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Full text of "Our country's fishes and how to know them : a guide to all the fishes of Great Britain"

NRLF 



33 






THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 



PRESENTED BY 

PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND 
MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID 



OUR COUNTRY'S FISHES 



AND 



How TO KNOW THEM. 



H (Bufoe to all tbe ffisbes of Great Britain, 



BY 



W. J. GORDON, 

AUTHOR OF " OUR COUNTRY'S FLOWERS," " OUR COUNTRY'S BIRDS, 
" OUR COUNTRY'S BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS," 
"OUR COUNTRY'S SHELLS," ETC. 



WITH EVERY SPECIES ILLUSTRATED IN COLOUR, 
AND MANY SKETCHES IN OUTLINE 

BY 

A. LAMBERT. 



LONDON : 

SlMPKiN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT & CO., LIMITED. 






ur Country's Series. 

By W. J. GORDON. 

Eat h with 33 coloured plates and other 

illustrations. Crown 8vo, 6/- each. 

Also in a leather binding. 

Our Cnun rv's F owers and How to 

Kit nv Trie i. A complete Guide 

to tne Flivvers and F^ rns of Great 

Britain. 
Our Ci'untry's Birds and How to 

Know Them. A Guide to all the 

Birds of Great Britain. 
Our Country's Butterflies and 

Moths and How to Know Them. 

A Guide to the Lepidoptera of 

Great Biitain. 
Our Country's Shells and How to 

Know Them. A Guide to the 

British Mollusca. 
Our Country's Fishes and How to 

Know Them. A Guide to all the 

Fishes of Great Britain. 



INTRODUCTION. 



THIS handbook is on a different plan to that of any other of 
the very numerous books on fishes and fishing. Its object 
is the ready identification of our native species, whether sea- 
water, fresh-water, or estuarine, the method being similar to that 
of the other volumes of the series, of which this is the fifth. As 
the number of species found in British waters is not large, space 
has been found for a series of short notes, as in the case of 
Our Country's Birds, which not only confirm the identification 
but may prove useful to net and line fishermen of every degree. 
The tabular chapters include a long index of local names, a 
systematic table of all the species, and a series of keys to 
the sub-classes, orders, families, genera, species, and note- 
worthy varieties, arranged in such a way that the task of finding 
out the fish can be begun at any point, the full description 
being obtained by combining the distinctive characteristics given 
at each step. The orders of the fishes are not difficult of recog- 
nition, the families soon become familiar, and in ordinary 
practice the fish it is desired to identify is not unlike another 
that is known, so that in most cases all that is needful is to 
refer to the specific or generic distinctions without having to 
traverse the whole of the ground ; and of these only such are 
given in tabular form as are readily observable om the spot. 
The concluding chapter contains an alphabetical list of specific 
names, including many now going out of use, so that the book 



iv INTRODUCTION. 

liay serve as a companion to the important works of Day, 
Couch, Yarrell, and others. 

The classification of the fishes is still under revision, and is 
likely to remain so for a considerable time, but the system herein 
is based on the most recent, and was adopted as convenient for the 
purposes of the book. The list contains the usual number of 
species included on the strength of one occurrence only in the 
hope of more, but there seemed to be enough of these single 
specimen claims without recording the very latest which, though 
interesting, are certainly beyond the scope of a compact manual 

as this. 

W. J. G. 



CONTENTS, 



CHAP. 

I. LOCAL AND POPULAR NAMES 



II. THE COLOURED PLATES ...... 

Plate I., figures i to 7. 
PERCID.E. 

Plate II., figures 8 to 16. 

MULLID.E, SPARID^E. 

Plate III., figures 17 to 23. 

SPARID^:, SCORP^NID^:, SCLENIDJE, 
XIPHIID.E, TRICHIURID.E. 

Plate IV., figures 24 to 30. 

CARANGID^:, CYTTID.E, STROMATEID^. 

Plate V., figures 31 to 35. 

STROMATEID.E, CORYPH^NID^. 

Plate VI., figures 36 to 43. 
SCOMBRID^:. 

Plate VII., figures 44 to 53. 

SCOMBRID.E, TRACHINIDJE, LOPHIID^), 
COTTID^E. 

Plate VIII., figures 54 to 62. 

COTTID^:, DACTYLOPTERID^E, CYCLOP- 
TERID^. 

Plate IX., figures 63 to 74. 

CALLIONYMIDyE, CEPOLID^E. 



Plate X., figures 75 to 84. 

BLENNIID.E, ATHERINID^. 

Plate XL, figures 85 to 90. 

MUGILID.E, SCOMBRESOCID^E. 



VI CONTENTS. 

THE COLOURED PLATES Continued. 

Plate XII., figures 91 to 98. 

GASTEROSTEID^i, CENTRISCID^E. 

Plate XIII., figures 99 to 105. 

GOBIESOCID^:, TRACHYPTERID^, LA 
BRID.E. 

Plate XIV., figures 106 to 113. 
LABRID.E. 

Plate XV., figures 114 to 124. 

SYNGNATHID.E, BALISTID^E, DIODON- 



Plate XVI., figures 125 to 129. 
GADID.E. 

Plate XVII., figures 130 to 135. 
GADID.E. 

Plate XVIII., figures 136 to 144. 
GADID.E, OPHIDIID.E. 

Plate XIX., figures 145 to 151. 

MACRURID.E, PLEURONEC- 



Plate XX., figures 152 to 157. 
PLEURONECTID^E. 

Plate XXI., figures 158 to 165. 
PLEURONECTID^:. 

Plate XXII., figures 166 to 173. 

CYPRINID^E. 



Plate XXIII. , figures 174 to 184. 
CYPRINID.E. 

Plate XXIV., figures 185 to 194. 

ESOCID.E, SCOPELID^:, STERNOPTYCHID^), 
CLUPEID^E. 



CONTENTS. V1J 

THE COLOURED PLATES Continued. 

Plate XXV., figures 195 to 201. 
SALMONID.E. 

Plate XXVI., figures 202 to 212. 

SALMONIM;. 

Plate XXVII., figures 213 to 221. 

SALMONID^E, ACIPENSERID^E, CHIM^E- 
RID.E. 

Plate XXVIII., figures 222 to 226. 
CARCHARIID^:, LAMNID.E. 

Plate XXIX., figures 227 to 230. 

LAMNID.E, NOTIDANID^, SCYLLIID^. 

Plate XXX., figures 231 to 234. 
SCYLLIID^, SPINACID^B. 

Plate XXXI., figures 235 to 240. 

SPINACID.E, SQUATINID^:, RAIID^E. 

Plate XXXII., figures 241 to 246. 
RAIID.E. 

Plate XXXIII., figures 247 to 252. 

RAIID^, TORPEDINHXE, MYLIOBATID^E, 
TRYGONID^: 

PAGE 

III. SORTATION 17 

IV. TABULAR SCHEME 45 

V. IDENTIFICATION . . . . . . . .51 

VI. SUB-CLASSES AND ORDERS 53 

VII. ORDERS AND FAMILIES ....... 55 

VIII. FAMILIES AND GENERA 63 

IX. GENERA AND SPECIES 71 

X. SPECIFIC NAMES . ^ . . t ^ . . , 145 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

-H--34- 

PAGS 

FINS OF PERCH . . . . . . .19 

LATERAL LINE ....... 20 

BRANCHED RAY ....... 21 

SCALE OF THORNBACK . . . . . .21 

UPPER JAW OF MALE THORNBACK . . . .21 

CTENOID SCALE . .' . . . . .22 

CYCLOID SCALES ....... 22 

CARDIFORM TEETH ...... 25 

HOMOCERCAL TAIL ...... 25 

HETEROCERCAL TAIL ...... 25 

SHIELD OF STURGEON ...... 26 

TEETH OF ANGLER .... .29 

HINGED TOOTH OF ANGLER . . . . 30 

HEAD OF BARBEL ...... 31 

THORACIC VENTRALS ...... 32 

ABDOMINAL VENTRALS ...... 33 

TEETH OF HAKE ...... 34 

TEETH OF CAT-FISH . -35 

TEETH OF BALLAN WRASSE . . < . -37 

UPPER JAW OF PIKE ... -3^ 

DENTARY OF PIKE ... 39 

LOWER PHARYNGEAL TEETH OF CARP . 39 

SKULL OF PERCH ...... 42 

PREMAXILLARY, MAXILLARY, AND DENTARY OF SALMON . 43 
GILL ARCHES ... .43 

OTOLITH OF CODFISH ...... 44 



CHAPTER I. 



LOCAL AND POPULAR NAMES, 



T^HIS list contains all the names commonly borne by the 
British fishes. It will be noticed that some fishes have many 
names, and many have the same name, so that to be sure of 
the fish it would be as well to refer to all the numbers in 
cases where two or more are given, The numbers refer to the 
coloured plates, and are those adopted throughout. 



