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Full text of "Our communal health [serial]"

Communal Health 

PUBLISHED BY THE 
CONSOLIDATED BOARD OF HEALTH 
OF 

Wilmington and New Hanover County 
North Carolina 



1-9-3-7 



From the North East River to Federal Point, and from 
the Cape Fear to the Sea — City, Suburb, Village 
and Farm — we are one people striving 
for healthful and useful living — 



OUR COMMUNAL HEALTH 
For the Year 1937 



New Hanover County Board of Health 
Wilmington, North Carolina 

Gentlemen: 

I hereby submit to you the report of the activities of the Health Department, as 
summarized by the head of each administrative division, for the year 1937. 

The number of deaths caused by the various diseases and the age at which our citizens 
died are presented in tables and graphs covering the year 1937 and the preceding years. 
In Table No. 1, the deaths which have occurred in Wilmington and rural New Hanover 
County are tabulated according to the cause, race, sex, and age. In Table No. 2, you 
will find a comparison between data of the year 1937 and the years that have gone before 
it. The crude death rates are given in Table No. 3 and expressed graphically in Fig. 
No. 1. The tabulation of births and of communicable diseases is given in Tables No. 4 
and 7 respectively. 

None of the communicable diseases visited us during the past year in epidemic pro- 
portions. Reference to mortality records, Table No. 1, will show no deaths from small- 
pox, measles, scarlet fever, or whooping cough. Excluding non-residents, we had 3 
deaths from typhoid fever and 1 from diphtheria. 

Diphtheria 

We had one death from diphtheria. Nineteen cases, excluding non-residents, were 
reported during the year. Immunization at the age of six months is our major objective in 
our efforts against this disease. An attractive greeting card, urging protection against diph- 
theria, is sent to every child on the day it becomes six months old. If this does not pro- 
duce results, a visit by one of our nurses is made in an effort to impress on the mother 
the importance of early immunization. Through the cooperation of each Parent-Teacher 
Association, nearly every pre-school child is examined at a clinic held in each school for 
children who are to enter school the following fall. Schick testing and any necessary 
treatment are stressed in these clinics in a final effort toward immunization before the 
child enters school. Parents are rapidly learning the value of this procedure and their 
cooperation is accordingly more and more helpful each year. 

Typhoid Fever 

For several years prior to 1937, a very high percentage of our typhoid has been among 
the negroes and within the city limits, but last year all of our typhoid deaths were white. 
This is most likely a coincidence but we would like to think that absence of typhoid deaths 
among the colored people may at least partly be due to several years of special effort 
among colored people. Along this line, our comment last year was: "Of 24 cases of 
typhoid occurring during the three years prior to 1936, 21 were within the city and were 
colored. In 1936, we had one white and two colored typhoid patients in the city and one 
white and two colored in the county. For the past two years we have had our colored 
nurses hold numerous small inoculation clinics at colored homes, churches, and lodges 
within the city in an effort to reach those v/ho will not come to the Health Department 
clinic". The numerous small clinics referred to above were not conducted during 1937 
because we had urged against grouping together during the spring and early summer 
because of a threatening epidemic of meningococcic meningitis. However, these clinics 
will be held in the future unless there is some good reason not to hold them. 

Measles 

The close of 1937 made exactly four years since our last epidemic of measles. The 
longer the interval between epidemics, the greater the extent when it does come. Con- 
valescent serum and placental extract for frail and very young exposed children should 
be remembered as a valuable aid. 

[ 1 ] 



Tuberculosis 

Tuberculosis stood fifth among the causes of death last year. There were 6 white 
and 32 colored deaths from this disease during the year. When we consider the degree 
of poverty, ignorance, exposure, other diseases, and hard work to which this race falls 
heir, it would seem that the major part of our time and effort should be spent in testing 
our colored school children and trying to teach all reactors how to avoid becoming clinical 
cases of this disease that works such havoc in their race. To this end printed matter 
from the State Sanatorium is given all positive reactors. 

Enterocolitis 

Fig. No. 4 expresses graphically the decline in the deaths due to enterocolitis under 
two years. Deaths from this cause have been reasonably low for the past eleven years. 
If we exclude non-residents, there were only 4 deaths (all colored) in the city and none 
in the county in 1937. This should be encouraging to our pediatricians, public health 
nurses, and dairy inspector, as they constantly stress the importance of sterilization, 
pasteurization, and strict cleanliness in the preparation and handling of food for infants 
and young children. 

Pellagra 

During 1937, there were 9 cases of pellagra reported with 2 deaths, as compared to 
21 cases reported with 1 death in 1936. Our department is helped very much by the 
home demonstration agent in teaching the importance of a balanced diet in curing and 
preventing pellagra. 

Malaria 

There were no deaths from malaria during the year norf were there any malaria 
surveys made by the Federal, State, or local health units. We did not find in our medical 
care of the indigent sick or have reported to us any areas of malaria concentration any- 
where in the county. However, there can be no neglect of drainage and oiling without 
ample clinical and laboratory evidence of the presence of malaria. 

Meningococcic Meningitis 

During 1936, our department had its first experience with meningitis in anything 
like epidemic proportions. In the early spring of 1937, we had a return of meningitis 
which began to occur with alarming frequency about April 16, with 3 cases. Through 
the State Department of Epidemiology, we secured the services or an epidemiologist from 
the U. S. Public Health Service-Dr. J. P. Leake. Dr. Leake spent Sunday, April 25, 
with the Health Officer, working diligently the whole day in an effort to help control 
the spread of the disease. As in the preceding year, the cases all occurred among negroes 
and seemed to occur most frequently in homes where some member of the household 
was working along the water front. Dr. Leake advised that all the colored people, especi- 
ally in the northern end of town (where most of the cases lived), refrain from any un- 
necessary crowding-especially the ones who worked along the water front and those ex- 
posed to a person who developed the disease. 

As soon as the disease had become epidemic, one of our colored nurses was released 
from all other duties and gave her whole time to visiting suspects-people in homes from 
which cases had been sent to the hospital and convalescing cases. She spent most of 
her time trying to explain to all contacts the importance of avoiding crowding and ex- 
posing other people to known contacts. She performed this rather hazardous duty faith- 
fully until the epidemic subsided completely. 

No churches, Sunday schools, theaters, or public gathering places were closed. Dr. 
Leake recommended discontinuation of weekly meetings of the longshoremen's association. 
The Health Officer attended the next meeting of this organization, asked for and received 
their cooperation in not holding their meetings until the disease subsided. 

In this connection, special mention should be made of the cooperation of the local 
colored newspaper in giving great publicity to the importance of not crowding and in 
encouraging colored people to cooperate with our department in trying to control menin- 
gitis. The epidemic subsided rather abruptly about the middle of May. All cases were 
among negroes. Excluding non-residents, there were 27 cases reported with 6 deaths. 
There were 3 non-resident cases reported with 1 death. The case fatality rate was much 
better than it had been the year before (14 cases with 9 deaths). The James Walker 
Memorial Hospital staff rendered most efficient service to these cases-were strongly 
complimented by Dr. Leake on the way they were handling the cases. 

f 2 ] 



Infant Mortality 

When health workers and statisticians consider anything under fifty a good infant 
mortality rate, we feel that our rate-55.4 for the year, is not a bad record. In fact, ex- 
cept for a rate of 44.8 in 1933, it is probably the best record the department has had. As 
is usually the case, slightly more than half of these infants died before they were one week 
old. This makes us stress the great importance of prenatal care and obstetrical care 
of all pregnant women. In our obstetrical clinic, our prenatal and postnatal nursing 
service, and with literature from the Maternity and Infancy Department of the State 
Board of Health, we try to teach our expectant mothers the importance of diet, personal 
hygiene, and medical care during the whole period of pregnancy and at the time of de- 
livery. We try to talk in the language of our patients and in terms of things within their 
reach. Many of these women cannot afford the proper food, rest, and living conditions. 

The federal government has furnished our clinic a part-time registered nurse, who 
has charge of prenatal patients. She takes a personal interest in every case and has done 
a really worthwhile work among these women. Her work is directly under the physician 
in charge of the clinic and all abnormal conditions are referred to him. This is slow, 
but, we believe, a very effective way to teach proper prenatal care. We believe that 
this work is at least partly responsible for the fact that we have a more favorable infant 
mortality and maternal mortality rate for 1937. This may especially apply to our colored 
maternal mortality rate of 7.5, which is a record for our department. Of course, many 
other factors play their part in this improvement. 

