PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND
MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID
OUR COUNTRY'S FISHES
How TO KNOW THEM.
H (Bufoe to all tbe ffisbes of Great Britain,
W. J. GORDON,
AUTHOR OF " OUR COUNTRY'S FLOWERS," " OUR COUNTRY'S BIRDS,
" OUR COUNTRY'S BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS,"
"OUR COUNTRY'S SHELLS," ETC.
WITH EVERY SPECIES ILLUSTRATED IN COLOUR,
AND MANY SKETCHES IN OUTLINE
SlMPKiN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT & CO., LIMITED.
ur Country's Series.
By W. J. GORDON.
Eat h with 33 coloured plates and other
illustrations. Crown 8vo, 6/- each.
Also in a leather binding.
Our Cnun rv's F owers and How to
Kit nv Trie i. A complete Guide
to tne Flivvers and F^ rns of Great
Our Ci'untry's Birds and How to
Know Them. A Guide to all the
Birds of Great Britain.
Our Country's Butterflies and
Moths and How to Know Them.
A Guide to the Lepidoptera of
Our Country's Shells and How to
Know Them. A Guide to the
Our Country's Fishes and How to
Know Them. A Guide to all the
Fishes of Great Britain.
THIS handbook is on a different plan to that of any other of
the very numerous books on fishes and fishing. Its object
is the ready identification of our native species, whether sea-
water, fresh-water, or estuarine, the method being similar to that
of the other volumes of the series, of which this is the fifth. As
the number of species found in British waters is not large, space
has been found for a series of short notes, as in the case of
Our Country's Birds, which not only confirm the identification
but may prove useful to net and line fishermen of every degree.
The tabular chapters include a long index of local names, a
systematic table of all the species, and a series of keys to
the sub-classes, orders, families, genera, species, and note-
worthy varieties, arranged in such a way that the task of finding
out the fish can be begun at any point, the full description
being obtained by combining the distinctive characteristics given
at each step. The orders of the fishes are not difficult of recog-
nition, the families soon become familiar, and in ordinary
practice the fish it is desired to identify is not unlike another
that is known, so that in most cases all that is needful is to
refer to the specific or generic distinctions without having to
traverse the whole of the ground ; and of these only such are
given in tabular form as are readily observable om the spot.
The concluding chapter contains an alphabetical list of specific
names, including many now going out of use, so that the book
liay serve as a companion to the important works of Day,
Couch, Yarrell, and others.
The classification of the fishes is still under revision, and is
likely to remain so for a considerable time, but the system herein
is based on the most recent, and was adopted as convenient for the
purposes of the book. The list contains the usual number of
species included on the strength of one occurrence only in the
hope of more, but there seemed to be enough of these single
specimen claims without recording the very latest which, though
interesting, are certainly beyond the scope of a compact manual
W. J. G.
I. LOCAL AND POPULAR NAMES
II. THE COLOURED PLATES ......
Plate I., figures i to 7.
Plate II., figures 8 to 16.
Plate III., figures 17 to 23.
SPARID^:, SCORP^NID^:, SCLENIDJE,
Plate IV., figures 24 to 30.
CARANGID^:, CYTTID.E, STROMATEID^.
Plate V., figures 31 to 35.
Plate VI., figures 36 to 43.
Plate VII., figures 44 to 53.
SCOMBRID.E, TRACHINIDJE, LOPHIID^),
Plate VIII., figures 54 to 62.
COTTID^:, DACTYLOPTERID^E, CYCLOP-
Plate IX., figures 63 to 74.
Plate X., figures 75 to 84.
Plate XL, figures 85 to 90.
THE COLOURED PLATES Continued.
Plate XII., figures 91 to 98.
Plate XIII., figures 99 to 105.
GOBIESOCID^:, TRACHYPTERID^, LA
Plate XIV., figures 106 to 113.
Plate XV., figures 114 to 124.
SYNGNATHID.E, BALISTID^E, DIODON-
Plate XVI., figures 125 to 129.
Plate XVII., figures 130 to 135.
Plate XVIII., figures 136 to 144.
Plate XIX., figures 145 to 151.
Plate XX., figures 152 to 157.
Plate XXI., figures 158 to 165.
Plate XXII., figures 166 to 173.
Plate XXIII. , figures 174 to 184.
Plate XXIV., figures 185 to 194.
ESOCID.E, SCOPELID^:, STERNOPTYCHID^),
THE COLOURED PLATES Continued.
Plate XXV., figures 195 to 201.
Plate XXVI., figures 202 to 212.
Plate XXVII., figures 213 to 221.
SALMONID^E, ACIPENSERID^E, CHIM^E-
Plate XXVIII., figures 222 to 226.
Plate XXIX., figures 227 to 230.
LAMNID.E, NOTIDANID^, SCYLLIID^.
Plate XXX., figures 231 to 234.
Plate XXXI., figures 235 to 240.
SPINACID.E, SQUATINID^:, RAIID^E.
Plate XXXII., figures 241 to 246.
Plate XXXIII., figures 247 to 252.
RAIID^, TORPEDINHXE, MYLIOBATID^E,
III. SORTATION 17
IV. TABULAR SCHEME 45
V. IDENTIFICATION . . . . . . . .51
VI. SUB-CLASSES AND ORDERS 53
VII. ORDERS AND FAMILIES ....... 55
VIII. FAMILIES AND GENERA 63
IX. GENERA AND SPECIES 71
X. SPECIFIC NAMES . ^ . . t ^ . . , 145
FINS OF PERCH . . . . . . .19
LATERAL LINE ....... 20
BRANCHED RAY ....... 21
SCALE OF THORNBACK . . . . . .21
UPPER JAW OF MALE THORNBACK . . . .21
CTENOID SCALE . .' . . . . .22
CYCLOID SCALES ....... 22
CARDIFORM TEETH ...... 25
HOMOCERCAL TAIL ...... 25
HETEROCERCAL TAIL ...... 25
SHIELD OF STURGEON ...... 26
TEETH OF ANGLER .... .29
HINGED TOOTH OF ANGLER . . . . 30
HEAD OF BARBEL ...... 31
THORACIC VENTRALS ...... 32
ABDOMINAL VENTRALS ...... 33
TEETH OF HAKE ...... 34
TEETH OF CAT-FISH . -35
TEETH OF BALLAN WRASSE . . < . -37
UPPER JAW OF PIKE ... -3^
DENTARY OF PIKE ... 39
LOWER PHARYNGEAL TEETH OF CARP . 39
SKULL OF PERCH ...... 42
PREMAXILLARY, MAXILLARY, AND DENTARY OF SALMON . 43
GILL ARCHES ... .43
OTOLITH OF CODFISH ...... 44
LOCAL AND POPULAR NAMES,
T^HIS list contains all the names commonly borne by the
British fishes. It will be noticed that some fishes have many
names, and many have the same name, so that to be sure of
the fish it would be as well to refer to all the numbers in
cases where two or more are given, The numbers refer to the
coloured plates, and are those adopted throughout.
Bass, Stone, 6
Bastard Rig, 225
Allis Shad, 193
Bastard Turbot, 152
Bearded Loach, 184
Ancient Wife, 106
Bloch's Topknot, 154
Angel Shark, 237
Blue Back, 13]
Blue Cap, 196
Armed Gurnard, 59
Blue Lump, 60
Atherines, 83, 84
Blue Poll, 197
Axillary Bream, 16
Blue Roach, 174
Black Bream, 10
Blue Shark, 222
Blue Skate, 238
Black Jack, 131
Ballan Wrasse, 104
Black Nun, 131
Black Pollack, m
Bone Dog, 233
Bonetickle, 91 -95
Bonito, Belted, 42
Bonito, Plain, 43
Bonnet Fleuk, 152
Blenny, Butterfly, 79
Blenny, Montagu's, 77
Blenny, Smooth, 78
Boyer's Atherine, 84
Basking Shark, 228
Blenny, Viviparous, 82
Blenny, Yarreil's, 80
LOCAL AND POPULAR NAMES.
Bream, Axillary, 16
Bream, Black, 10
Bream, Couch's Sea, 12
Bream, Lake, ISO
Bream, Ray's, 32
Bream, Sea, 14
Bream, Spanish, 15
Bream, White, 181
Bream, Yellow, ISO
Broad-nosed Pipe Fish,
Brown Shark, 229
Bullhead, Sea, 49
Bull Huss, 231
Bull Knob, 43
Bull Trout, 198
Burton Skate, 240
Butter Gunnel, 81
Captain, Long-finned, 57
Carp, 14, 169
Carp Bream, 180
Carp, Crucian, 170
Carp, Golden, 171
Catfish, 75, 142, 231
Cat, Sea, 75
Centrolophus, Cornish, so
Char, Alpine, 206
Char, American, 212
Char, Cole's, 211
Char, Gray's, 210
Char, Killin, 209
Char, Welsh, 207
Char, WUlughby's, 208
Char, Windermere, 203
Cock Paddle, 60
Cock Peddle, GO
Conner, 2, los
Cony Fish, 136
Cornish Salmon, 133
Cornish Sucker, 99
Cottus, Four-horned, 51
Couch's Sea Bream, 12
Craig Fluke, 159
Cuckoo Gurnard, 53
Cuckoo Ray, 247
Cuckoo Skate, 247
Culls, Tom, 48
Dab, Lemon, 158
Dab, Long Rough, 150
Dab, Pole, 159
Dab, Smear, 158
Dace, Salmon, 2
Dace, Sea, 2
Daddy Ruffe, 4
Darwin Herring, 193
Deal Fish, 102
Devil, Sea, 49
Dog, Ray-mouthed, 225
Dog Fish, 233
Dog Fish, Black-mouthed,
Dog Fish, Large Spotted,
Dog Fish, Picked, 233
Dog Fish, Spotted, 230
Dragonet, Sordid, 73
Dragonets, 72, 73
Dusky Dragonet, 72, 73
Dusky Perch, 5
Dusky Skulpin, 72
Eagle Ray, 250
Eckstrom's Topknot, 153
Eel Pout, 82, 136
Eel, Sand, 145147
Electric Ray, 248
Father Lasher, 49
Fiery Flaw, 252
File Fish, 121
Fire Flare, 252
Fishing Frog, 47
Flair Tinker, 238
Fleuk, Long, 150
Fluke, Craig, 159
Fluke, Pole, 159
Fluke, Sail, 155
Flying Fishes, 89, 90
Forkbeard, Lesser 141
Forked Hake, 134
Fox Shark, 227
Freshwater Herring, 215
LOCAL AND POPULAR NAMES.
Friar Skate, 240
Frog Fish, Gl
Fuller's Ray, 242
Gape Mouth, 2
Gar Pike, 87
Gemmeous Dragonet, 72
Gillaroo Trout, 204
Gilthead, is, 108
Globe Fish, 122
3oby, Black, 65
Goby, Four-spotted, 69
Goby, One-spotted, GG
Goby, Painted, 68
Goby, Rock, 65
Goby, Speckled, 67
Goby, Spotted, 67
Goby, Transparent, 70
Goby, Two-spotted, G3
Golden Carp, 171
Golden Maid, 108
Goldsinny, Jago's, no
Greater Flying Fish, 89
Green Cod, 131
Greenland Shark, 235
Green Pollack, 131
Green Wrasse, 100
Grey Mullet, 85
Ground Gudgeon, 134
Groundling, 65, 184
Guard Fish, 87
Gudgeon, Ground, 184
Gudgeons, Sea, 63-71
Gunnel, Butter, 81
Gunnel, Spotted, 81
Gurnard, Armed, 59
Gurnard, Grey, 55
Gurnard, Lanthorn, 57
Gurnard, Red, 53
Gurnard, Rock, 52
Gurnard, Sapphirine, 54
Gurnard, Shining, 57
Gurnard, Streaked, 52
Gurnard, Swallow, 54
Haddock, Jerusalem, 33
Haddock, Norway, 19
Hake, Forked, 134
Hake's Dame, 134
Headed Dace, 175
Hebridal Smelt, 219
Hog-backed Trout, 205
Hook Nose, 58
Horned Ray, 251
Horse Mackerel, 24
Hound, Nurse, 231
Hound, Rough, 230
Hound, Smooth, 225
Hull Cock, 225
Huss, Bull, 231
Huss, Robin, 230
Jack Barrel, 178
Jack Ruffe, 4
Jack Sharp, 178
Jago's Goldsinny, no
John Dory, 29
King of the Breams, 18
King of the Herrings,
King of the Mullets, 2
King Fish, 33
Knoud : 55
Lake Bream, 180
Lake Trout, 203
Lantern, 155, 156
Lanthorn Gurnard, 57
Launce, Larger, 145
Launce, Lesser, 146
Launce, Smooth, 147
Lee Loach, 184
Lemon Dab, 153
Lemon Sole, 150, 155, 158,
Lesser Grey Mullet, 86
Little Sole, 165
Livery Fish, 107
Loach, Bearded, 18*
i Loach, Lee, 184
Loach, Spined, 183
LOCAL AND POPULAR NAMES.
Logge, Tommy, 48
Long-finned Captain, 57
Long Nose, 87
Long-nosed Skate, 241,242
Long Rough Dab, 150
Lump Fish, 60
Lump Sucker, 60
Mackerel Guide, 87
Mackerel, Horse, 24
Mackerel Midge, 137140
Mackerel Scout, 87
Mackerel, Spanish, 38
Mackerel, Speckled, 37
Manta Fish, 251
Mary Sole, 155
May Skate, 240
Merry Sole, 155
Miller's Dog, 223
Miller's Thumb, 48
Muller's Topknot, 154
Mill Skate, 250
Monkflsh, 47, 237
Mullet, Grey, 85
Mullet, Lesser Grey, 80
Mullet, Red, 8
Mullet, Striped Red, 9
Mullet, Unbearded, 52
Mullet, White, 2
Nass Fish, 47
Needle Fish, 115
Ness Hound, 231
Northern Chimsera, 221
Norway Haddock, 19
Norwegian Carp, 19
Nurse Dog, 231
Nurse Hound, 231
Oblong Sunflsh, 124
Ocean Pipefish, lie
Old Ewe, 106
Old Wife, 10, 87, 106
Ophidium, Bearded, 143
Owl, Sea, 60
Ox Ray, 251
Ox Sole, 155
Painted Ray, 245
Penny Dog, 223
Perch, Dusky, 5
Pike Dog, 223
Pike, Gar, 87
Pike, Saury, 88
Pike, Sea, 87
Piked Dog, 233
Pilot Fish, 26
Pink, 178, 195
Pipe Fish, Broad-nosed,
Pipe Fish, Deep-nosed,
Pipe Fish, Greater, 115
Pipe Fish, Ocean, 116
Pipe Fish, Shorter, 116
Pipe Fish, Snake, 117
Pipe Fish, Straight-nosed,
Pipe Fish, Worm, us
Pocket Fish, 47
Pole Dab, 159
Poll, Blue, 197
Pollack, Black, isi
Pollack, Green, m
Polly Bait, 67
Poor Cod, 128
Pout, Whiting, 127
Prussian Carp, 17
Queen Sole, 155
Rabbit Fish, 221
Rainbow Wrasse, 113
Rat, Sea, 221
Ray, Blunt-nosed, 243, 214
Ray, Cuckoo, 247
Ray, Electric, 248
Ray, Fuller's, 242
Ray, Homed, 251
LOCAL AND POPULAR NAMES.
Ray, Long-nosed, 241
Sand Eel, Lesser, 146
Ray, Ox, 251
Sand Eels, 145147
Ray, Fainted, 245
Sand Launces, 145147
Ray, Shagreen, 212
Sand Sucker, 150
Ray, Spotted, 244
Sapphirine Gurnard, 54
Ray, Starry, 246
Ray, Sting, 252
Saury Pike, 88
Ray, Thornback, 243
Scabbard Fish, 23
Ray, Whip, 250
Ray-mouthed Dog, 225
Ray's Bream, 32
Red Band Fish, 74
Red Eye, 177
Scorpion, Sea, 49
Red Fish, 53
Red Gurnard, 53
Sea Bream, 14
Red Lump, 60
Sea Bream, Black, 10
Red Mullet, 8
Sea Bream, Couch's. 12
Sea Bullhead, 49
Ribbon Fish, 103
Sea Crow, 55
Sea Dace, 2
River Bullhead, 48
Sea Devil, 49
Sea Fox, 227
Roan Fleuk, 151
Sea Gudgeons, 6371
Robin Huss, 230
Sea Horse, 119
Rock Cook, 112
Sea Needle, 87
Sea Owl, 60
Sea Pert, 33
Sea Pike, 87
Sea Rat, 221
Sea Scorpion, 49
Sea Sheep, 20
Rock Salmon, 75, 131
Sea Snail, 01
Roker, 238247, 250252
Sea Snipe, 98
Sea Toad, 49
Sea Trout, 196
Rough Dab, 150
Sea Woodcock, 9
Rough Hound, 230
Row Hound, 230
Rudder Fish, 26
Shad, AUis, 193
Shad, Twait, 194
Sail Fluke, 155
St. Mary's Trout, 139
St. Peter's Fish, 29
Shagreen Ray, 242
Salmon, Cornish, 133
Salmon Dace, 2
Shark, Basking, 228
Salmon, Rock, 75, 131
Shark, Blue, 222
Salmon, White, 2
Shark, Brown, 229
Shark, Fox, 227
Shark, Greenland, 235
Shark Ray, 237
Shark, Skate-toothed, 225
Shark, Spinous, 236
Shark, Spotted, 230
! Sharpling, 9195
Silvery Gade, 139
Skate, Blue, 238
Skate, Burton, 240
Skate, Cuckoo, 247
Skate, Flapper, 239
Skate, Grey, 233
Skate, Long-nosed, 241
Skate-toothed Shark, 225
Skittle Dog, 233
Skulpin, Yellow, 72
Skulpins, 72, 73
Smear Dab, 158
Smelt, Hebridal, 219
Smooth Blenny, 78
Smooth Hound, 225
Smooth Sand Eel, H7
Snail, Sea, 61
Snake Pipe Fish, 117
Snipe, Sea, 98
Sole, Lemon, 150, 155, 158,
Sole, Little, 165
Sole, Merry, 155
Sole, Ox, 155
Sole, Red, 165
Sole, Variegated, 164
Sole, White, 155
LOCAL AND POPULAR NAMES.
Sole, Witch, 159
Sordid Dragonet, 73
Spanish Bream, 15
Spar Dog, 233
Spear Dog, 233
Speckled Goby, 67
Spur Dog, 233
Spur Fish, 233
Starry Ray, 246
' Stickleback, Fifteen
Stickling, 1, 91-95
Sting Ray, 252
Sting Fish, 46, 49
Stone Bass, 6
Stone dagger, 60
Stone Loach, 184
Striped Red Mullet, 9
Striped Wrasse, 107
Sucker Common, 100
Sucker Cornish, 99
Sucker, Lump, 60
Sucker, Montagu's, 62
Sucker, Unctuous, 61
Sucking Fish, Diminu-
Sunfish, 33, 123, 228
Sunflsh, Oblong, 124
Sweet William, 223
Swordflsh, 21, 81
Tadpole Fish, m
Thornback Ray, 243
Tiddler, 9195, 178
Tittle Bat, 91-95
Toad, Sea, 49
Tom Culls, 48
Tom Hay, 223
Tommy Bars, 3
Tommy Loach, 184
Tommy Logge, 48
Tommy Lurcher, 184
Topknot, Bloch's, 154
Topknot, Eckstrom's, 153
Topknot, Muller's, 154
Trigger Fish, 120
Trout, Brook, 201
Trout, Bull, 198
Trout, Cornish, 205
Trout, Crasspuill, 196
Trout, Estuary, 196
Trout, Gillaroo, 204
Trout, Great Lake, 203
Trout, Grey, 202
Trout, Hog-backed, 205
Trout, Lake, 203
Trout, Leven, 200
Trout, Loch Leven, 200
Trout, Orkney, 202
Trout, River, 201
Trout, St. Mary's, 139
Trout, Sea, 196
Trout, Swaledale, 196
Trout, White, 196
Trumpet Fish, 98
Tub Fish, 54
Tunny, Long-finned, 40
Tunny, Short-finned, 39,
Twait Shad, 194
Viviparous Blenny, 82
Water Wolf, iss
Weever, Greater, 45
Weever, Viper, 46
Whaup Fish, 87
Whiff, 154, 155
Whip Ray, 250
Whistle Fish, 139
Whitebait, 67, 87, 91, 92,
93, 94. 95, 96, 97, 145,
146, 147. 190, 192, 213
White Bream, isi
White Eye, 128
White Hound, 223
Whiting, 129, 132
Whiting Pout, 127
Willow Blade, 182
Witch Sole, 159
Wolf Fish, 75
Woodcock, 9, 98
Workhouse Turbot, 149
Worm Pipe Fish, 118
Wrasse, Ballan, 104
Wrasse, Baillon's, 108
Wrasse, Comber, 105
Wrasse, Green, 106
Wrasse, Rainbow, 113
Wrasse, Red, 107
Wrasse, Scale-Rayed, ill
Wrasse, Striped, 107
Wriggle, 145, 146
THE COLOURED PLATES.
THE COLOURED PLATES,
IN this list of the fishes appearing in our coloured plates
the popular names are those which seem to be generally
applied to them, but in many . cases the fish may have other
names, and in several the name given is, in a few localities,
that of quite a different fish. Where no popular name is added
the fish is too rare in this country to have one.
Plate I. i. PERCA FLUVIATILIS Perch
2. LABRAX LUPUS Bass.
3. ACERINA VULGARIS Ruff.
4. SERRANUS CABRILLA Comber
5. SERRANUS GIGAS Dusky Perch.
6. POLYPRION CERNIUM Stone Bass.
7. DENTEX VULGARIS-Dentex.
Plate IL 8. MULLUS BARBATUS-Red Mullet.
9. MULLUS SURMULLETUS Striped Mullet.
10. CANTHARUS LINEATUS Black Sea Bream,
it. BOX VULGARIS Bogue.
12. PAGRUS VULGARIS Couch's Sea Breim.
THE COLOURED PLATES.
PLATE II. (continued)
13. PAGRUS AURATUS Gilt-head.
14. PAGELLUS CENTRODONTUS Sea Bream.
15. PAGELLUS BOGARAVEO -Spanish Bream.
16. PAGELLUS OWE Nil Axillary Bream.
Plate III. 17. PAGELLUS ACARNE
18. PAGELLUS ERYTHRINUS Pandora
19. SEBASTES NORVEGICUS Bergylt.
20. SCIjENA AQUILA Shadow Fish.
21. XIPHIAS GLADIUS-Swordfish
TRICHIURUS LEPTURUS Hairtail.
LEPIDOPUS CAUDATUS Scabbard Fish.
Plate IV. 24. CARANX TRACHURUS Horse Mackerel
25. NAUCRATES DUCTOR Pilot Fish.
26. PAMMELAS PERCIFORMIS Rudder Fish.
27. LICHIA GLAUCA Derbio.
28. CAPROS APER Boar Fish.
29. ZEUS FABER Dory
CENTROLOPHUS BRITANNICUS Cornish Centrolophus.
CENTROLOPHUS POMPILUS Black Fish.
32. BRAMA RAII Ray's Bream.
33. LAMPRIS LUNA Opah.
34. SCHEDOPHILUS MEDUSOPHAGUS
35. LUVARUS IMPERIALIS
X. -Ll^il El <J
PI, ATE 12
JTJ-i/41. Ei it I
THE COLOURED PLATES.
Plate VI. 36. SCOMBER VERNALIS Mackerel.
37- SCOMBER PUNCTATUS Speckled Mackerel.
38. SCOMBER COLIAS Spanish Mackerel.
39- ORCYNUS THYNNUS-Short-finned Tunny.
40. ORCYNUS GERMO Long-finned Tunny.
41. THYNNUS PELAMYS Bonito.
42. PELAMYS SARDA Belted Bonito.
43- AUXIS ROCHEI Plain Bonito.
Plate VII. 44- ECHENEIS REMORA Remora.
45- TRACHINUS DRACO Greater Weevef.
46. TRACHINUS VIPERA Viper Weever.
47- LOPHIUS PISCATORI US-Angler.
48. COTTUS GOBIO Miller's Thumb.
49- COTTUS SCORPIUS Father Lasher.
50. COTTUS BUBALIS Long-spined Cottus.
51. COTTUS QUADRICORNUS-Four-horned Cottus.
52. TRIGLA LINEATA Streaked Gurnard.
53- TRIGLA CUCULUS Red Gurnard.
54- TRIGLA HIRUNDO Sapphirine Gurnard.
55- TRIGLA GURNARDUS Grey Gurnard.
56. TRIGLA LYRA Piper.
57- TRIGLA OBSCURA Lanthorn Gurnard.
AGONUS CATAPHRACTUS Pogge.
PERISTETHUS CATAPHRACTUM Armed Gurnard.
60. CYCLOPTERUS LUMPUS Lump Fish.
61. LIPARIS VULGARIS-Sea Snail.
62. LIPARIS MONTAGUI Montagu's Sucker.
63. GOBIUS RUTHENSPARRI-Two-spotted Goby.
64. GOBIUS PAGANELLUS Paganellus.
65. GOBIUS NIGER-Rock Goby.
66. GOBIUS MINUTUS-One-spotted Goby
PLATE IX. (continued)
THE COLOURED PLATES.
GOBIUS PARNELLI Speckled Goby.
68. GOBIUS PICTUS Painted Goby.
69. GOBIUS QUADRIMACULATUS-Four-spotted Goby.
70. APHIA PELLUCIDA Transparent Goby.
71. CRYSTALLOGOBIUS NILSSONII
CALLIONYMUS LYRA Dusky Skulpin.
CALLIONYMUS MACULATUS-Sordid Dragonet.
74. CEPOLA RUBESCENS Red Band Fish.
Plate X. 75- ANARRHICHAS LUPUS Cat Fish.
76. BLENNIUS GATTORUGINE Tompot.
77. BLENNIUS GALERITA Montagu's Blenny.
78. BLENNIUS PHOLIS Shanny.
79. BLENNIUS OCELLARIS Butterfly Benny.
80. CARELOPHUS ASCANII Yarrell's Blenny.
81. CENTRONOTUS GUNNELLUS Butter Fish.
82. ZOARCES VIVIPARUS-Viviparous Blenny.
83. ATHERINA PRESBYTER-Atherine.
84. ATHERINA BOYERI Boyer's Atherine.
Plate XL 85. MUGIL CAPITO Grey Mullet.
86. MUGIL CHELO Lesser Grey Mullet.
87. BELONE VULGARIS Garfish.
88. SCOMBRESOX SAURUS Skipper.
89. EXOCGETUS VOLITANS Greater Flying Fish.
90. EXOCCETUS EVOLANS Flying Fish.
Plate XII. 91. GASTEROSTEUS ACULEATUS Three-spined Stickleback.
92. GASTEROSTEUS TRACHURUS Rough-tailed Stickleback.
GASTEROSTEUS SEMIARMATUS Half-armed Stickleback
GASTEROSTEUS GYMNURUS Smooth-tailed Stickleback.
GASTEROSTEUS SPINULOSUS Four-spined Stickleback.
GASTEROSTEUS PUNGITIUS Nine-spined Stickleback.
GASTEROSTEUS SPINACHIA Fifteen-spined Stickleback.
THE COLOURED PLATES. II
PLATE XII. (continued)
98. CENTRISCUS SCOLOPAX-Trumpet Fish.
Plate XIII. 99. LEPADOGASTER GOUANII Cornish Sucker.
100. LEPADOGASTER DECANDOLLII Sucker.
101. LEPADOGASTER BIMACULATUS Doubly-spotted Sucker.
102. TRACHYPTERUS ARCTICUS Deal Fish.
103. REGALECUS BANKS 1 1 Ribbon Fish.
104. LABRUS M AC ULATUS Dalian Wrasse.
105. LABRUS DONOVANI Comber Wrasse.
XIV. 106. LABRUS LI NEATUS Green Wrasse.
107. LABRUS MIXTUS Striped Wrasse.
108. CRENILABRUS MELOPS Conner.
' 109. CRENILABRUS CORNUBICUS Goldsinny.
no. CTENOLABRUS RUPESTRIS Jago's Goldsinny.
in. ACANTHOLABRUS PALLONI Scale-rayed Wrasse.
112. CENTROLABRUS EXOLETUS-Rock Cook.
113. CORIS JULIS Rainbow Wrasse.
Plate XV. 114. SIPHONOSTOMA TYPHLE Broad-nosed Pipe Fish.
115. SYNGNATHUS ACUS Greater Pipe Fish.
116. NEROPHIS ^QUOREUS Ocean Pipe Fish.
117. NEROPHIS OPHIDION Straight-nosed Pipe Fish.
118. NEROPHIS LUMBRICIFORMIS Worm Pipe Fish.
119. HIPPOCAMPUS ANTIQUORUM Seahorse.
120. BALISTES MAC ULATUS Trigger Fish.
121. BALISTES CAPRISCUS File Fish.
122. TETRODON LAGOCEPHALUS-Globe Fish.
123. ORTHAGORISCUS MOLA Sun Fish.
124. ORTHAGORISCUS TRUNCATUS Oblong Sun Fish.
THE COLOURED PLATES.
Plate XVI. 125. GADUS MORRHUA-Cod.
126. GADUS ^GLEFINUS Haddock
127. GADUS LUSCUS Whiting Pout.
128. GADUS M IN UTUS Power.
129. GADUS MERLANGUS Whiting.
Plate XVII. 130. GADUS POUTASSOU Couch's Whiting.
131. GADUS VIRENS Coal Fish.
132. GADUS POLLACHIUS Pollack.
133. MERLUCCIUS VULGARIS-Hake.
134. PHYCIS BLENNOIDES Greater Forkbeard.
135. MOLVA VULGARIS Ling.
Pllte XVIII. 136. LOTA VULGARIS-Burbot.
137. MOTELLA MU STELA Five-bearded Rockling.
138. MOTELLA CIMBRIA Four-bearded Rockling.
139. MOTELLA TRICIRRATA Three-bearded Rockling.
140. MOTELLA MACROPHTHALMA
141. RANICEPS RAMINUS Lesser Forkbeard.
143. BROSMIUS BROSME Torsk.
143- OPHIDIUM BARBATUM Bearded Ophidium.
144. FIERASFER DENTATUS Drummond's Echiodon.
Plate XIX. 145- AMMODYTES LANCEOLATUS Sand Eel.
146. AMMODYTES TOBIANUS Lesser Sand Eel.
147. AMMODYTES CICERELLUS-Smooth Sand Eel.
148. CORYPH^NOIDES RUPESTRIS
149. HIPPOGLOSSUS VULGARIS Halibut.
150. HIPPOGLOSSOIDES LIMANDOIDES Long Rough Dab,
151. RHOMBUS MAXIMUS Turbot.
Plate XX. 152. RHOMBUS LJEVIS Brill.
153. ZEUGOPTERUS UNIMACULATUS-One-spotted Topknot
154. ZEUGOPTERUS PUNCTATUS Browny.
155. LEPIDORHOMBUS M EG ASTO MA Megrim.
156. ARNOGLOSSUS LATERNA Scald Fish.
157. PLEURONECTES PLATESSA Plaice.
Plate XXI. 158. PLEURONECTES MICROCEPHALUS Lemon Sole,
159. PLEURONECTES CYNOGLOSSUS Witch.
160. PLEURONECTK5J LIMANDA Dab.
THE COLOURED PLATES.
PLATE XXI. (continued)
161. PLEURONECTES FLES US Flounder.
162. SOLEA VULGARIS-Sole.
163. SOLEA LASCARIS-Sand Sole.
164. SOLEA VARIEGATA Thickback.
165. SOLEA LUTEA-Solenette.
Plate XXII- 166. ANGUILLA VULGARIS-Eel.
167. CONGER VULGARIS-Conger.
168. MUR^ENA HELENA Murry.
169. CYPRINUS CARPIO-Carp.
170. CARASSIUS VULGARIS Crucian Carp.
171. CARASSIUS AURATUS Gold Fish.
172. BARBUS VULGARIS Barbel.
173. GOBIO FLUVIATILIS Gudgeon.
Plate XXIII. 174. LEUCISCUS RUTILUS-Roach.
175. LEUCISCUS CEPHALUS Chub-
176. LEUCISCUS VULGARIS Dace.
177. LEUCISCUS ERYTHROPHTHALMUS Rudd.
178. LEUCISCUS PHOXINUS-Minnow.
179. TINCA VULGARIS Tench.
180. ABRAMIS BRAMA Bream.
181. ABRAMIS BLICCA White Bream.
182. ALBURNUS LUCIDUS Bleak.
183. COBITIS T^NIA Spiny Loach.
184. NEMACHILUS BARBATU LA Loach.
Plate XXIV. 185. ESOX LUCIUS-Pike
185. PARALEPIS COREGONOIDES
187. ARGYROPELECUS HEMIGYMNUS
188. MAUROLICUS PENNANTII-Pearlsides.
THE COLOURED PLATES.
PLATE XXIV. (continued)
ENGRAULIS ENCRASICHOLUS Anchovy,
CLUPEA HARENGUS Herring.
CLUPEA PILCHARDUS Pilchard.
CLUPEA SPRATTUS Sprat.
CLUPEA ALOSA Allis Shad.
CLUPEA FINTA Twait Shad.
Plate XXV. 195. SALMO SALAR Salmon.
196. SALMO TRUTTA Sea Trout.
197. SALMO ALDUS Blue Poll.
198. SALMO ERIOX Bull Trout.
199. SALMO CAMBRICUS Sewen.
200. SALMO LEVENENSIS Loch Leven Trout.
201. SALMO FARIO Trout.
Plate XXVI. 202. SALMO ORCADENSIS Grey Trout.
203. SALMO FEROX Lake Trout.
204. SALMO STOMACHICUS Gillaroo Trout.
205. SALMO NIGRIPINNIS Hog-backed Trout.
206. SALMO ALPINUS Alpine Char.
207. SALMO PERISH Torgoch.
208. SALMO WILLUGHBII Windermere Char.
209. SALMO KILLINENSIS Killin Char.
210. SALMO GRAYI Gray's Char.
211. SALMO COLII Cole's Char.
212. SALMO FONTINALIS American Char.
Plate XXVII. 213. OSMERUS EPERLANUS Smelt.
214. COREGONUS OXYRHYNCHUS Hautin.
215. COREGONUS CLUPEOIDES Gwyniad.
216. COREGONUS VANDESIUS Vendace.
217. COREGONUS POLLAN Pollan.
218. THYMALLUS VULGARIS Grayling.
219. ARGENTINA SPHYR.EN A Argentine.
220. ACIPENSER STU RIO Sturgeon.
221. CHIMERA MONSTROSA Chimsera.
THE COLOURED PLATES.
Plate XXVIII. 222. CARCHARIAS GLAUCUS Blue Shark.
223. GALEUS VULGARIS Tope.
224. ZYG^NA MALLEUS Hammerhead.
225. MUSTELUS VULGARIS-Smooth Hound.
226. LAMNA CORNUBICA Porbeagle.
Plate XXIX. 227. ALOPECIAS VULPES Thrasher
228. SELACHE MAXIMA Basking Shark.
229. NOTIDANUS GRISEUS Brown Shark.
230. SCYLHUM CANICU LA Rough Hound.
Plate XXX. 231. SCYLLIUM CATULUSNurse Hound.
232. PRISTIURUS MELANOSTOM US Black-mouthed Dog Fish.
233. ACANTHIAS VULGARIS Spur Dog Fisln
234. L^EMARGUS BOREALIS Greenland Shark.
Plate XXXI. 235- CENTRINA SALVIANI-
236. ECHINORHINUS SPINOSUS Spinous Shark.
237. RHINA SQUATINA Monk Fish.
238. RAIA BATIS-Skate.
239. RAIA MACRORHYNCHUS Flapper Skate.
240. RAIA ALBA White Skate.
Plate XXXII. 241. RAIA OXYRHYNCHUS Long-nosed Skate.
242. RAIA FULLONICA Shagreen Ray.
243. RAIA CLAVATA Thornback.
16 THE COLOURED PLATES.
PLATE XXXII. (continued)-
244. RAIA MACULATA Spotted Ray.
245. RAIA MICROCELLATA Painted Ray,'
246. RAIA RADIATA Starry Ray.
Plate XXXIII. 247. RAIA CIRCULARIS-Cuckoo Ray.
248. TORPEDO MOBILIANA Torpedo.
249. TORPEDO MARMORATA Marbled Torpedo,
250. MYLIOBATIS AQUILA Whip Ray.
251. CEPHALOPTERA GIORN^-Ox Ray.
252. TRVGON PASTINACA Sting Ray.
'"PHERE is no better way of knowing a fish than by a personal
* introduction, in which a sufficient acquaintanceship is made
to enable it to be recognised whenever and wherever it may
chance to be met with. But as an introducer is not always
available, and there are over two hundred and fifty fishes claimed
as British, it is evident that to know them by name another means
must be adopted. Let us, therefore, take a familiar species, and,
by ascertaining what it is not, discover what it is.
In doing this, we need not at the present stage restrict our-
selves to the systematic distinctions which, in many cases, concern
themselves with internal structure invisible without dissection. To
begin with, let us avail ourselves of external characters, and, later
on, use the systematic grouping to confirm our diagnosis. Here,
then, is a fish, an ordinary fish, with nothing eccentric about it
in colour, shape, or fins, a fish that is known in every kitchen,
and comes to table with little alteration in its natural appearance.
It is not a flat fish, but, as the term flat-fish is, as a rule, restricted
to fishes like the sole and turbot, and does not include the skate and
its allies, which are also undeniably flat, let us say that its body is
vertical and not horizontal, the reference being to the position
in the water of the middle section when fully grown.
As we have lighted on these horizontal bodies, we may as well
spend a few minutes with them, noting at the outset that they
are divisible into two groups :
1. Those like the sole.
2. Those like the skate.
In the second group, both eyes are on the upper surface, the
mouth is on the under surface, and instead of gill covers like those
in our example, there are mere slits.
In one species on the British list, which happens to be the
only representative of its genus and family, these slits are lateral,
as they are in the sharks; in fact, this is an abnormal sort of
shark, a peculiarly ugly animal unmistakable under any circum-
stances, with a broad, flat body tapering gradually into the tail,
the eyes very wide apart, and the paired fins large enough to be
compared to the wings of an angel or the cowl of a monk, whence
it is known as the angel-fish or monk-fish (Rhina squatina).
With Rhina out of the way, we are left with the rays, of which
the skate is the commonest kind. These have the gill openings
"inferior," that is, on the under-side of the body, and they .ire
divisible into two well-marked groups
1. Those in which the tail has no longitudinal fold.
2. Those in which the tail has a longitudinal fold.
In both groups the back fin or " dorsal " is either placed on
the tail or, as in one genus, is absent altogether. The genus
having no dorsal belongs to the first group. It is Trygon, arid
the only species found in British waters, and that not a frequent
one, is T. pastinaca, the sting-ray, which has the long spine sticking
out of the tail that has often done duty as a spear-head in the
hands of Telegonus and others, it being a weapon to beware
of, and much more curious to look at than pleasant to make
In the same small group are two genera, both comprising what
are known as devil-fishes, in which the tail carries a dorsal fin.
In one, Cephaloptera, that fin is between the ventrals ; in the other,
Myliobatis, it is beyond the ventrals. Of each genus there is but
one species on our list, and they are strikingly different in
appearance, the first, C. giorncz, the ox-ray, having a stumpy tail
behind and two horn-like projections on the head; the other,
M. aquila, the whip-ray or eagle-ray, having a long whip-like tail,
a projecting snout, and no horns. Both species attain large
dimensions, but not in British waters; the whip-ray has been
caught fifteen feet long, and the ox-ray runs larger, but not so
large as another North Atlantic species, C. diabolus, which, off the
coast of Florida, has swallowed an anchor as if it were a fish-
hook, and swum out to sea with the luckless craft that only
recovered its independence when its captor died.
As we have talked about dorsals and slipped by ventrals without
explanation, we had better pause for a moment for a few words
on the fin question. The typical fish has two sets of fins, the
unpaired or " vertical " or " median " fins, and the paired fins,
which are the homologues of the limbs of the higher vertebrates,
the " pectorals " answering to the arms and the " ventrals " to the
legs. The ventrals are not happily named ; they shift their position
considerably, and, as we shall subsequently find, their position is
an important aid in identification. It is becoming customary to
call them " pelvics," but, unfortunately, there is what is called
a "fin formula" in icthyology D. P. V. A. C., in which D stands
for dorsal, P for pectorals, V for ventrals, A for anal, and C for
caudal, a formula which would be all the better were it to read
D. A. C. P. V., as we have made it do further on, in which the
vertical or body-fins come first, and the paired or limb-fins last.
If we use pelvic instead of ventral we shall have two P's, and a
source of confusion when comparing with previous books that has
led us to retain the old style though preferring the new.
In the earlier, as in many of the existing fishes, the vertical
fins are all in one. In time the one continuous fin became divided
up into " dorsal," the back fin ; " caudal," the tail fin; and " anal,"
the fin between the vent and the tail ; and in some cases the
dorsal became divided into two or even three portions. Examples
of all these stages are still found, and not only so, but in many
cases one or other of the fins is rudimentary or absent, and in
some they form an adhesive disk or sucker.
The caudal fin is the fish's main propeller, with the paired fins
he retains his trim, and the dorsal and anal he uses as a keel
to keep him straight on his
course. With his tail he docs
most of his steering, but he
brings in his pectorals to help
him. A stroke of the tail to
starboard and a stroke or two
with the starboard pectoral,
with the port pectoral held
against the body, sends his
head to port ; a stroke of the
tail to port with a stroke or
two of the port pectoral, and
the starboard pectoral held
in, sends him round to star-
board; in fact, the pectoral
thrown out of action serves
as a pivot on which he turrs.
Cut off a pectoral and he falls
on the opposite side ; cut off
both and his head sinks ; cut
off all his fins and he capsizes,
owing to his upper half beii g
On the other page we have
(Fig. i) an outline sketch of
the body of a perch with the
backbone removed to show
more clearly the fins and
their attachments ; and here
(Fig. 2) is an outline of one
of the perch family Dentex
showing the fins and the
" lateral line " we shall meet
with immediately. It will be
noticed that the perch has two
dorsals and the dentex only
one, though the one has a
depression between the spines
and rays where the division
is beginning. A fin may be
defined as an expansion of the integument supported by radiating
rods; when the rods are bony they are called "spines"; when
they are cartilaginous they are known as " rays." A spine is
always fairly stout and sharply pointed ; a ray is generally soft,
and may be simple or articulated or branched, the branching
taking the form shown in Fig. 3.
Enough of this for the present. Let us return to our line of
enquiry with the group in which the tail has a longitudinal fold.
Fig. 2. LATERAL LINE (Dentex).
It contains but two genera. In one, Torpedo, the caudal is well
developed, and the side fins, let us call them the wings, are
almost semi-circular ; in
the other, Raia, the tail
fin is rudimentary or
absent, and the wings
Fig. S.-BRANCHED RAY. are angular. Of Torpedo
we have only two species
T. marmorata, the marbled torpedo, which is mottled or
spotted, and T. nobiliana, the common torpedo, which is greyish,
with or without a few blotches, the two being probably varieties
of the same species coloured according to environment. These,
it need hardly be mentioned, are the electric rays that have given
their names to the submarine engines of destruction that in no
way resemble them.
A genus of greater importance, though perhaps of less interest,
is Raia, which has ten representatives in British waters, divisible
into two groups, five in each, those in which the snout is short
and those in which it is long. Of the long-nosed rays, one only
has the under-surface brownish, that being R. batis, the skate that
is generally eaten, though several of the other species are equally
edible and are frequently sold as substitutes, the rays being the
chief constituents of the mysterious " roker " of the Billingsgate
Market report. The other four consist of
the long-nosed skate, R.oxyrliynchus, in which
the lower surface is grey ; the flapper skate,
R. tnacrorhynchus, in which it is white with
black spots; the white skate, R. alba, in
which it is pure white, there being no
row of spines round the eye, but a central
row of spines on the tail with a lateral row
on each side of it ; and, finally, the sha-
green ray, R. fullonica, in which the lower
side is also white, and there is a row of
spines round the eye but no middle row of spines on the tail.
Two of the short-snouted rays are brown underneath R. radiata,
the starry ray, in which the brown "is unspotted, and R. maculata>
in which it is spotted with black. Three are white underneath,
the most strikingly marked being the cuckoo-ray, R. circularis, in
which the under surface is generally edged with black and the
upper surface has a black and yellow patch on each side of the
median line. The other two are both
spiny, the painted ray, R. microccllata,
having the spines confined to the median
line, and the thornback, JR. clavata,
having them all over the body ; and
the spines are unmistakable, as can
be seen by the sample (Fig. 4).
They are almost as remarkable as
the crushing-teeth, as shown in the
diagram of those in the male's upper
Fig. 5. UPPER JAW OF jaw (Fig. 5).
MALE THORNBACK. We have now to devote our atten-
Fig. 4. SCALE OF
tion to the flat-fish generally so called. As the skates pass
through a shark stage in early life, so the flat-fish start as
very thin youngsters swimming the ordinary way up, with their
mouths like those of other fishes and their eyes in the normal
places, one on each side of the head ; but apparently, failing
to thrive under these conditions, they betake themselves to the
ground, where their exposed part takes on the colour of their
surroundings and their head turns over so as to bring both eyes on
the top, and, in some cases, their mouth becomes more developed
on one side than the other.
In some cases they have subsided to the right, in others to the
left, and by this we know them. Holding them head foremost
towards us we have
1. Eyes to the left.
2. Eyes to the right.
In the "eyes left " division are four genera. One, Arnoglossus, will
be found to have a couple of spines behind the left ventral ; there
being but one species, A. laterna, the scald-fish or
scald- back, so called from its skin rubbing off in
the trawl, as if it had been scalded. In the
other genera there are no spines behind the
ventrals. In one of them the tail is conspicuously
long, the fin by itself being the same length as the
distance between the ventral and the tip of the
snout ; this is Lepidorhombus, of which the only
species is L. megastoma, the megrim, which has not
only a large mouth but a large head and large eyes,
i SCALE. anc j a g enera i appearance of truculency which is
not prepossessing. The scales are " ctenoid,"
that is, have a comb-like arrangement of teeth on the hinder edge,
much the same as that in the illustration (Fig. 6), which, however,
was not grown on a " merlry sole," as the megrim is occasionally
called on account of its activity when on a cruise. The other
genera have short tails. One, Zeugopterus, has ctenoid scales ; the
root of the tail is not free of the
other fins, and the dorsal and ventrals
are very long. There are two species,
Z. unimaculatus and Z.punctatus,both
known as topknots, the first being the
one spotted, the other the browny.
A third, known as the Norwegian
topknot, seems to be a variety hardly
worth mentioning, and, indeed, the
topknots are of little importance
compared with the next genus,
Rhombus, which contains the turbot
and the brill. The turbot, R. maximns, has no scales ; their
place is taken by tubercles. The brill, R. lavis, has no tubercles,
but small scales, which in shape are " cycloid," that is to say, have
no comb-like serrations at the rear edge, and are concentrically
striated, in much the same way as those in the illustration (Fig. 7),
Fig. 7. CYCLOID SCALES.