Albacore, 27 


Bass, Stone, 6 


Blens, 127 


Ale-wife, 193 


Bastard Rig, 225 


Blick, 182 


Allis Shad, 193 


Bastard Turbot, 152 


Blin, 127 


Anchovy, 189 


Bearded Loach, 184 


Blob-Kite, 136 


Ancient Wife, 106 


Beardie, 184 


Bloch's Topknot, 154 


Angel Shark, 237 


Becker, 18 


Blockin, 131 


Angler, 47 


Bergylt, 19 


Blue Back, 13] 


Argentine, 188 


Bib, 127 


Blue Cap, 196 


Armed Gurnard, 59 


Bil, 131 


Blue Lump, 60 


Atherines, 83, 84 


Billet, 181 


Blue Poll, 197 


Axillary Bream, 16 


Billiard, isi 


Blue Roach, 174 


Azurine, 174 


Black Bream, 10 


Blue Shark, 222 


Baggie, 178 


Blackfish, 31 


Blue Skate, 238 


Baggit, 178 


Black Jack, 131 


Boarflsh, 28 


Ballan Wrasse, 104 


Black Nun, 131 


Boger, 13 


Banestickle, 9195 


Black Pollack, m 


Bogue, 11 


Banny, 178 


Blacksmith, 149 


Bollen, 104 


Banstickle, 91-95 


Bladefish, 22 


Bone Dog, 233 


Barbel, 172 


Blain, 127 


Bonetickle, 91 -95 


Barbott, 136 


Blaze, 182 


Bonito, 41 


Barce, 9195 


Bleak, 182 


Bonito, Belted, 42 


Barmy, 91-95 


Bleck, 131 


Bonito, Plain, 43 


Barncock, 151 


Blennies, 75-82 


Bonnet Fleuk, 152 


Barse, 1 


Blenny, Butterfly, 79 


Bottling, 175 


Barwin, 14 


Blenny, Montagu's, 77 


Bounce, 231 


Base, i 


Blenny, Smooth, 78 


Boyer's Atherine, 84 


Basking Shark, 228 


Blenny, Viviparous, 82 


Bragay, 127 


Bass, 2 


Blenny, Yarreil's, 80 


Braise, 174 



LOCAL AND POPULAR NAMES. 



Braize, 18 
Brassie, 127 
Bream, Axillary, 16 
Bream, Black, 10 
Bream, Couch's Sea, 12 
Bream, Lake, ISO 
Bream, Ray's, 32 
Bream, Sea, 14 
Bream, Spanish, 15 
Bream, White, 181 
Bream, Yellow, ISO 
Briabot, 47 
Brill, 152 
Broad-nosed Pipe Fish, 

114 

Brown Shark, 229 

Bubalis, 50 

Bullhead, 48 

Bullhead, Sea, 49 

Bull Huss, 231 

Bull Knob, 43 

Bull Trout, 198 

Buntlings, 196 

Burbolt, 136 

Burbot, 136 

Burton Skate, 240 

Butterfish, 81 

Butter Gunnel, 81 

Callig, 132 

Captain, Long-finned, 57 

Carf, 33 

Carp, 14, 169 

Carp Bream, 180 

Carp, Crucian, 170 

Carp, Golden, 171 

Carter, 155 

Cat, 75 

Catfish, 75, 142, 231 

Cat, Sea, 75 

Centrolophus, Cornish, so 

Chad, 13 

Char, Alpine, 206 

Char, American, 212 

Char, Cole's, 211 

Char, Gray's, 210 

Char, Killin, 209 

Char, Welsh, 207 

Char, WUlughby's, 208 

Char, Windermere, 203 

Chars, 206-212 



Chevin, 175 

Chimsera, 221 

Chub, 175 

Coalfish, 131 

Coalsey, 131 

Cock Paddle, 60 

Cock Peddle, GO 

Cod, 125 

Codling, 125 

Codpole, 48 

Colmey, 131 

Comber, 4 

Conger, 167 

Conner, 2, los 

Cony Fish, 136 

Cooth, 131 

Corkwing, 109 

Cornish Salmon, 133 

Cornish Sucker, 99 

Cottus, Four-horned, 51 

Couch's Sea Bream, 12 

Craig Fluke, 159 

Croonack, 55 

Crooner, 55 

Crowger, 170 

Crutchet, 1 

Cuckoo, 107 

Cuckoo Gurnard, 53 

Cuckoo Ray, 247 

Cuckoo Skate, 247 

Cudden, 340 

Cull, 48 

Culls, Tom, 48 

Dab, 160 

Dab, Lemon, 158 

Dab, Long Rough, 150 

Dab, Pole, 159 

Dab, Smear, 158 

Dace, 176 

Dace, Salmon, 2 

Dace, Sea, 2 

Daddy Ruffe, 4 

Dare, 176 

Dart, 176 

Darwin Herring, 193 

Deal Fish, 102 

Dentex, 7 

Derbio, 27 

Devil, Sea, 49 

Dog, Ray-mouthed, 225 



Dog Fish, 233 

Dog Fish, Black-mouthed, 

232 

Dog Fish, Large Spotted, 

231 

Dog Fish, Picked, 233 
Dog Fish, Spotted, 230 
Doggar, 233 
Dory, 29 

Dragonet, Sordid, 73 
Dragonets, 72, 73 
Dusky Dragonet, 72, 73 
Dusky Perch, 5 
Dusky Skulpin, 72 
Eagle Ray, 250 
Echiodon, Drummond's, 

144 

Eckstrom's Topknot, 153 

Eel, 166 

Eel Pout, 82, 136 

Eel, Sand, 145147 

Egling, 1 

Electric Ray, 248 

Elleck, 53 

Faap, 87 

Father Lasher, 49 

Fiddle-Fish, 237 

Fiddler, 237 

Fiery Flaw, 252 

File Fish, 121 

Finscale, 177 

Fire Flare, 252 

Fishing Frog, 47 

Flair Tinker, 238 

Fleck, 161 

Fleuk, Long, 150 

Flounder, 161 

Fluke, Craig, 159 

Fluke, Pole, 159 

Fluke, Sail, 155 

Flying Fishes, 89, 90 

Forkbeard, Greater, 

134 

Forkbeard, Lesser 141 

Forked Hake, 134 

Fox, 72 

Fox Shark, 227 

Frasling, i 

Freshwater Herring, 215 

Friar, 61 



LOCAL AND POPULAR NAMES. 



Friar Skate, 240 
Frog Fish, Gl 
Fuller's Ray, 242 
Gape Mouth, 2 
Gaper, 4 
Garfish, 87 
Gar Pike, 87 
Garrick, 87 
Gedd, 185 

Gemmeous Dragonet, 72 
Gillaroo Trout, 204 
Gillerow, 204 
Gilpin, 131 
Gilthead, is, 108 
Glassan, 131 
Glissaun, 131 
Globe Fish, 122 
Glosong, 131 
Gobies, 63-71 
3oby, Black, 65 
Goby, Four-spotted, 69 
Goby, One-spotted, GG 
Goby, Painted, 68 
Goby, Rock, 65 
Goby, Speckled, 67 
Goby, Spotted, 67 
Goby, Transparent, 70 
Goby, Two-spotted, G3 
Golden Carp, 171 
Golden Maid, 108 
Goldfish, 171 
Goldsinny, 108 
Goldsinny, Jago's, no 
GorebUl, 87 
Gosnick, 88 
Gowdie, 55 
Gowdnock, 88 
Grayling, 218 
Greater Flying Fish, 89 
Greenback, 87 
Greenbone, 87 
Green Cod, 131 
Greenftsh, 132 
Greenland Shark, 235 
Greenling, 132 
Green Pollack, 131 
Green Wrasse, 100 
Grey Mullet, 85 
Grilse, 195 
Ground Gudgeon, 134 



Groundling, 65, 184 
Guard Fish, 87 
Gudgeon, 173 
Gudgeon, Ground, 184 
Gudgeons, Sea, 63-71 
Gundie, 49 
Gunnel, Butter, 81 
Gunnel, Spotted, 81 
Gunner, 14 
Gurnard, Armed, 59 
Gurnard, Grey, 55 
Gurnard, Lanthorn, 57 
Gurnard, Red, 53 
Gurnard, Rock, 52 
Gurnard, Sapphirine, 54 
Gurnard, Shining, 57 
Gurnard, Streaked, 52 
Gurnard, Swallow, 54 
Gurnards, 5259 
Gwyniad, 215 
Hackle, 91-95 
Haddock, 126 
Haddock, Jerusalem, 33 
Haddock, Norway, 19 
Hairtail, 22 
Hake, 133 
Hake, Forked, 134 
Hake's Dame, 134 
Halibut, 149 
Halion, 88 
Hammerhead, 224 
Harbine, 131 
Hardhead, 55 
Hautin, 214 
Headed Dace, 175 
Hebridal Smelt, 219 
Herling, 196 
Herring, 190 
Hobrin, 231 
Hoe, 233 

Hog-backed Trout, 205 
Holibut, 149 
Homelyn, 244 
Hook Nose, 58 
Hornbeak, 87 
Horned Ray, 251 
Homer, 145 
Hornfish, 87 
Horse Mackerel, 24 
Hound, Nurse, 231 



Hound, Rough, 230 
Hound, Smooth, 225 
Hull Cock, 225 
Hurling, 1 

HUSS, 2.30 

Huss, Bull, 231 

Huss, Robin, 230 

Jack, 185 

Jack Barrel, 178 

Jack Ruffe, 4 

Jack Sharp, 178 

Jago's Goldsinny, no 

John Dory, 29 

Kelt, 195 

King of the Breams, 18 

King of the Herrings, 

221 

King of the Mullets, 2 
King Fish, 33 
Kingston, 227 
Kite, 152 
Knoud : 55 
Kuth, 131 
Laithe, 132 
Lake Bream, 180 
Lake Trout, 203 
Lant, 145 
Lantern, 155, 156 
Lanthorn Gurnard, 57 
Latchet, 54 
Launce, Larger, 145 
Launce, Lesser, 146 
Launce, Smooth, 147 
Launces, 145147 
Lee Loach, 184 
Leeat, 132 
Leet, 13-?. 
Lemon Dab, 153 
Lemon Sole, 150, 155, 158, 

163 

Lesser Grey Mullet, 86 
Ling, 135 
Little Sole, 165 
Livery Fish, 107 
Loach, 184 
Loach, Bearded, 18* 
i Loach, Lee, 184 
Loach, Spined, 183 
Lob, 175 
Loche, 184 



LOCAL AND POPULAR NAMES. 



