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Full text of "Our acre and its harvest. Historical sketch of the Soldiers' Aid Society of Northern Ohio"

GIFT OF 
THOMAS RUTHERFORD BACON 

AL LIBRARY 





/ S" . 




Our Acre 



Its Harvest 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE SOLDIERS AID SOCIETY 



NORTHERN OHIO. 



ffltwfamd JpncH of the |jnittd .States .Sjanitarn | ommission. 



"An arm of aid to the weak, 

A friendly hand to the friendless. 
Kind words, so short to speak, 

But whose echo is endless. 
The world is wide these things are small. 
They may be nothing, hut they are all." 



CLEVELAND: 

FAIRBANKS, BENEDICT & CO., PRINTERS, HERALD OFFICE. 
1869. 



e 



Entered according to Act of Conjrress, in the year 1869, by 
MARY CLARK BRAYTON ANT> ELLEN F. TERRY. 

In the Clfrk s Office of Hie Diptrict Court of the United States for the Northern 
District of Ohio. 



THE AID SOCIETIES 



OF NORTHERN OHIO. 



BRANCHES OF THE VINE 



WHOSE PLANTING, CULTURE, GROWTH AND FRUITAGE 



ARE HERE RECORDED, 



THIS VOLUME IS INSCRIBED 



*~\ f~\ m i -v _ 



PART I. 



GENERAL HISTORY, 



MARY CLARK B R A Y T O N . 



PART II. 



SPECIAL RELIEF, 



ELLEN F . TERRY. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page. 
FRONTISPIECE, PART I, THE CLEVELAND AID ROOMS, EXTERIOR. 



MAP OF OHIO, - ..__---,-_- 57 

HOSPITAL, CAMP CLEVELAND, - 97 

FLORAL HALL, SANITARY FAIR, lfc 1 

MONUMENT PARK, CLEVELAND, - - x45 

FRONTISPIECE, PART II, SOLDIERS HOME, CLEVELAND, EXTERIOR. 

THE WARD, - ... siy 

THE DINING ROOM. - ....... 353 

RECEIVING A REGIMENT, - .... 375 



CON T E N T 8 . 



A R T I . 



GENERAL HISTORY 



CHAPTER I . 

The First Call. The Preliminary Organization. The Blanket Raid. Coats for 
the Soldier Boys. Shirts and Havelocks. The First Shipment. The Permanent 
Organization. Committees. Circular No. 1. Headquarters Established. Branch 
Aid Societies. Co-operation Secured. Other Circulars. Enlarging the Borders. 
Amateur Patriotic Concert. Cleveland Branch Sanitary Commission. System 
of Disbursement. Railroad Speed. Vexatious Rumors. Handing in " the 
Bill." L . 

CHAPTER II. 

Favors of Transportation. The First Report, Change of Title. The Winter s 
Work. Systematic Contribution. Battle of Fort Donelson. An Autograph 
Testimonial. A Trip to the Front. Sanitary Depot, Nashville. Battle of Pitts- 
burg Landing. The Excitement in Cleveland. Hospital Transport Work. The 
Steamer Lancaster. The Depot Hospital. To Pittsburg Landing on board the 
Lancaster. General Shipments. Sanitary Agency. Leavenworth 3755 

CHAPTER III. 

Geographical Limits. Cultivating the Field. Relations with Branch Societies. 
Duties of the Officers. Aid Room Committees. Marked Articles. Canned 
Fruit and Jellies. Storekeeping Perplexities. Currant Juice and Toast, Con 
centrated Chicken. Office Duties. " Leader Articles." Document Committees. 
Picture of the Aid Rooms. Committees at Work. The Aid Room Office. 
Varied Experience. Lights and Shadows. 5674 

CHAPTER IV. 

A Visit to Washington. Ohio Relief Association. Battle of Perryville. Painful 
Rumors. A Trip to Perryville. The Soup House. Central Office, Louisville. 
Manner of Forwarding. Private Packages. Special Shipments. More Trans 
portation Favors 7586 



X CONTENTS. 

CHAP T E R V . 

Circular Xo. 10. Hard Timer?. Financiering. Ways and Means. Earnest Con 
sultations. The California Fund. Second Thoughts. Review of the Work. 
Camp Cleveland Hospital. An Incident. Home Charity. A Christmas Dinner. S7--99 

CHAPTER VI. 

The Siege of Vicksbtirg. The Steamer Dunleith. Music and Tableaux. Mur 
doch s Readings. Change of Vice Presidents. Committees. An Insidious 
Foe. Campaign against Scurvy. The Vegetable Raid. Canvassing and Lectur 
ing. Purchasing Vegetables. Special Cars. Another Journey. Traveling in 
Dixie. Sight-seeing. A Cheering Report .100110 

CHAPTER VII. 

The "Onion"" League. The Sanitary Reporter. Mailing Documents. Good 
News. Sanitary Gardens A Description. A Picnic Dinner. A Glorious 
" Fourth." Timely Supplies. A Thank-oftering. Returning Heroes. A Fore 
shadowing. A New Project. Cleveland Soldiers Home. The Summer s Work. 
Giving out Material. Sustaining the Home 117134 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Sanitary Fairs. Following the Example. An Embarrassment. Conflicting In 
terests. A Compromise. An opportune Legacy. Northern Ohio Sanitary Fair. 
Committees for the Fair. Issuing Circulars. Appointing Delegates. Planning. 
Thorough Canvassing. Ladies at Work. The Proposed Building. An Ominous 
Silence. Tormenting Doubts. Snow versus Carpenters. Plan of the Building. 
Decorating the Halls. Evergreens and Banners. Last Preparations. Enter 
taining the Delegates. The Ticket System. 135158 

CHAPTER IX. 

The Opening Day. The Inaugural Ode. Ceremonies of the Day. The Ladies 
Bazaar. The Booths their decorations. Pennsylvania s Share. The American 
Booth. Lake County and Russia. "Erin go Bragh." The Restaurant. 
Daughters of Molly Stark. German Liberality. Senoritas and Buckeye Girls. 
England and Yankee Land. The Post Office. The Newspaper. A Formidable 
Battery. The Bower of Rest. The " Cra/y Bedquilt." .15C 17 J 

CHAPTER X. 

Floral Hall. Arbors and Cottages. The Wigwam. The " Wayside Inn." Rustic 
Work. Mechanics Hall Its contributions. Refreshment Hall. Good Cheer. 
Mysterious Precincts. Fine Art Hall. The Museum Its Treasures. Memorials. 18C 194 



CHAPTER XI. 

Evening Entertainments. Continental Tea-Party. Manners of the Old School. 
Old Folks Concert. Sons of Malta. The Dramatic Club. The Attendance. 
The Draft-wheel. Closing Scenes. Sale of the Building. Success of the Fair. 
Cash Receipts. A "twice blessed " Charity. __ 19" 1 



CONTENTS. XI 

CHAPTER XII. 

After the Fair. The Reaction. Special Calls. The Fair Fund. Increased Ex 
penditure. Issuing Material. Selling at Cost. The Salesroom. The Work 
Department. 208217 

CHAPTER XIII. 

Army Movements. A Memorable Record. Official Bulletins. Cleveland Army 
Committee Its Plans and Purposes. Work of the Delegates. Sympathy. Let 
ters and Inquiries. The Hospital Directory. " One Inquiry, One Answer, 11 Au 
Extract. Hospital Cars. " On a Hospital Train, 11 A Description 21& 238 

CHAPTER XIV. 

The Printing Office. "Aid Society Print." Canvassing and Forwarding. Help 
for Prisoners. Change of Vice Presidents. Review of the Year. Expenses of 
Distribution. New Quarters. A Consecration 234243 

CHAPTER XV. 

A Memorable Day. Welcome Home. Questions and Answers. Continuing Sup 
plies. A state of Siege. kt Comfort Bags." No place to Stop. The Employ 
ment Agency Its Management. A Significant Record. An Abstract 2-14255 

CHAPTER XVI. 

Close of the Supply Work. Breaking up the Aid Rooms. Ohio State Soldiers 
Home. Transferring Soldiers. Closing up. The Free Claim Agency Its 
Management. Last Days. Summary. Conclusion. 256 2t>tf 



P A II T IT. 



SPECIAL RELIEF 



MARINE HOSPITAL, ARMY DEPARTMENT. 
Early Camp Life. Ward Committees. Marine Hospital .. 273--271 

THE DEPOT HOSPITAL. 

Pittsburg Landing. Hospital Steamers. The Depot Hospital. Its Menage. 
Capacities and Resources. A Drawback. Returning Regiments. Stirring 
Appeals. The Port Hudson Regiments. New Duties. Cleveland Hospitality. 
Care of the Sick. Friendly Messages. Pleasant Duties. Life and Death. 
Limited Quarters. Successful Canvassing. The Invalid Corps. Sundry 
Petitions. Hopeless Quests. Difficult Commissions. A Handful of Letters. 
Letters Continued. L nion Prisoners. Hospital Inquiry. Sanitary Issues. 
Fruitless Journeys. A Sad History. Aid Room Guests. Sanitary Treasures... 278 301 

THE SOLDIERS HOME. 

Diagram. The Reception Room. The Early Outfit. The First Prize. The Home 
Prospectus. Means of support. Flexible Rules. Aim of the Institution. Its 
Administration. An Old Friend. An Apparition. The First Death. Veteran 
Regiments. Occasional Grievances. Wounded in the Wilderness. Two 
Patients. Domestic News. Enlarging the Home. Ohio National Guards. 
The Children s Gifts. Home from the War. Bringing Home the Dead. Arti 
ficial Limbs. Acknowledgments. Army Letters. Contributing Societies. 
Winter Quarters. Refugees and Deserters. Tommy. Entertainments. One 
Day at the Home. Feeding- the Convalescents. Varied Wants. Appeals for 
Aid. Prisoners Letters. Hunger and Cold. Exchange of Prisoners. Rebel 
Mercy. Starved to Death. A Mothers Letter. Veteran Reserves. Welcome 
to Ohio Soldiers. An Early Breakfast. The New Dining Room. Rival Attrac 
tions. A Bill of Fare. The Reserve Force. Generous Railroad Companies. 
Entertaining a Brigade. A midnight Meal. Open Air Toilets. Progress of the 
Feast. Invalid Diet, Johnny comes marching home. Departure. The Hos 
pital Department. A Submissive Patient. Crippled Correspondents. The 
Wounded of the 103d Ohio Volunteers. A Sad Return. A Dinner Party. The 
Cruel War is Over. Mustered Out. Eloquent Guests. Raiders and Malcon 
tents. Fourth of July Banquet. The Little Sailor. The Prodigal Son. The 
Hospital Legacy. A Flourishing Business. Wanted, Employment. An Afflict 
ing Endorsement. A Colored Regiment. A Perilous Journey. The Homeward 



CONTENTS. Xlll 

March. Thanks from Minnesota. A Permanent Home. A Happy New Year. 
The National Asylum. The Winters Work. In the Sick Ward. Faithful 
Mourners. Grown up Scholars. A Disabled Man s Future. Unclaimed. Resi 
dent Pensioners. Final Duties. The Home Dismantled. The School Girl s 
Fete. 308307 

THE CLAIM AGENCY. 

Collection of War Claims. The Cleveland Agency. New Laws. A Flood of 
Applications. " Not Entitled. 1 Additional Bounty Act. Increase of Pension. 
Indignant Epistles. Remonstrances. Destitute Clients. Change of Agent. 
Satisfactory Results. The Agency s Reward. A Service Accomplished. Special 
Relief Record. The Home Army. An Ample Recompense 398 414 



A r P E N D I X . 

APPENDIX A. Cash and Supply Report. 41.S-4.31 

APPENDIX B. Special Relief Report 434 441 

APPENDIX C. Claim Agency Report. 444 

APPENDIX D. Names of Members 446 449 

APPENDIX PL Committees 452460 

APPENDIX F. Branch Societies.... ...462511 



PART I. 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



CHAPTER I. 

TIIK CLEVELAND LADIES . Tho ladies of Cleveland, ready and anxious to take their 
full share in the exertions and privations, if need be, imposed by the public perils, are 
promptly moving with a view to such an organization as may be most useful and effective. 
They propose also to offer their assistance to the committee of citizens to be appointed for 
the purpose of making provision for the wives and children of the brave men who have left, 
and arc leaving, our city to fight the battles of our country. 

A meeting of the ladies will be held for this purpose to-morrow, Saturday, at 3 o clock, 
at Chapin Hail. Extract from CLEVELAND HERALD. April \Wh, 1801. 

Ix response to this call, at the appointed hour on 
Saturday, April 20th, 1861 only five days after Pres 
ident Lincoln s first call for troops to suppress the 
great rebellion Chapin Hall was filled with ladies 
who came together to inquire how the charity of wo 
man could best serve her country in its impending 
peril. 

There were flushed faces, aglow with exalted feel 
ing, troubled brows, shaded by vague apprehension, 
grave countenances, pale with nameless forebodings, 
eyes that sparkled with excitement, and eyes with a 
startled outlook or dim with gathering tears. 

What this strange cloud, suddenly threatening the 
far off borders of the land, might portend, happily no 
prophetic tongue was loosed to tell ; no vision of the 
future rose to appal the assembly that met that day 
with the earnest purpose to do with their might what 
soever a woman s hand should find to do. 



1 7 



18 THE PRELIMINARY ORGANIZATION. 

The busy note of martial preparation was heard upon 
the streets. From every spire and house-top the stars 
arid stripes were flung out. Every woman and child 
knotted the red, white and blue into necktie, shoulder- 
ribbon or sash; every man wore, with pride, a tri- 
colored favor the badge of national honor. Scarcely 
twenty-four hours before, two companies of city mili 
tary Cleveland s first offering towards the first call 
for seventy-five thousand troops had marched away, 
hastily exchanging the trappings of holiday parade for 
the equipments of the field. 

That these stout-hearted soldiers, now far on their 
way to the defense of the National Capital, needed 
present aid was impossible, that they would ever need 
the hand of relief was a haunting thought, scarcely 
formed into words, but put away with a shudder of 
dimly defined dread. Now all sympathy turned to 
wards the wives and children of the volunteers who 
had~ just gone, several ladies at the meeting mention 
ing cases of severe sickness or destitution among them. 

A preliminary organization was formed by calling 
Mrs. B. ROUSE to the chair, appointing Mrs. S. B. PAGE 
secretary, and MARY CLARK BRAYTON treasurer. 

Mrs. GEORGE A. BENEDICT, Mrs. C. D. BRAYTON, Mrs. 
II. L. WHITMAN, Mrs. C. A. TERRY and Mrs. J. A. HAR 
RIS were made a special committee to confer with and 
aid the ward committees of gentlemen in disbursing a 
large fund that had been raised by subscription from 
citizens for the benefit of soldiers families. At this 
moment two gold dollars, carefully wrapped in silver- 
tissue paper, were put into the treasurer s hand, sent 
by an aged unknown man to be given to the family 



THE BLAXKKT RAID. 11) 

most needing aid. This suggested an impromptu col 
lection, and twenty-two dollars were added to the first 
golden offering. The most of this little sum was given 

O O O 

to the ladies of the special committee to meet peculiar 
cases. The meeting then adjourned to April 23d, when, 
by request, a medical man gave an informal lecture 
upon making and adjusting bandages and dressings, 
and the work of preparing lint and bandage began. 
This recalled the carefully banished thought of what 
Avar might bring, and a tearful audience he had. 

T\vo days later, while busy though unskilful hands 
were plying this sad task, a gentleman from the camp 
of instruction just opened near the city, begged to in 
terrupt. Mounting the platform, he announced that 
one thousand volunteers from towns adjoining were at 
that moment marching into camp, and that, expecting- 
in the pardonable ignorance of our citizen soldiery at 
that early day to be fully equipped on reaching this 
rendezvous, many of these men had brought no blank 
ets, and had now the prospect of passing a sharp April 
night uncovered on the ground. 

This unexpected occasion was eagerly seized. Two 
ladies hastened to engage carriages, while the others 
rapidly districted the city. In a few minutes eight 
hacks were at the door, and two young ladies in each, 
with route marked out, were despatched to represent 
to the matrons of the town this desperate case. 

At 3 o clock this novel expedition set off. All the 
afternoon the carriages rolled rapidly through the 
streets. Bright faces glowed with excitement, grave 
eyes gave back an answering gleam of generous sym. 
pathy. A word of explanation sufficed to bring out 



20 COATS FOll THE SOLDIER BOYS. 

delicate rose blankets, chintz quilts, thick counterpanes, 
and by nightfall seven hundred and twenty -nine blank 
ets were carried into camp. Next morning the work 
was resumed, and before another night every volunteer 
in Camp Taylor had been provided for. 

While this " blanket raid " was ^oino; on, the ladies 

O O / 

at the meeting, startled by the sound of fife and drum, 
hurried to the door just in time to see a company of 
recruits, mostly farmer lads, march down the street 
towards the new camp. These had " left the plow in 
the furrow," and imagining that the enlistment-roll 
would transform them at once into Uncle Sam s blue- 
coated soldier boys, they had inarched away from home 
in the clothes that they were wearing when the call first 
reached them. 

Before they turned the corner, motherly watchful 
ness had discovered that some had no coats, that others 
wore thin linen blouses, and that the clothing of all 

- O 

was insufficient for the exposure of the scarcely enclosed 
camp. On this discovery the bandage meeting at once 
broke up, and the ladies hurried home to gather up the 
clothing of their own boys for the comfort of these 
young patriots. Two carriages heaped with half-worn 
clothing drove into camp at sundown. This work 
was repeated many times at Camp Taylor, and in 
the later years of the war it was made a specialty of 
the Society to supply second-hand clothing for tem 
porary use of soldiers. 

Awakened to the necessities of the fast gathering 
troops, the ladies applied to the commandant of the 
post, and received from him. a quantity of army flannel 
to make up. The merchant tailors gave patterns and 



siiiijTs AND "HAVELOCKS." 



the services of tlieir cutters, the rooms of the Young 
Men s Christian Association were offered as a depot, 
and there the packages of work were distributed. The 
Grover <fc Baker and Wheeler & Wilson sewing ma 
chine rooms were thrown open and were soon crowded 
with industrious dames, some cutting, some basting, and 
others guiding the fast fly ing machines. In two days 
one thousand army shirts were cut, given out, finished 
and returned to camp. 

While feverishly anxious to be doing, and sadly 
needing guidance, from the East there came a sugges 
tion that " Havelocks " were the first necessity of field 
service, and. for weeks much superfluous enthusiasm was 
worked into these grotesque head-pieces. The stiff 
linen was cut by many aching fingers, and given out 
in parcels to ladies who returned the finished articles 
in a fabulously short time. Thus an ample supply 
was soon furnished to each Northern Ohio regiment. 
Following this was a spasmodic effort to introduce the 
French pocket tent, and then came a period when the 
Society languished, not from lack of interest in the 
work, but because utter ignorance of its nature pre 
vented the anticipation of those needs which the cam 
paign would develop. 

Meantime, the committees appointed to visit the 
families of volunteers had districted the city and were 
systematizing their work, laying the foundation for the 
" Ward Belief Committees " that existed in Cleveland 
throughout the war. When the Aid Society entered a 
more extended field of duty, these ward associations 
formed a distinct organization, recognized and aided by 
the city authorities and well supported by contribution. 



THE FIKST SHIPMENT. 

Sickness liad now appeared at Camp Taylor. Fever 
and epidemic measles were spreading rapidly through 
the ranks. The little regimental hospital established 
there May 2d, and a post hospital opened shortly after, 
were almost wholly furnished by the ladies, who visit 
ed them daily, and never empty-handed, Especially 
did those ladies who lived near devote their time and 
means to the care and comfort of the inmates. Mrs. 
Dr. LONG, Mrs. LEWIS SEVERANCE, Mrs. PIIILO SCOVILL 
and Mrs. E. F. GAYLOKD were prominent in this work. 

While thus employed it was impossible to believe 
^ hat Avas constantly asserted by men experienced in 
regular army affairs, that no volunteer hospital aid 
was needed. The mind would run forward to the regi 
ments lately marched away, and it seemed certain that 
similar comforts would be doubly welcome to the sick 
among them. Visitors returning from Camp Dennison 
confirmed this growing belief, and letters of inquiry 
brought grateful acceptance of the proffered aid. 

Following the suggestions so gladly received, two or 
three members of the Society prepare the first shipment 
of hospital stores. As the small fund raised on organ 
ising was long ago exhausted, this must be done by pri 
vate contribution. From house to house goes the little 
foraging party, confiscating the comfortable dressing- 
gown and easy-going slippers of the astonished but non- 
resisting master, the soft towels and handkerchiefs of 
the smiling mistress, searching the library for pleasant 
books and amusing pictorials, levying upon the pantry 
for a stock of dainties, and beguiling from the shop 
keeper a generous supply of toilet comforts, dozens of 
palm-leaf fans and sundry packages of writing mate- 



PERMANENT ORGANIZATION. 23 

rial. Returning, the parlor is transformed into a 
store-room, great dry-goods boxes receive the spoils, 
deftly stowed away sufficient for the sick of two regi 
ments and with these go carefully packed baskets of 
jellies, wines and lemons. No more hearty offering 
ever called down a blessing upon the cheerful giver. 

A courteous acknowledgment duly received encour 
aged further venture, and letters offering hospital sup 
plies and begging instruction in preparing them, were 
despatched to the surgeon of every Northern Ohio regi 
ment. Eagerly catching at every grain of information 
that floated homeward from hospital and camp, and in 
creasing this scanty stock by vigorous correspondence, 
the ladies found that each day unfolded new occasion 
for the beneficence of the Society. Now presented it 
self the idea of centralizing the work of Northern Ohio, 
with a view to its greater efficiency. A permanent 
organization was effected by the election of the follow- 
in or officers : 

o 

PRESIDENT, 

MRS. B. ROUSE. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS, 

MRS. JOHN SHELLEY, MRS. WILLIAM MELHINCH. 

SECRETARY, 

MARY CLARK BRAYTON. 

TREASURER, 

ELLEN F. TERRY. 

Business meetings were appointed for the first Tues 
day in each month and the following standing com 
mittees formed for receiving supplies and for cutting 
and directing the w r ork : 



24 COMMITTEES. 

On Hospital Clothing Mrs. JOSEPH PERKINS, Mrs. 
CHARLES HICKOX, Mrs. JOSEPH LYMAN, Mrs. M. C. 
YOUNG LOVE. 

On, Hospital Slippers Mrs. D. HOWE. 

On Bedding Mrs. J. A. HARRIS. 

On Lint Mrs. HIRAM GRISWOLD. 

On Bandages and Compresses Mrs. I). CITTTTENDEN, 
Mrs. J. H. CHASE. 

0)i Fruit and Groceries Mrs. 8. BELDEN, Mrs. 
PETER THATCHER, 

Of the receiving and packing committees, which 
were appointed at each business meeting for the ensuing 
month, it is regretted that no complete record has been 
preserved. The following are the names of some of 
the ladies who served in these committees in the early 
days of the Society, or who acted as alternates to the 
standing committees mentioned above : 

Mrs. THOMAS M. KEI,LEY I Mrs. L. M. HUBBY, Mrs. S. 
WILLIAMSON, Mrs. CHARLES "A. TERRY, Mrs. JOHN C.RO- 
\VELL, Mrs. WILLIAM T. SMITH, Mrs. WILLIAM COLLINS, 
Mrs. HIRAM IDDINGS, Mrs. BOLIVAR BUTTS, Mrs. JOSEPH 
HAYWARD, Mrs. W. H. HAYWARD, Mrs. CHARLES M. 
GIBING s, Mrs. J. H. WADE, Mrs. A. B. STONE, Mrs. J. 
H. SARGEANT, Mrs. WILLIAM E. STANDART, Mrs. THOMAS 
BOLTON, Mrs. WILLIAM MITTLEBERGER, Mrs. JOHN COON ? 
Mrs. AUGUSTUS E. FOOTE, Miss BIXBY, Mrs. WILLIAM 
J. BOARDMAN, Mrs. HENRY G. ABBEY. 

A membership fee of twenty-five cents monthly was 
fixed, and contribution boxes labeled "AiD EOR OUR 
SICK AND WOUNDED SOLDIERS," were conspicuously 
posted in banks, hotels, railroad station and post-office, 
constitution or by-laws were suggested^ and be- 



CIRCULAR tfO. 1. ;> 

yond the monthly fee and a verbal pledge to work 
while the war should last, no form of membership 
was ever adopted. No written word held the Society 
together, even to its latest days. 

June 20th, Circular No. 1 was prepared, announcing 
that " the Ladies Aid Society of Cleveland, having re 
ceived direct information of the articles needed, now 
invites the co-operation of the patriotic ladies of other 
towns in supplying the pressing necessities of our vol 
unteers in camp and on the march." 

This circular w^as first mailed to the postmaster of 
each town in Ohio, with a personal note, begging him 
u to put it into the hand of some active, benevolent wo 
man, asking her to correspond with the Society." He was 
further requested to send back the names of six women 
whom he judged would best help forward a branch aid 
society, and to these six, in due course of mail, the cir 
cular was despatched with a letter urging them to form 
a local organization. To the clergy of every denomi 
nation throughout the State a copy was sent, with a 
written request that it might be read from the pulpit. 
It was published in every newspaper of Northern Ohio, 
and industriously sent far and w r ide wherever an ad 
dress could be obtained. Many were the ingenious 
devices for throwing it into every nook and corner of 
the State. Market gardeners carried it home in their 
baskets, farmers found it thrust into their pockets. At 
mere hearsay of a possible correspondent, little memo 
randum books would creep from the pockets of the Aid 
Society officers, advertisements were carefully copied, 
county organizations noted, and hotel registers consult- 
ed. The worthy farmer whose name appeared one day 



2f> HEAD-QtTAKTERS ESTABLISHED. 

among the hotel arrivals in the city, and whose wife, 
by next mail, received in her quiet country home the 
ubiquitous circular of the " Ladies Aid Society," would 
have been sadly puzzled to trace effect back to first 
cause. 

The necessity for a depot was now apparent, and 
July 1st a part of the store No. 95 Bank street was 
obtained at a trifling rent. A great room it seemed, 
gloomy indeed to these incipient store-keepers on first 
entrance, and forbidding enough, till the festooning 
cobwebs were swept away, the stained walls and dusty 
windows made, by housewifely skill, to wear a more 
tidy look, and an old counter drawn across the room, 
midway down, to form the boundary of the dim regions 
where quaint rubbish was heaped up. Here the "Am 
SOCIETY," with an empty treasury, but with great ex 
pectations, established head-quarters. A sign above 
the door announced the benevolent purposes of the in 
stitution. A rude desk was improvised, crowned with 
an official ink stand, a table and half a dozen unpainted 
chairs borrowed, and the long empty shelves labeled 
in anticipation of the stores that must come. The 
rooms were opened from 10 to 12 A. M., daily, and 
volunteer committees, two ladies in turn, sat hopefully 
through the long hours for many a weary day, with 
very little to reward their patience save an occasional 
visit from a patriotic lady with her offering of a bowl of 
jelly for the sick, or a shy child bringing its little pack* 
age of lint. Contributions from the city insensibly but 
steadily increased, each household adding to the stock* 
Gradually the nearest towns were represented in these 
gifts, the leaven had begun to work. Letters of in- 



AID SOCIETIES. *27 

quiry poured in, all abounding in patriotic sentiment, 
some enthusiastic, others cautious, at first, and often fol 
lowed by visits from the writers, who represented their 
neighborhood as alive to the appeal, anxious to gain in 
struction, grateful for this new avenue to friends in the 
army, and beginning to realize that concert of action 
was necessary to the success of a work in which much 
desultory labor was now expended, and not always 
with satisfactory results. The president of the Society 
frequently visited Camp Taylor, and invited friends 
who came from the country to see the soldiers in the 
new camp, to call at the Aid Rooms. Here plans were 
discussed, opinions interchanged, and such light as the 
ladies had gained from their own short experience was 
imparted to the visitor, who invariably turned home 
ward strengthened in purpose, nor w r as the interview 
less cheering to the ladies of the Society. 

Aid Societies were daily springing up, and their 
officers, as reported, were entered as correspondents. 
Inquiry was invited, letters were carefully answered, 
and patterns furnished. Home mission societies, church 
sociables, sewing circles, and various benevolent or 
ganizations were converted into Soldiers Aid Societies 

o 

without change of organization. A vote of the mem 
bers to work for sick and wounded soldiers while the 
war should last, was all the formality necessary. This 
enabled them to enter at once upon their new 
duties. 

The prevalent fear of assuming duties which legiti 
mately belonged to the Government, and which might 
enrich the commissariat without benefitting the soldier, 
threatened to become a serious obstacle, by checking 



CO-OPERATION SECURED. 

that enthusiastic co-operation so important to success. 
It seemed necessary to explain the fact that, in a war 
so suddenly thrust upon a nation, there is, unavoidably, 
a hiatus between the ability of Government and the 
demand of hospital and camp, which can only be filled 
by the efforts of benevolent associations. 

To meet and overcome this difficulty, the president 
of the Society stepped from her life of quiet and unob 
trusive charities, visited families and villages, and by 
personal explanation and appeal, secured the hearty 
and enthusiastic support of all who listened to her 
arguments. 

The terrible reverse at Bull Kun intensified the 
growing interest in city and country. Three large 
cases of bandages and dressings were immediately de 
spatched to the Surgeon General, and for many days 
after the news of the battle the rooms were thronged 
with women bringing their offerings for the wounded. 
Two gentlemen, Messrs. WILLIAM EDWARDS ^nd JOHN 
M. STERLING, Jr., volunteered to collect material from 
the dry-goods merchants, and the results of their ap 
peal kept the work committees fully employed for 
many busy weeks. 

Meantime the search for truth continued. Vigorous 
correspondence was kept up with the surgeons of all 
western regiments that could be reached by letter from 
this point, and earnest efforts were made to learn the 
state of the hospitals of Western Virginia and Missouri. 
Acting upon the scanty knowledge thus obtained, 
supplies were sent from time to time, as the small 
means of the Society would allow. Letters to Miss 
DTX brought kind reply and valuable suggestions. In 



OTHER CIRCULARS. !><) 

the East the UNITED STATES SANITARY COMMISSION was 
rapidly unfolding its noble purposes, and from its rep 
resentative in the West, Dr. J. S. NEWBEBBT, the Society 
early received advice and direction. At his suggestion 
small shipments were made to St. Louis, Cairo, and the 
regimental hospitals of "Western Virginia. These went 
forward in charge of an agent of the Sanitary Com 
mission whose report of their distribution was highly 
satisfactory. Letters from the recipients soon followed 
and these were industriously circulated among the 
country societies. 

September 1st, Circular No. 2 was issued, containing 
definite measurements for hospital garments and direc 
tions for preparing surgeons supplies. This circular 
was endorsed by Dr. NEWBERRY on behalf of the Sani 
tary Commission. 

September 5th, appeared Circular No. 3, addressed 
to the little girls, bespeaking their handiwork in 
making lint, bandages and eyeshades. This was en 
thusiastically received, and every school house and each 
playroom became a busy workshop where nimble fin 
gers plied the needle and bright eyes flashed with 
newly awakened patriotism. 

September 9th, Circular No. 4 informed the women 
of Northern Ohio that " the Society organized for col- 
u lecting and transmitting to the sick and wounded of 
" the Federal army such hospital stores as the Govern- 
" ment fails to provide, having secured reduced rates 
" of transportation to the Ohio River, where an agent 
u of the Sanitary Commission will receive and forward 
" all such packages to destination, now ensures to 
" auxiliary societies the most reliable transmission of 
" their goods to the hospitals of Western Virginia." 



30 ENLARGING THE BORDERS. 

The personal interests of Northern Ohio women then 
centered in Western Virginia, and this announcement, 
with the letters of acknowledgment from hospitals, 
embodied in Circular No. 5, issued September 17th, 
evoked ready response. 

As box after box came in, the ladies found their 
modicum of space too small, and from this time they 
occupied the whole floor of " 95," arranging a double 
row of hinged receiving-cases along the wall for con- 
venience of the unpacking committee, and now first re 
signing hammer and marking-brush into the hands of 
a porter. 

The three hours of daily business lengthened into 
six ; a pleasant office in the rear was fitted up by con- 
tribution, one gentleman furnishing a carpet, another 
a desk, a third volunteering instruction in book-keep 
ing and invoicing, a fourth sending his drayman on 
shipping days, and all showing a deep interest in this 
amateur storekeeping, now beginning to assume the 
proportions of a veritable business establishment. 

The finances of the Society were the subject of much 
anxious thought. Membership fees aggregating twen 
ty dollars per month and occasional gifts of money in 
small sums were its only sources of revenue, and its ex 
panding purposes were now in danger of being checked 
by the lack of funds. 

In this emergency, several young ladies for the first 
time offered to the public their fine musical talents, in 
an "Amateur Patriotic Concert," given September 24th. 
They were assisted by gentlemen of well knoAvn musi 
cal ability, whose services were also volunteered for 
the good cause. (See Appendix E.) The use of the 



AMATKnt PATRIOTIC COXCKRT. 81 

Academy of Music was given by the lessee, and the 
generosity of every one who had a part in the arrange 
ments reduced the expenses to a trifling sum. This 
charming entertainment was well patronized, and the 
sum of five hundred and six dollars realized to the 
Society, more than two-thirds of its whole income 
during the first three months of organization. 

Unwilling that their rooms should be merely a depot 
for the contributions of others, the ladies strove to do 
their share in preparing hospital supplies. A large 
part of the concert fund was immediately expended 
for material which was cut out by the indefatigable 
committees and taken home to be made up. 

The disbursements of the Society kept steady pace 
with the receipts. The first stock of the supply depot, 
opened October 8th by the Sanitary Commission, in 
Wheeling, Va., was wholly furnished from Cleveland, 
and many comforts which the Society now had means 
to purchase were sent to the hospitals of Western 
Virginia and the Kanawha. A delightful stimulus 

o o 

was imparted by the late Prof. PECK, of Oberlin, O., in 
an informal lecture given upon returning from the hos 
pitals of the Kanawha Valley where he had seen some 
traces of the comfort afforded by this distribution. 

As the location of hospitals became more remote, 
transportation more hazardous and communication by 
letter with the army more uncertain, the officers of the 
Society deeply felt the burden and responsibility of 
dispensing, with prudence, impartiality and wisdom 
the precious fruits of so much patient and loving toil ; 
and on October 9th, 1861, the Soldiers Aid Society of 
Cleveland was formally offered as a BRANCH to the 



32 CLEVELAND BRANCH SANITARY COMMISSION. 

UNITED STATES SANITARY COMMISSION. The following 
is the reply to that proposal : 



U. S. SANITARY COMMISSION, ) 

TREASURY BUILDINGS, WASHINGTON, D. C.,f 
October IGtli, 1801. \ 

Miw. B. ROUSE, 

President Soldiers Aid Society, Cleveland, Ohio. 

MADAM : I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your favor of the 9th inst., 
by your secretary, in which you do this Commission the honor to propose 
the " Soldiers Aid Society," of Cleveland, Ohio, as one of its co-operative 
branches. It gives me great satisfaction to inform you that at the first 
meeting of the Sixth Session of the Commission, held here yesterday, it 
was unanimously 

llcsolved, That the " Soldiers Aid Society," of Cleveland, Ohio, is hereby 
constituted a Corresponding Branch of the Sanitary Commission ; and that 
the secretary notify that Society of the action of the Commission, with an 
expression of the sense entertained by the Commission of the importance 
and value of its services. 

In accordance with the above resolution, I cordially invite the correspond 
ence and co-operation of your Society with this Commission, through its 
fellow-member, Dr. J. S. XEWBERRY, of your City, who is the Associate 
Secretary of the Commission for your Department. 

I am, Madam, with great respect, your obedient servant, 

FRED. LAW OLMSTED, 
General Secretary U. S. San. Com. 

The advice and aid of Dr. NEWBERRY had been 
sought, and rendered with unvarying kindness, long 
before this reference to his department gave the Socie 
ty any claim to them. At this time all eyes were 
turned and all hopes centered upon the forces that 
were gathered around Washington, and the care of 
Eastern benevolent associations was largely bestowed 
upon the troops lying immediately within reach of 
their aid. The destitution in the military hospitals of 
the Great West, and especially of Western Virginia, 
called loudly for relief, and the Cleveland Branch 
gladly followed the advice received from the General 



SYSTEM OF DISBURSEMENT. 33 

Secretary, and devoted its labors to the armies of the 
West. 

Now fully in rapport with the Sanitary Commission, 
the Society sought to give some return for the advan 
tages accruing from the connection. All articles issued 
from the Cleveland Aid Rooms were from this time 
stamped with the name of the Sanitary Commission, 
its documents were faithfully distributed, its purposes 
and modus operand! minutely explained, and every 
effort was made to bring all tributary societies into 
this new relation. 

Orders from Sanitary field-agents were promptly 
filled, and a system of disbursement adopted which 
proved so successful as to merit a passing notice. 

The Sanitary Inspector was furnished with printed 
blanks containing a list of hospital supplies. This, after 
observing the needs of a hospital, he was expected to 
fill out, sign, and return by mail. The Society was 
pledged to honor such drafts, and supplies were 
shipped directly to the designated point. A dupli 
cate invoice was sent to the Sanitary agent in charge 
of the department, and an acknowledgment was 
required from the surgeon of the hospital, w^hich 
on receipt was carefully filed. The letters from sur 
geons and soldiers, that often accompanied these 
receipts, were of great value in keeping up the interest 
of tributaries. These were always published in the 
city papers and mailed to Branch Societies, or repro 
duced in circulars that were issued to them. 

The treasury, which had again received a benefit of 
one hundred and sixty dollars, was soon drained by 
an order received from the Sanitary agent in Western 



34 RAILROAD SPEED. 

Virginia. The spirit with which such demands were 
answered is shown in these extracts from Cleveland 
papers : 

WORK FOR LADIES. (Nov. 7th, 1861.)" Five hundred sick men will be 
in Wheeling hospital on Saturday night. Will the ladies of Cleveland pro 
vide for the comfort of these sick and wounded soldiers ? Three hundred 
bed-sacks are cut out by the Aid Society, and must be made before to-morrow 
night. Call at Aid Rooms and take the work ! " 

RAILROAD SPEED. (Nov. 8th, 1861.) "The three hundred bed-sacks 
ordered by telegram yesterday morning for the hospital at Wheeling are 
finished, and go down this afternoon on the Cleveland and Pittsburgh Rail 
road 2.50 passenger train, free of transportation charge." 

The president of the Society, by written request of 
General (then Colonel) Rosecrans, accompanied this 
shipment to Wheeling, and gave her personal assist 
ance in fitting the new hospital for reception of the sick 
and wounded, who were brought in Government trans 
ports up the Ohio river from the battle-fields and fever 
haunted districts of the Kanawha Valley. 

On this occasion, three women engaged as Govern 
ment nurses were sent under the patronage of the 
Society to Wheeling hospital. The experiment not 
proving successful was never repeated, and all subse 
quent applications from women desiring to become 
army nurses, were referred at once to Miss Dix. 

Certain vexatious rumors had from time to time 
disturbed the Aid Room circle, but had not been 
thought worthy of notice till now. A story that the 
officers of the Aid Society were receiving large salaries 
and " making money out of the charities of the people," 
had been thoughtlessly or maliciously started. This 
falsehood, nimble-footed, was now making the rounds 



VEXATIOUS RUMORS. 35 

of the country societies, creating some degree of sus 
picion and threatening to check contribution. 

To stop this mischief-maker, Truth drew on his 
boots and followed hard after, in circular No. 6, issued 
October loth, which announced that the Cleveland 
Soldiers Aid Society was conducted and supported 
entirely by voluntary effort, and that not one cent was 
paid for the services of any one connected with its 
management or membership. 

The drayman and porter were, at this time, the only 
paid attaches of the establishment. 

To this was added a detailed exposition of the 
business system of the Society and the Sanitary Com 
mission, and an invitation to all whom it might concern 
to call and inspect the books, and to form their opinions 
from actual acquaintance with the work. This circular 
was strongly endorsed by the city clergy, and contain 
ed excellent testimonials from the field. 

After this plain statement of the truth, no further 
attempt was ever made to battle with rumors of this 
kind. It may be suggested here that the generous and 
unflagging support which the Cleveland Aid Society 
received throughout the war, is the best evidence that 
the public had confidence in the honesty of its manage 
ment. 

It was sometimes annoying to the Aid Room corps 
to discover that their work was misunderstood or evil 
spoken of, and that the wildest rumors seemed to 
find some credulous ears. 

Several amusing instances of this are recalled. 

" Here, girls," said a cheery-faced farmer to the busy 
group around the office table, " I ve just been leaving 



36 HANDING IN "THE BILL." 

fifty weight or so of maple sugar in the other room for 
the soldiers, and if you are half as smart as I think 
you are, you ll eat these anyway, as soon as I m gone, so 
I ll give them to you now," and he held out a dozen 
little cakes of fresh sugar, almost tempting enough to 
justify the suspicion ! 

One donor who was very generous to the soldiers, 
but had a chronic distrust of agencies, always included 
in his box a pat of butter, a wedge of cheese or a few 
apples, marked " expressly to the ladies of the Aid 
Society, for their own use," evidently intending this as 
a bribe to insure the honest forwarding of his bounty. 

One day a sharp-eyed contributor came in with a 
trifling gift. The package was received by one of the 
ladies in attendance, who took note of its contents, and 
proceeded, as usual, to enter them in the ledger that 
lay open on the desk. The donor watched her move 
ments with ill-concealed anger, and at last broke out 
with, " Well ! they told me you wrote every thing down 
in a book, but I said I ~knew it wasn t so ! I wouldn t 
believe a word of it till this very minute ! They say 
you write it all down so that at the end of the war 
you can hand in your bill, and make government pay 
you for all that the people have given you to send to 
the soldiers !" 

The astonished official sought to allay the suspicions 
of her visitor by explaining the real reason for her 
careful book-keeping. 

Though much softened, and professing to be satisfied, 
she departed with an air which showed some lingering 
apprehension that " the bill" might yet be honored at 
the United States Treasury ! 



CHAPTER II. 

KENTUCKY, redeemed from rebel rule, opened a new 
field to the Sanitary Commission. 

The organization of the Louisville Branch and of a 
thorough system of sanitary inspection, subjected the 
Cleveland Society to frequent orders from the supply 
depots of Louisville, Lexington, Bardstown and Camp 
Nelson. 

There were also direct calls from surgeons in the 
field, who, having received aid from this source on first 
going out, were not slow in bringing to notice the 
later w^ants of their sick. 

These shipments were all made with the approval 
of the Sanitary Commission, and receipts carefully 
taken. The letters of acknowledgment, published 
and widely circulated, greatly stimulated contribution. 

November 2d, the Chicago Branch Sanitary Com 
mission received an appeal from the regimental hospital 
of the 18th Illinois Volunteers, stationed at Cairo. 
The Chicago Branch not being yet in working order, 
this call was referred by its officers to the Cleveland 
Branch, and thence answered by an immediate 
shipment. 

These stores were sent as an earnest of the friendly 
feeling of the Cleveland Society towards other 
branches, and as an evidence of the national character 

37 



38 FAVORS OF TRANSPORTATION. 

of its work. State lines were ever scrupulously ig 
nored, and, from its first to its latest days, the Society, 
true to the principles of the U. S. SANITARY COMMISSION, 
recognized only the suffering need of a loyal brother, 
whether his enlistment roll were signed in the forests 
of Maine or on the prairies of Minnesota. 

Cash contributions increased as the efficiency of the 
Society was demonstrated, and Thanksgiving eve was 
celebrated by a " Soldiers Aid Ball," tendered by citi 
zens for the benefit of the treasury. 

The ever-increasing distance between the supply-base 
and the army, made it advisable to forward in bulk to 
the storehouses of the Sanitary Commission nearer the 
front, and the shipments carried free or at half-rates by 
the American, United States and Union Line Express 
Companies, now became too large for this mode of 
conveyance, except upon very urgent occasions. 

Free freights were offered to the Society by the 
Cleveland, Pittsburgh and Wheeling ; Cleveland, Co 
lumbus and Cincinnati ; Cleveland and Toledo ; and 
Michigan Southern railroads, and were obtained by 
correspondence from the Pennsylvania Central railroad. 

The Baltimore and Ohio railroad company, con 
stantly sustaining losses of property by the fortunes of 
war, felt unable to do as liberally as other roads, 
but cordially granted half-rates. 

The personal efforts of L. M. HUBBY, Esq., President 
of the Cleveland and Columbus railroad, and always 
the firm friend of the Society, secured free freights 
from the Little Miami ; Covington and Lexington ; 
Bellefontaine ; Terre Haute, Alton and St. Louis ; 
Illinois Central ; and Louisville and Nashville railroads. 



THE FIRST REPORT. 39 

These favors were never withdrawn, although the 
subsequent business of the Society taxed these roads, 
especially the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincin 
nati to an extent almost unparalleled. 

The Western Union Telegraph was the willing and 
unpaid messenger for the almost daily business of the 
Society for more than five years. The columns of the 
City Press were ever freely open to the appeals of the 
Society and the Sanitary Commission, and its voice 
always raised in commendation and encouragement. 

Eight months from date of organization, a detailed 
report of the Cleveland Soldiers Aid Society was pre 
sented through Dr. NEWBERRY, to the President of the 
Sanitary Commission, prefaced by the following letter : 

CLEVELAND, December 1, 1861. 
H. W. BELLOWS, D. D., 

President U. S. Sanitary Commission : 

Dear Sir: I have the honor to present, herewith, 

the Report of the SOLDIERS AID SOCIETY of Cleveland, Ohio, which, as 
you are aware, is one of the most efficient auxiliaries of our Commission. 

Through my reports, you have learned, from time to time, something of 
the operations of this Society, but from an intimate acquaintance with the 
growth and workings of its system, and the results it has accomplished, I 
have thought them worthy of more full and public exposition than has yet 
been given ; not only that the value of the services rendered by this Society 
might be more widely known and generally recognized, but that others, 
seeing how simply and how quietly so much good has been done, by those 
enjoying no unusual resources or opportunities, might be stimulated to like 
efforts, with like results. 

A few warm-hearted, patriotic women originated the Society, and, almost 
unaided, have since managed its rapidly extending business with a degree 
of skill and wisdom of which their success is but a just exponent. Seeking 
neither honor nor reward, they have given their time, their energies and 
their thoughts to the work, with a self-devotion, which, while it has taxed 
their strength and periled their health, has cheered, comforted, and saved 
from death, many a suffering soldier in the distant camps of our Western 
and Southern frontiers ; has enlisted the sympathy and active co-operation 
of thousands of the loyal women of Northern Ohio ; and by its direct and 



40 CHANGE OF TITLE. 

reflex influence, has given a more fervent glow to the patriotism of the 
entire West. In this fallen world of ours, such instances of self-consecration 
are not so common as to be undeserving of record when found. I would 
therefore request that this report, prepared at my suggestion, may be 
printed and circulated as one of the documents of our Commission. 

Very Respectfully, 

J. S. NEWBERRY. 

The tables of this report show total cash receipts of 
seventeen hundred dollars, more than two-thirds of 
which had been invested in material for hospital cloth 
ing and bedding, over four thousand articles having 
been made by the Society. Thirty-eight thousand 
articles and nearly three thousand pounds of hospital 
supplies had been disbursed to nineteen post and 
regimental hospitals, eighteen camps, and five Sani 
tary supply-stations in Ohio, Western Virginia, Ken 
tucky and Missouri. 

Contributions had been received from two hundred 
and forty-three towns, of which one hundred and 
twenty had perfected branch organizations. 

This report was accepted and printed as Document 
No. 87 of the Sanitary Commission series. 

At a special meeting of the Cleveland Soldiers Aid 
Society, Saturday, November 30th, when the above 
statement was submitted, the following preamble and 
resolutions were unanimously adopted : 

WHEREAS : The period has arrived at which the " Soldiers Aid Society," 
of Cleveland, embraces within its limits the whole of Northern Ohio, it is 
deemed an act of generosity, as well as justice, to signify by the name of 
said Society the extent of its organization : Therefore, 

Resolved, That hereafter the Cleveland " Soldiers Aid Society" be known 
as the " SOLDIERS AID SOCIETY OF NORTHERN OHIO ;" and that all goods 
sent to this Society, before being transmitted to hospital destinations, be 
appropriately marked with the name of the Society, in full. 



THE WINTER S WORK. 41 

Resolved, That its Auxiliaries be permitted to use the names of their 
respective Branches in their own stamp, before sending goods to the depot 
of the Society at Cleveland. 

The Society faithfully strove to infuse the spirit of 
these resolutions into its every action. The name of 
Cleveland was expunged from the stamp even of those 
articles that were purchased or made at the Cleveland 
Aid Rooms, and everything was henceforth issued as 
an exponent of the benevolence of Northern Ohio. 
This successfully extinguished sectional jealousies, and 
its wisdom was soon apparent in the rapid increase of 
territory and contribution. 

As autumn gave place to winter, scissors began to 
snip at great bolts of warm flannel, quilting parties 
assembled, knitting-circles drew around the fire-side, 
and flying fingers fashioned the shapely sock, or 
essayed the intricacies of the one-fingered mitten. 

Companies marching away from country towns were 
surprised by presentations of socks and mittens, re 
cruits newly arrived in the city were furnished with 
blankets by the Aid Society, and scarcely a soldier 
left the rooms without the gift of something that would 
modify the discomforts of camp life. 

A part of the U. S. Marine Hospital, Cleveland, 
opened to the few discharged soldiers who claimed aid 
at that early day, was almost wholly furnished by the 
Society. The details of this home charity are given in 
the accompanying Special Relief Report. 

The approaching holiday season suggested many 
festivities in aid of this good cause. Dime parties 
were formed, concerts rehearsed, tableaux projected, 
and there was scarcely a Christmas tree but bore 
golden fruit for some local treasury. 



42 SYSTEMATIC CONTRIBUTION. 

Hopes of a speedy termination of the war now faded 
before the gathering storm in Tennessee, and by 
advice from head-quarters a ware-room was engaged, 
and a reserve stock of battle-stores diligently gathered. 
It was evident that months or even years might 
develop yet more urgent duties for the army of home- 
workers, and that spasmodic charity would in time 
fail to meet the ever-increasing drafts. 

Circular No. 7, issued January 8th, to Branch Soci 
eties, set forth "the positive necessity for a system 
of steady contribution, such as would distress no 
one, yet leave it in the power of all to aid, a course 
that by ensuring a permanent revenue to each society, 
would enable it to prepare a stated number of hos 
pital garments each month, so long as the war shall 
last" 

Blank subscription lists were appended to this 
circular, to be signed by every citizen, old and young, 
pledging a sum not greater than five cents weekly. 

To prove how little was the duration of the war, or 
the extent of their labors, foreseen by those who had 
put their hands to the plow, it is worthy of note that 
these lists pledged the subscriber to payment " until 
May 1st, 1862, if the war shall last so long ! " 

The suggestions of this circular were adopted by 
many societies and carried out till the end of the war, 
with excellent results. 

The shock of arms at Fort Donelson fully proved 
the wisdom of laying up a reserve stock of hospital 
stores, a policy that had been deprecated by many, in 
their eagerness to push everything forward to the army. 
An extract from the CLEVELAND HERALD illustrates the 



BATTLE OF FORT DOKELSOX. 43 

action of the Society towards the wounded of that 
terrible battle, and the general direction of its ship 
ments at that period. 

EXTRACT. (Feb., 1862.) " The Soldiers Aid Society of Northern Ohio is 
doing a noble work. In anticipation of the results of bloodshed at Fort 
Donelson, twenty-two boxes containing lint and bandages were despatched 
to Cairo on Monday. In response to a telegram from Dr. NEWBERRY, 
one thousand sets of clothing, etc., were sent the next day, besides a 
dozen barrels of stores. Since Monday, over one hundred and sixty boxes 
of supplies have been expressed to Cairo for Fort Donelson sufferers. 
Added to these is a large amount of hospital comforts sent to Lebanon, Ky., 
in care of Dr. A. X. READ, Sanitary Inspector ; to the new Brigade Hospital 
at Ashland, Ky. ; and to Cumberland, Md. Paducah has received its share 
as well as the 9th Indiana Volunteers, at Fetterman, Va., and the 13th 
Indiana Volunteers at Camp North Branch Bridge, Va. The 3rd Ohio 
Cavalry, too, was remembered. The Society is to-day filling an order from 
Bardstown, Ky., and despatching supplies to the 60th Ohio Volunteers at 
Gallipolis, Ohio." 

By these drafts the supplies of the depot were 
exhausted, and the amount in the treasury was reduced 
to a nominal sum. A single call through the city 
papers met a response worthy to be recorded to the 
credit of the citizens of Cleveland to all time. Hos 
pital stores filled the empty shelves, and money 
unsolicited flowed into the treasury. In addition to 
individual gifts, the contributions of churches, societies, 
clubs, lodges and schools were poured in. The em 
ployes of foundries, car-shops and boiler-shops gave 
up the great national holiday of February 22d, and 
devoted the wages of that day to their suffering 
brothers in hospital. 

In the illumination of the city on the evening of 
February 22d, over this first great victory in the 
West, the Society, thus encouraged, gladly took part, 
and its windows shone with transparencies typical of 



44 AN AUTOGRAPH TESTIMONIAL. 

the succor that the people were bringing to their 
wounded. 

Before the week ended, two hundred and sixty boxes 
had been shipped to Cairo and Louisville, where the 
wounded of this dear-bought triumph were now gath 
ering. The president of the Society accompanied 
these stores to Louisville, and by the kindness of the 
Louisville Branch Sanitary Commission gained access 
to the crowded hospitals, giving her personal attention 
to the sufferers, and making the acquaintance of several 
loyal women of that city, who were then organizing 
ward committees for visiting and relieving the 
wounded. 

By request of these ladies, an informal meeting was 
held, when the working system of Northern Ohio aid 
societies was fully explained to them. 

The aid of the Cleveland Branch was cordially 
offered, and for many succeeding weeks the delicacies 
sent from the North found their way to the Fort 
Donelson wounded, through the hands of these Louis 
ville ward committees. 

To provide this special hospital diet, a direct appeal 
was made, April 2d, in Circular No. 8, to the farmers 
of the vicinity. Butter, eggs, cheese, chickens, dried 
apples and pickles were earnestly solicited, and were 
sent in such quantity as to make a sensible improve 
ment in Louisville hospitals. 

Though many were the appreciative messages 
returned to the zealous workers of the Society, none 
so stirred their hearts as an autograph testimonial of 
two hundred and ninety-two of the Fort Donelson 
wounded, who, in Hospital No. 5, Louisville, had 



A TRIP TO THE FRONT. 45 

received the gifts of the Soldiers 1 Aid Society of 
Northern Ohio. 

This direct cornmunication with hospitals where 
hundreds, dear to Northern hearts, were lying 
desperately wounded, gave to many their first vivid 
picture of the sufferings of the battle-field, and deep 
ened their interest in all measures for relief. 

At the Aid Rooms, voices sank low as surgeon s 
supplies were discussed, the fleecy lint was tenderly 
handled, the soft linen almost reverently folded, 
and little groups from the country watched with 
new and tearful interest the mysteries of bandage 
rolling. 

3 

None of the corps of Aid Room workers at that 
day will ever forget the passionate burst of tears that 
greeted the old father who came feebly in to ask for 
a pair of crutches for his forever-crippled son, one of 
the first to make the painful journey back to his 
Ohio home. 



By the fall of Fort Donelson, Nashville was opened 
to the North, and here the Sanitary Commission early 
sought to enter. 

April 1st, the secretary of the Cleveland Society 
accompanied Dr. NEWBERRY and Dr. READ to Nash 
ville, to see some results of Sanitary work at the front, 
and to aid in establishing a supply depot in that city, 
now an important base of Sanitary operation. 

The following extract is from a letter written during 
that visit to the South-west : 



46 SANITARY DEPOT, NASHVILLE. 

ST. CLOUD HOTEL, NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE, } 
April 4th, 1862. f 

" DEAR MKS. ROUSE AND LADIES OF 95 BANK STREET, 

What do you think of my coming down here and opening a store ? an 
opposition establishment ? and doing a brisk business, too ! 

Yet so it is, and could you look into our new Sanitary depot here, it would 
geem to you like nothing in the world so much as our dear 95 Bank street 
translated into Dixie. For here are our boxes and shelves and labels, all 
after the fashion of that thriving institution, and closer view reveals a 
certain familiar stamp (S. A. S., Northern Ohio,) upon various articles of 
clothing and bedding that are already piled upon the shelves, while many 
a can of dainties or bottle of domestic wine bears on its label the name of 
some Northern Ohio matron. 

This depot of the Sanitary Commission, just opened, is well located in the 
central part of the city, and already three hundred boxes have arrived from 
the North. The stores that we shipped by express the day I left home have 
come on from Louisville, and we have been busily at work unpacking and 
arranging the supplies. It seemed like old times to be handling hospital 
stores, and it did my soul good when, after a hard day s work, we could look 
at the well filled shelves and think how near our goods now are to the 
place where they are so much needed. 

The store is arranged very much like our own, and we have been busy 
again this morning, writing labels and unpacking more boxes. 

A pale and feeble soldier has just been in to ask for a towel. He was 
a Michigan man, just discharged from hospital, and waiting for his pay in 
order to go home. I had the pleasure of giving him some towels, a hand 
kerchief, a handful of soft crackers and a bottle of currant wine, made by 
some good Ohio housekeeper. 

You can scarcely imagine what importance our work assumes at this 
point. To see a surgeon come in and draw a stock of clothing and bedding 
and to visit his hospital next day and notice those very articles covering and 
comforting the sick, is to find cause and effect in truly gratifying 
proximity. 

These stores tell a wonderful tale of the great benevolent heart of the 
North, and of the union in good works that pervades our land. The women 
of New England have sent their offerings, Cincinnati has done gener 
ously, the Louisville ladies have added their share, and our own Society 
is liberally represented. 

The surgeons are coming in almost hourly to make requisitions, and 
under the careful eye of Dr. READ the wants of each hospital are being 
relieved." 

While thus engaged at Nashville, there came the 
news of the battle of Pittsburg Landing, and the party 



BATTLE OF P1TTSBURG- LANDING. 47 

at once went by government transport down the 
Cumberland and up the Tennessee, carrying with them 
hospital supplies, and meeting at Paducah and 
merging into the wave of practical sympathy now fully 
in motion towards the scene of suffering. To meet 
the necessities of that terrible conflict, the quick 
impulses of a generous people promptly devised a 
noble plan of succor. Scarcely had the vague rumors 
of the long expected battle deepened into certainty, 
when the floating palaces that in happier days glided 
over our western rivers, obedient to the interests of 
commerce or the calls of pleasure, now freighted with 
stores of comfort and thronged with sympathizing 
hearts, became the swift-winged messengers of mercy 
to the victims of the deadly struggle. The various 
branches of the Sanitary Commission and the authori 
ties of different States vied with each other in this 
benevolent work, and the women of the North poured 
out the abundant fruit of their patriotism, richly 
rewarded by the tribute of gratitude sent up from the 
pale and trembling lips of hundreds thus rescued from 
distant and lonely graves. 

The withdrawal of the Union forces from the posts 
so long occupied in Kentucky, and their concentration 
upon the head waters of the Tennessee, had been 
watched with breathless anxiety. The general position 
of the opposing forces was known, and the battle of 
Pittsburg Landing had been long expected, yet the 
final announcement of the victory and its terrible 
price, kindled an excitement that no previous event of 
the war had called forth in the West. 

Had a shell from the rebel batteries burst upon 



48 THE EXCITEMENT IK CLEVELAND. 

every hearth-stone, the consternation and dismay 
throughout Northern Ohio could scarcely have been 
greater. Nearly every regiment of the Western Re 
serve had been engaged, our own dead covered the 
fatal field, our own dear wounded were languishing 
in that distant and desolated region. Over every 
household hung the pall of a great bereavement, or 
the scarcely less dense cloud of a heart-breaking sus 
pense. 

The record of these exciting days in Cleveland, is 
best given in a letter from the treasurer of the Aid 
Society to the absent secretary. 

"CLEVELAND AlD ROOMS, 95 BANK STREET, ) 

April 20th, 1862. f 

" On the first news of the battle, a meeting of the citizens of Cleveland 
was at once called, and a committee appointed to go the same night to 
Pittsburg Landing with such supplies as could be collected in the meantime . 
The Soldiers Aid Society Rooms seemed the natural point where the tide 
of excitement culminated, and from morning till night the doors were thrown 
open, and like a great wave, the throng of people ebbed and flowed coming 
and going to bring their contributions to learn the latest intelligence 
or to offer their services in preparing the shipment to be made before night. 
When we entered the Aid Rooms that morning, the whole space was filled 
with a sea of people, carrying boxes, baskets, parcels, pails and jars. The 
street in front was crowded with drays loaded with heavier packages, con 
taining clothing, bedding, dressings, wine and fruit the best which every 
house afforded. 

Long hoarded treasures of fine linen spun by grandmothers, and relics of 
revolutionary times, which had been reserved in all previous emergencies, 
now came to light and were freely offered. All our efforts were in vain to 
weigh or register these gifts with any accuracy. One courageous disciple 
of order stood at the high desk, with day-book and pen, and an avenue was 
opened to the scales, but the attempt signally failed. The tide of unregu 
lated benevolence swept over and obliterated this feeble resistance. While 
one package of old linen was being recorded, twenty more valuable gifts 
were set quietly down by their owners, who went away in full assurance 
that the same would be discovered, recognized and credited in the weekly 
acknowledgments. A failure to do this was in course of time duly reported 
at the Aid Rooms. All our ordinary corps of workers were at their posts, 



HOSPITAL TRANSPORT WORK. 49 

and scores of others, who were consigned to that sinking fund of patriotic 
fervor, the rag-box, and these rolled bandages, folded compresses, packed 
the stores of all kinds, working steadily far into the evening. Then there 
were others a great number who had a deeper interest in the lists of 
dead and wounded that came in so slowly. Men, women and children 
waited hours for later despatches, and many a brave woman whose happi 
ness was at stake, worked all day with colorless face but undaunted courage, 
preparing comforts which might save some soldier, if her own were beyond 
aid. Here, a little girl who had stood with eyes filled with tears, listening 
to the confused conversation, asked anxiously if Charley was killed, and 
there, an old man, in faded and worn clothing, begged pardon of the ladies 
for crying, while he asked after his boy James his youngest son, and the 
only one left who was in the battle, and who must have been killed, for 
he was always a good one to write. Of course, for a day or two nothing 
could be heard from James, Charley, or thousands of others, but a week or 
two later the old father came one morning, radiant with happiness, and 
accompanied by James his arm in a sling, but delighted in the possession 
of a thirty days furlough. The Missus sent by them a jar of pickles to 
the soldiers, as a thank offering. 

The citizens committee was to leave on the 10 r. M. train, and by night 
fall a re-enforcement of gentlemen came to help nail, pack and despatch the 
one hundred boxes that were promptly ready at that hour." 

A self-constituted committee of the friends of the 
Aid Society collected in one day and a half more than 
three thousand dollars, which was devoted to the 
purchase of material, and later to the expenses of 
hospital transports. Day after day the stream of gifts 
flowed in, soon swollen by a generous tide from the 
country societies, and continuing for weeks unabated. 
The impetus thus gained carried the Society through 
many prosperous months. 

The car-load of stores sent down the first day in 
care of the Cleveland citizens committee, was imme 
diately followed by an equally large shipment to the 
Magnolia, a steamer fitted out by the Ohio State 
authorities, and in charge of the Surgeon General of 
the State. 



50 THE STEAMER LANCASTER. 

From the retrospect of those dark days, it is 
pleasant to single out one bright memory. AVhen 
the Magnolia lay by the crowded river-side at Pittsburg 
Landing, taking in her precious freight of suffering 
humanity, the secretary of the Cleveland Aid Society, 
passing down the long cabin between rows of freshly 
spread cots, saw on each sheet and pillow and bed 
garment, the well-known stamp of Northern Ohio 
benevolence. 

The Glendale and the Tycoon, despatched soon after 
by the Governor on the same errand of mercy, were 
also generously supplied, and consignments were made 
to agents of the Sanitary Commission in Cincinnati, for 
transfer to hospital steamers. The "Lancaster No. 4, 
held in charter by the Sanitary Commission, and run 
ning between Cincinnati and Pittsburg Landing, was 
at once " adopted " by the Cleveland Society, and one 
thousand dollars were voted from the treasury to aid 
in her outfit of cots, table and bed furniture, lemons, 
ice, fresh vegetables, etc., purchased by Dr. NEWBERRY 
in Cincinnati. The Society was further represented 
by Mrs. B. O. WILCOX and Mrs. STANLEY NOBLE, of the 
Painesville Branch, who accompanied the Lancaster, 
giving valuable assistance to the officials, in their care 
of the sick and wounded. The Lancaster was em 
ployed throughout the summer by the Sanitary 
Commission as a floating depot, supply steamer and 
hospital ; plying between the army on the Tennessee 
and the Mississippi, and the hospitals and markets on 
the Ohio; carrying down a full cargo of stores for 
distribution, and bringing back the sick and wounded 
to Northern hospitals, or on furlough to their homes. 



THE DEPOT HOSPITAL. 5] 

For these feeble travelers a resting place was opened 
by the Society, April 17th, 1862, in the Cleveland 
Union Depot. To this, on the arrival of each train, 
the soldier was directed by a faithful nurse, and here 
he found a comfortable bed and good cheer, and was 
furnished with transportation, if necessary. The 
establishment of this DEPOT HOSPITAL is detailed in 
the accompanying Special Relief Report. 

The Cleveland Society stood pledged to add to the 
cargo of the Lancaster, upon her touching at Cincin 
nati. Due notice of her approach was telegraphed 
from Paducah, and this was made the basis of an 
appeal to the ever-willing auxiliaries. Every Branch 
Society redoubled its zeal, and at the Aid Rooms in 
Cleveland the busy preparation for " steamer-day " 
emulated the bustling activity of a foreign shippino- 
house. 

The president and several members of the Society 
accompanied Dr. NEWBERRY to Pittsburg Landing, 
upon the second trip of the Lancaster. 

From a letter of one of these ladies the following 
extracts are made : 

"JUNE 20th, 1863. 

" DEAR LADIES OF THE AID SOCIETY, CLEVELAND : 

The evening o f June 5th, 1862, saw us on board the Lancaster No. 
4, bound for Pittsburg Landing. Our party comprised six physicians 
Dr. NEWBERRY with his coadjutor, Dr. PRENTICE, at their head, a 
clergyman of the Protestant Episcopal Church, six male nurses, and 
five ladies who claimed the privilege of acting in any capacity the 
necessities of the sick might demand, either as nurses or cooks, willing 
that the yellow flag should cover the broad ground of woman s sphere 
wherever a Christian humanity should direct it. 

Our boat was richly freighted with hospital stores to be dispensed as the 
exigencies of the boat or hospitals might demand. We embarked with the 
pleasant appliances of a pleasure excursion agreeable officers, well fur- 



52 TO PITTSBUKG LANDING. 

nislied saloon and state rooms ; and in genial society and the surroundings 
of beautiful scenery, we drank in vigor and courage for the accomplishment 
of our mission, which was to bring home such sick and wounded as could 
with safety be removed from the Tennessee hospitals. We were to take 
men irrespective of the State to which they belonged, and gather under the 
folds of the United States flag all who had in common fought for the honor 
of that flag, for surely all such were brothers. * * * 

On the morning of June 10th we arrived at Pittsburg Landing. Such a 
busy scene as there presented itself! * 

As it was determined that we were to ship our sick from Hamburg, six 
miles south of the landing, we proceeded there the following day, and then 
commenced our earnest work. The saloon of the Lancaster was stripped of 
its carpets, lounges, etc., floors thoroughly washed, and a triple row of cots 
ranged lengthwise through the saloon. Every available space on the 
guards and lower deck was occupied by cots, and all hands put in requisition 
to prepare for the reception of the invalid soldiers. Blessings on the Aid 
Societies were invoked when the stores of sheets and comfortable quilts 
were brought from their hiding place, and the cots made, one after another, 
by their cleanliness and comfort, as inviting as those of a fine hotel. Bless 
ings, too, for the liberal supply of pillows for the aching heads that had 
slept for so many weary weeks on the knapsack. Our preparations com 
pleted, we waited until the morning of Friday, the 12th inst., for our 
precious freight. 

On the morning of that day our patients two hundred and 
twenty-five in number appeared on the hill above our landing, 
brought thither from a hospital in that vicinity. We watched with intense 
interest their progress to the boat. Of the whole number, not one descend 
ed the hill with the step of health. Bent and broken, either by the scourge 
of fever or wounds, some on litters, some in half military dress, with the 
loose sleeve proclaiming a terrible wound, others in dressing-gowns, sitting 
down, as exhausted nature required, after a few steps. We at last mustered 
our forces. The boat was divided into wards, each physician taking one as 
his special care the six nurses acting for all. After the men fell into their 
comfortable quarters, the operation of bathing and dressing began. Soiled 
clothing was removed, and your generous store of shirts and drawers furnish 
ed each poor fellow with comforts which spoke in their happy faces of a moral 
elevation, since cleanliness is akin to godliness. Now all these sheets, 
shirts, drawers, etc., bore the unmistakable mark of the Northern Ohio Aid 
Society, and prompted the question, what would become of these sick men 
if there was no such organization V Again, when the nice supper appeared 
with its modicum to each man of sweet bread, butter and fruit, with tea or 
coffee, as his taste directed, the same question was mentally propounded, 
and gratefully we acknowledged the benevolence that had filled up the 
awful hiatus between the necessities of our sick and wounded brothers and 



ON BOARD THE LANCASTER. 53 

the supplies which the best Government can afford. There was untold 
satisfaction, too, in the ocular demonstration this trip afforded, that the 
Sanitary Commission, with its authorized agents, goes to the spot and 
directly applies its aid. There is no doubt tormenting the mind of the des 
tination of stores thus entrusted, for they are met in the very face of the 
demand. It is not a box carefully marked by loving hands and entrusted to 
steamboats and railways, but stores made available by the donors themselves, 
through their own appointed agents, where the failure to meet their desti 
nation is the exception, never the rule. 

Our kind clergyman, with his words of comfort, contributed materially to 
the good we were dispensing. Three of our party were returning with 
heavy hearts, having gone in quest of relatives whom they found "sleeping 
the sleep that knows no waking." To these bruised spirits all administered. 
One of the mourners an octogenarian was bearing to his home on the 
banks of the Ohio the tidings of his son s death, but nothing daunted in his 
patriotism by his calamity, he was willing to try his own hand in the fight 
for his country s honor, if a call should be made for the grey haired, when 
the younger men were exhausted. 

On Sunday two services were held by the Rev. Dr. STARKEY, one in the 
cabin for the convalescents, and a second one in the evening, in the open 
air, on the bow of the steamer, to an audience most of whom were unable 
to rise from their cots. It was a lovely summer night which witnessed this 
solemn service to men prostrated by disease, on the lonely waters of the 
Tennessee, and hard must have been the heart that did not respond to the 
fervent petitions of that hour. 

Surely, the Lancaster on her homeward w r ay, was an angel of mercy, dis 
pensing to hospitals at Savannah, Monterey and Hamburg, of the good 
things with which she was freighted giving, without stint, of fruits, 
wines and clothing, gladdening the hearts of those, who, far from home 
and the sympathy which surrounds it, recognize in the stamp of yours and 
kindred societies, the tender and loving ministrations of woman and the 
bright chain of living and practical benevolence which unites them with 
home and all its endearing associations. ***** 

Very truly, Yours, J. 

The interest of this journey was heightened by the 
confidence gained in the ability and faithfulness of the 
agents of the Sanitary Commission. The results of 
these observations were given to the Branch Societies 
in a letter from the president, issued July loth, as 
Circular No. 9. For further evidence of the usefulness 
of hospital steamers, and interesting details of their 



54 GENERAL SHIPMENTS. 

management, the reader is referred to a document of the 
Sanitary Commission series, entitled " Brief Keports," 
written by Dr. J. S. NEWBEBBY, under whose charge 
the trip of the Lancaster was made. 

Though hospital transport work was a specialty 
through this summer, the books of the Society show 
that shipments had been made to over one hundred 
geographical points in Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky 
and Tennessee, and that the hospitals of Kansas had 
been added to the list of beneficiaries. 

The destitution in Kansas hospitals was first 
brought to notice in March, 1802, by the report of J, 
II. BROWN, Esq., who was then traveling through that 
State, by authority of the Sanitary Commission, to 
learn what hospital stores not provided by Govern 
ment could be supplied by benevolence. Guided by 
the advice and information of Mr. BROWN, the Society 
despatched stores to Post Hospital, Kansas City. This 
was its first shipment to that department, with excep 
tion of a few boxes that had answered special calls 
from Northern Ohio regiments on duty there. Mr. 
BROWN brought back from these regiments a hearty 
and cheering acknowledgment of the gifts that they 
had received. His report included an account of the 
destitution among refugee Indians in Kansas, and 
this was relieved to some extent by boxes of half- worn 
clothing and bedding, collected from households in 
and near Cleveland. 

The claims of Kansas hospitals were henceforth 
readily acknowledged by the Cleveland Branch, and 
in the later establishment of a Sanitary Commission 



SANITABY AGENCY, LEAVEN WORTH. 55 

supply depot at Leavenworth, the repeated drafts of 
Mr. BROWN upon the Cleveland storehouse were 
answered with a promptness intended to show the 
confidence felt in this very faithful Sanitary agent and 
truly excellent man. 



CHAPTER III. 

FROM a pamphlet report of the Society, published 
July 1st, 1862, it appears that total cash receipts to 
that date were nearly seventy-six hundred dollars. 
Two-thirds of this sum had been expended in furnish 
ing hospital steamers and in purchase of materials 
from which eleven thousand articles of clothing and 
bedding had been made by the central society. Ninety 
six thousand articles and one hundred and twenty-one 
thousand pounds of hospital comforts had been- 
received at the Cleveland Aid Rooms, the contribu 
tion of Northern Ohio. 

Three hundred and twenty-one organized societies 
had been entered as corresponding and supply 
Branches of the Cleveland Sanitary Commission. 
The most cordial relations existed between these 
associations and the central organization. Many of 
these Branches possessed the elements of self-susten 
ance, but to maintain the life and vigor of others, 
much fostering care was required. It was a constant 
study to promote the interests of the tributaries, and 
such effort invariably brought rich reward. 

Through the first six or eight months of its existence, 
the Cleveland Aid Society had a hard struggle for 
life. So much desultory work was done by the people 



districttributarytottie Cleveland Branch 
Sanitary Gommissionjn Shade". 




GEOGRAPHICAL LIMITS. 5 

directly to their friends in the army, that it was only 
by much persistence that Sanitary labors were 
centralized. The Society does not profess to have 
engrossed all the relief work of its district, it only 
claims to have gathered it into form, given it direction, 
and made it more effective. 

The people of Northern Ohio were constantly 
showing their interest in the soldiers by sending boxes 
to individuals in the army, Christmas and Thanks 
giving gifts to friends in camp, presenting socks and 
mittens to regiments on marching away, despatching 
messengers with boxes of home dainties down to " the 
front." (See I. Samuel, 17th Chap., 17th and 18th 
verses.) 

This outside work is entered upon no record of 
Sanitary effort, but it is certain that the aid societies 
were the " head centers " of all communication between 
the home and the army, and that by their being kept 
in vigorous condition an impetus was given to all such 
work, whether done strictly within their limits or not. 

The territory from which supplies were drawn was 
extremely limited, not exceeding eighteen counties in 
the north-eastern part of Ohio. A few towns in 
southern Michigan, western New York and north 
western Pennsylvania were tributary to Cleveland 
during the first years of the war, but later these were 
naturally withdrawn to the agencies established at 
Detroit, Buffalo and Pittsburgh. Meadville, Pa., was 
the only considerable town outside of the State of 
Ohio in which a Branch of the Cleveland Sanitary 
Commission was maintained to the end of the war. 

The north-western part of Ohio, having direct rail- 



CULTIVATING THE FIELD. 



road communication with Cincinnati, sent its hospital 
contributions generally to that supply center. 

Columbus had its own agency, which drew its 
support from the central part of the State. 

The geographical position of Cleveland limited the 
territory of its Aid Society, since it could not be 
expected that towns in the central or southern part 
of the State would send stores northward, knowing 
they would be at once re-shipped to the south, over 
the same line of transportation. 

This small field was carefully cultivated, and in it a 
constituency was built up, of branch societies num 
bering at the close of the war five hundred and 

o 

twenty -five. 

There was scarcely a town, village or hamlet in this 
district that had not its "Aid Society " or " Soldiers 
Relief Association." Even the children were inspired 
by zeal unto good works to organize in school-house 
and play-room their " Busy Bee," " Wide Awake" or 
" X. Y. Z." societies. 

It is believed that no other arm of the UNITED 
STATES SANITAKY COMMISSION had so intimate com 
munication with its tributaries, or drew from so small 
a district greater results. 

The officers of each local organization were noted 
on the books at the Cleveland Aid Rooms with 
accurate post-office address. At stated intervals, blanks 
were issued to each Branch, to be filled and returned, 
showing what changes of officers had taken place, by 
election or otherwise. The secretary s books were cor 
rected to agree with these reports. Personal letters 
were addressed at least once a month to the secretary 



RELATIONS WITH BRANCH SOCIETIES. 59 

of each society, besides the receipts and letters that 
were always sent in acknowledgment of boxes, and the 
frequent answers to inquiries concerning work, and 
many other matters of business that were constantly 
referred by the local societies to the central rooms. 

No attempt was made to divert contributions out of 
the direct channel towards the army. Towns were 
always advised to send to the Sanitary agency nearest 
the point of demand. 

The relation of the Branches to the Cleveland 
Society was purely one of self-interest, and could be 
broken at any moment if they so desired. No pledge 
of union was exacted from them, nor was there any 
attempt to say what proportion of their goods should 
be forwarded through this agency. 

With the Cleveland Society rested the duty of 
binding the Branches to itself by making it clearly for 
their interest to continue the relation. It had also the 
burden and responsibility of establishing and conduct 
ing arrangements with transportation agencies and the 
general Commission, whereby goods could be safely 
conveyed and wisely distributed. The Branches had 
only to prepare their shipments and despatch them to 
Cleveland. Once arrived there, their responsibility 
might be considered at an end. 

The aid societies of Northern Ohio were a power 
for loyalty. The hands of Union men at home were 
as surely held up by this little band of workers in 
every town and village, as were the hearts of the 
soldiers in the field cheered by the knowledge that 
friends at home were busy for their comfort. The 
Union element in a town was sure to crystallize around 



OFFICERS. 



60 bllTIES OF 

its Aid Society. The " Union" or " Peace " proclivities 
of a man were clearly indicated by his good- will and 
generosity towards "the Sanitary," or his open or 
covert attacks upon it. 

The work undertaken for sweet charity only, soon 
became an exponent of political sentiment. This was 
sharply brought out in the latter years of the war, 
and union conventions and loyal leagues recognized 
the value of the aid societies by making frequent con 
tributions to their support. 

The Cleveland Aid Rooms in these days presented 
a busy scene indeed. The business of influencing, 
receiving and disbursing money and stores, and the 
practical details of purchasing, invoicing and shipping 
were managed by the officers, there being no finance, 
advisory or auditing board of gentlemen, as was 
usual elsewhere in similar institutions. 

Throughout the entire existence of the Society, its 
officers were happily able to give their whole time to 
a work in which they w^ere interested heart and soul. 
No salary was ever asked or received by any one of 
them, and not one cent was ever drawn from the 
treasury for their traveling or other expenses, even 
when they were absent on the necessary business of 
the Society. 

The officers were effectively aided by volunteer 
committees, appointed at each business meeting for 
the ensuing month. Besides those whose names have 
been given on page 24, as forming the committees at 
the organization of the Society, the following ladies 
shoiild have honorable mention : 



AID ROOM COMMITTEES. 61 

Mrs. Dr. MERRITT, Mrs. R, C. YATES, Mrs. J. M. 
RICHARDS, Mrs. S. W. CRITTENDEN, Mrs. LAUDERDALE, 
Mrs. HENRY DEWBERRY, Mrs. E. F. GAYLORD, Mrs. 
JAMES BARNETT, Miss ANNETTE BARNETT, Mrs. ALBERT 
M. HARMON, Mrs. C. D. BRAYTON, Mrs. LEPPER, Mrs. 
E. S. ISOM, Mrs. S. A. JEWETT, Mrs. CHARLES WHEELER, 
Mrs. THOMAS BURNHAM, Mrs. L. ALCOTT, Mrs. H. B. 
HFRLBURT, Mrs. BEVERLIN, Mrs. G. A. HYDE, Mrs. A. 
FULLER, Mrs. H. H. LITTLE, Mrs. I. T. STEVENS, Mrs. 
L. BURTON, Mrs. O. B. SKINNER, Mrs. Dr. HOPKINS, 
Mrs. STANLEY NOBLE, Mrs. Dr. THAYER, Mrs. EDWIN 
THAYER, Mrs. GEO. B. ELY, Miss BELLE CARTER, Miss 
LILY WALTON. 

Many ladies of these committees continued month 
after month in the discharge of their self-imposed 
duties, greatly overtaxing their strength by a degree 
of manual labor that woman is seldom called to 
perform. 

The unpacking, assorting and repacking of goods 
required many busy hands, besides those that were 
engaged in cutting, giving out and receiving back 
the garments made from material furnished. 

There was also the stamping of each article with the 
name of the Society and of the Sanitary Commission, 
adopted as a precaution against fraudulent appropria 
tion, and as a proof to the soldier that such articles 
were not furnished by Government, and could neither 
be sold to him nor their price held back from his 

Pay- 
Many articles of bedding received at the Aid Rooms 

had been drawn from household stores, and still bore 
the quaint sampler- stitch initial or written name of 
the donor. 



62 MARKED ARTICLES. 

"Album quilts" were a favorite conceit of sewing 
circles, where each lady would contribute a patchwork 
square made from scraps of her own dresses, writing 
upon it her name and a patriotic sentiment or 
cheering couplet. 

Instances were not few when the soldier in far-off 
hospital was cheered by sight of some such familiar 
sign on sheet or counterpane, or gladly rested his 
weary head upon a pillow that bore a dear and well- 
known name. 

Socks went to the soldiers with such good wishes as 
the following: 

" Brave sentry, on your lonely beat, 

May these blue stockings warm your feet, 
And when from wars and camps you part, 
May some fair knitter warm your heart." 

A bit of paper bearing a few words of kindness and 
sympathy was often found pinned into the sleeve of 
a new garment, which thus became doubly the mes 
senger of good- will from home to hospital. 

Who can estimate the value of such a gift to one 
who, for months separated from friends and bearing a 
soldier s burdens in a distant region, is thus made to 
feel that gentle hands still hold the lengthening chain 
that binds him to his home ! 

The unpacking committee often found in a box 
from the country a garment having the Aid Room 
stamp, that had been worn home from hospital by a 
soldier and was now returned to do a second mission 
of comfort. 

There were other gifts that were more tenderly 
handled, with such labels as these : 



CANNED FRUIT AND JELLIES. 63 

"A pillow and sheet on which my wounded son was brought home from 
Cross Lanes." 

" Three pairs of socks, sent home in the knapsack of a dear brother who 
fell at Antietam." 

The duties of the Aid Room committees did not 
end with a general attention to the stock. There was 
also special care to be given to a class of stores that, 
through too hasty preparation or packing, often came 
to the Aid Rooms in a state unfit for direct forwarding. 
Corks were to be secured, labels adjusted, lids 
cemented, leaks detected and their damages repaired. 

What genius of mischief first proposed canned fruit 
as an article of sick diet, or why army surgeons and 
hospital nurses should be supposed to subsist exclu 
sively upon that luxury, are mysteries beyond solution 
in this volume. Certain it is, that no other supplies 
gave so much trouble in preparation, were so ill fitted 
to bear transportation and change of temperature, or 
were so damaging to the honest name of surgeon, 
nurse, and Sanitary Commission. 

A great discouragement was the constant cry that 
" the soldiers don t get the things," and " the surgeons 
and nurses eat up everything." " Everything " was 
invariably acknowledged to mean the canned fruit 
and jellies, yet it was in vain to advise against 
sending these, or to set forth that other stores could 
be prepared at less cost, were more safely forwarded, 
and offered less temptation to dishonest fingers. 

It was not in the hearts of Northern Ohio women 
to withhold from the soldiers any luxury that they 
themselves enjoyed. To the very last, canned fruit 
crowded Aid Room shelves and perplexed Aid Room 
committees. 



64 STOREKEEPER PERPLEXITIES. 

It was hard for the thrifty matron, in her well-or 
dered home, to remember the difference between an 
army surgeon s menage and her own careful house 
keeping. Sometimes a jar of pickles would come to 
the Aid Rooms labeled with directions to the surgeon 
of the hospital to "pour off the brine, throw on 
scalding vinegar, and keep them in a cool place, 11 - - or 
a little package of roots and herbs, with a careful 
recipe for steeping them in certain proportions, to 
make " a very good cough mixture,"" or " a wash for 
sore mouth." 

It was hard, too, to comprehend the wreck and ruin 
of war, to admit that among its attendant evils 
wastefulness is conspicuous and inevitable, and that 
in this waste with the best that can be done to pre 
vent it the supplies of benevolent associations, as 
well as the furnishings of Government, must share. 

There arose in Aid Room storekeeping three sea 
sons of special perplexity, that, however, well illus 
trate the promptness and enthusiasm of Northern 
Ohio benevolence. 

In an unlucky hour, some patriotic soul, with more 
zeal than knowledge, proposed bottled currant-juice 
-without sugar as the appropriate "offering of a 
grateful people to their suffering defenders." This 
hint, going the rounds of the country press, was 
eagerly caught up and instantly acted upon. Box 
after box was unloaded at the Aid Rooms, filled with 
bottles of this bright translucent liquid. Torpedoes 
from Dixie could scarcely have produced greater con 
sternation. Its short history was one of uneasy 
bubble, internal ferment and outbursting rebellion. 



CURE ANT- JUICE AND TOAST. 65 

Corks flew, glass shivered, and committee-women 
broke ranks and fled in dismay before the enfilading 
fire of this novel battery. Certain sanguineous stains 
on the floor and mysterious tracery on walls and ceil 
ing were long the significant reminders of this "cur 
rant-juice cannonade." 

Again, there crept into the newspapers a sugges 
tion that slices of dry toast should be packed into 
barrels and sent to hospitals. Before experience could 
report upon the value of this advice, dray loads of 
barreled toast had been deposited at the Aid Room 
door. If the bread had been carefully toasted and 
made perfectly dry, the rough handling of the barrel 
by railroad porters or the jolting over country roads 
reduced the slices to minute crumbs; but if, as was 
most likely, it had been hastily packed, only half dry, 
the whole became a sour and mouldy mass, only fit 
to be cast out wherever dumping ground could be 
found for it. The Aid Room committees from be 
neath a mountain of mouldering crusts sent forth 
their reiterated outcry against this waste. Even 
letters and printed protests were slow in convincing 
the zealous workers that their labor was worse than 
vain. Week after week the process of toasting bread 
went on as though the fires of Northern Ohio patri 
otism had been kindled solely for that purpose. 

But these annoyances were as nothing to the trials 
of the " concentrated chicken era," in the spring of 
1862. This was specially vexatious because the 
advice which proved so unlucky had been sent out 
from the Aid Rooms. 

From the East there had come a recipe, strongly 



66 CONCENTRATED CHICKEN. 

endorsed, for stewing down chicken, condensing the 
broth and sealing the whole in tin cans. This recipe 
was circulated by the Aid Society among its tributa 
ries, who were enjoined to enter at once upon the 
preparation of "this invaluable article of hospital 
diet." 

The aid societies threw themselves into this work 
in their own generous way. Chicken had been pre, 
scribed for their soldier boys, chicken they should 
have ! Poultry-yard and chicken-coop yielded up the 
victims of this new decree. The " murder of the inno 
cents " went on with unsparing hand. " Bees " assem 
bled in every kitchen, the steaming kettle sent up a 
savory odor from every fireside. 

The first shipments reached the Cleveland Aid 
Rooms in apparent good order, and were immediately 
and with great satisfaction forwarded to hospitals. 
A few boxes are known to have borne transportation 
well and to have been a welcome treat to the sick 
soldiers. But either the process was defective, the 
haste in packing too great, or it may have been that 
the zeal infused into the preparation induced fermen 
tation in the cans ! Soon, " bouquet de concentrated 
chicken" began to pervade the atmosphere of Aid 
Rooms and to exhale in overpowering effluvia from 
every box that came in. An ominous " chipper " and 
bubble arose among the cans on the shelf, followed 
by a gaseous explosion, after which, decidedly 
stronger "bouquet." 

Words cannot do justice to this new perfume, 
memory once saturated with it can never be purged 
of the experience ! 



OFFICE DUTIES. 67 

Committee- women, sick and faint, longed for retire 
ment and a camphor-bottle. Some, more resolute, with 
cologne-drenched handkerchief and face averted, ven 
tured to open and explore the boxes, dragging out 
the contents thoroughly impregnated with the nause 
ous odor or soaked and ruined by the bursting of a 
single can. Business meetings were conducted with 
great gravity, each member holding a saucer of disin 
fectants under her devoted nose. 

Surgeons politely acknowledged to the Aid Soci 
ety the receipt of a box, " presumed by the odor, 
to contain condensed chicken." Sanitary agents at 
Nashville despairingly cried, " Stay ! the Cumberland 
river is already blockaded with cans of con founded 
chicken ! " 

Neighbors voted the establishment a nuisance, doc 
tors denounced it, and cholera threatened it. Chloride 
of lime at last carried the day ! 

In the office of the Aid Kooms a careful system of 
book-keeping and invoicing had been early adopted. 
A list of every article contributed, with name of donor, 
was published weekly in the CLEVELAND HEEALD. 
Each box from the country was further acknowledged 
by a personal letter aiming to convey advice, informa 
tion and encouragement. The limits of the day were 
all too short for these duties, and the correspondence 
and preparation for the press were often carried far 
into the night. 

. Though frequent circulars had been issued, sani 
tary publications scattered and constant appeals made 
through the press, it now seemed important to have 






68 LEADER ARTICLES. 

some stated means of advancing the interests of the 
Sanitary Commission throughout Northern Ohio and 
of communicating with the tributaries of the Cleve 
land Branch more fully than could be done "by letter 
only. 

While this was in discussion by the ladies in their 
little office, many suggestions being made only to be 
rejected, Mr. E. COWLES, of the CLEVELAND LEADER, 
offered two columns per week of that paper to the 
Society. 

The ladies gladly accepted this invitation to join 
the corps editorial. Thursday evening was hereafter 
known, in Aid Society parlance, as " LEADER night," 
when a stirring appeal was to be written, a digest of 
the week s business prepared, letters from the front 
condensed, sanitary news summed up, home relief re 
ported, prejudices and rumors dissipated and flagging 
enthusiasm galvanized. 

The " wee sma hours " often found the tyro in her 
sanctum, deep in the mysteries of scissors and quill, 
aglow with the excitement of composition, or nervously 
dreading the call for " more copy." 

For more than two years, and until other plans made 
their continuance unnecessary, the Soldiers Aid Society 
articles filled and often overran the space assigned 
them in the Saturday morning issue of the CLEVELAND 
LEADER. 

The mailing of circulars and other papers, which 
became later a work that required a constant round of 
really wearying labor, was no small task even at this 
early day. For more than three years, Miss CARRIE P. 
YOTJNGLOVE, a much valued member of the Aid Room 



DOCUMENT COMMITTEES. 69 

corps, had charge of this department, performing her 
volunteer duties as Document Clerk with untiling 
perseverance and much ability. 

The ladies who assisted in this department at differ 
ent times during the earlier years of the war were : 
Miss MAKY SHELLEY, Miss CARRIE GRANT, Miss 
GEORGIA GORDON, Miss HELEN LESTER, Miss NELLIE 
RUSSELL, Miss CLARA WOOLSON, Miss NETTIE BRAYTON, 
Mrs. GEO. S. MYGATT and Mrs. FRANK W. PARSONS. 

The invoicing and registering; had now become too 

o o o 

important to be left to the changing hands of volun 
teer committees, however able and zealous these 
might be. 

Miss SARA MAHAN, whose valuable services had 
for some months been given, was from this time- 
August 1st, 1862 employed as office assistant. Now 
fully identified with the Society, her well trained mind 
and fine business abilities were faithfully devoted to 
its interests. This engagement was continued till the 
close of the supply work in October, 1865. 

A PICTURE OF THE CLEVELAND AID ROOMS. 

At 8 o clock the Rooms are open and the ladies 
assemble for the business of the day. 

The boxes unloaded by the drayman upon the 
pavement, after receiving their entry numbers, are 
trundled through the wide door and the lids skilfully 
removed by the porter or energetically pried off by 
some impatient member of the unpacking committee, 
whose duties now begin. 

Cautiously she peeps under the layers, not without 



70 PICTURE OF THE AID EOOMS. 

fear that some mischievous cork, false to its trust, may 
have spread liquid ruin among the soft folds. 

Shirts and drawers, as they come forth, are duly 
counted, examined and noted. If zealous haste has 
despatched them minus a button or a string, the defi 
ciency is supplied by some careful matron who sits 
near. The garment is then thrown with the others 
upon a high counter, behind which is enthroned a 
third committee- woman with stencil-plate and brush. 

The labels and mottoes which she may find nestling 
in the pocket of a dressing-gown or hidden in the 
soldier s thread-case, she does not remove. Steadily 
she works there, affixing the indelible stamp, 



S.A.S. 



and each article passes from her hand into its 
appointed place in one or another of the great 
hinged receiving-cases that form a row down the 
long room. 

Books and pamphlets receive the same stamp and 
are then piled upon their allotted shelf, where some 
soldier from the city camp may often be seen turning 
over the leaves, with free permission to choose. 

Bags of dried fruit are tumbled in a heap upon the 
scales. Bottles and jugs as they appear are closely 
inspected, the sound carefully re-packed in sawdust, 
the defective cemented anew or, if too far gone for 
that, set aside for the Home, the city hospital or the 
sick soldier not many squares off. 

At a table in the middle of the room a bandage 



COMMITTEES AT WORK. 71 

machine is whirling, under a hand grown dextrous by 
much practice in these sad days. Before the old-linen 
box stands an embodiment of patience, vainly toiling 
to bring order out of the ever uprising mass. 

Just behind is the busy packing committee, upon 
whose skilfulness rests the good name of the Society 
with the army. Bending over their work, they fold 
and smooth and crowd down each article with its kind, 
until there is space only for the invoice-sheet at top, 
and the box awaits the porter s hammer and its tally 
number, before being consigned to the store house. 

The long table at the end of the room is occupied 
by the work committee. Here bed-sacks and sheets 
are torn off with an electrifying report, and two pairs 
of savage shears are cutting their vigorous way 
through a bolt of " army blue " flannel. The pattern 
is not now on the giant scale prescribed in the early 
days by the Sanitary Commission " powers that be ; " 
a specimen of which, saucy sarcasm has nailed in 
" spread eagle " fashion to the wall yonder. Economy 
and womanly sense have reduced the dimensions to 
the proportions of ordinary humanity. 

The cut garments, duly rolled and ticketed, are 
stowed away in the " work-box," to be given out to 
ladies of the city or sent in packages to bridge over a 
financial gap in some country society. 

Two or three ladies, delegates from some neighboring 
Branch, are narrowly watching this busy scene while 
receiving, from highest official sources, suggestions and 
sympathy, if need be. Under the same hospitable 
guidance they make a tour of inspection through 
the great room and into the little office in the rear, 



THE AID ROOM OFFICE. 

wliicli is separated from the main apartment only by 
a glazed partition. 

Here, some tokens of feminity have crept in, despite 
the evident determination to give it a severe business 
air. A modest carpet covers the floor, the big box of 
documents in the corner, cunningly cushioned, takes 
ambitious rank as a sofa, some kind body has sent in 
a rocking chair, sometimes a bouquet graces the table, 
and two or three pictures have found their way upon 
the wall among railroad time-tables and shipping 
guides. But the latest war bulletin hangs with them 
there, and all these amenities fail to disguise the 
character of the room or to draw attention from the 
duties of the hour. 

Here, at her desk, sits one whom fate and the re 
sponsibilities of office have called to " carry the bag " 
and to make the neatest of figures in the largest of 
ledgers. There stands another, knitting her brows 
over the complications of a country invoice or a 
" short " shipping bill. A third is perpetually flitting 
between her entry-desk in the outer room and the 
office table, where two bright-eyed girls are folding 
circulars. A fourth drops her plethoric file of " un 
answered letters," to read proof for the printer s boy 
at her elbow or to note down, for future use, the 
sanitary news as it falls fresh from the lips of an agent 
who has called in, en route from the front, to give a 
cordial hand to the ladies. 

The above may be called an instantaneous view 
of the Aid Rooms in their every-day estate, but the 
varying phases of experience there were like the ever- 
shifting combinations of a kaleidoscope. 



VARIED EXPERIENCE. 73 

There were the shipping days, when committees 
fled to shelter while the porter rent the air with 
shrieking saw and resounding hammer, and draymen 
blockaded passage with a mountain of boxes and 
barrels that were tallied off by some half-distracted 
woman perched in a corner with check-book and 
pencil. 

To these succeeded grand cleaning and scrubbing 
seasons, when a deluge overwhelmed this little world 
and Babel with its confusion of tongues seemed to 
have arisen in the midst. 

There were unlucky days, when a soldier fresh 
from the field would come in to ask some trifling 
aid, because he a had never had anything from the 
Sanitary,"- - when desponding visitors reported that 
their Aid Society, disheartened by a similar experi 
ence, was failing in numbers and interest, - and when 
cautious correspondents detailed stories of waste and 
fraud, too vague to be traced out and disproved or 
remedied, yet plausible enough to plant an uncomfort 
able sting. 

There were rare days, when the hive stopped its 
busy hum, as the honored and lamented FOOTE spoke 
a few memorable words to the listening group, 
or the gallant HOOKER, the modest SIGEL, or some 
lesser luminary of the military firmament, came in 
to give a soldier s frank and hearty greeting, or the 
Governor and State officials offered a word of cheer, 
or the officers of another Branch in some distant 
city made a friendly call, or the chief representatives 
of the U. S. SANITARY COMMISSION appeared on a so- 
called "inspection," which they by subtile courtesy 
tiirned into a visit of compliment and approval. 



74 LIGHTS AND SHADOWS. 

Some strange occasions there were, as when a "bril 
liant Zouave soldier in full uniform, with knapsack 
and gun, was discovered to be an adventurous maiden 
in disguise, and a suspicious looking woman who 
entered the Aid Room doors claiming charity turned 
out to be a young deserter and spy, and was indig 
nantly handed over to the swift justice of the Provost 
Marshal ! 

There were dark days, when Union reverses fell 
heavily upon the heart, when wives and mothers 
with blanched faces thronged the Rooms, when 
suffering lifted up its voice in some new quarter, from 
neglected field or ill-appointed hospital. 

But the bright days ! rich in golden opportunities ! 
when a grateful word from a passing soldier proved 
that these busy hands had woven at least one gleam 
ing thread into the web of some clouded life, when a 
friendly word, fitly spoken, put to flight all discourage 
ments, when a letter of acknowledgment from some 
distant hospital became full payment for all the toils 
of Aid Room life, when the stirring notes of vic 
tory brought hope that the day of peace was not 
far off! 



CHAPTER IV. 

LIKE most of the other ^Northern States, Ohio had 
its Kelief Association, organized by Ohioans in gov 
ernment offices at Washington, on behalf of soldiers 
from their own State who were lying in hospital there. 
This association naturally received the endorsement 
and protection of the Governor and the influence of 
the State authorities and prominent politicians. 

The officers of the OHIO RELIEF ASSOCIATION were 
earnest in purpose and zealous in their attentions to 
Ohio men, visiting them daily by committees, supply 
ing them with comforts, and reporting their condition 
to friends at home. 

July 22d, 1862, the Cleveland Aid Society received 
from the Ohio Relief Association a request for a lim 
ited supply of hospital stores. Four boxes of choice 
stores were immediately sent on by Express. A vote 
of thanks was duly returned, with the assurance that 
these were ample for present distribution. A second 
appeal three Aveeks later was answered by eighteen 
boxes. These received like acknowledgment and 
assurance. 

September 17th, 1862, the secretary and treasurer 
of the Cleveland Aid Society arrived in Washington 
while the battle of Antietam was raging. They 



75 



76 A VISIT TO WASHINGTON. 

deeply shared the universal anxiety, and participated 
in the satisfaction with which President Lincoln s 
emancipation proclamation was received five days 
later. 

The journey to Washington, which included a series 
of hospital visits, had been made with a hope of check 
ing a strong diversion lately attempted among the 
Northern Ohio aid societies by ladies in Washington 
who, independently of any organization, were carry 
ing on desultory and injudicious work in hospitals 
around the capital. In this object it was wholly 
successful. 

The visit had a further purpose in the endeavor to 
establish friendly relations between the Sanitary Com 
mission and the Ohio Relief Association. 

Obedient to the instructions received upon affiliating 
with the Sanitary Commission, the Cleveland Branch 
had hitherto worked almost exclusively within the 
Western Department. The wider area of military 
occupation at the West, the constant service of the 
Western armies and their greater distance from the 
supply base, were obvious reasons for doing so, and 
for leaving to the central office of the Sanitary Com 
mission in Washington, and its prosperous Branches 
in the East, the care of the forces so long lying in 
" masterly inactivity " upon the Potomac. Economy 
of time and money were further arguments for this 
division of labor. Convinced of this, the Society had 
sent supplies to the Ohio Relief Association rather 
from sympathy with any call for aid than as a measure 
of wisdom, and with a protest against the narrow 
policy that limited their benefits to Ohio men. 



OHIO BELIEF ASSOCIATION. 77 

An attempt was now made to present the officers 
of the Ohio Relief Association at headquarters of the 
Sanitary Commission in Washington, and to gain for 
them the promise of supplies from that storehouse. 
The gentlemen of the Sanitary Commission courteously 
agreed to the suggestion and for a time it was followed 
out, but the principles of the associations were antag- 
onistic and this effort to reconcile them was only 
temporarily successful. 

Enrolled under the broad banner of a national 
Commission, the Cleveland Aid Society could not cor 
dially fraternize with a charity bounded by State lines. 
Its tributary societies throughout Northern Ohio, 
thoroughly loyal, were never drawn from their alle 
giance, though later in the war attempts were made 
by those high in State authority, to engage them in 
the exclusive interest of Ohio soldiers. 

A great deal of outside work was done by many 
Branch societies in aid of the State association. This 
was perfectly well understood at the Aid Rooms and 
no objection was made to it. Supplies designated for 
the Ohio Relief Association were constantly arriving 
at the Cleveland Aid Rooms, and were always for 
warded without charge to donors or to the Association. 

Every direct appeal of the Ohio Relief Association 
to the Cleveland Aid Society was answered by a ship 
ment as liberal as the urgency of the call seemed to 
require, and the officers of the Aid Society were well 
satisfied that such stores were distributed faithfully 
to Ohio men. 

The personal services of several members of the 
Ohio Relief Association among the wounded at 



78 BATTLE OF PERRY VILLE. 

Acquia Creek and Belle Plain, in later years of the 
war, ought not to go unrecorded. It is hoped that 
some detailed report of that work will yet be made 
public. 

The condition of the wounded after the battle of 
Perryville, Ky., fought October 8th, 1862, was a 
sad commentary upon the meagre transportation at 
that time afforded to the Medical Department. 

Carelessness, inhumanity or the secrecy demanded 
by military exigencies, kept the medical authorities too 
loDg ignorant of the point where surgeons stores 
would be required, and when the time of need came 
no adequate conveyance was provided for them. 

With characteristic energy the Sanitary Commission 
immediately pushed forward from Louisville three 
wagons and twenty ambulances loaded with hospital 
stores, and its agents were the first to bring relief 
when help was needed more than tongue can tell. 

The news of this distressing state of things, tele 
graphed northward to the sources of supply, was 
immediately answered by the Cleveland Aid Society 
with a shipment of six hundred sets of hospital 
clothing, four hundred bed-sacks and minor articles in 
proportion. Two hundred sets of clothing w^ere for 
warded a few days later on request of the Governor, 
to be distributed by the Ohio State Kelief agent. 

This brought the Society again to empty shelves 
and an exhausted purse, at a time when it was im 
portant to forestal the rapidly rising prices of cotton 
and woolen goods by immediate purchase. 

In this emergency, Dr. NEWBERRY advanced five 



PAINFUL RUMORS. 79 

hundred dollars from the general treasury of the 
Sanitary Commission. This was the same day in 
vested in material for hospital clothing. A strong 
appeal was made for money, and subscription books 
were opened at the Aid Rooms where gentlemen 
were invited to call and enroll themselves as members 
for one year, by payment of one dollar monthly. 
Two ladies of the Society, Mrs. GEO. A. BENEDICT and 
Mrs. WM. MITTLEBERGER, took upon themselves the 
laborious task of canvassing the city for these honor 
ary memberships. 