In the " eyes right " group there are also four British genera,
divisible into two in which the jaws are alike on both sides, and
two in which they are larger on the blind side. Those in which the
jaws are similar on both sides are Hippoglossoides, represented by
H. limandoides, the long, rough dab or lemon sole north of the
Forth distinguished by the straight lateral line and rough scales,
and, above all, by its size (which never exceeds a foot and a
quarter) from Hippoghssus, in which the lateral line is curved, the
scales smooth, and the size enormous, for its only British repre-
sentative is H. vulgaris, the halibut, narrowest and largest of the
flat-fish, which is commonly five feet long, and has been known to
The other two are Pleuronectes and Solea, the latter distinguished
by having no teeth on the upper side, instead of a few feebly
developed, by the snout projecting beyond the jaws, instead of the
mouth being at the end of the snout, and by having a sort of beard
of short projections from the skin on the under side of the head.
Of Pleuronectes the species on our list are the flounder, P.flesus, with
tubercles along the bases of the fins ; the dab, P. limanda, with a
curved lateral line; the witch, P. cynoglossus, with no spots, the
smear dab (another of the lemon soles), P. microcephalus, with dark
spots, and the plaice, P. platessa, with orange spots, and having
tubercles on the head. Some people are said not to know a turbot
from a plaice ; they have only to remember that one has the eyes to
the left, the other has the eyes to the right. Some are said not to
know a sole from a lemon sole : the only way out of that difficulty is
to know what a sole is like, the lemon sole being what may be called
various, and generally but a somewhat distant relative. Of the soles
there are only four species (i) the solenette, Solea lutea, which is
not more than five inches long, never used for food, and has black
rays, like stripes, on its fins ; (2) the thickback, 5. variegata, which
is chestnut brown on the upper side, with five broad, dark bands ;
(3) the sand sole (perhaps the original lemon sole), S^-kiscaris, which
has the lower nostril larger than the other, and is orange in colour,
with dots and specks ; and (4) the common sole, S. vulgaris, in
which the nostrils are alike, and the colour blotchy brown, with a
black spot at the outer end of the pectoral fin. To sum up our
" eyes right " division, we stand thus :
Jaws alike on both sides
Lateral line straight Hippoglossoides,
Lateral line curved Hippoglossus.
Jaws not alike on both sides
Mouth at end of snout Pleuronectes.
Snout curving beyond mouth Solea.
With the soles we end our list of horizontals, and are face to face
with the many more verticals, to one of which our specimen belongs.
These we can sort out at once according to their tails.
There are half-a-dozen genera in the British list which are with-
out a caudal fin ; to dispose of these is to clear the way. Their shape
is enough to guide us. In two the body tapers from a large head ;
these being Chimara, in which the tail becomes a long filament, and
Zuarces, in which the dorsal has a low, penultimate section, as if
half an inch had been bitten out of it close to the end. The chhnaera
(C. monstrosa) has also a sort of nick near the end of the dorsal, but
differs from the viviparous blenny (Z. viviparus) in having a similar
nick in the anal beneath. One species is not likely to be mistaken
for the other, as though the blenny is remarkable enough for bring-
ing forth dozens of living young at a time, it is much more of a fish
to look at than the chimaera, which is unlike anything else that
swims, except it be another chimaera.
Among other features it is noticeable for its pectorals, which are
very large, and may be compared to a beard, and in this respect it
contrasts well with our next genus, Nerophis, in which the pectorals
are absent, and the body rounded, smooth, and worm-like, as might
be expected of the pipe-fishes. In these the body is sheathed in
bony rings. By the number of these rings we can identify the three
species, N. cequoreus, the ocean pipe-fish, having from 28 to 31 and 56 to
6 1 ; -N. ophidian, the straight-nosed pipe-fish, having 28 or 29 and 65 ;
and N. lumbriciformis, the worm pipe-fish, having 18 or 19 and 49.
Two genera are long, thin, and ribbon-shaped in build. These
are Trichiurus, in which there are neither anals nor ventrals, and
the tail thins off to so long a point that the name of hair-tail has
been given to the only species, P. Upturns ; and Regalecus, in which
the anal is absent, the ventrals are represented by a pair of long-
loomed paddles, and the dorsal is furnished in front with a curved
crest that can be compared to that of the cockatoo. Of this genus
there is but one species, R. banksii, the ribbon-fish, or, from the
paddles, Banks's oarfish. This gives us five genera, all of the
grotesque school ; the sixth is Hippocampus, the sea-horse (H. anti-
quorum), in which the head is joined on to the body by a neck, and
the whole form is ridged and shaped in so quaint a way that every-
one knows it, though most people fancy the sea-horse is about a
dozen times larger than he really is.
Our next division, that in which the vertical fins are continuous,
include a few more out-of-the-way forms. Here come the two sun-
fishes, Orthagoriscus, with their bulky bodies cut off short behind, as
if they had lost their tail-end and grown a fringe on the stump.
There is no doubt about these two one, the sun-fish, O. mola, with
a rough skin and the hinder end rounded ; the other, the oblong
sun-fish, O. truncatus, with a smooth skin and the hinder end straight
each with the narrow dorsal and anal standing out like the back-
fin of a porpoise; known at a glance, and easily seen, seldom less
than two feet, and sometimes over eight feet long. Next to them we
will place the Cornish sucker, Lepadogaster gouanii, four inches in
length, and not always that, in which the median fins are much less
disputably continuous, and the body is depressed in front and com-
pressed behind, and has a sucking disk between the ventrals. Fol-
lowing this we may as well get rid of Coryphcznoides rupestris, which
has only been found once or twice in British waters. In this rare
visitor the body tapers so sharply from a large head to a pointed
tail, that the fish looks like a ten-inch tadpole. Yet one more
curiosity in this group, the red band-fish, Cepola rubescens, long and
thin, like half-a-yard of orange ribbon edged with a fringe and
ending in a point.
This leaves us with the eels and the eel-like. In the eel-like the
skin does not extend over the gill-covers ; in the eels it does. Of
those in which the gill-covers are not hidden there are only
Ophidium, in which the ventrals are represented by a pair of filaments,
and Fierasfer, in which the ventrals
are gone without any external
traces. Of Ophidiunt only one
British example is recorded, and
of Fiemsfer only two, so that they
are not likely to trouble the fisher-
man. Of eels there are three
species, each of a different genus.
Murcena has no pectorals ; Conger
and Anguilla are alike in having
Fig. 8. CARDIFORM TEETH.
rctorals, but in Conger, the upper jaw is the longer, and in Anguilla
is shorter. The Mur&na is a rarity ; it is a rich purplish brown
and yellow in colour. The other two eels are common enough ; the
conger, much the larger and fiercer look at the " cardiform " teeth
in his jaw, placed so closely together as to form a cutting edge (Fig.
8) has always been assigned to one species, C . vulgaris, but the
male and female eel were long assigned to two species or more, and
have only of recent years been put in their right place.
Fig. Q. HOMOCERCAL TAIL.
The fishes that are left have well-defined tails, but it is apparent at
once that these tails are of two different types, the majority having
the lobes equal, but a by no means insignificant majority having
one lobe much larger than the other. In the first group the tail is
" homocercal," in the second it is "heterocercal." In Fig. 9 we
Fig. 10. HETEROCERCAL TAIL.
have a homocercal tail, and in Fig. i will be seen how this form is
produced by the last of the caudal vertebrae articulating with the
fan-shaped hypurals, which, with the neural and haemal extensions,
carry the rays of the caudal fin, so that the homocercal tail is only
superficially symmetrical after all. Compare this with the other
type sketched in Fig. 10, in which the backbone is continued to the
In our specimen fish the lobes of the tail are equal, and there is
nothing approaching a heterocercal character ; we will, therefore,
sort out our heterocercals forthwith. One genus is so distinct that
it claims first place. In our waters it is represented by a single
species, which is the sole representative of the family and the sub-
order. This is the sturgeon, Acipenser sturio, recognisable at once
by the five rows of bony plates, the long snout, the small dorsal fin
placed near the tail, and last, not least, when it comes to table, the
notochordal backbone. Externally the plates distinguish it at a
glance ; of one of them, which hang side by side like a long row of
shields, we give a sketch (Fig. u).
With the sturgeon out of the way, we have left on our hands the
fifteen British sharks, which will not prove troublesome. Four of
them have no anal fin, and of these four two have spines in their
dorsals and two have not. Of the two with spiny dorsals, one,
Centrina, has the spine starting
from the middle of the base of the
fin and curving forwards across it,
as if it were a sprit used to keep
the fin extended ; the other,
Acanthias, has the spine in the
front of the dorsal running up the
fore-edge in the usual way. Of
Centrina only one example (C.
salviani) has been caught in British
waters, and consequently our
sharks with no anal fin and
spiny dorsals are practically the
common spur dog-fish, A. vulgaris.
In the next two genera the dorsals are without spines, but the
skin is spiny. In one, Lczmargus, the first dorsal is some distance
in front of the ventrals ; in the other, Echinorhinus, it is far back
and over them. The former is represented by L. microcephala, the
Greenland shark, a bulky species with a prominent snout and a
sort of upper lip ; and of the latter the only representative is
E. spinosus, the spinous shark, in which the snout is of the normal
conical shape. Here, then, is our first category of sharks in
tabular form :
Dorsals with spines
Spine in the middle of each dorsal Centrina.
Spine in front of each dorsal Acanthias.
Dorsals without spines
First dorsal in middle of back Lamargus.
Both dorsals near tail Echinorhinus.
Fig. ii. SHIELD OF STURGEON.
The sharks of our waters that have an anal fin are eleven in
number, and with a single exception they all have two dorsal
fins. The brown shark (Notidanus griseus) has but one, and is also
recognisable by having six gill-slits, whereas all the other sharks
have five. That reduces our eleven to ten, which we can arrange
in two batches according to the position of their first dorsals. In
the first batch we will place those in which the first dorsal comes
over the space between the ventrals and the anal, that is, in the
hinder third of the back; in the other batch, we will have those
in which it comes over the interval between the pectorals and
ventrals, or almost in the middle of the dorsal curve. Those with
the dorsals well aft are two in number Pristiimis, in which the
anal is long enough to nearly reach the caudal ; and Scyllium, in
which it is not noticeably large, and never gets nearer the caudal
than its own length. Of Pristiurus there is a solitary species,
P. melanostomus,the black-mouthed dog-fish, recognisable at a glance
by the three rows of squarish black blotches on its sides that
suggest an ocelot; and of Scyllium, in which the markings are a
multitude of spots and specks, there are but two species S.
canicula, the rough-hound, and 5. catulus, the smooth-hound, in the
first of which the anal ends below the interval between the dorsals,
while in the second it reaches to beneath the middle of the second
dorsal and no further.
Of the sharks in which the dorsals come so far forward for
the first to begin over the interval between the paired fins, one,
Zygana, stands out boldly, not only from the sharks but from all
other fish, by its hammer-shaped head, which extends right and
left at right angles to the neck, and has the eyes in the middle of
the square ends. These eyes have a lid or nictitating membrane,
and this membrane will come in useful in sorting out the six
remaining genera, in three only of which it is present. These are
Carcharias, Mustelus, and Gakus, and they all have long, conical
heads. The blue shark, Carcharias glaucus, has a pit at the base
of the tail, and is without the spiracles that mark the opening of
the respiratory passage leading into the pharynx. Mustelus and
Galeus have no pit at the base of the caudal fin, and in the former
the second dorsal is almost as large as the first, whereas in the
other it is very small. Of each there is but one species, M. vulgaris
being the smooth-hound, and G. vulgaris the tope which can
be distinguished from it by the squarish gap in the caudal's lower
Of the three genera in which the eye has no nictitating mem-
brane, one is as readily recognisable as the hammer-head by reason
of its enormously-developed tail, the upper lobe of which is as long
as the body. This is the thrasher (Alopecias), also known as the
fox-shark. The long tail has no keel, like that of the two remaining
genera Lamna, in which the teeth are large and lanceolate, the
British representative being the porbeagle, L.cornubica; and Selache,
represented by the huge basking shark, S. maxima, in which the
teeth are small and conical, as might be expected from the innocent
nature of its food. With the vegetarian Selache we conclude our
second category of sharks, which we tabulate in this way :
One dorsal Notidanus.
First dorsal above interval between ventrals and anal
Anal long Pristiurus.
Anal moderate Scyllium.
First dorsal above interval between pectorals and ventrals^
Eye with nictitating membrane.
Head hammer-shaped Zygana.
Head conical ;
Pit at base of caudal Carcharias.
No pit at base of caudal ;
Second dorsal almost as large as first
Second dorsal small Galeus.
Eye without nictitating membrane
Tail not keeled
Upper lobe very long Alopecias.
Teeth large and lanceolate Lamna,
Teeth small and conical Selache.
At last we have reached the fishes with homocercal tails, and by
eliminating the two flying fishes (Exoccztus), in which the pectoral
fins are developed into organs of flight, and the lower lobe of the
tail seems to be lengthened for steering purposes, we are left with
the large group in which both lobes of the tail are similar in outline.
The dorsal fins will guide us through the crowd, but before going
straight ahead we can simplify matters to a great extent by clearing
the road of some of the eccentricities.
To begin with, there is one fish in the British list which seems
to have had its tail broken off short and stuck on again in a hurry at
the wrong angle. This is the deal-fish, Trachypterus arcticus, with two
dorsals, a short aiid a very long one, and no anal. In the others
the tail is in a line with the backbone.
Two of the genera have short, stout bodies, one of them, Tetrodon
(the globe-fish), having the gullet dilatable into a sphere dotted with
star-like spines ; the other, Batistes, having the scales developed into
a coat of armour. Of Batistes there are two species, the trigger-fish
(B. maculatus), which has spots on the sides and no plates behind the
gills, and the file-fish (B. capriscus), which has no spots on the sides
and two plates behind the gills.
Four genera are of little breadth, but much depth. Of these the
opah (Lampris) is iridescent, and marked with rounded, silvery
patches ; the dory (Zeus) is grey, with a large round black blotcli
ringed with yellow, and has ragged filaments attached to the dorsal
spines ; the trumpet-fish (Centriscus) has a lengthy tubular snout,
not unlike the chanter of the bag-pipes; and that very queer fish,
Argyropelecus,\mov/n by only one specimen, is square in the fore
body, becoming suddenly narrow as if the hinder half of a slender
fish had been telescoped into it.
Four more genera we can group together, as having the body
elongated and slender. Two of them are pipe-fishes, armoured with
bony plates and ridged, the caudal ridge in one (Siphonostoma) being
continuous with the lateral ridge, that in the other (Syngnathus) being
continuous with the dorsal. The two others are distinguishable by
the development of the jaws into a long beak, one of them (Scombre
sox) the skipper, having finlets, and the other (Belone),the gar-fish or
mackerel-guard, being without them.
Two may be described as eel-like, one of them being the butter-
fish (Centronotns), which has the dorsal marked all along its base
with round black spots, edged with white, the other differing from it
in having no spots and no ventral fins. This is A mmodytes, repre-
sented by the three sand-eels, one of which, the smooth sand-eel (A .
cicerellus) has only 15 rays in its caudal fin, the others having 19, one
of them (A . tobianus) having the fins curved in outline, and one of
them (A. lanceolatus) having fins of the same height all along.
One genus (Centroloplius) has a long, flat body with a long dorsal,
higher behind than in front in C. britannicus, and highest in the
middle in C. pompilus, which also has long pectorals, while the other
species, of which but a single specimen is known, has them short.
Another genus (Lepidopus) has the body long and thin, and tapering
to a small forked tail, and takes its name from the remarkable way
in which the ventrals have departed and left behind a single scale
as the only trace of their existence. Finally, there is Xiphias^ known
by everyone for the long, thin projecting upper jaw, which has
caused it to be called the sword-fish.
In seven genera there may be a doubt as to whether there are
two dorsals or one, owing to the first dorsal being in some way re-
placed or obscured. In Echeneis, for instance, it is replaced by a
sucker ; in Cyclopterus, the ungainly lump-fish, it becomes hidden in
a fleshy ridge, and in five genera it is represented by isolated spines.
In the angler (Lophius) these
spines are furnished with fila-
ments. A repulsive, but withal
interesting, fish is this, not only
for his hideousness, and the
way in which he dangles the
bait over his big half-moon of
a mouth, but for the reptilian
character of the paired fins
with which he walks about the
bottom of the sea ; and as to
his teeth, justice can only be
done to them by a sketch (Fig.
12), which we may as well sup-
plement with another (Fig. 13),
showing how the teeth are
hinged in the middle, so as to
fall down as the capture enters
and rise to prevent escape.
In the four other genera the spines are short, and have no
filaments. One, Lichia (the derbio), has the long lobes of the
deeply-forked tail tipped with black, and of the spines, which are
five or six in number, the first points forwards. Another, Naucrates
(the pilot-fish), is banded vertically with broad, dark stripes that
12 TEETH OF ANGLER.
extend on to the fins ; another, Pammelas (the black-pilot or rudder-
fish), has six or seven spines representing the first dorsal, and the
anal fin has two spines. The last, Gasterosteus, comprises our
familiar friends the sticklebacks, in which the scales
along the sides are replaced by scutes. In the smooth-
tailed stickleback these plates extend only to the tip
of the pectorals; in the half-armed stickleback they
extend half-way to the base of the caudal; in the rough-
tailed stickleback the plates are keeled at the base of
Fig. 13. the caudal. The other sticklebacks the three-spined,
HINGED four-spined, nine-spined, and fifteen-spined are readily
TOOTH OF recognisable by the number of their spines.
ANGLER. ^he wa y j s now c } ear f or the long voyage home.
Our representative fish is not one of this unimportant
seven, nor was it one of the foregoing seventeen, being, as we have
said, an ordinary fish of ordinary shape, with nothing out of the
way about it.
It has not three dorsals, that is the distinctive feature of the
genus Gadus, including the cod-fish (G. morrhua), which, like the
whiting, the haddock, the whiting-pout, and the power, has the
upper jaw the longer, and, like all of them except the whiting
(G. merlangus), has a barbule. It can be distinguished from the
other three by having a white lateral line, the haddock (G. agkfinus)
having a black lateral line, the two that remain having a brown
lateral line, the whiting-pout (G. litscus) being coppery and broadly
banded, and the power (G. minutus) silvery and without bands.
Three species of Gadus have the lower jaw the longer ; one of them
(G. virens), the coal-fish, has a barbule, those without a barbule
being G. poutassou (Couch's whiting), on which the lateral line is
straight, and G. pollachius (the pollack), on which it is curved ; the
two fishes differing much in colour, the pollack being greenish and
grey, the other silver and yellow.
Nor has it two dorsals. The fishes having two dorsals can be
sorted into those in which the second dorsal is adipose and small,
and those. in which it is noticeably developed.
Seven genera form the first division. In one, Paralepis, a rarity
in British waters, the anal fin extends to the caudal ; in the others
it is not nearly so long. Of these, another rarity, Maurolicus, has
the anal of three different heights, the lowest portion being in the
middle and the highest near the ventrals. Two from seven leaves
us with five, and the five, as it happens, are the salmonoids, all of
whom have less than twenty rays in their anal fins. The ridged
body of the argentine (Argentina), almost quadrangular in section,
distinguishes it at a glance. The long, high dorsal of twenty rays
or more characterises the grayling (Thymallus) ; the short maxillary
marks off Coregonus, the hautin (C. oxyrhynchus) having a projecting
snout, the gwyniad (C. clupeoides) a truncated snout, the vendace
(C. vandesius) a long lower jaw, and the pollan (C. poUati) equal
jaws and no truncation of the muzzle. Of the two genera with a
long maxillary, the smelt (Osmerus) is recognised by its dorsal rays
numbering n, and Salmo by their ranging from 12 to 15. Of
Salmo there are some twenty species or varieties, and as their many
trifling differences cannot be dealt with briefly, we will hold the
matter over until we go into detail in another chapter. One thing
is perhaps worth mentioning here, and that is, that the salmon
(Salmo salar), like the rest of the genus, has less than 14 rays in
its anal fin, while the salmon of the Pacific, the fish that is canned,
belongs to another genus, Oncorhynchus, distinguished by having
15 or 16 rays, and is really the quinnat (O. quinnat), known as
salmon for trade purposes.
We may as well have this adipose dorsal assemblage in tabular
Two dorsals, second dorsal adipose
Anal extending to caudal Paralep is.
Anal not extending to caudal
Anal with over 20 rays
Anal in three portions of different heights Maurolicus.
Anal with under 20 rays
Body ridged A rgentina.
Body not ridged
Dorsal rays over 18 Thymallus.
Dorsal rays under 18
Maxillary short Coregonus.
Dorsal rays n Osmerus.
Dorsal rays 12 to 15 Salmo.
In sorting out the fishes with two ordinary dorsals, we will avail
ourselves of the barbules and pectoral filaments that are so con-
spicuous in a few. To the question as to what is a barbule, the best
reply is a reference to the sketch of
the barbel's head (Fig. 14) ; for tho
barbel was named after the appendages
he wears, and on his account it is more
convenient to call them barbules, in
the old style, to save confusion between
the " little beard " and its wearer. Of
barbules, or barbels, then, it will be
tig. i 4 .-HEAD OF BARBEL. noticed tnat he has fourj two f rom the
snout and two from the corners of his mouth.
By the barbules, many and white, the octagonal body and the
absence of pectoral filaments, we distinguish the pogge (Agomu).
By the three pectoral filaments and the ridged body we know the
gurnards (Trigla), of which there are half a dozen species, T. gur-
nardus being the grey one. Of the five which are all red, more or
less, the piper, T. lyra, is known by the flat triangular plates over
the muzzle, which make it look as if it were divided, and the
lanthorn gurnard, T. obscura, is distinguished by the broad silvery
stripe which separates the red back from the white abdomen ; the
streaked gurnard, T. lineata, has lateral ridges that slope forward
from the back ; the red gurnard, T. cuculus, has a spiny ridge along
the base of the dorsals, and red fins ; and the sapphirine gurnard,
T. hirundo, has spines along the dorsals and large blue pectorals.
By the two pectoral filaments, the ridged body, and the bifid
snout, we identify the armed gurnard (Peristethus), and by the two
stiff barbules under the chin, and the two dorsals wide apart, we
recognise the red mullet (Mullus). With one barbule we have four
genera (i), Phycis, distinguished by the ventral being replaced by
the bifid filament, from which the fish is known as the forkbeard ;
(2), Molva, the ling or " long-fish," in which the teeth are large in
the lower jaw, and the first dorsal is short ; (3), Lota, the burbot, in
which the first dorsal is also short, but there are no large teeth in
the lower jaw ; and (4), Raniccps, the lesser forkbeard, in which the
first dorsal consists of only three rays.
In our next category we have those without barbules. Of these,
five genera are distinguishable off-hand by having finlets. In
Scomber and Auxis the dorsals are wide apart ; in Pdamys, Thynnus,
and Orcynus they are close together. The finlets fill the gap
between the tail and the second dorsal, and that between the tail
and the anal ; in the common mackerel (Scox.uer vernalis), they are
readily seen. There are three mackerels the ordinary species,
which has a banded back and a spotless abdomen ; the speckled
mackerel (S. punctatus), which has a thinly-streaked or speckled
back and a spotless abdomen ; and the Spanish mackerel (S. colias),
which has a banded back and a spotted abdomen. Auxis differs
from Scomber in having a distinct keel on the tail instead of two
slight ridges ; it is repre- /*X.
sented only by A . rochei, the \ >v
plain bonito. The three )
genera in which the dorsals
are close together have
keel 3d tails. Pelamys (the
belted bonito) is recognis-
able by its long first dorsal,
which has more than twenty
rays ; the others have
shorter dorsals, one, Thyn-
nus (the bonito), having
seven finlets, the other,
Orcynus, having eight or F j g ^ I5 ._THORACic VENTRALS
nine. To this last belong
the tunnies, of which there are two on the British list the short-
finned tunny, O. thynnus, in which the pectorals do not reach the
finlets, and the long-finned tunny, O. germo, in which they do.
This finlet group may as well be set forth in a table like
Dorsals wide apart
Tail with 2 slight ridges Scomber.
Tail distinctly keeled Auxis.
Dorsals close together ; tail keeled
First dorsal with over 20 rays Pelamys.
First dorsal with under 20 rays
Finlets 7 Thynnus.
Finlets 8 or 9 Orcynus.
Having neither barbules nor finlets to help us any more, we
betake ourselves to the position of the ventral fins, which affords
almost as easy a means of identification. These fins are found
in three positions they maybe "jugular," that is, in the throat,
or "thoracic," that is, in the chest (Fig. 15), or " abdominal," that
is in the middle of the abdomen or thereabouts (Fig. 16).
In only three genera of the double dorsal group are the ventrals
jugular, and in one of them they are placed wide apart. This is Calli-
onymus, the genus of the skulpin, in which the first spine is so unusu-
ally long in the males as to be distinctive, like the length of the last
ray in the females. The two in which the ventrals are at the normal
distance apart are Trachinus (the weevers), in which the first dorsal
has only five or six rays, and Merluccius, the hake, in which it has
ten. The hake can be recognised by his black mouth and formid-
able teeth, which are charac-
teristic enough to deserve a
sketch (Fig. 17) ; the greater
weever, T. draco, has two
spines above the eye, the
viper weever, T. vipera, has
no spines above the eye.
As there are three genera
of this group with jugular
ventrals, so there are three
with abdominal ventrals. In
this case, however, there is
but one genus (Capros) in
which the dorsals are close
up, it has but one species in our waters, C. aper, the boar-fish, flat and
deep in body, red in colour, and rejoicing in a protractile snout from
which it gets its name. The two genera in which there is a con-
spicuous interval between the dorsal fins are Atherina, in which the
first dorsal has 7, 8, or 9 spines, and Mugil (the grey mullets), in which
it has but only 4. Of Atherina there are two species, one of which
appeared once, and has never been seen again ; of Mugil there are
two species, the grey mullet, M. capito, in which the anal begins
nearly halfway between the dorsals, and the lesser grey mullet, M.
chelo, in which it begins almost in a line with the second dorsal.
As far as we have gone with the double dorsals, we stand :
Ventrals wide apart Callionymus.
Ventrals close together
F'irst dorsal with 5 or 6 rays Trachinus.
First dorsal with 10 rays Merluccius.
Dorsals wide apart
First dorsal with 4 spines Mugil.
First dorsal with 7 or more spines A therina.
Dorsals close together
Body red ; deep and compressed ; month protractile
Fig. 16. ABDOMINAL VENTRALS.
This leaves us with the double dorsal fishes having thoracic
ventrals. Two we can deal with on their lateral line, that row of
perforated scales running along the sides of so many species, the
holes in which communicate
with a muciferous duct lead-
ing to the head, a good ex-
ample of which was given
in the outline of the dentex
on a preceding page. In one
genus of this group, Caranx
(the horse mackerel or scad), F j g I7 TEETH OF HAKE
the lateral line is armed with
bony plates, a further distinctive mark being the two spines in front of
the ventrals. In another genus, Sciczna (the shadow-fish), the lateral
line is continued through the tail to the outer edge of the caudal fin.
The genera that remain can be sorted out according to the num-
ber of spines in the first dorsal. In Crystallogobius there are two
spines which are placed wide apart. In Aphia there are five spines.
In another of the gobies, the painted goby (Gobius pictus), there are
6 spines in the first dorsal, the anal is without a spine, and the ven-
trals have a spine and 5 rays. The other gobies (Gobius) have 6 or
7 spines in the first dorsal, and the anal has a spine. The two-
spotted goby (G. ruthensparri) is the only one with 7 spines ; the
one-spotted goby (G. minutus) is the only one with the dorsals wide
apart; the speckled goby (G. parnelli) has black fins with white
lines, the first dorsal ending in a black blotch ; the rock goby (G.
niger) has brown fins with whitish lines ; and of the two other
gobies, G. quadrimaculatus has four spots in a line on the hinder half
of the body, and G. pagandlus has the dorsals banded with orange.
In Coitus the first dorsal has from 6 to 10 spines, the anal is
spineless, and the ventrals have a spine and less than 5 rays. There
are four species, one, C. quadricornus, having four short horns on
the top of its head, the others having no horns. The miller's thumb
(C. gobio) has a spine and 4 rays in its ventrals ; the long-spined
cottus (C. bubalis) has a spine and 3 rays ; and the father lasher (C.
scorpius) has no spine and only 2 rays.
This leaves us with the two highest representatives of the perch
family, Labrax and Perca. In Labrax, of which there is only one
British representative, the bass (L. lupus), there are 8 or 9 spines
in the first dorsal, and the anal has 3 spines ; in Perca, the sole
representative being the perch (P. fluviatilis), the first dorsal has
14 or 15 spines, and the anal has only 2. Summarising as before,
we have :
Lateral line armed with bony plates
Two spines in front of ventrals Caranx.
Lateral line continued through caudal fin Scicsna.
First dorsal of 2 spines, wide apart Crystallogobius.
First dorsal of 5 spines Aphia.
First dorsal of 6 spines
Anal spineless ; ventrals with a spine and 5 rays Gobius
First dorsal of 6 to 10 spines
Anal spineless ; ventrals with or without a spine and with
less than 5 rays Cottus.
First dorsal of 6 or 7 spines
Anal with i spine Gobius.
First dorsal of 8 or 9 spines
Anal with 3 spines Labrax.
First dorsal of 14 or 15 spines
Anal with 2 spines Perca.
In only one British fish with one dorsal fin are there no ventrals,
and that is the wolf-fish or cat-fish (Anavrhichas lupus), whose
powerful teeth and general ugliness
have become proverbial (Fig. 18).
In only two genera are the ven-
trals rudimentary, and in each
case they surround a sucker. One
of them is Lepadogaster, which we
sorted out before so far as L.
gouanii was concerned, owing to
the vertical fins being continuous ;
in the two remaining species, the
suckers (L. decandollii and L.
bimaculatus) the vertical fins are not
continuous, the last species being
distinguished from the others by
having a black ocellated spot under
the tip of the pectoral. In all
the species there are less than 20
rays in the dorsal. In Liparls
the dorsal rays exceed 20 in number ; the sea-snail, L. vulgaris,
about six inches long, is streaked on the body, Montagu's sucker,
L. montagui, which is about half the length, is spotted on the body.
This clears us of the cripples, and leaves us only with such
fishes as have the dorsal and ventrals properly developed. In four
genera the ventrals are jugular, these comprising the rocklings, the
blennies, and the torsk. The rocklings (Motella) have the fore part
of the dorsal in the shape of a fringe with a long ray to begin with.
The three common species are known by their barbules the five-
bearded, four-bearded, and three-bearded and the rare species,
M. macrophthalma, by its unspotted body, distinguishing it from the
three-bearded rockling, which, like it, has three barbules, but, unlike
it, has a large number of spots and blotches on its upper parts.
The blennies have the dorsal low in the middle and small
ventrals. One, the butterfly blenny (Bhnnius ocellaris), differs from
the others in having an ocellated spot on the first dorsal. Another,
the shanny (B. pholis), has no tentacle over the eye ; another (B.
Fig. 18. TEETH OF CAT-FISH.
galerita) has a black band at the base of the pectorals ; and the last
(J5. gattorugine) has no such band. In Yarrell's blenny (Carelophus
ascanii) the dorsal is long and straight, and there are filaments on
the first three rays ; in the torsk (Brosmius brosme) the dorsal is also
long and straight, and the ventrals are curiously thick and pointed.
It belongs to the cod family, and is a couple of feet long or so.
Practically, the four genera with jugular ventrals are so easy of
recognition that we need not summarise their distinctions, but pass
on to those with thoracic ventrals, which are much more numerous.
In this large and important assemblage the anal fin is of great
assistance. One genus (Luvarus) has a spine and 14 rays in its
anal, and can otherwise be recognised by its quaint shape and red
stripe. Three genera have two spines in their anal fin, one, Acerina
(the ruff), having 5 or 6 rays behind it, while in Schedophilus and
Brama the anal has over 25 rays, Schedophilus having 3 dorsal
spines,' short and isolated, and Brama having 3 or 4 short and not
Those in which the anal has 3 spines are 12 in number, Con's
(the rainbow wrasse) differing from the rest in having only 12 or 13
rays in its pectorals. The genera in which the pectoral rays num-
ber from 14 to 17 can be divided into a batch having 12 or fewer
spines in the dorsal and a batch having more than 12. In the first
lot, all of which have forked tails, Dentex is conspicuous by its
brilliant silver, blue, and gold coloration, and its four large teeth
in the front of each jaw, and Cantharus by its black lateral line,
which is parallel to the curve of the back. The other two are
Pagellus and Pagrus, both of which have cutting teeth in front of the
jaws and molars along the sides, Pagrus differing from Pagellus in
having canine teeth as well, the molars in Pagellus being smaller
than in Pagrus. These are the sea-breams, all much alike, and all,
with one exception, red or pinkish, the exception being the gilt-
head (Pagrus auratus), which is silvery, and has a golden crescent
between the eyes. As the only other Pagrus, Couch's sea-bream
(P. vulgaris) has been caught but once in British waters, it may be
said that Pagrus is only represented by a silvery fish, and Pagellus by
red ones. There are five of these the pandora (P. erythrinus), is red
with purple and silvery reflections, and has colourless ventrals ;
P. acarne is red with golden reflections ; P. owenii is carmine
above and white below, with the fins paler than the body ;
P. bogaraveo (the Spanish bream) is pinkish above and white below,
with a dark axillary spot ; and the common sea-bream (P. centro-
dontus), is scarlet above and paler below, with a black spot at the
beginning of the lateral line.
In the next group, that in which the dorsal spines are more than
a dozen, one genus (Box) has a forked tail. Of the others a few
have spines on the gill-covers, and their lips are thin, while the
remainder, consisting only of the wrasses, have no spines on the
gill-covers, and their lips are thick. Of the three with spiny gill-
covers, one, Polyprion (the stone-bass) has less than 13 rays in its
dorsal ; in the others there are more than 13, Serranus being dis-
tinguished by its 10 dorsal spines (in S. cabrilla) or n (in S. gigas),
and Sebastes (the bergylt) by its 15 dorsal spines, and, at once, by
its orange-red body and fins.
The wrasses we have already disposed of the rainbow wrasse
are not an easy group to sort. Some have 3 spines in the anal,
some have more. Of the three-spined, three, Ctenolabrus has a
characteristic notch where the spines join the rays in the dorsal,
which is not present in either Crenilabrus or Labrus, and Labrus has
more than 40 scales in the lateral line, while Crenilabrus has less
than 40. Of Crenilabrus there are two species, the Conner (C. melops),
which is purplish above and paler below, and the goldsinny (C.
cornubicus), which is greenish above and yellow below. Of Labrus
there are four species the green wrasse (L. lineatus), which is green,
streaked with yellow ; the striped wrasse
(L. mixtus), which is orange, striped with
blue; the comber (L. donovani), which
has a few white spots below the lateral
line, and one incomplete white stripe ;
and the ballan wrasse (L. maculatus),
which is plentifully spotted with white
both above and below the lateral line.
In Labrus the teeth are in a single row,
and characteristic, as shown in the
sketch of those of the ballan wrasse
Two genera only have more than 3
spines in the anal, these are also wrasses ;
they are Acantholabrus, with scales on
the spines and rays, and Centrolabrus, TEETH OF BALLAN WRASSE.
without such scales, the latter also
differing from the former in having less than 40 scales in the lateral
line. This completes the thoracic group having 3 or more spines,
Anal with three spines
Pectorals with 12 or 13 rays Con's.
Pectorals with 14 to 17 rays.
Dorsal spines 12 or less
Front teeth conspicuous Dentex.
No molar teeth
Lateral line black and parallel to back Cantharus.
No canine teeth Pagellus.
Molar teeth and canine teeth Pagrus
Dorsal spines more than 12
Tail forked Box.
Tail not forked-
Gill covers spiny ; lips thin
Dorsal rays under 13 Polyprion.
Dorsal rays over 13
Dorsal spines 15 Sebastes.
Dorsal spines 10 or n Serranus.
Gill covers smooth or serrated, but without spines ;
Notch between dorsal spines and rays
No notch between dorsal spines and rays
Lateral line with less than 40 scales Creni-
Lateral line with more than 40 scales Labrus.
Anal with more than three spines
Lateral line with over 40 scales
Scales on spines and rays Acantholabrus.
Lateral line with less than 40 scales
No scales on spines and rays Centrolabrus.
To tbem, and to none that preceded them, does our specimen fish
belong. Never was there a fish with a single dorsal in which the
ventrals could be more distinctly abdominal. Back, then, to our
barbules, which will give us four main divisions, that run 6, 4, 2,
and none, to guide us through this crowd of everyday acquaintances.
First, then, come the loaches, with six barbules, Cobitis, the spiny
loach (C. tcenia), distinguished from Nemachilus, the common loach
(N. barbatula), by the erectile, double-pointed spine below the eye.
Next, with 4 barbules, Cyprinus, the carp(C. carpio), and Barbus, the
barbel (B. vulgaris), the latter named from the conspicuous barbels
we have thought better to spell in the older way to save confusion
between the fish and its appendages. The carp has a long dorsal
with 22 rays, the barbel has a short one with half the number ; the
scales are larger, there are never
more than 40 in the lateral line,
while there may be 70 in that of the
barbel; and the carp is deeper in
build and more coppery in colour.
Next are the genera with two
barbules, another party of two, each
represented by a single well-known
species Goblo, the gudgeon (G.
fluviatilis), and Tinea, the tench (T.
vulgaris), Gobio having 8 rays in both
anal and ventrals, Tinea having 9
rays in the anal and 10 in the ven-
trals; the gudgeon slender and
graceful, clean and silvery, the tench
deep and hump-backed, and slimy
and dull, generally blackish, and
occasionally yellow two very differ-
ent fishes, never likely to be mistaken
for one another. That clears away
six genera in these groups of two, leaving us with seven we
can group in a similar way when we have disposed of the most un-
mistakable of our fresh-water fishes, the pike.
Like the rest of this division the pike (Esox lucius) has no bar-
bules, like two of them its abdomen is rounded all along, and has no
UPPER JAW OF PIKE.
sharp edge, but, unlike all of them, its dorsal fin is placed above the
anal, much nearer the tail than the head. The character of the pike
is betrayed by the teeth, which are so characteristic that we must
find room for a sketch (Figs. 20 and 21). Look at the array on the
vomer, and note how the palatines on each side of it are armed, and
Fig. 21. DENTARY OF PIKE.
how those on the premaxillary are kept small, so as not to obstruct
the entrance into the capacious mouth ; look at the miscellaneous
assortment, large and small, on the dentary, that is, the tooth-bear-
ing portion of the lower jaw ; and, in addition to all these, there are
teeth on the tongue and hyoid bones. Compare this formidable
dental armament with the modest array of the carp (Fig. 22), which
has teeth only on the lower pharyngeal bones.
Now for the other genera, two and two. In the first two the
abdomen is rounded throughout, but the dorsal is in the middle of
the back ; these are Carassius, with 5 to 7 rays in the anal, and
Leuciscus, with 8 to IT. Of Carassius there are two species, the gold-
fish (C. auratus), which is reddish-golden and silvery, frequently
marked more or less with black, and varying so much in its fin
structure, that it can only be distinguished from C. vulgaris (the
crucian carp) by the number of scales in its lateral line, the goldfish
having under 30, the other having more than 30, but the colour is
guide enough, the crucian carp being
greenish above, with yellow sides
and pinkish abdomen, which the
goldfish never has.
A genus of much more importance
to the angler is Leuciscus, with its 8
to ii anal rays. It includes the
roach, the chub, the dace, the rudd,
and the minnow. In four of these
the lateral line runs from head to
tail ; in the minnow it does not, in
fact, in technical phrase, it is " incom-
plete," although made up of from 80
to go scales. As a rule the minnow
Fig. 22. LOWER PHARYNGEAL is distinguishable by its small size,
TEETH OF CARP it being generally some three inches
or thereabouts in length, but as a few
giant specimens are on record, running up to seven inches, it is as
well to keep an eye on the incomplete lateral line. The four others
have the line complete, and though easily recognisable when side by
side are not so easy of description. The safest way is to count the
rows of scales between the lateral line and the ventrals. If there are
5 rows the fish is a dace (L. vulgaris), always silvery, with a dorsal
about half as high again as its base is long. If there are 4 rows it
is either a roach (L. rutilus) or a rudd (L. erythrophthalmus), and the
rudd at once proclaims itself by its red eye, deeper build, and more
coppery hue, and by the dorsal fin being rather nearer the tail. The
rudd, too, has a habit of sticking out its under lip, so that it seems
longer than it really is, while in the roach the upper lip is always,
actually and apparently, a little the longer. If there are 3 rows of
scales between the line and the ventrals the fish is a chub (L.
cephahts), the back fin of which is only about a quarter as high as
the base is long, and the head of which is proportionately
stouter than in the other species, and is dashed with red
Two genera we have in which the edge of the abdomen is of un-
expected shape, being rounded in front of the ventrals and sharply
ridged behind them. These are Abramis (the breams), in which the
dorsal has a distinct spine, and Alburnus (the bleak), which is
without any trace of a spine. No one is likely to mistake the
slender bleak (Alburnus lucidus) for the deeply-built breams. The
bleak might have been grouped with the flying-fish, owing to the
lower lobe of its tail being frequently longer than the upper, but
the difference is not always invariably apparent, and is always
so slight that it seemed better to brigade him here with his family
relations. There are two breams, the bream (Abramis brama) and
the white bream (A. blicca) from which it can be distinguished
by the truer curve of its back, by the fins being brownish and
red, instead of bluish and red, by the lateral line having from 50
to 63 scales, instead of from 43 to 52, by the scales between the
line and the ventral fin being 6 or more, instead of 5 or 6, and
by its having one row of pharyngeal teeth instead of two. The
bream is often known as the carp bream, and the white bream
as the silver bream, in reference to the olive colour of the one,
and the lighter, whiter, and rosier hue of the other.
We have now dealt with all those in which the abdomen is
rounded throughout, and rounded in the fore half and ridged in the
hinder half ; but are there none in which the abdomen is compressed
all along ? Certainly and our specimen fish is one of them. What
can it be? Let us look at its upper jaw. Does it project ? No.
Then it is not the anchovy (Engraulis), and its genus must be Clupea,
the only one left.
But which of the five species is it ? Its back fin is nearer to the
head than to the tail, so it cannot be C. sprattus (the sprat) ; and it
is not nearer to the tail than to the head, so that it cannot be
C. pilchardus (the pilchard), which it would be if it had from 6 to 8
rays in its ventrals, or one of the two shads, C. alosa and C.finta, if
it had 9 or 10 rays in them. Its dorsal fin, then, is no nearer to the
head than to the tail, and there is only one species in which that is
so. The pilchard has the tip of the back fin at the centre of gravity,
which is not quite in the middle of the back, but when the dorsal is
exactly half-way between the snout and the base of the tail we
recognise the herring. Thus, by the trail of the herring, we have
come home, and the fish we have identified by eliminating what it
is not, is no other than the common bloater.
Yet another key the last of the bunch
Erectile spine under eye Cobitis
No spine under eye Netnachilus
Dorsal with 22 rays Cyprinus.
Dorsal with n rays Barbus.
Anal 8 rays; ventrals 8 rays Gobio.
Anal 9 rays ; ventrals 10 rays Tinea.
Abdomen rounded all along
Dorsal placed far back Esox.
Dorsal placed midway
Anal with 5 to 7 rays Carassius.
Anal with 8 to n rays Leuciscus t
Abdomen rounded in front of ventrals and compressed
Dorsal with spine Abramis.
Dorsal without spine Alburnus-
Abdomen compressed all along
Upper jaw projecting Engraulis.
Upper jaw not projecting Clupea.
Externals have served our purpose of identification, but, when we
come to classification and zoological order, recourse to internals is
inevitable. A few notes on structure we cannot do without, but we
need not in this little book, written for the special purpose of merely
ascertaining the name of the fish, have more notes than are
necessary for understanding the descriptions that follow. The
anatomy of the fishes is not a simple subject; some species have a
thousand separate bones, and some sharks have quite as many
vertebrae as there are days in the year, though the vertebras of the
bony fishes range from only 14 (in Batistes) to as many as 200.
The vertebra of a fish that is, one of the sections of which the
backbone is built up is, as is well known, hollow at both ends, or,
to be correct, it is so in all British fishes. For descriptive pur-
poses, the vertebrae are divided into those that are abdominal and
those that are caudal, the former being in the front of the body and
carrying the ribs by means of the transverse processes one on each
side. From the top of all rise two " neurapophyses," which carry a
neural spine, the arch formed by these at their bases being the
neural arch, through which runs the spinal cord. From the bottom
of the caudal vertebrae issue " haemapophyses," of much the same
shape, which, at their bases, form the haemal arch and at their tips
carry a haemal spine. Some exceptionally all of the neural spines
are the supports of the " interneurals," with which the spines and
rays of the dorsal fin articulate, and the haemal spines carry the
" interhaemals," which are connected with the spines and rays of
the anal fin. The ventral fins, otherwise the pelvics, are supported
by the pubic bone, and the pectorals are connected with the
scapular arch, consisting of the supra-scapular, the scapular, and
the coracoid, which join on the head.
The head we have intentionally left to the last, and we will be
content with an outline of that of the perch, mentioning only a few
Fig. 24. PREMAXILLARY, MAXILLARY, AND DENTARY OF SALMON.
of the parts, and advising those who would know more to make
acquaintance with some of the beautiful mounted specimens in
most museums, where the many parts do not blend into the mass
as they do in diagrams.
In the region of the mouth (Fig. 23) we have the premaxillary
and maxillary, and, in the lower jaw, the mandible, along which,
carrying the teeth, is the dentary, A fish's teeth may be all over
its mouth, not only on its jawbones, but on the bones of its palate
and its pharynx, and even on its tongue-bones and tongue, which
tongue is not free in its movements, but moves only as part of the
hyoid apparatus. The curious way in which the teeth may cluster
on the bones is well shown in the salmon, which has teeth on the
Fig. 25. GILL ARCHES.
dentary, the premaxillary, the maxillary, the palatines, and also the
vomer, which is the bone placed in the middle of the mouth (Fig. 24).
In the gill region we have the " covers," consisting of the oper-
cular with the sub-opercular below it, and the pre-opercular
with the inter-operular below it. Under the inter-opercular are
the branchiostegals, the rays which protect the gills, and if we
were to remove the gill-covers we should see the gill-arches, of
which we have a separate outline (Fig. 25). Of these arches there
are five, with, as a rule, gills on four of them, the gills being in a
cavity below the pharynx, with clefts between the arches through
which the water passes from the pharynx on its way out through
the gill openings. The three arches in front are each made up of
four bones ; in the fourth arch there are but three bones, and the
uppermost, when dilated, becomes the upper pharyngeal, the fifth
arch, composed of one bone only, becoming the lower pharyngeal.
The inner side of the gill-arches, in some cases, carry projections
known as gill-rakers, which act as a grating to prevent substances
in the water from passing into the gills. The gills are usually held
up by two rows of cartilaginous rods along the rounded edge of the
arches, but in some fishes there is one row instead of two. The
pseudo-branchiae, or false gills, are along the inner side of the gill-
covers. They do not assist in respiration except in the fish's early
life, and in the adult they receive only arterial blood.