Logge, Tommy, 48 
Loggerhead, i"5 
Long-finned Captain, 57 
Long Nose, 87 
Long-nosed Skate, 241,242 
Long Rough Dab, 150 
Loych, 184 
Luce, 185 
Lul, 185 
Lump Fish, 60 
Lump Sucker, 60 
Lythe, 132 
Mackerel, 36 
Mackerel Guide, 87 
Mackerel, Horse, 24 
Mackerel Midge, 137140 
Mackerel Scout, 87 
Mackerel, Spanish, 38 
Mackerel, Speckled, 37 
Maid, 194 
Maigre, 20 
Manta Fish, 251 
Monkfish, 237 
Mary Sole, 155 
Maties, 190 
Matties, 190 
May Skate, 240 
Meagre, 20 
Meaker, 178 
Megrim, 156 
Mengy, 178 
Mennad, 178 
Mennam, 178 
Mennard, 178 
Mennot, 178 
Mennous, 178 
Menuse, 178 
Merry Sole, 155 
Miller's Dog, 223 
Miller's Thumb, 48 
Muller's Topknot, 154 
Mill Skate, 250 
Minim, 178 
Minnis, 178 
Minnon, 178 
Minnow, 178 
Monkflsh, 47, 237 
Morgay, 230 
Moulrush, 331 
Mullet, Grey, 85 



Mullet, Lesser Grey, 80 
Mullet, Red, 8 
Mullet, Striped Red, 9 
Mullet, Unbearded, 52 
Mullet, White, 2 
Mursena, 168 
Murry, 168 
Nass Fish, 47 
Needle Fish, 115 
Ness Hound, 231 
Noggle-head, 48 
Northern Chimsera, 221 
Norway Haddock, 19 
Norwegian Carp, 19 
Nurse Dog, 231 
Nurse Hound, 231 
Oblong Sunflsh, 124 
Ocean Pipefish, lie 
Old Ewe, 106 
Old Wife, 10, 87, 106 
Opah, 33 

Ophidium, Bearded, 143 
Owl, Sea, 60 
Ox Ray, 251 
Ox Sole, 155 
Paddock, 141 
Paganellus, 64 
Painted Ray, 245 
Pandora, 18 
Par, 195 
Parr, 195 
Pearl, 152 
Peer, 178 
Pelamid, 42 
Penny Dog, 223 
Perch, i 
Perch, Dusky, 5 
Phinoc, 196 
Pickeral, 185 
Pickerell, 185 
Pickey, 131 
Pike, 185 
Pike Dog, 223 
Pike, Gar, 87 
Pike, Saury, 88 
Pike, Sea, 87 
Piked Dog, 233 
Pilchard, 191 
Pilot Fish, 26 
Piltock, 131 



Pincher, 219 

Pink, 178, 195 

Pipe Fish, Broad-nosed, 

114 

Pipe Fish, Deep-nosed, 

114 

Pipe Fish, Greater, 115 
Pipe Fish, Ocean, 116 
Pipe Fish, Shorter, 116 
Pipe Fish, Snake, 117 
Pipe Fish, Straight-nosed, 
117 

Pipe Fish, Worm, us 

Piper, 56 

Plaice, 157 

Pocket Fish, 47 

Pod, 185 

Podley, 131 

Pogge, 58 

Pole Dab, 159 

Polewig, 67 

Poll, 175 

Poll, Blue, 197 

Pollack, 132 

Pollack, Black, isi 

Pollack, Green, m 

Pollan, 217 

Pollard, 175 

Polly Bait, 67 

Poor Cod, 128 

Pope, s 

Porbeagle, 226 

Pout, Whiting, 127 

Poutassou, 130 

Pouting, 128 

Powan, 215 

Power, 128 

Prickleback, 91-95 

Pricky, 91-95 

Prussian Carp, 17 

Queen Sole, 155 

Quid, 219 

Rabbit Fish, 221 

Rainbow Wrasse, 113 

Rat, Sea, 221 

Ray, Blunt-nosed, 243, 214 

Ray, Cuckoo, 247 

Ray, Electric, 248 

Ray, Fuller's, 242 

Ray, Homed, 251 



LOCAL AND POPULAR NAMES. 



Ray, Long-nosed, 241 


Sand Eel, Lesser, 146 


Ray, Ox, 251 


Sand Eels, 145147 


Ray, Fainted, 245 


Sand Launces, 145147 


Ray, Shagreen, 212 


Sand Sucker, 150 


Ray, Spotted, 244 


Sapphirine Gurnard, 54 


Ray, Starry, 246 


Sardine, 101 


Ray, Sting, 252 


Saury Pike, 88 


Ray, Thornback, 243 


Scabbard Fish, 23 


Ray, Whip, 250 


Scad, 24 


Ray-mouthed Dog, 225 


Scadder, 190 


Ray's Bream, 32 


Scaldback, 156 


Red Band Fish, 74 


Scaldnsh, 155 


Red Eye, 177 


Scorpion, Sea, 49 


Red Fish, 53 


Scurf, 196 


Red Gurnard, 53 


Sea Bream, 14 


Red Lump, 60 


Sea Bream, Black, 10 


Red Mullet, 8 


Sea Bream, Couch's. 12 


Remora, 44 


Sea Bullhead, 49 


Ribbon Fish, 103 


Sea Crow, 55 


Rig, 223 


Sea Dace, 2 


River Bullhead, 48 


Sea Devil, 49 


Roach, 174 


Sea Fox, 227 


Roan Fleuk, 151 


Sea Gudgeons, 6371 


Robin Huss, 230 


Sea Horse, 119 


Rock Cook, 112 


Sea Needle, 87 


Rockling, Five-bearded, 


Sea Owl, 60 


137 


Sea Pert, 33 


Rockling, Four-bearded, 


Sea Pike, 87 


138 


Sea Rat, 221 


Rockling, Three-bearded, 


Sea Scorpion, 49 


139 


Sea Sheep, 20 


Rock Salmon, 75, 131 


Sea Snail, 01 


Roker, 238247, 250252 


Sea Snipe, 98 


Rotchet, 53 


Sea Toad, 49 


Roud, 177 


Sea Trout, 196 


Rough Dab, 150 


Sea Woodcock, 9 


Rough Hound, 230 


Seizling, 169 


Row Hound, 230 


Sewen, 199 


Rudd, 177 


Sewin, 199 


Rudder Fish, 26 


Shad, AUis, 193 


Ruff, 3 


Shad, Twait, 194 


Sail Fluke, 155 


Shadbrid, 178 


St. Mary's Trout, 139 


Shaftling, 91-95 


St. Peter's Fish, 29 


Shagreen Ray, 242 


Salmon, 195 


Shallow, 177 


Salmon, Cornish, 133 


Shanny, 78 


Salmon Dace, 2 


Shark, Basking, 228 


Salmon, Rock, 75, 131 


Shark, Blue, 222 


Salmon, White, 2 


Shark, Brown, 229 


Samlet, 195 


Shark, Fox, 227 



Shark, Greenland, 235 
Shark Ray, 237 
Shark, Skate-toothed, 225 
Shark, Spinous, 236 
Shark, Spotted, 230 
Sharks, 222-236 
! Sharpling, 9195 
Sharpnails, 9195 
Sillock, 131 
Silvery Gade, 139 
Skate, 238 
Skate, Blue, 238 
Skate, Burton, 240 
Skate, Cuckoo, 247 
Skate, Flapper, 239 
Skate, Grey, 233 
Skate, Long-nosed, 241 
Skate-toothed Shark, 225 
Skeet, 132 
Skelley, 175 
Skelly, 175 
Skipper, 88 
Skittle Dog, 233 
Skopster, 88 
Skulpin, Yellow, 72 
Skulpins, 72, 73 
Slip, 162 
Smear Dab, 158 
Smeareen, 150 
Smelt, 213 

Smelt, Hebridal, 219 
Smolt, 195 
Smooth Blenny, 78 
Smooth Hound, 225 
Smooth Sand Eel, H7 
Snail, Sea, 61 
Snake Pipe Fish, 117 
Snedden, 145 
Snig, 166 
Snipe, Sea, 98 
Soldier, 53 
Sole, 162 
Sole, Lemon, 150, 155, 158, 

163 

Sole, Little, 165 
Sole, Merry, 155 
Sole, Ox, 155 
Sole, Red, 165 
Sole, Variegated, 164 
Sole, White, 155 



LOCAL AND POPULAR NAMES. 



