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t^rJj*- WJ^J^ • <£/-*" J > — -s-Us 


The Gaspey-Otto-Saner Method has become my sole property by 
right of purchase. These books are continually revised. All rights, 
especially those of adaptation and translation into any language, are 
reserved. Imitations and copies are forbidden by law. Suitable 
communications always thankfully received. 

Heidelberg . Julius Groos. 

c III 


ihe Turkish language is of Tartar origin, as the 
Turks came from Central Asia, and is consequently 
quite distinct from Arabic and Persian, although it is 
true that in modern times the Arabic characters have 
been adopted for all three languages, and that the 
Turkish language is now half filled with Arabic and 
Persian words. Yet these words have been incorporated 
without affecting the nature or framework of the Turkish, 
which is as different from Arabic and Persian as Anglo- 
Saxon dialects are from Hebrew or Hungarian. In fact 
pure Turkish is Turanian, while Arabic is Semitic and 
Persian Aryan, and the resulting modern Ottoman-Tur- 
kish is compounded not only of three languages but 
of representatives of the three great families of lan- 
guages. The original Turkish tongue, which is called 
Chaghata (Jagatai), was somewhat barbarous, but extreme- 
ly forcible and concise when spoken. The adoption of 
Arabic and Persian words is arbitrary. To master the 
language it is necessary to have at least an elementary 
knowledge of the Arabic and Persian languages. 

It is an extraordinary and lamentable fact that 
the language of the Turks has hitherto received little or 
no attention in England, although it is spoken by mil- 
lions of people belonging to a vast empire with which 
we are closely connected by mutual vital interests, and 
is more or less used, in official circles, from Tunis in 
Africa to the walls of China. It is the court language 
of Persia, and in many provinces of that country, of 
South Russia and Afghanistan is spoken as much 


IV Preface aaJj* Mouqaddeme. s 

as Persian. It is difficult to account for the absolute 
neglect of the study of such an important language, con- 
sidering that it is used by a people who once influenced 
half the world, who overturned and established empires, 
who have possessed the thrones of Persia, Greece, Egypt 
and Arabia; whose power was once dreaded by Italy, 
Germany and France, and to whom our proud Queen 
Elizabeth applied for aid against the Spanish Armada. 
The Turkish has always been of the greatest consequence 
to us, owing to the importance of our political and com- 
mercial relations with the Ottoman Empire, and the 
complete ignorance of it on the part of our country- 
men has greatly impeded proper communication and 
intercourse between the two nations and given rise to 
most serious misunderstandings and difficulties both 
in the diplomatic and commercial world. [Br. Ch. Wells.) 

Besides, not a small body of earnest men from 
the great Anglo-Saxon republic of the Trans-Atlantic 
continent have long been established in Constantinople 
and in the provinces of Turkey, labouring to unfold 
the treasures of modern science, temporal and spiritual, 
to the people of Turkey; losing no opportunity to place 
themselves in friendly communication both with the 
governing Ottoman element and with the numerous 
races and religious denominations subject to the Im- 
perial sway. 

To meet the need of the representatives of these 
two great nationalities in Turkey, there arose the ne- 
cessity for conversation-books, grammars and lexicons. 
There have appeared a number of Turkish grammars 
and other books in the English language, but they seem 
little fitted to acquaint the learner fully with Turkish, 
chiefly because they are not sufficiently practical in the 
strict sense of the word, or they are composed only of 
rules. The appearance of a new Ottoman-Turkish Gram- 

& Preface «o.jJU Mouqadd&mi. V 

mar which combines in itself the theoretical and the 
practical elements of the language, it is expected will 
be cheerfully welcomed. 

The so-called Conversation-method, originated by 
Drs. Gaspey and Otto, is now applied for the first time 
by the writer of this present book to the Ottoman-Tur- 
kish language also. It is his mother tongue and besides 
for more than 20 years he has practised this method 
in teaching the language in an important American 
institution to the natives of Turkey and to English- 
speaking foreigners. Therefore his own experience enables 
him to speak with some little authority on this subject. 
He thinks he has introduced a new element too in the 
Gaspey-Otto conversation-method, by inserting the word 
exercises which appear on pp. 121 — 125, 215, 256 etc. 

The First Part of this work is devoted to conver- 
sational language and in it all the peculiarities of the 
language are given in a very easy and comprehensive 
way. The study of the First Part being finished it will 
soon be seen that Turkish is a very regular language, 
and that it is far more easy than is generally thought. 

In the Second Part the elements of the Persian 
and Arabic languages are treated of as they are used in 
Ottoman -Turkish, and all the difficulties of both lan- 
guages are explained, in a concise way. This is the 
Literary and Official language. There are then added 
some very valuable matters and a vocabulary. 

As to the Exercises and Reading Lessons for 
translation, most of them are on subjects referring to 
Turkey and Turkish literature. Many characteristic speci- 
mens of poetry and prose illustrative of the literature 
and of the country, especially in modern phraseology, 
are given, so that the learner will feel himself in Turkey, 
and will have a glimpse into the geography, the hist- 
ory and the manners and customs of the country. 



VI Preface <ujJU Mouqqadd&ne. j 

I recommend as a help to the student the excel- 
lent Turkish-English Dictionary of Sir J. Redhouse and 
the valuable Turkish Dictionary of Samy Bey, which 
latter is the most reliable guide to the student after 
finishing the First Part of this Grammar. And as a 
purely Turkish Grammar I recommend that of Mihran 
Effendi Apigian (Mihri), to which I am much indebted. 

1 am much indebted also to Rev. Dr. W. St Clair- 
Tisdall, the C. M. S. missionary at Ispahan, Persia, 
who has carefully revised the MS. and has made valuable 
suggestions. Himself being a ripe scholar in the lan- 
guage, these have been of great service to me. 

I must also express my sincere thanks to Dr. J. 
Wright, of Oxford, for the kindness and care with which 
he has looked over the proofs of this work. 

V. H. Hagopian. 

Anatolia College, Merzifoun (Marsovan), Turkey. 

A List of Books indispensable to the Student 
of the Turkish Language. 

Redhouse's Turkish-English Lexicon 25/ — 

W. W. Peet: Bible House, Constantinople. 

Samy Bey's Turkish Dictionary (Qamouson Turl-i) . . . 8/ — 

Mihri's Larger Turkish Grammar {Moutawil Sarf) .... 1/ — 

Turkish Reader: 1, 2, 3 parts {Talimi Qra'at) 2/ — 

Turkish Reader: With Nesikh and Riqa (Rehberi Qra'at) . — /8 

Turkish Reader: With 6 different characters (Qra'at H ojasi) —8 

Penmanship Master (Yazi Hojast) — -i 

Blanks for Penmanship (Rehberi Subian, by Mihri) 1, 2, 3 parts — 2 
Library Tefeyyuz, 36 Grand Rue de la Sublime Porte, 






Introduction. Pa se 

A. Letters of the Alphabet 1 

B. Pronunciation of Letters 7 

C. Other Orthographic Signs 20 

D. Accent 23 

E. Euphony or Harmony of the Vowels 24 

F. Orthography 25 

First Part. Turkish Grammar. 

1. Lesson. The Definite and Indefinite Articles .... 27 

2. » The Substantive Verb 31 

3. » » » » (continued) 35 

4. » Declension of Nouns 39 

5. » The Pronouns 47 

1. Personal Pronouns 47 

2. Possessive Pronouns 49 

6. » The Izafet 55 

The Family 58 

7. » The verb To Have 61 

8. » The Pronouns (continued) 69 

3. Adjectival Pronouns 69 

4. Demonstrative Pronouns 70 

5. Reflexive Pronouns 72 

9. » The Adjective 75 

Derivative Adjectives 75 

» Nouns 77 

10. » The Pronouns (continued) 82 

6. Interrogative Pronouns 82 

7. Indefinite Pronouns 84 

11. » Numeral Adjectives 89 

1. Cardinal numbers 89 

12. » Numeral Adjectives 94 

2. Fractional numbers 94 

3. Ordinal numbers 95 

4. Distributive numerals 96 

The Ottoman-Turkish Calendar .... 96 

13. » Degrees of Comparison 100 

14. » Nouns with Prepositions 105 

15. » The Substantive Verb (continued) 109 

16. » The Infinitives 114 

I Reading Exercise: The Story of the 

Cat and the Camel 117 

VIII Contents ^--^i Fihrist. 7- 


17. Lesson. Primitive and Derivative Verbs 119 

1. Oqoutmaq, 2. Yazdirmaq, 3. Ichir- 
mek, 4. Taranmaq, 5. Yazilmaq, 6. Geb- 
rtishmek 121—125 

Y Reading Exercise: The Divisions of 

Turkey 126 

18. » Compound Verbs 127 

Potential Verbs 131 

Accelerative Verbs 132 

r Reading Exercise; The Provinces . . 133 

19. » The Derivative forms of the Infinitive . . . 135 

The Continuative Tenses 139 

20. » The Finite Verb 141 

The Moods of the Verb and Imperative 142-144 

*u Reading Exercise: Religions and De- 
nominations 146 

21. » The Present Tense 147 

e Reading Exercise: The Use of Animals 151 

22. » The Aorist Tense . . . . , 152 

1 Reading Exercise: Voices of Animals 158 

23. » The Past Tenses 159 

The Categorical Past 159 

The Dubitative Past 162 

24. » The Future Tense 166 

V Reading Exercise: A Sermon of Nasr- 

ed-din 170 

25. » The Optative Tense 171 

26. » The Suppositive Tense (Subjunctive) .... 176 

A Reading Exercise: A Sermon of Nasr- 

ed-din (Continued) 179 

27. » The Necessitative Tense 180 

^ Reading Exercise : The Marriage of the 

Teacher 185 

28. » The Participles 185 

I. Subjective Mood 186 

Comparison 189 

)* Reading Exercise: To hang flour on 

a line 192 

29. » The Participles (continued) 193 

II. Objective Mood 193 

Comparisons 195-200 

M Reading Exercise: Jack's House. . 203 

30. » Gerunds 204 

The Table of — 206 

)Y Reading Exercise: The Distinction be- 
tween Man and Beast 210 

Ja Contents si— ^ Fihrist. IX 


31. Lesson. Nouns and Adjectives derived from Verbs . 211 

1. The Regular Verbal Adjective . . . 211 

2. The Irregular » » ... 212 

3. The Noun of Excess 214 

4. » » » Location 214 

5. Instrumental Nouns 214 

tr Reading Exercise: An Anecdote . . 218 

32. » Prepositions v. Postpositions 219 

) <u Reading Exercise : TheVillage Room, a. 223 

33. » Adverbs 224 

) o Reading Exercise : TheVillage Room, b. 229 

34. » Conjunctions 230 

1 T Reading Exercise : TheVillage Room, c. 236 

35. » The Interjections 236 

1 V Reading Exercise: TheVillage Room, d, 

e,f,g 238 

36. » Appendices 241 

Salutations 242 

Congratulations 242 

Modes of Address 245 

Honorific Titles 247 

Onomatopoeia 251 

Ezan 251 

The Christian Services 252 

Second Part. The Elements of Arabic and Persian. 

Introductory Remarks 254 

37. Lesson." The Persian Plural 255 

» A Reading Exercise: The Match Girl . 256 

38. » The Persian Izafet 261 

Persian Numerals 264 

W Reading Exercise: Franklin's Prin- 
ciples, a 266 

39. » Persian Compound Adjectives 267 

Y* Reading Exercise: Franklin's Prin- 
ciples, b 272 

40. :> The Persian Derivative Nouns 274 

Y) Reading Exercise: The Story of the 

Donkev and Fox 277 

41. » The Persian Verb 280 

Objective and Subjective Participles . .281 

The verbal Noun 281 

Verbal Adjectives 282 

The Persian Roots 282 

YY Reading Exercise: A Supplication 

and Praise 287 

X Contents c— ^i Fihrist. <£ 


42. Lesson. The Persian Prepositions 288 

Substitution; Omission 289 

rr Reading Exercise: The Hunter . . 292 

43. » The Gender of Arabic Nouns 294 

The Number of Arabic Nouns .... 296 
Dual; Regular Masculine; Fern. Plural . 296 

ft, Reading Exercise: A Poem .... 302 

44. » The Arabic Nisbe 303 

Abstract Noun 305 

re Reading Exercise: Columbus' Egg, a. 308 

45. » The Arabic Infinitive 310 

I. The Primitive Triliterals 313 

II. The Primitive Quadriliterals ... 316 

r*\ Reading Exercise: Psalm 84 . . . 317 

46. » Nouns derived from Primitive Triliterals . . 318 

I. Nouns with Mim 318 

II. Noun of Location 319 

III. Noun of Instrument 320 

rv Reading Exercise: A Psalm of Life 322 

47. » Arabic Participles 324 


I. Subjective Participle (Fayil) 
II. Objective » (Mefoul) . 

III. Adjective of Quality (Mushebbihe) 

IV. Adjective of Colour and Defect 
V. Noun of Superiority {Ismi Tafzil) 

VI. Noun of Excess {Mubalagha) 

X/\ Reading Exercise: A Litany of Praise 331 

48. » The Derivative Triliteral Infinitives .... 332 

II. Tefil = Tefqeel 332 

III. Mufa'ale = Mufaqale .... 333 

IV. Ifal = Ifqat 334 

V. Tefa'oul = Tefaqoul 335 

r«\ Reading Exercise: Friendship . . 338 

49. » The Derivative Triliteral Infinitives (continued) 339 

VI. Tefa'oul = Tefaqqoul .... 339 

VII. Infi'al = Infiqal 340 

VIII. IftVal = Iftiqal 341 

IX. If Hal = Ifqilal 342 

X. Istifal = Istifqal 342 

r » Reading Exercise : True Nobility . . 345 

50. » The Participles of Derivative Infinitives . . 346 

rt Reading Exercise: Administrative 

Councils 352 

51. » Broken or Irregular Plurals 353 

rt Reading Exercise: Columbus' Egg, b. 360 

L Contents c— ^ Fihrist. XI 


52. Lesson. The Agreement of Adjectives with Nouns . . 361 

rr Heading Exercise: The Inventions . 365 

53. » The Arabic Definite Article 366 

The Arabic Preposition 371 

r"u Reading Exercise: An Anecdote . . 375 

54. » Arabic and Persian Pronouns 375 

ro Reading Exercise: Regulations etc. . 380 

55. » Arabic and Persian Adverbs 382 

r^ Reading Exercise: Newton .... 385 

56. » Arabic Numerals 387 

I. Cardinal numbers 387 

II. Ordinal numbers 387 

III. Fractional numbers 388 

The Diminutive Noun 389 

rv Reading Exercise: Home .... 393 

57. » Arabic Compound Words . : 395 

I. Arabic system 395 

II. Persian system 396 

t~A Reading Exercise: The Overthrow. . . 

poem) 398 

58. » I. Synonymous Words 400 

II. Svmphoniou3 Terminations . . . 402 

III. Antonyms 402 

r*\ Reading Exercise: Tirkibi Bend . . 405 

59. » The Euphonic Changes of the Letters . . . 407 

I. The Assimilation of Letters . . . 407 

II. The Modification of Weak Letters . 410 

a. Modification of Yav 411 

b. Modification of Ye 413 

^* Reading Exercise: The Ceremony of 

the Coronation of the King of England 415 

60. » Miscellaneous Idiomatic Phrases 418 


The Ottoman Literature 420 

Sultans of the House of Osman 423 

Arabic Calendar 424 

Ottoman Financial Calendar 425 

Parsing 426 

H.1 Reading Exercise: The Prophet's Speech . . . 426 

Conjugation of Turkish Verbs 431 

The Official Part. 

The Imperial Palace 434 

His Imperial Majesty the Sultan 434 

XII Contents c-^5 Fihrist. ^» 


The Sublime Porte 435 

The Council of Ministers 435 

The Grand Viziriate 436 

The Council of State 437 

The Foreign Office 437 

The Ministry of Internal Affairs 437 

The Sheikh-ul Islamate 438 

The Ministry of Finance 438 

The Imperial Mint 438 

The Customs Administration 439 

The Ministry of Public Instruction 439 

The Ministry of Justice and Public Worship 440 

The Prefecture of Police 441 

The Ministry of Commerce 442 

The Council of International Sanitation 442 

The Ministry of Religious Funds 442 

The Administration of Posts and Telegraphs 443 

The Ministry of War 443 

Military Grades 444 

Arms 445 

The Admiralty; Naval Officers 446 

The Imperial Arsenal 447 

Different Kinds of Ships 447 

The Provinces 449 

Diplomatic terms 450 

Festivals: Moslem Festivals 454 

Christian Festivals 455 

Jewish Festivals 456 

Orders of the Ottoman Empire 456 

Medals 456 

The Ranks in the Ottoman Empire 457 

Civil Grades of Nobility 458 

Military and Naval Grades 458 

Grades of the Religious Hierarchy 458 

Official Titles 459 

Of Functionaries of Civil and Military Grades . . . 460 

Of Moslem Clergy 461 

Of Non-Moslem Clergy 462 

Commercial Terms 462 

Vocabulary . 465 

General-Index 489 



A. Letters of the Alphabet. 

§ 1. The following table shows the shape of the 
Ottoman -Turkish letters, when they are connected with 
a preceding or a following letter, or with both, and when 
isolated : 

Proper ^ umer - 
Xames Isolated Final Medial Initial j ical Remarks 

sounds values 














zlu* 5 

Turkish Conv. -Grammar. 
















— -* 




























1 See § 29. 

2 Tur.,Pers. 

500 Arabic. 

3 Tur.,Pers. 
8 Arabic. 


700 Arabic. 


7 Persian. 

Letters of the Alphabet. 




















I " Proper Numer " i 

Isolated Final Medial Initial l -, ical Remarks 

i sounds values | 












































* f 








s 60 

sh 300 

s 90 

^ d, z 800 Arabic. 

L t, d 9 

-A 70 
gh I 1000 

















» § 35. 

Tut., Pers. 

§ 2. The letters of the Ottoman -Turkish Alphabet 
are 32 in number, and consist of 28 Arabic letters, 
together with some which the Persians have added 

(^3 - ,_,). The Turks, as most other Oriental nations, 
read and write from right to left, instead of from left 

r Letters of the Alphabet. 3 

to right as we do; and a book consequently begins 
where it would end in English. Capital letters are 
unknown, and the punctuation marks have been adopted 
recently. They are the same as in English. 
§ 3, There are four kinds of writing: 

I. Riqd, which is the ordinary current handwriting- 
used in letters and in all kinds of civil and official 

II. Nesikh : is the common print of books, news- 
papers etc. 

III. Divanee, is a style of large handwriting used 
in the Imperial Chancery for engrossing letters-patent. 

IV. Taliq, is the Persian model of Arabic characters, 
it is used by Persians, and also in documents of the 
Ottoman Canonical court. Examples of these and other 
forms of rarer occurence are given at the end of this work. 

§ 4. There is always more or less difficulty in 
representing the sounds of one language by those of 
another. This is true also in the case of the Ottoman- 
Turkish language. It belongs to a family or group of 
tongues different from the English, possessing sounds 
entirely foreign to English ears. To express these sounds, 
we have made some modifications of some of the English 
vowels and consonants. It is necessary to master these 
sounds before going on. They must be pronounced 
fully; all having only one regular sound. For instance: 
a has only one sound, and not five or more as in Eng- 
lish: e has only one, as in pet. though the name itself 
will cause some blunder. €, o, u also have only one 
sound each. 

There are eight vowel sounds in Turkish. 

§ 5. The vast population of Turkey, especially the 
Christians, do not all use the Ottoman characters in 
their writing. The Armenians and the Greeks have 
adapted them to their characters. There are books and 
papers in Turkish, in Armenian and Greek characters. 
published in Constantinople. Most of the Englishmen 
and Americans, resident in Turkey, find it easier to 
begin Turkish with English or Armenian characters, 
and after mastering the pronunciation and the elements 
of the language, they turn to begin it with the Arabic 

4 Letters of the Alphabet. ^ 

characters, which they find very easy then. The method 
adapted by ns in this work, will remove all these diffi- 

Single and Double Towels. 

§ 6. In reading the names in the above Table 
and in pronouncing the proper sounds, written in the 
English characters, the learner must always remember: 

1. Not to pronounce a, as in fate, mortal or all; 
but as in far, art or father. 

2. e is always as e in met or send. Take care not 
to pronounce it as in mere, verb or cane. 

3. i is always i, as in pin or ship ; never as I, or 
as in tire. 

4. i must be pronounced as o in seldom and e in heaven. 

5. o must not be pronounced long as in oat, prose; 
but very short as in no. 

6. on pronounce always as in youth, bouquet, foot; 
and not as in pour, couple, about. 

7. u is not as that of pure, turn, rule; it has no 
equivalent in English, but is the French tu, sur. 

8. eb has no equivalent in English, it is in French 
feu, coeur; or German 6 in Zollner, vollig. 

Compound Consonants. 

§ 7. Turkish orthography does not employ com- 
binations of two or three consonants and vowels to 
represent a single sound; we are under the necessity, 
however, of making use in this work of some combi- 
nations to represent Turkish sounds, for which there is 
no equivalent in English. These combinations are made 
by the addition of some vowels and consonants to h or y. 

kh has the sound of ch, as in the Scotch loch. 

ah, as the Greek y, Armenian t_. 

zh must be pronounced as z in azure. 

§ 8. The combinations tch and dj, so often to be 
seen in the transliteration of Turkish words, are but 
French notations of the English ch and j in church 
and joy. 

§ 9. y must always be considered a consonant, 
and never allowed to degrade the sound of any vowel 
that may precede it; particular care must be taken by 

e Letters of the Alphabet. 5 

Englishmen in this matter. It is always as in yett, 
yoke, buy. 

§ 10. y is combined with other vowels to form 
a diphthong as will be seen in the next Table. 

ay Ex.: qaymaq; as in lime, high, I. 

ey » dcymek; » » fate, prey, hey. 

iy » chhj ; » » here, clear. 

iy » qiyma; » » — — 

oy » doymaq; » » boy, toy, going. 

ouy douymaq; » » cooing, doing. 

uy » guy a; » » Fr. essuyer, Gnyot. 

eoy » eoyJen; » » Fr. deuil. 

§11. In the transliteration of Ottoman words, h 
must be emphasized at the beginning, middle and end 
of words; at the end of the syllables it is generally 
accented; as: Al-lah', qah've, liekim. This is a most 
particular rule and requires a good deal of attention 
and practice in Englishmen; as a pernicious mode of 
orthography prevails among Englishmen, of intro- 
ducing h mute very frequently at the beginning or end 
of words; as in honest, Jehovah etc. (§ 49 V.) 

R is used as in English; except that it must 
never be allowed to be uttered obscurely; it must be 
pronounced fully and strongly; it is generally accented 
at the end of syllables. (§ 17.) Take care not to vitiate 
the pure sound of any vowel that may precede it. 

G is always hard; as in give, got, yet. 

Numerals and Numeration by Letters. 

§ 12. The numerical figures, ten in number, have 
been adapted by the Ottomans from the Arabs. They 
are the same that we make use of, calling them Arabic, 
because we took them from the Arabs. Their forms, 
however, differ considerably from thoses, which our digits 
have assumed, as the following table shows: 

* r r »u o n v K *n f t« * ?♦ l r* i •♦♦ 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9; 10, 20, 30; 100 
They are compounded in exactly the same way as 
our numerals, ivr = 1902. 

§ 13. The apparent strangeness of the fact that 
those numbers seem to be written and read not from 

6 Letters of the Alphabet. "> 

right to left, but from left to right is due to the circum- 
stance that, in Arabic, the smaller numbers are read 
as well as written first. Thus an Arab would read 
)\*r c two and nine hundred and a thousand'. This, 
however, a Turk does not do. (§ 691.) 

§ 14. If the Arabic alphabet is arranged according 
to numerical values, there appeares the ancient order, 
which is still used for notation and numeration. In 
this order, that of the old Phoenician, Hebrew, Syriac, 
Greek and Latin alphabets: the first nine letters represent 
the units; the second nine the tens; the third nine the 

hundreds and the last one *-, one thousand; compare 

the Table of the Alphabet, ! j*e*~. ! i yjS^ i . { Jz>- ! 3y* ! j^\ 
*Jl^ ' j£ ! zJ^t JEbjed, hevvez, hout'ti, Mlemen, safes, 

qaresJiet, sakheg, dazighi. Therefore the numeration by 
letters, is called Ebjed hisabi. 

§ 15. The method of numeration by the letters 
of the alphabet was a great task; it is fast going, if not 
entirely gone, out of practice, as puerile; but formerly 
great significance was attached to any combination of 
letters that expresses in one or more words an event or 

date. Thus ^1 2. Miarab is GOO + 200 + 1 + 2 = 803, 
the Hejira date when Timurleng laid Damascus in 'ruins' ; 

and ajuU Ul beldcyi tayyibe is 2 + 30 + 4 + 400 + 

9 + 10 + 2 + 400 = 857, date of the year when 
the 'Beautiful City', Constantinople, was taken by the 

Exercise a. 

Write and give the names of the following letters; 
they are arranged according to their numeral value: 

' ^}e Jo • i ^ si) : *!> J*- j J • j> J» ^ ^ 

Division of the Letters. 

§ 16. The Ottoman alphabet is divided into four 
classes: vowels; hard, soft,- and neuter letters. 

V Pronunciation of Letters. 7 

Vowel letters: ^ © j I, which are vowels generally, 
when they are the second letter of the syllable. 

Hard letters : j ^ J? i Jj ^ f r . 

Soft letters : * dT 6 o* Cj ■ 

Neuter letters: JauJj'J^J^ ^r*- J V u 
and ^ j I, when at the beginning of the syllables; as 
is the case with y and w in the English language. 

B 1 . Pronunciation of Letters. 

§ 17. All the Ottoman letters in the Alphabetical Table 

are considered to be consonants , except ^o I, which 
are often used as vowels, and call for further elucidation. 

(§ 29 ff.) 

We now proceed to the phonetic value of the 
consonants : 

^j be has the value of English &, as: ji> bed bad, j^U 

birader brother. But when ending a syllable or word, 
it sometimes, anomalously, takes the value of p, as: 

i^Li sharap wine, Ij&l iptida beginning. Especially is 

this the case with the Gerunds in ^_>j— , as: ^jjS^ 

gitlip, ^>J I alip. (§ 435.) 

u p4 is the English p, as: jJb peeler father. 

si) te is the German t, as: jfrfr fafor a Tartar; courier. 
It is sometimes changed into d in derivation when it 

is originally final; as: £jf git go, j-xi^ gider he goes. 

Also w^J (jto) (/('/«/> iron, <u (*o) elepe a hill. 

i «e is found in Arabic words only, and is pro- 
nounced as s; as: c^£ setbit firm, J\U em&iZ proverbs. 

-rjim is pronounced as j, as: J\>- jcut soul. 

8 Pronunciation of Letters. A 

-K chim has the value of the English ch, in church ; 
as: a\>- chain the pine, AU chali bush. (§ 8.) 

t- ha has the harshly aspirated sound of English 
h, in horse. It is chiefly used in Arabic words; as: 

i^-U- ^aj£ pilgrim. 

*- &7ii has no equivalent in English. It is the 

counterpart of the Scotch ch in loch and German Bachc. 
It is generally transliterated Mi. But there are a good 
many words in which it is commonly pronounced as h, 

as: 4>.\*Z. hoja teacher; 4JU- heme house. 

3 dal is German <Z, as: $j$ derd. 

i #a£ is found in Arabic words alone; its value 
is #, as: ©ji ser're atom. 

j re is in all positions a distinctly articulated lingual 

r as in rain. There are two important remarks, however, 
which is necessary for the English student to bear in 
mind with respect to this, to him, peculiar letter. Firstly, 
it must always be pronounced and accented (never 
dropped or slurred over, as in the pronunciation of 
part, pat); and secondly, the value of the vowel before 
it in the same syllable must never be corrupted (as when 
it is pronounced pot pat; for far; cur car), but always 

kept pure, as with any other consonant; thus wS qor, 
J& 9} r \ J>13 8&r\ not qo\ qi , za . (§ 49 V.) 
3 ze is English #, as: _p gez. 

3 zhe is only found in Persian and French words; 
it is of the value of the English s in treasure, and is 
transliterated zh; as: b y''y* miizhde tidings, j^ f j\ azh'der 
dragon, Jfcjjj zhournal journal. It is often pronounced 

^ Pronunciation of Letters. 9 

J, as: j l£o} jenger verdigris, »2jjiva quicksilver, ^ujUiJ 
jandarma a county policeman. 

,- *iii is a soft s, always followed by a soft vowel 
in all Ottoman words, as: u~* sebz word. 

Jl shin is English sh, as: 1>I »s^ work. 

p s«^ is a hard s, it designates a hard vowel, 

as: j-L? sagh right, J^> so? left. 

^ <f«^Z is used in Arabic words only. It is gener- 
ally pronounced as a hard £, but sometimes as a hard 

<7; thus: .Ja'j razee content, 4JL*b sapbiye a gendarme, 

.>£ grade judge, ^Ul „a>- khidir elyas St. Elias. 

_t £2 is pronounced as f, thus: ^^L ^; ball. But 
sometimes in Turkish words it is pronounced as d. 

flL (J-b) r?«r/7j mountain, ^Ljl (bjl) ocZa room. 

ip «« is used in Arabic words only, as a very hard z> 
thus: lit zalhn cruel. 

9- ayn, I ghayn, J qaf\ il fee/. See §§ 33—36. 

^i /e is the English /, in all cases, U /e>w. 

J ?am is the English I, in all cases. 

* mini is the English m, as: J'u »ia?. 

ij noun is like the English n, as: jl* wa« bread. 
But before 6e ^ it is pronounced as m. Thus *Jj 

pembe light rose colour, J^tL-l istamhul Constantinople 

§ 18. JYbfe. The reason why so many s and p 
sounds occur in Ottoman is that Arabic words intro- 

10 The Orthographic Signs. ) ♦ 

cluced into the language have to be written as in Arabic. 
In the latter tongue the sounds of u ' , »- ' -o and 
again those of _k ' Jo ' 3 ' i are quite distinct from one 

another, as are those of r- and a, of I and 5-. But 
these distinctions are not observed by the Ottoman. 

C 1 . The Orthographic Signs. 

§ 19. There are five kinds of orthographic signs 
used in Ottoman -Turkish. The vowel signs, Jezma, 
Medda, Shedda and Nunation. These are put under 
or over the letters. 

The Vowel Signs. 

§ 20. There are three kinds of vowel signs : ustun, 
esre, eotre. These are named hareke 'movements'; but 
by the Europeans they are commonly called vowel points. 

§ 21. These three vowel signs have two values each. 

I. With a soft or neuter consonant, ustun has the 
value of 6; and with a hard consonant a. 

II. With a soft or neuter consonant, esre has the 
value of i; and with a hard consonant i. 

III. With a soft or neuter consonant, eotre has the 
value of &, eb; and with a hard one o, ou. 

a) Hard Vowels. 
§ 22. Hard vowels are used with hard letters. 

I. TJstun is a diagonal stroke drawn from right 

to left, placed above the letter thus — ; it indicates 

that the hard letter over which it is placed, is to be 
followed in pronunciation by a, as in English bar, star. 

3 t L -k ^ ^ ^ t c 

Key. Ha ustun ha, khi ustun Ma, ayn ustun a, etc. 

II. This sign — is called es-re, under hard letters 
it is pronounced i, as e in heaven. 

Key. Ha es-re hi, khi es-re khi, sad es-re si, etc. 

1 ) The Orthographic Signs. 11 

III. This sign JLi is ebtre, over the hard letters it 

is pronounced o or on, as in cold, could. 
> \ > * * > > > 

Key. Ha ebtre /*o, /*om, khi ebtre Icho, Jchou, dad 
ebtre do, don, etc. 

b) Soft Vowels. 

§ 23. Soft vowels are pronounced with soft or 
neuter letters. 

I. XI stun when put over a soft or neuter letter, is 
pronounced like e, as in met. 

iTe?/. Sin ustun se, kef ustun Id, gef ustun ge, etc. 

II. jEsr^ when put under a soft or neuter letter, is 
pronounced i, as in pit, him. 

* * « . • I 

Key. Mini esre mt, lam esre li, ze esre ^j, etc. 

III. Eotre when put over a soft or neuter letter, 
is pronounced u, eo, which have no equivalent in 
English. (§ 6, 7. 8.) 

f > 

> > 




r u 

3 J 










ebtre ; 


^>eo, shin 

ebtre shu, 



Exercise I 













3 3 

u - 







) 3 f 

r, r 


3 ^ 


1 L 





k) 4 







' A A 




*t. t- 

» * 


J J ^ 

cjlc ,° 


Ml Ml 




w » 

J* i 


6 J I J £ 

The Connection of the Letters. 

§ 24. The letters of the Ottoman alphabet are divided 
into two other divisions : connected and unconnected letters. 

12 The Orthographic Signs. ) f 

I. The unconnected letters are jjj j i 3 I, which are 

never joined to the following letter, and when they 
occur the word is broken ; that is, the pen is taken up, 
and the second part of the word is resumed unconnected. 
They may be joined only to the letter preceding them, 

as thus exhibited ©jbl idare (administration) ' f-£U 
braqdhn (I left). 

II. The connected or jolnable letters are those which 
may be joined to the letters which follow or precede 
them; the remaining letters are connected letters; as: 




Exercise c. 






r i 








r, s 











JTey. Dal kef ustun del', dal kef esre diJc, dal kef 
ebtre duk, dwJc. 

§ 25. In dealing with the letters of the Ottoman 
alphabet on the preceding pages, we have shown only the 
shapes they take when standing alone; when they are 
combined with other letters, they are sometimes slightly 
modified, according as they stand at the beginning, in 
the middle, or at the end of the word. These various 
changes will be seen from the Table of the Alphabet 
(P. 1 and 2). 

§ 26. There is also a compound character in use, 
which is always to be found inserted in alphabets, and 
which, for that reason, cannot be passed over in silence. 

It is the character V, called lam elif, being, in fact, 

nothing more than J lam joined calligraphically to a 

following I elif, in a similar manner to that whereby 

the English printers continue to join the f and I in fl, 
or /' and i in fi, etc. When this double character is 

)r The Orthographic Signs. 13 

connected with a preceding letter, it has the shape of 

% as: Mj beta (evil). 

Exercise d. 

J\,\ Sb RJ Ai iV ~~i ~3 ~* >• il^- IJJUJllj 9tli >- Jfi) ) 
*■ ^ • • . >^** • # ^» 

v ^ *? •* w 

£by. ye initial; noun initial, U final; te initial, Mi 
medial; noun initial, te I'M medial; noun initial, ye, te, 
lean, be, se, ye, noun, pe medial, elif final. 

Exercise (Connected Monosyllables) e. 

[ rt V £? ! f ^ ^ ' $ ( ° ^ ' 4 ( J ^ ' ^ c ^ ^ 

• Ji (J J) • £\ 5* ! ^ ^ ^ ! ji C^ J.) ! d^ Cfl g 

iCq/. Be shin ustun besh; pe re ustun per] te lam 
ebtre ft/7, etc. 

Towel Letters. 

§ 27. Besides the vowel signs, sometimes the vowel 

letters ^ 6 j I are used, to indicate vowel sounds. 

I. Elif indicates the hard vowel ustun, provided 
that it is the second letter of the syllable. Instead of 

i i r is written it iL U- ; here elif is substituted 
for ustun. 

II. Ye, sometimes when it is the second letter of 

the syllable, indicates the vowel esre. Instead of ^ J 3 

is written *. J, ^3 ; here ?/e is substituted for esre. 

III. Vav, generally when it is the second letter 

of the syllable, indicates the eofr-e. Instead of \p J ^ 
is written ^ y y« ; here vav is substituted for o^re. 

IV. He, when it is the second letter of the syllable 
generally indicates the ustun, either hard or soft. Instead 

of u j i is written *> ©j ©s ; here he is substituted for 
ustun {pe, re, de). 

14 The Orthographic Signs. ft 

§ 28. Note. The Arabic and Persian long vowels 

are represented by the Letters of Prolongation <_£ j I. These 

letters correspond respectively with the vowel points: 
ustun, esre, ebtre (§§ 29—31). But there are no letters 
of prolongation in purely Turkish words; the use of 
these letters is limited only to indicating the vowel signs, 
as has been said above. Therefore they are called in 
Turkish orthographic letters also, as they serve only for 
the correction of the orthography. 

Exercise f. 

Read and write the following exercises: 

J ^ 4J V • y> ^ 4p \p • y ^ 4i I* • j^ £$ ©3 

ifr?/. Be elif ustun ba, be he ustun be, be ye esre 
fo # , be vav ebtre boa, bo etc. 

' J^ = J£ ! Jy ^ J* ' J^ = J5- ' J s = J* IL 

. > 

J^ Jl» • ^j! ^J ^ • -y — ^ J^s — ^t 

iTq/. Qaf lam ustun qal, which is equivalent to 
qaf elif lam ustun qal ; qaf lam esre qil, or with a vowel 
letter qaf ye lam esre qil etc. 

■ J^ Jji ' ^j>- Jj>- ' Jy J^ Short sentences. III. 

/&>?/. Sad vav lam ebtre sol, qaf vav lam ebtre qol, 
sol qol etc. 

3h£ ' JStaf ' <jtl ' til ' \Zj[ ' llL ' <Jl ' (3l>. IV. 

-^ *i M M <m» • ^ 

ifo?/. Chim elif ustun c/m, qaf ye esre qi, cha-qi etc. 
• Jjy • j^-ji • w 1 • j^j 1 • j^j 1 yy • yy • uyy V. 

) 9 Pronunciation of Letters. 15 

Key. Te vav ebtre til, te vav noun ebtre tun, 
tu-tun etc. 

B 2 . Pronunciation of Letters (continued). 

§ 29. I Elif. There are four kinds of elif in 
Ottoman : 

a) The initial or hemse elif, which is a consonant,, 
not a vowel. Like any of the initial consonants, it 

takes the three vowel points and letters; as: ^1 et meat, 

Cil it dog, Ojl ot grass (§ 38). 

Xote. Initial elif is not generally indicated in 
transcription, it being understood that whenever an 
Ottoman word begins with a vowel, in the original it 
begins with elif. 

b) Orthographic or vowel elif, which stands to show 
only the hard ustun vowel: it is used exclusively for 

Turkish and foreign words; as: J I bal honey, ^jl 

parts Paris, IjjjI avropa Europe. 

c) Shortened elif, which is written generally in the 
shape of £ ye, but pronounced short ; it is used only 
in Arabic words; as: Vj* or J,*,* mevla God, L. A c or 

,<— p ec-sa Jesus. 

d) Elongated elif, which is found only in Arabic 
and Persian words; it lengthens the hard ustun vowel; as: 

p. Ill pasha, a. * r *\ a meen, p. all a bad. 

§ 30. j Vav. There are four kinds of vav in 
Ottoman : 

a) Consonantal vav, it has the phonetic value of v\ as: 

y ev house, jjij vaqit time, J\ alev flame. 

b) Orthographic or vowel vav, which stands for the 
vowel ebtre; it is used only in Turkish and foreign 

words; as: jo yol way, ©jJojl londra London. 

c) Elongated vai\ which lenghtens the vowel eofn\ 

16 Pronunciation of Letters. n 

and is found only in Arabic and Persian words; as: 
p. c~< j z do st friend, a. ^y£ memnoon glad. 

d) Silent vav, which is found only in some Persian 
words, between the letters £• khi and I elif, and is not 

pronounced; as: a»-\j>- I'haje teacher, eJ^lj^. Manendi 

§ 31. ^ Ye has three sounds: 

a) Consonantal ye, which has the value of the con- 
sonant y, whether it be initial, medial or final, simple 

or reduplicated ; as : Jj yel wind, ju* seyr looking, j> 
mey wine. 

b) Orthographic or vowel ye, which stands to show 
only the vowel esre, it is used only in Turkish and 

foreign words; as: 1J epsh winter, dnLo Dublin. 

c) Elongated ye, which is used only in Arabic and 

Persian words and lengthens the esre; as: p. > peer 
old man, a. Jjj valee governor. 

§ 32. * He has three sounds: 

a) Consonantal he, which is a guttural and aspirated 

as the h in horse; as: p. jU huner skill, ©^s qahve coffee. 

b) Orthographic or vowel lit, which stands for 

ustun; as: <u.ol asma vine, p. aJu bende slave. 

The vowel he, when in the middle or at the end 
of words, is never joined to the next letter in writing; 

as: J^2**\f gelejeyim, a,a+^\ asmaya. 

c) Substitutive he, which is changed from Zj te, and 
is found only at the end of Arabic words; as: 4j15C>. 
hikyaiye for *15C» hfkyaiyet story. 

§ 33. J qaf, lJ lief. The Ottoman alphabet 
distinguishes sharply between the hard letter qaf and 

IV Pronunciation of Letters. 17 

the soft letter kef. The transliteration of this present work 
in accordance with the judgment of the ripest scholars, 

represents the J by q and fj with A\ The common 

people pronounce the qaf as ghayn at the beginning 
and the middle of words, and as kJu at the end. The 
kef also at the end of words is pronounced kh by the 

common people. Ex.: JjU-y qochaq com. ghocliakh (brave), 

oS qcin com. ghan (blood), *»l$ qayish com. ghayish (thong), 

dJ>-oJio gidejek com. gedejekh (he will go). 

§ 34. fj A'e/ is appropriate only to soft syllables 

or words; it is so pronounced as to represent in Turkish 
four different sounds; to distinguish these four sounds 
the letter may be slightly modified in form. But in 

general, in Ottoman, the fj alone is used to express 

all four sounds, and the student can learn how to pro- 
nounce it only by practice. 

I. The first of these four forms is called kef or 
kaif (kefi Arabia Arabic kef, by the grammarians); it is 

pronounced as k. Ex. : j£ kedr blind, ^>\l.f kitab book, 

j} hul ashes. 

II. The second is called gef or giaf {kefi Far i si. 
Persian kef, by the grammarians), and it is pronounced 
as hard (j \ it is sometimes distinguished by a modi- 
fication in shape, thus < T. Ex. : jjf geor see, J^f geol 
lake, o gel come. 

Note. When fj represents the sound either of k or of 

g hard, and is followed by an Rif, it takes before the 
vowel a short and incipient sound of ?', which we have 

united thus m. Ex.: Jitf* ktaghid paper, \^ kiamil per- 
fect, ol$^l a-gicih aware: not ka-ghid, lea-mil, a-gah; be- 
cause fj being a soft letter cannot go with a hard 
vowel a (§§ 22, 37). 

Turkish Conv. -Grammar. 2 

18 Pronunciation of Letters. tA 

III. The third is called saglur kef, or nef (surd kef), 
and is pronounced as ng in the words ring, sing etc. ; 
it is a nasal n, and is represented by n. It is some- 
times written h ^ with three dots over it. It is never 

to be. found elsewhere than at the middle of Turkish 
words; and consequently never can be initial. Ex.: 

*J^ dents sea, *$d\t valndz alone, di;~, senin vour. 

IV. The fourth is called yaf\ and is pronounced 
like the English y consonant; it is found only in Turkish 

words. Ex.: J> ^ deyil it is not, ^Sj^eyri crooked, 

di bey prince. 

Exercise g. 

2 . ^ 



1 its' 

1.4 ^S" 

J^ 1 



Jj>}l • 


JU * J* 


^i ^J ! 'dfil 



: jl5^ k j\3> 

• j^5o 

4 „ 

>1 = '. 

i^l ;4 


■J ^— m 

2,4 ''^^ 

j^L ' 


2. ' >y ± 

i^: 4 


4,1. - . - 



~ 2,4 


^ • < 


2Te^. Qaf elif vav ustun qav, gef elif vav ustun gtav; 
aqmaq, ekmek, eymel\ anmaq; qol, geol; qcu\ ITar etc. 

§ 35. *• 9 ayn. The ayn has no equivalent in 

European languages; it characterizes only Arabic words. 
Its phonetic value in Arabic and in the mouth of an 
Arab, is a harsh guttural catch or hiatus. As pronounced 
by a Turkish scholar the letter is either entirely 
silent or only the slightest hiatus is perceptible. The 
common people pronounce it like an elif, and there is 
no harm in pronouncing so. In this work sometimes, 
when necessary, the vowel sound is accompanied by 

the sign p- , and it is generally marked b} T an apostrophe. 

f^*A ma-lum or ma-^a-lum, lW 'a'-lem or a-fa-lem. 

§ 36. f yliayn is represented by gh ; as i*1 a-gha 

l^ Pronunciation of Letters. 19 

or com. a-d sir, ?\* bagh vineyard, J^kc^\ ogh'lan com. 

o'lan, ou-lan boy. After a vowel vav j, with the sounds 
o, on, f- has very much the sound of w] like the gh 
of throughout. Thus J^pjl ov-laq or ogh-Iaq kid; 4^.3 

(/oi-a not «2or/7^« (a pail); Jji^> sovouq not soghouq cold; 

t£y qovmaq to expel; j^Va^jI ovalamaq to rub. 

§ 37. JVbte. In the transliteration of the foreign 
proper names or nouns, the hard </, when followed by 

a hard vowel, is represented by 9- and not by 5". Ex. : 
Hugo y^yfc hou-gho, Gladstone cy-^s^ gldacVtston, guar- 
dian Olojlt ghardiyaii, gazetta *te ghazeta newspaper, 

gas jl& gr/ifl*. 

§ 38. * Hemze. The SlifaX the beginning of words 
is a consonant (§ 29), which is called hemze or hemze 
elif, because naturally there is a sign of hemze over the 

elif, which is not generally written. Jjl ol is originally 

Jy, Jl e-ser is Jl, Jl is Jl, Ci! is ^»l . 

§ 39. The combination of hemze elif with a vowel 
eftjf (M) is expressed by medda, which is the vowel elif 
put over the consonant hemze elif (§§ 29 d, 47) 1=1; 

as: jlll = jll almaq, £j #, CJ\ = CJ or Z*\ • 

§ 40. But when hemze is found in the middle of 
words, if it ends the syllable, it is like an accent or 

a hiatus. Ex.: jut te-e-sir influence, jj*U mr-e-mour 

§ 41. At the beginning of syllables it is pro- 
nounced as y consonant; as: 13 V5 qayil, jb dayir. 
Note. The pronunciation of hemze and the changes 

20 Other Orthographic Signs. f ♦ 

it undergoes, are in accordance with the rules of Arabic 

C 2 . Other Orthographic Signs. 

a) Jezma rj»- 

§ 42. The letters in a syllable are either vowelled 
or quiescent; the first letter of any syllable is naturally 
vowelled, the others quiescent. The voivelled letters are 
accompanied by a vowel sign, but those which are qui- 
escent, are marked with the sign (°), called Jezma. Ex.: 

dAl~j l/sh-Pk: the letters ^j b and J 1 are vowelled, 

as they are the first letters of the two syllables; t sh 

and fj Jc are quiescent; therefore marked with Jezma. 

j j ¥r-¥r (barber): the two ^j bes are vowelled 
and both of the j res quiescent and therefore marked. 
^5C« m e k-t e b (school) a mini and O te are vowelled, 

£J Jcef and ^ be quiescent. 

§ 43. The vowel letters cannot have the mark of 
quiescence, as they are substituted for the vowel signs, 

and indicate their kind; as jll b a l l q (fish), where elif 
stands for ustun, and does not need the sign. 

Exercise li. 

Read and write the following exercises: 

' ^jdT' cij ' dflo ' dlU ' d'**>. ' j>Jj ' JJU ' J^B 

-STcy. Sin elif ustun sa, ayn te ustun at, sa-at; 
Lam elif ustun la, ye qaf esre yiq, la-yiq; Ti elif ustun 
fa, vav qaf ebtre vouq, ta-vonq: ye and vav are consonants, 
because they begins the syllable. 

f \ Other Orthographic Signs. 21 

iTq/. Elif khi ustun a/^, shin elif mim ustun sham 
a lch-sh a m] l s-l a m, l r r r a r, { q-b a l, l s-b a t, ( s-r a f, Wn; t'b-cN, 
Vsh-rtf etc. 

iTi??/. Kef esre &t, te elif be ustan £a&, lei-tab; kef 

esre Av, te elif ustun to, li-ta, be ye esre bi, li-ta-br, 
Lit aba etc. 

1 .^iJfc k ,/lT ' *jl-A5"' db,hf ' ^"^ IV. 
l£lL« L-yb t!j3 ' jtajj*- ' 4»Uj— ' aJul5C« k ©JlJI*^ 

* M « V 

ifo?/. Shin re ustun slier, be te ustun ta'^, ster-bet, 
jim ye esre J/, slirr-bct-ji; Id-ta-bi-mn, Li-tab-jl-da etc. 

§ 44. In most cases, indeed, the vowel points are 
not inserted, except in quotations from the Qoran, or 
in writing a foreign word or name, and in some poetical 
works. This at first causes a little embarrassment to 
the learner; he must accustom himself to pronounce 
the word as if such vowels did not exist, until he can 
supply them by a knowledge of the word. The diffi- 
culty will vanish by dint of a little practice. 

b) Shedda J^JLir 
§ 45. A consonant which is to be doubled without 
the interposition of a vowel, is written only once, but 

marked with the sign — , which is called shed' da or 

tesh-deed (strengthening). This reduplication is not a 
mere matter of orthography as it is in the English 
language; when a letter is doubled in writing, it must 
be doubled in pronunciation, as is done in English 
with the letters d, I, n in the words mid-day, mad dog, 
full lij>s, thin nose. 

22 Other Orthographic Signs. rr 

§ 46. The sign shedda belongs only to Arabic 
(700), in Turkish words the letter is simply written 

twice, as: j^MJL? saV-la-maq not as j^Vl^- Ex.: 

CoJbj is changed into the form JjJb; hid'det (anger), 

£J\*, = zX\ mil-let nation. 

Exercise i. 
Write and read the following exercise: 
1 i '^ '^ ' ■ ^ ■ i ^ 

I i „ 

ifc?/. Jim re ustun jer, re elif ha ustun rah\ 
jer-rah' etc. 

c) Medda x. 
§ 47. This sign is called med'da _n, which means 

long; it is put over elif to show that it must be pro- 
nounced with hard ustun r/, and not as e, t, o. In 
Arabic and Persian words it serves to lengthen the 

elif (§§ 39, 603, 701 d); as: t. j\ ez (crush), but 3T az 

is few; Zj\ et (meat), ^1 at (horse), a. Jul emeen 

(faithful), a. Jul a »weew (amen). 

Read and write the following exercises: 
\ eh well! J I el hand tl esfc companion 

©I a/^ alas J I al take JJ ash food 

j I et? house ^1 ey hallo! ill eh sow 

j I cu* hunting ^1 ay mouth J I aq white 

i-Tl ^jJT ! a. oT ! p. 3 lT ! a. j/| ! p.JJl 
Zigy. Elif he ustun eh, elif he medda ustun ah etc. 

d) Nunation £/£ 
§ 48. The marks of vowels when doubled, are 
pronounced with the addition of the sound n, — en, 

rr Accent. 23 

— tft, — un. This is called ten-veen i. e. 'giving the 

sound of noun ; it occurs only at the end of an Arabic 

word. The vowels thus doubled are spoken of as iki 

ustun, iki esre, iki ebtre respectively (§§ 670, 681). Ex.: 
^ * * * 

Cj te ustun te: £j or s or i te iki ustun ten. 

s dal ustun de: 3 dal iki ustun den. 

J* fe ebtre fir. J$ fe iki ebtre fun. 

Lift Uy ' liia! ' a>- ' IjU- ' <3U^« ' Lib S Ullai 

iTe?/. Noun esre »*", zi elif ustun 5a, w/-.«a, mini 
elif iki ustun i»ew, ni-za-nini etc. 

D. Accent. 

§ 49. It is difficult and wearisome to give absolute 
rules and their exceptions in regard to the accent in 
Ottoman Turkish, as it varies much. Some general 
rules are given in the following lines, while in all 
cases which cannot be included under these rules, the 
accent will be indicated. 

I. Usually every Turkish word is accented on the 

last syllable; as: j\ ev house, d\> f keb-pek ', vv«}Ul agh- 

II. Words with double consonants have the accent 

on the first consonant; as: ^Mll^ sal'-la-maq to shake, 

a. sJI ,^> sar'-raf banker, \ a»! is'-siz lonelv, a-us te- 

qad-dum progress. 

Xote. The shedda in Arabic words serves as an 
accent (§ 45). 

III. In Persian and Arabic, the vowel letters or the 
Letters of Prolongation are pronounced long and are 

accented (§ 28); a. Ul>- ja -Ml ignorant, a. *y h'- 

reetri merciful, p. p\ a -tesh fire, a. ^^u^. hhou-soos 
a point, respect. 

24 Euphony or Harmony of the Vowels. ft, 

IV. In case of emphasis among words the accent 
is on that word which receives prominence. Ex. : 
1. Sen dun mu geldin? Was it yesterday that you 
came? 2. Dun sen' mi geldin? Was it you that came 
yesterday? 3. Sen dun geldin mi? Did you come 
yesterday? (§ 66). 

V. The letters h, r, when they are in the middle 
and at the end of words, are accented; as yS\ a-lir , 
aJlII al'lali, oJt qalive coffee (pp. 5, 8). 

E. Euphony or Harmony of the Towels. 

§ 50. A yery remarkable peculiarity of Ottoman is 
the attention paid to euphony in pronunciation, and the 
changes of the sounds of yowels and consonants which 
take place in consequence. Thus the collision of hard 
and soft letters in the same word is always avoided. 
And when one declines a word or adds a particle or 
letter to it, whatever be the leading letter the others 
must be pronounced so as to agree with it (§ 87). 

§ 51. There are two simple rules of euphony in 
the language for the words of purely Turkish origin: 

a) If the first syllable of the word contains a hard 
vowel, all the vowels in that word should be hard. 

c£jJjI ol-dou it became, x!l al-ti six, i £\<J&-d\ a-la-ja- 
glii-mi-zi our credit; not ol-di, al-ti, a-le-je-glii-mi-zi etc. 

b) If the first vowel be soft, then the others should 

be soft also. c£3^~- seo-m the word, ^jj> geor-du he 

saw, j-lll el-ler hands, UiCi- oji^y geos-tc-rc-jr-yi-miz ; not 

so-zi, el-lar etc. 

§ 52. Remark: 1. On the above principles, when 
one declines a word or adds a particle to it, the vowel 
of the syllable added is generally so pronounced that: 

i comes after a: *ulL ' ^lU ' ^It dam, dami, dama; 

i » » e: ^ll'jj' J I el, eli, e-le; 

ou » » o: 4jy'J,y' Jy qol, qolou, qola; 

r© Orthography. 25 

u comes after eo: jJLt* ciX geolfi, gebrnr; 

a » » o,ou: 4J y ' <*Jj>- choula, qola; 

e » » «, eo: t$y uj} ofi-lfy*' georen. 

2. On the same requirements of euphony, in words 

of Turkish origin which end in fj, J, Cj these letters 
are changed into y. gh, d (§§ 88, 89). 

§ 53. When a word ending in a vowel receives 
a grammatical ending beginning with a vowel, a hiatus 
results, which is practically a difficulty in pronunciation. 
This is very common in Ottoman. To avoid this diffi- 
culty it is necessary to insert a consonant ^£ y (see 
§§ 91, 284, 287, 528, 543 etc.): 

1*1 ana: 4itl anaya, p. Ijl ara: £jljl arayisk. 

§ 54 a . As a list of words supposed to be exceptions by 

some grammarians, we note 111 elm a, which was originally 
alma apple', and is still so pronounced in many places; 

while ©^3 qah'-ve coffee, j}L> pi-1-av, oy*J* lim-yon, 

iij+J li-mon (lemon) are not Turkish. 

§ 54 b . As real exceptions to these rules are the 

ending of the Present tense jy — , which is always 

pronounced — yor, and the pronominal particle £ — ht y 
which is never changed (§§ 140, 319). 

F. Orthography. 

§ 55. As the orthography of every Arabic and 
Persian Ottoman word is fixed and unchangeable, it is 
only in pure Turkish and foreign Ottoman words that 
the orthography varies. The Vowel or Orthographic 

letters (I , j , d j ^) as they are called in Ottoman without 
any inflexible rule are added or left out arbitrarily; as: 

cyy and OP butun; ^jl^JLs ' ^jclU ' ^xJi qUindi, arc 
all admissible. 

26 Orthography. r^ 

§ 56. The true rule is: 1. Never introduce a 
vowel letter into a Turkish or foreign Ottoman word 
without removing a possible doubt as to pronunciation; 
*2. Never leave out a vowel in such a word, if by omission 
a doubt is created as to the pronunciation. 

§ 57. The following two points must be regarded 
as exceptions to this rule: 

a) In any syllable which is composed of two 
consonants, if the vowel is soft ustun, none of the 
orthographic (vowel) letters is added; but. if it is 

composed of one letter he is added to indicate the 

vowel; as: ^j.o gel-di, L* besh, dL<C~>l i§-¥-mek. 

b) None of the grammatical affixes take the ortho- 
graphic or vowel letters; as M.O gel-dim, J£X bash-lav, 
dJUjI uch-luk, jll al-maq. 

Note. The use of the orthographic or vowel letters 
is fully discussed and shown on pages 13 — 16. 

§ 58. There are some words in Ottoman, the or- 
thography of which is the same, but the pronunciation 
and meanings are different; as: 

ojl on ten; oun flour; un fame. 

5Cl sheker sugar; a. shukur thanks. 

iff geoz eye; guz autumn; Iceoz an ember. 

Jj>. choul sackcloth; cheol desert, wilderness. 

Jy qoiil servant; qol arm; a. qavl word, 
i ^ gevrik biscuit; kurk fur; kurek shovel; kebmk 
-Mj bellows. 

J> gel come; kel scald-head; p. gul rose; a. kull all. 
Jj\ eolu dead; oidoa big. 

rv 27 

First Part, 

Turkish Grammar. 

^ u^^> Lesson 1. 

The Definite and Indefinite Articles. 

§ 59. There is no Definite Article in Turkish ; all 
nouns, when used alone in a sentence, are usually 

considered as definite. Ex.: U babi the father, fcl ana 

the mother, J^^J qardash the brother. 

§ 60. The Indefinite Article is j t bir a, an. Ex.: 
£j\ X bir at a horse, d\,£j t bir kedpek a dog, j&j t bir 
qiz a girl, ,o> j* bir adem a man. 

§ 61. The Adjective always precedes the noun. Ex. : 

J3y guzel beautiful, y\ ' ^1 eyi good, yfT Iceotii bad, 

guzel qiz the beautiful girl, e-yi adem the good man, 
bir kebtu chojouq a bad boy. 

§ 62. As in English, there is no unnatural dis- 
tinction of Gender in Turkish, that is to say: the names 
of males are masculine; those of females feminine, and 
those of inanimate objects, neuter. Thus: baba is mas- 
culine, ana feminine, j\j> qiz feminine, oM&jl ogh-lan c the 

boy' masculine. tS ^ de-friz the sea, p. ^1 she-Mr the city, 
<J£ keoy 'the village', are neuter. 

§ 63. The Personal Pronouns are: fa m ben I, y* 

Ben thou, j\ o he, she, it. j biz we, !«« siz you, J&jfr 
onlar they. 

28 ) ^rjs Lesson 1. rA 

§ 64. The Demonstrative Pronouns are: j> bou this, 

JL sJioii that (near by), j\ o that (distant). 

§ 65. The Present Tense of the Turkish Substantive 
Verb is the following: 

Affirmative Present 
pjl ^ ben im I am J*| J* oi-z' ^ we are 

i>- ^ sen' sm thou art J^- J- s? ^' sifiiz you are 

j:> j\ o dour be is. Jjj Jt>j\ onlar dirlar they are. 

Interrogative Affirmative Present. 
? pj\ ^ ^# or *? f* iy. ben mi yim? (§ 53). 

?i>-< * (j- » ?uj — • ^- sew' mi siw? 

?ji J* jl » ? jA-* j\ o mou dour? 

? J>\ fj y % » * ? J\* Jj friz' ?wi 2/w? 

? j>_ <_. j- » ?j£ — « J- SMf' •»• sifiiz? 

?Jj^ t,*J^^ >:> 0->"4*J^ onlar mi dirlar? 
Am I? art thou? is he? etc. 

§ 66. As will be seen, the question is expressed 
by adding .« mt, mou after the word emphasized by 
the question (§ 49 IV). Ex.: 

? f* i>. oe ' n ' wl * 2/twi? Am I? (§ 53). 
?jJu« ^L Jf gul beyaz mi dir? Is the rose white? 
?jA r « Jp jr. j> bou bir guV mfi dur? Is this a rose? 
?jj^. jj J^ <jw£ bo it' mo it dour? Is this the rose? 

§ 67. The third person j^ is the Copula; its 

pronunciation, like that of mi *, is governed by the 

preceding vowel, and is: dir, dir, clour, dar, as the 
case may be (§ 52). 

J&J Loughetler, Words. 

j> ve and t j\ ev the house 

i2jj\ ev'-vit yes jjf^j\ eb-Tcuz the ox 

r«^ The Definite and Indefinite Articles. 29 

J^J qoush the bird J| a^ white 

a. ,US qalem the pen «^3 qara black 

a. 1 a a 7m ivi air, weather tS/V* qirrnhl red 

Jrta j5 J}* gJr qardash a sister a. ^nii /agi'r poor 

i-Lj; beo-yiik great i>5^j zengin rich 
i) *=*•£"" ku- chul- little pjS genj young 

s.U» (,9-b) c?a#7i mountain jL=5— ^ s^og warm, hot 

(j\j-?l ouzaq far Jj*- 3 so-vouq cold § 36 

ujSl yaqin near p. aj;> de're valley. 

iVote 1. These words, as well as those contained in the 
preceding rules, must be thoroughly committed to memory, before 
doing the exercise and translation. 

Note 2. Those words without any mark are Turkish in 
origin, those with an a Arabic, those with a p Persian, and those 
with an f foreign in origin. 

\ ^Ui Taleem, Exercise 1. 

c*j>-j>- ji • J^>- jr i' • j^ ! ^r^ * ^yrj^yJ a " ■• f ^ $££ 

' -P ^ J. y. • ^ Li' • ^ • »!>' jr * O' j» N • • j-^yry? -* y} 
*4?" >^ * j^* ^! -* * j^ -£ i313lj' N N • .p ijjj Zj\ • Jl*l t£' jj 

1^ ? jJu« J U*^ lyb • _p ujj y IT . J-*5'3j' j4r» • J-^-* 

I i> — « i)«9-«5^ i> — * fjjj 4} -,^ n I . Jo J fc! « U ' tla J 

Black) yiaj • ^Montenegro) i-lL »ji . (eagle) JLy *^.j > ° 

• flL jT. (vulture) U jT. (Mediterranean) jS^i J' • (S i 

1 Observe that a parenthesis . . . encloses a word to be 


) Lr , j^ Lesson 1. 


Y 4J5~j Terjeme, Translation 2. 

1. The horse. A horse. A good horse. The good 
horse. A horse and an ox. 2. A house. A large house. 
The large house. The house is large. 3. A man. The 
man. A white man. The white man. 4. The Black 
Sea. The Black Mountain. The White Sea. The White 
Mountain. 5. A white rose. The white rose. The red 
rose. 6. A bad boy. This is a bad boy. This is the 
bad boy. 7. The house is near. The city is far. 
8. A horse, a bird and an ox. The good horse and 
the big ox. 9. This bird is white. Is this bird white? 
It is black. 10. The brother is young. He is a good 
man. 11. The eagle is a large bird. That bird is a 
beautiful eagle. 12. The Mediterranean is a great sea. 

Correct the following sentences. 

t • - * 

4l!$S MtiMalemi, Conversation. 

Jl^~- #waZ, Question 

Sen zengin'mi sin? 
Qardash faqir'ini dir? 
Ogh'-lan £-yi'mi dir? 
Sen 6-yi'mi sin, kebtu'mu sun? 
Qiz qardash e -yi'mi? 
Bou dagh yuksek'mi? 
Onlar genj'mi dir? 
Siz faqir'ini sifiiz? 
Aq-Deniz beoyuk'mu? 
Aq baba beoyuk bir qoueh'mou 

^jk>- Jevdb, Answer 

Ev'vet, zengin'im. 

Ev'vet, faqir'dir. 

Ev'vet, oghlan e-yi'dir. 

Ben e-yi'yim (§ 53). 

Ev'vet, qiz qardash eyi'bir qiz dir. 

Ev'vet, yuksek'dir. 

Ev'vet, genj'dirler. 

Biz z^ngin'iz. 

Qara-Deniz' kuchuk dur. 

Ev'vet, beoyuk bir qoush'dour. 

translated, or an annotation, whereas brackets [. . .] signify 
"leave out". 

1 In such answers the predicate cannot be omitted. Jt must 
be evvet, sijaq dir. 

r) The Substantive Verb. 31 

* u^^> Lesson 2. 

The Substantive Verb. 

§ 68. The Turkish Plural is formed by adding 

the affix J to the singular. This affix is pronounced 
lar, after hard vowels, and Mr after soft ones. Ex.: 
»iXl5*o deynek stick: ^>15^> deynekler sticks. 

iSsS^kedi cat: J^JSkediifo cats. 

iS^J^keopru bridge: ^l j-iy ' kebpruler bridges. 

_^J qapou door: J^.s qapoular doors. 

«-*>. khi-sim relative: JL-*»- klxi-simlar relatives. 

§ 69. Titles of respect are given to persons 

according to their dignity, office and occupation. £X&\ 
efferidi Sir, Mr., is peculiar to clergymen and educated 

people. Icl a-gha or vulg. a- a, to tradesmen, labourers 

and old men; it means Mr., Esq. dl bey, prince, is 

given to civil functionaries and popularly to any per- 
son of supposed distinction. Each of these titles is 
put after the name of the person himself, not after his 

family name, as in English (§ 495). Ex.: ^xi\ ju^-I , 

lc-1 -u>-l 5 di» jw>-1 Alt' mail effendi, Atimed agha, Ah'medbey. 

§ 70. When the subject is a pronoun it is often 
omitted (§ 120). Ex.: Ay\ ^ ben eyi'yim or A y\ eyi'yim 

I am well; ;^L t \£ L* sis teribeT situs or 4 ^CL L:l 
tenbel' siniz you are idle. 

§ 71. In Turkish, as in English, the adjective 
precedes the noun, and never varies, being the same 
whether it qualifies a singular or a plural substantive, 

a masculine or a feminine noun. Ex.: di?^ djy 

guzel chichek beautiful flower: \<^^. ^jfTguzel ehichekler 

32 r ~j-> Lesson 2. rr 

beautiful flowers; ^l&l fjj*j> beoyuh a-ghaj a big tree: fjjj^j 

J>-lcl bebyuk aghajlar big trees. 

§ 72. The Negative of the Present Tense of the 
Substantive verb is as follows: 

Negative Present. 

pi) jT ^ or JS^ deyil'im, j>} J: or jJS"S deyil'iz. 

i>- J^i » i>— 1S^> dey'iX sin, J>.~. Jp. :> » j>~j£"S deyil'siniz. 

ji Jpz » jaIS^ cleyil'dir, Jjs J>* » ^&"S deyiller . 
I am not, thou art not, he is not, etc. 

Interrogative Negative Present. 

? *j\ u *Jpi or ? ^l^S deyil'mi yim? 
?i>- (j* J> ^ » ? O^J^^ deyil'mi sin? 

?j:> t/jP- 5 * ?j-L.*i$^S deyil'mi dir? 

^Jll (J'cP- 5 >;i ?-*o-&^> deyil'mi yiz? 
Ij*- (j J>* » ?J>— .JS^S deyil'mi sifiiz? 

?Jjz fjfjp* » ?JjA-*.£"S deyil'mi dirler? 

Am I not? art thou not? is he not? etc. 

.Afote. It is very useful for the learner to conjugate the 
adjective with the verb and to write the latter in both its forms, 
the full and the abbreviated ones; as: 

pi I Oj^Jx or (**J*-)jS ' H!* - oj^Jjt or ^—'^^Ji '^ o^Jji or 

J^J Words. 

! ^li. ! ^ni. fc/myr' no! i r xii j&.khayr effendim! No, 

1 . Sir I [Sir! 

t. ! ojl «9«ef yes! ! f ^\ oj\ ^^ effendim! Yes, 

j^.5^3 qon-sliou neighbour JL*^ y a V rac L * ea f 

p. .^io dushmen enemy p. 4.-*s&lj bah'-je l garden 

p. c^-j^ c?os£ friend *1>\ a-da island 

1 This is the common pronunciation, the correct pronun- 
ciation is: khas-ta, ikh'-ti-yar, kliosh'-noud, bagh'-che (p. 8). 

The Substantive Verb. 


a. J*»-^ asker soldier 
°j£ qah've coffee 
^j ver give 
J*7j\ Artin Pascal 
ao ' <J tepe t depe hill 

»y9 sow water 
a. ^»l». 7ia2?r' ready, present 
JJLj yeshil' green 
vll pefc very 

Cjy-jy yorghouri tired 
^j^ jeomerd' generous 
a. p. jli^L tama'Jciar avaricious 
p. ojL* tase fresh 
^liiJU. chalishqan diligent 

j{jL\ ih'-ti-yar l old (age) 

. a . liosh'-noud 1 content, 
p. :>^~-=»- happy 

t p. 4L> hasta' 1 sick 

_^\ *UL pefc eyi very well! 

V ^Jt*V ^Exercise 3. 

4 jTyJ^S & — • ut- jr5 dl ^ v- .^1 u^JW- l j^3 

jl2-I > t .jZj&j oy>Jf m £> Jr$ ! f-^ 1 -5»- n ' ^5- 5~* Jr> 
dl (Artin) OCjT \r ♦ jjJfS j^Id *j3 ^^ j c—j:> J^ 1 

• > Ji >^ J** ^ 

a£3\ j\>- 

1 See the Note page 32. 
Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 

34 r u-j-> Lesson 2. 


£ 43" J? Translation 4. 

1. Little hills. Red flowers. The green leaves and 
the beautiful gardens. 2. Is not the house large? — 
Yes, Sir, it is large. 3. The islands are small. That 
island is not small. 4. The coffee is very good. It is 
not 3 (a) iVery 2 g°°d 4 coffee. 5. The gardens and the trees 
are very nice. 6. Is the coffee ready? — No, Sir! 7. Are 
you ready? — Yes, gentlemen! I am ready. 8. Who 
is Mr. Charles? — He is a good neighbour. 9. Is the 
water fresh? — No, Sir, it is not fresh. — Give (a) 
fresh water. 10. Is the garden very far? — No, Sir, it 
is not very far, it is near. 11. Ahmed Bey is a good 
soldier. 12. He is a generous man. 13. That gentleman 
is not avaricious. 14. Master Georgie is very young. 

To be corrected. 

JibfM r *</* ->* i^x &f£\ Cfij tit .'dli j\<*S 
? J? l>- •y~* ^ Ja— ° ♦ j^ccu j-bj-o jIsIjI jliLi) t ♦Jj^jlol 

AX ^ Conyersation. 

<~)\j>- Jevab Answer Jl}— Sival Question 

. jj^ iJLTj'i ' p-^ j^ ? ^ ^-^ Q ^ -? l 

ro The Substantive Verb. 35 

r u^i> Lesson 3. 

The Substantive Verb. (Continued.) 

§ 73. The Preterite or Past Tense of the Substantive 
Verb is as follows: 

f-M ^ ben idim I was i)_M J» biz idik we were 

iJjuil ^ sm' ie?i7t thou wast j>.iJj\ ^ siz' idiniz you were 

iS^A j\ o idi he was JjJb\ Jjjl onlar' idiler they were. 

T/ie Negative Past Tense. 
* Jul j£> Oi *^ n deyi7' *^* wl ^-*il J^ y. biz deyil' idik 

JJjI Jfc ^w sen de'i/z7' idiw J^i-M J^ J- s£0 de't/iT idiniz 

iiJu| J$i j\ o deyil' idi J".-^} J^ Jol onlar deyil' idiler. 

I was not, thou wast not, he was not, etc. 

Hie Interrogative Forms of the Same. 

Ben mi idim? sen mi idin? 6 mou idi? 
Biz mi idik? siz' mi idiniz? onlar ml idiler? 
Was it I? was it thou? etc. 

Ben deyil' mi idim? sen deyil' mi idin? o deyil' mi idi? 
Biz deyil' mi idik? siz deyil' mi idiniz? onlar deyil' mi 
idiler? or deyil ler miyidi? 

Was it not I? was it not thou? etc. 

§ 74. The Numerals are used just like all other 
adjectives. Like them, they precede the noun. The 
noun qualified by cardinals always remains in the 

singular (§71). Ex.: oljr bir adem a man, 3y?j>- ^^} 
iki chojouq two boys. 

jCj\ iki two j) \ alti six 

T j\ uch three <iJo yedi seven 

Oji debrt four J^.- sekiz eight 

^t> bisli five jjiL doqouz nine 


36 r u-J-* Lesson 3. r*\ 

<jji on ten ^ ,jjl on feir eleven 

<J>^I oj\ on iki twelve, etc. 

§ 75. The English word cr half" is expressed in two 
ways, by sj[ yarim and by 3f-y. bonchouq (§ 207). Y avian 
is used before a noun like an adjective: off^ yarim 
gun half a day, ^^L- <rj[ yarim saat half an hour, 
111 fj\> yarim lima half an apple. 

JBoticJiotiq is always used in connexion with a 
number. Ex.: 3j>-y. <jO ?'Av bonchouq two and a half, 
j^pL, Jj>-j> rjl tick bonchouq saat three hours and a half, 

cy cyy. /$ ' a ^ bonchouq gun six days and a half. 

§ 76. The English phrase "there is, there are'' etc. 
is expressed in Turkish by 1 j\j var 'there is, exists': 
its negative being Jy yoq 'there is not' (§ 126 a). 
J-> j\j ' j\j var, var dir there is, 
jjijj ' Jjj yo#, ?/o^ dowr there is not. 
<i-M j\j var idi, varldl there was, 
c£ju\ Jj^j ?/o# idi there was not. 
C J-i ) J^J ^-»^0i ^ ir ^ a & ^f* C^Jr^ there is a book, 

c5Jol j\j ^liS"^ for fo'too var idt there was a book. 

i ^ < . u<r -^- for fcitofr ?/of/, for fcitao yoq dour there 

j^ v lT, a* --«-* is not a book, 

i^jol ,J^i ^l^""^ &£r Jcitab yoq idi there was not a book. 

§ 77. The Locative case is made by the addition 
of <o de, da to the end of the word (§ 84). Ex.: 

©ajl evde in the house, »joti kitabda in the book, 

1 The word var is called the Verb of Existence and Non- 
existence, or Verb of Presence and Absence by some European 
Grammarians, but there are no such verbs in Turkish. 

rV The Substantive Verb. 37 

©3<bt&l hah'-je-de in the garden. Evde bir adem var, — 

dir, there is a man in the house. 

. i . , < — - . o kitabda tasvirler var dir. there are 

J^bja^'^ 1 ^ J\ pictures in that book. 

J , . , Bah'-jede chichek yoq dour, there are 

jMy_ ^^ o*3^Vi nQ flowerg in the g ard en. 

. i V -i Bah'-jede bir aid' var idi, there was 

fSM J\J J> j>. o«g*li a rose in the garden . 

a . ■ , j - \ • <-" Bir guzel ve bebyuk' evde idik, we were 

JJ i) °- ?1 J -*-K J Jj ^ ^ in a nice [and] big house. 

§ 78. In asking the hour, it is said: 
?jJb-\5 j^pL, 5«-a^ qactidir? What o'clock is it? 

j-xjCl o^L sa-a£ iJci'dir, it is two o'clock. 

r» . „ 4 i- qach' sa-at dir? means: How many 
J 5L hours are there? 

jjCcL, ,5d /A'/' sa-crf dir, there are two hours. 

Sa-at means also 'a watch': ^pL- _/. l /^-* es-gi' bir 

sa-at an old watch, j^&L, jjl jj far altoun sa-at a 
gold watch. 

Jdi Words. 

p. oL- si-yah' black a. _^L 6e]/a^ white 

iSj>\ i-ri large, big J^jl oitfaq small 

Jo 2/e-/7i new y~\ es-<7* old 

(J^». c7iO(Z much, many j\ az few, bi raz a little 

lijU sari yellow . ; *^ him? who? 

?t-IS qach? how many? ^-13 y for j«c7t some 

3j- s«<d milk a. ■— il ,5 sharab wine 

p. *j~. meyve fruit a. ._:£. mekteb school 

Prop, names, a. ^ ^ Hasan a. f^^"" fcertJH Grace. 

^J*} Exercise 5. 

JwIji J J*j~« Ujy ©S^i^-l^l J l^"^ tilt' ©3*becl * 

38 r u-j-> Lesson 3. rA 

©3jl jJu^a^- • Jj2 o^jl ojJIj j jJj ! f JC*I jv^- — • (? JjJuJfS) 

. • r •- - 

*\ A^j* Translation 6. 

1. Was he sick? — No, Sir (Be-yim), he was not 
sick; the soldier was very sick. 2. Is Ahmed Bey at 
home? — No, Sir, he is in the garden, 3. Who is 
there at home? — Hassan Effendi is at home. 4. Seven 
days and nine hours. Eight and [a] half days. 5. Was 
the coffee hot? — Yes, Sir, the coffee and the milk 
are hot; they are not cold. 6. Who is this young 
gentleman? — He is Kerim Effendi. 7. Three and 
seven are ten; five and six are eleven. 8. There are 
twelve hours in a day. 9. Aq-Shehir, Esgi-Shehir and 
Yeni-Shehir are large [and] fine cities. 10. How many 
islands are there in the Mediterranean Sea? 11. How 
many islands are there in the Black Sea? — There are 
two [or] three bad islands. 

To be corrected. 


Declension of Nouns. 


•j^j: fj^ 

41^ Conversation. 

Selam *>L, 

Sabah'lar khayr' olsoun! 
Akh'shamlar khayr' olsoun! 
Vaqitlar khayr' olsoun! 
Na'sil sirnz, eyi'mi siniz? 
Eyi'yim, tesh6k'kur ede>im. 
Siz na'sil siniz, eyi'mi sifiiz? 
Choq'eyiyim effendim. 
El-ham'dul-lah' eyi'yim. 
Rija'ederim, otourounouz'. 
Thesh^k'kur ed^rim. 
Bouyou'roun effendim,otou'rouFi. 
Hassan' Effendi, ner£de siniz? 
Bouyou'roun effendim ! 
Gejeler khayr' olsoun! 
Hosh' geldiiiiz. 


Good morning! 

Good evening! 

Good day! 

How do you do? 

I am well, thank yon! 

How are you? are you well? 

I am very well, Sir! 

Thank God, I am very well. 

Please take a seat. 

Thank you! 

Come in. Sir; take a seat. 

Mr. Hassan, where are vou? 

Yes, Sir. 

Good night! 

You are welcome. 

* l^><> Lesson 4. 



Declension of Nouns. 

§ 79. There are two numbers in Turkish: Singular 
and Plural; and six cases, expressing the different 
relations of words to each other; namely: the Nominative, 
Genitive, Dative, Accusative, Locative and Ablative cases. 

§ 80. The Nominative case (or the Subject) answers 

to the questions: who? or what? J* Mm? 4S ne? as the 

subject of the verb; as: Who is learning? — The boy 

o^jl ogtilan. 

§ 81. The Genitive (or Possessive) case answers 
to the questions : whose? or of which? d\+2 Idmih? dX<> 

40 H. u-j-> Lesson 4. *%.• 

nenin. Ex.: Whose book? — The boy's book dWpjl 

(J,tj oghlanin 1 Icitabi. 

§ 82. The Dative answers to the questions : to whom? 

toivhich? 4«jT hime? Ai£ ne-ye? Ex.: To whom shall I 

give it? — To the boy Ai^j\ ogldana. 

§ 83. The Accusative (or Objective case) marks 
the object of an action, and answers to the questions: 

whom? or what? <J> Jcimi? J^a> neyi? Ex.: Whom or 

what do you see? — I see the boy, the house <jMs^l 

ogh-lani l , ^j\ evi 1 . 

§ 84. The Locative answers to the questions: where? 
wherein? oz&} nerede? Ex. : Where is the boy? — He 
is in the school ©Jul5C« mektebde. 

§ 85. The Ablative answers to the questions: from 

whom? from what? i>s<jT Jcimden? 0^ neden? Ex.: 
From whom did you take this book? — From the boy 

jG X^j I oghlandan. 

§ 86. There is only one declension in Turkish, with 
four variations: 

First Form. 
§ 87. The first form comprehends all nouns 

ending in consonants (except il &, and J q): 

a) Nouns ending in soft syllables. 

Singular zju* Mufred' Plural ^ Jem 

Jjju pederler 
iJJj-x.. pederleriri of 
oJj-X; pederlere' to j -c 

1 The Genitive and the Accusative do not always take the 
terminations -in, -i. These are required only when the noun in 


jjf peder 



4jJu pederiri of 


djJu pe'dere to 


Declension of Nouns. 



(£jJU pederi' | 
o^jju pederde in 



tijjju pederleri' ) 
o^Jjjui pederlerde in 



(jZjA* pederderi from 


jj^jjju pederlerderi from I _e 

b) Nouns ending in hard syllables. 


iJ-U» task' 

jUlt tashlar' 

G.> tashiri of 

rti tashlariri of 



*i.U» tasha to 


©JUU» taslilara to 



t-ilt tasftf 


(ijUlL tashlart 


oAilL taslida in 


o^Ult tashlarda' in 



O-^-lis tashdari from 

<j.>jUAl> tashlardan' from 

c) Nouns ending in syllables which have the hard 
vowels ou or o in them. 




viX.j^ moumouri of 



mouma to 



> 8 

jl«jv» moumlar' 
$J^*j* moumlarin' of 

9 >\j* 

moumlar a to 

o-L.j^ moumda in 

iSj^j* moumlari 
o$J.»j* moumlar da in 
OAj^v* moumlardari from 



A. 0-^j^ moumdan' from 

d) Nouns ending in syllables which have the soft 
vowels eo or ?/, in them. 


:>j— Slid' 

J^j— sudler 


.itaj— swcWm' of 

6J^j^ sudlerin of 



o^j— s?<c?e' to 

> — 

oj^j— sudlere to 



<S*j~> sudfi 


iSjij-* sudleri' 



o^^j- sudde in 


o±J}j~. sudler de in 



^o^j— sudden from 

^^J^j— sudle'rderi from 

the Genitive or Accusative is definite. When the -in or -i is omitted, 
the Genitive or Accusative is the same as the Nominative in form 
§§ 109, 251). When the Indefinite form of these two cases is to 
be described, it is styled by some Orientalists the Nominatival 
form of the Genitive or Accusative. But the indefinite forms of 
those two cases are called by the native grammarians simply 


\. u-j-» Lesson 4. 


Second Form. 

§ 88. The second form of declension comprises 

all consonants ending in J q. The difference from 

the first declension is this, that J q is changed into 

*> gh, whenever it is followed by a vowel (§ 52, 2). Ex. : 

jll ba-liq: here J q is not followed by a vowel, because 

it stands at the end of the syllable. <uJl ba-ll-qa: here 

the third syllable begins with J q and is vo welled, 

therefore it changes into £- gr/i, thus we have ^ill 6a- 
li-gha. This change takes place in the Genitive, Dative 
and Accusative cases: in the Locative and Ablative cases 

and in the plural the J q remains unchanged, because 
in those cases q is not followed by a vowel. 

Note. In Arabic and Persian words and in all words borrowed 
from foreign languages, the ,J q remains unaltered. 

Singular :i« Mufred 

N. jJL ba-liq 

vlLillj ba-ll-ghm of 
ba-Vi-gha to 
ba-liq-da in 
ba-liq-dan from 

Plural «.>?- eTe»i' 


A. (jJ^il 


JLiiL ba-Uq-lar 

iljl-ftll ba-liq-la-rtn of 







oJUJlj ba-liq-la-ra to 
(ij-allj ba-liq-la-ri 
eoJLiJlj ba-Uq-lar-da in 
o^JUll ba-Uq-lar-dan from 





The fire-place 



.Ujl dUM jU-jl 

o-jaq-dan o-jaq-da o-ja-ghi o-ja-gha o-ja-ghifi o-jaq. 

The boy 


t£jT.JT ^V?" ^J^-J* 

cho-jou-ghou clio-jou-gha cho-jou-ghoun 

cho-jouq-dan cho-jouq-da. 


<tr Declension of Nouns. 43 

Third Form. 
§ 89. The third form contains all the soft syllabled 

nouns ending in fj k. The letter Tcef is changed into 
yaf, because it is vowelled: that is, when the syllable 

would otherwise begin with fj l\ the J: is changed into 

y. Ex.: "itajjl eor-dek: here i! k is not vowelled, it is 
at the end of the second syllable. aS^SjjI edr-de-ke is 
wrong, for the last syllable would begin with fj A*; 

therefore the h must be changed into y, a5"SjjI eor-de-ye 

(§ 52, 2). This is noticed only in the pronunciation, 
as there are no different forms for ftef and yaf (§ 34). 

In the plural and in the Locative and Ablative cases 
k is unchangeable, as a vowel does not immediately 
follow the k (§ 88). 

Singular ;> L» Mfifred' 

N. ^ijj\ ebr'-dek the duck 

G. *L\Sijj\ ebr'-de-yin of the duck 

J). *5ijj\ eor-de-ye to the duck 

A. (_^jjl ebr-de-yi the duck 

L. oj>S}jj\ ebr'-dek-de in the duck 

A. i)J>S}jj\ ebr'-dek-den from the duck. 

Plural «j^ Jem 
N. ^IT!>jj\ ebr -dek-ler the ducks 
G. iJ^ojjl ebr' -dik-lerin of the ducks 
D. o^liojjl eor'-dek-le'-re to the ducks 
A. <Sj5zjj\ ebr -dek-le-ri the ducks 
L. o^irSjjl eor -dek'ler-de in the ducks 
A. u^t^^-^ ebr'-dek-ler-den from the ducks. 
The bread 
oj^I ojiCs"! jZs\ <£s^\ ^Kl^i ius"! 

ek-mek-den ek-mek-de ik-me-yl ek-me-ye ek-me'-yin t'k-mek. 


«t ^j* Lesson 4. 


The whistle 




du-duye du-du-yuii 

du-dxik-den dii-duk-de. 

Note. J j\ oq arrow. JjL toq satiated, ,J_y qirq forty, 6y 

yuk load, ^J^keok a root, are exceptions to the above rules, as 
they do not change q into gh, and k into y. 

Fourth Form. 
§ 90 a . The fourth form comprises all nouns 

ending in the vowel letters ^ © j I . In the singular, 

the Genitive is formed by adding d\j -nin; in the Dative 

4i -ye is added to the Nom., in the Ace. J^ -yi (§53). 

No change takes place in the remaining cases or in 
the plural (§§ 88, 89). 

§ 90 b . When a word ending in a vowel receives 
a grammatical ending beginning with a vowel, a hiatus 
results, which is practically a difficulty in pronunciation. 
This is very common in Turkish (§ 53). To avoid this 

difficulty it is usual to insert a consonant ^ y (and only 

in the Genitive o n. This is really the retention of 
part of the original genitive termination -nth). 

Singular ^ X* MufrhT 

Plural mjr- Jem 

N. li\ a-na 

Jill a-na-lar 

G. vUuU a-na-nin of 

iJJL'l a-na-la-rin of 

D. aX\ a-na-ya to 

> 2 

<*Jl;i a-na-la-ra to 


"> o 

A. jX\ a-na-yl 


(iJM a-na-la-ri 


L. oli\ a-na-da in 


oJli\ a-na-lar-da in 


A. o&\ a-na- dan from 

O-iJM a-na-lar-dan from 

The cat 
ke-di-den ke-di-de 



ke-di-ye ke-di-nin ke-d\ 

t^o Declension of Nouns. 45 

The well 

qou-you-you qou-you-ya qou-you-noun qou-you 

qou-you-dan qou-you-da. 

The hill 
j^*ji o^-oj <->^i-i <*<o *iAl*o <*.o 

de-pe-den de'-pe-de de-pe-yi de-pe-ye de-pe-nin de-pe. 
The water 

sou-dan sou-da sou-you sou-ya sou-youn sou. 

Xote 1. Singulars ending in the vowel o -e do not join 

this letter to the sign of the plural or the endings of cases § 32 b . 

Note 2. The word y& sou forms its Genitive irregularly. 

V ^Jt»} Exercise 7. 

Decline the following words, writing them in Turkish 
characters: and also indicate their pronunciation in Eng- 
lish characters, with their meanings. 

' dA^fS deynek a stick ; jjj li />a^ a franc ' JyL^ ' Jb=~>^ ' o J 

♦ l£^> /•'<*% village 
Translate into English. 

46 «u u~J* Lesson 4. ^ 

A 4j?"J? Translation 8. 

1. The mountains; of the mountains; to the moun- 
tains; from the mountain. 2. Four [or] five trees; on 
the three trees; of the good tree, of the good trees, 
from the good trees. 3. Give the book (ace.) to the 
big [one]. From the big [one]. 4. In the valley, to the 
valleys. The valleys are green. 5. 6 I saw 2 the green 
hills, 3 the black mountains 4 and 5 the white flowers 
x from the village. 6. In the hot, to the hot; the hot 
(ace); the hot (nom.). 7. 2 I saw t the gentlemen (ace); 
to the gentleman; of the gentlemen ; on the gentleman. 
8. The green leaf (ace); on the green leaves; on many 
green and nice leaves. 9. Of the coffee; in the coffee; 
from the coffee. To the coffee-houses (qativelere), 9. From 
the hot; from the cold; from the little and on the great. 
10. To the great men. 11. To the white and the black 
(ace). 12. To five francs. 

Correct the following words. 

' hu-chu-Jcu <Sj*-j> ' ij^j-> • u- 3 ^ • *M ■ dij>^2 ^ 

did I ,)l ^ ♦ U Jiff- I ,)l • JpU:*^ • <L}J1>\2£ • V-ijlc-l ^ • ^jJLj iJ 

• 43j>-j; • ^} ' **\j *• • ^y* ' tne arrow ^j\ . dl^jtjjs 

a! |$S Conversation. 

Hoshja qaliii 6ffendim. Good bye, Sir! 

Hosh geldiniz, s£fa geldiniz. You are welcome. 

Sedam sebyle. Give my salutations (to the home 

Pede>e" choq selani sebyle. Give my salutations to your 

Bash ustune" effendim. Very well, Sir. 

t,Y The Pronouns. 47 

\jrt*>\> Lesson 5. 

Ol>o The Pronouns. 

§ 91. Turkish Pronouns are divided into seven 
classes : 

1. Personal, 2. possessive, 3. adjectival, 4. demon- 
strative. 5. reflexive, 6. indefinite and 7. interrogative 

1. Personal Pronouns. J«ci j^Js 

§ 92. They are: fa ben, y« sen, j\ o, t£JL3 kendL 
They are declined as follows: 

First Person. 
Singular ^ X* Mufrect Plural %*■ Jan' 


& ben I 


fo'.s we 


li be'nim my 


&fctm our 


lx> ba-na to me 


&t£e to us 


Jj fo'-m me 


bizi us 


o-Uo be'nde in me 


&&<& in us 


,jXi bende'n from me. 

a* J: 

biz den from us. 




^- sen thou 


st 2 you 


«lAl— se-niti thy 


sizifi yours 


lC- sa-wa to thee 


size to you 


^ se'-m thee 


sizi you 


«Al~ sen-de in thee 

o :- 

S&dl in you 


tjjj— sen-den from thee. 


sizde'n from you 

Third Person. 
Singular ^i« Mufrect 
X. j\ o he she, it 

G. vUui'viijjl onoun, antn his, hers, its 


e ^r-js Lesson 5. 



r\ i^T « w^ i ' f to him, him 

D. 6 bj\o-na, a-na ' . ' .. 

I to her, to it 

A. Jl ' (jjl o-woit', a-wf him, her 
L. oX\ ' oA : jl on-da, an-de in him 
A. (jX\ ' i>Xj\ on- dan , an-deri from him. 





Plural mjt 

' .^-^ onlar, 
iJ^iijl onlarin, 
o^Iijl onlar a , 

<sj^j\ onlari', 



of them 
to them 

o^l ' o^lljl onlarda, anler de" in them 
U-^l ' u-t>^j\ onlar dan , anlerden from them. 

Reflexive form of the Third Person. 
Singular $ \* Mufred' 

iSXS' kendi 

Plural .^ Jem' 

G. vill, jjj kendinin of 
D. <L>xS^ kendine to 
A . ^j JJL^ kendini 



o J.; Jud fcew efo'w de in 
(jXi Xz kendinden from 


^Lj Al5"^ kendiler 
^}J\jX^ kendilerin of 
*^L .xl} kendilere to 
(i^li Al^ kendileri 
osJsXz kendiler de in 
jjj^LjJo kendilerden from 

> CO 

The English conversational form of address 
is c y° u 'i m Turkish, however, there are two forms: sen 
and sis. Sen is employed in addressing parents, near 
relatives, children, servants, pupils, and intimate friends, 
such as would be addressed by their Christian names 
in England. Siz is used in addressing strangers, or 
mere acquaintances (§ 494). 

§ 94. Instead of biz and siz their double plural 

J} m ' Jy* bizler, sizler are sometimes used in all the six 

cases. This cannot be expressed in English. They are 
-even used, out of politeness, instead of ben and sen. 

«u^ The Pronouns. 49 

2. Possessive Pronouns. jUl jy*> 

§ 95. The Possessive Pronouns of the Turkish 
language do not really correspond to those of the 
English, but are merely possessive affixes. Possessive 
affixes are used instead of the English possessive pro- 
nouns. They consist of syllables added at the end of 
nouns. They have the value of pronouns, and cannot 
stand alone. 

§ 96. The possessive affixes are the following: 

a_ Sing. I. person my J*- Plur. I. person our 

*L : 

> II. 

» thy 

Xi » 

II. » your 

tS- > 

> III. 

» his. 

iSj- » 

III. » their, 


: Sing. 

1| elim 
my hand, 

viXll eliii 

J\ e-li 

thy hand, 

his hand; 


j{\ e-limi: 

J>JI e-liniz 

<jju\ el'-Uri 

our hands, 

your hands. 

their bands. 

§ 97. The pronunciation of the Possessive Affixes 
varies in the following way (§ 52): 

1. If the word to which they are added end in 
a consonant, the affixes are pronounced: im, iii, i; 
imiz, iiiiz, leri, as in the above. 

2. If the preceding predominant vowel in the word 
be on or o, although written in the same way, they 

are pronounced: oum, onn, on; onmouz, onnouz, 

Qouslionm, qoushoun, qouskou; qoushonmonz, qoush- 
ounouz, qoushlari. My bird etc. 

3. If the word end in a vowel, they have then 
only the value of the letters m, n, si; miz, niz, leri. Ex. : 

aIiT ' i!l;T ' ^tT ■ j*t7 ' vTtT ' ^fcl Anam, email, anasl; 
a-namiz, a-naiitz, a-nalarl. My mother etc. 

4. If the predominant vowel in the word be eo y ft, 
the vowel of the affix is pronounced n, to agree with 

it; as: £f ' il3jT l &f\ yt>f' jS^/"' jJjfGed-s&m, 

Turkish Conv. -Grammar. 4 

50 o l,-jj Lesson 5. o* 

(leo-zuh, geo-zii; geo-zu-muz, geo-zii-niiz, geoz-le-ri. 
My eye etc. 

§ 98. In the third person singular, when the word 

ends in a vowel, a ^ s is inserted for euphony, as: 

A I ' illli ' ^-1)1) ba-ba-si (and not ^U ba-ba-l). The only 

exception to this rule is the word y& sow, as: ^^s 

dX j^> l -v *-^ Sou-youm, sou-youn, sou-you; son-you-mouz y 
sou-you-nouz, soidari. My water etc. 

§ 99. If the word ends in one of the connected 

letters (§ 24) the suffix ^ is not written when declined 
in Singular cases, but the sound i is retained; as: 

^tf'dkitS^ 1 AifcT' 1 J^tS^' •Oifef* J^^Kitabi, 
-bi-nin, -M-na, -bi-m, -bindan, -binda. 

§ 100. If it ends in one of the unconnected letters 

( j 3 j ^) the ^ i is retained; as: ^*\ ' dbjl ' <U>jl 

Aj_«l k ijjjj^l ' oX^I e-tra, e-vi-nin, e-vi-ne, e-vi-ni etc. 

§ 101. If the final vowel of the substantive is 
* e, it is never joined on to the possessive in writing 
(§ 32); as: acOS ' ile3^ ' ^-©3 3 de-dem, de-den, de-desi 

not j*o3 ' v£l*o:> My grandfather etc. 

§ 102. The genitives of the Personal pronoun are 
used, when required, to emphasize and corroborate the 
possessive affixes of the same number and person. They 
are never used alone, without their equivalent possessive 

affixes to corroborate them; thus ^l^jlU qardasMm my 

brother (not my sister etc.), ^-ItajlS *j benim qardasMm 
my brother (not your brother or his brother) (§ 120). 

§ 103. A final J q, in a polysyllable, as in 
declension, changes into £- gh before the possessive 


ot The Pronouns. 51 

affixes, singular or plural, excepting that of the third 
person plural ; so also fj k changes into y in like cases 

(§ 53). Ex. : Jly ' *kky ' vtl^fcy ' ^fcy ■ yh^J* ' J^e^y 
Qo-naq, qo-na-gliun, qo-na-ghin, qo-na-glii: qo-na-glu- 

miz, qo-na-ghi-niz . My mansion etc. dA^I ' *$C*>I 
d^CLl ',/CjI • '-J^il ' ',5C5Cjjl I-nek, i-nr-yim, i-nt-yih, 
irfie-yi; i-ne-yi-miz, i-nc-gi-hiz. My cow etc. 

With Singular Nouns. 
pJ\ Jo benini a-tim my horse 
dil\ viAl— semVl rt-^i/7 thy horse 
J\ viijjl onoun a-ti his horse 
jEl *J» &i#tm a-ti-miz our horse 
J>J\ ilj- sizttf a-ti-iliz your horse 
<i^l"\ il^lljl onlarin at-la-ri their horse. 

With Plural Xouns. 

*^J\ jo benim atlar'im my horses 
i)Jjl ill- senin atlarin thy horses 
<^,l"| vilijl onoun atlarl his horses 
J*^tl pj; frmm atlarlmlz our horses 
LWr\ il :- si>*>7 atlarnliz vour horses 
i^jt] -^kjl onlarin atlari their horses. 

§ 104. In some words the vowel of the last syllable 
is eliminated when the possessive affix is added, except 
in the third person plural. 

<sf ' r&jycv-nf f L geon-lum heart, my — . 
J\i\ ' ^}ji [ a-ghiz, agh-i'iTt mouth, thy — . 
oy y i ^ j> bo-yoiin, boy-nou neck, his — . 
Ji^jl 'J-Utjl o- ghoul, ogh-lou-mouz son, our — . 
uJJy ' Jr^Oy bou-roun, bour-nou-nouz nose, your — . 



e \ m yji Lesson 5. 


a. Jlc. ' p-lib a-qil, aq-Vim mind, sense, my 
a. v^Jj ' <i\z$j va-git, vaq-tin time, thy — . 




' L? < — s ql-sim, qis-m'i part, his — . 
is-mi-miz name, our 

p—l J-o-o— I i-sun, 

p. .$£ ' j5^i she-Mr , shell -ri-niz city, your — . 

But in the third person geb-uul-Uri, a-ghiz-lari, bo-youn- 
lan, oghoul'lan, bourounlarl, aqU'lari etc. 

§ 105. As it has been seen, the possessives are 
affixed to the substantives they qualify, and form one 
word with them. That compound word is then declined 
like a simple substantive; as: 

1. Affixes of the First Person. 


Singular $ \* Mufred 

N. *n\zz~kitdb\m 

G. dXz.[zS^]:itabUnhl of 

D. *s.\skitabima to 

A. L s)cS^hitabimt 

L. oJ>s)£<r~kitabim(la in 

A. (jjs}c5l:itabhnclan from 

,^- Jem' 

\t\zS^ kitab%m\z 
^jt\zST Idiabimizm of 
o jtfco Mtabinriza to 
<_c jtl:} kitabim'izt 
osjfis kitabhn'izda in 
tj^jilx^ ~kita~bimizdan from 

5. Affixes of the Second Person. 

N. vlAj IzS^" A*^at>«7 

G. dAx>b5^ Iti-ta-bi-yift of 

D. «^jUS^ kitabifia to 

A. ,£*lli kitabifii 

L. oJiXiha kitabifida in 

A. u J^j 'c5 kitabhldan from 


j^ibi kitaMniz 

iJj-CLi kitabimzin of 
oj_C li3 kitabuliza to 
e5 ;*C li*> hitabinizi 

\^T ' kitabimzda in 


^'S^VS^kitab'tmzdan fr 



3. Affixes of the Third Person. 
N. J^bi kitabi | 44 (i^ljlir" kitablari 

G. d\^\zS^kitabhi A tu of > »a *lL i* ttf"" kitablarinifi of 


D. Citskitabbna to 2 -L^ljl^^fciia&Zamja to 


or The Pronouns. 53 

A. Jf^S kitabini ] ^ Jd-^ ^* kitablar'nu 

L. sX^iib kitablnda in \m e^J^iz^kitablarinda in 


A. tjjujlli kitabindan from 3 ^jJ^lbi Ji'{aWfMl»«la« from 

Trt^™* vaqtimin, raqtima, vaqtiml. -Vimda, -dan My time ... 
Euiu, e-vi-i/irt, e-vifie. eviui, e-vinde, evinden Thy house . . . 
Qaponsou, qapousounouu, -sauna, -sounou, -soundan, -da His door . . . 
Ba-Yi-glri-miz, -mizhl, -miza, -mizi, mizda, -mizdan Our fish . . . 
Ek-me-yi-niz, -nizin, -nize, -nizi, -ilizde. -nizden Your bread . . . 
Ortnarilari, -larin'ol, -larina, -larinl, -larinda, -dan Their forest . . . 

§ 106. The Accusative Singular of a noun agrees 
in form and in pronunciation with the third person 
singular possessive affix added. The noun with this 
affix, however, is always the subject in a sentence, while 
the other similar form is always object. Ex.: 

i ,L^ t\. ii Aliniu kitabi bourada dir The book of 

^j 4 . k . \i L [Eli] is here. 

c a i <.!• iK^/i-il Alinin kitabi gliayb oldou The book of 

tij,)jj Jlc (ibi Kitabi AU bouldou AH has found the book. 
In the first and second examples the word j\3 

* Li" 

means 'his book 5 (Nom. third person), and is the sub- 
ject of the sentence: in the third example the word is 

the objective case of the word ^t^ . 

J&J Words. 

<.*Ja>. chiz'mt (out of door) boot J^jW- chariq sandal 

f. i>l»j.9 fotin boots V^f" c ^ ora ^ stockings 

f. \jjj.]y qoundoura shoe ,jjs* jezve { a c offee- 1 ,ot 

P- r^i^i pabouj slipper u^ /^jcm coffee-cup 

f.^jJlS qalosh over-shoe, galoche u^ j _^- choban shepherd 

^M a-ya^ foot f. (_cU c7«rt^/ tea (Chinese) 

^15"^ dey-nek stick j^U cfta^ brook. 

^ iC >Ui Exercise 9. 

j r 

54 e u-j:> Lesson 5. o- 


t^)W- ' irU ° • ^jl • dtajl ' dtjl ' ondan oS>j\ • evinden 

' •>j *J: ^ • ( acc -) ^ ; J5& ' JS J^W- ' <5>W. • j>U 

•J-£j£ **JJ>- oJ^pU *j A .jIj ^l^l^l JjjT J i£j\ ©3p 4»cpI J 

deordmniiz y$& j y^\ ' j*-5Cl ^ T -j^ )lj >jfjSC^ 

^jU dU)lj>- • ^Ly j fb^y ^ *• • *lp evimizde ©:>Jcj! ■ 


<j\x^3 jf ^V . j>X3jj ©^^3 oJiJ©jl>- ♦ oJil— ej*>- £JJ&j' * L <* , »J' > - 

\ ♦ 4£~J? Translation 10. 

1. Me, he, they, you, thou, my, her, his, thy, ours, 
yours, their. 2. To me; to thee; to you; on thee; in 
you; on me; from me. 3. Him, himself; to him; in 
him; from him. 4. The cat (acc.), the cat (nom.); his 
cat (nom.), his cat (acc); his cats (nom.), his cats (acc); 
their cats, their cat (nom.). 5. His daughter (nom.); 
his daughter (acc), the daughter (acc), your daughter 
(acc). 6. In their valley, in our house, to your garden, 
to your horse. 7. My son, to my son, to his son; his 
children (pi. nom.). 8. In your time; from your time; 
to his time. 9. His nose, of his nose; to your nose, 
their noses. 10. In the city, in your city, to your city, 
from our city. 11. On my head, on his head, my head 
(nom.), my head (acc). 12. The tea (acc. and nom.), 


The Izafet. 


his tea (ace. and nom.); in our brook. 13. Tbe shepherd, 
their shepherd, their shepherds (nom. and ace.). 14. My 
over-shoes, thy shoes; his sandals; her stockings and 
boots; our coffee-cup, your coffee-pot. 

To be corrected. 

<£y* ' c£fcl T ■ oglioulounouz ' oglwidou j - Icjl * 

Uju^jlS^ C • *^j5C3U \ £jiX\ r . (third pers.) ^S-^ 

AX |^S Conversation. 

S. Haftanifi gOnlerini sebyle! 

J. Pazar, Pazar'-e>tesi, Sali, 
Ohar'shamba , Per'sbembe, 
Jouma-a', Jouma-a ertesi. 

S. Senenili debrt mevsimlerini 

J. Bahar, Yaz, Guz, Qish. 

S. Gunuii taqsimlerini sebyle! 

J. Shafaq, Sabah', Qoushlouq, 
Eoylen, Ikindi, Akhsham, 
Geje, Yat'si, Geje yarisi or 
Yari geje. 

Q. Tell me the days of the week. 

A. Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, 
Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, 

Q. Tell me the four seasons of 
the year. 

A. Spring, Summer, Autumn, 

Q. Tell me the divisions of the 

A. The Dawn, Morning, Fore- 
noon (9 a.m.), Noon, After- 
noon, Evening, Night, Bed- 
time (two hours after sunset), 

^ u^l> Lesson 6. 

^liL*! The Izafet. 

§ 107. The possession or connexion of one thing 
or person with another is called in Turkish, Izafet, 
which means 'addition or annexation'. 

One substantive is governed by another in three 
different ways: 

§ 108. I. By juxtaposition, without change. This 
is used to shew the relation between a material and 
the thing composed of it. The name of the material 

56 1 u-J-* Lesson 6. oT 

is simply put, like an adjective, before the other sub- 
stantive. Ex. : 

jby (jj6 \ altoun qoutou a golden box. 
Jjjd* s±JL_»\ i-pelc mendil a silk handkerchief. 
c-c-U- Jrj*J> gu-mush sa'at a silver watch. 

Or the noun expressing the material is put in the 
ablative case; as: 

i\i~,jT <JX,j6 \ altoundan 'kebsteJ: a chain of gold. 

viA)j*.L o_l-IU elmasdan bilSzik a bracelet of diamond. 

^>\jj>. Cj^y youndan chorab woollen stockings. 

§ 109. II. By placing the first substantive in the 
nominative or unaltered form, and adding to the second 

the pronominal affix of the third person (^ or ^ -i or -si). 

This is used to indicate not only possession but also 
genus and species, the name of the species coming first 
(§ 81, Note). Ex.: 

ijr'j? J\ e ' y qapousou a house-door (indefinite). 

Jj^j jlj? qouyou sou-you well water. 

js-ltl ±j*j\ armoud a-gha-ji pear tree. 

^lll 4.^-U Amasiya elmasi Amassia apple. 

§ 110. The names of countries, rivers, mountains, 
cities etc. are formed in this way, the first of the two 
nouns remaining unchanged; as: 

jJjj> Jilc^ Osmanli devleti The Ottoman government. 

^*9sJ\/ J^lxil In-gi-liz qralichasi The queen of England. 

tSJ^ ls~\j — ' Sivas sheh'ri The city of Sivas. 

jd« ^.jl Ermeni mil'leti The Armenian nation. 

^U? u-^-jl Er-ji-yas da-ghi Mount Argeas. 

tjj^'i <>j.\s Touna neh'ri The river Danube. 

<3\ ^-jL May is a-yl The month of May. 

§ 111. III. By placing the first in the Genitive, 
and adding to the second the pronominal affix of the 


oY The Izafet. 57 

third person (^ or ^ -i or -si). This indicates the relation 

of possession and is essentially definite, and is generally 
used when the article 'the' would be put before the first 
noun in English. 

The name of the possessor is placed first, as when 
the possessive case is used in English. Ex.: 

^Js ilji e-vin qapousou The door of the house (definite . 
<j>.lc.\ dfcllj elmanin a-ghaji The tree of the apple. 
^j^> ^i;jjy qou-younoun souyou The water of the well. 

§ 112. AVhen the two nouns come together in 
English, with the word of between them, the first ex- 
pressing the quantity of the second, the phrase is trans- 
lated into Turkish by simply putting the name of the 
quantity before the other noun and omitting 'of as 
in German they say Eine Flasche Weill, a bottle 
of wine'. 

(jU. r-ji j> m hir qadeh chay a cup of tea. 

^.xi <ojl r jl uch oq'qa $he-lce'r three okes of sugar. 
y. J*_~j\ (jj)\ on arshin biz ten yards of cloth, 
cilji-jj ^-i^Jjl Jjj yuz eblchek boughday a hundred bushels of wheat. 
ujty JJj~* j. &M" suru qoyoun a flock of sheep. 

§ 113. The following construction is frequent be- 
tween a noun and a cardinal number. 

<i^j^ vlijl^r or (Sijz <J}Ji\^> Jcitahhl deordu or kitahJardan 
deordu four of the books, or four books. 

^—^A vllj-Jajl or (jr . >j| j}Ja.\sj\ or ^^ x,\ <JzJ<bj\ o-da-mn 

ikisi or odaJarhl ikisi or o-dalardan ikisi two of the rooms, or 
two rooms. 

§ 114. These constructions are declined: 
Evift qapousou, -noun, -na, -nou, -sounda, -soundan. 

§ 115. There are two words ©3— (-<7r, -dri) in 
Turkish; one is used with the nouns to form the Locative 

case, and is always accented (§ 84): cojl ev-de\ ©j^I* 
baghda in the house, in the vineyard. 



1 t^ja Lesson 6. 


§ 116. The other -de is a conjunctioD, meaning 
r also, and' : it is never connected with the noun, nor is 
it accented; that is, the accent is at the end of the 

preceding word; as: ©^ j\ ev de ' ©s *-l bagti da ' 

©^ *jji) pederim de c ©a <o benim de; meaning 'The 
house also, the vineyard too, my father also, mine also'. 

j\j o oMi ' j\j <o oJl~, bende' de var, sende de var f There 
is in me and in you', i. e. e I have and you have' (§ 477). 

§ 117. Da-khi io is also used with the same 

meaning ('also, too'); as: L$ ©ju> ' io ©-U— bende 
dahhi, sende daJchi e in me also, in thee too' (§ 477). 

Jdi Words. 
Familya LL«£ The Family. 


1A I; \ a-na baba \ 
a - Cs^J valideyn \ 
LI baba I 
p. jJui pederj 
111 a-na { 
a. ©jJIj valide j 

ill \ aw'- we mamma 
LI 4^'^' bebyuk baba ] 2ran( j 

OO'OJ de'de father 




4J4.; l 4II wewe 

4j\ e-be 

I) \ ^jiy, bebyiik ana I 

ojjjh toroun grand child 

J-bjli qardash 
<J«\X>j& qa-rindash 
p. jM^. birader 



Jlbjli Jo qiz qardash ] 

I s 
p. oj*Jl£ Mmshire j 

Jijl oghoul son 

o%jl oghlan boy 

(J^s-^ chojoitq child 

Jo g?£ girl, daughter 

a. AZjlz&rimi daughter 

iSji qari wife, woman 

a. JS- em'mi | uncle 

J (father's 
^yS- amou-ja) brother) 

*j<; teyze\ aiint 

> (mother's 
4IU- 7t7iaZa ) sister) 

, ( aunt 

a. ^^^ ; Ufutlier - s S i 8 ter) 
, , , A uncle (mo- 
^^Uher's brother) 

,>£ qa-yin \ bro- 

> ther- 
j^l^ O:^ ga-i/m fttrader) in-law 


The Izafet. 


i.-r r - * / father-in- 
L\ 0-> 2«i/*" a ' a { law 

, T i- - i mothe I'- 

ll I o-> qaym ana { in . law 

X s* ,,. f the bride; the 
o-yT flfc/m ldaughtei -i n -law 

^ *^ * > i the bride- 

^jT *»«*»{ groom 

^Ub damad the son-in-law 

... , . . A ,i sister's hus- 
O^l emshte y band 

JoJl fto&ife wife's sister 

,, ,, . ( husband's bro- 

^ eltl \ ther's wife 

^ ^ » . , ( husband's 
«~*X>/ georumje { sigter 

^- , f relative by 

jfji dunur [^ennarriage 

/ , , , , f a nephew; 
Cfi V^en, yegen> y niece 

p. olj *^jf- amjazade\ 

p. o\J JU. khalazade ) cousin 

p. olj Jb c?a?/f ^a^e 

j brother-in-law 
jLUlfeajawag j (wife's sister's 

o» J 2°i a husband 

%\ ah'la elder sister 
^.ajs^ chichi eldest sister 

a.p.jtSCLj^ JcM:metJ:uir\ 

) servant 

a.t. j*i*Ji» khizmetji I 

-J ^ famlm Lady, Miss. Mrs. 
<3 U? sa-yi number / 
-*l*l ' ^.J\ 0&* r » olbir the other 

a. JJ>^ Wtala-ytq \ maid 

i j servant 

a. 4j jU jan-ye I 

i£jJi\ e'jfendi gentleman, Sir 

a.^il— * miisafir .truest 

(jjiS r/rt/V'.s cage. 

Exercise 11. 

• J5 ,v^- *} J J3 j<-J^B dijL-^/- dull j^-JI slUaJb iJjii j.; Y 

60 1 u-J-* Lesson 6. "V 

©> j L&jl ^>b *je^l3 ^jb '. (derler is called) 'Jjp ** Icjl 

^bjli J13 cfijUs-J ^ ^4-JjfT ^ N • JjO ©3 , Icjl ©Jb 4>©^3 
4llpjl di.lbj'\5 J15 ^T . jj^jjlii dil-Hbjl3 dX'iA^-il • xJI 4, 

i o \ Y 4£~J? Translation 12. 
1. Coffee-pot, coffee-cup; an oke of coffee of Yemen 

(♦.c). 2. Cow's milk; the milk of the cow; in cow's 

milk, in the milk of the cow. 3. Three of them; two 
of the oxen; the ten (of the) gold watches. 4. Two 
bottles of wine; a glass of water. 5. Three pounds 
(okes) of tea; three and a half yards of cloth. 6. The 
children of the village; the village children. 7. Both of 
them; my father and my grand father. 8. The English 
government; the English nation. The city of Paris. 
9. The door of the garden; a garden door. 10. Two 
of those children; two of your children. 11. Four of 
I my cousins. 12. The number of the books of my 
brother's son. is great. 13. Am I not your son, and are 
you not my parents? — Yes, my son! thou art my son, 
I am your father and .she is your mother. 14. Nejibe 
Hanim is my sister and Miss Mary is her sister-in-law. 
15. A city-door; the door of the city; the door of a 
city; a door of a city; a door of the city. 

To be corrected. 

jo..- • ^v r - \ J f - •.• 


m The verb To Have. 61 

<U Ig^a Conversation. 

• jJUub ! p-^l j*£» ? J-V vULf vlL^. e$jjil j^\ 

v u^^ Lesson 7. 

The verb To Have*. 

§ 118. The English verb 'To Have' is expressed in 
Turkish in two ways, according to the object of the verb. 

If the object is indefinite the adjectives j\j var 

'present: existent' and Jy yoq 'absent: non-existent' are 
used to express that sense. These may be followed by 

the verbal particle of affirmative j3 dir, which in this 

case, as in many other cases may be omitted in con- 
versation (§ 76). 

If the object is definite the Substantive verb 
is employed (§ 127). 

1. The verb To Have with an Indefinite Object. 

§ 119. In such phrases as: I have a book, he 
has a dog, it is expressed in two ways. 

I. By putting the subject in the Genitive, followed 

62 V ^rjj Lesson 7. ir 

by the object with the possessive affix and the verb 
jh^J^jh var > var dfa r ] Jy ' _)S»y yoq, yoq dour; as: 

jjijlj 0nbS\j> n Aj benim bir Jcitabim I have a book. 

\\^ dJLLL babamin bir Jcltabi yoqdour My father has 

•J-^Ji ^. J 1 - . . notabook. 

Literally: of me there is a book, of my father there 
is no book. 

§ 120. Sometimes the subject, when a pronoun, 
is omitted, especially when the subject is not accented 
or emphasized : then the affix of the object indicates 
the subject (§§ 70, 102); as: 

J-* j\j pjfcS""!/. &* r kitdbim var dir I have a book. 
The affix shows the person of the subject. 

§ 121. When the subject is a noun it is always 
considered as in the third person, therefore the object 
must end with the pronominal affix of the third person, 

^ or _v (i or si). 

■ . , *i. .... Effendiniil bir <>vi vardlr The gentleman has 
-y-w/i^ \jpji v; . ' a house. 

, i,i s\- Chojouqhoinl bir ehnasi var The bov has 

-"-' t?^ -*■ -?.-T5 an apple. 

The words Jy>-j>- ' S^ being substantives, are of 
course in the third person. 

§ 122. II. The verb To Have with an indefinite 
object is rendered in Turkish in another way also. In 
the first way the subject was in the Genitive case; in 
the second, the subject must be put in the Locative; as: 
js j\j t-jbi ^j o_x!j bend 4 bir kitab var dir I have a book. 

J* J I? p& j. oj^jjj pederimdebir qalem car dir My father has a pen. 

§ 123. Although it is not very correct grammati- 
cally, there is a custom among the common people not 
to append to the noun the possessive affixes of the first 
and second persons plural. Instead of saying correctly 
Sism atiniz, bizim ivimiz, they say Sizin at, bizim ev 
just as in English. Bizim evin penjeresi the window of 
our house, for Bizim evimizin penjerisi. Bizim peder 
our father, for Bizim pederimiz, or merely peder; as: 

«\r The verb To Have. 6a 

§ 124. The Plural Locative forms of the Personal 
Pronouns sometimes give the sense of house, home'. 
Bizde bir i-nek var means both 'We have a cow' and 
'There is a cow in our house'. Lit.: c in us'. 

§ 125. But the rendering for nouns is different: 
'at my father's" or 'in my father's house', 'the people 

of my father's house", are expressed by adding JSgil; as : 

i^- i i babam gil The people of my fathers house, ray 
^- f • • father's family. 

ojli pi-llU-L bajanagliim gilde at my brother-in-law's house.. 

«)j± {oj^tJ' liemshirem gile to my sister's. 

. \^ i dayim ail bizde dir The familv of mv uncle is 
' v- v: p*. m our house. 

§ 126. 'There is, there are' is rendered by the Loca- 
tive with j3 jlj ' _p J j> var dir, yoq dour (§ 76). But onda 

var, bende var, denote possession; as: Evde bir at var 
There is a horse in the house. But Bende bir at var 
I have a horse. In the first sentence it expresses location 
and in the second possession. 

§ 126a. Hal Jl>- Present, 

' J>* j\j jj 'j-> j\j oJw benim var dir, bende var dir, 

' J-> j\j ^— 'j-> jlj »Ju~- senifi var dir, sende var dir, 

1 J-> j\j ^j\ ' J-i j\j oXj\ onoun var dir, onda var dir. 

'ji jlj *j, ' jo j\j ozjr, bizim var dir, bizde var dir, 

' j* j\j i)j- ' j* j\j <oJ~ sizin var dir, sizde var dir, 

• jij\j i)J*jl*j* j\j o^jl onlarin var dir, onlarda var dir. 