Maternal Mortality 

Reference to Table No. 8 will show considerable improvement in our rate. The 
most marked improvement was in the colored rate which dropped from 11.9 to 7.5. This 
figure with a white rate of 3.8 gives us a total rate of 5.5 against last year's rate of 7.2. 
The last paragraph under Infant Mortality applies here also. 

Degenerative Diseases 

Table No. 1 shows that, as in the past, organic heart disease caused many more 
deaths than any other disease. There may be some encouragement in the fact that 58 
of these people had passed the age of 65, and 65 were in the age group between 45 and 65. 
Deaths from the other degenerative diseases were as follows: Cerebral hemorrhage, 85; 
cancer, 37; and nephritis, 65. In this connection we especially recommend routine 
physical examinations, preventive dentistry, and properly balanced diet. 

Venereal Diseases 

Reference to Fig. No. 13 will show that syphilis and gonorrhea make up a good 
portion of our reportable diseases. There were 408 cases of syphilis and 238 cases of 
gonorrhea reported and probably many cases not reported. Our Venereal Disease Clinic 
has grown so that we give a whole forenoon and part of an afternoon to this work, where 
we formerly gave only an afternoon. 

We hope to receive help from the State (Reynolds Fund) to further extend the facili- 
ties of this clinic in the near future. 

The Assistant Health Officer's report will show the number of Wassermanns, treat- 
ments, etc. 

Increased Length of Life 

Reference to Fig. No. 11 will show a most gratifying increase in the length of the 
lives of our citizens as is indicated by the average age at death. In the twenty-eight 
year period from 1910 to 1937, the average age at death has increased from approxi- 
mately 31 years to 46 years, a gain of 15 years. 

[ 3 ] 



The care of the indigent sick has been heavy as usual, but the W. P. A. has aided 
greatly in providing nurses and office attendants. 

For the fourth time in succession our water has been free from salt the whole year, 
thanks to the dykes and tide-gates built around Toomer's Creek with government funds. 
Reference to the sanitary engineer's report will show that the purification processes at 
the water plant have been most efficient. 

The report of the assistant food and dairy inspector shows that our dairies furnished 
milk of excellent quality the whole year. 

It is impossible to enumerate all of the organizations and individuals that helped 
in public health work, but some of the most notable are the Wilmington Star-News in 
giving publicity; the Parent-Teachers Association in sponsoring the round-up of pre- 
school children and in distributing milk to children infected with tuberculosis; the North 
Carolina Sorosis in conducting a baby clinic; the Rotary Club in conjunction with the 
State Department of Vocational Rehabilitation in conducting an orthopedic clinic; 
the Red Cross Sanatorium in the care of tuberculous patients; and the James Walker 
Memorial Hospital in conducting the isolation ward for communicable diseases. 

The reports of the various administrative subdivisions of the department are given 
as follows: 



It is a pleasure to record the loyalty and enthusiasm with which the members of 
our staff and the W. P. A. workers in our department have performed their duties. 



Assistant Health Officer 

Sanitary Engineer 

Food and Dairy Inspector 

Assistant Food and Dairy Inspector. 

Diagnostic Laboratory 

Public Health Nurses 

Sanitary Inspectors 

Hospital 

Incinerator.- 

Plumbing Inspector 

Mosquito Commission.- 



.Page 

Pages 

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Pages 

.Page 

.Pages 

Page 

.Page 

.Page 

Page 

.Page 



8 
9,10 
11 
12,13 
14 
14 
15 
15 
16 



5 

6,7,8 



Respectfully submitted, 

A. H. ELLIOT, M. D. 

County Health Officer. 



ASSISTANT COUNTY HEALTH OFFICER'S REPORT 
For the Year 1937 
Clinic Report 





White 


Colored 


Total 


Number home visits 


1,060 


759 


1,822 


Number patients treated or examined at office 


2,897 


5,263 


8,160 


Number office visits — 


4,633 


9,698 


14,331 


Number patients treated or examined, county jail 


99 


78 


177 


Number visits to county jail 


99 


Number patients treated or examined, county home 


143 


50 


193 


Number visits to county home 






76 


Number completed antirabic treatments 


6 





6 


Number treatments, hookworm 








Number examinations of prisoners 


149 


142 


291 


Number examinations for marriage 








Number examinations, child for industry 


186 


69 


255 


Number examinations by court order 


5 


9 


14 


Number examinations, admissions to institutions 


29 


2 


31 


Number examinations for lunacy 


22 


17 


39 


Number examinations, postmortems 


8 


12 


20 


Number examinations, teachers 


38 


3 


41 


Number obstetrical cases examined 


136 


301 


437 


Number visits by obstetrical cases 


428 


1,172 


1,600 


School children examined for scabies 


46 


14 


60 


Children examined for other diseases 


331 


306 


637 


Number tonsil examinations 


119 


137 


256 


Number Wassermann tests (state laboratory) 


573 


1,591 


2,164 



Number of Foodhandlers Examined 



Food Establishments. 251 

Restaurants 118 

Dairies 8 

Hotels._ 33 

Homes 360 



Total 771 



Venereal Disease Clinic 





Syphilis 


Gonorrhea 


Chancroid 




W 


B 


W 


B 


W 


B 




M 


F 


M 


F 


M 


F 


M 


F 


M 


F 


M 


F 


New cases attending clinic 


26 


25 


154 


172 


18 


14 


87 


100 


1 





3 







Old cases attending clinic 


136 


235 


493 


826 


5 


12 


26 


49 


2 





1 

















Treatments 














Number doses, arsenicaL 


304 


466 


1,272 


1,918 




















Number doses, bismuth- 


119 


247 


277 


620 


38 


52 


139 


245 


9 





10 






Totals of Venereal Diseases 

Syphilis: New Cases, 377 Old Cases, 1,613 (Doses Arsenicals, 3,961 

\Doses Bismuth, 1,263 

Gonorrhea: New Cases, 219 Old Cases, 92 Treatments, 472 
Chancroid: New Cases, 4 Old Cases, 3 Treatments, 19 

Respectfully submitted, 

JOHN O. FULENWIDER, Jr., M. D. 
Assistant County Health Officer. 

[ 5 ] 



SANITARY ENGINEER'S REPORT 
For the Year 1937 



Dr. A. H. Elliot, County Health Officer, 
Wilmington, N. C. 

Dear Sir: 

The report of the sanitary engineer and the laboratory at the city water purification 
plant for the year 1937 is as follows: 

Water Works 

Blueprints giving complete summaries of all laboratory' results and operating data 
accompany this report. Some of the most important results are given in the tables 
below: 

Operating Statistics 



Water treated, in millions of gallons 711 .440 

Chemicals used, in pounds per million gallons: 

Alum 206 

Lime 140 

Chlorine 4 .4 

Activated Carbon 2 .6 

Wash water, per cent of water treated 1 .67 

Coal, pounds per million gallons 184 

Power, K. W. H. per million gallons 603 



The figures given for coal and power are for low lift pumping only, based on one-third 
total fuel. 

Cost Data 

(Does not include depreciation, interest, or insurance.) 



Low pressure pumping, labor and materials $ 6,967 .08 

Filtration: Chemicals and materials 3,303.08 

Supervision, labor, and laboratory 7, 173 .92 



Total cost of purification.- $17,444.08 

High pressure pumping, labor and materials 20,956.90 



Total cost for year 1937 •_ $38,400.98 

Cost of purification, 1936 $19,434.99 

Total cost for year 1936 $41 ,448 .22 

Total cost per million gallons, 1937. $54 .90 

Cost of purification per million gallons, 1937 24 .94 

Cost of high pressure pumping per million gallons, 1937 29 .96 

Total cost per million gallons, 1936 45 .08 

Cost of purification per million gallons, 1936 21 .14 

Cost of high pressure pumping per million gallons, 1936 23 .94 



It is seen that the total cost was lower than in the previous year while the cost pe r 
million gallons was higher. This was due to the fact that considerably less water 
was pumped in 1937. 711.440 million gallons were treated in 1937 and 936.280 million 
gallons were treated in 1936. The total cost of the coagulant used was less than in any 
year in the last 15. The cost was $2,229.63 in 1937 and $9,440.31 in 1922, the last year 
before the raw water intake was moved to Toomer's Creek. 