Sole, Witch, 159 
Solenette, 165 
Sordid Dragonet, 73 
Spanish Bream, 15 
Spar Dog, 233 
Sparling, 213 
Spear Dog, 233 
Speckled Goby, 67 
Sprat, 192 
Sprod, 196 
Spur Dog, 233 
Spur Fish, 233 
Stand, 91-95 
Starry Ray, 246 
' Stickleback, Fifteen 

spiiied, 97 
Stickleback.Four-spined, 

95 
Stickleback, Half-armed 

93 

Stickleback, Nine-spined, 

96 

Stickleback, Rough- 
tailed, 92 

Stickleback, Smooth- 
tailed, 94 

Stickleback, Three- 
spined, 91 

Sticklebacks, 9197 

Stickling, 1, 91-95 

Sting-Bull, 45 

Sting Ray, 252 

Sting Fish, 46, 49 

Stinkalive,^i27 

Stinkard, 225 

Stitchling, 1 

Stone Bass, 6 

Stonebiter, 75 

Stone dagger, 60 

Stone Loach, 184 

Striped Red Mullet, 9 

Striped Wrasse, 107 

Sturgeon, 220 

Sucker Common, 100 

Sucker Cornish, 99 

Sucker, Doubly-spotted, 
101 

Sucker, Lump, 60 

Sucker, Montagu's, 62 

Sucker, Unctuous, 61 



Sucking Fish, Diminu- 
tive, 62 
Sunfish, 33, 123, 228 

Sunflsh, Oblong, 124 
Sweet William, 223 
Swordflsh, 21, 81 
Tadpole Fish, m 
Tailor, 181 
Tanticle, 9195 
Tench, 179 
Thickback, 164 
Thornback Ray, 243 
Thrasher, 227 
Tiddler, 9195, 178 
Tinker, 96 
Titler, 91-95 
Tittle Bat, 91-95 
Toad, Sea, 49 
Tom Culls, 48 
Tom Hay, 223 
Tommy Bars, 3 
Tommy Loach, 184 
Tommy Logge, 48 
Tommy Lurcher, 184 
Tompot, 76 
Tope, 223 
Toper, 223 

Topknot, Bloch's, 154 
Topknot, Eckstrom's, 153 
Topknot, Muller's, 154 
Torgoch, 307 
Torpedo, 248 
Torsk, 142 
Trasling, l 
Trigger Fish, 120 
Trout, Brook, 201 
Trout, Bull, 198 
Trout, Cornish, 205 
Trout, Crasspuill, 196 
Trout, Estuary, 196 
Trout, Gillaroo, 204 
Trout, Great Lake, 203 
Trout, Grey, 202 
Trout, Hog-backed, 205 
Trout, Lake, 203 
Trout, Leven, 200 
Trout, Loch Leven, 200 
Trout, Orkney, 202 
Trout, River, 201 
Trout, St. Mary's, 139 



Trout, Sea, 196 
Trout, Swaledale, 196 
Trout, White, 196 
Truff, 196 
Trumpet Fish, 98 
Tub Fish, 54 
Tunny, 39 

Tunny, Long-finned, 40 
Tunny, Short-finned, 39, 

42 

Turbot, 151 
Tusk, 142 
Twait Shad, 194 
Umber, 218 
Vendace, 216 
Viviparous Blenny, 82 
Water Wolf, iss 
Weever, Greater, 45 
Weever, Viper, 46 
Whaup Fish, 87 
Whiff, 154, 155 
Whip Ray, 250 
Whistle Fish, 139 
Whitebait, 67, 87, 91, 92, 

93, 94. 95, 96, 97, 145, 
146, 147. 190, 192, 213 

White Bream, isi 
White Eye, 128 
Whitefish, 196 
White Hound, 223 
Whiting, 129, 132 
Whiting Pout, 127 
Whitling, 196 
Willow Blade, 182 
Witch Sole, 159 
Wolf Fish, 75 
Woodcock, 9, 98 
Workhouse Turbot, 149 
Worm Pipe Fish, 118 
Wrasse, Ballan, 104 
Wrasse, Baillon's, 108 
Wrasse, Comber, 105 
Wrasse, Green, 106 
Wrasse, Rainbow, 113 
Wrasse, Red, 107 
Wrasse, Scale-Rayed, ill 
Wrasse, Striped, 107 
Wrasses, 104-113 
Wriggle, 145, 146 
Yawling, 190 



THE COLOURED PLATES. 



CHAPTER II. 



THE COLOURED PLATES, 



IN this list of the fishes appearing in our coloured plates 
the popular names are those which seem to be generally 
applied to them, but in many . cases the fish may have other 
names, and in several the name given is, in a few localities, 
that of quite a different fish. Where no popular name is added 
the fish is too rare in this country to have one. 



TELEOSTOMI. 



ACTINOPTERYGII. 



ACANTHOPTERYGII. 
PERCiaK. 

Plate I. i. PERCA FLUVIATILIS Perch 

2. LABRAX LUPUS Bass. 

3. ACERINA VULGARIS Ruff. 

4. SERRANUS CABRILLA Comber 

5. SERRANUS GIGAS Dusky Perch. 

6. POLYPRION CERNIUM Stone Bass. 

7. DENTEX VULGARIS-Dentex. 

MULLIDA;. 

Plate IL 8. MULLUS BARBATUS-Red Mullet. 

9. MULLUS SURMULLETUS Striped Mullet. 



SPAFJD-ffi. 

10. CANTHARUS LINEATUS Black Sea Bream, 
it. BOX VULGARIS Bogue. 
12. PAGRUS VULGARIS Couch's Sea Breim. 



8 



THE COLOURED PLATES. 



PLATE II. (continued) 

13. PAGRUS AURATUS Gilt-head. 

14. PAGELLUS CENTRODONTUS Sea Bream. 

15. PAGELLUS BOGARAVEO -Spanish Bream. 

16. PAGELLUS OWE Nil Axillary Bream. 
Plate III. 17. PAGELLUS ACARNE 

18. PAGELLUS ERYTHRINUS Pandora 



SCORP^NHXffi, 

19. SEBASTES NORVEGICUS Bergylt. 



20. SCIjENA AQUILA Shadow Fish. 

XIPHIIDJE. 

21. XIPHIAS GLADIUS-Swordfish 



TRICHIURID.E. 



23- 



TRICHIURUS LEPTURUS Hairtail. 
LEPIDOPUS CAUDATUS Scabbard Fish. 



CARANGIDJE. 

Plate IV. 24. CARANX TRACHURUS Horse Mackerel 

25. NAUCRATES DUCTOR Pilot Fish. 

26. PAMMELAS PERCIFORMIS Rudder Fish. 

27. LICHIA GLAUCA Derbio. 

28. CAPROS APER Boar Fish. 



CYTTIDJE. 

29. ZEUS FABER Dory 



Plate V. 



STROMATEIDJE. 



CENTROLOPHUS BRITANNICUS Cornish Centrolophus. 
CENTROLOPHUS POMPILUS Black Fish. 



32. BRAMA RAII Ray's Bream. 

33. LAMPRIS LUNA Opah. 

34. SCHEDOPHILUS MEDUSOPHAGUS 

35. LUVARUS IMPERIALIS 



X. -Ll^il El <J 




PLATE 8 



S 




PI, ATE 12 




PLATE 




JTJ-i/41. Ei it I 




PLATE 26 




PLATE 27 




PLATE 




PLATE 81 




5 



* ** 



m 



248 




252 




THE COLOURED PLATES. 

SCOMBRIDJE. 

Plate VI. 36. SCOMBER VERNALIS Mackerel. 

37- SCOMBER PUNCTATUS Speckled Mackerel. 

38. SCOMBER COLIAS Spanish Mackerel. 

39- ORCYNUS THYNNUS-Short-finned Tunny. 

40. ORCYNUS GERMO Long-finned Tunny. 

41. THYNNUS PELAMYS Bonito. 

42. PELAMYS SARDA Belted Bonito. 
43- AUXIS ROCHEI Plain Bonito. 

Plate VII. 44- ECHENEIS REMORA Remora. 



TRACHINIDJE. 

45- TRACHINUS DRACO Greater Weevef. 
46. TRACHINUS VIPERA Viper Weever. 



LOPHIID^. 

47- LOPHIUS PISCATORI US-Angler. 



Plate VIII. 



COTTID.S. 

48. COTTUS GOBIO Miller's Thumb. 

49- COTTUS SCORPIUS Father Lasher. 

50. COTTUS BUBALIS Long-spined Cottus. 

51. COTTUS QUADRICORNUS-Four-horned Cottus. 

52. TRIGLA LINEATA Streaked Gurnard. 

53- TRIGLA CUCULUS Red Gurnard. 

54- TRIGLA HIRUNDO Sapphirine Gurnard. 