I have, thou hast, he has a — etc. 

The Negative Form. 

jjijj ij ' jaKj oJ,1j benim yoqdour, bende yoqdour. 
I have not a — etc. 

§ 126b. Mazije\* Past (Preterite). 

' <i-M j>\j ^ ' iJJA j\j oXj benim var idi, bende var idi r 
' iSM j>\j ^L" ' <JJj\ j\j e-C~ senin var idi, sende var idi. 
* iJjA j\j dX>j\ ' (jjo\ j\j eXj\ onouii var idi, onda var idi. 

■64 V ^jo Lesson 7. ^ 

' iSM j\j r y. ' iSM j\j »*y bizim var idi, bizde var idi. 

' <i-M jij ilj- ' iS^A j\j oJ*< sm$ var idi, sizde var idi, 

- ciJj] jb -^A-jl ' tS-M jb o^'jl onlarifl var idi, onlarda var idi. 
I had, thou hadst, he had a — etc. 

The Negative Form. 

' ii-M (jji f\ o r fS^ji fi benim yoq idi or -yo'ghoudou, 
. c£_M J«jj oJJo or (iJu&^j oJJ.j bende yoq idi or -yo glioudou. 
I had not a — etc. 

The Interrogative Forms. 
? j-L^ j\j Jj ? jA-^ijj Jo benim var mi dir* benim yoq moudour? 

'? <5Jw« jlj oJl~. or ? t5 Jul * j|j sende var' miyidi? or far' mi idi? 
Have la — ? Have I not a — ? hadst thou not a — ? etc. 

2. The verb To Hate with a Definite Object. 

§ 127. When the object of the verb To Have is 
-definite, it is rendered in Turkish by the substantive 

verb j$ dir (§ 118). 

§ 128. The order of the construction is this: first 
comes the object, then the subject, and the verb in 
the third place. 

§ 129. This is a general rule in the Ottoman- 
Turkish language. In every case when the object 
is indefinite, the subject comes first; and when 
the object is definite the object comes first; Ex.: 
ji j\j pjb5"\/ Aj benim bir kitabim' var dir I have a book. 

j 3 oJJ.) ^li^ kitab bende' dir I have the book. 

In the first instance the object (a book) is indefinite, 
therefore the subject comes first; in the second the 
object (the book) is definite, therefore the object comes 
first and the subject follows it. 

§ 130. Remarks: The English Conjunction but is 
expressed either by putting the Arabic words U' ' J>Cj ' 

JaS em -ma or am ma, JaJcin, faqat or the Turkish' »d 4~o I 
i-se dc, all meaning 'but' (§ 239, 476); as: 

lo The verb To Have. 65 

! j:> j\ Jaai j\j f»jt • j:> jT C^J jlj pajL ! jj j\ U\ jlj pojl 

param var am ma az dir: par am var lakin jj jl o <u. j\ jlj aojI 

a£ dir: par am var faqat az dir; param var i-se de az dir I have 
but a little money. 

§ 131. rc Any' 5 is expressed in Turkish in two ways: 

one by p. ^a Inch, and the other without using that word, 
but by simply using the object of the verb (§ 188); as: 

Have vou any bread? '? ^ j\j *iLSl oJJ— ? jj~. j\j dXS\ tc-a «Ju— 

- v ~.- 

He has not any money jJfy c<- J^ ^>j\ 'J-^y. cr^-A 75-* ^>j\ 

§ 132. "Not any, not at all' 5 is expressed by y^j* Inch. 

jj> <c~:>. i3j*" <JP ■> jil 73- A • J-^ji cr -^ - '^r* ' liC ^ P ar asi yog- 
dour ; hich e-yi deyil choq hasta dir. He has not any money; He 
is not at all well: he is very sick. 

§ 133. "How many?' 5 is expressed by *-\i! qach? 
(§ 174). Ex.: ^ _ 

How many piastres have you? ? j* j\j ~tXtj^ -^i 
How many books has he? ? js j\j jliC^^lS 

§ 134. "How much?" is expressed by jjuLj ' jjJ^G 
ne qadarP (§ 179); as: 

How much sugar have you? ? j\j 4_^~ jji«J 

How much bread have we? ? j\j j*x»S| jjJaJ 

§ 135. "Some" is expressed by }ljr hir as c a little, 

a small piece of anything', in reference to inanimate 
objects (§ 182); as: 

^XS\ j\ j>. oir az ekmek some bread. 

But in reference to animate objects Jsn& bazi, -r\i y m 
hir qach is used (§ 181); as: 

^lo\ [ Jom ha' zi ademler some people. 

Ji«xl»l tz^jl bir qach' effendilir some gentlemen. 

j£>\jf- <J***> ba'zi hayvanlar some animals. 

§ 136. "Both" is rendered by p. a a hem — hem 

(§ 469); as: r r 

I have both bread and salt. j\j jj\s a j vi-LSl A o-xL 

My aunt has both paper and pen. j* j\j L Ji} aj tiJi-5 a >il.«Jl>. 
Turkish Conv.-Grammar. o 

66 V Lr j^ Lesson 7. ^ 

§ 137. "Either . . . or . . .' ? is rendered by p. 1 1 ya-ya- ; 
"Neither . . . nor . . , 5 ' is rendered by * <G ne—ne (§472); as: 
I have neither bread nor salt. j>Jb <vj j\j <Z\S\ *j oJJo 
You have either pen or paper. J*5 I j\j Is I oJJL- 

§ 137a. Hal JU Present. 

j j oJJ; bende dir, j* <o_x &i£<2e dir, 

j:> ojJL- sende dir, j:> oj— si^de dir, 

js oX,j\ onda dir. j* o v l'jl onlarda dir. 

I have the — , thou Last the — , he has the — etc. 

Negative Form. 

jjJS"^ oJJo ' j-AiS^ oJJ— ' jJ^S oJujl bende deyil dir, sende deyil 
dir, onda deyil dir etc. I have not the — etc. 

§ 137b. Masi Jo\a Past (Preterite). 

c£Jj1 oJJj &ewde idz", eSJM o^J'. bizde idi, 

iSJj\ oAl~ sende idi, <JJj\ oj- si.zde t^i, 

i£jj| ojjjl cmda idi. tfJuj aj^lljl onlarda idi. 

I had the — , thou hadst the — , he had the — etc. 

Negative Form. 

i£jo\ J£j> oJJj ' i£Jj\ Jfz oJlL- ' iJJj\ Jf. :> ojJjl bende deyil idi, 
sende deyil idi, onda deyil idi etc. I had not the — etc. 

i. i \ ^ i . i «-— — t . I.."-' I have the book 

o . i i-^-"o . i.*-"*! • i-<*"' Have I the 

? j-U* oJjjl ^L5 0-4* «-*— < v 1 - 5 • J-V °-H v 1 " 5 book'? etc 

? (iJ^. Jp ^ oJ~ ^j\^ kitab sizde deyil miyidi? Did you not ha ve 

the book? etc. 

A2J Words. 

111 e'Z?«a apple c?^^ qa-yi-si apricot 

^j\ armoud pear p. Jliii- shef-ta-li peach 

vDjjl e'-riX* plum fjjjl #-£iti» grapes 

■\V The verb To Have. 67 

JUT**™ eherries t .. f«*"£ («»nmoijlj 

f. <~I. j Ifisnne) the morella 

Ojiy qoyoun sheep I cherry (Slavonic) 

o^ cftofcui shepherd f " J%^JI P * "^ ™ n S es 
^j^ youmourta egg f - o^J «*<"• lemon 

<TSl- 8*fW vinegar f - ur-^J !?"'«*& potato 

jjXi pey-nir cheese f. ^-lU^k fo?waf& tomato 
f. *]\lJ> Jcestane chestnuts ^Gr.j ^jhojt tire yaglil butter. 

\V Ju> 'Exercise 13. 

jT dl e-C^-ltT ^jT . j\j J\[\ ^CjUjU Jj^T'o-U^-lcT Hi . ^Cil J 

*^j 3U j ^ji aS jl ilip ' fjjj' 43jl rjl ©^jGjl — ■? jij *c 
pB fl>- : c^Jbl jlj -j> J^o> £L!l* l • ja jIj (Sj+'cS' 

! *JC*I Jji — ? ^Jbl ^ jlj fj3jl *^l; ° ? ti^l jL* sCljJ* 

• ^Jj I jlj viU»- ^ o jl:JI fjju £Jj>- ji ♦ j3 jlj dU»- jj oZjS 

¥ dhs-Ol A . jJL3y , <~<o^ r^* i! *,?Cj l5Cl« J^- %5CJ ' jlj ©jl) 

?^« jlj fjojl) ? j-X~« jlj sjl i>JO<>y' I * • J3 oSsy>2>- S.S3 

^C ^ ^ ♦ >MT3 ©3 eX«A>^ ' jJt|T3 eJLi ©jIj ? <<•->'-* °^ 

1 Student must practice using both the Locative and Geni- 
tive forms (§§ 119, 122 . 


68 V ^js Lesson 7. 1A 

jOu ^ ° • j3 oJuL^U- OJUJ J^Lj^y N 1 ♦ O oJGl) »>. ^.J£ 

• ^a>I 


\ 1 A^J' x Translation 14. 

I. 1. I have an apple; thou hast some cherries; 
he has the oranges. 2. My brother has the dog; your 
aunt has a cat; they have three horses. 3. How much 
money have you? — I have seventeen piasters. 4. Have 
you any sugar? — No, Sir, I have not any. 5. I had 
no pen. I had the pen. I had not the pen. 6. Give 
me some bread and grapes. — Have you any bread 
and grapes? 7. Plow many children has your grand- 
son? — He has two children; one a boy, the other 
a girl. 

II.- 8. Have I a dog? — Yes, Sir, you have a dog, 
and my brother has a horse. 9. Has he the pen? — 
No, Sir, he has no pen. 10. Where is your book? — 
It is at my uncle's. 11. Who has my money? — I have 
your money. 12. Is there any servant in the kitchen? 
Is the servant in the kitchen? 13. The servant is in 
the kitchen. There is a servant in the kitchen. 14. Who 
has the pen and the paper? — Your father had the 
pen and I have the paper. 15. Are there any eggs? 
Yes, Sir, there are plenty of them. 



Mat-bakhda ne var? Bir az totnates ve patates var. 

Sizin birader nasil dir? Hich e-yi deyil, choq hasta dir. 

Onoun ati kiinde dir? Babam gilde dir. 

Guzel qoush qardashinda ml? Khayr, chojoughoun qafesinde 

Qafesde ne var? Bir yeshil, bir siyah ve bir beyaz 

qousb var. 
Ekmek sende mi dir? Khayr, ekmek bende devil dir. 

1 See the Note page 67. 

^ The Pronouns. 69 

A u^^> Lesson 8. 

vl>l>0 The Pronouns. (Continued.) 

3. Adjectival Pronoun. ;^j j*J& 

§ 138. The Adjectival Pronominal affix is the word 

^ -Jti, signifying 'the — which, that which', 

according as it is a noun or an adjective. It is attached 
to nouns and pronouns in two ways; by putting them 
either in the Genitive or in the Locative case. 

§ 139. In the first instance it is used always like 
a substantive, and signifies 'that which belongs to'. 
In the second case, it is sometimes used substantively 
and signifying 'that which exists": when it is at- 
tached to a substantive, it is an adjective, signifying 
'the — which exists'. Ex.: 

U I. baba father; *UjIIj babanin of the father; ^xjll 
babanhl-ki that or the one which belongs to the father. 

oil babada in the father; jo^ babadaki that or the 
one which exists in (the possession of) the father. 

j o JlL bendeki that whichlhave, or isinmy possession. 

§ 140. The separate possessive pronouns corres- 
ponding to those of the English language are formed 
in the first way; as: 

^C*Jo benimki, <Jovl~ seninki, ^S^>j\ onounki mine, thine, his. 
S*S". bizimki, l jS^ r - si~inki, ^o^L'jl onlarinlci J 7 \ ? < our8 ' 

Both of these forms, when used as substantives. 

have plurals and declensions as usual; but the last ^ 
is eliminated, retaining the sound i (§ 99). 

Note. <j -ki never varies in pronunciation for the sake 
of euphony (§ 54 . 


A i_r*J-> Lesson 8. 


Declension of -fci with the Genitive preceding. 

N. jC 

D. aIx^. 

benimkinin of 
benimkine to 




A. (_5^-^ j binimkini 

L. ftj.lC._lj benimkinde in 

A. jjj.l.C^j benimJcindenfrom 

iJ^iis-^lj benimkilerin of 
o^lx^Jj benimkilere to 
c^LxoJLj benimkileri 

/ o 


■ ^p*-- benimkilerde in 
tj .^1jC>_1> benimkilerden from 

Declension of -fti with the Locative preceding 

^LSoAlj bendekiler' 
i3^l5oj,lj bendekiler in' of 

N. (5*Al> bendeki' 

G. vULioJJa bcndekinifl' of 

D. <C5oJJ) bendekine" to 

A. L ^»- ) ^ J be'nde'kini' 

L. a.il5oJJj bendekinde" in 

A. (j-C^j^ bendekinden from 



o £ J 

' Oh 


o^liiojjj bendekiler e" to 
c^LSTjuj bendekiler i' 
o^LSftjJd bendekile'rde" in 
tj^liejjj bendekilerden from 

vUlIa^Ij^. hojanin of the teacher. ^xIa^!^ hojaninki that 
of the teacher. ^Lxxl^^p- hojaninkiler those of the teacher. 
^SC^Ua-lji- hojalariminki those of my teachers. 

? J^J ^ ci^V^^l^*" A ~^"_^ J^J (J 1 ^*-^ /^ • Jl -~' sende benim 
qalemim mi var, yokh'sa hojalariminki mi var? have you my pen 
or that of my teachers? 

iixSjp<»- \J>- o3 «J jlj vi-L-b vLL^, ^; _xlj bende ne senin 

qalemin var, ne" de hojanizinkiler I have neither your pen, 
nor those of your teacher. 

°A (5*-^ sendeki para the money you have. 

Jl^s ^jlS"" i-bj^ qardashim gildeki qoush the bird which 

is at my brother's. 

Bah'jedeki aghajlar the trees which are in the garden. 
E'vdekiler those at the house. Shimdiki the present. 
Sonraki the latter. Evvelki the former. 

4. Demonstrative Pronouns. Zjj^ *~>\ 

§ 141. The Demonstrative Pronouns are: 

y bou used for things which are near the speaker, This. 

Yi The Pronouns. 71 

J jt * »i. shou, shol used for things which are near the person 

spoken to, This. 
Jjl ' j\ o, ol » » » » are some distance off, 

That (yonder). 
t\ ish'bou This present (person or thing). 

§ 142. The Demonstratives when they modify 

a noun, are regarded as adjectives. jJL\ ' jj\ w J^l are 

used only as adjectives, and they never undergo any 

Declension of Demonstrative Pronouns. 
Singular ^ :« Mufred? 

N. y bou this jt shou this 

G. vlljjj bounoun of this ■dXljt shown oio'i of this 

D. '6j> bouna to this '6jt shouna to this 

A. jjj bounou this j^i- shounou this 

L. ojjji bounda in this ^.y- shounda in this 

A. u-*Mj boundan from this. c-^^ shoundan from this. 

la ,A*J ^LrJ! 6 s/*Ji ^^. °^Ji O-^jj 

g A^ i ^j i °^J- ^fAr 1 ^Ar* u^Ar 1 
bounlar, -hi, -a, ... shounlar, -1/7, -«, ... 

Xote. The declension of j\ o that, is the same as that of 

the third person of the Personal Pronoun, page 47. 

§ 143. Other Demonstratives: 

Lf^LJi ' ^tji beby'le, bebylesi such, such as this. 

LT^y* ' ^A sheby'le, shebylesi' » » as this. 

<_$-<** j\ ' *hj\ eby'le, eoylesi' » » as that. 

§ 144. Adverbial Demonstratives: 

\jy boura here, this place (contracted from b^)« 

\jjt shoura here, this or that place ( » » UlAO* 

\jj\ ora there, that place (» » \j jl). 

oJ> ne're where? what place (» » \j\<*)- 

72 A i^j* Lesson 8. vr 


U>bj\' b>\jj^ ' 0>\JJ. f rom here ' fr0m there * 

objl' »>l>j- * **by. here, in this spot; there. 

oXjT'j. *kj> bebyle bir gundS on such a day. 

o±*>\ J. u-^j! &%#» &tr ademden from such a man. 

J^ji. ^ jj^u*^ edylesikebtubirchojouq such a bad boy. 

0±X3\ ^jt shol effendiden from that gentleman. 

X>i\ dfc\S Jj\ oZ serf** <?i>tfw« in the house of that 
J gentleman. 

5. Reflexive Pronouns. ^A">y 

§ 145. The English words myself, himself, 
yourself etc. are termed Reflexive Pronouns, when 
they represent the same person as the subject or the 
nominative. They are expressed in Turkish by the 

pronoun &^ kendi: 

I myself f-^Cn h ^ 1 ' ******* 

Myself f-^ IsenMm. 

Thou thyself Ax^Cr* sSn ' ^ ndin - 

Thyself &xf &**&' 

He himself ^X^ j\ o tendisi. 

Himself ^.^ #»**»• 

We ourselves j£Xf ' j. &**' Undimiz. 

Ourselves JJ^ lendimiz. 

You yourselves jCxS^j* sis' Undifiis. 

Yourselves J^.^ kendi ft i:'. 

They themselves iSjtXS^Jl^ onlar lendilen. 
Themselves ^j\^ Tcendilen. 

Also: ^X^ iSX^' ^X^ %SX^'\X^ iSX^l myself... 

<i \>XS^iSXS^' \£xS^<JXS^ 1 J6JuT\$XS^We ourselves . . . 
§ 146. The English word "own" is also expressed 

by (SxS^; as: 

vr The Pronouns. 73 

My own book ^cST ($■£$> *■> be'nim kendi kitabim. 

With his own hand <L\ ^\ i£_xl} kendi eli He. 

§ 147. Kendi is usually employed after the sub- 
ject to emphasize it, or to limit or specialize the 
meaning; as: 

Be'dros kendi' bashin'i yiyqayor Jji^-^ J~\ <5-^o t_rJJ-^> 
Peter is washing his own head. 

Be'dros onoun basMni yiyqayor Jjt^rt lt-^ ^j\ ltJJ-^ 

Peter is washing his head, denotes another person's head. 

Effendikendi' odasmda dir Them aster isinhisownroom. 
Effendi onoun odasinda dir The master is in his room 
(some one else's). 

JC*) Words. 

TJst bash t[ c~«j! Apparel, 

a. <^\y\ esvab clothes f. Ijj rouba clothes [It.] 

f. «jj^k pantalon pants f. <j\i 9 fistan gown [Gr.] 

<L&»J> gebmlek shirt f.j~~» miso petticoat [Gr.] 

j J ■>£-»! ich' donou drawsers f. *l>\t shapqa hat [Slav/ 

ijji- se'tri frock-coat f. (jjlX baston stick, cane [It.] 

*1Uj yelek waistcoat <u_.s Jcese purse 

jb~\ astar lining *Sjs duyme button 

OjjjJI eldive'n gloves O**. chouqa broad cloth 

a. Jj-X1* mendil handkerchief <*-*a\> basma print, calico 

jlstJ bichaq knife c --^«5i ekmekji baker. 
Prop. Nouns >-i~*j£ yousouf Joseph. a<H Ahmed. 

\ ^Jui Exercise 15. 

74 A uf-J-i Lesson 8. Vu 



jlj <U)L-/^v o^ljjl J j- — «jf 

\ *\ ^js-J' Translation 16. 

1. Of that; those of that; those of those [men]. 
2. That which is in this; that which is there; that 
w T hich is here. 3. Have you our coats or those of our 
neighbours? — I have not your coats; I have those of 
my father. 4. That of my sister; those of my mother; 
from those of my uncle. 5. The oxen which are here; 
the cows which are there. 6. These houses are large; 
that house is little; from that house. 7. Where are my 
overshoes, and where are those of my aunt? 8. Yours 
are here and those of your aunt are there. 9. To yourself; 
from himself; in ourselves. 10. My mother is in her 
garden; my sister is in her house; my sister is in his 
house. 11. My own cane; his own book; in his own room. 

Ai ^ Conversation. 

• jSb* oi\jj, ! *XJ\ jte. ? jJu* »*\jy vlllli i£± 

<£XS^ Lt .HjjuH ! >jji\ ^ni» ? jju* iSj*\j> ^-L *-*~j* Q J*H 

1 All sentences enclosed by quotation marks are either 
idiomatic sayings or proverbs. 

Vo The Adjective. 75 

. JJ> oJj— <i»jl (iJJo ? J^ o^o^' Jli. (^jL. 

. Ji oX— <iaj| ^jl ? Jl Oo J> 'X>. ojjlj 

^ u^C> Lesson 9. 

j>^ The Adjective. 

§ 148. The Turkish adjective whether used as 
a predicate or as an attribute, remains unchanged, as 
in English (§ 79): 

j ^ 6y*.^" j\ ec kuchuk ditr the house is little. 

?z\ y ^y y beoyuh bir ade'm a great man. 

j:> JJ^^llIl ehnalar tatli dir the apples are sweet. 

^Lo\ iKi j, bebyuk ademler the great, men. 

The Derivative Adjective. 
§ 149. The derivative adjective which is called 

in Turkish ^j^ju^J 1 , is made by the addition of the 
following particles to the nouns. 

§ 150. I. J, ' J -li, -It, -lou indicates possession 

of the thing designated by the noun; as: 

j& sou water, ^j^s soulou watery, fluid. 

y. y&f place, J^_ yerli fixed in a place; native. 

j\ ev house, Jjl eoli that has a house; married. 

o\ at horse, J&\ ' JI' atli, atlou horseman. 

a. ojc iz'zet honour. y^j* iz'zetlou honorable. 

§ 151. With the proper names of men or places, 
the same affix indicates a native or an inhabitant of 
those places or connexion of those persons; as: 

lL^\ Ameriqa, Jll^.\ Ameriqali American. 
1 Is mi Mensoub Noun (or adjective) of relationship. 

76 V'Lr-Ji Lesson 9. V\ 

(jLic Osman j&\*J'c-' ^{J:c Osmanli Ottoman. 
L5\/ Turkiya JLS"^/ Turkiyali an inhab. of Turkey, Turk. 

(jjki'^A Merzifoun J'j-*^ Merzifounlou a native of Merzifoun. 

§ 152. The names of some European nations are 
formed differently, as they were introduced by the Vene- 
tians or Genoese; as: 

J^ixll ingiliz Englishman. Jnj^- j'inivizGenoeBe; Roman. 

J— 1\ i fransiz Frenchman. J^jL-1 ispanyol Spaniard. 

. A^zi nemtse, nemcli? Austrian. u^" talyan Italian. 

k^JjI^ja mosgof Russian; Muscovite. dll^Li filemeng Dutch. 

§ 153. II. 4j>- -je added to the names of nations 
forms the names of their languages; as: 
olU alman a German: <s&jlU almanja the German language. 

£jt ' ijjjl turk Turk: *^\J : turkje the Turkish language. 

^»j\ ermeni Armenian: a*z-^*j\ ermenije the Armenian language. 

§ 154. a>- -je if added to nouns (except the names 
of nations), expresses relation; as: 

■ocll. mil'letje national. a=-j\ evje household. 

4j>»< ^kiliseje ecclesiastical. <u=c.;U lisanja linguistic. 

§ 155. III. 4>- -je added to the adjectives and 

nouns forms the Diminutive, expressing rather, some- 
what, slightly, -ish; as: 

<^Jlj-^- hayvanja brutal, k-^j^j^- chojouqja childish. 

o=.^jL beyazja whitish. -ocjVjS qolayja rather easy. 

§ 156. j>. • dU- -jiq, -J4k\ -jaq, -jek, -juk. This 
is a modification of the above form, dictated by the 

principal of euphony (§ 52). If the word ends in J 
or fj these letters are omitted; as: 

^&.4*9j» qisajiq rather short. ^L.jjT' giizeljik beautiful little thing, 
jja-ljl azajiq just a little. ^-U^. birijik only (begotten). 
A/'Ji youmrou globular ; tumour: ^J^ji youmroujaq the plague. 

YV The Adjective. 77 

■$j> j> beoyuk: dXs^jjj, bebyiijek rather large. 
*Sy*^ kuchuk: <Z\*-j=*.S^ kiiclrujek, -juk smallish, tin}-. 

§ 157. IV. >■ -JL -ji, -jon added to a noun 

indicates the individual who exercises a trade or calliDg 
connected with the first noun; as: 

(j^X-jT^ ekmekji baker j^Lsy tufenk'ji gun maker. 

^y-j-^ soitjou water seller ^p-j.jC bekmezji treacle seller. 

§ 158. >■ -ji is also used for making adjectives 

or nouns designating persons who practise something 
expressed by the noun to which it is appended; as: 

=-l£0 douvaji who prays. (j*-^^ yedanji, -clu liar. 

L j»-lii ' ^ shaqaji, latifeji joker, storyteller. 

§ 159. V. ~y dXi -liq, -lik added to a noun, 

denotes a condition, nature or quality of the thing 

denoted by the original noun; as: 

dX>^S^ gejelik (night) gown. diJujT^ gunluk daily (pay . 

(jL'jl onlouq a coin of ten paras. (jli— j yitUq yearly (pay. 

^i-Uj^i yuzluk a coin of 100 paras. (jLjlliL panta lonlouq stuff for) pan- 

,../' talons. 

wUS.j be'ylik belonging to the state, government. 

Yirmi adamliq ydmek. Food sufficient for 20 persons. 

§ 160. VI. t- s$&, -siz, -souz, is a privative 

adjectival suffix, meaning without, void of, lacking, 

free from, -less; as: 

j-ojL paras'iz moneyless. J«J\ etsiz fleshless, thin. 

. ■, ,, . . • yuz'suz who has no face; 

j~o*o sousouz wateness, thirstv. r j»j J , , 

- 7 ^- 7 ^ ' • •s-^j'. shameless. 

jJjj 2/oJscw.z roadless; impolite. J~^U» saghsiz unhealthy, weakly. 

Derivative Xouns. 

§ 161. Derivative nouns are made by the addition 
of the following particles to the nouns; as: 

§ 162. I. ji ' dO -Uq, -Wk. Joined to nouns 

it expresses a place peculiar to the thing named, or a 
place where it abounds; as: 

78 ^ o-j^ Lesson 9. VA 

jJs-^L paboujlouq the place where the slippers or boots are left. 
j^a-ltl aghajliq, agliachliq a place where the trees abound. 
<ZXijja£ kebmiirluk a place where coal is deposited. 

^jiilb tashliq a place where stone abounds, stony; stone-pit. 

§ 163. This -lik, -liq added to an adjective, forms 
its abstract noun; as: 

jiljj\5 qizil'liq redness; rouge. ^j>\ ' ^-U — >\ eyilik kindness. 

„r chojouqlouq childishness, s\\ -• r • 7T l 

iSWJ? childhood. ^^ f a 9* rhh Poverty. 

§ 164. Names of trades or professions are also 
formed by adding lih, liq to the words denoting the 
persons who exercise them. Ex.: 

vllL^xjTl ekmeJcjilik the occupation of a baker. 

j^Ls-.M ashjiliq the occupation of a cook, cooking. 

§ 165. II. Jib ' JtlT -dash, -tash a fellow, a 

J^bM ad' dash, adash namesake. JMj£1 yashdash of the same age. 

tJ.Ul.jG * J^jJ^S ' JlbjG qarindash, qardash (womb-fellow) a brother. 

Jlbxj beg' tash, be'gdash the fellow of a prince. 

J^bojl arqadash companion, comrade. 

JM-L-j.} ' ^J-\jju^> dersdash, sinifdash a class-mate. 

§ 166. III. j>. ' dU • j; r ' j5C. -J2#, -jik; -jighaz, 

-jiye&. Diminutive nouns are made by the addition 
of these particles to the nouns. 

viU-jl i J>^j\ : ji»- j \ evjik, evjiyez, evjighaz a little house. 

l y^>\iS^ Jcitabjiq booklet. J^-^jl odajiq a little room. 

§ 167. Some Diminutives are terms of endear- 
ment; as: 

j».Uj ' j^-LL babajiq, babajighaz papa. 

j^-lll 'Ji*-ll\ ' jix>.4jj\ anajiq, anajighaz, arinejiyiz mama. 

ji».Jo qlzjighaz poor little girl. 


The Adjective. 

Ail TVords. 
MU'letler JcL* Nations Shekirler 


i Cities 

a. v— j^ a rob Arab. 
•>J> Jciird Kurd. 
^j\f? clierkes Circassian. 
sjkj\ arnavoud Albanian. 
a. pj>tt ajem Persian. 
rJJ roum Greek. 
jLL 'j^j) boid'ghar Bulgarian. 

Oj». chin China. 
jU^'jUL majar Hungarian. 


J^jL-1 istcunbol Constantinople, 
^iijjij venediJ: Venice. 
;_xix— I iske'nde'riye Alexandria. 
^j*— seJyi mounjousoun Pontusa. 
jjfcjl tsmir Smyrna. 
wis- 7m7e'& Aleppo. 
^r-ji qoudous Jerusalem. 
_b^*} gr>rtd Crete. 
<ilj viyana Vienna. 

§ 168. Note. Surnames are formed in Turkish by 
adding \ij\ oghlou to the name of the father, family 
and often to the name of the trade or occupation; as: 

i^W IpjI *y~->- Hasan oghlou Ali, Ali the son of Hassan, 
juH Lcjl ^sjLIS Qaiftqji oghlou Ahmed. But for the dig- 
nitaries p. ^I3 sade is used; as: e^j 111 JU Ktmal 
Pasha zade, son of Kemal Pasha. (§ 668, JYbfe). 

e'jnebi a foreigner. 

. clieltbi a no n -Moslem gen- 
*£*" tleman. 

r Nftt£ii Gentleman (Mon- 

'- ?r "- 5< sieur) [Fr.]. 

a. ^\lye\ esnaf artisan, trademan. 

. sari at vulg. zenahat art, 
a. ,l^»~*3 

f. jlj» cliezar Caesar. 

jlJLs sata/* he sells. 

a. ^jlio duk'kian shop. 



a.jUel tuj'jar merchant. 
a. Jit rt-^n sense, wisdom, 
a. w^t gliarib stranger, poor. 
a. ij^-i. sheytan Satan. 
jll yapar he makes. 
a. JUL baq'qal grocer. 

Exercise 17. 

1. JeoJCj k £•!->. ' Byi ' UjjI» . 2. A Constau- 
tinopolitan. a native of Amassia, of Smyrna, of Aleppo, 

80 ^ ^-jji Lesson 9. A* 

of Alexandria, of Japan, of China, of Montenegro, of 
Pontusa, of Jerusalem; a Viennese, a Cretan, a Hungarian, 
a Roman. 3. The Kurdish, German, Circassian, Italian, 
Arabian, Albanian, Persian, Greek, Bulgarian, Armenian 

languages; Chinese, Turkish. 4. a£-jj ' <^:o ' ^^CjuT 1 

a?=^:^^ ' *£ol ' Axilla. 5. Pertaining to the country, trade, 

craft, artisan, wisdom; devilish. 6. Slightly sweet; 
quite well; coldish; rather warm; rather high; fleshy. 
7. A stationer; a mender of old things; mule -driver, 
donkey -driver, horse-rider. 8. One who sells oil; who 
keeps a vineyard, a garden; one who sells bread, coffee, 
sugar, tomatoes, potatoes, milk, tobacco. 9. Stuff 
for a cloak, shirt, girdle, shoe, handkerchief. 10. Ten 
paras' worth; 1000 piastres' worth; 500 piastres' worth; 
a piastres' worth; one para's worth; changes [small 
pieces of money] (smaliness). 11. Without house, horse, 
books, donkey, coffee, tea; coffee without milk, coffee 
with milk. 12. Rather white, black, high, much, pretty, 
well. 13. Humanity; height; blackness; the profession of 
a teacher, cooking; boatmanship. 14. Fellow-traveller; 
co-religionist; sharer of the same room. 15. Beautiful 
little hands; a little pen; my dear grandmother. 

\A A*A Exercise 18. 
• ^ £ <S^^ J*-£ ^liy T* 1 T * ^ J ~ J ^* ^~~ A c^ 

ii,T[clerk]db*4)^» j». ^ 'lS^ uJCil^l^-jGi • <£-k) fj^J^* 

• jtU ><j ^-><j • jtU otS^-t^ Y *j3 Joy 3j£ ^i 

J,W <o ii^T dL- ^ • g\ ^Tjr ^ije • .ITS ^-4* ^jA* ^ 


,Ai The Adjective. 81 

\^ ^^V Translati( >n 19, 

1. Do you know French? — No, Sir, I know a little 
English. 2. I am a Constantiuopolitan ; I know Turkish 
well. 3. What" does that shopkeeper sell? — He sells 
to the villagers and citizens grapes, sugar, coffee; there 
are many such shops and shopkeepers in the villages 
and cities. 4. grocer! give me 20 paras' worth of 
bread, 10 paras' worth of cheese, 15 paras' worth of 
grapes and 2 piastres' worth of sugar. 5. Give me five 
piastres' worth of paper; this paper is rather yellow. 

6. Where is the salt-cellar? — It is here (bourada). 

7. There is no coal in the coal-seller's shop, the trade of 
coaling is not a clean one. 8. rc Art thou moneyless? 
thou art friendless' 5 . 9. You are a very wise man; you 
have sense, but your servant is a fool (without sense). 
10. Who is this cheesemonger and who is that iron- 
monger? — They are my friends. 

AX ^ Conversation. 

•J3 \$£j\ "Ji-ji »Mj f^\ 

r ^tT^jt 

• r+*\ o-^-^* ^^ ll/. 

.JX^OJ^ J-J^d r-j\ p.iL 1 

? » J-J> JfB ^T 

•jlj f»A <_rl^ jiiLifr jt 

? ^ jU 4«j!» Jj* 

*%*M tf->>U£^ 4 J> ; 1> 

? t* Jd jfojJjfi 

Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 

82 ) ♦ u-j^ Lesson 10. Af 

^ * l^A> Lesson 10. 

oU:^ The Pronouns. (Continued.) 

0. Interrogative Pronouns. ^l^iJ j\^> 

§ 169. The Interrogative Pronouns are the follow- 
ing. [The Interrogative sign ^ -mi is never used 
with them.] 

§ 170. JT kim? who? whoever? 

This is applied to persons, and is declined alone 
and with possessive affixes. 

? i>- X^Cr* se ' n him sin? who art thou? 
? j\ Xjl ? j\ f^l j\ J* S^ kim dir o? him o? o ~kim o? who is it? 

§ 171. Sometimes when there is no question, khn 
expresses the meaning of 'some 5 . 
{£Xi£^ ijtjZ^ iSS& ^S^kimi geldi Tcimi gitdi, some came others went. 

? j\j j^^? j\j vlA*^'? j\j p-^^" kimim var? kimin var? Icimi' var? 
whom have I? whom hast thou? whom has he? 
J^j ^-u^jf" kimsesi yoq he has nobody. 

? ,53£*-i kiminki' ? whose ? 

§ 172. *> ne? How? (with adjectives); what? 

(with nouns). 

It is applied to inanimate object and is declined 
alone and with possessives. 

? j\ <! ? j\ j^ «j ne' o? ne" dir o? What is it? 
? j£~,JL~)\ 4J ne istersiniz? What do you want? 

nem'? nen? nesi'? nemiz ? neniz ? neleri? 

Nem var? nin var? nesi' var? What have I? What hast thou? 

What has he? 

NSmiz dir? neniz' dir? What thing, part or belonging to us r 

to you, is it? 

? o<J = ojJ ne'de" ? at or in what? 

Ar The Pronouns. 83 

? vUIoaj ne'demek? "What does it mean? 
J<; = Jl'> nele'r'! What things! What wonderful things! 
? {jjypWi =* OJ^ ne'ichin? ni'clwun? ni'cliin? For what? Why? 

§ 173. I jCU ? JLS 1 harigi? harighi? Which? 

It is applied to persons and to inanimate objects 
without distinctions. It may be used either alone or 
with possessives, and is declined: 

? ^^U han'gisi? Which? 

? JoJsJU han'gimiz? Which of us? 

?j.vxiU han'gihiz? Which of you? 

? cSjuxlU harig'dan? Which of them? 

? 0^1* ? -^ ■ 5^ U ? ^-^ U Which? of — ? from — ? 

? w»liT*JjL han'giJcitab? Which book? ? of $\\* Which man? 

§ 174. ?^15 qach? How many? 

It is applied to pronouns and to inanimate objects, 
and may be used either alone or with possessives, and 
it is declined: 

» J t j^fi ?j£».l3 ? ^liga'cftlfirfc? qa'chrniz? qa'chi'? How many 

of us, of you, of them? 
? oJJjJ^VlS gwc.V gihide? In how many days? 

? eju>-l5 viij^ ay'in qachinda? On what (day) of the mouth? 

§ 175. ? VJ* na'sil? How? What sort of a 
thing? What kind? 

? :^T- . Usi na'sil s'tniz? How are you? 

? j^ >o\ j; J^al na'sU Wr arfe'm titr? What sort of a person is he? 
<—j\ ; _)^aJ ^,a /je'r na'sil ise In whatever way it may be. 

§ 176. 2^nije? What kind? How? 

k?jjui\ ocJ o\ jj &om ac?c'm nije ademdir? What kind of a man 
^ ^ ' is this man ? 

jjc^lc.^ 4.^.; r-lc.j jj What sort of a tree is this (tree)? 
§ 177. It is also used indefinitely: it then means 
how much? how manv? 

1 Qanghi is the old form, now it is obsolete. 


84 1 ♦ u-j:> Lesson 10. A<u 

^IajJ^ <tcJ niche or wi'^e' def atari How many times! 

iJ^4jA.^.l nijeyedek? nicheye'dekl Till how many times 1 

^U?cJ ' Jui| a^-.! ni'jeler? ni'cheler? ni'che ademler? How many 


7. Indefinite Pronouns. ^^ juJ? 
The Indefinite Pronouns are: 

§ 178. <c~*J> 4_^5 Zs fonse, kimesne anybody. 

These are applied to persons only, and are declined 
alone and with possessives. 

*jlj 4.~^.S ^ oljjl orada bir Tcimse var'mi? Is there anybody 

,Jjj 'C-.^-.i ' ,j y m <<~*J± Icimse yoq, ki' mesne yoq. There is nobody. 

j~.<~^5T kimsesiz' without anybody, without patron; 


§ 179. jS» qadar. 

Expresses quantity or number (§§ 199, 229). 

? dJL5| jji *J we" qadar ekmek? How much bread? 

? u * J±* <> ? jji *.j' we" qadar? ne" qadar gun? How many days? 

J-^ Jjl ' J-W jl ' jji ji ' jjJj j) So much. 

jjjs ;A» ' jjj dJU-<i ' jj5 dU.4jL.L 2/e'teV' qadar, yetejek' qadar, ye- 

tishejek' qadar So much as will suffice, enough. 

jjjj tlii.1 ' jji <i \ eshek' qadar, ayY qadar As (big) as an ass as a bear. 

jjJj Jj^jli parmaq' qadar As (small as a little) finger. 

§ 180. p. .a Zier each, every, -soever. 

Her is always an adjective and is used with all 
other indefinite pronouns. 
jo\ ys, ' a^J"^* ' ur a ^a 7ieV fce's, 7ieV kimse, Mr adem everybody. 

4J ^a Tier we" whatsoever. 
^U ^a 7ie7 ha'ngi whichever 

J. y* her' bir each, every. 
J: J 1 , y* her' birimiz every one of us. 
*\X j A her yerde every where. 
^5 ^a 7teV ftim whoever, whosoever. 

ao The Pronouns. 85 

:fCcJ; .& her ki'miniz whoever of vou. 
<Sj ^a her' biri every one of them. 
fjr >^i\ y* her ikisi both, each, either. 

§ 181. j\ j t ' a. jsao bir az, ba'zi some (§ 135). 

Bazi means a certain number of persons or tilings. 

^lol Jom ba'zi ademler ' j^-^.r^ ba'zi kimseler Some people. 

*i^ ^Jz*} ' oj { Ja^ ba'zi de'fa, bazl Iter re sometimes. 

iSjLk* 'j^L^iiu ' U^J*w ba'zimiz, ba'zimz, ba'z'ilari some of us, 

of you, of them. 
^—.Jnu ba'zisi some people, some of them. 

§ 182. -Bir as expresses a small quantity, 
a few (§ 135). 

j^> j\ ^j ' ■tX<S^\ j\ ji bir az eknu'Jc, bir' az sou a little bread, water. 
°J^i j\ y some money; <i J> 1 ^j Mr a*? some of it. 

§ 183. k$j. bir qach a few, several (§ 135). 
\J-jjS- r^^>! &*'** flflc/t' ghouroush a few piastres. 
*.M r-15 ^ bir qach' ade'm a few persons. 
i}j\ Offfij. bir qach gun e'v'vel several days ago. 

§ 184. a!1\ or *!£> ' a, j-\ ' p. J 5Co bashqa, 
a-kher', diger' other, another; as: 

/ol jj *!£> ' a$\ jj-\ ' oljj ^5Co another man. 
Aili *1Lj bashqa' bashqa' separately. *»-4a±j somewhat apart. 
iSji<kt\ * tS^j~\ ' iSjtJ^t* bashqalarl, akhe'rleri. digerleri others. 

§ 185. a. 0% filan a certain (definite or indefinite 
person or thing), so-and-so. 

**\ o^ filari adem so-and-so, such a one. 
fj> u^s filan shey such a such a thing. 
oJ^j 0^ filan vaqitda at such and such a time. 

§ 186. a. 43^ a. «J*- • , Piaffe, jurnle, hep all. 

lie <L*- ' lie »o5 kiaf'feyi ale'm, jiim'le alem all the world. 

86 l*.-u"JJ Lesson 10. a*\ 

^J*}\ *x§-'^a}\ ^a /)?'/; ademler, jum'le ademler all men. 
J*a.jft ' ><!*•' Jy**£b kiaf'femiz, jum'lemiz, hepimiz all of us. 
^a_.a ' ^aJL*-' fj^^^Maf'f^sif jumlesi, he'pisi all of it. 

§ 187. 4^'jVjI l u^jj olaiija, butun whole. 

<j •*> 6 w "j J &»'***' £un the whole day. 
Lo 6jjj j butun* dunya the whole world. 
^-^JVjI viliojlji paranin olanjasi all the money. 
ji j. a^VjI olarijam bou dour this is all I have. 
pojlj <9c.lVjl all my money. ^S\ oyj\ ^ e whole loaf (aec.) 

§ 188. r ^> hicli nothing, [never] (§§ 131— 132). 
<5 »j ~-a /iic7i' &tri none. a-*JT ., t^-a fcicft' bir kimse nobodv. 

~ / - &.' --•(!.- 

^Jij y T^jfc 7^*c/i' bir vacnt not at any time, never. 

OU'da.4 JMfda-Ja-at Remarks. 

§ 189. a) The English pronoun one [pi. ones] 
after an adjective is not expressed in Turkish; as: 
Have you the fresh loaf? — No! I have the old one. 
Taze somoun sendemi? — Khayr ! bayati' bcndc dir. 
Two old lions and two young ones. The little ones. 
Iki ikhtiyar ve iki genj arslanlar. Kuchukler. 
The great ones of the world. Dunyanm beoyukUri. 

§ 190. b) Somebody is expressed by ^ k ^ x 
Inn, birisi. 

Somebody is asking for you. Biri seni cJwgJnnyor. 
Somebody is knocking at the door. Qapouyou vourouyorlar. 

§ 191. c) Each other, one another, are expressed 

by p. ^J^jSC ' iSj.j. ' (Sjj.X yeMigeri, birbiri, birbirlcri. 

They love each other. Birbirini sevirler. 

We will help each other. Birbiri erimize yardim'Mejcyiz. 

You see one another. Yekdigerifiizi georur'siuliiz. 

jUll* Misal'Ur Examples. 

Chiftjinin beyaz qoyounlari Has the farmer the white sheep? 

var'm'i? . 
Khayr', siyahlar onda dir. No! he has the black ones. 

Hojanin bebyuk oghlou bourada Is the teacher's elder son here? 

ml dir? 

AY The Pronouns. 87 

Khayr ifendim! ol biri' bou- No, Sir, that one (= the other) 

rada dir. is here. 

Bou qaUmlerin her han'glsi. Either of these pens. 

Hang'isinx istersiftia? Which will you have? 

Han'gisi oloursa oUoun. Either, whichever it may be. 

Dostlarhninliieli'birisi ecde deyil Neither of my friends was at 

idi. home. 

Xc onoii interim, ne ol'birini. I will have neither. 

Nevar? derdifi ne" ? What is the matter? 

JC^J Words. 
K.t>\ ishji workman. C*>-2> yetgin ripe. 


j. J* ' e>jL dolou full. p. *li. kham unripe, 

a. ^1*. jins kind. j'^ji pounar fountain, 

a. ^l^J> qiymet value. \j\ ara relation, 

a. 1-u-L. ma da except. ^^ chift pair, 

p. ^^u. sliayird pupil. jy*jfo-lclursh thief. 

f • .jJui Exercise 20. 
♦ j^ jjI Jj9- O^jw ©si- (^jU^» vl^OjUid vj,fijjj ^ • ji Jul ^S 

%yj\ ' Jill ' Ij^U o*j>^ J 3U5"" — ? & cf^i ^jL<2u j 

■? j~^~*fj ' j^Ui ^s L>' <o^ j^jut ° *J->^ r^* J*.*** *^^ ^£# ^ 

* - -* ** r~ ~v * v"* -^ 

88 ) ♦ ^rj^ Lesson 10. AA 

Y \ A^-j Translation 21. 

1. How many lessons have the boys? They have 
five lessons every clay. 2. There are many thieves in 
these mountains. 3. God is the father of all men. 
4. What kind of a young man is he? — He is a man 
sometimes good, sometimes bad. 5. ''Everything has its 
time". "Everything has its place' 5 . 6. Who were with 
Mr. Joseph? — His wife and some of his grandchildren, 
7. There were two thieves: one on one side, the other 
on the other side. 8. Are Mary and Ann here to-day 
(this day)? — Neither of them is here. 9. Have you 
any friend in this village? — Yes, several of the rich 
families in this village are my friends. 10. Has Nejibe 
a white rose? — No, but she has a red one. 11. Are 
there many mosques and churches in this country? — 
Yes, Sir, every city and village has some churches or 

a!^ Conyersation. 

. j^ yy y\^^ y\ JUa»; ! jj> ? J-^ y\ r^\ y* 

! <o <uj1 j\j ^Ji z^y l -^Ji J ^j ? >V ->b ^-*-£ 

. jJJy.j*> j\ oyy l - JJ&* y\ ? J-*1*j* J^J^ 

*jS^ *~*jf~^ «^ (Qui vive?) ? j\ gj\ 

fjm^t] ' jSgl J!y& <o <Jy r*J* ? ^fcil ' tf iSj^J) J* J** yj-^iU 
. jjjLu O 
• J* iSy? viii.U» (Jj[a l£j ? j:> j5*i y3 <3©AlM> y$y r 


Numeral Adjectives. 


^ \ \jrtJl> Lesson 11. 

*\±s\ *LJ Numeral Adjectives. 

§ 192. The numerals are of four kinds: Cardinal, 
Fractional, Ordinal and Distributive numbers ['aIL^I $\j&\ 

— ^ 

1. Cardinal numbers. Adadl asliye. 

1 ^ 62'r 1 30 jjTj\ ofOMZ r« 

3 rjl weft r 50 JH #7t ©♦ 

4 oji c7eo/-£ t, 60 ^poJ \ altmisli !♦ 

5 u^i 6e-<ft 70 u~*-*i yetmish V* 

6 jl \ aft£ 1 80 0^- seksen A* 

7 t5J^ 2/ecZi V 90 <jLiL doqsan ^♦ 

8 J.x~ sefc/2 A 100 jj>_ i/ii^f !♦♦ 

9 jy\s doqpuz \ 200 jj^l &'*' y&8 f • • 

10 uj\ on !♦ 300 Jjr?j\ uchyuz r** 

11 ^rijl on Mr M 1000 dL 5m !♦♦♦ 

12 ^ uJl ! on •-** If 10000 dL <jj| on 6i# !♦♦♦♦ 

13 r j\ <jj\ ! on 6eft ir 100000 viL j* ytte bin \ 

20 ! oV - i yi rm i f ♦ million 0.^ m ity° n 

21 ^ o*J^ i 2/* rw * Wf ■ f ) milliard jUu milyar 

J5o?< sene Kristosoun bin doqouz yuz iJci senesi dir 
This is the year 1902 (of Christ). A. D. 

Hijretinbin uchyuz yirmi senesinde oM~,4l- fjj^i Jjf*j\ *^J v -^-v^ t4 ' 
In the 1320th year of the Hejira. 

§ 193a. A hundred, one hundred; a thousand, one 

thousand are in Turkish simply jy ' dL ynz, bin. 

90 n t>ji Lesson 11. * v ♦ 

It is not common in Turkish to say twelve hundred, 
twenty five hundred, but simply bin iki yu#, iJci bin beshyuz. 

§ 193b. For the sum of 100,000 piastres in finan- 
cial circles the word yfilz j]y load, burden is used, 
and in the olden times the sum of 500 piastres was 

called <uJ> hese bag, purse. 

i) y (jj\ on yuk one million. ojl> <u~T ,JLj besh kese para 2500 piastres. 

§ 194. The hours of the da}' and night are ex- 
pressed as follows (§ 78): 

Sa'at qach dir? What o'clock it is? — Sa'at yarim dir. It 
is 12.30 o'clock. 

Sa'at debrt diir. It is 4 o'clock. — Sa'at yedi bouchouq dour. 
It is 7.30 o'clock. 

§ 195. Minutes are reckoned as follows: 

Beshe on var j\j jjl *1> Ten minutes to five. 

Iliiyi besh' gechmish f JL+sp \jii J^l Five minutes past two. 

§ 196. A person's age is expressed thus: 
?l>-oJ^L ^ qach yashinda sh'i? How old are you? 
pi\ oJlilj J^3 qirq yashindayim. I am 40 years old. 

§ 197. Numeral Adverbs are formed by joining 

A»lz ' e) def'a, Mr re to the cardinals; as: 

Bir def'a once; iki def'a twice; uch ker're thrice. Debrt 
def'a besh yirmi eder four times five makes twenty. 

§ 198. The Tariative numerals are formed by 

adding {ja*j&. ' J^>- ■ ^xJi>- ' Jul>- jins, jinsden; cheshid, 

Bir jinsden of one kind; iki cheshid'den of two kinds; uch 
jins, uch jinsden three sorts. 

§ 199. Some thirty, some forty is expressed 

by jjS qadar; as (§§ 179, 229): 

Otouz qadar, qirq qadar. Some fifty persons El'li adem qadar. 

§ 200. The word or between two numbers in 
English is omitted in Turkish. 

Jki uch gun some two or three days. Besh on adem qadar 
some five or ten men. Debrt besh ghouroush some four or five piastres. 

M Numeral Adjectives. 91 

§ 201. The Multiplicative numbers are generally 

formed by the addition of 0£ qat fold to the cardinals; as: 

dL* tek simple, single. *». Jjy yuzlerje hundreds of. 

J^JL yalhliz only, single. ^JLx-j birder je thousands of. 

vIWj^x birijik only (begotten). o-jkjJu milynnlarja millions of. 

CjIS $>\ iki qat twice. <iji oj: debrt kebslie \ 

oG rj\ licit qat triple. ji-jU. * U- e7mm charshlj 

o£ oj^ debrt qat quadruple. ols jy_ yiiz qat a hundred fold. 

§ 202. The Collective numbers are: 

p. cJL>. c&tfi a pair of boots). ill> fciQtjn a set, lot. 

p. CjL». c/n/^c paired, double. ^Xiy> <cLz r double-barrelled gun. 
f. "CjJj^ douzina a dozen [It.]. f. <~- j^c. grosa a gross [It.]. 

Mj ' crl Afcj £e'Z: mate ; one of the pair. jjj~> suru a flock. 

§ 203. When using a numeral with a noun, the 
Turks frequently introduce a secoud noun between the 
two, which is quite superfluous in European languages, 
but occasionally employed in English, as c ten head of 
cattle, six sail of ships' etc. This noun varies according 
to the nature of the things denned by the numeral. 

For men it is ju nefer individual; for beasts it is ^,\j 
res head; for bulbs it is JH bash] for ships, gardens, 
fields, letters, maps it is -uL* qit'a piece; for cannons, 
ships and villages, it is ©jl pare, para] for things usually 
4ita ' 3Jic dane, tane, aded] as: 

S*~ s ' J" Si} Mi nefer aske'r two soldiers; debrt res bargir 
four pack-horses; uch qit'a mektonb three letters; altl (qit'a tarla six 
pieces of ground; ye'di bash sogli an seven bulbs of onions; on pare' 
keby ten villages; se'kiz aded tufeng eight guns; bir bab maghaza 
a magazine (store); bir qUa arzouhal a petition. 

The common people uses the word 4Jb for ail these 
different words ; as: iki dane asger, debrt done bargir etc. 


) ) ^rj^ Lesson 11, 


Jdi Words. 

<jjs-jb doghdou was born. 

ojasi* penjere window. 

r*>*j^ yazdim I wrote. 
f. ojt gazeta newspaper. 

uJ^ fouroun oven. 
a. aU- hamam bath. 
VjL? torZa field. 

jji.1 aJchor stable. 

a. \j+X\ el-hamra Alhambra. 
p. iS\_j^ sir ay castle, palace, 
a.^c asr century, 
a. Ajz dirhem dram, 
p. <jli. khan inn. 
p. <jL^j deyirman mill. 
^_U- cliayir pasture, 
a. .i*a s?/ir zero. 


' M 

YY *J^} Exercise 22. 
O^ jj-b ojl oOiJjrU ♦ j'j JW> jj-lj JJI eSj^j^-l T ♦ ^Ji^ 

' ^u *b i ' a^L 4*1=; sr-\ ' Vjt 4*L; i \ va ' M, ^ 

A^iajjU- 4*la3 Oj2 ^ ♦ <^3^ ^yS^* 4*Ja3 .^^ J JW^ 

^•©•,\rt \ . jjbl 3jpOj' ^^ uj 1 -j* j£ Oj 1 d^j' : 3^ A 

T,rio,*\YA ' AAV,i\o 

\r Numeral Adjectives. 93 

XT 4&j Translation 23. 

1. An oke is 400 drams; a batman is six okes. 
2. My father is 70 years old, my mother 62, my brother 
40 years old. 3. Take 200 (units) eggs, 500 walnuts, 
50 pounds of apples and three batmans of pears. 
4. What is the name of that book? — It is the Thou- 
sand and One Nights. 5. The palace of Alhambra has 
999 windows. 6. Here are two sets of cloths. 7. There 
were two kinds of handkerchiefs, a blue one and a black 
one. 8. This cloth has three folds. 9. There are 40 
loads of money in the bank. 10. I have three dozen 
pencils. Twelve dozens make a gross. 11. The shoe- 
maker has three pairs of shoes. 12. How many paras 
make a piastre? 

Ax |$S Conversation. 

• j\j W^j" CLa* 3 J* jt. J ^->j\ ? jJ^» jlj vlA>.lfl*7 

.jJul (_rj/- •iXj ^ ? j-L\ J-J^ r^ ojl <—^{jj\ 

.jj ojjj^S ^-bj^y «3<ob^ ?jj oift^' 5*-" ^bj-^y 

.jjjpjl ^Xaw^ «lijJu3) Jl& ?jJu-5^(iJui\ ^-4-£ 

.j^ r*-'^" *j J 5 6 ' ?J^ J* "r*--^ oXtyj\ *> 

. r\ jfOlj ' j-V3ji Al—^i"" ?j\j <^<o*kj| 

•J^ J-->V r^- ?jjJUfl] j£<bj\ 

•js fib 5i^ uJl ? J-> **b r^ ^JJ^ ,/. 

. j\j 4i b Oji JjjS Jjj ? j\j 4ib 7T^ 0<~J^ ^ 

. Jj — -<iaJjU- Ljjj\ ? J^ ^-aLjjU- <j *Jai Jli S #J L^T' 

94 I r u-J-> Lesson 12. ^ 

^ Y u^i> Lesson 12. 

^l-ul *LJ Numeral Adjectives. (Continued.) 

2. Fractional numbers. Adadi kesriye. 

§ 204. The Fractional numbers are derived from 
the Cardinals; the denominator is put in the locative 
and the numerator in the nominative, and the latter 
follows the former. 

j- oX>j\ onda bir one tenth, ^A oj-tj beslide iki two fifths, 

V,. = y*o, 7o = % 

Yuzde iki, 2 °/0 = Y •/. • 
^jC oAX-j 6mtfe yirmi 20 %0 = *♦*/♦♦ ' 

§ 205. Sometimes one of the words p. ^l ^>a?/, 

a. *>-jfiz, a. 4.^a>- ft&s'se, a. ^JJ qisim, all meaning e a portion 5 , 

is introduced: 

Deort pay da biri, debrt juzde biri, debrt liissede biri, jl z== '/ i * 

Yirmi parchada on debrdii, 14 A>0 = /V« ■ 

§ 206. Other fractional numbers are as follows: 

iSj[> ' fj[> ' J j.a- y ' a. v_i^ ' p. J yaro, yarim, bouchouq, nisif, nim 

r " r * r * ' half, 

a. ajJ ' pJ fr<m whole (number). 

p. iljja. cheyrek a quarter. 

a. *jj ro?«Z>, ouroub one fourth. 

OUJUL* Muta-la-at Remarks. 

§ 207. There are three Turkish, one Arabic and 
one Persian word used for half (§ 75). Yarim is used 
before a noun, like an adjective: yarim sa'at, yarim 
(Ima. jBouchouq is always used in conjunction with 
a cardinal number: iki bouchouq gun. Yarl, nisif 
are used like a noun: elmantn yarisi, hitabifo nisfi the 

\9 Numeral Adjectives. 95 

half of the apple, the half of the book. The use of 
nim is very rare in Osmanli-Turkish : nim resmiv half 

official (sources, papers). 

§ 208. The Persian fractional number dij\». char y eh 
a quarter, commonly spelt £J^>. cheyrek is used for 
a quarter of an hour or of a mejidiye: f. Cjj^ qart 

is used also for a quarter of a mejidiye: a. *_p roub, 

on roub is used to express one fourth of an arshin (yard) 
and sometimes of a piastre. 

Sa'at bire cheyrek var. It is a quarter to one. 

Bir arshin uch ouroub. One and three quarter yards. 

Elmanin oqqasi debrtden roub eksiye diV|Qneokeof applesis worth 
j:> <<li"! fuj (jJSj* tr<5j\ vllilU J 3 3 ; 4 piastres. 

Uch mejidiye qarti. Three quarters of a mejidiye. 

Besh mejidiye cheyreyi. Five quarters of a mejidiye. 

3. Ordinal numbers. Adadi vasfiye. 

§ 209. These are formed from the cardinals by 

adding the termination <£- -m&i, -inji, -ounjou, -imjii. 
The first has, however, an irregular form also, which 

is diJbl ilk, which is corrupted from ^Ojl evvelki 'first' 

1 st d?"Ji birinji. 8 th (^J^- sekizinji 

2 nd <j*^>\ ikinji. 9 th u *&l3j3L doqouzounjou. 

3 rd tjx*>.j\ uchunju. 10 th fj&Zj\ onounjou. 

4 th ^scJjji deordunju. 20 th u «tei*>j; yirminji. 

5 th u ?^-i; beshinji. 100 tlx c^'^ji yuzunju. 

6th j^lT <*?««/*. 1000^ ^^j bftltitfi. 

7 th i£»-*j yedinji. the last iJj^a soft. 

Ingiliz Qlrali yedinji Edward. Edward VII, king of England. 

OUilL* Muta-la-at Remarks. 

§ 210. In compound numbers, only the last 
unit assumes the ordinal form; all the others remain 
cardinals, as: 

acld 1 <jj\ jy jj">jz vlL Bin doqouz yuz on altinji 1916 tb . 

96 )Y i_rj:> Lesson 12. M 

§ 211. The date is expressed as follows: 
Bou gun ayin qachinji gunu dur? Bou gun agin qacM dir? 
Agin qacliV dir? What day of the month it is to-day? 

Bou gun ayin sekizi dir. To-day is the 8 tlx of the month. 
Mayisin yirmi debr'dunju gunu dur. It is the 24 th of May. 

§ 212. Distinctive. There is no special form for 
the distinctive adverbs, the ordinals are used directly 
without any alteration: 

Firstly Birinji; Secondly Ikinji] Tenthly Onounjou. 

4. Distributive numerals. Acladi tevziyiye. 

§ 213. Distributive numerals are formed by the 

addition of j_i_ -er, -ar to the cardinal numbers ending 
in consonant, and jl— -slier, -shar to those ending 

in fS y«- 

jj>, hirer one each; j^ jj> % hirer hirer one by one. 

^Lf.>\ ikisher' two each;^Lx»\^A^o\ ikisher' ikisher two by two. 

jr?j\ uclier three each; j>-j\ j>-j\ ucher ucher three by three. 

jsj* deordir' four each; jsj* jzj* deorder deorder four by four. 

^t.:\\ altishar six each ;^t.:\ \ j2~d \ altishar' altishar six at a time. 

jjy yuzer 100 each. ^f~t hiner' a thousand each. 

§ 214. When there are hundreds or thousands 
in the number, the ar or shar comes after the numeral 
expressing the number of hundreds, or thousands, and 
nothing is put after yuz or bin. 

vlL) ^JLUl j jj yuz el'lisher hin 150000 each, 
jjj ^ZJ^A ikisher yuz 200 each. 
vlLj ^rj\ uclier hin 3000 each. 

§ 215. The Ottoman -Turkish Calendar. There 
are three principal calendars or reckonings of time in 
Turkey. The Christians usually observe the Christian 

calendar, which is called either ^>L« 70 jt tarikhi mcelacl 

the date of the Birth (of Christ) [mcelad meaning birth- 
day, Christmas -day], or Kristosoun tarikhi the date of 
Christ. In this are used the Latin months: January, 
February etc. (Iloanvar, Pedirvar). 


Numeral Adjectives. 




. 1 





















































































•5 s 




























.— . 

































• — 





™ » 




t < 










V C* 










v CD 















































T ^ 









Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 

98 ir _rj:> Lesson 12. «^ 

§ 216. Among the Ottoman Turks there are two 
calendars, the Sacred and the Civil. The lunar year 
is adopted for the sacred and the solar for the civil. 
The Sacred year is dated from the Hejira or Flight, the 
first year of which Era began with the new moon of 
the 15 th of July A. D. 622. The lunar year is 10 days 
shorter than the solar year, it is used in religious 
chronology and religious Law (sher'i). The months 
are reckoned differently from ours; they run thus: Mu- 
har'rem, Sefer etc.; and sherif 'sacred 3 is always added 
to their names; as: Shabani sherif. 

§ 217. The other is the Civil or the Financial 
calendar: the first day of which coincides with the first 
day of March 0. S., and is now two years behind the 
Sacred. It is commonly used in all matters except those 
pertaining to religion. The months are: March, Nisan 
etc. — , the old Arabic and Syrian calendar, with slight 
changes. The year 1902 corresponds to the year 1320 
of the Hejira and 1318 of the Financial or Civil year. 

§ 218. The common people have a different 
reckoning of the months, running thus: Zamharir etc. 
(See the Table.) 

§ 219. There is another popular division of the 
year into two parts: the summer and the winter divisions: 

^1$ Qasim, St. Demetrius' Day, the 26 th Oct. 0. S., is 
popularly reckoned as the beginning of the winter season, 

this has 180 days. ,j*UI j&>- I'hidlr-el'lez, St. George's 

Day, the 23 rd April 0. S., is celebrated as the beginning 
of the summer season, which lasts for 185 or 186 days. 

§ 220. The New Style calendar is called in Turkish 
alafranqa and the Old Style round (Greek). 

§ 221. The Ottoman Turks commence their 
reckoning of time from sunset. This is with them the 
twelfth hour, an hour later it is one o'clock, and so 
on till the twelfth hour in the morning (6 a. m.), when 
they begin again. This is called alatourqa (Turkish), to 
distinguish it from European time, which is called 
alafranqa (French, European). 

^ Numeral Adjectives. 99 

i£j Words. 

a. tojLT tarifch date. a. t£J£»loly t'e'/ai ££dt died, 

a. <ijL~. musavi equal. i£XH alindi was taken. 

b\ ' *M a(7a island. ojla ' oj* qara land. 

a. v_5^Ual. mutesadif corresponding, p. o-r-^i bakh'shish present. 

Y t ^-JU> Exercise 24. 

dL.,U *uj/ilT ^4^ JL uer f] 3 ^ ti^ Jj*fcJ \ 

_,^ ^fAov dL~^* ^t j» • ^jdT <j,f Jr^^ 

•jJ33Ual* 4Ja>.) li^'j'. ^-^J' Ufo <C~- j> «— & Z* u^a^J ^ 

♦ p aj ei ^l^J.J j^ ^i gjl o*£p dk Lo * * »j£j J^~^7 ^Jf 

T 4^J? Translation 25. 

1. April is the fourth month of the year, October 
the tenth and December the twelfth. 2. He is in his 
sixtieth year; and my father is in his 68 th year. 3. Give 
them each 10 piastres. Give those children a present of 
five piastres each. 4. A para is one fortieth of the 
piastre. A month is one twelfth of the year. 5. Come 
six by six. In the middle of the year. 6. Six per cent, 


100 )r o-J-i Lesson 13. |«« 

50 per thousand. 7. We are in the third year of the 
twentieth century. 8. Is Ali a good man? — No, Sir! 
he is in prison four fifths of the time. 9. At twelve 
o'clock, or a quarter to twelve, I shall be here (I am). 
10. 4 Leon VI., the Jast 3 king of ^ilicia, died at Paris 
in 1393, Nov. 19 th , in the 60 th year of his age. 

<u(5^» Conversation. 
cilS oj^ ~j\ d\i—«jli dX.ll ? ji jjjj iJojl dJii- 

. *jj \ *J ©jl ,jjl jjJ ?iijj 1 AJOjl £>13 ^J-^>\ dXi<*_*>l jj 

^ ^}^t> Lesson 13. 

^-i^j oUj^ Degrees of Comparison. 

§ 222. In Turkish, as in English, there are three 
degrees of comparison, the Positive, the Comparative 
and the Superlative. 

§ 223. The Comparative degree is generally ex- 
pressed by putting the word with which the comparison 
is made in the ablative case, and leaving the adjective 

unaltered. The word U> drr/m 'more' is sometimes 

put before the adiatftaa^ 'for the saW/qK emphasis, or 
to prevent ambieank^x as: , a 

\ ♦ ) Degrees of Comparison. 101 

}yy u-^ Cx ben senden bebyug'um (bebyiXyum) I j am ]^ er 
\yy U^ u-^- ^>. &* w senden dalia beoyug urn \ an ^ ou# 

jS}>y.^a tao tjjkixlj^ \ja <jj> y ; j-^y^o Cj^S-'ijz \j& uy y 

Bou gun hava dunkinden sovouq dour, Bou gun hava dunkinden 
daha sovouq dour. To-day the weather is colder than yesterday. 

§ 224. The Superlative degree is in general ex- 
pressed by the word fjl en, prefixed to the adjective; as: 
* Us ^XS^i J| en yuksek dagh the highest mountain. 
\ja ^y-j^s iJi en sovouq hava the coldest weather. 

§ 225. The word en is sometimes omitted: 

^Li i)^Lo\ adamlarhl qabasi the rudest of men. 

jjJLi Sjiy ^^y*- Hayvanlarin bebyiiyu fil'dir. The largest of [all] 

the animals is the elephant. 
Elmalarln e'yisini sech Choose the best of the apples. 

§ 226. The words dl> pek very, a. :>\>5 siyade, 

^>ll asliiri 'exceedingly' are used to signify an ex- 
cess of any quality above what is requisite, as it is done 
in English by prefixing the adverbs 'too' or Very' to 
adjectives; as: 

jjjjtjjj vll. pek' yorghoundour he is very tired. 

jjjly. <oljj ziyade" bdhalidir it is too expensive. 

jjjjko t£y£.\ a shirt sovouqdour it is too cold. 

§ 227. Other superlatives are formed in a way 
peculiar to Turkish, by prefixing to certain adjectives 
a syllable somewhat similar in sound, commencing with 
the same vowel and consonant, or the same vowel, and 

ending with u V j,; as: 

,jtfLi pj bim beyaz very white, exceedingly white. 

ap achiq very open. qap qara quite black. 

yam yassi very flat. sip* sivri very sharp. 

sap saghlam very healthy, sound, sim' siyah very black. 

tas' tamam very complete. dop dolou quite full. [right. 

beds' beoyuk very big, great. dos' doghrou quite straight, quite 

Oliis-M* Mulahazat Observations. 
§ 228. Spoken Turkish has the singular usage 


)r ^rjz Lesson 13. 

i »r 

of repeating nouns, adjectives and verbs, substituting 
in the repetition an m for the first letter of the word, 
if it begins with a consonant, and prefixing an m if it 
begins with a vowel, for the purpose of generalizing 
the idea contained in the word so repeated [compare the 
English shilly-shally, the French pele-mele, etc.]; as: 

Kitab mitab boul'madim. I sought for books or anything of 
the kind, but found nothing. 

Duk'kian mukian ev mev bir shey qal'madi. Not a shop or 
anything like one remained. 

Eoinizin qouyousou mouyousou yoq'mou? Has your house a 
well, a cistern, a fountain? etc. 

Ekmeyi getir, qourou mourou ne'oloursa olsoun. Bring the 
bread, no matter if it be somewhat dry or crumbled. 

Sacln niacin yoq'dour. He has not a hair nor anything 
like one. 

Further: Oufaq tefeq. Little trifling matters. 
Eyri biiyru. Zigzag, serpentine. 

§ 229. Certain idiomatic English phrases used in 
expressing comparison are expressed in the following 
way (§ 179). 
as ... as ... is expressed by jji qadar, which 

as much as 
as little as 
as few as - 
as far as — 

as near as — 
as long as — 
as short as — 

UJJJ\ J- 1 - 9 ~ 

is not repeated 
as in English. 

— qadar choq 

— qadar Jcuchuk 

— qadar az 

— qadar ouzaq 

— qadar yaqin 

— qadar ouzoun 

— qadar q\ssa 

Shekerim qadar qalivem var. I have as much coffee as sugar. 

Sheker bal qadar tatli dir. Sugar is as sweet as honey. 

01 qadinin qizlari qadar [choq] oghlanlart var dir. That 
lady has as many boys as girls. 

Atimiz bou at qadar eyi deyil dir. Our horse is not good as this. 

Ingilterra qadar ouzaq bir mahale gitdi. He went to a place 
as far as England. 

Gunler shimdi qishdaki qadar qis'sa dir. The days are now 
as short as in the winter. 

E.shek qadar iri idi. It was as big as an ass. 

01 vaz Bebyulc Perhiz qadar ouzoun oudou. That sermon was 
as long as Lent, 

1 *r Degrees of Comparison. 103 

JrJo Words. 
a. J-ilo sadta loyal, true. a. ojjli faij'de use, advantage. 

^rtt\ «(//i?r heavy. '^-*~' SM"fc^ vinegar. 

a. ^Juk^. hafif light (in weight), a. >U1 o7a best, excellent, 
a. 0-^ rim den metal. ^aS^ lieyfli gay. 

f. t>T>L_ : platin platinum. a.JVs Jcmmil sober, grave. 

a. lli zalim cruel. a.t.aL%i qouc'vetli strong. 

t „ [risonwith. 

a. ojli /are mouse. Jj 4 ^ baqaraq looking, in compa- 

Oj^jy qourshown lead. a. A-iJ! elbet'te of course. 

CrvfC^S" hiskin sharp. <i^ 60// stature. 

Proper Names ojj^ Haroon Aaron. ti^'U Hanri Henry. 
<£jy Noori Luke, Lucas. <>jj> Nooriye Lucy. 

T^ ^A Exercise 26. 

C-C5djl JU; *~ • .P -A«3 , < — leJbte iJ 1 JaS • jJbjtel ill (juMo 

•js jLTlU vJjJI ! *l^l j^ — ] jJU* j) I <fju- j I r . j^ ^Li>- 
UaSju- ^juj& ! aj^-jI OjI — ? j.x~« jlj ,«-**> I U3 e :U 

di*^ — i jj^yCL,^ }W i)i i .j3 M^i 3j>- b^s^y 

— ? jjui^~-iil> £]! d^V- .j3 JJ^I J_}U J^jl £Jj^j, fjl 

JjA3l Ai8jlj ^aS^ «j3 l^^ 1 lS^ VliC) ill J U-iil ill 

4j£r >** j^->1j ^ * >&&$ >** {J^>t* ex f\ A •&£? 

db^ Oj^ M • jlj (5jj^lT"jr ^,J j^ J n * • jIj <^J£ jj 

104 \r u*js Lesson 13. \ *\, 

TV 4J3-J Translation 27. 

1. Mr. Luke is taller than I am, but he is not the best 
in the class. 2. To-day is hotter than yesterday. 3. Iron 
is heavier than stone. Gold is more precious than silver, 
but iron is the most useful metal in the world. 4. Which 
is lighter: a pound of wool or a pound of lead? — Of 
course a pound of wool is as light as a pound of lead. 
5. Your knife is as sharp as mine: but it is not as long 
as mine. 6. This young gentleman is much gayer than 
his friend. 7. The last week has been the worst of the 
year; it was very cold. 8. What kind of a man is 
Mr. Joseph? — He is a very good and useful man. 
9. That mountain is higher than the other mountains 
of the country. 10. Henry is rich, Hassan is richer, 
and Ali is the richest of all. 

<U I^S Conversation. 

. JJ.3jj i< y % oJl» ojlji oAlj ? ^ j\j ojL oJJL-. 

. ajJT jLi dU: jli^i j**>_ ? iJjJ \ a; ^j^jU. 

t*o Noun with Prepositions. 105 

^ * \jrL>$ Lesson 14. 

*—l 4»l y>. ^i ^ Noun with Prepositions. 

§ 230. Iu the Turkish language there are no 
prepositions, properly so called, but their place is 
supplied by words or syllables, called post-positions, 
placed after the words which they govern. 

§ 231. Post-positious, as well as prepositions, are 
particles which serve to show the relation which exists 
between two words. These relations being of different 
kinds, the post-positions indicating them are used with 
different cases, namely the Genitive, Dative or Ablative, 
and also with the uninflected form of the noun. 

§ 232. 1. Post-positions appended to the un- 
inflected form or stem. 

«. l o -e, -a to. .Sign of Dative case.) (§ 82.) 
*M ' «J -ih\ -\e with, by. Sign of Instrumental case.) § 82.) 
i)j^z>\ ichin, ichoun for, in order to, for the sake of. 
.ef ' ^ gibi like, so that. 

ii -i, -I. (Sign of Ace. case. § 83.) 
<o -de in, on. (Sign of Locative case.) § 84. 
0-> -den from. (Sign of Ablative case. § 85. 
ojui^li zarfinda during, in the space of. 

§ 233. But when the object, which the post-positions 
govern is a Pronoun (personal or demonstrative), it 

must be in the genitive case, except Jlijl onlay. 
jUfc« MisaVler Examples. 

U>5=il i* benim' ichin for me. oj*.>\ J^j\ onlar ichin for them. 

<\\ ojL para' He with money. J^^LXl^ sine'k' gibi like a fly. 

<\\ Jj- or <0Sj~ meifi'li with yon. ojJy <iouv'vetdem the strength. 

106 t«u ^yjs Lesson 14. ) *^ 

§ 234. 2. Post-positions with the Dative case. 

ita defc | until till as ^j^y° doghrou towards, straight. 

i?fl deyin) as> %■- J>\* daijir concerning, 

jji qadar until, as much as. OvJIj yaqin near. 

^jl5 qarshi against. oj^ gebre according to, after. 

jUll« Mi sal' Mr Examples. 

jjJL- ' i>5^T_ ' ita^Jli-l Istambola dek,Istambola deyin/ qadar 

up to Constantinople, as far as Const. 
oj^«.JlIc. aqlima geore according to. my judgement. 

J?^e qarslii against us. Shehre" doghrou towards the city. 
,,Senden ouzaq' Al'laha yaqlri" far from you, near to God. 
Kitaba dayir concerning the book. 

§ 235. 3. Post-positions with the Ablative case. 

J\ jj\ ouzaq far. <ijlio ' <5jLLk dishari out of. 

a. \js-[» ma'da \ Jjl ev'vel before. 

; except,besides. 
<iil bashqa \ °Sj^ sonra after. 

JJyj\ ebturu \ re g ar di n g tSj* ' Jj>. berou, beri since. 

jSjb dolayij about. ^ ^ instead of, rather 

A than. 

<uj| eoie on the other side of, beyond. 

jJJlt* Misal'ler Examples. 
Shehirderi ouzaq far from the city. 
Irmaqdan eote beyond the river. 
Sizden' ma'da, onlardan bashqa except you, them. 
Yirmi bish' seneden berou for the last 25 years (25 years ago). 
Bou ishderi dolayi, -ebturu concerning this business. 
Benden eo'vel before me. Benden sonra after me. 
Gelmesinderi i-sS gel memesi eyi dir his not coming is better 
than his coming. 

§ 236. 4. Declinable Post-positions requiring 
the Genitive. 

°jjj\ uzri on, upon. Jjlio ' (ijLUa dishari out of. 

cJ 1 alt under. <-Sj^l ^j5->\ icheri inside, 

ojl arqa behind. ?y>\ ich in 

i)j| eo# before. 0^ ?/«** by, near. 

\*V Noun with Prepositions. 107 

<^jjj\ ' ^$J>jj\ ' <*jjjl uzerime, uzerine, uzerine on me, 

^ . . thee, him 

°-^JJj\ ' °-»JJj\ ' °^*jjj\ uzerimdc. uzerinde. uzerinde) r it. 

"Oj J^»l ' °J^3yl ' •J^-rSd^ ichimize, ichinize, j in us, in you, in 
. ichUrine [ them. 

•JjJ&A ' oJfC^yl ' osy+ r .y.>_\ ichimizde, ichinizde, among us, you, 

ichlerinde them. 

o-U-JL) yanhn da at, by my side. a^_jL yanhna to my side. 

§ 237. These eight post-positions, when in the 
locative case, indicate a state of location or rest, and 

answer to the question s } nerede? where? They 
require the dative after the question whither? or where 

to? 4j©} nereye? with a verb denoting direction or 
motion from one place to another. 

Examples with the Locative [rest]. 

1- j* o-^jjjl vUi'i^i^, ^lii Kitab sofran'in uzerinde dir. 

The book is on the table. 

2. j:> oJ ^5^ ^Mjjj (j^jjj^ vlU^S Qoushoun yavrousou youoanin 

ichinde dir. The birdling is 
in the nest, 

3. J~i^J>j^>j\ oAl— jjlio 4^ Sheh'rin disharisfoida otourdou- 

lar. They dwelt [on] [the] out- 
_. _ side [of] the city. 

4. t5_xJ>lsU> ojjjjl viAs-lti Jjs.^ Chojouq aghajhl ardinda saq- 

landx. The boy hid himself 

behind the tree. 
5- f-V^ 9 °-*~5j\ -^-4 Pederiii ebnunde dourdoum. 

I stood in front of my father. 
6. jj aX^ul ili/'^jJl) BaJiq gebliin ichinde dir. The 

fish is in the lake. 

Examples with the Dative ^motion]. 

1. fjjl <uj jjjl <lX\^.k^a jb^ Kiiabi sofranin Uzerine atdhn. 

I threw the book on the table. 

2. iiJ.1^3 *l^y\ viillj^j (J-jjj^ J-_y* Qousli yavrousounou youvaniu 

ichine qodou. The bird put 
its young into tlie nest. 
: >. ^ljuL>. Cjjlio 4i*i Sheh' riu disharistna cluqdilar. 

They went 'to the] out[side of 
_ _. the city. 

4. t5A>.i3 4.lojl vi)>.l&l J <»>j>> Chojouq aghajin ardina qachdi. 

The boy ran behind the tret-. 

5. jOi^i^tj.} *l5j\ iijA. Vederin eonune doghrou gitdini. 

1 went towards the father. 

108 ti, LrJi Lesson 14. )*/s, 

6. lijL"! ^-^1 ^J* J*^ Baliq geolufl ichine atUcli. The fish 

jumped into the lake. 

Motion, where to? whither? nereye? ' o^^i ' <l^jL-\ * <j«jl5 
Location, where? nerede? ' oAc-Ij ' oj^&l k ojulli ' o^J^r^ 

YA Jui Exercise 28. 

= 4»i jfi • 4,! >lT k <d,i jlT. \ui = *L.V J, i . *y jlT 

1 - — . ,- 

-><?..* ....... c?« -/ v .. i^ . 

eJCL-AdjT dicjltf *\ • OfeJcZ' = U>^J (J^W- Oj**! if \^ 

^J 1 jp; ^/Ol Y • 3^ ^« <5jf)>--j! • jb _A3l UjdT JjjT 

4.S-1&I J'ljd ♦ j^ ©J^-l&l J-jd A . _p o-^j3j^ *> ^^ ' c£}S 


Y^ ^i Translation 29. 

1. Towards the mountains: on the mountains; b^-* 
the mountains (rest), by the mountains (motion). 2. From 
the door: by the door; with the door; for the door. 
3. For me, for him; like you, like them; with me, with 
him. 4. As far as Sivas; as far as London; until 

1 If oy&\ ' <U are added to nouns to which the pronominal 

affixes of the 3 rd person Sing, and PI. are attached, the <s\ is 
omitted, but the sound i is retained. 

t^ The Substantive Verb. 109 


to-day. 5. There is nobody except us. 6. What have 
you in your purse? — There is nothing in my purse 
except ten paras. 7. After to-morrow come at half past 
eleven. 8. He went ten days earlier than my father. 
9. There is a thief among you. 10. Come among us 
(motion). O^w^. 

aII^S Conversation. 

^ ° u^Z> Lesson 15. 

The Substantive Verb. (Continued.) 

§ 238. We have already treated of the Present 
and Past (Preterite) tenses of the substantive verb. 
(§§ 65, 73.) The Perfect and Conditional tenses of the 
verb remain to be spoken of. 

The Conditional. 
p— A = /»<_ j\ isem <ZA — >\ = &* — ,\ isek 

^-\~A = iJ* — A isen J-^—^ == J%*~- i \ iseHiz 

*~j\ = <~j\ 2§e ^L. j! = J<~j1 iseler. 

If (or though or perhaps) I am, if thou art, if he is — . etc. 

The Negative Conditional. 

r>~ 6^ = r*-~A J^> deyilsem vUL.£S = .iJa-jI J$j deyih<'L 

^— 6^ = i]< JSj deyihen j^-&> = jf+-*\ Jp* dei/iUrni; 

110 to ^rj^ Lesson 15. ))* 

*— &i = a~j\ J^ deyilse J^J6s=J<~>\ J>z deyilseler. 

If I am not, if thou art not, if he is not — , etc. 

Perfect (Dubitative). 

pJUl imishim JviM imishiz \ 

1 - " " (They say that) 

t>\~. ts\ imish-sin jiCjLtl imish-siniz > I was or I have been, 

• ,. etc. 

Ljltl imish J-^} iniishler } 

This tense, which is also called in Turkish Dubi- 
tative, denotes mere hearsay or report, founded on the 

authority of others (§ 312). The Negative is ^cl J5a 
deyil imishim (They say that) I have not been. 

CjUlL* Remarks. 

§ 239. a. When ©^ -de is added to the Conditional 

tense of the substantive verb, it expresses the meaning 
of "but" or "yet": 

isem tie, isen de, ise de; isek de, isen is de, iseler de 
If (or though) I am — , yet — ; thou art — , yet — ; he 
is — , yet — . 

§ 240. b. By the addition of the 3 rd person sing., 
to the Past tense (§ 73), the Past Conditional is obtained: 

idimise de, idinse de, idiyse de; idikise de, idinizise de, idile'rise de 
Though I was — , yet — ; thou wast — , yet — ; he was — , yet — . 

Ji\L* Examples. 

Pederin evde" ise, gilsin. If your father is at home, let 

him come. 
Pederim evde" isede geleme'z. My father is at home, but he 

cannot come. 
BiradSrin nere'de imish? Where is your brother? 

Evde imish. (I heard that, they say that) he 

is at home. 
Chojouqlar hasta'mi imishler. Were the children ill? (Did you 

hear anything?) 
Ev'vet, hasta dirlar. Yes, they are ill (I know). 

Qonshoumouz zengiri ise de', iyi Our neighbour is rich, but they 
bir adem deyil' imish. say that he is not a good man. 

Bin genj'im, sin isS ikhtiyar' sifi. I am young, but thou art old. 

) ) ) The Substantive Verb. Ill 

The Conditional and Dnbitative tenses 
of the verb To H\te. 
§ 241. The Conditional and Dnbitative tenses of 

the verb To Have are obtained by the addition of a«^\ 

ise and lei imish to jlj var. 

§ 242 The Conditional of To Have [with an 
indefinite object] 1 . 
a~j\ j\j oAIj a A j\j f> bende var isa benim var isa 

A — '1 j\j °-^'~- *~->\ j\j ^-^ sende var isa senin var isa 

a_,\ j\j ftjjjl A—ji j\j ^Xj\ onda var isa onoun var isa 

*~>\ j\j o$j <~A j\j *y bizde var isa bizim var isa 

<—>\ j\j oj~ ^ — j \ j\j ilj— sizde var isa sizin var ha 

^Jjb'^'jl *— >\ j\s 4A^ onlarda var isa onlarin var isa 

The Negative. 

a — iy oJJj a — i-y Li bende yoghousa benim yoghousa 

a — 'ty oJlL- a — &»jdAlw sende yoghousa senin yoghousa 

-c-jj ojJjl a^.J.jj viAljl onda yoghousa onoun yoghousa 

■y ojjJ'. *~fy rJf. bizde yoghousa bizim yoghousa 

a — cjj oj- A^>i. «j dJj— surfe' yoghousa sizin yoghousa 

<~~j-y_ o^j[]j\ t—^ji ^J-'>j\ onlarda yoghousa onlarin yoghousa 

§ 243. Note, a. The abridged form of <u- 5 l Jy yoq ise 

is A^J^y yoghousa which is much used. 

b. <u~>l yjy yoq ise, ^«cy yoghousa or ^S-y yokhsa y 

when used without object or subject, is considered as 
a conjunction: meaning or, otherwise; as: 

?jjw. oA>_ii .ijli <~^j k ^ ojJ-w wbi Kitab sende' mi, yolchsa 
qardashinda' midlr? Who has the book, you or your brother? 

§ 244. The Conditional with a definite object. 

bende ise", sende ise, onda ise; bizde ise, sizde ise, onlarda ise 
If I have the — , if thou hast the — , etc. 

1 Vide §§ 119, 122, 127. 


112 )9 ^j-jy Lesson 15. Mr 

benim ise, senin ise, onouil ise; bizim ise, sizia ise, onlarin" ise 
If the (book) is mine, thine, his, etc. 

The Negative. 

'uJS'S oil.) ' OS'S oj.1— * 0^3 oAijl t a.j^'S o^j. ' -* — \5^ °^j— ' OS^ *}^>j\ 
bende deyilse, sende — , onda — ; bizde deyilse, sizde — , onlarda — 
<J£i £j ' *~~&> ^-t~ — benim deyilse, senin deyilse, etc. 

If I have not the — , etc. If the — is not mine, etc. 

§ 245. Remark. When ©3 -de is added to the 

conditional of the verb To Have, it expresses the sense 
of but. 

<o 4~.j\ j\j> oAL bende var ise de, I have a — , but — 

<o <. — c.jj oX*> bende yoghonsada, I have not a — , but — 

o a— j\ iil- seniw ise de, It is yours, but — 

9 .> a-JS^ sUL- seniw deyilse de, It is not yours, but — 

o a— j! oJJj\ onda ise de, He has the — , but — 

o a_153 oX>j\ onda deyilsede, He has not the — , but — ■. 

§ 246. The Dubitative tense of To Have [with 
a definite object]. 

bende imish, sende — , onda — ; bizde imish, sizde — , onlarda — . 

benim imish, senin — , onoun — ; bizim imish, sizin — , onlarin — . 
I have the — , thou hast the — ; (That) was mine, thine, his — . 

§ 247. The Dubitative tense of To Have [with 
an indefinite object]. 

jixl j\j oJ£> ' ,JLs;l j\j »j1m. ' (JLM j\j »X>j\ bende var imish etc. 

i_P^ j\j J?* ' u^ ->^ ^-^ ' lW -^-? '-fcjl fcentm var imish etc. 
(They say that) I have a — ; thou hast a — , etc. 

jUUU Examples. 

Senin paran varisa. If thou hast money. 

Ineyiniz varisa. , If you have a cow. 

Paran varisa, bafia besh yhou- If you have money, give me five 

roush ver. piasters. 

Par am varisa da vermem. I have money, but I will not give. 

) yr The Substantive Verb. 113 

EJcme't/ini: yoghousa al'n'i. If you have not bread, take some. 

Kitablaii yoyhousada — They have not books, but — 

Qalem bende isede vermem. I have the pen, but I will not give it. 

At'i var'idi ise — If he had a horse — 

EshSyi yogh'oudou isede — Though he had not a donkey, yet — . 

J&) Words. 

J—-Z-J J£j\j varinUz' >/oghoumou~' all that we have. 

fill crfmam' I do not take. a. ^U lisan language. 

\j&JS Tciskin sharp (knife. j\ az less, 

jil j\A aghir bashli sedate [man), a. J* 5 kiamil sober, wise. 

Proper Name* : <jy~*j ] Arslan Leon. a. JjjL? Sadh[ Justin, 
Justus, a. «uj J Nooriye Lucy. 

V* jcLa Exercise 30. 

1)1 fjJLji*-5- vSoioJ 0^—^ ^ * J-^J> V«ftjl) r e^i)3 '' >*<-j£ 

_i>t3 ^ » c< j3 „- —ja <J~-^ dtu-la j j^ jj*-~^ JH* 3 "i^*-^ 
•ja &3jr JL15 • 03 4— ii^S »3jj J»tS — ! j-A-o ot- 

Turkish Conv.-Gmmmar. 


n rji Lesson 16. HI 

f \ 4j?- 5 Translation 31. 

1 The apples are sweet; the pears are sweeter; 
the grapes are the sweetest. 2. Your maid servant is 
diligent hut [I heard that] my neighbour (woman) is 
more diligent than she. 3. Though Mr. Justus is a rich 
man, yet [they say that] he has not a good name. 
4 Miss Lucy is the handsomest girl in town, but she is 
sick 5 The strength of the strongest man is far less 
than that of an elephant. 6. I am as tall as you, but 
my brother Leon is uot so tall as you. (. Is your 
fruit as fresh as ours? - - Yes, Sir, it is as good as yours, 
but it is too little [in quantity]. 8. Your knife is as 
large as mine, but it is not as sharp as mine. 

aI 1^ Conversation. 

. jlijs i^-rt >** -*^> ? Jjij > E? ^ ^ 

,J*\ O^l ? U^ Oo ^ ^^ -^ 

0i .Jpl. OS'S Ojl ?>V »*jl jJ^ ojNj 

n ^r^ Lesson 16. 

j>j^ The Infinitive of Verbs. 

§ 248. The Infinitive (or the Masdar) is the basis 

of the Turkish verb 1 . It ends either in j* -maq or dU 

1 The Turkish verb is the most highly organised part of 
the language, being most minutely subdivided, most extensively 

) \ o The Infinitive Verbs. 115 

-mek: -maq is peculiar to roots with hard and -mek 
to roots with soft vowels. When we remove the ending 
maq or mek we get the stem or the root of the verb, 
which is also the 2 nd person Sing, of the Imperative; as: 
.jf{\ almaq to take: J I aV take thou. 

dX.^_j vermek' to give: j>j ver give thou. 
§ 249. The Negative form of the verb is obtained 
by adding <u ' * -me- to the root when it has a soft 

vowel and U -ma- when it has a hard vowel; as: 
Jj-lU aVmamaq not to take: *i\ or HI al'ma do not take. 
dJU<*^j or d!L_*^j ver'memek not to give: <*^_j ver'medo not give. 

Different kinds of verbs. 

§ 250. There are six kinds of verbs in Turkish: 
Transitive, Intransitive, Causal, Passive, Reciprocal and 

§ 251. I. Transitive (or Active) verbs indicate such 
an action as cannot be completed without something else 
becoming directly affected thereby. They always require 
a direct object taking the nominatival form of the noun, 
if the object is indefinite and the full accusative form 
if the object is definite (§§ 83 note, 291). 

dl*j3cj\ j^s sou ichmeJc to drink some water (indefinite). 

dl»j^j\ djoa souyou ichmelc to drink the water (definite). 
sLL«.L-j\ (J-Jli yazmaq isteme'k to wish to write (indefinite). 

§ 252. II. An Intransitive (or Neuter) verb indicates 
such an action of the agent as is complete in itself 
without directly affecting anything else. When an action 
is implied, an Intransitive verb requires an indirect 
object in the dative case, if motion is implied: if rest 
is denoted, it requires its indirect object to be in the 
locative (§ 237); as: 

developed, and at the same time most simple and regular in its 
formation and in the mo«liti<ation of the signification of its various 
branches. It is a perfectly symmetrical system, through all the 
ramifications of which the eye or mind can run with ease. 


116 11 ^rji Lesson 16. Ml 

^^L-iS'ojl e-ve gitmek to go home (motion . 
^»j^sj\ oij\ evde otourmaq to sit in the house (rest). 
j.«>lil) Ak»j[> yazmagha bashhimaq to begin to write (motion). 

§ 253. III. Causal or Causative verbs. This form 
of the verb is not much used in English, but it is very 
common in Turkish. It implies an order or command 
from the speaker to a second or third person. The 
action is performed not by the agent or speaker but 
by the person to whom the order is given. These verbs 
are translated into English by adding to cause, to 
make, to have, to get, to allow and to let, to the 
simple verb according to the sense 1 ; as: 

p-is-o^Oul j>\ j> t -.jaaIIS Qalfayabir ev yapdtrajagMm. I shall 

. cause the architect to build a house. 

pis-o^ojlj <u_;U-j\ <J>jZ*k» Mel'toubouOlian'neseyazdirajaghim. 

__ I shall get John to write the letter. 
ti^jJuL oj j Jjji vZ^L*. j> m OJjl Artine bir chift qoundoura yajjdirdi. 

Hegot Pascal to make a pair of shoes. 
01 tasvirli kitabi chojouqlara bou gun oqoudajaghim. I shall 
allow the boys to read that book full of pictures today. 

Benim ichin bir setri yapdirabilir misin ? — Yarin In r 
danesini gelirdebilirim. Can you get (or have) a coat made for 
me? — I shall have one brought to-morrow. 

§ 254. IV. Passive verbs. The English and Turkish 
languages have this peculiarity, that they can form 
passive verbs from Intransitive, as well as from Transitive 
verbs ; as : 
J*ilj baqmaq to look at (in trans/: J-JLSIj baqilmaq to be looked at. 

Jjil almaq to take (trans.): J-*-^' alinmaq to be taken. 

§ 255. V. Reciprocal verbs express an action 
performed together with or against each other. They 
are translated by adding to the infinitive the words one 
another, each other, together; as: 

d\<^l>j~. sevishmek to love each other. 

1 The meaning and use of the Causal verb are seen by 
comparing the verb raise with the verb rise, of which the 
former is the Causal, in English. So also we may call to se1 
the causal of to sit, the former meaning to cause to sit. 
Similarly to lay is the causal of to lie, the former to Lay 
meaning to cause to lie. 

MY The Infinitive Verbs. 117 

J:,j~JLjLy qoslwushsounlar let them run together. 

J&**Z.jjjj) vouroushajaqlar they will beat each other. 

§ 256. VI. Reflexive verbs. When the action of 
a verb returns to the subject from which it proceedes, 
the verb is called Reflexive. These verbs are translated 
into Euglish by the reflexive pronouns (§ 145); as: 
vU«-1jOj\ ebrtunmek' to cover himself. 

JbJ^ji_j*s soifoiuidoular they undressed themselves. 

rUs^lJL-j yiyqanaja 'ghim I shall wash myself. 

CXJ pU Be*"!.* Exercise. 
The Story of the Cat and the Camel. 

■ <d* Jl • ^-dtajS dl:«-i ^ 4^.11 • j-v3j» ***i ITJI (5-C 

I jj^« uj»=^ <^tjl iJ3^— ' «**■ ' <J ^ J ' J^ { J^ x 

■ && ^*s. ^ iiR 1 ^- ^U -* ! ^ L . -* 1 u * ! — °^ 

^-^i 5 * > J*? ! VI yy* ! jTtfe )U ! ^i dl — ^ 

118 n u-j^ Lesson 16. 

) )A 

■ <£lj ! <iJ&» ^~>< ! id j^T 4. ! OUI ! OUT ! jUl — rCJ^" 

Talimi Qira'at. 

Kedi He deve Hikiayesi. 

Bir gun Deve slrthida 1 aghtr bir yuk He gederken 2 , 
Kediye rast geldi 3 . Kedi sirtini qambourladaraq* deveye 

dedi 5 : 

Kedi — Oughourlar olsoun 6 , deve qardashliq 1 ! nereye 

Deve — Al'laha emanet ol % ! am' ma ben na'sil senin 

qardashin imishim? sen nerede? ben nerede? 
Kedi — Ona shub'he yogdour 9 ! Elbet'te 10 ben senin 

qardashin im. Baq hele 11 ! seninki qadar iri 

ve beoyuk qambouroum 12 yoqmou dour? 
Deve — Belki 1 ' 6 ! lakin ajeba 1 * benimki qadar da qouv- 

vetli mi? 
Kedi — Vay! ne bosh sedz 10 ! shou sirtincla youmrouq 16 

qadar kuchuk bir shey rar isa, ajaba seozun 

onoun ichoun mou dour? 
Deve — Am ma eyi baq! bou yuk senin ichin pek beoyuk 

Kedi — Bosh seozler seoyleme! Shouiiou bana ver! tembel 

herif 11 ! 
Deve — Vek a la! bir az beri 18 gel! hop bed a V3 ! — 

demish 20 , veyukunu krd'niin sirtina yukletmish* 1 . 
Kedi — Aman! aman! aman 22 ! ne aghtr imish! ishim 

bitdi 2 *! vay! vay! vay 2i ! 

Words. 1. on his back. 2. while going. 3. he met. 4. arching 
(making hunch-back). 5. said. 6. good speed! 7. half brother, good 
brother. 8. thank you! (I commit you to the charge of God). 
9. there is no doubt about it. 10. of course. 11 look here! 12. hunch. 
13. perhaps. 14. I wonder. 15. what a useless word. 16. as 
large as a fist. 17. villager, rude man (lazy fellow!). 18. nearer. 
19. Heyday! (hoop po loo!) '20. he said. 21. he burdened, he 
placed (leaded). 22. O dear! O dear! 23. my work is finished, 
i.e. lam lost, it is all up with me. 24. Oh! Alas! 

M •*. Primitive and Derivative Verbs. 119 

Deve — Ishte bclani bouldomi- .' git\ hedyuk seoz seby- 
emeyi eoyren . 

Qis'seden lus'se 21 ■ — BebyuJi ]oqwcr*yf. beayuk 
seoz seoylcnir.' 

25. you have got (found) your punishment. 26. go and learn 
the [calamity of] speaking conceited (haughty) word:?. 27. moral 
from the story. 28. morsel (of food). 

Ai |gS Conversation. 

^ y u^^ Lesson 17. 

Primitive and Derivative Verbs. 

. €* ^ *> 

§ 257. Simple or Primitive Verbs are those which 
have no letters or syllables inserted after the root: 

for instance j^jl, yazmaq to write, dL.— sevmek to love. 

jj^yjl oqoumaq to read, are simple verbs, because there 

1 Mujer'red ve Mezeedi'ui feehi masdarlar. 

120 )V ^rj.> Lesson 17. ir* 

are no letters added to the roots A/3l> y a #-> Vh sev, 

§ 258. But if I say j^ojl) ■ di^$^^ c jiy^l ijaz- 
dirmaq, sevishmek, oqounmaq: these are derivative verbs, 

the new or secondary roots are y:>*l> ' *> ^ 'OJj' yazdlr\ 

sevish, oqoun. These are formed by inserting certain 
letters between the simple roots and the infinitive 
termination, and thus changing the meaning of the verb, 
more or less. 

£\*j~< sevmek; V j~. sev to love: 
d\+Jitj~, sevishmek; XjLij-, seoish to love each other. 

J^jlj yazmaq: VjIj yaz to write: 
j.*^ojl» yazdirmaq; V^ojl yazdir to cause to write. 

&y>j\ oqoumaq; V y>j\ oqou to read: 

• - \i — ~ 

&yj\ oqounmaq; V oj*j\ oqoun to be read. 

§ 259. The so-called servile letters are those letters, 
which, when added to the roots, change, more or less, 

the meaning of the verb. They are: Cj t, ^ dir, j >\ 

c n, J I, J. sh. 

§ 2b0. These letters or syllables have each then- 
own special signification when inserted to form a new 
root. Each alters the meaning of the verb in a regular 

manner. 1, 2, 3. Zj t, j$ dir, j r have the power of 

making verbs Transitive, if the original root is Intransitive ; 
and Causal, if the original verb is Transitive. 4, 5. A verb 

is made either Reflexive or Passive by adding J I or 

J n to the root of a primitive verb. 6. Reciprocal verbs 

are formed by adding J- .s7* to the root of primitive verbs. 

§ 261. There are six measures [Oij ' «J» bab, vt'zn), 
as they are called in Turkish, which serve as formulas 


)TS Primitive and Derivative Verbs. 121 

to enable the student always to remember the addition 
and the changes of meaning caused by the insertion 
of the servile letters. J - 

1. Oqoutmaq J£yjl [Transitive and Causal]. 

§ 262. This form is obtained by adding £j t, (it, 
fit, out) to the stem (§§ 52, 56). 

The effect of the insertion of this letter is twofold: 

1 . If the original primitive form is intransitive, it 
is made transitive; as: 
jyjjbj] otourmaq to sit: Jj^J^jl otourtmaq to make to sit, seat. 

Jj-Jsl baqmaq to look: j^-iil baqitmaq to make to look, to 


2. If the original simple form be transitive, it 
changes to causal; as: 

,Jy>j2j\ oqoumaq to read: J^yj\ oqoutmaq to cause to read. 
^ILj yiy'qamaq to wash: J^lJL; yiy'qatmaq to cause to wash. 

Xote. This o t is added, generally, when the root of the 
verb ends in a vowel, or in one of the semivowels J 7, j r, <j n. 

Y"Y Jui Exercise 32. 

Change the following verbs into the first measure 
and give their meanings. 

Transitive verbs. 1. dU*i» y~* sebylemek to speak. 

dX*4-tp dedshemek to floor, to carpet. 2. j,*j&\>. chaghir- 

maq to call. j:«MLl> bashlamaq to begin. 3. j$$qazi- 

maq to dig, to engrave. J^ljl aramaq to seek. 4. j^JJ! 

aqmaq to flow. di«<du bilemek to sharpen (a knife). 5. vtU^b y 

yuldemek to load. dl«4l5Co dinlemek to listen. 

Intransitive verbs. 6. j^l jst-*? slchramaq to 

jump. dAcjl erimek to be melted. 7. dl«-ljl ushumek to 
feel cold, shiver. &£*& sovoumaq to become cold, 
cool. ,jj>j3 '/oqmaq to smell, to have a smell. 8. J>*j>j' 

122 IV ^~j} Lesson 17 

l rr 

ouyoumaq to sleep, j^ll'j yashamaq to live. j^MpI agh- 
lamaq to cry. to weep. 

2. Yasdirmaq ^j^\ [Transitive and Causal . 

§ 263. This measure is formed by adding ,o (d/iv, 
dli\ diir, dour) to the root (§§ 52, 56). 

The effect of this syllable on the root is just the 
same as that of the first measure: 

1. If the primitive verb is intransitive, it is made 
transitive; as: 

^illjl eolmel: to die (intrans. : dJUjjJjl ebliurmek to kill (trans.). 
J^ljjl oiii/anmaq to awake (intrans.): 

(JJ.^Ju'Ljl ouyandirmaq to awaken (trans.). 

2. If the primitive verb be transitive, it is changed 
into a causal; as: 

^-a- 1 achmaq to open (trans/': j^jjo*. I achdirmaq to cause to open. 

jyOL yazmaq to write ( » ): Jj*jOJlj yazd'irmaq to cause to write. 

2Vo£e. This jj <J£r is added generally to those verbs whose 
stem ends in a consonant other than those mentioned above. 

There are some exceptions: 

^XajJT gebrmek to see: ^J\~J>'^Aj}jjgebstermek. gedrdimneh 

. . v^ , tomaketosee, 

>■— L-b (jelmek to come: «l-U^cS getirmek to bring. i^q s how. 

sUL.:^ gitmek to go: iX^ZiT geoturmek to carry. 

JU-lHi qalqmaq to rise: j^jjJls qaldirmaq to raise, to lift up. 

rr ^JUi Exercise 33. 

Change the following verbs to this measure and 
give the meanings. 

Intransitive verbs. 1. dUja gesmefi to walk. 

dilyf' gulmek to laugh. 2. jjcWji osanmaq to become 
tired of. jjcfrjt outantnaq to be ashamed. 3. sil*jjl e»- 

/////• to come down. dL:^ binmek to ride on. 4. dUl)jl 

evUnmek to marry. ^.iJU- chalishmaq to work. 

irr Primitive and Derivative Verbs. 123 

Transitive verbs. 5. jjtj> botdmaq to find. dAJL 
bilmek to know. 6. jji.1 ahnaq to take, vibvj Vermel' to 
give. 7. di^j^ sevmek to love dl^Js hesmek to cut. 

.9. Ichirmek dWscil [Transitive and Causal]. 

§ 264. This measure is formed by adding j (-ir-, 
-ir-, -our-, -fir-) to the stem (§§ 52, 56). 

It changes the Intransitive into Transitive and the 
Transitive into Causal; as: 

J,*jb dogh'maq to be born (intrans.): Jyjy-jb doghourmaq to give 

>iU..*. i pislnnek to be cooked (intrans ): vlX.^n±.j pishirmek to cook. 

vUL.^1 iclimek to drink (trans.): ^-l«,A?yl ichirmek to give to 


.Note. This form is a modification of the second form, losing 
the :> d: therefore its derivatives are very limited, and almost all 
are here given. 

v*t ^JUi Exercise 34. 

Change the following verbs into the third measure 
-and give the meanings. 

Intransitive verbs. 1. *u^-j\ ouchtnaq to fly. 

jjEl yatmaq to lie down. 2. jcj! artmaq to be increased. 

jjcl> batmaq to sink. 3. di^-1^3 dushmek to fall. jvlH 

shashmaq to miss one's way. 4. ctLij bitmek to be finished : 

j^llL tashmaq to overflow. 5. jjeja douymaq to hear 

of. a J» doymaq to become satiated. 6. j>*>-£ qachrmnj 

to flee, dl^sd gSchmek to pass, di^lo yitmek to be lost. 

4. Taraiintuq scljlL [Reflexive, Passive]. 
§ 265. This measure is formed by adding », 

(m, tm, own) to the root of the verb (§§ 52, 56). 

It changes the Transitive into the Reflexive and 
Passive; as: 

124 1Y w ~j;> Lesson 17. )fi. 

^*\j\b taramaq to coinb: JjMj^ taranmaq to be combed, to comb 


viAtjjl ebrtmek to cover: dJ\kyjj\ ebrtdnmek to be covered, to cover 


J^yjl oqoumaq to read: &yj\ oqounmaq to be read. 

J^j) boulmaq to find: 3^-jy. boulounmaq to be found. 

§ 266. In spelling there is no difference between 
the reflexive and the passive, as both are formed by 

adding ,j n. The difference is in the meaning. If the 

verb deals with the subject, it is reflexive; if the verb 
refers to the logical object, it is passive, because 
passive verbs have no grammatical object; as: 

Effendi yiyqandi The Master washed himself (reflexive). 
Qadehler yiyqandi The cups have been washed (passive). 

To ^Aai Exercise 35. 

Change the following verbs into the fourth measure. 

1. jfiW chalmaq to steal; to knock at (the door); to 
play (a tune). 2. dfojz debhmek to pour, deoymeh to 
beat. 3. jc yo soymaq to undress, strip. 4. jJIJ qilmdq 
to do, to perform. jj*\JLL tiqamaq to plug, stop. 5. di^p 

gezmek to walk about. jj^ILj yiyqamaq to wash. 6. j^Jl 

baqmaq to look. dX*j~> sevmek. 7. jj*l>ta or j^#LL efay- 

timo^ to prop up. dl«4jj 4— seoylemek to speak. 

5; Yazilmaq jjUol [Passive]. 

§ 267. The measure is formed by the addition 

of J I, (il, ul, out) to the root (§§ 52, 56). 

It changes the primitive verbs into passives; as: 

j^.;Ij yazmaq to write: ^J-Jbjlj yazilmaq to be written. 
<i\+.Ji he'smek to cut: vllju_i kesilmek to be cut. 

iVote. a. The passive of those verbs which end in a vowel, 
or liquid letter, is never formed according to this measure, but 
according to the fourth. 

iro Primitive and Derivative Verbs. 125 

1). The passive form of the verbs ^<^1 ' >i-L«.U ttmek, eyl- 
i'mi'l- to do, perform is sil*J>_)u\ edilmek. 

t\ *Jb3 Exercise 36. 

Change the following verbs into this measure and 
give the meanings. 

1 . di*£j l <ZX*y~ 2. j.«jjj k J^ 3. dUii> j+j* l 
4. di*je>l v j,«j^U chaghirmaq to call. 5. di*j<j ' j^j^yl 
juil 6. dL^o to plant. dl«j£ • 3*->jji 

6'. Georushmil' dXJLjj [Reciprocal]. 

§ 268. This measure is formed by adding £sh, 

(ish, oush, ish) to the root of the verb (§§ 52, 56). 

It changes the meaning of the verb into a reci- 
procal one; as: 

-ii.jj> gebrmck to see: d\<Jt,jjjgebriis7imck to see one another. 

Jy«jj\ vourmaq to beat : j-*-~?J j\ vouroushmaq to fight with one 


VV /*JU) Exercise 37. 

Change the following verbs into the sixth form. 
j^MpI aghlamaq to cry, weep. \t&.f^gulmek to laugh. 

vUHjja durtmek to poke, j^liijl oynamaq to play, di^— 

sevmek. jt^.-j^jj 5 . bozmcuj to ruin, to disconcert. 

C'UIlL* Mfda-hi-at Remarks. 

§ 269. a. The meaning of the Negative form is, of 
course, in general perfectly clear; but the negative form 
of the causal verbs, besides its ordinary signification, 
sometimes expresses a prohibition or prevention of the 
action being done. Thus oqout'mamaq means 'not to 
cause to read, but also 'to prevent some one from reading': 
yaedirmamaq not to cause to write', and also 'to prevent 
from writing. 

126 1Y i^-ji Lesson 17. iri 

§ 270. b. A Transitive verb, or a verb which has 
been converted into one, according to the rules mentioned 
above, may become doubly, and even triply, transitive, 
causative, or passive; as: 

3*jh\ oqoumaq to read: 3^j*j\ oqourimaq to be read. 

J^yj\ oqout'maq to cause to read: { j^Xj3j\ oqounoitV maq to be read. 

j^jjJ^sjl oqoutdour'maq to cause to cause to read: 

ji^jjjyjl oqoutdourt' maq to cause to cause to cause to read. 

j^j! 5 ^AsA Reading Exercise. 

The Divisions of Turkey. ^Ju aJ dtaUl-l ^j^-dOur 

^L-'.JBlf L-:y.l yjbVj ( 0j bVj 4iUll Ljj/- dl!W 

lol*a3 ' yJ>j€LL* J*j\ Jj-w^ ,j-X3^L- ' d)j CjIS CjVji Jj — « (j^ J Vj 
U^Xj* • Jj^j\ f~JU <& V J ^ 4iUll 4.~-J>,£- stills 

• <r^ -T 

Memaliki Mahrouseyi Shahaiienih taqsimleri* 

^Memaliki 1 Mdhrouseyi 6 Shaliane l Vilayetlere, VUa- 
yetler 2 Lira 3 yalhod* Sanjaqlara, Sanjaqlar 3 Qazalara y 
Qazalar 3 * Nahiyelere, Nahiyeler 5 clalhi Qaryclirc™ taqsim 
olounour 6 . — Vilayctdmme 'soul 1 olan* zat^ vali* ', Sanjaqdan 
me soul olan Mutrsar'rif 10 , Qazadan me soul olon Qayim- 
maqam 11 , Nahiyeden me soul olan Mudir 1 * ve Qaryelerden 
mesoul olanlar 13 Tkhtiyar mejlisleri 1 * ve moukhtarlar 15 dir. 

Words. 1. The Protected Countries of His Majesty (Royal). 
2. province. 3. a county, arrondissement 3 a . a district, canton. 
4. or. 5. a sub-district (parish orcommune). 5 a . village. 6.aredivided. 
7. responsible. 8. who is (who governs). 8 a . person. 9. governor 
general. 10. governor. 1 1. sub-governor. 12. a governor of a sub- 
district, mudir. 13. who are. 14. bailiff courts. 15. bailiffs. 

try Compound Verbs. 127 

Memdihi Mdhrouseyi Shahcme 29 wlayete taqsim 
olounour. Bounlardan alttsi Avropada, yirfnibiri Asiyada, 
biri Afriqada ve diger biri ddkhi Aq denizde dir. 

<U I^S Conversation. 

• j -5 J «j-> A «^ 5 ^/. (j*^i ?_>■* *«^ t^ J^^j uHj 1 ••5^—^ 

• jJJIi oVjl Jj— «i->jbl «ibVj Ijxjf Jb 

. jjjCso lSjS"" ? j:> ^^ <1 oi 

• j-a »^ i$3Jt» iljlji ! {Xi\ iS^^s. 6J\J £1>«\\*\L cllL* 

.ji **^ eo« JUi5 ! -jjil ?J-*»»G (J^a& i)JUi* 

^ A Lri^J? Lesson 18. 

O S ^ J 

^. ^jfy Compound Verbs. 

§271. Compound verbs are formed by employing 
Arabic, Persian and Turkish words with the Turkish 
auxiliary verbs, or by affixing certain particles to nouns 
and adjectives in order to turn them into verbs. 


tA u~J-> Lesson 18. 


1. Compound verbs, formed by using nouns 
with auxiliary verbs. 

§ 272. I. Compound Transitive verbs are con- 
structed by uniting with nouns and adjectives (generally 
of Arabic and Persian origin) one of the four purely 

Turkish synonymous auxiliary verbs dij^\ d\J^\ or 

dl«Jbl 'j^JLS ' jy«)y y etmelc, eylemek, c/rfmaq, botiyourmaq, all 

meaning to do, to perform; but the first is most 
frequently used. 

a. J\^~. sival question : «i-L_:j| Jlj- ' -^U-U Jl_^- ' (J-J 1 -^ JU- c 
3'->yy ^J" 1 to Question. 

to free. 

t. i^>j^> sous silent: ^«_Ij1 ^ **a to still, to hush. 

t. J^-Ij i/ash moisture; wet: d)<>JM J^L to moisten; to wet. 

Note. The original meaning of J^Jj-j bonyourmaq is to 

command, to deign, to he kind enough , but as an auxiliary 
it is used when the agent is a person of rank or is politely 
treated as such. 

§ 273. II. Compound Intransitive verbs are formed 
by uniting Arabic or Persian adjectives and active 
and passive participles (isnu fayil, mefoul) to the in- 
transitive verb jljl olmaq "to be, to become'; as: 
p. aL.> hasta sick: t jlj\ *1~». hasta olmaq to be sick. 

cl+-» memnoun glad: j^Ljl tjjl<^. memnoun olmaq to be glad. 


t. u a j^> s0lls silent: ^j\ ^ys sous olmaq to be silent. 

§ 274. III. Compound Passive verbs are constructed 
with the same kind of words and with the passive form 

of the auxiliaries diij^l l tjS J ' %b<w edUmek, qUinmaqi 
bouyroulmaq, or more frequently with the passive forms 

of the verb jljl olmaq; viz. j^lljl olounmaq to become, 
to which there is nothing to correspond in English; as: 

a. J\^~. sival: »HL.Xj\ J\j— ' ^'^j\ Jlj— ' 3^*^? Jl^- ' jk>Ji* dl_r* 

to be asked. 

tr^ Compound Verba. 129 

to be free. 
§ 275. IV. Compound Causal verbs are constructed 
with the same kind of words and with the causal forms 

of the auxiliaries dJUjJ&l. ' ::>-• etdirmek^ bont/ourtmaq, 
to cause to do. 

p. <^>_)jS firoukhte sale: dl*jJ£] ^iJ^j^s firoukht ctdirmek to 

cause to sell. 

a. Jl5 qatl slaughter: dUjjJj 1 , ,^ qatl ctdirmek to cause 

to kill. 

a. (jL-^-l ihsan grant: JMJd u^—*^ ihsanbouyourtmaq to 

help to be granted. 

TA jfJui Exercise 38. 


Form verbs from the following words: 
1. a. fj herein kindness, a. ;^j rija request. 
2. a. $\£\ ?jad invention, a. ^i J *7 teshrif honour, 
visiting. 3. p. iH $Aa# glad. a. 1>jJ £eft<ftZ change. 

4. a. j,c > azhni't departure, a. Co.* cut7# return. 

5. a. AZ talim instruction, a. 4^j^ terjeme translation. 

6. a. wjs> souhour appearance, a. la fo'wa building. 

7. a. it j f?a£ sermon, p. £ kedr blind. 8. a. Jii>. 

/*?'/> keeping, a. ZjJ* ghayret labour, a. *jjb hediye 
present, gift. 

*2. Verbs derived from Nouns and Adjectives. 

§ 276. I. Transitive verbs are formed from 

nouns and adjectives by the addition of i*V lamaq 

to those containing hard vowels, and di#*I lemek to 

those containing soft vowels. When this termination 
is added to a noun, it has the meaning of to provide 
with, and when added to an adjective signifies to 
render; as: 

Turkish Conv. -Grammar. & 

130 )\ ^js Lesson 18. ir«- 

jj gebz eye: <Z\*i]'jjT gebzlemek to watch. 

J^l bash head: J^^lj bashlamaq to begin. 

oJ» g;ara black: 3*^°^ Qfi'fdlamaq to blacken. 

J\E te'»M£ clean: dX.4jJ\£ temizlcmek to clean. 

§ 277. II. Intransitive and Passive verbs are formed 

by the addition of dU ' dlcV lenmek, lanmaq to 
nouns or adjectives; as: 
dLJjl evlenmek to marry. <Z\^&jj guzel'lenmek to grow pretty. 

(Jt^j*- khirslanmaq to be angry. Jji^/^U. hazirlanmaq to be ready. 

§ 278. III. By adding simply i* -amaq, dl« 

-emeU, jll -almaq, dlt -elmek, to the adjectives or 

nouns, another kind of Intransitive or Passive verbs is 
obtained ; as : 

o^ qan blood: Jj^ls qanamaq to bleed. 

<=-^$ 2°ja °^ : iS"^^ qojamaq to become old. 

J^L [/ash age: ,3*^ yasliamaq to live. 

