difficulty in pronunciation. 
This is very common in Turkish (§ 53). To^ avoid this 

difficulty it is usual to insert a consonant (^y (and only 

in the Genitive o n. This is really the retention of 
part of the original genitive termination -nin). 

Plural «J?" Jem 
Jill a-na-lar 
iJJl;\ a-na-la-rtn of 
•Jl*\ a-na-la-ra to 
(iJM a-na-la-rî 
«ijl*\ a-na-lar-da in 
o^JM a-na-lar-dan from 

ke-di-yi ke-di-nin kd-di. 

Singular ^Jl^ Mufred' 

N. U a-na 

G. vUlillT a-na-nîn of 

D. 4ilJ\ a-na-ya to 


A. JX'\ a-na-yî 


L. •il!\ a-wa-<ia in 


A. (j->M a-na- cian from 

The cat 

oJ^i-J^ ©Juji^ J.(İa5^ 

ki'di'dân kd-di-dS ki-di 



t0 Declension of Nouns. 45 

The well 

^.xy ""tjiy "^jty ^ y.y 

qpu-you-you qou-yoti-ya qou-you-noun qou-you 

qpu-you'dan qou-you'da. 
The hill 

/)i<i3 Oi^ii (3<Ji 4j<j3 »lAj<i3 <ji 

de^'dâ^n d^-pS-dS di-pi^yi di-pi-yi di-pi-nin dS-pS, 
The water 

O^j^ »>^ Lİ,^ \J^ ^>^ J^ 

sou'dan sou-da sou-you sou-ya sou-youfi sou. 

Note 1, Singulars ending in the vowel o -^ do not join 

this letter to the sign of the plural or the endings of cases (§ 32 b). 

Note 2, The word j^ sou forms its Genitive irregularly. 

V ^Ju^ Exercise 7. 

Decline the following words, writing them in Turkish 
characters : and also indicate their pronunciation in Eng- 
lish characters, with their meanings. 

* dl5^ deynek a stick * ji 1^ franq a franc * Jji^ ' Jl>c-^ * ©jî 

• iS^ ^^y village 
Translate into English. 

•(5 Ji^t->. /CJujG -(CjvS^ J * ^ »oJ^lL 3 Î o3-ü3 r iLojj 

•ûojtT* <y.t^- ^^^yry: ^ • *^^^ • *<^^^^ • c5i*^ ^ 

46 *u u^j^ Lesson 4. «ul 

A Ajt'j Translation 8. 

1. The mountains; of the mountains; to the moun- 
tains; from the mountain. 2. Four [or] five trees; on 
the three trees; of the good tree, of the good trees, 
from the good trees. 3. Give the book (ace.) to the 
big [one]. From the big [one]. 4. In the valley, to the 
valleys. The valleys are green. 5. ^I saw gthe green 
hills, 3 the black mountains 4 and 5 the white flowers 
ifrom the village. 6. In the hot, to the hot; the hot 
(ace); the hot (nom.). 7. 2 1 saw 1 the gentlemen (ace); 
to the gentleman; of the gentlemen ; on the gentleman. 
8. The green leaf (ace); on the green leaves; on many 
green and nice leaves. 9. Of the coffee; in the coffee; 
from the coffee. To the coffee-houses (qaKvelere), 9. From 
the hot; from the cold; from the little and on the great. 
10. To the great men. 11. To the white and the black 
(ace). 12. To five francs. 

Correct the following words. 

* ^J^-^. ' L^^} ' ^|i ^ ♦ ^y^ ' the arrow ^jl • <\y^^ 

aI|^ Conyersation. 

Hoshja qalln ^ff^ndim. Good bye, Sir! 

Hosh g^ldiûiz, s6fa geldiniz. You are welcome. 

S^lam 8^yl6. Give my salutations (to the home 

P^d^r^ choq s^lam s^yl6. Give my salutations to your 

Bash ûstûnĞ ^flf^ndim. Very well, Sir. 

IV The Pronouns. 4T 

^ u^^ Lesson 5. 

cJ\y\:^ The Pronouns. 

§ 91. Turkish Pronouns are divided into seveD 
classes : 

1. Personal, 2. possessive, 3. adjectival, 4. demon- 
strative, 5. reflexive, 6. indefinite and 7. interrogative- 

1. Personal Pronouns. <^u^ 

§ 92. They are: J: ^^j ^ ^^» j' ö, ^jjjS^^ kendL 
They are declined as follows: 

First Person. 

Singular ^Jut Mufred! 

PluraJ «J?- Ji^w^' 


Oi bin I 

J: 5i-2f we 


J^ hinim my 

^J: &i;?tm our 


15C ^a-Ha to me 


• Ji 5t-8f« to VLB 


Jl 5^-tit me 

t^J: 5i^;t us 


oJû &^n(7^ in me 


•ij». toi^ in us 


ÛJÛ hindin from me. 

o^J: bizdin from us. 

Second Person. 


^ sin thou 

J- si> you 


dJL- si-nifi thy 

il^ smVi yours 


iC- ^a-na to thee 

•J- sizi to you 


^^ «^-n» thee 

t^j- sm you 


oJlI^ 8İH-di in thee 

•^j-- sizdi in you 


oJû- 5^n-d^n from thee. 

o^J- «t>d^n from you 


Third Person. 

Singular 3 i^ 


N. jl he she, it 

G. dl: \ * lUUji onow/l, an\fi his, hers, its 


• u^J^ Lesson 5. 



ı/^T t w^ » ' ' (to him, him 

ir^ ^j\o-na, a-na {t^ her, to it 

(il * âj\ (Htou, a-nt' him, her 

•Jj\ * oXj\ on-da'y an-d4' in him 

(jXt \ ' o-J^ji on-dan', an-den from him. 


0^1: \ 


anlir them 

aMrifi of them 

avdiri' to them 

anliri' them 

Plural ^ 

* o^L'jl onlara f 
kSj^j\ onlarVf 
»^J^j\ onlarda' t anUrdi' in them 

ö>J^\ ' ö^J^j\ onlardan, ardirdin from them. 

Reflexive form of the Third Person, 

Singular 3 i« Mufred' 

^. iSXS^kSndi 

G. vl\Ljj:$^/;^ndmi^ of 

D. <L,xS^ kendine to 

A . ^^i jJ.^ kSndini 

L. aXiXS^ kindindi in 

A. (jX^xS^ kindindSn from 



> ?2 


J^iXS^ kendiUr 
jlJaXS^ kendilerin of 
aJ^xS^kindiliri to 
(i^li jjl5^ kindiliri 
o:>J<iXS^ kindiUrde in 
o^ XiXS"^ kSndiUrdin from 




§ 93. The English conversational form of address 
is 'you'; in Turkish, however, there are two forms: shi 
and sis. Sen is employed in addressing parents, near 
relatives, children, servants, pupils, and intimate friends, 
such as would be addressed by their Christian names 
in England. Si» is used in addressing strangers, or 
mere acquaintances (§ 494). 

§ 94. Instead of Im and sü their double plural 

J j; ' }y> hider, sizler are sometimes used in all the si^ 

cases. This cannot be expressed in English. They are 
^ven used, out of politeness, instead of hen and sen^ 

<u^ The Pronouns. 49 

2. Possessive Pronouns. iUi jw^ 

§ 95. The Possessive Pronouns of the Turkish 
language do not really correspond to those of the 
English, but are merely possessive affixes. Possessive 
affixes are used instead of the English possessive pro- 
nouns. They consist of syllables added at the end of 
nouns. They have the value of pronouns, and cannot 
stand alone. 

§ 96. The possessive affixes are the following: 

^_ Sing. I. person my j«_ Plur. I. person our 

iJ_ y> II. » thy j5^ » II. » your 

tf_ » III. » his. (ij- » III. » their. 

Ex.: Sing. 1\ dlim d\ll Slin J\ S-li 

my hand, thy hand, his hand; 

Plur. jll i-limiz J<J1 S-liniz iSj\ il'-Uri 
our hands, your hands, their hands. 

§ 97. The pronunciation of the Possessive Affixes 
varies in the following way (§ 52): 

1. If the word to which they are added end in 
a consonant, the affixes are pronounced: im, in, i; 
imi», iniüf, leri, as in the above. 

2. If the preceding predominant vowel in the word 
be ou or o, although written in the same way, they 

are pronounced: outn, oun, ou\ oumouz, aunouz, 

larî, Ex. : j^y * di-ly ' ^y • yJ^^ * j^^^ ' (Sj^^ 

Qoushoutn, qoushouh, qoushou; qoushoumou», qoush- 
(Mnou», qoushlari. My bird etc. 

3. If the word end in a vowel, they have then 
only the value of the letters m, n, si; miz, niz, leri, Ex. : 

j^tT' fjtf ' ^T Î y\\ ' jîTtT ' ^J\\ Anam, man, anasi; 
a-namiz, a-nanîz, a-nalarî. My mother etc. 

4. If the predominant vowel in the word be eo, Û, 
the vowel of the affix is pronounced fi, to agree with 

it; as 1^3/ ' &j/^'sjf- >3/"' f^p^J'^fG^'ZÛm, 

Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 4 

50 9 ,^ji Lesson 5. •♦ 

My eye etc. 

§ 98. In the third person singular, when the word 
ends in a vowel, a ^j- ^ is inserted for euphony, as: 

aU ' fill ' ^^U ba-ha-sî (and not j^ll ha-baA). The only 

exception to this rule is the word ^ sou; as: ^^ ' 

dXj^^'^y^ Sou-youm, sou-youn, sou-you; sou-you-mouZy 
sou-you-nouz^ soulari. My water etc. 

§ 99. If the word ends in one of the connected 

letters (§ 24) the suffix ^ is not written when declinec3 
in Singular cases, but the sound i is retained; as: 

,^1:5^' dbl:^' ^tT' .c>tS^' ^^^' u-^^KitcM, 

'bî-nîn, 'bî-na, -bî-nî^ -bîndan, -bînda, ' 

§ 100. If it ends in one of the unconnected letters 
O 3 J -^^ the iC i is retained; as: /Cjl ' dXhj\ * Oji 

^jl ^ Cj^J^ ' oX)jI e-vi, e-vi-nin, e-vi-ne, e-vi-ni etc. 

§ 101. If the final vowel of the substantive is 
e, it is never joined on to the possessive in writing 
(§ 32); as: j»o^3 ' fJo33 ' ^^©3^ de-dem, de-defi, de-desi 

not jsb33 '*£Aa^^ My grandfather etc. 

§ 102. The genitives of the Personal pronoun are 
used, when required, to emphasize and corroborate the 
possessive affixes of the same number and person. They 
are never used alone, without their equivalent possessive 

affixes to corroborate them; thus ^\ ^j^ qardasMm my 

brother (not my sister etc.), JL\^j\'i ^ benim qardasMni 
my brother (not your brother or his brother) (§ 120)- 

§ 103. A final J g, in a polysyllable, as in 
declension, changes into i- gh before the possessive 

ot The Pronoans. 51 

affixes, singular or plural, excepting that of the third 
person plural ; so also f) k changes into y in like cases 

(§ 53). Ex. : Jty ' ^ty ' dl^ly ' J^y • >^ty ' 3<lty 
Qo-naq^ qo-na-gJUm, qo^a-ghin, qo-na-ghl; qo-na-ghi- 

■ mtz, qo-na-ght-fdz. My mansion etc. dbl ' ^^^>\ ' 

dlfo I ' ^^o I • J*-^Oi I * j^^3CL i I-nek, i-ne-yim, i-^ie-yih, 
i-ne-yi; i-ne-yi-miz, i-ne-yi-niz. My cow etc. 

With Singular Nouns. 

p7\ Jo &^tm a-fim my horse 
dl:\ sUll- «^mn a-fifl thy horse 
J\ »^j\ onoufi a-t% his horse 
jE\ ^J», hizim a-tî-mtz our horse 
j^T iJj- »l-?tVl a-ti-nîz your horse 
(i^'\ iljli'jl onlartfl at-la-rî their horse. 

With Plural Nouns. 

*^\ Jo hSnim atlarîm my horses 
il^'l siL- s^niVl atlarin thy horses 
(iJL"\ »Hjjl owoM/l afZart his horses 
J»^\ ^J», hizim atîarîmîz our horses 
j5^*\ iJj- sizifl atlarîütz your horses 
(i^ljl ^J^j\ onlarifl atlart their horses. 

§ 104. In some words the vowel of the last syllable 
is eliminated when the possessive affix is added, except 
in the third person plural. 

J$^^ * J^J^ged-nûlf geoü'lûm heart, my — . 

J^c.\ * iljc-^ a-ghîz, agh-ztü mouth, thy — . 

^y.y. ' dt.j\ bo-youfiy hoy-nou neck, his — . 

Jfrj\ *jJlcjl o-ghoul, ogh'lou-mouz son, our ~. 

oJJji ^ J^Oji bou-roun, bour-nou-fiouz nose, your — . 



• u^J^ Lesson 5. 

a. Jifr * pJiic. a-gîly aq-Um mind, sense, my — . 
a. cJj * »Ibdj va-gît, vaq-tiu time, thy -r-, 
a. p-J * tr*— 5 qt'sim, qîs-mî part, his — . 
a. p— \ * J.,..»— \ i'Sim, is-mi-miz name, our — . 
p. ^^ 'J^Z^ she-Mr, shih'-ri-niz city, your — . 

But in the third person gS-nuhUri, a-ghiz-lari, h<hy 
lart, oghoul'larî, bourounlartj aqU'lari etc. 

§ 105. As it has been seen, the possessives 
affixed to the substantives they qualify, and form 
word with them. That compound word is then deel 
Hke a simple substantive; as: 

i. Affixes of the First Person, 

Singular 3 i^ Mufred' 

N. ^\:^'kitdb\m 
G. ^\z^Utab%m\ü of 
D. <i}cS^'kitdb\ma to 


A t 




ijji\:S^kitabîmda in 

A. oJxliS^fctYaMwc^an from 


y^}c^ I'itdbtm^z 
j}js.\:S^ JcitaUmîzîn of 
ojt\:S^ hitahtm^za to 
iSJ^^'S^ kitabimizi 
o :ijsi\:S^ kitabimiz da in 
^^j^\::S^ kitabtmizdan froi 

2. Affixes of the Second Person. 

N. >tX\:^ kitabin 

G. ^t^^}:^ ki'ta-bi-yifi of 

D. -^lıS^fcıYaftî^a to 


A. ^}::^ kitabini 

L. 0j^t\::S^ kitabin da in 

A. jjJi^ 1:5^ A:i^a&î^daw from 


j^CLiS^ kitabiniz 
Û^}:S^ kitabinizin of 
oj^l::5^fct^a5Hî<sa to 
(ij<^l:^ kitabinizi 
o^j.^\:S^ kitabinizda in 
o :>j^ \:S^kitabintzdan f roi 


5. Affixes of the Third Person. 
i^\:S^ kitabi ]m iS X^:S^ kitablari 

o "^ • 

vlb 1:5^ A;i<aWni>l of ) -§ vUIl JLl:i^/:ifa6Zartm*^ of 
<li\:S^ kitabına to *^ <L Si\:S^ kitablarina to 


•r The Pronouns. 53 

o I ^ 

L. »X^\:S^ JcitaMnda m ]£ »J^ St\zS^hitablarînda in }'^ 

80 I «w^ 

A. jjûbs AntoMndan from) 2 o jJ^ lı^^^fciiaftZarîtulan from] ^ 

Fogtlm, vaqiXmMi^ ra^tima, ragtîıı?i, -Utndo, -dan My time . . . 
^Mfl, d-vi-yifl, i-vifU, Mhi^ i-vifidi^ Mfiden Thy house . . . 
(Japttöou, qapousounouii, -souna, -sounoUf -saundan^ -da His door . . . 
Ba-U-ghi^mtz, 'mtzîû, -miza, -mtzi, mUda, -muzdan Our fish . . . 
Ek-mi-yi-fiiz^ -üizifi, -üizdj -niziy -üizde, -fiizdin Your bread . . . 
Omafdari, -larînifi, -lartnaj -larint, larînda, -dan Their forest . . . 

§ 106. The Accusative Singular of a noun agrees 
in form and in pronunciation with the third person 
singular possessive affix added. The noun with this 
affix, however, is always the subject in a sentence, while 
the other similar form is always object. Ex.: 

• ıl-5^%liül& ^^*^^^ kitabi bourada dir The book of 

c^Jüji *lc. lliS^dJLJlft -^^*'**** kitabi ghayb oldou The book of 
^ • - Ali [Eli] has been lost. 

(ijJjj Jlfr J,\:S^ Kitabi Ali bauldou Ali has found the book. 

In the first and second examples the word ^y.^*^ 

paeans 'his book' (Nom. third person), and is the sub- 
ject of the sentence: in the third example the word is 

the objective case of the word ^1:5^. 

JCi] Words. 

*^j^ chiz'me (out of door) boot 3tJ^ chariq sandal 

f. CAİsy fotin boots V^-^J^ chorab stockings 

f. bjAly qoundoura shoe ojj:^ jezve { "" ^^^l^.^^^ 

P- rj>\ pabauj slipper 6^^ finjan coffee-cup 

f. J'^15 qalosh over-shoe, galoche 0^^^ choban shepherd 

jM a-yaq foot f. «iU- chay tea (Chinese) 

'^^^^ dey-nek stick t^U- chay brook. 

^ ^JUi Exercise 9. 

54 o (^ji Lesson 5. 0^ 

'f^\>- ' ^U o »(^jl ' dhjl ' dJijl \ ondan oSa^\ î evinden 
' •>'^ •>. "^ • («<=«•) c*iV 'cJiV ' iSiA^ ' ^>-^ = ^>.V 

^jU vLlil^ • ı^J^y j Jj^jGjS n i «^j^ evimizde ö^Jc^ 

> ♦ Ajt^j Translation 10. 

1. Me, he, they, you, thou, my, her, his, thy, ours, 
yours, their. 2. To me; to thee; to you; on thee; in 
you; on me; from me. 3. Him, himself; to him; in 
him; from him. 4. The cat (ace.), the cat (nom.); his 
cat (nom.), his cat (ace); his cats (nom.), his cats (ace); 
their cats, their cat (nom.). 5. His daughter (nom,); 
his daughter (ace), the daughter (ace), your daughter 
(ace). 6. In their valley, in our house, to your garden, 
to your horse. 7. My son, to my son, to his son; his 
children (pi. nom.). 8. In your time; from your time; 
to his time. 9. His nose, of his nose; to your nose, 
their noses. 1 0. In the city, in your city, to your city, 
from our city. 11. On my head, on his head, my heaid 
(nom.), my head (ace). 12. The tea (ace and nom.), 


The izafet. 


bis tea (ace. and nom.); in our brook. 13. The shepherd, 
their shepherd, their shepherds (nom. and ace). 14. My 
over-shoes, thy shoes; his sandals; her stockings and 
boots; our coffee-cup, your coffee-pot. 

To be corrected. 

*(5ji * (^tl ^ • oghotdounouz * oghoulou ^ ^«Jlpji ^ 

'>juoa5^ 1 • oj<dlT ' (^Jl^lT r . (third pers.) ^^jS^ 

aI|^ Conyersation. 

8. HaftanîÜ gÛDİ^rini s^yl^! 

J.Pazar, Pazar' - 6rtösi , Salî, 
Char'shamba , P^r'sh^mb^, 
Jouma-a', Jouma-a ^rt^si. 

& S^n^nin d^rt mevsimlerini 
8^yl6 1 

t7. Bahar, Yaz, Gûz, Qlsh. 

^' Gûnûâ taqsiml^rini s^yl^! 

^, Sbafaq, Sabah', Qoushlouq, 
Koylun, ikindi, Akhsham, 
G^j^, Yat'sî, G^j^ yarîsî or 
Yarî g^j^. 

Q. Teli me the days of the week. 

A. Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, 
Wednesday, Thur8day,Friday, 

Q. Tell me the four seasons of 
the year. 

A, Spring, Summer, Autumn, 

Q, Tell me the divisions of the 

^. The Dawn, Morning, Fore- 
noon (9 a. m.). Noon, After- 
noon, Evening, Night, Bed- 
time (two hours after sunset), 

'^ u^i> Lesson 6. 

^Ul The Izaf6t. 

§ 107. The possession or connexion of one thing 
or person with another is called in Turkish, izafet, 
^'hich means 'addition or annexation'. 

One substantive is governed by another in three 
different ways: 

§ 108. I. By juxtaposition, without change. This 
IS used to shew the relation between a material and 
^he thing composed of it. The name of the material 

56 1 u-J-i Lesson 6. •! 

is simply put, like an adjective, before the other sub- 
stantive. Ex. : 

J^^ oy^\ altoun qoutou a golden box. 
JiAl. dJLil i'pdk mendil a silk handkerchief. 
^i^cL iJ'jA^ gû-mûsh saat a silver watch. 

Or the noun expressing the material is put in the 
ablative ease; as: 

t\z^^ ijX^j^ \ altoundan kebstSk a chain of gold. 
iJLj<Lj (jju-lH Umandan hiUzik a bracelet of diamond. 
,^L>j>. û-^ji youndan chorab woollen stockings. 

§ 109. II. By placing the first substantive in the 
Nominative or unaltered form, and adding to the second 

the pronominal affix of the third person (^ or ^^ -i or -si). 

This is used to indicate not only possession but also 
genus and species, the name of the species coming fiirst 
(§ 81, Note). Ex.: 

i^J? jl Sv qapou^ou a house-door (indefinite). 
c4^^ jiy qouyou sou-you well water. 
j^\s.\ ^jAj\ armoud a-gha-ji pear tree. 
^ll\ <^U^ Amasiya elması Amassia apple. 

§ 110. The names of countries, rivers, mountains, 
cities etc. are formed in this way, the first of the two 
nouns remaining unchanged; as: 

JİJ3 Jilcic Osmanlt dhUti The Ottoman government. 
^A3^\^ y\>^\ In-gi-Uz qralichast The queen of England. 
iS^^ <-^l>r* ^^'^^^ shSh'ri The city of Sivas. 

jU ^j\ Ermini mil'Uti The Armenian nation. 
^/.li» t^l^jl Er-ji-yas da-ght Mount Argeas. 
iS^ <i^ Touna nih'ri The river Danube. 
L^i j_^L. Mayis a-yt The month of May. 

§ 111. ni. By placing the first in the Genitive, 
and adding to the second the pronominal aflix of the 

•V The izafet. 57 

third person (^ or ^-, -i or -si). This indicates the relation 

of possession and is essentially definite, and is generally 
used when the article 'the' would be put before the first 
noun in English. 

The name of the possessor is placed first, as when 
the possessive case is used in English. Ex.: 

j^jJ ^j\ 4'mfi qapousou The door of the house (definiteX 
j».lc.\ %lJllll\ ilmaniü a-ghaji The tree of the apple. 
L^^ "^jty gpu-younouü aouyou The water of the well. 

§ 112. When the two nouns come together in 
English, with the word of between them, the first ex- 
pressing the quantity of the second, the phrase is trans- 
lated into Turkish by simply putting the name of the 
quantity before the other noun and omitting 'of as 
in German they say Eine Flasche Wein, 'a bottle 
of wine'. 

t^U. 9-jj j^ hir qadih chay a cup of tea. 
J^ ^j\ r J^ wc^ oqqa sh4-k4r three okes of sugar. 
J» dnijl oj\ on arshin h^z ten yards of cloth. 
t^lJucjj *lX^j\ jjj yuz eblchik boughday' a hundred bushels of wheat. 
Ojiy JJj^ J, bir sûru qoyoun a flock of sheep. 

§ 113. The following construction is frequent be- 
tween a noun and a cardinal number. 

(S^j^ »iLllC^or iS^j^ o yJa\:S^ kitabin dSbrdû or kitablardan 

debrdû four of the books, or four books. 

,^jf*\ *iij'<l»j\ or (jr*^^ iij<l»ji or ^J^\ ö>J^j\ o-da-nîfi 

ikisi or odaîariû ikisi or o-dalardan ikisi two of the rooms, or 
two rooms. 

§ 114. These constructions are declined: 

Evifi qapousou, -noun, -nay -nou, -sounda, -soundan. 

§ 115. There are two words 03— (-de^ -dft) in 
Turkish; one is used with the nouns to form the Locative 

case, and is always accented (§ 84): o^jl ev-de\ oJlpL 
baghda in the house, in the vineyard. 


'\ i^j^ Lesson 6. 

§ 116. The other -de -is a conjunction, meanir 
^also, and' : it is never connected with the noun, nor 
it accented; that is, the accent is at the end of tl 

preceding word; as: o3 jl ev de ' »^ p-l» bagh' da 

0^ ^jJb pederim' de * o3 ^ benirn de; meaning Tl 
house also, the vineyard too, my father also, mine aİ8< 

j\j oi ojûj * j\j 3 oju- h^nde divar, sinde di' var 'The 
is in me and in you', i. e. '1 have and you have' (§ 477). 

§ 117. Dor-Khi fJ-^ is also used with the saa 

meaning ('also, too'); as: L^ ©jii ' L^ ^jcl- bend 
dakhi, sende daJchi 'in me also, in thee too' (§ 477). 

JCii Words. 
Familya LL«lî The Family. 

II I; \ a-na haha\ 

/ parents 
a. Oi-^l? valideyn ) 

III haha I 
p. jjü pederi 
li\ a-na 
a. »j}\j valide 

<li\ an'-ne mamma 




U iJji^ bedyuk haba ) ^^and 
c:^o:^'o:^^dide M^*^^^^ 


<i <t * <ll neni 
<i\ e-he 
I' 1 ^jij{ hebyuk ana 

oJJj^ toroun grand child 

L^bjlS qardash 
J^l jJjlS qa-rtndash ) brother 
P' J^\j: birader 

urbj^ J^ Çİ^ qardash 

p. o^A^ hemshiri 

Jpj\ oghoul son 

o>^ji oghlan boy 

jj^^ chojouq child 

Jo ^Ijf girl, daughter 

a. ASi^ kerimi daughter 

(ijlî garl wife, woman 

a. ^ emmi \ uncle 

; (father's 
^j^ amoujaj brother) 

oJC tei/ze\ aunt 

) (mother's 
4JU. khala ) sister) 

t ' ' / aunt 
^•^^■'^M (father's siste 

i I ^ ^^ .,if uncle (rao- 

J-^J^. v>.^ qa-y in birader^ 



The İzafet. 


i.T 1- - ^ /father-in- 
L \ v>> gaym ato ^ j^^ 

i.T •- - /mother- 

v-rj« i'^**'*\daughter-in-law 

^Ub damad the sonin-law 

-* -i ' • i*/ / sister's hus- 
<^\enw;»f€^ band 

J^jülı haldîz wife's sister 

.1 ,, ./husband's bro- 
^^ ^"*\ ther s wife 

<^ A --^•' /husband's 
<^jjj^ g^rumje ^ ^.^^^^ 

-^ j>.-.> / relative (by 
jj^ji dunur ;intermarria/e) 

^ I J ' ' i 2l nephew; 
C^i y^y^w, yegen ^ ^^^^ ' 

p. o^\j ^yf" am ja zade 
p. o^i j aİI». hhala zade) cousin 
p. o^lj c^ii dayl zade 

j brother-in-law 
^Jl[»^\tbajanaq I (wife's sister's 

( husband) 

A>.y qoja husband 
>^\ ah'la elder sister 

<»-<»> chichi eldest sister 

T X 


a.p.ji^jci. kh%zmitlctar\ 
a.t. j^i>. khizmetji j 

piU. hanim Lady, Miss, Mrs. 
c^L» «a-yî number 
^j\ * ^,j\ ohir, olbir the other 
a. Jî>\^ Jchala-yiq \ ^^j^j 
a. -u jU jan-y^ f «^^^^^°* 
(5Jûd\ ^/fVfwdi gentleman, Sir 
a.^lw* mûsafir guest 
^jji.qafis cage. 

N N ^cJ^ Exercise 11« 

60 '\ ,^j^ Lesson 6. *!♦ 

As^yf- ajio^Ij^^ ^ • • jjji'j\ iJj/j^j c^^y ^^ ^^'^ ^ 

®^ ^ (i^-^' c5-^^ '^i®^^-^ L5d'^ • (^^^^^^ ^s called) Jjr,3 o3 \cj\ 
aJİpjI dUl^jS jtî ^ T . jjL^jjlî dA:L-lİ3j6 stX\A>'S • 5JI * 

\X Ajt-j Translation 12. 

1. Coffee-pot, coffee-cup; an oke of coffee of Y6in6n 

(•,c). 2. Cow's milk; the milk of the cow; in cow's 

milk, in the milk of the cow. 3. Three of them; two 
of the oxen; the ten (of the) gold w^atches. 4. Two 
bottles of wine; a glass of water. 5. Three pounds 
(okes) of tea; three and a half yards of cloth. 6. The 
children of the village; the village children. 7. Both of 
them ; my father and my grand father. 8. The English 
government; the English nation. The city of Paris. 
9. The door of the garden; a garden door. 10. Two 
of those children; two of your children. 11. Four of 
my cousins. 12. The number of the books of my 
brother's son is great. 13. Am I not your son, and are 
you not my parents? — Yes, my son! thou art my son, 
I am your father and she is your mother. 14. N6jib6 
Hanîm is my sister and Miss Mary is her sister-in-law. 
15. A city-door; the door of the city; the door of a 
city; a door of a city; a door of the city. 

To be corrected. 

M * 


\) The verb To Have. 61 

a1|^ Conrersation. 

? t 

V i^^c> Lesson 7. 

The verb 'To Have'. 

§ 118. The English verb To Have' is expressed in 
Turkish in two ways, according to the object of the verb. 

If the object is indefinite the adjectives jlj var 

present: existent' and Jj* yoq 'absent: non-existent* are 
used to express that sense. These may be followed by 

the verbal particle of affirmative j3 dir, which in this 

case, as in many other cases may be omitted in con- 
versation (§ 76). 

If the object is definite the Substantive verb 
İ8 employed (§ 127). 

1. The verb To Hate with an Indefinite Object. 

§ 119. In such phrases as: I have a book, he 
lias a dog, it is expressed in two ways. 

I. By putting the subject in the Genitive, followed 

62 V ^^j^ Lesson 7. If 

by the object with the possessive affix and the verb 
jlj'j3jlj var J var dîr; 3y^ jJİy yoq, yoq dotir\ as: 

J^jlj r^^^^j'. fi hinim bir kitabîm var dîr I have a book. 

- ıH^ dJLLL h^h^'"^^'^ h^^ Icîtdbî yoqdour My father has 
"^ -^ • ^' not a book. 

Literally: of me there is a book, of my father there 
is no book. 

§ 120. Sometimes the subject, when a pronoun, 
is omitted, especially when the subject is not accented 
or emphasized: then the affix of the object indicates 
the subject (§§ 70, 102); as: 

J^ j\j ^}^^, ^*^ kitabîm var dîr I have a book. 

The affix shows the person of the subject. 

§ 121. When the subject is a noun it is always 
considered as in the third person, therefore the object 
must end with the pronominal affix of the third person, 

(^ or ^^ {i or 8İ). 

. ^ . ^\. ..«I Eff indinin bir evi var dîr The gentleman bas 

\ Ilı viic. Chojoughoufl bir ilmasî var The boy has 

JU cT ^ J'- J^J^ an apple. 

The words J^j>- ' tS-Cİl being substantives, are of 

course in the third person. 

§ 122. n. The verb To Have with an indefinite 
object is rendered in Turkish in another way also. In 
the first way the subject was in the Genitive case; in 
the second, the subject must be put in the Locative; as: 

J-> jb v^*^^. '-^ bindi bir kitab var dîr I have a book. 

J 3 j\j pA5 ^. ^-^J-k pidirimdibir qalim var dîr My father has a pen. 

§ 123. Although it is not very correct grammati- 
cally, there is a custom among the common people not 
to append to the noun the possessive affixes of the first 
and second persons plural. Instead of saying correctly 
Sij^in atW0, hwim evimiz, they say Sizin at, bizim ev 
just as in English. Bizim evin penjeresi the window of 
our house, for Bizim evimizin penjeresi. Bizim peder 
our father, for Bizim pederimiz, or merely peder; as: 

nr The verb To Have. 6^ 

§ 124. The Plural Locative forms of the Personal 
Pronouns sometimes give the sense of 'house, home'. 
Bizde bir i-nek var means both ^We have a cow' and 
'There is a cow in our house'. Lit.: 'in us'. 

§ 125. But the rendering for nouns is different: 
'at my father's' or 'in my father's house', 'the people 

of my father's house', are expressed by adding J^gil; as: 

1^ 11 hdbam gil The people of my father's house, my 
^ f . . father's family. 

ojJi5^pi.l;Ulj hajanaghim gildi at my brother-in-law's house^ 

45^A»^Aİ^ hSmshir^m gili to my sister's. 

ji pv • I <^ \ day\m gil hizde dir The family of my uncle i» 
* ^' ^- pi in our house. 

§ 126. 'There is, there are' is rendered by the Loca- 
tive with j3 jlj ' j3 Jj) var dîr, yoq dour (§ 76). But onda 

^'ar, lende var, denote possession; as: Uvde bir at var 
There is a horse in the house. But Bende bir at var 
I have a horse. In the first sentence it expresses location 
and in the second possession. 

§ 126a. Hal JU Present. 

*Ji jij İJ ^ J^ j\j »Alj hMim var dîr, })4nd4 var dtr, 

'jijlj »i^ * J^ j\j »J^ sMü var dîr, sindi var dîr, 

'jijlj »liiji *j^j\j »J^ji onoufi var dîr, onda var dîr, 

->^jb fjî *J-> Jb ••>J'. hizim var dîr, bizde var dîr, 

*->^ JİJ -^J- ' j-> J\j ••>J- 8İZİÜ var dîr, sizdi var dîr, 
'^^Jh ^^'»j\* J^ j\j »^^'jl onîarîn var dîr, onlarda var dîr^ 

I have, thou hast, he has a — etc. 

The Negative Form. 

jjjji Xi^ * JJ^^ji »-^^ hinim yoqdour, bindi yoqdour» 
I have not a — etc. 

§ 126b. MaziJ^l, Past (Preterite). 

' ^M j\j ^ ^ (JJj\ j\j »JÛ4 benim var îdî, bindi var îdU 
'm j\j diL- * (ijül J\j oJJL- siniü var îdî, sindi var îdL 
^^\ jij »UL'ji * (iJj\ jij »jJj\ onoufi var îdî, onda var îdî. 

64 V i^j3 Lesson 7. ^\ 

* iSM j\j pj: * (i-J^i jb ••> J: &i-8fiw var îdîj hizd^ var îdh 

' ^SM jb -^J- * (iJ^i Jb »^J- sî^-s^i^ t*ar idh sizde var îdi, 

, (iJüıi jij i)J^j\ * (i-4\ jb »^J^Jİ onlarîn var idî, onlarda var id\ 
1 had, thou hadst, he had a — ete. 

The Negative Form. 
* (İJü\ J jj JLj or tS^^jı jAi ö^«iw 2/03' idi or -yoghoudou^ 

-. (İJüi Jjj ©JJj or iS-^x ••^ &^wd^ yog' idi or -yoghoudou, 
I had not a — ete. 

The Interrogative Forms. 

? jju* jb /^. <^ j.v>.>»jj jo o^wiw ı?ar' midir? benim yoq moudour 

? (İJu* j\j oJû- or ? (iJü\ ^^ jb s^w<î^ t?a»*' mîyîdî? or î?ar' w* td» 
Have la — ? Have I not a — ? hadst thou not a — ? et( 

2. The verb To Hate with a Definite Object. 

§ 127. When the object of the verb. To Have i 
•definite, it is rendered in Tm'kish by the substantiv 

verb j3 dîr (§ 118). 

§ 128. The order of the construction is this: firs 
€omes the object, then the subject, and the verb i 
the third place. 

§ 129. This is a general rule in the Ottomai 
Turkish language. In every case when the objec 
is indefinite, the subject comes first; and whe: 
the object is definite the object comes first; Ex. 

J-> jb r^.^^^. iTi henim hir kitabîm' var dîr I have a book. 
j^ ojjj ^J\:^ kitab bindi' dîr I have the book. 

In the first instance the object (a book) is indefinite 
therefore the subject comes first; in the second th 
object (the book) is definite, therefore the object come 
first and the subject follows it. 

§ 130. RemarTcs: The English Conjunction but i 
expressed either by putting the Arabic words Ul ' ^^i 

JaS em -ma or am' ma, lakin, faqat or the Turkish »3 
i'Se de, all meaning ^but' (§ 239, 476); as: 

10 The verb To Havk. 65 

param var amma az dîr; param var lakin J3 j\ »3 4-İİ j\j ^»jL 

az dîr; param var faqat az dîr; param var isi dd az dîr I have 
but a little money. 

§ 131. '^Any" is expressed in Turkish in two ways: 

one by p. ^a hich, and the other without using that word, 
but by simply using the object of the verb (§ 188); as: 

Have you any bread? ? ^ j\j ^tXS^\ »X- ? jJu* j\j ^XS\ tt-a ©jû- 
He has not any money jj5jj is^^j\ *^*j\ ^^-^yL o-ok 7^ *-^j\ 

§ 132. *'Not any, not at all" is expressed by »c-a hich, 

j^ Ai^i- J^ J$^i JJİ 7^ i jJİjj (^-»j'j 7^ /i*c^ para»» yog- 

dour; hich i-yi diyil choq hasta d\r. He has not any money; He 
is not at all well: he is very Bİck. 

§ 133. "How many?" is expressed by ^\; ciacli? 
(§ 174). Ex.: ^ 

How many piastres have you? ? J^ jij »^J^ r^ 
How many books has he? ?J^ jij «i^^r^ 

§ 134. ''How much?" is expressed by joli ' jJİÂi 
ote qadar? (§ 179); as: 

How much sugar have you? ? j\j ^^t jj3-u 

How much bread have we? ? j\j \^S^\ jj3<I 

§ 135. "Some" is expressed by 3U 6^V a-e 'a little, 

a small piece of anything', in reference to inanimate 
objects (§ 182); as: 

*-^*^J^^. ^*^ az dkmdk some bread. 

But in reference to animate objects ^«j ia^i, ^ x 
bir qach is used (§181); as: 

^^\ fjamt hazi adimUr some people. 

^jji\ 7:^ J», bir qach' iffindiUr some gentlemen. 

J^\j^ (>a« ha'zi hayvanlar some animals. 

§ 136. ^'Both" is rendered by p. A /^ hem — hem 
(§ 469); as: T \ 

I have both bread and salt. j\j jj^ a j ^J^\ a «AJ 

My aunt has both paper and pen. j3 j\j ,jJ» aj cİ-Xpö >t »Ü*<)li. 
Turkish Cony.-Grammar. 6 

66 V cr-J> Lesson 7. "I^ 

§ 137. "Either ... or ..." is rendered by p. 1 1 ya-ya- ; 
"Neither . . . nor . . ." is rendered by A» Âi ne--ne (§472); as: 

I have neither bread nor salt, j^ 4J j\j ^iXS^ -u »Xj 
You have either pen or paper. Js^^l j\j fi L »jlI- 

§ 137 a. Hal JU Present. 

ji oXj b^ndS dir, j3. o^Jî bizdd dir, 

ji ©jJL- s^ndd dwy j3 ©jj*- sizdi dir, 

J i ©jjjl o«ia dir. J i '«^^j\ onlarda dîr, 

I have the — , thou hast the — , he has the — etc^ 

Negative Form. 

jjjfi ojûj ' J JJS^ » Jû- ' jJ^ »Xj\ binde deyil dir, sinde diyil 
dir, onda diyil dir etc. I have not the — etc. 

§ 137 b. Jlfa^i^U Past (Preterite). 

(İJü\ ©Xi bindi idi, (SJ^\ ©^Ji bizdi idi^ 

(iJuii ©jû- sindi idi, (İJjİ ©^j- sizdi idi, 

(İJü\ öJü'ji onda idi. ıSsA o^^j\ onlarda idi, 

1 had the — , thou hadst the — , he had the — etc. 

Negative Form. 

(İJüi J$^ ©JÛİ * isM J$^ ©JÛ- ' (iJül J$^ ©Jüjl &<?»d^ d<?^tZ tdt, 
s^nd^ diyu tdt, owda d^yiZ tdi etc. I had not the — etc. 


J. .,Jj\ ^LiTi J. ©JÛ- ^liTi J. ©X ^^^Iha^vethebook 

? jx. ©Xji ^.liTvjx- ©X. ^l:r?jx. ©Xj ^liT \7o\?e?c^* 

? c^Ju* J$\i ©jij- ^^\:!^ Icitab sizdi diyil miyidi? Did you not have 

the book? etc. 

JCiJ Words. 

Hi ilma apple <j«öj15 qa-yi-st apricot 

^y»j\ armoud pear p. Jbii. shef-td-li peach 

»iAj jl ^-rifc plum rjjj\ û'ZÛm grapes 

^Y The verb To Have. 67 

j\J^r kiraz cherries . ., | r^wl?""'""".!^ 

f. A^j { fishne) the morella 

öjty qoyoun sheep * I cherry (Slavonic) 

ö(y^ choban shepherd ^' ^^S'^J'r Portouqal oranges 

^^r Ji youmouHa egg ^- oj^ ^*^^ ^«^^^^ 

aTji- strfc^ vinegar ^- cH^"^^ pafaii^s potato 

w^Ou piy-nir cheese f- ur'^>^ tomatis tomato 

f. ^iluT^A^f an^ chestnuts [Gr.] ^^1©^ ^^r^ya^M butter. ^, 

\r JU> 'Exercise 18. 

^} '<iXj\' 3^^jT ' HI : J3 jlj >\^î Jj>- o^> A^l N I. 

^1* fl>- : (iaJ jlj ^jy. JiijI dUlp i • ^j3 jlj ^)a,\lS" 
^Jt-^"^ • <i^' ->*-> ^j-^ -^ J^Jj> ' JbÜ ^^^ • c5-J;f ji (^j3jI 

•(^Jlil jlj dU-^ y dX*l) fiJ5 iJ,>- 5^0^ jb dU-:>- J ö^jtî 

•^IT ^ ^ . jjJ^^ 0^ oJ^As^yf- ' JJllfS dJUb djl ? ^ jh ftjl 

* Student must practice using both the Locative and Geni- 
tive forms (§§ 119, 122). 


68 V u^j^ Lesson 7. lA 

jUjpy oS ^"^ ? j-J^ ö^^-* *^^ ^ ^ • j^ jb jî ^ j'j ^fe^ ^ 

jCju ^ ® • J3 ©JİMi- Â^j\^J J^Jv«j» ^ ^ • J3 •JGIi4>- w—St 

\ i 4;?- J ^Translation 14. 

I. 1. I have an apple; thou hast some cherries; 
he has the oranges. 2. My brother has the dog; your 
aunt has a cat; they have three horses. 3. How much, 
money have you? — I have seventeen piasters. 4. Hav& 
you any sugar? — No, Sir, I have not any. 5. I hadL 
no pen. I had the pen. I had not the pen. 6. Giv^ 
me some bread and grapes. — Have you any breadL 
and grapes? 7. How many children has your grand — 
son? — He has two children; one a boy, the othe: 
a girl. 

n. 8. Have I a dog? — Yes, Sir, you have a dog, 
and my brother has a horse. 9. Has he the pen? — 
No, Sir, he has no pen. 10. Where is your book? — 
It is at my uncle's. 11. Who has my money? — I havö 
your money. 12. Is there any servant in the kitchen? 
Is the servant in the kitchen? 13. The servant is ia 
the kitchen. There is a servant in the kitchen. 14. Who 
has the pen and the paper? — Your father had the 
pen and I have the paper. 15. Are there any eggs? 
Yes, Sir, there are plenty of them. 

aII^ Conyersation. 

Mat-bakhda n6 var? Bir az tomat^s v6 patates yar. 

Sizin birader nasîl dîr? Hich 6-yi d^yii, choq hasta Sîr. 

Onoun atî kimd^ dir? Babam gild^ dir. 

Güzel qoush qardashiuda mî? Khayr, chojoughoun qafasind^ 

Qafesd^ n^ var? Bir yeshil, bir siyah ve bir b^ya^ 

qoush var. 
Ekmök s^nde mi dir? Khayr, ^km^k b^nd^ d^yii dir- 

1 See the Note page 67. 




n^ The Pronouns. 69 

A ,^^ı> Lesson 8. 

C>\i^ The Pronouns. (Continued.) 

3. Adjeetlyal Pronoun. ı^j j^ 

§ 138. The Adjectival Pronominal affix is the word 

f M, signifying 'the — which, that which', 

according as it is a noun or an adjective. It is attached 
to nouns and pronouns in two ways ; by putting them 
either in the Genitive or in the Locative case. 

§ 139. In the first instance it is used always like 
a substantive, and signifies 'that which belongs to'. 
In the second case, it is sometimes used substantively 
and signifying 'that which exists': when it is at- 
tached to a substantive, it is an adjective, signifying 
*the — which exists'. Ex.: 

Ijl* hdba father; *^Ij1j hdbanifi of the father: .xJCillj 
^ahaniü'Ui that or the one which belongs to the father. 

•^lili babada in the father; ^•^\t\i babadaki that or the 
one which exists in (the possession of) the father. 

5»Alj &^nd^/^ that which I have, or is in my possession. 

§ 140. The separate possessive pronouns corres- 
ponding to those of the English language are formed 
in the first way; as: 

^^ benimki, ^5^-- sMifiki^ j3Cjjl onouüki mine, thine, his. 
i^V. bizimki, JS^ sizinki, J^j\ onlarınki i *^"hlirV"^^' 

Both of these forms, when used as substantives, 

We plurals and declensions as usual; but the last (^ 
IS eliminated, retaining the sound i (§ 99). 

Note. S^'ki never varies in pronunciation for the sake 
of euphony (§ 54). 


A cr-J-> l-esson 8. 


Declension of -ki with the Genitive preceding. 

N. ,X^ hinimki 

G. dl:;>*Jj MniiYikinin of 


D. K^^j^ b^nimkinS to 
A. (5^^ bSnimJcini 

Jj. ojûC^j benimkinde in 

A. o^^^-^*-^ benimkindSnîrom 

V C 

J^4^. ^^^^''^kiUr 
il^^l^wlj binimkilMn of 
pj^f^ bhiimkilM to 
iSj^^^ benimkiliri 
•i^^yliCjj benimkiUrdi in 
^j ^^^l^Jj binimkilird&n from 




Declension of -fei with the Locative preceding. 

N. X»jûı bindikt 

G. dUrTjû bcndmnin' of 

D. <l5^jûi bindekini' to 

A. ^5^-*^. bendekini' 

L. o-U^Tjûj bende kinde ' in 

A, oJ^^-J^ bindikindinfrom 

i IS^jÛj bindikiUr 

I iljifîjûi UndikilMfi of 
W3 iSo JÛJ bindekiUri' to 

5 t^ JlTTjû bindikiUn 

^. o irTjû bhidikiUrdf in 

^ >• • . 

a Û Vr*-'^. bSndekUerden from 




«Dlİ4»-\^ hojanîü' of the teacher. ^^iC'4>.ij>. ^c^/antnjti tha^ 
of the teacher. ^I^X<».\j>- hojanîûkiUr those of the teacher. 
jrx«^<».\j>. hojalarîmîüki those of my teachers. 

qaUmim mi var^ yokh'sa hojalarîmînki mi var? have you my pen 
or that of my teachers? 

Jl^S^jT^l^ »3 <î j\j >iU3 diL- <: ©JÛJ &^n(i^ nd 8Snif^' 

qaUmifl var, ni di hojanîzîükiUr I have neither your pen, 
nor those of your teacher. 

©jL j^jû- sendeki para the money you have. 

u^y ^^S^ t\^Ji qardasMm gildiki qoush the bird whicb 

is at my brother's. 

Bah'jedeki aghajlar the trees which are in thegarden- 
E'vdikiler those at the house. Shimdiki the present. 
Soüraki the latter. Evvelki the former. 

4. DemoBstrative Pronouns* vIjjUi ^\ 
§ 141. The Demonstrative Pronouns are: 

ji bou used for things which are near the speaker, This. 


The PFonouns. 


^}jL ' jt shou, shol used for things which are near the person 

spoken to, This. 
Jj\ ' j\ 0, ol » » » » are some distance off, 

That (yonder), 
i.) ish'hau This present (person or thing). 


§ 142. The Demonstratives when they modify 

a noun, are regarded as adjectives. yJL\ ' Jjl ' J^ are 

used only as adjectives, and they never undergo any 

Declension of Demonstrative Pronouns. 

Singular ^ JL« MufreS 

J» bot$ this 


jt shou this 


Jxmnoufi of this 
houfia to this 
hounou this 
houfida in this 
houndan from this. 

^y^ shounoufi of this 
IT^ ahouna to this 
(i^ shounou this 

•Jü J;, shounda in this 

• & 


shoundan from this. 



•^'Jî ^w>^'ji '^^'ji o^^ji 
•^ji ^J^j^ 9^^jt ^^Jljt 
bounlar, -İÜ, -a, ... shounlar, -in, -a, . . . 
Note, The declension of ji o that, is the same as that of 
the third person of the f*ersonal Pronoun, page 47. 

§ 143. Other Demonstratives: 

j^<Lji*<]ij^ heby'U^ bebyUsi' such, such as this. 

,^<Ly- * <li^ sheby'Uy shedyUsi' » » as this. 

(^<'j j\ * <Lij\ edij'Uy ebyUsi' » » asthat. 

§ 144. Adverbial Demonstratives: 

bji boura here, this place (contracted from \j\j\)' 

bji «^otiTa' here, this or that place ( » » bi^)- 

bj\ ora there, that place (» » b^jl)- 

•J ni'ri where? what place (» . » bi-v)» 

72 A crji Lesson 8. vr 


o^\jj\* û^\jj^^ ö^\jj>. from here, from there. 

»^\jj\* »^[jjt^ 9^\jji here, in this spot; there. 

•jüjT^^. <Jij^ h^yU hir gûndS on such a day. 

OJ^^T ^. c^^ji h^yUsi hir ademdin from such a man. 

Jj».^ ^, yj^ iS^*^j\ SbyUsi h^tu hir chojouq such a bad boy- 

oJ^Jû5\ Jy« $/io2 iffândid4n from that gentleman. 

•jjji di;\S Jj\ oZ xraiifl ipindi in the house of that 


5. Reflexive Pronouns. «CJii^U^^ 

§ 145. The English words myself, himself, 
yourself etc. are termed Reflexive Pronouns, when 
they represent the same person as the subject or the 
nominative. They are expressed in Turkish by the 

pronoun (^Jio kindi: 

I myself ^X5^^>. hin kindim. 

Myself ^Jû5^ İçindim. 

Thou thyself ÛxS^ ^ sân hSnditi, 

Thyself iJx5^ kindin. 

He himself j^X5^ji o' hindisi. 

Himself ^J.^xS^ kindisi'. 

We ourselves J^-^^ J*. ^^^' kindimiz. 

Ourselves Ji^^ kindimiz'. 

You yourselves j^jûS^j^ siz' kindifiiz. 

Yourselves J>^xS^ kindifiiz*. 
They themselves ;^JLjû5^^j\ onlar kindiliri. 

Themselves ti^L jû^ kindiliri '. 

Also: ^^^XS^ iSXS^' ilxT't^Ju^' (►jJLîT^t^JûS^I myself... 
(ijijjj.5^(ijû5^* j5^jû5^;^jl:5^* jtxr^(iJû5^ We ourselves..- 

§ 146. The English word ''own" is also expressed 
by ^X^\ as: 

vr The Pronouns. IB 

Myownbook pj \:S^ {SXS^ ^t h4nim Teindi kitabim , 

With his own hand -JLi Ji {SXS^ kendi 4li iU, 

§ 147. Kendi is usually employed after the sub- 
ject to emphasize it, or to limit or specialize the 
meaning; as: 

Bidros kindi' bashînt yiyqayor Jji^^^ J^lj (SXS^ u-JJ-^ 
Peter is washing his own head. 

Bidros onoufC bashînî yiyqayor JyS^, ti-^ ^j\ u^jj-^, 

Peter is washing his head, denotes another person's head. 

EffMdikindf odasında dir The master is in his own room. 
Effendi onoufi' odasinda dir The master is in his room 
(some one else's). 

JeU! Words. 
Ûst lash Jll w— jl Apparel. 

a. ^\y\ iscab clothes f. Ljj rouba clothes [It.] 

f. j^lil, pantalon pants f. o^~^ fistan gown [Gr.] 

v-lLjT' gSbmlik shirt f j - miso petticoat [Gr.] 

Jjijcjl icK donou drawsers f. -ûilt shapqa hat {Slav.] 

t5jî- sitri frock-coat f. (jJlX baston stick, cane [It.] 

iUj yiUk waistcoat <^5^ kisi purse 

j\iJ\ astar lining <*5j3 duy mi button 

ojjjJl ildivin gloves o^ choitqa broad cloth 

a. Jijût mindil handkerchief <«.^lj basma' print, calico 

jl^ bichaq knife ^j>^^\ ekmikji baker. 
Pro^. Nouns ^-Â-jj yousouf Joseph. Ai^l Ahmid. 

\ jg\ii^ Exercise 15. 

74 A u-J-> Lesson 8. W 

\^ 4U-J Translation 16. 

1. Of that; those of that; those of those [men]. 
2. That which is in this; that which is there; that 
which is here. 3. Have you our coats or those of our 
neighbours? — I have not your coats; I have those of 
my father. 4. That of my sister; those of my mother; 
from those of my uncle. 5. The oxen which are here; 
the cows which are there. 6. These houses are large; 
that house is little; from that house. 7. Where are my 
overshoes, and where are those of my aunt? 8. Yours 
are here and those of your aunt are there. 9. To yourself; 
from himself; in ourselves. 10. Mv mother is in her 
garden; my sister is in her house; my sister is in his 
house. 11. My own cane; his own book; in his own room. 

aIIS^ Conrersation. 

1 All sentences enclosed by quotation marks are either 
idiomatic sayings or proverbs. 

¥• The Adjective. 75 

• Ji »JÛ- Aİaji (İJLİ3 ? Ji «i*^* ji»- {Sj^ 

. J^ «J^ *l»j\ »^*j\ ? J^ •^•^* J^ »jJij 

^ u^^ Lesson 9. 

oi^ The Adjective. 

§ 148. The Turkish adjective whether used as 
a predicate or as an attribute, remains unchanged, as 
in English (§ 79): 

j3 £j»^^j\ ^v kûchûk dûr the house is little. 
^^1 ^. ^jtji hebyuk bir ad^m a great man. 
ji JJU» Jll\ almalar tatlî dîr the apples are sweet. 
JLii\ ^jlji hebyuk adimlir the great men. 

The Derivative Adjective. 
§ 149. The derivative adjective which is called 

in Turkish wj^*-^ ^^ S is made by the addition of the 
following particles to the nouns. 

§ 150. I. <^ ' y -M, -Îİ, 'lou indicates possession 
of the thing designated by the noun; as: 

y,o SOU water, J^^ soulou watery, fluid. 

j',y^r place, J^ yMi fixed in a place; native. 

j\ 4v house, tij\ Soli that has a house; married. 

vii\ at horse, j^^ * J*' öti^*7 atlou horseman, 
a. viijfc izzet honour, j^J^ iz'zitlou honorable. 

§ 151. With the proper names of men or places, 
the same affix indicates a native or an inhabitant of 
those places or connexion of those persons; as: 

lij^«\ AmSriqay tili^l Amiriqali American. 
^ Is mi Minsoub Noun (or adjective) of relationship. 

76 ^ ltJ^ lesson 9. V"^ 

oLifr Oswaw^LJc* j;L.*c Osmanlî Ottoman. 
IS^J Turkiya i^^J Turkiydli an inhab. of Turkey, Tur H 

öyt^y M^rzifoun Jj^\/» MSrzifounlou a native of Merzifon^ 

§ 152. The names of some European nations air" 
formed differently, as they were introduced by the Vene 
tians or Genoese; as: 

JaI^IjI ingiliz Englishman. Jtj^ jmiüt-? Genoese ;Romarr 

j«J\^3 fr ansız Frenchman. J^L-\ ispanyol Spaniard. 

Oct n^mtse, nSmch^ Austrian. û^^ talyan Italian. 

cij5-j* wosgof RnssisLu; Muscovite. *Hl>.4jL5 fiUm^ng' Dutch. 

§ 153. II. 4>. -je added to the names of nations 
forms the names of their languages; as: 

oHl alman a German: <>eJllT ahnanja the German language. 
d}y * iJjj"» tiirk Turk : <îîtO ^^rkje the Turkish language. 
^^*j\ irmini Armenian: <»c^ol irm4nij4 the Armenian language 

§ 154. 4>. -Je if added to nouns (except the names 
of nations), expresses relation; as: 

<?cili miVUtji national. <».j\ ivj4 household. 

*^A..J^ kilise j e ecclesiastical. -ü»cjLJ lisanja linguistic. 

§ 155. III. A>. 'Je added to the adjectives ani 

nouns forms the Diminutive, expressing rather, some- 
what, slightly, -ish; as: 

A^\j^ liayvanja brutal. k»s}j>'j»- chojouqja childish. 
<»&^L) h^yazja whitish. ^V^ qolayja rather easy. 

§ 156. j>. Î dU -jtq, jik; -Jaq, -Jek, jûk. This 
is a modification of the above form, dictated by the 

principal of euphony (§ 52). If the word ends in J 

or il these letters are omitted; as: 

^J>•<^Ji qisajiq rather short. ^L j jT^ gûzSljik he&utifu\ little thing. 
^3!»-lj\ azajiq just a little. *^-^i^. hirijik only (begotten). 
A/'Ji yow'wroM globular; tumour: J^-J^ji youmroujaq the pl&gae. 

yy The Adjective. 77 

^jljt bSbyûk: ^iXa^yj» hebyûjSk rather large. 
^y»-^ kûchûk: ^tSa^y^^ kûchûj^k, "jûk smallish, tiny. 

§ 157. IV. ^ 'Ji, 'JÎ, 'Jou added to a noun 

indicates the individual who exercises a trade or calling 
connected with the first noun; as: 

^?Os.S\ Skm^kji baker ^Jj^^y iufenk'ji gun maker. 

fj^ya soujou water seller <^J^ hSkmSzji treacle seller. 

§ 158. ^ 'ji is also used for making adjectives 

or nouns designating persons who practise something 
expressed by the noun to which it is appended; as: 

,jş».lci douvajî who prays. ij!^^^. yalanji^ chi liar. 

j^».\ü * (^-uLkl shaqajij latif Sji joker, storyteller. 

§ 159. V. JÎ ' dl! 'liq, -lik added to a noun, 

denotes a condition, nature or quality of the thing 
denoted by the original noun; as: 

"^^p^ gSjilik (night) gown. ^t^^ gûnlûk daily (pay). 

^3^*J\ Ofdouq a coin of ten paras. jILj yitUq yearly (pay). 

*^3ji yüzlük a coin of 100 paras. ^j\\:^Vpantalonlouc[ (stuff for) pan- 

^,,/ talons. 

^-UXj oeylik belonging to the state, government. 

îırroi adatnliq yimdk. Food suflBlcient for 20 persons. 

§ 160. VI. y» '8ÎZ, '8İZ, satiz, is a privative 

adjectival suflBx, meaning without, void of, lacking, 
free from, -less; as: 

J-ojl parasî-er moneyless. J-J\ itsiz fleshless, thin. 

. , xu- i • • vûz'sûz who has no face: 

^^ sousou^ waterless, thirsty. ^j^^ ^ shameless. 

vT^ji yo/sow<î roadless; impolite, j-il^ sa^/isi-gr unhealthy, weakly. 

Derivative Nouns. 

§ 161. Derivative nouns are made by the addition 
of the following particles to the nouns; as: 

§ 162. I. jl ' dl! 'liq, -lik. Joined to nouns 

it expresses a place peculiar to the thing named, or a 
place where it abounds; as: 

78 ^ ^ji Lesson 9. VA 

jj»>jjl paboujlouq the place where the slippers or boots are left. 
^* aghajliq, aghachUq a place where the trees abound. 
t^jy^ 'kebmûflvk a place where coal is deposited. 

jii^lL iasWiq a place where stone abounds, stony; stone-pit. 

§ 163. This -Mfc, 'liq added to an adjective, forms 
its abstract noun; as: 

jiLJo qtzil'Uq redness; rouge. *i\Ijii ' dlLjl iyilik kindness. 
J%r^ ''thlÖod.'"'*^'''"''''' ' ^-i f-9>rlik poverty. 

§ 164. Names of trades or professions are also 
formed by adding Mfc, lîq to the words denoting the 
persons who exercise them. Ex.: 

*lAL»cx*.^ ilcm4kj%lik the occupation of a baker. 

jL?&i\ ashjtUq the occupation of a cook, cooking. 

§ 165. II. J-b ' J^t -dashy -tash a fellow, a 

J-\^^\ ad' dashj adash nmneBake. J- \ jit L t/as^ela^/^ of the same ag&. 

^l-xlijld * [J-'\J^^ ' uri-^J^ (/artwf?as^,garda*/t (womb-fellow) a brother^ 

ij-l:^ bSg'tashf higdash the fellow of a prince. 

i^boj\ arqadash companion, comrade. 

^Iju-ji * ^\jJû^ dersdashy stntfdash a class-mate. 

§ 166. m. j>. ' dU Î ji>. ' fZ^-Jiq, -Jik\ 'Jighaz^ 

'jiyez. Diminutive nouns are made by the additiorr^ 
of these particles to the nouns. 

»lA»-j\ *j^jl 'j;».jl evjik, ivjiyez^ iojXghaz a little house. 

^y^\::S^ kitahjiq booklet. j>-<Lj\ odajiq a little room. 

§ 167. Some Diminutives are terms of endear" - 
ment; as: 

j>-l*lj * ji».Uj habajiq, habajighaz papa. 

j>-l;\ *j;l».1;\ * jx>.<:J\ anajtq, anajıglıaz, ann^iySz mama. 

Jİ».Ja3 qizjtghaz poor little girl. 


. The Adjective. 


JCİÎ Words. 

Mühletler J±# Nations Shehirler J^ Cities 

J^'li-1 istamhol Constantinople. 
*i\j jjj vinedik Venice. 
A4jXS^\ iskindiriyS Alexandria. 

a. y^^ a rah Arab. 
jjT^ Icurd Kurd. 
^j^^ chirkis Circassian. 

^S^j\ arnavoud Albanian, ^^^.^jm mounjousoun VoninsSi^ 

a. Mb- ajem Persian. 
^jj roum Greek. 
jU 'jUljj bouVghar Bulgarian. 

i>»* chin China. 
jl^'jLL majar Hungarian. 

j^ujl izmir Smyrna. 
^.JL haî^b Aleppo. 
(^ji qoudous Jerusalem. 
Jl>^5^ girid Crete. 

-Clj viyana Vienna. 

§ 168. Note. Surnames are formed in Turkish by 

adding \lj\ oghlou to the name of the father, family 
and often to the name of the trade or occupation; as: 

(lift Ipjl y..>. Hasan oghlmi Ali, Ali the son of Hassan, 

'^^ (i^-^' Jî^^ ^«2/%^ oghlou Ahmed, But for the dig- 
nitaries p. o^lj ^ade is used; as: o^lj ^^ J^^ Kemal 
Pasha zade, son of Kemal Pasha. (§ 668,* mte). 

I cyiebi a non -Moslem gen- 

^ flomçın 

mÛ8Û Gentleman (Mon- 
sieur) [Fr.]. 

**^tö| ^^Tia/* artisan, trademan. 


a. j^i ^jn4bi a foreigner. 
a.jUicJ tufjar merchant, 
a. Jic fl-gîZ sense, wisdom. 

a. c^ sanat vulg. zhiahat art, a. ^> ö/ıanft stranger, poor. 

a. olki shiytan Satan. 

^•jlj»- chizar Caesar. 

J»^"U «atar he sells. 

^ ÜÜO dûk'kian shop. 



jll yapar he makes, 
a. jCSi baq'qal grocer. 

Exercise 17. 

1. JojJü^ ' ^f^y, ' Jîj» ji ' ^J^ ' 2. A Constan- 
^^^^opolitan, a native of Amassia, of Smyrna, of Aleppo^ 

so ^ j^ji Lesson 9. A* 

of Alexandria, of Japan, of China, of Montenegro, of 
Pontusa, of Jerusalem ; a Viennese, a Cretan, a Hungarian, 
a Roman. 3. The Kurdish, German, Circassian, Italian, 
Arabian, Albanian, Persian, Greek, Bulgarian, Armenian 

languages; Chinese, Turkish. 4. a^jj ' apcI»^ ' a^cTCJL:* 

A^eJ^C» ' 4.^3İ ' A^^sil-p . 5. Pertaining to the country, trade, 

craft, artisan, wisdom; deviUsh. 6. Slightly sweet; 
quite well; coldish; rather warm; rather high; fleshy. 
7. A stationer; a mender of old things; mule-driver, 
donkey- driver, horse-rider. 8. One who sells oil; who 
keeps a vineyard, a garden; one who sells bread, coffee, 
sugar, tomatoes, potatoes, milk, tobacco. 9. Stuff 
for a cloak, shirt, girdle, shoe, handkerchief. 10. Ten 
paras' worth; 1000 piastres' worth; 500 piastres* worth; 
a piastres' worth; one para's worth; changes [small 
pieces of money] (smallness). 11. Without house, horse, 
books, donkey, coffee, tea; coffee without milk, coffee 
with milk. 12. Rather white, black, high, much, pretty, 
well. 13. Humanity; height; blackness; the profession of 
a teacher, cooking; boatmanship. 14. Fellow-traveller; 
co-religionist; sharer of the same room. 15. Beautiful 
little hands; a little pen; my dear grandmother. 

N A ^r^ Exercise 18. 

'• ->^ (r c§^' A>. <^-^3j' j-^ ^ • j^ j^Cj (^jU JL^ ^j^\ 

o^ ^^11 dAJL«ll J j<-«lv) • j-x^JL>- j^^*- <c*^ iS^^ • J*^^'ji 
^J[clerk] dL^jl j) ^ • ^JJ^i* o^\l^\ ^/^ • cS-J^' c5^J^ 


At The Adjective. 81 


^^ A^-J? Translation 19. 

1. Do you know French? — No, Sir, I know a little 
English» 2. I am a Constantinopolitan; I know Turkish 
well. 3. What does that shopkeeper sell? — He sells 
to the villagers and citizens grapes, sugar, coffee; there 
are many such shops and shopkeepers in the villages 
and cities. 4. grocer! give me 20 paras' worth of 
^ bread, 10 paras' worth of cheese, 15 paras' worth of 
grapes and 2 piastres' worth of sugar. 5. Give me five 
piastres' worth of paper; this paper is rather yellow. 

6. Where is the salt-cellar? — It is here (bourada). 

7. There is no coal in the coal-seller's shop, the trade of 
coaling is not a clean one. 8. '^Art thou moneyless? 
thou art friendless". 9. You are a very wise man; you 
have sense, but your servant is a fool (without sense). 
10. Who is this cheesemonger and who is that iron- 
monger? — They are my friends. 

aII^ Conreraallon* 

Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 6 

82 ) • u^j^ Lesson 10. 

^ * u^t> Lesson 10. 

tl>ll:^ The Pronouns. (Continued.) 

6. Interrogative Pronouns. ^^\fi^^ j^ 
§ 169. The Interrogative Pronouns are the folic 

ing. [The Interrogative sign j^ -mi is never us( 
with them.] 

§ 170. jT kirn? who? whoever? 

This is applied to persons, and is declined aloi 
and with possessive aflSxes. 

? i>- X^cr' ^^** ^^^ ^***-^ ^^^ ^'' thou? 
? j\ /^j\ ? j\ /^? j\ ji J^kim dir o? kim o? o kim o? who is i 

§ 171. Sometimes when there is no question, kh 
expresses the meaning of ^some'. 

(SX^ fj^-f^ iS-i^ ij>-^kimi gdldi kimi gitdif some came others wei 

? j\j u^^^ w^b *^-«-^? j\J f^f^ kimim var? kimin' var? kimt va 

whom have I? whom hast thou? whom has h 
^JJi is^^*"-*^ kimsisi yoq he has nobody. 

? ^ijf^ kimifiki' ? whose? 

§ 172. Ai ne? How? (with adjectives); wha 

(with nouns). 

It is applied to inanimate object and is declin( 
alone and with possessives. 

? ji <î ? j\ J^ <î ni' 0? ni' dir o? What is it? 
? j^-,.Â-j\ <j* ni isUrsifiiz? What do you want? 

nM? nin? nisi'? nimiz? nitiiz? niliri? 

Nim' var? nifC var? nisi' var? What have I? W^hat hast tho 

What has he? 

Nimiz' dir? neniz' dir? What thing, part or belonging to i 

to you, is it? 

? 0İ4J = ojj nidi'? at or in what? 

Ar The Pronouns. ' 83 

? dUi<; ne'dimSlc? What does it mean? 
J<; = JU niler! What things! What wonderful things! 
? oyKA<\ = oy^ ni'ichin? ntchoun? ni'chin? For what? Why? 

§ 173. ? jCU ? JjS' hangi? hanghi? Which? 

It is appUed to persons and to inanimate objects 
without distinctions. It may be used either alone or 
with possessives, and is declined: 

? ^^\a han'gîsî? Which? 
? j^^i^U hangimiz? Which of us? 
? j5^U hangiMz? Which of you? 
? c^Jl^U hangUari? Which of them? 
? oX..5^U ? dU-J^U ? ,^J^U Which? of — ? from — ? 
'i<:^\:S^^^\A hangi Utah? Which book? ?fM5JU Which man? 

§ 174. ?^S gacft? How many? 

It is applied to pronouns and to inanimate objects, 
and may be used either alone or with possessives, and 
it is declined: 

?J*^İ3 ? j5C>-l3 ? ^j>^\»qa'chîmiz? qacMniz? qa'chi? How many 
** . * of us, of you, of them? 

? ojü^^^lS qach' gûndd? In how many days? 

? oJû».İ3 d\i\ ayifi qachxnda? On what (day) of the mouth? 

§ 175. ?J^ nasil? How? What sort of a 
thing? What kind? 

? jSC- J^î wa'si2 sAfiiz? How are you? 
?ji o\ ^. J^' na'stZ 5ir adim dir? What sort of a person is he? 
<«jİ J^' jA Mr nasU isi In whatever way it may be. 

§ 176. "lAp^niJi? What kind? How? 

? jx«i\ A?c-J r^\ j\ ^ou adim nij i adimdir? What kind of a man 
^ " ^ ' is this (man)? 

?\ <3eJ r^Tjj What sort of a tree is this (tree)? 

§ 177. It is also used indefinitely: it then means 
how much? how many? 

^ Qanghi is the old form, now it is obsolete. 


84 f ♦ u^j^ Lesson 10. A%. 

jA*di <^ niche or mjS dS falar! How many times! 

i)iAj<yJ nijiyi'dilc? nichiyi'dSk! Till how many times I 

^<ş:J *^^\ 4s^ nijHir? nichilir? mchS adSmUr? How many 


7. Indefinite Pronouns. ^^ jui> 
The Indefinite Pronouns are: 

§ 178. Ai...^^' jL...,^kini8e,kifnâ8nesinyhodj, 

These are applied to persons only, and are declined 
alone and with possessives. 

^JfJ\J A--,*-S^^. •^\jj\ orada bir himsi var mî? Is there anybody 

Jjj <L«..»J^' J jj K^^^S^ kim' si yoqj ki'misni yoq. There is nobody. 

^^-u..*^ kimsesiz' without anybody, without patron; 


§ 179. jj5 qadar. 

Expresses quantity or number (§§ 199, 229). 

? siUS^ jji <j' nS' qadar ekmik? How much bread? 

? ojT'jj^ <î ? jjJ <j* nf qadar? nS' qadar gun? How many d^ys? 

J->5 ^j\ * JJ^ jl * JJ^ y» * J-J^ ji So much. 

jji ^ *jJ^ »iW<2j 'jj5 viJk^iJj y^^^r qadar, yiUjik' qadar, yi- 

tishijik' qadar So much as will suffice, enough. 
jSi *lii.\ * jji (^\ ^sfc^fc' gjadar, ayî' qadar As (big) as an ass as a bear. 

jJ3 ^yj\ parmaq' qadar As (small as a little) finger. 

§ 180. p. ^A her each, every, -soever. 

Her is always an adjective and is used with all 
other indefinite pronouns. 

Ai\ ^ ' ^....jf^ y^ * ^jS^^ hir k^8, hir kimai^ Mr âdâm everybody. 

<; yt, hir ni' whatsoever, 
5^U y hir ha'ng^ whichever 
^, ^ ^^^ ^*^ each, every. 
Jft^. ^ hS/ birimiz every one of us. 
•■V-^ /i^r' yârdd every where. 
^ ^ ^^r' A:im whoever, whosoever. 

A» The Pronouns. 85 

J^.^J^ j^ her Mmiiiie whoever of you. 
iSy^ y^ hdr biri every one Of them. 
f^^A y^ hir ikisi both, each, either. 

§ 181. jfj. * a- Jstfo Mr a», bazî some (§ 135). 
Sazi means a certain number of persons or things. 

^^\ jjAw bazi adimUr *^<-.^i^j_^ bazikims^Ur Some people. 

p3^ ,^^ * t^u^ fta'^ft dSfa, bazi kirri sometimes. 

«i^Uiu 'j^CUui * J**^ bazîmîz, bazîMz, bazUari some of ue, 

of you, of them. 
^^■^^»■1 ba'zîsi some people, some of them. 

§ 182. JBir az expresses a small quantity, 
a few (§ 135). 

jw> j\ ^ * »iU^l j\ ^i bir az ikm^k, bir az sou a little bread, water, 
ojli j\ y some money; {Sj\ ^j bir azı some of it. 

§ 183. ^Sjj Mr qach a few, several (§ 135). 

u^jj^ r^^i ^*^ gac/i' ghouroush a few piastres. 
^i\ t:^ y bir qach' adim a few persons. 
Jj\ ûj> r^^ ^*^ gac/i' pwn i^ö'r^î several days ago. 

§ 184. djLL\ or AAİ) ' a. ^T * p. fC^ bashqa, 
(ikher\ diger other, another; as: 

ol j^ Aİİ» ' a:T j; ^1 * a:>I j^ ^^3 another man. 

<îİj *jlL bashqa' bashqa' separately. Aa^<ktt^ somewhat apart. 
İ^JaSİ* * ^sJ^ * ^J^,^ bashqalarl, akhirlM^ digirliri others. 

§ 185. a. o^ filan a certain (definite or indefinite 
person or thing), so-and-so. 

^^\ o^ filan adem so-and-so, such a one. 
fj* o"^ filan shey such a such a thing. 
•X3J ^^ filan' vaqttda at such and such a time. 

§ 186. a. lii^* a. J^- i .^kiaffe, JûnUe, hip all: 

^It <l^*llc *AJ^ ktaffiyi aUm^ jum'lS alim all the world. 


86 ♦•ltJ^ Lesson 10. A't 

^A^\ *]u3^'^^\ .^ h^.p adimlir^ jimU ödimUr all men. 
j^jL-A ' Jaaİİ^ ^ jAAİ'b kiaf'f^fniZj jûm'Umis^ hi' pimiz all of us. 
j^^-jL-A * t^'^* ^^s"^ Maf fisiy jum'Usiy M'pisi all of it. 

§ 187. As^%\ ' o^y olanja, bütün whole. 

of^ oyy, bulun gun the whole day. 
L^ oJ>ji hûtûn dünya the whole world. 
j_^<3cJVj\* *^î«j^ paraniü olanjasi all the money. 
j^ ^ ^<^'Vj\ olan' jam bou dour this is all I have. 
A»jlj <Pc*Vj\ all my money. ^^\ oyy, ^^® whole loaf (ace.) 

§ 188. ^ Mch nothing, [never] (§§ 131— 132). 

(i^j -x-A /iic/i' 6iVi none. <-..»J^j ^-a /iicV 5tr /:tmse nobody. 
vi^dj ^ 7^ Aic7i' 6ir vac^it not at any time, never. 

CJ^^^ Muta-la-at Remarks. 

§ 189. a) The EngUsh pronoun one [pi. ones] 
after an adjective is not expressed in Turkish; as: 

Have you the fresh loaf? — No! I have the old one. 
Taze somoun sende mi? — Kliayr! hayati' bendi dîr. 
Two old lions and two young ones. The little ones. 
Iki ikhtiyar ve iki genj arslanlar. KûchûkUr. 
The great ones of the tvorld. Diinyanifi hibyûkliri. 

§ 190. b) Somebody is expressed by Sx' ^s^X 
hiri, birisi. 

Somebody is asking for you. Biri seni chaghMyor. 
Somebody is knocking at the door. Qapouyou vourouyorlar» 

§ 191. c) Each other, one another, are expressed 

by p. (JJ<1jS^ ' (Sj,X * fSjxx y^^digeri, birbiri, birbirleri' 

They love each other. Birbirini sevSrlir. 

We will help each other. Birbirlerimizi yardim' idijiyiz* 

You see one another. Yekdigeriflizi gibrûr'sûflûz. 

Ji^ Misaller Examples. 

Chiftjinin hSyaz qoyounlart Has the farmer the white sheep? 

var mi? 

Khayr, siyahlar onda dir. No! he has the black ones. 

Hojantn h&yuk oghlou bowada Is the teacher's elder son here? 

mi dir? ■'''.' 


The Pronouns. 


Khayr i fendim! ol biri' bou- 

rada dır. 
Bou qalemUrifi Mr hangXsl. 
Hangisini isUrsifiiz? 
Hangisi oloursa olsoun. 
Dostlarîmîn hich'birisi icde diyil 

N4 onou istifim, ni oVbirini. 
Ne' var? dirdiü ni'? 

No, Sir, that one (= the other) 

is here. 
Either of these pens. 
Which will you have? 
Either, whichever it may be. 
Neither of my friends was at 

I will have neither. 
What is the matter? 

JCiJ Words. 


^tA ishji workman. 
^j^ * (i^ dolou full, 
a. ^^f^ jins kind. 
si.\L-^ '} giy met value, 
a. İJkfrU ma'da except, 
p. ^J\t shayird pupil. 

v>^i> yetgin ripe. 
p. ^U. kham unripe. 
jK^ poufiar fountain. 

\j\ ara relation, 
vi^i-». chift pair. 
Ju-^i. khîrsîz thief.- 

Y '♦ Jui Exercise 20. 

<.AijLiuu ^^^^,s^i\ ^o3>jy-# — ? jju-j j^^j^ y, ^ 

4j^j^ ^^ ! ^ A^il jj^ — \ ^ oü^jl oJ — ^ • j:> (ijD^jl 

88 $• u^j> Lesson 10. AA 

Y ^ Ajt-j Translation 21. 

1. How many lessons have the boys? They have 
five lessons every day. 2. There are many thieves in 
these mountains. 3. God is the father of all men. 
4. What kind of a young man is he? — He is a man 
sometimes good, sometimes bad. 5. ''Everjrthing has its 
time". "Everything has its place". 6. Who were with 
Mr. Joseph? -- His wife and some of his grandchildren. 
7. There were two thieves: one on one side, the other 
on the other side. 8. Are Mary and Ann here to-day 
(this day)? — Neither of them is here. 9. Have you 
any friend in this village? — Yes, several of the rich 
families in this village are my friends. 10. Has N^jib6 
a white rose? — No, but she has a red one. 11. Are 
there many mosques and churches in this country? — 
Yes, Sir, every city and village has some churches or 

aI|^ Conyersation. 

.jjJLJJ «^ 


Numeral Adjectives. 


^ ^ u^^ Lesson 11. 

:>\ji^\ ^Iwl Numeral Adjectives. 

§ 192. The numerals are of four kinds: Cardinal,. 

Fractional, Ordinal and Distributive numbers [*4İİ^I ^lotl 

** ^ 

1. Cardinal numbers. Adadî asliye. 














































iki yûz 


f • 



ûch yûz 

on bir 





on i'ki 



iL; ÜJİ 

on bifl 

on ûch 




yûz bin 






yirmi bir 







$ • • • • 

jj^aL^ (Sil Jjt Jj*^ ^ ^iX^jZ^iJ- <ı- ji 

Bou sSne Kristosoun biü doqouz yûz iki sinesi dır 
This is the year 1902 (of Christ). A. D. 

Hijretin bifi ûch yûz yirmi sinişindi • Jıl-<1«. uf^^L ^.^-^^ '^ wLt^^ca 

In the 1320th year of the Hejira. 

§ 193a. A hundred, one hundred; a thousand, one 
thousand are in Turkish simply jy * dL ym^ Uû. 

90 n u^j^ Lesson 11. K» 

It is not common in Turkish to say twelve hundred, 
twenty five hundred, but simply hiu iJci yûz^ iki biiî heshyûz. 

§ 193b. For the sum of 100,000 piastres in finan- 
cial circles the word yûJz iL load, burden is used, 
and in the olden times the sum of 500 piastres was 

called ^^^^ kese bag, purse. 


Ûy^ oJİ on yûk one million. «jL k.^^^ hesh kisdpara 2500 piastres. 

§ 1.94, The hours of the day and night are ex- 
pressed as follows (§ 78): 

Saat qach d\r? What o'clock it is? — Saat yarîm dir. It 
is 12.30 o'clock. 

Sa'at debrt dur. It is 4 o'clock. — Saat ySdi botichouq dour. 
It is 7.30 o'clock. 

§ 195. Minutes are reckoned as follows: 
BisM on var j\j i)j\ <ti Ten noinutes to five. 

Ikiyi hisK gichmish fj^-^j^ ^i <4:($i^ ^iv% minutes past two. 

§ 196. A person's age is expressed thus: 

?6;j-«jJi.l i^ld q^acli yashînda sîfl? How old are you? 
pi\ 0-Uilj ^3^ qîrq yashîndayîm. I am 40 years old. 

§ 197. Numeral Adverbs are formed by joining 

M^ ' o} dcf'a, Jeer re to the cardinals; as: 

Bir defa once; iki dSf'a twice; uch kh're thrice. DSbrt 
dif'a hesh yirmi ider four times five makes twenty. 

§ 198. The Varîatîve numerals are formed by 

adding o-JUJ:>- ' , r^ • u^xJL>. ' jji^jins^ jinsden; chSshid, 


Bir jinsden of one kind ; iki cheshid'dSn of two kinds ; uch 
jins, uch jinsdin three sorts. 

§ 199. Some thirty, some forty is expressed 

by jji; çiadar\ as (§§ 179, 229): 

Otouz qadar, qirq qadar. Some fifty persons Etli adim qadar* 

§ 200. The w^ord or between two numbers in 
English is omitted in Turkish. 

Iki uch gun some two or three days. Bish on adim qadar. 
some five or ten men. D^rt hesh ghouroush some four or five piastres.' 


\S Numeral Adjectives. 91 

§ 201. The Multiplicative numbers are generally 
formed by the addition of oS qat fold to the cardinals; as: 

«l\r tek simple, single. ^J^Ji yuzlirjS hundreds of. 

JxJlj yalîüîz only, single. <».^Ci hifiUrjS thousands of. 

'-^i^. birijik only (begotten). a^^Ji^Aa viilyonlarja millions of. 

viil5 5ii *^* 2^* twice. <i^oj^ d^rt Jc^shS \ 

cM zj] ûch qat triple. lt'J^ ^\»' cham charsMj 

ol^oj^ dSrt qat quadruple. ol5 jjj yiiz qat a hundred fold. 

§ 202. The Collective numbers are: 

p.cJL*. chift a pair of (boots). ill» taqim a set, lot. 

p. Cju^ chifte paired, double. *i\JjT ci-»- double-barrelled gun. 
tCijj^ douzina a dozen [It.]. f. -u-j^ grosa a gross [It.]. 

*^"'ur) ^s/i, f^'A; mate; one of the pair. jjj- swm a flock. 

§ 203. When using a numeral with a noun, the 
Turks frequently introduce a second noun between the 
two, which is quite supei'fluous in European languages, 
but occasionally employed in English, as 'ten head of 
cattle, six sail of ships' etc. This noun varies according 
to the nature of the things defined by the numeral. 

For men it is Ji nefer individual; for beasts it is ^\j 
res head; for bulbs it is J!:l» bash; for ships, gardens, 
fields, letters, maps it is 4*İ2Î qit'a piece; for cannons, 
ships and villages, it is ©jl» p(ire, para] for things usually 
Alb'^Jip danâytane^ aded; as: 

^^C-p. yû 5ii iki nifir asker two soldiers; dSbrt r^s hargir 

four pack-horses; ûch qit'a mSktoub three letters; altt qit'a tarla six 
pieces of ground; y^d» bash soghan seven bulbs of onions; on parS 
kSby ten villages; sSkiz adH tufMg eight guns; hir hah maghaza 
a magazine (store); hir qtta arzouhal a petition. 

The common people uses the word Aib for all these 
different words; aş: iki dane asger, dedrt dane hargir etc. 


\ \ ^j^ LesBon 11. 


Jcil Words. 

iS-yi-j^ doghdou was born. a. \^j^\ ihhamra Alhambra. 

oj^ penjM window. 

pojlj yazdım I wrote, 
f. <ijl gazita newspaper. 

o A/ fouroun oven. 

a. p[f^ hamam bath. 
Vj^lr tarla field. 
jjL\ dkhor stable. 

p. (ii^^ sir ay castle, palace. 
a.^^^fr asr century, 
a. Aj^ dîrhim dram, 
p. (j^ Ichan inn. 
p. o\*J^:> diyirman mill. 
^_U- chayîr pasture, 
a. ^k^ sîfîr zero. 

YY ^liil Exercise 22. 

^ .« •• •• 

joî J»l 3ji Oj3 ^jl ö^jjj^ j dbj. I ^b Jll ' ojjjî u-b 3jt 
> > v^ ojj^^ ûj^jy* oJC-»^uL- > ^ • T ^^1 r . jlj jPjLöö 

'^W Aib s ' A^\^ aA^ ^r^ ' Vjt U^ n nta ' U ^ıJi 


M M * M 

T,rt.,-\YÂ ' •\AV,i\o 

^r* Numeral Adjectives. 93 

Yf A^J Tranfilation 23. 

1. An oke is 400 drams; a batman is six okes. 
2. My father is 70 years old, my mother 62, my brother 
40 years old. 3. Take 200 (units) eggs, 500 walnuts, 
50 pounds of apples and three batmans of pears. 
4. What is the name of that book? — It is the Thou- 
sand and One Nights. 5. The palace of Alhambra has 
999 windows. 6. Here are two sets of cloths. 7. There 
were two kinds of handkerchiefs, a blue one and a black 
one. 8. This cloth has three folds. 9. There are 40 
loads of money in the bank. 10. I have three dozen 
pencils. Twelve dozens make a gross. 11. The shoe- 
maker has three pairs of shoes. 12. How many paras 
make a piastre? 

aI|^ Conyersatioii. 

Ob f^y <:i^ ^^ ^. ! oj\ ? jju. j\j h<İ3j: 

.JJ^J\ *^^^^. ^:^J^\ J^ ?jJl^<İJlİİ .-JLy 

o^ |JU. -u^ ? Ji f'j^^ •'^jiS^ y. 

•Ji <î\i 5r^ ÛJİ ?ji <^b ^^ <^jji ^. 

•Ji jb (^>.U ^^15 jlT ? Ji jb »^jjU jJii 

94 \r u^j^ Lesson 12. \% 

^^ u^^ Lesson 12. 

:>|jipl *L^I Numeral Adjectives. (Continued,) 

2. Fractional numbers. Adadi kisriyS. 

§ 204. The Fractional numbers are derived from 
the Cardinals; the denominator is put in the locative 
and the numerator in the nominative, and the latter 
follows the former. 

^. ojjj) onda hit one tenth, ^^i\ ©Jlİj heshd4 iki two fifths, 

Yuzde iki, 2 ^0 = ^ */• * ' 
j_^jC^ ©jiC hinde yirmi 20 ^/oo = ^♦*A» ' 
jlTo^jji 2/u-ede dlti 6 ^/o = "^ *A • 

§ 205. Sometimes one of the words p. (^l> jwy, 

a. y>-jûz^ a. ^.,a>- A^Vs^, a. ^^ qistm, all meaning 'a po^tion^ 

is introduced: 

Bebrt 'pay da biri, debrt juzde hiri, debrt hissede biri, jA = ' /l • 

Yirmi parchada ondurdu, ^^/20 = /l*« *. 

§ 206. Other fractional numbers are as follows: 

(İJİJ ' £jIj ' ^JJ»'Ji * a. »-jj^* ' p. J 2/^n, yarim, bouchotiq, nisif, nim 
a. AjJ * -J turn whole (number), 
p. il j;^ chiyrik a quarter. 

a. «jj row6, ouroub one fourth. 

OUILL* Mtita-la-at Remarks. 

§ 207. There are three Turkish, one Arabic and 
one Persian word used for half (§ 75). Yarîm is used 
before a noun, like an adjective: yarim saat, yarim 
elma. JBouchoiiq is always used in conjunction, with 
a cardinal number: iJci houchouq gun. . Yari, nî^f 
are used like a noun: elmanhi yansı, kitabîn tâsfİ the 

^0 Numeral Adjectives. 9Ş 

half of the apple, the half of the book. The use of 
nim is very rare in Osmanli-Turkish : nim resmi half 
official (sources, papers). 

§ 208. The Persian fractional number dXjW char yek 

a quarter, commonly spelt fjji>. cheyrek is used for 

a quarter of an hour or of a mejidiye: f. OjStfttt^ 

is used also for a quarter of a mejidiye: a. «jj rouh, 

our'oub is used to express one fourth of an arşhîn (yard) 
and sometimes of a piastre. 

^a'at bird cMyrik var. It is a quarter to one. 

5ir arshin ûch ouroub. One and three quarter yards. 

Elmantn oqqasi debrtdin roub eksiyi dir \ 

ji <<İ5^ ^j ojSj^ ^4İj\ »il; 111 

Üch mejidiye qarti. Three quarters of a m^jidiy^^' 

Besh mejidiyd ch4yfiyû Five quarters of a m^jidiy^. 

3, Ordinal numbers. Adadi vasfl/ye. 

§ 209. These are formed from the cardinals by 

adding the termination i- -inji^ -înjî, -ounjou^ -ûnjû. 
The first has, however, an irregular form also, which 

is dlljl ilk^ which is corrupted from ■^^j\ ev^eîki'ûr^t^ 

One o^e of applesis worth 
3^/4 piastres. 


0?=^^. &*>*n;t- 

^*^ o?hJ^ sikizinji 


^y^:^Ji ikinji. 

9*1» fj^jjiL^ doqouzounjou. 


i^^j\ ûchûnjû. 

10*1» (^î^\ onounjoû. 


j^acJiji d^rdûnjâ. 

20*1» ^Ş6^^ yirminji. 


j^şcIİj beshinji. 

100*1» (j^jji yûzûnjû. 


^J^'\ alttnjî. 

1000*1» ^j^^^ bininji. 


j»t.j*Jüi yidinji. 

the last ilj*d soft. • 

ingiliz Çîraît yidinji Edward, Edward VII, king of England. 

OUllL* Muta-la-at Remarks. 

§ 210. In compound numbers, only the last 
unit assumes the ordinal form; all the others remain 
cardinals, as: 

t^T jjj\ J^ jyj^ iJL Bin doqouz yüz on aliinji 1916*1^ . 

96 ir ltJ^ Lesson 12. M 

§ 211. The date is expressed as follows: 

Bou gûn ayifi gachinjî gûnû dur? Bou gûn ayifi qacHdir? 
Ayîn qacM' dir? What day of the month it is to-day? 

Bou gun ayîn silcizi dir. To-day is the 8*^1 of the month. 
Mayisifi yirmi dibrdünjû gûnû dur. It is the 24*1^ of May. 

§ 212. Dîstinctîves. There is no special form for 
the distinctive adverbs, the ordinals are used directly 
without any alteration: 

Firstly Birinji; Secondly Ikirtji; Tenthly Onoufijou. 

4. Distributive numerals. Adadi tSvufiyiyS. 

§ 213. Distributive numerals are formed by the 

addition of j.^- -^r, -ar to the cardinal numbers ending 
in consonant, and JL— -sher, -shar to those ending 
in ^ ye. 

J J. hirSr one each ; j^. j^. hirer hirir one by one. 

JL^\ ikiahSr two each ; JL^i JL^i ikisMr' ihiahir two by two. 

j»-S\ ûchir three each; ^»-^l ^»-^\ ucher' uchSr three by three. 

j^j^ debrdir four each; j^j^ j^j^ dibrdSr d6brd4r four by fonit 

^;^\ dlt\8tw,r six each \J^ \ JtJ^ \ cdtishar' dltishar six at a time. 

jj^ yûzSr 100 each. ^^ hiner' a thousand each. 

§ 214. When there are hundreds or thousands 
in the number, the ar or shar comes after the numeral 
expressing the number of hundreds, or thousands, and 
nothing is put after yujs or bin. 

^^\jy^ yuz H'lishSr hin 150000 each. 
jjj^iiCl tkishdr yuz 200 each. 
^ ^^j\ ucher hifi 3000 each. 

§ 215. The Ottoman -Turkish Calendar. There 
are three principal calendars or reckonings of time in 
Turkey. The Christians usually observe the Christian 

calendar, which is called either ^"^^ 7:0 jt tarikhi rnedad 

the date of the Birth (of Christ) [medad meaning birth- 
day, Christmas -day], or Kristosotm tarikhi the date of 
Christ. In this are used the Latin months: January, 
February etc. (Uounvar^ Pedîrvar). 

Numeral Adjectives. 






























































>-. •r 

















































12 fl 


_>> <î^ 

















? ui t>< 




-3 1-3 

-> -J -j. 

■^. -^ 1 ? '^ '■\ \ \ 3 

o V ;? o o o 

"^ ^ "î^ ^ 

-T) "3 -^ t) 




















08 »r^ 

- - ^ 

7» 7^ — 

-^ -^ :^ 



1 1 

Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 

98 sr u^j> Lesson 12. %A 

§ 216. Among the Ottoman Turks there are two 
calendars, the Sacred and the Civil. The lunar year 
is adopted for the sacred and the solar for the civil. 
The Sacred year is dated from the Hejira or Flight, the 
first year of which Era began with the new moon of 
the 15*^ of July A. D. 622. The lunar year is 10 days 
shorter than the solar year, it is used in religious 
chronology and religious Law (sher'i). The months 
are reckoned differently from ours; they run thus: Mû- 
har'rem, Seför etc.; and sherif 'sacred' is always added 
to their names; as: Shabanî sh^rif. 

§ 217. The other is the Civil or the Financial 
calendar: the first day of which coincides with the first 
day of March 0. S., and is now two years behind the 
Sacred. It is commonly used in all matters except those 
pertaining to religion. The months are: March, Nisan 
etc. — , the old Arabic and Syrian calendar, with slight 
changes. The year 1902 corresponds to the year 1320 
of the Hejira and 1318 of the Financial or Civil year. 

§ 218. The common people have a different 
reckoning of the months, running thus: Zamharir etc. 
(See the Table.) 

§ 219. There is another popular division of the 
year into two parts: the summer and the winter divisions: 

^i; Qasim, St. Demetrius' Day, the 26*^ Oct. O, S., is 
popularly reckoned as the beginning of the winter season^ 

this has 180 days. ^\^\ jh>- hhîdîr-eVlez^ St. George's 

Day, the 23'^ April O. S., is celebrated as the beginning 
of the summer season, which lasts for 185 or 186 days. 

§ 220. The New Style calendar is called in Turkish 
cUafranqa and the Old Style roumi (Greek). 

§ 221. The Ottoman Turks commence their 
reckoning of time from sunset. This is with them the 
twelfth hour, an hour later it is one o'clock, and so 
on till the twelfth hour in the morning (6 a. m.), when 
they begin again. This is called alatourqa (Turkish), to 
distinguish it from European time, which is called 
alafranqa (French, European). 

»4 ^^ Numeral Adjectives. 99 

JCiJ Words. 

a. jtjjLr tarikh date. a. (iJLjJold^ vSfat Mi died. 

a. (5jL-« muaatn equal. tiJûl \ alîndî was taken. 

b\ ' <i>\ ada island. ojl^ ^ «^ qara land, 

a. eJ^l,âL« mi<^^sa(7l/' corresponding, p. ^JLi,Wı bakh'shish present. 

Yi ^cJliS Exercise 24. 

dLoU Aİil^VT ^^-UL- ji: M or fJ:>>U ^5^ Jj-; t--» > 
^4:u- J^Aov dl;^ p.^t ji . c5-^T ^f J^"^^ 

oJûjı,<9 o3 ûı "" ? j^Cw ^^^p-5 ^ *-^^£<îHX ö*'^^^ f->^U ^^t^î:r * 
? j3 jjSa; ^jj) uVjl ©3- ? <l ^>-jj» j^ Ö j- '^ • <i j^^j' 

• jjİ^UlU oâji (^^-X *-^-^' Oj^lf^ ^^^ y ^^j^ û^-i^j ^ 

Yo A;7*Jr Translation 25. 

1. April is the fourth month of the year, October 
the tenth and December the twelfth. 2. He is in his 
sixtieth year; and my father is in his 68*^ year. 3. Give 
them each 10 piastres. Give those children a present of 
five piastres each. 4. A para is one fortieth of the 
piastre. A month is one twelfth of the year. 5. Come 
six by six. In the middle of the year. 6. Six per cent, 



»r u^j^ Lesson 13. 

!♦ -• 

50 per thousand. 7. We are in the third year of the 
twentieth century. 8. Is AH a good man? — No, Sir/ 
he is in prison four fifths of the time. 9. At twelve 
o'clock, or a quarter to twelve, I shall be here (I am). 
10. 4Leon VI., the glast sking of iCilicia, died at Paris 
in 1393, Nov. 19*^, in the 60*^ year of his age. 

Axj^ Conyersatioıı. 

•j\j cr*»;^ J-^ ltjS^ u^*-ri cr^^ ^ 

^^ u^^ Lesson 13. 

wJi^j oUj^ Degrees of Comparison. 

§ 222. In Turkish, as in English, there are three 
degrees of comparison, the Positive, the Comparative 
and the Superlative. 

§ 223. The Comparative degree is generally ex- 
pressed by putting the word with which the comparison 
is made in the ablative case, and leaving the adjective 

unaltered. The word U3 daha 'more' is sometimes 

put before the adjective, for the sake of emphasis, or 
to prevent ambiguity; as: 

)*) Degrees of Comparison. 101 

fji^ CjSL^ O*. ^^^ senden bebyâg'ûm (boyuyum) 1 j ^^^ older 

Bou gun hava dûfikindin sovouq dour, Bou gun hava dûnkindin 
iciha sovouq dour. To-day the weather is colder than yesterday. 

§ 224. The Superlative degree is in general ex- 
pressed by the word fjlm, prefixed to the adjective; as: 
(.11» «^-LT^i ^\ ^fi' yiiks^k dagh the highest mountain. 
IjA {jy-j*^ ^^ ^^ sovouq hava the coldest weather. 

§ 225. The word en is sometimes omitted: 

^Lî ii^t«^\ adanilartfl qabast' the rudest of men. 

jjdj Sjiji ^^^jf^ HayvanlarXfi hSbyûyû fiVdir. The largest of [all] 

the animals is the elephant. 
Elmalariü iyisini' sich Choose the best of the apples. 

§ 226. The words dl pek very, a. o3l»3 ^iyoâe, 

(jjul ashîrî ^exceedingly' are used to signify an ex- 
cess of any quality above what is requisite, as it is done 
in English by prefixing the adverbs 'too' or Very' to 
adjectives ; as : 

jjujc-jji vi\j pSk' yorghoundour he is very tired. 
jjJl^ oil 3 ziyadi' hdhalîdîr it is too expensive. 
jjJ^ (S^\ a'shiri sovouqdour it is too cold. 

§ 227. Other superlatives are formed in a way 
l^culiar to Turkish, by prefixing to certain adjectives 
a syllable somewhat similar in sound, commencing with 
the same vowel and consonant, or the same vowel, and 

^'ndİDg with cj ' A* ^; as: 

Jo^^ pi bM bSyaz very white, exceedingly white. 

up' achxq very open. qap qara quit« black, 

yam' yassı very flat. sip' sivri very sharp. 

Wp'«a^fe|am very healthy, sound, sim' siyah very black. 

^^ tamam very complete. dop dolou quite full. [right. 

h^yvk very big, great. das' doghrou quite straight, quite 

Ollâ>-^U Mülahazat Observations. 
§ 228. Spoken Turkish has the singular usage 

102 \r u^j^ Lesson 13. ♦•r 

of repeating nouus, adjectives and verbs, substituting 
in the repetition an m for the first letter of the word, 
if it begins with a consonant, and prefixing an m if it 
begins with a vowel, for the purpose of generalizing 
the idea contained in the word so repeated [compare the 
English shilly-shally, the French pele-m^le, etc.]; as: 

Kitab mitdb bouVmadim. I sought for books or anything of 
the kind, but found nothing. 

Dûk'kîan mûkian iv miv bir shiy qaVmadt. Not a shop or 
anything like one remained. 

Etiflizifi qpuyousou mouyousou yoq'mou? Has your house a 
well, a cistern, a fountain? etc. 

Ekmeyi gStir^ qourou mourou nd'oloursa olsoun, firing the 
bread, no matter if it be somewhat dry or crumbled. 

SacM machî yoqdour. He has not a hair nor anything 
like one. 

Further: Oufaq Ufiq. Little trifling matters. 

Eyri bûyrû. Zigzag, serpentine. 

§ 229. Certain idiomatic English phrases used in 
expressing comparison are expressed in the following 
way (§ 179). _ , 

as ... as ... is expressed by jji qadar, which is not repeated 

as in English, 
as much as — J^ ^-^ — — qadar choq 

as little as — ilj^-j^^jji ~ — qadar kûchûk 

as few as — j \ jji — — qadar az 

as far as — j\ jj\ j-j3 — — qadar ouzaq 

as near as — i>3İj jji — — qadar yaqin 

as long as — ÖJJJ\ J-^ — — qadar ouzoun 

as short as — a^ jji — — qadar qis'sa 

Shikirim qadar qdh'vem var. I have as much coffee as sugar. 
SMkir bal qadar tatU dîr. Sugar is as sweet as honey. 
01 qadtnin qizlari qadar [choq] oghlanlart var dir. That 
lady has as many boys as girls. 

Atimiz bou at qadar iyi deyil dir. Our horse is not good as this. 
IngilUrra qadar ouzaq bir mahaU gitdi. He went to a place 
as far as England. 

Gunlir shimdi qishdaki qadar qts'sa dir. The days are now 
as short as in the winter. 

EshSk qadar iri idi. It was as big as an ass. 

01 vaz BSbyuk Ferhiz qadar ouzoun oudou. That sermon was 
as long as Lent. 

»•r Degrees of Comparison. • 103 

JliJ Words. 

a. ^}^\>^ sadiq loyal, true. a. oXld fay'di use, advantage. 

^\ aghir heavy. <0^ sirkS vinegar. 

a. yJU». hafif light (in weight), a. >U\ ala best, excellent. 

a. oJ^ maden metal. J^f^ fe^y/^'î gay. 

f. 0^>L.; platin platinum. a. J-lS "kiamil sober, grave. 

a. ilia zalim cruel. a.t. Jt'Is qpuv'vHli strong. 

« ^ ^ [risonwith. 

a. ©jld /ar^ mouse. lS^"*^^^! ^0'(L^^cl<1 looking, in compa- 

oj^jy qourshoun lead. a. oJl ilhit'ti of course. 

û\>S^ Tchkin sharp. (i^ ftoy stature. 

Proper Names oJJ^ Haroon Aaron. (i^'U Hanri Henry. 
{Sjy Noori Luke, Lucas. AOy Nooriyi Lucy. 

Y*\ Jul Exercise 26. 

— ? j-J^-^^^JLll iJl o^;^ o »j^ tiJLİl c?il^ Js^jl fijtj» ii* 

104 • \r u^j^ Lesson 13. M"*^ 

YV A;^j Translation 27. 

1. Mr. Luke is taller than I am, but he is not the best 
in the class. 2. To-day is hotter than yesterday. 3. Iron 
is heavier than stone. Gold is more precious than silver, 
but iron is the most useful metal in the world. 4. Which 
is lighter: a pound of wool or a pound of lead? — Of 
course a pound of wool is as light as a pound of lead. 
5. Your knife is as sharp as mine: but it is not as long 
as mine. 6. This young gentleman is much gayer than 
his friend. 7. The last week has been the worst of the 
year; it was very cold. 8. What kind of a man is 
Mr. Joseph? — He is a very good and useful man. 
9. That mountain is higher than the other mountains 
of the country. 10. Henrj^ is rich, Hassan is richer, 
and Ali is the richest of all. 

a1|^ Conyersation. 

• j-^ji (^ ^. *w>^ *->^ *-*^ ^ c^ ->b »j\ »J^ 

. (.jJT JLi dU; jUjl ^>^ ? iJjJÎ <: 0-4İJV 

♦ • Noun with Prepositions. 105 

^ ^ U'^'^ Lesson 14. 


^\ ^\j>- J^j>- Noun with Prepositions. 

§ 230. In the Turkish language there are no 
repositions, properly so called, but their place is 
ipplied by words or syllables, called post- positions, 
aced after the words which they govern. 

§ 231. Post-positioDs, as well as prepositions, are 
irticles which serve to show the relation which exists 
3tween two words. These relations being of dififerent 
luds, the post-positions indicating them are used with 
liferent cases, namely the Genitive, Dative or Ablative, 
id also with the uninflected form of the noun. 