55- TRIGLA GURNARDUS Grey Gurnard. 
56. TRIGLA LYRA Piper. 

57- TRIGLA OBSCURA Lanthorn Gurnard. 



DACTYLOPTERIDJE. 

58. 
59- 



AGONUS CATAPHRACTUS Pogge. 
PERISTETHUS CATAPHRACTUM Armed Gurnard. 



Plate IX. 



CYCLOPTERHXE. 

60. CYCLOPTERUS LUMPUS Lump Fish. 

61. LIPARIS VULGARIS-Sea Snail. 

62. LIPARIS MONTAGUI Montagu's Sucker. 

GOBinXS. 

63. GOBIUS RUTHENSPARRI-Two-spotted Goby. 

64. GOBIUS PAGANELLUS Paganellus. 

65. GOBIUS NIGER-Rock Goby. 

66. GOBIUS MINUTUS-One-spotted Goby 



10 

PLATE IX. (continued) 
67. 



THE COLOURED PLATES. 



GOBIUS PARNELLI Speckled Goby. 

68. GOBIUS PICTUS Painted Goby. 

69. GOBIUS QUADRIMACULATUS-Four-spotted Goby. 

70. APHIA PELLUCIDA Transparent Goby. 

71. CRYSTALLOGOBIUS NILSSONII 



CALLIONYMHXE. 



CALLIONYMUS LYRA Dusky Skulpin. 
CALLIONYMUS MACULATUS-Sordid Dragonet. 



CEPOLIDJE. 

74. CEPOLA RUBESCENS Red Band Fish. 

BLENNIID^. 

Plate X. 75- ANARRHICHAS LUPUS Cat Fish. 

76. BLENNIUS GATTORUGINE Tompot. 

77. BLENNIUS GALERITA Montagu's Blenny. 

78. BLENNIUS PHOLIS Shanny. 

79. BLENNIUS OCELLARIS Butterfly Benny. 

80. CARELOPHUS ASCANII Yarrell's Blenny. 

81. CENTRONOTUS GUNNELLUS Butter Fish. 

82. ZOARCES VIVIPARUS-Viviparous Blenny. 

ATHERINID^. 

83. ATHERINA PRESBYTER-Atherine. 

84. ATHERINA BOYERI Boyer's Atherine. 

MUGILID^E. 

Plate XL 85. MUGIL CAPITO Grey Mullet. 

86. MUGIL CHELO Lesser Grey Mullet. 

SCOMBRESOCID^. 

87. BELONE VULGARIS Garfish. 

88. SCOMBRESOX SAURUS Skipper. 

89. EXOCGETUS VOLITANS Greater Flying Fish. 

90. EXOCCETUS EVOLANS Flying Fish. 



GASTEROSTEID^E. 

Plate XII. 91. GASTEROSTEUS ACULEATUS Three-spined Stickleback. 

92. GASTEROSTEUS TRACHURUS Rough-tailed Stickleback. 



93. 
94. 
95. 
96. 
97. 



GASTEROSTEUS SEMIARMATUS Half-armed Stickleback 

GASTEROSTEUS GYMNURUS Smooth-tailed Stickleback. 

GASTEROSTEUS SPINULOSUS Four-spined Stickleback. 

GASTEROSTEUS PUNGITIUS Nine-spined Stickleback. 

GASTEROSTEUS SPINACHIA Fifteen-spined Stickleback. 



THE COLOURED PLATES. II 

PLATE XII. (continued) 

CENTRISCIDJE. 

98. CENTRISCUS SCOLOPAX-Trumpet Fish. 

GOBIESOCHXE. 
Plate XIII. 99. LEPADOGASTER GOUANII Cornish Sucker. 

100. LEPADOGASTER DECANDOLLII Sucker. 

101. LEPADOGASTER BIMACULATUS Doubly-spotted Sucker. 

TRACHYPTERIDJE. 

102. TRACHYPTERUS ARCTICUS Deal Fish. 

103. REGALECUS BANKS 1 1 Ribbon Fish. 

LABRIDJE. 

104. LABRUS M AC ULATUS Dalian Wrasse. 

105. LABRUS DONOVANI Comber Wrasse. 
XIV. 106. LABRUS LI NEATUS Green Wrasse. 

107. LABRUS MIXTUS Striped Wrasse. 

108. CRENILABRUS MELOPS Conner. 

' 109. CRENILABRUS CORNUBICUS Goldsinny. 

no. CTENOLABRUS RUPESTRIS Jago's Goldsinny. 

in. ACANTHOLABRUS PALLONI Scale-rayed Wrasse. 

112. CENTROLABRUS EXOLETUS-Rock Cook. 

113. CORIS JULIS Rainbow Wrasse. 



LOPHOBRANCHII. 

SYNGNATHIRE. 

Plate XV. 114. SIPHONOSTOMA TYPHLE Broad-nosed Pipe Fish. 

115. SYNGNATHUS ACUS Greater Pipe Fish. 

116. NEROPHIS ^QUOREUS Ocean Pipe Fish. 

117. NEROPHIS OPHIDION Straight-nosed Pipe Fish. 

118. NEROPHIS LUMBRICIFORMIS Worm Pipe Fish. 

119. HIPPOCAMPUS ANTIQUORUM Seahorse. 

PLECTOGNATHI. 

BALISTIRE. 

120. BALISTES MAC ULATUS Trigger Fish. 

121. BALISTES CAPRISCUS File Fish. 

DIODONTIDJE. 

122. TETRODON LAGOCEPHALUS-Globe Fish. 

123. ORTHAGORISCUS MOLA Sun Fish. 

124. ORTHAGORISCUS TRUNCATUS Oblong Sun Fish. 



12 



THE COLOURED PLATES. 



ANACANTHINI. 

GADID.E. 

Plate XVI. 125. GADUS MORRHUA-Cod. 

126. GADUS ^GLEFINUS Haddock 

127. GADUS LUSCUS Whiting Pout. 

128. GADUS M IN UTUS Power. 

129. GADUS MERLANGUS Whiting. 
Plate XVII. 130. GADUS POUTASSOU Couch's Whiting. 

131. GADUS VIRENS Coal Fish. 

132. GADUS POLLACHIUS Pollack. 

133. MERLUCCIUS VULGARIS-Hake. 

134. PHYCIS BLENNOIDES Greater Forkbeard. 

135. MOLVA VULGARIS Ling. 
Pllte XVIII. 136. LOTA VULGARIS-Burbot. 

137. MOTELLA MU STELA Five-bearded Rockling. 

138. MOTELLA CIMBRIA Four-bearded Rockling. 

139. MOTELLA TRICIRRATA Three-bearded Rockling. 

140. MOTELLA MACROPHTHALMA 

141. RANICEPS RAMINUS Lesser Forkbeard. 
143. BROSMIUS BROSME Torsk. 



143- OPHIDIUM BARBATUM Bearded Ophidium. 

144. FIERASFER DENTATUS Drummond's Echiodon. 

Plate XIX. 145- AMMODYTES LANCEOLATUS Sand Eel. 

146. AMMODYTES TOBIANUS Lesser Sand Eel. 

147. AMMODYTES CICERELLUS-Smooth Sand Eel. 

MACRURID. 

148. CORYPH^NOIDES RUPESTRIS 



PLEURONECTinS. 

149. HIPPOGLOSSUS VULGARIS Halibut. 

150. HIPPOGLOSSOIDES LIMANDOIDES Long Rough Dab, 

151. RHOMBUS MAXIMUS Turbot. 
Plate XX. 152. RHOMBUS LJEVIS Brill. 

153. ZEUGOPTERUS UNIMACULATUS-One-spotted Topknot 

154. ZEUGOPTERUS PUNCTATUS Browny. 

155. LEPIDORHOMBUS M EG ASTO MA Megrim. 

156. ARNOGLOSSUS LATERNA Scald Fish. 

157. PLEURONECTES PLATESSA Plaice. 

Plate XXI. 158. PLEURONECTES MICROCEPHALUS Lemon Sole, 

159. PLEURONECTES CYNOGLOSSUS Witch. 

160. PLEURONECTK5J LIMANDA Dab. 



THE COLOURED PLATES. 



PLATE XXI. (continued) 



161. PLEURONECTES FLES US Flounder. 

162. SOLEA VULGARIS-Sole. 

163. SOLEA LASCARIS-Sand Sole. 

164. SOLEA VARIEGATA Thickback. 

165. SOLEA LUTEA-Solenette. 



PHYSOSTOMI. 



Plate XXII- 166. ANGUILLA VULGARIS-Eel. 

167. CONGER VULGARIS-Conger. 

168. MUR^ENA HELENA Murry. 



CYPR1NID-S. 

169. CYPRINUS CARPIO-Carp. 

170. CARASSIUS VULGARIS Crucian Carp. 

171. CARASSIUS AURATUS Gold Fish. 

172. BARBUS VULGARIS Barbel. 

173. GOBIO FLUVIATILIS Gudgeon. 
Plate XXIII. 174. LEUCISCUS RUTILUS-Roach. 

175. LEUCISCUS CEPHALUS Chub- 

176. LEUCISCUS VULGARIS Dace. 

177. LEUCISCUS ERYTHROPHTHALMUS Rudd. 

178. LEUCISCUS PHOXINUS-Minnow. 

179. TINCA VULGARIS Tench. 

180. ABRAMIS BRAMA Bream. 

181. ABRAMIS BLICCA White Bream. 

182. ALBURNUS LUCIDUS Bleak. 

183. COBITIS T^NIA Spiny Loach. 

184. NEMACHILUS BARBATU LA Loach. 



ESOCID. 
Plate XXIV. 185. ESOX LUCIUS-Pike 

SCOPELHXS. 