The gill-arches are bounded by the hyoid arch, which is con-
nected with the temporal bones by the stylo-hyoids, its largest
member being the ceratohyal, to the inner end of which are
attached the branchiostegals, which carry the branchiostegal mem-
brane in much the same way as an umbrella is spread by its ribs.
At the base of the cranial cavity, and in the bony fishes more
or less within it, is the ear, a highly-developed organ, consisting
essentially of a sac often divided into chambers, each containing an
otolith with indentations and grooves to which the acoustic nerve
is connected. These otoliths are the bones that people are so fre-
quently at a loss to assign a position to. That in the
diagram is one of those of a cod (Fig. 26).
The eye, like the ear, is of different grades of develop-
ment. In some fishes it is very highly organised ; in
one genus it is in two portions, one for seeing in water
and the other for seeing in air, but this fish is not a
Britisher. We have no occasion to go into detail ; all
we have to deal with is the bony frontier. Below, this
Fi 26 - cons ^ sts f tne infraorbitals or suborbitals, of which
OTOLITH ^ ne P raeor bital or lachrymal (nearest the mouth) is the
OF largest. Above the eye come the frontal and prefrontal,
CODFISH. w ^ n tne nasals extending over the anterior half towards
the maxillary, while below it, beyond the infraorbitals,
an outer ring, whose main elements are the hyomandibular and the
quadrate, join on to the mandible by means of the articulary.
In this hasty run round the perch's head we have by no means
mentioned all the bones, but we have said enough to enable us to
deal with the identification of the families and genera on the British
list. Before, however, venturing on the systematic, we must have a
few examples of the way in which our keys are worked, and for this
purpose we will give the tabular scheme complete.
Both eyes on upper surface ; mouth on under surface ; no
Gill-openings lateral Rhina, 237.
Tail without longitudinal fold
No dorsal Trygon, 252.
Dorsal on tail
Dorsal between ventrals Cephaloptera, 251.
Dorsal beyond ventrals Myliobatis, 250.
Tail with longitudinal fold
Caudal well developed, wings almost semi-circular
Torpedo, 248, 249.
Caudal rudimentary or absent, wings angular
Both eyes on upper side ; month extending to upper and
under sides ; gill-covers present
Eyes to the left
Two spines behind left ventral Arnoglossus, 156.
No spines behind left ventral-
Caudal as long as from snout to pectorals
Scales ctenoid and rather large Zeugopterus,
Scales cycloid, and small or absent Rhombus,
Eyes to the right
Jaws alike on both sides
Lateral line straight Hippoglossoides, 150.
Lateral line curved Hippoglossus, 149.
Jaws not alike on both sides
Mouth at end of snout Pleuronectes, 157-161.
Snout curving beyond mouth Solea, 162-165.
Caudal fin absent
Tail filamentary Chimara, 221.
Dorsal with a low penultimate section Zoarces, 82.
46 TABULAR SCHEME.
Body rounded and smooth ; pectorals absent Nerophis,
Anal absent ; dorsal with crest Regalccus, 103.
Anal and ventrals absent Trichiurus, 22.
Body ridged Hippocampus, ng.
Vertical fins continuous
Body truncated ; dorsal and anal placed far back
Orthagoriscus, 123, 124.
Body depressed in front, compressed behind; a sucker
between the ventrals Lepadogaster (gouanii), gg.
Body tapering from a large head Coryphanoidts, 148.
Body riband-shaped Cepola, 74.
Skin not extending over gill-covers
Ventrals a pair of filaments Opliidium, 143.
Ventrals absent Fierasfer, 144.
Skin extending over gill-covers
Without pectorals Murana, 168.
Upper jaw the longer Conger, 167.
Lower jaw the longer Anguilla, 166.
Body with bony plates in five rows Acipenser, 220.
Body without bcny plates
Dorsals with spines
Spine in the middle of each dorsal Centrina, 235.
Spine in front of each dorsal Acanthias, 233.
Dorsals without spines ; skin spiny
First dorsal in the middle of the back Lam-argns, 234.
Both dorsals near the tail Echinorhmus, 236.
One dorsal Notidauus, 22g.
First dorsal above space between ventrals and anal
Anal long, extending almost to caudal Pristiums,
Anal moderate, its length or more from caudal
Scy Ilium, 230, 231. ,
First dorsal above space between pectorals and
Eye with nictitating membrane
Head hammer-shaped Zygcena, 224.
Pit at base of caudal ; no spiracles CarcJiarias,
No pit at base of caudal
Second dorsal almost as large as first
Second dorsal small Galeus, 223.
Eye without nictitating membrane
Tail not keeled
Upper lobe very long Alopecias, 227.
Teeth large and lancelate Lamna, 226.
Teeth small and conical Selache, 228.
Lower lobe of tail the larger
Pectorals long and used for flight Exocattus, 89, go
Lobes of tail equal
Tail at an angle to backbone Trachypterus, 102.
Tail in a line with backbone
Body short and stout
Scales forming a carapace Batistes, 120, 121.
Gullet dilatable into a sphere Tetrodon, 122.
Body deep and compressed
Iridescent, with round silvery spots Lampris, 33.
Grey, with black blotch edged with yellow, and spines
with filaments Zeus, 29.
Snout long and tubular Ctntriscus, 98.
Fore half squarish, hinder half narrow ; ocellated spotr.
along lower edge Argyropelecus, 187.
Body long and slender
Ridged, with bony plates
Caudal ridge continuous with lateral Siphonostoma,
Caudal ridge continuous with dorsal Syngnathus, 115^
Both jaws prolonged into a beak
With finlets Scombresox, 88.
Without finlets Belone, 87.
With ventrals ; dorsal spotted Centronotus, Si.
Without ventrals Ammodytes, 145-147.
Body long and compressed
Dorsal long-, and highest in middle or near tail
Centrolophus, 30, 31.
Body long, thin, and tapering
Tail forked, each ventral represented by a single scale
Upper jaw produced into a long sword Xiphias, 21.
First dorsal replaced by a sucker Echeneis, 44.
First dorsal hidden in a fleshy ridge
Body bulky, with ridges and tubercles Cyclopterus, Go.
First dorsal replaced by isolated spines
Spines with filaments
Head large ; mouth very large Lophius, 47.
Spines without filaments
Tail deeply forked and tipped with black Lichia, 27.
<J.8 TABULAR SCHEME,
Scales along sides
Broad vertical bands extending on to fins Naucrates, 25.
No bands Pammelas, 26.
Scales along sides replaced by scutes Gasterosteus, 91-97.
Three dorsals Gadus, 125-132.
Two dorsals, second dorsal adipose
Anal extending to caudal Paralepis, 186.
Anal not extending to caudal
Anal with more than 20 rays
Anal in three portions of different heights Maurolicus,
Anal with less than 20 rays
Body ridged Argentina, 219.
Body not ridged
Dorsal rays over 18 Thymallus, 218.
Dorsals rays under 18
Maxillary short Coregonus, 214-217.
Dorsal rays, n Osmerus, 213.
Dorsal rays, 12 to 15 Salmo, 195-212.
Two dorsals ; second dorsal not adipose
Barbules many and white
Body octagonal ; no pectoral filaments Agonus, 58.
Three pectoral filaments
Body ridged Trigla, 52-57.
Two pectoral filaments
Body ridged ; snout bifid Peristethus, 59.
Two stiff barbules under chin
Dorsals wide apart Mullus, 8, 9.
Ventral a bifid filament Phycis, 134.
First dorsal short
Teeth large in lower jaw Molva, 135.
No large teeth in lower jaw Lota, 136.
First dorsal of only 3 rays Raniceps, 41.
Finlets between second dorsal and caudal
Dorsals wide apart
Tail with two slight ridges Scomber, 36-38.
Tail distinctly keeled A uxis, 43.
Dorsals close together ; tail keeled
First dorsal with over 20 rays Pelamys, 42.
First dorsal with under 20 rays
Finlets 7 Thynnus, 41.
Finlets 8 or 9 Orcynus, 39, 40.
Wide apart Callionymus, 72, 73.
First dorsal with 5 or 6 ra.ysTrachinus, 45, 46.
First dorsal with 10 rays Merluccius, 133.
TABULAR SCHEME. 49
Dorsals wide apart
First dorsal with 4 spines Mugil, 85, 86.
First dorsal with from 7 to g spines Atherina, 83, 84.
Dorsals close together
Body red, deep, and compressed ; mouth protractile
Lateral line armed with bony plates
Two spines in front of ventrals Caranx, 24.
Lateral line continued through caudal fin Sciana, 20.
First dorsal of 2 spines, wide apart Crystallogobius, 71
First dorsal of 5 spines Aphia, 70.
First dorsal of 6 spines
Anal spineless; ventrals with a spine and 5 rays
Gobius (pictus), 68.
First dorsal of 6 to 10 spines
Anal spineless ; ventral with or without a spine, and
with less than 5 rays Coitus, 48-51.
First dorsal of 6 or 7 spines
Anal with one spine Gobius, 63-67, and 69.
First dorsal of 8 or 9 spines
Anal with 3 spines Labrax, z.
First dorsal of 14 or 15 spines
Anal with 2 spines Perca, i.
Ventrals absent Anarrhichas, 75.
Ventrals rudimentary and surrounding a sucker
Dorsal with under 20 rays LtpadogasUr, 99-101.
Dorsal with over 20 rays Liparis, 61, 62.
Fore-part of dorsal a fringe with a long first ray
Dorsal lowest in middle ; ventrals small Blennius, 76-79.
Dorsal long and straight
Filaments on first 3 rays Carelophus, 80.
Ventrals thick and pointed Brosmius, 142.
Anal with one spine and 14 rays
Body grey with red stripe Luvarus, 35.
Anal with 2 spines
Anal rays 5 or 6 Acetina, 3.
Anal rays, 27 to 29.
Dorsal spines 3, short and isolated Schedophilus, 34.
Dorsal spines 3 or 4, short and not isolated Brama, 32,
Anal with 3 spines
Pectorals with 12 or 13 rays Coris, 113.
Pectorals with 14 to 17 rays
Dorsal spines 12 or less.
Front teeth conspicuous Dentex, 7.
50 TABULAR SCHEME.
No molar teeth
Lateral line black and parallel to back
No canine teeth Pagdhis, 14-18.
Molar teeth and canine teeth Pagnis, 12, 13.
Dorsal spines more than 12
Tail forked Box, n.
Tail not forked
Gill-covers spiny ; lips thin
Dorsal rays under 13 Polyprion, 6.
Dorsal rays over 13
Dorsal spines 15 ; body and fins orange red
Dorsal spines 10 or ii Strranus, 4, 5.
Gill-covers smooth or serrated, but without spines ;
Notch between dorsal spines and rays Ctenola-
No notch between dorsal spines and rays
Lateral line with less than 40 scale ^ Crcnlla-
brus, 108, 109.
Lateral line with more than 40 scales Labrus,
Anal with more than 3 spines
Lateral line with over 40 scales
Scales on spines and rays Acantholabrus, in.
Lateral line with less than 40 scales
No scales on spines and rays Centrolabrus, 112.
Erectile spine under eye Cobitis, 183.
No spine under eyeNemachilus, 184.
Dorsal with 22 rays Cyprinus, 169.
Dorsal with n rays Barbus, 172.
Anal 8 rays; ventrals 8 rays Gobio, 173.
Anal 9 rays ; ventrals 10 rays Tinea, 179.
Abdomen rounded throughout
Dorsal placed far back Esox, 185.
Dorsal placed midway
Anal 5 to 7 rays Carassius, 170, 171.
Anal 8 to n rays Leuciscus-^ 174-178.
Abdomen rounded in front of ventrals and compressed
Dorsal with spine Abramis, 180, 181.
Dorsal without spine Alburnus, 182.
Abdomen compressed throughout
Upper jaw projecting Engrauiis, 189.
Upper jaw not projecting Clupea, 190-194.
WITH the aid of our tabular scheme we ought to be able to find
the genus of any British fish without difficulty. Let us try
a few examples.
Here is a flat-fish ; the mouth is not on the under surface, and
there is a gill-cover. That takes us at once past the first group.
Are its eyes to the left or to the right? To the left. Has it two
spines behind the left ventral ? No. Is its tail short or long?
Short. Are its scales large or small ? There are no scales. The
genus is Rhombus, and of the two species it can only be R. maximus,
Here is a fish in which the vertical fins are continuous. That
takes us on to another group. Is its body truncated ? No. De-
pressed in front,' compressed behind, with a sucker between the
ventrals ? No. Tapering from a large head ? No. Riband-shaped ?
No. The body is long and rounded. Does the skin extend over
the gill-covers ? Yes. Has it pectoral fins ? Yes. It is one of the
eels ; but which ? Which jaw is the longer, the upper or the lower ?
The upper. The genus is Conger, and there is only one species.
Let us try one with a heterocercal tail. Has it bony plates
along it ? No ; the body is without plates. Has it an anal fin ?
Yes. One dorsal or two ? Two. Is the first dorsal above the
interval between the ventrals and anal ? No ; it is over that between
the pectorals and ventrals. Is its head hammer-shaped? No; it
is conical. Has it a pit at the base of the caudal fin ? No. Is
its second dorsal fairly large, or is it much smaller than the first ?
Much smaller. The genus is Galeus, and there is but one species,
Let us take one with a homocercal tail. Is its tail at an angle
to the backbone ? No ; it is not Trachyptcrus. Is its body short
and stout and armoured ? No. Is it deep and compressed ? No ;
it is neither the opah, the dory, nor the trumpet-fish. Is it long and
slender ? Yes. Is it ridged with bony plates ? No. Are both
jaws prolonged into a beak ? Yes ; it is either Scombresox or Belone.
Has it any finlets ? No ; and consequently it is Belone, the one
species of which is the mackerel-guard, or gar-fish.
Yet another. How many dorsals are there ? One complete,
and a series of spines representing one in front of it. Have the
spines any filaments ? No. Are there scales all along its side or
plates ? Plates. The genus is Gasterosteus, one of the sticklebacks,
for further particulars of which we refer to the chapter in which the
genera are sorted into their respective species, though from the
fact of its having eight spines we know it can only be that known as
the nine-spined stickleback, which may have 8, 9, 10, or n spines.
Yet another. How many dorsals are there ? Three. Three ?
It can only be Gadus ; but what species ? Refer to the ninth
chapter. Is the upper jaw longer than the lower ? No. Has it a
barbule ? No. We have reduced the possibles to two. Is the lateral
line curved. Yes, and it has a greenish back and golden and silvery
sides, and is altogether a good-looking member of the cod family.
It is a pollack.
Here is another with three dorsals, which is copper-coloured and
broadly banded, and has blackish fins and a brown lateral line. Is
its upper jaw longer than the lower ? Yes ; and it has a barbule. It
is a whiting-pout.
Let us have one with an adipose dorsal. Does the anal extend
to the caudal ? No, the anal does not reach the tail. Has the anal
more than twenty rays ? No. Is the body ridged ? No. How many
dorsal rays are there ? A fair number ; it is a long dorsal. Are
there more than eighteen ? Certainly. Then it is Thymallus, the
Next, we take one with two dorsals fully developed. Are there
any barbules ? No. Are there any finlets ? No. What is the
position of the ventrals ? Jugular. Wide apart ? No ; close
together. How many rays are there in the first dorsal ? Ten.
Then it is the hake (Merluccius), which, by the way, has hinged
teeth like the angler.
Let us have a representative of the single dorsals. Has it any
ventrals ? Yes, and they are thoracic. What is the anal like ? Has
it a spine and fourteen rays ? No ; it has two spines. Two spines ?
How many rays ? Five. Enough ; it can only be the ruff (Acerina),
which its rough scales prove it to be.
Here is another, with a single dorsal and abdominal ventrals. It
has no barbules. Its abdomen is not sharply compressed, but gently
rounded. Its dorsal is not pla-ced over the anal, but midway along
the back ; and the anal is rather long, and seems to have ten rays,
though, perhaps, there are eleven. The genus can only be Leuciscus.
But what is the species ? The lateral line is distinct all along
the body, and there are five rows of scales between it and the ven-
trals, which, with the silvery side and bluish back, show the fish to
be a dace (L. vulgaris).
Finally, we will have another, and run it through the mill. Its
body is not horizontal ; its tail fin is rather large ; the tail is not
heterocercal ; the lobes of the tail are equal ; and the tail is in a
line with backbone. There is nothing eccentric about its shape ;
there is nothing to show that it ever had two dorsals ; it has one
dorsal, and the ventrals are neither jugular nor thoracic, but
abdominal. It has no barbules; the abdomen is not rounded at
either end, but compressed all along; and the upper jaw does not
project. The genus is Clupea, The dorsal is nearer to the head
than to the tail ; the ventrals are below the middle of the dorsal,
and have six rays and to end all this it can only be the pilchard,
which we might have recognised at sight by its large scales.
SUB-CLASSES AND ORDERS,
OF the more recent schemes of classification we have adopted
that which divides the fishes, living and extinct, into four
sub classes :
1. Lung-fishes and Mud-fishes.
2. Bony fishes and Ganoids.
4. Sharks and Rays.
The lung-fishes and mud-fishes (DIPNOI) have a heart with
three chambers, and have lungs as well as gills, and their
nostrils lead into the hinder part of the mouth cavity like those
of animals of higher organisation. Up to the present they have
only been found in Australia, Africa, and South America ; and
as they are unknown in British waters they are beyond our scope.
With them out of the way we can describe the fishes we have
to deal with as cold-blooded vertebrates adapted for life in the
water, breathing by gills, having a heart with two chambers, a
mouth with distinct jaws, and limbs either absent or modified
into fins. They form the fifth class of the animal kingdom,
those that precede it being the mammals, the birds, the reptiles,
and the amphibians. The class can be divided into the four
sub-classes already mentioned, the three with which we are left
1. TELEOSTOMI or Bony-fishes and Ganoids.
2. HOLOCEPHALI or Chimseroids.
3. ELASMOBRANCHII or Sharks and Rays.
Dealing with these in our customary way, the first sub-clasS
^an be divided into orders thus :
Paired fins fan-like ACTINOPTERYGII.
Paired fins lobate CROSSOPTERYGII.
As the latter are not represented in the British fauna, and
have only two surviving species (the bichir and the reed-fish) we
54 SUB-CLASSES AND ORDERS.
confine ourselves to the first order, which is divisible into sub-
orders as follows :
Gills lobed LOPHOBRANCHII.
Air bladder with duct.
Skeleton notochordal ; body with dermal ossifica
Skeleton osseous ; body without dermal ossifications
Air bladder without duct.
Skeleton incompletely ossified ; skin smooth, roughly
scaled or ossified PLECTOGNATHI.
Some of the fin rays unarticulated ACANTHO-
None of the fin rays unarticulated ; ventrals, when
present, jugular or thoracic ANACANTHINI.
The second sub-class, HOLOCEPHALI, now represented by only
three genera belonging to one family, is characterised by a single
external gill-opening with a rudimentary cartilaginous gill-cover
and four branchial clefts within the gill cavity, and by the jaws
being attached to the skull.
The sub-class that includes the sharks and rays is of consider-
ably more importance. The body is more or less cylindrical or
depressed, the skeleton cartilaginous, the gills are attached to
the skin by their outer edges with from five to seven gill-openings,
there being no gill-cover, and the jaws being distinct from the
skull. The two orders are recognisable as follows :
Gill openings lateral SELACHOIDEI.
Gill openings inferior BATOIDEI.
The first being the sharks, the second the skates and rays.
Of course there are other distinctions in each case, but our
object being identification and not classification, we have mentioned
only those that are most noticeable.
ORDERS, SUB-ORDERS, AND FAMILIES,
THE families represented in British waters are herein arranged
alphabetically under each order or, in the case of the
Actinopterygii, sub-order, which are also alphabetical as being
more readily referred to. With each family is given a list, also
alphabetical, of its British genera, the numbers indicating where
the species are figured on the coloured plates,
Acanthopterygii- (TELEOSTOMI.) Plates i. to xiv. Nos. i to 113
ATHERINID^. Body more or less elongate. Two dorsals more or less
remote from each other, spines of the first feeble and fewer than rays
of the second, anal similar to second dorsal ; ventrals abdominal, of
one spine and five rays. Lateral line indistinct. Scales cycloid and
of moderate size. Eyes lateral ; mouth moderately wide and not
deeply cleft ; teeth minute ; gill opening wide ; four gills ; pseudo-
branchiae present ; branchiostegals five or six. Atherina, 83,84.
BLENNIID.E. Body long and more or less cylindrical. One, two, or three
dorsals occupying most of the back, spines varying in number from
all to none ; anal long ; ventrals generally jugular and sometimes
rudimentary or absent. Scales small and occasionally absent. Gill
openings varying; pseudobranchiae present. Anarrhichas, 75; Blen-
nius, 76 to 79 ; Carelophus, 80 ; Centronotus, 81 ; Zoarces, 82.
CALLIONYMID^E. Body, fore part depressed, hinder part cylindrical. Two
dorsals, first with three or four flexible spines ; ventrals widely sepa-
rated, with five rays. Lateral line single or double. Eye moderate
and generally directed upwards. Mouth narrow, upper jaw protractile.
Small teeth on jaws, none on vomer. Angle of praeoperculum armed
with a spine. Gill opening very narrow ; a slit behind the fourth gill ;
pseudobranchiae present ; branchiostegals five or six. Callionymus,
7 2 . 73-
CARANGIDJE. Body more or less compressed, oblong or sub-cylindrical.
One or two dorsals, spinous dorsal short, when present, and some-
times modified into tentacles or a suctorial disk, soft dorsal always long
when spinous is absent ; soft dorsal and anal similar, hinder portion of
both occasionally consisting of finlets ; ventrals thoracic, sometimes
rudimentary or absent. Lateral line with or without shield-like plates.
Scales small or absent. Eye lateral. Mouth small; teeth conical,
when present. Gill opening wide. Capros, 28 ; Caranx, 24; Lichia,
27 ; Naucrates, 25 ; Pammelas, 26.
5$ ORDERS, SUB-ORDERS, AND FAMILIES.
CENTRISCID^;. Body compressed, long, oblong, or elevated. Two dorsals
the first short with one strong spine, the second soft and moderate in
size like the anal ; ventrals abdominal and rudimentary. No lateral
line. Scales absent or small and rough, body covered with bony
patches. Mouth small and at end of a long tube or trumpet. No
teeth. Gills four ; pseudobranchiae present ; branchiostegals three
or four. Centriscus, 98.
CEPOLID^E. Body long and compressed. Dorsal long, more or less con-
tinuous with caudal and anal, caudal rounded ; ventrals thoracic and
consisting of one spine and five rays. Eye large and lateral. Teeth
of moderate size, angle of praeoperculum without bony stay. Gill
opening wide ; pseudobranchiae present ; branchiostegals six.
. Body compressed. One long dorsal, without spinous
division, extending almost to caudal ; anal without spines ; ventrals
generally thoracic and receivable in groove. Eye lateral. Mouth
cleft wide. Teeth small and conical or absent. Praeoperculum with-
out bony stay. Gill opening wide. Brama, 32 ; Lampns, 33 ; Luvarus,
35 ; Schedophilus, 34.
COTTIDJE. Body oblong or sub-cylindrical. Two dorsals, the spinous less
developed than the soft one, or than the anal ; ventrals thoracic with
five or fewer soft rays, sometimes rudimentary. Eye lateral or
directed upwards and outwards. Mouth lateral. Teeth villitcrm, no
canines. Some of the head bones armed. Infraorbitals articulate
with praeoperculum. Cottus, 48 to 51 ; Trigla, 52 to 57.
CYCLOPTERID^. Body thick or oblong. Dorsal spinous, or partly spinous
soft part of dorsal equal to anal ; ventrals thoracic or jugular, com
posed of one spine and four or five soft rays, which are rudimentary
and support a round disk, which is encircled by a cutaneous fringe.
Skin bare or tubercular. Teeth small. Gill opening narrow. Anal
papilla prominent. Cyclop let us, 60 ; Liparis, 61, 62.
CYTTID^E. Body elevated, compressed. Dorsal in two portions. Ventrals
thoracic. Skin with small scales, or shields, or bare. Eye lateral.
Teeth conical and small. No stay to praeoperculum. Gill opening
large. Anal papilla not prominent. Zeus, 29.
DACTYLOPTERID^E. Body elongate, sub-cylindrical and more or less
angular. One or two dorsals ; ventrals thoracic, with five or fewer
rays. Scales replaced by plates. Praeoperculum articulated with in-
fraorbitals. Agonus, 58 ; Peristethus, 59.
GASTEROSTEID^E. Body elongate, compressed. First dorsal absent or
represented by isolated spines; second dorsal soft ; ventrals abdominal,
consisting of a spine and a small ray. Scales absent but replaced by
scutes along the side. Mouth cleft, small and oblique; teeth villiform ;
opercular bones unarmed, infraorbitals covering cheek. Branchi-
ostegals three. G aster osteits, 91 to 97.
GOBJESOCID^. Body irregular and ungraceful. Dorsal soft and short and
near tail ; anal similar to dorsal ; ventrals jugular with sucker be-
tween them. No scales. Lepadogaster, 99 to 101.
ORDERS, SUB-ORDERS, AND FAMILIES. 57
. Body long. One dorsal, frequently divided into two, with
flexible spines in front portion, which has fewer rays than the other ;
anal similar to soft part of dorsal ; ventrals occasionally united into
disk. Scales present or absent. Teeth generally small, sometimes
canines present Infraorbitals not articulated with praeoperculum.
Gill opening narrow. Pseudobranchiae sometimes rudimentary.
Aphia, 70; Cry stallogob ius, 71 ; Gobius, 631069.
. Body long or oblong. One dorsal, spinous portion with rays
as many as or more than the soft portion ; anal similar to soft dorsal ;
ventrals thoracic, with one spine and five rays. Lateral line con-
tinuous or interrupted. Scales cycloid. Teeth on jaws ; none on
palate. Gills, three-and-a-half. Pseudobranchiae present. Branchi-
ostegals, five or six. Acantholabrus, in ; Centrolabrus, 112 ; Com, 113 ;
Crenilabrus, 108, 109; Ctenolabrus, no; Labrus, 10410 107.
LOPHIID^E. Body pyriform, head large. First dorsal absent or represented
by a few spines placed forwards and developed into tentacles ; ventrals
jugular, with four or five soft rays occasionally absent. Carpal bones
prolonged into arms terminated by the pectorals. Scales absent.
Teeth villiform or rasp-like. Infraorbitals not articulated with prae-
operculum. Gills from two-and-a-half to three-and-a-half ; gill opening
a small hole. Pseudobranchiae generally absent. Lophius, 47.
MUGILID.E. Body oblong and compressed, fore part occasionally de-
pressed. Two dorsals, anterior of four stiff spines, posterior shorter
than anal ; ventrals abdominal. Scales generally cycloid. Head
scaly. Eye lateral. Mouth narrow or moderate; teeth fine or
absent. Gills four ; gill opening wide, Pseudobranchiae present.
BranchiostegaCs four to six. Mugil, 85, 86.
MULLID^E. Body long and compressed. Two dorsals wide apart, with
weak spines : second dorsal similar to anal ; ventrals with one spine
and five rays. Lateral line continuous. Scales ctenoid and large.
Head convex ; eye lateral ; mouth in front of snout ; teeth weak and
various : two stiff barbules below the chin. Pseudobranchiae present.
Branchiostegals four. Mullus, 8, 9
PERCID^E. Body more or less compressed, oblong, and not elongate.
Dorsals one or two, occupying most of the back, spinous dorsal well
developed, generally with stiff spines; anal similar to soft dorsal;
ventrals thoracic, with one spine and five soft rays. Lateral line con-
tinuous when present. Scales ctenoid or cycloid, rarely extending
over vertical fins Eye lateral ; mouth more or less protractile ; no
barbules ; teeth villiform, with or without canines. Praeoperculum
entire or serrated and not articulated to infraorbitals. Pseudobranchiae
present. Branchiostegals six to eight. Acerina, 3 ; Dentex, 7; Labrax,
2 ; Perca, i; Polyprion, 6; Serranus 4, 5.
SCI/ENLD^;. Body somewhat long and compressed. Two dorsals, second
larger than first and longer than anal ; anal with one or two spines ;
pectorals branched ; ventrals thoracic, consisting of a spine and five
soft rays. Lateral line often continued on to caudal fin. Scales
ctenoid or cycloid, covering both head and snout. Eye lateral. Mouth
in front of snout. Teeth in villiform bands, palate toothless. Branchi-
ostegals seven. Sciana, 20.
58 ORDERS, SUB-ORDERS, AND FAMILIES.
SCOMBRESOCID^;. Body long and rounded. Dorsal rayed and opposite
anal. Scales keeled along free portion of tail. Lower pharyngeals
united into one bone. Pseudobranchiae glandular and hidden.
Belone, 87 ; Exocatus, 89, go ; Scombresox, 88.
SCOMBRID.E. Body slightly compressed. Two dorsals, first with fewer
spines than second has rays, finlets behind dorsal and anal occasionally
absent; ventrals thoracic, with one spine and five rays Side of tail
sometimes keeled. Scales small or abssnt. Eye lateral. Infraorbitals
not articulated to praeoperculum. Gill opaning wide. Auxis, 43 ;
Echeneis, 44 ; Orcynus, 39, 40; Pelamys, 42; Scomber, 36 to 38 ; Thynnus, 41;
. Body oblong, compressed, or sub-cylindrical. Dorsal with
spinous part as large or larger than the soft part ; soft part similar to
anal ; ventrals thoracic, generally with a spine and five rays, but
sometimes rudimentary. Some of the head bones armed ; armature of
angle of praeoperculum supported by the stay to the infraorbital ring.
Teeth in villiform bands. Pseudobranchiae present. Branchiostegals,
five to seven. Sebastes, 19,
Body oblong, compressed. One dorsal, spinous and soft por-
tions equally developed; anal with three spines; ventrals thoracic, of
one spine and five rays. Lateral line not extending to caudal. Scales
cycloid or minutely ctenoid. Eye lateral. Mouth lateral, in front of
snout ; cutting teeth in front of jaws, or a lateral series of molars, or
both. Pseudobranchiae well developed. Branchiostegals, five to
seven. Box, n ; Cantharus, 10 ; Pagellus. 1410 18 ; Pagrus, 12, 13.
. Body oblong and compressed. One dorsal, long and
without distinct spinous division, or with rudimentary spines in front ;
ventrals thoracic. Scales very small. Eye lateral. Teeth very small
in jaws, palate toothless, oesophagus with barbed teeth. Praeoper-
culum not articulated with infraorbitals. Gill opening wide. Centro-
lophus, 30, 31.
TRACHINID^E. Body long, hinder part compressed ; head often large
One or two dorsals, spinous portion shorter and less developed than
the other ; anal similar to soft dorsal ; pectorals with or without
appendages ; ventrals thoracic, with one spine and five rays. Scales
present or absent. Teeth small and conical. Praeoperculum not
articulated with infraorbitals. Tra hinus, 45, 46.
TRACHYPTERID^. Body riband-shaped; bones porous, thin, and light.
Dorsal as long as back, rays unbranched and not articulated, front
portion detached ; anal absent ; caudal at an angle to the longitudinal
axis or rudimsntary ; ventrals jugular and filamentary. Scales absent.
Eye lateral. Mouth cleft small. Teeth small and smooth. Gills
four ; gill opsning wide. Pseudobranchiae present. Regalecus, 103 ;
T r achy p terns, 102.
TRICHIURID^. Body long, compressed or riband-shaped. Dorsal and
anal long and many rayed, and nearly similar in size, and occasionally
ending in finlets ; caudal forked or absent ; ventrals thoracic, some-
times rudimentary. Scales absent or rudimentary. Eye lateral.
Mouth cleft deep. Teeth in jaws or on palate, a few of them strong
and conical. Gill opening wide. Lepidopus, 23 ; Trichiunis, 22.
ORDERS, SUB-ORDERS, AND FAMILIES. 59
XIPHIID^E. Body long and compressed. One or two dorsals, with no
spinous portion ; ventrals thoracic and rudimentary or absent. Scalej
forming rudimentary shields or absent. Eye lateral. Mouth deeply
cleft ; upper jaw produced into a long sword formed of the coalesced
premaxillaries, vomer, and ethmoid ; teeth absent or rudimentary.
Pseudobranchise present. Branchiostegals, seven. Xiphias, 21.
Anacanthini (TELEOSTOMI) PLATES xvi. to xxi. Nos. 125 to 165
GADID.E. Body elongate. Dorsals, one, two, or three, occupying almost
the entire length of the back ; rays of posterior dorsal well developed ;
one or two anals ; caudal usually free ; ventrals jugular, consisting of
several rays or filamentary. Scales cycloid, moderate or small. Gill
opening wide. Gill membranes not as a rule attached to isthmus.
Pseudobranchise glandular and rudimentary or absent. Brosmius, 142 ;
Gadus, 125 to 132; Lota, 136; Merluccius, 133; Molva, 135; Motella,
137 to 440; Phycis, 134 ; Raniceps, 141.
MACRURID^E. Body with large head and tapering tail. Dorsals two,
anterior short, posterior long., weak, and continued to end of tail ; anal
similar to second dorsal; caudal absent; ventrals of several rays,
thoracic or jugular. Scales spiny, keeled or striated. Coryphanoides,
OPHIDIID/E. Body long. Dorsal united to anal, and occupying nearly
the entire length of the back ; pectorals often absent ; ventrals
rudimentary and generally jugular, but sometimes absent. Scales
present or absent. Canine teeth sometimes present. Gill opening
wide ; gill membranes not attached to isthmus. Ammodytes, 145
to 147; Fierasfer, 144; Ophidium, 143
PLEURONECTID^E. Body flat and unsymmetrical. Dorsal and anal united
and long. Lateral line on upper side, single, double, or triple, and
curved or straight. Scales present or absent. Both eyes on upper
side, sometimes rudimentary. Gills, four. Pseudobranchise well
developed. Colour dark on upper side, white or lightly spotted on
lower. Arnoglosstis, 156 ; Hippoglossoides, ,150 ; Hippoglossus, 149 ;
Lepidorhombus, 155 ; Pleuronecies, 157 to 161 ; Rhombus, 151, 152 ;
Solea, 162 to 165 ; Zeugopterus, 153, 154.
Batoidei (ELASMOBRANCHII.) PLATES xxxi. to xxxiii. Nos. 238 to 252.
MYLIOBATID^;. Body flat, angular and broad. Dorsal small and situated
on tail ' pectorals skirting the sides of the body, but absent from the
sides of the head, except at the snout, where they form cephalic
appendages ; caudal absent. Tail slender. Teeth, flat molars.
Cephaloptera , 251 ; Myliobatis, 250.
Body flat, rhombic, generally spiny. Dorsals, one or two, on
tail ; pectorals skirting sides of body and extending to snout ; caudal
rudimentary or absent. Tail with longitudinal fold on each side, and
without serrated caudal spine. Raia. 238 to 247.
60 ORDERS, SUB-ORDERS, AND FAMILIES*
TORPEDINID^E. Body flat, broad, and smooth, and gradually passing into
tail. Dorsal rayed, sometimes absent ; pectorals not extending beyond
base of muzzle; caudal well developed. Tail with longitudinal fold
on each side An electric organ between the pectorals and the head.
Torpedo, 248, 249.
TRYGONID.E. Body broad. Dorsal, caudal, and anal absent or rudi-
mentary ; pectorals skirting body and head and confluent at snout.
Tail long and slender without longitudinal fold. Vertical fins, often
replaced by strong serrated spine. Try-on, 252
Chondrostei. (TELEOSTOMI.) PLATE xxvii. No. 220
ACIPENSERID^;. Body long and sub-cylindrical, with five rows of bony
shields Dorsal near caudal ; anal nearer caudal than dorsal. Four
barbules on lower side of snout. Teeth minute or absent. Gill mem-
branes confluent at throat and attached to isthmus. Gills, four; two
acce-.sory gills. Branchiostegals absent. Acipenscr, 220.
Holocephali. PLATE xxvii. No. 221.
. Body stout, with filamentous tail. Dorsals, two, occupying
greater part of back, anterior dorsal with long, strong spine ; caudal
absent, but tail with fins on upper and lower edges similar to a dorsal
and anal ; anal very low Snout prominent and without appendage.
Single gill opening covered by fold of skin enclosing rudimentary
gill cover ; gill clefts, four, within the cavity. Chimara, 221
Lophobranehii. (TELECSTOMI.) PLATE xv. Nos. 114 to 119.
SVNGNATHID^. Body ridged or rounded. One dorsal, which is not
spinous ; anal absent or present ; caudal absent or present ; pectorals
absent or present ; ventrals absent. Snout prolonged. Mouth ter-
minal, small, and toothless. Gills not laminated, but of small rounded
tufts ; gill opening small, round, and at upper posterior angle of cover,
which is a simple plate. Hippocampus, 119; Nerophis, 116 to 118;
Siphonostoma, 114 ; Syngnathus, 115.
PhysostOHli. (TELEOSTOMI.) PLATES xxii. to xxvii. Nos. 166 to 219.
CLUPEID^S. Body slender, abdomen often compressed into a serrated
edge. Dorsal not long, with weak rays, few or moderate in number;
no adipose fin ; anal sometimes many-rayed. Lateral line present or*
absent. Scales on body, but not as a rule on head. No barbules.
Gill openings very wide. Pseudobranchiae well developed when
present. Clupea, 190 to 194 ; Engnndis, 189.
ORDERS, SUB-ORDERS, AND FAMILIES. 6l
CYPRINID^E. Body oblong or long; abdomen usually rounded. Single
dorsal, no adipose fin. Scales present or absent, no bony plates ;
head without scales. Mouth toothless, but from one to three rows of
teeth on lower pharyngeal bones. Margin of upper jaw formed by
premaxillaries. Pseudobranchiae generally present. Branchiostegals,
three. Abramts, 180, 181 ; Albtirnus, 182; Barbus, 172; Carassius, 170,
171; Cobitis, 183; Cyprinus, 169; Gobio, 173; Leuciscns, 174 to 178;
Newachiliis, 184; Tinea, 179.
. Body oblong. Single dorsal near tail, no adipose fin. Scales
on body but not on head. Margin of upper jaw formed by maxil-
laries laterally, and premaxillaries mesially. Barbules absent. Gill
opening very wide. Pseudobranchiae glandular and concealed. Esox,
MUR^ENID^E. Body long, cylindrical, or riband-shaped. Dorsal long
and confluent with anal, or separated by tip of tail ; pectorals present
or absent; ventrals absent. Scales rudimentary or absent. Sides of
upper jaw formed by premaxillaries more or less coalescent with
vomer and ethmoid. Anguilla, 166 ; Conger, 167 ; Murana, 168.
SALMONID/E. Body compressed, moderate or elongate ; abdomen rounded.
Two dorsals, the anterior rayed, the posterior adipose. Scales on
body but not on head. Margin of upper jaw formed laterally of
maxillaries and mesially of premaxillaries. Barbules absent. Pseudo-
branchiae present. Argentina, 219; Coregomis, 214 to 217; Osmenis,
213; Salmo, 195 to 212; Thymalhis, 218.
SCOPELID^;. Body elongate. Two dorsals, the posterior adipose. Scales
present or absent. Margin of upper jaw formed by premaxillaries.
Barbules absent. Gill opening very wide. Pseudobranchiae well
developed. Branchiostegals generally numerous. Paralepis, 186.
STERNOPTYCHID^;. Body compressed, elevated, or elongate, with phos-
phorescent bodies along the lower parts. Adipose fin generally
rudimentary. Scales thin and deciduous or absent. Margin of
upper jaw formed of toothed maxillary and premaxillary. Barbules
absent. Gill opening very wide. Pseudobranchiae absent or present.
Argyropelecus, 187; Maurolicus, 188.
PleCtOgnathi. (TELEOSTOMI.) PLATE xv. Nos. 120 to 124.
BALISTID^E. Body compressed or angular. Dorsal modified or absent ;
ventrals modified or absent. Skin with scutes or rough, or the scales
forming a carapace. Mouth narrow, snout produced, teeth small and
few. Gill opening narrow. Balistes, 120, 121.
DIODONTIDJE. Body short. Dorsal, caudal, and anal without spines ;
ventrals absent ; pectorals present. Scales modified with spines or
laminae. Bones of jaw modified into a cutting beak, with a covering
resembling ivory. Teeth consisting of plates in thin parallel layers.
Orthagoriscns, 123, 124 ; Tetrodon, 122.
62 ORDERS, SUB-ORDERS, AND FAMILIES.
Selaehoidei. (ELASMOBRANCHII.) PLATES xxviii. to xxxi. Nos. 223
CARCHARIID^E. Body cylindrical. Two dorsals, first without spine and
placed above space between pectorals and ventrals ; anal present. Eye
with nictitating membrane. Mouth crescent shaped, inferior ; snout
slender and conical, or hammer-shaped. Teeth hollow when fully
grown. Carcharias, 222 ; Galeus, 223 ; Mustelus, 225 ; Zygcena, 224.
LAMNID^E. Body cylindrical. Two dorsals, first without spine and placed
above space between pectorals and ventrals ; anal present. Eye with-
out nictitating membrane. Mouth crescent-shaped and inferior.
Teeth solid when fully grown. Alopecias, 227 ; Lamna, 226 ; Selache, 228.
NOTIDANID^. Body cylindrical. One dorsal only, spineless, placed
above space between ventrals and anal. No nictitating membrane.
Mouth crescent-shaped and inferior. Gill openings six or seven.
SCYLLIID^:. Body cylindrical. Two dorsals, first without spine and
placed above or behind ventrals ; anal before, below, or behind
second dorsal. No nictitating membrane. Spiracles distinct.
Mouth semi-circular or angular, inferior. Teeth small, and several
rows in use at once. Pristiurus, 232 ; Scyllium, 230, 231.
SPINACID^E. Body cylindrical. Two dorsals ; anal absent ; pectorals not
notched at base, and not prolonged forwards. No nictitating
membrane. Mouth inferior, slightly arched, with loag, deep oblique
groove on each side. Spiracles present. Gill openings narrow.
Acanthias, 233 ; Centrina, 235; Echinorhinus, 236 ; Lcemargus, 234.
SQUATINID^;. Body depressed and flat. Two dorsals ; anal absent ;
pectorals large with base prolonged forward. Spiracles behind the
eyes. Mouth anterior. Teeth conical and pointed. Gill openings
wide and lateral. Rhina, 237.
FAMILIES AND GENERA,
THE particulars given herein are only such as are necessary
for distinguishing the genera from each other with regard to
their representatives in the British list. The arrangement is
alphabetical. The orders are given as facilitating reference to the
preceding chapter. In the next chapter will be found the species of
each genus and their main characteristics.
Acipenseridse. (CHONDROSTEI.) Plate xxvii.
Atherinidse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate x,
Atherina, 83, 84.
Balistidse. (PLECTOGNATHI.) Plate xv.
Balistes, 120, 121.
Blenniidse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate x.
Anarrhichas t ia.vf teeth strong and conical, 75.
Centronotus, jaw teeth small, 81.
Zoarces, caudal absent, 82.
Carelophus, caudal present, dorsal level throughout, 80.
Blennius, caudal present, dorsal not level throughout, 76 79.
Callionymidse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate ix
CalUonymus, 72, 73.
64 FAMILIES AND GENERA.
CarangidcE. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate iv.
Capros, first dorsal 9 rays, pectorals 13, 28.
Caranx, first dorsal 8 rays, pectorals 19 to 21, lateral line armed
with keeled or spiny scales, 24.
Pammelas, first dorsal 6 or 7 rays, pectorals 23, caudal
Lichia, first dorsal 5 or 6 rays, pectorals 17, caudal forked, 27.
Naucrates, first dorsal 3 to 6 rays, pectorals 19 to 21, lateral line
unarmed, tail keeled, 25.
Carehariidse. (SELACHOIDEI.) Plate xxviii.
Zygana, head in shape of hammer, 224.
Carcharias, pit at base of caudal, no spiracles, 222.
Mitstelus, no pit at base of caudal, spiracles present, second
dorsal not much smaller than first, 225.
Galeus, no pit at base of caudal, spiracles present, second dorsal
much smaller than first, 223.
Centriseidse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate xii.
CepOlidSB. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate ix.
ChimSBPidSB. (HOLOCEPHALI.) Plate xxvii.
Clupeidse. (PHYSOSTOMI.) Plate xxiv.
Engranlis, upper jaw projecting, 189.
Clufea, upper jaw not projecting, 190-194.
Coryphsenidse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate v.
Luvarus, caudal 16 rays, anal with one spine and 14 rays, 35.
Brama, caudal 19 rays, anal with two spines and 27 or 28 rays, 32.
Schedophilus, caudal 21 rays, anal with no spine and 27 to 29
Lampris, caudal 22 rays, anal with no spine and 38 to 41 rays, 33.
Cottidse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plates vii. and viii.
Trigla, three free pectoral rays, 52-57.
Cottus, no free pectoral rays, 48-51.
FAMILIES AND GENERA. 65
Cyelopteridse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate viii.
Cyclopterus, two dorsals, first partly hidden, 60.
Liparis, one dorsal, 61, 62.
Cyprinidse. (PHYSOSTOMI.) Plates xxii. and xxiii.
Cobitis, 6 barbules, erectile spine beneath eye, 183.
Nemachilus, 6 barbules, no erectile spine beneath eye, 184
Cyprinus, 4 barbules, dorsal with 22 rays, 169.
Barbus, 4 barbules, dorsal with n rays, 172.
Gobio, 2 barbules, anal 8 rays, pectorals 15, ventrals 8, 173.
Tinea, 2 barbules, anal 9 rays, pectorals 17, ventrals 10, 179.
Carassius, no barbules, anal short, with 5 to 7 rays, 170, 171.
Leuciscus, no barbules, anal short, with 8 to n rays, 174-178.
Abramis, no barbules, anal long, dorsal with spine, 180, 181.
Alburnus, no barbules, anal long, dorsal without spine, 182.
CyttidSB. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate iv.
Daetylopteridse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate viii.
Peristethus, two free pectoral appendages, 59.
Agonus, no pectoral appendages, 58.
Diodontidse. (PLECTOGNATHI.) Plate xv.
Tetrodon, oesophagus distensible, tail and caudal fin distinct, 122.
Orthagoriscus, resophagus not distensible, tail truncated, 123, 124.
Esoeidae. (PHYSOSTOMI.) Plate xxiv.
GadidSB. (ANACANTHINI.) Plates xvi., xvii., xviii.
One dorsal, one anal.
Brosmius, dorsal long, anal long, 142.
Motella, front of dorsal a narrow fringe, first ray prolonged, 137-
Two dorsals, one anal.
Merluccius, barbule absent, teeth large, 133.
Phycis, barbule present, first dorsal short, second dorsal long,
ventral a long bifid filament, 134.
Molva, barbule present, first dorsal short, second dorsal long,
ventral of 6 rays, teeth large in lower jaw, 135.
66 FAMILIES AND GENERA.
Lota, barbule present, first dorsal short, second dorsal long,
ventral of 6 rays, no large teeth in lower jaw, 136.
Raniceps, barbule present, first dorsal rudimentary, 141.
Three dorsals, two anals.
Gasterosteidse. (A.CANTHOPTERYGTI.) Plate xii.
GobiesoeidSB. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate xiii.
GobiidSB. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate ix.
CrystallogoUus, without scales, and transparent, 71.