16] 



Annual Summary of Laboratory Results on the City Water 





Average 


Maximum 


Minimum 


Raw 


Tap 


Raw 


Tap 


Raw 


Tap 


Color - 


54 


7 


75 


15 


40 


5 


Turbidity 


25 





100 





10 





Total Hardness (Soap) 


H 


31 


14 


40 


8 


26 


Alkalinity 


13 


22 


22 


40 


5 


14 


Chloride 


9 


9 


125 


68 


6 


6 


Free Carbon Dioxide 


8 





20 


4 


3 





pH Value 


6.2 


8.9 


6.6 


9.6 


6.0 


7.5 


Bacteria per ml. 37° C 


218 


2 


3000 


26 


17 





B. Coli per 100 ml 


341.6 


0.006 


780.0 


0.075 


98.6 






The chemical results given above are in parts per million. 



Removal of Bacteria 





Ave. Bacteria 


Ave. B. Coli 




per ml. 37° C. 


per 100 ml. 


Raw water 


218 


341.6 


Basin effluent 


62 


4.9 


Filter effluent 


27 


0.54 


Sterilized effluent (tap) — 


2 


0.006 


Percentage Removal of Bacterid 




Bacteria 


B. Coli 


By sedimentation 


71.6 


98.6 


By nitration 


56.4 


89.0 


By sterilization 


92.6 


98.9 


Total removal. 


99.1 


99.99 



The sanitary quality of the water delivered to the mains was very high throughout 
the year. The filtered water without sterilization easily met the requirements of the 
U. S. Treasury Standards as to bacteriological quality. Some trouble with tastes was 
experienced in the latter part of June, but was of short duration. 



Laboratory 

The following examinations were made in the laboratory by the sanitary engineer: 



Total plant samples, bacteriological 2 , 957 

Water samples from outside sources, bacteriological 1 , 346 

Total water samples, chemical 1 , 529 

Feces for typhoid 38 

Blood for typhoid 14 

Urine for typhoid...- 

Cultures for identification from cadaver 4 



Salt 

Considerable trouble with salt was experienced in 1937. During October and Novem- 
ber it was necessary to operate regularly the gates in the dams at Toomer's Creek. Prac- 
tically no salty water reached the city mains, but constant vigilance was required. Highest 
chloride concentrations observed were 68 parts per million in the tap water, 125 parts 
per million in the raw water, 2,500 parts per million in Cape Fear River at Navassa, and 
5,100 parts per million in North East River at Hilton. During the year 659 tests for 
chlorides were made. 

[ 7 ] 



The dikes and dams at Toorner's Creek were of incalculable value to the people of 
Wilmington, as without them the water would have been absolutely unfit for drinking 
for several weeks, besides causing enormous damage to pipes, tanks, boilers, laundries, 
and ice plants. 

Recommendations 

The following improvements are badly needed at the water purification plant: 

1. Roofs should be repaired, especially that covering the laboratory. 

2. A valve should be installed on the wash water line, preferably a hydraulic valve. 

3. Filter No. 1 should be overhauled. Probably others will need it before the 
year is out. 

4. Stand-by equipment for pumping from Toorner's Creek should be provided. 

5. An electric refrigerator should be provided for the laboratory. 

6. All filters should be equipped with rate-of-flow gauges. 

Respectfully submitted, 
L. I. LASSITER, 

Sanitary Engineer. 



FOOD AND DAIRY INSPECTOR'S REPORT 

For the Year 1937 

Dr. A. H. Elliot, County Health Officer, 

Wilmington, N. C. 
Dear Sir: 

I wish to submit the following report for the year 1937: 



Cattle _ 

Calves 

Goats.... 

Hogs 

Meat products (pounds). .. 
T. B. Tests 

Total 



Passed 


Condemned 


905 


8 


765 


9 


91 





2,295 


24 


5,950 




2,098 




12,104 


41 



Number 
Inspections 

Bakeries 80 

Candy Factories 44 

Commission Houses 290 

Fish andpyster Stalls 510 

Groceries 775 

Hotels .- 113 

Ice Cream Factories 32 

Meat Markets.— 1 , 065 

Milk Stations 38 

Restaurants 1 , 065 

Soda Fountains. 880 

Dairies 168 

Herds 168 

Dogs 470 

Bottling Plants _ 74 

Slaughter Houses 129 

TotaL. 5,901 

Miles Driven.- 14,400 

Respectfully submitted, 
R. P. HUFFMAN, 

Food and Dairy Inspector. 

[8] 



ASSISTANT FOOD AND DAIRY INSPECTOR'S REPORT 
For the Year 1937 



Dr. A. H. Elliot, County Health Officer, 

Wilmington, N. C. 
Dear Sir: 

I respectfully submit the following report for the year 1937: 

Number Samples, Average Bacterial Count, Butter Fat, and Total Solids 
for 1937, of All Dairies Producing Milk Sold in New Hanover County 



NAME 



rade 


Number 
Samples 


Average 
Bacterial 
Count 


Number 
Samples 


Butter 
Fat 


Number 
Samples 


Total 
Solids 


A 


26 


17,000 


25 


3.84 


25 


12.60 


A 


23 


24,000 


22 


3.92 


22 


12.70 


A 


■ 22 


6,600 


22 


4.15 


22 


13.00 


A 


21 


7,000 


21 


4.00 


21 


12.80 


A 


26 


33,000 


26 


4.00 


26 


12.80 


A 


24 


5,900 


24 


4.32 


24 


13.20 


A 


23 


4,000 


22 


4.22 


22 


13.00 


A 


26 


11,500 


25 


4.20 


25 


13.04 


A 


22 


6,600 


21 


4.17 


21 


13.01 


A* 


24 


5,100 


24 


3.70 


24 


12.44 


A 


25 


11,000 


24 


3.70 


24 


12.44 


A* 


26 


8,600 


25 


3.65 


25 


12.40 


A 


21 


16,000 


21 


4.23 


21 


13.08 


A 


20 


5,900 


19 


4.49 


19 


13.40 


A 


23 


2,400 


24 


4.11 


24 


12.93 


A* 


23 


1,500 


23 


4.18 


23 


13.02 


A 


17 


1,700 


17 


4.07 


17 


12.84 


A* 


22 


1,700 


22 


3.88 


22 


12.66 


A 


22 


20,000 


21 


3.85 


21 


12.60 


A* 


25 


8,700 


25 


3.88 


25 


12.66 



Blake, H. C 

Botevsky._ 

Clemmons 

Drevyn 

Dixon..._ 

Garrett 

Harrell 

Home, C 

Home, H. L 

Leeuwenburg Dairy 

McEachern 

McEachern 

Meade 

Smith._ 

Swart 

Swart 

Taylor 

Taylor 

VanderwaL 

White's 



Number of Samples and Bacterial Averages of Milk to Pasteurizing Plant 









Average 


NAME 


Grade 


Number 


Bacterial 






Samples 


Count 



A 


47 


15,000 


A 


47 


24,000 


A 


46 


25,000 


B 


48 


50,000 


B 


24 


14,000 


B 


81 


35,000 


A 


48 


3,700 




20 


75,000 




3 


45,000 



Hermitage 

Invershiel 

Leeuwenburg, John 

Plevier. 

Sanderson 

St. Helena Colony. 

Wood 

OUT OF BUSINESS 

Kromalay 

Quinlivan [ 



Laboratory Report 



Bacterial Analyses j, 

Butter Fat Analyses _ _ 

Total Solids Computed 

Inspections 

Conferences 

Miles Driven.. „ 11,853 

*Pasteurized. 

[ 9 } 



932 
451 
450 
557 
237 



Bacterial Count of All Milk Sold in New Hanover County 



Sold Direct to Consumer 

January 11,000 

February 5,000 

March. 5,900 

ApriL 9,100 

May 5,900 

June 17,000 

July.— 13,000 

August 11,800 

September 5,500 

October 6,000 

November 6,400 

December 3 , 600 



Pasteurized Before Going 
to Consumer 

January 36,000 

February. 12,000 

March 22,000 

April... 25,000 

May. 41,000 

June 32,000 

July 19,000 

August 29,000 

September., 16,000 

October 23,000 

November. 16,000 

December 13,000 



Butter Fat and Total Solids Averages, by Months, of All Milk Sold 
in New Hanover County 



MONTHS 



January. 

February. 

March 

April — 

May. 

June... 

July 

August- 

September. 