(Jjs;. c//o^ much : y^-j^ choghalmaq to increase. 

j| a£ little: ,jUJ- azalmaq to diminish. 

§ 279. IV. Some Intransitive verbs are formed 

from adjectives by the addition of dLJLl ' j^V -lesliaiek, 

-lashmaq, meaning to grow, to become, to get 

a, Li fena bad: ,j*i.VLi fenalashmaq] To k ecorae WO ree 

yf keotii bad: £\J&yf fce^/esfcmefcj (gradually). 

^j\ eyi good: dU-iJjjl eyileshmek To grow better (grad.). 

§ 280. The same termination, however, added to 
nouns produces reciprocal verbs; as: 

a. w»»IX. mektoub letter: j^i^^ix* mektoublashmaq to corre- 
^ni. khaber information: vlJU_iJ^ni. khabJrleshmek to commu- 
nicate (intelligence). 

)r) Compound Verbs. 131 

§ 281. V. Causal compound verbs are obtained 

by inserting Cj t in the first and 3 rd forms and j^ dir 
in the 2"' 1 and 4 th forms. 

1. jt^ilj bashlatmaq to let be begun. 

2. dl.jjjj>\ Svlendirmek to make marry. 

3. /k^lij*. choghaltmaq to make abound. 

4. vULjA-iij^ eyileshdirmek to make grow gradually better. 

§ 282. VI. There are some exceptions to the above- 
mentioned rules; as: 

(j\j yan side: J^i.lll yanashmaq to approach. 

<ijU? sart yellow: j..jijL^ sararmaq to grow yellow. 

^y\jj\ ouzamaq to elongate. jl.L?_^> sousamaq to thirst. 

3*VjIj parlamaq to shine. juJLa.\ ajUpnaq to be hungry. 

T^ ^nIj5 Exercise 39. 

Form verbs from the following words. 

I., II., V. 1. jl at* game. 2. p. ^ meohur a seal. 3. a. ^U 

/i«^7r ready. 4. £j\S #o$ fold, p. e jl ' «>.jl j?are, />«>*«, 

parcha piece. 5. ^jL top ball, jt-35 gisA winter, 3^ y«# 

summer, jS> g&8 autumn. 6. t'lL task stone, *-\j f/w/7* 

oil, j-l) &a#A bind, tie. 7. jja touz salt, Jicfe^-Jjj po«2 

postage stamp. III. ?ClJ'jjy qoitron dry, Jl^< &o&& empty, 

*,5Ci &ews countenance, .Jal Stefci sour, p^ genj young. 

IV. ^Ij ^a/y portion, jW-y qoujaq bosom, J I •*:} gfy 

hard, ^vl irt big. VI. £)•>■> JotS red ' JJS^ 

The Potential Verb. 
§ 283. To be able to do an action is expressed 
by the verb dUL bilmeJc to know, to be able' put after 

132 1A ^.jz Lesson 18. srr 

the root of any verb, with * he joiued to it. This is 

called in Turkish the Potential verb. It somewhat 
resembles the Potential mood of the English verb. But 
this is a class of verbs in the Turkish language, which 
has all the moods, tenses and modifications which the 
regular verbs have; as: 

j^jL yazmaq ' oj[> : vIUljoJI. yazabilmek to be able to write, i. e. 

to know how to write. 
vLv. ^ sevmek ' o •- : £\JL> a »~ sevebilmek to be able to love, i. e. 

to know now to love. 
<^JL bilmek ' <L : <UUlj*JLj bilebilmek to be able to know, i.e. 

to know how to know. 

§ 284. If the root of the verb end in a vowel, 
a ye is inserted between the stem and he (§ 53); as: 

<il.4.L^- sebylemek V^Jj^- ! *iUJLj4j<»JL^ seoyleyebilmek to be able 

to speak. 

§ 285. The negative which expresses inability 

or impossibility, is made by adding >U -mamaq or 

dbr ' dX*^* -memek to the stem of the verb instead of 
bilmek ; as : 

^Lojl yazamamaq not to be able to write (not *il»<u-Lojb). 
,3'lxu J*j\ oqouya'mamaq not to be able to read. 
■±\»\*ojS or vUu_*ojJ> gidememek not to be able to go. 

Accelerative Verbs. 

§ 286. By adding the verb viU^j vemiek to the 

root of any verb, another verb is formed which expresses 
doing the same action, but in a very off-hand way. 

This verb is called bv native grammarians l-?=*7 1*5 
Fee-U Tajil Accelerative verb or Verb of Facility. 

§ 287. If the root of the original verb end in a 
consonant it takes a vowel ^ ye after it; and if it end 
in a vowel the syllable J, -/// must be added to it 
(§ 53); as: 

trr Compound Verbs. 133 

J^jij : Vjl : ^JU^j iSJ\* yaz\ verm el; to write quickly. 
S'J 1 ^ ' ' J*-) ' ' ^*J J ^.y^ oqouyou vermek to read quickly. 

»j Exercise 40. 

1# (^ 

Change the following verbs into the affirmative and 
negative forms of the Potential and Accelerative verbs. 

<Lujz dedhmek ' 3. dllp debymek ' dUj.ui: 4. iiUjL-j * 

dlc/j^l (orti'mmeh ! 5. dlvi^ ' dLH »>~ ' dLi<S JlWj • 
6. dLsl 4i-: ! 7. ^UT %jJjUjui ' t«MU • 8. dUjjd-^ l 

<U I^S Conversation. 
oM-jl r • >JU$ dlijtf e ^ J — * ! *X*I £j>jl — ? ^« *}Y 

dO«£ J ^C '.ff- 4j ».-«~«U2 J L> — w ©-C* 1 ^ v-A^l5 *) © * «U~* 4. I 

> -^ > ^ */ „ - *' - / - 

jjjVy dl — ? >JLcVy dLrJ *i^ ^^^ o . ^ 9J .^g dL^I 

1. niyet, meram intention. 2. tihUVe danger. 

ft /<%- AjJ Reading Exercise. 

jbVj The Provinces. 

" I . ' -All • l ' ** ' .£ I ' M ' * I « I * * 

134 )A '^rjz Lesson 18. \r\. 

JfJ*" Ojj*-*^ f-^J^' (J~-^. j^oJ^O ut'j*^' cij-J 3 —* ' **^ 

. . I < . I 

t- ^^ — 


Memaliki Mahrouseyi Shahanenin Avropa qit'asinda 1 
boulounan vilayetleri shonnlar dir: Edirne 2 , Selanik 3 , 

Qosova, Yan'ya, Ishqodra, Monastir. 

Asiya qit'asinda boulounan vilayetler: Hijaz, Yemen, 
Basra, Baghdad, Mousoid, HaUb\ Suriya'\ Beyrout, 
Khiidavendigiar, Qonya 6 , Anqare (Engurv) 1 , Ay din, 
Adana s , Qastamouni, Sivas, Diyarbekir, Bitlis, Erzroum, 
Mamouretid-Aziz, Van, Trabzoun. 

Afriqa qit'asinda: Tarablous 9 ; Aq-Denizde: lJezayiri 
zbahri 2sefid 10 . 

Bowdarhl rnerkezleri 11 shounlar dir: Hijaziuki Jid'de ; 
Suriyanmki Sham 12 , KhiWavenclikiarinki Brousa, Aydl- 
ninki Izmir 13 , Mamouretul-Azizinki Kharpont, ve digcr- 
lermki hemnamlari u olan 15 shehirler dir. 

Words. 1. part, segment. 2. Adrianople. 3. Thessalonica. 
4. Aleppo. 5. Syria. 6. Iconium. 7. Galatia. 8. Cilicia. 9. Tripoli. 
10. (the islands of the White Sea) Archipelago, Rhodes. 11. centre, 
central city of the province. 12. Damascus. 13. Smyrna. 14. having 
the same name, homonymous. 15. which are. 

)ro The Derivative forms of the Infinitive. 135 

^ u^ 5 ^ Lesson 19. 

The Derivative forms of the Infinitive. 

§ 288. There are three formations of verbal 
Substantives derived from the Infinitive: By append- 
ing to the Infinitive the syllables jj ' dil -liq, -Uk, 
and by affixing to the root of the verb the terminations 

<c« -ma, -me, i> ' . J. -ish, -ish, the three derivative 

forms of the Infinitive are obtained; as: 

vLUj— se'cmek to love: 1. dlbvj^- secmeklik Loving, the action of 

^j-jlj yazmaq to write: 1. jli.j^ yazmaqliq Writing, the action 
of writing. 

2. Vj— sec: <^j— sec me Loving, the action of loving. 

3. \j- sec: J.>j~ secish Loving, the mood of loving. 

§ 289. Turkish Infinitives and verbals are fre- 
quently used substantively, and when so used they 
can be declined like substantives, with or without the 
pronominal affixes. 

Declension of the Infinitive. 

N. <i\*j~, sicmek' loving A. S'J-' secvuyi \ 

G. wanting L. eJjC.- secmekde in 

D. **k*j~. se'cme'ye" J , t *" A. ^jjS*j~. secmekden from 

Declension of the first Derivative form. 

N. viiAS^-. secmeklik loving 

G. viiiJ<f^ secmckliyiu of loving 

D. *Sl£*j~. se'cmeldiije to loving 

A. ^J<T*.>~- secmekliyi loving 

L. t>j^j&»j~. secmi'klikde in loving 

A. o-^-^v~ secnuklikde'n from loving. 


\^ wJ* Lesson 19. 


Declension of the second and third 
Derivative forms. 



, JLj e- sec tih 


*— Xi 4.* y>M 

secmenin of 

viAii c~ sevishifi of 


sec me ye' to 

*-ij .- si vishe to 

— / 




^JLi »- sevishi 


O ^ A.* t-~* 

seomide in 

oxLi o— secishde in 



sivmedin from 

tjAij «~ sevislidin from 


u — 
« o . 
„, o fcc 

^ <■* C- 
♦a H *> 

„ a> o 

JVote. The Plurals are not in common use. 

§ 290. The first, second and third forms of these 
Verbal Derivative nouns are often used with the prono- 
minal affixes; as: 

1. iUUjli yazmaqliglum' my j M j^iljUjl yazmaqliyhimiz' our j . 

• I -5 / - c 

»i\ilJUjlj yazmaqliglun thy >;2 jxiliUjlj yazmaqlighiftiz' your} +3 

(JiUOli yazmaqlighi' his 

2. r*0^ yazmam my j V£ 
i)<ujl yazman thy 

jy-4-.JL yazmasi his 

3. p-i*jlj yazlshim my \ ^ 
vii-L j'b yazishin thy 

^ijjl yazishi his 

Not used 

j*<v./b yazmamtz our 
jSv3L yazmaMz your 

ii^4.«jb yazmalari their 

j«^Ljlj yazishlmiz our 
jxljjlj yazishi Friz your 
i^Jbjjl yazishlari their 



§ 291. Turkish Infinitives govern nouns and 
pronouns, which are always put before them ; the object 
is to be put in the nominatival form, if indefinite; and 
in the accusative if definite. This is the case also for 
Verbal nouns and Participles (§§ 83, Note, 251); as: 

j-aM (3^j kitabi aclimaq to open the book. 

jiiUjijl . .li5 Jcitab oqoumaqliq reading a book. 

<u_»sj| j^s sou ichme drinking some water. 

§ 292. The logical subject of the Infinitive is to 
be put in the Genitive case : or to use another expression, 

yrv The Derivative forms of the Infinitive. 137 

the infinitive or verbal noun, if considered as a sub- 
stantive, requires a noun or pronoun before it in the 
genitive. In the case of Pronouns this is not always 
necessary, as the affixed pronoun represents the logical 
subject; as: 

**+.& ±> k f <J^ benim gelmem, gelmim my coming. 

di<Ci<ds^^— senih gelmeldiyin your coming. 

jJL^iJjtJuil efendimizin gelisht the coming of our Lord. 

§ 293. If the Infinitive is to be used as the object, 
it may be put in three different cases: With neuter 
verbs following it is always in the dative; with active 
verbs, if the object is definite, in the accusative; if 
indefinite, it assumes a nominatival form (§ 83, Note); as: 

• VOlili ^.jijl oqoumaglia bashlamaq to begin to read. 

J.JL \»j\> yazma bihiu'z' he does not know how to write. 

j^JL ^ili-jlj yasmaqUghi bilmez he does not know the writing. 

§ 294. The first Derivative formed from the Infi- 
nitives denotes the act, the action. The negative of 
this form is composed in two ways : 

^U.UJIj yaz mamaqViq and JjJJ*U3^ yuz' mamazliq 
Mektoubon yazmamazliq etme Don't fail to write the letter. 

§ 295. But the negative, dative and ablative forms 

when used with some verbs mean to behave as if: 

Gebr'memezlikden geldi, geor'memezliye vourdou He pretended 
not to see. 

Tammamazl'iq etmek To behave as if not acquainted. 

§ 296. The second Derivative of the Infinitive is 

±Ay~ l <aj[ sevme', yazma the mode of writing, the 

manner of loving; loving, writing. Always accent the 
last syllable. 

§ 297. The pronunciation and the spelling of this 
second form is just the same as that of the second person 
Imperative negative singular; but the accent is decisive. 
The second Derivative has the accent on the last svllable, 
while in the Imperative the penultimate (the syllable 
before the negative suffix) is accented: 

13S )^ _~j:> Lesson 19. irA 

xaJI yazma writing, to write: yaz'ma don't write (thou). 
^*j^ sevme" loving, to love: sevme don't love (thou). 

§ 298. The English Impersonal verbs and those 

verbs whose objects are not mentioned, but understood, 

are rendered in Turkish as follows. The subject of the 

Impersonal verb and the ohject must he mentioned] as: 

yaz\ yazmaq to write. yaghmour yaghmaq to rain. 

geok gjirlemek to thunder. qar » to snow. 

dikish dikmek to sew. dolou » to hail. 

tutun ichmek to smoke. shimshek chaqmaq to lighten. 

yimek yemek to eat (food). ish ishlemek to work. 

The Infinitive used as a Substantive. 

§ 299. It has been several times mentioned that 
the Infinitive is regarded as a noun, and that, like a 
noun, it is liable to every kind of change which the 
noun undergoes (§ 289). The student will understand 
these peculiarities from the study of the following 

»JJj\ J-0^ ' Of5->) 3*'->\ yazmaq ichin, yazmaq flzre for the 

purpose of writing. 
\Jk*j\i ' ^j-JUjl yazmaqsizin, yazmaqsiz without or be- 
^ fore writing. 

<ilU * -dlv)' 1 ' yazmaqla, ahnaq'la by writing, by taking. 

\y jJ <>k»j\> yazmaya niye'ti yoq he has no intention 

to write. 

f>Ji*3A« (jjJUju yazmaqdan' maqsedim my intention in 


-u^i \ (jj1»j>\j yazmaqdan ise I 

> instead of writing. 
*~j\ <j.i4»J,l yazmadari ise 

oA.C ,- 'c^ts dushmeni sevmekdi' in loving the enemv. 

{j*<»j\i ' 0>*li gel'meden, yaz'madan without, before com- 
ing, writting. 
<+.~5 6^*^-o *J. bize gel'meden git' me do not go before you 

come to see us. 
tj^*u.i| Uo douva et'medtn before prayer [praying], 

^sj! oJJUjli yazmaqda iken while I was writing. 

^Jjj\ cr^*-^ gi'lme'si' uzirini on his coming. 

-A^ii «L~.4.JS gclmesiy'le gitmesi his coming and going. 

^ti^Mi scoyle'yishi his manner of speech. 


The Derivative forms of the Infinitive. 


§ 300. The Contiimative tenses are formed from 
the Infinitive as in the following examples: 

yazmaqda'yim. -'sin, -'d\r, ~'ytz, -'sinte, -'dhlar. 

I am writing . . • 

liJol sjlr > jxS-^ yaghmour yaghmaqda idi it was raining. 

jltl ojjCi £JU yimek yemekde' imish I heard that) he was 
" " eating. 

* i ojjCjso J~^'i dikish dikmekdS Ue if he is sewing. 

•JuU^l j j qaryagmaqda it snows. 

§ 301. Some of the derivatives of the second and 
third forms are used as common nouns (§ 443); as: 

<*j *a- j\ ouchourma a kite. 
<*T>.jfn\ isitma malaria. 
k+**\i basma print, calico. 


beblmr partition. 

• i. , i illumination. 

j> donanma y ft fleet 

<1 .x_ shikerlimS sugar-plnms. 
i ii"T «/;>/; n'rish business 

*J"iJi J -"~ : transaction, trade. 

^JJj" 9 qctvourma fried meat. 

J--^ -> yaiilish a mistake. 
jii-jia doghoush birth. 
o u yapnta made up. 
VAJ-^JJ dondourma ice-cream. 
«.-j£ qazma a pickaxe. 
« v j yar»ui crushed wheat. 
«Ij J«j U'Zartma roasted meat. 
4.0 ruma hanging a vine. 

Ail Words 

P-J^JJJ ruzgiar wind. 
a. k_-J5 fciaftA clerk. 
«iLJLL yStiskmek to reach. 

a. jilS qw7*r able. 
-U.a.,>. ; beklSmek to wait. 
4jU.O-jj posta-hane post office. 

a. k si'bt'b reason. 

»1U— \ es?Ht'£ to blow. 
y.^J^ gujjbila hardly. 
at. J^i- WuajrYt better, 
a. ..gJiv; tiklif proposition. 

,JacJ (i7i jaq only, 
a. a! »« mvrad intention. 
a. Ua'-T fa/*><7 learning. 

Proper Names: i>*li Shahin. 0—^ Ihsan Grant. 

140 \\ ^-j} Lesson 19. y±* 

t \ ^Ui Exercise 41. 

■^ v •* ** *^ •* *• -^ *^ • \ ** • r * 

l5^»U ~:-J* die dill CX. *v-«^C«4jl*}l Li — ! 4>3' ' *c J*?- 

1Y 4>^/ Translation 42. 

1. Giving is better than taking. 2. Every ascent 
has its descent and every going has its coming. 3. I have 
no intention of [to] writing a letter to the father; have 
you? 4. To mount a donkey is a shame, to dismount 
another (two). 5. Nobility is [gained] by giving, bravery 
by killing. 6. The wind is blowing very hard. 7. Which 
is better, smoking tobacco or drinking coffee? — Neither 
of them is [not] useful for health. 8. Are those sugar- 
plums nice? — Yes, Sir! 9. This ice-cream is made of 
milk, ice and lemon. 10. This cup is made (yapma) 
in Germany. 11. Seal the letters and send them to 
the post-office; don't forget to seal them, seal and tie. 
12. Why are these children crying? — I don't know 
the reason. 13. Don't go to see the teacher without 

1<u$ The Finite Verb. 141 

taking me. 14. To begin to read his lesson. 15. The 
days began to grow shorter. 

4xl5^» Conversation. 

^InJL^L ' oAX.-Jj^"' j^y^'" oJuwi-u JJ^i • <i-4\ li*ijloy ^i 

Y * l^^ Lesson 20. 

The Finite Verb. 

§ 302. Turkish verbs, like nouns, have two numbers : 
the singular and the plural. They have three persons, 
which do not vary for gender as they do in Arabic. 

§ 303. The koods of the Verb. *In Turkish the 
verbs have six moods 1 : the Infinitive-, the Imperative, 
the Indicative, the Assertive, the Narrative and the Con- 
ditional. The Infinitive, the Imperative and the Indica- 
tive are common to almost all languages; but the Asser- 
tive, Narrative and Conditional are peculiar to the Turkish. 

1 oj_«^s sourtt. — - jX*» masdar. *jj» nnrii/e, <>_j[*J>~\ il:hbari>/''. 
«.)&>. hikiayS, *z~>\jj rivayet, *Ja .i shartiye. 

142 r* u-oo Lesson 20. )i m r 

§ 304. The Conjugation of Verbs. All the Turkish 
verbs are conjugated in the same way, these being no 
irregular Verbs, except the Substantive defective verb 
'to be'; but there are certain modifications required by 
the law of euphony which hold good in the inflections 
of the verbs as in those of other parts of speech. We 
employ as examples in each mood and tense the verbs 

di^j— and >}^ verbs which are generally used as 
models for the conjugation of all verbs, soft or hard. 

§ 305. The Indicative mood has eight tenses and 
the three other moods seven each : they are as follows. 

1. Present JU x 4. Dubitative Jii ^U 7. Necessitative J. j=-j 

2. Aorist c.jlJ»* 5. Future Jj:^* 2 8. Suppositive <^*>J$ 

3. Past iS^j^t, ^L 6. Optative ^LaH 

§ 306. Of the six moods of the verb, the In- 
finitive has been fully described in the previous chapters. 

§ 307. The Indicative mood is the simple 
conjugated form of the verb and is the basis of the 
other three compound moods. It has eight tenses. 

§ 308. The Compound moods, the Assertive, 
Narrative and Conditional are formed by the aid of the 
three tenses of the substantive verb, which latter is called 
in Turkish the Auxiliary verb 3 . 

§ 309. The Substantive verb in general 
corresponds to the English verb 'to be', but it is 
defective. It has been mentioned several times in 
the previous chapters 4 ; but it is useful to bring it in 
again here (§§ 65, 72, 73, 238). 

1 Hal; Muzari, Maziiji shouhoudi; Maziyi naqli; Mustaqbdl; 
Iltizami, Vujoubi; Farziye. — 2 The Imperative, Optative and Se- 
cessitative are really moods according to the European Gram- 
marians. But they are not considered as moods according to 
the Turkish idea ; they are variations of the Future tense. The 
Turkish language acknowledges only four moods as has been 

mentioned. — 3 ^lt\ J«i Fiy'li-Iane. — 4 vide §§ 65, 73, 238. 


The Finite 







a -im 

A Jul = o 

rv~-s>-J 1 

a<u-j| = f»~- 

Ch- -sin 

iljul = ita 

i>— i*j| 

ilA^al = dJL 

{js) -dir 

^Jj] = ,J> 


<_,) = *- 

j -is 

ihi) = ita 


il*^ = il-U- 

J-Cjj; — J>0 



:.u-j| = j5*u» 

jrjz -dirlt'r 

JjJu\ = Jo 

1 A 1 

Ja-j| = Ja- 

§ 310. The Assertive mood, is used when the 
fact mentioned is asserted by the knowledge of the 
speaker; or it is stated on the authority of the speaker; 
he knows it of his own experience or knowledge, with- 
out depending upon hearing it from others; as: 

a_l! jyj\ Itb ■ Ju>4Sj»-j* JnUhtMuyumde dayima oqour idim 

In my childhood I was always reading. 

§ 311. This mood is obtained by adding to the 
third person singular of the tenses of the Indicative 
mood the past tense of the substantive verb. It has 
all the tenses of Indicative. 

§ 312. The Narrative 3Iood is employed when 
a fact is stated, but not on the authority of the speaker. 
It is a hearsay or report founded on the statement 
of others (§ 238); as: 

p.i-^j\ J^j\ tjj^r oxS^^^ kuch&kluyumd^ cJioq oynar 
imishim. (It is said that) I was playing much in my childhood. 

j>«JL_j\ JUjl J>^:_C ^jjj Dun mcktoubou yazmali imishsifiiz 
You ought to have written the letter yesterday it is said). 

§ 313. This mood is obtained by adding to the 
third person singular of the tenses of the Indicative 
mood the Dubitative or Perfect tense of the Substantive 
verb. It has all the tenses of Indicative save the Past. 

§ 314. The Conditional Mood. This states the 
condition on which another action takes place, has 
taken place, or will take place. It corresponds to what 
is called in European languages the Subjunctive; as: 

rjjj\ Oj~*" ' *■— S"' gilsi, memnoun olouroum If he comes 
I shall be glad. 

144 r« ^rJ> Lesson 20. tvu 

f-Uj^J \jiji £~ \$M*-jJj\ f°A P aram oloursayidl Sana 
bir lira'vJri'ridimlf I had money I would give you a pound. 

8 315 This mood is formed by adding to the 
third person singular of the tenses of the Indicative, 
the Conditional tense of the substantive verb. 

It has all the tenses of the Indicative, except the 

§ 316. The Imperative Mood. *j\ Oj>^ 

Per. 1. wanting 

2. j^ sev love thou 

3. «jj~j~ ' CsTJ" s ^ sin let llim love 

1 \ 8 sevelim let us love 

2 £~ ^>~ si ?f Z ) love you 
*• j .J -J sewn | 

3, Jl^-j- t J^TT M sevsinler let them love! 

Per. 1. wanting 

2. Jl> 2/ a ^ write 

3. ur-j^ ' C>r^i y«***' let him write 

1 lcJL yazalim let us write 

2 <U 'Ail- 2^.5**1 write you 

3. J^-jli l J^-J^i yazshilar let them write! 

§ 317. The Negative. ^1 ^u 

Per. 1. wanting 

2. <u *~ set-'we don't love 

3. u y***y* ' lc-*\*- sdv'misin let him not love 
1. ^.^.^- sev'meyelim let us not love 

(dii^.^. sevmeyin \ 

2 J " (lon t love 

|J^i*^- sev'meyiniz] 

3. JL^-^~.'J^*v~ seo'mesinler let them not love! 

8 317 a. The first person Singular is wanting. The 
root of the verb is the second person Imperative 
Singular, the plural of which is formed in two ways: 
shin, yazm is very common in speech; seviniz, yamfti* 
is used in literature and among literary people. 

11.0 The Finite Verb. 145 

iii Words. 

f . 4.Tji gazeta newspaper at. !J»U3 zivaVli! poor! 
a. ! c^j) *jf liirem et! please! ! 0J0U hay del Now then! 

! ilojuU hay den! (used as pi.) Let us go! Come along! 

if A^ Exercise 43. 

♦ jU^JL'i *<u-4S^ ©s i<* JuA ilj^)^ • 4~°' £*J *- — \^j\ 

1 1 4J3-J Translation 44. 

1. Where are you going? — I am going to the 
doctor. — Why are you going to the doctor? — I have 
malaria. I am going to' show myself to the doctor. 
2. What is the price of this calico? — It is four piastres 
a yard. 3. It is raining: let us go home and read the 
day's newspapers. 4. The flesh of those cattle is not 
good for the health: let nobody eat it. 5. What are 
the children doing? — They are reading their books. 
6. Please call the maid -servant. 7. Bring me a little 
fried meat and a piece of roast meat. 8. There is a 
knife on the table. 

Axl^S Conversation. 

Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 10 


Y* ^j^ Lesson 20. 1^ 

. »jjlj *i»jl l^J^i 

. rJi B .ijTil- ! f xi\ col ?j£-c "-^ "Ar *^" 

oiCltf ^ .^jl &B* ^^U^^bjG?^.^ 


._>a sji-b 1 i- 

«■! - 

j, 15 JuJ Reading Exercise. 
,1*1. j >3 The Religions and Denominations. 

ill* j. • fJ J j ^l ' iUiB ' ot^.; = P^x» »>^ 


JOmoUK Shahanede boulounan 1 dMer* Islamln*, 
KhristiyanUq* vi Yehoudilik* namlari*ile ueh dm: ls- 

Words. 1. found, existing. 2. religions. 3. Maintain. 
4. Christianity. 5. Judaism. 6. names. 

fuY The Present Tense. 147 

lamlar deort mezhebe 1 ayrilmishlar dir s : Hanefi 9 , Hanbali 10 , 

Shafiyi 11 ve Maliki 12 . Islamlarin beoyuk qismi 13 Hanefi 

mezhebinden dir: Tit rider ve Kurdlerden baztlari Hanefi 

dirler. Ajemler 14i , Qizil-b ashlar 10 ve Kurdlerden basilart 

Shafiyi dirler. Arablardan bast qabileler 16 Hanbali ve 

basilar Maliki dirler. Her keoyde ve shehirlerde jamiler 11 

ve imamlar 18 var dir. 

Memaliki Mahrousede boulounan Khristiyanlar dakld 

bashlija debrt beoyuk mezheblere ayrilmishlar dir: Protestan, 

Qatolik, Ermeni ve Bourn. Her Khristiyan kedylerde ve 

shehirlerde kiliseler ve papas 19 ve vayizler 20 var dir. 

Yehoiidiler pek az dir. Anjaq Istanbolda ve Memaliki 

shahanenin bazi shehirlerinde boidounourlar. 

7. denomination, sect; religious opinion; one of the four 
orthodox schools of opinions in Islam. 8. are divided. 9. the 
Hanefi sect or school of Sunni Moslems, founded by Imam Ebou 
Hanife. 10. The Hanbali sect, founded by Imam Ahmed ibni (son 
of) Hanbal. 11. The Shafiyi school or sect, founded by the great 
lawyer Muhammed son of Idris, called Imam Shafiyi. 12. The 
school founded by Imam Malik. 13. part. 14. Persians. 15. Red- 
heads: the non-Sunnite Turks (said in contempt as though wor- 
shipping the round red stone in Kerbela, on which were beheaded 
Hassan and Huseyin, the two sons of Caliph Ali; they are also 
called Alevee: i. e. followers of Ali, while the Han^fees are called 
Sunnites). 16. tribes. 17. mosques. 18. a leader in public wor- 
ship of Islam. 19. priest. 20. preacher. 

Y ^ u^ 5 ^ Lesson 21. 

JU oWS The Present Tense. 

§ 318. In the formation of the tenses, the third 
person singular is first made by the addition of some 
suffix to the root of the verb. The other persons are 
made by the addition of the present tense of the Sub- 
stantive verb. Every tense has its characteristic suffixes. 

§ 319. The characteristic sign of the Present is 

the syllable jy -ijov or j^, -iyov, which, added to 

the root of the verb, makes the third person singular 
of this tense (§ 54). The other persons are obtained 
by simply adding the present tense of the Substantive 
verb to the stem thus formed (§§ 309, 522). 


148 n ~j:> Lesson 21. »t,A 

j*yjl ' Vjijl : jjiyj\ oqouyor. ^yjl ' Vjl : Jj^j^ yaziyor. 

§ 320. Note. This tense is often called by English 
Grammarians the Present Progressive or Second 
Present Tense. It indicates that the action is going 
on at the present moment, while one is speaking; 
whereas the Aorist of the Indicative indicates that the 
action is going on but is not over, and is habitual. 
Hence the Aorist of the Indicative has often been 
regarded as the Present Tense of that mood; but it is not 
really so, as it expresses the action in an indefinite way, 
referring both to the present and the future (§ 328). Thus 
yaziyoroum means f I write at the present moment, I am 
writing', just like the Continuative Present (§ 300) 
yazrnaqda'yim; whereas yazarim means C I write in general 
as a habit', or it conveys a promise, and then corresponds 
to T will write 5 . 

§ 321. 1. Indicative Present. ^jU- 1 Jl>- 

pj^~jj~. seviyoroum, I am loving, 

Oyjj— 'j— seviyovsOun, thou art loving, 

j^tj** seviyor, he is loving, 

jjj^ij+M seviyorouz. we are loving, 

j5wj^._j^- seviyorsounouz, you are loving, 

Jjj~j j~. seviijovlar. They are loving. 

Potential Present. &\s$\ JU 

Ajj-JLoj- sevebili' yoroum, jjjA~>t>j~> sevebili y or ouz, 

■J\~>jj~L*aj~. sevebili' y or soun, jfC-j^Jj oj- sevebili yorsowloaz, 
j^JLjoj— sevebili' 'y or, JjjJuoj*. sevebili yorlar. 

I am able to love etc. (lit. I know how to love). 

The Negative Present. juJU 

»jy\»j~> sev'meyoroum I am not loving, etc. 
Ajy<»oj~, sevi'meyoroum I am not able to love, etc. 

)±\ The Present Tense. 149 

Interrogative Present. .*UiJ JU 

^40 j- ' Oj-*jj^ y »- sevi yormouyoum? — mousoun? Am 

I loving? 
r»jy<y*j~, sev meyormouyoum? Am I not loving? 

-«Jjja.«o^- seve' meyormouyoum? Am I not able to love? 

§ 322. 

2. Assertive Present (Imperfect). .ulsC-jU 

The Assertive Present, which corresponds to the 
Imperfect tense of the English, indicates that an action 
had begun, but was not finished at the time spoken 
of; as: 

*«M jj~jj~. sevi'yor idim, i'joj jj^j^ sevi'yor idik, 

ijjul jj^i j— sevi'yor idiu, J-Cjol jj~> j~- sevi'yor idiniz, 
iSJ*>\ jj^j^- sevi'yor idi, J^^ ~>jrij^ sevi'yor idiler. 

I was loving, thou wast loving, etc. 
fjol j..^^ sev'meyor idim, or — oudoum ... I was not loving. 

§ 323. 3. Narrative Present. oJjj Ju 

P-it\ jj-jj*. sevi'yor imishim, JviM J^-ij- sevi'yor imishiz, 
i> — ttl jj^tj^ sevi'yor imish'sin, j>. — lM jj~»j.~- sevi'yorimishsiuiz, 
^JJ.\ jj^j^ sevi'yor imish, J^-i\ Jj-^j- sevi'yor imishler. 

It is said that I was loving (I may have been loving). 

§ 324. 
4. Conditional (Subjunctive) Present. \Jl* JW- 

a^-jj-.jj- sevi'yorsam, l]<<~>jj->j- sevi'yorsak, 

±}*.~.jj~jj~. sevi'yorsau, jS^L-jj-jj— sevi yorsamz, 
k^jj^j^ sevi yorsa, Jk~*jj-j> *~ sevi'yorsalar. 

If I am loving, etc. 

§ 325. Further: 

oj.»<^jj T >j[> yazt'yorsamda I am writing, but — 
»j^<~j! Jjt^J^ yaz'mayor isemde' I am not writing, but 

150 T) ^rJ> Lesson 21. 


KJ Words. 

P- '-ui^T aferin! well done! p..A>U ' J>J* charste market 
C jG qarin abdomen, stomach £f jJjlS qarnim aj I am hungry 
j> iog satisfied >^ aowoii* thirsty 

at. JTji 8MWi violent a. ^ 4W hasty, pressing 

a. J» qalSm. a (government) at.J-UlS nizamsiz irregular 
office [(money) umbrella. 

j-jj; fco-zmatf to change V— * 

to ^-Jl^ Exercise 45* 

• ^J Jt* ^ ^i 1 c! ' ^^ ^ Jt g^ — ? ^J J Jri l . 
Ub oil jju I ^ ' Ojl - 1 Jtf J^ c- .* JW » i 5 ^-^ ' 

i o ) The Present Tense. 151 

t*\ 4&-J Translation 46. 

1. I am eating bread and drinking water; what 
art thou doing? — I am preparing myself to go to 
Iconium. 2. Thou art reading thy lesson: but thy 
classmates are not studying (working); they are lazy. 
3. No, Sir, why do you say so? How hard they are working! 
But it is very difficult, they cannot do better. 4. Are 
they coming to our house to-morrow? — If they are 
coming tell them to bring my umbrella. 5. He was 
thirsty; you are hungry. — No, Sir, I am satisfied. 
6. I wish to go to Smyrna, do you wish to see that 
city? 7. Can you change a mejidiye for me? — I cannot 
change it; but if you can give me ten paras, I can 
give you four quarters. 8. The bread is very cheap now; 
they are giving an oke of it for 23 paras. 

<U ^a Conversation. 

• Jjj^»«C — 1\ ^-UJ5^ W <04 — 1\ _^L 4& ? ^fJj'^'^O ojr" t£J^l iaC-lj 

^J> I A ^Ju> Reading Exercise. 
cCjoJ^li oVjl »jr fJjlilj->- The Use of Animals. 


rr u-ji Lesson 22. t" 

j^ j* jBJi, «kji;i ji • i>£* ^ 4£y tfT^ ' 3S 

J^j- uJii^- iU- 'jf i*T i«**r J ^ ' df' dh - 

>U, iil J« ^ A* J ^J/* ' £^r- ' ^ ^J- ' °rt 

Hayvanlarin bise olan bast faydeleri. 

Hayvanlarin bizk pih choq faydcsi 1 var dir. _ 
I,/, : uerde hayvanlarin bir choghou bizun yeyejeMenmtet 
tedarzVSdiyorlar. Sighir\ dana>, qoyoun Udu ■ gwsou 
ve ovlaq* qibi hayvanlarin; ve tavouq, qaz\ eordek gm 
qoushlarid ettermi yeyorouz, av etleriyU baliqlar dakhi ba m 
leziz 9 ta'amlar 1 " yapmagha qoullamUyor. 

Inek, Uchi, qoyonn V e jamous^ f> hayvanlarin 
sudiinden sudlii qah've, sudlii chay, sudlaj* ,***£* 
ve bounlar qibi bdzi Uziz ta'amlar yapihyor Bounlaulan 
bashqa boJdann suduyle tere yagU^ve peymr *V*«9*» 
Mr. DisM 1 * esMk sndunu de heJctmler hastalar i chin pel 
choq qoidlaniyorlar . 

Words, i. use, benefit 2 food. 3. to prepare procure 
4. cattle. 5. calf. 6. kid (§36 7 ,eese. 8. duck 9 deUogu. 
10. foods, qpul lanmaq to use. 11. buttalo. i£. rn.e m 
curds of milk, madzoun. 14. butter. 15. female. 

W ^jiJO Lesson 22. 

fj,tk* The Aorist. 

§ 326. The characteristic sign of the Aorist of the 
Indicative is the letter j re added to the root of the 
verb, which forms the third person singular. The other 

I or The Aorist. 153 

persons are formed by simply adding the abbreviated 
present of the Substantive Verb (§§ 52 2 , 309). 

§ 327. The vowel sound between the re and the 
root of the verb varies, being either -ai\ -er: -ii\ -iv; 
-our, -fw. and can only be learnt by practice or from 
a good dictionary. Ex. : 
vIUaj ' vlU yemek to eat: ^ yer he eats 

viJlt^ demek to eay: ^o der he says 

<LXs.j\ eotmek to sing the bird : jj\ eote'r he sings 

^Jo baqmaq to look: jlSl baqar he looks 

vli-dS gelmek to come: ^*d gelir he comes 

j&\ almaq to take: j\)\ alir he takes 

\»jjsj\ otourmaq to sit: Jjjj^»j\ otourour he sits 

^Mj\ eblmek to die: jj\j\ ebliir he dies. 

§ 328. 1. Indicative Aorist. 4o|L>-l f jUa* 

rjojl. seve'rim, I love habitually) I shall love 

iju- jj- sever' sin, thou lovest » thou wilt love 

v ^~ sever', he loves 

3j«_*~- severiz, we love 

jx-ju^ sever si niz, you love 

Jj*- severler ', they love 

he will love 
we shall love 

you | 

/ will love, 
they | 

The Potential Aorist. JjIjcSI fjU=^ 

A^nLoj.- sevebili'rim, j^vLo^- sevebi'liriz, 

urt«»j*Li0^ M i se'rebilir'sin, ^-jjLoj- se'vebilir'siniz, 

^nLoj*- sevebilir, Jj^ff" sfaebilirler. 

I am able to love, I can love ... I know how to love. 

The Negative Aorist. ;!* fjLo* 

I%aj— sevmem', J>^ «- se'vme'yiz, 

Cj±~J»j~> sevmez'sin, jx-j-^- sevme'z'siniz, 

J*j*~ sevmez, Jjv sevmezler . 

I do not love or I shall not love . . . 

154 rr u*js Lesson 22. lei 

p^oj— seve'mem, J*^oj~, seve'meyiz, 

t>u^oj— sevc'mezsin, j£L-j^o^~, seve'mezsiiliz, 

j><>j~- seve'mez, JJaoj^ seve'mezler. 

I am not able to love, I cannot love . . . 

Interrogative Aorist. J>.J *>U^ 

? sAjy,j~, sevmez' miyim? ? J**J*j~' sevmez miyiz? 

?iln — •j>j~- sevmez misin? ?^x — «J*^- sevmez misiniz? 

? {J J* j" 1 sevmez' mi? ? « Jj*j— sevmezler mi? 

Do I not love? dost thou not love? etc. 

? r*jy" ? crt-^jj— sever' miyim? -'misin? Do I love? 

? ^ p-«oj~- ?!>—;* j* oj~- ? ^ J^oj— 1 Am I not able to 
seve'mem mi? sevemezmisin? seve'mez mi?) Jove - 

sl;UilL« Muta-la-at Remarks. 

§ 329. I. The formation of the Negative Aorist is 
irregular, as is seen above. 

§ 330. II. The use of the Aorist among the com- 
mon people varies; as: 

sever im, seven, sever; sever ik, sever sxniz, severler. 

sevmem, sevmen, sevmez; sevmezik, sevmezsifiiz, sevmezler. 

§ 331. The First Gerund. When *i~*>- jesine 

is added to the third person singular it gives the mean- 
ing c as if, intending to do'. 

(i^Lli tjjjjy <u-4.».jjjj\ ouyour'jasma gebzlerini qapadi. 
He shut his eyes pretending that he was sleeping. 

cS^c-l <C_4j».^a)I c — sesi allr'jasina baghirdi. He shouted 
out as loud as he could (take his voice). 

§ 332. This jesine is sometimes added to nouns, 
and signifies 'after the manner of, as, like'. 

(iJul jj~'Ajj\b 4^-aso^-. merd jesine davraniyor oudou. He was 
behaving himself in a manly way. 

Eshek'jesine baghirdi. He cried out like an ass. 

§ 333. The Second Gerund. Such English phrases 
as 'before coming, before going' etc. consisting of c be- 

1oo / The Aorist. 155 

fore 5 with a gerund, are rendered in Turkish in two 
ways : one by the use of the second derivative from the 
Infinitive, as has been mentioned above (§ 299). The 

other by appending J,o -den or j/i ^o -den evvel to the 
third person singular of the Aorist, negative form; as: 
^T^^O'. ben gelmeden gitme | Don't go before my 
^^zS^j^jJ^^ ben gelmezden gitme] comm g- 

4<JSjj\ ^j^j^^n&U. ^ j, ben seni chaghirmazdan evvel gelme. 
Don't come before (my calling you) = I call you. 

§ 334. The Third Gerund. When the third 
person affirmative and negative come together a gerund 

jLjlj jljli yazar yazmaz. As soon as I (you, he) wrote. 

gelir gelme z chagMrdi. He called me as soon as he came. 

2. The Assertive Aorist (Conjunctive). a,15C>- fjU** 

§ 335. The Assertive Aorist, which is called by 
English scholars Past Habitual (corresponding to the 
Imparfait and Conditionnel tenses of French) indicates 
that one was formerly, in the habit of doing an action 
or that one would do it on condition of something- 
else happening. Thus *Jul J^ gelir idim signifies either 

'I used to come or I would come (if something else 

happened) 5 . 

Bafia bir lira verirsen chog memnonn olour idim. If you 
would give me a pound, I should be very glad. 

r-^1 j\j^ yazar idim 

iJJo\ jljL yazar idin 

c5Ju\ jljli yazar idi 

il-M jIJIj yazar idik 

jS»Jul j\jL yazar idiniz 

Ji-^1 jlj^ yazar idiler 

Negative and Interrogative. 

^jj\j^j~ or +*y*y* sevmez'idim, sevmez' dim ; sermez'idin . . 
I used not to love or would not love or would not have loved, etc. 

I used to write, I should write. 
1 should have written, etc. 

156 rr u-J-> Lesson 22. t ci 

? *-L.«j^- sever' miyidim? ? >ju«^j— sevmez' miyidim? 
Used I not to love? etc. Did I not use to love? etc. 

§ 336. 

3. The Narrative Aorist. cJjj f-jUa* 

JUl jj- seeeV imishim, J\lz.\ jj~, sever' imishiz, 

Cn— it I j^- sewer' imishsin, jx~JLcl jj~, seyer' imishsiniz, 

J^t\ jj~* sever imish, JLlm j^~- sever' imishler. 

(They say that) I used to love, (Perchance) I love . . . 

§ 337. 
4. The Conditional Aorist. J^J^ fjU** 

a^jj^, sever sem, z\k~,j>j~, sevir'sek, 

£<^jj~, sever' sen, jff^-jj— sever seniz, 

-u-jj.-. sever 'se, ^Jjj*, severler'se. 

If I love, If thou lovest, etc. 

*<u-j*j— sevmez' sem, -sen. If I do not love . . . 

§ 338. Note. The Conditional Aorist is abbrevia- 
ted sometimes by omitting the characteristic re, and 
then resembles greatly the Suppositive tense § 378; as: 

sevsem, sevsen, sevse. 

§ 339. Further: 

oA«<u-jj^ sever' semde Though I love, yet — 

jv5*~<j* j~- sevmez sende thou dost love, but — 

^^j^ rf \j& her him gelirse whoever comes. 

<^jjj\ aj yb her ne oloursa whatever it may be. 

ck~,J-J£^ <o<u-^n5 gelir'sede gelme'z'sede whether he comes or not. 

§ 340. When two or more verbs follow one ano- 
ther in the same tense, number and person, the personal 
ending is generally omitted in all but the last: 

rjojOT j j^j\ ' ^ yer, ichir ve gezerim for yerim, icherim ve 
gezerim. I eat, drink and promenade. 

t oy The Aorist. 157 

Peder her aM'sham size gidiyor ve yarl gejeyedek otourou- 
yoroudou, for gidiyoroudou. My father used to go every night 
to your house and stay there till midnight. 

i£) Words. 

p. *ST Yi that a. jjj— sunbul hyacinth 

a. iL-« miisafir guest JU^L: sachmaq to spread 

p. JT\ eyer if a. p—j* wevsim season 

a. jlJ>J tekrar again v±l.j^- surmek to plough 

a. i-i^ tara/^ place, side ^i<5l ekmek to sow 
! L aIjjI eo t v?e yal certainly! CjC>\ yazin in the summer. 

IV ^Li Exercise 47. 

O^ J* ? J-^»' <— ^^ r^T 4^>>w« 0-V:>-l$ J1.C-L- ^-U>1 A>-ly> ^ 

o^jj : *o «>JLj k «i 4~jJ ^jl j^-4f^ <ojy^ ju^L« «UjliV' 

7^--A • pjU-J *»^»J ' o-XJLwl r^jl A^ jji ^ * JUjiJu 4j4Aj *— cJjy 

^jUI OtlJ j 0:31 * 4-JjTl j Jj*jj- ji • ffijjjjj-' Cx.jf 3 

158 rr o~J-> Lesson 22. ) oa 

£A A^J? Translation 48. 

1. I know Armenian. Thou knowest German. Does 
he know Greek? 2. Before you came here, you did 
not know us (assertive). 3. Before seeing the property 
(mal), I cannot give the money, but if I see and 
approve, I will give the money. — Well, Sir, if I can 
make you like it, then I hope you will pay. — 4. At 
what o'clock do you go to bed? — I eat at 12 o'clock 
Turkish time, and lie down at 3 o'clock, in summer, 
but in winter I eat at one o'clock and go to bed at 
five. Sometimes, if I have guests, I sit up until six 
o'clock. 5. I do not do so! I eat early and I retire 
early. I rise early in the morning. While others are 
sleeping, I read and write my lesson. Sometimes in 
the fresh morning air I take a walk in the field. 
6. Well done! my boy; you do well. 7. Can you ride 
on horseback? — Yes, I can (ride), but you cannot 
ride. 8. What do they call this boy? — They call 
him Nejib. 

<U^S Conversation. 

I A (1r H Reading Exercise. 

«.<——' U 

iSj^— f]^UIj->- Toices of Animals. 

}\ j ' -P j'j <sj~~ - c^j*^ ^A^~ ijj^\y>- cyy. 

) o\ The Past Tenses. 159 

}*}y*y O^-o^ jjjjj\ ^Usl jjfiS 1 sdill jt£*j C>l 

Hayvanlarin sesleri. 

Butun hayvanlarin JcendUerine maktisous 1 sesleri 

var dir, ve ol sesi geostermek ichin cle hirer tabirUri 2 
var dir; Mesela. 3 — 

At Kishner 4 , eshek ahhir 5 , inek bedyurur 6 , arslan 
gedmurder 1 , ayi khomaurdar 8 , gourd oidoiir 9 , kedpek liav- 
lar 10 , tilki inje bir sesle siniler 11 , qoyoun ve kechi meter 12 , 
kedi miyavlar 13 , khoros eoter 1 *, tavouq gidaqlar 15 , pilijler 
ve oufaq qousMar jivilder 16 , hind tavoughou 1T goalou goidou 
eder 18 , papaghan 19 laqirdi eder 20 , gebyerjin 21 dim clteker 22 , 
bfdbuJ 23 shaqir 2i , edrdek vaq vaq eder 23 . 

Words. 1. Especial. 2. term. 3. for instance. 4. Kish- 
nemek to whinny. 5. anirmaq to bray. 6. beoyurmek to moo. 
7. gebmurdemek to roar. 8. Khomurdamaq to growl. 9. oidoumaq 
to howl. 10. liavlamaq to bark. 11. sinilemek to squeak. 12. me- 
lemek to bleat. 13. viiyavlamaq to mew. 14. eotmek to crow. 
15. gidaqlamaq to cackle. 16. jivildemek to chirp. 17. turkey 
(Indian) hen. 18. to gobble. 19. parrot. 20. to chatter. 21. pigeon. 
22. to coo. 23. nightingale. 24. shaqimaq to warble. 25. to quack. 

ff \jr^^> Lesson 23. 

Ju^U The Past Tenses. 

§ 341. There are two tenses denoting the Past. 

§ 342. One is the Categorical Preterite called by 
the natives Maziyi shouhoudi 'eye-witness past', which 
depicts the speaker as having been present or as having 
witnessed something with his own eyes, so as to know 
it for certain without any doubt. Hence it corresponds 


tr u-j:> Lesson 23. 


with the compound tense formed with the Past Parti- 
ciple and the auxiliary verb c To have'. For instance 
yazdi, not only means he ivrote (in the presence of the 
speaker), but also he has written. 

It may also be translated by the English Past, 
formed with did; as: yazdi mi? Did he write? — yazdi, 
he did write. 

§ 343. The other is the Dubitative Past, Maziyi naqli 
implying or expressing doubt. The speaker is not sure 
about the matter, he may have heard it from others. This 
tense can be correctly used only when the truth of an 
assertion is not guaranteed, and when the speaker means 
to state that he believes what he says, but cannot 
vouch for it; as: yazmish r he wrote (as others say) he 
has written (I believe), I am not sure about it'. This 
tense is used in telling stories of the past or anecdotes 
which the speaker has heard from others or read in 

1. Indicative Past. ^s^JL [J 9 ^* 

§ 344. The characteristic sign or suffix of the 

Past tense is ^ -di, -di in the third person. For the 

first person plural it is fta -dih for the soft vowels and 

J^ -diq for the hard ones. 

(ojli yazdi m, r^j^ sevclim, 

itajl yazdtri ', 

i£zj\> yazdi', 

jJ^jL yazdiq , 

J^ojl yazdiniz', j>o^~. sevdiniz' 

Ji-O^ yazdilar . ^Oj~. sevdiler'. 

Potential Past. ^jl-Ol ^U 

iljJuoj- sevebildik', 

itaj— sevdiri, 
<Szj~- scvdi , 
il.*^— sevdih' ', 

I wrote, I did write, 

I have written . . . 

I loved, etc. 

a_)Juoj.~. sevebildim', 
iJjijo^~. sevebildin ', 
(iiLioi- sevebildi', 

jSCjIoo^- seoebildiniz', 
^ljJuoj~. sevebildiler . 

I w r as able 
to love . . . 

\*i) The Past Tenses. 161 

Negative and Interrogative, 

*^<* yM sev'medim I did not love. *_>*,<».— sevemediml was not able 
1 l to love. 

^ <J f -^ V az ^ m m ^ ^id I write? ? ^ ^^- sevdim ml? Did I love? 

yaz'madim ml? Did I not write? yaza'madhn ml? Was I not able 

to write? 

§ 345. The Fourth Gerund. A very common 

expression is formed by adding s -da 9 -de to the first 

person plural of the Past, thus indicating when an action 
is performed. 

oji^jL yazdlqda when he wrote. Cjj^Jj^J^ lt"O a *-xSjJI»- <j^* 
chan chalindlqda her Ices otoursoun when the bell is rung every 
body must sit down. 

§ 346. The Fifth Gerund. By adding *>. -je, 

to the same person, another kind of gerund is made, 
which corresponds to in 'proportion as, the more — the 

fj^j j- *?}}yj\ <J>\s Icitabi oqoudouqja seviyoroum. The 
more I read the book the more I like it. 

Oy-Is-^^j^- *^=5jui (5*\jjI tsvabinl geydikje hoshlanajaqsln. 
The more you weare your dress the more you will like it. 

§ 347. After with a Participle, is rendered in Tur- 
kish by the addition of iy& c$ -den sonra to the same 
person as: 

o^fjo ,j.x5jJj\ ^ ben ebldukden sonra after my death. 

*^fj-* o-ii^jL £j ben yazdlqdan sonra after I wrote. 

Mektoubou yazdi, ve yazdlqdan sofira mebMrledi. He wrote 
the letter, and after writing he sealed it. 

§ 348. Further: 

Eoyrenemedik gitdi. At last we were not able to learn. 
Seoyledim gitdi. At last I have spoken. 

2. Assertive Past, ^pj-i ^U *l$C>. 

§ 349. The Assertive Past, which is called in 
English the Pluperfect, is made in two ways, one by 
adding the Past tense of the Substantive Verb to the 

Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 11 

162 Yf urJ^ Lesson 23. >^Y 

third person of the Past tense and the second by adding 
the third person of the Past of the Substantive Verb 
to the Past tense. 

&M f ^~ sevdim idi, ^ ^^ S ™ di *** W ' 

ia-J -^ sevdin idi, £M 6>j~ sevdi idin, 

&M <S>j~> sevdi idi, <S±\ **J~ sMi idi ' 

i$M ibj- sevdik idi, A±\ 6>y~ sevdi •**? 

*<** J*4*J- sMifliz idi > ^— *** SiVdl ^^ 

&M J,3j- sevdiler idi, J.J-J t^j- afod* «er. 

I "had loved (I am sure), Thou hadst loved. 
Note. The Narrative Mood is wanting. 

§ 350. 

3. Conditional Past. J^i [£Sj£> *J*\* 

It is made in two ways, as in the Assertive Mood. 
4-.I fojl yazdim ise, «-J &% V azdi( L W » 

4! 4*% y« zd ™ isi > ^ ^' j{i - yazdifliz ** 

k!\ iS&i yazdl ise, *■->) >.*>. V azdllar isL 

If I have written, If thou hast written . . . 


• >u^ joj- sevdim isede I loved, but — . 
o^J oUT alamadlm iside I was not able to take, but -. 

a-.\ \s£\ f &** v azdi isS whoever ma ^ have written - 

The Dubitative Past. j£ ^*U 
§ 351. The characteristic sign or suffix of this 
tense is J^ -mlsh, -mteh, -mush, -mousli, accor 
ding to the dominant vowel. The formation of the 
persons is regular. 

§352. 1. Indicative Dubitative. a^U-I ^ 

•^ se-vmi'shim, J&J* •*"***■ 

C^Jl.^ sSvmish'sin, jd*j~ sevmisli siniz, 

nr The Past Tenses. 163 

j.> J~*j~* sevmish' (dir), jzJJLaj— sevmishler'(dir). 

I loved, I have Joved (it is said) . . . 

Potential Dubitative. .CjIjcSI *& 

pJLJL ojL ya^a bilmish' im, J**»L ej^ y«3« bilmish'iz, 

i> — UL ojL ya^a bilmish sin, jx.,.,t . L ©Jl s/a^a bilmish' siniz, 
jjJUJL ojL ya^a bilmish' '(dir). j^^LUL 0^, yazabilmishler' (dir) . 
[They say that) I was able to write . . . 

Negative and Interrogative Forms. 

JL.LJL. yaz'mamlshim, Jl»\»j~. sevmemishim I did not write 

. . . love 
p_l.l.*jL yaz'amaimshim I was not able to write 

-AijLtjl yazmishmiylm? -'misin? . . Did I write? 

~*-i.Lo3^ yaza mcumshmiylm? Was I not able to write? 

8 353. 2. Assertive Dubitative. 4s 15C " uj 

»jj\ <J~*j~< sevmish idim, i)ju\ u i^- sevmisli idik, 

JiJjul (J^j— sevmish idin, J^^ u~*j— sevmish idiniz, 

<jjj\ J^y sevmish idi, J^-^>\ u-^j— sevmish idiler. 

I had loved (I am sure), Thou hadst loved. 

§ 354. 3. Narrative Dubitative. ^ bj [ t*J 

p-itl \j-*y sevmish' imishim, jtlIz) J~*j~* sevmish' imishiz, 

Cr\ it\ [ J-*j~* sevmish' imishsin, jx~it| ury* sevmish' imishsiniz, 

^^tl jL»»- sevmish' imish, J^} lt^J" sevmish' imishler. 

(They say that) I have loved, etc. 

72 1> 
> — 

a: O 

§ 355. 4. Conditional Dubitative. J^ [ lli 

r«— j\ <J-+y sevmish' isem, iJ-u-jl J^j- 1 sevmish' i$Sk, 

J<-j\ ^r**— sevmish' isen, jS+~j\ ^J-*j~> se'vmish' ise'niz, 

a — >1 ^p-*j~- se'vmish' ise, J<— A <J-*y sevmish' iseler. 

If T loved (as they say), (as others say). 
7a*'fiUHii$sft ts£n, -ise'fj If I had not written (as others say). 


164 rr (j-j^ Lesson 23. nt 

§ 356. Further: 

a*Jj1 J^j^i yasmXsh olsam If I had written. 
J*-Jjl ,JX\ almish olsalar If they had taken. 

Ail Words. 

di.jj.j- supurmek to sweep a. t.JT^U- saadetly happy 

a. ?->M i^aj medicine f. J.\J^ UUgraf a telegram 

dkjjjfjl eoksurmeTc to cough p. aj.j derd affliction, 

| to start, sickness 

jj-JLa. «J^_. i/oZa chiqmaq I to set out <-Sj> #en hack 

(to sail. 
{j*j£± deyirmen mill J.>'^-o cZ^i saying 

,jfji» « o : : »aii 1 isitma or sUma tontmaq to suffer from malaria. 

£A j^JUi Exercise 49. 

. ^ol^- Ay jyol dLj^f 4Jj\iJ uyy <£±&\ ^~£ s 

— '? J^4i ibjS ? <JU> JUJoi-iti? j 03 4a j> i -fOJjl ill it 

j^Z*\j\ ' J>Zj£ J^j^j^- ' {ZjSijjfe. 4^jCS- ! ju. — ? Jt fiol 1 
? jo£,«jj)^ £ ^j^jojljj a •jloJT^j J-'ji jI^UaJjj jUt.*lj! 

j»\i — • <jy* Jy y* y >^-~ 3 ijj^dji ?=L«o>. <u~J a\jj\ — 

^J^o^y fj^^ ' ti' ^JIj^Ju tjo^oollj a>o s v . *jujl <cl*jI 

ojujl ooiiil ^U — ? ^Ojl ^Jlj:^4j8_/ ^U- ooJIj — . jtcl 

3y>- oy**j ^*^J • l£-^ *J*> fSZs*. ♦ ^1^1 J3^ ^ *c£o~..*ji3 

♦ j\IT dUlill 49=^0} ! 4 5 ^ • L co:i^ ( *^a.«4)4lJ ©^4 J aJulJV 

^^o The Past Tenses. 165 

• 4J3-J Translation 50. 

1. What has he planted in the garden? — He 
has planted there some lilies, potatoes and tomatoes. 
2. Whose brother has two small knives? 3. It is re- 
ported [they say' that a man was killed yesterday in 
the town. 4. [They say] some one has been killed 
this week at the mill. 5. When did the ship sail? — 
She sailed on the first day of the month. 6. The mail 
from Samsoun arrived this morning. 7. Did you see 
my father? No, Sir, I waited for him in the market 
but I could not see him. My brother James saw him 
yesterday. 8. The more you learn the happier you 
are. 9. The more you advise him the angrier he gets. 
10. When your brother comes from the town, please 
let me know. 

<dl^* Conversation. 

- dU'£ ^j\ ,U| Jl*a«&* (jlLL. Tola ftJLseoU )i.or ita>L. ( -r 

? j± JL*. ».Ti \ ft^lac* oJ^cjjU ^Ti'iA j aj>5} ^\5 J.<^j JUiiLic. Cur 
cr'^tj* <^1jJw« 0^_^ o<Jjl s^cL. fvJju jjjj^j^* <J| (j>j-« 


irorf75. 1. a. tarikh date, history. 2. a. vasita hand, means. 
3. fet-h etmek to conquer. 4. /afi'/i conqueror § 601 . 5. wo?<- 
haaere siege (§ 618\ 6. zeval fall. 7. p. ??am name. 8. Qanouni 
Soultan Siileyman Sultan Suleyman, the Lawgiver (1520—66;. 9. qo- 
manda commandership. 10. vezir vizier. 11. moumciyileh His Ex- 
cellency [the person referee! to, i.e. the latter]. 12. ehali inhabitants. 

166 ft ^j* Lesson 24. tin 

/» 13 " ^ 

" " " *' ' vL 

*JdV.-* (i*^' J^ aLJj1-Ux>. o^t/" JL^L-ic u-^^*— 1 *iL-jljjl5 
u~-*a* ^J\zS J\l>Jl oJ — jjL <o $A^ j ij^o.^1 

^Lli* " dX'J^Z* ij-Ja* 1 jlli klixjl o_L_»jl. 

.Jjjl£j5j\ *-^ 

13. hazretleri His Majesty. 14. huTcumdar ruler. 15. Injili 
Sherif the Holy Gospel. 16. tab printing. 17. towards the end of 
the 17th century. 18. a pervert to Islam. 19. Ingiliz Kitabi 
Monqad'des shirketi B. & F. B. Society. 20. Mm'metiyU through the 
assistance, by. 

Troper Names: Jibon Ed. Gibbon. Qarolos Charles V. 

Y * u^>0 Lesson 24. 

\~s... The Future Tense. 

§ 357. The Future tense in Turkish corresponds 
to that of the English language; with this difference, 
that it simply asserts what will happen, without making 
a promise, which is always rendered by the Aorist. 

§ 358. The Categorical Future is made by adding 
o ' 4. -e-, -a- to the verbal root, if it ends in a conso- 
nant; and Ai -ye-, -ya- if it ends in a vowel; and after- 
wards dU- -jeJc is added if the verbal root is soft and 
>• -JaQ if # is hard (53): 

j«jjM ' VjjLjl ' ojj^j\ ' j^oj^Ljl otourajaq 
wU*.i«j1 ' VaLj| ' aj «.:—)! ' dJU*<u«c~.jl isteyijek 
£\+zZf ' Vci^ ' ojJT^ ' dJUoj^ gidejcl: 

)*\V The Future Tense. 167 

§ 359. Note. The radical endings £j -t, J -q, 

i! -&, are changed into 3 -tf-, £■ -£//*-, -?/-, when followed 
by a vowel: § 52 2 , 88. 

§360. 1. Indicative Future. 4>jU.i L£l~« 

is-ojl yazaja'-ghlm, So.\>*z~j\ isteyeje-yim. 

Ca— ia-fljlj yazajaq -sin, lK-5k*.4jO-j1 isteyejek' -sin, 

js 3^-0^ yazajaq (dirj, js <1X*~4j<£-j_\ isteyejek' (dirj, 
• ojL yazaja-ghiz, \£xu<l~>\ isteyeje-yi:. 

j^Lis-ajL yazcjaq-siniz, j£j£>.<><L-t\ isteyejek -siniz, 
j* Jl*-ojl yazajaq-lar (dirj. jiJS>fjC-;| isteyejek-ler (dir). 
I shall write, thou will — . I 6hall ask, thou will ask . . . 

Negative and Interrogative. 

P^ajUjIj yaz'mayajagliim,-shi... I shall not write... 

P^ajLoJL yaza'mayajagliiim ... I shall not be able to write . . 

? £•_£». ojL yazajaq 'miyim? Shall I write? 

? -<JL»-<uL31j yaz'mayajaqmiyim? Shall I not write? 
? ^JU-djUojl) yaza'mayajaqmiybn? Shall I not be able to write' 

§361. 2. Assertive Future. ^l5CS- JJlTw* 

Assertive Future or Imperfect Future signifies that 
an action was going to take place in the past, Present, 
or future. 

a jM (j^O^ yazajaq idim, iJjul J>-0^ yazajaq idik, 

j}jj\ 3**°^^ >; idin, J?^>-^\ (3»-0^ * idiui:, 

<5-M (3^-0^ 8 mKj jk-)u\ ^*-°3^ * idih'r. 

I was about to write, (yesterday, to-day or to-morrow). 

Note. This tense is often written and pronounced in the 
following manner: 

A.xi».ojlj ' jjj£>.oj~. yazaja'ghidim, sivijeyidin . . . 


ft u-j-> Lesson 24. 


§ 362. 3. Narrative Future. z*>hj JJ&~* 

p .7.c\ dJU.o^ sevejek imtshim, jZs\ sdJU. j— secejek imishiz, 

Ca — itl £\>.oj~. » imish'sin, J>< — is.\ vlAa-o^- 
^pt) vlU-o^w » imishf ^- J ^ di>»-o^~- 

[They say that] I was about to love . . . 

» imishsiniz, 
» imishler. 

363. 4. Conditional Future. 


,» "—j 1 *— A^ o a.— 

sevejek isem, 

ij<» — il vlA»»oj.~. 

sevejek isek, 

iJ 4.-.J | <taA>. y* 

» ts&S, 

"S 4— J 1 v— i^Oj^- 

» iseniz, 

<*— > 1 >— O»0 a— 

» 2S<?', 

J ^_j 1 <— 1>- Oa^ 

» iseler. 

or sevejeyisem, sevejeyisefi; yazajaghisaq, yazajaghisaniz . . . 
If I shall love, If I am to love . . . 

§ 364. Further: 

o-U-jl-j! ij^-oj^ yazajaq isemde I shall write, but — . 

oa5"L-j| viAs.Ju^.oj^' georemeyejek isekde We shall not be able 

to see, but — . 
<oj5"X_j| vUU.4j<u4jjjjj yeoruyemeyejek isenizde You will not be able 

to walk, but — . 

vULJiiS"" keyflenmek to be de 

^il J-j yil bashi New -Year's 

a. Jas-lj flayis preacher 

^il vlJL bin bashi major 
tiVl^n* mirdlay colonel 

>IL yayla summer-residence 
,3-^ slq thick 

JCiJ Words. 

? LlU haniya? where is it? 
a. J*j yani that is to say 
i^JoJIj yaldizli gilt 

J_A~ seyrek sparse 
ti ^_ jf" Z: eo/) ra bridge 
<L\*J^jjS^ georuslimek to visit 

^LL.1* family ajaq with the 
whole family. 

\ Jui Exercise 51. 

• -i^ - 

\\-r ' 

-41— t "\ * V A*> ' ^ll> , Lo j£ji 



m The Future Tense. 169 

4joJ- Imi +Jj+jJ~S ejl (^-U — - J/. ^ • J^ *-^->-fi , JlJ Jit* 50 

^e-X— wji3 4— ° ] \^~»jy C) I eA*ZS iSfy^ ^ ^ l4^ ~~ 
e^Jjjjl ♦J^o-OCjJ dLliT (5 ^^ ej^k Ujjl J^? J ©jUlL Jjy J^jU 

^o j^JUSI cSVlju j ^11 dl> ^joJ^I J^ • j3 ibu- dl Jj\ 
♦ jvid dU-A-^eJo ©jIII'jUjjI \ "\ ♦ jl5C^.oJLi 4jIjj! >-LL«l> 

OT 4j^J? Translation 52. 

1. Who will come to visit us to morrow? — I be- 
lieve that my sister Eliza will pay us a visit. 2. In 

the Psalms [Jjy*** mezmourlar) David says: Thou will 

show me the path of life. 3. Mrs. Mary loved her 
children and is loved by them. 4. As soon as I hear, 
I shall let you know. 5. You shall not go to the gar- 
dens. I will not allow it. 6. I shall write a few lines 
before I go to supper. 7. Shall I give him so much? 
No, Sir, he is asking too much. 8. Would Anna read 
such a dirty paper? — She could read others more 
dirty than that. 9. If I could (give), I would give you 
five pounds, but I cannot give [it]. 10. Where will 
he go? — If he finds a horse, he will go to the sum- 

«U |^S Conversation. 

? j£— „>». 4JL aJ \ , «jlx- ^.b-Xlsl j-Xj <jy y iw 

170 ft. ^J* Lesson 24. tv» 

j^jl i JlJ Reading Exercise. 
fc*j a siALJI ^ -4 Sermon of JSasr-ed-clin. 

dbji . jjoJ J^»j jj 2 vJlt^ \$aii *>i> Ct-vM ^ 

! z,*\r <cl» >,&» 4>r* aU- £L£y j ll J*ZJS 10<Cc -^" 

TTorcZs. 1. Nasred'din Hoja Ejfendi the reverend teacher 
Nasreddin. 2. emsalsiz unique. 3. edmrunde in his life. 4. fttcft tar 
d#a not at all. 5. laqirdi a word. 6. ishtahla gulunmek to be laugh- 
ed at heartily. 7. dmUmek to. listen. 8. haqq vermek to approve. 
9. Mrsu a pulpit. 10. jema'at congregation, people. 11. chevir- 
mek to turn (his face). 12. te-ofjub H. to wonder. 13. jemben 
in answer. 14. seoyUyeyim 1 may speak. 

t V l The Optative Tense. 171 

lf jwb 168 Ji^ l/'olr «3js • jaJ jl/2 Jlj- ^jl 

v ,. a *o (( • jj\L Ijjvi-j ' ^J&l *l>-I^ sL>jl ):> : ^JbJ^al* 

18 l * • | • • -T 

20 -J*r-T e ^3 ^ ^j^j-^.i j-: ^JW cS-^ 1 ^j>- 

15. ertfesi the following. 16. tekrar again, repeating. 16 a . aqiTli 
wise. 17. davranmaq to behave. 18. baghrishmaq to shout, to call 
out together. 19. terbiyesizlik rudeness. 20. gujenmek to be angry. 
21. madam Zri since. 22. yebriuju vermek (to depart and) go quickly. 

v ° \jfO^> Lesson 25. 

^Ijdl The Optative Tense. 

§ 365. The Optative tense expresses a desire or 
wish that some action may be performed. Its charac- 
teristic sign is a -e, -a (or *> -ye, -ya, when the root 

ends in a vowel) added to the root of the verb. This 
forms the third person singular. The first person 

plural is formed by adding i -Mm, -Ifon to this. 

§366. 1. Indicative Optative. 4»jl». 



pjo^- seveyim ', ioj^- sevelim . 

C*~»j~> sevesin, j£~" *- sevesiniz, 

Cjy*jJ* oj-^j^ ! o^- seVe', sevsiii , J; ^ sevelev'. 

That I may love, that thou mayest love, etc. 

Negative. ^LKJI \iL« 

pj4j^^. seu'mei/e>/im, sev'meyim, 14j<uj~ siv'meyelim, 

172 ro ^j* Lesson 25. )yy 

uj-ai^aj- sev'meyesin, jx~-4j<u^_ sevmeyesiuiz, 

Oy<**j~> l (jj~aj~, ' <sja^- sev'meye, sev'mesin, Jij-u^- sev'meyeler. 
That I may not love, etc. 


Interrogative. ^Ijfll .«UlJ 

§ 367. The interrogative forms are generally in 
use only for first and third persons, they are used to 
ask permission for something, and are rendered by shall 
or may: 

Person 1: ^ pj»j^ yazaybri mi? ^ ).oj\j yazalim mi? 

» 3: ^ <jj~-j^ yazsin mi? ^ J^jL yazsirilar mi? 

May I write, may he, we, they write? 

Person 1: ^ pj*jll\ al'mayayim mi? ^ 1LU al'mayalim mi? 
» 3: (_«. oj-lll al'masin mi? ^ J{,j~*\l\ al'masinlar mi? 
Shall I not take? 

OWllL* Mida-la-at Remarks. 

§ 368. The third person of the Optative is used 
to form some important gerunds: 

§ 369. The Sixth Gerund. By adding J,-Zi, -11 

or jjjjJ -liden berou, sl gerund is obtained, called 
the Primitive, meaning 'since'; as: 

j^nljJ<jJS ajIj^j ' <J,&XT aj\jj> bouraya geleliden berou, bouraya 
geleli. Since he came here. 

ji <c~i- J^jis (j^p-^-ji bou chojouq doghali, (or doghalidan 
berou) hasta dir. This boy is sick ever, since his birth. 

§ 370. The Seventh Gerund. By repeating the 
third person singular another gerund is formed which 
denotes repeated action: 

ci J^A.ty <c*y qoslia qosha geldi. He came running continually. 

§ 371. The Eighth. Gerund. Another Gerund is 

produced by adding jj fjj -raq, -rek to the same part 
of the verb; it expresses the manner of a subordinate 

ivr The Optative Tense. 173 

action which takes place at the same time as that 
stated by the verb it accompanies: 

jj-jj^^J^C ±1j<Cj^~ sevinerek mektebe gidiyor. He is going 
to school joyously. 

i$JJS" ijJ^y qosharaq geldi. He came running. 

§ 372. The Ninth Gerund. This is obtained by 

the addition of ._ ' *?6~- -si, or -sija to the third 
person, and is used for cursing and blessing: 

(^lil* (^-la-jl ojaghi yanasl or yanaslja! May his hearth be 
alight! (i. e. may he be prosperous!) 

4^—lJl ^U-jl ojaghi bataslja! May his fireplace be sunk! 
(i. e. may his offspring be annihilated!) 

-*Jj\ j^keor olasija! May he be blinded! 

2. The Assertive Optative. * 1<C». *>j dl 

§ 373. The Assertive Optative either expresses a 
wish that some action may take place, although one 
scarcely expects it. or indicates regret that some action 
has not taken place in the past: 

*ju\ ojL yazay'idhn, i)jul ejl yazay'idiq, 

il-M O^i yazay'id'ih, jr^-^) °Jt' yazay'idimz, 

cSJul ojL yazay'idi, J*-±>\ oj\^ yazay'idilar. 

That I might write! or That I had written! 

§ 374. The Dubitative Past third person singular 
of any verb is compounded with the Assertive Optative 

of the verb olmaq jljl c to become', to express just 
the same meaning: 

^ JjVjI urO^ yazmish olayldim, iJjuVjl (JU3' LJ yazmish olay'tdiq, 

j}jS)jj\ ^Jjtji yazmish olayidin, jS>jSij\ .JL^'ji, yazmish olay'id'iuiz, 

<iJoVj\ ^J.^ yazmish olayidi, Ji-^Vjl yj-+j\* yazmish dlayid'dar. 
That I might write! That I had written! 

Ol*llL« Muta-la-at Remarks. 

§ 375. a. Words which express a wish require 
the verb which follows to be in the Optative: such 
words are: 


to u-j-> Lesson 25. Ww 

t$*yj CtfJuJ *L?U>) no'layidi! Would that! 

p. St^kiash'ki vulg.Uslige! Would that it were so! 

I tf'o**J!J ^ ! ° °-*-> ^ ^ ?7a7i ' ^ rSm fc **' Allah V *™ dil 
God grant that! 

!o (iJo a j «i\ ^Hafc vereyidi de! Would to God that! 

jU\l# Misal'Ur Examples. 

JHfrMU Imrad'aolaytdV. Would that he had been here! 

ffintf* or, no'layUi vereyidim! Would that I had given! 

Allah iirdn'M or .4Hofc vereyidi de, or AZ ?a^ verede eyi 
bir yaghmour geleyidi! Would that God would grant a good rain! 

§ 376. b. Sometimes the meaning approaches 
much closer to that of the Suppositive Past (§ 379) : £ajJ 

AAiUjI ' ^Ju^Jjl i*j3 vermish olayldim or vermish ol- 
(- - r " - 

sayidim are the same. 

JCiJ Words. 
^T ujTU m«h almafl to buy jiU so**** to sell 

j/ST *MK heart ^> **^ P ost ' beam 

^U ^™»« 2 to suppose, take a. &*1 ^ permission 
a. »\x* sadaqa alms P- jrfjf ^aber together. 

! *U - 1 uj-bt ^ «■**' ofootm ' or ola ! May that bC health 
to you! [§ 490]. 

Of riW Exercise 53. 

il. j,U t ! yjjiVT u/U J^ty ji ' .a tfxi J 1 (*A J^ ' 

ifhV»l foi J^ • j^xJ »l^» oj. Co' ^ •#• J^ (f 1 ^ t 

! p Wj d^_ Apj-tt jM • fAj «W -VJ o»j t«a ' •» 
.<3 ! r _x>l jL.1 ^iUjtJ (even) j^Jjl .jl g»J. '> «>• 

»Yo The Optative Tense. 175 

;^.il» i t.r. /. , i ^ .1 - .,?./., * t /. ,M.i 


1 42~j Translation 54. 

1. Shall I read it? what shall I say? 2. How shall 
I have patience? 3. May his hand be broken! 4. Since 
I began my lessons I have not missed a day. 5. 
that I knew a little French! 6. Oh! that he might 
come. 7. It is well that I did not offer it to you, for if 
I had given it you would not have taken it. 8. Would 
that he had been here! 9. Shall we go to see the 
lion? — It is hot now, I cannot go. 10. May God 
keep you in good health! 11. What shall I do now? 
— You cannot do anything now. Go to your room 
until I call you. 12. You must not go to your uncles' 
house, unless you are invited. 13. By asking contin- 
ually you can find [the way to] Bagdad. 14. By 
studying continually you will learn fast. 

Ax |$S Conversation. 

Words. 1. Bab'bani douva Lord's Prayer. 2. semavat hea- 
vens. 3. mouqad'des holy. 4. iradet will, 5. oldouglwu gibi as 
it ''was). 6. i/ra olounmaq to he done. 

176 r^ ^-j^ Lesson 26. 1Y1 

8 7 " .^ 

• f-^ ^-^ J_^- : J-^y. ?S*3 o^j*\ »jx-Uj\3 *a *xl2*1 ( Lr . 


.' ilrt—>li-frl| »Jj— iS^j^ -b^w* pJ*. 

. J*.L lie L . jjJLljl <C~. jyb ^J^i Jf* t5 I ( t 

7. cmn 7ia<2<? vouqou boulmaq the decree of the True one 
happened, he died. 8. esef et. to be sorry. 9. baghishlamaq to 
grant. 10. aqlhn yetmez I cannot comprehend (my reason do not 
reach [so far] i. e. I was a child). 

^ \j^Jl> Lesson 26. 

The Suppositive Tense [Subjunctive]. 

§ 377. The Conditional Optative, which is called 
by many Grammarians simply the Suppositive tense, 
is formed by adding the Conditional terminations to the 

he e of the third person Singular of the Optative. 
§ 378. 1. Suppositive Present. <u^ i Jl>. 

P^u-jli yaz'sam, «3*-JI; yaz'saq, 

ii^jL yaz'san, jS<~.j\> yaz'saniz, 

<u»jL yaz'sa, J^j^i yaz'salar. 

If I write, If I were to write, etc. 

Negative. aJ^j Jl>- *Ju 

aa^-UjI or **— »jl ' ik— «jL ' ^wjl 1 If I do not write. 

yaz'masam, yaz'masan, yazmasa, etc. J if * were not to wrlte - 

1VV The Suppositive Tense. 177 

§ 379. 2. Suppositive Past. *Jp j ^U 

The Suppositive Past states the condition on which, 
if something had happened, some other action would 
have taken place, or would still take place. It casts 
doubt on the performance of some condition. 

*j ,jl ' >ju\<u-jlj yaz'sayidhn, iJj^-Jl, yaz'sayidiq, 

i)j j[> ' iljuU-jlj yaz'sayidin, JXjJl-*JIj yaz'sayidifiiz, 

<^j — ,j\j ' (^jM-—)!) yaz'sayidi, ^L-L-^jl yaz sayidxlar . 
If I had written, etc. 

§ 380. 3. Narrative Suppositive. ^^>j ^}jj 

p.JLs.\ <-jl yaz'sa imishim, J^Q <-JIj yaz'sa imishiz, 

»> ts\ *~.j\> yaz'sa imishsin. ;.x->±c\ -.-jl yaz'sa imishsiniz, 

L Ji^\ a-JL yaz'sa imish, J^} "~- j^ yaz'sa imishler. 

If I had written (as others say) . . . 

Ol*Jl!a^ Muta-la-at: Remarks. 

§ 381. a. The Conjunction p. $i eyer c if 5 , is, so 
to speak, included in the Suppositive Tense, as the 

characteristic sign of this tense a— -se has the meaning 

if, but it can be and often is used together with it. 
•especially for the sake of emphasis; as: 

£+~~JLj\^ j\ eyer chalishmasafi, or chaUshmasan If you do not try. 

§ 382. b. If the Suppositive tenses are used with 
5Clb Ictcisl'i, they are regarded as Optative. If they 
are used with y I eyer\ they become Suppositive; as: 

Kiashki on ghouroushoum' olsa! O that I had ten piastres! 
Eyer' on ghouroushoum olsa. If I had ten piastres. 
Ktashki erkeri gelseyidim! that I had come earlier! 
Eyer erken gelseyidim. If I had come earlier. 

§ 383. c. The Optative of the auxiliary verb jljl 

vlmaq e to become, to have' is used with the third per- 
son Dubitative and Future of any verb, to express the 
Suppositive; as: 

Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 12 

> If I am about to read. 

173 y^ ^jz Lesson 26. 1YA> 

iiaswils& oZ'*aw, — ol'san, - ol'sa, etc. I If I had 

,.,..,. | , i -i I written. 

yazmish olsa'yidim, — olsayidin, — olsa'yidi, etc. 
yazajaq ol'saw, yazajaq ol'san 

yazajaq olsa'yidim, yazajaq olsayidin } 

JBfet MisaTUr Examples. 

Dim bi«4 <7eZ»usft olsayidinXz, amoujaml georurudunuz. 

If you had come to us yesterday, you would have seen my uncle. 

Maaslunizl alajaq olsaniz, borjounouzou vermiz. 

If you receive your salary, pay your debts. 

j£j Words. 
a. f >U selam salutation OjjO dm* inkstand 

a. «Si3 d^a minute «L. oiU even, though 

jjJlL daHZroagtobeoffended £k> «i n^ cfcfmefe.' certainly E 

^Jlj3 Exercise 55. 

- r • .^U.^ f)*Jjl dU^To j-ol fWil CiTjt C^ 
. <j,l jiff W ^ ' :<juJjI JJTuiU ^- Ctifj** 

1V«S The Suppositive Tense. 179 

0*\ 4£"J? Translation 56. 

1. Where will he go? — If he finds a horse he will 
go to the forests. 2. Had we been walking in the street, 
we should have been seen. 3. May I bring my ink- 
stand here? 4. If you write to your mother, give her 
(say to her) my compliments (salutations). 5. Had we 
stayed there for a minute, we should have seen the 
Governor-general and the governor. 6. Although you 
bring the grapes, I may not eat them. 7. Should you 
want money, take them to the city and sell them. 
8. Were the merchant to send the goods now, I should 
use them to-day. 9. I believe that, if they were here 
now, we could sell them here. 10. If I take your pen 
for a moment, will you be offended? — No, Sir, you 
may use it as long as you wish. 11. May he bring 
his younger brother with him? — Certainly; if he 
brings him, my children will be very glad. 

<U |5^« Conversation. 

\a\ • fJ^I -)J~)yf ' f"^ A«~1S AjAjU.Al~.aJ_ j»J— >yj > jaISv* V ol— 

. * j^s <~~Jb <~~—£^ j>. Alii oj\ J>\ 1j& — «j*o •/ j5*~~> <SJ&>& 

J^\i (^-iat Reading Exercise. 
^jl-jU) ( Jajej j t dhail j& A Sermon of Nasr-ed-din. 

Words. 1. a. ma bad continued. 



fV u*J* Lesson 27. *A 

****** ^^» 

2. m^roa curiosity. 3. garar fjmft to decide. 4. UUnltrifii* 

those who know among you (§ 407). 

YY ^j*J$ Lesson 27. 

The Necessitative Tense. 

8 384 The Necessitative Tense indicates necessity, 
obligation and duty, that an action must or ought to 
take place. 

The characteristic sign of this tense is J* ' J,** 

-meli with the soft and J,U -mail with the hard 
verbs. This termination is added to the root. 

d\.j~ ' V^ ! -i<v- •faRffl' He must love (if is necessary). 
yj\i ' Vjl ^> j/a*wiali' He must write (that is his duty). 

§ 385. 

1. Indicative Necessitative. *jU-« Ujr J 
Ja,^ stimMiyim, ^j~> shmieliyiz, 

)\) The Necessitative Tense. 181 

i> l*»j- secmeli'sin, Jx. — 1-^j- sevmeli siniz, 

j* J^~- sevmeli' dir, JjjuU*^- sevmeli dirlev '. 

I must love, o;*, ought to love, o?\ ani to love, etc. 

Negative and Interrogative. 

(f i.<*<-^- ' Cn [»**»<• j~. ' jjJU4.««u^ J T must or ought not 

. >' , •-, • ■ ,~ > ~ r 'T • ' '" ' 'T T ( tO lOVe. 

sev memehyim, sev memelisin, sev memeliair J 

~. J^j^ sevmeli' miyim? Ought I to love? Must I love? 

~* J^***- sev'memelimiyim? Ought I not to love? Must I not 
i" love? 

§ 386. Xote. In some regions of Turkey the 
people make a wrong use of the third person plural 
as seumeliler, instead of the regular sevmeli dirler. 

2. Assertive Necessitative. <j^>-j *15CS- 

§ 387. The Assertive Necessitative (which is call- 
ed by some grammarians Past Necessitative) expresses 
that it was necessary or right that an action should 
have taken place, or that one was forced to perform 
some act; as: 

.iJjJlJS oJ* dun gelmeliyidin You ought to have come 
. yesterday, 

jx. jJuJL^ <-lC mektebe gitmeli' yidiniz 1. You ought to have 

gone to the school. 2. You were obliged to go to the school. 
3. You were to go to the school. 4. You should have gone to 
the school. 

§ 388. It is the Past tense of must, which is 
wanting in English, and corresponds to the German 

*jJLjli yazmali' yidim, iJjJUjLi yazmali' yidiq, 

iJjJLjlj yazmali yidin, j^jJLjL yazmali 'yidiniz, 

t^jJUjlj yazmali' yidi, JLjJLjIj yazmali' yidilar. 

I ought to have written. It was necessary that I should write. 

AjJLLjl yaz'mamaliyidim I ought not to have written. 

§ 389. 

3. Narrative Necessitative. d,yr-> *^t ^ 

r»~iM JL.JL yazmali' yimishim, J}-iM JW3^ yazmali' imishiz. 

182 rv ^rJ> Lesson 27. l*r 

uj-Jfcl JUJL pm* 1 misfcsm, j<Li*1 JUJ*. S^^ali' MMM*, 
"jt*» <JW>1 yawkdT iitmfc, JLSr» JU>. yazmaW imishler. 

(They say that) I ought to have written. 

§ 390. 
4. Conditional Necessitate. J^j J&j^ 

If it is necessary for me to write, etc. 

£,Ulk« Mtita-la-at: Remarks. 
8 391 a. Instead of using this Necessitate form, 
some words may be used to denote obligation and necessity 
together with the Substantive verb, such words are: 

a. f 3V lazim necessary. *f 9** necessary, requisite. 

a. Jy ^ mejbour obliged. a. U**\ iqtiza requisite. 

a.^*b WV^ necessary. a. ^ mouqtazi' necessary. 

TonialftRr is expressed by yazmasl \az\m gerek, vajib' , 
maj^£v**& rn^ourdour; yazmasl Raider. 

8 392 b When one verb follows another on 
which it depends and with which it is connected by 
That expressed or understood, the use of the conjunction 
r M between them is frequently avoided by employing 

the word ,o ' ^ deyi 'saying' . 

It is used also after all kinds of quotations. 

b ,X «T **\ j\ or tfjaj s\ j^ by*** ** « #«*■> 
or, rfM* <Wyi emr etdi. He ordered him to come. 

^eos^ fci ofcmrttwti, or, ototirsotm d«fi ^ gMSriL He showed 
him a place to sit. 

i kcI^ s fC '^ ^ 4U &«&«* se '™ ^ rf ^* chaglunyor. 
Your father is calling you to come (i.e. saying Come!). 

8 393 c. The English verb To Have 5 when followed 
by an infinitive, expresses an obligation or necessity: 

1Ar The Necessitative Tense. 183 

therefore the two verbs together are translated into 
Turkish by the Necessitative tense or by the obligatory 
words (§ 391). 

I have to write a letter. 1. Ben bir mektoub' yazmaliyim. 
2. Bir mektoub' yazmagha mejboaroum. 3. Bir mektoub' yazmaq- 
liglum iqtiza ede'r. 

I have to learn my lesson. 1. Dersimi ebyrenmeli yim. 
2. De'rs' ebyrenmeldiyim lazim dir, gerek'dir, vajib'dir, iqtiza ede'r, 
-mouqtazi dir etc. 

§ 394. d. When the object of the finite verb in 
such sentences comes before the infinitive, the sentence 
does not denote obligation, but possession. It must 
therefore be rendered in Turkish either by the Future 
Participle (§ 408) or by the Infinitive Dative or Nomi- 
natival with 0$a=>l ichin 'for 5 ; as: 

He has a book to read. 1. Oqouyajaq bir kitabi var. 
2. Oqoumagha bir kitabi' var. 3. Oqoumaq ichin bir kitabi' var. 

Jui) Words. 

't^.S geymek to put on -l.:^ J^j bosh boshouna in vain 

p. <c~o deste quire (of paper) *1U«JLj beslemek to feed 

Jbji qoutou box a. Ulk. mout'laqa absolutely 

^y^i^X yamalamaq to mend <*l yama patch 

oJ^Sl tezkire a note a. *JL mani obstacle. 

i - 
OV -^Ju^ Exercise 57. 

• ,jt- — '^w J>V <^)\>- f^ajj ^_* 4j »0 <juJL>-e5l> • ij\- — 'Ic l> |»<UjI **> 

184 rv urj3 Lesson 27. tA<v 

©A 42^ Translation 58. 

1. You must have come to us as soou as you had 
heard this news. 2. What shall I do? — If you have 
not learnt your lesson, }^ou should learn it now. 3. What 
had your wife to do? — She had to write a note. 4. Have 
they to go this way? — No, Sir, they are to go the 
other way. 5. Who has to work all the day? — The 
poor man has to work all the day. 6. Who had to give 
all his money. — The baker had to give all his money. 
7. What have you to do to-day? — I have to write a 
letter. 8. What has the shoemaker to do? — The 
shoemaker has to mend my shoes. 9. Am I obliged 
to come here? — Yes, you must come, your coming 
is necessary. 10. The teacher called the pupils, saying, 

All^S Conversation. 

?JjjJlc,L «.; o:-^ J&y ! JlV5V» «J*j- ( u - 

? u JliWU 

? Jjw. jlj J>> J.C-6 J^oJ^i V/J^ w* ( LJ* 

! jJ^dUojfjJ OjI »J^ <^il M J^ viilo/l: j, ! fXi\ &j JtJt ( j- 

1A© The Participles. 185 

J^.) \ A ^JbJ Reading Exercise. 
^~<wJy dfc*r>-^»- The Marriage of the Teacher. 

j^ djI ^CjlS • 6 jU^jj jTjp jo jj> Jjy Jj^y <S^J. Cj^J^- 

l 10 A i •* « » I | <^" 9u i | & . e^" £ j 

o^ <twj I ,^*..L>u^ ^» »>• (J, l>- 'j 4 /«i v lO Vp • .— ." ijO Jl>- CAj 

iCU! 14 ^ ^»^l ' _ . *5» JU ^1 13 bl j -3 

1 Fords. 1. oasM bouzonlmaq (to be put out of order) = to 
be a widower. 2. to be anxious. 3. adetden ol." to be usual. 
4. ydbanji stranger. 5. to veil. 6. to cause to swallow, to deceive. 
7. eortu veil. 8. ne den! what do you say = what wonder! 9. adeta 
simply; really. 10. his soul was oppressed = he was angry. 
11. to unveil (her face). 12. to veil. 13. eda arrogance. 14. hire 
qari now then, woman! 15. dinini seversen if you love your soul 
= please! 16. he could scarcely get rid of her. 

| YA u^^> Lesson 28. 

U* c,j The Participles. 

§ 395. There is no Relative Pronoun in Turkish 
corresponding to the English who, which, or that. 

186 rA wJi Lesson 28. )A'\ 

These are always accompanied by a verb in English. 
In Turkish the Subjective and Objective Participles of 
the verb take the place of both the Relative and 
the verb. 

§ 396. Note. This peculiarity is the most charac- 
teristic, and at the same time the most beautiful fea- 
ture in the Turkish language, though foreigners 
and even natives of Turkey, whose mother-tongue is 
not Turkish, are often guilty of infringing it, and are 
frequently in utter ignorance of its value and meaning. 
For instance, oeni seven aclem c the me -loving man'; ot 
yeyen at 'the grass -eating horse': are equivalent to 'the 
man who loves me' and r the horse which eats grass'. 
The great number of Participles derived from the Tur- 
kish verb enables a very great degree of precision to 
be given to this construction. 

§ 397. The only Relative Pronoun in Turkish ki, 
^meaning c who, which, that, what' is not Turkish 

in origin, it is Persian. This word, ki, is never used in 
correct Turkish, though employed in translated Persian 
and Arabic sentences. It is also used by foreigners. 

§ 398. The Participles may be divided into two 
classes or moods: Subjective and Objective. 

1. Subjective Mood. 

§ 399. The Subjective Participles are those which 
are composed of the subject, (the nominative case of 
who, which, that, what) and the verb. They are derived 
both from active and from neuter or passive verbs. 
In the first case they are called Active Participle (Ismi 
Fayil) and in the second Passive Participle (Ismi Mefoul). 
The Active Participle corresponds to the Present Participle 
and the Passive Participle to the Past Participle of the 
English Grammar. 

§ 400. The Subjective Active and the Subjective 
Passive Participles have seven tenses each: 

§401. Subjective Active Participle. ■ J&6 ^J 

Present: {j\j\i yazan who writes, writer, writing (adjectival). 
Aorist: j\jl yazar one who writes, writing » 

Past: J-O^i yazdiq one who wrote. 


The Participles. 


Dubitative: iJ-O^ yazmish one who has written. 

Pluperfect: (jij\ \J-*j>\* yazmish olan one who had written. 

Future: 3^°^' ycizajaq one who will write. 

Past Future: <jij\ J^O' u _ yazajaq olan one who is (about) to 


§ 402. Subjective Passive Participle. 








Future : 

is being 

may be 


has been 

had been 

will be 

is (about) to be 

jj^jjtj yazilan 

^nL jL yazilir 

JjJjl yazttdiq « 

jjiljlj yazilmish * 

<Jij\ oil jl yazUmish olan -= 

j*.-vljl yazilajaq 

Past Future: J)lj\ J^-uOl yazilajaq olan 

The Negatives are: tjLUjIj yazmayan, iji^j- - sevmeyen, 
^Llljli yazilmayan, Oi A *^i j- sevilmeye'n, etc. 

sljliJlk* Muta-la-at: Remarks. 

§ 403. I. The Present Active Participle is appli- 
cable either to the present or to the past; as: 

^ ul3^ yazan adem, means either c the writing man, the 
man who writes, the man who is writing', and c the man who wrote'. 

§ 404. II. The Aorist Participle means 'whose 
nature or business is to write' or 'who is willing to 
write'; as: 

r*\ J. j\J^ ->yj\ oqour yazar Mr adim f a man who can read 
and write, a literary man'. 

JJ^ J>JjJ>^ JyJJf gebriiniir gebrunmSz sheyle'r 'things which 
can be seen and cannot be seen, i. e. visible and invisible things'. 

§ 405. III. The Negative of the Past Participle 
is more used than the Affirmative: 

jjiji 4— »Jj £n*j~, (ij- ' j£~~ +i\ j> t j*\ j- siz eyi bir adem 

siniz, sizi sevmedilc yoq dour. You are a good man, there 
is nobody who does not love you. 

188 rA u-j-> Lesson 28. 1AA 

§ 406. IV. Only the Present, the Pluperfect and 
the Past Future tenses are used either as the subject or 
as the adjective qualifying the subject of a sentence. 
The remaining four tenses are always used as adjec- 
tives qualifying the subject (§§ 71, 417, 423). 

mektoubou yazan, yazajaq olan, yazmtsh olan zat Tcim' dir? Who is 
the person who wrote this letter? or ' {J)lj\ y^°J^ ' uO^ d>.y^ A y 

j±<J$ oij\ ,JU3|* bon mektoubou yazan, yazajaq olan, yazmish 
olan him dir? Who is the writer of this letter? 

§ 407. V. Therefore, these three tenses, when 
used as subjects, are declined like substantives, either 
alone or with pronominal affixes. 

N. uU^i yazan A. tiljk yazani 

G. villi j\> yazanin of — L. ©jJljli yazanda in — 

D. o.l'jl yazana to — A. 0-^0^ yazandan from — 

The person writing, the writer. 

Also: J-^J i i ' J^-'L^i ' tfjWi I The writer among us r 

„ ~ s ~» 7 ~ ( vou, them. 

yazanimiz, yazaniniz, yazanlart ) J ' 

§ 408. VI. In English, when the object of the 
verb falls between the verb c to have 3 and the Infini- 
tive, it may be rendered into Turkish by the Future 
Participle (§ 393). 

j_ii»j ^S\ v!-U-<uj yiyejek ekmiyi yoq dour. He has no bread 
to eat, 

§ 409. VII. The Aorist, Past, Dubitative and 
Future Participles are the same in spelling and pro- 
nunciation with those of the Indicative Mood. It is 
very easy to distinguish them, and there is one absolute 
rule: If it is Indicative Mood, it must always stand at 
the end of the sentence, because verbs are always put 
at the end of the sentence. If it is a Participle, as a 
subject or a modifier of the subject, it must precede 
the verb in any case: 

? j^oj^jl jf* **j\ y bou ivdi Trim' otourajaq? Who will 

dwell in this house? 

)A\ The Participles. 189 

? j^ X^a^^S^^ojj^j] oj\ y bou evde otouvajaq kimse 
kim dir? Who is the man, who will dwell in this house? 

,1.1a. .la? Tatbiqat: Comparison. 

§ 410. The order of construction in Turkish is 
just the opposite of English. In English the Antece- 
dent (subject) begins the sentence, then comes the Relative 
Clause and thirdly the Verb (or predicate); or the Verb, 
Antecedent and Relative Clause. But in Turkish the 
order is always the same: first Relative Clause, then 
the Antecedent, and third the Verb. 

antecedent relative clause verb 

1. The man who came now is blind, 
relative clause antecedent verb 

Shimdi gelen adem keor dur. 

verb antec. relative clause 

2. These are the boys who did not learn their lessons, 
relative clause ant. verb 

DersUrini eoyrenmeyen chojouqlar bounlar dir. 

3. There is nobody (who does not love you). 
(Sizi sevmedik) kimse yoqdour. 

4. (Those who have gone to and come) from India. 
Hindistana (gitmish ve gelmisli olanlar). 

5. I saw the man (whose house is big). 
(Evi bedyfd: dan) ademi geordum. 

6. A woman (whose eyes are blind). 
(Geozleri Jceor olan) bir qari. 

7. A horse (that runs fast). 
(Chapouq seyirdir) bir at. 

8. A man (who is not fit for anything). 
(Bir ishe yaramaz) bir adem. 

9. A letter (the address of which is not written). 
(ustu yazUmamish /or yazihnadiqj) bir mektoub. 

10. There was a man there (whose hand was 

Orada (eli qouroumoash olan) bir adem var idt. 

11. The merchant (who has to come [or w r ill come] 

(yarin gelejek /or gelejek olan J) tufjar. 


t\ v"J* Lesson 28. I;V 

12. [Those who know among us], will teach (those 
who do not know among you). ^ 

[BilenUrimiz] (bilmeyenlerinize) eoijredej elder. 
13 Who is the man (who will call the servant?) 

(RMzmeikiarl chagMrajaq dan) adem torn dir? 
14. I have (nothing to be afraid of). 

(Qorqajaq bir sheyim) yoq dour. 

Jrji Words. 

aUI. balta an axe a. % Ula evil 

^ User adze JJj hffK known, perceptible 

v * ' ^ d^ hill, top dJU-jL^ flwfcfctZtfefc passable, fordable 

a. ltt£ uttifl/U prize dUTc)*" eZm^n^mefctobeabletodo 

j^j\ oZajag hopefal jW *&«*<* to become 

d^L 2/e'mnefc to be eaten iUl; SM&wefc to ripen 

jbG »>iar boiling jrf J*} ish 9*9 occupation. 

o\ A*) Exercise 59. 

T u u: j-fl cij y> ' &»jc ^rT *-*' T ' f ^> 
**j£ ate!* c& ^AV ^ isT — • j^^r-^T^ 

*\ ♦ ^Aj3 Exercise 60. 

1 «V i The Participles. 191 

Yj 1 jto <dl ie*^ *J^l T . ^0,1 jUjjJ J>«> .-*oJ JV. 


t •* t - i ' \ -I •» • * <"^' ii" ** • ' 

dtU>j " • jo j^Uji^ J,UJ <u»l ul}£U> C^J^l £)jy J 
rj~fj, uSZS j {aL^ x y~* ' f*:\ x j* — ' <y j^ 

1 \ A^J Translation 61. 

1. The man who died yesterday morning, was your 
neighbour. 2. What have vou? — I have a book, on 
the cover of which there is a beautiful yellow picture, 
3. What do you see? — 4. I see the baker who bakes 
bread. 5. If you have seen the horse one of whose 
eyes is blind, it is not ours. 6. The adze cuts the 
wood. 7. Boys! do not be afraid, there is nothing to 
be feared. 8. It is a statement which cannot be believed. 
— No, Sir, it is a credible statement. 9. Have you any- 
thing to say to me? — I have nothing to say to you. 
10. Whoever knows himself, knows a great deal (many 
things). 11. Is this the lady whose sister is sick? — 
No, she is the lady whose father is sick. 12. This 
villager is not a man who does not know anything, 
he is a man who reads and writes. 

AX ISv* Conversation. 

192 r A u-j:> Lesson 28. \ \r 

? u lt! 

? j Ji.j^& 
. ^ — lj\ ^sLw.^ ojllc ! plo ^i u^W- <4>^ ^'J F^*"^^ ^-^ 

? L^c j:> 
• [jijiJ o-^y r:S\ £\ ^4 ? J^-^i ^.-? viJj *J tio'v Ji 

^i I ,9 ^AJ Reading- Exercise. 
dU,~ oj\ To hang flour on a line. 

jl3*?-*:>- fj| • i£X£\ 4j>-i4>. ^"l^^ • 4JU*>-I,^ 4.1; Ju y*3->- 4>-l»>- 

^ly\ ^p! dl » — • 8 JUjljll jp3 « ! 7 jj!j! Al jSl-JtJ 6 ^-^J 

<( '? , Jjh r- U?' 4~> I re- A 1 A>.l J. '"iLo 4> » — Jj4j UMTl 14 J,4Ju~« 

Words. 1. Who does not pay his debt. Who does not 
know his limits i. e. conceited. 2. miiraja-at et." to appeal. 3. our 
children, the woman of the household (these names are applied 
to the women in the Harem). 4. chamashir household linen. 

5. sermek to hang up in full length and breadth on a line. 

6. clothes-line. 7. ne olour? a common term for c If you please*. 
8. to implore. 9. let us come that = unfortunately. 10 qadan't- 
alsin may your misfortune befall on it! = nothing at alii 11. ne 
olour hi! not worth mentioning. 12. the other one. 13. yet. 
14. the case. 15. ne diyon? for diyorsoun. What are you saying? 

^r The Participles. 193 

,* h| 18 • . .7 

16. esrar it." to insist. 17. aTdasafi ne? why do you not 
understand? 18. de/" &." to repel, expel. 

^ u^ Lesson 29. 

The Participles. (Continued.) 
2. Objective Mood. aJU> ^L^> Siygheyi Site. 

§ 411. The Objective Participles are those which 
combine the meanings of the oblique cases of the 
Relative Pronouns (i. e. 'whom, which, that, what', governed 
by the words of, to, on, in, out of, from, by, with) 
and where with that of the verb. They are derived 
from every kind of verbs, whether Active, Neuter or 

§ 412. The Objective Participles are formed by the 
addition of possessive suffixes to the Past, Pluperfect, 
Future and Past Future tenses of the Subjective Parti- 
ciple (§§ 401 — 402). These are used as objects or as 
adjectives qualifying the objects. 

Subjective Participle. 

Past: j^^i yazdiq 

Pluperfect: jjVjl J-* j » yazmhh okm 

Future: 3^°^i V^cijaq 

Past Future: o$j\ (J*- -)^ yazajaq olan 

The person who wrote; who had written . . . 

Objective Participle. 

Past: /".^i yozd'iglilm 

Pluperfect: j-±<j\ <J-*J'i yazmish oldowjhoum 

Future: J*? 9 ^ yazajaghtm 

Tuikish Con v. -Grammar 13 


T*\ wJ* Lesson 29. 


Past Future: >*jJj\ J* ^. 2/^W oldoughoum 
The thing which I wrote, which I shall write . . . 

413. Objective Past Tense. *U ^U 

fjfiijli yazdiqlarim\ 
£j**j\> yazdiqlaru't', 
iSjji}j\> yazdiqlari', 

Per. 1. >oJ^ yazdiglum'i 

2. viiiojlj yazdighin, 

3. i>i^ yazdigM\ 

1. u^iojl* yazdighimiz, 

2. j.'xlojlj yazdtghhllz', 

3. (ij^^j^ yazdiqlari', 
That which I, he, we, you, they wrote. Those which I, you . . . wrote, 

§ 414. Pluperfect. 4i^? ^3U \^C>- 

jtjb^jl yazdiqlarimiz'? 
\£j**j\* yazdiqlarifuz' , 
eSjfijjli yazdiqlari'. 

joj]j\ JLO^ yazmish' oldoughoum. I ^hat which I, y 

C" , . . , " " . 7 , 7J 7 » ( they . . . have wr 
(ijbjjj\ J^jk yazmish oldouqlari. ) 



Future. A^> . U£~« 

Per. 1. 


f&.»j\i yazajaghim, 

ilia-ojl yazajaghin, 
J^ojl yazajaghi', 
j^is-ojl* yazajaghhniz', 
j^ia-ojlj yazajaghrniz', 

*JUs-ojli yazajaqlarim'y 
ijjll^ejl) yazajaqlarin'r 
c$Jli»-0\i yazajaqlari', 
j. Jj»- o j li yazajaql arlmiz t 
\^,Jl*.oj\> yazajaqlariniz ', 
(ijLtts-ojlj yazajaqlari . 
Those which I shall write . . . 

(ijlis-ojlj yazajaqlari, 
That which I shall write . . . 

§ 416. Past Future. aU JJ£~* *^- 

i,jjjl J*°> yazajaq oldoughoum. | That which I, we shall 
f " , " ." . , 7J 7 J have written... 

j^jJj, fr-»j\ yazajaq oldoughoumouz.) 

O^lk* Mida-la-at Remarks. 

§ 417. I. The plural forms (yazdiqlarhn, yazajaq- 
lartm) are never used as adjectives in the plural to 

t^o The Participles. 195 

qualify plural nouns, since adjectives when they qualify 
nouns do not take the plural termination (§§ 71, 423). 
§ 418. II. The Objective Future Participle first 
person and the Indicative Future first person are the same 
in spelling, but in pronunciation and use are different. 
If the word is a participle, it is never found at the 
end of the sentence, and it is accented on the last syl- 
lable, but if it be the Indicative, it must be put at the 
end of the sentence and is accented on the penultimate. 

Bir melctoub yazaja ghlm. I shall write a letter. 
Yazajaghim' melioub. The letter which I shall write. 

Comparison. ollJ^ 

1. This is (the book which I read). 
(Oqoudoughoum kitdb) bou dour. 

Note. The verb is first person, the Past Part, is first person. 

2. The cook will bake (the food which you like). 
Ashji (sevdiyin yemeyi) pishirejele. 

3. Where is (the letter which I have written) yes- 

DiinJci (yazmish oldoughonm mektoub) neredc dir? 

4. This is (the word which they spoke). 
(Sedyledil'h'ri seoz) bou dour. 

5. (The money which he gained) is ten piastres. 
(Qazandighi para) on ghouroush dour. 

6. The medicine [ace] (which the sick person drank). 
01 hastanin (ichdiyi ilajl [ace. ]). 

7. The house (in which you are dwelling) now (loc). 
Shimdi (otourdoughouiiouzj ev. 

8. The man (whose house [ace] we rented), is dead 
(E' vini kiraladighimiz) adem eolmiish dur. 

9. The lesson (which I shall [or have to] learn). 
(eoyrenejeyim /or ebyrenejek' oldoughoum] ders. 

10. Do you know (the road [ace] which we shall 

go) to-morrow? 
Yarhi (gidejeyimiz /or gidejeJc oldoughoumou: / ') 
yolou bUir misifiiz? 

11. (The water with which [Inst.]) the master washed 

Effendinin (yiyqandigM) sou. 


196 r\ ^j* Lesson 29. )M 

12. The Teacher cut (the branch on which [loc] he 
was sitting). 
Hoja (otourdoughou dali) Jcesdi. 

The Declinable Objective Participles. 

§ 419. If the Substantive which .is the object in 
the sentence is omitted and the participle is used alone 
as an object, then the four tenses of the Objective Par- 
ticiple are declined according to the case and person 
of the object and the person of the verb in the Relative 
clause (§ 410). 

§ 420. For instance jS>jT J^:>C« ^^ ^ benim 

yazdighhn meldouboii geonder, 'send the letter which I 
wrote 5 , here the object (meJctoubou) is in the Accusative, 
the subject first person (benim) and the tense past (yaz- 
dighim). But if I sayjJuji .cjojl) <o benim yazdighhm 

geonder, c send what I wrote', the meaning is the same, 
but the Participle takes the accusative termination, 
because the noun is omitted. 

§ 421. The case is just the same with the adjec- 
tives also; I can say *joj~, <^,Lol <j,l eyi ademlert se- 
ver hn, I like the good people: It is possible again to say 

fJo^« (Jllol Eyileri' severhn I like the good (ones), omit- 
ting the Substantive. 

§ 422. The addition of the possessive endings 
implies a possessor. The possessor is put in the Geni- 
tive case and forms the Subject in the English sentence. 
It is not always inserted, the terminations of the Ob- 
jective participle being substitutes for it. **zj\> /*!» 

benim yazdighim is equal to ^sjl yazdighim'] the en- 
ding showing the person and the number (§ 102). 

§ 423. The singular nominative is used both as an 
object and as an adjective qualifying the object, but the 
other cases, as well as the plural nominative of Past 
and Future Objectives, are never to be used as adjectives, 
but as Substantive object: it is not permitted to say 


The Participles. 


J, <Ca j^Jo^jIj ^ bfaiim yaziVtglumi mektoubon or ^$j\ *\ 
(Sjiy^^ benim yazdiqlarim mektoublaH; but *»aj\» ^ 

^yS^A or iSjtyjC* <*k*'A p*. and t^t^- r 1 *- ^^ 
uazdtqhimi or .c Ji^j . *> &emro yasdiqlarimi (§§ 406, 417). 

Past Tense. <do ^U Maziyi Sile. 

First Person Singular. A5CL> MutekM'Mm. 

J*sj\i yazdighim' 

sUL-ioj^ yazdighhiuu of — 


That which I wrote, what 
I wrote, my writing. 

ou_;ojlj yazdlgJuma' to — 
^^ojlj yazdighimi' 
oj*ju}j\> yazdighim da' in — 
jj-wio.^ yazdighhndari from — 

First Person Plural. 

N. j^^jL yazdighimiz' 

G. ilUJujJl yazdighinuziu of — 

D. oj-^jiojli yazdighimiza to — 

A. <5j.*-iojl) yazdigliimi zV 

L. cij^jiojl yazdighimiz da' in — 

A. ^j^iojL yazdlghimizdan from — 

Second Person. ^Ll.2- Moukhatab. 

N. siASo^- secdiyin JXxo*- sevdiyiniz 

G. dix>Oj- sevdiyiyitl of — jiJjxnoj- sevdiyinizin of — 

D. "lx>o_j— sei'diyine to — o^>5vo^— sevdiyinize to — 

That which thou lovedst, you loved; their, your loving . 

That which we wrote, 

what w r e wrote, 

our writing . . . 


.»- 3 ci 

Third Person. ^Ip Ghayib. 
oqoudoughou i5j**yj\ oqoudouqlari' 


Y\ i>J* Lesson 29. 


G. &J**JJ\ oqoudoughounounoi- ^J>>jh\oqoudoiiqlarinifi of - 
D. CJ**ji>\ oqoudoughouna to - oJhyjlogoMdouglarlna' to-, etc. 
That which he read. What they read, tbeir reading . . . 

Future Teuse. *U JJ£~« MustaqUli Sile. 

First Person. ^Cru 


N. >=r -3^ yazajaghim 

G. ^iX^k^oj^yazajagMmht of — 

D. 4^=-<>3^ yazajaghima to — 

A . <^»- 1j yazajagUmi' 

L. oX^^oj\yazajagliimda in — oj 

A. o- 5 ^*- 9 ^ yazajaghimdari from - u^J 


s-djli yazajaghimiz 

><>}[> yazajaghimizin of — 

s-ojli yazajaghimiza to — 

=*oj\j yazajaghimizi 

*.oj\> yazajaghimiz da in — 

^ojl» yazajaghimiz dan from — 

That which I shall write, what I shall write; My writing . . 
Second Person. v_jA£- 

N. dK^-iij bilejeyin 

G. viiiix^L. bilejeyiyin of — 

P. aiosL^ bilejeyine to — 

A. ^SC^-Ou bilejeyifii 

L. o.x£ii<lj bilejeyinde in — 

A. O-^* 5 ^- 4 ^ UUjeyinden from — 

^ _ 

What thou, you will know. 

Third Person 

^xLaJlj biUjeyiniz 
i)^£ii<L bilejeyinizin of — 
oj^jC^^ bilejeyinize to — 
(^j^i^-lj bilejeyinizi 
o^jS^^L bile'jeyinizde in — 
Ja -<^<l<0u bilejeyinizden from 
Thy, your knowledge . . . 



^ .>. yazajagln ^ •>. yazajaqlari' 

^^ojL^aj^/unm of - ^JS-Ok y^aj^ari^' of - 

^ >^w/u™ to - *}*&. yazajaqlarina to - 

^■oL yazajaghim' AJh'^i yctzajaqlarini 

.X^.jiyazajaghinda in - oX>Jl~>^ yazajaqlar'mda in - 

j^^yazajaghindari from- u^O^i yazajaqlarindari from - 
What he, they will write. His, their writing . . . 

*«^ The Participles. 199 

§ 424. Four important gerunds are obtained from 
the Declinable Objective Participles. 

§ 425. The Tenth Gerund. The Dative case of 
the Objective Future Participle is used as a gerund: 
it then corresponds to the phrases 'instead of, rather 
than'; as: 

*)<Ou <>.t\ <^^<Ci) &3\ ^ ben ata binejeyime Ssheye bine'rim. 
I would rather ride a donkey than a horse. 

§ 426. The Fourth Gerund. The Locative case 
of the Objective Past Participles, when used as a gerund, 
indicates the time of an action, when an action is per- 

i)j^ iSJr*-^**'. »^-\-i>o Jy^« musafirUr geldiyinde yemeyi- 
mizi yedik. When the guests arrived we dined; or, the guests 
having arrived we dined; or, the guests arriving we dined; or, 
on the arrival of the guests we dined. 

§ 427. The Twelfth Gerund. The Ablative case 
of Past and Future Participles is used as a gerund, and 
indicates the reason why some other action is performed? 
The doer of the first is indicated by the possessive 
affixes; as: 

(i-><uJb (j-^-O^ ^j 1 ^* rJ-^L pederim mektoub yazajaghindan 

gelmedi. My father did not come, because he was about to write 
a letter. 

<£s*j*j>_j '— 'l>^ u-^i^^^z^ j\ o ishitmediyindinjevabvermedi. 
Owing to his not having heard he did not answer. 

§ 428. The Third Gerund. If ^< gibi is added 

to the nominative of the Objective Participle, another 
gerund is obtained, which means 'as soon as 5 . 

^nc-U. Jj (^iSi-^-o ^ii-bjls qardaslun gel diyi gibi beni chaghir. 
Call me as soon as your brother comes (§§ 334, 431). 

§ 429. As we have ahead}'- seen, the Dative, Ab- 
lative and Locative cases of the Objective Participles 
have two meanings: one as a participle, the other as a 
gerund. This identity must not escape the student. 
But it is very easy to distinguish them, as the subject 
of the gerund is always in the nominative, while that 

200 r% ^-^o Lesson 29. y + 

of the participle is in the genitive. Therefore confusion 
is scarcely possible when the words are used in a sen- 
tence. (See the examples 5 — 8.) 

Comparison. olU» 

1 . Give me the account (of whatever you have 

( Si&ifi satin aldighinuin) hisabini bana veriniz. 

2. The guest does not eat (what he expects), but 

eats (what he finds). 
Musafir (oumdoughounou) yemez, (bouldoughou- 
noit) yer. 

3. Put in the bag (whatever you [will] find). 
(Boulajaghinizi) torbaya qoyoun. 

4. Have you anything to say ([of] what the boy 

wrote) ? 
Chojoughoun (yazdtghina) bir deyejeyihiz var mi? 

5a. I have no doubt (that you will do) this nicely. 
Senin, bounon giizelje (yapajaghina) shiib'hem yoq~ 

5b. (Instead of doing) the wrong, do the best. 
Sen kedtiiyu (yapajaghina), eyiyi yap. 

6a. There is no deficiency (in what I sold). 

IZenim (satdighimda) bir qousour yoq dour. 

6b. (Whenever I sell) your property, I will give j^ou 
your money. 
JBen malini (satdighimda) parani veririm. 

7a. I had no news (of his being ill [that he was ill]), 

7b. My mother could not come here (because she 
was ill). 
Validem hasta (oldoughoundan) bouraya gSlemedi. 

8a. My father did not know (that you were about 
to come) here. 
Sizln bouraya (gelejeyinizdenj babamin habvri 
8b. We could not go there (because we had to come 
Biz bouraya (gelejeyimizden) oraya gidemedih. 

r« 1 The Participles. 201 

JCil Words. 

<ZlijTj\ Ciyutmek to grind a. -jj row/i Spirit 

a. >1L~M v_oc«J tea j j lib e't "to marvel a. c**}** alamet sign 
a. oUjL. malumat knowledge l ci?"'!J > J?" c ^ or ^ a J^ ^ r - 
a. ^LU- khath' memory t. p. olj>j beyzade nobleman. 

1 A conventional title applied to Christian notables, bankers, 
merchants, etc. 

■\Y A^ Exercise 02. 
'i£\iey m **>-*b' j£y^ f\ ' CxcL, J,5CLjJjI J~*X3 s 

AijjJj! 4J i!j*~- JLjJjl db-4j4l>^ l>v.j dijAiilS iju~>- *■ ? j<* 

. (§ t a*\) Oj^j JL jc:L ^ dl/'dKo^^i) » a . jljijljl 

*\Y* JUi Exercise G3. 

202 r\ ^jz Lesson 29. r*Y 

ff *k J*. ^ * f->*~~!) '^**Jy ^r^^-i ij*i) j* ©-OCi j4T" £x 

1 £ AjS^j Translation 64. 

1. I received the letter which you sent me, dated 
7 th July 1902. 2. The house to which I am now going is 
my father-in-law's. 3. I wrote all the words you spoke 
to me. 4. The greatest of the cities which Alexander 
the Great built [made], was Alexandria. 5. The physi- 
cian of whom you speak is in Europe. 6. Mr. Jacob 
is the man of whom we have read in the newspapers. 
7. Do you know what I want? — I don't know what 
you want, if you do not tell me. 8. Let no one change 
that which I have written. 9. Do you know that I lost 
my purse full of money? 10. When I was in Constanti- 
nople I saw the goods in the shops changed every day. 
11. Learn this from what you see. 12. I did not know 
that he went to Trebizond. 