§ 232. 1. Post-positions appended to the un- 
iflected form or stem. 

<' • -f?, -a to. (Sign of Dative case.) (§ 82.) 
<M'<) 'He, -IS with, by. (Sign of Instrumental case.) (§ 82.) 
oyş*\ îchîn, ichoun for, in order to, for the sake of. 
f '^^ gibi like, so that. 

(i -i, 4. (Sign of Ace. case.) (§ 83.) 
0^ 'di in, on. (Sign of Locative case.) (§ 84.) 
o^ 'den from. (Sign of Ablative case.) (§ 85.) 
»J^^ zarftnda during, in the space of. 

§ 233. But when the object, which the post-positions 
)vern is a Pronoun (personal or demonstrative), it 

ust be in the genitive case, except jGjI onlar. 

^ll« MisalVr Examples. 

^\ J^ binini ichin for me. oy^,\ ^J\ onlar ichin for them, 

M »jL para iU with money. J^ ^t\L^ sinilc gibi like a fly. 

1 Jj- or <8j*- sizin' le yi\i\\ you. «jjy qouvvStdd in the strength. 

106 |«L ltJ^ Lesson 14. 1*^ 

§ 234. 3. Post-positions witli the Dative case» 

i)^ dek \ ^j^^jj ^jji j^g ^^j^ do^/irou towards, straight 

üf^ dSyin] ^^^ ^^' a.^*l^ dayir concerning. 

jSh qadar until, as much as. CmSL yaqin near. 
^ijld qarsM against. »j^ gebri according to, after. 

jl!ll« MisaVUr Examples. 

j-x»^ * i>5^w- ' i)j<l^lz-l Istamhola dSkJstamhola diyin/ qadar 

up to Constantinople, as far as Const. 
oj^<.Jls> aqlima' gebre according to my judgement. 

Bizi qarsM against us. Shihri' doghrou towards the city. 
„Sindin ouzaq AVldha yaqtn" far from you, near to God. 
Kitaba' dayir concerning the book. 

§ 235. 3. Post-positions witli the Ablative case. 

^}\jJ\ ouzaq far. (İjLİj^ ' tijLÜ» dîshari out of. 

a. İA&U mada \ Jj\ Svvil before. 

J except,beside8. 
<kt\i hashqa \ ^S^-^ sofira after. 

JJyj\ eotûrû \ regarding, ^^i ' •^^' biroUy biri since. 

JV> dolayî j ^^^"*- <-.i\ i-sd instead of, rather 

^ " than. 

<ij\ eote on the other side of, beyond. 

jlItU MisaVUr Examples. 

ShShirden ouzaq far from the city. 

Irmaqdan ibti beyond the river. 
Sizdin' ma day onlardan bashqa except you, them. 
Yirmi bisK sinidin birou for the last 25 years (25 years ago). 
Bou ishdin dolayi, -'ibtûrû concerning this business. 
Bindin io'vel before me. Bindin soûra after me. 
Gilmisindin i-si gil'mimesi eyi dir his not coming is better 
than his coming. 

§ 236. 4. Declinable Post-positions requiring 
the Genitive. 

»jjji uzri on, upon. (ijlio * (ijULl» dîsharî out of. 

cJ i alt under. (5jo&ii tS yf:^\ ichiri inside. 

ojl arqa behind. ^\ ich in 

jljl ibn before. o^ 3/<*** ^7» near. 

m us, m you, m 

WY Noun with Prepositions. 107 

^jjj\ ' <^jjl ' <^jjj\ üzerimi, ûzeriüe, üzerini 1 on nie, 
. . J thee, him 

•^jjjl * •-öj3j1 ' •J^jjji üzerimde y ûziriHdi, üzerindi] or it. 

O Jlçj\ * »^^^^^^1 * •J*t?d^ ichimize, ichifkizi^ 
^ ichlerini 

•jLi;^! * •.ijX^l ' »^J^-fsyl içkimizde, ichiüizdeA among us, you, 

teklerinde ) them. 

•Ju-iL yanîmdaatt by my side. **^^ yantma to my side. 

§ 237. These eight post-positions, when in the 
locative case, indicate a state of location or rest, and 

answer to the question ©3©^ nerede? where? They 
require the dative after the question whither? or where 

to? 430 j- nereye? with a verb denoting direction or 
motion from one place to another. 

Examples with the Locative [rest]. 

1 j^ »J^jjji ^\yi^ wibS^ Kitdb sofranXfi ûzSrindS dir. 

The book is on the table. 
2. ji »J^i *-^^A^ o-JJ^^ *-^y Qoushoun yavrousou youvanifi 

ichind^ dir. The birdling is 

in the nest. 
JlA-^^jl oJlL-jjLİjİ il^i SMh'riü dtshartstnda otourdou- 

lar. They dwelt [on] [the] out- 
^ ^ side [of] the city. 

*• (İa;>\5U oJJ^jl VİJU.U.İ öj=f-^ Chojouq aghajtn ardinda sag- 

landL The boy hid himself 

hehind the tree. 
^' r^^j^ oXSj\ iljjü Pidirîfi ^fiûndâ dourdnum. 

I stood in front of my father. 
^- jj oJ^ii ^^^Jtr^^i BaZi5 ^^Zwn ichindi dir. The 

fish is in the lake. 

Examples with the Dative [motion]. 

^' rJ^"T<^jjjl ^\yi^ S^ Kitabî sofranın ûzMnS atdîm. 

' " 'I threw the book on the table. 

2 {SJjyAL9pj\^]\jjt^^jjj\jjJ'yQou8h yavrousounou youvanîü 

ichinû qodou. The bird put 
its young into the nest. 
Jitjl^ <:^jlio i)^ Shih'rin disharisina cMqdilar. 

They went [to the] out[side] of 
^ ^ the city. 

^' (5 J». 15 OijT dJia-lfrl Jj>-^^ Chojouq aghajlfi ardına qachdi. 

The boy ran behind the tree. 
^- fJû5^(i^&jj <l5j\ iljjü Fid4rifi ^fiun^ doghrou gitdim. 

* I went towards the father. 


108 I «t u-J^ Lesson 14. 9«X 

6. iSAS\ ^C^Ji d^y^ jJl Baliq geblûn îchini atUdû The fish 

jumped into the lake. 

Motion, where to? whither? niriye? * «^^ ' <I^L-1 * <j»;l5 
Location, where? nMd4? ' ©ji-l * *^<3ec.L * »jülı^^* »^J^^ 

Y A Jli5 Exercise 28. 

^ 1 

= *l.l , ilT . ili ilT ' Ai,l jlT. aUI = Al Al . 4.1 JlT 

^9öl dJjiUjjl • öJGUjjI * öjO-st)! vtUUijl 1 • Aİ)3^ = ^' 

oX^aSjT siic^liT^ • cy^y^ = ûj«l (J^tS^- ojw»! < tS^ 
^^j3jİ j^i ^1 V . 3l> ^t^c5J3^- Jl • JİJ »^ oyf\ d}>f 

1 ^ ' ^ ^ '^ y 

r^ 4U-Jr Translaüon 29. 

1. Towards the mountains: on the mountains; by 
the mountains (rest), by the mountains (motion). 2. From 
the door: by the door; with the door; for the door. 
3. Forme, for him; Uke you, like them; with me, with 
him. 4. As far as Sivas; as far as London; until 

^ If oyfA *" *^\ are added to nouns to which the pronominal 

affixes of the 3rd person Sing, and PI. are attached, the kS\ is 
omitted, but the sound i is retained. 

U^ The Substantive Verb. 109 

today. 5. There is nobody except us. 6. What have 
you in your purse? — There is nothing in my purse 
except ten paras. 7. After to-morrow come at half past 
eleven. 8. He went t^n days earlier than my father. 
9. There is a thief among you. 10. Come among us 

aI|^ Conrersation. 

O^ jT i»Li is\ <^i ill ?j.v ><jU J\ k^ il^ 

. j-^j- ^, ! p^ C.Jİ ? jx^ J^ jJl .^U^,\ 

^^ u^i> Lesson 15. 

The Substantive Verb. (Continued.) 

§ 238. We have already treated of the Present 
and Past (Preterite) tenses of the substantive verb. 
(§§ 65, 73.) The Perfect and Conditional tenses of the 
verb remain to be spoken of. 

The Conditional. 
p— j\ = ^<— j\ isSm slA^i = Ja— li isSk 

vlL»i\ = i)<«ji isSn ;^~jİ = ;5<-j1 isMiz 

<^\ = <^\ isS L^\ = )a^\ isilir. 

If (or though or perhaps) I am, if thou art, if he is — . etc. 

The Negative Conditional. 

p-^K^ = ^<^\ J^ dSyilsim »lJL.1^ = Ûa^\ J^ diyils^k 

*1A-JS^ = il<— J i J$^ diyilzin j5w|^ = jTaL-j \ J^ diyilsMz 

110 to ^j^j^ Lesson 15. If • 

<J^ = 4^1 J$^ diyiUi JUS^ = J<^j1 J$^ diyüsilir. 
If I am not, if thou art not, if he is not — , etc. 

Perfect (Bubitative), 

pJUl imishim Jvit\ imishiz \ 

^^^ y ' (They say that) 

6^--İRİ imish-slü 'S...^\ imish-sifiiz \ I was or I have been, 

^1 imish JLitl imishUr ] 

This tense, which is also called in Turkish Dubi- 
tative, denotes mere hearsay or report, founded on the 

authority of others (§ 312). The Negative is Jix\ J^ 
deyil imishim (They say that) I have not been. 

OUlta^ Remarks. 

§ 239. a. When ©3 ^de is added to the Conditional 

tense of the substantive verb, it expresses the meaning 
of "but" or "yet": 

1 M w M m ^^ «k ^X «i 

isdm dS, isâfi de, isi di; isik ddj isifiiz di, isiUr di 
If (or though) I am — , yet — ; thou art — , yet — ; he 
is — , yet — . 

§ 240. b. By the addition of the 3'^ person sing., 
to the Past tense (§ 73), the Past Conditional is obtained: 

idimisedij idiüsidi, idiysidi; idikisidi, idifiizisi di, idiUrisidi 
Though I was — , yet — ; thou wast — , yet — ; he was — , yet — . 

Ji\l^ Examples. 

Fidiriü ivdi' isi, gilsifi. If your father is at home, let 

him come. 
Pedirim ivdi' isidi gilimiz. My father is at home, but he 

cannot come. 
Biradiriü ni'ridi imish? Where is your brother? 

Evdi' imish. (I heard that, they say that) he 

is at home. 
Chojouqlar hasta'mî imishlir. Were the children ill? (Did you 

hear anything?) 
Ev'vity hasta dîrlar. Yes, they are ill (I know). 

Qonshoumouz zingin isi di, iyi Our neighbour is rich, but they 
bir adem diyiV imish. say that he is not a good man. 

Bin ginj'im, sin isi ikhiiyar sXfi. I am young, but thou art old. 




m The Sabstantive Verb. Ill 

The Conditional and Dubitative tenses 
of the verb To Have. 

§ 241. The Conditional and Dubitative tenses of 

the verb To Have are obtained by the addition of ^u^l 
ise and Icl imish to jlj var. 

§ 242. The Conditional of To Have [v^ith an 
indefinite object] ^ 

<-j1 j\j oJûj k^\ j\j ;ij hend^ var îsa hinim var %sa 

*^\ j\j «Jû- <^\ j\j *;Ul- sindi var %sa siniü var isa 

<^\ j\j oJjj\ <*«il j\j ^j\ onda var îsa onoun var îsa 

'^\ j\^ »i Jî <^i\ j\j /» Jı bizdi var îsa bizim var îsa 

^l j\j »^ij- <^\ j\j ilj- sizdi var îsa sizin var îsa 

^Jjlj oji^îjl <^ijb4A^^ onlarda var îsa onlarîüvarîsa 

The Negative. 

<«J.jj ojû* ^^*^jt fi bindi yoghousa binim yoghousa 

*^jl «Jû- A.^ji vl\l- s^nd^ yoghousa siniü yoghousa 

^jj ojjji *^-^ji »^jl oncîa yoghousa onoufi yoghousa 

-cjj »^J*. ^~:^jı r Jı ^î'S^^î^ yoghousa bizim yoghousa 

ji •■^J— ^^*^Jt ■^J'** st^^t?^ yoghousa siziü yoghousa 

i-jj «Ji^jl '"'^Jl ^J^*J\ onlarda yoghousa onlarîfi yoghousa 

I— I 

§ 243. ^o^e. a. The abridged form of -u^» I Jj) t/og' ise 
is A-^j) yoghousa which is much used. 

b. 4,^1 Jj) yo^ İ5e, ^^^y yoghousa or ^^^j) yokhsa, 

when used without object or subject, is considered as 
a conjunction : meaning or, otherwise; as: 

?jju. •jLxibjls <..^ ' ^^ oX,^ K^\:S^ Kitab sindi' mi, yokhsa 
prdashifida' mîdir? Who has the book, you or your brother? 

§ 244. The Conditional with a definite object. 

^di İ8İ, sindi İHİ, onda isi; bizde ise, sizde ise, onlarda ise 
If I have the — , if thou hast the — , etc. 

1 Vide §§ 119, 122, 127. 




112 to c^j^ Lesson 15. Hl^ 

^eniwi ise, senin ise, onouü isi; hizhn ise, sizifi ise, onlar^H ise 
If the (book) ie mine, thine, his, etc. 

The Negative. 

hend^ deyilsi, fiinde —, onda—; bizde deyilse, sizdi — , onlarda — 
<JC^ jo * <-J^ *iL«. — benim diyilsi, sinifi deyilse, etc. 

If I have not the — , etc. If the — is not mine, etc. 

§ 245. Eemark. When ©^ -de is added to the 

conditional of the verb To Have, it expresses the sense 
of but. 

*i A*.ji\ j\j »Jûj bende var ise de, 1 have a — , but — 

oİ<-^jjöJlj bende yoghousada, I have not a — , but — 

0^ <-ai ^ll*- senifl ise c?e, It is yours, but — 

3 J <J^ *iAl- seniü dey ilse de. It is not yours, but — 

oj A^\ ojJj\ onda ise de, He has the — , but — 

oj <J^ oJâj\ onda deyilsede, He has not the — , but — . 

§ 246. The Dubitative tense of To Hate [with 

a definite object]. 

bende imish, sende — , onda — ; bizde imish, sizde — , onlarda — . 

benim imish, seniü — , onoun — ; bizim imish, sizifi —^ Ofdarîü — . 
I have the — , tlıou hast the — ; (Tlıat) was mine, thine, his — . 

§ 247. The Dubitative tense of To Hate [with 

an indefinite object]. 

jjit\ j\j oJlü * ^\ j\j öAU- * ^i jlj a JÛJİ binde var imish etc. 

J^\ Jh fi ' crM j\j '^^ ' ^J^\ j\j <^j\ benim var imish etc. 
(They say that) 1 have a — ; thou hast a — , etc. 

jUll* Examples. 

Seniû paraü varîsa. If thou hast money. 

Ineyifiiz varîsa. If you have a cow. 

Paraü varîsa, bafla bish yhow If you have money, give me five 

roitsh ver. piasters. 

Param varîsa da vermem. I have money, but I will not give. 

y )r The Substantive Verb. 113 

J^mSyiaiz yoghousa aUfi. If you have not bread, take some. 

^itdblar% yoghousada — They have not books, but — 

Qalhn h4ndi is^di vSrmem, I have the pen, but I will not g^ve it. 

AH varidi isi — If he had a horse — 

FjfihSyi yogh'oudou isidi — Though he had not a donkey, yet — . 

JCiJ Words. 

j*--C'jj Jtj\j varimiz' yoghoumouz' aJl that we have. 

^ll\ almam I do not take. a. o^ lisan language. 

CAİLS^kSskin sharp (knife). ji az less. 

^l ^\ agMr bashli sedate (man), a. ^^bfctami/ sober, wise. 

Proper Names: 0>^j' Arslan Leon. a. ^j^\^ Sad\q Justin, 
Justus, a. <ijy Nooriyi hucy. 

f • ^e^ Exercise 80. 

iJ^ iJJLjIj-^ v3»^<»^ u^^jl ^ • -'•^-t j^»*->^ ji ö^l»3 ' >^3j' 
Jb b3 ^ • «j3 s::. --j3 ^^^^3 dL^3 j j3 ^jJ^:> iS^^^ öz^^ 

• J3 ö3J: JUS • ©3 ^U*»JHfS 0^3; Jl» tS^ — ? J-JL^ o^J- 
Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 8 

114 \^,u^j^ J-»esBon 16. II<m 

t\ AJt'j Translation 31. 

1. The apples are sweet; the pears are sweeter ;„ 
the grapes are the sweetest. 2. Your maid servaiit is 
diligent, but [I heard that] my neighbour (woman) is 
more diligent than she. 3. Though Mr. Justus is a rich 
man, yet [they say that] he has not a good name. 
4. Miss Lucy is the handsomest girl in town, but she is 
sick. 5, The strength of the strongest man is far less 
than that of an elephant. 6. I am as tall as you, but 
my brother Leon is not so tall as you. 7. Is your 
fruit as fresh as ours? — Yes, Sir, it is as good as yours, 
but it is too little [in quantity]. 8. Your knife is as 
lafge as mine, but it is not as sharp as mine. 

aI |5^ Conyersation. 

j^jj. ^j\ j^^, Jtjb *0-^J> j^ J^y^ J^jlj 

• cr^l ft^A^tpl ^u--^^ •^•S {S'^\ JA» 

. j^ öJ^^ <--K^ öjjl ?j-4* »^jl pî^ »JJ^j 

^"^ u^^ Lesson 16. 

jJUâ^ The Infinitive of Verbs. 

§ 248. The Infinitive (or the Masdar) is the basis 
of the Turkish verb^ It ends either in j^ -maq or <tJu 

* Til e Turkish verb is the moRt highly organised part of 
the language, being most minutely subdivided, most extensively 

f to The Infinitive Verbs. 115 

-Tnek: -maq is peculiar to roots with hard and -mek 
to roots with soft vowels. When we remove the ending 
niaq or nieh we get the stem or thie root of the verb, 
which is also the 2^^ person Sing, of the Imperative; as: 

jll almaq to take: Ji aZ' take thou. 

viJU^^j v^fhnek'.io give: ^j vir give thou. 

§ 249. The Negative form of the verb is obtained 

by adding aa ' ^ -m^- to the root when it has a soft 

' ' ' . ' 

vowel and U -ma- when it has a hard vowel; as: 

^11 1 afmamaq not to take: -dl or Ul alma do not take. 
^<A^j or dl^^j vir'mhfiilc not to give: <*^j vSr'mido not give. 

Different kinds of verbs. 

§ 250. There are six kinds of verbs in Turkish: 
Tmn si tive, Intransitive, Causal, Passive, Reciprocal and 

§ 251. I. Transitive (or Active) verba indicate such 
an action as cannot be completed without something else 
becoming directly affected thereby. They always require 
a direct object taking the nominatival form of the noun, 
if Ihe object is indefinite and the full accusative form 
if the object is definite (§§ 83 note, 291). 

vlA^jjyl ^ SOU ichmSlc to drink sonie water (indefinite). 

vIJLj^I «i j^ souyou ichmilc to drink the water (definite). 

viU<i«ji jj*jlj yazmaq istimik to wish to write (indefinite). 

. § 252. II. An Intransitive (or Neuter) verb indicates 
siii^n an action of the agent as. is complete in itself 
without directly affecting anything else. -When an action 
is implied, an Intransitive verb requires an indirect 
object in the dative case, if motion is impUed: if rest 
is denoted, it requires its indirect object to be in the 
locative (§ 237); as: 

developed, and at the same time most simple and regular in its 
formation and in the modification of the signification of its various 
bran^'hes. It is a perfectly symmetrical system, through all the 
ramifications of which the eye or mind can run with ease. 


116 M ^j^j^ Lesson 16. %y 

oj\ ^'Vd gitmSk to go home (motion). 
^yJJ^J\ o^j\ iodi otourmaq to sit in the house (rest). 
^>lî.L <İAJ\t^ yazmagha hashlamctq to begin to write (motion). 

§ 253. in. Causal or Causative verbs. This form 
of the verb is not much used in English, but it is very 
common in Turkish. It implies an order or command 
from the speaker to a second or third person. The 
action is performed not by the agent or speaker but 
by the person to whom the order is given. These verbs 
are translated into English by adding to cause, to 
make, to have, to get, to allow and to let, to the 
simple verb according to the sense ^; as: 

pJo.»j^juli j\ ^. «u^ÂİlS Qalfayahir ev yapdirajaghim. IshaW 

' cause the architect to build a house. 

pi»-o^_.>jlj A^Ujl ^y^ MdhtoubouOhannisiyazdtrajaghîm. 

[ ^ I shall get John, to write the letter. 

^^-H^ öjJ-J^y •^"^ ^. ^^J^ Artini hir chift qoundoura yapdîrdî. 

Hegot Pascal to makea pairof shoes. 
01 tasvirli kitabî chojouqlara bou gun oqoudctjaghtm, I shall 
allow the boys to read that book full of pictures to-day. 

Binim ichin bir setri yapdîrabilirmisifl? — Yatin bîr 
danesini getirdS bilirim. Can you get (or have) a coat made for 
me? — I shall have one brought to-morrow. 

§ 254. IV. Passive verbs. The English and Turkish 
languages have this peculiarity, that they can form 
passive verbs from Intransitive, as well as from Transitive 
verbs; as: 

J4JI1 baqmaq to look at(intran8.': J-U^l; baqihnaq to be looked at. 
jll almaq to take (trans.): J-^^ altnmaq to be taken. 

§ 255. V. Reciprocal verbs express an action 
performed together with or against each other. They 
are translated by adding to the infinitive the words one 
another, each other, together; as: 

*iUJL»^^ sevishmSk to love each other. 

* The meaning and use of the Causal verb are seeu by 
comparing the verb raise with the verb rise, of which the 
former is the Causal, in English. So also we may call to set 
the c»usal of to sit, the former meaning to cause to sit. 
Similarly to lay is the causal of to lie, the former (to lay) 
meaning to cause to lie. 

\ İV llie Infinitive Verbs. 117 

Jlj^jty qoshou^hsounlar let them run together. 
JU>.<ijjjj vouroushajaqlar they will beat each other. 

§ 256. VI. Reflexive verbs. When the action of 
a verb returns to the subject from which it proceedes, 
the verb is called Reflexive. These verbs are translated 
into English by the reflexive pronouns (§ 145); as: 

vULjjTjjl ^rtûnmSk' to rover himself. 
^.xljij^ soyoundotdar they andresned themselves. 
(U»-<iUuj ytyqanajaghim I shall wash myself. 

J>l i m^AmÜ Reading Exercise. 

The Story of the Cat and the Camel. 

: (^ Jj3 A)©j3 J^«^Vj^ S J^-JH* c^^J^"^* c5^ 

• ^^ ^y.^. ^, *^-^i^ *^*-' ^Ji -^. ' ^^. -«:* ^•^ — «-^^ • 

118 1^ ^^J^ Lesson 16. HA 

Talimi Qtra'ai, 

Kedi ile deve Hikiayesi. 

Bir gün Deve sîrtînda^ aghîr bir yûJc ile gederken^ y 
Kediye rast geldi^. Kedi sîriînî qambourladaraq^ deveyr 

Kedi — Oughour/ar olsoun^, deve qardashliq^ ! nereye 

Deve — Al'laha emanet oP! amma ben na'sU senin 

qardashin i miskim? sen nerede? ben nerede? 
Kedi — Ona shûb'he yoqdour^ ! Elbet' te^^ ben senifi 

qardashiu im. Baq hele^^! sânifiki qadar iri 

ve bSytVi qambouroum^^ yoqmou dour? 
Deve — Belki ^^! lakin ajeba^^ benimki qadar da qouv- 

vetlt mi? 
Kedi — Vay! ne bosh sSz^'^! shou sîrtîflda youmrouq^^ 

qadar kuchûk bir sh/^y var ısa, ajaba sebzûfı 

ononn iehoun motı dour? 
Deve — Anıma ey i baq! bou yûk senin ichin pek bedytik 

Kedi — Bosh sSder söyleme! Shoımou bana ver! tembel 

herif ^'^! 
Devi' — F(>k ala! bir az beri^^ gel! hopbala^^! — 

demish^^, ve yûkûnif kedinin sırtına yûkletmish^^ . 
Kedi — Aman! aman! anıan^^! ne aghîr imish! ishim 

bifdi'^^! vay! vay! vay^^! 

Words. 1. on his back. 2. while going. 3. he met. 4. arching 
(making hunch-back). 5. said. 6. good speed I 7. half brother, good 
brother. 8. thank you! (I commit you to the charge of God). 
9. there is no doubt about it. 10. of course. 11 look here! 12. hanch. 
13. perhaps. 14. I wonder. 15. what a useless word. 16. as 
large as a fist. 17. villager, rude man (lazy fellow!). 18. nearer. 
19. Heyday! (hoop po loo!) 20. he said. 21. he hardened, he 
placed (leaded). 22. dear! dear! 23. my work is finished, 
i.e. I am lost, it is all up with me. 24. Oh! Alas! 

1 1^ 

Primitive and Derivative Verbs. 


BedyûTc lorptta-'^ye, hSbyvh 

lim — Ishte helafil houldonfi^^! git\ h^ıjûk sebz sSdy- 
lemeyi eoyren'^! 
Qisseden MssP'^ — 
sebz sebylemel 

25. you have got (founcî) your punishment. 26. go and learn 
the [calamity of] speaking conceited (haughty) words. 27. mpral 
from the story. 28. morsel (of food). 

aI|^ Conrersation. 

Ua-> »J*^ O^ji J->>-?^ 

?(İJüJ (^ cr^^->^ »lAi'Oi c5J^ 
! (5Jü^ <î -»oj^ •jO^ iS-^ 

^v ^-v^^ Lesson 17. 

Primitive and Derivative Verbs. 

1 \ • ^' - - 

§ 257. Simple or Primitive Verbs are those which 
have no letters or syllables inserted after the root: 

for instance j^jl» yazmaq to write, âX%y^ sevmek to love, 

^yjl oqoumaq to read, are simple verbs, because there 

^ Mujirrid vi Mizeedun feehi niasdarlar. 

120 IV crJ^ Lesson 17. IT* 

are no letters added to the roots \/ j\» yaz^ \ y^ ^^> 
y yjl oqpu. 

§ 258. But if I say J^j^^jl» ' ^^-U-İj ^- ' jijîjl yaz- 
dirmaq, sevishmeJc, oqounmaq: these are derivative verbs, 

the new or secondary roots SLYej^^i ^ ,J^^— ' ûjîj* yajsdîr, 

sevish, oqoun. These are formed by inserting certain 
letters between the simple roots and the infinitive 
termination, and thus changing the meaning of the verb, 
more or less. 

wX.^^ sdvmSk; ^ y^ sSv to love: 
*i\^ij- s^oishm^k; \^J^^^ seoish to love each other. 

^J*jlj yazmaq: VjL yaz to write: 

3^a)^ yazdirmaq; V^jjl yazdîr to cauBe to write. 

^yj\ oqoumaq; Vyj\ oqou to read: 

J^yj\ oqounmaq; if oyj\ oqoun to be read. 

§ 259. The so-called servile letters are those letters, 
which, when added to the roots, change, more or less, 

the meaning of the verb. They are: Cj t, j^ dir, j r, 

on, ^}l, J. 8h. 

§ 260. These letters or syllables have each their 
own special signification when inserted to form a new 
root. Each alters the meaning of the verb in a regular 

manner. 1, 2, 3. O t, jp db% j r have the power of 

making verbs Transitive, if the original root is Intransitive; 
and Causal, if the original verb is Transitive. 4, 5. A verb 

is made either Reflexive or Passive by adding J Î or 

i) n to the root of a primitive verb. 6. Reciprocal verbs 

are formed by adding JL sh to the root of primitive verbs. 

§ 261. There are six measures [o3j ' *-»^. ^^tft, vejm]y 
as they are called in Turkish, which serve as formulas 

)f\ Primitive and Derivative Verbs. 121 

to enable the student always to remember the addition 
and the changes of meaning caused by the insertion 
of the servile letters. 

1. Oqoutmaq ^jSji [Transitive and Causal]. 

§ 262. This form is obtained by adding Cj t, {it, 
fit, out) to the stem (§§ 52, 56). 

The efifect of the insertion of this letter is twofold: 

1 . If the original primitive form is intransitive, it 
is made transitive; as: 

^Jj^j\ otourmaq to sit: J^jj^j\ otourtmaq to make to sit, seat. 

^3^3lj baqmaq to look: 3^V^ baqitmaq to make to look, to 


2. If the original simple form be transitive, it 
changes to causal; as: 

^yj\ oqoumaq to read: ^yj\ oqoutmaq to cause to read. 
^IjLj yhjqamaq to wash: 3^^ y\y'qatmaq to cause to wash. 

Note. This o t is added, generally, when the root of the 
verb ends in a vowel, or in one of the semivowels J ?, j r, on. 

f Y JL3 Exercise 82. 

Change the following verbs into the first measure 
and give their meanings. 

Transitive verbs. 1. iX*4\i y^ seoyUmflc to speak. 

sfX#4^j3 dSshemek to floor, to carpet. 2. j^jvpU chaghîr- 

maq to call. J«M1L bashlanmq to begin. 3. jcjC qa£:î- 

maq to dig, to engrave. J^b^ aramaq to seek. 4. ^j^l 

aqmaq to flow. dU*L 6?7em('Â: to sharpen (a knife). 5. dU^ili ^j 

ytildemek to load. cîX*aİ5C^ dinUmeh to listen. 

Intransitive verbs. 6. j^l^st*^ sichramaq to 

jump. <tkj\ erimek to be melted. 7. d)i4jL^\ ûshümek to 
feel cold, shiver. J^^^ sovonmaq to become cold, 
cool. ,J^y qoqmaq to smell, to have a smell. 8. J^^j^ 

122 IV ltJ^ Lesson 17. Sxf 

If-: ; 

ouyoumaq to sleep. J^^\ yashamaq to live. ^y^İ^\ ağlı- 
lamaq to cry, to weep. 

^. Yazdirmaq j^j.33^^ [Transitive and Causal]. 

§ 263. This measure is formed by adding Ji3 (dir, 
dîr, dür, dour) to the root (§§ 52, 56). 

The effect of this syllable on the root is jnst the 
same as that of the first measure: 

1. If the primitive verb is intransitive, it is made 
transitive; as: 

*iUj) ^Imih to die (intrans.: »iA-.jjJj\ ebldûrmek to kill (trans.). 

JtLji ouyanmaq to awake (intrans.): 
j^»^ijülıj\ ouyandtrmaq to awaken (trans.). 

2. If the primitive verb be transitive, it is changed 
into a causal; as: 

,3*-». i achmaq to open (trans.): ^yJo^\ achdtrmaqto cause to open. 

^j\t yazmaq to write ( » ): ^^ojlj yöt<^<i^»*'wa2 to cause to write. 

Note. Tliis j^ dîr is added generally to those verbs whose 
«tem ends in a consonant other than those mentioned above. 

There are some exceptions: 

-^jj^ gebrmek to see: ^JLjT'^^tXAj^jJ^ göster m&c, g^rdûrmik 

. ^ .. ^^ to make to see, 

»JU-Ö .(/eZmefc to come : s^yp gStirmek to bring. [to show. 

^iX^^zS^ gitmek to go: ^jyj^ gedturmek to carry. 
^illi qalqmaq to rise: J^j^jJ^ qaldirmaq to raise, to lift up. 

tf Ju5 Exercise 33. 

Change the following verbs to this measure and 
give the meanings. 

Intransitive verbs. 1. ö^p gezmeh to walk. 

illyT^ gMmek to laugh. 2. jcU>^l osanmaq to become 
tired of. jctjl outanmaq to be ashamed. 3. İLJjI fn- 

mek to come down, sdij-j binmek to ride on. 4. dl^jl 

hicnntrk to marrv. i^.lJU challshmaq to work. 

ur Primitive and I>erivatİFe Verbs. 128 

Transitive verbs. 5. jl^ haulmaq to find. dUL 
hilmek to know. 6. jU almaq to take. siU^J vertiieJc to 
give. 7* dU^ sevmek to love dL..^ kesmek to cut. 

5. Ichirmek dUjboi Transitive and Causal]. 

§ 264. This measure is fonned by adding j(-ir-, 
îr-, -our-, -ör-) to the stern (§§ 52, 56). 

It changes the Intransitive into Transitive and the 
Transitive into Causal; as: 

jfjif dogh'maq to be born (intrane): ^jy^ doghourmaq to g^ive 

'-Lio pishmek to be cooked (intrans ): viU^JLj pishirmek to cook. 

^^■U^l ichmik to drink (trans.): vlL,;\atil tcWrmefc to cnve to 


Note, This form is a modification of the second form, losing 
the i d; therefore its derivatives are very limited, and almost all 
«re here given. 

T I ^^Jui Exercise 34. 

Change the following verbs into the third measure 
find give the meanings. 

Intransitive verbs. 1. ^>.jl ouchmaq to fly. 

ji yatmaq to lie down. 2. ^jl artmaq to be increased. 

jElj batmaq to sink. 3. siL-î^^^ dushmek to fall. j^H 

^hashmaq to miss one's way. 4. vİLt-j bitmek to be finished : 

j^lL tashmaq to overflow. 5. jcj3 douymaq to hear 

)f. jc J^ doyniaq to become satiated. 6. J*>-1Î qachmaq 

flee. 0.^^ gechmek to pass. sÜJT-o yittufk to be lost. 

-#. Taranmaq jcljlL [Reflexive, Passive]. 
§ 265. This measure is formed by adding Jn, 

in, ûn, oun) to the root of the verb (§§ 52, 56). 

It changes the Transitive into the Reflexive and 
Passive; as: 

124 IV ,^j3 Lesson 17. fr*fc 

j^b^ taramaq to comb: JtL>U» tor awiwo^ to be combed, to com t» 


'^jj\ Sbrtmek to cover: dlt^jji ^rtzmm^A; to be covered, to cover 


J^yjl oqpumaq \o read: jtyjl oqounmaq to be read. 

jl^ houlmaq to find: js.^^ houlotmmaq to be found. 

§ 266. In spelling there is no difference between 
the reflexive and the passive, as both are formed by 

adding J n. The difference is in the meaning. If the 

verb deals with the subject, it is reflexive; if the verb 
refers to the logical object, it is passive, because 
passive verbs have no grammatical object; as: 

EffSndi ytyqandi The Master washed himself (reflexive). 
QadShUr ytyqandi The cups have been washed (passive). 

To Jlai Exercise 85. 

Change the following verbs into the fourth measure. 

1. jlU chalmaq to steal; to knock at (the door); to 
play (a tune). 2. dUj^ dSl-mek to pour, dedymek to 
beat. 3. jc^ soymaq to undress, strip. 4. jJLî qUniaq 
to do, to perform. j^ILL tiqamaq to plug, stop. Ö. dUjS^ 

(jezml'k to walk about. J^llo ytyqamaq to wash. 6w ,3^1» 

haqmaq to look. dU^ sevmel\ 7. ^y*\}^ or ^LU day- 

amaq to prop up. dU^l»^^ sSyleniek to speak. 

o, YazUmaq jJL)!» [Passive]. 

§ 267. The measure is formed by the addiuoa 

of J I, (il, ÜI, out) to the root (§§ 52, 56). 

It changes the primitive verbs into passives; as: 

j^Jj^ yiizmaq to write: j^J^i yazilmaq to be written. 
»iJL— 5"^ kesmek to cut : viA».!....^ kesilmek to be cat. 

JVbte. a. The paKsive of those verbs which end in avowel^ 
«jr liquid letter, is never fonned according to this measnre, but 
arcording to the fourth. . . . . i 

rt Primitive and Derivative Verbs. 125 

b. The passive form of the verbs »H*:j\ ' sILaII etmek, Syl- 
neH' to do, perform is «^Aji<-4\ idilmek. 

t\ J^ Exercise 86. 

Change the following verbs into this measure and 
ive the meanings. 

1. dUyj ' stİ4y^ 2. J^JJJ ' J^J^Î 3. dUlS^^' J^ 

. sil^^l ' ^j^jvpU chaghtrmaq to call. 5. dX^^ ' J^j^j' 
\J[ 6. dU.^^ to plant. dUj^^ J^Ojiji 

^. GSrûshmek dXJ^j^ [Reciprocal], 

§ 268. This measure is formed by adding ^sh, 

sh, oush, ish) to the root of the verb (§§ 52, 56). 

It changes the meaning of the verb into a reci- 
rocal one; as: 

^ J f^ germek to see: sil^ji^^^^rit^/^meA; to see one another. 

j*jj\ vourmaq to beat : J^-«^j ji vourousiimaq to fight with one 


fV ^^ Exercise 87. 

Change the following verbs into the sixth form. 
j^MpI aghlamaq to cry, weep. <iJ^^ gülmek to laugh. 

İCJJ3 dürtmek to poke. J^Ljl oynamaq to play. di«j--« 

t?;/^^i. jl^ . J^3ji hozmaq to ruin, to disconcert. 

JİjUllL* Mûta-la-at Remarks. 

§ 269. a. The meaning of the Negative form is, of 
|ur8e, in general perfectly clear; but the negntive form 
the causal verbs, besides its ordinary signification, 
metimes expresses a prohibition or prevention of the 
!tion being done. Thus oqoufmamaq means 'not to 
use to read', but also Ho prevent some one from reading'; 
^dirmamaq 'not to cause to write', and also 'to prevent 
om writing'. 

126 fv ur^j. Lesson 17.* m 

,,^ § 270. b, A Transitive verb, or a y^rfc which bas 
been converted into one, according to. the rulgş m^n^oned 
above, may become doubly, and even triply, transitive, 
causative, or passive; as: 

3*jh\ oqoumaq to read: ^^j^-^^ oqpun'maq to be read. 

j_^j5jl oqout'maq to cause to read: ^yJilJ9j\ oqoufiouVmaiq to be read. 

jj«^Juy^\ oqoutdour'maq to cause to cause to read: 

jl^jjyjl oqoutdourt'maq to cause to cause to cause to read. 

vj^l i ^^ui Beading Exercise. 
The Divisions of Turkey. ^JU-JJ sib^iUH Lj/- dU V. 

i)^\^ ' sJ>j^/« oVjl Jj-w« u-J^^^^ ' J>b OlS o^jl J^^*»^ ^"^^ 
o^jtj» • jyîj^ ^-*İj a:jVj TV 4İULİ* -I'-jj^ d^\c 

Memaliki Mahrouseyl Shahanenin taqfdml&iH 

^MSnaliki ^Mahrouseyi .^Shahane^ Vilayetlere, Vüa 

y etler ^ Liva^ yakhod^ Savjaqhra, Sanjaqjar^ Qasalara 

Qazalar^" NaJdyelere^ Nahiyeler'' dakhi Qaryelere^*' taqsin 

•olofmour^. — Vilayeidenmâ'souV olan^ zat^" vali^, Sanjuqda\ 

we soul olan Mûtesarrîf^^^ Qa^adan niesoul ofofp Qayim 

niaqam^^^ Nahiyeden me soul olan Mûdir^^ ve QaryeUrda 

mesoul olanlar^^ Ikhtiyar mejlisleri^^ ve moukhtarlar^P dh 

Words. 1. The Protected Countries of His Majesty (Royal 
2. province. 8. a county, arronıiİRsement 3». a disirict, . cantoi 
4. or. 5. a sub-district (parish or commune). 5». village. 6.are4iyi<ici< 
7. responsible. 8. who is (who governs). 8». person. 9. gö?'**rn< 
jreneral. 10. governor. 11. sub-governor. 12. a governor, pf ft- sal 
district, mûdir. 13. who are. 14. bailiff courts. 15. bailiffs. 


»rv Compound Verbs. 127 

Memaliki Mahrouseyi Shahatie 29 vüayete taqsim 
olmnour. Bounlardan altîşî Avropada, yirmi biri Asiyada^ 
hiri Afriqada ve dlger biri dakiii Aq denizde ,dîr. 

Aİl^ Conversation. ; ûVjl J^lwT ûJ^"Vj ?ji-ü jWlL 'j;^li 3 1^ 

•jJûiS oVj\ Jj— Ai-oj\il vibVj ?-.>-ui^til> 

•jjjjjw Jjl::ifc«3 (iJLU^ jLii^l ?jj}y^- /^<L-*j\i\ ilj-ui^ 

«K)^^ J <»*^♦ ^•^-'^ -^J^f^^ *0^ jb <iy ^'i^ J <f»-^ r^ 

\A ,^^i> Lesson 18. 

o •» ^ J 

j\U2L ^j^ Compound Verbs. 

§ 271. Compound verbs are formed by employing 
Arabic, Persian and Turkish words with the Turkish 
auxiliary verbs, or by affixing certain particles to nouns 
and adjectives in order to turn them into verbs. 

128 IAltJ^ Lesson 18. \tA 

1. Compound verbs^ formed by using nouns 
with auxiliary rerbs. 

§ 272. I. Compound Transitive verbs are con- 
structed by uniting with nouns and adjectives (generally 
of Arabic and Persian origin) one of the four purely 

Turkish synonymous auxiliary verbs dljji ' dlJLl or 

viUJLI ' J^LS ' J^^ ji etmeJc, eyUmeJc, qtlmaq, bouyourmaq, all 

meaning to do, to perform; but the fii*st is most 
frequently used. 

a. J\j- sival question: *i\^\ Jl^- * »lA^M J\^^ * ^y^^ J^,>- * 

^Jjlji Jlj- to question. 

p. :^\J\azadîree: O^J MjT* ^J,\ MjT* jJLî^OT' J-jji^.^OT 
to free. 

t. u^jfa sous silent : »Ui^i u^j^ to still, to hush. 

t. i^li yash moisture; wet: *^^\ lt^ to moisten; to wet. 

Note. The original meaning of ^Jj^ houyourmaq is to 

command, to deign, to be kind enough, but as an auxiliary 
it is used when the agent is a person of rank or is politely 
treated as such. 

§ 273. II. Compound Intransitive verbs are formed 
by uniting Arabic or Persian adjectives and active 
and passive participles (isnif fciy^l, mefoul) to the in- 
transitive verb jljl olmaq ''to be, to become"; as: 

p. <L^ hasta sick: jlj\ <l^»- hasta olmaq to be sick, 

a. oj-^* memnoun glad : jlj\ oj^^ memnoun olmaq to be Rİad. 
t. ^j^ sous silent: jlj\ u^j^ sous olmaq to be silent. 

§ 274. ni. Compound Passive verbs are constructed 
with the same kind of words and with the passive form 

of the auxiliaries dHjbl ' J^J ' c5''->j-i ^^^^^^i qUintnciq, 
houyroulmaq, or more frequently with the passive forms 

of the verb jljl olmaq; viz. jJjIoZowwmag to become, 
to which there is nothing to correspond in English; as: 

a. J\^ sival: ^J^A J\^ ' jjjl J\^ ' J*JL3 J\j- * jlj^ J\^ 

to be asked. 

fr^ Compound Verbs. 129 

p. :>0T azad: ^J.\ M^T ' J*Jj\ Mi'î' ' J^ ^OT ' jlj^ iOT 

to be free. 

§ 275. IV. Compound Causal verbs are constructed 
with the same kind of words and with the causal forms 

of the auxiliaries dUj Jıü 1 ' ^^Jj-j etdirmeh, houyourtmaq, 
to cause to do. 

p. oi»j^3 firoukhte sale: siJl^jjui^ sz^j^ firoukht' etdirmek to 

cause to sell. 

a. J:5 qatl slaughter: dUjjJjl J.:d qatl etdirmek to cslubb 

to kill. 

a. qL^\ ihsan grant: (3^^^. u^--^^ ihsan houyourtnuxq to 

help to be granted. 

f A Ai^ Exercise 38. 

Form verbs from the following words: 

1. a. M J kerem kindness, a. Uj rija request. 

2. a. ^1^1 ijad invention, a. ^j*T teshrif honour, 

visiting. 3. p. il^ sha0 glad. a. JijJ tebdil change. 

4. a. c^cjp azimet departure, a. O^jp avd(?^ return. 

5- a. ^U ^aZm instruction, a. ^j terjeme translation. 

6. a. j^ zouhour appearance, a. b 6^wa building. 

?. a. Jic^j t'a^ sermon, p. j^ JcSr blind. 8. a. iü^ 

'tifz keeping, a. ol;vp ghayret labour, a. 4»Jjb hediye 
)resent, gift. 

2. Verbs derived from Nouns and Adjectives, 
§ 276. I. Transitive verbs are formed from 

louns and adjectives by the addition of j^V lamaq 

3 those containing hard vowels, and dU^J lâtnek to 

lose containing soft vowels. When this termination 
1 added to a noun, it has the meaning of to provide 
ith, and when added to an adjective signifies to 
3nder; as: 

Turkish Conv. -Grammar. d 

130 I A ltJ^ Lesson 18. fr» 

j^ gebz eye: »lX.4)j^^ gSbzUmek to watch. 
yjX hash head: (3«>^^ hashlamaq to begin. 

»^ gara black: (3*"^^^ qaralamaq to blacken. 

J\E t^t> clean: dJU^lJ^i UmizUmSk to clean. 

§ 277. II. Intransitive and Passive verbs are formed 

by tbe addition of siUjJ ' »ilcV lentnek, lanmaq to 
nouns or adjectives; as: 

^Xjij\ evUnmek to marry. ^iX^j^ guziVl^nmek to grow pretty. 
^':kaj- khirslanmaq to be angry. JtV^^l»- hazirlanmaq to be ready. 

§ 278. ni. By adding simply Ja -amaq, dU 

-emek, jll -almaq, dll -elmSk, to the adjectives or 

nouns, another kind of Intransitive or Passive verbs i» 
obtained ; as : 

(jli qan blood: ^^^ qanamaq to bleed. 

Aa^y qoja old: <3*^j^ qojamaq to become old. 

J'l yash age: i3*^^ yashamaq to live. 

^3^ c/iO(2 much: ji«^^ choghalmaq to increase. 

j\ az little: J^lj^ azalmaq to diminish. 

§ 279. IV. Some Intransitive verbs are formed 

from adjectives by the addition of dLiJ ' J^V -teahm&^r 

'Idshmaq, meaning to grow, to become, to get 

a. U fena bad: J^Vl:3 fenalashmaq] rpo become worae 

y/^ k^tu bad: a^yjT fc^ew/gsfcwiefcj (gradnaUy). 
jj\ ^yi good: ^. *ljj\ SyU^shmek To grow better (grad.)- 

§ 280. The same termination, however, added to- 
nouns produces reciprocal verbs; as: 

a. s^y^ mektouh letter: j^>^^^::x. mektoublashmaq to corre- 
khaher information: %iJi. ûJ^n^ khdbSrlishmik to oommii' 

nicate (intelligence). 


lri Compound Verbs. 131 

§ 281. V. Causal compound verbs are obtained 

by inserting Cj t in the first and 3^^ forms and j^ dir 
in the 2"^ and 4*** forms. 

1. J^>l^li bashlatmaq to let be begun. 

2. viUjjJji Mendirmek to make many. 

3. j^Jlcj». choghaltmaq to make abound. 

4. »iUjjLİİjj \ ^yxlishdirmHc to make grow gradually better. 

§ 282. VI. There are some exceptions to the above- 
mentioned rules; as: 

jjij yan side: J*-^^^ yanashmaq to approach. 

(Sjia sari yellow: J^jb^ sararmaq to grow yellow. 

J*L;j\ ouzamaq to elongate, ^ylaj^ sousamaq to thirst. 

J*VjL parZawag to shine. j,â..->»\ ajiqmaq to be hungry. 

t\ Jul Exercise 39. 

Form verbs from the following words. 

I., II., V. 1. jl at; game. 2. p. ^ ^Jieohiirsiseal. S.a.^U- 

hazir ready. 4. Cj^ qat fold, p. ©jl, ' a>.jIj i>are, ^ara, 

imrcha piece. 5. ^-^^L ^o^) ball, ^ gi^/i winter, 3^ yo.^ 

summer, 'jp gûz autumn. 6. JliL task stone, i-l) j/a^rA 

oil, i-l fta^A bind, tie. 7. j^ ^ow^ salt, OctS^î J^* poul 

postage stamp. III. ^?CL,l ' jjy qourou dry, ^j) iosA empty, 

j5C &^w^ countenance, ^J^^ ekshi sour, p:S' genj young. 

IV. i^\i pay portion, Jl>-jî qoujaq bosom, J I '- k} guj 

hard, ^y) ^^^ ^^g- VI. iJy-/^* Ji3^ red * JJtji. 

The Potential Verb. 
§ 283. To be able to do an action is expressed 

by the verb vdiJL hilmeh 'to know, to be able' put after 


132 fA u-J^ Lesson 18. %rr 

the root of any verb, with o he joined to it. This is 

called in Turkish the Potential verb. It somewhat 
resembles the Potential mood of the English verb. But 
this is a class of verbs in the Turkish language, which 
has all the moods, tenses and modifications which the 
regular verbs have; as: 

^jli yazmaq * »3^ • ^^^ULjO^ yazabilmek to be able to write, i. e. 

to know how to write. 
^^^ sevmek * o^ : vULJLj oj^ sevebilmek to be able to love, i. e. 

to know how to love. 
«luJL bilmek * 4JL1 : dJLjLj<L bilebilmek to be able to know, i.e. 

to know how to know. 

§ 284. If the root of the verb end in a vowel, 
a ye is inserted between the stem and he (§ 53); as: 

*ii.-Jb^^ sebyUmek V ^L^^ ! "-^^^^^--4 s^yUyebUmek to be able 

~ " " ' to speak. 

§ 285. The negative which expresses inability 

or impossibility, is made by adding j^iU -mamaq or 

d\j: ' dU^^ -memeJc to the stem of the verb instead of 
bilmeJc; as: 

,j«U«j^ yaza'mamaq not to be able to write (not *İU^lJLj«jL). 
^*u^yj\ oqpuya' mamaq not to be able to read. 

*lJo.^»jLİ^^or ^tX^^oj^ gidemdmek not to be able to go. 

Accelerative Verbs. 

§ 286. By adding the verb dUjr.j vermek to the 

root of any verb, another verb is formed which expresses 
doing the same action, but in a very off-hand way. 

This verb is called by native grammarians J-:^ J-i 
Fee-U Tajil Accelerative verb or Verb of Facility, 

§ 287. If the root of the original verb end in a 

consonant it takes a vowel ^ ye after it; and if it end 

in a vowel the syllable ^ -yi must be added to it 
(§ 53); as: 

irr Compound Verbs. 133 

J*3li : Vjlj Î »^^j tijli yazi vhtnek to write quickly. 
j-yj\ : Vj5ji : »^^iJ ^.yS^ oqouyou vermek to read quickly. 

i ♦ ^JU) Exercise 40* 

Change the following verbs into the aflSrmative and 
negative forms of the Potential and Accelerative verbs. 

siUj^ dSkmek t 3. dUj3 d^ymeh * dU>JLİ^î 4. divL-/^' 
die Jjjl eortunmeh Î 5. siUjbjS ' dLlt ^ ' dUjjl iatj î 
6. dU I -l^-j: î 7. j^llT ' j^jl^^OA ^ J.M11 Î 8. dUjod^ ' 
j^U^lll Î 9. ^^lll ' jc^Lll . 

aI|^ Conyersation. 

j4\lo(^^a;^ T .jj3öJCı; dU^jdjl jj j»U j^tT . jrs 

1. my^f, m^ram intention. 2. tehlike, danger. 

,j>l 5 ^.^JUi Readhig Exercise. 
^Vj The Provinces. 

134 I A ur-j^ Lesson 18. ir^ 

3;,J*!I »JIjj^w»^ C-?/^-^' u''"^, j^^jl^ ^^j— (jj».Ia^ 4ltl 

• JuL- ^4 J*' j^ • ö^3j^ J^ • ^j-^,J^ • o X^ Aula? li^l 

jC5C!4,j^ • 0^ (/S^^^ • J^ -?^^ (İJ3C* ^-^>. 

Mvmaliki Mahronseyi Shahanmin Avropa qit'asinda^ 
hoidoiinan vilayetleri shounlar dir: Edirne^, Selanik^, 


Qosova, Yanya, Ishqodra, Monasiîr. 

Asiya qit' asında houlounan vilayetler: Hijaz^ Yemen, 
Basra^ Baghdad^ Moiisoul, Haleb^, Suriya^, Beyrouth 
KImdavemligiar, Qonya^\ Anqare (Engûrû)'^, Aydtn, 
Adana^, Qastamouni, Sivas, Diyarhekir^ Bitlis, Erzroum, 
Mamourettd-Asiz, Van, Trahzoiin, 

Afriqa qtfasmda : Tarablous^ ; Aq-Deniede: iJeeayiri 
sbah'i 2sefid^^. 

Bounlarin mcrJcederi^^ shounlar dir: HijazîfİkiJidCde; 
Sûriyanmki SJiarn^^, Khûdavhidikiarînki Brousa, Aydi- 
nifikl Izmir^^, Mamonretnl-Azizinki Kharpout, ve digSr- 
lennki hemnamlan^^ olan^^ shehirler dîr. 

Words, 1. part, segment. 2. Adrianople. 3. Thessalonica. 
4. Aleppo. 5. Syria. 6. Iconium. 7. Galatia. 8. Oilicia. 9. Tripoli. 
10. (the islands of the White Sea) Archipelago, Rhodes. 11. centre, 
central city of the province. 12. Damascus. 13. Smyrna. 14. having 
the same name, homonymous. 15. which are. 


irt The Derivative forms of the Infinitive. 135 

^^ u^i> Lesson 19. 

The Derivative forms of the Infinitive. 

§ 288. There are three formations of verbal 
Substantives derived from the Infinitive: By append- 

İDg to the Infinitive the syllables j) * sill -liq, -lik, 
and by aflBxing to the root of the verb the terminations 

aa -ma, -me; 1) ' Jl -ish, -ish, the three derivative 
forms of the Infinitive are obtained; as: 

'^j^ sSvmek to love: 1. »iUSC^- «^mefcWA: Loving, the action of 

^jii yazmaq to write: 1. ,3İİ«J^ yazmaqliq Writing, the action 
' of writing. 

2. y j^ sev: ^j- sSome Loving, the action of loving. 

3. \j^ siv: fj'ij^ sioish Loving, the mood of loving. 

§ 289. Turkish Infinitives and verbals are fi'e- 
quently used substantively, and when so used they 
can be declined like substantives, with or without the 
pronominal aflBxes. 

Declension of the Infinitive. 

N. ^*^ sevmek' loving A. S^j^ siom4yi 

G. wanting L. f^jjC^jL s^vmekdS in .-^ 

D. A^j^ shmhje i ^^^^^^^^^' A. o^y^ sivmekdin from) ^ 

Declension of the first Derivative form. 

N. ^i^\^MJ^ secmiklik loving 

G. vU^l^^j*- s4vmekliyin of loving 

D. i^l^Mj^ sivmekliy^ to loving 

A. ^SiCkj^ sSvmekliyi loving 

L. oJ^S^j^ s^vmeklikdS in laying 

A. o-^-^^j-^ sivmeklikdSn from loving. 




t^ ltJ-^ Lesson 19. 


Declension of the second and third 
Derivative forms. 


A^M^ sh'me' 

jjti J- s^oifh 

od of 



i^d^t^ seçmenin of 

*lAij^^ si'Vİshiü of 


tjA^y^ sevmiye' to 

4İj J- sivisM to 

^ o tc 
2 c c 


^jj»j^ secmâyı 

j_^±ji^^ secishi 

^ © o 


o^^»j^ secmMe' in 

o-Lİi^^ shishdi in 

o Ö 


(j^^*.- fievmeden from 

(jjiii «- sioishdM from 


^o^e. The Plurals are not in common use. 

§ 290. The first, second and third forms of these 
Verbal Derivative nouns are often used with the prono- 
minal affixes; as: 

1. j^j\i yazmaqUghhn my | ^ j^Jüujl yazmaqVighimiz our . 
»iAiJiItjli yazmaqjtghht thy >H J>iU01i yazmaql^ghXntz' your>.^ 

I ^ ^^ot used ) ^ 

JÜLİ.jL yazmaqliglu his 

2. ^-^-j^ yazmam my ^ 
iiv3^ yazman thy . S 

j^-^0^ ya^^masi his I '^ 

3. f*-İi3^ yazishim my \ ^^ 
»llij jli yaztsMn thy > iS 


ii jb yazisM hie 

lot used 

j-.i^3^ yazmamtz our 
jS^jL yazmaüîz yonr 
(ij^jlj yazmaları their 

j*-ij jl yazishîmîz car 
jxijjlj yazlshîüîz year 1 3 
(iJLijjl yazîshlarî their J ^ 


§ 291. Turkish Infinitives govern nouns and 
pronouns, which are always put before them; the object 
is to be put in the nominatival form, if indefinite; and 
in the accusative if definite. This is the case also for 
Verbal nouns and Participles (§§ 83, Note, 251); as: 

^\ i}X:S^lcüaM achmaq to open the book. 

jjliUjiji s^\:S^Jcitah oqoumaqliq reading a book. 

4.*j^l j^ sou ichmS drinking some water. 

§ 292. The logical subject of the Infinitive is to 
be put in the Genitive case: or to use another expression. 

^fV The Derivative forms of the Infinitive. 137 

the infinitive or verbal noun, if considered as a sub- 
stantive, requires a noun or pronoun before it in the 
genitive. In the case of Pronouns this is not always 
necessary, as the affixed pronoun represents the logical 
subject; as: 

pa^^ Xt ' ^^^^ h^nim gclmSm^ gilmSm my coming. 
dJlxI^IS^ *1JL- senin gelmikliyin your coming. 
(^iJ6^ Jlljt jûii efendimizin gelishi the coming of our Lord. 

§ 293. If the Infinitive is to be used as the object, 
it may be put in three different cases: With neuter 
verbs following it is always in the dative; with active 
verbs, if the object is definite, in the accusative; if 
indefinite, it assumes a nonninatival form (§ 83, Note); as: 

^y^\i ^i*j5ji oqoumagha hashlamaq to begin to read. 

J-JLj ^jL yazma bilmez' he does not know how to write. 
^r^ L>*^-^^ jt/orwagM^^i hilm^z he does not know the writing. 

§ 294. The first Derivative formed from the Infi- 
nitives denotes the act, the action. The negative of 
this form is composed in two ways: 

jliiUjlj yaz'mamaqUq and ^J-t«jli yaz'mamazUq 
Mektoubon yazmamazliq itmi Don't fail to write the letter. 

§ 295. But the negative, dative and ablative forms 
when used with some verbs mean to behave as if: 

Gebr'mimizlikden geldi, gebrmimezliyS vourdou He pretended 
not to see. 

Tan\mamazl\q etmek To behave as if not acquainted. 

§ 296. The second Derivative of the Infinitive is 

AAy^ ' AAj\i sevme\ yazma the mode of writing, the 

manner of loving; loving, writing. Always accent the 
last syllable. 

§ 297. The pronunciation and the spelling of this 
second form is just the same as that of the second person 
Imperative negative singular; but the accent is decisive. 
The second Derivative has the accent on the last syllable, 
while in the Imperative the penultimate (the syllable 
before the negative suffix) is accented: 

138 ^^ i^j^ Lesson 19. irA 

jL>.jlj yazma writing, to write: yaz' ma don't write (thou). 
K»y^ sivmi' loving, to love: sivmi don't love (thou). 

§ 298. The English Impersooal verbs and those 
verbs whose objects are not mentioned, but understood, 
are rendered in Turkish as follows. The subject of the 
Impersonal verb and the object must he mentioned] as: 

yazX yazmaq to write. yaghmour yaghmaq to rain. 

gebk gurUmek to thunder. qar » to snow. 

dikish dikmek to sew. dolou » to hail. 

hUiin ichmek to smoke. shimshek cliaqmaq to lighten. 

y^mek yhnek to eat (food). ish ishUmek to work. 

The Infinitive used as a Substantive. 

§ 299. It has been several times mentioned that 
the Infinitive is regarded as a noun, and that, like a 
noun, it is liable to every kind of change which the 
noun undergoes (§ 289). The student will understand 
these peculiarities from the study of the following 

•j3^\ J^j^ ' û^i^ J^j\l yazmaq ichin, yazmaq ûzrS for the 

purpose of writing. 
j-^O-i ' J:J-*^J^ yazmaqsizin, yazmaqstz without or be- 
^ ' ^ " fore writing. 

<İÂl\ ' <ll»jlj yazmaq lay almaqla by writing, by taking. 

3x (}:' ^i^-^k yazmaya niySti yoq he has no intention 

to write. 
f'Xnol* (j-)ul.jli yazmaqdan maqsidim my intention in 
^ " writing. 

K^i\ (jJJujl yazmaqdan ise 

' ^ \ instead of writing. 
x^\ o^^jL yazmadan ise 

»jJ^j^ (i^-> diishm^ni sSvmikde' in loving the enemy. 

û^<0^ ' û^^*-^ geVm^dSny yaz madan without, before com- 
' ^ , ing, writting. 

4*-:-^ o-^"*"^© »Ji ^^z^ gÜ' midin git' mi do not go before you 

come to see us. 
Ö^-w:j\ U-^ douva ilmiden before prayer [praying]. 

^;^\ •Jul.jL yazmaqda ikin while I was writing, 

*^^jjj\ (^*-«-8^ gilme'si' lizirini on his coming. 

^yM<^z^ *L^aJ^ gelmisiy'li gitmişi his coming and going. 

j^iA J- sebyliyishi his manner of speech. 

tr^ The Derivative forms of the Infinitive. 1S9 

§ 300. The Continuatlve tenses are formed from 
the Infinitive as in the following examples: 

yazmaqdayim, -'sin. -'rftr, -y*-?, -'«înî<r, -'dirlar. 

I am writing . . . 

i5Ju\ «Jlİ^L jj^Ij yaghmour yaghmaqda idi it was raining. 

^jitl oAX^ ^ y^mek yemekdi' imish (I heard that) he was 
" ^ " " eating. 

<--j1 »Ax-iiro J-^i^ dikish dikmekde i.s^ if he is sewing. 

»jli-\j^ jii qaryagmaqda it snows. 

§ 301. Some of the derivatives of the second and 
third forms are used as common nouns (§ 443) ; as : 

aajj»-j\ ouchourma a kite. u-^K^^ yaûlîsh a mistake. 

\ -isitma malaria. u-^^ doghoush hirth. 

X basma print, calico. 4j:lj yapma made up. 

aI^j b^Ime partition. ^^JJ-^J^ dondourma ice-cream. 

:i. J (illumination. • - . , 

Aiilij^ donanma { /, . <*ji3 qazma a pickaxe. 

4İ^^ shekirlemi sugar-plums. <-.j'j yarma crushed wheat. 

i i tT aZis/i r^r/s/i business ; . • : * » ♦ j ««. 

-I-;;-» urJ ' transaction, trade. ''^'-^ î'-''""""" '"<»'"'*«*> ■"«**• 

^jj^lî qavourma fried meat. 4,^1 asma (hanging) a vine. 

J:^ Words. 

V'J^JJJ TÛzgîar wind. *li^-\ ««wieA: to blow. 

a. wJ& kiatib clerk. ^^^ gûjbela hardly. 

. ^> ,*J^ yHishmek to reach. at. J^n». khayrVi better. 

a. jil5 gaciir able. a. ^IxJ f^A7i/ proposition. 

iU4^ beklemek to wait. ^3?cJl awjaq only. 

aIU.<i-^ posta-hani post office. a. :i\^ mûrad intention. 

a. V ^ sebeb reason. a. A-.^'eJ tahsil learning. 

Proper Names: i>aIİ Shahin. û^\ ihsan Grant. 

140 t^ ^j^ Lesson 19. y*t^^ 

t \ gs\t^ Exercise 41. 

CîjSfcj ^ ♦ J^j'ö^^ v-JrU^jw iS'j^ y^ «*.Al-,w ^a.»«JS ^^^^ y, fi 

iV 4U-J Translation 42. 

1. Giving is better than taking. 2. Every ascent 
has its descent and every going has its coming. 3. I have 
BO intention of [to] writing a letter to the fether; have 
you? 4. To mount a donkey is a shame, to dismount 
another (two). 5. Nobility is [gained] by giving, bravery 
by killing. 6. The wind is blowing very hard. 7. Which 
is better, smoking tobacco or drinking coflfee? — Neither 
of them is [not] useful for health. 8. Are those sugar- 
plums nice? — Yes, Sir! 9. This ice-cream is made of 
milk, ice and lemon. 10. This cup is made (yapma) 
in Germany. 11. Seal the letters and send them to 
the post-ofBce; don't forget to seal them, seal and tie. 
12. Why are these children crying? — I don't know 
the reason. 13. Don't go to see the teacher without 


t*uf The Finite Verb. 141 

takİDg me. 14. To begin to read his lesson. 15. The 
days began to grow shorter. 

aII^v^ Conversation. 


^ • u^^ Lesson 20. 

The Finite Verb, 

§ 302. Turkish verbs, like nouns, have two numbers : 
the singular and the plural. They have three persons, 
which do not vary for gender as they do in Arabic. 

§ 303. The Moods of the Verb. In Turkish the 
verbs have six moods ^: the Infinitive ^ the Imperative, 
the Indicative, the Assertive, the Narrative and the Con- 
ditional. The Infinitive, the Imperative and the Indica- 
tive are common to almost all languages; but the Asser- 
tive, Narrative and Conditional are pecuUar to the Turkish. 

1 c^jya aouTÜ. — ^js^yo* masdav, aj^\ emriye, <iJ^\ ihhhariyi^ 
<j1^ hikiayS^ ^iljj rivayH, <^^ shartiye. 

142 r» urj^ Lesson 20. |<tf 

§304. The Conjugation of Verbs. All the Turkish 
verbs are conjugated in the same way, these being no 
irregular Verbs, except the Substantive defective verb 
'to be'; but there are certain modifications required by 
the law of euphony which hold good in the inflections 
of the verbs as in those of other parts of speech. We 
employ as examples in each mood and tense the verbs 

dLy^ and -«jlj» verbs which are generally used as 
models for the conjugation of all verbs, soft or hard. 

§ 305. The Indicative mood has eight tenses and 
the three other moods seven each : they are as follows. 

1. Present JU ^ 4. Dubitative Jil *;^L. 7. Necessitative J j»-j 

2. Aorist ^jXCoA 5. Future JJa:,..^^ 8. Suppositive *^^ 

3. Past KS^y^ '(^'"^ 6. Optative ^^IJ^H 

§ 306. Of the six moods of the verb, the In- 
finitive has been fully described in the previous chapters. 

§ 307. The Indicative mood is the simple 
conjugated form of the verb and is the basis of the 
other three compound moods. It has eight tenses. 

§ 308. The Compound moods, the Assertive, 
Narrative and Conditional are formed by the aid of the 
three tenses of the substantive verb, which latter is called 
in Turkish the Auxiliary verb^. 

§ 309. The Substantive verb in general 
corresponds to the English verb 'to be', but it is 
defective. It has been mentioned several times in 
the previous chapters*; but it is useful to bring it in 
again here (§§ 65, 72, 73, 238). 

1; Muzari^ Maziyi shoulwudi; Maziyi naqli; Mustaqbil; 
Iltizami, Viljouhi; FarziyS. — ^ The Imperative, Optative and Ne- 
cessitative are really moods according to the Enropean Gram- 
marians. But they are not considered as moods according to 
the Turkish idea ; they are variations of the Future tense. The 
Turkish language acknowledges only four moods as has been 

mentioned. — » -üUl JJ Fiyli-Iani. — * vide §§ 65, 73, 288. 


The Finite Verb. 



c < 


Present Past 

Jji 'dirler JjJü 

Duhitative Conditional 

- - ■ — p.- 







= 4*- 



§ 310. The Assertive mood, is used when the 
fact mentioned is asserted by the knowledge of the 
speaker; or it is stated on the authority of the speaker; 
he knows it of his own experience or knowledge, with- 
out depending upon hearing it from others; as: 

A Jul jyj\ lt\^ •xJ>J^y>'^ Icûchûklûyûmde dayima oqour idim 
In my childhood I was always reading. 

§ 311. This mood is obtained by adding to the 
third person singular of the tenses of the Indicative 
mood the past tense of the substantive verb. It has 
all the tenses of Indicative. 

§ 312. The Narrative Mood is employed when 
a fact is stated, but not on the authority of the speaker. 
It is a hearsay or report founded on the statement 
of others (§ 238); as: 

pi^i\ jLjjI J^ «ju^JSj»-^^ kûchûkîûyûmdS choq oynar 
imishim. (It is said that) I was playing much in my childhood. 

J>...M.>j\ JlijL i^y^ ûJ^ Dûn mektoubou yazmalı imishsiüiz 
You ought to have written the letter yesterday (it is said). 

§ 313. This mood is obtained by adding to the 
third person singular of the tenses of the Indicative 
mood the Dubitative or Perfect tense of the Substantive 
verb. It has all the tenses of Indicative save the Past. 

§ 314. The Conditional Mood. This states the 
condition on which another action takes place, has 
taken place, or will take place. It coiTesponds to what 
is called in European languages the Subjunctive; as: 

rJ^j\ oS"*-^ * A-JS^ gSh^, meninoun olouroum If he comes 
I shall be glad. 

144 T* ^j^ Lesson 20. fut 

r-^i^^w^-? ^^^i ^ iSM<'-jj^j\ ^•j\ param oloursayîdi sana 
bir lira vMridim Jf I had money I would give you a pound. 

§ 315. This mood is formed by adding to the 
third person singular of the tenses of the Indicative, 
the Conditional tense of the substantive verb. 

It has all the tenses of the Indicative, except the 

§ 316. The Imperative Mood, o^l Cjj^^ 

Per. 1. wanting 

2. y^ sev love thou 

3. oy^j'^ ' Cjt'J'^ sivsin' let him love 

1. 1«^- sivilim let us love 

2. ,<^ '^.^£f} love you 

3. J^y-'j'^ ^ J-^j^ sivsinler let them love! 
Per. 1. wanting 

2. jlj yaz' write 

3. Cjj^J\, ^ CkT^^I yazsifi' let him write 

1. lO^i yazalım let us write 

2. j<:;L 'İİÖL 2'*!'i*^Jwriteyou 
^ -•> - X . yazm ) ^ 

3. JL'^^jL ' JL**-Jlj yazsınlar let them write! 

§ 317. The Negative. ^\ ^ 

Per. 1. wanting 

2. ^^^ siv'me don't love 

3. ^j^aaj^ ^ ,y^AAj^ siv misin let him not love 
1. I<i^^^ sio'meyilim let us not love 

{vlij^t- sivmii/ifl 1 

^ -^ don't love 

J^^- siv miy iniz ) 

3. ^j-^^^'^L-M.^^^ sio'misinlir let them not love! 

§ 317 a. The first person Singular is wanting. The 
root of the verb is the second person Imperative 
Singular, the plural of wliich is formed in two ways: 
sevin, yasîn is very common in speech; sevifiiz, yajsîfiîz 
is used in literature and among literary people. 

1«i.» The Finite Verb. 145 

JC;J Words. 

f. -Jjc- gazita newspaper at. \ ^^\jj zivaVli! poor! 
a. ! c-j) ^^ kMm it! please! \ »jJ^ haydi Î Now then! 

! İİaJüU haydin! (used as pi.) Let us go! Come along! 

it xJ^ Exereise 48. 

11 A?"^ Translation 44. 

1. Where are you goiog? — I ara going to the 
doctor. — Why are you going to the doctor? — I have 
malaria. I am going to show myself to the doctor. 
2. What is the price of this calico? — It is four piastres 
a yard. 3. It is raining: let us go home and read the 
day's newspapers. 4. The flesh of those cattle is not 
good for the health: let nobody eat it. 5. What are 
the children doing? — They are reading their books. 
6. Please call the maid -servant. 7. Bring me a little 
fried meat and a piece of roast meat. 8. There is a 
knife on the table. 

Aİ|5^ Conyersation. 

Turkish Conv.-Grammar, 10 

148 rf i^j^ Lesson 21. I<lA 

J*yjl * Vyji : jjjyji oqouyor. j-jL * VjLi : j^^ji^ yazîyor. 

§ 320. A^o^e. This tense is often called by English 
Grammarians the Present Progressive or Second 
Present Tense. It indicates that the action is going 
on at the present moment, while one is speaking; 
whereas the Aorist of the Indicative indicates that the 
action is going on but is not over, and is habitual. 
Hence the Aorist of the Indicative has often been 
regarded as the Present Tense of that mood ; but it is not 
really so, as it expresses the action in an indefinite way, 
referring both to the present and the future (§ 328). Thus 
ya^tyoroum means 'I write at the present moment, I am 
writing', just like the Continuative Present (§ 300) 
yasmaqdayhn; whereas yakarım means T write in general 
as a habit', or it conveys a promise, and then corresponds 
to 'I will write'. 

§ 321. 1. Indicative Present. 4,jU.» Jl>. 

^jj^j^ sMf/oroum, I am loving, 

(>-jj-j^^ shiyorsoun, thou art loving, 

jj^iJ^ seoiyor, he is loving, 

jjj^^j^ siviyorouz, we are loving, 

J^^jj^y^ sMyorsounouz, you are loving, 

J^jTij^ siviyorlar. They are loving. 

Potential Present. (^jIjcS! Jl>. 

aj^^JLj»^- sMbiU'yoroum, jjjA^»j^ sMhüi'yorouey 

0\^jjA^»j^ sMhili'yorsoun, jx-j^^L*^^ sSvİbili'yorsouHouit 
jjJui»^ sivihili'yor, JjjA^oj^ sSvihiltyorlar. 

I am able to love etc. (lit. I know how to love). 

The Negative Present, lu Jl>. 

^JyJ^y-' sivmiyoroum I am not loving, etc. 
T'>yj^*y^ sM'mdyoroum I am not able to love, etc. 

•lV The Present Tense. 147 

anUar dedrt mezhebP ayrUmishlar dîr^: Hanefi^, Hanbcdi^^, 

Shafiyi^^ ve Maliki^^. islamların hedyuk qismt^^ Hanefi 

mezhebinden dır: Türkler ve Kûrdlerden hazîlarî Hanefi 

iirUr. Ajender^^j Qteil-hashlar^^ ve Kûrdlerden bazîlarî 

Shafiyi dirler. Ardblardan bazı qabileler^^ Hanbali ve 

hazüar Maliki dirler. Her kebyde ve shehirlerde jamiler^^ 

ve imamlar ^^ var dır. 

Memaliki Mahrousede boulounan Khristiyanlar dakhi 

bashlîja dedrt beoyıık mezheblere ayrîlmîshlar dîr: Protestan^ 

Qafolik, Ermeni ve Roum. Her Khristiyan kelerde ve 

ahirlerde kiliseler ve papas ^^ ve vay izler ^^ var dîr, 

Yehoudüer pek az dîr. Anjaq Istanbolda ve Memaliki 

'hahanenin bazî shehirlerinde boulounourlar. 

7. denomination, sect; religious opinion; one of the four 
»rthodox schools of opinions in Islam. 8. are divided. 9. the 
ian^fi sect or school of Sunni Moslems, founded by Imam Ebou 
ianif^. 10. The Hanbali sect, founded by Imam Ahm6d ibni (son 
►f) Hanbal. 11. The Shafiyi school or sect, founded by the great 
awyer Muhammad son of Idris, called Imam Shafiyi. 12. The 
jchool founded by Imam Malik. 13. part. 14. Persians. 15. Red- 
leads: the non-Sunnite Turks (said in contempt as though wor- 
îhipping the round red stone in K6rb61a, on which were beheaded 
Hassan and Hüseyin, the two sons of Caliph Ali; they are also 
called Alevee : i. e. followers of Ali, while the Han^fees are called 
^unnites). 16. tribes. 17. mosques. 18. a leader in public wor- 
îhip of Islam. 19. priest. 20. preacher. 

^ ^ u^^ Lesson 21. 

JU o^j The Present Tense, 

§ 318. In the formation of the tenses, the third 
person singular is first made by the addition of some 
suffix to the root of the verb. The other persons are 
nade by the addition of the present tense of the Sub- 
stantive verb. Every tense has its characteristic suffixes. 

§ 319. The characteristic sign of the Present is 

he syllable jy -yor or jy^ -iyor, which, added to 

he root of the verb, makes the third person singular 
>f this tense (§ 54). The other persons are obtained 
)y simply adding the present tense of the Substantive 
^erb to the stem thus formed (§§ 309, 522). 


148 rf urj3 Lesson 21. |«uA 

J*yji * Vyjl : Jy^yj\ oqouyor. j-jL ' VjIj : jj^Jj\ yazîyor, 

§ 320. Note. This tense is often called by English 
Grammarians the Present Progressive or Second 
Present Tense. It indicates that the action is going 
on at the present moments while one is speaking; 
whereas the Aorist of the Indicative indicates that the 
action is going on but is not over, and is habitual. 
Hence the Aorist of the Indicative has often been 
regarded as the Present Tense of that mood ; but it is not 
really so, as it expresses the action in an indefinite way, 
referring both to the present and the future (§ 328). Thus 
ya^tyoroum means 'I write at the present moment, I am 
writing', just like the Continuative Present (§ 300) 
yasmaqdaytm; whereas «/a^anm means T write in general 
as a habit', or it conveys a promise, and then corresponds 
to T will write'. 

§ 321. 1. Indicative Present. ojU.» Jl>. 

•• • 

^jy^j^ sMyoromtiy I am loving, 

(>*-j^^^^ sMyorsoufif thou art loving, 

jjyij^ seviyor, he is loving, 

jjj^^j^ siviyorouz, we are loving, 

J^^jj^y^ sMy€>rsounouz, you are loving, 

Jjj^^j^ shiyorlar. They are loving. 

Potential Present. JjIjcSI Jl>. 

0j^^A^»j^ sMbiliyoroum, jjjA^ij^ sMhüi'yoroue, 

Cj\^jj^»y^ sMbiliyorsourij j^jj^^oj^ sivihili yorsoufiouz, 
jjA^»j^ sivihiliyor, Jjj^:^oj^ sivihiliyorlar, 

I am able to love etc. (lit. I know how to love). 

The Negative Present, u^ Jl>. 

rJji^j^ sivm^yoroum I am not loving, etc. 
Ajjji<«»^^ aevi'meyoroum I am not able to love, etc. 

t'L^ The Present Tense. 149 

Interrogative Present. ^\iCL.^ Jl» 

f*'>Jrt.y^ ' ^.''^->^,J^ sevi'yormouyoum? — moiMOun? Am 
'""""""" 1 loving? 

^Jji^j^ s^v miyormouyoum? Am I not loving? 

xfjji^»j^ sivfmeyormouyoum? Am I not able to love? 

§ 322. 

2. Assertiye Present (Imperfect). 4)15CS. JU 

The Assertive Present, which corresponds to the 
Imperfect tense of the English, indicates that an action 
had begun, but was not finished at the time spoken 
of; as: 

^jj\ j^j^ sivi'yor idim, iJjüi jj^j^ seviyor idik, 
Ûjj\ jj^^^ sivi'yor idin, J^-^^ ->J7iJ^ sivi'yor idiniz^ 
(İJüi jj^^j-^ sivi'yor idi, ^J^* -^J^.J^ sivi'yor idiler. 

I was loving, thou wast loving, etc. 
^JjI jjij^j-^ sivmiyor idim, or — oudoum ... I was not loving. 

§ 323. 3. Narrative Present. w>ljj J I» 

f»-it\ jj^y^ sici'yor imishim, J}^1 -^jrtJ^ sivi'yor imishiz, 
O^ — tt\ jj^j^ sivi'yor imish'sin, J>>..1&\ jj^^j^ sivi'yorimishsifiiZy 

^\\ jj^^j^ sivi'yor imish, J^h\ Jj^.j^ sHi'yor imishler. 

It is said that I was loving (I may have been loving). 

§ 324. 
4. Conditional (Subjunctive) Present. J^y^ Jl» 

^<-j^^j- SİVİ' yor sam y iJ<-jj^j- sivi' yorsak, 

ÛA^j^y^ sivi'yorsaü, jf<^jj^j^ sioi'yorsafliz, 

^^->Jri^ SİVİ' yorsa, J^^'>j7i^ sivi' yarsalar. 

If I am loving, etc. 

§ 325. Further: 

ojt-.<-jj^jİj yazi'yorsamda I am writing, but — 
djLA<-j\ jjAajI yaz' mayor isimdi I am not writing, but — . 

150 r$ urji Lesson 21. !•♦ 

JCİİ Words. 

p. \C/.^\ afirin! well done! p. jA;^ * J^^^ charsM market 

OiJ^ qjotrin abdomen, stomach r-1 jJjlS garmm aj I am hungry 

J^ toçi satisfied J^j^ sousouz thirsty 

at'. Jj Ji. shid'detU violent a. -Jk* ajelS hasty, pressing 

a. J5 gaZ^w a (government) at.j-^Uâî nizamsîz irregular 

office [(money) ^ * i.^ • r v n 

J-3^ &o-?mag to change »• <r— ^ shimsiyi umbrella. 

to gg\t^ Exercise 45« 

i 9 1 The Present Tense. 151 

i \ A^t-j Translation 46. 

1. I am eatİDg bread and drinking water; what 
art thou doing? — I am preparing myself to go to 
leonium. 2. Thou art reading thy lesson: but thy 
classmates are not studying (working); they are lazy. 
3. No, Sir, why do you say so? How hard they are working! 
But it is very difficult, they cannot do better. 4. Are 
they coming to our house to-morrow? — If they are 
coming tell them to bring my umbrella. 5. He was 
thirsty; you are hungry. — No, Sir, I am satisfied. 
6. I wish to go to Smyrna, do you wish to see that 
city? 7. Can you change a mejidiye for me? — I cannot 
change it; but if you can give me ten paras, I can 
give you four quarters. 8. The bread is very cheap now; 
they are giving an oke of it for 23 paras. 

<l|^ Conversation. 

• JJ^JV JU- St} ^^»JyJ^ ^'>y/^ «-^^ oJ^jV ^-^^ y. 
<iJu-i * o^<-*j Jul jij jJ ^. 4JİJJİ ? ^j Jj:^^ {S^^^\ ^^ uf^i*»^ 

J>l i j-^JLJ Beading Exercise. 
cCjoJili uVjl o>. fJjUl;^ The Use of Animals. 

152 YY ^j^j^ Lesson 22. f*f 

v>i (>^ A'^. 4-^^' ->'*^ • -^->-^.^. (ii-A^' ^j^y (^^^->^' ' 3B 

Hayvanlarîh bize olan hazî faydiliri. 

Hatjvanlarîn hüe pek choq faydesi^ var dir, 
ilk yerde hayvanların bir choghou bimn yeyejeMerimijsi^ 
tedarik^ ediyorlar. Sîghîr^, dana^, qoyaun, kechi, qouzou 
ve ovlaq^ gibi hayvanların; ve tavouq, qaz'^, Sdrdek^ gibi 
qoushlarin etlerini yeyorouz, av elleriyle baiiqlar ddkhi ha'zt 
leziz^ taamlar^^ yapmagha qouVlanUiyor. 

Inek^ kechi, qoyoun ve jamous^^ gibi hayvariarîfi 
südûnden sûdlû qaKve, sûdlû chay, sûdlaj^^, yoghourt^^ 
ve bounlar gibi bazî leziz ta'amlar yapîlîyor. Bounlardan 
bashqa bounlarhl sûduyle tere yaghî^^ ve pepıir yapUmaqda 
dır, Dishi^^ eshek südûnû de hekimler hastalar ichin pek 
choq qoullaniyorlar. 

Words. 1. use, benefit. 2. food. 3. to prepare, procnre. 
4. cattle. 5. calf. 6. kid (§ 36). 7. geese. 8. duck. 9. delicious. 
10. foods, qouVlanmaq to use. 11. buffalo. 12. rice-milk. 13. thick 
curds of milk, madzoun. 14. butter. 15. female. 

YY u^^ Lesson 22. 

9-j[^ The AoRisT. 

§ 326. The characteristic sign of the Aorist of the 

Indicative is the letter j re added to the root of ih© 
verb, which forms the third person singular. The other 

»or The Aorist. 15S 

persons are formed by simply adding the abbreviated 
present of the Substantive Verb (§§ 522, 399). 

§ 327. The vowel sound between the re and the 
root of the verb varies, being either -ar, -ev] -ir, -îr; 
-our, 'ûr, and can only be learnt by practice or from 
a good dictionary. Ex.: 

dltAj'vUU yimek to eat: ^ ySr he eats 

vlk^ dimek to say: j>^ dSr he says 

viJitjl eotmek to sing (the bird): Jj\ eotir he sings 

^J^\ baqmaq to look: jldL baqar he looks 

»ilJS^ gelmek to come: ^^^ gMir he comes 

^jli almaq to take: ^1 aZer he takes 

^\»JJ^J^ otourmaq to sit: JJJj^j\ otourour he sits 

dUjl eolmek to die: J^jl ^Zwr he dies. 

§ 328. 1. Indicative Aorist. a^jUI ç^Ua^ 

Ajo^ sM'rhn, I love (habitually) I shall love 

(jK^jyM sdver'sin, thou lovest » thou wilt love 

jj^ sdvSr', he loves » he will love 

jjo^ sSveriz^ we love » we shall love 

jx-j^^ sher siniz ^ you love » you I 

^ , r ^ , / will love. 

Jj^ seçerler , they love » they ) 

The Potential Aorist. ^^jloSI ^-jl^^ 

^,^oj- sevebilirim, ^^^'j^ sMbi'liriz, 

t>-^nLio^^ sevebilir' sitij jx-^^o^- sMbilir'sifliZy 

^nLftj- sMbilir, J^^^j^ sSvebilirler , 

I am able to love, I can love ... I know how to love. 

The Negative Aorist. u« ^ jUt^ 

0}-^j— sicm^z'siriy J^j»y^ sivmiz' sif^iZy 

y^M sevmez f Jj'^J'^ sivmizUr. 

I do not love or I shall not love . . . 

154 rr ur-ji Lesson 22. f»^ 

pAOj- sM'm^m, J>aa»j^ 8İve miyiz ^ 

Cf\^jAOj^ sM'mizsin^ j^j-.©^^ sivi'mizsifiiz^ 

J*»j^ sive'miz, Jj»ej^ sM'mizlh'. 

I am not able to love, I cannot love . . . 

Interrogative Aorlst. ^v^t**^* fJ^ 

? ^jmj^ sSvmiz' miyim? ^-'^•J*J- sivmiz miyiz? 

? Ou-** > ♦- sivmiz misin ? ? ;x«My« > *^ sivmiz' misiHiz? 

'^ L^ J*j^ sivmiz' mi? ^t>* Jj*.>- sivmizlir' mi? 

Do I not love? dost thou not love? etc. 

?^j^ ? Ca^^jj^ sivir miyim? -'misiû? Do I love? 

? ^ r»-«oj— ? û^«.**^oj— ? j_^ J^'j^ \ Am I not able to 
SİVİ' mem mi? sivi'miz misin? sivi'mez mi?) ^^ve? 

Jl;Ullk« Muta-la-at Remarks. 

§ 329. I. The formation of the Negative Aorist is 
irregular, as is seen above. 

§ 330. II. The use of the Aorist among the com- 
mon people varies; as: 

sivirim^ sSvSn, sivir; severiky sivirsîûiz, sivirlir, 
sivmim, sSvmSn, sivmez; sevmSzik, sevmezsiniz, seomizlir. 

§ 331. The First Gerund. When -LU-i>. jisinS 

is added to the third person singular it gives the mean- 
ing 'as if, intending to do'. 

(iiLld Jj Jj/^ a:^*^j^j\ ouyour'jastna g^zlirini qapadX, 
He shut his eyes pretending that he was sleeping. 

<ü^lj 4İ-4^^I ^«- sisi alır j asına haghîrdt. He shouted 
out as loud as he could (take his voice). 

§ 332. This Jesine is sometimes added to nouns, 
and signifies 'after the manner of, as, like'. 

(İJü\ jj^Ajj\^ <l-4»-i^ mird' jesine davranıyor oudou. He was 

behaving himself in a manly way. 

Eshek'jesine baghirdt He cried out like an ass. 

§ 333. The Second Gerund. Such Enghsh phrases 
as 'before coming, before going' etc. consisting of 'be- 

loo The A0RI8T. 155 

fore' with a gerund, are rendered in Turkish in two 
ways: one by the use of the second derivative from the 
Infinitive, as has been mentioned above (§ 299). The 

other by appending 03 -eîetı or Jjl ^^ -den evvel to the 

third person singular of the Aorist, negative form; as: 

^^ö^<^ü', ^en gelmeden gitme |^ p^^'t g^ before my 

<^^ o^J^'^Cj'. ^^** gelmSzden gitme] coming. 

aJ^İ^j\ ojj*^U ^^ ^^ hen seni chaghîrmazdan evvel gelmi. 
Don't come before (my calling you) = I call you. 

§ 334. The Third Gerund. When the third 
person affirmative and negative come together a gerund 
results : 

jUjlj jljlj yazar yazmaz. As soon as I (you, he) wrote. 
gelir gelmez chaghîrdt. He called me as soon as he came. 

2. The Assertive Aorist (Conjunctive). A)15CS- ^-^li^ 

§ 335. The Assertive Aorist, which is called by 
Enghsh scholars Past Habitual (corresponding to the 
Imparfait and Conditionnel tenses of French) indicates 
that one was formerly, in the habit of doing an action 
or that one would do it on condition of something 

else happening. Thus >Jbl jJ^ gelir idim signifies either 

1 used to come or I would come (if something else 

Bafia bir lira verirsen choq memnoun olour idim. If you 
would give me a pound, I should be very glad. 

^St\ ji jli yazar idim 
^-^y j\j\ yazar idifi 
<i-^l jlj^ yazar idi 
Jjül jijli yazar idik 
J^İ-Vj\ jljLı yazar idiniz 
Ji-4İ j\'j\ yazar idiler 

Negative and Interrogative. 

^Si\y»j^ or *i^j- sevmez' idim, sevmez dim; sevmiz idifi . . 
I used not to love or would not love or would not have loved, etc. 

I used to write, I should write. 
I should have written, etc. 

156 YY u^j^ Lesson 22. %9% 

? aX^jj^ sever miy idim? ? aJ^Jaj^ sevmez' miy idim? 
Used I not to love? etc. Did I not use to love? etc. 

§ 336. 

3. The Narrative Aorist. c^ljj f-jUa^ 

Z-İÇİ jj- sever' imishim, Jj^l Jj^ saver' imishiz, 

la— İ4 \ jj^ sever imishsiü, j^-JLtl jj^ sever' imisTisiniZy 

J^t.\ jj^ sever imish, J^\ Jj^ sever' imishlir. 

(They say that) I used to love, (Perchance) I love . . . 

§ 337. 
4. The Conditional Aorist. ^l^jt, ?2^ 

*^u-j^ sever'sSniy il-u-jj- seversek, 

J^u-j^^ sevSr'seflj j^<^jj^ sivirsiniz, 

K^jyM sever se, a^Jj^ severUrsi. 

If I love, If thou lovest, etc. 

^a^Jaj^ sevmezsem, -sen. If I do not love . . . 

§ 338. Note. The Conditional Aorist is abbrevia- 
ted sometimes by omitting the characteristic re, and 
then resembles greatly the Suppositive tense § 378; as: 
sevsem, sevsen, sevse. 


§ 339. Further: 

ojjk&^jy^ sever semde Though I love, yet — 

«a5^j*^^ sevmez' sefide thou dost love, but — 

^^j^ X^ y^ her kirn' gelirse whoever comes. 

<-jjJj\ ^ ^ her ne' oloursa whatever it may be. 

'J-J^ o^A^j^ gelir sede gelmiz'sidi whether he comes or not. 

§ 340. When two or more verbs follow one ano- 
ther in the same tense, number and person, the personal 
ending is generally omitted in all but the last: 

^joj5^ 3 ji^\ ' ^. yer, ichir ve gezerim for ySrim, tehirim vS 
gezerim. I eat, drink and promenade. 

İOV The AoRiST. 157 

Peder Mr aMisham size gidiyor vd yarî gejiyedSk otourou- 
yoroudou, for gidiyoroudou. My father used to go every night 
to your house and stay there till midnight. 

JCil Words. 

p. A^ lei that a. J-1- sûnhûl hyacinth 

a. ^L^ mûsafir guest j^Us sachmaq to spread 

p. jTl eyer if a. p— j.« mevsim season 

a. j\^ tekrar again vli.j_^ sürmek to plough 
a. ü>^ taraf place, side ^S\ ekmek to sow 

! Ij aJjjI eoî/Ze ya/ certainly I ^j^jL yazin in the summer. 

iV JljS Exercise 47. 

o/^A — ? j"J^i^ «-^y^ 4j:>C« öJi:>-ld wc-L- (S^^ ^^ ^ 
^y y, " * 1^-^. ' *^ '^'•^i' <^"^i' jj-4s^ o^jjSL ji^L- «ujliV^ 

158 xr ^j-j^ Lesson 22. toA 

lA AJi^j Translation 48, 

1. I know Armenian. Thou knowest German. Doe» 
he know Greek? 2. Before you came here, you did 
not know us (assertive). 3. Before seeing the property 
(mal), I cannot give the money, but if I see and 
approve, I will give the money. — Well, Sir, if I can 
make you like it, then I hope you will pay. — 4. At 
what o'clock do you go to bed? — I eat at 12 o'clock 
Turkish time, and lie down at 3 o'clock, in sununer, 
but in winter I eat at one o'clock and go to bed at 
five. Sometimes, if I have guests, I sit up until six 
o'clock. 5. I do not do so! I eat early and I retire 
early. I rise early in the morning. While others are 
sleeping, I read and write my lesson. Sometimes in 
the fresh morning air I take a walk in the field. 
6. Well done! my boy; you do well. 7. Can you ride 
on horseback? — Yes, I can (ride), but you cannot 
ride. 8. What do they call this boy? — They call 
him Nejib. 

<xl5^ Conyersation, 

•Ja^ ^.J^ isr\y. ^if^ y, ? u^^] ? Ja^ ^ *i/ji 

J>l i ^.^Ju^ Beading Exercise. 

c5jL^ iljUl.->. Voices of Animals. 

\ •^ The Past Tenses. 159 

' J^jyy i>^j^ JJjfy, *^' ' ^^^^"^ *^' ' jvii^^lT 
^i*.^ j^ Âs^iJ ^^CJJ *jVjl>- *i^^* jjljl 3jy ^ j^^J^y>' yj 


Hayvanlartn sesleri. 

Butun hayvanlartn MndiUrim maldı sous^ sesleri 
var dır, ve ol sesi geostermek ichin de hirer tabirleri^ 
var dır; Mesela,^ — 

At Kishner^, eshek ahlrtr^^ inek bSyûrûr^, arslan 
gedmûrder ^, ayî khonmurdar^, gourd oulour^, keöpek hav- 
lar^^, tilki inj4 bir sesle siniler^^, qoyoun ve kechi meler^^, 
kedi miyavlar^^, khoros Ster^^, tavouq gidaqlar^^, pilijler 
ve oufaq qoushlar jivüder ^^, hind tavoughou^^ goulou goulou 
eder^^, papaghan^^ lagîrdî eder^^, gSyerjin^^ dem cheker^^, 
bûlbûP^ shaqtr^^, eordek vaq vaq eder^^. 

Words* 1. Especial. 2. term. 3. for instance. 4. Kish" 
nimble to whinny. 5. aflirmaq to bray. 6. hSbyurmik to moo. 
7. gSbmûrdimik to roar. 8. Khomurdamaq to growl. 9. ouloumaq 
to howl. 10. havlamaq to bark. 11. sifiiUmik to squeak. 12. mi- 
Umek to bleat. 13. viiyavlamaq to mew. 14. SbtmSk to crow. 
15. gidaqlamaq to cackle. 16. jivild^mek to chirp. 17. turkey 
(Indian) hen. 18. to jjobble. 19. parrot. 20. to chatter. 21. pigeon. 
22. to coo. 23. nightingale. 24. shaqtmaq to warble. 25. to quack. 

Y^ u^^ Lesson 23. 

JL^U The Past Tenses. 

§ 341. There are two tenses denoting the Past. 

§ 342. One is the Categorical Preterite called by 
the natives Maziyi shouhoudi ^eye-witness past', which 
depicts the speaker as having been present or as having 
witnessed something with his own eyes, so as to know 
it for certain without any doubt. Hence it corresponds 

160 rr ur-j^ Lesson 23. f^* 

with the compound tense formed with the Past Parti- 
ciple and the auxiliary verb 'To have'. For instance 
yazdı, not only means he wrote (in the presence of the 
speaker), but also he has written. 

It may also be translated by the English Past, 
formed with did; as: yaMî mî? Did he write? — yazd% 
he did write. 

§ 343. The other is the Dubitative Past, Maziyi naqli 
implying or expressing doubt. The speaker is not sure 
about the matter, he may have heard it from others. This 
tense can be correctly used only when the truth of an 
assertion is not guaranteed, and when the speaker means 
to state that he believes what he says, but cannot 
vouch for it; as: yasmîsh 'he wrote (as others say) he 
has written (I believe), I am not sure about it'. This 
tense is used in telUng stories of the past or anecdotes 
which the speaker has heard from others or read in 

1. Indicative Past. ^53^ [<^^ 

§ 344. The characteristic sign or suffix of the 

Past tense is ^^ -di, -di in the third person. For the 

first person plural it is ij^ -dih for the soft vowels and 

o3 'dtq for the hard ones. 

^^jlj yazdfm\ r^j*" sevdim y 

ilijL yazdîn'y ^^^ sevdin y 

iS^y<i yazdî'y iS^j^ sevdi', 

J>jlj yazdtq'y ^^j^ sevdi7c\ 

j^^jl. yazdîniz\ J>i>y-^ sevdiniz , 

Jojlj yazdîlar. Ji^j- sevdilSr'. 

Potential Past. ^^jIjcîI ^U 

ajJLo^^ sevebildim' y iljJLjoj*- sevebildik^ \ 

İİjJLjoj- sevebildin, j^jJLjo^^ seoebildifiiz, \ ^o^ove* 

<ijJLioj^ sevebildi\ ^jJLoj- sevebildiler'. ) 

I wrote, I did write, 

I have written . . . 

I loved, etc. 


ni ^i>*The Past Tenses. 161 

Negative and Interrogative. 

^^^j^ 84v' midim I did not love, ooo^ sSve midimi was notable 

to love. 
? ji ^:>jlj yazdim' mî? Did I write? '^ fj^^j^ sevdim' mi? Did I love? 

yaz'madim mi? Did I not write? yaza'madîm mî? Was I not able 

to write? 

§ 345. The Fourth Gerund. A very common 

expression is formed by adding ©3 -da, -de to the ûrsi 

person plural of the Past, thus indicating when an action 
is performed. 

ojjijL yazdiqda when he wrote. oj^jj^j\ ^rv* •-'^-'^^ 6^ 

chan chaltndiqda fUr Ms otoursoun when the bell is rung every 
body must sit down. 

§ 346. The Fifth Gerund. By additig a>- -je, 

to the same person, another kind of gerund is made, 
which corresponds to in proportion as, the more — the 

^jj^^j^ -cjcd^yjl jtiS^ MtaM oqoudouqja sSviyoroum. The 
more I read the book the more I like it. 

Oyj»»--û>l^^ ^^Tj^jSi^j^^ csraftl^î geydikje hoshlanajaqstn. 
The more you weare your dress the more you will like it. 

§ 347. After with a Participle, is rendered in Tur- 
kish by the addition of of^^ Û3 -dm sonra to the same 
person as: 

'Jj^ o-^-^J^ t>. ^^** ^IdûMen sonra after my death. 
^Sj^ 6-^-^3^ t>. ^^** yazdtqdan soüra after I wrote. 

Mektoubou yazdt, v4 yazdtqdan sofira m^hurUdi, He wrote 
the letter, and after writing he sealed it. 

§ 348. Further: 

EoyrMemSdik gitdi. At last we were not able to learn. 
Söyledim gitdi. At last I have spoken. 

2. Assertive Past. (S^^ *vi?U İjIîC 

§ 349. The Assertive Past, which is called in 
Enghsh the Pluperfect, is made in two ways, one by 
adding the Past tense of the Substantive Verb to the 

Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 11 

162 rr ^j^j^ Lesson 23. ^^f 

third person of the Past tense and the second by adding 
the third person of the Past of the Substantive Verb 
to the Past tense. 

(İJül 0^j^ sevdim idi, 

^Jui {S^^ siodi tdim. 

iSJj\ £^^ sivdin idi, 

i)jü\ iS^^ sevdi idin. 

(i Jul iS^^ sivdi idi^ 

(i Jul iS^^ sevdi idi, 

iSM ^^y^ sevdik idi, 

i) Jul (S^j^ sevdi idik^ 

;-l| j^^^j^ sevdiniz idi. 

j^jui iS^j^ sh>di idifUg, 

iSM J^^^j^ sevdiler idi^ 

Jjjül iS^j^ sivdi idüSr, 

I had loved (I am sure), 

Thou hadst loved. 

Note. The Narrative Mood 

is wanting. 

§ 350. 

3. Conditional Past. LyL Is^^ rj^U 
it is made in two ways, as in the Assertive Mood. 

<-j\ AjjLi yazdım isS, <-j\ J^JIj yazdiq isd, 

a-jI ilijli yazdtn isiy k^\ J>±:>j\ yazdîhiz isi, 

<--i\ iS^j\i yazdi isi, k^\ Ji^jlj yazdMar isi. 

It I have written, If thou hast written . . . 


•^<-j1 ^^^ sivdim isidi I loved, but — . 
o^<wl ajU<1I alamadım isidi I was not able to take, bat — . 
<k-Jİ iS^j\ ^ Icim yazdî isi whoever may have written. 

The Dubitatire Past. ^ ^U 

§ 351. The characteristic sign or sufl&x of this 

tense is J^ -mtsh, -mish, -mush, -maush, accor- 
ding to the dominant vowel. The formation of the 
persons is regular. 

§352. 1. Indicative Dubitative. 4j,jU.I ^ 

pJL«j^ sivmi'shim, Jy^j^ sivmisKiz^ 

sivmish'sin, j^L^j^ sicmisKsiMSy 

08 "T? 
OD ^ 


tnr The Past Tenses. 168 

j3 ,jt.^^ shmisK (dır), j^JJL^y^ sSvmishUrYdir). 

I loved, I have loved (it is said) . . . 

Potential Dubitative. ^j\si\ '^ 

jwUL ojL yaza hilmisKim^ Ja*.>.L «jL ya^ra hilmisKiz^ 

üj-JLL ojL yo^fa bilmish'sin, j^wUL «jL ya^ra bilmish'siHiZy 
jaULj ojli ya-gra hilmish' (dir) , j^JLUL «jL yo^sra bilmishlirYdirJ. 
(They say that) I was able to write . . . 

Negative and Interrogative Forms. 

^UjL yaz'mamîshîmy J^^j^ sevmemtshitn I did not write, 
' " ^ ... love 

pi.UojL yaz'amamisMm I was not able to write 

(C*u^3^ yazmîshmîyîm? -'mîsîn? . . Did I write? 

I^JS-Uojli yaza'mamîshmîyîm? Was I not able to write? 

§ 353. 2. Assertive Dubitative. aA<^ "^ 

^jj\ fj^j^ sdvmish idim, iljul ^J-^^ sevtnish idik^ 

Jjül ^j^ sSvmish idifiy J^-4^ {J^j^ sevmish idifliz, 

iSM ^j^ sdvmish idi, Ji-H^ iJ^^ aivmish idilir. 

I had loved (I am sure), Thou hadst loved. 

§ 354. 3. Narrative Dubitative. c^ljj "Aaj 

piti Ji^j^ sivmish' imishim, Jj^i ^j^ sivmish' imishiz, 

ü^-«itl fj^j^ sevmish" imishsin, jx-JLti ^j^ sevmish' imishsifiiZf 
J^\ j-^y^ seomish' imishy jlitl ^j^ sSvmisK imishUr. 

(They say that) I have loved, etc. 

§ 355. 4. Conditional Dubitative. J^JL J^ 

^<-ji\ ^y^ sdvmish' isem, il^i ^j^ sivmisK isek, 

il<wl ^ji*j- sivmish' isM, J^'^l u-**^- sivmish' isifiiz, 

^-jj ^^ sivmish' isi, J<~ii ^^ sivmish' iseler. 

If I loved (as they say), (as others say). 

Taz'mamtsh isim, -isefl If I had not written (as others say). 


164 rr t^ji Lesson 23. fit 

§ 356. Further: 

aaJjI jj1«3^ yazmîsh olsam If I had written. 
J<-Jji .JS\ almish olsalar If they had taken. 

JCİÎ Words. 

^jyj^ sûpûrmik to sweep a.t.jr^L- sa'aditly happy 

a. r>^i *^ûü medicine f. ci\^^ Uligraf a telegram 

sULij^jfJl eoksurmek to cough p. ^j^ ^^»"d affliction, 

j to start, sickness 

^ <Jj-» yoZa cMqmaq I to set out <^,/ <7^^* ^>ack 

^ to sail. 
^^^ dSyirmin mill (^^*j^i diyi saying 

jE^ 4» 7.^^11 1 m^ma or sıtma toutmaq to suffer from malaria. 

t^ j^JUi Exercise 49. 