October 

November 

December 



Butter Fat 


Total Solids 


Average 


Average 


4.14 


12.97 


4.16 


13.00 


4.06 


12.87 


3.85 


12.65 


4.03 


12.84 


3.98 


12.35 


3.82 


12.60 


3.89 


12.66 


3.58 


12.60 


3.95 


12.72 


4.12 


12.92 


4.42 


13.30 



Bacterial Count Summary, 1937 

(Milk Direct to Consumer) 
60.92% of all samples showed a bacterial count of less than 10,000 per cc. 
77.93% of all samples showed a bacterial count of less than 25,000 per cc. 
11.72% of all samples showed a bacterial count between 25,001 and 50,000 per cc. 
3.45% of all samples showed a bacterial count between 50,001 and 100,000 per cc. 
3.91% of all samples showed a bacterial count between 100,001 and 200,000 per cc. 
.69% of all samples showed a bacterial count between 200,001 and 300,000 per cc. 
.46% of all samples showed a bacterial count between 300,001 and 500,000 per cc. 
1.38% of all samples showed a bacterial count between 500,001 and 1,000,000 per cc. 
.46% of all samples showed a bacterial count of over 1,000,000 per cc. 

Milk Pasteurized Before Going to Consumer 

29.41% of all samples showed a bacterial count of less than 10,000 per cc. 
52.10% of all samples showed a bacterial count of less than 25,000 per cc. 
25.49% of all samples showed a bacterial count between 25,001 and 50,000 per cc. 
9.52% of all samples showed a bacterial count between 50,001 and 100,000 per cc. 
8.12% of all samples showed a bacterial count between 100,001 and 200,000 per cc. 
2.24% of all samples showed a bacterial count between 200,001 and 300,000 per cc. 

.56% of all samples showed a bacterial count between 300,001 and 500,000 per cc. 
1.13% of all samples showed a bacterial count between 500,001 and 1,000,000 per cc. 
.84% of all samples showed a bacterial count of over 1,000,000 per cc. 

Respectfully submitted, 
J. B. EDWARDS, 

Assistant Food and Dairy Inspector. 

[ 10 ] 



DIAGNOSTIC LABORATORY REPORT 
For the Year 1937 





WHITE 


COLORED 


Total 


Pos. 


Neg. 


Pos. 


Neg. 


Throat swabs for Vincent's angina 

Throat cultures for diphtheria 

Sputa for tuberculosis. 

Smears for gonorrhea 

Feces for parasites 

Spinal fluid for meningoccocus 

White blood count 


17 

14P-27E 
1P-3E 
31P-36E 

7 



6 

3 

2 

2 


23 

150P-195E 
5 

134P-135E 
50 
1 


5 
4 
6 
160 


22P-24E 
2 


2 


2 

40P-45E 
6P-8E 
435P-437E 
8P-10E 
7 


47 
270 
22 
768 
67 
32 
8 
3 
2 

27 


Red blood count 






Differential blood count 






Blood smears for malaria 


17 


6 




WHITE 


COLORED 


1,811 


Urinalyses 


500P-647E 


823P-1164E 



Respectfully submitted, 

SARA C. CANTWELL, 
Laboratory Technician. 



[ 11 ] 



WILMINGTON PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING ASSOCIATION 
For the Year 1937 



Communicable Disease 

Diphtheria 

Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever. 

Scarlet fever 

Meningitis 

Measles. 

Whooping Cough— 

Other (specify) mumps 

Chickenpox. 



Immunizations 

Smallpox 

Diphtheria — under 1 year 

Diphtheria — 1 through 4 years. 
Diphtheria — 5 years and over- 
Typhoid Fever 

Other (specify)- 



Tuberculosis 
Individuals admitted to nursing service. 

Visits to private physicians 

Field nursing visits.... 

Other service (specify) X-Rays made.... 



Maternity Service 

Cases admitted to antepartum nursing service 

Visits by antepartum cases to private physicians. 

Field nursing visits to antepartum cases.— 

Office nursing visits by antepartum cases 

Cases admitted to postpartum nursing service 

Nursing visits to postpartum cases 

Other service (specify) 

Midwife visits to office 



Infant and Pre-School Hygiene 

Individuals admitted to medical service 

Individuals admitted to nursing service 

Visits to medical conferences— 

Visits to private physicians 

Field nursing visits 

Other service (specify) 

Individuals admitted to medical service 

Individuals admitted to nursing service 

Visits to medical conferences— 

Visits to private physicians 

Field nursing visits 

Inspections by dentists or dental hygienists.. 
Prophylaxis by dentists or dental hygienists. 
Other service (specify) 



This 
Year 



35 
12 
5 

315 
5 

78 
71 

58 



680 
110 
46 
102 
503 
6 



47 
7 

537 

3 



579 
23 
2,357 
1,817 

554 
1,061 



74 



647 
645 
21 
6,186 



881 
670 
9 

1,683 
524 



Last 
Year 



Total 

all 
C. D. 

Visits 
182 



685 
130 
59 
21 
796 



31 



480 



570 



2,159 
1,494 
442 
916 



69 



651 

334 



5,923 



609 
334 



1,837 
265 



1937 
White 



32 
10 
4 



2 
48 
35 
21 



328 
32 
27 
46 

372 
6 



24 
6 
212 
2 



259 
18 
940 
543 
230 
517 



17 



335 
23 
21 
2,692 



750 
484 
4 

1,396 
440 



1 12 ] 



WILMINGTON PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING ASSOCIATION— Continued 





This 


Last 


1937 


1937 




Year 


Year 


White 


Colored 


School Hygiene 












20 431 


22, 144 


7,485 


12 946 


T*nr?i"\rir?ncjlc 9r1miff"pH td nnrtinff QPT'V/IPP 


1*420 


3 ' 543 


999 


421 


Field nursing visits..- 


3446 


4,' 065 


2,093 


1,053 


Inspections by dentists or dental hygienists 


3,250 


528 


2,694 


556 


Prophylaxis by dentists or dental hygienists.... 


3,410 


649 


2,668 


742 


Other service (specify) 










Classroom health talks 


191 


86 


51 


140 


Attendance 


7,158 


3,265 


1,835 


5,323 






9 80? 


5 425 


3 022 












Admissions to nursing service 


999 


847 


706 


293 


Field nursing visits 


4,142 


4,253 


2,904 


1,238 


Refractions 


8 




7 


1 


Tonsil and adenoid operations 


5 




3 


< PI 2 


Other service (specify) 










Pnmtnnmra hip T^iqpjiqp f^nTitrnl 












569 


606 


350 


219 


Schick positive (under age 10) 


239 


159 


148 


81 


Tuberculin negative (under age 20) 


178 


161 


144 


34 


'"TnVipr'pnl in T^nQiti\7P fnnHpr o nrp 'lOi 




44 


45 


15 












1 -*-r*Ti r\w n PQ frpo fry» pr» f c 










XIlldllLy jTIC Ot^JLLUUlj ctiiU. OCJUUU1 AXjf glClIC 










Children referred for medical care 


5,323 


6,165 


3,105 


2,218 


Children with defects corrected 










Teeth 




360 


371 

Oil 


21 


Tonsils 


200 


181 


146 


54 


Eyes „ 


100 


69 


89 


11 


General Public Health Instruction 














9 101 


ooo 


09? 


1 17Q 

1)1/7 


Administration 










Vi«i1"Q tn crVirvnlc; 


1 041 


825 


644 


397 


Hours in office 


4^466 


2,248 


3,499 


967 


Hours in field 


15,544 


14,049 


10,854 


4,690 


Miles traveled- 


26,935 


20,041 


26,933 




Not-home visits 


790 


523 


320 


570 


Days off duty 


20 




13 


7 


Clinic visits... 


218 


182 


100 


118 



COLUMBIA MUNDS, R. N., 
Supervising Nurse. 



( 13 ] 



JAMES WALKER MEMORIAL HOSPITAL REPORT 
Far the Year 1937 

Dr. A. H. Elliot, County Health Officer, 

Wilmington, N. C. 
Dear Sir: 

We hand you herewith a report of the charity patients admitted and discharged 



for the year 1937: 

Number remaining in hospital January 1, 1937 62 

Number admitted during 1937— 2 , 555 



TotaL.„ 2,617 

Number discharged during 1937 2,571 

Number remaining in hospital January 1, 1938 46 



TotaL__„ 2,617 

Births (included in admissions) 444 (Inc. 19 S. B.) 

Deaths (included in discharges) 192 (Inc. 19 S. B.) 

Charity hospital days for the year 22,686 



Included in these days are 3,318 part pay days. 

Very truly yours, 
JAMES WALKER MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, 
Newton Fisher, Superintendent. 
By James S. Hall, M. D. 



SANITARY INSPECTORS' REPORT 
For the Year 1937 



INSPECTIONS 



City 



County 



Total 



W 



C I Total | W | C I Total | W I C 



Grand 
Total 



Private premises... 