\0 <^y Translation 65, 

1. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the 
Spirit saith unto the churches. 2. For he knew what 
was in man. 3. They marvelled that he talked with 
the woman. 4. What shall be the sign of thy coming? 
5. Let not thy left hand know what thy right hand 
doeth. 6. Have you not read what David did, when he 
was hungered, and they that were with him? 7. We heard 
of their having become soldiers. 8. I do not object to 
your going there. 9. The baker is not an honest 
(doghrou) man: he writes what is due to him [his 
credits] and does not write his debits (what he owes). 

Y*r The Participles. 203 

j^jljd ^A* Reading Exercise, 

Translate and tell the following story in Turkish fully. 

1. This is the house that Jack built. 

2. This is the malt, That lay in the house that 
Jack built. 

3. This is the rat, That ate the malt, That lay in 
the house that Jack built. 

4. This is the cat, That killed the rat, That ate 
the malt, That lay in the house that Jack built. 

5. This is the dog, That worried the cat, That 
killed the rat, That ate the malt, That lav in 
the house that Jack built. 

6. This is the cow with the crumpled horu. That 
tossed the dog, That worried the cat. That killed 
the rat, That ate the malt, That lay in the 
house that Jack built. 

7. This is the maiden all forlorn, That milked the cow 
with the crumpled horn, That tossed the dog, That 
worried the cat, That killed the rat, That ate 
the malt, That lay in the house that Jack built. 

8. This is the man all tatter'd and torn, That kissed 
the maiden all forlorn, That milked the cow 
with the crumpled horn, That tossed the dog, 
That worried the cat, That killed the rat, That 
ate the malt, That lay in the house that Jack built. 

9. This is the priest all shaven and shorn, That 
married the man all tatter'd and torn, That 
kissed the maiden all forlorn. That milk'd the 
cow with the crumpled horn, That tossed the 
dog, That worried the cat, That killed the rat, 
That ate the malt, That lay in the house that 
Jack built. 

10. This is the cock that crowed in the morn, That 
waked the priest all shaven and shorn, That 
married the man all tatter'd and torn, That kissed 
the maiden all forlorn, That milked the cow 
with the crumpled horn, That tossed the dog, 
That worried the cat. That killed the rat, That 
ate the malt, That lay in the house that Jack built. 

204 r* u-j^ Lesson 30. t*i. 

11. This is the farmer sowing his corn, That kept 
the cock that crowed in the morn, That waked 
the priest all shaven and shorn, That married 
the man all tatter d and torn, That kissed the 
maiden all forlorn, That milk'd the cow with 
the crumpled horn, That tossed the dog, That 
worried the cat, That killed the rat, That ate 
the malt, That lay in the house that Jack built. 


11. Jackifi yapdigh I evde saqlanan, Arpayi yeyen, Fareyi 
edlduren, Ked'tyi urlcuden, Kedpeyi boiiynouzlayan, 
Eyri bouynoudou ineyi saghan, JBichare qizi eopen, 
Esgi busku roabali ademi nikwhlayan, Daz qafali 
(shaven), tuysiiz (shorn) papazi oayandiran, Sabali- 
Jayhi eoten horozou saqlayan, JBoughdayi eken 
chift'ji [ishte] bou dour. 

<U |^S Conversation. 

£>Jj vUbjJ^ ^ijjjJJjJJ wl>j^> ^ijjiljj <1\S*Ij\ <J>Jj'*>j> <Sy\ ( 7T 

. li-^J u[j>- j 1 . ^JJ j^~*ji S~^ <y,j\ 6j* Jj-Xj\ Jj\ ( r 
?<i^>UKT; jf*M u^j^* u^^; Jj~ <-£-** t> ->^:. > . ->y^j\ Jj\ ( (-r 

r * u^^> Lesson 30. 

jw aL»Ij Gerunds. 

§ 430a. The number of purely Turkish Conjunctions 
is very limited, only six in number: and these too are 

r»o Gerunds. 205 

derived from Verbs or Adverbs (§ 475). The place of 
Conjunctions is supplied by Gerunds, which are called 
Conjunctive Moods or Words, Babita SiygMler, They 
are mere combinations of Conjunctions with the verbs, 
appended at the end of sentences (§ 230). The Gerund?, 
like the Conjunctions, serve the purpose of connecting 
sentences and parts of sentences. They have the same 
power of government as their verbs, but they are never 
used alone as governing words. 

§ 430b. There are thirteen gerunds in Turkish, 
some of which we have already met with in the course 
of the previous lessons. Here we shall give them in 
order. (See the Table.) 

§ 431. The Third Gerund. This is formed by ad- 
ding the termination ^ ' 4^;> -inje, -inja to the root, 

(and -yinje, -yinja, -younja if the root ends in 
a vowel). It means c as soon as' or c on ; ; ex.: 

iS-^-f^ <*j JA. yazinja gitdi as soon as he wrote, he went out. 

jjLjl Asclj^ijl oqouyounja otour on your reading sit down. 

The meaning is also expressed in two other ways (§§ 334, 428). 

§ 432. But the Negative form has a wholly dif- 
ferent meaning. 

<«-—> <9-^jUjIj yaz'may'inja git'me. Don't go unless you write. 

§ 433. The Eleventh Gerund. The third form of 
the Gerund when annexed to ib*)— ' •i:^ — ' jjJaj— , 
-ye dek, -ye deyin, -ye qadar, means until. 

jj\sj\ iii4jA3&lo £j> ben gelinjeyedek otour. Sit until I come. 

§ 434. The Fourteenth Gerund. By adding *Sd\ or 

jp -iken, -ken to the Aorist, Present, Dutitative, 

Future and Necessitative third persons, another gerund - 
like expression is obtained, which is rendered by while. 

Gitinish iken. Now that the act of going has occured. 
Yazayaq iken. While just about to write. 


f* LT'J-i Lesson 30. 




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*" ~ 



v so 












5 s 













v $5 



v R 









v ** 





n m 






























3 1 

3 1 


3 1 

3 f 

3 t 

3 t 



3 1 

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208 r* t_rJ.> Lesson 30. r*A 

§ 435. The Thirteenth Gerund is a conjunctive in- 
flexion of the verb equivalent to a verb (generally of the 
same tense and frequently with the same object) found 
at the end of the phrase, followed by the conjunction c and\ 
The sense may be such as to require the words r also" 
and afterwards to be supplied, according as the suc- 
cession of the two actions is intended. It is character- 
ized by the termination ^j— -oup, ip, (or s->y— -youp 
if the root ends in a vowel [53]). § 17; as: 

w-jjli yazip having written. <sj>yj\ oqouyoup having read. 

Jojdjl ^jjjj\>j\ otouroup oqondoular. They sat and (after- 
wards) read, or having sat down they read: equivalent to otour- 
doular ve oqoudoidar. 

S^ojjT ^j^z gedip georejeyim, equivalent to gede'jeyim ve 
fjebrcjei/im. I shall go and see [him also] (having gone I shall see). 

JCi) Words. 

f. j\>\>\ abaniz Ebony a. ^j^z.* mahjoub humble 

jj.-^lb ' j^^b damlamaq to drop a. jj^*> maghroor proud 

^j* jjyo sormaq to ask a.j\ O o\j raziol" to be content 

aibjJ qourbagha frog J~^>3 genish wide 

vLl^;-.^..^ gechinmck to subsist a. J&U- jahil young people 
oj^i pire flea ^fL" ' <ij£j tanri God 

c--j bit louse ^»jjj\ urumek to bark 

Jt<y 0ji dive qoushou ostrich (5*^»l> patlamaq to burst. 

*\*\ ^Jt»i Exercise 66. 
J 11* I ^>3j±> Donroubou emsal. Proverbs. 

->jb ' tlyp *J^ ^^3 {~"J I • jfa U jj>j I O^ *J^ *$y& r * I ^ 

ol-U) j**Jj> o*>^ o** 5 ^ •jltj' e[y 4>M,«IL> 4>M*u^ t- ♦ *S ua 

r^ Gerunds. 209 

■"*•• V .. -c ^ • „ -> c* • "*»■ ~ „ 

*\V <W>- J Translation 07. 

1. When the teacher began speaking, every one 
stopped his talk. 2. Until the teacher entered the school- 
room, all the pupils were talking together. 3. Since 
I came to Merzifoun I have three times visited Mounjou- 
soun. 4. As soon as Eli goes, I will call you. 5. I 
read and write. He came and went afterwards. 6. He 
mounted his horse and went into the country. 7. The 
teacher Nasred-din, taking an axe, mounted the tree 
and began to cut the branch on which he sat. 8. A man 
saw him and said that he would fall down from the 
tree. As soon as the man spoke the teacher fell down. 
9. He ran after the man and caught him by his collar 
and said: As you knew that I would fall down from 
the tree, of course you must also know the time when 
T will die. 10. The man said: "When your ass brays 
three times, you will die. 11. Do not go until I come. 

<U ^o Conversation. 

Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 14 

210 f* u~J> Lesson 30. fl> 

J^l 5 Ju? Reading Exercise. 

<3 j* U^J '5**" *-^ ^ ' 
The Distinction between Man and Beast. 

»jd Jul j*)l> ^^y^ j dU^^- V" ^j* ^Abj*" ^^ 

10 r j/- 9 uAlk jlsijj-N 8 JL j dl f V>W> L3 • r-5 U:0*rT 
.J^j,i "itti ^^. ^JIW- ' "J^r tfoWji 

AJjL ^ ^^11 • fjj;^ 13 *»jJl>- ^^J 1 tiA^ fif. & 

lU J Jl ' dU^ll ' dl^ dJSU! . JjUU 4.Jbjl ^^ 

TFords. 1. creation. 2. high, noble. 3. &uft' instinct (of 
animals). 4. for instance 5. to wag. 6. hal condition, case, situ- 
ation. 7. poor. 8. a. sayir other. 9. a. noutq speech. 10 a. maftroum 
destitute. 11. oldouqlari jihetle = oldouqlartndan. 12. #a<fe' St. 
to explain, to state. 13. being (being in the state of). 14. since I 
can turn. 15. aza members. 16. tatmaq, datmaq to taste. 

_UjU mab'ad Continuation. 

a • j^J V fUU- J~< y* c >^. uttf- W ! (Kfe 

Words. 1. Ziot'fa even. 2. awjag only, but. 3. ?,;ra it." to- 
do, to perform. 

rn Nouns and Adjectives derived from Verbs. 211 

. • .f • •• II f - • .10,1- <9.*l~\! ♦ •S^ll 

ir> , 1 - : . • 1 sit - 14. * 
aJ©JjI ji A_*j J>^j JAJ 45 (JUw* jjjt- 5 

4. t'rfmfc intellect. 5. = malik oldoughoum dan: malik oh" to 
possess. 6. ojaq a hearth. 7. necessary. 8. Jam glass. 9. daq- 
maq to put, affix. 10. gab vessel. 11. qoulp handle. 12. chizme 
out of door shoes. 13. pachavra a clout, rag. 14. meshin leather. 
15. farq et." to distinguish. 16. heves a mania, wrong desire. 
17. ita-at' et." to obey. 18. Mou-aTUm Naji. Professor Naji 
(a distinguished Turk author 1850 — 94). 

r ^ u^^> Lesson 31. 

Nouns and Adjectives derived from Verbs. 
Verbal Adjective. a^Jl* zXe 
§ 436. The regular form of the Verbal Adjectives 

(Sifeti Musheb'bihe) ends in ^^ -iji, -ij% -oujou and 

it is derived from every kind of verbs, except Passive 
and Reciprocal verbs; as (§ 53): 

^yj\j yazmaq to write: V jL ! ^-^j j\» yaziji one whose business 

is to write, a clerk. 

jiU? satmaq to sell: Vol^ • j^J"^ satirfi one whose business 

is to sell, a seller, a dealer. 

^yj\ oqoumaq to read; v yj\ • L&~iJ>j\ oqoufjoujou one who 
to invite: habitually reads, a reader; inviter. 

vHJL~ silmek to wipe, to rub out: V J-- f jjeJL* s^yi a profes- 
sional scrubber of floors. 

§ 437. This form resembles the Subjective Present 
Participle in meaning (§ 401). The difference is that, while 


212 r) u v-jj Lesson 31. t)Y 

yazan, sedan, oqoayan, pishiren mean 'one who occasion- 
ally writes, sells, reads, or cooks', the Verbal Adjectives 
yaziji, satiji, oqouyonjou, pishiriji respectively mean 'one 
who habitually does so, whose occupation is to write, to 
read, to cook', that is to say 'clerk', 'reader' and 'cook'. 

§ 438. There are other forms of verbal nouns and 
adjectives which do not always occur, not being formed 
from all roots, but they can be divided into classes 
as: — 

§ 439. I. If the verbal root ends in' a vowel, 
a verbal noun or adjective is obtained by omitting the 
mini of the Infinitive termination. 

^X»jjj^. churiimek to rot: £jjy>. ckuruJc rotten. 

^y-jya sovoumaq to be cold:<j y^asovouq cold (§ 36). 

vll-^Lijl ishlemek to work: diJUM islilek that works well, smoothly. 

§ 440. II. If the verbal ends in a consonant, the 
mini of the Infinitive is changed into vav, or ye: 

,3-6-s^ achmaq to open: i3-*^ acliiq open. 

^y*j>j> bozmaq to spoil: <jj-*3# bozoiiq spoilt. 

§ 441. III. By removing the Infinitive ending 
j^ ' dl* and adding bj* ' ^J ' by- -Qoun, -qin, -ghoun 

or by {£> -gun, -gin to the root, another class of 

verbals is formed; as: 

^■*jj~> surmek to banish: jj^jj^. surgun an exile. 

<tX ».,*.■■> pishmek to become cooked: l*5wj pishgin well baked. 

j^Ji^p. joshmaq <j^iij=w joshqoim over- 

> to overflow: \ fl . 

J^o-ilk tashmaq j O^U» tashqin J no ^ m &' 

.jcl yanmaq to be burut: CAill* yanghm fire, confla- 


§ 442. IV. Sometimes J, -li, J -Ion or ^ -i, -I, 

-om, -?2 is added to the root: 

jJ-Ala qapamaq to shut: JliU qapali shut. 

dJUoJj-p gizlemek to hide: ^jogizli' hidden. 

rtr Xouns and Adjectives derived from Verbs. 213 

So also: JJU saqli hidden; J-r^ asiIi hun S- 

J,j^ dolou full; Jj\ eoh\ dead. 

§ 443. V. The second and third forms of Deri- 
vative Infinitives are regarded as regular verbal nouns, 
as we have seen (§ 301): 

<Jj* deokme cast. -woL basma printed. 

IL>^J\ elverishli sufficient. -w**\ asma suspended. 

§ 444. VI. Some of the verbal nouns are formed 
by the addition of * y -tm, -im. -oum to the root: 

vik ' vlU<u yemek to eat: p> yem food. 

viULjl eohnek to die: p5j\ Solum death. 

vi-u^l ichmeJc to drink: ^_\ ichim a draught. 
§ 445. VII. Others are made by the addition of 
^ ' j ' L J -€, -*. -oil, -gi to the stem: 

^jL yazmaq to write: <ijL> yazi writing. 

^.Ijy qorqmaq to fear: j*Jj s qorqou fear. 
vlL-yjl ichmek to drink: ( 5«y\ /c%i intoxicating liquid. 

§ 446. VIII. Another class of verbals is obtained 
from the passive verbs, by adding ^ j to the stem (§ 265) : 
^i)<Jj^~ sevinmeh to be joyful: ?Ci j~ sevinj joy. 
vUsojl eddenmek to be paid: 7^j}j\ eddunj vulgar ebn'duj a loan. 

Similarly: ^Jj guliinj laughahle; ^Lol osanf tiresome. 
7ti\j£ qazanj profit; r^livaJ qisqanj' jealous. 

§ 447. IX. By adding ^ji l J ' & -indL -ti, -di, 
another class of verbals is obtained: 

J^jj^ bouyroulmaq to be ordered : jlj^-i bouyroultou an order. 

,J—M aqmaq to flow: (5-M-3 1 O^tfttf a current. 

^Ju^yiqmaq to pull down: J '^a.^ yiqinti debris. 

>ZX*j^j~. supurmek to sweep: (S-'Jj;^ supruntu sweepings. 

214 r) ^-j^ Lesson 31. ri*u 

J<A& ' li'JJiV ' ^^"W ' i£W ' jJjjj^ patirti, jayirti, 
chatirti, inilti, gurultu all mean a continuous or repeated clattering, 
noise, roar, hissing, creaking, crackling, rending and tearing of 
the sea, wind, lion etc. 

§ 448. X. The Noun of Excess is formed by the 
addition of«j\5 l J\c l ~J>-qan, -ghan, -ghij to the stem: 
JoJLlU- chalislimaq to work: u&^!W chaUshqan assiduous. 
sy ^r *.\ ishitmek to hear: J^~r') ^Mtgen quick to hear. 

Similarly: {j\Ujij\ ' o^yj] oimontqari ', ounoutghari forgetful. 
oLLlol yapishqan sticky. ^Jj- suzgej a strainer. 

rS'jy yuzgej a skilful swimmer. p-^L-k dalgliij diver. 
tjUji^ soloughan shortness of breath, roaring. 

§ 449. XI. The Noun of Location derived from 

the verb is obtained by adding J -q to the root, if it 

ends in elif, and Jl -aq if it does not end in that letter: 

j_EIj yatmaq: Vol' Jill yataq bed. 

j.^Jjl otlamaq: \^Jj\ l ^j\otlaq a pasture. 

jJiA yayilmaq to pasture: J>U ' >U yay'laq, yayla a sum- 
mer-residence, or pasturage. 
>ULJ gzsftZa winter quarters, military headquarters, barrack. 

§ 450. XII. Instrumental Nouns obtained from 
the verb, are formed irregularly: 

dL.*l\ elemek to sift: ^lAJl eleh a sieve. 

j-ljlL' j*\^ daramaq to comb: jl^L ' J\jU» rfarag a comb. 

5j^- swrpw sliding bar of a door. Jljjl omg a sickle. 

So also: 
^Uc^ &2c7iag a knife. J^ z > bichqi gardener's knife. 

jj^L yastiq a pillow. <>J^ sar#M bandage. 

Jl*,1 basqi press. y^Ucfea^Ai musical instrument. 

'tfjj-ij- supurge broom. jUT «s^ braces. 

5^)u M%* a whetstone, from ^4?. MW*& to sharpen. 

rto Nouns and Adjectives derived from Verbs, 215 

*\A ^>Ui Exercise 68. 

Change the following verbs into verbal nouns or 

I. j^Mvajl islamaq to wet; db«C~jl to desire, to wish; 
d*U<\o dUemek to ask, to make a request; ^sybouda- 
maq to lop; dXSjj\ urhnek to startle. 

II. ijl artmaq to remain over; j^jl>jl oyanmaq to 

awaken; dUbl /7wr/ t - to tie with in a loop; ^t,^ barishmaq 
to make peace; j^jlo sarmaq to wrap round; jjcl yanmaq 
to be burnt ; dUL~, silmek to wipe ; juJb * Uimaq to grow luke- 
warm; juijy qorqmaq to fear; ju^-£ qaclnnaq to flee; 
dljjjl ebrtmiJ: to shut; dL~! S kesmeJc to cut; t« J> ^>'- 
tnag to break. 

III. JJ*)* yormaq to weary; jlj^ dolmaq to be filled; 
jib dcdmaq to become plunged in thought ; jljl ofeiog 

to be ripe; j^jLll skashmaq to be stupid; dL~o I'cs- 

mek to cut; ^JL) yilmaq to be frightened. 

VI. dl almaq to take, buy; iJL^ satmaq to sell; 
j^JI atmaq to throw; j*o^> youdmaq to swallow; dL^ 
bichmek to cut, to shape; dUo dihnelc to cut into slices; 
di*^~ sevmek to love; jj*jj>-jl ouchourmaq to cause to 
flee, to let fall from a night; ^ jjUL> yUdirmaq to flash. 

VII. jcl) yapmaq to build; dlljl edlmvlc to die; dLsJjl 
Slchmrk to measure; dLL> bUtnek to know; dUo per- 
mek to give, to pay tribute; dlj^l edrtmek to cover; i*IB 


rt o*J* Lesson 31. Y)1 

qapamaq to shut; dUjg- chizmel to scratch, to draw a 
line; jj>> #mad to rise (the sun); jjl» Wmag to 
set (the sun). 

XI. vVl> yalamaq to lick; j^> younmaq to wash 

one'sself; jcl, Wmag to sink down; ^^ ' J^y °^ wr " 
wag, qonmaq to halt, to rest. 

^ rtJU> Exercise 69. 

Jl» d/*> J^l> J <>> u/^> ^>> £&/* 

• f***Vi lT^ ^ y * cr- 5 ^ fa^i f" J" J - >r52 

V ♦ <U>- J Translation 70. 

1 My beloved son, I have read your letter with great 
joy. Now I shall give you some (an) advice. Don t bor- 

Y\V Nouns and Adjectives derived from Verbs. 217 

row money from others: if your profit (income) is less, 
your expenses must be less. 2. Death is such a black 
camel, that it kneels before every door. 3. The divers 
plunge in the depth of the sea: they are also good swim- 
mers. 4. That old man is not deaf, he is quick to 
hear. 5. Your uncle's horse is short in breath (broken- 
winded). 6. You are very forgetful; you forget every- 
thing. 7. He was sunk in the marsh, and was obliged 
to make a halt there. 8. The children are very fond 
of kites. 9. I ordered from the market three sieves, 
two combs, four suspenders, five musical instruments, 
ten iron bolts and one filter. 10. The soldiers were in 
the winter-quarters. 11. We shall go this summer to 
the pasturage of Telli-Oghlou. 

Ail^^ Conversation. 

. fJ4j ' A Jj\ Li\ 

'{->*&) cX\ lib ! j*i ? 3*—?j*»\ Off l?'^ 

*J~^j\ i3r~l-^ i-r*-i ? J->jL? j£-4j o**>j\f 

. J J at. .a.^ti wU_aiJ 

218 rr u-J-> Lesson 32. r\K 

. j-^ *-*■ 

J> I .5 .^JUi Reading Exercise. 
aJLU Lateefe An Anecdote. 

C-J pjS"* : v-jj-IT *^J^I a>-1j>- a^I jj 0^j-*y ui j: 

' j-OTi oijl dill Ul ' Jijl ' tfi ^j^ ^-x^I a>.^ — . Jlo 

aSj^-i dill l»» — 1 ^ OyJUjO I ijij^-l j3 dill • J>Z\ 
dljCll S*5jj>-\ ? dn ^.c 1 ol 6 ^$U£ 4j ^ » — °4l7-X>- jr 

<( ? vJUv ^jylcll)! 4C 3 4— ^> 4lj I lll>2 J) I ©2 0^— ' Jj-*' ^ 4l—4/»jO I 


TFords. 1. TJreyil qaryesi the village Uregil (at Cresarea). 
2. nothing at all, you are welcome. 3. anirmaq to bray. 4. fe^w- 
disini hieh' bozmayaraq indifferently. 5. hid-det anger. 6. touhaf 
queer, funny, strange. 




rv ^JZ Lesson 32. 

Prepositions. (Continued.) 1 

4. The Declinable Postpositions. 

§ 451. Postpositions of this class are generally used 
as nouns in connection with other nouns and pronouns 
to supply the place of prepositions. Their use will be 
best understood from examples. These prepositions 
take possessive affixes and are used with the genitive 

case. Thus Ijl ara means 'the midst'. ozju\j\ aramizda 
r in our midst' i. e. 'between us'. 

§ 452. The words thus employed and the English 
prepositions the place of which thev supplv are as 
follows (§ 236): 

zj\ ard 
<ij\ arqa 
*zJ\ alt 

s_~o dih 
\j\ a-ra 
Ujl eon 
Li— j\ list 
°jjj\ uzri 

The back, the space behind. 

The space under. 
The bottom of anything. 
The midst. 
The front. 
The space over, 
J the upper part. 
ijlio dishari The outer part of anything. 
iSj*^>\ iche'ri | The inside, interior, 
7*-A ich j the inner part. 
cij^M ile'ri The front part. 

^ Ji }l 0Q . a r\ The top or upper part of anything. 
j-^ ashaghi The lower part. 
tlA i/an The side. 

j- ytr Place. 



Between, among. 
Before, in front of. 

Over, upon, on. 

Out of. outside. 

In, inside. 



Below, under. 

By, near, by the side of 

Instead of . . . 

1 See Lesson 14, page 106, §§ 230—287. 


IT i_rJ-> Lesson 32. 


tSj geri The hinderpart. 

a. cJl^M e£ra/* Surroundings. 

<ojl eote The farther side. 

P-_/.\»/. beraber Even with, breast to breast with. 

Cnilj yaqin The space near, 

a. ^a- 7iar/g A respect, regard, relation. 

Jljjl ouzaq The space far away. 

ijlS qarshi The space opposite. 

a.<jJa~.lj vasita A means, a go-between. 

Back (backwards). 

Round, around. 


Together with. 

Near, by. 

About, concerning. 



By means of. 

Come after me. 

After the coffee i. e. breakfasl 

Lower story (of the house 

To go to the top. 

At the bottom of the box 

jUlt4 MisaVler Examples. 

^£^ (jX~~ .*5j1 arqaslndan get Go after him. 

J> ijjjjojl ardimdan gel 

jd \ oj^ qahve alti, qahyalti 
ols c-M alt qat 
^3-JLa. aJLJl-jI ustune chlqmaq 
oJlLv.o ^iiX*9 sandlgliln dibinde 
«Ju.iw ' ojJsJto- ' oJ^5>- haq'qhnda, haq'qinda, haqqlnda About me, thee, him. 

o-Xi^L-al ' <oj*jJJL yaqinhnizda, yaqirilarinda Near us, them. 

Jp oj^Jl ' j>z o^o-jL yanimizda dh\ yanhniza gel It is near us, come near ui 
*\ — .4.k~-lj £\'>j\ onoun vasltaslylla By means of him. 

a5joJj! c <^jojj\ uzerime, uzerine On me, on thee. 

5. Turkish equivalents for some English Prepositions. 

§ 453. All the English Prepositions, which indi- 
cate a state of location or rest must be translated 
by the locative: all others which indicate a direction 
or motion from one place to another are to be rendered 
by the dative case (§ 237). 

We entered the city before five o'clock and remained there five 
days. Saat beshdhi ev'vel shehre girib orada be'sh gun dourdouq. 

§ 454. Study and compare the following sentences: 
The fight lasted above five hours, (rhavgha (or qav'ga) 
bvsli sd-atdan ziyade surdu. 




Above the knee 

Those who were about him 

I have no change about me 

I am about to go 

About noon 

She laughed at him 

I wonder at what you have said 

We were at your aunt's 

Dizlerinden yoqart. 
Etrafinda oJanlar. 
uzerimde oufaqliq yoq dour. 
Gitmek uzre yim. 
Eoylene doghrou. 
fizerine guldu. 

Dediyinize te-aj'-jub ediyoroum. 
Halafi gilde idik. 

Mrs. Mania is loved by every body. Many a Hanim her 
kesden sevilir or Her kes Manya Hanimi sever. 

Csesarea was taken by the Persians. Farisiler Kayseriyeyi 
zabt etdiler or Kayseriye Farisilerden alhidi. 

Translated by a priest 

He sent it by him 

He came by sea 

Sit by me 

After the Turkish fashion 

Bir papas marifetiy'le terjeme 

Onoun vasitasiyla gebnderdi. 
Qaradan geldi. 
Yanimda otour. 
Turk ousoulou uzre. alatourqa. 

JcJ Words. 

a._~jl_L> tavous peacock (J*Vjl> dolanmaq to go round about 
viLj^i yuztnek to swim i>ji^ A merdiven stairs 

a. v_-Jjj Zeyneb Zenobia a.J-Lo tatil vacation 

^ZLijS qoushatma'L to encircle a.jLa*. hisar wall. 

V\ ^JUi Exercise 71. 

•jlijJli u/ JJ-ft Lll ojclS^I dh^i JjJteJ ^C-l jUUtfr r 

^—5 «j ^)Lp a_i ^ 

1>\Ja i ^))\Ju 


222 rr u-J^ Lesson 32. rrr 

•Jj3 n^jSCA j^h j> jUjI ' pjj\ J-^j^ »jlJU Jj-li \ - 

\2' •• f v ►. -^ J- „ •• o • 

VY A£-j Translation 72. 

1. That package is for me: how much did you pay 
for it? 2. I have a great deal (choq sheyler) to tell you 
concerning this boy. 3. I have fallen (youvarlandim) 
down the stairs. 4. I shall read that book during the 
vacation. 5. The child threw the ring into the well: all 
the servants gathered around the well to take up the ring 
from the well. 6. Within a year. All the houses within 
the wall were burnt. Within some days. 7. Can you 
swirn round the ship? 8. He must wait till five o'clock. 
9. He spoke about his mother. 10. One sat above, the 
other below me. 11. The inn is without the town, but 
the hospital is within the walls of the town. 12. No- 
body came yesterday to our house except Haji Hassan 
Effendi. 13. Your house is among the trees, my house 
is in front of the church. 

VT 4&-J Translation 73. 

1. My father was not above twenty years old when 
he was married. 2. My uncle's house is very handsome, 
but it cost him (mal oldoii) above 500 pounds. 3. It is above 
a year since my friend started for America. 4. Yozgad 
was built by Chapan Oghlou. 5. The poor man was 
d liven out of his house by his creditors. 6. I shall 
get up to-morrow at six o'clock. 7. Were you at 
Dr. Tracy's last night? 8. He had no money about 

Ttr Prepositions. 223 

him (yaninda). 9. At noon. In the summer: at night. 
10. The dog sprung out from under the table. 11. Sow 
we turn towards the East. 

Ai^ Conversation. 

^U^bj) ' jji-w—i z^?^ ? u * ^s\*j> ,j> 



v j^> I _i J^ Reading Exercise. 
^^J 1 c5^ Keby Odasi The Village Koom. 

ib^^^l 4,b J^j ! jjO%> ^4_Lji 'diWjT' "^ 

W'ortfs. 1. as it is [custom] (429). 2. Mounjousoun a village 
near Caesarea, the ancient Pontusa. 3. qaranliq darkness. 4. &o«- 
maq to set in, to prevail (darkness) [334]. 5. dftnian smoke. 6. as 
soon as they see [428]. 7. Jceh'ya the bailiff of a village p. 126'. 
8. narfjile a hookah. 9. choubouq tobacco-pipe. 10. eyUnmek to 
amuse one's self. 11. ortaViq the space, the whole room. 

224 rr u"js Lesson 33. ff^- 

jjsu.^ duuji '• ie jti jJCi jJCj o-^ 1 'Vtf/ 

x ^ ch j») • jj* js i> ^.^V ' V 1 >^ **> >■. 

w 't».Uurf. • JJjl 21 Li-<Jj5y «o J>j"' *-Jjb' 2 °J^ 

12. W Zamag to cover, to fill. 18. unable to see (404). 
14. a. A-e,yf pleasure, merriment. 15. hutAk root of the trees 
16. iuil inil with a clashing or crashing sound [44, 502]. 17 la 
qtrdi talk, chattering. 18. Islndlrmaq to warm 19. nasttea ; in 
some way or other. 20. dWd-d&K severe. 21. ^ merry, 30II3 
(150) 22 4,70* rather warm, snug (156). 23. a. jamous butfa o 
24 irf to praise. 25. a. musa-a-deli favourable 26. shelnr 
^e"4; the city ,, C*»area. 27. a. #-Ze south 28 f. pory, 
W Va;3 north. 29, a. havadis intelligence, news (651). 

vr ^jO^ Lesson 33. 

JU >>t uij* Adverbs. 

S 455 Adverbs are words modifying verbs, adjec- 
tives or other adverbs. They therefore denote manner, 
place, time, quantity, affirmation, doubt, negation, inter- 
rogation and order. 

rro Adverbs. 225 

§ 456. Almost all Turkish adjectives may also be 
used as qualifying adverbs, with all the changes which 
the adjectives undergo. Ex.: 

Choq seoy'lemek. To talk too much or intrusively. 

jjJLjbjlj y\ (jAl^Oslw pjjix- X> Benim mektouboum seninkinden 
<eyi yaziJmish dlr. My letter is better written than yours. 

1. Adverbs of Manner. Jl>. 

§ 457. The Adverbs of Manner answer to the 

question ^ ' J^t ni'je? na'sil? How? The adverb of 

manner is generally obtained by the addition of some 
particle or word to the adjective, and is expressed in 
English by the corresponding adjectives with the addi- 
tion of the termination -ly. 

§ 458. The adverb of manner is obtained in three 
ways: by repeating the adjective, by the addition of 

a>- -je, or of a £)yo souretde, to the adjective: 

y\i\ j*&\ aglilr aghir, ^s-^n&l aghir ja, o-Xljj^ ^nc-\ aghir 

souretde. Heavily. JJU» J.lU* ' *?eJjLL ' oS!jj^ JJU» Sweetly. 

§ 459. This *>- or <c^*>. is also added to nouns 

and pronouns, and thus we obtain an adverbial ex- 
pression (§§ 155, 331): 

<scJo i <s^l — jjjj benje, kendisinje according to me, to him. 

otol '-u^-ocol adamja, adamjasina in a manly way; 

also: ^_>b^o\ ' Jilt *$\ adamjilayin, adam aqilli. 

§ 460. The 4th and 8th Gerunds are also used as 
adverbs of manner (pp. 206, 207): 

,jj<Jjl ijjA hediye olaraq as a gift. 

iSXJf^ ±)j<}<a<l~j\ istemeyerek gitdi he went unwillingly. 

oJIXoaL^— sebylediyinde when he spoke. 

§ 461. 1. Adverbs of Manner. 

o^l yeniden newly, anew. Jji^. biryol, biyol once. 

Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 15 


rr i_rJ^ Lesson 33. 


Cj yine, yene 
ajJ> gine, gene 
a. j\ >xJ tekrar 


u\^> ye'giri, yeyiri strongly. 

^ikj beoyleje thus, in this way. 

CJ*^ boshouna in vain, idly. 

§ 462. 2. Adverbs 

<J_f"j> bou gun to-day. 

^jl yarm to-morrow. 

i)jz dun yesterday. 

dfur^^ er^si gun the fol- 
lowing day. 

a f^y\ tote gun I day be- 
~* > fore 

dfS-*^ ev'velki gun) yester- 

i5-U.-i shim'di now. 


tjUj ^1 ne zeman 

^U.15 hachan 
Cao dentin 



I a few 
\ minutes 
<jjJ!A bayaqdari) ago. 

j^-^jU. cha'poujaq 
^&L j\ o sa-at 


of Time. 

j> 0*0*. birderibiriy 

j_;\ ^S\ ap'ansiz j 

o^ j. &**" azdan soon, after 
a while. 

^1 ' j. e'r, eV fo'n early. 

^jf gej late. 
•^ L>t ora' sira | n ow and 

V. ° -^ * * fc *^ UrdS I tb e " ' 
-CL-o^f" gechensene\ last 

a jJu biidlr | year ~ 

a. Jj\ eVweZ before. 

o 5"T,o sonra afterwards. 

a. lib da'yima always. 

a.vijljl niha'yet at last. 

oS^S^ qechende 

J lately. 

l ^5^ gechen 

§ 463. 
3. Adverbs of Affirmation, Doubt and Negation. 

! oj\ ev'vet, e-vet 

! aa Tie, M-tZ j yes 

p. Ji 6e7i ) 

p. 7j_-a 7mc7&' ^ 

( ^-" > never, 

a. >l*\ as la J 

a. L5\j vaqaa truly, in fact. 

o^=^f gercheMen truly, really. 

] of course,. 
| no doubt! 
I certainly! 


! viltiAJ nedemek! 
! j^A^i shub'hesiz 

j£- hhayir] 

*L bile even. 

a. U^ flje'ba | T wonder! 
Is it so? 

*)j\'Vj\ o/a 

TTV Adverbs. 227 

§ 464. 4. Adverbs of Interrogation. 

OS& nichin? ] J^at nasll?\ how? by what 

^o<i nedeyi? 

aj<] neye? 
— i <J ne sebebden?) 

why? <*J m>'? ( manner? 

where- 1 " 

fore? jji<J neqadar? how much? 

a") ne? what? 

§ 465. 
5. Adverbs of Quantity and Comparison. 

^5oJ nitekim as, in the oj"jr"Ji bus'biitun \ 

manner as. \ ^ J entirely. 

Aj dfc tele' tick here and a ' ^ &a'f»iIAi J 

tnere - a. \jg* jid'den seriously. 

> at a. l_L*a3 qas'den intentionally. 
(ijl 6a' rt ) least. 

. . p. U<oL ba'dihava ) „ rQ i; c 

aJj! *Jj\oZsaoZsaatthemost. , ' gratis, 

- i . ,, ,. , a. CU^. mej'janen > ree ^' 

JJ ■_,! fc'-<*yt J Pietty We "' ^- V > dolayidan indirectly. 

^SYgeremgibi properly, ^* sa V'^ sanki almost, 

^ J ^ J y duly. neai ' [ y (§ 47 8)- 

jU-il' ,3?c.i \ an'jaq only. ^1U> saZ£' only. 

Note. There are also a great many more adverbs which can 
easily be learnt by practice and reading (§ 212). 

§ 466. 0. Adverbial Expressions of Time. 

In adverbial expressions denoting time of day the 
word in is expressed by the addition of ^^J ' it^k-leyin, 

-layin, and for the seasons by adding ^ -in, -tm(p.55): 

Cs.j\> oa ^ ia ' rin m spring. {ji^***-? geje'Uyin at night. 

Cxj^ guzun in autumn. ^_>ULi^l akhsham'layin in the 

. evening. 

v >>Ul~y qonshlouq'layin at 9 ^-jJ^jJJXjI ikindi'Uyin in the 
o' clock A. M. afternoon. 

Ail Words. 
a. <jj*y* mezoun graduate. °j\j\ avara useless. 


228 rr u-J-> Lesson 33. rrA 

a. Js.j vad promise. p. o^j bihoude in vain 

a.lii shaqa joking ^"L'^Jlj ^/ate* bed-time, curfew. 

VI ^nL^ Exercise 74. 

— ? ^^jl rt c^^^c fj^jiU 0^->- u^i-y ^J^Ltl ^a.L \ 


• ju>-4.IjI ^J-jJ c>2>vj> i)j tf'SjJ <-jj~~h 4><U~-UI ^y 4JL^?=Ij 

^aiJCjI 4iij j^j^ *i**Jjl >11>.I <dJ aITjI ' JJ^y *^AJ dr*^ 

• JjO ^_~ol <Cjj ^ aj yP ^pL* ^^j' U**-**- ^L dLto^ J 

Vo 4J3- j Translation 75, 

1. When will you set out, to-morrow or the day 
after to-morrow? 2. He has been here at least three 
times. 3. That is beautiful indeed! 4. How much do 
you charge for it? — - It will cost you 20 mejidiyes at 
most (en choghou). 5. At present (sMmdilih) I want no- 
thing else. 6. If we have given a promise, let us keep 
it; else we shall certainly ■ lose our good name. 7. I 
could find him nowhere. 8. The preacher's house is 

YY\ Adverbs. 229 

very far off. 9. The one came hither, the other went 
thither. 10. I could open the door neither from within 
nor from without. 11. Act as if you were (olmoush- 
jasina) at your home. 12. Did you know him formerly? 
13. Yes, I have long known him. 14. She is better 
to-day than yesterday. 15. The next time I shall be 
here betimes. 

All^S Conversation. 

^^ S -Jj'. p-^i-^ ^^j* uJ'j'.J^ Oj&~* J". o^j 1 . o*ji J>-«oj^i»jl 

JlJ>\i rtJla> Reading Exercise. 
(j^L.) ^^Ljl <£^ The Tillage Room. (Continued.) 

.jbjbi yyTisji l i $~x J (f£k»j{ j <>- >w lit du^xt 

^ y^ <j^ j* • ->^—« °<-^Oj Jlj *>©3j' ^»jjl Jr'-^ °^ ^ 

•JjillS JjiL^l u^iijpl «-oL?l 

TPords. 1. kedpiiklu foamy, creamy. 2. Hiram et". to serve. 
3. therefore. 4. eozenmek to do carefully (§ 370). 5. wa#Z &". to 
relate. 6. one day. 7. on this side. 

230 r<u u-J-i Lesson 34. yr* 

• ^^jJ^L p-'^ Usi->- *Ljl • ^ojjJ^L? a^<Us>j! dAjLiT 

8. Talas, the classical Mutalassi. 9. di&efc a wooden mortar, 
in which coffee is pounded. 10. Ghlji a very common proper 
name, Sticky. 11. khinja lehinj dolou ve'rmek to become brim-full 
quickly (§ 286). 

f * u^t> Lesson 34. 

,_>l»c ^i^ Conjunctions. 

§ 467. Conjunctions are particles which serve to 
connect words and sentences, bringing them into a 
certain relation with one another. 

§ 468. There are very few conjunctions of Turkish 
origin, the nature of the language being such that it 
scarcely requires them (§ 430). Many Persian and Arabic 
conjunctions, however, are used in the language. 

§ 469. 1. Copulative Conjunctions. 

a.p.jve ) a. j>. hat'ta j 

and. [ even. 

*0 * aJLj \ He, le 1 aIo bile I 

p. _a -A hem — hem — both, also. p. /> hem and, also. 

<o ' »o de, dakhi also, and p. t. oJ> hem de and moreover. 


§ 470. j ve is Arabic or Persian originally. The 

common people never use it in speech ; its use is proper 
to books and educated people. 

a) *!> I' *J He, le takes the place of j ve for nouns 

and pronouns, as *-* 4ll »j ben He sen" .ipjl 4jjl jJo 

peder He oghlou, i. e. ben ve sen, peder v6 oghlon; also: 
Anam babam — anam He babam = anam ve babam (§ 232). 

8 I 

rrt Conjunctions. 231 


b) But in place of 'and' between verbs the gerunds are 
used, as: ^^^1 <dty verdi = ^yj j ^Jtil (§§371, 435). 

§ 471. l>- hat'ta introduces a phrase which cor- 
roborates what precedes it, it is generally accompanied 

by ©3 de or *L bile: 

ci.i<si**D aJLj hjz\j>. ^a- hat'ta biraderin bile or rfe gelemedi. 
Even your brother could not come. 

§ 472. 2, Disjunctive Conjunctions. 

p. I ' I j ya, re ya | _ 6j _ iSj gerek - gerek - I 

\ or 
p. }jL[» yakhod I ^— -j\ _ ^m — j \ ister- ister - 

a.Willa very rather _U_U ha- ha- 

p. _l» _l ya - ya - either - or - p. _«J _<jJ ne - ■we - neither - nor - 

*-»■* ' < — &*' ' *~d ^5' >/okhsa,yoghonsa, i/oqise or, otherwise. 

(§ 243.) 

§ 473. Gerek, ister, ha are put before two opposite 

words or phrases to state an alternative: 

Ister gelsin ister gelmesin. Whether he choose to come or not; 
let him come or not. (I do not care!) 

Gerek bebyuk gerek kuchuk. Whether great or small. 

Ha dlmish ha almamish. Whether he has taken it or not. 

§ 474. Ilia contradicts some words of the pre- 
vious clause; it can be used only, if the antecedent 
clause contains a negation: it means but on the contrary, 
nay rather. 

Ben deyil, ilia pederim hasta d/r. I am not ill but my father. 
Qizini deyil, ilia yegenini' seve'rim. I do not love his daughter, 
but his niece. 

§ 475. 3. Contracting Conjunctions. 

*-»\ ' o<-d ' -Lis a. ' -,<Jj> a. ' .-<J a. ' lT| a. I , 

. ", . , ; ^ , but, vet. 

i-se; isede; faqat : velakin : lakin: am ma, em ma J 

s*y p. • *=*j\ p. ' jji *; 

,* p. 

J r ' !■ although. 
gerchi; eg-, eye'rcht : her ne qadar j 

§ 476. Amma, lakin, velakin, faqat are put 

at the beginning of the sentences, while ise, ise tie 
comes at the end (§§ 130, 239—240, 241, 245, 325, 339). 

232 r«w u-jj> Lesson 34. rrt 

§ 477. Gerchi, eyerchi, her ne qadar are 

followed by isede f yet\ 

o*~j! ^nid ^y gerchi faqir ise de. Although he is poor,. 

yet . . . 

4. Miscellaneous Conjunctions. 

§ 478. The remaining conjunctions are as under; 
p. J^\ eyer, eger if (§§ 238, 381—382). 

4.x. U> ' <*jCi [*a sariki, say'ki 

o zj a- sebzde > as if, as though (as was promised).. 

p. ii j> guy a 

a. J.J yani that is to say, i. e. 

p. l^j zira 



/ r because, 

p. <>-!^>- chiinki 

a. p. 4X>.bL madam ki since. 

AjojM ^1s> ' Jlcl 4jjl zanri cderim, al'lahaUm vulg. al'Uhem I think. 

a. U>^5 faraza ] 

| supposing that. 
<so lLr^L toiitalim ki I 

i£J&\ imdi 

<jj5.>\ ^>j\ onoun ichin 

0-^r- Jjl 61 sebebden therefore. p. jC meyer j un i egs an( } 

a. o_Uj badehou then, after- p. t. <u-jC meyerse J ' 

J. wards. 

jlsul'jpeJl cwy'ag however, only. ^ ' ji-> <%" norder that(§392). 

p. 40 fc^ that, for. p. j>>[i sha'ye'd 

~s ) perhaps, 

p. Li ta until ; so that. p. *>_l &eZ'A;^ 

A^(i_)Ji3 qaldi ki there remains (to us) that. 

p. 4j U ta ki in order to ; (before negatives) lest. 

5. Turkish equivalents for some English Conjunctions* 

§ 479. Some English idiomatic conjunctional 
phrases are given below, with their Turkish equivalents. 

As — SO. As is the mother, so is the daughter 4^j1 J^L' c .~lH 
j j &\>j\ oz ijj\j Anasi nasil isa, qizi da ebyle dir. 

rrr Conjunctions. 233 

As — so. Ar the stars in multitude, so shall thy seed be vlLL.1 
jAls-dJlc-^- jji Jj^jJlj Neslin yildizlar qadar chogha- 
lajaq dlr. 

As — as. I am as tall as you ^.'>jjj\ jji dJu*- ^ Ben senin qadar 

ouzounoum (§ 229). 

Botb — and. Both good and had were left to his choice. Eyi ve 
kedtu ikise de onoun kendi key fine (ikhtiyarxna^ braqildi. 

Either — or. Either he or I will do it j^^-aA jj, ^ L j\ I Ytt 
o' ya ben bounou yapajaghiz. 

Neither — nor. Neither you nor I can go. Ne sen', ne ben gide- 
biliriz or Seride ben'de gidemeyiz. 

Whether — or. I care not whether you go or stay. Gitsen de git- 
mesen de oumouroumda deyil dir. 

If — then. If you will take this, then I will take that. Sen bounou 
alirsan ben de ol birini alirim. 

So — that. It was so late that I could not come. Ol qadar gej 
idi hi gelemedim. 

Not only — but also. She was not only poor, but also very sick. 
Hem faqir ve hem or hem de hasta idi (§ 474). 

Though — yet. Though he live many years, yet his life is a 
failure. Choq seneler yashadi ise de, ebmru boshouna 

Therefore — because. Therefore doth ray father love me, because 
I lay down my life. Ben eomrumu feda etdiyim ichin 
or etdiyimden pederim de beni sever. 

Jcil Words. 

(jlU- chcdmaq to play a. ys. afo pardon 

a. c»l*3 sari at profession jf kel bald-head 

vUhJl^o dikilmek to stand up directly (jL*ls qamish reed 

a. JuU naqid money ^\*JS\ eyilmek to bend, 

to curve. 
a. <-£j,* merkeb donkey; murikkeb made, composed of; ink. 

V*\ A^ Exercise 76. 

J\L 4ji yjl 4J T . jAjIS j dill . s^fTj* «Jb I Zj\ • jUi J J^lf ^ 

234 f"u ifji Lesson 34. rrt 

jL>| — ? £^°> ftJ ^ ^^ ^- J - ° * ^ ^ <^^ "" 

fjr ^ fljf ^ • ^ fW-^ ! C L^ jLJ J" f Lttf 

VV ,*Jui Exercise 77. 

•i uj3 ;<S^ T -><i^-J ^ ^^J <&**&* ^-O. 
Op ° • i>-~tf3 i^jaS J^^ dbj4S* «o o- ' (^ ^ J ^ 

,i\. 5C.o>l> 15C^-I d«Cjol ■*■> ^ J*» U5 
' r * ** * ^ 

VA A^"J Translation 78. 
1. Your sister and my niece. 2. We have written 
a long exercise, but we have not learnt it. 3. You 
must go home directly, or you will get wet; tor it 


rro Conjunctions. 235 

will sood rain. 4. «The reed bends, but does not 
break. » 5. You ought to speak to your children, for 
they are very naughty. 6. Do not waste your time, 
for life is made up of it. 7. «Time is money. » 8. The 
horse may be very strong, nevertheless (yine) it does 
not please me. 9. He was very tired, nevertheless he 
continued working. 10. I feared lest (deyi) he should 
die. 11. As [since] he does not work, I shall give him 
nothing. 12. 1 wish you to wait till I have done my 
exercise. 13. After I had breakfasted, I took a walk, 
although it was raining a little. 

VA 42* j Translation 79. 

1. Give me your letter that I may send it to the 
post-office. 2. He says he will not marry until he has 
a profession. 3. Read it twice, lest (yolilisa) you forget 
it (Aor.). 4. The lady must be careful, lest she fall (Fut). 

5. The more frequently you practice (what you learn 
in) your music lesson, the better you will play it. 

6. Unless the Lord build the house, their labour is in 
vain, who build it. 7. Ask him when he will come. 
8. Why did you sleep so long? — I slept so long, because 
I was very tired. 9. The more I study Turkish, the 
more I like the language. 10. I do not know whether 
he is rich or poor. 

<u(£U Conversation. 

•f *S?\j'Sj.** 4*?*^ J* - J>> j\ '■ J™i' &-Sf\ ci-^Jjl j^*->\ 

236 ro ^rjj Lesson 35. m 

«- I M 

J^l 5 Ju7 Reading Exercise. 
(jl»,U) ^j-a^jI ^S"" The Tillage Room. (Continued.) 

Words. 1. Kednes prop, name, Star (Slavonic). 2. chavoush 
a sergeant in the army. 3. Qonbour prop, name, a holster. 4. oitsto 
a captain (of Janissaries). 5. ise while. 6. keyf chatmaq to be in 
complete merriment. 7. Jchitab et" . to address. 8. never, abso- 
lutely. 9. See § 405. 10. khayr ola what is the matter! Good 
news, let us hope. 11. oushaq! children! boys! 12. deyi § 392. 
13. geoz qoulaq ol". to be all eyes and ears, to pay full attention. 

r ° u^t> Lesson 35. 

o -- 

IjJ Jzjo- The Interjections. 

§ 480. Interjections are words which are used to 
express a sudden or violent emotion of the mind. 


The Interjections. 


Sometimes they are used alone, and sometimes 
accompanied by the word to which they refer, which 
in Turkish is generally put in the dative: 

•' Oi.y \ afe'rin, aferim! Bravo! Well done! ! ^i^ l y^y\\ aferim 
sana! Good for you! ! oj- <ilj vay size! Woe unto you! 

0! eh! 

\ <S\ ! *> ey! hey! 

! J-it- shish ! 
! Cj^-h\ oulan! 
!^aI ya'hou! 
! *> ! 0j > hire, bre; be! j 
! <-*> a *j be herif! J 

! I; Lib baqsa'na! Look! I say 



! f-\j vaTch! j 
! o\y\ eyvah'!) 
! -Jl»- janhn! My dear! 
! ^ jL yazlq! What a pity! 
! <>_^ ■ aferim! Bravo! Capital! 
! <jM aroaw/ O dear! Oh ! Pity.' 
! ! v_Jl>& ajayib! Wonderful! 

! oJjU liayde! Come! Hie thee! ! J : a..t yl^IZZ | 

[ Begone! 
! iS\jvay! Woe! ! Jjl^ def'ol! J 

! u/'^.a sows/ Hush! a. ! Zi\j iS\ ey'vallah! Thank you! 

a. ! a^CIIj ves'selam! All right! All correct, O. K. 

a. ! <L\li-U ma'shallah! Beautiful! How strange! 

a. ! -Ji \ UL \ inshallah! If God will! Please God! I hope so! 

a. ! 4i\i>L. ma'zallah! God forbid! Shocking! 

a. ! £^ 4jo\ Allah kerim! God is gracious! Let us hope! 

a. ! 4jj .ui-l elhamdii-lil'lahi com. elhamdul'lah! Thank God! 

A* ^A* Exercise 80. 
? >Ju-5^(ijB ^ LSI <d>^ . JT^jjj ! ,>— uVj! o . D^T 

' \e. fcLSl V .^JlIj^ ^ ^>. 4.^Cj> 7-1^? <jv>- ? jJj sill) I 

238 ro u-j-i Lesson 35. rr ^ 

. k^T^ U* ^x f^ ^ * r^ 1 ^ • ^^ 

•* ** ** I 

cs,jt cfsh- 

jj\j ~U Beading Exercise. 

( J...I. ) *S»jl l*/" The Villa S e KOOm. (Continued.) 

. pais ejr i j>> «»,»& j^y ^" - : ^^ °'^ i 

^ ^i •" f jjb yi£ • Jjp. '<u+z u~~ &? ^ ,j -> 1 r 

J3 v_ ! dU<J jM-J.3 j". ! flf* ' <V=^ W 

'■ jb«W n ±W ' ,0 ^<- «^j"' j^« '^ ^ 
"jyi jj* W jy fe ' J^*s! ^ * ! "^ ' ^ 

Words. 1. eofo»r»ia to cough. 2. ogsJrmaa to sneeze. 
3 taw pan 4 tAtifttf cauldron, saucepan. 5. Qazanjdar CJor- 
tsTnhl market of) Boiler- Makers. 6. »/.»»««< an uproa,. 
f&ffStaffi. 8.V-*. to run. 9. «?«^TpTo« 

tapping and knocking noise. 

rr\ The Interjections. 239 

i • **• •* 1 6 • \ • * t _£ !•(•!** 

14. ortallq the whole (field). 15. tiqamaq to plug. 16. aghzina 
to the brim. (They have placed a big ladder on the outside of 
the cauldron from the bottom to the brim.) 

Ju»jU Continued. 

di-j ill jj-^jCl jj:ju&I 10 3iy» ^ILL-' : * ^jio JjojupI 4J0 j 

' ^jjjljl ^Jjt ' JOB • ! %jql w _^r (ku5Cjcl.*i.I Jj»» 
OL? tf-uL) — KjyAjS uJOjo dl^Vy I3 ^J0$fc dljlj\S VU 

Tl'ords. 1. ne den ! what do you say! what a wonder! 2. kebme 
group. 3. glial abaliq crowd. 4. chekijlemelc to hammer (§ 276\ 
5. kinetlemel: to clamp together. 6. lehimlemek to solder. 7. qalay- 
lamaq to tin. 8. a day when father and mother both are at home; 
hence, a state of noise and confusion. 9. q'n/amet qoponyor a 
commotion is occnring: lit. the Pay of Judgement is breaking. 
10. Soultan Mourad Amurath IV. 11. Baghdad seferi the Baghdad 
campaign (A. D. 1638). 12. te-aj-jiib et" '. to be astonished. 13. See 
§ 447. 

a«jU Continued. 
TT'orrfs. 1. naqliyet story. 2. me'raqjelb it", to arouse the interest. 


ro u-J^ Lesson 35. •"*»* 

>-L? *Wjl 

tfjo L^ i5 ^f ^ • iplcbj ^~i« ' iSJiW ^~** o-^ 
4*3Gl . iSJ.1 ^a JV ^> ! u >^/ ul ' f^T-* 

3. merfcoum deceased, blessed 4^ Shah'nam^JheBoo^ 
of Kings', the celebrated work of the Persian autho Firdon , 
5. gliarib wonderful. 6. Qavas prop. name. 7 J cu ^°™ 8 ^ eC t S 
with honey' (a polite expression used when one i obhged o 
interrupt the talk of another). S emr et allow, yi(^. 
9. HtfigMniboumm to twist his mustache VK *"* el V a ^« 
•flKftf you had seen. 12. See § 404. 13. i-ri large. i4. tafccma 

r l:i. 3 jgoU Continued. 

f TTord«. I. p. Mn-*£r the Fortunate One, a title of the Ottoman 
. «,;, eccN o tn form a camp, to encamp, d. tent, 
sovereigns (§§ 535, 55b). i. to torm a i. m, k 

4. jirid is a certain game played on ho.seback, 
is used as a dart. 5. innumerable (9 Wi). 

Yi.) Appendix. 241 

r ^ " 

• « lei jIa>-4jI «£ ^v 4 ^ n lW>-y 

6. JjVm seferi the Persian expedition. Baghdad was then 
in the hands of the Persians. 7. miiba-laghaU exaggerated. 
8. oui/maq to fit, to match. 9. bitmek to grow (plant). 10. qop- 
maq to pluck out. 11. qos qojaman very big, gigantic. 12. khalq 
people. 13. bayllmaq to faint. 14. See § 447. 15. sivishi vermek 
to slip away quietly (§ 286). 

au_3- Kliitam End. 

f ^ u^i> Lesson 36. 

*3%^ Appendix. 

§ 481. The method in which to address and salute 
people always requires considerable attention. The 
Ottomans themselves are very careful about such mat- 
ters, especially in writing. Every class of people has its 
especial title by which its members must be addressed. 

Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 16 

242 r^ wj* Lesson 86. ri.r 

I. Salutation. j*M«}L« Selamlam-aq. 

§ 482. The Moslems salute one another with the 
address Selamun aleykum 'peace be unto you 3 , the an- 
swer is Ve aleykum selam 'unto you be peace'. And 
when necessary to return the salutation, the one saluted 
says Merhaba c you are welcome! 5 , to which is answered 
Eyvallali c Thank you'. 

§ 483. Christians salute Christians and non- 
Christians, and Moslems Christians in the morning by 
saying Sabah'lar khayr olsoun! 'May the mornings be 
good' = 'Good morning [' At noon -time or in the 
middle of the day, Vaqitlar Jchayr olsoun! 'Good day 5 . 
In the evening they say: Akhshamlar khayr olsoun! 
'Good evening! 5 When it is necessary to return the 
salute, the person saluted says: Khosh geldiniz you are 
welcome 5 ; or, Sabah'lar Jchayr olsoun, Vaqitlar Jchayr ol- 
soun, Akhshamlar khayr olsoun, according to the time 
of day. 

§ 484. At parting, Moslems and Christians say 
Qal sagh-liqla, Khoshja'qal; Qa'lin saghltqla, Khoshja'qalin, 
all meaning 'Good-bye': the reply to which is Khosh* 
geldiniz, sefa geldiniz 'you are welcome 5 . 

§ 485. But at night when taking leave they say 
Gejeler khayr' olsoun 'Good night 5 : to which the answer 
is Khayra qarshi 'Toward the good one (morning) 5 which 
extends the idea of the salutation to the morning light. 

II. Congratulations. Ol5C> Tebrikiat. 

§ 486. Returning after an absence, one is greeted with 
Khosh' geldiniz 'Welcome!': to which he replies Khosh' 
gebrduk! which may be rendered 'I am happy to see you 5 . 

§ 487. If the new comer has entered the room 
in the absence of the person whom he comes to visit, 
the latter, on coming in, makes use of the same salu- 
tation, only substituting the Dubitative for the Past 
tense Khosh' gelmishsiniz. 

§ 488. In the East it is considered polite, in meeting 
a person, to ask after the health of absent parents or 

fur Appendix. 243 

friends. In answering such questions, it is necessary 
to consider the age of the person who asks: 

a) If he is junior, the answer given is Choq selam- 
lar eder He offers you many salutations 5 . Then the 
younger man replies Ellerini eoperim, maklisoits selam 
seoyle I kiss his hands, give (him) my compliments". 
If the person regarding whom he has asked is of high 
rank, much superior to his own, he says, EteJderini 
eoper im, makhsous selam seoyle C I kiss his skirts, many 

b) If the person who enquires about the health of 
the absent person is aged and of good position, it is 
customary to answer Ellerinizi eoper e He kisses your 
hands 5 , or with more formality Etehlerinizi eoperler c They 
(he) kiss your skirts 5 . 

§ 489. The person who is to convey these greet- 
ings assumes the responsibility by saying Bash' iistune 
c on my head 5 = 'with pleasure! 5 and acquits himself 
of it when he meets the person to whom the greetings 
are sent by saying Filan effendi choq choq' selamlar 
seoyledi, ellerinizi eoper c Mr. S. offers you many salu- 
tations and kisses your hands 5 . To which the other 
replies a) Teslieh-uiir ederim 'Thanks! 5 ; b) Sagh' olsoun 
e May he be well! 5 ; c) Getiren geonderen' sagh olsoun 
c May he who brings and he who sends the selam be 
well! 5 ; d) El eopen' sagh olsoun c May he who kisses 
hands be well! 5 As we say, f I am much obliged both 
to you and to him 5 (§§ 365, 375). 

§ 490. When somebody drinks something, or 
washes his hands or comes from the bath or shaves 
himself or is shaved by a barber, it is usual to say 
AfiyeV olsoun! 'Health be to you! 5 : to which the other 
replies Eomrun choq 1 olsoun! c May your life be long! 5 . 
Which may be rendered 'Thank; you! 5 (§ 365.) 

§ 491. At the beginning of the new year they say 
Yeni sem'hi.i mubarek' olsoun! Sail jedidiniz mubarek' 
olsoun! C A happy new year to you! 5 : the answer to 
which is Choq' senelere For many years!' (§ 365.) 

§ 492. Among the Moslems on both their festi- 
vals (Ramazan and Qourban) the form of congratulation 


244 rn ^ji Lesson 36. rw. 

is Bayramifflg mubarek' olsoun, or eediniz sayicV olsoun 
c May your festival be blessed'. 

§ 493. Besides the above, which are for set times, 
there is a great variety of occasional salutations and 
congratulations, such as (§ 365): 

1. Geozunuz ay din' olsoun! or more learnedly, Chesh- 
miniz roushen' olsoun! 'May your eye be bright 3 , addressed 
to one whose daughter or son have just married, to 
parents on the birth of a child, or to those who have 
just welcomed a new relative or dear friend from 
abroad, or even received a letter from a distant friend. 
The reply to this is: Aydinliq ichinde ol! c May you 
enjoy the light' or Darosou evinize olsoun! 'The same 
(millet) to your house!' or if addressed to a bachelor. 
Darosou bashiniza olsoun! 'May your turn come next!' 

2. To one who enters a new dwelling the salutation 
is Saghlijaq US otourasin! 'Mav you dwell in it in good 

3. To one who puts on a new garment Saghlijaq 
He geyinesin! 'May you wear it with health!' 

4. To one who is commencing an enterprise Allah 
isli achiqligM versin! 'May God give you success! 5 

5. To one who is convalescent after an illness 
Gechmisli ola! 'May it be past and forgotten!' (§ 365). 

6. To one who has lost a friend, or to imply the 
death of a friend enquired after Bashiniz sagli olsoun! 
'Life to you! 5 : the answer is Allah size on zoun edmurler 
versin! c God grant many years of life to } r ou! 5 

7. When somebody receives any sum of money, 
he usually says, Bereket versin! c May God give you a 
blessing (blessed increase)* = f Thank you! 5 : the reply 
to which is Bereketini georesin! 'May you experience its 
increase ! 5 

8. Teshekkur ederim, Memnoun 'onm , are expressions 
in imitation of the European phrase, 'Thank you! 5 and 
their usage is confined to educated circles. The common 
people express the same meaning by such terms as: 
Sagli ol! Eline saghliq '. When addressed to a child 
or an inferior 'Thank } t ou! 5- is expressed by Choq yasha, 
A'ferim oghloum! ('Very good!, Well done my boy!') 

fwo Appendix. 245 

9. When speaking of a disease from which the 
speaker has suffered in the past, he must add the ex- 
pression Sheytari qoulaghina qourshoun! 'Lead into Satan's 
ear' = 'May Satan's ears be stopped that he shall not 
hear what is now spoken! 3 

10. One who is obliged to use an impolite ex- 
pression, or to name an unclean animal (as for instance 
the dog, donkey or pig which are considered unclean 
among the Moslems), he must add Seoziim ona ! Seozum 
yabana ! Hasha h on z our dan! 'My word to him! My 
word to the desert! Be it warded off from your honour' 
= Tardon the expression' or 'Excuse me for saying so!' 

11. Inayet' o-la! Allah versin! 'May God's favour 
be upon you !' 'Let God give you' : to the beggars, by 
way of refusing them alms (§ 365). 

12. When somebody is going on a journey, in 
bidding farewell he says Khoshja qalin!, All ah a simar- 
ladiq!, Bizi douvada ounoutnwi/in!, 'Goodbye! Remember 
us in your prayers!': to which the answer is Allaha 
emanet oloun!, Bab'bim bilenizje olsoun! We command 
you to God!', 'The Lord be with you'; or Oughourlar 
olsoun! 'God speed!', Good bye!, 'Good luck attend you!' 

13. Ziyade olsoun! 'May it be too much' =-• "Xo, 
thank you!' Formula used in declining an invitation 
to partake of food. 

14. 'Pardon the omission', 'Don't pay attention to 
my shortcomings !' and I beg your pardon!' are rendered 
in Turkish by Qousoura qalmayin!, Afv edersifiis! 

III. 3Iodes of Address. 

§ 494. The word ^ sen 'thou' is not used except 
with reference to a child, an intimate friend, a servant 

or a pupil: at other times J— siz 'you' is used to one's 

equals, unless for politeness' sake one of the words now 
to be explained takes its place (§ 93). 

§ 495. In addressing superiors, the words *xi\ 

^JCJT'S ' *,_5Cjlc £j\b Efftndim, zatndz, or zati aVtnlz are 
used meaning 'Sir', 'Your Honour', or 'Your Lordship'. 

246 ri ^j> Lesson 36. T"v1 

Other such terms are y3C\S\±. '^^L^ [^Makipayiniz, 

Jcha'Mpayileri 'the dust of your feet': that is, the speaker 
addresses the dust of the foot of the other, out of 
humility (§ 69). 

§ 496. Note. The word Effendimiz has two different 
meanings: If it is used alone, among the Christians, it 
means 'Our Lord 5 (the Saviour). If it is connected with 
the word shevMtme-ab' 'Imperial 5 , as ShevJcetmeab Effen- 
dimiz, it means 'H. I. M. our Sultan 5 . 

Among the innumerable titles of H. I. M. the Sultan, 
the following : sail •shahane, zati hazreti padishahi 'His 
majesty the Emperor 5 are very common. 

§ 497. The words hazretleri, jenableri 'his (lit. 
their) majesty, excellency, highness 5 are titles equivalent 
to 'his majesty, his lordship, his excellency 5 , but they 
are placed after titles and names and not before them, 
as in most European languages: 

Imperator hazretleri H. I. Majesty. 

IngiUer'ra qralichasi hazretleri H.M.the Queen of England. 
Vali pasha hazretleri H. E. the Governor. 

Qaymaqam bey hazretleri H. Honour the Qaymaqam. 
Hoja effendi jenableri The respected teacher. 

§ 498. It is considered more polite to address 
superiors in the third person plural : Za'ti alilerine khayli 
zahmet verdim 'I have given your Excellency much 
trouble 5 . 

§ 499. In high and polite circles the speaker cannot 
speak of himself as 'I 5 , or others as 'he, we, they 5 . 
He must say: 

Bendeniz, qoulounouz, ajizleri I (your servant). 

Bendeleri, qoul'lari lor we (your servant or servants). 

Dayileri I, he, we (who pray for you) used by and 
of clergymen. 

Jariyciiiz, jariyeleri I, we (your maid servant) used 
by and of ladies. 

§ 500. Generally the word hazret before a single 
name indicates one of the prophets, saints or patriarchs 
of old; as: Hazreti Ibrahim 'the patriarch Abraham 5 . 
Hazreti Davoud 'the prophet David 5 . Hazreti Souley'man 

T'uV Appendix. 247 

r the prophet (King) Solomon'. Hazreti Isa (ee-sa) Effen- 
dimiz 'Our Lord Jesus'. Hazreti Meryem, Meryem Ana 
'Saint Mary 5 (the virgin Mother). Hazreti Meseeti 'the 
Holy Anointed One' (Christ). 

IV. Honorific Titles, ^u^-j ^jllil JElqabi Resmiye. 

§ 501. Titles of Honour also are of great im- 
portance, as every person of position must be addressed 
by his own proper title. 

jfcuLL shehametlou Valorous and successful', is used 
for the Shah of Persia. 

jkuJL>- hasJimetloii royal, imperial' for Christian 

jhll^l esa'letlou 'noble' for the ambassadors and 

jllJj rut'hctlou 'honorable, venerable 5 (His Grace) 

for clergymen of high rank, patriarchs, archbishops, 
bishops and missionaries. 

jkL&* faziletlou 'reverend' forjudges, priests, pastors 
and preachers. 

jc\^ jfc,*\?=» fekhametlou dev'Mtl&u 'illustrious and 

magnificient' for the Khidive of Egypt and Presidents of 

j&jLz jldp devletlou atoufetlou 'illustrious and muni- 
ficient' for Grand Viziers. 

jdjs devletlou for Valis (Governors-General). 

jU^U^ sa-a-detlou 'prosperous' for the Mutesar'rifs. 

jCy iz'zetlou 'honorable' for the Qaymaqams. 

Jc*&j rifatlou 'eminent' for other officials. 

j£3j<* ' j^L*j- muruvvetlou, hurmetlou 'generous, 
respected' to merchants, teachers, etc. 

248 rn ^-j^ Lesson 36. r<uA 

jb^ac is'metlou 'virtuous' for married ladies. 
jc'zz if'fetlou 'chaste' for unmarried ladies. 

jUfcU Misal'ler Examples. 

Dun devletkhaneye 1 geldim, em ma za'ti almizi georemedim. 
I came to your house yesterday, but you were not at home. 

Faqirkhaneye 2 ne vaqlt teshrif edejeksiniz ? When you will 
honour (visit) my house? 

Hem shire hanlm nasil dir? — Hem shir em jariyeleri choq 
hasta dir. How is your sister? — My sister is very sick. 

Btndeleri pek faqirim, zati allniz ise pek zengin siniz. I am 
very poor, but you are very rich. 

Ameriqa jumhouriyeti reyisi fckhametlou devletlou Me Kinley 
hazretUri. His Honour Mr. Mc Kinley, the President of the Republic 
of America. 

Dayileri Anatolia Collegi mudiri yim. J am the President 
of Anatolia College. 

Jariyeleri Protestan mektebi mou-al'limesi yim. I am the 
teacher of the Protestant School. 

Words. 1. Devletkhane the abode of prosperity, i. e. your 
house, used as a term of politeness. 2. Faqirkhane the house 
of your poor servant, i. e. my house. 

• A\ frJUS Exercise 81. 

.Aid 4>1 J. >■ • ©v- ,^-jjb • Jjl ©ju^yl /d-*>-^ - ? jv-o^ * 
pUj^vjI Jl © »j»jl L $j_<CjUI ' ,p-*3l jL«^— Jj>- Jj>- »j— 

TForcZs. 1. a. ziyare't to go on a visit. 2. a. tenez'zul to 
condescend. '3. a. Mourad prop. name. 4. a, makhdoum bey your 
son Master ... 5. a. makhsons especial. 

Yi.\ Appendix. 249 

♦ *•! _>l Of J. <U)-Wi-1 • Uj-^jy Alc-VjS 0^2*-^ j/^ * (*-~^ 

J^>- • -» jcjl 12 ^l viol*— — • iUlS **<ip- • f -^ atl-j! J^l> \ 

6. haliniz dirliyiniz the circumstances of your life. 7. uzerinize 
shifalar olsonn! may it be health to you! 8. a. estagh'firoul'lah 
lit. { I ask pardon of God' = Not in the least, I have no such 
pretensions. 9. loutfen be kind enough! 10. ih'tiramati fayiqa 
(my) highest respects. 11. taqdim it." to present. 12. a. se-a-det 
He! Go in happiness (said to a departing friend). 

AY ftJui Exercise 82. 

^^ V •♦ -^ ^^ •♦ *• v ** 

j\SjJ5 i£jte~« ^Ju v-AJ<LwL», J^IJaJL*/ l£j*J v»^>- A>j) *— y* j\j }5 

Words. 1. a. fouqara poor people. 2. a. ih'san bouyourmaq 
to grant, to bestow. 3. Der'sa-a-det Constantinople (§ 519). 
4. qidemli senior. 5. Saltana'ti seniye The Ottoman Government. 
6. Muneer prop, name, Lucian. 7. houzour presence. 8. a. qaboul 
bouyourmaq to accept. 

250 n u'j) Lesson 36. ro + 

? J> — -%-u 3 4) *~ ) 1 jJ jXjl^ "V • jUL^Jj ! «_ju .-~o A.) <Lw*wl«i (CjU .^>- 
U> J> ^ * ♦ >»j^Owb I Jl^UI ©JUL—aL^- j^iyO (^Ju-w^ Jjo-XIj 

♦ ita^oJbl 

9. a. devam to continue. 10. a. iqametet." to dwell. 11. Sofoular 
mahal'lcsi the street called Sofoular (in Merzifoun). 12. a. tesher'ruf 
to be honored (we could not see you). 

AV 4J?-J< Translation 83. 

1. H. I. M. the German Emperor, William II. 2. His 
Grace the Armenian Patriarch. 3. His Excellency the 
Governor of Angora. 4. His Eminence, the Mutesarrif 
of Samsoun, Qadri Pasha. 5. H. E. the English Am- 
bassador Sir Nicholas O'Connor. 6. H. E. the American 
Ambassador at Constantinople, Dr. Angel. 7. Rev. Charles 
Tracy, President of Anatolia College. 8. Rev. Carabet 
Kaprielian; Rev. Kerope Yakoubian. 9. I request your 
Excellency to give me permission to go to England. 
10. Under the shadow of His Majesty (sayeyi padi- 
shaliide) we are all safe. 11. H. H. Artin Pasha, the 
Ambassador of the Ottoman Government in London. 12. 1 
have received your letter. 13. I was for two hours waiting 
for you at my house, but you did not come: afterwards 
I went to your house, but you were not at home. 
14. Please give me to-day's newspapers. 15. How is your 
father's health? 16. Thank you, Doctor, he is very well, 
through your kind assistance (sayeyi alinizde). 17. My 
sister is the wife of Kemal Bey. 18. When did you 
come here? — I came three days ago with your son. 

Yes Appendix. 251 

Y. Onomatopoeia. 

§ 502. Is the term applied to words or phrases, the 
sound of which conveys some idea of or resemblance to 
the thing signified. 

It is customary in common language to use some 
onomatopoeic expressions. For instance, they say in 

Sou fchartt hharH aqiyor. The water flows violently. 

Taq taq qapouya vourdou. Tap tap he knocked at the door. 

Jombadaq (or jomb dcyi) souya atildt. He threw himself 
suddenly (with noise into) the water. 

These words Mi aril Icliaril, jomb are intended to 

represent the sound of the water when flowing or 

splashing, just as taq taq does that of knocking at 
the door. 

Sa-at tiq tiq tiq ediyordou. The watch was ticking, = 
Agoing tick, tick'. 

Kilisenifi chan'i dan doufi eotuyordou. The church bell was 
Tinging, ding-dong. 

EUerini shapour shoupour birbirine vonrdoular. They loudly 
clapped their hands. 

Qoushlar jivil jivil ebtuyorlar. The birds are singing 
tweet tweet. 

YI. iUI Ezan. 

§ 503. Is the notification, announcement, call to 
divine worship, proclaimed from a minaret or any other 
place, five times a day, by the mii-ez-zin (chanter). The 
following is the formula: 

1. First of all j&\ «Il AVlahou ekber. c God is Most Great' four 

times repeated, turning the face towards the four directions of 
the world. 

2. -oil \'l «Jl V <j\ JLg£.l Esli-hedu en'ne la ilahe illal'lah. I bear 
witness that (there is) not a god, save God [twice repeated]. 

3. -oil J j— j l-U.;^ <j\ x£*\ Esh-he-du enne Jlouhammeden re- 
sold oiillah. I bear witness that Mouhammed is the apostle of 
God [twice]. 

4. SjUl Jc- y^ Hay' ye ales' selat. Hasten to divine worship 

5. ^>Li)i lc *. Hay ye alel felah. Hasten to permanent 
blessedness [twice]. 

252 r^ ^j* Lesson 36. rev 

6. y\S\ «il Allahu ekMr. God is great [twice again repeated). 

7. -oil VI 4.11 V .La *7a/i<2 illal'lah. [Once more repeated.] 

The call chanted at daybreak has this addition after 
the fourth clause: 

f^lll t>» ^A>- SjUill Es'-selatu khay'run min en nevm. Prayer 
is better than sleep. 

In great and imperial mosques, the mu-ez-zins 
sometimes make optional additions to the fifth clause; as: 

! C/J^\ J i>!jVl Ju~ li 1 <il J^s-Jy \» ! 4j>l «— .v-l; d\Jb a>U1 j 5jUH 

! 4joi Jj—j ^ Es'selatu ves'selamii aleyk, ya Habee balldhl or Ya 

noore arshillah! or Ya sey'yidul eo'veleen vel a-khireen! or Ya 
resoul out I ah! May blessing and peace be upon thee, Beloved 
one of God! or O Light of the throne of God! or Prince of 
the former and later (prophets)! or O Prophet of God! 

Inside the place of worship also, this call is uttered 
when worship begins; but then with this addition after 
the fifth clause: 

5>U:S1 <*15 _)i Qad qametis salat. Divine worship has already 
been entered on (begun) [twice]. 

YII. The Christian Services. ^^^ JLoU 

§ 504. The Benediction: 

Pabbimiz Hisons Kristosoun [or Isa-el-Mesihin] 
inayeti, Peeler Allahimizin mouhab'beti ve Bouhoul Qoudsoun 
mushareketi jumleniz He beraber olsonn; Amin. 

The Lesson: 

Oqouyajaghim mahal Tekvee'nid Makhlouqat Kitabinin 
birinji babinin birinji ay et in den 16 in fi ayetine qadar dir. 

Mat-teosoan tahreer eylediyi Injilin altinji babinin 
iptidasindan sonounadck oqouyajaghim. 

Pavlos Resouloun liomalilara yazdighi resalenin on 
ikinji babinclan oqouyajaghim. 

Onounjou Mezmourou oqouyajaghim. 

The Text: 

Louqasin tahreer eylediyi Injilin sekizinji babinin 
yirmi birinji ayeti haqqinda muta-la-a edejeyim. 

Youhanna Injilinin birinji bob yirmi doqouzounjou 
ayetinin ikinji qismi uzerine vaz edejeyim. 

for Appendix. 253 

Esa'st Kelamhmz Anudi Rousoid Kitabtnin deordunju 

bob on ikinji ayttinde bouloiinour or mevjoud dour. 

The Hymn: 

Maqam Kitabtnin altinji sahifesinde boulounan oni- 

Jcinji Uahiyi teren-nutn edelim. 

Yuz otouz yedinji Uahiyi term -man edelim. 
Teshek'kur ilahisini terenniim edelim. 

The Baptismal formula: 

Laura Eupheme, sent Pederin, Oghouloun ve JRouhoid 
Qoudsoiui namina [or bismil Eb vel Ibn vel RoitJioid 
Qouds raftiz ederim. 

The Ending of Prayers: 

Babb ve Khdasktarimiz Hisous Krisdosouu ismisheri- 
finde dileriz, ih'san eyle, Ameen! 




J>P ] J KJ^~^ U 


254 rot 

^rj oO !l ^ ^~ 

Second Part, 

The Elements of Arabic and Persian 


they are used in Ottoman -Turkish. 

Introductory Remarks. 

§ 505. The Arabic and Persian languages and 
literature have for many centuries exercised a very 
extensive influence upon the Ottoman. Therefore there 
are very many Arabic and Persian words and phrases 
used in Ottoman. In order to be able to understand 
and use them correctly, it is necessary to have an 
elementary knowledge of Arabic and Persian Grammar. 

§ 506. The following points should be noted: 

a. All such Arabic and Persian words taken singly 
are declined according to the grammatical system of 
the Turkish language. 

b. All such Arabic words taken singly may be 
used in accordance with the rules of Persian Grammar. 
But genuine Turkish words cannot be treated in this wa}^ 

c. Only genuine Arabic words are used according 
to the Arabic grammatical system, Turkish and Persian 
words cannot be so dealt with. 

§ 507. There are, however, some very much used 
Turkish and Persian words which are treated according 
to the rules of Arabic Grammar, because they are 

supposed to be Arabic. Such words are called Ollaie 

*JjJ~a ghalata'ti mesh' hour e 'barbarisms 5 or 'manifest 

errors 5 (§ 583). 

too The Persian Plural. 255 

Note. There are some orthographic signs which are peculiar 
to Arabic; but as mention has beeu made of these in the In- 
troduction, they do not require to be dealt with again here 
(§§ 35-48). 

fV Lj ^t> Lesson 37. 



-jli **>• The Persian Plural. 

§ 508. In the Persian language there are only 
two numbers: the Singular and the Plural. 

§ 509. Persian plurals are formed in two ways: 

a. If the noun be the name of an animate being, it 
may form its plural by taking the termination J\ -an ; as: 

}^> merd a man ub^ merdati men. 

jaljj birader a brother Ob^^r. birader an brothers. 

j*£ sheer a lion <J\^A^ sheeran lions. 

b. If the Persian noun be the name of an inanimate 
object, it becomes plural by the addition of U -ha; as: 

JL- sal a year 1^1 L- saTha years. 

I»j3 derya a sea ULjj deryaha seas. 

§ 510. If the animate nouns end in a vowel he 
(-a, -e), their plural is made by changing that letter 

into l! giaf (-g-) and adding ^)l -an; as: 

ejilj bende a servant 0^-^ bendegian servants. 

4»»b». khaje. khoja a teacher {j&.*.\ji. khajcgian teachers. 

a. xJb talebe student <J&Jb talebegian students. 

§ 511. The following nouns, though denoting 
inanimate objects, may form their plurals in ^1 -an, as: 
J^-\ akh'te'r a star u^A*^ akhteran stars. 

j\ja hezar a thousand uOb* hezaran thousands. 

256 ry u-ja Lesson 37. rol 

So also: oYjjj rouzan days, ^Li sheban nights, ulc-^- chesh- 
vian eyes, 0^b-> dirdklitan trees. 

At ,^Jui Exercise 84. 
Change the following nouns into the Persian plural. 

1 • I < 2 . i -' 3.i I '4,»;«S, '6 . 1 i 7 . . • « 

f-b (j^j-3 Jljy «w-~<j9 sSj* J^U eJoj 

8 | i . r, '9 I i 10 ^ i 11 . i • i IS . i . i 13 I* iH i» i t 

Ja»U^ d - JJb jO 4jL>- o*->- *\— ©L~Ob 

15 % <"\ * « 16 i.i i « 17- • % * 18 .. p ' 19 „ ; « i 20 .1 ? ' 

21 - • I 22 <^t 23 i ' 24 f ? » < ; it 1 | 

TFords. 1. vineyard. 2. qatiriman hero. 3. peh'livan wrestler. 
4. frishte angel. 5. murde a corpse. 6. mader mother. 7. £wefe' 
alive. 8. zabit officer. 9. yaver attendant. 10. deev, dev a demon; 
a giant. 11. house. 12. inn, tavern. 13. shall king. 14. padishah 
a great king. 15. shagird pupil. 16. asilzade nobleman. 17. diikliter 
daughter. 18. muteber a notable (man). 19. feriq a general of 
Division (in the Army). 20. khahSr a sister. 21. sick. 22. Tees 
person. 23. poor. 24. tuj'jar merchant [tuj'jaran, tuj'jarlar]. 

§ 512. Note. 1. a. Jlw. muslim 'one who submissively obeys 
God = Moslem 5 . Persian pi. old-* musliman 'moslems; an orthodox 
believer', which is used as singular in Ottoman and Persian; and 
jjlHd~* ' ^ld— • muslimanan, muslimanlar is considered as the 
double pi. of it. 

2. So also a. <uU» ' jU.7 talebe, tuj'jar 'students, merchants', which 

are the Arabic plurals of v_JUs '^t talib, tajir 'student, merchant', 

but are used in double pi. form in Ottoman and Persian : <j&A\s ' J«-Ai» 

talebefjian, talebeler. (See the Double Plurals of Arabic, Lesson 51.) 
3. There is another word in use musulman, miiselman, musur- 
man meaning 'a moslem', which is of Syriac origin, but never 
admitted into the correct language, it is used in the Southern 
regions of Turkey among the common and uneducated people. 

L "^\ a ,+SZ Reading Exercise. 
jvd *&j^T The Match Girl. 

TFbrtfs. 1. a. Kibrit! kibrit! Matches! matches! 2. a. t. mer- 
hametli gracious. 

rev The Persian Plural. 257 

«•)- liyj ^ojl ujl ^ ! fJjy ' <iji ^U^ 

• !• 14 l t ' 13 . <^\ 

* 3j> eJJ> ^djL ' Jj- O « • *5C J3_y fJ » 

< 15 . I h • 

O^jl^? * <J)j) JjJ 4jI— \i tj^'U— -JU- 

o. yavroujouq that little creature. 4. geor/ see! 5. daghiniq 
untidy. 6. mavi blue. 7. yaniq burnt. 8. ust clothes. 9. qoja 
big. 10. a. loqma slice. 11. from street to street. 12. dolashmaq 
to wander. 13. niche! how many! chirkin dirty, ugly. 14. yara 
para wounded. 15. gharib stranger. 16. pij bastard. 17. injitmek 
to hurt. 18. a. vujoud body. 19. qanad wing. 20. germek to spread 
the wings. 21. sapmaq to swerve. 

Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 17 

258 rv u*J 

rv u"J> Lesson 37. ***< 

22. chabalamaq to struggle. 23. yoqsoullouq poverty. 24. 1/e- 
hemmed Emin a living Turk poet (1860). 


~- 15 jj j.5c 

4I ^4 Conversation. 

-jU c 


oj>U (ol) C?y* &iJ>> ' **"-» ->"^ ^^M ° Vjl ^ 
. uW ' "uJ • ub^i ' % S ^ j ->jW 3 ^ U 3->*~^ 

o^ : jj^ UJL~\ 6Vj\ J-V o- 1 - 1 ^ crrr-^ 3 >^ B ^ J ( L 

? ^ ^l^Lf- *M 7 Jbl 
<U (U) 10 fJ ^ > *JL-\ uVj\ j-V ^ JV 9 ' X W V^ ( SL 

iMj^LtjjA qUJ *U J^ gj»js 12 ^ 4j! ( ^ 

Yo\ The Persian Plural. 259 

fb^ o\jJ> o-^ *bl»J iS ySizJK^ JJJ I ci-Llil 16 j"-^. ((j- 

at "^ ^ b.^ » %• « -^ 

? tfJii J^ 

a s *■ b^ """^ " - / - a ** b„ Vl_ 

1 d^^j* J^- Sjo^ : jji^a Ji^o u^^J J Jjbl u^V« (zr 

b -- (^ • a ■ 

OJ 23 <i-^s| olc^ r^-1 jbjc. ^jJI^Lm O^b* 3 J jj-^^ljUl (r 
?Jo*M 27 l^ jb JWJjl ^j**> <u 26 uU*i *i (^ 

-^ - - ' ^ ^ - -» " b a*' 

■ *^ • *^^ - -" ^ b a^ I, 

• J^ -Jpz* °^ «JoA_L) f-^t- 1 * — *i Lib L*9 j^_—« tJJJ' 1* 

?J^ ^^U^3 ( U - 

. j^ j^-^ 32 cr ^i'L M o^jl 4:^ u:-^ 1 • Jj^ ^ -? ->*r**L 


260 rv u'J* Lesson 37. m* 

*"c ~ ' J ,- d ,, a -^ " ** •■'■' •* • 

" "a b^.' 

w,UJl a-o\ C J^?.> ' J^Ui* ' JJiU-' . ( fuv 4JLse*» jli ) 37 JjjJu_*^~. 

. > o , o ^. > 

«ji olS ^j J^Jj^ (iAisl vj**i •J- , - x i^ J-x-JLT J-0SI& JJiU- 6^3 

.(IW §) -jf" 

.j.xo\ ^ (Mussulman) olc^—* ' c^J^J^ ^J^r - 40 ^Jj\ (r 
?ji jji <»J e£jlJuu ilJllleL^. (jojJll — La C^- 

iVbte. 1. For the words included in the Conversation see 
the Key. 

2. For the sentences indicated by a, b, c, see more in the 
next Lesson; the letters show the order in the composition. 

ril The Persian Izafet. 261 

TA \jnJ$ Lesson 38. 

^liL*! The Persian Izafet. 

§ 513. In books and in conversation also, when ele- 
gance is studied, instead of the Turkish way of connecting 
noun with noun and noun with adjective, the Persian 
method is used, especially when the words employed 
are either Arabic or Persian. 

I. The Construction, when two nouns are connected 
with one another as possessor and possession. 

§ 514. The Turkish way is, as we have seen (§ 109), 
to put the possessor first and the thing possessed after- 
wards, just like the English possessive followed by the 

noun which governs it; as: <J^\l3 fjjJb pederin kitabl 
the father's book. 

§ 515. The Persian method consists simply in 
putting the thing possessed first and the name of the 
possessor after it, with an esre between the two, if the 
first noun ends in a consonant. This corresponds 
to the ordinary English use of c of between two nouns: 

jju v-jlzT" ~kita"bi peder. The book of the father. 

J— J J^l amal'i rousoul. The Acts of the Apostles. 

II. The Construction, when a noun is qualified 
by an adjective. 

§ 516. The Turkish method is simply to put the 
adjective before the noun (§§ 107, 669) ; as: 

v t jIi5"^u-JjU mouqad'dis kitab 'The Holy Book = The Bible'. 

§ 517. The Persian method, when both words are 
either Arabic or Persian, is to put first the noun and 
afterwards the adjective, with an esre between them: 

u-JJi* ^"SMta'bi mouqad'dis the Book the Holy = the Bible. 

jjj,a. JL sal'i jedid Hhe new year". 

262 r*A u-J-> Lesson 38. V\r 

§ 518. Remarks: 1. If the first member of the 
construction, i. e. the noun, end in elif or vav used as 
a vowel (-a, -on), instead of the ordinary esre, & ye (-y-) 
is inserted for the sake of euphony (§ 53). 

Instead of :>lo» HI pasha-i-JBaghdad, we must write 
:>lj^> (£\Z,\t pasha yi Baghdad c the Pasha of Baghdad'. 

*jl»- (iVL bala'yi Tchane. The upper (part) of the house. 
j*£ (ij— jU- charsou'yi hebir. The Grand Bazar. 
JVote. The original Persian word j-jU- charsou (a square) is 
commonly spelt in Ottoman as u £jU. ' jtj^ charshi', charshou. 

§ 519. 2. If the first member of the construction, 
i. e. the noun, end in the vowels ye and he (-€, -<?), a 
hemze (-y-) is placed over the final letter for the sake of 
euphony (§ 53): 

Instead of jJo ^U- Jchane-i peder, it must be jJj *4jU 
hhaneyi peder 'the house of the father'. 

4— -Ll » c5 il5 qadi'yi Amassia the judge of Amassia. 
^niT^ ? ..4j ? il ) bagh-che'yi Tcebir the great garden. 

jUlt* MisaVler Examples. 

(_>jl ci^- hareket'i arz the movement of the earth, earth- 
ooL j* DeV'i Sa-a-det the door of Prosperity | Constan- 

<Jb ji Deri Aleeye, Deraliye the lofty door J tln0 P le - 

Jlc *_jl» J3a&'* .4Zee the Sublime Porte. 

J*j\ >. J^ Mreyi arz the sphere of the earth, the Earth. 

lit eLSoL padisha'hi diem the king of the world. 

§ 520. In Turkish the pronominal suffixes corres- 
ponding to my, thy, his, etc., that of mine, yours, etc. 
are always put after the noun to which they refer. In 
Arabic and Persians constructions, if the noun be 
followed by an adjective, ' simple or compound, or by 
another noun with which it is conjoined, their suffixes 

T<\r The Persian Izafet. 263 

are put at the end of the last word. This is the case 
with declensional endings also: 

dJL-JJL. ^j\iS^ kitab'i mouqcid 'desin of the Holy Book. 
ojtjujj- iSjjj\ arzouyi shedidimize to our strong desire. 
o jjJL L5""U- Jchakipayle'rinde at the dust of your feet, with you. 
<M x\i j\j\ avaz'i bu~lend He with a loud voice. 

AO fXsb Exercise 85. 
1. Cmj zemeen earth -\- jj rou face. 2. a. *-l ahmer 
red -f- a. £ bdhr sea. 3. <£■ + -*-*— sifid white. 4. a. ^. 
-\- ©L~, siyali. 5. .4 ~h a - J 3 -^- mouheet [Ocean]. 6. y£ 
-\- ]aA- -f~ .X^- 7. (h.jlp aM testament -[-a. Jo ji>. jedeed 
new.) 8. (a. j^c -j- a - J~ c afeeg old.) 9. (l> pa foot + c^- 
ta£%£ throne) [= the capital]. 10. (£JU 7c7?a7r dust + 
l.) 11. (a. L^-l injeel Gospel + a - iJ»»i sherif holy.) 
12. (juL bitlend loud -j- jljlatu? voice.) 13. (a. JoJ*l shedeed 
strong -f- jjjl orr,eo?< desire.) 14. (a. j^ilaL- saltanat govern- 
ment -|- a. 4.JL- senee-ye sublime.) 15. (a. £j\b zat person 
+ a.^lc a-lee high.) 16. (©\i + jijjj ee-ran Persia.) 
1 7. (a. OjL?" hararet -f- a. ^Jl shews sun.) 18. (a. sj^ sar/* 
grammar -J- <jl^ Osmanee Ottoman.) 19. (a. 'J\~\ lisan 
language -f- <^l*2c-) 20. (a. sjt^heseere many, great -f 
&.j&\£fevayid benefits.) 21. (*U. +a. J»l^.) 22. (a.^lii^ 
+ a. •-* j-1.) 23. (a. J^l + ^-jX* [= Palestine].) 24. (^-->\>- 
+ a.j^jL« mezkttr mentioned.) 25. (ll>-j> Youhanna John 

264 r*A u-j.5 Lesson 38. r^i. 

-\- a. *.j ya/^ee revelation.) 26. (a. J 11* I emsaZ proverbs -f- 

oUJL- Souleyman.) 27. (sjta JDavoud David + a. jt«l U me- 

zameer Psalms.) 28. (a. 1^1 esma names -f- a. alj^l aefoic? 

Key. (£jy (^>-l)<j^j dLh~«3 zemeenin rouyi (yakhod) 

yum; Ji*j ^jj roiiyi semeen the face of the earth; yuz 

is Turkish and jj rou Persian, both meaning 'face 5 . 

The Persian Numerals. dIjlpI ^U-J 

§ 521. The Persian numeral adjectives are also 
sometimes used in written Turkish, and in gambling. 
They are the following: 

vlL yek 1 jU. ' j\f* chihar, char 4 vI^aa 7^'/*^ 7 

j* du 2 «Jj ^»e«J 5 ii* 7ie's7&£ 8 

<— se 3 jjiJ- s7ie'$7& 6 <j wit7i' 9 

j^ sa^ 100; jIja 7ie^ar 1000; J neem half; aJIxj yegiane 

single; (J^t <j^i yegiun yegian one by one. 

§ 522. The terms used in backgammon, dominos 

and other games are as follows; (ou means c and 5 ): 

du- shesh 6x6, du-besh 5x5, debrt-chihar 4x4, du-se 
3x3, du-bare 2x2, hep-yek lxl; shesh-besh 5x6, shesh- 
chihar 4x6, shesh ou-se 3x6, she'sh ou-du 2x6, shesh ou-yek 
1x6; besh-debrt 5x4, penj ou-se 5x3, penj ou-du 5 x 2 r 
penj ou-yek 5x1; chihar ou-se 4x3, chihar ou-du 4 x 2 r 
chihar ou-yek 4x1; se-ba-du 3 X 2, se-yek 3x1, iki-bir 2x1. 

§ 523. Jit* MisaVUr Examples. 

yekvijoud of one body. yekdil of one heart. 

yekpare of a single piece. yekchhhm one-eyed. 

yek takhtadan at once. charpa a quadruped. 

Aj\icJLt she'sh-khane a (six-celled) rifle, an arquebuss. 
^o_L_C yekdiger one another, each other. 
*i neem jezeeri (half island) peninsula. 

yy 9 The Persian Izafet. 265 


j J neem re'smee semi-official (paper, etc.) 
La— sepa, sipa a tripod, a three-legged stool. 

A*\ sr^A Exercise 86. 

►^p ^#47 £ ,<•— o *j »^Aj a-1-- j^jiaL- ^- 47j& r^* u^-'j' j— > 

» ^ - - ( 

^jz jjcil 9 (y L^ *^ -<iJLSl 8 w*ljS 7 A-^. <i^ j: ^^ 

Cj y&>- \SJC&\ ^ • JS j\j (Sjjv Jf . llLt ^v-Li^ ojliC) eJJjL*j\» 

jt-Lp Jj/ u Ujij 'jjl 13 dUU* ^ -p 12 j/- •ali* 

TForrfs. 1. Misir Egypt. 2. neshret." to publish. 3. Esir-pazari 
the street called Esir Pazari (the Market of Slaves). 4. JRemzi 
Effendi khani the inn named Remzi Effendi. 5. talebeyi ouloum 
students (the seekers after science). 6. beni Adem the children 
of Adam, mankind (575). 7. beleegh eloquent. 8. qra'at it." to read. 
9. mou-al'lim teacher. 10. tareef et." to explain. 11. ayet verse. 
12. mouhar'j-er written. 13. tali'yin your star, fortune. 14. zar 
a die used in playing. 

266 r * u-J^> Lesson 38. m 

Reading Exercise. 

A list of Moral Maxims (= Franklin's Principles). 

Wards 1 e-samee names, lists. 2. /feayrt virtues. 8. _ «n- 

W ^'commands , maxims. 4. Ate. . P^jt'n* £*££ 

celebrated. 6. Benjamin Franklin l.tanzee,n to put morta. 

8. fcar«at acts, conducts. 9 irfafc' et. reform ng 10. «£ hfc. 

self personality. 11. rfmnws&j for, regarding. 12 ittikhazet. to 

adont 18 aa'vide a rule. 14. rii/oze« ascetic discipline. 15. to 

be heavv Vlsershn stupified/l7. s»Mt silence. 18., vmfeed 

profitable. 19. Mta- order, regularity. 20. tayeen et. to fix 

appoint. 21. takhsees to assign or specialhy anproP™te- 2 £ -H*" 

an aim endeavor. 23. mejbour of to be obliged. 24 to decide 

oYettfe. 25. Ula without 26. q ousour defect (= .perfect comp ete ; 

27. emn Wro»f frugality, economy (emr v.ork). 28. a Werotue 

(people). 29. louzoum necessity. 30. haqup real. 81. ma a aa 

except. 32. surf et." to spend. 

fiv Persian Compound Adjectives. 267 

4JLI jj ^©J^l* leb j 34 *«-i' f>^ J>-*3 — * 33 J^ -? <V-" 

33. say ou amel labour and work. 34. zay et." to waste. 
35. meshghoul ol." to be busy. 

<U ^a Conversation. 

jOl^v eJjjU ^3 Ders Jiaqqinda sivallar. 

t <— j&Jy>jil hekim *>Jm /^=-' -^^ • <o^** ^ «j — £il . jSsj> j^s 

r ^ U^><> Lesson 39. 

\j^°y *jf'j Persian Compound Adjectives. 

§ 524. The simple adjectives of the Persian language 

are much used in Turkish; as: ©L~, siyalt black, J I al 

red, Ju bed bad, jlL- ^/?c/ white. 

§ 525. The compound adjectives of the Persian 
language are formed in two ways: either by the addition 
of particles, or by joining two words together. 

A. The Derivative Adjective, formed by the addition 
of particles to nouns. 

§ 526. The most common derivative adjectives used 
in Turkish are made by the addition of the following 
particles to Arabic or Persian nouns (§§ 149, 579): 

§ 527. I. The letter ^ ye (-i), signifies relation. If 

the word ends in the vowels I l ^ ' d [-a; A\ -e, -a), they 

are changed into j (-V-), and afterwards the ye is added : 

J-vUC\ ingliz Englishman <iJ\LxJl inglizi English. 

268 r\ ^j* Lesson 39. rlY 

pj^\ efrenj a European c^v^ efrenji European. 

a. Jic agZ mind Jic agZi mental. 

urt». c/u'n China J^>. c7u'w£ chinaware. 

a. Lo dunya world tO?- 5 dunyavi worldly. 

§ 528. II. Ail -awe signifies relation and resem- 
blance. If the word ends in the vowel he (-e), this is 

changed into f| (-g-): and if it ends in j vowel (-ou) a ^ 
(-?/-) is inserted between the word and particle; as: 
oli. shah' king ^lUli. shahane royal. 

eJuj bende servant aJ£jJL> bendegiane as a servant, 

a. j-xc adoM enemy *.'>[> jjs- adouyane as an enemy. 

§ 529. III. The terminations o\ ' J\j ' j^ ban, van, 
-kiar, -giar form nouns denoting 'doer, keeper 5 , etc. 
jjLtlj bagli-ban keeper of vineyard. jKo.a4» khidmetkiar a servant. 
j^jJjIjo- khudavendigiar the sovereign, the Sultan. 
J^JJ^/„ perverdigiar the Nourisher (God), Providence. 
j£mi yadgiar, yadigiar a remembrance, memento. 

§ 530. IV. The prefixes t wa-, J^ &i- mean 

'without 5 , and denote the absence of something; na- is 
used with adjectives, hi- with nouns: 

ajL.1; nama'liim unknown. iJUi napdk unclean. 

ojUc-j bichare unfortunate. J-^^ nakhosh unpleasant. 

UjJ> bivefa inconstant (friend), unreliable. 

e\js-[': o\jL khah'nakhah willingly or unwillingly. 

§ 531. V. p* hem- prefixed to a noun expresses 

(Jj^zJ* hemsheh'ri fellow-citizen. ^^J" hemjins' homogeneous. 

oj\t£> hemsheere who sucks the same milk, a sister. 

§ 532. VI. Adjectives are also formed by the 

Y*\\ Persian Compound Adjectives. 269 

addition of U c J-j ' ^ ' ^ ' ^Jt ' jj or jb -asa, -vesh, 
-een, -mend, -nak, -ver or -var. 

L-lLJ nisa-asa womanlike. {J-jf meh'vesh like the moon = bright. 

Cni"l atesheen fiery. X»i*a>. his semend partaker. 

a.p.iJLP ghamnalc sorrowful. -^^/ ferah'nak cheerful. 
j\j-^»\ iimmidvar hopeful. j/»V janver (wild) animal. 
jjJsa • -O^aa hunerver, hunermend skilful. 

§ 533. VII. By doubling some words and inserting 
an elif between them, fulness or multifariousness may 
be expressed: 

J^ji ber fiber breast to breast; together; equal. 

*_JU ' JUVl» MbaUb, malamal (lip to lip) brimful. 

dllj&Jj ' tjJ>^J> f'J^J' rengiareng, gunagun, nevanev varied 
in hue, variegated. 

B. Compound Adjectives composed of two words. 

§ 534. The compound adjectives obtained by the 
union of two words are generally formed either: 1. of 
a noun and a participle, or the root of a verb, 2. of 
ah adjective and a noun, or, 3. of two nouns. 

They may consist of two Persian words, or of an 
Arabic and a Persian word, or of two Arabic words. 

§ 535. a. Adjectives formed of a noun and a 
participle or the root of a verb. 

J.> dil heart, j> bir take, captivate: j&* dilber enchanting. 
jJ^ meded help, ^j res arrive: u-J-^ mededres helper. 

Al~£JL].i dilshilceste broken hearted. See also: § 556. 

§ 536. b. Adjectives formed of an adjective 
and a noun. 

j> bou odour j~~j*- khosh'bou sweet scented, odorous. 

^,7 tfhi empty c-J^" tehidest empty-handed, deprived. 

§ 537. c. Adjectives formed from two nouns. 

j*>\ ahou gazelle : r .i>-^l ahoucheshm gazelle -eyed, attractive. 

270 r^ ^rjz Lesson 39. TV* 

.jo sheer lion: J-i^n^ sheerdil lion-hearted, 

(jlita. + cP ) jl-J-JS" gulazar rosy-cheeked; Eose (pr. name). 

§ 538. Many such compound words lose their 
meaning as an adjective and are considered as com- 
pound nouns: 

<C~.jJS giildeste a bunch of flowers, a bouquet. 
jCc^- seraslcer head of the army, a commander-in-chief. 
<Jull*Ua! ''ulllj.lli nizam'name, qanouriname a code of laws. 

The Degrees of Comparison. 

§ 539. The Comparative is obtained by the addition 

of } -ter to the simple form of the adjective, and the 
Superlative by adding &} -tereen: 
Jo bed bad: J±t ted' ter worse: i>.^ rju bedtereen worst. 
VL bala high: ^/VIj balater higher: Cj'.S^. balatereen highest. 

AV ^Jul Exercise 87. 

Change the following nouns into adjectives: 

527. dXj freng European, fjj ttirlc. a. J^i sharq 

the east. 3*^ yehoud (Judah) Jew. &j$\ Edirne Adrianople. 

4^0 1 i Fransa. i>\X yaban the wilderness. w l>. Haleb 

Aleppo. fjU. MaA earth, a. ^,JU? s«fo'e> a cross. 

5£& jO efeev a demon. 5-« mere? man. z**« J> 
dost. a.^oJl*- Ma/is sincere, a. j>.\p o;V^ humble, jjo peder, 

529. As&\* baghche. ©l^ gunah. sl. ^>U Jchelas 
deliverance. a^-L, saMtfe false, ^-l #as watch (at night). 
j|£" Jeiar profit. JjJUU? ' JjX^> sandoaq, sandiq a coffer, 
jjj row,? day. ^ door. J£ pen, graver. 

TV) Persian Compound Adjectives. 271 

530. a. <j-LJ foundation, t. rj-^ sonch sin, fault. 

a. J4JU maqboul acceptable, a. C-jJu qoudret power. 
Zy merd (brave) man. a. r\y* mizaj state of health. 
a. jJa>- houzour a becoming in repose, ease. ^jt strength. 

55i. a. zX*mil'Ut nation, a. ^*X*mezheb religion. 
a. 'jlj*. jivar neighbourhood. ©Ij ra/j way, road. 

535. ( j reh way -f- jr * ^ wwwa show), (>1 sheer + 
jlj>. Mor eat), (dl 6ey, u^>- + ©^'j *<mJ£ born). 

53£. (jlj yiran heavy -\- L ftafta price), ( e ^L» sade 

simple -f- J3), (f+Z>- cheshm eye -f- «\— ')> (u^ bread 

+ ^*0r) ' (ju + j^f) ' (J* + all). 

558. (a. dJkjfi congratulation + letter), (3jj day 
-f- letter), (j nev new -f JL, year), (a. ,jil -f- letter). 

539. J^>- AVjos/j. nice, <c« mife' great, 4 fo'A good. 
A A frl») Exercise 88. 

^^>- ±\Jj\>^a\1j ' £X&\ >r^~~* Zj^o>- JcjL5C^M^- \ 

(J<<£j~j\j* J (j^J^L^Cj)! vjLJ ^ • <£$}££ ^JUjitj 4»UOj> Oj»l 

(i^©3l . jUtd fjli£ dl JjG^jJjI plj-tt 0j3 ^Ujli*i5^ a 

Words. 1. a. 7iaree containing. 2. tofta^ plate. 3. a. vasita hand, 
means. 4. a. wis/" half, a. Uyl nierht. 5. yaqalamaq to collar, seize. 

272 r\ ^rj* Lesson 39. rvr 

A^ 4J3~J? Translation 89. 

1. Richard L, king of England, was called 1 lion- 
hearted. 2. That ungrateful servant did not write a 
letter of congratulation on New Year's -Day. 3. That 
beautiful woman (dilber) is very inconstant. 4. The 
gardener is not a coward, but he is a simple-hearted 
man. 5. To eat with unclean hands is very unpleasant. 
6. Is your fellow-traveller a skilful man? 7. I was a 
partaker of the supper 2 . 8. I did not lose hope (hopeless), 
I am hopeful yet 3 . 9. He prayed to the Saviour sincerely 
and humbly. 10. A forger is a great sinner. 11. He 
is not an empty-handed person, he has a costly 6 gold 
watch in his hand. 12. The leader was a helper to me on 
the way 4 . 13. That caravan, which comes from China and 
India, was loaded with china-ware and odorous spices 5 . 

Words. 1. tesmeeye oloundou. 2. alchsham ta-a-mi. 3. hala. 
4. esnayi rahde. 5. p. behar, bahar. (Ar. pi. beharat.) 6. qiymet- 
dar (§ 535). 

s^js\i rt~A*> Reading" Exercise. 

dKTjo leb . jj V» 3 o:>4U.j *S^— :\i*fcJ 
alJz-I 8 e Ju r jU ilj^ 7 o^.:l-b G i!^Ltj s Sf— :*c^li- 

Words. 1. a. istiqamet honesty. 2. a. kizb falsehood. 3. a. heele 
cheating. 4. a. hazer H." to beware. 5. a. haq'qaneeyet justice, 
equity. 6. a. vazeefe duty. 7. a.- dahhil the inside. 8. a. kharij the 
outside. 9. a. mejbour 61." to be obliged, compelled. 10. a. hasanat 
good works, pious deeds. 11. /?mr to run away, to desert, flee. 
12. a. izrar et." to injure. 

fyr Persian Compound Adjectives. 273 

*• \ 
7-3U? J JU***I .«>0 LAw-/U-/b ^i rJ-O — • w»4S- 

13. a. eetiddl moderation. 14. a ifrat excess. 15. a. ih'tiraz 
€t." to guard one's self. 16. a. lai/'iq geormek to judge worthy. 
17. a. akhz taking; sar vengeance = to revenge one's self. 18. a. qi- 
yam it." to set about. 19. a. nezafet cleanliness. 20. a. ihtimam ti." 
to be careful. 21. a. houzour ease, quietness; qalb heart. 22. trifles. 
23. a. a dee inferior, ordinary. 24. naqabil impossible. 25. a. vouqou- 
at events. 26. a. sademat blows, misfortunes. 27. a. muztarib ol." 
to sutler. 28. a. if'fet chastity. 29. a. emneeyet safety. 30. a. salali 
peace, virtue. 31. lial ou shan position and honour. 32. a. teh'like 

aI|^S Conversation. 

Turkish Conv.-Grauimar. 

274 *.♦ u~j:> Lesson 40. rvu 

* * u^»> Lesson 40. 

The Persian Derivative Nouns. 

§ 540. Persian derivative nouns are of four kinds: 
Nouns of Location, Nouns of Instrument, the Abstract 
noun, and the Diminutive noun. 

0l5C« ^J The Noun of Location. 
§ 541. The noun of Location is made by the 
addition of J\l~, -istan, J&'-giah 'place', jlj -zar a plot 

or bed, sjjT-gede hut, *iU. -khane house (§ 162): 
<jLl-Xa Mnclistan India. jj^-o gulistan \ rosarv a o-arden 

tjl:..l^ cliimenistari ] j\jJ^ gidzar \ roses. 

C meadow. y 
jljv^ chimenzar J »Jl£L* meygede | wineshop 

•Sj^ ordougiah' a camp. ^l^ meykhane f drinking-saloon. 

jIUcjijL top-khane, top-liane arsenal of ordnance and artillery. 
o&j& kiarkiah vulg. kergef a work-frame. (j& work.) 
jjlr^J/ bezistan vulg. bedesten a covered market-place. (Jj cloth.) 

jjT ,^J The Noun of Instrument. 

§ 542. The noun of Instrument is made by the 

addition of ^b -dan c a holder, receptacle, case': 

a. **-t sham candle: ^1-Wi shamdari a candlestick. 

cjbjjsej boukhourdan a censer, incense-box. 

p. t. i)\±i\t yaglidan an oil can. p.t. o\*jJj> tukurdan a spittoon. 

tjlJ^o reek' dan vulg. righdan a sand-holder; ree/i\ ?%7i sand 

(to dry writings). 

fVo The Persian Derivative Nouns. 275 

^_>^ gulab rose-water (§ 538): <jlJu>fe gulabdan a flask for 

sprinkling scented water. 

The Abstract Nouns, b^ ^1 Ismi Mana. 

§ 543. Abstract nouns are made by the addition 
of ^ -i at the end of adjectives. If the word end in 

elif, then the ye is doubled (-yi [§ 53]); if it end in a 

vowel he (-e), it is changed into li (-</-), but the sound 
e is retained (§§ 163, 581). 

jjL-\ asan easy, facile: JLI asani facility. 

o-XL betide slave: jaIj bendegi servitude. 

li£ Jj roushena bright: li^lijj roushenayi brightness. 

.Note. Ye added toanoun, changes it into an adjective (§ 526). 

The Diminutive Nouns, jkjl ^J Ismi Tasghir. 

§ 544. Diminutives are made by the addition of 
*>. -die, -je at the end of nouns. Some diminutives 

are terms of endearment, as in Turkish (§ 167). 

jja moor ant: *-^Jj* moorche a little ant. 

I pa foot: <*.L pacha trotters of sheep, 

a.j^f-' pc- amm, amnion uncle: ^j* amjci, anion ja dear uncle. 

^ ♦ p\£ Exercise 90. 

Change the following nouns into Derivative Nouns : 
541. dXjfreng European, a. (S>y^i ythoudi Jew. jtt 
a Tartar. f]^ Turk. a. *j*p cyem a Persian, a. ^j ^ 
Arab. 2.t. j-IL da#A, p. a} huh' mountain. jJl}& bene f she 
violet. 3. a. Jul.* siinbid hyacinth, a. jtS qabr, a. j\y* mezar 
grave. £\ atesh -\- hut. 4. t. jj~£j\ eoksuz, a. *\jil ey'tam 
orphans + house, a. Mo deb'bagh vulg. tabakli tanner + 
house. j\T Mar manufacturing + house. 5. a. ^Jc^ldtab, 


276 'u* t_rJ-> lesson 40. fV\ 

book + house, a. IjJ ejza (vulg. &a) a drug + house, 
jftoa* food + house. j>\jCJL shikiar game, prey + place. 

542. a^W jame cloth + holder. a*U- Ihame, a. ^ 
^ m _(- case. jC feer arrow, die nemek salt. 

545. j\£i v poor. *$yJ asoocle quiet. l£l aslrina 
intimate, ^ijf o*<kK free. «L*i ftftorf* I> s&« worthy. 
dl^ £ew# narrow. 

544. e jl> #are piece. U &fl#. fj m bogli a square 
wrapper for a bundle, ^f Oedrum husband's sister, 
t. *jC chekme a drawer. lK>< Union a violin, t. Ji 
M JuJ Exercise 91. 

^ III* 6jc»> j* it t~<:> ><:> .jfij^ j^» Oj' j 

\ - ^ • •* - •* 

Worcb 1. a. Gowdsou SJMreef Jerusalem. 2. AmrMfa Syria. 
3 chouqa, choulha broadcloth. 4. amerig^ Mn unbleached linen. 
5 Sa ft." to buy. 6. a. irsal to send 7 a. «*^«**»£ 
8 f. roosa table. 9. a. turU tomb. 10. a. sfc^fcfc a head of a tube. 

rVV The Persian Derivative Nouns. 277 

^T AJ^j Translation 92. 

1. The owner of that big tannery and the keeper 
of the prison [-house] are the friends of the saloon-keeper. 

2. «The beer-seller 1 is the witness 2 of saloon-keeper.) 

3. The orphans are in the orphanage. 4 That Tartar 
has come from Tartary. 5. There were 3000 soldiers 
in the camp. 6. The people who dwell 3 in mountainous 
regions are generally brave. 7. Daghistan is a great 
region in Russia. 8. Where is your donkey 4 ? — He 
is always in the meadow. 9. Please stick 5 a candle 
into the candlestick. 10. There was a big rosary in the 
garden of the manufactory of the attar of rose 6 . 11. The 
Parsees 7 and the ancient Persians were worshipping 8 
the fire in the fireplaces. 

Words. 1. biraji, bozaji [157). 2. a. shahid. 3. a. tqatnet et". 

4. chimtnzarzade vulg. chinu'nderzade the son of the meadow = 
donkey. 5. dikmek. 6. gid ijaglii. 7 '. parsee, (flavour, gebr a Zoroas- 
terian, a fire worshipper, a Guebre; (in Turkey) a non- Moslem 
[said in contempt^ 8. a. ibadet et." 

^> I i ^-AjJ Reading Exercise. 
^-4» \<^- JCJJ ^jI dill The Story of the Donkey and Fox. 

i i 

1 J~0f' c£ 3) f jCAZ x 45 jB jj ' 5 ^o 

• c£-xb u^» vi - r- !> - f j)j' *3fc a 4)»j> 

' 3U ^-lII'L- ^ < csi\ \j<cL>. J,^ 

* 9 3^>j 3t i)jj. S-^^ ££»jl <j^ •./j* 
! f M-Jl ^ T J » 0jiiN ^ 3Uj] f <ur* — : <v 

TTortfs. 1. a. himar donkey. 2. a. ??nt</7 to carry. 3. a. belde 
town. 4. rouyi niguir a kind of light pink colored grapes. 5. dcrkf'n 
just then (while he was saying this . 6. a. hasrt't desire, a Section. 
7. baglirhi' for baghrini his heart, bosom. 8. chifte atmaq to kick with 
the hind legs. 9. p. naz ou niijaz graceful disdain. 10. a. houzour 

278 i»* wJ* Lesson 40. fVA 

^ ' o^J *> ' 28 ^ rT 2To ^ lr> 26 >^ ! ^ 

♦ i$aal 3 \l>2> il>^P jll.3 ^ 4jj, j> jCU 
.^jqi 39 J^- £134^-11 £b*y j: J^ 1 

11. a. fct*sn beauty. 12. a. fcayran *tn I am confounded. 13. da- 

ylmolsoun! Let it be long, eternal. 14. ^ J ' l ° f T^ ZZ^to 

shadow or protection of his kindness and mercy 15. &»*me& to 

grow. 16. a. mubarek graceful. 17. a. qadem foot 18. a a-la 

excellent. 19. p. misk musk. 20. a. fiste a fillip mth the nndche- 

finaer 21. a. Irfaw wisdom. 22. a. e« ft. to express^ 23. mTcMn- 

am eloquent (§§ 535, 556). 24. meozoun well proportioned. 25. a. WW- 

K rhvmed. 26. L ifrat excess. 27. a. «*M ; mirth , joy. 