Meantime, heart-rending stories of neglect and want 
in Perryville hospitals flew homeward on the wings of 
the wind, while reports of the relief-work done there 
traveled but slowly or came not at all from the 
sufferers to their distracted friends. Ignorant of the 
real cause of so much needless suffering and knowing 
not where to cast the blame, scores of earnest laborers 
in the Sanitary Commission now found their faith in 
its efficiency sorely tried. 

Into the Cleveland Aid Rooms was poured a tor 
rent of excited inquiry and indignant protest, which 
burst all bounds when an aged mother appeared, 
crushing in her trembling hand the letter that 
told a heart-breaking tale of her youngest and best- 
loved boy dying in one of those ill-conditioned hos 
pitals, unfriended and uncared for. Frenzied with 
grief, she would not be comforted, but announced the 
desperate purpose of pushing her way to his bedside 
alone. 

The ladies of the Society, deeply moved by this 
piteous scene and feeling it imperative to fathom the 



80 A TRIP TO PERRYVILLE. 

flood of painful rumors that threatened the very life 
of their work, took an instant resolution to bring 
eye-witness testimony against this unreasoning excite 
ment. 

Three hours later, the president and secretary were 
on their way to Perryville, taking as their only lug 
gage a trunk stowed with oysters, soup-stock and 
stimulants. During a few hours accidental detention 
at Cincinnati, they visited the Sanitary Commission 
offices, the Soldiers Home and the city military hos 
pitals. 

At Louisville, stringent rules against the passage 
of women to the army had just been promulgated 
by highest authorities. A personal interview with 
General BOYLE, who was then post commandant, 
supported by credentials from the Sanitary Commis 
sion, soon removed this barrier, and the travelers 
were fortunate in having the escort of Dr. A. N. EEAD, 
chief Inspector of the Sanitary Commission for that 
department. The party was further pleasantly en 
larged by Rev. B. W. CHIDLAW, the truly " Christian 
agent" from Cincinnati, and JOSEPH SHIPPED, Esq., 
then Pennsylvania State Relief Commissioner, but 
later engaged in the service of the Sanitary Commis 
sion. At Perryville the dying boy was at once 
sought out, his last hours soothed, and his sorrowing 
mother in some degree comforted by knowing that 
her son had not died unfriended. The report of a 
week spent in the hospitals of Louisville, Lebanon, 
Perryville and Danville, was made to the Branch 
societies by letter. This afforded satisfactory evidence 
of the energy and faithfulness with which the agents 



THE SOUP HOUSE. 81 

of the Sanitary Commission pursued their relief work, 
and entirely vindicated the action of the Commission 
towards the Perryville wounded. An interesting 
letter of Dr. READ, concerning this work, may he 
found in Document No. 55 of the Sanitary Commis 
sion series. 

The concentrated beef-tea manufactured in Cleve 
land by the Sanitary Commission was first tested in 
Perryville hospitals. 

The SOUP HOUSE was opened November 1st, 1862, 
on Merwin street, in charge of Mr. HENRY NEW- 
BERRY. The preparations were watched with much 
interest by the ladies of the Aid Society. At their 
solicitation the proprietors of city packing-houses 
gave daily an ample supply of fresh beef, and farmers 
brought in potatoes, onions and carrots, which were the 
principal ingredients. Empty oyster cans, in which 
the beef-tea was at first sealed up for transportation, 
were assiduously collected. Even the spices were fur 
nished from the Aid Rooms, and scarcely a day passed 
but business, real or fancied, pushed some curious 
woman towards the soup house, to peep into the 
steaming cauldrons and pass judgment upon the 
savory mixture. This was continued for several 
months, and until the soup house outgrew the pro 
portions of a charitable enterprise and passed into 
other hands. 

The product of this manufactory was mainly con 
sumed by the Sanitary Commission, to which it formed 
a valuable auxiliary, supplying an article in constant 
demand, of excellent quality and at a cost of about 



82 CENTRAL OFFICE, LOUISVILLE. 

half what it was sold for in eastern markets. Up 
to the end of the war, when the Cleveland soup house 
was closed, one hundred and fifty-five thousand pounds 
of condensed beef-soup had been supplied from this 
source through the agency of the Sanitary Commis 
sion, in battle-field and hospital relief. 

October 1st, 1862, Dr. NEWBERRY having finished 
the work of organizing Branch Commissions and dis 
tricting the broad field which had been confided to 
his care, as General Secretary of the Western Depart 
ment, and finding Cleveland his home and until now 
his business headquarters too far from the center of 
operations, removed his office to Louisville, Ky. 

Louisville w r as then becoming, as it continued 
throughout the war to be, the most important mili 
tary and sanitary center at the west, being practically 
equi-distant from the home field at the north and the 
field of service at the south. This change of base 
proved to be in every way favorable to the interests 
of the Sanitary Commission. 

By this removal of the western Central Office to 
Louisville, the Cleveland Aid Society was deprived of 
no advantage which the uniform kindness and watch 
ful interest of Dr. NEWBERRY could afford. The 
officers were constantly indebted to him for counsel 
and aid, and it is a pleasure to acknowledge here that 
his judicious advice and assistance were potent means 
of the success of the work w r hich is detailed in this 
volume. 

For a history of five years of tinintermitting and 
faithful labor in the service of the Sanitary Commis- 



BANNER OF FORWARDING. S3 

sion, during which Dr. NEWBEKKY administered the 
affairs of the Western Department with remarkable 
vigor and ability, the reader is referred to a work 
lately issued by the Historical Bureau of the Sanitary 
Commission entitled "Report on the operations of the 
U. S. SANITARY COMMISSION in the Valley of the 
Mississippi during the War of the Rebellion." 

The supplies of the Cleveland Branch were from 
this time mainly directed to Louisville. Sent by car 
load to Cincinnati, they were met there and trans 
ferred to the mail boat by an agent who accompanied 
them to Louisville. Their destination was there deter 
mined. The reports of their distribution, gleaned from 
letters of agents and inspectors, were communicated 
to the Branch societies. 

This careful manner of forwarding stores Avon the 
confidence of tributary societies and gradually weak 
ened their disposition to send independently to 
individuals in the army. It was necessary to act 
very cautiously against this desire, which in early 
days had caused no small perplexity and had always 
proved injudicious and hazardous. 

For every package that failed to find its way alone 
from the home to the army, the Sanitary Commission 
was unjustly considered responsible. Every such 
box, stranded on the passage, was brought forward 
as evidence against the Sanitary Commission shipping 
system. 

When a pile of these waifs, dragged to light 
from the recesses of a railroad or river warehouse, 
fell under the auctioneer s hammer, great arose the 



84 PRIVATE PACKAGES. 

cry that the officers of the Sanitary Commission were 
making fortunes from the charities of the public 
and that sanitary stores never reached the soldiers. 
No amount of argument would dissipate this impres 
sion. The people were slow to learn that the channel 
which they often mistrusted and studiously avoided 
actually led most directly to their own soldier boys. 

The Cleveland Aid Society never assumed the right 
to restrict the independent shipments of its tributary 
societies, correctly judging that experience would lead 
them to abandon such ventures. The sending of 
private boxes was always discouraged and the objec 
tions were frankly stated, but it seemed impolitic and 
unkind to make an inflexible rule against it. If these 
were brought to the Aid Rooms the ladies sought to 
ensure their safe carriage, often paying express charges 
to remote points, but invariably prefacing this favor 
with a chapter of warning and advice. Now, how 
ever, on the establishment of Sanitary headquarters 
so near the front as Louisville, the time had come 
when some rule might be adopted. It was therefore 
announced that " hereafter the Aid Society will not 
be responsible for the conveyance of private packages 
beyond the Sanitary depot nearest their point of 
destination. If not called for there within a reason 
able time, the contents will be distributed for the 
general good." 

The feeling that moved the people to send indi 
vidual gifts to the army was always respected by the 
officers of the Cleveland Society, who from its pioneer 
days had themselves been constantly looking a-field, 
keenly watching the ever- varying demand and keeping 



SPECIAL SHIPMENTS. 8& 

their own sympathies aglow by direct communication 
with the front. Letters and appeals coming to them 
from the army were carefully considered, and either 
referred to headquarters of the Sanitary Commission 
or answered by boxes packed at the Aid Rooms with 
special reference to the demand. Such boxes were 
consigned to the Sanitary agent nearest the point of 
need, to be delivered by him if his inspection proved 
that the appeal was a proper one. A duplicate invoice 
of these shipments was always sent to the central 
office of the Sanitary Commission at Louisville, and a 
written receipt was required of the surgeon by whom 
the call was made. 

The Branch societies, in their turn, often had special 
appeals from their correspondents in the army. These 
appeals were usually referred to the central rooms, 
They were encouraged to gather supplies in response 
and to forward them to the Cleveland Aid Rooms, 
Here, such supplies were often supplemented from the 
general stock and every facility of transportation was 
afforded. Even the messengers despatched to the 
army by Branch aid societies were furnished at the 
Cleveland Rooms with credentials that made them 
the authorized agents of the Sanitary Commission 
while distributing their supplies to the regiments 
which they visited. The object of this policy was to 
inculcate loyalty to the Sanitary Commission without 
incurring the danger of weakening the enthusiasm of 
the people, a danger that would certainly have been 
great, had the aid societies of Northern Ohio been 
suffered to become merely the collecting and shipping 
agents of a great national charity. 



86 MORE TRANSPORTATION FAVORS. 

The work of gathering and disbursing steadily 
increased throughout the fall and was without mate 
rial change. 

The usual supplies were pleasantly varied by a 
large quantity of grapes, fresh from the vineyards of 
Kelley Island, the gift of the Aid Society estab 
lished there. Several boxes of these were distributed 
in the hospitals of Georgetown, D. C., by the Rev. 
F. T. BROWN, formerly a Cleveland pastor, and the 
remainder divided between the hospital train of the 
Louisville and Nashville railroad and Louisville hos 
pitals. 

A canvassing agent was at this time making the 
tour of Ashtabula, Geauga and Lake counties. With 
the aid of the township military committees he was 
successful in securing a bountiful supply of apples 
and vegetables. These supplies were duly credited 
to the local societies and by them forwarded to Cleve 
land. 

The favors of transportation granted to the Aid 
Society in forwarding stores to the front, have been 
mentioned on page 88. 

From this time, October 28th, 1862, all the 
railroads running into the city granted free carriage 
of packages consigned by country societies to the 
Cleveland Aid Rooms. Any advance charges that 
might have accrued were paid by the Cleveland 
Society. Thus all freight expenses were saved to the 
shippers and a heavy burden was lifted from the 
feebler Branches. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE winter of 1862-3 found the Society rich in 
enthusiasm and the loyal support of more than four 
hundred Branches. 

Gifts of money were however few and small. The 
war had begun to pinch the pockets of many who 
were the firmest friends of the Sanitary Commission. 

The rapid depreciation of the currency and the 
ever-recurring calls for means to raise new regiments 
and to equip them for the field, were beginning to 
make even the rich feel poor and to develop the 
necessity for a prudence that was new to the citizens 
and farmers of the Western Reserve. 

Stores were coming in freely, though these were now 
less valuable in kind. The small field had been 
thoroughly worked for more than eighteen months. 
The surplus accumulation of clothing and bedding, the 
pride of every thrifty housewife, which had been freely 
and even lavishly given at the call of local aid socie 
ties, was now exhausted. The high prices of cotton 
and woolen fabrics made it impossible for these little 
societies to buy enough to keep their fingers busy 
in making new garments. Boxes from the Branches 
contained at this time a greater proportion of edibles 
and farm products. 



88 CIRCULAR NO. 10. 

But these facts were 110 discouragement. A vigor 
ous campaign was to be the policy of the forces in 
the field, and right zealously did the army of home- 
workers enter upon the duties entailed by the increase 
and activity of the army at the front. Taught by a 
year s experience, they well knew the probable neces 
sities of the troops during the coming winter months. 
Like them, they were eager to push forward while 
there was work to do. 

To the aid societies that disbursed their charities 
through the Cleveland Branch Commission, Circular 
No. 10 was addressed, December 1st, urging increased 
activity and containing accurate directions for w^ork to 
suit the season, with some carefully prepared measure 
ments and suggestions upon economy in cutting the 
material which war prices had now made doubly 
precious. Published reports of the condition of hos 
pitals in Perry ville and Danville, Ky., and some 
urgent letters of agents who were at work among the 
sick at Nashville and on the line of the Louisville and 
Nashville railroad, lately re-opened, gave point to 
this appeal and it was not unheeded. 

The faithful few to be found in every little society 
bent earnestly to its interests, and great industry and 
persistent canvassing brought due reward. The season 
favored their plans and holiday pleasures again took 
on the garb of charity. 

While creating and guiding the machinery of the 
Society, its officers had also the anxiety of financiering 
for its support. In most other like organizations the 
duty of raising funds was assumed by some outside 



HARD TIMES. 89 

committee, but the officers of the Cleveland Aid 
Society had no such relief. 

Their very success in evoking the activity of so 
many tributaries was at once a stimulus and a per 
plexity, so large was now the sum required merely for 
the current expenses of the Society in its character of 
receiving and shipping agent for these smaller organi 
zations. 

Though often sorely pressed for means, no money 
was ever solicited from Branch societies nor was it 
accepted from them, though frequently offered. Sums 
of money thus sent in were invested in material at 
wholesale prices and in that form returned. It was 
thought to be unwise and unjust to cripple these 
weaker organizations by taking money from their 
treasuries. 

With the constant call upon its charities it cannot 
be supposed that the Society had ever been able or 
willing to accumulate supplies or to hoard its re 
sources. 

The present winter was a time of peculiar embar 
rassment. 

The flow of money into the treasury was small 
though continuous, and was perhaps as great as could 
be expected in the stringency of the times and the 
many other calls upon benevolence. 

There was no loss of friends nor withdrawal of 
public confidence. 

Besides individual contributions, there had been 
a lecture by ARTEMUS WARD, a lecture by ELIHU 
BFRRITT, tendered by the Cleveland Commercial Col 
lege, a thanksgiving offering from the city churches, 



90 FIN ANCIE RING. 

some collections made by Sunday school children, 
a benefit by an amateur dramatic club, and many 
other gifts that showed the estimation in which the 
work at the Aid Rooms was held by the citizens. 

But the Society had now assumed business relations 
and responsibilities that must seek more stable foun 
dation than the shifting sands of popular charity. 

By the plan of honorary memberships, projected in 
November, it had been hoped to obtain a permanent 
revenue sufficient to support the DEPOT HOSPITAL 
mentioned on page 51, and to meet current expenses. 
For this, a sum not less than two hundred dollars per 
month was required. Secure from the entanglement 
of debt, the ladies would then rely upon chance con 
tribution, lectures, concerts and other entertainments 
for means to purchase material and for extending 
their plans as might be desired. 

The honorary memberships were necessarily slow 
in reporting, while the needs of soldiers were imme 
diately pressing. The heavy monthly expenditure 
could not be curtailed without breaking faith with 
the auxiliaries and giving a fatal shock to the 
interests of the Society. 

It had been hard indeed to see cotton and woolen 
goods rise daily higher and higher in price and yet to 
be unable to lay in a stock for the winter s work. 
Some advance purchases had been ventured on with 
much hesitation, and the time for payment was ex 
tended by the kindness of the merchants. Every 
dollar that could be spared was applied to reduce this 
debt by instalments of fifty dollars, yet at the close 
of the year a large balance remained unpaid. With 



WAYS AND MEANS. 91 

closest economy the resources of the Society were 
barely sufficient to cover current expenses. 

It must not be supposed that these embarrassments 
were allowed continually to annoy and weary the 
public. It was well known that the Aid Society was 
to the highest degree receptive, that its resources were 
always far below its needs and that every dollar 
added to the treasury was a thrice welcome gift. 
These facts inculcated and established, the officers 
endeavored to keep the Society on an independent 
basis, so far as an institution drawing support from 
public benevolence could be considered independent, 
and to make it an honor to the community, not a 
constant bore to the citizens. 

The Cleveland Aid Society early dropped its 
mendicant character and took rank as a business 
establishment. Its business credit w 7 as always good. 
If an article was needed, it was bargained for and 
purchased by the officers, not begged. Whenever it 
was known what reduction the merchant made from 
his usual prices, this was entered and credited as his 
contribution. 

Frequent and stirring appeals through the press 
there certainly were, and persistent efforts to keep the 
wants of the soldiers before the public. Friends in 
the city often joined in self-constituted committees to 
add money to the treasury or goods to the store-room, 
but personal solicitation of money by the officers was 
studiously avoided and was never resorted to, save in 
the application for honorary memberships, made at 
this time, and later for the specific object of building 
a Soldiers Home. 



92 EARNEST CONSULTATIONS. 

Knowing that popular sympathy goes with success 
and that worth is generally measured by the same 
rule, the ladies strove to prove the efficiency of the 
Society as almoner of the people s charity and thus to 
attract towards it a deserved support. Business men, 
glad to have the credit of the city for philanthropy 
sustained and the immediate burden of responsibility 
and care lifted from their own shoulders, willingly 
made the Aid Society a channel for their benefactions 
to the army. 

In times of its financial prosperity, the Society grate 
fully made public acknowledgment of the support that 
was generously and cheerfully given. When pecu 
niary embarrassments weighed heavily, all forebodings 
were confined within the little office where the ladies 
met in daily consultation upon ways and means. 

Just now these consultations were especially ear 
nest. 

It was not possible to enter at once upon any great 
scheme for raising money by entertainments, for the 
reason that a bazaar in the interest of the Cleveland 
Protestant Orphan Asylum had bespoken public favor 
months before and was still in preparation. To bring 
the claims of the Sanitary Commission prominently 
forward at this time would endanger the success of 
this bazaar, and the ladies of the Aid Society thought 
it ungenerous to divert attention from so worthy an 
object. The city was too small to sustain a second 
grand charitable scheme immediately succeeding the 
bazaar. This could be attempted only at great risk 
of failure. Some plans were laid that promised well 
for the future, but for the present it seemed almost 



THE CALIFORNIA FUND. 93 

hopeless to attempt to repair the fortunes of the Aid 
Society, and its managers were bearing a heavy burden 
of anxiety. 

At this crisis came " good news from a far conn- 
try." 

California, too distant to furnish troops yet too 
loyal to shrink from the burdens of the war and too 
humane to neglect its sufferers, had sent, in October, 
1862, one hundred thousand dollars to the general 
treasury of the Sanitary Commission, and fourteen 
days later another one hundred thousand, stipulating 
that one half of this last remittance should be given 
to the WESTERN SANITARY COMMISSION an independ 
ent organization having its headquarters in St. Louis 
-and the other half used in the interests of the 
UNITED STATES SANITARY COMMISSION, through its 
western Branches. 

The partition of this gift had been long in discus- 
sion by the Executive Committee of the Sanitary 
Commission, in New York, and w^as now decided. 
By its provisions the Cincinnati Branch was to receive 
fifteen thousand dollars, Chicago ten thousand, Louis 
ville ten thousand, Columbus five thousand and 
Cleveland ten thousand. 

The ladies of the Cleveland Branch could scarcely 
believe that ten thousand dollars actually lay in New 
York subject to their draft. This was indeed a 
dazzling ray of golden sunlight into their darkest day ! 
How much prosperity to their Society, how much 
comfort to the soldiers, were represented by that great 
sum! 



94 SECOND THOUGHTS. 

After the first moment of joyful excitement, sober 
second thought weighed carefully the real value of 
the gift. 

Though often carrying a light purse, the Society 
had never been actually crippled by lack of money. 
Poverty had been its great capital, the rallying-cry by 
which its friends were summoned, and there now 
seemed to be a lurking danger in this sudden accession 
to fortune. The sum looked fabulously large ; in the 
event of an early close of the Avar it might be more 
than sufficient; but who dared hope that the war 
would end this year, or the next, or the next ? 

By making public acceptance of the gift it seemed 
certain that popular sympathy would be withdrawn 
and the zeal of the tributaries weakened. The 
Society could better afford to relinquish all share in 
the California fund than to hazard the disbanding of 
that noble constituency which had been so carefully 
built up and was now the very life of its work. 

Between the just pride that their own dear Society 
should receive its proportion with other Branches of 
the Sanitary Commission, the tempting thought of 
what comfort that great sum of money would ensure 
to the disabled soldiers, and the imminent risk of 
paralyzing the vigorous auxiliaries by accepting it 
the ladies were sorely troubled and almost at their 
wits end. 

They at last decided to be governed by the same 
rule that they applied to their own Branch societies 
and to accept the gift in instalments, as a helping 
hand, devoting it exclusively to purchase of stores 
and material, but resolving still to provide for current 



REVIEW OE THE WORK. 95 

expenses and to spare no pains to keep up an inde 
pendent treasury. 

With this understanding, they received from Dr. 
NEWBERRY one thousand dollars on account of the 
California fund, cancelled the debt for material the 
same day, made further purchases of cotton and 
flannel, continued to canvass for memberships and 
projected a series of entertainments to be given in the 
early spring. 

Through all this financial perplexity, noAv happily 
ended, the regular duties of the Society had been 
uninterrupted. 

The books at the close of 1862 showed receipts of 
two hundred and twenty-four thousand articles of bed 
ding and clothing, thirty-three thousand pounds and 
twenty-seven thousand articles of surgeons supplies 
and hospital furnishings, one hundred and thirty-six 
thousand pounds of fruit and groceries, twenty 
thousand cans and bottles of jellies, wines, etc., seven 
thousand dozens of eggs, five hundred bushels of 
vegetables, three hundred kegs of pickles and forty 
thousand unclassified articles. 

These stores had been sent to points in Maryland, 
Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Illinois, Missouri 
and Kansas, besides small supplies to the army of the 
Potomac. They had reached fifty-seven camps, regi 
mental hospitals and recruiting stations, forty general 
and post hospitals, and eighteen established or tem 
porary depots of the Sanitary Commission, besides 
the floating hospitals and store boats of the Commis 
sion. These disbursements had been submitted to 
the Sanitary Commission for approval, and nine-tenths 



96 CAMP CLEVELAND HOSPITAL. 

of all the shipments had been made upon direct 
requisition of its agents in the field. 

The Society had already established a business 
reputation at the front. Under date of December 
26th, an agent wrote from Memphis, Tenn., to the 
Cleveland Aid Rooms : " I have learned to expect 
your goods every month as regularly as I look for the 
rising sun." 

While aiming to send comforts to distant hospitals, 
home charities had not been neglected. Blankets had 
been given to recruits on application, returned soldiers 
had received a share of aid and comfort, missing men 
had been looked up, the condition of sick or 
wounded ascertained for benefit of friends, and in the 
DEPOT HOSPITAL nearly one thousand men had been 
fed, lodged, clothed and attended. 

Nor had the Society been unmindful of those in 
regiments temporarily encamped near the city, who 
suffered from diseases engendered by a sudden change 
from the comforts of home to the exposure of camp life. 
The officers and surgeons of the city camps and 
hospital had always been made welcome to draw 
upon the Aid Society for any supplemental stores 
that their sick required. 

An incident in the history of Camp Cleveland 
Military Hospital shows that, even at the North, the 
Sanitary Commission sometimes found occasion to 
bridge a gap between government supplies and the 
soldiers. 

January 1st, 1863, a new surgeon was assigned to 
charge of the post hospital at Camp Cleveland with 
orders to open it on the 10th as a General Military 



AN INCIDENT. 97 

Hospital. Thorough repairs and a large addition to 
the building were necessary to this change, 

On the 20th, ten days after the opening, the surgeon 
made his appearance at the Aid Rooms in great per 
plexity. His government bedding had not arrived. It 
must surely have been shipped but it was strangely 
delayed, and all his writing and telegraphing had failed 
to hurry it forward. Meanwhile, the medical director 
at Cincinnati, calmly confident that the hospital w^as 
ready to open because it had been ordered to open, 
had sent on a large squad of sick who were to arrive 
by train that very night. What was to be done! 
The kind-hearted surgeon could not bear to lay these 
sick men into empty bunks, yet the bedding of the 
old hospital was not half sufficient for them. In this 
dilemma he applied to the Aid Society for a loan of 
bedding till government furnishings should come. 

The stock at the Aid Rooms was at that moment 
lo\v, as a large shipment had just been made, but the 
will to help was not lacking. Two hundred sheets 
and fifty bed-sacks were counted out for the hospital. 
These were enough for the present emergency. The 
ladies further offered to make up a bale of army linen, 
and before another night this had been converted into 
three hundred sheets and sent to the hospital. This 
prompt help in time of need made the good surgeon 
a fast friend to the Sanitary Commission. 

The communication between the Aid Society and 
the military hospital at Camp Cleveland was almost 
constant. 

Convalescents allowed to spend the morning in 
town would always drop in at the Aid Rooms, sure of 



98 HOME CHARITY. 

a welcome, a peep at the morning papers, a pleasant 
book, a sheet of letter-paper " please ma am," a needle 
and thread for repairs, a clean towel and piece of 
sweet-scented soap, a pocket comb, a new spring- 
crutch, a fresh handkerchief or best of all a plug 
of tobacco ! 

A certain drawer in the Aid Rooms was kept full 
of these comforts for such distribution. On written 
order of the surgeon or chaplain, clothing was given 
in cases which could not be reached by government 
issues. 

The above comes within the limits of the special 
relief department and will be found in detail in the 
accompanying Special Relief Report. 

The library of Camp Cleveland hospital was in 
great part furnished and several times replenished 
by the Aid Society. 

The hospital ambulance was ordered to call at the 
Aid Rooms every day. All delicacies too perishable 
to bear shipment to the front and many country 
dainties were sent by it to the special care of the 
matron. 

Many holiday occasions were made pleasant to the 
soldiers at Camp Cleveland. One of these is de 
scribed in the following extract from Cleveland papers 
of 1862 : 

CHRISTMAS AT CAMP CLEVELAND HOSPITAL. Thanks to the generosity 
of the ladies of this city, the impromptu dinner at the hospital was a perfect 
success. Christmas, despite the inauspicious clouds and weeping skies, 
was made a " red-letter day " both to the inmates of the hospital and to 
those who superintended the entertainment. 

Early on Christmas morning the abundant gifts that had been sent into 
the Rooms of the Aid Society were loaded into a large furniture van, and, 
with a dray-load of apples and vegetables and a barrel of cider, were sent 



A CHRISTMAS DINNER. 99 

to the hospital by direction of the committee, Mrs. B. ROUSE, Mrs. WM. 
MELHINCH, Mrs. D. CHITTENDEN and Mrs. P. THATCHER, who cheerfully 
gave up their own Christmas festivities in order to secure to the sick men 
the full enjoyment of the feast. 

The surgeons of the hospital having previously given cordial assent to 
the plans of the ladies, now welcomed them heartily, introduced them into 
the wards and zealously seconded their arrangements throughout the day. 

When this " surprise party " unfolded its benevolent designs to the 
invalid soldiers, pale faces flushed with eager expectation and dim eyes 
brightened with the thought that kind hearts had been moved to bring a 
tithe of Christmas pleasures into this abode of weariness and pain. 

The first step in the day s programme was to care for those who were too 
ill to sit at table. At twelve o clock each sick man received a bowl of 
nourishing chicken soup or oyster broth, a delicate bit of chicken (if allowed 
to eat it), a roasted apple, a fresh biscuit spread with jelly or canned 
peaches, and a glass of custard by way of dessert. That there might be no 
" slip twixt cup and lip," these delicacies were carried to each bedside by 
the ladies themselves, who had the great satisfaction of seeing how keenly 
they were relished. The erysipelas ward and even the small-pox hospital, 
set apart on the slope of the hill, were visited by the ladies, who braved the 
danger of infection in their zeal for the Christmas pleasures of the sick 
men. 

When the sick had been thus provided for, the convalescents were invited 
into the dining room. There, oyster-soup, plump chickens and turkeys, 
juicy ham and tongues, tender biscuits, crisp doughnuts, Indian puddings, 
apple, pumpkin and cranberry pies were set out with an abundance that 
Cleveland housewives well know how to furnish, and to which the guests 
on the present occasion proved themselves able to do full justice. Here the 
ladies again presided, and saw each man plentifully served with everything 
that the bountiful board supplied. After all had gone away satisfied, the 
employes of the hospital received their share. 

As there still remained enough and to spare, the soldiers of the guard 
were called in from their wet and weary round to partake of the feast 
until more than eight hundred men had taken their turns at table. The 
barrel of cider was then tapped, and doughnuts, apples and cider were distri 
buted through the camp to the groups of soldiers gathered about their fires. 

When the festivities of the day were over at the hospital, there still 
remained choice provisions enough for a generous dinner-party. These 
were gathered up and carried to the quarters of the paroled prisoners who 
were requested to take them for their Christmas supper. The " boys " were 
no way loth to accept the bounty that " Santa Glaus " seemed to have 
showered down upon them and the ladies drove away amid their shouts of 
delight and gratitude, M. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE probability of a general engagement below 
Nashville had caused the field-agents of the Sanitary 
Commission in Tennessee to make urgent advance 
demands for stores. 

Their anticipations were realized by the battle of 
Stone River, fought at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, De 
cember 31st, 1862, and new year s day of 1863. Eight 
thousand of ROSECKANS splendid army of the Cumber 
land were disabled by this terrible battle, and for 
months the hospitals of Louisville, Nashville and 
Murfreesboro were filled with the wounded. 

The Sanitary Commission had the approval and 
published endorsement of General ROSECKANS, and 
by his orders all possible facilities were afforded its 
agents in their care of the wounded. The record of 
the preventive and relief service rendered in hospital 
and camp to the army of the Cumberland forms one 
of the brightest chapters in the history of the Sanitary 
Commission. 

February brought the opening of the campaign 
against Vicksburg, and all eyes watched with intense 
interest the movements of the fleet that was descend 
ing the Mississippi river. 

Under the indomitable leadership of General 



THE SIEGE OF VICKSBFRG. 101 

GRANT, the army of the Tennessee again laid patient 
and persistent siege to the rebel stronghold that had 
twice been the object of unsuccessful and disastrous 
assault. It was not now to yield without a desperate 
resistance, and until its defenders were unearthed, like 
rats, from their burrows. 

The depressing influences of climate and the unfa 
vorable location of camps soon developed in the 
Union army diseases of an exhaustive and malignant 
nature, more fatal than the casualties of battle. The 
sick, received into rude hospitals from which they 
were often driven by the rising waters of the Missis 
sippi, or placed on board transports where their 
surroundings were still more unfortunate, suffered 
severely from lack of food, medicines and clothing. 

Government, with its ponderous machinery and 
heavy burdens, could not supply these wants with 
necessary promptness. The resources of the sur 
rounding region were exhausted, and if they had been 
abundant would have been beyond the reach of loyal 
men. 

Scurvy began to show itself in hospital and camp. 
Every mail brought some new tale of suffering, some 
pleading call for help from the Sanitary agents who 
were working nobly there and finding a broad field of 
labor. 

Telegrams from Louisville announced the fitting 
out of a supply-steamer by the Sanitary Commission. 
To add to her cargo, the Cleveland Branch pushed 
forward the same day by passenger train seven hun 
dred sets of hospital clothing and bedding, a large 
quantity of groceries and vegetables, with stimulants, 



102 THE STEAMER DUNLEITII. 

surgeons supplies and minor comforts. These stores 
were increased by succeeding shipments, and the 
steamer Dunleith left Louisville for Vicksburg, Feb 
ruary 2 8 tli, having in her cargo five hundred boxes 
from the Cleveland Branch. A few days later a car 
load was sent to replenish the Nashville store-rooms, 
now nearly empty again, and then every effort was 
turned towards preparing stores to meet the steamer 
on her return. The condition of the river hospitals 
was described in terms as strong as prudence would 
allow, and the country societies were called upon to 
arouse as never before and to redouble their contri 
butions. 

This seemed to be a favorable time to raise money 
for the Society. An engagement with JOHN B. 
GOTJGII, shortly before, had brought two hundred 
dollars into the treasury, which was the only benefit 
that had been received for several months. A plan 
long projected now took shape in the announcement 
of a " Grand Amateur Entertainment of Music and 
Tableaux Vivants," to be given March 3rd and 5th, 
at the Academy of Music. This exhibition was given 
to the Aid Society by the tableau committee of the 
Orphan Asylum Bazaar and consisted in part of some 
of the most beautiful of the tableaux that had been 
shown at the bazaar early in the winter. Extracts 
from letters of that date will best show the character 
of the entertainment and the interest with which it 
was undertaken by the citizens : 

CLEVELAND AID ROOMS, March 4, 1863. 

EXTRACT. In tlie midst of the hurry and confusion of our "grand 
amateur performance," I snatch a few moments to report upon matters and 



MUSIC AND TABLEAUX. 103 

things here in 95 Bank street, all of which, however, resolve themselves into 
angels, fairies, Indian princesses and suicidal lovers, as I try to review the 
past week. 

The tableau committee met again at our Rooms yesterday and we are 
delighted with the progress of things so far. Our citizens are taking this 
up in their own noble way and we are confident of a grand success. 

We struggled hard to keep out of the vortex and to mind sanitary things 
only, but as at the last minute several angels were found minus wings and 
two or three kings and fairy queens were discovered to be crownless, we were 
forced to throw ourselves into the breach, and for two entire days our little 
office has been transformed into a workshop where gauze and tinsel quite 
overshadow inkstand and pencil. One more day, however, will end this 
usurpation. Then we can puff away the cloudy tissue, shake ourselves free 
from the glittering spangles and return to duty again, with the great 
satisfaction of picking up about a thousand dollars as the result of three 
days voyaging in fairy land ! 

We have already had one evening s entertainment, to everybody s 
supreme delight, and our ticket sales have reached six hundred and twelve 
dollars. We must wake a thousand ! 

The entertainment is a charming one to the public, and will be so to us 
in proportion to the patronage it receives. You will see we look at it with 
a purely mercenary eye. 

March 7th. 

My last letter was a confused medley of giants, fairies, kings and queens, 
from which it might be inferred that we had all migrated to some distant 
sphere and left the earth and its inhabitants to their wars and rumors 
of wars without interference. 

The tableaux were a sad innovation upon our business ways. Xow that 
the beautiful vision has passed, it does seem as though we had dropped 
down out of the clouds, and it will need a deal of fidgetting before we can 
settle quietly into our office chairs again. 

It was really charming to see how the people worked to get up the 
entertainment and then how they applauded and encored their own 
schemes ! The two evenings netted for us ten hundred and ninety-eight 
dollars, even better than we had hoped. 

Very few know, as we do, how much need there is for this money and 
for our work now. We dare not publish the letters which we are receiving 
from agents in the Mississippi fleet, they are so discouraging, so truly 
appalling. It would be a great stimulus, of course, and just what our 
people need to stir their sympathies afresh, but we are afraid it would not 
be right. 

These sad, sad letters have lain heavily upon our hearts these days, and 
the scenes they describe were constantly flitting between our eyes and the 
bright visions spread for our admiration, so that you will not wonder we 
could not thoroughly enjoy the tableaux just now. 



104 MURDOCH S READINGS. 

Two weeks after these entertainments, JAMES E. 
MURDOCH, the well known tragedian, offered the 
Society an evening of Patriotic Readings ; one of a 
series of readings begun in the Senate Chamber at 
Washington, January 10th, and continued in most of 
the eastern and western cities, the entire proceeds 
being given by Mr. MURDOCH to associations for relief 
of the sick and wounded of the Union army. 

The patriotism of Mr. MURDOCH and his signal 
services to our sick and wounded and to loyalty, 
should have more than a passing notice. 

When the rebellion broke out, Mr. MURDOCH, who 
had been for many years one of the leaders of Ameri 
can drama, was pursuing a brilliant career upon the 
stage. Aglow with patriotic fervor he at once threw 
up his dramatic engagements, resolving never to 
resume the profession till peace should return to his 
country. With his two sons he volunteered into the 
Union army. Finding his own health unequal to the 
duties of the field, he formed the idea of consecrating 
his fine talents to the service of the sick and wounded, 
whose sufferings he had witnessed in actual campaigns. 

In this resolution there was another object not less 
patriotic. It was that of stimulating the loyalty of 
the people by bringing to bear upon them such poetry 
and incidents as, when narrated with dramatic power, 
would best illustrate and arouse that noble sentiment. 

In all ages poetry has been the language of the 
higher emotions, the immortalizer of heroism, uncom 
promising in its scorn of ignoble deeds, and its divine 
character is never better exemplified than in the 
thrilling tones it has for patriotism and the terrible 



CHANGE OF VICE-PRESIDENTS. 105 

invectives it utters against treason. This power 
MURDOCH laid hold of with a master hand. Words 
of fervid eloquence burned and glowed as they fell 
from his lips and kindled into active life the fires of 
true patriotism in every heart. 

Throughout the entire period of the war, his earn 
estness and devotion to the part he had thus assumed 
were unfailing as aids to patriotism and were nation 
ally conspicuous in their pecuniary results. 

Mr. MURDOCH S offer to the Cleveland Aid Society 
was gladly accepted, and the Academy of Music was 
again filled March 19th. The enthusiasm of the 
audience, the tasteful decoration of the stage with the 
flags of the Union, the inspiring music of the band, 
the cause and object of the Readings and the power 
with which they were rendered, conspired to form a 
scene which will not soon be forgotten. 

This entertainment netted three hundred dollars to 
the Society. 

Towards the last of March the canvassing commit 
tee reported one hundred and eighty-six gentlemen 
enrolled as honorary members, by a pledge of one 
dollar monthly. These subscriptions were for the 
year ending November, 1863. The committee ap 
pointed to canvass among the ladies had also obtained 
many new names to the twenty-five cent monthly 
subscription list. 

At a regular monthly meeting, April 7th, 1863, 
Mrs. WM. MELHIXCH was confirmed first vice-president, 
Mrs. JOHN SHELLEY having resigned that office some 
months before on occasion of removal from the city. 



100 COMMITTEES. 

Mrs. LEWIS BURTON was appointed second vice- 
president to fill the vacancy. 

This was the first change that occurred among the 
officers. 

To the lists of volunteer committees that have been 
given on pages 24 and 61, should here be added the 
names of Mrs. SOUTHWORTII, Mrs. Dr. ARTER, Mrs. 
HUNT, Miss MARY MAIIAN, Miss RUTH KELLOGG, Miss 
JULIA KELLOGG, Miss MATILDA PICKANDS and Mrs. 
MARY BRADFORD, who were faithful attendants at the 
Aid Rooms during this period and later in the history 
of the Society. 

The removal of so great a proportion of the troops 
from West Virginia and the centering of general 
interest upon military operations in the south-west, 
had to a great degree excluded from public attention 
the hospitals in the Kanawha Valley and at the posts 
maintained along the line of the Baltimore and Ohio 
railroad. 

The vicinity of Wheeling had been too heavily 
taxed to yield further supplies to the depot of the 
Sanitary Commission in that city, which was the base 
of relief work for West Virginia. The stores of that 
depot were at this time drawn almost wholly from 
the Rooms of the Soldiers Aid Society of Northern 
Ohio. In no case had a request from that department 
been refused. 

Requisitions from the Sanitary agency at Leaven- 
worth, Kansas, came in from time to time and were 
answered by frequent shipments. 

These issues, however, formed only a small part of 



AN INSIDIOUS FOE. 107 

the disbursements of the Society; nearly everything 
being turned southward for the benefit of the two 
great armies of the Cumberland and the Tennessee. 

The army of the Cumberland, resting upon the 
hard-earned field at Murfreesboro, was strengthening 
its lines for an advance upon the rebel host that lay 
entrenched about forty miles below, at Tullahoma, 
ready to dispute its progress. 

The morale of our army was excellent and the 
issues of food and clothing were abundant. The con 
dition of the troops could hardly have been raised, 
except in one respect. 

From being long confined to rations of salt pork, 
men in nearly every regiment were beginning to show 
unmistakable signs of scurvy. 

This evil was slow of discovery even by the sur 
geons. The sick, brought to their notice at morning 
call, were sent to hospital, where slight variations in 
diet and the supplies of vegetables drawn from 
Sanitary stores checked the symptoms of this much- 
dreaded disease before they became really apparent. 
It was among the men in camp, those calling them 
selves well, that this foe was making its insidious 

o 

way. When its presence was detected it had already 
seriously threatened the effective force of the entire 
army. 

The medical authorities made strong representation 
of this fact, and government supplies of onions and 
potatoes were ordered, but these issues were insuffi 
cient. The chief medical inspectors and directors of 
the department sent urgent request, by mail and 
telegraph to Dr. NEWBERRY, for the aid of the Sani- 



108 CAMPAIGN AGAINST SCURVY. 

taiy Commission in battling this new and formidable 
enemy. 

The answer to these appeals was a steamer load 
of vegetables despatched at once to Nashville and a 
promise on the part of the Sanitary Commission to 
send down, from its headquarters at Louisville, to the 
army of the Cumberland, one hundred barrels of 
onions and potatoes daily throughout the summer. 
This was to be a special issue to the men in camp, 
with direct reference to the war against scurvy, and 
an addition to the regular supplies furnished by the 
Commission to hospitals. 

For these daily shipments of vegetables and for all 
the supplies of the Sanitary Commission, the General 
Commanding furnished ample transportation. The 
officers of the department seconded this relief work 
with great cordiality. 

To fulfil its promise to the army of the Cumber- 
land, the Sanitary Commission was obliged to make 
purchases of vegetables, to invoke the strenuous 
efforts of the supply Branches and to send canvassing 
agents through the rich farming districts of the 
north-west. 

The Branches of the Western Department quickly 
apprehended the importance of this new movement 
and entered with enthusiasm upon their duties. The 
honorable record of Detroit, Buffalo, Pittsburgh, 
Cincinnati and Chicago is to be found elsewhere. The 
present report will touch only upon the action of the 
Cleveland Branch in the grand campaign against 
scurvy. 

On receiving from the Central office at Louisville 



THE VEGETABLE RAID. 109 

despatches announcing the urgency of the case and 
the prompt measures taken by the Sanitary Commis 
sion, the Cleveland Branch pledged itself to forward 
to Louisville one car load of vegetables per week, 
throughout the summer, in addition to its regular 
shipments in the same direction. 

In giving this pledge, the Society stepped over the 
bounds of recognized duty in the supply department, 
which had not until now extended beyond the for 
warding of hospital stores. Regiments on duty or in 
camp had been left to the care of quartermaster and 
commissary, and all interference with these officials 
was scrupulously avoided. Even the vegetables hith 
erto sent to the front had been designed exclusively 
for hospital use. 

But it seemed clearly within the sphere of army 
relief to furnish the " ounce of prevention " which 
proverbially outweighs even the " pound of cure. 11 

NOAV began what was known among the aid 
societies of Northern Ohio as the " grand vegetable 
raid " of the Sanitary Commission. 

Published appeals, circulars and personal letters 
wakened the generosity of the public and prepared 
the way for the canvassing committees that were sent 
out through every township by the officers of each 
little society. The members of county military 
committees often assumed this duty of canvassing. 
Nearly every school district could furnish some active, 
earnest man whose love for his country or his own 
soldier-boy impelled him to aid in collecting. In 
several instances, the good women of a feeble Aid 
Society took this work into their own hands. Driving 



110 CANVASSING AND LECTURING. 

their horse from door to door, they persistently 
assailed their neighbors, shaming into wonderful 
generosity even the grudging giver. 

Towns and villages vied with each other in the 
amount of supplies furnished. A cross-roads settle 
ment sent as one instalment twenty-eight barrels of 
potatoes. One little village forwarded sixty barrels. 
Every town within shipping distance of Cleveland 
sent again and again its offering. 

Three agents employed by the Sanitary Commission, 
Rev. WM. C. TUKNEK, Rev. N. P. BAILEY and Dr. H. 
C. COATES, w r ere acting in Northern Ohio as the apos 
tles of its cause, their lecturing tour marked out by 
the ladies of the Cleveland Branch. 

Wherever a feeble society gave signs of decay, or 
prejudicial rumors or internal dissensions threatened 
the disintegration of a valuable auxiliary, one of these 
agents was desired to go, to strengthen the hands of 
the faithful and to bring his own personal knowledge 
of Sanitary work at the front against ignorance or 
mischievous hearsay. 

These lectures were under the immediate superin 
tendence of the Aid Society of the town where they 
were given, and were free to the public unless the 
local society chose to fix an entrance fee for the 
benefit of its own treasury. All personal expenses of 
these agents were paid by the general Commission. 
Their railroad fare was usually reduced to half rates 
by the kindness of railroad officials. The ladies of 
country societies often lessened the expenses by enter 
taining the agents at their own houses, and in all cases 
treated them with great cordiality and gladly accepted 
their aid. 



PURCHASING VEGETABLES. Ill 

These home agents were instructed to give special 
weight to their appeals for vegetables, pickles and all 
farm and dairy products. 

At the close of the lecture the agent would some 
times telegraph to the Cleveland Aid Rooms, stating 
the number of bushels pledged. Empty barrels and 
sacks would then be sent from Cleveland to secure 
the supplies which the farmers brought to the nearest 
railroad station in bulk. Thus every effort was made 
to ensure the co-operation of the farming community. 

The Cleveland, Painesville and Ashtabula railroad 
company on several occasions furnished cars to be 
loaded at way stations with vegetables consigned to 
the Cleveland Aid Rooms. For these and many other 
favors the Society is indebted to the kindness of Mr. 
H. NOTTINGHAM, superintendent of that road. 

The Cleveland Branch used freely of its means to 
purchase potatoes and onions, and became the agent 
of the general Sanitary Commission in making very 
heavy purchases of vegetables and in forwarding large 
lots that were bought in northern New York. These 
purchased vegetables were delivered in Cleveland by 
the car or boat-load in bulk. The barreling and 
shipping were superintended by the ladies of the 
Society. 

The purchasing of vegetables was done very quietly 
and through a third party, lest, should it become 
known that the Sanitary Commission had entered the 
market as a buyer, the price of these products might 
rise, and some prudent holders be disposed to sell 
what otherwise they would willingly have given 
away. 



112 SPECIAL CARS. 

The pledge of the Cleveland Society to the Sanitary 
Commission was more than fulfilled throughout this 
summer. 

Unlimited favors of transportation Avere afforded 
by the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati railroad 
company, both to contributed and purchased supplies. 
Special cars were always furnished to the Society. 
These were run off upon a side track at the depot 
and could there be loaded at leisure. Attached to 
freight or passenger trains, they Avere hurried forward, 
and any accidental detention was promptly remedied 
by the ever courteous officials of the road. Cars 
secured by the Aid Society padlock received especial 
attention and seemed to have the right of way before 
all others. For these favors the Aid Society would 
make grateful acknowledgment to Messrs. L. M. 
HUBBY, president, E. S. FLINT, superintendent, and 
A. HILLS, general freight agent of the Cleveland, 
Columbus and Cincinnati railroad. 

If the Sanitary Commission had built a railroad of 
its own through Ohio it could scarcely have been 
more independent in matters of transportation. 

Accompanied by a shipping agent of the Sanitary 
Commission, the stores sent down from Cleveland 
were transferred at Cincinnati to the mail boat and 
consigned to the Central office at Louisville. When 
they arrived there, the responsibility of the Cleveland 
Branch ended. 

At Louisville, supplies were divided into two great 
streams of beneficence, one flowing southward over 
the Louisville and Nashville railroad towards the 
army of the Cumberland, the other following the 



ANOTHER JOURNEY. 113 

course of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers to the army 
of the Tennessee, still thundering at the gates of 
Vicksburg. Here the supply work of the WESTERN 
and the UNITED STATES Sanitary Commissions was in 
full and splendid operation. Their agents were dis 
pensing with so liberal a hand as almost to justify 
the saying, some months later, " potatoes and onions 
captured Vicksburg ! " 

May 5th, the secretary of the Cleveland Aid Society 
left home for Louisville, Nashville and Murfreesboro, 
which was still " the front " of the army of the 
Cumberland. This trip embraced three weeks of 
sight-seeing and hospital visiting, and was undertaken 
with the double purpose of recreation from office 
duties and of gaining accurate and vivid ideas of 
relief-work in the field that might be used to advan 
tage in stimulating supplies at home. 

Two ladies of the Norwalk Branch were of the 
party, which enjoyed the escort of Dr. A. N. READ, 
chief Inspector of the Sanitary Commission in that 
department. 

At Cincinnati and Louisville, visits were paid to 
the Soldiers Homes, the hospitals, the offices and 
warehouses of the Sanitary Commission and to many 
places which war had invested with new interest. 

Leaving Louisville for Nashville, the luggage of 
the travelers was inspected by the proper officer who, 
after satisfying himself that the ladies were not carry 
ing to the enemy any " aid or comfort " in the shape 
of morphine, quinine or ammunition, placed across 
each key-hole a little strip of white muslin, duly 



114 TRAVELING IN DIXIE. 

fastened above and below with an ostentatious bit of 
red wax upon which was set the seal of Uncle Sam s 
approval. Provided with military passes, in w^hich 
name, age, weight, height, color of eyes and hair, and 
undoubted loyalty were conspicuously recorded, the 
party was admitted to seats in the cars of the Louis 
ville and Nashville railroad. 

Bardstown, Lebanon Junction, Elizabethtown, No- 
lin, Bacon Creek and Munfordsville were all passed, 
in turn. It was difficult to associate these places 
with the former visit or to realize that the red waves 
of war had only one year before rolled over hills now 
covered with verdure and fields now rich with ripen 
ing grain. 

But after dashing through the tunnels, creeping 
over the bridges and curving around the angles of 
the Muldraugh hills, the train moved more cautiously. 
The guard retired into stockade cars and with cocked 
rifles kept a sharp watch upon the hillsides ; throw 
ing suspicious glances and an occasional pistol shot 
-into the clumps of brushwood, for here was a 
stronghold of guerilla rule. The passengers were 
instructed to throw themselves upon the floor of the 
car at the first volley of musketry, receiving the 
comforting assurance that if they were to be " gobbled 
up " anywhere on the road, that interesting ceremony 
would take place at this stage of the journey ! 

Thanks to the vigilance of the brave soldiers who 
guarded every bridge and patrolled every cross-road, 
the guerillas were restrained from paying their com 
pliments to this train. A sharp skirmish-fire, seen 
from the car window at the distance of half a mile, 
gave excitement, without danger, to the journey. 



SIGHT- SEEING. 115 

At Nashville the travelers became the guests of the 
Sanitary Commission household. Establishing head 
quarters there, they spent day after day in visiting the 
hospitals, the camps lying out upon the hillsides, the 
fortifications, the convalescent quarters, with their 
blooming and fruitful gardens, the Sanitary Commis 
sion supply depot and warehouses, and the Soldiers 1 
Home. 

They further tempted fate by trips to Franklin 
and Murfreesboro, which were the outposts of two 
branches of the main army, encountering, however, 
nothing more hazardous than a railroad break-down 
and detention in a guerilla-haunted forest. 

During a stay of some days at Murfreesboro the 
party had unusual opportunities for seeing the army 
in camp and hospital, through the kindness of M. C. 
READ, Esq., agent of the Sanitary Commission, in 
charge there, and the courteousness of General ROSE- 
CRANS and staff, who gave every facility of transporta 
tion and escort. 

The fortifications, then considered a triumph of 
military engineering, the signal stations and the 
ordnance and commissary depots were visited, and the 
battle-field of Stone River, still strewn with the 
wreck of war and furrowed with countless graves. 

For months the Sanitary Commission had been felt 
as a power for good in that army, and its agents and 
their work were in cordial favor with officers and 
men. It was pleasant indeed to the visitors, as they 
passed from tent to tent of the evergreen-shaded 
camps, to hear this acknowledged and to see that it 
was true, 



116 A CHEERING REPORT. 

Hospitals, convalescent camps, Sanitary gardens and 
the hospital train upon which they journeyed back to 
Nashville, told the same tale, so cheering to carry 
home to the faithful laborers in Ohio. 

It was the endeavor upon returning from this trip 
to the front, as on all similar occasions, to stir afresh 
the sympathies of the army of home-workers and to 
evoke their increased activity by representing to the 
Branch Societies, through published articles and per 
sonal letters, the impressions that had been gained 
from observation of Sanitary work in the army. 



CHAPTER VII. 

To the zealous workers in the home field there 
soon came the joyful news that liberal contributions 
and prompt shipment of vegetables had already stayed 
the progress of the much dreaded disease. In the 
same breath they were warned that it was of the last 
importance to continue these supplies so long as the 
season would, allow, in order to confirm the health of 
the army and strengthen it for the trials which a 
sudden and severe engagement would involve. 

So the good work went on, and when planting 
time came, farmers and gardeners were exhorted to lay 
out a " soldiers acre." Even children were encouraged 
to turn their little garden spots into an onion bed, 
and this was very generally done. One Sunday school 
on the borders of Pennsylvania formed itself into a 
" Union Garden Aid Society " and cultivated a large 
piece of ground which yielded well to the soldiers. 

At that time local political organizations called the 
Union League were springing up all over the State. 
The children soon parodied this in their Onion leagues, 
formed in many country towns. The sign * Onion 
League," painted on a fluttering flag or bit of board, 
was often conspicuous over a patch of ground where 
these patriotic little gardeners might have been seen 

l 17 



118 THE " ONION " LEAGUE. 

pulling the weeds and impatiently waiting for the 
reward of their industry. 

The assemblies of the Union League, mentioned 
above, and of the military mass meetings and loyal 
conventions often proved a harvest to the aid socie 
ties of the towns where they were held. At the close 
of such a meeting some one would propose "three 
cheers for the soldiers and a collection for the sick 
and wounded," or the ladies of the local society would 
lay a net for these unwary leaguers by spreading a 
tempting supper-table or opening a " dining-tent " 
during the session of the convention. 

The officers of the Cleveland Society, on hearing of 
one or two ventures of this kind, issued, June 15th, 
Circular No. 11, advising their auxiliaries to seize 
similar occasions whenever presented, reminding them 
that strawberry season is the witching time for fairs, 
festivals and moonlight picnics, and that the approach 
ing " fourth " offered great inducements for entertain 
ments. 

The suggestions of this circular were followed by 
nearly every branch society and always with success. 
A picnic or festival under the auspices of an aid 
society was sure to be well patronized. 

The little girls caught this spirit of charitable 
merry-making and devoted their play hours to hold 
ing mimic bazaars and fairs, bringing with great pride 
their gains to the Aid Rooms. 

So lively was the interest of the people of Northern 
Ohio in the welfare of their soldier friends and broth 
ers, that it was only necessary to suggest the wants of 
a hospital in order to ensure quick and hearty aid in 
any proposed measure of relief. 



THE SANITARY REPORTER. 119 

The tributary societies naturally looked to the 
Cleveland Aid Rooms for instruction, and it was the 
endeavor to engage this enthusiastic co-operation and 
turn it in the right direction by issuing frequent 
circulars, by preparing articles weekly for the city and 
country papers and by reporting fully upon the pro 
gress of relief- work at the front, 

A much valued agency for this purpose was the 
" Sanitary Reporter " which appeared in June of this 
year. 

The SANITARY REPORTER was a semi-monthly news 
paper established by the Secretary of the Western 
Department, and was issued from the Central office 
at Louisville. It was published, as its prospectus 
announced, u for gratuitous distribution among the 
soldiers aid societies and that portion of the people 
of the loyal states who care to be informed of the 
objects and work of the Sanitary Commission and 
who desire information as to the state of the army, its 
necessities and the best way to supply them." 

Seven hundred and fifty copies of each issue of the 
Sanitary Reporter were mailed by the Cleveland 
Branch to its auxiliary societies and to its friends in 
Ohio and Pennsylvania. 

The interesting letters and reports which this little 
paper contained were read aloud at the sewing meet 
ings of many of the aid societies, nor did its mission 
end here. It was afterwards circulated through the 
neighborhood, that new friends might be gained to 
the Sanitary Commission in those who read this 
record of its efficiency. 

The mailing of the Sanitary Reporter and of the 



120 MAILING DOCUMENTS. 

Sanitary Bulletin, a semi-monthly pamphlet estab 
lished in November, 1863, by the Eastern Department 
of the Commission, added greatly to the duties of 
the document committee. 

The total number of Reporters, Bulletins and docu 
ments of the general Commission issued by the 
Cleveland Branch is seventy-four thousand seven 
hundred and seventy-five. This, added to twenty- 
nine thousand five hundred and twenty-five copies of 
the Society s own publications, makes the total issue 
from the Document Committee at Cleveland reach one 
hundred and four thousand three hundred. This 
estimate is exclusive of minor circulars, blanks, cards 
and directions for work, and of several thousand 
copies of loyal league publications. 

It is a pleasure to recall and to acknowledge here the 
services of Mrs. GEO. WILLEY, Mrs. JOHN M. STERLING, 
Jr., Miss VAUGHAN, Miss STEWAKT, Miss ANNA BALD- 
WIN and Miss ANNIE CARTER, members of the Docu 
ment Committee during a period of more than two 
years of its heaviest duties. The names of other 
ladies who served on this committee earlier in the 
war are given on page 69. 

All mail matter issued from the Cleveland Aid 
Rooms was post free, through an informal arrange 
ment effected with the Post Office Department by 
some friends of the Society. This favor was enjoyed 
from March, 1862, till April, 1865, and it enabled the 
Society to distribute its own documents and those of 
the Sanitary Commission more widely than the heavy 
expense of postage would have justified. 

Besides circulating Sanitary documents, the Society 



OOOD ttE\vs. 121 



distributed in the army several thousand pamphlets 
of the Union League and Loyal Publication houses 
of Philadelphia, New York and Boston. It seemed 
to the ladies as clearly their duty to confirm the moral 
and political health of the soldier as to minister to 
his physical welfare. Therefore, every publication 
that gave out the ring of true loyalty was assidu 
ously circulated in hospital and camp. 

Direct advices from Nashville and Murfreesboro, in 
June of this year, gave a cheering view of the sanitary 
condition of the army of the Cumberland. 

The Nashville hospitals were nearly all cleared of 
inmates and all the hospitals in the town of Murfrees- 
boro were closed, the few sick or unfit for duty being 
sent to the field hospital or convalescent camp. 

The hospital cars of the Sanitary Commission had 
been constantly transporting sick and discharged 
soldiers from Murfreesboro to Nashville, where, after 
the needful rest in the Soldiers Home, they were 
again forwarded by hospital train to Louisville, thence 
to be sent to the hospitals nearest their homes, in 
accordance with late orders of the Surgeon General. 

The agents of the Sanitary Commission were still 
issuing vegetables to men in camp, and the sick were 
well supplied from the hospital gardens, which now 
began to prove their value. 

These gardens had been established at Nashville 
and Murfreesboro on suggestion of the Sanitary 
Commission, upon ground confiscated for the purpose 
by order of General ROSECRANS, who showed much 
interest in the project. The seeds and garden imple- 



122 SANITAKY GAKDENS. 

ments were furnished by the Commission. Conva 
lescent soldiers were detailed to do the garden work, 
planting and weeding a few hours each day as 
strength would permit. 

So much pride had many of them in this work that 
they transplanted wild flowers from the woods to 
ornament the borders and pathways. 

Hearing of this attempt at horticulture and desirous 
to encourage it, one of the young ladies of the 
Cleveland Branch solicited from the green-houses of 

O 

her friends more than a hundred pots of choice roses, 
geraniums, verbenas and other bedding-out plants 
and also obtained from the seedsmen large packages 
of flower seeds. The Aid Society added to this gift 
by purchasing a barrel of dahlia bulbs. All were 
forwarded to the hospital gardens by the American 
Express company, free of charge, and were soon grow 
ing finely. 

The following description of the Sanitary Gardens 
at Chattanooga was written a year later by the young 
lady whose efforts to beautify the soldiers flower-beds 
have just been mentioned : 

" Chattanooga, situated in the midst of the valley, on the banks of the 
Tennessee, and surrounded by an amphitheatre of hills, was once noted for 
its beauty. Shady, carefully kept groves of ancient trees covered the hills 
and plains, and the houses were surrounded by gardens that bloomed with 
the most exquisite flowers. The plains around the houses were dotted with 
fine plantations where were raised the magnificent crops for which East 
Tennessee is so celebrated. Now the plains are swept literally bare, so 
that guns on Fort Wood can command the whole valley from Mission 
Ridge around to Cameron Hill, and the town itself is reduced to an army 
post, hot, dusty, and swarming with soldiers. A walk in any direction 
brings you into a deserted camp, and you stumble over old shoes, ragged, 
torn coats and rusty canteens, telling of where our soldiers lived, before, 
following the universal custom of Yankees on the first of May, they "moved " 



A DESCRIPTION. 1.23 

in search of better quarters. But one thing redeems this sad picture of the 
havoc that war has made at Chattanooga, and that is the Sanitary Gardens, 
consisting of a hundred and fifty acres, given by the General Commanding 
to the United States Sanitary Commission, to be cultivated for the benefit 
of the sick and wounded soldiers. These gardens lie along the banks of 
the Tennessee, about three-quarters of a mile from the town, up the river. 
The only approach to them is across a narrow bridge over a little creek, 
and should you attempt to enter, an imperative " halt " from the sentry 
with leveled bayonet disagreeably reminds you that passes, anywhere and 
everywhere and for all sorts of reasons, are the most essential things in 
Dixie. Once through that barrier, you find yourself upon a level plain, 
with long rows of onions, beets, turnips, parsnips, etc., stretching away 
from you on either hand. In one corner of the field you notice a detach 
ment of Uncle Sam s " unbleached American " children in their neat blue 
uniforms, hoeing away for dear life at the potatoes, as they never hoed 
before at " de cotton and de corn." The hundred and fifty acres do not lie 
together, but are separated by a creek or arm of the river into different 
fields, so that Mr. WILLS, the head gardener, has been able to separate his 
crops, taking one entire field for potatoes, another for corn, and still another 
for onions, etc, The whole garden is now planted. Nearly in the center 
of the garden is an Indian mound, so elevated above the plain that, stand 
ing on its top, you can at a glance take in the whole magnificent scenery. 
At your left lies the blue Tennessee, glittering out from beyond Mission 
Ridge and winding through the valley to the base of Lookout, tangling 
the hills in a silver braid ; opposite, on the Eidge, is that fatal cornfield 
where Sherman fought so long and so well, and the heights our brave men 
stormed and won, and further on towards the right stands old Lookout, a 
great sentinel, visible for miles away. The sides of this beautiful mound 
are now green with lettuce, radishes, mustard, etc., but when these are 
gone the mound will be a fragrant bouquet of flowers from foot to summit. 
In the center of the level space on the top is a tent with rustic seats around, 
and the Sanitary Commission proposes to give Cleveland the honor of 
placing a Union flag over the tent, an emblem of the benevolence as well 
as the patriotism of the loyal Xorth. Xear the mound are the tents and 
accommodations for the workmen and teams. Besides a large force perma 
nently employed, Mr. M. C. READ, of Hudson, O., the Agent of the Commis 
sion, to whom the success of the gardens is chiefly due, has obtained from 
the Government one company to be stationed there as guards, and also a 
company from one of the colored regiments to assist in cultivating. He 
employs from twenty to thirty horses and mules in plowing and teaming. 
Every day ambulances from the various hospitals are sent to the gardens, 
and these return laden with the bounties that nature so readily yields to 
a willing, industrious hand. Already hundreds of bushels of lettuce and 
other greens have been given to the hospitals at Chattanooga and on 



124 A PIC- NIC DINNER. 

Lookout, and should the abundant harvests that are now promised grow to 
a reality, there will be vegetables enough to supply all the hospitals at 
that point during the coming summer and fall. Early in April Mr. BEAD 
discovered four fine vineyards along the line of the railroad beyond Mission 
Ridge, and on application to Gen. THOMAS they were placed under his 
control. The vines are cultivated on short poles, and when I saw them a 
few weeks ago the grapes were set in large quantities. How refreshing 
to our suffering soldiers, who have lain for nearly three months in crowded 
wards under the burning Southern sun, will be this delicious fruit next 
fall ! For, sad to say, it takes months for a wound to heal, and the patience 
of a soldier must be even greater than his bravery. 

C. 

An occasion for giving a little pleasure to the 
soldiers in the city camp was presented in the 
approaching fourth of July, and the ladies of the 
Aid Society arranged a picnic dinner for the four 
hundred inmates of Camp Cleveland military hospital. 

The Aid Rooms on Bank street and a branch depot 
on the west side of the city were the appointed 
receiving-stations for viands of every description. 
So liberal were the supplies that an abundant feast 
was spread not only for the patients and all inmates 
of the hospital but also for the eight hundred recruits 
in camp. 

Besides these contributions in kind, from the ladies 
of the city and vicinity, there were many gifts of 
money from gentlemen, on behalf of the soldiers 
dinner. 

The Aid Society at this time received several " ben 
efits" of which it may be proper to make special 
mention. 

From the finance committee of the Union Mass 
Convention held in the city came the welcome gift 
of three hundred dollars, being the surplus of an 
amount collected from citizens to defray the expenses 



A GLOKIOUS "FOURTH. 125 

of that assembly. The young people of Ash tabula 
sent in one hundred and fourteen dollars, the avails 
of a successful amateur concert. The scholars of Mrs. 
DAY S school held a pleasant bazaar by which seventy- 
five dollars were raised for the soldiers. Four little 
girls on St. Clair street planned a school-room fair 
and sent in twenty-nine dollars as the result, and 
there were many other little fairs among the children. 
One very little girl brought to the Aid Rooms a 
dollar which had been sent to her by her soldier 
brother to be spent in fire works for her amusement 
on the fourth of July. 

The " glorious fourth " dawned and was duly cele 
brated in the Northern States, while prayers for our 
brave armies breathed from each loyal heart and 
tempered yet intensified every patriotic utterance. 

All day long the electric wires trembled with the 
distant mutterings of battle, and before another day 
had ended a shout of triumph and thanksgiving 
pealed through the North. 

Glad tidings of victory had burst upon us from the 
West, only to be caught up and re-echoed by the exult 
ant armies of the East. 

Vicksburg, the Gibraltar of the enemy, had fallen 
before its gallant besiegers, and in the East the hordes 
that had overrun and devastated a portion of one 
of our fairest northern states, and proudly threatened 
to bring the horrors of war to our very doors, had 
been met at Gettysburg and driven back in confusion 
and defeat. 



126 TIMELY SUPPLIES. 

The brilliant generalship and heroic deeds of these 
battle-fields absorbed the first glad moments of 
triumph. 

Soon, the heart-sickening details of the struggle ; 
the names of those who were, but are not ; and of 
those who with maimed and shattered limbs had been 
gathered into the temporary shelter of improvised 
hospitals, began to reach the eye and to fall like a 
death-stroke upon the heart of many a Rachel, be 
wailing her dead or mourning with yet keener anguish 
for him whose fate is shrouded in the dread uncer 
tainty that hangs over the unrecorded history of the 
battle-field. 

While watching with intense anxiety the progress 
of the siege of Vicksburg, it had been a joy to know 
that the sufferers in our army were not to wait the 
tardy coming of supplies gathered and sent forward 
after the news of battle had reached the ears of their 
northern friends. 

Into the general storehouses of the Sanitary Com- 
mission at Louisville and Cairo had flowed the 
contributions of all the northern Branches, and these 
supplies were thus concentrated only to be distributed 
among the sub-depots still nearer the army. Thanks 
to the well organized system of supply-steamers that 
for months had been running upon the Ohio and 
Mississippi, the Sanitary stations at the front now 
contained stores suited to the exigencies of the situa 
tion. These were soon largely increased by the 
cargoes of several steamers that had been sent in 
anticipation of this special need and were far on their 
way down the river when the victory was announced. 



A THANK-OFFERING. 127 

The capture of Vieksburg opened the Mississippi 
river as a broad channel into which to pour the gifts 
of a people grateful from the depths of their loyal 
hearts for the repossession of the great commercial 
highway that secession had so long usurped. 

The Sanitary supply-steamers followed closely in 
the wake of our victorious gunboats and our reviving 
river trade, and it was the ambition of every northern 
Branch to send them laden with a thank-offering to 
the brave men who had taken part in the struggle 
that resulted so gloriously to our cause. 

The eastern Branches of the Sanitary Commission 
were nobly at work among the wounded at Gettys 
burg. The value of the principal Sanitary supplies 
given out upon that field during the four weeks after 
the battle, is estimated at seventy-five thousand dollars. 

In compliance with suggestions received from the 
Central office, the Cleveland Branch Commission 
held its stores ready for any need that might arise at 
Gettysburg, but no call was made for them, and the 
forwarding of a few boxes of surgeons supplies, on 
special request of the Pittsburgh Branch, was the 
extent of its work in Gettysburg hospitals. 

The relief that the Cleveland Branch gave to the 
wounded of Gettysburg was confined to the hospitali 
ties rendered to those of them who, returning: on 

O 

furlough to their homes in the West, sought rest and 
refreshment in the Depot Hospital. 

The DEPOT HOSPITAL, from its establishment in 
April, 1862 see page 51 had been a haven of 
rest to many a worn and broken traveler. No part 
of the relief-work recorded in this volume was more 



128 RETURNING HEROES. 

successful or brought more cheering returns than that 
which was done within its walls. 

Not a day passed but some waif from the ebb-tide 
of war s crimson river was casfc within reach, and when 
the flood-gates of battle were opened, the capacity of 
this little wayside-inn was often tested to the utmost. 

In August of this year, the return through Cleve 
land of fourteen regiments of New England soldiers, 
heroes of Port Hudson, gave occasion for offering 
personal care to the many feeble and disabled and 
refreshment to all. 

In these offices of hospitality the Society recognized 
no new duties, no stepping aside from the purposes of 
its organization. It was only that the objects of care 
had come nearer, had been brought to the very door, 
so that with outstretched hand they could reach the 
comforts that until now had been sent by trusty 
agents and through well known channels to the far-off 
regions of trial and suffering from which they had 
just been released. 

The presence of these regiments wakened an enthu- 
siastic benevolence that is an honor to the citizens of 
Cleveland. 

The response to the calls of the Aid Society for 
table supplies or delicacies for the sick was unflagging 
and most generous. Wines and other stimulants 
were even lavishly given and were of the choicest 
quality. Fruits and vegetables were plentiful, soup 
and broth and delicate morsels of sick diet were sent 
to tempt the feeble appetite. Everything that gener 
osity could provide or the skill of the housewife 
prepare was offered in abundance. 



A FORESHADOWING. 129 

The sympathy of many was shown by their constant 
personal attendance upon the sick in the DEPOT HOS 
PITAL, where the gravest cases were carried on the 
arrival of each train. 

The details of this work are properly embraced in 
the special relief service of the Society. A sketch of 
the reception of these Port Hudson regiments will be 
found in the accompanying Special Relief Report. 

This experience in the entertainment of returning 
regiments was only a foreshadowing of the duties that 
later months of the war would develop. 

The accommodations of the little DEPOT HOSPITAL 
were barely sufficient for invalid soldiers coming 
singly or in small squads, and care could be better 
and more conveniently given to these under other 
arrangements. For the reception of any considerable 
number of sick and certainly for offering hospitality 
to a regiment, more space and greater facilities were 
indispensable. 

The time had come when these were needed, and 
the darling project of building a Soldiers Home 
became an all-absorbing subject of consultation at 
the Aid Rooms. 

How to raise the money for this, was the first and 
most important question. The current expenses of 
the Society were daily becoming heavier as its supply 
work steadily increased. It was clear that nothing 
could be spared from the monthly receipts. The 
California fund was held sacred to the purchase of 
material and hospital stores and it was not thought 
right to divert any portion of it to this new enterprise. 
The Soldiers Homes in most other Northern cities 



130 A NEW PROJECT. 

were local institutions built by contributions of citi 
zens. 

After much deliberation it was resolved to apply 
directly to the business men of the city for money 
to erect the building, and trust to some plan of 
evening entertainments for the support of the Home 
when once it was opened. 

This was decided with great hesitation since it had 
always been the pride of the officers to avoid personal 
solicitation of money. There seemed, however, a 
peculiar propriety in asking from the citizens of 
Cleveland a direct contribution for this specific object. 
It was believed that every man who invested his 
money in such a building would at the same time 
take stock of interest and good will in the work to 
which it was devoted, and would feel a citizen s pride 
in sustaining a local charity which he had helped to 
establish. 

When this method of raising money was decided 
upon, the first vice-president and treasurer and one 
member of the Society sacrificed their distaste to the 
requirements of this new duty and, with the escort of 
two gentlemen who cordially favored the plan, called 
upon the business men, presented the need of a 
Soldiers Home and asked for the means to build it. 

In two days of this canvassing, seventeen hundred 
dollars were collected. Later contributions increased 
this amount to two thousand dollars, more than suffi 
cient to erect the proposed building. This includes 
the estimates of lumber secured from lumber dealers 
by solicitation of the president of the Society. 

A building spot was given by the Cleveland and 



CLEVELAND SOLDIERS HOME. 131 

Columbus railroad company, adjoining the Union 
railroad depot and well located for the purpose. 
Plans and specifications of the Louisville Home were 
furnished by Dr. NEWBERRY. These were submitted 
to Mr. KAXDALL CRAWFORD, who volunteered to 
modify and adapt them, to purchase materials and to 
engage and superintend the workmen. The work 
was pushed forward rapidly enough to satisfy even 
the ladies of the Society, who watched its progress 
with eager impatience. 

December 12th, 1863, the Cleveland SOLDIERS 
HOME was opened and dedicated to the special relief 
work which is detailed in the accompanying report. 
It will there be seen that the building, at first twenty- 
two feet wide and two hundred feet long, was 
increased by subsequent additions to an area of 
sixty-three hundred and eighty square feet ; that 
fifty- seven thousand six hundred and nine soldiers 
found temporary shelter there, to whom one hundred 
and eleven thousand nine hundred and one meals, and 
twenty-nine thousand nine hundred and seventy-four 
lodgings were given; and that its hospitable doors 
were never closed till long after the happy return of 
peace. 

As summer advanced and the heavier labors of 
harvest season were over, all friends in the country 
were enjoined to begin a vigorous work in their aid 
societies, that winter weather might not cause suffer 
ing from lack of comforts that might have been 
furnished. 

Dried fruits, pickles, krout and vegetable* were 



132 THE SUMMER S WORK. 

placed prominently upon the list of much needed 
supplies. Housekeepers were admonished to remem 
ber the sick soldier as they prepared the winter s 
stock of dried fruit and pickles for their own families. 
Blackberries in wine, cordial, jam, or simply dried 
were sought for by those in charge of hospitals. This 
fruit had medicinal virtues peculiarly suited to check 
the diseases then prevalent in our army. 

The many boys and girls who were daily asking 
"What can we do for the soldiers ? " were soon called 
upon to form a volunteer regiment to pick the berries 
which the ladies of the country societies would then 
prepare for hospital use. 

Societies were urged to replenish their funds by 
subscription or solicitation in order to furnish material 
for the weekly meetings through the autumn. The 
young ladies of each town were invited to take upon 
themselves the work of collection and to make it their 
duty to supply funds for the local aid society. 

August Gth, appointed by President LINCOLN as a 
day of national thanksgiving for the success of the 
Union armies, seemed an appropriate time for a thank- 
offering to wounded soldiers. A request was made to 
the pastors of the city churches to take up a collec 
tion at the close of religious services upon that day. 
Clergymen throughout Northern Ohio were desired to 
influence the gifts of their churches toward the sup 
port of the local aid societies. 

It was not known, at the time of making this sug 
gestion, that the Christian Commission had just sent 
a similar request to each loyal pulpit in behalf of its 
own relief work in army and navy. As soon as this 



6UT MATERIAL 133 

was discovered no further action was taken in the 
matter by the Aid Society. The contributions of 
several city churches were handed in, aggregating two 
hundred and twenty-five dollars. Some country aid 
societies received the collections made in their 
churches, but the money contributed on that day was 
mostly sent to the treasury of the Christian Commis 
sion at Philadelphia. 

No other attempt was made this summer to raise 
money, except the special collection for building the 
Soldiers Home, which has been mentioned. 

The California fund had been freely drawn upon 
in purchasing vegetables for the warfare against 
scurvy and in keeping the work committee supplied 
with material. 

All material furnished to Branch societies was cut 
at the Aid Rooms by economical and experienced 
hands, and sent out in packages of ten, tw r enty or 
thirty garments. Each package was charged against 
the society to which it was sent and the finished 
garments were credited and acknowledged in print as 
" returned work." 

Promise of such aid was never given until other 
means of maintaining the vigor of a society had 
been faithfully tried, and then this was offered as a 
temporary support, to be withdrawn so soon as 
independent standing was regained. 

As the nature of hospital supplies changed from 
this time and now represented a greater money value 
but less amount of time in preparation, it was neces 
sary to give the officers of Branch societies more 
support, in furnishing work by which they could 



134 SUSTAINING THE HOME. 

sustain their sewing meetings and prevent the falling 
off of members while vegetables, pickles and krout 
were being gathered for the army. 

The supply- work of the Society had been heavy 
this summer and its responsibilities in sustaining its 
feebler Branches and in supplying the Soldiers Home 
were increasing and requiring more liberal outlay. 

It was designed to sustain the Home by raising a 
fund especially for that purpose and quite independ 
ent of the resources of the supply department. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Ix August of this year the managers of the Chicago 
Branch Sanitary Conimision had announced a " Sani 
tary Fair," to be held in that city during the coming 
October. Vast preparations had been going forward 
through the summer, and, with an enthusiasm that 
was regarded chimerical, the Chicago ladies had de 
clared their belief that twenty-five thousand dollars 
would be cleared by this project. 

The president, vice-president and treasurer of the 
Cleveland Branch accepted an invitation to attend the 
Chicago fair and spent three days in that whirlpool 
of enthusiastic charity, where the flood of benevo 
lence swelled the hoped-for sum of twenty-five 
thousand to a real benefit of seventy-eight thousand 
dollars. 

The spirit of emulation excited by the wonderful 
success of the Chicago Fair gave rise, in other cities, 
to a series of Sanitary fairs, the most splendid 
exhibitions of charity that the world has ever known, 
- which opened a new era in the history of benevo 
lent effort. In these magnificent fairs, all that taste, 
skill, energy, loyalty, humanity and national or 
sectional pride could accomplish was laid under 
tribute. Their aggregate cash receipts were millions 



SANITARY 

of dollars. Their indirect results in the momentum 
given to patriotism and philanthropy, through this 
war and to all time, are beyond estimate. 

The officers of the Cleveland Aid Society had 
visited the Chicago Fair with a somewhat vague pur 
pose of gaining ideas for the benefit of their own 
work and especially with a view to some effort for 
the support of their Soldiers Home. 

Their plans had not extended beyond a series of 
evening amusements, a picture gallery, or a three 
days bazaar. They returned home with enlarged 
views, aglow with the enthusiasm of the hour, and 
resolved to launch their own little boat upon the 
wave of prosperity. 

November 24th, they were fully committed to this 
venture by the following circular, which was No. 1 2 
of the series: 



ROOMS SOLDIERS AID SOCIETY, No. 95 BANK STREET, \ 
CLEVELAND, O., November 24, 1803. j" 

To the People of Northern Ohio : 

We propose holding a Grand Festival, commencing on the 22d of Febru" 
ary, for the benefit of our sick and wounded soldiers. The necessity for 
some effort of this kind is pressing. The loyal people of our State have 
given freely and often ; yet the present year, while it promises no abatement 
in the wants of our army, finds us limited by means totally insufficient to 
meet the demand made upon us. Our expenses are also necessarily increased 
by the higher rates of material, and to meet this emergency we propose to 
the women of Northern Ohio to imitate the example of our sisters of the 
northwest who, by their recent splendid effort, have given a new impetus to 
Sanitary work in that department. 

The first step in this enterprise must be to secure the co-operation of 
those friends whose warm sympathies and liberal benefactions have hereto 
fore carried us on so successfully in our work. From each member of the 
Branch Societies and from all who have contributed to this cause we ask 
assistance to enable us to prosecute our labors with renewed energy. We 
feel satisfied that the project can be succcessful without imposing upon any 
individual a heavy tax or in any way retarding our daily labor by drawing 
from the current supplies. 



FOLLOWING THE EXAMPLE. 187 

Aside from the pecuniary benefit which we promise ourselves in this 
undertaking, an opportunity will be offered to extend a cordial personal 
greeting to many with whom we are connected in a common cause. 
To them is due no small share of the honor which has made the Soldiers 
Aid Society of Northern Ohio a strong arm of the Commission, known and 
recognized no less on the bloody battle-field than in many a hospital which 
the soldier has consecrated by sickness and suffering, through the length 
and breadth of the West. 

We call upon our friends to join us, that we may work with new zeal 
and a more ardent patriotism in an undertaking whose scope and aims 
cannot be over-estimated. This early appeal is set forth that the attention 
of every town and society may be secured. We shall hope to receive from 
each according to its ability. We propose to devote a separate portion of 
the hall to the respective contributions of each Branch. 

It is impossible at this early day to furnish a definite programme of the 
festival. Xo effort will spared to render it in the highest degree profitable 
and attractive. The plan pursued will be similar to that of the Chicago 
Fair, and will comprise the sale of every variety of fancy and useful articles. 
During the continuance of the Fair a daily dinner will be furnished, and we 
must look to our friends in the country to assist us with contributions of 
milk, cream, butter, eggs, vegetables and poultry. 

A series of attractive entertainments will be presented. Further particu 
lars and information will be furnished as the occasion demands. 

We would suggest that each society convene its members and lay this 
circular before them, that we may secure their immediate and prompt 
action. Arrangements will be made with the various Railroad Companies 
by which an opportunity will be afforded of coming to Cleveland and 
returning the same day. 

We ask of those who have never failed to respond to our appeals, with firm 
faith in their continued well-doing. 

MKS. B. ROUSE, President. 
MRS. WM. MELHINCH, ) 
MRS. L. BURTON, ) V.Pres t*. 

MARY CLARK BRAYTOX, Secretary. 
ELLEN F. TERRY, Treasurer. 

The opening day of the fair, February 22d, was 
chosen as being far enough distant to allow ample time 
for maturing the yet half-formed plan and because, 
from being a national holiday, it was most likely to 
arrest public attention and be retained in memory. 

A few clays after the announcement of this contem 
plated Sanitary Fair, the managers of the Cleveland 



138 AN EMBARRASSMENT. 

Protestant Orphan Asylum gave public notice of an 
intention to hold their third annual Bazaar about the 
middle of January; proposing to unite with this 
bazaar some effort for relief of destitute soldiers 
families living in the city. 

The reasons given for bringing forward the soldiers 
families in connection with this bazaar were that the 
Orphan Asylum, having received from two previous 
annual bazaars large sums that had been funded at 
interest, was now in need only of money enough for 
the current expenses of the winter, less than would 
probably be raised by a bazaar, and the managers of 
the Asylum, sympathizing with the charities which 
the accident of war had developed, were willing to 
accept only a specified sum and to relinquish the 
remainder to the ward committees that were organ 
ized for the care of soldiers families. 

With all cordial feeling for the Orphan Asylum 
and for soldiers families, the officers of the Aid Society 
saw at a glance that the proposed bazaar would be 
fatal to the success of their Sanitary Fair. 

It would be dangerous enough to have a bazaar in 
whatever interest, on so large a scale as was proposed, 
in preparation all winter and opened four weeks in 
advance of the fair ; but when, added to this, the pa 
triotic element was to be evoked, through this effort for 
soldiers families, it was certain that this sentiment 
would not so soon respond again, and that the fair 
would fall to the ground, a dead failure, or be at best 
only a partial success that might prove equally dam 
aging to the interests of the Sanitary Commission. 

The fair had not been proposed as a means of 



CONFLICTING INTERESTS. 139 

raising money for any temporary emergency, nor for 
the work of one winter only, nor even of one year. 
It was rather to take advantage of this mania of 
generosity, this wonderful epidemic charity, that was 
breaking out in Sanitary fairs, east and west, and 
that might soon disappear with paralyzing reaction. 

So vast and exhaustive an undertaking must be 
made to bear proportionate results and to place the 
Society in a condition of absolute financial security to 
the end of its existence. 

With these convictions the officers of the Aid Society 
felt that the orphan and soldiers families bazaar was 
a positive barrier to their own plans. 

This was talked over in friendly council and several 
business meetings were called to consider it. A pro 
posal was made to hasten preparations for the bazaar, 
and to open it early in December, thus removing it 
farther from the time of holding the fair. This seemed 
likely to conflict with some other charitable schemes 
that were going forward then, and was not thought 
possible. 

The ladies of the Orphan Asylum claimed that 
having originated in Cleveland the system of holding 
bazaars they were by courtesy entitled to the exclusive 
privilege of raising money by that means, and that 
they were at liberty to introduce any element that 
promised to ensure success. 

The ladies of the Aid Society urged that to hold a 
bazaar for the benefit of soldiers families as well as 
for the orphans and this so near the opening of the 
Sanitary Fair would necessarily embarrass their ope 
rations and virtually destroy the fair. 



140 A COMPROMISE. 

Both entertainments liad been announced to the 
public and preparations to some extent had already 
been made for each. A compromise must be effected 
and these conflicting interests harmonized in the spirit 
of good will that had always prevailed in the public 
charities of Cleveland. 

The committee to which the matter was referred, 
representing jointly the Aid Society, the Orphan 
Asylum and the soldiers families, reported in favor 
of holding a grand Union Bazaar which should re 
present the interests of both Orphan Asylum and 
Aid Society; three thousand dollars of the net 
receipts to be pledged to the Orphan Asylum and 
the balance given to the Aid Society. 

This committee deemed it prudent to drop the sol 
diers families from the project, since a third of the sum 
raised by a bazaar would be but a fraction of the 
amount required for their support during the winter 
and it seemed certain that the promise of this tempo 
rary resource would check the activity and embarrass 
the canvassing system of the ward committees having 
these families in charge, and thus do an injury out 
weighing any advantage that would accrue to them 
from an incorporation with the bazaar. 

When it is remembered that the receipts of chari 
table entertainments in Cleveland had heretofore been 
counted by hundreds only, and never save in the two 
Orphan Asylum bazaars, which had been called bril 
liant in result could be estimated by thousands, it 
is not strange that the ward relief-committees declined 
to accept a third of a bazaar that was yet in embryo, 
or that the three thousand dollars that were to be 



AN OPPORTUNE LEGACY. 141 

ensured to the Orphan Asylum seemed like the lion s 
share of the possible proceeds. 

The high hopes with which the ladies of the Aid 
Society had returned from the Chicago Fair were sud 
denly dashed by this unexpected entanglement. 

Besides the discouraging prospect of receiving only 
a fractioD of the avails in event of success, there was 
another view of the case that made the Union Bazaar 
still more distasteful to them. 

For the Sanitary Fair, the aid of all Northern Ohio 
and of adjoining States had been solicited. The co 
operation of the branch aid societies was indispensable 
to success. But it could not be hoped to secure this 
when it became known that the proceeds of the fair 
were to be divided with a strictly local charity. 

Though sincerely in sympathy with the benevolent 
purposes of the Orphan Asylum, the officers of the 
Aid Society felt that this proposed Union Bazaar was 
very unfortunate for the cause they represented, and 
no doubt the managers of the Asylum were equally 
annoyed by it. 

Both parties, however, acquiesced in the decision of 
the committee, and a special meeting was called to 
make preliminary arrangements. 

Into that meeting the news was brought that a 

o o 

citizen just deceased had bequeathed to the Protestant 
Orphan Asylum of Cleveland the sum of forty thou 
sand dollars. This munificent legacy relieved the 
Asylum most opportunely from business perplexity, 
and the managers relinquished all claim to the pro 
ceeds of the projected bazaar. This left to the Aid 
Society a free field of operation and liberty to pursue 
the designs announced in the preliminary circular. 



142 NORTHERN OHIO SANITARY FAIR. 

So auspicious was the inception of the Northern 
Ohio Sanitary Fair ! 

The committee that had been formed to conduct the 
now abandoned Union Bazaar increased its numbers 
and became the Executive Committee of the Fair. 
The following were the honorary officers and Execu 
tive Committee of the Fair Association : 

NORTHERN OHIO SANITARY FAIR 

HONORARY OFFICERS. 

Governor JOHN BROUGH, Ex-Governor DAVID TOD, 

Hon. SALMON P. CHASE, Hon. BENJ. F. WADE, 

Hon. JOHN SHERMAN, Maj.-Gen l J. A. GARFTELD, 

Mavor IRVINE U. MASTERS. 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 
T. P. HANDY, Mrs. B. ROUSE, 

II. M. CHAPIN, Mrs. WM. MELHINCH, 

Dr. J. S. NEWBERRY, Mrs. L. BURTON, 

AMASA STONE, Jr., MARY CLARK BRAYTON, 

STILLMAN WITT, ELLEN F. TERRY, 

WM. B. CASTLE, Mrs. JOHN SHELLEY, 

SAMUEL L. MATHER, Mrs. J. A. HARRIS, 

JOSEPH PERKINS, Mrs. CHAS. A. TERRY, 

GEO. B. SENTER, Mrs. S. WILLIAMSON, 

PETER THATCHER, Jr., Mrs. GEO. A. BENEDICT, 

Mrs. L. M. HUBBY, 

Mrs. WM. B. CASTLE, 

T. P. HANDY, Chairman. 
H. M. CHAPIN, ^ 

MARY CLARK BRAYTON, j- Secretaries. 
ELLEN F. TERRY, J 

Headquarters were established at the Aid Society 
Rooms, No. 95 Bank street, and an office was rented 
in the same building for the use of the secretaries and 
the registration committee. Daily meetings of the 
Executive Committee were held at 4 o clock, P. M. 



COMMITTEES FOR THE FAIR. 148 

The circulars, notices and reports of the Sanitary 
Fairs of Chicago, Boston and Cincinnati were collected 
and filed for consultation and a general programme 
was formed from these precedents. 

This embraced a Ladies Bazaar, Refreshment Hall, 
Exhibition of Machinery, Manufactures and Produce, 
Fine Art Gallery, Floral Hall, Museum of Curiosities 
and War Relics and a series of Evening Entertain 
ments. 

The Executive Committee appointed the chairmen 
of twenty-one special committees, as follows : 

PETER THATCHER, Jr., on Building* and Halls. 
I. U. MASTERS, on Reception. 
T. X. BOND, on Decorations. 
J. G. HUSSEY, on Produce. 
M. C. YOUNGLOYE, on Machinery. 
WM. BINGHAM, on Merchandise. 
J. V. X. YATES, on Wood and Coal. 
Mrs. FAYETTE BROWN, on Booths and Fancy Tables. 
Mrs. A. G. COL WELL, on Fancy Articles. 
Mrs. Dr. E. STERLING, on Floral Hall. 

WM. EDWARDS and Mrs. M. C. YOUNGLOVE, on Tables and Table 
Furniture. 

Mrs. T. BURNHAM, on Refreshments. 

H. F. BRAYTON, on Memorials and Curiosities. 

WM. J. BOARDMAN, on Fine Art Hall. 

T. P. HANDY, on Musical Entertainments. 

GEO. WILLEY, on Tableaux. 

D. P. EELLS, on Lectures. 

JOHN F. WARNER, on Registration. 

A. W. FAIRBANKS, on Printing and Stationery. 

Col. W. H. HAYWARD, on Military. 

JOHN X. FRAZEE, on Police. 

These chairmen formed their own committees, which 
were enlarged and subdivided in later meetings at 
discretion. Prominent business men and manufac 
turers throughout Ohio and Western Pennsylvania 



144 ISSUING CIRCULARS. 

were created associate members of tliese committees 
and their personal influence was thus secured. (For a 
full list of the fair committees see appendix E.) 

The first duty of most of the committees was to 
prepare a special appeal to the public. Eleven sub- 
circulars were issued and each committee undertook 
to send to friends and business acquaintances far and 
near a certain number of the circulars of its own and 
every other department. 

A general circular was published in the newspapers 
of Northern Ohio with the request that every one 
who read it would send for a package of special 
circulars or furnish the names of persons to whom 
these might be mailed. Notice was given to citizens 
to send in the names of relatives and friends w^ho lived 
in the country, that circulars might be sent to them. 
All the ingenuity that had evoked the first response, 
in the early days of the Society, was repeated in 
behalf of the fair, aided by the machinery which 
nearly three years experience had nicely adjusted to 
this purpose. 

All circulars were mailed from the Aid Rooms 
under the franking privilege enjoyed by the Society. 

To secure the aid of the Branches was a matter of 
vital moment, and to do this without disturbing or 
checking the routine of their duties, was equally 
important. 

With all their desire to excite an interest in the 
approaching fair, the officers of the Cleveland Aid 
Society were very solicitous lest preparations for it 
might encroach upon their own regular business or 
that of their tributaries. They would not advise any 



APPOINTING DELEGATES. 145 

Branch to draw on its treasury to purchase materials 
for fancy articles, nor to suffer the regular sewing 
meetings to give place to assemblies on behalf of the 
fair. The aim was to help the cause, which surely 
would not be attained by exhausting the sources from 
which the very life of the work flowed. 

It was rather the design to use the influence of 
these Branches in securing and forwarding such arti 
cles, solicited by an outside committee, as would not 
naturally come into the list of their receipts ; so 
that contributions to the fair might be additions to 
the usual supplies, not an interference with them. 

The secretary and treasurer of the Aid Society, as 
associate secretaries of the fair, assumed the specific 
duty of engaging the interest and co-operation of the 
Branches. 

A personal letter was written to the president of 
each of these Branch societies, with, notice of her 
appointment as delegate to the fair and soliciting her 
services and influence in the preparations. Upon 
notice of acceptance, the delegate was furnished with 
a package of circulars containing, first, a general appeal 
in which each department was briefly described and 
appropriate gifts suggested, with a summary of the 
attractions promised to visitors ; second, the special 
circulars of the mercantile, manufactures, machinery, 
produce, fine arts, floral hall, museum, fancy work and 
refreshment committees, each fully explaining itself; 
third, a large sheet-invoice to be filled out and re 
turned with the aggregate results of the township 
canvassing, and some smaller invoice-blanks to accom 
pany individual gifts. 



146 PLANNING, 

On receipt of these documents, the delegate was to 
lay them before her society and to distribute them as 
would best promote an interest in the fair. 

It was advised that a committee of two really 
active, earnest men should be appointed in each town 
ship to solicit contributions in conjunction with the 
local society and, if necessary, to go about with teams 
from farm to farm and gather up everything that 
could be secured. 

The military committees of each county were sup 
plied with circulars and requested to act as " head 
centers" in collecting and forwarding. When pre- 
ferred, these appointments were authorized by com- 
missions sent from the officers of the fair association. 

It was necessary to rouse Northern Ohio thoroughly 
and to make the appeals specially pointed and search 
ing, for the reason that Cincinnati had just opened a 
fair that had drawn heavily upon the whole State. Its 
circulars and appeals had been freely distributed in 
Cleveland and vicinity, and had been responded to 
with much liberality. Many towns from which great 
things were hoped had given largely to Cincinnati 
and it was feared these were scarcely ready to repeat 
their generosity. 

But sectional pride soon came in to help on the 
work. It was determined that Cleveland should have 
a fair commensurate with the resources of the Reserve 
and the patriotism of its people. 

In furtherance of this resolution the circulars of 
each committee were issued till the corpulent mail- 
bags grew to positive obesity. The office of post 
master could have been no sinecure in Ohio during 
these preliminary days of the fair. 



THOROUGH CANVASSING. 147 

To this proclamation period succeeded the canvass 
ing era. 

Committee-men with memorandum book and pencil 
were making the round of the city, each eager to 
secure for his own department the pledge of his 
neighbor. Few waited for such solicitation, but by 
this thorough canvassing no one escaped. The gift of 
one thousand dollars each from several city insurance 
and manufacturing companies encouraged the can 
vassers at the outset, and from day to day the city 
papers helped on their work by mentioning various 
valuable articles of machinery or merchandise that 
had rewarded the labor of solicitation. 

It was urged that as an industrial exposition the fair 
would promote the interests of the community, an 
object which w r as thought proper to be mentioned as 
a stimulus to contribution. Facilities were promised 
to manufacturers and inventors for the display of 
fabrics and machines which they wished to introduce 
to the public, the business card of the donor to be 
attached to each article. 

All classes, trades and professions were to be en 
listed in this cause. Soliciting committees were 
reminded that there was nothing in the range of 
known possessions, having money value or historic 
interest, but would find a place and a welcome at the 
fair. At each one s hand lay his own appropriate 
offering. The mechanic could give the product of his 
skill, the merchant his wares, the manufacturer his 
finished article or the material from which it was 
made, the laborer a portion of his wages, the farmer 
his grain, the storage of his cellars, the wood from his 



148 LADIES AT WORK. 

broad acres or the stock from his pastures. The hor 
ticulturist or gardener could add to the decorations 
of Floral Hall or the supplies of the restaurant, the 
antiquarian or curiosity-hunter might give or lend his 
time-honored relics and his wonders to the Museum, 
the skilful workwoman could find space for her 
handicraft in the Bazaar, and the good things of the 
housewife would supply the tables of the Dining 
Hall. 

The ladies of the city ceased to be recognized as 
individuals and existed only as committee- women and 
priestesses of bazaar, floral hall and restaurant. 

The infection of this great charity pervaded every 
parlor and school room, where pretty usefuls in needle 
work, marvels of embroidery, delicate conceits in 
fancy work and airy trifles in crotchet grew rapidly 
under fingers winged with patriotism and humanity. 

The ladies of the refreshment committee were plan 
ning a system of continuous contribution to the dining 
hall, in order to ensure stated supplies of provisions 
for each day of the fair. The city was districted and 
the written pledge of each household taken for the 
kind and quantity which it would furnish upon a 
specified day. Towns upon the lines of railroad cen 
tering in the city were notified of the days when 
boxes of good things should be shipped, and general 
rules were laid down to equalize the supplies sent in 
by railroad and team. Country dainties of pantry, 
dairy and poultry yard were especially levied upon. 
The notable matrons of the Western Reserve were 
besought to deal out to their households sparingly 
and to contribute liberally, till the opening of the, 



THE PROPOSED BUILDING. 149 

great dining hall should give opportunity to their 
husbands, sons and brothers to avenge their wrongs 
by an attack upon its abundant tables. 

The committee on buildings and halls, charged 
with the duty of providing suitable accommodations 
for the fair, had decided at once that no public build 
ing in Cleveland was spacious enough to contain all 
the departments, and that to scatter these through 
the city in different halls would destroy the unity 
and the attractions of the fair and endanger the 
results. 

The success of Sanitary fairs in other cities had 
been limited only by the capacity of the buildings in 
which they were held. The building committee took 
warning from this experience and resolved that no 
want of space should check the progress of the Cleve 
land fair. 

After due deliberation in nightly session, they 
advised the erection in the Public Square of a tem 
porary structure that should give ample room for all 
departments. This situation, from its central position 
and accessibility, was unsurpassed and the building 
was designed to present in itself a peculiar attraction 
of the fair. 

The proposed building covered an area of sixty-four 
thousand square feet and the estimated cost was ten 
thousand dollars. 

No charitable enterprise ever projected in Cleveland 
had afforded gross receipts of more than eight thou 
sand dollars. Great as were the hopes of success in 
the present scheme, few had ventured to hint at more 
than twenty thousand dollars as the possible gross 



150 AN OMINOUS SILENCE. 

results. To appropriate half the imaginary proceeds 
to the one item of a building in which to hold the fair 
was a proposal that could not be accepted without 
some misgivings. But the counsels of the building 
committee prevailed, and time proved that they were 
founded on wisdom. 

As soon as their plans were adopted, an elevation 
of the proposed structure was engraved and used as 
heading for the circulars and stationery employed in 
the business of the fair. Even so small a thing as 
this was not without good results in awakening an 
interest in the preparations. 

Between the issue of circulars and their material 
results there was a period of suspense and anxiety 
that was positively appalling, especially to the secre 
taries, who, in their dismal little office, shut out from 
contact with the enthusiasm that was spreading 
through the city, had been exhausting their wits on 
personal letters, circulars and newspaper appeals. An 
ominous silence seemed to have taken possession of 
their correspondents, broken only by a significant 
line such as one good clergyman wrote, " I was speak 
ing to the farmers of my church about your fair to-day, 
and I find they have been thinking about it." An 
occasional item would creep into the city papers, 
showing that the ladies of a certain township had met 
and laid out their plans. Festivals and concerts were 
heard of, in adjoining towns, for the benefit of bazaar 
committees. Schools and lyceums were turning their 
holiday exercises into exhibitions for swelling the 
receipts. The silence of correspondents was indeed 
ominous, but it boded only good. The people were 
too busy in performance to have time for promises. 



TORMENTING DOUBTS. 151 

Faith, born of experience, forbade the officers of 
the Aid Society to fear that Northern Ohio would fail 
to respond to any call of patriotism or philanthropy. 
But, would these generous givers realize the vastness 
of the requirements ? did they know how much it 
would take to fill the rising structure whose sixty-four 
thousand square feet of extent seemed so boundless a 
storehouse ? 

These tormenting doubts brooded with fateful wing 
over the anxious hearts of those who were vitally in 
terested in the cause, and were only put to flight when 
the opening day saw the great building stocked and 
even crowded, while gifts continued to come up to 
the very close of the fair. 

The secret of this long silence and late response 
was in the fact that as the societies in county seats 
acted as centers of collection, townships and minor 
societies reported to them and not directly to the fair 
association, and thus the offerings of each county were 
brought up as a unit to the fair. This plan, though 
most systematic and efficacious, was embarrassing to 
the managers and especially to the bazaar committee, 
making it impossible for them to judge of the space 
that would be required by any one county. 

When, just before the opening, the representatives 
of societies and counties came in, bringing to the 
bazaar their wealth of contribution, the space as 
signed to many of them was far too small. Some 
could not display half their goods at the opening. 
The delegations from two counties that had reported 
their inability to fill any space in the bazaar, came in 
at the eleventh hour loaded with fancy articles and 



152 SKOW VERSUS CARPENTERS. 

were unavoidably crowded together into one booth 
with very small opportunity for exhibiting their 
treasures. 

The gift of ten thousand feet of lumber from one 
citizen, with the use of his men and teams ; of a large 
quantity of nails and hardware from manufacturers ; 
a generous discount on all purchases, and the volun 
teered services of master builder and many workmen, 
somewhat lessened the estimated cost of the building 
and certainly lightened the hearts of the committee. 

Four weeks before the opening day, the materials 
were on the spot and the energetic building commit 
tee might have been seen on the Public Square, 
pacing off the ground and planting certain significant 
little stakes at sundry corners. These inexplicable 
movements were watched with open-mouthed curiosity 
by a crowd of juveniles and idlers, " and still they 
gazed, and still the wonder grew," when, next morn 
ing, a small army of workmen invaded the Square 
and began to fashion timbers and lay beams upon 
some evidently preconcerted plan. 

A blinding whirl of sleet and snow had half en 
wrapped these mysterious proceedings and soon 
entirely concealed them under a fieecy mantle that 
lay in drifted heaps, while the furiously roaring storm 
held high carnival above the abandoned work. 

For nearly a week the elements conspired against 
committee and carpenters, but at last the sun showed 
his smiling face in a clear wintry sky. 

The commandant of Camp Cleveland detailed a 
company of the sixth Ohio cavalry, who worked 



PLAN OF THE BUILDING. 153 

away cheerily with shovel and snow-plow, exhuming 
buried lumber and searching for lost land-marks. 

The sturdy blows of adze and hammer, wielded by 
many skilful and willing hands, rapidly developed 
the mystery. 

As the great structure rose to view and progressed 
to completion, doubt gave way to faith and interest 
deepened to enthusiasm, in every one who beheld this 
indisputable evidence that the Northern Ohio Sanitary 
Fair was no longer an idea, but a fact. 

The plan adopted was of a group of halls in the 
form of a Greek cross, the center rising in a dome to 
an elevation of sixty-five feet and enclosing the statue 
of Commodore PERRY. 

The central hall was an octagon, seventy-five feet in 
diameter, and was ornamented as a Floral Hall. 

On the west was the Ladies Bazaar, one hundred 
and seventy-six feet long by ninety-three feet wide 
and twenty-five feet high. On the east an Audience 
Room, for evening entertainments, two hundred and 
eight by ninety-three feet and twenty-five feet high. 
This was fitted with a large stage and anterooms and 
with rising seats for two thousand persons. On the 
south, at right angles with audience room and bazaar, 
was the hall for Machinery, Manufactures and Pro 
duce, one hundred and eighty-four feet long by 
fifty-one feet wide arid twenty feet high. On the 
north was the Dining Hall, one hundred and ninety 
feet long, fifty-one feet wide and twenty feet high. 
The right-angle corners where Floral Hall joined the 
other buildings were divided into offices and commit 
tee rooms. Messrs. J. M. BLACKBURN and S. C. BROOKS 



154 DECORATING THE HALLS. 

were the architect and master builder, having offered 
their services in behalf of the fair. 

The Picture Gallery and Museum were opened in 
the Court House, at the northwest corner of the 
Square, where the valuable collection of loaned arti 
cles could be secure from fire. 

The Sanitary fair building, though hastily con 
structed for temporary use and without pretension to 
architectural beauty, was symmetrical in its propor 
tions and well adapted to the purposes of the fair. 