Camp sites 

Swimming pools.... 

Barber shops and 
beauty parlors.. 

Schools 

Public water sup- 
plies 

Excreta disposal... 



Total Inspections. 

New privies installed... 

Privies restored 

New septic tanks in- 
stalled 

New sewer connections 

Sewer connections re- 
stored 

New sewers laid 

Water supplies im- 
proved 

Complaints investi- 
gated 

Houses condemned 

Water samples taken.... 

Quarantines 

Court proceedings in- 
stituted 

Approved individual 
water supplies in 
stalled 

Miles driven by county 
inspector 



10,748 



28 



30 

315 
1,787 



69 



6 
64 

4 
44 

71 

203 



340 
241 



41 



7,316 



17 

112 

9,260 



33 



87 
17 

25 

70 
22 
113 

38 



10 



18,064 



28 



47 

427 
11,047 



102 



6 

66 

91 
61 

96 

273 
22 
453 
279 



51 



2,224 
1 



31 

326 
2,325 



104 
107 

58 



443 
121 



73 



1,988 
1 



52 

93 
1,794 



56 



17 



128 
32 



4,212 
2 



83 

419 
4,119 



144 



104 
145 
101 



571 
153 



73 



12,972 
1 



61 

641 
4,112 



157 



55 
113 

4 
148 

178 

261 



783 
362 



114 



9,304 
1 



69 

205 
11,054 



89 



19 

87 
17 

63 

113 
22 

241 
70 



10 



22,276 
2 

28 



130 

846 
15,166 



246 



55 
132 

91 
165 

241 

374 
22 
1,024 
432 



124 
15,457 



[ 14 ] 



PLUMBING INSPECTOR'S REPORT 
Far the Year 1937 

Dr. A. H. Elliot, County Health Officer, 

Wilmington, N. C. 
Dear Sir: 

I wish to submit the following report for the year 1937: 

No. Fixtures 
Inspected 

Toilets 580 

Bath Tubs 254 

Sinks. 316 

Lavatories 547 

Sewers 59 

Urinals 5 

Floor Drains 24 

Laundry Trays ■ 1 

Showers 29 

Laundry Tubs.— 2 

Relays 1 

Slop Hoppers 16 



Total 1,834 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. W. GRIFFITH, 
Plumbing Inspector of New Hanover County. 



INCINERATOR REPORT 
For the Year 1937 

Number of loads of trash destroyed 26,499 

Number of loads of garbage destroyed 985 

Number of large animals destroyed (horses and cows) 36 

Number of pounds of fish destroyed 5 , 500 

Number of pounds of flower bulbs destroyed 5,600 

Number of pounds of strawberry caps destroyed 16, 100 

Number of pounds of railroad records destroyed 48 , 000 

Number of hogs destroyed (400 lbs.) _ 5 

Average cost per ton refuse destroyed 60c 



I 15 ] 



DRAINAGE SUPERVISOR'S REPORT 
For the Year 1937 

Dr. A. H. Elliot, County Health Officer, 

Wilmington, N. C. 
Dear Sir: 

I wish to submit the following report of work done for the year starting April 1, 
and ending October 31, 1937: 

Number times oiled regular route.. 12 

Number times oiled at Eagle Island 12 

Number times oiled at County Home.... 1? 

Number times oiled at Red Cross Sanatorium.. _ 12 

Number times oiled at Winter Park, Seagate, Wrightsville _ 12 

Number times oiled at Boy Scout Camp 5 

Number times oiled at Greenfield Lake 12 

Number times oiled at Carolina, Wilmington, Kure's Beaches.... 11 

Number times oiled at Dow Chemical Company..... 11 

Number barrels and tanks oiled at Eagle Island 12 times.... 192 

Number places of discarded automobiles oiled 12 times. ._ 4 

Number fire barrels nitrocaked 75 

Number fire barrels oiled 12 times 221 

Number tanks nitrocaked at Cement Products Co .... 42 

Number sand traps oiled 12 times 1,212 

Number gallons No. 4 mosquito oil used .- ..... 6,552 

Number cisterns inspected _ 6 

Number cisterns filled _ 3 

Number cisterns covered 3 

Number basements filled 1 

Number ponds oiled in county 12 times 28 

Number inspections made in county _ 862 

New ditches dug by W. P. A. labor. Miles 2 

Ponds drained by W. P. A. labor 15 

Ponds drained by W. P. A. labor .. ...Acres 24.60 

Swamp drained by W. P. A. labor _ _ Acres 9.1 

Clearing by W. P. A. labor. Acres 3 .8 

Number families visited in county.. _ .— 587 

Number houses screened- 422 

Number houses not screened 165 

Number people visited in county. 2,437 

Number people with symptoms of malaria.. 5 

Number people with no symptoms of malaria 2,432 

Equipment and tools on hand October 31, 1937: 1 Chevrolet truck, 1 trailer, 1 150- 
gallon oil drum, 1 110-gallon oil drum, 38 50-gallon oil drums, 1,500 gallons refuse oil, 1 
crosscut saw, 1 boat, 6 buckets, 4 fertilizer rakes, 3 mud scoops, 1 club ax, 11 pea rakes, 3 
long handle rakes, 4 grass blades, 14 shovels, 18 brush hooks, 2 weed hoes, 2 hay knives, 

4 mattocks, 1 crowbar, 1 grab hook, 2 picks, 1 grind rock, 1 log chain, 1 pike, 1 sod cutter, 

5 knapsack spray cans, 1 funnel. 

Respectfully submitted, 
G. T. MORGAN, 

Drainage Supervisor. 

[ 16] 



TABLE No. 1 

MORTALITY STATISTICS FOR CITY OF WILMINGTON AND NEW HANOVER COUNTY FOR THE YEAR 1937 











CITY 


COUNTY 




DEATHS 


BY AGE 






CAUSES OF DEATH 


1 Coun 




White 


Black 




White 


Black 






















City am 


Last Ye 


M 


F 


M 


F 


Total 


M 


F 


M 


F 


Total 


Under 1 






5-15 


15-25 


25-45 


45-65 


65-100 


Total \11 Causes 


781 


709 


176 


127 


158 


186 


647 


36 


28 


27 




43 


134 


92 


9 


20 


29 


63 


152 


237 


179 


1. Typhoid Fever 


4 1 


1 


2 


1 




1> 


4 1 














1 








H 


1 














































3. Smallpox 










































4. Measles. 




















































































6. Whooping Cough 




22 


































. ... 





7. Diphtheria 


f 


2" 






i '" 




T" 
















i ' 












8. Influenza _ 


6 2 


7 


2> ' 


.__ 




........... 


4 2 






i" 




1 


2" 


2 2 " 












i' 


'" 2 


9. Dysentery. — _ 




_____ 






........... 


































10. Other Epidemic Diseases _ 


7'" 








6 




7»" 












F" 




31" 


zzzz 


2" 


i ' 


zzzzzz. 


zzzz. 


11. Tetanus 


3 1 


1 


j 1 




1 


1 


3 1 










~ 








l l 


1 




1 





12. Pellagra 


3 1 


1 




__._„ 




2i 


2> 










1 






zzzz 






.......... 


2"" 


11 






33 2 


38 1 


r 




3"" 


7 


13 




31" 


4"" 




12i 


20 2 




......... 








is 1 


4 




14 Oth^F^rms^Tulie^uSii 


92 


2 




3" 


4 


7 1 


ji 






1 


2 1 


W 




J~ 


2"" 




1 






1 S Syphilis 


ll 1 


6 


1 




6 1 




9 1 






1 






2 


1> 










5 


5 




16. Cancer and Other Malignant Tumors. 

18. Organic Heart Disease. _ 


45 8 


38' 


6 1 


I45 


3 


I42 
28 


37 s 


2 


5 " 






1 


8 










r~ 


9 1 


20 4 


15" 


92 7 


82 1 


12 1 


132 


24 2 
28 1 


775 


4 1 


2 1 


_____ 




4 


15 2 


li" 


ZZ'Z 






11 


14 


48 2 


28 3 


161" 


137" 


38" 


27 6 


32 1 


125 12 


10 


8 2 


8 




10 


36 2 


2 1 








1 


24 2 


73 s 


6I 3 




31= 


37 6 


7 3 


10 2 


5 


5 


275 




1 


1 




1 


4 


8 4 


i ' 


r~ 


3 1 '" 


2 


1 


5 


10 


20. Other Forms Pneumonia. _ 


50' 


40 7 


72 


6 


15 1 


17 4 


45 7 


2 


2 






1 


5 






4 1 ' 


4 


5' 


14 2 


13 3 


10 


21. Other Respiratory Diseases 
















r " 
















22. Diseases of Stomach .. _ _ 


3 


2 








1 


2 




I".::: 


l"" 




i" 












1 


2 





23. Diarrheal Diseases 


2216 


21" 


7 7 


3 3 


3 


41 


17" 


4> 








5" 


151*2 


W 






lj" 






l 1 


24. Appendicitis and Typhilitis _ 


76 
72 


72 
ll 3 


43 
2 1 


3 3 
1 1 




i" 


7 8 
7 2 













1 1 










2 1 
4 


l 1 




26 C-^osfe^fXivIfr *^" )struct ' on " 


3 1 


3 


2 1 


1 






3 1 






















1 




JI" 


27. Nephritis 


72? 