E rftfJ* to bray. 29. jM«a i.M«J fft* it pierced into my heart 

(8 348). 30. a. fcam air. song. 31. a. swfcttt silence. 32. a. stfa 

pleasure. 33. a. bulbid nightingale. 34. a naghme song. 35. a . m - 

L/ qteilino- 36 sings. 37. a. liuzn ou Jceder sorrow. 38 a. ,cir; 

;ilkerv; pleasure. *39. a. sera driving. 40 here (in this well); 

niyleyim for w^ iyleyfyim [what can I uo.'J alas. 

rv«^ The Persian Derivative Nouns. 279 

i .T - 42 1 • 41 >. • • ' I y» 

• • ^* ' - 

1 jla* 54 ^ i iW lW 53 3ly ^3 « ! JT*U*» 

- 57 ojO JjjjjJb' (iJ^l ^> ? ^ ^3j/» — : <1lj 

' 6° ~ . « \<^ « 59 58 i-ii • « 

• <\iy J ij^JLlS ejj£ L&^y ^jJI s^Ull 

< or u*,> .*yji 63 j^j KJi t ' § \$Jb d<U* jClt 

41. a. ghayri other, than. 42. p.jefa trouble. 43. dishi female. 
44. a. letafdt loveliness. 45. hele! if you please! 46. a. ashqa 
dushmek to fall in love. 47. p. ayineyi ah the mirror of the water. 
48. a. aksin' for aksini reflection (of image). 49. sezwek to see. 
50. a. vaqa'a truly, really. 51. a. nazik delicate. 52. oynash 
playmate, sweet heart (§ 165). 53. p. feryad et." to scream, call out. 
54. tashmaq to exceed the bound of moderation in joy. 55. a. aksi 
sedasin' for — sedasini reflection of sound, echo. 56. shashmaq 
to be surprised. 57. a. davct et." to call, invite. 58. a. ziyafet 
feast. 59. a. ajeb for ajeba I wonder. 60. a. kludmet service. 
61. tavla oushaghi stable boy. 62. a. meeras yemck to inherit. 
63. a. rahmet oqoumaq to pray for the deceased. 

280 <u$ u-j^ Lesson 41. rA* 

<UlSv« Conversation. 

• J-5 


^jLi v— IHi | 

?Ji <iJ 




O-rd-^ <i ; ^ c 


I; yM I — \j A ; (Sow a> 

^jJu^ ' J J°^>5^ (3^J' *>-! ^"^i ^-^ *J ^J*5j* _^lo ^Jj.^- ^ 

"PTo?*^s. 1. sername a heading (§ 538). 2. a. mouliar'rir 
a writer. 3. a. e'tiifr an author. 4. Shinasee Effendi (1830 — 71). 
5. a. merhoom deceased, dead. 6. a. kit ay in treacherous. 7. to tell. 
8. heart, mind (sefa'yi khatir ease, peace of mind). 9. a. afeeyet 
et." to eat [he helped himself]. 

i \ ^J>$ Lesson 41. 

The Persian Verb. 

§ 545. The Persian Infinitive ends in ^o -den 

or $ -ten: ^[tf Mshaden to open, ^jjl^j perestiden 
to worship. 

§ 546. None of the tenses of the Persian Verb 
are used in Ottoman. The Hoots of the verbs are very 
frequently employed in the formation of compound adjec- 
tives (§ 535); as: Z*~>j perest, root of perestiden, c~*j ^ 
pout perest idol-worshipper. 

§ 547. Only one Derivative of the Infinitive and 

rAt The Persian Verb. 281 

three of the Verbal Roots are used in Ottoman, which 
are the following. 

I. The Objective Participle. Jj*L« ,*J 

§ 548. The Objective or Past Participle is made 
by changing the last letter of the infinitive into he 
vowel {-e) (§§ 402, 604): 

0->b daden to give: ob dade given. 

w mJsJL shikeste'n to break: <.:Jxi shikeste broken, 

u^o deede'n to see: oJuo deede seen; eye. 

II. The Subjective Participle, i^l* ^J 

§ 549. The Subjective or Present Participle is made 
by the addition of e jG_ -ende to the Root. If the Root 

ends in an elif or vav vowel (-a, -ou), a ye (-*/-) is 
inserted (§ 53). 

ij\j»- khan read, sing: o-Xlilji. bhanende singer. 

jb cf«r hold: oJujta darende bearer. 

ic )ithna show: sXilt niimayende who shows. 

jL- 5rt^ make: oJojL sazende composer. 

III. The Verbal Noun, jju^ ^J 

§ 550. The Verbal Nouns are made by the addition 
of Ji -ish to the Root. If the Root ends in elif or vav 
vowel (-a, -ou), a ^ {-y-) is inserted for the sake of 
euphony (§§ 53, 288). 

j j rev go: _-jj revish going. 

ob tfan know: ^b danlsh knowledge. 

So also we have: ^J-A~.\ asayish peace, JLjU niimayish a 
show. JJ»jL— sfypartsh ordering, order. 

§ 551. There is another kind of verbal noun which 

is obtained by the removal of J -en from the end of 
the Infinitive: 


■ut wJ* Lesson 41. 


^>[zfkushaden to open: iliT' Ushad opening. 

CJ£.\X\ endakUSn to throw: ^>\X\ endakht throwing, propelling. 

C£»jJ firoukhtin to sell: oijj firoum selling. 

8 552 Verbal nouns are also formed by adding 
two shortened infinitives of different verbs or the short- 
ened infinitive and the root of the same verb together: 
j.i j*T ' jte^J cJifamddshM, gSshtougusar a coming and going. 
fj cJ'S'guft ou gu talk; chat; scandal. 
jjl- j i\>dad ou sited selling and buying, trade. 

IV. Verbal Adjectives. ^Jla C^p 

§ 553. The Verbal Adjectives are formed by the 
addition of I ' 'J -«, -an to the root of the verb; as: 

l;U dana wise, savant (§§436,606). 

' u^yr J ou y an tnat seeks - 
\/j ' obJ ritan that goes, fluent. 
,jOJ Kw«» trembling. 

The Persian Roots. J^U^I ^*j£ 

8 554 The following table contains most of the 
Persian Verbal Roots, which are current in Ottoman. 
Thev are used only in compound words, and never 
used alone. Slightly changing their meaning m compo- 
sition they help to form adjectives (§§ o3o, oob). 
\j\ ara adorn 

j\j\ azar torment 

,jb dan know: 
i£j>. jouy seek: 
jj rev go: 
jj lerz tremble: 

U J>- 

Ljl azma 

\t\ asham 

try, prove 

^J*\ ashoub excite 

}\y\ efraz raise 

jjy\ efrouz light, illuminate 

(j - iT afereen create 

\ja\ efza increase 

y\ ci-la 

jru\ ameez 

j\X,\ endaz 

defile, soil 



jjjJl endouz collect 

Jn<J\ engeez excite 

JT'jjT aver, ar bring 

yj\ aveez hang 

jl bar rain 

jl baz play 


The Persian Verb. 


j>. Mr 





(JL^tJ bakhsJi 


[ iJ 


carry off; rob 

jJj bend 





Ca-j been 





JJjl perver 
jjOi pezeer 

feed, nourish 
accept, receive 



make; com- 


j\*jz per da z 

engage in 


sit a 


JlL-j pesend 





Ijjj jpeera 





Jja^ peril iz 





^rji poosh 

put on, wear 




le-ji peema 



sh inas 


<~>{J tab 


ijjt shouy 


j\J taz 




rub. corrode 

u~\J? trash 


[»j£ ferma 


<Sj»- jouy 





u^- cheen 


•— tJ* 



JMj*- klurash 





jlj*- frftor 





<j!j>- A7ia« 

read, chant 




alp- Tchali 





J\l- Tehees 




seize, take 

jb dar 

hold, keep 




ob <7«» 




do, perform 

jj^ doo^ 

sew, stitch 




o^ r7«7i 

give; grant 




Ob ran 

urge, drive 




i^-j r& 





u^-J man 

cause to reach 




jj rev 


^-ij- J 

n it vees 



*!•> u-J^ Lesson 41. 


oLSwJ nigiah look 

a.) nih 

place; put 

>Ij yab find. 

555. Persian Objective (Past) Participles. 



03 ,~si 



ll~.) I 


J — ~tj 

araste adorned 

azade free 

azmoude experienced 

amade ready 

amede come 

asoude at rest, quiet 

averde brought 

avikhte hung 

uftade fallen 

efsiirde frozen 

istade standing, erect. 

beste tied ; tune 

perverde nourished 

Jchorde eaten 

dade given 

deede seen; eye 

rinjide injured 

reseede arrived; ripe 

refte gone 






(struck ; 
1 suffered 



made; false 

<c =v- 



















^past; interest 
\ on money 



made, done 






jchoosen ; 
\ best 

















yafte, -ta 

found; label. 

§ 556. jU\t« Examples. 

j*£iL>. jihangeer world conquering, conquerer. 
oJ~~,jj> nevreseede newly arrived, young. 
°syji pezmiirde vulg. pezvarda faded; untidy. 

jj~>yjz pertevsouz 

jL;l=w janbaz 

Ca>jj* dourbeen 

pertafsiz burning-glass. 

jambaz rope-dancer; a horse dealer 

duldul far seeing; telescope. 

fAo The Persian Verb. 285 

t.p. j\j£»\ emekdar an old and faithful servant, veteran, 
a. p. jlJo->L- silahdar vulg. zilifdar armour bearer, 
a. p. o.aljL>\ asilzade of noble descent, a noble, 
a. p. jbli? qafadar an intimate friend, 
a. p. <oJ\s! afetzede who has suffered misfortune. , 

a. p. j^JJb ' j^SJa tarafdar, tarafgeer a partisan. 

\T Ju»' Exercise 93. 

Connect the following words with each other and 
give the meanings: 

535. 1. (*fc nam name -|- hold.) 2. (a. (y SC>- hukum 
authority -f- hold.) 3. (a. *•> *J* Hhazine treasure + hold.) 
4. (a. ^j*\2a maqas a tailor's scissors -\- hold.) 5. (a. jj? 
sarar injury + seen.) 6. (JL>- jihan world -f- seen.) 
7. (a. *j~ hariq fire + struck, suffered.) 8. (t. d\> bey 
prince + born.) 9. ( e Ll + born.) 10. (J^^S linger 
anchor -f- throw.) 11. (I* na un- -|- know.) 12. (a. jv>- 
Jchayr good -j- wish.) 13. (jo bed evil + wish.) 14. (Jlj>. 
chouval sack -f- sew.) 15. ({J*~> sukhen word -f- speak.) 
16. (a. pJUs so?rf/i -j- nourish.) 17. (a. Jji na'2 horse- 
shoe -f- tie.) 18. (a. c-*Ju^ maslahat state affair -f- 

pass, do.) 19. (t. Jj»l work -f pass, do.) 20. . (f. JL~>yi 
mousiqi music -f- engaged in.) 21. (dl^- MwwA; happiness, 
prosperity -[- bring [khurikiar p. 240].) 

550. Translate the following Participles into Persian. 

Increase, augmentation; giving, present; a wishing, 
a desire; caressing, petting; praising; an act of opening, 

286 *.! u*J> Lesson 41. ?A^ 

M pAZ Exercise 94. 

4iU Pr^U ^Jojw? jliy jjjb *■ • jJj 1 »<V-> *W »^ v 
dJLiji • Jl-cI ii^lijc d>^- AL tf-tfl ° -(i^J 1 3UI/3 

^li ^<c^ ? jj^J JtA X U* • ^ Ji^ pill 
jb JJtf jU- *>% uU"T * ' • >j£**y ^ 7 ^ J 1 -^ 

^0 4£- 5 Translation 95. 

1. Mehemmed II. was a great conqueror; he was 
also a brave ruler. 2. The horsedealer was very untidy. 
3 I had a small telescope, but I sold it; now I have 
a burning glass. 4. The number of the sufferers from 
the fire was more than 300. 5. The princes were among 
the partisans of the king. 6. The steamer anchored 
towards morning. 7. The treasurer distributed £ 400 
to those who have suffered from the fire. 8. That man 

rAV The Persian Verb. 287 

is a very famous rope-dancer. 9. The armour-bearer of 
the prince was very ungrateful. 10. Ali Effendi is my 
intimate friend. 11. Who is Mr. Riddle? — He is the 
Charge d' affairs of the American legation at Constan- 

J>! 5 /%-J^ Beading Exercise. 
1 JL» fc JI tuk Zj^Ca A Supplication and Praise. 

. .. *• •* **** . ». •♦ -• \ • ^^ 

. .. •• •• c^ * •• v C*' 

• ^-o l» il*~- l \jiHjl a^j' '? (^ oJ i' 10 6^ ^-»jj'j ^-jjUjS 

I I . IS. . s\~ . t I \<^ 17 . \ I 16 I t« 

Words. 1. a. Munajat ma et'temjeed. 2.jihan world, universe. 
3. a. khali'qiil-alemeen creator of the universe. 4. a. ya Rebb' ! 
Lord! 5. sJwule efrouz; a. shoule flame, light. 6. p. asiiman. 
asman heavens. 7. toushe bakhsh; toushe provisions. 8. a. shamil con- 
taining. 9. ekrem id ekremeen the most gracious of the gracious 
ones. 10. fighan a moan, cry of distress. 11. a. erhem ur rahi- 
meen most merciful. 12. a. hajet need (what is the need?). 
13. a. arz'ihal petition. 14. seene heart. 15. dilnishin seated in one's 
heart. 16. a. zdhir outside. 17. a. batin inside. 18. gliayib-been 
who see the invisible. Divani Fazil (from) The Divan of Fazil 
[f 1803]. 

Note. The N 08 - 2, 5, 7, 15. 18 are Persian compound ad- 
jectives (§ 535) and the N os - 3, 9, 11 are Arabic compound adjec- 
tives (§ 669). 

<U |^S Conversation. 


rj*.^ tsxil J^»U 

. jjjCt^ 


^* jUi. 1 

oJL 1 

4^1 v l=: 



.ji vlLti j^ 

288 'l? ltJ* Lesson 42. 1*AA 

IT ^^ Lesson 42. 

The Persian Prepositions. 

§ 557. The Persian prepositions of frequent use 
in Ottoman are the following (§§ 236, 451): 

a) j\ ez c fronr: forms the Ablative case. 

Isj VjWJj A jaw o« dil e froin soul and heart 5 = heartily, 

u • devotedly. 

^ e y*j\ ezher jihet in every respect. 

jjjl &Mr 'from breast' = by heart, committed to memory. 
A* }\ ez jumJe e from the number of = as for example. 
pjji j\ ez qadeem from olden times. 

b) j &e c to, in': forms the Dative case. 
jj'.JJ rou berou face to face. 

Iji. »t> benami khuda in the name of God. 

JU a+4 Uheme lied c in every condition' = absolutely. 

C~ * beher sine every year. .UoU mah'bSmah' month by 
~>" month. 

t.u^i u/^ #" n °^ m day by day * 

c) I ba Vith, by': forms the Instrumental case. 
^j J t I, oa Urn ou lliaber by a receipt. 

Uj* L 6a swob correct. ^> L oa /apoM with a deed. 
j^- I ba senid With a note. 
u^^i- l» ba khoiisous especially. 
JW o^> i< o« /Vrmant ali by an (Imperial) exalted edict. 
3LM L oa *w%a« with a privilege, privileged. 

TA«^ The Persian Prepositions. 289 

d) js der c in, at r : forms the Locative case. 

o— * ji der dest at hand: arrested, seized. 

jL\ j^ (?er anbar in the; store, stored. 

*— 1& j:> ' JU. j} der hal. der aqcib immediately. 

Jb\»- js der lchatir in the mind, in heart. 

Alt:-! ji der Asitane in Constantinople. 

e) jj &£»• 'on'. 

^jG^ ^j &er erfcs on the contrary. lJJ» ^j ter taraf aside. 

r\j* jt l j\j5^ji &er qarar, ber devam continually, firmly. 

<o*j ^j ' Jljl* ji ' w^*- y Z>er vej'hi, ber minvali, ber mouji'bi 

according as. 

f) t fa 'until, as far as 5 . 

jx* «JL»4o viU-lL L" irt dagliin depesine qadar as far as the top of 

the mountain. 
9-U^j L* f« besabah till the morning. 

g) ^U berayi c for, for the sake of 5 . 

w-seJU*. (il^j berayi maslahat for a business. 
(jUti«| <il^,j » imtihan for the examination. 
A^jiLc- <s\y_ » ibadet for worship. 
^-*^w lSI^j » hurmet for the sake of respect. 

jU£« Examples. 
*1Ljj\^1>1>. ji der Ithatir etmek to remember. 
VL wo-j^ ^i frer mouji'bi bale, in the above-mentioned manner. 
J| a^. j j t»eV re/7u c/tee in the following manner. 

der dest et." to arrest. ber taraf et." to set aside. 

der anbar et." to store. ez ser to ^« from head to foot. 

Substitution. JljJ Ibdal. 

§ 558. Substitution of one letter for another rather 
rarely occurs in the Persian language. This change 
of one letter into another does not produce any change 

Turkish Conv. -Grammar. 19 

290 «uf u-J-> Lesson 42. r^ 

of meaning: For instance, <mJ b is changed into j v 
in some words; as: VI bala high == Vlj i?a?a high, aX 
tube frying pan = ©jt tava frying pan. 

§ 559. Substitution occurs often in the following 
letters : 
^ to uj : & = p jljL bazar market: j\j\ipazar. 

i » j> : d = s a.vjL.-Ai- kludmet service: c**Jc* khizmet* 

j*\>- jadou wizard: j'^ jazou. 

ili s7iarf merry, joyful: ili sfra#. 

^ » j: 6 = tJ olj-^c&l baghcheban gardener: 1 j a^pI c ]A van 

j » J: r = Z jSjr perktar compass: J^j^ pergel. 

&*J& kef die skimmer: M 6 *-* kepje. 

y*J> gevher jewel: ^*j^ jevlicr. 

vii-i. mushk musk: »UL.* -,J-j 

jlxl>. khunkiar king: jfc£l>. hiinkiar.. 

Omission. ^Ji>. Hazf. 

§ 560. The Omission of letters is very frequent 
in the Persian language, without changing the meaning 
of the word: 

The original word ©11 shah' king 5 is written as a!L- 

shell c king 5 . ^Ujl efghan 'lamentation' is written also 

,jUJ fighan. <u meh for D U wa/i 'month', and 4> geh 

for JS gwili place. 

§ 561. The following is a list of such words fre- 
quently used in Ottoman: 

\S\ pay foot: I pa. 

jlf»- chihar four: jU- c7iar. 

^"■Jj bed'ter worse: jaj &e£er or better. 

s\jl~\ oustad master: L:-j\ ' <C~-j| ousta. 

a. ^/u\ ewieer prince: ^ru wieer. 



*_-> * 






JL : 





i_r • 






?•- : 




r\) The Persian Prepositions. 291 

jjlL beyaban desert: (jLli'tjlj yaban. 

Zjiiji*. hoshnoud content: zjLt>. hoshnoud. 

aJI>. lhane house: tjU- khan. 

j\ i sar head: ^_~- sir. 

o$\j\ azade free: *\j\ azad. 
a. <uli faqeeh' student af Canon law: ^JU faqi,Yu\g.falht. 

CAjjf kiarvan caravan: (§ 529) uhj> her van. 

\*\ *J*i Exercise 90. 

J^cL* a .^ll^jl Iji jo J^yl ojj' JJj~~ • j ili j^JL? ->*->> <i>l 

^*o JJjl (J^jX* -LL— ^^»>-«'* Jf * * ^>-*~ J <L*Jo l sll,0*£ ojl <JI>-4.«~a> ©JUL) 

\W Afr-j Translation 97, 

1. From olden times he has been the friend of 
our family. 2. He was satisfied with me in every 
respect. 3. This mother loves her children devotedly. 

4. He said this to me and immediately went out. 

5. He sends me a present at the beginning of every 


292 ir u-J-i Lesson 42. l^r 

year: (for instance) this year I received a gold pen. 
6. Day by day he was progressing in his lessons. 7. In 
the name of God come quickly and help me! 8. He 
is continually sick. 9. Kerim Effendi went to Salour 
for business. 10. He climbed up to the top of the 
mountain. 11. He cried incessantly until morning; be- 
cause his body from head to foot was full of wounds. 
12. Nejib Bey went to the mosque for worship, 13. He 
spoke in the following manner. 1 4. The thief was arrested. 
15. The wheat and the barley were stored. 16. The 
caravan lost its way in the desert. 

j>l A f^jM Reading Exercise. 
(O^jT The Hunter. 

> _ * > 

i 9 
t 12 


— r — 

IPords. (0 La. fet'tan naughty (boy [§ 609]). 2. a. W«/7 
incline. 3. a. vijdan heart; conscience. 4. jemeeyeti suroodakeen 
an assembly full of chants (§ 536). 5. junbushgehi surourakeen: 
junbushgch a place of pleasure (§§541,560), siirourakeen joyful (§536). 

6. a. munsherili cheerful; yeri dir it is lawful (just the place). 

7. dili teng: teng poor, miserable; chaliltq bush. 8. a. sattf chant. 
9. p. pur full; aheng melody. 10. sade simple. 11. a. zareef 
graceful; a. maqam singing. 12. a. latif nice, beautiful. 13. endishe 
et! take care! 14. a. intizam quietude, order. 15. sousounouz! 
be silent! qoushjighazlarim my dear birdies (§§ 166 — 67). 

(f) 16. a. sur'at speed; chanta bag. 17. dele dourmaq to keep 
still, quiet; chifte double-barreled fowling piece. 18. a. rdhm mercy. 
19 qiymaq to kill (he will not spare you). 

T\r The Persian Prepositions. 293 

. 22 jjj:iJ (ilj- JUtai 4[_?! 'jjj^o' 21 t>-i- ' J^> u^-i 


? aJ Li 1 25 a*-i; cA^-r - ° -* -* ' 2 4 ^I b ^r^-i <i ^Jjj^yJ \ 

Ab: &«y 81LJ ^*' ' 30 O^>: uj«1 jbl J13j1 




! I>w-*£J 4*d . ^ J* S"-? 1 -*" 9^ ' V>"^ }*3 


! 41 ^>U 40 ^VT j, ? j\~>\ jU ' . 39 ^M JOi jl^ >i-4L| 

"^ni> JJlS : 43 *-^j ill 4A* ' 42 ^n_^ j j^L* L** JjU-Jj] 
? 46 ^JL,U*. Idiuujij- £l : ? *-i»V 45 -**>j ! ^y pj^nL, 

! ^S^-xa j *a ! ^^.i-scC^s ! ^5^-^j j.^ 

20. yoummaq to shut, close. 21. sheeni ademeeyit: sheen 
shame; a. ademeeyet humanity (§ 581). 22. sezayi la net detestable: 
seza subject; suitable, fitting; a. la'net curse. 

(r) 23. a. qarar et." to sit; qlrlanglnj swallow. 24. bakh- 
tiyarane in a happy way (§ 528). 25. p. nesh've pleasure ; a. avdet 
arrival; a. tcbr'tk et." to congratulate. 26. a. zevqou shevq pleasure 
and mirth (§ 696); a. slierik companion. 27. nagehan suddenly. 
28. a. say'yad hunter (§ 610). 29. berbad ruined, lost (§ 557 e). 
30. a. belay a evils, misfortunes. 31. a. it'tiqa et." (from viqaye) to 
be cautious. 32. a. beraya men. 

(•l) 33. a. khasayil character; a. efkiar opinion. 34. a. delayil 
tokens, proofs. 35. a. zou-a-fa the poor (ones). 36. veseele-jouyi 
siteez: visilejouy who seeks for a pretext (to quarrel) (§ 535); 
siteez quarrel. 37. a. aqveeya the rich, the strong (ones). 38. Tchoonreez 
blood-shedder (§ 535). 39. zoulm abad a place of cruelty ; hell. 40. alay 
troop. 41. a. jel'lad executioner (§ 609). 42. a, mouhibbi sadiq ou 
I'hayr (§ 696): mouhibb' friend; a. sadiq just, true; Jchayr good. 
43. a. raheem merciful. 44. a. qatil murderer; a. tayr bird. 45. a. vasf 
praising, eulogy. 46. a. haqayiq right, just. 

294 tr u-j^ Lesson 43. r^ 

— o — 

. 52 jJo\ cjj »iijj u-^: <-J^*» 'jj^i^-u-J: Jjl5 jj -^yCi-j, 

! 55 ^J * ? L ? ftJuljS- ^O/I JJ *J ' 5 ^ t >Jo 8^ ! (i^i Jj~ ^ 

— 1 — 

f u-J^i iAolili a<C:^ ^ju^i, : jjj^tijjjj 56 a&L; ! ^ 1 >£^ ; j 
ijljC: il^.jujl <ji>i lijjjl 4 j\jju ^ 61 <;UJ> G0 ^.L. i^_j 

( ij? y jvU« ) 

(o) 47. yaver helper; Utile trigger; keklik partridge. 48. a.kelb 
dog. 49. vabtete appropriated; a. jelb bringing, fetching. 50. sef- 
M dim shedding of blood. 51. sitemker unjust, cruel (§ 529). 52. a. lanet 
et." to curse. 53. a. sherr evil. 54. a. eghreb wonderful. 55. a. tab 
heart, nature; a. besher humanity. 

Qy) 56. p. muzlide! good news! a. tebayud to disappear. 
57. a. mdhelli hazer place (= need) of caution, fear. 58. a. mesh- 
rebimje as I like, according to my taste. 59. f. qonsSr concert. 
60. mulilet vermek to grant a delay. 61. a. zemane, zeman Time; bir 
miqdar a little; a. zalim cruel. 62. tama-perver avaricious (§ 535). 

*f u^^ Lesson 43. 

vI^a? The Gender of Arabic Nouns. 

§ 562. There is no gender in Turkish or Persian, 
but there is in Arabic. With respect to gender Arabic 
nouns are divisible into . two classes : a) those which 
are only masculine; b) those which are onh r feminine. 
There is no neuter gender in the language. 

X^o The Gender of Arabic Nouns. 295 

§ 563. That a noun is of the feminine gender [key- 
fiyet) may be ascertained either from its signification 
or from its termination. 

a. The feminine nouns which are such because of 
their signification, are all words denoting fern ales; as: 

«wJ> ' s_Juj ' <<ulU Hadije, Zeyneb, Many a (fern. prop, names). 
»jj j valide a mother, u-jjc arous a bride, ^.ij bint a daughter. 

b. The feminine nouns and adjectives which are 
such by reason of their termination, are all substan- 
tives and adjectives ending in & or » ' Zj ' I [-&, -et, 

-at, -t. -a), when those terminations do not belong to 
the root; as: 

^>Ju^. memlekH a country, c^=- jai-net paradise, <u-x^--. 
mah'keme a court, \j^ hubra greater (§§ 29 c, 32 c, 610). 

But *L ma water, O^CL sukut silence, <ulj tSnbeeh 

warning, z^3 vaqit time: are not feminine, because 

their terminations are radical; i. e. I ' £j ' © (-a, -t, -h) 
belong to the root (§ 587). 

§ 564. Masculine nouns and adjectives are usually 
rendered feminine bv the mere addition of the letters 

4 _ 

he, te (e, t), which are called feminine letters: 
Jic azeem great: 4.«.Ji& azeeme great (fern.). 

j.». jedd a grandfather: oA> jedde a grandmother. 

jr-| ekh, ukh a brother: >z,L\ ukhf a sister. 

^ ben, bin a son : cJu binf a daughter. 

§ 565. Xote. When the noun is feminine, the 
adjective must agree with it, and be also of the femi- 
nine gender (§ 656). 

^A ^Jui Exercise 98. 

I Change the following masculine nouns into 
feminine ones: 

296 «j.r i>ji Lesson 43. r\ , \ 

\ * 1 ,H « 2 , • i 3* ' 4 h • ( 5 T t 6 •" » « 7 * I t 8 /t 

9 i i '10 i 11. Kir t 12 t| - .. '13 ' 14 \ * ' 15 . tws. t 

16 je i i7 cJ 3 ' 18 *!(. ' 19 A ' w*u> ' 20 dii; ■ jl^ ' f f. 

Words. 1. vaZid a father (genitor). 2. liafeed grandchild. 

3. amm, vulg. em'mi father's brother, uncle. 4. fcfeaZ mothers 
brother, uncle. 5. mou-atlim teacher, 6. mutesarrif owner; 
governor. 7. varis heir. 8. nejz'fr noble. 9. hamil bearer. 10. mumin 
believer. 11. fdan so and so (man). 12. ghaz'zal gazelle. 13. mer- 
houm the deceased. 14. sliayir poet. 15. salis third. 16. sanee 
second. 17. zevj husband. 18. ilali god. 19. bachelor. 20. King. 

II. Ascertain whether the following words are 
feminine or masculine: 

8 .. I ' 9 - , ' 10 ., ' 11 .. 1 . i 12 ic 13 = ">^' •[ i i *„ *• c \ 

1. zouhnet darkness. 2. hab'be a grain. 3. &mf daughter. 

4. sister. 5. mevt, 6. feri death. 7. meser'ret joy. 8. maslaliat 
business. 9. hadeeqa garden. 10. beyt a house; a stanza. 11. nebat 
plant. 12. ebou father. 13. ke'rem, loutf, nimet kindness. 

The Number of Arabic Nouns. j^jT 

§ 566. The Arabic language has three numbers 
(kemiyyet): Singular, Dual and Plural, and three cases 
(hal) in each number: Nom., Ace, and Genitive. 

§ 567. Note. Of the three Arabic cases, only the 
Nom. and Ace. of the Singular and the Ace. of the Dual 
and Plural are in use in Ottoman, the Ace. of the Dual 
and Plural being used in place of the Nominative, and 
that too in a form shortened by the omission of the 
final short vowels. The Ace. Sing, is used only as an 
adverb in Ottoman (§682). In the following Lessons the 
short final vowels and everything else not used in Ottoman 
are omitted, but the student will find them in Arabic 
phrases adopted into the language as single words 
(§ 666—670). 

Dual. ^jlH Tesniye. 
§ 568. The Dual indicates two things of the same 

kind and is formed by adding J\ -<* n an d CX. ~^V n 
to the singular. [Compare with the an of Persian (§509)] ; as : 

T\V The Gender and Number of Arabic Nouns. 297 

J>-L- sahil sea-coast: 

Crtis-l- ' u^-L- sahileyri, saliilan two coasts. 

JlM suls one third : 

uiiLJ ' jjlfli sidseyri, sulsan two thirds. 

^Ls qoutb the Pole: 

C^-ks ' 0^ qoutbeyri, qontban the two Poles. 

§ 569. If the word end in he (-e) feminine (hayi 
tSenis\ it is changed into te feminine (-£-) (tayi teenis), 
before the dual termination is added (§ 32 c, 564, 592): 

4.it_; nusklie a copy: jOeJ nusklieteyn . 
aL1~* sefine a ship: i> .::.&-. sefineteyn. 

§ 570. The following duals are much in use, 
although they do not indicate two things exactly 
similar to one another: 

ui-lMj * uljii valideyti ', ebeveyri the parents. (Sing. jJIj ; ^j1). 

ilrt»»jj zevjeyri husband and wife. (Sing, rjj)- 

>^r > - 5 qamereyn the sun and moon. (Sing. ^-«-i). 

i>*^ hare'meyn the sacred cities of Mecca and Medina. 

Note that they do not mean 'two fathers', 'two husbands' 
and 'two moons'. 

^ ^.Isc Exercise 99. 
Change the following nouns into the dual: 

l't ••" . " i 2 * " ' 3 ■ " t 4 £ ." i 5 I ° &" l 6 *.\ " i 7 * > i 

8 -1*9^1 a" i 10 a \" t 11 ~ " i 12' f 1/ « 13* • " f 4 14 «, " <■ "" 
»ji* ^.j-" ^-O'J <W . <-*j& J^\ J. ' 

Words. 1. menzil a halting place; a house. 2. j«7ie'£ a side; 
a quarter. 3. salieefi page. 4. zamme the vowel eofre. 5. s7iart 
condition. 6. &e7de country. 7. suck one sixth. 8. fiqra a sentence, 
paragraph. 9. sherik companion. 10. varis heir. 11. merqoum 
the above said. 12. jiimle clause. 13. taraf a side. 14. 6a/ir a sea. 

The Plurals in Arabic, ^js- Jem. 

§ 571. There are two kinds of plurals in Arahic: 

a. One of these has only two forms, and is called 
the regular or sound plural (pluralis sanus), because 

298 <tr u-J-> Lesson 43. r«^A 

all the vowels and cod sonants of the singular are retained 
in it [Jemi Miizekkeri Salim, Jemi Miiennesi Salim); ex: 

j^U me-mour an officer: Cx.jj* '.« me-mou-reeri officers. 

b. The other which has various forms is called 
the broken or irregular plural (pluralis fractus), 
because it is more or less altered from the singular 
by the insertion or elision of consonants, or the change 

of vowels ; ex. : *;JL* sefeene a ship : •jL- or J; IL- sufen 
or sefayin 'ships 5 . Here the form of the noun is broken. 

So also \L shey a thing: *Lll esh'ya things. 

§ 572. The different ways of forming the irregular 
Arabic plurals are so numerous and complex that a 
separate chapter is requisite to explain them, which will 
be found further on (Lesson 51, § 637 — 652). 

The Regular Masculine Plural. iL* f±* *jr 
§ 573. The pluralis sanus of masculine nouns is 
formed by adding the termination jj -oon and jj, 

-een\ as: A^a muslim a Moslem : ^>J «'jjiL* mm- 

limeeri, muslimoon Moslems. \*y mumin a believer: 

ij<Uy* ' i)y+Ay* mumineeri , muminoori believers. 

§ 574. This way of forming the plural is employed 
only in the case of names of rational beings, therefore 

jlJ esed c a lion', ^:>C« miktoub f a letter cannot be 

j£JuJ ' oyjlyCi* esedeen, mehtouboon: because they cannot 
reason or speak (§ 578). 

§ 575. But the plurals of 4l~ ' ilc sene 'year 3 , 

alem 'universe' are exceptions: they are £)C** sineen, 

sencen, J^IU alcmcen. The plural of > ben c son, child 

is Ocj ' Oyj •* but it becomes a_j &ewee when in con- 

r^ The Gender and Number of Arabic Nouns. 299 

struction with a noun following; as: J^j—I ^ ' (Ol ^ 

henee Israyel, benee Adem c the children of Israel 3 , 'the 
children of Adam, mankind"; the full form, however, 
does not occur in Ottoman. 

\ ♦ ♦ ^JbJ Exercise 100. 

Give, if possible, the regular plurals of the follow- 
ing nouns. 

• c 1 l~<^' 2 s "", ' i Y i 3 ^ i- i 4 V i 5 I { • " t 6 &, " t 

jy ^>Lj jj- j-U *}*,• i3jl5 jib fjUa* }y\~"* 

7 .1 i8 i c9 . * 10 . i" "c 11 • i '%...« .|i t 12 t 

^^bj M^- fj^* <3->'y- cJJ 1 — *-"-) o-XHj Jj-O * 

>Fo?*c7s. 1. Book. 2. muder'ris, mou-al-lim teacher. 3. qaree 
reader. 4. foyr a bird. 5. mazloum poor, oppressed. 6. mesh- 
hour remarkable (man). 7. riyazi astronomer. 8. sami hearer, 
audience. 9. mujrim criminal, sinner. 10. havari apostle of our 
Lord). 11. sariq a thief. 12. resold an apostle, prophet. 

The Regular Feminine Plural. iL, £^y pjr 

§ 576. The regular way of forming the plural of 
Arabic feminine nouns and adjectives (Jemi Muennesi 

Salim) is by dropping the final * he, Zt te (-e, -f, -et) of 

the singular (§§ 563 — 64) and adding £j -at to the word. 

4_Ji ■ muslime a female Moslem: o'Ji — « muslimat Moslem women. 

o^t semere a fruit: CjIJc semerat fruits. 

c^OU a-lamet a sign: oU>U- alamat signs. 

§ 577. If the word end in Zj\ -<#, the Za -t is 
dropped and elif is changed into vav (-V-): 
vZj\z zat person: olji zevat. 

I'Xa sdlat prayer: ^\j^ salarat. 

tlAy berat an edict: ^Ij^ beravat edicts, firmans. 

§ 578. Some of the masculine nouns denoting- 
things which have not reason or speech, form their 

plurals by adding £j\ -at. as they cannot take the 
regular masculine plural (§ 574): 


300 ± r i-rja Lesson 43 - r# * 

a ^T Wireer a writing: cAjlJ* tahreerat writings. 

JJ£ ^TiaZat a mistake: cIUp ghalatat mistakes. 

oL; ,ie6a* a plant: -UL; *ie6a*at plants. 

\ ♦ \ ^Xi^ Exercise 101. 

Give the feminine plural of each of the following words : 

M. 1. pfcayft the end. 2 animal. ^ 3 ^trume^. 

4 mwi^ a miracle. 5. service (kUdemat). 6. a-det custom. 
7 a payment. 8. fetf* a need, want. 9, ibart sentence. 10 .£ 
fc^f a complaint. 11. *?-«eef composition of a book; a book. 
12 ^LLr deficiency. 13. zekiat alms. 14. tareef explanation 
5. E known ; (knowledge). . 16. tf&f*k' congratula ion. 17. * 
rAft blessing. 18. tameer repair. 19. s<fe vegetable. 

\ ♦ Y Ju» Exercise 102. 

^ >tf. *,j^r . s^f <<*f ts-*?\ ol V ■*'•* ^ 
*-,)! £*jc ^ >)jf&'jr* CjJ«-o» ^/i ■Z~& C&*s Y 

' " r - - _ 

r* ) The Gender and Number of Arabic Nouns. 301 

\ ♦ r AJt-j Translation 103. 

1. Miss Gulistan is the heiress of the governess 
(teacher). 2. The owner of this house is Jemile Hanim, 
the teacher. 3. Give the bearer of this letter five roeji- 
diyes. 4. You must obey your parents. 5. Dr. Ch. Tracy 
has written a nice book for parents and for husbands 
and wives. 6. Paradise was in the land of Ararat. 
7. The criminals were carried before the court. 8. The 
number of the hearers was 900, two thirds of whom 
were women. 9. Erase those two ebtres. 10. The mother 
of the sovereign of the martyrs, Huseyin, is the Princess 
of the women of the universe Fatima-Zehra. 

<U I^S Conversation. 

^ > - ■ -i > 

30 2 HJT ^J> Lesson 43. l~*f 

^\ } A£ Reading Exercise. 
A Poem, x, ^Jf) Terteihi Bend. 

% 2 *-*o3 j (P- ^* ->b ^ * 4/* 

-t . . . . 3 • l • \ M 

6 ±W~ r" & & • ^* jlj B% ^ J -* 

' 10 0Uu- Jt- juo 9 o3j^ ^ (i^J -5- 

24 A, 23 ... * - <■*■" i I ' * 

T^oi-ds 1 eKfcr world. 2. seem silver, zfr gold. 3. braghout •== 
(MjIrM. 4. ^fr journey keen time. ^S n^TS 
colour 6 o sipihr the sky, the sphere. 7. ley! night, s. «»»« r 
day 9. M& 2rf >o the air. [They say that Solomon s throne 
was in the air (Moslem tradition)]. 10. the throne of Solomon 
11. saltanat empire; magnificence 12. Mrr free 13. ghamm 
anxietv Uder grief. 14. sadr Grand Vizier, jihan world. 15. M 
}™t; instinct (§ 671). 16. Ihasaset baseness vileness. 17. .g 
oi« flift* disposition and substance = character (§ 69b). IB. »u 
.^7 ^astrologer. 19. fffttfWi heedlessness. aO-^j^^S' 
21 V talk; word. 22. tAfy'yftl lack °/ PV': le " C n e ; k lr ( 3 a 
23. rdflie degree; ag! wisdom, sense. 24. eser work, deed. 

r*r The Nisbe in Arabic. 303 

w' 1 .*SL« »2*> 4~o I ,Ojy J-Uj J* Cy 

. . i 2 7 , , \ 2 6 „ u» 

" slj I »5<~,jf jU-Ji " C.SIJL0 4iLjl» 

25. mazar'rat injuries, harms (§ 576). 26. sabit qade'm firm 
and steadfast in resolve ■§ 636). 27. re'y opinion; judgment. 
28. sadaqat fidelity, honesty. 29. ikrah disgust; enmity (§ 619;. 
30. Allah. Ziya Pasha a distinguished Turkish author, poet, 
historian and statesman (1809—79). Terkibi Bend. A poem in 
stanzas of similar metre but of different rhyme, the distichs of 
each stanza rhyme excepting the last distich. 

** wT^i> Lesson 44. 

2LJI The Nisbe. 

§ 579. The Noun of Relationship [en Nisbe, as it 
is called in Arabic), is formed by adding the termination 

^ -ee to the noun, from which it is derived. It denotes 

that a person or thing belongs to or is connected there- 
with (in respect of origin, family, birth, sect, trade etc.) 
(Compare the Turkish and Persian Nisbes §§ 149, 526): 

^•j\ Ermen Armen (a fabulous Armenian hero): 

J.jl Ermenee belonging to Armen, Armenian. 
i _ r *J- shems the sun: ~~ Jt, she'msee' solar, 

j-io dimUhq Damascus: \~*z dhnhhqee a native of Damascus. 

»l;UIlL« Mi'da-la-at: Remarks. 
§ 580. a. The feminine termination of nouns 
o or O is omitted before adding this termination; as: 
«iC meJc'ke Mecca: jC mek'kee' a native of Mecca. 

c-*— t tabiyat nature: { j^\s tabiyee' natural. 

b. But if there is an elif preceding O, it is retained: 

304 -L-, ltjj Lesson 44. r»t 

olS £a£ person: J\j zatee' personal. 

oU hay at life: jLs- hayatee vital. 

c. If at the end of foreign (non-Arabic) proper 
names there is a he (-a), it is changed into rar (-!■-): 

a_J|^3 Fr ansa France: iSj^\^s Fransavee French. 

iSjA>j^\ Ameriqavee American: fSyj^\ Edirnevee a native of 


d. When any Arabic word ends in short or long 
elif, it is changed into vav (§ 29 c, d): 

ll** ( <j**) man a meaning; spirit: iJjI*a manevee spiritual. 

Lo dunya world: ^jz'-* dunyavee worldly. 

s-Uod Beyza the town of Beyza: cijUau beyzavee a native of Be\vza. 

& Zsa Jesus: <£j~~f" Isavee Christian. 

e. The tens of the numerals are made in the way 
which will soon be shown (§ 689). 

f. There are other nouns of Relationship, the 
formation of which is irregular: 

aoI badiye a desert: <_$jJu bedevee inhabiting the desert, a 

Beduin; a savage. 
Ox. me dine a city: \±±a we'de'nee' dwelling in the city, civilised. 

<L~ sine year: <SJ~~> se'nevee' yearly. 

Oj»-| oukhouvvet brotherhood: [Sj>-\ akhavvee brotherly. 

*L wia water: jU mayee watery ; fluid; blue. 

g. Some nouns take an addition of J>1 before ^ -ee. 
rjj rouh spirit: <3^-JJ rouhanee spiritual. 

p-~>. jism body: iile~^- jismanee corporal. 

Other examples are: 

jl^Ht ibranee a Hebrew: '<^>\.j~' siiryanee a Syrian. 

"ii.i^i'ij ' /-^ i i ";, • 'fa Nazarene, 

(il-MS kildanee a Chaldaean: <Jl^r*aj nasranee < Christian 

h. A noun of Relationship is never formed from 
the plural, even when the sense might seem to demand 
it, but always from the singular: for instance words 

r« o 

The iSisbe in Arabic. 305 

like ^-o^U ' lMjCj^" memourinee, tahriratee 'relative to 
officers or letters* are never used, but their siDgular is 

used ^j^L* ' 'SjLj-^- memouree, tahriree 'relative to 
an officer or letter i. e. official, literary'. 

i. xUthough this rule is very strictly observed in 
Arabic, yet in recent Ottoman literature there are some 
terms in current use formed from plurals, but they are 
regarded as barbarisms: 

*.Oj;=w toy qouvve'yi jounoudeeye the military forces. 

<.Jj.i CjIjaU* mou-a-lieddti duveleeye the Treaties of the Powers. 

*-«_7~.j o-*?- jemeeyye'ti rousouweeye the Taxation Committee. 

The words joanoud, duvel, rousoum, are the plurals 
of jiind army, devlet 'empire' and rcsm tax. 

The Abstract Noun. \^a ^J Ismi liana. 

§ 581. Abstract nouns are formed by adding 
Zj ' o ( m l/et, -ye) to the end of Nouns of Relationship ; 

or j^j ' * (-iyet, -iye) to the end of nouns and ad- 
jectives (§§ 163, 541): 
i£\j-*z> nasranee a Christian: ^-^Jl^r-^sJ nasraneeyet Christianity. 

(j-L. medenee civilised: s^jJ-L. medeneeyet civilisation. 

j>- liurr free: ^ J ^r- luir'riyet freedom. 

*«*■ jem collecting: c^u^- jem'iyet an assembly. 

a,j^. mejidiye the coin struck by Sultan Mejid. 

AjjJL belediye the municipality, the city court. 
aJ^o doukhouliye admission fee, entrance-money. 

§ 582. If 4. ' o (-e, -ye, -a) is added to the end 

of Arabic Derivative Adjectives and Participles, and used 
alone without any noun to modify. The feminine 
Adjectives and Participles thus formed are regarded as 
feminine substantives (§ 421): 

Turkish Conv.-Grarnmar. 20 

306 «u«u u-j^ Lesson 44. r*\ 

( J». Jche fee secret: *J>. khefeeye detective. 

fy+-^» mejmou collected: mj+j^.* mejmou-a collection. 

ur ~- ,j^ mu-es'ses established: d — ,j» mti-essese institution. 

*iU mani hinder: -ulL maniya obstacle. 

§ 583. The following abstract nouns are solecisms, 
being formed in the Arabic manner from Turkish, Persian 
or European words and not from Arabic words; (§ 507): 

t. c-jjIj variyet wealth: p. z^j germiyet ardour, zeaL 

p. ^J—ir" serbestiyet freedom: p. cjuULi^ perishaniyet poverty, 
f. c-J|_/ qraliyet kingdom: p. otL mahiye (monthly) salary, 
f. rfuJL'J^ politiqiye politics: t. 4~S>Gj| otlaqiye pasture-tax. 

\ ♦ i Jl*» Exercise 104. 

Form Nouns of Relationship and Abstract nouns 
from the following words: 

1°'", < 2' ' ° ' ( 3 ° ^ < 4 " , •- t 5 i". <8i-*<7"^i .. < 
i 10° 1 i ll c 

< 4" " . " < 5° *; < 6V 


3 .>■ 


o&Z. +jLJ\ «»Ja ^>jl (arrtj ^j—*-* -k-.^ *_*! 
\. T * " * • ♦• " * • ♦• " ' i " * \ * * " 

-DO p l i ' 2 • t . 4 3 ° t *• > ' 4 ° " - * ' 5 \'\" l 6 \l» 

1. rt(?^ custom. 2. beyza egg. 3. &e'i/£ family, house^ 
4. mad'de matter, subject. 5. plant. 6. water. 7. tijarit trade. 
8. dakhil interior. 9. Jcharij outside, foreign. 10. mil' let nation. 
11. Bosna Bosnia. 12. sevda the spleen. 13. heaven. 

580 g. 1. rabb the Lord. 2. noor light. 3. zoulmet darkness. 
4. vahdet uniqueness, 5. ta/i£ the lower part. 6. fevq over. 

581. Islam. 1. tab disposition. 2. room (in Custoin-House.) 
3. zabt control. 4. ehemm important. 

582. 1. mZ>2£ binding. 2. nice, amusing (story). 3. monlchtir 
who reminds. 4. mouqad'dem preceding, before. 5. manzoum 
written in rhyme and metre. 6. second (second). 

r*y The Xisbe in Arabic. 307 

J&) Words. 

p. \j-»- I'hiida, Moda God a. «lL_i\ <jUl imcm &." to believe 
a. ~J we&i prophet a.ol^J nebeviyat prophecies 

a.Ju\J7 tezayud et." to increase a. <-jJu medrese seminary 
a. u^ qpur'an Qoran a.^— i« mufessir commentator 

s±l^jj\ Jl^l iJcmal it." to finish a. ojl^- hararet heat. 
Proper Names: L*ii Isliaya, Esliaya Isaiah. 

\ ♦ JiiJ Exercise 105. 

5C5\ii j-^« ■ ©^ [>ji ^-4j Iko Lc iijli ^~.^ © • J j^ ^Uj <u~> I jLi. 

jjJ w»j3 4-*U Jj4Jjl (£j\+2LA 4JMjjl J -Ojl V »J3 jlj L^Jj^ 

•* m Mm 

jlAi Jj>jr e^J^fiP ^j^Ji^jl ^p A •fJjOJfcJ fij^ J-Jj^ 

• f ^.JJ' jLL e?J^" V -^ J J*'^ 

\ ♦ *\ <U>-J^ Translation 106. 

1. The Old Testament is written in the Hebrew 
and Chaldrean languages and the New Testament in 


308 't't u*J> Lesson 44. r*A 

Greek. 2. Do you know the Lord's Prayer by heart. 3. The 
exchange of offices between two office-holders is done by 
the consent of the parties concerned. 4. Christians, Maho- 
medans and Jews believe in the Unity of God. 5. The 
military forces of the European powers are increasing every 
year 6. He lost his wealth and fell into poverty. 7. Free- 
dom is the life of a nation. 8. The Taxation Committee 
has raised the rate on rent. 9. I wrote a composition 
about the Treaties of the Powers. 10. The shape of my 
inkstand is oval. 11. Let us sing hymn number 51. 

aI^C* Conversation. 

. f 3 yj\ i^L*ii ? o* ^y y**y^ ^V^ 

. j_x.<jo <JVi ^1^- ? J-^i ^ •-^L/ 1 "j:*^ J-b> 

Ojiv »j^-*i- ***,♦ !f-^\ cjl ? >^ L>y^ u^Lp^ 

jjl 5 pill Reading Exercise. 
^^jyji ^jr*Js Columbus' Egg. 

lT r ords 1 mesli'hour well known: meslihour dour U every 
body knows - it is said. 2. HasM/ 1 discoverer. 2 a . Christophorus. 

r*\ The Nisbe in Arabic. 309 

"^UU; JojJjI 10 ^ki ^V> uJui^ 9 jj^ \&f~) * 

f ** I I ** • • • » * I ** • M ** A 

-<• ^"^ _• U -^ - L> ^ >• ^^ J -/• o 

22 *• • ♦. ^ - * I • T I ! 21 •• I » t 

< 23 U1I ^ I > * JL«X3 <>. l J>" <( J -*4T3 

3. fcesft/ e£." to discover; He for p4 § 470 a^ = fce'shf edib. 
4. En'duJus Andalusia. 5. Beni Ahmer dcvleti the Moors (in Spain), 
the dynasty of Beni [children of] Ahmer. 6. magldoub defeated 
§ 604). 7. Jsihani ziyafSt the banqueting table. 8. liouz'zar those 
who were present houz'zardan ve . . . prenslerden biri.. 9. bt'r'ri 
jt'did the New World = America. 10. mazliar oh" to be the object 
of, to enjoy. 11. taltifat favours, honours. 12. hased et." to envy, 
to be jealous. 13. madam J:i since, as. 14. qit'a part, segment 
(of the world. 15. mcvjoiid oh" to exist. 16. siz olmasamzda 
even if you were not; da for dal'hi § 117). 17. bir gun oloub 
some day, one day. 18. qavl word. 19. him' met effort, action; malum 
known. 20. istisgliar a making little of, belittling. 21. start taraf 
the smaller end (of the egg). 22. muqtedir able. 23. Ebuz'ziya 
a celebrated living Turkish author. 

<ul5^* a-UJL?- r^j^ Conversation about the Lesson. 
4jj>.| Ejvibe. aJLL.1 EsiJe. 

? ciJ^j 

:<C_«^\L 'j^ jij 

310 <uo y-ji Lesson 45. rt» 

£ > j ~ * - " 

<JL-> Lij (jAl~~i4_<>JJ| -X.«~->- *— L~.j .j y 

^->j-r" < A 4 ^ s ->j A ji jr. •' r-^ °-^ ti^l/*-* ^JJ*" -^b^*- ^j 1 -^/ 

*° u^^> Lesson 45. 

The Arabic Infinitive (Masdar). 

§ 584. There is no limit to the number of words 
which the Ottoman language borrows from the Arabic. 
The number of Arabic words to be learnt would thus 
involve a great deal of study, if they were not derived 
from certain roots which are, of course, very much less 
numerous. If the student can master the system by 
which Arabic derivatives are derived from their roots 
(mad'cU, mad'deyi asliye), his labour will be vastly 
diminished. After learning a certain number of roots, 
he will at once recognize and remember a large number 
of words formed from them. The Arabic system of 
derivation is extremely regular, logical and beautiful; 
although at first it appears somewhat complicated. 

Almost every word in Arabic may be referred to 

r ) \ The Arabic Infinitive. 311 

a significant root, consisting of either three or four 
letters, the triliterals being by far the more common. 
In European languages, significant roots are irregular 
in form, and the grammar of those languages treats 
only of prefixes and affixes, by which the meaning of 
the word is modified. Thus in English we add the 
termination -er to express the agent of a verb, and -ing 
to express the Present Participle Active or the Gerund; 
as: make, maker, making. In Arabic, however, such 
modifications are obtained not only by prefixing or affixing, 
but by inserting letters between those of the root. The 

root J*j fafl signifying action, is taken as the typical 

root for exhibiting these modifications, and the formulae 
thus obtained are called 'the measures of words'. For 
instance, the insertion of an elif between the first and 
second radical, and the punctuation of the later with 
an esre, give the sense of the Agent or Active participle : 

thus Uj fayl becomes bl$ fa-9-il 'one who does 5 and 

this word is the measure upon which all other "agents" 
of this kind are formed. It is in fact, a mere formula, 
like the letters used in Algebra; for as (a 4- b -4- c) 
may represent (2 + 3 + 4), (5 + 6 + 7), or any 

other number; so for the triliteral root l*£ in , U&, we 

may substitute any other triliteral root and obtain the 
same modification of meaning; as: 

Jl3 qatl to kill: J.7 15 qatil a murderer. 

Ji& film wisdom: Jit ^cilim wise; 

where Ul$ and lie are said to be the Uli of the 

triliteral roots to which they respectively belong. 

The Arab grammarians use this word l*» as a 

paradigm, and every change in and addition to the root 
is made on this model. But as the utterance of the 

second radical [y] is very difficult for Europeans, therefore 

we adapt the word & faql as its equivalent, since it 

is easier to pronounce; using the measures' of U» also 
when necessarv. 

312 to i^rj* Lesson 45. r\r 

J* j- harf 'letter is of the measure G* faql, that 
is to say it is measured, weighed or balanced on the 

word JlS faql, having the same quantity of letters and 
the same vowel. 

§ 585 a. The root jSin Arabic is pointed with three 

ustuns, as: & faqala, which means e he fanned 5 , this 

being the third person singular Past tense; but for 
shortness' sake we always render it into English by 
the Infinitive or Verbal Noun 1 (§§ 272, 614). 

§ 585 b. The Arabic Infinitives (= Masdar) are 
divisible, in respect of their origin, into two classes: 
Primitive or Simple and Derivative or Augmented. 

§ 586. The Primitive Infinitives are those which 
have no servile letters in them, or even if they have the 
serviles do not change the meaning of the word; as: 

Jai nazar to look; J^o dciklil 'to enter' are simple 
or primitive forms, because there is no augment or 

servile letter in them. But Zi & nezaret to look, Jy>-> 

(loul'houl or jJUo dekhaUt 'to enter' also are called 
Primitives; because although there are servile letters 

CI'Cj'j), yet they do not change the meaning: 
thev are only different forms of Ji and Uo. 

§ 587. The Servile Letters are (<£ * j f ,j- O 0> 

which are also called 'changers or letters of augmentation', 
because they change or add to the meaning of the word. 

§ 588. The Derivative Infinitives are those in- 
finitives which have servile letters inserted in them, 

1 The second vowel of the third person Sing. Past tense is 
sometimes i = JJi faqila, sometimes ou = Jls faqoula, instead 

of being as here a = 3-^ faqala: but this does not concern the 
student of Ottoman. 

V)r" The Arabic Infinitive. 313 

which change the meaning of the word more or 
less. For instance the word jltl] \ intizar c to look after, 

to wait'; J Wo I. idkhal to cause to enter, to insert', are 

derivatives; because their ground forms Jai nazar and 
lio ddkl mean 'to look' and r to enter' respectively, 
and the augmentative letters I ' I ' Zj have changed 
the meaning (§§ 259, 613). 

A. The Primitive Triliterals. ^ £■ <],%' ^xaa 

§ 589. There are a great number of Verbal Nouns 
or Infinitives which are derived directly from the trili- 
teral roots. Those that are most frequently used in 
Turkish belong to one of 23 ''measures". The root 

Gi is taken as the 'measure' or formula (= jjj t'ezn), 

and we shall assume that all these 23 forms can be 
derived from it; although they are not all in use. 
Every root is supposed to have the power of producing 
all these derivatives, though, in fact, sometimes only 
a few such are actually formed from a given root. 

C'Ulla* Mutorla-at Remarks. 
§ 590. If the third radical is j or ^, in the 
measures 15, 16 and 17 it is changed into (*) at the end, 
which is often omitted (§ 705 d); as: ^lo ' {£\ >- * S^ 
<cb are changed into *!;>. = I >- l ►& = \& 4 *Lj = b 

*lo= : lo, the roots being y i£ >• ' ^ ' ,£-} ' yo * 

§ 591. Those letters which have the mark of 
reduplication, are written twice in the root, without the 

mark ( ); as: Zj-^Z shid-det severity, root V/ $sL sheaede. 

§ 592. The feminine letters Cj and 4. ' I are sub- 
stituted for each other in the termination of nouns: 


«u© t_~j-> Lesson 45. 
















O 02 




































i ^ 


N -A 


1 v 4i 


























. )■ 

;4 V 




c « < 












ft" 1 






























o ,C * 





•1 \ 




x — 'i 


"■•1 V 

\ * 




T— 1 











T— 1 


The Arabic Infinitive. 



















, 0D 








03 *£ 



3 f-, 



> V v > 





















































*> 1 ■ 

x _3 


• *> 


\ ty 




\ 1" 



-V r 



-, O 




,® £■* -5 






~ s s 


.«1 e«H . •«< \-l \"i \H \«i \H \»«; -v'T ^H -.'°i -< i, i 
X-4 D x 7n x 7n x 7n ^S ^ =S v=S x=^ _T> "!> *> • 

"0 -D -3 

■i ••} ~* "°" .1 .0 

i— i Cd 


»o o 



o ^ 

<M CO 



316 *u© o-j^ Lesson 45. rtl 

such is the case in measures 5—9, 18, 19, 22, 23. 
a ji5 semere for OjXj semeret measure ^J& • Cj-w* == 

e j^ measure jj& • iip-j = C-^>o ' <^j ==: w*3j 4,«M~ 

§ 594. When the letter ^ is pronounced as I with 
ustim, it is called Short EJif(%% 29 c, 610); therefore in such 

cases I is substituted for ^: Iti^L. sukna for ^d- root 

y -jd 'habitation', I^Cli shekva = ^jZlt root y £t 

'complaint'; l^o — l£^ p ^ ' |jls= = i£ °J> [measures 10—11]. 

§ 595. The Quadriliteral Infinitives have only one 
formula or measure; which is <d.JlS faqlele the root being 

\[77Z .-.. 

considered y JJu£; as: 4.1:13 zelzele earthquake', root 

S ♦ V JuJ Exercise 107. 

With the assistance of the Table of Verbal Measures 
given above find the measure and the root of each of 
the following words. 

» •• " i si •" * • i "i **» *' e "'•'<!**' - *• * ' • i^°* ' 

Key. J2j wa^Z is measured on JJ£, the root being 

lli ; because the first radical has an wsftm, and the 

second, third radicals are quiescent. j^La>- haqiqat is 


The Arabic Infinitive. 


measured on ^JLJ£ faqilet, the root being \/ jj».; because 
the first and third radicals have an ustun and the second has 
an esre; after the second radical there is a servile ^ and 
after the third a servile £;« a*.^-- sefine = cX& faqilet, 

a. is substituted for Zj- *^C hukia = J& (§ 591) 
\.T-- 1 A- r <*-*- — ' i^lA'-i -r'- tr'lA"' 



Li ' rflj = 

L • ( „ 

~ 1*3 • 4)l = L£.< 

I i ,^-Aa> Reading Exercise. 
cW J^ ! ^><^ A1 Psalm 8i ^ Hymn 6. 

(^"V ^k\ )^ 
' 9 • 1 



' 10 i. V 
i l: 

JL^jjS J-» 



» 3- . \- 2 - > > I 

|BJ . 7 4 . f ► . 



• o-XjjI 4>- 


yy J>~»j *jyojp Jy 

t 17 . ► 16 1,' 

Words. (0 1. mSsken house, court § 578 . 2. hom/* light; 
lioubb' love. 3. diyar land : it is the pi. of dar but used as 
singular (Lesson 51). 4. Za^/pleasant. 5. presence. 6. dtrd affliction, 
woe. 7. -p.gunah sin; p. den/a' sea. 8. bay-ghhi fainting. 9. mumin 
believer (mefoul of iman [§619]); 'jiimhour congregation. 10. nour- 
bal'li-sli gilmaq to bestow the light. 11. kerim gracious (a. q. of 
I'erem [§ 606. 12. vejh face. 13. kemal glory. 

(f) 14. melja asylum § 598). 15. mezbah altar (n. 1. of eib-h 

[§ 5981). 16. Bey'toul-Jali the house of God. 17. havJ'i court, 
yard. 18. p. zemin earth. 19. t. soft only. 20. rij-at to turn hack. 
21. kesb et." to enjoy. 22. nejat salvation. 23. hayat life. 


•ul u»j* Lesson 46. 


»""« 30 

©-XI^,fij3 «■ \.X J y V* 

2 6 .•.. 25 | r 

©jJ»>- JJjl o«^ j^ 5 


\- 34 | 33 *>-. t i 


t^ju* l?cL« O ^=*- 

t 35 

^ "> 


A 32 A< ^- t ^£ \ 

(r) 24. Mfcia weeping. 25. sey'yah pilgrim. 26. naghme 

song. 27. nebt-an et." flow, to rise (water). 28. we/m manna. 

29. nazil oh'' to descend. 30. teqad-diim et." to progress, to grow 
(in strength). 

(V) 31. hadi guide; muslikil hard, difficult. 32. fcesi'r abundant; 
p. roushen. 33. Zoztf/' grace. 34. deoh shower. 35. shems sun. 

Note. 1. This is a translation of the English hymn Tleasant 
are Thy courts above' by H. F. Lyte. 2. Find the measure and the 
root of each of the vowelled words contained in the above Reading 

fcl j^i> Lesson 46. 

Nouns derived from Primitive Triliteral Verbs. 

§ 596. Certain nouns are derived from the Infini- 
tives or from the roots of verbs, and may therefore 
be dealt with in connexion with the latter. The 
principal forms used in Ottoman are three; and the 
commoner measures for these three are seven in number. 
They all begin with a mim pointed by ustun or esre. 

1. Nouns with Mim. <^ jJi^k 

§ 597. Besides the simple forms already described 
above, another verbal noun almost equivalent to them 
in meaning is formed by adding a mim to the radicals. 
It has four forms: 

r)\ Nouns derived from Primitive Triliteral Verbs. 319 

I. CLL* mefqal. By adding a mim with ustun to 

the first (me-), and pointing the second radical with 


j^^is grtsd purpose : V -L*a3 1 Jl^L. maqsed purpose. 

II. The feminine of this form is jJLJii« inefqalet. 
vi.**j rahmet mercy: V r%»-j • ^--*V« >H('rhamet mercy. 

dU. mtZifc country: VvlU. t v2jC_L*_T memleket country. 

III., IV. Some verbs, especially those commencing 
with y take esre on the second radical. Their measure is 

jii ' cJ&* mefqil, mefqilet (§ 593) : 

J^-j rrt&d promise: Vitj i oJ ^* W^vpidS. 

^Uj vehab gift: V^-aj • ^j-* mevhibe. 

c._»a*j roitjou* returning: V *». j • f^* merjic.. 

\ ♦ A ^Jui Exercise 108. 

Change the following Infinitives into the form be- 
ginning with mim: 

. o ^ c > 

< ° M 

Cf" 3 

7. l' - .' TTT 8 '~ '-M" TT^ 9. 

Jjlyc. III. tloVj- IV. (jlj^ • JfiPj- 

1 Fords. 1. a going; road, way (religion). 2. praise. 3. happiness. 
4. benefit. 5. strength. 6. sedition. 7. forgiveness. 8. birth. 
9. knowledge, skill. 

2. Noun of Location. J15C« ^1 

§ 598. This is formed precisely in the same manner 
as the Noun with Mim; the measures being the same; 
162, 449, 541): 

I. tLJ» tabkh to cook: 'Tt-J* ! 

( JJLi.' ) = 7c~Jb« matbakh a place where to cook, kitchen. 
jj* defn to bury: v'^j* l . 

( Jiiu ) = ^JjS medfen grave. 

320 <t*\ j*ji Lesson 46. rr ♦ 

II. *J^ £«&& to print: V«-_£i 

( ^AJLl» ) = 4..*-Ja« matba&a printing house. 

III. >—jJ^ ghouroub to set: V^^.&i 

( JJLiU ) = w_j^-i* maghrib sunset, west. 

J^i- skarq to rise: Vjj^i- 

( J-iiT) = J^r-^ tiieshriq sunrise, east. 

\ ♦ ^ Jul Exercise 109. 

From the following words form Nouns of Location : 

T 1 ' - ,2' >^> < 3 | / > , 4 > .> < 5. £^ > TT 6 V " ,f.f < ' - « 

T° i (8° - ( 9't. . ( 10 1 . . t 11° ^> TTr 12 J " i 13 { f* < 

^..U • j\.$ • Ja_^>- • Jo j • ^ N °-- ^- /"*-»^J " tj ' 

14 , > > < 15'- . - < | >.! c ~> c , > 

TForc?s. I. 1. ray to pasture. 2. riding. 3. entering. 4. going 
out. 5. to dwell. II. 6. looking (view). 7. salt. 8. tomb. 9. to 
keep. 10. manure. 11 judgment. III. 12. placing. 13. rising; 
of sun. 14. falling down. 15. worship. 

3. Noun of Instrument. cJ^ r »— ' 

§ 599. The most common measures of the Noun 
of Instrument are those which follow; (§§ 450, 542): 

I. J£* mifqal: 

Ja- satr a line: V^-k^ • ^,, la ,...,« mister, coram, mastar an instru- 
ment for drawing a line, a ruler. 

^^_Lf saqab, taqab to, pierce: A' l^JL? ! i^JLi* misqab common a t- 
qab anything that pierces, auger. 

II. J6L mifqal: 

\fz — ^ 

7tls fetli to open: Vrtii! ^U.iu mi f tali a key. 

t>V* <2<"'rcZ to cut: V l/>^3- ^l^JU nuqr({ dcomm. maqrn:. 
maqas a cutting instrument, scissors. 

III. Al&A mefqale: 

^>j^ shourb to drink: y^Jt,: <.> jJl. mashraba a cup. 

VY f Nouns derived from Primitive Triliteral Verbs. 321 


A_Li- shouple flame: V J-«-i 


4..UJL. mashfCtla a torch. 

^ \ ♦ ^Jui Exercise 110. 
^y^ J Iff Ancestors' Sayings == Proverbs. 

\a Vi 4}lia*-~* J^^Csrf L>$3jy ° •ijL>l ^^J^f dil_^ o^lj U-^3j— 

jjJk ^ ♦t^-U.^-U? jy~* y§ A%~\ y+sS A . ^jyca j\i • 3^W 
<j^O «* ^"i^^ " *— 'Jx^ ->b dXj} i)jj2 oSijy j]f \ ' ' L C^ 
•JtlS J~vjl uUjI J I !~« Jj^23 ^ . j^ 4l)l J Li 

IForrfs. 1. m den, cave. 2. dinden, cMqmaq to go out of 
religion = to forget God, to be angry. 3. bahaya chlqmaq to rise 
in price, to become dear. 4. hich oumouroumda de'yil I do not 
care a bit. 5. mill' net affliction. 6. tejribe it." vulg. tejrube to test. 
7. bouynouz horn. 8. i/ar friend; sweetheart. 9. gechmez spurious. 
10. maghrour proud. 11. moiikhalif contrary. 12. savourmaq to 
winnow; harman threshing floor. 13. duyun dernek wedding, feast. 

<U |5^ Conversation. 

r r 

^yA Ejvibe. <oL,\ Esile. 

1 Bal Yemez Oghlou a celebrated drunkard. 
Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 21 

»22 ^ urJ-> Lesson 46. r ** 

.4*.^ ls/o jlLg. .J*-? tf-j* *->? e ^ : &••*** drj^ 2j££~* 

j^\ } A^ Beading Exercise. 
oL> ^ A Psalm of Life. 

•Jui^.j '>Ub rf^'i ^ ! ^V 4* 1 ^JfP^ 1 lH V 

.jA^S Ji^ljl \-jIU *U ^^ 
. > 9 jol \jCZi JL>- a^ia^ U>. j ll^ r 

! Lll ojJU uUj uVjl 10 c^3 jV- ! oj— 4 ci-i^ 1 ^^^ 
.# .jc-jI dill L.I j-^r J •^<T^ a: - 

Words 1. elhan numbers^ songs; mahzounane mournful. 
2 rouya dream ; voAte nonsensical. 3. jid'di real 4. khitab oloiinmaq 
to be addressed. 5. harbgtah battle-field (§ o41). 6. p. j^>"»» 
hero 7. isttVjboi future. 8. qapilmaq to be deceived (to rely). 
9. nio*t past (§ 601). 10. p. stwoV living. 

rrr Nouns derived from Primitive Triliteral Verbs. 323 

! *d.l Jtl«l ojUjI • jJbl JUT ^^>- 
£)«UJ uJbl <^Ll>.! ,A>jo^ OL>- 'Jb^Mlu leb ' iJjojCblrb A 

11. fta& eefe'w surrounding (§ 620). 12. t. iz foot -print. 
13. a. p. qazazede shipwrecked (§ 535). 14. istifade et." to be 
benefited (§ 631). Mwnif Pasha a distinguished living Turkish 
author, poet and statesman; now in oblivion. 

4ilgC* oXl^ ^L- (t JbJ Conversation. 

^£ ^j^jw (j^^jl OJujL.^ liLa- ? ,i»oJ><' AjdJ oAIaIxj^*. ^f 


•JJli d|iji fljjjl J-ijl le^J 0j^?; ; ^-i-^ Jj»| o-Ljjjl 

villj^j u^-?^ oXS* A».^ixl\ ii^M tj>J\~.J>\> Ji^Jij (Jo-Xil o^*-jj 


324 «tV cr-J-5 Lesson 47. rth. 

iY u*^ Lesson 47. 

J^i *jj Arabic Participles. 

§ 600. The Arabic Participles composed from the 
Primitive Triliteral verbs are much used in Ottoman; 
they are six in number (§§ 395, 548 — 549). 

Subjective Participle. J^l* fV ^l 

§ 601. The Subjective Participle of the Primitive 
Triliteral Verbs, also called the Noun of Agency, is 

formed of the measure JSte faqil, i. e. by inserting an 

elif (-a-) between the first and second radical, and 
putting an esre (~i-) under the second radical: 

jJii- khalq creation: Vj^U- ! jj! U* Jchaliq creator. 
sirqat theft: *ij^r» ! Jj^ sariq thief. 


k_jLo Tcitab writing: V^.:j ' ^_.To hiatib clerk. 

J_«i /eeZ work: Vj_*J i J&Li fa^il agent, doer. 

§ 602. BemarJcs. a. If the second radical is ^ or 
j, it changes into (* , -y-) (§ 591). 

jj^ devr to turn: Vjji ! 

Jj\* = ^b dayir turning; about. 
0^*- seyelan to flow: Vj---- • Jj t— = J^~, s«?/*Z flowing. 

§ 603. b. When the first radical is elif, one of the 
elifs is omitted and a mee?c2 is put on the second elif 
(§§47, 701 d): 

j*\ emr to command: V^ \ • _^*U = ^»l amir a commander. 
o^j\ i%an to follow: V^l • ^J U = JH citi following. 

\ \ \ jc^A Exercise 111. 

Change the following Infinitives into Subjective 
Participles : 

rro Arabic Participles. 325 

[J? ' 

71 » < S ; '.-' « 9* -o ' • 10' < 11 f < 12 ," < 18 ." f . ,v C 

14' ~","k « 15 ,• " t 16'f ~ < 17 "\* \ I '" ' IS*/- t 19' ^i" 
C** <~J J~« Jj3 ^ 1/ It ' Ja^ J J^J U>- ♦ 

Words. 1. testimony, witnessing. 2. ignorance. 3. coldness. 
4. direction (director). 5. protection. 6. flowing, being current. 
7. arrival. 8. desire (desirous). 9. safety (safe). 10. science, 
knowledge. 11. necessity. 12. building. 13. religious warfare, 
[against non-Moslems] (a champion of Mahometan religion). 14. wor- 
thiness. 15. inclination. 16. willingness. 17. elevation, grandeur 
(high). 18. sermon (preacher). 19. crime (criminal). 

Objective Participle. J^uU f% ^,l 

§ 604. The Objective Participle of the Primitive 

yi* mefqoul. 
It is formed by putting a mini with ustun (me-) before the 

first radical and a j (-on-) after the second (§§ 402, 548): 

Ji3 qail to murder: V 3---^ * Jj- 1 -*- - WMMftoul murdered, slain. 

(jL*. Jchalq to create: V J^U- : ^j\^~* makhlotiq creature. 

w^o ketb to write: V l^JS ! i_j y^S mektoub written, letter. 

«ju-*-X^ khidmet service: V * jl». ! pjJ^s^. makhdoum one who is 

served; a son. 

§ 605. When the second or third radical is 

yk,« (-on-), are removed 
and esre (-i- -ee-) is retained: 

►Lj bina building: V Jj i t5j-l— * = ^-^ mebni built. 

' •- ^ -t/rrr > • - 

sL~j\jj rivayet to narrate: V <ij j ! iSsj^-* = i£jy* mervi told. 

oLj ziyade an increase: VjljjI -^J-* = -^J-* mezeed increas- 

\ \ X ^Ji« Exercise 112. 


Change the following infinitives into Objective 

326 «tV u-j3 Lesson 47. rr"\ 

J^J JI5 vlolg— cJv^>. C^J T JT ^ o^j) ^*} 

TTorcZs. 1. desire (desirable, nice). 2. wound (wounded). 
3. to reject (rejected). 4. sending (delegate). 5. joy (joyful). 
6. accepting (acceptable). 7. forbid. 8. obligation (obliged, thank- 
ful). 9. consent (pleased, satisfied). 10. to hide (secret). 11. seal. 

Adjective of Quality. ^JL* z^^> 

§ 606. This is called by the native grammarians 
Verbal adjective,' and implies the existence of an in- 
herent quality. It is formed in accordance with various 

measures, the most common of which is JJ5 faqeel, 
feqeel (§§ 437, 553). 

*> zaaf weakness: v <Jk.*^a ! iJL«,»o zayeef weak. 

la^t shejaat bravery: V«-l:i fr?** s ^J ee f- brave. 

JL*- jemal beauty: 'Vj-f 1 • JrT jemeel beautiful. 

§ 607. There is another one in the measure Jyj 
faqonl, the derivative of which are: 

j\*o sabr patience: V^w' Jj-^ sabour patient. 

j^J hased envy: Vj — =~ ■ ^— ^ hasoud jealous. 

— i — & ^ J „ [nignant § 40. 

Cilj ! <Jj\j ' *Jj-j ra'ouf kind, be- 

\ \ f /C %L5 Exercise 113. 

Change the following Infinitives into the Adjective 
of Quality: 

- „ i 11* -r ' < 12' 11 " ' 13° M ". -• " 1 li\ ' « 16 e „ '* r 

TTords. 1. to anoint. 2. facility (easy). 3. greatness. 4. taste 
(delicious, tasty). 5. youth (young). 6. nobility. 7. nearness. 
8. beauty. 9. greatness, pride (great). 10. truth; health (true). 
11. hurry, haste (hasty). 12. mission, legation (apostle). 13. bra- 
very. 14. weakness (weak). 15. diligence (diligent). 


Arabic Participles. 



Adjective of Colour and Defect, ^ys, j J\J\ 

§ 608. This is properly ranked with the Adjective 
of Quality, and is regular in its formation on the 

measure jiil ef'qcil ; the Fern. Measure being *>&• 

^ o > 

o^-a" lioumret redness: 


(thmer red. 

^Lj beyaz whiteness: 


ebyaz white. 

L. £• amya blindness: 



a?ma blind. 

:>lj— sevad blackness: 

Vs" ■ 

■>3— I 

esced black. 

2*j\jf- liamaqat folly: 


ahnutq foolish. 

i;^-i^ sou fret yellowness: 

V-'- ■ 

es/^r yellow. 

1j^-w~ sumret brownness: 

V^.'- i 


esmer brown. 

Noun of Sup< 


§ 609. This is formed by the measure &l efqal. 

The difference between this and the above mentioned 
measure of Colour and Defect is that, the latter is used 
especially to denote colour and defect. But this is used 
either for the superlative and for the comparative degrees 
of adjectives (§§ 222, 539) : 

j^ kebeer great: Vjia ■ -J^\ ek'ber greater, greatest. 
jWj sagheer little: V^Lo • ^-*>1 esgher less, lesser. 
§ 610. The feminine of this form is Mli or 
Lli fouqla: 


^S^ kebeer: Ji»\ = j*STV- £& = \$Jto k&b'ra greater. 


ja tfewee low: V<ii i JJLil = ujr) erf'wrt lower, lowest. 

- - - ' -• • > 

>Lai = L.o dun yd lower, lowest; the world. 

\\t p\»> Exercise 114. 

Change the following words in accordance with the 
above-mentioned two measures: 

328 «uv o-J^ Lesson 47. rYA, 


- ' l e , . i' ( 2° , v f i 3V . ' i 4 i 6 .- i 6° > < 7 

" 1 I • 1* 2 At d I I 4 ' ° « '' e ' 7 t« ' * 

^^a5 J*^ (*J^ o . f-^-> -J-^-*' 0**"*" f-^ 

1 r'' 9t " i 10 -Ml* „ ( 12 I I 13 - ( U' , 

Words. 1. eminent; proud. 2. necessary. 3. ignorant. 
4. merciful. 5. remarkable. 6. beauty. 7. great. 8. high. 
9. middle. 10. poor. 11. priority. 12. safety. 13. true. 14. former- 

The Noun of Excess. J^lj *iJL* 

§ 611. The most common form is J\L$ feqqal, 

formed by putting an ustun on the first radical, by 
doubling the second, and putting an elif after it: 

j>jz dcvr to turn: V jji ! j\ji dev'var one who turns rapidly, 


-J& Urn knowledge: V lit 5 p)te *al'lam All- Knowing, omni- 

^5j ra#s to oscillate: V ^^j • ^L»j raq'qas pendulum. 

§ 612. If nouns of this measure are formed from 
words denoting materials, they form nouns which denote 
persons habitually engaged in certain occupations: 

La» khaff a shoe: vLJjL>. ! uiliA. khaf'faf a shoe-seller. 

° '\°-' i. 7 / var io u 8 kinds -i/V-' « u"-" 7 ' 7 

^Ijlj oagta | |- g ra j ns . V Jjlj . JUj oaqqal a grocer. 

ji gcfcas silk : V Jjj ! j|jJ qiiz'zaz a silk-merchant. 

\ N JijJ Exercise 115. 

Change the following words into Nouns of Excess: 

8 ] ." < 9 ' - i 10 » - i ll^ij'- l 12 • " t 18" - ' 14 ^ A ' < 15 

Won7s. 1. burden. 2. husbandry (an [Egyptian] villager). 
3. forgiveness, pardon. 4. journey (traveller). 5. rose -geranium 
(perfumer). 6. cloth (linen-draper). 7. changing money (money- 
changer). 8. to create (Creator). 9. force, tyranny. 10. joking. 
11. shampooing the body in the bath (shampooer). 12. hunting 
(hunter). 13. favour, bounty (All-Bounteous). 14. to serve (a 
Christian deacon [Aramaic]). 15. picture (painter). 

rr^ Arabic Participles. 329 

^ \ *\ Ju> Exercise 116. 

Ascertain the nature, meaning and the measure of 
the following words: 

ojL- (jujL- Oyj^ jj\5jL- JSjy—* O^jj— « j* I jui 
ulA*' Oj^ ' l ^ c j»jU,« aAc-i ^1p +y.c- lie vI^U^U.4 

*-X^ ' J*. kht of: w 'Xnr ' J j>r ' £c*~*' dvj~»j 
\ i «. \i ; io * i ' • " ' ii . • i ; i f ; 

12 I . I . i m . . 13 J - J . < 

t - I 14, •' i , » - * , ° - < » - I' i f 

\ \ V 4j?~J? Translation 117, 

Give the Arabic equivalents of the following words. 
1. One who cuts, cut; 2. hearer, hearers, heard, things 
heard; 3. wounder, wounders, two wounders, wounded, 
wounded ones; 4. wisdom, wise, two wise men, wise 
peoples, known, knowledge, informations (Turkish pi.), 
wiser; 5. to sit, council; 6. to judge, judge, judges, 
court, condemned, condemned people; 7. greatness, 
great, greater, greatest; 8. to create, the Creator; 9. to 
cook, kitchen, cook; 10. ignorance, ignorant, unknown 
(doubtful), very ignorant, ignorant persons, unknown 
things. 11. The Anointed One, Messiah (Christ). 

^ \ A +\1* Exercise 118. 

\ - 

• Ojl *■ ? jj^4 jlj jjj^ J! Jfb ^.J^^ ^^ ^lS-^*' ^J^ V 
^jL~o <Cjj 4 ^1« 4j l^>-<!L*/y <UJI J \J+~"iyy ey^-oJJ^^jl) (J»4l_>^ 

330 «uV o-j^ Lesson 47. rr* 

JtT Y . «jj^j ^^iL J-lL 41 lie ' 034^43Ub 4» 

dl» • vL_w>l ,a_- ^Jjl bl dl>» a . lies jjj^U. J^ iW 

♦ j^ »-£ *— i^l^S I *lj^j\>- n * »jLL>- ij-6**- <u~,UI «.5lj &2>tJL? 

\ \ ^, 4^" J? Translation 119. 

1. What are you doing? — I am writing a letter 
to your son. 2. It was narrated by the ancients that 
this bridge was built by the Romans. Is that certain? 
— 3. No, Sir! it is doubtful, it is not certain. 4. What- 
ever you have told in secret, will be known to all the 
world. 5. The Apostle says: c Be glad and joyful'. 6. The 
delegates were not accepted by the King. 7. God is 
benignant and patient towards all his creatures. 8. All 
the creatures in the world were created by God. 9. The 
blind man was very foolish. 10. He is a brave man 
but very jealous. 11. The pendulum of the clock is 

<U^s^ Conversation. 

<*j»-\ Ejvibe. t)L«\ Esile. 

>Jj± Jaclj JfT^ 9-Cw ^lljl ? Jjp O^oj ^**U- Jji>-Jl J\ 

jj^-jijU Jjl]]>. o-bj; JrAisl ^- jlSo <-^-^ j: o^jLJIj ^ , 


Arabic Participles. 


.ji **i**l j\ j\' cjt f^ <3jl 

?j-)u* Jilt t^cJo tfl ji- 

CI - 

15 rt-A*t Reading Exercise. 
^tsw—J oX—ll <c— A Litany of Praise to God. 

< 17 

— r — 

I 16 

< 18 


24 : 

I ■ 23 . < 9 i. < 22. 

* 27 .«ih i . P^\\ 26 - - 25 . * 

C-AJUjl L >Ol> 4jjJ^3 J^J^. 


< 3 

I 1 

' 15 « I - . o 14: ."*• ♦ t I 

i 32. -T 31 < 30 




TPords. (0 1. Tesbeehat' fern. pi. of tesbeeli (§ 615), lit. c to say 
subhari alldh\ i. e. Praise ye the Lord. 2. kereem gracious. 3. rahim 
compassionate. 4. moujibi hayat who grants the life : moujib causing, 
giver; hayat life; Allah Ta-a-la God the most High. 5. iAsan 
kindness; lateef All-Gracious (a. q. of I out f grace). 6. 'a-la excellent. 
7. yine, gine again. 8. terahliiim et." to be merciful. 9. great. 
10. niymet kindness, mercy. 11. sufficient. 12. jeleel All- 
Glorious. 13. teshekJciir et." to thank. 14. ashq love, loving- 
kindness. 15. qourban sacrifice. 

(f) 16. All-Gracious. 17. abundant. 18. rahman All-Merciful, 
Compassionate. 19. creator. 20. derd affliction ; derman remedy. 
21. teham-mul patience, forbearance. 22. holy. 23. light. 24. melik 
king. 25. haddsiz infinite. 26. qoudret power. 27. malik possessor. 
28. salik walking; te-en-ni it." to wait patiently (§ 623). 

(r) 29. omnipresent. 30. All-Seeing. 31. present. 32. her an 
always (her -f- an time). 33. men nan All-Bounteous. 

332 i.A ^j.} Lesson 48. rrr 

3 8 '" ** 

34. 7mfcm condemnation. 35. mustahaqq deserving of. 36. 'fte'n 
for ifcew while. 37. biljumle all. 38. Uharinun et." yearning fond- 
ness; to love, to pity. 

Note. The numbers 3, 19, 27—30 are Subj. Part.; No. 31 
Obj. Part.; No. 2, 5, 9, 12, 16, 22 Adj. Qua!.; No. 6 N. Excess.; 
No. 33 N. Superiority; No. 8, 13, 21, 28, 38 of the measure (bob) 
tefaqqoul (§ 622). 

iA ^J$ Lesson 48. 

The Derivative Triliteral Infinitives of Arabic. 

A3 Jo *yA /J^J jJUa^ 

§ 613. The Derivative Triliteral Infinitives (Masdari 
Sidasiyi Mezcedun feehi) are those words which are 
formed by the insertion or addition of servile letters to 
the root to form new verbs with certain changes of 
meaning. The meaning of the Simple or Primitive 
Infinitives may be extended or modified in various ways 
by the addition of one or more letters to the root 
(§ 288, 588). 

§ 614. There are nine measures (Bab) of these 
Derivatives much used in Ottoman, the first of which is 
the second voice of Infinitives ; the first voice being the 
Root of the Primitive Infinitives (§§ 272, 585 a). 

II. J-«Lj = J-JwJ tefqeel. 
§ 615. This measure is formed by prefixing the 

letter £j te to the radical and putting a long ^ -ee- 

after the second letter. 

It intensifies the meaning of the root and makes 
the meaning, if intransitive, transitive: 

J ^JjJ* khavf et.' fear (intr.): X'Ljj^- ! v-*j=e.J takh-veef to terrify. 

cJUei hhejalet shame: V'3i-*- • Jfep&J takh-jeel to make 
„ i :, " " . ^ ashamed. 

JxJ- shelcl form, shape: V 3^-^ • Jr^-~-" tesh-Tceel to form. 

rrr The Derivative Triliteral Infinitives. 333 

§ 616. If the last letter of the radical be a j or 
^ it changes into d l 4. ' 4, -ye: 

^>j flyj saf'vtt purity: V jj~^> '. (j.^aJ) = 4 — L*aJ tasfeei/e to 

oy gowi/flet power: \ j jJs ! (j_ijJL~) = -o Jj" taqveet/e to 
*/7T — ""'•- . J"".^- strengthen. 

«■ Li j ma satisfaction :v u ^>5 • C^^J) = ^-rf^;-" tarzeeyS 


§ 617. Some other nouns also are formed in 
accordance with this measure: 

<jy?w te'jribe temptation : <*y^ tefriqa a feuilleton. 
*>Jy tehlike danger: ojJU taqdime offering. 

ojTjJ tezkire memorandum; a short letter; note; a passport. 

^ Y ♦ Ju> Exercise 120. 

Change the following Primitive Triliterals into the 
second voice of Derivative Infinitives: 

. t 1 . \ y t 8" ♦.",.-' < 3 J f„ < 4 , f .- < 5 ° " > * < 6 ' ' < 7' ." K^ ' < 

s" s-v - « 9° • " « ' io ; - - < ii« S . * ii"„- i ' « 1» . |"" ' " >- ; 

^5 j>- ^5 j— J^~^ C**>- ^oL^ j^Ij jXS 

1 4 a '. i - ^ i 15 s ■: ' . i 16 ' i 17' M 'j < 18 '■ I ' <^V t 19',, ',-. ' 

4J I *>- JlAJ J ^3j O »L- Ju-Xs» ^O y ^ >ULi • 

TTo?*^. 1. reach (to communicate). 2. to accompany. 
3. scarcity (to diminish;. 4. fault (to cause to fail). 5. coldness (to 
make cold). 6. distance. 7. tranquility (to calm). 8. motion to 
excite). 9. honour (to honour; to visit). 10. bequeathing, advice 
(to advise, recommend). 11. lightness (to lighten). 12. truthful 
(to affirm). 13. white (to copy fairly). 14. to refer, to confide 
(to change; a draft, a cheque). 15. ornament (to adorn) 16. to 
nourish education . 17. condolence. 18. new. 19. good news. 

III. <d&lL« = is Xza m/Cifaqale. 

§ 618. This measure is formed hy prefixing a 
mhn with eotre (mil-, niou-) to the first radical, by 
inserting elif after the first (-a-) and a he (-e, -et) after 
the third of the radical letters. The noun thus formed 
conveys the idea of reciprocity. For some changes 
see §§ 705 c, 706 b. 

._j^o darb to strike: V^^i <ujLa^ mudarebe to fight. 

334 H.A u-J-> Lesson 48. rri. 

vjL-^--5=..^ soulibet conversation: Vw*-3&-*3 • 4-ja-La.* tnousahabet to 


Jli gaiZ to kill: V JjJ • 4JJUL. mouqatele to 

kill each other, massacre. 

\ Y \ ,Jt«J Exercise 121. 


Change the following Primitive Triliteral Infinitives 
into the third voice: 

c \" " t i . "~ < 2 ° " t 3' ' •' ,>U* »'. '5,,.'' < 6° *" i" . < 7 K -i ->• i 
J JO ^U* JL^P- sl^yO»- C^-* } <j\-*f- O^tj f^T 

8 i" M ' 9°t. . '10 s "ill .f- < 12° ^-- > U3 , ( 13 ' ' ( 14' ^ . 

f-U iai>- «— > ±}j 5^>- ^y>- ^Jj^ ^Jl* 

TFords. 1. a measuring (to compare). 2. a covenant (treaty). 
3. enmity (contention). 4. separation (to depart). 5. knowledge 
(a being mutually acquainted). 6. more (an auction). 7. speech 
(conversation). 8. quarrelling (to q. with each other). 9. to keep. 
10. to buy. 11. to leave (armistice). 12. decree. 13. war. 
14. partnership. 

IT. J\lil '== JSrt ifqal. 

§ 619. This is formed by putting an 1 with esre 

(i-) before the root, and another elif (-a-) between the 
second and third radicals. This gives a transitive sense 
to intransitive verbs and a doubly transitive or causal 
sense to those which are already transitive (§§ 262 — 263): 

J^io doukhoul to enter (intr.): Vjio ! JUoi idkhal to cause 

> > \I77> ^° " *° en ^er, push. 

jjj-* miirour to pass » : V jj^ ' j(jA imrar to cause to 

>> \l^^~ " . pas8 ' 

u-^i-a- jiilous to sit » : V Lr .L». 'o->^-l i;7res to seat. 

§ 620. If the second radical be aj or <£, (-V-, -//-) 
it is omitted and a o ' 4. ' 4 (-e) is added at the end : 
o^-t arw help: V^ ! ( d\j-^ = ) "^^ *ya«^ to help. 

tjl ^n.L tayran to fly: V ^*i*'(jL-M =) ojlM ttar£ to cause to 


§ 621. If the first letter of radical be j (-*'-), it 
is changed into ^ (-y-) : . 
J^-*?j> rusoul to arrive: V^^J ■ ( jC>jl = ) jCa\ i//saZ to send. 

rro The Derivative Triliteral Infinitives. 335 

\YY Am Exercise 122. 

Change the following Primitive Triliteral Infinitives 
into the fourth form of Derivative Triliteral Infinitives : 

8° e .'i9 (.", i 10 " ; 11 '' i 12 |i> ( 13 s ' * 14 *> < 15 < 

Jaf J'JJ J~« UC.5 J^ JJ2 Z/^ J ^ J 

16 >> J17 1 ' ; 18°"' i 19 ^. ? i 20 ,« < 21 " t S i 22° ' ° ' 

TFbrrfs. 1. arrival (reaching, arriving). 2. to go forth (to 
issue). 3. to fall. 4. to astray (to lead astray). 5. business (to 
occupy, to busy). 6. improvement (to improve). 7. to appear 
(to show). 8. bounteous gift (to pour out, to produce). 9. dis- 
appearance (to remove\ 10. inclination (incline). 11. debt (to 
lend money). 12. length (to lengthen). 13. to turn (to manage; 
to economize [money]). 14. distinction (to explain). 15. existence 
(to invent). 16. to arrive (to put forward, to adduce). 17. reso- 
lution (to send). 18. annihilation (to murder, kill). 19. heart, 
mind (to explain to). 20. complete. 21. fire. 22. return. 

V. J*o = Jiai tefaqqonJ. 

§ 622. A class of verbs which are often Intransitive is 

formed by prefixing a £j (te-) to the radical and doubling 

the middle letter with an eotre: 

a/ 77 ^ " ft " - * 
c~>jjya souret image: X jj^o- jj^aJtesdv'votir imagination. 

JLJ taleem to teach: V Jlc ! «Jl«J te^al'lum to learn. 

JlJ tesleem to hand over: V .JL- ' pX—J testl'lfim to accept. 

§ 623. If the third radical be j or ^ (-V-, -i-) the 
<?o£re of the measure is changed into esre (-?): 

jS^> binou son: V j-j ! ^_xJ tebinni to adopt a son. 

o^jLo denayet meanness: VJ^' <jj^ Uderini retrogression. 

J j ragi rising high : V J j \ J?jj teraq'qi progress. 

\ Y Y" Am Exercise 123. 

Change the following words into the fifth form: 

336 •uA u"J* Wesson 48. rri. 

-* - o t>^ <-'* ^« • „ ^"J 

8 \ ," • •" t 9 ,; i 10 ',.'' 11 °« < 12° . -"J < 13- > - i 14 "7 ;>• t 

Wonr7s. 1. to increase (to be increased). 2. pride (to be proud". 
3. to load (to support, to be patient). 4. to shape, to form (con- 
formation). 5. to change (to be changed). 6. a giving possession 
(to receive and take possession). 7. to render stationary; an official 
report (to be stationary, established). 8. a Christian (to become 
a Christian). 9. to chastise, punish (to be polite). 10. to marry 
(to take a wife, marriage). 11. to teach (to learn). 12. sorrow 
(to regret). 13. enemy (to persecute). 14. speech (to speak . 
15. familiar intercourse (to unite in friendship; to compile). 16. com- 
fort. 17. wife. 18. collection. 19. remembrance. 20. complaint. 

Ai) Words. 


a - — \ j\j.\ ibraz et". to show. a. — \ *ol7 te-e-diye et."\ 

) to pay. 
a. — | ftU**i imza et" . to seal. a, — 1 «- Uj \ iyfa et." 

a. — I JL-j| irsal et" . to send. a. — 1 «- Ua&\ ita et." to give. 
<Sjj>^» oVjU* mouqavelat mouharriri Notary public. 

\ t i Ju» Exercise 124. 

a^j^- oVjll* fJjo^l ju: j xj£- J$~pj (^X'il j»-U- 1* »l£j^ 

-' „ »» [♦. •♦ l^»«v • •» •« •• 

4)Aj • 1j ,o!>t ,£jl -^3 Oj2 ^ •jXcS* /4 ~-4) ^ U 1 jO «J.J^ 

4*j : JLj ^t uji ' J^ 1 UJ 1 : Jjll J^^j Oj^ — ? J-> (iJ^— • 

rry The Derivative Triliteral Infinitives. 337 

•J^Jol dL ^ a^lj U^ «V di_>-oJ)l Ol5^--J ,C-J-X->- vlijjAjil 
•^JL^y (Jj-Ad^ 4~U-UCj j 4— Jj «© t£Jjl «^JL*^ J-V3 jl ^^ 

\ Y <U>- y Translation 125. 

1. The education of children is a very important 
matter. 2. I adorned my room with the pictures of 
my friends. 3. We are all invited to be the children 
of God. 4. He was not progressing but retrogressing. 
5. I have no complaint against him. 6. Many of the 
people of China have become Christians. 7. Two more 
pages were added to our lesson. 8. Be patient to all 
complaints of the enemy. 9. I gave him possession of 
the house and he possessed it. 10. I punished the boy 
with great sorrow. 11. The pupil had no ability to 
solve the question. 12. Nasreddin Effendi was teaching 
and the children were learning. 13. The birds are 
flying in the air. 14. I have no money to help you with. 
15. I am very sorry to have kept you waiting so long. 

<U^ Conversation. 
<>j>-\ EJvibe. aju-1 Esile. 

. aJJL\ J;*^ ^UjJ J ! f Alii ^Lj\ <K^-^J <iV^ O^Jj-xz* J-X^JCj] 

si! ' <0-^-j\ f* 4 ^} fO^i l$J&-Jb- A . a ,^i T 4j-j^i j^J \ (J^JIJ* 

• eS-*Jjl p>\> *~J^ *t* * (fi- 3 ' t5^^\ f>M <>•£ (ij_xjj3 JX1< 

. ,o*M {JLj >U^! r JJii ojl ? ^ j^jJT ^_L: ^Jl^l ^^ 

Turkish Couv. -Grammar. 22 


c}\} ^ 

338 «uA u~J> Lesson 48. rrA 

• J>J\J J-**- J^*-> : ^-^ ^J\ ^j 1 . o±<>J^* (3 d -^^ J ^?- 

. jWtIju talc ' j^S 4jjW- ? o* ^-? 

J Reading' Exercise, 
jfc-p Friendship. 

JaJj ' 2 jjJCU.-3 c^lj \j^J^> *A ^Ji ^^- *1~"-P J^U 

4»A*~jf oT c£-~»} jii-p ^j>- • j-Ut3 v^-j^ c-j^ j^ U.3 

' ^jjJaJl, ^J fif JVji J— j*js uoU ^ 7 J^* . jjiji 6 jUA j 

OJal 10 ^o? JJ^ oJJoU) Jjjj- J 9 J^ c&j-W ' £>"**» 

Words. 1. khazine treasure. 2. qiymetli precious. 3. 7tadir 
rare. 4. a7i6a?> friends. 5. neqadar . . . olqadar the more . . . the 
more ... 6. paydar firm, enduring. 7. /as$J virtuous. 8 tesliyet 
comfort (§ 616). 9. taqlil, takhfif to diminish, to lighten. 10. tez- 
yeed to increase. 1.1. aqval words; mesh'hour remarkable, famous. 
12. shourout conditions; esasi fundamental. 13. hum good; tevej'juh 
sympathy. 14 Icemal perfection; emniyet fidelity. 15. khoidous 
sincerity = a sincere heart. 16. sadaqat faithfulness. 17. heen 
time, hajet want = in case of necessity. 18. feda-lciarliq self-denial. 

4&a oXlc*- J;L -*U Conversation. 

rr\ The Derivative Triliteral Infinitives. 339 

*Z~fc* J J^~.jz ^l Jj* & ! p*i-j ! J-^ji j£~J* ^ A-il <^jl 

J-iLa J J^jl3 J^ ! »XJ\ Ojl (^JjjJjl Jill vlL iljl— j:> ^a»- 

°-J^ -* (^ f°^ ^Vji ^— J- 5 j: fry &£* ^ ? J^-s 1 J&± 

? .1*1 4 

>•" • "." - . ... > 


Uj^l *^*-M J^jJ^ ^i}JJj — a :<JLj1 — ojJLd w »0 oJJLJUj L>JJr— 

- > 

>li. <u~- )ry o-JJjj ! A-Llil J|ii- ?jJw ajjLa- 2jjVl UJl (^"j.* A^ 

.j.>.t»-:i| olij (o 1VVA) 

TFbrds. 1. hakee'mi mumayileyli the above mentioned 
philosopher, he. 2. e?-arc now, at present. 

^ u^l> Lesson 49. 

The Derivative Triliteral Infinitives. (Continued.) 

VI. JpUj = J*Uj tefaqoul. 
§ 624. Reciprocal verbal nouns are also formed 

by putting Cj (£e-) before the root and an elif {-a-) 

after its first radical: 

. ^ - ^ - /~ ^ - . > ^ , 

yL~jU=_*fl sahabet protection: V ^_,^c-^>' ,_-.>. LcJ festthoiih to protect. 


340 •:.*, U "J-> Wesson 49. ri.» 

*-ki ga£ to cut: V *-Ls i *J»liJ teqatou' to cut each other. 

^»_*i qou'oud to rest: \ i«.^ .LpIju teq<Vond being pensioned. 

§ 625. If j or ^ be found at the end of the root, 

it is changed into ^ and the eotre also into esre: 

*lkc 'ata giving: V .k& ! ^1-*^ te'afi delivering over to one 
«/7=7 '„„ another, to interchange. 

Jj reZi to be behind: V "Jj ! JljJ te'tfaM succession. 

iljS tferfc to attain: V 2lj^ ! i)j\Ju tedarik to procure; prepare. 

\ T *\ ^U Exercise 12G. 

Change the following words into the sixth measure: 

1%. " "/ « 2 i e ." t 8 ,u ' 4 s , "", " < 5°, f i 6 . °." t 7 .5*." 

»_j ^) L^j «.) b 4_* wL^? JjO -Ti*~Jt «2AJ • 

Words. 1. aid, help (mutual help). 2. generation (genitary). 
3. a servant (a becoming consecutive). 4. collision (collision, shock). 
5. distance (to be distant). 6. to change, transform (metempsychosis, 
transmigration of soul). 7. to destroy, violate (contradiction). 

VII. JUo I = J&ul infiqal. 

§ 626. This measure is formed by prefixing o\ (in-) 

to the root and inserting an 1 (-a-) after the second radical. 
It is necessarily Intransitive or Passive in signification: 

a-ks qaV to cut: V*ii l . c-LkUl inqita' to be cut, 
^- ^ ._ ^- " o " interrupted. 

pj> zawiwi to add: V^~Js i^U-^-H inzimam to be 

" added, addition. 

p ... 9 ' »1 ... b H inqisam to be se- 
" parated, separation. 

\TV ^U Exercise 127. 

I " 
Change the following Primitive Infinitives into the 

seventh measure of Derivative Triliteral Infinitives: 

l • i l" i~ t 2°. ~ i 3 :1 ' 4 s . - t 5" " * 6* . ' i 7 ' > « 8 a ; " c 
J*a* , ^A3 JU «_0 ^^ ^^ J>- j~5 ^J^->- 

9 " a" ( lo'.-' t 11 J ' J 12°. „ ' i 13 J <^" '14° "i i ' 


The Derivative Triliteral Infinitives. 


Words. 1. change (changing, revolution). 2. binding (to be 
obedient). 3. to expel. 4. to grasp, hold (constipation). 5. a pouring 
(a stream's flowing). 6. solution (to be untied). 7. to break (to 
be broken). 8. attraction ^to be attracted). 9. gladness (to be 
cheerful). 10. to tie (to be gathered). 11. to pull down (demolition). 
12. defeat (to be crushed). 13. reflection. 14. restricting. 

Till. J&I =Jfei^ iftiqal. 

§ 627. This measure is formed by prefixing an 

1 (/-) to the first radical, and by inserting O (-/£-) after 

the first, and I (-a-) after the second radical. It is 
necessarily Intransitive or Passive in signification: 

%.?■ jem 1 to collect: V 
.^cJ fakhr pride: 

«.«- '. &L-^>-l bftima* to be gathered, 
.2tl_ ^— ^- collection. 

V^?ii ' jlic-li^ iftikhar to be proud of, 

to boast. 

§ 628. According to the laws of euphony some 
changes take place when the O is inserted. 

a. If the first radical be J? ' ^ ' 'o the letter sl> 
is changed into _U . 

b. If the first radical be j or ;>, the additional Zj 
is changed into ^. 

c. If the first radical be I or j, it is changed into : 

^*-vs> sabr patience: 


( jLl*3 

Jl—^| = 


V > — j ,_*a : (v — A^A+a\ — 


»ar: Vj 

c-jJd» toulou' to appear: V*J_» : ( ^ >L^| = 
^-^-j zalunet trouble: Vl^j: ( * Ujjl = 
lijci datfti a law suit: Vjco ! (jl_«o! = 
oj\>'± zakhire provision: V^o : (jUj:>\ = 

J^-l aA7«^ taking: 
OJo-j) vahde't unitv 


■J^J • ( :>Ujjl 

jL-k-*^ istibar. 

^»\J^o\ iztirab 

/ , " anxiety. 
*&*-J*\ itfihfl. 

*l>o jl^ izdiham 

" a crowd. 

«■ lco\ iddVato 

„ " m "maintain. 

jL>-il iddikhar 

to store up. 

JjlWJl ittikhaz 

to take, to adopt. 

^Udl^ ittihad 

342 <i.^ Lr .ji Lesson 49. rtf 

\ Y A ^ A»" Exercise 128. 
Change the following Primitives into Derivatives: 

'\ i 1 f '" t 2 f. i3 i." ( 4 - ' 15 f. .' c 6 . -" I 7* ;. ( 8° " "• ( 
9° V. ' 10 3 •" 'U I '1 ' 12\. 7. 1 18* if ." c 14' "J'15 ^ "i /" * "\ 

Words. 1. to fasten, bind (connexion). 2. choice (to choose, 
prefer). 8. to scatter, to publish (to be spread). 4. to refuse 
(apostacy). 5. order (regularity). 6. to bind, tie (creed). 7. trouble 
(trial, examination). 8. wife (marriage). 9. many, much (growth). 
10. to suit, agree (concord, alliance). 11. a root (to be united). 
12. travelling (to travel; to die). 13. disorder. 14. honour. 15. need. 

IX. J&il^ = ifqilal. 

§ 629. This measure of Derivative Infinitives is 
used to express a colour or quality, as the adjective 

&l efqal (§ 608). It is made from this form of adjective 

by doubling the last radical and inserting an elif be- 
tween them. 

jj- \ alimer red: j\\-**\ ihmirar to become intensely red. 
$y~>\ esved black: M:>j.~l isviddd » » » black. 

k_; a>. \ ahdeb humpbacked: ^Lj^I ihdiba b to be hump-backed. 

X. JQlJ = J\akJ istifqal. 

§ 630. By putting the syllable z*~>\ [isti-) before 
the root and an ! (-a-) after the second radical, a verbal 

noun is constructed which expresses asking for or 
demanding something designated by the primitive word: 

Jjk; noutq speaking: V jJa.1 : ^Ikl-L--^ istintaq interrogating. 
yz^s^j rahmet mercy: v^j • *\^ JL~\^ istirha mas king for mercy. 

§ 631. If the first radical be I or j, it changes into 
^ (-//-); and if the second radical bej, it changes into 
o ' < (-e -et -at) at the end of the word (§§ 620—621): 

T'i.r The Derivative Triliteral Infinitives. 343 

• .* . . \l~~ <> ' < ' 

tjil Mfri permission: Vo->\ : ( O'-^j- 1 — I, — ) ul-^r-— j, istiyzan 

to ask for permission. 

pQj^ tyfa to pay: V j j : ( 45 (sjJL— ^ = ) * U-JL— [_ is tip fa 

"to receive. 

vL-j-1j ra/ia£ rest: V t-jj • ( ^\jj^— \ = ) c-a^l j*— 1^ istirahat 

to take rest. 

fj^aj vitzouli plain: V ^Jjj ! ( t-I^jJL*. J^ = ) ■?-Ui r 'L-.\ > istiyzah' 

^— " ^~" "to explain. 

\ Y ^ ^7 Exercise 129. 

Change the following words into the tenth form: 

1 • (2. .1 13. i 4 I i 5 I '6 i '7 ' • « 8 - * 

^ i-Jjf 1 -^j > fLP ^'j*" (I^J^ tx^r"* 

1. understanding (to ask, interrogation). 2. hire, rent (to 
rent). 3. to return, refuse (to ask, to be restored). 4. knowledge 
(asking for knowledge). 5. continuation (perseverance). 6. answer 
(to question). 7. going out (to extract, to quote). 8. council. 

sIjUILm Muta-la-at Remarks. 

§ 632. It must be borne in mind that all Arabic 
roots of three letters cannot assume all the nine forms 
given above. Many have only a few of them: for 

instance Jlp *Um 'knowledge' can form the measures 
a%\ ' JUj ' rv io ' p^itiJ ' f5fckl ; but not such as <CJU« 

f 5LiV its. 

\r» ^U Exercise 130. 

1 " 

v . \ L5 -/ «• v J v 

m* -* v •* ** mm 

2 I A » I I ~1 1 

IPords. 1. mad'de case. 2. tgrrar f7." to confess. (VI. of qarar. 

344 »us wjy Lesson 49. rw. 

-^ 1 " J 

3. i/ar bedeli rent. 4. original. 5. to compare. 6. per- 
mission, pardon. 7. ability. 8. shrewdness. 9. endeavour. 

\V\ 4J?v Translation 131. 

1. He quoted 1 many passages 2 from the Old Testament. 

2. Did an} 7 injury happen through the collision of the 
two steamers? — Yes, Sir, one of those two steamers 
sank in five minutes. 3. Is the war ended? — No, 
Sir, there is only an armistice 3 of two months. 4. I have 
the honour to present to you my brother-in-law Tahir 
Bey. 5. The Alevi Mohamedans and the Yezidees believe 
in transmigration of soul. 6. The treaty 4 was written, 
signed and interchanged 5 between those two powers. 
7. Although there were five witnesses, yet there was 
contradiction in their testimonv. 

Words. 1. istilihraj, iyrad etmek. 2. ayetler, ayati berime. 

3. mutareke. 4. mou-a-hede. 5. ta-a-ti, mubadele St." 

4x|>.* Conversation. 

aUJjl c-^ 3 - 3-tJ^ ^'j^ '^J^ ^ J^^jTi.-^ v__A~lr (j-y^A f> 

>j - 

pUaill £yy ojuifC c$ju-i. ! />jJs\ ?jjJUi t$Ju-i J.U- «— L^* 

. ajJu\ rj_7 <M p-i^- 4.JL ?j^o^-Jb\ r^J-Ol -^ <M £ 

(iiUaJl <Sj\j* ilj*— ~&" J-f?^l' c^Wrl <SjSj* 4A~*-^ (if^-i^ **"■«£ 

ri.o The Derivative Trilateral Infinitives. 345 

• tSXU\ JJS-& 'S^^*\ d^\ ? J-> <i lS-t*- 

.JuJUJjI ^L-iil 7J-& c ji LJkUal ?jA_l>£J AjJ»-r>. *J^ s«Ul>.>» 

t -^> I 5 JjJ Reading Exercise. 
aJJ&>- ^j li True Nobility. 
fJjyjoX-tToLsl" ' OjJ&jija ^j^i fJj^j '^U f]f 

TFordfs. 1. mad' dee, manevee, a dee physical ; moral; ordinary, 
inferior (§ 579). 2. mahasal total, all (the world). 3. as-habi 
nejabet the possessors of nobility = nobles. 4. wesZ ancesters. 
5. mebdayi khilqat beginning of creation. 6. iysal it." to carry, 
to cause, to reach. 7. rivayat tiadition, folk-lore; esateer mythology. 
8. qat'i nazar leave it out of consideration, except. 9. bizje among 
us i. e. Ottomans. 10. tarikhen historically. 11. sabit fixed, proved. 
12. vaqayi events. 13. tatvil prolixity. 14. devleti Saffariye the 
Saffari dynasty of Khorasan. 15. tesKkil eden the founder. 16. liay- 
doud a brigand. 17. devleti Ghaznevi the Ghaznevide dynasty of 
Persia. 18. devleti Seljouqiye" the dynasty of the Seljuqs (in Central 
Asia and in Asia Minor). 19. azamet grandeur; ijlal magnificence. 
20. alemi siyaset the world of diplomacy. 21. madoud enumerated. 
22. asheeret a nomadic tribe, clan, qoja chief. 

346 ©♦ (_v-j3 Lesson 50. m 


*29.$|.t -♦Ml * L^-28 .a .i 27^/1 „• „ a^ 

23. ne hajet! what need is there? 24. insaniyet humanity 
(§ 581). 25. vast vast. 26. nfyis chief of a clan. 27. Tcesret 
abundance; futouhat victories (pi. of futuli). 28. misl equal. 
29. Timurleng Tamerlane. 30. Jengiz; nesl children, progeny. 
31. Atabeg^ 32. Eyoubiye, 33. Memalike the dynasties of Atabeg, 
Eyyoubi and Memlooks in Persia and Egypt. 34. baba yiyit a young 
man of full growth and strength. 35. eseer slave. 36. ma'rouf 
remarkable. 37. Tchanedan race, line; J£nde>eli Qara Halil. 38. See 
the first word. 39. f. softa student of Canon Law (Gr. goc'.^tyjc). 
40. chiftjizade the son of a farmer. 


l^i> Lesson 50. 

The Participles of Derivative Infinitives. 

§ 633. We have seen how the Subjective and 
Objective Participles are formed from the Primitive or 
Simple forms of the Infinitive (§§ 601, 604). We shall 
now consider the formation of both these Participles in 
the above mentioned nine Derivative Infinitives. 

§ 634. There are four rules which govern the 
formation of all these Participles of the nine Derivative 

a. The Participles of the verbs of the measure 
, \~»Z tefqeel are formed in the following manner: The 

r^v The Participles of Derivative Infinitives. 347 

servile letters Zj 1 i£ are dropped; a mim with edtre 
(a mu-, mow-) is prefixed to the remainder of the 

word: the second radical must be doubled by a sliedde 
( w ), and the last syllable must have an esre; this forms 
the Subjective Participle. 

To find the Objective Participle change the esre 
into ustun. (Vide No. II in the Table.) 

b. The Participles of the derivatives of the measure 

A&Xi* mufaqale are made as follows: Omit the last he 

(-e) and put an esre on the last syllable; this forms the 
Subjective Participle. 

Change the esre to ustun and you will obtain the 
Objective Participle. (Vide No. Ill in the Table.) 

c. The Participles of the remaining two measures 

beginning with Cj (te-), are made in the following way. 

Prefix a mim with edtre at the beginning and put an 
esre on the last syllable ; this is the Subjective Participle. 
To find the Objective Participle change the last esre 
into ustun. (Vide Nos. V and VI in the Table.) 

d. In those Infinitives which have an elif in the 
first and last syllables, the elifs must be dropped, a 
mim with edtre must be prefixed to the remainder of 
the word and the last syllable must have an esre. This 
forms the Subjective Participle of these derivatives. To 
form the Objective Participle change that esre into 
tistiln, (Vide Nos. IV, VII— X in the Table.) 

§ 635. The Participles of the Quadriliterals are 

made simply by adding a mini with edtre to the beginning 

and punctuating the last syllable with esre: this forms 

the Subjective Participle. Change that esre to ustun, 

vou obtain the Objective Participle. (Vide No. Q in the 


Note. Notice that JSton- initial is the sign of the measure 
Mufaqale (§ 618) and the Participles of Der. Inf.; while 3Ie-, Mi- 
is the sign of N. with mim and Mefoul (§§ 597, 604). 

\rY AZ Exercise 132. 

Form the Subjective and Objective Participles of 
the following words at the beginning of p. 350: 


o* ^-j^ Lesson 50. 


3 : No. , 

i— i 





The 23 mea- 
sures in the 
pp.314— 315. 

to create 






to bind 



nr. j, 




i , 
to tight 






to be 






to exceed 






to send 




^ — SJ) 

to be 

d < 

! VIII. 





to earn, 






to become 






to inter- 



!(')■](> me 



The Participles of Derivative Infinitives. 


Remainder Subjective Participle Objective Participle 


Khali q 

who creates, 






who binds, ! -LU&-« bound 


binder. „~-a-"iaj fvolume\ 

mujet led 

jjfee* • ^ belligerent. 


-J ise^ engaged 

in war. 








unite javez 



(J-j^r* j sender, 

M - . 7 addresser. 


at fusel 

j~*jr-* an envoy, 





!*—*-^ divided. 


who earns. 













■ > 

hi titer jim 




350 s* ^j^ Lesson 50. »"o* 

TFbrds. 1. to pension off (pensioned ofl). 2. to oppose 
(oppoing contrar/ 3. t0 Btop work, a vacation. 4. to arm 
a rmed). S. to become high. 6. sojourn (guest). ^ honour 
honorable) 8. to quarrel (quarreling; disputed). 9. to speak 
Weaker first person). 10. possession (possessor; governor 
K multiply '(numerous). 12. to search, examine inspector^ 
13. to question (a prisoner). 14. to write (writer, bitten,. 15. to 
arrange to compose (compositor). 16. hum.hty (humble). 17. to 
hasten (messing important). 18. to ornament. 19. to correct 
nroof reader). 20. to teach (teacher). 21. to finish (complete 
Sect 22 geometrv .engineer). 23. anxiety (naturally suspicous 
?4 magnificence (pompous). 25. a jewel, a pearl (set with pearls). 
it superscription (superscribed). 27. polish (polished). 

\ X"C ,»A«S Exercise 133. 
! f ail i,jl - » *m ^>' £>*- r • * -=^ ;'• * 

- ? ^ 3Uji jft-aj 3 fJ^" ^-« j: ^ ° ; r^ } \ 

! .ail Ojl — ? ^ i^« -^ J^J^ • J-^^ 1 ^'-J* 

TFoftfa. 1. muddet the length (of time). 2 badehou after- 
wards. 3. to procure, to find. 4. madaq^ (8ub. Part, of terfg.<r). 

rs % , The Participles of Derivative Infinitives. 351 


iJbl jvLJjl J^lj u^f^J^J 4-olijl j3U>i fJjlT3j> 

~-\ L> w „ v • -* « 

\rt A^j Translation 134. 

1. Who are your guests? — Mr. Gulian the Armenian 
teacher of the College, and Dr. Nahad the translator of 
'Hamlet'. 2. Who is the author of that remarkable 
dictionary 1 ? — It is the Rev. M. Aucher. 3. Have the 
inspectors come whom the governor wished to send? 

4. Though they have come, yet, having a very pressing- 
engagement 3 , they have not been able to do anything. 

5. Who bound the book you have in your hand? — 

Mr. Arshag, who is a very 4 skilful binder. 6. Are you 

able to speak good Turkish? — Yes, I have attained 5 

the ability 6 to do so through your kindness 7 . 7. What 

kind of a work 8 is the book which the engineer has 

written? — It is translated from the Armenian: it is 

an excellent (complete) work, illustrated 9 with numerous 

pictures. 8. Are the compositors, who are setting up m 

this book in Mr. Groos' printing-house, Armenians? — 

No, Sir, all the compositors at Mr. Groos' are Germans. 

1. loughet kitabi. 2. mustajil. 3. maslahat. 4. mahir, oustacL 
5. kisb et." 6. iqtidar. 7. sayeyi alinizde. 8. eser. 9. muzey'yen T 
mousavver (from te'zyin, tasveer). 10. tertib et.", dizmek. 

<U, |£^ Conversation. 

**fA EJvibe. <il— \ Ksile. 

©♦ u-J-i Lesson 50. ror 

i ojTj^j'jijJ.)^! JilJ Jj-f.ljl 4^5 ^,\ fJa^J J^J 1 ^ i3U^~- ^!jLL» 

/ > c _ > ■ ' y m 

* i - 

^^ I .9 j^JliJ Reading* Exercise. 
* e jb! J I- Administrative Councils. 