Aphia, with scales, and transparent, 70,
Gobius, with scales, and not transparent, 63-69.
Labridse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plates xiii. and xiv.
Cons, dorsal spines 9, 113.
Centrolabrus, dorsal spines 18 to 20, anal spines 4 or 5, teeth in a
single series, 112.
Acantholabrus, dorsal spines 20 to 21, anal spines 5 or 6, teeth in a
Ctenolabms, dorsal spines 16 to 18, anal spines 3, teeth in a band
with a strong outer series, no.
Crenilabrus, dorsal spines 14 to 17, anal spines 3, teeth in a single
series, praeoperculum serrated, 108, 109.
Labms, dorsal spines 16 to 21, anal spines 3, teeth in a single
series, praeoperculum not serrated, 104-107
Lamnidse, (SELACHOIDEI.) Plates xxviii. and xxix.
Alopecias, two dorsals, upper lobe of caudal about as long as
Selache, two dorsals, upper lobe of caudal less than a quarter as
long as body, teeth small and conical, 228.
Lamna, two dorsals, upper lobe of caudal less than a quarter as
long as body, teeth large and lanceolate, 226.
Lophiidse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate vii.
Maeruridse. (ANACANTIIINI.) Plate xix.
FAMILIES AND GENERA, 67
Mugilidse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate xi.
Mugil, 85, 86.
MullidSB. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate ii
Mullus, 8, 9.
MursenidSB. (PHYSOSTOMI.) Plate xxii.
Murcena, pectorals absent, 168.
Conger, pectorals present, upper jaw longer than lower, 167.
Anguilla, pectorals present, upper jaw not longer than lower, iCG
MyliobatidSB. (BATOIDEI.) Plate xxxiii.
Myliobatis, dorsal beyond ventrals, 250.
Cephaloptera, dorsal between ventrals, 251.
NotidanidSB. (SELA'CHOIDEI.) Plate xxix.
Ophidiidse. (ANACANTHINI.) Plates xviii. and xix
Ophidium, ventrals a pair of bifid filaments, 143.
Fierasfer, ventrals absent, anal beginning at throat, 144.
Ammodytes, ventrals absent, anal remote from throat, 145-147
Percidse (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate i.
Perca, anal with 2 spines, i.
Labrax, anal with 3 spines, 2.
Acerina, anal with 2 spines, 3.
Dentex, anal with 3 spines, tail forked, 7.
Polyprion, anal with 3 spines, tail not forked, operculum ridged, 6.
Serranus, anal with 3 spines, tail not forked, operculum not
ridged, 4, 5.
Pleuroneetidse. (ANACANTHINI.) Plates xix., xx., xxi.
Hippoglossus, jaws alike, lateral line curved, 149.
Hippoglossoides, jaws alike, lateral line straight, 150.
Pleuronectes, mouth at end of snout, teeth larger on blind side,
Solea, jaws longer on blind side, teeth only on blind side, snout
projecting beyond jaws, head curved, chin bearded, 162-165.
68 FAMILIES AND GENERA.
Arnoglossiis, mouth small, scales spiny along hinder edge of upper
Zeugopterns, mouth large, vomer toothless, dorsal and ventrals
long, 153, 154.
Lepidorhombus, mouth large, teeth on vomer, scales large and
spiny, lateral line not semi-circular over pectoral, 155.
Rhombus, mouth large, teeth on vomer, scales absent or small,
I5 1 - 152.
Ralidae. (BATOIDEI.) Plates xxxi. and xxxii.
Salmonidse. (PHYSOSTOMI.) Plates xxv., xxvi,, xxvii.
Argentina, no teeth on jaws, maxillary short, scales large, 219.
Body not ridged.
Thymallus, dorsal rays over 18, 218.
Coregonus, dorsal rays under 18, maxillary short, 214 to 217.
Osmerus, dorsal rays n, maxillary long, 213.
Salmo, dorsal rays 12 to 15, maxillary long, scales small, 195-212.
Seisenidae. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate iii.
SeombresOCidSB. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate xi
Exoccetus, pectorals elongated into organs of flight, 89, 90.
Scombresox, pectorals normal, jaws prolonged into a slender bea!:,
finlets present, 88.
Belone, pectorals normal, jaws prolonged into a slender beak,
finlets absent, 87.
ScombPidSB. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plates vi. and vii.
Echeneis, first dorsal modified into an adhesive disk, 44.
Scomber, keel on tail represented by two slight ridges, dorsals
wide apart, 36 to 38.
Auxis, keel on tail, dorsals wide apart, 43.
Pelamys, keel on tail, dorsals close, first dorsal over 20, 42.
Thynnus, keel on tail, dorsals close, first dorsal under 20, 7
Orcynus, keel on tail, dorsals close, first dorsal under 20, 8 or 9
finlets, 39, 40.
FAMILIES AND GENERA. 69
Scopelidse. (PHYSOSTOMI.) Plate xxiv.
SeorpsenidSB. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate iii.
Scylliidse. (SELACHOIDEI.) Plates xxix. and xxx.
Pristiurus, flat spines on sides of upper edge of caudal, 232.
Scjllium, no flat spines on sides of upper edge of caudal, 230, 231.
Sparidse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plates ii. and iii.
Cantharus, pectorals 14, no molar teeth, 10.
Box, pectorals 21, no molar teeth, n.
Pagnis, pectorals 15 or 1 6, molar teeth and canines, 12, 13.
Pagellus, pectorals 15 to 17, molar teeth and no canines, 14 18
SpinaCidiB. (SELACHOIDEI.) Plates xxx. and xxxi.
Dorsals with spines.
Centrina, spine in middle of each dorsal, 235.
Acanthias, spine in front of each dorsal, 233.
Dorsals without spines.
L&maygus, first dorsal remote from ventrals, 234.
Echinorhinus, first dorsal opposite ventrals, 236.
Squatinidse. (SELACHOIDEI.) Plate xxxi
Sternoptyehidse. (PHYSOSTOMI.) Plate xxiv.
Argyropelecus, without scales, 187.
Mauvolicus, with scales, 188.
Stromateidse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plates iv. and v.
Centrolophus, 30, 31.
Syngnathidae. (LOPHOBRANCHII.) Plate xv.
Pectorals absent ; body smooth.
Pectorals present ; body ridged.
Hippocampus, tail prehensile, crest with coronet, ng.
Syngnathus, tail not prehensile, no coronet, humerals united into 1
breast ring, 115.
Siphonostoma, tail not prehensile, no coronet, humerals movable
and not united, 114.
JO FAMILIES AND GENERA.
Torpedinidse. (BATOIDEI.) Plate xxxiii.
Torpedo, 248, 249.
Traehinidae. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate vii.
Trachimis, 45, 46.
Traehypteridse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate xiii.
Regakcus, ventrals a pair of long filaments, no caudal, 103.
Trachypterus, ventrals well developed; caudal placed at an
Triehiuridse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate iii.
Trichiunis, caudal absent, 22.
Lcpidopus, caudal well developed, 23.
Trygonidse. (BATOIDEI.) Plate xxxiii.
(ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate iii.
GENERA AND SPECIES,
THIS Chapter is devoted to distinguishing between the species,
though here and there a few characters of the genus are
given to assist in identification. For the distinctions between the
genera, etc., reference must be made to the preceding chapters.
Abramis, Plate xxiii. CYPRINID&.
180. brama, BREAM. Fins brownish and red ; 6J or 7^ scales
between lateral line and ventral fin ; pharyngeal teeth
in one row.
181. blicca, WHITE BREAM. Fins bluish and red ; 5 or 6 scales
between lateral line and ventral fin ; pharyngeal teeth
in two rows.
The Bream has a single dorsal fin, with 2 or 3 spines, and n
or 12 rays, the anal fin has 3 spines and 24 to 28 rays, the caudal
has 19 rays, the pectorals have 15 to 17 rays and the ventrals 10.
The dorsal begins midway between the eye and the base of the
caudal where the body curves sharply downwards. The anal is the
broadest fin. The lateral line has from 50 to 63 scales, and curves
downwards from the nape. The scales are higher than they are
broad. The body is flat, the curves awkward, and the abdomen is
keeled between the ventrals and the anal fin. The head is short,
and the mouth does not extend as far back as the front edge of the
eye. The colour is olive or yellowish green, lighter on the sides,
the fins being of a reddish brown. The Bream is gregarious, so
that where there is one there are generally more. As a rule it is
confined to lakes and large ponds, or gently flowing waters, and it
feeds on plants, insects, and worms. One has been caught that was
26 inches long, but perhaps 16 inches may be taken as the average.
The White Bream has a single dorsal, with 2 or 3 spines and
8 or g rays, the anal fin has 2 or 3 spines and from 19 to 24 rays, the
caudal has 19 rays, the pectorals have 15 rays, and the ventrals 10.
The dorsal begins midway between the ventrals and the anal fin,
and the ventrals are nearer to the pectorals than to the anal. The
anal is the broadest fin. The lateral line has from 43 to 52 scales,
and curves gently downwards from the nape. The scales are higher
than they are broad. The body is flat, the curves not so abrupt as
those of the Bream, the depression at the neck being not so marked,
72 GENERA AND SPECIES.
and the hump where the dorsal begins being lower. The mouth
does not reach the front edge of the eye, and its lips are thick.
The colour is silvery, with a rosy blush, and the fins are bluish
with a red tinge on some of the edges. Unlike the Bream, this
species is not gregarious, though its haunts and food are similar.
It is much smaller in size, and may be a foot in length, but is
AcantMas. Plate xxx. SPINAC1D&.
233. vulgaris, SPUR DOGFISH. A spine in front of each dorsal fin ;
anal fin absent.
This is the common Dog-fish, often called the Picked Dog ; the
picked being a corruption of piked, the name being derived from
the conspicuous spines which stand up in front of each dorsal like
pike-heads, and are triangular in section with a groove behind.
That of the first dorsal stands just above the inner edge of the
pectorals, and that of the second dorsal, which is longer than the
other, is a trifle nearer the tail than the after edge of the ventrals.
The ventrals are small and the pectorals are larger than the dorsals.
In colour this, the most frequent of the British sharks, is greyish or
brownish above, with a few white spots, and whitish below In
winter it feeds near the ground in deep water, but at other times it
comes closer in, and preys on surface-swimming fishes. The spines
are used by bending the back so as to dig them in and then drawing
them asunder as the body straightens, tearing a gash outwards from
each point of incision. In length the Spur-dog reaches about four
Acantholabrus. Plate xiv. LABR1DJE.
in. palloni, SCALE-RAVED WRASSE. Upper lip thicker than lower
The Scale-rayed Wrasse has a single dorsal fin with 20 or 21
spines and 9 or 10 rays, which are longer than the spines ; the anal
has from 4 to 6 spines and 5 to 8 rays ; the caudal has 14 or 15 rays ;
the pectorals have 14 or 15, and the ventrals have i spine and 5
rays. The dorsal begins above the base of the pectorals and
gradually increases in height to the first ray with which the higher
after portion begins, the anal spines also increase in height to the
first ray. The lateral line runs parallel to the curve of the back, and
contains from 40 to 45 scales ; there are 5 or 6 rows of scales on the
cheek and 7 on the gill-covers. The mouth is large and extends to
the front edge of the eye, the lower jaw being the longer. The
teeth in the j aws are conical, the outer row being the larger. In colour
this wrasse may be yellow, orange, brown, violet, or blue, with rosy
sides and whitish under parts, but it always has a black blotch on
the membrane between the 3 last dorsal spines. There are scales
on its dorsal, caudal, and anal fins, hence its fisherman's name. It
is a deep-water species, measuring 20 inches or more when fully
GENERA AND SPECIES. 73
Acerina. Plate i. PERCH) JE.
3. vulgaris, RUFF. Dorsal continuous ; scales rough to the touch ;
lateral line prominent.
The Ruff occasionally sp.elt with a useless " e " is the same fish
as the Pope. It has the two dorsal fins of the Perch running into
each other and forming one, though each is well marked. The
dorsal thus consists of 14 spines and from n to 13 rays; the anal
consists of 2 spines and 5 or 6 rays, the caudal of 18 rays, the
pectorals have 13 or 14 rays, and the ventrals the usual single spine
and 5 rays. In the dorsal the third and fourth spines are the
longest, and all the spines project further above the membrane than
those of the Perch. The tip of the pectoral is just half-way between
the snout and the fork of the tail. Of the two anal spines the first
is the longer. In the very distinct lateral line there are 40 scales,
and in them the tubes are double. The body is flat and easily
curved, except between the snout and the dorsal, where it runs
almost straight, so that the eye which is brown with a blue pupil
appears to be almost at the top of the head. The mouth extends to
the front edge of the eye, the upper jaw being the longer. There
are no teeth, except in the jaws, where they are in rows. There are
6 or 7 spines on the gill-cover, and i spiny scale at the shoulder, and
another at the angle of the pectoral fin. In colour the Ruff is olive
brown or greyish, with cloudy spots, and is paler on the sides and
whitish below. The fins are spotted and the ventrals are frequently
of an orange tint. The Ruff is a bottom-feeding fresh-water fish,
living in shoals, generally in deepish water in cool shady places. It
feeds on the fry of other fish, on insects, and on worms, and is
usually 3 or 4 inches in length, though it may be 7 inches or more.
Acipenser. Plate xxvii. ACIPENSERIDM
320. sturio, STURGEON. Shields along the back, the sides, and the
abdomen ; 4 barbules in a row.
The Sturgeon has the dorsal fin close to the tail ; in it there are
from 35 to 40 rays, the anal having from 23 to 25 rays, the caudal
100 to 125 rays; the pectorals have a spine and 28 to 38 rays, and
the ventrals have 23 or 24 rays. The pectorals are placed very low and
close to the gills, arid the anal is close to the tail, its base beginning
under where that of the dorsal ends. The ventrals are in the tail
end of the body, a little further in front of the dorsal than the dorsal
is of the anal. The characteristic bucklers, or plates, number from
ii to 13 along the back, 23 to 26 along the side, those along the
abdomen being less conspicuous and varying greatly in number.
The mouth extends to beneath the small eyes, the snout is protracted
and often half as long as the head. In colour the Sturgeon is olive,
greenish, or yellowish, as the case may be. It is a solitary fish that
appears in our rivers in spring, and takes to the sea in winter, and is,
as a rule, caught when 5 feet long, though it attains 9 feet, and has
been recorded as long as 12 feet.
74 GENERA AND SPECIES.
Agonus. Plate viii. DACTYLOPTERID&.
58. cataphractus, POGGE. Body octagonal ; barbules under throat, white.
The Pogge, or Armed Bullhead, bears a distant resemblance to
the sea-horse. It has two dorsal fins, the first with 5 spines and the
second with 5 or 6 rays ; in the anal fin there are 6 rays, in the
caudal 12 ; the pectorals have 16 rays, and the ventrals a spine and
2 rays. The dorsals are almost semi-circular, and the pectoral is
very broad, and extends beyond the middle of the first dorsal. The
body is divided by ridges of bony plates into 8 sides, and between
the two side ridges runs the lateral line of 32 scales, which are without
spines. The mouth nearly extends to the front edge of the eye, and
there are many barbules. There are no teeth except in the jaws.
In colour the Pogge is pinkish or yellowish grey, with broad vertical
bands and many spots. The pectorals are distinctly banded, the
other fins not so much so: This is a bottom-feeding species, haunt-
ing the mouths of rivers and similar places. It rarely exceeds
6 inches in length.
Alburnus. Plate xxiii. CYPRINID^.
182. lucidus, BLEAK. Tail with lower lobe longer than upper ; anal
fin broad and cut square.
The Bleak has a single dorsal fin with 2 or 3 spines and 7 or 8
rays ; the anal fin has 2 or 3 spines and from 16 to 20 rays, and the
caudal has 19 rays ; in the pectorals there are 16 or 17 rays, and in
the ventrals there are 9 or 10. The dorsal is midway between the
eye and the base of the caudal ; the anal is the broadest fin and is
curiously square at the corners ; the pectorals are pointed. The
lateral line curves downwards from the nape and rises to meet the
caudal below the middle. It has from 47 to 57 scales, and there are
3^ rows of scales between it and the base of the ventral fin. The
mouth does not reach to the fore edge of the eye, and the lower
jaw is hooked and projecting. In colour the Bleak is greenish above
and silvery below, with a blue stripe along the side. It attains a
length of 8 inches, but is generally caught smaller, and is not a
favourite with anglers owing to its frequently taking the bait intended
for other fish. It swims near the surface in rivers and running
waters, always in shoals, which are generally more numerous where
drains enter the stream, and it is particularly apt at springing out ot
the water after flying insects, and making more fuss than its size
would lead one to suspect.
Alopecias. Plate xxix. LAMNIDJE.
227. vulpes, THRASHER. Upper lobe of tail as long as body.
The Thrasher, otherwise the Fox-shark, is unmistakable, owing
to its peculiar tail. It has a stout, sturdy body, with a very large
pectoral fin, a forked first dorsal about the same size as the pectorals,
and very small second dorsal and anal. The mouth is in the shape
of a crescent, the teeth are small, flat, and triangular, with smooth
edges. The body is darker above than below, but the colour varies
very much, though it is generally some shade of grey. This energetic
shark is by no means rare in British waters, and has been caught
over 15 feet long.
GENERA AND SPECIES. 75
Ammodytes. Plate xix. OPHID1IDSE.
145. lanceolatus, SAND EEL. Caudal with 15 rays, pectorals with 12 or
13 rays; scales many ; fins of same height throughout ;
lower jaw with soft prolongation ; dorsal begins behind
tip of pectoral.
146. tobianus, LESSER SAND EEL. Caudal with 15 rays ; pectorals
with 12 rays; scales many; fins curved in outline;
dorsal begins above or before tip of pectorals.
147. cicerellus, SMOOTH SAND EEL. Caudal with 19 rays; pectorals
with 14 rays ; scales few or absent ; fins waved in out-
line ; dorsal begins over tip of pectorals.
The Sand Eel has from 53 to 61 rays in its dorsal fin, 28 to 33 in
the anal fin, and 15 in the caudal ; the pectorals have 12 or 13 rays,
and there are no ventral fins. The anal starts from under the
middle of the dorsal or thereabouts, and both fins have their outer
edges parallel to the very slight curve of the body, and are separated
from the caudal by a short interspace. The scales are small, and
there are two lateral lines, one with from 190 to 203 scales, the other
being incomplete. The head is nearly flat on the top, the mouth
does not extend to the front edge of the eye, and the lower jaw is
the longer and has a long fleshy tip. Teeth are absent, but are
represented by two processes on the vomer. The Sand Eel is
greenish above and silvery below, with a bright stripe as a line of
demarcation. It is about a foot long, but has been caught measuring
over 15 inches. It is gregarious, and buries itself in the sand between
The Lesser Sand Eel has from 53 to 59 rays in its dorsal fin, 26
to 30 in its anal fin, and 15 in its caudal ; the pectorals have 12 rays,
and there are no ventrals. The dorsal begins above the last third of
the pectorals, and gradually increases in height until it reaches the
middle, when it curves slightly downwards towards the tail. There
are two lateral lines, one incomplete and the other with from 125 to
145 scales. The lower jaw is the longer, and the mouth extends
backwards behind the nostrils. There are a few small teeth on the
vomer and on the base of the tongue. The colour is olive green
above and silvery below, with a bright stripe between. This species
also frequents the shore in shoals, and burrows in the sand between
the tide-marks. It measures about 6 inches in length.
The Smooth Sand Eel has from 53 to 59 rays in its dorsal fin, 28
to 30 in its anal fin, and 19 in its caudal ; there are 14 rays in its
pectorals, and the ventrals are absent. The dorsal begins above
the tip of the ventral and curves downwards, upwards^ downwards,
and upwards again, and the anal curves inwards so as to be lowest
in the middle. The mouth extends to the eye, the lower jaw
slightly projecting. There are no teeth and few or no scales, and
consequently no lateral line. The brownish green of the back and
the white of the under parts are divided by a silvery stripe that
reaches from the eye to the tail. The only specimen caught in
British waters and that was off the Shetlands was 6 inches long.
76 GENERA AND SPECIES.
Anarrhichas. Plate x. BLENNIID&.
75. lupus, CAT-FISH. Long curved teeth in the front of each jaw.
The Cat-fish, Sea-cat, or Wolf-fish, is the unprepossessing indi-
vidual who, with his head cut off, is frequently sold as " rock-
salmon," a name really belonging to the coal-fish. There is a long
dorsal fin with 72 to 74 rays, a long anal with 45 to 48 rays, a rather
small rounded caudal with 15 to 18 rays, broad ear-shaped pectorals
with 19 rays, and there are no ventrals. The dorsal begins at the
nape and almost reaches the base of the tail, the outer margin being
a gentle curve that dies away as it reaches the end, while that of the
anal terminates abruptly exactly underneath it. The scales are
rudimentary, and there is a row of pores on the head, which has a
more ferocious appearance than that of any other British fish. The
mouth is large, and extends beyond the eye. In the upper jaw there
are 4 large curved canines and 6 or 8 smaller conical teeth ; in the
lower jaw there are 2 or 3 diverging canines, which are conical and
curved with 2 smaller ones behind, and behind them are two
rows of rounded molars converging into one. In the roof of the
mouth there are 3 double rows of teeth, those in the centre being
flat and those at the sides being pointed. In colour the Cat-fish is
bluish grey, darkest along the back, with broad vertical bands
stretching down the sides. It is strong, swift, and fierce, and feeds
on crustaceans and molluscs, using the powerful teeth for crushing
the shells. As a rule it is found near the bottom along rocky
coasts, its food being more abundant there. When a year old it is
from 7 to 8 inches long, and when full grown it attains from 3 to 6
feet or more.
Anguilla. Plate xxii. MUR&NIDJE
166. vulgaris, EEL. Vertical fins continuous.
The Eel has a pair of pectorals with from 17 to iSrays; the dorsal,
caudal, and anal join, forming one long fin extending from about
a quarter the length of the body from the snout to nearly the middle
of the body underneath. In this fin there are from 480 to 500 rays.
The tail is prehensile. The mouth extends to the middle of the eye
or slightly beyond, there being no great difference in the length of
the jaws. The scales are small and buried in the skin. In colour
the Eel is dark olive above and whitish or yellowish below. In
length it may exceed a yard, but is generally shorter. In habits it
is nocturnal, and its haunts are rivers and pools near them in which
the water is clear and the bottom muddy, but it migrates to the sea
to spawn. In the male the lips are broad, in the female they are
narrow ; before the sexes were made out these were assumed to be
two different species. The migration seawards takes place in the
autumn and the spawn is deposited not far from the shore where the
influence of the river water is still perceptible. Early in January
young eels or " elvers," as they are called, are big enough to be
noticeable on the ebb of the tide; in April or thereabouts they ascend
the rivers, and when mature, perhaps in the second or third year,
GENERA AND SPECIES. 77
they begin their journey to the sea, whence very tew return.
Eels will travel overland wherever it is fairly moist, and have even
been reported by a gardener for eating his peas. They are quick of
hearing, and in captivity will come to be fed when called.
Aphia. Plate ix. GOBIID/E.
70. pellucida. TRANSPARENT GOBY. Teeth conspicuous and in a
The Transparent Goby, the whitebait of the Adriatic, has two
dorsal fins, the first having 5 spines, the second having i spine and
from ii to 13 rays, the anal has i spine and 13 or 14 rays, the
caudal has 17 rays, the pectorals have 16 rays and the ventrals have
the usual spine and 5 rays. In the male the first dorsal is higher
than in the females, and in both the anal is very similar to the
second dorsal in shape and size. The caudal is rounded, and the
sides are nearly parallel. In the lateral line there are 26 scales.
The scales are large and cycloid. The mouth extends to the middle
of the eye, the under jaw being the longer ; and in the male the
jaws become larger and more oblique during the breeding season,
when the teeth also increase in size. The Transparent Goby is
generally transparent with a faint line of yellow, and a few orange
dots, and is not much more than i^ inches long. It is a surface-
swimmer and gregarious, and in the Mediterranean appears in large
numbers, but is not very noticeable in our waters, though some
have been taken all round the coast.
Argentina. Plate xxvii. SALMONIDJE.
219. sphyr&na, ARGENTINE. Body ridged.
The dorsal fin has i or 2 spines and 8 or 9 rays ; the anal has 2
or 3 spines and 9 or 10 rays, and the caudal has 19 rays; the
pectorals have 13 or 14 rays, and the ventrals loor u. The ventrals
start below the last ray of the dorsal and midway between the snout
and the base of the caudal. Both dorsal and anal are higher in
front than behind. There are from 50 to 53 scales in the lateral
line, though exceptionally there are a few less. The scales are of
good size, thin, and not so wide as they are high ; on those of the
back and abdomen are stellate or spiny ossicles. The body is four-
sided in shape, the back and sides and abdomen being divided off
by 4 well-marked ridges. The mouth extends to the front edge of
the silvery eye, the upper jaw being the longer. In colour the
Argentine is yellowish above, silvery blue on the sides, and yellow
below. It is a deep-water fish, rather uncommon, and about 9
Argyropelecus, Plate xxiv. STERNOPTYCHIDJE.
187. kemigyninvs. Head and trunk large and flat, and dotted along lower
edge with a row of ocellated spots.
The dorsal fin has 6 spines and 7 or 8 rays, the anal has 11 or 12
rays, the caudal 19 ; the pectorals have 10 rays and the ventrals 6.
The fore part of this curious fish is flat and almost square, the
78 GENERA AND SPECIES.
hinder half being narrow and joined on abruptly as if it did not
belong to it. In colour it is silvery yellow, and along the lower
edge are straight lines of eye-like spots, one under the gills, one
where the hinder part joins on, and one on the tail itself. It appears
in the list owing to a single specimen having been dredged up
between the Shetlands and the Faeroes.
Arnoglossus. Plate xx. PLEURONECTID&.
156. Internet, SCALD FISH. Mouth small, scales spiny on upper side.
There are from 87 to 101 rays in the dorsal fin, from 64 to 68
in the anal, and 15 in the caudal ; in the pectorals there are 10 or
n, and there are 6 in the ventrals. The first rays of the dorsal fin
are occasionally separate, and are longer in the male than in the
female. The eyes are on the left side, but the teeth and jaws are
equal on both sides. The lateral line has 48 scales, and forms a
half-circle over the pectoral ; the scales generally are rather large
and deciduous, and the skin is thin and tears off as easily as if it
had been scalded, whence the fish's popular name. The small
mouth is at the end of the snout, the lower jaw is the longer, and
the teeth are small and in one row. In colour the Scaldfish, or
Scaldback, as it is often called, is light brown above and white
below. It is found in rather deep water where the bottom is sandy,
but is of no importance, and not used for food.
Atherina. Plate x. ATHERINID&.
83, presbyter, ATHERINE. Dorsals farther apart than the base of the
second dorsal is long.
84. boyeri, BOYER'S ATHERINE. Dorsals as far apart as the base
of the first dorsal is long.
Of the two dorsals of the Atherine, the first has from 7 to 9
spines, and the second a spine and from n to 13 rays, the anal has
a spine and from 14 to 18 rays, and the caudal has 17 rays; in the
pectorals there are from 13 to 15 rays, and the ventrals have a spine
and 5 rays. In the first dorsal the second and third spines are the
longest. The lateral line has from 57 to 62 scales. The fish is
translucent, with a silvery band from the eye to the base of the tail ;
on the back it is brownish, and there is a purple tinge on the sides.
It is from 7 to 8 inches long, and appears in small shoals in harbours
and inlets, returning to deeper water in the winter. It seldom
comes near the surface.
Boyer's Atherine appeared at Polperro on Trafalgar Day, 1846.
11 They were aH near the surface," says Couch, " not more than
three or four within a foot or two of each other, but the whole
scattered loosely over the water to the number of several thousands.
Their heads were in one direction, as if passing inward, and they
were constantly raising dimples on the surface, like scattered drops
of rain, by apparently examining or seizing some floating object ;
but however earnestly engaged their vigilance was never remitted,
and it became scarcely possible to approach them, as in an instant
they were off in another direction at the sight of a moving object."
GENERA AND SPECIES. 79
This mighty gathering of fishes not exceeding three inches long
remained about Polperro for a week and then disappeared, not even
a straggler having been since. The few that were caught have 7 or
8 spines in the first dorsal, a spine and n or 12 rays in the second
dorsal, a spine and 12, 13, or 14 rays in the anal, and 17 rays in the
caudal ; in the pectorals there are 14 or 15 rays, and in the ventrals
are a spine and 5 rays. The lateral line has from 50 to 57 scales.
The mouth is cleft very obliquely, and extends to the front edge of
the eye, the eye being much larger than that of the common
Auxis. Plate vi. SCOMBRID&.
43. rochci. PLAIN BONITO. Dorsals re mote ; first dorsal triangular.
The first dorsal is triangular and has 10 or n rays, the second
dorsal is as far removed from it as the base of the triangle is long,
and has n or 12 rays, and behind it are 8 or 9 finlets; the anal has
ii or 12 rays followed by 7 finlets; the caudal has 24 rays ; in the
pectorals are 21 or 22 rays, and the ventrals have the usual spine
and fin rays. The ventrals are beneath the pectorals, and the anal
starts below the first finlet. The lateral line becomes crooked above
the anal fin. There are 3 keels at the base of the caudal, and pro-
longations to the corslet. The mouth extends to the middle of the
eye ; the teeth in the jaws are small, and there are none on the
palatines and tongue. In colour this bonito is bluish, with silvery
underparts. In size it measures about 18 inches. It is rare in
Balistes. Plate xv. BALISTID&.
120. maculatus, TRIGGER FISH. Side spotted ; no plates behind gills
121. capriscus, FILE FISH. Side not spotted ; two plates behind gills.
The Trigger-fish has 3 spines in its first dorsal, 26 or 27 rays in
its second dorsal, 24 or 25 rays in its anal, and 12 in its caudal ; in
its pectorals there are 15 rays, and the ventrals are represented by
a movable bony knob. The dorsal spines are black and at equal
intervals, and the front one is longer and stronger than the others.
The scales are rough and granulated, and form a carapace. The
colour is blackish, and the length is about 16 inches. The species
is very rare in our home seas, in fact it is doubtful if it has been
caught more than once.
The File Fish is not quite so rare. In its first dorsal there are
3 spines, and in the second 27 or 28 rays ; in its anal there are from
24 to 26 rays, and in its caudal 12 rays; there are 15 rays in its
pectorals, and the ventrals are represented by a bony process as in
the other species. The first spine is the longest, and the second is
not so far from it as from the third. The scales form a carapace.
The colour is yellowish, darker on the upper portion ; the size is
about 16 inches. The generic name is derived from the way in
which the spines spring up when raising the fin. Like the preced-
ing species it is a native of the tropical seas, where it feeds on corals
and hard-shelled mollusca.
8o GENERA AND SPECIES.
Barbus. Plate xxii. CYPRINIDJE.
172. vidgaris, BARBEL. Two pairs of barbules.
The dorsal fin has 3 or 4 spines and 12 or 13 rays, the anal has
2 or 3 spines and 5 rays, and the caudal has 20 rays ; in the
pectorals there are 18 rays, and in the ventrals 9 or 10. The u ;>rsal
begins over the ventrals in the middle of the back, and the tip
of the pectorals is half-way between their base and the base of the
ventrals. The anal is mid-way between the pectorals and the
caudal ; the pectorals are low on the body and the anal is narrow.
There are 7 scales between the base of the ventrals and the lateral
line. The lateral line has from 52 to 70 scales. The back is curved,
and the abdomen nearly straight ; the snout is long and the lips are
thick and leathery. The colour is olivaceous, the scales being pale
yellow edged with greenish black, the tint becoming lighter on the
sides and underparts. The dorsal fin has a dark edge ; the other
fins are reddish. The Barbel lives at the bottom of gently flowing
rivers, generally in the middle third between the source and the sea.
and searches for its food routing about among the stones. It feeds
on vegetable matter, and on worms and insects, and other aquatic
animals. It reaches 24 inches in length, perhaps more. It is very
quick of hearing, and often makes a noise when caught, and growls
under the water. It bites with a double knock, and tries to break the
line by striking it with its tail.
Belone. Plate xi. SCOMBRESOCID&.
87. vulgaris, GARFISH. No finlets; tail forked, lower lobe slightly
The dorsal fin is opposite the anal, and placed in the tail third
of the body ; it has from 17 to 20 rays, the anal having from 21 to
23, and the caudal 15 or 16 ; in the pectorals there are 13, and in
the ventrals 6. The jaws are lengthened into a beak, the lower jaw
being the longer. It is soft at its outer end, the upper jaw being
sharp and pointed, so that it can be driven into the prey. In colour
the Garfish is bluish green on the back and silvery below. It is
generally gregarious, and swims near the surface, often on the very
top of the water, and occasionally springing over the waves. The
lower jaw is always long, but in the young the upper jaw is very
short and increases in length as the fish becomes mature until there
is not very much difference between them. There is a Garfish on
record that was a yard long, but about half that length is the usual
size when found, as it often is, among the mackerel shoals.
Blennius. Plate x. BLENNIIDM.
Eye spot on first dorsal
79. ocellaris, BUTTERFLY BLENNY. First spine long; a tentacle
above the eye.
No eye spot on first dorsal
8. pholis, SHANNY. No tentacle above the eye.
GENERA AND SPECIES. 8l
77. galerita, MONTAGU'S BLENNY. A tentacle above the eye ; a
black band at the base of the pectorals.
76. gattorugine, TOMPOT. A tentacle above the eye ; no black band at
the base of the pectorals.
The Butterfly Blenny, like the others, has really one dorsal, but
the break in the middle is so marked that it may conveniently be
considered as two fins, the first having from u to 12 spines, the
second 14 to 16 rays. In the anal there are from 16 to 18 rays, in
the caudal n ; the pectorals have la rays and the ventrals only 2.
In addition to the tentacle over the eyes there is one on the fore
nostril. The mouth extends to the middle of the eye ; in the upper
jaw there are from 36 to 40 teeth, and in the lower jaw from 34 to
36, there being a curved canine at the back of each jaw. The
colour is grey with bands, blotches, and reticulations, and between
the fifth and ninth dorsal spines there is a large round black spot
with a narrow white edging. This Blenny, which attains a length
of 7 inches, lives among seaweeds, feeding upon them and upon
crustaceans, molluscs, and small fishes. Of late years it has
The Shanny has the first part of the dorsal with n to 13 spines,
the second, which is similar in appearance, but longer, having from
18 to 20 rays. In the anal, which is just under this, there are also
18 to 20 rays ; the caudal has 13 rays, the pectorals have 13, and
the ventrals 2. There is no tentacle over the eyes, but on the
fore nostril there is a short one divided into 4 or 5 filaments. The
mouth is large and extends to below the eye, the upper jaw having
from 14 to 20 teeth and the lower from 12 to 16, there being a curved
tooth at the angle. In colour the Shanny is generally greenish
yellow, banded, blotched, and spotted with black, the fins are
yellowish, with black spots, and the anal has a white edging over a
black stripe. It is a solitary fish, living in rock pools, driving away
its would-be competitors from its hunting grounds, creeping about
in and out of the water, jumping up with the aid of its tail, and
taking a look round as it stands on its broad pectorals. It feeds on
seaweed and on insects, molluscs, and other small animals, and is
about 6 inches long.
Montagu's Blenny has from 12 to 13 dorsal spines, and 15 to 17
rays, the second half of the dorsal being higher than the first, and
almost semi-circular ; in the anal there are from 17 to 18 rays, and
there are n in the caudal, 12 in the pectorals, and 2 in the ventrals.
The anal is longer than the second dorsal, but ends at the same
distance from the tail. Across the head is an erectile crest, orange
in colour, which is united to the dorsal by a row of tentacles. The
mouth extends to the back of the eye, and in the upper jaw are
from 55 to 65 teeth, there being only 35 to 45 in the lower jaw,
which also has a curved canine. This is a small fish, 3 inches long,
brownish grey in colour, with vertical bands, bluish white spots,
and a line of white blotches from the pectorals to the caudal. It
lives in rocky pools and shelters under stony ledges.
The Tompot has from 12 to 14 spines and 19 to 20 rays in its
dorsal, which is united by a membrane to the caudal ; the anal has
82 GENERA AND SPECIES.
21 or 22 rays, and is about the same size as the second half of the
dorsal, but unlike it is not joined to the caudal. The caudal has 12
or 13 rays, the pectorals have 14, and the ventrals, unlike those of
the other British Blennies, have a spine and 2 or 3 rays. The
mouth extends to the front edge of the eye, and there are about 40
teeth in the upper jaw, the lower having about 35. It is the largest
of our Blennies, being some 9 inches long, and has received its name
from being frequently caught in lobster pots, to which it is attracted
by the bait. It feeds on molluscs and small Crustacea, and lives
among rocks in deep water, and not in tidal pools. In colour it is
brownish grey, banded, blotched, and spotted. Like some of the
other Blennies, it uses its pectorals and ventrals like hands and feet
for crawling and feeling.
Box. Plate ii. SPARIDsE.
ii. vulgaris, BOGUE. Body narrow and not compressed.
The Bogue has a long dorsal fin with 14 weak spines in the first
sweep of the curve, and 14 or 15 rays in the second ; in the anal are
3 spines and 15 rays, in the caudal are 17 rays, in the pectorals are
21 rays, and in the ventrals are a spine and 5 rays. The scales
are cycloid, there are 3 or 4 rows of them on the cheeks, and there
are 75 in the lateral line. In colour this Mediterranean and Atlantic
species, occasionally straying into British waters, is yellowish green
on the back and silvery on the abdomen, with yellow streaks
parallel to the lateral line. It is generally 8 or 9 inches long, but
reaches 16, and feeds mainly on seaweeds.
Brama. Plate v. CORYPH&NID&.
32. rail, RAY'S BREAM. First few dorsal rays much higher
than the spines, and rapidly decreasing in height.
Ray's Bream has 3 or 4 short spines, and 29 to 34 rays, the fin
rising at once to the tip of the longest ray and then curving
suddenly downwards to continue parallel to the back. In the anal,
which is somewhat similar in curve to the dorsal, are 2 spines and
27 to 28 rays, in the deeply-forked caudal are 19 rays, the long-
pointed pectorals have 19 to 23 rays, and the ventrals a spine and
5 rays. The mouth, which is very oblique, extends to the outer
edge of the eye, the lower jaw projecting to meet the curve of the
head. The front nostril is round, the hinder one is a slit. The
body is flat and little more than double as long as it is deep. In
colour it is blackish above, whitish below, with black edges to the
vertical fins. It is a deep-water fish, rare in our seas, but ranging
from the Faeroes to the Cape of Good Hope. Our specimens have
been generally washed ashore after a storm ; the first was found
left by the tide in the Tees in September, 1681, and, being described
by Ray, was named after him.
GENERA AND SPECIES. 83
Brosmius. Plate xviii. GADIDJE
142. brosme, TORSK. Body round, only one dorsal.
The Torsk is a member of the cod family with but one dorsal,
and that extends from above the middle of the pectorals nearly to
the caudal. It has from 85 to TOO rays ; the anal, which is rather
more than half as long, having from 62 to 76, the caudal having 35,
the pectorals from 21 to 23, and the ventrals 5. The ventrals are
thick and pointed, and the skin generally is tough and thick. The
colour is a yellowish grey, which becomes lighter on the edges of
the fins. The Torsk is a deep-water fish, frequenting rocky ground
in northern latitudes, and has never been taken south of Yorkshire.
It is generally about 18 inches long, but grows to double that length,
or rather more.
Callionynms. Plate ix. CALLIONYMID&.
72. lyra, DUSKY SKULPIN. Dorsal striped.
73. maculatus, SORDID DRAGONET. Dorsal spotted.
The Skulpin has two dorsals, the first with 4 spines, the second
with Q rays. In the anal there are 9 rays, in the caudal 9, in the
pectorals 20, and in the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. In the male
the first spine is very long, in the female it is no longer than the
rays, but in both the last ray is the longest. The body is long and
narrow, the head flat, the snout long, and the upper jaw protractile.
On the praeopercle there is a three-pointed spine. It is a solitary
fish, from 7 to 12 inches long, hiding in the sand in bays and
estuaries. The male is orange in colour, marked with blue, with
the stripes purple on the first dorsal and pale blue on the second ;
the female is brown, with 3 bands across the back, the second dorsal
being bluish with a yellow stripe.
The Dragonet has 4 spines in the first dorsal and 9 or 10 rays in
the second, in the anal are 8 or 9 rays, in the caudal 9 or 10, in the
pectorals 16, and in the ventrals the usual spine and 5. Both
dorsals are high, the first spine being very long, and they are grey
in colour, with 3 or 4 rows of round, pearl-edged black spots running
across them. This fish, which is 4 inches long, appears in the list
on the strength of a solitary specimen from the Shetlands.
Cantharus. Plate ii. SPARIDJE.
10. lineatus, BLACK SEA-BREAM. Lateral line black and parallel to
The Black Bream has n spines and 12 rays in its dorsal fin.
3 spines and 10 rays in its anal fin, 17 rays in its caudal fin, 14 rays
in its pectorals, and the normal spine and 5 in the ventrals. In the
dorsal the rays are closer together than the spines, and start at a
slightly higher level ; the fourth or fifth spine is the longest. The
body is compressed and rather deep, the mouth extends to the front
edge of the eye ; the only teeth are on the jaws, and they are cardi-
form, the outer row being the largest. The general colour is grey,
with yellow streaks below the lateral line, and a dark dorsal with
84 GENERA AND SPECIES.
two or three rows of spots occasionally continuous ; the long-pointed
pectorals, the caudal, which has a light edging, and the spotted
anal are mainly pale yellow. This species feeds on seaweeds, and
comes inshore in small shoals, generally where the ground is rocky
or there is a breakwater or pier on which seaweed grows. When
fully grown it is about 16 inches long and 5 deep.
Capros. Plate iv. CARANGIDJE.
28. aper, BOAR-FISH. Body flat and deep ; colour red
The Boar-fish has two dorsals, the first with 9 spines, the second
with from 23 to 25 rays, and the anal is in two distinct divisions,
the first with 3 spines, and the. second with 23 or 24 rays ; the caudal
has 12 rays, the pectorals have 13 rays, and the ventrals have a
spine and 5 rays. In the first dorsal the first spine is rather short,
the second being the longest, the others shortening one after the
other, so that the fin is triangular ; the second dorsal increases in
height towards the tail ; the ventral spine is strong and has a rough
fore-edge ; the anal is similar to the second dorsal. The mouth
does not extend as far back as the eye, which is very large. The
scales are small and spiny. The body rises in a hollow curve
from the protractile snout to the beginning of the first dorsal, and
then curves boldly outwards to the last ray of the second dorsal.
The lateral line follows the outline of the body, and dies out
between the dorsals. The hinder nostril is large and oval, the
other is small and round. This unmistakable red fish is 7 inches
long, and feeds on the molluscs and crustaceans it finds on the
bottom in moderately deep water. It appears on the coast of
England in May, and returns to the Atlantic in October, and ie said
to grunt like a pig, but gets its name from the pig-like snout.
Caranx. Plate iv. CARANGIDM.
24. tracliurus, HORSE MACKEREL.
The Horse Mackerel, perhaps quite as well known as the Scad,
has two dorsal fins coming close together, the first with 8 spines,
the second with i spine and n or 12 rays. There are two anals,
also close up, the first with 2 spines, the second with i spine and
from 26 to 29 rays ; in the caudal there are 17 rays, in the pectorals
from 19 to 21, in the ventrals the usual spine and 5 rays. The
second dorsal is not so high as the first, and, like the anal, extends
almost to the tail. The lateral line has 73 large bony plates,
which are keeled towards the tail end where the line becomes
straight. Elsewhere the scales are very small. The mouth extends
to the first third of the eye, the lower jaw being the longer. There
are teeth not only on the jaws, but on the vomer and palatines, and
in a band along the middle of the tongue, and they are all small.
The dark blue back is marked off by the lateral line from the
silvery sides. In food and habits this fish resembles the mackerel.
It is of very wide distribution, and found solitary or in shoals, which
are sometimes of immense extent. In the spring it feeds on the
bottom, but in summer it is a surface swimmer. Large specimens
measure 20 inches in length.
GENERA AND SPECIES. 85
Carassius. Plate xxii. CYPRINID&.
170. vidgaris, CRUCIAN CARP. Back greenish, sides yellow, abdomen
reddish white ; lateral line over 30 ; caudal rays 19
171. auratus, GOLD-FISH. Gold or silver; lateral line under 30;
caudal rays 19 or less.
It would seem to be more reasonable to treat these as two
varieties of the same species, to which may be added a third,
C. gibelio, the Prussian Carp, which differs only in being narrower
in build and having a longer lower jaw and the tail more deeply
In the Crucian Carp and the Prussian Carp the dorsal has i to 4
spines, and 14 to 21 rays, the anal has 3 spines and 5 or 6 rays, the
caudal has from 19 to 21 rays; the pectorals have from 13 to 18
rays, and the ventrals 9 or 10. The pectorals are twice as long as
they are broad ; the dorsal begins behind them and over k he
ventrals, and ends over the end of the anal. In the lateral line
there are from 28 to 35 scales. The upper jaw is the longer ; the
snout is blunt and the mouth small, and not reaching to the eye. In
habits this fish resembles the Carp, but it thrives in water that would
kill any other, and is generally small, rarely exceeding 7 inches in
The Gold-fish is singularly varied in its fin arrangements, but
the typical form has 3 or 4 spines and 16 to 18 rays in the dorsal,
3 spines and 5 or 6 rays in the anal, 18 or 19 in the caudal, the
pectorals having from 16 to 17 rays, and the ventrals 9. The
pectorals should be three times as long as they are broad ; the
dorsal begins over their tip, which should just reach the base of the
ventrals. In the lateral line there are from 26 to 30 scales. As a
rule both jaws are alike, and the mouth is small. Gold-fish are
generally kept in tanks or glass bowls, and lead an artificial sort of
life, feeding on worms, insects of all sorts and in all stages,
generally as pupae, and occasionally shredded meat and even grain.
In any water except rain-water be it from the tap, the pump, the
stream, or the steam-engine, provided it is kept by frequent change
or continual movement from becoming stagnant, they linger for
years, but only really thrive in tanks or pools in which there are
shady depths in which they can shelter. In such places they will
reach n inches in length. In colour the Gold-fish is gold or silver,
or red or white with gold, silver, or red markings, the colour
seeming to vary with the temperature, the warmer the water the
more golden being the fish, the handsomest and healthiest examples
being found in the pools in which waste steam is condensed, where
the average temperature is 80 degrees.
Carcharias. Plate xxviii. CARCHARIID&.
222. glaucus, BLUE SHARK. Pectorals long and pointed ; caudal
large, upper lobe notched.
The Blue Shark has two dorsal fins, the first in the middle of the
back, the second above the anal close to the tail ; the ventrals are
86 GENERA AND SPECIES.
placed midway between the dorsals, and the pectorals are almost
long enough to reach the beginning of the dorsal with their pointed
tips. There is no fold at the angle of the mouth, the mouth is deep
and wide, and the teeth are in four or five rows. The body is long
and slender, dark greenish blue above, shading off into white below.
It reaches 25 feet in length, but the British specimens, mostly
caught in drift nets off Cornwall, average about 7 feet.