.(^aS-o- ^j) vj5«^ *^J^ ^ Jliwl Oi^ji l5J^I » ^ ^ 

rr!^^' iJj^l) ^ ® • ^^y^ ^LJL^I jj*, 0-^^ c^^' ff^^^^ 
•>43l oJcJ ^U ? jjji 1 Ju:-S^ *iDİ ^rli- ©jJlj — • j^' 

no The Past Tenses. 165 

0* Ajt-j Translation 50. 

1. What has he planted in the garden? — He 
has planted there some lilies, potatoes and tomatoes. 
2. Whose brother has two small knives? 3. It is re- 
ported [they say] that a man was killed yesterday in 
the town. 4. [They say] some one has been killed 
this week at the mill. 5. When did the ship sailV — 
She sailed on the first day of the month. 6. The mail 
from Samsoun arrived this morning. 7. Did you see 
my father? No, Sir, I waited for him in the market 
but I could not see him. My brother James saw him 
yesterday. 8. The more you learn the happier you 
are. 9. The more you advise him the angrier he gets. 
10. When your brother comes from the town, please 
let me know. 

<1 İ5İ4 Conversation. 

j^ dil;^-yi Jll jL.^^ jjlüL ^^-Id ojJtjjL- $H.or i]j>L.(r 

- • 7 

Lr\J <?^.J^ o^ji^. '>^<^j\ vi^cL pijL 6-^*>3^ <:Jl ^^ 


TForefs. 1. a. tarikh date, history. 2. a. vasUa hand, means. 
3. /e^fe dtmek to conquer. 4. /aftTi conqueror (§ 601). 5. mow- 
haaere siege (§ 618). 6. zeval fall. 7. p. nam name. 8. Qanouni 
Soultan Süleyman Sultan Süleyman, the Lawgiver (1520—66). 9. qo- 
manda commandership. 10. vezir vizier. 11. moumayileh His Ex- 
cellency [the person refered to, i.e. the latter]. 12. ihali inhabitants. 

166 rt, v^ji Lesson 24. Ill 

• JiV.^ V^ J^./ ^^Ljji.u<^ 6Li-> Jj^Li^ 6-^1— i 'iA-.jSjji; 
A 3 <^J^ »^0^ 3 si-b <î <^^ ^i ^^^«O "-^^ J:^^ ^<-^ 

^^-JLi^ ^^»1A::::S^ ^ji. ^l:;^^ J\15^1 oJu-ol) »^ ^AI^ j tJ-^M 

13. hazretUri His Majesty. 14. hükümdar ruler. 15. Jt^Zi 
Sherif the Holy Gospel. 16. *a& printing. 17. towards the end of 
the 17th century. 18. a pervert to Islam. 19. ingiliz Kitabi 
Mouqad'dis shirketi B. & F. B. Society. 20. hitnmetiyle through the 
assistance, by. 

Proper Names: Jibon Ed. Gibbon. Qarolos Charles V. 

^^ u^t> Lesson 24. 

JulL^ The Future Tense. 

§ 357. The Future tense in Turkish corresponds 
to that of the EngUsh language; with this diflference, 
that it simply asserts what will happen, without making 
a promise, which is always rendered by the Aorist. 

§ 358. The Categorical Future is made by adding 
0*4. -e-, -a- to the verbal root, if it ends in a conso- 
nant; and Ai -yS-, -ya- if it ends in a vowel; and after- 
wards sil>. -jik is added if the verbal root is soft and 
j>- -Jaq if it is hard (53): 

f ' Vli^ ' asf ' ^»J^ gidSjâh 

J \ 

my The Future Tense. 167 

§ 359. Note, The radical endings C? -f, J -q, 

j^ -fc, are changed into 3 -cf-, p- -grfe-, -y-, when followed 
by a vowel: § 52 2, 88. 

§360. 1. Indîcatîye Future. 4jijLi.i JuSLw* 

J0.0JİJ yazaja'-ghîm^ -^a,o-j\ istSyije-yim, 

OiJUojL yazajaq-stn, Ca-.5^4jO-j\ istSyijeh'-sin^ 

J3 J»-ojlj yazajaq (dîr), j^ ^iX>.<tjc^\ ist^ySjefc (dirjy 

ji».ojlj yazaJa'-ghîZy j^aj<i«j\ ist^yije-yiz, 

J^-i».ojli yazajaq 'SÎnîz, j5C^<j0..ii\ isteySjek' -siniz, 

jiJLUojlj ya£^a^ag-^ar*Y<û^^^>^. j^J^-^i^H:^ istiy^ik-Ur (dir). 
I shall write, thou will — . I shall ask, thou will ask . . . 

Negatîye and Interrogatiye. 

pis-AjUjlj yaz'mayajaghim,'8in . . , I shall not write . . . 

pi».4jUojlj yaza may ajaghum ... I shall not be able to write . . . 

?^.*Jto.ojlj yazajaq mîyîm? Shall I write? 

? >»«Ji>.<jUjl» yaz'mayajaqm^yim? Shall I not write? 
^ ^>^jLs^<t[*oj\i yaza'mayajaqmiyim? Shall I not be able to write? 

§ 361. 2. Assertiye Future. 4j.l5Cl. JJiw^ 

Assertive Future or Imperfect Future signifies that 
an action was going to take place in the past, Present, 
or future. 

aJj\ J>-0^ yazajaq idim^ ijjüi J>-öJ^ yazajaq idik, 

iİJul J»-0^i ^> idin, J^j^} J?"*-^^ ^^ idiniz, 

I was about to write, (yesterday, to-day or to 


Ifote. This tense is often written and pronounced in the 
following manner: 

^jui».öjlj * Jjw^oj- yazajaghidtm, sMjeyidin . . . 

168 rt, jj-ji Lesson 24. \^A 

§ 362. 3. Narrative Future. j^J^j 

pij^i «lA>.e^^ sivSjkk imishim, jixl «^»^ sScSjik imishiZf 

i> — it! ^».o^^ » imish'sin, j^witi vUUo^^ » tmîs^iAi?, 

[They say that] I was about to love . . . 

§363. 4. Conditional Future. JayLJJfc^ 

i)<*«jl *lJl>.o^^ » IS^/I, j5<— j\ »Uia-o^ » İ8İÜİZ, 

A^l «iJU-o^^ » tW, J^i «lU-o^^ » isHir, 

or sevejeyiseni, sevSjeyism; yazajagMsac[, yazajaghtsatiie . . . 
If I shall love, If I am to love ... I 

§ 364. Further: 

oju^l i3>-e3l* yazajaq isimdi I shall write, but — . 

oa5^L-jİ ytXa^AjK^oj^ gibrimiyejih isekdi We shall not be able 

" " to see, but — . 

o3j5<^i »li>.Ai<*Ajjjjj yeörûyimiyijek iseüizdi You will not be able 

to walk, but — . 

JCiJ Words. 

'tX^jliS^ "kiyflinmek to be de- ?L;U haniya? where is it? 

ur^. Jri y^^ ^<^^*^ New -Year's- a. ^^ yam that is to say 

a. J^lj myiz preachS^^ ^>.^^. ^^^^^^^ 8^^* 

J.\ dL 6m &a./4 major ^^ ^'^î'''^* «P^'**»® 

c^VT^ mtVaZai/ colonel c^^^jTfc^m bridge 

>\j1j yay îa summer-residence *^-^^j 9 

^ ,. . , , ;>.LL. Id /amiîya/oûf with the 

N ^J^ Exercise 51. 

ın^ The Future Tense. 169 

o^Jljjl •j^oJûûj iiXj:S^ iSj-yt^ o^;IaUUjjI j*^ j o^lL jlj^.cijS 
jr>.4J^j> dU4^j3 ^^^tll5 3'i'j:>U (-J: • Juilo (i^^jT uj> 

?• •"I*» * *• T« *-i 

OT A^j Translation 52. 

1. Who will come to visit us to morrow? — I be- 
lieve that my sister Eliza will pay us a visit. 2. In 

the Psalms (Jj^y me^mourlar) David says: Thou will 

show me the path of life. 3. Mrs. Mary loved her 
children and is loved by them. 4. As soon as I hear, 
I shall let you know. 5. You shall not go to the gar- 
dens. I will not allow it. 6. I shall write a few lines 
before I go to supper. 7. Shall I give him so much? 
No, Sir, he is asking too much. 8. Would Anna read 
such a dirty paper? — She could read others more 
dirty than that. 9. If I could (give), I would give you 
five pounds, but I cannot give [it]. 10. Where will 
he go? — If he finds a horse, he will go to the sum- 

^Ij^ Conyersation. 

170 Ti, ^j^ Lesson 24. IV» 

^j;^!^ j^»7 Reading Exercise. 

1^3 J, i^jJl j^ ^ Sermon of JSasr^ed^in. 

dlijl • (iJbl Ji^lj j: ^yi^\ ^(^jı^l A>.iy. âjJI ^ 

iiiÂîi ' cT-^t ^^cr*-^ ' cT^ ^*^V <^^' '^r'-T *^i 

W «4 « „ -^ •• 

Words. 1. Nasred'din Hoja Effendi the reverend teacher 
Nasreddin. 2. emsalsiz unique. 3. ^mrMW<îc in his life. 4. hich'bir 

9. Kursu a puıpıı». ıvr. j em a az cun>^ru^aLiuD, peupıe. ıx. cnevtr* 
wieA: to turn (his face). 12. t&aj'jûb et to wonder. 13. jhahhi 
in answer. 14. sibyUySyim I may speak. 

tVl The Optative Tense. 171 

"jCjjb '*• Jibic [f ^U- 4^i J. . jJbl jl/L- J,l_y-. ^jl 

-T z^**»-^ 5»^ <^< ! J jvL !jjvl-) ' l5-J^^ a>'\J- vIjjI» • ^J-cu^ 

%*>./ .ilj dL ''*i j15C:j>4-.J^ j. fJjUjI t^J^I *»-l^ 

15. ertesi the following. 16. tekrar again, repeating. 16 ». agiZ'Zi 
wise. 17. davranmaq to behave. 18. haghrîshmag to shout, to call 
out together. 19. terbiyesizlik rudeness. 20. gûjenmek to be angry. 
21. madam Jci since. 22. y^rûyû vermek (to depart and) go quickly. 

^^ u^t> Lesson 25. 

^\j^\ The Optative Tense. 

§ 365. The Optative tense expresses a desire or 
wish that some action may be performed. Its charac- 
teristic sign is ^ -e, -a (or ^ -ye, -ya, when the root 

ends in a vowel) added to the root of the verb. This 
forms the third person singular. The first person 

plural is formed by adding I -lim^ -lim to this. 
§366. 1. Indicative Optative. a,j\JJ\ ^IjOl 

pio^^ seveyim^ i»j^ sevSlim\ 

û^^oj^ sevS'sîriy jS-oj- seve' siniz, 

vİA-^ * oj-^j^ • »j^ şive, sevsin' f J^j^ sevâlSr', 

That I may love, that thou mayest love, etc. 

Negative. ^^'jf3l [Jû^ 

pj<j-u^^ sevmeyeyim, sevmeyim, İaj<>.j- sevmeyelim, 

172 ro y^j^ Lesson 25. ivr 

v>-Aj4^j- sevmeyisin, j:^aj aaj^ stcmiyisMg, 

O^Ajkj^ * (jj-..^^ ' 4j4*^- sevmeye, sevmesin, JaxAj^j^ siv'miyilSr, 
That I may not love, etc. 

Interrogative. ^Ij3l ^^^^' 

§ 367. The interrogative forms are generally in 
use only for first and third persons, they are used to 
ask permission for something, and are rendered by shall 
or 7nay: 

Person 1: ^^ piO^ yazayım' mî? ^ JlojIj yaealtm,' mî? 

» 3: (^ oj^J^^ yazsın mî? ^ J^^j\ yazanlar m\? 

May I write, may he, we, they write? 

Person 1: ^ f*i^^^ almayayîm mî? ^^ iUl aXmayoMm' m\? 
» 3: j^ oj-^\ aVmasln mi? (^ J^j^^^ aVmastnlar mi? 
Shall I not take? 

vliUIlta^ Muta-la-at Remarks. 

§ 368. The third person of the Optative is used 
to form some important gerunds: 

§ 369. The Sixth Gerund. By adding J-?<, -li 

or J yjü -liden berou, a gerund is obtained, called 
the Primitive, meaning 'since'; as: 

j^',jJ^AAjji/ i^^^\jj* houraya geleliden hirou, hauraya 
geleli. Since he came here. 

ji JL"...A- J^fr^L iij^j^ji hou chojouq doghdli, (or doghaUdan 
berou) hasta dır. This boy is sick ever, since his birth. 

§ 370. The Seventh Gerund. By repeating the 
third person singular another gerund is formed which 
denotes repeated action: 

(i jJS^^j3 dJ:^y qpsha qosha gildi. He came running continaally. 

§ 371. The Eighth Gerund. Another Gerund is 

produced by adding jj fjj -7^aq, -rek to the same part 
of the verb; it expresses the manner of a subordinate 

♦vr The Optative Tense. 173 

action which takes place at the same time as that 
stated by the verb it accompanies: 

jy^j^ Kp^ i]j4jj^^ sâvindrek mektebe gidiyor. He is going 
to school joyously. 

(S-i^ ^İJ^y qpsharaq geldi. He came running. 

§ 372. The Ninth Gerund. This is obtained by 

the addition of ^^ * te.^ -si, or -sija to the third 
person, and is used for cursing and blessing: 

^lilj jZ-^-ji ojaghi yanasî or yanasija! May his hearth be 
alight! (i.e. may he be prosperous!) 

A?c---lJL c^^"-^^ cjagM bcUasija! May his fireplace be sunk! 
(i.e. may his ofispring be annihilated!) 

*^j\ j^kebr olastja! May he be blinded! 

2. The Assertiye Optatiye. 4)l5C>. * ^l';dl 

§ 373. The Assertive Optative either expresses a 
wish that some action may take place, although one 
scarcely expects it, or indicates regret that some action 
has not taken place in the past: 

*j^\ 0^ yazayidtm, âM ©jL yazay'tdtq, 

i]jui\ oj^ yazay'idîn, ^^-4^ *3^i yazay'tdifitZy 

(Sx\ 0^ yazay'îdî, Jt'^^ 0^ yazayîdîîar. 

That 1 might write! or That I had written! 

§ 374. The Dubitative Past third person singular 
of any verb is compounded with the Assertive Optative 

of the verb olniaq jljl 'to become', to express just 
the same meaning: 

r-^yj\ J^J^i yazmîsh olayîdtm, iJjjVjl (ji*j^ yazmîsh olay*ıdîq, 

JjüVjl ^J^j\t yazmîsh olayidîn, J^-^Vji jj^3^i yazmîsh olayîdtilîz, 

<i jüV j\ u-'-İ^ yazmîsh olayidî, Jt-^^J^ ur^-İ^ yazmîsh olayîdîlar. 
That I might write! That I had written! 

Cj\mİ\1a4 Mtita-la-at Remarks. 

§ 375. a. Words which express a wish require 
the verb which follows to be in the Optative: such 
words are: 

174 r© v^ji Lesson 25. 1Y*b- 

t^juV^ ((İJül -JjİAİ) nolayîdî! Would that! 

p. ^b ktash'lci yulg.Jceslige! Would that it were so! 

I ^o oj-^^^j 4İİ ! «i o^j 4İI Al'laK verstn ki! M'lah vSri dSf 
God grant that! 

1 0^ (i-^^,J -»i^ Al'lah vereyidi de! Would to God that! 

jUtU MisaVUr Examples. 

Ktash'ki hourad'a olay îdi! Would that he had been here! 
Kiash'ki, or, nolayXdi vireyidim! Would that I had given! 
Al'lah virsinki or AVlah veriyidi diy or Atlah viridi iyi 
bir yaghmour geleyidi! Would that God would grant a good «dnl 

§ 376. b. Sometimes the meaning approached 
much closer to that of the Suppositive Past (§ 379) : ^x^ 

^Ji\Aİj\ ' ^Ju*üjl ^t^j^j vermish olayîdîm or vermish o^ 
sayîdîm are the same. 

JCil Words. 

jlT ojlla satin almaq to buy JÎU satmaq to sell 

JjfjT^ g^flul heart ^^ mertik post, beam 

j&ltf sanmaq to suppose, take a. Cj*^\ izin permission 

a. *}\xa sadaqa alms p. j'Sj', hirdber together. 

! *ij\ - ! Cjj-^j\ vi-^lfr afiyit" olsoun, or ola! May that be health 
to you! [§ 490]. 

Of jc^ Exercise 58. 

(^jjVjI Aöjl) ^jdL\^ * ^oxj^\x^ ojL (jjl ^^ •-5*^ j-^ |f '->'-> ^ 
j^O Î (.JoJ JL.J ^y^MxJ (even) JyJj\ ojl, ^j: »^ û: • 

»V» The Optative Tense. 175 

JJL» ^31» (j^^-^^ ^' 0^ dll-. J I ^ • Jj>» öjJI jl^ »jSyy 

jf Ji, ^ • (JtU- *^— Jl^ ,3^1». '-î^ viijj^ *^JJjy Vfl ' ^j^ jt, 

•L^jJ^j^j (»i* 4j 4Î3I A» 433I > • »^i^^ji-S^Mj:^^ 

Ol A;^j Translation 54 

1. Shall I read it? what shall I say? 2. How shall 
I have patience? 3. May his hand be broken! 4. Since 
I began my lessons I have not missed a day. 5. 
that I knew a little French! 6. Oh! that he might 
come. 7. It is well that I did not offer it to you, for if 
I had given it you would not have taken it. 8. Would 
that he had been here! 9. Shall we go to see the 
lion? — It is hot now, I cannot go. 10. May God 
keep you in good health! 11. What shall I do now? 
— You cannot do anything now. Go to your room 
until I call you. 12. You must not go to your uncles* 
house, unless you are invited. 13. By asking contin- 
ually you can find [the way to] Bagdad. 14. By 
studying continually you will learn fast. 

aI I^ Conyersation* 

dUUli^L 1 oj^j\ '^JJU >iU-l I J5JJ^, uVjl ^JubL- t^\> (r 

Words. 1. Rah'hani douva Lord's Prayer. 2. semavat hea- 
vens. 8. mouqad'des holy. 4. iradet will, 5. oldoughou gibi as 
it (was). 6. ijra olounmaq to be done. 

176 ri v^ji Lesson 26. IV^ 

ft 7 V- .^ 

• j^j^J ^jL-1 j^ î ^l^i o^5j j».^^l o^;<iiijl3" ^S^^jûJtül C;^ 

! ^ÛA-->liJ.L ojj- ^^^ 4>M^. fâ ' 

. ^ j^ lie jü . jJİljl 4jL- j^ ^^ J^ <İT ( £ - 

7. cmW /ia(2^ vouqpu boulmaq the decree of the True one I 
happened, he died. 8. esif it. to be sorry. 9. baghUhlamaq to 
grant. 10. aqUrn yetmez I cannot comprehend (my reason do not 
reach [so far] i, e. I was a child). 

^^ u^^^ Lesson 26. 

The Suppositive Tense [Subjunctive]. 

§ 377. The Conditional Optative, which is called 
by many Grammarians simply the Suppositive tense, 
is formed by adding the Conditional terminations to the 

he o of the third person Singular of the Optative. 
§ 378. 1. Suppositive Present, a^ i JU 

0^1 yazsaniy J^^ yaz8aq, 

iJi^jl yazsan, J^<^'j\ yaz'saniz, 

^Ij yazsa, J^^j\ yazsalar. 

If I write, If I were to write, etc. 

Negative. a.^_^ Jl>. ^y:u 

>4^Ujli or^4.-w»jlj ' İ]a^Ij * ^uwijL. 1 If I do not write. 

yazmasam, yazmasan, yaz'masa, etc. ) ^' ^ ^®^® ^^^ ^ wnte. 

lYY The Suppositive Tense. 177 

§ 379. 2. Suppositive Past. A^y ^U 

The Suppositive Past states the condition on which, 
if something had happened, some other action would 
have taken place, or would still take place. It casts 
doubt on the performance of some condition. 

»jL--jlj * ^Jui\^jlj yaz8ayîd\m^ -^-S-J^ yaz'sayidtq, 

ilju-jL * Ji)jü\<-jlj yaz'sayîdîfiy j^iJl—JL yaz sayîdifiîz, 

<İJu-jlj ' c5J^\<-j^ yaz'sayîdîj JL-X^-jL yazsayîdMar. 

If I had written, etc. 

§ 380. 3. Narrative Suppositive. <^^ ^'->-> 

-JSjtl A-jL yazsa imishim, -^^^ "^j^ yaz'sa imishiz, 

4>-Jljt\ A— jli yaz'sa imishsin, J^L^\ <-jL yaz'sa imishsiuiz, 

çjîti A— jl» yaz'sa imishf J^\ "^j^ yaz'sa imisMer, 

If I had written (as others say) . . . 

vIjUIL* Muta-la-at: Remarks. 

§ 381. a. The Conjunction p. y\ eyer 'if, is, so 
to speak, included in the Suppositive Tense, as the 

-characteristic sign of this tense a-- -se has the meaning 

if, but it can be and often is used together with it, 
especially for the sake of emphasis; as: 

^A.... t\\».^\ eyir chalîshmasaü, or chalishmasaü If you do not try. 

§ 382. b. If the Suppositive tenses are used with 
^^^Clb Jcmski, they are regarded as Optative. If they 
are used with y\ eyer\ they become Suppositive; as: 

Ktashki on ghourou^hourn olsa! that I had ten piastres! 
Eyer on ghouroushoum oVsa, If I had ten piastres. 
K%ashki erkin gelseyidim! that I had come earlier 1 
Eyer erken gelseyidim. If I had come earlier. 

§ 383. c. The Optative of the auxiliary verb jljl 

clmaq ^to become, to have' is used with the third per- 
son Dubitative and Future of any verb, to express the 
Suppositive; as: 

Turkish Cony.-Orammar. 12 

178 rn ltJ^ Lesson 26. fVA 

KI had 

yazmîsh oVsam, — oVaafi, — oVsa, etc. 
yazmîsh olsayidîm, —oUayîdîü, — olsayidî, etc. 

yazajaq oVsam, yazajaq oVsaü Uf ı am about to read. 

yazajaq oîsa'yîdîniy yazajaq oîsayidîü 

Ji\İ4 Misaller Examples. 

Dûn bize gelmish oUaytdintz, amoujamî georûrûdûûûe. 
If you had come to us yesterday, you would have seen my unclft. 
Ma'asMnîzt alajaq oîsafiîZj horjouüouzou veriûiz. 
If you receive your salary, pay your debts. 

JCii Words. 

a. A>U selam salutation '^jt^ ^*^^^ inkstand 

a. 4âJ^ daqiqa minute aL Mid even, though 

j^ljjlL dariZmaq; to be offended ^^ aH nd dimek! certainly!! 

^JU> Exercise 55. 


j> r . (i^jvLooJii^ fJ^ji dUiiT'o j--,jl (*lii.l o/"jt 0^ 

IY^ The Suppositive Tense. 179 

0^ A^t-j Translation 56. 

1. Where will he go? — If he finds a horse he will 
go to the forests. 2. Had we been walking in the street, 
we should have been seen. 3. May I bring my ink- 
stand here? 4. K you write to your mother, give her 
(say to her) my compliments (salutations). 5. Had we 
stayed there for a minute, we should have seen the 
Governor-general and the governor, 6. Although you 
bring the grapes, I may not eat them. 7. Should you 
want money, take them to the city and sell them. 
8. Were the merchant to send the goods now, I should 
use them to-day. 9. I believe that, if they were here 
now, we could sell them here. 10. If I take your pen 
for a moment, will you be offended? — No, Sir, you 
may use it as long as you wish. 11. May he bring 
his younger brother with him? — Certainly; if he 
brings him, my children will be very glad. 

^Ij^ Oonyersation. 

^^ «k «• * •• •^•» ^^ mm m 

Reading Exercise. 

^■^A') ^3 X *^-jJ' j^ ^ Sermon of Naar-ed-din 

Words. 1. a. ma had continued. 


180 rv ltJİ Lesson 27. ^^♦ 

« V4Jİ-J %.,».^ ' 3-?^ ;< .>,.^» 0^3^! r /^--^*^ dttl?" • jbt-^ 

••»•-^♦.^ '«^•-^^•1 •»-'•Vi^^^ • '^ 

2. mdraq curiosity. 3. qarar virmek to decide. 4. bilinUriHis 
those who know among you (§ 407). 

vv ^5^^> Lesson 27. 

The Necessitative Tense. 

§ 384. The Necessitative Tense indicates necessity, 
obligation and duty, that an action must or ought to 
take place. 

The characteristic sign of this tense is Jl« ' ^^AA 

-meli with the soft and ^^U -malî with the hard 
verbs. This termination is added to the root. 

^^Xaj^ * V^^ Î J<^^ sivmeW He must love (if is necessary). 

3^'j\ * Vjl i JUJL yazmaW He must write (that is his duty). 

§ 385. 
1. Indicative Necessitative. ajijLİ-I c^j>-j 

SKy The Neceseitative Tense. 181 

j3 d^j^ UvmMi' dir^ J^-^^j^ sevinilirdirler. 

I must love, or, ought to love, or, am to love, etc. 

Negative and Interrogative. 

Jjk<s*j»j^ * 0^«JL<«<>ij.^ ' jxIaAaaaj^ \ I must or ought not 
8ev memeliyim y sivmimelisin^ siv'mimelidir] love. 

^ (i-u^ sivmeW miyim? Ought I to love? Must I love? 

^ i^^AAj^ sev'mimelimiyim? Ought I not to love? Must I not 
^" love? 

§ 386. Note, In some regions of Turkey the 
people make a wrong use of the third person phiral 
as sevmeliler^ instead of the regular seomeli dirUr, 

2. Assertive Necessitative. J^y^j il5C^ 

§ 387. The Assertive Necessitative (which is call- 
ed by some grammarians Past Necessitative) expresses 
that it was necessary or right that an action should 
have taken place, or that one was forced to perform 
some act; as: 

iljJU^^jji dûn' gelmeliyidiH You ought to have come 
^ ' ^ yesterday. 

jSo.LUT} <fSjk mektebi gitmeli' yidiHiz 1. You ought to have 

gone to the school. 2. You were obliged to go to the school. 
3. You were to go to the school. 4. You should have gone to 
the school. 

§ 388. It is the Past tense of must, which is 
w^anting in English, and corresponds to the German 

AjJUjii yazmalî'yîdîm, iİjJUjLı yazmalı yîdîç[y 

iJjJUjİj yazmalı yîdîfi, j^jJLjlj yazmalı yidiMz, 

(ijJUjLı yazmaU'yîdi, J^-^^3^ yazmali'yidîlar. 

I ought to have written. It was necessary that I should write. 
ajJULjIj yaz'mamalîyîdım I ought not to have written. 

§ 389. 

3, Narrative Necessitative. J.y^J *^'->-> 

P^\ (il*jlj yazmaW yîmîsMmy J>^i J^J^ yazmcUt imishiZy 

182 rv ltJ^ Lesson 27. lAf 

û;v-JLti JUjlj ya^maW twisTism, j^-^\ JUjlj j^a^rmaZi' îmM^^û, 

tpti J^jt yazmalV imishf JLiti JUjL yaemdlî' imishlir. 

(They say that) I ought to have written. 

§ 390. 

4. Conditional Necessitative. (4j>-j ^J^J^ 

p— il JIO^ yazmalı isinim ^^^ J^J^ yazmalt isik, 

i)4^\ Jlij^ yazmaW isSü^ J^'^,\ Jl*j'i yo^rwiaW isifiiz, 

<-j\ JUJI yazmaW isi, J<^\ J^j^ ya^rmaW m^îA*. 

If it is necessary for me to write, etc. 

OULL* Muta-la-at: Remarks. 

§ 391. a. Instead of using this Neeessitative form, 
some words may be used to denote obligation and necessity 
together with the Substantive verb, such words are: 

a. ^jV lazîfn necessary. A^ giriJc necessary, requisite, 

a. jjf<^ mijbour obliged. a. Udl iqtiza requisite, 

a. <^^\j vajib' necessary. a. t_Jx:ju mouqtazt necessary. 

Yazmalı dîr, is expressed by yazmasî laztm\ girik\ vai\h\ 
mouqtazidir; or, yazmagha mijbourdour; yazmast iqtiza ^dir. 

§ 392. b. When one verb follows another on 
which it depends and with which it is connected by 
that, expressed or understood, the use of the conjunction 

^ M between them is frequently avoided by employing 

the word jO ' ^^ deyi 'saying'. 

It is used also after all kinds of quotations. 

oj-JS^<r^ı5Jûj\ ^\ or (SXj\ ^\ jji ojJ^Smr etdi hi gilsin, 
or, gelsin diyi imr etdi. He ordered him to come. 

g^stirdi ki otoursoun^ or, otoursoun diyi yir gibstirdi. He showed 
him a place to sit. 

j^--ijAc.U. jji "Jf'' ^^ iJU bdbaü sini gil diyi chaghifiyor. 

Your father is calling you to come (i.e. saying Gomel). 

§ 393. c. The English verb 'To Have' when followed 
by an infinitive, expresses an obligation or necessity: 

lAr The NecesBİtative Tense. 183 

therefore the two verbs together are translated into 
Turkish by the Necessitative tense or by the obligatory 
words (§ 391). 

I have to write a letter. 1. Bin bir miktoub' yazmalıyım. 
J2, Bir mektoub' yazmagha mijbouroum. 3. Bir miktoub' yazmaq- 
UgMm iqtiza idir. 

I have to learn my lesson. 1. Dersimi idyrinmÜlıyim. 
2. DSrs ^yrinmekliyim lazXm dtr, gerek'dir, vajib'dir, iqtiza idir, 
mouqtazi'dir etc. 

§ 394. d. When the object of the finite verb in 
such sentences comes before the infinitive, the sentence 
does not denote obligation, but possession. It must 
therefore be rendered in Turkish either by the Future 
Participle (§ 408) or by the Infinitive Dative or Nomi- 
natival with om\ ichin ^for'; as: 

He has a book to read. 1. Oqouyajaq bir kitabı var. 
2, Oqoumagha bir kitabî' var. 3. Oqoumaq ichin bir kitabî' var. 

JCİÎ Words. 

^iJL-i^ geymek to put on ^^y. ltjİ bosh boshouna in yain 

p. ajl-İ dişti quire (of paper) wL^JLj bislimek to feed 

jisy qoutou box a. Uik* mout'laqa absolutely 

^3«V<*lj yamalamaq to mend *jX yama patch 

«^^jJ tizkiri a note a. »iU mani obstacle. 

OV Jui Exercise 57. 

JL^,I y^:> j^ 3j"ll j: aj o-yj^ ^ 'M c^L* J, ISlk. 
^:^ a:>\ o • •JdJicl Jjl ^s^L.j '51^1 .>ajI 4İ i • jj3 

184 rv L-rj3 Lesson 27. tAt 

^*jii j; ^^ö-J^i i!j5C:-j3 ^ • jlaJ <^llT o/U Jî OjA^y ^y 

. (§§ rM ' t • A) jlj ^<0JP jj j^4^y 

OA A;^J? Translation 58. 

1. You must have come to us as soon as you had 
heard this uews. 2. What shall I do? — If you have 
not learnt your lesson, you should learn it now. 3. What 
had your wife to do? — She had to write a note. 4. Have 
they to go this way? — No, Sir, they are to go the 
other way. 5. Who has to work all the day? — The 
poor man has to work all the day. 6. Who had to give 
all his money. — The baker had to give all his money. 
7. What have you to do to-day? — I have to write a 
letter. 8. What has the shoemaker to do? — The 
shoemaker has to mend my shoes. 9. Am I obliged 
to come here? — Yes, you must come, your coming 
is necessary. 10. The teacher called the pupils, saying. 

Aİ|^ Conyersation, 

? ^*JUUVU 

? J-V ^\^ J^-^^ J^O^i •f'^ ^. Cur 
Î jÜ^^^f^'Sl oj\ -Jy Alii iT J^ dUo/jJ ^. I J.JJİ1 djjjij. ( j^ 

lAe The Participles. 185 

J^\^ /i-AjJ Reading Exercise. 

^^^ji dbA>.lji. The Marriage of the Teacher. 

J(S3^j\ ' ^j:> 'o-aJ^W oX^\j\Jİ4^\ . * lj:j3 a:-^j3jT dUjİ 

! *dlo 4İ Î ^ji\ J-^yJ^ '^^h^ ^jy^ ^^> >J^ 

• *^J:^jtjjS ^Ji\ ^^y y 

Words. 1. &as^î bouzoulwaq (to be put out of order) =: to 
be a widower. 2. to be anxious. 3. aditden oh" to be usual. 
4. ydbanji stranger. 5. to veil. 6. to cause to swallow, to deceive. 
7. ^rtû veil. 8. nS dM! (what do you say) = what wonder! 9. adSta 
simply; really. 10. his soul was oppressed = he was angry. 
11. to unveil (her face). 12. to veil. 13. Sda arrogance. 14. birS 
qart now then, woman! 15. dinini sMrs^fl if you love your soul 
= please! 16. he could scarcely get rid of her. 

YA ^^c> Lesson 28. 

^ Ç.J The Participles. 

§ 395. There is no Relative Pronoun in Turkish 
corresponding to the English who, which, or that. 

186 TA u^j^ Lesson 28. I An 

These are always accompanied by a verb in English. 
In Turkish the Subjective and Objective Participles of 
the verb take the place of both the Relative and 
the verb. 

§ 396. Note, This peculiarity is the most charac- 
teristic, and at the same time the most beautiful fea- 
ture in the Turkish language, though foreigners 
and even natives of Turkey, whose mother-tongue is 
not Turkish, are often guilty of infringing it, and are 
frequently in utter ignorance of its value and meaning. 
For instance, bent seven adem ^the me -loving man'; ot 
yeyen at 'the grass -eating horse': are equivalent to *the 
man who loves me' and 'the horse which eats grass'. 
The great number of Participles derived from the Tur- 
kish verb enables a very great degree of precision to 
be given to this construction. 

§ 397. The only Relative Pronoun in Turkish &«, 
^meaning 'who, which, that, what' is not Turkish 

in origin, it is Persian. This word, fci, is never used in 
correct Turkish, though employed in translated Persian 
and Arabic sentences. It is also used by foreigners. 

§ 398. The Participles may be divided into two 
classes or moods: Subjective and Objective. 

1. Subjective Mood. 

§ 399. The Subjective Participles are those which 
are composed of the subject, (the nominative case of 
who^ which, that, tvhat) and the verb. They are derived 
both from active and from neuter or passive verbs. 
In the first case they are called Active Participle (Ismi 
Fayil) and in the second Passive Participle (Ismi Mefrni). 
The Active Participle corresponds to the Present Participle 
and the Passive Participle to the Past Participle of the 
English Grammar. 

§ 400. The Subjective Active and the Subjective 
Passive Participles have seven tenses each: 

§ 401. Subjective Active Participle. J^\i ^1 

Present: oü^ yazan who writes, writer, writing (adjectival). 
Aorist: j\j^ yazar one who writes, writing » 

Past: l5-^3^ yazdiq one who wrote. 


The Participles. 


Dubitative: u^-j^ yazmîsh one who has written. 

Pluperfect: CS^j\ ^j\ yazmîsh olan one who had written. 

Future: J?**-^^ yazajaq one who will write. 

Past Future: oij\ j^O^ yazajaq olan one who is (about) to 



Dubitative : 
Future : 

§ 402. Subjective Passive Participle. J^ ^ 

is being 

jj^^jjl yazılan 
^ijjli yazîlîr 
jjjjjlj yazUdtq 
jjiljlj yazîlmîsh 





J)lj\ jjil jlj yazîlmîsh olan £ 

j>.<Ljlj yazıla jaq 
Past Future : öVji J>-<ii3^ yazıla Jaq olan 

The Negatives are: o^^J^ yazmayan, 
jjljlljlj yazUmayan, Oı^-^j- sMltnSySn, ete. 

may be 


has been 

had been 

will be 

is (about) to be 

^^.<-•^^ sSvniSyen, 

sliUIlia^ Muta-la-at: Remarks. 

§ 403. I. The Present Active Participle is appli- 
cable either to the present or to the past; as: 

^^1 oO^ yazan adim, means either *the writing man, the 
man who writes, the man who is writing', and *the man who wrote'. 

§ 404. II. The Aorist Participle means 'whose 
nature or business is to write' or 'who is willing to 
write'; as: 

r^\ J*. j\J\ jyj^ oqour yazar hir adim *a man who can read 
and write, a literary man'. 

J^ J^jjJ^ jyjjj^ g^rûnûr gâ^rûnmSz shSylir 'things which 
can be seen and cannot be seen, i. e. visible and invisible things'. 

§ 405. in. The Negative of the Past Participle 
is more used than the AflBrmative: 

jjijj 4...» jT^il^^^^ (ij- * J^ r^\ ^. y\ J- siz iyi hir adim 

sifliz, sizi sivmidik kimsi yoq dour. You are a good man, there 
is nobody who does not love you. 

188 TA ltJ^ Lesson 28. f AA 

§ 406. IV. Only the Present, the Pluperfect and 
the Past Future tenses are used either as the subject or 
as the adjective qualifying the subject of a sentence. 
The remaining four tenses are always used as adjec- 
tives qualifying the subject (§§ 71, 417, 423). 

mektotibou yazan, yazajaqolan, yazmish olan zat kirn' dir? Who i» 
the person who wrote this letter? or * o)lj\ J^O^ * oU^ tAj*^ JÎ 

jx^f^ (j)Ij\ (jt-jij bou mektoubou yazan, yazajaq olan, yazmUh 
olan kim dir? Who is the writer of this letter? 

§ 407. V. Therefore, these three tenses, when 
used as subjects, are declined like substantives, either 
alone or with pronominal aflBxes. 

N. oO^ yazan A. JljLi yazanı 

G. *^ljlj yazanîû of — L. oJJ\j^ yazanda in — 

D. <Ij>^i yazana to — A. oJiiljlj yazandan from — 

The person writing, the writer. 
Also: js.\jl * J^'ljli ' (ijiljli \ The writer amoDg ns, 

yazanîmîz, yazanînîz, yazanlarî \ ^^"' ®™' 

§ 408. VI. In English, when the object of the 
verb falls between the verb 'to have' and the Infini- 
tive, it may be rendered into Turkish by the Future 
Participle (§ 393). 

jjiji ^S^\ ^^<^ y^y^jck ekmSyi yoq dour. He has no bread 
to eat. 

§ 409. Vn. The Aorist, Past, Dubitative and 
Future Participles are the same in spelling and pro- 
nunciation with those of the Indicative Mood. It is 
very easy to distinguish them, and there is one absolute 
rule: If it is^Indicative Mood, it must always stand at 
the end of the sentence, because verbs are always put 
at the end of the sentence. If it is a Participle, as a 
subject or a modifier of the subject, it must precede 
the verb in any case: 

? ^y>^cJJ^J\ X'o^jl ji bou Svdi fctw' otounnjaq? Who wiD 
dwell in this house? 

tA^ The Participles. 189 

?j^ >^4— .•.i''^j».*j^j\ •ij\ jt bou SvdS €^€mrajaq kimse 
kim dir? Who is the man, who will dwell in this house? 

vljllj^ Tatbiqat: Comparison. 


§ 410. The order of construction in Turkish is 
just the opposite of English. In English the Antece- 
dent (subject) begins the sentence, then comes the Relative 
Clause and thirdly the Verb (or predicate); or the Verb, 
Antecedent and Relative Clause. But in Turkish the 
order is always the same: first Relative Clause, then 
the Antecedent, and third the Verb. 

antecedent relative clause verb 

1. The man who came now is blind. 

relative clause antecedent verb 

Shimdi gelen adem Tcebr dur. 

verb antec. relative clause 

2. These are the boys who did not learn their lessons. 

relative clause ant. verb 

■ - "^ 

Derslerini eoyrenmeyen chqjouqlar hounlar dır. 

3. There is nobody (who does not love you). 
(Sizi sevmedik) kimse yoqdour, 

4. (Those who have gone to and come) from India. 
Hindistana (gitmish ve gelmisk olanlar), 

5. I saw the man (whose house is big). 
(Evi hSynk olan) ademi gedrdûm. 

6. A woman (whose eyes are blind). 
(GSderi kSr olan) bir qarî, 

7. A horse (that runs fast). 
(Chapouq seyirdir) bir at. 

8. A man (who is not fit for anything). 
(Bir ishe yaramam) bir adem, 

9. A letter (the address of which is not written). 
(ûstû yazîlmamîsh /or yazilmadiqj) bir mektoub. 

10. There was a man there (whose hand was 

Orada (eli qouroumoush olan) bir adem var idî, 

11. The merchant (who has to come [or will come] 

(yarîn gelejek /or gelejek olan]) tûj'jar. 

190 TA ur-J^ Lesson 28. }\^^ 

12. [Those who know among us], will teach (those 

who do not know among you). 
[Bilevderimiz] (bilmeyenlerifiiee) e^red^eJdSr. 

13. Who is the man (who will call the servant?) 
(Khwmethtarl chagMrajaq olan) adem Mm dir? 

14. I have (nothing to be afraid of). 
(Qorqajaq bir sheyim) yoq dour. 

JüJ Words. 

^li balta an axe a. >\j hela evil 

^^^ lUsir adze JL h^l'li known, perceptible 

aJ * aj i dipe hill, top sUU^JUç^^ gSchilijek passable, fordable 

a. olsl^ mûkiafat prize ^.JS^o-^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ to be able to do 

Ja-Jji olajaq hopeful J^j\ olmaq to become 
viJLJj ySnmeJc to be eaten "--^^ yetmek to ripen 

jLG qaynar boiling 7r/^url^ ^^'^ W occupation. 

0^ ^ai Exercise 59. 

•• • ^^ •• ^^ •• ^^ ^ g0 * ^^ •^ 

^ ♦ ^JUi Exercise 60. 

I«M The Participles. 191 

1\ Ajt^j Translation 61. 

1. The man who died yesterday morning, was your 
eighbour. 2. What have you? — I have a book, on 
he cover of which there is a beautiful yellow picture. 
. What do you see? — 4. I see the baker who bakes 
read. 5. If you have seen the horse one of whose 
yes is blind, it is not ours. 6. The adze cuts the 
rood. 7. Boys! do not be afraid, there is nothing to 
e feared. 8. It is a statement which cannot be believed. 
- No, Sir, it is a credible statement. 9. Have you any- 
bing to say to me? — I have nothing to say to you. 
0. Whoever knows himself, knows a great deal (many 
bings). 11. Is this the lady whose sister is sick? — 
Id, she is the lady whose father is sick. 12. This 
illager is not a man who does not know anything^ 
e is a man who reads and writes. 

aIISv* Conyersation. 

192 rA urji Lesson 28. }\r 

. j^ ;l^ ^3^ r*w^i> -^^j^ oVÎ JI^K;^ iS^^, oJj:^ Al-ji 

. -Jj\ Jl^^, oJiU ! pLj ^ o^^ ^.^^ viJj ^ 4^. 
,J1^I i j^J Reading Exercise. 

dLy^ oj\ ^ To hang flour on a line. 

Words, 1. Who does not pay his debt. Who does not 
know his limits i. e. conceited. 2. muraja-at H," to appeal. 3. oar 
children, the woman of the household (these names are applied 
to the women in the Har^m). 4. chamasMr household lineo. 

5. sermek to hang up in full length and breadth on a line. 

6. clothes-line. 7. ne olourf a common term for 'If you please'. 
8. to implore. 9. let us come that = unfortunately. 10 qadaith 
aZsin may your misfortune befall on it! = nothing at alii 11. «/ 
olour ki! not worth mentioning. 12. the other one. 13. yet 
14. the case. 15. ni diyofi? tor diyor soun. What are you saying? 

İM- The Participles. 198 

'"■i ll<u.Mrî ! ^j- -o» JX3\ *>.\J~ '■ .jûSCjûI "jI ^I yi 

. .* * 1 18 ;_ , »T 

16. ısrar e^" to insist. 17. afilasafi' n^? why do you not 
understand? 18. dSf et" to repel, expel. 

^ "^ u^t> Lesson 29. 

The Participles. (Continued.) 
2. Objective Mood. a1^ k^L^ Sîygheyi SUe. 

§ 411. The Objective Participles are those which 
combine the meanings of the obHque cases of the 
Relative Pronouns (i. e. 'whom, which, that, what', governed 
by the words of, to, on, in, out of, from, by, with) 
md where with that of the verb. They are derived 
from every kind of verbs, whether Active, Neuter or 

§ 412. The Objective Participles are formed by the 
addition of possessive suffixes to the Past, Pluperfect, 
Future and Past Future tenses of the Subjective Parti- 
'iple (§§ 401—402). These are used as objects or as 
idjectives qaaHfying the objects. 

Subjective Participle. 

Past: 3^J^^ yazdiq 

Pluperfect: J)ij\ u^j^ yazmîsh olan 

Future: J^*3^i yazajaq 

Past Future: Jij\ J^O^ yazajaq olan 

The person who wrote; who had written . . . 

Objective Participle. 

Past: >l^j^ yazdîghîm 

Pluperfect: >i-J^ji cAO^i yazmîsh oldoughoum 

Future: y^O^ yazajagMm 

Taikish Conv. -Grammar. 13 

194 r^ u^j^ Lesson 29. \\\, 

Past Future: >-^jl (J?**-^^ yazajaq oldoughoum 
The thiug which I wrote, which I shall write .•• 

§ 413. Objective Past Tense. -Jl^ ^U 

Per. 1. >i-^3^ yazdtghim', rJ^^^k yazdiqlarim r 

2. *^->3^ yazdighiü\ ^JS^jli yazdîqlar\9f r 

3. (J^^^J\ yazdîghî', ı^JS^jİj yazd^larî\ 

1. j^jjlj yazdîghîmız\ JsJ^-^-İ^ ya^fdlgianinw', 

2. j^^ijlj yazdîghînîz, J^J^^3^ yojpdl^ZaHiîi?', 

That which I, he, we, you, they wrote. Those which I, you . . . WTOte. 

§ 414. Pluperfect. ^ ^U \<^ 

ft-^J^ u^jli yazmtsh' oldoughoum. 1 jh^t which I, yon, 
c5j5jJjl J^j\i yazmish' oldouqlart. j ^^^y ' ' • ^»^^ ^"*^"' 

§ 415. Future. A^ Lil*^ 

Per. 1. v^O^ yazajdghtm , ^Jje^ojl yazajaqlartm\ 

2. dLo-O^ yazajagMn, 4J^0^ yazc^aqlatifi\ 

3. (>^•j^ yazajaghi\ <ij^0^ ycusc^aqlcuf, 

1. j.»-i»-*jlj yazajaghhnîz'y jtJU>.0^ yazajaqlariw^e, 

2. j^jo-ojlj yazajaghiniz', j5CjU>.»jl. yazajtiqlarHiW, 

3. i^JLto-O^ yazajaqlart, (ij^»j^ yazaj(iqlafi\ 
That which I shall write . . . Those which I shall write... 

§ 416. Past Future. ^^ , Lil^ 4i 15C>. 

^.Jj\ J»^01i 2/a2:aja2' oldoughoum. | rphat which I, we shall 
j^jJji Ja-O*; yazajaq; oldoughoumouz.\ *^*^'® written . . . 

vliUlL^ Mtita-la-at Remarks. 

§ 417. I. The plural forms (yazdiqlarim\ yazqjaq- 
larim) are never used as adjectives in the plural to 

D The Participles. 195 

alify plural nouns, since adjectives when they qualify 
uns do not take the plural termination (§§ 71, 423). 

§ 418. n. The Objective Future Participle first 
rson and the Indicative Future first person are the same 
spelling, but in pronunciation and use are different, 
the word is a participle, it is never found at the 
d of the sentence, and it is accented on the last syl- 
)le, but if it be the Indicative, it must be put at the 
d of the sentence and is accented on the penultimate» 

Bir mektouh yazojaghîm. I shall write a letter. 
Yazajaghîm' melctoüb. The letter which I shall write. 

Comparison. c^g.^JaT 


1. This is (the book which I read). 
(Oqoudoughoum Jcitab) bou dour. 

Note. The verb is first person, the Past Part, is first person. 

2. The cook will bake (the food which you like). 
Ashjî (sevdiyin yemeyi) pishirejek. 

3. Where is (the letter which I have w^ritten) yes- 

DunJci (yaizmish oldoughoum mektouh) nerede dir? 

4. This is (the word which they spoke). 
(Söyledikleri seoz) bou dour. 

5. (The money which he gained) is ten piastres. 
(Qa^andtghl para) on ghouroush dour. 

6. The medicine [ace] (which the sick person drank). 
01 hastanın (ichdiyi ilaji [ace. p. 

7. The house (in which you are dwelling) now (loc). 
Shimdi (otourdoughoufiouz) ev. 

8. The man (whose house [ace] we rented), is dead 
(E'vini hirdladîghîmız) adem Sîmûsh dur. 

9. The lesson (which I shall [or have to] learn}. 
(eoyrenejeyim /or ^yrenejek' oldoughoum] ders. 

10. Do you know (the road [ace] which we shall 

go) to-morrow? 
Yarın (gidejeyimiiz [or gidejek oldoughoumouz]} 
yolou hilirmisifiiz? 

11. (The water with which [Inst.]) the master washed 

E ff en dinin (yzyqandtght) sou. 


196 r^ u^j^ Lesson 29. \\^ 

12. The Teacher cut (the branch on which [loc] he 
was sitting). 
Hoja (otourdoughou dalî) Jcesdi, 

The Declinable Objective Participles. 

§ 419. K the Substantive which is the object in 
the sentence is omitted and the participle is used alone 
as an object, then the four tenses of the Objective Par- 
ticiple are declined according to the case and person 
of the object and the person of the verb in the Relative 
clause (§ 410). 

§ 420. For instance jJ^^c^^^C* Jo^^j\i^ /»i benim 

ya^dîglmn mektoubou gander, 'send the letter which I 
wrote', here the object (mektoubou) is in the Accusative, 
the subject first person (benim) and the tense past (yası- 

dîghîm). But if I say J^y fj^^^j^ ^. benim yaedîghîmİ 

geonder^ 'send what I wrote', the meaning is the same, 
but the Participle takes the accusative termination, 
because the noun is omitted. 

§ 421. The case is just the same with the adjec- 
tives also; I can say (»joj^ (^JU^I (J^ eyi ademlert se- 
verim^ I like the good people : It is possible again to say 

(*jo^ (Sj^} Eyileri severim I like the good (ones), omit- 
ting the Substantive. 

§ 422. The addition of the possessive endings 
imphes a possessor. The possessor is put in the Geni- 
tive case and forms the Subject in the English sentence. 
It is not always inserted, the terminations of the Ob- 
jective participle being substitutes for it. /^^j^» /^j 

benim yazdîghhn is equal to j^^jl) yazdightm'; the en- 
ding showing the person and the number (§ 102). 

§ 423. The singular nominative is used both as an 
object and as an adjective qualifying the object, but the 
other cases, as well as the plural nominative of Past 
and Future Objectives, are never to be used as adjectives, 
but as Substantive object: it is not permitted to say 


The Participles. 


^^»i^J\i £<} benim ya^dîghîmî mektoubou or ^Ji^j\ f^\ 
(Sjiy-^^ benim ya^dîglarîm mektoublarî; but ^yj\ ^, 
^pC or (i>./.<^ ^yj\i ^. and ^i^jl ^. benim 
ya^dîghîmı or cJlİ33|;ı J^. 6e^^iw2/ö^^^«2^anm^(§§406,417). 

Past Tense. aU> Jd\a Maziyi SUe. 

First Person Singular. IS^ MuteketUm, 

N. y^-^j^ yazdtgMrn 

G. »UU-ii jij^ yazdîghîmîfl' of — 

D. ^u-ijjıjlj yazdîghima' to — 

A. j^oj^ yazdîgMmV 

L. ojL>,*ojli yazdîghtmda in — 

A. oJ^^-fi-^J^ yazdtghîmdan from — 

First Person Plural. 

N. j^jüijlj yazdîghîmîz' 

G. ilj^ijlj yazdîghîmîzîfı of — 

D. oj^ijL ı/a;8rdl^/itml;?a' to — 

A. (^j*jü>3^ ya;2;dî^/ıîiMÎ;2rf 

L. oij^juijL ya^rdfi^MmİjsreZa' in — 

A. o^J^^J^ yazdîghimizdan from — 


That which I wrote, what 
I wrote, my writing. 

That which we wrote, 

what we wrote, 

our writing . . . 

Second Person. ,^J^U^ MouJchatab. 

N. *lJl>o^^ sSvdiyin J>^^^j^ sivdiyifiiz 

G. ♦iixiC^^^ sivdiyiyiü of — iljx>i^j- sSvdiyifiizin of — 

D. Ayj^i^^j^ sicdiyifiS to — »j^^i^^j^ sivdiyifiiz^ to — 

That which thou lovedst, you loved; their, your loving . . . 

Third Person. ^Ip Ghayib. 

N. t>«i^yji oqoudoughou" 

iSji:>yj\ oqoudmtqlan 

198 r^ o-J^ Lesson 29. t^ 

G, ^i\:^:tjij\oqoudoughounoufi' of- NİİlıJlîyjl ogoueîougîann»*' of- 
D. 4lj»j ^5ji oqoudoughouna to - ^^Ji:^yj\ oqoudouqlarina to -, etc 
That which he read. What they read, tbeur reading... 

Future Tense. aU> J,I:^.^ MusttiqMU 8ÎU. 

First Person. İ<Za 

N . M». ftjlj yazajaghtm J^"?" 0^ yasajaghîmîz' 

G. »iL-i*.«jlı ya^fajo^/iîmt^' of — ilj^». ojl ^a£raja^7ilmİ£«A' of — 
D. 4^-ıia.ftj^2/ö^aİaö''tî»î«' to — ö^^j».»j\jyazajaghîmîza to — 

A. ^jf^oj\jyazajagMmi ıSJ-^»j^^yazajaghîmîzî' 

L. 9j^i>-oj\iyazajaghîmda in — o^J^^-O^^^^^/^^^^''^^'^^^' iû — 
A. oJw*-*»-»j^ yazajaghîmdan from - jj^j^Jö^ojL yazajaghîmîzdan' from 
That which I shall write, what I shall write; My writing . . . 

Second Person. ,^J^U^ 

N. vÜ^ş-aL hiUjiyiü' J>S^6İ^ hilijiyifiiz 

G. ^t^^^^\^ UUjiyiyin of - ilj<^<L UUi^yifiizifC of - 

1). 4X>>.^ hüdjdyine' to — ojS^».^ biUjSyifiize to — 

A. ^^xix>-^ hiUjiyifii' c5J^İx».4JLj büSj^ifiizı 

L. «a^So-aL hiUjiyifide in — o^jx>»-4JLi biUjSyifiizde in — 

A. o-^^>^^ hUij^yifidin from — o^J^^^^ hüijiyiüizdin from — 
What thou, you will know. Thy, your knowledge . . . 

Third Person. ^Ip 

N. Jo^O^yfl-s^öyofl''»^' (^Jllwojlj yazajaqlarf 

G. vlJLjö.ftJİj yazajaghînîü' of — sUb JlSa-ojlj ^ai^ajagZarlnt^' of — 
D. *Z.s>.6j\jyazajaghina to — oJLU-ojlj yazajaqlarina to — 
A. ^^»'ojlyazajagMni' tilJ^*^^ ya;2;ajagZarinl' 

L. »JlLa^ojIj ?/ajsraja^/iin(2a' in — •Jüjii».«jlj ya^^ajagZarlnela' in — 

A. ^JlJc>^oj\iyazajaghîndan from- jjjjjlto.«jlj ı/a;?ajagZarİ9u{an' from 
What he, they will write. His, their writing . . . 

I^^ The Participles. 199 

§ 424. Four important gerunds are obtained from 
the Declinable Objective Participles. 

§ 425. The Tenth Gerund, The Dative case of 
the Objective Future Participle is used as a gerund: 
it then corresponds to the phrases 'instead of, rather 
than'; as: 

AjOii <xi.\ -u^-Oli a7\ jj. h^n ata hinijSyimi SsMyi hinirim, 
I would rather ride a donkey than a horse. 

§ 426. The Fourth Gerund. The Locative case 
of the Objective Past Participles, when used as a gerund, 
indicates the time of an action, when an action is per- 

iJ^Aj {SJ^^^i oJû^jJS^JyL** mûsafirUr geldiyindi ySmSyi- 

mizi ySdik, When the guests arrived we dined; or, the guests 
having arrived we dined; or, the guests arriving we dined; or, 
on the arrival of the guests we dined. 

§ 427. The Twelfth Gerund. The Ablative case 
of Past and Future Participles is used as a gerund, and 
indicates the reason why some other action is performed? 
The doer of the first is indicated by the possessive 
affixes; as: 

t5^*-^IS^6-J^»J^ V^^ N"H jP^^^^^ mSJctouh yazajaghtndan 

gelmedi. My father did not come, because he was about to write 
a letter. 

{S^^^,j ^\j^ (j-Xl^^^uJulii j\ %shitm4diy%nd4njivdbv4rmid%. 

Owing to his not having heard he did not answer. 

§ 428. The Third Gerund. If ^< gtbi is added 

to the nominative of the Objective Participle, another 
gerund is obtained, which means 'as soon as'. 

^l». Ji ^f^ ^j!^ ^i\t\^j3 qardashiii geVdiyi ffibih^ni chaghtr. 
Call me as soon as your brother comes (§§ 334, 431). 

§ 429. As we have already seen, the Dative, Ab- 
lative and Locative cases of the Objective Participles 
have two meanings : one as a participle, the other as a 
gerund. This identity must not escape the student. 
But it is very easy to distinguish them, as the subject 
of the gerund is always in the nominative, while that 

200 r^ o-J^ Lesson 29. r** 

of the participle is in the genitive. Therefore confusion 
is scarcely possible when the words are used in a sen- 
tence. (See the examples 5 — 8.) 

Comparison. CjHJ» 


1 . Give me the account (of whatever you have 

{Sizin satîn dldîghînuîn) hisabînî bafıa verifiie. 

2. The guest does not eat (what he expects), but 

eats (what he finds). 
Musafir (oumdoughounou) yenie^^ (bouldoughm- 
nou) yer, 

3. Put in the bag (whatever you [will] find). 
(Boulajaghînîd) torbaya qoyoufi. 

4. Have you anything to say ([of] what the boy 

wrote) ? 
Ghojoughoufi (yasdighina) bir deyejeyîfiiz' var mî? 

5a. I have no doubt (that you will do) this nicely. 
SSnin bounou gu^elje (yapajaghîûa) shûb'hSm yoq^ 

5b. (Instead of doing) the wrong, do the best. 
86n kedttîyû (yapajaghîûa), eyiyi yap. 

6a. There is no deficiency (in what I sold). 
Senim (satdîghîmda) bir qousour yoq dowr. 

6b. (Whenever I sell) your property, I will give you 
your money. 
£^ malifii (satdîghîmda) parafiî veririm, 

7a. I had no news (of his being ill [that he was ill]). 
Onouh hasta (oldoughoundan) haberim yoghoudau. 

7b. My mother could not come here (because she 
was ill). 
ValidSm hasta (oldoughoundan) bouraya g&hnSdi, 

8a. My father did not know (that you were about 
to come) here. 
Sizin bouraya (gelejeyifiiisdenj babamifi hdbM 

8b. We could not go there (because we had to oome 
£iz bouraya (gel^eyimiisden) oraya gidimidii^ 

r«l The Participles. 201 

JÜJ Words. 

't^^\ âyûtmik to grind a. r-jj rouh Spirit 

a. «ÜLjjİ s....aB^ Uajjub it" to marvel a. v^^^ alamit sign 
a. wUjL* maZumaj knowledge ^t^'iJj^ charhaji Mr. 
a. ^U- A^AaÜr memory t.p. »^\j^i hiyzad4 nobleman. 

1 A conventional title applied to Christian notables, bankers, 
merchants, etc. 

AY Jul Exercise 62. 

. ju^. ^^jji ji/5i ^, • ^pL 3<Lajji ^^^j > 

iljUlj^ r . 0^3 iijG-Jj' siUteJ fljlcT. ^j:> i jjjl dU^i^^ji 

A>f Jli3 Exercise 68. 

• 4*«j\î->- O^jl^^ L^»-^"*i^ ^. lt** ^ * lt^' c*^' vJtl (5^4i>-tl ^ 

202 r^ u^j^ Lesson 29. r*r 

yy ^y ^ * ^Ja1%m»I cJ^j^ ^.»,tu fJ^y j^ •^X^'^j Jlo Ol 

M A^j Translation 64. 

1. I received the letter which you sent me, dated 
7*^ July 1902. 2. The house to which I am now going is 
my father-in-law's. 3. I wrote all the words you spoke 
to me. 4. The greatest of the cities which Alexander 
the Great built [made], was Alexandria. 5. The physi- 
cian of whom you speak is in Europe. 6. Mr. Jacob 
is the man of whom we have read in the newspapers. 
7. Do you know what I want? — I don't know what 
you want, if you do not tell me. 8. Let no one change 
that which I have written. 9. Do you know that 1 lost 
my purse full of money? 10. When I was in Constanti- 
nople I saw the goods in the shops changed every day. 
11. Learn this from what you see. 12. I did not know 
that he went to Trebizond. 

\0 Ajt-j Translation 65, 

1. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the 
Spirit saith unto the churches. 2. For he knew what 
was in man. 3. They marvelled that he talked with 
the woman. 4. What shall be the sign of thy coming? 
5. Let not thy left hand know what thy right hand 
doeth. 6. Have you not read what David did, when he 
was hungered, and they that were with him? 7. We heard 
of their having become soldiers. 8. I do not object to 
your going there. 9. The baker is not an honest 
(doghrou) man: he writes what is due to him [hifi 
credits] and does not write his debits (what he owes). 

♦r The Participles. 203 

^\i (^^ Reading Exercise, 

translate and tell the following story in Turkish fully. 

1. This is the house that Jack built. 

2. This is the malt, That lay in the house that 
Jack built. 

3. This is the rat, That ate the malt. That lay in 
the house that Jack built. 

4. This is the cat. That killed the rat, That ate 
the malt, That lay in the house that Jack built. 

5. This is the dog, That worried the cat. That 
killed the rat, That ate the malt. That lay in 
the house that Jack built. 

6. This is the cow with the crumpled horn, That 
tossed the dog, That worried the cat. That killed 
the rat, That ate the malt. That lay in the 
house that Jack built. 

7. This is the maiden all forlorn. That milked the cow 
with the crumpled horn, That tossed the dog, That 
worried the cat, That killed the rat, That ate 
the malt, That lay in the house that Jack built. 

8. This is the man all tatter'd and torn. That kissed 
the maiden all forlorn. That milked the cow 
with the crumpled horn, That tossed the dog, 
That worried the cat, That killed the rat, That 
ate the malt, That lay in the house that Jack built. 

9. This is the priest all shaven and shorn. That 
married the man all tatter'd and torn. That 
kissed the maiden all forlorn, That milk'd the 
cow with the crumpled horn. That tossed the 
dog. That worried the cat, That killed the rat. 
That ate the malt. That lay in the house that 
Jack built. 

10. This is the cock that crowed in the mom. That 
waked the priest all shaven and shorn. That 
married the man all tatter'd and torn. That kissed 
the maiden all forlorn. That milked the cow 
with the crumpled horn, That tossed the dog. 
That worried the cat, That killed the rat, That 
ate the malt, That lay in the house that Jack built. 

204 r# u'J^ Lesson 30. ?♦! 

11. This is the farmer sowing his com, That kept 
the cock that crowed in the morn, That waked 
the priest all shaven and shorn, That married 
the man all tatter'd and torn. That kissed the 
maiden all forlorn, That milk' d the cow with 
the crumpled horn, That tossed the dog, That 
worried the cat, That killed the rat. That ate 
the malt, That lay in the house that Jack built. 


11. JacJcin yajidîglıî evde sağlanan^ Arpayî yeyen, Fareyi 
Sldiiren, Kediyi tlrkûden, Küpeyi bouynouzla/yany 
Eyri bouynoudou ineyi sayhan, Bichare qUt Sdpin, 
Esgi bûsJcû roııbalî ademi nıktahlayan, Daz qafalt 
(shaven), tüysün (shorn) papa^î ouyandîran, SabaK- 
laytn Sten horozou sağlayan, Boughdayî Sken 
ehift'ji [ishU] bou dour. 

aI I^ Conyersation. 

S[jt ^^ o-.-^-yjy *il<^/" c>'^.-^^ *^^^ ^h''ty, ^y\ ( ^ 

?(ii>Ul^ X^\ o^j^ o^i^ Jy^ ^^ •->^^?:i 3,^-^i Jj\ (uf* 

^* u^.> Lesson 30. 

Ja;l,^ Aİa*lj Gerunds. 

§ 430 a. The number of purely Turkish Conjunctions 
is very limited, only six in number: and these too are 

r^o Gerunds. 205 

derived from Verbs or Adverbs (§ 475). The place of 
Conjunctions is supplied by Gerunds, which are called 
Conjunctive Moods or Words, Rabıta Stygheler. They 
are mere combinations of Conjunctions with the verbs, 
appended at the end of sentences (§ 230). The Gerunds, 
like the Conjunctions, serve the purpose of connecting 
sentences and parts of sentences. They have the same 
power of government as their verbs, but they are never 
used alone as governing words. 

§ 430 b. There are thirteen gerunds in Turkish, 
some of which we have already met with in the course 
of the previous lessons. Here we shall give them in 
order. (See the Table.) 

§ 431. The Third Gerund. This is formed by ad- 
ding the termination ap^ * a^cIi -inje, -tnja to the root, 

(and -yitije, -yinja, -younja if the root ends in 
a vowel). It means 'as soon as' or 'on'; ex.: 

(iJL:i''^<aejjli yazmja gitdi as soon as he wrote, he went out. 

jjLj\ <şcJjyjl oqpuyounja otour on your reading sit down. 

The meaning is also expressed in two other ways (§§ 334, 428). 

§ 432. But the Negative form has a wholly dif- 
ferent meaning. 

A^jıİ^^^şcjUjL yazmayinja git'm^. Don't go unless you write. 

§ 433. The Eleventh Gerund. The third form of 

the Gerund when annexed to iJ34)— * »»^S^A)— - ' jJlÎaj— , 
-ye dek, -ye deyin, -ye qadar, means until. 

jj)oj\ i]^<ü<3cl.ö ^2/. ^^''* gelinjiyedek otour. Sit until I come. 

§ 434. The Fourteenth Gerund. By adding j^5C i or 

^ -iken, -ken to the Aorist, Present, Dubitative, 

Future and Necessitative third persons, another gerund- 
like expression is obtained, which is rendered by while. 

Gitmish iken. Now that the act, of going has occured. 
Yazayaq ikSn. While just about to write. 


r# u*j^ Lesson 30. 



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a m 9 

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208 r* u-j^ Lesson 30. r*A 

§ 435. The Thirteenth Gerund is a conjunctive in- 
flexion of the verb equivalent to a verb (generally of the 
same tense and frequently with the same object) found 
at the end of the phrase, followed by the conjunction *and'. 
The sense may be such as to require the words ^also' 
and afterwards to be supplied, according as the suc- 
cession of the two actions is intended. It is character- 
ized by the termination ^jj— -oup, ip, (or ,^y — -yo^ip 
if the root ends in a vowel [53]). § 17; as: 

^jjL yazıp having written. ^ji^yj\ oqpuyoup having read. 

Jl^yj\ ^JjJ^j\ otmiroup oqoudoular. They sat and (after- 
wards) read, or having sat down they read: equivalent to otour- 
doular vS oqoudoular. 

Sj>'9j^ ^jjS^ gSdip g^r^jSyim, equivalent to gidSjiyimxi 
georSjeyim, I shall go and see [him also] (having gone I shall see). 

Jci) Words. 

f. JviU. aban\z Ebony a. v-^^^%p&« mahjoub humble 

,3*>1.1J9 * ^>Ub damlamaq to drop a. jjy^» maghroor proud 

^yJJ^ sormaq to ask r.j\ ^\j ra^i or to be content 

A.i[ijji qoiirbagha frog lAt^ ginish wide 

>1X.jLj^S^ gichinmek to subsist a. JaU jahil young people 
j^ pire flea c5^^pU ' ^S^ tafirt God 

vi.,^ hit louse *^jjjl ûrûm&z to bark 

j^i-y ftj-> diva qoushou ostrich (3>»>^\i patlamaq to burst. 

A A ^oLil Exercise 66. 

Jlt«l ^jj^ Dotirotibau emsal. Proverbs. 

jyj\ ojJi9 b^yh o3jl jUjl Î ibU jjljl oj^ oj^U ©3^^ r^\ ^ 
• 3İ-Vİ jylj» oj^ oj^^ r . jjljl J^^^UlL 4iM«\L T • j5İl 

r♦^ Gerunds. 209 

^ tA^J-j' -^3^ 45dij? j*M.%w^ c5jj-- jtl ^ ^ • 3^j' (S^^j^ 

AV A^J? Translation 67. 

1. When the teacher began speaking, every one 
stopped his talk. 2. Until the teacher entered the school- 
room, all the pupils were talking, together. 3. Since 
I came to Merzifoun I have three times visited Mounjou- 
soun. 4. As soon as Eli goes, I will call you. 5. I 
read and write. He came and went afterwards. 6. He 
mounted his horse and went into the country. 7. The 
teacher Nasr^d-din, taking an axe, mounted the tree 
and began to cut the branch on which he sat. 8. A man 
«aw him and said that he would fall down from the 
tree. As soon as the man spoke the teacher fell down. 
^9. He ran after the man and caught him by his collar 
and said: As you knew that I would fall down from 
the tree, of course you must also know the time when 
I will die. 10. The man said: When your ass brays 
three times, you will die. 11. Do not go until I come. 

aI|^ Conyersation. 

Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 14 

210 r# u'J^ Lesson 30. ri» 

?jjlUIî (iJu-i j5Xl^ (o* 
,j;^l 5 JLi? Reading Exercise. 

The Distinction between Man and Beast. 

. j>a,l ^%^lil ^^^ ^J\^ ' '^^ ^^jjy 

^j^ y^ (3^** • r-^-^^Ji ^^^i>. ^^ji c5>^ |fji â 

TFbrcîs. 1. creation. 2. high, noble. 3. hiss instinct (of 
animals). 4. for instance 5. to wag. 6. }ial condition, case, situ- 
ation. 7. poor. 8. a. ,sayir other. 9. a. >20t<^g speech. 10 a. tnaAroifit 
«lestitute. 11. oldouqlart jihetU = oldouqlartndan, 12. %f(id^ A" 
to explain, to state. 18. being (being in the state of). 14. since I 
can turn. 15. aza members. 16. tatmaq, datmaq to taste. 

JuwL. mob' ad Continuation. 

Words, 1. /wt'^a even. 2. anjaq only, but. 3. ♦/ra it." 
do, to perform. 

fM Nouns and Adjectives derived from Verbs. 211 

o3 ^jplcJLo^y ^^ojj^>.l) 3^1 ju^ Oj»' jcl ^^^-5>- j: • <jy^^ 

4. teiraA: intellect. 5. = malik oldotighoumdan : malik ol." to 
possess. 6. ojaq a hearth. 7. necessary. 8. jam glass. 9. cîag- 
niaq to put, affix. 10. qah vessel. 11. qoulp handle. 12. chizmi 
out of door shoes. 13. pa^havra a clout, rag. 14. mishin leather. 
15. farq H." to distinguish. 16. hevis a mania, wrong desire. 
17. ita-af ât." to obey. 18. Mou-aVlim Nnji. Professor Naji 
(a distinguished Turk author 1850 — 94). 

^^ u^t> Lesson 31. 

Nouns and Adjectives derived from Verbs. 

Verbal Adjective. a^JL* wi^ 
§ 436. The regular form of the Verbal Adjectives 

{Sifeti Musheh'bihe) ends in ^« -iji, -iji^ -oujau and 

it is derived from every kind of verbs, except Passive 
and Reciprocal verbs; as (§ 53): 

J>.jlj yazmaq to write: Vjl ! t>^j^ yazîjî one whose business 

is to write, a clerk. 

jiU» satmaq to sell; VoU> • (j^^ sat^ one whose business 

is to sell, a seller, a dealer. 

J^^ji oqoumaq to read ; Vj5j\ i j?:^ j^ji oqouyoujou one who 

to invite: habitually reads, a reader; inviter. 

si\.jL-- silmek to wipe, to rub out: Vj^î t>?=4r^ siZ^'i a profes- 
sional scrubber of floors. 

§ 437. This form resembles the Subjective Present 
Participle in meaning (§401). The difference is that, while 


212 ri u^j^ Lesson 81. rif 

yazan ^ satan, oqouyan, pishiren mean *one who occasion- 
ally writes, sells, reads, or cooks', the Verbal Adjectives 
yaHjî, satîjî, oqouyoujou, pishiriji respectively mean 'one 
who habituaUy does so, whose occupation is to write, to 
read, to cook', that is to say 'clerk', 'reader' and *cook'. 

§ 438. There are other forms of verbal nouns and 
adjectives which do not always occur, not being formed 
from all roots, but thev can be divided into classes 
as: — 

§ 439. I. If the verbal root ends in a vowel, 
a verbal noun or adjective is obtained by omitting the 
niim of the Infinitive termination. 

viUjjj>. chûrûmeJc to rot: iijj^p- chiruk rotten. 

^y'j^ sovournaqto he cold :^JJS^J^80V0^ıq cold (§ 36). 

«^4.^1 ishl^.mek to work: siXlij\ is/iZeA; that works well, smoothly. 

§ 440. II. If the verbal ends in a consonant, the 
mim of the Infinitive is changed into vav, or ye: 

J*.a^\ achmaq to open: ^^\ acMq open. 
^j^ hozmaq to spoil: üJJji hozouq spoilt. 

§ 441. III. By removing the Infinitive ending 
j^ ' dU and adding oy ' ^^S * oy^ -qoun, -qin, -ghoun 

or of^ ^2r "fl^^^' -gin to the root, another class of 
verbals is formed; as: 

viUj^- siirmek to banish: o,/j>- sûrgûn an exile. 

vİİ.*JLji pishmek to become cooked: 0\^.t^ pishgin well baked. 

U» tashmaq 

ojÂi'j»' joshqoun 
to overflow: 

Ouiu» tcishqin 


jtL yanmaq to be burut: '^^ yanghîn fire, confla- 


§ 442. IV. Sometimes J, -M, J -lau or (^ -i, -I, 
-Off, 'U is added to the root: 

J-«ljl5 qapamaq to shut: JL15 qapali' shut. 

^tXk^Sj^ gizUmek to hide: i^j^gizW hidden. 

rir iNouns and Adjectives derived from Verbs. 213 

So also: jSU 8aql% hidden; J-r*^ ^*^* *^'^°^- 

J^ doZoM full; ^j\ ^lu dead. 

§ 443. V. The second and third forms of Deri- 
vative Infinitives are regarded as regular verbal nouns, 
as we have seen (§ 301): 

^lSj^ dSbkmi cast. 4-%-^Ij hasma printed. 

JJLj^jli elvirishli sufficient. 4-%-^\ asma suspended. 

§ 444. VI. Some of the verbal nouns are formed 
by the addition of > * ^ -im, -itn, -oum to the root : 

dit * 'tX^Ai y^mek to eat: pj yim food. 

ytXSj\ eblmek to die: ^Jj\ Sblum death. 

viUj^l ichmek to drink: m\ ichim a draught. 

§ 445. Vn. Others are made by the addition of 
^ ' J * ^^ '% -Î, -oti, -gi to the stem: 

j-«jli yazmaq to write: t^jL y»-?* writing. 

^^3jj5 qorqmaq to fear: ^jy ^orgoM fear. 

tj\ ichmSk to drink: 5^^ ic%i intoxicating liquid. 

§ 446. Vin. Another class of verbals is obtained 
from the passive verbs, by adding r J to the stem (§ 265): 

slX^^j^ sivinmek to be joyful: "^^j-^ sevinj joy. 
»lU^jl £bdinmek to be paid: tcJj^jI ^dwnj vulgar ^n'dt^* a loan. 

Similarly: «.IjJ^^^wZwwj laughable; ti^UjjI osanj' tiresome. 
Ttîljlî qazanj profit; rtllil^ qisqanj jealous. 

§ 447. IX. By adding (^jG ' J ' <i^ indi, -ti, -di, 
another class of verbals is obtained: 

(jljj-j houyroulmaq to be ordered : ^^JJ^ houyroultou an order. 
^3\ aqmaq to flow: (iJûJ\ aqintl a current. 

J>i>.t ytqmaq to pull down : j,\.,â.^ yîqîntî debris. 

^t^jy^j^ sûpûrmek to sweep: ^5^->^,^*- sûprûntû sweepings. 


214 ri j^j3 Lesson 31. f K 

J^jL ' c}^^> ' ^^^ ' ^i\ * tSJ-^j/" iwi<»t^, jayirti, 

chatîrtî, inilti, gûrûltû all mean a continuous or repeated clattering, 
noise, roar, hissing, creaking, crackling, rending and tearing of 
the sea, wind, lion etc. 

§ 448. X. The Noun of Excess is formed by the 
addition ofO^î 'o^*7?-i-(?an, -ghan, -ghij to the stem: 

j.>JJU. chalishmaq to work: o^^iJ^ chalishqan assiduous. 
^».:.,*j\ ishitmek to hear: c^~i\ ishitgin quick to hear. 

Similarly: (jliJji jl * o^'^ji ounoutqan, ounoutghan forgetful. 
(jLli-jil) yapishqan sticky. T^jy^ suzgfi a strainer. 

rtS^^ yuzg^j a skilful swimmer. p-JÜU» dalghtj diver. 
(jL&jJ^^ soloughan shortness of hreath, roaring. 

§ 449. XI. The Noun of Location derived from 
the verb is obtained by adding J -Q' to the root, if it 
ends in elif, and Jl -{iq if it does not end in that letter: 

j_Elj yatmaq: Yol» * ^j\Jl yataq bed. 

j3-*>Cj1 otlamaq: \'^j\* ^j'^j\otlaq a pasture. 

jjijii yayUmaq to pasture: J^l» * !>^1j ycf'ylaq, yayla a sum- 
mer-residence, or pasturage. 
>liJ qishla winter quarters, military headquarters, barrack. 

§ 450. Xn. Instrumental Nouns obtained from 
the verb, are formed irregularly: 

^iJL*<)\ eUmek to sift: ^i ilek a sieve. 

^IjU»' J-\^ daramaq to comb: Jl^* Jb^ darag a comb. 

^jj^ sûrgû sliding bar of a door. Jbj\ oraq a sickle. 
So also: 
jlj^ McJiaq a knife. o*3=ci ^^^^S'* gardener's knife. 

,3^lj yastiq a pillow. (jFjU* sargM bandage. 

Jî^L hasqt press. ^;)lJ».c^a^A^musicalin8tnıınent. 

4jj.^j^ sûpûrgS broom. t>*»<»\ öi^S* braces. 

5<Lj hiUyi a whetstone, from »^«OL biUmik to sharpen. 

r • o Nouns and Adjectives derived from Verbs. 215 

lA JLi3 £xercise 68. 

Change the following verbs into verbal nouns or 

I. j^>Uul tslainaq to wet; dU^I*^! to desire, to wish; 
<ÎX«^3 dilemek to ask, to make a request; ^\^yhouda- 
maq to lop; dUSjjl îlrlimekio startle. 

II. ^jl artmaq to remain over; jjl^l oyanmaq to 
awaken; d\JJ ilmek to tie with in a loop; J^i)jl barishmaq 
to make peace; j^jU> sarmaq to wrap round; jcl yanmaq 
to be burnt ; vÜjL-- silmek to wipe ; t^ I iUmaq to grow luke- 

warm; J^jj? qorqmaq to fear; ,J»^S qachmaq to flee; 

-dijjjl örtmek to shut; di^.^ kesmek to cut; J^j-S ^«r- 
i)2a(j|' to break. 

in. j-^j^' yormaq to weary; jlj^ dolmaq to be filled; 

^b dolmaq to become plunged in thought; jljl o7w2örg 

to be ripe; J^H shashmaq to be stupid; dX^.^ kes- 
mek to cut; jJL» yilmaq to be frightened. 

VI. jlT aZ^^ia^/ to take, buy; jjU? satmaq to sell; 
^j^l atmaq to throw; J^^j^ yoiidmaq to swallow; »İA*j%>j 
bichmek to cut, to shape; diJL^ dilmek to cut into slices; 
^fX*^^ sevmek to love; t^j4>-jl ouchourmaq to cause to 
flee, to let fall from a hight; ^y^J^^ yildlrmaq to flash. 

VII. jcl) yapmaq to build; dAljl edlmek to die; dLpcJjl 
eolchmek to measure; dLio iilmek to know; *iUjj m- 
vz/Vi: to give, to pay tribute; dljjjl örtmek to cover; i«lS 

216 ri u^j^ Lesson 31. rf^ 

qapamaq to shut; dUv^ chiemek to scratch, to draw a 

line; ^j^J-^ doghmaq to rise (the sun); ^jjl» baimaq to 
set (the sun). 

XI. j^Vl» yalamaq to Uck; JJj^ yoımmog to wash 

one'sself; ^\j batmaq to sink down; J^j^jl ' J^y o^r- 
7wag, qonmaq to halt, to rest. 

■\^ ^J Exercise 69. 

dljjT/ cfa5C^, I A . ^a« 1 ^ (.J3Jİ ^1 J 1^34. dlfl pL^ jr 

• ^Ji\ (»Jji3 Jjp Jjl 3Tx • }^^ ij\^yj\ 3y^ — ? ^y ->!> 

V* A^J Translation 70. 

1. My beloved son, I have read your letter with great 
joy. Now I shall give you some (an) advice. Don't bor- 

riV Nouns and Adjectives derived from Verbs. 217 

row money from others: if your profit (income) is less, 
your expenses must be less. 2. Death is such a black 
camel, that it kneels before every door. 3. The divers 
plunge in the depth of the sea: they are also good swim- 
mers. 4. That old man is not deaf, he is quick to 
hear. 5. Your uncle's horse is short in breath (broken- 
winded). 6. You are very forgetful; you forget every- 
tliing. 7. He was sunk in the marsh, and was obliged 
to make a halt there. 8. The children are very fond 
of kites. 9. I ordered from the market three sieves, 
two combs, four suspenders, five musical instruments, 
ten iron bolts and one filter. 10. The soldiers were in 
the winter-quarters. 11. We shall go this summer to 
the pasturage of Tölli-Oghlou. 

AİI^^ Conversation. 

•u--^ji (3r*i^^. ^J"*^ '^ J^j\j y^^ o-i*^J^ 

^j^ (j^*Jji jA-;»tO ojûjJİM ?u^^\ jlj ,<^»^j\ o^ û;!-"^ 

218 rr LT-J^ Lesson 32. TfA 

W WW* 

03 la;L. vll, jjj^L fJ/^jH 

J>l i j-^Jui Beading Exercise. 

4-iJaI Lateefe An Anecdote. 

w>l (^jT'» : ^^ 4)(iJi3İ ^Iji. ^^ X o-J^j--y o/^a 

' jjOr^ o3ji dLlI Ul ' Jijl ' 'JS ^j:» (ioil A>.l/. Jio 

Words. 1. TJriyil qaryisi the village Ur^gil (at Gsesarea). 
2. nothing at all, you are welcome. 3. aflirmaq to bray. 4. kin- 
dişini hick' bozmayaraq indifferently. 5. hid-dit anger. 6. touhaf 
queer, funny, strange. 




^^ u^t> Lesson 32. 

Prepositions. (Continued.)^ 

4. The Declinable Postpositions. 

§ 451. Postpositions of this class are generally used 
as nouns in connection with other nouns and pronouns 
to supply the place of prepositions. Their use will be 
best understood from examples. These prepositions 
take possessive affixes and are used with the genitive 

case. Thus Ijl ara means 'the midst'. ©^lJuIjI aramızda 
'in our midst' i. e. 'between us'. 

§ 452. The words thus employed and the EngUsh 
prepositions the place of which they supply are as 
follows (§ 236): 

^j\ ard 
<9j\ arqa 

The back, the space behind. 


cJT alt 

The space under. 


^^^ dih 

• •• 

The bottom of anything. 


\j\ a-ra 

The midst. 

Between, among. 

hj\ ibfi 

The front. 

Before, in front of. 

sz^^j\ iist 

The space over, 
the upper part. 


Over, upon, on. 

5jLli3 disharî 

The outer part of anything. 

Out of, outside. 

c5j<2ii\ ichSri 
^^\ ich 

The inside, interior, 


the inner part. 

In, inside. 

(ij^İJİ ilSri 

The front part. 


iSj^y^ yoqari 

The top or upper part of anything. 


fj\z.^. ashaghi 

The lower part. 

Below, under. 

û^ yan 

The side. 

By, near, by the side o 

^. y^'T 


Instead of . . . 

1 See Lesson 14, page 106, §§ 230—237. 


rr u-J^ Lesson 32. 


\S^ g^ri The hinderpart. 
a. cJ\^\ etraf Surroundings. 

<ol ^ti The farther side, 
p.^.l^, hSrahSr Even with, breast to breast with. 
ı>3İj yaqin The space near. 

A respect, regard, relation. 
The space far away. 
The space opposite. 
A means, a go-between. 

a. ^ haqq 
^\jj\ ouzaq 
Jt*j\3 qarsM 
a.^Ja^^l^ vasUa 

Back (backwards). 

Round, around. 


Together with. 

Near, by. 

About, concemlog. 



By means of. 

Come after me. 
After the coffee t.e.breakfifl 
Lower story (of the hon« 
To go to the top. 
At the bottom of the bo 

jlllt* MisaVler Examples. 

c^5^ (j JÛ--OJ I arqasindan get Go after him. 

Jf^tjAtijI ardımdan gil 

jl \ oj^ qahvi altı, qahyalti 
vljli c^l\ alt qat 
j^jLa. ^ûJL-ji âstûn^ chlqmaq 
oJlLv.j3 >tXiüX^ sandlqhln dibindi 

«jL>-to- * «Ju-i»- ha(iqîmda, haq'qmda, haqqtnda About me, thee, him. 
oJbJLJlj ' »jij,»JL3lj yaqintmizda, yaqmlartnda Near us, them. 

J$^»j^lj*j^ ••^J*-:*^ ycifi^tfnizda dir, yanimiza gel It is near us, come near i 
4JL-<k«.\j vUUjl onoun vasîtasîyîla By means of him. 

<^ojj\ ' Aj,jojj\ üzerimi, üzerini On me, on thee. 

5* Turkish equivalents for some English Prepositions. 

§ 453. All the English Prepositions, which indi- 
cate a state of location or rest must be translated 
by the locative: all others which indicate a direction 
or motion from one place to another are to be rendered 
by the dative case (§ 237). 

We entered the city before five o'clock and remained there five 
days. Saat hishdân io'vel shehrS girth orada hSsh gun dourdouq. 

§ 454. Study and compare the following sentences: 
The fight lasted above five hours. Ghavgha (or qavga) 
hhh sa-atdan ziyade sûrdu. 

m Prepositions. 221 

Above the knee BizUr%nd4n yoqari. 

Those who were about him Etraftnda olanlar, 

I have no change about me ûzSrimdS oufaqllq yoq dour. 

I am about to go Gitm^ ûzrS yim. 

About noon Eoyleni doghrou. 

8he laughed at him ûzerinS gûldû. 

I wonder at what you have said D4diyiMze te-aj'-jûb Sdiyoroum. 

We were at your aunt's Halaû gildS idik, 

Mrs. Mania is loved by every body. Manya Hanim h4r 
IcSsdân sevilir or H^ Ms Manya Hanimi sevir. 

Csesarea was taken by the Persians. Farisiler Kaysiriyiyi 
zaht etdiUr or KaysMyS FarisiUrdSn alindi. 

Translated by a priest Bir papas marifStiy'le tirjhnS 

He sent it by him Onoun ı^asîtasîyla gSbndSrdi. 

He came by sea Qaradan geldi. 

Sit by me Tanîmda otour. 

After the Turkish fashion Tî^rk ousoulou ûzrSy alatourqa. 

JtiJ Words. 

a. t^jLL tavous peacock c^^j^ dolanmaq to go round about 

viUjjj yüzmek to swim Ojt^^ merdiv^ stairs 

a. <^j ZSyneb Zenobia a. ,JJLiü ta' til vacation 

jEltj3 qoushatmaq to encircle a.jU»>. hisar wall. 

VN jc^ Exercise 7L 

.>^jJ\i of ^T jjl oxS^j\ dh^ J^li^l jC\ ^Ut r 

222 rr u^j^ Lesson 32. fff 

. Jj^ o^}<^[ Ji^j ^ ^jl ' ji^jl J^^ oJLJL^ jj-li ^ • 
^yj^ <Îj' Jj^CLp >r •^a!oİ3 Jy- ^3 c5^' ^!y^ ^ciV^^^ 

VY A;^J Translation 72. 

1. That package is for me: how much did you pay 
for it? 2. I have a great deal (choq sheyler) to tell }'ou 
concernİDg this boy. 3. I have fallen (youvarlandim) 
down the stairs. 4. I shall read that book during the 
vacation. 5. The child threw the ring into the well: all 
the servants gathered around the well to take up the ring 
from the well. 6. Within a year. All the houses within 
the wall were burnt. Within some days. 7. Can you 
swim round the ship? 8. He must wait till five o'clock. 
9. He spoke about his mother. 10. One sat above, the 
other below me. 11. The inn is without the town, but 
the hospital is within the walls of the town. 12. No- 
body came yesterday to our house except Haji Hassan 
Effendi. 13. Your house is among the trees, my house 
is in front of the church. 

Vr A^t-j Translation 73. 

1. My father was not above twenty years old when 
he was married. 2. My uncle's house is very handsome, 
but it cost him (mal oldou) above 500 pounds. 3. It is above 
a year since my friend started for America. 4. Yozgad 
was built by Chapan Oghlou. 5. The poor man was 
driven out of his house by his creditors. 6. I shall 
get up to-morrow at six o'clock. 7. Were you at 
Dr. Tracy's last night? 8. He had no money about 

rrr Prepositions. 223 

him (yanında), 9. At noon. In the summer: at night. 
10. The dog sprung out from under the table. 11. Now 
we turn towards the East. 

aI|^ Conyergation. 

j^l i ^ıj Reading Exercise. 
^^Aİ9j\ ^f Keby Odasi The Village Room. 

£]2*4*i^,^> -ub J_,».j • jjo:^.^ A:L-,4_Lyl 'dL-.l^<' '^ 

lFor(Î8. 1. as it is [custom] (429). 2. Mounjousoun a village 
near Caesarea, the ancient Pontusa. 3. qaranltq darkness. 4. has- 
tnaq to set in, to prevail (darkness) [334]. 5. duman smoke. 6, as 
soon as they see [428]. 7. IceKya the bailifif of a village (p. 126). 
8. nargile a hookah. 9. chouhouq tobacco-pipe. 10. eyUnmek to 
amuse one's self. 11. ortalXq the space, the whole room. 

224 rr u^j^ Lesson 33. f f«w 


^u=.^ dUUji Î i«jti jjqi jjci .osuji ''jjrjT/ 

12. qaplamaq to cover, to fill. 18. unable to see (404). 
14. a. keyf pleasure, merriment. 15. Jcûtûk root of the trees. 
16. inil İÜÜ with a clashing or crashing sound [447, 502], 17. la- 
qirdi talk, chattering. 18. tsindtrmaq to warm. 19. nasilîsa in 
some way or other. 20. shid-dHU severe. 21. keyfli merry, jolly 
(150). 22. svjajtq rather warm, snug (156). 28. a. jamous buffalo. 
24. eoymek to praise. 25. a. mûsa-a-deli favourable. 26. shihir 
(shell rej the city t. e, Csesarea. 27. a. q^b-le south. 28. f. par yaz, 
poyraz north. 29. a. havadis intelligence, news (651). 

^^ ^j^^:> Lesson 33. 

JU 3>ii vJj^ Adverbs. 

§ 455. Adverbs are words modifying verbs, adjec- 
tives or other adverbs. They therefore denote manner, 
place, time, quantity, affirmation, doubt, negation, inter 
rogation and order. 

yr9 Adverbs. 225 

§ 456. Almost all Turkish adjectives may also be 
used as qualifying adverbs, with all the changes which 
the adjectives undergo. Ex.: 

Choq sSbyUmek. To talk too much or intrusively. 
jJlUjJIj jj\ (jJilSo^ p^^y^ j^ BSnim mektotiboum seniûkindhı 
4yi yazilmtsh dtr. My letter is better written than yours. 

1. Adverbs of Manner. JU 
§ 457. The Adverbs of Manner answer to the 

question oei ' J^t ni'je? nasU? How? The adverb of 

manner is generally obtained by the addition of some 
particle or word to the adjective, and is expressed in 
English by the corresponding adjectives with the addi- 
tion of the termination -ly. 

§ 458. The adverb of manner is obtained in three 
ways: by repeating the adjective, by the addition of 

4>. -je, or of oSl)yo sourefde, to the adjective: 

^\ ^\ aghir aghlr^ ^^c-l aghtrja, »J^jj^ ^\ aghtr 
iouretdS. Heavily. JJlL J.TLL ' apcJJLL ' ojJj^^ JJll, Sweetly. 

§ 459. This ^L>. or ^ll-/^l>. is also added to nouns 

• .. • 

ind. pronouns, and thus we obtain an adverbial ex- 
pression (§§ 155, 331): 

AP&İJ ' A?fcJL^jû5^ 6^ryV, kindisinje according to me, to him. 
<3c>«^l ' <L-Mioc.«il adamja, adamj asına in a manly way; 
also: CrL^^-z^^\ ' J'^ r^^ adamjîlayin, adam aqtlU, 

§ 460. The 4th and 8th Gerunds are also used as 
idverbs of manner (pp. 206, 207): 

^}J*}J\ aj-U hidiyâ olaraq as a gift. 
<İJ::5^i)j-ü<-.<l«ji istSmiyirek gitdi he went unwillingly. 
oX^^^A^aj^ sSbyUdiyind^ when he spoke. 

§ 461. 1. Adverbs of Manner. 

<jj^ ySfiidin newly, anew. Jji^. ^ifyol, hiyol once. 

Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 15 


t*r ur-J^ Lesson 33. 


Alj yini, yini 
kS^ gini, geni 
a. j\^f^ tekrar 

§ 462. 


i>5o yigin, yiyin strongly. 
».^^ h£byl^i thus, in this way. 
4li*^ hoshouna in vain, idly. 

2. Adverbs of Time. 

o^ y, ÖOM gün to-day. 

i>jL 2/ötr*n to-morrow. 

(J J i r?wn yesterday. 

{jy {^^^} irtesi gun the fol- 
lowing day. 
CjJ^<!j\ ebti gun i day be- 

oy 3^j\ iv'velki gun ] yester- 

i^-U-J:. shim'di now. 

oUj i)ü w^ ziman 

/)U.l3 hachan 
la*3 demin 
oJidlli bayaqdan 
J^^^U. chapoujaq 
sz^cL. j\ sa-at 


a few 




»^. ü^y. birdin kiri) 

* ^ J. > suddenly. 

j-J\ ^«^\ apansîz j 

o^J^ y, ^^ cızdan soon, after 

a while. 

^:^i ' jl ^r, irkin early. 
t: -5^ ^4/ lute. 

•j^^ l/ara' «tra \nowand 
o^^,oS^»\ ikidiibirdi] *^®''- 
Aİ- 0=^^ ^^cft^ sini \ jj^gj 

a. Jj\ ^u'üeZ before. 

ojj^a soü'ra afterwards. 

a. l^\3 dayima always. 
a.^ niha'yet at last. 
oJûş5^ geçkindi' 

Cr^ gichin 


§ 463. 

3. Adverbs of Afiirmation, Doubt and Negation. 


! s1jj\ evvet, i-vet 

! ^ hiy hî-î! 
p. Jj beli 
p. g-^ 7uc/i' I 
a. >\^\ as7a j 
a. Ud\j t7a(2a'a truly, in fact. 
girchikdin truly, really. 

IdJlti^; nedimek! ] of course, 

^ no doubt! 
Ij^AyJL shub'Jiisiz J certainly t 

3ji. yoQ. 

no I 


^ni. khaytr] 
aIj &iZ^' even, 
a. U^ (vT6a I I wondert 




§ 464. 4. Adyerbs of Interrogation. 

oys^ ni'chin? ^ J^li na'sU? \ ^^^^ ^y ^^^^ 

JJİ4J nedSyi? 
Aj<i niye? 
4jj — , 4J ne sehebdin? 


^ ni'ji? f manner? 
jj3<i neqadar? how much? 
Aİ «^? what? 

§ 465. 
5. Adverbs of Quantity and Comparison. 

^S^ nitekim as, in the oy^yr'y. 


manner as. 



^Jî ^ tek' tuk here and 


^j\^j\ rt-A hicK olmazsa\ 

^" V at 

i^jli hari j least. 

<-Jjl <-Jj\ orsa oZsa at the most. 

APcijJji oldouq'ja 

J\ ^i ip'iyi 

^^ ^j gMyigihi properly, 


pretty well. 

a. >1.6 kiamilSn j 

a. \a>. jid'din seriously. 

a. İJL,â5 qasdin intentionally. 
p.ijA^L had%hava\ gy^^is, 

a.'l;l;v wif/jaw^ ) ^^®^*y- 

o-^jVjI» doîayîdan indirectly. 

<xiU say'ki, sanki almost, 
nearly (§ 478). 

oil,*» salt' only. 

jJUJI ' JpcJT aw'iag only. 

JVbie. There are also a great many more adverbs which can 
easily be learnt by practice and reading (§ 212). 

§ 466. 6. Adverbial Expressions of Time. 

In adverbial expressions denoting time of day the 
word in is expressed by the addition of cLaİ ' cf^ -leyin, 

'layîn, and for the seasons by adding ^ -in, -ûn (p. 55) : 
0:->V. ^ct/ıa'rîn in spring. t><)<?&i^5r^je7eytn at night. 

iyjj^ guzun in autumn. Oi>ULii.\ akhshamlayin in the 

^ evening. 

ı>>\Âliy qoushlouqlaytn at 9 ^>^Jû^\ ikindi liyin in the 

o' clock A. M, - - - - afternoon. 

y:;^ Words. 

a. oJ^^ mezoun graduate. 

ojljl avara useless. 


228 rr ur-ji lesson 83. rrA 

a. js-j vad promise. p. o^j^ bihoudi in vain 

a. \jd> shaqa joking ^L ' j^l yatH bed-time, curfew. 

Vt Jti3 Exercise 74. 

(^JCL^l ^j ^3^ aIw-IjI >kl!Li.l All ^^IsO' * J^y ^-? (>--^ 
•Jjc^ j^^ ^J {j^jy^ wC-L- ^3~l u-J^-^— <2l» dLii/^j 

VO A;?"jf Translation 75, 

1. When will you set out, to-morrow or the day 
after to-morrow? 2. He has been here at least three 
times. 3. That is beautiful indeed! 4. How much do 
you charge for it? — It will cost you 20 m6jidiy& at 
most (en chogJiou). 5. At present (sMmdilik) I want no- 
thing else. 6. If we have given a promise, let us keep 
it; else we shall certainly lose our good name. 7.1 
could find him nowhere. 8. The preacher's house is 

ff^ Adverbe. 229 

very far oflF. 9. The one came hither, the other went 
thiüıer. 10. 1 conld open the door neither from within 
nor from withont. 11. Act as if you were (olmoush' 
jastna) at your home. 12. Did you Imow him formerly? 
13. Yes, I have long known him. 14. She is better 
to-day than yesterday. 15. The next time I shall be 
here betimes. 

aI|^ CoiiTersatioii. 

^^J^, ^j^y ^^J^ o/j^,j\ öy^ •^. OA^ 6v. J^^JiA^^ 
<li» aLj^ Oj^ ^^^ \J^\ ?j<^jJÜG 

^2^ I i ^.^Ju? Reading Exercise. 
(-UiU) ^^^j' (i/^ The Yiilage Room. (Continued.) 

•• •• »• «• ^ « 

Words, 1. kopuklu foamy, creamy. 2. tA;ram ei". to serve. 
3. therefore. 4. 4bzinmek to do carefully (§ 370). 5. naql H". to 
relate. 6. one day. 7. on this side. 

280 rn, crJ^ Lesson 34. fr* 

** ^^ M MM •• ^ *^ 

8. TaZas, the classical Mutalassi. 9. dibek a wooden mortar, 
in which coffee is pounded. 10. Ghîji a very common proper 
name, Sticky. 11. khînja khînj doîou vSrmek to become brim-full 
quickly (§ 286). 

^^ u^i> Lesson 34. 

o ^ 

^J^ sJ ^ Conjunctions. 

§ 467. Conjunctions are particles which serve to 
connect words and sentences, bringing them into a 
certain relation with one another. 

§ 468. There are very few conjunctions of Turkish 
origin, the nature of the language being such that it 
scarcely requires them (§ 430). Many Persian and Arabic 
conjunctions, however, are used in the language. 

§ 469. 1. Copulative Conjunctions. 

a. p. J î?^ 1 , ^-fi*- hat'ta\ 

^ ' ^\ iU, U 

a. j>. haVta 
and. \ even. 

p. -jt _ A Mm — Mm — both, also. p. /> Mm and, also. 

0^'^^ di^ dakhi also, and p. t. eju^ ^^m (2^ and moreover. 


§ 470. J re is Arabic or Persian originally. The 

common people never use it in speech; its use is proper 
to books and educated people. 

a) 4) I * 4J He, le takes the place of j vS for nouns 

and pronouns, as ^^ ^\ ^^ hen iU sen'' Ji>jl aLI jJb 

X)kU'r ile oghlou, i. e. hen ve sen, peder v4 ogMou; also: 
Ananf haham = anam ile haham = anam ve haham (§ 232). 

rr) Conjunctions. 231 

b) But in place of 'and' between verbs the gerunds are 

used, as: (S^jj ^^^ ciUp verdi = (S^yjj c5-jJ' (§§371, 435). 

§ 471. ^Jj>- hat'ta introduces a phrase which cor- 
roborates what precedes it, it is generally accompanied 

by o3 de or aL bile: 


i^3^a)^4JLi iljil^. fj>- hat'ta biraderifl bilS or dS gelemidL 
Even vour brother could not come. 

§ 472. 2. Disjunctive Conjunctions. 

p. L * li J ya, 1?^ ya I - 4/^- Af^ girek - gSrek - 

f or 
\). :ijU^yalchod 1 ^ J^^\ ^ ^^>\ istir - istir - 

a. "vi iVlO' very rather - U « U lia- ha- 

p. ^\i ^\i ya~ ya~ either - or - p. ^<i -^ ni-ni- neither - nor - 

<u.>-*j ' <— &*> ' -u-)l J *> yokhsa^yoghonsa^yoqisi or y otherwise. 

" (§ 243.) 

§ 473. Gei*ek, ister, ha are put before two opposite 

words or phrases to state an alternative: 

Istir gelsin ister gelmesin. Whether he choose to come or not; 
let him come or not. (I do not care I) 

Girek heoyuk girek kûchûk. Whether great or small. 

Ha almîsh ha almamîsh. Whether he has taken it or not. 

§ 474. Il'la contradicts some words of the pre- 
vious clause; it can be used only, if the antecedent 
clause contains a negation : it means hut on the contrary, 
nay rather. 

Bin diyil, il'la pedirim hasta dîr. I am not ill but my father. 
Çîzînî diyil, il'la yiyenini' sivirirn. I do not love his daughter, 
hut his niece. 

but, yet. 

§ 475. 3. Contracting Conjunctions. 

^u-j1 ' 03A— Jİ * iaii a. ' ^JO} a. ' ^^J a. ' U 1 a. 

i'si; isidi; faq^at; veJakin; lakin; am' ma, em' ma 

o. 5^ p. ' ^>. /I p. ' jji ^ jA p. I ,^, . 
r^ ^ t^ ^ -y ^ f [although. 

gercht; ig-, iyirchi; her ne qadar I 

§ 476. Amma, lakin, velakin, fa^at are put 

at the beginning of the sentences, while ise, ise dğ 
comes at the end (§§ 130, 239—240, 241, 245, 325, 339). 


r^ v^j3 Lesson 34. 

§ 477. Gârchi, ey&rchi, her ne qadar are 
followed hy isede 'yet'. 

o^K^\ ^ A^^J^gSrchi faqir ise di. Although he is poor, 
* yet . . . 

4. Miscellaneous Conjunctions. 

§ 478. The remaining conjunctions are as under: 
p. J^\ iyir, Sgir if (§§ 238, 381—382). 

<5Cl^ * ^îL* sanki, say hi 

o^jj^ s6bzd4 > as if, as though(as was promised). 

P- ^,/^ güya 
a. J«j yani that is to say, i. e. 

p. \^,j zira ) 
^' ^ because, 

p. <^*^ chunki 

a. p. AiCliU madam hi since. 

a. ^joSi\ ^^ ' Ic-l 4j1j\ zann ederim^ aVlahaUm vulg. aXlehim I think. 

a. U»^ faraza \ 

supposing that. 
aJ^ \\Zj^ toutalîm hi ) 

(iJjil ûndi 

jjj^l v1jLj\ onoufi ichin 

jjju-- Jj\ oZ sebSbddn therefore. 

a. oJui badehou then, after- 
J, wards. 

jljcJl'jpcJI anjaq however, only. 

■p.<^ hi that, for. 


p. ^fj» meyir 

p. t. -u-^ miyifse 

^^^^ y^^ diyi in order that (§892). 