TFordfs. * Mejalisi Idare (pi. of mejlis). 1. a^a members (pi. 
ofow£v); tabiyiye natural (§§580,656); miintakhab chosen, elected 
(fayil of intikhab) 2. murek'keb composed (fayil of terkeeb). 3. hakim 
judge, a qadi (fayil of hiikni); nayib a judge-substitute (fayil of 
niyabet). 4. mufti the officer who answers questions in the Canon J 
Law of Islam (fayil of ifta). 5. defterdar, mouhasebeji, mal mudiri J 
the controllers of revenue and expenditure in Vilayet, Liva and 
Qaza. 6. mektoubjou, tahrirqt mudiri, tahrirat kuitibi the Chief 
Secretaries in Vilayet, Liva and Qaza. 7. muslim Moslem (fayil 
of islam); ghayri-miislim non-Moslem (§ 695 10 ). 8. roues' sa heads, 
chiefs (pi. of reyis). 9. rouhanee spiritual (§ 580 g). 

r»or Broken or Irregular Plurals. 353 

10. ibaret composed. 11. wis/" half. 12. intikhab et." to choose; 
election (VIII. of niikhbe). 13. ayid belonging (fayil of avdet). 

Note. Consult the Reading Exercise, page 126. 

^ cr^i> Lesson 51. 



Broken or Irregular Plurals. 

§ 636. The Regular or Sound Plurals are made 
(as we have seen) by the addition of jr, -een (m.) or 

CJ -at (f.) to the Singular, without any change in the 

structure of the words. But in the case of Irregular 
or Broken Plurals (Jem'i Mukesser) the structure or the 
form of the Singular is broken, as has been stated in 
a previous lesson (§ 571). 

It is impossible to give all the measures of Broken 
plurals here, because they are very numerous. But 
those which are in common use in Ottoman, may be 
formed into the following groups. 

§ 637. Nouns of the measures JS • *1S • J IS form 
their plural as follows: 

\ U 

§ 638. S. jS faql: Plural = J^S fouqoul: 


v_i^w harf letter: *3jj>- hourouf'. j>. hadd V:>-X>. boundary: 


jjj* hoadoud 1 : w— i 6e^/i house: C»j-u bUyout ! JJiJ wage? cash: 

> . > - *" > " ° -. > 

jjJJ nouqoud. ^ a right = J^JU- ! -k^-i a condition = -k?^-- • 

Turkish Conv. -Grammar. 23 

354 o) 0-j.i Lesson 51. ro\. 

§ 639. S. a. jf> faql I b. j£ faqal ! c. JS /igZ ! 

d. Ja5 fouql: PL = J&l e/gaZ: as: 

a. c^ij va^tf time: olij 1 e?;g«£ ! jjS devr ' ^_^& 'cwr 
century: jlj^ 1 'jL^a& | edvar ' 'asar l . i }SJt< shekl shape: Jt£_i 1 
esli-kfaV. oj colour: <j^l ! &^J : ©1^1 ' JU ( 'Sj-* ) : Jlj*l» 

b. !—'»..- sefrefr reason: ^_;L^\ esbab l - JJ>. khaber news: 
jLi-\ akhbar 1 . jJj -ye/ed son: :>Vj \ evlad^ ^^ number: :>|j*j . 

c. ^_jLl^ sCw/*, sCm/" class: ^JLl^>\ esnaf ! J_ol> <t/Z child: 
JU-t 1 etfal', at'fali j*Z poem : ^Uij '. ^^-i : j&-M opinion. 

d. vlAL. m#7fc property: i)>L« \ emlak t f*>-»- ftilfe/w decision: 
*Lx.»- 1 ahktam I jli- : J^-l moral ! ^j& oi&?u : *U»&| a'^a. 

§ 640. S. <dj£ fouqle, fouqlet: PL = JS fonqal: as: 

*Jt—J nfoskhe copy: *r, ...J nfisakh ' oj^j souret manner, way ; 
. _ > - >. • ->. • > • ^ > 

picture: j^» souver ! <0ii qoul'le tower: JU qotdel ! <U-»- : J-*-»- • 

§ 641. S. cJ& c cJLi /fyZ#: PL = J* /igaZ: as: 
sL. > *i niymet favour: p_«J niyam t viJL. millet nation: 
JJu mileV. o,/t '/feref example: ^ 'iber' *jJb belde : *% . 

§ 642. S. Jlj£ /egaZ and JlS /fyaZ: PL = '-JS! 
efqile: as: 

ijkj zeman time: <_1*3 1 ezmine times ' ^j* jevab answer: 
<j^s-l ejvibe ! />L*J» ta J am food: *.*-*M St-H'me l . ©l£* '<*JLil. 

§ 643. The plural of the Subjective Participles of 
the Primitive Triliteral Infinitives are formed on the 

following models; as: a. £ly ' b. JS ' c. 4JJ£ ' d. MJ£ 
fevaqil, fouqqal, feqale, fouqala: 

a. J=^ s«7i«Z sea-coast: PL — J^^~, sevahil sea-shores ! «l> 
jamV mosque: *.Aj>~jevami Ji . »»jU- janib side: ^\j»> jevanib. 

b. j^lJ iajir merchant: PI. = jU&T tfij jar l . ^U- hakim judge: 
*Ko- hoiik'kiam^ ^>U- ^a^r present: jUa>- houz'zar. 

roo Broken or Irregular Plurals. 355 

c. v_J£^ liiatib clerk: PI. = aZ$ ketebe clerks ! «jlT tabi* 
follower, servant: <*Zte-ba*a subjects ' Jjj\j varis heir: ^jjverese. 

d. jSlc 'aqil wise: PI. == >Ut 'ouqala wisemen i lit 'alim ' 

J^>li fa£t2 learned i \Ss. ' >\ ,a a oulema, fouzala doctors of Canon 

,.- > ^ > 

Law i ^feli shayir poet: |^»i shou*ara • J^U- = >^>- ircil^ = UJU . 

The Subj. Participles which end in ^ -i, form their 
plurals as follows: 

S. Jlj ra?i governor: PI. = SVj vCilat : *ilS #adi judge: 

SUJ qoudat • <ijlj historian = Sljj • ^Ic- a rebel = oU^ . 

§ 644. The plurals of the nouns derived from the 

Subjective Participle by the addition of © or * ' Cj (-e, 

-et) [§ 582], are formed according to the first measure 
fevaqil: as: 

a. <^JV lazlme necessity: PL = fjij-l iSvasim necessities \ 
o juG» fayide benefit = jJ^s fevayid • » Jlc-G* qayide a rule = 
Ac-lji qavaxjid ! ^_i!»l& 'atifet kindness = . *%0^ ' arat *f- 

b. oL mad'de subject = 3l^T mevadd' ! <-~ U- has'se sense 
= url^p- havass' ! <*sl>. khas'se peculiarity = ^\j.»- I'havass'. 

§ 645. The plural of the Adjective of Quality (§ 606, 
model U L-IJ) is formed on the model of a. Mli ' b. J& 
c. yj»\ f ouqala, fiqal, efqila: 

a. j^lj faq_ir poor: PI. = l^ii fonqara the poor i ^jj 

„ < > V^ 

wezi'r a minister of state = \jjj vuzera viziers, viceroys ' ^S.s- 

- y * r> 

hakeem sage, philosopher = L_x_=- hou~kem« ! ^vij = Uij. 

b. jy? fce&iY great = jLj kibar grandees ! sJ^Jcerim 
noble = Aj± Jciram ! -a=i felchim illustrious = ^U^ fikham. 

c. ojJ g«r<6 relative = C^il aqrtbff : v^-ioT habib friend 

= Uw| dhib'ba ! v_jJ» frf&/& physician = LL\ atib'ba ! ^J nebee 

prophet 5 Ljl enbiya ! ^-Ua = ISji^l ! ;i, = Lii.| . 


356 ©1 wj* Lesson 51. ro*\ 

§ 646. The plural of the nouns formed from Adjectives 
of Quality by the addition of » or a. ' O (-e, -et, -at) 

[§ 582] is made on the model J> u* feqayil; as: 

o^J> jezire island = J»ljrj« jezayir islands : <uJaj vazife 
duty = ^-fljllij vezayif ! c^^-ai nasihat advice = 7ejl*a; nesayiK ! 
<CJL- sSfine ship = ^U— sefayin ' <1jJ*- khazine treasure = ^O* 

khazayin ' v^.JLi>. = ,Jj Ua» • ^L-i = Jj L5 ! a1^^> = ■— aJ W.o . 

§ 647. The most important classes of nouns that 
form their plurals regularly are the Derivative Triliteral 
Infinitives and the Participles formed from those In- 
finitives. All these measures and their Participles take 

the plural in Cx. -een (m.) and ,1,1 -at (f.) [§§ 573—78]. 

The General Measure. 

§ 648. All original Quadriliterals and most words 
in which the Triliteral root is increased by one or more 
letters 1 , form their broken plurals on one and the same 
model, and this consisting of three syllables. The 
first of these syllables has an ustiin, the second takes 
an elif and the third has an esre for its vowel sound 

(.— \ — = -& -a -i-). If there is an elif or vav in 

the last syllable, it is changed into ye (-6 -a -ee); as: 

Singular sju% Milfred' Plural %jr Jem 

^.xJL_- memleket country: dJUlc-T memalik \ # 

\ * g 
o^d^*« ma'nfet knowledge: <_ijU. me'arif ) g •§ 

^_-ix* mekteb school: i^J&CT mekiatib J £ 

>—jj"~>>* mektoob letter: i^ju&T* mekiateeb q^qq^ 

Jj*j* mizmoor psalm: ~fy)J* *n6zamcer\ " artlc - 

9-ki« miftdh key: T*-?^ mefateeh' N.ofLoc. 

JjjJu tedbeer plan: j*jUj teclabeer The 

"" " } measure 

fuj^> tareekh date; history: f^>j\^ tevareekh'i tif-qeel. 

y^s\ csgher lesser: J^"\ tsaghir N. of Superiority. 

1 i. e. the Nouns with Mim (§§ 597—99), the Primitive Obj. 


Broken or Irregular Plurals. 


.' The measure 
| fmiqlan. 

-t-i CD 

<jUaL. soultan Sultan: 0^>U selateen 

jjtf- jumhoor republic: ^t^f j^mftheer 
+j£\ uqnum a person (of Trinity): *JlS1 eqaneem 

ijjilS qanoun law: Oylji qavaneen 

^lx as£er soldier: ^"^ VMaMr 

*^J terjeme translation: ^-\J1 terajim 

Ol*llL« Miita-lat-at Remarks. 

§ 649. There are some nouns which form double 
plurals, these have often different meanings; the prin- 
cipal are: 

Jzjj- houroof: olsj^ houroofat. 

,jjO douyoon: ^^ji* douyoonat. 

_V- Ixarf letter: 
ijo diyn debt: 
ism name: 

«- Vc — -N esma names: 


L| esami a list. 

p.-j reswi a due: rj-J rousoom manners, custom: 

cA»j**j rousoomat tolls, dues: p— .1^ merasim ceremonies. 
v^i> 6e#t verse; house: o^-j buyoot houses; cL| e&?/a£ verses. 
•kJ^ sheylch chief: TVr" 1 s ^m?/0mA7i °ld naen. 

poll, meshayikh chiefs. 
lj ra7n'& a Christ, monk: <j\~aj rouh'ban: il*iUj rehabeen'. 

§ 650. Other Arabic nouns which form their plurals 
irregularly occur in Ottoman. The chief of these are: 
• 1 umm mother: 


tjL-H Insan man (homo): 
aj^ qarye village: 
^j-\ tf'syed black: 

aJI t7a7i' god : 
Ja\ #&Z people: 
^•jl ermeni Armenian: 
ju- say labour: 

ol^l um'mehat mothers. 

u-l; was human beings. 

\J> qoura villages, 

ob^- soudan negroes; the Soudan. 

<^J \ alihe deities. 

JU\ e/mZt inhabitants. 

C*ljl aramine Armenians. 

<_^L~. mesayi labours. 

Participle (§ 604), the Noun of Superiority (§ 609), the measures 
tefqeel, fouqlan, etc. 


o) u-J^ Lesson 51. 


§ 651. There are some very common Arabic 
plurals which are used in Ottoman as singular nouns and 
take a Turkish as well as an Arabic plural termination 
(§ 512); as: 
JLtLjL. malumatlar knowledge. J^\jij*£ tahriratlar writings. 

^LlltJ ftyatlar prices. 
JL'lcjSj vouqovt atlar events. 
JUU\ ehalilir inhabitants. 
J*Xf- amelelir labourers. 
Jjlo diyarlar countries. 

JV&\ azalar members. 
J^j\ ivladlar children. 
JjU=J tujjarlar merchants. 
JLM ish'yalar furnitures. 
J.i\l.yo\ esnaflar handicrafts. 

§ 652. There are some Persian or Turkish nouns, 
which have assumed Arabic plural terminations. These 
are mere barbarisms or solecisms (§ 507): 

t..olx.l:*.>. chiftlikiat (Imperial) farms; (as oy^ o^£j£L»») . 
t. J~6^ gelish coming: oUUS gelishat talent, success. 

^\jjy sebzevat vulg. zarzavat. 
oljv*" khourdavat small ware. 
Ca»\j» firameen edicts. 
c~>\~t>JJ? gidishat conduct. 

p. oju- sibze vegetable: 

p. o^y»- khiirdi small: 

p. (jl»^5 firman firman: 

t. Jl>jJT^ gidish going: 

Exercise 135. 

State the measure, the number and the meaning of 
the following words: 

ij\^J^ *.— \>- 1 t V*- > - ' iV^ 1 *" ^ * A** (+*■*'* ^< *** ) ^k° 

^o^ Broken or Irregular Plurals. 359 

oUy J Usui Ji^i^ J^^'J uj^J ^ »Ou*»e&« *^-<l^^ 

— s&a ~>ssu ^— -^ ^-^ ^r- 9 ^ t^r^ 5 * 4Jyo 

1 * t ** " ' * i •" " * f 'A > ' »f -\" \ t, ".*'*."* \ v* 

• JUJI ! (orientalists) ^nil^l^ ' J ,1:— « n © *0y«* ' u^ 

\ t"\ 4^-J Translation 136. 

Form the derivatives of the following words: 

1. The act of looking (J&), who looks, looked at, to 
wait (VIII), who waits, who is waited for. 2. Ignorance 

UJL>-), ignorant; unknown; ignorant people. 3. The 
act of sending (^JL-j), who is sent (apostle), two apostles, 
apostles; to send (IV)' who sends' messenger. 4. To 
burn ( Jj~), fire (§ 606), to be burnt (VIII), burning, burnt. 

5. To save ( j^^U-), to desire to save (X), saviour, saved. 

6. To write („_^T), book; clerk; written, letter; a place 
where to write, school; schools, letters, two schools, 

two letters; to correspond (IV). 7. News (jv>.); to give 
news, to inform (IV), informer, informed; to communicate 

(III), correspondent. 8. Change the word dlL into fayil, 

mefoul; into noun with mitn; to possess (I, X), to give 
possession (II), to take possession (V), fayil of X, and PL 

\rV Jt^ Exercise 137. 

360 o) ^-j^ Lesson 51. rv 

•.P i$3W- i^W- l£j^~^ ill O-^—'j*^ uUJ ° * J^} u^**^ wb^ 

^ojCj July dijjj <u~J j^ojCjI j! ? ^ j5Cju>I j* jl *\£»^y 
1 j& o\L>- l<r ^~>* u^bj' • jjS»>- s_Aj (J^li^se^ <dijl5C^4 \ .j^ jlj 

Words. 1. emlak vergisi property tax. 2. mutevej'jihen 
toward (fayil of teuej'juh to turn, V. of vejh'). 3. hareket et." to 
start. 4. qavayid rules (pi. of qayide). 5. silifc career. 6. to enter. 

\ ^A 4j?V Translation 138. 

1. This book contains 1 320 figures 2 . 2. The eastern 

boundaries 3 of Turkey are Russia and Persia. 3. I have 

a gospel printed 4 in very small characters. 4. The 

churches do not pay 5 property taxes. 5. The English 

nation is one of the greatest nations of Europe 6 . 6. Are 

those physicians among your relatives? 7. They made 

a journey 7 towards the islands on board the ships. 8. It 

is written in the Psalms cc Lead 8 me to the rock that 

is higher than I". 9. Where is the list of expenses? 

— Here it is, the clothes bought from the merchants 

are inserted 9 in this list with their prices. 10. The 

success of the vegetables and flowers is perfect 10 this year. 

Words. 1. havi dir. 2. esliktal (pi. of shekl). 3. houdood 
(pi. of hadd). 4. matbou 1 (mefoul of tab''-). 5. te-e-diye et." (II. of 
Sda). 6. Avropa. 7. seyahat. 8. ihda iyle (IV '. of hidayet). 9. dakhil 
(fayil of doukhoul). 10. mukemmel (mefoul of tekmil). 

AX \£l* Conyersation. 

(Jl«L.) ^.A^jjAy dL^jly ColumbllS' Egg. (Continued.) 
. y •» ) . f ■» 

Words. 1. houz'zar pi. of jicmr (§ 643b). 2. hayret wonder. 
3. meraq curiosity; jelb ou tahreek et." to instigate and arouse. 

r^l The Agreement of Adjectives with Nouns. 361 

8 j*i yjw <» 1 •il^L' ^ ?^ JijJu Jji 5 ji^ ^ jUJ 

4. wetaje the end, conclusion (§§ 582, 646). 5. mouvaf'faq 
successful (mefoui of tev'feeq). 6. munasebet connexion (III. of 
nisbet); ne-l not at all! 7. i,z7iar to show, confess (IV. of zouhour). 
8. ajz inability. 9. muqtedir able (VIII. of iqtidar). 10. marifet 
skill, talent (n. with mim of irfan); ilk evvel first of all, in the 
first place. 11. iraye to show (IV. of rouyet). 12. relation, 
connexion. 13. kemall souhouletle with the greatest ease (§ 695, 11). 

°* u^u> Lesson 52. 

The Agreement of Adjectives with Nouns. 

§ 653. The union of two Arabic nouns, or of an 
Arabic noun with an Arabic adjective (Izafet) according 
to the Persian system has been already mentioned. 
The examples given (§§ 517, 565) were all masculine 
and singular, both adjectives and nouns. 

362 or ^rj* Lesson 52. r^r 

§ 654. When an Arabic adjective is placed before 
a noun, in Ottoman it generally remains invariable, 
whether the nouns which it qualifies are masculine or 
feminine, singular or plural; as: 

lco j*>- khayr douva a blessing: oL* <JU ali hissiyat noble 


§ 655. But when the Arabic noun is feminine or 
plural and the adjective follows the noun, then the ad- 
jective must agree with it in number and gender. 

§ 656. Read carefully the following rules: 

1. roasc. sing, nouns require the adjective to be masc. singular. 

2. fern. sing. » » » » & » fem. singular. 

3. masc. dual » » » » » » masc. dual. 

A , t /regular masc.plural 

4. masc. plural » » » » » »< fe , , , , 

r I or broken plural. 

5. fem. plural » » » » » » fem. plural or sing. 

out ii (fem. sing, or broken 

b. broken plural » •>> » » » » i , , , b 

§ 657. All broken plurals, the names of letters and 
cities are regarded as feminine. 

§ 658. ji\l* Misal'ler Examples. 

1. ^>- tSlto douva yi khayr a good prayer; blessing. 

^H ^5-j bah'ri ahmer the Red Sea. 

2. oj-U_* <JA\ eli'fi memdoude elongated Elif (§ 29 d). 

-w-lac- «j5 qouvveyi azime great power. 

3. Cj\j>jfy ^t^J° tarafey'ni merqoumiyn those two parties. 

C*^> lael* 0-v.i/*- harfey'ni miitejaniseyn two homogeneous letters. 

4. ^jjfl* C*.^-jj* muverrikhee ni meshhonreen the celebrated 

% historians. 

A-Si i>_jj-^ me-e-moureeni fikham illustrious officers. 

5. \^\ cjU^j sifa'U ilaheeye the Divine attributes. 

<u-l* oLjl»« maloumati muhim'me important knowledge. 

oUlft o\jj> zeva'ti ally at great personages. 

6. <w^ jja\ oumourou mouhim me important affairs. 

fUac i\s>.\ ejda'di izam venerable ancestors. 

<Ju wTlx* mekttitibi milliyi national schools. 

nr The Agreement of Adjectives with Nouns. 363 

§ 659. CJ&JZa Mutenevviyat Miscellaneous. 

*&j<^>\ ayeti berime the sacred verse, the golden text, 

^jJU (jo dirii mouqad" des the Holy Religion. 

<ijb cJji DevletiAliye the Sublime Government (Turkey). 
Aj ^jj»A~, samiyou'nou Tciram honorable hearers. 

<cji \L*j\ famine' yi qadime ancient times. 
aISc -kjj\y tevarikh'i atiqa ancient histories. 

o^U? <uJ teba-a'-yi sadiqa loyal subjects. 
*'.J*^ J* - ^ sevahil'i bahriye marine coasts. 
,j^< <iUfl3| aqsa'yi sharq the Furthest East. 

§ 660. 6jJL< Oltalc Galatati MesKhoure Barbarisms. 
e^.lp 4jlW.;jL topkhane'yi amire Imperial Arsenal of Ordnance. 
o^.lfr ^-k. matba'khi amire » Kitchen, 

a^lc 4.;L-^r tersaneyi amire" » Dock-yard. 

<*uJjj^-M 0^3 qouvveyi elektriqiye electrical force. 
l$L-\ Asiya'yl sought a Asia Minor. 

NtA >^U Exercise 139. 

Tf^o?'^. 1. merhoum deceased (mefoul of rahmet). 2. zikr et" 
to remember, to mention. 3. muh'tereq burnt (mefoul of VIIL). 
4. mujed'deden newly (mefoul of tejdid). 5. insha to build. 
6. zimninda for. 7. trade decree, command (VI. of rivad; seneeye 
sublime, exalted). 8. shercfsadir which has issued in honour. 
9. qita-at parts of the world = countries (pi. of qit-a); bayid 
distant (from boud' § 606). 10. mustemlikxat colonies (pi. of fayil 
of X. of mulk); mutead'did numerous (fayil of te-ad-dud 1 'aded V). 

364 or u-J-> Lesson 52. r"Vu 

4JIJ~* ©,5-Ul« JJU ©31 JL& ^L-J ©i-JZJ.* <C*jl 'r«j -JLuLHj J 

sVjl ©3<uL ^J»\^j% fJu^jJU jjcp ^ •;-> 3j-x*^ ©Jlwljl ,<«Ua£ 

O-AjI )yO* ©3>*£ V . j^ ©jUjI ^1a J OjVp ^cmS*) i)X3^ 

11. rivayet, naql et." to narrate, to recount, to tell. 12. w&aren 
according (§ 682 b). 13. wahv oil." to disappear. 14. atfal children 
(pi. of Ufl). 15. souret manner; layiq suitable. 

\ t * 4+s^j Translation 140. 

1. Some of the illustrious officers of the Turkish 
government were present at the commencement 1 exercises 
of the College. 2. You will find here all important 2 
knowledge concerning the settlement 3 of the wretched 
immigrants 4 in South Africa 5 . 3. Dr. Carrington is one 
of the most eminent physicians. 4. Because of some 
important business 6 he was unable 7 to come here. 
5. One of the loyal subjects began 8 to speak 9 and said 
'Honourable hearers'. 6. I have Moses of Khorene's 10 
and Agathangelos' 11 ancient Armenian histories 12 . 

1. tevziyi mukwfat resmi or yevmi malchsous = day of prizes. 
2. mouhimm . 3. ishian (IV. of sukun). 4. mouhajiree'ni magh- 
doureen. 5. Afriqayi jevoubi. 6. mesali'hi muhimmi sebebiyle. 
7. muqtedir olamamaq. 8. ibtidar et." 9. Icelam. 10. Moses 
Khorini. 11. Aqatanqelos. 12. muverrikhee ni qadimeyi Araminede'n. 

<!!(>>• Conversation. 

.^Sjjj*ii^ &\i\ <Juj^y\\ o 3 '? Jjy *)£» \ aL \ \> ^Ul^ilJ 

. j-L.Ij\ ee J^j<C-j\ ^»jj> <3 1— *" ?j^aJ ^j-ARjk vlA-jj ^>yy 

rio The Agreement of Adjectives with Nouns. 865 

^Jj\ iSj> o-^^ jl«*H 4j^^ ?J<*+~fj jJ^-t-xJ 'Jj^jk j'y 

sZJ>\j (*^» Reading Exercise. 
Inventions Resulting from Observation. 

** — _, •• • v> .. ►, 

«| *. . , 6 * 16, 1. 15 it* h 14. 1 • 1 - 13. .jj 

25 J.J.£ j 24 ^l~' «JLS3 j ! 23 j^> Uykjl Jj^-f jr uVjl 

' jjiil 2<i 5C^ 4jCuf o5bJu« OLiLs iJjLij; ' .j'.^aiosl 

Words and. Notes. * diq'qat careful observation; muribayis 
caused (fayil of inbiyas); keshfiyat discoveries. 1. history (II. of 

erekh). 2. ikhtira^at (pi.; VIII. of */■). 3. louzoum necessity. 

4. real. 5. isfeat et." to prove (IV 7 . of sebt). 6. emsaZ precedents, 
examples (pi. of mesel). 7. ftam containing (fayil). 8. ekserisi the 
majority. 9. zekee sagacious (§ 606). 10. amele labourers (used 
as sing. § 651). 11. ya — ya either — or — . 12. mutefen'nin 
versed in science (fayil of tefen'nun § 622). 13. nazari diq'qat 
consideration. 14. tesaduf H" to fall under (VI. of sadef). 15. souret 
appearance; zahir external (fayil of zouhour). 16. mana meaning 

(n. with mim of J&); manaslz unimportant. 17. neshat et." to come 

into existence, to originate. 18. misela for instance (§ 683). 
19. yosoun moss. 20. jism existence. 21. an time. 22. namalum 
unknown (§§ 530, 604). 23. toplamaq to gather (§ 276). 24. mow 
a-yene to examine (III. of } ayn eye). 25. tedqiq et." to scrutinize 
(II. of diq'qat). 26. hukm et." to decide judicially. 


366 or u-j^ Lesson 53. rn^ 

^jL^ lib * ©JC$j ^—. p dAJb JC3 jj ' lie- jr jj^-« • jG^UL^ 
! jCl jj ! ^Cl jj : aJjI cJa 41 *i jl^r z)»f *&)y0 x 

C — ' . i ~ . i • 37 ""i * 36 t - 35 . - - /| 

41„<^1 4=0 ^ I i~ . 4 . , ,. ..I- 89' <ll 38^1. t 

27. tekhay'yul et." to imagine (V. of khayal). 28. mouvaf'faq 
successful {mefoul of tevfeeq). 29. manastir monastery. 30. qoub'be 
dome. 31. qandeel a lamp. 32. m/m vaqitda at the very moment 
(§ 695, 13). 33. dayima continually (adverb). 34. mout'tarid 

isochronous. 35. ta^a-qeeb to follow. 36. qoyoulmaq to go on. 

37. mutehiy yij excited (fayil oftehey'yiij, V. of heyejan). 38. hikmeti- 
tabiyiye natural philosophy. 39. mouhimm important (fayil of 
ihmam, III. of himmet). 40. raq'qas pendulum (§ 611). 41. hareket 
movement; vibration. 

° r w^<> Lesson 53. 

•J*> j» »_* ,*- The Arabic Definite Article. 

§ 661. In the Turkish and Persian languages there 
is no article either definite or indefinite; but in Arabic 
there are definite and indefinite articles (Harfi Tariff 
Tenveen) which are used in Ottoman with Arabic terms. 
The Ind. Article or Tenveen is of three kinds : en, -in, -oun, 
applied to the end of the words (§ 48); and the}' are used 

in Ottoman as adverbs. The definite article is Jl el c the': 

^jbdll el-hitab the book, j^JI el-beyt c the house'. 

§ 662. The Arabic Letters are 28 in number, (^ 
r ' 3 i & being peculiar to Turkish and Persian): 14 of 
these are called lunar and the other 14 solar letters. 

rnv The Arabic Definite Article. 367 

§ 663. The Solar Letters (4 JL J>jj- Houroufou 

Shemseeye) are: £j £1 z i j j - J"- js Jp i J* J 0- 

The Lunar Letters (* ji ^Jjr?- Houroufou Qame- 

ra^e) are : ' y CCCt^ ^ ^ f ^ * ^ f 

§ 664. When the Arabic Article is added to a 
word beginning with a solar letter, to avoid harshness 
of sound, the lam is assimilated in pronunciation to the 
following solar consonant for euphony, and a sliedde ( w ) is 

put over the latter: jyjl es-sabr the patience; ^jjl 

ed'-din the religion; *}CJI es-selam the salutation: and 
not el-sahr, el-din, el-selam; also: 

*z*+~J\ es-semt zenith: pi. Oj t ...H es-sumoat azimuth. 

§ 665. But the pronunciation of the lam is retained 
when the Article is attached to a word beginning with 
a lunar letter: 

{ j^.\ el-haqq the right. ^L\ el-jebr Algebra. 

JsexJl el-kuhiil alcohol. Jill el-qali alkali. 

L*xJI el-kimya alchemy. (J-^Vl el-inbiq alembic. 

oUdl el-idade alidade. J^ill el-ghoul the thief (Algol, the star). 

«-I^J-l el-hamra the Red (castle), Alhambra. 

Tc-alll el-munaqqah almanack. 

§ 666. Almost all Arabic words properly end in 
a vowel: ustun (-e) is the sign of the Accusative, esre 
(-i) is the sign of the Genitive, and eotre (-a) the sign 
of the Nominative; also these are left in Ottoman, yet 
they are retained in Arabic sentences used in Ottoman. 

When a word having the Article J I is preceded 

by a word, that word keeps the original final vowel 
(■e, -i, -oil); the elif of the Article is not pronounced 
but slurred over, and lam is connected with the last 
vowel of the preceding word; as: 

368 or ^rjz Lesson 53. r^A 

<al <oUe-« *^S._:M u *\j resfi'l hikmeti mekhafetou Hlahi 
the beginning of knowledge is the fear of the Lord. 

*>1>J 1 SjXa i)jJuJl »*$& kelamtVl mulouki muloukd'l 
Miami the words of kings are the kings of words. 

<us\ J^k*. khalilou Hlahi the chosen friend of Good (Abraham). 

Not Besu el hikmeti, mekhafetou allahi, kelamu elmulouki. 

Note. The word <o>\ is contracted from Jl e the', *}\ «7a/i god, 

«J1 Jl = <u>l Allah the God. 

§ 667. When the eK/" of the Article is absorbed 
by the final vowel of the preceding word, the elision is 
marked by the sign r^_, written over the elif and called 

il^j v asZe 'union' ; because it unites the vowel with lam 

directly; as: £[>Ul £){f ' z. -jC_i-l ^Ij '<u)l JJU- • 

The Arabic Izafet and Compound Adjective. 

§ 668. The Arabic Definite Article is used for the 
following purposes: 

I. To form the Arabic Izafet: as when an Arabic 
noun is united with a second noun; the last letter of 
the first vowel, being Nominative, has generally eotre 
(-ou, -it) as its vowel (while it was esre [-i] in the 
Persian system [§ 515]), and the second noun has the 
article : 

OC*j-U jj>l emiruH mumineen the commander of the believers. 

j^cJil j^t abdfi'l Mejid the servant of the Most-Glorious. 

»J^J-1 <J\j** mizanu'l harare the balance of warmth, thermo- 

s .^ y meter. 

o:>U-Jl jU daru's sa^adet the house of prosperity, i. e. the 

^— Imperial Harem. 

II. To form the Arabic Compound Adjective, formed 
of a Participle (i. e. fayil, mefoul, adj. of Quality, N. of 
Excess, [§§ 601—606]), and a Noun. The Participle 
precedes the noun and ends with eotre (-it), while the 
noun has the Article. 

L— Jl j J a J s i\ (jJt*- khaliquH arzv&ssima the creator of earth 
„ „„. 'y and of heaven. 

r»-*-Jl 'lij veleeyu'n'niam protector of benevolence, 
„s ./, f 1 > benefactor. 

CAs^A — \\ tjlkiw soultanfis selateen the Sultan of Sultans. 

r*\\ The Arabic Definite Article. 369 

„ *■ •# > > ° - 

UV1 u^->^-*-* mefrouzou'l eda the performance of which 

, „, - > . is assigned, incumbent, canonical (prayer). 

j»'o Vl -**1 ekberftH ekiabir the great one of the greats. 

Note. The word 0'^ is the Adj. of Quality of s^J?>L- 
selatat domination, rule. 

HI. To unite the nouns with the preposition. The 
prepositions are voweled generally at the end with 
mtun (-e, -a) and esre (-i); (see more in the next section): 

v_-> bi- c by 5 : o\jJl ez-zat the person: ofiJ L bi'z-zat in person, 

i>j oe?/we between: JJLi J el-milel the nations: Jill 1*j beyne'l 
milel between the nations, international. 

§ 669. 

Notes. 1. All these examples end in Arabic with esre (-*), 
being in the Genitive case and meaning of; as: Emir HI mihni- 
neeni, Abdul mejidi, Dariis sea-deti, Veliyun niyami etc. 

2. Surnames or patronymics in Arabic [^uli kunye] are 
composed with the words ^j1 ebou father; A umm mother; ^\ ' 

// ibn, bin, (pi. ^ beni)\ jJj vete'd son; c-u 6mi£ daughter (§ 168). 
The Arabs have the custom of calling the parents by the name 
of their firstborn children; as: £>y\ ebou-Bekir the father of 
Bekir, the surname of the first Caliph. ?r^j>} Ebulferaj the 
father of Faraj, Abulfaragius. rJ^A ummu Kulsoum the mother 
of Kulsoum, Mouhammed's youngest daughter, *L— ^| Ibni Sina 
the son of Sina, Avicienna. 

3. If the name of the person precedes the surname, then 
elif is left out and ^ ben, bin is used. jJj veled is used for non- 
Moslems; as: -oil jut ^ x+jz* Mouhammed ben AbdouUah"MouhsnDined 
the son of Abdoullah. U^ :> jJj <-*~*x Yousouf veledi Zekerya Jo- 
seph the son of Zechariah. y^\ ^ beni Ahmer the children of Ahmer. 

>> • 

jlllt* Misdl'ler Examples. 

6jLjf\ iXL. melikid-mulouk the King of Kings. 

v^LjVl ujj rab'bul-erbab the Lord of Lords. 

— *•* ' 

U V\ u-^J reyisul-aba the chief of the fathers', patriarch. 

7t- — *J\ ^—-t; Eesa-el-meseeh' (among Christians), Eesel-meseeh 
(among the Moslems) Jesus the Anointed ; the Messias. 

Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 24 

370 or ^*jz Lesson 53. rv* 

f*Z^)\ p. . -w^ \ <Ul (%— j ( p-lj ) bismil-lahir rahmanir raheemm the 
name of God the All-Compassionate, the Most-Merciful. 

§ 669a. The Declension of Arabic Nouns. 

Nom. v__jb5"^ Jcitab&n a book. , .lz5J\ el-kitabft the book. 

Gen. ^h^ kitabin of a book. ^_ l^So 1 el-Jcitabi of the book. 
Ace. I b5"" hitaben a book. C-jIiSJI el-Mtabe the book. 

\ ^, \ ^Jui Exercise 141. 

Form from the following words Izafets and Com- 
pound Adjectives: 

I. 1. (Oil ' T^JJ ' ^ ' sS-J ' ^15^ ' Jj-O ' jj ' 0^"J + 

<3ul). 2. (*lLe ' Jb-i ata, /#?/£ gift; o*~, sa'd felicity; ,JL~* 
seyf sword -f- &\). 3. (^Lp tbad servants + <ujl [men]). 
4. (jj-jlS #owds holy -f- ^r^ agdfas holies). 5. (*4f heleem 
interlocutor + <a)l [Moses]). 6. (olLL- 4" j^jj berreyn two 
continents, Asia and Europe). 7. (/". O^ khaqan emperor 
[Chinese hn-hang] -f- iVy4 bahreyn two seas, the Black 
Sea and the Mediterranean). 8. (jb dar house + oy& 
funoun sciences; j£. Jchayr benevolence; iliLl shefaqa 
charity; Col*— seadet prosperity; i^LL teba-at printing; 
J-*^ fa^sinearning; z£$>- Tihilafet cahphate). 9. (d 
+ ^.Ic ineb grapes [wine]). 10. (J +^L>- Mabayis evils). 
11. (jlp H~ ^a-j rahman merciful, ^) Jcerim gracious; 
Ju*- ' Ju£- 'x* p hamid, mejid, aziz All-praise- worthy ; jll^, 
seftar forgiver; «_~^ meseeli Christ). 12. (>y ' ^J^ ' 
^.« t l i>\*j t l jg M»' glory; ^^aj ' ^l* was^r help; J I?- 

rv» The Arabic Definite Article. 371 

jemal beauty; JAk* moiizaffer successful + CL? deen, 
din religion). 

Note. The nouns preceding ,jo end in ustun (-e). 

II. 13. ( J^ azeem great, Ji>- jelil illustrious -f- 

J\L). 14. (JL salif above + JS 'u^. fteyaw mention). 

15. (j^t wad?> rare + J\ < *lJ istimal usage). 16. (/o^- 

seree quick + C-'O" hareket motion). 17. {^j* meree 

observed + J»U- ~khatir [honorable]). 18. [a/) keriti 

bad + uwj 5«t^ voice). 19. (J^JL* maqboid acceptable 

+ vloLl shehadet testimony). 20. (^jl erhem -\- Oiflj 
rahimeen [the most compassionate of the compassionate]). 

§ 670. (a' + ujjJU- ■ ^ ' jlIJI rt&W, errushd 

[Averrhoes]). (,y\ + a^b Davoud David); (Jacob the son 

of Isaac); (Aliye <ullc the daughter of Nayima 4^>). 
(Carabet the son of Artin); (the father of Ziya). 

The Arabic Prepositions. 

§ 671. The Arabic Prepositions are much used 
in Ottoman, but only in connexion with Arabic words. 
Those most frequently met with are the following: 

a. J\ ila-, iley- towards, as far as, until, to (§ 676 6 ). 

JuVl (Jl ilel-ebed to all eternity, eternally. 

»^=-\ Jl ' ^-i^ <-^ M a cikhirihi, ila nihaye to the end thereof; 

et cietera, etc. 

b. ^ bi- by, with, in (§ 676 3 ). 

oiJJlj biz'zat in person. <JU_jscJL bUjum'U all, everyone. 
,jLiJV^ bil-it'tifaq with agreement, unanimously. 

c. Xj^ bade-, bad- after (§ 676 4 ). 


g72 or u-J-* Lesson 53. rYr 

-QJIaIj badet'ta-am after dinner. 

CxL badema after which. »jl^ badehou afterwards. 

d. % bila without (used with nouns). 
J>jL % bila khavf without fear. 

e. ujj bey tie-, beyn- between, among. 

U-&1 u<u beynen-nas among the people, among men. 

f. ^f ala-, ale-, aley- upon (§ 676 5 ). 
f \jjJl Jp aUd-devam perpetually. 

4.1 U j£ aZa fraKM in the former state. 

g . ^ an from. ^ «w/io« from him. 

W C^ « w as ^ originally. Jl^j ^ an ^^ ° n purpose, 
h. j^5 fevqe-, fevq- upon, over (§ 676 9 ). 
oCll ^3 /&>g& ade extraordinarily. 

i. i /*- in, at; on (of dates); at, for (of price) pl.oli. 

ofpU fil-vaqi in effect, really. JUJU ^«2 instantly. 
i>j£ JLi J /? or /iyatt fo'sfc ghouroush per, at 5 piasters. 
, r1A Lrj ^\ rr ci on the 23 August 1318 (1902) 0. S. [§ 217]. 
i i) fee like. JjV^fceZ eV-ueJ as it was before, 

k. J lir, le-, ley- in favour of, to; for (§ 676 7 ). 
C£jl± Umasldhat for the sake of business. 
1. V» ma-, nia-e with (§ 676 9 ). 
„ • • 1 " t )] If ma-eZ mimnouneeyi with pleasure. 
-JIT « ma ma/S&i notwithstanding, yet. 
m . ^« mine-, min- from. 
r jjj^ i* minel qadim from ancient times. 
<C* min-hou, minhi, mirih' from him. 
J^ > &. min ghay'ri haddin without any right = I dare not. 
n oAll^ ' oXJ^ l ox^y^ ' oXi\ zimninda, haqqinda, 
khousousounda, babinda (partly Turkish) about, for. 

rvr The Arabic Definite Article. 373 

Note. Jl ' Jc- ' J connected with pronouns is pronounced 
as iley-, aley-, Uy; but with nouns as ila, ala, li (§ 676 5 , 6 , 7 ). 

N I Y Jul Exercise 142. 

fjjUJi 'ia; ■ ^,ijVi U \$ji?r^>- ^1 L>-ij ^^r T 

a fSjCjia*- u^ r^ 1 i^f r * J ^ ^ J J^ 1 J^ J 

8 ^5\*l 7 **yj* J^^l j Y •<!*" *»' fv-j leb Jjl C0j*au>l ^ 
<£a«^ *1^j t;*Vr' ^^ ' f"^' *-*-*' — * (J*^ :^-u*Jj» 

IFbrrfs and Notes. 1. oulouheeyet Godhead. 2. Eqaneem'i 
seUse three persons, Trinity. 3. vajibCd vujoud God (whose exis- 
tence is necessary, self-existent). 4. ibnul insan the Son of Man. 
5. qouloubou insaneeye human hearts. 6. tat-heer it." to purify. 

7. me'rqoume she (§ 677); zatul jenb vulg. satlijan pleurisy. 

8. ifaqat boidmaq to recover (§ 619). 9. biznillahi by the permission 
of God = if God wills. 10. kes'sabiq as it was before (§ 671 j). 

11. alel adi (oSlc- or <ol& custom § 671 f) usually. 12. tenez'zuh' 

to take a walk (V. of ndzhet). 

\ t V 4*>J> Translation 143. 

One day Hoja Effendi, losing his donkey, enquires 
of a man about him. The man answering said: fc I saw 
your donkey in the court of Iconium 1 ; he was acting as 

Words and Notes. 1. Qonya mehkimesinde . . . qadiliq idly or. 

374 or ^js Lesson 53. ry\. 

iudee there." Hoja Effendi said : " Well 2 ! I already knew 
that he would be a Cadi 3 ; because when I was teaching 
(giving a lesson to) Khilez, my son, that donkey sticking 
up his ears 4 was listening attentively" He immediately 
started 7 , and after some weeks reached Iconmm. He 
went directly 5 to the court. He saw the Cadi from 
afar He took a bunch of grass from the bag ot Jhe 
donkey and showed it to him saying gtah! giah! giah! 
aiahf* The Cadi laughed at what the Hoja was doing. 
The Hoja said: "Well, he recognizes me. In a few 
moments he will come cheerfully to eat the fresh grass. 
I will wait for him." And he is still waiting there. 

2. pel ala. 3. onoun qadi (fayil of .US) olajagluni ben zaten 
bilir idim. 4. qoulaqlarini diterek diqqatla dinler idi. Z.dogh- 
roudan doghrouya meliUmeyi gitdi. 6. means hay or straw, used 
to call the donkeys and horses e coine, come, come! 7. fUhtU 
Qonyaya miitevejjihen liareket edib . . . 

aI^C* Conversation. 

( 1\ etc. ) . »>\ S\ 

Sj\ big * ^f\ • r*ry ^ ^ ^ °"^ U ?^)> 

^Sf • \>J±\ i^W-i ^^ W!r^ 4-Mi 15 f^ 1 ~ 

oljJji o^jl ccL £j i*U J^Q U f ^ ^ U C * ^"^ 

Words and Notes. 1. f#frV4l diversion 2 7mmm oZ." to 
become unlawful; to be unhappy. B. vob^ A. to reply 'in ^the 
affirmative, accept (IV. of jevab § 620). 4. Aasja/ Heaven forfend! 
na^a,4 S ^/-L^withthegreate8tregret.6Yo W r^o P portunity. 

ryo Arabic and Persian Pronouns. 375 

«■ | M 

J^IJ* Ju? Reading Exercise. 
a ;.y An Anecdote. 

^.SCjiO " C8 ajIpj) 7 Jl>-j^ 6 <PJ1 <^0 ' 5 4^jtUil5 42iil IsC *fcl 

TFbrds and Notes. 1. mejlisi ulfet social party. 2. mothers- 
in-law. 3. munasibetsizlik absurdity. 4. &a^s e£." to speak about. 
5. eziyeti qalqishmaq to trouble, tease. 6. without hesitation. 
7. immediately. 8. boghmaq to strangle, to kill; derdini yanmaq 
to confide his woes to another. 9. brave man. 10. son-in-law. 
11. a. lihinzir pig; nasty. 12. vesselaml 

°* u^t> Lesson 54. 

Arabic and Persian Pronouns. 

§ 672. The Arabic Pronouns are occasionally 
employed in Ottoman. They are used only in certain 
Arabic expressions adapted by the Ottomans. They are 
as follows. 

§ 673. The Possessive Pronouns: 

<i -i My. li -na Our. 

il -he Thy (masculine), i) -hi Thy (feminine). K -kfitn Yours. 
*i'o -hft, -hi Him, it; his, its. U -ha Her. 

l> -h&ma, -hima Them [two] (dual). 
a -h&m, -him Them (masc). //> Jvun'ne Them (fern.). 

376 9H. urJ-^ Lesson 54. rv^ 

§ 674. The Demonstratives: 

IS ' 1 Ja za, liaza This. »UU£ ' villi zalike, zalik That. 

§ 675. The Relative Pronoun: 

L. -ma, ma- Who, which. 

§ 676. ^li* Misal'Ur Examples. 

1. ^_->j ?«&& (among the Moslems), rabb (among the Christians) 
Lord. Jj reb'bi, rab'bi My Lord, Lord, God. Jj I ya'rebbi! 
ya rabbi! O my Lord! Ljj reb'bena! Our Lord; Kabboni! 

2. Jj- 'V^» mevla (N. w. mim of <Jj) Lord; sir. Vj* £jj£*- 
hazreti mevla God. liVj* mevlana! My sir! His grace. 

3. ^ bi- with ! » aU loutf ' <y» menn grace ! *AUj ' -Ct bilont'- 

fihi, bimerinihi by His grace ! JLJ <Ut bime'rinihi Ta^a-la by 
the grace of God Most High, aj bihi', bih' by him, on it. 

4. s*> bade after: oJm bade'hou after it, after that. 

5. Jc aZa-, aley- on, against: *Jc aleyhi against or on him! 

viAic aleyke on or upon thee t pX-lc- aleykum on you ! p>J^- f^~ 

selamun aleykum ! Peace be on you ! Hail! God bless you! a>UIaJ^. 
alehis selam ! Upon him be peace! (said of any of the prophets). 
o.u^Ji& aleyhimde against me (partly Turkish), ^cju mud'dayi the 

accuser: *Js. ^cA* mudda^a aleyh' com. mud'dayi aleyh the accused. 

<Jc i\li binayen aleyh consequently. 

6. Ji ila-, iley- to: aJI ileyhi to him ' l^Jl ileyha to her : 

{*fJ! ileyhim to them: ^j* ' jLi. mouma, mushar (the mefoul of 

iyma and isharet) said, mentioned: -jJIjUL. ' <JI(y^» ' p^Jljli* musha- 
rileyh, moumayileyh, musharileyhim (pi.) to whom allusion has 
been made, the said; he, they. \^^j* ' ^Jlj^ moumayiUyha, 

miisharileyha she. J— ^ mursel one which is sent (or addressed): 

[the mefoul of irsal]' *J\ J--^ murselun ileyh one who is addressed. 

7. J H-, le-, let/ for, in favour of: a] lehou, lehi for him, in 
favour of anybody ! o-U^i lehimdi, leyhimde in favour of me, for me. 

rvv Arabic and Persian Pronouns. 377 

8. i) ke- like: 1J5" kiza * »1A) JS^kezalike, -lik like that; thus. 
\ JiCb hakiza so for thee this = so also. \Jla ** ma haza in spite 
of this, with this. vlAJ i *• ma zalike with this, notwithstanding this. 

9. JLL ma- mabaqi that which remains, the remainder. <JyU 

mafevq that which is above' eJJJjiU mafevqinde above him. t>|U 

mabeyn that which is between, between. -usliL mashallah what 

has God willed ; May God bless him ! (J6\$ kemakian as it was 

before. *JL ** ma mafihi' with that which is in it (mas.), yet. 

JuuL mabad that which is after, the remainder: j\j cSJuuL mabadi 

var there is its remainder = to be continued. \AcU ma'-a-da 
which is over; besides, except. 

sliUlL* Mida-la-at: Remarks. 

§ 677. In writing, the use of pronouns in the 
third person is avoided by repeating the noun for which 
they stand accompanied by one of these words, which 
all mean The same, the said, the above mentioned: 

jyj* c Jyj-* ' jj&~~* ' tjpj* ' ^oV ' *-N J^"« mezbour, mezkur, 
mestour, merqoum, moumayileyh, mushariUyh or musharun ileyh. 

§ 678. Mezhir, mezbour, merqoum are used when 
speaking of persons of inferior position. Moumayileyh 
to the people of the middle class. MushariUyh is 
applied to persons of high rank. When speaking of 
inanimate objects mezbour and mestour are used. 

§ 679. In case of a person first mentioned by 
name, or by a common substantive, these words may 
be used as substantives, or, — we might say — , as a kind 
of Personal or Demonstrative Pronoun, in all the cases 
of declension. But, in case of a thing, they must be 
used as adjectives, repeated each time. 

§ 680. The Persian Pronouns are rarely used in 

such expressions. They are: <jr.1 een this ! i>\ an that ! 

a>- chi what ? ! jcu>- chend some ! a J>- Mod self, one's self; as : 

378 o«u u-ja Lesson 54. rVA 

u\ J i>J (J^^ ghafi'H em ou an ignorant of this and that, inex- 
oJ$U <u- chi fayide! what is the use! Alas! 

J-ui^ X.*- chend defalar several times. 

}j^> *j>- khod be khod personally, by himself. 

Mi (% JU) Exercise 144. 

4JL^4)j3 4^*_5vj eJJjo^lj 3% 9 "^.X w*clw vjj^ <jA-*> 4-^ ^ 

*Slj eijSC^lc J 4.1 aJIjLS* ^£Ju*l T . %jj\3 jlj£U ©3 lull Jj9 
©A»*.~Jlc- ijJCse* (^j-lf^Jv — ^y aJ.^A>- IJ^ «^« • jL» U*<U) »—< ^^ J t 

^jiL/LI^T^ a ? JlcI ©jc£>- 4 15 ijO u oUj* J^t» ^^SU* 

^"H:^ t/^ 4 (/"^ ' erE' lt'V 3 ^j* 9 " -* r x '^ "~^ — ^ c5* 
©apLw» 4-ii*ji*>. ! /kX3\ i)l*\ — ? u;>i \5Z^.~* jdooJbl 17 4o\J 

TFords and Notes. 1. To the village Yenije (near Merzifoun). 
2. muvaselet et." to arrive, reach (III. of vasZ). 3. mulaqat interview 

(VII. of *l*J Ziga an encounter). 4. sherif honour. 5. nayil ol." 

to obtain, attain. 6. teve'j'juh sympathy. 7. mirinetdar qalmaq 
to be under obligation, grateful (§ 535). 8. vaqi ol." happening, 
occurring {fayil of vouqou'). 9. mufteriyat calumnies (pi. of iftira 
[§ 650]). 10. beyan et." to express. 11. qat'an absolutely, not at 
all. 12. ehem'miyet vSrmek to give importance (§ 582). 13. mou- 
hakemi a tribunal's hearing a case and giving a legal decision, 
law-suit (III. of hukm). 14. fasl olounmaq to be decided, judged (a 
case). 15. dava a case; id'da-a, id'di-a to claim (VIII. of dava [§ 628]). 
16. houqouq rights, dues (pi. of haqq, used as sing.). 17. te-e-diye* 

to pay (II. of eda A*\ [§ 616]). 


Arabic and Persian Pronouns. 


18. mouzayaqa distress (§ 618 of zeeq)\ naqdeeye pecuniary 
(§ 579). 19. matloubat dues (mefoul of taleb [§ 578]). 

\ 1 <W>-J' Translation 145. 

1. Jesus said unto her: Mary. She turned herself, 
and said unto him, Rabboni. 2. Will you say anything 
against or in favour of him? 3. I have nothing to say 
against him, but I have much to say in favour of him. 

4. The accuser and the accused were before the judge. 

5. The said gentleman also was sick. 6. What is written 
on the postal cards 1 ? 7. Is this article 2 to be continued? 

8. There was nobody in the school, except your son. 

9. I cannot read those Arabic sentences, it is above my 
ability to read them. 10. Where is the residence of 
Habib Effendi? — It is that blue-coloured house. 

1. acluq moiikhabere varaqasi = correspondence card. 2. bend. 

<d|>.A Conversation. 

t$jji| j—>. Hassan Effendi, 

. ciJJi! Ca~>- liVj- ! f>LJl pSU& j 

c£jji| ^-.s- Houseyn Effendi, 

^UAi i| V L*. »j<^ * t M >U| «il 


« < • "•-. > 

(ITl^ ! r-^l 

ijjkz* *X\ A.JLL. ^jot« 


380 oi. u~J>* Lesson 54. rA* 

. jj oJuS^dU dXijj} vULJu . fjjSjl SJii. o^Lj vlX 

^ . j* J^l+iA «-i^ir (J- * . >j^o jIjjiL. oLJl Jy J.Vj3 

^ ojtX9l ' *— jjijl (iJoAtLw. ^Ip £ »y . f^ oJ ^ ^.-^ <j?° 

•^^t* J^».l . £oJj! fJJLJ JV^~ u^j^ u^ J i>J J*^- 4-js^a* 

<£\*JJ- tSJyju o^'ojj\ <£J<*JJ j>. <Jl ^y tS.O\ oj^*\ <j{~3 

? j^ *J ojL& uV^l J^=^ •->-* ^-»-fd ?^^ 

*jVu Jj*^ l)- 5 «-^ J v — Of*** 3 f 

. Jju— ojLt JJkto-<)Jbjl» 

«■! " 

15 /%-Ju Reading Exercise. 

Regulations and rules of ^l* dUJlJL- e^lj^ 

v — > 

the road, for preventing O^^—ol ©a^u.*? ^J^loLa* 

collisions at sea. oUlii j jGiy 

- l - - \ — 

When close-hauled on opposite CJL- ^ o^Jj oo^Liji ^-«Jl=t-« 

tacks, the ship on the port : ojJU- <£j&idA i-i^L* ^Jj>.j-. 

tack is always to give way if ojiU-lL ' u^-M {ji*\>~*\ ^J°J^y 

necessary, either hy keeping ! jj^_>».o^_j J^j Ltb <^Vjl 

away or going about. . (^joj^b <>XL->.\ I j ^J»^j»- ^ ) 


Arabic and Persian Pronouns. 


— 2 — 

With the wind free, give way 
to those on the wind. 

— 3 — 

Two ships meeting under 
(having) full sail are to pass 
on the port side of each other. 

_ 4 _ 
Under steam and nearly end-on 
to each other, both cast to 
starboard and pass on the port 
side of each other. 

— 5 - 

A steamer always gives way 
to a sailing vessel: and it must 
be remembered that every vessel 
under sail, with steam ready, 
though not using it, is con- 
sidered a steamer, in the event 
of collision. 

— 6 — 

Every vessel underweigh is to 
carry a green light on the star- 
board and a red light on the 
port side. 

— 7 - 
Steamers, in addition, carry a 
white light at the fore-masthead 
{prova). [Worda the broadside.] 

— r — 

— r — 

-yj <oLo* iJj-bl L_i.iLs7 <iL (J^lj 

— i. — 

^.y.ji L^S 3 } O^Ji °-^jJj\ £-i\ 

— o — 

u^U- (iji>-^jl J* J^ J jib 

— 1 - 


— V — 

•*->y. ^ lP^- -1^4^ JJ^Jl ^^ 
(^L -cijiw »jj^ ( \jj-L. ^jjJjjLi 

.^jju\ oJlJL5"^ (5jLli ,jjA^^ ^ 

332 oo wJ* Lesson 55. r *f 

- 8 - - A - 

Vessels towing, carry two white bj^r S>} Cs^*- 1 Cr% -^ 

masthead lights (siliyon). *JJ^? 

- 9 - -*- 

During fogs, vessels under steam ! iijjji tpU- jj^b oXlUJ ^-u- 

are to sound a steam whistle; tSJj^ji ^r ** ip^-*- C^i 

vessels under sail, to use a fog ojJU iSJ*^Jji ^[ j\^\J^J> 

horn: at anchor, to ring a bell. O-^T d ? 

- 10 — - f - 

These signals to be sounded *J^j>. o<ii.> J-\ J*\ V ^ J-^. 

once, at least, every five minutes. • ~>-^ W t 

° u^^ Lesson 55. 

The Arabic and Persian Adverbs. 

8 681 The simple Arabic Adverbs are rarely used 
in Ottoman, but the compound ones are very common. 
These are made by the addition of a tenveen of ustun 
together with an elif or te (-en, -ten § 48); as: 
^t sharq east: \^ sharqen eastward. 

o\i zat origin: 'ifli sateii originally, already. 

e Ui gfcifaJi lips: 'uUft sfc*/«&&* orally. 

§ 682. There are two rules which govern the 
pointing of tenveen of ustun 1 : 

P a If the word ends in Umze (§ o90), or short elif 
(§594), or servile he or te (§ 592), only a double wsfcm is put 
at the end, provided that te and U (Cj ' . * *) must change 
into round te (I ' S -*m) and short elif (£ -a) must 
change into simple elif ( I -en) : 

.\> je*a punishment: *1> jfo'yftl as a punishment. 

^aa fc^j^ present: ^ Udiyi'Un as a gift. 

1 Which is the sign of the Accusative case (§ 670). 


The Arabic and Persian Adverbs. 


<l.**^» mirhamit mercy: **~y merhameten kindly. 

J*, man a meaning: ll»* marten in truth, virtually. 

ol« madde material: iol* maddeten materially. 

b. But if the final O be radical, or if the word 
end with any other letter than those mentioned above, 

an elif with double ustiin ( I -en) is added to the end ; 

this elif is never pronounced: 

izJtj* mouvaq'qat temporary: lli^. mouvaqqa'teti temporarily. 

J&> nazar a glance: \J& naza'ren in respect of. 

cJlj salts third: lillj sali' sen thirdly. 

U»«j bazen sometimes: Lr^j* mou-a'khkha'ren subsequently. 

jUfc« MisaTUr Examples. 
Lolei* mutemadi' yen continually. bJ^« mujed'deden newly. 
A*sz defa'tin repeatedly. 

^UJ qaza'yen by accident. 
Lii. khefi'yen secretly. 
Uj^f- oumoumen generally. 
L* be'r'rin by land. 
L*- jiman, jem'Sn as a total. 
l^^sJ tahri'ren written. 
\^na- jeb're'n by force. 

i?ci fufjeten suddenly. 
\x*s£ qas'den designedly. 
Lit alenen openly. 
Lj^IJ taqri'ben nearly. 
\^s^ bah'ren by sea. 
liU^* me'jjarien freely, gratis. 
US"' kul'liyen totally. 
<L?- jum'Uten wholly. 

§ 683. Sometimes the tenween is not pronounced: 

V3\ ivvila firstly. Lolc a'dtta simply. 

VU- ftaZ'a yet, now. Itb da'yima always. 

Ulc- gha'liba most probably. Lilk. mout'laqa absolutely. 

U*lj vaqa-a in fact, surely. lAi. mi'stta for example. 

Utc- a'jeba, aja'ba I wonder! strange! Really! 

§ 684. The Persian Adverb. The Persian Deri- 
vative Adjectives, which are made by the addition of 

4jI -arte (§ 528), are used as adverbs: 


oo u-j^ Lesson 55. r ^**- 

-ulL-j^ dostant friendly. *\j*j, Uraderane brotherly. 
<;\jU:,U. jansiparane devotedly; bravely. 

^U^c- mahremane intimately, confidentially. 

\ i \ Ju» Exercise 146. 

"lit" fiUUJt ^-» iji»- JE*»' r -^- V* ^ i ,jr - 
•oSjip o .jjjiji ^jsT W ^ £»' "^ : <**£*>** 

VU o"\»j ' 4<ubl f ^U >«3W 6 V J«* • J 5 -^ ' f^ 1 

6 jCpJ \at. f » itff* p**^ r ; ' ^ ^ * r ^ 
fat j, ! jj^lljl gU> s-jiSC <^ • jSC*^ > ' >**W c > 

Words an* Notes. 1. «a« £ to announce 4?- * <£j* 
2 M»*M «io«-ar-K«.ee» the Faculty. 3. garar «*. to 
4. MtfaM to attack ; fuj'jMn for Uil*i suddenly. 5. MUM. bodily. 
6. «M*« MM any intoxicating liquid (pi. of musk^ whidju 
the mefoul of IV. sftfr). 7. wd&teto addicted to (mefoul ol «M«o;. 

8. ighfal it." to deceive. 9. iradet will (IV. of VSjJ [§ 620]). 

rAo The Arabic and Persian Adverbs. 385 

\ IV <&-j Translation 147. 

1. CC I will give unto him that is athirst of the 

fountain of the water of hfe freely. 53 2. He has not 

yet come. 3. The school house was newly built. 4. Nearly 

500 persons were present. 5. He took the money by 

force. 6. They were treating 1 each other like brothers. 

7. He was serving his Master devotedly. 8. I cannot 

reveal 2 to you that matter 3 ; it was told to me in 

confidence. 9. He told me again and again (repeatedly). 

10. It is most probable that he will never be able to 

come. 11. Really! That is my opinion 4 too. 

Words and Notes. 1. mou-amele et." 2. beyan et." 3. mad'de. 
4. efkiar. (Bendenizin de efkicirl heman heman o merkezde dir.J 

j^jl 1 ^LJ Reading Exercise. 

^-,4— L-. JUI ib^A* iW j % Newton. 

oji^i oSijj^> jj (joli>j ' s^>jjji aLJ of x Jb*b' e^Uil (JjU- 
• Jj^*' w^sjw c*j^ • o-^jl5^j>^ (T^ \£fcos>\ ^a^^-o-XjI *}b 

4,VL^4 jr ^.^4 HIL^ ^^-^ J" dijb j> uVjl ^Jl^-cJo I i 5 ^ 3j— x 

Words and Notes, if'al actions (pi. of fiyf); siyasiye political 
(§579). 1. ouloumou tabiyiye natural sciences. 2. oulema scientists 
(pi. of aJim [§ 643 d]). 3. Nevton Newton. 4. parlamento parlia- 
ment. 5. meb'ous delegate, P. M. 6. sifaftyla with the title. 
7. ne — ne — neither — nor — . 8. iyrad to deliver (§ 620); noutq 
speech. 9. tekleef proposition (§ 615). 10. itiraz opposition (VIII. 
of arz). 11. khariqitl ade olaraq extraordinarily (Turk, adverb). 

12. vaqarli' bir souretle in a serious manner, seriously (§ 458). 

13. idareyi kelam et." to deliver a speech (§ 621). 14. te-afjiib et." 
to be astonished. 15. mesayil questions (pi. of mesele [§ 597]), mou- 
himm' important (fayil of ihmam [§ 619]). 16. ikhtiyar et." to prefer, 
choose (§ 627); sukutle for sukut ederek remaining silent (= keeping 
silence). 17. tekel'Uun et." to speak (§ 622). 

Turkish Conv. -Grammar. 25 


oo i_rj^ Lesson 55. 



<&> J\jf ^Jf pL* i "£l>Jbl ^iC*- <LL_«jJj! 18 <y~-lf I 

^ t 29 li a '8 .4 I • I • I 

< gZ£z<£> ^-J ©5 j>. J JJPJ'J' «—*>-j^ ,Aj>A»- ." cAj'jA «jw^T 

18. i?Ja compelling (§ 619). 19. hukm it." to judge, think. 
20. with great attention. 21. see § 678. 22. bahs et." to discuss. 
23. istima et." to hear. 24. al'lame exceedingly learned (§ 582 of 
at lam, this is exceptionally masculine); divran the century. 
25. What do you think that he said? 26. jihit side. 27. miisha- 
hade to see. 28. jireyani hava current of air. 29. houdous et." 
to occur, happen; moujib causing (m£fOul of ijab [§ 619]); bayis 
ol." to cause. 30. sitihat health; ikhlal to spoil, break. 31. binayen 
aliyh therefore (§ 676 5 ) ; teklif et." to propose, to move. 32. he sat 
down quickly (§ 286). Ebuz Ziya the father of Ziya (§ 669 2 , p. 369). 



To Thank. «ULil ^CL" Teshek'kur etmek. 

I thank you very much for your 

Pray don't mention it. 
I feel very grateful to you. 

am very much obliged to you. 

shall never forget your kind- 
ness to me. 

return you a thousand thanks. 

beg you will accept my most 

grateful thanks. 

Thank you, Sir. 

I am sorry to give you so much 

You overwhelm me with your 

No trouble at all. 
I shall be most happy to return 

you the favour. 
You are really too kind. 
I hope I shall some day be able 

to get out of your debt 

Loutfounouza pek ziyade teshek- 

kur iderim. 
Estagh'firoul-lah ! 
Zati alinize mirinetdarim. 
Qoulounouza olan loutfou hich 

Binlerji arzi tishek'kur iderim. 
Minnetdarani olan tishek'kura- 

timi qaboul bouyourmanizl 

istirham ederim. 
Teshek'kur iderim effindim. 
Zati alinize' bou qadar zahmet 

virdiyim ichin mute-is' sifim. 
Loutfounouz qoulonouzou mah'- 

joub idiyor. 
Hich zahmit diyil. Bir shey diyil. 
Loutfounouzou iyadi idejeyim 

ichin 2>ek mis'-oud oum. 
Haqiqatin pek nazik sifiiz. 
Inshal-lah bir gun olour bor- 

ioumou ida edirim. 

TAY Arabic Numerals. 387 

I am delighted to have been use- Khidmetinizde bouloundoughoum 

ful to you. ichoun pek memnounoum. 

I am extremely glad to see you. Sizi georduyume derejeyi niha- 

yede memnoun oldoum. 
Nothing at all! Not at all! Bir she'y deyil. 

No ceremony between friends. Teklif yoq dour effendim! 

°^ u^-A> Lesson 56. 

aljipl •^I Arabic Numerals. 

§ 685. The Arabic Numeral Adjectives are fre- 
quently used in Ottoman, especially in writings, in 
official terminations, in speeches and sermons. 

§ 686. I. Cardinal Numbers. *A^\ ^Ij^I 

jcwl j ' jo-\ vahid or ahad one; fern. oJ^\j ' iSJ^\ ihda, valiide. 
drtU\ esneyn two. <«~- seb'-e seven. 

*3u se-le-se three. 4JU semaniye eight. 

<*>j\ erba'-a four. <«~J tis'-e nine. 

*—*■ khamse five. ^i&'^i& ashere, ashJr ten. 

-CL- sit'te six. yLys sifir zero. 

^JLc Jcw\ ahade asher 11, ^i.c LJ| isna a*7ier 12, ^,-ic <:£ seleset 
asher 13, ^i& ^jl erba-at asher 14, ^it *~i- khamset ashir 15, 
^ic ii~ siftet as7ter 16, ^ic. ^U-*- se&V£ a$7ze'r 17, ^-ic <Ju semani- 
yet asher 18, ^it a*-J tis-e't' asher 19. 

^^i& ishreen 20, C*iU seleseen 30, Ca*jj1 erba-yeen 40, 

Oyjf- khamseen 50, Cni- sit' teen 60, jw- seb'een 70, Cnllt semaneen 

80, Owl tis'een 90. (u^'uJ/^- etc. is not used in Ottoman.) 

<*U mtyl 100, OCL miyeteyn 200, ^IciLJ selesou miyetin 300, 

^1 e7f 1000, CniJi #/ify» 2000, oVT ctf scfcfe<& aZa/" 3000. 

§ 687. II. Ordinal Numbers. aJ^aj s\j*\ 

Jj\ ' <i.>l=»- ev'vel, hadi 1 st ; fern. Jj\ otJa. 

jL sam second; fern. <~G saniye second (* G o th of a minute). 




388 ©^ u-j^ Lesson 56. rAA 

sfjlj salis third, fern. oLS *jL- sa&i seventh. 

tu\j rabi fourth. » am{j ^y>\J samin eighth. 

^^.U- Tchamis fifth. » * — «U- *~-lJ tasi ninth. 

u-oL sadis sixth. » <uoL ^z,\c ashir tenth. 

§ 688. By the addition of an elif with a tenveen, 
they are changed into adverbs (§§ 681, 683): 

Vjl eo'vela firstly. LoL sadisin for the 6 th time. 

Li LJ saniye'n secondly. UL. sabiyen » » 7 th 

lillj salisen thirdly. ll«li saminen» » 8th 

Ulj rabiyen fourthly. L~.lT tasiyen » » 9 th » 

L~.U- Tchamisen fifthly. \^ £ - ashir en » » 10 th » 

§ 689. The Nisbe of the units is made by the 
„ > 
measure J,l^ (§ 580 f.): 

jLJ sunayi composed of two letters, bi-literal. 

ci>d sulasi » » three » triliteral. 

^frlij rtlbayi » » four » quadriliteral. 

§ 690. Fractional Numbers. a^S^Ij^I 

wi^ai nisf, nisif half (§ 207). i^r-Ju- sweJs, swdfws Ve- 

cJG sulus, suls l js. *~- sub 7 1 ji. 

mj ronb', ouroub 1 / , 4. ^ sumn, sumun Vs. 

^-i- khoums l /5- a«J fats' V»- 

^i.& Ms/ir, ushiir V'io; ebshur tithe (pi. jlic\ ashar). 

§ 691. In forming compound numeral adjectives 
in Arabic, the smaller number always precedes the 

larger, while j ve is put between every number and that 

which follows it: that is to say, in reading they begin 
from the right, as they write and read from the 
right (§ 13). 

jiilt* Misal'ler Examples. 
oy^ j aa-J tiset ve selasoun (or selaseen [§ 573]) thirty-nine. 

rA^ Arabic Numerals. 389 

v_j»3I j JjIf-tU j ^JL& iji^ ilJ Tahreeren fit yevmil hhamis vel ishreen, 

min shehri zilqadetish sherife, lisenetin sebet-asher vi selesoumiyetin 
ve elf. (This Firman) was written on the 25 th of the sacred month 
Zilqade, in the year 1317 (of the Hejira). 

c£jjjj fl^» c£j!;Uc^«\ <dj jjf< shouhourou selese imtihanlari 
khitam bouldou. The term examinations were finished. 

*~J- 4.£jL. otejl evqati mubarekeyi Tchamse the five blissful 
times (of daily prayers). <L) j <U <J&\ elfu UyU ve leylet the 
1001 nights, i. e. the Arabian Nights, Turk. Bin bir geje. 

The Diminutive Noun. 

§ 692. The Diminutive noun is made by the 

measure JJ£ fouqeyl (§§ 156, 167, 544): 

Xs. abd a servant: x~-c ^oubeyd a little servant. 

^-^ hasan beautiful: i>— >. houseyn darling, prettiest. 
(j\L*selman prop, name: (jlJL, souleyman Solomon. 

\ i A Jul Exercise 148. 

< i 8 I . * t !H 7 *<\i • a'. a ^ I* ♦ 

t 11 . i ' 10 . * . . i ' 9 I i < ai -♦. * ' I 

Wo?*ds. 1. aftad, asherat, miyat^ oulouf or a/a/"; the units, tens, 
hundreds and thousands. 2. 2 /3, 2 /6 (duals [§ 568]). 3. fousoul sea- 
sons, pi. of /asZ a season ; a section, subdivision of a book. 4.jezayir 
islands, pi. of jezire (§ 646). 5. ameliyat processes (Arith). 6. mad'de 
article (§ 644 b). 7. shouhour months (pi. of shehr). 8. product 
(mef. of housoul [§ 604]). 9. liavass sense, faculty. 10. Tchamseen 
a period of 50 days, following the Erbayeen, ending at the Vernal 
Equinox. 11. erbayeen the forty days of midwinter, beginning 
with the winter solstice, 21st December, and ending 30 th January, 
when the severest cold is experienced. 12. kesri asharee the 
decimal fractions. 13. eed festival (Pentecost). 14. individuals. 

390 ol i_rJ-> Lesson 56. r V 

\ i ^ Ju> Exercise 149. 

dtijjjc *ic cJjS r • tS^A^JiJi- J-^J 1 ilS—*" C - l >- '•-»*~t l 

: J5 jlijJ: Jj*l~ ifcBjt 6J*L£f VV J °^ J3 "^ 
(Z * ** ** -•*-' ^ 

it* -- • 14 . ' 13 | 

o, > :a >^ 3 *A > &** >^ : >*** J^ </* ^ *& 

Words md Notes. 1. m«ir^ intoxicating liquids. 2. douMian 
tobacco 3. damgha stamp. 4. fcar«er silk. 5. «ayd fishing, hunting 
"fish; rolLi taxes. 6. to&eer oT to beca led; Doiiyounou 
Oumoumi^yi Osmaneeye Idaresi the Administration io [ Ottoman 
Public Debts: terk to leave; ihale to refer (IV. of fcawate [§ 620 j . 
^ civil; .«*. military (§ 581). 8 W«**^ to- 
ot derejS [§ 576]); rutbi a rank, grade m the Ottoman nobility. 
9 sMf class. 10. mutSmayiz privileged, superior (fayi of tema- 
vuz re 6241). U. rutbeyi bala the supreme civil grade in the 
Ottoman nobility. 12. W* the rank of a vezir 18. tarh 
Bubtraction. 14. zarb multiplication (if pron. darb it it, ,a blow . 
15. sayf summer. 16. khazan autumn 17 sto winter (§5€ 1 . 
18 spring. 19. mesadir infinitives (pi. of masdar [§ 648],,. 20. ^as<*>* 
fundamentally (§ 681). 21. m«^nM simple, T>? m fJ*(™*°%£ 
teheed). 22. wfeeedouw fiyhi augmentative: mwced (§§ 605 b/u yi 
&i: /?.V preposition, ai pronoun ([§ 671 i] - augmented in itself). 

r\) Arabic Numerals. 391 

a\.^a Conyersation. 

and Felicitations. 

IjuLTj CjI^jJJj 

I have heard with great pleasure »jjj\ jijl olifcC o JaJc oL. J^ 
that H. I. M. the Sultan has oj^c d±ij\>^ o^> <i& ^-aMj*- 
appreciated your services and <jliJ a*LS^ ; O-^^J o^^-^ <liJLHe 
conferred on you a decoration of Juj]jj^ CjL^\ j 4.-*.j7 jl^ Wie- 
the third class of the Osmaniye. .jjJLljl fj<~*~* -JLia^Jwt* Jlc^ 

I have heard with the greatest <ii JVlj o\:> cSj^,^ o^a>- o\i 

joy that H. I. M. the Sultan has iSj^^Jj^, 0^-<J 4UjLi— b-^jl 

appointed you Minister Pleni- **;ij?-lc. c.j^_-^T *\J. ^* Jlc^ 

potentiary to London. .<i-vJj\ 

I read in the newspapers with -us-jT dJLjJ'Jel* *Jj O^Ulc «juc 

extreme joy of your promotion -dJ^-*. j- t Jj^IJ Vj^ JijJj.-j 

to the degree of Mutemayiz. . *i*M <Jlk« o-)u.>^»- Jbj\ 

[To a Lady.] My joy was very jjJjjIjlj-L" o^>- <-x- ^JiMy^ 

great on hearing that H. I. M. c^iii u-^J i^— ^ <Cj^UI& oJ^c- 

the Sultan had been pleased to *j\*« JijjJj^j 0^— *-t iKi»3 u^' 

confer on you the Insignia of JJ >— • >U J^ ajJjojl >4^j»-lc. 

the third class of the Shefaqat. . f jJjI oj'-^» j 

Please accept my congratulations Jjublijl, ^v* 1 *- < - s "- J <-»-jj 

on this honorific distinction. • f J-M ^^nT (5j£Jl& olJ> jV*i» 

Please accept my sincere con- viL-oLJU. o^o^nT jVj.l» u-^* 

gratulations. .f-HJl j.>U^n.~. ^--dj^ J^J 

I cannot express my gratitude t y~». iSjJzjj^ JlJul o-UaJKjIj ^ 

for the interest you feel in me. *="-_;.> <• jV^l* O-^ 4 -^ *^»V?t^ 

392 oi o-j^ Lesson 56 

I am ever so much obliged t\i, 


for it. 

I perceive from this high token 
of the Imperial favour that your 
excellent qualities are appre- 
ciated everywhere. 

I hasten to congratulate you on 

the new dignity of which Your 
Honour is the recipient. 

[To an Ambassador.] Sir, Our 

August Sovereign, H. I. M. the 

Sultan, desirous of affording you 

some token of his appreciation 

and his regard has been pleased 

to confer on you the grand 

cordon of His Imperial Order 
of the Mejidiye. 

Will your Excellency therefore 

please to accept my very sincere 

congratulations on this token of 
the Imperial favour of which 
you are the recipient? 

i B vol * ijMjb ^)X^\t^\j ola^l J 


' «>>j>j1 3^1 J^ Jd-> a ^J^O- 
jULo 0^ «iJ^c* i ^ d ^/. o**?J 

O&j^A l3.Vji» £P<f-* vT-.iialC' J> 

I ask you, Sir, to be kind enough jJL\ <j)lj\ jlJJU-^ c-jI*j «^->JjJ^-" 
to present to H. I. M. my very <3Vjk o^<^> wiklc J ^» Vj\£j 
respectful homage and to convey ^<*lj^l* <£li olc^ 1 " J ol^-ir 

to him the assurance of my -jjbliol 

_~j &— 


rv Arabic Numerals. 393 

profound gratitude, and to re- rJ-^l ^-J iSiJ^J.y. k^} •> L/'if' 
present to him how greatly I feel ^ 

honoured by such a high die- * f-*"* 3 ' 

tinction and how much I am 
sensible of his high munificence 
and bounty. 

s-i - 



9 ,«JU> Reading: Exercise. 

^j Home (Fatherland). 

4i AZSUA*- dAl~,<Ua3 C( 4A-A> ^il« 4JU-U /UjV> JflC 

•j*~- 4I) I C^L^>- jJj3 Jl ^C-^J &■> (jL-o I 4— U— 4L 1 sl;L~>- jJjS 4j 
<J^J (i'j* OU- OVjl <£v> ill 17 dljj-l3 "^Ij* 45CSj>- ' Jj- 

>J JU a:Ij 22 f]U. e ju>.b:jl Ul ! n j£ oVjl 


TTorcZs and Notes. 1. sense, mind. 2. mureb'ba square 
(mef. of ter-bi' [§ 615]\ 3. museVUs triangle (mefoul of Uslees 
[§ 615]). 4. qaziye decision, truth. 5. to judge. 6. vijdan con- 
science. 7. vatan home, fatherland. 8. outside, other, non- (fayil 
of khourouf. 9. sih'hat truth. 10. itimacl to believe (VIII. of 
amd). 11. sheer-khor that sucks milk, suckling (§ 535). 12. mayishet 
(n. w. mim of aysft -f- gta/i) a place where to gain his subsistence 
(§ 541). 13. kedshe a nook, retreat; feragh leisure. 14. his'siyat 
feelings (pi. of hiss). 15. mhjl affection. 16. mevahib gifts (pi. of 
mevhibe'). 17. qoudrit power; Providence. 18. tenef'fus to breathe 
(V. of nefes). 19. ataya gifts, bounties (pi. of atiye [§ 646]). 
20. p. t. revnaqli splendid, brilliant. 21. looking, glance; lemhayi 
iftitahda at the first glance. 22. khak soil; ground. 23. te-al'louq 
it." to fasten, to attach (V. of alaqa § 622). 

394 o*\ Lr <j^ Lesson 56. y^\. 


j/- oJUU-Ai./' ^A aI-J^L A^ljLl 4^Jj>- ' j^, /C^J O^* 
I 31 a c 30 „ I c 29 .. - J< -. i ..I .... 

dbsVjl j^ljl JU "^ j 36 JjSC 35 ;>L, 34 dk,3l^>.l oVjl 

1-15,, i- 44 . M 43 ,.i 42.. *<"" " 41 „ .. 40 i ~| 

'jyjjy oJ^^SZ>- ^4JU. ^oiT c^ oj^ rfP4r*jl ' u ^ 
v^ij 1>. o^" j' ^s^y* o-Uil^j a5^Jjs>- w_* ^jl L?j jjl^vjl 

. it - I I 50 .. ** 49 l" - a» 6 ♦ 

I^U • Jo Oj Lc 0^ rU3>- i» ♦As* O^jjte- 4LU$ dUl^y I j 

24. mad'de material (§ 582, 644). 25. jus a part, fragment. 
26. p. guzeshte past (§ 555). 27. p. yad recollection; hazeen sad (adj. 
qual. 7m#n [§ 606]). 28. tehaj'jur petrification, embodiment (V. of 
hajSr [§ 622]). 29. hurriyet liberty (§ 581). 30. comfort, rest. 
31. haqq right. 32. qayim existent (fayil of qiyam). 33. existence. 
34. ijdad ancestors (pi. of jedd [§ 639]). 35. maqbere a burial 
place (N. of Loc. qabr [§ 598]). 36. sukun rest, calmness. 37. netije 
result, effect (§ 582). 38. jilvegiah a place or seat of beauty, life. 
39. ishtirdk participation (VIII. of shirMt). 40. it'tihad union 
(§ 628). 41. menfa-at interest (n. w. mim of naf [§ 597]). 42. kesret 
abundance. 43. muvanese familiarity, friendship (III. of unsiyet). 
44. jihetiyile by means. 45. qarabet near relationship. 46. ou- 
Jchouvvet fraternity. 47. nisbet proportion. 48. hakimiyet sovereign- 
ity (§ 582). 49. tasar'rouf disposal, possession (V. of sarf). 
50. haqiqi real (§ 581). 51. glialib conqueror (fayil of ghalebe). 
52. shemsheer sword. 53. mdvhoum imaginary (m^foul of vehm). 
54. Matt line. 55. mil'liyit nationality (§ 581). 



r\o Arabic Compound Words. 395 

56. shebab youth. 57. oulvi, -viye noble (§ 579 of j\e 'oulouv). 
58. ytima union (VIII. of jV'm [§ 627]). 

oY u^i> Lesson 57. 

Arabic Compound Words. 

§ 693. There are many compound words in use 
in Ottoman, composed of two Arabic words. They are 
connected together either according to the Arabic or 
the Persian systems of Izafet (§§ 515, 668). The 
majority of such words are composed according to the 
Persian system. 

But there are some Arabic words w T hich are in 
frequent use in Ottoman in composition with other 
words of Arabic origin. Their use will be best under- 
stood from the following examples: 

§ 694. I. Arabic System. <j^e J^l 

1. (ji »i (sing, genitive), ji zon (nomin.); ^ji zevi 
(pi.) owner, possessor: 

?-j^o zirouh animated. c-*— ao ziqiymet precious. 

jjllo zishan glorious. jJlji zoulyed possessed of a 

hand, handed. 

J>bcJl j:> zoul jelal possessed of glory, Lord of Glory (God). 
r^-^Vt <£j'z zevil erham possessors of relation, relatives 

2. y^oXo sahib possessor; pi. ^J&z^\ as-hab: 

Um V^ ^— -»\a sahihul imza who signs, the undersigned. 

Cjll— .s<J\j o\jy*J\ w=^Ur sahibul Ichayrcit vel hasanat. The 
possessor (or the author) of this good and charitable work. 

3. V la not, without: 

396 oY u-J^ Lesson 57. i"A^ 

U**>Ji layouh'sa innumerable. o^V la yimoui immortal. 

£^i la youkh'ti infallible. X^ la budd" inevitable. 

iV la shey nothing. jC W ^ *&«*» careless. 

§ 695. II. Persian System. ^Ss J^l 

1. J,J *^tee, t*£W owner; Ujl ev%a, 
j^ Uj ^e%i a7id the heir apparent, crown prince. 

c^«; <ij' r**^ <ij veZi »*#»»&> veliyuri niyam benefactor. 

,.!,., ,. , .: Jj veZi »*y«&* bimirinet a benefactor who upraids not. 

2. .Jyl er&a& (pi. of L>j rebb) owner of, endowed 

with, master: 
^J^ v Ljl eV&a'M MW* men of wisdom, philosophers. 

Ja ^Jij\ erbabi huner endowed with skill, artisans. 

i3b* «t*M erfca ' W wi^'rag men of curiosity, of hobbies. 

t.j> <JlM ^^ ^. 6oM »■*•* trba'Mdir he is skilful in this. 

3. ^>U sa/ufc, pi. ^U-l as-A«& possessor, owner: 
>ZjjJ v-^-U safti'fti seW* a man of wealth, rich. 

OJj : V U^\ asTm'M sM'# the rich class. 
^,UJ v U^\ as-7ia'6i w#afe«ft the noble class, nobilities. 
J*\J v^^U sa7u fci /2ras/i ill in bed, sick. 

4. *l^l enva, pi. of ^ wet?; kinds, varieties: 
s^Li* *\^\ envayi meshaqqat all kinds of troubles. 

5. JaI e#Z man, person, pl.J>i &o#: 

f >U >\ e^7i islam a Moslem. ^ >\ eh'li irz honorable. 
cji J*\ &'!» Wyt family. »^- >\ &'** ***&»* ex P ert 

cJL* >\ eh'li hiyet astronomer. jk^ >\ eh'li mantlq logician. 
^.U\ efc'fty^ capacity, capability, ability (§ 581). 
t. J:~U\ eh'liyetli able, capable. >JJU1 eh'liyitsiz incapable. 

r«yv Arabic Compound Words. 397 

6. • r ~>- husn goodness, good: pi. ^M- mehasin. 
v^-j^ [ y^>. hus'nu Jchidme't good, valuable service. 

JU- .>■>. hus'nu hal good condition; character. 
IlL [ y^>- hus'nu lihatt' fine penmanship. 

7. «^— sou evil, bad (pi. ^jL-* mesavi [§ 649]): 
JU. j— sou'yi hal bad behaviour, bad condition. 

{Ja *j~* sou'yi zann a bad opinion, suspicion. 
-Ua5 *y* sou'yi qasd attempt to murder. 
Jlc*!-! ^- sou'yi istimdl bad usage, abuse. 

8. +Academ non-existence, absence (used with nouns): 

^L^lLl aAc ademi ita-at disobedience. 

v^jlcj *A& ademi ri-a-yet dishonour. 

ojji aAc adS'mi qoudret weakness. *j*-J r->^ ademi vujoud 

*Ac jlo diya'ri adem abode of annihilation, death. 

9. % bi'la without (used with nouns [§ 530]): 

jj+sl) % bi'la qousour blameless; spotless; perfect. 

\J°j- >^ bi'la gharaz without any intention, aimless ; sincere. 

10. j& ghay'ri non-, in-, un- (with adjectives): 
^jiC_* ^nc- ghay'ri munikin impossible. 

*jL. j*p ghay'ri malum unknown. 
J^V js& ghay'ri layiq unworthy. 
<ib ^nc- ghay'ri kiaft unsufficient. 
Ju~. jJc- j y~* muslim ve ghay'ri muslim Moslem and non-Moslem. 

11. Ju Uemal perfection; perfect: 
iiij Jl<? Jcema'li diq'qat perfect attention. 

^JSJ Jl^ kimali teshek"kur perfect gratitude. 

398 oV ^-j-i Lesson 57. r\k 

12. J£> nefs person, self: 

Lr jLJ \i ' <-~.-k'u bin'nefs, binef'sihi personally, 
t. o^i- ^jJi> nefsi shehirde in the very city, 
t. <*>jojj\ t~. <l> (iXi kendi nefsim iizerine on my person. 

13. c^- ' ^ ay'ni the very same: 

t. aI-^c- ' a-1-;.^ ayniy'U, biay'nihi exactly the same. 

ojj^s Cas- ay'ni souret the exact copy; the very same way. 
t. oXA*j ^ ay'ni Fernanda at the same time. 

O^J* /*Jj« Reading Exercise. 

' O'vlaL- ^1 j^ jjljl *©yo VrV" -V Jl 

•Ol^j ^—^j^- »^oIaj j i jj^j' «cJI 

TFords awe? Notes. Nekbet ou zil'Uti ehli zoulmet the overthrow 
and abasement of tyrants. 1. abd slave; habesh Abyssinian; 
a negro. 2. dehr world. 3. p. bakhi fortune, destiny. (Allusion is 
made to Nadir Shah, the conqueror of Tartary, Afghanistan and, 
India 1735 — 45.) 4. Dah'hdk name of a celebrated Arabian tyrant, 
who conquered Persia and slew king Jemshid. He is said to have 
had two snakes living between his shoulders, which were fed 
daily with the brains of two little children, Zohak (Astyages? 
Deioces?). 5. milk kingdom. 6. Kiave name of the blacksmith 
of Ispahan, Kava (Cepheus), who killed Zohak's tax-gatherer who 
came to seize his children, hoisted his own leather apron as a 
standard of revolt and made Feridoun (Phraortes), a descen- 
dant of Jemshid, king, and delivered Persia. 7. perishan et." to 
scatter or ruin. 8. iqbal, id-bar prosperity, misfortune. 9. bel 
baghlamaq to trust. 10. day ire circle (§ 582). 11. dSvr et." to 
turn, revolve; chenberi devran fortune's wheel. 12. zulm wrong; 
the fayil of which is zalim tyrant. 13. giriftar ol." to be subjected 
to. 14. akhir at last (fayil of akher). 

r\\ Arabic Compound Words. 399 

? cjyu. 2 V~ 26 <u jy-uj) "jjj* 

. "oU ^ y* jjj\ ' 14 >T jj 36 ^ yt 

* * O^' 4i-j» ^lo^ljl Jlt> 4J • " 4Jbl j^O 

15. efcse'r for eksSriya frequently (§ 683); j&za punishment. 
16. jins kind, sort; am<?7 crime, sin, guilt (= tooth for tooth and 
eye for eye). 17. akin iron. 18. rakhne ruin, death; souhan a file, 
rasp. 19. tezkeer et." to remember, remind. 20. Zan cursing. 
21. Hafjaj a celebrated tyrant, governor of Iraq. 22. Jengiz the 
great cruel and conqueror of the 13 th century. 23. tebjeel treating 
with great honour. 24. Nousheervan name of the greatest king of 
the Sassani line of Persian sovereigns; SouUyman Solomon. 25. qabil, 
mumkin (fayil of imkian) possible. 26. elfaz words, terms. 27. tagh- 
yeer to change, verify (§ 615). 28. tefreeq to distinguish (§ 615). 

29.^iSif pron. kufr means blasphemy; if kefr covering, atonement; 

belief. 30. insha et" to build. 31. deer a monastery; mesjid 
a mosque. 32. nazari Haqq in God's sight (comp. Matt. VI., 45). 
33. mejous fire-worshipper. 84. He for ve. 35. inlemek to moan, 
to suffer. 36. mih'net affliction ; ghamm sorrow. 37. p. pagan, a akhir 
end, limit; sitem injury. 38. vnikuifat reward (III. of keyf{% 706 b]); 
husnu — (§ 695 6 ;. 39. think about; Yousouf Joseph. 40. ikhvan 
brothers. 41. Tal'lahi leqad aserekel lahou aleyna Truly (By God!), 
God has appointed you ruler over us (these are the words which 
the brothers of Joseph spoke — according to the Qoran — when 
he made himself known to them). 

400 oA u-j^ Lesson 58. *«.♦♦ 

a1^C« Conversation. 

. r>J ^ .*# %»j* - r J0 ^ 

f yjT ^j^ &> m <&\ u~'>^ u>b •£->•*) "■*• >** ^ ^-^ 

oUl jy JV> O^U-^ O^.^Ji ^> ^^ ^^ 

.fXh\ f jJj\ uj^- A *A»f «*> iSir ifeJ^ r 1 i ^>>- 

*jj\ u L^L r i i \ <Lijli- j £•*• 

c 5 }«-* 

dux*! dj* j. db .jiiijji jj o^-- o^jA *-# vA»f 

oA ^r^t> Lesson 58. 

*bl> 0\X Synonymous Words. 

8 696 In the Arabic and Persian languages it 
is customary to use two and even three words of the 
same meaning (Kelimati Mutcradife) in the same sen- 
tence to express one idea. This is considered one of the 
beauties of the language. That was the case with the 
old Ottoman literature too, in which the Turks imitated 
this characteristic of the said languages. 

But through contact with European languages and 
their literature, the new generation of writers has begun 
gradually to forsake the old wearisome system and to 

i.* ) Synonymous Words. 401 

adapt the use of simple and single words. Yet there 
remain some instances of the old system, which hy 
' the sanction of centuries have been stereotyped and 
consolidated even in the common speech. 

§ 697. The synonymous words are united together 

by a J> which is generally pronounced ou, vu, not 
ve. The shorter of the two comes first. 

For instance, the Turkish word i^JU chalishalim 

is expressed by ioJol *Ij5I j *^ say ou iqdam edelim, 

or loJijl ZjJ& 3 { j^ say ou ghayret edelim: the words 

ju*'u> ' pij^ 1 all meaning 'effort 5 ; and the meaning 
of the sentences is 'let us try'. 

jjSjs jo lie j *^cAfl!l *-Jl»- jenabi Al'lahin Iceremou inayet 
dukenmez the mercy of God does not come to an end. 

*>oJu\ >^" j j£ (ijxikl loutfounouzou temen'ni vu terej'ji 
ederim I ask for your kindness. 

/o*U Uj\ j tal t^o deynimi 4da vu iy-fa eyledim I paid my 

debts (3 is pronounced vu, after vowels). 

The words _! Jt ! _| ^-^ both mean f to ask' and «J |M ! 
J ou\ mean Ho pay'. 

iVbte. o?f is appended to the last syllable of the previous word. 

jlllt* Examples. 
J\ llj j 7-.L. med'hou sena et" to praise. 
~\ i>— =eJ j j.^ taqdir ou tali seen et." to praise and appreciate 
-\ A±A j J^ qatlou idam et." to kill. 

-\ ^Jij j i^-l akhzou girift it." to arrest and seize. 
oU j ^>U- /ia^?r ou amadS ready, 

cj^* j fj^ ouloum ou funoun arts and sciences. 
o\ijz j pie- ilmou irfan science and art. 

-\ sjJu j ^y^ arzou taqdim et." to present, to offer. 

<JL*\ j v^Jj^ devlet ou iqbal prosperity and good fortune. 

Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 26 

402 ©A ^_rj* Lesson 58. «u*r 


II. a**L* cX^ Symphonious Terminations. 

§ 698. It was a great task in the ancient Ottoman 
literature, in imitation of Arabic and Persian to accu- 
mulate in a sentence words of the same termination ; as : 

ocJjSj\ *l?cj| »Ju-m.j aLIj a&Ol hengiami ta-atti resideyi enjam 
oloun'ja when dinner(-tiine) was over. 

^liol £*>j^a>. o:>UJ!yblj o^Vj veladeti bahirus-sa-a-deti 
hazreti padishahi the prosperous birth-day of H. I. M. the Sultan. 

^flll JJi o^*a»- u-j^ L. d.1^. u-jV julousou meymenet-me-e- 
nousou hazreti zilloul-lahi the auspicious accession of H. I. M. 

jl^ o^i^> 6^ nishani zishani Osmani the glorious 
Ottoman order (of knighthood). 

- - ^ > 

III. e^Uai* OUs^ Antonyms. 

§ 699. There is another class of words which, 
though they are not synonymous and have contrary 

meanings, are yet connected together by j ou, vfi: 

Uatl j j^-l aTchzou ita a taking and giving, buying and selling, 
trade, business. Turkish alish verish. 

jjijj (J r'^\ j \J^>\ ^ji y t bou yoloun iptida ou intihasi 
yoq dour this road has no beginning and no end. 

oX-LJl jlol j JlJl iqbdl ou idbar esnasinda in the time of 
prosperity and misfortune. 

■J.3 J* J. i£J ^ "J^J^JT chojouqlara juz ou Tcul'li bir 
shey ver give the children something more or less. 

{Z*h\ Oijt j ^J 6 - <ij^^-l Istambola azeemet ou avdit 4yU- 
dim I went to Constantinople and came back. 

jl!ll« Misal'ler Examples. 

^i j ^- khay'rou sherr good and evil. 

C-»lc-» j «^- , 4=- hayatou memat life and death. 

"— J \j^ J db~ souva >l ve jevab question and answer. 

Jj^> J Jo kiar vi zarar gain and loss. 

lis- j U^> sefa vu jefa pleasure and pain. 

oOW J ols^v- mukiafatou mujazat reward and punishment. 

*u»r Synonymous Words. 403 

j (-\a>\ iyfa vu istiyfa payment and receipt of a debt. 

jWjl-I j j\^j\ ijar ou istijar leasing and hiring. 

pJL.7 j JLJ teslim ve tesel'lum delivery and receipt. 

Ja\Ji£~.\ j ^j>\j>\ iqraz ou istiqraz lending and borrowing. 

pJuT j JLJ talimoutS-al'-lum teaching and learning. 

\ ♦ ^\m Exercise 150. 

4>.jj jj J^yV ^jljl i£l£o jlJU5C>- dLj\3fjlS£ • j^ j5Cj j jSe 
jyM j ty^y* ^- , ^-*^"' J OLa*-' ^^>-L^ <t»_iL>- j> T . jjc5CJU 

1 j^l oX-Vl pjl i^L~- j Jlil <££>>■ dl . 15 jlo4i»l Ofle* 
i£jL,aiu ♦ ^l jlj I 4ju-}lL- *>-j3 vdUjjJs j ,2s © Jc£ii> ^& Ly ^ l> j; 

TTords awd Notes. 1. md'doud regarded. 2. moZtf; c7j> he has, 
owns. 3. mirhoum deceased and admitted to God's mercy (mefoul 
of rahmet); 3. mutevef'fa dead, asleep (mefoul of tevef'fi [§ 623]); 
3. haji Jerusalem pilgrim (fayil of hajf is hajij = haji}; Ketcjian 
Haji Boghos Effendi. 4. papa the pope of Rome. 5. id-diya, 
id-da-a to claim. 6. itiqad conviction (VIII. of aqd [§ 627]), eeman 
belief. 7. kaUri for lialini your situation, distress. 8. arz ehnek 
to state politely. 9. namerd coward (§ 530), cruel. 10. lieman Tci since. 
11. Tcel'le skull, head. 12. kulali cap; merd a manly man. 13. muheel 

dreadful (fayil of ihaU, IV. of Jy>)- 14. Ufa to extinguish (§ 619). 

15. hijret et." to pass. 16. siifla lower, lowest (fem. of esfil [§ 610]. 


404 ©A t^rj* Lesson 58. i.**. 

jfcuUi s^f lis JJV^ -W^Si Y * A -^ ur 1 ^ ^>-U ojjl qi^- 

17. se'*/r om seyahat journey; 17. prens di (lal the Prince of 
Wales. 18. es-sey'yid a descendant from Muhammed, Lord ; 18. haji 
pilgrim to Mecca. 19. baqi everlasting (fayil of baqa), dayim 
permanent (fayil of devarn). 

\ 0\ <U>- j Translation 151. 

• -J 

I. 1. The speaker 1 began 2 his speech, by saying, 
'Honourable hearers.' 3 2. Where is the residence of the 
undersigned? 3. The word c who 5 is used for those 
who have sense 4 , and c which 5 for things which have no 
sense. 4. My uncle is wealthy: his property is immense 
(innumerable). 5. Kojaman oghlou is a skilful (capable) 
artisan, he is a thorough master of his business: but 
Bichaqji oghlou is an incapable man, his family is always 
in poverty 5 . 6. Scientists and artists have done great 
services to humanity 6 . 

II. 7. The teacher of penmanship in the College 

is Haji Nahid Effendi. 8. The pupils who have been 

disobedient 7 , the teacher disgraces 8 them. 9. There 

was a great multitude 9 : the Moslem and the non-Moslem 

inhabitants of the city, with their families, were all 

present there. 10. I have not the habit of lending 

and borrowing. 11. The leasing and the hiring of this 

house are finished 10 . 12. The question n of education 12 

is a question of life and death for a nation. 13. The 

payment and the receipt of your debt are impossible 

now. 14. Ali-MouzafFer Effendi was appointed guardian 

(patron) to this orphan. 

Words and Notes. 1. natiq (fayil of noutq speech). 2. ibtidar 
et." 3. houzzari zivil vaqar hazarati: huz'zar pi. of hazir, zevil 
vaqar (§ 694 x ); hazarat pi. of hazret. 4. zevil ouqoul: ouqoul, pi. 
of aql sense (§ 694 *). 5. faqr ou zarouret. 6. insaniyit (§ 581). 
7. ademi ita-atda boulounan. 8. adtmi ri-ayetde boulounour. 9. iz- 
diham (§ 620). 10. Jchitam boulmaq. 11. mSsele (n. w. mini of souvaT). 
12. talimou terbiye. 

x*o Synonymous Words. 405 


\ A ^Ju>* Reading Exercise. 

• jJU^Jjl Ml Jjljl u/S. $f MLt 
• j$ D dJij3 \£jl~-l* c->j~^ dl5C[U \yj 

' 8. .... 7 ^ I i • * 6 . • .1(1 

• J5 ^l ^- <Cj*->- s-^lj I j\i i> ,j I— Ay Ijr j 

I * 

^^ t^**"' • I 12 „ i - ♦ 12 / 1 * 

* 15 ^ji xxj V c# l3 *UU 

t 19 

23^ I - 22 • " 7 21 V^C 

Words and Notes. Terkibi-bend a poem in stanzas of similar 
metre but of different rhyme; the distiches of each stanza rhyme, 
excepting the last distich (pp. 302, 396). 1. tevek'kul to trust (in God) 
[V. of vekil]; yaver helper; Haqq The True One, God. 2. shad happy; 
nashad unhappy (§ 530). 3. felek a revolving sphere of the heavens; 
fortune, destiny. 4. meshreb natural disposition; nasaz discordant, 
incorrect. 5. debnek inconsistent, changeable (§ 439). 6. Take 
refuge! Trust to God! (= May God keep you). 7. halim mild, 
gentle (adj. q. of hilm [§ 606]). 8. ghazab anger. 9. youmshaq 
khouylou mild-natured; chifte a kick with both hind feet at once. 
10. pek, perk violent, severe. 11. graceful smile: nezaket (pseudo- 
Arabic from p. nazik) grace; tebes'sum smile (§ 622). 12. p. sheer 
a lion; qasd et" to intend to kill. 13. bed-asil whose family or 
origin is vile, bad; mean, nasty. 14. nSjabet nobility. 15. uniforma 
uniform [It.]. 16. zerdouz gold-laced (§535). 17. to saddle: palan 
a pad substituted for a saddle in the East; it resembles a large 
cushion. 18. bed-maye vile-natured (§ 536). 19. pleasure party, 
society: m£y, wine. 20. ishret drinking, wine. 21. giher disposition. 
22. tSmyeezet." to distinguish. 23. mehekk', vulg. melieng a touchstone, 
test (n. i. of hekk [§ 599]). 

406 ©A j^r-ji Lesson 58. *u*^ 

i 25 

' 29 e it£ _Aji ja *=jT : M ^ 3 4,1 c>Vcl 

♦ e^lyS <^jJl5 i£;j— C~2~ J (j-j^t 
( 33 a<^32^| . I ."- SI >*" - « ^ ^ 

' 43 >iVjl ^ 42 Jjl c.t 41 >i^L, 
! cJ 4ja .JSjl • fJ-L-jl 44 J*I dli.l jC,Uj* 

<IM. Ui> -w»l 4 V^-<i^^ "(ijirdUi^MiU 

24. nons-h', nousouh' advice; yola gelmek to come right. 
25. to punish (§ 615). 26. ftagg' right, claim. 27. kebtek beating, 
cudgelling. 28. belief and religion. 29. Srbabi ghina the rich people 
(§ 695 2 ). 30. namous a sense of honour, decorum ; hameeyet honesty. 
31. naghme song, a melody sung. 32. taqdeer et." to appreciate. 
33. p. gush ear. 34. tazyee to waste [II. of zay']; nefes the breath. 
35. tebdeel et." to change; maqam a tune. 36. avret, avrat woman. 
37. maghloub ol." to be defeated; 7ieva any unreasonable bias. 38. er 
brave man (Armenian). 39. nefs the carnal man, the spirit of 
conscupiscence. 40. ram et." to submit. 41. manendi shejer like 
a tree. 42. nabit ol." to grow, to vegetate. 43. sabit ol." to be 
firm. 44. ehl a capable man (§ 695 5 ). 45. noqsan deficiency. 
46. work. 47. pezira'yi khitam et." to bring to an end. 

Ai ($S Conversation. 
A Visit on Ship-board. 

«u«V Euphonic Changes of the Letters. 407 

. 4jcm ^<r> jy 

» ftj^-ij k j\<T 4— Jjul jjj\ <l^J <> eJiAjjb iS J+-t $ ' £iJj\JSL* J^S^aIaI 

°^ u^^ Lesson 59. 

Euphonic Changes of the Letters. 

A. Assimilation or *lol Idgham. 

§ 700. Idgham is (the imposition of one letter 
on another, or) the assimilation of one letter to another. 
This occurs when two letters of the same kind have 
come together. The imposition (or assimilation) always 
takes place on the second letter, provided that the first 

408 o\ u-J^ Lesson 59. *u*A 

is quiescent (§ 42). The assimilation is denoted by a 
shedde (") over the second letter; the quiescent letter 
is marked by a jezma (°) [§ 45]. 

§ 701. There are four cases in which Idgham 
occurs : 

a. If the First of the double Homogeneous Letters 
is quiescent, it is removed or imposed upon the second, 
and the latter is doubled or marked with a shedde; as: 

cJLi. millet: the first lam is quiescent: therefore it is omitted 

and imposed on the second lam: and this imposition is indicated 
b}r a shedde, which shows that the second lam is doubled thus: 

^l\» mil' let. 

o^As- hid'det 'anger': is written as oa>- hid' det. 

jhs> ' Cjjeo davet, afv: the Obj. Part, of the measure J^IL. 

is j^cu ' j j jLm medouv, mafouv; the first letter j is quiescent, 
therefore imposed on the second j ; as: j~&J^ ' ji-i* medouv, mafouv. 

There is no change in the pronunciation in either 

b. If the First of the double Homogeneous Letters 
is punctuated by a vowel, the vowel is cast back upon 
the preceding letter and the letter itself imposed upon 
the second: 

J>U-l ikhlal to spoil: the remainder is Jli. (§ 634a): the 

Subjective Participle is JJLsc. : the first of the double letters has 

a vowel, the vowel is cast back upon the preceding letter: hence 

JJlW^ moukh'-lil becomes Jiie* moukhill'; after the assimilation 

" {' > 

J.^. mon-Jchill'. 

JuJii shedid severe: vSji-: the Noun of Superiority according 

to the measure JJi| (§ 609) is ^JlL| esh'-ded: Remove the vowel 

to the preceding: it is sxt) eshedd, after the assimilation Jitl 
e-shedd 'severest'. 

c. If the Preceding Letter already has a vowel, 
or if it is an elif 9 the vowel of the first letter cannot 
be carried back to the preceding; therefore the vowel 
of the first letter is omitted: and the letter itself is 
placed over the second of the double homogeneous 
letters : 

<u^ Euphonic Changes of the Letters. 409 

*\Xj\ irtidad apostasy (VIII of V SSj [§ 627]): the remainder 

is :>jJj (§634 a): the Subj. Part, is u~l^ murte' -did : the first of 
the double letters j> has a vowel: that vowel cannot be brought 
back to the preceding o; because it already has a vowel: there- 
fore the vowel of the first * is omitted: as sJ-lj-* miirtedd, and 
the letter itself imposed upon or assimilated with the second 
*: as JJ^-. mur-tedd' (vulg. mourtad, mirtad) apostate. 

Note. In such cases the Objective Participle is the same with 
Subj. Part, as: .aJ^* murteded = ^^j^« = ->^« miirtedd; but 
the Obj. Part, of the measures Infiqal and Iftiqal is not used. 

jjy murour to pass: \ j^»: according to the measure JJl* 
the Subj. Part, is jjO ma-riv: the first of the double homogeneous 
letters (j) has a vowel; but that vowel cannot be transported 
to the preceding letter, because it is elif: therefore the vowel of the 
first re is omitted as jjL« marr: and the letter itself assimilated 
with the second re j: as jL. marr'. 

d. If two elifs have come together, the first elif is 
assimilated with the second: but the second elif, instead 
of taking a shedde, has a medda placed over it (§§ 29 d, 
39, 47, 603): 

^.\ emr order: the Subj. Part, of the measure Jili is ^»\\ 
e-amir: the first elif is omitted and the second has medda; thus 

^*\ a-mir commander. (j\Jl\ ityan to follow: \'j>'\: J.9 \i : J\\ 
e-a-ti = ii\ a-ti following. 

Note. 1. All double homogeneous letters are not subject to 
assimilation, there are exceptions; as: .i-L. mided help, JU» khalel 
injury, jj*> zarar loss, v. - s6beb reason, v >l^:^\ iktitab copying. 

2. The Subj. Part, of «> hajj 'pilgrimage' is t^»-U- = r- r^ 

hajj = r-U- hajj or j»»W» haji pilgrim [to Mecca (Stinni Moslems), 

Jerusalem (Christians), Kerb&a (Persians) and Haji Be'ktash near 
Kir-shehir (Qizilbashes)]. 

^ Y ^Jw Exercise 152. 

Change the following words into the prescribed 
forms, first without idgham and afterwards with idgham: 

Into the Subjective Participle (Fayil §§ 60 1—3, 634 d) : 

410 o^ ^rjz Lesson 59. <ut ♦ 

> > 

Into the Noun of Location (J«a«): 

11 I - t 11 t \ £ 12 } > i I3"s I " 

yj jy>- jjj* ^J>- • 

Into the Noun of Superiority ( &l § 609): 

„ • . t u* f < 14 " i 15 I i~" t 16 • ,' * 17 ; ; \ « Ui " 

s^£>- »V> Tc— 3s*2 Jul* J m $> J-J-U Jj\>. • 

Into the Noun with Mini (cjfiw): 

18-1. * 18" ' i 19* ' ." * 20 ' i m f • t t I ' 

iOj w>- Jj«2 J^- CJ3 JjU • 

TFbrds. 1. confusion (spoilt). 2. to implore help (who asks 
help). 3. to eat. 4. case, especially (especial). 5. addition (added). 
6. to take. 7. persistence (persistent). 8. completeness. 9. a be- 
coming red (intensely red). 10. common (general, public). 11. to 
abide, stay (an abode, place). 12. to pass (a passage, path). 13. to 
scratch (a touch stone). 14. complete; true. 15. few. 16. beloved. 
17. delicious. 18. love (love). 19. loss (loss). 20. joy (joy). 

B. Modification of Letters. J}U JEelal. 

§ 702. The letters ^ j I are called 'weak' or 

'feeble 5 letters (houroufou Met), and all the others are 
called 'sound 5 letters (houroufou sahihe) by the Arabs. 
The weak letters cannot bear any burden or 'motion 5 
(vowel), as the sound letters can ; they cannot have any 
vowel, they must be quiescent (§ 42). If in the formation 
of words they should be in a position in which a vowel 
would naturally be placed on them, were they 'sound 5 
letters, this vowel is removed or modified. 

§ 703. The general principal of modification or 
permutation of the weak letters is as follows: 

When a vowel (-—) and a weak letter (gj I) which 

is not analogous to it come together in a word, the 
ordinary laws of euphony require that one should yield; 
and in Arabic the vowel prevails. 

Note. Elif is analogous to ustun, ye to fare and vav to 
ebtre (§ 27). 

•vt t 

Euphonic Changes of the Letters. 


§ 704. The weak letters j and ^ require especial 
consideration: the changes of I are not important. 

§ 705. Modification of vav jlj J}U1 

a. If vav has a vowel and the preceding letter is 
quiescent, its vowel is transported to the preceding 
letter ; as : 

oj^> ' J^i " <-*j->- savn, qavl, fthavf v o^a ' J^i ' \Sy>- : the 

Obj. Part, by the measure J^-ii-* (§ 604): ^J^-* 3 -- ' JjjJL. ' ±Jjy-z^ 

mas'-voun, maq-voul, makh'rouf ': modified (jjj^s.^ ma-sou-oun etc. 

after the assimilation u.^-* 3 -* ' J^-*-* ' ^— '^-^-« ma-soun, maqoul, 
mdkhouf c kept, spoken, terrible'. 

b. If the letter preceding vav has esre as its vowel 
(j— ) im- is changed into ^ (-i-); as: 

The word. 



form l . 


«. Ico dou'a 



j ^ 

1 da- 1 jit' 




1 miv-zan 


■>^j vujoud 




ijfy (§ 620) 


Subj. Part. 

1 J ^-^ 

I mud-vir 


c. If the letter preceding 
vowel, (j— ) the vav is changed 

Oj-iUa saf'vit 

ojlAt adavet jls. 



1 The forms in this column do 
given to show how the rule works. 

vav have ustun as its 
into elif (-a-): 

• - '. " ' -; * * 

musafevet musafat 

' - I- - > - -- ' 

I mou-a-devet mou-a-dat 
not actually occur, but are 


^ urj^ Lesson 59. 

The word. 





«■ U> j riza 
J^i qavl 
j>j* devr 


• r-v 

C-A-a k.* 

( mer-ze-vet 
j J^-L, 
( maq-vel 

\ medver 

Ui> ♦« 




d. Fav after servile eZt/" is changed into hemze 
(§§ 591, 602 a): 


yJ 7a#7n> 

oyo davet 



tjl^O ridvan 


- >> 

jit ou-louv 





\ dou-av 









\ Of /C A*i Exercise 153. 

Change the following nouns into the forms mentioned 
below: first into the natural and afterwards into the 
modified forms: 

Subjective Participle (§§ 602—603): 
f'.p Jy y>- fj-^ >*— » (V fr ^j t ^' # 
Noun with ilf?'w (J«-«): 

8 •* ." i 9 ./ " < • ft ♦°^' 10. i' * « 1U* " 

^-5j>- »JJ^ m» Cy J'y- *->j-* * 

Words. 1. to continue. 2. word, agreement (consenting). 
3. emptiness. 4. fasting. 5. . eminence. 6. sleep. 7. consent. 
8. fear. 9. taste (taste). 10. permission (figurative language). 
11. death (death). 


Euphonic Changes of the Letters. 


Derivative Infinitive (Jl51 [§ 621]). 

12^ ' i 13 \ y> « 14 }> i 15 . ' »■"->« 

^jjj Jj^j ^j Q^ J t/ J V-^" J * 

Deriv. Inf. (J\Sir^» [§ 631]): 16 ^ ' l7 4j ' 18 ^J ♦ 

12. arrival (to bring forward, to cite). 13. arrival (to send). 
14. existence (to invent). 15. clearness (to explain). 16. to ex- 
cuse, pardon (to resign). 17. loyalty (to receive). 18. (to ask an 

§ 706. Modification of ye A J}U 

a. If ye would properly and regularly have a vowel 
and if the preceding letter be quiescent, the vowel is 
transfered to the preceding letter: 

The word. 

Root. i Measure. 



^>L r - seyelan | J-— . 
ju, seyr 


mes-i/il me-sil 

\ \ mes-yi-re me- si-re. 

b. If the letter preceding ye have ustun for its 
vowel, the ye is changed into elif: 


kJ nefi 
ultj ri-ayet 
>j\jj ziyaret 
j-~s- aysh 
l— -ut heybit 


J ^ 






*— -«-* 






• ^ 

meh-yebet me-ha-bet. 
c. If ye is quiescent and the preceding letter has 
eotre as its vowel, the ye is changed into vav: 

I f i D> I " ' 

iUcuJ yad | JpwCj^j) |Subj.Part. "^r^ -^^ 

I mouy-jid mou-jid 

»t*M tjafr L^wC-^j) (§ 621) 

mouy-jib moii-jib. 

414 o^ u-ji Lesson 59. S.t'u 

d. After the servile elif, ye is usually chauged into 
hernee (§§ 591, 602 a): 

Tbe word. 






c^u Lj niyabet 



! i 



<-jJla hediye 







pAm Exercise 


Change the following words into the measures 
mentioned below: first into their natural and afterwards 
into their modified forms: 

Subjective Participle [§§ 602—603] : 

• LI ' l'» T« ' 2* 1 1" ♦ '3. <|*f i 4. i" " ' 5 a \" I 
U^' •— - >J*0 cOli > (j3\J u'-A— t-JiJ* 1 ■ 

Deriv. Inf. (Jl&l): 6 o"^' ? ^V ' 8 ^'^' 9 cil£i * 
Derivative Infinitive (JlSI): 

. i . • ii" i 10'.. " l"« " < 11 - " ' 18. f" ' * 13 M " •^" 

Noun with mww (Ja/U): 

14° . •" i 15 .1 ♦ 4 16° "{ < . i" . 4 17 ♦ / /T-» \ 
^a-3 o3l>J AL>- • <J>y2J jy \*XJltL%) ♦ 

Derivative Infinitive (^U* = j^iSlJU § 618): 

18°.. fi 4 19 n ( 20 . ' " 4 21 . { 4 22 I " 4 23\ * 4 24 ,\<- 25 »'>' I L " 
w* ^ J *VA) 4-JjA^ ySei *IJ2 Li *i i-^O »j>- • 

Words. 1. visit (visitor). 2. much (redundant, superfluous). 
3. to obtain (worthy). 4. to leave a remnant, to look (other, 
remainder). 5. to cause: to leave a legacy (who leaves property 
to one as heir; that causes). 6. dress, costume (to wear a garment). 
7. end (to come to an end). 8. to be enough (to suffice). 9. com- 
plaint (to complain;. 10. softness (to loosen). 11. drinking (to 
drink). 12. to act, happen (to perform) 13. (to wear). 14. abun- 
dance. 15. much (auction). 16. horror. 17. light (light-house). 
18. respect, esteem. 19. meeting, encounter. 20. delight (amity). 
21. whispering (supplication). 22. medicine (treatment). 23. pleasure 
(to vaunt). 24. discord. 25. pleasure (reward). 

•uio Euphonic Changes of the Letters. 415 

5\j Jui 

Reading Exercise. 

The Ceremony of the , ^k i- • _ \\ : a ^O,I 

Coronation of the King r J ^±)>j*~ &J '^ 
of England. 6jh£ 

London: Aug. 9., 1902. — The ( ^n-^jL-j ) - ^jl^\\ : ojXj 

ceremony of the Coronation took J_y J>^\ <jj\ C-*L- oJlL-L-S''' 

place at 12.40 in Westminster . jjJL»JjUj^1 1 *-~< \^« r*S l *5» 

Abbey, the interior of which was vUL j 2 <>:>UI J^3 ■ jjj:> d^L-J^ 

splendidly decorated. . <jj<A jJUUul Ca> J^jJj^ 3 »i«±« 

A crowd of incalculable numbers ( * LlfJ) ) 4 j\^^xa- <seJlyj J\^5 

was gathered all along the route iSj^-*-*-^' jji *>\ 6" (jXj\^~* 

of the Royal Couple [the King 5 ^ni& "f^ji u^j\ J^^.j^ •aJ^jj 

and the Queen] from Buckingham -j^>- Jl^3 . j.aJLi&>\.*.al I JXJt^s 

Palace to the Cathedral, making J\ dJL Q <sJ<~=*-+o \}\y-\ *— ^J^ 

enthusiastic ovations. The King • <i->J_^Jj/"' 

appeared to be in excellent 


At 2. p. m. their Majesties (after ^&L ' 4 Jl^^-i* *5^1>* J Jl^r* 

having received the homage of t oAL-a^l <i JliuiJ \ vlLJUl '• o-xiCl 

the Archbischop of Canterbury, 8 *Ju\ 7 L> -^JL- i ^-L (lSj^^Aj'^) 

the Prince of Wales, the Duke (J>\jhjj*) 3J*J 9 (J^J-> ) cr-'_£ 

of Norfolk, and the represen- n ur .^j»^, ^JLa 10 \'~& o^D J 

tatives of the Nobility) returned o£-j^\7 <jl^)j\ J^j*" u-^J^ 

Words and Notes. Ingilterra Qrali hazretlerinin resmi tetev'- 
vitjle'ri. 1. resm pi. merasim § 649) ceremony. 2. feuqel-'ade extra- 
ordinarily (§671h). 3. mushd'shcC sowetde splendidly ,§458): mil- 
shasha m£f. of sha-sha-a (§ 635). 4. hazarat pi. of hazret (§§ 497, 
576). 5. jem'mi ghafeer a great multitude. 6. ahvali sih'hiye: 
ahval pi. of 7*a7, sih-hi-ye sanitary: mensoub of sih-hat (§ 579). 
7. fcasft pisqopos. 8. i/e for re (§ 470). 9. Pr6ns di Gal. Duk di 
Norfolk. 10. zadegian (pi. of zade) nobles (§ 510); sinif the class. 
11. hiyet assembly, mebous (mef. of bo's) delegate (§ 604). 