It had been carefully planned for the convenience 
of committees and the pleasure of visitors, and was 
well ventilated, lighted and warmed, and made secure 
against storms. 

There was no attempt to ornament the exterior 
walls, but the ever-beautiful stars and stripes threw 
out their broad folds from its dome and floated above 
every roof peak, while hundreds of smaller flags 
fluttered at angle and archway. 

The tasteful artifices of the decorating committee 
conspired to transform the unhewn rafters and rough 
siding of the spacious halls into graceful flower- 
wreathed arches and gaily bannered walls. This 
was not effected without much cunning contrivance, 
confusion of tongues, hard labor and adventurous 
climbing, crowded into the few days that intervened 
between the completion of the building and the open 
ing of the fair. 

Flags of all sizes were borrowed from far and near 
and many clever devices in tarleton, tissue paper and 
tinsel were employed to embellish the LADIES BAZAAR. 

Of the booths and stalls designed for the display 



EVERGREENS AND BANNERS. 155 

and sale of fancy articles, one half were to be occupied 
by saleswomen in the costume of different nations, 
and the other half by delegates from Branch societies, 
classed in counties, one booth being assigned to each 
county. The costume booths alternated with the 
county booths, down each side of the long bazaar 
hall. 

The young ladies who were to occupy the costume 
booths decorated these with much taste. Many 
representatives of counties came up a few days before 
the opening and worked busily in fitting up the spaces 
assigned to them. A laudable rivalry between the 
proprietors of different booths, and the endeavor to 
excel in elegance and appropriateness of decoration, 
resulted in many exhibitions of remarkable beauty 
and taste. 

Farm wagons and railroad cars came in loaded with 
evergreens for decoration, bearing, too, a more precious 
freight of village youths and maidens who came, at 
the almost despairing call of the over-burdened com 
mittee, to develop the beautiful floral designs. 

Under the deft workmanship of many hands the 
embowering shades and odorous freshness of FLORAL 
HALL rivaled the sylvan beauty of some fairy-haunted 
dell of the " merrie greenwood." 

The DINING HALL was festooned with flags and 
garlands, and hung with portraits of our victorious 
generals. Scores of pretty girls in grisette apron and 
jaunty coiffure were duly marshalled and drilled to 
act as table waiters. Before their preparations were 
fully made, these amateur waitresses had occasion to 
practice their newly acquired art, in serving two re- 



156 LAST PREPARATIONS. 

turned regiments that were feasted in the half finished 
dining hall. 

In MECHANICS HALL the useful predominated over 
the beautiful. A few flags and wreaths were the only 
decorations attempted. The great space was fast fill 
ing up with articles of more or less bulk and value. 
Barrels of produce were rolling in. Anxious exhibi 
tors jostled each other in their eagerness to secure a 
favorable place for their inventions. 

In the ART HALL and MUSEUM, gay with hangings 
of tri-color, another phase of preparation prevailed. 
Easels and standards were being constructed and 
screens arranged to temper and convey the light to 
the paintings that were fast covering the walls. In 
numerable articles of antiquity or curious interest, 
exhumed from the obscurity of private collections, 
already crowded the cases. Great boxes of war relics 
were arriving from the front, unclassified fossils cum 
bered the corners, masses of mineral blockaded the 
passages and hopelessly embarrassed the task of 
organizing this wealth of wonders. 

Tableau committees and dramatic clubs were in 
daily, semi-daily and nightly session ; rallying their 
forces for rehearsal or desperately raiding for cos 
tumes. Two hundred old-fashioned singers, who had 
been summoned from town and country, were tuning 
their voices and reviving the toilettes and the manners 
of other days, in anticipation of an Old Folks 
Concert in the grand AUDIENCE ROOM. 

All the busy activity that for weeks and months 
had been working out the splendid success of the 
enterprise, seemed concentrated in these last days of 



ENTERTAINING THE DELEGATES. 157 

preparation. None but the largest faith could foresee 
that order would ever come out of the Babel of 
tongues and chaos of matter that distracted and over 
whelmed the devoted committee-men and women in 
the last twenty-four hours of indescribable hurry and 
bustle before the curtain rose upon the great fair. 

The committe on reception had canvassed the 
city to provide lodging places for the delegates and 
representatives of Branch societies who were already 
beginning to arrive. No provision more ample was 
made in other cities on similar occasions. Though it 
is impossible to give the number of strangers that 
were entertained, it is safe to say that several thous 
and enjoyed the hospitality of the citizens during 
the progress of the fair. The cordiality with which 
houses were opened and guests welcomed, through 
this busy time, when Cleveland ladies were already 
overburdened with the cares and responsibilities of 
committee-work and daily attendance in various de 
partments, must not be allowed to pass without a 
tribute of grateful recognition. 

The officers of the Aid Society had each spent a 
day or two, in turn, visiting the Cincinnati Sanitary 
fair, which opened in December. By the kindness of 
the Cincinnati committees they learned much of the 
practical details which they afterwards found valuable 
in arranging their own fair. 

The ticket system adopted was based upon the 
experience of the Cincinnati managers, and it proved 
convenient and satisfactory. A single ticket at twen 
ty-five cents gave one admission to either hall. 
Tickets were also sold in packages of five for one 



158 THE TICKET SYSTEM. 

dollar and twenty for three dollars. For the conven- 
ience of persons coming in from the country, these 
tickets were on sale at each way-station of all railroads 
centering in the city. By the generosity of the 
railroad companies, return transportation was given 
to every one who purchased, with his railway ticket 
to Cleveland, one dollar s worth of fair tickets. 

No free admissions were granted to committees, 
delegates or exhibitors. By the payment of one dol 
lar, these were furnished with an " assistant s check," 
which served as a season ticket of admission, and was 
not transferable. These checks were returned to the 
Executive Committee if a delegate left the city before 
the fair closed, and any person who came up to relieve 
the delegate by taking her place in the booth was 
required to purchase her own admission check. 

The dining hall had a distinct ticket system. Din 
ner cost fifty cents, supper or lunch in the restaurant 
twenty-five cents, oysters and crackers thirty cents, 
coffee ten cents, tea five cents. 

Single tickets for evening entertainments were fifty 
cents. No variation was allowed from these prices 
and no season tickets were issued for audience room 
or dining hall. 

All packages consigned to the fair were exempt 
from freight charges over the railroads running into 
Cleveland. Light and valuable packages were carried 
by any of the express companies, without charge. 



CHAPTER IX. 

MONDAY, February 22d, 1864, the anniversary of 
the birthday of WASHINGTON, and henceforth to be 
remembered by Clevelanders as the inaugural day of 
the great SANITARY FAIR, opened inauspiciously with 
clouds and rain. But by nine o clock the sun peered 
through the clouds, the sky cleared, the morning air 
was balmy and spring-like, and nature smiled in hap 
piest mood. 

Above the fair building, around and in which the 
workers still clustered, thickly and busily as bees, 
floated the flag of the Union, and from housetops and 
flagstaffs throughout the city the stars and stripes 
were flung out. The streets were thronged with 
citizens and strangers. The crowd was especially 
great at the ticket offices for the fair, which were 
located at the halls of the great building and in the 
principal music and bookstores. 

It had been announced that the Governor and staff, 
the State Legislature and other invited guests from 
abroad w r ould arrive on the morning train from 
Columbus, and due preparations were made to receive 
and escort them. The various companies of the 29th 
Ohio National Guard mustered in full regalia, and 



1 60 THE OPENING DAY. 

after a brilliant parade marched into the Sanitary 
fair dining hall, where a bounteous dinner had been 
spread for them. 

At two o clock the lines re-formed upon Bank street 
headed by LELAND S band, breathing melodious and 
patriotic strains. Next followed the " 29th," the 
mayor and city council, city officers, Major Generals 
HEINTZELMAN and GARFIELD, the Lieutenant Governor 
and staff, State officers, and the Ohio Legislature. A 
detachment of soldiers closed up the rear. 

The procession swept up Superior street around the 
south side of the Square to the custom house and into 
the Square, entering the audience room of the fair 
building at its east end and appearing upon the plat 
form, whence the Legislature passed to seats in the 
body of the hall. The stage was occupied by many 
distinguished guests and the great hall filled with a 
brilliant assembly. 

At three o clock the audience was called to order 
by Mayor MASTERS and the exercises were opened by 
prayer from the venerable Dr. AIKEN, of the First 
Presbyterian Church. The band then gave " Home 
again," and Lieutenant Governor ANDERSON held the 
audience enchained during a brief address of exquisite 
beauty of word-painting. 

The following dedication ode, prepared for the 
occasion, was sung by a glee club, the audience join 
ing in chorus : 



THE INAUGURAL ODE. 161 

I. 

O ! hallowed the day vvlien our Chieftain was born, 
The Hero, the Patriot, who with form e er commanding, 
Mid the sunshine of peace or in battle s thick storm, 
The Ship of State guided and kept it from stranding. 
For the Flag that waved o er him, the stars and the blue, 
Had been caught down from heaven by brave men and true. 

CHORUS. 

O ! say, does the Star Spangled Banner yet wave 
O er the land of the free and the home of the brave ? 



II. 

Again by the tempest our Country was rocked, 

Till it labored and reeled like a ship in mid ocean, 

Our flag it was taunted, our Union was mocked, 

When up sprang to vengeance, thank God ! a great iiation 

Past the graves of their fathers the serried ranks sweef^ 

And the lanterns of battle swing out o er the deep. 

CHORUS. 

That the Star Spangled Banner in triumph might wave 
O er the land of the free and the home of the brave. 



111. 

! the red fields ot battle, the hospital tent, 

Where our brave ones lie bleeding, or in stranger hands languish 
Up the heights, crowned with glory, we cheered their ascent, 
Who would dare to pass by them when hurled back in anguish ? 
All honor to true hearts who, brave amid tears, 
Follow close on our armies with blessings and prayers. 

CHORUS. 

That the Star Spangled Banner in triumph may wave 
O er the land of the free and the home of the brave. 

IV. 

O ! thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand 
Between their loved homes and the war s desolation. 
Blessed with victory and peace, may the heaven rescued land 
Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation. 
Then conquer we must, for our cause it is just, 
And this be our motto, " In God is our trust." 

CHORUS. 

And the Star Spangled Banner in triumph shall wave 
O er the land of the free and the home of the brave. 



162 CEREMONIES OF THE DAY. 

Mayor MASTERS then introduced General JAMES 
A. GARFIELD, who was received with enthusiastic 
cheers, and who spoke for an hour and a half in 
his own earnest, eloquent and logical manner, fre 
quently interrupted by rounds of applause. 

Speaker HUBBELL was next presented. In a few 
words, spoken on behalf of the Ohio Legislature, he 
expressed an interest in the occasion and an acknowl 
edgment of the courtesies that had been extended. 

The formalities of the day were now over and the 
fair duly inaugurated. The audience dispersed with 
ringing cheers for GARFIELD, the soldier-statesman, for 
the army in the field, and the SANITARY FAIR. 

THE BAZAAK. 

The LADIES BAZAAR was thrown open at 7 o clock 
in the evening and was filled with an eager, admiring 
throng of visitors, to whom the brilliant display 
seemed like one of the bright-hued visions of oriental 
enchantment. 

The roof and its supporting pillars are canopied 
with flags and wreathed with evergreens. Soft dra 
peries of rainbow tint float from arch and column. 
Garlands twine around or alternate with the waving 
tri-color. The light streams down upon rich stuffs 
and costly wares and is flashed back from countless 
mirrors. 

From booth to booth the eye falls upon gay demoi 
selles of France, yellow-haired frauleins of Germany, 
dark-eyed senoritas of Spain, bewitching houris of 
Turkey, Italians graceful signorinas, bonnie lassies of 
Scotland, rosy maidens of England, frank and merry 



THE LADIES BAZAAR. 163 

daughters of Erin, Russian damsels in furs, belles of 
the Celestial empire, America s blooming beauties and 
wide-awake Yankee girls. 

It is difficult to fix the attention upon the details 
that make up this kaleidoscope view, but the scene, 
so bewildering as a whole, will on closer inspection 
reveal new charms. Every booth in the Bazaar is a 
beautiful picture set in a worthy frame and well 
merits a more minute description. 

The visitor, delivering his ticket at the door of the 
Bazaar, is ushered in by the blue-coated police and 
emerges from the vestibule into the grand hall, pass 
ing under the decorated gallery where a band is 
discoursing sweet music. 

First on the right stands the BOOK STALL, where 
periodicals, stationery, bound volumes, engravings and 
photographs are offered. 

ASHLAND and GEAUGA counties unite in a booth 
which occupies the corner beyond. The names of 
these counties are enclosed in an evergreen wreath 
over the front, and on the wall hangs a portrait of 
LINCOLN. Articles of needlework, useful and fanciful, 
are piled upon the tables and suspended from the 
ceiling. Silk patchwork quilting of elaborate fashion, 
woolwork, pin cushions and cobweb knitting tempt 
the purses of buyers. 

The blue and yellow drapery of the Celestials is 
conspicuous in the next booth. Chinese lanterns with 
their grotesque imagery, silken flags and embroidered 
scarfs ornament the walls, and a huge Chinese um 
brella canopies the whole. Large mirrors reflect the 
gay and varying scene. A bevy of little-footed beau- 



164 THE BOOTHS. 

ties in the rich and quaint costume of the flowery 
land, with wondrously conceived pagoda hats edged 
with tinkling bells, dispense tiny cups of fragrant tea 
and offer curious, rare and valuable articles, veritable 
importations from China and Japan. Vases of trans 
parent porcelain, sandalwood boxes and fans that 
perfume the air, portfolios, lacquered ware, ivory 
puzzles, hammocks, delicate cups and saucers that 
would delight the heart of a collector of old china, 
nodding mandarins, pungent scents and spices, chests 
of tea and curious carvings, are piled up wherever 
space can be found. 

The ladies of LORALN county occupy the third booth 
and a large stand directly in front, both of which are 
crowded with a variety of beautiful and useful arti 
cles. With thoughtfulness for the little folks, these 
ladies have for sale dolls houses of every size and 
style, dolls beds, daintily furnished, and toys for 
dolly s young mamma. An exquisitely embroidered 
chair, a fine set of IRVING s works, some rich dressing- 
gowns, curious husk work, and an Oberlin scholarship 
are the most noticeable among the countless treasures 
displayed in this attractive booth. Here hangs the 
magnificent afghan, the central glory of this part of 
the bazaar, which is always surrounded by an admir 
ing crowd. 

The land of song and story, of WALLACE, SCOTT 
and BURNS, is well represented by a group of High 
land lassies in the traditional tartan of their hills, 
looped with the thistle and crowned with the heron s 
plume. The plaid also decorates the walls, and above 
is the national banner, bearing the thistle with its 






THEIR rJECOKATIOXS. 165 

defiant motto, "Nemo me impune l-acessit" On one 
pillar are Scottish shields, and on the other hangs a 
portrait of CAMPBELL of Argyle. This booth is well 
supplied with hair and cone work, papier raache 
trinkets in tartan, fancy needlework and toilet articles. 
A beautiful model of a steam-tug, and a miniature bit 
of winter scenery representing a portion of Niagara 
Falls, and made of minerals from all parts of the 
world, finished with twigs and mosses from the graves 
of the fallen heroes of the Ohio seventh regiment, are 
worthy of special mention among the treasures of the 
SCOTCH booth. 

SUMMIT county occupies the next booth. Lace cur 
tains looped and trimmed with evergreens form a 
graceful decoration, and a basket of crystal work 
depends from the arch above. The side walls are 
hung with mirrors and pictures. The words " SUMMIT 
COUNTY," in gilt letters wreathed with flowers, 
gleam from the rear. On the counters are heaped 
fancy work of every variety, silverware, statuettes, 
dolls and dolls furniture. The stand directly in front 
is also filled by this county, and here the great 
attraction is a splendid stuffed eagle. From his beak 
float ribbons with the name of the county inscribed 
upon them. Here too is a doll s house inside which a 
whole family is arranged, even to the baby in the 
cradle, the dog on the mat, and the parrot in the cage. 

A step and we are in sunny ITALY. A beautiful 
statuette of the " Flower Girl " is the central decora* 
tion of this booth, with " ITALY " worked in evergreen 
under a golden harp. Painting and sculpture are 
typified by pallette and brush and the marbles and 



166 PENNSYLVANIA S SHARE. 

bronzes that are set in every niche. The warblings 
of caged birds symbolize the musical tastes of the 
classic land of song. Here alabaster clocks, statuettes, 
silverware, bronze ornaments, sheet music and musical 
instruments are offered to the purchaser by ladies in 
the picturesque costume of the nation. 

MEADVILLE, with her tributary towns in western 
Pennsylvania, is nobly represented in the bazaar, find 
ing an entire booth scarcely spacious enough for the 
beautiful and valuable contributions. Over this 
booth is a framework of evergreens enclosing the 
words "MEADVILLE, PA." Other frames bear these 
inscriptions : " Home responses to our boys in the 
field," " We labor while we wait," " For our Heroes, 
from the girls they left behind them," "From the 
Keystone and Hearthstone to the Camp," " Belles 
versus re-bels." This booth is very attractive with 
its draperies of lace curtains, crystal hangings, mir 
rors, pictures, profusion of skilful needlework, wax 
flowers, babies garments, gorgeous smoking caps, 
afghans and brioche cushions. An ingenious little 
fortune-telling doll here discloses the secrets of the 
future and takes in the cash of the present. 

In front of the Meadville booth is a stand filled by 
the industry of the Rockport ladies. Much ingenuity 
is shown in some of these articles. There are in the 
ROCKPOKT booth tasteful and curious moss baskets, 
cases of stuffed birds, wax dolls, children s garments 
and embroidered slippers. Here is also a log cottage 
with its chimney of interlacing sticks. The woman 
of the house sits on the doorstep and a man is 
perched on the rail fence with his violin. In one 



THE AMERICAN BOOTtf. 167 

corner of the little yard is a tiny wood pile and the 
lilliputian farmer has evidently done some chopping 
on one of the logs. This little cottage, intended to 
represent a scene in the " Arkansas Traveler," is the 
work of the inmates of the West Pennsylvania Insane 
Ketreat at Dixmont near Pittsburgh, who have sent 
to the fair contributions of fancy articles to the value 
of one hundred and fifty dollars. The tarleton drapery 
of this stand is studded with silver stars. 

The booth midway down this side of the hall is of 
double size and displays the American flag. High 
above the entrance is a golden eagle resting on a 
globe. From his beak stream red, white and blue 
ribbons looped back with rich laces. Upon the wall 
is inscribed in evergreen letters, " AMERICA, stripes 
for her foes, stars for her defenders." In the evening 
a series of gas jets forms the word " Excelsior." 
Below this is a niche in which stands a bust of 
WASHINGTON. The walls are covered with pictures 
illustrative of American history, portraits of her 
heroes, and military trophies and insignia. Crouched 
in one corner under a forest tree is a large deer, 
squirrels and birds are perched on the twigs, Indian 
trappings hang from the branches. 

The Genius of America is personated by the central 
figure of the group of attendants, costumed in the 
red, white and blue, decked with a galaxy of stars, 
and bearing the national insignia. An Indian maiden 
stands near, and with her jetty hair, deerskin robe, 
and barbaric trinkets of beads and tinkling bells, looks 
the dark eyed Pocahontas to the very life. Just 
behind is a matron in the costume of " 76," while the 



168 LAKE COUNTY AND KUSSIA. 

spirit of the present day is symbolized by the semi-mili 
tary cap on the head of a lady robed in army blue, 
with military buttons, chevrons and corps badge. 
Indian curiosities, bouquets, trinkets in nameless 
variety, rich silks, laces, embroidered cloaks and many 
articles of elegant and tasteful workmanship are dis 
played here. 

The decorations of LAKE county booth, which is 
next in order, are peculiarly elaborate and tasteful. 
Interlacing branches form the entrance arch, above 
which is a semi-circle of stars that encloses an eagle 
bearing a banner inscribed with the name of the 

o 

county. From the starry semi-circle is festooned a 
scroll with this motto, " Offerings of a grateful peo 
ple to their brave and suffering defenders." On the 
branches that form the arch are the names of the 
battles in which the soldiers of Lake county have 
borne a part. An Indian club, shield, bow and 
quiver, with mirrors and pictures, make up the orna 
mentation of this booth. A stand in front has also 
been pre-empted by Lake county and both are filled 
with beautiful needlework, designs in cones and 
mosses, models, toys and embroideries. 

Siberian snows, sledges and reindeer, ice palaces - 
all the characteristics of the arctic empire under 
autocratic sway, seem by magical ingenuity to find 
representation in the RUSSIAN booth. 

The incidental decorations are all appropriate. Over 
the front is a young bear, breaking his way through 
snow-laden fir branches. Stag horns and deer heads 
appear in the background, snow birds, minks and an 
arctic owl perch aloft. The booth is tapestried and 



"ERIN GO BKAGH." 1G9 

carpeted with soft and costly skins. Pretty maidens 
in fur-edged garments of the latest Muscovite fashion 
invite the visitor to select from their loaded counters 
anything that will make a Siberian winter comforta 
ble or add to the pleasures of the skating season. 

The ERIE county booth is conspicuous for its motto, 
u We work and pray for our defenders." Lace cur 
tains, flowers and hanging baskets ornament the 
entrance, and beautiful shell, bead, and hair designs, 
cone frames, and usefuls in needlework are heaped 
upon the tables and suspended from the walls. 

IRELAND, the gem of the sea, has a booth well filled 
with fancy wares arranged with much taste. Lace 
draperies are surmounted by a green banner on which 
is the harp of Erin, with the national motto. The 
curtains are trimmed with shamrocks, the dark glossy 
leaves making a pretty effect against the white lace. 
The booth is roofed with evergreen arches and filled 

o 

with mirrors, crucifixes and relics. A picture of 
CHRIST blessing little children hangs here, and the 
motto " Erin go bragh " is worked in shamrock leaves 
upon the inner wall. 

Merry lasses in rich brogue seduce money from the 
pockets of visitors, while Biddy McCoy, in exagger 
ated cap-border, harangues the crowd with native 
eloquence and irresistible wit. 

The ladies of COLUMBIANA county have the next 
booth, which they have fitted up tastefully with 
wreaths and floral designs. The name of the county 
is in gilt letters over the entrance, with the motto 
" Columbiana repudiates her traitor son." The sup 
ply of articles on sale is large, varied and choice. 



170 THE RESTAURANT. 

The stand in front, occupied by the townships of 
SOLON and CHAGRIN FALLS, is gaily festooned with tarle- 
ton and well filled with clever devices of needle, wool, 
and leather work, and useful articles of children s 
wear. Among the noticeable things here is a military 
coat into the lining of which is stitched the inscrip 
tion, " None but the brave will I enfold." 

The visitor has now reached the west end of the 
hall, where the RESTAURANT, gay with its canopy of 
flags, its mirrors, pictures and curtains, and redolent 
of appetizing odors, tempts one to accept the hospi 
talities of the notable housewives who are dispensing 
hot oysters, fragrant coffee, sandwiches, jellies, cakes 
and ices, over the long counter. 

After a refection in this pleasant nook, where smiles 
are served with every dish, one turns to the south 
west corner where MEDINA county has opened a booth 
and filled it with domestic handicraft and fancy de 
signs that heap the tables and load down the branches 
of an evergreen tree that stands in the background. 
A fine steel engraving of HENRY CLAY is the central 
decoration here and other pictures ornament the walls. 

The FRENCH booth is thoroughly characteristic. 
The fluted canopy within is of softest lace and gauze, 
showing the tri-color in the purity of rainbow hues. 
Delicate embroideries and rich cashmeres form the 
hangings everywhere. A portrait of the first NAPO 
LEON overhangs the entrance. Innumerable articles 
of bijouterie adorn the walls. 

Sevres vases and ornaments, glove boxes, handker 
chief cases and toilette nicknacks, perfumeries and 
lingerie are offered by demoiselles in toilettes of 



DAUGHTERS OF MOLLY STARK. 171 

Parisian elegance, coquettish grisette costume or Nor 
mandy peasant dress. 

MAIIOXIXG county booth is designated by a large 
eagle, ingeniously made of dried leaves, which spreads 
its broad wings over the front. Damask curtains form 
a drapery below. Among goods of every variety are 
beautiful afghans and rugs, leaf and cone work, and 
elaborate pen-drawing. One of the ladies in charge 
here appears every evening in genuine Chinese cos 
tume of the present year. 

TURKISH pipes, slippers, vases, pictures, cheroots, 
camel s hair shawls and scarfs are displayed in the 
next booth, which is hung with red and green in 
costly stuffs, glittering with golden crescents. The 
attendants here appear in oriental costume, splendid 
with " barbaric pearls and gold." 

The ladies of STARK county have done nobly in 
contributions. Their booth is tastefully ornamented 
and bears the inscription, " Loyal Daughters of MOLLY 
STARK, enlisted for the war." Fancy work is here in 
endless diversity, and an ample stock of ladies and 
children s wear, besides patriotic pictures and a 
lithograph copy of the Emancipation proclamation. 
The abundance of Stark county has overflowed into 
the prettily decorated stand in front, where dainty 
needlework, woolwork, afghans, skeleton bouquets, 
and many other beautiful things are heaped up in 
bewildering confusion. The Massillon ladies have the 
immediate charge of this stand, its contents being 
mostly of their preparation. They have shrewdly con 
trived to make their contributions do double duty in 
the good cause, for they displayed at home the articles 



172 GERMAN LIBERALITY. 

prepared for the fair and cleared one hundred and 
sixty dollars by the exhibition ! 

The GERMAN booth is one of double size, and the 
taste of the German ladies of Cleveland is displayed 
in every detail. A flag used in the revolution of 48, 
tasseled and faced with gold and intertwined with the 
stars and stripes, a bust of SCHILLER crowned with 
bays, the statuettes of two knights clad in armor, one 
reposing on his shield and the other in the attitude of 
attack, are skilfully arranged in decoration. The 
German motto 

" O, walle liin du Opferbrand 
Hin liber Land und Meer 
Und scliling ein edles Bruder band 
Urn alle Volker her," 

is inscribed upon the inner wall. 

The well-known industry and skill of the Germans 
are shown in the endowment of their booth. They 
have a costly tapestry rug, mats and cushions in ber- 
lin-work, marvels of knitting and crotchet, glittering 
tinsel and bead- work, exquisite paintings on satin and 
velvet, an easy chair of million-stitched embroidery, 
Bohemian glassware, laces, jewelry, quaint china, 
meerschaums and pouches. There are for the little 
folks Christmas trees in full bearing and a curious 
mechanical picture. 

The ladies attending here are all native Germans, 
from the stately " damen " of the court to the high- 
capped peasantry with their wooden shoes and 
knitting work. One gay little fraulein is dressed as 
a dashing young German soldier, in uniform of scarlet 
and gold. 

ASHTABULA county has the next booth, hung with 



SENORITAS AND BUCKEYE GIRLS. 173 

laces and evergreens, above which is a drapery in 
blue, spangled with golden stars and eiiwreathing a 
bust of LINCOLN. " ASHTABULA," in gilt lettering upon 
a rustic arch of hemlock twis;s, flashes in the rear. 

o / 

Several fine engravings adorn the walls, autographs of 
LINCOLN are for sale here, and useful and fancy goods 
of every variety. 

NE \VBURGH township has a stand in front of Ashta- 
bula. This is tastefully decked with gauze and 
garlands and filled to overflow with ingenious devices 
in every material and substantial for household use. 

The orange and red colors of SPAIN prevail in the 
next booth. " Querida Hispania," in letters of gold, 
is the motto here. Two guitars are crossed above the 
entrance, and a warbling canary in a gilded cage is 
suspended beneath them. 

This booth is arranged with much taste and filled 
with characteristic wares, among which are parasols, 
fans, veils, coiffure ornaments, tortoise-shell trinkets, 
cigarettes, and Cuban curiosities. 

Dark eyed senoritas and bewitching peasant girls 
fitly represent this land of enchantment. 

PORTAGE county booth is draped with laces and 
decorated with flags and festooning garlands. Pic 
tures and brackets cover the walls of the interior, and 
everywhere are displayed beautiful specimens of 
handiwork, breakfast shawls of gossamer texture and 
brilliant hues, cone and shell frames, photographs, 
embroidered baskets and innumerable articles of orna 
ment or service. 

The townships of BROOKLYN, ROYALTON, BRIGHTON 
and DOVER unite in the next stand. This is distin- 



174 ENGLAND AND YANKEE LAND. 

guished by a pair of enormous antlers that surmount 
it, and abounds in treasures of industry and skill. 

The royal arms of Great Britain designate the 
ENGLISH booth, which is elaborately draped and gar- 
landed with flowers. A lion peeps out from his covert, 
and the flag of the nation floats proudly over the 
whole. Portraits of VICTORIA and ALBERT, a fox 
hunting scene, a cricket match and other distinctively 
national embellishments are seen within. 

Two ladies attend here costumed as the aristocracy 
and the third is as rosy a country lass as ever tripped 
over the downs. Children s suits handsomely trim 
med, embroidered handkerchiefs, engravings, rich and 
tasteful articles of all kinds make up the valuable 
stock. 

Some modern king ARTHUR has made a genuine 
English pudding, "and stuffed it all with plums." 
This is served hot, at evening, in this booth. 

TRUMBULL county is represented in the next booth, 
and the ladies have crowded every corner and piled 
the tables with things of beauty and utility. " Old 
Trumbull, slow but sure," is the motto, and beneath 
this are hangings of tinted gauze, festooned and 
trimmed with evergreens. Scarfs, sontags, children s 
clothing, shawls, canvas embroidery and fancy knit 
ting are to be found here. 

A constant crowd, shouts of laughter and the high- 
pitched nasal twang of the genuine " down-easter " 
are unmistakable guides to the YANKEE booth, which 
in essence and spirit is Yankee land itself in carica 
ture. 

An eagle, the national flag and Union Jack and an 



THE POST OFFICE. 175 

arch of colored globes, form the entrance to this New 
England kitchen. Here the hospitable mistress, with 
scant gown, high comb, and huge feather fan, bustles 
about, sets a straight-backed wooden chair for her 
customer, dispenses doughnuts, cider, chewing gum, 
patent liniment and a host of notions, drives a shrewd 
bargain, launches a sharp joke, and gives her orders 
to the pert " gals " who assist her. 

HOLMES county and the ST. CLAIR ROAD SOCIETY 
share together a booth in the southeast corner of the 
hall. " HOLMES " encircled with evergreens designates 
this booth, which is draped in the national colors. A 
little goddess of liberty, in full regalia, stands on the 
counter. Quilting and piecework, frames of moss, 
cone and leather, knitted usefuls and pretty oddities 
fill up the tables here. 

Now, the sound of a post horn announces that " the 
mail is in," and the crowd surges towards the POST 
OFFICE. Every applicant is sure of a letter by bal 
loon mail from any part of the world, without a 
moment s detention. The rates of postage may be 
high, but the news is always good and so fresh that 
the wafer has scarcely dried above it. St. VALENTINE 
has kindly consented to postpone his anniversary, for 
this occasion only, and has thrown his entire business 
into the hands of the obliging clerks whose bright 
eyes peep out from the curtained apertures of the 
Sanitary Fair post office. Business letters, marked 
" official," " immediate," and " important," are handed 
out with great despatch. That open sheet, which its 
possessor has just read with so much delight, contains 
good news from the agent of his Spanish estates. 



176 THE NEWSPAPER. 

This one gives notice of the fortunate completion of 
his castles in the air. A third bears the tidings of a 
legacy left by an orange-colored uncle in the East 
Indies. Here, a brave soldier is astonished by receiv 
ing orders to report immediately to the War Depart 
ment to take command of the army of the Potomac ; 
and there, a citizen of doubtful political complexion 
is confounded with a voluminous document of greeting 
from his friends over the line and a commission as 
Major General in the rebel army ! 

Photographs, postage stamps and autographs are on 
sale here, and a pretty juvenile book, called " Main- 
ma s talks with Charlie," which is dedicated to the 
fair and published expressly for it. 

Having made the tour of the booths that are ranged 
around the bazaar hall, one turns to look down the 
center, where a large platform stand is occupied as 
the office of the SANITARY FAIR GAZETTE. Here the 
matter for that spicy little sheet is set up and 
printed. One corner is the " sanctum " Avhere two 
young ladies are scissoring and scribbling with edi 
torial dignity, taking instantaneous pen-and-ink views 
of the panorama below, and eagerly accepting the 
communications of contributors. 

At their elbow a compositor is putting these hasty 
notes into type, and in the other corner of this tiny 
establishment a two-power press is throwing off the 
semi-daily issue, which is folded and sold through the 
halls by a corps of little girls, enrolled and badged 
as carriers. 

Telegraph wires link the Gazette office with Floral 
Hall and the Museum, and lively messages are con- 



A FORMIDABLE BATTERY. 177 

stantly flying over them. Communication has been 
established, too, with the associated press. The latest 
war despatches are to be found in the columns of this 
little paper, and this gives it ready sale. 

Evidently, the amateur editors of the Gazette are 
prepared to defend or enforce their opinions, for an 
array of gleaming artillery shows its inch-scale pro 
portions over the parapet of the little office. This 
formidable battery consists of four miniature guns 
from the celebrated Fort Pitt works, models of the 
monster fifteen and twenty inch Dahlgren and Kod- 
man guns. 

Under the shadow of these guns sits an armless 
soldier, soliciting from passers the money to buy arti 
ficial arms. An enthusiastic woman has established 
her desk near and is obtaining names to a loyal league 
association. 

In the rear of the Gazette office and quite in the 
center of the hall, four cashiers are enthroned under 
a starry canopy. Their practised fingers are scarcely 
nimble enough to answer the demands for " change " 
and " cash " that come in from every quarter. Over 
their desk hangs a large nugget of California gold, 
suspended by a chain carved by a miner from a 
solid piece of wood. Near by is a little stand dis 
playing the American and English colors and fancifully 
decked with balls of colored glass. On the supporting 
columns, snow-owls and wood duck are perched. An 
aquarium filled with fish and two cases of stuffed 
birds stand in front. Within, a glass blower is work 
ing his enchantments, creating beautiful and endlessly 
varied figures that are sold to the delighted spectators. 



178 THE BOWER OF KEST. 

Glass is spun fine as a hair, tied into skeins and sold. 
Microscopes and lenses are to be found here. 

In a hollow square formed by four tables covered 
with an attractive display of sweet things and brightly 
decorated, a group of young misses have opened a 
candy store to the great temptation of the little folks. 

A circular pavilion fitted up with sofas, easy chairs 
and piano, is called the " bower of rest." Here the 
tired visitor may secure half an hour s sitting, with a 
sightly outlook upon the whole scene. The young 
ladies in charge here are pleasant and cordial hostesses. 

Pianos, melodeons, sewing machines and a sideboard 
are gathered into this part of the room, and later in 
the progress of the fair the bower of rest is perverted 
from its hospitable uses and filled by a billiard table 
too large to find room elsewhere. 

Every available space upon the columns is occupied 
by fancy clocks, pictures and brackets, for which no 
place could be found in the booths. One column is 
devoted to a collection of battlefield memorials of the 
unknown dead, photographs, trinkets and letters, 
placed here with the hope of identification by some 
friend. 

A little stand near the exit door, in which sits a 
policeman who takes charge of lost articles, is the 
only one that remains to be noticed. 

Two rooms on either side of the entrance are de 
voted to the use of committees. That on the right is 
the office of the Executive Committee, the registra 
tion committee and the secretaries, and is general 
business headquarters. 

Above the grim surroundings of this busy corner 



THE " CRAZY BEDQUILT." 179 

hangs the " crazy bedquilt," a grotesque piece of news 
paper patchwork, which is sold by lot every day, with 
the express condition that the unlucky possessor is 
not obliged to keep it, but will be allowed to present 
it to the fair. A considerable sum of money and a 
great deal of fun are realized by this transaction 
which takes place every noon just as the clock strikes 
twelve. 

The room on the left is given up to the ladies of 
the fancy-work committees who receive here all arti 
cles contributed to the bazaar, and appraise and ticket 
them before distributing them upon the tables of the 
booths. 

Two store rooms are in the rear of the committee 
rooms. 



CHAPTER X. 

FLORAL HALL. 

THE crowning beauty of the fair and the feature 
that will be longest remembered by the visitor is 
the FLORAL HALL. 

Here, well skilled art, taking its text from nature, 
has created bowers fit for the garden of a king ; 
grottoes that might have been fairy homes ; waterfalls, 
rocky hillsides and tangled copses that vie with na 
ture itself. 

The hall is an octagon, seventy-five feet in diameter, 
standing in the center of the Square. The rotunda 
rises sixty-five feet, enclosing the statue of Commo 
dore PERKY, a central object, to which all parts of the 
general design are subordinate. 

High above, a fluted canopy of the American colors 
breaks the effect of the evergreen-thatched walls, and 
the light from the dome throws forest shadows across 
winding paths and mossy banks. 

Rising around the pedestal of the statue are designs 
which merit a detailed description. 

That on the south is a natural hillside of the 
Alleghanies, rocky and precipitous, with rhododen 
drons, cedars, kalmias, sumach and other wild moun 
tain growth, struggling out between huge boulders. 



FLORAL HALL. 181 

On the north side is a deep grotto of lichen covered 
rocks, old tree trunks and fungi, and carpeted with 
spongy rnoss. Within the grotto is a marble figure, 
illuminated by a concealed light from above. 

The west side represents a forest nook, a wild tan 
gle of ferns, roots and weeds. From the rocky summit 
a cascade shoots down over the spreading roots of a 
fallen tree. A lonely bittern is perched on the old 
stump. Further down, the stream widens into a 
sedgy pool and on its slimy edge an alligator expands 
his bristling jaws. 

On the east face of the mound is a master-piece of 
patience, taste and skill. The design is of a scene on 
the upper Khine, and the elaborate details will bear 
the closest scrutiny while the general effect is perfect, 

A picturesque castle crowns the summit of precip 
itous rocks. Tower and donjon are boldly presented 
above the highest pinnacle. Down the steep moun 
tain winds the road communicating with the estates 
below. A cascade leaps forth from the rocks and 
turns the wheel of a mill that is grinding the wheat 
for the baron and his vassals. Lower down is a cot 
tage full of busy life. Here is a beautiful rural scene. 
Children, peasants, a cow, pet lambs, dogs and poultry 
are grouped in the little farm-yard. Cattle and goats 
are browsing on the hillsides, a shepherd tends his 
flock on the plateau. At the base is a pond, its banks 
overgrown with ferns and water plants. A fountain 
in the center sends up a grateful stream. An angler 
on a point of rock just below is struggling to land 
his fish. On the mountain road are tiny figures of 
peasantry going to and from the castle, the farmer s 



182 ARBORS AND COTTAGES. 

boy on his patient donkey, the miller s cart loaded 
with sacks of grain, the laborer carrying home his 
grist, peasant girls gracefully balancing their heavy 
burdens. 

The rotunda is supported by eight pillars covered 
with laurel and hemlock to simulate forest trees. 
Evergreen arches extend from pillar to pillar and fes 
toons of rare flowers hang from every arch. Rustic 
vases and statuettes peep out from niches in the leaf- 
covered walls, birds nests are cunningly hidden in the 
branches, rabbits and wood-mice burrow in the mossy 
hummocks. 

In the corners of the hall, outside the circle of 
columns, are arbors and cottages of rustic work. 

The first on the right, as one enters the hall from 
the south, is a picturesque structure of logs and rough 
bark in three compartments. One is occupied as an 
office for the sale of fruit trees, plants, shrubs and 
vines, on commission from the city nurseries. The 
middle division is a fruit store where apples, grapes, 
nuts, canned fruits, cordials and native wines are sold 
by a bevy of young ladies. The third room of this 
little building contains a telegraph station whence 
messages are sent to the other halls or to any part of 
the country, the wires being in connection with the 
general Telegraph office. Here, also, is a stand for 
the sale of books on farming or horticulture and 
for subscriptions to agricultural magazines and news 
papers. 

In the northeast corner is a beautiful summer-house 
consisting of sections of two octagonal buildings con 
nected by an ornamental trellis. The whole is of 



THE WIGWAM. 183 

open rustic work, wreathed with ivy and trailing 
plants and covered by a latticed vine-shaded roof. 

The right wing of this bower is devoted to the sale 
of cone work. Elegant specimens in every variety 
decorate the front and hang in profusion within. The 
central part is in charge of flower girls in costume, 
who offer blooming plants, wax flowers and exquisite 
bouquets. The left wing is roofed with fragrant pine 
and hemlock boughs and filled with rustic brackets, 
vases, frames and carvings. The attendants here are 
in the fanciful dress of Swiss peasants. 

A pyramid of flowering plants separates this bower 
from the structure that occupies the center of the 
north side. This structure was designed for a gothic 
cottage, the general outline being in that style. It 
has, however, been forcibly seized by a tribe of 
Indians who have converted it into a wigwam, put 
their big bark canoe away for the winter on the 
thatched roof, hung up their snow-shoes and bows 
and arrows over the door, placed a great grey owl, 
a white coon and a huge pair of antlers on the 
gable peak, as trophies of the chase, huDg up the 
skins, taken in many a hunt, in the interior of the 
wigwam, and folded a couple of birch-bark tents 
away in a corner. 

The " big Injun " has buried the hatchet and sits 
in the doorway, in all the glory of wampum and 
feathers, smoking a peaceful pipe. The squaws and 
dark eyed maidens who dwell in the tent of this 

mighty redskin, resplendent in all the trinketry of 
beads and quill embroidery, are silently plying their 
arts or in pantomime offering for sale their moccasins, 
fans, bead work and mococks. 



184 THE "WAYSIDE INN. 

Another stand of flowers intervenes between the 
wigwam and a rustic pagoda covered with thatch and 
trellised. 

The right wing of this building is an ice cream 
stand assiduously tended day and evening by ladies 
who find ready sale for the dainties they spread. The 
other wing is charmingly fitted up as a tea garden, 
where quaint old china is filled with tea or coffee for 
the refreshment of the weary visitor. The obliging 
mistress of this little nook has tea by the chest or 
pound, Chinese fans, trinkets and puzzles, to tempt 
the passers. 

The main portion of this building, connecting the 
two wings, is a vine- wreathed verandah enclosed by a 
rustic paling whose wicket gate stands hospitably 
open. Over the porch swings the sign, " Wayside 
Inn." The sweet notes of a music-box, choice engrav 
ings, capacious garden chairs and the smiles of fair 
hostesses invite entrance here, to rest awhile, served 
with refreshments from the ice cream booth or the 
tea garden on either side, which connect by lattices 
with this little hostelry. 

In the southwest corner, near the exit door, is a 
modest cottage. Its time-stained roof is covered with 
moss, and creeping plants climb over the gnarled 
trunks that support its overhanging porch. Here 
some artificial-flower makers seem to have fixed their 
humble abode, and the bouquets and wreaths they 
sell almost rival nature s floral beauties. 

Two wild eyed gipsies are inviting passers to cross 
their swarthy hands with silver and learn the mys 
teries of fate. By the shouts of laughter that issue 



RUSTIC WOKK. 185 

from their tent in the edge of the forest yonder, it 
may be inferred that the star of happy fortune directs 
their prophesies. 

Between the entrance and exit doors is an aviary. 
Sweet- voiced canaries fill the air with song, a mocking 
bird pipes his shrill notes, and stuffed birds of bright 
plumage are perched upon the shrubbery. 

In front is an enclosure where stuffed beasts are 
grouped in a copse of forest underwood, with marble 
figures, beautiful flowers, grottoes and a plashing foun 
tain. This little spot is called the Garden of Eden. 

On each side of the paths that run their winding 
course through the hall are fancy stands, garden 
chairs, flowering plants, jets, and countless designs in 
rustic work. 

A moss-grown stump forming a pedestal for the sup 
port of a globe of gold fish, a flower stand curiously 
inlaid with pebbles and shells, a tree trunk and its 
branches fashioned into a garden ornament and bear 
ing a number of hanging baskets, a cottage of pebbles 
and another of moss, a fountain falling into a marble 
basin, a cottage contrived from ears of corn, a gothic 
church built of pebbles and glass, a curious figure of 
an officer on horseback, wholly constructed from moss 
and lichens, a model farm house furnished throughout, 
a forest stump glossy with mistletoe, a Christmas 
tree well laden, an azalia tree with three thousand 
blossoms, a temple of beauty, and a model for a 
monument to the defenders of the Union, are a few 
of these. 

Floral Hall is heated to the temperature of summer 
by steam furnaces concealed beneath the floor. The 



186 MECHANICS HALL. 

warm moist atmosphere adds to the illusion under 
which one wanders through this wilderness of forest 
and fountain. 

All the halls of the fair open at 10 A. M. and close 
at 10 P. M. Four nights in each week a dance is 
announced in Floral Hall immediately after the for 
mal closing. An extra admission of one dollar a 
couple is charged to the dancers. The green in front 
of the Wayside Inn gives space for twenty quadrille 
sets. The novelty of dancing in this fairy dell and 
the fancy costumes of many of the dancers complete 
the enchantment of the scene. 

MECHANICS HALL. 

MECHANICS HALL is now well filled with machinery, 
merchandise and produce. From such a variety of 
contributions it is impossible to single out those most 
worthy of record. The stove manufacturers and 
dealers have almost blockaded passage by their nu 
merous patents in parlor and cook stoves, which are 
ticketed with a list of wonderful achievements per 
formed with fabulous economy of fuel. All are 
warranted " to save half the wood," and some will 
save the whole by burning coal ! A row of patent 
spring-beds, looking like an array of gigantic steel 
traps, leads through a forest of hay-forks, cradliog- 
scythes, step-ladders, hoes and axe handles. 

One emerges from these into a labyrinth of monster 
machines for field and farm house. Hay elevators, 
reapers and mowers, plows, fanning mills, corn plant 
ers, cultivators, clover hullers, cider presses, straw 
cutters, seed drills and self-opening gates succeed to 



ITS CONTRIBUTIONS. 187 

cheese vats, churns, water drawers, clothes wringers, 
patent drying horses and grinding mills. Sewing 
machines, chairs, lounges and other cabinet ware, 
melodeons, pianos and a billiard table, properly 
classed in this hall, have been removed to the Bazaar 
as a more appropriate place of exhibition. 

Cutters, wagons, harness, bridles, saddles, platform 
scales, sheets of boiler plate, steel bars, all sorts of 
stoneware, coal oil lamps, casks of glassware, grind 
stones, willow cabs, wheelbarrows, patent wheel 
chairs, patent wagon gear, patent oil barrels, a brass 
oil pump, a steamboat gong of beautiful finish, a set 
of blank books, marble mantle and grate, rolls of oil 
cloth and bales of oakum catch the eye in a hasty 
survey of the long room. 

Each article is ticketed with the business card of 
the donor, and exhibitors are here to press the merits 
of their inventions. 

In the center of the hall a little steam engine is 
puffing out its hot breath in an honest endeavor to 
supply motive power to nail-making, shoe-pegging and 
knitting machines that are working busily away for 
the amusement of bystanders and giving the product 
of their labor to swell the receipts of the fair. 

Near by is a model of a patent reversible oscilla 
ting engine, so tiny that a man may cover it with his 
hat, yet so plucky as to try a brisk race with the 
larger engine. 

Two sleek setter dogs, coupled together, are tugging 
at their chain, in ineffectual leaps toward some fancy 
fowls that are uncomfortably cooped up, a pig pokes 
his nose through the bars of a little enclosure, a 



188 REFRESHMENT HALL. 

grey wolf looks greedily from his kennel at some 
sheep that are panting in their narrow pen. Two 
horses stand at the rear door, ticketed to attract pur 
chasers. 

Groceries in packages, cheeses, jars and kegs of 
butter and eggs, firkins of apple-butter, poultry, hams, 
sacks and barrels of flour, grain, apples and vegetables 
are heaped up in the rear end of the hall, which is the 
province of the produce committee. 

Here, at the open door, a grocery and produce shop 
has been established and trade is invited from the 
crowd outside. Poultry and dairy stores are sent to 
replenish the supplies of the dining hall, if need 
arises there, and the unsold barrels of vegetables are 
despatched to the Aid Rooms and from thence, with 
other Sanitary stores, to the army. 

Loads of wood are sold at auction every day from 
the rear door, and the pledges of coal dealers, for 
delivery of coal from the mines in the coming fall. 

REFRESHMENT HALL. 

The stentorian announcement of " dinner," enforced 
by the deafening uproar of a gong, draws a crowd of 
hungry sight-seers towards the Drama HALL. 

When the great double doors are thrown open, 
they disclose a wreathed and bannered room, long and 
spacious. Two tables run the entire length of the 
hall and shorter ones are ranged on either side at 
right angles with the wall. All are bouquet-bedecked, 
spread with glittering neatness, and furnished in 
abundance with the best that town and country can 
supply. 



GOOD CHEER. 189 

The presiding genii, grouped near the entrance, 
smile a cordial welcome and consign each guest to the 
assiduous care of some one of the host of pretty girls 
who, in tidy chintz, with coquettish apron, bewitch 
ing cap, and symbolic waiter and napkin, are flitting, 
nimble-footed, through the hall. 

Comfortably seated at one of the tables, which is 
numbered to correspond with the figures stamped 
upon the badge of the attendant Hebe, there ensues 
a feast of fat things that abides with savory memory 
even unto this day. 

No niggardly restaurant meal is this, with infinitesi 
mal dishes placed and removed in clatter and confusion 
by waiters whose tardy steps are winged only by a 
fee. It is a generously appointed board, where one 
may linger long, served with a grace that would con 
vert a life-long ascetic to the pleasures of the table. 

The ambition of each attendant for the supply of 
her table often tempts an audacious raid into the store 
room, or a sly poaching upon a neighbor s domain for 
the coveted chicken pie which is a popular and leading 
dish in the Sanitary fair dining room. The gallant 
skirmishing that follows no doubt sharpens the relish 
for these stolen fruits and adds not a little to the 
amusement of those who profit thereby. 

Everybody dines here, for Cleveland housekeepers 
would deem it treason to the good cause to spread any 
rival attractions at home. 

All the guests are enthusiastic over the good cheer 
and every body leaves the dining hall on the best of 
terms with himself and all the world, first buying his 
post-prandial cigar of the Turkish beauty who sits 
near the exit door. 



100 MYSTERIOUS PRECINCTS. 

Fur be it from the purposes of thin report to net an 
intrusive foot within the kitchens beyond, where hot 
and worried committee women give orders arid counter 
orders to a throng of cooks and scullions, enveloped in 
the Htearn of seething, boiling and endless dislnvashing ; 
or into the, store rooms and larder, where other digni 
taries, in their role of caterers to this great eating 
house, measure out the provisions and weigh the 
probabilities of to-morrow s demand. 

If anxieties arose in these mysterious precincts they 
were bravely wrestled with and cast out. It is enough 
to say, in praise of the generosity of donors and the 
efficiency of managers, that during the sixteen days 
continuance of the fair one thousand persons were 
entertained here daily, without sensible depletion of 
the plethora of good things. 

Dinner was served from 12 o clock till 2 P.M., 
tea from 6 o clock till 7^ and supper at the close of 
the evening entertainments, and all at a charge that 
ran in dangerous competition with modern hotel prices. 

FINE ART HALL. 

Leaving the varied attractions of the fair building 
and passing to the Court House at the northwest 
corner of the park, a new pleasure awaits the visitor. 

Jud^e, jury and counsel have resigned their seats at 
the demand of philanthropy. The great Court room 
has been converted into a gallery where the art 
treasures collected by the wealth and taste of citizens, 
or brought from the artist s studio, are exhibited for 
the benefit of the fair. The number of paintings is 
small, about one hundred and fifty, but the selec- 



FINE ART HALL. 101 

tion has been careful un<l some of the best modern 
artists are represented here. 

The eopies from old musters are ;i line Aurora, the 
Transfiguration, the Nativity, the Madonna (Contem 
plating the crown of thorns, Judith and Ilolofernes, 
and a head of St. Paid. Among the best of the, 
originals are a portrait of Mary Queen of Scots by 
Holbein, a Magdalen by (Juercino, a fine head of King 
Lear, Autumn on the White Mountains by Win. Hart, 
a New England scene by James Hart, two of I card s 
studies of animals, a poultry yard by Lemrncns, M\L r 
not s sunset on the White Mountains, a head by Kauf 
man, a drinking scene by Teniers, a bit of sandy beach 
by Brown, a storm on the moor and landscape, and 
cattle by Van Stalkenberg, a scene on the Kanawha 
and the hunter s lunch by Soritag, a landscape by 
Paul Weber, Swiss mountain scenery by Mil Her, 
De Berg s Giant of the Alps, a Dutch interior by 
Manzoni, Washington and Lafayette at Mount Verrion 
by Rossiter and Mignot, several landscape and cattle, 
pieces by Weir, some bold scenery in Oregon and New 
Mexico by Wyant, a number of landscapes by dough, 
several winter views of merit, still life studies, the, 
Courtship of Miles Standish, two figure pieces by Lily 
Spencer, two striking water colors by Hamilton, and 
a gem of finished painting called the "Nameless Rill." 

A cast of Canova s Ecce Homo, a number of fine 
bronzes, busts of statesmen, medallion heads and 
figures skilfully arranged on black velvet, a collect ion 
of Rogers statuette groups, and some choice engravings 
add to the attractions of the room. Many pictures in 
water colors, oil and pencil, contributed by amateur- or 



192 THE MUSEUM. 

professed artists, were sold by auction at the close of 
the fair and the proceeds placed to the credit of the 
the Art Gallery. 

MUSEUM. 

Four rooms adjoining Fine Art Hall are filled with 
curiosities, relics and trophies, composing the MUSEUM. 
Here, to prevent a confused passing and repassing in 
the narrow ways between cabinets of heaped-up 
wonders, a labyrinthine walk has been contrived, 
forming a continuous circuit from entrance to exit. 

The guiding hand-rail is twined with tri-color and 
all the decorations of the rooms are appropriate arid 
effective. Ladies and gentlemen of the committee are 
here to point out or explain the curiosities and to 
superintend the sale of such as have been given to 
the fair. 

The first room contains minerals, ores and the 
wonders of geology, zoology and ornithology. Insects 
from foreign lands, rare, curious, repulsive or beautiful, 
are impaled here in great numbers. This collection is 
thought to be unusually good. 

Relics of the pre-historic inhabitants of the State are 
seen, stone axes, mauls, skids, and pieces of wood 
marked with axes wielded fifteen centuries ago. 

The collection of weapons and missiles is large, 
from the cruel implements of savage destruction to 
the latest inventions of modern warfare. Guns from 
Austria, Russia, Germany, Spain and England are 
among these, and there are many relics and trophies 
of the Revolution, the war of 1812, the Mexican war 
and the great rebellion. There is a fine collection of 



ITS TREASURES. 193 

specimens of all the arms ever used in the wars of 
America down to the present time. 

Almost every battle-field of this war is represented 
by guns that did loyal service or were dishonored by 
rebel hands, while the flags they defended and the 
flags they captured hang their scarred and tattered 
folds above them. There are all varieties of shells and 
balls, canister, solid and spherical case-shot. Here is 
a pistol that PUTNAM pulled at the red coats in the 
gallant days of 76, pistols taken at Bunker Hill, at 
the Kedan ? at Lookout and Shiloh. 

Side by side with trophies of later wars are memen 
toes of our earliest national history, swords of the 
revolution, and more graceful heirlooms in the shape 
of colonial documents and worm eaten title deeds, 
bearing the signatures of great and noble names. 

Countless autographs of men brave, wise and good, 
in every degree of illegibility, one thousand rare 
coins of every date and nation, Chinese curiosities 
and pictures, collections from the Holy Land, speci 
mens of ancient Jewish caligraphy, Sandwich Island 
calabash, mats, and catamaran boats, old English 
manuscript, exquisitely beautiful Roman mosiac-work, 
bright colored blankets from New Mexico, broken 
stocks and fetters from a Charleston slave pen, a 
palmetto tree from Hilton Head, relics from the May 
flower, the original ordinance of secession of Louisiana, 
a walrus-skin coat from Siberia, a wedding dress one 
hundred years old, South Sea Island war clubs, rail 
road torpedoes from rebeldom, a mummy shawl, Arab 
and Nubian costume, carvings from chamois horn, 
ancient Venetian vases, and Theban idols, in this 



194 MEMORIALS. 

thesaurus of things rare, curious and antique, these 
are only a few of the most striking. Two fine stereo 
scopes, Avell supplied with choice views, have been 
fitted up here for the entertainment of visitors. 

The fourth room of the MUSEUM is filled with arti 
cles that have been given to the fair an^ are to be 
sold for its benefit. Among these are photographs and 
autographs of leading generals, and a large variety of 
shell ornaments, skilfully cut, brooches, necklaces, 
rings and pins, elaborately carved pipes, curious frames 
and many trinkets, the work of the soldier s leisure 
hours in camp, willingly offered to the Sanitary fair. 
Ruder in execution are the memorials of prison life, 
carvings of wood and bone, done to charm away hun 
ger and heartache. 

Sadder relics still are the trinkets gathered from 
the unknown dead of many a battle-field. The most 
of these were collected by a detail of soldiers, who, 
about a month before the fair opened, visited the fields 
of Chickamauga, Lookout, Ringgold and Mission 
Ridge to cover the yet unburied bodies of the Union 
dead. From all upon whom any scrap of paper, en 
velope, picture, trinket or name could be found, these 
were taken, constituting a collection of aboiit one 
hundred articles. These memorials have been sent to 
the fair for possible identification. Lists of these are 
published daily in the Gazette. A number of them 
have been delivered to friends, their only souvenir of 
the lost. 

Towards the close of the fair, daily auctions were 
held of the museum property not disposed of by pri 
vate sale. 



CHAPTER XL 

EVENING ENTERTAINMENTS. 

APART from the attractions of the fair proper were 
evening entertainments of interesting and varied char 
acter, given in the Audience Room and at the Academy 
of Music. 

These opened with tableaux vivants and music, so 
enthusiastically received and so well meriting favor 
that again and again, on succeeding evenings, a repeti 
tion was demanded. No entertainments ever offered 
in Cleveland were more deservedly popular and none 
contributed so largely, with so insignificant outlay, to 
the pecuniary success of the fair. The obliging readi 
ness of tableaux committees and musical artistes and 
amateurs to prepare at short notice these charming 
exhibitions on several occasions when other announced 
amusements accidentally failed, merits grateful record 
here. 

Such representations as " Franklin at the court of 
France, 1 the - Artist s Studio," the " Picture Gallery," 
the " Vision of Queen Catharine," the six scene pan 
tomime of the " Mistletoe Bough," and some of the 
patriotic tableaux shown on these occasions will 
remain in memory a joy forever. 

1 95 



196 CONTINENTAL TEA-PARTY. 

A unique and admirable entertainment was pro 
jected by ladies and gentlemen of Painesville and 
furnished and carried out exclusively by themselves. 

This was a Continental tea-party in the costume 
and style of 1776. The following is the card of invi 
tation that was issued : 

George Washington and lady, 

Mary the mother of Washington, 

General Putnam and lady, 

General Stark and lady, 

General Greene and lady, 

General Warren and lady, 

General Knox and lady, 

General Marion and lady, 

Marquis de Lafayette, 

James Madison and lady, 

Thomas Jefferson and lady, 

John Hancock and lady, 

John Jay and lady, 

Robert Morris and lady, 

Alexander Hamilton and lady, 

Young ladies, belles of 1776, 

Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin Franklin, 

Quaker family, descendants of Wm. Penn, 

Indians, 

Van Horn and Shipping families, 

Will be pleased to see their friends to tea from 9 to 10 P. M., in the 
Audience Room of the Sanitary Fair building. Gentlemen ushers and 
colored servants in attendance. 
Friday, February 26th. 

The only drawback to the enjoyment of this even- 
ing was a lack of space in the great Audience Room. 
So vast was the crowd of guests that not one half 
could partake of the bountiful refreshments or shake 
hands with or even see the hosts and hostesses who so 
admirably represented, in dress and demeanor, the fair 
women and brave men of the revolution. 

The tea tables of the Continentals were arranged 



MANNERS OF THE OLD SCHOOL. 197 

in the center of the hall and set with the taste and 
precision of the olden time. The delicate china and 
massive silverware upon them were treasured heir 
looms that had come down as precious family relics 
from generation to generation. The pewter platters 
on the hospitable board of the Yankee Shipping 
family bore the date 1721 on their broad rim. 

The most interesting of the relics were upon the 
table of General and Mrs. Washington. In the center 
stood an enormous punch bowl, rich and quaint, from 
which Washington once drank, and beside it were 
two tall candlesticks used by Lafayette on the occa 
sion of a visit in Hartford. A chair placed at this 
table was one in which Washington, Lafayette, Tal 
leyrand and Count Eochambeau had sat, and over 
which Dr. Bellamy had often prayed. 

Beautiful tableaux were presented at intervals, as 
tea was being served and gossiped over. After the 
tea drinking was done the Continentals passed across 
the stage and were formally presented to their guests. 
They also made the tour of the hall so far as the 
crowd would permit, and omitted nothing that would 
gratify their guests and make the entertainment ge 
nial and hospitable. 

Their rich costumes, dignified carriage and careful 
personation of look and manner pictured with the 
vividness of reality the true ladies and gentlemen of 
the old school, the distinguished men and women of 76. 
Nothing w r as caricatured. The Quakers, the Indians, 
the Van Horn and Shipping families and even the 
ushers and colored servants were truthful representa 
tives of the persons, tastes, dresses, customs and 
humors of the early days of the Republic. 



19.s OLD FOLKS CONCERT. 

On Monday of the second week, the Amateur 
Dramatic club gave their first performance, the 
"Honeymoon,"- -with great success, following this 
with a repetition of the " Mistletoe Bough," which 
had been already twice received with unusual favor. 
This was given in the Academy of Music where the 
actors could have the benefit of stage scenery. 

The next evening an Old Folks Concert was given 
in the Audience Room. The spacious stage was occu 
pied by two hundred singers, representing the best 
vocal talent of Ohio, and dressed in the quaint style 
of the olden time. The music was the good old fash 
ioned melody that delighted our grandfathers and 
grandmothers in their younger days, and was well 
rendered by this great choir with orchestral accom 
paniment. Every piece on the long programme was 
loudly applauded and several were called for again 
and again. The grandest of the whole was " Corona 
tion," in which the audience took part. The concert 
closed with the " Doxology in long metre," in which 
the assembly rose and joined. 

This concert gave delight to both young and old, 
to the young as they looked upon ancestral dresses 
and listened to ancestral symphonies, especially to 
the old as they looked back, by the light of this new 
reminder, to the days of long ago. A general desire 
was expressed that the " old folks " repeat their con 
cert, 

A grand exhibition of the Sons of Malta, with 
public initiation ceremonies, was the announcement 
for the next evening. Curiosity had been roused to 
the highest point by various dark hints and mysterious 



SONS OF MALTA. 199 

preparations, and the Audience Room was filled at an 
early hour by an assembly impatient for the fun that 
they naturally expected would attend a disclosure of 
the rites of that Ancient and Honorable Order. 

The stage was draped with peculiarly fantastic 
devices and the members appeared in solemn state 
and full regalia. Space would fail to tell of all the im 
posing ceremonials, wonderful disappearances, funereal 
dirges, awful revelations and astounding experiences 
of novitiates. 

The performance evidently afforded great amuse 
ment to the worthy members of the venerable order 
themselves, but the spectators dispersed with a pro 
found impression of the mystery of the proceedings 
and a lurking suspicion of humbug that remain eth in 
their minds even unto this day. 

Succeeding this was a second amateur dramatic 
performance at the Academy of Music, when the 
standard comedy of " Married Life " was produced. 
The house was most complimentary in applause and 
in demanding a repetition of this play. 

On the same evening, in the Audience Room of the 
fair building, an excellent concert of vocal and instru 
mental music was given by the Cleveland Gesangverein 
and the city bands. 

Miss ANNA DICKINSON having been announced to 
deliver her famous lecture, " Words for the Hour," 
the next evening the attendance at the fair w r as greater 
than at any previous time. Owing to the sudden 
illness of the speaker this lecture was postponed till 
the following Monday, when it was received with 
gratification. 



l)ltAMATIC CLUB, 

A concert by the Welsh Choir of Newburgh, which 
had been arranged for Saturday evening, was pre 
vented by a severe storm. The members of the choir 
gathered in the Bazaar hall and sang several choruses 
and glees in good style. 

On Monday, the fourteenth day of the fair, the 
Dramatic club again performed " Married Life," which 
had so delighted everybody on the former presenta 
tion. The comedietta of the " Rough Diamond " 
concluded this evening s entertainment. The Drama 
tic club on every occasion gave great pleasure to 
crowded houses and in their performances showed 
remarkable talent which, at no small sacrifice of per 
sonal feeling, was first made public for the benefit 
of the fair. 

The closing entertainment in Audience Room was a 
second " Old Folks Concert " with entire change of 
programme. This was, if possible, more successful 
than the first one. The grand old church music, the 
soul- stirring patriotic odes, the laughter-provoking 
songs, catches and glees were all given in the best 
manner. The quaint dresses and good voices of the 
" old folks " will long be remembered. 

The Academy of Music had been engaged by the 
Fair Association for the two weeks of the duration of 
the fair. A stereopticon was placed there, open every 
day and evening when the hall was not occupied by 
the dramatic club. This did not receive the patron 
age that it merited, so many were the attractions at 
the fair building. It, however, paid expenses and 
served the purpose intended, that of monopolizing the 
hall and preventing any rival exhibition from coming 
to the city to draw against the fair. 



ME ATTENDANCE. 201 

More beautiful weather than that which day after 
day favored this enterprise could not have been found 
in searching the calendar of the year. 

The bright glory of the sun, the cloudless splendor 
of the sky, the wintry garb of glittering sheen that 
all nature wore, seemed symbolic of happy progress 
and successful result. Clouds gathered and snow and 
rain fell repeatedly in the night time, but from dawn 
till dusk through the whole course of the fair, only 
excepting one day, sun, air and sky lent their genial 
influence, so that some said, with reverence, that the 
weather was God s donation to the fair. 

The attendance was satisfactory on the first days, 
steadily increasing as the merits of the exhibition 
were reported by visitors to their friends at home, 
or made known through the city press, from which 
the foregoing description of the fair has been culled. 
The halls were pleasantly filled with a gay, delighted 
assembly, rarely were they uncomfortably crowded. 

Bazaar and Floral hall were continually a scene of 
the most joyous character. The booths daily grew 
richer and more attractive by additions to their con 
tents, and the ladies who presided over them were 
well satisfied with the rapidity of their sales. 

Many of the purchased articles were allowed to 
remain in the booths till the closing day, and the 
fading evergreens and other decorations were fre 
quently renewed, so that the freshness of arrangement 
and ornamentation was scarcely impaired. 

No time had been decided on for the continuance of 
the fair, but two weeks were named as its probable 
duration. When that time expired, the brilliantly 



202 THE DRAFT- WHEEL. 

beautiful weather and un diminished attendance de 
cided the managers to continue it till Thursday of the 
third week, March 10th. The railroad companies 
generously extended half fare tickets to that date. 
The last days were enlivened by an animated " closing 
out sale " of the various booths. " Grab bags/ gift 
enterprises and many amusing devices were resorted 
to for the disposition of articles too valuable to find 
ready purchasers. 

The great question, to raffle or not to raffle, had 
early agitated the counsels of the Executive Commit 
tee and the final vote had been cast in the negative. 

Some enthusiastic spirits, ambitious for the results 
of the fair and not having the fear of the law before 
their eyes, were ingenious in avoiding the letter of 
this restriction. The Provost Marshal s draft-wheel 
was surreptitiously conveyed from booth to booth, 
where various persons were drafted to assume life 
membership of certain property on sale there. These 
decisions were accepted without a murmur, no sub 
stitutes were oifered, no commutation fees paid. The 
victims of fortune s wheel met their fate with unflinch 
ing heroism ! 

Most of the booths closed out their stock by auc 
tions or "clearing out drafts," in w^hich the entire 
contents of a booth were put into one subscription 
list. These schemes occasioned much merriment, and 
the amount of money taken on the last day was at 
least as large as on any previous day. 

The great fair virtually closed on the sixteenth day, 
and the beautiful vision faded like magic. 

The Bazaar, stripped of its gay ornamentation, be- 



CLOSING SCENES. 203 

came a bleak and dreary storehouse into which the 
remaining property was gathered and arranged under 
direction of Messrs. II. M. CHAPIN, WM. EDWARDS and 
JOHX M. STERLING-, Jr., who were appointed a com 
mittee to dispose of it in the most advantageous 
way. These gentlemen were unwilling to sacrifice the 
really valuable stock at auction and resolved to offer 
the articles at private sale. For several days they 
patiently attended behind the counter of this novel 
variety-store and made satisfactory disposition of a 
large part of their wares. When it became necessary 
to remove the building, the heavier articles of ma 
chinery were stored in ware houses of merchants who 
undertook to aid their sale. 

The lighter goods were removed to a little office 
over the Aid Rooms, where they were arranged as 
attractively as possible, though having, at best, very 
much the look of a second-hand notion stock. Mrs. 
L. M. HUBBY took immediate charge of this room and 
was indefatigable in effort to dispose of the articles. 
For weeks a dull traffic was persistently kept up and 
the goods were gradually worked off at fair prices. 
This conscientious administering upon the effects of 
the fair was of no small value in swelling the receipts. 

Many articles uncalled for by their owners, the 
debris of booths, halls and tableaux, long cumbered 
the Aid Rooms and were perpetual souvenirs of the 
departed glories of those busy, prosperous weeks. 

Everything of this kind that was at all serviceable 
or appropriate to the Soldiers Home was used there 
and eventually distributed among soldiers families of 
the city. The curtains, gauzes and other parapher- 



204 SALE OF THE 

nalia of the tableaux committees were kept for future 
exhibitions and loaned from time to time to Branch 
societies on occasion of their giving similar entertain 
ments. 

The disposition of the fair building was a matter 
of some little discussion. There arose a feeble sug 
gestion of allowing it to stand till the end of the war, 
as a suitable place for receiving returned regiments 
and of conducting the approaching presidential cam 
paign, but this met with no favor. The risk of fire 
and of damage to the statue was too great and the 
managers were unwilling to leave so unsightly a 
reminder as the huge building, stripped of its decora 
tions, had now become. 

It had been the original plan to balance the outlay 
for its construction by a sale of the four hundred 
thousand feet of lumber, which had already risen in 
price. This plan was now carried out and the build 
ing was advertised for sale at auction on a specified 
day. 

Three gentlemen of Pittsburgh, representing the 
managers of a sanitary fair just projected in that city, 
had visited the Cleveland fair and learning the pro 
posed disposition of the building had returned home 
and reported in favor of purchasing and erecting it in 
Pittsburgh. 

When the day of sale came there were a number of 
bids, by lumber dealers and builders, but the building 
was sold to the Pittsburgh committee for eighty-five 
hundred dollars, to be removed within a fortnight, 
the Cleveland and Pittsburgh railroad company giving 
facilities of transportation. The committee also bought 



SUCCESS OF THE FAIR. 205 

the gas pipe and fixtures, queensware, cutlery, felt 
roofing and some miscellaneous property, increasing 
the amount of purchase to nearly ten thousand dollars. 

The officers of the Cleveland fair were much pleased 
by this sale and cordially offered their aid to the Pitts 
burgh enterprise. This was kindly accepted and a 
delegation of Pittsburgh ladies came up shortly after 
to learn practical details and to profit by the experi 
ence of the Cleveland committees. 

The work of demolishing the building progressed 
rapidly. The roofing was stripped off and rolled up 
for transportation, the siding and beams carefully 
marked and shipped as fast as taken down. 

In a few days the great structure that had been for 
w^eeks the center of attraction had vanished from 
sight. 

Though overshadowed by the magnitude and splen 
dor of the sanitary fairs that were afterwards held in 
the centers of population and wealth of the eastern 
states, yet when considered as the fruit of the patriot 
ism of a relatively small population, inhabiting a mere 
fraction of the loyal North, the Cleveland fair cannot 
but be regarded as one of the most strikingly success 
ful of the entire number. And it has been said that 
the joyous harmony of its animating spirit and the 
taste which controlled its adornment gave it claims 
to a higher consideration than that to which it was 
entitled by its pecuniary results. 

While it is impossible to mention all even of those 
who rendered prominent service in this enterprise, it 
is but simple justice to say that the triumphant issue 



206 CASH RECEIPTS. 

of the Northern Ohio Sanitary Fair was in great de 
gree due to Mr. H. M. CHAPIN, who for a number of 
weeks left his own large business in the hands of 
employes and gave day and night to the interests of 
the fair, infusing into every department his character 
istic energy and enthusiasm, which, with his widely- 
known business ability and influence, were potent 
sources of success. 

Below is the official report of the treasurer : 

T. P. HANDY, TREASURER, IN ACCOUNT WITH N. 0. SANITARY FAIR. 

1864. Dr. 

March. To amount received from 44 Booths in Bazaar $ 19,082 96 

" Fine Art Hall and Museum, 1,880 63 

" Mechanics Hall, cash, 4,355 29 

" Dramatic Entertainments, 1.040 15 

" Stereopticon, 532 75 

" Floral Hall Booths, 3,209 07 

" Sale of admission tickets, 33,831 00 

" Other sources in Bazaar, 2,099 30 

" Donations in money to April 1st, 1864, 15,439 62 

" since received, 246 95 

" Estimated am t in potatoes and other vegetables 2,400 00 

1865. " Sales of property since April 1st, 1864, 4,027 99 

" " Fair buildings, furniture, etc., 9,941 65 

" Balance of interest on funds invested, 2,103 70 



$100,191 06 

1864. Or. 

March 31st. By bills and expenses paid to this date, 21,543 92 

" " " since " 714 83 

" Potatoes and vegetabl es delivered at Aid Rooms. 

estimated value, 2,400 00 

1865. " Cash paid Miss Ellen F. Terry, Treasurer Sol 

diers Aid Society, Cleveland, at various dates, 42, 798 62 

March 10th. Am t invested in U. S. 7-30 bonds on hand, 30,000 00 

" cash paid Soldiers Aid Society, bal. on hand, 2,733 69 



$100,191 06 

[E.E.] T. P. HANDY, Treas. 

Cleveland, March 10th, 1865. 



A "TWICE BLESSED" CHARITY. 207 

Inspired by the Cleveland fair the editor of the 
Sanitary Reporter wrote as follows : 

The fair at Cleveland, having continued more than a fortnight, has 
closed. The Cleveland newspapers and the reports of individual visitors 
unite in testifying to its complete success. The receipts of the treasury 
have been unexpectedly large upwards of one hundred thousand dollars 
and the gratification which contributors and visitors have received has 
been remarkably rich and varied. Every one has been astonished at the 
energy, good taste and delicate tact which have dextrously marshalled so 
many hidden resources and made them willing aids in the service of a 
grand patriotic charity. 

The managers as they look back on the past few weeks must feel that, 
under the inspiration of a holy cause, they "builded better than they 
knew," and each contributor, however small his gift, must rejoice at having 
a share in the result. 

How many and how great were the obstacles to success, no one can know 
but those to whom success was most precious, and who, while feeling their 
weight and obstinacy, determined to achieve it. All friends of the soldier 
cannot but be delighted that the strong current of a generous and trustful 
devotion swept the obstacles away and left oracular croakers to the solitary 
enjoyment of their own monotonous echoes. 

We cannot but think that the good results of such fairs as have been held 
in Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland and other cities are not to rest with the 
contributions to the soldier s comfort, alone, are not to be estimated in so 
many dollars for socks, sourkrout, onions and potatoes. To promote the 
comfort of our soldiers, to be able to buy these essentials for the army is 
an incalculable good. But this charity is "twice blessed." A rich and 
subtile blessing must lie in the wide sympathies called out, the new relations 
of acquaintance, friendship and intimacy formed, and in the surprising 
revelation of talent and worth in remote and unexplored localities. Neigh 
bors and neighborhoods must come to respect each other more, to depend 
upon each other more, and to wonder that they have missed finding each 
other out so long. Prejudice must be softened, artificial barriers must give 
way to a freer intercourse, and tenderness of feeling and judgment must 
take the place of sour suspicion. After so complete a flooding of all the 
field of life with the resistless tide of a sweet and noble enthusiasm, we 
cannot but look for a new bloom and unexampled harvests. 



CHAPTER XII. 

THROUGH the busy winter months preceding the 
fair, Aid Room duties had been continued daily and 
with all possible regularity. 

In anticipation of an increase in the treasury, forty - 
fi ve hundred dollars of the California fund had been 
drawn in January, leaving a balance of only five 
hundred dollars. This money was used to purchase 
material which was given out to branch societies to 
sustain their meetings during preparations for the fair. 

The superintending and providing for the Soldiers 
Home were added to the usual routine of disbursing, 
shipping and the duties of special relief and of the 
work department. Besides the general direction of 
stores to the Louisville headquarters, there had been 
in February a considerable shipment to the Kansas 
agency, including supplies sent specially for the desti 
tute and suffering inhabitants of Lawrence, Kansas, 
after the terrible Indian attack and massacre. 

The Aid Rooms were closed to general business 
only during the two weeks when the fair was actually 
in progress and even then almost daily shipments 
were made of vegetables and other supplies that 
had been sent down from Produce Hall. During 
those two weeks, the headquarters of the Society 



AFIEE THE FAIR. 209 

were removed to the fair building, where all interest 
centered. 

Many representatives of Branch societies, coming in 
to visit the fair, at this time first became personally 
known to the officers of the Society to whose care 
they had long consigned their boxes, and paid their 
first visit to the Aid Rooms, where they were made 
acquainted with the practical details of this supply 
center. 

It had been predicted that the unprecedented ex 
citement and energy called forth by sanitary fairs 
would be followed by a reaction, damaging, if not 
fatal, to the cause. Many of the strongest friends of 
the Sanitary Commission doubted the wisdom of for 
saking the smooth waters of a steady-flowing charity, 
to be swept along in this impetuous torrent of benev 
olent enthusiasm. 

Had the interests involved been less, or the results 
of the fairs less bountiful, these predictions and 
doubts might have been confirmed. Certain it is 
that most of the branch societies of Northern Ohio, 
after contributing so largely to the success of the 
Cleveland fair, indicated some degree of exhaustion. 
This, however, had no perceptible effect upon the 
work, because in the interval of their recovery the 
pecuniary results of the fair more than balanced this 
temporary check, while the wide spread and securely 
rooted interest in the cause forbade any permanent 
lapse from duty. 

The reaction after this fair was not so apparent in 
the decrease of receipts from the country societies as 
in the falling off of committees and volunteer assist 
ants at the Aid Rooms, 



210 THE KE ACTION. 

From this time till the end of its history, the 
officers of the Cleveland Branch were left nearly alone 
to carry on the business of office and store, with the 
help of those whom they employed to assist them. 
The monthly business meetings were almost deserted 
and only the faithful few came at intervals to share 
the labor and responsibilities that gathered weight 
with many succeeding months. 

The ladies of the city, after a winter spent in all- 
absorbing preparations for the great fair, felt their 
weariness when the excitement was over and success 
ensured. When they were fresh again, long inter 
rupted home duties claimed their first thoughts and 
the broken chain of Aid Room work was not easily 
united. 

There was no lack of good will in the community 
nor of kindly expressed interest, but the Society was 
by the results of the fair deprived of its place in the 
daily thoughts and sympathies of even its warmest 
friends. The general feeling of the citizens seemed 
to be that they had schemed and labored with won 
derful success to give the Aid Society ample means 
and could now leave it, in confidence, as the represent 
ative of their charities, to pursue its philanthropic 
purposes, themselves absolved, by their winter s 
work, from further personal responsibility. 

It was with real regret that the officers felt this 
change. Save for the ever-present thought of their 
increased means of usefulness to the soldiers, they 
doubtless would have echoed the experience of many 
a millionaire and declared that the days of buffeting 
with fortune were their happiest days. 



SPECIAL CALLS. 211 

But the accumulation of work that pressed imme 
diately upon the diminished force at the Aid Eooms 
left little time for such regrets or for rejoicing over 
the brilliant results of the fair. 

The large quantity of vegetables and fruit con 
signed to the produce comjnittee and the forwarding 
of supplies purchased by the general Commission, 
made the shipments of March and April unusually 
heavy. Besides the usual business, there were at this 
time some special shipments that are mentioned to illus 
trate the nature of the calls to which the Society was 
constantly subject. A request for aid in furnishing 
bedding for the Louisville Soldiers Home met with 
willing response. Supplies were sent to Nashville for 
the relief of a company of teamsters who, through some 
irregularity in their communications with the quarter 
master s department, had been stranded there, destitute 
and suffering. Several boxes of calicoes, shirting and 
sewing materials were prepared for the contraband 
women employed in hospital service at Knoxville, 
Tenn. Agents of the Sanitary Commission had re 
ported the needy condition of these women, and as the 
wives of the surgeons offered to teach them to make 
their own garments, these materials were sent down 
to them. The Ohio National Guards one hundred 
days men on leaving the city were supplied with 
trifling comforts and followed to their camps in and 
around Washington with boxes of supplemental stores 
for their sick. 

The general results of the fair had been known at 
the time of its closing but the actual cash receipts 
were slow to be reported. 



212 THE FAIR FUND. 

The Executive Committee, unwilling to embarrass 
the officers of the Aid Society by turning over the 
affairs in an unsettled state, had resolved that the 
treasurer of the fair should retain his office until 
the returns from the various committees had been 
sent in and all debts cancelled. By this resolution 
the final report of the treasurer was necessarily de 
layed and the public waited impatiently for it. April 
6th, a preliminary statement was published embracing 
some estimates of unsold property and giving notice 
that fifty thousand dollars of the receipts had been 
invested in United States interest bearing securities, 
to be used by the ladies of the Aid Society, from 
time to time, as their wants might require. 

On the 9th of April, the Society made the first 
draft upon the receipts of the fair, three thousand 
dollars. The greater part of this sum was at once 
used for purchasing onions and potatoes, as the cam 
paign against scurvy had re-opened this spring with 
much activity. April 18th, two thousand dollars 
were invested in further purchase of vegetables, with 
some outlay for cotton and woolen goods. May 13th, 
forty-nine hundred dollars were drawn and divided 
between the purchase of material and vegetables and 
the expenses of the Home and the supply department. 

In June, the last five hundred dollars of the Cali 
fornia fund was disbursed, and from this time the 
Society was wholly dependent upon the proceeds of 
the fair. Membership fees were no longer solicited 
and were not generally paid up. Individual contri 
butions decreased or were made specifically for the 
Soldiers Home and strictly used as designated. 



INCREASED EXPENDITURE 21 A 

The purchase of boxes and barrels and the hand 
ling, cooperage and cartage on the vegetable shipments 
of this summer made a heavy increase in the current 
expenses, which, from the careful manner of preparing 
stores, had always been large. 

In the early days of the Society, second-hand pack 
ing cases, given by merchants, had been used for 
repacking stores to go to the army. As the supply 
business became larger and the line of transportation 
longer, new and stout boxes were necessary. For 
some months these were given by Mr. WM. RATTLE, 
from his lumber factory. When this draft became 
too heavy, they were afforded at mere cost of lumber 
and nails. 

From this time, all boxes in which the more valu 
able goods were packed were of new lumber, of a 
designated size and shape and heavy enough to bear 
any amount of rough handling in transit. Fruit was 
packed in sawdust, in heavy boxes made expressly for 
this purpose and just large enough to hold one dozen 
cans. Bottles of wine or cordial were also sent in 
sawdust, in cases of one dozen each. Blackberry and 
other medicinal wines were purchased by the keg or 
barrel and bottled and sealed at the Aid Rooms. 
Vegetables and fresh fruits were often contributed or 
purchased in bulk and for such supplies barrels and 
sacks were to be bought. 

The purchase of cotton and woolen goods made a 
large part of the disbursements from the fair fund 
this summer. Besides the army demand for this ma 
terial in the form of hospital garments, there was 
a real necessity for furnishing it to country societies 



214 ISSUING MATERIAL. 

to keep up their organizations through the period of 
reaction after the fair. 

There was, moreover, justice no less than policy in 
giving liberally of material to societies at this time. 

The efforts and influence of these five hundred 
Branches had been the great element of success in the 
fair, and in devoting these so unreservedly many of 
the societies had exhausted or weakened their imme 
diate resources. It was only due that their work 
should in some way feel the benefits that their indus 
try had secured to the cause. 

To divide any part of the cash proceeds of the fair 
among so many societies, with just apportionment, 
was evidently impracticable and might do an injury 
by checking their usual contributions. It was decided 
that the best way to help the Branches through the 
fair was to invest largely in material which should be 
issued liberally to them. 

It has been sufficiently explained that material had 
been furnished to the branch societies with the sole 
object of affording a resource during some momentary 
ebb in their treasuries and withheld so soon as the 
crisis was passed. 

No Branch forfeited independence by accepting such 
aid or ventured to relax effort and lean too heavily 
upon the central Society. The spirit of independence 
was still to be fostered as carefully as ever ; therefore 
no open notice was given of the intention to furnish 
material in increased quantity, now that the Society 
had means to do so. The same way of detecting the 
need and supplying it, the same watch over the fal 
tering steps of a feeble tributary that had heretofore 



SELLING AT COST* 215 

prevailed were continued, but the issues of material 
were more and more liberal from this time till the end 
of the war diminished the supply service. 

All the material given out was cut at the Aid 
Rooms, furnished with tape, buttons, and spool cotton, 
and sent in packages, ticketed and registered. When 
the work was finished and received back, printed 
acknowledgment was made and so many articles of 
" returned work" duly credited. Packages sent into 
the country were forwarded by express at expense of 
the consignee or delivered to the bearer of a written 
order. 

Besides issuing material to be made up for the cen 
tral Rooms, there was another way of aiding the 
Branches in which vigorous and feeble societies might 
share equally, at discretion. 

The exorbitant prices that cotton and woolen fabrics 
had now reached were greatly disproportioned to the 
slender means of many little societies and even the 
largest among the Branches found it nearly impossible 
to gather in money enough to buy work for the busy 
fingers of their members. The Cleveland Society had 
always done a commission business for its tributaries, 
receiving their money by mail or messenger and ex 
pending it as designated, in purchase of material, or 
selling to them, at cost, any goods on hand at the Aid 
Rooms. This business was now enlarged. Supplies 
of material, beyond the wants of the work committee, 
were purchased at New York wholesale prices, to be 
sold again, at cost, to Branch societies in such quan 
tity as their means enabled them to buy. 

From this time to the end of the supply service, a 



THE SALESROOM, 

large stock of material was kept on hand at the Aid 
Rooms, and whatever might have been the rise in the 
market, these goods were always sold at cost. Sheet 
ing, shirting, chintz, ticking, canton flannel, army 
flannel, batting, woolen yarn, buttons, tapes and spool 
cotton formed the stock of this commission house. 
There were also patterns, cut in stiff paper, which were 
given out when desired. 

Delegates from country societies, coming into the 
Aid Rooms for advice about spending their sums of 
ten, twenty or forty dollars, were offered the oppor 
tunity of purchasing here and w^ere then advised to 
look elsewhere through the city and compare prices. 
They invariably found an advantage in buying from 
the Aid Room stock. Five or six cents on a yard 
was the usual difference, no inconsiderable gain to a 
little society. Price lists were kept at the Aid Rooms 
or sent by mail to societies with each new lot of 
goods. 

The cash report of the treasurer shows that during 
the months of July and August succeeding the fair, 
nineteen thousand nine hundred and twenty dollars 
were expended in the purchase of material. A large 
room above the Aid Rooms was rented for the stor 
age of material and fitted with shelves and counters to 
accommodate this sales department and the cutting 
committee. Here, bargains were made by delegates 
from the Branches, and it is perhaps needless to say 
that terms were satisfactory, liberal measures given 
and many little chance advantages thrown in favor of 
the purchaser. 

In anticipation of the irregular attendance of cut- 



THE WORK DEPARTMENT. 

ting committees during the preparations for the fair, 
Mrs. EMMA L. MILLER had been engaged to assist in 
the work department through the winter. When the 
fair closed and the falling off of committees threw the 
accumulated and ever increasing burden upon a few, 
this engagement was made permanent. Till the close 
of the supply work in October, 1865, Mrs. MILLER 
conducted the cutting department, which was her 
specialty, with great ability and engaged with re 
markable energy in the many duties of the Aid 
Rooms. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

THE disposition, leadership and movements of the 
Union forces, from the opening of active military 
operations in the spring of 1864, were such as to 
inspire in every loyal heart a glowing faith that took 
the place of the patient hope with which the delays, 
disappointments and quasi victories of previous cam 
paigns had been so bravely borne. 

March 3d, the grade of Lieutenant General, revived 
by act of Congress, was conferred upon Major Gen 
eral GRANT, " in token of the nation s appreciation of 
what he had done and its reliance upon him for what 
remained to do." March 12th, army and people re 
ceived, with universal joy, general orders from the 
War Department announcing that President LINCOLN 
had assigned the Lieutenant General to the command 
of the armies of the United States. Headquarters 
were established in the field, with the army of the 
Potomac. 

It was now nine months since the army of the 
Potomac had fought a general battle and seven months 
since the battle of Chattanooga had fixed the western 
army in firm possession of that strategic point. The 
plan of the opening campaign was for an advance on 
Richmond by the army of the Potomac, under the 



618 



AHMY MOVEMENTS. 219 

direct command of General MEADE, simultaneously 
with a movement towards Atlanta, Ga., by the west 
ern troops. The western troops comprising the 
armies of the Cumberland, the Tennessee and the 
Ohio were now massed under the general name of 
the Military Division of the Mississippi, and turned 
over by General GEANT to the almost absolute leader 
ship of Major General SHEEMAN. 

The month of April was spent in thoroughly reor 
ganizing all the forces and, by the western troops, in 
strengthening the line of communication between 
Nashville and Chattanooga, the primary and secondary 
supply bases, and in accumulating at Chattanooga 
immense supplies of commissary and military stores. 

It was felt that a critical period in the history of 
the war was at hand, and that upon the military 
achievements of this campaign the quick termination 
or almost endless protraction of the struggle would 
depend. The governors of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Iowa and Wisconsin gave voice to the patriotism of 
their people by offering to the Government large 
volunteer forces of " one-hundred-days men " to relieve 
veteran soldiers from post and garrison duty and 
allow them to return to the active service of the field. 

The general movement, east and west, was to begin 
about the 5th of May. The troops of General SHEE- 
MAN S department were massed around Binggold, Ga,, 
twenty-three miles southeast of Chattanooga. The 
opposing army lay in and near Dalton, fifteen miles 
below, their advance being at Tunnel Hill, a station 
on the railroad between Binggold and Dalton. The 
triumphant progress of General SHEBMAN S army, 



220 



A MEMORABLE RECORD. 



the engagements at Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, Dallas 
and Kenesaw Mountain, the battles of July 20th, 
2 2nd and 28th, the fighting at Jonesboro, the 
marches, sieges, raids and brilliant manoeuvring by 
which the Union lines closed surely around the 
doomed city of Atlanta and which ended in the cap 
ture, September 1st, of that "Grate City" of the 
enemy s position, have their record in history among 
the memorable events of the great rebellion. 

Though military movements at the West were 
watched with great interest and the country was ring 
ing with the exploits of SHERMAN S invincible men, it 
was from the operations of the army of the Potomac 
that the vital success of the campaign was expected. 
General GRANT S plan for this army was not merely 
the taking of Richmond, the objective point of all 
previous demonstrations in this quarter, but it in 
cluded the breaking up of the entire railroad system 
of the enemy and the destruction of the rebel army. 

The grand army of the Potomac, roused from long 
inactivity, under the inspiring leadership of the hero 
who had never lost a battle, entered upon a series of 
engagements in which its valor and endurance were 
severely tested and most nobly proved. 

In those momentous times, when the fate of the 
nation seemed to hang upon the achievements of a few 
short summer weeks, when the lives of thousands were 
the dear price of victory, and when to the agony of 
suspense or bereavement was added a keen sense of 
the interests involved in the result of each encounter 
with a desperate foe, the people found their only 
relief from frenzied excitement in the despatches that 



OFFICIAL BULLETINS. 221 

were issued over Secretary STANTON S name from the 
War Department. 

The very first of these, announcing that " it is de 
signed to give accurate official statements of what is 
known to this Department in this great crisis and to 
withhold nothing from the public," was like an anchor 
sure and steadfast to the mind tossed by the distract 
ing contradictions of exaggerated rumor and news* 
paper canard. The promise was faithfully kept. 
Daily, semi-daily and sometimes hourly official bulle 
tins, giving brief expositions of the military situation, 
were heralded through the length and breadth of the 
North, by the associated press. Whether their pur 
port were triumph or disaster, there was inexpressible 
comfort in these despatches, for the truth lay in their 
clear, concise wording. Joy over a victory was un 
alloyed by dread that the good news might be 
unfounded. Defeat could not be long concealed by 
any sophistry of language, and it were better to 
know the worst at once and to bear it as a brave 
people best could. 

But from this summer the army of the Potomac 
had done with timid advance, dispiriting retreat and 
drawn battles. The generalship of GEANT, SHEEMAX, 
SHEEIDAN and THOMAS ensured to the bulletins from 
the War Department the ring of victory, East and 
West, fearfully precious victory ! bought with rivers 
of blood and made forever sacred by the sufferings of 
thousands of our bravest and our best. 

Fredericksburg, Va,, was occupied by the Union 
forces, and extensive hospitals were opened there for 



222 CLEVELAND ARMY COMMITTEE. 

the army of the Potomac. Sanitary and Christian 
Commission agents, with nurses and supplies, pursued 
their work of mercy among the wounded, establishing 
a base of operation at Acquia Creek. All who were 
able to endure removal were carried by Sanitary or 
Government transports to northern hospitals. 

Out of this urgent occasion for personal service in 
the hospitals of the Potomac grew the CLEVELAND 
AKMY COMMITTEE, an association of gentlemen organ 
ized May 4th, 1864, to co-operate with the United 
States Christian Commission " in promoting the physi 
cal and especially the moral and religious welfare of 
their brethren in arms." 

The first business of this body was to raise a fund 
that would enable the churches of Cleveland to send 
a delegation to the battlefields where Christian care 
and consolation were so much needed. At the first 
meeting it was resolved to despatch eight delegates to 
the front. Liberal subscriptions were made by citi 
zens to defray the expenses of these agents, among 
whom Avere several of the city clergy. 

The delegates, after spending some weeks among the 
wounded of the army of the Potomac, returned and 
gave, in a series of public meetings, an abstract of 
their rich experience on the battlefield and in hospi 
tal. Most of them suffered in health from their severe 
and trying duties. One of their number the Rev. 
S. W. ADAMS, D. D., the beloved and revered pastor 
of the First Baptist Church died soon after, from 
disease contracted during this period of faithful ser 
vice in the Christian Commission. 

As the Sanitary Commission was engaged in pro- 



ITS PLANS AND PURPOSES. 223 

viding physical comforts for disabled soldiers, it was 
proposed to make arrangements by which delegates 
from the Cleveland Army Committee could aid in 
distributing Sanitary stores, and it was resolved that 
if this could be effected the newly organized Army 
Committee should make no attempt to collect or for 
ward such stores. This proposition was agreed to by 
the Cleveland Branch Sanitary Commission and cor 
dially approved at headquarters in Louisville, where 
representatives of the Army Committee were always 
received with courtesy, accredited as agents in dis 
tributing Sanitary stores, or aided in the transporta 
tion of any goods which they had brought down to 
the army. 

By the conditions of its union with the U. S. SANI 
TARY COMMISSION, the stores of the Cleveland Branch 
were disbursed mostly to the armies of the southwest, 
where Sanitary agents had the favor of officers high 
in command and were now honorably excepted from 
General SHERMAN S stringent order excluding civilians 
from the front. The difficulty of maintaining com 
munication between the army and its supply base, 
over a long and slender line of ill-constructed rail 
road, guerilla-haunted and overcrowded with the 
passage of reinforcements, provisions and ammunition, 
- and the vital importance of secrecy in army move 
ments, made this order a military necessity. Two 
agents of the Sanitary Commission were allowed to 
accompany the army in its advance and men were de 
tailed from regiments to assist them in the care and 
disbursement of their hospital supplies. ~No other 
exceptions were made to this order save in rare cases 



224 WORK OF THE DELEGATES. 

when persons could obtain the endorsement of the 
medical authorities as competent assistants in the 
care of the wounded on the field. 

One of the delegates appointed by the Cleveland 
Army Committee, the Rev. SAMUEL WOLCOTT, D. D., 
who traveled with joint credentials from Christian and 
Sanitary Commissions, in September of this year made 
an extended tour in Georgia, penetrating to the city 
of Atlanta soon after its occupation by the Union 
army and taking part in the care of the wounded in 
field hospital and at relief-stations along the line. The 
observations of this journey, which were highly 
favorable to the Sanitary Commission, formed the 
subject of an interesting lecture and were afterwards 
published and widely circulated. 

With this exception, delegates of the Cleveland 
Army Committee, finding access to the army of the 
Potomac less difficult, confined their ministrations 
there and were consequently out of range of the 
goods of the Cleveland Aid Society. For this rea 
son, or in obedience to orders from headquarters of 
the Christian Commission in Philadelphia, the Cleve 
land Army Committee subsequently made some effort 
to gather hospital stores. A few branch societies 
withdrew for a time to this new organization or 
divided their gifts between the Sanitary and Christian 
Commissions. 

At the close of the war the Cleveland Army Com 
mittee was continued in behalf of the freedmen and 
refugees of Cairo, Leavenworth and elsewhere. The 
transportation facilities of the Aid Society were 
offered and frequently accepted in forwarding these 
supplies. 



SYMPATHY. 225 

The immediate services and sympathies of the 
western Branches of the Sanitary Commission were 
engaged for SHERMAN S army, yet intense interest pre 
vailed among them for the issue of the engagements 
at the East and there was constant occasion for show 
ing this in the care of the wounded who were traveling 
westward to their homes. 

The records of the Cleveland Soldiers Home at 
this date bear page after page of names of the suffer 
ers in the terrible battles of the Wilderness who 
found shelter and refreshment there. The Aid Rooms 
were daily visited by groups of furloughed men, 
one sorely wounded in the head, another with his 
poor right arm splintered and bandaged to hide the 
shattered bones, a third with his useless limb bound 
up and a pair of crutches aiding his painful motion, 
every one bearing some honorable marks of the battle 
field. Kind words and comforts welcomed these 
visitors, a poor recognition of their services. 

The personal sympathies of the Aid Room corps 
were never more severely tried than in the attempt to 
console the afflicted ones who thronged the Rooms on 
the announcement of a battle, fathers, mothers, 
wives, sisters, coming with white, tear-stricken faces 
to point out in the long list of wounded a name that 
was all the world to them, and to beg for the help 
that the heart ached to give. How hard it was to be 
forced to discourage their first impulse to go and 
nurse the sufferer ! They never could press their way 
through, but how could one tell them so ! and it was 
so cold to write only and the suspense of waiting 
so hard to bear ! 



226 LETTERS AND INQUIRIES. 

Sometimes when it seemed possible that they could 
make their way to a wounded friend, a little box was 
packed at the Aid Rooms for the journey, with 
oysters, beef-tea, a change of garments, soft bandages 
and a bottle of wine. Passes were solicited from the 
railroad authorities, letters written to the Sanitary 
agencies in cities at every stage of their route, detail 
ing their errand and bespeaking kindness and aid, and 
a general letter of credentials furnished, to be pre 
sented to railroad officials further on. 

There was also the tedious, almost hopeless, but 
persistent search by letter for missing men, the writ 
ing here and there, clinging to a faint thread of 
inquiry, slowly pursuing the wanderer s steps and too 
often finding the traces vanish into a lonely grave. 
Then followed the gathering up of the details of the 
last moments, the sending for the effects and trinkets 
dear mementoes and their delivery to friends. 

The Aid Rooms were known to be general head 
quarters for information on all points concerning sick 
or disabled soldiers. Lists of the casualties of each 
battle were kept on file in the office, and many matters 
of personal interest to soldiers or their friends, not 
strictly within the limits of sanitary work, were con 
stantly referred there. 

It was not unusual to see one of the ladies of the 
Aid Rooms, pen in hand, taking down from the lips 
of some unlettered wife or mother the homely phrases 
of love and greeting to her far-off soldier. Memory 
brings up the picture of one poor old mother, broken 
by a life of toil, her face seamed with care and grief, 
who always came to the Aid Rooms with the open 



THE HOSPITAL DIRECTORY. 227 

letter of her son, which she could not read, begging 
that some of the " dear ladies " would read it to her 
and write him word that she had " got it safe." 

Inquiry by letter for soldiers had been made, in 
formally, from the beginning of the war, but was 
later conducted mostly through the Hospital Directory 
established in the autumn of 1862, by the Sanitary 
Commission. 

The HOSPITAL DIRECTORY was a bureau of records 
giving the name, company, regiment and condition of 
the soldiers in general hospitals. The books, which 
contained the names of more than six hundred thou 
sand men, were revised and corrected daily by returns 
from all parts of the field. More specific information 
would be procured for the benefit of friends within 
as short a time as possible after receiving an inquiry 
H% one of the general offices, which were located at 
Washington, New York, Philadelphia and Louisville. 

Th 4 e Louisville registry w^as opened in January, 
1863, and it was naturally to that office that most 
of the inquiries were directed by the Cleveland 
Society. These inquiries invariably received courte 
ous attention. The business of the Hospital Directory 
was-. admirably systematized and the clerical duties 
performed with fidelity. Beyond and above this was 
the spirit of true sympathy that animated its manage 
ment, shown in the word of cheer or the tenderly- 
framed condolence often sent with the good or 
sorrowful tidings that were drawn from its fateful 
pages 

For details of this and other departments of the 
special relief system, the reader is referred to the 



228 ONE INQUIRY, ONE ANSWER. 

series of histories and final statements that have been 
issued by the Sanitary Commission from its Histori 
cal Bureau. 

A few facts briefly sketched in the following extract 
from a report of Mr. H. S. HOLBROOK, the superin 
tendent of the Louisville office, will better illustrate 
the working of the Hospital Directory than any gen 
eral statement or table of statistics that can be given 
in this volume : 

EXTRACT. " ONE INQUIRY AND ONE ANSWER." 

An old man enters the office. He has traveled from Northern Ohio to 
meet his son in this city ; he has been told to inquire at the Sanitary Com 
mission rooms for direction to the hospital which contains him. While the 
clerk turns to the books, he chats of his son and home, of the different 
articles in his carpet-bag, put in by mothers and sisters at home, each had 
sent some little comfort. He is all animation and hope, as if at the very 
door which is to admit him to the realization of all his happy anticipations. 
The record says "died" that very morning! The register says, one 
inquiry, one answer. It does not speak of the careful preparatory suggp 8 
tions that sympathy tenderly makes toward the announcement of the 
saddening fact. It does not show that strong old man convulsed and weep 
ing like a child. You see not his departure from the office stunned with 
grief. You feel not the stifled thanks of his farewell grasp full payment 
for all your sympathy and care. He goes slowly and sadly away. One of 
the clerks accompanies him, who procures a burial case for the remains of 
his " poor boy," and assists him in all his preparations for his mournful 
journey home on the same day. The register says one inquiry, one 
answer. 

A mother from Northern Indiana has received a despatch that her son is 
sick in Nashville ; she is on her way to see him ; she applies for a pass, but 
passes for ladies are seldom granted, and not without a permit from head 
quarters. Her credentials are all right, but she is told that it is more than 
doubtful if she is permitted to go. She comes to the Directory ; her son s 
name is on the books ; " telegraphing is expensive, and the result doubt 
ful." " Tis too bad," she exclaims, " I have seven sons, and all of them in 
the army, I do not wish them away, but I do want, if they get sick, the 
privilege of going to nurse them." " My dear madam, you shall go ; that 
fact will get you a pass," and so it did. The register says, one inquiry, one 
answer. 

A sprightly young wife is sent from the telegraph office to have a 



AJST EXTRACT. 229 

despatch written for a permit to visit her husband in Nashville. She is 
quite impatient at the useless delay in consulting the records for his name. 
" She knows he is in Nashville, and all she wants is a despatch written, and 
will be obliged for as much haste as possible." " Are you sure he is in 
Nashville?" "Certainly." "You would have no objections to meeting 
him here ?" " You are playing with me, sir ; will you give me the 
despatch ?" " I don t think you will need one. This abstract will please 
you better. There are directions where to find your husband, a few blocks 
off." With one look to be sure she was not being " played " with, she was 
off from the office down street at what he would have called the " double 
quick," and found him not in Nashville. Had she not come to the Directory, 
possibly she might have obtained a pass to Nashville, and gone ; or failing 
in that would have gone home without seeing him. 

A short time ago this case came under our notice. A soldier in hospital 
at Nashville writes to his wife that he is very sick, and requests her to 
come to him. The letter was dated the 5th of September. Two days 
afterward he is transferred to Louisville, but his letter informing her of the 
change never reached her. She leaves home and stops over night in Louis 
ville, and goes to Nashville on the loth. There she learns that he is in 
Louisville. Delayed for lack of funds, she returns to this city on the 22d, 
and finds that he died on the night of the 16th, the next night after they 
lodged in the same city, so near to each other, yet never to meet. Had she 
known of the Hospital Directory, and consulted it, this lifelong grief 
would have been prevented. 