\i.jj\tsha'yid I 


unless, and 
still, bat 

p. iJ ^a until ; so that. p. a^Oj heVki I 

^^5^(ijJl5 gaZ(2l hi there remains (to us) that, 
p. iS^ L" *a hi in order to ; (before negatives) lest. 

5. Turkish equivalents for some English Coignnetioiis. 

§ 479. Some English idiomatic conjunctional 
phrases are given below, with their Turkish equivalents. 

As — 80« Ar is the mother, so is the daughter k^\ J^t ^^lîV 
j> ^j\ 3 (ijvi Ana^ nasU îsa, çfizî da SbffU dir. 

rrrr Conjunctions. 233 

As — so. As the stars in multitude, so shall thy seed be »HJLJ 

jj1^aİ\c'j». jJ3 JJiJJLj Neslin yîldîzlar qadar chogha- 

lajaq dîr. 

As — as. I am as tall as you ^jjj\ jJİ ^tL- ^y^ Ben sSnifi qadar 
ouzounoum (§ 229). 

Both — and. Both good and bad were left to his choice. Eyi ve 
kebtu ikisi dS onoun kendi keyfine (ikhtiyarina^ braqildi. 

Either — or. Either he or I will do it J^^ajL Jjj j> I j\ L Ya 
& ya hen hounou yapajaghtz. 

Neither — nor. Neither you nor I can go. NS sin\ nS hM' gide- 
biliriz or Sen'dS hindi gidSmeyiz. 

Whether — or. I care not whether you go or stay. GitsM dS git- 
mesM dS oumouroumda diyil dir. 

If — then. If you will take this, then I will take that. Sin hounou 
alırsan hin di ol hirini alîrîm. 

So — that. It was so late that I could not come. Ol qadar gij 
idi ki geUmedim. 

Not only — but also. She was not only poor, but also very sick. 
Him faqir vi him or him^ di hasta idi (§ 474). 

Though — yet. Though he live many years, yet his life is a 
failure. Choq sSniler yashadî isi di, Smrû hoshouna' 

Therefore — because. Therefore doth my father love me, because 
I lay down my life. Bin ibmrûmû fida etdiyim ichin 
or Hdiyimdin pidirim di hini sever. 

JCİÎ Words. 

^U- chalmaq to play a. jif- afv pardon 

a. sZ^mL^ sanat profession J^'^ kel bald-head 

dijl^i dikilmek to stand up directly u^*^ qamtsh reed 

a. jJiJ naoîd money *İAJl5\ iyilmek to bend, 

to curve, 
a. ^-i^ mirkih donkey ; murikMh made, composed of; ink. 

V*\ Ju5 Exercise 76. 

jvLâİjÎjI 4j t .jvLlS J dill * y^j* -Jjl CjI »JS J jpIs^ ^ 

234 r\, u^ji Lesson 34. rr\ 

VV Jli5 Exercise 77. 

VA Ajt-j Translation 78. 

1. Your sister and my niece. 2. We have written 
a long exercise, but we have not learnt it. 3. You 
must go home directly, or you will get wet; for it 

fro CoDJ auctions. 2S5 

will sooD rain. 4. «The reed bends, but does not 
break.» 5. You ought to speak to your children, for 
they are very naughty. 6. Do not waste your time, 
for hfe is made up of it. 7. «Time is money.» 8. The 
horse may be very strong, nevertheless (yine) it does 
not please me. 9. He was very tired, nevertheless he 
continued working. 10. I feared lest (deyi) he should 
die. 11. As [since] he does not work, I shall give him 
nothing. 12. I wish you to wait till I have done my 
exercise. 13. After I had breakfasted, I took a walk, 
although it was raining a little. 

V^ Ajt-j Translation 79. 

1. Give me your letter that I may send it to the 
post-office. 2. He says he will not marry until he has 
a profession. 3. Read it twice, lest (yokhsa) you forget 
it (Aor.). 4. The lady must be careful, lest she fall (Fut.). 

5. The more frequently you practice (what you learn 
in) your music lesson, the better you will play it. 

6. Unless the Lord build the house, their labour is in 
vain, who build it. 7. Ask him when he will come. 
8. Why did you sleep so long? — I slept so long, because 
I was very tired. 9. The more I study Turkish, the 
more I like the language. 10. I do not know whether 
he is rich or poor. 

a1|^ Conyersation. 

.(İA-C.JJ pjL ^y^ ?J^_^U.\ oy\^ Oy^ J-S J\ 

236 ro v^ji Lesson 35. 

Ji^\i (^zi Beading Exercise. 
(-UiU) ^^aI^J* (Sf^ The Village Room. (Continued.) 

ys J 0X3J9 f-lp vfipUjI ^^tjU- ^^^ JjS^ 4t4ij^ 

3y^ lSjI • J^JJ^J^ oJL'i^ Jj^ kUc.l>-jl ^^U-j^ -u—^l jjiy o-^ 

! DjuT ^> ! J^jU ^i",^U ,$1»— r-Jtur jrp^Ul Jy 

Words. 1. K4bnis prop, name, Star (Slavonic). 2. cliofWiMTb 
a sergeant in the army. 3. Qmihour prop, name, a holster. 4. ousta 
a captain (of Janissaries). 5. isi while. 6. lUyf chatmaq to be in 
complete merriment. 7. I'hitah H'\ to address. 8. never, abso- 
lutely. 9. See § 405. 10. khayr ola what is the matter! Good 
news, let us hope. 11. oushaq! children I boys I 12. dİyi § 892. 
13. gebz qoulaq ol". to be all eyes and ears, to pay fall attention. 

^^ u^i> Lesson 35. 

İJL* J^j>' The Interjections. 

§ 480. Interjections are words which are used to 
express a sudden or violent emotion of the mind. 


The Interjections. 


Sometimes they are used alone, and sometimes 
accompanied by the word to which they refer, which 
in Turkish is generally put in the dative: 

!i>^^\a/(^m, afMm! Bravo! Well done! I^Cji^\ afirim 
saüa! Good for you! 1 oj- iS\j vay sizi! Woe unto you! 


! O^ji oulan! 


! ^ 1 0^, hirS, hri; h4! ] 

! ^^ aj hi hirif! J 

0! eh! 
halloo ! 


Fellow ! 

! ^\j vakh! 

1 o\jA eyvah'! 

! pjU jantm! My dear! 
! Jj jlj yaztq! What a pity ! 
! O:^ ' cıf^Tİm! Bravo! Capital! 

! o^T aman/ dear! Oh! Pity.' 

! liLİL baqsana! Look! I say! ! v-jUc* ajayib! Wonderful! 

! ojüU 7ıaı/(î^/ Come! Hiethee! ! JJLj ytqtl! ] 

\ Begone! 
! iS\jvay! Woe! ! Jj\ Ji defol! J 

! u^jya sous! Hush! a. I Zi\j iS\ Syvalldh! Thank you! 

a. ! ^>LJIj vis' selam! All right! All correct, 0. K. 


a. ! 4ji)ili:U ma'shallah! Beautiful! How strange! 

a. ! ^iLiil inshallah! If God will! Please God! I hope so! 

a. ! <l)\3Ut ma'zalldh! God forbid! Shocking! 
a. \ rj ^\ Allah kirim! God is gracious! Let us hope! 
a. ! <I) x^\ elhamdû'litlahi com. elhamdûVlah! Thank God! 

A» /%JliJ Exercise 80. 

288 ro crJ^ Lesson 35. trx 

• jjjLjS^^j4)jil Ui ,0^^^ j5^o ^ll*-,l • j.jjjl Oyj: ? j^-^ 

sZ^\i /%Ju? Reading Exercise. 

(A.,1.) ^^^ji ^/^The Tillage Boom. (Continued.) 

• (»-^-i •jT^ ^}'y^ ^i^-? ij'^y ûj^^^ — • cS^Mi»!» ftj^- J 
c5j: ^3^ * r^^ (kji-lll • 3y 4J^U-^ cT"*** '^"^ »^bj' ^ 

Ti^or(£s. 1. öksürmek to cough. 2. aqstrmaq to sneeze. 
8. <ara pan. 4. thijirS cauldron, saucepan. 5. QcusamjUar Char- 
,shîsî (The market of) Boiler -Makers. 6. shamata an uproar. 
7. to be astonished. 8. qopmaq to run. 9. qalayjt an artisan who 
tins copper vessels. 10. chekij hammer. 11. hSbrûk a pair of 
bellows. 12. qqja! qoja! tremendous. 13. taqour touqowr a repeated 
tapping and knocking noise. 

fr\ The Interjections. 239 

14. ortcdiq the whole (field). 15. tlg^amag to ping. 16. (ighzifM 
to the brim. (They have placed a big ladder on the outside of 
the cauldron from the bottom to the brim.) 

JujU Continued. 

r^VJ^ (^J>^-o vİAjJ^jjl ' o3 Jj-wjJlJj AI) jL*- 3İJ^«ü aJj^w**^ 

Words, l.nideü! what do you say ! what a wonder 1 2, kâime 
group. 3. ghalabaliq crowd. 4. chekijlemeJc to hammer (§ 276). 
5. kinetlim^k to clamp together. 6. lehimlemek to solder. 7. qalay- 
lamaq to tin. 8. a day when father and mother both are at home; 
hence, a state of noise and confusion. 9. qtyamet qopouyor a 
commotion İ8 occnring: lit. the Day of Judgement is breaking. 
10. Soultan Mourad Amurath IV. 11. Baghdad seferi the Baghdad 
campaign (A. D. 1638). 12. te-aj-jub it" . to be astonished. 13. See 
§ 447. 

Jiiol. Continued. 

aI^J» • (^Jûl v-^i>- t5'j^ o^bj ^ lİ**^ «^A««^\>- ^j^y 

Words. 1 . naqliyet story. 2. mSraqjelh it", to arouse the interest. 

240 ro ^ji Lesson 35. ri% 

^Jb3 \^ iK^^ >a g% * ^3lCU}i ^».M^^âM ^Jüul ^».^,2an> 0*-Ua1>> 

3. merhoum deceased, blessed. 4. Shdh'nanU *The Book 
of Kings', the celebrated work of the Persian author Firdooai. 
5. gharib wonderful. 6. Qavas prop. name. 7. *I cut your speech 
with honey' (a polite expression used when one is obliged to 
interrupt the talk of another). 8. Smr it. allow, permit (him). 
9. bîı/îghînî hourmaq to twist his mustache. 10. ova field. 11. gSbr- 
sSniz if you had seen. 12. See § 404. 13. i-ri large. 14. lahana 

aI:^. 3 J^t. Continued. 

fi.-^-^ .... .• »»••* •• •• 

irords. 1 . p. hun-kiar the Fortunate One, a title of the Ottoman 
sovereigns (§§ 535, 556). 2. to form a camp, to encamp. 8. tent 
4. jirid is a certain game played on horseback, in which a stick 
is used as a dart. 5. innumerable (§ 404). 

r<Lt Appendix. 241 

6. Ai^m sififi the Persian expedition. Baghdad was then 
in the hands of the Persians. 7. mûba-laghali exaggerated. 
8. ouymaq to fit, to match. 9. bitnUk to grow (plant). 10. gop- 
maq to pluck out. 11. qo8 qojaman very big, gigantic. 12. khalq 
people. 13. bayilmaq to faint. 14. See § 447. 15. siviahi virmik 
to slip away quietly (§ 286). 

^Il^ Khitam End. 

^'^ u^^ Lesson 36. 

ojt)^^ Appendix. 

§ 481. The method in which to address and sahite 
people always requires considerable attention. The 
Ottomans themselves are very careful about such mat- 
ters, especially in writing. Every class of people has its 
especial title by which its members must be addressed. 

Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 16 

242 rn ^ji Leason 36. ftf 

I. Salutation, j«M«!>L. Selamlatnaq. 

§ 482. The Moslems salute one another with the 
address Selamun aUykum 'peace be unto you', the an- 
swer is Ve aleykum selam 'unto you be peace'. And 
when necessary to return the salutation, the one saluted 
says Merhaba you are welcome!', to which is answered 
Eyvallah' 'Thank you'. 

§ 483. Christians salute Christians and non- 
Christians, and Moslems Christians in the morning by 
saying SdbaKlar khayr olsoun! 'May the mornings be 
good' = 'Good morning 1' At noon -time or in the 
middle of the day, Vaqttlar khayr olsoun! 'Good day'. 
In the evening they say: Akhshamlar khayr oisounf 
'Good evening!' When it is necessary to return the 
salute, the person saluted says: Khosh geldifdis *you are 
welcome' ; or, Sahah'lar khayr olsoun^ VaqUlar khayr d- 
soun, Akhshamlar khayr olsoun, according to the time 
of day. 

§ 484. At parting, Moslems and Christians say 
Qal sagh-ltqla, Khoshjaqal; Qa'Un saghUqla, Khoshja'qaUAy 
all meaning 'Good-bye': the reply to which is Khosh" 
geldiniz, sefa' geldiniz 'you are welcome'. 

§ 485. But at night when taking leave they say 
Gejeler khayr olsoun 'Good night' : to which the answer 
is Khayra qarsM 'Toward the good one (morning)' which 
extends the idea of the salutation to the morning light. 

II. Congratulations. ol^Cjb Tebrikiat. 

§ 486. Returning after an absence, one is greeted with 
KhosJi geldiniz 'Welcome!': to which he replies JSTAosV 
gebrdiik! which may be rendered 'I am happy to see you'. 

§ 487. If the new comer has entered the room 
in the absence of the person whom he comes to visit, 
the latter, on coming in, makes use of the same salu- 
tation, only substituting the Dubitative for the Past 
tense KhosK gelmishsiniz. 

§ 488. In the East it is considered polite, in meeting 
a person, to ask after the health of absent parents or 

fijr Appendix. 248 

friends. In answering such questions, it is necessary 
to consider the age of the person who asks: 

a) If he is junior, the answer given is Choq selam- 
lar eder 'He offers you many salutations'. Then the 
younger man replies Erlerini eoperim, makhsous selam 
sedyle 'I kiss his hands, give (him) my compliments'. 
K the person regarding whom he has asked is of high 
rank, much superior to his own, he says, Etlerini 
edp4rim, makhsous selam sSyle 'I kiss his skirts, many 

b) If the person who enquires about the health of 
the absent person is aged and of good position, ft is 
customary to answer Ellerinizi ebper 'He kisses your 
hands', or with more formality Eteklerinizi diğerler 'They 
(he) kiss your skirts'. 

§ 489. The person who is to convey these greet- 
ings assumes the responsibility by saying BasH ûstûne 
'on my head' = 'with pleasure!' and acquits himself 
of it when he meets the person to whom the greetings 
are sent by saying Euan effendi choq choq selamlar 
seoyledi, ellerinizi eoper 'Mr. S. offers you many salu- 
tations and kisses your hands'. To which the other 
replies a) TesMk-kûr ederim 'Thanks!'; b) Sagh' olsoun 
'May he be well!'; c) Getiren geöndören' sagh olsoun 
'May he who brings and he who sends the selam be 
well!'; d) El edpen' sagh olsoun 'May he who kisses 
hands be well!' As we say, 'I am much obhged both 
to you and to him' (§§ 365, 375). 

§ 490. When somebody drinks something, or 
washes his hands or comes from the bath or shaves 
himself or is shaved by a barber, it is usual to say 
Afii/et' olsoun! 'Health be to you!': to which the other 
replies Eomrun choq' olsoun! 'May your life be long!'. 
Which may be rendered 'Thank you!' (§ 365.) 

§ 491. At the beginning of the new year they say 
Yeni seneniz mübarek' olsoun! Salî jedidifiiz mûbare¥ 
olsoun! 'A happy new year to you!': the answer to 
which is Choq' senelere 'For many years!' (§ 365.) 

§ 492. Among the Moslems on both their festi- 
vals (Ramazan and Qourban) the form of congratulation 


244 rn j^ji Lesson 36. rtt 

is Bayramîfiiz mübarek^ olsoun, or eedihia sayid* oisoun 
""May your festival be blessed'. 

§ 493. Besides the above, which are for set times, 
there is a great variety of occasional salutations and 
congratulations, such as (§ 365): 

1 . G^sûnûz aydîn^ olsotm! or more learnedly, Chesh- 
mınİ0 roushen^ oisoun! 'May your eye be bright', addressed 
to one whose daughter or son have just married, to 
parents on the birth of a child, or to those who have 
just welcomed a new relative or dear friend from 
abroad, or even received a letter from ^a distant friend. 
The reply to this is: Aydinliq ichinde d! ^Maj you 
enjoy the light' or Darosou evifiize oisoun! 'The same 
(millet) to your house!' or if addressed to a bachelor. 
Darosou hasMfma oisoun! 'May your turn come next!' 

2. To one who enters a new dwelling the salutation 
is Saghltjaq ile otouradn! 'May you dwell in it in good 

3. To one who puts on a new garment Sdghlijaq 
ile geyinesifi! 'May you wear it with health!" 

4. To one who is commencing an enterprise Allah 
İslı acMqlight versin! 'May God give you success!' 

5. To one who is convalescent after an illness 
GechmisJi ola! 'May it be past and forgotten!' (§366). 

6. To one who has lost a friend, or to imply the 
death of a friend enquired after BasMMss sagK dsoun! 
^Life to you 1' : the answer is Allah size ouzoun Sdmurler 
versifi! 'God grant many years of life to you!' 

7. When somebody receives any sum of money, 
he usually says. Bereket versin! 'May God give you a 
blessing (blessed increase)' = 'Thank you!': the reply 
to which is Bereketini' güresin! 'May you experience its 
increase 1' 

8. Teshekkûr edSrim, Memnounoum, are expressions 
in imitation of the European phrase, 'Thank you!' and 
their usage is confined to educated circles. The common 
people express the same meaning by such terms as: 
SagJi ol! Eline saghliq. When addressed to a child 
or an inferior 'Thank you 1' is expressed by Choq yasha, 
A' ferim oghloum! ('Very good!, Well done my boy!') 

T'lO Api^endix. 245 

9. When speaking of a disease from which the 
speaker has suffered in the past, he must add the ex- 
pression Sheytan qoulaghina qourshoun! 'Lead into Satan's 
ear* = 'May Satan's ears be stopped that ne shall not 
hear what is now spoken!' 

10. One who is obliged to use an impolite ex- 
pression, or to name an unclean animal (as for instance 
the dog, donkey or pig which are considered unclean 
among the Moslems), he must add S^zum ona! S^ssûm 
yabana ! Hasha houzourdan! 'My word to him! My 
word to the desert! Be it warded off from your honour' 
= Tardon the expression' or 'Excuse me for saying sol' 

11. inayet' o-la! Al'lah versin! 'May God's favour 
be upon you !' 'Let God give you' : to the beggars, by 
way of refusing them alms (§ 365). 

12. When somebody is going on a journey, in 
bidding farewell he says Khoslija qalifi!, AUaha sîmar- 
ladiq!, Bij^i douvada ounoutmayîû!^ 'Good bye! Remember 
us in your prayers!': to which the answer is AUaha 
emanet oloun!, RaVbim bilenizje dlsoun! 'We command 
you to God I', 'The Lord be with you'; or Oughourlar 
olsoun! 'Godspeed!', Good bye!, 'Good luck attend youl' 

13. Ziyade olsoun! 'May it be too much' == 'No, 
thank you!' Formula used in declining an invitation 
to partake of food. 

14. 'Pardon the omission', 'Don't pay attention to 
my shortcomings!' and 'I beg your pardon!' are rendered 
in Turkish by Qousoura qalmayin!^ Afv edersiniz! 

III. Modes of Address. 

§ 494. The word ^ sen 'thou' is not used except 
with reference to a child, an intimate friend, a servant 

or a pupil: at other times y^ siz 'you' is used to one's 

equals, unless for politeness' sake one of the word's now 
to be explained takes its place (§ 93). 

§ 495. In addressing superiors, the words aX3\ 

yS^O ' ^-JCJIc v1)IS £ff endim, zatîniz, or za'tî alîfiiz are 
used meaning 'Sir', 'Your Honour', or 'Your Lordship'. 

"246 r^ ^ji Lesson 36. f^^ 

Other such terms are ySC\S\^ ' (^^L^U- Tcliahipayiniz, 

Jchakipayileri 'the dust of your feet': that is, the speaker 
addresses the dust of the foot of the other, out of 
humility (§ 69). 

§ 496. Note. The word Effendimis has two differeui 
meanings: If it is used alone, among the Christians, it 
means Our Lord' (the Saviour). If it is connected with 
the word shevketme-ab' 'Imperial', as ShSvketmeab Effen- 
dimİ0, it means 'H. I. M. our Sultan'. 

Among the innumerable titles of H. I. M. the Sultan, 
the following : jsaiî shaJiane, ^ati hasreti padishahi *Hifl 
majesty the Emperor' are very common. 

§ 497. The words hasretleri, jenableri ^his (lit. 
their) majesty, excellency, highness' are titles equivaleDt 
to 'his majesty, his lordship, his excellency', but they 
are placed after titles and names and not before them, 
as in most European languages: 

Imperator hazretleri H. I. Majesty. 

Ingilter ra qralichasthasretUri H.M. the Queen of England. 
Vali pasha hasretleri H. E. the Governor. 

Qayynaqam hey hasretleri H. Honour the Qaymaqam. 
Hoja âffendi jenableri The respected teacher. 

§ 498. It is considered more polite to address 
superiors in the third person plural: Zatî alilerini khây'U 
sahmet verdim 'I have given your Excellency much 

§ 499. In high and polite circles the speaker cannot 
speak of himself as T, or others as 'he, we, they'. 
He must say: 

Bendenis, qotdouuous, ajisleri I (your servant). 

Bendeleri, qouVlart lor we (your servant or servants). 

Bayileri I, he, we (who pray for you) used by and 
of clergymen. 

Jariyeiiis, jariyeleri I, we (your maid servant) used 
by and of ladies. 

§ 500. Generally the word hasret before a single 
name indicates one of the prophets, saints or patriarchs 
of old; as: Hasreti Ibrahim 'the patriarch Abraham'. 
Hasreti Bavoud 'the prophet David'. Hasreti Souleymon 

T'uV Appendix. 247 

"^the prophet (King) Solomon'. Hazreti Isa (ee-sa) Effen- 
dimiz ^Our Lord Jesus'. Hasreti Meryem, Meryem Ana 
^Saint Mary' (the virgin Mother). Hasreti MeseeK 'the 
Holy Anointed One' (Christ). 

IV. Honorific Titles, a..^^ ^WI JSlqabi Besmiyi. 

§ 501. Titles of Honour also are of great im- 
portance, as every person of position must be addressed 
by his own proper title. 

^tul^ shehameilou Valorous and successful', is used 
for the Shah of Persia. 

Jcu^ hash'metlou 'royal, imperial' for Christian 

jtll^l esaletlou 'noble' for the ambassadors and 

jbJj rufhetlou 'honorable, venerable' (His Grace) 

for clergymen of high rank, patriarchs, archbishops, 
bishops and missionaries. 

JcLii fazi'Uiloii 'reverend' forjudges, priests, pastors 
and preachers. 

jtlj3 Jc^\»i fekhametlou devUtlou 'illustrious and 

magnificient' for the Kliidive of Egypt and Presidents of 

^jLc- Jdj^ devUtlou atoufetlou 'illustrious and muni- 
ficient' for Grand Viziers. 

jtîj^ devUtlou for Valis (Governors-General). 

^^U-- sa-a-detlou 'prosperous' for the Mûtesar'rîfs. 

jU tp iszetlou 'honorable' for the Qaymaqams. 

jtiij rifatlou 'eminent' for other officials. 

JC^y* * j^^T mûrûvvetloUy hûrmetlou 'generous, 
respected' to merchants, teachers, etc. 

248 r^ u^j^ LesBon 36. fhJW 

jtu^âc ismetlou 'virtuous' for married ladies. 
^jp iffetloii 'chaste' for unmarried ladies. 

^It* MisaVler Examples. 

Dûn devUtkJianeye^ geldim^ dm' ma zatî alMzi gSbrSmidim. 
I came to your house yesterday, but you were not at home. 

FaqirkhanSye^ ne vaqit Ushrif Sdejiksifiiz? When you will 
honour (visit) my house? 

Hmshiri hanîm nasU dır? — Himahirâm jartyİUri choq^ 
hasta dîr. How is your sister? — My sister is very sick. 

Bendeleri pik faqirim, zati aliniz ise pek zengin siflie. I am 
very poor, but you are very rich. 

Amiriqa jumhouriyeti reyisi fekhamStlou dMetlou Mc Kinley 
hazrdtUri. His Honour Mr. Mc Kinley, the President of the Republic 
of America. 

BayiUri Anatolia Collegi mûdiri yim, 1 am the President 
of Anatolia College. 

JariyeUri Frotistan mektebi mou-aVlimSsi yim. I am the 
teacher of the Protestant School. 

Words, 1. DivUtkhanS the abode of prosperity, i. e. yoiir 
house, used as a term of politeness. 2. Faqirkhand the house 
of your poor servant, i. e. my house. 

A\ ^.U> Exercise 81. 

^Uo;jl Jl « -^jl c^j^i» ' J^J >:^ Jj^ Jj^ •> 

! ji^jl jU^L, ^j^y^ ^y^^^. j^ji3|> vjSC I o>Jj* 

Words, 1. a. ziyarii to go on a visit. 2. a. UmkifM to 
condescend. 3. a. ufoKra^t prop. name. 4. a. ma}îhdowm hky yoor 
son Master ... 5. a. ma}üiS(ms especial. 

rı^ Appendix. 249 

^f.yp j^ li • A Jill ^-C*-i jl^*; OJ^ • O^j' Jlii »3^-^-^-^' *^ 

* (C' c5i' *-^.^jH <İöjuİ-I ' o^jy ^IpVjÎ qIL— * j;^^ • fv-ill 
•(f->V* cii-^"' -3^--^-* 'V-^^ 'V^^ vl»UljI^i "'lUal A 

6. haîîfiîz dirliyifliz the circumstances of your life. 7. üzerinize 
shifalar olsoun! may it be health to you! 8. a. htagKfirouVlah 
lit. 'I ask pardon of God' = Not in the least, I have no such 
pretensions. 9. loutfin be kind enough I 10. iKtiramati fayiqa 
(my) highest respects. 11. taqdim St" to present. 12. a. si-a-dH 
iU! Go in happiness (said to a departing friend). 

AY jt-J^ Exercise 82. 

Word«. 1. a. fouqara poor people. 2. a. «/i'san bouyourmaq 
to grant, to bestow. 3. Dersa-a-dit Constantinople (§ 519). 
4. qidSmli senior. 5. Saltanatı seniyi The Ottoman Government. 
6. Mûneer prop, name, Lucian. 7. houzour presence. 8. a. qahoul 
bouyourmaq to accept. 

250 rn u^j^ Lesson 36. r»* 

o/^ji ^ • •f->^*^' vi^^lSI ^^oJlu-a1.a )<^yp t5Ju-*i. j^«J^^. 

9. a. det^am to continue. 10. a. i^am^^ ^^." to dwell. II. iSfo/oii2ar 
mahaVlesi the street called Sofoular (in Merzifoun). 12. a. tSsfUrrûf 
to be honored (we could not see you). 

AV 4tç-J? Translation 88. 

1. H. I. M. the German Emperor, William II. 2. His 
Grace the Armenian Patriarch. 3. His Excellency the 
Governor of Angora. 4. His Eminence, the Mûtösarrif 
of Samsoun, Qadri Pasha. 5. H. E. the English Am- 
bassador Sir Nicholas O'Connor. 6. H. E. the American 
Ambassador at Constantinople, Dr. Angel. 7. Rev. Charles 
Tracy, President of Anatolia College. 8. Rev. Carabet 
Kaprielian; Rev. K^rope Yakoubian. 9. I request your 
Excellency to give me permission to go to England. 
10. Under the shadow of His Majesty (sayeyi padi- 
shahide) we are all safe. 11. H. H. Artin Pasha, the 
Ambassador of the Ottoman Government in London. 12. 1 
have received your letter. 13. I was for two hours waiting 
for you at my house, but you did not come: afterwards 
I went to your house, but you were not at home. 
14. Please give me to-day's newspapers. 15. How is your 
father's health? 16. Thank you, Doctor, he is very well, 
through your kind assistance (sayeyi alifitJsdS). 17. My 
sister is the wife of K^mal Boy. 18. When did you 
come here? — I came three days ago with your son. 

to t Appendix. 251 

T, Onomatopoeia. 

§ 502. Is the term applied to words or phrases, the 
sound of which conveys some idea of or resemblance to 
the thing signified. 

It is customary in common language to use some 
onomatopoeic expressions. For instance, they say in 
Turkish : 

Sou kJiartl Icharil aqtyor. The water flows violently. 
Taq taq qapouya vourdou. Tap tap he knocked at the door. 
Jombadaq (or jomb deyi) souya atUdi. He threw himself 
fiuddenly (with noise into) the water. 

These words Jchartl hhartl, jomb are intended to 

represent the sound of the water when flowing or 

splashing, just as taq taq does that of knocking at 
the door. 

Sa-at iiq ttq ttq ediyordou. The watch was ticking, = 
''going tick, tick'. 

Küiseniü chaM dafi doufi Sbtuyordou, The church bell was 
Tinging, ding-dong. 

Ellerini shapour shoupour birbirini vourdoular. They loudly 
clapped their hands. 

Qoushlar jivil jivil ebtûyorlar. The birds are singing 
tweet tweet. 

§ 503. Is the notification, announcement, call to 
divine worship, proclaimed from a minaret or any other 
place, five times a day, by the mû-ez-ısin (chanter). The 
following is the formula: 

L First of all ^n5^ <I)1 Al'lahou ekber, 'God is Most Great' four 

times repeated, turning the face towards the four directions of 
the world. 

2. 4İ\ S7i <ll V ö\ V^ EsK'hidû enni la ilahi illaXlah, I bear 
witneiBs that (there is) not a god, save God [twice repeated]. 

3. 4ji)\ d^J \x^js^ o\ '^\ Esh-M-du inni Mouhammidin H- 

soul oullah. I bear witness that Moubammed is the apostle of 
God [twice]. 

4. SjUll Jc j^>^ Hayyi aUsselat Hasten to divine worship 

5. r->LJil\ Jfr ^^ Hay ye alel filah. Hasten to permanent 
blessedness [twice]. 

252 rn o-J^ Lesson 36. fif 

6. j^\ 4jtil Miahii iTchh. God is great [twice again repeated]. 

7. AJtil VI <i) V Xa tZaTi^ illal'lah. [Once more repeated.] 

The call chanted at daybreak has this addition after 
the fourth clause: 

r^^ Cj^ ^^ SjlUH Es-selatû Jchayrûn min in nivm. Prayer 
is better than sleep. 

In great and imperial mosques, the mûSjg'-snns 
sometimes make optional additions to the fifth clause; as: 

! ^\ Jj^j ij Es'selatu visselamu aliyk, ya Hahee ballah! or Ta 

noori arshilldh! or Ya sâyyidûl evveleen vil a^lcMreen! or Ta 
rSsoul oul'lah! May blessing; and peace be upon thee, O Beloved 
one of God! or Light of the throne of God! or Prince of 
the former and later (prop^^ets)! or Prophet of God! 

Inside the place of worship also, this call is uttered 
when worship begins; but then with this addition after 
the fifth clause: 

o>l^)l <A^ Jİ Qad qametis salat Divine worship has already 
been entered on (begun) [twice]. 

VII. The Christian Services, oe..^ Cj^U 

§ 504. The Benediction: 

Rahhimiis Hisous Kristosoun [or Isa-el-Mâsihiü] 
inayeti, Peder AllaMmîzîn mouhab'heti ve Rouhoul QoudsouU 
mushareketi jumleniz ile beraber olsoun; Amin. 

The Lesson: 

Oqouyajaghtm mahal Tekvee'nûl Makhlouqat KitabintH 
birinji babînîn birinji ayetinden 16^m ayetine qadar dir. 

Mat'teosoun tahreer eyUdiyi Injilin altînjî bahinif^ 
iptidasîndan sonounadek oqouyajaghtm, 

Pavlos Besotdoun BomalUara yazdtght rescdeniH on 
ikinji babından oqouyajaghtm. 

Onounjou Mezmourou oqouyajaghtm. 

The Text: 

Louqastn tahreer eylediyi Lijilifi sekizinji hahînîH 
yirmi birinji ayeti haqqtnda mutorla-a' edejeyim. 

Youhanna Injiliniû birinji bob yirmi doqouzounjou 
ayetinin ikinji qismt üzerine vaz edejeyim. 

for Appendix. 253 

Esası Kelamîmîz Amalî Rousoul Kitabînin dedrdûnjû 
hah on ihinji ayetinde boulounour or mevjoud dour. 

The Hymn: 

Maqam Kitahînîn altînjî sahifesinde houlounan oni- 
Jcinji ilahiyi teren -nüm edelim. 

Yûz otouz yedinji ilahiyi teren -nüm edelim. 
TesMTcTcıir ilahisini terennüm edelim. 

The Baptismal formula: 

Laura Eupheme, sini Pedirin, Oghouloufi ve Bouhoul 
Qoudsoun namına [or hismil Eh vel Ibn vel Rouhotd 
Qouds] vaftiz ederim. 

The Ending of Prayers: 

Bahh ve Khelashıarîmîz Hisous Krisdosoufi ismi sheri- 
finde dileriz, iKsan eyle, Ameen! 

Jjl ^ 6\^^ 

J'P^j L?>---^ ^^ 

254 fK 

- Jl wjbl 

Second Part. 

The Elements of Arabic and Persian 



they are used in Ottoman -Turkish. 

Introductory Remarks. 

§ 505. The Arabic and Persian languages and 
literature have for many centuries exercised a very 
extensive influence upon the Ottoman. Therefore there 
are very many Arabic and Persian words and phrases 
used in Ottoman. In order to be able to understand 
and use them correctly, it is necessary to have an 
elementary knowledge of Arabic and Persian Grammar. 

§ 506. The following points should be noted: 

a. All such Arabic and Persian words taken singly 
are declined according to the grammatical system of 
the Turkish language. 

b. All such Arabic words taken singly may be 
used in accordance with the rules of Persian Grammar. 
But genuine Turkish words cannot be treated in this way- 

c. Only genuine Arabic words are used according 
to the Arabic grammatical system, Turkish and Persian 
words cannot be so dealt with. 

§ 507. There are, however, some very much used 
Turkish and Persian words which are treated according 
to the rules of Arabic Grammar, because they are 

supposed to be Arabic. Such words are called JjIUp 

oj^A ghalataU mesh'hourc 'barbarisms' or 'manifest 
errors' (§ 583). 

r»o The Persian Plural. 255 

Note, There are some orthographic signs which are peculiar 
to Arabic; but as mention has been made of these in the In- 
troduction, they do not require to be dealt with again here 

(§§ 35-48). 

rv u^^O Lesson 37. 

^j\i M^ The Persian Plural. 

§ 508. In the Persian language there are only 
two numbers: the Singular and the Plural. 

§ 509. Persian plurals are formed in two ways: 

a. If the noun be the name of an animate being, it 
may form its plural by taking the termination Jl -an; as: 

i^ mSrd a man û\^^ mirdan men. 

j^\^, hiradSr a brother ûb->i^. birad^ran brothers. 

^ sheer a lion o\^ sheeran lions. 

b. If the Persian noun be the name of an inanimate 
object, it becomes plural by the addition of U -ha; as: 

JL- sal a year L^L- saVha years. 

Lj^ derya a sea Ulj^ diryaha seas. 

§ 510. If the animate nouns end in a vowel hS 
(-a, -e), their plural is made by changing that letter 

into fj giaf (-gr-) and adding o' -an; as: 

ojûi bendS a servant CJ^-^, bendegian servants. 

^\j*' khaje, khoja a teacher jji^lj^ khajegicCn teachers. 

a. ^Jd» talebe student (jiCiL taUbegtan students. 

§ 511. The following nouns, though denoting 
inanimate objects, may form their plurals in ^1 -an; as: 
j^\ akKtir a star ol-'^^ akhtiran stars. 

jljA hhar a thousand uU^J* hezaran thousands. 

256 rv i^ji Lesson 37. Y^^ 

So also: o\JJJ rouzan days, o^ sheban nights, ole^ chish- 
man eyes, o^b^ dirakhtan trees. 

Al ^^Ju^ Exercise 84. 
Change the following nouns into the Persian plural. 

Ill «2.1 -tS^ii <4.,*«t5^ «6 ^i «7 .••' 
f-V) (JV-^»^ O'jy* A-w— jl ©^y» ^^U ©JüJ 

- - » 

21 - • t 22 <^c 23 » * 24 fy n t It t I 

ITords. 1. vineyard. 2. qahWiman hero. 3. p^VZivan wrestler. 
4. ftrishte angel. 5. murdi a corpse. 6. madir mother. 7. xrindf^ 
alive. 8. zabit of^cer. 9. i/at7^r attendant. 10. deev^ div a demon; 
a giant. 11. house. 12. inn, tavern. 13. shall king. 14. padishah 
a great king. 15. shagird pupil. 16. a^Z;?a(2^ nobleman. 17. duJMSr 
daughter. 18. muUbSr a notable (man). 19. firiq a general of 
Division (in the Army). 20. khahdr a sister. 21. sick. 22. kSs 
person. 23. poor. 24. tûj'jar merchant [tûfjaran, Hijjarlar]. 

§ 512. Note. 1. a. Jl.« musUm ^one who submissively obeys 
God = Moslem'. Persian pi. olc'^ mûsliman 'moslems; an orthodox 
believer', which is used as singular in Ottoman and Persian ; and 
(jl^leL^ * Jl'IcJ^ muslimanan, mûslimanlar is considered as the 
double pi. of it. 

2. So also a. aİİ» * jUj tdlebd, tûfjar 'students, merchants', which 

are the Arabic plurals of ^U» ^^ll talibe tajir 'student, merchant', 

but are used in double pi. form in Ottoman and Persian: cJ^sJ^ *J<^ 

taUbSgian, tdlebiler. (See the Double Plurals of Arabic, Lesson 51.) 
3. There is another word in use mûsûlman^ mûsilman^ mûsûr- 
man meaning 'a moslem', which is of Syriac origin, but never 
admitted into the correct language, it is used in the Southern 
regions of Turkey among the common and uneducated people. 

^0 i >%Jl2j Beading Exercise. 

35 , ^^J^ The Match Girl. 

Words. 1. &. Kibrit! kibrit! Matches 1 matches! 2. tuUmif 
hamHli gracious. 

r§V The Persian Plural. 257 

i 15 • • •• ıh ♦ 

3. yafyroujouq that little creature. 4. gSbr! seel 5. daghtniq 
untidy. 6. mavi blue. 7. yaniq burnt. 8. ust clothes. 9. qoja 
big. 10. a. loqma slice. 11. from street to street. 12. dolashmaq 
to wander. 13. niche! how many! chirkin dirty, ugly. 14. yara- 
para wounded. 15. gharib stranger. 16. pij bastard. 17. injitmik 
to hurt. 18. a. vujoud body. 19. qanad wing. 20. g4mUk to spread 
the wings. 21. sapmag to swerve. 

Turkish Ck>av.-Orammar. 17 

258 rv ur-ji Lesson 37. r*A 

<**i>.\ . f > • • • • '^j>-j>- j-^. »' • ♦ ♦ • 1 ^^^y^Si »' 

22. chahalamaq to straggle. 23. yoğ[^ou22otı^ poverty. 24. Mi- 
hSmmid Emin a living Turk poet (I860). 

aI I^ Conyersation. 

oj>U (o\) -c/^ ^J^J^ ' ^->^ ->-'^-^ 4^— ^ oVj\ JiV 
. ûlîj * ÖJ i ûb^, Oj4 : >^ hjj\ 'J^l- d;^ 

oij, : JJ^*?" i)JL-\ oiS\ J-îV tr*^-^ tr^^^ ilJ^apG ji (r 

• jjî4«^ aLJ ^Jbi (J) JL-\ >:L oVj\ 
? "Ji^jjiJ ^U\ All Jlli. ^G^. " UU cijj (^ 

ro^ The Persian Floral. 259 

' ol^jlj* J^ i)J»i^ : j^j Ji^.i Ol^-^j J JJj\ o^^^ ( ^ 
•ji ^V-xiil olc^ ^ü.1 j^> o-J-'l^^::^ 6^,b^ 3 o-^*l^UU\ (^ 

i]ja--s^ j/Ij ( <j;^ '4İI "^3) ^®^j i>l». o^^ p\^ a*^ ^r 


260 rv u-ji Lesson 87. f^* 

• jXZxjjiji jjL-^\ (3ti^O (jlii (5J^^%^ O^^J (J!^^, ^^J^ JT\y 

•^w-.j s^Lill JLVjl -Oil (jl) OJü^^"^!^ 5S" •^(/'^ (Sl^^j;^ 

«j^ ^ii ^i J^J^ <i-J^i vj**. -J-^^J J^CiJ J<lîU ^'iU- o^j 

• (ı•ı.^§) ./^ 

.j-J^^^ ^i (Mussulman) ole'^ ' «.^^J-^ ^j.>- *®tOj\ (r 
.j-xîji- ^^T t^jlAi. itlllcL- o^Jji «Jûlı-jûb (r 

^o^e. 1. For the words included in the Conversation see 
the Key. 

2. For the sentences indicated by a, b, c, see more in the 
next Lesson; the letters show the order in the composition. 

n\ The Persian izafet. 261 

^^ u^^ Lesson 38. 

^U,! The Persian İzafet. 

§ 513. In books and in conversation also, when ele- 
gance is studied, instead of the Turkish way of connecting 
Qoun with noun and noun with adjective, the Persian 
method is used, especially when the words employed 
ire either Arabic or Persian. 

[. The Construction, when two nouns are connected 
with one another as possessor and possession. 

§ 514. The Turkish way is, as we have seen (§ 109), 
X) put the possessor first and the thing possessed after- 
svards, just like the English possessive followed by the 

aoun which governs it; as: (J^ll5^^iJjJLj pederin kitabî 
the father's book. 

§ 515. The Persian method consists simply in 
putting the thing possessed first and the name of the 
30ssessor after it, with an esre between the two, if the 
first noun ends in a consonant. This corresponds 
to the ordinary English use of 'of between two nouns: 

jjL> K^\:S^ kitahî pidir. The book of the father. 

. ^' 

J—J J^i amaVÎ rousouL The Acts of the Apostles. 

II. The Construction^ when a noun is qualified 

by an adjective. 

§ 516. The Turkish method is simply to put the 
adjective before the noun (§§ 107, 669); as: 

^1:15^,^ Jul. mouqad'dis kitab 'The Holy Book = The Bible'. 

§ 517. The Persian method, when both words are 
3İther Arabic or Persian, is to put first the noun and 
afterwards the adjective, with an esre between them: 

^j^jIa <^\:^kitahî mouqad'dis the Book the Holy = the Bible. 
jujl>. JL sdl'î jedid 'the new year'. 

262 rA crji Lesson 38. T^r 

§ 518. Bemarks: 1. If the first member of the 
construction, i. e, the noun, end in elif or vav used as 
a vowel (-a, -ou), instead of the ordinary esrâ^ a yâ (-y-) 
is inserted for the sake of euphony (§ 53). 

Instead of 3İai \tX pasha-i-Baghdadj we must write 
^l-u. f^\!L\i pashayi Baghdad ^the Pasha of Baghdad'. 

<;U. (iVl bala y i khanS, The upper (part) of the house. 
j^ <SyJ^ charsou'yi kibir. The Grand Bazar. 
.ATo^c. The original Persian word ^^jU charsau (a sqaare) is 
commonly spelt in Ottoman as J^j\^ ' J^-^^ charsht^ charskou» 

§ 519. 2. If the first member of the construction, 
i. e. the noun, end in the vowels ye and he (-€, -^), a 
hemjs^e (-y-) is placed over the final letter for the sake of 
euphony (§ 53): 

Instead of jO* ^iU. Jchane-i peder, it must be^Jb »aâU. 
khaneyi peder 'the house of the father'. 

<^U\ »^l^ qadi'yi Amassia the judge of Amassia. 
^A^?t<^li bagli-chS'yi kebir the great garden. 

^lt« MisaTler Examples. 

J^j\ ^^X^ harekSt'i arz the movement of the earth, earth- 
o^U- j^ D^r'i Sa-a-dSt the door of Prosperity j Qonrtan- 

<Js^ j^ Biri AleeyS, BSraliyi the lofty door J *i»ople. 
JIp ^^L 5a5'l -4Zec the Sublime Porte. 
u^j\ ^.oj^ kuriyi arz the sphere of the earth, the Earth. 
lie »Lû.^L padisha'hî alem the king of the world. 

§ 520. In Turkish the pronominal suflBxes corres- 
ponding to my, thy, his, etc., that of mine, yours, etc. 
are always put after the noun to which they refer. In 
Arabic and Persians constructions, if the noun be 
followed by an adjective, simple or compound, or by 
another noun with which it is conjoined, their sufiSxes 

r^r The Persian Izaföt. 263 

are put at the end of the last word. This is the case 
with declensional endings also: 

*Ü-jüu s^\:^ Jcitah'î mouqad'desifi of the Holy Book. 
ojtJjJii (Sjjj\ arzou'yi shididimizS to our strong desire, 
e jjJL LS^U- JchdkipayUrinde at the dust of your feet, with you. 
<L\ xii j\j\ avaz'i buUnd iU with a loud voice. 

AO ^(Ju> Exercise 85. 

1. Ouj zemeen earth + jj rou face. 2. a. ^2-1 dhmer 
red -\-B., j^ hahr sea. 3. y^ + JuL- 5e/îd white. 4. a. ^4 
+ ©L- siyah\ 5. ^ + ^* ia-^ mouheet [Ocean]. 6. yt 
+ Ja-^ + jCS\ 7. (a.JLp aM testament -f- a. J^J^ jedeed 
new.) 8. (a. jy^ + a. j-Tc a^eeg' old.) 9. (I) ^a foot + ci^ 
taJcht throne) [= the capital]. 10. (fJU. IchaJc dust + 
I).) 11. (a. Ju^l injerf Gospel + a. ,^ ^ sherif holy.) 
12. (jLÜ) hûlend loud + jljl aia^ voice.) 13. (a. JjJlİ shedeed 
strong + j3jI «^-s^ow desire.) 14. (a. ^.'L[... saltanat govern- 
ment 4" a- ^^-^ senee-ye sublime.) 15. (a. C>IS ^era^ person 
+ a.^W a-Zee high.) 16. (oH + o'jr.' ^^-^«^ Persia.) 
1 7. (a. vl;j[7- hararet + a. „ y^ sAem^ sun.) 18. (a. ^^ sarf 
grammar + cîl>^ Osmanee Ottoman.) 19. (a. o^ lisan 
language + cî^) 20. (a. tj^Mseere many, great + 
a. j^\^fevayid benefits.) 21. (^ili + a. Jal;?.) 22. (a. sj^ 
+ a. 1^^.) 23. (a. j:>^\ + ^j-^ [= Palestine].) 24. (y^j\>- 
+ a. j^jL* mezkûr mentioned.) 25. (ll>.j) Ybw/taw'wa John 

264 TA crji Lesson 38. mt 

+ a. *.j vahee revelation.) 26. (a. JtUl emsal proverbs + 
oUJL SouUyman) 27. (3jİ3 Davowd David + a. -A^lj^ *«^ 

zameer Psalms.) 28. (a. Ic^l esma names ~|- a. ^IOpI adad 

-STey. (^3> ^^i>-l>^cİJJ v£İLv«3 ^memffi rouyi (yakhod) 

y^î;8^^"f,• vjuj c5-?-> y*ow'î/i zemeen the face of the earth; ytîir 

is Turkish and jj row Persian, both meaning *face\ 

The Persian Numerals. ^\ss\ ^^Icw-I 

§ 521. The Persian numeral adjectives are also 
sometimes used in written Turkish, and in gambling. 
They are the following: 

vlL yek 1 jU ' j\^ cMhat^ cJiar 4 cJwb hdft 7 

j^ dii 2 rt;^ 29ewj 5 c^İa A^!g^ 8 

-u- »^ 3 ^ s^i^s?» 6 <î nâV 9 

Xa sad 100; j\ja hezar 1000; ^j* neem half; 4jlC ySgianS 
single; o^ o^ yiguln yegtan one by one. 

§ 522. The t^rms used in backgammon, dominos 
and other games are as follows; {ou means *and'): 

dû-shesh 6x6, dû-besh 5x5, d^rt-chîhar 4x4, âû-si 
3x3, dû'bari 2x2, hep-yüc 1x1; shesh-hSsh 5x6, sMsh- 
chîhar 4x6, sMsh ou-se 3x6, shdsh ou-dû 2x6, shish ou-yek 
1x6; besh'd^brt 5x4, pMJ ou-sS 5x3, pinj ou-dû 5x2, 
pSnj ou-yek 5x1; chîhar ou-si 4x3, chihar ou-dû 4x2, 
cMhar ou-yik 4x1; se-ba-dû 3x2, se-yek 3x1, iki-bir 2x1» 

§ 523. Jit^ Misal'Ur Examples. 

yekvijoud of one body. yekdil of ona heart 

yekpari of a single piece. yekchishm one-eyed. 

yek takhtadan at once. charpa a quadruped. 

<)UJLi. shesh'khani a (six-celled) rifle, an arquebuss. 
^jL>i yekdiger one another, each other. 
o^_J^ ^ neem jizeeri (half island) peninsula. 

Y^9 The Persian izafet. 265 


'J -J neem rSamte semi-official (paper, etc.) 
l^L^ sSpa, sîpa a tripod, a three-legged stool. 

A\ Ju^ Exercise 86. 

^û^^ JlL SjLoU- (5jl:İI (5v«j ^jGjIjI, >^I o^Up j^x" 
o^ <i;r' "-^^-^ iS^y vildj^ ojüsCl 1 •<ie5xil ûUlj^j 

^Ll^l Oj-:»- pis 41 jdb 3ljT <5JLİl 5^U. a . ^jjT sfK> 
<3-j^ c5-^l ^fJ^ ^ -(i^l *wîljî ^âJİ» tS^^ j: ^** 

Cjj^ j-^-^' ^ ^ '-^^ ->'-? i^3jt: j: J^^ u-^* t^\SZ ojci^jli 
•->JÎ->^/"eri (3^-^ J^-JH^ ^^^^ Jtb3 ^^ oj^:!^ 

TFbrrfs. 1.3fmr Egypt. 2. w^Ar^t." to publish. %, JEsir-'gazafi 
the street called £sir Pazarl (the Market of Slaves). 4. Bdmzi 
JEffendi khanî the inn named R^mzi Effendi. 5. taUbeyi ouloum 
students (the seekers after science). 6. bhii Adim the children 
of Adam, mankind (575). 7. beleegh eloquent 8. qraat it,'' to read. 
9. mou-aVlim teacher. 10. tareef it." to explain. 11. ayit verse. 
12. mouhar'rir written. 13. talVyiH your star, fortune. 14. zar 
a die used in playing. 

266 TA ı^ji Lesson 88. r^^ 

iZ^[İ (^AmÜ Jteading Exercise. 

 list of Moral Maxims (= Franklin's Principles). 

! 41 Ijr I ^''j^ "51 s 

Words. 1. S-samee names, lists. 2. fizayil virtues. 8. On- 
heehat (commands), maxims. 4. hakeem a philosopher. 5. fn^'^oiif 
celebrated. 6. Benjamin Franklin. 7. tanzeem to pat in order. 
8. harSktât acts, conducts. 9. islaW et." reforming. 10. ntf9 life; 
self, personality. 11. zîmnînda for, regarding. 12. it't%kh€Ut it,^ to 
adopt. 13. qayidS a rule. 14. riyazet ascetic discipline. 15. to 
be heavy. 16. sir sim stupified. 17. sükût silence. 18. wufeed 
profitable. 19. intizam order, regularity. 20. tayeen it," to fix, 
appoint. 21. takhsees to assign or specially appropriate. 22. ma^sid 
an aim, endeavor. 28. mejbour 61." to be obliged. 24. to decide, 
to settle. 25. hila without. 26. qousour defect (= perfect, complete). 
27. emri tesar'rouf frugality, economy {imr work). 28. atkhSr other 
(people). 29. louzoum necessity. 30. haqiqi real. 81. ma-a-da 
except. 32. sarf it." to spend. 

y^v Persian Compound Adjectives. 267 

33. say om amel labour and work. 34. zay St." to waste. 
55. meshghoul ol," to be busy. 

aI I^ Conyersation. 

jUI^ dJLji>. ^j3 Ders haqqtnda sivallar. 

? Jb 3 J ^ ûJ^^bT iljij. ? ^^ -J p<l:w 3 ^^ <; ü^^jli ( ^ 
i <^jjlyj\ hekim *^^\ ^J^^ -^ . ©^li** ^. •Ju.-i^i • j-4>i J^ — 

»jj^Ss^ > i^L 

^^ u^t> Lesson 39. 

k^y ^j Persian Compound Adjectives. 

§ 524. The simple adjectives of the Persian language 
are much used in Turkish; as: »L- siyah' black, JT al 

red, Jb bed bad, jlL- sefid white. 

* •• 

§ 525. The compound adjectives of the Persian 
language are formed in. two ways: either by the addition 
of particles, or by joining two words together. 

A. The Derivative Adjective, formed by the addition 

of particles to nouns. 

§ 526. The most common derivative adjectives used 
in Turkish are made by the addition of the following 
particles to Arabic or Persian nouns (§§ 149, 579): 

§ 527. I. The letter (^ ye (-Î), signifies relation. If 

the word ends in the vowels I ' <5 ' © (-öt; -i; -e, -a), they 

are changed into j (- v-), and afterwards the ye is added : 

J^UCji ingliz Englishman (iJjLCil inglisi Englis'^ 

268 ^^ u^j^ Lesson 39. mv 

rcî^\ ifrSnj a European {^^\ ^frinji European. 

a.fjâc' ağ[2 mind Jâp* agîi mental. 

Cn». chin China ,;^ chird chinaware. 

a. U^ (îun^a world ^j^^ dunyavi worldly, 

§ 528. n. »\ -anS signifies relation and resem- 
blance. If the word ends in the vowel he (-^), this is 

changed into fj (-fir-): and if it ends in j vowel (-ou) a ^^ 
(-y-) is inserted between the word and particle; as: 
eli. shah' king aj'UI!;. shdhanS royal. 

ejJj h^ndS servant ^i^jjj b^d^tan^ as a servant 

a. joc ac2ote enemy <)lijjLfr adouyane as an enemy. 

§ 529. IIL The terminations Ol» ' 0'^ * jIT'-fton, -t^n, 
'kiar, -giar form nouns denoting 'doer, keeper\ etc. 

oL&l hagh'han keeper of vineyard. ji^jt4. A:^le?m^/0İar a servant. 
J^Sj\j^ khûdavendigiar the sovereign, the Sultan. 
J^JJ^^ pervSrdigiar the Nourisher (God), Providence. 
jl^li yadgiar, yadigiar a remembrance, memento. 

§ 530. IV. The prefixes t na-, ^ W- mean 

'without', and denote the absence of something; nor is 
used with adjectives, bi- with nouns: 

ajImI; nama'lum unknown. JUi napah unclean. 
ojl^ bichar^ unfortunate, ij-j»-^ naX;^os^ nnpleasant. 
^ IdjJ hivifa inconstant (friend), unreliable. 
o\ji-L*o\^ khah'futkhah willingly or unwillingly. 

§ 531. Y, ^ hem- prefixed to a noun expresses 

^Sj^^ hinisMh'ri fellow-citizen. ,^^Jj;c^ hSmjins* homogeneont. 

e^JL^ hSnisheere who sucks the same milk, a sister. 

§ 532. VI. Adjectives are also formed by the 

y•\^ Persian Compound Adjectives. 269 

addition of L-l ' J:.^ ' Û: ' -J^ ' ilt * ->J ^^ -)b -««^» -ve»fo, 
-cen, -mend, -nak, -ver or -var. » 

L-iLJ nisa-asa womanlike, lt^ m^/i'v^s/i like the moon = bright. 
ı>-İ7l atisheen fiery. Xi-L,a». hissimind partaker. 

a.p.illli- ghamndk sorrowful. i)l^^ fSrah'nak cheerful. 
jijJw«\ ûmmidvar hopeful. J^^ janver (wild) animal. 
Jjj^ * Al*^*vA hunirviry hûnSrmând skilful. 

§ 533. VII. By doubling some words and inserting 
an elif between them, fulness or multifariousness may 
be expressed: 

^}j: h^raMr breast to breast; together; equal. 

v^U * JUVU Ubaleh, malamdl (lip to lip) brimful. 

• • 

«iXljI^j * i)^^^' f'ji^y rSngiaring^ gûnagûn, nevanSv varied 
in hue, variegated. • 

B, Compound Adjectives composed of two words. 

§ 534. The compound adjectives obtained by the 
union of two words are generally formed either: 1. of 
a noun and a participle, or the root of a verb, 2. of 
an adjective and a noun, or, 3. of two nouns. 

They may consist of two Persian words, or of an 
Arabic and a Persian word, or of two Arabic words. 

§ 535. a. Adjectives formed of a noun and a 
participle or the root of a verb. 

J^ dil heart, ^. bSr take, captivate: ^^ dilber enchanting. 
iJu m^dSd help f i^j res arrive: u^J^-^ mididris helper. 

<^tj:i dilshikSste broken hearted. See also: § 556. 

§ 536. b. Adjectives formed of an adjective 
and a noun. 

ji bou odour jr^j*- khosh'bou sweet scented, odorous. 

^ Uhi empty ^--^f tehidist empty-handed, deprived. 

§ 537. c. Adjectives formed fipom two nouns. 

y^\ a/tou gazelle : p.±>.^l ahouchishm gazelle -eyed, attractive. 

270 ^^ u^j^ Lesson 39. fV* 

J^t sheer lion: J^^ sheerdü lion-hearted. 

( jlifr a. + J5 ) j\J0İ^gûku!ar rosy-cheeked; Rose (pr. name). 

§ 538. Many such compound words lose their 
meaning as an adjective and are considered as com- 
pound nouns: 

4Z^jJS^ gûldSsti a bunch of flowers, a bonquet. 
^^wc^ sSraskSr head of the army, a commander-in-chief. 
A^L*UâJ * <»\:^y^ nizanCnamSy qanounnami a code of laws. 

The Degrees of Comparison. 

§ 539. The Comparative is obtained by the addition 

of J 'ter to the simple form of the adjective, and the 
Superlative by adding Jx.j' -tureen: 

Ju hid bad: ^"Ju hed'ter worse: 6:^-^ hidtireen worst. 
VL bala high: ^VL halatir higher: Oi^Vl* halatireen highest. 

AV J^ Exercise 87. 

Change the following nouns into adjectives: 

527. db ji freng European, f]/ turh, a. ^jJL sharq 

the east. 2^^ yehoud (Judah) Jew. a>^^\ Edirne Adrianople. 
4^ I ji Fransa, o^ ydban the wilderness. ,^JU HdW> 

Aleppo. iJli. hhah earth, a. ».^JU^ salih a cross. 

• •• 

528. j»3 deev a demon, ^y merd man. w— j> 
cto5^. a.^U- MaZİ5 sincere, a. j:>-W q;V^ humble, jjb jp^der. 

529. A9c^\i baghche. ö\i^ günah. a. ^>U X^Aao^ 
deliverance. ^ÜL- sakhte false, ^li jpa5 watch (at night). 

jlS^imr profit. J)Ji:up ' JjX^ sandouq, sandiq a coffer. 

• ^" 

jjj row^ day. j^ door. JS pen, graver. 

rVf Persian Compouml Adjectives. 271 

530. a. ^L-l foundation, t. ^^^ souch sin, fault 

a. Jj^ maqboul acceptable, a. C^jSi qoudret power. 
^y merd (brave) man. a. ^Ij^ mizaj state of health, 
a. jij.cfc>. liouzour a becoming in repose, ease, ^t strength. 

55İ. a. cX^'mil'let nation. 2i. s„^x^ mezheh religion. 
^.. j\y>. jivar neighbourhood, o'j rah way, road. 

535. (oj reh way + j: ' ^ niîma show), (>1 sheer -{- 
jlji. Mor eat), (dl» 6ey, o^ + o3İj zade born). 

55^. (o'} ^^Van heavy + V. *^^ price), (©^L- sade 
simple 4" J^)» (fvi>- cheshm eye + û^)» (Ok bread 

+ jfmr) ' (j. + ^^) * (J3 + 3q. 

538. (a. dl> congratulation + letter), (3^^ day 
+ letter), (y nev new + JU- year), (a. Oil + letter). 

539. Jî»^ khosh nice, 4^ miA' great, â> hih good. 

A A a^Am Exercise 88. 

^^ iJjjl5Cili5^ ' yi^X3\ ^c-^ O^ jcjL<U>U > 

^ L.I) Y . joîjp Ji^^^fT ^^^ ? j3 Âİ jJL^ 4İİJP3 j5^l5:Sai. ^ 

TFbr<25. 1. a. /iai;ee contaînİDg. 2. <a&ag plate. 3. a. vasMa hand, 
means. 4. a. nt^/'half, a. Z^2 night. 5. yaqalamaq to QoWta^ seize. 

272 r^ ^J^J^ Lesson 89. r^r 

••A « I 

A^ <;7*jf Translation 89. 

1. Richard L, king of England, was called^ lion- 
hearted. 2. That ungrateful servant did not write a 
letter of congratulation on New Year's-Day. 3. That 
beautiful woman (dilber) is very inconstant. 4. The 
gardener is not a coward, but he is a simple-hearted 
man. 5. To eat with unclean hands is very unpleasant. 
6. Is vour fellow-traveller a skilful man? 7. I was a 
partaker of the supper^. 8. I did not lose hope (hopeless), 
I am hopeful yet*. 9. He prayed to the Saviour sincerely 
and humbly. 10. A forger is a great sinner. 11. He 
is not an empty-handed person, he has a costly® gold 
watch in his hand. 12. The leader was a helper to me on 
the way*. 13. That caravan, which comes from China and 
India, was loaded with china-ware and odorous spices^. 

Words. 1. tismeey^ oloundou. 2. dkhshani ta-a-ml. 8. hala. 
4. Esnayı rahde, 5. p. hehar, bahar. (Ar. pi. beharat.) 6. ^ym&- 
dar (§ 535). 

«-1 •• 

Jl^^l 5 fJSJü Reading Exereise. 

itlCa,^ Icb • si:.» I ^jJ^ ^Ü3*üL>.j ^^ii^— :^j:.^12l«1 
^^Ijrl *.x^jW. fJjS '.-Uİİİ3 'il*Llij fjr— :'^ili,. 

Words, 1. a. istiqamk honesty. 2. a. A;t;?& falsehood. 3. a. hedS 
cheating. 4. a. hazer öt." to beware. 5. a. haqqaneeyit justice, 
equity. 6. a. vazeefe duty. 7. a. dahhil the inside. 8. a. ftAarv the 
outside. 9. a. mejbour oV to be obliged, compelled. 10. a. hasanoi 
good works, pious deeds. 11. firar to run away, to desert, flee. 
12. a. izrar it" to injure. 

ryr* Persian Compound Adjectives. 273 

! *lj\ %>i.« ^'oaTUJi^ j^'oWyj oil "J; St 

< ^U ^. > ! «y ''4i45CV "^ Lt !, JU 

13. a. eetidal moderation. 14. a »/ra< excess. 15. a. iKtiraz 
et." to guard one's self. 16. a. layiq gebrmek to judge worthy. 
17. a. akhz taking; sar vengeance = to revenge one's self. 18. a. qi- 
yam it." to set about. 1 9. a. nezafet cleanliness. 20. a. ihtimam et." 
to be careful. 21. a. houzour ease, quietness; qalb heart. 22. trifles. 
23. a. a'dee inferior, ordinary. 24. naqabil impossible. 25. B^vouqovir 
at events. 26. a. sademat blows, misfortunes. 27. a. muztarih oV 
to suffer. 28. a. iffet chastity. 29. a. emneeyit safety. 30. a. sdlaK 
peace, virtue. 31. hal om s/ian position and honour. 32. 2i,t&i'liki 

aI|^ Conyersation, 

•J^^jlj^c-ji» o-^^ VJ^->^ ^K^^. ^.^ vi-^li:-^ (r 

Turkish Con v. -Grammar. 18 

274 »!.♦ v-rj^ Lesson 40. fVt 

. j^ Ji^j ^n^" c^-^i o^^ r^ p-^ ^^ l>-^' 3 ^li ( ^ 

^^ u^i> Lesson 40. 

The Persian Derivative Nouns. 

§ 540. Persian derivative nouns are of four kinds: 
Nouns of Location, Nouns of Instrument, the Abstract 
noun, and the Diminutive noun. 

o\^ ,-%— I The Noun of Location. 
§ 54 L The noun of Location is made by the 
addition of o^L- -istan, ^^-giah 'place', jij -»ar a plot 

or bed, oJJ^-gede hut, AiU -khanS house (§ 162): 

(jLiMijÛA Mndistan India. oli^K^^jrw^is^an \ rosary a gardea 

tjli-^ chimenistan ] j\jJ^gûlzar f ^^ roses. 

" [ meadow. ^ 

j\Jlf: cUmenzaf ) ».xS^ meygede \ wineshop, 

o^j^j\ ordougmh' a camp. ^^ mSylhant ] drinking-saloon. 

rfiUc^jl» top'khane, top-hani arsenal of ordnance and artillery. 
o'^Jb hiarUtah vulg. kergef a work-frame, (jis work.) 
(jl:-Jj hizistan vulg. bedesten a covered market-place. (Jj cloth.) 

jjT ^1 The Noun of Instrument. 

§ 542. The noun of Instrument is made by the 
addition oi J\^ -dan 'a holder, receptacle, case^ 

a. fL^ sham candle: (ji-J^<^ shamdan a candlestick. 

objj^ houkhourdan a censer, incense-box. 

p.t. (jlA&li yağlıdan an oil can. p.t.öl^j/]^ tûkâr^dan a spittoon.. 

o\j^O reek' dan vulg. Hghdan a sand-holder; rc«fc, r^/^ sand 

(to dry writings). 

rvo The Persian Derivative Nouns. 275 

v-j>'^ ^uZa& rose-water (§ 538): (ji-J^^^ ^wZafedan a flask for 

sprinkling scented water. 

The Abstract Nouns. \:ma ^I Istni Mana. 

§ 543. Abstract nouns are made by the addition 
of (^ -i at the end of adjectives. If the word end in 

elif, then the ye is doubled (-yi [§ 53]); if it end in a 

vowel he (-e), it is changed into £İ (-gr-), but the sound 
e is retained (§§ 163, 581). 

ijL,\ asan easy, facile: jLl asani facility. 

ojûj bdnd^ slave: \X^ bindiği servitude. 

Lijj roushSna bright: J^^JJ roushinayi brightness. 

Note, TS added to a n o u n , changes it into an adjective (§ 526). 

The Diminutive Nouns, jvi^ ^1 Istni Tasghir. 

§ 544. Diminutives are made by the addition of 
A^ -che, -je at the end of nouns. Some diminutives 

are terms of endearment, as in Turkish (§ 167). 

jjM moor ant: *^Jy^ moorchS a little ant. 

li pa foot: 0-İJ pacha trotters of sheep. 

a. j-^ * pc amm, ammou uncle: ^^j^ awja, amovja dear uncle. 

\* f^Am) Exercise 90. 

Change the following nouns into Derivative Nouns: 
541, dX i freng 'European, a. fj^^^ yehoudi Jew. jtt 

a Tartar, fj/ Turk. a. ^^s^ ajem a Persian, a. ^y^ 

Arab. 2.t. j-lL dagh, p. 9} huK mountain. AİJiCi hâne f she 

violet. 3. a. Jjl-- sûnbûl hyacinth, a. jjî qabr, a. jlj^ meear 

grave. ^T atesh + hut. 4. t. 3^--^' eöTcsûıs, a. j^ljil eytam 

orphans + house, a. ^l3 deb'bagh vulg. tabdkh tanner + 

house. j(r Icmr manufacturing + house. 5. a. ^t^kitab, 


276 »w* ^j^ Lesson 40. rY\ 

book + house, a. \y>-\ ejjsa (vulg. &a) a drug + house. 

^^\ ash food + house. j\JCJL shiMar game, prey + place. 

54J2. ^uU jame cloth + holder. ^\i. khame, a. JS 

qaUm + case. jC teer arrow, die nemek salt. 


545. u\^^j poor. o3^--l asoode quiet, lill o^Aina 

intimate. ©^Ijl a^^ar?^ free. a1^ khaste, \y^ seza worthy. 
(t)u teng narrow. 

544, öjl) pare piece. H 6a^A. i-j» fto^fA a square 

wrapper for a bundle. mj>^ g^rûm husband's sister. 

t. -w.5C^ chehne a drawer. ol^S^ keman, a violin, t. Jl 

^N (jSJi Exercise 91. 

^IL ilL vjJci^ yb dtl::.X:^ jliC;^ oJ^J^^^â^ ci?^^' *^-^' ^ 

"Prorc?s. 1. a. Çow£Î«ow Shereef Jerusalem. 2. Sawriya Syria. 
3. chouqcLy choukha broadcloth. 4. ameriqan hizi unbleached linen. 
5. a. ishtira et." to buy. 6. a. irsal to send. 7. a. mhvjoud existent 
8. f. masa table. 9. a. turhi tomb. 10. a. shiykK a head of â tribe. 

rVV The Persian Derivative Nouns. 277 

\y A^j Translation 92. 

1. The owner of that big tannery and the keeper 
of the prison [-house] are the friends of the saloon-keeper. 

2. «The beer-seller^ is the witness^ of saloon-keeper.» 

3. The orphans are in the orphanage. 4. That Tartar 
has come from Tartary. 5. There were 3000 soldiers 
in the camp. 6. The people who dwelP in mountainous 
regions are generally brave. 7. Daghistan is a gr^at 
region in Russia. 8. Where is your donkey*? — He 
is always in the meadow. 9. Please stick ^ a candle 
into the candlestick. 10. There was a big rosary in the 
garden of the manufactory of the attar of rose^. 11 . The 
Parsees^ and the ancient Persians were worshipping® 
the fire in the fireplaces. 

Words. 1. hirajî, hozajî (157). 2. a. shahid. 3. a. iqatnet et.", 

4. chimenzarzadS vulg. chimindSrzadi the son of the meadow = 
donkey, h. dikmek. 6.gûlyaghî. 1 . par see, gtavour, gebr & Zoro&s- 
terian, a fire worshipper, a Guebre; (in Turkey) a non- Moslem 
[said in contempt]. 8. a. ibadet et." 

^15 Ju? Reading Exercise. 

^^^ \^ jCLr 4V)l dUl The Story of the Donkey and Fox, 

' J^J jt oyy_ (^JÛllj i)i»j\ 1^/^ ^jy^ 

TFords. 1. a. hXmar donkey. 2. a. naqi to carry. 3. a. heldâ 
town. 4. roMi/i nigtar a kind of light pink colored grapes. 5. ddrkSn 
just then (while he was saying this). 6. a. hasrit desire, aflfection. 
7. haghrîn' for haghrînî his heart, bosom. 8. c?ii/'i^ atmaq to kick with 
the hind legs. 9. p. naz ou niyaz graceful disdain. 10. a. houzour 

278 «u* ^j^ Lesson 40. rvA 

! '*^j^ J JİÜ *L. v£L< OPjI "<!»» 

! '"lyb fjl:>._^ jl ^5jc.< *»ja^l,l a»^U» _ :5:i; 
. c$^J ' oji fJj^i >,5 *^ .».J. jOL- 

11. a. husn beauty. 12. a. hayran \m I am confounded. 18. cto- 
yim olsoun! Let it be long, eternal. 14. sayiyi loutf ou kSrimi the 
shadow or protection of his kindness and mercy. 15. hitmâc to 
grow. 16. ii. mübarek graceful. 17. a. qadSm foot. 18. a. a-la 
excellent. 19. p. misk musk. 20. a. fiske sl fillip with the middle- 
finger. 21. a. îrfan wisdom. 22. a. eema t%." to express. 23. dajb^i^ 
gu eloquent (§§ 535, 556). 24. mâozoun well proportioned. 25. a. moti- 
qaf'fa rhymed. 26. a. ifrat excess. 27. a. ndshat mirth, joy, 
28. afltrmaq to bray. 29. janîma ishUdi getdi it pierced into my heart 
(§ 848). 30. a. hava air, song. 31. a. siVcut silence. 32. a. sifa 
pleasure. 33. a. hulbiil nightingale. 34. a. naghmi song. 35. a. <tr- 
qat stealing. 36. sings. 37. a. huzn ow k4d4r sorrow. 38. a. sh^i 
mockery; pleasure. 39. a. s4vq driving. 40. here (in this well); 
neyleyim for nâ 4yUy^yim [what can I do?] alas! 

rv^ The Persian Derivative Nouns. 279 

*,*(•• 48 1* 41>.** ( I vv 

©Jul ^y U>. i3J<P o3*t4^ ^ ♦— ^J^' ^-^ 

* ^'0^3 jj^i^J ,iJuJ: c5> ? c^ j^3j/» — : jClj 

< ^-tj. > '^Ji\ *'.::^j isji t ' "'t^Ji ^iju ^çCl- 

41. a. ghayri oilier, than. 42. p.jSfa trouble. 43. dishi female. 
44. a. UtafSt loveliness. 45. heU! if you please! 46. a. ashqa 
âûshmek to fall in love. 47. p. ayiniyi ah the mirror of the water. 
48. a. aksin' for aksini reflection (of image). 49. sSzwik to see. 
50. a. vaqa'a truly, really. 51. a. nazik delicate. 52. oynash 
playmate, sweet heart (§ 165). 53. p. feryad et." to scream, call out. 
54. tashmaq to exceed the bound of moderation in joy. 55. a. aksî 
sidasin^ for — sedastnî reflection of sound, echo. 56. shashmaq 
to be surprised. 57. a. davet et." to call, invite. 58. a. ziyafet 
feast. 59. a. ajeh for ajeba I wonder. 60. a. khtdmet service. 
61. tavla oushaghî stable boy. 62. a. meeras yemek to inherit. 
63. a. rahmet oqoumaq to pray for the deceased. 

280 "Lf u^j^ Lesson 41. rk* 



^x^' J jo^^Aİl^. ^1 -jCii c^j^l, c^j.1, <; ilj<Ji JLi j^ ^. 

Words. 1. sernamS a heading (§ 538). 2. a. mouhar'tir 
a writer. 3. a. Sdih an author. 4. Shinasee Effendi (1830 — 71), 
5. a. merhoom deceased, dead. 6. a. hhayin treacherous. 7. to tell. 
8. heart, mind {sefayi khatîr ease, peace of mind). 9. a. afeeyet 
ct." to eat [he helped himself). 

^ ^ u^^ Lesson 41. 

The Persian Verb. 

§ 545. The Persian Infinitive ends in o3 -di/n, 

or J 'ten: 031*5" hûshaden to open, Jxz^j peresHden 
to worship. 

§ 546. None of the tenses of the Persian Verb 
are used in Ottoman. The Eoots of the verbs are very 
frequently employed in the formation of compound adjec- 
tives (§ 535) ; as : c.^-j peresi, vooi 0Î per estiden^ w— r C^ 
pout percst idol-worshipper. 

§ 547. Only one Derivative of the Infinitive and 

TA) The Persian Verb. 281 

three of the Verbal Roots are used in Ottoman, which 
are the following. 

!• The Objective Participle. Jj*L# ^1 

§ 548. The Objective or Past Participle is made 
by changing the last letter of the infinitive into he 
vowel {-e) (§§ 402, 604): 

o^b dadin to give: »i\i dad^ given. 

Cn-xi- shikestSn to break: aZJ^ shikSstS broken. 

(jjuii deed4n to see: oJü^ deedS seen; eye. 

II. The Subjective Participle. J^li ^1 

§ 549. The Subjective or Present Participle is made 

by the addition of ©Ji. -ende to the Root. If the Root 

ends in an elif or vav vowel (-a, -ote), a ye (-y-) is 
inserted (§ 53). 

o\j^ khan read, sing: oJûllji. khanSndi singer. 
jb dar hold: ojujl^ dar&nde bearer. 

It niima show: ^-^^ nûmayendS who shows. 

jL saz make: ojJjL saz&mlS composer. 

III. The Verbal Noun. ja„â^ ^^1 

§ 550. The Verbal Nouns are made by the addition 

of Jl 'ish to the Root. If the Root ends in elif or vav 

vowel (-a, -ote), a ^ [-y-] is inserted for the sake of 
euphony (§§ 53, 288). 

J J r4v go: J^^J revish going, 

ob dan know: J^'A:^ danish knowledge. 

So also we have: ^L\ asayish peace, Jit\i numayish a 
show, ur-J^- stparish ordering, order. 

§ 551. There is another kind of verbal noun which 

is obtained by the removal of o -en from the end of 
the Infinitive: 


«vf urji Lesson 41. 


(j^\JtS^ Jtûshadin to open: ^MS^Uûshad opening. 

ûî^İJJl inddkhUn to throw: c^İAli indakht throwing, propelling. 

Oî^j^ firoukhtin to sell: c^j^ firoukht selling. 

§ 552. Verbal nouns are also formed by adding 
two shortened infinitives of dififerent verbs or the short- 
ened infinitive and the root of the same verb together: 

J^- A*\ * j\-J^J sZ^iS^amSd shady gMtouguzara coming SLiid going, 
Jj siJLS^gûft ou gu talk; chat; scandal. 
Jii^ J ^\^ dad ou sited selling and buying, trade. 

IV, Verbal Adjectives, 

§ 553. The Verbal Adjectives are formed by the 
addition of I ' o' -«, -^^ to the root of the verb; as: 

(jii dan know: 
iSj>' jouy seek: 
jj riv go: 
jj Urz tremble: 

l;ii (ianff wise, savant (§§ 436, 606). 
\iy>. * o\y>- jouy an that seeks. 
ij3 ' ö\jJ rdvan that goes, fluent. 
ÛÜJ Urzan trembling. 

The Persian Boots. Jj^U^l ^j\» 

§ 554. The following table contains most of the 
Persian Verbal Eoots, which are current in Ottoman. 
They are used only in compound words, and never 
used alone. Slightly changing their meaning in compo- 
sition they help to form adjectives (§§ 535, 556). 

\j\ ara 


; VI a-la 

defile, soil 

jOT azar 


Ju\ avieez 



Ujl azma 

try, prove 

jlJJi ^ndaz 


^\t\ asham 


; jjJ^i indouz 


^^\ ashoub 


1 J^\ Mgeez 


j\^i\ cfraz 


j^ ' jj' aver, ar 


jj^\ ifrouz 

lijrht, illuminate 

Jij\ aveez 


Oij^ ' afereen 


jl har 


\J\ ifza 


jl) haz 




The Persian Verb. 


J,, Ur 
^jZicj hdkhsh' 
Xj hSnd 


Cn-j heen 

^Jü pizeer 

X^ phend 
\j^^ peer a 
J^A^ perhiz 
(J^jj poosh 
Ic-j peema 


<ijr Jouy 
C^»- cheen 
iS'\J^ Ichîrash 

olj^ khan 

o\j>- Jchah' 

J\>- Jcheez 


jb dar 

ob ran 

u^j rSs 
o^j maw 
jj riv 





feed, nourish 

accept, receive 

engage in 




put on, wear 









read, chant 



hold, keep 


sew, stitch 

give; grant 

urge, drive 


cause to reach 


y.j reez 

\tj ruha 

\j za 

oj zen 

jL saz 

jL- sipar 

L« sita 

jj— sooz 

^J\:L shitah 


,^^d> shiken 

j]ct shûmar 
i^lli shinas 
(Sjt shouy 


»—J »3 
, «•«• 






















carry off; rob 



make ; com- 









rub, corrode 








seize, take 


do, perform 








•uTcrJ^ Lesson 41. 


LxJ nigtah look 

^ nih place; put 

X yah find. 

§ 555. Persian Objective (Past) Participles. 


arasti adorned 

a^a(2e free 
azmoude experienced 

amade ready 

amede come 

asoude at rest, quiet 

averde brought 

avikhte hung 

uftade fallen 

efsûrde frozen 

istadS standing, erect. 

histe tied; tune 

perverde nourished 

Tchorde eaten 

dade given 

deede seen; eye 

rinjide injured 

reseede arrived; ripe 

refte gone 

o^\j zadS 
o^j zidi 
zL\^ sakhti 
^ soukhU 

^«MMi^awl SflZKCSvC 


f struck; 
t suffered 

made; false 



o^j^^ fersoude worn 

o^liw^ firistade sent 
o^ firifte deceived 

o^jA^ fermoude commanded 

•^ \ on money 

oi^p A^erd^ made, done 

o^/^ girifte seized 

o^Lio l'ûshadi 
<:jû gûfti 
ojüU mandi 
0^^ mûrdi 
0^1^ nilıadi 
olj 2/a/îC^, -ta found; label. 






§ 556. Ji^ Examples. 

^>''\>- jihangeer world conquering, conquerer. 
oJl-m.j^ nevreseedS newly arrived, young. 

o^^jj pezmûrde wu\g. pezvarda faded; untidy. 
jj-jTjj; pertevsouz » pertafsîz burning-glass. 

jLiU janhaz » jamhaz rope-dancer; a horse dealer. 

ûkj^Jİ dourheen » dûîdûl far seeing; telescope. 

rAo The Persian Verb. 285 

t.p. j\J^\ imekdar an old and faithful servant, veteran, 
a. p. j|a>.>L. silahdar vulg. zilifdar armour bearer, 
a. p. o^ijL^l asilzade of noble descent, a noble, 
a. p. jl^Ui qafadar an intimate friend, 
a. p. o^J\3\ afetzede who has suffered misfortune, 
a. p. ^'ji^L* .j^J^ taraf dar y taraf geer a partisan. 

\t ^^ Exercise 93. 

Connect the following words with each other and 
give the meanings: 

535. 1. (|»t nam name -j- hold.) 2. (a. ^^SC»- huMm 
authority + hold.) 3. (a. ^u*^ Tûıa^ine treasure + hold.) 
4. (a. ^\'aa maqas a tailor's scissors + hold.) 5. (a. j^ 
£ara7' injury + seen.) 6. (ûU>- jihan world + seen.) 
7. (a. j}^ hariq fire + struck, suffered.) 8. (t. dL bet/ 
prince + born.) 9. (©IJL + born.) 10. (j^CJJ lenger 
anchor + throw.) 11. (t na un- + know.) 12. (a. >>- 
I'hayr good + wish.) 13. (ju bed evil + wish.) 14. (Jİ4^ 
chouval sack + sew.) 15. (^^fc— sukhen word + speak.) 
16. (a. ^L:> 5ow/A + nourish.) 17. (a. Jii wa7 horse- 
shoe + tie.) 18. (a. c^9cJUflL# maslahat state affair -{- 

pass, do.) 19. (t. ^1 work + pass, do.) 20. (f.^.^^ 

mousiqi music 4' engaged in.) 21. [<t)c^ Tchunh happiness, 
prosperity + bring \khunhiar p. 240].) 

550. Translate the following Participles into Persian. 

Increase, augmentation; giving, present; a wishing, 
a desire; caressing, petting; praising; an act of opening, 

286 «ul u*j^ Lesson 41. rK\ 

\i, (JSJi Exercise 94. 

üJ^»J fJj^ (J,^:>j^\ ^jlj» u-j^-^ J^^'jr- • J^-^-r* (i-*'^ 

4/)Wl ij^^l^ »Sijöj^iO i!^^ '>y^'^ ^ ojj'j^ ©Ju--»j ^bj' ©«J^l 
jlj Jji^l jlcJt^ öJbjy ul>-' ^ ^ * «jjii^^l ^Jij (^jcil Jlijl 

\o Ajt-j Translation 95. 

1. Mehemmed II. was a great conqueror; he was 
also a brave ruler. 2. The horsedealer was very untidy. 
3. I had a small telescope, but I sold it; now I have 
a burning glass. 4. The number of the sufferers firom 
the fire was more than 300. 5. The princes were among 
the partisans of the king. 6. The steamer anchored 
towards morning. 7. The treasurer distributed £ 400 
to those who have suffered from the fire. 8. That man 

I 4 

rAV The Persian Verb. 287 

is a very famous rope-dancer. 9. The armour-bearer of 
the prince was very ungrateful. 10. Ali Eflfendi is my 
intimate friend. 11. Who is Mr. Riddle? — He is the 
Charge d' affairs of the American legation at Constan- 

j>l 5 ^^Amj Reading Exercise. 

^jL^eJI jc^ oUl:^ A Supplication and Praise. 

I !•• »Ta •/.*•• |6» •! To' II. I* 

' wJj 1) O^— "lA*"')' ^'-j' ? <»-A)l **0^«^ *-»Jj'j |>vl-»<U-2 

TTords. 1. a. Munajat ma et'temjeed. 2. jihan world, universe. 
3. a. khaliqul-alimeen creator of the universe. 4. a. ya Bebb'f 
O Lordl 5. shouU Sfrouz; a. shoule flame, light. 6. p. asuman^ 
asman heavens. 7. louche bakhsh; toushe provisions. 8, a. shamil con- 
taining. 9. ekrSm' ûî ekremeen the most gracious of the gracious 
ones. 10. fighan a moan, cry of distress. 11. a. erhem ur rahi- 
meen most merciful. 12. a. hajet need (what is the need?). 
13. a. arzîhal petition. 14. seeni heart. 15. dilnishin seated in one's 
heart. 16. a. zahir outside. 17. a. battn inside. 18. ghayib-been 
who see the invisible. Divanî Fazil (from) The Divan of Fazîl 
[t 1803]. . 

Note. The Nos. 2, 5, 7, 15, 18 are Persian compound ad- 
jectives (§ 535) and the Nos- 3, 9, 11 are Arabic compound adjec- 
tives (§ 669). 

aI|^ Conyersation. 

288 «ur LrJ3 Lesson 42. TAA 

jr^y ^rf^* ^J^*i <ir^" :r^-^ ^^ ^J-^^y ^^^ »• ■' Y* • * r 

^^ u^t> Lesson 42. 

The Persian Prepositions. 

§ 557. The Persian prepositions of frequent use 
in Ottoman are the following (§§ 236, 451): 

a) j\ e» 'from': forms the Ablative case. 

Ji J û^- jl ^z jotw 0X1 dil 7rom soul and heart' = heartily, 

*:l^ y^j\ hhir jihet in every respect. 

j>^j\ ezbSr *from breast' = by heart, committed to memory. 

^ j\ ez jûmU *from the number of = as for example. 

pjji jl Sz qadeem from olden times. 

h) 3 be 'to, in': forms the Dative case. 

Jj'.JJ ^ou hSrou face to face. 
1j^ aL MnamX khûda in the name of God. 
JU -u-^ hehimi hal *in every condition' = absolutely. 

-C- ^ hehir sen4 every year. ©kol. maKhimaK month by 
^ ^, ' month. 

t. o^i (jy ^MW begun day by day. 

c) \i ba 'wdth, by': forms the Instrumental case. 

^Kİ- J plfr li &a ilm ou khahSr by a receipt. 

^\j^ i* ha savah correct. ^IL L 5a tapou with a deed. 
ha senid with a note. 
ha khousous especially. 

ha fermant ali by an (Imperial) exalted edict 
ha imtiyaz with a privilege, privileged. 

rA^ The Persian Prepositions. 289 

d) j^ der 'in, at': forms the Locative case. 

vi^^ J3 der dest at hand; arrested, seized. 

jLl\ ji der anhar in the; store, stored. 

^-^ J^ ' J^ J^ der hal, der aqab immediately. 

^l». ji d^r A;^aHr in the mind, in heart. 

<]li*-\ ji c?er Asitane in Constantinople. 

e) j*^ &^r 'on'. 

^_y>S' ^ feer afcs on the contrary. ^J^ ^» &^ taraf aside. 
f b^ ^ ' jl^ ^ ^^^ Çi<^^(^fı ^^f devam continually, firmly. 

AP-j ^ ' Jl^ ^i * ^-^j^ ^. ^^r'v^f^h b^r minva'Uj bir movji'bi 

according as. 

f) t ta 'until, as far as'. 

j-L^ <C-Ajii »Ulc-IL Lr ta daghîü depesine qadar as far as the top of 

the mountain. 
^U^j U <a besahah till the morning. 

§) lS'ji her ay i 'for, for the sake of. 

o-5tiyx. (i\^ berayi maslahat for a business. 
oUtl»! iS\ji » imtihan for the examination. 
viJ^Lfr (i\^ » ibadet for worship. 
o-*^ (i\^ » hürmet for the sake of respect. 

Jİ\İ4 Examples. 

*lX^\^U.ji der khatîr etmek to remember. 
Vij ^— ^^ ^. öö'* mouji'bi bala in the above-mentioned manner. 

Ji 1 A:>.j ^ 5^r vefhi atee in the following manner. 

der dist et/' to arrest. ber taraf et" to set aside. 

der anbar et." to store. iz sir ta pa from head to foot. 

Substitution. Jljbl Ihdal. 

§ 558. Substitution of one letter for another rather 
rarely occurs in the Persian language. This change 
of one letter into another does not produce any change 

Turkish Conv. -Grammar. 19 

290 «ur ltJİ Lesson 42. r\* 

of meaning: For instance, ^ ft is changed into j v 
in some words; as: VI bala high = Vlj vdla high, A»t 

^a&c' frying pan = ©jt ^ava frying pan. 

§ 559. Substitution occurs often in the follo\sdng 
letters : 
v_j to ^ : Ö = p j\j\» bazar market: j\j\i^ pazar. 

i » '^: d = z^jJ>' khîdmSt service: ,::^j^ khizmet, 

jiU JacîoM wizard: y^\>.jazou. 

ili shad merry, joyful: Sli shae. 

^ » j: b = V o\^^\ baghcheban gSLTdener : Cj\j^^^^ chtvan 

J » J : r = I J^j!. perkiar compass : J$\jç pirgel. 

»-3 » W-* : /" = p i'j^jS'^ kefchi skimmer: ^^?=?^ kepjL 

il > r« <7 = J y^^ gevMr jewel: jby^ jhher. 

J- » LT • s/i =5 »-l^ mushk musk : ^UL- -,|Jejt 

9^ » r- : A:fe ^ /i jixli. khunkiar king: jl^C>. Aûnfttar. 

Omission. ^i>- Hazf. 

§ 560. The Omission of letters is very frequent 
in the Persian language, without changing the meaning 
of the word: 

The original word oML shaK 'king' is written as ^u» 
shell 'king'. o\ü\ efglian 'lamentation' is written also 
oUi fighan. ^ meli for ©U mah 'month', and 4J geh 

for o\^ giah place. 

§ 561. The following is a list of such words fre- 
quently used in Ottoman: 

(il- pay foot: L pa, 

j\^ cMliar four: jU. char, 

y'Ju bed'tir worse: Ju MUr or &^^^.. 

iLl^i oustad master: L1m.j\ ' a;l^j\ ousta^ 

a. ^i emecr prince: j^* meer. 

rM The Persian Prepositions. 291 

oIjLj hiyaban desert: o^V û^ yaban. 

^j^j>- hoshnoud content: :ijltL hoshnoud, 

^\^ khani house: o^ khan, 

jL- sar head: ^,^- ser. 

»il3\ azade free: ^\j\ azad. 
a. AJki faqeeh' student af Canon law : ^ faqtt vulg. fakht. 

Cj\jj^ kiarvan caravan: (§ 529) o\^S^ kervan, 

W A^ Exercise 96. 

Of^lw A . ^^1 U yj> Jij\ ^Jj\ jjj,^ 3 ill y^f J^jf^iXy, 

•(»^jtjy ^^-J^^ ^~->y^} ^^^ AİİJO I CL^. c4*-5^ ^"^ J?C- j/jl 

^^ A?"J> Translation 97, 

1. From olden times he has been the friend of 
our family. 2. He was satisfied with me in every 
respect. 3. This mother loves her children devotedly. 

4. He said this to me and immediately went out. 

5. He sends me a present at the beginning of every 


292 «ur ltJİ Lesson 42. rst 

year: (for instance) this year I received a gold pen. 
6. Day by day he was progressing in his lessons. 7. In 
the name of God come quickly and help me! 8. He 
is continually sick. 9. K6rim Eflfendi went to Salour 
for business. 10. He climbed up to the top of the 
mountain. 11. He cried incessantly until morning; be- 
cause his body from head to foot was full of woirnds. 
12. Nejib Bay went to the mosque for worship. 13. He 
spoke in the following manner. 1 4. The thief was arrested. 
15. The wheat and the barley were stored. 16. The 
caravan lost its way in the desert. 

,j^li ^^U) Reading Exercise. 

(*)^yr The Hunter. 

1 'üy^\ ij^ ^^ ^ y 

— r — 

TForc^s. (f) 1. a. /e^'tow naughty (boy [§ 609]). 2. a. miyl 
incline. 3. a. vijdan heart; conscience. 4. jemeey^U suroodaJeem 
an assembly full of chants (§ 586). 5. jûnhûshgehi sûrouraJe^en: 
junbûshgeh a place of pleasure (§§541,560), sûrourakeen}oyf\û (§536). 

6. a. mûnsheriK cheerful; yeri dır it is lawful (just the place). 

7. dill Ung: t ^ng poor j miserable; chalUiq bush. 8. a. dot^chant. 
9. p. pier full; ahSng melody. 10. sadİ simple. 11. a. eareef 
graceful ; a. maqam singing. 12, a. latif nice, beautiful. 18. indiM 
HI take carel 14. a. intizam quietude, order. 15. sousfmfUmzt 
be silent! qoushjtghazlartm my dear birdies (§§ 166 — 67). 

(r) 16. a. m/at speed; chanta bag. 17. dik daurtnaq to keep 
still, quiet; chift^ double-barreled fowling piece. 18. a. rahm mercy. 
19 qiymaq to kill (he will not spare you). 

X^^r" The Persian Prepositions. 293^ 

. "^jj:lJ c^\j- JLi-i 4^ i jjiV^T "OO. ' J^ 6^ 

! oT ? Jit L <: ? Jli^J^T A^ ? Jji ^^j^jf^vJ-f*- o-^ 6^^. 6 V 

— r — 

— t — 

20. yoummaq to shut, close. 21. s^ent adimeeyit: sheen 
shame; a. ademeey^t humanity (§ 581). 22. sSzayî la nit detestable: 
siza subject; suitable, fitting; a. la'nSt curse. 

(r) 23. a. garar et." to sit; qirlanghij swallow. 24. &aA;/i- 
tiyarani in a happy way (§ 528). 25. p. nish'vd pleasure; a. avdit 
arrival; a. tebrik it." to congratulate. 26. a. zSvqou sMvq pleasure 
and mirth (§ 696); a. sMrik companion. 27. nagehan suddenly. 
28. a. say yad hunter (§ 610). 29. hirhad ruined, lost (§ 557 e). 
30. a. belaya e^ils, misfortunes. 31. a. it'tiqa et." (from viqaye) to 
be cautious. 32. a. hiraya men. 

(•u) 33. a. khasayil character; a. efktar opinion. 34. a. delayil 
tokens, proofs. 35. a. zou-a-fa the poor (ones). 36. vSsedS-jouyi 
siteez: visiUjouy who seeks for a pretext (to quarrel) (§ 535); 
siteez quarrel. 37. a. aqveeya the rich, the strong (ones). 38. khoonreez 
blood-shedder (§ 535). 39. zoulm abad a place of cruelty ; hell. 40. alay 
troop. 41. a.jel'lad executioner (§ 609). 42. a. mouhibhi sadiq ou 
khayr (§ 696): mouhibb' friend; a. sadiq just, true; khayr good. 
43. a. rdheem merciful. 44. a. qatil murderer; a. tayr bird. 45. a. vasf 
praising, eulogy. 46. a. haqayiq right, just. 

294 «ur (^ji Lesson 43. TM 

— o — 

^jJuıi sJljJ 0^10 û->^^ <Jlİİ 'jJ^t^Ju.-t j_^'l3^ ^^^i^z^ 

— 1 — 

î o-J^ *İl>U.L <<1:a'^ (İJl^ î ojS^iSxA ^^jl^L" I j^^ ^j 

(0) 47. 2/av^r helper; ietiA; trigger; keklik partridge. 48. a. Mb 
dog. 49. vabeste appropriated; a.jelb bringing, fetching. 50. sif- 
ki dem shedding of blood. 51. sitimkir unjust, cruel (§ 529). 52. a. lanet 
et."' to curse. 53. a. shSrr evil. 54. a. ighreb wonderful. 55. a. tab 
heart, nature; a. hisher humanity. 

(1) 56. p. muzhde! good news! a. tUbayud to disappear. 
57. a. mahelli hasSr place (= need) of caution, fear. 58. a. mish- 
rebimji as I like, according to my taste. 59. f. qonsir concert. 
60. mühlet vermek to grant a delay. 61. a. zhnani, zSman Time; Wr 
nviqdar a little ; a. zalim cruel. 62. tama-pirvkr avaricious (§ 535). 

^^ u^t> Lesson 43. 

The Gender of Arabic Nouns. 

§ 562. There is no gender in Turkish or Persian, 
but there is in Arabic. With respect to gender Arabic 
nouns are divisible into two classes: a) those which 
are only masculine; b) those which are only feminine. 
There is no neuter gender in the language. 

r^o The Gender of Arabic Nouns. 295 

§ 563. That a noun is of the feminine gender {key- 
fiyet) may be ascertained either from its signification 
or from its termination. 

a. The feminine nouns which are such because of 
their signification, are all words denoting females; as: 

'»^J^ * ».— iuj ' 4JU Hadije, Ziyneby Manya (fena. prop, names). 
oj^\^ valide a mother, ltJîjc arous a bride, vTÂj hint a daughter. 

b. The feminine nouns and adjectives which are 
such by reason of their termination, are all substan- 
tives and adjectives ending in © or S ' O ' I (-^, -et, 

-at, -f, -a), when those terminations do not belong to 
the root; as: 

^i^>Ju^ memleket a country, vT^JI». jcn-nSt paradise, a^^» 
mall kerne a court, \j<^ kûbra greater (§§ 29 c, 32 c, 610). 

But * U ma water, ZjS^ siikut silence, ajlJ tenheeh 

warning, oîj vaqlt time: are not feminine, because 

their terminations are radical; i. e. I ' O ' © (-ct, -f, -U) 
belong to the root (§ 587). 

§ 564. Masculine nouns and adjectives are usually 
rendered feminine by the mere addition of the letters 

d ' Cj M te (e, f), which are called feminine letters: 

Jac azeem great: '^^-^ azeemS great (fern.). 
j^ jedd a grandfather: oA>. jeddS a grandmother. 

^\ ekh, ukh a brother: o.»-\ ukht a sister. 

^^ &m, Mn a son: viJlj bint a daughter. 

§ 565. Note. When the noun is feminine, the 
adjective must agree with it, and be also of the femi- 
nine gender (§ 656). 

^A Ai^ Exercise 98. 

I. Change the following masculine nouns into 
feminine ones: 

296 «ur ı^j3 Lesson 43. r»C\ 

*r * 1 . ti ' 2 . • i 3' I 4 il • t 6 T t 6 • ' ^ < 7 * ı « 8 jf* t 
^ JÜİJ JUl>- ^ J\>. ı^vU^ ^j^auA ı^J'J ^---^ 

9.1 «10 t 11 . vl; t 13 tf, . t 13 < 14 ı ♦ c 15 ^ ti» »- 

Word*. 1. »aM a father (genitor). 2. hafeed grandchild. 
3. amm'j vulg. ^m'mi father's brother, uncle. 4. X;?ia2 mother's 
brother, uncle. 5. mou-atUm teacher, 6. mûtisarrîf owner; 
governor. 7. varis heir. 8. nejib noble. 9. hamü bearer. 10. mümin 
believer. 11. filan ao&nd so (man). 12. ghaz'zal gazelle. 13. mSr- 
houm the deceased. 14. shayir poet. 15. salia third. 16. aanee 
second. 17. zevj husband. 18. ilah' god. 19. bachelor. 20. King. 

n. Ascertain whether the following words are 
feminine or masculine: 

iS-^y w—Ab ^.o- s^\^^ JL^I 1^^ «^jj w*jw» 

8 .. 1 t 9.- , t 10 .. I 11 - \. t 12 It 13' ^x^* •[ { ' ^ ^ 'r 

1. zoulmet darkness. 2. hab'be a grain. 3. &tn^ daughter. 
4. sister. 5. mevty 6. /"ert death. 7. mescrVef joy. 8. maslahat 
business. 9. hadeeqa garden. 10. b^yt a house; a stanza. 11. n^bat 
plant. 12. ebou father. 13. kMrn, loutf^ nimit kindness. 

The Number of Arabic Nouns. z^S^ 


§ 566. The Arabic language has three numbers 
(Mmiyyet): Singular, Dual and Plural, and three cases 
(hal) in each number: Nom., Ace, and Genitive. 

§ 567. Note. Of the three Arabic cases, only the 
Nom. and Ace. of the Singular and the Ace. of the Dual 
and Plural are in use in Ottoman, the Ace. of the Dual 
and Plural being used in place of the Nominative, and 
that too in a form shortened by the omission of the 
final short vowels. The Ace. Sing, is used only as an 
adverb in Ottoman (§ 682). In the following Lessons the 
short final vowels and everything else not used in Ottoman 
are omitted, but the student will find them in Arabic 
phrases adopted into the language as single words 
(§ 666—670). 

Dual. -uULj Tâsniyi. 
§ 568. The Dual indicates two things of the same 

kind and is formed by adding 0' -<^** and Cji -^W 
to the singular. [Compare with the an of Persian (§509)] ; as: 

r^y The Gender and Number of Arabic Nouns. 297 

, la-L- sahil sea-coast: 

0;lUL* o>U.L sahileyn, sahilan two coasts. 

viJLJ sids one third : 

0;u]l; ' oliLi sûlseyn'y siilsan two thirds. 

.^U 20i(^& the Pole: 

i>^iJ ' i)V^ qoutbeyn, qoutban the two Poles. 

§ 569. If the word end in he (-e) feminine [hayi 
teenis), it is changed into te feminine (-f-) [tayi teenis\ 
before the dual termination is added (§ 32 c, 564, 592) : 

4.^; nûskhe' a copy: tXiias— J niiskheteyn. 
sefinS' a ship: Cj^sUu* s^finetSyn. 

§ 570. The following duals are much in use, 
although they do not indicate two things exactly 
similar to one another: 

Ji-^^j'Oijil validSyn\ ihMyn the parents. (Sing. jJlj '^1). 
if)_^jj zSvjSyn husband and wife. (Sing, ^yj)- 

y^^ qamiriyn the sun and moon. (Sing. ^j-^). 

J^»j- har^mSyn the sacred cities of Mecca and Medina. 

Note that they do not mean 'two fathers', Hwo husbands' 
and 'two moons'. 

^^ (^Aaj Exercise 99. 

Change the following nouns into the dual: 

IM 'i ^ ' 2^ " c 3 . ■- c 4^i .^ I 5 1 • *- t 6 -.;; t 7 ' . ^ i 

J-A-* ♦*-^>- 4jL*Pej3 4^^ jp ,— oJlU , y-a— . 


y-! '-^.j- ^y'-j r^v '^ ^> j^ -X- 

Tl'ordi*. 1. menzil a halting place; a house. 2. ji/i^i a side; 
a quarter. 3. saheefi page. 4. zammi the vowel ^^r^. 5. shart 
condition. 6. Z>^î(?g country. 7. srtd** one sixth. 8. fiqra a sentence, 
paragraph. 9. sherik companion. 10. varis heir. 11. mSrqoum 
the above said. 12. /wm/^ clause. 13. tarafa side. 14. &a/ir a sea. 

The Plurals in Arabic* nj^ Jem. 

§ 571. There are two kinds of plurals in Arabic: 

a. One of these has only two forms, and is called 
tlie regular or sound plural (pluralis sanus), because 

298 «ur u^j^ Lesson 48. r^A 

all the vowels and consonants of the singular are retained 
in it [Jemi Mu^ekkeri Salmi, Jemi Muennesi Salim); ex: 

j^U me-mour an oflBcer: c^jja'^ me-mou-reen officers. 

b. The other which has various forms is called 
the broken or irregular plural (pluralis fractus), 
because it is more or less altered from the singular 
by the insertion or elision of consonants, or the change 

of vowels; ex.: aIÂ^ sef eme sl ship: JÂ^ or ^IL- sufen 
or sefayin 'ships'. Here the form of the noun is broken. 

So also ^1, shey a thing: *\JL\ esh'ya things. 

§ 572. The different ways of forming the irregular 
Arabic plurals are so numerous and complex that a 
separate chapter is requisite to explain them, which will 
be found further on (Lesson 51, § 637—652). 

The Regular Masculine Plural. IL, ^1% »j^ 

§ 573. The pluralis sanus of masculine nouns is 
formed by adding the termination oj -oon and j^^ 

-een; as: J..^ mtisJim Si Moslem: J^ JLw* ' »j^tJL-* wm'^- 

lim€en\ mûslimoon Moslems. ^^^ mümin a believer: 

ua«^ ' oy^y% mûmineen\ mûminoon believers. 

§ 574. This way of forming the plural is employed 
only in the case of names of rational beings, therefore 

jl^I esed 'a lion', ^pC^ mektouh 'a letter' cannot be 

Û^J^I ' by,y>^ esedeen^ mektonhoon: because they cannot 
reason or speak (§ 578). 