416 o^ ^r-jz Lesson 59. til 

to Buckingham Palace, where < ojL^ {jj£^xl\ J^J JM^a»-1 j 

they appeared on the balcony <>yb\t ' «l*o^c- <C»\j- ( flilf^j ) 

and were loudly cheered by the j\J^J i>XJJb JIa\ j J* ^ " a - 

throng outside. . j^JLit^liul \ 

We are assured that the King a^.j1J p-~l^* *1\l JLT^ia. Jljs 

experienced no fatigue from ^'j^Jy J <Jjj-~*»-b ,/ : *5-a ojJ— Lj| 

(during) the ceremony and looked . 12 j^J^ljl la*17 e^)S^' J u-lj\ ^-s- 

well throughout it. J"!-^ " L3 c_3l<^ Lx v ^iJ^:'=^ Jb=^ 

The illuminations in the evening \j^l JlxAli 3 «i*«JL. iij<Oj\ f ^ \ 

were magnificent; a vast crowd j\j\ <_^Ia\ ,J^». ^ . j^Jti.jJj\ 

thronged the streets and filled i)jo_)u\ j\^>\ <wJa& ^^r-* "J- 5 ^ 

the air with their shouts of joy. . j^jJU-iVjl* oi^ilij— 

(The Constantinople Agency.) ( Jjj'..L:L.,.i ) 

London: the same (day) — Coro- ^-L'H '-^-j^ p-^J — 1-^^ • °J^y 

nation day was favoured with *~\^ir' • tS-^A *-aJ^ <& \j& oXJJi 

splendid weather; the city was . ijsA u il^lij^ oJJj^j ^ (jVjlj 

richly beflagged and a vast crowd <sj£\fij~, oLJl ,Jji fUoj\ j» 
filled the streets. . j±Zajjj}jz 

The ceremony in the Abbey, of .j^JLiljl ! ° { Jb^a* ^X i>j \ oLJS 

which the duration was an hour 16 c.a *.« j w.«J (i^Lj^a*- J^/ 

and a quarter, was magnificent. ,JLt u^-*-^ 17 ^-i' • jiJuL***^! <_>->■ 

The King showed no signs of .jXt+Ji>\ *\M*\ ^iSa 


12. te-e-min et." : to assure (2 of emn [§ 615]). 13. her kintal 
perfect (§ 557 e). 14. nasiye looking, face (§ 582). 15. moutantan 
magnificent (m£f. of tantana ■ [§ 458]). 16. ^-'a& ou mishaqqat 
fatigue and suffering; hiss et.": to feel. 17. ayin ceremony. 


Euphonic Changes of the Letters. 


The procession (of the Coro- • (i-x*l j^** vlX jV I -rj^ «— j 

nation) was gorgeous. All the <jJ*A?\ u~^ '^* > J <: -JJ 8 *^\ J*jJ 

Peers and Peeresses were in 3 <*Z*t^ 18 <uV I J4._^~j 4 II 

State attire and produced a grand <^\j*»- *k\ j*>e.i zjy • (i^Jj— »^J 

effect, (and among them were) iXSj* (jjt<u-) Jl^ul j ( d\j£ ) 

Lord Kitchener, General Sir J&Jj\ • <i.>Jj^-iJo| ^_JU- ^a J& 

A.Gaselee, and Admiral Seymour. .jjJLLjul 111 JS>[J ^L\ j i>jJ 

The hotels were decorated, and 
the ordinary prices were main- 
tained. The terms for places 
on the platforms were very mode- 
rate. The enthusiasm was great. 
King Edward, although very 
thin, looks very well. No accident 
occurred. The National Agency.) 

U-s-^ Jlj>-I °*J* — »1 

5*-A • J-4-il <i. 

18. alay procession. 19. sira bench, platform. 20. donn 
low, moderate. 21. hadise (fayil of houdous [§ 582]). 

The Coronation in Westminster 
Abbey and the procession lasted 
an hour. The weather is magni- 
ficent. After the ceremony the 
King and Queen returned to 
Buckingham Palace. 

The King, who looks thinner, 
declares that the ceremony 
caused him no fatigue. 


o ( jLl^L-j ) — Ijj : ojju'jS 

^Jt»-jlj (^IjJJia. <?J^ J J|^S 
C-O 4.C- *.1m »— ( fUUTa) ) » Ji »>3 

( <J jy ) 

Turkish Conv. -Grammar. 



V u-J^ Lesson 60. 




r^>-> Lesson 60. 

Miscellaneous Idiomatic Phrases. 

Do as much as you can. 
He will be here presently. 
Once in two days. 
But for my help he would 
have been drowned. 
Az qaldi beni bir geozdcn He came very near causing 

Elden geleni yap. 

Shimdi gelir. 

Iki gunde bir. 

Ben olmasam boghoulajaq idi. 

qadari el verir. 

Bana el vermes. 

Bana el etdi. 

Ona geoz etdi. 

Aqli bashina geldi. 

Basin dara geldiyi gibi. \ 

Basin tasha gelir gelmez. f 

Onou bir shey yerine qomaz. 

Pck chapouq aliniyor. 

Yuzunu asmish. 

Aqlima geldi. 

Aqlina braq. 

Bediklerimi fikrinde tout. 

Depetaqla getdi. 

Eodum patladi. 

TJstiinu bashini deyishdir. 

Seozunii achmaq. 

Ne qadar vaqit surer? 

Bou hick bir sheye yaramaz. 

Geozden gechir. 

Elime beoyle bir kitah gech- 

diyi yogi ton don. 
Yemeye gelir amma saqla- 

maya gelmez. 
Derisi qirmiiiya clicdar. 
Sijimi iki qatla. 
Evleri iki qat dtr. 

Bir dil bagld verm /shier. 

me the loss of an eye. 
That was sufficient. 
I cannot afford it. 
He beckoned me. 
He winked at him. 
He came to his senses. 

When he got into trouble. 

He regards that as of no 

He is easily touched. 
He is out of humour. 
It occurred to me. 
Remind him of it. 
Remember what I say. 
It went down head foremost. 
It alarms me excessively. 
Change your clothes. 
To commence conversation. 
How long will it take? 
This is good for nothing. 
Cast your eye over it. 
Such "a book I had never 

It is good to eat, but will 

not do to keep. 
Its skin is reddish. 
Double the string. 
Their house is two stories 

They had given a token. 


Miscellaneous Idiomatic Phrases. 


Kitaba bir qab gechir. 
Ordan oraya, ordan or ay a 

ne olajaq beoyle? 
Qoidaq asm a. 
Tashi y trine qodou. 

Top atdi. 

Sedyl cmtyt aghzim varmayor 
DiLim uste varmayor. 

Eli ouzoun (tyri) dour. 
Sen ne isen, bende o youm. 

Adam var adam da car. 

Bizi alt list etdi. 

Bana yaziq dirP 

Bana yaziq deyil mi? 

Sesiiii Jits! 

Eli achiq bir adem dir. 

JBtni de'mi bashdan chiqara- 

E c i mibarqimibashimayiqdi. 

Geozt geldi. Xazara geldi.] 
Geoz deydi. Nazar deydi.\ 
Dagh dash adam hesilmish. 
Baslunl yedi. 

Ishimden gujumden oldoum. 
Aqlim bashina topla. 
Jam ft mi chiqiyoroudou? 

Dili ousoun dour. 
Ne oldou ise oldou. 
JBich sorma! 

Put a cover on the book. 

Why move it about from 
place to place? 

Don't care. 

He has hit the nail on the 

He has become bankrupt. 

I cannot bear to speak (on 
so painful a subject). 

He is thievish. 

I have equal claims with 

There are more sorts of 
men than one. 

He has put us all to con- 

I am to be pitied. 

Am I not to be pitied? 

Be quiet! 

He is a liberal man. 

Will you lead me also 

He has lost me all my pro- 

He has been affected by an 
evil eye. He is bewitched. 

The hill is full of people. 

He was the cause of his 

I was hindered in my work. 

Come to your senses. 

Were you dying, that you 
were in such a hurry? 

He talks much. 

Forget the past. 

I cannot tell (how badly 
matters are going). 





The Ottoman Literature. 

In all literary matters the Ottoman Turks have 
shown themselves a singularly uninventive people: the 
two great schools, the old and the new, into which we 
may divide their literature, being closely modelled, the 
one upon the classics of Persia, the other on those of 
Modern Europe, and more especially of France. The 
old or Persian school flourished from the foundation of the 
Empire down to about 1830, and still continues to drag 
on a feeble existence, though it is now out of fashion 
and cultivated by none of the leading men of letters. 
These belong to the new or European school, which 
sprang up some fifty or sixty years ago, and which, in 
spite of the bitter opposition of the partisans of the old 
Oriental system, has succeeded, partly through its own 
inherent superiority and partly through the talents and 
courage of its supporters, in expelling its rival from the 
position of undisputed authority which it had occupied 
for upwards of live hundred years. For the present 
purpose it will be convenient to divide the old school into 
three periods, which may be termed respectively the 
pre-classical, the classical, and the post-classical. Of 
these the first extends from the early days of the empire to 
the accession of Suleyman I., 1301—1520 (A.H.700— 926); 
the second from that event to the accession of MahmoudL, 
1520—1730 (926—1143); and the third from that date 
to the accession of Abd-ul-Aziz, 1730—1861 (1143—1277). 

The works of the old school in all its periods are 
entirely Persian in tone, sentiment, and form. We find 
in them the same beauties and the same defects that 
we observe in the productions of the Iranian authors. 
The formal elegance and conventional grace, alike of 
thought and of expression,' so characteristic of Persian 
classical literature, pervade the works of the best Ottoman 

•tr ) The Ottoman Literature. 421 

writers, and they are likewise imbued, though in a less 
degree, with that spirit of mysticism which runs through 
so much of the poetry of Iran. But the Ottomans 
did not stop here. In their romantic poems they chose 
as subjects the favorite themes of their Persian masters, 
such as Leyla and Mejnoun, Ferhad and Shirin, 
Youssouf and Zuleykha, and so on. They constantly 
alluded to Persian heroes whose stories occur in the 
Shah-Name and other storehouses of Iranian legendary 
lore; and they wrote their poems in Persian metres and 
in Persian forms. 1 The mesnevi, the qaside, and 
the ghazel, — all of them, so far at least as the 
Ottomans are concerned, Persian, — were the favorite 
verse-forms of the old poets. A mesnevi is a poem 
written in rhyming couplets, and is usually narrative 
in subject. The qaside and the ghazel are both 
monorhythmic; the first as a rule celebrates the praises 
of some great man, while the second discourses of the 
joys and woes of love. Why Persian rather than Arabian 
or any other literature became the model of Ottoman 
writers, is explained by the early history of the race. 
Some two centuries before the arrival of the Turks in 
Asia Minor, the Seljouks, then a mere horde of savages, 
had overrun Persia, where they settled and adopted the 
civilization of the people they had subdued. Thus 
Persian became the language of their court and Govern- 
ment, and when by and by they pushed their conquests 
into Asia Minor, and founded there the Seljouk empire 
of Rouin, they carried with them their Persian culture, 
and diffused it among the peoples newly brought under 
their sway. It was the descendants of those Persianized 
Seljouks whom the early Ottomans found ruling in Asia 
Minor on their arrival there. What had happened to 
the Seljouks two centuries before, happened to the 
Ottomans then: the less civilized race adopted the 
culture of the more civilized. As the Seljouk empire 
fell to pieces and the Ottoman came gradually to occupy 
its place, the sons of men who had called themselves 
Seljouks began thenceforth to look upon themselves as 
Ottomans. Hence the vast majority of the people whom 

1 See the Reading Exercises in pages 259, 806—307. 

422 Appendices. <^yy 

we are accustomed to think of as Ottomans are so only 
by adoption, being really the descendants of Seljouks 
or Seljoukian subjects, who had derived from Persia 
whatever they possessed of civilization or of literary 
taste. An extraordinary love of precedent, the result 
apparently of conscious want of original power, was 
sufficient to keep their writers loyal to their early guide 
for centuries, till at length the allegiance, though not 
the fashion of it, has been changed in our own days, 
and Paris has replaced Shiraz as the shrine towards 
which the Ottoman scholar turns. While conspicuously 
lacking in creative genius, the Ottomans have always 
shown themselves possessed of receptive and assimilative 
powers to a remarkable degree, the result being that 
the number of their writers both in prose and verse is 
enormous. It ought to be premised that the poetry of 
the old school is greatly superior to the prose. 

When we reach the reign of Mahmoud II., the 
great transition period of Ottoman history, during which 
the civilization of the West began to struggle in earnest 
with that of the East, we find the change which was 
coming over all things Turkish affecting literature along 
with the rest, and preparing the way for the appearance 
of the new school. The chief poets of the transition 
are Fazil Bey, Vasif, notable for his not altogether 
unhappy attempt to write verses in the spoken language 
of the capital, Izzet Molla, Pertev Pasha, Akif 
Pasha, and the poetesses Fitnet and Leyla. In the 
works of all of these, although we occasionally discern 
a hint of the new style, the old Persian manner is 
still supreme. 

More intimate relations with Western Europe and 
a pretty general study of the French language and 
literature, together with the steady progress of the 
reforming tendency fairly started under Mahmoud II., 
have resulted in the birth of the New or Modern school, 
whose objects are truth and simplicity. In the political 
writings of Res hid and Akif Pashas we have the first 
clear note of change; but the man to whom more than 
to any other the new departure owes its success is 
Shinasi Effendi, who employed it for poetry as well as 
for prose. The European style, on its introduction, 

<i.rr The Sultans of the House of Osuian. 423 

encountered the most violent opposition, but now it 
alone is used by living authors of repute. If any of 
these does write a pamphlet in the old manner, it is 
merely as a tour de force, or to prove to some faith- 
ful but clamorous partisan of the Persian style that 
it is not, as he supposes, lack of ability which causes 
the modern author to adopt the simpler and more 
natural fashion of the West. The whole tone, sentiment 
and form of Ottoman literature have been revolutionized 
by the new school : varieties of poetry hitherto unknown 
have been adopted from Europe; an altogether new 
branch of literature, the drama, has arisen; while the 
sciences are now treated and seriouslv studied after the 
system of the West. 

Among writers of this school who have won dis- 
tinction are Ziya Pasha, Jevdet Pasha: the states- 
men and historians. Ahmed Midhat Effendi. Sami 
Bey: the lexicographer and encyclopedist, Ebuz-Ziya 
TeVfiq Bey, Mouallim Naji Effendi, Hamid Bey: 
who holds the first place among Ottoman dramatists, 
Mi bran Effendi: the grammarian, and Kemal Bey: 
the leader of the modern school and one of the most 
illustrious men of letters whom his country has produced. 
He has written with conspicuous success in almost 
every branch of literature, — history, romance, ethics, 
poetry, and the drama. G. 

Sultans of the House of Osuian. 

The dates are those of the Sultan's accession, 
according to the Moslem and Christian eras. 

A. H. A. D. 

1. Osman I. Son of Er-Toghroul 700 1301 

2. Orkhan » » Osman I. 726 1326 

3. Mourad I. » » Orkhan 761 1359 

4. Bayazid (Bajazef I. » » Mourad I. 791 1389 

Interregnum 804 1402 

5. Mehemmed I. » » Bayazid I. 816 1413 

6. Mourad II. » > Mehemmed I. 824 1421 

7. Mehemmed II. » » Mourad II. 855 1451 

8. Bayazid II. » » Mehemmed II. 886 1481 

9. Selim I. » » Bayazid II. 918 1512 





A. H. 

A. D. 


Souleyman I. 


of Selim I. 




Selim II. 



Souleyman I. 




Mourad III. 



Selim II. 




M^hemmed III. 



Mourad HI. 




Ahmed I. 



Mehernmed III. 




Moustafa I. 







Osman II. 



Ahmed I. 



Moustafa I. 





Mourad IV. 



Ahmed I. 











Mehernmed IV. 







Souleyman II. 







Ahmed II. 







Moustafa II. 



M£hemm£d IV. 




Ahmed III. 







Mahmoud I. 



Moustafa 11. 




Osman III. 







Moustafa III. 



Ahmed III. 




Abd-ul-Hamid I. 







Selim III. 



Moustafa HI. 




Moustafa IV. 



Abd-ul-Hamid I. 




Mahmoud II. 










Mahmoud 11. 










Abd-ul-Hamid II. 







pj^fr Arabic Calendar (pp. 96 — 98). 

The Arabic, i. e. Lunar, Year being 10 days, 21 hours 
and 14 2 /5 seconds shorter than the Christian i. e. solar year, 
does not correspond exactly with it. Its reckoning begins 
from the Hijret or departure of Muhammed from Mecca 
to reside in Medina, A. D. 622 July 15/19 (Mouharrem 1). 

In order approximately to convert a year of our 
Era into one of the Moslem Era: subtract 622, divide 
the remainder by 33 and add the quotient to the divident. 

Conversely, a year of the Moslem Era is converted 
into one of the Christian Era by dividing it by 33, 
subtracting the quotient from it, and adding 622 to 
the remainder; as: 


The Ottoman Financial Calendar. 




622 = 1280 -r- 33 = 40; 1280 + 40 

622 = 1282 -~- 33 = 40; 1282 + 40 

622 = 706 -f- 33 = 23; 706 + 23 


33 = 40 
33 = 40 
33 = 23 

, rr . _ 40 = 1280 + 622 

)rrr — 40 = 1282 + 622 

Yr ^ — rr = 706 + 622 




The Ottoman Financial Calendar. 

In the 1205 th year of the Hejira ( x /i2 March 1789), 
Sultan Selim III. issued an Irade to use this calendar 
in financial and commercial transactions. It corresponds 
exactly to the Old Style, only the new year begins in 
March instead of in January. The following table shows 
the years of the Financial Calendar corresponding to 
those of ours, till 1909. 




c ! 












1829 ! 























































































































































































































































Parsing. Jj^ Tahleel. 

The method of parsing in Arabic includes Gram- 
matical and Logical Analysis. But in Ottoman-Turkish 
all that is really necessary is to give such particulars 
as are given in the subjoined parsing of a piece. The 
genders, numbers, moods, tenses and all particulars about 
the words must be mentioned, and the parts of Regular 
and Irregular Verbs must be given. Read first with 
expression the following Exercise, and analyse it after- 
wards. Tarn up all references to the Grammar. 

cSjw^ *Ja^ The Prophet's Speech. 

O.L Jj*s oJjs>1j cSU"| • t£jJjl fjlc- aj-CiJu. t _ r .a! j ' c^JJiHi (j^Us <»J»\ 

j£JL ^3-4.==.* • j^JJy £j\^> Uj^>\ J^-'J*"' oJ>oLA&Us ! t_rli til 
<jXJ,j>_jl Ju^j.|j.^ j (3=-^JJjJ> *^>Ij -^-^^ ^r*' °-^US pi ' <o 

<o k_jl$^i.j-j ^ Lx— lj.9 <s\ : «..*> d)»-4_o Cj|x) Ij ! ^ji <-SjbojK ' {jjl 

? UjjM i)j|jJ *1 Ca^»\ 


V 1>.<Jo4 w *^) jP j-Z. ^ t^-Olj 4.1 




<urv Parsing. Ji^J Tahleel. 427 

^ j-Uj *M <^-3a <u-o <5j^ ' *— '1 j'^Vjj o (3jl • ^-"OlIjI (i^n=- 

(JjUjL) 4_Ja^ Khouibeyi Peyghamberi e the prophetic 

sermon, or the sermon of the prophet 5 . Pers. Izafet: if the 
first noun ends in vowel lu\ a hernze is placed over it (§ 519): 

<ul»- is an Ar. noun, measure v^JJJ (§ 592): "a special homily 

and prayer, in which they praise God, bless Mouhammed and 
pray for the reigning Caliph, delivered by an official preacher 

(wJai Jchatib) before the midday service of worship in Friday 

(Joumd'a namazt)? p. ,Ao-i r i is composed of p^-o ' f U-j peygham 

'message, revelation' elif is omitted (§ 560) + j: oer 'carry' 

(§§ 535, 554); by the addition of <i -/ it is changed into Noun 
of Rel. (§ 527). 

fjfl Jj—j Resoii'lou EArem. 'The most venerable 

Prophet': Pers. Izafet composed of two Ar. words (§ 517). J^-j 

*prophet, apostle 5 Adj. Qual. of ^iLj of the meas. J}j*-3 f§ 607). 

Yj\ N. of Superiority of s2+AJ> f masc. meas. J-iil ' c^-l^^is a 

miracle wrought through the agency of a saint, but a \*l*a rnujize 
is a miracle wrought by Divine power. 

<jj> ajJ^ jhir Joumd'a gunu c on a Friday': y, Turk. 

Ind. Article (§ 60), J/"***- Turk. Izafet (§ 181). -u^- Ar. noun, 

meas. <iii (§ 592), the fayil being ««!> 'collector, mosque', other 

derivatives: 9-j<^>* ' *cj*j>&- ' p—-*^ • j/"" = o^ Turk, noun 
with pron. affix third person (§ 105 3 ). 

4^~- ©j3 <^JiJL$^ Kendi devesine r on his camel' : Turk. 

Izafet with pron. <jxS^ pers. pron. § 147), 4i~oj.> = ojj ' --oj^ 
Turk, noun with pron. affix third person sing, dative case. 

428 Appendices. irA 

(_£ JlLj bindi c he mounted' : Turk, intran. verb, Ind. Past 
sing, third person of the masdar vli^io . Der. *lX.^/_Juu ' vUlJlIxj . 

<Jb! *MJ Ul Ju 3jj J ^ ^**# we/er e/*Z? islam He c and 
with believers two hundred in number: 3 Arab. Pers. 
conjunctive (§ 470), j^j Turk. Card, number (§ 192), ^jL! Ar. noun 
meas. JJii 'individual' used for men (§ 203): Keg. Fern. pi. ol^ 
(§ 576); f >U J*l Pers. Izafet 'Moslem'. Comp.noun (§695 5 ). a. >\ 
meas. J-ai, Irregular pi. JU| (§ 650). J-aa.7 = JaL" te-ehliid to 
marry; f>^-l_ submitting himself to the divine disposal, IV. of 
a>L-, fayil JL-. muslim 'one who submissively obeys God, Moslem' 

(§§512, 634 d); aJL \ Turk, post position, sign of Instrumental case 

(§ 232). 

i^JuHlS i>z\J Qoubadan qalqdi c he started from Qouba 5 : 
a. <j>}\S prop, noun, sing, abl.; nom. Qouba 'a place near Medina'; 
(i-ulU Ind. Past, sing, third person the primitive masdar J^Jil^ > 
deriv.: ji^jJlS ' j^JLZllS (§§ 263, 268). 

4>4I>jl« .Ju j t"<? we/si Medineye c to the [main] city 
of Medina' (as distinguished from its outlying regions): Pers. 
Izafet: a. ^^Ai 'the very substance, main' meas. JJii; a. oi« prop. 

noun, sing, dative of the measure aJLas, Abstract noun by the 
addition of he U = e [§ 582]). 

l£jJjI aJIc 'a<e/m oZ^o?* c he departed toward 5 : comp. 
Intrans. verb., Ind. Past sing, third person, formed by using noun 
with aux. verb jljl, Masdar jljl *j\* (§ 272): a. *jl* fayil of 

d-£J&; deriv. IV. Jlisl = J^p| . 

dJl^Ij (^lljl esnayi rahde, -rcthda c in the course of the 
road, or journey, i. e. on the way 5 : Pers. Izafet (§ 518): 
a. »..llil Irreg. plural of jj sewee (§ 639 b) 'twisting, winding', used 
in Turkish as a sing., in the sense of 'the course of a journey, 

±Y\ Parsing. JJUJ Tahleel. 429 

the time of a stay, a period of time': 0.XI.I3I cSLJl f in the course 

of the stay', <olli Jj| c at that time, in that interval'; oJjt>\j sing, 
loc. case. 

**S$Ja <L^ sol tarafina 'to his left side' : Turk. adj. 

and noun: t. J^*» adj., a. dja = i_i^i» ' <i^ meas. JJLi with 
pron. affix third person singular dative (§§ 99, 105 3 ). 

&\ Jw« meyl tie 'swerving, turning' for £Jj«jlj1 J**: 
the Turk. conj. <U is used to express the meaning of iJjoJul 
(§ 430\ a. J~« meas. JJj . 

oSsSjy J*f Jx iL* Aj Benee Salim ben Of yourdounda 
c in the settlement of the children of Salim ben OF: 
Pers. and Turk. Izafets. Jj masc. pi. of j, ' ^Jo (§ 575); JL- 

^J^c. .y_ : /* stands for patronym (§ 669 3 ); ojiojjj = }jy_ ' iS*jy_ 

c tent, home' second member of Turk. Izafet, with pron. affix third 
person sing, locative. 

-ci )a £+~* j\ vib^lj *Juio fejiij Banona denilen vadinin 
ust tarafina 'in the upper part of the valley called 
Ranona ? : \'>y\j Ar. prop, noun; jXJu^ mefoul of »UULL.> (§402); 

*iilolj first member of the Turkish Izafet, Ar. noun meas. Jcli 

sing, genitive; ^-j\ Turk, postposition used as an adj. (§ 452); 

a. ^J>Jo = J* J* ' ija noun, pi. <-il^U (§ 639 b); it indicates 
motion (§ 237). 

^JJoi endi c he halted': Ind. Past singular third person 
Primitive masdar «il«JLil, deriv. v1L^_aM (§ 263). 

fi^ljjl or ad a there': adverbial demonstrative (§ 144), sing, 
locative case, it indicates location § 237). 

^»jjyjl «Ja>- j t 4JUJb C-j^ ghayet belighane bir khoutbe 
oqouyoup he recited a very eloquent speech': ^U. 
<iUJj super], degree of Turk. adj. (§ 226). a. p. aJUJu pers. adj. or 
adv. J§ 528, 684): a. *JL adj. Qual. of c~i->L 'eloquence'; ^_ >y_yj\ 

430 Appendices. I ut"* 

Turk. Gerund 'having recited? or c he recited and afterwards . . .' 
(for cijJii ... j tS*yj\). 

c^JdJ i£j\£ **?• Jouma'a namad qttdi c he performed 
his Friday prayer 5 : cij^ w- Turk. Izafet (§ 109): a. w- = 
'ii'ii first member, <ij£ second member, third person of p. jls. 
c the Divine worship of Islam, consisting of fixed recitals of praise 
with prostration of the body, five times a day', jUi jit c to make 
his prayers', comp. trans, verb (§ 272); t£jiS Ind. Past, singular 
third person. 

Khatim'ul enbiya hazreflerinm en iptida qildighi Jouma'a 
namazi bou dour 'This is the first Friday prayer which 
the seal i. e. the last, of the prophets (Mouhamraed) has 
performed 5 : *UVI fU. Arabic Izafet (§ 668 2 ), a, fU fayil of 
f l£. = JUi ' *U\ pi. of ^; we&ee (§ 645 c), which is Adj. Qual. of 
Oj-i nubouvvet 'prophecy'; *l\j JS^x>- = Cj^o>- ' J^r^ ' tfj-v**- 
Ar. noun meas. cJL«5 with pron. affix third person pi. Genitive, 
used after the name of God, saints and great personalities (§§ 497, 
500). »UM 111 Turk. Superl. adj. (§ 224): *UM Ar. deriv. masdar 

meas. JU»1 (§ 627) of *U ' ^Jl ! JuoAJ Obj. participle of jJi 
(§ 413); ^j Demonstrative (Pron.) Adj.; ji copula (§ 67). 

j^l iptidaki Jchoutbesi o dour hi kJmlasa vejti He ter- 
jemesi bourada iyrad olounour This is his first speech 
(or oration), the translation of which is given below in 
brief: £\JZ>\ Turk. pron. adj. (§ 138). ^Pers. Relative pron. 
(§ 317); *j£-°J Ar. Quadriliteral Masdar meas. A-LLSi (§ 595); >\j>} 
jjjj\ Masdar ^Jj\ a\ a \ Turk. comp. passive verb (§ 274), Ind. 
Aorist, sing, third person. 


Conjugation of Turkish Verbs. 


jUil sJo_JZ> Conjugation of Turkish Verbs. 

Infinitive of Yerbs jji^* Masdar. 

Masdar: the Root Y+mek, \^+?nnq; Sevmek' , Yazmaq. 

Negative: Seu'memek, Yaz'mamaq. 

Verbal Substantives: 1. SevmekZik' , 2. Sevme, 3. Sevish' (§ 288). 

Derivative Forms (§§ 261—268): 

Otourtmaq , Basdtrmaq, Yatirmaq, Taranmaq , 
Yazilmaq ' , Cliekishmek' . 

Potential verbs: Sevebilmek', neg. Sevetnemek § 283). 

Accelerative verb: Sevi'verniek ;§ 286). 

Verbs derived from nouns and adjectives: 

Hazirlamaq , Hazirhinmaq, Hazirlatmaq (§ 277 . 

Compound Verbs (Nouns with Auxiliaries) (§ 272): 

Stoat etmek, — eylemek, — qtlniaq, — bouyourmaq. 

Participles J*$ s>j 

Subjective Mood (§ 399). 

Objective Mood (§ 411 . 

03 ' 



yaza r 

i — olan 

03 : 





— olan 



yazdighi n 








yazajaqlarl' . 

Gerunds J*L*> ^Lb (pp. 206— 207). 

\. yazar. jasina i.yazdiq'da 8. yaza'raq 12. yazdighimda 

2.yaz'madan 5. yazdiq ja d.yazasi' yazajaghindan 

B.yazin'ja Q.yazali' 10. yazajaghiha 13. yazib , yazlp 

yazar yazmaz 1. yaza yaza 11. yazin'ja 14. yazar'ken. 

Yerbal Adjectives 4^ ^JU> (§ 436). 

1. Yaziji' , 2. aclnq , 3. surguri, 4. eofa', 5. sevinj'. 

Noun of Excess: ChalUhqan . suzgef, dalgij. 
Noun of Location: Yataq, otlaq. 
Instrumental noun: Elelc', daraq. 





;ii JUI ' u» Finite Yerb. 



Imperative ^U^i (§ 316). 

ya'ziniz ft 

sevi y or own 
sevi' yorsoun 
sevi' yorouz 
sevi' yorsounouz 
sevi' ' yorlar 

seve rim 
sever sin 
sever siniz 







sevmx shim 
sevmisli sin 

sevmisli siniz 

scveje yiin 
sevejek' sin 

Present JU (§ 318 

sevi'yor idim 
„ idin 
„ idi 
„ idik 
„ idiniz 

sevi'yor imishim 
„ imishsin 
„ imish 
„ imishiz 
,, ijiiishiniz 

Aorist <>jU- (§ 326). 

sever idim 
„ idin 
., idi 
„ idtfc 
„ idiniz 


sever imishim 
„ imishsin' 

„ imi's/* iz 
„ imishsiniz 

Past ^^ ^U (§ 344). 

sevdi' idim 


sevi yor isem 

„ isen 

„ isek 
„ iseniz 

sever isem 
„ isen 

„ iscfiiz 

sevdi' isem 

Dulritative J* C ^U (§ 351). 

sevmisli idim 
„ <dm 
„ idi 
„ id*ft 
„ idiniz 

sevmisli' imishim 
„ imishsin 
„ imish 
., imishiz 
„ imishsiniz 

Future JJLl- (§ 357). 

sevejek' idim 

sevejek' imishim 

isen iz 

sevmisli isem 
„ iseh 

„ i sek 

., isen i: 

sevejek' isem 


Conjugation of Turkish Verbs. 





sevejek' siniz 







sev sem 






sevejek' idi 
,. idik 

sivijek' imish 

„ imisltiz 
„ imishsiniz 

sevejek' ise 
„ isek 
„ isiniz 

Optative ^|JU\ (§ 365). 

sive idim 

„ idi 
,. idik 
„ idiniz 



sev'se idim 
,. idin 
.. idi 
„ idik 

J ij».l ±Z[±]\ (§ 377). 

sev'se im ish im 

„ iynishsifi 

„ imish 

„ imish is 

„ imishsiniz 

„ imishler 

sevmeli yim 
sevmeli' sin 

sevmeli siniz 
sevmeli' dirlir 

Xecessitative <i_^j (§ 384). 
sevmeli' idim sevmeli' imish im 






imish sin 
imish iz 

sevmeli' ise'm 
„ isin 

•• 1 6 ^ h. 


The Yerb To Have. 

Binim car, senin car, ononri rar . . . 
Binde var, sendi var, onda var . . . 
Bindi dir, sende' dir, onda dir . . . 
Benim var idi, senin rar idi, onoun rar idi 
Bende rar idi, sende rar idi, onda rar idi 
Binim rar imish, senin rar imish . . . 
Benim rar isa; Bende var isa 
Binim oldou, senin oldou . . . 
Benim olajaq, senin olajaq . . . 
Benim olsa; senin olsa idi. 

have a (book), 
have the (book), 

a — 

(They say that) I have. 

If 1 had" a — 

I got a — 

I shall have a — 

If it were mine. 

Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 


434 I.**". 

€\-***L*' jg^*** 

The Official Part, 

The Imperial Palace a»*^U CjJ**- of)* j^ 

His Imperial Majesty the Sultan ^tS^l O^^ Zfo 

li^ll <u» yt CjU« JL7 Teshrifati oumoumiye Naziri, The 
Grand Master of Ceremony. 
.-IftU J\S * -le-i *i JL 1 '' . o:>UJljb Dar-us-sa'adet ush-sherife aghast, 

Qizlar aghast, The Chief of the 
Eunuchs of the Imp. Palace. 
ij-li ' iSj\i «Z> o Ja>- <i^*^- S 6 '*' qourenayi Hazreti Sheh'riyari, 

Bash Mabeynji, The Chief (Lord 
ii*~*k High-) Chamberlain. 

^lz.Cjj-1 jjil/ 1 i>jI» Mabeyni Hiimayoun Bash Kitabeti, 

The Imperial Chancellary. 
J'S J-L ijj>L^ i>»l* Mabeyni Humayoun Bash KQtibi, 
The First Secretary of the Imp. 
i£j{, Jt, £jj*a>- 'lyojieL «— T5 Kiatibi Khousousiyi Hazreti Sheh- 

riyari, The Private Secretary of 
H. I. M. 
jl-P-,7 \j*\i i)y\& o\y* Divani Humayoun Bash Terjemani, 

The Premier Dragoman of the 
Imp. Divan. 
J?-Ji* ij-l) <j«il£ o\ji* Divani Humayoun Bash Muterjimi, 

The Premier Translator of the 
Imp. Divan. 
^»\a\ <j>j>{£ i>)U Mabeyni Humayoun Imaml, The 
Chief Almoner (Imam) of the 
Imp. Palace. 
aliol o**a»- f f\ jjIj Yaveri Ekremi Hazreti Padishah i, 

1 The Aide-de-Camp of H. I. M. 

(i^sei jjl> ' Obj^ <i^i Fakhri Y aver an, The Honorary 

ubj^ ; JJ^ Tavdr, pi. yaveran, Aide-de-camp, 
Aides de camp. 

iro The Sublime Port. 43! 

v_s.L^. J^l Bash Mousahib, The Premier 

Courtier (French Courtisan). 
i)j{# «— »- Jebi Humayoun, The Privy Purse. 

4.1 Uli 4^5 U. 4/)J>- Khazineyi Khassayi Shahane, The 
Civil List. 
cS^i* ^uj** O^jl 4.;Uli ii.wM Mayeti Shahane Erkianl Harbiye 

Musheeri, The Chief of the 
Military Household. 
e£_/-U oj'^ u*»'« Mabeyni Humayoun Mudiri, The 

A Director of the Imp. Palace, 
c^^ju. o^lc J.L^l Istabli Amire Mudiri, The Grand 
Equerry of H. I. M. 
_lc.\ 4.JU1 wol*-J'i i— »l Babus Sa'adetiil aliye Aghasi, The 

Director of the Porte of the 
-l jJtiS^^l-s.^ 15 Qapoujoidar Ket'kh iidasi,The Chief 
__/ of the Porters. 

i^^JU cijLi\ ^L>- Hatab anbari Mudiri, The Director 
of the Depot of Combustibles. 
lijle** ** uj^ CrtjL. Mabeyni Humayoun Se'r Miymari, 

The Premier Architect of the 
Imp. Palace. 
^-LM j~. i)y\& CniU Mabeyni Humayoun Ser atibbasi, 

The Premier Physician of the 
Imp. Palace, 
li^jo. J^jj's j 7^-k* Matbakh ve Fourounlar Mudiri, 
Vw The Director of the Imp. Kitchens 
_. and Ovens. 

&JA* i$J^ ' \j\Jj\ Erzaq anbari Mud in'. The Director 
J of the Provisions. 

<Sj>±* <£j\^\ CjIj »-»- Houboubat anbari mudiri, The 
p - Director of the Granaries. 

\S j>,±* 4.]Uli- Hadiqayi Shahane Mudiri, The 
. Director of the Imp. Gardens. 

ii^__u tjj'^ o&J :&,.>» Chiftlikmti Humayoun Mudiri, The 

Director of the Imp. Farms. 

The Sublime Porte JU ^l 
The Council of Ministers Mfj ^t J^- 

pj=&\ jj^ SodH jdL'&sm, The Grand Vizier. 

o \\\ •» Shcykh-ul Islam. The Minister 
f *" C- of the Canon Law of Islam. 

iSj^ <J£-b Dakhiliye Xaziri, The Minister 

of the Interior. 
(] o»j'b- Kltarijiye Xaziri, The Minister for 
. Foreign A flairs. 

tibial; 4.j^>- ' Jxl_&^~ SiraskSr, (Harbiye Xaziri) The 
Minister for War. 


436 u^J r ~ ; The Official Part. W-n 

_J; cJjs tfb^ Shourayi Devlet Reijisi, The Presi- 
° - dent of the Council of State. 

c<; iil: w*U. J ^^ 4tfZ«/e ^ Mezahib Naziri, The 
^ " Minister of Justice and Public 

.tfjik <JU M«%^ JVosH The Minister of 
iS Jit *~* ?* «-Jjl~ Mearifi oumoumiye Nazhi, The 
~^ " Minister of Public Instruction, 

(i >ll <, jso Bahrii/e Naziri, The Minister for 
t Naval Affairs (Navy). 

(i^v.1. fly .lp^Ue..> Top-haneyi Amire musheeri, The 
** Grand Master of Ordnance. 

i$jX vJS»j\ Evqaf Naziri, The Minister of 
Religious Funds. 
^^UJl;jO>: Tijaret ve Nafiija Naziri, The 
Minister of Commerce and Public- 

i^\ JL Shehir Emeeni, The Prefect of 
^ ^ the Citv. 
<^lil; U^ Zaptiye Naziri, The Prefect of 
the Police. 
._Jj oU Lw»»» Reyisi, The Prefect of the 
° " " Port. 

i^i ol* r j RousoumatEmini, Director General 

of Customs. 

<i Jill Jlali. ^:> De/fcW Khaqani Naziri, Director 

^ General of the Imperial Archives. 

e< Jill 3\ jdJ j O- v Posta «g TeUgraf Naziri, Director- 

^ General of Post and Telegraphs. 

i* Jit si-pbjj U^ J 0^JJ\ OrmanveMeadinvezird 'at Naziri, 

^ . The Minister of Mines, Forests 

and Agriculture. 
tiULJ JVT^UM I*/w2/**/e &%$ JEofiwmc&mS, The 
" " Commander of the Fire-Bngade. 

The Grand Yizieriate W^ CjM* 

dt, =*j^T' 6*^ u^ t5A«T Amediyi Divani Humayoun, Re- 
• °- ■* "^ ferendary of the Imp. Divan. 

-4>jt J-.j^ Mektoubi Odasi, The Bureau of 
JS oUj-JS Teshrifat Qah'mi, The Bureau of 
" the Master of Ceremonies. 

J5 «jli— oWj Vilayati Mumtaze Qalemi, The 
' "" Bureau of the privileged Pro- 

r-*;l* J5 \^i- Sd/Vra T4shHfatj%si x Introducer of 
° the Ambassadors. 

try The Sublime Port. 437 

The Council of State cJj:> <ib>^ 

^^ a j* \ s A.Cl. Milkiye Dayiresi, The Civil Depart- 
O ~o^/b olcJ^r Tanzimat Dayiresi, The Legis- 
lative Department. 
^-o^U ol<Sbc* Mouhakemat Dayiresi, The Ju- 
diciary Department. 
jliba cJji <i\j^ Shourayi Declet K it abet i, The 
Bureau of the Council of State. 
^j r ^.»jS AjJll jj^\ Oiimourou Nafiya Qomisionou, The 
High Commission of public Con- 
structions (Improvements). 
,^-j^* klJji (iljji Shourayi Devlet mulazimi, The 
Auditor of the Council of State. 

The Foreign Office ^4JL>- Z>J& <u>-jU 

cijLU-w. <u».jU. Kharijiye Musteshari, The Under- 
Secretary of State for For. Affairs. 
+& ^y Terjeme qalemi, The Bureau of 
. Translation. 
♦J£ dLj»-jl». '<J-j^« Mektoubiyi Kharijiye qalemi, The 
Bureau of Correspondence. 
15 <suu»-l o\ y^eJ Tahriratl Kjnebiye Qalemi, The 
Bureau of Foreign Correspon- 
^-.aJsj! Jljjl Euraq Odasx, The Bureau of Ar- 
.Jl5 <u-Uc* Mouhasebe Qalemi, Board of Audit. 

*.l5 *kl^. <Jji* j_^.\ Oumourou Houqouqiye'yi Mnkhte- 

lite Qalemi, The Bureau of Dis- 
puted Claims. 
~<d>jl liJjjLi* 3j*>- Houqouq mushacirleri Odasi, The 

Bureau of Legists. 
0< j£ c^ulj Tabiyiyet Qalemi, The Bureau of 
Nationality (naturalization). 
-4.Ljl ^uswl ole-a-k. Matbou'ati Ejnebiye Odasi, The 

Bureau of the Foreign Press. 
^jjjs \}\j>-\ J?=— Sijli ahval Qalemi, The Bureau 
of personnel. 



The Ministry of Internal Affairs ^^LU- Ojliai a.JL^I^ 

^15 oic-j-Ia* Matbou'at Qalemi, The Bureau of 
the Press. 

jj »Ji ,y jja L. t_j£e3i Intikhabi Memoureen Qomisiyonou, 

The Commission for the Selection 
of functionaries. 

438 ^~- J ?-> The Official Part. ■wfA 

JjUi; ^;.a:^ j^ISJ Teqayud sandigM Nazareti, The 
" Direction of the Pension Funds. 

The Sheikh-ul Mamate ^*b Z**~+ »-A 

cS>~^ ^JJ M t JJ J * The vice-Chancellor of Turkey. 

oj*—?* o^ ^ ^_ The Second vice-Chancellor 

of Turkey (p. 458). 

( c5 .3 ) \ ** i>.\ ' f i-\ \_P **»« ^' >u ' ni ' The Superintendent 
J J - ^' of Canonical Decisions. 

-Ju (the Fayil of .til = ^) W/H a judge of the Canon Law 

c5 ^ of Islam. 

The Ministry of Finance ^^r ^^ ^ 

*.-u. cJ- obl objb V arid at Idareyi Oumoumiyesi, The 
^ - -^ General Directorate of revenues. 

.ovf obi olsjU Mesarifat Idareyi Oumoumiyesi, 
° - ^ The General Directorate of Ex- 

L *.K*Jt ojbl '^i Doteyoun Zdarey* Oumoumiyesi, 
^ "^ -*" The General Directorate of Public- 

^ 9 yb -Olc CjL-W- Mouhasebati atiqa dayiresi, The 
^ ^ - Bureau of regulation of ancient 

V>M r^l J J^ Ashar ou aghnam Emaneti, The 
^ > administration of the tithes and 

taxes on sheep. 
^Oj <JU ' ^jj r&^ Directorate of Weights and 
" Test. 

\i -UL-*\ o\ y *w" **- r" a- ^ W*^ Tahrirati Ejnebiyc 
^ ^ M -'lOj* . ~> C Qa? ^ The office of Tran8 iation 

and correspondence in foreign 
LW. CAjl* Divani Mouhasebat, The Court of 
<JU oLJ> Muts'sSsati maltye*, Financial Esta- 

The Imperial Mint J^jcA* j^ t4 ^j^ 

^ikkezen Day 
of Minting 

^-•Jb uJ<^ Sikkezen Dayiresi, The department 

^oj^b ^.U. Chashni Dayirisi, The department 

of assays. 
~ 9 ,b ^^ itfflfcwa Dayiresi, The department 

of Machines. 

\.r\ The Customs Admin. — Ministry of Pub. Inst. 439 


^-a^/U *A5 ()«Z Dayiresi, The department of 
^— Refining. 

The Customs Administration ,.—4JU. c-jUI Ol*,-j 

c ^,ojU\ "0L- rj-J Bousoumou Sitte Idaresi, The Ad- 
ministration of the six indirect 
. taxes (p. 390;. 

JjLi* Sj^> a J>^ •j£~* o!J>T— >. «* Jifa muskirat zakhire gebmruyu 

^~ nezareti, The Directorate of the 

customs on cereals and liquors. 

JjUal &Jj*J^ ' t^y Kereste gebmruyu Xezareti, The 

Directorate of the Customs on 
JjUkJ S^Jj*J^ o J\~ j oj-» Meyce re Sebze gebmruyu Xezare'ti, 

The Directorate of the customs 
on fruits and vegetables. 
JjLL; A.;lseilL BaltqhanSN&tar&ifTheiyirectoTate 
of the Fishery. 
cJji 0^° J^t-Jl -^idl il^Li* Mushterekid Meufa'a inhisari dou- 

- khani Devleti Aliyeyi Osmaniye, 

cijj'v^* 6, V^ The Regie co-interesse of tobaccos 

of the Ottoman-Empire. 

^-ojbl <4*j^ <j>° Douyounou Oumoumiye Idaresi, 

The Administration of Public 


[$. — »Ji ( <.*^ oj' -^ Douyounou Oumoumiye bash qo- 

misiri, Imperial Commissary of 
the Ottoman Public Debts. 

^~<>lAs>~ slouaj ±~*Jr ^j l *c* 
The Ministry of Public Instruction 

oIm j (luJ tV*-aw1 Enjumeni Teftish ou Mouaye'ne, The 
Council of Inspection and Cen- 
sure (Supervision), 
^te <^jua-\ ol&j^k. Matbou'ati Ejnebiye Qalemi, The 
Bureau of the Domestic Press. 
^J?} <Sa~\* oUj-L. Matbou'erfi DakhiJiye Qalemi, The 
Bureau of the Domestic Press. 
tSj>±* 4~i»-\.s olfr^-la- Matbou'ctl DakhiJiye Mudiri, The 

Director of the Domestic Press 
.eJ^JU aJIc s_^J&* Mekfatibi AJiye Mudiri yet i, The 
i . . Directorate of the Higher Schools. 

4jULi 4..xJu v^I>* Mektebi Miikiyt'yi Shahane, The 
. Imperial Civil College. 
jUaL. v_^ix» Mektebi Soul t a ni } The Imp. Lyceum 
. of Galata Seray. 
<] U Li J^to- ^-^- Mektebi Houqouqou Shahane, The 
Imp. Lyceum of Law. 

440 ^-.j fv~i The Official Part, ^<f 

( eix. ijU Lisan Mektebi, The Imp. Lyceum 
of Languages. 
juL** ^:fC Mektebi Sanayi, The School of 
^ . Arts and Industry. 

(aJIJwTjI v_^&T* ) aJ\Ju»\ k— Ix* Mektebi Iptidayiye, A Primary 

* . School. 

C-oJu-j » .7\^T. ) AjjJ-j ^_^i>-. Mektebi Rushdiye, A Grammar 

" ' School. 

(Aj^lAfrl) ^ix.) aj^U&1 wlx* Mektebi Idadiye, An Academy or 

Preparatory School (which pre- 
. pares for a College). 
(-die wo'^C ) Jlc ^ix. Mektebi Alt, A Superior (High-) 

School or College. 
C**A»l\ j\s Dar-iil Mouallimeen, A Normal 

School for teachers. 
olel«l\ jb Dar-iil Monallimat, A Normal 
t . School for lady teachers. 

d^JU <Jh ^IX. Mektebi Tibbiyeyi Milkiye, The 
"* Civil Medical School. 

,:jC o,^\-ifr Ashiret Mektebi, A School for 

6 Nomadic Tribes. 

o^lc- aIU-Jl^j Rasadkhaneyi Amire, The Imp. 
Meteorological Observatory. 
jj yl#>»-oj^. Mitze'khaneyi Humayoun, The Im- 
fr perial Museum. 

o^l& <u-Ja« Matba'ayi Amire, The Imperial 

The Ministry of Justice and Public Worship 

(i^x. ^&\J^ Mezdhib Miidiri, Director of Public 
Worship (Religions). 
:L<& < ^<^\ Enjiimeni adliye Hiyeti, The Board 
. of the Justice. 
^Jt ^uxW* Mehkemeyi Temyeez, The Court 
of Cassation. 
. yf &.L. (J-l Bash Miiddayi oumoumi, The Pro- 
curor General of the Court of 
Jz\^lJ\ ^.jCt* Mehkemiyi Istinaf, The Court of 

" g, appeals. 

^o^-b lfrAi-\ Istida dayiresi, The Section of 

fr Requests (in the C. of Cassation). 

^o^/b w»L»- Jinayet Dayiresi, The Criminal 

fr Section. 

^.-a^r-b <^c-La- Jicnha Dayiresi, The Correctional 

t Section. 

^o^U lJ^a*- Houqouq Dayiresi, The Civil 

Vl» The Ministry of Justice. — Prefecture of Police. 441 

-0<b i> Jeza Dayiresi, The Court of 
Criminal jurisdiction. 
,jr"«^b a^I^I ^L& HiyetiIt-hamiyeDayiresi,TheCourt 
^ , of accusation. 

i>-«*>*^ C-fU ' c.U V*.C~« Mehkemeyi Bidayet, The Court of 

^ first instance. 
OjUc.; *X&. Mehkemeyi Tijaret, The tribunal 
^ of Commerce. 

( ^^ ] c>~^ *=O^J c^^ B»«»i» 2Y/ar# Mejlisi, The First 

Commercial Court (where the 

cases between foreigners and 

b ^ Ottoman subjects are dealt with). 

^-^ Ojl*J <^S^ Mehkemeyi Tijareti Bahriye, The 

Maritime Com. Court. 

f £>. • y U. Hakim, pi. houk'kmm, Judge. 

lt-Jj i?e>/s, President. (The presiding 

U&I ' ^-Ut| ^Jk^ Mehkeme Azast, aza, Member of 
oV^ u^* M&ddayi Oumoumi, Procuror 
• . General. (Public prosecutor.) 

JjU* ^*jS- ^c_u Muddayi Oumoumi moxCavini, The 
assistant Proc. Gen. 
^5 Ja-^ Zabt Ktatibi, The Clerk. 

ujl*« Mouavin, Assistant. 

jia^-. Moustantiq, The trial justice. 

cij^rt* CjVjU. Mouqavelat Mouharriri, The No- 
c tary Public. 

r^ 1 * ' t^L**- 3 ' uM* M&ddayi, darajl, khasim, The 

4J* D ^ Muddayi aleyh', The defendant. 

-Xali Shahid, vulg. shahad Witness. 

°^->- ' J^? ^ & -> ftww *&#*, avoqat, Lawver, attor- 

i y nev " 
^LzJSj VekTaletname, A power of attorney. 

The Prefecture of Police ^V Ojlli * L.> 

o~^ LrJjJ Pol is mejlisi, The council of police. 

-U.- <ujU1j Jandarma mejlisi, The council of 

^-r-^j 9 u-J# jP(9 ^' s Qomiseri, The commissary 
of police. 
u-*k->l ^->J^ Pasaport odasi (vulg. pashaport), 
The bureau of passports. 

442 «— j r-~* The official Part - ^ r 

$j>±* jjJjj Pol is miidirliyi, The prefects of 
Jjlii: j^ Sou nezareti, The directorate of 
*>* <;ls^->. Habskhaneyioumoumi, The central 
-a^ viJM *£ S7ie7uV emaneti behiyesi, The Pre- 
° • , fecture of the City (of Const.), 

^ji «^b j*y Birinjidayireyibelediye, The first 
municipality circle. 
^o^b *i-x]i; BeUdiye ddyiresi, The munici- 
^-Jj *>ji BeUdiye reyisi, The mayor (of 

a city). 
^J^> a.jJu BeUdiye mejlisi, The municipal 
^lUoleJ Timarliliane, Asylum of the insane. 

^^jU-wi. l^fc Goureba Khastahanesi , The ho- 
spital for strangers. 

The Ministry of Commerce and Public Works 

~<u*»* ob\ J^ * J'*--" Demir y oil ar idareyi oumoumiyesi, 
^ -~ •*" v " xhe general directorate of rail- 

roads. . 
^y^ ^_x> JMttdtnot*woMmt,GeneralmanageF. 

^ojb\ r.U. j J > Tourouq ou meabir idaresi, The 
' general directorate of roads and 

Cj *\J> XllswJ^* Muhmdiskhaneyi H&mayoun, The 
School of Engineers. 

The Council of International Sanitation 

<-■*.* jj*\ »jbl Idareyi oumourou s'thhiye, The 
sanitary administration. 
A ^=^ ojb Dayireyi Sihlriye, The Bureau of 
CJnjla'AlUli'^U^i*; Tehaffouzlchane, Qarantina, The 

Lazaretto, Quarantine Station. 

^LU OjJi UJi^ ^ l ^ ! 

The Ministry of Religious Funds 

c.\^a Firagh, Alienation, Quitclaim. 

Jli:;i Intiqal, Transmission by in- 

Wr The Ministry of War. 443 

The Administration of Posts and Telegraphs 

iSj&S^-ji .aUeJl olpi *J& oJj.i Dcvleti Aliyeyi Osmaniye Ittihad 

Postalari, The International Otto- 
g. man Posts. 

JjLSai JlSli. 4jU-^:> Defterkhaneyi Kliaqani Nezareti, 

The Ministry of Archives. 
u -4iilj c&ljj Zira'at banqasi, The Agricultural 
^.--uil Jile^ Osmanli banqasi, The Ottoman 
<i^_-^» jlc^ (3^* Banqi Osmani Mudiri, The man- 
ager of the Imp. Ottoman Bank. 

The Ministry of War ^^LU Zjjfe ^j- 

iS^^s-jr* (iVlj - >L Babi Valayi Seraskeri , The 

Seraskeriat (The War Office . 
'-r'J*- i)6j\ ErkTani Harb, The General Staff. 

^-o^b <-->j*- o6j\ rj& Oumoum Erktani Harb Dayiresi, 

The Department of the General 
(J ~<o^>\} <oLj Piyade Dayiresi, The Infantry 
6 Department, 

^-o^b cijlj— Suvari Dayiresi, The Cavalry 

«. Department. 

^-.9^/b (j^-J-k Topjou Dayiresi, The Artillery 
«. ^ " Department. 

-o^/\^ o^LiJl j oUlx=c^-l Istilikilimat ve Insha'at Dayiresi, 

The Department of Military 
. fortification and buildings. 

^o^-b *jJn—& 01,51^. Mouhakematl askeriye Dayiresi, 

The Department of Military 
«. . t Justice, 

j^o^b 4j^Sw& *^z^a Sihhiyeyi askeriye Dayiresi, The 

Department of Military Sani- 
.. tation. 

^ a~*L <ajL.;\ 4-je^a jja\ Oumourou Sihhiyeyi Insaniye shu- 

besi, The Department of MiJi- 
t tary medical Inspection. 

^^Jl ^\j~>- <->z.-<3 jj»\ Oumourou Sihhiyeyi Hayvaniye 

Shubesi, The Department of eques- 

. trian hygiene. 

^-Jlt jj^w.y <^i^s_c ^liLT Teftishi askeriye Qomisiyonou alisi, 

* High Military Commission. 

^,-o^/b ^j-^ oLj\jl Levazimati oumoumiye Dayiresi, 

t The Commissaiy-General's Dep. 

^-o^b Vj^ ^V-^=- 4 Mouhasebati oumoumiye Dayiresi, 

The Department of General 


— ,j ~^j 

The Official Part. 


__o^b a.j\jJ\3 Jandarma dayiresi, The Depart- 
ment of Gendarrnery. 
jVT j**-*Jb ' JVT A-5liL\ Itfayiye alayi, Touloumbaji alayi, 

The Brigade of Firemen. 
<u»j*- ^iSC Mektebi Harbiye, The Military 
~ ' School. 

aj JxLc. aJ» ^^C Mektebi Tibbiyeyi Askeriye, The 
' Medical Military School. 

.j^x. a; £~c- , T\^C1 *^f Oumoam Mekmtibi Askeriye Mu- 

diri, Director General of the 
Military Schools. 

IsS - 



CO 1-5 S 

Military Grades *>^~& uiJj* ^ 
^ Serdar, General (cf. p. 458). 
jr* Serdar i Ekrem, Grand Marshal 
j\Jl» Musheer, Marshal, 
jjj i Feriq, General of division. 
\Jj\* Miriliva, General of hrigade. 
ciVT^v. Miralay, Colonel. 

Aliil5 Qaymaqam, Lieutenant colonel 
il dJb Bin bashi, Major. 
~1&1 Jy Qol aghast, Adjutant major. 

JLL jjj y««<8? 2>a£/it, Captain. 
jj\ ^3^- Mulazimi evvel, Lieutenant. 
(iU fj>U Mulazimi sani, Sub-lieutenant. 
^*\ «iVT J7a# 2?romt, Intendant of a regiment. 
^"IS^ciVT -4toy Kuitibi, Sec. of a regiment, 
^U\ ciVT Alay Imami, Chaplain of a regiment. 
*Ll j^jIL labour Imami, Chaplain of a battalion 
J-jU. J-l I?as7< chavoush, Sergeant major. 


I* 7 

. s -jU- e^n^ Sim chavoushou, Sergeant. }g'^2 S. 

^ " I ** 2 ~ 

I co "l 

Jil ^jl On bashi, Corporal. 

m 2 ft — 

l^A; ^Cj^ '^il 2V2/2r, asfcer neferi, Soldier, Private. 
.att ' (i^lc a&^s Qour'a askeri, Aje'mi, Conscript. 
ii ,<lt J^L^l Ihtiyat askeri, The army reserve. 




Vuo The Ministry of War. 445 

jzj\ Ordou, Army. <^i Firqa, Division. 

*\J Liva, Brigade. iiV \ AJay, Regiment. 

Sjji (■SjI^- ^j*-^ {J^-.j^ Topjou yakhod souvari bebluyu, Squa- 
<ijwll» oLj 'jjjU» Tabour, piyade tabourou, Battalion. 

Sjji oi^'^JjBedluk, piyade beoluyu, Company. 

(i^il ' (i Jf"L* oLj Piyade asakiri; -neferi, Infantry; Foot- 
<^^i] ' <^"L,& yr^ij^ Topjou asakiri; -neferi, Artillery; -man. 

iSyi, ' li^L-t (ij\_^- Souvari asakiri, Cavalry. 

<SjX> ' (ijTLx. *j^y Baliriye asakiri. Marines. 

( v_aV^-* ) 4~*Ua] jTu-c Asakiri nizamiye, -Mouvazzaf, Regulars. 

«ioj ^L~ c- Asakiri redife, Militia. 

A^a?-:,,^ ^L~c Asakiri moustahfUa, The last Reserves. 

<i^L_c -u^U. Khassa asakiri, The corps of the Imp. 
uj^ <£J*j\ ^oji Debrduvju Ordouyi Humayoun, The 4th 

Army Corps. 

iV'ote. 1. The centre of the Imp. Guards is Constantinople, 
2nd Edirne, 3r d Monastir. 4th Erzinjan, 5th Damascus, 6 th 
Bagdad, 7th Sana. 

Note. 2. All the Moslems in Turkey are called to enter the 
Army at the age of 20, which is called the age of Maturity (esnanj. 
The term is 9 years in the Regular Army (Asakiri Nizamiye): 
3 years under arms and 6 years in the army reserve (IJitiyat); 
6 in the territorial army (Militia Rt'dif) and 3 in the territorial 
reserve (Moustalifiz). 

Arms ajc.L-\ 
ajjI; <3cL-| Eslihayi nariye, Fire arms. 
Ajwjla. ojul Eslihayi jarilia, Pointed arms. 
£&jj Tufe'ng, Gun. <i\i£J Fishing, Rocket. 

jJjjj Revolver, Revolver. 4.^.1 Lli» Tabanja, Pistol. 
^Jh Top, Canon. S^J~ Sunyu, Bayonet. 

ojjLLS Qatsatoura, Strap. *JlJ Q'tl/j, Sword. 

Oo'<^J Qabze, ain, Sheath. aUV Balta, Axe. 

jLv- Mizraq, Lancet. ^ : li- KJiancher, Sabre. 

<*li (?fl»ia, Dagger. ,jkUl Yatayan, Yatagan. 

446 L> o— J p-J The Official Part. *V1 

The Admiralty .-aUU- Z>j\la> * y^ 

4j jscj (iljji Shourayi bahriye, Board of admiralty. 

j-o^ta ^— >,/- u^J^ ErTciani harb dayiresi, Staff-office. 

(5 J=»U <u^ei Bahriye naz'iri, Minister of marine. 

^a-U.) Jl^A»7' <i~A^« ^^r*- 1 Bahriye mushiri, amiral, Admiral. 

( till! jUli-J <&X>j* Donanma qomandani, Admiral of the 

Jj^s Feriq, Vice-admiral (of the 1 st class). 

(lil JIjj) Iji^A* Miriliva, riyale pasha, Rear-admiral. 

jjij*y Comodor, Commodore. 

ciVlj^ Miralay, Captain. 

1 ^jlj- u Jf" ' l>^> ^d ^ in frasM, #ewi souvarisi, souvari, 

t£j\j-] -^l Jy QoZ aghast, Lieutenant-commander. 

il; j jL J-ji Qidemli yuzbashi, First Lieutenant. 

^il Jjj Y&s 5asft? 7 Lieutenant. 

Jj\ f3>^* Mulazimi e'vvel, Sub-Lieutenant. 

jlj *j>U Mulazimi sani, Midshipman. 

^Ju^-* u^j!^ oX~*4.'~&~, JbJ — — — muhendis, Naval cadet. 

- - > 

^\*_* i>\'>Jy oX-^Li- JuJ — mouallim, Naval instructor. 

LU jUl, dbLT Tufeng endaz zabiti, Marine officer. 

LU ^J" Harb zabiti, Executive officer. 
.LU ^—v^ 0&j\ Erkiani harb zabiti, Staff officer. 
LU t^SlT Gfoyh'M z °htth Deck officer. 
^LU j-u-.j^ Torpido zabiti, Torpedo officer. 
^LU ij^ij^ Topjou zabiti, Gunnery officer. 
JwU Uji Qidemli zabit, Senior officer. 

Ja^U J--Ji Qidemsiz zabit, Junior officer. 

. 1 . • at, 7 -.-• 7 •*• /Officer of the day. 

J*,U j5«4> *»*«&» * a& ***' \ » on duty. 

a>U bjb Fwcfa safe***, Officer of the watch. 


jjy,L ^li- jy Seyri sefayin memourou, Navigating 


i.i,V The Admiralty. 447 

^LU? juLUI ' JsjUj [J!^j>r Charkhji zabiti, inshayiye zabiti, Civil 

yjil l j^j^ Charlchji basht, Chief engineer. 

(jjl*- ^il t j^j>. Charlchji bashi mouavini, Assistant 

^b uj^^ Qalyon Wiatibi, Fleet paymaster. 

^6 -C-jL- Sefine Jcuitibi, Paymaster. 

^"b jjj; 2?ng ~kuitibi, Clerk. 

jjc.>\5 Qlacouz, Pilot. u?=-^J-> Dumenji, Steersman. 

tj^jji Porsoun, Boatswain. u^i^ 9 Topjon, Gunner. 

JjJl>\j\* Maranqoz, Carpenter. ( j^J>i Yelkenji, Sailmaker. 

0I3VI3 Qalafat, Caulker. jLU. Gaybar, Topman. 

L)oJ»l tajlj Tarda bander a, Signalman. 

^\ aUu* Sefine emini, Master at arms. 

iLj\ ' ijf^T ±*z~a Miistayicl gemiji, onbashi, Seaman. 

-u^lL'^A] Nefer, tayife, \ 7 \i\g. tay'fa, Bluejacket. 

<£jl> j\j*\ t->L- Silahendaz neferi, Marine. 

Jt ^jse* Ajt'mi nefer, Dock hand. 

^aJu-.j* Mousiqaji, Bandsman. i^JJji Boroujou, Bugler. 

*Z*#»\J Trampet, Drummer. ^jjo Demirji, Blacksmith. 

^«E-iJ| Ateshji, Stoker. iS^^yy Kebmurju, Trimmer. 

j^-Ll aLjL- ' ^L) -C-jL- Sefine papasi, sefine imami, Chaplain. 

u—j\±\ ^Jj\j\» Qarantina idaresi, Quarantine ad- 
j^-Jst* aLaIIjIS Qarantina mejlisi, Board of health. 

**i\ji -** Temiz pratiqa, Clean bill of health. 
jJLTI^ iJr-Vji Boulashiq pratiqa, Foul bill of health. 

The Imperial Arsenal \^V aILJ 

(a, AplivJ'jli ) ' f . aJLy Tersani,(darus'sana'a), Dockyard, arsenal. 
4JlW*— j Resimkhane, Drawing office. 
if»j\* *£\2*\ Inshayiye dayiresi, Constructor's office. 
^o^b ^JUjjtjL Torpido dayiresi, Torpedo department. 

448 u *— j p— I The Official Part. "fuA 

-uU-^no Demir khane, Blacksmith's shop. 
4jU-<u5jj> Deokme khane, Foundery, forge. 
\>\±- iy-j Bichqi khane, Sawmill. 
^IseJli-js ' ^i 1^.11 j la Qazankhane, Boilermaker's shop. 
^^ilWlVl^l k£\* Makina imalatkhanesi, Engine shop. 
(JfM *juj>}i &jj~S Tesviye fabriqasi, Fitting shop. 

^^^ jC Teer gebyerte, Rigging loft. 
(jr ,<iuj>\i dUL. Chelik fabriqasi, Steel factory. 
cr ,ojli. fjeJ&lt Yelkenji maghazasi, Sail loft. 
Joy*- ' (_/>j>^ Havouz, Dock. 
u*jl>. pL Sabih havouz, Floating dock. 
Jaj\». Jj^a Soidou havouz, Basin or wet dock. 
J^J^- JJ>y Qourou havouz, Dry or graving dock. 
oo}')L'>\ Anbar, ambar, Stores. 
Ut* *c~»J^ Kereste mahelli-mahali, Timber yard. 

Different Kinds of Ships ^\j\ viiJ^C^L- 

iJ <r ' ^li- ' 4 ^-*~' define, sefayin; gemi, Ship. 
^ju. ' OL- ^>JJ Zirhli sefine, pi. sufen, Armour-plated ship. 
Ujj JLVo^ Barbetali zirh'U, Armour-plated barbette ship. 
Ujj d*Jy Qouleli zirhli, A rinour-plated turret ship. 
jj^JG Qalyon, Line-of-battle ship. 
(InllS^i ' CjO^s Firqatin, Frigate. 
<^Jjy Qorvet, Corvette. Jj^ 5r^, Brig. 

cJj* Golet, Brigantine. J»^Jlc. Ganbot, Gunboat. 

Jjj\jj* Qrouazor, Cruiser. <lj*—i\ Isqouna, Schooner. 

I jli jUJ ' ^ j I; jUbJ Tujjar navisi, tujjar navlisi, Barque. 

jy\j JjL*jS_jb Davloumbazli vapor, Paddle boat. 
jjAj jjk~>\ Isqrou vapor, Screw steamer. 
^>y ' (Sjj>\j ° J^~ Tenezziih vaporou, Yot, Yacht. 


ViA Provinces Vilayati Shahane. 449 

<UL. A^jjJ^i Qabasourta sefine, Full-rigged ship. 

dy-\J* Qaraghol sefine, Guard ship. 

Jajj Zirhli sefine, An Iron-clad. 

^♦i r-L Saj gemi, Iron ship. 

Ci— JU7 Talim sefinesi, Training ship. 

Uu- *dULI Naqliye sefinesi, Transport ship. 

i a^Lw. Mesahe gemisi. Surveying ship. 

(jLili* ^i-^j Yoljou tashiyan sefine, Passenger ship. 

Lj.> : ">...ii\ jj-oj^is Torpido istimbotou, Torpedo boat. 

L^*_JLj1 jJl^jjL^JIo'cj Tahtelbahr torpido f Submarine torpedo 

istimbotou, \ boat. 

(i^.43 j-L-jjji? Torpido Kechiri, Torpedo catcher. 

The Provinces (p. 126, 441) iUtiilVj 

<ib ' v^-iVj Vilayet, vali, Province, Governor-General. 

-bjo. Ulj Valiyi jedid, The newly-appointed Vali. 

J^J lib J 7 ^ vekili, The acting Governor-General. 

JjLm Jb Fitf* mouavini, The assistant governor. 

Jyw ! ^UejL- ' \J Liva, sanjaq; mutesarrif, County; governor. 

aU115 ' UJ Qaza, qaymaqam, District, sub-governor. 

^Ju 4 ^u>.ll Nahiye, mxidir, Parish, Miidir. 

-| jjfcii jjIs v^>Vj Vilayet qapou Ketkhoudasi, vulg. -keh'yasi, The 

agent of the Governor-General. 
i£^_.x* JL ' ^a-^Ut* ' jb^ASi Defterdar, mouhasebeji, mal mudiri, 

The comptrollers of revenue and expenditure in Vilayet, 
Sanjaq and Qaza (p. 352). 

^1^ cAjijg* ' cS^r.-A-* &\jl?*> ' fj^j^* 3Iektoubjou,tahrirat mudiri. 

tahrirat kmtibi, The chief secretaries in Vilayet, Sanjaq 
and Qaza. 

^5 ^j lis ' <ij^» L. ^jlis ' iijj^ U obU- Jus Defteri khaqani memourou, 

tapou memourou, tapou kuitibi, Registrar of Real-Estate 
or Title-deeds (in Vilayet, Liva and Qaza). 

^6 wyi> ' <£jj* \* ltja> ' i£jek> wj*> Noufous nazxrx, noufous me- 
mourou, noufous kiatibi, Census-taker (in Vilayet, Liva 
and Qaza. (Who issue the Tezkeres and passports also." 1 

Turkish Conv. -Grammar. 29 

450 o^J p— * The Official Part. i.©* 

j . .,., -. «» c>\^i Feragh qomisiyonou , The quit claim 
^- commission. 
j*__~*y o!A-*asJ TaJisilat qomisiyonou, Commission of 
j\jJUasoT Tahsildar, Tax-collector. 

j ^-— -J 1 >^V' Mouhajireen qomisiyonou, Commission 
of immigrants. 
l-*! <Jj-)^ Sandiq emini, Treasurer. 

^JtS _£yj Jt w r*' A* -^ a tahrir vergi qalemi, The bureau 

^— of cadasters. 
— 4j«-i j.-^iilj «jl-cU3 ZiroHat banqasi shubesi, A branch of 
the Agricultural bank. 
i£r~~»J> y» ^rJ^i PoZis ser qomiseri, First commissioner 
of Police. 
4 j Qomiser, Commissioner. 

^rJj-i Polis, Police, policeman. 

(JLzi. Mufettish, Inspector. 

-uc^i -u^v Mehkemeyi sheriye, The court of Canon- 
(the Fa*/iZ of >&1 = 1^5)^4. Mufti, A judge of Canon-Law. 

•\Jjic. -w5ot« ' a^IL; <J>^» Mehkemeyi nizamiye, mehkemeyi adliye, 

The Judicial Court (pi. Mehakim). 
Jit jT^ ! ^-H; Nayib, merkez nayibi, Deputy judge. 

(from £i» * *L«5) £U. ' ^15 #ad2, hakim, A judge, magistrate. 

^— 1& ij-l ' J^.* Mumeyyiz, Chief secretary. 

jJL. '^.4 * UU. ' :>^* Musevvid, khoulefa, mubeyyiz , mou- 

qayyid, Clerk. 
^-U.- 4jjJb Belediye mejlisi, Municipality. 

^,-juj <jjjJb Belediye reyisi, Mayor. 

^^ii- _ ' ^jj» <> ji Belediye tabibi, Municipality doctor. 

<ij^.L j^l'j^-il Ashiji, ashi memourou, Vaccinator. 

i£j>x* ^j-l Posta mudiri, Post-master. 

Diplomatic Terms Jlju£ ^UjLo 

^^M jJjj\ ' ^M ' jji- Se/Sr, eZc7w, Orta efc/ii, Minister. 

^U iLj »; ' ,aS^ ^\a~. &?/m fte&ir, beoyuk elchi, Ambassador. 

iSj\lz~A ojli- Sefarti musteshari, The counsellor of 
jU5C:=Jiya- Maslahatguzar, Charge d'affaires. 

tot Diplomatic Terms Diplomasi Tabiratt. 451 

ojU- cJi-a Hiyeti stfaret, The personnel of the 
^'IWTjlL- Sefaretkhane, Embassy, legation. 

^JT5 u»\i Bash kfatib, The chief secretary. 

jZub J^Jj^y Qonsoloslar hiyeti, The consular corps. 

jjJ r</ i ' ^-jlj-JjS (jo)isoJos, shehbender, The consul. 

jju-fi J^L ' i^rjj^y J-l Bash qonsolos, The consul-general. 

l£j jX-.- ' Jij" ltJj-^j* Qonsolos vekili. The vice-consul. 

^Vj—^s ' *JUt--Jj-Jj5 Qonsoloskhane ', qonsolato, General-con- 
l»jV^?Jli ' bj^stlS Qanchelarya, The chancellary. 

O^^seJ \J»^w Ta'atiyi tahrirat, Exchange of corres- 
<^-*—j oljj yseJ Tahrirat i resmiye, Official correspon- 
*-«~-j ^n^ ^j.j*^ Tahrirati ghayri resmiye. Unofficial 

l^j ' ow- j Ojj*a Soureti resmiyede, resmen, Officially. 

o*-»— <j j\s, Ojj^s Soureti ghayri resmiyede. Unofficially. 

j&J\ *liL- Mubadeleyi efkiar, Exchange of opin- 

. ions (views . 

j&J\ slJuLi Mubaycneti efktar, Divergency of opin- 

4-*jxF »J> -J- lluzekkereyi oumoumiye, Consular dis- 
<dsj'> S^aZa JIushterek nota, Collective note. 

^Ui ./j. ' ^lii a >- rogrtn *£<*£ IftJtf*- 1 Verbal note 
. b kereyi shijahiye, J 

fjT^ljl ' wiixJ ^-iai j iJ^ 5o?? veqatiteklif.uUimatoum, Ultimatum. 

4jJUw ' ?cLa Soulh, musaleha, Peace. 

o^y ' ur**L>*V d Qon f trans, qongre, Conference, congres. 

^jx-S Mourakh'khas, Plenipotentiary. 

<clij-.c ' o_ul*» Mouahede, ahd'name, Treaty. 

^-oAaU. 70*3 Soirflt mouahedesi. Treaty of peace. 

^-oaaI** ojW" Iijaret mouahede'si, Treaty of commerce. 

ollu-^I Tazmi)>at. Indemnity. 

a-jJ- ollwA Tazminati Jiarbiye, War Indemnity. 

*>ljl JLJ Teslimi arazi, Cession of territory. 
I" 29* 

452 ,„*.-) —J The Official Part. <uor 



>Li-\ ' JUt I Ishghal, istiyla, Occupation. 
<Jbej Takhliye, Evacuation, 
ll jSU Meezounen, On furlough. 

<0»j JL* cu*j£=- Hukumeti meshroute, Constitutional 
<lUa« <z**£*~ Hukumeti moutlaqa, Absolute govern- 
vjl-Oj^?- Jiimhoariyet, Republic. 

^Ll (jjj'ls Qanounou esasi, The constitution. 

^:i«Vjl> ' o^ **r* u**^ Mejlisi mebousan, parlamento , The 

o^* Mebous, Deputy, delegate. M. P. 

tjL&\ l _ r i^ Mejlisi ay an, Senate. 

^-Lacl cjLtl ^rwU^ Mejlisi ay an azasi, Senator. 

U.AllS * i^k Namzed, Qandida, Candidate. 

(^Jell* Muntakhib, Elector. 

b 1 'Jib' <S\j Rey, pl- «^*«> reylir, Vote, votes. 

bl cj^vS^I Ekseriyeti ara, The majority of votes. 

b' c—^. Aqalliyeti ara, Minority of votes. 

wL^»\ >_8,1^J ' ^iiiC" Teklif, — e£", Motion, to move. 

^>JS^\ Ekseriyet, Quorum. 

tsjtjjs aJL'J^j, Politiqa firqalari, Political parties. 

^43^3 <j|j£4Ji9W.« MouhafazakTaran firqasi, Conservative 

^4^9 objjs 3^ Teraqqi perveran firqasi, Progressive 
O ~o^ obj^i ^-v*" Howriyet perveran firqasiXiiber&l party. 

d\j\J3jb <i*aJk>. HuMmet tarafdarani, The supporters 
., .of the government. 

(J\^aSo>U» ^*^>- Hukumeb khilafgirani, The Opposition. 

>lj£. 4.5^3 Firqayi avawm, The Democratic party. 

<>j^> 4.3^9 Firqayi jumhouriye, The republican 
p, party. 

^j <iiUc« oy Firqayi moukhalcfe riyisi, The leader 
of the Opposition. 

vor Diplomatic Terms Diplomasi Tabirati. 453 

%j o\j=zj Bouhrani vukela, A ministerial crisis. 

>£j Ja-7 Tebeddulu vuTcela, Change of ministry. 

»ULJj\ — ' U»L-1 Istifa, — etmek, Resignation, to resign. 

dA*_L\ Jj fr ' J J^ ^Z; asZ etmek, Eemoval, to remove. 

C*.u7 j v_^aJ JSfasbou tayin, Nomination. 

<Jj j*-*,/ Terfiyi rutbe, Promotion. 

tjli; 4-a-jJ Tevjihi nislian, Decoration. 

^ji;*9 ' aJj Rutbe, sinif, Class, order. 
jj-s^ Achiq, Deficit. ^-^j! Budge, Budget, 

objlj ' oM^U- Hasilat, varidat, Income. 

olc-y-X* ' olsjUa* Mesarifat, medfouat, Expenditure. 

C->^U- *Ua5 Fazlayi hasilat, Surplus. 


•— »^* ' <>jW* Mouharebe, harb, The war. 

A !^ 

ajjUe^ Mouharebeyi bahriye, Naval battle. 

<J w^ ^'J^ » berriye, Land battle. 

«U^-b Aij^zj* » dakhiliye, Civil war. 

v— V s * 0^ i7aw* ftarfr, A declaration of war. 

a.J^c ojbl Idareyi eorfiye, A state of siege. 

kiii* jLa-"l Ittifaqi miiselles, The Triple alliance. 

(ijjU-T j (jj^l-k" ijiiJl Ittifaqi tedafiyi ve tejavouzi, An offen- 
sive and defensive alliance. 
Jdj* «— >jUt* Mouharib devletler, The Belligerent 
*JjL. cJj.> Devleti mouavine, Allied Power. 

cJj3 ^Jb^ Bitaraf devlet, Neutral Power. 

«ijU Abloqa, Blokade. <ojU*. Mudarebe, Battle. 

o^-Ut* Mouhasere, Siege. fj^ Siijiim, Attack. 

<ulS ' A^sti-1 Istihktam, qala, qale, Fortress. 

^-aJjUL. JLj Teslim mouqavelesi, Capitulation. 

4-Ji. Ghalebe, Victory. ?C3 Feth, Conquest. 

aSj>\Za Mutareke, Armistice. 

JIM ujj Beynel milel, International. 

454 *— J r*~* The Official Part. tot 

Festivals JJ&j^ "3 Jul^l> 

jp. ^J^. ' 4$\ , >ll»- ' (iju^^os- (^1*7 -oil Allah Ta^ala HazretUri, Je- 

nabi Allah, Jenabi Haqq, God, the Most High. 

rt~Jil ^ c Eesa-el-Mesih, Jesus Christ. 

u-Joll r-jj Boukoul Qoudous, The Holy Spirit. 

<u=s^w« <~^ ' A-JfT Kills e, Kiliseyi Mesihiye, Church, 
Christian Church. 

^a^-^A »j> Yevmi mdkhsous, Anniversary. 

cr Jl& p.- j jJu^L- Selamliq resmi alisi, The ceremony of 
Selamliq (a public procession of the 
Sultan to mosque at noon on Friday). 

Xs. ' iL&\ i£ed ; pi. ayad festival. >l^\j ' Aj»}i Bayram, Moslem or 

Jewish festival. 
Cjfij *y Yevmi veladet, The birthday. 

j^"" jv~.\ Js^m (jfMml, The name-day. 

Jt,[> J*j ' ils 4l«. Senebashl,yilbasM, The New Year's Day. 

(j^jil^ o:>Vj Veladeti Humayoun, The Birthday of 

jjjl# u-jk»- Julousou Humayoun, The accession of 
' H. I. S. 
.«<iili J rdli vli.iA.iUli £j>\z Zati Shahanenin qiltj qoushanmasi, The 
^ " investiture of H. M. with the sword 

^ of the Prophet. 

JV\ rJii Qilij alayi, The ceremony of investiture. 

j^jji cJLi vUL;^^\j^, Shahzadegianin sunnet duyunu, The 

circumcision feast of the Imp. princes. 
S$J* cJu- ' (J-*^ u^=- Khitan jemiyySti, sunnet duyunu, A 

circumcision feast. 
oj^js ' J-*^" <wJj VeleemS jSmiyySti, duyun, The wedding. 

aSjL. U^ ' *5jl~« <0J LeyUyi mubareke, pi. ISyaliyi mubareke, 

The Holy night, — nights. 
*Jj* ' t£-^ -^Ar* Mevloudoun nebi, mevloud, The birth- 
day of the Prophet. 
d^-S^ ' r\j»» ' r\ A\ «AJ LSyletul miraj, miraj gejesi, The Night 
c C of the Ascent of the Prophet (26th 

; Rejeb). 

cJlfrj -0J ' v—ilc-JI aJu) LSyletul Bagayib, leyleyi Bagayib, The 

Night of the first Friday of Rejeb, 
regarded as the anniversary of the 
conception of the Prophet. 


(too Festivals Bayramlar ve Yortoular. 455 

^iseS^ iiJ>\ j>. ' ts-**^^^: Berat gejesi, The Night of Absolution, 
the Night of the h*> h of Shaban, in which the re- 
velation was communicated to Muhammed by the 
angel Gabriel. 

^<sc^ JjjJi Qandil gijisi, Any Night of general illumination for a 
Moslem festival, of which there are four: Muhammed's 
Birthday, Conception, Night-ascent and Absolution. 

^os^f'jji * jji <L)'jjJil} iLl Leylet'ul qadir, leyleyi qadir, qadir' 

gejesi, Qadr gejesi, The Night of Power, name given 
to the '27 th night of Eamazan. 

.lJI aJJ Leylet'ul eed, The night preceding either of the two 
"days of Bayram. 

<hs. Arefe, The day preceding the two following Bayrams. 

*\^i I J& ' (j*^! (J^j 1, J^ -*-_& ^e^i fitir, Bamazan bay rami, 

Slicker bay rami, The festival at the end of the fast 
of Eamazan. (The first three days of Shaban.) 

yj\j^i J^-k" ' o*^ {j\J* ' k£**°\ -4 s " J E ,g ^* adfta, Qourban bay rami, 
Hajilar bay rami, The Moslem festival of sacrifice, 
the Great Bayram falling on 10 — 13 of Zilhijje. 
* « * - 

o^U- -o/ ' ^^ 4 ^~ Khirqayi Sherif, Khirqayi Sa-adet, The 

mantle of Muhammed, given to the poet Kia'b. 


jjjjl/ 1 a^a Sourriyi Humayoun, The Sultan's yearly gifts for 
Mecca and Medina. 

^jj^i r» v-ij-« Mevkibi Hajjl Sherif, The Sacred Caravan for the 
Holy Lands of Islam. 

Christian Festivals ij^jy) ^ p ^Ul 

-sulli-l i)^J> ' ^ — c :>>L- Meeladi Eesa, Kuchuk Pasqalya, 

pjpi- ' (j*<$jz- (js-^ ^^r* Meeladi Eesa arefesi, KMtom, The 

Christmas Eve. 
<jljjl5jl ' ^^^ cJ\ ' JljfcjlS Qarnaval, Et Msimi, Barqandan, The 

J^a^/ "^jij* Bebyiik Perhiz, The Lent. 

vi\o\j ' OlL-L ^yy ' aJIL-1 Pasqalya, Zadig, Easter. 

(j^p) L~c. o^ss- pJi^ 6 OuroujouHazreti Eesa ,TheABceneiou. 

^A^At Ca—S"- ' i>~~JU Eedul Khamseen, Khamseen bayrami, 

The feast of Pentecost. 
^_j»j^i s.rlJi ' lt!- 1 ^ Qouddas, Qouddasi Sherif, The Eu- 
(jL j <ili& Asha'yi Babbani, The Lord's Supper. 

456 ^^-j pJ The Official Part. i.^ 

Jewish Festivals (IJrl) ao*-> aUl 

7^ ' j^l j% j-j^U- Kliamoursouz bayrami, Fisih', The Jewish 

Passover, (io Nissan.) 
Jj~? ' tylw^j iwj!j^> Chorab bayrami, Kipour, The feast of Atone- 

r " "' ' ? merit. (10 Tishri.) 

OjXf^l- ' *\^nj jt-6 Qamisli bayrami, Soukkot, The feast of Taber- 
nacles. (15 Tishri.) 
r\j}i »j^ £ara bay ram, The Jewish fast for the des- 
. truction of Jerusalem. (9 Ab.) 
ojjlo ' (j,*!^ J£ 641Z bayrami, The Jewish Pentecost. (6 Sivan.) 

fjjt ' ^1> ^Ci Sheker bai/rami. Ponrim, The festival of Purim. 
(14 Adar.) 

Orders of the Ottoman Empire 

1. Olc^- J^ u^^- Khanedanl All Osman: Star in brilliants (Mon- 

rassa My), established by Sultan Hamid. 

2. jlii J^ilsjl Ertogroul nishani: Gold, established by Sultan 


3. jU&^l u^J Nishani Iftikhar: Star in brilliants, established by 

Sultan Mahmoud. 

4. jLi.1 ,jLiJ Nishani Imtiyaz: Star in brilliants, established by 

Sultan Hamid. 

5. jleit ,jLiJ Nishani Osmanee: Star in brilliants, 1, 2, 3, 4, 

established by Sultan Abdul Aziz. 

6. i£Ju=&- jjLiJ Nishani Mejidee: Star in brilliants, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 

established by Sultan Mejid. 
oUL Nishani Shefaqat: The only order conferred on 
ladies 1, 2, 3, established by Sultan Hamid. 

Medals J*JLu 

^-Jl-L. ^.5U 1. Gold medal of Liyaqat. 

-<dlx. J>Ll.| 2. Gold and silver medals of Imtiyaz. 

5-.4JLL. uL^ 3. » » » » » Industry. 

^-«J1ju Ob^jy uV 4. Silver medal for saving life. 
-4JU jUe!»| 5. » » » Iftikhar. 


Rutebi MuJchtelifeyi Devleti Aliye. 



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458 _♦— j «— 5 The Official Part. ioa 

Civil Grades Milkiye Hittbeleri 

1. Vezaret, Vizir, The Rank of Vezir (the highest civil grade). 

2. Butbeyi Bala, The Rank of Bala (frey, effendi). 

3. Butbeyi Oula sinifi evvel (bey, effendi) yakhod Boumeli Beyler 

beyi payesi (bey, effendi), The Rank of I s * grade, Is* class. 

4. Butbeyi Oula sinifi sani (effendi) yakhod Mirimiran Payesi 

(pasha), 1 st grade 2 nd class or the rank of Mirimiran. 

5. Butbeyi Saniye sinifi evvel Mutemayizi (effendi) yakhod Miyrul 

umera payesi, 2 nd class Mutemayiz or the Rank of Miyrul 

6. Butbeyi Saniye sinifi sani (effendi) yakhod Stabli Amire Mudir- 

liyi payesi, 2 nd class 2 nd grade. 

7. Butbeyi Salise (effendi) yakhod Bikmbi Humayoun Qapoujou 

bashilighi payesi (effendi), 3 rd class. , 

8. Butbeyi Babiya (effendi), 4 tb class. 

9. Butbeyi Khamise (effendi), 5 th class. 

Military and Naval Grades Askeriye Utitbeleri 

1. Mushirlik, MO shir (pasha), Marshal = Admiral (p. 444). 

2. Feriq, Feriqi evvel (pasha), General of Division I. rank. 

3. Feriqi sani (pasha), Gen. of Division II. rank = Vice Admiral. 

4. Miriliva, Liva pasha, General of Brigade = Rear Admiral. 

5. Miralay (bey), Colonel = Captain. 

6. Qaymaqam (effendi, bey), Lieutenant Colonel = Captain of 


7. Binbashi (effendi, bey), Major = Commander. 

8. Qol aghasi (effendi), Adj. Major = Lieutenant Major. 

9. YuzbasM (effendi, agha), Captain = Lieutenant. 

10. Mulazim (agha), Sublieutenant = Sublieutenant. 

Grades of Religious Hierarchy Ilmiye Rutbeleri 

1. Sadri Boumeli yakhod Boumeli QazasTcerliyi Payesi (effendi), 

The Rank of the Chancellor of Roumeli (corresp. to Arch- 
bishop): The Vice-Chancellor of Turkey (p. 438). 

2. Sadri Anadolou yakhod Anadolou QazasTcerliyi payesi (effendi), 

The rank of the chancellor of Anadolou (corresp. to Bishop). 

3. Istanbol Qadilighi payesi (effendi). 

4. Harem eyni Sherifeyn payesi (effendi). 

5. Biladi Khamse mevleviyeti payesi (6ff6ndi). 

6. MaTchrej mevleviyeti payesi (effendi). 

7. Kibari Muderriseen payesi (effendi). 

8. Suleymaniye Madounounda muderriseen payesi (effendi). 

9. Hoja, Khoja payesi (effendi). 

<^.o^ Official Titles Elqabi Besmiye. 459 

Official Titles a^j ^U!l 

There are numerous expressions to denote 'His Imp. 
Majesty the Sultan 5 , the followings are much in use: 

Zafi hazreti Padishalii, Zati hazreti jihandari, Zati hazreti 
shehinshahi, Velinimetimiz, Velinimetimiz Padishahimiz effendimiz. 
Shevketmeab effendimiz, Shevlcetlou Padishahimiz effendimiz, Zati 
Shevlce'tsimatl hazreti giyti sitani. 

Imperial : 

Padishalii, Shahane, Mulukiane, Humayoun, Khusrevane, 
Seniye, Jihandari, Jihanbani, Shehinshahi, Tajdari or Padisha- 
hileri, Shahaneleri, Mi'ilukiane'le'ri, Shehriyarileri etc. 

Especial titles of the Mother-Sultana (Valide sultan 
aliyetusti shan hazreti eri) : 

iSjS^as- *XJi\ jt«V> J^^- J^cJaC j\l(_^& J^J^ 

Of Foreign Emperors and Kings: 
<sj^j^ *j\j}\ ojjH jL*-i* J^s • w ni£j\ j (ij^l^ti O^-^ 

Hindistan Imperatorou ve Ingilterra Qirali Hashmetlou Albert 
Edward hazretleri. H. M. 

! UL.:„,*>. Hashmetpenaha 7 Sire! 

Of the Shah of Persia: 

(ij^o^ ^li. ^jj| ^iL. jb.1^ aU o^J (H. M.) 

Of the Imperial Princes: 

iSjJ^>. ^JJil jbUJ jbj^ (H. I. H.) 

Of the Khedive of Egypt, the Presidents of 
Republics and the Grand vizier: 

(iJL'^is- fjjil Jdj)} jb»UJ Fekhametlou devletlou Effendim 
hazretleri. (H. H.) 

L> +J&\ ^j^ o^-*s=- o'c— ^^ o\j Zaf? fekhametsimati hazreti 
Sadri Azami. 

Of the Ex-Grand viziers: 
(iJL^^w liL jtljj Jty\ Ubhetlou devletlou Pasha hazretleri. 

460 ^j pi The Official Part. tv 

Of Foreign Ambassadors: 

Of the Sherif (governor) of Mecca and Medina: 

<iJLv^ *jLil jloLl jdji (H. H.) 

Of the Chief Eunuch of the Imperial Palace: 

(jju^> f JJil jblic jbj^ (H. H.) 

Of the Minister of War and the Husbands of 
Imperial Princesses: 

liJLT^***- *xi\ j&j^ jdji (H. H.) 

Of the Grand Marshal (Serdari Ekrem): 
L$J^jn*>- {-&\ j&\j j^J* (Excellency) 

Of Functionaries of Civil and Military Grades. 

) Of Marshals and Viziers: 

i$j!j£>. a Alii j^J* (Excellency) 

Of the Governors General (Valis): 

tSj^j^ f-^1 j£ijbi j^j* (Excellency) 

r Of functionaries of Bala, of the Imperial Chamber- 
lains, of the Premier Secretary of H. I. M. and of the 

President of the Council of State: 

tSj^j-^ f -0\ ^bijiac (Excellency) 

r Of Generals of Division (Feriq), Vice -Admirals, 

and of the functionaries of the Firstgrade of the Rut- 
beyi Oula, and of Roumeli Beyler Beyiliyi: 

(iJLT^a- *xi! jloL~. (Excellency) 

v Of Brigadier -Generals {Miriliva), Rear -Admirals 
and the functionaries of the 2 nd grade Rutbeyi Oula and 
the Mu tesarrifs : 

o Of Colonels, Captains of ships (Miralay), func- 
tionaries of Mutemayiz and Qaymaqams: 

«uTl Official Titles Elqabi Resmiye. 461 

T Of functionaries of Rutbeyi Saniye, of Lieutenant- 
Colonels, Captains of Frigates and the Director of the 
Imperial Stables: 

L&l or vUL or c£jui\ J^Jf- 

y Of Majors (Binbashi), Commanders (Captains of 
Corvettes), Mudirs and Intendants of Regiments (Alay 
Emini): [±\ or ^xj\ or dL Ji*i j 

a Of Adjutant -Majors, functionaries of Rabiya, 
Lieutenant -Commanders and Captains: 

lc-1 or t^Juil or £X> jJUjls 

■^ To those who are below the above functionaries : 

l&\ or i£XJ\ or vlA, jJLLi 4 - 

Of Moslem Clergy. 

Of the Sheiykh-ul Islam: 

Given by Clergy: 

Given by laymen: 

Of each Ex-Sheykh-ul Islam: 

t^JLJ^^a*. c5-Xl3| _^r^ _^J-> 

I'r Of the Judges of Roumeli and Anatolia: 

r Of the Istanbol Qadisi and the Judges of 
Canon Law : iSj:^ pXsl p^ 

•u, o, n Of the functionaries of Haremeyn etc.: 

v Of the functionaries of Muderriseen (Doctors of 
Theological Seminaries): ^^ JsJ^S 

a' ^ Of the functionaries of the 8 th and 9 tb grade: 



*j r _S The Official Part. 


Of Chelebi Effendi (the Sheykh occupying the post 
of Mevlana Jelaleddini Roumi at Iconium): 

Non-Moslem Clergy. 

Of the Catholicos, Patriarchs, Bulgarian Exarch 
and Grand Rabbi: 

iSjjj^- i£XJ>\ jbJj ! ULJuTj Butbetpenaha ! 

Of the Chancellor of Protestants [Millet Vekili): 
Of Archbishops and Bishops: 

Of Pastors, Missionaries, Chief Priests and Priests: 

iSjji\ j\±J& ; given by Moslems \$£j\ j&j- 

Commercial Terms a,jIj£ oWtALJ 

Accept (to) qaboul it!' 

accepter qaboul eden; - ted maq- 
bouloum dour. 

account Msab, mouhasebe; -cur- 
rent hisabt jari; on- alii hisab. 

acquittal ibraname, ibra senedi. 

action hisse senedi. 

address adres, khitab. 

advance peshin, teslimat. 

advise ikhbar et."; letter of ad- 
vice ikhbamame, ikhtarname. 

agent agfoita, vekil. 

agio aqje farqi, bash. 

agreement ouzlashma. 

allowance ikram. 

amount meblagh, para. 

assets mevjoud, -at; matloubat. 

assurance sigouria, Ueminat. 

average avarya, -mail. 

Bail, to be - kefalet, -et." 

balance muvazene, -difteri, bl- 
lancho; baqiyeyi hisab, borj. 

bank banqa; ' -shares esham; 
-note qayimt, banqnot. 

banker bankir, sarraf. 

bankrupt, -cy muftis, iflas. 

bargain pazarliq. 

barrel varel, fichi. 

bearer hamil. 

bill of exchange qambiyaltfolicha; 

- of lading irsaliye qaymese. 
blank indorsement beyaz jiro. 
bonds tahvil, seliim; eshami ou- 

m oum iye, qonsolid . 
bottomry geminin terhini. 
brevete, chartered Mratlt. 
broker dellal, simsar. 
brokerage dcllaliye, stmsariye. _ 
budget irad masraf defteri, biidje. 
bulletin jedvel, pousonla. ^ 
bureau qaUm, idarekhane. 
business oumour, ish. 
buy satin almaq, ishtira. 
buyer mushteri, aliji. 
Capital sirmaye, resulmal. 
cargo hamoule, yuk- 
cash para; in - ptehin, naqddn. 
certificate ilmoukhaber , she'hadet- 

change Ubdil, bozma. 
charter berat, imtiyaz. 
chattel emvali mSnqmM. 

Commercial Terms IstilahaU Tujjariye. 


check chek; coin sikke, para. 
commerce tijaret, akhzouita. 
commer emit ujjari; -law canonou 

commission qomisiyon; -er qo- 

misiyonjou, -tujjar. 
company qoumpanya, shirket. 
consols qonsolid, e'sham. 
contract mouqavele, qontourato. 
copy qopya, naskhe. 
correspondence moukhabere; 

-dant moukhabir, ad em. 
course of exchange piatsa. 
credit qredito, itibar; matloub; 

on - veresiye. 
creditor alajaqli, day in. 
currency rayij aqje, para. 
custom g eb mruk,rousoum;- house 

geomriik, rousoumat dayiresi. 
customer mushier i, bayi. 
Damage zarar, ziyan, khasar. 
day 8 of grace musaade, m unlet. 
dear bahali, fiyatll. 
debt deyn, borj. 
debit zimmet, duyounat; (to) 

zimmet qayd et." 
debtor medyoun, borjlou. 
deduction tenzil, tarh'. 
deficiency acMq. 
delay teekhir; without - bila 

teekhir, seriyan. 
demurrage istalya. 
deposit emanet, deposito. 
destination mahalli maqsoud. 
discount isqonto. tenzil. 
dissatisfaction khoshnoudsouz- 

dissolution feskh, laghv. 
dividend hisseyitemettu, kiardan 

dushen hisse. 
double chifte; -entry muzaaf. 
draft qambiyal, politsa. 
draw a bill (to) politsa chekmek, 

-back geTjmruk resminin iya- 

drawer keshideji. 
due tiidiyesi lazlm gelen. 
duplicate nuskheyi saniye. 
Endorsement jiro, havale. 
error sehv , khata, yanelsh. 
exchange ejnebi piatsasi, - polit- 

sasi; mubadele, trampa. 

exports ikhrajat. 

Factor qomisiyonjou. 

fair panayir. 

final qati, son. 

firm tijaretkhane. 

foreign ejnebi. 

forestaller madrabaz, muhtekir. 

freight hamoule, yuk; (to) gemi 
yukletmek, tahmil it." 

fund meblagh, aqje; sermaye, 

Gain kiar, qazanj, temettu; net- 
safi temettu, safi kiar. 

goods esh-ya, mat. 

guaranty kefalet, kefil. 

Honour (politsayi) qaboul et." 

Import(ation) idkhalat. 

imputable tenzili lazlm gelen. 

indemnity tazminai. 

indorsement jiro, havale. 

indorser jiranta, jiro eden. 

insurance sigourta, teeminat. 

insured sigourtali. 

interest fayiz, guzeshte. 

inventory mufredat defteri. 

invoice fatoura, qayime. 

Letter tahrirat, mektoub. 

liability zimmet, borj. 

licence roukhsat, behiye. 

loss zarar, ziyan. 

Maker medyoun, keshideji. 

mark marqa, alamet. 

market charshi, piyatsa. 

maturity vadinin ikmali. 

memorandum hisab pousoulasi. 

merchandise mal, emta'a. 

merchant tujjar, tajir. 

money aqje, naqid. 

monopoly inhisar. 

mortgage rehin, vcfa. 

Negotiable gecher, rayij. 

net safi; isqontosouz. 

Offer satligha chiqarilan mal. 

office idarekhane, oda. 

order emr, siparish. 

Package paket. 

partner sherik, ortaq; -ship shir- 
ket, ortaqliq. 

patent berat, imtiyaz. 

pattern mostra, eJbrnek. 

pawn, pledge rehin. 

payable teediyesi meshrout olan. 



The Official Part. 


payee aliji, hamil. 
payment teediye, ida. [qoule. 
personal property emvaVi men- 
post posta, - vaporou; - office 

postahani; - order manda. 
power of attorney vikialetname. 
price fiyat, qtymet, baha; -current 

fiyati jari, rayij. 
principal sermaye. 
protest protisto. 
Quality niv, jins. 
Real estate imvali ga yri menqouli, 

mal miilk. 
ratification tasdiq. 
receipt ilmonhaber, maqbouz; on- 

ba ilmouhaber. 
reference bir tijarithhani haq- 

qinda verilen malumat, sheha- 

reimbursement tislim, teediye. 
rent ijar, kira. 
responsible mi soul. 
responsibility misouliyet. 
retail pirakende satish. 
return avdet, iyadi. 
Sale satish, sarftyat, suriim. 
sell satmaq, firoukht etmik. 
seller bayi, satiji. 

satisfaction mimnouniyet. 

security kefil, kefalet. 

S. G. D. 6. (sans garanti du 

gouvernment) hiikitmetin te- 

eminati olmaqsizin. 
ship gemi, sifini; -ment tahmil, 

yuklime; (to) tahmil it." yuk- 

simple safi; adi. 
sign imzalamaq. 
signature imza. 
smuggled qachaq {mal, tutun). 
solid mutebir, qavee. 
stamp: postage- iwsta poulou; 

revenue- damga poulou, sened 

stock hissi, hissi sinidi. 
superior ala, aghir {mal). 
Titledeed tapou sinidi. 
trade mark alamiti fariqa. 
trustee vasi, mutevelli. 
Ultimo mahl sabiq, gichen ay. 
usury tefejilik. 
Warehouse maghaza. 
warranty kifalit. 
weigh tartmaq, vizn it." 
weight aghirltq, siqlet. 
wholesale topdan satish. 





Abandon (to) braqmaq, a.terk et." 
abate (to) ashaghl varmaq, cln- 

qarmaq, a. te'nzil St." 
ability a. qabiliyet, iqtidar ; qou- 

able a. qadir, mitqtedir. 
ablution p. abdest. 
abode ev, p. khane. a. mesken. 
abolish (to) a. laghv, mahv, im- 

ha St." 
abominable p. napak, mourdar. 
about a. dayir; taqriben. 
above yoqari, yoqarda; iistim. 
absence a. ghayboubet; fiqdan, 

absent a. ghayib, namevjoud. 
absolute a. moutlaq. mustaqil. 
absolutely a. qatiyan, kulliyen, 

abstain (to) a. ijtinab et", p. per- 
liiz St.", perliiz toutmaq. 
abstinence a. ijtinab, p. perliiz 

kiarliq; a. imsak, orouj. 
abundant bol, choq, a. kesir. 
abuse (to) a. ifsad et", bozmaq. 
abyss a. varta, liijje, q'ar. 
academy p. ewjumSni danish, 

f. aqademiya ; a. mektebi ali. 
accept a. qaboid, akhz et." , ah 

maq, a. razee olma<[. 
access a. te'qarroub, a. doukhoul. 
accident a. qaza, vouqouat, hadise. 
acclivity yoqoush, bay'ir. 
accompany a. rifaqat, arqadash- 

Uq et." 
accord (to) a. ittifaq et"; ve'rmtk. 
according (to) . . . a gebre, binae'n, 

account a. hisab, moicamele. 
accumulate (to) birikdirmek, a.jem 
■ &."; yighmaq, toplamaq. 

Turkish Conv.-Grammar. 

accurate doghrou, p. durust, 

a. sahih'. 
accusation a. shikiayet, ittiham. 
ache agliri, a. ve'fa. 
acid ekshi; a. hamiz. 
acknowledge a. iqrar, iHiraf; 

ianimaq; a. tasdiq etmSk. 
acorn palamout. 
acquire (to) tahsil et." ; ebyre'n- 

across tarafindan ; arqtri. 
act (to) a. harekSt et"; etmek, yap- 

act ; action ish,'il; p.jeng. 
active ishguzar; (verb) a. fiili 

actually a. filhaqiqa, sahihe'n; 

(now) shimdi. 
acute sivri, keskin : z.fetin, (angle) 

a. zaviyeyi hadde. 
adamant polad. 
adapt (to) ouydonrmaq, a.mouva- 

fiq qilmaq. 
add(to) qatmaq, a. zamm,ilaviet." 
adder engerek yilani. 
addition Hlave; (arith.) je'm'. 
adieu! a. eyiaUali, Allaha ismar- 

ladlq, f. adiyo. 
adjective a. sifet, vasf. 
administer a. idare etmek; ve'rmek. 
admiral amiral, bahriyemushiri. 
admire to)bSyenmek, a.tahsinSt." 
admit (to) a. qaboul et." 
adore (to) tapinmaq, p. peres- 

tish et." 
adult beoyuk, aqla baligh. 
adultery a. zina, fah'shiyat. 
advantage a. fayide, kiar, isti- 

adversary a. khasim, 'adoit, 

p. diishme'n. 



djtUJ Vocabulary Loughet-che. 


advice a. nasihat; khaber. 
advocate, f. avoqat, dava vekili. 
- (to) si.iltizam, istis-hab,tervij et." 
affair ish, a. maslahat; p. jeng. 
affection a. mouhabbet,houbb ; Met. 
affiance (to) a. aqdl nikiah et." 
affray ghavgha, a. nis'a. 
affront a. tahqir, haqaret et.'\ 

t. gujendirmek. 
aforesaid a. salif iz zikr, mezkiir. 
afraid (to be) qorqmaq, a. khafv 

after sonra, a. badehou, badema. 
afternoon ikindi, a. badez zeval. 
again bir daha, a.tekrar, tekraren. 
age gash, a. sinn; a. asr, dew, 

agent a. vekil, adem, f. agenta. 
agitator a. mouharrik, miifsid. 
agony a. iztirab; haletun nez\ 
agree a. qavl, ittifaq et." , razi 61." 
agriculture a. zira'at, renjberlik. 
ague sitma. 

ah! akh!, aman! vakh. 
aid yardim, a. mouavenet, imdad. 
aim (to take) p. nishan almaq. 
air a. liava, havayi nesimi. 
alarm qorqou, a. iztirab, heyejan. 
alas! eyvah! yazlq! 
alderman a.ayan, sahibinoufous. 
algebra a. ilmi jebr, jebr. 
alien a. ejnebi, t. yadirghl. 
alike a. mushabih, benzer. 
alive din, sa^/i, a. hayy' . 
all 7iep, a. jtimle, jemi, kiilli. 
alleviate (to) a. takliftf et." 
alley dar soqaq, chiqmaz. 
alliance a. ittifaq, ittihad. 
allow a. izin, roukhsat ve'rmek. 
allowance a. tayin, tayinat. 
almanac a. taqvim, p. salname. 
almond badem. 
almost heman, az qaldi. 
alms a. sadaqa, eeyane, zekiat. 
alone p. tenha; yallnlz. 
aloud pek, p. avazi bulend He. 
alphabet elifbe, a. houroufou heja. 
already a. zaten; p. henouz. 
also da, dakhi, a. kezalik. 
altar a. mezbah. 
alter (to) a. taghyir, tebdil et"' 

t. deyislidirmek. 

although her neqadar, p. eyerchi. 
altitude yukseklik, a. irtifa. 
altogether &. jumleten, temamen. 
alum shab, sheb. 
always a. dayima, p. hemishe. 
ambassador p. elchi, a. sefir. 
amber p. kehruba, kehribar. 
ambergris a. 'anber, amber. 
ambition a. hirsl shan, iqbal pe~ 

amble (to) rahvan, eshkin, yorgha 

gitmek. [giali. 

ambuscade t. pousou, p. kemin- 
amiable a. latif, p. khosh, t. tatll. 
ammunition p. jebhane. 
amount a. yekim; meblagh. 
ample bol, joshgoim, a. kesir. 
amulet a. nouskha, tillstm, hama- 
amuse (to) eylendirmek. [yil. 
ancestor a.jedd; (pi.) aba on ejdad. 
anchor demir, lenger. 
anchovy sardela, sardalya. 
ancient a. qadim, t. eski. 
ankle topouq, a. kicib. 
anecdote a. hikiaye, latif e, qlsse. 
angel a. melek, melayike. 
anger a. hiddet, khirs, t. eofke. 
angle a. zaviye, p. keoshe. 
angry darghin, p. ghazabndk.. 
animal a. hayvan. 
annals a. tarikh, (pi.) tevarikh. 
annoy (to) a. tajiz et.", osandir- 
annual yilliq, a. senevi. [maq. 
answer a. jevab, p. pasoukh. 
ant qarinja, p. mourche. 
antagonist a. moukhasim, raqib. 
antelope jeyran, jcylan, p. ahou~ 
antichrist a. dejjal. 
anvil ebrs, sal. 
anxiety p. endishe, a. vesvese. 
ape maymoun, p. kebi. 
apology eozur; a. tarziye; miida- 
apoplexy damla, a, nilzul. [fa'a. 
apostate a. miirtidd viilg.mourtad. 
apostle a. resoul, havari (of 

Christ). [miydanda. 

apparent a. zahir, p. ashikutr, 
appeal a. khitab; mttnajat. 
appear (to) georunmek; a. zahir, 

p. niimayan 61." 
appearance georiiniish, a. souret, 

shekl; zouhour. 


<3^J Vocabulary Loughe't-cht'. 


appendix a. 'Have, zamimi. 
appetite a. ishtiha, vulg. ishtdh. 

apple elma, v of eye #eo.r bebeyi. 
appoint to a. nasb. tayin et." 
apprentice oushaq. p. shayird. 
apricot v dry zerdcdi, (fresh) qa- 

apron p. peshtimal, fota. 
Arabian, -bic arabi, arabja. 
arch keme'r, p. taq. 
archbishop mitropolit. arachnort. 
archer p. kemanke'sh, tire'ndaz. 
architect a. mimar, qalfa, p. ousta. 
aright doghrou, a. salim. sahih. 
arithmetic a. ilmi liisab. 
arm qoJ, p. bazou; a. silah. 
army ordou, p. leshker. 
arrange a. tertib it., t. dizmek. 
arrival gcjlish, a. uiiriid, vusiil. 
arsenal f. tersane. 
art a. fenn, pi. fiinun, sanaat. 
artery shah damar, a. sheryan. 
artichoke enginar, gangar. 
artificer a. tsnaf, ehli sana'at. 
artificial yapma, a. soun'i: taqlid. 
artillery toplar, topjou e'slihasi. 
ascend a. sou'oud et.", chiqmaq. 
ascertain a. tahqiqet." ' : yoqiamaq. 
ashamed to be, outanmaq, a. hi- 

jab et." 
ashes kill, p. re mad. 
ask sormaq. a. istifsar. sival it." 
ass eshek, p. frftrtr, a. me'rkeb. 
assassin qanli, a. ^nM. p. klioun- 

assist yardim, a. moiCavenet, iani. 
assuredly a.fdhaqlqa. haqiqaUn. 
astray yoldan sapmish. gumrah. 
astrologer a. mun>'jjim, t. be 
astronomy ilmi hiy't. 
atom a. z>'rr<'. jevhSr; juz. 
atone a. kefav't it" 
atrocity a. zidm, mSzdlim. 
attack a. hujum, hamh'. it." 

attempt (to) chalishmaq, a. i>\)rih' 
attend, upon' a. kluztiv't H"; (to) 

a. haz'ir ol." 
attention a. diqqat : khass dour! 
attract a. jizb H." , chekmek. 
auction a. m>'zad. muzaySde. 
augment artirmaq, a. teksir >'t." 
August (month) avosdos, okosdos. 

aunt paternal) a. aternaf 

teyze, a. hala. 
Austrian n£mche\ nemts 
author muellif, muharrir. 
auxiliary yardimji; (verb" a. fiyli 
iyane\ fiyli 'amm § 272, 309 . 
avenge a. t. intiqam almacp 
avenue a. jadde. 
await be'kle'mek, a. mountazir ol." 
awake ouyanmaq. 
awe qorqou. a. dShshet, heybet. 
axe bait a, girebi. 
axis a. mihv'r. 
axle diny'd. 

azure lajiverd. aehiq mart, geov. 
Baby bebek, chojouq, cha.gha. 
bachelor 6rg6n, a. azab, b^Tur. 
back arqa, strt. a. vera. 
backgammon taidou. 
bacon donouz pasdirmast. 
bad a. fena, p. bed, t. kebtu. 
bag a. kese, chouval: khourj, he" 
baggage jj>rl pirti, pirti, a. >'shya. 
bail a. ke'fil. bait yem. 
bake pisJiirmek, a. tabkh >'t." 
baker f'kme'kji, fourounjou. 
balance a. t> : razi, p. mizan. 
balcony f. balcon. p. shahnisliin. 
bald daz basJtl't, daz, p. k>'l. 
ball top, guW : qpurshoun; f. 6a7o. 
balloon f. balon. 
ballot a. cqour'a. 

band bagh, p. fremZ; taqim: 
bandage sarghi. [f. banda. 

bank sou kenari, jtyi; a. ?<'d(/; 

f. banka. 
banker a. sarraf, f. banker. 
bankrupt a. mujlis. meblduz. 
banner bayraq, a. a/<'m. 
banquet a. ziyaf*'t. 
baptism f. vaftiz, a. ta'inid. 
bar choubouq. s>r>q. 
barbarian a. vali'shi, yabani. 
barber b< : rb<'r. 

bare chiblaq. a. uryan. t. «c//^- 
barefooted yafiti ay«5- P- berhhii 
bargain pazarltq. _P a !l- 

barge wai'OM>?a; mayit vaporou. 
bark «r/7mj qaboughon; of dog) 

iiriimt'k, havlamacq. 
barley arpa. a. shayir. 
barn a. p. anbar, ambar. 



<wsp£»! Vocabulary Lougliet-che. 


barometer a. mizan id hava, 

f. barometro. 
barracks qishla. 
barrel ficlu, f. varel, varil. 
barrow el ar abash 
barter trampa, deyish toqoush. 
base alchaq. a.e'dna, deni, p.klwr; 

(foundation) daban, a. e'sas; 

f. baso {ses). 
bashful outanjaq, a. mahjoub. 
basin p. leyen; a. kiase, clianaq. 
basket seped, a. zenbil. 
bastinado dayaq, a. falaqa. 
bastion a. ta'biye, toby a. 
bat chomaq; yarase, ge'je qoushou. 
bath a. ham' mam, s'tjaq. 
battalion tabour. [gliavgha. 

battle a. mouharebe, p. jeng, 
bay (gulf) kebrfez, (colour) doron. 
bayonet siingii, p. nize. 
beacon a. minare, p. nishan. 
beam kirish; (of sun) p. pt'rtev. 
bean a. baqla; f. fasoulya. 
bear ayl; (to) dayanmaq, gebtur- 

mek, a. tehammul it." 
beard saoaZ, p. Wsh. 
bearer a. hamil. 
beast a. hay van; p. janver. 
beat debymek; bozmaq. 
beautiful guzel, p. dilber. 
beaver qoundouz. 
bed yataq, debsheg. 
bee cm, a. zenbour. 
beef s'ighir eti. 
beet root pan jar, chiikunclur. 
beggar dilenji, a. sa?/iZ. 
begin bashlamaq, a. iptidar et." 
behead bashini kesmek, a. gat?, 
behold! zs7*te', na&/, wa/ 
believe (to) inanmaq, iman et." 
bell (small) chingirdaq; (large) 

c7*a/l, qampana; (of a time- 
bellows kebriik. [piece) gtf. 
belly qarhi, a. frata, bathi. 
beloved a. mahboub, mashouq; 

(fern.) a. mashouqa, mahboube. 
belt fa'mer, qay'ish. 
bend eymek, eyilmek. 
benediction bereke't doivash 
benefactor effendi, a. vili niymet. 
bereave (to) a. mahroum et." 
berry p. danS, a. habbe. 

beseech yalvarmaq; a. istid'a, reja 

besides, -dan ma'da, -dan bashqa. 
besiege a. mouhasere et." 
better eyi, dalia eyi, p. bih'ter. 
bible a. kitabi mouqaddes. 
big beoyuk, an, qojaman. 
bile safra, edd: a. ghazab. 
bill a. hisab, f. pousoula ; a. se'ned. 
billet f. pousoula, bilet. 
bind baghlamaq, p. &&>icZ e£." 
bird qoush, p. murgh. 
biscuit f. beksimet, gale'ta, gevrek. 
bishop f. episcopos, merkhasa. 
bit a., juz, ip.parcha; tx.loqma. 
bite (to) mrmaq, dishlemek. 
bitter a;X — ness ajil'tq. 
black gara, p. siyah, a. e'srec?. 
blacksmith demirji, p. alienge'r. 
bladder a. mesane. 
bleed (to) qanamaq; qan almaq. 
bless (to) mubareklemek, &.t. bere- 
ke't oqoumaq. 
blessing a. khayr doua, bereke't. 
blind p. fceor, a. a'ma. 
blood qan, p. elm. — money 

a. diyet. — thirsty p. khounriz. 
blossom chichek, p. ghonche. 
blow (to) (wind) esmek; (mouth) 

u fie 'mek. 
blow a. darbe, vouroush. 
blue (light) mem, geov; (deep) 

blunt fceor, ke'smez. 
board tahta; a. mejlisi idare. 
boat qaifiq, i. filiqa, sandal, 
body geovde, a. vujiid, beden, p. few. 
boil (to) qaynamaq, qaynatmaq; 

pishirmek, hashlamaq. 
boiled souda pishmish, hashlan- 

mish; qaynar (sou)- 
bold a. jesour, p. dilaver. 
bolster yasdiq, yuz yasd'iglu. 
bolt suvnie, surgu. 
bombshell f. qoumbara. 
bone knnik. book a. kitab. 
boot chizme. border p. kenar. 
bore (of a gun) chap; (to) delme'k. 
borrow (to) eddunj almaq, a. isit- 

gra2 e£." 
bosom gebkiis, p. Sine; qoyoun. 
bottle shishe; bottom dib. 