A father desires to visit a sick son. His statements accord with our 
record. The despatch written for him explains the case : 

" To Brigadier General J. A. GARFIELD, Chief of Staff, Murfreesboro, 
Tenn. : Had four sons in army ; two are dead ; two belong to the 89th 

Ohio, [Co.. William C is sick at Gallatin, hospital 4. Please 

grant pass. A. C . 

J. S. NEWBERRY, Voucher." 
The pass was granted. 

A father from Pennsylvania presents a letter from the surgeon of a hos 
pital in Nashville, saying that his son will be discharged and sent to 
this city in charge of the Sanitary Commission, and requests the father to 
meet him here. He asks, " Where is he ?" We have no note of his arrival. 
" He must still be in hospital at Nashville. But stay ; here is a report just 
in." The name is there, and " died August 9th, 1863," the very day the father 
received the letter, and set out to meet him. His son had sent him word 
not to bring more money than necessary to pay his fare to Louisville, as he 
was paid off and had enough. W T hat was to be done ? We loaned him 
his passage home ; made out the necessary papers to get the effects of his 
son: wrote to Nashville to Sanitary Commission agents to forward them, 
and he left for home that evening. 



230 HOSPITAL CARS. 

We might multiply similar cases indefinitely, each one possessing some 
peculiarity to vary the service needed to meet the wants of the applicant. 
But these must suffice. 

The results in figures fail to give any idea of the labor, patience and feel 
ing involved in the necessary attention to the particulars of each case, 
burdened with peculiar and painful interest, and urgently appealing for 
sympathy, information and aid. One might as well attempt to conjure up 
the drama of their real life, from the scattered bones of a strange burial 
place, as from these figures to reproduce the painful realities they simply 
tally. Each name is the name of a man dear to a circle of kindred and 
friends. Each inquiry bears the interest, anxiety, and earnestness of some 
relative. Between the parties stands the Directory with its registers and 
helpful agents. 

In connection with the Hospital Directory Avas an 
arrangement effected by the Sanitary Commission with 
Government for removing and forwarding home, on 
request of friends, the bodies of soldiers who had died 
in hospital or were buried on the battlefield. This 
was done by the Sanitary Commission without charge, 
the actual outlay for disinterring, embalming and 
transporting being refunded by the friends who had 
ordered the removal. 

The Cleveland Aid Society had not unfrequently 
to act as agent in this, taking the orders for disin- 
terment, receiving and remitting undertaker s and 
Express charges and delivering the remains, on arrival, 
to the relatives. 

Another phase of special relief work at the front, 
which has been briefly mentioned in these pages, was 
the transportation service of the HOSPITAL TBAINS 
established by the Sanitary Commission in the sum 
mer of 1863. 

Though the charge of the hospital trains was soon 
assumed by Government, the Commission never lost 



" ON A HOSPITAL TRAIN." 

interest in them nor ceased to be known as an agent 
in their supervision. Supplies were furnished to each 
train from the Sanitary depot nearest at hand. Hot 
coffee, light food and stimulants were given to the 
feeble travelers at various feeding-stations opened 
along the line of transit. 

For a description of the hospital train one cannot 
do better than read the following letter written by 
one of the young ladies of the Cleveland Aid Society 
during an extended tour among the hospitals and 
relief agencies of Louisville, Nashville and Chatta 
nooga in May, 1863 : 

EXTRACT. ON A HOSPITAL TRAIN. 

* * * * Tlianks to the U. S. Sanitary Commission and to those gen 
tlemen belonging to it whose genius and benevolence originated, planned, 
and carried it out, a Hospital Train is now running on almost all the roads 
"over which it is necessary to transport sick or wounded men. These trains 
are now under the control of Government, but the Sanitary Commission 
continues to furnish a great part of the stores that are used in them. 

My first experience of them was a sad one. A week before, the army had 
moved forward and concentrated near Tunnel Hill. The dull, monotonous 
rumble of army wagons as they rolled in long trains through the dusty 
street ; the measured tramp of thousands of bronzed and war-worn vete 
rans ; the rattle and roar of the guns and caissons as they thundered on their 
mission of death ; the glittering sheen reflected from a thousand sabres, 
had all passed by and left us in the desolated town. We lived, as it were, 
with bated breath and eager ears, our nerves tensely strung with anxiety 
and suspense, waiting to catch the first sound of that coming strife where 
we knew so many of our bravest and best must fall. At last came the 
news of that terrible fight at Buzzard s Roost or Rocky Face Ridge, and the 

evening after, in came Dr. S straight from the front, and said, " the 

Hospital train is at the depot, wouldn t you like to see it ? " " Of course we 

would," chorused Mrs. Dr. S and myself, and forthwith we rushed for 

our hats and cloaks, filled two large baskets with soft crackers and oranges, 
and started off. A walk of a mile brought us to the depot, and down in 
the further corner of the depot yard we saw a train of seven or eight cars 

standing, apparently unoccupied. " There it is," said Dr. S . "Why, 

it looks like any ordinary train," I innocently remarked, but I was soon to 



232 A DESCRIPTION. 

find out the difference. We chanced to see Dr. M , the surgeon in 

charge, on the first car into which we went, and he made us welcome to do 
and to give whatever we had for the men, and so, armed with authority, 
we went forward with confidence. 

Imagine a car a little wider than the ordinary one, placed on springs, and 
having on each side three tiers of berths or cots, suspended by rubber 
bands. These cots are so arranged as to yield to the motion of the car, 
thereby avoiding that jolting that is experienced even on the smoothest 
and best road. I didn t stop to investigate the plan of the car then, for I 
saw before me, on either hand, a long line of soldiers shot in almost every 
conceivable manner, their wounds fresh from the battlefield, and all were 
patient and quiet ; not a groan or complaint escaped them, though I saw 
some faces twisted into strange contortions with the agony of their wounds. 
I commenced distributing my oranges right and left, but soon realized the 
smallness of my basket and the largeness of the demand, and sadly passed 
by all but the worst cases. In the third car that we entered we found the 
Colonel, Lieutenant Colonel, and Adj utant of the 29th Ohio, all severely 
wounded. We stopped and talked awhile. Mindful of the motto of my 
Commission, to give " aid and comfort," I trickled a little sympathy on 
them. " Poor fellows ! " said I. " No, indeed," said they. " We did suffer rid 
ing twenty miles " it couldn t have been more than fourteen or fifteen, but a 
shattered limb or a ball in one s side lengthens the miles astonishingly 
" in those horrid ambulances to the cars." " We cried last night like child 
ren, some of us," said a Lieutenant, " but we re all right now. This Hos 
pital Train is a jolly thing. It goes like a cradle." Seeing my sympathy 
wasted I tried another tack. " Did you know that SHERMAN is in Dalton ? " 
" No ! " cried the Colonel, and all the men who could, raised themselves up 
and stared at me with eager, questioning eyes. " Is that so ? " " Yes," I 
replied, " it is true." " Then, I don t care for this little wound," said one 
fellow, slapping his right leg, which was pierced and torn by a minie ball. 
Brave men ! How I longed to pour out the wealth and luxury of our whole 
North at their feet ! 

A little further on in the car, I chanced to look down, and there at my 
feet lay a young man, not more than eighteen or nineteen years old ; hair 
tossed back from his white brow ; long lashes lying on his cheek ; his face as 
delicate and refined as a girl s. I spoke to him and he opened his eyes, but 
could not speak to me. I held an orange before him, and he looked a Yes ; 
so I cut a hole in it and squeezed some of the juice into his mouth. It 
seemed to revive him a little, and after sitting a short time by his side, I 
left him. Soon after, they carried him out on a stretcher poor fellow! 
He was dying; when I saw him, and I could but think of his mother and sis 
ters who would have given worlds to stand beside him as I did. By this time 
it was growing dark, my oranges had given out, and we were sadly in the 
way ; so we left, to be haunted for many a day by the terrible pictures we 
had seen on our first visit to a Hospital Train. 



CONTINUED. 233 

My next experience was much pleasanter. I had the privilege of a ride 
on one from Chattanooga to Nashville, and an opportunity of seeing the 
arrangements. There were three hundred and fourteen sick and wounded 
on board, occupying nine or ten cars, with the surgeon s car in the middle 
of the train. This car is divided into three compartments ; at one end is 
the store-room where are kept the eatables and bedding ; at the other, the 
kitchen ; and between the two is the surgeon s room, containing his bed, 
secretary, and shelves and pigeon holes for instruments, medicines, etc. A 
narrow hall connects the store-room and kitchen, and great windows or 
openings in the opposite sides of the car give a pleasant draft of air. Sit 
ting in a comfortable arm-chair, one would not wish a pleasanter mode of 
traveling, especially through the glorious mountains of East Tennessee, and 
further on, over the fragrant, fertile meadows and the rolling hills and 
plains of Northern Alabama and middle Tennessee, clothed in their fresh 
green garments of new cotton and corn. This is all charming for a pas 
senger, but a Hospital Train is a busy place for the surgeons and nurses. 

The men come on at evening, selected from the different hospitals, 
according to their ability to be moved, and after having had their tea, the 
wounds must be freshly dressed. This takes till midnight, perhaps longer, 
and the surgeon must be on the watch continually, for on him falls the 
responsibility, not only of the welfare of the men, but of the safety of the 
train. There is a conductor and brakemen, and for them, too, there is no 
rest. Each finds enough to do as nurse or assistant. In the morning, 
after a breakfast of coffee or tea, dried beef, dried peaches, soft bread, 
cheese, etc., the wounds have to be dressed a second time, and again in the 
afternoon. In the intervals, the surgeon finds time to examine individual 
cases, and prescribe especially for them, and perhaps to take a little rest. 

As I walked through the car, I heard men say, " We haven t lived so well 
since we joined the army." " We are better treated than we ever were 
before." " This is the nicest place we were ever in," etc. 

After breakfast next morning, when the wounds were all dressed, I had 
the pleasure of carrying into one car a pitcher of delicious blackberry wine 
that came from the Soldiers Aid Society of Northern Ohio, and, with the 
advice of the assistant surgeon, giving it to the men. The car into which 
I went had only one tier of berths, supported like the others on rubber 
bands. Several times during the day I had an opportunity of giving some 
little assistance in taking care of wounded men, and it was very pleasant. 
My journey lasted a night and a day, and I think I can never again 
pass another twenty-four hours so fraught with sweet and sad memo 
ries as are connected with my second and last experience on a hospital 
train. C. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

IT is not necessary to follow the daily routine of 
Aid Room duties through the year 1864, as it differed 
only in degree from that which has been already 
detailed. 

Beyond the constant round of receiving and ship 
ping, corresponding and recording, and the superin 
tendence of the work department and the Soldiers 
Home, each day brought its special demands upon 
the time and sympathies and almost hourly occasion 
to consult the Hospital Directory or to listen to the 
thousand and one inquiries sent from the home to the 
hospital or from the soldier to his home, through that 
mutual friend and faithful medium, the Sanitary 
Commission. All the machinery that had been de 
vised to promote the efficiency of the Society and its 
Branches was still employed and such new measures 
were adopted as the resources of the treasury now 
justified. 

THE PRINTING OFFICE. 

It was the constant endeavor of the managers of 
the Society to transmit to the Branches the stimulus 
which they themselves received from their own more 
direct and daily communication with the army. It 
has been shown that personal letters were addressed 



HIE PUTTING OFFICE. 235 



monthly, or even more frequently, to the secretary of 
each society, articles prepared weekly for publication 
in the city papers, and documents, reports and ac 
knowledgments widely circulated. 

As a means of further interesting the tributaries, 
and of directing and encouraging their work, and as a 
matter of economy and convenience, a small hand 
printing-press was purchased in August of this year, 
and a corner of the cutting-room in the second story 
partitioned off and converted into a miniature printing 
office, conveniently fitted up and well supplied with 
type and other fixtures. 

Here the young ladies of the Aid Room corps 
addressed themselves with much persistence to learn 
ing the art of type-setting and press- work. With a 
few directions from a practical printer and after some 
laughable experience at the outset, these amateur 
typos became quite dextrous with composing-stick 
and roller and were soon able to produce work that 
would have been no discredit to any printing-house. 

From this little office the Cleveland Aid Society 
issued frequent bulletins that were circulated among 
the Branches and elsewhere. These bulletins con 
tained a list of hospital stores, with directions for 
preparation, packing and shipment, the latest tele 
grams from agents at the front, noting the nature and 
urgency of any special need, or letters received at the 
Aid Rooms from persons who had been aided by the 
Sanitary Commission or had witnessed its benefits to 
others. Monthly business statements, reports of the 
Soldiers Home, and all matters of general or special 
interest were submitted to correspondents in the same 
way. 



236 " AID SOCIETY PRINT." 

The cards, bill-forms, price-lists of material, letter 
heads and all blanks used from this time in the 
business of the Society also bore the impress, " Aid 
Society Print," and all were put in type, locked up, 
rolled and pressed off by the group of girls who added 
to their already engrossing duties at the Aid Rooms 
the interesting but often laborious work of practical 
typography. 

It is only justice to mention that Miss SARA M ATI AN 
was foreman of this little printing office, and that 
Mrs. MILLER, Miss YOUNGLOVE and Miss RUTH KEL 
LOGG were her persevering and competent assistants. 

Besides the establishment of the printing office, 
which really marked an era in Aid Room life, no 
changes of moment occurred this summer in the 
routine of duties that were always the same yet 
always fresh and always interesting to those who 
saw in them a reflex of the great work that was 
going surely forward, under southern suns, to a tri 
umphant end. 

A fragment from a letter written at the Cleveland 
Aid Rooms, in August, 1864, will serve as a picture 
of the busy life of this period : 

Mrs. R is assorting and packing, Mrs. M snipping away at 

a great bale of blue and white stripe, N and S posting books, C 

wrapping innumerable documents, while TIM and the redoubtable BARNEY, 
after shouting, hammering and pushing all the morning, have just de 
spatched a shipment, two full car-loads. Two other car-loads went down 
yesterday. Those were pickles and lime juice purchased at the East. Now 
they are shipping onions from the Frankfort street storehouse and rushing 
in here semi-occasionally for orders, leaving a long line of muddy boot- 
tracks on the floor which was so beautifully scrubbed after yesterday s 
clearance ! DOMINIC, (bless his good natured soul and his one eye !) has 
just appeared in the doorway, whip in hand, calling for " tally " to his next 



CANVASSING AND FORWARDING. 237 

load, and here comes FJRANK, with his hands fall of shipping-bills, and just 
at his heels is the Express man with the inevitable book which I must stop 
to receipt, * * * * next, a squad of soldiers from hospital, coming in 
for a friendly call and to ask for "just a sheet of paper and a steel pen, 
please, Miss," and one who is pale and feeble looks wistfully at the flannel 

shirts till good Mrs. M drops her shears and ties up for him in a snug 

bundle, a warm shirt and drawers, a little " comfort-bag " well filled and a 
white handkerchief. 

That completes the picture ah no ! there goes JEROME, to the Home, 
carrying a basket of grapes and a carving knife, having left his request for 
a barrel of flour and sundry other supplies for our great household under 
the hill. 

Vegetables, pickles and krout both purchased 
and contributed formed the great bulk of shipments 
to the southwest, and the demand for such supplies 
was still the burden of every letter from agents in the 
field. The services of canvassers were continued with 
much success in influencing contributions and main 
taining the branch societies. From the cutting and 
work department, which has been specially described, 
hospital clothing of excellent make and material was 
furnished in quantity from week to week. 

Well-tested recipes for making blackberry syrups 
and cordials were widely scattered, and the medicinal 
virtues of these preparations were urged through city 
and country papers. A " blackberry army " of boys 
and girls was again recruited in many townships 
where the local societies were zealous in securing the 
whole blackberry crop for hospital use. Fresh vege 
tables in bulk and ripe currants were several times 
sent to the hospitals of Camp Dennison, near Cincin. 
nati. Special requests from the surgeon of that post 
for bandages and dressings were honored from time to 
time. Garden seeds, onion-sets and flowering plants 
were again sent to the hospital gardens at Chatta 
nooga. 



238 HELP FOR PRISONERS. 

In June of this year a large number of boxes con 
signed by country societies were forwarded through 
the Cleveland Aid Rooms to the Ohio Relief Associa 
tion at Washington, and later, large quantities of 
pickles and other stores called for by the Quartermas 
ter General of Ohio were forwarded to Columbus for 
returned prisoners who were arriving there. Several 
hundred weight of tobacco were purchased by the 
Norwalk Branch for two regiments from that section. 
This gift, on reaching its destination, drew forth a 
graceful letter of acknowledgment and of tribute to 
the general usefulness of the Sanitary Commission 
among the soldiers in the field. The comparatively 
small needs of the Wheeling depot were still drawn 
from Cleveland. The Soldiers Home established by 
the Sanitary Commission at Jeffersonville, Ind., was 
largely furnished, on opening, with bedding from the 
Cleveland Aid Rooms. The Soldiers Home at Nash 
ville often received special supplies from the same 
source. 

In answer to some touching letters from Union 
prisoners in Florence, Ala., and Columbia, S. C., several 
vain attempts were made to send boxes of comforts 
to these perishing men. The pitiable condition of 
our soldiers in the rebel prisons at Cahawba, Ala., 
reported by some of the escaped or exchanged prison 
ers, moved the officers of the Cleveland Aid Society 
to open communication with the rebel officials in 
charge of that post, and to ask their help in deliver 
ing to these suffering prisoners some supplies of 
clothing. Fair promises, never fulfilled, were the 
only results of these negotiations which were at last 
regretfully abandoned. 



CHANGE OF VICE-PRESIDENTS. 239 

Shipments to the Sanitary agency at Leavenworth, 
Kansas, were continued as usual. These goods had 
now free transportation over the Chicago, Burlington 
and Quincy, and Hannibal and St. Joseph railroads. In 
the duties of this agency, Mr. BROWN was assisted by 
the Ladies Aid Society of Leavenworth, which strug 
gled through many difficulties to become an active 
and useful organization. The destitute state of the 
freedmen and Union refugees that were arriving in 
great numbers at Leavenworth was vividly brought 
to the notice of the Cleveland Society by the letters 
of Mrs. HIRAM GRISWOLD, a former resident of this 
city, who in removing to Kansas carried to this new 
home the quick sympathies and active loyalty that 
had made her for many months one of the most zeal 
ous workers at the Cleveland Aid Rooms. 

At a regular meeting, November 1st, 1864, Mrs. J. 
A. HARRIS, who had been from its organization an 
active member of the Society, was chosen second vice- 
president. This office had been left vacant by the 
resignation, August 2d, of Mrs. LEWIS BURTON, whose 
charitable labors in other directions made her daily 
attendance at the Aid Rooms impossible. 

The officers and active members of the Society 
sometimes suffered in health from too laborious or 
exciting duty at the Rooms and were forced, occasion 
ally, to seek rest and change for a few weeks but, 
with the two exceptions noted above and on page 105, 
all were happily spared the pain of giving up, perma 
nently, their places in a work that was all-engrossing 
and that brought day by day rich and all-satisfying 
reward to mind and heart. 



240 REVIEW OF THE YEAR. 

The treasurer s books at the close of the year 
showed that the resources of the Society had been 
liberally expended, but there was constant demand 
for a class of stores that money could not buy, for 
bandages, dressings, articles of home workmanship 
and many little comforts that only generosity and 
skill could supply. Every call for these was answered 
with a promptness that should be gratefully recorded 
to the lasting honor of the aid societies of Northern 
Ohio. 

During the summer, tributaries had been urged to 
collect pickles, krout, potatoes, onions and anything 
that would prevent or arrest scurvy. These appeals 
were made in behalf of SHERMAN S men, lying before 
Atlanta. When that splendid army, on its ever-famous 
" march to the sea," passed beyond the loving care of 
the North and could only be followed by the prayers 
of thousands of anxious hearts, the forces of THOMAS, 
gathering about Nashville, received generous supplies 
from Northern Ohio. 

The hospital stores shipped from Cleveland still 
went mainly to the headquarters of the Sanitary 
Commission at Louisville, Ky., thence to be for 
warded to Nashville, Chattanooga, Atlanta, Memphis, 
Vicksburg and the ever more distant " front," to be 
dispensed by agents whose experience fitted them to 
bestow the right thing in the right place and to use 
supplies with less waste and more effect than could 
be done by any transient distributor however con 
scientious or zealous. 

From Dr. NEWBERRY S final report it appears that 
the stores distributed by the Sanitary Commission in 



EXPENSES OF DISTRIBUTION. 241 

the armies of the West were valued at five millions 
one hundred and twenty-three thousand two hundred 
and fifty-six dollars and twenty-nine cents, in the 
home field. The expenses of collecting, transporting 
and distributing these supplies amounted to one hun 
dred and ninety-six thousand two hundred and thirty- 
seven dollars and eighteen cents, of which ninety-eight 
thousand eight hundred and ninety-four dollars and 
sixty-seven cents were paid for their distribution. In 
other words, the expense incurred outside of the 
home field, in transporting and distributing stores 
valued at over five millions of dollars was less than 
one hundred thousand dollars, or less than two per 
cent, of their valuation, a lower per cent-age than was 
claimed by any other organization of a similar charac 
ter. If the work of the supply department of the 
West had been done as a commercial transaction, if 
the stores had all been purchased, and the expenses 
of transporting and distributing them all paid in cash, 
- it certainly could not have been done where and as 
it was done for a less sum than ten millions of dollars. 

When the approach of winter again increased the 
calls for woolens, socks and mittens, the aid societies 
turned their resources toward the purchase of mate 
rial. Fairs, suppers and lectures were held in many 
towns for the "soldiers aid" fund, dime sociables 
and tableau parties were made profitable to the good 
cause. 

As time went on, the tributary societies, learning 
from long experience and often-repeated precept that 
it is the supplies sent before the news of a battle that 



24*2 NEW QUAETERS. 

save life and assuage suffering, settled into a steady 
round of duty with results far more effective than any 
spasmodic action, however brilliant, could have pro 
duced. 

There was, moreover, through this year an added 
impetus in the belief that " the beginning of the end " 
had come, an impulse inspired by the achievements 
of our gallant armies, East and West. 

April 1st, 1865, the Cleveland Aid Rooms were 
removed three doors north, to No. 89 Bank street. 

The old quarters had long been cramped and in 
convenient, yet this change was not made without 
regrets at leaving the spot where the Society had 
begun its work and which the varied experience of 
four years had invested with so many and so dear 
associations. 

The new Rooms were a spacious wareroom on the 
ground floor with store cellar beneath, and a sky 
lighted office in the rear, which a little taste and 
ingenuity soon converted into a pleasant boudoir 
counting-room. By general desire, the arrangement of 
desks and other furniture was made as nearly as 
possible the same as in the little office that had just 
been quitted. An interior staircase led to a large 
square room above, where the counters, shelves and 
store-boxes of the cutting and commission-sales de 
partment found ample accommodation. Another 
staircase, directly above the first, gave access to a 
room of the same size in the third story, and here the 
printing office was established. A speaking tube 
from the office communicated with the second and 



A CONSECRATION. 243 

third story rooms, which were airy, well-lighted and 
cheerful. Gas and water were conveniently arranged 
through the building. 

The new Aid Rooms, on the first day of occupation, 
were consecrated by the funeral services of a Union 
soldier who had borne his starved body and crazed 
brain homeward from a rebel prison-pen only to reach 
the Cleveland Soldiers Home and die. No trace of 
his family could be discovered and after a week of 
vain attempt to acquaint them with his fate there 
gathered around his coffin at the Aid Rooms a little 
group strangers to the dead, but not the less his 
mourning friends who paid the last Christian offices 
of respect to his remains. Weeks afterwards, the in 
quiries, which had been diligently continued, were 
successful and the body was borne from its stranger 
grave to rest with kindred dust. This was the second 
occasion on which burial services of the unclaimed 
dead were solemnized at the Cleveland Aid Rooms. 



CHAPTER XV. 

THE hope of returning peace, which dawned with 
1865 and flushed with joyous excitement the opening 
months of that eventful year, broke into glorious sun 
light when, on the 3d of April, the fall of Richmond 
was flashed over the land and, on the 9th, the capitu 
lation of the rebel army in Virginia. 

These events virtually closed the war and were im 
mediately followed by orders from theWar Department 
stopping enlistments, diminishing supplies, calling in 
troops and preparing to reduce the army to a peace 
basis. 

A few brief days of wild rejoicing, in the vain 
attempt to grasp and take to heart the great happi 
ness of peace indeed at hand, and then the too 
bright future was suddenly overcast by deepest gloom, 
and the voice of triumph and thanksgiving died away 
in a wail of national lamentation as baffled treason 
guided the assassin s hand to its deadly aim, and 
ABRAHAM LINCOLN fell, the noblest of martyrs to a 
noble cause. 

When the funeral pageant paused in its long sad 
journey, to rest in solemn state within the temple 
that loyal hands made haste to rear under the wide- 
spreading elms of the Forest City, the representatives 



244 




MONUMENT PARK, CLEVELAND, O. 
The Remains of President Lincoln Iving in State, April 28, 1865. Page 244. 



A MEMORABLE BAY. 245 

of the Sanitary Commission were allowed to bring 
tribute of rare flowers and to watch all through that 
mournful day near the coffin of the honored dead. 

Who of the thousands ,that passed, with downcast 
eye and muffled footfall, in review before that Silent 
Presence will ever forget the ineffable sadness of that 
day ! the clouds dropping gentle rain, in sympathy 
with a nation s tears, the sighing wind lifting and 
swaying the draperies of the curtained pagoda, heavy 
with symbols of woe, the national emblems everywhere 
drooping and shrouded with sables, or the weird 
solemnities of the evening watch, when the moaning 
of the restless trees and the loud w^ail of the rising 
storm mingled fitfully with the wild strains of a dirge, 
and glancing torches flashed for one moment with un 
earthly glare as the bearers reverently raised their 
sacred burden, and the cortege, with nodding plumes 
and stately trappings, swept out into the dense dark 
ness that fell like a pall upon the mournful scene. 

Years of sorrow seemed to have clouded over and 
blotted out the bright rising of the sun of peace. In 
the exciting and varied events of that ever-memorable 
time it was hard to take up the burden of duties 
again, nor was this a grief that faded with its day. 
The shaded faces and mourning breast knots of the 
little Aid Eooni group were long the symbols of a 
blow that fell upon every loyal heart with the weight 
of a personal bereavement. 

The actual close of the war was scarcely known or 
noted in Sanitary circles. The heaviest, most engross 
ing, and by far the most interesting relief work in 
the home field began after the war had really ended. 



246 WELCOME HOME. 

The sudden cessation of hostilities, the rapid re 
duction of the army, and the immediate return of 
regiments from the field made it the first duty of the 
Sanitary Commission to increase its means of pro 
viding for the comfort of soldiers in transit. Other 
schemes affecting the welfare of the soldier-turned- 
citizen were already working in philanthropic brains, 
to be brought forth so soon as occasion for them 
should be developed. Soldiers Homes, lodging and 
feeding stations, that had been maintained for the 
accommodation of squads of invalid men or an occa 
sional passing regiment, were now to be enlarged and 
fitted to welcome and give good cheer to thousands 
of homeward-bound heroes. 

In these duties the Cleveland Branch performed no 
unwilling part, and happily the generous results of the 
fair gave ample means for pursuing the purposes of 
the special relief department. The final report of the 
Sanitary fair had been made in the preceding March, 
when the balance, thirty-two thousand seven hundred 
dollars in Government bonds, was turned over to the 
exclusive control of the Society. This sum was in 
the treasury at the close of the war. 

The interest of this history now passes into that of 
the Special Relief service, which is fully presented in 
the accompanying Report. There, the enlargement of 
the Soldiers Home, the busy care given day and 
night throughout the summer and fall to each return 
ing regiment, and the subsequent conduct of the Free 
Claim Agency will be found in detail. These will be 
touched upon here only as it is necessary to refer to 
them in following the general history of the Society 
to its close. 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. 24? 

When it became certain that the aggressive opera 
tions of war were indeed over, many branch societies 
began to inquire, by letter or otherwise, whether the 
work of preparing hospital stores might not properly 
cease. It must be recorded here, to the credit of the 
Northern Ohio aid societies, that their contributions 
received at the Cleveland Rooms in the month of 
April, 1865, when the war closed, were as great as 
they had been at any time, only excepting the excit 
ing period immediately after the news of the battle 
of Pittsburg Landing in 1862. 

To the officers of the Cleveland Society, long accus 
tomed to look forward to the effect upon their work 
of any possible change in military affairs, it seemed 
certain that the duties of the supply department must 
continue for a considerable time after the return 
of peace. In supplementing Government issues, the 
Sanitary Commission had never commanded stores 
enough to meet all the demands of our great armies, 
and in the event of any probable reduction of the 
forces during the coming summer there must yet be a 
wide field for the offices of benevolence. This opinion 
was always given in answer to the inquiries daily put 
by the representatives of tributary societies, inqui 
ries that were not made from weariness or lack of 
interest but from honest belief that their occupation 
was gone. 

To strengthen this opinion by appeal to the highest 
sources of information on this point, the officers of the 
Cleveland Branch addressed a letter to the general 
office of the Sanitary Commission asking whether 
they might not follow the example of the War De- 



248 CONTINUING SUPPLIES. 

partment, reduce expenditure, cut down supplies, 
discourage contribution, and prepare to giv r e their 
auxiliaries honorable discharge from their long and 
faithful volunteer service. 

The reply to this is embodied in an extract from 
the minutes of a meeting of the Commission, April 
20th : " The termination of the war leaves much to 
be done for the relief of the national forces in garri 
son and before they could safely be disbanded and 
the men re-established in the pursuits of civil life. 
Such garrisons, as a rule, require more sanitary aid 
than the forces in the field, and Aid Societies should, 
in the opinion of the Commission, not abandon their 
work but continue it with added activity, in view of 
the prospect that it may soon gradually cease to be 
necessary." 

Obedient to the spirit of this decision, the duties of 
the supply service were continued at the Cleveland 
Aid Rooms with much vigor and chiefly in the 
interest of the troops that were maintained around 
Nashville. Agents from that quarter reported Gen 
eral THOMAS still relying hopefully upon the Sanitary 
Commission for keeping his army well supplied with 
vegetables. A bulletin was at once issued to the 
branch societies, representing this fact and calling 
attention to the condition of the returned prisoners 
then gathering at Vicksburg, so many of whom were 
overtaken on their way homeward by that fearful 
calamity, the explosion of the Mississippi river steamer 
Sultana, 

The only way in which it seemed wise or even pos 
sible to reduce expenses was by diminishing the issues 



A STATE OF SIEGE. 249 

of material to branch societies, it being judged that 
the garments contributed would from this time be 
sufficient to keep up the due proportion in shipment. 
Notice was therefore given that, after May 15th, no 
more packages of work would be furnished from the 
Cleveland Aid Rooms except in rare cases when a 
Branch that made frequent contribution should need 
a small supply to keep up the weekly meetings while 
endeavoring to raise funds. 

Even this attempted retrenchment was premature, 
for as regiment after regiment returned and was or 
dered into Camp Cleveland, to wait muster-out and 
pay, a host of bronzed and sturdy veterans daily 
besieged the Rooms, each one bearing in his travel- 
stained garments and generally unkempt appearance 
the surest passport to aid. To most of these men, in 
their devious wanderings, the paymaster had for 
months been a veritable will o the wisp. Government 
issues of clothing had ceased, and in the interval 
between muster-oat and final pay-day the "Sanitary" 
found abundant occasion for its kind offices. 

The distribution of under-garments, socks, sus 
penders, handkerchiefs, combs, soap, towels, writing 
materials, and the plug of tobacco that always conies 
first on the soldier s list of requirements, was at this 
time the chief business done at the Aid Rooms. 

The ladies were often dismayed to find a crowd 
blockading the pavement and patiently waiting their 
arrival of a morning, and when the doors were thrown 
open the throng was so great that they were fain to 
draw across the wide room a high counter, as a sort 
of barricade behind which they could more conven- 



250 " COMFOBTSBAGS." 

iently arrange and apportion their issues. It was 
only stout, hale soldiers that were thus barred out. 
The little wicket was always opened at the sight of a 
pale face or halting step, and garments of more deli 
cate make and material or some dainties drawn from 
a certain reserve stock were slyly packed into the 
invalid s parcel. 

Among the minor articles of convenience given out 
at the Aid Rooms nothing was more useful than the 
little housewives or work bags that were generally 
made by school children and juvenile societies. 
Scarcely a day passed but some soldier would call in 
on the way to or from his regiment to beg for a 
needle, a skein of thread or a few buttons. Then the 
compact little " comfort-bag " was handed out, and, as 
if by magic, all his desires met their fulfilment. 

Sometimes the dextrous fingers of one of the Aid 
Room ladies had occasion to adjust a displaced arm- 
sling or to do some trifling office of the needle for a 
feeble soldier. Poor fellows ! they often sadly needed 
patching up, if only a stitch could have been put 
into the lame arm or halting limb, to mend them up 
in body as well as in raiment ! 

Besides the great number of unpaid soldiers that 
flocked into the Aid Rooms, in these days of the break 
ing up of camps and hospitals, there were others of a 
more forlorn class. They were those whose hard 
earned money, just received, had been filched by trav 
eling pickpockets or cunningly coaxed away by con 
fidence men and sharpers. This misfortune generally 
overtook the victim on his journey homeward and 
thus left him penniless among strangers, with no re- 



NO PLACE TO STOP. 251 

course on Government and totally dependent upon 
charity. The officers of the railroads centering in 
Cleveland listened with wonderful patience to the 
almost hourly request for passes, and helped these 
unfortunates forward with great kindness. The tables 
of the Soldiers Home supplied them with food and a 
package of luncheon for the journey. Some neces 
saries of clothing were usually furnished from the 
Aid Rooms. This home distribution comes under 
the head of Special Relief, and is detailed in the ac 
companying Report. 

The Sanitary Commission had fixed upon July 1st, 
as the probable limit of the supply service. When 
that time came, the Cleveland Branch found no place 
to stop, but every reason to continue the issues that 
have been mentioned. Those who for more than four 
years had followed the soldier into camp and upon 
the field with their gifts were resolved that he should 
not ask in vain when he returned to a land of plenty. 

A considerable sum was expended in purchasing 
certain articles that were not in the usual line of con 
tribution, and the branch societies were called upon 
in an urgent circular issued July 10th, to continue 
their meetings or to reorganize if disbanded. Notice 
was at the same time given that cut garments would 
be sent out from the Cleveland Aid Rooms as usual 
until the Branches could again gather funds to buy 
material for their own work. 

The long weekly reports of receipts in hospital 
clothing, furnishings and especially in farm and daily 
products, through the entire summer of 1865, are testi- 



-?O^ THE EMPLOYMENT AGENCY. 

mony to the faithful continuance in well-doing of the 
aid societies of Northern Ohio long after the close of 
the war afforded them a plausible excuse for resting 
from their labors. 

THE E M P L () Y M E XT AGENCY. 

The rapid disbanding of our armies immediately 
suggested to the Sanitary Commission the need of 
some systematic provision for re-establishing the re 
turned soldiers in the relations and pursuits of civil 
life, from which they had become more or less de 
tached. It was proposed to effect this by constituting 
each supply Branch a " Bureau of Information and 
Employment," to which all discharged soldiers could 
apply for business situations, and where the invalid 
or partially disabled, especially, were to be aided in 
finding such light occupations as they could best 
pursue. 

An Employment Agency was opened at the Cleve 
land Aid Rooms, May 1st, 1865, upon a plan of 
registration furnished by the Central office at Wash 
ington. The books give only a partial showing of 
the aid afforded by the Society to soldiers in search of 
employment, much informal and unrecorded work of 
this kind having been done from the first year of the 
war. The early applicants, invariably disabled men, 
had been put into the way of obtaining work, if fit for 
any duty, or classed, with their families, among the 
objects of special relief. 

On opening the Agency it was advertised through 
the city and country papers, and circulars calling 
attention to it were distributed among business men. 



ITS MANAGEMENT. 253 

A blackboard, scribbled all over with an attractive 
enumeration of the talents and accomplishments of 
the applicants, was conspicuously posted on the pave 
ment in front of the Aid Room door, and every effort 
was made to bring employer and employe together. 

The permanently disabled men were considered the 
first claimants and these were certainly the most diffi 
cult to place in situations. In cases where only half 
service could be done, and wages were small in pro 
portion, a monthly allowance for house rent was 
given and the aid of the Society again and again ex 
tended. Tools and materials were loaned or given to 
sick men who could gain a trifle by working at home. 
If quite unable to earn anything they were withdrawn 
from the books of the Agency and entered as pen 
sioners of the Aid Society. Several young men who 
were disabled by the loss of limbs were allowed to 
remain at the Soldiers Home through a course of 
study at the Commercial College, two were sent to 
city schools, and three became telegraph operators 
and offices were secured for them. 

Of those registered as able bodied, nearly all were 
feeble from late illness and only very few were fit for 
full duty. The majority of the really able bodied 
men were too lately from the army to have regained 
the industrious habits of civil life, some failed to 
report a second time at the office, others left the city 
upon mere hearsay of employment elsewhere, and 
several who were provided with situations broke the 
engagement and were dismissed from the books. A 
few, known to be intemperate and unworthy, were 
refused entry upon application. These cases of 



254 A SIGNIFICANT RECORD. 

unfaithfulness are balanced by those of several ex 
cellent men who are still holding positions of trust 
with their first employers. 

Young men who came in from the country to look 
for work, if without means, were admitted to the 
Soldiers Home for three days, furnished with a card 
of recommend to employers and directed where to 
apply. The permit for the Home was extended at 
discretion if it expired before employment was secured. 
Upon notice from the employer that an engagement 
had been formed, the soldier was often allowed to 
remain at the Home till first pay-day enabled him to 
engage a boarding place. 

The employers register did not keep pace with that 
of the applicants, and it became necessary to make 
personal appeals to the business men of the city. 
The duty of placing the disabled involved especial 
ingenuity and persistence on the part of the ladies 
of the Society, much running about after office hours, 
an occasional day s traveling, hither and yon, with 
livery horses, and a continual boring of friends, kins 
folk and acquaintance, 

In turning over the books of the Employment 
Agency it is interesting to notice many names long 
familiar to the Society, names that appear first upon 
the supply books, when the soldier on marching 
away from home received some article of comfort or 
convenience from the Aid Eooms ; next, entered upon 
the records of the Hospital Directory, when missed 
from the ranks after a battle or reported in some far- 
off hospital, he was traced at the request of sorrowing 
friends; later, it is found in the list of those who, on 



AN ABSTRACT. 255 

the homeward journey, found rest and refreshment in 
the Soldiers Home; again, upon the Special Relief 
books, where supplies of food, fuel, medicines or 
clothing for his family are noted beneath it ; and when 
health and strength are returning it is registered with 
an application for employment. Lastly, the soldier, 
turned citizen, will file his papers with the Free Claim 
Agency. 

Such a record shows the watchfulness of the Sani 
tary Commission over the objects of its care, and is 
no less significant of the confidence that the soldier 
placed in this tried and faithful friend. 

ABSTRACT OF THE CLEVELAND EMPLOYMENT AGENCY. 

Number of applications by employers, 170 

Number of applications for employment : 

By able bodied men, 258 

By disabled men, 153 

Total applicants for employment, 411 

Number failed to report a second time, 80 

Number of applications by letter, not received 31 

^-Q 

300 
Number lurnished with employment : 

Able bodied men, 108 

Disabled men, 98 

Total furnished, 206 

Number remaining on the books unfurnished, 94 

Number once furnished, applied a second time, 77 

KINDS OF EMPLOYMENT FURNISHED : 

Mechanics, 24; Clerks and Copyists, 27 ; Farmers and Gardeners, 17; 
Laborers and Porters, 52 ; Teamsters, 17 ; Railroad hands, 9 ; In private 
families, 25 ; Agents, 4 ; Post Office Clerks, 4 ; Telegraph Operators, 3 ; 
Watchmen, 3 ; Policemen, 3 ; Entered at School, 2 ; Physician, 1 ; Janitor, 
1 ; Tollgate keeper, 1 ; Pedler, 2 ; Unknown, 11. Total, 206. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

THE shipments of the Society ceased about the 
middle of August, on advice from the Louisville head 
quarters, and no further effort was made to attract 
contributions. Supplies received after that time were 
used at the Home for the comfort of its inmates and 
later were given to destitute disabled soldiers who 
were living in or near the city, or to any needy dis 
charged men who applied at the office of the Aid 
Rooms for help. 

With the close of the supply service came the first 
realization that the war was indeed over. 

The bustle of packing, boxing and despatching 
ceased, and the long room, which had been nearly 
cleared by the last shipment, looked lonesome and 
dreary. The last Bulletins and Reporters had been 
mailed and the Document committees retired from 
their long and faithful service. The cutting and work 
department was cleared of material and the duties of 
that committee were ended. Draymen looked idly in 
at the door in the vain hope of getting a "job," and 
the porter, for lack of employment at the Aid Rooms, 
was transformed into factotum and half-hourly-express 
to the Home, where the busy summer s work of receiv 
ing regiments still continued. The printing press 

256 



CLOSE OF THE SUPPLY WORK. 257 

was seldom used now and only in the business of the 
Employment Agency, which, with the general care of 
the records, was at this time the only office work 
done at the Rooms. 

In their determination not to desert the work, the 
officers of the Society had now stood at their post till 
the work had deserted them and the question of con 
tinuing had solved itself. 

September 1st, the main room and store cellar, now 
needlessly spacious, were under-leased to a business 
firm. The signs were taken down, the receiving-cases, 
empty barrels and packing boxes, the porter s truck 
and skids, the scales and other fixtures and conven 
iences of the shipping department, were disposed of at 
private sale or returned to the owners who had loaned 
them, and a general clearance by auction was made of 
miscellaneous articles that had accumulated in the 
four and a half years of business and were valueless 
to the soldiers or their families. 

The office furniture and books, with a small supply 
of stores for chance distribution, were removed to 
the second story, where an Aid Room in miniature 
was established. Here everything was carefully dis 
posed to preserve so far as possible the arrangement 
of the dear old room that had just been vacated. 
Office hours were from 9 o clock, A. M., till 12 M. 

Published notice was given that the Cleveland Aid 
Rooms had been removed to "office No. 17, second 
floor," where the ladies would remain to close up the 
business, arrange their papers, and render a final re 
port. The branch societies were released from fur 
ther duties, with words of grateful thanks, and their 



258 BREAKING UP THE AID ROOMS. 

officers were requested to send in their own closing 
statements with any other papers that would be 
of service in making up the general history. All out 
standing packages of work and material were called 
in. Notice was at the same time given that a part of 
the Soldiers Home would be kept open till some 
permanent provision had been made, by State or Na 
tional Government, for homeless disabled soldiers, and 
that at the office of the Society, in the Home building, 
some one of the ladies would be found every morning 
between the hours of 9 and 12. 

The coveted retirement and quiet opportunity for 
balancing books and closing accounts were not secured 
even by this withdrawal to a second floor rear. The 
morning office-hours were engrossed with the Employ 
ment Agency, which involved much patience and 
perplexity, and even the long afternoons slipped by, 
filled with a succession of duties often trifling, but 
all going to make up the sum of special relief work. 

Several hours of each day were passed at the Home, 
where a family of about sixty was now maintained, 
mostly men who were admitted for a few days while 
seeking employment in the city. Squads of invalids 
just discharged from hospital came, day after day, and 
there was, at long intervals, a regiment late in making 
the journey home from some distant post, but the 
great rush was over. The household of the Home 
gradually fell back into the regular ways of the old 
time, and the ladies could enjoy a quiet night in their 
own houses with only a faint chance of being startled 
from their dreams by the well-known summons to 
welcome an approaching regiment. 



OHIO STATE SOLDIERS HOME. 259 

In June of this year, Governor BROUGH, interested 
for the future of the homeless disabled men who were 
being discharged from hospital, had applied to the 
War Department for the transfer of Tripler Hospital, 
near Columbus, with its furniture and equipments, to 
the State of Ohio, with the purpose of founding a 
permanent Soldiers Home. This request was granted 
and the transfer duly made. 

The OHIO STATE SOLDIERS HOME was formally 
opened October 17th, 1865, and all invalid or dis 
abled discharged men were invited to its hospitality, 
" not as a charity," so reads the circular, " but as a 
return in part for what they have sacrificed for their 
country." The State Home was pleasantly located 
on the banks of the Scioto river, about three miles 
from Columbus. The buildings were temporary, in 
the barrack style, convenient, commodious and nearly 
new ; in fact the workmen were still busy upon them 
when the war closed. The furniture and equipments 
were reasonably ample. 

To sustain this new asylum until an appropriation 
could be obtained from the Ohio Legislature at its 
approaching session, the Cincinnati Branch Sanitary 
Commission gave fifteen thousand dollars. This sum 
not being sufficient, in the unexpected delay in acting 
upon the bill, the Cleveland Branch later gave five 
thousand dollars from its treasury towards the sup 
port of the State Home. 

A few days before the formal opening in October, 
the secretary and treasurer of the Cleveland Society 
visited the State Home, on request of the superintend 
ent, Hon. ISAAC BRAYTOIS", and it was then agreed to 



260 TRANSFERRING SOLDIERS. 

transfer all invalid soldiers that were in the Cleveland 
Home to this more permanent asylum, and to make 
known to the disabled soldiers of Northern Ohio this 
new provision for their comfort. The design was to 
turn over at once to the State Home all the furniture 
and stores of the Cleveland Home, but this was soon 
found to be impracticable. The daily arrivals of 
feeble soldiers en route from distant hospitals, the 
occasional coming of a regiment, and especially the 
presence of several hopelessly sick men whose critical 
condition, protracted through the winter, forbade any 
thought of their removal to Columbus, made it neces 
sary to keep the Cleveland Soldiers Home open, 
month after month, as will be seen by the accompany 
ing report. 

The branch aid societies were desired, by letter and 
circular, to inform all feeble and disabled soldiers in 
their locality without distinction of State or nation 
ality of their claims to the charity of the State and 
to urge them to accept it. Notice was sent through 
out Northern Ohio that soldiers desiring to enter the 
State Home might report themselves at Cleveland 
whence they would be forwarded to Columbus at the 
charge of the Sanitary Commission. The officers of 
the Society made it the chief business of this winter 
to collect and send forward invalid soldiers to Co 
lumbus. 

The Cleveland Soldiers Home became a rendezvous 
where the feeble men were kept for a few days for 
rest, if need be, provided with comfortable under 
clothing, furnished with railroad tickets to Columbus 
and a certificate which insured them admission to the 



CLOSING UP. 261 

State Home. The Cleveland and Columbus railroad 
company afforded these tickets to the Aid Society at 
half the usual rates. The steward of the Cleveland 
Home was often sent down in charge of a squad of 
helpless soldiers or with very sick men, who were 
always removed on a bed comfortably settled in the 
baggage car. At the Columbus depot an ambulance 
stood ready to convey them to the door of the State 
Home. Some further notice of the OHIO STATE 
SOLDIERS HOME is given in the Special Relief Report 
which accompanies this history. It may be said here 
that the officers of the Cleveland Aid Society had a 
warm interest in this institution through its entire 
existence, an interest that was not withdrawn w^hen 
in the summer of 1867 it was transferred to the 
general Government, became a NATIONAL SOLDIERS 
ASYLUM, and was removed to permanent buildings 
at Dayton, O. 

As may be imagined, the work of " closing up" 
went on but slowly in the little second-story office of 
the Aid Society this winter. 

Files of letters were indeed drawn from their dusty 
pigeon-holes and prepared for preservation in letter- 
books ; printed documents were indexed and arranged 
for binding. The great ledgers and shipping books 
were still to be reviewed, an aggregate of the business 
taken and a careful estimate made of the cash value 
of all contributions. 

While this dull work was going heavily forward at 
rare intervals, on chance occasions of comparative 
leisure, a new duty so plainly appeared that there 



262 THE FREE CLAIM AGENCY. 

was no question of putting it aside or shrinking from 
its burdens. 

The Branch Agency established at Cleveland by the 
general Commission, January 1st, IS 65, for the prose 
cution, without charge to the soldier, of naval and 
military claims of the late war, was like all similar 
offices ordered to be closed at the end of the year, 
with transfer of the pending claims to the general 
office at Washington. When the time of closing 
came, a great number of unsettled claims remained on 
the books, to which the proposed transfer would 
cause much delay and embarrassment, while the daily 
increasing business clearly showed the importance to 
the soldier of continuing a free Agency in this 
locality. 

The officers of the Aid Society believed that they 
could not use to a better or more legitimate purpose 
the balance in the treasury than by assuming the 
expenses and supervision of the Claim office. This 
being decided on, the FEEE CLAIM AGENCY was estab 
lished in the third-floor room, directly above the office 
that was still known as the " Aid Room." The print 
ing press, now disused, was taken down to give place 
to this new department, and was subsequently given 
to the State Home. 

April 20th, 1866, five years from the date of its 
organization, the Society contracted office limits 
again, giving up the second floor, removing to the 
third story and sharing that room with the Claim 
Agency. This third migration was easily accom 
plished. The desks and books, and a few boxes of 
soldiers clothing and little comforts to answer the 



ITS MANAGEMENT. 263 

appeals that were made almost daily, were soon trans 
ferred to "Koorn 15, third floor." The pictures and 
trifling ornaments, that had been carefully preserved 
in every removal and were dearly prized from asso 
ciation, were still made by familiar grouping to recall 
memories of the lights and shadows of Aid Room 
life. The porter, whose office was now a sinecure, 
was commended, with testimonials of long and faith 
ful service, to another situation. A discharged soldier 
well known to the Society by his trusty performance 
of duty at the Home, was employed as sub-clerk, 
porter, and agent in the many little items of business 
that constantly occurred in rendering special relief to 
soldiers in transit or to soldiers families. 

In taking charge of the Claim Agency there had 
been no thought of maintaining it beyond the time 
needed for adjusting the claims under existing laws, 
but as new and important pension and bounty laws 
were soon agitated and finally passed, the same 
reasons which had moved the Society to assume the 
business were urgent for its continuance and it was 
resolved to keep the office open until the decision of 
Congress upon the proposed increase of pensions 
should be made known. 

The purposes of the Agency were again advertised 
through the press of Northern Ohio and its notices 
widely distributed. The officers and members of the 
branch societies were furnished with its cards and 
circulars and requested to put them into the hands of 
every soldier who might need legal aid in adjusting 
his claims on Government for services in the late war. 

The Aid Room circle was now broken up and the 



264 LAST DAYS. 

secretary and treasurer of the Society alone remained 
to direct the affairs of the Claim office, in which an 
authorized agent was employed. The growing busi 
ness under new laws of June, 1866, obliged them to 
increase the clerical force and to give their whole time 
and constant services to the minutiae of office work. 

In the really wearying routine of duties so unex 
pectedly protracted, it was impossible to find time or 
thought for preparing the general history and final 
statements that had been so long promised to the 
public. Besides the unwillingness to put aside the 
claims of a needful charity or to stop short of the con 
scientious fulfilment of a public trust, there was an 
actual inability to sum up the results of a work that 
was yet unfinished. 

The Agency ceased to take new applications, Janu 
ary 1st, 1867, and remained open only to claimants 
whose papers were already on file there. From this 
time the duties of the office were less engrossing, and 
on the 1st of July an agreement was made with an 
experienced agent to take charge of the still pending 
claims, he to receive from the Society a specified sum 
upon each claim at its final adjustment. 

Though relieved, by this agreement, from daily 
attendance at the office, the secretary and treasurer 
could not feel absolved from personal responsibility 
and were unwilling to wholly resign into other hands, 
however competent, the closing business of the 
Agency. The history of the Cleveland Free Claim 
Agency, which properly closes the general history 
of the Aid Society, is detailed in the accompanying 
Special Relief Report. 



SUMMARY. 265 

The reader is referred to that Keport, page 398, 
for the expansion of a subject whose brief mention 
here scarcely conveys an idea of the three years of 
labor and solicitude which the management of the 
Claim Agency involved, after the actual close of the 
war. 



The foregoing pages are a brief sketch of the work 
that loyalty prompted one small district to do for the 
soldiers. They are submitted in the hope that it may 
not be uninteresting to trace the history of a Society 
which was the first permanently organized, one of the 
first to enter the field, and the last to leave it ; which 
began with a capital of two gold dollars and closed 
with a cash statement of more than one hundred and 
seventy thousand dollars ; which grew from a neigh 
borhood sewing-circle to become the representative of 
five hundred and twenty-five branch organizations, in 
dispensing hospital stores valued at nearly a million of 
dollars ; which built and supported a Soldiers Home 
and conducted a Special Relief system and an Em 
ployment Agency, from which sixty thousand Union 
soldiers and their families received aid and comfort, 
and a Free Claim Agency which gratuitously collected 
war claims aggregating three hundred thousand dol 
lars, at a saving to the claimants of over seventeen 
thousand dollars. 

Appended to this volume are tabular statements 
which confirm the above summary. 

Appendix A gives the treasurer s cash report, an 
enumeration of the supplies issued, w^ith their cash 



i ., 



266 ABSTRACTS. 

valuation, and a list of the army localities to which 
these were shipped. 

Appendix B sums up the expenses of the Special 
Belief service, including the cost of building, enlarg 
ing and maintaining the Cleveland Soldiers Home, 
and notes the number of lodgings, meals and transpor 
tation tickets furnished to soldiers, classifying the 
applicants by the states from which they were enlisted. 
This appendix also gives the names of citizens who 
contributed cash for building the Home, and of those 
Branch Societies that sent supplies specifically for its 
tables. 

Appendix C reports the business of the Free Claim 
Agency, the number and designation of the cases filed 
and the items and aggregate of expense. 

Appendix D records the names of ladies of the city 
whose payment of the monthly fee, for one year or 
longer, or whose active part in the work at the Aid 
Koorns, entitles them to be called members of the 
Society, and the names of the gentlemen who were 
enrolled as honorary members. 

In Appendix E are the names of those friends of 
the Aid Society who were most prominent in all 
schemes for supplying its treasury, ladies and gen 
tlemen whose energy and skill projected concerts, 
tableaux and amusements of various kinds, and young 
people whose musical or artistic talents made these 
amateur entertainments charming and profitable. The 
special committees of the Sanitary Fair have their 
place here, though even this long array of names em 
braces but a tithe of those who worked zealously in 
that great charity. The local associate members of 



REPORTS. 267 

the U. S. SANITARY COMMISSION, the Ward Relief Com 
mittees, so far as reported, and the city Reception 
Committees are included in this appendix. 

Appendix F is a list of Branch Societies, with the 
names of their officers and correspondents, so far as it 
was possible to obtain them from letters or reports. 
Under some of these will be found a summary of the 
cash disbursed or of the estimated contribution in 
kind. These have all been taken from the written re 
ports of an officer. Where no valuation was furnished 
none has been supplied. 

Even the most satisfactory of these statements but 
feebly shadows the patience, enthusiasm and self-devo 
tion involved in maintaining an Aid Society, formed, 
as many of these were, in localities where farm duties 
were engrossing, neighborhoods scattering, and ship 
ping facilities inconvenient, where money was not 
plenty and laborers were few. 

Earnest and repeated requests have been made, by 
letter and circular, for the closing statement of each 
society, but so meagre has been the response that it 
became a matter of doubt whether to publish those 
that were received. In deciding to do this partial 
justice to the few, it is much regretted that even the 
names of others equally prominent must be unrecorded, 
and that some of the most important auxiliary socie 
ties are left entirely without a business showing. 

The difficulty of obtaining these reports, though 
embarrassing to those who would gladly have given 
the Branches more space in this volume, is a not un- 
pleasing commentary upon the spirit which animated 
the faithful laborers in Northern Ohio Aid Societies 



268 CONCLUSION. 

throughout the war. In their zeal to begin their 
work, and their enthusiastic continuance, some " had 
no time to waste in keeping books;" others, indifferent 
to"the future, destroyed their papers from time to time, 
as valueless, so soon as they were satisfied that their 
boxes had reached destination, or celebrated the 
happy return of peace by a general bonfire of their 
records. Some of the most efficient organizations 
worked steadily on without change of officers, and 
when the war closed, quietly resumed the interrupted 
duties of the missionary circle or church sociable from 
which their Aid Society had been temporarily formed, 
and this without summing up results or claiming or 
expecting honor or reward. 

But all who had any part in the beneficent work 
in which it was woman s peculiar privilege to serve her 
country, must feel abundantly rewarded in having been 
able to do something for those who gave health, 
manly strength, worldly prospects, ties of home, and 
even life itself, in the more perilous service of the 
field. 

As already sweet flowers and tender plants creep 
over and half conceal the battle footprints but lately 
left on many a field and hillside of our land, so sweet 
charities and tender memories arise to enwrap the 
gaunt figure and veil the grim visage of War, that 
must forever stand, a central object, upon the canvas 
that portrays the history of these memorable years. 



PART II. 



SPECIAL RELIEF. 



SPECIAL RELIEF. 



THAT division of the Sanitary Commission work 
known as the SPECIAL RELIEF DEPARTMENT, com 
prised all the aid rendered to soldiers, individually, 
both through the Homes and Lodges, and from the 
depots of supplies. 

The branches of this service were : the HOSPITAL 
DIRECTORY, through whose medium the condition of 
a soldier, sick in hospital or camp, could be daily 
learned, and whose records of the battle field told 
the fate of many a missing man ; the EMPLOYMENT 
AGENCY, w r hich secured to discharged soldiers occu 
pation suited to their various degrees of disability; 
the WAR CLAIM AGENCY, which collected gratuitously 
for soldiers, their widows or heirs, the pension, arrears 
of pay and bounty due them; and the SOLDIERS 
HOMES, whose reports also covered the assistance 
rendered the families of enlisted men. These compre 
hended the entire work as known to the home field. 
At the front the design was necessarily varied and 
expanded, embracing the system of hospital cars and 
transports, of feeding stations and hospital visitors. 

The Soldiers Homes of the Commission grew out 
of a necessity soon recognized that of facilitating 
the transportation of sick and disabled men. Much 



274 SOLDIERS HOMES AND RESTS. 

suffering was found to exist in the transfer of such 
from insufficient arrangements for food and rest, and 
the attention of the Sanitary Commission was directed 
to this fact. To remedy the evil, Homes or Rests 
were established in all the large cities on the great 
routes of travel, or in military occupation. 

First designed for the relief of the sick and desti 
tute, the plan, widening, included all soldiers of the 
national army on furlough or discharge. The larger 
establishments, drawing rations from the government 
to cover the greater expense, invited to their hospi 
talities even regimental organizations on transfer to 
the field, or returning to their camps of discharge. 

Here the sick soldier found rest and refreshment ; 
the discharged and disabled man, awaiting the first 
installment of pension, gained a temporary asylum; 
the recruit, the veteran, the returned prisoner, met 
here the sympathy of their loyal fellow citizens in 
many forms of substantial comfort. 

The present report embraces only those phases of 
the local relief work which may properly be con 
nected with the history of the CLEVELAND SOLDIERS 
HOME. 

MARINE HOSPITAL, ARMY DEPARTMENT. 

IN the van of those who, during the first six months 
of the war, applied, personally, to the Soldiers Aid 
Society for relief, were the soldiers in the hastily 
organized camps, who were, at first, scantily supplied 
with clothing and bedding. 

Often a company of fresh, stalwart country lads, 
arriving in hot haste, found their patriotic fervor 



EARLY CAMP LIFE. 275 

severely tested by the necessity of passing their first 
night in camp exposed to the fury of a summer tem 
pest. Promptly following such accessions to the 
military force, came a delegation of soldiers to the Aid 
Rooms in search of relief from that quarter, while they 
relate the trials of the boys, who marched in from 
Hiram, or Chardon, last night, and lay on the wet 
ground. Later in the war, taught by past experience, 
the mother gave her soldier a home-made blanket or 
patch-work quilt, as a temporary expedient; but, in 
the first days, the great question was, who should be 
earliest in the field ? Providence and the quartermas 
ter would take care of the rest. 

Here are a file of so-called requisitions for blankets 
from the 7th, the 8th, the 40th Ohio Regiments, 
names which afterwards became so honored, and 
whose members fought bravely, suffered, died on the 
field, in hospital, or brought home their wounds and 
lived to smile at the hardships of the first days of 
enlistment. 

Following soon upon the organization of the Sol 
diers Aid Society, was the formation, in all wards 
of the city, of committees who assumed the charge of 
the soldiers families, visited each and all systemati 
cally, and distributed to them, according to their 
several necessities, food and clothing, purchased from 
the funds contributed in each district for this pur 
pose. (See Appendix E.) 

Personal investigation, faithfully pursued in all 
cases, by members of the various ward committees, 
resulted in an impartial and correct disposition of the 
money committed to them. The aid thus bestowed, 



276 WARD COMMITTEES. 

in most instances, was received as simply supplemen 
tary to the honest labor of the soldier s wife ; although 
the good committee ladies once found their offer of 
employment rejected on the ground that "she couldn t 
be expected to work, as she understood the ladies 
were to be supported while their husbands were 
in the war." 

Although these committees were, to a great extent, 
composed of active members of the Aid Society, the 
Ward Relief system being wholly local in its work 
ings, was entirely independent of the Sanitary Com 
mission. Relieved thus from the direct care of the 
soldiers families, the Aid Society still occasionally 
rendered them assistance, and this in time became an 
important item in its current work. As a medium of 
communication between the home circle and the absent 
soldier, it was always available. 

Among the recruits in Camps Wade and Taylor, 
there were soon sick men, suffering from the unusual 
exposure, injured by the accidental discharge of fire 
arms, or victims of the inevitable camp diseases, who, 
in the absence of hospital accommodations, fell to the 
charge of the Sanitary Commission. 

Regimental hospitals were organized and well con 
ducted, but as each in turn was broken up, when 
marching orders came, the patients who were unable 
to go on with the regiment, again reverted to the 
Aid Society. Their number daily increased, and in 
lodging houses, where they were quartered, they could 
not receive the care their condition required. It was 
evident that some more extended system must be 
adopted, and to effect this, a meeting was called on 



MAEINE HOSPITAL. 277 

the llth of November, 1861, by the gentlemen who 
had been recently appointed associate members of the 
General Sanitary Commission. (See Appendix E.) 

The Soldiers Aid Society was invited to co-operate 
in the scheme, and a committee appointed to secure a 
portion of the Marine Hospital for the use of invalid 
soldiers. On application to the Secretary of the 
Treasury, the Collector of the port was authorized to 
assign one or two rooms in the great, half-tenanted 
building for this purpose. 

The Faculty of the Cleveland Medical College 
offered to attend the patients gratuitously. A con 
tract was made with the steward of the Hospital to 
supply necessary food, while the outfit of bedding, 
clothing, dressings and nourishing diet for the sick 
came from the store room of the Soldiers Aid Society. 

To what was now called the Army Department of 
the Marine Hospital, Mr. B. EOUSE gave his time and 
services as director of its affairs, nurse, faithful attend 
ant upon the sick and correspondent. For the two 
soldiers who died there one burned by an explosion 
in the corral, the other returning on furlough to his 
Illinois home he performed every kind office, then 
traced the friends of each and gave them the partic 
ulars, so full of interest, of the soldiers sickness and 
death. 

Here, in fact, the Aid Society found little to do. 
It could visit the patients, from time to time; now 
and then aid one in returning to his home, and hold 
itself, on all occasions, in readiness to respond to calls 
upon its stores for the use of the hospital. It became 
also, in several instances, responsible for soldiers too 
ill to be safely removed to the Marine Hospital. 



278 PITTSBURGH LANDING. 

As the men. became convalescent, were discharged, 
and returned to their regiments, from one and another 
would come back a letter, full of the writer s views of 
the war and administration of military affairs, seldom 
failing to revert, in the words of one correspondent, 
" to your kindness that you shew me, when I thought 
no friend was near." 

The expense of maintaining the hospital was borne 
by the committee under whose charge it was organ 
ized. After the establishment of the DEPOT HOSPITAL 
this committee ceased to act, while the Special Relief 
work was thenceforth assumed by the Soldiers Aid 
Society, at this time formally connected with the U. 
S. SANITARY COMMISSION and recognized as its Cleve 
land Branch. 

THE DEPOT HOSPITAL. 

On the 6th and 7th of April, 1862, the battle of 
Pittsburgh Landing was fought. 

In common with the entire West, Northern Ohio 
was deeply moved and aroused by this struggle, in 
which a large proportion of its troops were engaged. 
On that first anxious day, when it was rumored that 
the great battle was in progress, which was afterwards 
decided in favor of the Union forces, the Aid Rooms 
were thronged with an eager crowd, which gathered 
and increased as intelligence, later and more full, reveal 
ed the extent of loss, even to the victorious troops. The 
imperfect lists of wounded and dead were finally made 
public, and there were still many, bewildered by the 
vagueness of the reports, the distance of the unfamiliar 
battle ground, who came to the Aid Society as the 



HOSPITAL STEAMEES. 279 

fountain head of military information. Little aid 
could be rendered them there beyond writing a letter 
of enquiry the mere sending of which was a tempo 
rary relief to anxiety and suspense and sometimes 
enlisting them in working for any and all soldiers. 
Often the amanuensis of the office was petitioned to 
read the joyful answer to her missive, wherein it 
appeared that the writer was safe and wanted another 
fight. Often, too, a few kind words from the unskilful 
pen of a brother soldier were brought her to deci 
pher, which told that poor so and so was killed on 
the second day s fight, or, what was almost as hard to 
hear, had been wounded and taken prisoner by the 
enemy. 

Within a week from the date of the battle, the 
hospital steamers of the Sanitary Commission brought 
up the river the first installment of wounded men, 
who could bear removal to the cooler northern climate. 
The hospitals along the route received their allotted 
number of patients ; the convalescents were furloughed 
and allowed to return to their own homes. 

At this time the suggestion was made to the Aid 
Society by Mrs. JAMES SHAW, of Windham, O., that 
something should be done at Cleveland for the relief 
and comfort of the soldiers who must pass through 
that city. Several wounded and sick boys from 
Northern Ohio regiments had spent the night, hungry 
and cold, on the floor of the Union Depot. 

Two ladies from the Aid Rooms were at once 
detailed to carry into execution a hastily formed plan 
which would meet the exigencies of the case. A 
small room in the Depot was obtained, through the 



280 THE DEPOT HOSPITAL. 

kindness of the Cleveland, Painesville and Ashtabula 
railroad company, for a temporary hospital, accessible, 
well warmed and lighted. 

A part of the primitive furniture of the Marine 
Hospital was ordered to the front, a foraging party 
organized to beg or borrow some additional articles 
of comfort, and a rendezvous appointed for drays and 
committee women. The simple outfit was soon col 
lected, for its various parts were cordially given by 
the city merchants, with something also in the way of 
encouragement for the new scheme. In one instance 
a clerk, hearing the story of the hospital, begged to 
add his gift to his employer s, because he had a dead 
soldier brother. 

At noon a small train, consisting of a dray load of 
beds, tables and chairs, under the orders of the ener 
getic director of the Army Department of the Marine 
Hospital, and a carriage containing the committee, 
obscured behind a confused mass of sheets, blankets, 
pillows, bowls, pitchers, clothing, etc., leffc the Bank 
street headquarters, and by night the DEPOT HOSPITAL 
was an established charity. 

Opening a door from the busy depot the room 
was disclosed, fifteen feet square, with painted floor, 
perfectly clean, four white beds, a table with books 
and newspapers, and a very little other furniture 
disposed to advantage. The walls at this period, 
though clean, were bare, but soon one and another 
wounded hero, who found the hours pass slowly in 
this retreat, covered the white surface with startling 
pictures, extracted from sensational prints, charcoal 
sketches or martial scenes, original in design and exe- 



ITS MENAGE. 281 

cution. Here was JEFF. DAVIS, in the uncomfortable 
position in which all soldiers delighted to imagine 
him, and, perhaps in close conjunction, an inscription 
which asserted, with plentiful capitals, that " This is 
a bully place." 

It was noisy without, through the heavy roll of 
cars and the shrieks of many locomotives, but within 
it was quiet, clean and inviting to the sick men to 
to whose use it was dedicated. 

The establishment was consigned to the charge of 
GEORGE VOSBUEGH, an excellent nurse, kind and 
efficient, who attended all the trains and brought to 
the hospital room those who were unable to proceed 
on their journey. A system of tickets, redeemable 
each month, procured meals at all hours from the 
dining hall of Messrs. WHEELER and RUSSELL, in the 
same building, and in this way many could be fed, 
even in the limited time allowed between the arrival 
and departure of trains. 

The advent of the new institution was welcomed 
by those engaged in any capacity at the depot. It 
now appeared that much suffering had been experi 
enced by disabled soldiers, detained through the non 
connection of trains, and dependent upon the charity 
of their fellow passengers or of the rail road employes, 
who were heavily taxed to meet the immediate wants 
of this numerous class. 

The irregular character of the furloughs of men 
brought from Tennessee on the hospital boats, made 
it often necessary to assist them by transportation. 
The Governor of Ohio employed Mr. CLARK WARREN 
as special agent to send forward the Ohio men. For 



282 CAPACITIES AND RESOURCES. 

transportation of members of regiments from other 
States, the Aid Society relied upon the generosity of 
the various rail road companies, whose innumerable 
kindnesses can be only imperfectly recorded. Daily, 
almost hourly, requests for assistance were invariably 
and cordially granted, and so long as the society 
organization existed. 

Clothing and some simple luxuries were supplied 
the hospital from the Aid Rooms, and thus to a cer- 
amount of home-made dainties direct communication 
was secured with the lips of the patients, and duly 
credited on the out-standing account with the surgeons 
and nurses. Did any one insist that all the sheets 
and shirts, fruit and wines went astray, the Depot 
Hospital could be pointed to with pride as refuting 
the assertion in one instance. 

Occasionally a seriously ill patient was sent to the 
Marine Hospital, where fresher air and less noise 
awaited an invalid. When the U. S. General Hos 
pital was established at Camp Cleveland, all cases of 
continued illness were transferred thither, except of 
men actually discharged from the service. 

Financially the Depot Hospital received no special 
attention from the public. The expenses of its first 
month s existence were refunded by Governor TOD of 
Ohio, who visited the room, was pleased with its 
humble mission, and in this way contributed to its 
object. It was subsequently supported from the 
funds of the Aid Society, no particular collection 
being made for the purpose until the Soldiers Home 
was built. 

The capacity of the room was extremely limited; it 



A. DRAWBACK. 283 

aimed only to lodge for a night a sick soldier, and to 
feed those who were able to proceed homeward with 
out further detention. Sometimes the name of an 
army nurse appears on its records, and often the wives 
or mothers of wounded men were glad to rest here 
an hour with their charges on their journey from 
camp or hospital. 

There was still a drawback to the success of the 
depot room the absence of the home character which 
only can redeem such places from becoming mere 
feeding stations. The first duty was to see that every 
man had enough to eat, and, as far as the brief time 
allowed, had his deficiencies in clothing repaired, his 
papers straightened, and a pass procured. But noth 
ing indicated that he was not simply the object of 
governmental solicitude, nor added to the relief of his 
temporal wants the assurance of warm sympathy 
prompting the aid, which holds hardly a secondary 
place in the design of the Sanitary Commission. 

The patients were, whenever it was possible, visited 
by members of the Society, always when one remained 
more than a few hours. Sometimes a patriotic sheet 
found its way back, emblazoned with banners and 
eagles, glowing in magenta or pink, and bringing a 
few words from a former soldier guest ; or a reunited 
family send to the new found friends of son or brother 
a round robin like this : 

From the father : 

" i A friend in need is a friend indeed. John got 
home safe, and hasn t taken cold, therefore I give you 
my sincere thanks for your kind attention." 

And the mother adds : 



284 RETURNING REGIMENTS. 

"From a friend. To let you know that ray son 
reached home safe, without receiving any injury, but 
was some tired, but has got rested and is now quite 
comfortable, except he is weak and has a bad cough. 
* * He wants that I should give you his best respects 
- the old lady as took care of him as he feels to 
thank you both for your kind care and attention to 
him, and says give his best respects to all inquiring 
friends, and his trouble is that he is not able to be 
with the regiment. * *." 

In August, 1863, the regiments on duty on the 
lower Mississippi, whose term of service had expired, 
were relieved and ordered home for muster out. 

The route selected brought the troops of Eastern 
States through Cleveland, and when this became 
known, with the fact that many sick accompanied 
each detachment, preparations were made to receive 
and entertain them at this point. 

The rail road companies contracted with the propri 
etors of the Depot Dining Hall to provide the feasts 
with a solid foundation of bread, meat and coffee, 
while to supplement this with, a superstructure of 
more dainty food, became the privilege and duty of 
the citizens generally. 

The Soldiers Aid Society Kooms were headquarters 
for the reception of such gifts, and soon overflowed 
with treasures of good things. Boxes, barrels, shelves, 
desks, were receptacles for pies " of all that grows," 
cakes in endless variety, custards, fruit, wines, every 
thing which could be baked, boiled or fried, in unlim 
ited quantities. 

The stock of Sanitary handkerchiefs and fans, with 



STIRRTKG APPEALS. 285 

their mark, which he who runs may read, lay ready 
for distribution; the camphor and blackberry wine 
were decanted into small bottles, while a plentiful 
supply of light food for the sick, beef tea and stimu 
lants was selected from the hospital stores. 

From the Aid Rooms these preparations were con 
veyed to the depot, where the entertainment was 
spread on long tables, improvised for the occasion, 
and extending through the entire length of the build 
ing. The depot proper being fully occupied by the 
dining arrangements, the small adjoining room was 
given up to the sick, and attended by only too many 
kind and sympathizing volunteer nurses. 

From the Aid Room emanated the first news of the 
arrival of troops, conveyed to the city at large by a 
huge black board, which said, in staring letters, from 
its position before the door: "The 47th Mass, will be 
here at nine o clock to-night ! ! Citizens, bring your 
good things to the depot ! ! " or, perhaps, in a more 
persuasive tone : " Gentlemen going to market, will 
please remember the hungry soldiers, to-night ! " 
When there was sufficient time, the editors of the 
city papers would repeat these notices, enforced by a 
full allowance of capitals and leaded type. 

Of a busy week s experience the Secretary of the 
the Aid Society wrote : 

CLEVELAND AID ROOMS, 

AUGUST 15, 1863. 
DR. J. S. XEWBERRY, 

Sec y Western Department U. S. Sanitary Commission, Louisville : 
At the close of a busy and wearisome day, I have time for only a word 
before the mail closes. We have had our hearts and our hands full in the 
last twenty-four hours, and many of our ladies have had their first sight of 
the dreadful effects of war. 



286 THE PORT HUDSON REGIMENTS. 

Yesterday afternoon, at 4 o clock, the long expected regiment, (4th Massa 
chusetts,) arrived. There were nearly a hundred sick, and all in a very 
worn condition. The preparations so long made proved ample, and after 
two hours merciful work among the hospital cars, and a full feast set out 
for the well, the ladies had the satisfaction of sending the brave boys on 
their way in a much better condition than that in which they came to us. 

Another regiment was telegraphed to be here in two hours from the 
departure of the first, and you may imagine the commotion into which the 
whole town was thrown ; messengers were sent everywhere to notify the 
housekeepers and to hasten their gifts, and such excitement and hurry of 
preparation at the depot ! Cleveland people, you know, are equal to any 
good work, and so, at 8 o clock, when the 28th Maine came in, there was 
an abundant meal spread for them, and a fully organized committee of 
ladies to attend the sick. The hospital cars, five in number, were crowded 
with bad cases. All our ladies were down there and worked like heroines. 

At 10 o clock at night we left the depot, only to go home to make fresh 
arrangements to meet a third regiment, at 5 o clock this morning. 

This last regiment, the 47th Massachusetts, has occupied us all the morn 
ing of this beautiful Sabbath, and our hearts have been sorely tried by the 
dreadful state in which the men were found. We had very good provision for 
their reception. Believing cleanliness to be next to godliness, we organized 
a " new department," and set long tables at the entrance of the depot and 
upon them put rows of tin wash basins, with a cake of soap and a towel at 
each, and had plenty of fresh water ready. Such a splashing and scrubbing 
and cheering never was ! I believe this was the most welcome part of the 
programme. From their bath the soldiers passed on to a really bountiful 
breakfast of soft bread and butter, cold meat, pickles, herring and salmon, 
plenty of onions and cucumbers, tomatoes and apples, coffee and tea. So 
the well men were abundantly fed. Meantime, the ladies carried hand 
basins and towels into the hospital cars. Each sick man was refreshed by 
having his face and hands bathed, and then the tea, coffee, warm gruel, 
bread and jelly, dried beef, sponge cake, egg and wine and other stimulants, 
were dispensed with lavish hand. One badly wounded man and the 
surgeon, Dr. BLACKMER, who was very ill indeed, were carried at once into 
our little hospital and carefully tended. The surgeon remained, and Mr. 
WM. BINGHAM has taken him to his own house. Four sick men were sent 
to the Camp Cleveland Hospital, four of the Maine regiment also went there 
last night. 

A sad scene, indeed, was the death of one poor fellow, this morning, in 
our little hospital. He was sinking fast when the train came in. Every 
thing was done for him that kindness or experience could suggest, but he 
was too far gone with the exhaustion following a lung fever, and died 
almost within sight of his home and family. 

Poor fellow ! how hard he tried to speak and to send some word home ! 



NEW DUTIES. 287 

He was a splendid soldier, they said, and when the men of his company 
filed sadly in to look at his dead face, some even kissed his forehead 
and dropped their tears upon it, we knew that they felt it hard to leave 
their comrade, and harder yet to frame the sad story into words that his 
waiting friends at home might hear. We have taken every care of the 
body, and it is to be forwarded to-morrow by express. 

I think you would be quite satisfied with the part our Aid Society has 
taken in the care of these regiments, and surely it has been a blessed work. 
It would be well for the Union cause in Cleveland if we had such calls 
made upon our sympathies and our benevolence every week. You have no 
idea how nobly our ladies came out to this duty, nor how richly they were 
rewarded by the bright faces of those New England boys, as they left the 
depot cheered and refreshed by the care they had received. This last 
regiment was peculiarly needy. It had passed every important point in the 
night, till now, and this half day in Cleveland was a blessing to the poor 
fellow s ! They numbered about seven hundred, with one hundred, at least, 
seriously sick, and nearly all, indeed, ailing somewhat, and just from the 
trenches at Port Hudson. 

No time for another word. 

AUGUST 21. 

I sent you on Sunday a hurried sketch of our new duties feeding the 
passing regiments and now can give you only an equally hasty view of 
what has been done this week, which to us has seemed long and eventful, 
and has turned quiet little Cleveland into a busy town, and made Bank 
street and the depot the scene of a great deal of benevolent and good 
natured confusion at all hours of day and night. 

Monday morning we were occupied in making arrangements for sending 
on the body of poor THAYER, of whose death I wrote you. At night it 
went, and with it we sent some comforting words to his wife and friends, 
which I hope softened somewhat their great sorrow. All day Tuesday we 
were torn with rumors about the next regiment. The cars broke down, 
and various detentions kept the train till 8 o clock P. M. Then the 28th 
Connecticut, a small regiment five hundred perhaps arrived ; so worn 
and w r eary the men looked, and they straggled so painfully into the depot 
that it touched every heart, and you may believe our ladies were not slow 
in offering the comforts contained in their generous baskets. 

The colonel had gone home by sea, sick. The lieutenant colonel, two 
surgeons, and many of the line officers were dead, and the regiment w r as in 
charge of the major. The sick had been brought up in charge of the 2d 
assistant surgeon, Dr. HENRY ROCKWELL, a mere boy in appearance, but a 
miracle of faithfulness, kindness and energy. Dr. ROCKWELL had tele 
graphed his desire to leave five men in the hospital here, and we had an 
omnibus ready. The men were very unwilling to stop at first even 
feigned sleep, and hid themselves under their blankets but at the persua- 



288 CLEVELAND HOSPITALITY. 

sions of some of our ladies, accompanied by a taste and a smell of the 
appetizing gruel, broth, blackberry cordial, etc., they began to put out their 
heads wistfully, and finally nineteen clamored to stay, and were left. The 
ladies promised to go and see them in hospital next day, and so they did. 
S. and N. drove over to inquire after them, and found them as comfortable 
and happy as sick men could possibly be. " Oh," said one of them, " when 
you told me of your excellent hospital, I expected to see a great comfortless 
brick barn or warehouse, fine outside with nothing cheerful within ; but 
when we drove up to this homelike little cottage, and saw how neat and 
pleasant everything is, we knew that we were among our friends, and after 
our bath, and the luxury of clean clothes and a good breakfast, we felt like 
new creatures, and can realize that we are no longer in Dixie." Indeed 
all the men who have been sent to Camp Cleveland hospital this week have 
given the same willing testimony to the kind care received there. 

At 10 o clock (Tuesday night,) the regiment had gone on its way, and the 
sick had been sent over to the hospital. I must not forget to tell you that 
the commissary stores three dray loads were presented to our Society. 
We can turn some of them into our own stock very nicely, and for the rest 
we can get a good sum of money, as the Quartermaster here has promised 
to buy them of us. 

Next day we had a little breathing time, and then towards night were 
electrified by the news that two more large regiments were coming on from 
Indianapolis, while still two more were on the way from Cairo. All Thurs 
day the preparations were making, and indeed I cannot tell you how gen 
erously our citizens met this fresh call. It reminded one of those early 
days of the war, when each merchant seemed to vie with his neighbor in 
his lavish gifts of everything his store afforded. Indeed, it was almost 
impossible for us to buy anything here. It seemed a mere farce to offer 
payment, everything was so freely given to this good cause. We bought 
dishes enough to serve the whole regiment at once, and towards night you 
would have been amused to see our lawyers, merchants and railroad men 
spreading tables, slicing onions, bottling wine, or cutting sandwiches. We 
had ample washing arrangements, too ; a long row of basins twice down 
the depot. Such a splashing, when at 7 o clock the 49th Massachusetts, 
seven hundred and seventeen strong, came in ! tired, dusty, and so 
hungry, but there was enough for all, and the sick were attended in the 
cars, as before. 

The surgeon, Dr. WINDSOR, was exceedingly careful of his men, and 
knew at once who were to stay, and we had beds carried out of our little 
room to the side of the car. Seven men were thus brought into our depot 
hospital. The ladies supplied them with stimulants, and at 8 o clock they 
were ready to go over to the hospital. One poor fellow fainted before the 
omnibus left. He was very, very sick. They brought him back apparently 



CARE OF THE SICK. 289 

dying, but thanks to the motherly care that he received, animation was 
restored. Dr. GUSHING was called and pronounced it a bad case, paralysis 
of the throat, caused by great exhaustion. After he had revived and had 
been made comfortable for the night, Captain ENSWOHTH offered to stay 
with him, which he did, and this morning we found him well enough 
to be carried to the hospital. We have seen him since, and he bore the 
drive well. 

The men of this regiment expressed the greatest delight at being among 
their friends again. The colonel and lieutenant colonel had been disabled, 
the major was in charge. It was a fine regiment. Just before the train 
moved off, we discovered in one car a black bundle blankets, as we then 
thought piled away in a dark corner, but the heap having, in an unguarded 
moment, betrayed animation, some adventurous woman investigated the 
mystery and brought to view the woolly heads and wild eyes of two contra 
bands who had not dared to venture out for fear of being stolen back South. 
They were reassured, of course, and dragged out just in time to get a 
morsel of supper, for which they showed surprising appetite. It required 
a great deal of argument, however, to convince them that they were in a 
free country ! 

Our duties with this regiment were not over till near midnight. This 
morning, of course, we were somewhat footsore, and were conscious of 
having heads, from the fact that there was an ache somewhere above our 
shoulders. Eight o clock came, and with it the startling telegram "48th 
Massachusetts seven hundred men very hungry had nothing at Indi 
anapolis can we get breakfast at Cleveland ? " Only two hours, and not 
only a feast to be provided, but the debris of last night s entertainment to 
be carried away ! Seven hundred plates to wash, etc., etc., a small matter 
to some of our splendidly organized subsistence committees, but a bug-bear 
indeed to raw hands, as we were. 

It was done, however, and at 10 o clock the hungry regiment had really 
a sumptuous repast spread, while the thirty sick men were attended by the 
ladies, who first gave a refreshing draught, then the luxury of a dip into 
the bright tin basin, with plenty of soap, and afterwards turned out of the 
exhaustless tin cauldrons hot broth, gruel, and all manner of sick diet. 
Two very sick men have been left. They were taken over to tlie hospital 
this afternoon. 

And now here we are, Friday night, with two big, famished, expectant 
regiments thundering towards us like relentless fate, the 53d Massachu 
setts saving its appetite, perforce, for breakfast here to-morrow morning, at 
9 o clock ; the 23d Connecticut equally certain of a dinner or supper some 
time later. And they shall not be disappointed, brave fellows ! It does the 
hearts of all our people good to give, and to cook, and to carve for these 
returning men. We might almost wish, for the cause of our country, that 
we had had such work to do every week since Southern sympathizers 
began to show their heads among us ! 



290 FRIENDLY MESSAGES. 

Now, do not think I mean to boast of what we have done, in the hurried 
sketch of our work which I have given you. Nothing of the kind is true. 
I only wish you to know that our citizens have their full share of the 
patriotism and humanity of which other cities nearer the seat of war have 
given such beautiful illustrations. 

Yours truly, M. C. B. 

To soldiers, living so long in an enemy s country 
and among unfriendly people, Cleveland, with its 
welcome and enthusiasm, seemed a garden spot in the 
war s experience. The news of its hospitality went to 
many a New England home, and after the regiments 
were resolved into their citizen elements, directly and 
indirectly, many messages of grateful remembrance 
found their w r ay to Ohio. One correspondent wrote 
for the " poor blind mother and afflicted wife " of the 
soldier who died in the Depot Hospital; others, in 
various styles of chirography and orthography, but in 
uniform good feeling, sent their own friendly messages. 
The report of some of the 28th Connecticut bore fruit 
in a gift to the Aid Society of ten dollars, from a gen 
tleman who learned " the manner in which the troops 
from Eastern States were received." From another 
New England town returned the fame of the washing 
arrangements, and thanks of certain of these ex-soldiers 
for " kindness received when worn out and suffering." 
All this was certainly pleasant and encouraging. 

These regiments were followed by the 177th New 
York, also from Port Hudson, but more exhausted 
and with a larger train of sick than any preceding it 
It was met at Cleveland by a committee from Albany. 
N. Y., where the regiment was recruited, and its wel 
come was perhaps more enthusiastic from this cause. 

In common with the sick of the New England 



PLEASANT DUTIES. 291 

troops, the worst cases were removed to the United 
States general hospital, at Camp Cleveland, after a 
few hours rest in the room at the depot, where one 
soldier died soon after his arrival. A subsequent 
very pleasant duty of the Aid Society was to visit 
these patients at the hospital, and carry to them the 
good wishes sent by their colonel or more fortunate 
comrades, who had gone home. The messages were 
always joyfully received, and the condition of the 
invalids was in return reported to Albany. Some 
times the friends of a convalescent soldier came to be 
directed to the hospital, and then required some 
assistance in removing their charge, who probably 
owed his life to the brief detention, and was always 
superlatively happy. In the absence of nearer friends, 
the care of the remains and effects of those who died 
devolved upon the Aid Society. Colonel CHAMBERLIN, 
of the 17 7th New York Volunteers, contributed to its 
treasury fifty dollars, in recognition of these services. 
This New York regiment was the last that passed 
through Cleveland in 1863. On the 8th of the fol 
lowing September five hundred men, newly assigned 
to the Invalid Corps, were entertained at the depot. 
A day or two later came two hundred convalescents, 
the sick of Eastern regiments, who had been left at 
the hospitals on the route from Port Hudson. On 
the 22d of September a similar detachment was enter 
tained, as reported in the following letter: 

CLEVELAND, September 24th, 1863. 

* * About one o clock, on Saturday, a message was sent from the depot 
for Mrs. ROUSE and myself, and, on going down, we found some one hun 
dred and twenty men, from Xew Orleans and Baton Rouge, going home on 
furlough or discharge. A sadder sight you can hardly imagine. All 



292 LIFE AND DEATH. 

were crippled or otherwise maimed, or pale and tliin from tlie effects of 
long fevers. They had dined luxuriously off oysters and coffee, for which 
I came home convinced they considered thanks due to the "fat man" 
who dispensed it. The depot room was occupied by a young boy a 
member of the 48th Massachusetts terribly weak after a brain fever. We 
dosed him with plenty of oyster broth, and ordered more of the same to be 
given him for his journey. It was really a pleasure to see a little color 
flush his cheeks as he felt the reviving influence of the warm food. His 
companion, also a member of the 48th Massachusetts, who were fed at 
Cleveland in August, and who, he said, would never forget it, was as 
careful of his charge as any woman, and I am sure they reached home 
safely. But a soldier who had left the hospital, apparently no nearer death 
than his comrade, was brought into the depot dead, on the seat where he 
was placed on entering the train. The body was removed, before we came 
down, to the undertakers, and would then have been taken away and- 
buried without ceremony of any kind, but, on learning this, we gave orders 
that everything proper should be done for him, and his funeral take place 
from the Soldiers Aid Rooms. I found, among his papers, letters from his 
wife and daughters, full of anticipation of his return. From them I learnt 
their address, and wrote that night to the wife. 

I am quite convinced, from Saturday s experience, that we must have a 
Soldiers Home. We can have a bazaar, or some other dreadful thing, to 
support it. 

The brother of the sick boy reported promptly his 
safe arrival with his charge; " a joyful thing," he adds, 
" to me and his poor mother." The soldier who died 
in the train was afterwards claimed by his friends, 
and his remains and small possessions sent, at their 
request, to Norwich, N. Y. Some services afterwards 
rendered, in furnishing the proof necessary to secure a 
pension to his widow, brought a contribution of five 
dollars to the treasury, from the lawyer conducting 
the claim, the amount of his fees in the case. 

The cheerless aspect of the depot, on the day which 
brought this detachment of sick, with a cold wind 
sweeping through its dreary length and chilling the 
feeble men who crawled up and down the platforms, 
or lay listlessly along the heaps of baggage, furnished 



LIMITED QUAKTERS. 293 

the conclusive argument for a Soldiers Home. The 
Depot Hospital only sufficed for the worst cases, and 
even then had many disadvantages. The noise and 
confusion without, sometimes unavoidably penetrated 
to the ears of the sick men, the quarters were too 
limited to give all the attention to be desired, and on 
Sunday, the depot being closed, it was necessary to 
remove the patients to other places. The whole sys 
tem of relief was imperfect, in admitting of no uniform 
restraint or supervision. The less disabled were fur 
nished only with meals, and not amenable to any 
discipline whatever, drifting away into the drinking 
places, which abound in that vicinity, and shifting for 
themselves, except in the matter of food; even that, 
taken in a peripatetic manner, was deprived of its 
civilizing influence. All these points were strength 
ened by the rapidly increasing number of soldiers 
from the Southern Department, since the opening of 
the lower Mississippi brought troops by this route. 
Besides, should the war then close, the number of 
disabled men thrown upon the care of the Sanitary 
Commission could not fail to be very large. 

A Cleveland Soldiers Home was at once deter 
mined upon ; one that should be comfortable enough 
to give the sick the care and attendance found in the 
United States general hospitals, which are closed to 
men discharged from the service ; and should also be 
sufficiently attractive to compete successfully, in every 
simple way, with the surrounding hotels, or rather 
saloons. To these, the newly discharged soldiers with 
their pay in pocket, were an easy prey, and between 
their runners at the trains and the employe of the 



294 SUCCESSFUL CANVASSING. 

Depot Hospital there was consequent and continual 
enmity. 

Two officers of the Aid Society, with Mrs. R. F. 
PAINE, Mr. PETEE THATCHEE, Mr. JAMES TEACY and 
Mr. JOHN F. WAENEE, who kindly offered their ser 
vices, constituted a committee to solicit contributions 
for this purpose, and entered upon the task immedi 
ately. They were successful beyond their anticipa 
tions in collecting two thousand dollars, including the 
value of some gifts made in material for the building. 
(See Appendix B.) The work of collection, although 
rendered comparatively easy by the general prompt 
generosity with which the request was met, was yet 
embarrassed by the fact that the special relief work 
of the Soldiers Aid Society was little known, and, 
indeed, up to a recent period, had made no demands 
upon the interest of the public. The greater number 
of those who were solicited to aid the new project, 
gave readily, because they had faith in the earnest 
purpose of the society, which asserted that there w^as 
new suffering to relieve, and not because they knew 
this to be true. Consequently there were certain, 
even among the generous and patriotic, who pro 
nounced the scheme unnecessary and a waste of 
means which might be applied to assist more pressing 
distress. The truth of this opinion could only be 
proved by actual test, and after a few months experi 
ence of the value of such an institution, the objections 
to its purpose were very generally withdrawn, as all 
doubts of its usefulness were set at rest. 

On the 12th of December the Depot Hospital was 
finally closed, despoiled of its furniture and returned 



INVALID CORPS. 29o 

to the uses of a railroad waiting room. Its record, 
compared with its small capacity, is honorable. It 
gave out fourteen thousand meals and lodged nearly 
thirty-four hundred men, and to many of the number 
issued clothing and furnished transportation. 

Aside from this number, which chiefly consisted 
of the occupants of the depot room, or those relieved 
in its name, were numerous soldiers wives and fam 
ilies, who claimed and received assistance in various 
ways from the Aid Society Koorns, and whose names 
were often entered upon no record. They had letters 
to be read from absent husbands and brothers, and, 
in the office, some one could always be found to per 
form this service. A poor old woman, one day, went 
to the house of her favorite scribe, in an agony of 
grief, and placed in her hands a letter, which some 
neighbor had read to her, containing the fearful 
tidings of her son s having been put into " the invalid 
corpse." " And will they let him be brought home ? " 
she sobbed. It was with difficulty made clear to her 
that her son had written the letter himself, and there 
fore must be alive, and the Invalid Corps was defined 
as a blissful situation, where the convalescent soldier 
would have no more fighting. It seemed often hard 
that a stranger must be trusted to read all that came 
from a dear and absent son, or communicate to him 
the loving messages and home news ; yet she who thus 
stood between, yet connected the members of a scat* 
tered family, became in time almost the confidant of 
their mutual troubles and pleasures^ and learned to feel 
most genuine interest in their welfare. 



296 STODKY PETITIONS. 

There were even more letters to write than to read, 
for a good, fair hand, which could plainly write the 
direction company, regiment, hospital and state, 
was much sought after. The mother would often 
come to ask to have a letter written to the captain, 
for her son had not been heard from for long months. 
The answer to the inquiry was often news of death 
or imprisonment, but sometimes JOHN or JAMES, 
whose letters had been so anxiously waited for, 
was, by the officer s report, " well, and on duty with 
his regiment, and will be instructed to write to 
his mother." Varied and curious were the applica 
tions made by women, as ignorant as affectionate, 
for information and assistance. Mrs. S. had a sailor 
son, and wished the Navy Department petitioned 
for his pay name of ship, etc., unknown. Rosa 
S., a pretty, rosy young woman, came for news of a 
soldier husband, who is traced through various stages 
of disgrace until found in a deserter s prison. Day 
after day she comes, gradually losing her fresh color, 
looking paler and more anxious, as grief and hard 
work steal away her youth. 

Mrs. D. was a forlorn woman that picked up a 
precarious existence by the sale of matches, pigs feet 
and other trifles. She had a son in camp and then 
in hospital, to whom she dictated many letters into 
which was always slipped a little hardly earned 
money or some postage stamps. She slept anywhere 
that offered lodging, lived on scanty food, and wore 
the cast off dresses of charitable people, but an affec 
tionate heart beat under the rags. 

Mrs. H. a pale r soft voiced little woman, had 



HOPELESS QUESTS. 297 

lost all trace of her husband, soon after his enlistment, 
and came, with a fall description of hair, eyes and 
fine bass voice, to ask assistance in discovering his 
fate. His name was not on the Adjutant General s 
rolls ; he had dropped out of human knowledge as 
completely as if he had never existed. Once the wife 
had news that a soldier with a beautiful voice and 
musical talent was at a frontier fort, but a letter 
written to its commanding officer brought again disap 
pointment after weeks of waiting. 

There was one slim little girl, who carried a baby 
and came any number of times to inquire after her 
husband, JOHN SMITH, sick in hospital somewhere. 
JOHN SMITHS innumerable could be found every 
regiment and hospital had its share but this partic 
ular JOHN SMITH never turned up. It was hard to 
give her the same answer again and again, as she 
came in, bright and expectant, with the baby in its 
white starched sunbonnet. She was so cheerful and 
industrious, and so fond of poor JOHN SMITH; it seemed 
almost as if she hoped to find him there every time 
she entered the little Aid Room office. 

Others there were, not only among residents of 
Cleveland, but, perhaps, to a greater extent, persons 
living in neighboring towns, who, although quite able 
to write their own letters, yet were ignorant of the 
proper steps to be taken in securing certain desired 
information. Inquiries at the Hospital Directory 
office ordinarily went through the channel of the Aid 
Society; also applications for news of a missing 
soldier at the Adjutant General s office, and search 
for tidings of those who had died in hospital. The 



298 DIFFICULT COMMISSIONS* 

agents of the Sanitary Commission not only at the 
Louisville office, but wherever one was stationed 
could be relied upon to perform, at no small sacrifice 
of time and trouble, any service asked of them, tracing, 
by even the slenderest thread, the fate of men who 
had disappeared from the company rolls, or executing 
commissions entrusted them to deliver to patients of 
hospitals in their department. Unbounded influence 
with the military authorities was often ascribed to 
them and to their home representatives. " Please get 
my son a furlough," was the burden of many letters. 
" Have JOHN discharged and sent home to get well," 
or, " can you not have my husband transferred to the 
hospital at Camp Cleveland ? " and so through the 
scale of possible and impossible commissions. 

One letter says : " We received your letter. As a 
drowning man clings to a straw, so we cling to any 
hope relating to our dear boy. The advice and sym 
pathy expressed in your letter we feel truly grateful 
for. Will you use your influence with the surgeon 
to procure a discharge if our boy still lives." Another : 
"My son is in hospital at Nashville; his wound is 
doing well but he has been troubled for some days 
with fever. If it continues I fear he won t be here 
very long. I ask, how am I to get him home ? " 

The Hospital Visitors another corps of the Sani 
tary Commission agents were commonly clergymen 
appointed to visit systematically, each in his own 
district, the military hospitals, and minister in many 
ways to the comfort of the patients. Aside from the 
duties of chaplain, ex-officio, which most of them per 
formed, they charged themselves with writing letters 



A HANDFUL OF LETTERS. 299 

for the soldiers, supplying them, under sanction of 
the surgeon, with many trifling luxuries from the 
Sanitary Commission storehouses, and keeping careful 
record of the last words and messages to be trans 
mitted to the friends of the dying men. To the Hos 
pital Visitors application was therefore often made 
by the Aid Society, in the interest of persons wishing 
to learn the condition of an invalid, or to claim the 
effects of one who had died in a certain hospital. 

These are a few of the letters received at the Aid 
Rooms : " I would wish you, as a friend of suffering 
parents, to look after the effects of my son. The value 
of the effects is of no consequence, only as mementos 
of a dear boy that I had fond hopes of. He left his 
studies at the age of eighteen and went to fight for 
his country, and has filled a soldier s grave amongst 
strangers. The things are nothing nothing save 
as mementos of a lost son." 

" Being desirous to know the whereabouts of my 
son, I write to you. If you know you will confer a 
favor on his parents. From his father." 

"I write to you as my last hope of ever hearing 
anything about my dearly loved husband. I fear it 
is too late, but I hope some agent at that place may 
know something about him." 

" I had a son die in hospital in Chattanooga that I 
did not know was in the army, until I received a 
letter from the surgeon stating that he died there. 
Could you not assist me in ascertaining the facts con 
cerning it ? " 

"I received your letter, and will never cease to 
thank you for your kindness to me and mine. I have 



300 LETTERS CONTINUED. 

now a hope that my dear husband was as comfortable 
as possible. Oh, God, it is hard to bear. He had a 
needle-book and an inkstand which I should like to 
have because they were his." 

" I have received a letter stating that my son died 
in the battle-field hospital. I wish you would write 
to Georgia." 

" It caused me much joy to hear that my only son 
was improving. I desire you to keep me informed as 
to his health, and ask him if he is in need of money. 
If he becomes dangerously ill I want to come and see 
him." 

What disappointing answers sometimes came! "He 
died three weeks since." "His name is not on the 
hospital books." " No record at the Directory office." 
Not unfrequently it was a convalescent in the same 
ward where a soldier had died who wrote. 

"ALEX, was a sober, industrious boy. He often 
talked to me of you and his sister. He told me how 
he loved you, and that he intended to send money to 
you. I went to see his grave; he is buried in the 
soldiers burying ground. You must be comforted ; 
remember he died for our great and glorious country." 

The picture was not all dark its bright side was 
often turned. " He is getting well, and walking about 
the camp, although he still looks feeble." " He has 
just started for home on furlough." " JOHN is doing 
well." " SULLIVAN is discharged from the hospital 
and has joined his company." One affectionate son 
replied to anxious questions as to his long silence, 
that he had written home four times and got no 
answer, and now he had quit it. 



UNION PRISONERS. 301 

The applications most difficult to answer most 
hopeless to forward, were from the families of men 
prisoners in the hands of the rebels. At the close of 
the year 1863 these letters began to come, increasing 
in number and more hopeless in tone, as months passed 
and still the exchange of prisoners was delayed, and 
hope of release in time to save seemed almost at an 
end. Here is one : 

" Dear lady : Excuse the liberty I take to address 
you. I am a soldier s wife ; my husband a prisoner 
to the rebels. The only word which has reached me 
concerning him was through a soldier who escaped 
from Andersonville ; since then no tidings have reach 
ed me. I am sorry to trouble you. Is there any 
possible way to find out if he is yet living? My 
anxiety is very great." 

And another. "He was captured on the 12th of 
May. I have two children, and anxiety is taking me 
to an early grave." 

There were many men w r hose names were entered 
upon no register, and whose fate was known only 
through some fellow prisoner who had made his 
escape or had been finally exchanged. To one woman, 
poor, and the mother of several children, it became 
necessary to say that her husband, stripped by the 
rebels of hat, shoes, socks, blanket, blouse and shirt, 
had frozen to death on the cars, while being trans 
ferred from Andersonville to Columbia prisons, in 
mid winter. 

In the Sultana disaster perished a number of men 
from Northern Ohio regiments, just released from 
prison, feeble, sickly and hardly able yet to realize 
the new joy of being once more free. 



302 HOSPITAL INQUIRY, 

The subject of hospital inquiry can not be exhausted 
can barely be entered upon within the present limits. 
Its natural centre was the Hospital Directory, of 
which a sketch has already been given on page 227 
of the preceding General History of the Cleveland 
Branch Sanitary Commission. The extracts above 
made were, however, from personal letters to those in 
the Aid Society office, who were known through their 
connection with this work. 

A full file of all these letters is preserved several 
hundred in number. They contain a world of hopes, 
fears, griefs, joys, purest patriotic feeling, and reflect, 
as no other record can, the hearts of those whom the 
war bereaved. To the writers of these letters, the 
soldiers words, " he died for our great and glorious 
country," could never be a mere high sounding 
phrase ; it was a living fact, which softened the keen 
edge of sorrow and carried the domestic loss into the 
higher sphere of sacrifice and self devotion. They 
offered other sons to a cause which each by his own 
tribute had appropriated and made personal, and 
the interest which all had felt in the welfare of the 
soldier, when represented by one familiar name, 
became more wide in scope, more fervent in purpose. 

Those who eagerly aided the first feeble attempts 
to relieve the suffering consequent upon the war, 
were the last to withdraw their gifts when the neces 
sity was past. 

Where some additional aid was required beyond 
that systematically issued by the visiting committees 
to the soldiers families, it was obtainable from the 



SANITAKY ISSUES. 303 

Aid Society funds. If the winter was unusually 
severe, the stock of quilts and blankets was drawn 
upon to give to the most destitute, and when a soldier, 
discharged or on furlough, was sick in his own home, 
his food, wine and medicine generally came from the 
Aid Room stores. A note from the physician was 
usually required where medicines and stimulants were 
asked. The memoranda of such disbursements show 
a half barrel of ale sent to one man, who, shot in the 
lungs, barely lived through months of fearful suffer 
ing. Corn starch, farina and " blackberry corgell," as 
one petition expresses it, were frequently issued. The 
latter beverage was generally believed to be infallible 
in any mortal disease, and, to quote from the same 
correspondent, " to Due a Graddell of Good." Prescrip 
tions, cerate, liniments, cod liver oil, were given out 
in druggists orders, and the amount paid for such 
issues is not small. 