Carelophus. Plate x. BLENNIIDJE.
80. ascanii, YARRELL'S BLENNY. Vertical fins even.
Yarrell's Blenny has a long dorsal running from the nape to
the tail, and having from 50 to 52 rays ; the anal, which begins
a little behind the tip of the pectoral, has from 36 to 40 rays ; the
caudal has 17 ; the pectorals have 14 and the ventrals have a spine
and 3 rays. On the first three rays of the dorsal are filaments,
occasionally long. The mouth extends to the front edge of the eye ;
over the eyes is a large tentacle, and at the nostrils are two small
tentacles. The colour is reddish brown, with dark bands and
mottlings. The length is about 7^ inches. This fish, which is found
in crab-pots and lives in deeper water than the other Blennies, is
not of frequent occurrence.
Centrina, Plate xxxi. SPINACID&.
235. salviani, The spine in each dorsal curving forwards from the
middle of the base of the fin.
Only one example of this shark has been caught in British
waters. There is only one spine in each dorsal, and it curves for-
ward, as stated, across the fin and projects beyond the front edge.
There is no anal fin. The length of the captured specimen is about
2ft., but the full size is between 4 and 5 feet. It is a Mediterranean
Centriscus. Plate xii. CENTRISCIDJE.
98. scolopax, TRUMPET FISH. Snout long and tubular.
There are two dorsal fins, the first with from 5 to 7 spines, the
second with n or 12 rays ; in the anal there are 18 to 20 rays ; in
the caudal 16 ; in the pectorals there are 16 or 17, and in the
ventrals 5. The first dorsal spine is short, but the second is long
and thick, striated and serrated. The body is deep and thin, red
above and silvery below, and about 5 inches in length. Only a few
have been taken in British waters.
Centrolabrus. Plate xiv. L ABRIDGE.
112. exohtus, ROCK COOK. Five spines in the anal fin.
The dorsal has from 18 to 20 spines and 6 rays; the anal has
5 spines and 7 or 8 rays ; the caudal has 15 rays ; in the pectorals
are 14 rays, and in the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The dorsal
begins over the base of the pectorals, and its spines are all of the
GENERA AND SPECIES. 87
same height, the rays, which are also all of the same height, standing
rather higher. In the lateral line are from 32 to 35 scales. The
mouth is small and reaches only halfway to the eye. The lips are
fleshy and the jaws equal. The Rock Cook, otherwise the Small-
mouthed Wrasse, is the most graceful of the wrasses, and is brown
above, yellowish on the sides, with yellow stripes along the rows of
scales, blue stripes on the head below the eye, and dark bands
along the fins. It is 5 inches long, and lives in deep water where
the ground is rocky and weeds are plentiful.
Centrolophus. Plates iv. and v. STROMATEID^E.
30. britanmcus, CORNISH CENTROLOPHUS. Pectorals short.
31. pompilus, BLACK-FISH. Pectorals long.
The Cornish Centrolophus has a long dorsal fin higher behind
than in front, with 46 rays; the anal, which is somewhat similar in
shape, has 30 rays and the caudal 17 ; the short pectorals have 17
rays, and the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The dorsal and anal
are sheathed with scales ; the scales are small, and the lateral line
begins with a short curve over the pectorals, and then continues
straight along the middle of the long body. There is only one on
record, and that was washed ashore at Looe. It is brownish pink
above and paler below, and is 19 inches long.
The Black-fish is fuller in the body. Its dorsal, which is highest
in the middle, has from 38 to 41 rays ; its anal has from 23 to 25,
and its caudal 17 ; in the pectorals are 21 rays, and in its ventrals a
spine and 5 rays. The pectorals are long, and the lateral line
becomes straight beyond their tips. The eye is large, and the
mouth extends to its front edge. This is a Mediterranean fish,
occasionally straggling into British waters, following vessels in the
same way as the pilot-fish. It attains a yard in length, but none
of that length has been caught off our coasts. In colour it is
blackish, with irregular markings.
Centronotus. Plate x. BLENNIIDJE.
81. gunnellus, BUTTER-FISH. Dorsal even, long and spotted.
The Butter-fish is of much the same shape as an eel. The dorsal
is long and low, with from 75 to 82 rays ; the anal starts from the
middle of the abdomen, has 2 spines and from 39 to 45 rays, and,
like the dorsal, is connected by a membrane with the caudal, which
has 15 rays ; the pectorals have n or 12 rays, and the ventrals have
a spine and i or 2 rays, and are very small and placed immedi-
ately below the base of the pectorals. The mouth reaches to the
fore-edge of the eye, and has a single row of teeth in its jaws. The
body varies in colour, but is generally yellow ; there is a dark stripe
from the eye to the mouth, and along the base of the dorsal is a row
of round black spots with a white edging. It is a very slimy fish
hence its popular name found between the tide marks under the
seaweed, and is occasionally left dry by the tide. In length it is about
88 GENERA AND SPECIES.
Cepnaloptera. Plate xxxiii. MYLIOBATIDJE.
2 5 X ' giorna, Ox RAY. Head with horn-like projections.
In general outline this curious fish is not unlike a butterfly. The
disk is nearly twice as broad as it is long. The upper and lower
halves are doubly curved, and join in a point like a bird's beak.
The top of the head, between the horns, is perfectly straight, and
the tail is long with a spine at the base and a small triangular dorsal
just in front of it. The skin is smooth, the colour greenish-blue
above, white below. A straggler from the Mediterranean was once
caught off the coast of Ireland, which was 45 inches long, but full-
grown specimens are much larger.
Cepola. Plate ix. CEPOLIDJE.
74. rubescens, RED BAND-FISH. Body long; tail pointed.
The vertical fins are practically continuous ; the dorsal has from
67 to 74 rays, the anal 60 to 70, and the caudal 12 ; the
pectorals have from 12 to 15 rays, and the ventrals a spine and
5 rays. The dorsal and anal are of much the same height through-
out ; the caudal, instead of having two lobes, ends in a long, central
point. The scales are small and oval, and become larger towards
the tail. The mouth is oblique, and extends to the middle of the eye ;
the eye is large. In colour this long, thin fish is orange, with tints of
yellow and rose. It measures about 22 inches in length, and swims
like a snake at moderate depths over rocky ground, where it feeds
mainly on crustaceans.
Chimsera. Plate xxvii CHIM^ERIDJE.
221. monstrosa, CHIM/ERA. Tail finless and filamentary.
This is the King-of-the-herrings, so called from the spiny knob on
the head, or the Rabbit-fish (from the rodent-like teeth), and is un-
mistakable though not easily described. The girth is greatest at
the gills, the body tapering gradually. There are three dorsals, the
first high and triangular, with a strong, serrated spine in front, the
second long and low, extending to the last quarter of the body, where
it is separated by a mere notch from the third of equal height, which
soon dies out along the whip-like tail. The pectorals are very large
and almost reach the ventrals, which, in the male, have claspers.
There are two anals, about equal in length, and divided from each
other by a similar notch as that which separates the second and
third dorsals, and is immediately above it. The so-called "crown "
on the head is like a hook with a rounded end. The Chimasra is
about 48 inches long, and in colour is blue above and white below,
with metallic reflections.
Clupea. Plate xxiv. CLUPEIDJE.
190. harengus, HERRING. Dorsal halfway between snout and base
of tail; ventrals behind commencement of dorsal.
192. sprattus, SPRAT. Dorsal nearer tail than head ; ventrals before
commencement of dorsal.
GENERA AND SPECIES. 89
191. pikhanlus, PILCHARD. Dorsal nearer head than tail; ventrals
below middle of dorsal, and with from 6 to 8 rays.
193. alosa t ALLIS SHAD. Dorsal nearer head than tail ; ventrals
below third ray of dorsal and with 9 or 10 rays ; gill-
rakers from 60 to 80.
194. finta, TWAIT SHAD. Dorsal nearer head than tail ; ventrals
below third ray of dorsal and with 9 rays ; gill-rakers
from 20 to 28.
The Herring has from 17 to 19 rays in the dorsal fin, 16 to 19 in
its anal, 18 or 19 in its caudal, 17 in its pectorals, and 9 in its
ventrals. In its lateral line there are from 53 to 60 scales ; the
scales are moderate in size. The mouth extends to the centre of
the eye, which has an adipose lid on each side; the lower jaw is
longer than the upper, and is tipped with black. There are no
radiating lines on the gill-covers. The abdomen is keeled, but the
spines on it are short and weak. In colour the Herring is greenish-
blue above, becoming silvery and iridescent on the sides and below.
In length it ranges from about 8 inches to 15. It feeds on smaller
fish, and minute Crustacea and other marine invertebrates, and
swims at any depth, always in shoals, but is captured as a surface
swimmer. It squeaks like a mouse when caught. Its migrations
do not take it out of the northern seas, though it is found in the
Pacific as well as in the Atlantic. When caught young at the mouth
of the Thames it is known as whitebait.
The Sprat has from 16 to 18 rays in its dorsal fin, 17 to 20 in its
anal, 19 in its caudal, 16 or 17 in its pectorals, and 7 in its ventrals.
In its lateral line there are 47 scales, which are rather larger than
those of the herring, and are smooth and deciduous. The mouth
extends to the first third of the eye, which has adipose lids. The
lower jaw is the longer, and has no black tip. There are no
radiating lines on the gill-covers. The abdomen is keeled, and the
spines on it are strong and sharp. In colour the Sprat is slaty-
blue above, becoming silvery and slightly iridescent on the sides and
below. In length it ranges from 4 to 6 inches. Its food is
apparently similar to that of the herring, but it is known only as a
surface swimmer. It migrates as far south as the Mediterranean.
When caught young at the mouth of the Thames it is known as
whitebait, as the herring is ; in fact, whitebait consists almost entirely
of the young of these two fishes.
The Pilchard has the dorsal fin at the centre of gravity, so that
the body hangs horizontally when held up by the first rays of the
fin. The dorsal has 17 or 18 rays, the anal 17 or 18, the caudal 19,
the pectorals 16 or 17, and the ventrals 6 or 8. In its lateral line
are 29 or 30 scales ; the scales are the largest among the British
representatives of the family. The mouth extends to the first third
of the eye, the lower jaw being the longer. Like the foregoing
species, there are eyelids, but unlike them there are radiating
lines on the gill-covers. The abdomen is rounded and the spines
weak. In colour the Pilchard is olive green above, and silvery
below ; in length it ranges from 8 inches to 14. It has been
seen feeding on the bottom, but is caught as a surface swimmer in
enormous shoals that crowd together during the day, but spread
go GENERA AND SPECIES.
out at night, and are frightened off at the slightest noise. The
Pilchard ranges into the Mediterranean, and is the same fish as the
Sardine, the Sardine being merely the Pilchard caught off the coast
of France before it is large enough to have a roe.
The Allis Shad has from 19 to 21 rays in its dorsal fin, 20 to 24 in
its anal, and 20 in its caudal, and it has 15 or 16 in its pectorals and 9
or 10 in its ventrals. The ventrals are almost level with the beginning
of the dorsal, and the lower lobe of the caudal is rather longer than
the upper. In its lateral line there are from 70 to 80 scales. The
abdomen is sharply keeled, and has strong spines. The body is
much deeper in proportion than those of the foregoing species. The
mouth extends to the hinder edge of the eye, and the upper jaw is
notched in the middle, the lower jaw being the longer. There are
radiating lines on the gill covers and below the eye, the eye having
vertical eyelids like the rest of the family. In colour the Allis Shad
is greenish blue, with silvery sides ; in length it ranges, when fully
grown, from 2 feet to 4 feet. It is solitary at sea, and gregarious
when it enters the rivers to spawn ; and it is as quick of hearing and
fond of music as the Twait Shad.
The Twait Shad has from 1 8 to 20 rays in its dorsal fin, 20 to
25 in its anal, 19 in its caudal, 15 or 16 in its pectorals, and
9 in its ventrals. The ventrals are under the seventh ray of the
dorsal, and the caudal is deeply forked, the lobes being equal.
In its lateral line there are from 60 -to 75 scales. The
spines on the abdomen are strong and sharp. The body is
about a third as deep as it is long. The mouth reaches the hinder
edge of the eye, and the upper jaw has a notch in the middle, the
lower jaw being the longer. The gill covers have radiating lines,
and the gill-rakers are thick, sharp, and under 29 in number. In
colour the Twait Shad is blue above, silvery below, with a row of
dark blotches in a line from the head to behind the dorsal, which
are only found in the Allis Shad when young. In length it rarely
exceeds 16 inches. It ascends the rivers to spawn in May, a month
later than the Allis Shad, and returns in July. It is quick of hearing,
frightened at thunder, and so fond of music that the Germans attach
little bells to their shad nets, which ring under water, and not only
attract the fish, but keep them lost in admiration as the nets are
drawn in 1
Cobitis. Plate xxiii. CYPRINW&.
183. tcenia, SPINY LOACH. A double-pointed spine below the
The Spiny Loach, otherwise the Groundling, has from 8 to 10
rays in its dorsal, the first two or three of which are spiny ; in its
anal are 7 or 8 rays, two or three of which may perhaps be called
spines ; in its caudal are 16 rays, in its pectorals 8 or 9, in its
ventrals 6 or 7. The dorsal, which is high in proportion to its width,
is over the ventrals, midway between the eye and the base of the
caudal, and the anal is midway between the ventral and the caudal,
which is wide at its base, the body tapering gently with but a very
slight curve. The mouth extends to the hind nostril, and on the upper
jaw and snout are 6 barbules. This Loach is not common ; it is pale
GENERA AND SPECIES. gl
brown in colour, with dark markings on the back, and white below,
the fins being banded. It is 3 inches long, lives where the bottom
is muddy, and makes a guttural noise when touched.
Conger. Plate xxii. MURJSNID&.
167. vulgaris, CONGER. Head large; eyes large; upper jaw longer
than lower ; teeth conspicuous.
The Conger has the vertical fins continuous, the rays
of the united dorsal, caudal, and anal numbering between 500 and
550 ; in the pectorals there are from 16 to 19 rays ; there are no ven-
trals. The dorsal starts from the tip of the pectoral, the anal from
the middle of the body. The tail is prehensile. The mouth reaches
the hinder edge of the eye. In colour the Conger is dark grey above
and lighter or even quite white below, and it has white spots along
its lateral line. It attains a length of 7 or 8 feet, and shelters among
rocks in deep water, feeding most actively at night, generally on flat
fish. Like young eels it can swim backwards as well as forwards,
and tail first escapes from the lobster pots it robs of their bait.
Coregonus. Plate xxvii. SALMON ID JE.
214. oxyrhynchus, HAUTIN. Snout projecting.
215. clupeoides, GWYNIAD. Snout truncated.
216. vandesius, VENDACE. Lower jaw the longer.
217. pollan, POLLAN. Jaws equal ; snout not truncated.
The Hautin has two dorsal fins, in the first it has 14 or 15 rays,
the second is adipose ; in its ana.! it has i.;. or 15 rays, and there are
20 in its caudal ; in its pectorals it has 15 or 16, and in its ventrals 12
or 13. The first dorsal is nearer to the snout than to the base of the
tail, and the second dorsal is slightly behind the beginning of the
anal. In the lateral line there are from 75 to 80 scales. The
mouth extends to the first third of the eye, and the upper jaw, which
ends in a conical black snout, is the longer. It is a sea fish entering
fresh water, and rather rare. In colour it is grey above and silvery
below, and in length measures from 7 to 14 inches.
The Gwyniad has two dorsals, the second of which is adipose,
the first having from 13 to 15 rays ; the anal has from 13 to 16
rays, the caudal 19 ; in the pectorals there are 17 rays, and in the
ventrals n or 12. The ventrals are below the middle of the first
dorsal. In the lateral line there are from 73 to 90 scales. The
mouth extends to the first third of the eye, and the snout is cut
off short and square. It is the silvery fish with darkish fins,
which is frequently called the freshwater herring, and is hardly
ever found in running water. It is confined to some of the lakes
in North Wales, the North West of England, and Loch Lomond,
and attains a length of 16 inches.
The Vendace has two dorsals, the second being adipose, the
first having n rays; in the anal there are 13 or 14 rays, in the
caudal 23; the pectorals have 15 or 16, and the ventrals n. The
first dorsal begins half-way between the snout and the second
dorsal ; the ventrals are under the middle of the dorsal. In the
92 GENERA AND SPECIES.
lateral line there are from 66 to 70 scales. The mouth extends
to the middle of the eye, the lower jaw being conspicuously
longer than the upper. It also is a lake fish, keeping to the bottom
in the heat of the day when the weather is warm. It is found in
Derwentwater and Bassenthwaite in the English lake district, but is
better known as a native of the Castle Loch and Mill Loch at
Lochmaben, in Dumfries. In colour it is silvery, with a greenish
blue back and dark fins, and in length is about 9 inches.
The Pollan has 13 or 14 rays in its first dorsal, the second
dorsal being adipose ; in its anal are from 12 to 14 rays, in its
caudal 23 ; its pectorals have 15 or 16, and its ventrals n or 12.
The second dorsal is over the middle of the anal, and the first
is midway between the hinder edge of the anal and the snout ;
the ventrals are below the hinder half of the first dorsal. There
are from 80 to 88 scales in the lateral line, and 9 between it and
the base of the ventrals. The mouth extends to the first third of
the eye, and the jaws are equal, the outline of the head being
easy and graceful. In colour the Pollan is silvery, with a bluish
back and dark fins, and it is about 13 inches long. It is an Irish
lake fish, best known as living in Lough Neagh and Lough Erne.
Coris. Plate xiv. LABRID1E.
113. julis, RAINBOW WRASSE.
This species has a long dorsal with 9 spines and 12 or 13 rays ;
the anal has 3 spines and n or 12 rays ; the caudal has 13 or 14;
the pectorals have 12 or 13 ; and the ventrals have a spine and 5
rays. The dorsal begins over a spot on the hinder angle of the gill
cover, and in the male the 3 first spines are long, the others being
shorter than the rays ; while in the female the spines are all the same
height, which is very little less than that of the rays. In the lateral
line, which follows the curve of the back, there are from 75 to 80
scales. The mouth extends to the hinder nostril, the snout being
longer in the males than in the females, and in both there are four
long teeth in front of each jaw, and a canine at the angle. The
colours vary, but are generally purplish above and silvery below,
with always a more or less indented whitish stripe along the side.
The male has a spot between the longer spines. In the female the
side stripe is not indented. In length this handsome wrasse is about
7 inches. It lives among rocks, in fairly deep water, and feeds on
molluscs and crustaceans.
Coryphsenoides. Plate xix . MA CR URID& .
148. rupestris, Body tapering from the large head to the pointed tail,
This is a silvery deep-water fish, about 10 inches long, of which
only one or two specimens have been dredged up between the
Faeroes and Shetlands.
Cottus. Plate vii. COTTWM.
*i quadricornus, FOUR-HORNED COTTUS. Four short horns on top of
GENERA AND SPECIES. 93
48. gobio, MILLER'S THUMB. No horns ; spines on gill-covers
less than 7 ; ventrals with a spine and 4 rays.
49. scorpius, FATHER LASHER. No horns ; no spiny ridge on occiput ;
spines on gill-covers over 7 in number, stout and short ;
ventrals with 2 rays and no spine.
50. bubalis, LONG-SPINED COTTUS. No horns ; a spiny ridge on
occiput ; spines on gill-covers over 7 in number, slender
and long ; ventrals with a spine and 3 rays.
The Four-horned Cottus has two dorsals, the first lower than the
second. In the first are 9 spines, in the second 14 rays ; the anal
having 13 to 15 rays, the caudal 13, the pectorals 17, and the
ventrals a spine and 3 rays. The anal is placed under the second
dorsal; the caudal is rounded, and the pectorals are broad and
reach to the end of the first dorsal. There are no scales. The
mouth extends to the middle of the eye. The so-called horns are
really rough tubercles. In colour this species is greyish brown
above, with more or less red and yellow, and whitish below ; in
length it averages about a foot. As might be expected from its large
fins, it is a rapid swimmer, and it lives among seaweed in ambush
for its prey.
The Miller's Thumb has from 6 to 8 spines in its first dorsal, and
from 16 to 18 rays in its second ; in its anal are from 12 to 14 rays, in
its caudal n ; in its pectorals are 14, and in its ventrals are a spine
and 4 rays. The first dorsal is not half the height of the second ;
the second extends further back than the anal, but begins above it,
the pectorals just reaching to a line joining the fore ends of their
bases. The head is broad and flat, the mouth wide but shallow
and reaching to the middle of the eye. There are usually only
4 spines, but occasionally there are 6. In colour this bullhead is
dusky yellow above and whitish underneath. It is 3 inches long,
and shelters among the gravel in clear running water, being
especially partial to mill-streams. It is not a vegetarian, but feeds
on anything animal in a small way.
The Father Lasher, otherwise the Short-spined Cottus, has 9 or 10
spines in its first dorsal, and from 13 to 17 rays in the second ; in the
anal there are 9 to 14, in the caudal there are n ; in the pectorals
16 or 17, in the ventrals only 2. The dorsals are equal in height, the
anal is shorter than the second dorsal, the pectorals overlapping
the front of the second dorsal, but not reaching that of the anal ; and
the tail is cut square. There are spines, often 20 in number, dis-
tributed mostly over the gill covers and scapulars. The head is wide
and flat, and the mouth reaches to the eye. This northern sea-fish
is common on our coasts. It is usually 4 or 5 inches long, but has
been known to attain 15 inches. In colour it is mottled grey above
and yellowish below, the males having white spots on the under
parts. When caught, the Father Lasher thrills his throat as if
producing some sound that might be audible under water.
The Loag-spined Cottus has the dorsals of the same height and
length, and the anal of similar length, but not quite so high. In the
first dorsal there are 8 spines, in the second n or 12 rays, in the
anal there are 9 rays, in the caudal 10, in the pectorals 16, in the
ventrals a spine and 3 rays. The fins are all comparatively large ;
94 GENERA AND SPECIES.
the pectorals extend to the front edges of the anal and second
dorsal ; the caudal is square. The lateral line has bony plates.
The head is broad and flat ; the mouth extends to the middle of the
eye. This fish, which is about a foot long, is reddish or brownish,
with white spots on the side. It is a coast-fish like the last, but
haunts the rocks and stony ground in rather deeper water, and is
Crenilabrus. Plate xiv. L ABRIDGE.
108. melops, CONNER. Purplish above ; lighter below.
109. cornubicus, GOLDSINNY. Greenish above ; yellow below.
The Conner has the usual wrasse-like dorsal, with from 14 to 17
spines and 8 or 9 more closely-set rays ; in the anal there are 3
spines and 9 or 10 rays, in the caudal 14 rays, in the pectorals 14
rays, and in the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The dorsal spines
become longer as they approach the rays, and the rays are higher
than any of them. In the lateral line are from 32 to 35 scales ; it
follows the curve of the back, and, like it, runs straight in the tail
portion, the tail having almost parallel sides and the caudal being
nearly square. The mouth does not reach the eye ; the hinder edge
of the gill-cover is toothed. In colour this wrasse is purplish or
reddish, with or without bands and spots. It is 9 inches long, and
swims in shoals among the rocks in shallower water than any of the
other wrasses except the Goldsinny.
The Goldsinny differs from the Conner only in colour, it being
greenish brown above and yellow below, with 6 faint bands on the
body, and no spots on the fins, though there is a spot at the base of
the caudal fin. It can be conveniently considered as one of the
varieties of the Conner, the typical coloration of which is purple, with
8 or 9 distinct bands on the body, round, ocellated spots on the
second dorsal and caudal, round, blackish spots on the anal, and
stripes across the cheeks and gill-covers. When there is no black
mark behind the eye, and the reddish back is spotted with green,
and the abdomen with silver, and the fins have red bands, we have
C. rone. When there is a black spot behind the eye, another at the
vent, and another at the tail, and the cheeks are banded with colour,
the variety is C. pennantii ; when the body and fins are marbled with
brown, and there is no spot behind the eye, it is C. norvegicus ; and
when the fins are striped with red and green, and there is a spot at
both eye and tail, it is C, couchii.
Crystallogobius. Plate ix. GOBIIDJE.
71. nihsonii, NILSSON s GOBY. Scaleless and transparent.
This rare little fish is an inch and a half long. It has 2 spines
in its first dorsal, 19 or 20 rays in the second dorsal, 21 rays in the
anal, 14 or 15 in the caudal, 30 or 31 in its pectorals, and a spine
and 5 rays in its ventrals. Its dorsal spines are wide apart, and its
tail fin curves inwards on each of the three outer edges. It has
been dredged from rather 4eep water in the northern part of the
GENERA AND SPECIES. 95
Ctenolabrus. Plate xiv. LA BRIDGE.
1 10. rnpestris, JAGO'S GOLDSINNV. A notch between the spines and
rays of dorsal, owing to the last spine being
much shorter than the last but one.
There are from 16 to 18 spines in the dorsal, and from 8 to 10
rays ; in the anal there are 3 spines and 8 rays, in the caudal there
are 15 rays, in the pectorals 14, in the ventrals a spine and 5 rays,
The dorsal is almost straight along the outer edge, gradually rising
from the back until the last spine ; the rays are higher. In the
anal the spines lengthen from the first to the third. The lateral
line has from 38 to 40 scales, and follows the curve of the back.
The mouth is small, and does not quite extend to the eye ; the snout
is pointed. In general colour this wrasse is pinkish or golden,
with a few blotches, and it is occasionally banded or striped. It is
a deep-water species, not entering estuaries or harbours, and is
5 inches long.
Cyclopterus. Plate viii. CYCLOP7 'ERIDSE.
60. himpus, LUMP-FISH. Sucker formed by union of the ventrals.
This ugly fish with an ugly name has really two dorsal fins, the
first being hidden beneath the skin when the fish is fully grown,
The hidden dorsal has from 4 to 6 rays, the second dorsal having 10
or ii. The anal has 9 or 10 rays, the caudal 10 or n, the pectorals
have 20 or 21, and the ventrals have a spine and 5 rays, the two ven
trals uniting. There are tubercles on the body, the largest of which
are arranged in three rows on each side and one along the back,
extending over the first dorsal fin. The male is blue above and red
below, the female is blackish blue, the young are green or green
and yellow. When fully grown the Lump-fish is 2 feet long. By
means of the sucker it sticks to the rocks and to floating objects.
The young use it for sticking themselves on to the male as he carries
them off with him out of danger into deeper waters. It is not an
uncommon fish, and is known all round the coasts of the North
Cyprinus. Plate xxii. CYPR1NID&.
169. carpio, CARP. Four barbules.
The Carp has from 21 to 25 dorsal rays, the first two or three
being bony and higher than the others ; the anal has 7 or 8 rays,
with the first 2 or 3 bony. There are 20 rays in the caudal, 15
or 16 in the pectorals, 8 in the ventrals. The ventrals are placed
midway along the abdomen, and the dorsal begins a little in
front of them ; the anal begins halfway between the front edge of
the ventrals and the base of the caudal ; the pectorals just reach
the front edge of the dorsal. In the lateral line there are from
35 to 40 scales; the scales are large. The mouth is small, and
reaches about half-way to the eye ; it is toothless, the only teeth
being on the lower pharyngeal bones ; the lips are leathery. In
colour the Carp is golden brown, paler below. 'It occasionally
96 GENERA AND SPECIES.
reaches 30 inches in length. It thrives in ponds and sluggish
waters where the bottom is soft or muddy, spending the winter
in the mud, and rising to the surface in summer among the
weeds, when it can be heard grunting like a pig. It is very
quick of hearing and discriminating in attacking its food, but it
can be tamed so as to feed from the hand, and will come for its
dinner when the bell rings.
Dentex, Plate i. PERCIDM.
7. vulgaris, DENTEX. Four large teeth in front of each jaw.
The dorsal fin has 10 or n weak spines and n or 12 rays; the
anal has 3 spines and 8 rays ; the caudal has 17 rays ; in the
pectorals are 15 rays, and in the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The
fourth and fifth spines are the highest in the dorsal, which curves
downwards from them and rises again when the rays are reached.
The pectorals are long and pointed, and extend to the middle of the
dorsal. There are from 60 to 65 scales in the lateral line. The
mouth does not quite reach to the eye, which is golden, with a blue
pupil. The fish is brilliantly clothed in silver, and blue, and gold,
and light red, and averages 40 inches in length, though it has been
recorded up to 56 inches. It does not swim in shoals, and it is not
Echeneis. Plate vii. SCOMBRIDM.
44. remora, REMORA. First dorsal modified into an adhesive disk.
This sucking-fish is recognisable at a glance by its being darker
below than above, and by the first dorsal having developed into the
disk of which its 17 or 18 rays are the laminae. The second dorsal
has from 22 to 24 rays, the anal from 22 to 25, the caudal 19 ; in
the pectorals there are from 20 to 24, and in the ventrals a spine and
5 rays. By its disk it attaches itself to fishes and other objects,
and gets a lift on its lonely way. It is between 4 and 5 inches long,
and greyish brown in colour.
Echinorhinus. Plate xxxi. SPINACID^E.
236. spinosus, SPINOUS SHARK. Two small dorsals near tail ; no
The ventrals begin at three-quarters of the distance from the
snout to the heel of the tail ; the first dorsal starts in a line with
their beginning, and the second in a line with their after end.
Ventrals and pectorals are of about the same size. The skin is
studded with spiny scales. In colour this shark is brownish grey,
with a white lateral line, and in length it ranges up to 9 feet.
Engraulis. Plate xxiv. CLUPEIDM.
189. encrasicholus , ANCHOVY. Upper jaw the larger and longer.
The Anchovy has from 15 to 18 rays in its dorsal fin, 16 to 18 in
jts anal, 21 in its caudal, 16 or 17 in its pectorals, and 7 in its
GENERA AND SPECIES. 97
ventrals. The dorsal rises behind the ventrals and in the middle of
the back, and the anal is halfway between the ventrals and the
caudal. There are from 48 to 50 scales in the lateral line. The
scales are large and deciduous. The mouth is very deep and
reaches beyond the eye. The body is slender, and thicker along the
back than below. The greenish blue of the back is marked oft
from the silvery lower parts by a steely stripe. The Anchovy is
from 5 to 8 inches long, and swims in shoals, which, coming up the
Channel at night, can be detected by their phosphorescence.
Esox. Plate xxiv. ESOCID&.
185. hicius, PIKE. Dorsal and anal fins opposite and near caudal
body long ; head long ; mouth large.
There are from 20 to 23 rays in the dorsal fin, of which the first
6 or 8 are stronger than the others. In the anal there are from 17
to 19 rays, of which the first 6 or 8 are also stronger than the rest ;
in the caudal there are 19 rays ; in the pectorals 13 or 14, and in the
ventrals 9 or 10. The pectorals, ventrals, anal, and caudal are
almost at equal distances from one another. The dorsal begins just
in front of the anal, and ends at exactly the same short distance
from the caudal, where the body suddenly narrows. In the lateral
line there are from 125 to 130 scales. The scales are small, bifid at
the base, and extend on to the head. The back is almost straight
from the eye to the dorsal ; the abdomen is very slightly curved ;
the head is long and flattened above ; the mouth reaches to the eye,
the lower jaw being the longer. There are no teeth on the max-
illary ; those on the mandible are large at the sides and smaller in
front ; there are small teeth on the vomer and tongue, and larger
ones on the palatines. In colour the Pike is greenish or greyish,
with yellowish marblings and other markings ; in size it exceeds
3 feet, and is said to have attained 7 feet in Kirkcudbrightshire. It
is generally found in slow-running weedy rivers and ponds, close to
the surface in warm weather, and swimming deeper at other times.
It is quick of sight and hearing, ferocious, audacious, and persistent,
and mostly carnivorous, but will eat anything, even model yachts.
Exoccetus. Plate xi. SCOMBRESOCID&.
89. volitans, GREATER FLYING-FISH. Anal with 9 rays.
90. evolans, FLYING-FISH. Anal with from 13 to 15 rays.
The Greater Flying-Fish has from n to 13 dorsal rays; in its anal
are 9 rays, in its caudal 19, in its pectorals 15 to 17, and in its ventrals
6. The pectorals are placed high up, not far from the gills, and
extend to the base of the tail ; the ventrals overlap the anal. The
lower jaw is the longer, the snout is pointed, and the head wide and
flat between the eyes. In the lateral line there are 63 scales. In
colour it is bluish on the back, silvery below; the pectoral fins are
grey, with whitish edges. It exceeds 20 inches in length. It swims
in shoals, but in British waters is only known as a straggler. When
in the water the pectorals are held close to the body, but when it
springs above the surface it extends them to increase the length of
its leap, but it never flaps them, so that it glides rather than flies.
98 GENERA AND SPECIES.
The Lesser Flying-Fish has from 12 to 14 dorsal rays ; in its anal
there are from 13 to 15 rays, in its caudal 17 to 19, in its pectorals 14
to 16, and in its ventrals 6. The pectorals extend to the base of the
caudal ; the ventrals do not overlap the anal. Like the foregoing
species the lower lobe of the caudal is longer than the upper. There
are from 40 to 42 scales in the lateral line. In colour it is bluish on
the back, lighter on the sides, and silvery below ; its pectorals are
grey or black, edged with whitish. In length it measures about 9
inches. In habits it resembles the Greater Flying-Fish, but it is much
rarer on the British coast.
Fierasfer. Plate xviii. OPHIDIID&.
144. dentatus, DRUMMOND'S ECHIODON. Colour red, with dotted
sides ; vertical fins continuous.
This rare fish has 180 rays in its dorsal, 180 in its anal, 12 in its
caudal, and 16 in its pectorals, and has no ventral fins. The dorsal
and anal each begin about halfway along the pectorals, and are con-
tinuous with the caudal, the middle rays of which are the longest.
The body tapers to a point from the gills, and is about n inches
long. The colour is pale red, with many dots and a few brownish
Gadus. Plate xvi. GADID&
Upper jaw the longer
129. merlangus, WHITING. Without barbule.
125. morrhua, COD. With barbule ; lateral line white.
126. eglefinus, HADDOCK. With barbule ; lateral line black.
127. luscus, WHITING POUT. With barbule ; lateral line brown ;
9 body copper coloured, with broad bands, fins bluish
128. minitttis. POWER. With barbule ; lateral line brown ; body
yellow and silvery, without bands.
Lower jaw the longer
131. virens, COALFISH. With barbule.
130. poutassou, COUCH'S WHITING. Without barbule; lateral line
straight ; body silvery with yellow stripe, back
132. pollachius, POLLACK. Without barbule ; lateral line curved ;
body grey, back greenish.
The Whiting has from 13 to 16 rays in the first dorsal, 18 to 23 in the
second dorsal, and 19 to 2 1 in the third ; in its first anal are from 30 to 35
rays, and in its second anal from 20 to 24 ; in its caudal are 28 rays, in its
pectorals 19, in its ventrals 6. The 3 dorsals do not join; the first anal is
under the first two dorsals, the second anal being under the third
dorsal:; the ventrals are some distance in front of the pectorals. The
lateral line becomes straight under the middle of the second dorsal.
The eye is large ; the mouth extends to the middle of the eye, and
the snout is conical. In colour the Whiting is greyish yellow, with
GENERA AND SPECIES. Q9
yellow stripes along the silvery sides. In length it reaches 16 inches
or more. It appears near the coast in shoals in spring and summer,
but in winter retires to deeper water. It feeds mainly on small
fishes and crustaceans, and hence is most often found in the vicinity
of rocks and sandy bays, where its food is plentiful.
The Cod has three dorsal fins, with 13 to 15 rays in the first, 16
to 19 in the second, 17 to 21 in the third; and it has 2 anals, the
first with from 17 to 19 rays, the second from 16 to 18. In the
caudal there are 28 rays, in the pectorals from 16 to 19, in
the ventrals 6. The dorsals are close together ; the ventrals are
before the base of the pectorals, and the pectorals reach to the
beginning of the second dorsal. The white lateral line follows the
curve of the back until about halfway between the first anal and
second dorsal, where it begins its straight run to the tail. In colour
the Cod varies, but is mostly brownish or olive grey, with or without
spots ; the lower parts being white, and the fins grey. In length it
exceeds 5 feet. It feeds near the ground in enormous numbers, and
indulges in very miscellaneous eating, including birds, hares, turnips,
and tallow candles, though its main diet is evidently crustaceans,
molluscs, and small fishes.
The Haddock has 14 to 16 rays in its first dorsal, 20 to 24 in its
second, and 19 to 21 in its third ; in its first anal it has 24 or 25, and
in its second anal from 20 to 22 ; in its caudal it has 25, in its
pectorals 19 or 20, and in its ventrals 6. The first dorsal is pointed,
and its base is the same length as the pectorals, above which it is
placed; the second anal is similar to the third dorsal, and
immediately below it. The lateral line, which is black, straightens
under the third dorsal. In colour the Haddock is greyish bronze
above, lighter on the sides, and whitish beneath, and generally, but
not always, there is a black blotch on the side beneath the first
dorsal. In length it has been known to exceed a "yard, but the
average of well-grown fish is about 2 feet. It is a ground-feeder,
rarely found in the same localities as the cod, but quite as gregarious
and voracious, and living on crustaceans, molluscs, echinoderms,
worms, and young herrings and other fishes.
The Whiting Pout has 12 rays in its first dorsal, from 20 to 23 in
the second, and 19 or 20 in the third ; in the first there are from 27
to 32 rays, in the second from 17 to 20 ; there are 25 rays in the caudal,
17 in the pectorals and 6 in the ventrals. The first dorsal is close
to the second, which is joined at the base to the third. The first
dorsal is rather narrow, long and pointed, and the second begins
with a short ray ; the first ray of the ventrals is about twice as long
as the second. In proportion to its length this fish is the deepest of
the British representatives of the genus. In colour it is coppery,
with broad vertical bands ; the fins are .bluish black, and there is a
black blotch on the base of the pectorals. In length it reaches 16
inches. It frequents rocky ground and seaweeds, and congregates
near pier piles and other timbers, sheltering during the day and
feeding from the evening to the early morning. In cold and stormy
weather it generally moves into deeper water, to return when the
weather is warmer or more settled.
100 GENERA AND SPECIES.
The Power has from 12 to 15 rays in its first dorsal, 19 to 25 in
the second, 17 to 22 in the third ; in the first anal it has from 25 to
29, in the second from 17 to 24 ; in the caudal there are 26, in the
pectorals from 13 to 16, in the ventrals 6. The dorsals are joined at
their base ; the barbule, the ventrals, and the first anal are at equal
distances from each other. The snout is rather large and obtuse.
In colour it is brownish yellow, without bands. In length it is
about 8 inches. It feeds on crustaceans, and lives among rocky
ledges in somewhat deep water.
The Coalfish has 12 to 14 rays in the first dorsal, 19 to 22 in the
second, 20 to 22 in the third ; in the first anal there are from 24 to
27, in the second 20 to 23; in the caudal there are 36, in the
pectorals 19, in the ventrals 6. The dorsals are not joined. In
colour it is greenish black above, silvery below, with an almost
straight white lateral line. In length it reaches 42 inches or more.
It is gregarious and voracious, and frequents deep, rocky coasts,
but is well known as a surface feeder under more names than any
other British fish.
Couch's Whiting has 12 or 13 rays in its first dorsal, from 12
to 14 in the second, from 22 to 24 in the third ; in its first anal are
from 34 to 38, in the second from 20 to 25 ; in the caudal there are
from 25 to 29, in the pectorals 20, in the ventrals 6. The first and
second dorsals are narrow and pointed, with a much less interval
between them than that between the second and third ; the first
anal is long, low, and level. The lateral line is nearly straight, and
the body is long in proportion to its depth, and flat in its curves.
In colour it is brownish above, with a yellow stripe above the lateral
line, and one or more lower down the silvery sides. It is 15 inches
long, and is a deep-water species, common in the Mediterranean,
The Pollack has from n to 13 rays in the first dorsal, 16 to 20 in
the second, 15 to 19 in the third ; in its first anal there are from 24
to 31, in the second 16 to 21 ; in the caudal there are 31, in the
pectorals 19, in the ventrals 6. The first ray of each dorsal is rather
short ; the second dorsal has an indentation in the middle. The
lower jaw projects considerably. The lateral line straightens at the
beginning of the second dorsal. In colour the Pollack is dark green
on the back, and golden and silvery on the sides. In length it
ranges as a rule from 18 inches to 30, but it has been known to
reach 36. It is found in moderately deep water, where the rocks are
covered with seaweed, and seems to feed on molluscs, worms, and
crustaceans when young, and on fishes when large enough to
swallow them. It is best known as a surface feeder, and is rarely
found far away from the shore. It is unknown on the western
coast of the Atlantic, and does not range much further south
than the Mediterranean.
Galeus. Plate xxviii. CARCHARIIDSE.
223. vulgaris, TOPE. Back grey and unspotted ; snout conical and
The Tope has the dorsals far apart and the ventrals midway
between them ; the lower lobe of the caudal fin is notched and
GENERA AND SPECIES. IOI
much wider than the upper. The teeth are large and sharp, and
have the inner edge serrated. The colour is grey above without
spots, and whitish below. The largest British specimen measured
Casterosteus. Plate xii. GASTEROSTEIDM.
Spines more than three
97. spinachia, FIFTEEN-SPINED STICKLEBACK. Spines 15 or more;
snout produced, body long.
96. pungitius, NINE-SPINED STICKLEBACK. Spines 8 ton
95. spinulosus, FOUR-SPINED STICKLEBACK. Spines 4.
94. gymnurus, SMOOTH-TAILED STICKLEBACK. Plates extending to
tip of pectoral.
93. scwiarmatus, HALF-ARMED STICKLEBACK. Plates extending half-
way to base of caudal.
92. trachitms, ROUGH-TAILED STICKLEBACK. Plates keeled at base of
91. acidcatus, THREE-SPINED STICKLEBACK. Spines very short.
The Fifteen-spined Stickleback is a sea fish, and in other ways
differs greatly from the others. The fore part of its dorsal fin is repre-
sented by 15 or 17 isolated spines, the hinder part consisting of 6 or
7 rays ; in the anal there are also 6 or 7 rays ; in the caudal there
are 12 or 14 ; in the pectorals 9 or 10 ; and the ventrals have only
one spine and one ray. The second dorsal is over the anal, and
begins in the middle of the back, the hinder portion of the fish being
long and slender. Along the body is a row of ridged plates, with
shorter ridges above and below it, all three ending at the base of
the tail. The snout is long, and the eye is placed halfway between
its tip and the first spine. In colour this species is olive, with
silvery underparts, and it has a silver stripe along the snout ; but
under excitement the colour is changeable. In length it measures
7 inches. It is found in rocky pools and among seaweed-covered
rocks, where it makes a nest under one of the overhanging fronds,
lacing together and affixing to it a sort of open ball of the softest
and silkiest weeds around. This nest is watched over by the male
until the young are about a month old.
The Nine-spined, otherwise the Ten-spined, Stickleback is a
fresh-water species. The isolated spines representing the fore-half
of the first dorsal number from 8 to n, the rays number 9 or 10,
and have a short spine to begin with. In the anal there is a short
spine and 8 or 10 rays ; in the caudal there are 12 rays ; in the
pectorals 10 ; and the ventrals are represented by a spine and a
ray, or are absent altogether. In colour this species is olive green
or brown above, the sides silvery spotted and dotted with black, and
the fins transparent. In the breeding season the underparts become
blue or red. The length is from 2 to 3 inches. The nest built by
this species is like a muff in shape, and consists of soft-leaved
water plants, the finest being confervoid filaments.
102 GENERA AND SPECIES.
The other Sticklebacks are little better than varieties of one
species, and can only be briefly dealt with as such. As far as the
fins go they can be tabulated :
No. 91. Dorsal, 3 spines and u rays; anal, a spine and 8 or 9 rays;
caudal 12 rays ; pectorals 10 to 12 ; ventrals, a spine
and a ray.
No. 92. Dorsal, 3 spines and n rays; anal, a spine and 8 fays;
caudal 12 rays; pectorals 10 ; ventrals, a spine and
No. 93. Dorsal, 3 spines and n rays; anal, a spine and 9 rays;
caudal 12 rays ; pectorals 10 ; ventrals, a spine and a
No. 94. Dorsal, 3 spines and n rays; anal, a spine and 8 rays;
caudal 12 rays; pectorals 10; ventrals, a spine and a
No. 95. Dorsal, 4 spines and 10 rays; anal, a spine and 8 rays;
caudal 12 rays; pectorals 10 rays; ventrals, a spine
and a ray.
The body is short and compressed, and not over 3^ inches long ;
in colour it is grey with greenish or golden reflections, and spots arid
stripes. During the breeding season the underparts are red. As
a rule these are inland fishes, but they descend the rivers
in shoals to the sea, so that they are fresh-water, estuarine, and
marine. When in sea-water they are darker and bluer in colour
than when in fresh. In fresh- water the male builds his nest of straws,
and lines and laces it with confervas, in sea-water he uses algae, as
does his fifteen-spined relative.
Gobio. Plate xxii. CYPRINIDJE.
173. fluviatilis. GUDGEON. Two small barbules; abdomen nearly
straight ; bands of spots on dorsal and caudal.
The Gudgeon has 9 or 10 rays in its dorsal fin, 8 in its anal, 19 in
its caudal, 15 or 16 in its pectorals, and 8 or 9 in its ventrals. The
dorsal rises in the middle of the back, over the tip of the pectorals
and in front of the ventrals, the ventral being half way between the
pectorals and the anal. In the lateral line, which is straight, there
are from 36 to 44 scales ; the scales are large and angular. The
back is rather sharply curved, and is highest slightly in front of the
dorsal ; the abdomen is nearly straight from the jaw to the anal fin,
along the base of which it curves upwards, and continues almost
straight again to the caudal. The mouth is small, and the upper
jaw the longer, with a barbule at each corner like the end of a
moustache. In colour the Gudgeon is olive above and silvery below,
with lines of spots on the vertical fins. In length it reaches 8 inches
or more. In habits it is gregarious, and prefers running water with
a sandy or gravelly bed whereon it can feed on the molluscs, and
worms, and plants, but it is not particular as to the purity of
GENERA AND SPECIES. 103
Gobius. Plate ix. GOBI ID &.
63. ruthensparri, TWO-SPOTTED GOBY. A spot under pectorals, and a
spot at base of caudal.
69. quadrimaculatus , FOUR-SPOTTED GOBY. Dorsals close, first dorsal
long; four spots in a line in hinder half of body.
66. minutus, ONE-SPOTTED GOBY. Dorsals wide apart; black
ocellated spot on first dorsal.
67. parnelli, SPECKLED GOBY. Dorsals close ; first ending in a
black blotch ; fins black with white lines.
68. pictus, PAINTED GOBY. Dorsals close and banded with spots.
64. paganellns, PAGANELLUS. Dorsals close, with an orange band;
body nearly black.
65. niger, ROCK GOBY. Dorsals close ; fins brown with whitish
lines ; body mottled greyish brown.
The Two-spotted Goby has 7 spines in the first dorsal, and a
spine and 10 or n rays in the second, in the anal there are a spine
and 10 or ii rays, in the caudal there are 15 rays, in the pectorals
19, in the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The dorsals are some distance
apart, and the caudal is square. In the lateral line there are from
34 to 40 scales. The mouth is oblique, the lower jaw being the
longer. There are teeth in both jaws, the longest being in front.