Vocabulary Loughe't-che. 


bountiful bol, a. t. bereketli. 

bow (to) bashe'ymek, a. inqhjadet." 

bow yay . a. temenna, selam. 

bowels baghtrsaq. 

bowl a. tas, kiase; We; f. qavata. 

bowstring kirish, p. zift. 

box [chest) sandtq; (desk) c7*efc- 

w^V, small) qoutou; on the 

ear) si77r ; toqat; (tree) shimshir. 
boy oyhlan, chojouq. 
brace pair) cAtft; braces) asyhl. 
brain biyin^ biyn. 
bran kepek. branch (7a7. 
brandy rag?, brass pirinj. 
brave yigit, a.jcsour, f.pehlivan. 
bread ekmek, f. pid>'. 
breakfast qahvaltt. maq. 

break qi.rmaq, a. kisr it"; qjril- 
breast geokus: mime. 
breath nifis, solouq; a.teneffusit.'' 
bribe a. rishvit; (to) rishvit ver- 
brick toughla. kirnnid. [mek. 
bride gilin, a. arous. 
bridegroom guviyi, damad. 
bridge keoprii. bridle bashliq. 
brigade lira, brigadier miri liva. 
bright parlaq, p. roushen. 
brilliant pirlanti; parlaq. 
brimstone p. kukurt. 
bring v to) gitirmik. 
broad ''nil; ginish. 
brook chay, sou. broth et souyou. 
brother qardasli, p. biradir. 
bronze touj. brush fircha. 
buck giyik. bucket qova. 
buffalo a. famous, manda. 
bug tahta biti; beojek. 
build (to) a. bina et.", yapmaq. 
building a. bina; n.tamir. 
bull bougha. bullock tosoun. 
bullet qourshoun. 
bunch salqlm; demit, p. disti. 
burden yiik, p. bar, a. hamouti. 
burial a. jinazi alay>. difn, 
buried difn olounmoush, a. mid- 

burn (to) yaqmaq, a. ihraq >'t."; 

t. yanmaq. 
buming-glasap. perth'souz,kJwur- 

burst (to) patlamaq; patlatmaq. 
bury a. difn it." gebmm>'k. 

bush chaVt, ehaUttq. [sab. 

busy a. mesh ghoul, butcher a. gas- 
butter tire yaghi, kiri yaghi, 

p. ke're ; (clarified) saghl yaghi 

vulg. say yaghi. 
button duyme, f. qobja. 
buy [to) satin almaq,a.ishtiraet." 
buyer a. mushteri, a. bayi. 
buzz vidamaq. viz-viz itmik. 
Cabbage lahana, kel^m. 
cabin v in ship) f. qamara. 
cage cafes, cake qourabiye. 
calamity a. afe't, mousibet; bila, 
calculate a. hisab et." ' qaza. 
calendar a. taqvim, p. salname. 
calf dana. calico chit, basma. 
call cliaghirmaq; a. te'smiye et" 
calm a. asoude ; (weather) a.mula- 
calumny iftira, buhtan. yim. 
camel de've, a. jemel, p. ushtur. 
camp ordou. candle mourn. 
cane garnish; deynek. 
cannon top. canvass yeTken bizi. 
cap fes, p. kulah. f. kip. 
capital p. paytakht; (money ser- 

captain army; a. sabit; navy) 

p. suvari, f. qaptan. 
captive a. e'sir vulg. y is' sir. 
caravan p. kenan, a. qafUi. 
carcass Jesh, p. lashi. 
card a. mouqava; f. kart. 
carder (of cotton) a. hallaj. 
caress oqshamaq, taltif et." 
cargo yuk, a. hamouh'. 
carnal a. jismani, nefsani. 
carpenter (house" durgcr: ''joiner) 

doghramaj't ; ship's maranqoz. 
carpet halt, khali, kilim;'jjade 

carriage araba. 

carrier isheTcji, qatirji ; a. hammal. 
carrot havouj, a. keshour. 
carry tashimaq, gebtiirmek. 
cart araba, qafdi, qanni. 
cascade chagldayan, a. she I ale. 
case sandiq. cash a. naqd. 
cask fichi. cast (to) atmaq. 
castle a. qala' . cat kidi. 
catch (to) toutmaq. catgut kirish. 
catholicos qatoghigos. 
cattle a. hayvanat. davar, sighlr. 



Vocabulary Loughet-cM. 


cauliflower qarnabit. \yiri. 

causal (verb) a. mideaddiyi tas- 

cause a. sebeb,moujib,bayis, badi. 

cavalry atli, p. suvari. 

cavern magJiara, in, a. ghar. 

ceiling tavan; celery h'reviz. 

cell a. hujri. centre a. merkez, orta. 

cement toutqal, zamq; alchi. 

certain a. mouhaqqaq, a.t.shubhe- 

chafl saman. chain zenjir. [siz. 

chair sandalya. chalk tebesliir. 

challenge me y dan oqoumaq. 

chamber oda; (of mine) a. khazinr. 

change deyislimek; deyishdirmek. 

channel sou yolou, a. mejra. 

chapel SL.p.ibadetkluute, a.mabed. 

character a. sty ret (moral); (writ- 
ten) yazl, a. kliatt; (quality) 
a. keyfiyet. 

charcoal kebmur. \guzar. 

charge d'affaires a. p. maslahat- 

charity a. khayrat, sadaqa. 

charming a. latif, p. dilber, 
t. giizel. 

cheap oujouz. cheek yanaq. 

cheat aldatmaq, doland'irmaq. 

cheerful \>.shen,shenshoukli,keyfli. 

cheese peynir. chess p. satranj. 

chemise qadin geomleyi, a. qamis. 

cherry kirazj (morella) vishne. 

chestnut kestane. chew cliiynemek. 

chicken pilij. child chojouq. 

chief basli, sergerde, slieykh. 

chimney ojaq, baja ; lamba jami. 

chin chine, chip yonga. 

chisel qah'm. cholera qolera. 

choice a. iklitigar, yidi ikhtiyar. 

chop (cut) kesmek ; (mince) qhjmaq. 

Christ Hazreti Isa, Kristos. 

Christian khristiyan; isavee, mi- 
sihi: mumin, dindar. 

church f. kilise. 

cigar sigara; (-case) tabaqa. 

cinnamon tarchin. circle a. dayire. 

circular youxarlaq, a. mudevrer. 

circulate debnmck, a. deveran et." 

circumcise (to) sunnit, khatn et." 

circumstance a. hal, keyfiyet. 

city p. shehir, shihr. 

civil a. nazik, zarif. tirbiyili. 

civilisation a. midiniyet, U'med- 

class a. sintf. clean a. t. temiz. 
clear temiz; a.berraq; t. achiq. 
clergyman a. rouhani, rotihban 

girouhou. (Moslem) oulema. 
clerk a. kicttib, t. yaziji, p. mirza. 
climate p. ab ou hava, a. iqlim. 
cloak qapoud, aba; clock a. sa'at. 
close qapali; yaqin. 
cloth beg; chouha. cloud boidout. 
clover yonja. coal kebmur. 
coarse qaba, qalin. bayaglu. 
coast qiyl, yali, p. kenar, a. sahil. 
coat f. setri, siirtouqo. 
cobbler eskiji, paboujjou. 
cobweb eoriimjek aghi. 
cock klioroz; mouslouq. 
coffee f. qalive. coffin a. tabout. 
coin a. sikke; (pi.) me'skukiat. 
cold sovouq; a. necazil. 
colic sanji ; collar yaqa. 
collect (to) toplamaq, jem etmik. 
collection a. mijmou'a. 
college a. medrese, mektebi ali. 
colonel a. t. miralay. 
colour p. ring, colt tay, si pa. 
comb taraq, p. shane. [p. jeng. 
combat a. mouharebe, yhavgJia. 
come gelmek, a. vastl olmaq. 
comet qouyroiiqlou-yildiz. 
commend a. emr,emir;f. qomanda. 
commence baslilamaq, a. ibtidar 
commentary a. tefsir, sherli ' . [it." 
commerce a. tijaret, akhzou ita. 
common 'oamoumi,amm; (-people) 

avamm, avam'ml nas, ehali. 
communion a. unsiyit; (Holy-) 

community a. je'maat; millet. 
companion arqadash, a. slierik. 
company a.rufeqa, arqadaslilar. 
compare a. mouqabele, tatbiq et." 
compass f. pousoula ; (pi.) -per gel. 
compatriot p. liemslu'hri. 
complain a. shikfai/rt, ishtikia >'t. 
complete a. tikmil, tamm, kiamil. 
compose a. tertib, tasnif et." 
composition a. meqale. 
comrade arqadash, a. refiq. 
condition a.hal; shart, shourout, 

slier ay it. 
conduct a. harikit; tavrou hari- 
conndence a. itimad, huniyii. [kit. 


As^Ui Vocabulary Loughet-che'. 


congratulate'brik it." 
conquer (to) zabt, fit-It it." 
consent a. razi olmaq, qaboul it." 
consider duslxumnik, a. mutala'a 
consist (to) a. ibarit olmaq. [et." 
console v to) a. tisilli et." 
consul f. qonsolos, p. shihbindir. 
consulate f. p. consoloskliani. 

p. shihbindirkhani. 
contain almaq, a. mfriitivi ol." 
content a. razi, p. hosluwud. 
contraband qachaq, yasaq. 
contrary a. khilaf, zhld. 
controversy a. mubahasd, bahs. 
convenient a. munasib. 
convent f. manastir. 
convert a. muhtedi. 
cook ashji; (to) pisliirmik. 
cool serin, cooper ficlvj>. 
copper baqir; qazan. 
copy a. sou ret, ayn. 
coral merjan. cord ip. 
cork mantar. corn a. z akh ire. 
corner p. kebshi. t. boujaq. 
corporal onbashi. it." 

correct doghroidtmaq, a. tas-hih 
correspondence miktoublashma, 

a. moukhabiri. 
correspondent a. moukhabir. 
corrupt bozouq, ehuridc. 
corsair qoursan. — </<'))>isi. 
cottage f. a. cqoulibi, tounjik. 
cotton pamouq. 
cough ebksuruk ; ebksurmik. 
council a. mijlis, shoura. 
counsel a. nasihat : — vermik. 
count saymaq, ta'dad itmik. 
counter p. j)ishtahta. 
counterfeit p. sakhti. a. qalb. 
country a. mimlikit, p. eblki : keby. 
couple chift. 

courage yigitlik. a. jisarit. 
courier tatar. p. chapar. 
courtyard bavl'i, havlou. 
cover eortii ; ebrtuo'k. 
coverlet yorghan. 
cow ine'k. coward ^or^a^. 
cream qaymaq. sud yuzii. 
creation khilqati 'alem. 
credit a. itibar ; alajaq. 
creditor cdajaqli, a. dayin. 
crescent yarim ay. a. hilal. 

crime a. jinayet. crier a. dillal. 
criminal a. jam. cripple cholaq. 
crooked e'yri, qambour. 
cross p. hach. khach, a. salib. 
crown a. taj ; (of head) dipi. 
cruel a. zalim. mirhamitsiz. 
crumb ekmek ichi, ekmek oufan- 


crust qabouq. 

cry (to) baghirmaq, agldamaq. 
crystal a. billor, billour. 
cucumber khiyar. cudgel sopa. 
cup fmjan; — board dolab. 
cure shifa vermik, iyilitmd:. 
curiosity a. me'raq; a. tohapyi. 
currants fring iizumu. 
curse a. lanit, vulg. nallit. 
curtain p.perde*. cushion yasdiq. 
custom a. adit; (tax) rismi gebm- 

ruk, resm (pi. rousoutn). 
customer mushier i. 
customhouse gebmruk dayirisi. 
cut kismik, a. qat e'tme'k. 
cypress p. serv. s>'lvi. 
Dagger a. kltanclter, qama. 
daily yunluk, a. yeSomi. 
damage saqatYiq, a. zarar, ziyan. 
damp p. it<m, nimnak. 
dance a. raqs it.", t. hora tipmik. 
danger a. tihliki, moukhatara. 
dark qaranliq, a. zoidmit. 
darling a. maliboubi, mahboub. 
date a. tarikh; (fruit) khourma. 
dated a. tarikhli, muvirrakli '. 
daughter qiz, p. dukhtir, a. bint. 
dawn chinsabah, a. shafaq. fejr. 
day a. yivm. t. gun, p. rouz. 
deacon a. slxemmas, f. saryaxak, 

dead eblu. p. murdi, jansiz. 
deaf saglur, ishitmi:. 
dear bahali. p. giranbaha ; a. aziz 

loved). My-, azizim. 
death eblum, a. mivt. mimat. 
debt borj. a. diyn (pl.dttyouft, -af\ 
debtor borjlou, a. midyoun. 
deceitful aldadij'/, p. hiyliktar. 
deceive (to) aldatmaq. 
decide (to qarur vcrmel:, qarar- 

deck f. gcov'rt>'. It. cuverta. 


A^tliJ Vocabulary Loughet-che. 


declare a. i'lan el", neshr it." 
decline a. zeoal. 
decree p. ferman; a. fetva. 
dedicate (to) taqdis, a. takhsis et." 
deep derin; qoyou (colour), 
deer geyik, qaraja. [mek. 

defeat (to) ylnmek, a. ghalib gil- 
defence a. mouhafaza, mudafa'a. 
defendant a. mitd'dayi aleyhi. 
deficient eksik, a. noqsan. 
deformed bicJnmsiz, bodour. 
degree a. dereje. 
deign a. ke'rem, loutf et." 
delay (to) a. tevaqqouf, teekhir et." 
delicate a. nazik, t. inje. 
delicious a. leziz, Uzzetli. 
delight sevinj, a. sftrour. 
deliver (to) qourtartnaq, a. khelas 
deluge a. toufan. [et." 

demand a. istid'a, dava. 
demolish yenmek, bozmaq. 
den in, a. maghara. 
deny a. inkuir et." 
depart (to) ayr'tlmaq, p. re'van ol." 
depend a. tabi ol.", baqmaq. 
deprive a. mahroum etmek. 
depth deririlik, a. oumq. 
deputy a. vekil, nayib. 
derision a. istihza, zevqle'nme. 
derogatory yaqlshmaz. 
descend enmek, a. nazil ol." 
describe a. tar if etmek. 
desert cheol, beyaban; (to) qach- 

maq, a. firar et." , terk et." 
design a. niyet, meram. 
despair itmidsizlik, a. yes, fdtnr. 
destiny a. qade'r, qhmet. 
detach ayirmaq. 
devil a. she y tan, iblis. 
devote (to) takhsis et." 
dew chili , p. shebnem. 
diamond elmas. 
diarrhoea a. is-hcd. 
diary a. t. mukhtire defteri. 
dice tavlou zari, zar. 
dictionary loughet kltabi. 
die (to) eolmek, vefat et." 
difference a. farq, ikhtilaf. 
different farqli, bashqa. 
difficult guj, a. m/'ishkil. 
dig (to) qazmaq, a. hafr H." 
digest (to) a. hazm et", sindirmek. 

dignity p. shan, a. mansib, izzet. 
dike sedd, sed, khc'ndek. 
diligent chalishqan, a. ghayour. 
dine (to) ye mek yemek, a. ta'am et." 
dinner yemek, a. ta-am. 
dirt Mr, mourdarliq. 
disabled a. saqat. [khosh. 

disagreeable p. namaqboul, na- 
disappear (to) georunmez ol." 
disappoint (to) aldatmaq. 
discharge (to) boshalhnaq. 
discipline a. teedib, inzibat. 
disease hastaUq, p. derd, a. Met* 
disgrace a. rezalet. 
disgust (to) a. nefret etmek. 
dish tabaq: qab; yemek. 
dishonest a. murtekib, t. khirsiz. 
disorder qarishiqliq. 
disperse (to) daghUmaq. 
distance ouzaqliq, a. me'safe. 
distant ouzaq, iraq. 
distinguish a. tefriq et." 
ditch p. hendek, khande'k. 
divide (to) beolmek, taqsim et." 
divine a. ilalii, reb'bani. 
do (to) etmek, a. ijra et" (p. 128). 
doctor a. hekim, tabib. 
dogma a. aqidL p. aqayid. 
doll bebek, qouqla. 
door qapou, qapi, a. bob. 
dormitory qovoush, f. ninjaran. 
double iki qat: cliifte. 
doubt a. shub'he; sluibhe et." 
doubtful shiibheli; -less shfib- 

dough a. hamour, hamir. 
downy tfiijlu, havli. 
dragon azhderha; atli. 
drain laghim, geriz. 
draughts (game) dama. 
drawers ich donou; chekmeje. 
draw (to) chekmek; a. resm et." 
drawing-room, musafi'' odasi. 
dream a. roaya, t. dush. 
dress f. rouba, t. nstbash. 
drink ichmek. 
drop damla; damlamaq. 
dropsy a. istisqa, vulg. sisqa. 
drown (to) boghmaq; boghoulmaq. 
drum davoid. 
drunk p. serlwsh, serkhosh. 
dry qourou, a. yabis. 


*£^] Vocabulary Loughet-che. 


duck ebrdek. dumb dilsiz. 

dung gubre, f'tshqi. 

dungeon p. zindan. 

dust io^r. 

Dutch fiUmenk. 

duty vazife, kluzmet. 

dwarf /tf/V; hodour. 

dye ?>0f/«; boyamaq. 

dynasty a. si'rfale, p. khane'dan. 

dysentery ^an//' is-hal. 

Each ft/r &«?*, p. bSh&r. 

ear qoulaq, a. ften. 

earn qazanmaq. a. fc&6 efc." 

earth topraq; a. dinvja. 

earthquake a. zvl:>'b', xx\\g.zer:>'b'. 

ease a. rah at ; qolaijliq. 

east gundoghou, a. sharq. 

Easter f. pasqalya. 

easy a. raliat; qolag. souhoub'tli. 

eat yeme'k, a. <-'A7 &." 

echo yanqo, a. afarc se&z. 

eclipse (gunesh, ay) toutoulma. 

economic a. t. idareli. 

edge p. kenar, ouj : agliiz. 

education a. talim ou terbiye. 

effect a. ne'tije, semrre, teSsir. 

effort a. say, ghayret, jehd. 

egg youmourta. a. beyza. 

either ikisindni hiri. 

elbow dir$<'k. 

electricity f. a. eb'ktriq, -iyit. 

element a. unsur, pi. anasir. 

elephant fil. 

embark genii ye binnn'k, -bindir- 

m£k. a. tali mil etmelc. 
embassy a. s<'far<'t, — khane*. 
embrace sarilmaq, p. der aghoush 

<'t." qoujaqlamaq. 
emerald a. zumurrud, zumrut. 
eminent a. meshhour, shebhr>'tli. 
emperor f. impSrator. 
empire a. derb't, saltanat. 
employ (to) qoullanmaq. 
empty bosh, a. khali. 
enamel mini; -ed mineli. 
enclose chevirniek; a. dakhil, h'ff 

end son, ouj; (to) bitmek. 
endure dayanmaq; a. te'hammul 
enemy a. dushmni, p.khasim. [it." 
energy a. qouvv't, ghayret. 
engaged a. m< : shghoul. 

engagement a. m<'shghouUy<'t. 
engine f. makina; (fire) touloumba. 
engineer s>.muhSndis ; f. makinist. 
English ingiliz: ingilizje. 
engrave qazmaq, a. hekk <'t." 
engraver a. hak'kuik, p. kab'mkiar. 
enigma a. mou-annna, t. bUmeji. 
enlarge a. tf'vsee et.", genisMetmdk. 
enmity a.adaut't, p. t. dushmenlik. 
enough elc'rir, a. kiafi. 
ensign (flag) sanjaq; bayraqdar. 
enter girmek, a. dakhil ol." 
entire hep, but an, a. jumV. 
envelope a. zarf. 
envy a. hased, t. qisqanjUq. 
equal p. berab>'r, a. musavi; aqran. 
equator a. khattl istiva. 
equip donatmaq. 
error yanlish, a. khata, a. sihv. 
escape qaclimaq, qourtoulmaq. 
especially a. khousousa. 
eunuch khadim; harem aghast. 
Europe Avropa. 
European A vr op all. 
evacuate a. takhliyr it." 
evangelist a. mubesh'shir. 
even bile\ a. hatta. 
even (adj.) chift; dii.:: doyhrou. 
evening akhsham, aqsham. 
evil fena, kebtu; fenaliq. 
ewer ibriq; ( — bason) — leyen. 
exact a. tamm, timam, doghrou. 
examine a. te'ftish, hntihan et." 
examination a. imtihan. 
excellent a. ala. aliyul ala. 
except — dan ma' da, bashqa. 
exchange trampa. 
excuse (to) a. mazour toutmaq, 

roukhsat v4rm.Sk. 
execute (to) a. ijra et."; qail it." 
expect a. memoul it.", bSkiemik. 
explain a. iyzah <'t."; anlatmaq. 
extensive a. vasi. ginish. 
exterminate bitirmrk, a. wahv St" 
extol a. medh et." , t. edynh'k. 
extraordinary a. f>'vq-el-ad<'. 
extravagant a. inusrif. 
extremely a. ghayet. t. pe'k. 
eye geoz. eyebrow qash. 
eyelash kiprik, p. muzhgtan. 
Fable a. hikuiyf', masal. 
fare p. chthr< : , t. yuz, a. souret. 


ajc^j Vocabulary Loughet-clie. 


facilitate a. tes-hil St., qolaylatmaq. 

fact SL.haqiqat; (in-) a. fit haqiqa. 

factory f. fabriqa, kuirkhane. 

faint (to) bayilmaq. 

fair f.panayir; t. guzel. 

fairy p.^>m ; a. jinn. 

faithful a. sadiq, emin. 

falcon doghan, a. shahin. 

fall (to) duslimek, a. souqout et." 

false yalan; -j't, a. kiazib. 

fame a. shebhret, p. s7mn. 

family f. family a, p. khane'dan. 

famine qitliq, a. ga/if. 

fan yelpaze. 

far ouzaq, p. dtowr. a. bay id. 

farewell a. veda; el veda! 

farm chiftlik. 

farmer chiftji, p. renjber. 

ferrier a. p. nalband. 

fast chapouq, p. £&; a orouj. 

fat semiz, yaghli; yagh. 

fate a. qader, qaza, qismrt. 

fathom qoulaj. 

fatigue yorghounlouq. 

fault qousour, a. qabahat. 

fear qorqou, a. khavf, p. dehslu't. 

feast a. ziyafet, p. o&wi. 

February slioubat, pedirvar. 

feeble a. zayif, t. zaboun. 

feed (to) beslemek, yedirmek. 

feel (to) a. 7ms A.", douymaq. 

felt keche, kebe. 

female <:7is7i.i, p. made. 

fever a. kumma; hararet. 

few a£, a. gaZiZ. 

fidelity sadaqat, vefa. 

field a. sahra; t. tarla. 

fierce azgliin, sert. 

fife dudiik, qaval. 

fig Mytr, ay din yemishi. 

fight ghavgha (qavgaj; p. jeng. 

figurative a. mejazi. 

figure n.raqam, ade'd; shekl, resim. 

filbert fmdlq. * 

file v/^V'/ s * m 7 a - sa /f- 

fill (to) doldourmaq; dolmaq. 

filth mourdarl'iq, pislik. 

filthy mourdar, pis, p. napak. 

final so?l. -ly a. < ; >i nihayr. 

find boidmaq. 

fine wyV, nazik; a. khalis, kliass., 

finger parmaq, p. engusht. 

finish (to) bitirmek, a. khitam ver." 

fire p. afc'sft. fish 6aZi#. 

flag bayraq. flame a7^/. 

flat dzt2 ; yassi. 

flea pire. fleet donanma. 

flesh & flood a. s?7, a. toufan. 

flint chaqmaq taslii. 

floor debsheme. flour own. 

flower chichek, p. sliukufe. 

fluxion (cold) a. nevazil, ziikk'iam. 

fly sine'k; (to) ouchmaq. [lamaq. 

foal tai/, qouloun; (to) qouloun- 

fodder of, arpa-saman, alaf. 

foe p. duslimen, a. khasim. 

fog douman, p. wsift, mtgrft. 

fond meraqli. a. /mm. 

food yemek, ye'yejek. 

foot a#a<2, p. pa, a. qadem. 

forage ot, arpa-saman. 

force p. ror, a.jebr; qouvvet. 

ford gechid, sigh. 

forehead aZm, a?m. 

foreigner a. ejnebi. 

forerunner •p.peslirec, t. qUavoaz. 

foresight a. basiret, firaset. 

forest orman; a. me'shje're. [et." 

forget ounoutmaq, p. firamoush 

forgive a. afvet." , t. baghishlamaq. 

fork chatal. 

form bichim, a. souret; (to) ?/ap- 

fortifications a.istihkiamat. [maq. 

fortnight ?7a hafta. 

fortress a. <2a7«, #«?' • 

forward i&W; iUridi. 

foundation f. frW/ ; a. ^sas. 

fountain pouuar; (jet) fisqiyyr. 

foul tavouq. fox &2%t. 

fraud a. ftiyte'. free p. azad, serbest. 

freedom azadliq, a. liurriyet. 

freemason farmason. 

freeze (to) donmaq; doudourmaq. 

freight a. naqliye, p. navloun. 

frequent gig, cftog, a. k&tV. 

fresh p. fa^ ; . friend p. c7os£. 

Friday a. jouma'a, joiima'. 

frigate f. firqateen. 

fringe sachaq. froth kebpuk. 

frog qourbayh". 

frontier p. serhadd, a. houdoud. 

frozen donmoush. 

fruit p. vu'i/ve, t. yi'mish. 

fry (to) tavada pishirmek. 



sp.^) Vocabulary Loughet-che. 


frying-pan tai'a. 

fugitive qachaq, a. firari. 

full do! oil, a. memlou. 

funeral a. jniaze alayi, jt-nazt'. 

fur fcurifc. 

furious azghin. furnace cya^. 

furlough a. igttt, vuzouniyet. 

furniture a. esliya, f. mobilia. 

fury a. hiddet, yhazab. 

fuse fapa; (to n'itnu'k. 

future geh'jek, a. mustaqb<'l. 

Gain p.frtar, t.qazanj ; qazanmaq. 

gallant a. zarif, nazik, kibar. 

gallows dar aghafi. 

game oyoun: (prey) ai\ p. shikuir. 

garden p. bahjf', baghche. 

garlic sarmisaq. 

garnet a. lal. gate qapou. 

gather (to) toplamaq. 

general a. oumoumi; f. general. 

generous jebmerd, a. ali jenab. 

genius a. firaset, zekTavet. 

gentiles a. tayife, p. poutperest. 

gentle a. mulayim, halim, t. tatli. 

genus a. j ins, pl.ejnat. 

geography jogh rafiya. 

geometry ilmi lu'nd 

get ahnaq; b. liasil H." 

ghost a. kliayal; rouli, p. Jan. 
the Holy ghost) J?oi/7*om7 qouds. 

gift (divine) a. me'vhibe', dadi haqq; 
(superior to inferior; p. bakh- 
shish, a. ihsan, atiye; (inf. to 
sup.) a. hediyt', p. peshh'sh; 
(brought back from a journey) 

gipsy chingtand, posha. 

girl qiz. girth qolan. 

give (to v'rmek, a. *'£« &." 

glad a. mrmnonn, p. shadman. 

glass p. jam; %.qad£h. 

globe a. /<•/</•''. 

gloom qaranWq; a. gham, knl*'r. 

glory s/iaw oti sh'ref, p. j>'7aZ. 

glove eldivan. glue toutqal. 

go gitmelc. good ebySndSri. 

goat fcecfti. gold altoun. 

God a. Allah, Allah Ta' ala, Jenab /- 

Godhead a. oulouhiy't. 'Haqq. 

good £y», a. a?a. goose ga.:. 

gospel Si.injil, jA.e'najil, !/■ shan't. 

gourd qabaq, qantor qabaghi. 

gout a. niqris. 

grace a. le'tafe't; inaye't, loutf. 

grape lizum. grass of. 

grateful a. rndteslu'-kkir. 

gratis a. mejjanen; mouft. 

grave a. mezar, qabr. 

grease yagh, ich yagh'/. 

great bebyuk, a. azim, jesim. 

greedy a. oubour, sltis1( boghaz. 

green yeshil. 

greyhound tazi. 

gridiron \sqara. 

grief a. keder, eb'm, gham. 

grocer a. baqqal. 

groom seyis. ground yer: J arsa. 

growl kh'irlamaq. 

guard nebbetji: a. khassa askni: 

(to) bekb'nuk. 
guardhouse qoullouq. 
guess (to) a. zann, q'lyas it." 
guest a. musafir. 
guilt a. qousour, qabahat. 
gulf kebrfe'z. gum zamq. 
gums dish SH. 
gunpowder barout. 
gutter hendek, olouq. 
gymnastic f. jimnastiq. 
Habit a. ade't, p. khouy: a. re§m; 
hail dolou, ghirji. tabiyat. 

hair sach: qll, tuy. 
half yarim. nim, a. nls'if (§ 207). 
halt dourmaq, njlnunek. 
hammer chekij; (sledge) varya. 
hamper sepe'd. 
hand el : (hour-) a. aqreb ; (minute-) 

handkerchief nv'ndil. 
handle sap, a. qdbze. 
handsome guzH, yagishiqli. 
hang asmaq: (-down) sarqmaq. 
happy a. t. sa'adetli. 
harbour f. liman. 
hard s>'rt, perk; guj. 
hare tavsltan. 
harem a. harem, z<'nan>'. 
harm a. zarar, ziyan. 
harness araba taq&ni, qoshoum. 
harvest bichin; (-time; hasad, 

hasad vaqti. oraq vaqt't. 
hasten a. ajele" et." hat f. shapqa. 
hatchet balta, gire'bi. 
hate .'to; a. ikrah et." 



tiil Vocabulary Loughet-che. 

haughty a. maghrour, Tcibir. 
have (to) a. ma?»A; oZ?wa# (§§ 1 19 to 
hawk atmaja (qoushou). [122). 
hay qourou ot. 

hazard p. baklit, a. qaza, qader. 
haze sis, douman. 
head oasft; p. se'r; a. re's (§ 203). 
headlong bash ashaghi, semigun. 
heal (to) eyiletmek, a. s/ji/'a vermek. 
health a. fcq//", mizaj, sih'het. 
heap ytghin; (to) yighmaq. 
hear (to) dinlemek, ishitmek. 
heart yurek, a. gaZfr, p. tZiZ. 
heat sijaqliq, a. hararet. 
heaven (/eofc, a. se'wm, (pi. )sewiava£. 

(paradise) a. jennet, p. firdevs. 
heavy aghir, a. sagtZ. 
Hebrew Ibrani, Yehoudi. 
hedge-hog A-ipn, p. khar-pdsht. 
heel eofc;e, a. agafr. 
height yukseklik, a. irtifa\ 
hell a, jehennem. 
help yardim, a. imdad i mou'aven£t, 

iyane; (to) yardim, moiCavenet 

hemorrhoids mayasil, a. basour. 
hen tavonq. herb ot. 
herd s%ru. hero a. qaJiriman. 
hesitate (to) a. tered'ddd etmek. 
hide den; (to) saqlamaq. 
high yuksek, a. murtefi. 
highway a.jadde, p. shall rah. 
hill cZepe. hip qalcha. 
hinge r^e, menteshe. 
hire fcir«; (to) kiralamaq. 
history a. tarikh, pi. tevarikh. 
hit (to) vourmaq. hoarse boghonq. 
hold (to) toutmaq; (ship's) ambar. 
hole de'Zifc. holiday a. tata'Z. 
hollow a. khali, tehi, ichi bosh. 
holy a. <m>, mouqaddes ; (of God) 

a. qouddous; (-Spirit) Boithoul 

horned, a. ayile'; vatan,memleket; 

(to go — ) a. siZa etmek, silaya 

honest a. imin, sadlq, t. doghrou. 
honey bal, a. asaZ, p. WH&7&: 
honour a. i<as^, itibar, shere'f, 

namons; (to) izzetleme'k, ihtiram 
hooftirnaq. hope p. iim' mid. [et." 
hook chengil; qanja, ilik. 

horizon a. oufouq, (pi.) afaq. 
horrible a. makhouf, dehslietli. 
horse at, p. esb; beygir; (-man) 

atli, p. siivaree. 
hospital p. khasta-khane. 
hostile p. diishmen. hot s'tjaq. 
hound kedpek, zaghar, tazi. 
hour a. sa'at. 

house ev, p. khane, a. beyt; qonaq~ 
humanity a. insaniyet, muruv'vet. 
humble a. miitevazi, halim; khlm- 
hunger ajltq. hungry aj. [biL 
hurry (to) a. ajele et." 
hurt (to) injitmek, ajitmaq. 
husband qoja, a. zevj. 
hymn a. ilahi. 

hypocrisy a. riya, murayilik. 
hypocrite a. miirayi, miinafiq. 
Ice bouz. icy bouzlou. 
idea a. fikir, tasavvour. 
idiom a. istilah, p. shiyve. 
idle ishsiz, tembel, bosh gezen. 
idol p. pout, a. sanem, (pi.) asnam. 
ignorance a. jehalet, jehl. 
ignorant a. jahil, p. nadan. 
ill keyfsiz, p. hasta, a. meriz. 
illness hastaliq, a. maraz. 
imagine (to) a. tasavvour et" 
imitate (to) a. taqleed, iqtida et." 
impartial p. a. bitaraf, insafll. 
impatient a. t. sabirsiz. 
implore (to) yalvarmaq; a. rija r 

niyaz et." 
important a. mouhimm, muteber. 
impression a. tee'ssir; efkmr. 
imprison a. habs, mahbous et." 
inch parmaq. incline (to) a. meyl 
incognito zi.tebdil, - qiyafet. [et." 
income a. irad. increase artmaq. 
indebted borjlou, a. medyoun. 
indeed a. haqiqaten; eoyle mi! 
industry a. hlrfet, sandal. 
inform (to) a. khaber vermek, ikh- 

bar et" 
ingratitude p. t. nankeorUik. 
inhabit (to) otourmaq, a.sakin ol." 
injury a. zarar; saqatliq. 
ink a. murtkkeb. (-stand) divit. 
inn khan, inquire (to) sormaq. 
insane p. divane, t. chilghin. 
insect bebjek. insert a. dakhil et." 
inspect (to) yoqlamaq. 


AajtZiJ Vocabulary Loughe't-die. 


instract(to) ebyretmek, a..talim et." 
integrity a. temamiyet; t. dogh- 

roulouq, a. istiqamet. 
intercede a. rija. she fa' at tt." 
intercession a. shefa/at. 
interest a. menfa'at, f. enU'reso; 

a. fayiz. 
interesting merakjelb ediji,jalib. 
internal a. dakhili. 
intimate s\qi, a. malin'm. 
intolerable a. tehammulu naqabil. 
invitation a. davet. 
iron dnnir. 
irregular a. nizamsiz; (soldier) 

bashi bozouq. 
irrigate yiyqamaq. 
island ada } a. jezire. 
itch v to^ gijislinn'k. 
ivory fil dishi. 
ivy sarmasluq. 
Jackal chaqal, gluyab. 
jacket f. clidket; mintan. car. 
January klTuiounou sani, Houn- 
jar qavanos, desti, kup. 
jaw dienr. 

jealous ktsqanj, a. hasoud. 
jealousy a. hased, t. hisqanj. 
Jehovah Yehova. 
Jesus Isa-el-Mesih, Isa. 
Jew yehoudi, chifit. 
jewel a. jevahir. mujcclu'r. 
join (to) bitishmek, bitishdirmek. 
joke a. shaqa, lateefe. 
journal p. rouzname. {.journal. 
journey yol; seyahat, ydljoulouq. 
joy srcinj, a. sourour, shazliq. 
judge a. hakim, qadi. 
jug desti, p. guzr. 
juice sou; (grape-) p. shira. 
jump (to) sichramaq. 
Jupiter miishtt'ri ylldizi. 
just a. adil, mounsif. 
justice a. adalet, liaqqaniy't. 
justify a. t. haqqli duqarmaq. 
Keep (to) saqlamaq, a.mouhafaza 

kettle gugfun; f. chaydan. 
key f. anakhtar. a. ju if tali. 
kick (to) tepmek, chifte atmaq. 
kid oghlaq. kidney beobrek. 
kill eolditrmek, a. idrtw ft." 
kind a.jins, t. soy, durlti; tatli. 

king ^raZ, p.padishah, hiikumdar. 
kiss p. bouse, eopush; (to) eop- 

kitchen p. ashkhane, a. matbakh. 
kitten ke'di yavrousou, pisik. 
knee diz, p. zanou. 
kneel (to) diz cheokme'k. 
knife btchaq; (pen-) qalemtrasli. 
knit (to) eormek. 
knock (to) (qapou) chahnaq. 
knot duyme; duyiim. 
know (to) bilmek. 
kuran qouran, kelami qadim. 
Label yafta. 

labour a. amt'l, t. ish, p. kfar. 
labourer a. amele, t. ishji- 
lace (gold-) sir ma; (false-) qilab- 

dan : (thread-) f. dantela ; (tape-) 

lad oghlan, cliojouq, deliqanli. 
ladder nh'rdictn, p. nerduban. 
lady hanim. lake gebl. 
lamb qouzou. lamp lamba. 
lance a. mtzraq, p. ■mV. 
land gara; (to) qaraya duqmaq. 
language a. lisan, p. zeban, t. (?/?. 
lantern f. fener. fanos. 
lap qoyoun, qoujaq. 
large beoyuk, iri. 
last so?T;( — night) dwfi <7<7' f , (to) 

dayanmaq, surmek. 
late <7f{y; sabiq; merhoum. 
lattice qafes. laugh gubw'k. 
laundry dtamashirkhane. 
laundress chamaJurji qar'i. 
law a. qanoun; sheriyat, sfo'r'. 
lawyer f. avoqat, a. dava v>'kili. 
lay (to) y atmaq; yatirmaq. 
lazy tembd, tcnbd. ayar. 
lead qonrshoun; (to) gebturmek. 
leaf yapraq, a. varaq. 
lean zaboun; (to) dayanmaq. 
leap (to) sidiramag, hoplamaq. 
learn (to) ebyrnimek, a. tahsil ''t.' 
leather mesh in, sakhtiyan. 
leave (to; braqmaq; diiqmaq. 
led (horse) yedek. 
leech suluk\ leek prasa. 
left soZ. leg bajaq. 

legation a. sefaret, — khaw'. 
legend a. hiktciy'. masal. 
legislator a. vaziyi qanoun. 



Zil Vocabulary LoughSt-chS. 


leisure bosh vaqlt, a. fonrsat. 

lemon Union, length boy. 

lend (to) ebdunj vermek, vcrmck. 

leopard qaplan. lesson a. dSrs. 

letter yazi, a. harf; mSktoub. 

lettuce maroul. level duz. 

lever manavcla. 

liberal jeomcrd, jivanmerd. 

liberate (to) qourtarmaq, a. khelas. 

liberty a. Iwurriyet, p. t. azadliq. 

library p. a. kitabkham'. 

lick (to) yalamaq. lid qapaq. 

lie yalan, a. £126; — sebylemSk. 
( — down) yatmaq, ouzanmaq. 

life pja^a. ro«^;(-time)a. eomCcr. 

lift (to) qaldirmaq, a. re'/" e7." 

light a. wow, t. Ishlq ; a. khafif. 

lightning shimshek, a. frarg. 

like bSnzSr, yibi; (to) a. 7ia^ *#." 

lime £<>//. limited a. mahdoud. 

line chizyi, a. khatt; satir. 

linen fte'te'w &&i; lining astar. 

linseed fce'te'ft tohoumou, zSySrSk. 

lip Ze'fr, doudaq. 

listen (to) dinlemek, qoulaq ver- 

litter (for the sick) tejgSrS. 

little onfaq, kiichuk, a. saghir. 

live (to) yashamaq. 

lively janli; qanl sljaq. 

liver jiyer, qara jiyt'r. 

living gSchim, a. te'ay'yush. 

load 2/riA;; (to) yuklemSk. 

loaf somoun; kelle shSkSr. 

lock f. kilid ; (to) kitlemek. 

locksmith chilingir. 

log kutuk. long ouzoun, boylou. 

longitude a. fowZ. 

look (to) baqmaq; bakish. 

loom dezgTah. loose gSoshek. 

lose (to) yitirmSk, a. ghayb St." 

lord eff'endi; a. J?a66. 

love a. as/jg, mouhabbSt; sSvmek. 

lover a. ashiq. low dlchaq. 

luck p. bakht, a. taZi, £aZ<?7&. 

luggage a. Sshya, plrl pirti. 

lump parcha. lunch qahvalti. 

lute a. 'o?<d, 'owrf clialgM. 

luxury f. fantazi. 

lynx vashaq, ebshek. 

Macaroni f. maqarna, p. crishtS. 

mace topouz,gurz, chomaq. [a. afcY. 

machine f. makina. p. charkh; 

mad c?e7/, divanS; (-dog) qoudouz. 

madam f. madama, hanim, qoqona. 

magazine f. maghaza, p. ambar; 
(powder-) p. jcbhane; (periodi- 
cal) a. resaleyi mevqouta. 

magician a. sihirbaz, a. sahhar. 

magic lantern a. sihiri siraji. 

magistrate a. ,?a&i£, hakim. 

mahomedan a. musliman, mou- 

maiden a. bakirS, t. qiz. 

mail f. posta; p. zirkh, a., silah. 

maintain (to) beslemek. 

major bin bashi. 

make (to) yapmaq, a. imal it." 

mallet toqmaq. mamma anne. 

man a. adam, adSm, insan. 

manage (to) a. idare, zabt it" 

mane yele. manger yemlik. 

mankind a. bSni adem, nevi insan. 

mantle f. qapot, a. ferajS. 

manufacture (place of-) f. fabriqa ; 
(article) a. mal; (to) yapmaq. 

manure g fibre, a. zibil, t. ters. 

manuscript Sl-yazisi. 

many choq. map f. kharta. 

marble mSrmSr. 

march (musical) f. marsh; (sol- 
diers) yeorumSk: (command) 
f. arsh! 

mare qisraq. 

marine a. bahri, bahriye'. 

mark a. isharSt, p. nishan. 

market p.pazar: charshi. 

marriage a. nikuili, izdivaj. 

marry (to) SolSmnek, SvlSndirmSk. 

martyr a. shehid. 

masculine SrkSk; a. muzekkSr. 

master Sffendi, ayha; ousta. 

mat liasir. maxim a. qayidS. 

matches a. kibrit. [ziyS. 

mathematics a. ouloumou riya- 

meadow chayir, p. chimen, -zar. 

meaning a. ma'na. 

measure eblchii, a. mtqyas. 

measles qizamouq. meat St." 

medicine a. ilaj, dSva. 

meet (to) a.tSsadiif St. "rastySlmek. 

melon (musk) qavoan; (water) 


A^.ik! Vocabulary Loughet-che. 


melt (to) erimek. 
member aza (pi. azavat). 
memory a. qouvveyi hafiza, fikir. 
mend (to) a. tamir, termim et." 
merchant a. tajir, tujjar. 
mercy a. merhame't. rahmet. 
merely duzje, a. adeta. 
merit a. istihqaq, liyaqat. 
merry a. t. keyfli, p. shin. [den. 
message a. khabe'r. metal a. ma- 
method a. ousoul, qai/ide, t. yol. 
microscope p. khourdibeen. 
middle orta. a. vasat. 
middling orta, a. evsat. 
midsummer yaz ortasi. 
might qoudret, iqtidar. 
mighty a. qadir, muqtSdir. 
mild a. mulayim, hafif. 
milk sud. mill deyirmen. 
mind a. aqil, fikir, zihin. 
mine a. ma' den, (pi.) me- a- din. 
minute a. daqiqa; mazbata. 
mischief a. zarar, ziyan. 
miser a. khasis, a. p. tamaktar. 
mist sis, douman. 
mistake a. khata, t. yaulish. 
mix to) qar'/sJidirmaq, z.mezj H." 
mob qalabaliq, ayaq taqiml. 
mock (to) zevqlenmek, a. istihza et." 
model p. numoune. f. edmek. 
modern yeni,'did. 
modest a. mahjoub, terbiyeli. 
moist p. nem, t. yash. 
momentous a. mouhimm, elxemm. 
monarch p. hukumdar padishah. 
Monday pazar ertesi. 
money para, aqje, a. naqd. 
monkey maymoun. 
month ay, p. mah, a. shehr. 
moon ay, p. mah, a. qamer. 
moral a. akhlaqi ; hisse (p. 119). 
more daha, a. ziyade (p. 101). 
morning a. sabah. 
morrow e'rte. a. sabah. 
mosque a. jami, mesjid. 
most en, a. ziyade (p. 101). 
moth (flying) perrane; gave. 
mother ana, p. made'r (p. 58). 
motion harSkit. 
mould topraq; a. <7a7?6. 
mound c?epe, <e/?e. 
mount dagh; (toj chiqmaq, binmek. 

mountain dagh, a. jV&eZ. 
mourn p.fighan et." ; yas toutmaq. 
mournful p.ghamkin, a. mahzoun. 
mouse sichan, a. fare. 
mouth aghiz, p. dihan. 
move (to) qimUdanmaq, a. /mre- 

mow (to) bichmek. mud chamour. 
mug a. mashrapa. mule gwiir. 
multitude qalabaliq. [et." 

multiply (to) choghaltmaq; a. ^ar6 
murder (to) ebldurmek. a. </a^ et." 
murderer ^aw^, a. go&Z. 
museum f. muzekhane. 
music a. naghme, f. mousiqa. 
musician f. p. mousiqi shinas, 

mousiqa ji. 
musquito sivri, sivri sine'k. 
mustache biy/q. 
mustard hardal. 
mutton qoyoun eti. 
mystery a. sirr, esrar. 
Nail (finger) tirnaq; (iron) ekser, 

chivi, mikh; (to) mikhlamaq. 
naked chiplaq, a. uryan. 
name ad, a. isim, p. nam. 
named a. musemma, p. t.naminda. 
namely a. yani; naphtha neft. 
narrow dar, ensiz. 
nasty pis, a. mekrouh, mourdar. 
nation a. millet, qavm, ummet. 
native yerli. natural a. tabiyi. 
naughty yaramaz. navel geobek. 
naval a. bahri, bahriye. 
navigation a.seyrisefayin, gezme. 
navy donanma. near yaqin. 
necessary a. lazbn, mouqtazi. 
necessity a. liajet, zaroure't. 
neck boyoun. need a. ihtiyaj. 
needle iyne. negro a. Zenji, arab. 
neighbour qonshou. 
nest youva. net agh. 
never p. hich, a. asla, a. qat'an. 
new yeni, p. nev, a. jidid. 
news a. khaber, havadis. 
next yandaki, a. atideki; sonra. 
nice yuzel, a. ala. night geje. 
no khayr; hich, hich bir. 
noble a. nejib; jins. 
noise ses, shamata, gCiridtu. 
nonsense sachma, bosh laf. 
noon eoyh'n vaqVi, ebyb'n. 


<s^u) Vocabulary Loughet-clie. 


noose ilme'k. 

north a. shimal, f.poryas: (due-) 

yildiz; (-west) qara yel. 
nose bouroun. not deyil. 
nourish (to) beslemek,'rverde 

now shimdi, a. hala, elan. 
number sayi, a. ade'd, miqdar. 
nurse (wet-) sad-ana: (dry-) 

dada; (sick-) hastaji. 
nut findiq. 

nutmeg liindistan jevizi. 
Oak meslie, pelit. 
oar kurek. oath a. yemin. 
obedience a. ita-at. [et." 

oblige (to) a. fc^rem e#." ; mejbour 
obscure qaranliq; a. moughlaq. 
observe (to) a. diqqat et." ; baqmaq. 
obstinate a. inadjl, mouannid. 
obtain ele getirme'k, a. istihsal et." 
occupy (to) a. zabt et.", t. toutmaq. 
ocean bahrl mouhit, oqianos. 
odd tek; a. touliaf. 
ode a. ghazel, qaside. 
offence a. qabahat, qousour, souch . 
offer (to) a. taqdim et." ; sounmaq. 
oft, often a. ekseriya, choq defa. 
oil yagh, p. roughen. 
old e's^ri; (-man) ikhtiyar, qoja. 
olive zeytoun, zeytin. 
omelet qayghana. 
omen fal. on (p. 105). 
once bir kerre; (at-) birden. 
onion soghan. only saZt. 
open acMq; (to) aclimaq. 
opinion a. re'y. efktar, zann, 
opium p. afiyon, tiryaq. 
opportunity a. four sat. 
opposition a. nwuklialefet. 
oppose (to) qarsM qomaq, a. mani 

ol." [et." 

oppress (to) zouhn et", p. jefa 
orange portouqal, p. narenj. 
oration a. khitab, noutq. 
order a. emr,irade;nizam,intizam. 
ordinary bayaghi, a. adi. 
organize (to) a. te'shkil et.'' 
original a. asil, aslee. 
ornament siis, a. ziynet, haliye. 
orphan ebksuz, a. yetim. 
outrage a. haqaret. 
oven fouroun. 

overtake yetishmek, toutmaq. 
ox ebkuz. oyster f. istridya. 
Pace adim, a. qadem; yedruyush. 
pack p. deste, f. basta ; deng; 

(-horse) yuk hay van}, be'ygir; 

(-saddle) palan. 
padlock kilid, asma kilid. 
page a. sahife. pain aghri, sizi. 
paint boya; (to) boyamaq. 
painter a. naqqash, re'ssam{% 610 . 
pair chift. palace p. saray. 
palate dimagh, damaq. 
pale rengsiz* dounouq, solghoun. 
palm (tree) khourma aghaji; { — of 

the hand) el ayasi, avouj. 
pan tava, sapli. 
pantry kiler, f. maghaza. 
paper kuigltid, vulg. kehad. 
parasol a. shemsiyc. 
parcel (bundle) boghcha, bohjc. 
pardon a. afv ; (to) - et"; baghish- 

parsley f. maghadanos,maydanos. 
part p. parcha, a. qisim; taraf. 
partake p. hissedar olmaq. 
partial a. khousousi; tarafgir. 
partner ortaq, a. sherik. 
partridge keklik, p. ke'bk. 
party taqim; a. taraf. 
pass gechid; (to) gechmek. [re. 
passage yol ; gechid ; p . ben d, a. iba - 
passion a. ghazab ; mouhabbet. 
passport yol tezkeresi, f.pasaport. 
past gechmish, gechen, a. mazi. 
pastry hamour ishi; f. pasta. 
patch yama; (to) yamalamaq. 
path yol, a. jadde, tariq. 
patience a. sabr, tehammul. 
patient sabirli; p. hasta. 
patriarch f. patriq; a. e'biil aba. 
patriot p. vatan perve'r. 
patriotism - Uk, SL.houbbou vatan. 
pattern a. numune, eornek, qalib. 
pavement tash deoshe'me, sal. 
pavillion keoshk a. qasr. 
paw (fore-) penche; (hind-) ayaq. 
pay a. ujret; t. gundelik; ayltq; 

yilliq; (to) eodemek, a. e'da et." 
peace barishlq, a. musaleha. 
peach sheftaU. 
peacock tavous qoushou. 
pear armoud. 


Ajtii! Vocabulary Loughet-che. 


pearl inji. peasant kebylu. 
pebble chaqil toshi, chaqil. 
peculiar a. makhsous; touliaf. 
pedlar qoltouqjou, chertji. 
peel qabouq; (to) soymaq. 
pen a. qalem; (knife) qalemtrash. 
pension a. t. teqa'iid ma'ashi. 
people a. eliali; millet, qavm. 
pepper qarabiber, biber. 
perceive (to) gebrmek, a. fehm et." 
perfect a. kuimil, tamm; temam. 
perform (to) a. ijra et." etmek. 
perfume hosh qoqou, a. rayiha. 
period a. muddet, vaqit, ze'man. 
perish (to) helak 61." ; bitmek. 
permanant a. dayimi, qadim. 
permission a. roukhsat,izin. [et." 
permit (to) — vermek, musa'ade 
perpetual a. dayim, demirbash. 
persecute (to) qovalamaq. 
Persia Ajemistan, Iran. 
Persian ajem, irani ;(\ Farisi. 
person a. shakhs, zat; adem. 
persuade (to) qandirmaq, a. isktat 
perverse ters, a.mou'annid. [et." 
pest a. veba, t. baba, youmourjaq. 
petition a. arzouhal, istid'a. 
petticoat f. miso fistan, miso. 
pharmacy a. p. ejza-hane. 
pheasant suyliin qoushou. 
philosopher a. feylesof, hakeem 

(pi. liukema). 
philosophy a. ilmi hikmet, hikmet. 
photograph fntograf; -er -ji. 
physician lu'kim, tabib{\)].atibba). 
pick qazma; (to) qoparmaq. 
picture a. resim, tasvir. 
piece parcha. pierce (to) delmik. 
pig donouz. pigeon geoye'rjin. 
pile yighin; hav, khav. 
piles basoar, mayasil. 
pilgrim (to Mecca) haji (§ 409). 
pillow yuz yasdighi. 
pin toploa, toplou iyne. 
pinch (to) cliimdiklemek. 
pious a. dindar, mutede'yin. 
vip e [smoking) chibouq, choubouq; 

(water) borya. 
pistachio f. fistiq. 
pistol tabanja. 
pit qouyon, chouqour. 
pitcher p. desti. place yer. 

Turkish Conv. -Grammar. 

pity a. merhamet; (to) — et." 

plague veba, (vulg.) baba. 

plain duz ova; a. sade, safi. 

planet a. seyyare. plant f. fidan. 

plaster soma, siva; yaqi. [maq. 

play oyoun; (to) oynamaq; chal- 

pledge a. rehm; (to) - qomaq. 

plot a. fane, fesad. plough saban. 

plum erik. plump dolgoun, semiz. 

plunder yaghma. pocket jeb. 

poem a. sheer; ghazel, qaside. 

poet a. shayir. poetry shir. 

point ouj; bouroun; geostermek. 

poison a. zehir: poke (in) sokmaq. 

pole (of heavens) a.qoutb; sirlq. 

policy f. politiqa; a. ousoid. 

polish perdah, a.jila; (to) - ve'r- 

polite a. t. ne'zaketli, terbiyeli. 

pomegranate nar. 

pond geoly havouz. 

pony midilli. poor a. faqir. 

porcelain f. chini, farfouri. 

pork donouz eti. 

porte qapou; Babi Ali. 

portion a.hisse, -p. pay. 

portrait a. resim. 

possess (to) a. t. malik olmaq. 

possible olour, a. mumkin. 

post direk; posta; a. memouriyet, 
p. post, pot qab, chanaq. 

potato patates. potter chebmlekji. 

pound libra; lira£\ (to) deoymek. 

pour (to) debkmek. 

poverty a. fouqaraliq, zarouret. 

powder (dust) toz\ (gun-) bar out. 

power a. qoavvet; devttt, hukumet. 

practice p. meshq, f. pratica. 

praise a. medh, sena, hamd. 

prayer a. niyaz, rija; dou'a. 

preach a. vaz et. 

preacher a. vayiz, vazji. 

precedent a. emsal. 

prepare a. t. hazirlamaq, hazir et." 

present (time) shimdi, shimdiki; 
(gift) p. bakhshish ; (to) a. taqdim 

preserve (to) a. Mfz et"; saqlamaq. 

president a. reyis, t. bash. 

pretence p. behane. mahana. 

pretty giizel, p. dilbtr. 

pride a. kibr, ghourour. 



4^i) Vocabulary Loughet-che. 


priest f. papas, keshish. 
prince bey; p. shahzade\ f. prens. 
princess a. soaltan; f. prenses. 
principle a. e'sas, ousoal, qayidc. 
print basmaq, a. tab et." 
printed basma, a. matbou. 
prison a. liabs, mahbes. 
privilege a. imtiyaz. 
probably a. ihtimalen, p. belki. 
professor a. monallim, muderris. 
profit p. ktar, a. fayide. 
progress ilerleme, a. teqaddum. 
promise vad, seoz. 
proof a. isbat, delil, burhan. 
proper a. mimasib, p. shayeste. 
prophet p. peyghamber, a. nebi. 
proposal a. teklif. 
prose a. nesir, shir olmayan. 
proselyte deonme, a. muhtedi. 
protect (to) a. himaye, siyanet et." 
proud a. maghrour, kibirli. 
proverb a. darbi mesel (p. 208). 
province a. vilayet (pi. vilayat). 
provisions a. zakhire, zahra. 
pull (to) chekmek. 
pulley maqara. pulse nabz, navz. 
pump touloumba. 
punish (to) a. tekdir, mujazat et." 
purchase (to) satin almaq. 
pure a. saf, safi, khalis, temiz. 
purple mor. 

purpose a. niyit, meram, maqsed. 
purse a. kese. pursue kovalamaq. 
push yitmek, surmek, qaqmaq. 
put (to) qomaq, a. vaz' et." 
puzzle a. mouam'ma; loughez, 

(to) shashirtmaq. 
quail bildirjin. 

quality a. khassiye't,keyfiyet; jins. 
quantity a. miqdar. 
quarantine f. qarantina. 
quarrel qavga, a. niza, milnaza'a. 
quarry tash-ojaghi, tashliq. 
quarter roub, deortde bir (§ 208). 
quarters yer, a. semt, nahiye. 
queen f. qralicha, a. melike. 
quench (to) sebndurmek. 
question sival; (to) — et." sormaq. 
quick chapouq, tez. (-silver) jiva. 
quicken (to) chapouq et." a. istijal 


quiet p. asoude, a. rahat, ouslou. 
quince ayva, vulg. hayva. 
quinine f. qlna qlna\ solfato. 
quire p. deste; ebzbe. 
quite busbutun, a. kidliyen. 
quiver p. tirkesh, t. p. oqdan. 
Rabbit ada tavshani. 
race (running) garish ; a. miisaba- 

radish tour p. 
rag pachavra, chapout. 
railroad, -way demir-yol. 
raiment f. rouba, a. elbise, esvab. 
rain yaghmour, a. rahmet; (to) — 

yaghmaq ; (-bow) eleyim-saghma. 
raise (to) qaldirmaq, a. terfi, St." 
raisins qourou azum, f. chamich. 
rake daraq, dirmiq. 
ram qoch; (to) siqi doldourmaq. 
ramble (to) gezinme'k, surtunmek. 
random (at-) tesadufen. 
ransom a. fidiye. 
rapid p. chapouq, a. seri, t. hizlu 
rare a. nadir, rascal chapqin. 
raspberry aghaj chileyi, izma- 

rat iri sichan, ge'rel, pospol. 
rather (somewhat) bir az\ (in 

preference) daha eyi. 
ravage a. khasarat; (to) talan et." 
raw chiy, pishmemish. 
razor oustoura. reach yetishmek. 
read (to) oqoumaq, a. mutala'a et.'' 
ready a. hazir, muhey'ya. 
real gerchek, a. haqiqi. 
reality a. haqiqat. 
really gerchekden, a. filliaqiqa, fd- 

reap (to) bichmek. rear <^ri. 
reason a.agZ, seT^'fr, hikmet: rajon.. 
rebel as*, zorba; (to) isyaw eV 
rebellion a. isyan, toughyan. 
receipt a. tnaqbouz sene'di, ilmou 

receive (to) almaq, a. akhz et." 
reckon (to) saymaq, hisab et" 
recognize (to) tanimaq. 
recommend (to) a. tavsiye et." 
reconcile (to) barishdirmaq. 
record (to) a. qayd et. red qirmhi. 
redeem (to) qourtarmaq, a.khe'las 



3^u) Vocabulary Loughit-che. 


redeemer qourtariji, khelasktar. 
reed qamish. (-pen) — qalem. 
refuge siglunajaq yer, a. melja. 
regard nazar: itibar; (to) — A." 
regeneration y^n» doghoush. 
register defter, regular muntazam. 
regularity nizam, intizam,ittirad. 
reign (to) saltanat et.", kukfimet 
reins dizgin, terbiye. [surmek. 
rejoice (to) sevinmek, p. shaz 61." 
relative a. khisim, aqriba. 
reliance a. itimad. emniyet. 
religion a. din, viezheb. 
remainder a. baqiyye, mabaqi. 
remarkable a. mesh'hour. 
remember (to) de'r khatir et." 
remove (to) qaldirmaq. 
renegade debnme, miirted. 
renewal a. te'jdid, yenileme. 
rent (to) ijara vermek, — tout- 

maq, istijar etmek. 
repair (to) a. tamir et." [lamaq. 
repeat (to) a.tekerrur et." tekrar- 
repent (to) tevbe et." pusliman 61." 
reply (to) a.jecab vermek. 
report raporto; (to) — vermek. 
republic a. jumhouri'/et. 
reputation a.izzet, itibar, shebhret. 
resemblance a. mushabehet. 
resemble (to) benzemek. 
residence qonaq, a. mekian, ev. 
resist (to) a. mouqavemet et." 
resolve (to) a. qarar vermek, 

tasmim et." 
respect a. hurmet, ria>/''t. 
rest qalan, a. baqi; rahat. 
retire, retreat (to) geri chekilmek. 
return (to) debnmik, a. avdet et." 
revenge a. intiqam, t. eoj. 
review a. tekem'<r\ re'smi gechid. 
reward a. mukfafat, ujret. 
rheumatism i/el, f. rumatizm. 
rhyme a. qafi >/>/<'. 
ribbon f. qordela, .she rid. 
rich zengin; yaghli, semiz. 
ride (to hayvana binmek. 
right doghrou, haqq; sagh taraf. 
ring yuzfik; (to) chalmaq. 
ripe ohnoush, yetyin. [cMqmaq. 
rise (to) qalqmaq. yukselmek; 
rival engel, a. raqib. 
river 'trmaq, a. nihr; sou, cliay. 

road yol; a.jadde. 

roast (to) qavourmaq, kebab et" 

(-meat) qizartma, rosto. 
robber khirsiz,haydoiicl, harami. 
roll (to) youvarlamaq. 
roof dam. room oda. 
root kebk. rope ip, halat. 
rose p. gul. rotten churuk. 
rough qaba, puruzln. 
round youvarlaq, top; a. mude'vver. 
royal a. p. mv.h'tkiane, shaliane. 
rub (to) ovalamaq, surmek. 
rude a. t. terbiyesiz, e'debsiz. 
rug keche, kilim, sejjade. 
ruin a. kharcibe, kliarabiyet. 
rule qayide, qanoun. 
run (to) qoshmaq; aqmaq. 
rust pas. rye chavdar. 
Sabbath a. sebt, f. shapat; giragi. 
sabre qilij. sad kederli. 
sacred a. moitqaddes, aziz. 
sacrifice a. qourban, fidiye. 
saddle eyer. saddler a. sarraj. 
safe a. emin; sagh, saghlam, 

a. salim. 
sage aqilli, ouslou; ada chayi. 
sail yelken; yola chiqmaq. 
salt touz. salutation a. selam. 
salute (to) selam vermek, - almaq. 
sand qoum. satellite p. peyk. 
sausage (dry) soujouq; (fresh) 

savage p. yabani, a. vahshi. 
save (to) a.khelaset", qourtarmaq. 
saw p. destere. say (to) demek. 
scarce nadir, school a. mekteb. 
science a. Urn. scissors a. maqas. 
scold (to) azarlamaq, a. tevbikh et." 
scoundrel oughoursouz, chapqin. 
scourge qamchi, qirbaj. 
screw vida. scythe tirpan. 
sea deniz. seal p. mebhur. [sim. 
seam dikish yeri. season a. meu- 
second a. saniye. 
secret a. slrr: gizli. 
see (to) gebrmek. seed tohoum. 
seek (to) aramaq. 
seem (to) gedriinmek; benzemek. 
seize (to) yaqalamaq; qapmaq. 
select (to) sechmek; sechmt'. 
sell (to) satmaq; vermek. 
send (to) gebndermek, a. irsal et." 



s=.liJ Vocabulary Loughet-che. 


separate ayri; (to) aytrmaq. 
series sira. serious aghir. 
sermon a. v'az. serpent yilan. 
servant oushaq, khizmetji. 
serve (to) p. t. khizmet et." 
set taqim; (to) qomaq; dikmek. 
settle (to) hisablashmaq; yerlesh- 

mik; iskian etdirmek. 
sew (to) dikmek. shade geolge. 
shake (to) sallanmaq. 
shallow sigh; sachma, dibsiz. 
shame a. hi jab. shame! ayib! 
shape bichim. share hisse. 
sharp keskin. shave p. trash et." 
sheath qin. sheep qoyoun. 
shell qabouq. shepherd choban. 
shield qalqan. shine parlamaq. 
ship genii, shirt geomUk. 
shoe f. qoundoura; p. pabouj. 
shoot (to) atmaq, vourmaq. 
shop a. dukkian, f. maghaza. 
shore a. kenar, sahil, t. yali, qiyi. 
short qlsa. shoulder oumouz. 
shut (to) qapamaq; qapali. 
sick hasta, keyfsiz, p. namizaj. 
side yan, a. taraf, janib. 
siege a. mouhasere, f. abloca. 
sieve qalbour, elck. 
sight a. nazar, baqish; temasha. 
signal a. isharet. signify (to) 

demek; a. delalet etmek. 
silence a. sukut. silk tjpefc. 
silver gumush. sincere a. samimi. 
sing (to) terennum et."; (bird) 

single yalin qat; tek, p. yegiane. 
sink (to) batmak; batirmaq. 
sit (to) otourmaq; a.julus et." 
situated a. vagi, size &oy, a. qita. 
skill p. huner, a. marifet. 
skin c7eW. sky </eo& y/jlzw. 
slave yesir; keble; a. jariye. 
sleep ouyqou; (to) ouyoumaq. 
sling sapan. slip (to) qaymaq. 
slow aghir, yavash, a. 6a#. 
small kfichuk, oufaq, a. saghir. 
small-pox chiche'k. 
smell qoqou; (to) qoqmaq; qoqla- 
smile (to) a. tebessum et." [maq. 
smith demirji. smooth (Zite. 
smoke dutnan, tutun; (to) £«£-• 

me'^ ; (tobacco) tutun ichniek. 

snake yilan; nargile marpoujou. 

sneeze (to) aqsirmaq. 

snow a. gar; (to) gar yaghmaq. 

snuff enfiye; (-box) — qoutousou. 

soap saboun. 

society dayire, souhbet; (company) 

shirket; ortaqliq. 
soft youmshaq. 
soil (to) kirletmek. 
solder lehim; (to) lehimlemek. 
soldier a. asker, (private-) a. ne/e'r. 
song tiirku, a. sharqi, mani. 
sorrow a.keder 7 -p.derd, a.qasavet. 
sort so*/, durlu, cheshid. 
soul jt.jan, a. rou/fc. soup chorba. 
sound ses; saghlam; (to) sds- 

lemek; yoqlamaq. 
south g?6fc' ; a. jenoicb; (-east) kesh- 

ishleme; (-west) f. lodos. 
sow (to) ekmek. 
space yer, meydan; araliq. 
spade bel. span qarish. 
spark qighiljim, p. sherare. 
spectacles gebzluk. 
speech a. noutq, kelam; khitab. 
spell (to) hejelemek. (-ing) a. imla. 
spend (to) kharjamaq; sarf, telef 
spice bahar (Ar. pi. baharat). [et." 
spider ebrumjek. 
spinage ispanaq. 
spirit a. rouh; (liquor) f. ispirto; 

(courage) a.jesaret; (Holy — ) 

a. Rouhoul Qouds. 
spiritual a. rouhani. (-ity) -yet. 
spittle tukuruk. spleen dalaq. 
spoil (to) bozmaq, bozoulmaq. 
sponge sunger. spoon qashiq. 
spot leke; (place) a. mevqi, yer. 
spread (to) yayniaq, se'nxek. 
spring bahar, ilk bahar; yay. 

(-wagon) yayli araba. 
spur mahmouz. spy a. jasous. 
squadron f. filo, t. donanma. 
square debrt kebshe, a. murebba. 
stable akhir; tar la. 
stain leke. stag geyik. 
6tair basamaq; (pi.) merdicen. 
stale bayat. stalk saj>. 
stammerer peltek, keke. 
stamp damgha, poul; (revenue-) 

sened poulou; (postage-) posta 

poulou, niektoub poulou. 


3^*) Vocabulary Loughet-che. 


stanza a. &«?//#, fo'//? 1 . 
stand (to) dourmaq, ayaqda dour- 
maq; a. t. qayim olmaq. 
standard (flag) sanjaq, bayraq. 
star ylldiz, a. kevkeb, p. sitare. 
starch qola. start (to) yoZa c/wg- 

maq; mutevejjihen hareket et." 
state a.hal; devlet; beylik, miri. 
stay (to) qalmaq, otourmaq, eylen- 

steady muhkem. steal (to) chal- 

maq; sirqat etmek. 
steam a. boukhar, vulg. bouyhou, 

steamer f. vapor, steel chelik. 
step adim. steward vekilkharj. 
stick deynek; (to) saplamaq. 
stir (to) qhinldanmaq, a. hareket 

et.; qarishdlrmaq, alt Cist etmek. 
stirrup uzengi. stockings chorab. 
stomach a. mi'de, t. qarin. 
stone tasfr; (of fruit) che'yirdek. 
stool iskemle; chonqali, liavroz. 
stoop (to) eyilmek; meyillenmek. 
stop(to)[intr \\dourmaq.eyUnmek; 

storage maghaza kirasi; ardiye. 
store a. dfik'kian, f. maghaza; 

(pi.) a. zakhire; (-room) kilar, 

a. makhzen, a. ambar. 
stork leylek, haji leyh'k. 
storm f. fourtouna. storey qat. 
story a. naqliyet, hikiaye; ma sal. 
stove f. soba. strange a. gharib. 
stranger a. gharib; ejnebi; yabanji. 
strangle (to) boghmaq. 
straw sap; soman, (-berry) chi- 
stray yoldan sapmaq. [lek. 

stream chay, sou, aqindi. 
street a. soqaq, mahalle. 
strength a. qouvn't. 
strengthen (to) qouvvetlend irmek, 

taqviye et." 
stretch (to) germek; gerilmek. 
stretcher tejgere (destkt're). 
strike (to) vourmaq; chalmaq. 
string ip, sijim. 
strip (to) soymaq; soyoulmaq. 
strong a. qoucvetli. t. sirt. 
stupid surtuk, boudala ; shashqin. 
submission a. ita'at, inqiyad. 
substance a.jism; jivhir. 

substantive a. ism, ismi moutlaq. 

suburb i. varosh, keoy, a.jic/r. 

succeed (to) a. monuaffaq 61." ; ye- 
rine gechmek, a. khalef olmaq. 

suck (to) emmek. suet ich yaghi. 

suddenly nagehan, birden hire. 

sufTer (to) chekmek, zahmet chek- 
mek; (trans.) qomaq, braqmaq. 

suffocate (to) boghmaq; boghoul- 

suffix a. edat. [maq. 

sugar sheker. 

suit (of clothes) qat. 

summer yaz. sun gunesh. 

superior fayiq, ala, efzal; bebyuk. 

supper akhsham ta'ami. 
(Lord's -) Ashayi Babbani. 

support (to) dayanmaq; arqa ol- 
maq, a. iltimas, iltizam etmek. 

suppose (to) a. zann, farz etmek. 

sure (to be) eyi bilmek, emin ol- 
maq. surety a. kefil. 

surely a. elbette, moutlaqa. 

surface a. sath (sat-h), yuz. 

surgeon a.jer'rah. 

surgery jer'rahliq. 

surname a. laqab, kunye (§ 669). 

surprise a. te'-ajjub; (to) basqin 
vermek; shashirtmaq. 

surrender (to) a. teslim et." - 61. " 

suspect (to) shubhclenmek. 

suspicious shubheli, a. mejhoul. 

swallow qirlavgij; (to) youtmaq. 

swear (to) yemin et" sweat ter. 

sweep (to) supurmek, sweet tatli. 

swell (to) shishmek, qabarmaq. 

swelling shish. swift tez. 

swim (to) yuzmek. 

8 word qilij. syllable a. heji. 

sympathy a. riqqat, tevejjuh. 

symptom a. alamet, e'ser. 

syntax a. nahv. system a. ousoul. 

Table sofra, f. masa; &. jedvcl. 

table cloth sofra bezi. 

tail qouyrouq. tailor p. terzi. 

take (to) almaq; (- by force) 
zabt et."; jebren almaq. 

tale a. hikiaye, masal, ftqra. 

talk laqirdt ; (to) -et.", laflashmaq. 

tall ouzoun boylou. 

tallow don yaghi. 

tame allshiq, alishqan, mazloum. 

tar qatran. target p. nishanguih. 



Vocabulary Loughet-che. 


tariff a. narhh. Tartar Tatar. 
taste a. lezzet, t. tad; (to) tatmaq. 
tavern p. meyhane. qoltouq. 
tea f. chay. (- pot) chaydan. 
teach (to) ebyretmek, talim etmek. 
teacher p. hoja, a. mouallim. 
tear (to) yirtmaq; geoz yashi. 
telegram telegraf. 
telegraph telegraf; (to) - vour- 

maq, te'legraf chekmek. 
telescope p. dourbin vulg. diddul. 
tell (to) sebylemek, demek. 
temper a.mizaj, meshreb, tabiyat. 
tempest f. fourtouna, bora. 
temple a. heykel, md'bSd: (of the 

face) shaqaq yeri. 
tender a. nazik, t. youmshaq, 

a. mulayim. 
tent chadir. tepid Uijaq. 
terrace f. taratsa; dam, baja. 
terrible qorqounj, a. t. dehshedi. 
terrify (to) qorqoutmaq. 
thank (to) a. teshekkur it." (- you) 

teshekkur ederim, memnounoum 

(493, 498). 
thanks, thanksgiving a. shu- 

kraniyet, teshekkur. 
thick qalin. thief khirsiz. 
thimble yiiksitk. thin inje. 
thing a. she'y, pi. esh'ya. 
think (to) dushunmek; zann et- 
mek; tefekkur etmek. 
thirst (to) sousamaq; sousouzlouq, 

a. hararet. 
thirsty sousouz. 
thorn diken. thorny dikerili. 
thorough a. kiamil, tamm. 
thought a. fikir, tefekkur, muta- 

thread tel f iplik, tire, ebruslium. 
threshold qapou eshiyi, p. asitane. 
throat boghaz. throne takht. 
throw (to) atmaq, endakht et." 
thumb bash-par maq. 
thunder yildirim. 
thus beby'le. tie (to) baghlamaq. 
tiger peleng. tile kirimid. 
timber keresti. til) (to) herg et." 
time a. vaqit, zeman; de'fa, kerre. 
timid qorqaq. timidity - liq. 
tin qalay; teneke. 
tinder qav. tithe ebsht'ir, ondaliq. 

title a. laqab, pi. elqab, iinvan. 
toast (to) ekmek qlzartmaq; qa- 

deli toqoushdourmaq. 
tobacco tutun, p. doukhan. 
toe ayaq parmaglu. 
together beraber. token p.nishan. 
tomb a. mezar; turbe, marqad. 
tongs masha. tongue dil. 
tooth dish, top depe. 
torrent a. sel. torch a. meshala. 
tormenta. azab. tortoise iosbaghi. 
torture p. iskenje, a. eziyyet. 
total a. yekun. -ly a. kulliyen. 
touch (to) doqounmaq, deymek. 
touchstone a. meliekk, meheng 

towel havli. tower a. koule; bourj. 
town a. qarye; shehir. 
toy ojounjaq. 

trade a. tijaret, alish verish. 
trademark alameti fariqa, marqa. 
trader a. tajir, tujjar (512). 
tradition hadis, pi. ahadis; riva- 
train demir yol qatarh [yet. 

traitor a. khayin, yehouda. 
trample (to) chighnamaq, depe- 

translate (to) a. terjeme et." 
translator a. m uterj im . tray tepsi. 
transmigration a. tenasukh. 
trap douzaq, faq; slchan faqi. 
travel (to) a. seyahat et." , gezmek. 
treacherous a. khayin, chifteli. 
treacle pekmez. 
tread (to) basmaq. 
treacherous khayin. -chery khi- 

yanet, khayinlik. 
treasure a. khazine, mal. 
treaty a. mou'ahede, ahdname. 
tree aghaj. tremble titremek. 
trench meteris, hendek. 
triple iicli qat. tribute vergi. 
trinity salousou sherif. 
troop sum, keome; pi. bebh'ik. 
trouble siqinti, a. zahmet. 
trousers don; p. shalvar. 
truce a. wiitarekt'. true doghrou. 
truly a. filhaqiqa, haqiqaten. 
trumpet p. boron; borouzt'n. 
trunk gebvde; sandiq. 
truth a. haqiqat. 
try (to) ghayrct et.", clialishmaq. 


,-l1* Vocabulary Loughet-che. 


tube boron; peohre'ng. 
tumble (to youuarlanmaq. 
turban sariq. tune a. maqam. 
Turk turk. Turkish turicje. 
Turkey memaliki mahrouse. Tur- 

kiya (p. 126 ; hind tacoughou, 

teoktebk, choullouq. 
turn a. nevbet, neobct, sir a; 

(to) debnmek; chevirmek. 
turnip shalgam. 
turpentine neft yaghl. 
turtle tosbaglu. twilight a. shafaq. 
twin ekiz. twine sijim. 
tyranny a. zoulm, ghaddarliq. 
tyrant a. zalim, jebbar, direbeyi. 
Ugly chirkin. ugliness - Uk. 
ultimate soft, a. akhir. 
umbrella a. shemsiye. 
unanimous a. midtefiq, midtehid. 
unbeliever a. t. dinsiz, imansiz. 
uncircumcised a. t. siinnetsiz. 
unclean p. napak, mourdar. 
understand (to" anlamaq, fehm 
uniform f. uniforma. ctmtk. 

union a. ittifaq, ittihad. 
universal a. oumoumi. 
universe a. alem, jihan, kfayinat. 
university a. darul funan. 
unless p. meger, egerchi (478). 
unofficial a. ghayri resmi. 
unspeakable a. malakclam, seo- 

zum ona! 
unusual a. nadir Cd vouqoit. 
unwell v.amizaj. hast a, ke'yfsiz. 
unworthy p. a. nalayiq. up p. bala. 
usage a. adet. 

use a. fayde: to) qouUanmaq. 
useful a. faydeli. usual a. adi. 
utter to a.tele'ffiiz et.; seoylemek. 
urgent a. ajele, miista'jel, be'jid. 
Tacant bosh; a. mahlul. 
vaccinate to) ash etmek, ash- 

vaccination aslii, chichek ashlsi. 
valet oda oushaghi, oushaq. 
valley dere. valour a. sheja'at. 
vanish (to) a. ghayib oh nihan ol. 
varie t y chesh idlenw e, tene'u' v u . 
various durlu durlu, a. muthievvi. 
varnish (to) a.jila surmek, jila- 

vault p. keme'r. veal dana-eti. 

vegetables p. sebzevat, vulg. zar- 

veil yashmaq; eortu, f. veto. 

vein damar. velvet qadife. 

venerable a. miihte're'm, mukerrem. 

vengence a. intiqam. 

Venus a. out arid. 

veranda tahtaposh, f. taratsa. 

verbal aghizdan, a. shifahi. 

verge ke'nar. vermicelli shehriye. 

verse (of Bible) a. ayet; (poetry) 
a. beyt, pi. ebyat. 

version a. terjeme. vest qaftan. 

veterinary surgeon a. baytar. 

vex (to) gxijendirmek, eziye't ver- 

vial shishe. victim a. qourban. 

victor a. ghalib. 

victuals yeyejek. 

view a. menzarc; opinion) rey. 

vigour qouvvet. village kedy. 

vine asma. vinegar sirke. 

vineyard bagh. 

violate (to) bozmaq. 

violent shiddetli, sert. 

violet a. benefshe; (colour) mor. 

violin keman. viper engere'k. 

virgin a. bakire, qiz. 

virtue a. fazilet. 

visible gebrunur. vision a. rouya. 

visit f. viz it a. a. ziyaret; (to) - et- 
mek, vizitaya, ziyarete gitmek. 

visitor a. musafir, ziyaretji. 

vocabulary a. p. loughetche(54:i). 

voice ses, a. seda. 

volcano ateshfishan. 

volley yaylim atesh. volume 

volunteer gebnullu. [a. jild. 

vomit (to^) qousmaq. 

vow a. dhd, nezr; (to - et. 

vowel a.harfl imla; hareke. 

voyage de'niz yoljouloughou, sefer. 

vulgar a. adi. qaba. 

vulture aqbaba. 

Wag to) sallamaq; sallanmaq. 

wager (to) bahs toutmaq, bes tout- 

wages a. ujret, t. gicndelik, ayliq. 

waggon araba. waist bel. 

waistcoat yelek. 

wait to heklcmek. [maq. 

wake (to) ouyanmaq, ouyandir- 


^:J Vocabulary Longhet-che. 


walk (to) yebriunek. wall p. divar. 
walnut a. jeviz. want (to) istemek. 
war qavga, a. liarb, mouharebe. 
warehouse f. maghaza, a. d/ukkian. 
warm sijaq. warmth -liq. 
wash (to) yiyqamaq. waste a. telef. 
watch sa'at; neobet; (to) beklemek. 
water sou. wave dalga. 
wax bal moumou. way ?/oZ. 
weak a. zayif; hafif. -ness -Kife. 
wealth zenginlik, servet. 
wealthy zengin. weapon a. silah. 
wear (to) geymek; ashinmaq. 

(-out) esgimek, ipranmaq. 
weary yorgoun. weather a. hava. 
Aveek hafta. weep (to) aghlamaq. 
weigh (to) tartmaq. weight tarti. 
welcome! boyour, bouyouroun! 
well qouyou; eyi; pek eyi! 
west gunbati, bati, a. gharb. 
wet islaq, yash. wharf f. isgele. 
wheat boughday, a. htnta. 
wheel tekerlek; (machine) charkh. 
whip qamcM; (to) qamclulamaq. 
whisper (to) fisildemek. 
whistle (to) isliq chalmaq. 
white aq, a. beyaz. wmole butun. 
wick fitil. wicked kebtu. 
wickedness -luk, a. fesad, slierr. 
wide enli, genish. 
widow doul qari. 
will gebnul, a. murad; vasiyet. 
wind p. ruzguxr, t. ye?, 
window pen j ere. 
wine sharab. winter glsft. 
wing qanad; qol. 
wipe (to) silmek. 
wire teZ. wisdom agZ. 
wise a. aqUli, aqil. 
wish a. arzou, khahish; istemek. 
without - siz. - home &si#. 
witness a. slialiid; shehadet. 
witty a. .sar?'/'. wolf qourt. 
womb a. rahim, t. qarin. [et." 
wonder a. hay ret, te'ajjub; (to) 
wood cigliaj; odoun; orman. 
wool yoim, yapaglii. 

word sebz, a. kelam; lafz, kelime. 

work a. amel, t.ish; (to) ishlemek. 

workman a. amele, t. is%/i. 

world diinya, kureyi arz. 

worm soghouljau. worn out &</i. 

worse dah'a kedtii, p. feeier. 

worship a. ibadet. (to) - <?V 

worst en kebtu. worth a. qiyrnet. 

worthy a. laylq. wound yara. 

wounded yarali, a. mejrouh. 

wrap (to) sarmaq. wrath a. hiddet. 

wrestle (to) gulesh toutmaq. 

wretched p. perishan, a. zevalli. 

wrist bilek; p. bazou. 

write (to) yazmaq, a. tahrir etmek. 

writer yaziji, a. mouliarrir. 

writing yazi, a. kliatt. 

written yazilmish, a. moaharrer. 

wrong yanlisli, a. khata. 

Yard arshin, f. yarda; havli. 

yawn (to) esnemek. 

year ?/2Z, a. 6tW ; p. saZ. 

yearly a. senevi, yilliq. 

yeast maya. 

yell (to) baghirmaq, a.feryad et"; 

yellow sari. (- berries) jehri. 

yes! eyt'et, <?W£, p. beli. 

yet a. emma, velakin, faqat. 

yoke boyoundourouq; chift. 

yolk youmourta sarish 

young <7ew/ ; deliqanli, a.jahil. 

youth genjlik, a. shebabet. 

Zeal ghayret; hamiyet, te'assub. 

zealous a. gliayyour, mute'assib. 

zenith semturres. 

zephyr p. a. badi saba, nesim. 

zero sifir. zinc chinqo. 

zigzag eyribuyru, dolambaj, y\- 

Zion Siyon, Sfliyoun. 

zodiac a. mintaqat id bourouj. 

zone a. mintaqa. torrid, tempe- 
rate, glacial — . a. mintaqayi 
barrS, mintaqayi mutedile, 
mintaqayi m unjemide. 

zoology a. ilmi hayvanat. 




(The figures refer to the sections.) 

Ablative case 85. 

About, how rendered 453. 

Above, how rendered 453. 

Abstract noun, t. 163, p. 543. 
a. 581. 

Accelerative verbs 286. 

Accent of words 49. 

Accusative case 83. 106; Ar. ace. 
used as an adverb 681 ; inde- 
finite accusative page 40. note. 

Active verbs see Transitive 

Address, modes of 494. 

Adjectival pronoun 138. 

Adjectives: precede the noun 61. 
148, 171; derivative 149, p. 524; 
numeral 192, p. 521, a. 685; 
regular verbal 436, p. 553, 
a. 606 ; irregular verbal 439-97 ; 
adjective of quality p. 553, 
a. 606: adjective of colour and 
defect 608; agreement of 653. 

Adverbial: demonstratives 144; 
expressions of time 466. 

Adverbs : 455-66 ; distinctive 212, 
p. 684, a. 681. 

Affixes, pronominal possessive 

Age of a person 196. 

Alphabet,lettersoftheTurkish 1. 

Antonyms 669. 

Any, how rendered 131. 

Aorist tense 326-38. 

Armeno-Turkish 5. 

Article: definite 59, a. 661, in- 
definite 60, a. 661. 

As — as — , how rendered 179, 
229, 479. 

As — so — , how rendered 479. 

Assimilation of Arab, letters 700. 

At, how rendered 453. 

Auxiliary verbs 272. 

Ayn, the letter 36. 

Barbarisms 507, 583, 660. 

Because 478, how rendered 427. 

Both, how rendered 136, 469. 

Broken or irregular Ar. plural 

But, how rendered 130. 

By, how rendered 232, 453. 

Calendar, the Ottoman-Turkish 
215.Hejiraticpage424. Finan- 
cial page 425. 

Capital letters 2. 

Cardinal numbers 74. 

Causal, causative verbs 253; the 
formula of 262-64. compound 
275, derivative 281. 

Comparison of adjectives 222-27, 
p. 559, a. 606; of Eng. and 
Turk, participles 410,418,428. 

Compound adj. see Derivative 
adj. Compound Ar. words 693. 

Compound verbs 272-82. 

Compound words 308. 

Congratulations 486. [431. 

Conjugation of Turk, verbs page 

Conjunctions 467-79; the num- 
ber very limited 430; hi avoid- 
ed 392. 

Conjunctive tense 335. 

Connected letters 24. 

Consonants: compound 7. 

Construction: of sentences 128 
to 129; of participial sentences 
410; of nouns with nouns 

Continuative tenses 300. 

Copula (dir) 67. 

Dakhi 117. Be 115-16. 

Date, how expressed 192. 

Dative, Turkish case 82, 237. 

Declension of nouns 79, 86 to 
90; a. 670. 



General-Index ^j^ 

.~>jf Fihristi oumoumi. 


Definite article 59, 661. 

Demonstrative adj. 64, 141-44, 
a. 674. 

Derivative: adjectives 149; p. 526 
to 588; nouns 161; p. 540, 
a. 596, verbs 276-82 ; nouns and 
adj. der. from verbs 436-50; 
a. infinitives 588, 613-32. 

Deyi, deyou 392. 

Diminutives 156, 167; p. 544; 

Diphthongs 10. [a. 692. 

Distinctive adverbs 212. 

Distributive numerals 213. 

Each other, how expressed 191. 

Ebje'd hisabi 14, 15 (see more 
in the Key, page 8). 

Either — or — , how rendered 
137, 472. 

Elif, the four kinds 29. 

Esre 22, 23. Eotre 22-23. 

Emphasis 49 4 , 66. 

Euphony of vowels 50-54. 

Excess, noun of 611. 

Ezan 503. 

Fractional numbers 204; a. 690. 

Future tense 357-64; of parti- 
ciples 401-409. 

Gef, giaf; the letter 34. 

Gender of nouns 62; a. 562. 

Gerunds pp. 206-207. 

Gliayn, the letter 36. 

Greek alphabet, the order of 14. 

Graeco-Turkish 5. 

Half, how expressed 75, 207. 

Have : the verb to — , with an 
indef. object 119, 122; with 
a definite object 127; con- 
ditional and dubitative tenses 
of 241 ; followed by an In- 
finitive 393; conjug. page 433. 

Hebrew alphabet, the order of 14. 

He, three sounds of 32. 

Eemze 29, 38-41. 

Hours, how to ask 78, 194. 

How many, how much 133, 134. 

If, how rendered 239, 281, 282. 

Imperative mood 248, 316. 

Imperfect tense 322. 

Impersonal Eng. verbs 298. 

In, how rendered 232, 237, 453. 

Indicative mood 305, 307. 

Infinitive 248; derivative forms 

of 288; used as substantive 
289, 299; declension of 289; 
with pronom. affixes 290; 
p. 545; a. 584; primitive 586, 
triliteral 589, derivative trilit. 
588, 613; quadriliteral 595. 

Instead of, how rendered 425. 

Instrumental : case 232, noun 162, 
450; p. 542; a. 599. 

Interjections 480. 

Interrogative, particle mi 49, 
66 ; pronoun 169. 

Intransitive verbs 252 ; derivative 
277-79; compound 273. 

Irregular Arabic plural 636-52. 

Izafet 107-113; p. 513; a. 668. 

Jezma or Sukun 42. Kendi 
different uses of 147. 

Kicif, Jcef, for kinds of 34 ; changed 
into y 52 2 , 88-89. 

Languages, names of 153. 

Letters: of Ottoman-Turk, alpha- 
bet 2 ; purely Turk, and Pers. 
letters 2, 662; division of 16; 
vowel 27; connected and un- 
connected 25 ; of prolongation 
28; servile 259, a. 587; lunar 
and solar 663. 

Location : postpositions indicat- 
ing — or rest 237, 453; noun 
of, 162, 449; p. 541; a. 598. 

Locative: case, how made 77, 

Long vowels 28. [84, 237. 

Lunar letters 663. 

Measures of verbs 261; a. 593. 

Medda, the sign of 47. 

Minutes, how reckoned 195. 

Modification of Arab, letters 702. 

Months page 97. 

Moods of verbs 303—314; of 
participles 399, 411. 

Motion, postpositions indicating 
237, 453. 

Multiplicative numbers 197. 

Nations, names of 151, page 79; 
p. 527; a. 580 c. 

Necessitative tense 384 — 94. 

Negative form of verbs 249, 269; 
of potential verbs 285. 

Neuter verbs. See Intransitive 
verbs. Nominative case 80, 292. 
Nisbe p. 527, a 579. 


General-Index , .* »J- 

,~. r>) Fihristi oumoumi. 


Nominatival form of Genitive 

and Accusative cases page 40, 

note; 293. 
Noun: of relationship 149, p. 527, 

a. 579; derivative 161; dimi- 
nutive 156, 167, p. 544. a. 692; 

of excess 448, p. 539, a. 611; 

of location 449, p. 541, a. 598; 

of instrument 450, 542, 599; 

of superioritv 609 ; with Mim 

Number, of nouns 79, p. 508, 

a. 566; ordinal 209, a. 687; 

cardinal 74, 192; a. 686; 

fractional 204, 690; adverbs 

197, 688. 
Numerals: and numeration by 

letters 12; p. 521; a. 685. 
Nunation 48, 661, 669 a. 
Object: definite page 40, note, 

291; indefinite page 40, 109 

251 291. 
Objective: case 83. 129, 281 

participle 402, p. 548, a. 604 
Oblique cases of relative pron 

Of, sign of genitive case 81. 
Omission, of letters p. 560. 
On, how rendered 282, 237, 426, 

One, how rendered 189, 191. 
Onomatopoeia 502. 
Optative tense 365-75; approa- 
ching to the suppositive past 

Or, how rendered 200. 
Order of construction 410. 
Ordinal numbers 209, a. 687. 
Orthographic signs 19, 20, 42. 
Orthography, the Turkish 55; 

the rules of 56-57. 
Own, how expressed 146. 
Participles 395; Subjective mood 

401; p. 549; a. 601, 633; Ob- 
jective mood 411 ; p. 548, 555, 

a. 604. 
Passive verbs 254 ; the formula 

of 265-67; compound 274; 

derivative 277. 
Past: habitual 335; participle 

401, 405; suppositive 379. 
Personal pronouns 63, 92-106. 

Pluperfect tense 349; of parti- 
ciples 401, 402, 406. 

Plural 68; p. 508; a. 571, reg. 
masc. 573, reg. fern. 576, irre- 
gular 636. 

Possessive: pronoun 95-106; 
a. 673; case 81; affixes 96. 

Potential verbs 283. 

Prepositions or postpositions 
230-37,451-54; p. 557; a, 671. 

Present tense : continuative 300 ; 
indicative 318-25; progressive 
320; subj. participle 403; of 
subjective verb 65. 

Preterite tense 342. 

Primitive verbs 257; a. 586. 

Professional nouns 157, 164. 

Pronouns: personal 63, 92; 
demonstrative 64,141; posses- 
sive 95; adjectival 138; re- 
flexive 145; interrogative 169; 
indefinite 178; p. 680; a. 672. 

Punctuation, marks of 2. 

Qaf, the letter 33, 52 \ 88, 89. 

Quadriliteral verbs 595. 

Quality, adj. of, p. 553; a. 606. 

Quantity, adverbs of 465. 

Quiescent letters 42, 700. 

R. the letter, how* articulated, 
page 8; 11. 

Reciprocal verbs 255; the for- 
mula of 268 ; derivative 280. 

Reflexive: pron. 145; verbs 256, 
the formula of 265-67. 

Relationship, noun of, 149 ; p. 526; 
a. 519. 

Relative: pronoun 397, p. 397, 
a. 675; clause 410. 

Religions and denominations 
page 146. 

Rest, postpositions indicating 
237, 453. 

Roots, Persian 554. Ar. 593. 

Salutation 482, page 379. 

Self, how rendered 145. 

Sentences, order of 410. 

Services, the Christian 504. 

Servile letters 259; a. 587. 

Slu-dda, the sign of 45. 

Signs, orthographic 19, 20, 42. 

Simple verbs 257 ; a. 586. 

Solar letters 663. 


General-Index . .» Jr 

»jf Fihristi oumoumi. 


Solecisms 507, 583, 660. 

Some, somebody 135, 190. 

Subject: when pronoun omitted 
70, 102, 120; of the infinitives 
in genitive 292; as an object 
293; of participles and ge- 
runds 329. 

Subjective mood 399-410. 

Subjunctive tense 377-83. 

Substantive verb 309; present 
tense 65, 72; preterite 73; 
conditional 238. 

Substitution p. 558. 

Superiority, noun of 222; p. 559; 
a. 609. 

Superlative adj. 224-27; a. 606. 

Suppositive tense 377-83. 

Surnames 168, a. 669 2 . 

Symphonious terminations 698. 

Synonymous words 696. 

Tenses: present 318, aorist 326, 
past 341, dubitative 351, fu- 
ture 357, optative 365, sup- 
positive 377, necessitative 384. 

Tenveen 48, 661. 

Terjiyi Bend page 303, in the 

Terhibi Bend page 303. 

Terms of endearment 167. 

The - the -, how rendered 346. 

There is, how expressed 76. 

Though, how rendered 239, 240. 

Titles: of respect 69, honorific 

To thank, page 384. 

To, how rendered 232, 237, 

Transitive verbs 251, double 270, 

the formula of 262-64, com- 
pound 272, derivative 276. 

Triliteral verbs: primitive 589; 
derivative 613. 

Turkish equivalents, for some 
English prepositions 453, con- 
junctions 479. 

Unconnected letters 24. 

Upon, how rendered 82, 237. 

Vstun 21, 22, 23. 

Variative numerals 198. 

VaVj four kinds of 30. [p. 550. 

Verbal nouns 288-99, 443-50; 

Verbal adjectives, regular 436, 
irregular 437-42 ; p. 553 ; a. 606. 

Verbs: accelerative 286, auxi- 
liary 272, causal or causative 
253, derivative 276-282, the 
finite 306, infinitive of 247, 
passive 254, potential 283, 
reciprocal 255, reflexive 256, 
substantive 65, 72, 73, 238, 
252, 309. Persian 545; Arabic 

Vowel: letters 16, hard 22, soft 
23, signs 20, simple and 
double 6. 

Vowelled letters 42. 

When, how rendered 426. 

Without, how rendered 160. 

Words, denoting obligation 391. 

Writing, four kinds of 3. 

Y, the letter, 9, 41 ; inserted to 
avoid hiatus 41, 53, 91, 284, 
287, 528, 543. 

Yaf, yef, the letter 34 IV. 

Yet, how expressed 239. 

Yiik (plum, lack) 193 b. 

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Educational Works and Glass-Books 

Method Gtaspey-Otto-Sauer 



•With each newly-learnt language one wins a new soul.» Charles V' 

«At the end of the 19 th century the world is ruled hy the interest for 
trade and traffic; it breaks through the harriers which separate 
the peoples and ties up new relations between the nations. > 

William II. 

tfJulius Groos, Publisher, has for the last fifty years been devoting his 
special attention to educational works on modern languages, and has published 
a large number of class-books for the study of those modern languages most 
generally spoken. In this particular department he is in our opinion unsur- 
passed by any other German publisher. The series consists of 200 volumes 
of different sizes which are all arranged on the same system, as is easily 
seen by a glance at the grammars which so closely resemble one another, 
that an acquaintance with one greatly facilitates the study of the others. 
This is no small advantage in these exacting times when the knowledge of one 
language alone is hardly deemed sufficient. 

The textbooks of the Gaspey-Otto-Sauer method have, within the 
last ten years, acquired an universal reputation, increasing in pro- 
portion as a knowledge of living languages has become a necessity of modern 
life. The chief advantages, by which they compare favorably with thousands 
of similar books, are lowness of price and good appearance, the happy union 
of theory and practice, the clear scientific basis of the grammar proper com- 
bined with practical conversational exercises, and the system, here 
conceived for the first time and consistently carried out, by which the pupil is 
really taught to speak and write the foreign language. 

The grammars are aU divided into two parts, commencing with a 
systematic explanation of the rules for pronunciation, and are again sub- 
divided into a number of Lessons, Each Part treats of the Parts of Speech 
in succession, the first giving a rapid sketch of the fundamental rules, which 
are explained more fully in the second. 

The rules appear to us to be clearly given, they are explained by examples, 
and the exercises are quite sufficient. 

To this method is entirely due the enormous success with which the 
Qaspey-Otto-Sauer textbooks have met; most other grammars either 
content themselves with giving the theoretical exposition of the grammatical 
forms and trouble the pupil with a confused mass of the most far-fetched 
irregularities and exceptions without ever applying them, or go 

Method Gaspey-Otto-Sauer 

for the study of modern languages. 

to the other extreme, and simply teach him to repeat in a parrot- 
like manner a few colloquial phrases without letting him grasp the 
real genius of the foreign language. 

The system referred to is easily discoverable: 1. in the arrangement of 
the grammar; 2. in the endeavour to enable the pupil to understand a 
regular text as soon as possible, and above all to teach him to speak the 
foreign language; this latter point was considered by the authors so particu- 
larly characteristic of their works, that they have styled them — to distinguish 
them from other works of a similar kind — Conversational Grammars, 

The first series comprises manuals for the use of Englishmen and 
consists of 38 volumes. 

Our admiration for this rich collection of works, for the method dis* 
played and the fertile genius of certain of the authors, is increased when we 
examine the other series, which are intended for the use of foreigners. 

In these works the chief difficulty under which several of the authors 
have laboured, has been the necessity of teaching a language in a foreign 
idiom; not to mention the peculiar difficulties which the German idiom offers 
in writing school-books for the study of that language. 

We must confess that for those persons who, from a practical point 
of view, wish to learn a foreign language sufficiently well to enable them to 
write and speak it with ease, the authors have set down the grammatical 
rules in such a way, that it is equally easy to understand and to learn them. 

Moreover, we cannot but commend the elegance and neatness of the type 
and binding of the books. It is doubtless on this account too that these 
volumes have been received with so much favour and that several have reached 
such a large circulation. 

We willingly testify that the whole collection gives proof of much care 
and industry, both with regard to the aims it has in view and the way in 
which these have been carried out, and, moreover, reflects great credit on the 
editor, this collection being in reality quite an exceptional thing of its kind. 1 ' 

. . . . t. 
(Extract from the Literary Review,) 

All books bound. 

Method Graspey-Otto-Sauer 

for the study of modern languages. 

English Editions. 

Elementary Modem Armenian Grammar by Gulian .... 

Dutch Conversation-Grammar by Yalette. 2. Ed 

Key to the Dutch Convers.-Graminar by Valette 

Dutch Reader by Valette. 2. Ed 

French Conversation-Grammar by Otto-Onions. 13. Ed. . . net 

Key to the French Convers.-Grammar by Otto-Onions. 8. Ed 

Elementary French Grammar by Wright. 3. Ed 

French Reader by Onions 

Materials for French Prose Composition by Otto-Onions. 5. Ed. . . 
French Dialogues by Otto-Corkran 

German Conversation-Grammar by Otto. 28. Ed 

Key to the German Convers.-Grammar by Otto. 20. Ed 

Elementary German Grammar by Otto. 8. Ed 

First German Book by Otto. 9. Ed 

German Reader. I. 8. Ed.; II. 5. Ed.; III. 2. Ed. by Otto . . each 
Materials for translating English into German by Otto-Wright. 7. Ed. 

Key to the Mater, f. tr. Engl. i. Germ, by Otto. 3. Ed 

German Dialogues by Otto. 5. Ed 

Accidence of the German language by Otto-Wright. 2. Ed. . . . 

Handbook of English and German Idioms by Lange 

German Verbs with their appropriate prepositions etc. by Tebbitt . 
The If ansa language (DieHaussasprache; la langue haoussa) bySeidel 

Italian Conversation-Grammar by Sauer. 8. Ed 

Key to the Italian Convers.-Grammar by Sauer. 7. Ed 

Elementary Italian Grammar by Motti. 3. Ed 

Italian Reader by Cattaneo 

Italian Dialogues by Motti 

Japanese Conversation-Grammar by Plaut 

Key to the Japanese Conv. -Grammar by Plant 

Modern Persian Conversation-Grammar by St. Clair-Tisdall . 
Key to the Mod. Persian Convers.-Grammar by St. Clair-Tisdall ..... 

Portuguese Conversation-Grammar by Kordgien and Kunow 
Key to the Portuguese Convers.-Grammar by Kordgien and Kunow 

Russian Conversation-Grammar by Motti. 3. Ed 

Key to the Russian Convers.-Grammar by Motti. 3. Ed 

Elementary Russian Grammar by Motti. 2. Ed 

Key to the Elementary Russian Grammar by Motti. 2. Ed 

Russian Reader by Werkhaupt and Roller 

Spanish Conversation-Grammar by Sauer - de Arteaga. 7. Ed. net 
Key to the Spanish Convers.-Grammar by Sauer -de Arteaga. 5. Ed. 

Elementary Spanish Grammar by Pavia . 2. Ed 

Spanish Reader by Sauer-Rohrich. 2. Ed 

Spanish Dialogues by Sauer-Corkran 

Elementary Swedish Grammar by Fort 

Turkish Conversation -Grammar by Hagopian 

Key to the Turkish Convers.-Grammar by Hagopian 

Arabic Edition. 

Kleine deutsche Sprachlehre fur Araber von Hartmann .... 

Armenian Edition. 
Elementary English Grammar for Armenians by Gulian .... 

Method Graspey-Otto-Sauer 

for the study of modern languages. 

Bulgarian Edition. 

Kleine deutsche Sprachlehre fur Bulgaren von Gawriysky . . 
German Editions. 

Arabische Konversations-Grammatik v. Harder 

8chliissel dazu v. Harder 

Chinesisclie Konversations-Grammatik v. Seidel 

Schlussel dazu v. Seidel 

Kleine chinesisclie Sprachlehre v. Seidel 

Schlussel dazu v. Seidel 

Danisclie Konversations-Grammatik v. Wied 

Schlussel dazu v. Wied 

Duala Sprachlehre und Worterbuch v. Seidel 

Englisclie Konversations-Grammatik v. Gaspey-Runge. 24. Aufl. 
Schlussel dazu v. Runge. (Nur fiir Lehrer und zum Selbstunterricht.) 4. Aufl. 
Englisches Konversations-Lesebuch v. Gaspey-Runge. 6. Aufl. . . 

Kleine englische Sprachlehre v. Otto-Runge. 6. Aufl 

Englische Gesprache v. Runge. 2. Aufl 

Materialien z. Ubersetzen ins Englische v. Otto-Runge. 3. Aufl. . . 

Englische Chrestomathie v. Siipfle- Wright. 9. Aufl 

Handbuch englischer und deutscher Idiome v. Lange 

Ewe Sprachlehre und Worterbuch v. Seidel 

Kleine finnische Sprachlehre v. Neuhaus 

Franzosische Konversations-Grammatik v. Otto-Runge. 28. Aufl. 
Schlussel dazu v. Runge. (Nur fiir Lehrer und zum Selbstunterricht.) 5. Aufl. 
Franz. Konv.-Lesebuch I. 9. Aufl., II. 5. Aufl. v. Otto-Runge. a . . 
Franz. Konv.-Leseb. f. Madchsch. v. Otto-Runge I. 5. Aufl., II. 3. Aufl. a 
Kleine franzosische Sprachlehre v. Otto-Runge. 8. Aufl 

Schlussel dazu v. Kunge 

Franzosische Gesprache v. Otto-Runge. 8. Aufl 

Franzosisches Lesebuch v. Siipfle. 11. Aufl 

Italienische Konversations-Grammatik v. Sauer. 12. Aufl. . . 
Schlussel dazu v. Cattaneo. (Nur fiir Lehrer und zum Selbstunterricht.) 4. Aufl. 

Italienisches Konversations-Lesebuch v. Sauer. 5. Aufl 

Italienische Chrestomathie v. Cattaneo. 3. Aufl 

Kleine italienische Sprachlehre v. Sauer. 9. Aufl 

Schlussel dazu v. Cattaneo 

Italienische Gesprache v. Sauer-Motti. 5. Aufl 

tlbungsstucke zum Ubers. a. d. Deutschen i. Ital. v. Lardelli. 4. Aufl. 

Japanische Konversations-Grammatik von Plaut 

Schlussel dazu von Plaut 

Marokkanische Sprachlehre v. Seidel 

Itfengriechische Konversations-Grammatik v. Petraris .... 

Schlussel dazu v. Petraris 

Lehrbuch der neugriechischen Volkssprache v. Petraris 

Niederlandische Konversations-Grammatik v. Valette. 2. Aufl. 

8chlu9sel dazu v. Valette • 

Niederlandisches Konv.-Lesebuch v. Valette. 2. Aufl 

Kleine niederlandische Sprachlehre v. Valette. 3. Aufl 

Polnische Konversations-Grammatik v. Wicherkiewicz. 2. Aufl. . 

Schlussel dazu v. Wicherkiewicz. 2. Aufl ^ 

Portugiesisclie Konversations-Grammatik v. Kordgien. 2. Aufl. 

Schlliss'el dazu v. Kordgien. 2. Aufl 

Kleine portugiesische Sprachlehre v. Kordgien-Ey. 4. Aufl. . . . 
Russische Konversations-Grammatik v. Fuchs-Wyczlinski. 4. Aufl. 

Schlussel dazu v. Fuchs-Wyczlinski. 4. Aufl 

Russisches Konversations-Lesebuch v. Werkhaupt 

Kleine russische Sprachlehre v. Motti. 2. Aufl 

Schlussel dazu v. Motti. 2. Aufl 

Method Graspey-Otto-Sauer 

for the study of modern langnages. 

German Editions. 

Schwedische Konversations-Grammatik v. Walter 

Schlussel dazu v. Walter 

Kleine schwedische Sprachlehre v. Fort 

Spanische Konversations-Grammatik v. Sauer-Ruppert. 9. Anfl. 

8chliissel ciazu v. Ruppert. 3. Aufl 

Spanisches Lesebuch v. Sauer-Rohrich. 2. Aufl 

Kleine spanische Sprachlehre v. Sauer. 6. Aufl 

Schlussel dazu von Runge . 

Spanische Gesprache v. Sauer. 3. Aufl 

Spanische Rektionsliste v. Sauer-Kordgien 

Suahili Konversations-Grammatik v. Seidel 

Schlussel dazu v. Seidel 

Suahili Worterbuch v. Seidel 

Tsehechische Konversations-Grammatik von Maschner . . . . 

Schlussel dazu von Maschner 

Tiirkische Konversations-Grammatik v. Jehlitschka 

Schlussel dazu v. Jehlitschka 

Kleine nngarische Sprachlehre v. Nagy 

French. Editions. 

Grammaire allemande par Otto-Nicolas. 17. Ed 

Corrige des themes de la Grammaire allemande par Otto-Nicolas. 6. Ed. . 

Petite grammaire allemande par Otto-Verrier. 9. Ed 

Lectures allemandes par Otto. I. 7. Ed., II. 5. Ed.. III. 2. Iild. a 

Erstes deutsches Lesebuch von Yerrier 

Conversations allemandes par Otto-Verrier. 5. l£d ' . . 

Grammaire anglaise par Mauron-Verrier. 10. ^d 

Corrige des themes de la Grammaire anglaise par Mauron-Verrier. 5. Ed. . 

Petite grammaire anglaise par Mauron. 6. Iild 

Lectures anglaises par Mauron. 2. £& 

Conversations anglaises par Corkran 

Grammaire arabe par Armez 

Corrige des themes de la Grammaire arabe par Armez 

Grammaire grecque par Capo3 

Ccrrige des themes de la Grammaire grecque par Capos 

Petite grammaire hongroise par Kont 

Grammaire italieiine par Sauer. 10. £&. 

Corrige des themes de la Grammaire italienne par Sauer. 6. Ed 

Petite grammaire italienne par Motti. 4. Ed 

Chrestomathie italienne par Cattaneo. 2. l£d 

Conversations italiennes par Motti 

Grammaire japonaise par Plaut 

Corrige des themes de la Grammaire japonaise par Plaut 

Grammaire neerlandaise par Valette. 2. £d 

Corrige des themes de la Grammaire neerlandaise par Valette 

Lectures neerlandaises par Valette. 2. Ed 

Grammaire portugaise par Armez 

Corrige de la Grammaire portugaise par Armez 

Grammaire rnsse par Fuchs-Nicolas. 4. ^d 

Corrige des themes de la Grammuire russe par Fuchs-Nicolas. i. Ed. 

Petite^ grammaire russe par Motti. 2. ^d 

Corrige des themes de la petite grammaire russe par Motti. 2. £.6. 

Lectures russes par Werkhaupt et Roller 

Grammaire espagnole par Sauer-Serrano. 5. ^d 

Corrige des themes de la gramm. espagn. par Sauer-Serrano. 4. Ed. 

Petite grammaire espagnole par Tanty. 2. £d 

Lectures espagnoles par Sauer-Rohrich. 2. l£d 

Petite grammaire suedoise par Fort 

Method Graspey-Otto-Sauer 

for the study of modern languages. 

Greek Editions. 

Kleine deutsclie Sprachlehre far Griechen von Maltos . . 
Deutsche Gesprache fiir Griechen von Maltos 

Italian Editions- 

Grammatica tedesca di Sauer-Ferrari. 7. Ed 

Chiave della Grammatica tedesca di Sauer-Ferrari. 3. Ed 

Grammatica elementare tedesca di Otto. 5. Ed 

Letture tedesche di Otto. 5. Ed 

Antologia tedesca di Verdaro 

Conversazioni tedesche di Motti. 2. Ed 

Avviamento al trad, dal ted. in ital. di Lardelli. 4. Ed. . . 

Grammatica inglese di Pavia. 5. Ed 

Chiave della grammatica inglese di Pavia. 2. Ed 

Grammatica elementare inglese di Pavia. 3. Ed. ..... 

Grammatica francese di Motti. 3. Ed 

Chiave della grammatica francese di Motti. 2. Ed 

Grammatica elementare francese di Sauer-Motti. 3. Ed. . . 
Letture francesi di Le Boucher 

Grammatica russa di Motti 

Chiave della grammatica russa di Motti 

Grammatica spagnuola di Pavia. 3. Ed 

Chiave della Grammatica spagnuola di Pavia. 2. Ed 

Grammatica elementare spagnuola di Pavia. 3. Ed 

Grammatica elementare svedese di Pereira 

Dutch Editions. 

Kleine Engelsche Spraakkunst door Coster 

Kleine Fransche Spraakkunst door Welbergen 

Kleine Hoogduitsche Grammatica door Schwippert. 2. Dr. 

Polish Edition. 

Kleine deutsche Sprachlehre fiir Polen von Paulus . . . 

Portuguese Editions. 

Grammatica allema por Otto-Prevot. 3. Ed 

Chave da Grammatica allema por Otto-Prevot. 2. Ed 

Grammatica elementar allema por Pre'vot-Pereira. 3. Ed. . . 

Grammatica franceza per Tanty-Vasconcellos. 2. Ed. . . 
Chave da Grammatica franceza por Tanty-Vasconcellos. 2. Ed. 

Livro de leitura franceza por Le Boucher 

Grammatica elementar sneca por Pereira 

Rouman Editions. 

Gramatica germana de Leist 

Cheea gramaticil germane de Leist 

Elemente de gramatica germana de Leist. 2. Ed 

Conversa^iuni germane de Leist. 2. Ed. • 

Gramatica francesa de Leist 

Cheea gramaticii francese de Leist 

Elemente de gramatica francesa de Leist. 2. Ed 

Conversation! francese de Leist. 3. Ed 

r. m ,u , n 

Method Gaspey-Otto-Saner 

for the study of modern languages. 

Russian Editions- 

En«;lisli Grammar for Russians by Hauff 

Key to the English Grammar for Russians by Hauff .... 
Deutsche Grammatik i'iir Russen von Hauff .... 
Schliissel znr deutschen Grammatik fiir Russen von Hauff . 
Grammaire francaise a l'usage des Russes par Malkiel 

Corrige de la Grammaire francaise a l'usage des Russes par Malkiel . 

Servian Editions. 

Elementary English Grammar for Servians by Petrovitch . . 
Petite grammaire francaise pour Serbes par Petrovitch . . . 

S^vedish Edition. 

Kleine deutsche Sprachlehre fiir Schweden von Walter . . . 

Spanish Editions. 

... — ■ — -■■■ r^— ■ ■ — n— ■■—■■,.■■ ■ L . Ml l -i ■■■■ 

Gramatica aleniana por Ruppert. 2. Ed 

Clave de la Gramatica alemana por Ruppert. 2. Ed 

Gramatica elemental alemana por Otto-Ruppert. 6. Ed 

Gramatica inglesa por Pavia. 2. Ed 

Clave de la Gramatica inglesa por Pavia. 2. Ed 

Gramatica sucinta de la lengua inglesa po Pavia. 4. Ed. . . . 

Gramatica francesa por Tanty 

Clave de la Gramatica fraucesa por Tanty 

Gramatica sucinta de la lengua francesa por Otto. 4. Ed. . . . 

Libro de lectura francesa por Le Boucher II 3 

Gramatica sucinta de la lengua italiana por Pavia. 
Gramatica sucinta de la lengua rusa por d'Arcais 

Clave de la Gramatica sucinta rusa por d'Arcais 

3. Ed. 

Tchech Edition. 

Kleine deutsche Sprachlehre fiir Tschechen von Maschner . . . 

Tm-liish Edition. 
Kleine deutsche Sprachlehre fiir Tiirken von Wely Bey-Bolland 

Conversation-Books by Connor 

in two languages : 

English-German ] 2 

English-French j| 2 

English-Italian 2 

English-Russian 3 

English-Spanish 12 

English-Swedish 2 

Francais-Espagnol .... | 2 

Francais-Italien 12 

Francais-Portugais . . . . I 2 
Francai3-Russe ,3 

in three languages: 

English-Gei man-French. 13. Ed 

in lour lauguages: 

Deutsch-Danisch . . 
Deutsch-Franzosisch . 
Deutsch-Italienisch . 
Deutsch-Rumanisch . 
Deutsch-Russisch . 
Deutsch-Schwedisch . 
Deutsch-Spanisch . . 
Deutsch-Tiirkisch . . 

4 - 

1 - a IJ A U A U . 

Method (xaspey-Otto-Sauer 

for the study of modern languages. 

«As long as Bellamy's "state of the future' is no fact yet, as long as 
there are millionaries and Social Democrats, until every cobbler can step 
on to the scene of his handicraft, fitted out with an academic education, 
so long will private tuition be a necessity. 

Since no pedagogic considerations fetter the private tutor, one should 
think that the choice of a classbook could not be a difficult matter for him ; 
for it is understood, and justly so, that any book is useful if only the 
teacher is of any use. But the number of those who write grammars, from 
the late respected Dr. Ahn down to those who merely write in order to 
let their own small light shine is too large. Their aim, after all, is to 
place the pupil as soon as possible on his own feet i. e. to render a teacher 
superfluous, and to save time and money. 

Then the saying holds good: «They shall be known by their works*, 
and for that reason we say here a few words in favour of the books of the 
Gaspey-Otto-Sauer Method which have been published by Mr. Julius Groos. 

Valuable though these books have proved themselves to be for the 
use at school, it is for private tuition that they are absolutely indispensable. 
They just contain what I claim for such books, not too much and not too 
little. The chapters of the various volumes are easily comprehended and 
are arranged in such a way that they can well be mastered from one 
lesson to the other; besides, the subject-matter is worked out so as to lead 
the pupil from the commencement to converse in the foreign tongue. 

What success these books have met with will best be seen from the ever 
increasing number of their publications which comprise, in different groups re- 
lating to Englishmen, Germaos, Frenchmen, Italians, Spaniards, Russians etc. etc. 
not less than 160 works the following volumes of which I have successfully 
used myself and am still using for the instruction of Germans : — the French 
grammar (24 th . edition), the English grammar (21'*. edition), the Spanish, 
Italian, Dutch, and Russian grammars ; for English and French students : — 
the German grammar, not to mention minor auxiliary works by the same firm. 

It is surprising what splendid results one can obtain by means of this 
method in a period of 6 to 12 months. After such a course the student 
is enabled to instruct himself in commercial correspondence in a foreign 
language without a master's helping hand.» ( ) 

German Language by Becker net 

{Spanish Commercial Correspondence by Arteaga y Pereira net 3 
Richtige Aussprache d. Musterdentschen v. Dr. E. Dannheisser, br. — 

Englische Handelskorrespondenz v. Arendt. 2. Aufl 2 

Kurze franzosische Grammatik von H. Runge 2 

Franz. Sprachl. f. Handelssch. v. Dannheisser, Kuffner u. Offenmuller 
Italienische kaufm. Korrespondenz-Gramm. v. Dannheisser u. Sauer 5 
Anleitung z. dent sell en, franz., engl. u. ital. Geschafts- 

briefen von Oberholzer u. Osmond, br 

Mpanische Handelskorrespondenz von Arteaga y Pereira ... 3 
Kleines spanisches Lesebuch f. Handelsschulen v. Ferrades-Langeheldt 2 

Langue allemande par Becker 

Correspondance commerciale espagnole par Arteaga y Pereira . 
Lengua alemana de Becker 2 

The Publisher is untiringly engaged in extending the range of educa- 
tional works issuing from his Press. A number of new books are now in 
course of preparation. 

The new editions are constantly improved and kept up to date. 


PL 123 .H3 IMS 


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