After the important battles there were invariably 
many, anxious to go at once to the scene of action, 
who came to the Aid Rooms for help and direction. 
They argued that if a wounded man could be brought 
home, he would more surely recover, they must see 
him at all events, and they thought, as one said, that 
" you can hardly imagine our anxiety and anguish." It 
was hard to deny these natural requests, and yet so 
great were the difficulties in the way of such journeys, 
so doubtful the possibility of reaching the desired 
point, it was always suggested that inquiry into the 
facts of the case should first be made by letter or dis 
patch. The way sometimes seemed clear; one member 
of the family would start for the front, provided with 



304 FRUITLESS JOURNEYS, 

transportation, and armed with letters of recommen 
dation to the Sanitary Commission agents along the 
route. They also always carried with them a little 
package of eatables, contributed often by friends and 
neighbors as poor as themselves. This was not for 
their own refreshment by the way ; it was expected to 
revive the wounded soldier, even in extremis, espe 
cially if a can of fruit was added from the Aid Room 
stores. The children of a poor woman, preparing for 
such a pious pilgrimage, were taken in charge by one 
and another of the same warm hearted friends. 

One wife, who had seemed a helpless, uncertain 
being, hearing that her husband had been left on the 
route from Harper s Ferry, sick and paralyzed, left her 
four children at home, and started in search of him, 
by the aid of such simple directions as could be 
impressed upon her. She came back without him, 
but, happily, he was afterwards traced to the Tripler 
Hospital, at Columbus, O., by letters sent from the 
Aid Rooms, after her return. 

Another woman, who went to Gettysburgh in 
search of a wounded husband, and who saw, in all the 
horror of a recent battle field, only the suffering of 
one soldier who lay in a small field hospital, brought 
back fearful tales of the neglect with which she was 
treated by the military authorities, from major generals 
down. But she also brought back, in his coffin, the 
soldier whom she had journeyed so far to see, and who 
died before she found him in the hospital tent. 

A man going to see his sick boy at one of the 
Winchester hospitals, could not read, and a system of 
signs had to be invented for his instruction. The 



A SAD HISTOEY. 305 

letter having one straight line in the corner was for 
the railroad conductor; that with two marks, for the 
Subsistence Committee, at Pittsburgh, and represented 
dinner; and so to his journey s end. 

These expeditions were almost always fruitless. It 
was sad to see them undertaken with so much eager 
ness and at such sacrifice of slender means. It was 
commonly too late when they arrived ; the patient had 
not lived longer than the first report, or had been 
transferred to a more distant hospital. Yet the jour 
ney in itself was a relief, and, if successful, was so 
happy in its results that it could hardly be discour 
aged, if based upon any reasonable grounds. 

A hard working seamstress, in a city in the State 
of New York, learning that her husband, dangerously 
wounded, was in hospital at Louisville, Ky., started 
with the hope of bringing him home. She had barely 
money enough to carry her through the earlier stages 
of her journey, but she pushed her way on, seeking 
out in each town the office of the Sanitary Commis 
sion, and procuring there transportation to the next 
point and letters to aid her in any unforeseen emer 
gency. Louisville was finally reached, the man found 
alive and doing well, and, assisted by the Commission, 
she remained there until the soldier was able to 
travel, a furlough procured and he allowed to go home 
under her charge. She was so happy when she 
reached Cleveland and waited a few hours at the 
Home to let the ladies see the tall ghastly soldier, 
whose wounded shoulder was still in slings and 
whom she regarded with such fond pride. They got 
home safely, the man recovered, joined his regiment 



306 AID EOOM GUESTS. 

and served his time out; but two years later the 
woman again came one morning to the Home. Her 
husband had been robbed of his pay and murdered, 
just after leaving his regiment headquarters on Look 
out Mountain. The faithful creature made another 
journey, hoping by her own effort to discover at least 
his body in the wilderness of trees and thick under 
growth which clothe the steep descents of the moun 
tain side. But the search was never successful. 

Before experience had proved, even to the appli 
cant, the difficulties in the way of forwarding private 
parcels, many articles, small and great, stockings and 
mittens of home manufacture, with dainties of the 
most perishable character smuggled in their folds, 
cakes and pies made after the old infallible recipes 
were brought to the Aid Rooms to "follow the army" 
in search of some individual soldier. Frequently, if 
the camp was not distant and communication open, 
any small article of comfort was selected from the 
Aid Room stores and sent by mail to a soldier, in the 
name of the parent who could not afford its purchase. 

The hospital and camp furnished a large proportion 
of the visitors to the Aid Rooms. Almost every 
morning the hospital ambulance drew up before the 
door and brought over for a day s holiday some of 
the men who were unable to walk so long a distance. 

The ambulance was always at the service of the 
ladies at the Aid Rooms to take them to Camp 
Cleveland. It also made a morning trip to the 
depot to pick up any stray soldiers assigned to the 
hospital, and its driver, Steward L., was radiant when 



SANITARY TREASURES. 30 7 

something nice was sent to the sick men on the return 
journey. Most of the patients who visited the Aid 
Rooms came, however, on foot, some of them hobbling 
on crutches over the three long miles of hill and 
dusty road. Their holiday seemed always to include 
this visit, and, later in time, a dinner at the Soldiers 
Home. A few trifling gifts were ready for them, a 
little stationery and a stamped envelope, tobacco, 
sometimes accompanied by a lecture against its use 
from the good lady who gave it out, mittens for the 
guard at camp, and knitted woolen socks which all 
the soldiers coveted, handkerchiefs of brilliant color 
ing and patriotic design, a flannel shirt occasionally, 
always combs, pencils and little things of that class. 
Books, papers and magazines were borrowed, circu 
lated through the hospital and generally returned to 
the Aid Rooms. 

In several instances one of the society officers was 
entrusted with the last installment of pay of some 
soldier, who drew it out of his banker s hands in small 
sums. Trifling advances of money were at times made 
to men who were known to be honest and in need of 
a little help to send home, or for the purchase of some 
necessary article. In every case the sum thus loaned 
was promptly repaid before the soldier left the hos 
pital. 

THE SOLDIERS HOME. 

A BUILDING site for the Home was given by the 
Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati railroad com 
pany, comprising three hundred feet of the pier upon 
which the Union Depot stood, parallel with the 



308 THE SOLDIERS HOME. 

latter, and separated from it by only the width of the 
road. This situation was unsurpassed in its easy 
access from all the railroad trains and steamboats, 
and thus was avoided the necessity of conveying sick 
men up the hill into the city in many cases a 
dangerous and painful transportation. 

In the construction of the building the Aid Society 
availed itself of the proffered services of Mr. RANDALL 
CRAWFORD, who not only superintended the original 
design, but kindly undertook to carry out all the sub 
sequent changes, improvements and additions which 
became necessary. 

The plan adopted somewhat resembled that of the 
Soldiers Home at Louisville, Ky., a battened build 
ing, two hundred feet long, whose interior arrange 
ments, after numerous expansions, resulted as shown 
in the accompanying diagram. These meagre outlines 
are transformed in the memory of those who were 
frequent guests within its walls into a picture, bright 
and cheerful, of which, it must be confessed, the 
extreme length of the building and its pallor of com 
plexion gave little promise. 

It is sketched as it appeared, in its day of greatest 
usefulness and prosperity, when the funds of the 
Soldiers Aid Society, expanded by the receipts of 
the Sanitary Fair, were employed to add some degree 
of luxury to its undeniable comfort. 

The two wards at the south end of the building 
contained twenty-five beds each, were clean, well 
ventilated, brilliant with fresh whitewash, blue bed 
spreads and a profusion of flags of various sizes, 
festooning the mirrors, waving from the gas fixtures 
and crossed above windows and doors. 



DIAGEAM. 



309 




310 THE RECEPTION ROOM. 

The middle ward, called the reception room, where 
the men commonly sat, boasted a larger collection of 
pictures, patriotic emblems and other decorations. 
Here was the book-case with a good library of small 
compass, and a round table, well supplied with peri 
odicals and, through the kindness of the editors, with 
the daily Morning Leader and Evening Herald. 
Writing materials were furnished to all, and, the 
superintendent being instructed to stamp the numer 
ous rainbow hued letters, the post office box on the 
wall indicated a voluminous correspondence. There 
was a smaller table where often a one-armed or one- 
legged soldier might be seen seated apart, absorbed in 
the mysteries of arithmetic or a copy-book. Another 
grand attraction was the backgammon board, in use 
from morning to night, and always surrounded by an 
excited group of spectators watching the progress of 
the game, which, as the checkermen in time disap 
peared from the scene, was carried on by means of 
buttons and other small articles. There was also a 
looking glass where summary before-dinner toilets 
were performed, with migratory combs, attached by 
long brass chains to the wall, and a much frequented 
water cooler in another corner. Flowering plants 
stood in the windows, and a scarlet cardinal bird in 
his cage sang with distracting disregard for hours. 
An adjoining room was furnished with compartments 
for baggage and checks. The bath-room, transferred 
from its first position near the sleeping wards to 
the extreme end of the building, contained conveni 
ences for dressing wounds, towels, combs and brushes 
of uncertain tenure. Here, the men soon discovered. 



THE EARLY OUTFIT. 311 

a plunge bath could be easily improvised by re 
moving a trap-door and diving into the depths of 
lake Erie below. There was a small ward for the 
very sick, which could be soon warmed and was less 
noisy than the larger rooms. Kitchens, dining rooms 
pantries and the apartments of the officers of the 
Home were well arranged and well fitted up, the use 
of each being designated by small signs on the doors. 
The Branch Aid Society of Newburgh provided each 
of the thirty-six windows with a green Venetian blind, 
which kept out the dust and glare of the depot 
thoroughfare and, drawn up on the lake side, admitted 
its invigorating breezes. 

The early outfit of the Home was, however, more 
simple, comprising only what was really necessary in 
the way of furniture, purchased to add to the treasures 
of the depot room, and a little that w r as contributed 
in response to a newspaper appeal. Dr. NEWBERRY, 
the Western Secretary of the Sanitary Commission, 
presented the establishment w r ith iron bedsteads and 
rope matting for the wards. The Gas Company fur 
nished, gratuitously, all the gas consumed a valuable 
contribution, as the building was lighted brilliantly 
throughout its entire length. The Water Company 
also granted the free use of its pipes in the adjoining 
depot, for although water was everywhere around the 
Home, none could venture to drink of the yellow 
flood eddying about the piers. 

When all was finished, liberal applications of white 
wash, both within and without the building, were 
made, two long signs mounted, and a bright national 
flag run up over all, which in the first year of the 



312 THE FIEST PEIZE. 

war, when temple and tent alike wore the colors 
of freedom and loyalty, had floated from the tower 
of Trinity Church, Cleveland, and was presented 
to the Home by its Rector, the Rev. T. A. STAEKEY. 
The nurse attending the Depot Hospital was en 
gaged to continue his services in the new field; a 
superintendent and matron employed, and the house 
hold corps increased by the addition of a female 
servant. Just at this time a soldier, whose brain and 
limbs nature and the rebels had combined to hope 
lessly confuse, presented himself as a subject for 
assistance, and was appointed to the position of man- 
of-all-work. A gun he never again should wield, but 
a broom and mop he exercised to perfection, and 
served his country in this humble way perhaps as 
well as before, although with less glory, it is true. 

On the 12th of December, 1863, the finishing 
touches were given to the Soldiers Home, and on 
the afternoon of that rainy, chilly day two officers of 
the Aid Society proceeded to inspect the building. 
The whole was in order. The accommodations seemed 
ample for any number of men, but not a soldier, sick 
or well, appeared to claim its hospitality. This was 
disappointing in the extreme, in view of the urgency 
of the case as represented to the public by the canvass 
ing committee, who honestly expected crowds of eager 
applicants awaiting the last blow of the carpenter s 
hammer. With dampened ardor they returned to 
report the discouraging state of affairs, but, half way 
up the hill, fortune threw in their way a very muddy, 
forlorn, one legged soldier, limping along painfully on 



THE HOME PKOSPECTTJS. 313 

his crutches, who was at once stopped, wheeled right 
about and conveyed to the Home in triumph. Here 
the employes were ordered to be very careful of him, 
to give him the best the house afforded, and, as he 
proved really a friendless, homeless cripple, he was 
invited, in the ardor of the moment, to remain an 
indefinite length of time or even to pass the rest of 
his days sunning himself on the bench by the Home 
door. One soldier, at least, was sheltered by the two 
hundred feet of boards and shingle that night, and 
during the next week nearly three hundred men were 
fed and lodged under its roof. 

On the entrance door to the Soldiers Home was a 
sign which said: 

U. S. SANITAEY COMMISSION. 

SOLDIERS AID SOCIETY OF NORTHERN OHIO. 
SOLDIEKS HOME, 

CLEVELAND, O. 

SICK AND WOUNDED SOLDIERS, DISCHARGED SOLDIERS, AWAITING PENSIONS 

AND BACK PAY, OR FURLOUGHED SOLDIERS "WITHOUT MONET, WILL 

FIND LODGING, A RESTING PLACE AND FOOD, FREE OF 

CHARGE, AT THE SOLDIERS HOME, 

West of Cleve. Col. & Cin. Passenger Depot, in the rear of the Merchants 
Despatch Office. 

Smaller cards bearing this inscription were widely 
circulated, especially through other Homes, while 
large cards of the same kind were hung in all the 
passenger trains on the different railroads and posted 
in the hotels and post office. Each of the Branch 
Societies received one, with the request to suspend it 
in a conspicuous place. A runner, with a badge of 
the Home, was still in attendance at every train, 
while depot officers and employes were always ready 



314 MEANS OF SUPPORT. 

to direct to the institution any who had failed to read 
its many signs or escaped the notice of its officials. 
At the more remote depot of the Atlantic and Great 
Western railroad, the Omnibus Line agent had orders 
to send to the Home, at the Aid Society expense, 
soldiers arriving there who were too feeble to walk so 
far. In fact nothing was neglected which could draw 
within its influence the men for whom the comforts of 
the Home were meant. It was certainly cheering to a 
man, who looked forward only to arriving hungry 
and forlorn in a strange city, to read the invitation 
sent hours before to meet him. " Such proofs of kind 
remembrance stouten our hearts," one soldier said. 

The benefits of the Home were, at first, necessarily 
limited to the classes before mentioned chiefly sick 
or disabled men, soldiers on furlough or discharge 
coming singly or in squads. Unlike other similar 
institutions, whose support has been very largely 
drawn from rations obtained from the government, 
the Soldiers Home at Cleveland was entirely sustain 
ed by voluntary contributions, either made directly 
for that purpose or donated for the general uses of 
the Aid Society. For this reason, until after the 
Sanitary Fair, the Home was financially unable to 
receive regiments or large bodies of soldiers under 
command of an officer entitled to obtain rations from 
the post commissary. 

Although the rule of the establishment admitted 
only those clearly shown by their papers to be entitled 
to a share in its comforts, yet the order, by common 
consent, was inoperative. A man claiming to have 
lost his furlough or discharge was allowed the benefit 



FLEXIBLE KULES. 315 

of a doubt, and, especially if sick or hungry, was 
temporarily entertained. The error of possessing too 
little faith was a fault of great magnitude in the eyes 
of the founders of the Soldiers Home, and while the 
common sense and experience of the superintendent 
were somewhat relied upon to discriminate in doubt 
ful cases, yet his orders allowed him to turn no one 
from the door until his claims had been investigated 
and his immediate wants relieved. There has never 
been cause to regret this mild government. Refugees 
and government employes occasionally claimed and 
received assistance ; the female refugees benefiting by 
the kind offices of a society established for that pur 
pose, under the name of " Home for Strangers." The 
wives and mothers of sick soldiers always found place 
in the Home building. 

On entering the Home a soldier s baggage, gun and 
knapsack were properly checked, his name, company, 
regiment, condition and destination carefully regis 
tered, and to this entry was afterwards added the 
number of meals, lodgings and other assistance 
received. All were allowed to remain as long as neces 
sary, but, after one day s sojourn, a card signed by an 
officer of the Aid Society was required to endorse a 
longer stay. Cases of sickness were of course ex 
empted from this rule. 

Good conduct was an indispensable requisite for 
readmission, and, although instances of intemperance 
and disorderly behavior at times occurred, the men 
were generally found civil and orderly, and uniform 
discipline was maintained. This was due to the 
really good character of the majority of our volunteer 



316 AIM OF THE INSTITUTION. 

soldiers, and in part, it is believed, to the spirit in 
which the establishment was conducted. 

The fund which sustained this and all Sanitary 
Commission institutions came from a thousand sources, 
often humble and sometimes unknown. It was the 
offering of patriotism and loving self denial, and the 
earnest of this should accompany as well as prompt 
the gift. The Soldiers Homes were designed not 
only to minister to the absolute necessities of those 
who became their guests, but, while not omitting these 
weightier matters, they aimed to express by the man 
ner in which the gifts were offered, the interest felt in 
the soldiers as men who were intelligently and devo 
tedly enlisted in the service, and not as mere candi 
dates for unlimited food and flannel shirts. This was 
accomplished through personal refining influence and 
the use of simple means, pleasant things to look at, 
good order, kind treatment and the presence of many 
tokens of womanly taste. Every guest was aware 
that in the Soldiers Home good conduct was expected, 
and as a rule respect for the regulations of the house 
hold was cheerfully rendered. 

A sick or disabled man found at the Home what 
his condition required, his wounds were carefully 
dressed and his case attended to by a physician, his 
friends were informed of his illness, and where the 
disease appeared serious or of long duration, the wife 
or friends were summoned and allowed to remain 
until the patient could be removed. A room in the 
building was especially appropriated to the use of 
such guests. 

For the first month the Depot Dining Hall furnished 



ITS ADMINISTRATION. 317 

meals to the Home inmates, as before. This plan was 
soon relinquished, and the food was prepared thence 
forth within the Home, except when the detention of 
trains made a coffee room lunch all that was possible. 
As the wants of the institution became more gener 
ally known, contributions of green vegetables, fruit 
and home made luxuries were received from the 
Branch Aid Societies, and these gifts continued so 
long as there were soldiers to be regaled. Occasion 
ally articles of a perishable nature, unpacked eggs, 
stray potatoes and onions, fruit which threatened 
fermentation and compounds dangerous to transport 
were sent from the Aid Rooms, reorganized and set 
before the soldiers. 

As with the Depot Hospital, the control of the 
institution remained exclusively with the officers of 
the Soldiers Aid Society, by whom all purchases 
were made, rules framed for the government of the 
household, and all questions arising in its adminis 
tration decided. A room in the building was subse 
quently used as an office, where this business could 
be transacted, and one of the ladies was in daily 
attendance. 

The experiment was made of employing as superin 
tendent a soldier assigned from the U. S. General 
Hospital at Camp Cleveland for the purpose, but this 
proved inexpedient, and Sergeant JOSEPH JEROME, a 
discharged and disabled soldier, was appointed to 
the position. Until October, 1865, when compelled 
by his business engagements to resign his post, he 
continued to discharge its duties to the satisfaction 
of his employers, who found him efficient, reliable 



318 AN OLD FKIEND. 

and capable of exercising an excellent influence and 
control over his most turbulent guests. Mrs. LOUISA 
FORD, who was both capable and energetic, first filled 
the place of matron, and was succeeded in March, 
1865, by Mrs. Ross, by whom the increased duties of 
the office were faithfully discharged until the closing 
of the Home. 

Aside from the entertainment of transient guests, 
the duties of the first six months embraced the care 
of a number of patients, suffering from wounds or 
disease of long standing. Conspicuous among these, 
was a tall, gaunt Hungarian, a political exile from his 
own country and a member of the 1st Ohio Battery. 
Once he had inhabited a corner of the Army Depart 
ment of the Marine Hospital through a serious illness, 
and since then had apparently made the tour of all 
the Homes and Lodges to which his military service 
could gain him admittance. He had occasionally 
reported to his former friends through the pen of some 
lady whose protege he had in turn become, and one 
morning he presented himself at his old quarters, 
more ghastly than ever, and begged the privilege of 
dying in peace, under the protection of the Soldiers 
Home. In that asylum, however, under the combined 
influence of good care and unlimited cod liver oil diet, 
he unexpectedly revived and became equal to the 
duty of engaging in hourly and fierce wordy battles 
with his fellow soldiers and especially with the matron, 
who excited in him unqualified aversion. His mortal 
disease, consumption, rendered him so morbidly sen 
sitive that he fancied every man s hand was against 



AN APPAEITION. 319 

him, and consequently built fortifications around his 
bed of chairs, tables and pillows, in anticipation of 
possible attacks from the worthy matron, whose mere 
entrance into the ward, where he lay entrenched, was 
sufficient to throw him into a fever of agitation. One 
night he came trembling to the house of one of the 
Aid Society ladies and refused to return to the Home 
unless under her protection. 

But often a more kindly side of the strange nature 
appeared ; he would dive into the depths of his myste 
rious and carefully guarded "baggages" and bring 
out a good red flannel shirt for another sick soldier, 
and the Sanitary Fair acknowledges the gift of a pair 
of dumb bells from the same source. In the Sanitary 
Fair buildings he was frequently found. His appear 
ance was so startling, the apparent embodiment of 
all that soldier ever suffered, it naturally excited 
universal sympathy, and wherever he turned, oysters 
and coffee were lavishly bestowed. It was no doubt 
the restlessness of disease which made change of place 
necessary to his happiness, for a few months later he 
went to Cincinnati, finding there as usual other friends 
and new sympathy, and soon came the news from a 
kind hand of the death of this u good and patriotic 
man" in the Commercial Hospital. 

The first death within the Home walls was that of 
JOHN H., a Michigan soldier, whom his wife, with her 
child in her arms, had brought from one of the crowded 
Washington hospitals. They had come against the 
advice of the surgeon and had painfully struggled 
from one friendly shelter to the next, until this the 
last was reached. It was apparent from the first 



320 THE FIRST DEATH. 

that the long journey had been fruitless, and yet the 
comfort which each day brought was in the thought 
that on the next they should be certainly able to 
start for home and the children. How intensely the 
sick man longed to be there, and yet was so courageous 
and patient ! His wife, well meaning, vociferous, and 
with all her affection aggravating to an unpar 
alleled degree, failed to disturb his serenity; the 
contretemps of a noisy and new fledged household 
had no irritating power; the most trivial kindness 
was magnified into a cause for gratitude. To the 
clergyman who often visited him and tried to draw 
his kindly simple heart from its little circle of human 
anxieties, he spoke, in the last night of mortal agony, 
of faith and resignation which had been born in these 
hours of fearful suffering. 

Through the assistance of the Aid Society the body 
was carried to his home in Michigan, and a clue to 
the further fortunes of the family for a time retained 
through the letters of a son, a bright young boy, 
enlisted at thirteen years of age in the band of an 
Illinois regiment. From these, much interesting infor 
mation was obtained with regard to the said band, 
and all the plans for " mother and the children," lying 
beyond his happy discharge from the service. 

CHAELES W. was another patient, under treatment 
for partial blindness, whom the course of events 
brought back again, two years later, with a broken 
leg and still more imperfect sight. In that period he 
had run the gauntlet of perils by poverty, disease and 
intemperance. Renovated physically and morally, it 
was hoped, he was again discharged, to reappear in 



VETERAN REGIMENTS. 321 

twelve months with still greater capacities for assist 
ance. 

Still another inmate was one unfortunate enough to 
have suffered two amputations upon his right leg and 
requiring a third operation when his application for 
admission was made. Occupying for some six weeks 
the small sick ward, he was distinguished for the sang 
froid with which he took the whole matter ludi 
crously cheerful in the midst of his pain, reading, 
singing, laughing, especially vigorously shaking hands 
with every visitor, as if the mere certainty of food 
and shelter made all other inconvenience trilling. 

Except in the care of the sick, the Soldiers Home 
had no part in the entertainment of the regiments 
returning on veteran furlough, in January and Feb 
ruary of 1864. A citizens committee was formed, 
and the soldiers feted in the dining hall of the Sani 
tary Fair buildings, then just completed. 

A member of the 20th Ohio Battery died at the 
Home two days after his arrival. His wife, who had 
brought a little child from their country home to 
meet the husband in Cleveland, fortunately came 
before his death. A baby at the Home was an 
unusual guest, but it comforted the poor woman as 
she sat by the fire and dressed the laughing little 
thing, whose father lay dead in the next room. 
Aided by the kindness of the officers of the battery, 
she removed his remains to a grave with his own 
people. 

Into this quiet circle of recognized usefulness, a 
bomb shell was occasionally thrown, by some daring 
hand among the Home guests, which brought dismay 



322 OCCASIONAL GRIEVANCES. 

and indignation to the minds of its managers, and 
doubtless had a salutary effect in clearing the atmos 
phere of temporary obstructions. On one such occa 
sion the Aid Society was informed, in a well-written 
frank statement from a young cavalryman, that the 
disabled members of the Invalid Corps, on arriving at 
the Home, were compelled to bivouac on the floor, in 
full view of numerous comfortable unoccupied beds, 
in deference to certain ideas of military discipline enter 
tained by the superintendent. At another time, the 
solution of sundry unaccountable midnight raids upon 
the pantry and consequent valiant skirmishing of the 
matron upon the foragers was found in the discovery 
that no entertainment had been given to the hungry 
guests arriving by the evening trains ; all had been sent 
supperless to bed and had thus revenged their disap 
pointed appetites. These grievances were promptly 
remedied and, indeed, were found few in number, 
although every complaint entered against the em 
ployes of the establishment was promptly investi 
gated. Some fancied wrongs arose from, the necessity 
of limiting the stay of soldiers on furlough, or of 
denying admittance to members of regiments in Camp 
Cleveland. 

In February, 1864, the first sum of money contrib 
uted by the Branch Aid Societies to the support of 
the Home was received from Wads worth, O., and 
this example was soon followed by other towns. 
These gifts, although valuable as indicating sympathy 
with the Home and its work, were yet trifling when 
compared with the actual amount required to main 
tain the establishment. The proceeds of the Sanitary 



WOUNDED IN THE WILDERNESS. 323 

Fair were therefore drawn upon to meet the current 
expenses and to carry out an extension to the build 
ing, with some other alterations and improvements. 

The early spring and summer of this year were 
marked by nothing more eventful than the ordinary 
routine of a Soldiers Home presents, with its daily 
change of inmates ; but the series of battles beginning 
with the Wilderness brought an influx of wounded 
men to all the Homes on the route from. Washington. 
At first came those whose injuries were of such a 
nature that they could make the journey unattended, 
and a few weeks later, again and again, a bed or 
stretcher was carefully lifted from the railroad cars 
and carried to the Home, on which lay some fearfully 
wounded man whom a father or brother was taking 
to his home. They always thought fresh country air 
would effect what a crowded hospital had failed to 
do, and this was no doubt true if the journey could 
be lived through. 

It is of course impossible to preserve a tithe of the 
incidents which marked this and later periods. Those 
familiar with this phase of the Sanitary Commission 
work, know the character of the daily history of a 
Soldiers Home ; its numberless cases which, calling 
for personal care and active sympathy, are yet so soon 
supplanted by others, who in turn give place to new 
guests. 

One hot Sunday in July, the visitors at the Home 
found, among other patients, a young soldier, shot 
through the body, who had lain on his face for seven 
weeks in hospital, and was now being carefully carried 
home by his father, who as was often seen waited 



324 TWO PATIENTS. 

on him with really womanly tenderness. Anything 
more exquisitely uncomfortable than the condition of 
the boy can hardly be imagined, and by his side, 
during al! the burning afternoon, sat the father, fan 
ning away the flies, changing slightly his painful 
position, bringing him ice, lemonade, anything which 
could give him temporary ease, and saying occasionally 
a cheerful and encouraging word. Some blackberries 
and a clean cologne-scented handkerchief, which were 
given him by one of the ladies, seemed especially to 
please him, and when at home and convalescent, he 
sent back the following letter: 

JULY THE 10 

i neglect of Writing to you till now i hap Bin very poorly till a few 
days i Be gin to get much Betor you hap probly for gotten me i Was 
at your Solgers horn on the 3 of July over Sunday, if you haf for gotten 
me i never will for get you the kindness you shown to me Was grat 
Releav to me i hav suffered dredfully from my Wound throo ner the spine 
of my Back i hop i soon will get well, i will close for this time hoping that 
i will see you again, i Will forever remain your poor little Woodid Solger 
Boy. JOHN. 

Another patient was a Wisconsin soldier, suffering 
from hospital gangrene, who, through two long weary 
months of convalescence and relapse, was the care of 
the Home, although not under its roof. His nerves, 
rendered sensitive through disease, were tortured 
by the noise of railroad trains and heavy wagons 
at the depot, and one morning his bed was put 
into an express cart, sheltered by umbrellas inclined 
to every angle, and transferred to a quiet house 
near the lake. Here a nurse was employed, and 
a physician regularly attended him. Here, with 
everything that could speed his recovery, amuse his 
loneliness, or tempt his appetite, he revived, Ian- 



DOMESTIC NEWS. 325 

guished, grew better, worse, while the insidious 
disease, checked in one spot would immediately appear 
in another. All this time a vigorous correspondence 
was kept up with the parents and wife of the patient. 
The old mother, in Wisconsin, was "worried to deth 
and in poor helth," and feared he would never get 
well. She dictated numerous letters through a daugh 
ter, who explained that " to please mother, who was 
afraid you wouldn t get them, we sent the letters 
different ways, once by express." For herself, the 
daughter thought she would never refuse to give 
something to the " Sanitary;" " if it don t do my friends 
good, it may some other person." 

The wife, who kept up as good courage as her 
"nervous temperament would permit," sent volumi 
nous epistles of alarm, gratitude, anxiety; messages 
from little CARRIE, and accounts of the farm, which 
like many another woman she had managed in her 
husband s absence. She told him how STANLEY had 
grown, and that the neighbors had come in and 
stacked her grain, free of charge, with many other 
little domestic items, which were a comfort to the 
poor fellow, whose chances of getting home seemed 
very small. But at last he actually did recover, his 
wounds finally healed, and a brother, dispatched by 
the anxious family for the purpose, bore home his 
prize with great rejoicings. 

Many of the patients who occupied the Home 
during the months of July and August, 1864, were 
members of the National Guard, returning from the 
three months service. The exposure and change in 
mode of life caused sickness among them to an unu- 



o2b ENLARGING THE HOME. 

sual degree, and in many instances produced fatal 
effects. 

In August the Home building was again altered 
and improved. It then appeared as in the plan, with 
out the new dining room extension and south ward. 

September 8th the Secretary of the Society wrote : 

Tlie Home just now engrosses a good deal of our attention. You have 
no idea how that department has grown since the "one hundred days 
men " began to come home. Last month we averaged one hundred lodg 
ings per day and eight hundred meals per week. One day Mrs. ROUSE 
and I were sent for at 8 A. M., and went down to find eight hundred men, 
the most of them weak and ailing, scattered over the entire space between 
the Home and the depoc, while all the beds in the Home were filled and 
the floors covered with very sick men, so that we could hardly find stepping 
room. To the half famished men outside I gave out crackers by the 
handful until a whole barrel had been emptied, while German MARY filled 
each man s cup with hot coffee. The railroad train had broken down 
between Alliance and here, and the poor fellows had been left thirty-six 
hours in the woods without food. Never, except at the extreme front, have 
I seen such eager faces and starved looks. Inside the house we were 
busied all day long, till dark, carrying tea, toast, eggs, gruel, beef soup 
and milk punch to the sick men. One died just as he was brought in. It 
was our last summer s experience over again. These were the 166th and 
169th regiments Ohio National Guards, one hundred days men. The 
General Hospital and barracks here are full, and every day for two weeks 
we have had every bed filled and the floor crowded. Dr. NEWBERRY 
agreed with us that the Home should be enlarged. Mr. CRAWFORD said the 
materials would be beyond the reach of our purse next spring, and that the 
building should be done now, so the carpenters are busily at it. The whole 
is shingled and floored, the kitchen pushed back and the dining room 
enlarged, and other improvements have been made that I think you will 
be pleased to see. I have just come from a sad scene there this morning. 
A member of the 166th died just before I went in, and another is fast going. 
His wife is with him, but her care is in vain ; twenty-four hours will end his 
days, poor fellow ! A death occurred there on Sunday. You cannot imagine 
the sad cases that have come under my eye there these last two weeks. 

And again, on September 30th: 

The repairs and additions are now nearly finished, and the Home is full 
every day. Judging from the number of refugees and deserters we enter 
tain there, JEFF. DAVIS will soon be the " last man " in his dominions. 



OHIO NATIONAL GUARDS. 327 

Only think of it, five on Friday, thirteen on Saturday, six on Monday, and 
so they come, and we take them in until they can get employment. A 
squad of them are working now on Mr. CASE S building. The women, of 
whom we have not a few, are consigned to Mrs. WILLIAMSON S Society for 
the Friendless, for we cannot keep them at the Home. I went down, yester 
day noon, just in time to see sixty hungry mortals, in various stages of 
convalescence, making their way from the train to the door of the Home. 
JEROME had gone to Painesville and Mrs. FORD had been suddenly called 
into the country on some personal affairs. Dutch MARY and I threw our 
selves into the gap, and set and cleared tables and washed dishes at railroad 
speed. Every man of that crowd has had at least one good dinner in his 
life ! 

Through these members of the National Guard the 
good report of the Home spread far and wide, and 
the people of Northern Ohio learned more of its 
objects and wants than all previous appeals through 
the press had taught. The women whose husbands 
and brothers had actually received aid within its 
walls, embraced the cause with especial ardor, and 
thenceforth the Home received a generous share of 
their interest and personal sympathy. One wrote 
that her husband, a member of the 150th Ohio 
National Guards, was sick at the time of his return, 
and so was partaker of the bounty of the Soldiers 
Home. He had often told her that it surpassed 
other Homes in the variety of the table, and that he 
was much more pleased with his stay there, so she 
wrote at his request to express his thanks. 

Another, a friend and contributor of long standing, 
says: " I have a dear brother, a member of the 150th 
Ohio, who is being kindly cared for in your Soldiers 1 
Home to-night. Heaven bless you for it ! " 

Here, in the Home, many hardly earned contribu 
tions were seen in actual use, and, although the faith 
of the great body of contributors in the field opera* 



328 THE CHILDREN S GIFTS. 

tions of the Sanitary Commission was genuine and 
most generous, it cannot be denied that an additional 
stimulus was given to the general work, by the widen 
ing of the Special Relief department. The little 
girls, whose album quilts the product of much sac 
rifice of bright Saturday afternoons covered in plain 
sight some wounded soldier, to whom its numerous 
inscriptions furnished amusement for dull hours, were 
eager to make others for the same good purpose. 
The refreshing sight of blackberries and currants, 
picked by their own industrious fingers, going down 
some hungry soldier s throat before their very eyes, 
could hardly help bringing more encouragement than 
a venture trusted to the perils of a Southern cam 
paign. In city and country, innumerable small socie 
ties and juvenile bazaars sprung into existence, 
having the Soldiers Home at Cleveland as an object 
ive point. 

Meanwhile at the Aid Rooms had gone on the 
busy round of correspondence and inquiry, as new 
battles were fought and new names so many and 
familiar were daily added to the records of dead, 
wounded and missing. Near the door, now hung 
the lists of missing men, published by Miss CLAEA 
BARTON and from time to time amended by her, 
which were often and anxiously scanned. Posted 
beside them on the wall and more frequently in the 
reception room of the Soldiers Home, was sometimes 
a little written notice of a soldier whose fate was still 
a mystery, with the request that if any man knew 
of him, he would report to the anxious family. 



HOME FROM THE WAR. 329 

Once this was done in hope of hearing of a youthful 
soldier supposed to have been killed in a brilliant 
cavalry charge, or to have fallen, wounded, into the 
hands of the enemy. 

Some of the long-sought-for had in time returned, 
had been released from prison, or had recovered from 
their wounds and come home on furlough, and, where 
the matter could be compassed by their affectionate 
relatives, had been led sometimes " like sheep to the 
slaughter," to the Aid Rooms for inspection and 
admiration. One woman excused the failure of her 
son to appear in person there, on the ground that he 
was "so wild like." RICHARD T., who was so long 
in prison, had made his escape and came in one day, 
radiant, escorted by his proud and happy wife. The 
brown-eyed little German woman had received her 
FRANZ safely back from the hospital, where he had 
lain sick, and under their small roof there was great 
rejoicing. Other brothers and husbands had come 
home and reported themselves " all right," while a 
few of the lost and found returned only to end the 
story of sickness and suffering in death or permanent 
disability. 

The letters of this period show a new element in 
their manifold character, as did also the applications 
made in person at the Aid Society office. In the 
succession of engagements on SHERMAN S march from 
Chattanooga to Atlanta, there had been great loss of 
life, and Ohio men had fallen with the rest. It there 
fore became a part of the duty of the field agents of 
the Sanitary Commission, and of the inspectors sta 
tioned at the various posts in the rear of the army, 



330 BRINGING HOME THE DEAD. 

to identify the graves of the killed and, where it was 
desired, to forward the bodies to their friends. The 
orders for removal ordinarily came through the Cleve 
land Aid Society, to whose care the remains were 
consigned, and with whom settlement for the incident 
expenses was made. Many a woman, who had become 
the sole support of her children, spent all that she 
possessed or could borrow, in bringing home the body 
of her husband, that it might lie in ground hallowed 
by church rites, or by the more common consecration 
of children and friends already resting there. There 
were not many who considered a National Cemetery 
the best and holiest place where a national soldier 
could be buried, and it was usually failure of means 
to remove him, not want of inclination, which left 
him lying there. 

One of the first of these commissions was for the 
son of an old man living near Cleveland, who came in 
the rough farm wagon to carry home this, the second, 
who had been killed in the service. Four other sons 
were still serving in one of the great armies. 

There were also two brothers w T ho, killed side by side 
at the same moment, were found buried together near 
Resaca. Of another who was brought from a Georgia 
battle field his father wrote : " We have received the 
body of our dear son. You have the thanks of an 
afflicted family for the interest you take in assisting 
the poor soldiers. God grant the day may soon come 
when there will be no more need of Soldiers Aid 
Societies, and no more sacrifice of valuable life." 

The entrenchments near Dallas and Resaca, Flor 
ence and Kenesaw Mountain yielded up the bodies of 



ARTIFICIAL LIMBS. 331 

many a " dear son," and many were removed from the 
fields and little gardens of the towns. A barrier was, 
however, placed in the way of continuing these offices, 
by the order of General SHERMAN, which positively 
forbade the further removal of bodies until after 
November, 1864. This measure was purely a sani 
tary one, and, after the limit designated by his order, 
so long a time had elapsed that little further was 
accomplished in the matter. 

A very frequent complaint made at this time, and 
often at later periods, was of the quality of the arti 
ficial legs furnished by contractors to the nation s crip 
pled soldiers. They were sometimes worthless after 
a year s use. It was almost impossible for their wear 
ers to purchase new limbs; the price far exceeded 
their scanty purses, and the inconvenience was very 
great, as a serious drawback to gaining a livelihood. 
Nor could these be supplied at the Sanitary Com 
mission expense, although contributions for this pur 
pose were sometimes made. Spring crutches were in 
great demand, and a purchase was made of one hun 
dred pairs, manufactured by a discharged soldier who 
was himself crippled. These were afterwards var 
nished and padded by a second one-legged soldier, a 
guest at the Soldiers Home. 

After the battles in Virginia, in the spring of 1864, 
there were more persons to assist in going to see sick 
or wounded soldiers than at any earlier period. The 
hospitals were more accessible. It was not like seek 
ing one left in the wake of the armies of the West, 
where transportation was perilous and the guerillas 



332 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 

so troublesome. One man who had two sons, one 
of whom was killed and the other seriously wounded 
in the first battle of the Wilderness, though extremely 
ignorant and inexperienced, made his way to a Wash 
ington hospital by the help of letters and passes, 
found his living son and brought him home. Another 
father wrote from his home in Michigan, after return 
ing from a visit to his son, as follows : " I found my 
son in the hospital. He was not able to be moved 
from the bed, and I was obliged to return without 
him. The Sanitary ladies kindly offered their sym 
pathy; he had no appetite to eat anything from their 
fair hands. I intended to call on you on my return 
and thank you for your kindness, but was not well 
enough to do so." 

From soldiers themselves frequent letters carne. 
Delegations and committees in the hospitals at the 
front would indite elaborate thanks on the part of 
all the boys, for donations, traced to their source by 
the indestructible mark of the Soldiers Aid Society 
of Northern Ohio. These communications generally 
began with a picture of the inevitable man, in soldier 
or sailor dress, who, suspended in mid air, gaily nailed 
the national flag to the north pole, and they ended 
with a score or two of signatures. There were still 
more individual letters, and here is a specimen of the 
class, although dating back as early as the battle of 
Pittsburg Landing : 

DEAR FRIEND: I was sent here from the Battle ground to assist in 
dressing the many wounds I was in charge of 15 Wounded Soldiers the 
Surgeon had neglected to get bandages and what to do I knew not but 
determined not to give it up without a trial I started out inquiring of 
every one I met if they knew any place where I could procure any Banda- 



AKMY LETTEKS. 333 

ges no one knew finally I came across A young man with a lot of 
Bandages under His arm looking as pleased as though he had found $5.00 
in gold I stopped and asked Him where did you get them. Oh said he 
(his face glowing with pleasure) right down there to that little frame house 
(pointing across the street) there is A Woman that belongs to the Society 
she has every thing that our Boys wants I went and found to my surprise 
Old mother BECKERDIKE with Bandages, Pillows, towels, shirts Drawers, 
Socks and every thing to make the poor suffering Boys comfortable I 
took what I could carry of the Bandages and other necessaries and went to 
the Hospital looking as well pleased as the Soldier I had met that told me 
of the place all this seems kind of curious to me to get such luxuries 
without A Recuisition Countersigned by two or 3 Officers. But how to 
express my gratitude I know not we can say I thank you most sincerely 
there is A Reward layed up for the Society which will return to you in 
many days. Our Boys would have suffered severely had it not been for the 
Society I hope we will all meet in Heaven where War and Bloodshed are 
not You will be very kindly remembered by all of the Hospital. 

Yours respectfully 
give me Ohio Ladies thats my native State. 

Here is another not so overflowing with honest 
warmth. Gloomy pictures the nameless writer draws. 

Humanity seems to demand that the attention of some charitable insti 
tution should be called to our condition here at Vicksburg. We have 
nothing left us but to apeal to charity. In our Regiment alone we have 
One hundred and thirty-seven sick. 113 of them are shaking with the 
ague and the Doctor informed me that 36 grains of Quinine would set them 
all upon their feet in forty eight hours but for the want of it they will have 
to shake until some and I am fearful many of them will shake themselves 
into eternity. I am satisfied what will do for the army at Washington will 
not do for the army here in this malarious country where we have to drink 
water out of mud puddles a great deal of the time. * * * 

The following letter is pathetic, but resigned, as if 
the writer were fully aware that the nation had the 
worst of the bargain by insisting upon his service. 
He was an old acquaintance. 

Well i am again in the field i was drafted the fifteenth of this month i 
cant see where they will put me i am not fit for service i can not work 
nor dare to expose myself i hope they will give me time to get well if i 
ever do my wife feels worse than she did the first time i went out she 



334 CONTRIBUTING SOCIETIES. 

lived by herself last summer and noboddy to talk to but the dog she thinks 
it a great pleasure to have me to talk to although i could not do any work 
and i dont think i ever will. 

Here is a letter from a soldier, wlio sends a modest 
and natural request. 

You will confer a great favor on the writer if you will please be so 
obliging and so kind as to send, occasionally, a line or two to a weary 
lonesome soldier, to cheer him on his lonely road. You may think it is a 
great presumption on my part to thus address you, being a perfect stranger, 
but, knowing you are engaged in such a good work for us soldiers, I 
thought you would also help to cheer us by a word, for a word from a lady 
oftentimes helps us on amazingly. I have no kind mother or sister in 
writing distance. I am sorry to tell you they are all south. Now, I know if 
you had an idea or even could imagine what a source of comfort it was for 
us to open a letter, why I know you will pen a few lines. If you desire it 
I shall answer your letter, and I think I can interest you by a description of 
the country and the people hereabouts. 

The contributions for the Soldiers Home now 
formed a part of the shipments from towns near 
Cleveland. A few of the Aid Societies sent weekly a 
supply of good things for the Home table, and, for a 
time, all the potatoes and butter consumed in the 
household came from the same generous source. 
Occasionally, from over zealous packing, most tempt 
ingly invoiced boxes and barrels arrived in a state of 
chaos hot doughnuts consigned to a tomb of vege 
tables and canned fruit distilling into the cheese and 
butter. Among these contributing societies were 
conspicuous all who had given most liberally towards 
the supply department of this work. A list of them 
will be found in Appendix B, of this volume. These 
were not all nourishing villages nor incipient towns 
of the more thickly settled portions of the territory 
which limited the Soldiers Aid Society of Northern 
Ohio. Many of the most valuable and useful gifts 



WINTER QUARTERS. 335 

were prepared in lonely farm houses, to reach which 
the few ladies who formed the society must journey 
through cold, snow, or almost impassable mud, over 
long miles of country roads. In many such meetings 
the wants of the Home were earnestly considered, 
and for its sick soldiers was manufactured and dis 
patched the best which each good housewife could 
prepare. The tiny society at Chester Cross Roads 
sent over one hundred pounds of fresh spring butter, 
and so large a quantity of dried fruit that a lady 
at the Aid Rooms remarked to the grey haired man 
who brought these contributions to Cleveland : " Your 
village must be a fine place for fruit." "We have 
very little," he replied, " but we keep it all for the 
soldiers and eat none ourselves." 

The expenses of the Home were now very sensibly 
reduced by these gifts. In a report, published in 
January, 1865, the estimated cost of a meal or lodging 
since the opening of the institution had averaged only 
twelve cents. 

The winter of 1864 and 65 brought again a large 
number of discharged men to claim assistance. Sev 
eral crippled soldiers were admitted to the Home 
while attending the schools or commercial college. 
Others remained for only a few days while seeking 
employment, and these, with a number of really help 
less men, swelled the list of inmates to formidable pro 
portions. The first approach of cold weather also 
brought from the South an unusual number of refu 
gees and rebel deserters from the hardships of another 
winter campaign. To the latter, the ordinary hospi- 



336 KEFUGEES AND DESERTERS. 

tality of a meal or lodging was granted. The refugees 
always needed assistance in procuring employment, 
and proved the most difficult class of applicants to 
provide for. Those having trades readily found work, 
but others of a more numerous class, unfitted by 
habits or education for any known branch of industry, 
were most discouraging proteges. The Strangers 
Home Society took charge of the female refugees 
and often assisted these destitute families to organize 
a new humble home, by gifts of household furniture 
and food. Among these many phases of want, distress 
and helplessness, are conspicuous a few shining exam 
ples of resolution and energy. 

A snowy day in December, 1864, found a group of 
six refugee brothers huddled around the stove at the 
Aid Rooms. Their homespun suits bore ample evi 
dence to the swamps and forests through which they 
had escaped from Dixie, and a rebel picket had sent 
a bullet through the knee of one during the flight. 
The only warm garment they possessed an old shep 
herd s plaid was wrapped around the youngest 
brother, TOMMY, fourteen years old. From " JEEMES " 
to BOB there was little variation in dress or expression; 
all were hopeless and discouraged, with the exception 
of TOMMY. 

To the Home they were all dispatched, until 
employment could be found for them, and after vari 
ous trials and failures to make clerks, laborers or 
salesmen of them, they adjourned in a body to chop 
wood upon the line of some railroad. From thence 
came frequent and alarming reports of BOB S having 
chopped away portions of his own feet or his neigh- 



TOMMY. 337 

bor s, or of JOHN S axe having unexpectedly descended 
on his brother s head. 

Meanwhile, TOMMY was adopted by the Soldiers 
Home, clothed and sent to school. The expense of 
his support was quite balanced by the many ways in 
which he made himself useful always ready to sit 
by the bed of a sick soldier, to light fires, or run the 
numerous errands to which a boy s feet are considered 
equal, and never unwilling to "tote" anything for 
friend or foe. Grave and conscientious, his sober face 
was daily welcomed at the Aid Rooms, where he had 
ordinarily some weighty question to propound, as, 
" Miss - , how long does it take to get an educa 
tion ? " His monthly school reports were duly brought 
to be signed by his guardians and the credit marks 
properly admired, and to the discriminating taste of 
the Aid Society was confided the selection of poems 
and orations to be spoken on public occasions. TOMMY 
received many marks of favor from teacher and scholars 
at school, once in the form of a pair of skates, often 
by smaller gifts and gratuitous sleigh rides. But 
TOMMY was homesick. Nothing had been heard 
through the long winter from the father and mother 
in Virginia, and when the taking of Richmond opened 
a way of return to her refugee citizens, the six broth 
ers were among the first to avail themselves of it. 

All refugees claimed to be Unionists, and so doubt 
less the larger portion of them were. Some had 
suffered beyond belief at the hands of the rebels, had 
seen their fathers and husbands murdered, their homes 
destroyed and themselves cast out, but it may be 
doubted whether all who professed to be loyal could 

22 



338 ENTERTAINMENTS, 

support their claim. There were females, refugees from 
hunger and privation in the South, as staunch rebels 
at heart as their husbands, who were probably then 
fighting under the rebel flag. When only a meal or 
lodging was asked, the sentiments of a hungry mother 
and her children were not very closely inquired into. 
There are some amusing incidents associated \vith this 
class. One woman, who had received permission to 
remain over night with her family at the Home, 
brought forth from her baggage a surprising quantity 
of handsome clothes, put them in tubs of water to 
soak, pulled out a pipe, seated herself over the fire, 
and refused to depart until some one had finished the 
washing for her. The humiliating confession must be 
made that, unless force had been employed, she would 
have remained in possession. 

On the 2d of December, 1864, Mr. JAMES E. MUR 
DOCH gave a Patriotic Reading for the benefit of the 
Home ; and in March of the following spring, a num 
ber of ladies and gentlemen, who had long been 
friends and supporters of the Aid Society, gave a 
series of Tableaux and Dramatic Performances for the 
same object. (See Appendix E.) The latter enter 
tainments yielded a profit of seven hundred and thirty 
dollars, and with this sum a new ward, thirty-six feet 
long, was added to the south end of the building. 
"Work was at once commenced upon this, and in a few 
days it was completed and ready for occupancy, with 
a fall complement of flags, pictures and blue gingham 
spreads. 

The following sketch, published in March, 1865, 
gives an outline of the daily routine of the establish- 



ONE DAY AT THE HOME. 339 

ment at a time when large numbers of convalescent 
soldiers were in process of transfer to their respective 

States. 

OXE DAY AT THE SOLDIERS HOME. 

" How few of our citizens have taken the pains to 
turn the corner of the Union Depot, to give a passing 
look at the flourishing Soldiers Home, stretching its 
white length along the pier ! It has certainly done 
its best to attract the people s affectionate attention, 
not only covering itself with mighty signs, as with a 
garment, but crowned with the flag which converts all 
places under its shelter into soldiers homes. As the 
representative of our city s hospitalities to the sick 
and wounded soldiers, or to any of our national army 
who need food and shelter, it has now so good a name 
that all who have contributed to its support may 
well be proud. 

" The last few days have brought an unusual num 
ber to its door. Eastern hospitals are in process of 
depletion to make room for new arrivals from SHER 
MAN S army, of those who have fallen by the way in 
the grand march. Convalescents they call these men, 
who hobble on crutches about the door and crowd 
every available space within the Home limits; yet 
each bears his marks of disease or wound, either in 
pale face and feeble gait, in useless arm or crippled 
limb. But all individual differences are merged in 
the one absorbing interest with which the still closed 
dining room door is watched. Behind that protecting 
barrier all is now bustle and active preparation, and 
under the influence of quick fingers the meal is in 



340 FEEDING THE CONVALESCENTS. 

readiness, soon enough for the patience even of the 
hungry crowd waiting beyond the door. Now the 
word is given, and in troops the first installment of 
men, very slowly and feebly not as they marched 
away with SHERMAN for these must be carefully 
helped to their places at the bountiful table, with 
crutches stowed away in close proximity; this one 
must have some kind hand to supply the place of the 
arm now hanging useless at his side, and another s 
morbid appetite craves some variation from the ordi 
nary fare. The guests names must be recorded, as 
accurately as the warfare of knives and forks will 
permit, rough Government crutches exchanged for the 
comfortably-padded ones furnished by the Sanitary 
Commission, and many little deficiencies in clothing 
noted and remedied, while the men do justice to the 
fare before them. No wonder the faces brighten 
under the combined influence of kind words and good 
cheer. Did the maker of these marvelous cookies 
realize the exquisite relish with which the appetite of 
a convalescent regards them ? These vegetables and 
apple butter, with which some country Aid Society 
has furnished the home larder, are delicious beyond 
belief to men so long consigned to salt beef and hard 
tack; while the butter and soft bread receive such 
special attention, that reinforcements are speedily 
required. A low hum of applause and approving 
comment runs round the tables ; one and another says, 
audibly enough to rejoice the attendant ladies : Well, 
this looks like home ! or, * I havn t seen anything 
like this since I left home ! Many pay only the 
compliment of full justice to the meal, while here and 



VARIED WANTS. 341 

there one summons up courage to make a neat little 
speech of thanks as he rises from the table. But 
whether silent or complimentary, the feeling of all, 
we believe, is expressed in the words of the tall pale 
sergeant, who, rising with difficulty on his crutches, 
says : Ladies, kind friends ! it is worth the little we 
have suffered for our country, to meet such a warm 
reception at home. 

" Now the room is finally emptied of its first guests, 
and the tables hastily prepared for the second detach 
ment, and then for a third and fourth. All honor to 
the worthy Matron that her store room stands bravely 
such repeated attacks, and her coffee boiler stoutly 
replies to all drafts made upon it. What a relief, 
that the last poor fellow who lingered near the table 
has fared as well as the first who rushed eagerly in 
to the assault! The same programme is repeated 
on each occasion, with variations in individual cases. 
One forever-helpless man is carried in the arms of a 
brother soldier, that he, too, may have the pleasure 
of sitting at table with the rest, and he pulls out 
the fatal bullet which ruined him, as he says, to 
exhibit. Meanwhile there are many in the sleeping 
ward, too feeble to care to leave its comfort, whose 
taste must be consulted, and to whom food must be 
carried. Here one man s wound needs dressing, an 
other asks for a fresh bandage; a slipper is wanted 
for a swollen foot, and a sickly soldier must have 
some strengthening remedy from the medicine-chest. 
At last all are fed, all rested, and all wants attended 
to ; the whistle of the train is heard and the soldiers 
depart, with strength enough gained to carry them on 



342 APPEALS FOE AID. 

their journey, leaving behind them plenty of good 
wishes for the Home. But their departure brings 
little rest to the Home corps. The debris must be 
removed, and fresh preparations made for the arrival 
of the later trains, which may bring as many more 
guests to be entertained again and lodged over night." 

The Home, even at this time, was comparatively 
unknown to the people of Cleveland, its local position 
cutting it off from friendly visits. The Aid Society 
found, however, a decided stimulus given by it to the 
general work, and were anxious to extend its influ 
ence through the entire system of tributary organ 
izations. The soldiers who came to the Home had 
been, many of them, previously aided on battle fields, 
in hospitals, in the Homes of the Commission, and 
the central office possessed the advantage of having 
constantly before it some evidence of the results of its 
work. With the view of sharing this interest, no less 
than in the hope of increasing the material receipts, 
the wants of the Home were persistently brought 
before the public. As long as practicable, a list of 
the soldiers entertained was published weekly. Con 
tributions were always publicly acknowledged, and in 
time the reporters of the daily newspapers chronicled 
the incidents of the household in a manner thorough 
enough to satisfy its most zealous advocates. 

Early in the spring of this year the long-hoped-for, 
long-delayed exchange of prisoners was made. If the 
time had seemed long to those who waited and almost 
despaired at home, it had been an eternity to the 



PRISONERS LETTERS. 343 

prisoners themselves. " What did the men think of 
the delay ? " was asked of one who had been for many 
months confined in Anderson ville. " We thought the 
Government did not know how we were suffering, 
and, at last, we believed that we were deserted by 
every body even by our friends. Then some of the 
men said there was no God. The married men all died 
first ; they would think of home until they got des 
perate. Some of the time we had nothing to cover us 
but some sticks stuck in the ground, over which we 
stretched strips torn from our clothes. We never 
believed the Government would lose by exchanging 
us, for we knew how we should fight if we once got 
out of that place." 

From time to time, especially as the last winter of 
imprisonment approached, letters had come to the 
Aid Society from Ohio men, confined in the prisons at 
Florence, Ala., and Columbia, S. C. They contained 
no demands for luxuries ; they asked for the coarsest 
soldier s fare, hard tack and army beef, to keep off 
starvation. To this some of the men added requests 
for clothing, shoes and shirts. The inmates of Sauls- 
bury prison suffered more intensely from cold than 
from the actual want of food, for with forests in abun 
dance near them, they were forbidden to cut down 
even enough wood to build huts or barracks, and 
often had only holes dug in the earth to shelter them 
in the bitter winter weather. 

On the coarsest scraps of old brown paper some 
of these letters are written, and have usually more 
than one signature, with the prison numbers of the 
writers. 



344 HUNGER AND COLD. 

" You are requested to lend your aid in the relief of 
two members of the 23d Ohio. Both of us are bare 
footed and nearly naked, without blankets or shelter 
of any kind. It will be necessary to be expeditious, 
for the cold winter is fast approaching, and, if some 
thing is not done soon for us, w r e shall hardly stand 
the storms. Some dried fruit would be very thank 
fully received, and perhaps be a good remedy for the 
scurvy, as we are both ailing with that disease." 

Here follows a list of eatables, flour, bacon and 
the size of the shoes so much needed. 

One of the men who signed the next letter was a 
noble fellow, captured by the rebels while taking care 
of a wounded comrade on the field after a battle. He 
says: " Excuse the intrusion of strangers. We are 
six in number three of us thirteen months in prison. 
We all need shoes, socks, shirts and drawers, and we 
crave something substantial to eat, as army bread, etc." 

Others wrote because they knew "no one else to 
apply to," and were " somewhat acquainted with you 
as an agent of the Sanitary Commission," and add : 
" Please don t think us too forward." 

A fifth letter runs thus : "We have no near friends 
to write to for aid. We assume the privilege of wri 
ting your honorable body, asking you to send us a box 
of provisions, to help us through the winter. Also, 
we would ask you to send us some clothing. We are 
very destitute and have scarcely enough to cover our 
nakedness. The cold weather is here, and we sup 
pose it will be still colder and our sufferings will be 
very great, without we can receive something to keep 
us warm. We hope this may meet your approbation, 



EXCHANGE OF PEISONEES. 345 

and, our prayers accompanying it, we have the assur 
ance to think it will." 

The desired clothing and food had been sent, with 
little hope that they would reach their destination, 
but because it was impossible to do otherwise while 
there was the remote chance of the supplies relieving 
any suffering Union prisoners. Of their fate this only 
was known: a small part of the stores sent by the 
Sanitary Commission did actually reach some of the 
men, but the vast freight of food and blankets, de 
signed to comfort and succor the starving and freezing 
prisoners, was wrecked on the prison bar and glad 
dened the hearts of rebel officials. 

But finally the exchange was made. One and 
another of the Cleveland men came home, and told of 
the fate of others who had starved to death, or died 
of actual despair. One said: "When we came near 
the camp of our troops at Wilmington, on our way 
home, first we heard in the distance a military band, 
then we saw, away off, a United States flag, and then 
all the boys broke down ; they shouted and wept, and 
some knelt down to it, and just then the boys from 
the camp came out to meet us and brought us every 
thing they could find for us to eat, and the band came 
out too and played for us." 

From Annapolis, where all the exchanged prisoners 
were landed, after the necessary detention to receive 
refreshment and allowance of pay, the less feeble 
among them obtained a month s furlough and at once 
went to their homes. Every day and train now 
brought to the Cleveland Soldiers Home large num 
bers of these men. It seemed as if enough could not 



346 EEBEL MERCY. 

be done for them there. A standing order at this 
time was, that all the feeble men among the returned 
prisoners should be given milk punch or blackberry 
cordial as soon as they arrived, and the same con 
tinued at intervals during their stay, with everything 
to eat which they could suggest. With all this care, 
some of them died and others lingered there through 
long and severe illness. But there were many more 
who gained wonderfully in this short rest, and proba 
bly came safely to the end of their journey. 

When Richmond was taken and the whole North 
rejoicing, it was pitiful to go into the Home wards 
and see sitting there, listlessly and despondingly, men 
who, suffering for the common cause, were yet shut 
out from sharing the general joy. 

On the very day which brought the glorious news 
of LEE S surrender, a man came to the Home with his 
son, whom he had found in the hospital for exchanged 
prisoners at Annapolis. He was still a boy, but 
paralyzed, partially deaf and with mind hopelessly 
clouded. All during their stay he sat perfectly silent, 
apparently unable to hear the noisy rejoicings, or even 
to comprehend their meaning. He only spoke once ; 
a gentleman who was present asked the father what 
had caused the son s terrible condition, and catching 
the meaning from his pitying expression, the lad said, 
slowly and with difficulty, " starvation," and then 
relapsed into the same dull state as before. 

The first of those who died among the prisoners was 
a young Michigan soldier, who was brought, dying, 
from the train, but yet begged to be allowed to go on 
directly to his own home. He was told that his 



STARVED TO DEATH. 347 

mother would be at once sent for, and a telegram 
went immediately to the little village where she lived, 
but there was some unforeseen detention of the trains, 
or carelessness of messengers, and she did not arrive 
until her son had been twenty-four hours dead. Up 
to the last moment of consciousness he had talked of 
her. That one fond hope of seeing her had almost 
power to keep the parting spirit in its mortal frame. 
He was so afraid she could not come, or perhaps was 
sick, or dead, for her last letter, received in prison, 
was dated eight months before. But the mother 
came on the next day a pale, sad woman, dressed 
in deepest mourning for another son, killed in the 
war, who had been brought home to her, dead, a few 
months earlier. "EDWIN," she said, "when he went 
away was such a rosy, broad shouldered fellow," and 
then she went in and looked at him in his coffin. But 
the fleshless, withered skeleton that lay there seemed 
never to have been any one s handsome boy. She 
took him back to the Michigan village, and not long 
afterwards she wrote from there, in these simple and 
touching words : 

" Agreeable to my promise, I will write you a few 
lines to-night, that you may know I am at home in 
safety, having arrived last Wednesday afternoon. 
The burial took place at two in the afternoon, Sab 
bath, when the wasted body of that dear one was laid 
in the grave by the side of his sainted father and 
brother, there to await the resurrection morn. I have 
a hope in contemplating his death without which I 
might be driven to distraction the hope that my 
EDWIN has gone to everlasting happiness, and that I 



348 A MOTHER S LETTER. 

may one day meet him with his brother who has only 
gone before. I believe they are both better off than 
with me, yet I so feel the need of them, while here, 
their love and sympathy seemed so indispensable to 
my comfort and enjoyment, that I cannot easily recon 
cile myself to their loss. I assure you it is with much 
sadness that I went home, feeling that my boy would 
never see me there, yet I felt grateful that I had the 
privilege of burying his body with his kinsmen, 
instead of having it left in the enemy s land, and I 
felt thankful too that he was kindly cared for in his 
last moments, that he could feel that though among 
strangers, he was with friends that he could put con 
fidence in ; and you will I ever remember with love 
and gratitude as a friend to my poor, injured, dying 
boy, also others at the Home. The kindness of Cap 
tain JEROME will ever be remembered, likewise of the 
Matron and all ; their names I do not remember. I 
have not been well since I left Cleveland, but I am 
not sick, but keep about and try to work, which goes 
hard with me. I wish I could call at the Home once 
in a while to see the sick soldiers and help to take 
care of them. I think I should like that better than 
my own work, for which I have lost ambition. I 
would like to hear from you all again." 

To this soon succeeded the death of another pris 
oner, who, it was at first hoped, would recover by 
prompt treatment and good care. For a few days the 
small ward rang with his delirious shouts, then fol 
lowed a stupor, broken by only occasional moments 
of consciousness, and on Sunday morning, a week after 
his arrival, the heavy breathing which had been pain- 



VETERAN RESERVES. 349 

fully audible throughout the house, suddenly ceased, 
and all was over. His wife had been promptly 
informed of his illness, but no answer was received to 
the message, nor to the subsequent letters which 
announced his death. He was therefore buried from 
the Soldiers Aid Society Rooms, where a funeral 
service was held, and was carried to the grave by a 
squad of soldiers from the Home. His small worldly 
effects a little sum of money, the fresh military 
clothing, the new leather pocket book, with one entry 
and date, and the numerous trifles which had charmed 
the eyes of one just free from Salisbury prison - 
were all carefully put aside until their proper guardi 
ans could be discovered. The members of the Albany 
Sanitary Commission endeavored to trace the friends 
of the soldier, through the faint clue afforded by a 
name which, as afterwards appeared, was one assumed 
at his enlistment. After six weeks inquiry the quest 
was finally successful, and the remains of the soldier 
and his small possessions were sent to his father. 

In April of this year, an extension to the dining 
room was built, running at right angles with the older 
part. Soon afterwards, a company of the Veteran 
Reserve Corps, assigned for duty at the depot and 
quartered in the adjoining barracks, made application 
through their officer for permission to turn the rations 
into the Home stores, detail a portion of their number 
for service in the establishment, and in return receive 
their meals at the Home table. This was finally 
agreed to, and proved not an unfavorable arrange 
ment, in view of the subsequent service rendered by 



350 WELCOME TO OHIO SOLDIEKS. 

the men. From the Sanitary Commission Soup House 
two great condensers were obtained to cook meat and 
vegetables in large quantities, and these, set up in the 
large kitchen, were presided over by two red faced 
Veteran Reserve cooks, who reigned supreme in that 
domain. Other Veteran Reserves, from the giant 
who stepped into its ranks by the loss of a finger, 
through the various grades of disability to the actual 
cripple, were to be met with at every angle of the 
Home building, scrubbing floors, mopping, setting 
tables and washing dishes. 

When it became known that a Camp of Discharge 
would be organized at Cleveland, a meeting of the 
City Council was held and an appropriation made to 
properly entertain the returning Ohio regiments. A 
committee was appointed to take the matter in charge, 
who at first proposed to arrange with the Soldiers 
Home to feed these troops, but some doubt being 
expressed as to the capacity of the institution, the 
contract w T as given to Messrs. WHEELEK and RUSSELL, 
the proprietors of the Depot Dining Hall. A long line 
of fiy tents was pitched under the trees of the Park, 
and here all the Ohio soldiers assigned to Camp 
Cleveland were feasted. (See Appendix E.) The 
Soldiers Aid Society, confident of the expansive prop 
erties of their Home, would have gladly undertaken 
the office of entertaining the Ohio men, and now 
claimed for their share regiments from other States 
passing through Cleveland, and the sick of all organi 
zations. 

The first arrival of these guests was the 20th Mich 
igan Infantry, who sent forward a dispatch on the 3d 



AN EARLY BREAKFAST. 351 

of June, announcing its coming, three hundred and 
forty strong, in three hours time. A return telegram 
invited it to dinner at the Home, and a carriage, 
sent through* the market to collect green vegetables? 
soon returned a moving mass of cucumbers, lettuce, 
onions and radishes, surmounted by a great tin can of 
milk. Scouts were sent out for bread and cakes, the 
condensers, filled with beef and potatoes, were soon in 
action, and the dinner prepared as promised in the 
invitation hazarded three hours before. 

This accomplished successfully, the prospect of a 
breakfast at five o clock, A. M., of the next day, to the 
soldiers of a Michigan Battery was really inspiriting. 
The train brought them in on time, just after the sun 
rise of a lovely summer Sunday morning. The break 
fast over, a last glimpse was taken of the men, crowd 
ing the decks of the steamer, shouting and tossing up 
their caps by way of farewell. A score of handker 
chiefs, aprons and towels were waved in return from 
the lakeward windows of the Home, and with flags 
flying, band playing, the great steamer moved out 
with her happy freight, over the blue and sunny 
water. Just then some one announced, " Here comes 
the 98th Ohio ! " and into the depot rushed the train, 
swarming with soldiers, enthusiastic and very hungry. 
This was the first arrival of the regiments for Camp 
Cleveland, but having been erroneously reported as 
assigned to Camp Chase, it found the citizens com 
mittee unprepared to receive it. Here was a fearful 
crisis. Something must be done but the Sunday 
quiet of restaurants was unapproachable. It was 
now discovered that Michigan had not despoiled 



352 THE NEW DINING ROOM. 

Ohio there was still something to eat in the Soldiers 
Home. The officers and the sick men were taken 
there, and the regiment, formed in double line in the 
depot, was regaled with bread and butter, cakes and 
plenty of hot coffee from the Home. This answered 
until five o clock in the afternoon, when a proper din 
ner, provided by the citizens committee, was served 
to them in the dining hall at the depot, and they 
marched over to Camp Cleveland with music and 
banners. 

The Home dining room was immediately found 
unequal to the demands of such occasions. Mr. 
CRAWFORD advised the redemption of the yet unoccu 
pied portion of the pier from its ruinous state, and the 
following day a new room was planned, running one 
hundred and twenty feet along the dock and connected 
by folding doors with the smaller hall. In three days 
the building was completed. Mr. L. D. RUCKEE, Super 
intendent of the Cleveland and Toledo railroad, sent 
a special car to Olmstead to bring up the requisite 
number of chairs, and the next arrival of troops, seven 
hundred soldiers of a Wisconsin regiment, w r ere dined 
with little delay. An artist was discovered in the 
Veteran Reserve ranks, who employed his genius in 
decorating walls and ceilings with designs in colored 
paper. Flags and pictures of favorite generals were 
suspended beneath the red, white and blue roof, and 
the whole effect was gay and patriotic. 

After the seven hundred Wisconsin soldiers came 
ten hundred and thirty-four from Michigan, followed 
quickly by regiments of three, four and five hundred 
men, from both these States and from Minnesota, 



RIVAL ATTE ACTIONS. 353 

almost ad infinitum, and at all hours of day and 
night. 

Each regiment had its individual interest, which 
gave to every arrival its characteristic. All had their 
colors in various stages of honorable mutilation ; some 
brought large collections of captured birds and animals, 
squirrels and raccoons perched on the men s shoulders, 
or curled up on their knapsacks ; others had trains of 
little darkies following to new homes in the wonderful 
North, with round eyes dilating at sight of the cakes and 
pies, and who were always called upon after the feast to 
exhibit some plantation dances and break downs for 
the benefit of the ladies. Many had fine bands of 
music, always brought into service on these occasions, 
if only a drum corps. A band, with lovely silver 
instruments, attached to the 22d Wisconsin, played 
all one June afternoon from the end of the long 
dining hall, and charmed those who listened into 
temporary forgetfulness of unswept floors, unwashed 
dishes and impending regiments. Occasionally troops 
recently stationed at a military post were accompanied 
by wives and children, who drank up the milk, caused 
a famine among the sweet things, were seldom civil 
and regarded the Home as a convenient hotel. 

The preparations for these entertainments were soon 
systematized. Early notice of the expected arrival of 
troops was sent to the Aid Rooms from the different 
railroad offices, but once or twice, through some 
failure in reports, the shortest imaginable time was 
allowed for preparation. Such an electrifying dispatch 
as this would come, per breathless messenger: "Seven 
hundred soldiers will be at Cleveland in half an hour ! " 



23 



354 A BILL OF FAEE. 

Three, four, even five hours was brief time when every 
thing had to be purchased and cooked, and in these 
desperate circumstances a carnage would be sent 
around to collect volunteers, and another dispatched 
to the market to find bread, meat and vegetables. A 
short experience sufficed to reveal the proper wires to 
be pulled to extract impossible performances from the 
German baker, who quivered with horror at " so many 
breads" being expected in an hour. The bread was 
always forthcoming, and the beef and vegetables. On 
Sunday, the railroad tracks being comparatively free, 
the special trains conveying soldiers were usually put 
on, and this became no unfrequent spectacle a car 
riage, with some of the Aid Society ladies, driving 
from baker s to butcher s house, invading the Sabbath 
leisure of these individuals at the church-going hour, 
in search of something to give a regiment of hungry 
soldiers. That they were hungry none can doubt who 
reads the superintendent s list of what was necessary 
to feed five hundred men : " One hundred and thirty- 
five pies, one half barrel ginger cakes, one thousand 
small cakes, one half barrel apple sauce, three hundred 
loaves bread, three hundred pounds beef, one half 
barrel pickles, thirty quarts milk, one half barrel 
crackers, one barrel potatoes, two and one half barrels 
coffee, one barrel vegetables." 

If the time allowed to prepare and serve these meals 
was short, the superintendents of the railroads were 
most kind and indulgent, and the Home has no failure 
to record. An exception was the case of a New York 
cavalry regiment, which was first discovered in the 
depot and could only be invited to make a flying 



THE RESERVE FORCE. 355 

descent upon the tables, already laid for breakfast. 
Everything upon them was carried off and then, the 
baker having just made his morning visit, all hands 
were marshaled to cut open the fresh loaves, insert a 
lump of butter in each and dispatch them to the 
soldiers remaining in the train. 

A number of ladies connected with the Aid Society 
held themselves in readiness for such occasions, when 
it became necessary to seek more assistance than the 
officers of the Society and the Home employes could 
supply. Among these were Mrs. D. CHITTENDEN, 
Mrs. RANDALL CRAWFORD, Mrs. WILLIAM GUSHING, 
Mrs. J. O. SEYMOUR, Mrs. KNOWLTON, Mrs. J. HAY- 
WARD, Mrs. C. D. BRAYTON, Mrs. C. A. TERRY, Mrs. 
R. F. PAINE, Mrs. J. M. RICHARDS, Misses KELLOGG, 
Mrs. S. WILLIAMSON, Mrs. WILLIAM T. SMITH, Miss 
SARA MAHAN, Mrs. E. L. MILLER, Miss ANNIE BALD 
WIN, Miss CARRIE YOUNGLOVE, Mrs. PETER THATCHER, 
Mrs. CLARK WARREN, Mrs. CHARLES WHEELER, Mrs. 
GEORGE WILLEY, Miss VAUGHAN. 

It is also due the President of the Aid Society, Mrs. 
B. ROUSE, to record her unfailing attendance at the 
Home on these and, indeed, all occasions. Her energy 
and activity, notwithstanding her years and feeble 
health, put to the blush many who were younger and 
more robust. 

In this connection should properly be mentioned 
many kindnesses received, not only at this time but 
also during every period of the history of the Home 
and Depot Hospital, from those attached to the rail 
road offices or employed in the depot. Of the favors 
extended to the Society by the Superintendents of 



356 GENEROUS RAILROAD COMPANIES. 

railroads centering in the city, Messrs. E. S. FLINT and 
ROBERT BLEE, of the Cleveland and Col ambus road, 
HENRY NOTTINGHAM, of the Cleveland, Painesville and 
Ashtabula, J. H. DEVEREUX, of the Cleveland and Pitts 
burgh, L. D. RUCKER, of the Cleveland and Toledo 
and of Captain L. A. PIERCE, Agent of the Michigan 
Central, mention has already been made. How valu 
able their assistance was can be readily seen when it 
is stated that more than two thirds of the transpor 
tation issued to soldiers was on passes granted to the 
Society by the railroad companies, and the record 
falls far short of the actual number aided in this way. 
The generous interest called forth by the sufferings of 
the soldiers extended to those who had charge of the 
relief work, and the managers of the Home also record 
with pleasure the kindness of Messrs. WHEELER and 
RUSSELL, Depot Master C. S. ROBINSON, Mr. GEORGE 
STOWELL, and Depot Officers VAN HUSEN and CLARK 
WARREN, the latter of whom rendered valuable ser 
vice in the Depot Hospital. Mr. H. S. STEVENS, of 
the Omnibus company, put at the disposal of the regu 
lar visitors to the Home a seat in the vehicles of this 
line, and also supplied a permanent pass to the 
officers of the Society and to the superintendent and 
matron of the Home. H. GEER & Co. on many occa 
sions gave the use of a carriage to the Society, in some 
cases of emergency when troops were expected, or when 
a sick soldier was to be carried to and from the trains. 

FEEDING A BRIGADE. 

THE largest number of men entertained at one time 
was a brigade numbering thirteen hundred and fifty 
men, which arrived on the 29th of July. 



ENTERTAINING A BRIGADE. 357 

This brigade, consisting of the 37th and 38th Wis 
consin and 27th Michigan, whose arrival had all day 
been postponed from one hour to the next, it was at 
length definitely settled would be at Cleveland at 12 
o clock, midnight ; so there was no sleep to be had, 
except in stolen snatches, sitting upright in the hardest 
of chairs, with ears on the alert to catch the first dis 
tant whistle of the expected train. Of course no one 
at first intended to be sleepy. In the earlier part of 
the evening all found enough to do in the manifold 
preparations for thirteen hundred men. The ladies 
cut bushels of bread, cake and pies in the upper 
kitchen, and marshaled and assisted their temporary 
command of Veteran Reserves in the task of setting 
the tables in great and small dining rooms. Veteran 
Reserves were omnipresent staggering under the 
weight of trays of plates and dishes, or carrying great 
baskets of edibles, to be distributed on the long rows 
of tables. On the disposition of this force the com 
manding officers prided themselves not a little all 
the lame men sat at the tables assisting in cutting the 
bread and cake, which the one- armed men built up 
into tasteful monuments on the designated plates, and 
those so unfortunate as to possess both arms and legs 
were expected to be generally useful. Certain of the 
number, as well as the Home employes, had a definite 
post assigned each. One presided over the coffee 
no slight task where six great caskfuls are required 
another superintended the slicing of the beef from the 
cauldrons, and others still the boiling of potatoes by 
the barrel, while the evil genius of a third unhappy 
group condemned them to peel innumerable little 



358 A MIDNIGHT MEAL. 

green onions. Every one was busy and animated, 
even to the small boys who, having nothing else to 
do, stimulated the energy of the working force by 
divers false alarms brought in from the outer dark 
ness. The guard was posted and dropped calmly 
to sleep; the tables were finally surveyed and the 
most anxious scrutiny employed to discover possible 
flaws in quantity or quality; also the corps de reserve 
of edibles, mountain high, was pronounced sufficient 
to feed the army of the Cumberland. Then the ladies 
in the matron s room and the soldiers in the great 
kitchen formed into groups, laughed, chatted, grew 
drowsy, and finally fell asleep, and for two hours 
nothing was heard but the waves of Lake Erie dash 
ing up against the pier beneath the Soldiers 1 Home. 
Suddenly, about 2 o clock, A. M., a faint whistle 
the very ghost of a sound changed the silent scene 
in a moment into one of the most active life. Gas 
lights blazed up all over the house, the fumes of coffee 
rose on the air, and for the fifteen minutes before the 
soldiers actually arrived, every one needed ten pairs 
of hands and feet. An eager crowd, armed with plates, 
surrounded the steaming boilers of potatoes, while a 
similar group, provided with tin pails and kettles, 
assailed and aggravated the presiding genius at the 
coffee casks. The corps detailed for duty at the long 
rows of wash basins, hastened to its post, and soon 
lanterns were shining along the depot walls to light 
up the festive preparations. At this juncture the 
superintendent, assuming his lantern and badge of 
office, and accompanied by the steward and a detach 
ment to attend the sick of the brigade, sallied forth 



OPEN AIR TOILETS. 359 

to meet the train. It was hardly necessary to tell the 
soldiers what was in store for them. Every man 
knew what the dispatch ran forward to say that 
afternoon, and every eye was watching the long low 
building with its many "brilliant windows the only 
bright spot in the blackness of 2 o clock, A. M. So the 
train was speedily emptied, the men fell into ranks, 
the band struck up a lively tune, and the line of 
march was taken up for the Soldiers Home. Here 
they halted, stacked arms, and the commanding officer 
informed the men that before partaking of the sup 
per provided by the patriotic ladies of Cleveland 
an opportunity would be given them to wash their 
faces and hands. On this arose a tumultuous hurrah ! 
and all charged pell rnell on the line of tin basins, 
which for ten minutes was a scene of wildest confu 
sion. The water plashed, faces shone, pocket combs 
were circulated and the result was a general and 
pervading atmosphere of soap and water. Even with 
this civilizing influence, the brown rugged ranks of 
veterans looked formidable enough in the half light, 

O O 

though drawn up for a peaceful attack. 

The few moments grace thus obtained, was precious 
indeed to the busy throng within the Home, who 
congratulated each other that the divided train brought 
only a portion of the number as a first detachment. 
Fortunately, by the time the toilets were completed, 
every thing was ready five hundred bowls of steam 
ing coffee were poured out, the dining room doors 
thrown open and, marshaled by the superintendent, 
who temporarily ranked generals and colonels, in filed 
the hungry soldiers. That was a charming sight to 



360 PROGEESS OF THE FEAST. 

their entertainers such looks of eager anticipation 
settling into joyful certainty, as the eye took in the 
light, the flowers, the smiling welcome, the home like 
look of the white covered tables, and, certainly not 
least, the variety and profusion of food heaped thereon. 
The first murmur of surprise and applause was a 
delightful sound, and not less so the subsequent clat 
ter of knives and forks and the hum of many animated 
voices. The large dining hall was soon filled, next 
the smaller one, yet all were not seated. However, 
being earnestly assured that a second table would 
soon be prepared though only half convinced that 
anything could equal that first glimpse of sumptuous 
fare the remnant withdrew and gave their attention 
to the casks of iced water and lemonade standing 
beside the Home door. 

Within, the feast progressed with wonderful rapid 
ity. An appointed number of ladies who, with a 
detail of Veteran Reserves, were assigned for duty at 
the different tables, again and again filled the bowls 
with hot coffee and replenished the fast disappearing 
mountains of bread and meat. Occasionally one 
would stumble over a small and unhappy yellow 
secesh dog who accompanied his conquerors and 
refused to remain concealed under the table. The 
attendants likewise combined with their other duties 
the agreeable task of drinking in the expressions of 
approval which, as the feast slackened, fell from all 
lips; also of listening, with calm conviction, to the 
universal decision of the infinite superiority of the 
supper under consideration to any ever provided by 
other corporation or town. 



INVALID DIET. 361 

In the smaller dining room, the officers of the 
brigade supped at a table only differing from the 
others in the non-essential privilege accorded of put 
ting the milk and sugar into each cup according 
to individual taste. And the sick those at least 
who could crawl to the table had their appointed 
place and a bevy of anxious and eager attendants. 
Being excepted from the general uniformity, the appe 
tite of each invalid was consulted, and the kitchen 
stove soon covered with innumerable little messes, 
hastily prepared to suit a sick man s fancy, and served 
with sympathizing words and glances, which doubtless 
added greatly to the flavor. This was evident, for 
the patients generally showed a laudable inclination 
to eat through the bill of fare in addition to this 
invalid diet. There were also sick in the wards who 
claimed attention. Under the steward s charge, each 
man had received clean clothing and the necessary 
medicine or stimulants required by his condition, and 
was now at liberty to select anything which seemed 
tempting within the pantry s limits. This food being 
prepared, was taken to the ward and arranged on 
tables, ornamented each with a bouquet stolen from 
the dining room. 

By this time the rooms were emptied of the last 
remaining guests, and not a moment could be lost in 
removing the fragments of the meal and restoring the 
tables to their first freshness, for the second train was 
at hand and, flattening their faces against the windows 
and pressing around the doors, were the disappointed 
ones of installment number one. The universal haste, 
half laughing, half desperate, was stimulated now by 



362 JoHffinr COMES MAECHING HOME. 

the sound of many voices and feet without, announcing 
the arrival of the remaining eight hundred and fifty 
soldiers. In the lower kitchen a dense white steam 
enveloped the heated and excited group of dish 
washers, preparing a third supply of plates and dishes, 
while down the dining room flowed a tide of men and 
women, with trays of butter plates and towers of pies, 
which met an opposing phalanx of empty dishes, 
streaming up to the kitchen. At this juncture the 
General commanding the brigade proposed that the 
Glee Club of the Michigan regiment should favor the 
Cleveland ladies with a selection of patriotic songs. 
So a file of bright, half shy, half amused, young sol 
diers took up their station against the wall, out of 
reach of impending collisions, and above the confusion 
of tongues, the sound of hurrying feet and the clash 
ing of forks and dishes, rose the strains of " Tramp, 
Tramp," the "Blue Cockade" and "Johnny Comes 
Marching Home," sung with spirit and sweetness. 
Every one found a moment to lay aside her occupation 
and applaud the young musicians, in spite of the pre 
monitory sounds without the closed door. 

At last, in a really brief space of time, the rooms 
were again thrown open and again filled with a 
second throng, rather more hungry than their prede 
cessors. Up to this point there had been no signs 
of failure in the pantry, but the experienced ones 
began to consider with nervous dread the probability 
of its enduring another attack from the four hun 
dred remaining guests, who would certainly come 
with trebly aggravated appetites. Four hundred tall, 
strong Wisconsin men were patiently awaiting their 



DEPARTURE. 363 

share in the good things so glowingly described by 
their comrades. There was no time to lose in these 
reflections. The tables were set the third time by 
weary people, whose hands moved less briskly and 
whose feet seemed strangely to adhere to the oft 
traversed floor. Finally all was ready and ample in 
every respect, to the general surprise and delight. 
No such genuine expressions of grateful appreciation 
fell from any as from these Wisconsin soldiers who, 
waiting in the chill summer twilight, must hfve 
doubted whether any one house could contain enough 
to feed thirteen hundred as hungry men. Before the 
last lingering guests had left the tables including 
the numerous little negroes, whose pockets bore ample 
evidence to the sympathy of the attendant ladies 
the bugle sounded its shrill call and away they all 
scampered, hands and mouths full. Every one in the 
Home crowded to doors and windows to see the host 
depart. The first signs of morning were red in the 
east when the line formed again from the extreme 
limits of the watery territory, and when all was ready 
the officer in command told the soldiers to give the 
Home and the ladies of the Sanitary Commission 
three cheers. Then ensued a deafening shout, accom 
panied by innumerable individual greetings, the band 
struck up again, handkerchiefs were waved and the 
brigade moved off in a tumult of cheers, good wishes 
and good byes. Then the people at the doors w r ent 
slowly in to breakfast and were electrified by the 
announcement of another regiment to be expected at 
noon. 



364 THE HOSPITAL DEPAETMENT. 

All these troops brought sick men with them ; in 
the baggage cars of the train there were always 
some haggard miserable victims of ague and fever 
for not a man of them would consent to let the boys 
come home and leave him behind. By the time 
Cleveland was reached, those who had undertaken 
the journey when unfit to bear its fatigues, were 
obliged to remain at the Home until they could be 
taken to the Camp Cleveland hospital or join their 
regiments. The steward of the Soldiers Home at 
this time was a discharged soldier, JOHN SCHWAB, who 
had been appointed to the position in March, 1865, 
and was one of the kindest, most capable and atten 
tive nurses with which a sick man was ever blessed. 
His hospital staff consisted of two convalescent soldiers, 
detailed to act as his assistants and recruited from the 
guests of the household, many of whom had often 
before acted in this capacity. The medicine chest and 
the stores of lint, bandages and plasters Avere under 
the steward s charge, and his skill in dressing wounds, 
with quickness and tenderness, made his services of 
great value. 

Although others of the Cleveland surgeons occa 
sionally prescribed for the Home patients, Drs. 
ELISHA STEELING and PEOCTOE THAYEE having each 
attended a patient through a severe surgical case, 
the physician of the establishment was in fact Dr. 
CHAELES A. TEEEY, who paid four or five hundred 
gratuitous visits to the sick men there, and, after the 
Home was closed, continued his services whenever 
they were required for an invalid soldier or his family. 

It was amusing to see how stoutly all the sick men 



A SUBMISSIVE PATIENT. 365 

at first refused to stay, when the others went on, even 
if evidently seriously ill. But after a day or two a 
reaction would take place ; what was passing around 
them began to amuse them a little, their food was 
excellent, their quarters comfortable, and the interest 
taken in their cases, their tastes and comfort by the 
ladies of the Home, in time worked a marvelous 
change. A Massachusetts regiment left behind it 
several most unhappy homesick men, who shook with 
ague chills and pined with disappointment for a day 
or two, then cheered up amazingly, laughed, ate, got 
well and went home in high spirits. One of them, a 
sweet-looking boyish soldier, shed a few tears when 
he said good bye. " And, O, AVERILL," cried a pru 
dent lady, as he went away, " you have forgotten to 
take your quinine !" whereupon submissively he tossed 
off a bumper of the pleasing beverage and was gone. 
"Miss," said the steward solemnly, " he had just taken 
his usual dose and he thinks it s poisonous ! " Could 
any one demand a stronger proof of gratitude ? It did 
not seem deadly in its effects ; he and the other men 
got safely to Massachusetts and wrote back to tell of 
their arrival and of their favorable opinion of the 
Home. 

Another Wisconsin soldier, who lay in the corner 
of the ward through what had nearly proved a fatal 
illness, seemed insensible to all the care and kindness 
which could be shown him, yet surprised one of his 
" liebe freunde " by sending, with some money which 
was loaned him for the journey, a grateful letter, of 
which this is a portion translated from its native 
German. " You have been my best friends. As long 



366 CRIPPLED CORRESPONDENTS. 

as I live I will thank you. Do not think badly of me 
that I have not written before. If you ever come to 
our neighborhood you must make us a visit. My 
father and mother greet you a thousand times because 
you helped me in my great distress." 

A third patient writes : " I am gaining my strength. 
I think I should never have got home if it had not 
been for your kindness to me. I owe my life to you, 
for which you have my sincere thanks. It is a noble 
institution and I hope it will be prospered." 

And a fourth: "I return the five dollars you so 
kindly loaned me to bear my expenses out. I feel 
under great obligations to be grateful to you for this 
as well as many other favors I have received from 
your excellent institution. I shall ever hold the 
Soldiers Home in grateful remembrance. It is one of 
the bright spots in life that memory loves to dwell 
upon." 

In turning over the volumes which hold these 
letters, the men who wrote them are one by one 
recalled. Here is a correspondent who had lost a leg, 
another an arm, a third was consumptive. They had 
all seen many hardships in the field and some of them 
in prison ; but not one of the brave fellows remembered 
that as a title to the consideration of their countrymen 
and women. The letters are full of the kindness 
received at the Home as something delightfully unex 
pected and certainly not merited. 

THE WOUNDED OF THE 103D OHIO. 

ON the 19th of June the 103d Ohio was reported 
as en route for Camp Cleveland, but at the time 



THE WOUNDED AT ALTOONA. 367 

appointed for the arrival, 9 o clock, A. M., of the next 
day, instead of the expected regiment came dispatches 
announcing a catastrophe to the train near Altoona, 
Pa, The city was full of anxious friends, for the 103d 
had been recruited in Northern Ohio, several compa 
nies in Cleveland. There stood, that sunny morning, 
the tents in the Park, gay with flags, the tables laid 
for the feast, and all through the streets were women 
and children, with nosegays of June roses and pinks 
for the soldiers. There were a few hours of anxiety 
and uncertainty no one knew definitely who were 
injured, or whether the regiment was involved in 
general disaster. But, as the long day wore on, the 
confused messages that first came were modified by 
more accurate reports, although the dreadful fact 
remained that three strong young soldiers, who had 
survived the perils of a four years war, lay dead at 
Altoona, and twenty or thirty others were more or 
less injured. 

The first thought in the minds of those who had 
friends or brothers among the wounded, was to go 
directly to Altoona, and often during the day was 
the question asked at the Aid Eooms, " Can you not 
help me to get there ? " But, before any of the anxious 
souls could start on their journey, a message came 
from the wounded men themselves ; they would be in 
Cleveland with the regiment on the next day, all of 
them, at least, whose injuries would bear removal. 

These were legitimate guests of the Soldiers Home, 
and it was resolved to make their arrival a festival 
occasion. 

At 12 o clock the train was due, and long before 



368 A SAD RETURN. 

that hour a dense crowd had collected at the depot. 
The train came into the midst of a little tempest of 
cheers and fluttering handkerchiefs. The women cried, 
the band opened its brass throat, and, when the noisy 
welcome was over, the regiment marched away, wind 
ing like a gay ribbon along the dusty hill, with the 
old colors flying, pretty bouquets crowning the bright 
bayonets, and gorgeous necklaces of brilliant flowers 
embarrassing the officers they distinguished. 

From the improvised hospital cars of the train the 
superintendent and his assistants brought to the 
Home the wounded men, some on stretchers, carrying 
others, and followed by all who could help themselves 
by means of a stout cane or crutch. It was a sad 
return, nor could the poor fellows help feeling it, and 
hardly less so did their comrades who marched away 
to the gay music. The men were taken to the pleas- 
antest ward, sweet with its holiday bouquet and cool 
with the breezes from the lake, and here a vigorous 
bathing and renovation took place. The wounds were 
dressed, the worn and stained uniforms replaced by 
fresh cotton clothing, and now the barometer began 
to indicate fair weather. Dust and heat were things 
of the past. Visitors were admitted, and through the 
open door crept a promise of dinner. 

Every man had now a glass of iced lemonade or 
milk punch. A little book was produced and the 
day-dream of each in the way of dinner recorded. 
The bill of fare had no limitations, and caused laugh 
ter and amusement even among the most despondent 
invalids. One wanted eggs, another fresh meat and 
vegetables; every man asked for fruit and a potato. 



A DINNER PARTY. 369 

A round table was brought into the ward, cups and 
saucers arranged, and never was dinner party more 
thoroughly enjoyed, although the guests were obliged 
to follow the oriental custom of reclining at the meal. 
A smaller table was drawn to each bed, the men 
propped up on pillows, and the room soon filled with 
merry voices. Later in the day, when their place 
of retreat became known, friends and relatives came 
pouring in, until each invalid s bed was the centre of 
some family group. Among them, too, were many 
sympathizers, with cakes, custard and other good things 
unsuitable for an invalid, but of which forgetting 
dinner past and consequences possible all the pa 
tients did cordially partake. 

For three days the heroes of the Altoona disaster 
were made as happy as their fractures and bruises 
would allow, and then each, as he regained his 
strength, went to his own home and kindred. 

The majority of troops hitherto entertained were 
from Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota, but in July 
and August the troops on duty in the Mississippi 
States, generally New England and New York regi 
ments, began arriving, bringing plenty of ague patients. 
As long as the Home existed, regular troops in transit 
in the line of the service received the same attention 
that was paid to volunteers. The 6th United States 
Cavalry was the only complete regiment entertained, 
the others being merely squads of recruits. 

To these successive regiments, with their sick requir 
ing all the care which a hospital affords, was of course 
added the daily tide of individual soldiers, arriving 



370 THE CRUEL WAR IS OVER. 

and departing, to be fed, lodged and specially relieved 
in many ways. All day in the Home dining room 
stood a table already laid for whatever meal might 
happen to be required breakfast, dinner, supper. 
From the early daylight boat to the latest evening 
train, any soldier might come, lay aside his knapsack, 
find a comfortable meal, with plenty of hot coffee, 
provided for him, and go on his way without detention. 

When the war was really over and every day 
brought some regiment on its homeward way, there 
was not a soldier yet undischarged who did not pine 
to get out of the service. They began to hate their 
uniforms as a badge of continued obligation. They 
wanted to be with their old companies going home 
and welcomed by townsmen and sweethearts. Men 
who had been brave soldiers for four years of war, 
grumbled at serving after the rebels were conquered. 
It was wonderful what magic lay in the yellow dis 
charge paper. It represented going home to wife and 
children, and once more becoming a citizen. The 
armies of irrepressible soldiers, who were to convert 
the Republic into a military despotism and fight each 
other when there was no one else to kill, melted si 
lently away, and instead there were so many more 
clerks, laborers, mechanics, who were only too glad to 
beat their spears into pruning hooks, and to hang up 
their muskets peacefully on the wall. 

One splendid looking soldier, who belonged to a 
regiment discharged at Camp Cleveland, was afflicted 
with persistent ague, and, some error occurring in his 
papers, was obliged to remain temporarily at the 
Home. He sat there for days, sulky and sullen as a 



MUSTERED OUT. 371 

caged lion, but after one lucky visit to the paymaster, 
came in radiant, in citizen s clothing, emitting cheerful 
ness and good humor from every pore/ the shabby 
soldier dress discarded Richard himself again ! 

When the order came releasing from the service 
members of the Veteran Reserve Corps whose original 
regiments were already mustered out, all hope of any 
further work from those at the Home was over. Ket 
tles and dish pans were deserted, while all day long a 
little crowd could be found at the paymaster s office, 
awaiting the turn to settle accounts with Uncle Sam. 
Sometimes they were kept kicking their heels at his 
door for several days, but the money once safely in 
pocket away to the tailor ! 

There was one tall fellow, simple minded as a baby, 
who was always bursting with little bits of family 
history and small confidences. He delighted to exhibit 
the picture of his wife, and to ask : " Well, now, don t 
she look smart ? " Then he would tell what a brisk 
little body she was, and how she had worked as a dress 
maker while he was in the war all with honest pride. 
One afternoon B., who had cast aside his cook s apron 
with the rest to dance attendance upon the paymaster, 
came into the Aid Room office with the inevitable 
russet portmanteau always the first purchase and 
putting it down, opened its treasures for inspection. 
"Now, how much do you suppose I paid for this ? " he 
demanded at each article, then overwhelmed his audi 
ence by announcing its surprising cheapness. When 
the last great bargain was replaced, the honest fellow s 
heart failed him ; tears stood in his eyes as he said : " We 
never shall meet here again but I hope we may in 
heaven," and so went home to his smart little wife. 



372 ELOQUENT GUESTS. 

It was pleasant to know what interest those soldiers 
who remained any length of time at the Home, espe 
cially if they had been sick there, took in its affairs. 
Some of them could believe that their own mothers 
and sisters had a share in providing its comforts; but 
to most of them the charm consisted in their coming 
from those to whom they were strangers, except for 
their service sake. On a meal ticket, perhaps, some 
shy guest became eloquent. " Thanks to Ohio for the 
kindness I have received at the Home, and may God 
reward its benefactors." Enclosed in a neat border of 
scallops, another one wrote, on the corner of a book : 
" The thanks of the soldiers are due to the attendants 
of the Home for their kindness to sick soldiers." 
They would often write, from their own homes, from 
the hospital or regiment, perhaps saying : " You may 
remember me as the soldier who had a scar across the 
face." A man who had been several months at the 
Home as guest and afterwards as assistant to the 
steward, wrote: "I hope you will not think me pre 
sumptuous when I address you as friend, for I am sure 
I never met a stranger anywhere who took half the 
interest in my welfare," and then follow his little 
items of domestic news and plans for the future. One 
poor broken down fellow, whose sufferings and temp 
tations must have long since ended, left the Home in 
a fit of remorse, because, " My spirit would not allow 
me longer to feed upon the bread of charity, although 
I knew I was welcome by all of those connected with 
that best institution that the world ever saw." Extrav 
agant language, but excusable in a man who had no 
home of his own to die in. 



RAIDERS AXD MALCONTENTS. 373 

The supply work at the Aid Rooms was still in full 
force, for in the field was an undischarged army, 
requiring the aid of the Sanitary Commission s vege 
table trains to defy the attacks of scurvy, and the 
newly found peace had not yet depleted the hospitals, 
filled with the wounded of the last great battles. 

The claimants from the camp for the stores of the 
Aid Society now assumed formidable numbers. A 
detention, sometimes of a week or two, before each 
regiment was paid off, was impatiently endured by 
the soldiers. Their clothing bore such marks of the 
famous march through Georgia, that it was often 
hardly adapted for the inspection of the civilized 
world, and the wearers, who had expected to be at 
once discharged, were painfully conscious of this. It 
was discovered that the Soldiers Aid Society had 
various useful and comfortable articles on hand. One 
soldier came and then another, until finally the Aid 
Rooms were filled with such visitors from early morn 
ing until night. The articles obtained were not valu 
able, but a clean handkerchief, a pair of stockings, or 
a cotton shirt made the recipient for the time quite 
happy. Their thanks, unfortunately, were often accom 
panied by such unexpected remarks as this : " Well, 
this is the first thing I ever got from the Sanitary," or, 
" You don t see the Sanitary out of Ohio." " What," 
some lady would exclaim, "did. you never get any 
vegetables ? " " Yes, we had potatoes and onions, 
but never any fruit." The men who complained, it 
appeared, had never been in hospital since their enlist 
ment, and to each one it was carefully explained that 
the work of the Sanitary Commission was, save in the 



374 FOURTH OF JULY BANQUET* 

distribution of anti-scorbutics, confined to the hospitals. 
If all who felt themselves thus aggrieved admitted to 
having eaten Sanitary Commission vegetables, to hav 
ing lodged and dined at the Soldiers Homes, and yet 
had never been on the hospital list, the inference was 
clear that they had received their full share of the 
Sanitary Commission benefits. Convinced of this or 
not, they still came sometimes almost a whole com 
pany would be found seated in front of the Aid 
Rooms, patiently awaiting the unlocking of the door. 
It became even necessary to barricade the < entre of 
the room, to separate the eager guests from the busi 
ness of the Society. 

Many of the soldiers families now drew supplies of 
cooked food from the Home. After a regiment had 
been fed there was often a quantity of cut bread and 
meat remaining, which was distributed according to a 
list of such families, kept for the purpose. Once the 
non-arrival of an expected New York regiment left a 
houseful of cooked provisions on hand, w^hich were 
loaded upon drays and express wagons and sent to 
every soldier s wife within reach. 

The Fourth of July dinner, given by the citizens of 
Cleveland to the regiments in camp, the patients in 
the hospital and veteran soldiers generally, was served 
at the Home by request of the committee having the 
matter in charge. It was not a trifling affair nor 
easily prepared. A regiment preceded it and another 
breakfasted off the remains, while the dinner was skil 
fully sandwiched between the two. In fact when the 
tables were actually laid, in all the glory of holiday 



THE LITTLE SAILOR. 375 

preparation, a detachment of two hundred convales 
cents, on their way to a Michigan hospital, arrived 
by the Eastern train, without announcement. They 
were, of course, seated at the tables and regaled with 
a portion of the puddings and pies for which the 
soldiers in the Park were sharpening their appetites, 
under the influence of the Fourth of July oration. No 
one enjoyed the nice things more than the sick men 
who first tasted their quality. As soon as these were 
dispatched, every man in the establishment was pressed 
into service, whether one-armed or one-legged, and, the 
stock of food holding out, the tables were restored 
before the sound of the band became audible, and the 
long, dusty procession drew up expectant at the 
doors. Accompanying it in omnibuses and carriages, 
which blossomed out with flags, came the lame, the 
halt and the blind from the hospital at Camp Cleve 
land men whose faces from many visits paid to the 
Bank street Rooms had become familiar and welcome. 
Two deaths occurred, almost in the midst of these 
festivities. While the dinner was in progress, a little 
sailor, from the Mississippi squadron, who had been 
lying for months in hospital at Mound City, was 
brought from the railroad train and placed upon a 
bed in the further ward, remote as possible from the 
noise and music. Such a delicate child-like face lay 
on the pillow, with eyes dark and long lashed, whose 
sad and patient expression had grown through slow 
and wasting disease. To an inexperienced observer 
he showed no sign of illness, except, perhaps, in exces 
sive debility, and, as he lay quietly through the hot 
day, he looked like a pretty boy sleeping away the 



376 THE PRODIGAL SOK. 

fatigue of play. But the decision of the physician 
was imperative his parents must be at once sent for. 
They came the next morning two plain, elderly 
people whose Benjamin this son evidently was and 
through the day they hung over him, trying a hundred 
simple country remedies from their home experience, 
burning brandy and making tea or gruel in the hope 
of reviving his failing strength. But the loving care 
was useless, for with no further suffering he sank 
rapidly, and died before evening. 

Another, a government employe, brought the same 
evening to the Home, lived two days, but died before 
his parents could come to him. This, his old father 
said, was a long absent son who had left them years 
before, and he burst into a passion of tears when told 
that he was too late to see him living. 

On the 6th of July, Company D, of the 6th Veteran 
Reserves, was ordered again to Johnson s Island, and 
in the following August, a company of the 22d Regi 
ment of the same Corps, stationed at the camp, was 
detailed for duty at the Depot. The men occupied 
the old quarters, gradually crept into their predeces 
sors places, washed dishes, swept floors, cooked and 
waited upon the sick. Their term of service only 
extended over three weeks. 

Quite a number of men whose regiments were dis 
charged at Camp Cleveland and who failed to receive 
their pay through some informality in their papers, 
applied for permission to remain at the Home until 
the fault could be rectified. This was generally 
granted on condition of their services being made 
available in the duties of the household. 



THE HOSPITAL LEGACY. 377 

In August the U. S. General Hospital at Camp 
Cleveland was broken up, and those patients whose 
removal to Camp Dennison seemed inexpedient, were 
transferred to the care of the Soldiers 7 Home. One, a 
sensitive and nervous lad, who had suffered long with 
a painful disease, found the neighborhood of the depot 
quite unbearable, and was removed to a country 
village, where the expenses of his illness were borne 
by the Aid Society. There he lingered a few weeks, 
sending for and receiving some small luxuries from 
the Soldiers Home, which only relieved his restless 
longings for the moment, but could give him no lasting 
relief. One of the eager little notes is here, written 
by a patient, much- en during sister, who watched him 
so faithfully and now too lies at rest with him : " I 
know you will do anything for a soldier s comfort, and 
will help me as much as you can, for the short time 
my brother has to stay here. He says he hopes he 
will soon be in heaven, pleading before the throne of 
Mercy a great reward for your kindness to him, as he 
can not return it by any reward in this world." 