57 1 


18 3 


15 


_____ 


„„_„. 


60 7 


i" 


3" 


3" 




S 


12 








¥' 


2" 


13' 


30' 


2S» 


28. Diabetes. 


71 


6 3 




2 1 


5 


7 1 
















11 




_i" 


2 


3 




29. Diseases of Women (not cancer) 

30. Puerperal Septicemia. _ _ 


3 1 
42 


52"" 








2 1 

3 2 


3> 

3 2 










i" 










32 


1 
1 






31. Other Puerperal Diseases 

32. Congenital Debility and Malformation 

33. Old Age 


52 


9 e 




V~ 




3 1 


5 2 




















ji 


4 1 






2 


2 


















1 "" 


2 " 














......... 


3 


2 








2" 


2 




i"" 






















34. Suicide.._ 


6 1 


6 


5'" 








6 1 


















.......... 




2 l " 


2"" 




35. Automobile Accidents 


2412 


96 


12 7 


31 


42 


2 2 


21 12 












3 










53 


8 4 


2 1 


7 3 


36. Other Accidents 

37. Homicide _ 


31" 
14 3 


37" 
U« 


8 3 
2 1 


3 


94 
7 1 


3 1 
3 1 


23 s 
12 3 


6 3 








1 


8 3 
2 






3 2 " 


3 


8" 
4' 


5 1 
7 1 


8 2 
3 l 


4 


38. Prematurity 

39. All Other Causes- 


298 
82 30 


in 30 


96 
28 12 


5 2 
15" 


5 1 
18 2 


10 
16* 


29 8 
7727 


11 




..„_... 




.__ 


5 3 


"29 s " 
25 10 


r~ 


5 a "' 


........ 


I 3 " 


._„_._ 


„„._. 


_T 


Total, Excluding Non-Residents.— _ _ 


626 


S95 


118 


92 


137 


163 


510 


26 


22 






41 


116 


50 


7 


12 


18 


40 


132 


205 


162 


Death Rates per 1,000 _ _ 


14.0 


13.3 


11 


.3 


23 


.4 


16.4 


5 


3 


17 


.0 


8.9 



















Non-residents to be deducted in small numerals. 



TABLE No. 2 

COMPARATIVE VITAL STATISTICS, CITY OF WILMINGTON 





1937 


1936 


1935 


1934 


1933 


1932 


1931 


1930 


1929 


1928 


1927 


1926 


1925 


1924 


1923 


1922 


1921 


1920 


1919 


1918 


1917 


1916 


Estimated Populatioa. 


31,445 


31,555 


31,665 


31 '798 42 


31 '780 


31,995 


32,160 


32,270 


32 , 380 


32,490 


32,600 


2,710 


32,820 


32 , 930 


33,040 


33,150 


33 , 260 


33,370 


32,360 


31,844 


31 ,082 


30,320 


Total Live Births 


969 104 


9Q095 


844" 






873 


799 


890 


829 


872 


922 


952 


1,010 


981 


997 


1,059 


1,104 


1,012 


875 


705 


705 


755 


Total Stillbirths 


57 


33 


52 


54 


41 


51 


62 


55 


56 


59 


66 




64 


64 


78 


90 


91 


78 


86 


72 


95 


80 


Deaths — All Ages 


647137 


497 


506 


505 


476 


450 


476 


521 


518 


532 


475 


458 


468 


478 


467 


525 


547 


563 


533 


713 


527 


443 


Deaths — Under One Year 


48 


56 


62 


60 


36 


71 


78 


63 


60 


79 


105 


83 


96 


113 


86 


97 


113 


122 


111 


100 


130 


108 


Infant Mortality Rate 


55.4 


69.4 


80.3 


79.3 


44.8 


81.3 


97.6 


70.7 


73.5 


90.5 


113.8 


87.1 


95.0 


115.1 


86.2 


91.5 


102.3 


120.5 


126.8 


141.4 


184.5 


143.0 


Deaths irom Principal Diseases: 














































Typhoid Fever 


4 l 


1 


21 




4 1 


31 


ji 


2 1 


2i 


2 2 


42 


i 




2 


4 


3 






15 


8 


2 


4 


Smallpox 



































































Measles 











j 


3 














2 


1 








5 








5 











1 





Scarlet Fever 



















2 2 





1 











2 







1 


















Whooping Cough __ 





2 1 


3 2 


92 





31 


• 7 2 


1 








7 


3 


3 





9 


1 





6 


1 


2 


3 





Diphtheria 


1 


2 1 





2 2 


43 


1 


31 


3 2 


4 


6 3 


2i 


5 2 


5 5 




1 


2 




2 


1 





2 





Influenza.. 


42 


7 


10 2 




3 


2 


6i 


8 4 


14i 


41 7 


15 3 


,45 


91 


31 


22 3 


15 


J 


60 


32 


31 


4 





Tuberculosis, All Forms 


20' 


18 


221 


19 


261 


17 


31 


28i 


14 


17i 


22 3 


25 2 


17i 


35 2 


42 2 


35 


39 


41 


48 


49 


52 


43 




37 s 


29 4 


40 


37 4 


33 


28i 


25" 


28 4 


22 5 


25 3 


30 3 


28 3 


32 5 


28 5 


29 2 


35 


24 


21 


21 


22 


19 


17 


Organic Heart Disease 


125^ 


no 9 


113 7 


101 6 


91 6 


797 


74 7 


100 5 


112" 


108 5 


821° 


60 3 


75 5 


70 8 


52 2 


55 


48 


53 


36 


72 


68 


29 


Pneumonia, All Forms 


7212 


66 8 


6411 


15 3 


42 9 


52 5 


62 4 


61 9 


58 9 


7710 


58 7 


69 s 


60i 3 


59 s 


46 4 


68 


50 


44 


56 


225 


58 


46 


Pneumonia, Lobar and 














































Undefined 










30 6 


36 5 


42 4 


39 s 


40 s 


46 6 


32 2 


401 


41 6 


42 4 


36 3 


47 


33 


25 


37 






34 


Pneumonia, Broncho 


27 5 


30 3 


26 4 


l< 5 


12 3 


16 


20 


221 


18i 


31 s 


26 5 


297 


19 7 


172 


10 1 


21 


17 


19 


19 


147 


24 


12 


Diarrhea and Enteritis 














































(Under Two Yrs.) 


15" 


10 7 


15i2 


16 5 


5 1 


18 s 


10 2 


6i 


92 


15 s 


146 


101 


14i 


39 5 


27 4 


23 


47 


22 


39 


55 


52 


37 


Nephritis _ 


60 7 


51 1 


50 3 


70 7 


72« 


691 


65" 


90 9 


92 4 


621° 


51 


58* 


52 4 


50 9 


65 6 


68 


79 


51 


57 


51 


60 


62 


Puerperal State 


8 4 


148 


10 4 


72 


10 4 


51 


131 


14 5 


12 3 


95 


10 2 


10 2 


91 


121 


93 


14 


10 


6 


10 


3 


10 


9 


Communicable Diseases Reuorlci): 














































Typhoid Fever 


9 :l 


52 


8i 


71 


9 


16i 


5 


10 1 


7i 


8 


7 


7 


3 


16 


17 


18 


39 


30 


68 


50 


39 


27 


Smallpox 











1 














21 


13 




6 


66 


28 


5 


1 


6 


23 


1 





7 





Measles 


7 


1 


17i 


101 


1,700 


6 


31 


4 


3 


784 


1,304 


25 


4 


709 


77 


9 


1,469 


12 


17 


124 


445 


75 


Scarlet Fever 


7 


231 


10 


16 2 


32 


39 


36 


44 


37 


17 


38 


3 9 


40 


26 


41 


33 


49 


57 


43 


2 




15 


Whooping Cough _ 


248 


17 


150 


297 


29 


341 


362 


357 


28 


48 


341 


270 


72 


66 


460 


120 


19 


192 


178 


221 


107 


13 


Diphtheria 


20' 


28' a 


5 


29 9 


23 


291 


53 5 


69 7 


93 9 


43 


38 


34 


20 


23 


37 


52 


38 


62 


44 


15 


30 


20 



Non-residents to be deducted in small numerals. 