185. PARALEPIS COREGONOIDES 



STERNOPTYCHIDJE. 

187. ARGYROPELECUS HEMIGYMNUS 

188. MAUROLICUS PENNANTII-Pearlsides. 



THE COLOURED PLATES. 



PLATE XXIV. (continued) 
CLUPEID^. 



189. 
190. 
igi. 
192. 
193- 
194. 



ENGRAULIS ENCRASICHOLUS Anchovy, 
CLUPEA HARENGUS Herring. 
CLUPEA PILCHARDUS Pilchard. 
CLUPEA SPRATTUS Sprat. 
CLUPEA ALOSA Allis Shad. 
CLUPEA FINTA Twait Shad. 



SALMONID^. 

Plate XXV. 195. SALMO SALAR Salmon. 

196. SALMO TRUTTA Sea Trout. 

197. SALMO ALDUS Blue Poll. 

198. SALMO ERIOX Bull Trout. 

199. SALMO CAMBRICUS Sewen. 

200. SALMO LEVENENSIS Loch Leven Trout. 

201. SALMO FARIO Trout. 

Plate XXVI. 202. SALMO ORCADENSIS Grey Trout. 

203. SALMO FEROX Lake Trout. 

204. SALMO STOMACHICUS Gillaroo Trout. 

205. SALMO NIGRIPINNIS Hog-backed Trout. 

206. SALMO ALPINUS Alpine Char. 

207. SALMO PERISH Torgoch. 

208. SALMO WILLUGHBII Windermere Char. 

209. SALMO KILLINENSIS Killin Char. 

210. SALMO GRAYI Gray's Char. 

211. SALMO COLII Cole's Char. 

212. SALMO FONTINALIS American Char. 
Plate XXVII. 213. OSMERUS EPERLANUS Smelt. 

214. COREGONUS OXYRHYNCHUS Hautin. 

215. COREGONUS CLUPEOIDES Gwyniad. 

216. COREGONUS VANDESIUS Vendace. 

217. COREGONUS POLLAN Pollan. 

218. THYMALLUS VULGARIS Grayling. 

219. ARGENTINA SPHYR.EN A Argentine. 

CHONDROSTEI. 

ACIPENSERID.E. 

220. ACIPENSER STU RIO Sturgeon. 



HOLOCEPHALL 



CHIMJERIDJE. 

221. CHIMERA MONSTROSA Chimsera. 



THE COLOURED PLATES. 

ELASMOBRANCHII. 

SELACHOIDEI. 

CARCHARIID.E. 

Plate XXVIII. 222. CARCHARIAS GLAUCUS Blue Shark. 

223. GALEUS VULGARIS Tope. 

224. ZYG^NA MALLEUS Hammerhead. 

225. MUSTELUS VULGARIS-Smooth Hound. 

LAMNID^. 

226. LAMNA CORNUBICA Porbeagle. 
Plate XXIX. 227. ALOPECIAS VULPES Thrasher 

228. SELACHE MAXIMA Basking Shark. 

NOTIDANID^. 

229. NOTIDANUS GRISEUS Brown Shark. 



SCYLLIIDJE. 

230. SCYLHUM CANICU LA Rough Hound. 
Plate XXX. 231. SCYLLIUM CATULUSNurse Hound. 

232. PRISTIURUS MELANOSTOM US Black-mouthed Dog Fish. 

SPINACID^. 

233. ACANTHIAS VULGARIS Spur Dog Fisln 

234. L^EMARGUS BOREALIS Greenland Shark. 
Plate XXXI. 235- CENTRINA SALVIANI- 

236. ECHINORHINUS SPINOSUS Spinous Shark. 

SQUATINID^. 

237. RHINA SQUATINA Monk Fish. 



BATOIDEI. 

RAIIDJE. 

238. RAIA BATIS-Skate. 

239. RAIA MACRORHYNCHUS Flapper Skate. 

240. RAIA ALBA White Skate. 

Plate XXXII. 241. RAIA OXYRHYNCHUS Long-nosed Skate. 

242. RAIA FULLONICA Shagreen Ray. 

243. RAIA CLAVATA Thornback. 



16 THE COLOURED PLATES. 

PLATE XXXII. (continued)- 

244. RAIA MACULATA Spotted Ray. 

245. RAIA MICROCELLATA Painted Ray,' 

246. RAIA RADIATA Starry Ray. 
Plate XXXIII. 247. RAIA CIRCULARIS-Cuckoo Ray. 

TORPEDINID-E. 

248. TORPEDO MOBILIANA Torpedo. 

249. TORPEDO MARMORATA Marbled Torpedo, 

MYLIOBATIDJE. 

250. MYLIOBATIS AQUILA Whip Ray. 

251. CEPHALOPTERA GIORN^-Ox Ray. 

TRYGONIDJE. 

252. TRVGON PASTINACA Sting Ray. 



CHAPTER III. 

SORTATION, 



'"PHERE is no better way of knowing a fish than by a personal 
* introduction, in which a sufficient acquaintanceship is made 
to enable it to be recognised whenever and wherever it may 
chance to be met with. But as an introducer is not always 
available, and there are over two hundred and fifty fishes claimed 
as British, it is evident that to know them by name another means 
must be adopted. Let us, therefore, take a familiar species, and, 
by ascertaining what it is not, discover what it is. 

In doing this, we need not at the present stage restrict our- 
selves to the systematic distinctions which, in many cases, concern 
themselves with internal structure invisible without dissection. To 
begin with, let us avail ourselves of external characters, and, later 
on, use the systematic grouping to confirm our diagnosis. Here, 
then, is a fish, an ordinary fish, with nothing eccentric about it 
in colour, shape, or fins, a fish that is known in every kitchen, 
and comes to table with little alteration in its natural appearance. 
It is not a flat fish, but, as the term flat-fish is, as a rule, restricted 
to fishes like the sole and turbot, and does not include the skate and 
its allies, which are also undeniably flat, let us say that its body is 
vertical and not horizontal, the reference being to the position 
in the water of the middle section when fully grown. 

As we have lighted on these horizontal bodies, we may as well 
spend a few minutes with them, noting at the outset that they 
are divisible into two groups : 

1. Those like the sole. 

2. Those like the skate. 

In the second group, both eyes are on the upper surface, the 
mouth is on the under surface, and instead of gill covers like those 
in our example, there are mere slits. 

In one species on the British list, which happens to be the 
only representative of its genus and family, these slits are lateral, 
as they are in the sharks; in fact, this is an abnormal sort of 
shark, a peculiarly ugly animal unmistakable under any circum- 
stances, with a broad, flat body tapering gradually into the tail, 
the eyes very wide apart, and the paired fins large enough to be 
compared to the wings of an angel or the cowl of a monk, whence 
it is known as the angel-fish or monk-fish (Rhina squatina). 

With Rhina out of the way, we are left with the rays, of which 
the skate is the commonest kind. These have the gill openings 

17 



l8 SORTATION. 

"inferior," that is, on the under-side of the body, and they .ire 
divisible into two well-marked groups 

1. Those in which the tail has no longitudinal fold. 

2. Those in which the tail has a longitudinal fold. 

In both groups the back fin or " dorsal " is either placed on 
the tail or, as in one genus, is absent altogether. The genus 
having no dorsal belongs to the first group. It is Trygon, arid 
the only species found in British waters, and that not a frequent 
one, is T. pastinaca, the sting-ray, which has the long spine sticking 
out of the tail that has often done duty as a spear-head in the 
hands of Telegonus and others, it being a weapon to beware 
of, and much more curious to look at than pleasant to make 
acquaintance with. 

In the same small group are two genera, both comprising what 
are known as devil-fishes, in which the tail carries a dorsal fin. 
In one, Cephaloptera, that fin is between the ventrals ; in the other, 
Myliobatis, it is beyond the ventrals. Of each genus there is but 
one species on our list, and they are strikingly different in 
appearance, the first, C. giorncz, the ox-ray, having a stumpy tail 
behind and two horn-like projections on the head; the other, 
M. aquila, the whip-ray or eagle-ray, having a long whip-like tail, 
a projecting snout, and no horns. Both species attain large 
dimensions, but not in British waters; the whip-ray has been 
caught fifteen feet long, and the ox-ray runs larger, but not so 
large as another North Atlantic species, C. diabolus, which, off the 
coast of Florida, has swallowed an anchor as if it were a fish- 
hook, and swum out to sea with the luckless craft that only 
recovered its independence when its captor died. 