Another patient had been once before at the Home, 
just after suffering amputation of both limbs, which 
were crushed under a railroad car. He had now a 
cheerful position in the ward assigned him, where he 
could easily see and be amused by w^hat passed 
around him. Sometimes the steward would mount 
him upon his back and carry him around the depot, 
or the piers, for a little change of air and scene, while 
an occasional drive through the city gave him inex 
pressible pleasure. When able to travel, he was sent, 
under charge of the steward of the Home, to Phila- 



378 A FLOUEISHING BUSINESS. 

delpliia to procure his artificial legs, and, pending their 
manufacture, was left at the Sanitary Commission 
Lodge. Six weeks later a proud and happy moment 
arrived. He wallzed into the Home on what he called 
his " artificials," with only the help of a cane. Every 
visitor was called upon to admire the newly acquired 
faculty. A pension was afterwards procured for him 
by special act of Congress as his accident, having 
occurred while on furlough, precluded him from claim 
ing one under existing laws. He tried, but not suc 
cessfully, to work at his old trade of shoe making, 
and finally drifted into his proper place, the National 
Asylum. 

Men, injured to the extent of losing both limbs, 
were rarely fit for any continuous employment, even 
of a simple and light nature. So great was the shock 
to the nervous system, that a quiet, unexciting exis 
tence in some institution, where their wants were 
attended to and the future gave them no anxiety, was 
generally the climax of their ambition. 

On the 1st of May, 1865, a new and flourishing 
business had been inaugurated in the organization of 
the former irregular efforts to obtain work for dis 
charged soldiers, into an Employment Agency. A 
system, drawn up and recommended by the Central 
Bureau of the Sanitary Commission, was adopted, and 
books opened, w r hich were furnished by it to all the 
Branch Agencies. This new department began in 
the late summer and autumn to furnish numerous 
guests to the Home, forming a fair proportion of all 
the applicants registered at the Aid Rooms. In the 



WANTED, EMPLOYMENT. 379 

case of disabled soldiers, a temporary admission, even 
for a few days, was often necessary, until the occupa 
tions to wliicli they were best adapted could be found. 
Even to men not crippled, but compelled by long 
absence from business almost to commence the world 
anew, it was a benefit to be enabled, without loss to 
their small means, to procure the employment most 
suitable to their tastes and ability. The Agency was 
advertised and applications for registration were 
received by letter as well as in person. It was not 
always easy to adapt the supply to the demand, so 
many of the applicants were unable to perform full 
labor, and the positions where light work was required 
were not readily found nor always desirable. 

" Being a discharged soldier, and having contracted 
a set of weak lungs in the service by the way, was 
in four years I thought I would make an appeal to 
you for a situation." 

" Two fingers shot away and my left shoulder bro 
ken at Spottsylvania Court House. Since then I have 
not been able to do anything. The ball is still in my 
breast near the heart, and I am not able to do very 
hard work. I would like to be brakesman on a train, 
as work in a close room hurts me to breathe." 

"I write to know if you could find a wounded 
soldier some light employment. I was wounded at 
Antietarn. I shall always be a cripple. My wound 
has never healed. I had a home when I enlisted, but 
have been obliged to part with it ; everything is so 
high these past two years. I was the first man who 
enlisted in the town where I live. I see no way of 
supporting my wife and child through the coming 
dreary winter." 



380 AN AFFLICTING ENDORSEMENT. 

" Do, please, try and get rue something to do ; iny 
application is the one hundred and eighty-seventh. I 
don t care what it is, so that it is honest work." 

And from a despondent one-legged Teuton : 

" Ladies, my desire is to say that I have not a place 
to work yet. It is allmost encouraging. I was up to 
see they man again who wanted me to sprinkle they 
streets, but no advise was given to me. My wish is to 
see him to Day and if not A proper answer comes 
forth from his mouth I will leave him." 

What could be done with these and many others - 
so anxious to work, so unwilling to live upon charity, 
and yet so little able to earn more than the smallest 
wages ? 

The able-bodied men all found occupation in time, 
some of them through the Employment Agency, others 
by their own efforts. In recommending a soldier to a 
position of any trust, references from a former employer, 
or from, his company officer were required. A man 
who could bring such a passport as this was sure to 
succeed. "The most temperate young man I know, 
assiduous, persevering, orderly and active. I would 
trust him with a million of money. He will tell the 
truth and the truth only. In fact he is a pattern of a 
boy." 

One unfortunate, bright-eyed young colored soldier 
came, afflicted with this endorsement : 

" i Do Sertey Fye that he is a sober young man his 
occupashon Was a Horshler be fore in Rooled in the 
U S service, he can be trusted, he wants to Drive 
a Fainalay Caredge i do now him as a onest young 
man, and all way Done his Duty as a soliershier. 

Yourst Most Restibels M." 



A COLOKED KEGIMENT. 381 

The Employment Agency, with its system and re 
sults, is fully detailed in the preceding General History 
on page 252. 

The returning tide of regiments continued to flow 
during the entire summer and fall of 1865, and even 
through the later months of this year. The sketch 
already given shows the general character of their re 
ception at the Soldiers Home. One of the most 
orderly, best disciplined body of men ever entertained 
there was the 102d Regiment U. S. Colored Troops, 
which arrived in two detachments, numbering collect 
ively some twelve hundred men. With the right wing 
were several women and children, in odd fantastic 
costumes a union of plantation dress with civilized 
finery. They were cold and tired and gathered eagerly 
around the fire, with the flock of round-eyed little ones 
looking shyly out from behind the protecting barricade 
of the mothers dresses. The soldiers themselves, 
bright, active young men, threw their entire energies 
into the open air ablutions, scrubbed and re-scrubbed 
their shining faces, and scrupulously assumed any 
additional article of festive attire to be found in their 
knapsacks. 

The left wing, which arrived a week later, brought a 
train of one hundred sick men. A storm encountered 
on the passage had driven the vessel containing the 
troops out to sea, and consequently the existing forms 
of disease were aggravated and many new cases created. 
This invalid corps, under charge of a detail of soldiers, 
was specially supervised by an old negro, acting as 
master of ceremonies, who insisted on a rigid toilet 



382 A PERILOUS JOUKNEY. 

being performed for each sick man before admitting to 
the wards the visits of the ladies, or any hopes of 
dinner. To all the indignant remonstrances he replied 
merely with a superior smile and polite bow of excuse. 
It was a strange and picturesque scene. The wards 
were filled with the worst cases men who had the 
settled melancholy, which is a peculiar feature of ill 
ness in their race, and three of whom died on board 
the boat that night after leaving the Home. The floor 
of the reception room was covered with the less seri 
ously ill, lying about in all attitudes, enjoying the 
warmth and languidly expectant of dinner. When 
evening and the time for embarkation on the Detroit 
boat arrived, an omnibus was obtained to transport 
the sick men, while the most dangerous cases, not 
trusted to this conveyance, were carried in blankets, 
borne each by four stout soldiers. Poor fellows ! they 
had an uncomfortable journey; their porters were 
young, merry and not very attentive, and sometimes 
the invalids came in sudden and unpleasant contact 
with the ground, but no audible complaint proceeded 
from the blankets. 

The last regiment arrived one cold January morning, 
and was announced three hours before, in this dis 
patch, " Four car loads of troops are at Crestline, from 
away down south. They have been nine days on the 
way have run out of provisions and want to come 
in to the Soldiers Home." The reply was of course a 
promise of dinner, and the superintendent of the 
Cleveland and Columbus railroad promised to bring 
the men in time to accept the invitation. At three 
o clock, P. M., the 8th New Hampshire arrived, cold 



THE HOMEWARD MARCH. 383 

and hungry. The chilly atmosphere was bitterly felt 
by men so long accustomed to the mild climate of 
Louisiana, and every wave of the stormy lake struck 
the pier with almost the force of a cannon ball, and 
sent showers of spray through treacherous chinks in 
the Home walls. But once inside the building, it was 
bright and cheerful as possible. Fires blazed in every 
quarter, and the tables were smoking altars of incense, 
for everything in the house which could be cooked 
and served steaming and hot had been prepared. All 
that could not be consumed at one meal bread, 
meat and cheese was packed into the men s haver 
sacks and, it is hoped, lasted them until they reached 
New Hampshire. After this, the great dining room 
was never used ; the doors were closed, the gay trap 
pings removed, and snow wreaths, hung by the wind 
on the walls, usurped the place of the favorite generals. 

The expenditure made in feeding troops was a very 
large item in the expenses of the Home, and although 
the duty, except in the case of the sick, might not be 
regarded as essential, yet no act of its dispensation 
seemed to more clearly express the higher and national 
character of the Sanitary Commission. The regiments 
returning to their distant homes in Michigan, Wiscon 
sin, Minnesota and Iowa, found a little series of 
entertainments prepared for them on the route. 

Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, Detroit, had 
each its organization, which let no soldier pass by 
unfed or neglected. The enthusiasm was more than 
the food it had a moral effect which is expressed 
in the resolutions sent back by the 1st Minnesota 
Battery after its arrival at St. Paul. 



384 THANKS FEOM MINNESOTA. 

"Re-solved, That in the name of every soldier of the Union, whom they 
honored in honoring us, and on behalf of the 1st Minnesota Battery in 
particular, do we tender to the ladies and patriotic citizens of Cleveland, 
our grateful thanks for the attention received at their hands. 

Resolved, That though with feelings of universal pleasure and pride do we 
look back on the spotless record of our Battery during its three and a half 
years service in the Army of the Tennessee, yet the brightest spot in our 
memories will henceforth be the closing scene of our military life, when, 
our mission accomplished, and the object for which we struggled so long 
happily attained, we received on our homeward march the manifestations of 
a nation s gratitude. 

Resolved, That the pleasure we derived from the personal attention shown 
us by the ladies of Cleveland and the State of Ohio in general great as 
that pleasure was is enhanced by the thought that in thus greeting us as 
friends and brothers who were strangers from a far distant state with 
nothing to entitle us to such greeting, except the fact of our being soldiers 
of our common country, this the great truth was demonstrated, that the 
American Union was no longer, as heretofore, a conglomeration of discor 
dant States, loosely hung together, but that by the mutual sacrifices and 
united efforts of the past four years, we have in reality become a great nation 
one in purpose one in sentiment sharing alike in the glorious memories 
of the past, and in the blessing resulting to the whole wide land, from the 
late triumphant vindication of the principles of free, enlightened, popular 
government." 

The approach of winter changed the route of travel, 
and the few regiments to be still mustered out of 
service were sent to Camp Chase the Cleveland 
camp having been early dismantled and broken up. 
This branch of the Home work was consequently over. 
When the institution was finally closed, and left to its 
solitude of bare walls and empty rooms, and the 
Society s watchfulness for expected troops was no 
longer necessary, the 25th Ohio unexpectedly arrived 
and sent forward so short a notice of their coming 
that it was only possible to serve them with an infor 
mal meal at 5 o clock, A. M. 



A PERMANENT HOME. 385 

THE OHIO STATE SOLDIERS HOME. 

ON the 17th of October, 1865, an institution for 
disabled soldiers, known as the Ohio State Soldiers 
Home, was opened at Columbus. The grounds, build 
ings and equipments of the Tripler Hospital were 
transferred by the United States Government to the 
State authorities for the purposes of an asylum of this 
character. Situated on the river bank, some three 
miles from the city, it seemed a quiet and safe retreat 
to which the pensioners of the Cleveland Home could 
be removed. Its influence was more favorable to the 
recovery of the sick, for quiet, good nursing and the 
services of a resident physician were at their disposal. 
Above all, a permanent asylum was thus provided for 
those whose disability would probably make them 
through life dependent upon such institutions. 

The appointment of Hon. ISAAC BBAYTON as Super 
intendent and of Mrs. E. L. MILLER, who had been 
long connected with the Aid Rooms, as Matron of the 
establishment, gave the Society another interest in its 
affairs. 

All the inmates of the Cleveland Home entitled to 
admission were sent to Columbus at the Aid Society s 
expense the more feeble taken thither on stretchers. 
The notice was widely circulated through Northern 
Ohio that the same opportunity would be open to all 
disabled soldiers, and invitations to contribute to the 
table of the Home were extended to the Branch 
Societies by means of printed slips issued from the 
Aid Rooms press. 

Until the meeting of the Legislature, no appropri 
ation for the support of the institution could be 

25 / 



386 A HAPPY NEW YEAE. 

obtained, and the Cincinnati Branch Sanitary Com 
mission at once offered fifteen thousand dollars for the 
purpose. The Soldiers Aid Society of Cleveland gave 
five thousand with the promise of more, if further aid 
became necessary. A condition attached to these gifts 
opened the institution to soldiers from all States. As 
the Soldiers Home at Cleveland contracted its own 
limits, portions of its furniture were from time to time 
transferred to the Columbus asylum, with which fre 
quent communication was maintained. The men wrote 
to their Cleveland friends, the officers of the Aid 
Society twice visited Columbus and endeavored to 
assist the institution as far as the duties of their own 
field would permit. The surplus stock of crutches 
went to the new hospital, and often an opportunity 
occurred of procuring some additional comforts for its 
inmates. A spring couch was sent to one bed-ridden 
man, and an expensive spinal brace purchased to 
enable another patient to walk about the wards. In 
several instances the expenses of the visit of a wife or 
mother to a very ill patient were defrayed from the 
Society treasury. 

On the 2d of January, 1865, the Soldiers Aid Soci 
ety gave a dinner to the inmates of the State Home. 
In the long lines of men ranked on either side of the 
tables were found a hundred familiar faces. Here 
were many who had recently left the care of the Cleve 
land Home, and others, acquaintances of earlier date, 
who, through various channels, had also drifted into 
this comfortable retreat. In the hospital wards were 
again others consumptives, cripples, paralytics 
who had once been firmly established in the sympa- 



THE NATIONAL ASYLUM, 387 

thies of the Cleveland Sanitary Commission, but who 
as easily adapted themselves to the new quarters. One 
patient, helpless lad, whose long suffering was drawing 
to its close, smiled recognition from his bed, and from a 
vast green cambric tent there issued a cheery voice 
which, traced to its source, was with difficulty identified 
as belonging to a blind soldier, who half maddened 
by acute inflammation of the eyes had left no enviable 
record at the Cleveland Home. Even the advances of 
its steward on soap and water and clean clothing 
bent had been received with wrath and voluble 
indignation. But now convalescence beamed upon 
him everything was couleur de rose. 

The officers of the Aid Society regarded the new 
institution with great interest. It continued and per 
fected their own temporary system of relief, and close 
observation of its government proved that it offered 
a thoroughly comfortable home to disabled soldiers. 
Through its various transitions from Sanitary Com 
mission and State to National authorities, there has 
never been occasion to reverse this first favorable 
opinion. 

In 1867, the Ohio State Soldiers Home was turned 
over to the United States Government, removed to 
Dayton and converted into the Central National 
Asylum for Disabled Soldiers. Since this transfer it 
has been independent of external assistance. An 
arrangement had been made in October, 1865, with 
the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati railroad 
company, whereby the Aid Society was enabled to 
send soldiers to the Home at reduced rates, but the 
free transportation now provided by the managers 



388 THE WINTER S WORK. 

of the Asylum renders further aid in this direction 
unnecessary, save in some individual cases. 

During the winter of 1865 and 66, the Home work 
was very sensibly contracted. Occasional squads of 
discharged soldiers, from the regiments still serving in 
Texas, would present themselves as candidates for 
lodging and refreshment, and there were plenty of 
men arriving every day on their way home from the 
various hospitals. The chief service of the Home was 
now in its character as rendezvous for applicants for 
admission to the State Home, who were here supplied 
with what they needed in the way of clothing, and 
sent at the Society s expense to Columbus. 

In addition to these were a number of permanent 
inmates, a large proportion of whom were blind or 
partially so, who came to Cleveland to be under treat 
ment. Every morning, a little procession left the 
Home for the daily visit to the oculist, the blind 
leading the blind, or groping their way by means of 
sticks and canes. Around the reception room fire a 
group of them was always found, killing the time by 
mutual experiences of war days, or discussions, per 
haps, of the respective merits of Generals GRANT and 
SHERMAN. 

A soldier, suffering almost beyond belief and con 
fined to his bed for more than a year, was brought by 
his friends to the Home to take advantage of its 
nourishing food and medical aid. The comfortable 
bed, especially provided for his use, stood in the centre 
of the ward, covered with the gayest and prettiest 
album quilt that the house afforded, and its occupant 



IN THE SICK WAKD. 389 

became a kind of general confidant and counsellor 
always to be found, ready to listen, and with so few 
plans and hopes of his own to communicate. Every 
one was willing to read or talk to him, for his suffer 
ings seemed to call forth what was kindly, even in 
ungentle natures. Once he was taken to his own 
home, at his restless desire, then, still hoping for 
recovery, he asked to be transferred to the Columbus 
Asylum. Accordingly, his bed was one day again put 
into a wagon and taken, temporarily, to the then almost 
deserted Home. Some one going to the Aid Room 
door watched it pass the pale face on its pillow the 
red and blue covering fluttering in the wind until 
the corner of the street was turned and the long hill 

never to be repassed descended. The Home 
steward carried him safely to Columbus, where he 
lived a few weeks and died, leaving the favorite quilt 
with its bright colors and patriotic devices to a patient 
equally unfortunate. 

His successor in the little sick ward of the Home 
was a young soldier who had been taken from the 
Infirmary of a neighboring town, where for two years 
he had lain bedridden, helpless and suffering. The 
two weeks which were passed in the Home remained 
a green spot in his dreary life, for here his scanty 
wardrobe was replenished, and all day long he might 
lie planning some new dainty, dreamed of, perhaps, 
in days of workhouse fare. In fact when he left 
the Home it was with indignation soon repented of 

at a limit being set to his consumption of some 
indigestible article of diet. Six weeks after his remo 
val to Columbus, a little picture with a hymn beneath 



890 FAITHFUL MOUKNEK8. 

it, set in a humble frame and given him while in 
Cleveland, was brought back to the donor, with the 
message that he had looked at it every day until the 
last. After his death a fellow soldier executed this 
last commission. 

In a wretchedly uncomfortable house on the West 
Side, a German soldier was found, sinking under a 
chronic disease of many months duration. From the 
poverty and discomfort of his own quarters, and the 
noise of the five hungry flaxen-haired children, he was 
taken to the Home, hoping there to recruit sufficiently 
to bear the journey to the State Asylum. With him 
came the wife and eldest rosy-cheeked boy, and 
" Thank God ! it is warm here," said the woman as 
she entered the ward. Every day, mother and child 
visited the sick man, who never left the warm room 
until the dark rainy afternoon when he was carried 
out in his coffin, with the two faithful mourners 
following. In the two long days when he lay dying 
and unconscious, they had watched by him the 
woman s hand fast clasped in his, long after it grew 
cold and unresponsive, and the eyes could recognize 
her no more. Yet she sat there still, refusing even 
to take food, until another woman s hand for a few 
moments held his, that he might not know her absence. 

As a legacy was left the care of the houseful of 
children, to feed and clothe whom, for a time, the Aid 
Society felt itself pledged. Through its Claim Agency 
a pension for mother and children was procured, which, 
with the addition of what the woman could herself 
earn, made them in future independent of other aid. 

It would be impossible within the present limits to 



GROWN-UP SCHOLARS. 391 

give even a passing notice to many inmates of the 
Home who, by remaining during a long period of con 
valescence, won a larger share of the general interest. 
One soldier, who had lost his right arm at the bat 
tle of Bentonville, worked his way by uniform good 
conduct to an established post in the institution, 
-wearing its white badge, executing innumerable 
errands, reading to the sick, and devoting his leisure 
moments industriously to the cultivation of left-hand 
penmanship. Through the medium of the Employ 
ment Agency he afterwards obtained an excellent 
situation which he filled with credit. 

Another was a tall powerful German, who limped 
about the Home on his crutches during the slow 
process of recovery from amputation of the right leg, 
and whose absorbing occupation was the pursuit of 
knowledge by means of sundry worn geographies, 
histories and arithmetics. Over these he toiled, hour 
after hour, with puzzled and sometimes despairing 
looks, varying the task by the vain endeavor to train 
his big clumsy fingers to imitate copy-book flourishes. 
To him the Home was indebted for varnishing and 
leathering its store of crutches. Providence of 
whose dealings his ideas were singularly crude had 
in store for him many misadventures. His "reise 
gepack" was stolen from him in New York, and this 
appeared to him the natural deduction: "Although 
from my youth up I have endeavored to do right, and 
have the fear of God before my eyes and in my heart, 
I now see it is of no use." After leaving the protection 
of the Home, numerous other misfortunes pursued him, 
in the endeavor to establish some business where his 



392 A DISABLED MAN S FUTUKE. 

crippled condition and ambitious views could be 
reconciled. 

One could not help pitying the bewilderment with 
which these poor maimed fellows regarded the future. 
Trained to labor, yet all possibility of earning a liveli 
hood by its means removed there was always a period 
of sad uncertainty following upon convalescence. At 
first there seemed nothing which a man so disabled 
could do, but in time the perplexities grew clear; honest 
desire to work discovered a path to occupation of some 
kind, and although the ordinary complement of arms 
and legs was never found to be superfluous, yet many 
a sharp-witted man made his one arm do good service 
for two. The increased invalid pension and the care 
fully hoarded bounty of some of the more prudent 
soldiers made a little capital with which to take the 
first step in the world. It is now the opinion of those 
who have observed these cases, that most instances of 
pauperism, or of its companion evil, hand-organ grind 
ing, in healthful though crippled subjects in ex-mili 
tary coats, may be traced to some radical fault in the 
individuals themselves. It is seldom, if ever, necessary 
for the national uniform to be thus disgraced. For 
the temperate and honest disabled soldier who has no 
family, the National Asylum offers a home, good food, 
clothing, education and the opportunity of learning 
some respectable trade, the pension meanwhile accu 
mulating, until, on leaving the Asylum, a little nest- 
egg for future fortune is provided. 

A record should be here made of the death of 
WILLIAM HAKRISON, a member of the loth New York 
Heavy Artillery, which took place at the Home on 



UNCLAIMED. 393 

the 16 tli of September, 1865. Returning to Tennessee, 
from the place where his battery was discharged, he 
was waylaid in Buffalo, N". Y., beaten and robbed of 
his pay. The shock of the loss, rather than the effect 
of injuries received, acting upon a constitution already 
enfeebled by disease, produced a prostration of mind 
and body from which he could not rally. For the 
three days after he was brought to the Soldiers Home 
at Cleveland, he sat, half unconscious, as if overpow 
ered by the weight of some dire calamity, and died 
on the fourth day after his arrival. In his few lucid 
moments it was discovered that he had friends in 
Morgantown and Nashville, Tenn., but none of the 
many letters announcing his death and requesting his 
family to claim his clothing, have brought answer of 
any kind. An advertisement subsequently inserted 
in one of the Nashville journals met with no more 
success. The poor fellow lies buried in Woodland 
Cemetery, in this city, and his grave is properly 
marked, in the hope that some one may one day be 
found to inquire his fate. 

It would be inexpedient to mention those against 
whose memory no honorable record stands. It was 
early discovered that the benefits of such an institution 
must to a certain degree be dispensed with little refer 
ence to the worthiness of the applicant, but simply in 
the ratio of his sufferings. The more disabled, those 
requiring material aid in every way, were sometimes, 
morally, the least deserving of any assistance. Fortu 
nately the number of such cases is small and extends 
chiefly over the latter period of the Home s existence. 
The disbanding of the volunteer army and the gradual 



394 RESIDENT PENSIONERS. 

absorption of its members into civil life and peaceful 
pursuits, brought to the surface a residue of thoroughly 
disabled men, without home or friends, for whose sup 
port the first pension was insufficient, and who, until 
the establishment of Government or State institutions, 
necessarily depended upon the Sanitary Commission. 
In this class were both bad and good men. 

As the assistance required by soldiers in transit 
became less, the wants of resident disabled men and 
their families were more urgently presented. During 
the winter and early spring a weekly allowance was 
paid to certain destitute families, and also fuel, food, 
flour and clothing issued in large quantities. Often an 
occasion offered for helping a disabled soldier over small 
accidental difficulties, as for instance, by purchasing 
for one man, crippled by chronic rheumatism, the tools 
necessary to establish a cobbler s shop on a tiny scale, 
and in settling the troublesome arrears of rent for 
another whose wound had re-opened and whose earn 
ings were consequently stopped. 

The office work still occupying the time of the Aid 
Society officers, it was impossible to give every case 
presented the investigation it properly deserved, 
therefore, in applications for assistance from the fam 
ilies of soldiers personally unknown at the Aid Rooms, 
a recommendation from a Trustee of the ward was 
required. Saturday, the day appointed for these dis 
bursements, brought a motley assemblage of women 
and children, each with a story of hardship and dis 
tress. As summer approached, the number was grad 
ually reduced to a few cases which still claimed a 



FINAL DUTIES. 395 

certain degree of assistance. Especially was this 
necessary in the long sickness or convalescence from 
dangerous wounds, of soldiers whom it seemed unwise 
to remove to the State Home, and whose recovery 
appeared more fully insured by the gift of a small 
sum of money, enabling them to remain under home 
care and treatment. 

At the recommendation of Mr. M. C. EEAD, the 
former Sanitary Commission Agent at Nashville, Tenn., 
the sum of two hundred dollars was placed in the 
hands of General WHIPPLE, Chief of Staff to General 
GEORGE H. THOMAS, for the relief of the destitute 
widows of Union soldiers in that city. This fund 
was carefully expended in aiding them to reach their 
friends, or in providing food for the more needy. A 
list of the persons relieved and a statement of each 
individual case was made out by General WHIPPLE 
and remitted to the Aid Society. 

In February, 1866, the Home was closed, with the 
exception of a sleeping ward and reception room which 
were occupied four months longer. The corps of 
employes was dismissed and the contracted establish 
ment placed under the charge of GEORGE H. GIBSOIST, 
who had succeeded the former superintendent and 
steward and combined the now limited duties of both 
positions. The average number of meals during this 
last stage of its existence only reached two hundred 
and fifty per month. 

After the first of June the occasional migratory 
subjects for special relief were referred to the Aid 
Rooms, lodged, as under the old system, at boarding 



396 THE HOME DISMANTLED. 

houses, and fed by means of meal tickets, representing 
a dinner at the depot coffee rooms. 

Steward GIBSON, whose engagement at the Home 
had proved the value of his services, was now trans 
ferred to the Aid Rooms as an auxiliary in the office 
work, and took the place of the former porter, TIMOTHY 
FAKKELL, who had so long and faithfully served the 
Society as porter and sub-shipping clerk. 

A portion of the bedding, furniture and clothing of 
the Home was transferred to the Columbus Asylum, 
and the remainder, at no little expense in cartage and 
wareroom rent, was stored away in reserve for a new 
city hospital then in contemplation, and to partially 
furnish which the Home outfit could legitimately be 
applied. This project was, however, abandoned, and 
the furniture, hardly improved by its many transpor 
tations, was sold at auction or distributed to soldiers 
families. The Soldiers Home, now a battered, dingy 
building, its once new and brilliant flag torn and 
weather-stained, its tenants discharged, the occasion 
which brought it into being happily gone by, it seemed 
fit should serve no other purpose nor be associated 
with other objects or occupants. The building was 
accordingly dismantled, sold in sections as it stood, 
and speedily removed by the purchasers. 

It has been of course impossible to mention in the 
history of the Cleveland Soldiers Home all who aided 
it, or, if unable to personally assist the officers of the 
Aid Society, with whom the responsibility of con 
ducting the institution rested, frankly gave them their 
support and confidence. Such a record, could it be 
made, would be found only to include those who were 
thoroughly loyal. 



THE SCHOOL GIRLS FETE. 397 

In Dr. J. S. NEWBERRY the managers of the Home 
found always a friend and adviser. Through him, 
as Western Secretary of the Sanitary Commission, the 
Home obtained the gift of some valuable furniture for 
the wards, while the salary of the superintendent was 
for eighteen months paid from the same source. To 
Messrs. EDWARDS, TOWNSEND & Co., who kindly 
pruned their grocery bills to suit the Aid Society 
finances; to Dr. C. S. MACKENZIE, who on many occa 
sions supplied the soldier patients with medicine 
without money and without price ; to the editors and 
reporters of the HERALD and LEADER for almost unlim. 
ited use of their columns to narrate the incidents of the 
Home and to appeal for further contributions ; and to 
the milkman, Mr. D. COZAD, who gave his December 
bill as a Christmas box to the Home, the thanks of 
the Aid Society are hereby tendered. Nor should the 
little fete, prepared for the soldiers by the young ladies 
of Miss LINDA T. GUILFORD S school, be omitted in this 
record when the ever present spirit of departed coffee, 
which haunted the dining room, was replaced by the 
perfume of flowers and fruit, the hurried blue-coated 
waiters supplanted by young, merry, white dressed 
girls, and an ideal banquet delicious but unsubstan 
tial served to the soldier guests. 

After the close of the Home the history of the 
Special Belief work flows naturally into that of the 
Claim Agency, which afforded the channel for its 
further extension. 



398 COLLECTION OF AVAE CLAIMS. 

THE CLAIM AGENCY. 

THE gratuitous collection of soldiers claims upon 
the Government formed, even in the earlier part of 
the war, an important feature in the Sanitary Com 
mission work. 

The agents in charge of the Homes at Nashville, 
Washington and other points near the fields of mili 
tary operations, found that a large proportion of the 
men discharged from hospital required aid in obtaining 
a settlement of their claims for pay or bounty. Some 
times this arose from defects in their discharge papers, 
and often merely through ignorance of the proper 
form in which such claims should be presented. In 
all cases the Commission s agents assisted to push 
these claims to settlement, and the estimated amount 
collected for soldiers at the Homes exceeds two million 
five hundred thousand dollars. 

In 1863, an Agency was established at Washington 
for the systematic prosecution of this branch of the 
Special Relief service, and in 1865, its operations were 
extended, through the establishment of numerous local 
Sub- Agencies for the collection of claims. 

At these offices all claims presented were accepted, 
without regard to their probable merit, and trans 
mitted to the Central Bureau. To this duty and the 
requirement of furnishing the proof necessary to sub 
stantiate the claim, the sub-agent s responsibility was 
limited. 

The office at Cleveland, O., under charge of WIL 
LIAM H. GAYLOED, Esq., filed one hundred and ninety 
claims through the Central Bureau in the eight months 
of its existence, from May, 1865, to January, 1866, 



THE CLEVELAND AGENCY. 399 

Although not reporting to the Cleveland Branch 
Sanitary Commission, the local Agency brought to its 
notice many cases where relief could be properly 
extended to needy claimants, pending the adjustment 
of their claims for pay, bounty or pension. Often the 
aid could be more judiciously given through the appli 
cant s admission to the Soldiers Home, sometimes by 
transportation to his own home, and, again, by advanc 
ing small sums of money, from time to time, to meet 
the necessities of his family. 

On the 1st of January, 1866, all the local offices 
were closed, their books and accounts transferred to 
the Central Bureau, and due notice given that no new 
claims would be received by the Sanitary Commission 
Agency. 

An arrangement was made with Mr. W. F. BASCOM, 
then in charge of the General Office, to prosecute the 
claims on file to settlement. 

At this time the Cleveland Branch . Sanitary Com 
mission, foreseeing that some confusion and perhaps 
misunderstanding must arise from the abrupt closing 
of the local Agency, determined, by advice of Dr. NEW- 
BEEKY, to employ a portion of its remaining fund in 
receiving new claims, and in settling those already 
filed in the Departments. Among the many plans 
suggested for the disposal of this sum, none seemed 
more directly to benefit the soldier for whose relief 
the money was at first contributed. 

Mr. GAYLOKD was engaged to continue in charge of 
the Agency until June 1st, 1866. The question of 
extending the business beyond that date remained 
contingent upon the passage of the various pension 



400 NEW LAWS. 

and bounty bills under consideration in the Senate 
and House of Representatives. The number of claims 
received during these four months was small, and 
would hardly have authorized continuing the office 
beyond the stipulated time. The bill increasing pen 
sion to soldiers disabled to a certain degree was passed 
June 6th, 1866, and soon followed by the Additional 
Bounty Act and the bill granting pensions to each 
minor child of a deceased soldier. This seemed to 
decide the importance of a gratuitous Claim Agency. 

Mr. GAYLORD was prevented by his personal engage 
ments from remaining longer in charge of the office, 
and consequently resigned his position on the 1st of 
June. In giving him an honorable discharge from 
their service, the Aid Society lost a faithful Agent, 
whose uniform kindness and courtesy to the claimants 
particularly fitted him to represent the Sanitary Com 
mission. 

JASPER E. WILLIAMS, Esq., was appointed to succeed 
Mr. GAYLORD, and entered immediately upon the 
duties of the office. 

It was proposed to somewhat revise the system under 
which business had hitherto been conducted. The 
Sanitary Commission Bureau had allowed its Agents to 
advertise their services to so limited a degree that, to 
the mass of discharged soldiers, the existence of such 
offices for the collection of claims was unknown. The 
Aid Society, desiring to extend as widely as possible 
the offer of its services, caused advertisements of the 
gratuitous character of its Claim Agency to be inserted 
for the six months following the 1st of June, 1866, in 
the Cleveland daily journals, and in all the county 



A FLOOD OF APPLICATIONS. 401 

papers throughout Northern Ohio. In addition to 
this, Mr. WILLIAMS went at once to Columbus to 
receive the claims for bounty and pension of the 
inmates of the Ohio State Home for Disabled Soldiers. 

In anticipation of the passage of the Additional 
Bounty Act, several hundred soldiers discharges were 
received and deposited in the Aid Eoom safe, with 
the promise that due notice should be sent the own 
ers when their applications could be properly filed. 
Many of the claimants unfortunately departed in 
happy assurance of having fulfilled their whole duty 
in the matter, and promptly called for the money in 
a few weeks time, or wrote to request that the check 
should be forwarded to a given address. 

A notary was employed in the office, which relieved 
the claimant from the fees ordinarily incurred in 
making out his papers, while all the additional evi 
dence required was obtained at the Agency expense, 
save in a few cases where it could more readily be 
procured by the claimants themselves. 

Applications flowed in from every quarter from 
former inmates of the Soldiers Home from appli 
cants once registered on the books of the Employment 
Agency men who had reason to trust any phase of 
Sanitary Commission work. There were also a few 
prudent souls who came to assure themselves of the 
firmness of the basis on which this gratuitous Claim 
Agency was established, before entrusting their cases 
to its care. 

There were, naturally, twice as many claims pre 
sented as could be filed with any reasonable hope of 
success although the Sanitary Commission s rules 



402 " NOT ENTITLED." 

were much more flexible than those of the ordinary 
claim agent, whose fee depends upon his success. 
There were so many excellent reasons why they should 
all have pensions and bounties they had served the 
stipulated time, with the exception of a few weeks or 
months they had been discharged for disability and 
were permanent invalids they were poor were 
sick had been good soldiers the women had lost 
their sole support in sons, husbands, brothers. One 
poor creature says, when informed that she could not 
claim the bounty for a dead son, "My life has been 
made up of just such disappointments." This is a 
sample of others : " I had two sons die in the army, 
which part of my dependence and support were. JOHN 
died at Nashville, Tenn., and BENJAMIN at Milliken s 
Bend, La. JOHN was twenty-three and BENJAMIN 
seventeen years old. I have a husband, but he is very 
old, has poor health and can t stand to work any more 
to support me. I am feeble and our support and 
dependence is gone. They always supported us and 
sent money home when they were in the army. I 
want to have you get a pension for us, as we are 
getting old." 

There are volumes of these histories of military ser 
vice, dates and circumstances of discharge misfor 
tunes, disability w r ant of employment griefs and 
losses potent arguments for the Government bounty 
being extended to them, and for the Sanitary Com 
mission assisting them in obtaining it. Had the 
said Agency been elected judge of such pleas, all the 
anxious correspondents might have been satisfied. As 
it was, half, at least, of their letters were marked with 
the disappointing endorsement " Not entitled." 



ADDITIONAL BOUNTY ACT. 403 

On the 1st of October, the Committee appointed to 
frame regulations for the payment of bounties under 
the new Act, made its report, and the discharges which 
had been reposing in the Agency safe were brought 
to light. Notifications were sent their owners to 
appear at the office with witnesses to make out their 
applications, and this summons was repeated on four 
or five distinct occasions, as, in the two months which 
had elapsed since the passage of the bill, many of the 
claimants had changed their address, and responded 
very much at their leisure when the notice finally 
reached them. The Committee s report limited still 
more the class who were entitled under the letter of 
the law to the national bounty. It also, at first, pro 
hibited the employment of an agent in the collection 
of these claims, but, as this provision could not affect 
a gratuitous agency, some advantage in point of time 
was gained by the Sanitary Commission office, whose 
cases were rapidly filed before the removal of the 
restrictions allowed others to enter the field. 

This strict interpretation of the law by the Com 
mittee, and the later and still more stringent decisions 
of the Comptroller of the Treasury, excluded from its 
benefits many w^ho seemed at first unquestionably 
entitled to claim them. Especially was this true in 
the case of parents of soldiers dying after the passage 
of the Act, or before their claims, already entered, had 
been adjusted. 

The "Increase of Invalid Pension" claims were easily 
adjusted; little evidence was required and speedy set 
tlement made. Not so the cases coming under the 
law which granted an additional pension to a soldier s 



404 INCREASE OF PENSION. 

widow for each minor child. The rules first issued 
from the Pension Office, prescribing the form of these 
applications, were found insufficient, and further, 
stricter requirements were ordered by the Commis 
sioner. Every woman had promptly and confidently 
sworn, on the first paper, to what she and her neigh 
bors believed to be the correct ages of her children. 
But when required to support this statement by further 
and positive proof, confusion and perplexities ensued. 
Church records were overhauled sometimes found 
missing family bibles brought to light defective 
memories belabored, and memoranda consulted. Many 
a mother, in perfect good faith, swore to three different 
ages for each of her children, and one poor woman, in 
despair of better proof, offered to bring her little girls 
to the office that their ages might be guessed at. The 
fees expended in sending for the necessary affidavits 
in these cases in rectifying blunders and swallow 
ing unlimited amounts of well-attested words were 
three-fold greater than were required in all other 
claims. 

It had early been found necessary to increase the 
clerical force employed in the Agency, and still further 
to add to it, as the sudden and serious illness of Mr. 
WILLIAMS obliged him to withdraw from the office 
work. 

The Aid Society was fortunate in engaging Messrs. 
SAMUEL M. EDDY, CHARLES L. CUTTER and ALFRED G. 
WILCOX, who most faithfully and intelligently per 
formed the obligations of the new business which 
from its temporary character could not permanently 
command the services of any. In addition to these 



INDIGNANT EPISTLES. 405 

who were at different periods employed, the time of 
the Aid Room porter was often occupied in the minor 
details of the work, and Mr. WILLIAMS special clerk, 
Mr. H. R. SACKETT, constantly engaged. 

The secretary and treasurer of the Society, still 
unable to delegate the responsibility of the Agency, 
remained during this year in constant connection with 
its duties. 

The claims were hardly filed when some of the 
clouds which must habitually darken the existence of 
a war-claim agent gathered over the Sanitary Com 
mission office. It is believed that many who entrusted 
their claims to it, considered the Sanitary Commission 
endowed with superhuman powers to direct the move 
ments of the Departments, and to expedite the routine 
of Government clerks and paymasters. That it did 
not at once revolutionize the system of the Paymaster 
General, for the payment of bounties, created surprise 
and distrust in some worthy breasts, and this feeling 
found vent in numerous threatening and indignant 
epistles. One man thought, "They have had time 
anoff To of seteled this thing up if they ever was 
agoing to. If you have any obligations there, it seems 
to me that it might bee got some way. I think I have 
kept cool long anoof." Another: "It seems to me, 
sir, you have had good time if you had used any 
diligence." Even this was hardly consoling : " It does 
seem a very slow and long process of aid the soldier 
gets for his services. I have every confidence in you, 
and firmly believe you will do all you can to see that 
I am fairly dealt with, but I have made a complaint 
to Washington on account of my delay and shall soon 
know the cause." 



406 REMONSTRANCES. 

Even these, though annoying and useless, could be 
borne, supported by a sense of inward rectitude, and 
inability to improve the existing state of affairs, but 
another class of remonstrances had greater weight, 
addressed, as they were, to a Society having for its 
object the interest of soldiers and soldiers 7 widows. 
" Expecting the money every day, I am sick and my 
little girl is sick. I have had to give up work entirely. 
I am out of money and have no wood." " I am just 
starting in business and want all the money I can get." 
"I came here to school, thinking of course I should 
get my pension this fall." " Don t put me off until 
the last, for I have no good hand to work with and 
need the money badly." " Do try and get it for me 
if you can, for I stand greatly in need of it." And 
another woman, feelingly but mysteriously, remarks: 
" Think how you would feel if you was taken away 
and them left to make a living in this world by such 
hard work." " I am really suffering, and were it not 
for my wife would be in the poor house. And so, for 
the sake of all that is right, have the matter pushed 
through." " I wish you would do what you can for 
me, as I am in poor circumstances and am suffering 
much from sickness, with no prospect of ever getting 
well, as my lungs are badly affected." 

To some unquiet beings the requirement of any 
additional evidence in their claims was a true griev 
ance, and, oddly enough, construed into distrust, on 
the part of the Government, of their individual asser 
tions. One woman insists : " Mr. JONES says there is 
no need of filling out so many papers. I am tired of 
it." Another, with dignity, decides : " If they don t 



DESTITUTE CLIENTS. 407 

want to pay me that bounty money on my certificate 
which I have already signed, why they may just keep 
it. There is some loss or wrong about it." Another 
woman s confidence in the stability of the Agency was 
entirely shaken by the fact that the former Agent had 
"riz up from the business," over which reflection she 
shed frequent and copious tears. And yet the way of 
claimants of the Sanitary Commission was made smooth 
as possible. There were no incidental expenses in 
their cases, nor fee of any kind. 

There was frequent and great temptation to advance 
a portion of the expected pension or bounty to some 
of the destitute clients, and in several instances this 
was done, but experience proved the impracticability 
of opening a door which could not again be closed 
and might lead to embarrassing consequences. Many 
opportunities were, however, afforded the Aid Society 
of relieving those claimants whose necessities were 
personally known to it, by gifts of clothing and bed 
ding from the surplus hospital stores, and sometimes 
by a weekly allowance of money, given, not loaned 
them. In this way the Agency became not only the 
medium for the honest and gratuitous collection of 
claims, but also, to some extent, the channel for dis 
covering and relieving the temporary wants of the 
applicants. The suffering sometimes caused through 
delay in the settlement of pension claims was deeply 
felt by the Aid Society, and many attempts were 
made to soften the disappointment and make clear 
the pressing perplexities. Because this office could 
not be deputed to others, any more than could the 
responsibility of watching and ensuring the interests 



408 CHANGE OF AGENT. 

of the claimants, the Aid Society was unwilling to 
accept any of the numerous propositions to contract 
with an agent for the settlement of the business, 
although such an arrangement might possibly have 
reduced the office expenses. 

Three applications for pension, which had been 
previously rejected as not fulfilling the requirements 
of the Department, were granted by special Act of 
Congress, in view of certain circumstances connected 
with the claims which rendered them morally, though 
not legally, valid. In securing these the kind services 
of General G-AKFIELD and Hon. R. P. SPALDING were 
employed. 

On the 1st of January, 1867, nearly nineteen hun 
dred claims had been already received, and it was the 
decision of the Aid Society to take no new cases, save 
those to whose collection it was pledged. Quite a 
number of discharges still remained on hand, whose 
owners had not yet appeared to make out the papers 
necessary to accompany them. Notice of the close of 
the Agency, except for the settlement of the cases it 
had already filed, was given through the Northern 
Ohio papers. 

On the 1st of the following June, Mr. WILLIAMS, 
who had brought both talent and energy to his brief 
work, finding his health unequal to the task of 
resuming its duties, resigned his position in the 
Agency, much to the regret of his employers. He 
was succeeded by Mr. MILO B. STEVENS, who had 
already had several years experience in this business, 
and who was thoroughly competent to undertake its 
entire charge. 



SATISFACTOEY RESULTS. 409 

It was believed that the Agency could be saved 
some expense by paying Mr. STEVENS so much per 
claim and allowing him to receive new cases upon his 
own responsibility. This arrangement was accord 
ingly entered upon, July 1st, 1867, those having 
applications filed through the Agency, being notified 
of the change through a circular, which also clearly 
stated that the Sanitary Commission had no connec 
tion with new business assumed by Mr. STEVENS. 

Although, owing to the unexpected complications 
before mentioned, the Claim Agency had to bear 
the test of some inexperience in its directors, it was 
still the instrument of much good, recognized and 
acknowledged by the great body of its clients. No 
portion of the Aid Society s work occasioned it more 
anxiety or a deeper feeling of responsibility. The 
slow and tedious process of the adjustment of claims 
seemed to the Society officers, anxious to wind up 
their six and a half years work, to have no termina 
tion, and threatened to drag its weary length into the 
next possible war. Throughout the Agency s entire 
history the soldiers interests were scrupulously con 
sulted, nor did they suffer, it is hoped, from the various 
annoyances which oppressed and harrassed the officers 
of the Aid Society. 

That the results of the Agency s work were satis 
factory to its claimants there is recorded proof. This 
is often in the form of simple expressions of appreci 
ation, but sometimes the glow of grateful feeling, 
expanding, comprehends even the nation in its embrace. 
One man considers that the service performed for him 
"has entirely refuted the argument that republics are 



410 THE AGENCY S REWARD. 

ungrateful." Another enthusiastically writes : " Word s 
cannot express my thanks for this favor. I think a 
republican form of government the best under the sun. 
Were I called to it, my own life would be but little 
worth could I help the country." 

But the most satisfactory result of the Agency s 
work was not in the expressed acknowledgments of 
its clients, but in the consciousness that the pension 
or bounty could go to its owner, untouched and entire 
in its amount, burdened by no expense of any kind. 
The pleasure of finally conveying to widow, orphan 
or disabled soldier the national bounty so anxiously 
waited for, so often necessarily anticipated was too 
great to require verbal expressions of thanks to com 
plete its measure. Many of the wants and necessi 
ties which waited upon the crippled soldier before 
his name was placed upon the pension rolls, were 
well known to the Aid Society officers, and they 
shared the joy and relief which the fortunate decision 
brought. 

The whole number of claims filed through the 
Agency of the Cleveland Branch Sanitary Commission 
amounted to eighteen hundred and ninety. A classi 
fied list of these cases, and a detailed statement of the 
expenses of the Agency, will be found in Appendix D 
of this volume. At the date of this writing, Novem 
ber, 1868, nineteen cases remain unsettled, awaiting 
the action of the Paymaster General. The total esti 
mate of the amount collected for soldiers through the 
Claim Agency is nearly three hundred thousand dol 
lars, averaging a pension case at the value of five 
years payment. The claims have been adjusted at 



A SERVICE ACCOMPLISHED. 411 

a saving; to the soldiers of over seventeen thousand 

o 

dollars, taking as a standard the ordinary legal 
charges of claim agents, exclusive of notarial fees and 
other incidental expenses. The amount expended for 
such items was a large additional sum. 

No cases have ever been intentionally taken from 
the hands of another agent, save in three or four 
instances at the positive direction of the claimant. 
The Agency in its own relations has not been so for 
tunate, occasionally finding itself the fifth wheel to 
the coach, after long and patient labor. 

A few cases have been abandoned as worthless, and 
a number of bounty cases rejected on the closer read 
ing of the Act, but the great majority of claims have 
been granted, the money paid to the owners and the 
Treasury Orders collected. Proper receipts for the 
discharges and checks have been taken and carefully 
filed for preservation in the records of the Cleveland 
Branch Sanitary Commission. 

With the close of the Claim Agency, the mission of 
the Soldiers Aid Society of Northern Ohio is accom 
plished. The United States Government has not left 
the men disabled in its service to depend upon chari 
table institutions for future support. These served 
their purpose in the interval which elapsed before 
permanent measures could be organized. General 
laws, it is true, can not cover every individual case; 
and instances of suffering, which are not reached by 
established provisions, may occur, but these exceptions 
have a security against want in the sympathy of loyal 
hearts which have always readily recognized their 



412 SPECIAL BELIEF RECORD. 

claim. The liberal pension and the National Asylums 
are the crutches which the Government provides for 
its crippled soldiers. They can not compensate for 
loss, but with industry, temperance and manly inde 
pendence, a disabled man finds these supports which 
he has honorably earned and to which he is legally 
entitled sufficient to insure exemption from private 
charity. 

There remains, then, nothing further for a Sanitary 
Commission to do. Individually, there is a duty to 
be fulfilled by every one who acknowledges the 
national indebtedness to those who lost so much in 
the Union s brave defence. To be clothed and fed 
can not accomplish the whole ambition of any man, 
however disabled. To assist his honest labor, and to 
consider his disability as a title to consideration and 
friendly aid, opens a wide field for future and indi 
vidual duty. 

The general results of the Special Kelief work of 
the Cleveland Branch Sanitary Commission may be 
thus summed up: From its inception, April 20th, 
1861, to the present date, sixty thousand five hundred 
and ninety-two persons are registered as having, indi 
vidually, received aid through its means. This record 
includes those who were relieved in the Home and 
Depot Hospital, at the Aid Society Rooms and through 
the Employment and Claim Agencies. No record of 
such a service can be complete. It was often possible 
to give and impossible to register, and especially 
in the Hospital Inquiry Department many small 
services, which occupied the time and a portion of the 
funds of the Society, are not in proper shape to be 



THE HOME AKMY. 413 

recorded. One hundred and twelve thousand one 
hundred and twenty-seven meals were given, and 
thirty thousand lodgings provided. Transportation 
was also furnished to fifteen hundred and fourteen 
men. An estimate of the medical attendance and of 
the number of wxmnds dressed at the Home is scarcely 
possible. 

A tabular statement of the entire Special Relief 
work, which also classifies the recipients of this aid 
and exhibits the expense of the whole service, will be 
found in Appendix B of this volume. 

In a history which details the Special Relief work 
in the home field, the part which those took in the 
war who could only aid it by their time, their means 
and their prayers, is necessarily brought out in per 
haps stronger relief than even the far nobler sacrifice 
of the brave soldiers, which must, save in its grand 
results, be to so great an extent unrecorded. And 
yet to no others, as to those who, by their connection 
with the Sanitary Commission work, were constantly 
associated with the men forming the armies of the 
Republic, can their true character be so thoroughly 
known. In their Soldiers Homes, they saw suffering 
patiently endured, heard not even one vindictive word 
from those who had borne most cruel treatment at the 
hands of the rebels, and daily recognized patriotism, 
true and well-proven. They to whom the care of 
expressing to these men the grateful appreciation, the 
loving sympathy of the great reserve force at home, 
was committed, represented thousands of others less 
happy in having to delegate this privilege. This 
history is therefore addressed to them, and the soldiers 



414 AN AMPLE RECOMPENSE. 

own words have "been frequently employed, which, in 
a merely personal narrative, had been hardly fitting, 
that they might witness to the manner in which so 
many offerings have been applied. One acknowledge 
ment of real benefit received one such admission as 
this: " But for your care he must have died," is ample 
recompense to all who shared this service for any of 
its sacrifices, if they can claim or deserve the name. 



APPENDIX. 



APPENDIX A. 



CASH AND SUPPLY REPORT 



418 APPENDIX A. 

TREASURER S REPORT 

ELLEN F. TERRY, TREASURER, 

In Acc t with SOLDIERS AID SOCIETY OF NORTHERN OHIO. 
DR. 

To Contributions for general purposes - ..$ 14,627 42 

" Soldiers Home - 3,09739 

" Membership fees 3,813 17 

" Cash received from Treasurer of Northern Ohio Sanitary Fair 76,245 49 

" Estimated value of vegetables received from Sanitary Fair . . 2,400 00 

" Cash from U. S. Sanitary Commission, (California Fund,) 10,000 00 

" Value of purchases made for Sanitary Commission 42,730 18 

Proceeds of Concerts and Exhibitions 3,987 31 

" Interest and Premium on U. S. Bonds. 3,373 21 

ri Cash received from City Committee, July 4th, 1865 379 60 

" Reception Committee 118th 0. V. 1 20500 

" Company Savings Co. E., 22d V. R, C 66 60 

" Insurance Company Dividends 30 50 

" Sale of Home and furniture, Commissary stores and other 

articles donated for sale - - 1,705 57 

" Loans repaid by soldiers 396 24 

" Cash on deposit and effects of deceased soldiers 76831 

" Cash for purchase of material on order of Branch Societies . . 4,384 48 

" Repayment of freight charges 888 30 

" " " charges on bodies of soldiers 1,83060 

" Cash for registering discharges 12 80 



TOTAL . $170,942 17 



APPENDIX A. 
FROM APRIL 20, 1861, TO JANUARY 1, 1869. 



ELLEN F. TERRY, TREASURER, 

In Acct icith SOLDIERS AID SOCIETY OF NORTHERN OHIO. 
CR. 



By purchase of materials for hospital garments $ 48,758 90 

" vegetables and Sanitary stores 7,184 4G 

" nails, hoops, packing-cases and tools 1,649 73 

" stationery, record-books, blanks and postage 

stamps 1,14675 

" expenses of Special Relief service 3,635 80 

" Depot Hospital and Soldiers Home 25,116 24 

" Hospital Steamer Lancaster, (see page 50,) 1,100 00 

" Claim Agency 6,784 23 

" Concerts and Exhibitions 569 76 

removing bodies of soldiers 1 .913 10 

" paid porter s salary and for extra services, cleaning, painting, 

barreling potatoes, cooperage, gas and water fitting 3,615 41 

" paid rent, insurance, and office expenses, including wood, 

coal, gas and stoves 2,964 37 

" paid for printing and advertising 2,493 41 

" to Ohio State Soldiers Home 5,31742 

" salary of Miss Mahan for thirty-two months. 1,504 00 

" " salary of Mrs. E. L. Miller for twenty-one months 814 00 

" " for freight and cartage 5,731 91 

" purchases made on order U. S. Sanitary Commission 42,219 77 

" paid to U. S. Christian Commission, per order 11 25 

" " on account publishing History - 700 00 

" " " Sanitary Fair 10125 

" expenses of printing office 212 58 

" loss on uncurrent money 101 78 

" cash on deposit refunded to soldiers - - 709 01 

" estimated value of vegetables from Sanitary Fair 2,400 00 



TOTAL. ...$166,75519 

Balance on hand January 1st, 1869, deposited in Merchants 
National Bank, Cleveland, subject to order of expenses of 
publishing History and settling remaining war claims 4,186 98 



TOTAL. $170.942 17 



ELLEN F. TERRY, Treasurer. 



1 have examined the books and accounts of the " Soldiers Aid Society of 
Northern Ohio," submitted by Miss TERRY, its Treasurer, and find them 
kept with great accuracy, showing the results as set forth in the foregoing 

exhibit. 

T. P. HANDY. 

CLEVELAND, January 1st, 1869. 



APPENDIX A. 



S T A T E M E N T 



Of Supplier Issued by the Soldiers Aid Society of Northern Ohio. 



BEDDING AND CLOTHING. 



ARTICLES. 



ISSUED. 



VALUE. 



Blankets 

Bed Sacks 




1,496 
9.132 


$ 5,984 00 
31,962 00 


Bedgowns 




354 


1 416 00 


Boots and Shoes... . 


pairs 


132 


283 75 


Buttons 


sross 


60 


3600 


Calico 
Coats, Pants and Vests 


yards 


227 

3,898 


9080 
11 896 85 


Comforts and Quilts 
Cotton Batting 


bales 


13,473 
11 


53,892 00 
110 00 


Drawers, Cotton 
Drawers, Flannel 

Dressing Gowns 
Flannel 
Green Holland 
Handkerchiefs and Towels 
Hats and Caps 


pairs 
pairs 

yards 
yards 


14,338 
46,145 
3000 
168 
21 
123,840 
3.285 


35,845 00 
115,362 50 
12,000 00 
8400 
2255 
30,960 00 
1.711 00 


Havelocks 




1,200 


600 00 


Haversacks 




34 


17 00 


Mittens 
Mosquito Bars 

Neckties and Collars . 


pairs 


5,440 
9 
835 


2,720 00 
2250 
208 10 


Pillows ... 
Pillow Cases 




23,164 
48,560 


34,746 00 
24,2S() 00 


Shawls 




5 


00 


Sheets 
Shirts, Cotton 




25,511 
37,985 


51,022 00 
104,458 75 


Shirts, Flannel.... 
Slippers 


pairs 


35,645 
5.441 


98,023 75 
2,723 00 


Socks... 
Straw 


pairs 
bales, 


32,698 
69 


24,523 35 
120 00 


Suspenders 
Tape 


pairs 
rolls 1 


176 
112 


8800 
560 


TOTAL 






*645.234 50 



APPENDIX A. 



HOSPITAL FURNITURE AND SURGEON S SUPPLIES. 



ARTICLES. 



ISSUED. 



VALUE. 



Adhesive Plaster yards 22 $ 1100 

Arm Rests 2,000 1,00000 

Awnings 5 3050 

Baggage Checks pairs 104 1800 

Bandages Ibs. 31.550 3.94375 

Bandage Machines 7 050 

Baskets 25 1600 

Bath Tubs ! 2 14 00 

BathBrick ; 8 130 

Beds, Feather , 8 10000 

BedPans 55 5500 

Bedsteads, Iron 50 25000 

Bedsteads, wooden 26 9200 

Blackboards j 2 : 1000 

Blacking papers 15 : 150 

BookCase i 1 i 2000 

Books and Pamphlets j 190,420 1 19,04950 

Bowls i 1,252 , 132 QO 

Brass Chain yards 19 385 

Bread Knives... 13 | 585 

Brooms ! 113 | 4895 

Brushes, Scrub i 59 ! 1525 

Brushes, Stencil I 83 ! 800 

Brushes, Whitewash... 1 2 j 300. 

Buckets ! 22 j 1980 

Bureau j 1 I 1000 

Butchers 1 Steels and Knives 17 

Camphor... Ibs. I 13 650 

Candles Ibs. 103 3090 

Candlesticks 53 1325 

Canes 335 8500 

Carper yards 50 5600 

Castors, Dinner... I 41 5175 

Cauldrons, Iron i 2 8000 

Chairs j 525 35275 

Chairs, Rocking 6 3500 

Charcoal Ibs. 2 300 

Chlor. Lime Ibs. 285 | 2750 

Chop Bowls and Knives... 

Clocks 2 4000 

Clothes Lines... 4 150 

Clothes Pins gross 6 300 

Clothes Wringers... 2 1000 

CoalHods 6 1400 

Coffee Mills... 2 1125 

Coffins 7 8900 

Combs and Brushes I 1,275 i 19250 

Compresses Ibs. I 31,496 3,93700 

Corks... gross 59 1300 

Cork I ress 50 

Corkscrews I 25 ; 

Cots 85 i 25500 

crocker y ;"piafes:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::. ! 2,267 : mm 

Crockery, Vegetable Dishes 37 i 24 60 

Crutches...... pairs 3,000 } 4,529 5o 

Cullenders 450 

Cups and Saucers 100 840 

Curtains HI J8465 

Cushions and Pads 25,983 6,49o To 

Deerskin JOO 

Desks 8 12700 

Dinner Bell JJ 

Dippers 41 j 1765 

Di8infectanV s v;;;::::::".v.v:.v.. .."..". ibs. 15 oo 

Door Mats JJ5 

Dust Brushes and Pans 

Envelopes 70,916 i 394 fe 

Eye Shades M6 \ 

Fans 2,577 | 128 3o 

4 1 00 

:;:;;;::::::;;::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::ji^ M 1950 

Fingerstalls ........ -J^HH^L. - 

Carried forward - - - $42,44415 



APPENDIX A. 



423 



HOSPITAL FURNITURE, ETC. CONTINUED. 





ARTICLES. 


| 


ISSUED. 


VALUE. 


Brought forward 
Flat Irons 


18 


$42.444 15 
5 80 


F 


eeh.P orks ... 




2 


60 


Funnels 


a 


90 


G 


ames... 




77 


19 25 


Graters. 


11 


1 65 


Green Spectacles 
Gumiarabic 


pairs 


2 


300 
15 00 


Hatchets and Hammers 


17 


12 25 


Housewives 
India Rubber Cloth 


yards; 


8,029 
12 


2,00725 
1200 


Ink 
Ink Stands 

Knives and Forks 


pints; 


84 
25 
1.416 


7790 
1250 
290 65 


Lamps 

Lampblack Ibs : 


2 

6 


150 
1 35 


Lamp Oil 


gallons 


4 


3 70 


L 


anterns 




4 


4 75 


Lime 


...bbls.! 


4 


600 


Lint 

Liquorice 
Ix)cks and Padlocks 


.Ibs. 1 
Ibs.! 


3.318 
6 


431 35 
300 


Looking Glasses 


15 


14 75 


Lounges 


3 


40 00 


Lumber 
Maps 

Matches 
Match Safes 


M ; 

gross!. 


2 2 

12 
(j 


1,81000 
500 
700 

1 *ifl 


Matting 

Mattresses 


yards) 


110 
195 


11650 
78000 


& 


ops 






4 60 


Mouse Traps... 


8 


90 


Nails. 


Ibs. 


4.581 


329 95 


Needles 
Oilcloth. 
Oil Silk .. 
Paint . . . 
Pans, Baking 
Patent Medicine, Bottles 
Pens 


papers 
yards) 
yards i 
Ibs. 

boxes! 


269 
14 
22 
11 
34 
676 
28 


3365 
2025 
1575 
600 
2775 
495 10 
24 00 


Pencils 
Pepper Boxes... 




857 
3 


4290 
45 


Pins 
Pincushions 


papers] 


100 

16.058 


1000 
1.60580 


P 


ipes 




78 


m so 


Pitchers . . 
Pumps. . . 
Rubber Moulding 


...feet: 


31 
3 
74 


12 65 
1225 
925 


Safe 
Saltcellars.. 


1 

79 


115 00 
5 20 


Salve ... 


boxes! 


200 


2000 


S 


aws 




4 


8 35 


Scales ... 


... pairs, 


2 


23 75 




::issors 




26 


18 ?,0 


S 


nonces... 




5 


5 00 


Screens 


4 


13 00 


Shingles... 


...M. 




!>() 25 


Shovels . 


6 


5 00 


!? te *, - - ----- 


45 


450 


Slings.. 
Soap, Hard 
Soap, Soft 


Ibs. 
bbls. 


800 
3,339 
11 


20000 
66780 
47 20 


t; 


pittoons 




342 


12340 


Splints. 
Sponge 
Spools Thread 
Spoons.. 

Stationery .. 
Stencil Plates 
Stop Ladders 
Stone Jugs... 


Ibs. 


336 

10 
340 
2,728 

70 
1 
349 


420 
10 00 
51 00 
10400 
968 00 
11400 
500 
76 10 


Carried forward &KQ KJQ ~r\ 



424 APPENDIX A, 



HOSPITAL FURNITURE, ETC. CONTINUED. 



ARTICLES. Iss 


UED. VALUE. 




$53,549 70 
3 10000 
1 1 230 00 
2800 
10480 
1 500 
1 4040 
14 4700 
61 198 85 
13 10 35 
11 7300 
1.142 6480 
26 1300 
23 28 75 
885 8 85 
3 20 00 
1 1200 
48 6 45 
48 23 25 
120 6750 
5 3 50 
3 3 50 
6 85 00 
369 73 15 
2 75 
4 2 50 
1 (500 

3 11 oo 

5 9 25 
5 26 50 
3 25 00 
5S i:34 60 
5 2 00 
5 5 00 






*>tove Castings and Trimmings - 








Tables 


Tible Cloth^ - 


Teapot - 


Tin Boilers - 


Tin Cups - - 


Tin Pans -- 


Tin Pans 


Tin Plates 




Truss _ 




Turpentine gallon* 




Varnish quarts 


Waiters 






Wash Boards - 


Wash Bowls and Pitchers 


WashMachines . -- 


Wash Stands 


Wash Tubs - 


Water Casks 


W T ater Coolers -- 




Wire Covers 


AVire Cloth yards 













ARTICLES OF DIET AXD DELICACIES. 
ARTICLES. 



ISSUED. 



VALUE. 



Ale 


gallons 


690 


345 00 


Apples 


bushels 


1 .564 


3.910 00 


Apples, Dried 
Apple Butter 


- Ibs. 
gallons 


127,742 
2.277 


25.548 -10 
2.277 00 


Barley --- 


Ibs. 


96 


1920 


Beans 


bushels 


25 


50 00 


Beef, Concentrated 
Beef, Corned - 


.Ibs. 
Ibs. 


80.191 
22.305 


80.191 00 
2,007 45 


Beef, Dried 


.--Ibs. 


5.944 


1.18880 


Beef, Fresh - 


Ibs. 


7.607 


1.14105 


Beets -- 


bushels 


25 


32 00 


Brandy 


bottles 


420 


840 (X) 


Bread 


-- IbS. 


20.678 


1.03390 


Broma 


Ibs. 


> 


1 50 


Buckwheat Flour 


--.- Ibs. 


10 


80 


Butter - - 


Ibs. 


1 T.li3 


11,136 05 


Cabbage 


bushels 


30 


60 00 


Cakes and Cookies 


- ...Ibs. 


4.211 


842 20 


Carrots - 


bushels 


50 


6-400 


Catsup 


bottles 


214 


1070) 


Cheese - 


Ibs. 


9.421 


1 ,884 70 


Chickens, Condensed . . 


...Ibs. 


2.811 


2.811 00 


Chickens, Dressed 


Ibs. 


190 


94 65 


Chocolate 


Ibs. 


15 


750 


Cigars 




400 


200-0 


Carried forward .... 






$130.613 "30 



APPENDIX A. 



425 



ARTICLES OF DIET, ETC. CONTINUED. 



ARTICLES. 


ISSUED. 


VALUE. 


Brought forward 




s 
10 
S9 

2.232 

2,609 

115 
230 
1.526 
674 
158 
4.080 
ti 
17 
75 

12,278 

215 

43K 2 
03.872 
35.806 
10 
96 
2.430 
10 
248.875 
1,104 
1.713 

144 
81 
212 
1.150 
M% 

5 
34 
till 
30 
4,200 
8 
3.520 
30 
800 
10.731 
4.638 
115 
1.641 
23 
160 
00 
8,107i/ 2 
71 
44 
15 
109 
54 
40.143 
3,074 
10 
38.841 
17 
105 
206 
27 
07 
1.425 
2 
557 
1.484 


$130.613 20 
400 
10 00 
2075 
223 20 
1.043 05 
11500 
17250 
61 00 
67 40 
69 15 
613 35 
32 00 
1700 
1 50 
1250 
2.455 60 
32 25 
1 75 
501 35 
1.87140 
17.003 00 
9 50 
600 
365 4() 
2000 
9965 
184 00 
428 5 
850 
720 
2440 
6360 
28750 
20500 
600 
1000 
825 
427 50 
6000 
2.100 00 
120 
881 50 
600 
12000 
8.352 00 
37100 
5750 
246 15 
460 
2400 
900 
16,215 00 
4970 
3500 
2500 
5450 
13 50 
15.457 20 
506 10 
2000 
38,841 00 
510 
4200 
44:35 
810 
1445 
2140 
100 
8355 
222 60 




fog" 


Cloves - -- 


__lbs. 




. Ibs. 


Codfish 


Ibs. 


Coffee 


...Ibs. 


Coffee Extract - 


Ibs. 




bottles 




Ibs. 


Corn Dried 


...Ibs. 




Ibs. 


Crackers 


...Ibs. 




bushels 


Cream Tartar - 


Ibs. 




bushels 




bushels 


E rcrs 


... dozens 




Ibs. 


Figs - - - 


...Ibs. 




bbls. 


Fruit Dried 


Ibs. 


Fruit Preserved 


. cans 




Ibs. 


(oo~*eberrie< 


...quarts 




Ibs. 


Green Corn - 


...bushels 




Ibs. 


Hams 


...Ibs. 


Herbs 


Ibs. 


Herrings 


boxes 




...Ibs. 




Ibs. 




Ibs. 




bottles 


Ice 


...tons 




Ibs. 


Nin ir lass - 


...Ibs. 


L -ircT - - 


Ibs 




dozens 




...bushels 




bottles 


"Maccaroni 


...Ibs. 




Ibs. 






Me** Pork 


Ibs 




Ibs 


"Milk Freh 


quarts 




Ibs. 


Mutton 


...Ibs. 


Mutton Tallow 


Ibs. 


~\iitmes 


... ounces 


Oat Meal 


Ibs. 




bushels 




dozens 




cans 




bushels 




Ibs. 




bottles 


Pickles -- 


gallons 


Pie-; - 




Pie Plant - - - 


...bushels 




...bushels 




Ibs. 




Ibs. 


T^ice 


...Ibs. 


S l-TQ 


Ibs. 




...Ibs. 


Sfllt 


Ibs. 




.. .boxes 




...Ibs. 


Shoulders 


Ibs. 


r<n,.i.ia/l fni-ivnrrl - 241,937 TO 



426 



APPENDIX A. 



ARTICLES OF DIET, ETC. CONTINUED. 



ARTICLES. 


ISSUED. 


VALUE. 






36 
7 
10,034 
53 
312 
10,346 
208 
24 
591 
218 
1,102 
643 
75 
10 
50 
21 
1,717 
16 
241 
200 
8,153 
129 
935 


$241,997 70 
900 
375 
2,006 30 
700 
4680 
1,862 30 
62 40 
720 
886 50 
327 00 
11020 
54655 
150 00 
2000 
6400 
630 
34340 
1 60 
24100 
2000 
6,114 75 
3225 
1,187 50 




Ibs 




Ibs. 




fals 


Starch 


Ibs. 




qts 


Sugar - 


::;:::;::$;: 




qts 


Tapioca 


Ibs. 


Tea Black 


Ibs 




Ibs 


Toa^t 


Ibs 




Ibs 




bushels 








. . . . bushels 


Vermicelli 


Ibs. 




gals. 


Wheat Cracked 


:::?ibs. 


Whisky - - 


-. . - bottles 


Whiteflsh 


Ibs. 


Wine 


bottles 


Yeast Cakes 


doz. 


Vegetables, Mixed - 


bushels 



Total 



$256,053 50 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



ARTICLES. 


ISSUED. 


VALUE. 




52 


10 00 


Barrel Heads and Hoops 




46 10 


Blank Books - 


89 


239 95 




5118 


24 20 


Boxes Packing 


27 759 


13 605 80 


Boxe** Contribution 


17 


24 50 


Bulbous Roots barrels 


1 


24 00 


Coal tons 


146 


1 031 65 


Daily Papers 


17 592 


401 85 




6 


126 50 


Fla* ** Small 


360 


30 00 


Gas^ Fixtures and Fitting 




294 80 


Hardware Sundries . 




65 60 




1 


1 00 


Marine Glass 


1 


20 00 


Meal Tickets 


9571 


2 356 15 


Oats bushels 


10 


6 00 


Onion Sets bushels 


15 


60 00 


Pictures 


87 


92 00 


Plant* 5 Flowerin 


137 


27 40 


Plumbin - 




13465 


Postage Stamps 


31 831 


833 15 


Press Printing, with Type and Furniture 




215 30 


Press Lever 


1 


6 00 


Press Copy 


1 


1500 


Hakes 


1 


75 


Roller and Blocks setts 


1 


15 3S) 


Rollers Wooden 


7 


250 


Seeds Garden - boxes 


4 


2000 


Seeds Garden - - pkgs. 


100 


2000 


Seeds Garden bushels 


24 


9600 


gjrrnS . - - 


19 


89 10 




1 


1 25 


Sprinklers -- - _._ 




200 


Tools 


27 


29 So 


Warehouse Truck 


1 


800 


Wood cords 


41 


457 90 


Unclassified Articles . 


1366 


34150 


Boxes forwarded to Refugees 


46 


1,150 00 


Boxes forwarded, contents unknown 


162 


4,050 00 



Total 



$26,175 



APPENDIX A. 427 



RECAPITULATION. 



VALUE OF SUPPLIES ISSUED. 



Bsdding and Clothing $045,234 50 

Hospital Furniture and Surgeon s Supplies 55,017 45 

Diet and Delicacies 256,05350 

Miscellaneous 26,175 80 



Grand Total $982,481 25 



428 



APPENDIX A. 



HOSPITAL STORES HAVE BEEN SENT BY THE SOLDIERS AID SOCIETY 
OF NORTHERN Onio TO THE FOLLOWING POINTS: 

(Receipts fur these shipments are on file among the papers of the Society.) 



OHIO. 



Camp Taylor, Cleveland, 7th & 8th O. V. I. 

Camp Wood, Cleveland, 41st O. V. I. 

Camp Wade, Cleveland. 2nd O. V. Cav. and 
John Brown Rifle Co. 

Camp Tod. Cleveland. 45th and f.Ttli O. V. I. 

Camp Cleveland. 103rd. 105th. 107th. 124th, 
125th O. V. I. and 10th O. V. Cav. 

Recruiting Offices. Cleveland. 7th, 19th. 23rd, 
4lst, 45th. 54th. (i7th O. V. I.. 2nd O. V. 
Cav. and 18th Brigade Teamsters. 

2 )th Ohio National Guards. Cleveland. 

Post Hospital. Camp Cleveland. 

General Hospital, Camp Cleveland. 

Marine Hospital, (Army Department,) Cleve 
land. 

Depot Hospital, (San. Com.,) Cleveland. 

Soldiers Home, (San. Com..) Cleveland. 

Returned Soldiers, sick, disabled, or ex 
changed Prisoners. Cleveland. 

Soldiers 1 Families, living in and near Cleve 
land. 

Camp Jackson, Columbus. 23rd and 24th 
O. V. I. 

Camp Thomas. Columbus. 

Camp Le\v Wallace, Columbus, 1st Regiment 
Paroled Forces. 

Camp Delaware. Columbus, 5th and (5th U. 
S. Colored Troops. 



; Camp Chase, 54th and 12()th O. V. I. 

General Hospital, Camp Chase. 

Tripler Hospital. Columbus. 

Ohio State Soldiers Home, Columbus. 

Agent U. S. Sanitary Commission, Colum 
bus, for distribution. 

Quartermaster General Ohio, Columbus, for 
returned Prisoners. 

Camp Marietta. 

Camp Piqna. 

Camj) Goddard. 

Post Hospital, Cam)) Dennison. 

Regimental Hospital 7th, 8th, 52nd, 54th O. 

V. I., Camp Dennison. 

i 1st O. V. Lt. Art., 3rd O. V. Cavalry, Camp 
Dennison. 

General Hospital, Camp Dennison. 

Branch Sanitary Commission, Cincinnati, 
for Hospital Steamers. 

Soldiers Home, (San. Com..) Cincinnati. 

FreedmenV Relief Association. Cincinnati. 

Woodward Hospital. Cincinnati. 

Washington Park Hospital. Cincinnati. 

Broadway and Main st. Hospital, Cincinnati. 

Post Hospital. Gallipolis. 

General Hospital. Gallipolis. 

Camp of (ith Veteran Reserve Corps. John 
son s Island. 



TENNESSEE. 



Supply Depot U. S. Sanitary Com., Nash- 

vi lle. for general distribution. 
Soldiers Home. San. Com.. Nashville. 
General Hospitals Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5,8, 13, 18, 10, 

Nashville. 

General Field Hospital. Nashville. 
Refugee Department. Nash vi Ik- 
Regimental Hospital 1st O. Y. Lt. Art . 

Camp Andy Johnson. Nashville. 
Soldiers of Ist O. V. Lt, Art,. 17th O. V. I. 

and 160th N. Y. V. I.. Nashville. 
Teamsters in distress. Nashville. 
U. S. San. C >m. Hospital Steamers Lancas 
ter No. 4. New Dunleith and others, for 

distribution at Posts on the Tennessee 

and Mississippi Rivers. 
Hospital Steamers sent by State of Ohio for 

the wounded of Pittsbnrg Landing 
Cleveland Citizens Committee, sent tor the 

relief of the wounded at Pittsburg 

Landing. 
Supply Depot U. S. San. Com., Pittsburg 

Landing. 
Supply Depot U. S. San. Com., Hamburg 

Landing. 

Supply Depot L*. S. San. Com., Memphis. 
Medical Director, Savannah. 
Post Hospital, Savannah. 
Supply Depot U. S. San. Com.. Murfrees- 

boro. 



Supply Depot I 7 . S. San. Com.. Chattanooga. 

General Hospitals, Murfreesboro. 

Convalescent Camp, Murfreesboro. 

Post Hospital, Gallatin. 

Post Hospital, Columbia. 

Post Hospital, Shelbyville. 

Post Hospital, Franklin. 

Regt l Hospital 41st O. V. I . Murfreesboro. 

Regt l Hospital 103rd O. V. I.. Knoxvilie. 

Rrgt l Hospital 105th O. Y. I.. Gallatin. 
j Regt l Hospital 03rd. 72nd, 7Gih O. Y. I.. 
Pittsburg Landing. 

Regt l Hospital 7th Kansas Y. Cav.. Mem- 
phis. 

Tleirfl Hospital 32nrt Iowa V. I., Fort Pillow. 

Ohio State Agent. Memphis. 

V. S. San. Com. Hospital Visitor, Memphis. 

Chaplain 10th O. Y. Cav.. Murfreeshoro. 

Chaplain 79th Penn. Y. I, Murfreesboro. 

Chaplain Eaton. Memphis. 

Chaplain Porter, for Contrabands. Memphis. 

Refugees in distress (Freedmen.) Gallatin. 

Contraband nurses in U. S. Hospital, Knox 
vilie. 

Soldiers of 20th. 41st and 105th O. Y. I.. 
Murfreesboro. 

Soldiers of 10 1th and 125th O.Y. I.. Franklin. 

Soldiers of 19th, 41st, 103rd and 105th O. Y. 
L, Chattanooga. 

Solditrs of 14th O. Lt, Art., Jackson. 



APPENDIX A. 



V I R G I N I A . 



Supply Depot U. S. San Com., Wheelinir 

Agents San. Com. traveling in Virginia. 

Post Hospital, Wheeling. 

General Hospital, Wheeling. 

General Hospital, Grat ton." 

General Hospital, Charleston. 

General Hospital Winchester. 

York Seminary Hospital. Winchester. 

Post Hospital, Beverly. 

Post Hospital, Romney. 

Post Hospital, Huttonville. 

Post Hospital, Clarksbargh. 

Post Hospital, Grafton. 

Post Hospital, Ganley Bridge. 

Post Hospital, Charleston. 

Post Hospital, Fayetteville. 

Post Hospital, New Creek. 



Post Hospital, Fetterman. 

Brigade Hospital, Camp Union. Fayetteville. 

Brigade Hospital, Camp Anderson, Gauley 

"Bridge. 
Regimental Hospital, 1st O.V. Lt.Art.Fay- 

etteville. 

Ret l Hospital 1st O. Y. Lt. Art., Grafton. 
Regt l Hospital 1st O. V. Lt. Art., Beverly. 



Regt l Hospital 1st O. Y. Lt. Art., Paw Pa\v. 
Regt l Hospital 7th O. Y. , Gauley Bridge. 
Regt l Hospital 7th O. V. " 
Regt l Hospital 7th O. V. 



Winchester. 
Cnlpepper. 

Regt l Hospital 7th O. Y. .. Charleston. 
Retrt l Hospital 8th O. Y. ., Winchester. 
Regt l Hospital 8th O. Y. 1., Camp Cross- 
man, New Creek. 

Regt l Hospital 12th O. Y. I., Fayetteville. 
Regt l Hospital 23rd O. Y. I., Fayetteville. 



Regfl Hospital 23rd O. Y. I.. Beverly. 

Regt l Hospital 23rd O. Y. I., Camp Ewing, 
Gauley Bridge. 

Regt l Hospital 24th O. Y. I., Cheat Moun 
tain Summit. 

Regt l Hospital 37th O. Y. I., Princeton. 

Regt l Hospital 55th O. Y. I., Romney. 

Regt l Hospital 55th O. Y. L, Grafton. 

Regt l Hospital 84th O. Y. L, Winchester. 

Regt l Hospital 91st O. Y. I., Kanawha Falls. 

Regt l Hospital 110th O. Y. I., Camp Keifer, 
Parker sburgh. 

Regt l Hospital 123rd O. Y. I., Winchester. 

Regt l Hospital 3rd Ya. Y. I., Clarksburgh. 

Regt l Hospital 4th Ya. Y. I., Point Pleasant. 

Regt l Hospital 5th Ya. Y. I., Ceredo. 

Regt l Hospital 6th Ya. V. I., West Union. 

Regt l Hospital 8th Ya. Y. I., Buffalo, Put 
nam County. 

Regt l Hospital llth Ya. Y. I., Parkersbnrgh. 

Regt l Hospital 9th Ind. Y. I., Fetterman. 

Regt l Hospital 13th Ind. Y. I., Camp North 
Branch Bridge. 

Regt l Hospital 13th Ind. Y. I., Camp Chase. 

Camp 67th O. Y. I., Suffolk, 1 

Camp 5th U. S. Colored Troops, 

Norfolk. -Mittens. 

Camp 5th U. S. Colored Troops, 
Yorktown. 

Soldiers in 169th Penn. Y. I., Gloucester 
Point. 

Soldiers in 29th O. Y. I., Dumfries. 

Soldiers in 123rd O. Y. I., Martinsburgh. 

Union Prisoners in Richmond and Danville. 
(Nerer received.) 



ILLINOIS. 



Supply Depot U. S. San. Com., Cairo. 
Agent for Contrabands Relief Soc y. Cairo. 
Depot Hospital, Cairo. 
Brigade Hospital, Cairo. 
Post Hospital Cairo. 
Regt l Hospital 8th Illinois Y. L, Cairo. 
Regt l Hospital 18th Illinois Y. I., Cairo. 
Regt l Hospital 30th Illinois Y. L, Cairo. 



Regt l Hospital 41st Illinois Y. I., Cairo. 
Regt l Hospital 3rd Iowa Y. I., Cairo. 
Regt l Hospital 8th Iowa Y. 1., Cairo. 
Post Hospital, Mound City. 
General Hospital, Mound City. 
HospitaljBarracks, Mound City, per Surgeon 
General, Ohio. 



INDIANA. 



Soldiers Home, Sanitary Commission, Jef- j Hospital No. 4, New Albany. 

fersonville. | Soldiers in Hospitals, New Albany. 

MISSOURI. 



Agent U. S. Sanitary Commission, St. Louis, 

for the wounded at Springfield. 
Agent Western San. Com. St." Louis. 
Ohio State Agent, St. Louis. 
Fifth Street Hospital, St. Louis. 
Jefferson Barracks Hospital, St. Louis. 
Jefferson Barracks Chaplain, St. Louis. 
General Hospital, Camp Benton, St. Louis. 
General Hospital, Kansas City. 



Brigade Hospital, Bird s Point. 
Post Hospital, Bird s Point. 
Regt l Hospital 2nd O. Y. L, Platte City. 
Regt l Hospital 2nd O. Y. L, Carthage. 
Regt l Hospital 27th O. Y. I., Sedalia. 
Regt l Hospital 43rd O. Y. I., New Madrid. 
Regt l Hospital 7th Iowa Y. I., Bird s Point. 
Regt l Hospital llth Iowa Y. I., CampLyon, 
Bird s Point. 



KANSAS. 



Supply Agency U. 
LeavenwoVth. 
Post Hospital. Fort Scott. 
Chaplain of Post, Fort Scott. 



J. S. Sanitary Commission, 



Regimental Hospital 2nd O. V. Cav., Leav- 

enworth. 

Freedmen s Relief Agency, Leavenworth. 
Sufferers in the Indian Massacre. Lawrence. 



430 



APPENDIX A. 



KENTUCKY. 



Headquarters Western Department U. S. 
San. Com., Louisville, for general issue. 

Kentucky Branch U.S. San. Com., Louis 
ville. 

Hospitals No. 1, 4. 5, 7, Louisville. 

Hospital No. 5, Louisville, (Port Donclson 
wounded.) 

Ladies 1 Committee. Louisville, for distribu 
tion in Hospitals. 

Soldiers Home. Sun. Com., Louisville. 

Soldiers in all Hospitals, Louisville. 

Park Barracks Hospital. Louisville, (Grapes.) 

Asst. Quartermaster Gen. Ohio. Louisville. 

Agency Sanitary Commission, Lexington. 

Agency Sanitary Commission, Columbia. 

Agency Sanitary Commission, Perryville. 

Agency Sanitary Commission, Danville. 

Agency Sanitary Commission. Somerset. 

Agency Sanitary Commission, Nelson s Fur 
naces. 

General Hospitals, Lexington. 

General Hospitals. Lebanon. 

General Hospital, Bardstown. 

General Hospital, Fort Holt. 

General Hospital. Ashland. 

General Hospital, Paducah, (Fort Donelson 
wounded.) 

Brigade Hospital, (18th Brigade,) Ashland. 

Brigade Hospital, (18th Brigade.) Paintville. 

Brigade Hospital, (84th Brigade,) Sulphur 
Fork Trestle, Colesburgh. 

Brigade Hospital, Lexington. 

Brigade Hospital, Camp Nevins, Hardin Co. 

Post Hospital, Lexington. 

Post Hospital, Lebanon. 

Post Hospital, Bardstown. 

Post Hospital, New Haven. 

Post Hospital, Bacon Creek. 

Post Hospital, Bowling Green. 

Post Hospital, Ashland. 



! Post Hospital, Paducah. 
i Post Hospital, Munfordsville. 
Stearns Hospital, Paducah. 
; St. Mark s Hospital, Paducah. 
I Flat Lick Hospital, Cumberland Ford. 
Camp Nelson. 
Regimental Hospital 1st O. V. Lt. Art., 

Camp Jesse D. Bright. 
Regfl Hospital 1st O. V. Lt. Art., Camp 

Jefferson. 
i Regt l Hospital 1st O. Lt. Art.. (Edgarton a 

Battery,) Bacon Creek. 
Regt l Hospital 1st O. Lt. Art., Somerset. 
Regr, Hospital 9th O. Battery, Cumberland 

Ford. 
Regt l Hospital 1st O. V. I., Green River, 

Munfordsville. 

Regt l Hospital, Crab Orchard. 
Regt l Hospital 16th O. V. I., Cumberland 

Ford. 

Regt l Hospital 21st O. V. I., Bacon Creek. 
Regt l Hospital 41st O. V. I., Camp Wickliffe, 

New Haven. 
Regt l Hospital 42nd O. Y. I., Camp JBuell. 

Paintville. 

Regt l Hospital 42nd O. Y. I., Louisville. 
Regt l Hospital 42nd O. V. I.. Louisa. 
Regt l Hospital 42nd O. Y. I., Cumberland 

Gap. 

Regt l Hospital 05th O. Y. I.. Bowling Green. 
Regt l Hospital 103rd O. V. I., Frankfort. 
Regt l Hospital 104th O. V. I., Mt. Yernon. 
Regt l Hospital lllth O. Y. I., Bowling 

Green. 

Soldiers of 10th Ohio Battery, Richmond. 
Regt l Hospital 2nd East Tennessee Y. I., 

Camp Dick Robison. 

Regt l Hospital 2nd East Tennessee Y. I.. 
Camp Wild Cat. 



TO THE ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 



Medical Purveyor U. S. A., Washington, 
D. C., for the wounded at Bull Run." 

Soldiers Aid Society. Washington, D. C. 

Ohio Relief Association, Washington, D. C. 

Ohio State Agents, Washington. D. C. 

Mrs. Wheeler, for distribution, Washington, 
D. C. 

Camp LTpton, near Washington, 1st O. Y. 
Lt. Artillery, 



Camp 3rd Mich. V. I., Alexandria Heights. 

Hospitals of Georgetown, D. C., (Grapes.) 

Fairfax Seminary Hospital. 

Camp 60th N. Y. V. I.. Washington, D. C. 

Camp 150th O. V. I., Washington, D. C. 

Camp 4th N. Y. V. Cav., Potomac, Creek. 
j Branch U. S. Sanitary Commission, Pitts 
burgh, Pa., for the wounded at Gettys- 
burgh. 



MARYLAND. 



Agents of U. S. San. Com., Cumberland. 
Medical Director U. S. A., Cumberland. 
Post Hospital, Cumberland. 
Brigade Hospital, Cumberland. 
General Hospitals, Cumberland. 
Hospital L., Cumberland. 
Post Hospital, Oakland. 



Post Hospital, Clarysville. 

Post Hospital, Frederick. 

Regimental Hospital 4th O. Y. I., Oakland. 

Regimental Hospital 2nd Maryland Y. I. 

Cumberland. 

Regimental Hospital, Keedysville. 
Soldiers of 84th O. V. I., Cumberland. 



GEORGIA AND ALABAMA. 



Agents U. S. San. Com., Resaca, for general 

issue. 
Agents U. S. San. Com., Atlanta, for general 

issue. 
Post Hospital, Marietta. 



Soldiers of 19th, 55th, 74th and 104th O. V. 

I., Atlanta. 

Soldiers of 125th O. Y. I., Stevenson, 
Soldiers of 1st O. V. Lt. Art. and 9th Ohio 

Battery, Bridgeport. 



APPENDIX A. 431 



MISSISSIPPI. 



U. S. San. Com. Hospital Supply Steamers, Soldiers of 42nd O. V. I. Vicksburg. 

for general distribution. Soldiers of 65th O. V. I., camp near Corinth. 

Agent Christian Commission, Vicksburg. | 

ARKANSAS. 

Soldiers of 25th O. V. L, Little Rock. | Soldiers, Duvall s Bluff. 

LOUISIANA. 

Soldiers of 42nd O. V. L, Plaquimine. 



APPEiNDIX B. 



SPECIAL RELIEF REPORT 



434 



APPENDIX B. 



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437 



438 APPENDIX B. 



SPECIAL RELIEF DEPARTMENT. 



CASH R E P R T . 



Paid for building and furnishing Soldiers Home $7,024 69 

" Salaries of Home Employes and for Extra Services 3422, 16 

" Subsistence and Meal Tickets 12,20074 

li Household Expenses, Fuel and Medicine 2,02607 

" Burial Expenses 6017 

Individual Belief, Transportation and Board of Sick Soldiers 4,018 27 

Expenses of Claim Agency 6,784 23 



Total -. $35,53633 

ELLEN F. TERRY, Treasurer. 



APPENDIX B. 



439 



CASH CONTRIBUTIONS TO SOLDIERS HOME. 



Trinity Church. Cleveland $110 61 

S. A. S., Millersburgh.. 10300 

T. W. Kennard 10000 

H. B. Perkins. Warren. O. 10000 

Theta Phi Alpha Soc., Cleveland Ins 
titute 7000 

Dr. W. S. Streator. 5000 

Citizens of Frogsville 46 54 

S. A. S., Willoughby 4644 

S. A. S., Bedford 4450 

Wadsworth Dramatic Club 42 50 

Union League, Cleveland 4050 

G. E. Herrick 3500 

S. A. S., Earlville 3325 

Woolson, Hitchcock & Carter 30 50 

Harmon & Crowl 2500 

B. W. Jenness & Co 25 00 

S. A. S.. Middle-bury 2500 

Lucien S. Phillips*.... 2500 

S. A. S.. Ravenna 25 00 

James Root. Hartford, Ct 25 00 

Seaborn & Hempy 2500 

Sheldon & French 2500 

Elisha Savage, Berea.O... 2500 

S. A. S., Gustavus 23 00 

A Friend 2100 

Dudley Baldwin . 2000 

W. Bingham & Co... 2000 

Clark & Rockefeller 20 00 

S. A. S., Cleveland, 7th Ward 20 00 

L. Crawford & Co 20 00 

Crowell & Child* 2000 

Edwards, Townsend & Co 20 00 

H Harvey 2000 

C. O. King 2000 

S.L.Mather 2000 

S. D. McMillan 2000 

Morris & Price 2000 

Northern Transportation Co 20 00 

S. A. S.. Olmsted Falls.. 2000 

Otis &Brownell 2000 

Parish & Knight 2000 

H.B.Payne . 2000 

M. B. Scott 2000 

D. B. Sexton.. 2000 

George A. Stanley 2000 

Tennis & Dangler 2000 

Thomas & Butts 2000 

John F. Warner 2000 

Gco. Worthington 2000 

S. A. S., Dover... 19 Go 

S. A. S.. Rawsonville 1900 

S. A. S., Hiram 1643 

Bond & Morris 1500 

L. F. & S. Burgess 1500 

Rev. L. Carter 1500 

Cross & Payne 1500 

Hughes & Rockefeller 1500 

W. Sabine 1500 

James J. Tracy 1500 

Young People, Dist. No. 5, Parma... 12 05 

R. P. "Myers 11 50 

S. A. S.. Perry 1057 

H. G. Abbey "... 1000 

Adams & Jewett 1000 

Alcott & Horton 1000 

Babcock & Hurd 1000 

F. M. Backus 1000 

F. T. Backus . 1000 



E. I. Baldwin & Co $ 

T. S. Beckwith 

Begges & Sinclair 

George A. Benedict 

J. P. Bishop 

Thos. Bolton 

Mrs. Mary Bradford 

Bratenahl Br os. 

S. A. S. Brooklyn 

O. A. Brooks & Co 

Burgert & Adams 

S. A. S., Burton 

C. L. Camp 

W. F. Carey 

Cash 

Mrs. H. Chisholm. 

Chas. Clark 

J. H. Clark & Co 

J. B. Cobb&Co 

W. P. Cooke & Co 

Dr. E. Gushing 

Dr. H. K. Cashing 

J. H. DeWitt.. 

R. B. Douglass 

George B. Ely 

W.P.Fogg 

Morrison Foster 

Glaser Bros 

S. O. Griswold 

John B. Goodsell 

E. B. Hale 

W. B. Hancock 

T. P. Handy . 

R. Hanna & Co 

B. Harrington 

Win. Hart... 

Mrs. W. R. Henry 

Hervev & Bousfi eld 

J. M. &H. T. Hower 

Hower & Higbee 

J. M. Hoyt.. 



S. Hvman 

F. C: Keith 

M. R. Keith 

Moses Kcllv.-. 

H. D.Kendall & Co... 

Richard Kimball 

Koch, Levi & Meyer .. 
II. H. Little & Jenning 

Lyon & Sherman 

J." Marchand 

Geo. F. Marshall 

T. Maxfield&Co 

Dr. C. S. Mackenzie... 

Miller & Parsons 

George Mygatt 

Morgan & Root 

G. W. Morrill . . 

Chas. W. Noble 

Palmer & Dennis 

N. P. Payne 

O. H. Perry 

F. J. Prentiss . 

Lorcn Prentiss 

S. B. Prentiss 

Prescotts & Chase 

A. & E. C. Pope 

A. Quinn & Son 

Raymond. Lowe & Co. 



1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
10 (X) 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
10 00 
1000 
10 00 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 



440 



APPENDIX B. 



CASH CONTRIBUTIONS TO SOLDIERS HOME CONTINUED. 



C. A. Bead... $ 1000 

AdolphRettberg.... 1000 

Rice & Burnett - 1000 

John W. Sargeant 1000 

Philo Scovill. 1000 

Seaman & Smith 10 00 

Smith &Dodd - 1000 

J. B. Smith 1000 

Smith &Curtiss 1000 

R. P. Spalding - 1000 

Geo. Sprague 1000 

E. Stair 1000 

Stillson, Leek & Price 10 00 

A. B. Stone 1000 

Strong & Armstrong 10 00 

Taylor & Gris wold 10 00 

John Tod - 1000 

J. II. Wade... .-- 1000 

M iv . P. M. Weddell 10 00 

Horace P. Weddell. 10 00 

C. Whitaker 1000 

H. S. Whittlesey 1000 

Lemuel Wick 1000 

H. Wick & Co _ 1000 

Willey &Cary 1000 

S. Williamson 1000 

Geo. S.Wright 1000 

S. A. S., Tallmadge 9 00 

J. T. Watterson 1 .100 

Ken ton Bros .., 8 00 



D. T. Pratt -- (ioO 

W. K. Adams 5 00 

A. W. J.. 5 00 

W. D. Baker 5 00 

J. Benton 500 

C. P. Born 500 

D. G. Branch 5 00 

C. G. Bruce 5 00 

F. Butts & Co 500 

Cannon & Freeman 5 00 

M. Carson 5 00 

Cash 500 

Cash 500 

Cash 500 

Mrs. E. Clark 500 

S. Corning 5 00 

R. Cowles 500 

W. D. Gushing 500 

Davis & Vorce 5 00 

S. Dewey 500 

Fusier & Burgert 500 

E. F. Gaylord 500 

II. C. Hawkins. 5 00 

Hilliard & Hatch 500 

Geo. W. Fahrion ... 500 

Geo. Freeman 500 

John A. Foot 5 00 

Geo. Ingcrsoll 5 00 

Capt. Jerome 500 

T. M. Kelley - 5 (K) 

II. Leutkemeyer 5 00 

S.Mann 500 

S. A. S., Mayfield - 500 

Mo rehouse & Merriam 5 00 

C. F. Morse 5 00 

George S. Mygatt 5 00 

J. D. O Neil&Son 500 

JohnM. Peck 500 

S. Ranney 500 



II. K. Reynolds | 

C. Shaw 

T. G. Sholes 

Mrs. F. A. Sterling.. 

Miss Laura W. Sterling 

A. B. Stockwell. 

Mrs. A. B. Stone 

C. L. Thompson 

D.R. Tilden 

Mrs. W 

George Whitelaw 

J. V. N. Yates 

E. Chester 

II. Lord... 

W. J. Warner 

Universalist S. S. Conneautville... 

L. C. Baker.. 

Cash... 

Cash 

J. D. Cleveland.. 

A. S. Houk. 

A. & C. Loeb 

Silas Smith 

J. Wansor 

George Wilkinson 

Willouerhby and Vicinity. 

B. & H. Baer 

L. Benedict 

B. P. Bowers 

B. Butts... 



Cash 

L. Buff ett 

Cash 

Deckand & Co 

E. J. Estep 

D. W. Gage ... 
J. P. Koehler . 
S. May 



John Schwab .. 
J. F. Whitelaw 
Mr. Sinclair... 
A Friend... 



Barber 



S. A. S. Brimfteld 

S. Brainard 

Cash 

G. W. Clark. 

R. A. Dver. Newburgh . 



Chas. Fliedner 

E. M. Flynt 

O. A. Granger 



Miss O. R. Gurney 

J. Hall. ..- 

J. Halle 

N. Heisel 

Mrs. Hinman 

Mr. Lyman 

Mrs. Porter 

Mrs. Dr. Robinson 

Wm. P. Stanley 

John Storey 

Dr. John Wheeler 

W. J. T 

A Friend 

Cash .. 

Mrs. Mitchell 

A. H. Brown 

S. A. S., St. Glair Road. 
Cash Box at Home ... 



500 

500 

500 

500 

5 00 

500 

5 00 

5 00 

500 

5 00 

5 00 

500 

400 

4 00 

400 

380 

3 00 

300 

3 00 

300 

300 

300 

SOO 

3 00 

300 

225 

2 00 

2 00 

2 00 

200 

200 

2 00 

2 00 

200 

2 00 

2 (K) 

2 00 

200 

200 

2 00 

200 

00 

(M) 

(X) 

00 

00 

00 

00 

00 

00 

00 

00 

00 

00 

00 

00 

1 00 

1 00 

100 

100 

1 00 

1 00 

100 

95 

50 

50 

50 

42 

870 



APPENDIX B. 



BRANCH SOCIETIES CONTRIBUTING TO SOLDIERS HOME. 



AKRON. 


FRANKLIN MILLS. 


PARMA 


AMHERST. 


FREEDOM. 




ATWATKB. 

BAINBRIDGE. 


GARRETTSVLLLE. 
GENEVA. 


RANDOLPH. 


BATH. 
BKUFORD. 
BERLIN CENTRE. 


GREENPORT. 
GREENWICH STATION. 
GUSTAVUS. 


RAWSONVILLE. 
ROCKPORT. 


BEREA. 
BERLIN HEIGHT:-;. 
BIRMINGHAM. 

BoARDMAN. 

BOSTON STATE KOAU. 
BRECKSVILLE. 
BRIMFIELD. 
BRISTOLVILLE. 
BROOKLYN, 
BROOKLYN CENTRE. 
BURTON. 
BUTTERNUT RIDGE. Olmsted. 
CHAGRIN FALLS. 
CHARLESTOWN. 
CHATHAM CENTRE. 
CHESTER CROSS ROADS. 

COLLAMER. 


HARRISVILLE. 

HlNCKLEY AND GRANGER. 

HIRAM. 
HOLMESVILLE. 

HOMERVILLE AND SULLIVAN 

GLEE CLUB. 
HURON, CHRIST CHURCH. 
JOHNSONVILLE. 
JUDD S CORNERS, Concord, O 
KENT. 

KlNGSVILLE. 

KINSMAN. 

KlRTLAND. 

MAYFIELD. 

MlDDLEBURY. 
MlLLERSBURG. 

NEWBURGH. 


SHALERSVILLE. 
SHEFFIELD. 
SOUTH ROCKPORT. 
ST. CLAIR ROAD, Cleveland. 
STREETSBORO. 
STROXGSVILLE. 
TALLMADGE. 
TROY, Nova P. O. 

TWINSBURGH, 

UNION FOUR CORNERS. 
UNIONTOWN. 
UNIONVILLE. 
VIALL DISTRICT. 
WADSWORTH. 
WADS WORTH DRAMATIC CLUB 
WAKEMAN. 


COLUMBIA . 

CONNEAUTVILLE UNIVERSAL- 


NEWTON FALLS. 
NORTH JACKSON. 


WARRENSVILLE. 
WEST ROCKPORT. 


DOVER. 
DOVER CONG. CHURCH. 
EARLVILLE. 
EAST CLEVELAND. 
EUCLID. 


OLENA. 
OLMSTED. 
OLMSTED FALLS. 
PAINESVILLE. 
PARKMAN. 
PARISVILLE. 


WlCKLIFFE. 

WINCHESTER. 

WlNDHAM. 
WlLLOUGHBY. 
WlLLOUGHBY RlDGE. 



APPENDIX C. 



CLAIM AGENCY REPORT 



444 



APPENDIX C. 



CLEVELAND BRANCH SANITARY COMMISSON CLAIM AGENCY. 



STATEMENT. 



NUMBER OF CASES FILED. 

Invalid Pen sion 97 

Increase Invalid Pension, 118 

Widow s Pension, 26 

Increase Widow s Pension. 67 

Mother s Pension, 15 

Guardian s Pension 3 

Guardian s Pension and Increase, 6 

Transfer Pension, 

Arrears Pension, 1 

Arrears Pay and Bounty, 167 

Pension Money, 45 

Additional Bounty, Act July 28th 1113 

Heirs Additional Bounty, Act July 28th, 200 

Artificial Limbs, 3 

Three Months Pay 7 

Commutation of Rations, 13 

Miscellaneous Cases. 3 

Total,... ...1890 



FILED THROUGH CENTRAL BUREAU OF CLAIMS. 

Invalid Pension 49 

Increase Invalid Pension, 1 

Widow s Pension, 16 

Mother s Pension, _ 1 

Arrears Pay and Bounty, 116 

Commutation of Rations, . 7 

Total, 190 



EXPENSE ACCOUNT. 



By paid salaries Agents and Clerks, $4,419 93 

printing and advertising, 729 73 

stationery, postage, legal blanks and record books, 1,027 55 

notarial fees...... 31258 

office expenses, desks, safe and notary seal, 25468 

expenses of collecting claims at Ohio State Soldiers 1 Home, 39 77 

Total,.. ...$6,78424 



APPENDIX D. 



NAMES OF MEMBERS 



446 



APPENDIX D. 



MEMBERS. 



MRS. HENRY G. ABBEY. 

kk S. C. AIKEN. 

" L. ALCOTT. 

" SHERLOCK J. ANDREWS. 

" M. C. K. ARTER. 

" CALEB AT WATER. 
Miss CARRIE ATWATER. 
MRS. LEVI AUST. 
MRS. F. T. BACKUS. 

" HENRY BAKER. 

" THEO. BAKER. 

" E. I. BALDWIN. 
Miss MARY BALDWIN. 
MRS. JAMES BARNETT. 
Miss ANNETTE BARNETT. 
MRS. J. BEANSON. 

kk GEO. E. BEEBE. 

" R. A. BEEBE. 
R. U. BECHER. 
M. E. BECKWITH. 
SILAS BELDEN. 
GEO. A. BENEDICT. 
L. BENEDICT. 
S. M. BENHAM. 

t; CURTIS BENTON. 

" CARLOS BENTON. 

" HORACE BENTON. 

kk BESTER. 

ki J. BEVERLIN. 

kk EDWARD BINGHAM. 

kk WILLIAM BINGHAM. 

kk J. P. BISHOP. 

" BlSSITT. 
MlSS BlXBY. 
MRS. S. H. BOARDMAN. 