The colour is reddish brown, with undulating bands, and a dark
band from the eye to the corner of the mouth. The spots are dis*
tinct. In length this goby is 2% inches. It swims among seaweeds,
near the surface, over rocky ground.
The Four-spotted Goby has 6 spines in its first dorsal, a spine and
9 or 10 rays in its second dorsal, also a spine and 9 or 10 rays in
its anal ; there are 13 rays in its caudal, 17 in its pectorals, and
a spine and 5 rays in its ventrals. The dorsals are close together.
The first dorsal is triangular, the secand spine being much the
longest ; the caudal is spatulate. There are from 37 to 40 scales in
the lateral line. The body is narrow, the back and abdomen being
almost parallel to each other. In colour it is a yellowish grey, with a
dark mark descending from the eye. Besides the four dark spots on
the body, there are spots on the dorsals, and the caudal and anal
have dark edges. In length it is 2 inches. Its only occurrence out
of the Mediterranean is in deep water off the Shetlands.
The One-spotted Goby has 6 spines in its first dorsal, and a
spine and 10 or 11 rays in its second dorsal; in its anal it has a
spine and from 10 to 12 rays ; in its caudal it has n ; in its pectorals
27 ; in its ventrals 6. In the dorsals the spines are but a trifle
higher than the rays, and neither are higher than the body is deep.
In the lateral line there are from 60 to 70 scales. The mouth extends
nearly to the eye. In the female the eye is more forward in
the head than in the male. The colour is yellowish brown, with
spots and vertical bands, and is darker in the male than in the
female. The dorsals are faintly spotted with brown, but the black
ocellated spot is conspicuous. This goby is from 3 to 4 inches
long, and is generally caught in sandy bays, where it lives on small
104 GENERA AND SPECIES.
The Speckled Goby has 6 spines in its first dorsal, and a spine
and 9 or 10 rays in its second dorsal ; in its anal it has a spine and
9 or 10 rays ; in its caudal 13 rays ; in its pectorals 19 ; and in its
ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The tail is cut square, and does not
widen towards the tip, its edges being in line with those of the body.
There are 40 scales in the lateral line. The scales are smaller in
the fore-part of the fish than in the hinder half. The head is
broader than it is high. In colour this goby is bluish grey, with
blackish bands. The fins are black with whitish streaks. In length
it is about 2^ inches. It is found on shallow shores in which the
tide ranges over a wide distance of sand and mud.
In the Painted Goby the first dorsal has 6 spines and the second
10 rays; the anal has 9 rays; the caudal 13 ; the pectorals 20 ; and
the ventral a spine and 5 rays. The pectorals are broad and reach
to the second dorsal, which is very little higher than the anal. The
caudal is long and rounded and rather narrow. There are from
35 to 40 scales in the lateral line. In colour the Painted Goby is
light brown with bands, and two short black streaks from the lower
edge of the eye. The caudal has a dark inner margin, and the
dorsals are iridescent, with spots and a dark edging. In length it is
about 2 inches.
The Paganellus has 6 spines in the first dorsal ; a spine and
from 14 to 16 rays in the second dorsal ; a spine and from 14 to
15 rays in its anal ; 13 rays in its caudal ; 20 in its pectorals ; and a
spine and 5 rays in its ventrals. The dorsals are close together,
and the caudal is rounded. There are from 54 to 58 scales in its
lateral line. The teeth in the upper jaw are conspicuously large
and curved; the lips are thick and bear papillae. The colour is
blackish above, lighter below, and the dorsals are banded with
orange. In length this species attains 4 inches, and is generally
caught in seaweed among rocks.
The Rock Goby is not as black as its specific name would imply.
It has 6 spines in its first dorsal; a spine and 12 or 13 rays in its
second dorsal ; a spine and from 10 to 12 rays in its anal ; 13 rays
in its caudal; 18 in its pectorals; and a spine and 5 rays in its
ventrals. In its lateral line are from 39 to 41 scales. The tail
curves inwards from its base, so as to resemble the section of a
cone. The jaws are equal in length. In colour it is a dull brown,
with indistinct bands and mottlings ; the dorsals and caudal have
lines of spots. This is the largest of the British gobies, and
reaches 6 inches in length. Its home is among rocks, and it feeds
on the small fishes and crustaceans that lurk in the clumps of
seaweed. It is an active, voracious sea fish that will live in fresh
water, at least, for a time.
Hippocampus. Plate xv. SYNGNATHID&.
1 19. antiquorum, SEAHORSE. Head crested, and somewhat like that
of a horse ; tail tapering, finless, and prehensile.
The Seahorse has either 3 or 4 fins, the dorsal which has from
1 8 to 20 rays, the anal which has 5 rays, and is present only in the
female, and the pectorals which have from 15 to 17 rays. The body
GENERA AND SPECIES. IO5
is armed with a series ot osseous rings, of which there are about a
dozen between the head and the vent, and about three dozen from
that point to the tip of the tail. The head and body are covered
with tubercles, and the head is flattened and rises into a crest above
the long gill covers. The colour is brown of a greenish hue with
whitish dots, and frequently the tail is whitish. In size the Seahorse
measures about 6 inches along the curve. It is a quaint, intelligent
fish, which swims upright. The female transfers the ova to the
male, who hatches them in its breeding pouch, and looks after them
during their infancy. Seahorses call each other with a sort of
Hippoglossoides. Plate xix. PLEURONECTID&
150. limandoidcs, LONG ROUGH DAB. Scales ctenoid and spiny on the
hinder edge ; mouth large.
The Long Rough Dab has from 76 to 87 rays in its dorsal fin, 60
to 69 in its anal, 14 to 16 in its caudal, 10 in its pectorals, and 6 in
its ventrals. The dorsal rises for two-thirds of its length, and then
takes a straight slope towards the caudal, and the anal rises for half
its length, and slopes at a similar angle. The lateral line has from
85 to 95 scales, and is nearly straight. The eyes are on the right
side, the mouth extends to the middle of the eye, the jaws being
alike on both sides. The colour is brownish grey on the upper side,
generally without spots, and it is white on the under side. This
flat-fish is about 15 inches long, and lives in the northern seas in
rather deep water, feeding on crustaceans and molluscs.
Hippoglossus. Plate xix. PLEURONECTIDJE.
149. vulgaris, HALIBUT. Scales cycloid and not spiny ; lateral line
This is the longest, narrowest, and thickest of our flat fish. Its
dorsal rays number from 99 to 107 ; in its anal it has from 73 to 82,
in its caudal from 15 to 18; its pectorals have from 14 to 18, and its
ventrals 6. The dorsal and anal are low at their beginning, and
reach their highest point at about half-way. The lateral line curves
boldly above the pectorals, whereas in the last species it has little
more than a shiver. The scales are smooth. The eyes are on the
right side, the jaws alike on both sides ; there is a double row of
teeth in the upper jaw ; the mouth reaches the back of the eye. In
colour the upper side is marbled olive, the under is white. The
ordinary size is from 3 to 7 feet, but it has reached 20 feet. The
Halibut is not often found in the Channel, and it is confined to deep
v/ater, the larger specimens being taken on rocky ground.
Labrax. Plate i. PERCW1E.
2. lupus, . BASS. Spines in dorsals, anal, and ventrals ; gill cover
serrated ; colours slaty blue and silver.
The Bass is like a slender Perch. Its first dorsal consists of 8 or
9 prickly spines; in its second dorsal are a spine and 12 or 13 rays,
in its anal are 3 spines and 10 or n rays, in its caudal are 17 rays,
X0 GENERA AND SPECIES.
in its pectorals 16, and in its ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The first
dorsal is almost semicircular, being highest in the middle; the
second dorsal is not so high ; in the anal the third spine is the
longest ; in the ventrals the spine is strong. The lateral line has 72
scales, and curves gently downwards from the first dorsal. The mouth
reaches to the eye ; there are 2 distinct spines on the operculum,
and well marked serrations on the hinder edge of the praeoperculum.
In colour the Bass is a deep bluish grey above, and silvery below,
with a dark spot on the gill cover under the spines ; the vertical
fins are grey, the others yellowish ; the eye is silvery. In length it
reaches 18 inches. It is a summer fish, returning from the deep
sea to the coast from May to November, occasionally ascending
some distance up the rivers, but usually found among rocks or near
wooden piers, feeding close to the surface on small fishes, Crustacea,
Labrus. Plates xiii. and xiv., LABRID&.
104. maculatus, BALLAN WRASSE. Body plentifully spotted with
white above and below the lateral line.
105. donovani, COMBER WRASSE. Body with a few white spots
below the lateral line, and with an incomplete white
106. lineatus, GRKEN WRASSE. Green with yellow streaks.
107. mixtus, STRIPED WRASSE. Orange with blue stripes and no
The Ballan Wrasse has a long dorsal, in which there are 20 or
21 spines, and from 9 to n rays; in the anal are three spines,
and from 8 to 10 rays, in the caudal are 14 rays, in the pectorals
14 or 15, and in the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The dorsal rays
are half as long again as the spines, which are all of much the
same height. The dorsal begins just behind the base of the
pectorals. In the lateral line there are from 41 to 47 scales. Mouth
extends to the fore nostril ; lips very thick ; teeth in a single row on
the jaws, and prominent. Praeoperculum serrated when young. In
colour this species varies, but it nearly always has spots, and never has
a white side stripe or is green with yellow streaks. It attains over 16
inches in length. It lives in moderately deep water, on rocky
ground where seaweeds are plentiful.
The Comber Wrasse and the Green Wrasse are really varieties of
the Ballan, and resemble it in every way except in colour, as noted
In the Striped Wrasse there are from 16 to 18 spines in the
dorsal, and from n to 14 rays; in the anal there are 3 spines and
from 10 to 12 rays, in the caudal from 13 to 15 rays, in the pectorals
17 rays, in the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The dorsal begins just
over the base of the pectorals, and is level throughout, the spines
and rays being of the same height. In the lateral line there are
from 50 to 60 scales. The lips are very thick and the teeth
prominent. Orange, lighter below, is generally its colour, the male
having blue stripes radiating from the eye, two of which extend to
the caudal, one above the lateral line and the other below it, the
GENERA AND SPECIES.
female having 2 dark blotches at the base of the dorsal rays, and a
third one at the root of the tail. This species is 13 inches long, and
is found not in sandy bays, but on rocky coasts, where the molluscs
and crustaceans that form its food are abundant. It is frequently
caught in crab-pots, which it enters to feed on the bait.
Lsemargus. Plate xxx. SPINACIDJE.
234. borealis, GREENLAND SHARK. Body stout ; dorsals without
spines ; anal fin absent.
In the Greenland Shark the fins are all small in proportion
to the girth of the body. The first dorsal is in the middle of the
back, and also half-way between the pectorals and ventrals. The
second dorsal begins above the hinder edge of the ventrals. The
lower lobe of the caudal fin is much larger than the upper.
The snout is prolonged, and the curve from its tip to the mouth is
that of a clipper bow. The mouth extends to the eye, which is
small and without a lid. The gill-slits are small. This is an Arctic
species, known only as a straggler in British waters. It reaches 25
feet in length, and is grey above, lighter below.
Lamna. Plate xxviii. LAMNID&.
226. cornubica, PORBEAGLE. Body stout; side of tail keeled; anal
This is the second of the three stout-bodied sharks in our list,
the third being the Basking Shark. It is distinguishable by the
large size of its first dorsal, caudal, and pectoral fins. The second
dorsal and anal are small and opposite. The first dorsal is half-
way between the snout and the second dorsal, and the ventrals are
halfway between the two dorsals. The upper lobe of the caudal is
large, and notched near the tip. Along the side of the tail there is
a conspicuous keel. It is fairly common, and attains a length of 9
feet, the colour being greyish above and whitish below.
Lampris. Plate v. CORYPHSENID&.
33. luna, OPAH. Iridescent, with oval silver spots ; fins pointed.
This is the moat brilliantly coloured of British fishes. There are
from 53 to 55 rays in the dorsal fin ; 38 to 41 in the anal ; 22 in the
caudal ; 24 in the pectorals, and from 14 to 16 in the ventrals. The
dorsal is very long in front, and in about a quarter of its length
suddenly shortens and becomes very low and level with the back
until near the end. The anal is low and straight ; the caudal is
deeply forked ; the pectorals are pointed, and extend beyond the
middle of the dorsal. The lateral line is a semicircle for half its
length, and then becomes perfectly straight. The shape is a deep
oval, the body being flat. In colour it is best described as iridescent,
the reds, greens, blues, and purples mingling and changing according
to the point of view, the conspicuous feature being a number of
large, well-defined oval spots of silver. The fins are mainly red.
In size the Opah attains 6 feet. Notwithstanding its bright colours
it seems to be a northerly fish, and is only found in deep waters.
Though not common, it has been frequently taken in the North Sea.
108 GENERA AND SPECIES.
Lepadogaster. Plate xiii. GOBIESOCIDsE.
99. gouanii, CORNISH SUCKER. Vertical fins continuous.
100. decandollii, SUCKER. Vertical fins not continuous ; no black spot
under tip of pectoral.
101. Umaculatus , DOUBLY-SPOTTED SUCKER. Vertical fins not
continuous ; black eye-spot under tip of pectoral.
The Cornish Sucker has from 16 to 20 rays in its dorsal fin ; 9 to
1 1 in its anal ; 19 in its caudal ; 20 to 25 in its pectorals ; and a
spine and 4 rays in its ventrals. The dorsal begins beyond the
middle of the back, and, like the anal, which begins nearer the tail,
is continuous with the caudal. The pectorals are connected by a
membrane with the ventrals. The spine of the ventrals is imbedded
in skin ; between them is the sucking disk, with a deep groove in
the middle. The skin is loose and tough, the snout spatulate, the
upper jaw the longer. The mouth extends to the middle of the eye,
and the eyes, like those of the other suckers and those of the
blennies, can be moved independently of each other. In colour
this species is red as a rule, though sometimes brown or green, and
there are two dark spots on the nape which have a light edging.
In length it rarely exceeds 4 inches, and it is generally found under
stones between the tide marks.
The Sucker has from 14 to 16 rays in its dorsal; 8 to n in its
anal ; 18 in its caudal ; 25 in its pectorals ; and a spine and 4 rays in
its ventrals. The dorsal begins in the hinder half of the back, and,
ike the anal, is distinctly separate from the caudal, although in each
case a membrane extends from the hinder edge. The pectorals are
connected with the ventrals. The snout is spatulate and the upper
jaw the longer, the mouth extending to almost the middle of the
eye. The body tapers very slightly ; the head is the widest part,
and is flat at the top. The sucker is of the same character as that
of the last species. In colour this species is red with light spots.
In length it is i\ inches, and it is generally found clinging to stones
between the tide marks.
The Doubly-spotted Sucker has only from 5 to 7 rays in its
dorsal fin; in its anal are from 4 to 6; in its caudal 12; in its
pectorals 17 ; and in its ventrals 5. The dorsal and anal are small,
and though in the hinder part of the body, are some distance from
the tail. The pectorals are not joined to the ventrals, as in the other
two species, though the sucking disk is of the same character. The
colour is orange, with reddish bands. The characteristic ocellus
is just covered by the tip of the pectorals. In length this species is
2 inches or more. It is found near low-water mark in rather deeper
water than the other two. Like them, it has no scales on its body.
Lcpidopus. Plate iii. TRICHIURID&.
23. caudatus, SCABBARD FISH. Body long, thin, and tapering ; tail
small and forked.
In the dorsal there are from 100 to 105 rays, in the anal 18 to 25
rays, in the caudal 16 to 18, in the pectorals 12. The ventrals are
represented by the pair of scales from which the fish takes its name
GENERA AND SPECIES. IOQ
(lepidopus scale foot). The dorsal begins on the nape and extends
almost to the tail. The lateral line is long, straight, and well
marked. There are about 20 teeth in each jaw, with 2 or 3 barbed
canines ; the lower jaw is the longer, and the mouth extends to the
eye. This rare fish is silvery in colour, with yellowish grey fins ; it
attains a length of 6 feet.
Lepidorhombus. Plate xx. PLEURONECTIDM.
155. megastoma, MEGRIM. Eyes left; eyes large; mouth large; jaws
In the dorsal fin there are from 85 to 91 rays, in the anal 61 to
75, in the caudal 15, in the pectorals 13, in the ventrals 6. The
dorsal is highest in its hinder half. The lateral line makes a semi-
circular curve over the pectorals; it has from 104 to no scales.
The scales are rough, and easily detached. The body is oval and
thin ; the jaws have two rows of small teeth ; the mouth extends to
the back of the eyes ; and the eyes are yellow, and unusually large for
those of a flat fish. In colour thie fish is brownish yellow, spotted
with dark brown, many of the spots being arranged in rings. In
length it is about 18 inches. It lives in comparatively deep water.
It is said to come ashore in the Orkneys with its tail in the air
scudding before the wind, whence its name of Sail Fluke. It is also
known as the Whiff and as the Merry Sole.
Leuciscus. Plate xxiii. CYPRINIDJE.
Lateral line incomplete
178. phoxinus, MINNOW. Incomplete lateral line with from 80 to 90
Lateral line complete
174. rutilus, ROACH. Bluish or greenish, lighter on sides and
below ; base of dorsal | of height ; 4 rows of scales
between lateral line and ventrals.
175. cephalus, CHUB. Bluish or greenish, lighter on sides and below ;
base of dorsal of height ; 3 rows of scales between
lateral line and ventrals ; cheeks with red and gold
176 vulgar is, DACE. Bluish above, silvery on sides and below ; base
of dorsal of height ; 5 rows of scales between
lateral line and ventrals.
177. erythrophthalmus, RUDD. Silvery glossed with red ; eye red ;
4 rows of scales between lateral line and ventrals.
The ubiquitous Minnow has 9 or 10 rays in its dorsal fin, 10 or
ii in its anal, 19 in its caudal, 15 in its pectorals, and 9 or 10 in its
ventrals. The dorsal begins behind the ventrals, and ends in a line
with the commencement of the anal ; the pectorals, ventrals, and
caudal are at equal intervals. The upper jaw is the longer ; the
mouth reaches to the first third of the eye. In colour this fish is
silvery, occasionally dotted or striped with black. In size it is generally
HO GENERA AND SPECIES.
about 3 inches, but it has been recorded as long as 7. Its
favourite haunt is in running shallow water, where it assembles in
shoals near the surface or among the weeds. It feeds on plants and
worms and watep animals, including the dead bodies of its own
The Roach has from n to 13 rays in its dorsal fin, from 12 to 13
in its anal, 19 in its caudal, from 16 to 18 in its pectorals, and 9 or
i(5 in its ventrals. The first two or three rays in the dorsal and
anal are bony. The dorsal is over the ventrals ; the ventrals are
midway between the pectorals and anal. The lateral line has from
42 to 45 scales it curves slightly downwards to the tip of the
pectorals, and Jnen runs straight. The jaws are equal in length ;
the mouth reaches to the hinder nostril. The silvery underparts
become reddish in the breeding season ; the lower fins are tinged
with red, and the dorsal and caudal have blackish edge's. In length
it attains 15 inches. It is found in shoals in cleaF, deep, still, or
slowly running water, where there is gravel or sand, keeping close to
the bottom in running water, and not so deep in still. It feeds on
water plants, worms, crustaceans, and other water a'nimals. It
gathers in large numbers at certain spots for breeding purposes, and
its eggs can be identified by their being greenish and becoming red
when boiled. Though a typical fresh- water fish, the Roach is
occasionally caught in estuaries.
The Chub is rather more slender in build, and has a larger head.
It has ii rays in its dorsal, from 10 to 12 in its anal, ,19 in its
caudal, 16 or 17 in its pectorals, and 9 or 10 in its ventrals.
The first 3 rays of the dorsal and anal are bony. The dorsal
begins behind the ventrals ; the pectorals, ventrals, anal, and
caudal are at equal intervals. The pectorals are very close to the gill
cover ; the curve of the back is low. The lateral line has from 43
to 48 scales, and is slightly concave throughout, reaching its lowest
point over the tips of the ventrals. The jaws are equal, the snout
blunt, and the mouth reaches the front edge of the eye. It is much
the same colour as the Roach, but rather lighter below, the ventrals
and anal are reddish, and the edges of the dorsal and caudal are
dark in colour. There is a decided blush of red on its cheeks as a
rule. It attains a length of 21 inches. It frequents deep
holes in clear water flowing over gravel, sand, or marl, and comes
to the surface in warm weather. It feeds on plants, worms, and
insects. It is very quick of sight and hearing, and will sink to the
bottom at a passing shadow or the slightest sound.
The Dace is the slenderest and most graceful fish of the five. It
has 9 or 10 rays in its dorsal; 10 or n in its anal ; 19 or 20 in its
caudal ; 15 or r6 in its pectorals ; and 9 or 10 in its ventrals. The
first 2 or 3 rays in the dorsal and anal are bony. The dorsal is
nearly over the ventrals ; the ventrals are nearer to the anal than
to the pectorals, and the anal is midway between the ventrals and
the caudal, which is deeply forked. In the lateral line there are from 48
to 52 scales ; it is concave, with the lowest point under the hinder
end of the dorsal. At the base of the ventrals there is an angular
scale. The upper jaw is the longer ; the mouth does not quite
reach the eye. The curve of the back is easy and rather slight ;
GENERA AND SPECIES. Ill
the abdomen is nearly straight ; the head is almost as long as the
body is deep. In colour the Dace is silvery, with a bluish back and
greenish fins, the ventrals and anal being tinged with red. In length
it attains 12 inches. It is a gregarious fish, living in clear running
water, feeding on plants, worms, and insects, and often swimming
near the surface and leaping out of the water. At breeding time it
gathers in large numbers in weedy shallows. It is a fast swimmer,
quick of sight and hearing, and will dart for some distance out of
danger when alarmed.
The Rudd has n or 12 rays in the dorsal, from 13 to 15 in the
anal, from 19 to 21 in the caudal, 16 or 17 in the pectorals, and
9 or 10 in the ventrals. The first 2 or 3 rays in the dorsal and anal
are bony. The dorsal is placed on the highest point of the back ;
the pectorals, ventrals, anal, and caudal are at equal intervals.
There are from 40 to 44 scales in the lateral line, which curves
downwards, the lowest point being over the tip of the ventrals. The
body is elevated and flat ; the head is small, and has rather a
hollow curve over the eye ; the mouth extends to the hinder nostril.
The colour varies, but as a rule it is silvery, with the dorsal, caudal,
and pectorals tipped with black, and the anal and ventrals yellow.
The eye is always red, hence the fish is widely known as the Red-
eye. In length it does not exceed 9 inches. It is mainly confined
to gently-flowing rivers, particularly to their broads or expansions,
frequenting deep water and pools. It feeds on plants, worms,
molluscs, and insects, and will rise to flies when swimming near the
Lichia. Plate iv. CARANGIDJE.
27. glauca, DERBIO. First dorsal consisting simply of 5 or 6 spines,
the first of which points forwards.
The Derbio has two dorsals, the front one being a row of 5 or
6 short isolated spines, the first of which points forwards parallel to
the lateral line. The second dorsal has a spine and from 24 to 27
rays. There are also two anals, the first of which consists of 2
isolated spines, the second anal having a spine and from 23 to 25
rays. In the caudal there are 17 rays, in the pectorals 17, and in
the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The caudal is deeply forked. The
scales are small and cycloid. In colour this fish is sea-green with
yellowish sides, the fins being yellowish and stained with black. In
length it reaches 15 inches. It is very rare in British waters;
independently of its spines it can easily be recognised by its black-
tipped tail, the lobes of which are quite three times as long as their
Liparis. Plate viii. CYCLOPTERID&.
61. vulgaris, SEA SNAIL. Body streaked.
62. montagui, MONTAGU'S SUCKER. Body spotted.
The Sea Snail has from 34 to 36 rays in its dorsal, 27 or 28 in its
anal, 12 to 14 in its caudal, 28 in its pectorals, and a spine and 5
rays in its ventrals. The pectorals are deeply notched, and extend
112 GENERA AND SPECIES.
under the throat ; the ventrals surround the disk. The head is
broad and round; the mouth extends to the front edge of the
eye ; the upper jaw is the longer. In colour this species is brown
or pale grey, with many narrow stripes; in length it is about 6
Montagu's Sucker has from 26 to 30 rays in its dorsal fin, 24 in
its anal, 14 in its caudal, 30 in its pectorals, and 6 in its ventrals.
The pectorals are notched, and extend under the throat as in the
foregoing species, but there are only 5 long rays on the lower side
instead of 6. In colour it is brownish, covered with dark spots, and
its length is 3 inches. Like the Sea Snail, it is found just below
low-water mark along the coast and in estuaries, and seems to use
its sucker to hold on by as the tide runs out.
Lophius Plate vii. LOPHIID&
47. piscatorius, ANGLER. Anterior dorsal spines modified into tentacles.
The dorsal fin of the Angler is in four divisions, the first con-
sisting of 2 long isolated spines, the second of a long spine at some
distance from them, the third of 3 spines united by a membrane at
their base, and the fourth of an ordinary sort of fin containing n
rays ; in the anal are from 9 to n rays, in the caudal 8, in the pec-
torals 13, in the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The pectorals are
large and not unlike feet ; by their means the Angler can not only
walk but cling to anything so as to be carried from place to place,
and with them it digs a hole in sand, in which it hides, dangling the
filaments attached to its anterior spines over its mouth as a bait.
Its mouth is a quarter as wide as the fish is long, and there are
two rows of teeth in the jaws, the inner row being the larger and
being movable backwards. The eye is well developed, as is also
the organ of hearing. In colour the Angler is dirty brown, with
dark reticulations ; in length it measures from 4 to 7 feet ; and it
feeds on fishes and crustaceans.
Lota. Plate xviii. GADIDM.
136. vulgaris, BURBOT. Two dorsals, one anal, and a long barbule.
The Burbot is a fresh-water member of the Cod family. It has
2 dorsals, the first short with 12 to 14 rays, the second long with
from 67 to 76 rays ; the anal has from 65 to 71 rays, the caudal 30,
the pectorals 19 to 21, and the ventrals 7. The vertical fins are
nearly continuous ; the caudal is rounded, the lower half beginning
nearer the head than the lower half. The lateral line is almost
straight ; the scales are small. The head is broad, the mouth wide,
the jaws equal, the mouth extending to the middle of the eye. In
colour the Burbot is brownish, mottled or banded with darker brown ;
in length it reaches 30 inches. It is found in clear streams and
lakes, mainly in the Trent and rivers of the north-east coast, and is
nocturnal in habit, hiding under stones or in the mud or in holes
in the banks.
GENERA AND SPECIES. 113
Luvarus. Plate v. CORYPHMNID&.
35. imperialis. Grey with a scarlet stripe ; tail forked and keeled.
This Mediterranean fish is of rare occurrence round these islands.
In full-grown specimens the dorsal has a spine and from n to 13
rays, the anal a spine and 14 rays, the caudal 16, the pectorals 14 to
18, and the ventrals a spine and 4. The rays of the dorsal and
anal are wide apart ; both fins are in the hinder half of the body,
which is pyriform in shape, with a curious head, small mouth, and
large eyes. In colour it is grey above, silvery below, with a red
stripe along the side, and red fins. In length it attains 5 feet.
Maurolicus. Plate xxiv. STERNOPTYCHIDsE.
1 88. pennantii, PEARLSIDES. Anal fin in three portions, of different
The dorsal fin has 10 rays; the anal has 10 longish rays,
then 12 short rays, then from 4 to 13 rays rather higher than
the middle group. The caudal has 19 rays, the pectorals
16, the ventrals 7. Sometimes there is an adipose dorsal.
In the lateral line are 28 scales ; the scales are cycloid, and are
higher than they are wide. The head is unusually square, and the
body tapers gradually backwards from the cheeks. The back is
blackish, the sides silvery; there are many luminous spots, and
under the spots are black marks. The average length seems to be
3 inches. This is a deep-sea form, and the few British examples
have been found after storms.
Merluccius. Plate xvii. GADID&.
133- vulgaris, HAKE. No barbule ; anal highest behind; eye round;
teeth many and large.
The first dorsal has 10 rays, the second from 36 to 40, the anal
36 to 38, the caudal 22, the pectorals 14, the ventrals 7. The first
dorsal is short and triangular, the second is long, lowest in the
middle and highest at the end ; the anal, which is the same length
as the second dorsal, is also highest near the tail ; the caudal is
square, the pectorals and ventrals are pointed. The lateral line is
straight, and is black with a white edging. The mouth is large, and
its inner surface and that of the gill cavities are black. The teeth
are long and sharp, and in two rows, the inner being the larger. In
colour the Hake is greyish brown above and white below ; in shape
it is long and slender; in length it reaches 48 inches. It is a
voracious fish of wide distribution, active generally at night, and
following the shoals of mackerel, herring, and so forth round the
Molva. Plate xvii. GADIDM.
135. vulgaris, LING. Long barbule ; anal level throughout ; eye
The Ling that is, the "long " fish has two dorsal fins, the first
with 13 to 16 rays, the second with from 63 to 70 ; in the anal there
are from 57 to 66 rays, in the caudal from 35 to 38, in the pectorals 19,
114 GENERA AND SPECIES.
in the ventrals 6. The dorsals are of the same height ; the first is
rounded, the second long and rather higher behind ; both it and
the anal almost join the caudal, which is spatulate. The fins are
narrow and flexible. The lateral line curves downwards to the
second dorsal and then becomes straight. The upper jaw is the
longer. The teeth are not so conspicuous as in the Hake. In
colour the Ling is greenish grey, with white underparts, the ver-
tical fins becoming dark towards their edges, which are bordered
with white. In length it reaches 7 feet, but the usual size is about
3 feet. It is a night-feeding fish, keeping to the bottom, and rarely
found where the ground is not rocky.
Motella. Plate xviii. GADID&.
137. mustela, FIVE-BEARDED ROCKLING. Barbules 5.
138. cimbria, FOUR-BEARDED ROCKLING. Barbules 4.
139. tricirrata, THREE-BEARDED ROCKLING. Barbules 3 ; body
140. macrophthalma, Barbules 3 ; body unspotted.
In the Five-bearded Rockling the first dorsal has a spine and 20
low rays, the second dorsal has from 47 to 55 rays, the anal from
40 to 47, the saudal 20 or 21, the pectorals 15, and the ventrals
7 or 8. The first dorsal is a sort of fringe, headed by a spine which
is the same height as the rays of the second dorsal ; the dorsals are
continuous. The second dorsal is curved, and ends close to the
caudal ; the anal ends in a similar manner, but is not so high ; the
caudal is rounded. The mouth extends to the middle or back of the
eye. In colour this species is brownish with brown fins. It is 18
inches long, and feeds on molluscs and crustaceans in rocky and
The Four-bearded Rockling has also a spine and 20 rays in its
fringe-like dorsal, the second dorsal having 50 rays ; the anal has
44 rays, the caudal 31, the pectorals 15, and the ventrals 6. There
is one barbule on the upper lip instead of two, one on each side of
the snout and one on the chin. The anal begins further back than
in the foregoing species. In colour it is chestnut on the back, lighter
below. In length it reaches 14 inches, and, like the others, it is
found in rocky, sandy places abounding in molluscs and small
The Three-bearded Rockling has a spine and 20 rays in its first
dorsal, and from 55 to 57 rays in the other ; in the anal are from
48 to 50 rays, in the caudal 21, in the pectorals 16 to 18, in the
ventrals 6 or 7. There are two barbules on the upper lip, and one
on the chin. The upper jaw is the longer ; the mouth extends
behind the eye. The colour above is black or brown, with round
spots and blotches, and white below. This Rockling is 20 inches
long, and is a ground feeder, living among seaweeds on rocky shores.
The fourth species of Rockling is small and but little known. It
has a spine and 20 rays in its first dorsal, 55 rays in its second dor-
GENERA AND SPECIES. 115
sal, 55 in its anal, 32 in its caudal, 15 in its pectorals, and 6 in its
ventrals. It has a barbule on each side of the snout, and one on the
lower jaw. In colour it is brownish, becoming paler on the sides ;
and in length it reaches at least 4^ inches.
Mugil. Plate xi. MUGILID&.
85. capita, GREY MULLET. Anal begins almost half-way between the
86. chelo, LESSER GREY MULLET. Anal -begins almost in a line
with second dorsal.
In the Grey Mullet there are 4 spines in the first dorsal, in the
second there are a spine and 8 or 9 rays ; in the anal are 3 spines
and 8 or 9 rays, in the caudal 17 rays, in the pectorals 17 rays, in
the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The caudal is large ; the dorsals
are wide apart. The upper lip is not thickened. In colour this
fish is silvery, with stripes along the back and sides ; the fins are
grey. It attains a length of 3 feet, and is a surface feeder in shallow
waters, moving up rivers in shoals with the tide, and apparently
delighting in oily foods.
The Lesser Grey Mullet has 4 spines in the first dorsal, and a
spine and 8 rays in the second ; in the anal are 3 spines and 9 or 10
rays, in the caudal 15 rays, in the pectorals 17, in the ventrals
a spine and 5 rays. The caudal is large and the scales are large.
The upper lip is thickened, and has rows of papillae. In colour
this species is grey with bronze reflections, and dark lines along
the scales. It generally measures a foot, but has been known as
large as 3 feet in length. Like the other, it is very quick of
hearing, and is gregarious and generally found in estuaries. It
burrows in search of food, and seems to have some special fondness
for the grass-wrack, Zoster a marina.
Mullus. Plate ii. MULLIDJE.
8. barbatus, RED MULLET. Body not striped.
9. surmulletus, STRIPED MULLET. Body striped.
The Red Mullet has 7 or 8 spines in the first dorsal, and a spine
and 8 rays in the second ; in the anal are 2 spines and 6 rays, in the
caudal 15 rays, in the pectorals from 16 to 18 rays, in the ventrals a
spine and 5 rays. The spines of the first dorsal are flat and weak
at the ends, and the front spine is very short. The scales are large ;
there are from 38 to 40 in the lateral line, the tubes of which are
much branched. The forehead, nape, cheeks, and gill covers are
scaly. In colour, this rather rare fish is a plain red ; in length it
reaches 17 inches. It feeds at the bottom as well as at the surface,
and for most of the year keeps out at sea, but in July comes into
shallow, sandy ground among seaweed-covered rocks.
The Striped Mullet is little better than a variety. Its fins are
similar in all respects, except that the dorsals are banded. The
profile is more oblique. The body is pale pink, with yellowish
lib GENERA AND SPECIES.
stripes along the sides above and below the lateral line. The
caudal is often banded. This is the common Red Mullet which
comes in with the mackerel in shoals in the summer, but spends
most of the year out at sea. It reaches the same size as the other,
but is generally smaller.
Mursena. Plate xxii. MUR&NID&.
168. helena, MURRY. Purplish brown with yellow markings.
The vertical fins of this brightly-coloured Eel are continuous, and
together have about 550 rays. The snout is pointed; the month
ends in a black spot, and extends behind the eye, the upper jaw
being the longer. The gill opening is in a black spot. In length
this species reaches 52 inches. It is of very rare occurrence in
Mustelus. Plate xxviii. CARCHARIIDJE.
225. vulgaris, SMOOTH HOUND. Dorsals far apart ; anal under second
The pectorals are under the last three gill slits ; the first dorsal
is behind the pectorals ; the ventrals are halfway between the
pectorals and the anal, and the anal is under, but begins rather
behind, the second dorsal ; caudal notched at tip. The colour is
bluish, with or without spots, lighter below. The length is from
3 to 6 feet. It swims near the ground, and comes in-shore in the
summer months, retiring to deep water in the winter. Though not
sought after this shark is not wasted, as it is used up among the
" snacks " in fried-fish shops.
Myliobatis. Plate xxxiii. MYLIOBATID&.
250. aquila, WHIP RAY. No horns ; tail very long, with serrat. d
spine near the roc t
The disk is diamond-shaped, nearly twice as broad as long, with
undulating edges. On the tail is a small square dorsal, the serrated
spine being just behind it. The tail is like a whip. The teeth are
hexagonal and in 7 rows. The colour is white below, greenish
above ; the head and backbone being clearly shown. This fish,
often known as the Eagle Ray, from its appearance when swimming,
has been found as much as 50 inches in length. It is active in its
habits, and swims much faster than would be supposed.
Naucrates. Plate iv. CARANGIDJE
25. ductor, PILOT FISH. Body blue, with 5 or 6 broad dark vertical
The Pilot Fish has from 3 to 6 spines representing the first
dorsal, and a spine and from 26 to 28 rays in the second dorsal ; the
anal has 2 isolated spines in front, and then from 26 to 28 rays ; the
caudal has 17 rays, the pectorals from 19 to 21, and the ventrals a
GENERA AND SPECIES. 117
spine and 5 rays. The second dorsal is highest in front. The
lateral line curves to the first third of the anal, and then forms a
raised keel towards the caudal. The fins are grey, the dorsal and
anal being tipped with black. The length is about 9 inches. This
fish is usually caught in roadsteads, to which it has accompanied
some vessel ; occasionally it is found in shoals, as at Falmouth,
when 3 dozen were caught at a time.
Nemachilus. Plate xxiii. CYPRINID^E.
184. barbatula, LOACH. Barbules 6.
The Loach has 10 rays in the dorsal fin, 7 or 8 in the anal, 17 in
the caudal, 10 to 12 in the pectorals, and 8 or 9 in the ventrals.
The dorsal is over the ventrals, and midway between the eye and the
caudal ; the caudal is wide at the base and oblong in shape. The
back is but slightly curved, and the abdomen is straight. The
lateral line runs from the top of the eye along the upper half of the
body. The snout overhangs the mouth, which extends to beneath
the hind nostril ; there is no spine at the nostril. The colour is
greenish, with white underparts, and the length 5 inches. The
Loach avoids muddy water, and frequents clear streams and pools
with a gravelly bottom, where it lurks under the stones and among
floating grass, looking out for worms and insects. It is very sensi-
tive to changes of temperature, and is occasionally kept in glass
bowls as a weather indicator.
Nerophis. Plate xv. SYNGNATHID&.
116. aquoreus, OCEAN PIPE-FISH. Rings 28 to 31, and 56 to 61.
117. ophidian, STRAIGHT-NOSED PIPE-FISH Rings 28 or 29,
118. lumbriciformis, WORM PIPE-FISH. Rings 18 or 19, and 49.
The Ocean Pipe-fish has from 37 to 44 rays in its dorsal. The
anal, pectorals, and ventrals are always absent, the caudal usually
so. The number of osseous rings mentioned above are given as
before and behind the vent. The colour is olive, darkest along the
back, with black-edged bluish bands, there being a purple stripe
along the snout, and the dorsal rays being yellow. In length this
Pipe-fish reaches 41 inches. It lives in deepish water. The tail is
The Straight-nosed Pipe-fish has from 34 to 38 rays in its dorsal,
which stands on 12 rings, 8 of which are beyond the vent. The
snout turns upwards a little. The colour is greenish, spotted with
white, there being a black band across the gill cover. In length
this fish measures about 12 inches. It lives in moderately deep
water, and between the tide-marks.
The Worm Pipe-fish has from 24 to 26 rays in its dorsal, which
stands on 8 rings, of which 6 are beyond the vent. The snout is
turned up. In colour the body is olive brown, with white lines and
dots. In length it reaches 9 inches. This fish is found among the
seaweeds in rocky pools, and is unknown below low-water mark.
Il8 GENERA AND SPECIES.
Notidanus. Plate xxix. NOTIDANID&.
229. griseus, BROWN SHARK. Gill-slits 6.
There is one dorsal, which is smaller than the ventrals, and
placed between them and the anal. The pectorals are close to the
gill-slits. The tail is long, with the lower part of the caudal fin
highest near the base, and tapering off towards the tip, where it is
but little higher than the upper portion, which is of the same height
throughout. The colour is grey ; the length over 26 feet. This is
a common Mediterranean species, rare in our seas.
Ophidium. Plate xix. OPHIDIID&.
143. barbatum, BEARDED OPHIDIUM. Vertical fins continuous ;
ventrals, a pair of filaments under throat.
There is apparently no caudal fin, the long and level dorsal and
anal being continuous, and having from 230 to 260 rays. The
pectorals have from 20 to 23 rays. The filaments representing the
ventrals are bifid. The lateral line is in the upper half of the body.
The colour is greyish brown, and the length 10 inches. A Mediter-
ranean fish, of which only one specimen is recorded as British.
Orcynus. Plate vi. SCO M BRIDGE
39. thynnus, SHORT- FINNED TUNNY. Pectorals not reaching to
40. germo, LONG-FINNED TUNNY. Pectorals reaching to finlets.
The Short-finned Tunny has 13 or 14 spines in its first dorsal, i
or 2 spines and 13 rays in its second dorsal, and 8 or 9 finlets
between the second dorsal and the caudal ; the anal has 2 spines
and 12 rays, with 7 or 8 finlets behind it ; the caudal ha from 32 to
35 rays, the pectorals have 31, and the ventrals have a spine and 5
rays. The dorsals are close together ; the pectorals are in a groove.
The first dorsal is triangular ; the other fins are pointed ; the lobes
of the caudal are narrow and long, the fork being deep and broad.
The scales in the fore part of the body form a corslet, with three
prolongations. In colour this Tunny is dark blue on the back, grey
netted with darker grey along the sides, and white below ; the
pectorals are edged with white, In length it reaches 9 feet or more.
It is generally observed in shoals, but only a few stragglers have been
caught round the British Islands.
The Long-finned Tunny has 14 spines in its first dorsal, 3 spines
and 12 rays in the second, with 7 or 8 finlets behind ; the anal has
3 spines and 12 rays, with 8 or 9 finlets behind it ; the caudal has 35
rays, the pectorals 37, the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The pectorals
are in a groove, and are curved and pointed and a third as long as
the fish ; the ventrals are close together, with only one scale between
them. The colour is deep blue above and silvery below, with narrow
stripes occasionally present. The few British examples have been
between 2 and 3 feet in length. This Tunny ranges from the Bay of
Biscay to the Cape of Good Hope, and migrates in shoals.
GENERA AND SPECIES. Iig
Orthagoriscus. Plate xv. DIODONTIDJE.
123. mola, SUN-FISH. Hinder end rounded ; skin rough.
124. truncatus, OBLONG SUN-FISH. Hinder end straight ; skin smooth.
The Sun-fish has from 16 to 18 rays in the dorsal, 15 to 17 in the
anal, 12 to 16 in the caudal, n to 13 in the pectorals, and is without
ventrals. The dorsal and anal are narrow, high, and pointed ; the
pectorals are short and rounded. The skin is granulated, and at
first is spiny. The eye has a lid in front with which the eye can be
covered. In colour this fish is pearly brown, and luminous in the
dark, and in length has been known to reach 8 feet. It swims in an
undulating way, and sometimes leaps out of the water. It groans
loudly when it dies, and when hooked sighs and grunts like a pig.
The Oblong Sun-fish has from 16 to 19 rays in its dorsal, 16 in
its anal, 18 to 22 in its caudal, 12 or 13 in its pectorals, arid the
ventrals are missing. The dorsal and anal are joined to the caudal,
which is little better than a fringe. The skin has hexagonal
divisions. The colour above is purple or bluish grey. This is much
rarer in British waters than the other species, and has not
exceeded 25 inches in length.
Osmerus. Plate xxvii. SALMONID&.
213. eperlanus. SMELT. Skin transparent, and having a silver stripe.
The first dorsal has 10 or 12 rays, the second is adipose ; the
anal has from 13 to 17 rays, the caudal 19, the pectorals have u or
12, and the ventrals 8 or 9. The first dorsal is midway between the
eye and the base of the caudal ; the adipose dorsal is over the middle
of the anal ; the ventrals are under the beginning of the first dorsal.
In the lateral line there are from 60 to 65 scales ; the scales are
cycloid, and there are 6 rows between the lateral line and the base
of the ventrals. The body is long, the sides rather flat, the back
more curved than the abdomen, the mouth deeply cleft, the lower
jaw the longer. The eyes are silvery. The Smelt has been caught
12 inches in length. It is gregarious and voracious, and generally
found in estuaries and harbours feeding on small fish and shrimps,
being particularly numerous in fishing ports frequented by shrimp
ragellus. Plates ii and iii. SPARID&.
14. centrodontus, SEA BREAM. Scarlet, lighter below; a black spot
where the lateral line begins.
15. bogaraveo, SPANISH BREAM. Pinkish above, white below; a
dark axillary spot.
16. owenii, AXILLARY BREAM. Carmine above, white below;
fins paler than body.
17. acarne, Red, with golden reflections.
18. erythrinus, PANDORA. Red, with purple and silvery reflections :
The Sea Bream has 12 spines and 12 rays in its dorsal, 3 spines
and 12 rays in its anal, 19 rays in its caudal, 17 in its pectorals, and
I2O GENERA AND SPECIES.
a spine and 5 rays in its ventrals. The fourth and fifth dorsal
spines are the longest ; the pectorals are as long as the head. In
the lateral line the scales number 75. The hinder nostril is oval and
oblique, and larger than the other. This fish attains a length of
15 inches. It lives among rocks and seaweed, and feeds on sea-
weed, small fishes, and crustaceans ; it is very sensitive to cold, and
sometimes appears in shoals. The characteristic black spot is a
mark of maturity.
The Spanish Bream has 12 spines and 12 rays in its dorsal, 3
spines and n or 12 rays in its anal, 17 in its caudal, 17 in its
pectorals, and a spine and 5 rays in its ventrals. The fourth and
fifth dorsal spines are the longest ; the pectorals overlap the anal.
There are 71 scales in the lateral line. There is a dark base to the
pectorals, as well as the axillary spot, and the body is spotted with
blue. In length this rather rare species measures about 12 inches.
It has never been observed in shoals.
The Axillary Bream has 12 spines and u or 12 rays in the
dorsal, 3 spines and 10 rays in the anal, 21 rays in the caudal, 17 in
the pectorals, and a spine and 5 rays in the ventrals. The fourth
and fifth dorsal spines are the highest ; the last 2 dorsal rays are in
a sheath. The third anal spine is the longest, and the last 2 rays
are in a sheath. The pectorals are two-thirds as long as the head,
and the ventrals three-quarters as long as the pectorals. There are
from 68 to 70 rays in the lateral line. There is a rosy tint on the
sides, and the fins are of a beautiful pale rose. The length is 14
inches. It is not a common species.
No. 17 is also a rare species in our waters. In its dorsal it has
12 spines and n or 12 rays, in its anal 3 spines and 10 rays, in its
caudal 17 rays, in its pectorals 17, and in its ventrals a spine and
5 rays. The third spine in the dorsal and anal is the longest, and
in both fins the last 2 rays are in a sheath. The pectorals reach to
the anal spines. The lateral line has from 70 to 72 scales. The
length is about 13 inches.
The Pandora has 12 spines and 10 rays in its dorsal, 3 spines
and 8 or 9 rays in its anal, 17 rays in its caudal, 15 in its pectorals,
and a spine and 5 rays in its ventrals. The third dorsal is the
longest, the hindermost rays are not sheathed ; the second and third
anal spines are equal in length. The lateral line has from 56 to 60
scales. In length this fish reaches 16 inches. It is not found in
shoals, and appears in our waters during the summer months,
retiring to the deep sea for the winter.
Pasrus. Plate ii. SPARID&.
12. vulgaris, COUCH'S SEA BREAM. Colour, red.