§ 575. But the plurals of ^i^ * iW sene ^jeai\ 
alem 'universe' are exceptions: they are ci^j^ sineeny 
seneen, OjIU alenieen. The plural of Jx ^^ *son, child' 
IS vjvij 0^3 : but it becomes ^> henee when in con- 


r^^ The Gender and Number of Arabic Nouns. 299 

S traction with a noun following; as: J^l^i ^, C^^cS^ 

henee Israyel, benee Adem 'the children of Israel', 'the 
children of Adam, mankind'; the full form, however, 
does not occur in Ottoman. 

N ♦ ♦ ^.^JliJ Exercise 100. 

Give, if possible, the regular plurals of the follow^- 
ing nouns. 

• I '8 \ t 9 • t 10 ^ r '< 11 - I t '^ .. t .»I t 12 t 
^^bj ^^ rj^ l5J'^ OJ^ •— ^ oOJIJ J^J* 

>Ford5. 1. Book. 2. mûder'ris, mou-aî-lim teacher. 3. qaree 
reader. 4. ^at/r a bird. 5. mazloum poor, oppressed. 6. mSsh- 
hour remarkable (man). 7. riyazi astronomer. 8. sami hearer, 
audience. 9. mujrim criminal, sinner. 10. havari apostle (of our 
Lord). 11. sariq a thief. 12. risoul an apostle, prophet. 

The Regular Feminine Plural. İL ^y% nj^ 

§ 576. The regular way of forming the plural of 
Arabic feminine nouns and adjectives [Jemi Muennesi 

Salim) is by dropping the final » he, Zj te (-e, -f, -et) of 
the singular (§§ 563 — 64) and adding Ol -at to the word. 

<JL^ mûsîimS a female Moslem: ^IjIJLw. mûslimat Moslem women. 

ojt sSm^rS a fruit: ^\j^ simSrat fruits. 

c^-i^^ a-lamet a sign: oU>lc. alamat signs. 

§ 577. If the word end in vZjI -at, the Cj -t is 
dropped and elif is changed into vav (-V-): 
olS zat person: o\ji z^vat. 

ö>l^ salat prayer: o\jl<9 salavat. 

c^\^ bSrat an edict: o\j^. hSravat edicts, firmans. 

§ 578. Some of the masculine nouns denoting 
things which have not reason or speech, form their 

plurals by adding Zj\ -at, as they cannot take the 
regular masculine plural (§ 574): 

300 «ur u^j^ Lesson 43. r** 

jt^^ tahreer a writing: ^l^^r*' tahreerat writings. 

iaic. ghdlat a mistake: olUt ghalatat mİBta^es. 

oL ne&a^ a plant: oLlL nebatat plants. 

N ♦ N A^ Exercise lOL 

Give the feminine plural of each of the following words : 

JÎİ sl^ b o'^^ CJ I ^r^ C^Ji>- i^^U ^b^Im^ 


14 . '- c 15 I* " t 16^1 ^7 I 17\ >"'" t 18 ^ •*: * l» n '"- " 

•• ^ \ •• • ■^» »• ^ • 

TTor^^^. 1. ghayet the end. 2. animal. 3. instrument. 
4. mvjizi a miracle. 5. service (JcMdimat) . 6. a-d^^ custom. 
7. a. payment. 8. hajet a need, want. 9. ihari sentence. 10. ûii- 
kîayct a complaint. 11. ti-i-leef composition of a book; a book. 
12. taqseer' deficiency. 13. zekmt alms. 14. tareef explanation. 
15. maloum known; (knowledge). 16. tebreek' congratulation. 17. h4- 
riket blessing. 18. tameer repair. 19. sebz^. vegetable. 

N ♦ Y (^ Exercise 102. 

(^jj) xJ-U. 4o^jj; r . ^jci^ .^j.f" j^^pI vl)klj^>. j}x 4' 

r« I The Gender and Number of Arabic Nouns. 301 

^ ♦ r A^t-J Translation 103. 

1. Miss Gülistan is the heiress of the governess 
{teacher). 2. The owner of this house is Jemil6 Hanim, 
the teacher. 3. Give the bearer of this letter five m^ji- 
diyes. 4. You must obey your parents. 5. Dr. Ch. Tracy 
has written a nice book for parents and for husbands 
and wives. 6. Paradise was in the land of Ararat. 
7. The criminals were carried before the court. 8. The 
number of the hearers was 900, two thirds of whom 
were women. 9. Erase those two edtres. 10. The mother 
of the sovereign of the martyrs, Hûs6yin, is the Princess 
of the women of the universe Fatima-Z^hra. 

4İ|5^ Conrersation. 

302 «tr cr-j^ Lesson 43. r*r 

,J>I i >%Ju? Reading Exercise. 

A Poem, jc ^"1 TevMbi Band. 

? ojjjj J ^^ ^^^ j'j ^Â^ ^ £)y^^ 

• 0^> jA— O^ ^**.-k^ -^'^-^'Jl 0*^' 

^jtr" -T* J::* j^ '^ c^ ->'-^ ^-^ i^-> -Ji 
oU-i-» s::Ji jûj3 oj3j' '^ lSj^I ju- 

24 A. 28 ^ ^ ^ . <^^l . * 

TTords. 1. de?ir world. 2. seem silver, ;e?^r gold. 3. braghaur == 
&rag[ir leaves. 4. ^e/i^r journey ; ?ieen time. 5. rengi vtfa permanent 
colour. 6. p. sipihr the sky, the sphere. 7. Uyl night. 8. nihar 
day. 9. h^va âzre in the air. [They say that Solomon's throne 
was in the air (Moslem tradition)]. 10. the throne of Solomon. 
11. saltanat empire; magnificence. 12. hûrr free. 18. gha/mm 
anxiety; keder grief. 14. sadr Grand Vizier, jthan world. 15. bil- 
farz for instance (§ 671). 16. khasaset haseness, vileness. 17. ling 
ou gihSr disposition and substance = character (§ 696). 18. mû- 
nej'jim astrologer. 19. ghaflit heedlessness. 20. rahgueSr way (§585). 
21. laf talk; word. 22. tisiyyub lack of prudence; irregalarities. 
23. rütbe degree; aql wisdom, sense. 24. Mr work, deed. 


r*r The Nisb^ in Arabic. 303 

»^ij.rf^ ^jjui) ^-*ji f^JLr J-*AJ yfe vj*/ 

25. mazarrat injuries, harms (§ 576). 26. sahit qadim firm 
and steadfast in resolve (§ 636). 27, r^ opinion; judgment. 
28. sadaqat fidelity, honesty. 29. xkrah disgust; enmity (§ 619). 
30. Allah. Ziya Pasha a distinguished Turkish author, poet, 
historian and statesman (1809—79). Terkibi Bind. A poem in 
stanzas of similar metre but of different rhyme, the distichs of 
each stanza rhyme excepting the last distich. 

11 ^JC> Lesson 44. 

<_JI The Nisb^. 

§ 579. The Noun of Relationship [en Nishe^ as it 
is called in Arabic), is formed by adding the termination 

fj -ee to the noun, from which it is derived. It denotes 

that a person or thing belongs to or is connected there- 
with (in respect of origin, family, birth, sect, trade etc.) 
(Compare the Turkish and Persian Nishes §§ 149, 526): 

^y»j\ Ermin Armen (a fabulous Armenian hero): 

^•jl Erminee belonging to Armen, Armenian. 
^^^ shems the sun: fjr-^ shemsee' solar. 

j±*i dimishq Damascus: ji^^ dtmishqee a native of Damascus. 

vl)l*!lL« MiUa-la-at: Remarks. 
§ 580. a. The feminine termination of nouns 
o or Zj is omitted before adding this termination; as: 
*^» melckS Mecca : ^^ mek'kee' a native of Mecca, 

si, «-J» tabiydt nature: o*r^ tahiyee' natural. 

b. But if there is an eii/* preceding Cj, it is retained: 

304 •u'u u'J^ Lesson 44. r»\. 

c-»\i zat person: J\i zatee' personal. 

c-»U- hayat life: JU. hayatee vital. 

c. If at the end of foreign (non-Arabic) proper 
names there is a he (-a), it is changed into vav (-1?-): 

1^ Fransa France: {Sj^\^i Fransavee French. 

ıSjÂi^^\ Am^riqavee American: li^j^l İ^dirnivee a native of 


d. When any Arabic word ends in short or long 
elif, it is changed into vav (§ 29 c, d) : 

l^ ( J*«) tnan'a meaning; spirit: (İ^Im manivee spiritual. 
L ^ dünya world : tSj^ ^ dunyavee worldly. 

*L^ Biyza the town of B^yza: (ijLâ^ hiyzavee a native of B^yza. 
^^--fr Jsa Jesus: iSy^ Isavee Christian. 

e. The tens of the numerals are made in the way 
which will soon be shown (§ 689). 

f. There are other nouns of Relationship, the 
formation of which is irregular: 

aj^L hadiye a desert: (ijAj hidivee inhabiting the desert, a 

Beduin; a savage. 

O-L. midinS a city: liJi* w^d^wce' d welling in the city, civilised, 

, , , , [urban. 

<1- sSnS year: iS^ senevee yearly. 

Oj^l oukliouvvit brotherhood: iSy^\ akhavvee brotherly. 

■" *■ 
«^U ma water: jU wayee' watery ; fluid; blue. 

g. Some nouns take an addition of 0' before ^^ -ee: 

7- J J rouh spirit: (i^jj rouhanee spiritual. 

p— >- jism body: Jlc-^ jismanee corporal. 

Other examples are: 

(il^ ibranee a Hebrew: «i^^-- «wryanee a Syrian. 

' * .^^ " ' i & ^fasarene 

(ilAlS Jcildanee a Chaldaean: Ji^r^ nasranee' I o nhristian* 

h. A noun of Relationship is never formed from 
the plural, even when the sense might seem to demand 
it, but always from the singular: for instance words 

i-^o The îsisb^ in Arabic. 305 

like ^jjj^U ' Ğ>^Xj^ memoiirinee,tahriratee h^elsiiiveio 

officers or letters' are never used, but their singular is 

« » > •• 

used (SjjaV^ ' <SXj-^ memouree, tahrirce 'relative to 
an officer or letter i. e. official, literary'. 

i. Although this rule is very strictly observed in 
Arabic, yet in recent Ottoman literature there are some 
terms in current use formed from plurals, but they are 
regarded as barbarisms: 

-kj^jlş. t. oy qpuvvi'yi jounoudeeyS the raih'tary forces. 

<Jj^ oİ-VaU* mou-a-hedaU dûveleey^ the Treaties of tlie Powers. 

^4j^j y^-f-f^ jSmeeyy^'ti rousoumeeyS the Taxation Committee. 

The words joimoud, düvel, rousoum, are the plurals 
of jitnd army, devUt 'empire' and resm tax. 

The Abstract Noun. \ua ^\ Ismi Mana. 

§ 581. Abstract nouns are formed by adding 
Zj ' 6 {-yet, -ye) to the end of Nouns of Relationship ; 

or wjt ' 4j (-iyetj -iye) to the end of nouns and ad- 
jectives (§§ 163, 541): 

<i\^^; nasranee a Christian: c-j^*1^^ nasraneeyit Christianity. 
(Jju. midinee civilised: yz^^ mSdSneeyât civilisation. 

-^ MM MM 

^»- hûrr free: <^-»^ hürriyet freedom. 

jt^ jem collecting: ^i^u?- jSm'iyit an assembly. 

AjjuJt* m^jidiyâ the coin struck by Sultan M^jid. 

Ajjdj heUdiye the municipality, the city court. 

aJjİ.^ doukhouliyS admission fee, entrance-money. 

§ 582. If A * o (-e, -ye, -a) is added to the end 

of Arabic Derivative Adjectives and Participles, and used 
alone without any noun to modify. The feminine 
Adjectives and Participles thus formed are regarded as 
feminine substantives (§ 421):, 

Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 20 

306 <ui, u^j^ Lesson 44. r«1 

Ji^ Ich^fee secret: -uii- khifeej/S detective. 

f-j^"^ m^jtnou collected: *^^^w^ mSjmoU'a collection. 

^^J..^JA mû-es'ses established: <u.--^ mû-es'sdsS institution. 

)ûU 9;ıa72İ hinder: <j»jU mantra obstacle. 

§ 583. The following abstract nouns are solecisms, 
being formed in the Arabic manner from Turkish, Persian 
or European words and not from Arabic w^ords; (§ 507): 

t-vi^olj variySt wealth: p. ^z^-fj^ gSrmif/it ardour, zesX. 

p. vi^JL-i^- sMSstiyât freedom: p. ^i^uLİj^ pirishaniyit poverty. 
f. vi^J(^ qraliyH kingdom: p. 4^U mahiyS (monthly) salary. 
f. <^^^ji poUtigiy â\>ohticB: t. <.J>\jj\ otlaqiyS pastare-taz. 


Exercise 104. 

Form Nouns of Relationship and Abstract nouns 
from the following words: 

• • • ^ a ^ 

8 . 19 . . < 10» f t 11'; ^ i - t-r* ^ • ^ < •'*''*. i ''^ «■ 

12 . • ' < 18 1- - I . .^---. I t . 1. < . . . « i' t « l"' 

067. j^X^l «^ J?jl (ard) ^^ ]a^ ^\ 

\ \ ' ''<..»'«.,." t I" ' I •♦ ' 

0(9^. İ23İJ ^Ja! Jasc^ ^Jl-^ a^İU tiU* 

1. rtcZ^i custom. 2. hiijza egg. 3. &^yf family, house.. 
4. mad'de matter, subject. 5. plant. 6. water. 7. tijarit trade.. 
8. daWiil interior. 9. kharij outside, foreign. 10. miVlii nation. 
11. Bosna Bosnia. 12. sioda the spleen. 13. heaven. 

680 g. 1. rabh the Lord. 2. woor light. 3. £roii?m^£ darkness. 
4. vaMit uniqueness, 5. taht the lower part. 6. fivq over. 

681. Islam. 1. tab disposition. 2. room (in Custom-Honse.) 
3. zdbt control. 4. ehimm important. 

582. 1. rahtt binding. 2. nice, amusing (story). 8. moukktir 
who reminds. 4. mouqad'dim preceding, before. 5. mansoum 
written in rhyme and metre. 6. second (second). 

r*y The Nisb^ in Arabic. 307 

JCiJ Words. 

p. \j^ khûda, Jchoda God a.^ULj^l tjUl iman it!' to believe 
a. ^j nkbi prophet a. oIjjJ nebimyat prophecies 

a. Juijr iezayudei!' to increase a. <-jJl« mddrisS seminary 
a. Cj\^ qouran Qoran a.^^— û« mûfis'sir commentator 

v^^^J Jl^ ikmal it," to finish a. ojl j** hararit heat. 
Proper Names: \^\ Ishaya, Eshaya Isaiah. 

N ♦ Ju? Exercise 105. 

jji Oj3 4-*U Jj^jl cijl--a^ 4JMÎJİ J âJ^jI V . j3 jlj (Cj3^ 
^JJl4 Jj>-j: e:>>^P ^jy]^*i\ ^:s^ ^ • (^Jj-iX-J o|^ cT-^j^ 

Aj4>jL^ J 4JL) ' 4^JJ»> * aUU- ' ^3 j4^l o34jtp ^t ^< ^Jajy 


\^\ <^j Translation 106. 

1. The Old Testament is written in the Hebrew 
and Chaldsean languages and the New Testament in 


308 «t»!. a-J-> Lesson 44. r»A 

Greek. 2. Do you know the Lord's Prayer by heart. 3. The 
exchange of offices between two office-holders is done by 
the consent of the parties concerned. 4. Christians, Maho- 
medans and Jews beheve in the Unity of God. 5. The 
miUtary forces of the European powers are increasing every 
year. 6. He lost his wealth and fell into poverty. 7. Free- 
dom is the life of a nation. 8. The Taxation Committee 
has raised the rate on rent. 9. I wrote a composition 
about the Treaties of the Powers. 10. The shape of my 
inkstand is oval. 11. Let us sing hymn number 51. 

Aİ|5^ Conyersation. 
^--^. . -..^^ 

S-l - 

I i j^J Reading Exercise. 

^^4.Lj^ V ^^^jljî Columbus' Egg. 

TT^orr?s. 1. mhhliour well known: 7n^sh'hour dour hi every 
body knows = it is said. 2. A'Tas/iî/ discoverer. 2*. Christophorus. 

r♦^ The Nisbe in Arabic. 309 

> • 

''â;\JJ^]J J.^j]j\ ^'^L; 4V> vJJdLir 'jj,a>. ).dli^^; J 

^*-^j: • Lf>j-*û^ ^.;; -J^'^ ^^ crjt'*-^j* ^j-^-^J • o^ 
< ' V' ^> > • J-Jl-J t^.'jr «J-^"'» 

8. keshf et." to discover; t7e for v^ (§ 470 a) = k^shf idih. 
4. En'dûlûs Andalusia. 5. B^7ii Ahm^r devleti the Moors (in Spain), 
the dynasty of Beni [children of] Ahmer. 6. magliloub defeated 
§ 604). 7. khani ziyafSt the banqueting table. 8. houz'zar those 
who were present ijiouz' zardan ve . . . prenslerden biri). 9. b^r'ri 
jMid the New World = America. 10. mazhar ol." to be the object 
of, to enjoy. 11. taltifat favours, honours. 12. has^d it." to envy, 
to be jealous. 13. madam ki since, as. 14. qit'a part, segment 
(of the world). 15. mevjoud ol." to exist. 16. siz olmasaüızda 
even if you were not; da for dakhi (§ 117). 17. bir gun oloub 
some day, one day. 18. qavl word. 19. Mm'mH effort, action; malûm 
known. 20. istisghar a making little of, belittling. 21. sicri taraf 
the smaller end (of the egg). 22. muqtidir able. 23. Ebûz'ziya 
a celebrated living Turkish author. 

AİI^C» dJII2c»- ifj^ Conversation abont the Lesson. 
A;^l Eji'ibe. ^JLl-\ Esile. 

._li5^ojJ.::3j iJj,;L^^5 Jly L;L.-\ ? (ijj^^l ^iİ^oJû:ijsilll^5^U 


'l9 u^j^ Lesson 45. 


Jth\J^ 6-^> Jl^ ^1 j.^ 


Iji j^J 0^0^ Ajl^ji 

* -.1 


jil^j o^A.>^ iJjU»- oj^jî 

^^ u^c> Lessofl 45. 

The Arabic Infinitive (Masdar). 

§ 584. There is no limit to the number of words 
which the Ottoman language borrows from the Arabic. 
The number of Arabic words to be learnt would thus 
involve a great deal of study, if they were not derived 
from certain roots which are, of course, very much less 
numerous. If the student can master the system by 
which Arabic derivatives are derived from their roots 
{mad'dc, mad'deyi asliye), his labour will be vastly 
diminished. After learning a certain number of roots, 
he will at once recognize and remember a large number 
of words formed from them. The Arabic system of 
derivation is extremely regular, logical and beautiful; 
although at first it appears somewhat complicated. 

Almost every word in Arabic may be referred to 

r-M Tlie Arabic Infinitive. 811 

a significant root, consisting of either three or four 
letters, the triliterals being by far the more common. 
In European languages, significant roots are irregular 
in form, and the grammar of those languages treats 
only of prefixes and afiixes, by which the meaning of 
the word is modified. Thus in English we add the 
termination -er to express the agent of a verb, and 'i)}g 
to express the Present Participle Active or the Gerund ; 
as: make, maker, makm^. In Arabic, however, such 
modifications are obtained not only by prefixing or affixing, 
but by inserting letters between those of the root. The 

root J*j fa^l signifying action, is taken as the typical 

root for exhibiting these modifications, and the formulae 
thus obtained are called 'the measures of words'. For 
instance, the insertion of an clif between the first and 
second radical, and the punctuation of the later with 
an esrc\ give the sense of the Agent or Active participle : 


thus J»i fa^-l becomes Jtli fa'9'il 'one who does' and 

this word is the measure upon which all other ''agents" 
of this kind are formed. It is in fact, a mere formula, 
like the letters used in Algebra; for as (a + b 4- c) 
may represent (2 + 3 + 4), (5 4-6 + 7), or any 

other number; so for the triliteral root J«i in Jitli, we 

may substitute any other triliteral root and obtain the 
same modification of meaning; as: 

Ji3 q^atl to kill: JTÜ qatil a murderer. 

^ ç-ilm wisdom: J Ic ç^alim wise; 

where J^TS and i\p are said to be the Jtli of the 
triliteral roots to which they respectively belong. 

The Arab ojrammarians use this word l«i as a 

paradigm, and every change in and addition to the root 
is made on this model. But as the utterance of the 

second radical M is very difficult for Europeans, therefore 

we adapt the word JS faql as its equivalent, since it 

is easier to pronounce; using the 'measures' of J«i also 
when necessary; 

012 <uo i^j^ Lesson 45. rif 

harf 'letter' is of the measure jS /agî, that 
is to say it is measured, weighed or balanced on the 

word & faql, having the same quantity of letters and 
the same vowel. 

§585a. The root IS in Arabic is pointed with three 

astnus, as: ö faqala, which means ^he fanned', this 

))eing the third person singular Past tense; but for 
shortness' sake we always render it into English by 
the Infinitive or Verbal Noun^ (§§ 272, 614). 

§ 585 b. The Arabic Infinitives (= Masdar) are 
divisible, in respect of their origin, into two classes: 
Primitive or Simple and Derivative or Augmented. 

§ 586. The Primitive Infinitives are those which 
have no servile letters in them, or even if they have the 
serviles do not change the meaning of the word; as: 

Jâi na^ar to look; Ji.^ daJM 'to enter' are simple 
or primitive forms, because there is no augment or 

servile letter in them. But CjJo^ nezaret to look, J^i^ 

(loal'houl or c^lU-^ dchliaUt 'to enter' also are called 
Primitives; because although there are servile letters 

CI' Jl;'j), yet they do not change the meaning: 

° r ' 
they are only different forms of ^ü and Ji-3. 

§ 587. The Servile Letters are (c$ i* j Û (» ^j- *1» 0» 

which are also called 'changers or letters of augmentation', 
because they change or add to the meaning of the word. 

§ 588. The Derivative Infinitives are those in- 
finitives which have servile letters inserted in them, 

1 The second vowel of the third person Sing. Past tense is 
sometimes i = J^ faqila^ sometimes ou = Jid faqpulOy instead 

of being as here a = J^ faq^ala: but this does not concern the 
t>tndent of Ottoman. 

r)r The Arabic Infinitive. 313 

which change the meaning of the word more or 
less. For instance the word jllâ:j i intihar 'to look after, 

to wait'; Jli^l idJchal 'to cause to enter, to insert', are 

derivatives; because their ground forms Ji nazar and 

li-^ fZa/ti mean 'to look' and 'to enter' respectively, 

and the augmentative letters I ' i ' Cj have changed 
the meaning (§§ 259, 613). 

A. The Primitive Triliterals. :>^ ^"^ ^x^oa 

§ 589. There are a great number of Verbal Nouns 
or Infinitives which are derived directly from the trili- 
teral roots. Those that are most frequently used in 
Turkish belong to one of 23 "measures". The root 

IS is taken as the 'measure' or formula (= o3j ^'^-s^w), 

and we shall assume that all these 23 forms can be 
derived from it; although they are not all in use. 
Every root is supposed to have the power of producing 
all these derivatives, though, in fact, sometimes only 
a few such are actually formed from a given root. 

JİjUJUa^ Mûta-la-at Remarks. 

§ 590. If the third radical is j or ^, in the 
measures 15, 16 and 17 it is changed into (0 ^t the end, 

which is often omitted (§ 705 d); as: (^W^ ' c5^ j^ 'c5\^ 

^^b are changed into *ij>. = lj>. ' »Ü ^ l::^ ' »b = b 

• W3= U3, the roots being V/ l5 j^ (J^ (S'^, y-^* 

§ 591. Those letters which have the mark of 
eduplication, are written twice in the root, without the 



mark ('); as: JL^jlI shid-det severity, root 1/ 3Jlİ. shedede, 

§ 592. The feminine letters Cj and 4. ' Î are sub- 
stituted for each other in the termination of nouns: 

•l» ij-jİ Leeson 45. 


1 1 1 1 i 1 II 1 1 










« î ? s « 
llî 1 I i 1 i J i 





-""'-»-"" 2 


The Arabic Infinitive. 









• ^m 


• m-4 








• ^^ 









ö€ O 

08 ^ 



















u^UJ> l^^^L ]• il ^ 1 4>î Li^ ^ ' '^ ^ 

^*' ^^ ^' "^> -^ I ^ J* "^^ \ J' *^ ^^ ^^ "^ ^ 




























































































316 «uo jj-ji Lesson 45. ril 

such is the case iu measures 5 — 9, 18, 19, 22, 23. 

bj^J:^ semere for CjJ^ semeret measure cJö • Zj^^^ma = 

" ^ • o. 

dOn^ measure c^ü • l:i^j = wXj>-j î«5j ~ w«>j i«^ 

§ 594. When the letter ^ is pronounced as I with 
lUtdn, it is called /SAo^*^- ENf(§§ 29c, 610); therefore in such 

cases 1 is substituted for ^: iLSC- 5/?A'wa for ^5C-. root 

y ^^J 'habitation', l^5Cjl shelcva = ^'^S root A/^Ti 

'complaint'; l^p^ = ^Sy^^ ' 1^^ = ^^jP [measures 10—11]. 

§ 595. The Quadriliteral Inflnitiyes have only one 
formula or measure; which is -dlS faqlele the root bemg 

considered y jl^; as: <lj!j zelzele 'earthquake', root 
Jj); zelzele' ^..^ ı/^JLui ^Ji^ V/ '^'^^' 

N ♦V j^' Exercise 107. 

With the assistance of the Table of Verbal Measures 
given above find the measure and the root of each of 
the following words. 

' .i - ^ t si •' i . I " J »^ ' " • « "". t "ct -<"-••« ■ »"•• t 


Jie//. lÜ î2«(/Z is measured on iS, the root being 

'Ü ; because the first radical has an ûstûn. and the 

second, third radicals are quiescent. cJaZ»- haqiqat is 


The Arabic Infinitive. 


measured on zX^ faqiUt, the root being 1/ jî>. ; because 
the first and third radicals have an usUm and the second has 

an esre] after the second radical there is a ser\nle ^ and 


after the third a servile C,-. 4j:^L* sefine = zX^ faqilet, 
4. is substituted for Cj. *l5C hûhia = J IS (§591) 

C-l .. 

j;^^! i j-^Ju^ Reading Exercise. 
cW e?^"^ •->^>(^r'^^ Psalm 84; Hymn 6, 

fV k>*i^. JjJJ^ 

I 9 

I .^ 11 ^r ' 10 ^ 

13 il 


< 20 i»^- 19 h 

A •*14< 

." '' 

J o>jjiJy 

t 17 


Words. (0 1. mhkm house, court (§ 578). 2. »lowr light; 
houhb' love. 3. di«/ar land: it is the pi. of dar but used as 
singular (Lesson 51). 4. Za*?/ pleasant. 5. presence. 6. rf^ri affliction, 
woe. 7. 1^. günah sin; p. dSrya sea. 8. bay-ghîn fainting. 9. mumin 
believer {mefoul of iman [§ 619]); 'jûmhour congregation. 10. nour- 
hakh-sh qilmaq to bestow the light. 11. IcSrim gracious (a. q. of 
Tcerem [§ 606]). 12. vijh face. 13. k^al glory. 

(r) 14. milja asylum (§ 598). 15. mSzbah altar (n. 1. oî zeb-h 
[§ 598]). 16. Beytoul'lali the house of God. 17. havU court, 
yard. 18. p. zimin earth. 19. t. salt only. 20. nj-a^ to turn back. 
21. kesh et." to enjoy. 22. nejat salvation. 23. hayat life. 


•u*! cr-ji Lesson 46. 


«"~ 80 

M •• OV ■ •• t» 



»Sl^öJ^ * O^^ J) 


^ I 96 ^ V 25 I 1- 

(r) 24. ftrtfcîa weeping. 25. siy'yah pilgrim. 26. naghmi 

song. 27. we&c-an 6^" flow, to rise (water). 28. m^nn manna. 

29. nazil 61." to descend. 30. Uqad-dum 6^" to progress, to grow 
(in strength). 

(i.) 31. hadi guide; mushkU hard, difficult. 32. ^:^r abundant; 
p. roushSn. 33. loutf grace. 34. diok shower. 35. ahhms sun. 

Xote, 1. This is a translation of the English hymn 'Pleasant 
are Thy courts above' by H. F. Lyte. 2. Find the measure and the 
root of each of the vowelled words contained in the above Reading 

^^ ^-^^i> Lesson 46. 

Nouns derived from Primitive Triliteral Verbs. 

§ 596. Certain nouns are derived from the Infini- 
tives or from the roots of verbs, and may therefore 
be dealt with in connexion with the latter. The 
principal forms used in Ottoman are three; and the 
commoner measures for these three are seven in number. 
They all begin with a mim pointed by ûstûn or esrL 

^ • ^ 

1. Nouns with Mîm. ^^^ jJu»^ 

§ 597. Besides the simple forms already described 
above, another verbal noun almost equivalent to them 
in meaning is formed by adding a mim to the radicals. 
It has four forms: 

r^^ Nouns derived from Primitive Triliteral Verbs. 319 

I. Ûİ4 niefqal. By adding a mim with üstün to 

the first {me-\ and pointing the second radical with 

jl^ g^ttöd purpose : V -U^î î A-^ıİ-. niaqsSd purpose. 

^ ^e ^ 

II. The feminine of this form is zXasl^ mefqalet, 

w. ^3 rahmet mercy : V p»-^ • ^^.-.i^^r niSrhamSt mercy. 

vlU« 7nt7Aj country: V^iU» i c-^— U-T memlekSt country. 

III., IV. Some verbs, especially those commencing 
with ^, take esre on the second radical. Their measure is 

* gL' ' ^cJ^ mefqil, mefqilet (§ 593) : 

Jicj rfeç.(2 promise: Vjl&j i •-'^^ nıSvç.idS. 

, ^ wA J i <-A *>r mSvhibi, 

Ç.J9.J roujouc- returning: Vji».j i Z»?:^* mârjiç-. 

N ♦ A ^cJ^ Exercise 108. 

Change the following Infinitives into the form be- 
ginning with mim: 

T 1 \ ""• TT 2 • ^ I 8 »^ - , - - < 4 % ,^ t 6'^ -' J i 6 . - 

'jji. in/c»3V> IV. "oii^ ! ü^j 

' -. , '- 

^ • 

TTords. 1 . a going ; road, way (religion). 2. praise. 3. happiness. 
4. benefit. 5. strength. 6. sedition. 7. forgiveness. 8. birth. 
y. knowledge, skill. 

2, Noun of Location. o^sCa ^\ 

§ 598. This is formed precisely in the same manner 
as the Noun with Mim; the measures being the same; 
(§§ 162, 449, 541): 

I. 9xll^ tabkh to cook: ^7^ • 

( JJU* ) = Tt^Ja* matbakh a place where to cook^ kitchen. 

jJl d{*fn to bury: Vj^iS î 

• ^ • ^ • c* ^ 

( JJU. ) = j^ Ju nUdfin grave. 

320 «un crj^ Lesson 46. rr* 

II. a-^W iab^ to print: '^/^V** 

( ^..Lft A4 ) = <j»-ia« tviuiha^a printing house. 

III. v_jj^ ghourouh to eet: Vv-»^î 

( J-Li. ) = ^^-i>» maghrîb sunset, west. 

* " \i'' ^ " 

^Ji> sharq to rise: Vj^i' 

( JJLftT ) = J^^^ mSshriq sunrise, east. 

\*\ Jli3 Exercise 109« 

From the following words form Nouns of Location: 


7*1 < 8° ^ < 9 V . 4 10' , . t \\* ^y TT,- 12 t - < 18 \\> i 

TzX4 ' J\J • Ja-A>. • Joj • ^^'*"' ■*"»-^- /*-»^J * f*!^ * 

14 Î t ' t 15^- . - « » >.î t i> t , > 

Words. 1. 1. ray to pasture. 2. ridinp. 3. entering. 4. going 
out. 5. to dwell. II. 6. looking (view). 7. salt. 8. tomb. 9. to 
keep. 10. manure. 11 judgment. III. 12. placing. 13. rising; 
of sun. 14. falling down. 15. worship. 

3. Noun of Instrument. cJf /^-«* 

§ 599. The most common measures of the Noun 
of Instrument are those which follow; (§§ 450, 542): 

I. Jil^ mifqal: 

^ j^a.^ * J Vk ...* mister, com m. ma^tor an instru- 

ment for drawing a line, a ruler. 

K.^ saqfih, taqah to pierce: V.^jL? ! ^^JLt. wdsqab comm.nutt- 
5^/6 anything that pierces, auger. 

II. JĞİ^ inif(jul: 

T^iLs /e^/t to open: VtcIİî rüi* inifuih a key. 

u^^^ 'Z^'^'^ to cut: V ^^ i 1 1^1^ iHÎgrn d comm. Magraz, 

maqcis a cutting instrument, scissors. 

III. aIaâ^ mefqcde: 

v-j^ shmtrh to drink: V^^^i <i^-l* nKtshrahil a cap. 

ft) Nouns derived from Primitive Triliteral Verbs. 3^ 

^JLui shouç>lS flame: VJ-^ii 

• ^-^ • ^ 

<JUJL. mashç.dla a torch. 
N N ♦ ^cJ^ Exercise 110. 

^3^JtT Ancestors' Sayings = Proverbs. 

jj)^ ^ ♦dAi*'>.lp j^ jî*^ 4^1 y^ ^ * j^j^^ jl * jllji 
vUijIji ! |^5C Î j^ <Jjil Ju Âi j^ ÂİöJ JL 4:; > > • Jjii-IIS ^i^jy 

•JllS *Y^j\i i)\i\j\ jl '--.Jâ^ > T .j3 41)1 jLi 

Words. 1. m den, cave. 2. dindSn^ chtqmaq to go out of 
religion = to forget God, to be angry. 3. bahaya chtqmaq to rise 
in price, to become dear. 4. hich oumouroumda dSyil I do not 
care a bit. 5. mih'rUt affliction. 6. tejribS et." vulg. tejrûbe to test. 
7. bo uynouz horn. 8. yar friend; sweetheart. 9. gechmSz spurious. 
10. maghrour proud. 11. moukhalif contrary. 12. savourmaq to 
winnow; barman threshing floor. 13. <Zwi/mw (f^rweA; wedding, feast. 

AX 1^ Conyersation. 
^^\ Ejvibi. AL.\ EsilS. 

^ 5aZ Yi^m^jsr Oghlou a celebrated drunkard. 
Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 21 

322 «ul cr-J-^ Lesson 46. rtt 

.4jo^HJu tjj^^i jliL^ »Jk?e.«>.^ t^JÎ '^-^'^ ••^^' ci*""^ -^ ÜPt*^* 3^>JL>-— • 

I * ** ^ - 

V-Aj-T ^ j\ ! ^}J^^ p— yb ! ^X5\ j^i- ? jjiilji ^^ (painter) aUj jTsJU 

J>l^ >^Ju^ Beading Exercise. 
OL.>- 1^ A Psalm of Life. 

m' -^ ** m * M «••• J ^ \J^ • 

oJJSS ^^jl '^lU 4iU ^54^ 
! Llljı öjJU pUj oVjl oJijj j^ ! oy.^§ (S^)-^-^^ (S*^^ 

Words. 1. ^Z/ıan numbers, songe; mahzownani mournfbl. 
2. rou^a dream ; vdhee nonsensical. 3. jid'di real. 4. Khüab oloumimaq 
to be addressed. 5. harhğtâh battle-field (§ 541). 6. p. qdhriman- 
hero. 7. istiqbal future. 8. qapilmaq to be deceived (to rely). 
9. w(wi past (§ 601). 10. p. zindS living. 

rtr Nouns derived from Primitive Triliteral Verbs. 323 

oVji "•33U; ' .Jiji vIU/^aSCL î JJU aJIj: '\\j^ •Jijjjl 

11. t/ia<^ ^tîAı surrounding (§ 620). 12. t. iz foot -print. 
13. a. p. qazazidS shipwrecked (§ 535). 14. istifadi it." to be 
benefited (§ 631). Munif Pasha a distinguished living Turkish 
author, poet and statesman; now in oblivion. 

Aİİ5^ oJL:S>. ^jjl*-^(%-!^ Conrergation. 

^JJ\'^ ilji^i «jjji jiji leJ^S oj^^:^ -^^U JJii »-»^JJjl 

► J-^-4^ <j^ tViJ-V*^ 


324 H.V o-ji Lesson 47. rt'L 

^v ^^c:> Lesson 47. 

J»ii f;^ Arabic Participles. 

§ 600. The Arabic Participles composed from the 
Primitive Triliteral verbs are much used in Ottoman; 
they are six in number (§§ 395, 548 — 549). 

Subjective Participle. J^li ^1 

§ 601. The Subjective Participle of the Primitive 
Triliteral Verbs, also called the Noun of Agency, is 

formed of the measure JSli faqil, i. e. by inserting an 

elif (-a-) between the first and second radical, and 
putting an esre (-i-) under the second radical: 

jii khalq creation : V jJLi. i jl U. Jchaliq creator. 

ci^r: 8^Tqat theft: ^ ^İJ^'' J->^ saHci thief. 

^[:S^ Utah writing: VL-İT^î <^\S^kt€ltih clerk. 

J-*i feel work : V J-o i J^li fa^-il agent, doer. 

§ 602. BemarJcs. a. If the second radical is ^^ or 
J, it changes into (* , -y-) (§ 591). 

jjS (?e?t?r to turn: ^jy^- 

Jjb = ^*^\i dayir turning; ahout. 


(j>L^ seyelan to flow: VJ--M.Î Ji ^ = JjL- sa^ flowing. 

§ 603. b. When the first radical is elif, one of the 
eh'fs is omitted and a medd is put on the second Mif 

(§§ 47, 701 d): 

^-\ imr to command : V^^ \ ' ^\ \ = ^*^\ amir a commander. 
o^\ ityan to follow: y ^_^^\ i J\\ = J\ ati following. 

N N N Aiii Exercise 111. 

Change the following Infinitives into Subjective 
Participles : 

rro Arabic Participles. 325 

j^^L^ CJ\-4'>- ^^^JJ, ^-Jjua-j 


14" J", -. t 15 ,» - ^ 16'» ^ i 17-'^ -t /"f- 

^y Jr^ Jy > Vc^ 

i 18 t.' " < 1»' "1 ' 

M • 

Words. 1. testimony, witnessing. 2. ignorance. 3. coldness. 
4. direction (director). 5. protection. 6. flowing, being current. 
7. arrival. 8. desire (desirous). 9. safety (safe). 10. science, 
knowledge. 11. necessity. 12. building. 13. religious warfare, 
[against non-Moslems] (a champion of Mahometan religion). 14. wor- 
thiness. 15. inclination. 16. willingness. 17. elevation, grandeur 
(high). 18. sermon (preacher). 19. crime (criminal). 

Objective Participle. J^^l 

§ 604. The Objective Participle of the Primitive 

J. ^ e X 
yjiA mefqoul. 

It is formed by putting a mim with üstün {me-) before the 
first radical and a j (-ou-) after the second (§§ 402, 548): 

J:i3 qatl to murder: VJJLsi jj.z.'L» wia^fowZ murdered, slain. 

> «^ 

jU. khalq to create: Vjli.i J^^ tnakhlouq creature. 

s.^'-S^ ketb to write: Vl-.Si !.^3Cl mektouh written, letter. 

^1-v^Jl^ khidmit service: V^xi î /»j-be^ makhdoum one who is 

served; a son. 

§ 605. When the second or third radical is 

(J, the J and eotre of the measure Jyii (-ot^-), are removed 
and esre (-i- -ee-) is retained: 

*1:j 6ma building: '^ cTi * '^^^ ~ t^ we&n* built. 

c^ljj rivaySt to narrate: v c^jj î ^JJ^ = ^J^ miroi told. 

oibj 2;it/a<i^ an increase : VjliJÎİ^J^= AjJ^ mSzeed incre&B- 

" " "*' ed. 

N N Y ^ Exercise 112. 

Change the following infinitives into Objective 

326 «uV ltJİ Lesson 47. m 

jüj Je ^^^ ^W^ c^j rf^ ^j K^^j) c^^ 

JJj— J^ f*^ w-^ ^(JU* »Ubj »U^- P* Jf* * 

TForeîs. 1. desire (desirable, nice). 2. wound (wounded). 
3. to reject (rejected). 4. sending (delegate). 5. joy (joyful). 
6. accepting (acceptable). 7. forbid. 8. obligation (obliged, thank- 
ful). 9. consent (pleased, satisfied). 10. to hide (secret). 11. seal. 

Adjective of Quality. a^JL* ^^^ 

§ 606. This is called by the native grammarians 
Verbal adjective,' and implies the existence of an in- 
herent quality. It is formed in accordance with various 

measures, the most common of which is XHiftiqeel^ 
feqeel (§§ 437, 553). 

^jL*^ zaaf weakness : V sJ^.»^ * >-«. m,a zayeef weak. 


y^[»it shijaat bravery: \"»sİJ^' »^^ shSjeeç. brave. 

Jli^ j^mal beauty: V^^ • iSr^ jimeel beautiful. 

§ 607. There is another one in the measure JjS 
faqoiil^ the derivative of which are: 
• \j ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

j^'ta sahr patience: V^»öi JL^-?*^ sahour patient. 

jl^-^ hased envy: V J — >■ • ^^^-^ hasoud jealous. 

\ITT7~ i.^ *^ [nignant§40. 

siSVj ri-i'fH kindness: VCJU • «-ijij ' «-ijj raouf kind, be- 

W^ Me^ Exercise 118. 

Change the following Infinitives into the Adjective 
of Quality: 

• -.. 1 11" t " * 12* fi -- ^ 13* ^. - ^ t 14» ^ < 16*^ '» f 

TTor^^s. 1. to anoint. 2. facility (easy). 3. greatness. 4. taste 
(delicious, tasty). 5. youth (young). 6. nobility. 7. nearness. 
S. beauty. 9. greatness, pride (great). 10. truth; health (true). 
11. hurry, haste (hasty). 12. mission, legation (apostle). 18. bra- 
very. 14. weakness (weak). 15. diligence (diligent). 


Arabic Participles. 


Adjective of Colour and Defect, ^ys- ^ o\i\ cJi 

§ 608. This is properly ranked with the Adjective 
of Quality, and is regular in its formation on the 

measure ^\ efqdl; the Fern. Measure being ♦>©• 

houmrit redness: 

^^Lj heyaz whiteness: 

L^S- amya blindness: 

^\j^ sSvad blackness: 

.i^JL^- hamaqat folly: 
• > 

soufret yellowness: 

sumrit brownness: 

• ^ »^ 

\ ahmSr red. 
Ja^ \ âbyaz white. 

© ^^ ^ 

*\J'\ a^ma blind. 
^«^\ HtM black. 

• «> •«• 

• ^ • ^ 

o > 


J^?^\ ahmaq foolish. 
\ ^sf^r yellow. 
.\ Ssm^r brown. 

• -«' • ^ 

Noun of Superiority. J-^ >♦— * 

§ 609. This is formed by the measure JSI afqal. 

The diflFerenee between this and the above mentioned 
measure of Colour and Defect is that, the latter is used 
especially to denote colour and defect. But this is used 
either for the superlative and for the comparative degrees 
of adjectives (§§ 222, 539) 

^^ kebeer great: \JŞ^ 
j\i»^ sagheer little: V^U 

^K^\ Sk'bSr greater, greatest. 
\ esghSr less, lesser. 

• ^ • ,»• 


§ 610. The feminine of this form is Mli or 
Ui fouqla: 

y^ kebeer: Jid\ = IaîT^I ' Jjü = ^'i^ küb'ra greater. 

Ji dSnee low: V jS î jÜi = 1:^1 ^(i'wa lower, lowest. 
>LÜ = LJi dünya lower, lowest; the world. 

\\t (J^ Exercise 114. 

- Change the following words in accordance with the 
above-mentioned two measures: 

328 H.y o-ji Lesson 47. rr\ 

>^_J^^ (.jV j4jU jj->:J JL|-- J,^ pJİP 

8^1 /"'T ^ i 9% ^^ i 10 , ^ i 11' ^ ^ i 12 ^. «18 ^ < 14» . 

y Lp Ja— J i}-^*-*» ^*^ C-"«3i-« rt-»*;^ ^JJ»-** 

TFor(29. 1. eminent; proud. 2. necessary. 3. ignorant. 
4. merciful. 5. remarkable. 6. beauty. 7. great. 8. high. 
9. middle. 10. poor. 11. priority. 12. safety. 13. true. 14. former. 

The Noun of Excess. J^li aİ)L« 

§ 611. The most common form is JCi f^qcHy 

formed by putting an ûstûn on the first radical, by 
doubling the second, and putting an elif after it:. 

jjS devr to turn: \jj1 t j\jS dâv'var one who turns rapidly, 


plfr ilm knowledge : V jjic ! ^>W yal'lam All-Knowing, ottini- 
^ ' ^ ^ ^ scient. 

^ja3j rags to oscillate: \'^yi}j i u^^j raq'qas pendulum. 

§ 612. If nouns of this measure are formed from 
words denoting materials, they form nouns which denote 
persons habitually engaged in certain occupations: 

^.^ Jchaff a shoe: \ ^Jul>. î üLâi- khaffaf a shoe-seller. 

'"î"-" I 7 (various kinds \l^?i7~ı .,--' , , , 

-dju ftagZaj of grains: ^ O^. * J*^. ^«2 5[a^ a grocer. 

J^ ga^";? silk: Vjj^îji>^ qaz'zaz a silk-merchant. 

N N O ^^JUi Exercise 116. ^ 

Change the following words into Nouns of Excess: 

8 \ r ^ 9 " ^ I 10 " ^ i 11 ^ lî^ i 12 ' ^ i IS' - < 14 ^ ^'' « 16 
^Jb» JJ>. J-X4 C^3 a.*^ J:^ ,^/-'»— • /•-•J* 

Words. 1. burden. 2. husbandry (an [Egyptian] villagerX 
3. forgiveness, pardon. 4. journey (traveller). 5. rose -geranium 
(perfumer). 6. cloth (linen-draper). 7. changing money (money- 
changer). 8. to create (Creator). 9. force, tyranny. 10. joking. 
11. shampooing the body in the bath (shampooer). 12. hnntinir 
(hunter). 13. favour, bounty (All-Bounteous). 14. to -Berve (a 
Christian deacon [Aramaic]). 15. picture (painter). 

rr\ Arabic Participles. 329 

N N ^ ^^ Exercise 116. 

Ascertain the nature, meaning and the measure of 
the following words: 

s^^ O^Ij vJU^li * s^j'L>>^ Cj\»yJ>^ OjJ^^^ 

JjJUw ÛV5jUı oyj^ Û15JU-» (JJj-**^ »_j\3Jj*-v« jA\ Jt4İ 

^\j\^\ ijjj^^ ' Jb f'jU^ Jl^l ^ic- ^^^c- ilc oU^« 

od w • j*u j_^f. j^\ ^^y^ • j_^jr • ^ç_-^ • ^:^_5-.j 

M" H^ $>-f -^J-f '-'W-f ^^^' c*^ 

i r 4 14, •' < , • - i , ». - t • - «•: « » 

S S V A;?-J Translation 117, 

Give the Arabic equivalents of the following words. 
1. One who cuts, cut; 2. hearer, hearers, heard, things 
heard; 3. wounder, wounders, two wounders, wounded, 
wounded ones; 4. wisdom, wise, two wise men, wise 
peoples, known, knowledge, informations (Turkish pi.), 
wiser; 5. to sit, council; 6. to judge, judge, judges, 
court, condemned, condemned people; 7. greatness, 
great, greater, greatest; 8. to create, the Creator; 9. to 
cook, kitcheo, cook; 10. ignorance, ignorant, unknown 
(doubtful), very ignorant, ignorant persons, unknown 
things. 11. The Anointed One, Messiah (Christ). 

SNA Am Exercise 118. 

'O^l 1 ? jjL^ jlj jf^l j: j^b A,yL<.* Jr*-i*i 4jic5xil wJ^ ^ 


<lV cr-ji Lesson 47. 


\\\ AJi^j Translation 119. 

1. What are you doing? — I am writing a letter 
to your son. 2. It was narrated by the ancients that 
this bridge was built by the Romans. Is that certain? 
— 3. No, Sir! it is doubtful, it is not certain. 4. What- 
ever you have told in secret, will be known to all the 
world. 5. The Apostle says: 'Be glad and joyful*. 6. The 
delegates were not accepted by the £jng. 7. God is 
benignant and patient towards all his creatures. 8. All 
the creatures in the world were created by God. 9. The 
blind man was very foolish. 10. He is a brave man 
but very jealous. 11. The pendulum of the clock is 

a11^>« Gonrersation. 


<ÜL\ jâaiU. 

?jju. Jl5o JÛi û^^ 

.. ...-.v^vî: 

-«r^; . 



Arabic Participles. 


• ^ • 

.j3 ^c^i jT^. * Jj-i f^i 3jt 

1 «. I •• 

üJI 5 -^JlJ Beading Exercise. 

11 a:l^ a Litauy of Praise to God. 

r — 

.5 i tue 

— 1 

< la 



J I 28 . < 9 |. < 22. 

( 28 

• 8 It ^ •• • • "^ . 

— r 

I- 82. T 

.T 81 ^ 80 fU ^ 29 , I 

' oGu Jji 

Words. (0 1. Tisbeehat' fem. pi. of ^^sftee/i' (§ 615), lit. Ho say 
sûbhan'allah^y i. e. Praise ye the Lord. 2. kereem gracious. 3. rahim 
compassionate. 4. moujihi hayat who grants the life : moujib causing, 
giver; hayat life; Al'ldh Ta-a-la God the most High. 5. ihsan 
kindness; lateef All-Gracious (a. q. of loutf grace). 6. ^a-la excellent. 
7. yine, gini again. 8. t^rah'hûm it." to be merciful. 9. great. 
10. niymit kindness, mercy. 11. huifi sufficient. 12. jeleel All- 
Glorious. 13. t^shek'kûr et." to thank. 14. asha love, loving- 
kindness. 15. qourban sacrifice. 

(r) 16. All-Gracious. 17. abundant. 18. rahman All-Merciful, 
Compassionate. 19. creator. 20. d^rd affliction; dSrman remedy. 
21. teham-mul patience, forbearance. 22. holy. 23. light. 24. melik 
king. 25. haddstz infinite. 26. qoudret power. 27. malik possessor. 
28. salik walking; t^hi-nt it." to wait p«*io"«j {% «as.), _ 

(r) 29. omniprcociii. 00. All-Seelug. 31. present. 32. hiran 
always (J^r +- aw time), 33. mtnnan Ail- Bounteous. 

332 *uA ^j3 Lesson 48. rrr 

88 " ** 

34. 7mA:7n condemnation. 35. mıîsfa/iagg^' deserving of. 36. 'Â:/n 
for ikefi while. 37. büjûmle all. 38. teha^inun it" yearning fond- 
ness; to love, to pity. 

Note. The numhers 8, 19, 27—30 are Subj. Part; No. 31 
Obj. Part.; No. 2, 5, 9, 12, 16, 22 Adj. Qual.; No. 6 N. Excess.; 
No. 33 N. öuperioriiy; No. 8, 13, 21, 28, 38 of the measure (&a&) 
tefaqqoiil (§ 622). 

lA ^^^ Lesson 48. 

The Derivative Triliteral infinitives of Arabic. 

§ 613. The Derivative Triliteral Infinitives (Mdsdari 
Sulasiyi Mezeedun feehi) are those words which are 
formed by the insertion or addition of servile letters to 
the root to form new verbs with certain changes of 
meaning. The meaning of the Simple or Primitive 
Infinitives may be extended or modified in various ways 
bv the addition of one or more letters to the root 
(§ 288, 588). 

§ 614. There are nine measures (Bah) of these 
Derivatives much used in Ottoman, the first of which is 
the second voice of Infinitives ; the first voice being the 
Root of the Primitive Infinitives (§§ 272, 585 a). 

o " 9 

II. J^nij = J.Jfl.'S tefqeel. 
§ 615. This measure is formed by prefixing the 

letter Cj te to the radical and putting a long ^ -ee- 

after the second letter. 

It intensifies the meaning of the root and makes 
the meaning, if intransitive, transitive: 

J vJ^ fc/iav/*'^e.'fear(intr.): Vliji^ i ^^7 faJfc^ve^toterrify. 


L^Jlki m^jalet shame: V:\ki i J^^ takh-jeel to make 
Jx-t sfeefcZ form, shape: V J3v-i. i Jo^I fe^-jbeet to form. 

T'rr The Derivative Triliteral Infinitives. 333 

§ 616. If the last letter of the radical be a j or 
(J it changes into o ' a. ' i -ye: 

yZ^ ^JL^ saf'vit purity : V • jL^» '. ( » JL^aJ ) = <^,â-^.T tasfeeyS to 

' <, , \ITTZ ' • - .. o ^ purify. 

<1jj.9 qouv' vet power: Vjj-d î (^^Ju) = <i^^ taqveef/S to 

^/T^^T " " • - . J" ' . ^ strengthen. 

*U^j n-?a satisfaction: V ,.J» j i ( /c*^ jj ) = <-^ ^" tarzeeyS 


§ 617. Some other nouns also are formed in 
accordance with this measure: 

^.J^ tejrM temptation: *iyû tefriqa a feoilleton. 
^^Af tehlike danger: <«jûu taqdimi offering. 

ojTjJ ^^^rfciV^ memorandum ; a short letter; note; apasspoit. 

N Y ♦ ,A^ Exercise 120. 

Change the following Primitive Triliterals into the 
second voice of Derivative Infinitives: 

8° ;>> ^ 4 9* ." A t 10' " ^ < 11" ^ . i 12'^ . ^ i 18 , ■" ^ i ^ "^ '' 
Z^ f- s^ y^ W-»^J J1-*A9- c^3l^ U^H -^"^ 

Words. 1. reach (to communicate). 2. to accompany. 
3. scarcity (to diminish). 4. fault (to cause to fail). 5. coldness (to 
make cold). 6. distance. 7. tranquility (to calm). 8. motion (to 
excite). 9, honour (to honour; to visit). 10. bequeathing, advice 
(to advise, recommend). 11. lightness (to lighten). 12. truthful 
(to affirm). 18. white (to copy fairly). 14. to refer, to confide 
(to change; a draft, a cheque). 15. ornament (to adorn) 16. to 
nourish (education). 17. condolence. 18. new. 19. good news. 

III. 4İpIL« = 4İ>U^ mufaqale. 

§ 618. This measure is formed by prefixing a 
mim with ^tre {mu-, moil-) to the first radical, by 
inserting elif after the first (-a-) and a he (-6, -et) after 
the third of the radical letters. The noun thus formed 
conveys the idea of reciprocity. For some changes 
see §§ 705 c, 706 b. 

^^ darh to strike: \^^' <ijUâ.. mûdarShS to fight. 

334 «uA ltj^ Lesson 48. rr\ 

^o > 

«....^e.^ ' X^^\..>^a^ fnausahtibit to 

* . <. ^ I ^ '''i • <''.'' 

> converse. 

^ qatl to kill: yj^ • <L"ÜL. nuni^at^ to 

kill each other, massacre. 

N Y N .t-A-J Exercise 121. 

Change the following Primitive Triliteral Infinitives 
into the third voice: 

d-'. -^ t:? ^J- i''^" *Vt V-^ '^jt' 

Words. 1. a measuring (to compare). 2. a covenant (treaty). 
3. enmity (contention). 4. separation (to depart). 5. knowledge 
(a being mutually acquainted). 6. more (an auction). 7. speech 
(conversation). 8. quarrelling (to q. with each other). 9. to keep. 
10. to buy. 11. to leave (armistice). 12. decree. 13. war. 
14. partnership. 

IV. Jllii = JĞİI i/qal. 

§ 619. This is formed by putting an I with hre 

(i-) before the root, and another elif (-a-) between the 
second and third radicals. This gives a transitive sense 
to intransitive verbs and a doubly transitive or causal 
sense to those which are already transitive (§§ 262 — 263): 

Oy>-^ doukhoul to enter (intr.): V Ji-^ ! JU-3\ iMıtÜ to cause 
,> -/jj::: ^.' to enter, push. 

jj^ murour to pass » : V j^ î j\^\ imror to cause to 

>> -. /^ ^^ ^» pass. 

u^j^ julous to sit » : VjjJU. •o-^l IjUis to seat 

§ 620. If the second radical be a j or ^5, (-v-, -y-) 
it is omitted and a o ' 4. ' i (-e) is added at the end: 

ojs- avn help: Vo^ • ( ol>^* =) oU\ iyan§ to help. 

(j\ ^J» tay ran to fly: V ^J»i (jLJ»\ =) «jli»! itarS to cause to 


§ 621. If the first letter of radical be j (-V-), it 
is changed into ^ (-j/-) : 

J^^j rwsowZ to arrive: y^Caj i ( JUjjI =) jC«l »y«a{tos6nd. 

rro The Derivative Triliteral Infinitives. 335 

N r r ^U Exercise 122. 

Change the following Primitive Triliteral Infinitives 
into the fourth form of Derivative Triliteral Infinitives : 

jy fyj JJ-X^ -bjA— C^)Xh^ J«— O'ji^ ->^-^ 
8" , •." < 9 \.''\ I 10 ' ^ I 11^' ^ I 12 \ %> L IB ' ^ I 14 /> < 16 '* * 

^3;^ J'JJ J^ cc^ uj^ JJ^ ^^J ^y>:3 

16 > > i 17' -^ < 18' " ^ < 19 1».> ( aO .« < 21 " * .^ i 22* ^ • " 

^jjj (-> ^^ ^'y (-\c ^j- ^jj- w»3y>- 

TForcîs. 1. arrival (reaching, arriving). 2. to go forth (to 
issue). 3. to fall. 4. to astray (to lead astray). 5. business (to 
occupy, to busy). 6. improvement (to improve). 7. to appear 
(to show). 8. bounteous gift (to pour out, to produce). 9. dis- 
appearance (to remove). 10. inclination (incline). 11. debt (to 
lend money). 12. length (to lengthen). 13. to turn (to manage; 
to economize [money]). 14. distinction (to explain). 15. existence 
(to invent). 16. to arrive (to put forward, to adduce). 17. reso- 
lution (to send). 18. annihilation (to murder, kill). 19. heart, 
mind (to explain to). 20. complete. 21. fire. 22. return. 

V. J*ü = Jiii tefaq qouL 

§ 622. A class of verbs which are often Intransitive is 

formed by prefixing a Zj (*^-) to the radical and doubUng 
the middle letter with an ebtre: 

__^ „ jj.^ i j^^-^f^sav't?ot^r imagination. 

jLfc ! ^JuJtSç-aVlûm to learn. 

*JL- t p.L....T tSsStlûm to accept. 

§ 623. If the third radical be j or ^^ (-v-, -Î-) the 
Stre of the measure is changed into esre (-<): 

jS^ binou son: ^j-^ • iS-^ tebSnni to adopt a son. 

o^U^ (2^wai/e* meanness: V J^ i ^^^S Uâhîni retrogression. 

J J ragt rising high: V j.j Î ^J^^ teraqcfi progress. 

N Y t AZ Exercise 123. 
Change the following words into the fifth form: 

336 «uA (^J3 Lesson 48. 

to pay. 

JCil Words. 

8-. — 1 j\^.\ ihraz H". to show. a. — \ aj^IT U-e-diyi St.' 
a. — 1 ft 1^1 im^^a e*". to seal. a. — \ »Ui iyfa St/' 
a. — \ JLjl trsaZ e^". to send. a. — \ t-\Ls'\ ita St," to give. 
kSjj'f:^ cJij\kM mouqavelat mouharriri Notary public. 

N Y i ^^ Exercise 124. 

a:oj^ oVjll* iJjoJ^jii j^l J xj- J^-^ <^^'^' J"^ "^ '^J 

4J4:; : jlj ^?t ^11 jjij ^j3 ^ •jj^\^ c^^.j^ U* >!t5'^Jjjc 
^*! • u^. u^t ^-^' • ->^J ^-j' • ii^''' ^''3 0-)3 — ? j3 <5jL^ 

8 \ i' • •" * 9 V ^ 1® «.^r < 11 • .r < 12' . -'J ^ 18- -^ ^ < 14 <7>^» 

ci'^ wJ3b p-d^J' o^J*^ ^--^ -^"^ f^^ 

TTorrfs. 1. to increase (to be increased). 2. pride (to be proud). 
3. to load (to support, to be patient). 4. to shape, to form (con- 
formation). 5. to change (to be changed). 6. a giving possession j 
(to receive and take possession). 7. to render stationary; an official | 
report (to be stationary, established). 8. a Christian (to become 
a Christian). 9. to chastise, punish (to be polite). 10. to marry 
(to take a wife, marriage). 11. to teach (to learn). 12, sorrow 
(to regret). 13. enemy (to persecute). 14. speech (to speak). 
15. familiar intercourse (to unite in friendship; to compile). 16. com- 
fort. 17. wife. 18. collection. 19. remembrance. 20. complaint 

r-ry The Derivative Triliteral Infinitives. 337 

♦ j4^jül dL ^ 0^13 U^ o2»r dL>-«j)l oL^İİJ ,c-j*J^->- cfiijuil 
•c^jlpv (Jj-^îJ-» 4^jlJL^Cj 3t— J* * (C*J^I >^^.^ jj5 jI ^ 

♦ jjL>./^ljbl ^^^-jJüiVjS^İJîpI > > »jJijil jcS'C ^^^ Ji#î > • 

NYo 4U>.^ Translation 125. 

1. The education of children is a very important 
matter. 2. I adorned my room with the pictures of 
my friends. 3. We are all invited to be the children 
of God. 4. He was not progressing but retrogressing. 
5. I have no complaint against him. 6. Many of the 
people of China have become Christians. 7. Two more 
pages were added to our lesson. 8. Be patient to all 
complaints of the enemy. 9. I gave him possession of 
the house and he possessed it. 10. I punished the boy 
with great sorrow. 11. The pupil had no ability to 
solve the question. 12. Nasr^ddin Effândi was teaching 
and the children were learning. 13. The birds are 
flying in the air. 14. I have no money to help you with. 
15. I am very sorry to have kept you waiting so long. 

aI|^ Conversation. 
<i^\ E J vibe. Aİ1-İ Esile. 


. p^\ pTu Sui^i (.jjii oj\ ? ^ j^jJT pJL; j^JLi^ ^^ 

Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 22 

338 «uA a-j3 Lesson 48. rrA 

Beading Exercise. 

jh-,j3 Friendship. 

JaJ5 ' 'jJut^J »alj 'o-üJ-C -i. û^jî dllUa c^ji JâU 

• jjjıl *^-^ (S^J"^ o-UjUj (3JJj- J J-J^* iSiJ'^'^ ' -^-^**'İ 

TTords. 1. khazinS treasure. 2. qîy metli precious. 8. nadir 
rare. 4. ahbah friends. 5. niqadar . . . olqadar the more . . • the 
more ... 6. pay dar firm, enduring. 7. fazll virtuous. 8 Uüiyit 
comfort (§ 616). 9. taqlil^ tdkhfif to diminish, to lighten. 10. üz- 
yeed to increase. 11. aqval words; 9n6â/i'/iour remarkable, famouff. 
12. shourout conditions; isasi fundamental. 13. hûsn good; Uv^juk 
sympathy. 14 k^mal perfection; imniyit fidelity. 15. Ichoidowi 
sincerity = a sincere heart. 16. sadaqat faithfulness. 17. keen 
time, hajet want = in case of necessity. 18. fida-ktarliq self-denial. 

a11>^^ oX^ /l>\^ (f^ Gonyersation» 

rr\ The Derivative Triliteral Infinitives. 339 

. > 

^xl^ <i- irv 6-J^*^ •' ^^\ J^^ ?j-4* »J^'lf- 2^jV\ uJi ^^^ >* 

Words. 1. hakee'mi mûmayiUyh the above mentioned 
philosopher, he. 2. el-an now, at present. 

^"^ u^t> Lesson 49. 

The Derivative Triliteral Infinitives. (Continued.) 

A-3 A» V* C^^-* ^XhOa 

> . 

VI. JpUj = JÎUİ tefaqoul. 
§ 624. Reciprocal verbal nouns are also formed 

by putting Cj (te-) before the root and an elif (-a-) 

after its first radical: 

CjLsc-ttf sahabet protection: V^^-scıtfî ^^^UsJf^sa7ioM& to protect. 

• • • 


340 •u^ ltJ^ Lesson 49. rn.» 

»JaJ qat to cut: V *Ja5 ! *İLU tSqatou' to cut each other. 

^j-«i qou^oud to rest: Vaoî aj-iİJ tiqa^ond being pensioned. 

§ 625. If J or ^^ be found at the end of the root, 

it is changed into ^ and the ebtre also into esre: 

«.Lkc ^aia giving: V j^ia-c- i J^l«j <^'a<i delivering over to one 

/^^ ^ , another, to interchange. 

J3 rcZt tobe behind :VUj i JljJ Uvali succession. 

iljS derk to attain: VlljS î .İİjİJlT Udarik to procure; prepare. 

\W AZ Exercise 126. 

Change the following words into the sixth measure: 

* > . a. ' " , o , , A* ''" ^ , v.* ^ 

• -^ . •» • «^ 

1 .. .' < 2 I ." < 3 .1- < 4 ^ " " < 5 ,; t 6 . . t 7 . :«. 

Words. 1. aid, help (mutual help). 2. generation (genitary). 
3. a servant (a becoming consecutive). 4. collision (collision, shock). 
5. distance (to be distant). 6. to change, transform (metempsychosis, 
tranismigration of soul). 7. to destroy, violate (contradiction). 

VII. Jliij'l =JC;il infiqpLl. 

§ 626. This measure is formed by prefixing ol (i^-) 

to the root and inserting an I (-a-) after the second radical. 
It is necessarily Intransitive or Passive in signification: 

)JaJ qaV to cut: V»Ja^ i «.Ua-iJ\^ inqîta* to be cut, 
^ ^ C - " interrupted. 

fvj» ^a772772 to add: V r«^ J> 'aL^.;\ inzimam to be 
^ ,1 * ^ " added, addition. 

p.. »■ >>3 gwm^t portion, part: V p— J i A^ \\\ ingîsam to be se- 

parated, separation. 

NYV >^U Exercise 127. 

Change the following Primitive Infinitives into the 
seventh measure of Derivative Triliteral Infinitives: 

J^ ^İ5 J^ ^^ ^^ ^^ J>. j^ v^X^ 

9 ° *- t lo'-" t 11 ';;■ I 12'^ ^ .;; t i3* c^'' * u* - * ^1' 

r^l The Derivative Triliteral Infinitives. 341 

Words. 1. change (changing, revolution). 2. binding (to be 
obedient). 3. to expel. 4. to grasp, hold (constipation). 5. a pouring 
(a stream's flowing). 6. solution (to be untied). 7. to break (to 
be broken). 8. attraction (to be attracted). 9. gladness (to be 
cheerful). 10. to tie (to be gathered). 11. to pull down (demolition). 
12. defeat (to be crushed). 13. reflection. 14. restricting. 

Vm. J\iil = J\2Îl iftiqal. 

§ 627. This measure is formed by prefixing an 

1 (Î-) to the first radical, and by inserting Zj (-<i-) after 

the first, and I (-a-) after the second radical. It is 
necessarily Intransitive or Passive in signification: 

fL^ jenV to collect: V».*- i ^^--?"l ^J^^'wac. to be gathered, 
^' ,S=L_ ^ " * ^ ^ collection. 

J>cJ fakhr pride: v^^ • J^^i, iftikhar to be proud of, 

" ' to boast. 

§ 628. According to the laws of euphony some 
changes take place when the O is inserted. 

a. If the first radical be i^ ' ^ ' 'a the letter O 
is changed into i^. 

b. If the first radical be j or 3, the additional Zj 
is changed into 3. 

c. If the first radical be I or j, it is changed into Cj'- 

jyo sahr patience: V ,,n.^ i (jL^\ =) j \- ^ n^\^ iştihar. 

v^^J» zarb a blow: v .^^^* (^l^^i = ) ^1^^^^ iztirab 

> > ^izh-T ' -^ - ^anxiety. 

c.jJd» toulou' to appear: Vjtl'« i ( ç^^LıLl =) ç^>l 1»\^ ittilac,, 

c^i^j zahmÜ trouble: V ^a. j î ( f UJ ji =) ^L>-ij\ izdiham 

xITT: ' - - ^ acrowd. 

(ijci daü'a a law suit: V^ci t (jLiJ^i^ =) «.U^l^ tdrfi'ato 

^ a/^^T^ ." -. - maintain. 

A^^S zakhire provision: V^^i i (jUjM =) jL^^i iddikhar 

to store up. 

Ji-l akhz taking: Vli^l i ( iUaJ\\ = ) iUcJl ittikhaz 

to take, to adopt.. 

jL.Jcw3 vahdet unity: V Jl^-j * ( ^Uy ji^ =) ^UcJi^ ittihad 


342 ^u^ ^j^j^ Lesson 49. rx!f 

N Y A ^JUT Exercise 128. 
Change the following Primitives into Derivatives: 

V 'M 1 I ;' t 2 f . I 3 i." < < ' t 5 f. ." t 6 . 5»' t 7^ ;. « 8* "•/. * 
Jo-y Jajj JU>. jZ^ 3 J /%Ja-» JLap C-Jse^ *>-J3 

TFbrds. 1. to fasten, bind (connexion). 2. choice (to choose, 
prefer). 3. to scatter, to publish (to be spread). 4. to refuse 
(apostacy). 5. order (regularity). 6. to bind, tie (creed). 7. trouble 
(trial, examination). 8. wife (marriage). 9. many, much (growth). 
10. to suit, agree (concord, alliance). 11. a root (to be united). 
12. travelling (to travel; to die). 13. disorder. 14. honour. 15. need. 

IX. J^l = J> ifqual. 

§ 629. This measure of Derivative Infinitives is 
used to express a colour or quality, as the adjective 

Jul efqal (§ 608). It is made from this form of adjective 

by doubling the last radical and inserting an BAf be- 
tween them. 

• ^ • ^ 

\ ahmer red: jl ,-^^1 ilimirar to become intensely red. 
^y^\ ^svM black: i\3^-\ isvidad » » » black. 

w»Jo^ \ ahdeh humpbacked: s^l Jo^\^ ihdihab to be hump-backed. 

X. Juil^l = jGiLw[ istif qal. 

§ 630. By putting the syllable z^^\ {isti-) before 

the root and an I (-a-) after the second radical, a verbal 

noun is constructed which expresses asking for or 
demanding something designated by the primitive word : 

^; noutq^ speaking: V jJaJ î jUaJJL-l^ istintaç interrogating. 
sZ^J^j rahmet mercy: vl^j i ^Ur^Â^lf^firTir^masking for mercy. 

§ 631. If the first radical be I or j, it changes into 
iS ('2/")î ^^^ if the second radical be j, it changes into 
^'l(-e '&t -at) at the end of the word (§§ 620—621): 

T'^.r The Derivative Triliteral Infinitives. 343 

o^l^ İ2n permission: Vö^^- (û^^j-^— 1 = ) O^-V^l istiyzan 

to ask for permission. 

» iLi^ iyfa to pay: ¥"^3 • ( iS î^j-^^— t = ) * ^V— I isHyfa 

"^ to receive. 

to take rest. 

Vj-j^ , . , ^ ^ , lo receive 

i-j3 • ( rlj j5— t = ) c^\Câ— \^ istirahat 

r-j^j vuzouh plain : V tc-.^ j i ( r- Uij J— 1^ "^ ^ T ^^"*-^l istiyzah' 

^wiw-'-^L,-'' "to explain. 

^Y^ JuT Exercise 129. 
Change the following words into the tenth form: 

p^ «-»jT' ^^ f: f'-^^ ^T^'^r î^->j>- c5->r-* 

1. understanding (to ask, interrogation). 2. hire, rent (to 
rent). 3. to return, refuse (to ask, to be restored). 4. knowledge 
(asking for knowledge). 5. continuation (perseverance). 6. answer 
(to question). 7. going out (to extract, to quote). 8. council. 

CjULL^ Muta-la-at Remarks. 

§ 632. It must be borne in mind that all Arabic 
roots of three letters cannot assume all the nine forms 
given above. Many have only a few of them: for 

instance JIp '^7m 'knowledge' can form the measures 

<»!>U'l * ^litj ' ^Jo * |*5tl:Jl ' j»5tpl ; but not such as ^dll* ' 

S^* ffAtü Exercise 130. 
Words. 1. mad'de case. 2. igjrar ^t." to confess. (VI. of qarar.) 

344 •u^ ltJ^ Lesson 49. riX 

^} ^yûİA ! aJCİ! >i. — ? ^ j^J^} J^e-I-.! ^^J-iiU- Jjl "^ 

3, ijar hedeli rent. 4. original. 5. to compare. 6. per- 
mission, pardon. 7. ability. 8. shrewdness. 9. endeavour. 

\t\ AZ-j Translation 131. 

1. He quoted^ many passages^ from the Old Testament. 

2. Did any injury happen through the collision of the 
two steamers? — Yes, Sir, one of those two steamers 
sank in five minutes. 3. Is the war ended? — No, 
Sir, there is only an armistice* of two months. 4. 1 have 
the honour to present to you my brother-in-law Tahir 
B^y. 5. The Alevi Mohamedans and the Y6zidees believe 
in transmigration of soul. 6. The treaty* was written, 
signed and interchanged^ between those two powers. 
7. Although there were five witnesses, yet there was 
contradiction in their testimony. 

Words. 1. istikhraj, iyrad etmik. 2. ayetler, ayat\ JcirimL 

3. mütareke. 4. mou-a-hidi. 5. ta-a-ti^ mübadili it." 

a11>^ Gonyersation. 

iUj\ c-^ 3tJ» ^Jt ' ^-^^ ^ J^^jri-4^ ^^^" Jjçdi ft 

I^Ui::;! iJ^iji oJu:l<1 t5-u^ I ^x.»\ ? jjJU t^JuJ. JU ^Xc^ 

• f-^J r^J-" ^J H^ V^ ? J^^^J ^-^^31 JJ»^ 41^ /^ 

r^uo The Derivative Triliteral Infinitives. 345 

• (i-x^i JJJ^ ^^^^ o-J^^ ?J^ ^^ (j?r^ 

j^l i ^ij Beading Exercise. 

4JL:U^,\İ1 True Nobility. 

MM * • 

fJj;ji0.^tT oUi» ' cyJ>^3^ ^6r^ ilj^J 'c5':>^ fJj^ 

M M • M* •• •• 

oVjl "j^;Ç '«'^jt Vj; ' '>,^ 'oajjLL.! jOl> 
^ » " ^» \.y" •• , 

TFords. 1. mad'dee^maniveey a dec physical ; moral; ordinary, 
inferior (§ 579). 2. mahasal total, all (the world). 3. as-habt 
nejdbit the possessors of nobility = nobles. 4. nesl ancesters. 
5. mebdayî khilqat beginning of creation. 6. iysal it." to carry, 
to cause, to reach. 7. rivayat tradition, folk-lore; esateer mythology. 
8. qat'i nazar leave it out of consideration, except. 9. bizjd among 
us i. e. Ottomans. 10. tarikhin historically. 11. sabit fixed, proved. 
12. vaqayi events. 13. tatvil prolixity. 14. devleti Saffariye the 
Saffari dynasty of Khorasan. 15. teshkil edin the founder. 16. hay- 
doud a brigand. 17. devliti Ghaznivi the Ghazn^vide dynasty of 
Persia. 18. devleti Seljouqiyi the dynasty of the Seljuqs (in Central 
Asia and in Asia Minor). 19. azamSt grandeur; ijlal magnificence. 
20. alemi siyaset the world of diplomacy. 21. madoud enumerated. 
22. asheerit a nomadic tribe, clan, qoja chtef. 

346 •♦ ^J'Ji Lesson 50. fO 

**db;Lii iw ' :-^i ^<^ *xij, dbUs ji ! "j>.u 4i 

-O-^'ji öVjl ^fr>-l-* (j'jj^ ^ij^ J. •i*-J^S' OilaL. 

23. n^ /lajV^' what need is there? 24. insaniySt humanity 
(§ 581). 25. va^i vast. 26. r^yis chief of a clan. 27. Jb^^ 
abundance; futouhat victories (pi. of fûtûh). 28. misi equal. 
"29. TimûrUng Tamerlane. 30. Jengiz; vUsl children, progeny. 
31. Atahegi^ 32. Eyovbiye, 33. Memalike the dynasties of Atab^, 
Eyyoubi and Memlooks in Persia and Egypt. 34. hdha yiyit a young 
tnan of full growth and strength. 35. eseer slave. 36. ma'rouf 
remarkable. 37. khanidan race, line ; J^nd^r^li Qara Halil. 88. See 
the first word. 39. f. softa student of Canon Law (Gr. oo<ptotY|ç). 
40. cMftjizadi the son of a farmer. 

^* u^t> Lesson 50. 

The Participles of Derivative infinitives. 

§ 633. We have seen how the Subjective aod 
Objective Participles are formed from the Primitive or 
Simple forms of the Infinitive (§§ 601, 604). We shall 
now consider the formation of both these Participles in 
the above mentioned nine Derivative Infinitives. 

§ 634. There are four rules which govern the 
formation of all these Participles of the nine Derivative 

a. The Participles of the verbs of the measure 
UoaT tefqeel are formed in the following manner: The 

r\y The Participles of Derivative Infinitives. 347 

servile letters Cj (S are dropped; a mim with eotre 

(^ mû-, niou') is prefixed to the remainder of the 

word: the second radical must be doubled by Si shedde 
("), and the last syllable must have an esre; this forms 
the Subjective Participle. 

To find the Objective Participle change the esre 
into nstun. (Vide No. 11 in the Table.) 

b. The Participles of the derivatives of the measure 

^JSll* mtifaqale are made as follows: Omit the last he 

(-e) and put an esre on the last syllable; this forms the 
Subjective Participle. 

Change the esre to nstun and you will obtain the 
Objective Participle. (Vide No. Ill in the Table.) 

c. The Participles of the remaining two measures 

beginning with O (te-), are made in the following way. 

Prefix a mim with edtre at the beginning and put an 
esre on the last syllable; this is the Subjective Participle. 
To find the Objective Participle change the last esre 
into tistun. (Vide Nos. V and VI in the Table.) 

d. In those Infinitives which have an elif in the 
first and last syllables, the elifs must be dropped, a 
mim with edtre must be prefixed to the remainder of 
the word and the last syllable must have an esre. This 
ibrms the Subjective Participle of these derivatives. To 
form the Objective Participle change that esre into 
tisttm, (Vide Nos. IV, VII— X in the Table.) 

§ 635. The Participles of the Quadriliterals are 
made simply by adding a mim with edtre to the beginning 
and punctuating the last syllable with esre: this forms 
the Subjective Participle. Change that esre to usttin^ 
vou obtain the Objective Participle. ( Vide No. Q in the 

Note. Notice that 3fbif- initial is the sign of the measure 
MiifaqaU (§ 618) and the Participles of Der. Inf.; while MS-, Mi- 
ls the sign of N. with mim and Mefoul (§§ 597, 604). 

\rX Ai Exercise 182. 

Form the Subjective and Objective Participles of 

the following words at the beginning of p. 350: 


9* u^j^ Lesson 50. 



1 ! 

' No. 



i 1 

, Voice 

1 1 









The 23 mea- 
sures in the 
pp. 314—315.1 

1 1 





! i 



to create 



\ II. 




i ; 

1 I ** ~ ' 

•-^^^ '1 Transitive 
Ufqeel 1 



• • 


to bind 









Reciprocal ! 





to fight 


n ' 



1 V. 






• I 








to be 
changed I 


I VI. 





to exceed ; 



; 1 

1 Transitive i 
ifqal 1 



to send 




! 1 

! iHfiqal 



Reciprocal li ^uJLîi 


to be 

d . 


li VIII. j 

!İ 1 
il 1 


jiüi 'i ; 

i 1 » ; 
i iftiqal 

. 1 1 



! iktisdb 



to earn, 



' IX. 


ifqilal 1 






to become 





li 1 

II Desire 
fstifqal 1 



to inter- i 
rogate j 







;■ ... 1 

1 1 

\ terjhni 



The Participles of Derivative Infinitives. 




Subjective Participle 



Objective Participle 


1 jj>^ 

1 Ichaliq 


3^'ho creates, 


a X 

1 wakhlouq 



. - > 



who binds, 

c > 






^ > 







in war. 






• > 










an envoy, 



1 a X ^ • > 

• • 


1 milngas^m 




• • 

who earns. 









i nıûterjim 





350 D* ;^ji Lesson ÖO. rt» 

13 -ı t '.M ı t H .T t 15 -'-t 16 .'ı - t 17 ti ^'^ 'ı * 18.^ .V t 
e^\Ja.l-l -tj^ ^-•-Jj' /«-^'J* JLaaû— i cj-jj* 

25* '• ' 1 26. r"/ t 27' r* ' t . 1^ t , --- t ;"'- 
jAj>- u'y^ J^*-^ o^jl *J^-«-* (3^ • 

TFbrds. 1. to pension off (pensioned off). 2. to oppoee 
(o])po8İug, contrary). 3. to stop work, a vacation. 4. to arm 
(armed). 5. to become high. 6. sojourn (gnest). 7. honour 
(honorable). 8. to quarrel (quarreling; disputed). 9. to speak 
(speaker, first person). 10. possession (possessor; governor). 
11. to multiply (numerous). 12. to search, examine (inspector). 
13. to question (a prisoner). 14. to write (writer; written). 15. to 
arrange, to compose (compositor). 16. humility (humble). 17. to 
hasten (pressing, important). 18. to ornament. 19. to correct 
(proof-reader). 20. to teach (teacher). 21. to finish (complete, 
perfect). 22. geometry (engineer). 23. anxiety (naturally suspicious). 
24. magnificence (pompous). 25. a jewel, a pearl (set with pearls). 
26. superscription (superscribed). 27. polish (polished). 

\^^ Jul Exercise 188. 

. • ♦ *^.» ^ •• 

! (.JLjii Ojl — ? J.Cİ ^ J U^ jb^JjL>:P • jJlljil cJUIjİ 

TToffîs. 1. mud' dit the length (of time). 2. bod^Aoti after- 
wards. 3. to procure, to find. 4. mudaqqiq (Sub. Part of Mqiq). 

ro » The Participles of Derivative Infinitives. 351 

• cS-J^,l jjL-Jjl J^lj b^fj^} A--,3Ujl jilli^ £JjlOj> 

- > , ^ 

— ? ^xS iS^fzA dl 1:5 J) A •^jJji jiplSu -lLi 1 jLljcf J-j^ 3j-^> 

>t'i ^J Translation 184. 

1 . Who are your guests? — Mr. Gulian the Armenian 
teacher of the College, and Dr. Nahad the translator of 
'Hamlet'. 2. Who is the author of that remarkable 
dictionary^? — It is the Rev. M. Aucher. 3. Have the 
inspectors come whom the governor wished to send? 

4. Though they have come, yet, having a very pressing* 
engagement^, they have not been able to do anything. 

5. Who bound the book you have in your hand? — 
Mr. Arshag, who is a very* skilful binder. 6. Are you 
able to speak good TuAish? — Yes, I have attained^ 
the abiUty^ to do so through your kindness''. 7. What 
kind of a work^ is the book which the engineer has 
written? — It is translated from the Armenian: it is 
an excellent (complete) work, illustrated^ with numerous 
pictures. 8. Are the compositors, who are setting up^^ 
this book in Mr. Groos' printing-house, Armenians? — 
No, Sir, all the compositors at Mr. Groos' are Germans. 

1. loughSt kitabî. 2. mûstajil. 3. maslahat. 4. mahir ^ oustad. 
5. k^sb et," 6. iqtidar. 7. sayeyi alifiizdS. 8. eser. 9. mûz^yyiny 
mousavver (from tSzyin^ tasveer). 10. tertib 4t.'\ dizmek. 

aI |5C« Conversation. 
^ .^\ BJvibe. AİL-1 JEsUS. 

S52 o« crji Lesson 50. rtf 

i «^-.öîjijjjl JâU jj4)j\<J355^\ p^^j w^.^^ J\J^ JjLSj» 

■v^iI-L* j c ,*.,,«.4 <L\j ;jLJ ? ^:i<jj^jl j.]^-»*aj <* >^c\ 0"J^^-J »^Lii 

vJl^l i ^J Reading Exercise. 

*obl Jl^ Administrative Gouneils. 

Hi'or<is. * Mejalisi idare (pl. of mejlis). 1. a^ra members (pl. 
of ot/^v); fa&i//i//^ natural (§§580, 656); mûntakhah chosen, elected 
(fayil of intİkhab) 2. mûrek'lceb composed (fayil of Urîceeb). 8. hdhim 
judge, a qadi (fayil of Mıkm); nayih a judge-substitute (foyii of 
myahet). 4. mûfti the officer who answers questions in the Canon 
Law of Islam (fayil of iftd). 5. defterdar, mouhasSbi^j tnal mûdiri 
the controllers of revenue and expenditure in Vilayet, Liva and 
Qaza. 6. mektouhjou, tahrirat mûdiri^ tahrirat kİSttİbi the Chief 
Secretaries in Vilayet, Liva and Qaza. 7. mûslim Moslem (fayil 
of isJaM\ glıayri-mûslim non-Moslem (§ 695 ^% 8. rauİ8 8a heads, 
-chiefs (pl. of riyis), 9. roiihanee spiritual (§ 580 g). 

ror Broken or Irregular Plurals. 853 

10. i6are< composed. 11. nis/'half. 12. iw^ifcfcafe cf." to choose ; 
election (VIII. of nûkhhS), 13. ayid belonging (fayil of avdit). 

Note. Consult the Reading Exercise, page 126. 

^ ^ u^t> Lesson 51. 

^jC^ njt- Broken or irregular Plurals. 

§ 636. The Regular or Sound Plurals are made 
(as we have seen) by the addition of 0^ -een (m.) or 

VİJİ -af (f.) to the Singular, without any change in the 

structure of the words. But in the case of Irregular 
or Broken Plurals {Jem i Mûkesser) the structure or the 
form of the Singular is broken, as has been stated in 
a previous lesson (§ 571). 

It is impossible to give all the measures of Broken 
plurals here, because they are very numerous. But 
those which are in common use in Ottoman, may be 
formed into the following groups. 

§ 637. Nouns of the measures J3 • aIS • Jl3 form 
their plural as follows: 

§ 638. S. ji faql: Plural = Jyi' fotiq(ml: as: 

ci^ ?iar/* letter: cij^ hourouft jo. hadd \ ^J^»- boundary: 

.ijj^ houdoud' o^--j bSyt house: Oj-j buyout i JuLî naqd cash: 

>> «V > " • ^ > 

.>jJlJ nouqotid. ^J>^ a right = ^JJJ^>^ - ^^ a condition = -faj^ • 

Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 23 

854 Qt wji Lesson &1. fVt, 

§ 639. S. a. fi faql '. b. 'Ja faqal '. c. JS /*g/! 
d. JS fouql: PI. = jĞil ^ga/; as: 

a. c-Jj «€»3* time: olSji ^at i jji divr * ^^^-.^c '«Mr 
century: j\3 i PjUac-i Sdvar * '«war i Jx-i «/»^X;Z shape: JliCil 
^s?»-fc€an ojJ colour : o\j^\ î ^ : ^y\ i JU (0}^) : J»j-'|. 

b. .w «^^& reason: u-jL^I ^fîbah \ j^»- Jchab&r news: 

• • • • • 

jU^I akhbari jJj vHSd son: ^Vj\ ivlad^- ^Ji» number: 3İJ»ı« 

c. ^.il^ sînfy sînîf class: «JU^l Ssnafi JÎ^ t^ child: 
Jlii»! ^^/aZ', ai'faV. jJu poem : jU-il i ^^sLi : jlxij opinion. 

d. vlAU m^ZA; property: i}>L»\ ^mZaA; i pi^^ ^ÛX:m decision: 
aLxjw 1 ahktcLm^ jL^ : J>U-1 moral \ y^ ouzv : »Uı»! a'ga. 

§ 640. S. '4IÎİ fouqle, fouqUt: PI. = jâ fotiqtu: as: 
J 91^8^:^ copy: p ...J nûsaA;7i • xijjy^ «ot^^t manner, way; 

.^ • > 

picture : jj^ souvir i ^ qouVlS tower: Jij ^ot^Z^ i aL»j». : J-»*. . 

§ 641. S. 'c^'^zXifiqUt: PI. = 'Jiftqai: as: 
«J niymSi favour: |W»J Mİyom - siJU miVlH nation: 

»— *.i» 


jL «li^Zî *^^ 'ihr€t example: J\s^ 'ibSr' »xL h&dS : S^ 

§ 642. S. Jlli feqal and jLîi /îfgoî: PL = Vfel 
Sfqile: as: 

^ J zSman time : -C* j 1 ^;a:9nin^ times î u-»lj>. jivdb answer: 
ojJl ^İüift^ ; J.Uİ ta-'am food: a1-«°1»'\ ^^'ftn^i au**Aİ£.U 

§ 643. The plural of the Subjective Participles of 
the Primitive Triliteral Infinitives are formed on the 

following models; as: a. J5ly * b. Jui * c. aLjS * d. İÜ5 
fgvaqil, fouqqod, feqala, foiiqaia: 

a. Ja^Ul sahil sea-coast: PI. — J».!^- a^a^il sea-shores î jmU 

Jcewii' mosque: ^\y>. jivamiV \ v^U Janf& side: •— î\>»* jiva/nıİh, 

b. J^L" tojtr merchant: PL = jUu^/^ar i lU Aalbtm Judge: 
a1^ ^o«*fc'A:^mî ^U. Tkx^ir present: jC^hauezttr. 

roD Broken or Irregular Plurals. 355 

c, iw^lS^ htatib clerk: PI. = <^S^1câtSbS clerks î iwlJ tdbiç' 
follower, servant: Am^tSbac-a subjects' ^j\j varis heir: ijjvSrSsS, 

d. J51p *aqil wise : PI. = >Ufr 'auqala wisemen î iU 'a2tm * 
J^ld /a<2rtZ learned i lc^ * >L,ii oulSma, fouzala doctors of Canon 
Law i ^li shayir poet: 1^^ s^oı*«.araî JaU. = >Lj>. îtJI^ = UJL^» . 

The Subj. Participles which end in ^ -i, form their 
plurals as follows: 

S. J\j vaZ» governor: PI. = «Vj c^Zat î ^^^15 gadi judge: 

l\^ qoudat i (ijb historian = l\jj i ,^Ip a rebel ~ SUa* • 

§ 644. The plurals of the nouns derived from the 

Subjective Participle by the addition of e or Î ' JL» (-6, 

-et) [§ 582], are formed according to the first measure 
fevaqil: as: 

a. <*jV îazîmS necessity: PI. = fjlj-l Z^va-e^em necessities i 
O juli fayidS benefit = jJij-i fSvayid i ».ub qayidS a rule = 
-u.\^^ qavayid î c^Jj^lc. ^atîfit kindness = ^jâLl^ ^avatîf, 

b. «^U mad'de subject = 31^ w^vadd' i <— U- ?ias's6 sense 
= ur-lj=^ havass î <^U. IchassS peculiarity = u^\^^ khavass', 

§ 645. The plural of the Adjective of Quality (§ 606, 

model J-S) is formed on the model of a. >Ci * b. JCi ' 

c. MSI fouqdla, fiqal, Sfqila: 

^ ^ > 

a. ^rviJ /(Ogir poor: PI. = \ JLi fouqara the poor Î ^jj 

"'■ "-» 

v^-srir a minister of state = \jj j vûzSra viziers, viceroys Î ^». 

- ^ ^ .- r> ^" 

/if^fce^m sage, philosopher = U-Xj»- houkSma i ^j = Uij. 

b. ^H-i^ A;^6ir great = j>\^ kibar grandees î ^^^kSrim 
noble = M^p kiram Î ^(Oti fSkhim illustrious = aUcİ fikham, 

c. «w^^ gartft relative = û^i \ aqriba .* .w-i^ habib friend 

^ ^ " , " " ^ • " \ '/ - " ^ 

= L-a- 1 ahîb'ba ! ^-ü» ^«6/5 physician = LL\ atîb'ba î .-J n^&ee 

prophet i LJ \ 6nbiya\ JjJ^^ = vdji-^i ! îJ: = LîLil . 


356 0$ cr-j^ Lesson 51. Tit 

§ 646. The plural of the nouns formed from Adjectives 
of Quality by the addition of © or Î * C» (-^, -^, -«*) 

[§ 582] is made on the model JS l^ fiqq/yil; as: 

»^J^ j^ziri island = J*\j:- jâzayir islands î ^üUâj vagifS 
duty = w^lisj vSzayif ! vi,.Pe^ nasito^ advice = joUiI nSsapih' i 
iCJu- sâfinS ship = ^^LU- sSfayin i -ûjj^ khazinS treasure = ^2^Lr 

§ 647. The most important classes of nouns that 
form their plurals regularly are the Derivative Triliteral 
Infinitives and the Participles formed from those In- 
finitives. All these measures and their Participles take 

the plural in ÛL '^^ri (m.) and Cj\ -at (f.) [§§ 573—78]. 

The General Measure. 

§ 648. All original QuadriUterals and most words 
in which the Triliteral root is increased by one or more 
letters^, form their broken plurals on one and the same 
model, and this consisting of three syllables. The 
first of these syllables has an ûstûn^ the second takes 
an elif and the third has an esre for its vowel sound 

( —\ — = -e -a -İ-). If there is an elif or vav in 

the last syllable, it is changed into ye (S -a -ee); as: 

Singular ^Jl4 Mûfred' Plural jc?- Jem 

szJ>S^ memleket country: vHJt*^ mStMilik \ ^ 

^i^d^«« maWifet knowledge: uijU« mâ* arif / S'^ 

w-i^ mekteb school: i^^KC* mikiaiib j »g 

^J^ mektoob letter: •^jul^ ^^^*^^^ 1 Object. 

j^J* mizmoor psalm: ^^J* mSzameerl ^•^c* 

^Icii^. miftah key: 7V^ mSfateeh' N.ofLoc 

^jJ fSdheer plan: >^}^ tSdaheer 1 The 

"' ^ > measure 

9XJJU tareekh date; history: f^t^^^ tSvareeWl Uf-qeel. 

• ''^ 
y^\ csghir lesser: J^^\ âsaghir N. of Superiority. 

i i. e. the Nouns with Mim (§§ 597—99), the Primitive Obj. 


Broken or Irregular Plurals. 


Lnl>>^ sSlateen 
j^lça^ jemaheer 
^15\ Sqaneem 

The meafinre 

p>.\^ tSrajim 


08 C 

»_j^ /jar/* letter: 
i>.> deyn debt: 
p.-\ İ5wı name: 
p.-j r^sw a due: 

(jlLL soultan Sultan: 
jjff^ jumhoor republic: 
AjJl uqnum a person (of Trinity): 
oj'i^ qanoun law: 
^^-^ osA^er soldier: 
^^^^ terjeme translation: 

sIjUIL* Muta-la^at Remarks. 

§ 649. There are some nomis which form double 
plurals, these have often different meanings; the prin- 
cipal are: 

<Jj^ hour oof : oldj^ houroofat. 

(jji^ douyoon: "^^X^ douyoonat, 

t'\c^\ dsma names: ^Ll ^sami a list. 
fj-J rousoom manners, custom: 
oU^^j rousoowat tolls, dues: p— \^* merasim ceremonies. 
.Z.U heyt verse; house: o^ huyoot houses; oLjl ebyat verses. 
-kJ^ sheykh chief: rjT' shuyoukh old men. 

pjUt meshayikh chiefs. 
^-.aIj rahib a Christ, monk: o^J rowVoan: û^ıUj rehabeen', 

§ 650. Other Arabic nouns which form their plurals 
irregularly occur in Ottoman. The chief of these are: 

ol^'i ûm'mihat mothers. 

;^li nas human beings. 
\^ qoura villages. 
o\^j^ soîiâan negroes; the Soudan. 

^ \ alih^ deities. 

JU\ ehali inhabitants. 
<^ljl aramine Armenians. 
^L^ mesayi labours. 


\ umm mother : 

(jLJ\ insan man (homo): 
aj^ qaryS village: 
3j-\ esved black: 

Aİ1 ilaK god: 
JaI ehl people: 
^^J\ ermeni Armenian: 
ju- say labour: 

Participle (§ 604), the Noun of Superiority (§ 609), the measures 
tSfqedy fotfqlan, etc. 

858 ol cr-ji Lesson 51. rtA 

§ 651. There are some very common Arabic 
plurals which are used in Ottoman as singular nouns and 
take a Turkish as well as an Arabic plural terminatioD 
(§ 512); as: 
JjUjL. malûmatlar knowledge. J^\jij»e^ tahriratlar writings. 

JLlltJ fiyatlar prices. J\^\ azalar members. 

JLrlcyj vouqou* atlar events. J^Vji Madlar children. 

JLJU\ ehaliUr inhabitants. Jj^cJ tvQJarlar merchants. 

JaJL^- ameUUr labourers. J^\ SsJi yalar fornitures. 

JjLi diyarlar countries. JliL^l esnaflar handicrafts. 

§ 652. There are some Persian or Turkish nouns, 
which have assumed Arabic plural terminations. These 
are mere barbarisms or solecisms (§ 507): 

t. olx 1:â.-w chiftlikiat (Imperial) farms; (as ojt^ *i-»ixJbju».) . 
t. ^JJ^ gelish coming: oliJö gelishat talent, success, 

p. oj^- sebzS vegetable: oljjv- sShzevat vulg. garzavat, 
p. ©v^ khurdS small: vI^Ija/" khourdavat small ware. 

p. o^ji firman firman: ^^^ fSrameen edicts. 

t. jLi^jS^ gidish going: olij-Xf gidishat conduct. 

\tO j^JLiJ Exercise 185. 

State the measure, the number and the meaning of 
the following words: 

t ft 

f*'D^ Broken or Irregular Plurals. 359 

^M,-U4 jH^J^^»-* C-'-^J^ i<^*^ (j*-?^ (j*^ ^' • âJ^^ 

• s^jJa.^ s^\jJaL!o[ K^JjJot^ «-O w? •— »j^^ ^ ^ • ^^««^ 

\ju.,aA JuL^ /^JalJa^ Atlglig ^^ * cT^y** >* ^— »v-»^ ^^ 

• JUl»1 i (orientalists) v>î JLl*w« jyLl*w« > © •ûy*« u'^ 

\ t'^ A;î-Jf Translation 186. 

Form the derivatives of the following words: 

1. The act of looking (JiJ), who looks, looked at, to 
wait (VIII), who waits, who is waited for. 2. Ignorance 

(j:^!l->.), ignorant; unknown; ignorant people. 3. The 

act of sending (cJL-j), who is sent (apostle), two apostles, 
apostles; to send (IV) î who sends! messenger. 4. To 

burn ( J7-), fire (§ 606), to be burnt (VIII), burning, burnt. 

5. To save {,j^^^)^^ to desire to save (X), saviour, saved. 

6. To write (,_,.I5^, book; clerk; written, letter; a place 
where to write, school; schools, letters, two schools, 

two letters; to correspond (IV). 7. News (>>•); to give 
news, to inform (IV), informer, informed; to communicate 

(III), correspondent. 8. Change the word dlU into fayil, 

mefoul; into noun with mim] to possess (I, X), to give 
possession (II), to take possession (V), fayil of X, and PI. 

\fV M^ Exercise 187. 

jjJjl vdJj-üÇp OJ^^^-*- {S}^yO»- {^ o^>- '^'^ vjlJULw ^ 

360 0$ (^ji Lesson 51. r^« 

IjS ûlî-^ c5T^ o^bjl • j->Sj>- *^ cllilpe^ diJl^» \ o^jb 
♦ "JJjl >b ^a:<L- 4£r j\î;'' ^\kX ' iS3j ' ^^^i5>Vy 

Words, 1. ^mZafc vergisi property tax. 2. mûtSv^j'jihSn 
toward (fayil of Uvtjjûh to turn, V. of t?^j^'). 3. ^arâfcct ^." to 
start. 4. qavayid rules (pi. of qayid£). 5. siZ^ career. 6. to enter. 

\th AJt-j Translation 188. 

1. This book contains^ 320 figures^. 2. The eastern 
boundaries^ of Turkey are Russia and Persia. 3. I have 
a gospel printed^ in very small characters. 4. The 
churches do not pay^ property taxes. 5. The English 
nation is one of the greatest nations of Europe®. 6. Are 
those physicians among your relatives? 7. They made 
a journey^ towards the islands on board the ships. 8. It 
is written in the Psalms "Lead® me to the rock that 
is higher than I". 9. Where is the list of expenses? 
— Here it is, the clothes bought from the merchants 
are inserted^ in this list with their prices. 10. The 
success of the vegetables and flowers is perfect^® this year. 

Words. 1. havi dir. 2. Sshkial (pi. of sh&cî). 3. haudood 
(pi. of hadd). 4. mathou' (m^foul of tab^-). 5. tS-S-diyi it/' (II. of 
ida). 6. Avropa. 1. seyahat. S. ihda dyU (IV . of hidayit). 9. dakhü 
(fayil of doukhoiU). 10. mûMmmil (m^foul of Ukmü). 

aI |5^ Conyersation. 

(jl«U) j^-^J^ji viL^jty Columbus' Egg. (Continned.) 

- > 

Words. 1. houz'zar pi. of hazîr (§ 643b). 2. hayrH wonder. 
3. miraçi curiosity; jSlb ou tahreek et/' to instigate and aronse. 


The Agreement of Adjectives with Nouns. 


^jKJ^ '^J^\ J^^ ! ^'szJi^t^ Aİ 
v:^*-^-^-^-^-^"^ LrO* ^-^jty, ^0^-^ 

O^y^lt Jk»» Jo jl •) (3 *J vJLl LSj w/« 1 

4. neiije. the end, conclusion (§§ 582, 646). 5. mouvaffaçi 
successful {mefoul of tev'feeq). 6. wunose&et connexion (III. of 
nisbet)\ ne-l not at all! 7. İ2;7iar to show, confess (IV. oî eouhour). 
8. ajz inability. 9. muqtidir able (VIII. of iqtidar), 10. marifit 
skill, talent (n. with mim of irfan); ilk iwil first of all, in the 
first place. 11. irayi to show (IV. of rouyet). 12. relation, 
connexion. 13. Jcdmali souhouletU with the greatest ease (§ 695, 11). 

ltO* öJ^î^^j^ ^(^ J^ 4i->^ 

^Y u^^ Lesson 52. 

The Agreement of Adjectives with Nouns. 

§ 653. The union of two Arabic nouns, or of an 
Arabic noun with an Arabic adjective (izafet) according 
to the Persian system has been already mentioned. 
The examples given (§§ 517, 565) were all masculine 
and singular, both adjectives and nouns. 

362 or o-ji I-^sson 52. mr 

§ 654. When an Arabic adjective is placed before 
a noun, in Ottoman it generally remains invariable, 
whether the nouns which it qualifies are masculine or 
feminine, singular or plural; as: 

U^ ^^ Jchayr douva a blessing: oL.^ JU dli hissiyat noble 


§ 655. But when the Arabic noun is feminine or 
plural and the adjective follows the noun, then the ad- 
jective must agree with it in number and gender. 

§ 656. Read carefully the following rules: 

1. masc. sing, nouns require the adjective to be masc. singular. 

2. fern. sing. » 





» fern, singalar. 

3. masc. dual y> 





» raasc. dual. 

4. masc. plural » 





(regular masc.ploral 
*\ or broken plaral. 

5. fern, plural » 





» fern, plural or sing. 

6. broken plural » 





^ (fern. sing, or broken 
\ plural. 

§ 657. All broken plurals, the names of letters and 
cities are regarded as feminine. 

§ 658. Jit4 MisaVler Examples. 

1. j^». (ilci douva yi hhayr a good prayer; blessing. 

^^\ j>ej bah'rî ahmSr the Red Sea. 

2. o^jJl^ ^i elxfi m^mdoudS elongated Elif (§ 29 d). 

-u-lâfr oj^ qouvvS'yi azimi great power. 

3. Cf^^y^ '^^J^ tarafeyni mSrqpumiyn those two parties. 

Ck^ la&i. Caİ^ harfey'ni mutejanisSyn two homogeneous letters. 

4. if.Jyr^ ^'=^->j* fnûvSrrikhee'ni meshhoureen' the celebrated 

^ historians. 

^l'^3 CxJj*^ mi'S-moureeni fikham illustrious officers. 

5. ^1 ^\k,a sîfa'tî ilaheeyi the Divine attributes. 

^u^ oUjILm maioumatt mûhint'mi important knowledge. 

vIjUIc o\ji zevali aliyat great personages. 

6. <4^ jyk\ oumourou mouhimme important affairs. 

^Uk. ^\s>.\ ijdadi izam venerable ancestors. 

<JU ^t\>s» miktatibi milliyi national schools. 

^'^^ The Agreement of Adjectives with Nouns. 863 

§ 659. Zj\s^^ Mutenevviyat Miscellaneous. 

<t^^vi^l ayS'ti Mrim^ the sacred verse, the golden text. 
(^jJu i>^ dini mouqad'dSs the Holy Religion. 
^ulc cJji Dei;Ze'^t-4Ziye the Sublime Government (Turkey). 
Aj oykX^ samiyounou kiram honorable hearers. 

<tjİ \1aj\ izminS'yi qadime ancient times. 
<jLIc Txjijljl UvarikKi atiqa ancient histories. 