" WM. J. BOARDMAN. 

" BOISE. 

" THOMAS BOLTON. 

kk J. BOUSFIELD. 

" WILLIAM BOWLER. 

kk J. M. BRAINARD. 

" WILLIAM BRADFORD. 
Miss CLARA BRANCH. 
MRS. C. D. BRAYTON. 
Miss MARY CLARK BRAYTON. 
MRS. N. C. BREWER. 

" C. C BRIGGS. 

" JOHN BROUGH. 

" FAYETTE BROWN. 

" J. C. BtlELL. 

kk M. BROWN. 

kt THOS. BURNHAM. 
kt L. BURGERT. 

kk P. R. BURNETT. 

kk BUFFINGTON. 

kk L. BURTON. 

LEVI BUTTLES. 

BOLIVAR BUTTS. 

CALDWELL. 

LOUISE CALKINS. 

J. F. CARD. 
Miss ALICE CAREY. 
MRS. LAWSON CARTER. 
Miss BELLE CARTER. 
MRS. CARTWRIGHT. 
kt J. LANG CASSELLS. 



MRS WM. B. CASTLE. 

SKLAH CHAMBERLIN . 
H. M. CHAPIN. 
J H. CHASE. 
HENRY CHISHOLM. 
D. CHITTKNDKN. 
lk ELIZABETH CHUBB. 
k " E. CLARK. 
k I. L. CLARK. 
kk W. A. CLARK. 
Miss M. S. CLEVELAND. 

MRS. J. M. COFFINBERRY. 

k I). O. COLE. 
k WM. COLLINS. 
" H. E. COOKE. 

" W. C. COOLEY. 

" JOHN COON. 
kk L K. COWLES. 
kk WM. CRAIG. 
k CRAPSER. 
kt J. H. CRITTENDEN. 
lk S. W. CRITTENDEN. 
kk T. D. CROCKER. 
ki E. W. CROOKS. 

H. L. CROWELL. 

JOHN CROWELL. 

GROWL. 

CUBBON. 

CUNNINGHAM. 

WM. D. GUSHING. 

H. K. GUSHING. 

F. B. DARROW. 

BENNITT DARE. 

ALFRED DAVIS. 

CHAS. A. DEAN. 

R. B. DENNIS. 

M. J. DICKENSON. 

B. F. DEXTER. 
DEGENIN. 
GEO. C. DODGE. 

R. DUTTON. 

C. F. DUTTON. 
DONAHUE. 

J. DOUGLAS. 
O. S. DOUGLAS. 
ALFRED ELY. 
GEO. B. ELY. 
A. W. FAIRBANKS. 
JAMES FARMER. 
FERGUSON. 
FEUSIER. 
WM. A. FISKE. 
Miss SARAH FITCH. 
" JENNIE FONTS. 
MRS. A. E. FOOTE. 
" HORACE FOOTE. 
k JOHN A. FOOTE. 
kk FOWLE. 

kk MORRISON FOSTER. 
" E. FREEMAN. 
tk A. FULLER. 
" GEO. W. GARDNER. 
Miss FANNIE GARDNER. 
MRS. C. M. GIDINGS. 
Miss GEORGIE GORDON. 
MRS. HIRAM GRISWOLD. 



APPENDIX D. 
MEMBERS CONTINUED. 



447 



MRS. W. B. GUYLES. 

" HALE, W. S. 
Miss S. S. HALL. 
MRS. WM. B. HANCOCK. 
MBS. ALBERT M. HARMON. 

B. HARRINGTON. 
k * J. A. HARRIS. 

WM. HART. 

kt G. H. HASKELL. 
Miss NELLIE HASKELL. 
MRS. K. HAYES. 

JOSEPH HAYWARD. 

WM. H. HAYWARU. 
" G. E. HERRICK, 

" CHAS. HICKOX. 

" M. E. HlGLEY. 

Miss EMMA HILLS. 
MRS. L. C. HOAG. 

" HOB ART. 
DENNIS HOLT. 

" R. C. HOPKINS. 

" A. G. HOPKINSON. 

" J. M. HOYT. 

" M. A. HOYT. 
Miss IDDA HOYT. 
MRS. HUBBELL. 

" O. E. HUNTINGTON. 

HURLBURT, W. S. 
" H. B. HURLBURT. 

" HUTCHINS. 

" L. M. HUBBY. 

" M. Y. BUTTON, 

L. D. HUDSON. 
" HUNTOON. 

" War. HUTTON. 
" G. A. HYDE. 
" HIRAM IDDINGS. 

" W. A. INGHAM. 

" J. E. INGERSOLL. 
" ISAAC A. ISAACS. 

E. S. ISOM. 
" E. JENNINGS. 
S. W. JOHNSON. 

G. H. JOHNSON 
" S. A. JEWETT. 
" T. M. KELLEY. 
Miss KENT. 

" AMELIA KENT. 
MRS. JAMES KIRBY. 
" WM. LACY. 
" M. C. LANE. 

LAUDERDALE. 

C. W. LEPPER. 

J. LEONARD. 

E. H. LEWIS. 

LIPE. 

THOS. LIST. 

H. H. LITTLE. 

JULIANA LONG. 

LYDIA LONG. 

W. W. LUCK. 

JOSEPH LYMAN. 

MALLORY. 

S. K. MANNING. 

C. MASTERS. 

E. MASTERS. 

H. C. MARSHALL. 

JAMES MASON. 

S. H. MATHER. 

WM. MELHINCH. 

WM. M. MERIAM. 

J. B. MERIAM. 

E. H. MERRILL. 



MRS. DR. MERRITT. 
WM. MILFORD. 

" WM. MlTTLEBERGER. 

" MCNEIL. 
NELSON MONROE. 
Miss KEOKEE MONROE. 
MRS. E. P. MORGAN. 

" J. H. MORLEY. 

" R. P. MYERS. 

ll J. J. MYERS. 

GEO. MYGATT. 
MYRICK. 

" ZINA NEEDHAM. 
Miss MELVINA NEVINS. 
MRS. HENRY NEWTON. 
Miss JULIA E. NOBLE. 

HENRY NEWBERRY. 

" STANLEY L. NOBLE. 

O. M. OVIATT. 

" S. B. PAGE. 
Miss S. PALMER. 
MRS. J. D. PALMER. 

FANNY PARSONS. 

R. F. PAINE. 

" AUSTIN PARMETER. 

PECK. 

" PENDLETON. 

" JOSEPH PERKINS. 
Miss PHELPS. 

" MATILDA PICKANDS. 
MRS. POLLOCK. 

" WELLS PORTER. 

" D. U. PRATT. 

il H. F. PERCIVAL. 

" PERRY PRENTISS. 
LOREN PRENTISS. 

" S. B. PRENTISS. 

" F. J. PRENTISS. 

W. M. PRENTICE. 

" N. B. PRENTICE. 

- 1 W. H. PRICE. 
Miss ELLEN PRITCHARD. 
MRS. P. PROBECK. 
1 L. M. PRYOR. 

" GEO. PRESLEY. 
Miss M. PRESLEY. 
MRS. N. PURDY. 

" R. P. RANNEY. 

RAYJIOND. 

" J. A. REDINGTON. 

" REESE. 

" D. P. RHODES. 

" C. L. RHODES. 
J. M. RICHARDS. 
C. H. ROBERTS. 
DR. RODMAN. 
ROUNDS. 
B. ROUSE. 

B. F. ROUSE. 

C. L. RUSSELL. 
E. S. ROOT, 

A. G. RUSSELL. 
W. SABINE. 

; J. C. SANDERS. 

" SANDERSON. 

" SANFORD. 

" NELSON SANFORD. 

i J. H. SARGENT. 

J. W. SARGEANT. 
Miss S. SCOTT. 
MRS. PHILO SCOVILL. 

- O. C. SCOVILL. 

" A. G. SEARLS. 



448 



APPENDIX D. 
MEMBERS CONTINUED. 



MRS. LEWIS SEVERANCE. 

" JOHN SHELLEY. 

" A. SHARPE. 
Miss MARY SHELLEY. 
MRS.D. A. SHEPARD. 

" O. B. SKINNER. 

" SKINNER, W. S. 

" J. B. SIMMONS. 
MRS. EZRA SMITH. 

" WM. T. SMITH. 
Miss MARY E. SMITH. 

MRS. W. P. SOUTHWORTH. 

" R. P. SPALDING. 

" SPARROWHAWK. 
Miss L. SPELLMAN. 

" C. SPELLMAN. 
MRS. EPFIE STANDART. 

" W. E. STANDART. 

ki I. T. STEVENS. 

bt JOHN M. STERLING, JR. 

" E. T. STERLING. 

" M. B. STICKNEY. 

" AMASA STONE, JR. 

" A. B. STONE. 
Miss FLORA STONE. 

>k CLARA STONE. 
MRS. E. STUMM. 

" RUFUS SWIFT. 

" SWAN. 

" D. C. TAYLOR. 

k E. TAYLOR. 

" CHARLES A TERRY. 
Mrss ELLEN F. TERRY. 
MRS. PETER THATCHER. 



MRS. DR. THAYER. 

" EDWIN THAYER. 

" J. A. THOME. 

" G. TUCKER. 
MRS. D. R. TILDEN. 

" S. C. VAN DORN. 

JOHN VARNER. 

ki A. VANTASSEL. 

" J. H. WADE. 

" RANDALL WADE. 
Miss LILY WALTON. 

" WALWORTH. 
MRS. B. P. WARD. 

" WM. M. WARMINGTON. 

" J. WARBURTON. 
Miss WARMINGTON. 
MRS. WASHINGTON. 

" P. WEDDELL. 

" A. J. WENHAM. 

" A. WHEELER. 

" CHARLES WHEELER. 

" H. L. WHITMAN. 

" S. WILLIAMSON. 

" H. V. WILLSON. 

" T. P. WILSON. 

" DOUGLAS WHITE. 

" WELCH. 

" STILLMAN WITT. 

tk C. A. WOODWORTU. 

" R. C. YATES. 

" J. V. N. YATES. 

" M. C. YOUNGLOVE. 

Miss CARRIE P. YOUNGLOVE. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 



FITCH ADAMS. 

L. ALCOTT. 

R. H. BABCOCK. 

CHARLES C. BALDWIN. 

DUDLEY BALDWIN. 

E. I. BALDWIN. 

C. J. BALLARD. 
T. S. BECKWITH. 
GEO. E. BEEBE. 
A. H. BENEDICT. 
EARL BILL. 
WILLIAM BINGHAM. 
WILLIAM J. BOARDMAN. 
T. N. BOND. 

W. H. BOYDEN. 
H. K. BOYLSTON. 
FRANCIS BRANCH. 

D. G. BRANCH. 
CHARLES G. BRATENAHL. 
H. F. BRAYTON. 

O. A. BROOKS. 
BURT, ROSE & Co. 
THEODORE BURY. 
BOLIVAR BUTTS. 
W. F. CAREY. 
CHARLES C. CARTER. 
W. L. CARTER. 
LEONARD CASE, JK. 
H. M. CHAPIN. 
O. A. CHILDS. 
S. P. CHURCHILL. 
JAMES F. CLARK. 



HENRY F. CLARK. 

I. L. CLARK. 

B. J. COBB. 

CAIUS C. COBB. 

COE & HASTINGS. 

COE & MAY. 

MA.J. JOHN COON. 

E. COWLES. 

R. COWLES. 

L CRAWFORD. 

WM. W. CRAWFORD 

OGDEN CRITTENDRN. 

S. W. CRITTENDEN. 

H L. CROWKLL. 

WM. CROWELL. 

WM. D. CUSHING. 

D. A. DANGLER. 

H. S. DAVIS. 

WM. EDWARDS. 

DAN. P. EELLS. 

T. D WIGHT EELLS. 

A. ELY, JR. 

GKO B. ELY. 

T. W. EVANS. 

J. FINGER. 

MORRISON FOSTER. 

J. A. FOOTE. 

GEO. FREEMAN. 

LUKE B FRENCH. 

RALZIE J. FULLER, 

H. C. GAYLORD. 

REV. WM. H. GOODRICH. 



APPENDIX D. 
HONORARY MEMBERS CONTINUED. 



449 



A. S. GORHAM. 
E. R. GUISWOLD. 
E. T. HALL. 

H. M. HALL. 
UNION HALL. 
E. N. HAMMOND. 
T. P. HANDY. 
ROBERT HANNA. 
WM HART. 
H. A. HARVEY. 
W. H. HARVEY. 
H. R. HATCH. 
R. HAUSMAN. 
J. HAYWARD. 
G. E. II RRICK. 

E. C. HlGBKE. 

ADDISON HILLS. 
H. G. HITCHCOCK. 

B. W. HORTON. 
JOHN G HOWER. 
JAMES M HOYT. 
ARTHUR HUGHES. 

H. B HURLBURT. 

J. G. HUSSEY. 

F. JUDSON. 

F. C. KEITH. 

H. D KENDALL. 
ROBERT KNIGHT. 
WM LAWTEY. 
T W LKKK 

H. W. LEL-TKE3IEYER. 

H. H LITTLE. 

GEO H. LODGE. 

R. H. LODGE. 

E. C. LUCE. 

II. C. LUCE. 

S MANN. 

H. C MARSHALL. 

SAMUEL L. MATHER. 

SAMUEL H. MATHER. 

WM. M. MAXON. 

C. S. MACKENZIE. 
W. J. McKiNNiE. 
WILLIAM MELHIXCH. 
J. B. MKRIAM. 

S D. MCMILLAN. 
JACOB MILLER. 
E. P. MORGAN. 

G. B. MURFEY. 
R. P. MYERS. 
GEO. MYGATT. 
J. D. NORTON. 
O. M. OVIATT. 

REV. WILBUR F. PADDOCK. 

J. B PARSONS. 

R. C. PARSONS. 

B. F. PEIXOTTO. 

NATHAN P. PAYNE. 

JOSEPH PFRKINS. 

A. M. P^RY. 

OLIVER H. PERRY. 

E. C. POPE. 

CHAUNCEY PRENTISS. 



F. J. PRENTISS. 
S. B. PRENTISS. 
P. I PRICE. 
W. H. PRICK. 

A. QUINN & SON. 
S. RAYMOND. 

H. K. RVYNOLDS. 
WM ROCKEFELLER. 

E. ROCKWKLL. 

JAMES ROOT. 
R. R. ROOT. 

B. F. ROUSE. 
L. D. RUCN.ER. 
GKO H. RUSSELL. 
ALKX. SACKKTT. 

E. W SACKRIDER. 
DR. JOHN C. SANDERS. 
M B. SCOTT. 

O. C. SCOVILI/E. 
SEABORN & HEMPY. 
JOHN SEAMAN. 

GEO. B. S ENTER. 

D. B. SEXTON. 
GEO. A. STANLEY. 
S. L. SEVERANCE. 
S. H. SHELDON. 
JOSEPH SHIPPKN. 
O. B. SKINNER. 
J. B. SMITH. 
W. T. SMITH. 
S. C. SMITH. 
ORSON SPKNCER. 
GEO. SPRAGUE. 
JOHN M. STERLING, JR. 
H. H STILSON. 
A. STONE. JR. 
JOHN TENNIS. 
PrTER THATCHER, JR. 

C. L. THOMPSON. 
AMOS TOWN SEND. 

H B. TUTTLE. 

J. H. WADE. 

F. T. WALLACE. 
T. WALTON. 

T. A. WALTON. 
H. D. WATTERSON. 
J. L. WEATHERLY. 
H. P. WEDD^LL. 
JOHN A. WHEELER. 
CHARLES L. WHITE. 
JOHN E. WHITE. 
A. H. WICK. 
C. C. WICK. 

GEO. WlLLEY. 
W. G. WILLIA3IS. 
A. P. WlNSLOW. 
R. K. WlNSLOW. 

STILLMAN WITT. 
C. J. WOOLSON. 
GEO S. WRIGHT. 
W. W. WRIGHT. 
R. C. YATES. 

M. C. YOUNGLOV3. 



30 



APPENDIX E. 



COMMITTEES. 



452 APPENDIX E. 



AMATEUR PATRIOTIC CONCERT. 

ACADEMY OF MUSIC, SEPT. 24, 1801. 
(Page 30.) 



SOPRANO?. Miss Nettie Brayton, Miss Mary Shelley, Miss Nellie Wick, Miss Clara 
Woolson, Miss Emma Witt. 

CONTRALTOS. Miss Tllic Crawford, Miss Constance Woolson. 

TENORS. E. C. Rouse, A. J. Monlton. 

BASSOS. J. n. Stanley, J. H. DeWitt, J. F. Whitelaw, J. Krable, J. P. Holbrook, Ed. 
Stair. 

PIANIST?. Prof. J. Long, Mrs. J. M. Isaacs. 



AMATEUR ENTERTAINMENT. 
Music AND TABLEAUX VIVANTS. 

ACADEMY OF MUSIC, MAECH 3 AND 5, 1863. 
(Page 102.) 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. R. C. Parsons, Joseph Perkins, Stillman Witt, M. C. Young- 
love, William Edwards, John M. Sterling, Jr., J. Burton Parsons, B. F. Peixotto, T. N. 
Bond, Mrs. M. C. Younglove, Mrs. Win. J. Boardman, Miss Terry. 

SOPRANOS. Mrs. S. J. Miller, Miss Mary Shelley, Miss Emma Witt, Miss Nellie Vaughan, 
Miss Lizzie Gates, Miss Nellie Wick. 
TENOR. E. C. Rouse. 
BASSO. D. O. Cole. 

PIANISTS. Mrs. George S. Mygatt, Misses Ara and Bella Stone, Geo. W. Brainard. 
VIOLONCELLO. D. O. Cole. 



APPENDIX E. 453 



NORTHERN OHIO SANITARY FAIR 



SPECIAL COMMITTEES. 

(Page 144.) 



ON BUILDINGS AND HALLS. 

Peter Thatcher, Jr., Chairman; Dr. E. Sterling, Secretary; Randall Crawford, W. J. 
Warner, W. F. Smith, J. M. Blackburn, S. C. Brooks, S. N. Nelson, Geo. H. Burt, R. R. 
Herrick, Geo. P. Smith, Wm. Rattle, P. Freeman. 

LUMBER. C. G. King, Ezra Thomas, L. C. Butts, A. J. Piper, E. Freeman, C. S. Ran 
som, L. M. Cobb, A. M. Harmau, S. H. Crowl, Isaac Sturtevant, P. B. Young, N. Purdy, 
C. McNeil, Sheldon & French, B. W. Jenness, Edward Sanford, William Sabin, Nelson 
Sanford ; Henderson & Wilson, Mayfield; Page & Beer, Collamer; J. W. Rogers, Ashta- 
bula ; L. P. Gage, Painesville. 

GAS. William E. Beckwith, G. A. Hyde, Mark W. House, T. Dwight Eells, Timothy 
Heath, W. P. Fogg. 

WATER. S. F. Lester, George W. Girty, J. McGarvey. L. M. Hubby, Joseph Singer, 
B. P. Bowers. 

HEATIXG. C. J. Woolson, W. L. Carter, Horace G. Hitchcock, C. P. Born, C. Whitaker, 
R. P. Myers, J. Wansor, J. B. Parish, S. Merchant, R. Knight. 

ON RECEPTION. 

I. U. Masters, Chairman ; Amos Townsend, H. S. Stevens, B. Rouse, E. C. Rouse, Wm 
Collins, J. P. Bishop, Mrs. B. Rouse, Mrs. Wm. Melhinch, Mrs. L. Burton. 

RAILROADS. L. M. Hubby, John Gardner, A. Stone, Jr., J. N. McCullough, T. W. 
Kennard. 

TRANSPORTATION. E. S. Flint, H. Nottingham, L. D. Rucker, Charles L. Rhodes, Wm. 
Hewitt, Charles E. Gorham, A. Everett, W. G. Yates, H. H. Eldis. 

ON DECORATIONS. 

T. N. Bond, Chairman; John M. Sterling, Jr., Marcus A. Hanna, Fayette Brown, Silas 
Merchant. J. Ensworth, Geo. E. Hall. Geo. W. Chapin. Bolivar Butts, D. Pratt, C Busch, 
Geo. Stowell, D. A. Dangler, C. W. Palmer, Cains C. Cobb, George Hewlett, Geo. B. Ely, 
B. F. Peixotto, J. H. DeWitt, H. C. Luce, J. S. Tascott, H. C. Marshall, Dr. John Dickin 
son, R. F. Paine, D. P. Eells, A. M. Van Duzer, G. W. Crowell, John Sargeant, L. R. 
Morri?, Charles C. Carter, Charles A. Brayton, George C. Vaillant, S. Chamberlain, D. R. 
Morris, John Wightman, Geo. W. Howe. Geo. Woodworth, Capt. S. F. Drake, Capt. H. 
D. Pheatt, Capt. S. Rummage, Belden Seymour, F. R. Myers. H. P. Seymour. Capt. Ed. 
Kelly, S. B Conklin, John Robinson. J. V. Painter, Charles W. Noble, George W. Rouse, 
I. W. Blake, Samuel Stair, John Walker, Charles G. Atwood, Dr. C. O. Butler, J. Hough- 
ton, T. W. Morse, Capt. James Hill, Henry Sizer, A. Mclntosh. Dr. E. Taylor, James Far 
mer, G. H. Lodge, A. C. Hubbell, George A. Tisdale, Loren Prentiss, Perry Prentiss, Capt. 



454 APPENDIX E. 

T. W. Steele, S. P. Jenkins, Mrs. T. N. Bond, Mrs. Joseph Hayward, Mrs. C. M. Gidings, 
Mrs. S. Witt, Mrs. J. D. Palmer, Mrs. Charles Doubleday, Mrs. H. H. Little, Mrs. J. F. 
Card, Mrs. W. W. Chandler, Mrs. Robert Hanna, Mrs. John A. Ellsler, Mrs. J. M. Gillette, 
Mrs. John Tod, Mrs. E. N. Keyes, Mrs. A.M. VanDuzer, Mrs. Henry Sizer, Mrs. William 
Smythe, Mrs. J. R. Shipherd, Mrs. Swift, Mrs, B. F. Pratt, Mrs. C. D. Cook. Mrs. J. Ens- 
worth, Mrs. S. P. Churchill, Mrs. H. A. Hurlburt, Mrs. L. L. Deming, Mrs. W.D. McBride, 
Mrs. J. W. Sargeant, Mrs. William May, Mrs. G. Woodworth, Mrs. W. Wellhouse, Mrs. 
J. H. Sargent, Mrs. P. G. Watmongh, Mrs. J. J. Myers, Mrs. William Shipherd, Mrs. W. 
F. Smith, Mrs. R. T. Lyon, Misses Ariel Hanna, Louise Gardner, Fanny Paine, Mary 
Mahan, Ruth Kellogg, Sarah Walworth, Mary Lodge, Clara Miles, Nina Miles, Lizzie 
Dockstader, Emma Hancock, Lizzie Pheatt, Harriet Hurlburt, Alice McCurdy, Jessie Fox, 
Mary Stetson, Lily Walton, Fanny Smith, Lily Barstow, Mary J. Blair, Hattie Blair, M. 
Barstow, S. Barstow, Fanny Gardner, Clara Hurlburt, Libbie Fitch, S. Petta, L. Robinson, 
Emily Stair, Mary Stair, Lucy Blair, Nelly Blair, Kate Larrimore, Sarah Gardner, Ollie 
Coon, Mary Lane, Mattie Tilden, Julia Durgin, Matilda Pickands, Julia Kellogg. 

ON PRODUCE. 

J. G. Hussey, Chairman; Geo. W. Gardner, Secretary; O. M. Oviatt, R. T. Lyon, J. G. 
Simmons, W. H. Sholl, C. J. Comstock, M. B. Scott, George Spraguc, T. Walton, J. H. 
Gorham, P. Chamberlin, N. Heisel, Addison Hills, Thomas Burnham, H. M. Hall, A. C. 
Hubbell, A. J. Wenham, L. A. Pierce, William Melhinch, T. W. Evans, F. Raymond, H. 
S. Davis, J. H. Clark, A. V. Cannon, P. H. Babcock, M. B. Clark, B. H. Stair, Chauncey 
Prentiss, George Sinclair, William Rockefeller, William Murray, Robert Hanna, H. Harvey, 
A. Burgert, S. F. Lester, Charles Bradburn, George Corning, R. S. Weaver, B. Brownell, 
J. Bash, Toledo ; G. D. Bates, Akron ; H. A. Foster, Minerva ; Hull & Buss, Oneida ; L. S. 
& C. A. Crim, Galion ; L. K. Warner, Newark ; Isaac Steese, Massillon ; John Dickson, 
Bolivar ; E. Burnett, Canal Dover ; A Woodward, Bellevue ; George Thornton, Sandusky ; 
H. S. Lucas, Marion ; J. M. Johnson, Oberlin ; D. T. Ilaines, Muncie ; Samuel Bartlett, 
Canal Winchester ; Hills & Co., Delaware; O. J. Mauzy, Union City; Morrison & Dins- 
more, Erie, Pa. ; R. M. N. Taylor, Meadville, Pa. ; A. Wallace, Indianapolis, Ind. 

ON MACHINERY AND MANUFACTURES. 

M. C. Younglove. Chairman ; George Worthington, Charles Whitaker, Wm. F. Smith, 
E. C. Garlick, Alton Pope, R. P. Myers, Jacob Lowman, William Hart, Geo. A. Stanley, 
Jacob Hovey, E. C. Bacon, S. A. Jewett, C. J. Woolson, S. M. Carpenter, Wm. Marriott, 
John P. Holt, G. W. Sizer, Charles Wason, G. W. Morrell, C. Koch, James Seaborn, J. 
W. Britton, Wm. Dewitt, John Young, Robert Knight, J. G. Graham, A. M. Hazen, Thos. 
Jones, Jr., C. S. Ransom, Walter Farnan, J. F. Holloway, E. W. Brooks, F. D. Stone ; 
James Ward, Jr., Niles ; N. B. Gates, Elyria ; Gen 1 ! C. P. Buckingham, Mt. Vernon ; C. L. 
Boalt, Norwalk ; P. P. Sanford, Painesville ; Marvin Kent, Kent ; R. F. Russell, Toledo ; 
J. H. Brown, Youngstown ; J. W. Williams, Chagrin Falls ; C. Aultman, Massillon ; Clem 
ent Russell, Massillon; A. Kent, Akron; D. K. Wisell, Warren; Liddell & McCarty, 
Erie, Pa. 

IRON, STEEL AND COPPER. A. G. Smith, A. B. Stone, C. A. Otis, Henry Chisholm, Major 
Collins. 

CORRESPONDENCE. A. H. Masscy, N. W. Taylor, P. E. Schrieber, F. O. Bacon, W. H. 
Burridge. 

ON MERCHANDISE. 

William Bingham, Chairman ; C. W. Coe, Secretary ; L. Alcott, S. D. McMillan, O. A. 
Brooks, E. I. Baldwin, H. D. Kendall, A. G. Colwell, L. L. Lyon, L. F. Burgess, J. B. 
Cobb, N. E. Crittenden, E. Stair, F. C. Keith, W. P. Fogg, J. B. Parish, S. M. Strong, H. 



APPENDIX E. 455 

L. Crowell, A. Rettberg, J. H. Chase, J. A. Vincent, John Shelley, O. A. Childs, G. W. 
Whitney, S. S. Lyon, J. W. Sargent, William T. Smith, A. S. Gardner, E. W. Sackrider, 
Charles G. Bratenahl, R. R. Root, E. L. Dodd, B. Butts, W. D. Baker, George Whitelaw, 
H. A. Stephens, R. J. Fuller, C. E. Morse, J. Marchand, William Lowrie, Peter Diemer, 
Wm. Beckonbach, B. F. Rouse, S. Corning, C. S. Bragg, W. B. Hancock, George F. Mar 
shall, R. P. Cattrall, W. R. Mould, E. S. Willard, W. H. Truscott, Carlos Benton, Capt. D. 
P. Nickerson, E. C. Pope, P. W. Rice, Isaac A. Isaacs, E. M. Flynt, D. W. Cross, S. M. 
Cady, John E. White, J. H. Weed, M. Halle, Henry Hill. 

ON WOOD AND COAL. 

J. V. N. Yates, Chairman ; J. F. Card, James Farmer, John Hays, Allen Jones, J. P. 
Price, William McReynolds, E. N. Hammond, Capt. Lacey, W. W. Crawford, Freeman 
Butts. 

ON BOOTHS AND FANCY TABLES. 

Mrs. Fayctte Brown, Chairman; Mrs. A. B. Stone, Mrs. William Bingham, Mrs. D. P. 
Rhodes, Mrs. J. H. Chase, Mrs. E. B. Hale, Mrs. William Collins, Mrs. J. G. Hussey, Mrs. 
F. A. Sterling, Mrs. Robert Hanna, Mrs. H. M Chapin, Mrs. D. Chittenden. 

ON FANCY ARTICLES. 

Mrs. A. G. Colwell, Chairman; Mrs. A. W. Fairbanks, Secretary; Mrs. W. J. Boardman, 
Mrs. S. J. Miller, Mrs. W. D. Cushing, Mrs. George Willey, Mrs. F. J. Prentiss, Mrs. R. 

F. Paine, Mrs. J. M. Sterling, Jr., Mrs. J. M. Richards, Mrs. A. Stone, Jr., Mrs. D. P. 
Eells, Mrs. D. R. Tilden, Mrs. A. A. Adams, Mrs. G. E. Herrick, Mrs. A. J. Moulton, Mrs. 
Joseph Perkins, Mrs. P. Roeder, Mrs S. B. Prentiss, Mrs. L. D. Rucker, Mrs. H. Iddings, 
Mrs. J. B. Meriam, Mrs. L. Buttles, Mrs. J. C. Sanders, Mrs. D. Howe, Mrs. A. G. Law 
rence, Mrs. W. W. Andrews, Mrs. A. G. Riddle, Mrs. W. P. Fogg, Mrs. Charles Lepper, 
Mrs. Isaac A. Isaacs, Mrs. A. Rettberg, Mrs. S. Chamberlain, Mrs. F. X. Byerly, Mrs. C. 

G. Bratenahl, Mrs. Alfred Ely, Mrs. Fanny Parsons, Mrs. B. F. Peixotto, Mrs. J. H. De 
Witt, Mrs. Fitch Adams, Mrs. S. H. Boardman, Mrs. William Bradford, Mrs. E. I. Baldwin, 
Mrs. H. R. Hatch, Mrs. C. R. Evatt, Mrs. J. M. Hughes, Mrs. C. A. Crumb, Mrs. Robert 
Knight, Mrs. T. H. Hawks, Mrs. S. W. Crittenden, Mrs. J. A. Thome, Mrs. J. H. Rylance, 
Mrs. Thomas Bolton. Mrs. H. C. Luce, Mrs. H. Garrettson, Mrs. S. K. Davis, Mrs. J. V. 
Painter, Mrs. H. P. Weddell, Mrs. Wm. G. Williams, Mrs. E. C. Rouse, Mrs. A. T. Brins- 
made, Mrs. W. W. Wright, Mrs. S. O. Griswold, Mrs. H. C. Gaylord, Mrs. William Hil- 
liard, Mrs. L. Austin, Mrs. C. C. Cobb, Mrs. E. Ransom, Mrs. S. Brainard, Mrs. George 
W. Gardner, Mrs. W. D. Baker, Mrs. J. Singer. 

Misses Prentiss, S. S. Hall, Sarah Fitch. M. J. Blair, Sarah Walworth, Sarah Stanley, 
Alice Fairbanks, Belle Carter, Nelly Russell, Nelly Wick, Florence Wick, Amelia Burton, 
Frances Foote, Agnes Foote, Emily Stair, Nelly Andrews, Hattie Colwell, Fanny Col- 
well, Marion Clark, Annie Clark, Kitty Worley, Mary Goodwin, Mattie Tilden, Kitty Kelly, 
Augusta Rhodes. 

ON FLORAL HALL. 

Mrs. Dr. E. Sterling, Chairman; Laura W. Sterling, Secretary; F. R. Elliott, Superin 
tendent ; Joseph Perkins, H. B. Hurlburt, S. Witt, H. F. Clark, C. G. Bratenahl, A. Mcln- 
tosh, William Rattle, Geo. A. Stanley, Dr. E. Taylor, Dr. W. H. Beaumont, J. Kirkpatrick, 
William Crowell, Geo. Hoyt, James Fitch, C. Chandler, Dr. G. F. Turrill, Morris Jackson, 
John L. Mclntosh, Henry Hoyt, William Root. 

Mrs. S. Witt, Mrs. John Shelley, Mrs. H. B. Hurlburt, Mrs. W. H. Beaumont, Mrs. E. S. 
Root, Mrs. L. Prentiss, Mrs. E. Taylor, Mrs. C. A. Hayes, Mrs. J. H. Sargent, Mrs. Wm. 
Sinythe, Mrs. T. N. Bond, Mrs. F. R. Elliott, Mrs. G. F. Turrill, Mrs. J. D. Kurd. 



456 APPENDIX E. 

Misses Joeie Wheeler, E. Streator, M. Streator, Helen Cutter, Mary Stevens, Augusta 
Rhodes, Nelly Russell, Fanny Hoyt, Illie Crawford, Emma Witt, Laura W. Hilliard, M. 
Mclntosh, Lizzie Bolton, H. Doane, A. Doane. 

Dr. J. P. Kirtland, Dr. and Mrs. Hoffman, Mrs. Lewis Nicholson, Mrs. Charles Pease, 
Gov. and Mrs. Wood, Mr. and Mrs. George B. Merwin, Rockport; E. P. Bassett, Mrs. J. 
A. Scott, Mrs. Israel Hall, Toledo; J. Storrs, J. J. Harrison. Mrs. Horace Steele, Jr., Mrs. 
P. P. Sanford, Rev. J. A. Brayton, Mr. and Mrs. C. A. Avery, Painesville ; C. L. Boalt, 
John Gardner, J. II. Beardsley, Mr. and Mrs. S. T. Worcester, Norwalk; Messrs. Luce 
& Strong, Ashtabula; Mr*. C. Arthur Ely, Mr?. Heman Ely, Elyria; H. S. Abbey, David 
L. King, Akron; E. N. Sill, J. H. Cook, Cuyahoga Falls ; S. B. Marshall, Mrs. L. Teller, 
Miss Jane Watson, Massillon ; J. P. Robison, Bedford ; H. B. Lum, H. Dewey, Mrs O. 
Follett, Sandusky; William Porter, Mrs. Henry B. Perkins, Mrs. Frederick Kinsman, 
Mrs. Barton Fitch, Mrs. O. Morgan, Warren ; H. Manning, W. S. Crawford. Youngstowu ; 
Hon. and Mrs. John Sherman, Mrs. Charles T. Sherman. Mansfield; S. Bieler, Zoar; S. 
W. Campbell, Delaware ; Mr. Bonsall. Salem ; E. Stone, Mrs. McClure, Milan ; M. B. Bate- 
ham, A. Hanneford, Columbus; Dr. Jcwett, Micldlebury ; Robert Johnston, Rootstown ; 
N. Kelly, Mr. and Mrs. Carpenter, Mrs. E. Huntington, Kelly s Island; Mrs. Ruggles 
Wright, Huron ; R. P. Fulkerson. Ashland; H. K. Morse, Poland ; H. H. Myers, Canton ; 
Charles Coit, Euclid ; Mrs. E. A. Slingluff, Canal Dover; E. Huidekoper, Meadville, Pa. ; 
Alfred Curtis, Sharon, Pa. ; T. L. Shields. Sewickley, Pa. 

ON TABLES AND TABLE FURNITURE. 

William Edwards and Mrs. M. C. Younsjlove, Chairmen ; John M. Sterling, Jr., J. B. 
Parsons, Capt. J. Ensworth, John A. Wheeler, E. S. Flint, C. R. Evatt, W. H. Sholl, M. 

A. Hanna, W. R. Mould, George Stowell, M. A. Brown, Henry Bingham, Mrs. H. L. Cro- 
well, Mrs. N. W. Taylor, Mrs. J. G. Hussey, Mrs. L. Alcott, Mrs. S. Corning, Mrs. H. C. 
Blossom, Mrs. James Wade, Jr., Mrs. S. Starkweather, Mrs. E. S. Flint, Mrs. John Brough, 
Mrs. C. J. Ballard. Mrs. O. A. Brooks, Mrs. B. F. Rouse, Mrs. E. Cowles, Mrs. Jas. Mason, 
Mrs. L. F. Mellen, Mrs. Geo. Chapman, Mrs. T. R. Chase, Mrs. A. C. Keating, Mrs. D. P. 
Rhodes, Mrs. Dr. Cassels, Mrs. Geo. H. Russell, Mrs. L. A. Pierce, Mrs. C. L. Rhodes, Mrs. 
E. T. Sterling, Mrs. Win. C. North, Mrs, E. A. Scovill, Mrs. H. L. Whitman, Mrs. O. N. 
Skeels, Mrs. B. Butts, Mrs. Geo. B. Ely, Mrs. Wm. Robinson, Mrs. S. A. Jewett, Mrs. E. 
L. Knowlton, Mrs. J. E. Turner, Mrs. A. Fuller, Mrs. Edw d Bingham, Mrs. J. Ross, Mrs. 

B. F. Collins, Mrs. A. P. Winslow, Mrs. S. H. Sheldon, Mrs. J. A. Thome, Mrs. Carlos 
Benton, Mrs. G. W. Whitney, Mrs. A. J. Breed, Miss Annette Barnett, Miss Scott. 

ON REFRESHMENTS. 

Mrs. Thomas Burnham. Chairman ; Miss Anne Walworth, Secretary. 

SOLICITING AND RECEIVING. Mrs. William T. Smith, Mrs. E. F. Gaylord, Mrs. P. M. 
Weddell, Mrs. Philo Scovill, Mrs. Rob t Hanna, Mrs. Dr. John Wheeler, Mrs. Geo. Mygatt, 
Mrs. P. Thatcher, Jr., Mrs. J; A. Foot, Mrs. Silas Belden, Mrs. James Farmer, Mrs. John 
Crowell, Mrs. Wm. Lemen, Mrs. O. M. Oviatt. Mrs. A. S. Sanford, Mrs. C. Stetson, Mrs. 
Dr. Starkey, Mrs. Geo. C. Dodge, Mrs. L. Crawford, Mrs. H. Wick, Mrs. Harvey Rice, 
Mrs. H. Harvey, Mrs. H. Garrettson, Mrs. W. S. Streator, Mrs. Charles Wheeler, Mrs. T. 
S. Beckwith, Mrs. C. A. Dean, Mrs. J. M. Richards, Mrs. D. Chittenden, Mrs. J. H. Chase, 
Mrs. S. Raymond, Mrs. H. A. Hurlburt, Mrs. J. Eeverlin, Mrs. A. Quinn, Mrs. W. R. Henry, 
Mrs. D. G. Branch, Mrs. M. C. Arter, Mrs. W. D. McBride, Mrs. J. G. Hussey, Mrs. J. 
Stoppel, Mrs. Geo. A. Hyde, Mrs. C. Wason, Mrs. I. T. Stevens, Mrs. J. Dickinson, Mrs. 
J. Ensworth, Mrs. W. P. Southworth, Mrs. J. J. Rockefeller, Mrs. S. W. Johnson, Mrs. 
P. Roeder, Mrs. O. E. Huntington, Mrs. Alfred Ely, Mrs, M. Crapser, Mrs. Dr. Horton, 
Mrs. H. N. Bauder, Mrs. W. B. Hancock. Mrs. II. C. Gaylord, Mrs. Dr. T. P. Wilson, Mrs. 
D. W. Cross, Mrs. S. R. Beckwith, Mrs. L. C. Butts, Mrs. L. W. Curtiss, Mrs. George II 



APPENDIX E. 457 

Warmington, Mrs. H. Hurd, Mrs. G. W. Jones, Mrs. L. L. Deming. Mrs. Sam l M. Strong, 
Mrs. C. L. Jones, Mrs. S. Jackson, Mrs. J. C. Buell, Mrs. C. C. Cobb, Mrs. Geo. Whitelaw, 
Mrs. Eobert Knight, Mrs. J. H. Sargent, Mrs. Bissett, Mrs. Harbeck, Misses Clara Hyde, 
Susie Northrup, Mary Stair, O. J. Bauder. 

ICE CREAM AND CAKE. Mrs. Joseph Lyman, Mrs. Henry Sizer, Mrs. Wm. Edwards, 
Mrs. J. C. Grannis, Mrs. H. Harvey, Mrs. J. M. Hughes, Mrs. S. J. Miller, Mrs. H. G. 
Abbey, Mrs. D. W. Cross, Mrs. Geo. W. Howe, Mrs. A. S. Gorham, Mrs. E. C. Mould, 
Mrs. E. N. Keyes, Mrs. L. B. French, Mrs. O. A. Knight, Mrs. S. O. Griswold, Mrs. C. A. 
Otis, Mrs. Thomas Bolton, Mrs. R. P. Ranney, Mrs. R. B. Dennis, Mrs. S. J. Lewis. Mrs. 
A. M. Harman, Mrs. H. S. Stevens, Mrs. C. L. Russell, Mrs. A. E. Adams, Miss Julia 
Newberry, Miss M. J. Blair, Miss Bowlesby. 

OYSTERS. Mrs. L. L. Lyon, Mrs. Wm. Mittleberger, Mrs. L. Rawson, Mrs. H. V. Will- 
son. Mrs. Horace Foote, Mrs. B. Butts, Mrs. S. D. McMillan. Mrs. T. M. Kelley, Mrs. Jas. 
Barnett, Mrs. S. J. Andrews, Mrs. D. P. Rhodes, Mrs. J. H. Wade, Mrs. G. W. Whitney, 
Mrs. L. Alcott, Mrs. John Coon, Mrs. Wm. Shepard, Mrs. Charles Whitaker, Mrs. J. M. 
Coflinberry, Mrs. W. J. Gordon, Mrs. George H. Burritt, Mrs, J. C. Calhoun. 

COFFEE. Mrs. Wm. Rattle, Mrs. James F. Clark, Mrs. O. C. ScovilL Mrs. R. F. Paine, 
Mrs. Charles Hickox, Mrs. C. D. Brayton, Mrs. H. D. Kendall, Mrs. R. C. Yates, Mrs. 
Daniels, Mrs. B. Harrington, Mrs. T. P. Handy, Mrs. F. T. Backus, Mrs. S. L. Mather, 
Mrs I. L. Clark, Mrs. Dudley Baldwin, Mrs. S. H. Mather, Mrs. George B. Senter, Mrs. 
S. H. Kimball, Mrs. J. A. Hart, Mrs. Henry Newberry, Mrs. G. A. Tisdale, Mrs. H. B. 
Tuttle, Mrs. John E Cary, Mrs. E. Shepard, Mrs. J. Merriam, Mrs. C. E. Gorhain. 

ON MEMORIALS AND CURIOSITIES. 

H. F. Brayton, Chairman ; Col. Chas. Whittlesey, Col. C. C. Goddard, T. R. Chase, 
H. W. Boardman, J. S. Perley, Dr. J. S. Newberry, George E. Beebee, Edwin Cowles, 
H. B. Hurlburt, R. C. Parsons, Dr. T. Garlick, John Coon, J. G. Graham, Carlos A. 
Smith, Henry A. Smith, Col. O H. Payne, Capt. B. A. Stanard, Dr. E. Sterling, R. K. 
Winslow, W. W. Chandler, W. L. Cutter, Capt. J. M. Lundy, H C. Luce, Geo. A. Stanley, 
E. Hessenmueller ; Dr. J. P. Kirtland, Geo. B. Merwin, Rockport ; Prof. H. E. Peck, Ober- 
lin ; Prof. N. P. Seymour, Hudson ; W. H. Upson, Akron ; Col. Huidekoper, Meadville, Pa. 

Mrs. Dr. E. Cushing, Mrs. A. B. Stone, Mrs. Chas. Pease, Mrs. Dr. Hopkins, Mrs. Rum- 
ney, Mrs. H. M. Chapin, Mrs. C. C. Goddard, Mrs. Dr. J. C. Schenck, Mrs. W. L. Cutter, 
Mrs. E. M. Livermore, Mrs. Dr. J. S. Newberry, Mrs. Theodore Hocke, Mrs. K. Hays; 
Mrs. O. Follett, Sandusky. 

Misses Belle Brayton, Julia Huntington, Sophie Hensch, Berta Sterne, Abby Rhodes, 
Charlotte Black. 

ON FINE ART HALL. 

Wm. J. Boardman, Chairman ; Geo. Willey, H. F. Clark, Dr. A. Maynard, R. K. Wins- 
low, F. W. Parsons, Rev. Dr. Goodrich, Rev. Dr. Starkey, Rt. Rev. Bishop Rappe, B. J. 
Cobb, Leonard Case, H. C. Gaylord, Joseph Perkins, Wm. Bingham, J. F. Ryder, W. C. 
North, C. W. Stimpson, J. M. Greene, J. W. Sargeant, H. B. Castle, J. Clough, D. O. Cole, 
Wm. Crowell, E. R. Perkins, A. Sharpies. 

Mrs. Fayette Brown, Mrs. Wm. Bingham, Mrs. F. W. Parsons, Mrs. Geo. Willey, Mrs. 

D. O. Cole, Miss Cleveland, Miss A. Walworth, Miss C. L. Ransom. 

ON MUSICAL ENTERTAINMENTS. 

T. P. Handy, Chairman ; F. X. Byerly, E. F. Sargeant, Geo. W. Brainard, J. Underner, 

E. C. Rouse, J. M. Leland, J. A. Redington, E. B. Allen, E. Stair, J. G. Graham. 

31 



458 APPEKDIX E. 

ON TABLEAUX. 

Geo. Willey, Chairman ; Geo. H. Ely, Secretary ; R. C. Parsons, Dr. C. A. Terry, Dr. A. 
Maynard, Geo. W. Brainard, E. Cowles, Joseph Brainard, W. J. Boardman, C. W. Palmer, 
Carlos A. Smith, Dr. T. Garlick, Fred. C. Prentiss, Charles C. Carter. 

Mrs. Geo. W. Brainard, Mrs. W. D. Cushing, Mrs. Joseph Brainard, Mrs. Geo. H. Bur- 
ritt, Mrs. Wm. Edwards, Mrs. Geo. Willey, Mrs. W. C. North, Mrs. J. V. N. Yates, Mrs. 
E. M. Livermore, Mrs. Geo. H. Ely, Mrs. D. P. Rhodes, Mrs. D. O. Cole, Mrs. W. B. 
Castle, Mrs. C. J. Woolson. Mrs. H. W. Boardman, Mrs. R. C. Parsons, Mrs. W. J. Board 
man, Miss E. L. Bissell, Miss Julia Mathews, Miss Anna Walters, Miss Woolson; Miss 
Annie Brayton, Painesville. 

DRAMATICS. Col. Z. S. Spalding, Dr. T. P. Wilson, Col. C. C. Goddard, F. W. Parsons, 
D. O. Cole, J. V. N. Yates, H. Clay White, Chas. Childs, Wm. Crowell, Mrs. William 
Edwards, Miss Vaughan, Miss Julia W. Terry, Miss Mary W. Benedict, Miss Mattie Til- 
den, Miss Carrie W. Grant ; Mrs. Stanley L. Noble, Painesville. 

ON LECTURES. 

D. P. Eells, Chairman ; J. B. Meriam, O. A. Brooks, Chas. W. Palmer, B. F. Peixotto. 
ON REGISTRATION. 

John F. Warner, Chairman ; Col. C. C. Goddard, L. F. Mellen, A. T. Brinsmade, Col. 
Geo. S. Mygatt, O. N. Skeels, H. S. Whittlesey, Earl Bill, H. G. Abbey, Felix Nicola. 

ON PRINTING AND STATIONERY. 

A. W. Fairbanks, Chairman ; E. Cowles, J. A. Harris, J. S. Stephenson, J. Feather- 
etone, W. R. Nevins, C. C. Cobb, N. W. Taylor, A. Thieme, W. D. Baker, E. Sanford, C. 
S. Bragg, M. W. Veits, S. W. Savage. 

ON MILITARY. 

Col. W. H. Hayward, Chairman; Col. J. N. Frazee, Capt. F. W. Pelton, Capt. J. Ensworth. 

ON POLICE. 

Col. J. N. Frazee, Chairman ; T. N. Bond, N. P. Payne. 

CASHIERS. 

T. P. Handy, Treas.; James J. Tracy, W. E. Clarke, Henry W. Boardman, S. L. Severance, 
A. H. Wick, L. H. Severance, J. C. Buell ; J. Theodore Briggs, Titusville, Pa. 

AUDITING COMMITTEE. 
H. M. Chapin, A. Stone, Jr. 



APPEXDIX E. 459 

TABLEAUX AND AMATEUR THEATRICALS. 

BENEFIT OF SOLDIERS HOME. 

BRAINARD S HALL, MARCH, 1865. 

(Page 338.} 



TABLEAUX COMMITTEE. 

Mr. and Mrs. Wm. Edwards, Dr. and Mrs. E. Sterling, Mr. and Mrs. Edward M. Liver- 
more, Mr. and Mrs. Geo. W. Brainard, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Brainard, Mr. and Mrs. Geo. 
Willey, Mr. and Mrs. Wm. D. Cushing, Mr. and Mrs. Frank W. Parsons, Mr. and Mrs. J. 
V. N. Yates, Miss Atwater. 

DRAMATIC CLUB. 

Mr. and Mrs. S. K. Davis, Mr. J. H. Bessell, Mr. G. F. Bingham, Mr. H. B. DeWolf, Mr. 
G. McLaughlin, Miss E. Spangler. 



ASSOCIATE MEMBERS OF THE U. S. SANITARY COMMISSION 
APPOINTED Nov., 1861, CLEVELAND 0. 

(Page 277.) 



Dr. J. S. Newberry, Benjamin Rouse, Stillman Witt, Joseph Perkins, T. P. Handy. 
Wm. Bingham, M. C. Younglove, A. Stone, Jr., Dr. E. Cushing, Dr. Alleyne Maynard, E. 
S. Flint. 

Dr. J. S. Newberry, President. Benjamin Rouse, Vice President and Treasurer. Dr. 
Alleyne Maynard, Secretary. 



WARD RELIEF COMMITTEES. 

(Pages 21 and 275.) 



SECOND WARD.-Geo. A. Benedict, PRES. : Mrs. J. V. Painter, SEC. ; Mrs. F. J. Pren- 
tiss, TREAS. COMMITTEE. Mrs. S. Williamson, Mrs. H. H. Little, Mrs. Wm. Mittleberger, 
Mrs. Chas. A. Terry, Mrs. Wm. T. Smith, Mrs. J. J. Rockefeller, Mrs. A. W. Fairbanks. 

THIRD WARD. Mr. and Mrs. Randall Crawford, Mrs. J. O. Seymour, Mrs. Peter 
Thatcher, Mrs. J. A. Harris, Mrs L. M. Cobb, Mrs. S. Belden. 

FOURTH WARD. Hon. R. P. Spalding, Mrs. Geo. H. Wyman, Mrs. N. W. Taylor. 
FIFTH WARD. Joseph Perkins, PRES. ; L. F. Mcares, SEC. and TREAS. COMMIT 
TEE. Mr. and Mrs. A. B. Stone, Mr. and Mrs. Wm. J. Boardman, Mr. and Mrs. A. Stone, 



460 APPENDIX E. 

Jr., Mr. and Mrs. Wm. Collirfs, Mr. and Mrs. Chas. Hickox, Mr. and Mrs. T. P. Handy, 
Mr. and Mrs. J. C. Buell, Mr. and Mrs. Henry Chisholm, Mrs. Geo. C. Dodge, Mrs. Capt. 
Jaffray, Mrs. T. M. Kelley, Mrs. Horace Kelley, Joseph Sturgis, Wm. Heisley, W. Lowrey, 
B. Tunte, N. P. Payne. Thomas Purcell. 

Amount expended, $7,433.63. 

EIGHTH WARD. S. W. Johnson, Mrs. M. A. Brown, Mrs. W. B. Guyles. 

NINTH W T ARD. Nelson Sanford, Mrs. D. P. Rhodes, Mrs. J. H. Sargent. 

TENTH WARD. Chas. R. Evatt, Mrs. Bissett. 

ELEVENTH WARD. Thomas Dixon, Mrs. F. B. Pratt. Mrs. A. H. Blake. 



RECEPTION COMMITTEE. 

(Page 350.) 



FROM THE COUNCIL. F. W. Pelton, Amos Townsend, Randall Crawford, Joseph Stur 
gis, G. W. Calkins. 

COUNTY MILITARY COMMITTEE. Wm. Bingham, Wm. Edwards, E. Hessenmueller, F. 
Nicola, Stillman Witt, Geo. B. Scnter, H. M. Chapin, Fayette Brown. 

CITIZENS COMMITTEE. Col. James Barnett, Col. W. H. Hay ward, Col. O. H. Payne, 
Bolivar Butts, C. W. Palmer, Joseph Perkins. A. Everett, M. R. Keith, Nelson Purdy, 
Philo Chamberlin, Jno. C. Grannis. 



APPENDIX F. 



BRANCH SOCIETIES. 

N 



462 APPENDIX F. 



BRANCH SOCIETIES. 



AKRON, SUMMIT Co. 

PRES., Mrs. C. P. Wolcott, Mrs. S. H. Coburn, Mrs. E. P. Green, Mrs. H. S. Abbey; 
VICE PRES.,Mrs. Capt. Howe, Mrs. Delos Smith ; SEC. and TREAS., Mrs. E. Oviatt, Mrs. C. 
Brown, Mrs. L. B. Austin, Miss E. B. Howe, Miss Sarah T. Peck, Mrs. W. B. Raymond. 

ALBION, ERIE Co., PA. 
PRES., Mrs. Francis Randall ; SEC., Mrs. L. W. Flower ; AGENT, L. D. Davenport. 

ALLIANCE, STARK Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Dr. E. L. S. Thomas, Mrs. E. Amerman ; SEC., Mrs. A. C. Pickett, Miss 
Kate McKee ; TREAS., Mrs. Geo. M. Bates. 

AMBOY, ASHTABULA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Electa A. Veits, Mrs. E. Hewit ; SEC., Miss Sylvia C. Barrett, Miss A. B. 
Greenlee ; TREAS., Mrs. Fannie E. Rathbun, Mrs. L. Hickock. 

AMHERST, LORAIN Co. 

NORTH AMHERST. PKES., Mrs. H.Warner, Mrs. H. E. Mussey; SEC., Miss M. L. 
Shupe, Mrs. C. B. Carhart, Mrs. L. S. Oldfield ; TREAS., Mrs. H. Hirsching. 

NORTH-WEST AMHERST. PRES., Mrs. Curtis Bailey; VICE PRES., Mrs. William 
Onstine ; SEC., Miss Hattie Clough ; DIRECTORS, Mrs. A. Knowles, Mrs. W. Johnston, 
Mrs. Ann R. Blake. 

SOUTH AMHERST. PRES., Mrs. J. C. Jackson ; SEC., Mrs. R. P. Gibbs ; TREAS., Miss 

D. A. Durand. 

ANDOVER, ASHTABULA Co. 

ANDOVER. PRES., Mrs. P. C. Hyde; VICE PRES., Mrs. Phebe Putney ; SEC., Miss 
Ellen M. Wade ; TREAS., Miss M. A. Wade. 
NORTH ANDOVER PRES., Mrs. P. Cook; VICE PRES., Mrs. S. Case ; SEC., Miss M. 

E. Belden, Miss A. M. Sperry ; TREAS., Mrs. E. Smith. 
Estimated Contribution, $75. 

WEST ANDOVER. PRES., Mrs. Harriet O^born ; SEC., Miss Marcia Owen ; TREAS., 
Miss Bernice Galpine. 



APPENDIX F. 463 

ANNAPOLIS, JEFFERSON Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Harriet M. Manning ; VICE PKES., Mrs. John Schultz ; SEC., Mrs. Amos Clo- 
man; TREAS., Mrs. Joshua Barnes. 

ASHLAND, ASHLAND Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Orlow Smith, Mrs. J. B. Coffin ; VICE PRES., Mrs. Wm. Osborn, Mrs. Wick; 
SEC., Mrs. J. O. Jennings, Mrs. J. H. McCombs, Mrs. Sophie Sprengle ; TREAS., Mrs. Thos. 
Arthur, Mrs. A. F. Topping. 

ASHTABULA, ASHTABULA Co. 

ASHTABULA No. 1. PRES., Mrs. Wm. G Benham ; SEC. and TREAS., Mrs. H. Harris. 

ASHTABULA No. 2. PRES., Mrs. James Bonnar; VICE PRES., Mrs. H. E. Parsons; 
SEC., Miss Sara M. Schoonmaker ; TREAS., Mrs. J. B. Hurlbnrt ; DIRECTORS, Mrs. S. B. 
Wells, Mrs. J. P. Robertson, Mrs. J. Mansfield, Mrs. E. C. Strong, Mrs. H. C. Toombs, 
Mrs. G. Scoville, Mrs. Morton, Mrs. Weathenvax. 

Disbursements estimated at $1,850. 

EAST ASHTABULA. PRES., Mrs. H. Field, Mrs. Watrous; SEC., Miss Anna E. Luce, 
Miss Emily C. Hall, Miss Cordelia Caldwell; TREAS., Mrs. G. Streeter. 

ASHTABULA, NORTH RIDGE. PRES., Mrs. John Sill ; VICE PRES., Mrs. P. Sweet ; 
TREAS., Miss L. Sweet. 
Cash expended, $40. Supplies valued at $150. 

ASHTABULA, SOUTH RIDGE.-PRES., Mrs. P. B. Stevens ; SEC. and TREAS., Miss 
Nettie Stevens. 

AT WATER, PORTAGE Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Addison Wolcott, Mrs. H. E. Mansfield ; SEC. and TREAS., Mrs. H. E. Brush . 
Estimated cash disbursement, $300. 

AUBURN, GEAUGA Co. 

AUBURN. PRES., Mrs. J. Mayhew ; SEC., Miss Laura Woods, 

AUBURN CORNERS. PRES., Mrs. R. P. Parkman; SEC., Mrs. O. S. Crane ; TREAS., 
Mrs. John Bowler. 

SOUTH AUBURN. PRES., Mrs. P. Rowland, Mrs. Charles Crocker; VICE PRES., Mrs. 
A. A. Snow ; SEC., Mrs. Frank Canfield, Mrs. James Dutton ; TREAS., Miss M. E. Reed. 

AURORA, PORTAGE Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Worthy Taylor ; VICE PRES., Mrs. R. P. Cannon ; SEC. and TREAS., Mrs. I. 
S. Graves, Mrs. F. B. Cannon ; DIRECTORS, Mrs. H. A. Waldo, Mrs. Charles Root, Mrs. 
Sally Parker. 

Value of disbursements, $918.46. 

AUSTINBURGH, ASHTABULA Co. 

PRES., Rev. Mrs. Barber, Mrs. J. B. Beach; VICE PRES., Mrs. M. W. Pulis : SEC., Miss 
Emily Plumb, Mrs. D. S. Alvord ; TREAS., Miss M. Griffis ; DIRECTORS, Mrs. Julius Foote. 
Mrs. F. Pierce, Mrs. J. Reed, Mrs Miller, Mrs. Whiting, Miss N. Healy. 



464 APPENDIX F. 

AVON, LORAIN Co. 

CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. PRES., Mrs. M. A. B. Townshend; SEC. and TREAS., 
Mrs. J. B. Wood. 

FRENCH CREEK. PRES., Mrs. H. H. Williams ; VICE PRES., Mrs. James E. Brooks ; 
SEC., Miss A. M. Fleming, Miss Addie Sawyer; TRF.AS., Mrs. Frederick Whipple : DIRECT 
ORS, Miss R. Clifton, Miss S. J. Wilson, Mrs. J. M. Lent. 

Aggregate value of Contributions, $1,262.15. Cash to Sanitary Fair, $72.40. To soldiers 
families, wood, clothing and provisions, $606. 

BAIN BRIDGE, GEAUGA Co. 

PRKS., Mrs. Jeremiah Root, Mrs. Rufus Pettibone ; VICE PRES , Mrs. W. Howard, Mrs. 
Ambrose Bliss ; SEC., Miss Emma M. Root, Miss Clarissa Pettiboue ; TREAS., Mrs. H. J. 
Stowell, Miss Harriet Root. 

Cash disbursed, $376,09. 

BATH, SUMMIT Co. 

BATH. PRES., Mrs. S. B. Hard; SEC., Miss M. A. Salter; TREAS., Mrs. William Davis. 
WEST BATH. PRES., Mrs. S. B. Kurd; SEC., Miss Lizzie Houston; TREAS., Miss Cor 
delia Shaw. 

BAUGHMAN, WAYNE Co. 

PRES., Mrs. J. Evans, Mrs. J. F. Wilson, Mrs. Mary Douglas; VICE PRES., Miss S. J. 
Noble; SEC., Miss Emma McFarland, Miss E. S. Latimer, Miss Kate M. Morrow; TREAS., 
Mrs. F. D. McFarland, Mrs. Sophia Keffer. 

BAZETTA, TRUMBULL Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Margaret E. Brown; VICE PRES., Mrs. Henry Freer, Mrs. Joel Casterline ; 
SEC., Miss Eliza Webb, Miss Celinda Wilmot ; TREAS., Mrs. Eben Faunce, Mrs. Aaron 
Davis. 

Estimated value of supplies, $789,98. Cash given to soldiers 1 families, $65. Total, 
$854,98. 

BEDFORD, CUYAHOGA Co. 

BEDFORD. PRES.,- Mrs. M. L. Medary, Miss Cornelia Benedict; VICE PRES., Mrs. F. 
H. Cannon, Mrs. N. Hamlin ; SEC., Mrs. C. D. Purdy, Mrs. B. G. Streator, Miss Amelia 
Young; TREAS., Mrs. E. J. Parke. 

Contributed to Sanitary Fair, $200. To Cleveland Soldiers 1 Home, $44,50. Supplies no 
estimated. 

NORTH STREET. PRES., Mrs. R. Eldred ; VICE PRES., Mrs. William O. Taylor; SEC. 
and TREAS., Miss C. S. Libbey. 

BEECH SPRINGS, HARRISON Co. 

PRES., Mrs. S. Taggart; SEC., Miss Jennie R. Moore; TREAS., Miss Jennie Egleson. 

BELLE VALLEY, ERIE Co., PA. 

PRES., Mrs. S. A. Wood; VICE PRES., Mrs. A. B. Gunnisou; SEC., Mrs. F. Drown, Mrs. 
Barbara Arbuckle; TREAS., Mrs. T. Davidson. 



APPENDIX F. 465 

BELLEVUE, HURON Co. 

PKES., Mrs. B. Wood; VICE PRES., Mrs. E. Sumner; SEC., Miss J. Moore; TREAS., Mrs. 
W. W. Stilson, Mrs. E. Y. Warner. 
Total disbursements, $3589.81. 

BENTOX, HOLMES Co. 
PRES., Mrs. Susan Ewing; SEC., Miss Sallie Brown ; TREAS., Mrs. Eliza J. Hayes. 

BENTOX TOWXSHIP, OTTAWA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. A. Guernsey; SEC., Mrs. Mary Berry; TREAS., Mrs. E. E. Ferris. 
Estimated value of supplies disbursed, $500. 

BEREA, CCYAIIOGA Co. 

BEREA SOLDIERS AID SOCIETY. PRES., Mrs. T. Barkdull; VICE PRES. Mrs. E. 
Mills; SEC., Miss Annie Hall, Mrs. Abby Parish; TREAS., Miss Jennie M. Clapp; MANA 
GERS, Mrs. Stevens, Mrs. Stratton, Mrs. A. Schtiyler, Miss Sara Watson, Miss Mary 
Chapman. 

Cash disbursed. $342,63. 

BEREA BENEVOLENT SOCIETY.-PREs., Mrs. S. J. Brown, Mrs. William Murphy ; 
VICE PRES., Mrs. N. M, Chapman, Mrs. Godfrey Brown ; SEC. AND TREAS., Miss C. A. 
Marsh, Mrs. L. S. McCullough, Mrs. E. S. Parker. 

Value of supplies disbursed, $462.94. 

BEREA GLEANERS, JUVENILE. PRES., Miss Georgie Noakes ; SEC., Miss Gertie 
Sprague ; TREAS., Miss Nellie Adams. 

BEREA JUVENILES. PRES., Miss Jennie Sheldon ; SEC., Miss Kate Somers ; TREAS., 
Miss Lucy Berwick. 

BEREA WIDE-AWAKES. PRES., Miss Emma D. Clapp; VICE PRES., Miss Elsie J. 
Brown ; SEC., Miss Julia E. Brown ; TREAS., Miss Laura Morse. 



BERLIN CEXTER, MAHONING Co. 

PRES., Mrs. A. R. Beardsley ; VICE PRES., Mrs. Mary Wilson; SEC., Mrs. Lucy Test, 
Miss M. A. Wilson; TREAS., Mrs. Mary A. Hawkins; SOLICITOR, Mrs. C. S. Bartlett. 



BERLIX HEIGHTS, ERIE Co. 

PKES , Mrs. Stephen Kueeii, Mrs. Win. Tillenhurst; VICE PRES., Mrs. John Kyle, Mrs. 
Isaac Fowler ; SEC., Mrs. E. M. Cravath, Mrs. M. M. Johnson ; TREAS., Mrs. J. S. liowry! 

Shipments of hospital stores not estimated. Cash and produce to N. O. Sanitary 
Fair. $453.30. 

BERLIX, FLORENCE AND TOWXSEXD UNION. 

PRES., Mrs. Caroline P. Tuller; SEC., Mrs. Orrin Seely, Miss Mary A. Norton ; TREAS., 
Miss A. Norton. 



466 APPENDIX F. 

BIG PRAIRIE, WAYNE Co. 

PKES., Mrs. J. B. Ayleswortli ; VICE PRES., Mrs. E. Wells ; SEC., Mrs. L. L. Leidigh ; 
TKEAS., Miss Mattie Bell. 

BIRMINGHAM, ERIE Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Joseph Swift, Sen. ; VICE PRES., Mrs. Lcvi Lewis ; SEC., Miss Mary E. Ott; 
TREAS., Miss Juliette Ott ; DIRECTORS, Mrs. Hervey Leonard, Mrs. J. W. Ott, Mrs. C. 
Ennis, Mrs. H. Olds, Mrs. R. E. Boozer. 

BLACK RIVER, LORAIN Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Elizabeth Lampman, Mrs. T. H. Cobb ; VICE PRES., Mrs. Eveline Denison ; 
SEC,, Mrs. E. M. Rowley, Mrs. Wm. Jones ; TREAS., Mrs. S. Root. 
Estimated disbursements, $400. Cash to Sanitary Fair, $100. 



BLOOMFIELD, TRUMBULL Co. 

BLOOMFIELD. PRES., Mrs. H. Andrews, Mrs. M. H. Cross ; SEC., Mrs. H. E. Pattee, 
Mrs. Libbie S. Morgan ; TREAS., Mrs. Lester King. 

NORTH BLOOMFIELD. PRES., Mrs. F. P. Green, Mrs. Mary Lewis ; SEC., Miss Ger 
trude C. Pond. 

BLOOMING GROVE, HIGHLAND Co. 

PRES., Annis Warner ; VICE PRES., Angeline Benedict, Elizabeth Hubley ; SEC.. Eunice 
G. Finch, Alice Macomber, Phebe Ma.comber ; TREAS., Eliza Reynolds ; DUIECTOKS, Phi- 
lena Stout, Elsie Macomber, Eliza Walker. 

Cash disbursed, $95.56. 

BOARDMAN, MAHONING Co. 

PRES., Mrs. T. Agnew ; SEC. AND TREAS., Miss J. Stilson. 
Estimated disbursements, $80.43. 

BOLIVAR, TUSCARAWAS Co. 
PRES., Mrs. J. Dickson ; SEC., Miss Lou Hodge; TREAS., Miss J. S. McMurray. 

BOSTON, SUMMIT Co. 

BOSTON. PRES., Mrs. Alfred Wolcott ; SEC. and TREAS., Mrs. Lucy Ann Post. 

BOSTON STATE ROAD. PUES., Miss Lizzie Carter, Miss Angie Shields : SEC., Miss 
L. A. Bishop ; TREAS., Miss Emma Lillebridge. 

BOWLING GREEN, WOOD Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Lucia B. Van Tassell ; SEC., Mrs. A. A. Buell, Mrs. S. L. Boughton ; TREAS., 
Miss L. Lundy. 



APPENDIX F 46? 

BRACEVILLE, TRUMBTJLL Co. 

BRACEVILLE. PRES., Mrs. Lucinda Smith ; VICE PRES., Mrs. Emily F. Rice, Mrs. C. 
L. Johnson ; SEC., Mrs. J. H. Ingraham ; TREAS., Mrs. Stowe, Mrs. Laura Wood. 
Estimated disbursements, $800. 

EAST BRACEVILLE. PRES., Mrs. F. E. Austin; SEC., Mrs. A. W. Parker ; TREAS. 
Mrs. John Allen. 

BRECKSVILLE, CUYAHOGA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. H. W. Dunbar; VICE PRES., Mrs. Wm. Barr : SEC., Miss A. Xorville ; 
TREAS., Miss D. Billings. 

BRIGHTON, CUYAHOGA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Dr. Palmer, Mrs. C. S. Gates ; SEC., Miss Julia A. Fish ; TRKAS., Mrs. 0. 
H. Babcock; COMMITTEE, Mrs. J. M. Clark, Mrs. Knowles, Mrs. G. \V. Brainard ; Mrs. P. 
A. Flint, Mrs. John Reeve, Mrs. Milo Fuller, Mrs. Emma Akin . 

Cash disbursed, $289.70. Supplies not estimated. 



BRIGHTON, LORAIN Co. 

PRES., Mrs. A. Smith; SEC., Mrs. Wm. Battle; TREAS., Miss A. M. Battle. 
Estimated shipments, $497.75. 



BRIMFIELD, PORTAGE Co. 

BRIMFIELD. PRES., Miss Eudocia Carter, Miss A. Lanphear ; VICE PRES., Miss Ophe 
lia A. Sawyer ; SEC., Miss Clemma Parsons ; TREAS., Miss Hannah W. Carter, Miss Bosgor. 

BRIMFIELD, DISTRICT No. 2. PRES., Miss Martha Risk ; SEC., Mrs. W. A. Boham ; 
TREAS., Mrs. Aurelia Munn. 

WEST BRIMFIELD. PRES., Miss Alice L. Carrier ; SEC., Miss Anne C. Tuthill; TREAS., 
Miss Lucy E. Wing. 

Cash expended, $91.17. Supplies contributed, $479.55. 

BRISTOL, TRUMBULL Co. 

BRISTOL, NORTH CORNERS. PRES., Mrs. Joseph Saiger; SEC., Miss Delia M. Perry. 

BRISTOLVILLE. PRES., Mrs. Laura McLean, Mrs. S. G. Bostwick ; VICE PRES., Mrs. 
Eliza More, Mrs. Imogene Case ; SEC., Mrs. E. L. Kibbee, Miss Mary Brockett ; TREAS., 
Miss Anna M. Pettingill, Miss Harriet Finney. 

Estimate of shipments, $1,272. 

BROOKLYN, CUYAHOGA Co. 

BROOKLYN. PRES., Mrs. L. J. Cogswell; SEC., Mrs. Joseph Poe ; TREAS., Miss Mary 
Wells. 

BROOKLYN CENTER. PRES., Mrs. Ozias Fish, Mrs. Dr. Galentme"; VICE PRES., Mrs. 
Carlos Jones ; SEC., Miss Cassie Allen ; TREAS., Miss Mary J. Storer. 



468 APPENDIX F. 

BROOKLYN, JACKSON Co., Mien. 
PRES., Mrs. Harriet A. Grosvenor ; SEC., Miss R. E. Felt ; TREAS., Miss Carrie Irwin. 

BRONSON AND HARTLAND, HURON Co. 

PRES., Mrs. H. H. Manahan, Mrs. D. T. Townsend ; VICE PRES., Mrs. Wm. Wooden, 
Mrs. C. H. Jackson; SEC., Miss Mary U. Manahan, Mrs. Bartlett Davis; TREAS., Miss 
Amanda Robbing, Mrs. C. O. Chaffee. 

BROWNHELM, LORAIN Co. 

BROWNHELM. PRES., Rev. C. C. Baldwin; VICE PRES., Mrs. Harriet Locke; SEC., 
Mrs. Grace Goodrich, Miss Abbie Wood ; TREAS., Miss Lesba Wilson, Miss Sarah Perry ; 
DIRECTORS, Mrs. Catherine Cooley, Mrs. L. Perry. 

BROWNHELM, DISTRICT No. G. PRES., Mrs. A. R. Cooper; SEC., Mrs. L. A. Butter 
field ; TREAS., Mrs. A. C. Wood. 
WEST BROWNHELM. PRES., Mrs. Electa Swift; SEC. and TREAS., Mrs. Mary W. Austin. 

BRUNSWICK, MEDINA Co. 
BRUNSWICK. PRES., Mrs. T. L. Waite, Mrs. E. R. Whipple ; SEC., Mrs. C. M. Preston. 

BRUNSWICK, LIVERPOOL, COLUMBIA AND STRONGSVILLE FOUR CORNERS 
BENEVOLENT SOCIETY. PRES., Mrs. Sarah Ashby ; SEC., Mrs. Amelia M. Lewis; 
TREAS., Mrs. Maria Durand. 

BRUNSWICK, LIVERPOOL, COLUMBIA AND STRONGSVILLE FOUR CORNERS 
UNION SOCIETY. PRES., Mrs. Lovina Cole, Mrs. Judith Barber; VICE PRES., Mrs. 
Betsey Ensign ; SEC., Mrs. Eliza Wilmot, Miss Bettie Ensign ; TREAS., Mrs. Betsey Free 
man ; AGENTS, Mr. and Mrs. Edmund Tompkins. 

NORTH-EAST BRUNSWICK AND SOUTH-EAST STRONGSVILLE. PRES., Mrs. 
Horace Carpenter, Mrs. J. Southworth ; SEC., Miss Donnie Perkins, Mrs. J. C. Aldrich, 
Mrs. H. C. Wyman; TREAS., Mrs. E. Crosby, Mrs. C. C. Morton. 

BURTON, GEAUGA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Mary D. Witter; VICE PRES., Mrs. Richard Beach; SEC., Mrs. Mary E. 
Hotchkiss, Mrs. Mary D. Witter; TREAS., Mrs. S. Dayton. 
Disbursements in cash, $590. In supplies, $870. Total, $1,460. 

BUTLER TOWNSHIP, ASHLAND Co. 

PRES., Mrs. P. Latimer, Mrs. E. P. Smith; SEC., Miss Mary Johnston, Miss M. Cope- 
land ; TREAS., John Lawson, Miss Mary Smith. 

BUTTERNUT RIDGE, SANDUSKY Co. 

PRES., Mrs. J. Linton ; VICE PRES., Mrs. M. Babcock; SEC., Miss Nellie Hogg; TREAS., 
Mrs. William Lay. 



APPENDIX F. 469 

BUTTERNUT RIDGE, CUYAHOGA Co. 

PBES., Mrs. Eliza Kurd , VICE PRES., Mrs. Robinson ; SEC., Mrs. Anna Stearns; TREAS., 
Mrs. Jane Carpenter. 

BUTTERNUT RIDGE, LORAIN Co. 

PRES., Mrs. C. L. Sexton ; VICE PRES., Mrs. R. Blain ; SEC., Mrs. William Drinkall ; 
TREAS., Mrs. S. McXeal. 

CAMDEN, LORAIN Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Mary J. Cole, Miss Eliza Hawkins, Mrs. Sarah Hovey ; VICE PRES., Mrs. 
Mary Wasbburn, Mrs. Melissa Hovey, Mrs. Agnes Morgan ; SEC. AND TREAS., Mrs. Ruth 
E. Alien. Mrs. Lydia Elclredge. 

CANAL DOVER, TUSCARAWAS Co. 
PRES., Mrs. L. C. Blickensderfer ; SEC., Mrs. S. W. Demuth ; TREAS., Mrs M. J. Walton. 

CANAL FULTON, STARK Co. 

PRES.. Mrs. A. Cunningham, Mrs. Jacob Heffleman ; SEC., Miss Mettie Frazee, Miss M. 
R. Hanks ; TREAS., Mrs. John Mobley. 

CAN FIELD, MAHONIXG Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Sarah Canfield, Mrs. O. P. Bond ; SEC., Miss M. M. Pierson, Miss M. L. 
Lake, Mrs. P. T. Jones ; TREAS., Mrs. M. Sim-is, Mrs. H. Truesdale, Mrs. L. M. Biclwell. 



CANTON, STAEK Co. 

PRES., Mrs. J. G. Lester; VICE PRES., Mrs. Geo. Reynolds ; COR. SEC., Mrs. J. G. Les 
ter, Miss Cornelia Beach ; REC. SEC., Miss Emma Hazlette, Mrs. Thomas Saxton, Miss A. 
Bockins, Mrs. D. J. Beggs, Mrs. Dr. Lewis Slusser; TREAS., Mrs. James A. Saxton; DI 
RECTORS, Mrs. M. Wikidal, Mrs. C Aultman, Mrs. Geo. Dietrich, Mrs. Dr. Wallace, M>s, 
X. Pierong, Mrs. Thos. Patton; ADVISORY COMMITTEE, Mrs. Jos. S. Saxton, Mrs. A. 
Lynch, Mrs. Geo. Prince, Mrs. John F. Reynolds, Mrs. Geo. Fogle, Mrs. McCleary, Mrs. 
Platt, Mrs. Metz, Miss H. Bockins, Miss Medill. 

The Canton Branch reports shipments to the value of $10,000, and a cash expenditure 
of $1,609.54, which is exclusive of its contributions to the Sanitary Fair. Two hundred 
and fifty-five packages of hospital goods were forwarded to Cleveland, many boxes were 
sent direct to regiments in the field, to hospitals at the front, and to State Relief agencies, 
with some supplies of money and stores to the Freedmen. The loyal citizens of Canton 
gave largely in fitting regiments for service, and in relief to soldiers in transit, and were 
extremely liberal in contributing through their Aid Society to the Northern Ohio Sani 
tary Fair. 

CARROLLTON, CARROLL Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Etta Stocken ; SEC., Miss Hattie Butler, Miss Kate Thompson; TREAS., 
Miss Helen Eckley. 



470 APPENDIX F. 

CENTERTON, HURON Co. 

PRES., Mrs. C. S. Herrick ; SEC., Mrs. N. H. Nichols, Miss Adelaide Merriam ; TREAS., 
Mrs. M. S. Merriam. 

CENTRAL STATE LINE, ASHTABULA Co. 

PRES., Miss Lizzie E. Law ; SEC , Miss Kate Putney; TREAS., Mrs. Amelia \Vyman. 

CHAGRIN FALLS, CUYAIIOGA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. J. T. Sturtevant, Mrs. Samuel Poole, Miss Jane E. Church ; VICE PRES., 
Mrs. Phineas Upham, Mrs. Dr. Smith, Mrs. David Tenney; SEC., Miss Jane E. Church, 
Mrs. C. H. Hubbell; TREAS., Mrs. Thos. Shaw, Mrs. Charles Force, Mrs. Orson Bullard, 
Mrs. Hannibal Goodell, Miss Jane E. Church. 

Cash receipts, $832.51. Value of supplies, $400.18. Sent through the Cleveland Sani 
tary Commission, forty-seven packages, valued at $758.93. Sent direct to the field and 
to hospitals, twenty-six packages, valued at $263.11. Expended in local relief to soldiers 
and their families, $22. Contributions to Cleveland Soldiers Home and to Freedmen, 
not estimated. Value of articles sent to the Cleveland Sanitary Fair, $159.60. The 
balance in the treasury at the close of the Society s labors, $134, was appropriated to 
wards a monument to the memory of the fallen soldiers of the township, The organiza 
tion was continued till the sum of $1,325 had been raised, and in September, 1867, the 
soldiers monument was erected and dedicated under the auspices of the ladies of the 
Chagrin Falls Aid Society, who thus appropriately brought to a close their long and 
faithful public services. 

CHAMPION, TBUMBULL Co. 

CHAMPION. PRES., Mrs. H. L. Eutan ; SEC. AND TREAS., Miss Mary J. McCombs. 
WEST CHAMPION. Miss Mary J. Prentice. 

CHARDON, GEAUGA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. C. P. Bisbee, Mrs. M. C. Canfield, Mrs. Austin Canfield; SEC., Mrs. J. O. 
Worrall, Miss Lovina Metcalf, Mrs. L. A. S. Cook ; TREAS., Miss Laura E. Williston, Mrs. 
L. E. Durfee, Mrs. Thos. Metcalf, Mrs. Mary Marsh. 

Disbursements in cash and hospital stores estimated at $1,500. 

CHARLESTOWN, PORTAGE Co. 

PRES., Miss Jane Catlin ; SEC., Miss Emily Wetmore, Miss Eliza H. Curtiss ; TREAS., 
Miss Cynthia Coe, Miss Eliza H. Curtiss. 
Cash expended, $204. Value of contributions to Sanitary Fair, $24. 

CHATHAM CENTER, MEDINA Co. 

PRES., Miss Parmelia Ripley ; SEC., Mrs. Thos. S. Shaw, Miss Mattie Packard ; TREAS., 
Mrs. A. J. Dyer. 

CHERRY HILL, ERIE Co., PA. 

PRES., Mrs. Ira Marcy; SEC., Miss Jane B. Tuttle, Mrs. Addison Thompson; TREAS., 
Mrs. E. Sturtevant. 



APPENDIX F. 471 

CHERRY VALLEY, ASHTABULA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Kachel H. Green ; VICE PRES., Mrs. P. G. Sanford; SEC., Mrs. Celestia R. 
Colby ; TKEAS., Mrs. Hannah Roberts. 



CHESTER X ROADS, GEAUGA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. A. E. Janes, Mrs. C. Herrick; VICE PRES., Mrs. Phelps ; SEC., Mrs. A. E. 
Janes, Mrs. Kent ; TREAS., Miss Aurelia Gilmore, Mrs. H. Johnson. 

BUSY BEES, (Juvenile). PRES., Miss Amantha Smith; VICE PRES., Miss Tira Ames ; 
SEC., Miss Emma Ames ; TREAS., Miss Florence Lyman. 

CHIPPEWA, WAYNE Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Dr. Armstrong ; VICE PRES., Miss Margaret Frank; SEC., Mrs. Andrew 
Jackson, Miss C. A. Lyon ; COMMITTEE, Mrs. Carson, Miss Gettie Armstrong. 

CLARIDON, GEAUGA Co. 

CLARIDON CENTER. PRES., Mrs. Col. Treat ; SEC., Miss Anna Taylor. 

EAST CLARIDOX. PRES., Mrs. J. B. Aylworth, Mrs. J. P. Lukins ; VICE PRES., Mrs. 
Emily Bradley; CHAPLAIN, Mrs. E. D. Taylor ; SEC. AND TREAS., Miss Artimissa Chace. 

WEST CLARIDON. PKES., Mrs. H. X. Spencer; SEC., Miss Celia Spencer; TREAS., 
Mrs. W. Wood. 

CLARK S CORNERS, ASHTABULA Co. 
PRES.. Mrs. Sarah Phelps; SEC., Mrs. M. Hayes; TREAS., Mrs. L. Clark. 

CLARKSFIELD, HURON Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Harriet E. S. Holley, Mrs. O. J. Husted, Mrs. Edwin D. Tyler; SEC. AND 
TREAS., Mrs. L. A. Lyon, Mrs. M. E. Bunce. 

CLEVELAND, CUYAHOGA Co. 

GERMAN SOCIETY. PRES., Mrs. Schmidt ; SEC., Mrs. Glasser; TREAS., Mrs. Berg- 
holz. 

ST. CLAIRROAD SOCIETY.-PRES., Mrs. A. Varian; SEC., MissM. O. Varian; TREAS., 
Mrs. H. E. Strong. 

TEMPERANCE AH) SOCIETY. PRES., Mrs. H. N. Bander; SEC. Mrs. L. White. 
COLORED AUXILIARY SOCIETY. PRES., Mrs. Geo. Vosburgh ; VICE PRES., Mrs. 
Richard Hazel ; SEC., Mrs. Lavina Sabb ; TREAS., Mrs. Harriet Weaver. 
WARLNG STREET MISSION. PRES., Mrs. Zina Needham ; SEC., Mrs. E. Wood. 

UNIVERSITY HEIGHTS SOCIETY. PRES., Mrs. Francis Branch ; SEC. and TREAS., 
Miss Ruth Kellogg. 

CLINTON, SUMMIT Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Chas. Rhinehart, Mrs. A. M. Russell ; SEC. AND TREAS., Mise Maggie Russell. 



472 



APPENDIX F. 



CODDINGVILLE, MEDINA Co. 
PKES., Mrs. L. C. Hills ; SEC., Mrs. Marilla Van Orman ; TKEAS., Mrs. Lydia Codding. 

COLEBROOK, ASHTABULA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Harriet Gray, Mrs. R. Partridge ; SEC. AND TKEAS., Mrs. S. R. Beckwith, 
Miss Sarah J. Tuttle. 
Value of supplies disbursed, $450.46. 

COLLAMER, CUYAHOGA Co. 
PKES. AND SEC., Mrs. Andrew Sharpe; VICE PRES., Mrs, Andrew Wemple. 

COLUMBIA, LORAIN Co. 

PRES., Mrs. M. Weeden, Mrs. E. H. Taylor; VICE PRES., Mrs. C. Nichols, Mrs. Anne 
Burr; SEC., Miss Sara C. Adams, Miss Martha Fish, Mrs. Helen E. Osborne ; TREAS., Mrs. 
S. Stock, Mrs. Caroline Reed. 

COLUMBIANA, COLUMBIANA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Amanda Vogleson, Miss Anna E. Metzger; VICE PRES., Mrs. Vary A. 
Beeson, Miss Belle Vogleson ; SEC., Miss SallieE. Hines, Miss Lizzie M. Potts ; TREAS., 
Mrs. S. E. King ; COMMITTEE, Miss Belle Strickler, Miss Mary Marvin. 

COMMERCE, OAKLAND Co., MICH. 

PRES., Mrs. John Clark, Mrs. S. M. Leggett ; VICE PRES., Mrs. T. A. Smith ; SEC.. Mrs. 
S. M. Leggett, Mrs. Abram Allen ; TREAS.. Mrs. D. C. Goodwillie, Mrs. Harley Round. 
Value of contributions, $1,600. 

CONCORD, LAKE Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Roswell Burr; VICE PRES., Mrs. John H. Murray; SEC., Miss Matilda 
Winchell; TREAS., Mrs. Orson Willson. 

CONNEAUT, ASHTABULA Co. 

CONNEAUT. PRES., Mrs. Alex. Bartlett; SEC. AND TREAS., Mrs S. M. Sanford ; 
DIRECTORS, Mrs. Capron, Mrs. Isaac Judsou. 
CONNEAUT BENEVOLENT SOCIETY. PRES. AND SEC., Mrs. Julia Jacobs. 

CONNEAUT VALLEY. PRES., Mrs. Lydia Kennedy ; SEC., Mrs. Almira Paul ; T 
Mrs. Laura Paul ; COMMITTEE, Mrs. Janette Paul, Miss Adaline Kennedy. 
Cash and stores disbursed, $585.62. 

CONNEAUT VILLE, CRAWFORD Co., FA. 

PRES., Mrs. L. Montross ; SEC., Miss Clara M. Hitchcock. 



APPENDIX F. 473 

COPLEY, SUMMIT Co. 

COPLEY. PRES., Mrs. 11. F. Codding, Mrs. P. Arnold ; VICE PKES.. Mrs. B. Chapman: 
SBC., Mrs. J. Starr; TREAS., Mrs. M. D. Pratt, Miss Melissa Hall. 

COPLEY, DISTRICT No. 3. PRES., Mrs. A. Stimson : SEC., Miss M. Winkler: TREAS.. 
Mrs. W. Ball. 

CRAB CREEK, MAIIONIXG Co. 
PRES.. Miss Hattie Beatley ; SEC., Miss Maggie Mahan: TREAS.. Mrs. Miriam Davis. 

CROXTOX, JEFFERSOX Co. 

PKES. AND SEC.. Mrs. D. Smith. 

CUYAHOGA FALLS, SUMMIT Co. 

PKES.. Mrs. Charles Clark, Mrs. Henry McKinney, Mrs. Goo. P. Upson ; VICE PREP.. 
Mrs. Dr. Clark, Mrs. L. L. Holden, Mrs. Gillette, Mrs. O. B. Beebe; SEC. ANDTREAP.. Mrs. 
Ed. Yeomans, Mr. Geo. Sackett, Miss Eliza Baber, Miss Hattie A. Mize. 

Cash disbursements, $998.81. Supplies not estimated. 

DALTOX, WAYXE Co. 

PRES.. Mrs. P. M. Sernple ; VICE PRES., Mrs. J. Erwin, Mrs. A. Cook ; SEC.. Mrs. M. H. 
Faust; TREAS., Mrs. A. Cameron. 
Estimated value of contributions. $1.175. 

DAMASCUS, COLUMBIANA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. J. M. Hale, Miss Mary Jobes, Miss Temp. Blackburn ; SEC., Mrs. J. B. 
Naylor, Miss Ella Preston ; TREAS., Seth Pennock. C. Walton. 
Estimate of contributions. $1,000. 

DEERCREEK, PA. 

PRKS.. Mrs. Alexander. SEC.. Miss Annie J. Shields: TREAS., Miss Ann Davidson. 

DEERFIELD, PORTAGE Co. 

DEERFIELD.-PRES. Mrs. M. Tibbies, Mrs. E. W. Gray: VICE PRES.. Mrs. White; SEC. 
AND TREAS., Mrs. Sarah Warner, Miss A. J. Gibbs. 
Estimate of contributions, $1,000. 

DEERFIELD, SOUTH BRANCH.-PREs., Mrs. T. R. Mowen : SEC. AMJ TREAS., Miss 
M. Permelia Diver. 

Cash expended. $90. Value of supplies forwarded, $203.88. 

DENMARK, ASHTABULA Co. 
SEC.. Mrs. M. Palmer. 



474 APPENDIX F. 

DOVER, CUYAHOGA Co. 

PRKS., Rev. Mrs. Smith, Mrs. Phinney, Miss Mary E. Northrup; SEC., Miss Lydia W. 
Brackett; TREAS., Mrs. Dr. Morse. 



DOTLESTOWN, WAYNE Co. 

PRES.. Mrs. A. M. Armstrong; SBC., Miss Maggie Graham; TREAS., Miss Lettie 
Armstrong. 

EAGLEVILLE, ASFITABULA Co. 

PRKS., Mrs. James Stone ; VICE PRES., Mrs. Horace Wolcott, Mrs. Eben Tuttle, Mrs. 
Oscar Lee ; SEC., Miss Abbie Stone, Miss Rosie L. Mills, Miss Mary A. Wolcott ; TREAS., 
Mrs. Alfred Mills, Mrs. A. Bartholomew, Miss Rosie L. Mills ; DIRECTORS, Mrs. A. How 
ard, Mrs. Newton Lee, Mrs. John Halliday, Mrs. Geo. Olmsted, Miss A. Y. Stanley, Mrs. 
Joseph McNutt, Mrs. Harvey Mills, Mrs. J. B. Bartholomew, Mrs. J. Morley, Mrs. John 
Stilson, Mrs. John Chapel, 

Estimate of money and stores disbursed. $1. -240.41. 



EARLVILLE, POUT AGE Co. 

PRES. AND TREAS., Mrs. M. R. Haymaker; VICE PRES., Mrs. Almira Whitney, Mrs. 
Ruth Stratton : SEC.. Mrs. Lucy Russell, Miss Nancy Dewey, Miss Gertrude Lemmerman. 

EAST CLEVELAND, CUYAHOGA Co. 

EAST CLEVELAND. PRES., Mrs. H. C. Ford, Mrs. Dr. Chipman, Mrs. Ilandley ; VICE 
PRES., Mrs. A. M. Richardson; SEC., Mrs. N. Post, Miss M. R. Post, Mrs. N. L. Post: 
TREAS., Mrs. E. P. Ingersoll, Miss S. J. Walters ; DIRECTORS, Mrs. D. E. Sprague, Mrs. 
F. Shenvin, Mrs. N. Cozad ; Mrs. Hickox, Mrs. Walters, Mrs. Watkins, Mrs. Hilclrcth, 
Mrs. Spaythe, Mrs. Millard. 

Besides large contributions of hospital goods, and of articles for the Sanitary Fair 
valued at $100, this Society made one hundred and twenty-five garments from material 
furnished. 

EAST CLEVELAND, DISTRICT No. !). PRES., Mrs. E. Nott ; SEC., Mrs. Ben. Phillips. 



EAST FAIRFIELD, COLUMBIANA Co. 
PRES., Miss L. Williamson ; SEC., Miss Lizzie Tullis ; TREAS., Miss Amanda Tullis 

EAST MAYFIELD AND WEST CHESTER, CUYAHOGA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. H. N. Battles ; VICE PRES., Mrs. A. M. Snow ; SEC., Mrs. M. A. Battles ; 
TREAS., Mrs. L. Ferry. 

Value of supplies not estimated. 21!) articles made for Central Society. $10 contributed 
to the Sanitary Fair. 

EAST ROCHESTER, COLUMBIANA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. C. A. Messimore, Mrs. E. A. Henry; SEC., Miss Lizzie McDaniels, Miss M. 
J. Blanchard ; TREAS., Miss Sallie J. Evans. 



APPENDIX F. 4 

EDIXBORO, ERIE Co., PA. 

PRES., Mrs. James Thompson, Mrs. John True ; VICE PRES.. Mrs. Isaac Rceclcr ; SEC. 
MissCollom, Mrs. Wm. Grassie ; TREAS., Mrs. Winters Campbell. Miss M A. Phelp* 
DIRECTORS. Mrs. Mary Rogers, Mrs. Phelps, Mrs. Hiram Johnson, Miss M. Phelps. 



EDINBURGH, PORTAGE Co. 

PRES., Mrs. J. B. Stilson ; SEC. AND TREAS.. Mrs. Virgil Goddard. 

ELLSWORTH, MAHONIXG Co. 

PRES., Mrs. E. Coit, Miss A. McKune, Mrs. Eli Miller, Mrs. Harvey Ripley ; VICE PRES., 
Mrs. H. Sill, Miss Sarah Dheld, Mrs. Ann Hughes ; SEC. Miss Mary Allen, Miss Ellen 
Huntington, Miss Fannie Coit ; TREAS., Miss H. Bingham, Miss A. Beardsley, Miss Sarah 
Dheld. 

Estimate of contributions, $1.000. 

ELYRIA, LORAIN Co. 

PRES., Mrs. C. H. Doolittle, Mrs. A. A. Bliss, Mrs. Geo. Starr; VICE PRES.. Mrs. J. M. 
Vincent; SEC., Mrs. J. E. D. Laundon, Miss Mary E. Manter; TREAS.. Mrs. G. G. Wash- 
burn, Miss Sue M. Manter. 

The Elyria Branch, one of the principal tributaries to the Cleveland Sanitary Commis 
sion, makes no estimate of the value of its shipments, but reports a cash expenditure of 
$2,509.85. The citizens of Elyria responded liberally to the calls of their Aid Society, 
which was ever efficient in rendering local relief, and in the direct care of the regiments 
recruited in Lorain county, as well as in the army work done through the Sanitary Com 
mission. This Society contributed to the Sanitary Fair articles valued at $400. and its 
members were actively interested in making the Lorain County Booth attractive and 
profitable to the Fair. 

ERIE, ERIE Co., PA. 

PRES., Mrs. C.I. Gara, Mrs. James Skinner; SEC., Miss Sarah L. Olmstoad ; THEAS., 
Mrs. Wm. F. Rindemecht. 

EUCLID, CUYAHOGA Co. 

EUCLID CREEK. PRES.. Mrs. S. W. Dille ; SEC., Mrs. Jos. Phillips ; TREAS., Mrs. John 
Wilcox. 

EUCLID RIDGE. -PRES., Mrs. Hannah Webster; SEC., Mrs. Mary Humphrey; TREAS., 
Miss Olive Sanders. 

NORTH EUCLID. PRES., Mrs. Wm. Treat, Mrs. Ellen Bail, Mrs. Sophia Russell ; SEC., 
Mrs. E. Parr, Mrs. Ellen Bail; TREAS., Mrs. J. Wilcox, Mrs. Emma Crosier. 



FAIRVIEW, ERIE Co., PA. 

PRES., Mrs. John Sturgeon, Miss Nancy Sturgeon ; SEC., Miss Effie Sturgeon, Miss 
Lizzie J. Moorhead ; TREAS.. Miss Jane McCreary. 



476 APPENDIX F. 

FARMINGTON, TRUMBULL Co. 

PRES.. Mrs. A. D. Kibbee, Mrs. O. A. Pago; VICE PRES., Mrs. James Caldwell; SEC., 
Mrs. Sarah J. Taft, Miss Emma O. Kibbee; TREAS., Miss Rebecca J. Trew, Miss Sarah 
Palmer. 

Total value of hospital stores, $918.08. Cash expended, $500. 

FITCHVILLE, HURON Co. 

PRES., Mrs. O. Burgess, Mrs. Nancy Palmer, Mrs. T. W. Thompson ; VICE PRES., Mrs. 
Burr; SEC.. Miss Olive Burgess, Miss Louisa Green, Miss Ellen Ward. Mrs. Julia Ward. 
Mrs. Eliza Palmer; TREAS., Mrs. Ann Palmer. 

( a -h expended, $411.24. Supplies not estimated. 

FLORENCE, ERIE Co. 

PRKS.. Mrs. Dr. Osborn. Mrs. J. A. Darling; SEC. AND TREAS., Miss S. E. Heath, Mrs. 
II. A. P.lacknian. 

FOOTVILLE, TRUMIJULL Co. 

PRES.. Mrs. Hiram Spaftbrd; VICE PRKS., Miss Lotty Bacon: SEC.. Mrs. E. G. Foot; 
TREAS., Mrs. Maltby. 

FOUR CORNERS, HURON Co. 

PRES.. Mrs. Laura Read, Mrs. H. X. Allen, Mrs. A. Stone, Mrs. Henry Kingsley, Mrs. 
S. Atherton ; VICE PRES., Mrs. L. Bogardus, Mrs. A. Barnes, Mrs. C. Hawley, Mrs. 
Searles ; SEC , Mrs. E. J. Cook, Mrs. H. M. Hoyt, Mrs. S. L. Smith. Miss Sylvia Cornell, 
MIN. L. Bogardus; TREAS., Mrs. S. Salisbury. 

Estimate of supplies forwarded, $075. 

FOWLER, TRUMBULL Co. 

FOWLER. PRES., Mrs. Mary C. Andrews; SEC., Miss Amelia Tew, TREAS., Mrs. O. 
M. Baldwin ; DIRECTORS, Mrs. Esther Williamson, Mrs. Sarah Ross, Mrs. Margaret 
Alderman. 

FOWLER, No. 2. PRES., Mrs. Lavinia Jones ; SEC.. Miss Euretta Jones ; TREAS., Mrs. 
Frank Horton. 
Value of supplies sent, $900. 
FOWLER S MILLS. PRES., Mrs. H. S. Hazeu ; SEC., Mrs. E. E. Miller. 

FOWLER RIDGE AND CHAD WICK CORNERS. PRES., Mrs. C. Stewart, Mrs. Sarah 
J. Greenwood ; SEC , Mrs. Lucy M. Baldwin, Mrs. Hannah Doud ; TREAS., Mrs. Lucy M. 
Baldwin, Mrs. Adeline Chad wick. 

Value of supplies, $100. 

FRANKLIN, SUMMIT Co. 
PRES., Mrs. David Keller ; SEC., Mrs. H. C. Housman ; TREAS., Mrs. Wm. Sisler. 

FRANKLIN MILLS, PORTAGE Co. 

PRES.. Mrs. Justus Barr. Mrs. Dr. Crittendcn ; VICE PRES., Mrs. E. Hurlburt ; SEC. AND 
TREAS.. Mrs. H. A. Bradshaw. 



APPENDIX F. 477 

FREEDOM, PORTAGE Co. 

FREEDOM. PRES., Mrs. H. D. Curtis. Mrs. C. Burrows ; SEC., Mrs. II. Bryant ; TREAH., 
Miss Emma Bryant. 
Value of supplies, $500. 

FREEDOM, WEST SIDE. PRES.. Mrs. J. C. Parker; SEC., Mrs. Maria Kellogg. 

FROGSVILLE, CUYAHOGA Co. 

PRES, Miss Julia A. Moses; VICE PRES., Miss Kate Moses; SEC AND TREAS., Mias 
Libbie II. Mcllrath. 

This Society, composed of school-girls, contributed about $70 in cash, and one hundred 
and fifty articles of hospital clothing. 

GARRETTSVILLE, PORTAGE Co. 

PRES., Mrs. E. A. Frisby, Mrs. W. White ; VICE PRES., Mrs. M. A. Adams, Mrs. C. M. 
Wight ; SEC. AND TREAS., Mrs. A. W. Lake ; COMMITTEE, Mrs. D. Peffers, Mrs. C. Willson, 
Mrs. M. Pierce, Mrs. A. Dunn, Mrs. M. Daniels, Mrs. L. White, Miss Abbie Ellinwood. 

Cash expeiided, $344.91. Supplies not estimated. 

GATES MILLS, CUYAIIOGA Co. 

PRES.. Mrs. Lucy Ann Gates ; SEC., Mrs. H. G. Spear; TREAS., Mrs. Win. Shuart. 

GENEVA, ASHTABULA Co. 

GENEVA.-PRES.. Mrs. J. E. Chapiu, Mrs. M. Fitch, Mrs. Richmond, Mrs. S. P. Fitch : 
VICE PRES., Mrs. Haskell. Mrs. Dickinson, Mrs. J. Condit, Mrs. J. Boughton. Mrs. H. 
Lane, Mrs. C. Wright : SEC., Mrs. E. H. Lindergreen ; TREAS., Mrs. J. Condit, Mrs. S. P. 
Fitch, Mrs. S. Stow, Mrs. H. Lane. 

Value of supplies, $980. Cash expended. $878. Balance on hand at the close of the 
war, $50, which was distributed among the destitute families of soldiers. 

NORTH GENEVA. PRES.. Mrs. L. Carey; SEC., Miss Jerusha Ward; TKEAS., Mrs. 
Cornelia Castle. 
Cash disbursed, $153.97. 

GIRARD, ERIE Co., PA. 

GIRARD. PRES., Mrs. David Olin ; SEC., Mrs. R. S. Battles. 
WEST GIRARD. PRES., Mrs. H. Miles. 



GOSHEN, MAIIOXING Co. 

PRES., Miss Phebe James, Mrs. Isabel T. French ; SEC., Miss Sarah Townsend, Miss 
Hannah K. James ; TREAS., Mrs. Sarah A. Davis. 
Supplies valued at $1.319.-27. Cash to Sanitary Fair, $42. 

GRAFTON CENTER, LORATX Co. 
PRES. AND SEC., Mrs. M. S. Lawrence. 



478 APPENDIX F. 

GRAND RIVER, ASHTABULA Co. 
PRES., Mrs. Thos. Baxter; SEC., Miss Mary Henry ; TREAS., Mrs. J. A. Chapman. 

GRANGER, MEDINA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. E. B. Low, Miss Frances Crisman; VICE PRES., Mrs. J. C. Brainard, Mrs 
Dnnkle; SEC., Mrs. M. C. Hickox, Mrs. L. E. Hopkins. 

GREENFIELD, HURON Co. 

PRES., Mrs. A. Tattle; VICE PRES., Mrs. T. Newberry; SEC., Mrs. S. Cleland; TREAS., 
Hiram Smith; COMMITTEE, Mrs. Hiram Smith, Mrs. Erastus Smith, Mrs. Barnott Roe. 
Mrs. J. M. Wright, Mrs. John Wheeler. 

Value of supplies, $273.21. Cash disbursed, $115.21. 

GREEN HILL, COT/UMBTANA Co. 

AGENT, Miss Kachel Taylor. 
Value of supplies, $125. 

GREENSBURGH, TRUMBULL Co. 

GREENSBURGH. PRES., Miss Eldah Gibbs, Mrs. Calista Chapman ; SEC., Miss Sophia 
Bartlett, Miss Flora McKee; TREAS., Mrs. M. M. Cooley. 

GREENE, DISTRICT No. 3. PRES., Mrs. R. Harrison; VICE PRES., Mrs. H. Bnrlin- 
game; SEC., Miss Roxa A. Bartlett; TREAS., Miss Amanda Harrington. 

GREEN SPRINGS, SENECA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. James A. Watrous ; SEC., Miss Marion Dana, Miss N. E. Watrous ; TREAS., 
Mrs. Fairchild. 

GREENTOWN, STARK Co. 
PRES., Mrs. J. G. Reifsnider ; SEC.. Mrs. L. Kryder ; TREAS., Miss Matilda Smith. 