13. auratus, GILT-HEAD. Colour, silvery.
Couch's Sea Bream has 12 spines and 10 rays in its dorsal, 3
spines and 8 rays in its anal, 17 rays in its caudal, 15 in its pec-
torals, and a spine and 5 rays in its ventrals. In the lateral line are
from 53 to 58 scales. The lower jaw is the larger, the teeth in the
outer row are conical and conspicuous, and on each side of the
mandible are 2 large canines. This fish varies in colour, but is
GENERA AND SPECIES. 121
always red on the back and in front. There is only one British
example, and that measures 20 inches, but the species is fairly
common in the Atlantic and Mediterranean.
The Gilt-head has n spines and 13 rays in its dorsal, 3 spines
and ii or 12 rays in its anal, 17 rays in its caudal, 16 in its pectorals,
and a spine and 5 rays in its ventrals. The lateral line has from 75
to 86 scales ; the scales are marked with lines and have irregular
edges. The upper jaw is the larger; the teeth are not prominent.
There are faint stripes along the body, a dark spot at the base of
the pectoral, and a golden crescent between the eyes ; the head is
greenish on the top. This is a rare fish, some 15 inches in length,
found in rocky localities, where it feeds mainly on crustaceans.
Pammelas. Plate iv. CARANGID^E.
26. peniformis, RUDDER FISH. First dorsal of 6 or 7 isolated spines.
The first dorsal is represented by 6 or 7 free spines, the second
has a spine and 22 rays, the anal has 3 spines and from 26
to 29 rays, the caudal has 21 rays, the pectorals 23 rays, the ventrals
a spine and 5 rays. The two first spines of the anal are nearly
imbedded in the skin, In the lateral line there are 78 scales. The
lower jaw is the longer, and the mouth reaches to the eye. The
teeth are in a single row and wide apart. The colour is purplish on
the back and grey on the sides, the head mottled; the length is
15 inches. This fish, which is quite as well known as the Black
Pilot, is a North American species, of which only one example has
appeared in our seas. That was found six miles off Penzance im-
prisoned in a packing case of which only one of the boards of the
lid was missing, so that the fish had got in and could not get out,
the result being that it drifted across the Atlantic into the British
Paralepis. Plate xxiv. SCOPELIDJE.
1 86 coregonoides, Colour, silver and lilac, darker on abdomen.
This is a small straggler from the Atlantic and Mediterranean.
The head and body are long and compressed, the eyes large, the
cleft of the mouth very wide. The dorsal is short and placed well
back, though there is a small adipose fin ; the ventrals are below the
dorsal, and the anal extends to the tail.
Pelamys. Plate vi. SCOMBRID&.
42. sarda, BELTED BONITO. Two series of bands are broad
and vertical, the other narrow and oblique.
There are two dorsals, the first with 22 spines, the second with 2
spines and 13 or 14 rays, succeeded by 8 or 9 finlets ; the anal has 2
spines and 13 rays, behind which are 7 finlets ; the caudal has
26 rays, the pectorals 25 ; the ventrals have a spine and 5 rays. There
is a corslet extending beyond the pectorals. The lateral line is undu-
lated. The colour is dark blue above, with broad vertical bands
crossed by a series of narrow bands that slope from the back down-
122 GENERA AND SPECIES.
wards and forwards. The second dorsal and anal are yellowish, the
caudal and pectorals blackish. In length this fish reaches 36 inches,
but the few British specimens have been smaller. It is a surface-
feeder, migrating in shoals, and leaping into the air after its prey.
Perca. Plate i. PERCIDJE.
i, fluviatilis, PERCH. Body with vertical bands ; large spinous dorsal.
The Perch has two dorsal fins, the first with 14 or 15 strong
spines, the second with one or two very short spines and 13 or 14
rays ; in the anal are 2 spines and 8 or 9 rays, in the caudal 18 rays,
in the pectorals 14, in the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. In the
lateral line there are from 55 to 60 scales. There are villiform
teeth on the jaws, vomer, and palatines, and none on the tongue. The
mouth extends to the middle of the eye ; the gill cover has a strong,
flat spine, and the edges of the opercles are serrated. The colour
is olive green above, with dark vertical bands, and the underparts are
yellowish, tinged with pink. The first dorsal is grey, with one or two
black spots; the eyes are a rich yellow. The Perch is 5 inches long
when two years old, and when old attains a length of 29 inches.
Though occasionally found In brackish and even salt water, the
Perch is a fresh- water fish, mainly found in ponds and rivers where
the current is slow, keeping, as a rule, near the bank, and in deep
holes, but in the breeding season betaking itself to shallow parts
where the stream runs fairly fast. It feeds on insects, crustaceans,
worms, and small fishes, and is best known when under a foot in
length. It breeds in its third year, and in the breeding season
becomes very bright in colour, with a good deal of red about
Peristethus. Plate viii. DACTYLOPTERIDJE.
59. cataphraclum, ARMED GURNARD. Snout bifid.
There are two dorsals ; the first with 7 long spines, the second
with a spine and 18 or 19 rays. In the anal there are from 18 to 21
rays, in the caudal n, in the pectorals 12, with 2 free appendages,
and in the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The spines of the first dorsal
extend some distance above the membrane. The lateral line has 29
or 30 scales; the scales are large and bony; there are three angular
scales at the base of the caudal, and 3 bony plates between the
throat and the anal fin. Along the body are 4 spiny ridges, and
the body is octagonal in shape. The snout is long and spiny, and
divides into two projections ; there are spines on the gill covers,
barbules along the mouth, and one under the chin. In colour this
fish is scarlet above and yellow below, the dorsals and anal being
crimson. The few that have been caught in British waters have not
exceeded a foot in length, but it grows to double that size in the
GENERA AND SPECIES. 123
Phycis. Plate xvii. GADIDJE.
134. blennoides, GREATER FORKBEARD. Ventrals represented by a
long, forked filament.
The first dorsal has 9 or 10 rays, the second from 54 to 62, the anal
has from 54 to 58, the caudal 22, the pectorals 15, and the ventrals
only the filament just mentioned. The first dorsal is triangular, and
nearly joins the long, level second, which does not quite join the
caudal. The lateral line has ji2 scales. The colour is brownish
grey, paler on the sides, and whitish along the abdomen ; the length
does not exceed 2 feet. It is a ground feeder, living among rocks
in deep water.
Pleuronectes. Plates xx. and xxi. PLEURONECTID&.
157. platessa, PLAICE. With orange spots ; tubercles on head.
158. mtcrccephalus, LEMON SOLE. With dark spots ; head small ;
159. cynoglossus, WITCH. Unspotted ; lateral line straight.
160. limanda, DAB. Lateral line curved over pectorals ; no
tubercles along bases of fins or along lateral line.
161. flesus, FLOUNDER. Tubercles along bases of fins and at
beginning of lateral line.
The Plaice has from 66 to 77 rays in the dorsal, 50 to 57 in the
anal, 17 or 18 in the caudal, 10 or n in the pectorals, and 6 in the
ventrals. There is a short spine in front of the anal. The eyes are
on the right side ; the mouth is at the end of trTe snout ; the teeth
are larger on the blind side; the scales are small, cycloid, and
imbedded. There are bony tubercles on the head behind the eyes.
The curve in the lateral line is very slight. The lower jaw is the
longer ; the front teeth are broad and flat, and end in straight edges,
those in the throat are rounded. The colour is brown, the orange
spots being numerous and distinct. In shape this fish is oval, and
in length it occasionally reaches 36 inches. It feeds mainly on
molluscs, preferring those with two shells, but it also eats worms
and crustaceans, though not many. It lives on sandy, muddy ground,
in which it can hide.
The Lemon Sole is perhaps more definitely known as the Smear
Dab, " Lemon Sole " being a market term applied to several fishes.
It has from 85 to 93 rays in its dorsal, 70 to 76 in its anal, 15 in its
caudal, 10 in its pectorals, and 5 or 6 in its ventrals. The anal has
no spine in front. The eyes are on the right side, the mouth is at
the end of the snout, the teeth are larger on the blind side, and are
conical and blunt. The mouth and head are small. The lateral line
is very slightly curved over the pectorals, and has 130 scales. The
shape is a long regular oval ; the colour a yellowish brown, marbled
with round and oval blotches. In length this fish reaches 17 inches.
Its names are many ; it is not only the Smear Dab, but the Merry
Sole, the Lemon Dab, the Smooth Dab, and the Sand Fleuk, and
from Yarmouth, Lowestoft and Grimsby is the chief species invoiced
as Lemon Sole.
J24 GENERA AND SPECIES.
The Witch has from 102 to 115 rays in the dorsal, 86 to 100 in
the anal, 18 in the caudal, 10 to 12 in the pectorals, and 5 or 6 in the
ventrals. The eyes are on the right side ; the mouth is at the end
of the snout ; the teeth are larger on the blind side. The eye is
large ; the body is long, oval, and thin. The bones of the head are
pitted ori the blind side. In the lateral line there are 115 scales; it
does not curve over the pectorals, and it gives off a dorsal branch.
The scales are cycloid on the blind side, and ctenoid on the upper
side. In colour this fish is plain pale brown above and smoky
white below. It reaches 17 inches in length.
The Dab has from 65 to 78 rays in the dorsal, 50 to 62 in the
anal, 14 in the caudal, 10 or n in the pectorals, 6 in the ventrals.
There is a spine in front of the anal. The eyes are on the right
side ; the mouth is at the end of the snout ; the teeth are lanceolate,
and larger on the blind side. The lateral line has 86 to 96 scales ;
it makes a rounded curve above the pectorals. The scales are spiny,
and the skin is consequently rough ; the ridge behind the eyes is
smooth. The colour is brown, with or without dark spots. The
extreme length is 15 inches. This fish lives in sandy localities in
rather shallow water ; it feeds principally on crustaceans.
The Flounder has from 60 to 62 rays in the dorsal, 39 to 45 in
the anal, 14 in the caudal, 10 in the pectorals, and 6 in the ventrals.
The dorsal and anal are highest in the hinder half, where they rise to
an angle, instead of being gently curved like those of the foregoing
species. There are 85 scales in the lateral line. The eyes are not
always on the right side ; the mouth is at the end of the snout ; the
teeth are conical, and larger on the blind side. There is a row of
spiny tubercles along the bases of the dorsal and ventral, and a
group of similar tubercles along the beginning of the lateral line. In
colour the Flounder is dark brown above and white below ; in
length it reaches 9 inches. It lives in sandy or muddy places near
the coast, in estuaries and harbours, and up rivers, even in fresh
water. It feeds on shrimps and other crustaceans, on molluscs,
fishes, almost anything animal. For a flat fish it is singularly active
and enterprising, and it can climb and cling by means of its ventral
Polyprion. Plate i. PERCIDJE.
6. cemium, STONE BASS. Head ridged on top.
In the dorsal are n spines and n or 12 rays, in the anal 3 spines
and 8 or 9 rays, in the caudal 17 rays, in the pectorals 16 or 17, in
the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The dorsal spines form a regular
curve ; they are lower than the rays, which give a spatulate shape
to the hind portion of the fin, similar to that of the anal. The ridges
above the eyes form a sort of crest ; there is a prominent bony ridge
on the gill cover; the lower jaw projects. The scales are small ;
there are 120 in the lateral line. The colour is greyish yellow,
marbled or blotched; the fins are darker. The length reaches
6 feet. The Stone Bass is gregarious, and frequents deep water
where the bottom is rocky ; it also gathers round wreckage and any
timber on which there are barnacles.
GENERA AND SPECIES.
Pristiurus. Plate xxx. SCYLLIID^E.
232. melanostomus, BLACK-MOUTHED DOG-FISH. Three rows of ob-
long blotches, which are black, with a narrow
The first dorsal is close up behind the ventrals, the second dorsal
close behind the anal ; the first dorsal is the larger ; the pectorals
are the largest fins ; the anal is placed between the dorsals, and the
ventrals are midway between it and the pectorals ; the caudal is
long, with a row or two of spines arranged like a saw along its upper
edge. In colour this shark is greyish brown, blotched with black ;
the blotches in the fore part being in rows and edged with whitish.
The few British examples have been a little over 2 feet long.
Raia. Plates xxxi., xxxii., xxxiii. RAIID&.
247. circular is,
SKATE. Under surface brownish.
LONG-NOSED SKATE. Under surface grey.
FLAPPER SKATE. Under surface white, with black
WHITE SKATE. Under surface white ; no row of
spines round eye ; 3 rows of spines on tail, one
SHAGREEN RAY. Under surface white ; a row of
spines round eye ; no central row of spines on tail-
Under surface brown, with black
Under surface brown, without
CUCKOO RAY. Under surface white, generally
with a dark edging ; upper surface with a black
and yellow pater/ on each side of median line.
PAINTED RAY. Under surface white ; spines con-
fined to median line.
THORNBACK. Under surface white ; spines not
confined to median line.
The Skate has 2 dorsal fins on the tail which are fairly large and
nearly equal in size. The skin is smooth ; but there is a row of
spines down the middle of the tail, with generally a row on each
side. The males have a patch of spines on each wing, where the
females frequently have a certain roughness of the skin. The snout
is longer in the females than in the males and the eye is smaller. The
edge of the disk is undulated in front and rounded behind. The
tail is not so long as the body. The colour is brownish or greyish
above, brownish below ; the length seems to be at least 7 feet. The
Skate, like all the rays, is confined to soft sandy or muddy bottoms,
at comparatively moderate depths. None of the family has been
126 GENERA AND SPECIES.
found at a greater depth than 500 fathoms. In the wholesale fish
trade the skate is grouped with the other rays and sundries as
The Long-nosed Skate has the first dorsal larger than the other,
with no spine between them. The disk is concave in front and
almost straight behind ; the snout is very long and pointed. The
tail has a row of spines along each side, and no middle row. In
colour this species is greyish above, with spots and streaks, and
below it is greyish. It reaches 3 feet in length.
The Flapper Skate has the dorsals nearly equal in size, with a
spine between them. The tail is half as long as the body. The disk
is concave in front, convex behind. The mouth is arched. There
are usually 2 spines in front of the eye ; and there are 3 rows of
spines on the tail, the side rows being incomplete. In colour this
species is brown above and white below, the under surface being
dotted with black. The length is 26 inches.
The White Skate has the first dorsal larger than the second, and
there is a spine between them. There are 3 rows of spines on the
tail, and 3 large spines in the middle of the body. There are spines
on the under surface of the snout, and in the males there is a patch
of spines on each wing. The disk is waved in front, convex
behind, and broadest in the hinder half. The colour above is
greyish or brownish, below it is pure white. The length reaches
The Shagreen Ray has 2 dorsals on the tail, and a well-developed
caudal, all three fins being at equal distances and close together.
There is no middle row of spines on the tail, but 2 or 3 lateral rows.
There are spines on the snout, round the upper edge of the eye, and
in the middle of the back. The disk is waved in front, slightly
convex behind, and widest in the front half. The mouth is large ;
there are 64 rows of teeth in the upper jaw, and 56 in the lower. In
colour this species is yellowish brown above and white below. In
length it reaches 37 inches.
The Spotted Ray has the two dorsals of equal size, with a spine
between them. There is a spine on each shoulder, a row down the
back, 2 in front of each eye, 2 near its hinder edge, a few on the
snout, and the line down the back iseontinued along the tail, with a
row on each side of it. The male has a patch of hooked spines on
each wing. In colour, both above and below, this ray is brown with
black spots ; in length it reaches 45 inches.
The Starry Ray has two dorsals of equal size and a small caudal,
all close together. The disk is heart-shaped, widest in the lower
half, the sides forming a continuous curve. It is dotted all over
with large, curved, thorny spines on radiating bases, the largest
being at equal distances along the tail. In colour it is sandy brown
without spots ; in length it reaches 20 inches.
The Cuckoo Ray has the two dorsals of equal size, and without
an interspace. The caudal is very small. The disk is heart-shaped,
widest in the lower half, the sides forming a continuous curve.
There are many small spines. On the back is a diamond-shaped
GENERA AND SPECIES. 127
patch of spines from which runs a double row to the tail, along
which the two rows continue as four. In colour the under surface
is white, generally with a dark margin ; the upper surface is
brownish yellow, and on each wing is a roundish black blotch with
yellow spots and short streaks. In length this species attains 3
The Painted Ray has 2 dorsals, equal in size, lobed in shape, and
rather wide apart. The disk is undulated in front, rounded at the
angle, and convex behind. There is only one row of spines down
the tail, and this begins in the lower half of the back. The teeth
are flattened in the females and pointed in the males. In colour
this species is grey above, striped and blotched with white and
brown ; below it is white. In length it is about 33 inches.
The Thornback has the 2 dorsals with one or two spines between
them, and a small caudal contiguous to the second dorsal. There
are spines along the back and tail, and the surface generally is
spiny and tubercular above, and occasionally so below. The disk is
waved in front, concave behind, the greatest breadth being half
way- The mouth is curved. The colour is mottled brown with,
in some cases, a white blotch on the wings ; the under surface is
white. In length this species runs to 36 inches; it is found in
shallower water than the others, and feeds voraciously on anything
Raniceps. Plate xviii. GADIDM.
141. raminus, LESSER FORKBEARD. Head flat and fleshy; barbule
small ; first dorsal rudimentary.
The first dorsal is inconspicuous, and has but 3 rays, the second
has from 65 to 67 rays, and extends in a gentle curve almost to the
tail ; the anal has from 57 to 60 rays, the caudal 35, the pectorals 20
to 23, and the ventrals 6. The head is broad ; the mouth large, ex-
tending behind the eye ; the body bulky in front, tapering to the
round caudal. In colour it is purplish brown above, whitish below,
the lips being white. The le-ngth is a foot or less.
Regalecus. Plate xiii. TRACHYPTERID^E.
103. banksii, RIBBON FISH. Front rays of dorsal forming a tall
crest ; ventrals represented by a long spine.
The fore end of the dorsal consists of some 10 to 15 rays,
beginning over the eyes and highest in front, curving forwards and
upwards, not unlike the crest of a cockatoo, the membrane extending
no further up than the first third, and continuing at the same level
all along the back, the number of rays ranging from 226 to 290 ;
there is no anal fin, and there is no caudal ; in the small pectorals
are n rays; and each ventral is represented by a spine, which is
about a third as long as the fish. The body is long and flat, and
the back and abdomen are very slightly curved ; it is covered with
small deciduous scales and bony tubercles, and there are four ridges
above the lateral line. In colour it is silvery, with spots and streaks ;
128 GENERA AND SPECIES.
and in length it attains 16 feet. It is a deep-sea species, of which
there have been only a few British examples. From the paddle-
like tips of its ventral s it is also known as Banks's Oar-fish ;
it swims with lateral undulations.
Rhina. Plate xxxi. SQUATINID&.
237. sguatina, MONK FISH. Body flat ; tail thick ; eyes wide apart.
This ugly fish has a broad flat body, with large paired fins. The
dorsals are equal in size, and placed far back on the tail ; there is no
anal ; the caudal is well developed ; the body tapers gradually into
the tail, which is much thicker than in the rays. The eyes are
curiously wide apart, and the mouth is large, and has several rows
of sharp conical teeth. The colour varies with the ground in which
the fish hides itself. It reaches 8 feet in length, and preys on flat
fish. In appearance it somewhat resembles a monk with a cowl
over the head. Its other name of Angel-fish is derived from the
wing-like shape of its fins.
Rhombus. Plates xix. and xx. PLEURONECTIDJE.
151. maximus, TURBOT. With tubercles instead of scales.
152. leevis, BRILL. With scales and without tubercles.
The Turbot has its eyes on the left side. Its dorsal has from 61
to 72 rays, its anal 45 to 56, its caudal 15 or 16, its pectorals have
ii or 12, and its ventrals 6. The dorsal begins between the eyes,
and is highest where the body is broadest ; the anal begins midway
between the ventrals and pectorals. The lateral line curves over
the pectoral, and then becomes straight. The body is shaped like a
diamond, and has no scales, but blunt, bony tubercles. The mouth
is large and placed at the end of the snout ; the jaws and teeth are
alike on both sides. The colour above is mottled and speckled
brown, darker or lighter according to the ground on which the fish
lives ; below it is white. The average length is 17 inches ; but
specimens measuring 28 inches have been taken. It is broader in
proportion than the Brill, and, like it, feeds on other fishes.
The Brill has from 63 to 85 rays in its dorsal, 50 to 63 in its anal,
15 to 17 in its caudal, n or 12 in 'its pectorals, and 6 in its ventrals.
Its eyes and colour are on the left side. The dorsal begins in front
of the upper eye, and the first rays are fringed. The dorsal and
anal are highest in the hinder half ; the anal and ventral are not
attached to the caudal ; the pectoral on the blind side is smaller
than the other. There are 150 cycloid scales in the lateral line,
which curves over the pectoral ; there are no tubercles, hence the
smoothness recorded in its specific name. The mouth is large, and
placed at the end of the snout ; the jaws and teeth are alike on both
sides. In life the colour is speckly brown ; when dead it is dark
and without speckles. The Brill is generally about 20 inches long,
but has been known to reach 26. It is longer than the Turbot in
proportion to its width, and, like it, lives in rather shallow water.
GENERA AND SPECIES. 1 2Q
Salmo. Plates xxv. and xx vi. SALMONID^E.
Teeth on body of vomer in a single series throughout
195. salar, SALMON. Spots black, few and small. Lateral line
120 to 125.
200. levenensis, LOCH LEVEN TROUT. Spots black, many and large
on head. Lateral line 120 to 130.
202. orcadcnsis, GREY TROUT. Spots black and red and small.
Lateral line 115.
Teeth on body of vomer in one series dividing into two
196. trutta, SEA TROUT. Sides silvery.
198. eriox, BULL TROUT. Sides brownish.
Teeth on body of vomer in a double series throughout
197. albus, BLUE POLL. Head short, body long, pectorals
203. Jerox, LAKE TROUT. Head long, snout long, caudal
205. nigripinnis, HOG-BACKED TROUT. . Fins dark, pectorals long
204. stomachichus, GILLAROO TROUT. Pectorals 13 ; dorsals 15 ; fins
edged with white.
199. cambricus, SEWEN. Pectorals 13 or 14; dorsals 12 to 14; dor-
sal longer than high.
201. fario, TROUT. Pectorals 13 to 15; dorsals 13 to 15 ; dorsal
higher than long.
Teeth at head of vomer only ; teeth small ; lower jaw feeble
211. colii COLE'S CHAR. Pectorals not reaching dorsal.
209. killinensis, KILLIN CHAR. Pectorals reaching or overlapping
dorsal ; colour, dark, with light spots.
210. grayi, GRAY'S CHAR. Pectorals reaching or overlapping
dorsal ; colour, light, with orange spots.
Teeth at head of vomer only ; teeth moderate ; jaws equal in strength
206. alpinus, ALPINE CHAR. Height of body a fifth or sixth of
total length ; height of dorsal three-eighths or half
the length of the head.
207. perisii, TORGOCH. Height of body a fifth or sixth of total
length ; height of dorsal two-thirds the length of
208. willughbii, WINDERMERE CHAR. Height of body a quarter of
total length ; dorsal as long as the head without the
The Salmon, like all the genus, has an adipose dorsal fin, which
we need not again mention. The dorsal has 13 or 14 rays, the anal
n, the caudal 19, the pectorals have 13 or 14 rays, and the ventrals
9. The dorsal is rather shorter than it is high ; the ventrals are
beneath the middle of the dorsal ; the caudal is much forked in the
young, and almost square in the adult. The abdomen is more
curved than the back ; the mouth extends to the middle of the eye,
130 GENERA AND SPECIES.
or beyond it. The snout is longer in the male than in the female,
and in the breeding season the lower jaw becomes hooked, so that
the mouth cannot be completely closed. The colour is a steel blue,
with crosses and round spots above the lateral line and on the upper
half of the head, particularly in the female ; the dorsal, caudal, and
pectorals are blackish, the ventrals and anal are whitish. The male
is spotted and streaked with orange during the breeding season ; the
young, known as parr, have broad, dark bands extending from the
back down the sides. When first hatched, the Salmon is known as
an alevin ; in a few months the alevin becomes a parr, and the bands
become conspicuous. In its second or third spring the parr marks
disappear, and the head and body become silvery, preparatory to
starting for the sea. In this silvery stage the salmon is known as a
smolt. The smolt returns from the sea next year as a grilse, having
grown surprisingly. From its next sea trip it returns as a salmon.
A kelt is a salmon that has spawned ; if a male, it is often called a
kipper (from its hooked jaw) ; if a female, it is known either as a
kelt or a slat. A grilse-kelt is a salmon that has spawned in the
grilse stage. The salmon is " anadromous," that is, it lives both in
salt and fresh water. It is as much a fish of the sea as it is a fish of
the river. It ascends the rivers mainly, if not entirely, for the pur-
pose of spawning, and in summer is found close in along the coast,
gradually assembling at the mouths of the streams it intends
entering when the time comes. It would seem to be the fact that,
whenever possible, each salmon returns to the river from which it
first reached the sea. To what part of the sea they retire on their
outward migration is at present unknown. Salmon ova will not
develop in sea water ; but that the fish can be reared entirely in
fresh water has been abundantly proved by experiment, and is,
indeed, obvious from the existence of salmon in waters uncon-
nected with the sea. Nearly all the salmon that comes to market
is caught in nets in the lower reaches of the rivers, or even along
the coast in the vicinity ; the number caught by rod and line is but
a small proportion of the total. In Frank Buckland's Fish Museum
there is a cast of a Tay salmon which weighed 70 Ibs., and is 53
inches long; it is apparently the largest about which there can
be no mistake.
The other British representatives of the genus Salmo are the
trouts and chars, which differ so little in extreme examples that it
would seem there is really only one species of each. In this list is
included all between which any definite distinctions could be dis-
covered, and we leave them to be ranked as species or varieties as
opinion may dictate. It is a thorny question, and is merely men-
tioned as accounting for the unusual order in which it became
easiest to sort them out.
The Loch Leven Trout has from 12 to 14 rays in the dorsal, from
10 to 12 in the anal, 19 in the caudal, 12 to 14 in the pectorals, and
9 in the ventrals. The fins vary in shape and size. In colour it is
dark, and rather green or grey along the back, and there are small
black ocellated spots on the head and gill covers, and black spots
and crosses above the lateral line, except in the fore part, where
they extend down to the pectorals. This fish used to be confined
GENERA AND SPECIES. 13!
to Loch Leven, but it has been largely bred in the fish farms and
widely distributed in the streams, where it interbreeds with the
common trout. In the original strain its flesh is very red, and it
has been caught up to iSlbs. in weight.
The Grey Trout has 14 rays in the dorsal, 12 in the anal, 19 in
the caudal, 13 in the pectorals, and 9 in the ventrals. It has a
broad, strong maxillary, and large scales on the tail, and is peculiar
to Loch Stenness in the Orkneys. It is hardly distinguishable from
the Lake Trout, except in the number of its pyloric appendages.
The Sea Trout is one of the three or four species known as
Salmon Trout. It has from 12 to 14 rays in its dorsal, n to 13 in its
anal, 18 or 19 in its caudal, 13 or 14 in its pectorals, and 9 in its
ventrals. The ventrals are generally under the last third of the
dorsal. The lateral line has from 115 to 130 scales. The mouth
extends beyond the eye, and the body is rather long and slender.
In colour it is bluish grey, with a purple gloss on the sides, and it is
dotted with black spots and crosses over the upper body. It ranges
to 4 feet in length.
The Bull Trout, or the chief of so-called Bull Trout, for in this case,
as in others, the name is not restricted to the same fish, has fin rays
the same as those of the Sea Trout, and like it, varies so much that
the only external difference seems to be in the colour of the sides,
which are brownish instead of silvery.
The Blue Poll, otherwise the White Salmon, Whitling, or Herling
is very long in the body. It also has a similar fin formula to the
foregoing (D. 12-14; A. 11-13 5 c * 18-19; p - I3- J 4 5 v. 9). In colour it is
mainly silvery, with a few black spots.
The Lake Trout has 14 rays in its dorsal, 10 or 11 in its anal,
19 in its caudal, 13 in its pectorals, and 9 in its ventrals. It feeds
mainly on fish, hence it has large fins and large teeth. Its head is
of moderate size, but the snout is long, and in the males is hooked
in the breeding season. In colour it is generally rather dark ; in
length it reaches 31 inches.
The Hog-backed Trout has 14 rays in its dorsal, 12 in its anal,
19 in its caudal, 13 in its pectorals, and 9 in its ventrals. The head
is small, the snout rather short, and the lower jaw has not been
observed to bear a hook in the breeding season. It has not been
found over 16 inches long, but that may not be its full size. It re-
sembles No. 203 in almost every respect that has not been mentioned,
The Gillaroo Trout is found in the Irish loughs, and has the
middle coat of its stomach thickened, owing to its feeding princi-
pally on molluscs. There are no other distinctions except those
The Sewen has from 12 to 14 rays in its dorsal, n to 13 in its
anal, 18 or 19 in its caudal, 13 or 14 in its pectorals, and 9 in its
ventrals. It is rather long in the body. The lower jaw does not
always become hooked in the breeding season, when the colour,
which is bluish or greenish grey, becomes a sort of brownish orange
in the males. There are always a few black crosses above the lateral
132 GENERA AND SPECIES.
The Trout has from 12 to 15 rays in the dorsal, 10 to 12 in the
anal, 19 in the caudal, 13 to 15 in the pectorals, and 9 in the
ventrals. The fins vary in size and proportion according to the
surroundings, though in all cases the dorsal seems to be higher than
it is long. As a rule, the swifter the stream the larger the fins and the
slenderer the body. The colour also varies, being darker in deeper
water; in general it is brown, more or less silvery below and on the
sides, and it is marked with dark spots all over the upper part, with
red ones along the lateral line, and close above and below it, the
spots being usually ringed with white. In length the Trout reaches
28 inches. It goes to sea every year when it can, and is brightest
in colour when it returns. The typical Trout seems to be able to
swim in any clear running stream, no matter how shallow it may
be ; but deep water is evidently sought by its allies, some of whom
find it in lakes and some in estuaries and the sea.
The Chars are even more difficult of short description. They are
all found in lakes formed directly by glacial action, or indirectly by
the deposition of glacial moraines ; and they all become red on the
underparts during the breeding season. Of the six on our list,
Cole's Char has 14 rays in the dorsal, 12 in the anal, 19 in the caudal,
13 in the pectorals, and 9 in the ventrals. In the lateral line are
from 125 to 128 scales. The pectorals are short, and the ventrals
and anal are edged in front with white.
The Killin Char has 14 rays in the dorsal, 13 in the anal, 19 in
caudal, 13 in the pectorals, and 9 in the ventrals. The dorsal,
pectorals, and ventrals are the largest among the chars. There are
135 scales in the lateral line. In colour this char is dark, with a few
light spots on the sides. In length it is about 12 inches. It is named
from Loch Killin, in Inverness-shire, to which it is peculiar.
Gray's Char has 13 or 14 rays in the dorsal, 12 in the anal, 21 in
the caudal, 13 or 14 in the pectorals, and 9 in the ventrals. The
dorsal begins nearer -the snout than in the other varieties, and the
scales are more conspicuous. There are from 125 to 140 scales in
the lateral line.
The Alpine Char has from 12 to 14 rays in the dorsal, n to 13 in
the anal, 19 to 21 in the caudal, 12 to 14 in the pectorals, and 9 or
10 in the ventrals. The dorsal begins midway between the snout
and the caudal. There are from 125 to 145 scales in its lateral line.
In colour it has a purplish tinge above. Like all the chars it is a
deep-water species, rising to the surface only when the weather is
The Torgoch has 12 or 13 rays in its dorsal, n or 12 in its anal,
21 in its caudal, 12 in its pectorals, and 9 in its ventrals. In the
lateral line are from 125 to 135 scales. It is purplish in colour
above, passing into yellow and red, and has many red spots on the
back and sides.
The Windermere Char has 12 or 13 rays in the dorsal, n or 12
in the anal, 19 in the caudal, 13 or 14 in the pectorals, and 9 or 10
in the ventrals. There are 118 to 128 scales in the lateral line. The
GENERA AND SPECIES. 133
base of the pectorals is not overlapped by the gill covers ; the
nostrils are close in front of the eye, the hinder being the larger, and
there being no flap between them. In colour this char is green
above, and the red underparts are minutely dotted with black.
Schedophilus. Plate v. CORYPH&NIDAL.
34. medusophagns, Head greenish yellow ; body greenish, with dark
olive stripes and spots more or less united.
There are 3 spines and from 45 to 50 rays in the dorsal, 2 spines and
from 27 to 29 rays in the anal, 21 in the caudal. 18 in the pectorals,
and a spine and 5 rays in the ventrals. The scales are cycloid and
small ; the gill openings are large. This is a Mediterranean species,
of which only two have been caught in British waters.
Sciaena. Plate iii SCI&NID&.
20. aquila, SHADOW FISH. Lateral line continued through the caudal
The first dorsal has 9 or 10 spines, the second one spine and
from 26 to 29 rays ; the anal has 2 spines and 7 rays, the caudal 15
rays, the pectorals have 17, the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The
first dorsal, of which the third and fourth spines are the longest, is
united at its base to the second dorsal, the tip of the pectorals being
just below the junction. In the lateral line are from 52 to 55 scales ;
it curves above the pectoral, and then runs straight along to the
outer edge of the tail, which is either rounded or truncated. The
scales are ctenoid and large, and in oblique rows. The mouth is
horizontal, and extends beyond the middle of the eye ; the stronger
teeth are in the upper jaw; there are 9 on the vomer, palatines, or
tongue. In colour this species is grey, darker on the back, with a
grey blotch on the spiny gill-covers, the caudal being grey and the
other fins red. It ranges up to 6 feet in length. It is called the
Shadow Fish, from its passing like a shadow through the
water ; sometimes it is known as the Meagre, though it is
anything but meagre, being, on the contrary, particularly robust,
active, and audacious. From it originated the myth of the songs of
the sirens, for under water it bellows, and buzzes, and purrs, and
whistles. It can be heard 20 fathoms down, and its whereabouts
thereby known, so that it has been netted in shoals ; for it is gre-
garious, and rather sought after as food, though not in so much
esteem now as in the days of ancient Rome.
Scomber. Plate vi. SCOMBRIDJE.
36. vernalis, MACKEREL. Back with bands ; abdomen without spots.
37. punctatus, SPECKLED MACKEREL. Back with small spots or thin
streaks ; abdomen without spots.
38. colias, SPANISH MACKEREL. Back with bands; abdomen
The Mackerel has from n to 14 spines in its first dorsal, a spine
and 10 or n rays in the second dorsal, and behind it are 5 finlets.
The anal has a spine and 1 1 rays ; before it is an isolated spine, and
134 GENERA AND SPECIES.
behind it are 5 finlets. In the caudal there are 19 rays, in the
pectorals 17, in the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The caudal is
forked, and there are two faint keels along it on each side. The
lateral line is nearly straight; the scales are small. The mouth
extends to the middle of the eye ; the eyes have broad, fleshy, up-
right lids. In colour the Mackerel is green, shot with blue, the
sides being silvery and iridescent ; there is a yellow patch behind
the eye ; the bands are waved and vertical, and there is a dark
stripe below the lateral line. In length it ranges from 14 to 16
inches. It is gregarious and a surface feeder, and comes into our
shallows from the deep sea in pursuit of the fry of the other gregari-
ous fishes on which it mainly feeds.
The Speckled Mackerel has 12 spines in the first dorsal, and a
spine and 10 rays in the second, behind which are 5 or 6 finlets. In
the anal there are a spine and n rays, with a separate spine in front,
and 5 or 6 finlets behind ; in the caudal there are 19 rays, in the
pectorals 17, in the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. In colour the only
difference is that the back is spotted instead of being banded, the
spots being numerous, round, and small. This fish is never found
by itself, but arrives with the summer shoals of the common
Mackerel, of which it seems to be a variety.
The Spanish Mackerel has 7 spines in its first dorsal, a spine and
12 rays in its second dorsal, and behind this are 5 or 6 finlets. In
the anal there is a spine and n rays, with a detached spine in front,
and 5 or 6 finlets behind ; in the caudal there are 21 rays, in the
pectorals 21, in the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The lateral line is
rather irregular; the scales near the pectorals form a sort of corslet.
The eye is larger than in the other species. The colour is dark blue
on the back, with wavy bars, and a row of dark spots from the pec-
torals to the caudal ; the dark colour extends below the lateral line ;
the sides and abdomen are speckled and spotted. Finally, it differs
from the other mackerel in having an air bladder, they having none.
It comes in shoals, but is not very frequent. It reaches to about 16
inches in length.
Scombresox. Plate xi. SCOMBRESOCID&.
88. saurus, SKIPPER. Jaws lengthened into a beak ; finlets in front of
The dorsal has from 10 to 12 rays, with 5 or 6 finlets behind it ;
the anal has from 12 to 13 rays, with 6 or 7 finlets behind it. The
caudal has 14 rays, the pectorals 12 or 13, the ventrals 6. The dorsal
is near the tail, the fin of which is deeply forked. A row of keeled
scales runs from the gills to the tail. There are no teeth except the
small ones in the jaws ; the lower jaw is the longer. The back is blue,
the sides silvery; the dorsal is blackish, the anal yellowish. This is
a near ally of the Flying-fish. Migratory in shoals, it is found further
from land than the Gar-fish, and further inland up rivers when it visits
the coast. It is a surface swimmer, frequently leaping into the air as
it follows the Pilchards on which it preys, and at times gliding along
the top of the water by a mere touch of the tips of the pectorals and
lower fins. It reaches 18 inches in length.
GENERA AND SPECIES. 135
Scyllium. Plates xxix. and xxx. SCYLLIID&.
230. canicula, ROUGH HOUND. Anal ends under space between
231. catulus, NURSE HOUND. Anal ends under middle of second
The Rough Hound has the first dorsal in the middle of the back,
nearly half way between the ventrals and anal. The ventrals are
wide apart ; in the male their inner edges are united nearly all along,
but in the female for only two-thirds of their length. The nostrils
are nearer to mouth than to end of snout ; the nasal flap is single.
The colour is greyish or yellowish red, with blotches and spots ; the
length reaches 42 inches. This shark feeds on fishes and molluscs,
and keeps mainly to the bottom in sandy ground. When caught it
turns its tail in a half coil round the object that holds it, and uses
its rough skin as a rasp. Its egg-case is rather slender, with
slender arms and filaments.
The Nurse Hound has the dorsal farther back; the ventrals are
close together, and the nasal flap is double. The colour is a brownish
or reddish grey, with large spots arid blotches ; the length reaches 5
feet. This is a deeper-water species than the other, and more frequent
in rocky ground. Its egg-case is stouter, with broader, stronger
arms and filaments.
Sebastes. Plate iii. SCORP&NIDJE
19. norvegicus, BERGYLT. Body and fins bright orange red.
The dorsal is in two distinctly curved portions, the first with 15
spines, the second with 15 rays. In the anal are three spines and 8
or 9 rays, in the caudal 13 rays, in the pectorals 20, in the ventrals
one spine and 5 rays. The caudal is cut square. The gill covers
are spiny ; the lower jaw is the longer ; the mouth extends to the
middle of the eye, or beyond. This is a rare fish, reaching 4 feet in
length, frequenting rocky ground in deep water, feeding on crusta-
ceans and flat fishes. It is stated to be viviparous. Its colour
makes it easy of identification.
Selache. Plate xxix. LAMNID&.
221. maxima, BASKING SHARK. Snout porous and projecting like a
This large shark is of large girth. The second dorsal is small, but
larger than the anal, the first dorsal is halfway between the pectorals
and ventrals. There is a pit at the base of the caudal, and the tail
is keeled. The teeth are in 4 or 6 rows, small and conical, and have
smooth edges. The gill-slits are long and of almost equal length. In
colour it is dark brown or blue above, lighter below, the long snout,
which begins behind the eye, and projects for some distance beyond
the upper lip, being of a red tint on its upper half. The specimen at
South Kensington is 29 feet 10 inches long. It is said to feed on
seaweed and other soft stuff, including eggs ; in fact it is mainly a
vegetarian shark, and looks as though it did well on its diet.
136 GENERA AND SPECIES.
Serranus. Plate i. PERCID&.
4. cabrilla, COMBER. Orange, with several bluish stripes.
5. gigas, DUSKY PERCH. Reddish brown, without stripes.
The Comber has 10 spines and 14 rays in its dorsal, 3 spines and
7 or 8 rays in its anal, 15 rays in its caudal, 15 in its pectorals, and a
spine and 5 rays in its ventrals. The dorsal rays are higher than the
spines, the first being about double as high as the tenth spine. In the
lateral line there are from 80 to go scales. The hinder edge of the
prasoperculum is serrated ; the male has 2 spines on the gill cover,
the female only one. The mouth extends to the middle of the eye,
the tongue is small and free, the teeth in both jaws are large in the
outer row, and the lower jaw is the longer. In colour this sea perch
is an orange yellow, striped longitudinally with more or less greyish-
blue, the fins being yellowish, some of them having blue spots. In
length it reaches about a foot. It feeds on fishes and other animals
of the sea, is never found in shoals, and frequents rocky ground in
The Dusky Perch has n spines and 15 or 16 rays in its dorsal, 3
spines and 8 or 9 rays in its anal, 17 rays in its caudal, 16 or 17 rays
in its pectorals, and a spine and 5 rays in its ventrals. The spinous
part of the dorsal is fairly level, and the rayed portion is not much
higher, and only slightly curved. In the lateral line there are from
120 to 130 scales. The prasoperculum is serrated. The lower jaw is
the longer. In colour this fish is reddish brown, with no stripes
beyond two faint streaks on the gill-covers. It reaches a yard or
more in length, and is very rare in British waters.
Siphonostoma. Plate xv. SYNGNATHID&.
114. typhle, BROAD-NOSED PIPE-FISH. Body ridged, upper caudal
ridge continuous with lateral ridge, dorsal ridge extending
only to dorsal fin.
In the dorsal there are from 38 to 46 rays ; the anal is absent ; in the
caudal there are 9 or 10 rays, in the pectorals 15, in the ventrals 4.
The dorsal begins about half way; it stands on 10 or 12 rings, and
is longer than the snout. The snout is compressed, and the mouth
almost upright. The lateral line joins the upper caudal ridge.
From the head to the vent there are from 17 to 19 plates, thence to
the tail there are from 36 to 42. The male is broader in the abdomen
than the female, owing to the pouch in which the ova are carried.
In colour this Pipe-fish is dark brown, with light spots on the under
parts. In length it is about 13 inches.
Solea. Plate xxi. PLEURONECTID&.
162. vulgaris, SOLE. Nostrils alike. Pectorals on both sides, 7 ;
caudal 16. Brown, with blotches in rows.
163. lascaris, SAND SOLE. Nostrils not alike. Pectorals on both
sides, 10; caudal 15. Orange, dotted and blotched.
164. variegata, THICKBACK. Pectorals 4 or 5 on one side, 2 or 3 on
the other ; caudal 15. Chestnut brown, with 5 dark
GENERA AND SPECIES. 137
165. lutea, SOLENETTE. Pectorals 5 on one side, 3 on the other ;
caudal 19. Stone grey, with blotches ; fins wkh
occasional black rays.
This genus has the eyes on the right-hand side. The Sole has
from 73 to 97 rays in the dorsal, 61 to 74 in the anal, 16 in the
caudal, 7 in the pectorals, and 5 or 6 in the ventrals. The dorsal
begins on the snout in front of the eyes ; the pectoral on the upper
side has a black spot at its outer end. The snout projects; the
front edge of the head is curved ; the jaws are larger on the lower
side ; the teeth are small, and only present on the blind side. There
are 160 scales in the lateral line, which is straight. The colour is
brown, with rows of black blotches along the bases of the fins and
the middle of the dark side. The length may be as much as 18
inches, but few large soles are taken in these days. The Sole is a
night-feeding fish, frequenting sandy or gravelly ground in compara-
tively shallow water, feeding mostly on molluscs, crustaceans, and
The Sand Sole, otherwise the French Sole, and perhaps the
original Lemon Sole, has from 70 to 89 rays in its dorsal, 67 to 71 in
its anal, 15 in its caudal, 10 in its pectorals, and 5 in its ventrals.
The dorsal begins at the end of the snout. The dorsal and anal are
joined by a membrane to the caudal. The nostril on the lower side
is enlarged and fringed on its outer edge. There are from 130 to
140 scales in the lateral line. The scales are larger than in the
common sole. The colour is yellowish brown, with black spots and
gold specks. The length does not exceed 14 inches. It frequents
sandy ground in rather deeper water than No. 162, from which it
differs in the points mentioned, and also in having smaller eyes, the
upper eye nearer the snout, and the mouth further under.
Ths Thickback has from 65 to 74 rays in the dorsal, 55 to 58
in the anal, and 15 in the caudal ; in the right pectoral there are
4 or 5 rays, in the left only 2 or 3, and in the ventrals there are 5.
The dorsal and anal do not reach the base of the tail. The pec-
torals are very small, the left being almost rudimentary. The
mouth is nearer the snout than in Nos. 162 and 163, and is straighter.
The lateral line has from 85 to 90 scales, and is nearly straight.
The colour is reddish, with brown bands across, which become
black as they run on to the fins. In length this species does not
exceed 9 inches.
The Solenette is never more than 5 inches long. It has from 65
to 73 rays in its dorsal, 50 to 63 in its anal, 19 in its caudal, 5 in its
right pectoral, 3 in its left pectoral, and 5 in its ventrals. The dorsal
and anal have a few scattered black rays. The scales are rather
large ; there are 72 in the lateral line. In colour it is generally pale
greyish yellow, with rounded spots. It is not used as food.
Syngnathus. Plate xv. SYNGNATHID&
115. acus, GREATER PIPE-FISH. Caudal ridge continuous with dorsal
The dorsal stands upon 10 or 1 1 rings, about halfway along the
back. It has from 40 to 44 rays ; there is no anal fin ; the caudal
has from 3 to 10 rays, the pectorals have 13, and the ventrals 3.
138 GENERA AND SPECIES.
There is a ridge along the top of the snout which is joined by another
over the eye. The osseous plates number 19 or 20 to the vent, and
from 44 to 46 beyond. In the males the dorsal is higher and the
abdomen broader than in the females. There are lines of spots on
the dorsal, and a black spot at the base of the first ray. The colour
is brownish, with dark broad bands ; the length reaches 16 inches.
This pipe-fish is generally found in deep water, but has been taken
in shallows among rocks and weeds. It can swim in almost any
position, and occasionally skims over the water in duck-and-drake
Tetrodon. Plate xv. DIODONTID&.
122. lagocephalus, GLOBE FISH. Gullet dilatable into a spherical
The Globe Fish has from 12 to 14 rays in its dorsal, 12 to 14 in its
anal, 12 in its caudal, 14 or 15 in its pectorals, and it has no ventrals.
The dorsal and anal are placed more than halfway towards the tail.
The eyes are well back, the nostrils distinct, the beak divided by a
suture. In colour it is blue above, the underparts being silvery and
armed with fixed spines, each having four roots. It reaches about
22 inches in length.