<â^l^ <«J teba-a-yi sadtqa loyal subjects. 
<i^^ Ja-i^^ sSvahiTi bahriye marine coasts. 
J^ (iUa3\ aqsa'yi sharq the Furthest East. 

§ 660. b}y^A sl»liai& GalataU MesKhoure Barbarisms. 

e^lc Xil^^L topkhane'yi amiri Imperial Arsenal of Ordnance. 

e^lfr rcJa* matha'kht amire » Kitchen. 

«^Ic <lL^" tersani'yi amiri » Dock-yard. 

4j»j^5Tl 0^ qouvveyi eUktriqiyi electrical force. 

1^^ ciL-\ Asiyayi soughra Asia Minor. 

NV'^ AnS Exercise 139. 

TFori^. 1. wi/r/iOM??i deceased (mefoul of ra?iwe*). 2. zikret," 
to remember, to mention. 3. muh'tireq burnt (mefoul of VIII.). 
4. mûjid'diden newly (mefoul of tijdid). 5. insha to build. 
6. zımnında for. 7. ira^i^ decree, command (VI. of rivad; seneeyi 
sublime, exalted). 8. shirlf sadır which has issued in honour. 
9. qita-at parts of the world = countries (pi. of qit-a); hayid 
distant (from houd* § 606). 10. mûstimliktat colonies (pi. of fayil 
of X. of mülk); mûtiad'did numerous (fayil of te-ad-dûdy *adid V). 

364 or u^j^ Lesson 52. mi 

Aj Oy>^f^ ©JLll^ L<^-^^ -^ f^ *^^^ vIj>%iÖ aİj JuLI J 

11. rivaySt, naql et." to narrate, to recount, to tel]. 12. nieartn 
according (§ 682 b). 13. mahv ol." to disappear. 14. atfai children 
(pi. of Ufl). 15. sourdt manner; layiq suitable. 

M « A^^j Translation 140. 

1. Some of the illustrious officers of the Turkish 
government were present at the commencement^ exercises 
of the College. 2. You will find here all important* 
knowledge concerning the settlement' of the wretched 
immigrants* in South Africa^. 3. Dr. Carrington is one 
of the most eminent physicians. 4. Because of some 
important business^ he was unable*' to come here. 
5. One of the loyal subjects began* to speak ^ and said 
'Honourable hearers'. 6. I have Moses of Khorene's*® 
and Agathangelos'^^ ancient Armenian histories". 

1. Uvziyi mukiafat rismi or yh^ni maJchsous = day of prizes. 
2. vnouhimm. 3. iskian (IV. of sukun). 4. tnouhajireeni mtigh' 
doureen. 5. Afriqayi jinouhi. 6. mhalihi muhimmi adbMnyli. 
7. miiqtedir olamamaq. 8. ihtidar it." 9. kelam, 10. MosİB 
Khorini. 11. Aqatanqelos, 12. mûvSrrikheeni qadimi'yi Arammidin, 

Aİİ>>t Gonyersation. 


^'^0 The Agreement of Adjectives with Nouns. 365 

^Jj\ iSji OJ^Uie :>i-^l ^jUle^ 7jJ^j jJioti<; 'Jj» jV 

J^^IS ^^-AiJ Reading Exercise* 

Inyentions Resulting from Obserration. 

.. Î A. • ,c * 16, I. 15 - -it» •• 14* I 1 Ivl - 13. .M*^ 

^ ^ -^. ^yf:^ ^^J-)/-r.U ^^j' ^^-r. ^'r- '^ 
* jjjl ^^ <>. iCjC jUT oOo JLn) pLlU fj>)j) ' *J^^jl5jûiI 

Words and Notes. * dtYgat careful observation; mûnbayis 
caused (fayil of inhiyas)\ Mshfiyat discoveries. 1. history (II. of 

irekh). 2. ikhtiraç-at (pi.; VIII. of «.j»-). 3. louzoum necessity. 

4. real. 5. ishat et." to prove (IV. of sebt). 6. ^msal precedents, 
examples (pi. of miset). 7. havi containing (fayil). 8. eksMsi the 
majority. 9. zSkee sagacious (§ 606). 10. amİU labourers (used 
as sing. § 651). 11. ya — ya either — or — . 12. mût^f^'nin 
versed in science (fayil of tef in' nun § 622). 13. nazari diqqat 
consideration. 14. tisadûfdt," to fall under (VI. of sadef). 15. sourit 
appearance; zdhir external (fayil of zouhour). 16. viana meaning 

(n. with mim of ^); manasXz unimportant. 17. nhhatet." to come 

into existence, to originate. 18. misela for instance (§ 683). 
19. yosoun moss. 20. jism existence. 21. an time. 22. namdlûm 
unknown (§§ 530, 604). 23. toplamaq to gather (§ 276). 24. mou- 
a-yene to examine (III. of ^ayn eye). 25. tedqiq et." to scrutinize 
(II. of diq'qat). 26. hûkm it. ' to decide judicially. 

866 »r i^jj Lesson 53. rH 

-. ^-^ . I - . . I • 37 "'C * 36 I - 35 ♦ •• ^ ^t 

27. tekhayyul it'' to imagine (V. of khayal). 28. mouvaffaq 
successful {mefoul of tevfeeq), 29. manasUr monastery. 30. goub'M 
dome. 81. qandeel a lamp. 82. ai/m vaglt(2a at the very moment 
(§ 695, 18). 83. dayima continually (adverb). 34. mout'tarid 

isochronous. 85. tac^a-qeeh to follow. 86. qoyoulmaq to go on. 

87. mûtehiyyij exciteH (fayil oftdhiyyyjj V. of hSyijan), 38. hikmiii- 
tabiyiyS natural philosophy. 89. mouhimm' important (fayil of 
ihmaniy III. of himmet). 40. raq'qas pendulum (§ 611). 41. harikH 
movement; vibration. 

^^ u^i> Lesson 53. 

^j^ ^j>- The Arabic Definite Article. 

§ 661. In the Turkish and Persian languages there 
is no article either definite or indefinite; but in Arabic 
there are definite and indefinite articles (Harfi Tariff 
Tmveen) which are used in Ottoman with Arabic terms. 
The Ind. Article or Tmveen is of three kinds : -en, -<n, -aim, 
applied to the end of the words (§ 48); and they are used 

in Ottoman as adverbs. The definite article is Jl SI *the': 

,^bOl el'kitah the book, j^l Sl-het/t 'the house'. 

§ 662. The Arabic Letters are 28 in number, {^ ' 
r ' J ' S" being peculiar to Turkish and Persian): 14 of 
these are called lunar and the other 14 solar letters. 

r^y The Arabic Definite Article. 367 

§ 663. The Solar Letters (a^..J.. ^jj- Houroufou 


Shemseeye) are: vl^^İJ^ijjcrcr'u^u^-^-^Jo» 

The Lunar Letters (^ü^ J^yj- ' Houroufou Qame- 
reeye) are: ''v^^^^^^^J:iJfJ^c5- 

§ 664. When the Arabic Article is added to a 
word beginning with a solar letter, to avoid harshness 
of sound, the lam is assimilated in pronunciation to the 
following solar consonant for euphony, and a shedde (") is 

•a " 

put over the latter: jv^l es'-sahr the patience; vj^jJI 

ed'-din the reUgion; aMUI es -selam the salutation: and 
not el-sahr, el-din, el-selam; also: 

^ > Jl iS'Simt zenith: pi. Oj, ...11 is-sumout azimath. 

§ 665. But the pronunciation of the lam is retained 
when the Article is attached to a word beginning with 
a lunar letter: 

jii-1 M'haqq the right. j\L\ ihjSbr Algebra. 

Js^Jl el'kûhûl alcohol. Jill el-qali alkali. 

U^l el-himya alchemy. ^y^'^\ el-inhiq alembic. 
A^UJI d'idade alidade. J^i 6/-^Aoti2 the thief(Algol, the star). 

*l^y^\ el-hamra the Red (castle), Alhambra. 
tcJLJLI el-munaqqah almanack. 

§ 666. Almost all Arabic words properly end in 
a vowel: üstün (-S) is the sign of the Accusative, esre 
(-İ) is the sign of the Genitive, and edtre (-a) the sign 
of the Nominative; also these are left in Ottoman, yet 
they are retained in Arabic sentences used in Ottoman. 

When a word having the Article J I is preceded 

by a word, that word keeps the original final vowel 
(-6, -i, -ou); the elif of the Article is not pronounced 
but slurred over, and lam is connected with the last 
vowel of the preceding word; as: 

868 or trJ^ Lesson 53. r^x 

^\ oUj. Cidi.^ u^\j risûH hihmtti mikhafüau HJahi 
the beginning of knowledge is the fear of the Lord. 

j'^S\ Jüy^ ^JLJ\ f>^ kilamm mulouU tnûUmta'l 
kelami the words of kings are the kings of words. 

Zi\ JJ^ Jchalilau Hlahi the chosen friend of Grood (Abraham). 

Not BSsû SI hikmeti, mekhafitou ailahi, kilamû SimûhukL 

Note. The word 4İ\ is contracted from J\ Hhe', <i\ ilah god, 

*<3j JÎ = 4İ\ Allah the God. 

§ 667. When the elif of the Article is absorbed 
by the final vowel of the preceding word, the elision is 
marked by the sign si., written over the elif and called 

il^j vasU 'union'; because it unites the vowel with lam 

directly; as: fj^lll '^^i^' c.J^\ '^b '^1 JJ^- 

The Arabic izafet and Compound Adjective. 

§ 668. The Arabic Definite Article is used for the 
following purposes: 

I. To form the Arabic izafet: as when an Arabic 
noun is united with a second noun; the last letter of 
the first vowel, being Nominative, has generally StrS 
('Oil, -Û) as its vowel (while it was esre [-i] in the 
Persian system [§ 515]), and the second noun has the 

Cni-^l jy\ cmirûH mûmineen the commander of the believers. 

».•* > 

ju?eJLi Ju£. ahdü'l Mijid the servant of the Most-Glorious. 

o^\^\ ö\^ mizanû'l harara the balance of warmth, thermo- 

'.-. > 

o^U-Jl jb darû^s'saç-adet the house of prosperity, i, e. the 

^ Imperial Haıî^m. 

n. To form the Arabic Compound Adjective, formed 
of a Participle (i. e, fayil, möfoul, adj. of Quality, N. of 
Excess, [§§ 601—606]), and a Noun. The Participle 
precedes the noun and ends with edtre {-û\ while tiie 
noun has the Article. 

w— Jl J u^jVi jJ^ khaliqiVl arz 'O&ssima the creator of earth 

3 y m 9, 


and of heaven. 

p-*-lJl (3 J veleeyû^n'niam protector of benevolence, 
^r . ^% ^o> benefactor. 

Cnİ9>CJi (jlkL soultanüa sSlateen the Saltan of Sultans. 

^^^ The Arabic Definite Article. 869 

^ -^ •* > > • ' 
b V \ J^j^^ mefrouzau'l eda the performance of which 

, ^ ^.^ > ^. , is assigned, incumbent, canonical (prayer). 
^.Is v1 -A3 \ ekhirûH ik(Sbir the great one of the greats. 

^■» > • ^ ^^ 

Note. The word o^^»^ Î8 the Adj. of Quality of «tJ»>L« 

selatat domination, rule. 

ni. To unite the nouns with the preposition. The 
prepositions are voweled generally at tne end with 
üstün (-e, -a) and esre (-İ); (see more in the next section): 

^ hi' *by': o\jJl ez-zat the person: o\jJ l« bi'z-zat in person, 

Ca* hiyne between: J-U 1 el-miUl the nations: Jil i ûo hiyn&l 
milel between the nations, international. 

§ 669. 

Notes. 1. AH these examples end in Arabic with esre (-İ), 
being in the Genitive case and meaning of; as: EmiriU mumt- 
neeni, Abdul mijidi^ Darûs sea-dSli, Veliyun niyami etc. 

2. Surnames or patronymics in Arabic [kZ^ kûnyS] are 
composed with the words jt\ ebou father; A ûmm mother; ^\ * 

Oi ib^y bin, (P^- (İÎ ^^*); -^J viUd son; viJu Wnt daughter (§ 168). 
The Arabs have the custom of calling the parents by the name 
of their firstborn children; as: ^.j^\ ibou-Bikir the father of 
B^kir, the surname of the first Caliph, r^lj^i &)ûlfSraj the 
father of Faraj, Abulfaragius. ry^A ^inmu Kulsoum the mother 
of Kulsoum, Mouhammed's youngest daughter. »lL«. ^^i Ibni Sina 
the son of Sina, Avicienna. 

3. If the name of the person precedes the surname, then 
Hif is left out and ^^ bin, bin is used. jJ j velid is used for non- 

Moslems ; as : ^\Xf ^^ Jl«j)c« MouhammSd bin A bdoullaK Mouhammed 
the son of AbdouUah. L^î jJ^ ^-*-ji Yousouf viUdi Zikirya Jo- 
seph the son of Zechariah. ^\ Jj bini AhmSr the children of Ahm^r. 

ji^ MisaVler Examples. 

iJ JuJl vlAJL. müikûl-mûlouk the King of Kings. 

^LijVl «-J J rdb'bul-irbdb the Lord of Lords. 

• • • 

Ij V\ cH^j rSyiml'dba the chief of the fathers', patriarch. 

^c- tJ\ fj^ Eesa-ehmSseeh' (among Christians), Eesel-meseeh 

^'" "^ (among the Moslems) Jesus the Anointed ; the Messias. 

Turkish CJonv.-Grammar. 24 

870 or ^J*J^ Lesson 53. rv» 

s»^\ Cr^^J^ >^ I r^ ( (^^ ) ^>İ9mü-ldhir rahmcmir raheem in the 
name of God the All-Compassionate, the Most-Morciflil. 

§ 669 a. The Declension of Arabic Noniis. 

Nom. sJC^kUahün a book. s^^\ ü-întabü the book. 

« • 

Gen. s^\::^ kitabin of a book. v. liSTi el-hitaM of the book. 
Aoc. \\:S^kU<Mn a book. L*l::SJ\ il-kitabS the book. 

MN ^rl^ Exereise 141« 

Form from the following words Izaföts and Com- 
pound Adjectives: 

1. 1. (0:1 'q>j' -V^ '^' ' î:^' Jj-'S ' J • J^S + 

-ÜJİ). 2. (•liac * Jflui flrfa, /ey^er gift; Juu- 5a'd felicity; «JL- 
5e^ sword + -iil)- 3. (^Lp î6a(Z servants + ^1 [men]). 
4. (jj-JLÎ qouds holy + cr'^' öJğ^^ös holies). 5. (^ Mleem 
interlocutor + -ü»' [Moses]). 6. (OllaJL» 4- û:,jf 6err^ two 
continents, Asia and Europe). 7. {f. OSU A;Aa9an emperor 
[Chinese hu-hang] + vj^.^^ hahreyn two seas, the Black 
Sea and the Mediterranean). 8. (jİ3 dar house + oyi 
funoun sciences; j^ Jchayr benevolence; TjulL shifaqa 
charity; Zj^\m^ sâadet prosperity; ÎpLU ^&a-a< printing; 
L^ tahsil learning; ci^ Tchüafet caUphate). 9. (cA» 
+ ,^Jic iw^J grapes [wine]). 10. (^1 +^L>. hhabayis evils). 
11. (jLc + jyr-j ragman merciful, <) A^mm gradous; 
JUiî* * jlA * Jr,jp hamidj m^id, aziz All-praise- worthy; jt-» 
«e^^ar forgiver; r«— v« meseeh Christ). 12. (j|^ 
-^ *oUj: *> *^^' glory; j^ ''j^} *^<^^ help; Jlr 

> • ^ 

The Arabic Definite Article. 371 

.-7 > 

nal beauty; J^ mouzaffer successful + ^^^ deen^ 
n religion). 

Note. The nouns preceding t>p end in ûstûn {-€). 

11. 13. (^sİİp azeem great, Jul>. jelil illustrious + 

t). 14. (JL 50?^/* above + 5^ *û^ hey an mention). 

►. (>>t nadir rare + J\<«^l istimal usage). 16. (fOj^ 

^ee quick + cJ^T hareket motion). 17. {^j^ meree 

•served + ^li- Jchatîr [honorable]). 18. (â»j keriti 

,d + Zjy^ savt voice). 19. (J^-l* maqhoul acceptable 

Cj^\JL shehadet testimony). 20. (/^>-jl erhem + OJ^b 
himeen [the most compassionate of the compassionate]). 

§ 670. (0:1 + OjjJli- • J^J ' J^jl rushd, errushd 
verrhoes]). (oJ + ^^b Davoud Dayid)] (Jacob the son 

Isaac); (Aliy^ aJW the daughter of Nayima a^)* 
arab^t the son of Artin); (the father of Ziya). 

The Arabic Prepositions, 

§ 671. The Arabic Prepositions are much used 
Ottoman, but only in connexion with Arabic words, 
lose most frequently met with are the following: 

a. Jl ila-, ilSy- towards, as far as, until, to (§ 676 •). 

JuVl til iUhehid to all eternity, eternally. 

" • ^ ^ 

'>'\ (il * <jL^ (i\ ila akhîrihij ila nihaye to the end thereof; 

et csetera, etc. 

b. ^ hi- by, with, in (§ 676 »). 
CjIJJ^ biz' zat in person. <\ ^.^.J L hiljumU all, everyone. 

>> « •* 

jLuV^ hiJrit'tifaq with agreement, unanimously, 
c. XjI» hadS-, bad' after (§ 676 ♦). 


372 or o-J^ LeB9on 58. rVr 

^UUİJuu hadSt'ta-am after dinner. 

^^ * " > ^ • - 

Ujuu &a(2ema after which. «Juu baeJ^iou afterwards. 

d. % hUa without (used with nouns). 

ij)^ ^ &t/a khaof without fear. 

^ «^ 

e. ûy bSynS-, hiyn- between, among. 

t^ul Cnj hiynin-nas among the people, among men. 

f. ^ ala-, alS'y (iUy- upon (§ 676*). 
fij-J^\ J^ dlid-divam perpetually. 

<) U- Jc aZa lidlihi in the former state. 

g. ^ an from. <;:& an/iou from him. 

J^\ ^ an o^lZ originally. x.,a5 ^ an qasdin on purpose. 

h. ^^ f^q&, favq- upon, over (§ 676 •). 
o3UJ\ j^ /(^vg^Z adc extraordinarily. 

i. <i /{- in, at; on (of dates); at, for (of price) pLoü* 
^ijJiJ fil'Vaçfi in effect, really. JU6J\<3 /uiial instantly. 
ltJ^ ^ <i /Î or /îyaıti &^s^ ghouroush per, at 5 piasters. 
♦r»A u^y^ rr <i on the 23 August 1318 (1902) O. S. [§ 217]. 

j. J fee like. JjVo A;cZ ^i?'t?^Z as it was before. 

k. J li-, U-, Uy- in favour of, to; for (§ 676 0. 
ÂaJUo^ Umaslahat for the sake of business. 

1. IT wia-, ma-^ with (§ 676 »). 

1 ]!>• ma-eZ mimnouneeyi with pleasure. 
<J\^ iLm ma mafihi notwithstanding, yet. 

m. 2^ tninS-, inin- from. 
iTjuLll ^ minel qadim from ancient times. 
<!<• min-hou, minhi, minfi from him. 
-**" -^ Cft ^^'^ ghayri haddin without any right ^ I dare not 

n. oXl^ ' oJlJU ' eJcJ:^^^ ' ejLülı gimnîndo, ha^g^nda, 
khousousoundaj habînda (partly Turkish) about, for. 

ryr The Arabic Definite Article. 873 

Note, til ' Jc- * J connected with pronouns is pronounced 
as Hey-, aUy-, I4y; but with nouns as ila, ala, U (§ 676 •, ®, '). 

MY Jul Exercise 142. 

iJjUJ I 'dLU ' v^ljVi Lj 'c^^Jj-i^ 3^yi L>-lj v^Ll^. t 

^viı^îlil ^^jîj^ J^^l J '^ *<^^^ '^Lr^*-*. ^'^ <J-?' ^^^j-^^' ^'^ 
^^jLlJli" ^ • /^*^* v::5j- ^l^^' l;*.j^ vj:.jI» >»' y^'^, '^ 

Words and Notes. 1. oulouheeyH Godhead. 2. ^(^aneem'i 
«eZ^s^ three persons, Trinity. 3. vajibûl vtijoud God (whose exis- 
tence is necessary, self- existent). 4. ibnul insan the Son of Man. 
5. qouloubou insaneeyi human hearts. 6. tat-heer St." to purify. 

7. mirqoumi she (§ 677); zatul jenb vulg. satUjan pleurisy. 

8. ifaqat boulmaq to recover (§ 619). 9. biznillahi by the permission 
of God = if God wills. 10. kes'sabtq as it was before (§ 671 j). 

11. alel adi (oSU or «^U custom § 671 f) usually. 12. tiniz zuK 

to take a walk (V. of nûzhet). 

\lt <4^J Translation 148, 

One day Hoja EflPendi, losing his donkey, enquires 
of a man about him. The man answering said: '^I saw 
your donkey in the court of Iconium^; he was acting as 

Words and Notes. 1. Qonya mihkimisindi . . . qadiUq idiyor. 

374 or u^j^ Lesson 53. 

judge there." Hoja EflFendi said: "Well* 1 I already knew 
that he would be a Cadi'; because when I was teaching 
(giving a lesson to) Khîlöz, my son, that donkey sticking 
up his ears* was listening attentively." He immediately 
started^, and after some weeks reached Iconium. He 
went directly* to the court. He saw the Cadi from 
afar. He took a bunch of grass from the bag of the 
donkey and showed it to him saying ^ah! giah! giah! 
gmh!^ The Cadi laughed at what the Hoja was doing. 
The Hoja said: "Well, he recognizes me. In a few 
moments he will come cheerfully to eat the firesh grass. 
I will wait for him." And he is still waiting there. 

2. pek ala. 3. onoun qadi (fayil of *\^) ohj^aghîni hSn gaUn 

bilir idim. 4. qoulaqlartni dikSrek diq'qatla dinlir id%,_ 5. doffk- 
roudan doghrouya mâikemeyi güdi. 6. means Tiay or straw,' osed 
to call the donkeys and horses 'come, come, come T 7. fOhal 
Qonyaya mutMjjihSn har^St Hih . . . 

All>>t Conyersatioii. 

& ( 

'• > •. 

( U etc. ) . o>\ J\ 
Sj\ bj^-r:^ J'. <^J^\ • r-J^i ^>^ <^^y o^ji ojJLL li^l jJI 

,lfS^ . f^ijJül ^^) V>^"^ ^^.^ ^J-^^ fL^l JL«i 

o^^y, »^^jl vi^cL 5ii <s}JLJL j,^JU. oiS <^U »a • JJuL^ 

0-uLi* o\jJlj ^y <1JL:^^ jlhJ ^ oy^ »iJU^Js JxJ\S 

TTor^fo awi ^ote«. 1. üfir'rûj diversion. 2. ha/ram 61!' to 
become unlawful; to be unhappy. 8. ijabU it" to reply in the 
affirmative, accept fEV. of jSvab § 620). 4. hashal Heaven forfandl 
h.mayet'U-es-sufû azim with the greatest regret. 6./biirMitopportanitj. 

ryo Arabic and Persian Pronouns. 875 

JiJi\i (^AfH Reading Exercise. 

aJLL! An Aneedote. 


Words and Notes. 1. mijlisi ülfet social party. 2. mothers- 
in-law. 8. mûnasibitsizlik absurdity. 4. 2)a?is it," to speak about 
5. iziyiti qalqtshmaq to trouble, tease. 6. without hesitation. 
7. immediately. 8. boghmaq to strangle, to kill; dSrdini yanmaq 
to confide his woes to another. 9. brave man. 10. son-in-law. 
11. a. khînzîr pig; nasty. 12. vSssilam.] 

^^ u^^ Lesson 54. 

Arabic and Persian Pronouns. 

§ 672. The Arabic Pronouns are occasionally 
employed in Ottoman. They are used only in certain 
Arabic expressions adapted by the Ottomans. They are 
as follows. 

§ 673. The Possessiye Pronouns: 

(i -i My. ll '^na Our. 

£ "k^ Thy (masculine). J -M Thy (feminine). \ "küm Yours. 
K^ "hü, "hi Him, it; his, its. U -ha Her. 

KJ" "hûma, "hitna Them [two] (dual). 
A "hû/m, "him, Them (masc). ^ hûn'nS Them (fem.). 

876 »«L ltJ^ Lesson 54. 

§ 674. The Demonstratlyes: 

\S ' \Jut za, haza This. «iUiS ' dllS ^s<sliM, Mfife That 

§ 675. The Belatiye Prononn: 

U -ma, ma- Who, which. 
§ 676. ^\İ4 MisoXUr Examples. 

1. u^j fibh (among the Moslems), rdbb (among the ChristiaDs) 
Lord. Jj re&'W, ra6'6t My Lord, Lord, God. tjj i; ya'rMi! 
ya rabbi! O my Lord! lljj reb'binal Onr Lord; Rabbonil 

2. (ij* *V^ m^üîo (N. w. mim of Jj) Lord; sir. V^ *^j^ 
hazrHi mMa God. L*V^ mSvlana! My sirl His grace. 

3. ^ &i- with t ,^jU ;ou/^ ' ^JA mSnn grace ! ^âLL ' Ck MZoNi'- 
/^t, bimM'nihi by His grace i JLJ Oc btm^'ttt^t Ta^-a-Ia by 
the grace of God Most High, aj hihi\ bih' by him, on it. 

4. Jlw bada after: »Am badehou after it, after that. 

5. Jp a2a-^ a^^- on, against: aAs- aleyhi against or on him* 

«iUfi' aUyki on or upon thee i pxJfr aUyhum on you t (4^Jb' j»^ 

selamun aleykûm ! Peace be on you ! Hail 1 God bless you I #»>LJUJip 
aUhissilam! Upon him be peace! (said of any of the prophets). 
•Ju.lic' aUyhimdi against me (partly Turkish). ^Ju mûâ^da^ the 

accuser: «Jb ^Ji« mûdda^^a aUyh' com, mud' dayialiyh the sccaaed. 

aJc t\li binay^n aliyh consequently. 

6. Jl ila-, ilSy- to: ^Jl iUyhi to him ' l^Jl iUyha to heri 

PfJl ileyhim to them: ^^^ O^ motima, mÛ8^r (the m^fbol of 

iyma and isharH) said, mentioned : ^JljlJL* ' <^1^^ ' r^b^ ifi^ls^- 
rileyh, moumayileyhy musharileyhim (pi.) to whom allasion has 
been made, the said; he, they. \^\^^ja * \f}\j\İM moumayiliyha, 

mûshariUyha she. J^^ mursel one which is sent (or addressed): 

[the m^foul of ir^aZ]'. ^Ji J..^ mûrsilûn iUyh one who is addressed. 

7. J li'y ii-f Uy for, in favour of: J Wwu, Uhi for him, in 
favour of anybody i » Jl«^ Uhimdi^ UyhimdS in favoar of me, for me. 

r'VV Arabic and Persian Pronoans. 877 

8. il M' Uke: \J5" kSza * viiljTAi^xraK*;^,-?»* like that; thus. 
\â^ haMza so for thee this = so also. \Ja m ma haza in spite 
of this, with this. «UUS *« ma £;a2fA:^ with this, notwithstanding this. 

9. Jli I* mo- ma&agi that which remains, the remainder. Jyl« 

tnafevq that which is above Î »xiyU mafSvqindS shoye him. CkjU 

mabeyn that which is between, between. i\t\A ma'ahalldh what 

has God willed ; May God bless him I u© 1^ lUmaktân as it was 

before. «JU »a ma mafihi' with that which is in it (mas.), yet. 

JuuU mahad that which is after, the remainder: jlj (5-Xm^ mahadi 

var there is its remainder = to be continued. \JlcU ma'-a-da 
which is over; besides, except 

vl)LllJL« Muta-lcHit: Remarks. 

§ 677. In writing, the use of pronouns in the 
third person is avoided by repeating the noun for which 
they stand accompanied by one of these words, which 
all mean The same, the said, the above mentioned: 

jjij* ' j,/^ ' J^i»— ' ry^ * ^^LfJ* * ^^J^ mezbour, mizkûr, 
mistour, mirquum, moumayileyhy mûshariUyh or mûsharun üiyh, 

§ 678. Meehtir, mezhour^ merqoum are used when 
speaĞng of persons of inferior position. Moumayileyh 
to the people of the middle class. Mûsharüeyh is 
applied to persons of high rank. When speaking of 
inanimate objects mezbour and mestour are used. 

§ 679. In case of a person first mentioned by 
name, or by a common substantive, these words may 
be used as substantives, or, — we might say — , as a kind 
of Personal or Demonstrative Pronoun, in all the cases 
of declension. But, in case of a thing, they must be 
used as adjectives, repeated each time. 

§ 680. The Persian Pronoans are rarely need in 

such expressions. They are: ^^J een this t J^ an that t 

A^- chi what ? Î jl:^ chend some i 3 J- kfwd self, one's self; as: 

378 •!, wJ> Lesson 54. rvA 

Cj\ J ijA J^l^ ghafi'U ten ou an ignorant of this and that, inex- 

»j^ld 4^ chi fay ide! what is the use! Alas! 

Jau»^ JÛ». chcnd difalar several times. 

^^^zbs) ^j>- khod he khod personally, by himself. 

Ml ^^Jui Exercise 144. 

ÖİJ eijSC^ 'j IJ *JbLt^ ^jiil r . VjJ5 jIjcl. oUI Jy 

0-\J«^ ^^ ^x« • jLil ^y^^ ^ 3f>' J. ' (*-*^l CjjI — Î ^y 

oJltL^ ^-liifcJlV ! (»JCil ol^'i^ ■?V^* l5CL^ jd-iftJbl "4i3lj 

iror(2s an(2 Notes. 1. To the villag:e Yiniji (near M^nifonn). 
2. m^/voseJ^V et" to arrive, reach (III. of vasl), 3. mulaqat interview 

(VII. of »UJ liqa an encounter). 4. shirif honour. 5. nayü oL" 

to obtain, attain. 6. tivdfjuh sympathy. 7. min'nHdar qalnutq 
to be under obligation, grateful (§ 535). 8. vaçfi oV happening, 
occurring {fayil of vouqpu^). 9. mûftâriyat calumnies (pi. of iftira 
[§ 650]). 10. bSyan St! to express. 11. qat'an absolutely, not at 
all. 12. ehem'miyit vSrmek to give importance (§ 582). 13. mou- 
hakimi a tribunal's hearing a case and giving a legal decision, 
law-suit (III. of Mikm). 14. fasl olounmaq to be decided, judged (a 
case). 15. dava a case; id'da-a, id'di-a to claim (Vm. of dava [§ 628]). 
16. houqqtiq rights, dues (pi. of haqqj used as sing.). 17. Ü-Miyi 

to pay (II. of ida A^\ [§ 616]). 


Arabic and Persian Pronoans. 


18. mouzayaqa distress (§ 618 of zeeq); naqdeeyS pecuniary 
(§ 579). 19. matloubat does {mefoul of talib [§ 578]). 

N 1 A4^Jr Translation 145. 

1. Jesus said unto her: Mary. She turned herself, 
and said unto him, Rabboni. 2. Will you say anything 
against or in favour of him? 3. I have nothing to say 
against him, but I have much to say in favour of him. 

4. The accuser and the accused were before the judge. 

5. The said gentleman also was sick. 6. What is written 
on the postal cards^? 7. Is this article^ to be continued? 

8. There was nobody in the school, except your son. 

9. I cannot read those Arabic sentences, it is above my 
abihty to read them. 10. Where is the residence of 
Habib Effendi? — It is that blue-coloured house. 

1. achtq moukhdbiri varaqast = correspondence card. 2. bSnd. 



i^jjii ^y.^ Hassan EffSndL 

. (iJûdi Ca-.». liVj^ ! A>LJ1 r^^j 



•r^ i^M J^^\^ '^^\ ijy 

cİJlİİ Cm-^ Ho^ısâyn EffSndi, 

X" • ^ 

^ " ^ ' -^ , 


•«L u'j^ LeBSon 54. 


•^^'^ JiT^ • f*-4^ f-^' J^V- 

? ji 4j ajLc ^Vj\ J^/c« 

• r->J^^ ^"^ •'^^-J '^ 
(5Jl:İ\ v^^ ^^Sr* r-^ ûJ^ 

^. -^^ t^^ î^-^^ oyfA o^ 

^-"^^ j*^l J^ ^ ^^ i f^ 

o*l> (^- 

Beading Exercise. 

Regulations and rules of «ju dLoUL. »^Ijd 

the road, for preventing O^L-ol oJixi^ (CJa^SLiöu 
collisions at sea. • vl)U\Iu j Oy 'y 

— 1 — 

When close-hauled on opposite 
tacks^ the ship on the port 
tack is always to give way if 
necessary, either by keeping 
away or going about. 

— I — 

^ . ^ • I • * 


Arabic and Persian Pronouns. 


- 2 — 

With the wind free, give way 
to those on the wind. 

- 3 - 

Two ships meeting under 
(having) full sail are to pass 
on the port side of each other. 

— 4 - 

Under steam and nearly end-on 
to each other, both cast to 
starboard and pass on the port 
side of each other. 

- 5 - 

A steamer always gives way 
to a sailing vessel : and it must 
be remembered that every vessel 
under sail, with steam ready, 
though not using it, is con- 
sidered a steamer, in the event 
of collision. 

— 6 — 

Every vessel underweigh is to 
carry a green light on the star- 
board and a red light on the 
port side. 

— 7 — 
Steamers, in addition, carry a 
white light at the fore-masthead 
iprovd), [Worda the broadside.] 

— r — 

— r — 

^^^, ^^\ o^ji •-^JJji ^\ 

— • — 

— n - 

— V — 

••^->^ ^ i^^ ^^^-^ (3->^-^^ ^^ 

^L -ûiji- tjj^^ ( iJLcU O-^Jw)^ 


882 •• u'J^ Lesson 55. rkf 

- 8 - - A - 

Vessels towing, carry two white bj^ 5? l/LJu- Cr^^ ^^ 

masthead lights {süiyofC). *JL^ 

-9 - - ^ - 

During fogs, vessels under steam ' ^J^J^ cP^ ^J*^ «XjUj 

are to sound a steam whistle; ^Jj^^yt cH^ ^^ c^^^-â.* Cr^ 

vessels under sail, to use a fog »jjl». (iJÜJûjlji ^l^BI j\aî\^ j 

horn; at anchor, to ring a bell. •jSi^ ^^ 

- 10 — - !♦ — 

These signals to be sounded ^^^. »^<j^^ ^Ai J*^ ^ •-^ J^Jt 

once, at least, every five minutes. • >xJ^U 

^ ^ u^i> Lesson 55. 

The Arabic and Persian Adverbs. 

§ 681. The simple Arabic Adverbs axe rarely used 
in Ottoman, but the compound ones are very common. 
These are made by the addition of a tenveen of ûstûn 
together with an âif or te (-en, -ten § 48); as: 

J(^ sharg east: lİ^ sharqhi eastward. 

oiS zai origin: UiS zai^ originally, already. 

oUt shifah lips: UUi shifahSn orally. 

§ 682. There are two rules which govern the 
pointing of tenveen of ûstûn ^: 

a. If the word ends in Jieniee (§ 590), or short &if 
(§594), or servile he or te (§ 592), only a double ûstûn is put 

at the end, provided that te and he(Cj' »' ^ must change 
into round te (Î ' 5 -ten) and short elif (iS -«) must 
change into simple elif (I -^n): 

*-yjr i^za punishment: t\y^ jizaykn as a punishment 

AjJut hediye present: ÂjOa Mdiyi'tin as a gift. 

^ Which is the sign of the Accusative case (§ 670). 

rxr The Arabic and Persian Adverbs. 383 

^i^i-j^ niSrhamSt mercy: ^^ mMiametSn kindly. 

^ mana meaning: ll»» man^ in troth, virtually. 

0^1* maddi material: o^U maddittfn materially. 

b. But if the final O be radical, or if the word 
end with any other letter than those mentioned above, 

an elif with double ûstûn ( I -m) is added to the end ; 
this SLif is never pronounced: 

si^3^ mouvac[qat> temporary : ll3^ vMmvaciqai^n temporarily. 
^* nazar a glance: \^ nazarin in respect of. 

siJlj salis third: liilj saltsSn thirdly. 

^ ^ N't 

Um &a;:;6H sometimes: 1^^ moti-aX;?iX:?ia>^ subsequently. 

^tU MisaVler Examples. 

Ij^lei* trau^/madt"^^ continually. l^J;^ mi^M'dedSn newly. 
ii»5i defa' tin repeatedly. <»ti fûj'jHin suddenly. 

tU»5 qazayin by accident. \Ji,-a3 ga«'(2^n designedly. 

Lii. Wiifiyen secretly. IJic aWnSn openly. 

U^ otimou'm^n generally. Vi^^ taqri'hen nearly. 

1^ hirrin by land. \^^ hah'rSn by sea. 
U^- jSman, jemin as a total. liUc.» mi jj an in freely, gratis. 
l^^^sjJ tahri'rin written. Us kuVliySn totally. 

\^A»- jebWSn by force. <U* jûmlHen wholly. 

§ 683. Sometimes the ten ween is not pronounced: 

Vj\ iv'vila firstly. IJjU- adHa simply. 

VU fcaZ'a yet, now. ^i^ da'yima always. 

Ulc. pWZt&amost probably. Ulk* memno^a absolutely. 

U5İJ vaqa'-a in fact, surely. >\i« ıni'sİlu for example. 

U&c ajeba, aja'ha I wonder I strange! Really! 

§ 684. The Persian Adverb. The Persian Deri- 
vative Adjectives, which are made by the addition of 

4jI -ane (§528), are used as adverbs: 

884 •• ^j^ lesson 55. TAl 

<lli^j^ dosta ni friendly. <^\j^\^, hinideranS brotherly. 
<IL>^.-j^- jansipara'nS devotedly; bravely. 
^^jfc^ mahrhnand intimately, confidentially. 

M *\ ^^ Exercise 146. 

VU olij ' 45Cj,I ^>l^U jJuiljl ' U' Ja3 . J3 zJJö. ' fOil 

**c/^J ^?^ C-^-r* cSS^ f^^-^. j^. • J->-^' *^*-^ *r^. 
t^lp ^ • jJLİ^lljl lu U? ,^yiC« ^ • j<l-j Jul I ^ ' jjlUjI «j U 

Words and Notes. 1. tZaw A." to announce (IV, of aUfni^ 
2. hiycti mou-aV'limeen the Faculty. 3. (^arar «A*." to decide. 

4. hûjoum to attack ; fûfjetdn for li^Uj suddenly. 5. hidhUn bodily. 

6. mûskiratf ichJci any intoxicating liquid (pi. of mûskir, which is 
the m^foul of IV. sekdr). 7. mubtela addicted to (m^foul of iMOa). 

8. ighfal nr to deceive. 9. iradit will (IV. of VSjj [§ 620]). 


rAo The Arabic and Persian Adverbs. 385 

\ iV Ajt-j Translation 147. 

1. ''I will give unto him that is athirst of the 
fountain of the water of life freely." 2. He has not 
yet come. 3. The school house was newly built. 4. Nearly 
500 persons were present. 5. He took the money by 
force. 6. They were treating^ each other like brothers. 
7. He was serving his Master devotedly. 8. I cannot 
reveaP to you that matter*; it was told to me in 
confidence. 9. He told me again and again (repeatedly). 
10. It is most probable that he will never be able to 
come. 11. Really! That is my opinion* too. 

Words and Notes. 1. mou-amele St." 2.hiyanet" S. mad'dS, 
4. efkiar. (Bendenizin di âfktarî himan himan o mirkizdi dir.J 

,J>I i -^JLiJ Reading Exercise. 

^-,4U-;L-i JUil i)jjJL« ISs' X Newton. 

0İ3I ^^oSij^^ X (İj^j ' v-^"^' f ^^ »^/^. ^^«3->*'-j' »^^' «3j^ 

TTord* awd iVote«. ifal actions (pi. of fiyT)\ siyasiyi political 
§579). 1. omZowwow ^aötyty^ natural sciences. 2. owi^ma scientists 
(l)l. of alim [§ 643 d]). 3. Nevton Newton. 4. parlamento parlia- 
ment. 5. meb'oiis delegate, P. M. 6. sîfatiyla with the title. 
7. ne — ne — neither — nor — . 8. iyrad to deliver (§ 620); noutq 
speech. 9. tekleef proposition (§ 615). 10. itiraz opposition (VIII. 
of arz). 11. khariqul adâ olaraq extraordinarily (Turk, adverb). 

12. vaqarW bir souretle in a serious manner, seriously (§ 458). 

13. idariyi kilam H." to deliver a speech (§ 621). 14. te-afjûb et." 
to be astonished. 15. me«ai/i7 questions (pi. of misele [§ 597]), mou- 
himm' important {fayil of ıhmam [§ 619]). 16. ikhtiyar it." to prefer, 
choose (§ 627); sûkûtle for sükût âderek remaining silent (= keeping 
silence). 17. tikel'lûm et." to speak (§ 622). 

Turkish Conv. -Grammar. 25 


• • u'J^ Lesson 55. 



i^jSm» i^, »a J! J ' "jjijljl «r^j^ <i^->-^ "dAil^ ûVr 

18. i^a compelling (§ 619). 19. hukm it." to judge, think. 
20. with great attention. 21. see § 678. 22. hahs H." to discoBS. 
23. istima et." to hear. 24. aVlamk exceedingly learned (§ 582 of 
aVlam^ this is exceptionally mascaline); âicran the century. 
25. What do you think that he said? 26. jQUt side. 27. mMM' 
hade to see. 28. jireyanX hava current of air. 29. hoiMdo»8 H" 
to occur, happen ; moujib causing (m^foul of ijah [§ 619]); bayis 
61." to cause. 30. sîh'hat health; ikhldl to spoil, break. 31. hifiayin 
aUyh therefore (§ 676 ^) ; tiklif it" to propose, to move. 32. he sat 
down quickly (§ 286). Ehûz Ziya the father of Ziya (§ 669», p. 869). 


To Thank. 

I thank you very much for your 

Pray don't mention it. 

I feel very grateful to you. 

I am very much obliged to you. 

1 shall never forget your kind- 
ness to me. 

I return you a thousand thanks. 

I beg you will accept my most 
grateful thanks. 

Thank you, Sir. 

I am sorry to give you so much 

You overwhelm me with your 

No trouble at all. 
I shall be most happy to return 

you the favour. 
You are really too kind. 
I hope I shall some day be able 

to get out of your debt 


j,\ Jj^ TSshaJsThur itmSk. 

Loutfoufiouea p3c ziyad4 Uthek- 

kur ddSrim. 
EstagKfiroul'lah ! 
Zatî alinizS min'nStdarim, 
Qouloufiouza olan loutfou hich 

BinlirjS arzi tSshSk'kûr Sdirim. 
MinnetdarafU olan UshSk'kura- 

tîmî qaboul bouyourmatiUli 

istirham SdSrim, 
TesUk'kur idârim iffindim. 
Zatî (üinizi bou qadar eahmit 

virdiyim ichin mutS^'sifim. 
Loutfounouz qpulonoueou mah'- 

joub idiyor. 
Hich zakmit diyü. Bir shfy âiyü, 
Loutfounouzou iyadi idij^im 

ichin pik miS'Oud owm, 
Haqiqatin pik nazik aHlie. 
Inshal-lah bir gun oHour bar' 

joumou ida iairim. 

rAY Arabic Numerals. 887 

I am delighted to have been use- Khîdmitifiizdi botdoundoughoum 

ful to you. ichoun pSk mhfinounoum. 

I am extremely glad to see you. 8izi gSbrdûyûmS dSrijiyi niha- 

ySdS memnoun oldoum. 
Nothing at all! Not at all! Bir sMy diyih 

No ceremony between friends. Teklif yoq dour iff endim! 

^^ u^i> Lesson 56. 

^iopl \^\ Arabic Numerals. 

§ 685. The Arabic Numeral Adjectives are fre- 
quently used in Ottoman, especially in writings, in 
official terminations, in speeches and sermons. 

§ 686. I. Cardinal Numbers. U^l 3İjlpI 

j^\j'' s^\vahid or dhad one; fern. «Jl>.\j ' tiJ^l ihda^ vahidi. 
Cj<^\ esneyn two. <•-- seb'-i seven. 

-cli si-li'si three. <JU semaniyi eight. 

<»ij\ erba'-a four. <*jr tis-e nine. 

-u^ khamsi five. ^^ * ^^ asMri, ashir ten. 

O- siVti six. yi^ sîfir zero. 

^^ -X>.1 dhadi asher 11, ^^i^^ 11j\ isna as?i^r 12, ^^ iilî selisit 
ashir 13, ^^ <«jj1 Srba-at asher 14, ^^Ac Â-^ khamsit ashir 15, 
^^JL& <i- sit^e* as/ier 16, ^^JLc <«-.*- sc5V^ a«/i^r 17, ^^JLc <JU s^mam- 
2/^^ osTi^r 18, ^^ <i»-J ^is-^f' a5?i^r 19. 

Oi^;^ tshreen 20, CkİL? siliseen 30, û;Vi«j\ erba-yeen 40, 

Crt..^ khamseen 50, Cni-. sit' teen 60, 6u— seö'ecn 70, CaIU s^manecn 

80, OwJ *tVeew 90. (oj^^-j * oJj^ etc. is not used in Ottoman. ) 

<îL. miyi 100, CkTL miyitiyn 200, îSieiLî selisou miy itin SOO^ 

^i eZ/" 1000, Cnill eV^yw 2000, uiVT iiU s6Z^s^< aZa/^ 3000. 

§ 687. n. Ordinal Numbers. a^j^IjlpI 


Jj\'<i^l»- ^i?'u^Z, ^ad* 1st; fem. Jji owZa. 
jlj sawi second; fem. -uîIj sami/^ second (^'eo^^ of a minute). 


388 »n wJ^ Lesson 56. rAA 

siJlj salts third, fern. aİU «L sdbi seventh. 

tü\j rabi fourth. » am\j ^y^üİ samın eighth. 

^^f^\>^ khamis fifth. » <.^l>. ««.iJ tasi ninth. 

(^^L sadis sixth. » <^^L ^le ashir tenth. 

§ 688. By the addition of an âlif with a tenveen, 
they are changed into adverbs (§§ 681, 683): 

Vj\ So vela firstly. LjL sadisSn for the 6*^1 time. 

fi * 

L;U saniydn secondly. LjL«a6ty^n » » 7üı > 

«s * 

1:1 Lî şalisin thirdly.«aiiiinAi» t 8**^ > 

s» *■ 

Lib rahiyin fourthly. L-lJiasiy^ » » 9*** » 

\^\^ khamiaen fifthly. i^lc osfctr^ » » lOtlı » 

§ 689. The Nisbe of the units is made by the 
measure <^Ği (§ 580 f.): 

Jllj sunayı composed of two letters, bi-literal. 
J>l3 sûlasi » » three » triliteral. 

fj'\ij rûbayi » » four » quadriliteral. 

§ 690. Fractional Numbers. -u^-J^^Ijl&I 

^^ wis/*, nîsî/* half (§ 207). ^Ju- sii(fo, stWus Vs. 

siij st^Zz^s, >'wZs Vs- ^ sw5* V^' 

*ij roiih', ourouh V*- cyt si^mn, sûmûn Va. 

^_^-.i- Jchoums Vs- ^" *ws' ^/a. 

2İs7tr, îiş/Mİr Vio ; ^shûr tithe (pi. jLİp-I o^Aar). 

§ 691. In forming compound numeral adjectives 
in Arabic, the smaller number always precedes the 

larger, while j ve is put between every number and that 

which follows it: that is to say, in reading they begin 
from the right, as they write and read fix)m Öıe 
right (§ 13). 

jllll* MisaVUr Examples. 

öjî>\j J IjuJ tisit vS selasoun (or selaseen [§ 573]) thirty-nine. 

rA^ Arabic Numerals. 889 

i Ai^ı sjüOi'Us j^ cj^ * v>_AJ'ı 3 ur*ıi.1 r^'U la^ 

«Jl j Âj|e-iLİ j Jts- <jk^ <l-j jTafcrccr^ fil ySmnil khamis vâl ishreen^ 

min shehri zilqadStish shirifif lisMtin sebit-ashir vS silesoumiyHin 
vS elf. (This Firman) was written on the 25th of the sacred month 
Zilqad^, in the year 1317 (of the Hejira). 

(ijjjj A Li. i^JllLst^i <iLÎ jj^ shouhourou seUsi imtihanlari 
khitam houldou. The term examinations were finished. 

<--jî- <5jL« ol5j\ ^vga^t mubarekdyi khamsd the five blissful 
times (of daily prayers). <U j 4JL! J\ eZ/ii ^yî^ t?^ 2^^^^ the 
1001 nights, i. e. the Arabian Nights, Turk. Bin hir gfji. 

The Dlminntive Noun. 

§ 692. The Diminutive noun is made by the 

measure Lei fovqeyl (§§ 156, 167, 544): 

Juc a&d a servant: ju^c t>oübiyd a little servant. 

j>->- ^a^an beautiful: Cf\»^ housSyn darling, prettiest. 
,j\fLMselman prop, name: oW^ saulSyman Solomon. 

MA Jli3 £xereise 148. 

Î 'oU.jJ ' ottL*' ' J^Op-I t i UVT '^jtl ÎC;L îsl,!/; î ^U N 

TTords. 1. ahad, ash^raty miyat, oulouf or dlaf; the units, tens, 
hundreds and thousands. 2. '/a, ^/e (duals [§ 568]). 3. fousoul sea- 
sons, pi. of /a^/ a season ; a section, subdivision of a book. 4t.jieayir 
islands, pi. of jiziri (§ 646). 5. ameliyat processes (Arith). 6. mad'dS 
article (§ 644 b). 7. shoukour months (pi. of shdhr), 8. product 
(m^f. of housoul [§ 604]). 9. havass' sense, faculty. 10. khamseen 
a period of 50 days, following the Erbayeen, ending at the Vernal 
Equinox. 11. erbayeen the forty days of midwinter, beginning 
with the winter solstice, 21st December, and ending 30tli January, 
when the severest cold is experienced. 12. kesri asharee the 
decimal fractions. 13. eed festival (Pentecost). 14. individuals. 

390 »n ur-ji Lesson 66. r\* 

\l\ >JLJ Exercise U9. 

•J3 ^j— c5j4a*p- c5jÖj» 0*J^^^' l<**^^ CJ^^ 4J^jLi 

•■ ^ *■ * •• * 

••( *K^9*. *^ ••( Atf^ Mİ I •• c I • •• 

t 15 . . X !• • •. ^ I 1 1 A -- c 14 ." t 18 l" 

♦— «-*^ • J^ jVj J) ^»-3 Aim jl Jj.,â3 ® • A-*JL> (^.J^ T'j» 

jJ.o^ A O^^ t/^V ->-^->^=^ ^J^^ ^ ^J^ lî^tj >X,gL4 (5jf 
Jij^ ^5^ V J-^-J-^u^ J ^ -J^3^ li^lj J-Ua^ • J^J^j» (3^' (V"^ ^ "^i/* 

TTorcJ^ an(2 ^o£e&\ 1. müskirat intoxicating liqnids. 2. dotiX^Aon 
tobacco. 3. damgha Btiimp. 4. hareer silk. 5. say(2 fishing, hunting 
mahi fish; roiisoum taxes. 6. tabeer oh" to be called; Douyaymu 
Oumoumiyeyi Osmaneeyi idaresi the Administration of Ottoman 
Public Debts; Urlz to leave; ihaU to refer (IV. of ^»oî^ [§ 620]). 
7. milkiyi civil; askeriye military (§ 581). 8. dSr^at degrees (pi. 
of dSr^jS [§ 576]); rûÜ)S a rank, grade in the Ottoman nobility. 
9. sînif class. 10. mutimayiz privileged, superior (fayil of ttma- 
yuz [§ 624]). 11. riitbSyi bala the supreme civil grade in the 
Ottoman nobility. 12. vSzaret the rank of a v^sir. 18. tatK 
subtraction. 14. zarb multiplication (if pron. darh it is *a blow*). 
15. sayf summer. 16. khazan autumn. 17. shita winter (§ 591). 
18. spring. 19. mesadîr infinitives (pi. of maadar [§ 648]). 20. isuain 
fundamentally (§ 681). 21. mûjSrred simple, primitive (möfoul of 
tejreed). 22. mezeedoun fiyhi augmentative: mizeed (§§ 605, 670); 
fityhi: fiy preposition, hi pronoun ([§ 671 i] = augmented in itself). 

Arabic Numerals. 391 

aI|^ Conyenation. 

Congratulations ^ 

nd Felicitations. ^^^ Z^^:^ 

f heard with great pleasure •jjji ^3\ oUKCi O J^ ol« J^ 

H. I. M. the Sultan has \x^ o-^J^^ ^^.j^ <-^ ^-^^j^ 

ciated your services and jjlli a«U^ jji<Jj j»&:;>.j\<liJLJlc 

•red on you a decoration of ij^.'^Jjt 6^ i J ^-»•j» Jt^ U^ 

ird class of the Osmaniy6. - j v ^ I jj cj^ -^ <lUâjJiat« Jlc^ 

e heard with the greatest iitJ^\j ^\^ ^^^^^ ^^r^ ^^^ 

lat H. I. M. the Sultan has «iJLi^j.^ Ûı-J aUjİjL- b-^jl 

Dted you Minister Pleni- ^<i\Jr^lfr fj\ ' aLT^^-^ JIc^ 

tiary to London. .(ijJjl 

i in the newspapers with <f-y *-^Jlt^ ^J aLJUU «Jlic 

ne joy of your promotion aLT^^-^ ^. Jılîli V^ (i?l-'J->j-' 

3 degree of Mütemayiz. • f ^"^^^ aJIL* •Jlj^I^ Jbjl 

Lady.] My joy was very jjjaj\jL>.lJ o^_,^ <Ju- ^Ji»\jfr 

on hearing that H. I. M. si^iii ij^<^j l^^^^^ "^J^^ ••V' 

altan had been pleased to *jlw JujJj^ o^-»"i jliii 6^* 

r on you the Insignia of J^^^--^ Si\ jj5 »ji-xlji a<Îİj^U 

lird class of the Sh^faqat. . #jJji «jj^^ J 

e accept my congratulations (jJubli^L o^^yi>- <^J >^^ ,>r*^ 

is honorific distinction. . oJjI *^^ t^J^^ ^^^ <i^^ 

e accept my sincere con- iU-ûUJU. yzJ^^j^ <AV>^ O'^y, 

lations. .^Jud\ jil>.,;L^ t^'^-^^ J^ 

not express my gratitude ^j..^ (Sji^jj^ JiJ^i •-U<îl$Jûi j>- 

le interest you feel in me. <>-j^ <, d^jH» (jJuJ-Jb i^V^y 


ti crJ^ Lesson 56. 


1 am ever so much obliged 
for it. 

I perceive from this high token 
of the Imperial favour that your 
excellent qualities are appre- 
ciated everywhere. 

I hasten to congratulate you on AirıI^Tj «iL^ «ULj J<Jifr »jliJ». aJj 

the new dignity of which Your . *jjj\ vi^jL-» 

Honour is the recipient. 

[To an Ambassador.] Sir, Our 

August Sovereign, H. I. M. the 

Sultan, desirous of aflfording you 

some token of his appreciation 

and his regard has been pleased 

to confer on you the grand 

cordon of His Imperial Order 
of the M^jidiy^. 

Will your Excellency therefore 

please to accept my very sincere 

congratulations on this token of 
the Imperial favour of which 
you are the recipient? 

I ask you, Sir, to be kind enough 
to present to H. I. M. my very 
respectful homage and to convey 
to him the assurance of my 


JIİjİ (jliî <iJu»t* aJJ^. o->v-> 

4V> o^4- >^*^^ ^ *-^ ^^ 

rvr Arabic Numerals. 393 

profound gratitude, and to re- rJ-^i ^J {SiJ^-^JiJi f^^-^u^ 
present to him how ij^eatly I feel » " " " " * L, * 

honoured by such a high die- • f -^^ 

tinction and how much I am 
sensible of his high munificence 
and bounty. 

Jij\i (^10 Beading Exercise. 

^j Home (Fatherland). 

tc^j i^ijA oi^ uVji t5j£.> il' "dijjj; '*^*i_y« A<ij». ' jw 

'jj.! JL- *:l»j ^'iJu. .jc>.öl '**1 : ">' üVjl 



Words and Notes. 1. sense, mind. 2. mûrâb'ba square 
(m^f. of ter-hi' [§ 615]). 3. musiVles triangle (m^foul of tislees 
[§ 615]). 4. qaziyS decision, truth. 5. to judge. 6. vijdan con- 
science. 7. vatan home, fatherland. 8. outside, other, non- (fayil 
of khourouj). 9. sth'hat truth. 10. itimad to believe (Vin. of 
amd). 11. sheer-khor that sucks milk, suckling (§ 585). 12. mayishet 
(n. w. mim of ays/i + ^ta/i) a place where to gain his subsistence 
(§ 541). 13. IcSbshe a nook, retreat; feragh leisure. 14. his'siyat 
feelings (pi. of hiss). 15. mSyl affection. 16. mevahih gifts (pi. of 
mSvhihi). 17. qoudrdt power; Providence. 18. teneffüs to breathe 
(V. of nefes). 19. ataya gifts, bounties (pi. of atiyd [§ 646]). 
20. p. t. rdvnaqli splendid, brilliant. 21. looking, glance; Urnhayi 
iftitahda at the first glance. 22. khdk soil; ground. 23. tS-aVlouq 
it." to fasten, to attach (V. of alaqa § 622). 

394 ti u^j^ Lesson 56. r^«L 

^ oJUL-M^/" yb ^^l AİlJ^l 4<J^ * ^y^ jji»j ol-^* 

t ^ 81 a t 30 ^ I t 29 ^ ' ^<^. « ••! * • \ • 1 

"^'OA-İ 4j. Ü3 ^3* X *^ ^^ -J* • J^J^ J^^>- j\^^^ *^Oji-l jr 
* ^^3^y öJJU-^o- ^--4jI>. {^xS sTa^ ojf<-* //i^->y^j' 4*j*^J 

wi« «I 

• ^ I I '')0 •• 49 • •• w* • 

24. mad'dS material (§ 582, 644). 25. jûz a part, fragment. 
26. p. gûzeshte past (§ 555). 27. p. yad recollection; hazeen sad (a^J. 
qual. liuzn [§ 606]). 28. tehaj'jur petrification, embodiment (V. of 
hajir [§ 622]). 29. hürriyet liberty (§ 581). 30. comfort, rest 
31. haqq^ right. 32. qayim existent (fayil of qtyam). 33. existence. 
34. ^jdad ancestors (pi. of jSdd [§ 639]). 35. maqbirS a bnrial 
place (N. of Loc. qdbr [§ 598]). 36. sükûn rest, calmness. 87. nktiji 
result, effect (§ 582). 38. jüvigıah a place or seat of beauty, life. 
39. ishtirdk participation (VIII. of shirJcSt)* 40. u'WMd union 
(§ 628). 41. menfa-at interest (n. w. mim of naf [§ 597]). 42. hfyrU 
abundance. 43. mûvanâsS familiarity, friendship (III. of ûfuiyit). 
44. jihetiyiU by means. 45. qarahSt near relationship. 46. ou- 
hhouvvit fraternity. 47. nisbet proportion. 48. hdkimiyH sovereign- 
ity (§ 582). 49. tasar rouf disposal, possession (V. of sarf). 
50. haqiqi real (§ 581). 51. ghalih conqueror (fayil of ghalibS). 
52. shemsheer sword. 53. mSohoum imaginary (m6foal of vihm). 
54. hhatt line. 55. miVliyH nationality (§ 581). 

r\» Arabic Compound Words. 395 

56. a^6a6 yoath. 57. ou2tn, -vt^^ noble (§ 579 of jL 'oulouv). 
58. io^ima union (VIH. of jA» [§ 627]). 

^V ;^^i> Lesson 57. 

Arabic Compound Words. 

§ 693. There are many compound words in use 
in Ottoman, composed of two Arabic words. They are 
connected together either according to the Arabic or 
the Persian systems of izafet (^ 515, 668). The 
majority of such words are composed according to the 
Persian system. 

But there are some Arabic words which are in 
frequent use in Ottoman in composition with other 
words of Arabic origin. Their use will be best under- 
stood from the following examples: 

§ 694. I. Arabic System. J^jP J^' 

1. ^S^»i (sing, genitive), ji t^ou (nomin.); ^^jS »evi 
(pi.) owner, possessor: 

r-j^i zirouJi animated. ^♦JuS ziqiymtt precious. 

(j\t/> zishan glorious. jJİjS zoulyed possessed of a 

hand, handed. 

J>GeJ\ ji zoul jelal possessed of glory, Lord of Glory (God). 
(»la-jVl (Sj^ zSvil irham possessors of relation, relatives 

2. ^^^>X^ sahib possessor; pi. .^Ise^l as-hab: 

\^^\ v^^litf sakihûl imza who signs, the undersigned. 

oil— .^\^ o\^;\ieJ\ wo^U? BohibvX khayrat vil hasanat. The 
possessor (or the author) of this good and charitable work. 

3. V la not, without: 

396 tv cr-J^ lesson 57. f*^^ 

Uapc^^İ la yoiih'sa innumerable. ^yi^ ^ ySmoiU immortal. 

Jİ&jV Za ^ouX:?i'ti infallible. Jl.|V 2a 2/tîe2(i' inevitable. 

Jt*^ la ahiy' nothing. jC \V Za u^/aZ» careless. 

§ 695. n. Persian System, ^^jli J^l 

1. (^j i^elee, veli owner; Ujl evliya. 

J^ Uj t^eZt^t ahd the heir apparent, crown prince. 
sz^m J J * pjJi J J veli niymet, veliyûn niyam benefactor. 
^'"^ -2 v^..»*i Jj i7^Zi niymHi biminnH a benefactor who upraids not 

2. ^Ljl erbab (pi. of ,^j r^&fc) owner of, endowed 

• • • 

with, master: 

c^^ <J^^j\ ^rhahi hikniH men of wisdom, philosophers. 
^Â* v-jlijl irha'M hunir endowed with skill, artisans. 
^j\yk v-jlijl Srba'M m^raq men of curiosity, of hobbies. 
t.j^ Jljl *^^\ ji bou ishifi hhahidîr he is skilful in this. 

3. s^^>\a sahib, pi. »^W:?! as-hab possessor, owner: 

sIjj^ s— >-ltf sahibi sirvit a man of wealth, rich. 
c^jj v-jUe^\ ashabî s^rvdt the rich class.^ i^U:^! asha'bî nejabit the noble class, nobilities. 

J^i^ s^-s-U sahibi firash ill in bed, sick. 

4. p-ljil enva, pi. of ^ji w^'i;; kinds, varieties: 

si^li>« «^i^\ invayi meshaqqat all kinds of troubles. 

5. JaI e/i? man, person, pi. <^UI ehali: 

A>L-\ Ja\ e/i7e islam a Moslem. ^_/»^ Ja\ eh'li %rz honorable. 
sz^ JaI Sh'li beyt family. o^ Ja\ ih'li Ichibri expert 

cJ^ Ja\ eh'li hiyit astronomer. jkl* Ja\ eh'li mantis logidan. 
c-JİAJ eh'liyit capacity, capability, ability (§ 681). 
t. Jüaİ eh'liyHli able, capable. J-^'J^aI eh'liyStsiz incapable. 

fAV Arabic Compound Words. 397 

6. v*.^ hûsn goodness, good: pi. j^l^ mehasin, 

^»j^ ^j.^^ hûs'nû khidnUt good, valuable service. 
JU ^y,.^ lıûs'nû hal good condition; character. 
ii^ y.^ hûs'nû khatt' fine penmanship. 

7. *^ SOU evil, bad (pi. ^^jL^ mesavi [§ 649]): 

JU ^ .«ou'yî hal bad behaviour, bad condition. 
^ ^ sou'yi zann a bad opinion, suspicion. 
jL,â3 ^M. sou'yi qasd attempt to murder. 
JI(aI«.\ ^ souyi istimal bad usage, abuse. 

8. ^dc âdâm non-existence, absence (used with nouns): 

si^lLi pJic ademi ita-at disobedience. 

vi^lc-j #Jp adi' mi ri-a-yet dishonour. 

ojji pJüc adi'mi qoudrit weakness. ^j^J r-^ add'mi vujoud 

pjp jli^ diyarı adem abode of annihilation, death. 

9. M Mia without (used with nouns [§ 530]): 

jyJÂ >\i hi'la qousour blameless; spotless; perfect. 

i>^ >Vi hi'la gharaz without any intention, aimless ; sincere. 

10. j\s^ ghayrî non-, in-, un- (with adjectives): 

Cr^C* ^ ghay'ri mumkin impossible. 
AjL» ^ ghay'ri malum unknown. 
jjiV w^c- ghay'ri layiq unworthy. 
iİb ^ ghay'ri ktafi unsufficient. 
JLw. ^ J JLw. mûslim v4 ghay'ri muslim Moslem and non-Moslem. 

11. Jli kemal perfection; perfect: 

c-i:> Jlc» kSma'U dtq'qat perfect attention. 
^ps-iî JlŞ""^ kima'lt Ushek'kur perfect gratitude. 

898 tV crJi Lesson 57. r%A 

12. Ji fiefs person, self: 

i^^JlJ li ' <.«.JlIi binnifSy hinefsihi personally, 
t. »i^ v^ nSfsi sMhirdi in the very city, 
t. Ojojj\ -Jil (iX5^ Tchidi nefsim ûzMni on my person. 

13. o\p * ^^x. ayni the very same: 

• >- 

t. aLLc ' <.l^ ayniy'U^ biaynihi exactly the same. 

c^jj^ Cj^ ay'ni souret the exact copy ; the very same way. 
t. eJûUj ^ ayni zamanda at the same time. 

t-t - 

vJl^^l 5 ^^JiJ Reading Exercise. 

j^ JÜ >i wis J j:^<: 

' oÜaU '41 ^ jjljl 'oyb3 ^ JL^ JLP j; 

•ûU-? ^^--^jU- vSblij jl jjljl aLII 

TForcZs awd JVb^es. Nekbit ou ziVUti ehli zoülmSl the overthrow 
and abasement of tyrants. 1. ahd slave; habSsh Abyssinian; 
a negro. 2. dehr world. 3. p. bakht fortune, destiny. (Allusion is 
made to Nadir Shah, the conqueror of Tartary, Afghanistan and 
India 1735—45.) 4. Dalı hak name of a celebrated Arabian tyrant» 
who conquered Persia and slew king J^mshid. He is said to have 
had two snakes living between his shoulders, which were fed 
daily with the brains of two little children, Zohak (ABt3rage8? 
Deioces?). 5. milk kingdom. 6. Kiave name of the blacksmith 
of Ispahan, Kava (Cepheus), who killed Zohak's tax-gatherer who 
came to seize his children, hoisted his own leather apron as a 
standard of revolt and made Feridoun (Phraortes), a descen- 
dant of Jemshid, king, and delivered Persia. 7. pSrishan H*' to 
scatter or ruin. 8. iqbal, idbar prosperity, misfortane. 9, bil 
baghlamaq to trust. 10. dayir^, circle (§ 582). 11. dSvr İL" to 
turn, revolve; chenberi divran fortune's wheel. 12. zulm wrong; 
the fayil of which is zalim tyrant. 13. giriftar ol'' to be subjected 
to. 14. akMr at last (fayil of dkhSr), 



rw Arabic Compound Words. 899 

OW— AİIİ ob-H^f ^Jbl.L^ 

? ci3^ "ju: "*i.i üiiiı *'jjui.\; 

•o\<i--^ 4JLI (jM^ oJüı>. Ji j3 jr 

15. 6A»^r for eksSriya frequently (§ 683); jc^ara punishment 
16. jins kind, sort; am^Z crime, sin, guilt (= tooth for tooth and 
eye for eye). 17. ah^n iron. 18. raÂ:Âne ruin, death; ^u^n a file, 
rasp. 19. Uzkeer et." to remember, remind. 20. Ian cursing. 
21. Hafjaj a celebrated tyrant, governor of Iraq. 22. Jângiz the 
great cruel and conqueror of the IS^li century, 23. tSbjeel treating 
with great honour. 24. Nousheervan name of the greatest king of 
the Sassani line of Persian sovereigns; Souliyman Solomon. 25. qahilf 
mumkin (fayil of imkian) possible. 26. ilfaz words, terms. 27. tcufh- 
yeer to change, verify (§ 615). 28. t^freeq to distinguish (§ 615). 

29.^^i5^if pron. kûfr means blasphemy; lîkifr covering, atonement; 

belief. 30. insha et." to build. 31. deer a monastery; mi^id 
a mosque. 32. nazarî Haqq in God's sight (comp. Matt. VI., 45). 
33. m^jous fire-worshipper. 34. iU for vd. 85. Mimâk to moan, 
to suff'er. 36. mih'net affliction; ghamm sorrow. Sl.p.payan, a. akhir 
end, limit; sitem injury. 38. muktafat reward (III. of kSyf[% 706 b]); 
hûsnû— (§ 695 ®). 39. think about; Yousouf Joseph. 40. ikhvan 
brothers. 41. TaVldhi Uqad asdrekel lahou aUyna Truly (By Godl), 
God has appointed you ruler over us (these are the words which 
the brothers of Joseph spoke — according to the Qoran — when 
he made himself known to them). 


i 88 .. 11 

400 t A cr-J^ Lesson 58. *l** 

aI)^ Conyersation. 
Ojlj j A visit. 

. pjj^>« o:><jl^ V"^"^ • r-^*-4^ 

o:>U\ jy JV> û^J^'ia-^" •J^.^A^cJ «-O^ -^^^ ^J^ 
vJ^ -JjJoij^* ci<;U-*jJj ! p^ (ijS^li-^ o\S 1 (İJC5\ pili. 

^A ^r'-^j> Lesson 58. 

4^:>ljl* oU^ Synonymous Words. 

§ 696. In the Arabic and Persian languages it 
is customary to use two and even three words of the 
same meaning (KeUmatî Müteradife) in the same sen- 
tence to express one idea. This is considered one of the 
beauties of the language. That was the case with the 
old Ottoman literature too, in which the Turks imitated 
this characteristic of the said languages. 

But through contact with European languages and 
their literature, the new generation of writers has begun 
gradually to forsake the old wearisome system and to 

h.* t SynonymouB Words. 40L 

adapt the use of simple and single words. Yet there 
remain some instances of the old system, which by 
the sanction of centuries have been stereotyped and 
consolidated even in the common speech. 

§ 697. The synonymous words are united together 

by a J, which is generally pronounced ou^ vû^ not 
ve. The shorter of the two comes first. 

For instance, the Turkish word İ4-t.JU chdlishatim 

is expressed by LjuiI ASi\ j ^j^ say ou iqdam edelim, 

or loJbi Cjj^ 3 ^j^ say ou ghayret edelim: the words 

^y— 'vİLnp '(»ioS* all meaning 'effort'; and the meaning 
of the sentences is 'let us try'. 

dukinmez the mercy of God does not come to an end. 

Ajftjul t^y J ^^ {SJ>^ loutfounouzou Uminni vu ter^'ji 
edirim I ask for your kindness. 

Ai<lii lij\ J \i\ o-^--^ d^j^nimi ida m iy-fa iyUdim I paid my 

debts (3 is pronounced i?w, after vowels). 

The words J ^ Î J ^J^.y both mean *to ask' and -i \^\ i 
^\ Uj\ mean 'to pay'. 

Note, ou is appended to the last syllable of the previous word. 

Ji^ Examples. 

-\ llj J 7-Ju med'hou shia et," to praise. 
J\ Cn-jeJ J ^J^ taqdiroutah'seenet/' to praise and appreciate 

-\ A^s^\ J J:3 qatlou idam et." to kill. 

-\ ^^ J Ji-\ akhzou girift H!' - to arrest and seize. 

ö^t«^ J ^^ hazîr ou amadi ready, 

o^ J r^ic ouloum ou funoun arts and sciences. 

o^^ J jjc- ilmou îr fan science and art. 

-i jf J^ J u^^ arzou taqdim 4t." to present, to offer. 

JlJj J cJj^ devUt ou iqbal prosperity and good fortune. 

Turkish Cony .-Grammar. 26 

402 t A urj^ Lesson 58. ^»r 

U. CL^ Cj\J^ Symphonions Termiıuıtioıus. 

§ 698. it was a great task in the andent Ottoman 
literature, in imitation of Arabic and Persian to accu- 
mulate in a sentence words of the same termination; as: 

Muj)j^ f ^»i "•'^J f ^ f ^ hinğf^nU toro/m risidiyi h^jam 
oloun'ja when dinner(-time) was over. 

hazriU padifkahi the prosperous birth-dajr of H. L M. the Soltan. 

ut^i i> ^^j^ Kj^y^ viJU^ ctjV itUotMou mhyminA'mi^' 
nausau HaeriH Mloul-lahi the aospidoos accession of H. I. M. 

(ile^ o^j> 6^' nMuMnt eishanî Osmani the glorious 
Ottoman order (of knighthood). 

m. o^UxU Cj\j^ Antonyms. 

§ 699. There is another class of words which, 
though they are not synonymous and have contrary 

meanings, are yet connected together by j ote, rA: 

l)^\ J i^l <Mzou ita a taking and giving, buying and selling, 
trade, basiness. Turkish aUsh virish. 

jji^ ^y^f:\ J \jst\ ^ji J» hou yoU>vn ipMa cu imtihad 
yoq dour this road has no beginning and no end. 

•X^litl j\t^\ J Jul iqhal ou idbar isnattlnda in the time of 
prosperity and misfortune. 

oJ ur y, ^ ^ ^JT ^J^yry^ cfu^jauqlara jug ou kûfU bir 
aihey vhr give the children something more or less. 

^^i^\ sZj^jS'J sz^jf' a1jJIi^\ hUmbola ageemU au modk iyU- 
aim I went to Constantinople and came back. 

jlt\l« MiscXUr Examples. 

J^ J ^ khay'rou shirr good and evil. 

oic« J CjI»> hayatau mhnaJb lifo and death. 

v^ij>- J Jlj^ souvaH vi jevab question and answer. 

j^ J jC Jciar vS earar gain and loss. 

U»^ J Utf 8ifa vâ jifa pleasure and pain. 

'^U^^J^^^ mufc^^fatou mûjaeat reward and punishment 

<L.«r Synonymotui Words. 40S 

•Uji^i J *Ui\ iyfa VÜ itHyfa payment and receipt of a debt. 

jUcJLi«l J jUi\ v<ir OK ittijar leasing and hiring. 

«JLT J JLJ Ualimviihitlûm delivery and receipt 

J^SJklA J {J^\y\ iqrca ou ittiqraz lending and borrowing. 

fJU J JLJ talim ouU-aT-lum teaching and learning. 

> ♦ ^ W Exercise l&O. 

A>.jj jr OjcV ojljl (îlio jlJuX>. dljÇjlj^ • j^ j^ J JSp 
jyi«S 'l^^j^ vl^llJ-l s vl^l-!^-! L^U -u-î^j» T .^jjOU 
-t^ (f jirV ^^^^ ^ 'jjSCL oil ^>ji ' JJ.U. oLr^ 'ttji* 

^ J 41 "ol" Ju^\ oVjl ^jjr> oJu-jli oU 1 • j>:il •3G:pI J 

4.U* ,>b *LjtJ j*l i5jCj>. 0JÜUI Ojİ» jJj> 0^ >«^ "cr*^' 
' ^1 .JLL-Vl pjî »iUal— J Jul i^jB^ iti . ">,54İ.l Cy** 

Words and Notes, 1. «ta'cfotid regarded. 2. moZt^ dtr he has, 
owns. 3. mSrhoum deceased and admitted to God's mercy ^m^fonl 
of rahmit); 3. mûtitiffa dead, asleep (m^foal of tMffi [§ 623p; 
3. hoği Jerusalem pilgrim (fayil oîhajj' is hcyij = haji); KHtjOin 
Haji Boghos Effindi, 4. papa the pope of Rome. 5. id-diya^ 
id'da-a to claim. 6. itimd conviction (Vni. of aqd [§ 627]), eeman 
belief. 7. halifC for hdİiİii yoar situation, distr^. 8. arz Stmik 
to state politely. 9. namerd coward (§ 530), cruel. 10. himan jbt since. 
11. JciXU skull, head. 12. MlaK cap; mird a manly man. 18. mûhttt 

dreadful (fayil of ihaU, IV. of J^a). 14. itfa to extinguish (§ 619). 

15. hijrH ar to pass. 16. aûfla lower, lowest (fern, of Safil [% 610]. 


404 »A LrJ-i L«B80n 58. x«t 

? jl^ Jt ^^^ o33i^>. dhxs\ ^. ^® j>-W- ^®>uJI 3<Jm ^ 

17. s^yr ou seyahat journey; 17. prSns d% Oal the Prince of 
Wales. 18. is-sey'yİd a descendant from Muhammad, Lord ; 18. hogi 
pilgrim to Mecca. 19. haqi everlasting ifayil of ha^c^ dayim 
permanent {fayil of devam), 

\0\ A^J Translation 15L 

I. 1. The speaker^ began* his speech, by saying, 
'Honourable hearers.'^ 2. Where is the residence of the 
undersigned? 3. The word Vho' is used for those 
who have sense*, and 'which' for things which have no 
sense. 4. My uncle is wealthy: his property is immense 
(innumerable). 5. Kojaman oghlou is a skilful (capable) 
artisan, he is a thorough master of his business: but 
Bichaqji oghlou is an incapable man, his family is always 
in poverty^. 6. Scientists and artist» have done great 
services to humanity®. 

II. 7. The teacher of penmanship in the College 
is Haji Nahid Effendi. 8. The pupils who hav6 been 
disobedient', the teacher disgraces® them. 9. There 
was a great multitude®: the Moslem and the non-Moslem 
inhabitants of the city, with their families, were all 
present there. 10. I have not the habit of lending 
and borrowing. 11. The leasing and the hiring of this 
house are finished^®. 12. The question ^^ of education" 
is a question of life and death for a nation, 13. The 
payment and the receipt of your debt are impossible 
now. 14. Ali-Mouzaff^r Eflfendi was appointed guardian 
(patron) to this orphan. 

Words and Notes. 1. natiq (fayil of noutq speech). 2. tbUdar 
et." 3. Jıouz'zarî zSvil vaqar hazaratî: huz'zar pi. of Tmetr^ gMl 
yaqar (§ 694^); hazar at pi. of hazret 4. zivü ouqoul: (mqoul^ pi. 
of aql sense (§ 694 *). 5. faqr ou zarourSt. 6. insaniyit (§ 581). 
1. adâmiita-atda houlounan. 8. adimi ri-ayetdihoukmnowr. 9. ir* 
^i/iam (§ 620). K^.khitamhoulmaq. \\.miâU{n.yr.mimoÎ80uvdS^ 
12. talimou terbiye. 

x,*9 Synonymous Words. 405 

Z^\ 3 ,^Aai Beading Exercise. 

\} ^ 

. jjbl^^ljl SH jjljl cfj. Jf sut 

j • • • •• — 

23'^ I - 22 • •* T 21 '/*^20., a 

TFor^s and Notes. Terkihi-bend a poem in stanzas of similar 
metre but of different rhyme; the distiches of each stanza rhyme, 
excepting the last distich (pp. 302, 396). 1. teveJckûî to trust (in God) 
[V. of vekil]; yavSr helper; Haqq The True One, God. 2. shad happy; 
nashad unhappy (§ 530). 3. filik a revolving sphere of the heavens; 
fortune, destiny. 4. meshreb natural disposition; nasaz discordant, 
incorrect. 5. dSbntk inconsistent, changeable (§ 439). 6. Take 
refuge! Trust to God! (= May God keep you). 7. halim mild, 
gentle (adj. q. of hilm [§ 606]). 8. ghazab anger. 9. youmshaq 
khouylou mild-natured; chiftS a kick with both hind feet at once. 
10. pek, pSrk violent, severe. 11. graceful smile: nezaket (pseudo- 
Arabic from p. nazik) grace; tebSssum smile (§ 622). 12. p. sheer 
a lion; qasd it" to intend to kill. 13. bed-asîl whose family or 
origin is vile, bad; mean, nasty. 14. nijabH nobility. 15. üniforma 
uniform [It.]. 16. zerdouz gold-laced (§535), 17. to saddle: palan 
a pad substituted for a saddle in the East; it resembles a large 
cushion. 18. bed-maye vile-natured (§ 536). 19. pleasure party, 
society: miy, wine. 20. ishret drinking, wine. 21. giher disposition. 
22. tMyeezit." to distinguish. 23. mehekk\ vnlg. mehSng a touchstone, 
test (n. i. of Ukk [§ 599]). 

406 »A crji Lesson 58. ^»1 

• »^IjS tJjJS tSj^- '^»I.-^ J ^y^^ 

! c^j fija »Jiji ; fj4-üi **j*i ill, I jCUj» 

24. nou8-h', nousouJi advice; yola gümik to come right 
25. to punish (§ 615). 26. haqq right, claim. 27. kSbUk hesLÜng, 
cudgelling. 28. belief and religion. 29. Srbabî ghtna the rich people 
(§ 695 ^). 30. namous a sense of honour, decorum ; hameeyit honesty. 
31. naghmâ song, a melody sung. 32. taqdeer et," to appreciate. 
33. p. gush ear. 34. tazyee to waste [II. of zay^]\ nSfSs the breath. 
35. Ubdeel et." to change ; maqam a tune. 36. avrH^ avrat womftn. 
37. maghlouh d!' to be defeated; 'hk'oa any unreasonable bias. 88. k 
brave man (Armenian). 39. nefs the carnal man, the spirit of 
conscupiscence. 40. ram et!' to submit. 41. mafni/fCdi ah^ir like 
a tree. 42. nahit d." to grow, to vegetate. 43. sahü ol. ' to be 
firm. 44. ehl 2k capable man (§ 695 % 45. no^an deficiency. 
46. work. 47. pizira'yî khitam et," to bring to an end. 

aI|5^ Conyersation. 

A Visit on Ship-board. 


Euphonic Changes of the Letters. 



-^« > 

^^ u^^ Lesson 59. 

Euphonic Changes of the Letters. 

A. Assimilation or ^l^^l Idgham. 

§ 700. Idgham is (the imposition of one letter 
on another, or) the assimilation of one letter to another. 
This occurs when two letters of the same kind have 
come together. The imposition (or assimilation) always 
takes place on the second letter, provided that the first 

408 •^ u-J'> Lesson 59* !•* 

is qiliescent (§ 42). The assimilation is denoted by a 
shedde (") over the second letter; the qniescent letter 
is marked by a jeema (') [§ 45]. 

§ 701. There are four cases in which Idgham 

a. If the First of the double Homogeneous Letters 
is quiescent^ it is removed or imposed upon the second, 
and the latter is doubled or marked witli a shiddi; as: 

siJLU mit let: the first lam is quiescent: therefore it is omitted 

and imposed on the second lam: and this imposition is indicated 
h^ a sheddit which shows that the second lam is doubled thus: 

^U mU'lit. 

• tf 

c-»^A>. Md'dH 'anger': is written as oJb^ hid'dH, 

ys- ^ kZjjs-^ davit f afv: the Obj. Part, of the measure Jjm* 

is jj^J^ ^ jjJuk» mâdauv, mafouv; the first letter j is quiescent, 
therefore imposed on the second j ; as : ^ JuT * jki^ midauVy mafouv. 

There is no change in the pronunciation in either 

b. If the First of the double Homogeneous Letters 
is punctuated by a vowel, the vowel is cast back upon 
the preceding letter and the letter itself imposed upon 
the second: 

J>U.l ikhlal to spoil: the remainder is Jli- (§ 634a): the 

Suhjective Participle is Jiie^ : the first of the double letters has 
a vowel, the vowel is cast back upon the preceding letter: hence 

• • ^ 0^ 

JJUb* moukli'Hl becomes J.U&« movkhiW; after the assimilation 

J.4o« mou-khiir. 

Jujii. shMid severe: VS Jlİ: the Noun of Superiority according 
• ^ •' * ^ *" 

to the measure JJidl (§ 609) is ^JlİI isK-dSd: Remove the vowel 

• •■'•' * -^ 

to the preceding: it is ^jJt,\ eshedd, after the assimilation jJt,\ 
S'Shidil 'severest'. 

c. If the Preceding Letter already has a yowel^ 
or if it is an elif, the vowel of the first letter cannot 
be carried back to the preceding; therefore the vowel 
of the first letter is omitted: and the letter itself is 
placed over the second of the double homogeneoos 
letters : 

>b«^ Euphonic ChaDges of the Letters. 409^ 

^\Xj\ irtidad apostasy (Vin of V^^j [§ 627]): the remainder 

İ8 ^-^J (§ 634 a): the Subj. Part, is İJJ^ tnûrU'-did: the first of 
the double letters ^ has a vowel: that vowel cannot be brought 
back to the preceding o ; because it already has a vowel : there- 
fore the vowel of the first ^ is omitted: as ^-LlJ^ murtSdd, and 
the letter itself imposed upon or assimilated with the second 
^ : as -lT^ mûr-tidd' (vulg. mourtad, mtrtad) apostate. 

Note. In such cases the Objective Participle is the same with 
Subj. Part, as: ^-lT^ murted^d ^= ^J^^ = Ju^ murteclel; but 
the Obj. Part, of the measures Infiqdl and IftiqcU is not used. 

^ , ->^- according to the measure J-^li 

the Subj. Part, is jjL» ma -rir: the first of the double homogeneous 
letters (j) has a vowel; but that vowel cannot be transported 
to the preceding letter, because it is Hif: therefore the vowel of the 
first re is omitted as jjU marr: and the letter itself assimilated 
with the second ri j'. as jU marr\ 

d. If two elifs have come together, the first elif is 
assimilated with the second: but the second Uif^ instead 
of taking a shedde, has a medda placed over it (§§ 29 d, 
39, 47, 603): 

^\ imr order: the Subj. Part, of the measure J5U is jt\\ 
€-amir: the first elif is omitted and the second ha s m^ dda; thus 

^\ a-mir commander, öul t^^an to follow: V Jl: J^b: J\| 

S-a-ti = (3) o-it following. 

^Toie. 1. All double homogeneous letters are not subject to 

assimilation, there are exceptions; as: iJu» midid help, Jl>. khalU 

injury, j^ zarar loss, v..^ sSbSb reason, u-^Itl^İ iJctitab copying. 

^ • • • 

2. The Subj. Part, of Tt>- hajj ^pilgrimage' is p»^^ = r r^ 

hajj = 97U /laji; or j»-U- /lajt pilgrim [to Mecca (Sünni Moslems), 

Jerusalem (Christians), K^rb^la (Persians) and Haji B^ktash near 
Kîr-sh^hir (Qizllbashes)]. 

\oy Ju7 Exercise 162. 

Change the following words into the prescribed 
forms, first without idgham and afterwards with idgham: 

Into the Subjective Participle (Fayil§§ 601—3, 634d) : 

410 •^ u^j^ Lesson 59. ^t* 

.• -•• ^. 

Into the Noun of Location (JîuLt): 

.• <^ 

Into the Noun of Superiority (J5I § 609): 

Into the Noun with Mim (cJSL^): 

3b^^ w>- jji JJ^ J:J3 JjU- 

Words. 1. confusion (spoilt). 2. to implore help (who asks 
help). 3. to eat. 4. case, especiality (especial). 5. addition (added). 
6. to take. 7. persistence (persistent). 8. completeness. 9. a be- 
coming red (intensely red). 10. common (general, public). 11. to 
abide, stay (an abode, place). 12. to pass (a passage, path). 13. to 
scratch (a touch stone). 14. complete; true. 15. few. 16. beloved. 
17. delicious. 18. love (love). 19. loss (loss). 20. joy (joy). 

B. Modification of Letters. J^l^l BelaL 

§ 702. The letters ^ ^\ are called Veak' or 

^feeble' letters {houroufou illet), and all the others are 
called 'sound' letters {houroufou sahihe) by the Arabs. 
The weak letters cannot bear any burden or 'motion' 
(vowel), as the sound letters can ; they cannot have any 
vowel, they must be quiescent (§ 42). If in the formation 
of words they should be in a position in which a vowel 
would naturally be placed on them, were they 'sound' 
letters, this vowel is removed or modified. 

§ 703. The general principal of modification or 
pernmtation of the weak letters is as follows: 

When a vowel (-^) and a weak letter (^^ j I) which 

is not analogous to it come together in a word, the 
ordinary laws of euphony require that one should yield; 
and in Arabic the vowel prevails. 

Note. liJlif is analogous to ûstûn, yi to isri and WAV to 
Sbtre (§ 27). 


Eaphonic Changes of the Letters. 


§ 704. The weak letters j and ^£ require especial 
consideration: the changes of I are not important 

§ 705. Modiflcatlon of vav j\j J>IpI 

a. K vav has a vowel and the preceding letter is 
quiescent, its vowel is transported to the preceding 
letter; as: 

oj^ * J^ * ^j^ savn, qavly hhavf V ojS * L)^ ' ^j^ ' the 

Obj. Part, by the measure Jjjuuk (§ 604): ojj.„aj» ' jj^Ju» * sJj^-^j* 

nuM-voun, maq-voul, mdkh'vouf: modified oJ^y-"^^ ma-<cm-Oim etc. 

after the assimilation oj^^aj^ ' J^JL* ' ^Jysc^ tito-soun, maqoul, 
makhouf 'kept, spoken, terrible'. 

b. K the letter preceding vav has esre as its vowel 
(j— ) vav is changed into ,^ (-İ-); as: 

The word. 



form *. 


^ > 





^y>-j mjoud 


• • > 



iji^M (§620) 

Subj. Part. 




c. If the letter preceding vav have li^^iJn as its 
vowel, Cj— ) the vav is changed into e?i/* (-a-): 

• ^» 


cjjIj^ adavet 

'' *» ^ 



^ The forms in this column do not actually occur, but are 
given to show how the rule works. 


•^ ltJ^ I^esson 59. 


The word. 





iâj riza 

J^ qavl 

• ^^ • ^ 

• ^ • ^ 

J^ JjuL. 



• . .'• 


• ^ 

jji divr 


\ me 



d. Fav after servile elif is changed into Aân^ 
(§§591, 602 a): 

jkj laghv 
o^y^j rtdvan 



X " ^ 

J di 

I da-vir 
\ il-l 




N Of JiiS Exercise 168. 

Change the following nouns into the forms mentioned 
below: first into the natural and afterwards into the 
modified forms: 

Subjective Participle (§§ 602—603): 

.• •*• ^. 

Noun with JbKm (JÜ.*): 

8 . • ." t 9 ..• 1 i • r < . 'S^ I 10. i' ^ I 11 .. ' ^ 

TTordfs. 1. to continue. 2. word, agreement (consenting). 
3. emptiness. 4. fasting. 5. eminence. 6. sleep. 7. consent. 
8. fear. 9. taste (taste). 10. permission (fignratiye languageX 
11. death (death). 


Euphonic Changes of the Letters. 


' Derivative Infinitive (JlSI [§ 621]). 

^JJJ üj^J ^y>-J Q^-^ ^-^ ^y^-^* 
Deriv. Inf. (Jllt^l [§ 631]): ^'^ * ^Mij ' '"c^^- 

12. arrival (to bring forward, to cite). 13. arrival (to send). 
14. existence (to invent). 15. clearness (to explain). 16. to ex- 
cuse, pardon (to resign). 17. loyalty (to receive). 18. (to ask an 

§ 706. Modification of yS »l JMpI 


a. If ye would properiy and regularly have a vowel 
and if the preceding letter be quiescent, the vowel is 
transfered to the preceding letter: 

The word. 



^^ ^ ^ 

o>^ — - siyHan 

^K— s4yr 

^ ^ ^ 



I» x- 
,( ^ 

1 1 mSs-yU 

** 1 - • 'I • ^ 


, me-si-ri. 

b. If the letter preceding ye have W5^tîw for its 
vowel, the ye is changed into elif: 

V-I nifi, 
Ic-j ri-ayet 

ojlf j ziyarit 


• ^ • ^ 


I mez^Sr 
I ma-ySsh 

vZ.«.IL. i • 


v^i V â a • 

c. If ye is quiescent and the preceding letter has 
edtre as its vowel, the ye is changed into vat;: 

(§ 621) 

• > 


• > 




•^ uO<> LeMon 59. 


d. After the servile elif^ yi is usually changed into 
himze (§§ 591, 602 a): 

The word. 





<j JLA hidiyi 

• * 
^ ^ " 


• r 

1 iMai 


\ 1 V W Exercise 164. 

Change the following words into the measures 
mentioned below : first into their natural and afterwards 
into their modified forms: 

Subjective Participle [§§ 602—603}: 

Deriv. Inf. (J\2SI): « j.^' 'L'V ' '^'^' '^'^ 
Derivative Infinitive (Jl3l): 

Noun with mim (Jîul«): 

14 . f ' 16 ^1 . 

t 16V 

• ^r.- > 

• <•_ .«^ 

Derivative Infinitive (*Sli, = cJ»li« § 618): 



(SO - • ^ ( tl • • ( 2S 


( 28t 7 < s^ •: ( S6 


Words, 1. visit (visitor). 2. much (redundant, saperflnoas). 
3. to obtain (worthy). 4. to leave a remnant, to look (other, 
remainder). 5. to cause: to leave a legacy (who leaves property 
to one as heir; that causes). 6. dress, costnme (to wear a garments 
7. end (to come to an end). 8. to be enough (to suffice). 9. com- 
plaint (to complain). 10. softness (to loosen). 11. drinkİDff (to 
drink). 12. to act, happen (to perform) 18. (to wear). 14. abım* 
dance. 15. much (auction). 16. horror. 17. light (Ught-honse). 
18. respect, esteem. 19. meeting, encounter. 20. deUfl^t (amUyX 
21. whispering (supplication). 22. medicine (treatment). 88. pl< 
(to vaunt). 24. discord. 25. pleasure (reward). 

Euphonic ChaDges of the Letters. 


üJI^ .^\^ Beading Exercise. 

le Ceremony of the 
mation of the King 
of England. 

an: Aug. 9., 1902. — The 
lony of the Coronation took 
at 12.40 in Westminster 
Yy the interior of which was 
didly decorated. 

wd of incalculable numbers 

athered all along the route 

3 Royal Couple [the King 

le Queen] from Buckingham 

B to the Cathedral, making 

siastic ovations. The King 
.red to be in excellent 


p. m. their Mi^esties (after 
g received the homage of 
rchbischop of Canterbury, 
rince of Wales, the Duke 
>rfolk, and the represen- 
s of the Nobility) returned 

". *. 

: «jLi^oî c^jL^T ^U\ i «o^t 

< j!>*^^^^ > 3j^j *( J^^^ ) v^w? 

TTofiJ^ and Notes, Ingiltirra Qrdli hmrHiiSri^iu rismi tHitf» 
i. 1. r^sm pi. mir asim (§ 649) ceremony. 2. fSvqU-'add extnr 
irily (§ 671 h). 3. mû«^a*«;ia' souritdS splendidly (§ 458): mû- 
I m^f. of sha-sha-a (§ 685). 4. haearat pi. of i^r^ (f§ 497, 
5. jhnmi ghafeer a great multitude. 6. ahvali Hh'hiyS: 
pi. of hal, sih'hi-yi sanitary: m^nsoub of sfh'hat (§ 579). 
h pisqopos. 8. tZi for vi (§ 470). 9. Pr^s dl Gal. I dl 
Ik. 10. zadigtan (pi. of zadfi nobles SIO); -^' « 
y/t assembly, m^ious (m^f. of 6a'«) d 


•^ u-J.> Lesson ^9. 


to Buckingham Palace, where 
they appeared on the balcony 
and were loudly cheered by the 
throng outside. 

We are assured that the King 
experienced no fatigue from 
(during) the ceremony and looked 
well throughout it. 

The illuminations in the evening 
were magnificent; a vast crowd 
thronged the streets and filled 
the air with their shouts of joy. 
(The Constantinople Agency.) 

^M 'MiTi ^j ve^ J»j-i 

LM J^li «Çİ-İ- c^j.jjl f IÜÎ 
31/ JU\ jj». ^. • jJL-îij)jJ 
iljo^ii jl^l,^ ^^ o];^- ^-4^ 

London : the same (day) — Coro- 
nation day was favoured with 
splendid weather r the city was 
richly beflagged and a vast crowd 
filled the streets. 

The ceremony in the Abbey, of 

which the duration was an hour 

and a quarter, was magnificent. 

The King showed no signs of 


12. ti-e-min H," : to assure (2 of hnn [§ 615]). 18. Ur Umal 
perfect (§ 557 e). 14. nasiyi looking, face (§ 582). 15. moutantan 
magnificent (m^f. of tantana [§ 458]). 16. t^^ab ou mSahaqqat 
fatigue and suffering; hiss it/': to feel. 17. ayin ceremony. 

Euphonic Changes of the Letters. 


procession (of the Coro- 
n) was gorgeous. All the 
i and Peeresses were in 
attire and produced a grand 
. (and among them were) 

Kitchener, General Sir 
selee, and Admiral Seymour, 
lotels were decorated, and 
rdinary prices were main- 
i. The terms for places 
i platforms were very mode- 
The enthusiasm was great. 

Edward, although very 
ooks very well. No accident 
red. (The National Agency.) 

^XSy. 0^<-) Jl^T 3 ( ^\y, ) 

18. alay procession. 19. stra bench, platform. 20. doun 
noderate. 21. hadisi (fay il of houdous [§ 582]). 

[i^oronation in Westminster 
i and the procession lasted 
ur. The weather is magni- 
. After the ceremony the 
and Queen returned to 

nghara Palace. 

Cing, who looks thinner, 
■es that the ceremony 
i him no fatigue. 


s1,pL^. iSjj^ ^y\j ^^^ ^j^ 



(4jjy ) 

tkigh Conv. -Grammar. 



!♦ L^j^ Lesson 60. 


^* u^(> Lesson 60. 

Miscellaneous Idiomatic Phrases. 

Elden geleni yap. 

Shimdi gelir, 

iki günde bir. 

Ben olmasam boghoidajaq idî. 

Az qaldi beni lir g^eden 

O qadart el verir. 
Bana el vermem. 
Bana el etdi. 
Ona g^z etdi, 
Aqlî bashhıa geldi. 
Bashî dara geldiyi gibi. 
Bashî tasha gelir gelmez. 
Onou bir shey yerine qomaz. 

PeJc chapouq alhüyor. 

Yûzûnii asmislı. 

Aqlhna geldi. 

Aqlhia braq. 

Dediklerimi fikrifide tout. 

Depetaqla getdi. 

Eodımı 2)cıflcıdı. 

IJstûnû bashîfıî dey islidir. 

SSzitnii achmaq. 

Ne qadar vaqit surer? 

Bou Inch bir sheye yaramaz. 

G^zdm gechir. 

Elime beoyle bir kitab gech- 

diyi yoghoiidou. 
Yemeye gelir amma saqla- 

niaya gelmez. 
Derisi qirmtziya clialar. 
Sijimi iki qatla. 
Evleri iki qat dır. 

Bir dil baghî vermishler. 

Do as much as you can. 
He will be here presently. 
Once in two days. 
But for my help he would 

have been drowned. 
He came very near causing 

me the loss of an eye. 
That was sufficient. 
I cannot afford it. 
He beckoned me. 
He winked at him. 
He came to his senses. 

When he got into trouble. 

He regards that as of no 

He is easily touched. 
He is out of humour. 
It occurred to me. 
Remind him of it. 
Remember what I say. 
It went down head foremost. 
It alarms me excessively. 
Change your clothes. 
To commence conversation. 
How long will it take? . 
This is good for nothing. 
Cast your eye over it. 
Such a book 1 had never 

It is good to eat, but will 

not do to keep. 
Its skin is reddish. 
Double the string. 
Their house is two stories 

They had given a token. 

Miscellaneous Idiomatic Phrases. 


)a hir qab gechir, 
n oraya, ordan oraya 
olajaq heoyle? 
tq asma. 
Î yerine qodou, 


cmeye aghzîm varmayor. 1 
I üste varmayor, J 

m^oun (eyri) dour. 
%e isen, hende o youm. 

I var adam da var. 

alt üst etdi. 

• yaztq dtr? 

yaztq deyil mi? 
i hes! 

ichtq hir adem dir. 
demi bashdan cMqara- 
i harqimi hasMma yiqdt. 

't geldi. Nazara geldi. 

deydi. Nazar deydi. 

dash adam Jcesilmish. 
Inî yedi. 

iden gûjûmden oldoum. 

i bashîna topla. 

ı mı cMqiyoroudou? 

ouzoun dour. 
Idou ise oldou. 

Put a cover on the book. 

Why move it about from 
place to place? 

Don't care. 

He has hit the nail on the 

He has become bankrupt. 

I cannot bear to speak (on 
so painful a subject). 

He is thievish. 

I have equal claims with 

There are more sorts of 
men than one. 

He has put us all to con- 

I am to be pitied. 

Am I not to be pitied? 

Be quiet! 

He is a liberal man. 

Will you lead me also 

He has lost me all my pro- 

He has been affected by an 
evil eye. He is bewitched. 

The hill is full of people. 

He was the cause of his 

I was hindered in my work. 

Come to your senses. 

Were you dying, that you 
were in such a hurry? 

He talks much. 

Forget the past. 

I cannot tell (how badly 
matters are going). 


420 s.r • 


The Ottoman Literatüre. 

In all literary matters the Ottoman Turks have 
shown themselves a singularly uninventive people: the 
two great schools, the old and the new, into which we 
may divide their literature, being closely modelled, the 
one upon the classics of Persia, the other on those of 
Modern Europe, and more especially of France. The 
old or Persian school flourished from the foundation of the 
Empire down to about 1830, and still continues to drag 
on a feeble existence, though it is now out of fashion 
and cultivated by none of the leading men of letters. 
These belong to the new or European school, which 
sprang up some fifty or sixty years ago, and which, in 
spite of the bitter opposition of the partisans of the old 
Oriental system, has succeeded, partly through its own 
inherent superiority and partly through the talents and 
courage of its supporters, in expelling its rival from the 
position of undisputed authority which it had occupied 
for upwards of live hundred years. For the present 
purpose it will be convenient to divide the old school into 
three i)eri()ds, which may be termed respectively the 
pre-elassical, the classical, and the post-classical. Of 
these the first extends from the early days of the empire to 
the accession of Süleyman I., 1301—1520 (A.H.700— 926); 
tlie second from that event to the accession of Mahmoudl., 
1520—1730 (926—1143); and the third from that date 
to the accession of Abd-ul-Aziz, 1730—1861 (1143—1277). 

The works of the old school in all its periods are 
entirely Persian in tone, sentiment, and form. We find 
in them the same beauties and the same defects that 
we observe in the productions of the Iranian authors. 
The formal elegance and conventional grace, alike of 
tliought and of expression, so characteristic of Persian 
classical literature, pervade the works of the best Ottoman 

*uT Y The Ottoman Literature. 421 

writers, and they are likewise imbued, though in a less 
degree, with that spirit of mysticism which runs through 
so much of the poetry of Iran. But the Ottomans 
did not stop here. In their romantic poems they chose 
as subjects the favorite themes of their Persian masters, 
such as Leyla and M^jnoun, F^rhad and Shirin, 
Youssouf and Zuleykha, and so on. They constantly 
alluded to Persian heroes whose stories occur in the 
Shah-Name and other storehouses of Iranian legendary 
lore; and they wrote their poems in Persian metres and 
in Persian forms. ^ The mesnevi, the qasid^, and 
the ghazel, — all of them, so far at least as the 
Ottomans are concerned, Persian, — were the favorite 
verse- forms of the old poets. A m^sn^vi is a poem 
written in rhyming couplets, and is usually narrative 
in subject. The qasid^ and the ghazel are both 
monorhythmic; the first as a rule celebrates the praises 
of some great man, while the second discourses of the 
joys and woes of love. Why Persian rather than Arabian 
or any other literature became the model of Ottoman 
writers, is explained by the early history of the race. 
Some two centuries before the arrival of the Turks in 
Asia Minor, the Seljouks, then a mere horde of savages, 
had overrun Persia, where they settled and adopted the 
civilization of the people they had subdued. Thus 
Persian became the language of their court and Govern- 
ment, and when by and by they pushed their conquests 
into Asia Minor, and founded there the Seljouk empire 
of Roum, they carried with them their Persian culture, 
and diffused it among the peoples newly brought under 
their swav. It was the descendants of those Persianized 
Seljouks whom the early Ottomans found ruling in Asia 
Minor on their arrival there. What had happened to 
the Seljouks two centuries before, happened to the 
Ottomans then: the less civilized race adopted the 
culture of the more civilized. As the Seljouk empire 
fell to pieces and the Ottoman came gradually to occupy 
its place, the sons of men who had called themselves 
Seljouks began thenceforth to look upon themselves as 
Ottomans. Hence the vast majority of the people whom 

^ See the Reading Exercises in pages 259, 306—307. 

422 Appendices. <Lff 

we are accustomed to think of as Ottomans are so only 
by adoption, being really the descendants of Seljouks 
or Seljoukian subjects, who had derived from Persia 
whatever they possessed of civilization or of literary 
taste. An extraordinary love of precedent, the result 
apparently of conscious want of original power, was 
sufficient to keep their writers loyal to their early guide 
for centuries, till at length the allegiance, though not 
the fashion of it, has been changed in our own days, 
and Paris has replaced Shiraz as the shrine towards 
which the Ottoman scholar turns. While conspicuously 
lacking in creative genius, the Ottomans have always 
shown themselves possessed of receptive and assimilative 
powers to a remarkable degree, the result being that 
the number of their writers both in prose and verse is 
enormous. It ought to be premised that the poetry of 
the old school is greatly superior to the prose. 