TABLE No. 3 

CRUDE DEATH RATE PER THOUSAND, CITY OF WILMINGTON 
(Non-Residents Excluded) 



White 


Black 


Total 


21.0 


37.0 


28.5 


15.2 


29^6 


22.0 


11. 1 


01 O 


on o 


13.3 


27.9 


20.2 


12.5 


23.9 


17.9 


10.7 


18.7 


14.5 


12.4 


21.7 


16.8 


20.4 


24.1 


22.2 


13.0 


18.9 


16.2 


12.5 


23.3 


16.9 


13.6 


20.7 


16.4 


11.3 


22.6 


15.8 


9.1 


21.6 


13.8 


9.2 


22.4 


14.5 


9.9 


20.6 


14.3 


10.3 


19.4 


14.0 


9.2 


22.4 


14.6 


13.2 


21.0 


16.4 


11.8 


22.2 


16.0 


11.8 


22.8 


16.2 


10.0 


21.8 


14.8 


10.5 


19.2 


14.1 


11.1 


20.4 


14.3 


12.3 


21.1 


15.1 


12.1 


21.5 


16.0 


12.4 


20.7 


15.7 


11.3 


23.4 


16.4 



1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924. 
1925 
1926. 
1927. 
1928. 
1929 
1930. 
1931. 
1932. 
1933. 
1934. 
1935. 
1936. 
1937. 



TABLE No. 4 



BIRTHS 
CITY AND COUNTY 
For the Year 1937 





White 


Black 


Total 


Grand 
Total 
M.&F. 


M 


F 


M 


F 


W 


B 


W.&B. 


CITY 
















Births (exclusive of stillbirths) 


299 


291 


194 


185 


590 86 


379 18 


969104 


Stillbirths 


7 


5 


23 


20 


14 


43 


57 


COUNTY 
















Births (exclusive of stillbirths) 


6 


6 


8 


9 


12 


17 


29 


Stillbirths 











1 





1 


1 





White 


Black 


Total 


Birth Rate, city alone. _ 


31.7 


29.6 


31.2 


Birth Rate, county outside city._ 


1.3 


4.2 


2.2 


Birth Rate, city and county. 


21.7 


23.4 


22.3 



Total Deaths in City Under One Year of Age to 1,000 Live Births 

(Stillbirths and Non-Residents Excluded) 





Deaths Under 
1 Year 


Total Live 
Births 


Ratio 


This Year 


48 
56 


969104 

90Q95 


55.4 
69.4 


Last Year 





Non-residents to be deducted in small numerals. 



TABLE No. 5 



INFANT MORTALITY, CITY OF WILMINGTON, 1937 





Total 1937 


Total 1936 


WHITE 


COLORED 


DEATHS BY AGE 


Male 


■i 
1 


j Total 


Male 


Female 


Total 


W less than 
S one hour 


C less than 
one hour 


One hour 
to one 
day 


One day 
to one 
week 


One week 
to one 
month 


One month 
to two 
months 


Two 
months 

to six 
months 


Six 
months 
to twelve 
months 


W 


C 


W 


C 


W 


c 


W 


c 


W 


c 


W 


C 


AH Causes. _ _ 

1. Measles 


82 


74 


29 


15 


44 


20 


18 


38 






17 


11 


3 


6 


2 


8 





1 


11 


8 


7 


3 


2. Scarlet Fever.. 















































3. Whooping Cough 















































4. Diphtheria. 

















































5. Influenza 


2 2 


2 


I 1 


""j"f 


2 2 
































2 2 




6. Dysentery 














































7. Erysipelas 
















































8. Meningococci Meningitis.— 
















































9. Tetanus 
















































10. Tuberculosis, Respiratory 












....... 




....... 






























........ 


11. Tuberculosis, Meninges. 


"jji""' 












....... 
































12. Tuberculosis, Other Forms „ 












































13. Syphilis 














































14. Convulsions 








































......... 






15. Bronchitis 


i 


f 




....... 


___ 


....... 


........ 


i 




















.......... 


........ 




........ 


.......... 


16. Broncho Pneumonia 


8 4 


5 


P 








2 


4 
































17. Pneumonia 




2 1 












































18. Diseases of Stomach. 






































.......... 








19. Diarrhea and Enteritis 


. .... 




6 6 




"9-9- 


....... 




....... 
































20. Congenital Malformation 


3 


1 


































} 




21. Congenital Debility _ 








........ 






...... 










....... 




......... 




..... 


.... 














22. Prematurity... 


35 10 


""321V 


ii'is" 


5 2 


16 s 


-gj 




"192" 


""42" 




ll 8 


























23. Injury at Birth 


4* 


8 2 


3 3 


4 4 








2 2 


2 2 






















24. Other Diseases of Infancy 












































25. External Causes 

26. Unknown or IU Denned 




2 " 
























......... 


........ 


.... 








......... 


........ 


......... 




27. All Other Causes.— 

Total, Non-Residents Excluded 

Total Live Births 


........... 

48 
969 104 


10' 
56 


7 


....... 

7 


...... 

14 


....... 

16 


....... 

18 


...... 

34 


....... 




........ 

8 


......... 

9 


......... 


6 









......... 




1 


7 


2 


......... 


Mortality Rates per 1,000 


55.4 


69.4 











































Non-residents to be deducted in small numerals. 



TABLE No. 6 



CARE OF MOTHERS AT TIME OF BIRTH OF THEIR CHILDREN, 1937 





CITY 




COUNTY 








WHITE 


COLORED 








WHITE 


COLORED 






lty Birtl 






















Births 






















ty Births 




and Com 


and Com 




.S 


■a 






irths 








City 














irths 








Coun 




City 


City 




Live B 


Stillbir 


' Total 




Live B 


StiUbir 


Total 




Total 


Total 




i 


Stillbir 


Total 




Live B 


Stillbir 


Total 




Total 


Total 


Total 


Total 


Delivered by physicians in hospitals _ 

Delivered by physicians in homes 


564 


13 


577 


95.5 


324 


34 


358 


84.8 


935 


91.1 
























935 
58 




21 


1 


22 


3.6 


11 


6 


17 


4.0 


39 


3.8 








9 


75.0 


9 




10 


55.5 


19 


63.3 


5.5 


Total delivered by physicians. _ 


585 


14 


599 


99.1 


335 


40 


375 




974 


94.9 




9 




9 


75.0 


9 




10 


55.5 


19 


63.3 


993 


94.0 


Delivered by midwives 


5 




5 


43 


3 


46 


10^9 


51 


4:9 




3 




3 


25.0 






44.4 


11 


36.6 


62 
1 


5.8 


Unattended. 
















.2 
























Total Births 


590 


14 


604 




379 


43 


422 


1,026 






2 




12 




17 


1 


18 




30 




1,056 







































TABLE No. 7 
COMMUNICABLE DISEASES REPORTED DURING YEAR 1937 



CITY 



White Black 



M 



M 



COUNTY 



White Black 



M 



M 



TOTAL 



City 



County 



Diphtheria - 

Chickenpox.„ 

Scarlet Fever 

Typhoid Fever 

Paratyphoid 

Typhus Fever 

Malaria 

Meningitis 

Infantile Paralysis- 
Pellagra 

Pneumonia 

Septic Sore Throat. 
Whooping Cough..... 

Tuberculosis 

Influenza 

Measles 

German Measles 

Smallpox 

Gonorrhea... 