Thymallus. Plate xxvii. SALMONIDSE
218. vulgaris, GRAYLING. Scales in regular rows; dorsal long and
The Grayling has from 20 to 24 rays in the first dorsal, the second
dorsal is adipose, there are from n to 14 rays in the anal, 21 in the
caudal, 15 or 16 in the pectorals, and 10 or n in the ventrals. The
ventrals are under the middle of the dorsal, and small, the anal is
under the adipose dorsal. The scales in the lateral line number
from 75 to 85. The back is more curved than the abdomen ; the
shape is slender and graceful; the upper jaw is the longer. The
head is bluish, the back golden, with parallel grey lines along the
side ; the fins are banded and spotted with purple. In length the
Grayling reaches about 16 inches. It is generally gregarious and
local in occurrence, confined to clear streams running over sand and
gravel, with many pools and shallows. It swims deeper than the
Trout, and feeds mainly on molluscs and crustaceans.
Thynnus. Plate vi. SCOMBRIDJS.
41. pelamys, BONITO. Parallel stripes along the sides following the
curve of the abdomen.
The first dorsal has from 13 to 15 spines, the second a spine and
12 or 13 rays, behind it are 8 finlets ; the anal has 2 spines and 12
rays, behind it are 7 finlets; the caudal has 35 rays, the pec-
torals have 27 rays, the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. Both dorsals
are high, and pointed in front, the first spine of the first dorsal being
twice the length of the highest ray of the second dorsal ; the pectoral
is in a groove. The lateral line is curved throughout ; there is a
GENERA AND SPECIES. 139
corslet, and no other scales. The lower jaw projects, and on the
jaws is a single row of teeth. In colour the Bonito is bluish above,
silvery below, and is striped as above stated, the stripes being dark-
blue . The few British examples have been from 2 to nearly 3
Tinea. Plate xxiii. CYPRINID^E.
179. vulgaris, TENCH. Scales small ; skin thick and slimy.
The Tench has 12 or 13 rays in its dorsal, 9 or 10 in its anal, 17
in its caudal, 17 in its pectorals, and 9 or 10 in its ventrals. The
pectorals, ventrals, anal, and caudal are at equal intervals ; the dorsal
is a little behind the ventrals, and half-way between the snout and
the base of the caudal. The lateral line curves downwards from
above the gill-cover, and has from go to 115 scales. The scales are
small and embedded in the skin, which is covered with mucus. The
fins are blackish, the body is generally blackish green or grey, but in
one variety it is yellow, and in another it is spotted. The length,
as a rule, reaches 18 inches, but one of 33 inches is on record. The
Tench feeds on weeds, worms, and insects, and thrives where
weeds are plentiful, preferably in still v/aters and sluggish rivers that
are not particularly clean. As a rule it swims near the bottom, but
in summer it rises to the surface and shelters among the weeds. In
winter it buries itself in the mud like the Carp
Torpedo. Plate xxxiii. TORPEDINID&.
248. nobiliana, TORPEDO. Greyish, with or without a few blotches.
249. mannomta, MARBLED TORPEDO. Mottled or spotted
The Torpedo has the front edge of the disk straight, and the
wings almost semi-circular. The two dorsals are close together, the
first being as large again as the second ; they are placed above the
tip of the ventrals, and not on the tail ; the caudal is almost as large
as the ventrals put together. The skin is smooth, there being neither
spines nor tubercles. The mouth is arched. The colour is gener-
ally plain purplish grey, but it varies, and occasionally is faintly
blotched. The length reaches 4 feet. It is a coast fish, living in
sandy and muddy localities. The electrical organ is between the
head and the pectorals.
The Marbled Torpedo seems to be only a variety of smaller size
and with rather larger veutrals. The few British examples have not
exceeded 10 inches in length. It varies much in colour, but is
invariably mottled or marbled and spotted.
Trachinus. Plate vii. TRACHINID&.
45. draco, GREATER WEEVER. Two spines over the eye.
46. vipera, VIPER WEEVER. No spines over the eye.
The Greater Weever, otherwise the Spitalfields Weaver, from,
its being sold to the foreign Jews in Whitechapel, has 5 or 6 spines-
in its first dorsal, 29 to 31 rays in its second dorsal, 31 in its anal, 12-
in its caudal, 16 in its pectorals, and a spine and 5 rays in its ven-
140 GENERA AND SPECIES.
trals. The first dorsal is not unlike a quadrant in shape, the second
is lower and parallel to the back for the greater part of its length ;
both dorsals are in a groove ; the anal is lorrger than the second
dorsal. The lateral line runs along the upper half of the body and
has 78 scales ; the scales are cycloid and in oblique lines. The mouth
is oblique, and extends to behind the eye< In shape the body is
long and slender. There are 2 small spines over the eye, 4 on the
praeoperculum, and a long one on the operculum, with loose skin
extending nearly to its point. The colour is greyish or yellowish,
the head being spotted or streaked. The length is as much as 17
inches. It is found on sandy ground, occasionally between the tide
marks, and can give a painful wound with its long spine, which it
seems always anxious to use.
The Viper Weever is even more active and venomous. It has
6 spines in its first dorsal, and from 21 to 24 rays in the second ; in
the anal it has 25 or 26 rays, in the caudal 12, in the pectorals 14, in
the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The fins are similar in shape to
those of the larger species. The mouth extends beyond the eye,
and there is a row of papillae along the upper edge of the lower lip.
There are no spines over the eye, but there are two below the angle
of the praeoperculum, and a long, straight spine on the operculum. The
colour is brownish with grey streaks along the back and yellowish
underparts ; the first dorsal is black, with thin white lines. In length
it does not exceed 6 inches. Like the other, it feeds on small fry
and almost anything animal, and it is of the same habits and
Trachypterus. Plate xiii. TRACHYPTERID&.
102. arcticus, DEAL-FISH. Caudal fin at a sharp angle as if dis-
The Deal-fish is known by its tail, which looks as though it had
been broken off and stuck on again in the wrong position. In the
long dorsal there are from 158 to 172 rays ; there is no anal ; the
caudal has 7 or 8 rays; the pectorals have from 5 to n, and the
ventrals 6. The lateral line consists of spiny, oval plates, increasing
in size towards the tail ; it is nearly straight. The back and abdo-
men are almost parallel, curving towards each other just at the ends,
and in shape the fish resembles the deal board from which it
received its name. It is silvery in colour, has red fins, swims on the
slant, is 7 feet or more in length, and is an Arctic species of rare
occurrence in British waters.
Trichiurus. Plate iii. TRICH1 U RID IE.
22. Upturns, HAIRTAIL. No fins beyond a long dorsal and small
The Hairtail has 135 or 136 rays in its dorsal fin, and n in its
pectorals. It is a long, thin, ribbon-like fish, tapering to a point,
the dorsal beginning over the gill-covers and extending to the very
tip of the finless tail. The lateral line runs along the lower third of
GENERA AND SPECIES. 141
the body ; and there are no scales. In colour this rare fish is
silvery, and in length it does not exceed 30 inches. It straggles here
from the tropics, and made its appearance on the British list by
being left by the tide on a sandy shore.
Trigla. Plates vii. and viii. COTTID&.
52. lineatu, STREAKED GURNARD. Lateral ridges that slope
forwards from back to abdomen ; lateral line with
serrated spines. Colour red above, white below.
53. cuculus, RED GURNARD. Spiny ridge along base of dorsals ;
lateral line with spineless plates. Colour red ; fins
54. hirundo, SAPPHIRINE GURNARD. Spines along base of dorsals ;
lateral line unarmed. Colour brownish red ; pectorals
large and blue.
55. gnrnardus, GREY GURNARD. Colour grey with or without white
56. l>ra, PIPER. Two flat triangular plates over the snout,
giving it the appearance of being divided.
57. obscura, LANTHORN GURNARD. Broad silvery stripe along the
side marking oft" the red above from the white below.
The Streaked Gurnard has from 9 to n spines in the first dorsal,
16 or 17 rays in the second, 16 rays in the anal, 12 in the caudal, 10
or ii in the pectorals, and a spine and 5 rays in the ventrals. At
the base of the pectorals it has three filaments, like the other species
of the genus. The lateral line has 66 toothed spines, being half the
number of the row of scales above it. The scales along the bases of
the dorsals are keeled. Down each side is a series of narrow, parallel
ridges that slope slightly forwards. The sides are banded with red ;
the dorsals and caudal are reddish brown, spotted and blotched, and
have red edges ; the pectorals are red, green, and blue. The length
reaches 14 inches. This fish lives near the ground, and feeds on fish
and crustaceans. Like our other gurnards it erects its dorsals when
touched, and grunts. *' These sounds," says Cunningham, " are pro-
duced in the air-bladder. That organ is entirely closed, and its walls
contain well- developed muscles, which, by their contraction, drive
the air from one part of the bladder to another. The air-bladder
consists of three portions, a larger central chamber and a smaller
chamber on each side, communicating with the central chamber at
the front end. At the hinder portion of the central chamber there
is a partition running in a slanting direction across it, and in the
middle of this partition there is a round opening. The air is pressed
to and fro through this opening, and so the sound is produced."
The Red Gurnard has 8 or 9 spines in the first dorsal, 18 rays
in the second, 16 or 17 rays in the anal, 13 in the caudal, 10 in the
pectorals, and a spine and 5 rays in the ventrals. In the lateral
line are from 73 to 76 plates, which are higher than they are wide,
and have no spines. This fish is rose-coloured, the three filaments
being red with a yellow tinge. In length it reaches 18 inches. In
habits it resembles the Streaked Gurnard, and makes a similar noise
in a similar way.
142 GEXERA AND SPECIES
The Sapphirine Gurnard has 9 spines in the first dorsal, 16 or
17 rays in the second, 15 or 16 rays in the anal, 12 in the caudal, 10
in the pectorals, and a spine and 5 rays in the ventrals. The lateral
line is without spines, but along the base of the dorsals is a row of
about 25 spiny plates. In colour it is a brownish red, the pectorals
having a good deal of blue in them, the dorsal being reddish, the
caudal purplish, and the filaments red. It is 24 inches long, and
lives near the bottom in water of moderate depth, sometimes rising
to the surface. It grunts like the other gurnards.
The Grey Gurnard has 8 or 9 spines in the first dorsal, 19 rays
in the second, 18 or 19 rays in the anal, 15 in the caudal, 10 in the
pectorals, and a spine and 5 rays in the ventrals. In the lateral line
are from 73 to 76 scales, armed with short spines. In colour it is
slaty grey, generally with white spots or lines ; below it is white. Its
extreme length seems to be about 24 inches. It is found in shoals,
keeping to the bottom as a rule, but frequently swimming close to
the surface and grunting with satisfaction. It croons as it is taken
from the water.
The Piper has 9 or 10 spines in its first dorsal, 16 or 17
rays in the second, 16 rays in the anal, 12 in the caudal, 10 in the
pectorals, and a spine and 5 rays in the ventrals. The third dorsal
spine is the longest, the curve of the fin being rounder than in the
other species. The lateral line is without spines, but there are 25
or more spiny elevations along the base of the dorsals. The pre-
orbital is extended into a broad, triangular plate, which is toothed
in front and projects over the snout. The colour is bright red above,
white beneath, the fins being red. It is rather larger than the other
species, and is of the same habits. It grunts like the others ; but,
when taken from the water, instead of crooning, it hisses, and from
this hiss or whistle it derives its name.
The Lanthorn Gurnard has 10 spines in its first dorsal, 17 or 18
rays in the second, 17 rays in the anal, 12 in the caudal, 10 in the
pectorals, and a spine and 5 rays in the ventrals. The second spine
of the dorsal is very long. The lateral line is marked by spineless,
lineated plates, but there are spiny plates along the base of the
dorsals. There are spines on the head and gill-covers, as in all the
species. The thin filaments are rather more slender than in the
other gurnards. The colour is bright red above and whitish below,
separated from each other by a wide silvery stripe. The pectorals
are blue, the other fins red. In size it does not exceed 12 inches. It
is the rarest of the British species.
Trygon. Plate xxxiii. TRYGONID&.
252. pastinaca, STING RAY. Disk pyriform, front ejge straight, angle
rounded, hind edge convex.
There is a long serrated spine on the tail, but no fins. The
body is raised along the line of the backbone. The skin is smooth,
with occasionally a few tubercles along the back. The mouth is
small and the teeth are small. The colour varies above, but is
always white below ; the length reaches 33 inches. The Sting
Rav is found in shallow water where the bottom is soft and oozy.
GENERA AND SPECIES. 143
It is known by its spine, which has the teeth directed downwards
like a spear-head. It was one of these spines which ended the
career of Ulysses.
Xiphias. Plate iii. XI PHI IDA?.
21. gladius, SWORDFISH. Upper jaw long and shaped like a sword.
The Swordfish has but one dorsal when young, but in time a
portion of it dies away, so that in old examples the fin is almost
divided into two. The anal becomes separated in a similar manner.
When complete there are 3 spines in the dorsal, and 43 rays, and 17
rays in the anal ; in the caudal there are 21, in the pectorals 15 ;
there are no ventrals. The pectoral is placed low, and is long and
pointed. The scales are quite rudimentary, and there are no teeth.
The colour is blue above, white below ; the length 15 feet or less,
generally 7 or 8. It is only a straggler in British waters.
Zeugopterus. Plate xx. PLEURONECTIDJE.
153. unimaculatus , ONE-SPOTTED TOPKNOT. Ventrals not joined to
154. punctatus, BROWNY. Ventrals joined to anal.
The One-Spotted Topknot has from 70 to 80 rays in its dorsal,
61 to 68 in its anal, 16 in its caudal, 10 to 12 in its pectorals, and 6
in its ventrals. The marginal fins are highest in the hinder half.
The lateral line curves over the pectoral. The eyes are on the left-
side ; the mouth is large, and at the end of the snout ; the teeth and
jaws are equal on both sides. The first ray of the dorsal is long.
The underside is rough. The colour is reddish brown, with a
round spot on the upper side near the tail. The length does not
appear to exceed 5 inches.
The Browny has from 87 to 101 rays in the dorsal, 69 to 80 in
the anal, 14 to 16 in the caudal, 10 in the pectorals, and 6 in the
ventrals. The dorsal and anal are highest in the hinder half, and
are continuous with the caudal. The ventrals join the anal. The
eyes are on the left, the mouth large and at the end of the snout,
the teeth and jaws alike on both sides. The underside is rather
smooth; on the upper side the scales are spiny. In colour it is
dark brown with spots, and there is a pale streak extending from
each eye. The length of this fish does not exceed 8 inches.
Zeus. Plate iv. CYTTID&.
29. faber, DORY. Grey, with a large black spot edged with yellow.
There are 10 spines in the first portion of the dorsal, and 22 or 23
rays in the second ; the anal is in two distinct portions, the first of
which has 4 spines, the second 21 to 23 rays ; in the caudal are 13
rays, in the pectorals 13, in the ventrals a spine and 6 rays. The
dorsal spines have filaments at their tips, and spines at their bases ;
and at the bases of the dorsal rays are spiny plates, the bases of the
anal spines and rays being protected in the same way. The spinous
144 GENERA AND SPECIES.
portion of the anal is very broad, and the spines large. The lateral
line curves to the middle of the anal, and then runs straight. The
body is about two-thirds as high as it is long, and is much
compressed. The mouth is large and protrusible so as to form a
tube. The colour is a somewhat yellowish grey, frequently with
wavy bands ; the length is under 24 inches. The Dory feeds on
fair-sized fishes, such as sprats and smelts. It swims with a list to
starboard, not upright ; and it grunts, squeaks, or groans when
taken out of the water.
Zoarces. plate x. BLENNIID&.
82. viviparus, VIVIPAROUS BLENNY. Dorsal long, with a low section
of 10 spines just before the end.
The dorsal extends all along the back. In the fore part there
are from 76 to 80 rays, continuous with which are 10 spines
followed by 20 to 25 rays. The rays are level and not very high,
and the spiny section is half the height of the rest of the fin. In
the anal there are 84 to 89 rays ; the caudal is absent except in the
young ; the pectorals have 19 rays, and the ventrals 3. The mouth
extends to the middle of the eye ; the lips are thick. In colour this
fish is olive, striped and banded with dark green ; it attains 2 feet
in length, and is of slender tapering form. It lives among rocks,
and hides among seaweed ; and it has been observed to bring forth
at a birth 250 young, an inch and a half long, which immediately
began to swim about and look after themselves.
Zygsena. Plate xxviii. CARCHARIID&.
224. malleus, HAMMERHEAD. Head in the shape of a hammer, with
the eyes at the lateral extremities.
This shark is recognisable at a glance, owing to its strangely-
shaped head. The colour is slaty grey above, and white below.
It is said to be very ferocious, but it has rather a small mouth.
The teeth are oblique and notched. It is not uncommon in the
Mediterranean, but better known in more southerly seas ; in
British waters it is rarely seen. The largest yet caught on the
English Coast measured 13 feet 7 inches. Its specific name means
a balance, and it is frequently called the Balance Shark. It is the
last on our alphabetical list, so that with a balance we close our
THIS list contains, it is hoped, all the specific names
appearing in the standard works on British fishes, in
addition to a selection of those used by foreign authors, for
the synonymy of the fishes is extensive and rather more
miscellaneous than usual. The numbers refer to the coloured
plates, in the list of which will be found the systematic and
popular names adopted throughout this book.
Acarne, Pagellus, 16, 17
Acarne, Pagrus, 17
Acerina, Perca, 3
Aculeatus, Gasterosteus, 91, 92,
93. 94. 95
Aculeatus, Leiurus, 91, 92, 93,
Acus, Syngnathus, 115
Acuta, Perca, i
Adhaerens, Lepadogaster, 100
Adriatica, Trigla, 52
^Eglefinus, Gadus, 126
jEglefinus, Morrhua, 126
^Equoreus, Nerophis, 116
Affinis, Cottus, 48
Alalonga, Orcynus, 40
Alalonga, Thynnus, 40
Alatunga, Scomber, 40
Alba, Raia, 240
Albacora, Thynnus, 40
Albus, Gobius, 70
Albus, Latrunculus, 70
Albus, Salmo, 196, 197
Alliciens, Ammodytes, 146
Alosa, Clupea, 193
Alpinus, Salmo, 206, 207, 208,
Alpinus, Salvelinus, 206
Americanus, Amphibrion, 6
Americanus, Lophius, 47
Amia, Caranx, 24
Anglorum, Lumpus, 60
Antarctica, Sciaena, 20
Antecessor, Gasterosteus, 25
Antiquorum, Hippocampus, 119
Ape-, Capros, 28
Aper, Labrus, 104
Aper, Zeus, 28
Aphya, Gobius, 66
Aquila, Cheilodipterus, 20
Aquila, Myliobatis, 250
Aquila, Sciaena, 6, 20
Arcticus, Gymnetrus, 102
Arcticus, Gymnogaster, 102
Arcticus, Trachypterus, 102
Argentatus, Merluccius, 133
Argenteus, Lepidopus, 23
Argenteus, Lepturus, 22
Argenteus, Fario, 196
Argenteus, Salmo, 195, 196
Argenteus, Sparus, 12
Argenteus, Trachinotus, 26
Argenteus, Trichiurus, 22
Argenti-vittatus, Thynnus, 40
Argyrea, Scarcina, 23
Argyreus, Lepidopus, 23
Armatus, Aspidophorus, 58
Armatus, Trachinus, 45
Artedii, Blennius, 77
Ascanii, Carelophus, 80
Ascensionis, Scomber, 27
Aspera, Trigla, 55
Attenuatus, Gobius, 66
Aurata, Chrysophrys, 13
Aurata, Sparus, 13, 14
Auratus, Carassius, 171
Auratus, Gobius, 67
Auratus, Pagrus, 13
Ausonii, Salar, 196, 201
Balbis, Lepadogaster, 99
Ballan, Labrus, 104
Ballanus, Labrus, 104
Balteatus, Thynnus, 40
Banksii, Gymnetrus, 103
Banksii, Regalecus, 103
Barbatula, Nemacheilus, 184
Barbatum, Ophidium, 143
Barbatus, Gadus, 127
Barbatus, Liparis, 61
Barbatus, Mullus, 8, 9
Batis, Raia, 238
Belonii, Mullus, 8
Belonii, Pelamys, 42
Berda, Sparus, 17
Bergylta, Labrus, 104
Biciliatus, Lepadogaster, 99
Bicolor, Gobius, 64
Bimaculata, Mirbelia, 101
Bimaculatus, Cyclopterus, 101
Bimaculatus, Gobiesox, 101
Bimaculatus, Lepadogaster, 101
Binotatus, Centronotus, 27
Biocellatus, Gobius, 63
Bipunctatus, Gobius, 63
Bison, Aspicottus, 50
Bisus, Auxis, 43
Bisus, Scomber, 43
Blennoides, Phycis, 134
Blicca, Abramis, 181
Blochii, Trigla, 55
Bogaraveo, Pagellus, 15
Bogaraveo, Pagrus, 15
Bogaraveo, Sparus, 15
Boops, Boops, ii
Boops, Sparus, n
Boyeri, Atherina, 84
Brachypoma, Salmo, 196, 197
Brachypterus, Thynnus, 43
Brama, Abramis, 180
Brama, Cantharus, 10
Brama, Sparus, 10, 32
Britannicus, Centrolophus, 30
Britannicus, Gobius, 65
Britannicus, Mugil, 85
Brosme, Brosmius, 142
Brosme, Centronotus, 80
Brosme, Gadus, 142
Bubalis, Aspicottus, 50
Bubalis, Cottus, 50
Cabrilla, Perca, 4
Cabrilla, Serranus, 4
Csecifer, Salmo, 196, 200
Callarias, Morrhua, 125
Cambricus, Salmo, 196, 199,
Canariensis, Boops, n
Canariensis, Pagellus, 18
Canicula, Scyllium, 230
Caninus, Serranus, 5
Cantharus, Sparus, 10
Capelanus, Gadus, 128
Capensis, Scisena, 20
Capitate, Gobio, 48
Capito, Mugil, 85
Capriscus, Balistes, 121
Carassius, Cyprinus, 170
Carbonarius, Gadus, 131
Carbonarius, Merlangus, 131
Carneus, Labrus, 107
Carpio, Cyprina, 169
Castaneola, Sparus, 32
Cataphracta, Trigla, 59
Cataphractum, Peristedion, 59
Cataphractum, Peristethus, 59
Cataphractus, Agonus, 58
Cataphractus, Aspidophorus, 58
Cataphractus, Cottus, 58
Catulus, Scyllium, 231
Caudatus, Lepidopus, 23
Caudatus, Trichiurus, 23
Centrodontus, Pagellus, 14
Centrodontus, Sparus, 14
Cephalus, Lepadogaster, 100
Cephalus, Leuciscus, 175
Cephalus, Mugil, 85, 86
Cernioides, Serranus, 5
Cernium, Polyprion, 6
Cernua, Acerina, 3
Cernua, Gymnocephalus, 3
Cernua, Perca, 3
Cetti, Dentex, 7
Cetti, Sparus, 7
Channus, Perca, 4
Chelo, Mugil, 86
Cicerellus, Ammodytes, 147
Ciliatus, Lepadogaster, 99
Cimbria, Motella, 138
Cimbrius, Gadus, 138
Circularis, Raia, 247
Cithara, Callionymus, 73
Clavata, Raia, 243
Clupeoides, Coregonus, 215
Cobitis, Aphya, 66
Cocksii, Ausonia, 35
Coeruleus, Cyclopterus, 60
Colias, Scomber, 38
Colii, Salmo, 206, 211
Comber, Labrus, 105
Communis, Liparis, 61
Compressa, Lota, 136
Compressus, Nauclerus, 25
Conductor, Centronotus, 25
Coquus, Labrus, 107
Corax, Trigla, 54
Coregonoides, Paralepis, 186
Cornubica, Lamna, 226
Cornubicus, Crenilabrus, 109
Cornubicus, Cyclopterus, 99
Cornubicus, Cynsedus, 109
Cornubicus, Lophius, 47
Cornubiensis, Gunnellus, 81
Cornubiensis, Labrus, 104
Cornubiensis, Lepadogaster, 99
Cornubiensis, Pimelepterus, 26
Cornubiensis, Salmo, 196, 205
Cornutus, Macrorhamphosus, 98)
Coronatus, Cyclopterus, 60
Corvus, Trigla, 54
Coryphaenoides, Astrodermus, 35
Couchii, Acantholabrus, in
Couchii, Serranus, 6
Crassirostris, Chrysophrys, 13
Cuculus, Trigla, 53, 54, 55
Curtus, Pagellus, 14
Cuvieri, Ausonia, 35
Cuvieri, Caranx, 24
Cynoglossus, Pleuronectes, 159
Decandolii, Lepadogaster, 100
Decandollii, Lepadogaster, 100
Declivis, Caranx, 24
Dentatus, Fierasfer, 144
Dentex, Cichla, 7
Dentex, Sparus, 7
Desfontanii, Lepadogaster, 101
Desfontanii, Mirbelia, 101
Diacantha, Perca, 2
Diacantha, Scisena, 2
Diego, Scomber, 38
Donovani, Labrus, 105, 109
Draco, Trachinus, 45, 46
Dracunculus, Callionymus, 72, 7
Dracunculus, Uranoscopus, 72
Drummondii, Echiodon, 144
Ductor, Centronotus, 25
Ductor, Gasterosteus, 25
Ductor, Naucrates, 25
Ductor, Scomber, 25
Eckstromii, Gobius, G6
Elegans, Astrodermus, 35
Elegans, Callionymus, 72
Elegans, Coryphaena, 35
Elongata, Perca, 2
Encrasicholus, Engraulis, 189
Ensiformis, Lepidopus, 23
Eperlanus, Osmerus, 213
Eriox, Salmo, 196, 197, 198
Erythrinus, Pagellus, 16, 18
Erythrinus, Pagrus, 18
Erythrinus, Sparus, 18
Estuarius, Salmo, 196
Europeus, Aspidophorus, 58
Europeus, Gunnellus, 81
Europeus, Trachurus, 24
Eurypterus, Lophius, 47
Evolans, Exocoetus, 90
Exoletus, Centrolabrus, 112
Exoletus, Crenilabrus, in
Exoletus, Labrus, 112
Faber, Zeus, 29
Fanfarus, Naucrates, 25
Fario, Salmo, 196, 201
Fario, Trutta, 196, 201
Ferox, Salmo, 203
Festiva, Julis, 113
Filaris, Trigla, 57
Fimbriatus, Serranus, 5
Finta, Clupea, 194
Flavescens, Bodianus, i
Flavescens, Gobius, 63
Flavescens, Perca, i
Flavus, Serranus, 4
Flesus, Pleuronectes, 161
Fluviatilis, Cernua, 3
Fluviatilis, Coitus, 48
Fluviatilis, Gobio, 173
Fluviatilis, Perca, i
Fluviatilis, Trutta, 196, 201
Fontinalis, Salmo, 212
Formosus, Labrus, 107
Fuliginosus, Gobius, 65
Fullonica, Raia, 242
Furcatus, Phycis, 134
Fuscus, Raniceps, 141
Gadoides, Blennius, 134
Galerita, Adonis, 77
Galerita, Blenniops, 80
Galerita, Blennius, 80
Gattorugine, Blennius, 76
Gallivensis, Salmo, 196
Germo, Orcynus, 40
Germo, Scomber, 40
Germo, Thynnus, 40
Gibbiceps, Dentex, 7
Gibbosus, Cyclopterus, 60
Gibbosus, Sparus, 7
Gigas, Holocentrus, 5
Gigas, Perca, 5
Gigas, Serranus, 5
Giofredi, Julis, 113
Giornsc, Cephaloptera, 251
Glacialis, Cottus, 49
Gladius, Trichiurus, 23
Gladius, Xiphias, 21
Glauca, Lichia, 27
Glauca, Motella, 137
Glaucos, Centronotus, 27
Glaucus, Caranx, 27
Glaucus, Carcharias, 222
Glaucus, Gasterosteus, 27
Glaucus, Lichia, 27
Glaucus, Scomber, 27
Glesne, Regalecus, 103
Gobio, Cottus, 48.
Gobius, Liparis, 62
Goedenii, Salrao, 196
Gouanianus, Lepidopus, 23
Gouanii, Lepadogaster, 99
Gouanii, Lepidopus, 23
Gracilis, Gobius, 66, 70
Gracilis, Perca, i
Gracilis, Salmo, 195
Granulata, Perca, i
Grayi, Salmo, 206, 210
Griseus, Cantharus, 10
Griseus, Notidanus, 229
Griseus, Salrao, 196, 198
Groenlandicus, Acanthocottus, 49
Groenlandicus, Cottus, 49
Gulo, Holocentrus, 6
Gunnellus, Blennius, 81
Gunnellus, Centronotus, 81
Gunnellus, Ophisomus, 81
Gunnellus, Pholis, 81
Gunneri, Scomber, 33
Guntheri, Pagellus, 18
Gurnardus, Trigla, 55
Guttata, Muraenoides, 81
Guttatus, Lampris, 33
Guttatus, Zeus, 33
Gymnothorax, Thymallus, 218
Gymnurus, Gasterosteus, 94
Hamata, Trigla, 59
Hamatus, Salmo, 195
Harengus, Clupea, 190
Harvicensis, Lyra, 72
Helena, Muraena, 168
Helvetica, Perca, i
Hemigymnus, Argyropelecus, 18^
Hepsetus, Atherina, 70, 83, 84
Hexacornis, Cottus, 51
Hirundo, Trigla, 54
Hololepidota, Sciaena, 20
Hololepidotus, Labrus, 20
Horridus, Trachinus, 46
Hucho, Salmo, 196
Imberbis, Mullus, 52
Imbricatus, Ajsantholabrus, in
Imperialis, Luvarus, 35
Imperialis, Zeus, 33
Inaequalis, Blennius, 77
Indicus, Naucrates, 25
Ingens, Gunnellus, 81
Islandicus, Bogmarus, 102
Islandicus, Vogmarus, 102
Italica, Perca, i
Italica, Tinea, 179
acobea, Echeneis, 44
aponicus, Selar, 24
effreysii, Gobius, 69
ohnsoni, Dentex, 7
onsoni, Sparus, 7
Jozo, Gobius, 65
Julis, Coris, 113
Julis, Labrus, 113
Jussieui, Lepadogaster, 100
Karrak, Anarrhichas, 75
Killinensis, Salmo, 206, 209
Koelreuteri, Naucrates, 25
Koelreuteri, Scomber, 25
Labradoricus, Acanthocottus, 4
Labrax, Perca, 2
Labrax, Sciaena, 2
Labrosus, Mugil, 86
Lacustris, Salmo, 196, 203
Laevis, Cataphractus, 78
Laevis, Cottus, 48
Laevis, Pholis, 78
Laevis, Rhombus, 152
Laevis, Trigla, 54
Lagocephalus, Tetrodon, 122
Lancea, Ammodytes, 146
Lanceolatus, Ammodytes, 145
Larvatus, Labrus, 107
Lascaris, Solea, 163
Lastovi-za, Trigla, 52
Laticeps, Gobius, 68
Laterna, Arnoglossus, 156
Lauta, Lampris, 33
Lemanus, Fario, 196, 201
Lepadogaster, Cyclopterus, 99
Lepturus, Trichiurus, 22, 103
Lepus, Blennius, 79
Levenensis, Salmo, 196, 200
Limanda, Pleuronectes, 160
Linearis, Gobius, 70
Lineata, Trigla, 52, 53
Lineatus, Cantharus, 10
Lineatus, Labrus, 104, 106, 107
Lineatus, Lepadogaster, 101
Lineatus, Liparis, 61
Lineatus, Pagrus, 10
Lineatus, Sparus, 10
Lineatus, Trachinus, 45
Liparis, Centrolophus, 31
Liparis, Cyclogaster, 61
Liparis, Cyclopterus, 61
Liparoides, Cyclopterus, 62
Longicauda, Cepola, 74
Lota, Gadus, 136
Lota, Molva, 135
Lucerna, Trigla, 57
Lucidus, Alburnus, 182
Lucius, Esox, 185
Lumbriciformis, Nerophis, 118
Lumpus, Cyclopterus, Go
Luna, Chrysostosus, 33
Luna, Lampris, 33
Luna, Zeus, 33
Lupus, Anarrhichas, 75
Lupus, Centropomus, 2
Lupus, Labrax, 2
Lusca, Morhua, 127
Luscus, Crenilabrus, in
Luscus, Gadus, 127
Lusitanicus, Lepidopus, 23
Lusitanicus, Vandellius, 23
Lutea, Solea, 165
Lyra, Callionymus, 72, 73
Lyra, Trigla, 56
Lyra, Uranoscopus, 72
Macrophthalma, Motella, 140
Macropterus, Thynnus, 40
Macrorhynchus, Raia, 239
Maculata, Raia, 244
Maculatus, Anarrhichas, 75
Maculatus, Balistes, 120
Maculatus, Callionymus, 73
Maculatus, Labrus, 104
Maculatus, Lepadogaster, 101
Maculatus, Scomber, 38
Maculis, BJennius, 81
Maculosa, Lota, 136
Maculosus, Acentrolophus, 31
Maderensis, Gobius, 64
Major, Mullus, 9
Major, Trachinus, 45
Malleus, Zygaena, 224
Marginatus, Ctenolabrus, no
Marginatus, Serranus, 5
Marina, Brama, 32
Marina, Perca, 19
Marina, Rana, 47
Marina, Trutta, 196
Marinus, Draco, 45
Marinus, Gasterosteus, 97
Marinus, Holocentrus, 4
Marinus, Lepus, 60
Marinus, Lupus, 75
Marinus, Scorpius, 50
Marinus, Sebastes, 19
Marinus, Serranus, 4
Marmorata, Torpedo, 249
Marsiliensis, Scorpsena, 6
Marsiliensis, Sparus, 14
Maxima, Selache, 228
Maximus, Rhombus, 151
Mediterranea, Julis, 113
Mediterraneus, Scomber, 42
Mediterraneus, Thynnus, 39
Medusophagus, Schedophilus, 34
Megastoma, Lepidorhombus, 155
Melanostomus, Pristiurus, 232
Melanura, Julis, 113
Melops, Crenilabrus, 108
Meridionalis, Aphia, 70
Merlangus, Gadus, 129
Merluccius, Gadus, 133
Merou, Holocentrus, 5
Microcellata, Raia, 245
Microcephalus, Pleuronectes, i$V
Microcephalus, Laemargus, 235
Microps, Salmo, 196
Micropterygius, Uranoscopus, 72
Microstoma, Crenilabrus, 112
Microstomus, Cottus, 48
Milvus, Trigla, 55
Minor, Anarrhichas, 75
Minor, Mullus, 8
Minor, Umbla, 206
Minuta, Atherina, 70
Minuta, Eleotris, 66
Minuta, Morrhua, 128
Minutus, Cottus, 48
Minutus, Cyclopterus, 60
Minutus, Gadus, 128
Minutus, Gobius, 60, 63, 66, 67,
Minutus, Lepadogaster, 73
Mirbelia, Lepadogaster, 101
Mixtus, Labrus, 107
Mola, Orthagoriscus, 123
Molva, Gadus, 135
Montacuti, Cyclopterus, 62
Monstrosa, Chimaera, 221
Montagui, Blennius, 77
Montagui, Cyclopterus, 62
Montagui, Icthyocoris, 77
Montagui, Liparis, 62
Morhua, Gadus, 125
Morio, Centrolophus, 31
Morio, Coryphaena, 31
Morrhua, Gadus, 125
Mustela, Gadus, 137
Mustela, Motella, 137
Naucrates, Echeneis, 44
Neustrise, Labrus, 104
Niger, Centrolophus, 31
Niger, Gobius, 63, 64, 65
Niger, Holocentrus, 31
Niger, Spams, 32
Nigripinnis', Salmo, 205
Nilssonii, Crystallogobius, 70
Nilssonii, Gobius, 70
Nilssonii, Latrunculus, 70
Nigra, Perca, 31
Nobiliana, Torpedo, 248
Nobilis, Salmo, 195
Norvegicus, Coryphaenoides, 148
Norvegicus, Sebastes, 19
Norwegica, Perca, 19
Norwegica, Scorpaena, 19
Norwegicus, Holocentrus, 19
Norwegicus, Sebastes, 19
Norwegicus, Serranus, 19
Novemboracensis, Naucrates, 25
Novemcinctus, Serranus, 4
Obscura, Trigla, 57
Ocellaris, Blennius, 79
Ocellatus, Acanthocottus, 49
Ocellatus, Cyclopterus, 99
Ocellatus, Lepadogaster, 101
Octo-radiatus, Mugil, 85
Olivaceus, Lepadogaster, 100
Omorus, Caranx, 24
Opah, Zeus, 33
Ophidion, Nerophis, 117
Ophidoides, Liparis, 61
Orcadensis, Salmo, 196, 202
Orientalis, Thynnus, 39
Orphus, Aurata, 12
Orphus, Pagrus, 12
Orphus, Spar us, 14
Owenii, Pagellus, 16
Oxygeneios, Epinephelus, 6
Oxyrhynchus, Coregonus, 214
Oxyrhynchus, Raia, 241
Pacificus, Thynnus, 40
Paganellus, Gobius, 64
Pagellus, Sparus, 18
Pagrus, Pagrus, 12
Pagrus, Sparus, 12, 14
Palamitus, Thynnus, 42
Pallida, Echeneis, 44
Palloni, Acantholabrus, in
Palmicornis, Blennius, 80
Pantherinus, Anarrhichas, 75
Papilio, Blennius, 79
Parnelli, Gobius, 67
Parva, Echeneis, 44
Pastinaca, Trygon, 252
Pavoninus, Adonis, 79
Pavoninus, Cyclopterus, 60
Pelagicus, Cyprina, 19
Pelagicus, Scomber, 33
Pelamides, Scomber, 41
Pelamis, Scomber, 41
Pelamys, Scomber, 42
Pelamys, Thynnus, 41
Pellucida, Aphia, 70
Pellucida, Aphya, 70
Pellucidus, Gobius, 70
Pellucidus, Latrunculus, 70
Pennantii, Blennius, 80
Pennantii, Maurolicus, 188
Pentacanthus, Labrus, 112
Perciformis, Coryphasna, 26
Perciformis, Palinuricthys, 26
Perciformis, Palinurus, 26
Perciformis, Pammelas, 26
Perisii, Salmo, 206, 207
Peronii, Lepidopus, 23
Phinoc, Salmo, 196, 197
Pholis, Adonis, 78
Pholis, Blennius, 78
Phoxinus, Leuciscus, 178
Phycis, Blennius, 134
Picturata, Seriola, 24
Pictus, Gobius, 68
Pilchardus, Clupea, 191
Pini, Trigla, 53
Piscatorius, Batrachus, 47
Piscatorius, Lophius, 47
Piscatrix, Rana, 47
Platessa, Pleuronectes, 157
Plumbeum, Astroderma, 35
Poeciloptera, Trigla, 52, 54
Poecilopus, Coitus, 48
Pollachius, Gadus, 131, 132
Pollachius, Merlangus, 132
Pollan, Coregonus, 217
Pompilus, Centrolophus, 31
Pompilus, Coryphaena, 31
Ponticus, Scomber, 42
Porosus, Cottus, 49
Poutassou, Gadus, 130
Poutassou, Merlangus, 130
Presbyter, Atherina, 83
Prototypus, Proctostegus, 35
Provensalis, Mugil, 86
Psittacus, Labrus, 104
Punctatus, Lepadogaster, 101
Punctatus, Scomber, 37
Punctatus, Zeugopterus, 153
Punctipinnis, Gobius, 64
Pungio, Zeus, 29
Pungitius, Gasterosteus, 96
Pungitius, Leuvius, 96
Pusilla, Perca, 28
Pusillus, Gobius, 63
Quadricornus, Cottus, 51
Cjuadrimaculatus, Gobius, 69
yuinque-cirrata, Motella, 137
Radiata, Raia, 246
Rafinesqui, Lepadogaster, 100
Raii, Brama, 32
Raii, Sparus, 32
Ramada, Mugil, 85
Raminus, Raniceps, 141
Raminus, Blennius, 141
Regius, Zeus, 33
Remora, Echeneis, 44
Remoroides, Echeneis, 44
Reticulata, Callionymus, 73
Reticulatus, Gobius, 66
Reticulatus, Lepadogaster, 101
Rhodopterus, Gobius, 66
Robusta, Perca, 5
Rocheanus, Thynnus, 43
Rochei, Auxis, 43
Rondeletii, Colias, 38
Rondeletii, Pagellus, 12
Rondeletii, Pompilus, 31
Rondeletii, Umbra, 20
Rondeletii, Xiphias, 21
Rostratus, Lepadogaster, 99
Rostratus, Pagellus, 18
Rubescens, Cepola, 74
Rubescens, Serpens, 74
Rubra, Taenia, 74
Rupestris, Coryphaenoides, 148
Rupestris, Crenilabrus, no
Rupestris, Ctenolabrus, no
Rupestris, Cynaedus, no
Rupestris, Labrus, no
Rupestris, Perca, no
Rupestris, Sciaena, no
Ruthensparri, Gobius, 63
Rutilus, Leuciscus, 174
Salmo, Salmo, 195
Salmonata, Trutta, 196
Salmulus, Salmo, 195
Salvelinus, Salmo, 206
Salviani, Centrina, 234
Sanguineus, Holocentrus, 19
Sarda, Pelamys, 42
Sarda, Scomber, 42
Sargus, Lepodus, 32
Saurus, Scombresox, 88
Schoneveldii, Cataphractus, 58
Sciandra, Sparus, 10
Scolopax, Centriscus, 98
Scolopax, Solenostomus, 98
Scomber, Scomber, 36
Scombrus, Cordylus, 36
Scorpius, Cottus, 49, 50
Scriba, Perca, 6
Scriptus, Sparus, r3
Semiarmatus, Gasterosteus, 93
Semilunata, Diana, 35
Septentrionalis, Mugil, 86
Septentrionalis, Sebastes, 19
Serpentiformis, Cepola, 74
Serrato-granulata, Perca, i
Serranus, Lutjanus, 4
Siculus, Ammodytes, 147
Sinuatus, Merluccius, 133
Sinuosa, Perca, 2
Spatula, Cyclopterus, 99
Speciosa, Julis, 113
Sphyraena, Argentina, 219
Spinachia, Gasterosteus, 97
Spinachia, Gastraea, 97
Spinachia, Polyacanthus, 97
Spinosus, Echinorhinus, 236
Spinosus, Zeus, 29
Spinulosus, Gasterosteus, 95
Spinulosus, Trachinus, 24
Sprattus, Clupea, 192
Squalipeta, Remora, 44
Squatina, Rhina, 237
Stomachicus, Salmo, 196, 204
Strigosus, Anarrhichas, 75
Strcemii, Carelephus, 80
Stroemii, Gunnellus, 80
Stroemii, Zeus, 33
Struanensis, Salmo, 206, 208
Sturio, Acipenser, 220
Stuvitzii, Atherina, 70
Stuvitzii, Gobiosoma, 70
Stuvitzii, Latrunculus, 70
Suillus, Labrus, no
Surmuletus, Mullus, 9
Surmulletus, Mullus, 9
Symmetricus, Caranx, 24
Taenia, Cobitis, 183
Tancoides, Labrus, 104
Taso, Auxis, 43
Taurina, Salmo, 196, 200
Tazo, Scomber, 43
Tetradens, Lepidopus, 23
Tetradens, Ziphotheca, 23
Thymallus, Coregonus, 218
Thymallus, Salmo, 218
Thynnoides, Auxis, 43
Thynnus, Orcynus, 39
Thynnus, Salmo, 218
Thynnus, Scomber, 39
Thynnus, Thynnus, 39
Tinea, Crenilabrus, 108
Tinea, Cynaedus, 108
Tinea, Cyprinus, 179
Tinea, Labrus, 104, 108
Tobianus, Ammodytes, 145, 146,
Trachurus, Caranx, 24
Trachurus, Gasterosteus, 92
Trachurus, Scomber, 24
Trachurus, Trachurus, 24
Tricirratus, Gadus, 139
Tricirrata, Motella, 139
Tricuspis, Cottus, 48
Tridigitatus, Polynemus, 53
Trifurcatus, Blennius, 141
Trifurcatus, Raniceps, 141
Trimaculatus, Labrus, 107
Tropica, Remora, 44
Truncatus, Orthagoriscus, 124
Trutta, Salmo, 196, 201
Trutta, Trutta, 196
Truttula, Salmo, 196
Typhle, Siphonostoma, 114
Umbla, Salmo, 206, 207, 208, 2ic
Umbra, Sciaena, 20
Umbratus, Chaetodon, 32
Unimaculatus, Zeugopterus, 153
Unipunctatus, Gobius, 66
Upsicephalus, Lophius, 47
Vagans, Thynnus, 41
Valenciennessi, Astrodermus, 35
Vandesii, Coregonus, 216
Vanloo, Perca, 20
Variabilis, Acanthocottus, 49
Variabilis, Cottus, 49
Variabilis, Labrus, 104
Variegatus, Labrus, 107
Variegata, Solea, 164
Varus, Blennius, 76
Vassali, Ophidium, 143
Venetorum, Paganellus, 64
Ventralis, Cottus, 48
Ventralis, Phobetor, 48
Vernalis, Scomber, 36
Vetula, Labrus, 107
Vetula, Sparus, 10
Vexillifer, Thymallus, 218
Vipera, Trachinus, 46
Virens, Gadus, 131
Virens, Merlangus, 131
Virescens, Holocentru*?, 4
Vittatus, Labrus, 107
Vividus, Trachinus, 46
Viviparus, Blennius, 82
Viviparus, Enchelyopus, 82
Viviparus, Gunnellus, 82
Viviparus, Zoarcaeus, 82
Viviparus, Zoarces, 82
Viviparus, Zoarchus, 82
Vogmarus, Trachypterus, 102
Volitans, Exoecetus, 89
Vomerinus, Lophius, 47
Vulgaris, Acanthias, 233
Vulgaris, Acerina, 3
Vulgaris, Anguilla, 166
Vulgaris, Aurata, 13
Vulgaris, Auxis, 43
Vulgaris, Barbus, 172
Vulgaris, Belone, 87
Vulgaris, Box, n
Vulgaris, Brosmius, 142
Vulgaris, Cantharus, 10
Vulgaris, Carassius, 170
Vulgaris, Conger, 167
Vulgaris, Dentex, 7
Vulgaris, Galeus, 223
Vulgaris, Gunnellus, 81
Vulgaris, Hippoglossus, 149
Vulgaris, Julis, 113
Vulgaris, Leuciscus, 176
Vulgaris, Liparis, 61
Vulgaris, Lota, 136
Vulgaris, Merlangus, 129
Vulgaris, Merluccius, 133
Vulgaris, Molva, 135
Vulgaris, Motella, 139
Vulgaris, Morrhua, 125
Vulgaris, Mustela, 137
Vulgaris, Mustelus, 225
Vulgaris, Pagrus, 12, 14
Vulgaris, Perca, i
Vulgaris, Scomber, 36
Vulgaris, Solea, 162
Vulgaris, Spinachia, 97
Vulgaris, Thymallus, 218
Vulgaris, Thynnus, 39
Vulgaris, Tinea, 179
Vulgaris, Trachurus, 24
Vulpes, Alopecias, 227
Willughbii, Salmo, 206, 208
Welbianus, Lepadogaster, 99
Yarrellii, Blennius, 80
Yarrellii, Chirolophis, 80
Zebrinus, Lepadogaster, 99
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY
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