When we reach the reign of Mahmoud 11.; the 
great transition period of Ottoman history, during which 
the civilization of the West began to struggle in earnest 
with that of the East, we find the change which was 
coming over all things Turkish affecting literature along 
with the rest, and preparing the way for the appearance 
of the new school. The chief poets of the transition 
are Fazîl Bey, Vasîf, notable for his not altogether 
unhappy attempt to write verses in the spoken language 
of the capital, Izz^t Molla, Pört6v Pasha, Akif 
Pasha, and the poetesses Fîtn^t and L^yla. In the 
works of all of these, although we occasionally discern 
a hint of the new style, the old Persian manner is 
still supreme. 

More intimate relations with Western Europe and 
a pretty general study of the French language and 
literature, together with the steady progress of the 
reforming tendency fairly started under Mahmoud 11., 
have resulted in the birth of the New or Modern school, 
whose objects are truth and simplicity. In the political 
writings of R^shid and Akif Pashas we have the first 
clear note of change; but the man to whom more than 
to any other the new departure owes its success is 
Shinasi Effândi, who employed it for poetry as well as 
for prose. The European style, on its introduction. 

H,rr The Sultans of the House of Osman. 428 

encountered the most violent opposition, but now it 
alone is used by living authors of repute. If any of 
these does write a pamphlet in the old manner, it is 
merely as a tour d e force, or to prove to some faith- 
ful but clamorous partisan of the Persian style that 
it is not, as he supposes, lack of ability which causes 
the modern author to adopt the simpler and more 
natural fashion of the West. The whole tone, sentiment 
and form of Ottoman literature have been revolutionized 
by the new school : varieties of poetry hitherto unknown 
have been adopted from Europe; an altogether new 
branch of literature, the drama, has arisen; while the 
sciences are now treated and seriously studied after the 
system of the West. 

Among writers of this school who have won dis- 
tinction are Ziya Pasha, Jevdet Pasha: the states- 
men and historians. Ahm6d Midhat Eff^ndi, Sami 
B6y: the lexicographer and encyclopedist, Ebûz-Ziya 
T6vfiqB4y, Mouallim Naji Eff^ndi, Hamid Bey: 
who holds the first place among Ottoman dramatists, 
Mihran Eff^ndi: the grammarian, and K^mal B6y: 
the leader of the modern school and one of the most 
illustrious men of letters whom his country has produced. 
He has written with conspicuous success in almost 
every branch of literature, — history, romance, ethics, 
poetry, and the drama. G. 

Sultans of the House of Osman. 

The dates are those of the Sultan's accession, 
according to the Moslem and Christian eras. 

A. H. 

A. D. 


Osman 1. 

Son of Er-Toghroul 






s> Osman I. 




Mourad I. 


» Orkhan 




Bayazid (Bajazet) I. 


» Mourad I. 







M^h^mm^d I. 


» Bayazid I. 




Mourad II. 


» M^hemmM I. 




M^h^mmed 11. 


» Mourad II. 




Bayazid 11. 


» M^h^mm^d II. 




S^lim I. 


» Bayazid II. 







A. H. 

A. D. 


Soul^yman I. 

Son of S^lim I. 




S61im II. 



Soul^yman L 




Mourad III. 



S^lim TT. 




M6h6mm6d III. 



Mourad 1 1 T. 




Ahm^d I. 



M^h^mm^d III. 




Müustafa I. 







Osman II. 



Ahm^d I. 



Moustafa I. 





Mourad IV. 


Ahm^d I. 










M^h^mm(id IV. 






Soul^yman II. 







Ahm^d II. 







Moustafa II. 



M^h^mm^d IV. 




Ahm^d III. 







Mahmoud I. 



Moustafa 11. 




Osman III. 







Moustafa III. 



Ahm^d m. 




Abd-ûl-Hamid I. 







S^lim III. 



Moustafa III. 




Moustafa IV. 



Abd-ûl-Hamid I. 




Mahmoud II. 










Mahmoud II. 











— — 

— — 



Abd-ûl-Hamid II. 






Cjj^ rojc Arabic Calendar (pp. 96 — 98). 

The Arabic, i e. Lunar, Year beİDg 10 days, 21 hours 
and 14^/5 seconds shorter than the Christian i. e. solar year, 
does not correspond exactly with it. Its reckoning begins 
from the Hijret or departure of Muhammed from Mecca 
to reside in Medina, A. D. 622 July 15/19 (Mouharröm 1). 

In order approximately to convert a year of our 
Era into one of the Moslem Era: subtract 622, divide 
the remainder by 33 and add the quotient to the divident. 

Conversely, a year of the Moslem Era is converted 
into one of the Christian Era by dividing it by 33, 
subtracting the quotient from it, and adding 622 to 
the remainder; as: 


The Ottoman Financial Calendar. 


1902 - 

- 622 = 

1904 - 

- 622 = 

1328 - 

- 622 = 

»rr* - 

1-33 — 

\rrr -. 

h 33 — 

vr^ -. 

-33 — 

= 1280 H- 33 = 40; 1280 + 40 = »rr. 
= 1282 -T- 33 = 40; 1282 + 40 = »rrr 
= 706 -T- 33 = 23; 706 + 23 = vr^ 

40; »rr. — 40 = 1280 + 622 = 1902 
40; trrr — 40 = 1282 4- 622 = 1904 
23; Yr^ — rr = 706 + 622 = 1328. 

4JU »Ow The Ottoman Financial Calendar. 

In the 1205*^ year of the H^jira (V12 March 1789), 
Sultan Selim III. issued an Irade to use this calendar 
in financial and commercial transactions. It corresponds 
exactly to the Old Style, only the new year begins in 
March instead of in January. The following table shows 
the years of the Financial Calendar corresponding to 
those of ours, till 1909. 

F. C. 





















































































































































































































c. j F. 


C. ; F. C. F. 




1305 1889 1309 
« 1890 11310 

7: 1: 1 

8; 2- 2 

1893İ 1313! 1897 ;il317 
4i' 4 8:1 8 

5 5 19001 9 

6 6 1;1320 






Parsing. ^U^ Tdhleel. 


The method of parsing in Arabic includes Gram- 
matical and Logical Analysis. But in Ottoman-Turkish 
all that is really necessary is to give such particulars 
as are given in the subjoined parsing of a piece. The 
genders, numbers, moods, tenses and all particulars about 
the words must be mentioned, and the parts of Regular 
and Irregular Verbs must be given. Bead first with 
expression the following Exercise, and analyse it after 
wards. Turn up all references to the Grammar. 

^j<Ju^ ^^ The Prophet's Speeeh. 
• ••♦ • 

^j\> Jj^ oJa\j (iliJl . (ijJjl aJIp ^oju ^ J * c^Jillî o^^ ^i 

. (ijJL5 (ijlfc 4.;^ vj!^-^^ ^:^ ^- ^^i'^. ^^ •■^Oj^ J 
5Îj.-^İ j . j^ jj c<;jl^ -^ e^ii-üJ İJû^l ill ^jL>i^ LJVİ f> 

o^yS^ J-A^. j-^^y^ 3 j^^jjjj ^^i İ53/ ^ .ji^lJ J.J. * ^ 

? 'lljûl iJjU a; Ca-s^ 

• "^ • T • 

<urv Parsing. JJkJ TahleeL 427 

j-^jjo al\ 4.-II» <us'^ (ijii * <-j\ j^y^i »-^ <ij\ • i>-<iitj\ c^^^ 

^jjiJL) mJİsİ. Khotitbeyi Peyghamberi 'the prophetic 

* MY 

sermon, or the sermon of the prophet'. Pers. Izafât: if the 

first noun ends in vowel h^, a b^mz^ is placed over it (§ 519): 

aJs»- is an Ar. noun, measure viJlii (§ 592): 'a special homily 

and prayer, in which they praise God, bless Mouhammed and 
pray for the reigning Caliph, delivered by an official preacher 

(s—Jai- khatib) before the midday service of worship in Friday 

{Jouma^a namazty p. ^H^i^ is composed of pJL^ * *U-j piygham 

^message, revelation' ^lif is omitted (§ 560) + ^, h^ *carry' 

(§§ 535, 554); by the addition of {S -i it is changed into Noun 
of Rel. (§ 527). 

ajTI Oy^j Resouloti Ekrem, 'The most venerable 

Prophet' : Pers. izafet composed of two Ar. words (§ 517). Jj-j 

^prophet, apostle' Adj. Qual. of vi^lLj of the meas. J^ (§ 607). 

^j\ N. of Superiority of yZ^\J^y masc. meas. JJiil * yZ^\j is a 

miracle wrought through the agency of a saint, but •yj^j^ mvjiei 
is a miracle wrought by Divine power. 

iX^^^ X ^i^ Joumd'a günü 'on a Friday': ^i Turk. 

Ind. Article (§ 60), â/^<^ Turk, izafet (§ 181). <^ Ar. noun, 
meas. ilii (§ 592), the fayil being »*U ^collector, mosque', other 
derivatives: f-j^^^^ * ^j*^^ * A-^ • f^^ = ö^ Turk. 

_^ _^ noun 

with pron. affix third person (§105 ^\ 

-CL-0J3 (^julS^ Kendi devesine 'on his camel' : Turk. 

izafet with pron. {SXS^ pers. pron. (§ 147), C^oj^ = oj^ * (^oj^ 
Turk, noun with pron. affix third person sing, dative case. 

428 Appendices. iLfA 

iCjLi bindi *he mounted' : Turk, intran. verb, Ind. Past 
sing, third person of the masdar vUi,:^ . Der. «İİa^jûu * dJLJLlii • 

a1)I aM-1 Ja' j2 3j» J ^^ y«'^ w^(?r eAZî islam tlS 'and 
with believers two hundred in number': j Arab. Pera. 

conjunctive (§ 470), j^_ Turk. Card, number (§ 192), 'Jkl Ar. noan 

ineas. J-Si 'individual' used for men (§ 203): Reg. Fem. pi. c^l^ 

(§ 576); f^>L-\ Ja\ Pers. izafet 'Moslem'. Comp. noun (§ 695*). a. Ja\ 

meas. JÎj, Irregular pi. JUÎ (§ 650). JJiJ = jİb U-ih'hûl to 

marry; ^>^\, submitting himself to the divine disposal, IV. of 

A>L>, fayil pJL« mûslim 'one who submissively obeys God, Moslem' 

(§§ 512, 634 d); aJL\ Turk, post position, sign of Instrumental case 
(§ 232). 

^^jlaIS o^LS Qoiibadan qalqdi 'he started from Qouba'; 

a. (j-^^ prop, noun, sing, abl.; nom. Qouba 'a place near Medina'; 
(iJuillS Ind. Fast, sing, third person the primitive masdar ,3«Jlli> 
•deriv.: ji^jJlS* j^lS (§§ 263, 268). 

4ii^x« ^^^ J ft' î«e/5i Medineyc \o the [main] city 

of Medina' (as distinguished from its outlying regions): Pern. 
izafet: a. ^^^ Hhe very substance, main' meas. jji»; a. aJjOu prop. 

noun, sing, dative of the measure aLâ», Abstract nonn by the 
addition of U U = i [% 582]). 

<5jJjl Aj^ 'a^em oZrfow 'he departed toward': comp. 

In trans, verb., Ind. Past sing, third person, formed by using noun 
with aux. verb jlj\, Masdar jlj\ aJIc (§ 272): a. #jlft fayil of 

c-^jp; deriv. IV. JUJi^ = A^l\ . 

oJ^b c5^* esnayi rahde, -raJida 'in the course of the 
road, or journey, ?. e. on the way': Pers. Izafât (§ 518): 
a. »Lîl Irreg. plural of JJ senee (§ 639 b) Hwisting, winding', used 
in Turkish as a sing., in the senee of *the course of a jonrney, 

\.r% Parsing. JJUJ Tahled. 429 

the time of a stay, a period of time': •Jii.lSi (iLîl ^in the course 

of the stay', o^LJ Jj\ *at that time, in that interval*; iJublj sing, 
loc. case. 

Aİj^ i]yP sol tarafına 'to his left side' : Turk. adj. 

and noun: t. jj^ adj., a. <l3^ = «J»^ * ^^J^ meas. JJi with 
pron. affix third person singular dative (§§ 99, 105 •). 

^)l L* me^/? ^7e 'swerving, turning' for fJjoJbl L^'. 

the Turk. conj. <ij\ is used to express the meaning of iljoJjl 
(§ 430). a. J-* meas. JJi . 

ojG^jj» v-iy^ û: ^-^ cii ^^^^ SaKm ben Of yourdounda 
""in the settlement of the children of Salim ben Of: 

Pers. and Turk. Izaf^ts. J* masc. pi. of ^^ * ^^ (§ 575); JL- 

lJjp i>: i>, stands for patron y m (§669*); oJJij^ = ij^*(iijjj 

*tent, home' second member of Turk. Izafât, with pron. affix third 
person sing, locative. 

4:3 Ja C---j^ vLLj^Ij ,^^^^ tjilj Ranona denilen vadinin 
-ûst tarafına 'in the upper part of the valley called 

Ranona': li^b Ar. prop, noun; Jü^^ m^foul of ^^AJLÂj^ (§ 402); 

^Üj^Ij first member of the Turkish izafet, Ar. noun meas. JfrU 

sing, genitive; vi^-jl Turk, postposition used as an adj. (§ 452); 

a. O^ = K^Jh ' i^J^ noun, pi. cJ\^\ (§ 639 b); it indicates 
motion (§ 237). 

(CJJol ew&' *^he halted': Ind. Past singular third person 
Primitive masdar sD^J, deriv. ^iX.^.Jû.i (§ 263). 

o^ljjl orada '^ there': adverbial demonstrative (§ 144), sing, 
locative case, it indicates location (§ 237). 

,^j)yjl AJa>. j*^ 4!jUJb c^lp ghayet helighane Mr Jchoutbe 
oqouyoup 'he recited a very eloquent speech': ^Ip 
-ûUJL super], degree of Turk. adj. (§ 226). a. p. ^UJL pers. adj. or 
Adv. (§§ 528, 684): a. iJL adj. Qual. of ^i>\^ 'eloquence'; ^y^yj\ 

480 Appendices. ijr* 

Turk. Gerund 'having recited' or 'he recited and afterwards . . .* 
(for c^jiJ ... 3 iS^yj\). 

t^JÜLi (Sj^ ^^ Jouma'a namojsî qtldi *he performed 
his Friday prayer': <ijlt ^u^ Turk, izafet (§ 109): a. am^ = 

<IJl3 first member. «ijU second member, third person of p. jfi 

'the Divine worship of Islam, consisting of fixed recitals of praise 

with prostration of the body, five times a day', ^^JlS jl& Ho make 

his prayers', comp. trans, verb (§ 272); iS^ Ind. Past, singular 
third person. 

KhatinCul enbiya hazretUrinifi cfi iptida qUdtght Jouma'a 
namaH bou dour 'This is the first Friday prayer which 
the seal i. e, the last, of the prophets (Moahammed) has 

performed': .UVi |?U. Arabic izafet (§ 668 «), a. ^U fayil of 

^liL = JUd * *Lul pi. of j^j* nihee (§ 645 c), which is A^j. Qual. of 

cjj^ nubouvvet 'prophecy'; ^^JS^^^ = *Zj^j^ * J,^;^^»* * fSj^^;^ 

Ar. noun meas. viJLâİ with pron. affix third person pi. Genitive, 
used after the name of God, saints and great personalities (§§ 497, 
500). A^\ ill Turk. Superl. adj. (§ 224): *İJûj\ Ar. deriv. masdar 

meas. JlÜl (§ 627) of .\Jü * c^JJü î Jü jJLS Obj. participle of jji 

(§ 413); ji Demonstrative (Pron.) Adj.; j3 copula (§ 67). 

jjijl^l iptidald khoutbesi o dour ki khulasa vejh' He tSr- 

jemesi bourada iyrad olotmoiir 'This is his first speech 
(or oration), the translation of which is given below in 

brief: ($1Jû,\ Turk. pron. adj. (§ 138). ^İ^Pers. Relative pron. 

(§ 317); <^^ Ar. Quadriliteral Masdar meas. aJLLÜ (§ 595); M^l 

j^Jj\ Masdar Jtjlj\ ii^\ Turk. comp. passive verb (§ 274), Ind. 
Aorist, sing, third person. 

Conjugation of Turkish Verbs. 

JUI .JkjJ» Conjugation of Turkish Verbs. 

Infinitive of Verbs jji,a.* Maadar. 

Masdar: the Root V+jn^ft, V+mag; Sbomek , Taemag'. 
NcRative: Siv'tnSmek, Taz'ttiamaq. 
Verbal SubstantİveH: 1. SİvmikUk', İ.SİvmS', 3. SİVİsh' {§ 288) 
Derivative Forme (§g 261—268): 

Otourtmaq, Basdtrmaq, Tattrmaq, Taranmaq, 

Yoitlmaq, CMMshntek' . 

Potential verba: SivebUmiK, n^g. Sioi'mimSk (§ 283). 

Accelerative verb: Sevi'vSrmile (§ 286). 

Verba derived from noung and adjectires: 

Hazirlamaq', Hasirlanmaçî, Banlrlatmaq (§ 277). 
Compound Verbs (Nouns with Auiiliarios) {§ 272): 

Sival' ettnSk, — SylitnSk, — e^tnaq, — bouyourmaq. 

Participles J^ fj» 

Subjective Mood |§ 399). 

Objective Mood {§ 411). 


D \yaiajaghtfi' 

"^ yaiajaghifiW 
lyaeajaqlaH' . 

Gerunds )*k.^ aL}j (pp. 206—207). 

1. yazar'jastna 4, yazdiq'da 8. yazaroq 12. yasdîghimda' 

2. yaz'wadan 5. yagdiq'ja 9. yazaii' yazajaghindan 

3. yazm'ja 6. yazalı 10. yazajaghina' 13. yazW, yazip 
„»,«_-„«,««. 7 ■ 1 n „„,j„-,v, 14. yazar'ken. 

3. yazm'ja 6. yazalı 10. yazajagh 
'.r yazmaz 7. yaza' yaza ll.yazin'ja 

yazar j 

Terbal Adjectives a^J 

(§ 436). 

1. Yaslji, 2. achiq, 8. sürgün, 4. mlu, 5. sefinj". 
Noun of Excess: ChalUhqan, sAzgij', dalgij. 
Ifoun of Location: Yataq', otlaq'. 

InBtrnmental noun: Etek', daraq'. 




^JIS JUil * \i Finite Terb. 





Imperatiye ^U^i (§ 316). 










sS ver sin 











sev misli din 
sh'w İslı siniz 

seveje j/ım 

Present JU (§ 818). 

seviyor idim 


seviyor imishim 
' imishsifi 



Aorîst ;.jU. (§ 326), 

sever idim 




sever imishim 


Past ^:>j^ ;^U>U (§ 344). 

sevdi idim i 


Dubitative Jii '^^U (§ 351). 

sevmisli idim \ shmisli imishim 






Future J.i:.,... (§ 357). 

sevejek' idim '■ sâvejek' imishim 
idin „ imishsin 

aim'yor isim 




shir ishn 




sivdi i/iSm 






sivmish' isim 

„ İ$sh 




sivijik' isim 

« İ8İÜ 


Conjugation of Turkish Verbs. 






sevijSk' sifiiz 

sSvSjik' idi 
„ idik 
„ idiüiz 
„ idiUr 

sSv^ik' imish 
„ imishiz 
„ imishsifliz 
„ imishW 

sSvSjik' ise 
„ isik 
„ isifiiz 
„ isilSr. 

Optative ^-LhJ\ (§ 365). 


















sivmili' dirUr 

s^ve idim 




Suppositive A^J ^j^\^ <Z\^\ (§ 377). 
sdv'sSidim \ sivsiimishim 















Neeessitative J^j>^j (§ 384). 

sivmili' idim 
„ idifi 





sivmSli' imishim 



sivmüi' isim 



The Verb To Have. 



var, senin var, onoufi var . . . 

var, sendi var, onda var . . . 

dir, sindi dir, anda dîr . . . 

var îdî, sinin var idî, on<yu/n var îdî \ 

var îdî, sinde var Irfl, anda var îdi f 

var imish, sinin var îmîsh . . . 

var îsa; Bindi var îsa 

aidatı, senin oldaıı . . . 

olajaq, sinin olajaq . . . 

olsa; sinin olsa idi. 

> I have a (book). 

I have the (book). 

I had a — 

(They say that) I have, 

If 1 had a — 

I got a — 

I shall have a — 

If it were mine. 

Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 


434 in 

The Official Part. 

The Imperial Palace ^1^ Oj^ öy}^ ij^^ 

His Imperial Majesty the Sultan ,>Hdl> dJa^CJi 

iSjâ\l K^yf- oli.^" Tishrifati oumoumiyd Nazirî, The 

Grand Master of Ceremony. 

^^-lfrlJJ\3«^_^lfr\ Aii^'l OiLJljb Dar 'ÛS'Sa* adit ûsh-shMfd (tgJuul, 

Qizlar aghast, The Chief of the 
Eunuchs of the Imp. Palace. 

ur^ * (ijli^^ vi^,./^ iS^J^^j^ S^^' qpurinayi Hazriti ShSh'riyari, 

Bash Mahiynjiy The Chief (Lord 
jj&IjU High-) Chamberlain. 

jililT^J-L oy}^ Cj^y MabSyniHûfttayoun Bash KitaMi, 
' " " The Imperial Chancellary. 

(5^0 i-r*^ üjt^ ^i^ MahSyni Uumayoun Bash KQiUn, 

The First Secretary of the Imp. 
jjL^^ o^^ii*. "^i^jj^i- »^6 Kmtibi Khwisousiyi HctzriU ShSh- 

riyariy The Private Secretary of 
H. I. M. 

The Premier Dragoman of the 
Imp. Divan. 
J^^ j-\ Oji^ ö\ji^ Divanî Hûmayoun Bash MûtSryimi, 

The Premier Translator of the 
Imp. Divan. 
(_>-U\ Oji^^ ^î^ Mabiyni Hûmayoun Imamî, The 

Chief Almoner (Imam) of the 
Imp. Palace. 
^AÜiL o^^ ^J\ jj^ YavM EkrSmi Hazriti Padishahi, 

^ . " The Aide-de-Camp of H. I. M. 

(S^^ JJ^ * ûbj^ <i/ci Fdkhri Yaviran, The Honorary 

ubj^Oj^i Fûfr^r, pi. yar^ran, Aide-de-camp, 
Aides de camp. 

.ro The Sublime Port. 435 

«w^Ux» ur^ Bash Mousahib, The Premier 

Courtier (French Courtisan). 
o Aj li^ s_-.-a- JM Hûmayouıtj The Privy Purse. 

^lUli ^^l». <*»J^ Khaziniyi Khassayi ShahanS, The 
" Civil List. 
t^^rvi.-. \^^ o^j\ <i^^ c^.*« May4ti Shahane Erkiani Harbiyi 

Mûsheeri, The Chief of the 
Military Household. 
(i^Ju ojil^ ;>/-• Mabiyni Hûmayoun Mûdiri, The 

^Director of the Imp. Palace. 
(i^Ju «^Ic JJa^l Istablî Amird Mûdiri, The Grand 

Equerry of H. I. M. 
^ <jU\ ^^\mJ\ ^^l Babûs Sa^adâtâl aliyi Aghasty The 

Director of the Porte of the 
^^\jj>c::S^Ji^y^ 15 Qapoujoular Kât'khûdaaî/The Chief 
^" of the Porters. 

(i^ Ji* (ijLi \ v_^L>- Hatdb anbart Mûdiri, The Director 

of the D^pöt of Combustibles. 
(ijlgjw ^*- Uji^ ûji^ Mahiyni Hûmayoun Sir Miymart, 

The Premier Architect of the 
Imp. Palace. 
^^-LLl ^^ oy}^ ^i^ Mabiyni Hûmayoun Sir atîbbasî, 

The Premier Physician of the 
Imp. Palace. 
(i^-L« J^j^i J 7tJx« Matbakh vi Fourounlar Mûdiri, 

The Director of the Imp. Kitchens 
^ and Ovens. 

«i^.-J^ iSj^\ oljjl Erzaq anbart Mûdiri,T\iel>irQç,U>r 
J of the Provisions. 

^j'.'^ t5jL;\ olij;»- Houboabat anbarî mûdiri, The 

t Director of the Granaries. 

(i^-U ^iUli Aİ-X>. Hadiqayi Shahani Mûdiri, The 
^' Director of the Imp. Gardens. 

iSji-^ ijji}^ oiCbL». Chiftlikıatî Hûmayoun Mûdiri, The 

Director of the Imp. Farms. 

The Sublime Porte JU ^\> 

The Council of Ministers MS^ ^jo\i. ^jj^ 

^p\ jXa Sadri A^zam, The Grand Vizier. 

o sy» -a^ Shiykh-ûl Islam. The Minister 
f CT* of the Canon Law of Islam. 

(i^l; <Jlil3 Dakhiliyi Nazîrî, The Minister 

of the Interior. 
(i^ül; -uş-jU. ijr/ıarî>ı/^^a;2rîH, The Minister for 
"' Foreign Affairs. 

(i^ül; A^jj-^jLs^^^ Siraskir, (Harbiyi Nazîrî) The 

Minister for War. 


436 ^y^j p-J The Official Part. ^r^ 

tr^J C.İJİ <ib^- Shourayî DivUt Reyisi, The Presi- 
dent of the Ck)nncil of State. 

c^^l; ^-^li. J K^js, AdliyS v4 Mizahib NasAri, The 

Minister of Justice and Public 
.c^^lâl; <JU MaliyS NazM, The Minister of 
iSj^^ -u-j/" cJjU. MSarifi oumoumiyi Na2ftri, The 

Minister of Pablic Instruction. 
iSjo\: aj^^cj BdhHye Naztri, The Minister for 
» " Naval Affairs (Navy). 

iS^A^A «^Ic <ll?fc.^L Top-hanSyi Amiri tnûsheeri, The 

Grand Master of Ordnance. 
i^^L* cil5j\ ^rg'a/' JVo^îH, The Minister of 

Reh'gious Funds. 
(i^l: A«5l; J OjUc" Tyar^^ vS Nafiya NasAri, The 

Minister of Commerce and Public 

^^\^ ShShir Emeeni, The Prefect of 
the City. 
t^^lî 4..L.^ Zaptiyd Naziri, The Prefect of 
the Police. 
^^-^j jjlgj Liman Riyisiy The Prefect of the 
^\ cjU^^j J?o}f9(mma^j^mmt,Director General 

of Customs. 
{Sja^ (ildU- ^^ DSftSri Khaqani Naziri, Director 

General of the Imperial Archives. 
(i^l; ui\^;L* J -CL-jj Pos^a i?^ Tüigraf NasAri, Director- 
General of Post and Telegraphs. 
(i^li sz^\jj J o^\*» J u^Jji Orman v4 MSadinvi zird'at Na^rif 

The Minister of Mines, Forests 
^ and Agriculture. 

(ÎİJüUy 4V \ ^ULl Itfayiy4 alayî Komandanî, The 

Commander of the Fire-Brigade. 

The Grand Vîzîerîate \^^ Zjj\^r^ 

d\i (^x.\ * û^^ ûlji-> «^-^^ AmSdiyi IHvant Hûmayoun, Re- 

^ ferendary of the Imp. Divan. 
(_>-<k?\ Jj^* Mdktoubi Odaai, The Bureau of 

^♦.İ5 oUj^J Thhrifat Qalimi, The Bureau of 

the Master of Ceremonies. 
j^Jld «jl::^ oLiVj Vilayati Mümtaza ÇaUmi, The 

Bureau of the privileged Pro- 
:liL.^r \^.- Sâf^ra TSshrifatJİ8Î,Ijıtrodnceroî 
the Ambassadors. 

rv The Sublime Port. 437 

The Council of State cJj^ (Sbj^ 

^y^o^\^ 4İJL. MilkiyeDayirisij The Civil Depart- 
^ " ment. 

j^^ft^ii olc^" Tanzimat DayirSsi, The Legis- 

^ * lative Department. 

j^-o^\i oljJ'Tst* MouhakSmat Dayirdsi, The Ju- 
diciary Department. 
jillS^siJj^ (ii^y* Shourayi D4vUt Kitahitij The 

Bureau of the Council of State. 

(3^ •y ^li jj^\ Oumourou Nafiya Qomisionou, The 

High Commission of public Con- 
structions (Improvements). 
j% CL.lji iS\jj^ Shourayi DSvlk mûlazimi, The 

Auditor of the Council of State. 


The Foreign Office ,^^4U>-Oj\li a->-jU 

(ijLiJ-w. A^jU- KhaHjiyS Mâstishart, The Under- 
Secretary of State for For. Aflfairs. 
^JİÂ Ki^J T4rj4mS qalSmiy The Bureau of 
^ Translation. 
^^ 4->.jl>. 'Jyix* MMoubiyi KharijiyS qaUmi, The 

Bureau of Correspondence. 
^^)i 4JÛ».! Cj1^^;?<J Tahriratt Ejnibiyi QalSmi, The 

Bureau of Foreign Correspon- 
^J^^J\ Jijjl Evraq Odast, The Bureau of Ar- 
j^^1l3 A-w-Ut* Mmihasebe Qaliniiy Board of Audita 

j_^]l3 4 Jalisco <^j*>- jj^\ Oummirou Houqouqiydyi MûkhU- ■ 

?/^^ QaUmi, The Bureau of Dis- 
puted Claims. 
j^-^j\ (ijjjli* (j^*- Houqouq mûshavirUri Odasî, The 

Bureau of Legists. 
(^Ji5 vi^^L' TahiyiySt QaUmiy The Bureau of . 
Nationality (naturalization). 
j^-4İ>jl ^vl>-\ vijlcj-L* Matbou^atî Ejn^iyd Odasî, The 
]^ ' Bureau of the Foreign Press. 

^<J} Jlj>-\ Jî?:-^ 'S'y^î' a^i?a? QaUmiy The Bureau 

of personnel. 

'he Ministry of Internal Affairs .^JuU OjÜi 4JU.I3 

^JÎ3 Cjlc^^Ja* Matbou'at QaUmiy The Bureau of 

the Press. 
(jj^j..^^5 OiJj^^ «^^\ Intikhabî M4m>oureen QomisiyonaUy 

The Commission for the Selection 
of functionaries. 

438 j^^^j pj The Official Part. ^A 

JjlÜ: ty«-U^ JlcUj" TiqayM sandîghî Nazariti, The 

Direction of the Pension Funds. 

The Sheikh-ûl Islamate , jbb c^.t^ s^l 

(i^^«-^G Jj\fjj * Aj\ &JJ j-U> SadHRotimili, RoumHi Qtufaakirif 
L>. 1 ^ c>. 1 ^ ^j^^ Vice-chancellor of Turkey. 

(i^^*^l3 J^lj*\ ' J^l'l jXta Sadri Anadolou, Anadolou Qazas- 

kdri, The Second Vice-Ghancellor 
of Turkey (p. 458). 
( (ijid ) iyj 6^1 * ^\ \^ FStva Emini, The Superintendent 

of Canonical Decisions. 
ji. (the Fayil of «-liil = (Sj^) Mufti, a judge of the Canon Law 

of Islam. 

The Ministry of Finance .^aİJ^Zjj^ âJU 


fy^A^jI- oj\^\ oi^jb Varidat IdarSyi OumaumiySsi, The 

Ç. , General Directorate of revenues. 

^^K^yt ojl^l ol^jUa* MisaHfat Idardyi OtwiauimySsif 

The General Directorate of Ex- 
fy^Mâ^j/f- oj\^\ ^jj^ Doiiyoun Idarhfi OumaumiySsi, 

The General Directorate of Public 
Ç, Debts. 

^y^»^\^ <li& oL».U:^ Mouhasibatî atiqa dayirisi, The 

Bureau of regulation of ancient 
^Ui aLİ.\ J jLici Ashar ou aghnam Emaniti, The 

administration of the tithes and 
taxes on sheep. 
fjM<ijj <JU * ^jj Viznij Directorate of Weights and 

^J3 Kj.':^\ oia^ ^J A* Ma tS7*j^i4 Tahrirat Iljnibiye 

' ^ QalSnii, The office of Translation 
and correspondence in foreign 
vi-iL-l:t* û\jt^ Divanî Mouhasdbat, The Court of 
^" Accounts. 
aJU oLJJ« MûSs'sdsatî maliyâ, Financial Esta- 

The Imperial Mint Jij^Ji^ oylt *^\i^jİ9 

j^- «^ \ ^ Û j^- SikMzdn Dayiresi, The department 
t of Minting. 

^-0^1 i (^^ Chcishni DayirSsi, The department 

» of assays. 

j^-*^!^ 4;iu Makina DayirSsi, The department 

of Machines. 

'ı.r^ The Customs Admin. — Ministry of Pub. Inst. 439 

j^-ft^\i Jb Qal DayirSsi, The department of 
^ Refining. 

The Customs Administration ^^aİp w>UI CjUj-j 

^*-ftjb\ <!*- ^^^j Rousoumou SitU Idarisij The Ad- 
ministration of the six indirect 
^ ^ taxes (p. 390j. 

lîjUâ* S-ij*y ^y^'^ oi^^^— >• *A Jl/a mûskircU zakhirS gSbmrüyû 

^ nizaritij The Directorate of the 

customs on cereals and liquors. 

Jj^ S^j'y^^J KMst4 gSbmrûyû N&saritij The 

Directorate of the Customs on 
^ wood. 

lîj^ Sj^*y ^^j)^ J öjr* Meyve ve SihzS g^mrûyû Nizaritiy 

The Directorate of the customs 
on fruits and vegetables. 
JjlL' <)lâei)li ^a?ig'/ian^^(^2rar^ift,The Directorate 

of the Fishery. 
vi^îji û^-^ j^-^âsfcjl ^idl il^Kİ..* MûshtSrikûl Mdnfa^a inhisarı dou- 

^ ^ . . *■ I khant DâvUti Aliydyi Osmaniyd, 
lOj'^Ic^ <ifr The Regie coin teress^ of tobaccos 

of the Ottoman-Empire. 
^*«ojb\ ^j/" ûji-^ Douyounou Oumoumiyd IdarSsi, 

The Administration of Public 
iSj^^y J^l ^t*^ û^!-^ Douyounou OumoumiyS bash qo- 

misiri, Imperial Commissary of 
the Ottoman Public Debts. 

^^^ULJI>- Oj*Ü A^^yf' ^j\*^ 

The Ministry of Public Instruction 

<L Im J ^JLûÂJ ^y^ \ EnjûmSni TSftish ou MouaySnS, The 

Council of Inspection and Cen- 
sure (Supervision). 
j_^^ll5 <iuU>.\ olcjJa* Matbou'ati Ejnibiyi QalSmi, The 

Bureau of the Domestic Press. 
(_^J aJ^\^ vljlfr^-ia* Matbou'ati Dakhiliyi QalSmi, The 

Bureau of the Domestic Press. 
(^^x« -uli-l^ vijl&^-k. Matbou'ati DakhiliyS Mûdiri, The 

Director of the Domestic Press 
jj^A* <Jlc. s-^KL. Miktatibi AliyS Mûdiriydti, The 
^ " ' ^ Directorate of the Higher Schools. 
<iULi <5JL« .^.-::5C Mİktİbi MilkiySyi Shahand, The 
* . Imperial Civil College. 
j UaL ,^^ix. Miktibi SouUani, The Imp. Lyceum 
^ of Galata- S6ray. 
<;UU. J^Â>- i^z^ MMibi Houqouqou ShahanS, The 

Imp. Lyceum of Law. 

440 ^.^j p-J The Official Part. «l*!.» 

^e^ û^ Lisan M&ctibi, The Imp. Lvceam 
of Languages. 
«jLl^ wI^ Mdktibi Sanayi, The School of 
^ ^ ' ^ Arts and Industry. 
(-uJIjlIjI wTKTo ^Jî\jl:j\ wZX. Miktibi IptidayiyS, A Primary 
^ ' y^ School. 

( aj Jlİj ^Ix* ) aj Aİj «w-1^ MiktM Rûahdiyi, A Grammar 
* ^ " * ^ School. 

(aji^İj^İ) ^\^») aj^Ij^I «.j:x* M&ctibi IdadiyS, An Academy or 

Preparatory School (which pre- 
^ ^ pares for a College). 

(<Jlfr ^ix>. ) Jlc »...ix» MSktibi Ali, A Superior (High-) 

School or College. 
û^*.Ul\ j\^ Dar-ûl Mouallimeen, A Normal 

School for teachers. 
olJUll j\i Dar-ûl MouallimcU, A Normal 
^ «. ^ School for lady teachers. 

ApL. <J» ^^^ Miktm T\hUy4yi Milhiyi, The 
"* * Civil Medical School. 

^xX* OJ1İP Ashirât Mİhtibi, A School for 

^ ' Nomadic Tribes. 
•^Ifr Aİli-Jı^j Rasadkhan4yi Amiri, The Imp. 
^ Meteorological Observatory. 

oy^^ AJli.*ji^ MûzSkhanSyi Hûmayaun, The Jm- 
«. penal Museum. 

Oj^lfr AaJa« Hatha' ayi AmirS, The Imperial 
Printing- House. 

The Ministry of Justice and Public Worship 

iS^^-^ ._-Aİx. 3f(^2ra^i& MM*Vt, Director of Public 

Worship (Religions). 
jLa aJjlc ^2r*j»cJl Enjtlmdfii adliy d HiyM, The Bo&rd 
^ of the Justice. 
J^Jt A.»5oc^ Mihkimdyi TSmyeez, The Court 
of Cassation. 
^^•Jf' j-Jjk jj.lj ^a^/i Mâddayi ounwumi, The Pro- 
curer General of the Court of 
^ Cassation. 
üLoL-l A,*x?t* M4hkdm4yi istinaf. The Court of 

" * appeals. 

^^*-*^b Ujii-l /«^j^a dayirdsiy The Section of 
» Requests (in the C. of Cassation). 

o-»^i^ ^La- JinaySt DayirSsi, The Criminal 

^ * ' Section. 
j^^o^b oel>- Jânha Day irisi. The Correctional 

fr Section. 

j^^o^Ij (j>^ H(mq<mq Dayirisi, The Civil 


Lİ The Ministry of Justice. — Prefectm-e of Police. 441 

j^-o^\i \j^ JSza DayirSsl, The Court of 
^ Criminal jurisdiction. 

>-«^\^ 4-*l^j\ ^i^Ia Uit/etiIt-hamiySDaytrhifTheCouTİ 
" " of accusation. 

j^^<*5ot* .ı^iİJu * ^İJü <^>^c* Mihk4m4yi Bidayet, The Court of 

^ first instance. 
ojlşcJ <*5ofc* Mehkimiyi Tijardt, The tribunal 

of Commerce. 
^^<^>LA ) (_>-i?c^ v^J^!aj L>^^. Bivinji Tijarit Müflisi, The First 

Commercial Court (where the 

cases between foreigners and 

^ Ottoman subjects are dealt with). 

^j^cj vi-ıjlşcT -u^j>&* Mehkemâyi TiJarSti Bahriyi, The 

Maritime Com. Court. 

^1n>. ' ^U Hakim, pi. houk'kiamy Judge. 

ur?--' i?^yis, President. (The presiding 
" Judge.) 
U»fr\ ' (^-L^c-I A^xsfc* Mehkdmd Azasi, aza, Member of 

u>*j^ o^-^ ^^^^^dayi Oumoutni, Procurer 
General. (Public prosecutor.) 
jjU» ^*j^ <-cJi* Muddayi Oumoutni moWavini, The 

assistant Proc. Gen. 
^:^ İ2^ ZaU Ktatibi, The Clerk. 

Oji** Mouavin, Assistant. 

jk'.:...* Moicstanttq, The trial justice. 

(5j^/c* oVjU- MouqavSlat Mouharriri, The No- 
tary Public. 
P^U- * t>>-\^^ ' (_>^-^ Muddayi y davajî, khasim, The 

4-lc. ^^frju» Muddayi aUyh'j The defendant. 

JlaIİ Shahid, vulg. shahad Witness. 

ol3jj\ ' J5j l^c.> Dava vekili, avoqat, Lawyer, attor- 

4^ L:) 1^ Vektaldtname, A power of attorney. 

The Prefecture of Police ,^aJW OjHi ^^ 

(_j,JU:^ u-^j^' Po^^^ ^nijlisi, The council of police. 

j^--.l5e.* A^jlxO Jandarma mSjlisi, The council of 

(5 y..^ J L-.J ^1 Po?/s QomisM, The commissary 

of pohce. 
(^-aJ^jI ojjiL.; Pasaport odasî (vulg. pashaport), 

The bureau of passports. 

442 ^j^j pJ The Official Part. lir 

Jl^-u i^jj Tolls mûdirliyi, The prefects of j 

police. ' 

JjU^ ^^ Sou niearitif The directorate of 
^jyf- \^ Is^w^ Habskhaniyi ounwumif The central 

fjr'*^. viJUl ^ Siiihir imandti bihiyisi, The Pre- 
^ fecture of the City (of Const). 

ajji 0^1 i j^!^^ BirinjidayireyibiUdiyS, The ÛT8İ 
f, municipality circle. 

j^*^\i ajjJj Belediye dayirâsi. The mnnici- 

' (^-^-^ "^-^ BeUdiyi r iyisi, The mayor (of 

a city). 
fjr^ "4-^ Belediyi mijlisi, The municipal 
^' L^jlc^ Timarkhane, Asylum of the insane. 


A 1 ■• 

^ L^ Goureba Kliastahan^si, The ho- 
spital for strangers. 

The Ministry of Commerce and Public Works 

^y^^^jl- oj\i\ JU^ Jj-^ Biinir yollar idariyi oumoumiyisiy 

The general directorate of rail- 
(j^^ ^Xk 3fıî(2moMmoumt;General manager. 

t>*-»ji^i ^V J l3^ Tourouq ou midbir idarisi, The 

general directorate of roads and 
oji^ Xllsis-^jil^* 3Iûhendis1i'haniyi Hûmayoun, The 

School of Engineers. 

The ('ouncil of International Sanitation 

A-fli^ jj»\ oj\^\ idariyi oumourou sîhhiyi, The 
t. sanitary administration. 
A>-?e^ o^\^ Day İriyi Sİhhiyi, The Bureau of 
Aj^*;\jl5'<U;\^dU;i;jii=e; Tihaffouzkhani, QarantifM, The 

Lazaretto, Quarantine Station. 

^^aJlJl>. Ojlli ojj^ «-iSj' • 
The Ministry of Religious Funds 

i>\^ Firaght Alienation, Quitclaim. 

JU:J\ Intiqal, Transmission by in- 

*u^r The Ministry of War. 443 

^^<y^ OjUi ^tyihj Al^j) 

The Administration of Posts and Telegraphs 

«ijc-jj ^IseJi oleic <ifr szJj^ Devleti Aliyeyi Osmaniyi Itlihad 

Po«toZarî, The International Otto- 
^ man Posts. 

JjUâ) JlîU. <JU-^.> DeftSrJchaneyi Kliaqani Nezareti, 

The Ministry of Archives. 
(^-<ili ^i.C'bJ Zira^at banqasi, The Agricultural 

(^-<İL Jileic- OswawZI banqasi, The Ottoman 

ci^A* Jlcifc ^3^^, Banqt Osmani Mudiri, The man- 
ager of the Imp. Ottoman Bank. 

The Ministry of War ^^.iLU Cjj\1^ oj- 

(i^^wc^^ ciVlj v-->li jBa&j V alay i Seraskeri, The 

Seraekeriat (The War Office). 
^J^ u^\ Erkiani Harb, The General Staff. 

(^-o^ii v-</- (Jbj\ ^yf- Oumoum Erktanî Harb Dayiresi, 

The Department of the General 
^^o^\^ «jLi Piyadâ Dayiresi, The Infantry 
^ " Department. 

(^-*^\.> (ij\^^ /Swi'ari Dayiresi, The Cavalry 

^ Department. 

(^-»^i.> o?^;^ Topjoii DayirSsi, The Artillery 
t ^ ^ Department. 

^--o^b o i Li; \ J cjUl^oei-l Istihkthmat ve Inshd'at Dayirisi, 

The Department of Military 
. fortification and buildings. 

^y^»^\^ <l^^^ oi^rTsc* Mouhakemati askeriyi Dayiresi, 

The Department of Military 
^ . » Justice, 

cr'*^^-^ aj^^wc <-stid Sîhhiyeyi askeriyi Dayirisi, The 

Department of Military Sani- 
^ tation. 

j^^<-ni <)u;L.!i <Jtid j^\ OwmowroM Sthhiydyi insaniyi shû- 

besi, The Department of Mili- 
^ tary medical Inspection. 

j^.^4^ V^,^:*- V*^ ^^^ Oumourou Sîhhiyeyi Hayvaniyi 

jSf/iM&m; The Department of eques- 
^ trian hygiene. 

^^Jlfr ^j^ 4^ 4j^^*^ ^jiiiJ T^ftishi askeriyi Qomisiyonou alisi, 

' '' ' High Military Commission. 

^.^0^1 i V^ vi-iUjiji Levazimati oumoumiyS Dayirisi, 
^ " The Commissary- General' s Dep. 

^^-o^'\^ V.>^ oL-Ue^ Mouhasebatî oumoumiyi Dayirisiy 

The Department of General 

444 ^..^j pj The Official Part ^«vi 

j^-o^\^ <-j\Jü\j Jandarma dayirisi, The Depart- 
^ ^ ment of Gendarmery. 

" ^ The Brigade of Firemen. 
A^^ .-.I5C M^^cW Harbiye, The Military 
^ I ' ^ School. 
4j jC^ <-j9 wix« MSktehi Tihhiyiyi Aakiriyi, The 
. t/- Medical Military School. 

(i^x* '^^-^ c- ^ix. A^ Oumoum Mikiatihi AskiriyS Mû- 

diri, Director General of the 
Military Schools. 

Military Grades aj^^Cc j^jjaIa 

jb^^ Sdrdar, General (cf. p. 458). 

^J^\ ^\^^^ Serdarı J^krim, Grand Marshal. 

^A±* MusJieer, Marshal. 

jj^ FSriq, General of division. 

ljij\* Miriliva, General of brigade. 

(iV \^^ Miralay, Colonel. 


p\is.b Qaymaqam, Lieutenant colonel. } 2§|. \ 
^i-L dA^ J5i/l 6as/«, Major. 





«I V* 


j^*-lfrl J^ Qol aghast, Adjutant major. 

^l jjj YÛZ basht. Captain. 

Jj\ fj>l« MCilazimi Svvel, Lieatenant. 

(ilj aJ>U Mulazimi sani, Sub-lieutenant. 

^^i (iV \ Alay Emini, Intendant of a regiment. 

(/)S^(iVl Alay Kuitibi, Sec. of a regiment. 

^-Ul (iV i Alay imamı, Chaplain of a regiment. 

U\ j^U» Tabour Imamî, Chaplain of a battalion. 

(J-jU- cr^ J5a87i chavoush. Sergeant major. ] 

j^ijU. oj\^ /Sira chavausJiou, Sergeant, fsSs^. 

^t\, ^j\ On basM, Corporal. ) 

L^^ ^^w^ * ^î Nifer, asker neferi. Soldier, Private, j w 

3c^ * iSj^ ^J^ Qour^a asMri, Aj^mi, Conscript. 

iSj><*^ i>Lb-l ihtiyat askiri. The army reserve. 


•tto The Ministry of War, 445 

j^j\ Ordouj Army. ö^ Firqa, Division. 

A J Liva, Brigade. (iV \ Alay, Regiment. 

Sjji iSj\j-^ -^^^ L>^tJ^ Topjou yakhod souvari h^lûyû, Squa- 
(ijjiU» oiLj 'ji^U» Tabour, piyadi tabourou, Battalion. 

Sjji «-^V- * ^Jji ^^^wfc, piyadS bSblûyû, Company. 

iSy^ * iSj^^L^ «iLj Piyadd asakiri; -nifSri, Infantry; Foot- 
{S^ ' (i^^L-c (j,?w^ Topjou asakiri; -nifiri. Artillery; -man. 

{SjH^ ' (i^^'l-x. (ijlj- Souvari asakiri, Cavalry. 

(S^jû ' (^^^'^...c. aj^^ Bahriyi asakiri. Marines. 

( wii^ ) <-*Ui; jTL-c ^safcm nizamiyi, -Mouvazzaf, Regulars. 

<ijiij ^T'L-^ Asakiri redifi, Militia. 

^LUibciw» ^?'T-£ Asakiri moustahfiza. The last Reserves. 

iS^Ljc- <^U. Khassa asakiri. The corps of the Im]). 

oji^ iSj^j\ t^îcJ^j^ D^rdûnjû Ordouyi Hûmayoun, The 4^^ 

Army Corps. 

Note, 1. The centre of the Imp. Guards is Constantinople, 
2nd Edirne, 3rd Monastîr, 4*1^ Erzinjan, öth Damascus, 6th 
Bagdad, 7th Sana. 

Note. 2. All the Moslems in Turkey are called to enter the 
Army at the age of 20, which is called the age of Maturity (esnan). 
The term is 9 years in the Regular Army (Asakiri Nizamiye): 
8 years under arms and 6 years in the army reserve (ihtiyat); 
6 in the territorial army (Militia BSdif) and 3 in the territorial 
reserve (Moustahfîz). 

Anns A%L\ 
aj ju <5eJL\ Eslihayi nariy4. Fire arms. 
4>.jl>. <5eJL-\ £slihayi jariha. Pointed arms. 
viili^T Tufing, Gun. diliJ Fisheng, Rocket. 

jjjjj Bivolvir, Revolver. ^aeJLU» Tdbanja, Pistol. 
^Jh Top, Canon. 5^^- Sûngû, Bayonet. 

oj^Ud Qatsatoura, Strap. pJiJ QtUj, Sword. 

O^^kJxS Qahze, qtn. Sheath. aUIi Balta, Axe. 

jbu^ Mizraq, Lancet. J^'^ Khancher, Sabre. 

<-l5 Qama, Dagger. u^^"^ Yatağan, Yatağan. 

446 ^^^j p-J The Official Part. t^^,*! 

The Admiralty ^^aLU Zjj^ a>j^ 

\j^^ iS\jji' Shourayi bahriyi, Board of admiralty. 

j^-»^\^ y^j- J^j\ J^Jctani harh dayirM, Staff-office. 

(i^U <ij^t Bahriyi naztrî, Minister of marine. 

jy\a.) Jij^l * (ij^^ ^^J^. Bahriyi mûshiri, amiral, Admiral. 

( «^ll\] (İ\jJU^ <Lllj^ Donanma qomandant, Admiral of the 

Jj^d Firiq^ Vice-admiral (of the Ist class). 

(liL ^^j) \J^ Miriliva, riyali pasha. Rear-admiral. 

jj^j»y Comodor, Commodore. 

t^Vljy Miralay, Captain. 

* (jrt^^j^ (j,-*^ * (jT'^. *-^ ^^** hasht, ghni sauvarisi, souvari, 

^^'J**-i t>-^i Jj5 Qol aghast, Lieutenant-commander. 

^^\ jjj J*j5 Qidimli yûzbashî. First Lieutenant. 

o**^ jji Y«^f &as?il, Lieutenant. 

J^i r j>^ Miilazimi ivvel, Sub-Lieutenant. 

jL) ^j>U Miilazimi sani. Midshipman. 

^x^ (j^Jji *-xl-<Li- JUT — mûhindis, Naval cadet. 

---> ' ' r- 

^«-* O^j^^. «jl-AjLiL- Am^ — motMllim, Naval instructor. 

^U j\Jû\ sibLT Tufing indaz zabiti, Marine officer: 

fjai\^ u-i^ Uarb zabiti. Executive officer. 
.JL\^ v-</- oiOi Erktanî harb zabiti. Staff officer. 
JaiU aJ^K^ Gebyirte zabiti, Deck officer. 
j^iwU jJujj^ Torpido zabiti. Torpedo officer» 
JaiU t>î^^ Topjou zabiti. Gunnery officer. 
JajU J«ji Qldemli zabit. Senior officer. 
iuU j..u*j3 Qidimsiz zabity Junior officer. 

(_^U l^jij Fardrt zabiti. Officer of the watch. 

Sjj^\^ i>^ -'y- 'S'cy^i sifayin mimourou. Navigating 


*u^y The Admiralty. 447 

kU, aJL1:P JaiU» (_s!ci.j>. Charkhji zabiti, inshayiyi zabiti, Civil 


J^\ (J!=^J^ Charkhji hasM, Chief engineer. 

(ijU* j^il (J!^^ Charkhji hashi mouavini. Assistant 
* "^ engineer. 

L^^ oj^^ Qalyon ktatibi, Fleet paymaster. 

^'6 <l-i- 54îw^ A;îa^i6ı, Paymaster, 
(J^ 3t^' ^^*Q. ktatibi, Clerk. 
jjc.>G Qlacouz, Pilot. jî=^J-i Dûmenji, Steersman. 

öj^Jy. Porsoun, Boatswain. (J!^^j^ Topjou, Gunner. 

jjÂ'Aji» Maranqoz, Carpenter. <jîc.^lj Yilkinji, Sailmaker. 
vijliVlS Qalafat, Caulker. J^i^ Gaybar, Topman. 

b»J^^ bjlj Varda bandera. Signalman. 
J^\ <-jL- Safine emini, Master at arms. 
j^-Liji * j>c--»5^JüJ-^ Mûstayid gSmiji, onbashi. Seaman. 

^li>*^ Nefer, tayifi, ^vXg.tay'fa, Bluejacket. 
iSyii j\Si\ 7->L- Silah4ndaz nifiri, Marine. 
yii ^y^^ Ajemi nefir. Dock hand. 
^j>.xju^j» Mousiqaji, Bandsman. (J^-^^ji Boroujou, Bugler. 
>^^^\J Trampit, Drummer. ij?T^^ DSmirji, Blacksmith. 

^^^\ Ateshji, Stoker. K:^'>yy K^mûrjû, Trimmer. 

^-Ll 4LjL- ' j^-U\ -ûJL- Şefini papasij şifini imami. Chaplain. 

^*-ûjbl ^iJuljla Qarantina idarisi. Quarantine ad- 
^-«U,* ALi;ijl5 Qarantina mijlisi. Board of health. 

AJLJljK JÜ, Temiz pratiqa. Clean bill of health. 

aJLTI jK J^Vji Boulashtq pratiqa. Foul bill of health. 

The Imperial Arsenal d^^Ip aIL? 

a. ^ll^^jb) *.f. AJLy 7Vrsaw/,f^ûfanis'sana'a^, Dockyard, arsenal. 

AJl'c*— J Besimkhani, Drawing office. 
^^•^ii <^Li;i Inshayiye day irisi. Constructor's office. 
tr-*^^-^ -^-^^j*^ Torpido dayirisi. Torpedo department. 

448 ^j^j p-i The Official Part. UA 

4JU.j^^ Bhtir khane, Blacksmith's shop. 
4JU.^ur^^ BSbkmS khand, Foandery, forge. 
^U. w^ Bichqi khanSf Sawmill. 
A]U&;lfrJ3' ^l^l3iS Qazankhanij Boilermakers shop. 
^^<;UeJVlf\ ^cf^A Makina imdlatkhandsi, Engine shop. 
ly^^k^'^ 4j^^ TSsviyi fahriqasi, Fitting shop. 

^yy^ j^^ Teer g^yirte, Rigging loft. 
jj^<i^.li »^>- Chelik fahriqasi, Steel factory. 
j^ojlu j;&lxij Yilkenji maghazast, Sail loft. 
ijt>j>- ' j>»jU- Havouz, Dock. 
ç^jl». pL iSa&iTi liavouZj Floating dock. 
^jU ji^^ Soulou havouz, Basin or wet dock. 
ç>?jU. jjy Qoiirou havouz. Dry or graving dock. 

.jo^'j^' Anhar, amhar, Stores. 
Jst« <:^J^ Keristi mahelli'niahdli, Timber yard. 

Different Kinds of Ships ^^c^l^i ^aLJu. 

^^jfcT ' i>U- ' <1J»- Şifine, sSfayin; gemi. Ship. 
^^ * <:jL- Jaj3 Zîr?ıZ/ s//îw^, pi. ^/(^, Armour-plated ship. 
J*jj JlJ^jjl Barhitali zîrh'U, Armour-plated barbette ship. 
J*jj (i-Jy Qouleli z%rh'U, Armour-plated turret ship. 
oj^^ Qalyon, Line-of-battle ship. 
v>rl5^ * Cj^^ Firqatin, Frigate. 
*^Jjy Qot'vit, Corvette. jj^. Briq, Brig. 

cJ^fr 6roZef, Brigantine. J»j-Jlft Ganbot, Gnnboat. 

J^J^J^ Qrouazor, Cruiser. <iJL^\ Isqauna, Schooner. 

^jr^j^ jlcT * (^-iJ^' J^ Tujjar navisi, tujjar navlM, Barque. 
jjAj dj^Jj\^ DavloumhazU vapor, Paddle boat. 
jj>,\j JJ^^ Isqrou vapor, Screw steamer. 
^jl ' fSjj>\j ojû Tenezzûh vaporou, Tot, Yacht. 

'u•ı.^ Provinces VilaytUÎ Shakani, 449 

a]»jjA^ Qahasourta sefine, Full rigged ship. 

Jjfrl^ Qaraghol şifini. Guard ship. 

JajJ Ztrhli şefini, An Iron -clad. 

JJÎ.J r-^ Saj gimi. Iron ship. 

j^*-4lJu- Jut Talim sefinesi. Training ship. 

^-<LJL- ^JüL Naqliye sefinisi. Transport ship. 

^^r«*:;^j AswL-» Misdhi gemisi, Surveying ship. 

oLill» ,J^yi Yoljou tashiyan sefine, Passenger ship. 

(J» j: * }-l \ J-^Tt-^J^ Torpido tstimhotou, Torpedo boat. 

^Jb ^ ■ > , J ■ . J \ J JL>J j^L ^3e.;i ic^aeJ TahUlbahr ^orpt(2o | Submarine torpedo 
* istimhotou, \ boat. 

(i^^i^^j-i-jj^ Torpido KScMri, Torpedo catcher. 

The Provinces (p. 126, 441) 4iULl,l,lVj 

d\j ' c-jVj Vilayet, vali. Province, Governor-General. 

-XjJl». tiij Valiyi jidid. The newly-appointed Vali. 

Jfj (ib ^aZi t?^A:iZi, The acting Governor-General. 

Jj^ lİ\j Vali mouavini, The assistant governor. 

ö^,aU î jjl^LMjl X^ra, sanjaq; mûtesarrîf, County; governor. 

^UjilS * l^ Qaza, qaymaqam. District, sub-governor. 

^.-J^'^li* Ndhiyi, mûdir. Parish, Mûdir. 

^y^\jJ>c:S ji^\i c^Vj Vilayet qapou Kitkhoudasi, vulg. -keh'yasî, The 

agent of the Governor-General. 
(5^Ju JU*jj».^U^'jb^i Biftirdar, mouhasiheji, maJ. mûdiriy 

The comptrollers of revenue and expenditure in Vilayet, 
Sanjaq and Qaza (p. 352). 

^^1^ vi->\^,^;sty * t^^-J^ '-^^^^r*J' * L^.y^ MiktouhjoUftahriratmûdiri, 

tahrirat kiatibi. The chief secretaries in Vilayet, Sanjaq 
and Qaza. 

^5 ^U» * (ij^ U ^U» ' iSjjA U L>151>. ^^ DdftSri khaqani mimourou, 

tapou memourou, tapou kiatihi, Registrar of Real-Estate 
or Title-deeds (in Vilayet, Llva and Qaza). 

fjb u^ji^ * iSj^ L* u^jji^ * iSj^^» LTj^ Noufous naztri, noufous me- 

mourou, noufous kiatibi, Census-taker (in Vilayet, Liva 
and Qaza. (Who issue the Tizkeris and passports also.) 

Turkish Conv. -Grammar. 29 

450 ,j^j p-j The Official Part. it* 

{^jy^y l\j» Firagh qomisiyonou, The qait claim 
^ commission. 
i^jy^y o^UâaeJ Tahsilixt qomisiyonou, Commission of 

jİjJUöscJ Tahsildar, Tax-collector. 

Sjy^y 6ıJ^V Mouhajireen qomisiyonou, Commission 

of immigrants. 
^j-*\ ^JÛ-9 Sandiq imini. Treasurer. 

^Jld ^^1 J ^^^ /w ^^ tahrir virgi qaUmi, The bureaa 

^ of cadasters. 
j^-<n-i ^y^Ajü\, yz^\jj Zira' at banqasi shûbâsi, A branch of 

the Agricultural bank. 
{Sj-^y ^ u^j* Polis sir qomisiri. First commissioner 

* J of Police. 
^j'-^y Qomisir, Commissioner. 

^J-JJJ Polis, Police, policeman. 

J:.:km MufSttish, Inspector. 

4^^ <«5o&» Mehkimeyi shiriyi. The court of Canon- 
{i\\QFayiloî*'\:i\ = {Sy3)^ Mxifti, A judge of Canon-Law. 

A^js- <S^c^ ' v^ <S^c^ MehkSmeyi nizamiye, mehkSmeyi adUyi, 

The Judicial Court (pi. Mihakim). 
^^lî J^^ • «— »lî Nayih, merkez nayibi, Deputy judge. 

(from ^ ' .\^)JL ' ^li Qadt, hakim, A judge, magistrate. 

^-^'5 cr*^ * Ju-* Mümeyyiz, Chief secretary. 

Jul. * ^ ** * Uii. * ^j^* JlfM«eüvt(2, Jchoulifa , mvbiyyie, mour 

qayyid. Clerk. 
(^Jb^ aj jJi BelidiyS mijlisi, Municipality. 

^yJij -fuijJli BHâdiyS reyisi. Mayor. 

j_>*.^ - ' ^^jJ» 4j ji BeUdiyi tabibi. Municipality doctor. 

(ij^L. j^l * j;&^\ i4s?ı^'$, asht mSmourou, Vaccinator. 

tf^A* ^^^>^ Posta mûdiri. Post-master. 


Diplomatic Terms JijuJ ^^Ujl-j^ 

^?eJij\ Oj\ ' y;^\ * ^Hi- 5e/îr; elchi, Orta ilchi, Minister. 

^^\ ^jiji *^ni^^ni*- Sifiri kebir, b^yûk ilchi, Ambassador. 

(ijlii--. ojU- Sifarit mûstisharî. The counsellor of 
^ legation. 

jiJLX.:?JLâ« Maslahatgüzar, Charg^ d'affaires. 


•utf Diplomatic Terms Diplomasi Tdbiratî. 451 

ojU- ^i-Lb Hiyiti s^farStf The personnel of the 
aJI^jU- Sefaretkhaniy Embassy, legation. 

^& ij-l Bash kXatihf The chief secretary. 

jtxA JLj)j-J^ Qonsoloslar hiyeti, The consular corps. 

jjû-^ * ^j^Jj^j» Qonsolos, shehhindiTy The consul. 

jjj-^ * wjj'^y LT^ 5a5/i qpnsoloSy The consul-general. 

^J5j jX^ * J^ ^j'Jj^ji Qonsolos vekili, The vice-consul. 

y^ij^y ' AjUt-jlj-Jy Qonsoloskhan^ y qpnsolato, General-con- 
lijV<?yl5 * Ijj>'c5iJ Qanchelarya, The chancellary. 

o\^^^ 'JsUr Ta'atiyi tahrirat^ Exchange of corres- 
V— J ^^^.^r^ Tahrir atî resmiyi. Official correspon- 
A-^-j ^ ^^^^r^ Tahrir ati ghayrî r ismiyim Unofficial 

Ic— J * «i^^»— J oj^ Sour eti rismiyede, rSsmen, Officially. 

o3<-*— J ^c. ^jj^ Sour eti ghayrî resmiySdi, Unofficially. 

jlCdi 4J^L. MûbadeUyi SfJcîar, Exchange of opin- 
^ ions (views). 

j^\ v^L» Mûbayeneti efMar, Divergency of opin- 

<-*^ »^^^^ Müzekkereyi oumoumiyS, Consular dis- 
4J?^ j^JitA Mushtirek nota. Collective note. 

<-aUİ •/"> * jjfclii ^_j: Taqriri shifahi, Muzek- \ Vp-hRİ not^ 

. ^ . k4riyi shifahiyS, ] ^^^^^^ °^^- 

^yic-ilj\ ' ^^iixJ j^«ia5 J i)^ Sonv4qatitiklif,ûUimatoum,V\t\m2X}xai. 

<?eJUa* ' ?çi«tf Soulh, musaleha, Peace. 

oy>{^ ' chI^^ Confer arts, qpngri, Conference, congres. 

i>a»-t^ MourakKkha^, Plenipotentiary. 

ajXx^c' «jaU- MouaMde, ahd'nami, Treaty. 

^^^oJlaU. ?üı«tf iSowZfe mottahed^si, Treaty of peace. 

j^ojubL. ojUtT Ti/ar^tmoMo/i^rf^si, Treaty of commerce. 

^ijb*-^ Tazminat, Indemnity. 

A-j^ ollx>.UiT Ta^ermina^i harbiye, War Indemnity. 

<v»öbi J^ Teslimi arazi, Cession of territory. 

'" 29* 

452 ^^,^j pJ The Official Part Itf 

>Li».l ' JUi\ Ishghdl, istiyla, Occupation. 
<Jİ9eX Tdkhliyd, Evacuation. 
lIjSU MiizotwUny On furlough. 

^j)^ sZ^^^ Hûkıim^i mSahroutS, Constitutional ; 
^ government. 
<Ilk* c^^^ Hûkûmiti motUlaqa, Absolute govern- 
^jj^ Jumhouriyiti Republic. 

^^L\ Cjj*^ Qanounou isasi, The constitution. 

»^Vjli ^ (jU«i>^ (Ji^b* Mijlisi mebousan, parlamSnto, The 

* Commons. 
^^^1»^ Mibous, Deputy, delegate. M. P. 

oLfi w^ Mejlisi ayan, Senate. 

^y^^\ (jLcl (./Ji^ Mijlisi ayan azasi, Senator. 

iJuijJli ' ^^L* Namzddy Qandida, Candidate. 

.^^Wjuo Muntakhib, Elector. 

b^ * Jib * (ib ^«y; pl- ö^ö» reyZ^r, Vote, votes. 

bl ^^n5^\ Ekseriyeti ara, The majority of votes. 

b' v::-Ji5i Aqalliyiti ara. Minority of votes. 

sUUjI J^i^^ ' v-jLl^J TeikW/; — ^*", Motion, to move. 

vi^^n5^1 İJksiriyH, Quorum. 

(ijo^ 4jLü^ Folitiqa flrqalari, Political parties. 

fjT'^^ obl^^^^'e^ Mouhafazaklaran firqasX, Conservative 

j^-o^ ûbjjç Jy Tiraqqi pervSran flrgaa^, Progressive 

j^-o^ obj^ ^^ J3bMrrt>«ip^rt?€ran/lrg;(Mİ,Liberal party. 

(ibl-^^ c^^^ HûkûmSt tarafdaranî, The supporters 
^ ^ of the government. 

(ilwn^>U. si^^^ HûkûmSt khilafgirani. The Opposition. 
<, •■ ^ 

aI^ o^ Firqayi avamm, The Democratic party. 
<.j^^^ o^ Firqayi jûmhouriyS, The republican 
* ^ ^ party. 
^^^j <iil3c« Ad^ Firqayi moıîkhaUfi r iyisi, The leader 

of the Opposition. 

^•r Diplomatic Terms Diplomasi Tabiratt. 458 

^^ o^J^. Bouhranî vukHa, A ministerial crisis. 
>^ JjuT Tehiddûlû tûûMla, Change of ministry. 
»li^Jji — * liul-1 istifa, —itmeky Resignation, to resign. 
*^*^i Jj^ * Jj^ -^^; «^^ etm&c^ Removal, to remove. 
Cn.u7 J .w-,ai Nasbou tayin j Nomination. 
<Jj «J^" Terfiyi rütbe, Promotion. 
o Li; <^y Tevjihi nishan, Decoration. 
^Jc^ * <Jj Butbi, stnîf, Class, order. 
j->^\ Achiq, Deficit. *^^jt Bûdgi, Budget. 

ol^jij * o>^*öl>- Hasîlat varidat. Income. 
olfr^Ji» * oUjl^a* Mesarifat, mSdfouat, Expenditure. 
o>\^U <l,âd Fazlayi hasîlat, Surplus. 
c^^ ' <j jUfc* MouharebS, harb, The war. 
aj^scj <jjUfc* Mouharibiyi bahriyi, Naval battle. 

^d^. ^J^ ^^ berriye, Land battle. 

^ü^b A3 J 'at* » ddkhiliye, Civil war. 

V^ (j>^i iZawi harb, A declaration of war. 
V^^ »ji^l idariyi SbrfiyS, A state of siege. 
viii. jUJl Ittifaqi muselUs, The Triple alliance. 

cijj^j J (j>^\-^" (j^l Ittifaqi tedafiyi ve tSjavouzi, An offen- 
sive and defensive alliance. 
Jdj^ ^jlsc* Mouharib devUtlir, The Belligerent 

<)jIm ^ji Devleti mouavine, Allied Power. 

^j^ «-^^ti. Bitaraf devUt, Neutral Power. 

öjl\ Abloqa, Blokade. ajjL^ Jlfudared^, Battle. 

o^^lîfc* Mouhaseri, Siege. r>î^^ Hûjûm, Attack. 

ajS^ ' Aİ^sci-\ Istihkîam, qala, qali, Fortress. 

j^-<]jli. JL^ Teslim mouqavelesi, Capitulation. 

aJIc- GhalebS, Victory. tCa Fith, Conquest. 

<5jli» Mûtarüki, Armistice. 

Jill v>j Biynel milel, International. 

454 u^j p-i The Official Part. x»! 

Festivals J>j^^ j Ju^l 

nahî Allahf JinaH Haqq, God^ the Most High. 

9C-JIİ j^-^ Eesa-il-Misih, Jesns Christ. 

i^JlÎİI ^jj Bouhovl Qoudom, The Holy Spirit 

<je---* <-JS^ • <*J|^jS^tZis€, Kilisiyi M^sihiyS, Church, 

Christian Church. 

^ytiXKA ^ji Yevmi makhsous, Anniversary. 

j^ülc p— J ji*^ Selamliq rismi alisif The ceremony of 

S^Iamliq (a public procession of the 
Sultan to mosque at noon on Friday). 

Jl-& * iLt\ Eed, pi. ay ad festival. Aj^ ' f^^M Bayram, Moslem or 

Jewish festival. 
OiVj r^ Y^rwi veladet, The birthday. 

S^ p— \ Jsiwi ^mw, The name-day. 

^^t L J^ * ^Ij <l- SSne basht, yil basht, The New Year's Day. 

ojt^ «i-»^Vj VeladSti Humayoun, The Birthday of 

jjjjL^ ltjV Julousou Humayoun, The accession of 
H. I. S. 
^jf^Aİ\ty «JlJ vUlI^Uli oli Za^t Shahaninia qtlij qoushanmasi, The 
^"" investiture of H. M. with the sword 

^ ^ of the Prophet. 
jV \ 9:cJl3 ÇIZî; alay\y The ceremony of investiture. 

j^j^ çju- ^i^ilj^ Shahzadegtanîü sûnnit dûyûnû, The 

circumcision feast of the Imp. princes. 
j/7^ v^Ju- ' J-*?- (jl::^. Khitan jimiyyiti, sûnnit dûyûnû, A 

circumcision feast, 
(j^j i * J-*?" ^^^ Fe/gew^ jSmiyyâti, duyûn, The wedding. 

<5jL» tiy * '^L. <L) Leyleyi mubarekS, pi. Uyaliyi mûbarikS, 

The Holy night, — nights. 
iji^ ' iS^^ ^Jy Mevloudoun nebi, mivloud, Tha birth- 

day of the Prophet. 
^y^A^fiJ: 7r\^^ * r^^^ "^ J>^yZe^w? miraj, miraj gSjesi, The Night 
' " ^ ^ " of the Ascent of the Prophet (26tli 

cJl^j <LJ * s-JlpJi :üLİ Uyletûl Ragayib, Uyliyi Bagayib, The 

Night of the first Friday of R6j6b, 
regarded as the anniversary of the 
conception of the Prophet. 

<L»» Festivals Bayramlar vi Yor tonlar, 455 

fjf^^>:J^ kl^Sj», * uT*^^!^ "^^J". Bir at gebesi, The Night of Absolution, 

the Night of the h^ of Shaban, in which the re- 
velation was communicated to Muhammed by the 
angel Gabriel. 

^-4?ci^ Ji-UJ Qandil gijisi, Any Night of general illumination for a 
Moslem festival, of which there are four: Muhammed's 
Birthday, Conception, Night-ascent and Absolution. 

^^A?c-S^ J Jİ ' J ji <1J ' jjJ^\ <L1 Leylit'ûl qadir, Uyleyi qad\r, qadir 

gijesif Qadr gejesi, The Night of Power, name given 
to the 27^11 night of Ramazan. 

juJl âU LeyUt'ûl eed, The night preceding either of the two 
"days of Bayram. 

o^ ArefSj The day preceding the two following Bayrams. 

^*\^^^*^j.\^ (jU»*j*^^ -^c Eedi fîtîr, Bamazan hay rami, 

Sheker bayramî. The festival at the end of the fast 
of Ramazan. (The first three days of Shaban.) 

<-^^^ J^^ * L^^-^ o^^ ' (J^^ -^ -Kedi adha, Qourban bay rami, 
Hajîlar bay rami , The Moslem festival of sacrifice, 
the Great Bayram falling on 10 — 13 of Zilhijj6. 

o^U- *ÂJ^ ' ^^ ^y^ KMrqayi Shirif, Khirqayi Sa-^det, The 
mantle of Muhammed, given to the poet Kîa'b. 

oji^ 0^^ Sourriyi Hûmayoun, The Sultan's yearly gifts for 
Mecca and Medina. 

^ ru»- <~^y» Mevkibi Hajji Shirif, The Sacred Caravan for the 
Holy Lands of Islam. 

Christian Festiyals 0^9 ^y) ^j p 3UI 

jJU-L 4>^-/^ fjr-f -^^ Meeladî Eesa, Kûchûk Pasqalya, 

^yk ' ^-<3^ f^^ ^>t^ 3fee?adi Eesa arifesi, Khîtom, The 

Christmas Eve. 
o\aî15jL ' ^^^^-jS^ol * JijlijlS Qarnaval, JĞt kişimi, Barqandan, The 

J^A^ -^jiji BSbyuk Firhiz, The Lent. 

*iL^\3 * <JIjL-L ^ji^ ' ^iL-L Pasqalya, Zadig, Easter. 

(j^-.ft) L-^ ^^/»«»- TtJ^ OuroujouHazretiEesafThek^cen^iou, 

j^*\^ Ca-^?" * û^-..^! Jufr Eedul Khamseen, Khamseen bayramı. 

The feast of Pentecost. 
[^ ltİJ^ ' ltİJ^ Çouddas, QouddaSi Shirif, The Eu- 
(ill J (iLifr Asha'yî Eabbani, The Lord's Supper. 

456 ^j^j p-J The Official Part 

Jewish Festiyals (jUljr.1») ^^^ 3UI 

•K^ * ^yi jji ^j^ii- KhamouxBouz hayramt, Fisîh', The Jewish 

"' Passover. CJ[5 Nissan.) 

Jj^^ (y\^, ^^Jj^ Chorab hay rami, Kipour, The feast of Atone- 

\, " . ment. (10 Tishri.) 

sijfS^ ' oC^^ lA*^ Çamî«J^ hay rami, Soukkot, The feast of Taber- 
nacles. (15 Tishri.) 
>\j^ ejG ^ara bayram, The Jewish fast for the des- 
^ tniction of Jerusalem. (9 AhJ 
^JJ^ * (j,*\^, S ^^ hayrawt, The Jewish Pentecost. (6 8ivan.) 

£jji * jj*\wHi ^i ShMr hayrami, Pourim, The festival of Porim. 
"" * "' (14 Adar.) 

Orders of the Ottoman Empire 

1. (jlc^ JT 61-^^ Khanedani Alt Osman: Star in brilliants (Mou' 

rassa ft^^y), established by Saltan Hamid. 

2. jli; ^y^9j\ İJrtogroul nîshanî: Gold, established by Saltan 


3. jUejil (jLi; ^î^Tıani Iftikhar: Star in brilliants, established by 

Sultan Mahmoud. 

4. jLul o^ J^Tis^ani imtiyaz: Star in brilliants, established by 

Sultan Hamid. 

5. (ile^ (jLiJ Nîshanî Osmanee: Star in brilliants, 1, 2, 3, 4, 

established by Sultan Abdul Aziz. 

6. ciJu;?:^ o^ ^î5/ıani Mejidee: Star in brilliants, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 

established by Sultan M6jid. 

7. si.y»t jjUL* Nîshanî ShSfaqat: The only order conferred on 

ladies 1, 2, 3, established by Saltan Hamid. 

Medals JUIju 


j^-<JİJı* ^U 1. Gold medal of Liyaqat. 

(^^<üljı« jLiii 2. Gold and silver medals of Imtiyeuf. 

^^<^\JJ» juL^ 3. » » » » > JndiMfry. 

j^-4j|A* (JbGjjî oV 4. Silver medal for saving life. 

^-^1-u jl^i 5. » » » Iftikhar. 


! '3- 


Bâiefii üfdlAiat/'^yt DivUti Aliyi. 457 

1 o 



- k- i.^"r->-<«-- 



-ı-İ. ^ o I- ><«- 

5. ■?-.■?■ s/î- s.'î s •■?■ s ■■?■ 6 -■?.■?■ 



458 ^y^J p-J The Official Part. \,9A 

CİTİ1 Grades MüMyâ BûtbOâri 

1. Vizaretj Vizir j The Rank of Vezir (the highest civil grade). 

2. Bûthiyi Balüy The Rank of Bala (piy, iffhtdi). 

3. Hutbeyi Oula sînîfî ivvel (biy, e/findi) yakhod Boum^i BiyUf 

beyi payesi (pîy, SffMdt), The Rank of Ist grade, l«t cLms. 

4. Butbiyi Oula sînîfî sani {effendi) yakhod Mirirnvran Tayini 

{pasha\ 1st grade 2n<i class or the rank of Mirimiran. 

6. Bûtbeyi SaniyS sînîfî ivvil Mutimayizi {iffend%) yakhod Mi^frûi 
ümera payisi, 2"^ class Mütemayiz or the Rank of Miyrûl 

6. Bûtbiyi Saniyi sînîfî sani {e/f indi) yakhod Stablî Amiri MAdir- 

liyi payesi, 2nd cIîisö 2nd grade. 

7. Bûtbiyi Salise (iff endi) yakhod Bikıabî Hûmayoun Qapo%^<m 

bashîlîghî paıjesi (iff endi), 3rd class. 

8. Bûtbiyi Babiya (iffindi), 4^^ class. 

9. Bûtbiyi Khamisi (effindi\ 5^^ class. 

Military and Nayal Grades Askeriye JSûtbilSri 

1. Mûshirlikf Mûshir (pasha), Marshal = Admiral (p. 444). 

2. Firiq, Feriqi ivvil (pasha), General of Division I. rank. 

3. Firiqi sani (pasha), Gen. of Division n. rank = Vice Admiral. 

4. Miriliva, Liva pasha, General of Brigade = Rear Admiral. 

5. Miralay (biy). Colonel = Captain. 

6. Qaymaqam (iffindi, biy). Lieutenant Colonel = Captain of 


7. Bifibashî (iffindi, biy). Major = Commander. 

8. Qol aghasî (iffindi). Adj. Major = Lieutenant Major. 

9. Tûzbashî (iffindi, agha). Captain = Lieutenant. 

10. Mûlazim (agha). Sublieutenant = Sublieutenant. 

Grades of Religious Hierarchy ilmiye JEtûfbilâri 

1. Sadrî Boumeli yakhod Boumeli Qazasherliyi Bayisi {iffindi^ 

The Rank of the Chancellor of Roum61i (corresp. to Arch- 
bishop): The Vice-Chancellor of Turkey (p. 438). 

2. Sadrî Anadolou yakhod Anadolou Qazaskirliyi payisi (iffindt). 

The rank of the chancellor of Anadolou (corresp. to Bishop). 

3. Istanbul ÇadîUghî payisi (iffindi). 

4. Harimiyni Shirifiyn payisi (iffindi). 

5. Biladl Khamse mivliviyiti payisi (iffindi), 

6. Makhrij mivliviyiti payisi (iffindi). 

7. Kibarî Mûdirriseen payisi (iffindi). 

8. Suliymaniye Madounounda mûdirriseen payisi (iffindi), 

9. Hoja, Khoja payisi (iffindi). 

'u•^ Official Titles Elqabi Bismiyi. 459 

Official Titles a-^j ^isJI 

•• • 

There are numerous expressions to denote 'His Imp. 
Majesty the Sultan', the folio wings are much in use: 

j^U^jL jliTp. 'J^jjdi siJ\^t * jtJLİİl J^\^^\ >.i^lİj '^ju-iJj 

iTa^î hazrSti Padishdhi, Zati hazr^ti jihandari, Zatî hazreti 
shihinshahif VÜinimâtimiZy VSiinimÜimiz Padühahîmîz iff indimiz f 
ShSvkâtmSah SffSndimiZy ShSvkitlou Padishahîmtz iff indimiz, Zatî 
Shivlcetsîmatî hazriti giy ti sitani. 

Imperial : 

Padishahi, Shdhani, Mûlûkîâni, Hûmayaun, Khûsrivani, 
Siniyi, Jihandari, Jihanhani, Shihinshahi, Tajdari or Padisha- 
hiliri, Shdhanileriy Mûlûktaniliri, Shihriyarüiri ete. 

Especial titles of the Mother-Sultana [Valide sultan 
aliyetûsh' shan hasretleri) : 

t^Jj^;^ l^jjil jbv A^ j^"-^^t^ jlı^^t jl:Jj^ 
Of Foreign Emperors and Kings: 

t^JL"^^ ^j\j:^\ o^T jl:^i^ (ily »^.ni^Ji j iSjj^\^\ o^->^ 

Hindistan Impiratorou ve Ingiltirra Qtrali Uashmitlou Albert 
Edward hazritliri. (H. M.) 

! UL:, .*•*■ Hashmitpinaha' ! Sire! 

Of the Shah of Persia: 

iSj^^^ o\^ O. jJl >ik* jb.1^ ^aU. o\jt\ (H. M.) 

Of the Imperial Princes: 

(ijj^^ (iJjil jbU; jblji (H. I. H.) 

Of the Khedive of Egypt, the Presidents of 
Republics and the Grand vizier: 

(iJL"^^ aJJİI Juj^ jli.1^ Fikhamitlou divlttlou Eff indim 
hazritliri. (H. H.) 

^^sJ^\ j-^ <^^r^ o Ic >..:.« l^ o\S -^ait fikhamitsimati hazriti 
Sadrı Azami. 

Of the Ex-Grand viziers: 
iSj^^j^ LtL jbji jli^l Ubhitlou devUtlou Pasha hazritliri. 

460 ^*— J pJ The Official Part. HA* 

Of Foreign Ambassadors: 

iSJi\^ ijj^yj\ utV^l: ) ^ Jd\^\ 

Of the Sh(5rif (governor) of M^cca and Medina: 

^J^^r^ r J^l J^^^ J^J^ (H. H.) 

Of the Chief Eunuch of the Imperial Palace: 

<^Ar^ r J^^ J^P" J^J^ (H. H.) 

Of the Minister of War and the Husbands of 
Imperial Princesses: 

ciJJ^^ f X5\ »P jbj^ (H. H.) 

Of the Grand Marshal (SerdaH EJcrem): 

(SJ^^^ r-^^ ^b ^J^ (Excellency) 

Of Functionaries of CİYİİ and Military Grades. 

» Of Marshals and Viziers: 

^J^^r^ ^Juii J^j^ (Excellency) 

Of the Governors General (Valis): 

^J^^r^ ^jJil ^j^ J^J^ (Excellency) 

r Of functionaries of Bala^ of the Imperial Chamber- 
lains, of the Premier Secretary of H. I. M. and of the 
President of the Council of State: 

^J^^r^ ^Jildl ^jiac (Excellency) 

r Of Generals of Division (Feriq), Vice -Admirals, 

and of the functionaries of the First grade of the But- 
hf'yi Olda, and of Boumeli BeyUr Beyüiyi: 

(SjS^^ pXj\ jLT^L- (Excellency) 

•w Of Brigadier -Generals (Miriliva), Rear -Admirals 

and the functionaries of the 2°^ grade Butheyi Oula and 

the Mutesarrifs: 

Of Colonels, Captains of ships (Miralay), func- 
tionaries of Mütemayil and Qaymaqams: 

•wlf Official Titles Elqabi Bismiye. 461 

n Of functionaries of Rütbeyi Saniye, of Lieutenant- 
Colonels, Captains of Frigates and the Director of the 
Imperial Stables: 

U-l or viL or (iJûsl jlTjc 

Y Of Majors {BinhasM), Commanders (Captains of 
Corvettes), Mudirs and Intendants of Regiments (Alay 
Emini) : ^\ or (iJûdl or ^ ^j 

A Of Adjutant -Majors, functionaries of Rabiya, 
Lieutenant -Commanders and Captains: 

lc.\ or iSX3\ or vil J^j^ 

\ To those who are below the above functionaries : 

Ic-l or (SXJ\ or ^ Jz^ 

Of Moslem Clergy, 

Of the Sheiykh-ûl Islam: 

Given by Clergy: 

Given by laymen: 

Of each Ex-Sh^ykh-ul Islam: 

ciJJ,^^ (iJilil ^^1±^ ^j^ 

f 'r Of the Judges of Roumeli and Anatoha: 

r Of the Istanbol Qadîsî and the Judges of 
Canon Law : iSjû^^^ f xil ^^ 

«L, 0, n Of the functionaries of Haremeyn etc.: 

V Of the functionaries of Mûderriseen (Doctors of 
Theological Seminaries): t^xii ^^^ 

a' ^ Of the functionaries of the 8^^ and 9^ grade: 


^y^j pJ The Official Part. 


Of Ch^lebi Effendi (the Sh^ykh occupying the post 
of Mövlana J^lal^ddini Roumi at Iconium): 

Non-Moslem Clergy. 

Of the Catholieos, Patriarchs, Bulgarian Exarch 
and Grand- Rabbi: 

(ijj^^ iSXi\ JcZj ! ULJuJj ButbStpendha! 
Of the Chancellor of Protestants {Mület FcMi): 

Of Archbishops and Bishops: 

Of Pastors, Missionaries, Chief Priests and Priests: 

iSX3\ JoLja» ; given by Moslems (iJûdj ^^ 

Commercial Terms a>j\^ oU^-^I 

Accept (to) qaboiiJ St." 

accepter qaboul ScUn; - ted maq- 
bouloiim dour. 

account hisab, mouhasebS; -cxm- 
rent hisabîja?'i; on- aUlhisab. 

acquittal ibraname^ ibra sinSdi. 

action hlssi sinSdi. 

address adrSs, khltab. 

advance pSshin, Uslimat. 

advise ikhbar St."; letter of ad- 
vice ikhbarnamSj ikhtarnamS. 

agent agSnta, vSkil. 

agio aqjS fargî, bash. 

agreement ouzlashma. 

allowance ikram. 

amount meblaglij ])ara. 

assets mSvjoudj -at; matloubat, 

assurance sigourtaj tSSminat. 

average avarya^ -maU. 

Bail, to be - kSfalef, -et." 

balance muvazene, -diftSri, bi- 
lancho; baqiySyi hisab, borj. 

bank banqa; -shares eshaiJi; 
-note qayimS, banqnot. 

banker bankSr, sarraf. 

bankrupt, -cy müflis, iflas. 

bargain pazarUq. 

barrel varil, ftchî. 

bearer hamil. 

bill of exchange qambiyal,policha; 

- of lading irsaliyi qaymisL 
blank indorsement hiyaz jiro, 
bonds tahvil, sihim; ishami anh 

moumiyi, qonsolid. 
bottomry gSminifi tirhini. 
br6v6t6, chartered biraüi. 
broker dSllal, simsar, 
brokerage dSllaliyi, sîmsariyL 
budget irad masraf deftiri, Mâji, 
bulletin jSdvSl, pousoida. 
bureau qalSm, idar&chanl. 
business oumour, ish. 
buy satin almaq, ishtira. 
buyer mûshteri, al%jî. 
Capital sSrmayS, risÛlmal, 
cargo liamouU, yûk. 
cash 2m ra; in - pSshin, naqdSn, 
certificate ilmoukhabSr, shihadei- 

change tibdil, bozma, 
charter bârat, imtiyaz, 
chattel Smvaİî mSnqoulS, 


Commercial Terms Istilahatî Tûjjariye, 


check chek; coin sikke, para, 
commerce tijaret, akhzouita. 
commercial tûjjari; - law canonou 

commission qomisiyon; -er qo- 

misiyonjou, -tûjjar. 
company qoumpanya, shirkit. 
consols qonsolidy ^sham. 
contract mouqavSU, qontourato. 
copy qopya, nuskhS. 
correspondence moukhdberi; 

-dan t moMkhabir, adim. 
course of exchange piatsa. 
credit qrMito, itibar; matloub; 

on - vMsiyS, 
creditor alajaqli, dayin. 
currency rayij aqje, para. 
custom gibmrûkyrmısoum; - house 

g^m7*ûky rousoumat dayirisi. 
customer mûshteriy bayi. 
Damage zarar , ziyan, khasar. 
days of grace müsaade, mûhUt, 
dear bahalî, fiyatlî. 
debt deyn, borj. 
debit zimmet, dûyounat; (to) 

zimmet qayd et." 
debtor medyoun, borjlmi. 
deduction tSnzil, tarh'. 
deficiency achtq. 
delay tSekhir; without - bila 

tHkhir, seriyan. 
demurrage Istalya. 
deposit emanit, dSposito. 
destination mahallî maqsoud. 
discount isqonto, tenzil. 
dissatisfaction khoshnoudsouz- 

dissolution fSskh, laghv. 
dividend hissiyi timettû, ktardan 

dûshen hisse. 
double chifte; -entry mûzaaf. 
draft qambiyal, politsa. 
draw a bill (to) politsa chikmik, 

- back gümrük resminin iya- 

drawer keshideji. 
due tiSdiyesi lazım gelin. 
duplicate nûskhiyi saniye. 
Endorsement Jiro, havali. 
error sehv', khata, yanetsh. 
exchange ejnebi piatsasî, - polit- 

sasi; mübadili, trampa. 

exports ikhrajat. 

Factor qomisiyonjou. 

fair panayir. 

final qati, son. 

firm tijaretkhane. 

foreign ijnebi. 

forestaller madrabaz, mûhtikir. 

freight hamoule, yûk; (to) gemi 

yûkletmik, tahmil it." 
fund meblagh, aqji; sermaye, 

Gain kiar, qazanj, temettü; net- 

safi temettü, safi kîhr. 
goods ish-ya, mal. 
guaranty kifalit, kefil. 
Honour (politsayî) qaboul et." 
Import(ation) idkhalat. 
imputable tenzili lazım gelen. 
indemnity tazminat. 
indorsement jiro, havale. 
indorser jiranta, jiro idin. 
insurance sigourta, teeminat. 
insured sigourtali. 
interest fayiz, gûzeshte. 
inventory mûfridat deftiri. 
invoice fatoura, qayimi. 
Letter tahrirat, miktouJ). 
liability zimmet, borj. 
licence rovkhsat, behiye. 
loss zarar, ziyan. 
Maker midymm, kishideji. 
mark marqa, alamet. 
market charshi, piyatsa. 
maturity vadinin ikmali. 
memorandum hisab potısoulasî. 
merchandise mal, emta*a. 
merchant tûjjar, tajir. 
money aqje, naqid. 
monopoly inhisar. 
mortgage rehin, vefa. 
Negotiable gecher, rayij. 
net safi; tsqontosmiz. 
Offer satligha chiqarilan maL 
office idarekhani, oda. 
order emr, ^parish. 
Package pakit. 
partner shirik, ortaq; -ship shir- 

ket, ortaqliq. 
patent berat, imtiyaz. 
pattern mostra, ^rnek. 
pawn, pledge rehin. 
payable teidiyisi mishrout olan. 


or«— 'J p— * 

The Official Part. 


payee aiyt, hamiL 
payment ÛMiyi, ida. [qoiile. 
personal property enıvalî men- 
post postay - vaporou; - office 

postahanS; - order manda. 
power of attorney viktalitnamL 
price fiyaty qtyniH, haha; -current 

iiyat\ jaHy rayij, 
principal sermaye. 
protest protisto. 
Quality n^y jhis. 
Real eatAt^drnvaU gayrî menqmtUy 

mal mülk. 
ratification tasdiq. 
receipt ilmouhabery maqhouz; on- 

ha ilmouhabir. 
reference bir tijar^tkhani haq- 

qinda vMlen malûmaty shSha- 

reimbursement tislimy tUdiyL 
rent ijary kira. 
responsible mdsoul. 
responsibility misouliyet. 
retail p4rakhide satish, 
return avdety iyadS. 
Sale satîshy sarfiyaty sârûm. 
sell satmaqy firoukht Hmik. 
seller hayiy satîjî. 

satisfaction nUmnouniyet. 

security kifily kefalU, 

S. G. D. G. (sans garanti da 

gouvernment) hûkûmiM ti- 

hninati olmaqstsfin. 
ship gemi, 8İfin4; -ment toAmi/, 

yûkldmi; (to) tahntü it." yûk- 

simple aafi; adi. 
sign imzalamaq. 
signature imza. 
smuggled qachaq {nial, tûtûn). 
solid mûtiMr, qavee. 
stamp: postage- posta poukm; 

revenue- damga poulau, shted 

stock hissiy hisaS ainMi. 
superior ala, aghîr (mctl). 
Titledeed tapou aSnidi. 
trade mark alamiti fariqa, 
trustee vaHy muUv&li. 
Ultimo maM samq, gichin ay. 
usury tSf^jilik. 
Warehouse maghaza. 
warranty kifaUt. 
weigh tartmaq, vizn it." 
weight aghirliq, stqUt. 
wholesale topdan saiUh. 




Abandon (to) hraqmaqy Si.terh it." 

abate (to) ashaght varmaq, chi' 
qarmaq, a. Umil St." 

ability a. qabiliySty iqtidar; qou- 

able a. qadir, muqtidir. 

ablution p. abdest. 

abode ev, p. khane, a. meşkin. 

abolish (to) a. laghv, mahVy im- 
ha it," 

abominable p. napak^ mourdar, 

about a. dayir; taqriben. 

above yoqari, yoqarda; mtun. 

absence a. ghayboubet; fiqdan, 

absent a. ghayib, namivjoud. 

absolute a. moutlaq, mustaqil. 

absolutely a. qatiyan, külliyen^ 

abstain (to) a. ijtinab it.", ^.per- 
hiz it.", perhiz toutmaq. 

abstinence a. ijtinab, p. perhiz 
kiarltq; a. imsak, orouj. 

abundant bol, choq, a. kisir. 

abuse (to) a. ifsad it.", bozmaq. 

abyss a. varta, lûjje, q'ar. 

academy p. enjûmini danish, 
f. aqademiya; a. mektebi alt. 

accept a. qaboul, akhz et.", ah 
maq, a. razee olmaq. 

access a. tiqarroub, a. doukhoul. 

accident a. qaza, vouqoiiat, hadise. 

acclivity yoqoush, bayır. 

accompany a. rifaqat, arqadash- 
lîq et." 

accord (to) a. ittifaq it."; virmek. 

according (to) ... a giore, binain, 

account a. hisab, mou'ameU. 

accumulate (to) birikdirmek^ a.jim 
it."; yighmaq, toplamaq. 

Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 

accurate doghrou, p. dûrûst, 

a. sahih'. 
accusation a. shikîayit, ittiham. 
ache aghrî, a. vifa. 
acid ekshi; a. hamiz. 
acknowledge a. iqrar, t'iiraf; 

tantmaq; a. tasdiq etmik. 
acorn palamout. 
acquire (to) tahsil et"; ioyrin- 

across tarafindan; arqiri. 
act (to) a. harekit it."; itmek, yap' 

act, action w/i, a. fiHl; p.jeng. 
active ishgûzar; (verb) a. flHU 

actually a. filhaqtqa, sahihin; 

(now) shimdL 
acute sivri^ kiskin; 2k. fitin, (angle) 

a. zaviyeyi haddi. 
adamant polad. 
adapt (to) ouydourmaq, a. mouva- 

fîq qUmaq. 
add (to) ga<wag, a. zamm,ilaviit." 
adder engerik ytlanu 
addition Hlave; (arith.) jim'. 
adieu! a. eyvallah, Allahaismar- 

ladiq, f. adiyo. 
adjective a. sifit, vasf. 
administer a. idari itmik; virmik. 
admiral amiral, bahriye mûshiri. 
admire {io)biy inmek, a.tahsinit." 
admit (to) a. qaboul it." 
adore (to) taptnmaq, p. peris- 

tish it." 
adult bioyûkj aqla baligh. 
adultery a. zina, fah'shiyat. 
advantage a. fayidi, kiar, isti- 
adversary a. khasim, ^adou, 

p. dûshmin. 




Vocabulary Loughit-clvS. 

advice a. nasihat; khahir. 
advocate, f, acoqat, dava vekili. 
- (to) a. iltizam, istishabj t^roijit." 
affair ish, a. maslahat; p. jdng, 
affection ai,moühabhet,houl)b ; ilUt, 
affiance (to) a. aıdî nikiah et/' 
affray ghavgha, a. niz^a. 
affront a. tahqir, hiqaret it'\ 

t. gujendirmik. 
aforesaid a. salif iz zikr^ niezkur. 
afraid (to be) qorqmaq, a. khafv 


after soüra, a. hadShoUj hadima. 
afternoon ikindi, a. hadez zeval, 
again hir daha, SLJekrar^ tekraren. 
age yash, a. sinn; a. asr^ dSor, 

agent a. vekil^ adem, f. agSnta. 
agitator a. moulharrik, miifsid, 
agony a. iztirah; haUtun nSz\ 
agree a. qavl, ittifaq H'\ razi öl." 
agriculture a. zira" at, renjbdrlik, 
ague sUma. 

ah! akh!^ aman! vakh, 
aid yardim, a. mouavenet, imdad, 
aim (to take) p. nishan almaq. 
air a. hava, havayi nesimi. 
alarm qorqou, a. iztiraby Myejan, 
alas I iyvah! yaziq! 
alderman a, ayan, sahibi noufous. 
algebra a. ilmi jebr, jebr, 
alien a. ijnebi, t. yadîrghî. 
alike a. mûshabih, binzir. 
alive dtri, 5a^7t, a. hayy\ 
all ?icp, a. jûmli, jimi, kiUli. 
alleviate (to) a. takhfif et." 
alley dar soqaq^ chtqmaz. 
alliance a. ittifaq, ittihad. 
allow a. izin, roukhsat vdrniek. 
allowance a. tayin, tayinat. 
almanac a. taqvim, p. salnafne. 
almond badim. 
almost heman, az qaldi. 
alms a. sadaqa^ eeyani, zektclt. 
alone p. tinha; yalîüîz. 
aloud pek, p. avazt bulend He. 
alphabet elifbd, a. houroufou heja. 
already a. zaten; p. henoiiz. 
also da, dakhi, a. kezalik. 
altar a. mezbah. 
alter (to) a. taghyir, tebdil et." 

t. diyishdirmek. 

although hir niqadar, p. iyerM^ 
altitude yükseklik, a. irtifa. 
altogether b,. jitmlitin, timamin, 
alum shab^ sheb. 
always a. day ima, p. himisM. 
ambassador p. 4lchi, a. sifir. 
amber p. kehrûba, Mhrihar. 
ambergris a. ^anbdr^ ambir. 
ambition a. hirsi shan, iqbal pS- 

amble (to) rahvan, ishkin, yorgha 

gitmik. [gtah^ 

ambuscade t. pousou, p. kimin' 
amiable a. latif, p. khosh, t tatlU 
ammunition p.jSbhanS. 
amount a. yekân; mibîagh. 
ample bol, joshgoun, a. kisir. 
amulet a. nouskha, tilisim, hama- 
amuse (to) eyUndirnUk. \ffü. 
ancestor SL.jidd; (pi.) a^a ou ijSiid. 
anchor dimir, Ungir. 
anchovy sardHa, sardalya. 
ancient a. qaditn, t. Saki. 
ankle topouq, a. ktab. 
anecdote a. hiktâyi, latifi, qUsi, 
angel a. mdek, melayiki. 
anger a. hidditj khîrs, t. âifki, 
angle a. zaviyi, p. kSbshi. 
angry dargMn, p. ghcusahnak. 
animal 2l. hayvan. 
annals a. tarikh, (pi.) tivarikh, 
annoy (to) a. tajiz it.'\ osandir- 
annual ytlliq, a. sinivi. [maq;. 
answer a. jioab, p. pasoukh, 
ant qarinja, p. mourchi. 
antagonist a. moukhasim, mqib. 
antelope jiyran, jiylan, p. ahau. 
antichrist a. dijjal. 
anvil ^rs, sal. 
anxiety p. indishi, a. visviaL 
ape maymoun, p. kibi. 
apology ^zur; a. tarziyi; mûdcbr 
apoplexy damla, a. nûsûl. \fa*a. 
apostate a. murtidd vulg.mouftod. 
apostle a. risoul, havari (of 

Christ). [miydanda. 

apparent a. zahir, p. (MhiJcuir,. 
appeal a. khitab; mûntj^jat. 
appear (to) g^rilnmik; a. zahir^ 

p. numayan öl." 
appearance gibrûnûsh, a. souritf 

shekl; zouhour. 



LÜ Vocabulary Loughet-clie, 


appendix a. 'ilave, zamime, 
appetite a. ishtiha, vulg. ishtah, 
apple eZwa, (of eye) ^eo^; bebeyi, 
appoint (to) a. nasb, tayin et." 
apprentice oushaq, p. shayird. 
apricot (dry) zerdali^ (fresh) ga- 

apron ^, peshtimal, fota, 
Arabian, -bic arabiy arabja. 
arch Icem^Ty p. taq. 
archbishop mitropolit, arachnort 
archer p. kemankSsh, tirendaz. 
architect a. mimar ^ qalfa, p. ousta. 
aright doghrouy a. salim, sahih, 
arithmetic a. ilwi hisab. 
arm qol, p. bazou; a. silah. 
army ordoUy p. Ushker. 
arrange a. tSrtib et., t. dizmek. 
arrival gelish, a. vûrûd, vûsûl. 
arsenal f. tersanS. 
art a. fenny pi. fûnûn, sana'at. 
artery shah damar, a. sheryan. 
artichoke enginar, gangar. 
artificer a. hnaf, Mi sana'at. 
artificial yapma j a. sounH; taqlid. 
artillery toplar, topjou hlihasî, 
ascend a. soiCoud et."j cMqmaq. 
ascertain a. tahqiqit."; yoqlamaq. 
ashamed (to be) outanmaq, a. hi- 

jab et!' 
ashes kul, p. rSmad. 
ask sormaq, a. istifsar, sival et.'' 
ass esheky p. khar, a. mirkeb. 
assassin qanli, a. ga^tZ, p. khoun- 

assist ?/ardfiw7, a..mou''avenSt, iani. 
assuredly a. filhaqiqa, haqiqat^n. 
astray yoldan sapmxsh, gûmrah, 
astrologer a. mun^jjim, t. baqiji. 
astronomy ilmi hiye't. 
atom a. zerr^^ jSvher; jûz. 
atone a. kefaret H." 
atrocity a. zidm^ mezalim. 
attack a. hııjûm, hamle. [et." 
attempt (to) chalishmaq, a. tejribi 
attend, (upon) a. khîzmet et."; (to) 

a. hazlr ol.' 
attention a. diqqat; khass dour! 
attract a. jezb et", chekmek. 
auction a. mezad, müzayede. 
augment artirmaqy a. teksir et." 
August (month) avosdoSy okosdos. 

aunt (paternal) a. erne; (maternal) 

teyze, a. hala. 
Austrian n4mchS, nSmtsS. 
author müellif y muharrir. 
auxiliary yardtmji; (verb) a. fiyli 

iyane, fiyli 'amm (§ 272, 309). 
avenge a. t. intiqam dlmaq. 
avenue SL.jaddd. 
await biklimSky a. mountaztr ol." 
awake ouyanmaq. 
awe qorqou, a. de'hshet, heybet. 
axe balta, giribi. 
axis a. mihvSr. 
axle dingil. 

azure lajivSrd, achtq mavi, gebv. 
Baby b^bik, chojouq, chagha. 
bachelor erg^n, a. azah, b^iar. 
back arqa, sîrt, a, vera. 
backgammon tavlou. 
bacon dofiouz pasdîrmasî. 
bad a. f^na, p. b^d, t. k^tû. 
bag a. k^s^, chouval; khourj, hSybS. 
baggage jîlrî pîrtı, pırtı, a. Sshya. 
bail a. kdfil. bait y^m. 
bake pisMrm^, a. tabkh it." 
baker ikmikji, fourounjou. 
balance a. Ûraz% p. mizan. 
balcony f. balcon, p. shahnishin. 
bald daz baShlt, daz, p. kil. 
ball top, gûlU; qourshoun; f. balo. 
balloon f. balon. 
ballot a. qour'a. 

band bagh, p. bind; taqtm; 
bandage sarghL [f. banda. 

bank sou kinart, qtyt; a. sidd; 

f. banka. 
banker a. sarraf, f. bankir. 
bankrupt a. müflis, mibhlûz. 
banner bayraq, a. alim. 
banquet a. ziya fit. 
baptism f. vaftiz, a. td*mid. 
bar choubouq, striq. 
barbarian a. vah'shi, yabani. 
barber birbir. 

bare cMblaq, a. üryan, t. achtq. 
barefooted yalin ayaq, p. birhini 
bargain pazarltq. [p^V' 

barge mavouna; may it vapor ou. 
bark aghaj qaboughou; (of dog) 

ürümik, havlamaq. 
barley arpa, a. shayir. 
barn a. p. anbar, ambar. 