Syphilis 

Chancroid 



42 
74 
3 
3 
l 1 
2 



10 2 
72 
2 

3 2 



2 

16 




20 4 
167 
7 

93 
l 1 
3 



3 
35 
6 
2 
1 
1 



22 1 



114 1 
2 



1 

127 
5 



1 

50 
3 1 



57 
5 2 



5 1 



29 3 
2 1 
5 
2 
1 

248 
34 
1 
7 
7 



1 

107 
144 



14 

29 



68 
111 



103 
188 
1 



15 
30 



13 
31 



202 
336 
2 



36 
72 



Non-residents in small numerals 



TABLE No. 8 



MATERNAL MORTALITY RATES FOR PAST TWENTY-FOUR YEARS 
In Five and One Year Periods 
(Per 1,000 Live Births) 
Wilmington and New Hanover County 







LIVE BIRTHS 




STILLBIRTHS 






















Grand 












Total 






Total 


Total 




White 


Rate 


Colored 


Rate 


Live 


White 


Colored 


Still- 














Births 






Births 




1914-1918 


2,426 


13.6 


2,229 


12.1 


4,655 


119 


383 


502 


5,157 


1919-1923 


3,587 


11.1 


2,455 


14.2 


6,042 


102 


279 


381 


6,423 


1924-1928 


3,342 


8.9 


2,232 


15.6 


5,574 


93 


194 


287 


5,861 


1929-1933 


2,813 


9.5 


1,831 


21.8 


4,644 


112 


183 


295 


4,939 


TOTAL 


12,168 


10.6 


8,747 


15.6 


20,915 


426 


1,039 


1,465 


22,380 


Total Pate Over 70 Vear PerioH_ 








12.7 


1934 


503 35 


4.2 


343 7 


11.9 


846 42 








Total Pate 1934 








7.4 


1935 


52763 


6.4 


365 9 


8.4 


892 72 


17 


36 


53 


Total Pate 1035 


7.3 


1936 


58482 


3.9 


349 13 


11.9 


933 95 


17 


30 


47 


Total Pate 1Q3rt 




7.2 


1937 


602 8 6 


3.8 


396 18 


7.5 


99gi04 


14 


44 


58 


Total Pate 1937 

























CAUSES OF MATERNAL DEATHS FOR PAST TWENTY-FOUR YEARS 





Eclampsia 


Septic Infection 


Hemorrhage 


All Other Causes 


Total 






















White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 




1914-1918 


17 


13 


4 


5 


3 


3 


9 


6 


60 


1919-1923 


17 


14 


5 


6 


6 


2 


12 


13 


75 


1924-1928 


12 


11 


2 


13 


3 


3 


13 


8 


65 


1929-1933 


8 


14 


6 


10 


2 


4 


11 


12 


67 


TOTAL 


54 


52 


17 


34 


14 


12 


45 


39 


267 


1934 


l 1 


1 


l 1 


3 2 


l 1 


1 


2 


32 


13 7 


1935 


3 1 


l 1 




3 1 






2 1 


1 


10 4 


1936 


2 1 


2 1 


2 2 


3 




l 1 


43 


14 8 


1937 


1 


l 1 


2 1 




2 


2 1 


l 1 


94 















Non-residents in small numerals. 



LX i 


Fjg. No. 1 

Crude Death Rate P 


IR Thousand 












City of Wilmington 




























^ /», 























— 




Colored . . 

Wh 1 TE 


! 1 1 I 


! L L..J._. 




i ■■■ \zz 


i i L L_— 





Qi 



~W5 



1910 

330 



191 p 



1920 



1925 



1930 



Fig. No. 2 


Death Rates For Tue 
New Hanover County 


ERCULOSIS, rtLL FORMJ 

Including City of Wi 


(Per Hundred Thousa 
lmington 


nd) 










\. — 




i 4 
















\ 














x w„ 


/colored — 

Total , , , „ 

,Vhite 

































270 

210 
150 

90 




375 
300 

225 

150 
75 



t-A- 


Entef 


o Colitis 
(Per 


Death Rati 
Hundred Ti 


, I TY OF 

iousand) 


WlLMINGTOI 






\ 


















\ 














\ 


H 








































I I I I 


MM 


Mil 


j Mr 


MM 


MM 





Mala 


ua Death 1 
(Per Hundi 


^ate, City 
iED Thousa 


OF WlLMIN 

jd) 


ITON 




M 


























































TV- 


K 


w 


W 


VlTT" 


ml 


_ rrTT _ 


MIL 







1910 



1915 



1920 



"1925 



1940 



Fig 


. No. 6 


Organic heart '. 
City of Wilm 


HSEASE DEATH R 
MGTON 


ATE 


y 
y 


(Per Hun; 


ired Thousand) 


1 




















V — 


















/ 












__i_J_J_J__ 


Ll. i • .1 - 


-Mi J 







160 



1 I I i r 



1920 



1925 1930 1 935 



Fig. No 


Seasonal Incidence of Deaths 1925 to 1937 
New Hanover County Including City of Wiuiin gtcn 


Rates Per Thousand 

. . j 


















































































Jan j Feb I Mar j Apr (May |June (July j Aug (Sept ! Oct j Nov | Dec 



Fig. No. 7 
Infant Mortality Rate : 



ity of Wilmington 



900 
750 
600 
400 
300 
150 



7 \WJi 



Fig. No. 9 
Degenerative and Acut^ Infectious Dise/ 
anover county Inc 



/ \ Citv of Wilmington 



Degenerative . 
Acute Infect io 



1920 



J L 



"T92T 



E Death Rates 



yi 



T930 - ""' 



Fig. No. 12 


Maternal Death Rate, All Cau 
New Hanover County Including 


;es (Per 10C0 Live Births) 
City of Wilmington) 






















































































• 1 ! 1 L L_ 

I ! i i " I r 1 " 


— 1 J J l 

i — i — i r~ 


1-~ ' _L__ 

\~ i r r — - 


L___L X- 

I ! I I 


! f 

I — - I I 1 



1914 1920 1925 1930 1935 1937 



Consolidated Board of Health 

WILMINGTON AND NEW HANOVER COUNTY 
NORTH CAROLINA 



ADDISON HEWLETT, Chairman 
Chairman, Board County Commissioners 

H. M. ROLAND, THOS. E. COOPER 

Superintendent Public Instruction Mayor, City of Wilmington 

W. HOUSTON MOORE, M. D. J. C. WESSELL, M. D. 

H. L. KEITH, D. D. S. 

OFFICERS, EMPLOYEES, AND AFFILIATES 

A. H. Elliot, M. D Health Officer 

John O. Fulen wider, Jr., M. D Assistant Health Officer and County Physician 

R. P. Huffman, D. V. M Food and Dairy Inspector 

L. I. Lassiter Sanitary Engineer 

J. B. Edwards Assistant Food and Dairy Inspector 

Mrs. Lamont Smith Secretary- 
Mrs. Sara Cantwell Laboratory Technician 

J. W. Griffith Plumbing Inspector 

PUBLIC HEALTH NURSES 

Miss Columbia Munds ..Supervisor 

Paid by Ministering Circle 

Mrs. Addie Peiffer District No. 1 

Paid by Ministering Circle 

Miss Georgia Ezzell County Nurse 

Paid by Board of Health 

Miss Zou Mercer _ District No. 4 

Paid by Wilmington Chapter Red Cross and by Wilmington 
Public Health Nursing Association 

Mrs. Margaret Nixon. District No. 3 

Paid by Wilmington Public Health Nursing Association 

Mrs. Jeannette Hall County Nurse 

Paid by Board of Health 

Miss Dorothy Bland District No. 2 

Paid by Board of Health 

Clifford Richardson _ District No. 6 

Paid by Board of Health 

Alice Crawley. _ District No. 7 

Paid by Board of Health 

I 

SANITARY INSPECTORS 
W. H. Hancammon H. W. Hunter 

F. P. Blanchard Porter Wagstaff 

W. C. Haas T. L. Jenkins 

CD. Rivenbark, Superintendent Incinerator 



White Colored Total 

Population Rural New Hanover,~County 9 , 190 4 , 141 13,338 

Population City of Wilmington 18 , 604 12 , 836 31, 445 

Total population City and County.„ 27 , 791 16,972 44, 784 

Annual appropriation to Health^ Department $46,944.70 

Appropriation to New Hanover County Mosquito Commission 2,800.00 

Expeditures of Wilmington Public Health Nursing Association 

(Contributions) 5,566.11 



Total Official Agencies _ $55,310.81 

Expense of trash, garbage, and^scavenging collections is not included in health appro- 
priations. 



Wilmington's milk supply comes entirely from tuberculin tested cows. 
Wilmington has seventy-one miles of sewer mains. 

Wilmington has an incinerating plant for the destruction of all garbage and refuse. 
Wilmington is better drained than any southern coastal city. 

Wilmington capital has supplied modern and up-to-date equipment for pasteurization 
of milk, and cold storage of meats and perishable foods. 

WILMINGTON SUPPLIES ITS CITIZENS WITH SAFE AND WHOLESOME 
WATER. 

New Hanover County has supplied every school, white and colored, with sanitary toilets. 



5 



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