As we have talked about dorsals and slipped by ventrals without 
explanation, we had better pause for a moment for a few words 
on the fin question. The typical fish has two sets of fins, the 
unpaired or " vertical " or " median " fins, and the paired fins, 
which are the homologues of the limbs of the higher vertebrates, 
the " pectorals " answering to the arms and the " ventrals " to the 
legs. The ventrals are not happily named ; they shift their position 
considerably, and, as we shall subsequently find, their position is 
an important aid in identification. It is becoming customary to 
call them " pelvics," but, unfortunately, there is what is called 
a "fin formula" in icthyology D. P. V. A. C., in which D stands 
for dorsal, P for pectorals, V for ventrals, A for anal, and C for 
caudal, a formula which would be all the better were it to read 
D. A. C. P. V., as we have made it do further on, in which the 
vertical or body-fins come first, and the paired or limb-fins last. 
If we use pelvic instead of ventral we shall have two P's, and a 
source of confusion when comparing with previous books that has 
led us to retain the old style though preferring the new. 

In the earlier, as in many of the existing fishes, the vertical 
fins are all in one. In time the one continuous fin became divided 
up into " dorsal," the back fin ; " caudal," the tail fin; and " anal," 
the fin between the vent and the tail ; and in some cases the 
dorsal became divided into two or even three portions. Examples 



SORTATION. 






M 
SP 



20 



SORTATION. 



of all these stages are still found, and not only so, but in many 
cases one or other of the fins is rudimentary or absent, and in 
some they form an adhesive disk or sucker. 

The caudal fin is the fish's main propeller, with the paired fins 
he retains his trim, and the dorsal and anal he uses as a keel 

to keep him straight on his 
course. With his tail he docs 
most of his steering, but he 
brings in his pectorals to help 
him. A stroke of the tail to 
starboard and a stroke or two 
with the starboard pectoral, 
with the port pectoral held 
against the body, sends his 
head to port ; a stroke of the 
tail to port with a stroke or 
two of the port pectoral, and 
the starboard pectoral held 
in, sends him round to star- 
board; in fact, the pectoral 
thrown out of action serves 
as a pivot on which he turrs. 
Cut off a pectoral and he falls 
on the opposite side ; cut off 
both and his head sinks ; cut 
off all his fins and he capsizes, 
owing to his upper half beii g 
the heavier. 

On the other page we have 
(Fig. i) an outline sketch of 
the body of a perch with the 
backbone removed to show 
more clearly the fins and 
their attachments ; and here 
(Fig. 2) is an outline of one 
of the perch family Dentex 
showing the fins and the 
" lateral line " we shall meet 
with immediately. It will be 
noticed that the perch has two 
dorsals and the dentex only 
one, though the one has a 
depression between the spines 
and rays where the division 
is beginning. A fin may be 
defined as an expansion of the integument supported by radiating 
rods; when the rods are bony they are called "spines"; when 
they are cartilaginous they are known as " rays." A spine is 
always fairly stout and sharply pointed ; a ray is generally soft, 
and may be simple or articulated or branched, the branching 
taking the form shown in Fig. 3. 

Enough of this for the present. Let us return to our line of 
enquiry with the group in which the tail has a longitudinal fold. 




Fig. 2. LATERAL LINE (Dentex). 



SORTATION. 



21 




It contains but two genera. In one, Torpedo, the caudal is well 
developed, and the side fins, let us call them the wings, are 

almost semi-circular ; in 
the other, Raia, the tail 
fin is rudimentary or 
absent, and the wings 
Fig. S.-BRANCHED RAY. are angular. Of Torpedo 

we have only two species 

T. marmorata, the marbled torpedo, which is mottled or 
spotted, and T. nobiliana, the common torpedo, which is greyish, 
with or without a few blotches, the two being probably varieties 
of the same species coloured according to environment. These, 
it need hardly be mentioned, are the electric rays that have given 
their names to the submarine engines of destruction that in no 
way resemble them. 

A genus of greater importance, though perhaps of less interest, 
is Raia, which has ten representatives in British waters, divisible 
into two groups, five in each, those in which the snout is short 
and those in which it is long. Of the long-nosed rays, one only 
has the under-surface brownish, that being R. batis, the skate that 
is generally eaten, though several of the other species are equally 
edible and are frequently sold as substitutes, the rays being the 
chief constituents of the mysterious " roker " of the Billingsgate 
Market report. The other four consist of 
the long-nosed skate, R.oxyrliynchus, in which 
the lower surface is grey ; the flapper skate, 
R. tnacrorhynchus, in which it is white with 
black spots; the white skate, R. alba, in 
which it is pure white, there being no 
row of spines round the eye, but a central 
row of spines on the tail with a lateral row 
on each side of it ; and, finally, the sha- 
green ray, R. fullonica, in which the lower 
side is also white, and there is a row of 
spines round the eye but no middle row of spines on the tail. 
Two of the short-snouted rays are brown underneath R. radiata, 
the starry ray, in which the brown "is unspotted, and R. maculata> 
in which it is spotted with black. Three are white underneath, 
the most strikingly marked being the cuckoo-ray, R. circularis, in 
which the under surface is generally edged with black and the 
upper surface has a black and yellow patch on each side of the 

median line. The other two are both 
spiny, the painted ray, R. microccllata, 
having the spines confined to the median 
line, and the thornback, JR. clavata, 
having them all over the body ; and 
the spines are unmistakable, as can 
be seen by the sample (Fig. 4). 
They are almost as remarkable as 
the crushing-teeth, as shown in the 
diagram of those in the male's upper 
Fig. 5. UPPER JAW OF jaw (Fig. 5). 
MALE THORNBACK. We have now to devote our atten- 




Fig. 4. SCALE OF 
THORNBACK. 




SORTATION. 



tion to the flat-fish generally so called. As the skates pass 
through a shark stage in early life, so the flat-fish start as 
very thin youngsters swimming the ordinary way up, with their 
mouths like those of other fishes and their eyes in the normal 
places, one on each side of the head ; but apparently, failing 
to thrive under these conditions, they betake themselves to the 
ground, where their exposed part takes on the colour of their 
surroundings and their head turns over so as to bring both eyes on 
the top, and, in some cases, their mouth becomes more developed 
on one side than the other. 

In some cases they have subsided to the right, in others to the 
left, and by this we know them. Holding them head foremost 
towards us we have 

1. Eyes to the left. 

2. Eyes to the right. 

In the "eyes left " division are four genera. One, Arnoglossus, will 
be found to have a couple of spines behind the left ventral ; there 
being but one species, A. laterna, the scald-fish or 
scald- back, so called from its skin rubbing off in 
the trawl, as if it had been scalded. In the 
other genera there are no spines behind the 
ventrals. In one of them the tail is conspicuously 
long, the fin by itself being the same length as the 
distance between the ventral and the tip of the 
snout ; this is Lepidorhombus, of which the only 
species is L. megastoma, the megrim, which has not 
only a large mouth but a large head and large eyes, 
i SCALE. anc j a g enera i appearance of truculency which is 
not prepossessing. The scales are " ctenoid," 
that is, have a comb-like arrangement of teeth on the hinder edge, 
much the same as that in the illustration (Fig. 6), which, however, 
was not grown on a " merlry sole," as the megrim is occasionally 
called on account of its activity when on a cruise. The other 
genera have short tails. One, Zeugopterus, has ctenoid scales ; the 
root of the tail is not free of the 
other fins, and the dorsal and ventrals 
are very long. There are two species, 
Z. unimaculatus and Z.punctatus,both 
known as topknots, the first being the 
one spotted, the other the browny. 
A third, known as the Norwegian 
topknot, seems to be a variety hardly 
worth mentioning, and, indeed, the 
topknots are of little importance 
compared with the next genus, 
Rhombus, which contains the turbot 
and the brill. The turbot, R. maximns, has no scales ; their 
place is taken by tubercles. The brill, R. lavis, has no tubercles, 
but small scales, which in shape are " cycloid," that is to say, have 
no comb-like serrations at the rear edge, and are concentrically 
striated, in much the same way as those in the illustration (Fig. 7), 




6. 




Fig. 7. CYCLOID SCALES. 



SORTATION. 23 

In the " eyes right " group there are also four British genera, 
divisible into two in which the jaws are alike on both sides, and 
two in which they are larger on the blind side. Those in which the 
jaws are similar on both sides are Hippoglossoides, represented by 
H. limandoides, the long, rough dab or lemon sole north of the 
Forth distinguished by the straight lateral line and rough scales, 
and, above all, by its size (which never exceeds a foot and a 
quarter) from Hippoghssus, in which the lateral line is curved, the 
scales smooth, and the size enormous, for its only British repre- 
sentative is H. vulgaris, the halibut, narrowest and largest of the 
flat-fish, which is commonly five feet long, and has been known to 
exceed twenty. 