^c^ Vocabulary Loughit'Chi. 


barometer a. mizacı ûl hava^ 

f. haromitro, 
barracks qislila. 
barrel fUM, f. varely varil. 
barrow Ü ardbast. 
barter trampa^ diyish toqoiish. 
base dlchaqj &.edna, dM, p.khor; 

(foundation) ddban, a. ^sds; 

f. haso (sis). 
bashful outanjaqt a. mahjoub. 
basin p. Uym; a. Mase^ chanaq, 
basket sipedj a. z^nhil. 
bastinado dayaq, a. falaqa, 
bastion a. ta'biye, tabya. 
bat chomaq; yarasa, gejS qoushou. 
bath a. ham'mam, sijaq. 
battalion tabour. [ghavgha, 

battle a. mouhareb^, p. jing, 
bay (gulf) körfez, (colour) dorou. 
bayonet sûngûy p. niz^. 
beacon a. minard, p. nishan. 
beam kirish; (of sun) p. yârtiv. 
bean a. baqla; f. fasoulya. 
bear ayt; (to) dayanmaq, g^tûr- 

me% a. tehammul H." 
beard saqal, p. risk. 
bearer a. hamil. 
beast a. hayvan; p. janver. 
beat debymek; bozmaq. 
beautiful guztH, p. dilbf'r. 
beaver qoundoiiz. 
bed yataq, deosheg. 
bee arî, a. ^^^&owr. 
beef sighîr Hi. 
beet root pan jar y chûkûndûr. 
beggar dih'nji^ a. sayiî. 
begin bashlamaq, a. iptidar it." 
behead bashUit kismekj a. gjatL 
behold! ishti, nah!, nal 
believe (to) inanmaq, iman H." 
bell (small) cMngirdaq; (large) 

chaüf qampana; (of a time- 
bellows k^riik. [piece) zil. 
belly qarhij a. &aiw, bathi. 
beloved a. mahboub, mashouq; 

(fem.) a. mashouqa, maliboubi. 
belt kemer, qayhh. 
bend eymSk, ey ilmik. 
benediction bMkit doii'ash 
benefactor Sffendi, a. v^Zi niymet. 
bereave (to) a. mahroum it." 
berr>' p. dani, a. habbi. 

beseech ^alvarmoa ; a. istida a, rija 

besides, -dan ma'da, -dan bcuhqa. 
besiege a. mouhasiri H" 
better iyi^ daha iyi, p. bih'tSr. 
bible a. kitabi mouqaddis. 
big b£byuk, iri^ qqjaman. 
bile safra, aid; a. ghazab. 
bill a. hisab^ f.pou8oula; a. sinld. 
billet {.pousotda, biUi. 
bind baghlamaq, p. Mi(2 ^." 
bird gottö/ı, p. mûrgh. 
biscuit f. biksimit, gaUta, giwrik. 
bishop f. ipiscopos, mirkhasa. 
bit a. jûz, p. parcha; a. loqma. 
bite (to) islrmog, dishUmSk. 
bitter a^'î. — ness ajüîg. 
black g^ara, p. dtVai^, ft* ^so^. 
blacksmith demirji, p. ahingir. 
bladder a. m^an^. 
bleed (to) qanamaq; qan almaq. 
bless (to) mvbarikUmâc^ a.t.&^f4- 

blessing a. khayr dou^a, birikit 

blind p. fc^r, a. a'tna. 

blood qan, p. <f^m. — money 

a. diyit. — thirsty p. khoiMnriz. 
blossom chichik, p. ghondU. 
blow (to) (wind) ismik; (moatb) 

blow a. darbi, vouroiM^. 
blue (light) mavi, gibv; (deep) 

blunt fc^r, kismiz. 
board tahta; a. m^jlisi idari, 
boat gay^; f. /îZi^a, «andoİ. 
body ^^t7(2(^, a. vûjûd, bidSn, p. t/n. 
boil (to) ğ^a^namag, gaynatmas; 

pishirmikf hashlamaq. 
boiled souda piahmish, hashlan- 

mîsh; qaynar (sou), 
bold a. jisour, p. dilavir. 
bolster yasdtq, yüz ytMââghî. 
bolt sûrmi, sûrgû. 
bombshell f. qoumbara, 
bone ^'^mtX;. book a. kitab. 
boot chizmi. border p. kenar. 
bore (of a gun) chap; (to) dilmik. 
borrow (to) ^dunj almaq, a. irti- 

gra^ 6t." 
bosom g£SkÜ8, p. sin^; qi^un. 
bottle shishi; bottom c2t&. 


-üjtzJ Vocabulary Loughit-che, 


bountiful holy a. t. hMketU. 

bow (to) hashiym^k^ 2i.inqiyadH." 

bow yay; a. temSnna^ selam. 

bowels haghlrsaq. 

bowl a. tas, kiasi; lûU; f. qavata. 

bowstring hirish, p. zih. 

box (chest) sandiq; (desk) chek- 

7neje, (small) qoutoti; (on the 

ear) sille, toqat; (tree) shimshir. 
boy oghlarty chojouq. 
brace (pair) c/n/^; (braces) as^'^i*. 
brain heyin, beyn. 
bran kepek, branch dal. 
brandy raqt. brass pirinj. 
brave yigit, a. jesouVf f. pehlivan, 
bread ekmek, f. jmW. 
breakfast qahvalti. [maq. 

break qirmaq, a. Aresr <^'^"; gîrîZ- 
breast g^bkûs; m^me. 
breath nefhy solouq; a. teneffüs et." 
bribe a. rishtH; (to) rishvH vir- 
brick toughlttj kir^mid. [m^. 
bride gelin, a. arous. 
bridegroom gûvi^yi, damad. 
bridge keoprû. bridle bashUq. 
brigade liva. brigadier miri liva. 
bright parlaqy p. rousMn. 
brilliant pîrlantî; parlaq. 
brimstone p. kûkûrt. 
bring (to) getirmek. 
broad enli; genish. 
brook chay, sou, broth et souyoii. 
brother qardash, p. birader. 
bronze touj. brush flrcha. 
buck geyik, bucket qova. 
bufifalo a. jamous, manda. 
bug tahta biti; b^jSk. 
build (to) a. bina et.", yapmaq. 
building a. bina; a. tamir. 
bull bougha. bullock tosoun, 
bullet qourshoun. 
bunch salqtm; demH, p. d^ste. 
burden yiiky p. bar, a. hamouU. 
burial a. jenaze alayı, d^fn. 
buried defn olounmoush, a. mSd- 

burn (to) yaqmaq, a. ihraq Ü."; 

t. yanmaq. 
burning-glass p.jü^W^soM2f,fc/ıour- 

burst (to) patlamaq; patlatmaq. 
bury a. defn et" gedmmek. 

bush chalty chaliltq, [sab, 

busy a. meshghoid. butcher a. qas- 
butter tM yaght, kiri yaghî, 

p. keri; (clarified) saghi yaghi 

vulg. say yaghi. 
button duymiy f. qobja, 
buy (to) satin almaq, a. ishtira et." 
buyer a. mûshtiri, a. bayi. 
buzz vizlamaq, vîz-vîz itmik. 
Cabbage lahana, kiUm. 
cabin (in ship) f. qamara. 
cage cafis. cake qourabiyi. 
calamity a. afit, moiisibit; bila, 
calculate a. hisab it." [qaza, 
calendar a. taqviniy p. salnami, 
calf dana. calico chit, basma. 
call chaghirmaq; a. tismiyi it.'' 
calm a. asoude; (weather) a. wwZa- 
calumny iftira, bühtan. [yim. 
camel d^'t?^, a. jimil, p. tis^i^iir. 
camp ordou. candle mourn, 
cane qamish; diynik, 
cannon top. canvass yilkin hizi, 
cap fis, p. külah, f. Ar^p. 
capital p. paytakht; (money) sir- 

captain (army) a. zabit; (navy) 

p. sûvariy f. qaptan. 
captive a. isir vulg. yis'sir. 
caravan p. kirvan, a. qafile. 
carcass fish, p. la>shi. 
card a. mouqava; f. A:ar^ 
carder (of cotton) a. hdllaj. 
caress oqshamaq, taltif it." 
cargo yuky a. hamouli. 
carnal a. jismani, nifsani. 
carpenter (house) dwr^f^r; (joiner) 

doghramajî ; (ship' s) maranqoz. 
carpet halı, khalî, kilim; a. sijjadi 

carriage araba, 

carrier ishikji, qatîrjî; a. hammal, 
carrot havouj, a. kishour. 
carry tashimaq, gibtv/rmik, 
cart araba, qafiU, qaflni, 
cascade chaghlayan, a. shildli. 
case sandiq. cash a. naqd. 
cask /tc/il. cast (to) atmaq. 
castle a. qala\ cat fe^dt. 
catch (to) touimaq. catgut kirish, 
catbolicos qatoghigos. 
cattle a. hayvanat, davar, sîghîr. 


^Lstiil Vocabulary Loughit-chL 


caulillower qarnahit [yiri. 

causal (verb) a. mûteaddiyi tas- 
cause a. Sf^b^bymoiijib^bayis, badi 
cavalry aüty p. mvari. 
cavern maghara, in, a. ghar, 
ceilinj:? tavan; celery h'remz, 
cell a. hûjre. centre a. mtrltez^orta, 
cement toutqal, zamq; alchi. 
certain a. mouhaqqaq, a. t. shûbhe- 
chafl saman, chain zmjir. [siz, 
chair sandalya, chalk tebeshir, 
challenge meydan oqoumaq. 
chamber oda; (of mine) a. 1chasin4. 
change deyishmik ; d^yishdirm^. 
channel soil yolou, a. mejra. 
chapel a.p.ibadiHIchane, a.mab^d, 
character a. siyret {moraY)] (writ- 
ten) yaz If a. khatt; (quality) 
a. lUyfıyât, 
charcoal k^miir. [giizar. 

charg6 d'affaires a. p. maslahat- 
charity a. khayratj sadaqa, 
charming a. latif, p. dilber, 

t. gûzil. 
cheap oujouz. cheek yanaq. 
cheat aldatmaq^ ddlandlrmaq. 
cheerful p.shen,shmshoukhykeyfli. 
cheese pdynir. chess p. satranj. 
chemise qadin geomUyi, a. qamis. 
cherry kiraz; (morella) vishnS. 
chestnutkSstane. chew chiynemSk, 
chicken pilij. child chojouq. 
chief bash, s^rgerdS, sheykh. 
chimney ojaq^ baja; lamba jamî, 
chin client, chip yonya. 
chisel qaUm. cholera qolera. 
choice a. ikhtiyar, yâdi ikhtiyar. 
chop (cut) kf'smdk ; (mince) qiymaq, 
Christ liazreti Isa, Kristos. 
Christian khristiyan; isavee, mS- 

sihi; inlimin, dindar, 
church f. kilise, 
cigar sigara] (case) tabaqa. 
cinnamon tarchin. circle a. dayire, 
circular yoiivarlaq, a. miidevv^r, 
circulate debnmck, a. deveran et," 
circumcise (to) sunnet, khatn et," 
circum8tanc(i a. //aZ, keyfiyet. 
city ]). shell ir, shehr. 
civil a. nazik, zarif, terbiyeli. 
civilisation a. wedeniyet, temed- 

class a. »tnif, clean a. t. Umis, 
clear timiz; &,birraq; t,achîq. 
clergyman a. rouhani, rouhhan 

girouhou, (Moslem) ouUma. 
clerk a. kiatih, t. yaztjt, p. mirza, 
climate p. db ou hava, a. iqlim. 
cloak qapoud, aba; clock a. sa*at, 
close qapali; yaqtn, 
cloth biz; choulia, cloud boulout, 
clover yonja, coal kSbmûr, 
coarse qaba, qalln^ bayaght, 
coast qlyi, yalt, p. kinar, a. sdhih 
coat f. siiri, surtouqo. 
cobbler iskiji, paboujjou, 
cobweb £brumjik aghî. 
cock khoroz; moiUlouq, 
coffee f. qahvd, coffin a. tdbauU 
coin a. sikki; (pi.) miakûkOtt, 
cold sovouq; a. nivazil. 
colic sanjl; coliar yaqa, 
collect (to) topla^nciq, jam itmİk, 
collection a. mSjmou^a, 
college a. mSdrhi, m^İbi ali, 
colonel a. t. miralay, 
colour p. ring, colt tay, sipa. 
comb taraq, p. shanS. [p» jing, 
combat a. mouharibi, ghavgha, 
come gilmik, a. vasîl olmaq. 
comet qouyrouqlou-yildte, 
commend a. 4mr,âm%r;f,qomanda, 
commence bashlamaqf a. ihUdar 
commentary a. tifsir, ahSrK, \it" 
commerce a. tijardt, akheou ita, 
common 'oumoumi,amm; (-people) 

avamm, avam'mi nas^ ihcHi, 
communion a. ûnsiyH; (Holy-) 

community a. jdmaat; miUA. 
companion arqadash, a. Mrik. 
company a. rufiqa, argadashlar. 
compare a. mouqabild, tatbiq it" 
compass t pousoula ; (jpl,) pirgil, 
compatriot p. himshihri, 
complain a. shiktâyit, ishtikta it." 
complete a. tikmil, tamm, Mamil. 
compose a. tirtib, tasnif it," 
composition a. meqaJi. 
comrade arqadash, a. rifiq. 
condition a. hal; shart, shourout, 

conduct a. harikit; tavrou hari- 
conûdence a. itimad, imniyit. [kit. 


A:^ Vocabulary Loughit-chS. 


/. >t 

congratulate a. Uhrik H." 
conquer (to) zdbty fHh St," 
consent a. razi olmaq^ qahoul St" 
consider dûshûnmSk^ a. mutalara 
consist (to) a. ibarit olmaq. [St" 
console (to) a. tSsSlli St." 
consul f. qonsoloSj p. shShhSndSr. 
consulate f. p. conaoloskhanS, 

p. shShbSndSrkhanS, 
contain almaq, a. mûhiSvi ol" 
content a. razi, p. hoshnoud. 
contraband qachaq, yasaq. 
contrary a. Jchilaf, zidd. 
controversy a. mubahasS, bdhs. 
convenient a. munasib. 
convent f. manastir, 
convert a. miihtSdi. 
cook ashjî\ (to) pishirmSk. 
cool sSrin, cooper fîchîjî. 
copper baqîr\ qazan, 
copy a. sourStj ayn, 
coral merjan. cord ip. 
cork mantar, corn a. zakhirS, 
corner p. k^she, t. boujaq. 
corporal onba^hî. [St. 

correct doghroultmaqj a. tashih 
correspondence mSktoublashma, 

a. moukhabSrS. 
correspondent a. moukhabir. 
corrupt bozouq^ chârûk. 
corsair qoursan, — gemisi. 
cottage f. a. qoulibS^ tounjik. 
cotton pamoug. 
cough eoksûrûk; SbksûrmSk. 
council a. niejlis, shoura. 
counsel a. nasihat; — vSrmSk. 
count saymaq, td'dad StmSk, 
counter p. pSshtahta. 
counterfeit p. sakhtS^ a. qalb. 
country a. mSmlSkSt, p. SblkS; k£by. 
couple chift. 

courage yigitlikj a. jSsarSt. 
courier tatar. p. chapar. 
courtyard havliy havlou. 
cover Sortû; eorimek. 
coverlet yorghan. 
cow inek. coward qorqaq. 
cream qaymaq, sûd yûzû. 
creation khilqati *alem. 
credit s. itibar; alajaq» 
creditor alajaqll, a. dayın, 
crescent yarim ay, a. hilal. 

crime a. jinaySt. crier a. dSllah 
criminal &, jani, cripple cholciq, 
crooked Syri, qatnbour. 
cross p. hach, khach^ a. salib, 
crowd qcUabdliq. 
crown a. taj; (of head) dSpS, 
cruel a. zdlimf mSrhamStsiz. 
crumb ikmik ichiy SkmSk oufan- 

crust qabouq, 

cry (to) baghtrmaq, aghlamaq, 
crystal a. billor, biUour, 
cucumber khtyar, cudgel aopa, 
cup fifijan; — board dolc^, 
cure shifa vSrmSk^ SyUSimSk. 
curiosity a. mSraq; a. iohafiyS, 
currants frSng ûzûmû. 
curse a. lanSt, vulg. nallSt. 
curtain p. pSrdS, cushion yasdtq, 
custom a. adSt; (tax) rSsmigSbm- 

ruky rSsm (pi. rousoum). 
customer mûshteri, 
customhouse gSbmrûk dayirSsi. 
cut kSsmSky a. qat StmSk, 
cypress p. sSrVy sSlvi, 
Dagger a. khanchir, qama, 
daily gûnlûk, a. ySvmi, 
damage aaqatliq, a. zarar, ziyan, 
damp p. nSm, mSmnak, 
dance a. raqs St.", t, hora tSpmSk. 
danger a. tShlikS, moukhatara. 
dark qaranltq^ a. zoulmSt. 
darling a. makboubS, mahboub. 
date a. tarikh; (fruit) khourma. 
dated a. tarilûıU, mûvSrrakh\ 
daughter qtZj p. dûkhiSr, a. bint. 
dawn chinsabah, a. shafaq, fSjr. 
day a. ySvWy t. gun, p. rouz. 
deacon a. shSmmas, f. sargaxak, 

dead ^lû, p. mûrdS, javsiz, 
deaf saghir, ishitmSz. 
dear bahalî, p. giranbdha; a. aziz 

(loved). My-, azizim. 
death SbMm, a. mSvt, mSwat. 
debt borj. a. dSyn (pl.dûyoun, 'at). 
debtor borjiou, a. mSdyoun. 
deceitful aldadijh P- hiylSktar. 
deceive (to) aldatmaq, 
decide (to) qarar vermSk, qarar- 

deck f. gebvSrtS, (It. cuverta.) 


*s^ Vocabulary Loughdt-ehS, 


*. " 

declare a. t'lan SL'\ nâshr et,' 
decline a. zecah 
decree p. fSrman; a. fStva. 
dedicate (to) taqdis, a. takhsis 4t," 
deep d^rin-j qpyou (colour). 
deer g^yik, qaraja. [nM, 

defeat (to) yenmek, a. ghalib gSl- 
defence a. mouhafazaj mddafd'a. 
defendant a. miid'dayi aleyhi. 
deficient iksik, a. noqsan. 
deformed bichimsizy bodour, 
degree a. dMjS. 
deign a. k^rem, loutf et'* 
delay (to) a. tivaqqpuf, Uekhir St." 
delicate a. nazik, t. injS. 
delicious a. Uziz, UzzStlL 
delight sevinjy a. surour. 
deliver (to) qourtarmaq, a. khSlas 
deluge a. toufan. [St." 

demand a. istid'a, dava, 
demolish yinmSk, bozmaq, 
den in, a. maghara. 
deny a. inkiar et." 
depart (to) ayrilmaq^ p. rSvan ol" 
depend a. tabl ol.'\ baqmaq. 
deprive a. mahroum etmik. 
depth derinlik^ a. oumq. 
deputy a. vSkily nayib. 
derision a. istihza^ zSoqlenme, 
derogatory yaqishmaz. 
descend enmSk, a. nazil öl" 
describe a. tarif etmİk. 
desert chSöl, bSyaban; (to) qach- 

maq, a. firar et'\ tSrk et." 
design a. niySt, meram. 
despair ûmidsizlik, a. ySs, fâtâr, 
destiny a. qadSr, qhmet. 
detach ayirmaq. 
devil a. sheytan^ iblis. 
devote (to) takhsis et." 
dew chill , p. sheb)ienu 
diamond elmas. 
diarrhoea a. is-hal. 
diary a. t. mukhtire deftSri. 
dice tavlou zart, zar. 
dictionary loughet kitabî. 
die (to) iölmSk, vefat et." 
difiference a. farq, ikhtilaf. 
different farqli, bashqa. 
difficult gCijy a. milshkil. 
dig (to) qazmaq, a. hafr et." 
digest (to) a. hazm et'\ sifidirmik. 

dignity p. ahan^ a. maniih^ iezSt, 
dike sSdd, sSd, TchSndSk. 
diligent chalishqan^ a. ghayowr. 
dine (to) yimİk ySmik, a. ta?am it."^ 
dinner yimik^ a. ta-ant. 
dirt kir, mourdarliq. 
disabled a.saqat. [khosk. 

disagreeable p. namaqboul, no- 
disappear (to) gSthrûnmiz öl." 
disappoint (to) aldatmaq, 
discharge (to) boshaltmaq. 
discipline a. tdddib, inzibat, 
disease hastaliq, p. dSrd^ a. UUt, 
disgrace a. rSzaUt. 
disgust (to) a. nSfrit itmik, 
dish tabaq; qdb; ySmSk. 
dishonest a. mûrtSkib, t. hhirstg. 
disorder qartshtqliq. 
disperse (to) daghUmaq. 
distance ouzaqliq, a. mSsafS. 
distant ouzag^ iraq. 
distinguish a. tSfriq M." 
ditch p. hSndSk, khandik. 
divide (to) b^lmSkj ta^m St." 
divine a. ilahij rSb'bani. 
do (to) StmSk, a. ijra St." (p. 128). 
doctor a. hSkim, tabib, 
dogma a. aqidS, p. aqayid, 
doll bSbSk, qpuqla. 
door qapou, qapty a. hab. 
dormitory qovoush, f. ninjaran, 
double iki qat; chiftS. 
doubt a. shâb'hS; shûbhS St." 
doubtful shubhSli; -less ahûb- 

dough a. hamour, hamir. 
downy tût/lâ, havli. 
dragon azhdSrha; atlt. 
drain laghim, gSriz. 
draughts (game) dama. 
drawers ich donou; ekikmSjS. 
draw (to) chSkmSk; a. rSam M." 
drawing-room, müaafir odatî. 
dream a. rouya, t. dû^. 
dress f. rouba, t. i^tbtuh. 
drink ichmSk. 
drop darrda; dandamaq, 
dropsy a. iatisqa, valg. sUm. 
drown (to) boghmaq; boghotafnaq, 
drum davoul. 
drunk p. sSrhosh, sSrJfhosh. 
dry qourou, a. yabis. 


^lil Vocabulary Loughet-che, 



duck eordek. dumb dilsiz. 

dung gubre, ftshqi. 

dungeon p. zindan. 

dust toz. 

Dutch fdemenk. 

duty vazife f khizmet. 

dwarf jiij^; hodour. 

dye boya; boyamaq. 

dynasty a. sülale^ p. khanedan. 

dysentery qanlt is-hal. 

Each her bir, p. beher. 

ear qoulaq, a. iizn. 

earn qazanmaqj a. ^•^s& ^^." 

earth topraq; a. dünya. 

earthquake a, zelzele, \X3\g.zirzeU. 

ease a. rahat; qolayUq. 

east gundoghouy a. sharq, 

Easter f. pasqalya. 

easy a. rahat; qolay, souhouUtli, 

eat yem^k^ a. e^2 e'i." 

echo yanqo, a. aA:ö'^ 5^c?a. 

eclipse {gunishy ay) toutoulma. 

economic a. t. idareli. 

edge p. kSnar, ouj; aghtz. 

education a. ^aZim ou tSrbiyS. 

effect a. netije, semere, tiSsir. 

effort a. say^ ghayrH, jehd, 

egg youmourta, a. biyza, 

either ikisinden biri. 

elbow dirsek. 

electricity f. a. ^l^triq, -iyÜ. 

element a. ûnsûrj pi. anasır. 

elephant fil. 

embark gemiyi binmik^ -bindir- 
mek, a. tahmil Stmek, 

embassy a. sifarety — khani. 

embrace sarilmaq, p. der aghoush 
et." qoujaqlamaq. 

emerald a. ztimûrrûd, zümrüt. 

eminent a. meshhour, sh^hrdtli, 

emperor f. imparator. 

empire a. devlet, saltanat. 

employ (to) qoullanmaq. 

empty bosh, a. khali. 

enamel mine; -ed minili, 

enclose chevirmek; a. dakhily liff 

end son, ouj; (to) bitmSk. 

endure dayanmaq; a. tihammul 

enemy a. dûshmSn, p. khasim. [it." 

energy a. qouvvity ghayrit. 

engaged a. mishghoul. 

engagement a. mishghouUyit. 
engine f. makina; (fire) touloumba. 
engineer &.mûhindİ8; f. makinist, 
English ingiliz; ingilizji. 
engrave qazmaq, a. hikk it." 
engraver a. hak'ktakf p. kalimkiar. 
enigma a. mou-amma, t. bilmiji, 
enlarge a. tivsee it.'\ ginishlitmik. 
enmity a. adavet, p. t. dûshminlik. 
enough elvirir, a. ktafi. 
ensign (flag) sanjaq; bayraqdar, 
enter girmik, a. dakhil ol." 
entire hip, bûtûn, a. jûmli. 
envelope a. zarf. 
envy a. hasid, t. qisqanjliq. 
equal p. birdbir, a. müsavi; aqran, 
equator a. khattt istiva. 
equip donatmaq. 
error yanlîsh, a. khata, a. aihv. 
escape qachmaq, qourtoulmaq. 
especially a. khousousa. 
eunuch khadîm; harem aghast. 
Europe Avropa. 
European AvropaU. 
evacuate a. takhliyi it." 
evangelist a. mubisKshir. 
even bili, a. hatta. 
even (adj.) chift', dûzı doghrou, 
evening akhsham, aqsham. 
evil fina, kebtii; finaliq. 
ewer tbriq; ( — bason) — liyin. 
exact a. tamm, timam, doghrou. 
examine a. tiftish, imtihan it." 
examination a. imtihan. 
excellent a. ala, aliyûl ala. 
except — dan ma'da, bashqa. 
exchange trampa, 
excuse (to) a. mazour toutmaq, 

roukhsat virmik. 
execute (to) a. ijra it."; qatl it." 
expect a. mimoul it.", biklimik. 
explain a. iyzah it."; anlatmaq. 
extensive a. va^si, ginish. 
exterminate bitirmik, a. mahv it." 
extol a. midh it.", t. ibymik. 
extraordinary a. fivq-il-adi. 
extravagant a. müsrif. 
extremely a. ghayit, t. pik. 
eye geoz. eyebrow qa^h. 
eyelash kiprik, p. muzhgian. 
Fable a. hiktayi, masal. 
face p. chehri, t. yûz, a. souret. 


;:J Vocabulary LougMt-ehe, 


facilitate a. tes-hil ct.j qolaylatmaq, 

fact a. haqiqat; (in-) a. fil haq\qa, 

factory f. fdbriqa^ Inarkhan^, 

faint (to) baytlmaq. 

fair f.panayir; t. guzH. 

fairy x). p4ri, SL.jinn. 

faithful a. sadiq, Smin. 

falcon doghan, a. shahin, 

fall (to) diishmeky a. souqout it" 

false yalan; -ji, a. JctoUsib, 

fame a. sh^hret, p. s/iaw. 

family f. familya^ p. Jchanidan, 

famine ^rîf^î^^ a. gafc^ 

fan yelpaze, 

far ouzaqy p. eZowr. a. hayid. 

farewell a. v<?da; ^7 veda! 

farm chiftlik, 

farmer chiftji, p. renjber. 

ferrier a. p. nalhand, 

fast chapouq, p. te^-gr; a orowj. 

fat simiz, yagİüî; yagh. 

fate a. qadevy qaza, qis^net. 

fathom qoulaj. 

fatigue yorghounlouq. 

fault qousour, a. qahahat 

fear qorqouy a. kJiavf, p. delishiU 

feast a. ziyafety p. ft^^^m. 

February shouhat, pedîrvar, 

feeble a. -s^ayi/, t. zaboun, 

feed (to) beslimeky yedirmek. 

feel (to) a. /a'ss <'t.", douymaq, 

felt fc^^'c//^', Â.v'6f'. 

female rfis/ii, p. wiac?^'. 

fever a. humma; hararet, 

few aj?, a. g^aZiZ. 

fidelity sadaqat, vefa. 

field a. sahra; t. tarZa. 

fierce azghiUy sert. 

fife düdük, qavdl. 

fig iw/tr, aydîn yemishi, 

fight ghavgha (qavga); p.jeng, 

figurative a. mejazi, 

figure a.ra^yaW; aded; shikl, resim. 

filbert findiq, 

file yeye; sira, a. «a/f. 

fill (to) doldourmaq; dolmaq. 

filth moiirdarViq, pislik. 

filthy monrdar, pis, p. napak. 

final 60 /(f. -ly a. rw nihaye. 

find houlmaq. 

fine injf', nazik; a. khalis, kJiass, 

finger parviaq, p. engûsht. 

finish (to) bitirmSk, a. khitam vir," 

fire p. at^^^. fish 5aZlg. 

flag bayraq, flame oZ^/. 

flat du2r, 7/a8S2. 

flea |>2r«. fleet donanma. 

flesh <^'£. flood a. Si^, a.ioii/aN. 

flint chaqmaq tcishi. 

floor dSbshSmi, floor oun. 

flower chiclhiky p. shukufi, 

fluxion (cold) a. nevajnZ, zûkkiâm, 

fly stn^; (to) otic^ma^. [Jamag. 

foal ^aj^, qouloun; (to) gotiloun- 

fodder o£, arpa-saman, dlaf. 

foe p. dûshmin, a. ](:Aa«tin. 

fog douman, p. mi/i, mt^A. 

fond miraqli, a. ^m. 

food yimiky yiyijik, 

foot aj/og, p. pa, a. qadim. 

forage ot, arpa-saman. 

force p. ijor, &,jibr; qouvvit. 

ford gichid, sigh, 

forehead alîn, ann, 

foreigner SL.ijnibi. 

forerunner p.pishrdo, t qUavouz. 

foresight a. basirit, firasit, 

forest orman; a. mishjSri. [it," 

forget ounoutmaq, p. firanumsh 

forgi ve a. afv it.", t. oa^i^isJUamog'. 

fork chatal, 

form bichimy a. sourit; (to) yop-^i^iA^iSfnot. [ma^. 

fortnight tH hafta, 

fortress a. ^oZa, qaU, 

forward iliri; iliridi. 

foundation f. timil, a. isaa. 

fountain pouilar; (jet) fisqiyyi* 

foul tot70t(g. fox iiXki. 

fraud a. /lii//^. free p. azad, 8İrbİ4St. 

freedom azadltq, a. hûrriyiL 

freemason farmason. 

freeze (to) donmaq; dottdawrmaq. 

freight a. naqliyiy p. navloun. 

frequent stqy choq, a. kiair, 

fresh p. tazi, friend p. dost. 

Friday a. jouma'a, jouma', 

frigate f. firqateen. 

fringe sachaq. froth hibpûh, 

frog qourbagha, 

frontier p. serhadd, a. lumdoud, 

frozen dofimoush, 

fruit p. miyvi^ t. yimish, 

fry (to) tavada pishirmik. 



^<:s^ Vocabulary Loughet-che. 


frying-pan tava. 

fugitive qachaq, a. firari. 

full dolou, a. memlou. 

funeral a. jenaze alayî, jinaze. 

fur kurk. 

furious azghin. furnace ojaq. 

furlough a. izin, mSzouniyet. 

furniture a. eshya, f. mohilia. 

fury a. hiddet, ghazah. 

fuse tapa; (to) eritmek. 

future gilSj^y a. mustaqhel. 

^ain p.fcîar, t.qazanj; qazanmaq. 

gallant a. zarife nazik, kibar. 

gallows dar aghajl. 

game oyoun; (prey) av, p. shikiar. 

garden p. hdhje, haghch^. 

garlic sarmXsaq. 

garnet a. lal. gate qapou. 

gather (to) toplamaq. 

general a. oumoumi ; f. geniral. 

generous jSbm^rd, a. ali jSnab. 

genius a. firas^ty zekiavet. 

gentiles a. tayif4, p. poutpSrest. 

gentle a. mülayim, halim, t. tatlı* 

genus a.jinsy \A. ejnas. 

geography joghrafiya. 

geometry ilmi hendese. 

get almaq; b. hasU et," 

ghost a. khayal; rouh, p. jan. 
(the Holy ghost) JRow/iowZ qouds, 

gift (divine) a. wı/t;/îi5^, dadî haqq; 
(superior to inferior) p. hakh- 
shîsh, a. ihsauy atiyim ; (inf. to 
sup.) a. h^diyS, p. pishkish; 
(brought back from a journey) 

gipsy chingiane, posha. 

girl qîz. girth qolan. 

give (to) vSrmekj a. ita it." 

glad a. mimnouny p. shadman. 

glass J), jam; sl. qadih. 

globe a. kiire. 

gloom qaranltq; a. gham, kidir. 

glory shan ou shirif, p. jilal. 

glove ildivan. glue toutqal. 

go gitmik. good idyindiri. 

goat A;^c/ii. gold altoun. 

God a. Allahy Allah Ta'ala,JenaU- 

Godhead a. oulouhiyet. [Haqq, 

good eyi, a. aZa, goose ga-?. 

gospel a. iw;i7; pi. enajilj hisharet. 

gourd qdbaq, qantar qabaghi. 

gout a. niqris. 

grace a. letafit; inayit, loutf. 

grape ûzûm. grass ot. 

grateful a. mûtishikkir. 

gratis a. mijjanin; mouft. 

grave a. mizar, qdbr. 

grease ya^f/i, tc/i yaght. 

great ft^ywA;, a. a;?tm, jesim. 

greedy a. owftowr, s/tw/^ hoghaz. 

green yishil. 

greyhound ^«2:1. 

gridiron tsqara. 

grief a. A;^(i^r, elim, gham, 

grocer a. baqqal. 

groom siyis. ground yir; ^arsa. 

growl khtrlamaq. 

guard neobitji; a. khassa askiri; 

(to) biklimik. 
guardhouse qoullouq. 
guess (to) a. israwn, qtyaa it." 
guest a. musafir. 
guilt a. qousour, qabahat. 
gulf kibrfiz. gum ^e'awg. 
gums dis/i ^^t. 
gunpowder ftaroti^ 
gutter hindik, olouq. 
gymnastic f. jimnastiq. 
Habit a. adit, p. khouy; a. rism; 
hail dolouy ghtrji. [tdbiyat 

hair sac/i; ^H *%. 
half yarim, nim, a. wtsif (§ 207). 
halt dourmaq, iylinmik. 
hammer chikij; (sledge) vary a. 
hamper sipid. 
hand il; (hour-) a. agr^6/ (minute) 

handkerchief mindil. 
handle sap, a. qabzi. 
handsome guzil, yaqisMqlt. 
hang asmaq; (-down) sarqmaq. 
happy a. t. sa^aditli. 
harbour f. liman. 
hard sirty perk; gûj. 
hare tavshan. 
harem a. harim, zinani. 
harm a. zarar, ziyan. 
harness araba taqtmt, qoshoum. 
harvest bichin; (-time) hasad, 

hasad vaqti, oraq vaqtt. 
hasten a. ajili it." hat f. shapqa. 
hatchet balta, giribi. 
hate (to) a. ikrah it." 


ic^ Vocabulary LoughH-ehi, 


haughty a. maghroiir, "kibir. 
have (to) a. mdlih olmaq (§§ 1 19 to 
hawk atmaja (qoushou). [122). 
hay qourou ot. 

hazard p. hakht, a. qaza, qadir. 
liaze sis, douman. 
head hash; p. air; a. rh (§ 203). 
headlong hash ashaght, sirnigûn. 
heal (to) iyiUtrrdky a. shifa virmik, 
health a. k4yfy mizajy sth'TUU 
heap yıghîn; (to) ytghmaq. 
hear (to) diülimâk^ ishitmik. 
heart yuriky a, g'aZft, p. diZ. 
heat sijaqliqy a. hararet. 
heaven </^A:, a. sdma, (p\,)sdmavat, 

(paradise) a. jennet, p. firdevs. 
heavy aghîr, a. sag'iZ. 
Hebrew ibrani, Y^houdi, 
hedge-hog kipri, p. A*?iar-29^s7i*. 
heel ^A:^^, a. aqdb. 
height yuksSklik, a. irtifa\ 
hell a.,jih^nnSnu 
help yardim, a. imdad^moü'avânit, 

iyane: (to) yardım, mou'avhiit 

hemorrhoids lyiat/a^lZ^ a. &a50ur. 
hen tavouq, herb ot. 
herd simi. hero a. qahriman, 
hesitate (to) a. tMd'ddd itmSk, 
hide defn; (to) saqlamaq. 
high yüksek, a. murtifi, 
highway 2L.jadd^, p. shah'rah. 
hill d^p^. hip qalcha. 
hinge r^2r^, mSntSshi, 
hire fcira; (to) kiralamaq. 
history a. tarikh, pi. Uvarikh, 
hit (to) vourmaq. hoarse hoghouq, 
hold (to) toutmaq; (ship's) ambar. 
hole d^Zîfc. holiday a. tattZ. 
hollow a. ^*/ıa2i, t^/ii, ic/ii 7>o«/i. 
holy a. am, mouqaddSs; (of God) 

a. qoiiddous; (-Spirit) ^ou/iot^Z 

home ^v, a. ayiZ^; vatan yW imUkit ; 

(to go —) a. sila Ümik, silaya 

honest a. Smin, sadiq, t. doghrou. 
honey hal, a. asal, p. mikh. 
honour a. izzM, itibar, sJiMf, 

namous; (to) izzitUmik, ihtiram, 
hoofttrwag. hopep-ww^witd. [itJ' 
hook chingil; qanja, ilik. 

horizon a. oufouq, (pi.) afaq. 
horrible a. makhouf, d^hshitU. 
horse at, p. ^6; hiygir; (-man) 

atlt, p. auvarea. 
hospital p. khasta-khanS. 
hostile p. dushmin. hot itjaq. 
hound k^pik, zaghar, tazu 
hour a. sa'at. 

house ^, p. khand, a. 5^; gonog. 
humanity a. insaniy^t^ mufwv^. 
humble a. mûtivaei, halim; khim^ 
hunger ajUq. hungry €^, \b%L 
hurry (to) a. c^elS 5." 
hurt (to) injiUnik, t^itmciq. 
husband qoja, &.e^vj. 
hymn a. ilahi. 

hypocrisy a. riya, mûrayüik. 
hypocrite a. murayi, miHiaftq. 
Ice bouz. icy bouzlou. 
idea a. fikir, taaavvaur. 
idiom a. istüah, p. shiyvi, 
idle ishsiz, timbil, bom gizin. 
idol p. point, a. sanim, (pi.) amam^ 
ignorance a. jihaHit, jihl. 
ignorant a. jdhil, p. nadan. 
ill kiyfsiz, p. haita^ a. ffi^rûr. 
illness hastaliq, a. maraz, 
imagine (to) a. tasavvour it," 
imitate (to) a. taqleed, iqtida it/" 
impartial p. sl. bitaraf , inaaflU 
impatient a. t. sdbiraiz, 
implore (to) yalvarmaq; a. rifOy 

niyaz it." 
important a. mouhimm, mûtibir. 
impression a. tiissir; ifJ^dr, 
imprison a. hobs, moLKbow it." 
inch parmaq. incline (to) a. mdyt 
incognito a. tibdil, - qiyafiL [it/" 
income a. irad. increase arimaq* 
indebted borjlou, a. midyoun, 
indeed a. haqiqatin; ibyli mi! 
industry a. hirfit, semahat. 
inform (to) a. khabir virmik, ikh^ 

bar ity 
ingratitude p. t. nankSbrlHik, 
inhabit (to) ototirnfag, a.<aJkiti oZ." 
injury a. zarar; saqatUq. 
ink a. mûrtkk&). (-stand) divite 
inn khan, inquire (to) 80rmaq, 
insane p. divane, t. chUgMn, 
insect b^jik. insert a. dakhü it/" 
inspect (to) yoqlamaq. 


AjşıZıJ Vocabulary Loughet-chd. 


in8truct(to) 4oyretmekj a. talim H." 
integrity a. temamiyet; t, dogh- 

roulouq, a. istiqamSt, 
intercede a. ri/a, sh^fa*at dt." 
intercession a. shefa^aL 
interest a. mMfa^at, f. intMso; 

a. fayiz. 
interesting mirakjilb ediji,jalih. 
internal a. ddkhili. 
intimate sXqt^ a. mahrem. 
intolerable a. Uhammûlû naqabih 
invitation a. dav^t. 
iron demir. 
irregular a. nizamsız; (soldier) 

hasht hozonq. 
irrigate yiyqamaq. 
island ada^ &. jhird. 
itch (to) gijishmdk. 
ivory fil dishi. 
ivy sarmaslitq. 
Jackal chaqalj ghîyab. 
jacket f. chakk; mintan. [var. 
January kianounou sani^ Houn- 
jar qavanos, dhti, kûp. 
jaw chene. 

jealous kisqanjy a. hasoud. 
jealousy a. hased^ t. kisqanj. 
Jehovah Yehova. 
Jesus Isa-el-Mesih^ Isa. 
Jew yShondiy chifU. 
jewel a.j^vahir, mûjSvhir. 
join (to) bitishmeky hitishdirmik. 
joke a. shaqa, lateefL 
journal p. rouznami. î. journal. 
journey yol; seyahat, yoljoulouq. 
joy sevinj, a. sour our, shazUq. 
judge a. hakim^ qadi. 
jug d^sii, p. giize. 
juice sou; (grape-) p. shira. 
jump (to) sichramaq. 
Jupiter mûshteri yUdîzî. 
just a. adil, mounsif. 
justice a. adality haqqaniyit. 
justify a. t. haqqli cMqarmaq. 
Keep (to) saqlamaq, A.mouhafaza 

kettle gûgûm; f. chaydan. 
key f. anakhtar, a. miftah. 
kick (to) tepmek y chifte atmaq. 
kid oghlaq. kidney beohrSk. 
kill eöldûrmeky a. idam ct." 
kind &.jins, t. soy, dûrlû; tatlı. 

king ^ra2, \).padishahy hükümdar, 
kiss p. bousd, Sbpûsh; (to) ^p- 

kitchen p. ashkhand, a. maibdkh. 
kitten k^di yavrousou, pistk. 
knee diz, p. zanou. 
kneel (to) diz ch^kmik. 
knife hXchaq; (pen-) qaUmtrash. 
knit (to) £brmik. 
knock (to) (qapou) chalmaq. 
knot dûymî^; dûyûm. 
know (to) bilmik. 
kuran qouran, kilami qadim. 
Label yafta. 

labour a. amdl, t. ish, p. ktar. 
labourer a. amiUy t. ishji, 
lace (gold-) sir ma; (false-) qilab- 

dan : (thread-) f. dantSla ; (tape-) 

lad oghlan, chojouq, dSliqanli. 
ladder mdrdivM, p. nSrdûban. 
lady hanîm. lake g^l. 
lamb qouzou, lamp 2am&a. 
lance a. mizraq, p. m^r^. 
land ^ara; (to) qaraya chtqmaq. 
language a. lisan, p. zİban, t. cîiZ. 
lantern f. finery fanos. 
lap qoyoun, qottjaq. 
large bebyuk, iri. 
last son; (— night) (îw/l g^je, (to) 

dayavmaq, surm^. 
late ^^î;; sabiq; mirhoum. 
lattice ga/*^.?. laugh gülmek. 
laundry chamasMrkhan^. 
laundress chamashîrjî qart. 
law a. qanoun; shMyat, shSr\ 
lawyer f. avoqaty a. dava vMli. 
lay (to) y atmaq; yatirmaq. 
lazy tSmbÜy tSnbely ayar. 
lead qourshoun'y (to) geoturm^k. 
leaf yapraq, a. rara^. 
lean zaboun; (to) dayanmaq. 
leap (to) sîchramagy hoplamaq. 
learn (to) eoyrenm^ky a. ta^st7 ^t." 
leather meshin, sakhtiyan. 
leave (to) braqmaq; chtqmaq. 
led (horse) yMek. 
leech sii^wfc; leek prasa. 
left soZ. leg ooi/ag'. 

legation a. sefarit, — khane. 
legend a. hikiayS, masal. 
legislator a. vaziyi qanouri. 


A^;ai Vocabularj' Loughit-ch^. 


leisure hosh caqit, a. foursat, 
lemon limon, ienjrth boi/. 
lend (to) codunj vrrmck, vermek, 
leopard fja^jlan, lesson a. ders, 
letter yazi^ Si.liarf; mektouh. 
lettuce maroul. level duz. 
lever manavela. 
liberal Jeomcrd, jivanmerd. 
liberate (to) qourtarmaq, a. khelas, 

liberty a. Iiourrit/et, p. t. azadliq, 
library p. a. kitabkhane. 
lick (to) ydlamaq. lid qapaq. 
lie yalan, a. hizb; — sebylemek, 

( — down) yatmaq, ouzanmaq, 
life p.Ja«,a. row/» /(-time) a. edmur. 
lift (to) qaldirmaq^ a. ref 4t," 
light a. nQU)\ t. isliiq; a. khafif. 
lightning shimshek, a. barr/. 
like biilzSTj gibi; (to) a. 7ia<?^ ^^" 
lime A'tV^j. limited a. mahdoud, 
line chUyt, a. Ar/iat^; satir, 
linen Â;^t^n b^zi; lining astar, 
linseed kMn tohouniou, ziyMk, 
lip Uby doudaq. 
listen (to) difiUmek, qoidaq vSr- 

litter (for the sick) tejgere. 
little om/o^, kûchûkj a,saghir, 
live (to) yashamaq. 
lively janlî; qani sljaq. 
liver J//aV, göt^*a Jiyer. 
living gdchim, a. ttayyusU. 
load ?/«Â;; (to) yûkUmek. 
loaf somoun; kelle shSkSr. 
lock f. fciZiV?; (to) kitlemik. 
locksmith chilingir, 
log ^•wi<U^ long oz^^ote/i, boyloii, 
lonjritude a. toul, 
look (to) baqmaq; baklsh. 
loom dezg'uih. loose giüshâk, 
lose (to) yitinnSky a. ghayb iU" 
lord e0.ndi; a. J?aZ^6. 
love a. as/i^', fnouhabb^t; sSvmik. 
lover a. rts/i?ry. low alchaq. 
luck p. bakht, a. ^a7i\ ta?«/j. 
lujrgage a. eshya, pîrî pîrtî. 
lump parcha. lunch qalivalti. 
lute a. 't>;/fZ, 'oMcZ clıalylıî. 
luxury f. faniazi. 
lynx vashaqj coshek. 
Macaroni f. maqarxa, p. trishti. 

mace topouz,giirZyChomaq. [a.a2^. 

machine f. maX:tna, p. âıarkh; 

mad (2^/i, divani; (-dog) qoudoiiz. 

madam f. madama^ lianim, qoqona, 

magazine f. maghaza^ p. amZKir; 
(powder-) p. jUbhanS; (periodi- 
cal) a. risaUyi 'niivqouta, 

magician a. âi)itr&a£r, a. 8aJihar* 

magic lantern a. ^'/itrt airaji. 

magistrate a. z(û>it^ hakim. 

mahomedan a. musZtman, mou' 

maiden a. bakiri, t. (/i^r. 

mail f. posta; p. jErirX;/i, a. süah, 

maintain (to) bislimik. 

major bifi bashi. 

make (to) yapmaq, a. imal St."^ 

mallet toqmaq. mamma annS. 

man a. adam, adim, insan, 

manage (to) a. idari, zaht it," 

mane yili, manger y indik. 

mankind a. bini adim, nivi insan. 

mantle f. qapot, a. firaji, 

manufacture (place of-) f . fabriqa ; 
(article) a. mal; (to) yaptnaq. 

manure gubri, a. zibU^ t. tirs, 

manuscript ^l-yazisi. 

many choq, map f. Jchcuia. 

marble mirmir, 

march (musical) f. marsh; (boI* 
diers) yibrûmik; (command) 
f. arsh! 

mare qisraq, 

marine a. bahri, bahriyi. 

mark a. isharit, p. niâıan. 

market p. pazar; charshi. 

marriage a. nikiah, izdivaj. 

marry (to) iolinmik, ivUndirmik. 

martyr a. shihid. 

masculine irkik; a. mûzikkir. 

master iffindi, agha; ousita. 

mat hasır, maxim a. qayidi, 

matches a. kibrit. [ziyS> 

mathematics a. ouloumou riya- 

meadow chayîr, p. chimin, -zar. 

meaning a. ma'^na. 

measure eolchû, a. miqya^. 

measles qizamoiiq, meat it." 

medicine a. üaj, diva. 

meet (to) a. tisadtifit." rastgilmik. 

melon (musk) qavoun; (water) 


^lij Vocabulary Loughet-che. 


melt (to) erimdk. 
member aza (pi. azavat). 
memory a. gouvveyi hafîza, fikir. 
mend (to) a. tamir ^ tSrmim 4U" 
merchant a. tajir^ tûjjar, 
mercy a. merliamet, rahmit, 
merely dûzj^^ a. adSta. 
merit a. istihqaq, liyaqat. 
merry a. t. keyfli, p. shhi. [din, 
message a. khabir. metal a. ma- 
method a. ousoulj qayidi, t. yol. 
microscope p. khourdiheen. 
middle orta, a. vasat. 
middling orta, a. evsat. 
midsummer yaz ortası. 
might qoudrh, iqtidar. 
mighty a. qadir, niuqtMir, 
mild a. mülayim^ hafif. 
milk Slid, mill diyirmin. 
mind a. aqU, fikir, zihin. 
mine a. ma din, (pi.) mi-a-din. 
minute a. daqîqa\ mazbata. 
mischief a. zarar ^ ziyan. 
miser a. khasis, a. p. tamakiar, 
mist sis, douman. 
mistake a. khata, t. yaülîsh. 
mix (to) qartshdirmaq, d^.mizj it." 
mob qalabaliq, ayaq taqiml. 
mock (to) zevqlinmik, a. istihza it." 
model p. numouni, f. ebrnik. 
modern yg'ni, a.jidid. 
modest a. mahjouby tirbiyilL 
moist p. nim, t. i/as/i. 
momentous a. mouhimm, ihimm. 
monarch p. hükümdar padishah, 
Monday pazar irtisi. 
money para, aqji, a. naqd. 
monkey maymoun. 
month ay, p. mah, a. shihr. 
moon ay, p. mah, a. qamir. 
moral a. akhlaqi; hissi (p. 119). 
more daha, a. ziyadi (p. 101). 
morning a. sabah. 
morrow irti, a. sabah. 
mosque a. jami, misjid. 
most ^V7, a. ziyade (p. 101). 
moth (flying) pirvani; guvi. 
mother ana, p. madiv (p. 58). 
motion harikit. 
mould topraq; a. gaZıö. 
mound dipe, tepe. 
mount dagh; (to) cMqmaq, binmik. 

mountain dagh, a. jibil. 

mourn p.fighan it." ; yas toutmaq. 

mournful jy.ghamkin, &.mahzoun. 

mouse sîchan, a. fari. 

mouth aghîz, p. dihan. 

move (to) qtmUdanmaq, a. hari- 
kit it." 

mow (to) bichmek. mud chamour. 

mug a. mashrapa. mule ^«ttr. 

multitude qalabaliq, [it." 

multiply (to) choghaltmaq; a. <8;ar& 

murder (to) ^Idurmik. a. g'atZ e*." 

murderer qanli, a. gaiiZ. 

museum f. muzikhani. 

music a. naghme, f. mousiqa. 

musician f. p. mousiqi shinas, 

musquito sivri, sivri sinik. 

mustache bîyîq. 

mustard hardal. 

mutton qoyoun iti. 

mystery a. sirr, israr. 

Nail (finger) ttrnaq; (iron) iksir, 
chivi, miich; (to) mikhlamaq. 

naked cMplaq, a. üryan, 

name ad, a. isim, p. nam. 

nsiuied&.mtisimma, p.Unamînda. 

namely a. yani; naphtha nift. 

narrow dar, insiz, 

nasty pis, a. mikrouh, mourdar, 

nation a. millit, qavm, ûmmit. 

native yirli. natural a. tabiyi. 

naughty yaramaz, navel giobik. 

naval a. bahri, bahriyi. 

navigation a. siyri sifayin, gizmi, 

navy donanma, near yaqin, 

necessary a. lazim, mouqtazi. 

necessity a. hajet, zarourit. 

neck boyoun. need a. ihtiyaj. 

needle iyni. negro a. zinji, arab. 

neighbour qonshou. 

nest youva. net agh. 

never p. hich, a. asla, a. qafan. 

new yini, p. niv, a. jidid. 

news a. khabir, havadis. 

next yandaki, a. atidiki; soüra. 

nice guzil, a. a?a. night ^4/^» 

no khayr; hich, hich bir. 

noble a. wej/io; ^'iws. 

noise s^s, shamata, gûrûltû. 

nonsense sachma, bosh laf. 

noon eoylin vaqtt, eoylin. 


Aj^ Vocabulary LoughSt'Chd. 


noose ilm^k. 

north a. shimal, tporyas: (due-) 

yıldız; (-west) qara yH. 
nose houroun. not d^yil, 
nourish (to) hMim^k^ j>,p^rverd^ 


now shimdif a. hala, S lan. 
number soy?,^d, miqdar, 
nurse (wet-) sud-ana; (dry-) 

dada; (sick-) hastajL 
nut findiq. 

nutmeg hindistan jSvîzi. 
Oak misliiy pSlit, 
oar kürek, oath a. yemin. 
obedience a. eYa-at [<?^" 

oblige (to) a. k^rfhn St/' ; mijbour 
obscure qaranliq; a. mougluaq. 
observe (to) a. diqqat et," ; haqmaq, 
obstinate a. inadjîf mouannid, 
obtain âU getirmSk^ a. istihsal H," 
occupy (to) a. zaht h.'\ t. toxUmaq. 
ocean hahrt monhit, oqianos, 
odd tek; a. touhaf, 
ode a. gJiazel, qaside. 
offence a. qabahat, qousour, soicch, 
offer (to) a. taqdim h!' ; sounmaq. 
oft, often a. eksMya^ choq dSfa. 
oil yagh, p. roughen, 
old ('sgi; (-man) ikhtiyar, qoja, 
olive zeytoun^ zSytin. 
omelet qayghana. 
omen fal. on (p. 105). 
once Mr kSrrâ; (at-) birden. 
onion soghan. only sa/t. 
open achiq; (to) achmaq. 
opinion a. r^//, efktctr, zann. 
opium p. afi yon, tiryaq. 
opportunity a. foursat. 
opposition a. moukhaUfÜ. 
oppose (to) qarshi qomaq, a. mani 

ol." ^^ [et." 

oppress (to) zoulm H.'\ p. jefa 
orange portonqalf p. narenj, 
oration a. khitahy noutq. 
order a. Smr,iradr ;nizam,intizam. 
ordinary bayaght, a. adi. 
organize (to) a. teshkil et.' 
original a. asU, aslee. 
ornament sûs^ a. ziynet, İmliye. 
orphan eoksûz, a. yvtim. 
outrage a. liaqarvt. 
oven foiiroun. 

»1 ♦' 

overtake yitishmik^ toutmaq. 
ox ^kûz. oyster f. istridya. 
Pace adim^ a. qadim; ySbrûyûah. 
pack p. distS, f. b(Mta; ding; 

(-horse) yûk hayvcmty hiygir; 

(-saddle) palom, 
padlock kilid, (uma küid- 
page a. sdhifi. pain aghri, sizi. 
paint boya; (to) boyamaq, 
painter a. naqqash, ressam (§610). 
pair chift. palace p. saray. 
palate dimagh, damaq. 
pale ringsiz, dounouq, acighoun. 
palm (tree) klwurma aghajî; ( — of 

the hand) il ayasi^ avouj. 
pan tava^ sapU. 
pantry kiUr, f. magkaza. 
paper kiaghidy vnlg. kSkad. 
parasol a. shSmsiyi. 
parcel (bundle) bogheha^ bohji. 
pardon a. afv ; (to) - St."; baghisk- 

parsley f. maghadanos,maydanoB. 
part p. parcha, a. qistm; taraf. 
partake p. hissidar oHmaq. 
partial a. khousotisi; tarafgir. 
partner ortaq, a. shSrik. 
partridge kSklik, p. kSbk. 
party taqim; a. taraf. 
pass gSchid] (to) gSchmSk. [rS. 
passage yol ; gSchid ; p. bind, a. iba- 
passion a. ghazab; mouhahbit. 
passport yol tizkirisi, f. pasaport. 
past gSchmish, geehin, a. mazi. 
pastry hamour ishi; f. pasta. 
patch yama; (to) yanudamaq. 
path yol, a. jaddi^ tariq. 
patience a. sabr, tehammÜl. 
patient sabırlı; p. hasta. 
patriarch f. patriq; a. ibHA aba. 
patriot p. vatan pircir. 
patriotism - lik, a. hoübbûu vatan. 
pattern a. nûmûni, Sbmiky qaUb. 
pavement task dibshimif saL 
pavillion kSbshk a. qasr. 
paw (fore-) pinchi; (hind-) ayaq. 
pay a. ûjrit; t. gûndilik; ayltq; 

yîllîg; (to) Sbdimik, a. ida it." 
peace harisMq, a. mûsaUha. 
peach shiftalt. 
peacock tavous qoushou, 
pear armotbd. 



e.i;l Vocabulary Loughet-che. 


pearl inji. peasant 'kebylu. 
pebble chaqil tasM, chaqil. 
peculiar a. makhsous; touhaf. 
pedlar qoltouqjou^ chSrtji. 
peel qabouq; (to) soymaq. 
pen a. qdlem; (knife) qaUmtraah. 
pension a. t. teqa'ud ma'asM. 
people a. Shali; millet y qavm. 
pepper qardbihSr^ bMr. 
perceive (to) georme'k, a. fShm St," 
perfect a. ktamily tamm; timam. 
perform (to) a. ijra it." itmSTc. 
perfume hosh qoqou, a. rayiha. 
period a. müddet, vaqity zeman. 
perish (to) helak ol." ; hitmik. 
permanant a. dayimiy qadim. 
permission a. roukhsat^ izin, [St." 
permit (to) — vemiSk, mûsa'adS 
perpetual a. dayim^ dSmirbash, 
persecute (to) qovalamaq. 
Persia AjSmistan^ Iran. 
Persian ajetn,irani; (IsLUg.) Farisi. 
person a. shakhSy zat; adSm. 
persuade (to) qandirmaq, a. iskîat 
perverse te'rs, â.mou'annid. [et," 
pest a. veba, t. baba, youmourjaq. 
petition a. arzouhal, istid^a. 
petticoat f. miso fistan, miso. 
pharmacy a. p. ejza-hanS. 
pheasant sûylûn qoushoii. 
philosopher a. fSyUsof, hakeem 

(pi. hûkema). 
philosophy si.ilmihikmety hikmSt. 
photograph fotoğraf; -er -jî. 
physician hSkim^ tabib{p\. atibba). 
pick qazma; (to) qoparmaq. 
picture a. rSsim, tasvir. 
piece parcha. pierce (to) dSlmik. 
pig donouz. pigeon gSoySrjin. 
pile yîghîn; hav, khav. 
piles basour^ mayasıl. 
pilgrim (to Mecca) haji (§ 409). 
pillow yuz yasdîghî. 
pin toplou, toplou iynS. 
pinch (to) chimdiklSmek. 
pious a. dindar, mûtSdSyin. 
pipe(smoking) chibouq, choubouq; 

(water) borya. 
pistachio f. fisttq. 
pistol tabanja. 
pit qouyou, chouqour. 
pitcher p. dSsti. place ySr. 

Turkish Conv. -Grammar. 

pity a. merhamet; (to) — St." 
plague vSbüf (vulg.) baba. 
plain düz ova; a. sadS, safi. 
planet a. sSyyarS. plant f. fidan. 
plaster souca, sıva; yaqi. [maq. 
play oyoun; (to) oynamaq; chal- 
pledge Si.rehin; (to) - qomaq. 
plot a. fiinS, fSsad. plough saban. 
plum Srik. plump dolgoun, sSmiz. 
plunder yaghma. pocket jSb. 
poem a. sheer; ghazSl, qasidS. 
poet a. shayir. poetry shir. 
point ouj; bouroun; gSbstSrmSk. 
poison a. zShir: poke (in) sokmaq. 
pole (of heavens) tt.qoutb; strtq. 
policy f. politiqa; a. ousotd. 
polish perdah, a. jila ; (to) - vSr- 

polite a. t. nSzakStli, tSrbiySli. 
pomegranate nar. 
pond gSbl, havouz. 
pony midiUi. poor a. faqir. 
porcelain f. chini, farfouri. 
pork dofiouz Sti. % 

porte qapou; Babı Ali. 
portion a. hissS, p. pay. 
portrait a. rSsim. 
possess (to) a. t. malik olmaq. 
possible olour, a. mûmkin. 
post dirSk; posta; a. mSmouriySt, 

p, post, pot qabf chanaq. 
pot&to patatSs. potter chebmlSkji. 
pound libra; lira £ ; (to) dSbymSk. 
pour (to) dSbkmSk. 
poverty a. fouqaraliq, zarourSt. 
powder (dust) toz; (gun-) barout. 
power a. qouwSt; dSvlSt, hûkûmSt 
practice p. mSshq, f. pratica. 
praise a. mSdh, sSna, hamd. 
prayer a. niyaz, rija; dou'a. 
preach a. vaz St. 
preacher a. vayiz, vazjî. 
precedent a. Smsal. 
prepare a. thazirlamaq, hazır St." 
present (time) shimdi, shimdiki; 

(gift) p. bakhshish; (to) Si.taqdim 

preserve (to) a. Mfz it"; saqlamaq. 
president a. rSyis^ t. bash. 
pretence p. behanS, mahana. 
pretty gûzSl, p. dilbSr. 
pride a. kibr, ghourour. 



<şılü Vocabulary LougJi^t-chS, 


/* '/ 

priest f, papas y keshish. 
prince h^i/; p. shahzadS; f. prSns, 
princess a. soidtan; f. pr^tis^s. 
principle a. ^sas, ousoul, qayida, 
print basmaq, a. tab Ül' 
printed basma, a. matbou. 
prison a. habs, mahbes. 
privilege a. imtiyaz. 
probably a. ihtimalen, p. bdki. 
professor a. moualliyriy müderris, 
profit p. A;7ar, a. fayidS. 
progress iUrlim^f a. teqaddum. 
promise vadj seoz. 
proof a. isbatj d^lil, burhan. 
proper a. mûnasib, p. shaySste. 
prophet p. peyghambeTy a. nM. 
proposal a. tSklif. 
prose a. nisir, shir olmayan. 
proselyte dSbnmdj a. mûhtedi. 
protect (to) a. himaıjâ, siyanSt et.' 
proud a. maghrour, kibirli. 
proverb a. darbî mSsil (p. 208). 
province a. vilayit (pi. vilayat). 
provisions a. zakhirS, zahra. 
pull (to) cMkmek. 
pulley viaqara. pulse nabz, navz. 
pump touloumba. 
punish (to) a. takdir, mûjazat Ü." 
purchase (to) satin almaq. 
pure a. saf, safı, khalis, timiz. 
purple mor. 

purpose a. niyity meram, maqsM. 
purse a. kese. pursue kovalamaq. 
push yitmdk, sûrmSk, qaqmaq. 
put (to) qomaq, a. vaz^ et," 
puzzle a. mouam'ma; loughSZj 

(to) shashirtmaq. 
Quadruped d^rtayaqli, ip,charpa. 
quail bîldîrjin, 

quality a. khassiyH, kiyfiyH ; jins, 
quantity a. mtqdar. 
quarantine f. qarantina. 
quarrel qavga, a. niza, münazara. 
quarry tash-ojaghi, tashliq. 
quarter rovb, deortdi bir v§ 208). 
quarters yer, a. semt, nahiyi. 
queen f. qralicha, a. milike. 
quench (to) seondürmâk. 
question sival', (to) — 4t." sormaq. 
quick chapouq, tez. (-silver) jiva. 
quicken (to) chapouq et." a. istijal 


quiet i>,asoudS, sl. rahat, ouslou» 
quince ayva, vulg. hayva, 
quinine f. qtna qina; aolfato. 
quire p. destS; âi&bi. 
quite büsbütün, a. kûlliyin, 
quiver p. tirkish, t. p. oqdan» 
Rabbit ada tavshani, 
race (running) yarish ; a. musaba' 

radish tourp. 
rag pachavra, cliapout. 
railroad, -way dimir-yol. 
raiment f. rouba, a. Slbis^, Ssvah, 
rain yaghmour, a. rahmSt; (to) — 

yaghmaq ; {-how) SUyim-saghma. 
raise (to) qaldirmaq, a. t^fi M," 
raisins qourou ûzûm, f. ehamich, 
rake daraq, dirmtq, 
ram qoch; (to) sigi doldourmaq, 
ramble (to) gSzinmSk, sûrtûnm/k, 
random (at-) tSsadûfSn, 
ransom a. fidiyS. 
rapid p. chapouq, a. sSri, t hîdi. 
rare a. nadir, rascal chapqin, 
raspberry aghaj chüSyi, \gmth 

rat iri sîchan, givSl, pospol. 
rather (somewhat) btr ae; (in 

preference) daha 4yi, 
ravage a. khasarat', (to) talan it,** 
raw chiy, pishm^nish, 
razor oustoura. reach yitishmik, 
read (to) oqoumaq, a. mutalara it,'' 
ready a. hazir, müheyya. 
real girchik, a. haqiqi. 
reality a. haqiqat, 
really girchikdin, a. filhaqiqa, fUr 

reap (to) bichmik, rear gM, 
reason SL.aql, sibib, hikmit; m^jtm. 
rebel ast, zorba; (to) isyan it," 
rebellion a. isyan, toughyan, 
receipt a. maqboius sinMi, üm(m 

receive (to) almaq, a. aJchz it." 
reckon (to) saymaq, hisab it" 
recognize (to) tanttMiq, 
recommend (to) a. tavsiyi it," 
reconcile (to) barUhdirmaq, 
record (to) a. qayd it, red gfirmUÎ, 
redeem (to) qourtarmaq, a. hhilas 




lJ Vocabulary Loughet-cTU. 


redeemer qourtartjt^ khSlaskiar. 
reed qamish. (-pen) — qalem. 
refuge stghinajaq ijer, a. m^Ija. 
regard nazar; itibar; (to) — St." 
regeneration yeni doghoush. 
register defter, regular muntazam. 
regularity nizam, intizam, ittirad. 
reign (to) saltanat et.", hûkümit 
reins dizgin, târhiyi. [sûrmik. 
rejoice (to) sevinmek, p. shaz ol." 
relative a. khîsîm, agrîha. 
reliance a. iiimad, emniyet. 
religion a. din, mezMh. 
remainder a. haqiyyi, mahaqt. 
remarkable a. mesh'hour. 
remember (to) der khatir St." 
remove (to) qaldirmaq. 
renegade debnme, mûrtSd. 
renewal a. tSjdid, ySnilimi. 
rent (to) ijara vSrmik, — tout- 

maq, istijar itmek. 
repair (to) a. tamir et." \lamaq. 
repeat (to) a. tSkSrrûr St." tekrar- 
repent (to) tSvhS St." pûshman ol." 
reply (to) SL.jScah vSrviek. 
report raporto; (to) — vermSk. 
republic a. jûmhouriySt. 
reputation a.izzSt, itibar, shebhrSt 
resemblance a. mûshabShSt. 
resemble (to) bSnzSmSk. 
residence qonaq, a. mSktan, Sv. 
resist (to) a. mouqavSmSt St." 
resolve (to) a. qarar vSrmSk, 

tasmim St." 
respect a. hûrmSt, riaySt. 
rest qalan, a. baqî\ rahat. 
retire, retreat (to) gSri chSktlmek. 
return (to) debnmSk, a. avdet St." 
revenge a. intiqam, t. eoj. 
review a.tSkSrriir; rSsmi gSchid. 
reward a. muktafat, tijrSt. 
rheumatism ySl, f. rûmatizm. 
rhyme a. qafiyyS. 
ribbon f. qordela, shSrid. 
rich zengin; yaghlî, sSmiz. 
ride (to) (hayvana) binmSk. 
right doghrou, haqq; sagh taraf, 
ring yuzuk; (to) chalmaq. 
ripe olmoush, yetgin. [chiqmaq. 
rise (to) qalqmaq, yuksSlmSk; 
rival SngSlj a. raqib. 
river irmaq^ a. nShr; sou, chay. 

road yol\ Si.jaddS. 

roast (to) qavourmaq, kSbah St." 

(-meat) qizartma, rosto. 
robber khîrsîz, haydoud, harami. 
roll (to) youvarlamaq. 
roof dam. room oda. 
root kSbk. rope ip, halat. 
rose p. gûl. rotten chûrûk. 
rough qaba, pûrûzlû. 
round youvarlaq, top ; a. mûdSvvSr. 
royal a. p. mûlûktanS, shahar^S. 
rub (to) ovalamaq, sûrmSk. 
rude a. t tSrbiySsiz, SdSbsiz. 
rug kSchS, kilim, sSjjadS. 
ruin a. kharabS, kharabiySt. 
rule qayidS, qanoun. 
run (to) qoshmaq; aqmaq. 
rust pas. rye chavdar. 
Sabbath a. sebty f. shapat; giragi. 
sabre qilij. sad kedirli. 
sacred a. moviqaddes, aziz. 
sacrifice a. qourban, fidiye. 
saddle eyer. saddler a. sarraj. 
safe a. Smin; sagh, saghlam, 

a. salim. 
sage aqilli, ouslou; ada chayî. 
sail yelkSn; yola chiqmaq. 
salt touz. salutation a. selam. 
salute (to) sSlam vSrmek, - almaq. 
sand qoum. satellite p. peyk. 
sausage (dry) soujouq; (fresh) 

savage p. yabani, a. vahshi. 
save (to) SL,1chSlasSt.", qourtarmaq. 
saw p. destere. say (to) demek. 
scarce nadir, school a. mektSb. 
science a. ilm. scissors a. maqas. 
scold (to) azarlamaq, a. tSvbikh et." 
scoundrel oughoursouz, chapqin. 
scourge qamchi, qirbaj. 
screw vida. scythe tırpan. 
sea dSniz. seal p. m^hur. [sim. 
seam dikish yiri. season a. mSv- 
second &.saniyS. 
secret a.sîrr; gizli. 
see (to) gebrmek. seed tohoum. 
seek (to) aramaq. 
seem (to) gSörûnmek; binzemSk. 
seize (to) yaqdlamaq; qapmaq. 
select (to) sSchmek; sechmS. 
sell (to) satmaq; vSrmek. 
send (to) g^ndermSk, a. irsal et." 



<?i:i) Vocabulary Loughit-chd. 


separate ayri; (to) ai/trniaq, 
series sira. serious aghtr. 
sermon a. v'az. serpent yîlan. 
servant oiishaq, khîzmetjl. 
serve (to) p. t. khtzmit it." 
set tagtm; (to) qontaq; dikmik. 
settle (to) hisablashmaq; yerUsh- 

nxik; iskian itdinnek. 
sew (to) dikmek, shade gSblge. 
shake (to) saHanmaq. 
shallow si(/h; sachma, dihsiz. 
shame a. hijab, shame! ayib! 
shape bichim. share hissd. 
sharp keskin, shave p. trash it." 
sheath qîn. sheep qoyoun. 
shell qabotuj. shepherd choban. 
shield qalqan. shine parlamaq. 
ship genii, shirt gebmUk. 
shoe f. qoufidoura; p. pabonj. 
shoot (to) atmaq, votmnaq. 
shop a. dûkkıatiy f. maghaza. 
shore a. kenar, sdhily t. yaliy qiyi. 
short qisa, shoulder otifnouz. 
shut (to) qapamaq; qapali. 
sick hasta J key f siz, p. namizaj. 
side yan, a. taraf, Janib, 
siege a. moiihasere, f. abloca. 
sieve qalboiir, elek. 
sight a. nazar, baqtsh; temasha. 
signal a. isharet. signify (to) 

demek; a. d4laUt ^tmek. 
silence a. sıikût. silk ipek. 
silver gûmûsh. sincere a. samimi, 
sinj? (to) terennüm et,"; (bird) 

single yalhi qat; tek, p. yegiani, 
sink (to) batmak; batXrmaq. 
sit (to) otourmaq; z..jûlûs et." 
situated a. raq\, size boy, a. qUa, 
skill p. hdner^ a. marifet. 
skin (7ey/*. sky ^^A; yüzıı. 
slave yisir; kSble; a. Jar iye. 
sleep ouyqoii; (to) otujonnmq, 
sling sapan, slip (to) qaymaq. 
slow a{fhtr, yavash, a. &a^i. 
small /îiîc/tiîA:, oufaq, a. saghir. 
sniall-pox chichek. 
smell qoqou; (to) qoqmaq; qoqla- 
smile (to) a. tebessüm H!' \nmq, 
smith dâmirji. smooth f7iî^. 
smoke duman, tûtûn; (to) flî^ 

/we'A:, (tobacco) ^ö^«>t ichmek. 

snake yilan; nargUi marpoujou. 

sneeze (to) aqstrmaq, 

snow a. gar; (to) gar yaghmaq. 

snuff infiyi; (-box) — gotitoMMm. 

soap 9a2)Oun. 

society dayir4., 9at<A^^/(coinpai)y) 

shirkit; ortaqliq, 
soft youmshaq, 
soil (to) kirUtmik, 
solder Uhim; (to) UhimUmih. 
soldier a.askir, (private-) a. n^ifr. 
song ^i2/'M, a. sharqi, mani. 
sorrow a. kidir, p. <f^rd, a. qaaaret 
sort «oy, dûrlû, chishid, 
soul p.^an, a. roM^. soup c^rto. 
sound d^; saghlam; (to) «e»- 

Umik; yoqlamaq. 
south <?I6/^, a,jinoub; (-east) it^9^ 

ishlimS; (-west) f. ?0(2(». 
sow (to) ikmik, 
space yir, mSydan; araltq, 
spade bil. span qarish, 
spark qtghtljtm, p. shirari. 
spectacles g^bzlâk. 
speech a. notUq, kilam; hhüab, 
spell (to) hijilitnik, (-ing) a. imla, 
spend (to) kharjamaq; sarf, tilif 
spice bahar (Ar. pi. baharat). [H," 
spider 6brümjik, 
spinage Upanaq, 
spirit a. rouh; (liquor) f. ispirto; 

(courage) Si.jisarit; (Holy — ) 

a. Eouhoul Qouds. 
spiritual a. ronhani. (-ity) -yit. 
spittle tâkûrûk. spleen dalaq. 
spoil (to) boztnaq, bozaulmaq. 
sponge sûngir. spoon qasMq. 
spot liki; (place) a. mSqi, yir. 
spread (to) yaymaq, sirmih. 
spring bahar, ilk bahar; yay. 

(-wagon) yaylî araba. 
spur mahmouz. spy &.jasou8. 
squadron f. fllo, t. donanma, 
square d^rt kSbshi, &,mûribba. 
stable akhir; tavla. 
stain liki. stag giyik. 
stair basamaq; (pi.) mirdivin. 
stale bayat, stalk sap. 
stammerer piltik, kiki. 
stamp damgha, poul; (revenue-) 

senid poulou; (postage-) posta 

poulo%i, miktoub pouUnt, 


As^ Vocabulary LougMt-chS. 


stanza a. be yit ^ Myt. 

stand (to) dourmaqy ayaqda dour- 

maq; a. t. qayim ohnaq. 
standard (flag) sanjaq, hayraq. 
star yîldîZy a. kSvkShy p. sitarL 
starch qola. start (to) yola chxq- 

maq; mûtevSjjİhSn harekat it." 
state a. hal; divUt; biylik, miri. 
stay (to) qalmaq, otourmaqy iyUn- 

steady muhkim. steal (to) chal' 

maq; sirqat itmik. 
steam a. boukhar, vulg. boughouy 

steamer f. vapor, steel cMlik. 
step adım. steward vikilkharj, 
stick diynek; (to) saplamaq. 
stir (to) qtmUdanmaq, a. harikit 

St.; qarisTidirmaqj altüst etmik, 
stirrup ûzSngi. stockings chorab. 
stomach a. mi'di, t. qartn. 
stone t ash; (of fruit) chSyirdik. 
stool iskemle; chouqaliy havroz. 
stoop (to) Sy ilmik; meyillinmik, 
stop (to) [intr.] dourmaq, eylinmik; 

[trans.] aliqomaqy dourdourmaq. 
storage maghaza kirası; ardiyS. 
store a. dûk'kıanj f. maghaza; 

(pi.) a. zakhiri; (-room) kilarj 

a. makhzeriy a. ambar. 
stork liyliky haji Uylek. 
storm f. fourtoima. storey qat. 
story a. naqliyet, hikiayi; masal. 
stove f. soba. strange a. gharib. 
BtT&nger a. gha?'ib; ejnibi; yabanji, 
strangle (to) boghmaq. 
straw sap; saman, (-berry) chi- 
stray yoldan sapmaq. [lik. 

stream chay, soUy aqindi. 
street a. soqaq, mahalli. 
strength a. qouvvet. 
strengthen (to) qouvvitlindirmiky 

taqviye it." 
stretch (to) girmik; girilmik. 
stretcher tijgiri (distkiri). 
strike (to) vourmaq; chalmaq. 
string ipy sijim. 
strip (to) soymaq; soyoulmaq. 
strong a. qouvvitli, t. sirt. 
stupid sûrtûk, boudala; shashqtn, 
submission a. ita'aty inqiyad. 
substance a. jism; jivhir. 

substantive a. ism, ismi m^Ulaq. 
suburb f. varoshy kiby, a. jivar. 
succeed (to) a. mouvaffaq ol," ; yi- 

rini gichmik, a. khalif olmaq. 
suck (to) immik. suet ich yaghu 
suddenly nagihan, birdin biri. 
suffer (to) chikmik, zahmit chik- 

mik; (trans.) qomaq, braqmaq. 
suffocate (to) boghmaq; boghouU 
suffix a. idat, [maq^ 

sugar shikir. 
suit (of clothes) qat. 
summer yaz. sun gûnesh. 
superior /"ay ig, ala, efzal; bSbyuk, 
supper akhsham ta'ami. 

(Lord's -) Ashayi JRdbbanL 
support (to) dayanm^q; arqa ol- 

maq, a. iltimaSy iltizam itmek. 
suppose (to) a. zann, farz itmek. 
sure (to be) iyi bilmâk, imin ol- 

maq. surety a. kifiL 
surely a. elbitti, moutlaqa. 
surface a. sath (sat-h), yûz. 
surgeon ti.jerrah. 
surgery jirrahliq. 
surname a. laqab, künye (§ 669). 
surprise a. ti-ajjûb; (to) basqin 

vermik; shashirtmaq. 
surrender (to) a. teslim it." - ol," 
suspect (to) shubhelinmek. 
suspicious shubheli, a. mijhoul, 
swallow qtrlangij; (to) youtmaq, 
swear (to) yimin it." sweat tir. 
sweep (to) sûpûrmek, sweet tatlL 
swell (to) shishmek, qabarmaq. 
swelling shish. swift tiz. 
swim (to) yüzmek. 
sword qtUj, syllable a. heji. 
sympathy a. rtqqat, tevijjüh. 
symptom a. alamet, iser. 
syntax a. nahv. system a. ousoul. 
Table sofra, f. ma^a; a. jedvel. 
table cloth sofra bizi. 
tail qouyrouq. tailor p. terzi, 
take (to) almaq; (- by force) 

zabt et."; jibrin almaq. 
tale a. hikiayi, masal, fiqra. 
talk laqtrdî ; {to) -et.", laflashmaq, 
tall ouzoun boylou. 
tallow don yaghz. 
tame alishiq, altshqan, mazloum, 
tar qatran. target p. nishangtah. 


ş^) Vocabulary Loughit-cM. 



tariff a. narJch. Tartar Tatar. 

taste a. UzzSt, t. tad; (to) tatmaq. 

tavern p. m^yhani. qoltouq, 

tea f. chay. (- pot) chaydan. 

teach (to) £byr4tmek, talim itmek. 

teacher p. hojay a. monallim. 

tear (to) yxrtmaq; g£bz yasM. 

telegram teligraf. 

telegraph teligraf; (to) - vour- 
maq, tilegraf chikmik. 

telescope p. dourhin vulg. dıiîdûh 

tell (to) sebyiimek, dSmek. 

temper SL.mizaj, mishrebj tdbiyat, 

tempest f. fourtouna^ hora. 

temple a. Mykel, ma^bid; (of the 
face) .shaqaq yeri. 

tender a. nazik, t. youmshaq, 
a. mülayim. 

tent chadîr. tepid Uijnq. 

terrace f. taratsa; daniy baja. 

terrible qorqoiifij, a. t. dehshitU. 

terrify (to) qorqoutmaq. 

thank (to) a. tishekkûr it." (- you) 
tishekkûr idârim^ mimnounoum 
(493, 498). 

thanks, thanksjriving a. shu- 
kraniyetf tishekkûr. 

thick qalin. thief khîrsîz. 

thimble yitksiik. thin inje. 

thing a. shiy, pi. ish'ya. 

think (to) diishûnmek; zann it- 
mek; tifekkûr itmek. 

thirst (to) sousamaq; sousoiizlouq, 
a. hararet. 

thirsty sousouz. 

thorn dikin, thorny dikinli, 

thorough a. kiamil, tamm. 

thought a. fikirj tifekkûr, muta- 

thread tel, iplik, tiri, ihrûshûm. 

threshold qapou eshiyi, p. asitane. 

throat boghaz. throne takht. 

throw (to) atmaq, endakht et." 

thumb bash-parmaq. 

thunder yildlr'im. 

thus beby'li. tie (to) baghlamaq. 

tiger pileng. tile kirimid. 

timber keristi. till (to) hirg it." 

time a. vaqU, zeman ; difa, kerre. 

timid qorqaq. timidity - Uq. 

tin qalay; teneke. 

tinder qav. tithe ebshûr, ondaViq. 

title a. laqab, pi. ilqab, unvan. 
toast (to) ekmik qlzartmaq; qa- 

deh toqoushdourmaq. 
tobacco tûtûn, p. doıûchan. 
toe ayaq parmagM, 
together birdbir. token ^.nishan. 
tomb a. mizar; tûrbi, marqad. 
tongs masha. tongue dil. 
tooth dish, top dipi. 
torrent a. seL torch a. mishala. 
torment a. a^a2). tortoİBe tosbaghl 
torture p. iskinje, a. iziyyH. 
total a. yikûn, -ly a. kÛUiyin. 
touch (to) doqounmaq, diym&i. 
touchstone a. mihikk, mihing 

towel havU. tower a. kouJi; baurj. 
town a. qaryi; ahihir. 
toy ojounjaq. 

trade a. tijarit, dlish viriâh. 
trademark alamiti fariqa, marqa. 
trader a. tajir, tûjjar (512). 
tradition hadis, pi. ahadis; ri^^ir 
train dimir yol qatart. [git, 
traitor a. khayin, ydhouda. ^ 
trample (to) chlghnamaq, dipi- 

translate (to) a. tirjimi it" 
translator a. 97iâfer;tm. İTAytipsL 
transmigration a. Onasûkh. 
trap douzaqj faq; Hchan fagî. 
travel (to) a. siydhat it", gixmOt. 
treacherous a. khayin, chiftHi. 
treacle pikmez. 
tread (to) basmaq. 
treacherous khayin. -chery khi- 

yanit, khayinlik. 
treasure a. khazini, nidi. 
treaty a. inou'ahidi, dhdnami. 
tree aghaj. tremble tiirimİk. 
trench mitiris, hindik. 
triple tich gat. tribute virgi. 
trinity saloiisou ahirif. 
troop sûru, k^bmi; pi. b^lûk. 
trouble 8Îqînt*f a. zahmit. 
trousers don; p. shaHvar. 
truce a. mûtariki. true doghrou. 
truly a. filhaqiqa, haqiqaten. 
trumpet p. borou; borouein. 
trunk giovdi; sandiq. 
truth a. haqiqat. 
try (to) ghayrit it.", chalUhmeiq. 


Aj>z:^ Vocabulary Loughet-chS. 


tube horou; pebhreng. 
tumble (to) youvarlanmaq. 
turban sariq. tune a. maqam. 
Turk tiirk. Turkish turkje. 
Turkey memaliici mahrouse. Tur- 

My a (p. 126); hind tavoughou, 

tebktebky choullouq. 
turn a. nevbety neohet, stra; 

(to) debnmek; chevirmek. 
turnip shalgam. 
turpentine neft yaghl. 
tnrile tosbaght. twilight a. shafaq. 
twin ekiz, twine sijim. 
tyranny a. zoıdm, ghaddarUq. 
tyrant a. zalim, jebbar, direb^yi. 
Ugly chirkin. ugliness - lik. 
ultimate sofi, a. akhir. 
umbrella a. shemsiye. 
unanimous a. muttefiq, mûttehid. 
unbeliever a. t. dinsiz, imansız. 
uncircumcised a. t. sûnnetsiz. 
unclean p. napak, mourdar. 
understand (to) anlamaq, fehm 
uniform f. üniforma. [etm^k, 
union a. ittifaq, ittihad. 
universal a. oumoumi. 
universe a. alem, jihan, kiayinat. 
university a. darûl fûnun, 
unless p. miger, igerchi (478). 
unoflBcial a. ghayrî rismi, 
unspeakable a. malakelam, seb- 

ziim ona! 
unusual a. nadîr^ûl vouqou. 
unwell namizaj, hasta, My f siz. 
unworthy x>' Si. nalayiq. up p. &aZa. 
usage a. adet. 

use a. fayde] (to) qoullanmaq. 
useful a. faydeli. usual a. adi. 
utter (to) a.teleffûz et.; sebylemek. 
urgent a. ajeU, mustd'jil, bijid. 
Yacant bosh; a. mahlid. 
vaccinate (to) ash Stmek, ash- 

vaccination asM, chichek asMst. 
valet oda oushaght, oushaq. 
valley d^re. valour a. sheja'at. 
vanish (to) a. ghayib ol, nihan ol. 
variety cheshidUnmS, tenSv'm. 
various dûrlûdûrlû, ^.mûtenSvvi, 
varnish (to) a.jila sürmek, jila- 

vault p. kemir, veal dana-eti. 

vegetables p. sebzevat, vulg. zar- 

veil yashmaq; ebrtû, f. vela. 
vein damar, velvet qadifS. 
venerable a. mûhiMm, mûkirrim. 
vengence a. intiqam. 
Venus a. out arid, 
veranda tahtaposh, f. taratsa. 
verbal aghîzdan, a. shifahi. 
verge kinar. vermicelli shehriyi, 
verse (of Bible) a. aySt; (poetry) 

a. Myt, pi. ibyat. 
version a. tirjim4, vest qaftan. 
veterinary surgeon a. baytar. 
vex (to) gujindirmek, iziyet vA*- 

vial shishi. victim a. qourban. 
victor a. ghalib. 
victuals yeyijek. 
view a. mSnzari; (opinion) riy. 
vigour qouvvSt, village keby. 
vine asma. vinegar sirki. 
vineyard bagh. 
violate (to) bozmaq. 
violent shiddMU, sSrt. 
violet a. benefshe; (colour) mor, 
violin Mman. viper 4ngMk. 
virgin a. bakiri, qîz. 
virtue a. faziUt, 

visible georûnûr. vision a. rouya. 
visit f. vizita^ a. ziyarit; (to) - it- 

mik, vizitaya, ziyariti gitmik. 
visitor a. mûsafir, ziyaretji. 
vocabulary a. p. loughetchi {644), 
voice sis, a. sida. 
volcano atishfishan. 
volley yaylım, atish. volume 
volunteer gebnullu. [a. jild. 

vomit (to) qousmaq. 
vow a. ahd, nizr; (to) - it. 
vow^el a. har ft imla; har iki. 
voyage diniz yoljouloughou, sifir, 
vulgar a. adi, qaba. 
vulture aqbaba. 
Wag (to) sallatnaq; sallanmaq, 
wager (to) bahs toutmaq, bis tout- 

wages a. ûjrit, t, gândilik, ayViq. 
waggon araba, waist bil. 
waistcoat yelek. 

wait (tb) beklimek. [maq, 

wake (to) ouyanmaq, ouyandir- 


^^ Vocabulary Lough^t-chi. 


walk (to) yürümek, wall p. divar, 
walnut a, jhiz. M^&nt {to) istemSk. 
war qavga, SL.harb, mouharSbS. 
warehouse f. maghaza, a. dukkian, 
warm sijaq, warmth -lîq. 
wash (to) yiyqamaq. waste a. tSUf. 
watch sa'at; n^bhü; (to) hiklimSk, 
water sou. wave dalga. 
wax hal moumou. way yoL 
weak Si.zayif; hafif, -ness -Uk. 
wealth zenginlik, sirvit. 
wealthy zSngin, weapon a. silah. 
wear (to) giymek; asMnmaq. 

(-out) esgimik, ipranmaq. 
weary yorgoun. weather a. hava. 
week hafta, weep (to) aghlamaq. 
weigh (to) tartmaq, weight tartî. 
welcome! hoy our ^ houyouroufi! 
well qouyou; 4yi; pSk eyi! 
west gûnbatî, batt, SL.gharh. 
wet tslaq, yash. wharf f. isgiU. 
wheat houghday, a. htnta. 
wheel tek4rUk; (machine) charkh. 
whip qamcM; (to) qamchtlamaq. 
whisper (to) fisildhnek. 
whistle (to) isUq chalmaq. 
white aq, a. heyaz. whole bûtûn. 
wick fitil, wicked k^tu. 
wickedness -luk, a. fisad, shirr. 
wide Mi, gSnish. 
widow doul qar\. 
will g4bnûl, a. murad; vasiyit. 
wind p. rûzgıar, t. yil. 
window pSnjSre. 
wine sharab. winter q^sh. 
wing qanad; qol. 
wipe (to) silmek. 
wire ^eZ. wisdom a^Z. 
wise a. aqUU, aqil. 
wish a. arzoii, khahish; istemek, 
without - sîz. - home ivsiz, 
witness a. shahid; shihadSt. 
witty a. zarif, wolf qourt. 
womb a. rahim, t. qarin. [St." 
wonder a. hayret, tS^ajjûb; (to) 
wood aghaj; odoun; orman. 
wool youn, yapaghi. 

word sSbz, a. kUam; lafz, hâlimi. 

work a. amil, t ish; (to) iahlemik. 

workman a. amiU, t. ts^^'t. 

world dûnya^ kûrSyi arz, 

worm sogJwuijau. worn out /a^ 

worse dah'a kSbtu, p. &^£^. 

worship a. ibadit. (to) - A." 

worst 4fi kSbtû. worth a. qtymdt, 

worthy a. layiq. wound yara. 

wounded yarali, a. m^rouh, 

wrap (to) sarmag. y^rsAh &.hiddk. 

wrestle (to) gûlish toutmaq. 

wretched p. perishan, a. zevM, 

wrist biUk; p. bazou. 

write (to) yazmaq, a. toftrtr Hmek. 

writer yazîjî, a. mou^rrir. 

writing yazî, a. X;7iatt. 

written yazîlmîsh, a. moti^rf^. 

wrong yafüîsh, a. Jbfcota. 

Yard arshîn, f. yarda; havlt 

yawn (to) SsnSmik, 

year ^ÎZ, a. j(«W, p. «oJ. 

yearly a. sSfiSvi, ytUiq. 

yeast maya, 

yell (to) baghirmaq, a.fSryad H,"; 

yellow «art. (- berries) jİkri. 

yes! eüt?^ft, ivit, p. 6^Zi*. 

yet a. hfima, vİlakin, faqat» 

yoke boyoundourouq; cMft, 

yolk youmourta sarUli. 

young ginj, ddliqanli, a.jaML 

youth genjlik, a. shİbahit, 

Zeal ghayrH; hamiyit, i^wM. 

zealous a. ghayyour, fnut^'oMtb. 

zenith simtûrres. 

zephyr p. a. badi saba, fUaim, 

zero ««/tr. zinc chinqo, 

zigzag âyribûyrû, dolamb(^, yl- 

Zion Siyon, SîKyoun, 

zodiac a. mintaqat ûl bouroMJ. 

zone a. mintaqa. torrid, tempe- 
rate, glacial — . &,mintaqqffi 
harrS, mintaqayi mûtidüS, 
mintaqayi mûnjSmidS, 

zoology a. ilmi hayvanat. 




(The figures refer to the sections.) 

Ablative case 85. 

About, how rendered 453. 

Above, how rendered 453. 

Abstract noun, t. 163, p. 543, 
a. 581. 

Accelerative verbs 286. 

Accent of words 49. 

Accusative case 83, 106; Ar. ace. 
used as an adverb 681 ; inde- 
finite accusative page 40, note. 

Active verbs see Transitive 

Address, modes of 494. 

Adjectival pronoun 138. 

Adjectives: precede the noun 61, 
148, 171; derivative 149, p. 524; 
numeral 192, p. 521, a. 685; 
regular verbal 436, p. 553, 
a. 606 ; irregular verbal 439-97 ; 
adjective of quality p. 553, 
a. 606; adjective of colour and 
defect 608; agreement of 653. 

Adverbial: demonstratives 144; 
expressions of time 466. 

Adverbs : 455-66 ; distinctive 212, 
p. 684, a. 681. 

Affixes, pronominal possessive 

A<:e of a person 196. 

AlphabetjlettersoftheTurkish 1. 

Antonyms 669. 

Any, how rendered 131. 

Aoriet tense 326-38. 

Armeno-Turkish 5. 

Article: definite 59, a. 661, in- 
definite 60, a. 661. 

As — as — , how rendered 179, 
229, 479. 

Ay — so — , how rendered 479. 

Assimilation of Arab, letters 700. 

At, how rendered 453. 

Auxiliary verbs 272. 

Ayn, the letter 36. 

Barbarisms 507, 583, 660. 

Because 478, how rendered 427. 

Both, how rendered 136, 469. 

Broken or irregular Ar. plural 

But, how rendered 130. 

By, how rendered 232, 453. 

Calendar, the Ottoman-Turkish 
215, Hejiratic page 424. Finan- 
cial page 425. 

Capital letters 2. 

Cardinal numbers 74. 

Causal, causative verbs 253; the 
formula of 262-64. compound 
275, derivative 281. 

Comparison of adjectives 222-27, 
p. 559, a. 606; of Eng. and 
Turk, participles 410, 418, 428. 

Compound adj. see Derivative 
adj. Compound Ar. words 693. 

Compound verbs 272-82. 

Compound words 308. 

Congratulations 486. [431. 

Conjugation of Turk, verbs page 

Conjunctions 467-79; the num- 
ber very limited 430; A;/ avoid- 
ed 392. 

Conjunctive tense 335. 

Connected letters 24. 

Consonants: compound 7. 

Construction: of sentences 128 
to 129; of participial sentences 
410; of nouns with nouns 

Continuative tenses 300. 

Copula (dir) 67. 

Dakhi 117. Dâ 115-16. 

Date, how expressed 192. 

Dative, Turkish case 82, 237. 

Declension of nouns 79, 86 to 
90; a. 670. 



General-Index ^j^ ^^-^^ Filwisii owmoumL l^• 

Definite article 59, 661. 

Demonstrative adj. 64, 141-44, 
a. 674. 

Derivative : adjectives 149 ; p. 526 
to 538; nouns 161; p. 540, 
a. 596, verbs 276-82 ; nouns and 
adj. der. from verbs 436-50; 
a. infinitives 588, 613-32. 

Beyij depou 392. 

Diminutives 156, 167; p. 544; 

Diphthongs 10. [a. 692. 

Distinctive adverbs 212. 

Distributive numerals 213. 

Each other, how expressed 191. 

Ehjid hisahî 14, 15 (see more 
in the Key, page 8). 

Either — or — , how rendered 
137, 472. 

JSlif, the four kinds 29. 

Esre 22, 23. Eotrd 22-23. 

Emphasis 49 ^ 66. 

Euphony of vowels 50-54. 

Excess, noun of 611. 

Ezan 503. 

Fractional numbers 204; a. 690. 

Future tense 357-64; of parti- 
ciples 401-409. 

G^f, giaf; the letter 34. 

Gender of nouns 62; a. 562. 

Gerunds pp. 206-207. 

Ghayriy the letter 36. 

Greek alphabet, the order of 14. 

Graeco-Turkish 5. 

Half, how expressed 75, 207. 

Have : the verb to — , with an 
indef. object 119, 122; with 
a definite object 127; con- 
ditional and dubitative tenses 
of 241; followed by an In- 
finitive 393; conjug. page 433. 

Hebrew alphabet, the order of 14. 

Ht\ three sounds of 32. 

Hvmze 29, 38-41. 

Hours, how to ask 78, 194. 

How manv, how much 133, 134. 

If, how rendered 239, 281, 282. 

Imperative mood 248, 316. 

Imperfect tense 322. 

Im])ersonal Eng. verbs 298. 

In, how rendered 232, 237, 453. 

Indicative mood 305, 307. 

Infinitive 248; derivative forms 

of 288; used as subetantive 
289, 299; declension of 289; 
with pronom. affixes 290; 
p. 545; a. 584; primitive 586, 
triliteral 589, derivative trilit 
588, 613; quadriliteral 595. 

Instead of, how rendered 425. 

Instrumental : case 232, noun 162, 
450; p. 542; a. 599. 

Interjections 480. 

Interrogative, particle mi 49, 
66; pronoun 169. 

Intransitive verbs 252 ; derivative 
277-79; compound 273. 

Irregular Arabic plural 636-52. 

IzafÜ 107-113; p. 513; a. 668. 

Jezma or SûTcân 42. KMi 
difierent uses of 147. 

KCaf, kSf, for kinds of 34 ; changed 
into y 52 2, 88-89. 

Languages, names of 153. 

Letters : of Ottoman-Turk, alpha- 
bet 2 ; purely Turk, and Pera, 
letters 2, 662; division of 16; 
vowel 27 ; connected and un- 
connected 25 ; of prolongation 
28; servile 259, a. 587; ionar 
and solar 663. 

Location : postpositions indicat- 
ing — or rest 237, 458; noun 
of, 162, 449; p. 541; a. 598. 

Locative: case, how made 77, 

Long vowels 28. [84, 287. 

Lunar letters 663. 

Measures of verbs 261; a. 593. 

MSdda, the sign of 47. 

Minutes, how reckoned 195. 

Modification of Arab, letters 702. 

Months page 97. 

Moods of verbs 803—314; of 
participles 399, 411. 

Motion, postpositions indicating 
237, 453. 

Multiplicative numbers 197. 

Nations, names of 151, page 79; 
p. 527; a. 580c. 

Necessitative tense 384 — 94. 

Negative form of verbs 249, 269; 
of potential verbs 285. 

Neuter verbs. See Intransitive 
verbs. Nominative case 80, 292. 
NisbS p. 527, a 579. 

<i.M General-Index ^yt c^--^ Fihristi oumoumi. 


Nominatival form of Genitive 

and Accusative cases page 40, 

note; 293. 
Noun : of relationship 149, p. 527, 

a. 579; derivative 161; dimi- 
nutive 156, 167, p. 544, a. 692; 

of excess 448, p. 539, a. 611; 

of location 449, p. 541, a. 598; 

of instrument 450, 542, 599; 

of superiority 609 ; with Mim 

Number, of nouns 79, p. 508, 

a. 566; ordinal 209, a. 687; 

cardinal 74, 192; a. 686; 

fractional 204, 690; adverbs 

197, 688. 
Numerals: and numeration by 

letters 12; p. 521; a. 685. 
Nunation 48, 661, 669 a. 
Object: definite page 40, note, 

291; indefinite page 40, 109, 

251 291. 
Objective: case 83, 129, 281; 

participle 402, p. 548, a. 604. 
Oblique cases of relative pron. 

Of, sign of genitive case 81. 
Omission, of letters p. 560. 
On, how rendered 282, 237, 426, 

One, how rendered 189, 191. 
Onomatopoeia 502. 
Optative tense 365-75; approa- 
ching to the suppositive past 

Or, how rendered 200. 
Order of construction 410. 
Ordinal numbers 209, a. 687. 
Orthographic signs 19, 20, 42. 
Orthography, the Turkish 55; 

the rules of 56-57. 
Own, how expressed 146. 
Participles 395; Subjective mood 

401; p. 549; a. 601,633; Ob- 
jective mood 411; p. 548, 555, 

a. 604. 
Passive verbs 254; the formula 

of 265-67; compound 274; 

derivative 277. 
Past: habitual 335; participle 

401, 405; suppositive 379. 
Personal pronouns 63, 92-106. 

Pluperfect tense 349; of parti- 
ciples 401, 402, 406. 

Plural 68; p. 508; a. 571, reg. 
masc. 573, reg. fern. 576, irre- 
gular 636. 

Possessive: pronoun 95-106; 
a. 673; case 81; afiixes 96. 

Potential verbs 283. 

Prepositions or postpositions 
230-37, 451-54; p. 557; a. 671. 

Present tense: continuative 300; 
indicative 318-25; progressive 
320; subj. participle 403; of 
subjective verb 65. 

Preterite tense 342. 

Primitive verbs 257; a. 586. 

Professional nouns 157, 164. 

Pronouns: personal 63, 92; 
demonstrative 64, 141 ; posses- 
sive 95; adjectival 138; re- 
flexive 145; interrogative 169; 
indefinite 178; p. 680; a. 672. 

Punctuation, marks of 2. 

Qaf, the letter 33, 52 2, 88, 89. 

Quadriliteral verbs 595. 

Quality, adj. of, p. 553; a. 606. 

Quantity, adverbs of 465. 

Quiescent letters 42, 700. 

R, the letter, how articulated, 
page 8; 11. 

Reciprocal verbs 255; the for- 
mula of 268; derivative 280. 

Reflexive: pron. 145; verbs 256, 
the formula of 265-67. 

Relationship, noun of, 149 ; p.526 ; 
a. 519. 

Relative: pronoun 397, p. 397, 
a. 675 ; clause 410. 

Religions and denominations 
page 146. 

Rest , postpositions indicating 
237, 453. 

Roots, Persian 554. Ar. 593. 

Salutation 482, page 379. 

Self, how rendered 145. 

Sentences, order of 410. 

Services, the Christian 504. 

Servile letters 259; a. 587. 

ShMda, the sign of 45. 

Signs, orthographic 19, 20, 42. 

Simple verbs 257 ; a. 586. 

Solar letters 663. 


General-Index ^Jyt ^z^j^ Fihristi aumoumû ı^r 

Solecisms 507, 583, 660. 

Some, somebody 135, 190. 

Subject: when pronoun omitted 
70, 102, 120; of the infinitives 
in genitive 292; as an object 
293; of participles and ge- 
runds 329. 

Subjective mood 399-410. 

Subjunctive tense 377-83. 

Substantive verb 309; present 
tense 65, 72; preterite 73; 
conditional 238. 

Substitution p. 558. 

Superiority, noun of 222 ; p. 559 ; 
a. 609. 

Superlative adj. 224-27; a. 606. 

Suppositive tense 377-83. 

Surnames 168, a. 669 ^ 

Symphonious terminations 698. 

Synonymous words 696. 

Tenses: present 318, aorist 326, 
past 341, dubitative 351, fu- 
ture 357, optative 365, sup- 
positive 377, necessitative 384. 

Tenveen 48, 661. 

Terjiyi Bind page 303, in the 

Terkibi Bend page 303. 

Terms of endearment 167. 

The - the -, how rendered 346. 

There is, how expressed 76. 

Though, how rendered 239, 240. 

Titles: of respect 69, honorific 

To thank, page 384. 

To, how rendered 232, 237, 

Transitive verbs 251, double 270, 

the formula of 262-64, com- 
pound 272, derivative 276. 

Triliteral verbs: primitive 589; 
derivative 613. 

Turkish equivaleDts, for Bome 
English prepositions 458, con- 
junctions 479. 

Unconnected letters 24. 

Upon, how rendered 82, 287. 

üstün 21, 22, 23. 

Variative numerals 198. 

Vav, four kinds of 80. [p. 550. 

Verbal nouns 288-99, 448-50; 

Verbal adjectives, regular 486, 
irregular 437-42 ; p. 553 ; a, 606. 

Verbs: accelerative 286, anri- 
Hary 272, causal or caasative 
253, derivative 276-282, the 
finite 306, infinitive of 247, 
passive 254, potential 288, 
reciprocal 255, reflexive 256, 
substantive 65, 72, 78, 288, 
252,309. Persian 545; Arabic 

Vowel: letters 16, hard 22, soft 
23, signs 20, simple and 
double 6. 

Vowelled letters 42. 

When, how reiidered 426. 

Without, how rendered 160. 

Words, denoting obligation 891. 

AVriting, four kinds of 8. 

Y, the letter, 9, 41; inserted to 
avoid hiatus 41, 58, 91, 284, 
287, 528, 543. 

Yaf, yif, the letter 84 IV. 

Yet, how expressed 289. 

Ml' (plum, lack) 198b. 

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