GREEN TOWNSHIP, SUMMIT Co. 
PRES., Mrs. A. A. Tousley; SEC., Mrs. A. V. Perdue ; TREAS., Mrs. C. Hunsburger. 

GREENWICH, HURON Co. 

GREENWICH STATION. PRES., Mrs. Martha Carl; SEC. AND TREAS., Mrs. Marcus 
Mead ; DIRECTORS, Mrs. Joanna Briggs, Mrs. Lucy Berry, Mrs. M. Hall, Mrs. J. Hopkins, 
Mrs. Anna Mead, Mrs. Mary Sheldon, Mrs. Harriet Carl. 

EAST GREENWICH. PRES., Miss Hattie Gorham; SEC. Miss Maria Doud ; TREAS., 
Mrs. Anna Doud. 

YOUNG LADIES WIDE AWAKE CLUB, GREENWICH STATION. PRES., Miss 
Annie M. Smith ; VICE PRES., Miss Annie Mead ; SEC., Miss Anna S. Jenny ; TREAS., Miss 
Annie A. Barnes. 



APPENDIX F. 479 

GUSTAVUS, THUMBULL Co. 

PKES., Mrs. Geo. W. Cowclen ; VICE PRES., Mrs. E. M. William*; SEC., Miss Phebc M. 
Barnes, Mrs. C. M. Wakefield; TKEAS., Mrs. J. S. Sheldon, Mrs. Mitchell Scott. 



HALLECK, COLUMBIAXA Co. 

PRES., Itev. James N. Swan; VICE PRES., Miss Maggie Falconer; SEC., Miss Kate 
McKenzie ; TREAS., Mrs. A. M. Swan. 

This Society reports 14 boxes shipped to Cleveland, and articles valued at $50 with $44 
in cash to Sanitary Fair, besides supplies to State Associations and to soldiers in camp. 

IIAMBDEN, GEAUGA Co. 

HAMBDEX. PRES , Mrs. Clarinda Hale; VICE PRES., Mrs. Louisa Griste, Mrs. Martha 
Elliott; SEC. Miss Mary E. Field; TREAS., Mrs. Elizabeth Mead. 

Cash to soldiers and their families, $1.125 ; supplies not estimated. 

NORTH HAMBDEN. PRES., Mrs. Esther A. Maynard ; VICE PRES., Mrs. Caroline 
Sheldon ; SEC., Mrs. Emma M. Brown ; TREAS., Miss Lizzie Shattuck. 

HANOVERTON, COLOIBIAXA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Susan Arter; VICE PRES.. Mrs. Mary C. Arter. Mrs. Sarah Milbuni : SEC., 
Miss Jennie Voglesong ; TREAS., Mrs. Elizabeth Pritchard. 
Sent to the Sanitary Fair $176; supplies not estimated. 

HARBOR CREEK, EHIE Co., PA. 

PKE*., Mrs. L. II. Cousc, Mrs. John Dodge; VICE PRES., Mrs. B. F. Walker; Stc., Mrs. 
Wm. Besley, Mrs. J. Carter; TREAS., Mrs. J. Sherwin. 

HARDY AXD MONROE TOWNSHIPS, HOLMES Co. 
PKES., Miss Maggie Finney; SEC., Miss Lizzie Korns; TREAS.. Mrs. Caroline Close. 

IIARPERSFIELD, ASHTABULA Co. 

HARPERSFIELD. PRES., Mrs. F. E.Clemens; VICE PRES., Mrs. J. Hibbard ; SEC., 
Miss Sara M. Tuttle ; TREAS., Mrs. O. F. Gibbs. 
Estimate of disbursements, $550. 

HARPERSFIELD, JTVEXILE.-PREs.. Miss R. W. Phillips ; SEC. -AND TREAS.. Miss 
Eliza J. Phillips. 

HARRISBURG, STAKK Co. 

PRES., Mrs. C. Stockburger; SEC., Mrs. P. A. Sheets; TREAS.. Mrs. E. Hoover. 
Value of supplies, $53.50. 

HARRISONVILLE, ERIE Co., PA. 

PRES., Mrs. Miranda Keep ; VICE PRES., Mrs. Mary J. Lewis ; SEC., Miss Lydia L. Cole ; 
TREAS., Mrs. Polly Keep. 



480 APPENDIX F. 

HARRISVILLE, HAKKI*ON Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Mary J. De Vilbiss ; SEC. AND TREAS., Mrs. Helen E. Watson, Miss Lydia B. 
Hayhurst. 

HARRISVILLE, MEDINA Co. 
PRES., Mrs. H. B. Tuttle ; SEC. AND TREAS., Mrs. L. M. Ford. 

HARTFORD, TIUTMBULL Co. 

PRES., Mrs. P. B. Miner, Mrs. B. Fenn, Mrs. D. Parsons, Mrs. J. Mattox. Miss Eliza 
Spear, Miss J. A. Bushnell; SEC., Mrs. Dr. Hart, Mrs. R. W. Johnson, Miss M. E. Beebe : 
TREAS., Mrs D. Parsons, Mrs. J. Mattox. Miss Eliza Spear, Mrs. A. D. Drury. 
Estimate of disbursements, $1,000. 

HARTLAND, HUIU>N Co. 
PRE?., Mrs. Almera F. Snow, Mrs. William Wooden ; SEC., Mrs. Thomas Stratum. 

HARTSGROVE, ASIITABULA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. M. O. Bailey ; VICE PRKS., Mrs. A. Flowers : SEC.. Miss Lucy Bahcock, Mips 
Ruth A. Hunt; TREAS., Miss Catherine Williams. Mrs. C. L. Parker. 

HARTVILLE, STAIIK Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Sarah Reed; VICE PRES.. Mrs. Louisa Hoover: SEC., Miss Lydia Kimmoll ; 
TREAS., Mrs. Lizzie Thompson. 

HATCH S CORNERS, ASHTA.KULA Co. 



PRES.. Mrs. O. Abbott : SEC.. Miss L. A. Spauldinjr: TREAS.. Mrs. L. ^. Eaton. 

HAYESVILLE, AISIILAKD Co. 

PRES., Miss Belle Rose. Mrs. Jane McNeil: SEC.. Miss Mary J. A^H-nhurst. Miss A. M . 
Stafford; TREAS., Mrs. S. Glass, Mrs. J. Kinni^er. 
Estimate of disbursements, $2,000. 

HENRIETTA, LOKAJN Co. 

HENRIETTA. PRES.. M -s. E. Maey: SEC., Mrs. S. B. Dudley: THEAS., ^li^s Ar.gic 
Fuller. 

SOUTH HENRIETTA. PRES.. Miss Lina Bates; VU-E PRES.. Mrs. J. Lado\v. Mrs. C. 
Close; SEC., Miss Sallie Shook; TREAS., Miss Allie Bayles. 

Cash expended, $115.50. 

HINCKLEY, MEDINA Co. 

EAST HINCKLEY. PRES.. Mrs. Win. Searls : VICE PRES.. Mrs. J. Couch : SEC., Miss 
Julia K. Gouch; TREAS., Mrs. J. Porter. 



APPENDIX F. 481 

IIINCKLEY AND BRUNSWICK TOWN LINE. PRES.. Mrs. Jerome Cruelty : VICF. 
PRES., Mrs. Horace Kennedy: SEC., Mrs. Horatio J. Chidsey ; TREAS., Mrs. Julius Phelps. 

HIXCKLEY AND GRANGER TOWN LINE. PRES., Mrs. O. Pen-in ; VICE PRES.. Mrs. 
D. Oviatt, Mrs. S. Newton ; SEC.. Mrs. John Musser ; TREAS., Mrs. John Kellogg. 
Value of supplies, $487.75. 

NX)RTH IIINCKLEY BIDGE. PRES.. Mrs. Nathaniel Porter; TREAS., Mrs. Rollin 
Eastman. 

SOUTH EAST HINCKLEY.-pREs.. Miss Julia K. Gouch, Mrs. E. Marquitt, Mrs. J. E. 
Marquitt; VICE PRES., Mrs. A. G. Wilder, Mrs. E. Hall; SEC., Mrs. J. W. Parker. Mrs. 
S. Porter. Miss Julia K. Gouch : TREAS., Miss J. Bell. Mrs. S. Marquitt, Mrs. J. Porter. 

HIRAM, PORTAGE Co. 

PRES.. Mrs. Perry Reno; VICE PRES., Mrs. Buckingham; SEC., Mrs. Gen. Garfield. Mr?. 
Frederic Wilmot ; TREAS., Mrs. James I. Young, Mrs. John C. Rudolph. 
Cash expended. $411.88. No supply report. 

IIOLMESVILLE, HOLMES C o. 

PKES., Mrs. Maria Griffin, Miss S. J. Sadler ; SEC., Miss Mattie Officer, Miss Emma 
McMonigal: TKEAS., Mrs. Sarah McMonigal, Mrs. Lewis Crawford. 



HUBBARD, THUMBULL Co. 

HUBBARD. PKES.. Mrs. Samuel Hine; VICE PRES., Mrs. J. Jackson; SEC., Mrs. 
Augustus Dilley; TREAS., Mrs. John Eyster. 
Cash expended, 



NORTH HUBBARD. PRES.. Mrs. Joseph Patterson : SEC., Miss Amanda Bartholomew: 
TREAS.. Miss Adeline Hart. 

HUDSOX, SUMMIT Co. 

PKES.. Mrs. T. B. Fail-child, Mrs. N. P. Seymour, Mrs. M. C. Read ; SEC., Mrs. N. P. 
Seymour, Mrs. Van R. Humphrey, Miss Sarah Ashmun, Miss Fannie L. Trowbridge ; 
TKEAS., Mrs. N. P. Seymour. 



HUNTINGTON, LORAIX Co. 

PKES.. Mrs A. R. Clark. Mrs. J. A. Chapman, Mrs. S. S. Warner, Mrs. C. M. D. Perkins: 
VICE PRES.. Mrs. S. G. Bowker, Mrs. D. H. Austin, Mrs. O. T, Baker, Mrs. A. D. Perkins; 
COR. SEC., Mrs. C. M D. Perkins, Mrs. L. M. Sage, Mrs. J. A. Chapman, Mrs. E. West: 
R-:c. SEC.. Mrs. O. T. Baker, Mrs. S. S. Warner, Mrs. W. W. Wills, Mrs. R. Smith ; 
TKEAS.. Mrs. Win. June, Miss Delia Elder, Mrs. Wm. Mooney, Mrs. J. A. Snow. 

Estimate of hospital stores, 1.525. Cash expended. $1(54.15. To Sanitary Fairs. $74 05. 
and a large amount of provisions and fancy articles. 

HUXTSBURGII, GEAUGA Co, 

PRES.. Mrs. Louisa Bridgman, Mrs. Smith Wright; SEC.. Mrs. L. W. Sharp. Mrs. Henry 
Strong ; TREAS., Mrs. Clias. Steer. 
3-1 



482 APPENDIX F. 

HURON, ERIE Co. 

PKES., Mrs. Otis Sprague, Mrs. Homan ; VICE PRES., Mrs. Tower Jackson; SEC., Mrs. 
Haggles Wright, Mrs. J. W. Sprague, Mrs. A. G. Brainherd; TREAS., Mrs. C. X. Ryan, 
Mrs. F. H. Wright. 

INDEPENDENCE, CUYAUOGA Co. 

INDEPENDENCE. PRES., Mrs. Sarah A. Stafford ; SEC., Mrs. Sabina Brcwstcr. 

INDEPENDENCE, DISTRICT No. 2. PRES., Mrs. I. L. Gleason ; SEC., Mrs. C. L. Glea- 
POII ; TREAS., Mrs. I. Newton. 

JAMESTOWN, CiiAUTAcquE Co., N. Y. 
PRES., Mrs. S. Seymour; SKC., Mrs. A. Fletdier; TREAS., Mrs. P. R. Marvin. 

JEFFERSON, ASHTABULA Co. 

JEFFERSON. PRES., Mrs. William Goodrich; SEC., Miss A. Ilawlcy, Miss L. M. Gid- 
dinge, Miss H. S. Kellogg ; TREAS., Mrs. N. E. French. 

NORTH JEFFERSON. PRES., Mrs. H. J. Pease; VICE PRES., Mrs. Susan Loomis ; 
SEC., Mrs. Lavinia Jones ; TREAS., Mrs. Julia A. Sikes ; COMMITTEE, Mrs. Lois Udell, Mrs. 
T. A. Jerome, Miss Martha Bunnell. 

JEROMEVILLE, AMJLAMJ Co. 
PRES., Miss Sarah J. Hargrave; SEC., Miss Addie Alleman. 

JOHNSTONVILLE, TRUMBULL Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Amelia V. Eells ; VICE PRES., Mrs. Levens ; SEC., Miss Emily Bartlett ; 
TREAS., Mrs. Marian Hine ; COMMITTEE, Miss Betsey Dickinson, Mrs. Harriet Brinsmade, 
Mrs. Celia Barnes, Mrs. Laura Thompson, Mrs. Louisa Holcomb, Mrs. Ellen Norcott. 

Estimate of supplies, $600. Sent to Sanitary Fair, $100. 

KANSAS, SENECA Co. 

COMMITTEE, Miss Eliza Stamlish. Mrs. Barbara Ash. 
Estimate of supplies, $400. 

KELLOGGSVILLE, AsiiTAuur.A Co. 

PRES. A?JI> SEC., Mrs. R, P. Brown : VICE PRES.. Mrs. S. S. Bushnell : TKEAP , Mrs. A. 

Kellogg. 

KELLEY S ISLAND. 

PRES., Mrs. Datus Kollcy ; VICE PRES.. Mrs. M 4 Titus ; SEC. AND TREAS., Mrs. E. K. 
Huntington. 
Cash disbursed, $173.42. Estimate of stores, $1.971.20. Total contribution. $2.194.62. 



APPENDIX F. 4So 

IIEXT, POKTAOF: Co. 

.. Mr*. A. W. Botsford; SEC., Mrs. John C. Hart ; TRKAS., Mrs. L. Holden. 

KIAXTOXE, CHAUTAUQUE Co., X. Y. 

PRES., Mrs. E. O. Morgan ; SEC., Mrs. H. P. Carey; TREAS., Mrs. C. Sherman : DIRECTORS. 
Mrs. Chapin, Mrs. Jones. 
Estimate of supplies. $500. 

KIXUSVILLE, ASIITABULA Co. 

KINGS VILLE.PKES., Mrs. Helen Murray, Mrs. E. M. Webster ; VICE PRES., Mrs. 
Dorla Luce, Mrs. A. B. Luce ; SEC., Mrs. Maria Nettleton, Mrs. E. M. Webster ; TREAS., 
Mrs. Lura Brown, Mrs. Oliver Barrett, 

Estimate of supplies, $650. Cash expended, $115. 

KINGSVILLE, LAKE SHORE. PEES Mrs. Geo. Van Slyke ; SEC., Mrs. Lovina Wood- 
worth ; TREAS., Mrs. Louisa Smith. 
Cash expended, CO. 

NORTH KINGSVILLE.-PRES.. Mrs. E. D. Nettleton ; SEC., Mrs. D. C. Caughcy : 
TREAS., Mrs. Dow Crayton : DIRECTORS, Mrs. Chas. Crayton, Mrs. John Hotchkiss. 
Estimate of contributions, $?>>. 

SOUTH KINGSVILLE.-PRES., Mrs. V. C. Fox ; SEC., Miss Laura A. Whitney; TREAS., 
Mrs. Lizzie Mullett ; DIRECTORS. Mrs. Whiton, Mrs. Ambrose Curtiss, Mrs. Almira Bugbee 

KIXSMAN", TRUMBULL Co. 

KINSMAN. PRES., Mrs. Sophia B. Kinsman, Mrs. John S. Allen, Mrs. Sylvester Case ; 
VICE PRES., Mrs. John Yeoman s : SEC.. Miss Mary H. Christy. 

Cash expended, 522.58. Cash value of new material, $702.42. Estimated value of sup 
plies, $2,450.40. 

KINSMAN, No. 2. PRES.. Mrs. Lucius Ailing; VICE PRES.. Sidney Miner, E^q. ; SEC.. 
Mrs. Mary A. T. Wood : TREAS.. Miss Abbie S. Wood. 
Estimate of contributions, 500. 

KINSMAN, JUVENILE. Miss Jenme Gib-en. Miss Becca P. Kinsman. 



KIRTLAXI), LAKE Co. 

KIRTLAND. PRES . Miss Lucy Martindale, Mrs. Elvira A. Martin, Mrs. Lucy Morley ; 
VICE PRES., Mrs. Guy W. Smith ; SEC. AND TREAS.. Miss Belle G. Morse. 

EAST KIRTLAND. PRES., Mrs. Margaret Booth: VICE PRES.. Miss Anna Do; Long: 
SEC , Mrs. Ann White Harmon, Mrs. Mary E. Ladd : TKEAS., Mrs. Minerva Harmon. 

NORTH KIRTLAND. PRES., Mrs. E. Metcalf; VICE PRES., Mrs. M. Miliken ; S>c. 
Mrs. E. Markell. Mrs. P. M. Green ; TREAS., Mrs. C. Brown ; SOLICITORS, Mrs. S. Spjar, 
Mrs. P. M. Green. 

Estimate of supplies, $200. 



484 APPENDIX F. 

LAFAYETTE, MEDINA Co. 

PKES., Mrs. Brintnall, Mrs. John Chase, Mrs. Palmer; VICE PRES., Mrs. Goodrich, Miss 
A. Harrington, Mrs. John Williams ; SEC., Mrs. Brintnall, Miss Emma J. Phinney ; TREAS., 
Mrs. Brintnall. Miss Sarah E. Thomas. 

LA GRANGE, LOHATN Co. 

LA CHANGE. PRES., Mrs. Matilda Humphrey, Mrs. C. Wilcox: SEC., Mrs. J. L. Rich- 
inond, Mrs. G. Wilcox ; TREAS., Mrs. Lucia Merriam, Mrs. N. P. Johnson. 
EAST LA GRANGE. -PRios.. Mrs. E. B. Baldwin ; SEC.. Mrs. David Clark. 

LAMART1XE, CARROLL Co. 

AGKNT. Ceo. W. Adams. 

LA PORTE, LORAIN Co. 

PIIES., Mrs. Sophia B. Briars : VICE PRES.. Mrs. II. Carpenter; SRC. AXD TREAS., Mrs. 
Phehe M. Ajrard. 

LEICESTER, LIVINGSTON Co., X. Y. 

PUKS.. Mrs. II. Tilnm : SEC. AND TREAS., Mrs. W. II. Sellew. 

LENOX, ASHTABULA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. J. A. Hyde, Mrs. A. D. Eddy; SEC.. Miss E. J. lien lerson. Mrs. B. L. 
Mosher; TREAS., Mrs. M. J. French. 
Estimate of contributions, $252.1)0. 

LIBERTY, TUUMBULL Co., (UNITED PUKSBYTEKIAN CHURCH.) 

PRES., Rev. David Goodwill, Robert Stranahaii ; SKC.. Miss Mary Hark : TKEAS..MI-S. 
Margaret Gorley. 

LIMAVILLE, STARK Co. 
PRES.. Mrs. A. Morss : SEC.. Miss Amelia D:iy : THKA-.. Miss Emma Morss. 

LI rciIFIELD, MEDINA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Amy Delamater; VICE PRES., Mrs. Brinsmade ; SEC., Mrs. Mark S. Siblry, 
Mrs. P. C. Stranahan. Miss Mary S. Clapp ; TREAS., Mrs. Rice, Mrs. J. Brookcr. 

LIVERPOOL, MEDINA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Fanny Parmelee. Miss Sallie U. Thermot ; SEC., Miss Juliette Howard. . 
Miss Emma Wilmot. 

LOCUST POINT, OTTAWA Co. 
SKC., Miss Emma Nugent. 



APPENDIX F. 485 

LOTTS.VILLE, WAKKKN Co., PA. 
AGENTS, Mr?. S. M. Lott, Miss H. D. Lott. 

LOUISVILLE, STAKK Co., 

PRES.. Mr?. E. Shopp. 

LOWELL, SENECA Co. 
PRES.. Mrs. Emily Crockett : SEC., Miss Nellie Hoj. 

LOWELLSVILLE, MAIIONING Co. 
PRES.. Mis. P. J. Watson; SEC.. Mary A. Hunter. 

McKAY, ASHLAND Co. 

PRES.. Mrs. A. B. Case; SEC.. Miss Libbie Read; TKEAS.. Miss Jennie Read. 

MACEDONIA, SUMMIT Co. 

PRES., Mrs. H. O. Rutherford; VICE PRES., Mrs. M. Ranney, Mrs. W. Johnson, Mrs. J. 
Monroe ; SEC. AXI> TREAS., Mrs. E. E. Stone ; COMMITTEE, Miss L. Ranney. Mrs. D. II. W. 
Carley. Mrs. H. D. Clark. Miss A. Everest, Mrs. Chamberlin. 

MADISON, LAKE Co. 

MADISON. PKES., Miss Susan Warner, Mrs. E. F. Ensign ; VICE PRE.. Mrs. C. W. 
Torrey ; SEC. AND TREAS ., Miss N. Howard. Mrs. C. W. Ensign, Jr. 

NORTH MADISON. PRES., Mrs. J. E. Bailey, Miss Helen M. Wadsworth, Mrs. Betsey 
E. Baldwin, Mrs. S. G. Branch; VICE PRES.. Mrs. J. H. Whiting, Airs. R. R. Davis. Mrs. 
J. W. Crocker; SEC., Mrs. C. H. DeForest, Miss Nancy Bow, Miss Frank L. Branch : 
TREAS., Mrs. C. Wadsworth. Miss Gertrude Bailey. 

NORTH MADISON. No. 2,-PnEs. Mrs. J. M. Green : VICE PUES.. Miss E. Toby ; SEC.. 
Miss Alice Fuller ; TREAS., Miss E. Warner. 

NORTH MADISON, LAKE DISTRICT. PRES., Mrs. Susan Doty; SEC.. Mrs. If. P. 
Thornburgh, Mrs. Emily Woodwortli ; TREAS , Mrs. John Dow. 

NORTH MADISON, LAKE SHORE.-Piujs.. Mrs. Nathanii-1 Waterman; SEC.. Mrs. 
Thomas Blair; TREAS., Mrs. John F. Blair. 

SOITII MADISON.-PKEs.. Mrs. Luman Wheel,-,-; SEC.. Miss Joanna K. Griswold. 

MALVEKN, CAIMIOU. Co., 

PRES.. Miss Mary Latta ; VICE PRES., Mrs. Dr. A. Eakin ; SEC., Mrs. S. T. Tressell, Miss 
Liz/.ie Rukenbrod; TREAS., Mrs. S. J. Ross; FINANCIAL SEC., Mrs. H. J. Hardesty; COM- 
MITTEE, Mrs. Isabella Latta, Mrs. M. Amos. 

Cash expended, $500. Thirty boxes of hospital stores shipped, value not estimated. 

MANCHESTER, SUMMIT Co. 
PRES., Mrs. L. R. Sisler : SEC . Mrs. H. A. Housman. 



48 6 APPKNI31X F. 

MANTUA, PORTAGE Co. 

MANTUA CENTER. PRES., Miss S. R. Bump, Mrs. T. Ingell, Mrs. Dr. O. Ferris ; VICK 
PRES., Mrs. Dr. A. J. Squire, Mrs. M. Post; SEC., Miss Carrie M.Davis, Miss C. 8. 
Bump, Miss S. R.Bump; TREAS., Mrs. Dr. O. Ferris, Miss R W. Davis, Miss S. R. Bump. 

Value of contributions. $421.07. 

MANTUA STATION. PRES., Mrs. P. M. Folger; SEC., Mrs. Adeline E. Gotldard; THEAS.. 
Mrs. Anne Farr. 

NORTH-EAST MANTUA. PRES., Mrs. Betsey W. Esty ; SEC., Mrs. Levi E. Carlton. 

SOUTH MANTUA. PRES., Mrs. E. P. Crooks; SEC. AND TREAS., Mrs. A. Frost. 

MAPLE HILL, GEAUG.V Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Milo Blakesley ; SEC., Mrs. Martha Bartlett, Mrs. Mary R. Hansard ; TREAS., 
Mrs. L. S. Blakesley. 

MARLBORO, STARK Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Mary Mendenhall ; Mrs. Nancy McElroy ; SEC., Mrs. H. W. Brooke, Mrs. R. 
Q. Savage; TREAS., Mrs. Louise M. Doering. 

MARSHALLVILLE, WAYNE Co. 

PRES., Mrs. L. L. Cunningham ; VICE PRES., Mrs. Elizabeth Wear ; SEC., Miss Catharine 
Keck; TREAS., Mrs. Catharine A. Cunningham. 

Cash expended, $75. Two thousand pounds of hospital comforts shipped through the 
Cleveland Sanitary Commission. 



MASSILLOX, STARK Co. 

PRES., Mrs. M. Earl, Mrs. Geo. Harsh; VICE PRES., Mrs. T. S. Webb, Mrs. Chidester ; 
SEC., Miss H. A. Ricks, Miss E. L. Clark ; TREAS., Mrs. Lewis Pangborn, Mrs. James M. 
Brown ; COMMITTEE, Mrs. Thorn. Williams, Miss Lamina Focke. 

Besides the regular duties of gathering and shipping large supplies, and a donation to 
the Cleveland Sanitary Fair, valued at $1,200, the Massillon Branch administered special 
relief to soldiers 1 families to the amount of $785, furnished comforts to the hospitals of 
the 104th and 115th O. V. T., encamped in town, at an expense of $1,000 ; were active in 
hospitalities to passing regiments and squads ; and celebrated Thanksgiving days during 
the period of the war by providing abundant dinners for soldiers 1 families, and distribut 
ing to them wood, coal and provisions, contributed by the citizens for that purpose. 



MAYFIELD CEXTEK, CUYAHOGA Co. 
PRES., Mrs. Ellen B. Whitney ; SEC., Miss Belle (1. Miner; TIIEAS , Miss M. A. Atkins. 

MEADVILLE, CRAWFOUD Co., PA. 

PRES., Mrs. Hannah Moore, Mrs. Win. Thorp ; SEC., Miss Lizzie C. Callender ; TREAS., 
Miss Lizzie Huidekoper. 

This society, though properly reporting its business to the credit of the State of Penn 
sylvania, was, for convenience of railroad transportation, a tributary to the Soldiers 1 Aid 



APPENDIX F. 487 

Society of Northern Ohio. From its organization, October, 1861, to the close of the war. 
the Meadville Aid Society was an important auxiliary to the Cleveland Sanitary Commis 
sion. Besides shipments of two hundred and sixty-one packages of choice hospital store?, 
and liberal supplies furnished to sick soldiers and their families in and near the city, its 
books show a cash disbursement of #6,681. 21. 

The citizens of Meadville contributed through their Aid Society to the Cleveland Sani 
tary Fair article* val:ie:l at S74(i 00. and to the Pittsburg Sanitary Fair. $500. 

MECCA. TKUMBCLL Co 

MECCA. PICES., .Mrs. M. D. Higbee, Mrs. Eunice McCuller ; VICE PKES.. Mrs. Abigail 
Holcomb, Mrs. Eunice Benton, Mrs. Nancy E. Case ; SEC.. Mrs. M. D. Higbee. Mrs. Rachael 
Love ; THE AS., Mrs. Eliza Love, Mrs. Chloe Abell. 

SOUTH MECCA.-PiiEs.. Mrs. Millan Power*: SEC.. Mrs. Clarissa Craft : TKEAS.. Miss 
Anna Rose. 

MECHAXICSVILLE, ASHTABLXA Co. 
PUES.. Antoinette Wakling; SEC.. Naomi Webb; TKEA?.. Eliza Warren. 

MEDINA, MEDINA Co. 

PUES.. Mrs. H. G. Blake; VICE PRES.. Mrs. N. II. Bostwick. Mr-*. S. J. Hayslip, Mrs. 
D. A. Grosvenor : SEC. AND TREAS., Miss Fannie E. Ticknor, Mrs. S Humphreville, Miss 
Mariette Butler, Mrs. S. G. Barnard, Mrs. A. L. Peak: DFRECTORS, Mrs. Paul Schuh, Mrs. 
Hiraui Ferris. Mrs. Timothy Clark, Mrs. S. B. Woodward, Mrs. A. W. McCIure, Mrs. 
Whipple, Mrs. C. T. Hill. 

The stores disbursed to soldiers and iheir families are estimated at $3,640.38. Besides 
this, much was collected for direct distribution to regiments, aud for relief of the Freed- 
myn. The citizens of Medina loyally supported the cause of the soldier dnrinir the whole 
period of the war. 

MELMORE, SENECA Co. 

PRES.. Mrs. Dr. H. Ladd, Mrs. S. A. Kispaugh. Mrs. James Gibson. Mrs. Calvin Rogers, 
Mrs. Richard Baker; SEC., Mrs. A. H. Webb, Mrs. John Delamater, Mrs. Emma Brayman, 
Miss Lucy Arnold; TREAS., Mrs. Daniel Richards, Mrs. A. R. Webb, Mrs. Richard Baker. 

Aggregate of money aud stores disbursed. $2,800. 



MENTOR, LAKE Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Matthew S. Clapp ; VICE PRES., Mrs. Abner M. Parmalcc : SEC., Mrs. Tru 
man P. Barber, Miss Carrie Clapp : TKEAS., Miss Maria Corning, Miss Christia Raddiffe, 
Mrs. Jacob Blish. 

Money and store? disbursed. $2.315.47. exclusive of supplies sent directly to regiments 
in the fiehl. 

MESOPOTAMIA, TUU.MBULL Co. 
AGENT, Mrs. Charlotte G. Sheldon. 

MIDDLE BRANCH, STARK Co. 
PRES.. Mrs. John Byrnr : SEC.. Miss Xellie Warner: TREAS., Mrs. Jacob Byrer, 



488 APPENDIX F. 

MIDDLEBURY, SUMMIT Co. 

MIDDLEBURY SOLDIERS AID SOCIETY. PKES.. Mrs. Win. Dempsey. Mrs. T. II. 
Botsford; VICE PKES., Mrs. J. Robinson; SEC., Mrs. D. E. Hill. Mrs. E. T. Chapman ; 
TBEAS., 31rs. A. Kent. 

Disbnrsed, cash, $1,003.95; 54 packages of stores, not estimated, besides supplies direct 
to the field and to soldiers 1 families. 

MIDDLEBURY RELIEF ASSOCIATION. PRES., Mrs. James Irvin. Mrs John John 
ston; SEC. AND TBEAS., Mrs. Frank Adams, Miss Julia Coe, Mrs. John Johnston. 

Cash expended, $103 Stores, provisions to Sanitary Fair and contributions direct to 
hospitals not estimated. 

MIDDLEF1ELD, GKAUGA Co. 

MIDDLEFIELD. PKES.. Mr.-. Jennie Thompson; SEC. AND TUEAS.. Miss Alice M. 
Tracy. 

NORTH-EAST MIDDLEFIELD. Puss.. Mrs. Caroline Amcs:]SEc. AND TBKAS.. Mrs. 
Ruth Church. Mrs. L. S. Buell. 

MILAN, ERIK Co. 

PKES.. Mrs. K. Townseud, Mrs. J. C. Lockwoocl : SEC., Mrs. C. H. Choate, Miss Marie 
F. Mowry: TUEAS., Mrs. E. Bates. 

MILLERSBURUII, HOLMES Co. 

PRES , Mrs. Louisa Irvine, Mrs. H. F. Buttin. Mrs. John E. Koch: VICE PRES.. Mi>s 
Augusta Chipman ; SEC.. Mrs. II. F. Battin. MissM. J. Mower: TUBAS.. Mrs. A. Ingles. 
Mrs. Win. W. Gibson. 

MINERAL RIDGE, TRUMBULL Co. 
AGENT. Miss Lucy A. Prevost. 

MINERVA, STARK Co. 

PKES., Mrs. Weygandt, Mrs. Mary Sweringen : SEC.. Miss Emma Speaker, Miss Annie 
Perdue: TREAS., Mrs. E. Dibble. 

MOW A DO RE, SUMMIT Co. 

PRES.. Mrs. A./M. Hale, Mrs. Arvilla Morris; SEC.. Miss E. Liurlenslager, Mrs. Win. H. 
Alexander: TBEAS., Miss Louise McCormiek. 

MOXROE CENTER, ASHTAUUI.A Co. 

MONROE CENTRE. PRES., Mrs. F. A. Barge; SEC., Mrs. Linda M. Green : TRKAS.. 
Mrs. Sarah E. Kinney. 

MONROE CENTER, GIFFORD S CORNERS. PRKS., Mrs. Mary J. Gilford : SEC.. Miss 
Iluldah Hicks ; TREAS., Mrs. Mary Farnham : COMMITTEE, Mis Cornelia M Gifford. Miss 
Maria Babbett, Miss Emeliue Adams. 

Value of disbursements, $425.85. 



APPENDIX F. 489 

MONROEVILLE, HURON Co. 
AGENT, Mrs. J. W. Pararaore. 

MONTROSE, SUMMIT Co. 

AGENT, Mrs. Julia E. Wagar. 

MOXTVILLE, GEAUGA Co. 

MONTVlLLE.-Pr.Es., Mrs. A. Phelps, Mr?. Z. R. Sheldon: SEC., Mis? Caroline Shel- 
rlou, Miss S. S. Gould; TREAS., Mrs. E. Dayton. 

WEST MONTVILLE. PRES., Miss Adelia J. Gates, Miss Lizzie Spellman ; VICE PRE?.. 
Miss Annie J. Gates. Mrs. Leah Gish; SEC. AND TREAS., Miss Ecbecca U. Kennedy; 
DIRECTORS, Mrs. Delavan Gates, Mrs. Lois Eddy, Mrs. Ursula Kennedy, Mrs. Sarah 
McDonald. 

MOUNT HOPE, HOLMES Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Susan M. Russell; VICE PRES., Mrs. Catherine Pomerene, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Inks; SEC. AND TREAS., Miss Kate Kindlesperger. 

MOUNT MORRIS, LIVINGSTON Co., N. Y. 

PRES., Mrs. L. C. Sleeper; VICE PRES., Mrs. James B. Bacon ; SEC., Mrs. H. E. Browu ; 
TREAS., Miss Elizabeth Kellogg. 
Estimate of disbursements, $1.500. 

MOUNT UNION, STARK Co. 
PREP.. Mr*. H. G. Clark ; SEC., Mrs. M. B. Park: TREAS., Miss Rachel Pettish. 

MOUNT VICTORY, HARDIN Co. 

PRES., Mrs. R. P. Howe; VICE PRES.. Mrs. M. S. Elder; SEC.. Miss Emma L. Mears : 
TREAS., Mrs. Sarah Smith. 
Shipped 25 boxes valued at $515. 

MUNSON, GEAUGA Co. 

MUNSON. PIIES., Miss Jane Ashcrafr: SEC.. Miss Ann Miller: TREAS., Miss P. 
Lepper. 

EAST MUNSON. PEES., Mrs. Abram Woodward. Mrs. Eenj. S. Warner, Mrs. Amanda 
Gates: SEC., Mrs. S. A. Spencer. Mrs. Jane V. Bartlett, Miss Anna M. Gates: TREAS.. 
Mrs. O. R. Caufield, Mrs. Abram Woodward. 

Cash expended. 200. Supplies not estimated. 

NASHVILLE, HOF.MES Co. 

PRES., Mrs. A. L-iylander; Sac.. Miss Hester Edwards; TREAS., Mrs. Esther Harris. 
Cash expended, $200. Estimate of stores, $500. 
35 



490 APPENDIX F. 

NELSON, POUTAGE Co. 

PKES., Mrs. Benj. Fcnu ; VICE PRES., Mrs. Tait ; SEC., Miss Celestia Gates ; TREAS., Miss 
Polly Hannahs. 

NEW ALEXANDRIA, JEFFEBSON Co. 

PKES., Miss Sue Hanlon ; VICE PKES., Miss Belle Hall ; SEC., Miss Mary E. Hall ; TKEAS.. 
Miss Lizzie McGrew. 

NEW BALTIMORE, STARK Co. 

PKES., Mrs. C. A. Taylor, Mrs. Eliza Nash; SEC., Mrs. Alvira Bissell; TREAS., Miss 
Sophronia Smalley, Joseph Lee. 
Cash expended, $215. 28. 

NEW BERLIN, STARK Co. 

PKES., Mrs. Rachel Holl; VICE PRES., Mrs. Sallie Lincl ; SEC., Mrs. Elizabeth Bitzer : 
TREAS., Mrs. Elizabeth Schick, Mrs. Nancy Everhart. 
Cash disbursed, $220.25. Value of shipments, $449.32. 

NEWBERRY, GEAUGA Co. 

NEWBERRY. PRES., Mrs. R. K. Mmm ; VICE PRES., Mrs. Ann Punderson ; SEC. AM) 
TREAS., Mrs. R. Riddle, Mrs. J. Russell. 
Value of shipments, $1,000. 

NORTH NEWBERRY. PRES., Mrs. Elvira Lovelaml ; SEC., Mrs. Elizabeth B. Stone : 
TREAS., Mrs. Julia Smith, Mrs. S. Burnett. 

NORTH-WEST NEWBERRY. PRES., Mrs. Angeline Williams, Miss Mary A. Covell ; 
VICE PRES., Mrs. Harriet Black ; SEC., Mrs. Caroline Bittles, Miss Achsah Covell ; TREAS.. 
Mrs. Sarah Wiiliams, Miss Mary Sanborn. 

NEWBURGH, CUYAIIOGA Co. 

PRES.. Mrs. Eben Miles, Mrs. F. W. Woodbridge ; SEC , Mrs. F. W. Woodbridge ; 
TREAS., Mrs. Porter Jewett, Mrs. E. T. Burke. 

NEW CASTLE, LA WHENCE Co., PA. 

PRES., Mrs. A. Ross ; SEC. AND TREAS., Mrs. R. \V. Clendenin. 

NEW II A VEX, HURON Co. 

PRES.. Mrs. J. A. Young ; VICE PRES., Mrs. II. Richards ; SEC., Mrs. M. Gaming ; TREAS.. 
Mrs. M. Stuart. 
Value of stores, $150. 

NEW LISBON, COLUMBIAKA CO. 

PRES., Mrs. T. Starr, Mrs. S. Todd, Mrs. Thomas Hanna ; VICE PRES., Mrs. J. H. Shields : 
SEC., Mrs. H. B. Dibble, Miss Jessie W. Cornwell, Miss Louisa Briggs, Mrs. S. W. Orr : 
TREAS., Mrs. O. M. Todd. 



APPENDIX F. 491 

NEW LONDON, HURON Co. 

PRES., Mrs. S. R. Johnson. Mrs. R. J. Robinson ; SEC., Mrs. L. B. Porter, Mrs. P. Robert 
son : TREAS., Mrs. Furlong. 

NEW LYME, ASHTABULA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. F. P. Rathbone, Mrs. J. Miller, Mrs. C. Brockway ; SEC.. Mrs. A. Pork, Mrs. 
F. P. Rathbone; TREAS., Mrs. C. Brockway, Mrs. A. M. Gee. 
Value of shipments, $1,337.45. 

NEW PHILADELPHIA, TUSCARAWAS Co. 

PRES., Mrs. C. Gross, Mrs. O. P. Taylor; VICE PRES., Mrs. J. Hance; SEC., Miss Annie 
Coventry; TREAS., Mrs. Beatty. 

Cash expended, $704.63. Shipments to Cleveland and Columbus Agencies and direct 
to the front not reported. 

NEWTON FALLS, TRUMBULL Co. 

PRES., Mrs. H. K. Bronson, Mrs. Silas Culendcr, Mrs. James Reed ; VICE PRES., Mrs. 
Eunice Austin, Mrs. Lyman Soule, Mrs. A. L. Fowler; SEC., Mrs. Eunice Austin, Mrs. A. 
L. Fowler ; TREAS., Mrs. A. L. Fowler, Mrs. H. K. Bronson. 

Value of shipments, $1,489.75. Contributed to the Sanitary Fair, in stores and 
money, $200. 

NILES, TRUMBULL Co. 

PRES., Mrs. James Ward ; SEC., Miss Phila Kingsley, Jos. G. Butler, Jr. : TREAS.. Mrs. 
A. M. Blackford. 
Cash expended. $450.93. Stores not valued. Sent to Sanitary Fair, $50. 

NORTHAMPTON, SUMMIT Co. 

NORTHAMPTON CENTER. PRES., Mrs. E. M. Reynolds; SEC., Miss A. M. Lowrey, 
Miss Julia Jones, Miss Mary Reynolds ; TREAS., Mrs. H. N. Lowrey, Mrs. R. Jones. 
Estimate of shipments, $663.25. 

NORTHAMPTON, DISTRICTS 7 AND 8. PRES. Mrs. J. R. Brown ; SEC. AND TREAS.. 
Mrs. William Hardy. 
Estimate of shipments, $37. Cash to Sanitary Fair, $16. 

NORTH BENTON, MAHONIXG Co. 
PRES.. Miss Polly A. Strattou ; SEC., Miss Lucy E. Hartzell ; TREAS., Miss Isabella Sproat. 

NORTH EAST, ERIE Co., PA. 

PRES., Mrs. Stephen Griffith, Mrs. R. M. Crawford; SEC., Miss Sarah Skinner, Miss 
Emma E. Elaine, Miss Mary T. Town ; TREAS., Miss Mary E Scoulku-. 

NORTH EATON, LORAIX Co. 

PRES., Mrs. M. K. Merrick, Mrs. Fidelia Chapman ; SEC. AND TREAS., Miss S. E. King, 
Miss S. L. Cooley. 



APPENDIX F. 

NORTH F AIRFIELD, HURON Co. 

PRES., Mrs. E. B. Maybin ; VICE PRES., Mrs. E. L. Watrons. Mrs. J. Burns ; SEC., Mrs. 
J. L. Dickinson ; TKEAS., Mrs. Julia II. Edwards. 
Cash disbursed, $672.30 Supplies not estimated. 



NORTHFIELD, SUMMIT Co. 

PRES., Mrs. J. W. Logue ; VICE PRISS,. Mrs. Daniel Proctor ; SEC., Miss Llbbie Alexan 
der, Miss Ellen Bliss ; TKEAS., Mrs. Geo. Seidel. 

Cash expended, $319.32. Contributed to Sanitary Fair, $140.37. Estimate of supplies 
sent to regiments, $150. Total. $618.69. 



NORTH JACKSON, MAHONING Co. 
I KES., Mrs. Mary J. Riddle : SEC.. Miss Maggie Johnston ; TREAS.. Miss M. S. Gault. 

NORTH LAWRENCE, STARK Co. 

PKES., Mrs. E. Fulton; SEC., Mis.? Nannie McCue, Miss Beccie Shull ; TBEAS., Mrs. G. 
Schaffer, 

NORTH RIDGEVILLE, LORAIX Co. 

NORTH RIDGEVILLE. PRES., Mrs. Mark Humphrey ; VICE PRKS., Mr*. John Gaboon ; 
SEC., Miss Harriet Bryner ; TREAS., Mrs. Sydney Butler. 

Estimate of supplies shipped through the Sanitary Commission, $1.355. Sent direct to 
regiments, $300. To the Sanitary Fair, $114.50. Total, $1,769.50. 

NORTH RIDGEVILLE, JUVENILE. PRES., Miss Emma Terrell ; SEC., Miss Theresa. 
Terrell ; TREAS., Miss Nellie Beebee. 
Estimate of contributions, $50. 

NORTH RIDGEVILLE, WEST CREEK. PRES., Miss Mary Byington ; VICE PKES.. 
Miss Carrie Hostlander ; SEC., Miss Mary Ho\vk; TREAS., Miss Mary Race. 

NORTH ROYALTON, CCYAIIOGA Co. 

NORTH ROYALTON. PRES., Mrs. M. J. Carter; VICE PRES., Mrs. James Touslcy ; 
SEC., Mrs. S. W. Chandler; TREAS., Mrs. Win. Tousley. 

NORTH ROYALTON, No. 2. PRES., Mrs. Oliver Taylor; SEC. AND TREAS., Mrs. John 
Kingzett. 

NORTH ROYALTON AND HINCKLEY. PRES., Mrs. W. Wilber; SEC. : Mrs. P. A. 
Taylor; TKEAS., Mrs. E. Webber. 

NORTH SPRINGFIELD, SUMMIT Co. 

PRES., Mrs. L. Atchcson ; SEC., Mrs. J. Ewart, Mrs. E. H. Boyd ; TREAS.. Mrs. M. Fisher. 
Mrs. M. White. 

NORTON, SUMMIT Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Louisa Marshall; VICE PRES.. Mrs. Rebecca Vanderhoof: SEC.. Mrs. F. 
Weary; TREAS., Mrs. Sarah Miller. 



APPENDIX F. 493 

NOR WALK, Himox Co. 

XORWALK, DISTRICT No. (5. PUKS., Mis.- Rose Sherman : SEC.. Miss Jennie Jone* : 
TREAS., Miss Lucy Sherman. 
Cash expended, $30. Value of hospital store? forwarded, 100. 

XORWALK SOLDIERS AID SOCIETY. (REPORTED BY MRS. S. T. WORCESTER.) Very 
early in the year 1801 the citizens of Norwalk began to work for the soldiers. A part of 
the 8th Regiment had been collected, quartered and drilled there. On the Sabbath before 
they left, religious services were held in their camp, and the occasion, so new and affect 
ing, called forth the most profound sensations of sorrow and apprehension. Some days 
previously the ladies had been engaged in supplying these soldiers with such necessaries 
and luxuries as the deepest interest could suggest. Immediately after their departure, a 
society, of both sexes, was formed, the object of which was to follow those who went from 
the vicinity with aid and comfort, in any form, and by any means that could reach them, 
thus securing, as was hoped, an unbroken intercourse with them. A quarterly subscription 
among the gentlemen was established, the first instalment of which is dated May 18th, 
1801. The officers elected were Charles B. Stickney, President; J. C. Curtis, Secretary: 
David H. Pease, Treasurer; Mrs. G. G. Baker, Mrs. J. W. Baker, Mrs. O. Jenney, Mrs, C. 
E. Pennewell and Mrs. S. T. Worcester, Board of Directors the latter Secretary of the 
Board. From that time to November, 182, something was continually being done, but 
the difficulties in the way of reaching the regiments, after they went into actual service, 
and the consequent irregularity of the quarterly payments, seriously obstructed progress. 
In the meantime a Society had been organized in Cleveland, through which, as a medium, 
it was believed the regiments could be reached. Application was personally made to that 
Society by the Secretary of the Board, in Norwalk, for assistance in sending a box of 
hospital stores to the 8th Regiment, then in West Virginia, the Surgeon of that regiment 
having, by letter, applied for immediate aid. The request was cheerfully granted, the box- 
sent, received in time, and earnest thanks therefor returned. This occurrence awakened 
new life, and eventually led to the formation, in August, 186 ?, of the Alert Club, to collect 
funds, and in November of the same year, to the transfer of all the offices to the ladies. 
At the time of the transfer Mrs. J. M. Fan- was elected President; Mrs. D. II. Pease. 
Secretary : and Mrs. S. T. Worcester. Treasurer. The work then went on prosperously, 
funds were ample, the contributions sent forward large and valuable, and mostly trans 
mitted through the organization in Cleveland. November 20th, 1863, Mrs. S. T. Worcester 
was elected President ; Mrs. W. O. Parker and Mrs. C. E. Pennewell, Vice Presidents ; 
Mrs. M. A. Corwin, Secretary ; and Mrs. N. S. Moulton. Treasurer. Before the close of 
the year Mrs. C. Gallup took the place of Mrs. Worcester, and Mrs. F. Sawyer that of Mrs. 
Moulton, those ladies having resigned. At the next annual meeting, November 19th, 1864. 
Mrs. J. F. Dewey was elected President ; and Mrs. E. E. Husted, Vice President. There 
were no other changes. Total funds received, $3,455.94. Total disbursed, $3,385.94. 
The remaining $70 were given to the Young Men s Library, to assist in its establish 
ment. No account of the stores sent forward before the transfer has been preserved, 
though they are known to have been creditable. Since that date, 235 boxes, barrels or 
kegs have been forwarded, with various and sometimes quite large sums in cash, to be 
disposed of by known and trusty agents. They were sent to the Sanitary Commission. 
Christian Commission, Relief Association in Washington, to Annapolis, Richmond, Get 
tysburg, Martinsburg, Winchester, Harper s Ferry, Alexandria, Hilton Head, to Gov. 
Brough, for the use of State Agents, and to the 8th, 55th, 101st and 123d Regiments, and 
occasionally to others. Many letters from many soldiers in different localities attest the 
fidelity of those to whom they were entrusted, and the donors rest satisfied with the 
result of their labors. 

The Societv disbanded June 1st, 1865. 



494 APPENDIX F. 

NORWALK UNION. PRES., Mrs. H, M. Wooster; VICE PEES., Mrs. Eli Peter*, Miss 
M. A. Watson; SEC., Mrs. J. M. Farr; TBEAS., Mrs. D. W. Newton. 

The members of this Society had been active workers in the Soldiers Aid Society ol 
Norwalk until November 27th, 1863, and the results of their industry prior to that date 
are included in the foregoing report. On forming a separate organization they continued 
their labors for the soldiers with remarkable vigor and success, and with uniform loyalty 
to the Sanitary Commission. 

In the year and a half of their independent organization, they disbursed in cash, $1.800.4 I 
and forwarded two hundred packages of hospital stores, valued at $1,000, making a total 
contribution of $2,883.44. The Hospital Garden at Chattanooga was an object of much 
interest to the ladies of this society, who frequently remembered it in their gifts, and in 
the spring of 1864 forwarded onion sets and garden seeds in great variety for its early 
cultivation. The preparation of "chopped pickle 1 was a specialty of the Norwalk 
Union, over one thousand gallons having been forwarded to the army in the course of one 
summer. 

At the close of the war the surplus funds of this society were distributed as follows : 
$100 to the Columbus Soldiers Home ; $100 to the Union Commission, N. Y.; $50 to the 
Cleveland Soldiers Home, and the remainder, $80, to the Norwalk Young Men s Library 
Association. 

NORWALK YOUNG LADIES ALERT CLUB. (REPORTED BY MRS. S. T. WORCES 
TER.) The Alert Club commenced its labors in August, 1862, but was not fully organized 
until September 13th of that year, when the following officers were elected : Mrs. S. T. 
Worcester, President; Miss Lizzie Gallup, Secretary; Misses Mary Graves and Lucy 
Preston, Treasurers ; Mrs. T. W. Christian, Misses S. Rowland and C. Jenney, Direct 
resses, with an indefinite number of Collectors. The Soldiers Aid Society had been in 
operation over a year, but was languishing for want of funds, the quarterly subscription, 
on which it depended, being irregularly paid. In this emergency thirty-seven young 
ladies, whose numbers soon increased to sixty, agreed to unite for one year, specially to 
raise funds for that society, but also to be on the alert, (hence their name,) to contribute 
in every possible way to the comfort of the needy soldier. They immediately revived the 
gentlemen s quarterly subscription and collected it, and without delay established a 
ladies monthly, and, in October following, a gentlemen s monthly subscription. These 
three subscriptions they faithfully and promptly collected the entire year, and paid over 
the proceeds, $824.75, to the Aid Society. They held regular meetings, prepared large 
quantities of lint and bandages, made 180 pairs of slippers, over 600 handkerchiefs, 9(i 
towels, 2 quilts, and cut and dried 31 bushels of apples, all of which were passed to the 
Aid Society, besides sending many kind remembrances, in various forms, to the regi 
ments with which they were acquainted. They also collected a special subscription to 
pay the debt on the home of Bessie Lynch, her husband being the first Norwalk soldier 
killed in battle, and herself and three young children left destitute. This, with some 
small debts which the creditors, at their request, remitted, amounted to $60.00. 

At the expiration of the year they voted to associate for another year. Miss C. Jenney 
resigned. Miss S. C. Mason was elected Recorder, a new office which the nature of the 
service soon to be entered upon, required. They now agreed to leave the subscription 
lists to the Aid Society, to raise their own funds by Festivals, Tableaux, Dramatic Enter 
tainments, &c., and to devote them to clothing the children of absent soldiers, and of 
poor widows, furnishing them with all the necessaries required by well conditioned 
scholars, looking after them, keeping them in school, &c. In this service they were 
greatly assisted by Mr. Stephenson, Superintendent of the Public Schools, and by a 
number of judicious married ladies. They had, from the 1st of September, 1863, to the 
1st of November, 1864, forty-nine different families as beneficiaries, furnishing to each 
new material according to their need, in value from $2.52, the lowest sum, to $61.19, the 
high?st. Total amount raised during that time, $1.840.82. Total expended, $1.496.99. 



APPENDIX F. 495 



They also sent forward various contributions-, as sympathy prompted, to the soldiers. 
In November, 18W, they reorganized as a regular Soldiers 1 Aid Society, specially voting 
to retain their own distinctive name. Officers: Mrs. S. T. Worcester, President; Mrs. 
T. W. Christian and Miss S. Rowland Vice Presidents ; Miss Lizzie Gallup, Recording 
Secretary; Miss Mary Wickham, Corresponding Secretary, and Mrs. W. M. Cline, Treas 
urer. They began this year with $343.83, the overplus of last year. They continued to 
acquire as well as expend, so that at their last regular meeting, in May, 1865, they had 
forwarded, in all, 37 boxes, barrels or kegs of hospital stores, $330 in cash, and had, in 
possession or expectancy, $4(5J. To this sum they added the net gain of a, subsequent 
series of Tableaux, and eventually presented to the Young Men s Library, then being 
established, the sum of $900. With the remainder they purchased, framed and suitably 
lettered the two engravings entitled. The First Reading of the Emancipation Procla 
mation." and "Washington Irving and His Friends, and presented them to the Gram 
mar School, from which many of their Tableau performers had been taken. Total funds 
raised and expended, $3,932.93. The Club steadily refuses to disband, but contemplates 
holding re-unions annually, the officers remaining the same. The first re-union took 
place on the 20th of July, 1867; the second on the 231 of June, 1853. 

OAK GROVE, HOLMES Co. 

PRES.. Mrs. Elizabeth Allen; SEC., Miss Nannie J. Martin; TKEAS., Miss Li/a J. 
Armstrong. 

OAK RIDGE, COLUMRIANA Co. 
PRES . Rev. J. Arthur; SEC., Miss Nancy Smith: TKEAS.. Miss Lizzie Noble. 

OBERLIX, LOHAIX Co. 

PKKS.. Mrs. M. C. Allen. Mrs. C A. Bostwick. Mrs. J. M. Fitch; VICE PKES.. Mrs. A. 
Biitl .-r. Mrs. J. M. Fitch. Mrs. Allen ; SEC.. Mrs. It. B. Pearse, Mrs. M. E. Ellis ; TKEAS.. 
Mrs. R. B. Pearse, Mrs. C. C. Hudson : DIRECTORS, Mrs. Haynes, Mrs. Allen, Mrs. 
Wright, Mrs. A very, Mrs. Clark. Miss S. Hall ; COMMITTEE. Mrs. Terrell. Mrs. Clark. Miss 
S. Hall. Mrs. Royce. 

The Oberlin Branch, organized at the opening of the war, for the outfit of Co. C, 7th 
O. V. I., continued active and efficient until its good offices were no longer needed, 
sparing no effort to send comfort to the soldier on the field or the sick in hospital. No 
estimate has been reported of its cash disbursements, or of the value of one hundred and 
fifty packages of choice stores shipped through the Sanitary Commission. The sales 
from the Oberlin Society s contribution to the Lorain County Booth at the Sanitary Fair 
netted $700. 

OIL DIGGINGS, THUMIJULL Co. 

PRES.. Mrs. A. Cobb. Mrs. R. Ilervcy : SEC.. Miss L. A. Barker. Mrs. Corresta T. 
Knapp: TREAS.. Mrs. C. A. Allen. 

OLKXA, IIUKOX CO. 

Puts. . Mrs. E. Magee. Mrs. S. Burrass ; VICE PRES.. Mrs. L. Manahan. Mrs. J. Buffing- 
ton; SEC.. Mrs. W. H. Sykes, Miss Retta Magee ; TREAS.. Mrs. B. W. Green. Mrs. Wm. 
Levy. 



496 APPENDIX F. 

OLIVESBURGH. 
PRES., Mies Nettie Miller ; SEC., Miss Amelia Ozier ; TRES., Mies Millie Burgett. 

OLMSTED FALLS, CUYAHOGA Co. 

OLMSTED FALLS. PRES., Mrs. W. S. Carpenter ; VICE PRES., Mrs. Elisha Fitch ; SEC.. 
Miss Hattie Dryden ; TREAS., Mrs. D. H. Perry, Mrs. O. W. Kendall; DIRECTORS, Mrs. 
W. B. Wormly, Mrs. John Wright, Mrs. J. Williams, Miss Margaret Fitch. 

WEST OLMSTED. PRES., Mrs. Phebe Adams, Mrs. Horace Tyler; Src. AND TKEAS.. 
Miss Lucia Briggs. 

ONEIDA MILLS, CARROLL Co. 
PRES., Miss Carrie L. Hull; SEC.. Miss M. C. Pettorf. 

ORANGE, ASHLAND Co. 

ORANGE. PRES., Mrs. S. A. Donley ; SEC., Mrs. M. A. White. 

NORTH ORANGE. -PRES., Mrs. Rachel Phillips; SEC.. Mrs. Rachel Nunemaker ; 
TREAS.. Mrs. Amelia P. Feree. 

ORANGE, CUYAHOGA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. J. II. Abell ; VICE PRES., Mrs. H. Henry; SEC., Mrs. H. B. Boynton, Mrs. E. 
Lauder ; TREAS., Mrs. J. Whitlam, Mrs. R. Barber ; COMMITTEE, Mrs. Alvin Abell. Mrs. J . 
Cole, Mrs. C. Eddy. Mrs. P. Beach, Mrs. A. Jerome, Miss S. Smith. 

ORANGEVILLE, TRUMBULL Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Charles Hull, Mrs. Sheldon Palmer; VICE PRES., Mrs. Edward Jones. Mrs. 
Jesse Hahn ; SEC. AND TREAS., Mrs. Augustus Moffit. Mrs. Henry Reed. 
Estimate of supplies, $1.500. 

ORRVILLE, WAYNE Co. 
PRES.. Mrs. H. Storrs ; SEC.. Mrs. S. J. Meek. Mrs. A. Gass er : TKEAS.. Mrs. R. M. Storr*. 

ORWELL, ASHTAJH-I.A Co. 

PRES.. Mrs. Geo. A. Howard ; SEC., Mrs. Phebe [Morgan ; TRKAS.. Mrs. Sophronia 
Blair; DIRECTORS, Mrs. Hiram Goddard, Mrs. Maria Wolcott, .Mrs. C. A. B. Pralt, Mrs. 
Isaac Tuckerman, Mrs. Melinda Blachley. 

Estimate of contributions. $1.518.1)0. Cash expended. $571. TO. 

PAINESYILLE, LAKE Co. 

PRJES., Mrs. Eliza M. Chesney ; SEC.. Mifs Aur.a M. Tisicy. *!h s Kli/n II. Wik< x ; 
TREAS., Miss Henrietta D. Sanford. 

The Painesville Branch, one of the most valued tributaries of the Cleveland Sanitary 
Commission, has furnished no estimate of its large contributions. Its members were 



APPENDIX F. 497 

unwearied in their work through the whole course of the war, and in addition to their 
usual supplies were notably active in preparing canned fruits and vegetables and black 
berry cordial through the Summer months. They responded with great promptness to 
any special call for hospital stores, and constantly followed with their gifts those regi 
ments that had enlisted from Lake county. 

PAINT VALLEY, HOLMES Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Susan Buchanan ; SEC., Mrs. Julia A. Bigham ; TREAS., Miss M. J. Gorsuch. 
Sent to Sanitary Fair, $60. No estimate of hospital stores. Cash to different Associa 
tions, $60, 

PARKMAX, GEAUGA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. A. C. Waters, Mrs. S. A. D. Harris, Mrs. David Bundy; SEC.. Miss H. A. 
Converse, Miss Mary M. Williams, Mrs. S. A. D. Harris ; TREAS., Miss M. L. Burt. 
Contributed to the Sanitary Fair, $60. No estimate of hospital supplies. 



PARIS, STAKK Co. 
PRES., Mrs. H. C. Hudson ; SEC., Miss Libbie Philips ; TREAS., Miss Celia Chapman. 

PARISVILLE, PORTAGE Co. 

PKES., Mrs. C. Selby. Mrs. H. Shaw; VICE PRES., Mrs. Sallie Black; SEC. AND TKEA?.. 
Mrs. E. C. Holcomb, Mrs. Anna S. Cutts ; COMMITTEE. Mrs. Sarah Williams, Miss Mary 
Chapman. 

Cash expended. $93.12. Supplies valued at $138.65. 

PARMA, CCJYAHOGA Co. 

PRES.. Mrs. Oliver Emerson, Mrs. L. B. Meacham, Mrs. John A. Ackley, Miss Mary G. 
Cogswell ; VICE PRES., Miss M. Emerson, Miss J. Hodgman ; SEC., Miss L. F. Emerson. 
Miss A. M. Hutchinson, Miss Lydia Tyler ; TREAS., Miss H. L. Pebbes, Miss H. Hodgman. 

Cash expended. $82.67. Sent to Sanitary Fair, $25. Xo estimate of hospital supplies. 

PEXFIELD, LOKAIN Co. 

PENFIELD. PRES.. Mrs. H. S. Smith, Mrs. F. Richmond; VICE PRES., Mrs. L. P. 
Starr ; SEC., Miss Man- E. Have.?, Mrs. T. Penfield, Jr.; TREAS., Mrs. A. Crane ; DIRECTORS, 
Mrs. Dalgleish, Mrs. A. Lindsley, Mrs. E. Sheldon, Mrs. McGraugh, Mrs. L. Houghton, 
Mrs. George Norton. 

PENFIELD AND WELLINGTON. PRES., Mrs. Albina Allen ; SEC.. Mrs. L. Finch : 
TREAS., Miss Jane Long, Mrs. L. Roekwood. 

PENINSULA, SUMMIT Co. 

PRES.. Mrs. L. Wattermau, Miss Sylvia L. Edgerley, Mrs. R. Cole; VICE PRES., Mrs. H. 
Johnson ; SEC.. Mrs. F. C. Wetmore, Mrs. E. S. Haskell, Mrs. William McNeil; TREAS. 
Mrs. Frederick Wood, Miss Lydia Johnson. 

Cash expended. $473 48. Hospital stores not estimated. 
3G 



498 APPENDIX F. 

PENN LINE, CRAWFORD Co., PA. 

PRES., Mrs. Mary E. Dewey ; VICE PRES., Miss Myra Barber; SEC., Miss Leouorc Platt; 
TREAS., Miss Augusta Barber. 

PERRY, LAKE Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Susan Harper, Mrs. Win. A. Davis; VICE PRES., Mrs. Ralph Tyler; SEC., 
Miss Sarah F. Wyman, Mrs. W. A. Wheeler; TREAS., Mrs. Milton Shepard, Mrs. M. A. 
Wire. 

Cash expended, $752.25. Sent to Sanitary Fair, $S20. No estimate of hospital supplies 
furnished. 

PERU, HURON Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Charles Raskins, Mrs. A. Manley; VICE PRES., Mrs. Dr. Eaton ; SEC., Miss 
Libbie C. Sanders, Mrs. S. F. Deyo, Miss Ruth Atherton ; TREAS., Mrs. B. Wyman. 
Cash expended, $1,131.85. Value of shipments, $988.15. 



PINE HILL, BATH AND COPLEY, SUMMIT Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Hartwell Parker; SEC., Miss Alfe Capron : TREAS., Mrs. Eliza Sweet, Mrs. 
J. Brown. 
Cash expended, $200. Value of supplies contributed, $150. 

PIERREPOXT, ASIITABULA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Sally Norton, Mrs. S. Woodruff; SEC., Mrs. Martha Beckwith, Mrs. N. B. 
Hawkins ; TREAS , Mrs. Lydia Goodrich, Mrs. II. L. Leonard. 

PIONEER, WILLIAMS Co. 

PRES., Mrs. James Morris ; VICE PRES.. Mrs. S. M. Boyd ; SEC., Mrs. L. P. Gaudern ; 
TREAS., Mrs. Lyman Shepard. 

PITTSFIELD, LORAIN Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Polly West, Mrs. C. C. Spooner, Mrs. D. Davies : SEC. AND TREAS., Mrs. 0. 
J. Bradley ; DIRECTORS, Mrs. J. Blackwell, Mrs. A. Bacon, Mrs. J. Powell, Mrs. G. 
Sherburn, Mrs. J. Round, Mrs. A. Whitney, Mrs. J. Gifford. Mrs. S. A. Clark, Mrs. R. 
Worcester, Mrs. J. R. Ward, Mrs. J. Barnard, Mrs. P. Hall, Mrs. D. Lucas, Mrs. J. Tuttle. 
Mrs. M. Kellogg, Miss J. Wilder, Mrs. J. Miles. 

Value of supplies contributed, $620. Sent to Sanitary Fair, $89.78. 

PLYMOUTH, ASIITABULA Co. 

PRES., Miss B. Burnett ; SEC., Miss N. A. Morgan ; TREAS.. Mrs. L Hoffman. 
Value of supplies, $300. Cash expended, $100. 

POLAND, MAIIOXIXG Co. 

POLAND. PRES., Mrs. Wm. Logan; VICE PRES.. Mrs. A. S. McMasters; SEC., Mrs. E. 
Hawkins, Mrs. C. M. Hawn, Mrs. L. Mansfield ; TREAS., Mrs. Wm. Courtney. 

Value of stores shipped through the Sanitary Commission, $3,031.71 Supplies sent 
directly to the field estimated at $250. 



APPENDIX F. 499 

POLAND CENTER. PRES., Mrs. N. Henderson. Mr?. Mary Slaven, Mrs. Rachel 
Anderson; SEC., Miss Mary E. Henderson, Mrs. E. A. Stewart, Mrs. Mary A. Smith; 
TREAS., Mrs. R. A. Smith, Mrs. Mary Slaven, Mrs. Annie Guthrie. 

Cash expended, $67. No estimate of supplies. . 

POLAND, JUVENILE.-PRES., Miss Lottie E. Truesdale ; SEC . Miss Mary K. Mans 
field : TREAS., Miss Lizzie T. Woodruff. 

POLK, ASHLAND Co. 

PRES., Miss Maria Kilgore, Mrs. W. S. Spencer; SEC., Mrs. Eliza Kuhn, Mrs. W. E. 
Byers ; TREAS., Miss Mary McFadden, Mrs. W. S. Spencer. 
Value of shipments, $1,400. 

PORT CLIXTOX, OTTAWA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Wm. Johnson ; SEC., Mrs. Mary A. Dutcher ; TREAS., Mrs. James Kingham ; 
DIRECTORS, Mrs. C. Pollock, Mrs. Emily Baldwin, Miss Mary Lewis. 

PUT-IX-BAY, OTTAWA Co. 
PRES.. Mrs. John Stone ; SEC. AND TREAS., Mrs. F. C. Clark. 

RANDOLPH, PORTAGE Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Maria Dickinson, Mrs. Harriet D. Brainard; VICE PRES., Mrs. Wm. Sted- 
man ; SEC., Miss Helen Stedman ; TREAS., Mrs. Hattie Carlton, Mrs. Franklin Sanford ; 
DIRECTORS, Mrs. Orsamus Stanford, Mrs. Myron Collins, Mrs. Hiram Fenton, Mrs. Hiram 
Austin, Mrs. Joseph Brainard. 

Estimate of shipments, $2,641.34. Contributions to Sanitary Fair valued at $148,28. 

RAVEXXA, PORTAGE Co. 

PRES., Mrs. M. B. Skinner, Mrs. D. D. Pickett, Mrs. James E. Wilson ; VICE PRES., Mrs. 
R. A. Gillette ; SEC., Mrs. Helen B. Ranney ; TREAS., Mrs. S. J. Parmelee. 

RAWSOXVILLE, LORAIN Co. 

PRES., Mrs. T. H. Hand; VICE PRES., Mrs. C. W. Boughton ; SEC., Mrs. F. W. Preston, 
Mrs. J. T. Gardner ; TREAS., Mrs. H. B. Kelsey. 

No estimate of shipments. Contributed to the Sanitary Fair, $83 in money and fancy 
articles. 

REEDTOWX, SENECA Co. 

PRES., Miss Sophia Silcox, Mrs. E. A. Owen; SEC., Mrs. R. R. Wilkinson. Mrs. Mary 
R. Raymond, Mrs. J. D. Coleman ; TREAS.. Miss Clara H. Bernard. 

REMSEX CORXERS, MEDINA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Wm. P. Ingraham, Mrs. Julia Wiard ; VICE PRES., Mrs. S. J. Whitman; 
SEC., Mrs. S. H. Albertson ; TREAS., Miss Olive Hatch, Mrs. Nancy French. 



500 APPENDIX F. 

RICHFIELD, SUMMIT Co. 

PRES., Mrs. E. C. Farnham, Mrs. Mary F. Oviatt ; VICE PRES.. Mrs. P. A. Carr; SEC., 
Mrs. Charlotte W. Oviatt, Mrs. E. A. Pixlcy; TREAS.. Miss Celia Payne. Mrs. Celia Wood. 
Miss Emily Hammond. 

Estimate of supplies contributed, $2,000. 

RICHMOND, ASHTABULA Co. 

RICHMOND CENTER. PRES., Mrs. M. Gaskill, Mrs. Elizabeth A. Ross : SEC.. Mrs. E. 
Rider, Miss A. Morse; TREAS., Mrs. E. B. Linn, Miss H. Morse. 

SOUTH RICHMOND. PRES. AND TREAS., Mrs. Geo. Summers: VICE PRES.. Mrs. M. 
E. Houghton; SEC., Mrs. Lucinda Prosser, Miss A. Smith. 

Estimated contributions. $33(5.5(5. 

R1PLEY UXIOX, HOLMES Co. 
PRES.. Mrs. K. Maxwell; SEC. AND TREAS., Miss M. A. Hill. 

RIVER STYX, MEDINA Co. 

PRES.. Miss Lizzie A. Heaton ; VICE PRES., Miss Antoinette Schlabach ; SEC., Misa 
Caroline A. Dean ; TREAS., Miss Mettle Wilson. 

Estimate of contributions to the Cleveland Sanitary Rooms, $360.5(5. Sent to Sanitary 
Fair sundries and cash amounting to $135.84. 

ROCHESTER, LOIIAIN Co. f 

ROCHESTER CENTER. PRES., Mrs. F. C. Elliott, Mrs. X. C. Boii-e ; SEC. Miss E. A. 
Hiimiston, Mrs. S. C. Boice ; TREAS., Mrs. S. E. Ogden. 
Estimate of stores forwarded, $1,000.34. Cash expended, $440.40. 

ROCHESTER DEPOT. PRES., Mrs. A. Welsher ; SEC.. Miss D. Vanxile ; TREAS., Mrs. 
E. Knapp. 

ROCK CREEK, ASHTABULA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. J. R. Stark; SEC., Mrs. A. M. Schafer; TREAS., Mrs. L. Champion; COM 
MITTEE, Mrs. D. Chapman. Mrs. E. Pinney. Mrs. Knowlton, Mrs. Wilcox, Mrs. Baldwin, 
Mrs. Dorsey. 

Estimate of contributions. $725. 

ROCKPORT, CUYAIIOGA Co. 

EAST ROCKPORT. PRES., Mrs. C, French, Mrs. Aurelia Munri ; VICE PRES., Mrs. 
John Johnson ; SEC., Miss McCrea, Miss Alice CoJaban, Miss Melissa Munn ; TREAS., 
Mrs. P. Hall. Mrs. Wagar. 

SOUTH ROCKPORT. PRES., Miss Abby N. Mastick ; SEC. AND TREAS., Miss Bessie 
E. Andrews. 

WEST ROCKPORT. PRES., Mrs. Reuben Wood ; VICE PRES., Mrs. M. Sprague, Mrs. 
Sarah Barnum ; SEC., Miss Lucy Jordan, Mrs. Lucy Murray ; TREAS., Mrs. J. H. Silverthorn. 
Cash expended, $400.77. No estimate of supplies. 



APPENDIX F. 501 

ROME, ASHTABULA CO. 

ROME. PRES., Mrs. ,1. Tinan ; SEC. AND TREAS.. Miss M. J. Crosby, Mrs. M. J. 
Douglass. 

ROME. DISTRICT No. 1. PRES., Mrs. J. Halliday; SEC., Miss B. Crowd!. 



ROOTSTOWN, PORTAGE Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Olive A. Munroe, Mrs. John O Neal: SEC. AND TREAS., Miss Louise Reed, 
Mrs. Nelson R. Collins. 

RUUGLES, ASHLAND Co. 

PRES., Mrs. S. Bowman, Mrs. Electa Weston, Mrs. J. G. Sturtcvant ; VICE PRES., Mrs. 
S. L. Gault; SEC. Mrs. S. L. Gault, Mrs. D. G. Huffman, Miss Mary A. Crist; TREAS., 
Miss Mary Paine. 

RUSSELL, GEAUGA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. J. II. Cooper, Mrs. David Robinson : SEC., Mrs. A. C. Soule, Miss Rose M. 
Robinson ; TREAS., Miss Nabby C. Burnett. 



SALEM, COLUMBIAXA CO. 

SALEM. PRES., Mrs. E. M. Williams, Mrs. E. P. Heaton, Mrs. L. Tolerton ; SEC., Miss 
Rose A. Prunty, Mrs. H. H. Bentley; TREAS., Mrs. M. T. Harris. 

SALEM JUVENILE. PRES., Miss Ella Webb; SEC., Miss Mary D. Sharp: TREAS.. 
Miss Mary Boyle. 

SAVANNAH, ASIIL.\ND Co. 

PRES., Mrs. A. C. Scott; VICE PRES., Miss A. M. Stern, Mrs. Harriet Slonaker; SEC., 
Miss L. M. Wherry, Miss S. E. Gault, Mrs. H. Slonaker; TREAS., Mrs. D. A. Hayes. 
Cash expended. $700. Thirty-three packages shipped, of which no estimate was made. 



SAYBROOK, ASHTABULA Co. 

SAYBROOK PRES., Mrs. L. Munson, Mrs. C. Webster; SEC. AVD TREAS., Mrs. R. 
Harris ; DIRECTORS, Mrs. W. T. Simonds, Mrs. D. Webster, Mrs. A. Brockett, Mrs. J. 
Sutherland, Mrs. L. Anderson, Mrs. D. D. Turck, Mrs. H. Whipple. 

Estimate of shipments, $834.75. Cash expended, $115. 

SAYBROOK, JUVENILE. PRES , Miss Belle E. Kelley; SEC., Miss Hattie Walker; 
TREAS., Miss Lottie Sherman. 



SCOTTSVILLE, MOXKOE Co., X. Y. 

SCOTTSVILLE. PRES., Mrs. R. Miller; SEC. AND TREAS., Mrs. T. Shadbolt. 

WHEATLAND SOCIETY OF SCOTTSVILLE.-PRES., Miss M. E. Mann; SEC. AND 
TREAS., Miss Jane Mann. 
Estimate of contributions, $40 2. 



502 APPENDIX F. 

SEVILLE, MEDINA Co. 

PRES., Rsv. L. Whitney, A. R. Whiteside, Mrs. Wm. E. Lyon ; VICE PRES., Mrs. L. \V. 
Strong; SEC., L. W. Strong, E. P. Noyes, Wm. Porter, Miss Mattie Noyes, Miss Eliza 
Bell, Miss Emma Tamer, Mrs. E. P. Whitney, Mrs. J. K. Caughey ; TREAS., J. K. Caughey. 

Cash expended, $1.031. Contributed to Sanitary Fair, $ )2.G5. Shipments not esti 
mated. 

S..IALERSVILLE, PORTAGE Co. 
PRES., Mr*. A. Harr; SEC. AND TREAS., Mrs. S. Kneeland, Miss M. J. Rhodes. 

SHANESVILLE, TUSCARAWAS Co. 
PIIES., Mrs. Mary J. Reid ; SEC., Miss Angie M. Shultz ; TREAS., Miss Jennie dimming. 

SHARON CENTER, MEDINA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Phebe Phinney, Mrs. Palmer; VICE PRES., Mrs. Amerman, Mrs. Bissell, 
Mrs. Hayden, Mrs. Mills ; SEC. AND TREAS., Mrs. M. A. Chatfleld, Mrs. Carr ; COMMITTEE, 
Mrs. E. Curtis, Mrs. Foltz, Mrs. Brown, Mrs. Schonover. 

Cash expended. $260. Sent to Sanitary Fair, $75. No estimate of supplies. 

SHEFFIELD, LORAIN Co. 

SHEFFIELD. PRES., Miss M. L. Root; SEC., Mrs. E. P. Barrell ; TREAS., Mrs. Mary 
C. Day, Miss Kate Randall. 

SHEFFIELD AND ELYRIA PLANK ROAD. PRES., Miss S. A. Buck; SEC. AND TREAS , 
Miss Hannah E. Hecock, Miss C. L. Buck. 

SHEFFIELD LAKE. PRES., Mrs. Theron Moore; SEC., Mrs. S. C. Woodruff; TREAS., 
Miss Angeline Irish. 

NORTH SHEFFIELD. PRES., Mrs. E. Atwater ; VICE PRES., Mrs. J. Hardy ; SEC. AND 
TREAS., Mrs. C. E. Gage. 

SHEXAXDOAH, HIGHLAND Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Catharine Sanker ; VICE PRES., Mrs. Elizabeth Burgoync; SEC., Mrs. Cath 
erine Fickes ; TREAS., Mrs. Elizabeth Valentine. 

SHEXAXGO, CRAWFORD Co., PA. 
PRES., Mrs. Kate Wilson; SEC., Mrs. J. C. French; TREAS., Miss Emily Fonner. 

SHERMAN, HURON Co. 
PRTCS., Mrs. Geo. Bloomer; SEC. AND TREAS., Mrs. J. E. Le Barre. 

SMITI-IFIELD STATION, MAHONING Co. 
PRES., Miss H. E. Coppock, Mrs. S. Hartley; SEC., Miss L. A. L. Thompson. 



APPENDIX F. 503 

SOLON, CUYAHOGA CO. 

SOLON. PRES., Mrs. Win. Richards, Mrs. Jason Robbins ; VICE PKES., Mrs. 0. B. 
Smith, Mrs. C. Gilbert; SEC., Mrs. E. T. Robbins, Miss Anna Webster ; TREAS., Mrs. M. 
J. Hickox, Mrs. E. C. Parmalee. 

Cash expended. $531. 7G. Stores not estimated. 

NORTH SOLOX. PRES., Mrs. S. H. Bishop; SEC., Mrs. J. Cannon; TREAS., Mrs. 
Francis Pike. 

SOUTIIINGTON, TUUMBULL Co. 
Mrs. Sarah M. Goff. 

SPARTA, STARK Co. 
AGENT, William L. Griffin. 

SPENCER, MEDINA Co. 

SPENCER. PRES., Mrs. Mary Willey; VICE PRES., Mrs. Warner, Mrs. Electa Luce: 
SEC., Miss M. L. Hodge, Mrs. C. M. Stedman ; TREAS., Mrs. Ann Sweet, Mrs. E. A. 
Kilborn. 

Estimate of shipments, $1,500. 

SPENCER, DISTRICT No. 7. PRES., Miss Alma Elclred; SEC.. Miss Arvilla Frank; 
TKEAS., Miss Anna Kitchen, Miss Martha Frank, Miss Augusta Myers. 

SPRINGFIELD, ERIE Co., PA. 

SPRINGFIELD X ROADS. PRES., Mrs. II. Dickenson ; SEC.. Mrs. Sarah J. Mclntosh, 
Mrs. M. J. Cowles, Mrs. L. A. Bond; TREAS., Mrs. H. Johnson. 

UNION GARDEN AID SOCIETY, SPRINGFIELD. SEC., Florence D. Millar ; AGSNT, 
Kate R. Doty. 

WEST SPRINGFIELD. PRES Mrs. Mary Fonts, Mrs. Esther Gould ; VICE PRES., Mrs. 
Louisa Thomas; SEC., Miss Sarah M. Gould; TUEAS., Mrs. F. C. Powell, Miss Emily 
Thomas. 

STATE LINE, THUMB ULL Co. 
PRES.. Mrs. William Cheney; SEC., Miss L. E. Thomas. 

STOW, SUMMIT Co.] 

PRES., Mrs. Josiah Wctmorc ; VICE PRES., Mrs. Albert Stow, Mrs. Silas Wetmore; SEC. 
ANI> TREAS , Miss Velonia Lemoine. 
Cash expended, $201.17. No estimate of supplies. 

STREETSBORO, PORTAGE Co. 

PUBS., Mrs. Elliott Osgood, Mrs. Horace Peck, Mrs. Eli Peck; VICE PRES., Mrs. Bar 
tholomew; SEC., Miss Nancy Russell, Miss Amanda Judd ; TREAS.. Mrs. P. Brewster. 
Miss Julia A. Peck. 

Cash expended. $334.28. No estimate of supplies forwarded. 



504 APPENDIX F. 

STROXGSVILLE, CUYAHOGA Co. 

STRONGSVILLE. PRES., Mrs. Harvey Lyon, Mrs. Gardner, Mrs. Wood; VICE PRES.. 
Mrs. Orphie Pope, Mrs. K. Pomeroy, Mrs. E. H. Reed ; SEC., Mrs. A. C. B. Lyman, Mrs. 
A. H. Pomeroy, Miss Zelia A. Gardner, Mrs. C. F. Haynes; TREAS., Mrs. Gardner, Miss 
V. Pomeroy; DIRECTORS, Mrs. Gardner, Mrs. S.J.Whitney, Mrs. M. W. Haynes, Mrs. 
Merrick, Mrs. Wing, Mrs. Tupper, Miss Adams, Mrs. Hoyt, Mrs. Reed, Mrs. Wilkinson, 
Mrs. Welch, Mrs. Schley. 

STRONGSVILLE, DISTRICT No. 2. PRES., Mrs. S. A. Humiston ; SEC., Mrs. Electa 
Humiston. 

SULLIVAN, ASHLAND Co. 

PRES., Mrs. H. M. Thurston, Mrs. C. Goodyear, Mrs. Barrett, Mrs. Dr. Shaw, Mrs. Maria 
Johnson; VICE PRES., Mrs. De Mass, Mrs. James Campbell; SEC. AND TREAS., Mrs. 
Dr. Campbell, Miss A. J. Millis, Mrs. A. M. Parmely, Miss L. Thomas, Mrs. Celia Mann, 
Mrs. Ellen Gould. 

Estimate of contributions. $2,050. 

SULPHUR SPRINGS, CRAWFORD Co. 
PRES., Mrs. A. M. Fail-child; SEC., Miss Julia Musgrave ; TREAS.. Miss Charlotte Dix. 

SUMMER HILL, CRAWFORD Co., PA. 

PRES., Miss Addie J. McDowell: SEC., W. A.Walker; TREAS., Miss Sarah McClure, 
Miss Lottie L. Proctor. 

SUMMITVILLE, COLUMBIANA Co. 
AGEXT, Mrs. G. M. Stewart. 

TALLMADGE, SUMMIT Co. 

TALLMADGE.-PRKS., Mrs. J. P. Sackett. Mrs. M. W. Ashman: SEC.. Mrs. A. F. 
Snider; TREAS., Mrs. C. C. Wright. 

WELSH ASSISTANT AID SOCIETY, TALLMADGE.-PtiEs., David Lewis ; SEC., Wm. 
T Owen ; TREAS., Rees J. Thomas. 

Cash disbursed, $258.30. Supplies forwarded. $100. 

THOMPSON, GEAUGA Co. 

THOMPSON. PRES., Mrs. L. C. Mathews, Mrs. J. B. Goodrich; SEC., Miss E. L. 
Mathews, Miss Eleanor Tillottson; TREAS., Miss L. L. Fowler, Mrs. II. E. Strong. 

SOUTH-WEST THOMPSON. SOLICITORS, Mrs. C. M. Scott, Miss Sarah Tillottieou ; 
SEC., Miss Lucy H. Whipple. 

TOWN SEND, HURON Co. 

TOWNSEND. PRES., Mrs. Phebe Miller; SEC., Mrs. Lucy Lowe. 

EAST TOWNSEND. PRES., Mrs. Maria S. Humphrey ; VICE PRES., Mrs. Abigail Fair- 
child; SEC., Mrs. Helen M. Stow : TREAS., Wm. Humphrey. 
Cash expended, $149.04. 



APPENDIX F. 505 

SOUTH TOWNSEND. PRES., Mrs. C. C. Bowen, Mrs. L. Sherman ; VICE PKES., Miss 
Michie Harris : Mrs. H. M. Farman; TREAS., Miss Emma Bowen. 

TROY, ASHLAND Co. 

PRES . Mrs. C. Naylor, Mrs. Rachel Richards, Mrs. Harriet Peck ; VICE PRES., Mrs. P. 
Bruce, Mrs. C. Bishop, Mrs. C. Knauss; SEC., Mrs. S. M. Parmenter, Mrs. M. W. Price: 
TREAS., Mrs. J. Malcolm, Mrs. M. Stall, Mrs. S. Weedman. 

Value of shipments, $850. 

TROY, GEAUGA Co. 

PHES., Mrs. M. L. Welsh, Mrs. B. H. Heath; VICE PRES., Mrs. Mary Tinkham ; SEC. ? 
Mrs. S. C. W. Latham; TREAS., Mrs. M. James. 
The first box received at the Cleveland Aid Rooms was sent by this Society. 

TRUMBULL, ASHTABULA Co. 

TRUMBULL PRES., Mrs. O. K. Nye, Mrs. Sally Johnson, Mrs. T. Cook, Mrs. Eliza 
Laugworthy, Mrs. Clara Judkins ; VICE PRES., Mrs. S. S. Humphrey, Mrs. B. Rich, Mrs. 
Win. Nelson, Mrs. Sarah Thompson, Mrs. T. Curtis ; SEC., Mrs. L. G Nye, Mrs. A. H. 
Dodge, Miss Julia Judkins; TREAS., Mrs, Wm. Fletcher. Mrs. B. Rich; COMMITTEE, Mrs. 
II. Aylsworth, Mrs. B. M. Aylsworth. 

TRUMBULL AND MORGAN. PRES., Mrs. Randolph Webster ; SEC., Mrs. D. L. Damon. 
TREAS.. Mrs. Alta Winney. 

TWINSBURG, SUMMIT Co. 

PRES., Mrs. A. L. Nelson, Mrs. Sam l Bissell: VICE PRES., Mrs. E. Ailing, Mrs. E. Booth; 
SEC., Mrs. A. V. Bishop, Mrs. H. W. Hanchett ; TREAS., Mrs. S. A. Andrews, Mrs. H. W. 
Hanchett, Mrs. R. llerrick. 

Cash expended in hospital relief, $608.05. Thirty-seven packages of hospital stores 
forwarded, value not reported. Contributed to the Sanitary Fair, $103,49. To Freed- 
men, supplies and cash, $ 63.25. 

UNION MILLS, ERIE Co., PA. 
PRES.. Mrs. Oscar Black, Mrs. N. T. Hune ; SEC. AND TREAS., Mrs. II. Landsrath. 

UNION TOWN, STAKK Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Henrietta Sweedon, Mrs. A. M. Steese ; SEC., Mrs. Mary Tantliiiger ; TREAS., 
Mrs. Kate Mohler, Mrs. H. B. Richards. 
Estimate of supplies, $180. 

UNION VALLEY, GEAUGA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. S. C. Wilder; SEC., Mrs. E. F. Williams. 
37 



APPENDIX F. 

UNION VILLE, LAKE Co. 

PRES., J. C. Ford, Mrs. E. Stratton ; SEC. AND TREAS., Miss Amelia Guild ; DIRECTORS, 
Mrs. T. S. Baldwin, Mrs. E. Gale, Miss L. Bartram, Mrs. Couse, Mrs. E. Cleveland, Miss 
Elmina Stratton. 

Estimate of contributions, $517.87. 

UNITY, COLUMBIANA CO. 
PRKS., Mrs. D. Augustine ; SEC.. Miss Lavinia Early; TREAS., Miss L. Shook. 

VERMILLION, ERIE Co. 

VERMILLION. PRES., Mrs. Lewis Wells; SEC., Mrs. Philo Morehouse ; TREAS., Mrs. 
Phebe Case. 

VERMILLION, No. 2. PRES., Mrs. A. B. Lyon ; VICE PRES., Miss S. Parsons ; SEC. AND 
TREAS., Mrs. J. W. Thompson. 

VERMILLION, NORTH RIDGE. PRES. AND TREAS., Mrs. C. Beardsley ; VICE PRES., 
Mrs. Benj. Summers; SEC., Mrs. A. C. Canclee. 

VERNOX, TRUMBL-LL Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Francis Haynes ; VICE PRES., Mrs. Sarah Bronson ; SEC., Mrs. W. E. Chap 
man ; TREAS., Mrs. Joseph Hooff. 
Cash expended, $198.40. Fourteen packages of hospital stores, value not reported. 

VIENNA, TRUMBULL Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Sarah Sandford, Mrs. John Williams ; VICE PRES., Mrs Laura Wooclford, 
Miss Kate Williams, Mrs. S. C. Treat ; SEC., Miss Dacia Squires, Miss Helen Betts, Mrs. 
Laura Woodford ; TREAS., Miss Libbie Wooclford, Mrs. J. J. Holliday ; COMMITTEE, Mrs. 
Judson Griffis, Mrs. Smith Scovill, Mrs. Calvin Williams, Mrs. Morrison Perkins, Miss 
Helen Betts, Mrs. Lucius Hull, Mrs. Dr. Spencer, Mrs. Matthew Mackey, Miss Lucia 
Squires. 

Cash expended, $112.22. No estimate of supplies. 

WADSWORTH, MEDINA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Julia Sprague ; VICE PRES., Miss Mary P. Eyles; SUPERINTENDENTS, Miss 
Mary H. Eylcs, Miss Eliza A. Folger ; SEC., Miss Almira S. Houston ; TREAS., Miss Lura 
Boyer. 

Value of supplies. $500. Cash expended. $128. Cash to Cleveland Soldiers Home, $50. 

WAKEMAN, HURON, Co. 

PRES., Miss Sarah Todd, Mrs. Julia Hanford; VICE PRES., Mrs. Amanda Johnson ; SEC., 
Mrs. E. J. Bunce, Mrs. Lydia Bennett ; TREAS., Mrs. Clark, Mrs. Vaughan. 



APPENDIX F. 507 

WARPiEN, TRUMBULL Co. 

WARREN. PRES., Mrs. Heman R. Harmon; VICE PRES. Mrs. Charles Howard; SEC. 
AND TREAS., Mrs. J. M. Stull ; COMMITTEE, Mrs. Junius Dana, Miss Clara Callender, Mrs. 
M. Bliss, Mrs. F. L. Leroy. 

The Warren Branch worked zealously through the whole period of the war without 
change of officers, and with remarkable efficiency. Its earlier efforts are unrecorded. 
The amount of cash expended is $1,265.17. The shipments of hospital stores are reported 
as 24,450 articles, valued at $9,000. 

WEST WARREN. PRES., Mrs. Dorcas Gaskill, SEC., Miss C. A. Reed. 

YOUNG LADIES SOCIETY, WARREN. PRES., Miss Frank P. Harmon; SEC.. Miss 
Mary Iddings ; TREAS., Miss Emma Taylor. 
Cash expended, $643. 

WARREN, WARREN Co., PA. 

PRES., Mrs. R. Brown, Mrs. S. P. Johnson; VICE PRES., Mrs. S. V. Davis; SEC. AXD 
TREAS., Mrs. R. P. King. 

Cash expended for hospital stores, $741.46. Cash sent to Relief Commissions, and for 
benefit of soldiers widows and orphans, $995.87. 

WARREN SVILLE, CUYAHOGA Co. 

WARRENSVILLE SOLDIERS AID. PRES., Mrs. W. H. Warren; SEC., Mrs. Mary 
Taylor, Miss Alantha Adams ; TREAS., Mrs. O. B. Judd. 

WARRENSVILLE MITE SOCIETY. PRES., Mrs. Geo. Kent : SEC., Mrs. C. W. Hiokox: 
TREAS., Miss Delia Putnam. 

WASHINGTON TOWNSHIP, COLUMBIAXA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Parker, Mrs. Coburn, Mrs. Nixon; SEC.. Mrs. S. C. Bracken, Miss Emily 
Montgomery; TREAS., Mrs. Irwin. 
Cash expended, $400. Supplies not estimated. 

WATERFORD, ERIE Co. PA. 

PRES., Mrs. Samuel Hutchins, Mrs. David Himrod ; VICE PRES., Mrs. H. R. Vincent, 
Mrs. Howe ; SEC., Miss Sarah H. Vincent ; TREAS., Miss Maria Wood, Miss Phebe Himrod. 
Cash disbursed, $2.633. No report of supplies. 

WAYNE, ASHTABULA Co. 

WAYNE CENTER. PRES., Mrs. Parker, Mrs. A. S. Grey; VICE PRES,, Mrs. B. S. 
Decker; SEC., Miss Ellen Jones, Miss Hattie Fitts; TREAS., Mrs. Lucy Ward, Mrs. Chas. 
Hayes. 

SOUTH WAYNE. PRES., Mrs. Linus Mathews, Mrs. P. Fonner; SEC., Miss R. P. 
Dean ; TREAS., Miss Fannie Dean. 
Estimate of contributions, $500. 



508 APPENDIX F. 

WAYNESBURGH, STARK Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Harriet Thomas, Mrs. J. G. Croxton, Mrs. S. K. Robinson; VICE PRES., 
Mrs. R. Blyth; SEC., Mrs. E. H. Page, Mrs. J. C. Mong; TREAS., Mrs. R. Morledge, Mrs. 
J. F. May; COMMITTEE, Mrs. J. N. Ross, Mrs. J. H. Creighton. Mrs. J. Morledge. 

Estimate of contributions, $900. 



WEATHERSFIELD, TRUMBULL Co. 

PRES., Mrs H. T. Mason; VICE PRES., Mrs. S. Kingsley; SEC., Mrs. R. M. Robinson ; 
TREAS., Mrs. C. Van Wic. 

WELLINGTON, LORATN Co. 

WELLINGTON. PRES., Mrs. Henry Phelps, Mrs. O. Sage, Mrs. J. P. Nichols, Mrs. F. 
M. Hamlin, Rev. L. F. Ward ; VICE PRES., Mrs. Aldin Star, Mrs. E. O. Foote, Mrs. C. S. 
Foote, Mrs. H. B. Franks, Mrs. J. H. Woolley; SEC., Mrs. J. H. Dickson, Miss M. A. 
Hamlin, Miss L. D. Runnells, Mrs. Horace W T adsworth ; TREAS., Mrs. M. D. Calkins, Mrs. 
N. Hamlin, Mrs. B. G. Carpenter, Miss Louisa Runnells. 

Cash expended, $1,186.05. Contribution to Sanitary Fair, 115.66. Supplies not estimated. 

SOUTH-EAST WELLINGTON. PRES., Mrs. Helen Howk; VICE PRES., Mrs. Laura 
Russell, Mrs. S. A. Davison; SEC. AND.TREAS., Mrs. Hannah Bradley; DIRECTORS, Mrs. 
Esther Howk, Mrs. Electa Howk, Mrs. Mary Howk, Mrs. Esther A. Peabody. 



WELLSBURGH. ERIE Co., PA. 
PRES., Mrs. Hiram Irish; SEC., Mrs. S. J. Godfrey; TREAS., Mrs. Titus Robinson. 

WELLS CORNERS, ERIE Co., PA. 

PRES., Mrs. A. M. Compton ; SEC., Mrs. M. E. Merchant. 

WELLSVILLE, COLUMBIANA Co. 

PRES.. Mrs N. Murdoch, Mrs. House ; SEC., Mrs. E. H. Ayer, Mrs. S. L. Fisher ; TREAS., 
Mrs. P. F. Geisse, Miss Mary Hurst. 

WELSHFIELD, GEAUGA Co. 

PRES., Mrs. Jedidah Reed; SEC., Mrs. Sylvia .Hinckley. 

WESTFIELD, MEDINA Co. 

PRES., MRS. R. Gridley; VICE PRES., Mrs. H. Alden ; SEC., Mrs. H. Saxton, Mrs. C. 
Norton, Miss H. E. Bailey, Mrs. J. R. Collier, Miss Olive Gridley ; TREAS., Mrs. A. G. 
Ilawley, Miss Sarah Smith, Mrs. H. Farnham. 

Estimated contribution through the Sanitary Commission, direct to regiments, and for 
home charities. $699.98. 



APPENDIX F. 509 

WESTERX STAR, SUMMIT Co. 

PRES., Mrs. A. Brown; SEC., Miss 0. E Heustis, Miss Julia Nesmith ; TREAS., Mrs. E. 
Mattison. 
Estimate of contributions, $100. 

WESTVIEW, CUYAHOGA CO. 

PRES., Mrs. Phebe Adams, Mrs. T. L. Read ; SEC., Mrs. M. A. Vaughan. Mrs. E. M. 
Baker; TREAS., Miss E. Adams. 

WEYMOUTH, MEDINA Co. 

PRES , Miss Mary J. Packard ; SEC., Miss Jane Smedley, Miss E. Hobbs ; TREAS.. Miss 
E. Packard, Miss Maria Carrington. 
Estimated contribution. $300. 

WHITE LAKE, OAKLAND Co., MICH. 

PRES , Mrs. J. C. Clark ; SEC., Miss Amanda Caldwell, Miss Emma Voorhies ; TREAS., 
Mrs. Peter Voorhies; COMMITTEE, Mrs. Henry Clay, Mrs. Phipps, Mrs. Levi Crittenden 
Mrs. Rev. N. Tucker. 

Estimate of contribution, $800. 

WICKLIFFE, LAKE Co. 

PRES., Miss Louise Taylor; SEC., Miss Isabel Eddy; TREAS., Miss Alice Arnold. 
Cash expended, $100. Supplies not reported. 

WILLIAMSFIELD, ASIITABULA Co. 

WILLIAMSFIELD.-PRES., Miss Corinthia Smith; VICE PRES., Miss Louisa Barber; 
SEC., Mrs. Annette Clark; TREAS., Mrs. E. Horner. 
Estimate of contributions, $000. 

WEST WILLIAMSFIELD.-PREs., Mrs. Ellen Brooks; SEC., Mrs. Mattie Cowdry ; 
TRES., Miss Lottie Wilcox. 

WILLOUGHBY, LAKE Co. 

WILLOUGHBY.-PRES., Mrs. Heman Losey, Mrs.E. A. Ward; SEC AND TREAS., Mrs. 
B. Scranton. 

WILLOUGHBY, WAITE HILL.-PREs., Mrs. J. Hobart ; VICE PRES., Mrs. L. F. Waite; 
SEC., Mrs. H. G. Tryon ; TREAS., Mrs. I. H. Try on. 

Estimate of contributions, $400. Sent to Sanitary Fair, $150. 

WILLOUGHBY, DISTRICT No. 7.-PRES,, Mrs. Sarah Barnes ; VICE PRES., Mrs. Cath 
erine Holcombe, Mrs. Caroline Barnes ; SEC., Mrs. Mary Taylor, Mrs. Harvey Hall ; TREAS 
Mrs. Mary Harrington, Mrs. Harvey Hall. 

Cash estimated at $142.95. 

WILLOUGHBY AND MENTOR PLAINS.-PRES., Mrs. Maria S. J. Richardson ; VICE 
PRES., Mrs. Maria Jenks; SEC., Miss E. J. McLaughlin, Miss Maria Downing; TREAS., 
Mrs. Eliza Murch, Miss Sarah A. Hyde; DIRECTORS, Mrs. E. A. Griswold, Mrs. Lucina 
Campbell, Mrs. Frances McEwen. 

Estimated contributions, $-258.91. 



510 APPENDIX F, 

WILLOUGHBY RIDGE.-PRES., Mrs. R. Fuller; VICE PRES., Mrs. D. Hills; SEC., Mi** 
Ollie M. Allen; TREAS., Mrs. A. A. Ferguson; COMMITTEE. Mrs. M. A. Gillett. Miss Katie 
Atkinson. 

Cash expended, $3 2.92. Supplies contributed, $300. 

WINCHESTER, COLTJMBIAXA Co. 

PBBS., Mrs. S. A. T. Lee: SEC., Miss M. E. Dundass ; TREAS., Mrs. L. Bidleman, Mrs. 

N. A. Hanna. 
Aggregate of supplies forwarded, $1,008.00. Contributed to Sanitary Fair. $11G. Total, 

$1,124.0!). 

WINDFALL, LOKAIN Co. 

PBBB., Mrs. Win. Webster; SEC., Mrs. Mary J. French, Mrs. Alex. Frisbee ; TREAS., 
Miss Louise Crowell. 

WINDHAM, PORTAGE Co. 

PBBS., Mrs. James Shaw; VICE PRES., Miss A. Wales, Mrs. Brown; SEC. AND TREAS., 
Mrs. E. Kossman, Mrs. F. E. Jagger, Miss Hattie C. Snow ; EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE, Mrs. 
Dr Applegate, Mrs. M. P. Higlcy, Mrs. O. Wadsworth, Mrs. N. Smith, Mrs. H. J. Noble, 
Mrs. E. W? Williams. Miss Mary Angel, Mrs. F. Alderman, Mrs. Grant, Miss E. Spencer, 
Miss L. Higley, Miss L. Snow. 

Estimate of contributions, $2,38T. 

WINDSOR, ASHTABULA Co. 

WINDSOR. PRES., Mrs. A. Rawdon, Mrs. E. St. John, Mrs. H. Pomeroy, Mrs. Asenath 
Dyer; VICE PRES., Mrs. Helen Cook, Mrs. H. Clapp, Mrs. Cordelia Dyer ; SEC., Mrs. H. 
G. Barnard, Mrs. Catherine Rawdon ; TREAS., Mrs. L. Hill, Mrs. Asenath Dyer. 

Supplies forwarded, $423.87. Expended in local relief, $18. Total disbursements, $441.87. 

WINDSOR, No. 2. PRES., Mrs. Lucy Stevens ; VICE PRES., Mrs. Asenath Adams ; SEC., 
Mrs. Julia A. Grover; TREAS., Mrs. Caroline Adams. 

Value of supplies, $435. 

WINDSOR MILLS. PRES., Mrs. Lucy Kinney ; VICE PRES., Mrs. Caroline Humphrey ; 
SEC., Miss Larissa C. Skinner; TREAS., Mrs. E. P. Skinner; CHAPLAIN, Mrs. Paulina 
Alderman ; DIRECTORS, Mrs. Jane Beard, Mrs. Irena Bartram, Mrs. Paulina Frazier, Mrs. 
Emily Wiswell. 

SOUTH WINDSOR. PRES., Mrs. Phebe Lathrop; SEC., Mrs. A. L. Sampson ; TREAS., 
Miss A. Lathrop. 

WOODVILLE, SANDUSKY Co. 

PRES., Mrs. A. Dunham; VICE PRES., Mrs. E. Kellogg ; SEC., Mrs. E. N. Baldwin, Mrs. 
C. Kellogg ; TREAS., Mrs. Geo. Brim. 
Cash estimated at $500. Supplies, $500. Total contributions, $1,000. 

YORK, MEDINA Co. 
PRES., Mrs. A. II. Brintnall; SEC., Mrs. M. B. Pierce; TREAS., Miss Melinda Bowen. 



APPENDIX F. 511 

YOUXGSTOWX, MAJIOXIXG Co. 

YOUNGSTOWX.-PRES., Mrs. P. W. Keller, Mrs. R. McMilleu ; VICE I BES., Mrs. Caro 
line Garlick ; SEC., Miss Loraine Calvin ; TREAS., Mrs. Richard Brown. 

The Youngstown Branch, organized early in the war, continued active till the calls for 
hospital relief ceased, with but slight change in its efficient organization. The amount 
of cash expended in the work of the Society is $1,810.50. The balance in hand at the close 
of the war, $01.08, was given to disabled soldiers or their destitute families ; making a 
total cash disbursement of $1,901.58. Of the value of nine thousand articles of hospital 
furnishings no estimate has been reported. This Society was represented in the Sanitary 
Fair by contributions which netted $900. 

YOUXGSTOWN, FLINT HILL. PRES. Mrs. Lyclia Gibson, Mrs. Nancy McKinney; 
SEC., Mrs. L. J. Mikesell, Mrs. Jane Morrell ; TREAS., Mrs. II. E. Knox, Mrs. Harriet 
Knapp. 

YOrXGSTOWN, GRAMMAR SCHOOL. PRES. Miss Mattie Arm? ; VICE PRES., Miss 
Belle Crawford; SEC., Miss Addie Garlick; TREAS., Miss Carrie Arms, Miss Allie Wick. 

YOUXGSTOWX, HIGH SCHOOL.-PRES., Miss Zadie Barclay; VICE PRES., Miss 
Mattie Keller ; SEC., Miss Ada Murray ; TREAS., Miss Allie Baldwin. 



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