The other two are Pleuronectes and Solea, the latter distinguished 
by having no teeth on the upper side, instead of a few feebly 
developed, by the snout projecting beyond the jaws, instead of the 
mouth being at the end of the snout, and by having a sort of beard 
of short projections from the skin on the under side of the head. 
Of Pleuronectes the species on our list are the flounder, P.flesus, with 
tubercles along the bases of the fins ; the dab, P. limanda, with a 
curved lateral line; the witch, P. cynoglossus, with no spots, the 
smear dab (another of the lemon soles), P. microcephalus, with dark 
spots, and the plaice, P. platessa, with orange spots, and having 
tubercles on the head. Some people are said not to know a turbot 
from a plaice ; they have only to remember that one has the eyes to 
the left, the other has the eyes to the right. Some are said not to 
know a sole from a lemon sole : the only way out of that difficulty is 
to know what a sole is like, the lemon sole being what may be called 
various, and generally but a somewhat distant relative. Of the soles 
there are only four species (i) the solenette, Solea lutea, which is 
not more than five inches long, never used for food, and has black 
rays, like stripes, on its fins ; (2) the thickback, 5. variegata, which 
is chestnut brown on the upper side, with five broad, dark bands ; 
(3) the sand sole (perhaps the original lemon sole), S^-kiscaris, which 
has the lower nostril larger than the other, and is orange in colour, 
with dots and specks ; and (4) the common sole, S. vulgaris, in 
which the nostrils are alike, and the colour blotchy brown, with a 
black spot at the outer end of the pectoral fin. To sum up our 
" eyes right " division, we stand thus : 

Jaws alike on both sides 

Lateral line straight Hippoglossoides, 
Lateral line curved Hippoglossus. 

Jaws not alike on both sides 

Mouth at end of snout Pleuronectes. 
Snout curving beyond mouth Solea. 

With the soles we end our list of horizontals, and are face to face 
with the many more verticals, to one of which our specimen belongs. 
These we can sort out at once according to their tails. 

There are half-a-dozen genera in the British list which are with- 
out a caudal fin ; to dispose of these is to clear the way. Their shape 
is enough to guide us. In two the body tapers from a large head ; 
these being Chimara, in which the tail becomes a long filament, and 



24 SORTATION. 

Zuarces, in which the dorsal has a low, penultimate section, as if 
half an inch had been bitten out of it close to the end. The chhnaera 
(C. monstrosa) has also a sort of nick near the end of the dorsal, but 
differs from the viviparous blenny (Z. viviparus) in having a similar 
nick in the anal beneath. One species is not likely to be mistaken 
for the other, as though the blenny is remarkable enough for bring- 
ing forth dozens of living young at a time, it is much more of a fish 
to look at than the chimaera, which is unlike anything else that 
swims, except it be another chimaera. 

Among other features it is noticeable for its pectorals, which are 
very large, and may be compared to a beard, and in this respect it 
contrasts well with our next genus, Nerophis, in which the pectorals 
are absent, and the body rounded, smooth, and worm-like, as might 
be expected of the pipe-fishes. In these the body is sheathed in 
bony rings. By the number of these rings we can identify the three 
species, N. cequoreus, the ocean pipe-fish, having from 28 to 31 and 56 to 
6 1 ; -N. ophidian, the straight-nosed pipe-fish, having 28 or 29 and 65 ; 
and N. lumbriciformis, the worm pipe-fish, having 18 or 19 and 49. 

Two genera are long, thin, and ribbon-shaped in build. These 
are Trichiurus, in which there are neither anals nor ventrals, and 
the tail thins off to so long a point that the name of hair-tail has 
been given to the only species, P. Upturns ; and Regalecus, in which 
the anal is absent, the ventrals are represented by a pair of long- 
loomed paddles, and the dorsal is furnished in front with a curved 
crest that can be compared to that of the cockatoo. Of this genus 
there is but one species, R. banksii, the ribbon-fish, or, from the 
paddles, Banks's oarfish. This gives us five genera, all of the 
grotesque school ; the sixth is Hippocampus, the sea-horse (H. anti- 
quorum), in which the head is joined on to the body by a neck, and 
the whole form is ridged and shaped in so quaint a way that every- 
one knows it, though most people fancy the sea-horse is about a 
dozen times larger than he really is. 

Our next division, that in which the vertical fins are continuous, 
include a few more out-of-the-way forms. Here come the two sun- 
fishes, Orthagoriscus, with their bulky bodies cut off short behind, as 
if they had lost their tail-end and grown a fringe on the stump. 
There is no doubt about these two one, the sun-fish, O. mola, with 
a rough skin and the hinder end rounded ; the other, the oblong 
sun-fish, O. truncatus, with a smooth skin and the hinder end straight 
each with the narrow dorsal and anal standing out like the back- 
fin of a porpoise; known at a glance, and easily seen, seldom less 
than two feet, and sometimes over eight feet long. Next to them we 
will place the Cornish sucker, Lepadogaster gouanii, four inches in 
length, and not always that, in which the median fins are much less 
disputably continuous, and the body is depressed in front and com- 
pressed behind, and has a sucking disk between the ventrals. Fol- 
lowing this we may as well get rid of Coryphcznoides rupestris, which 
has only been found once or twice in British waters. In this rare 
visitor the body tapers so sharply from a large head to a pointed 
tail, that the fish looks like a ten-inch tadpole. Yet one more 
curiosity in this group, the red band-fish, Cepola rubescens, long and 
thin, like half-a-yard of orange ribbon edged with a fringe and 
ending in a point. 



SORTATION. 



2 5 



This leaves us with the eels and the eel-like. In the eel-like the 
skin does not extend over the gill-covers ; in the eels it does. Of 
those in which the gill-covers are not hidden there are only 
Ophidium, in which the ventrals are represented by a pair of filaments, 

and Fierasfer, in which the ventrals 
are gone without any external 
traces. Of Ophidiunt only one 
British example is recorded, and 
of Fiemsfer only two, so that they 
are not likely to trouble the fisher- 
man. Of eels there are three 
species, each of a different genus. 
Murcena has no pectorals ; Conger 
and Anguilla are alike in having 




Fig. 8. CARDIFORM TEETH. 
(Conger,) 



rctorals, but in Conger, the upper jaw is the longer, and in Anguilla 
is shorter. The Mur&na is a rarity ; it is a rich purplish brown 
and yellow in colour. The other two eels are common enough ; the 
conger, much the larger and fiercer look at the " cardiform " teeth 
in his jaw, placed so closely together as to form a cutting edge (Fig. 
8) has always been assigned to one species, C . vulgaris, but the 
male and female eel were long assigned to two species or more, and 
have only of recent years been put in their right place. 




Fig. Q. HOMOCERCAL TAIL. 

The fishes that are left have well-defined tails, but it is apparent at 
once that these tails are of two different types, the majority having 
the lobes equal, but a by no means insignificant majority having 
one lobe much larger than the other. In the first group the tail is 
" homocercal," in the second it is "heterocercal." In Fig. 9 we 




Fig. 10. HETEROCERCAL TAIL. 

have a homocercal tail, and in Fig. i will be seen how this form is 
produced by the last of the caudal vertebrae articulating with the 
fan-shaped hypurals, which, with the neural and haemal extensions, 

c 



26 



SORTAT1ON. 



carry the rays of the caudal fin, so that the homocercal tail is only 
superficially symmetrical after all. Compare this with the other 
type sketched in Fig. 10, in which the backbone is continued to the 
outermost point. 

In our specimen fish the lobes of the tail are equal, and there is 
nothing approaching a heterocercal character ; we will, therefore, 
sort out our heterocercals forthwith. One genus is so distinct that 
it claims first place. In our waters it is represented by a single 
species, which is the sole representative of the family and the sub- 
order. This is the sturgeon, Acipenser sturio, recognisable at once 
by the five rows of bony plates, the long snout, the small dorsal fin 
placed near the tail, and last, not least, when it comes to table, the 
notochordal backbone. Externally the plates distinguish it at a 
glance ; of one of them, which hang side by side like a long row of 
shields, we give a sketch (Fig. u). 

With the sturgeon out of the way, we have left on our hands the 
fifteen British sharks, which will not prove troublesome. Four of 
them have no anal fin, and of these four two have spines in their 
dorsals and two have not. Of the two with spiny dorsals, one, 

Centrina, has the spine starting 
from the middle of the base of the 
fin and curving forwards across it, 
as if it were a sprit used to keep 
the fin extended ; the other, 
Acanthias, has the spine in the 
front of the dorsal running up the 
fore-edge in the usual way. Of 
Centrina only one example (C. 
salviani) has been caught in British 
waters, and consequently our 
sharks with no anal fin and 
spiny dorsals are practically the 
common spur dog-fish, A. vulgaris. 

In the next two genera the dorsals are without spines, but the 
skin is spiny. In one, Lczmargus, the first dorsal is some distance 
in front of the ventrals ; in the other, Echinorhinus, it is far back 
and over them. The former is represented by L. microcephala, the 
Greenland shark, a bulky species with a prominent snout and a 
sort of upper lip ; and of the latter the only representative is 
E. spinosus, the spinous shark, in which the snout is of the normal 
conical shape. Here, then, is our first category of sharks in 
tabular form : 

Anal absent 

Dorsals with spines 

Spine in the middle of each dorsal Centrina. 

Spine in front of each dorsal Acanthias. 
Dorsals without spines 

First dorsal in middle of back Lamargus. 

Both dorsals near tail Echinorhinus. 




Fig. ii. SHIELD OF STURGEON. 



The sharks of our waters that have an anal fin are eleven in 
number, and with a single exception they all have two dorsal 



SORTATION. 27 

fins. The brown shark (Notidanus griseus) has but one, and is also 
recognisable by having six gill-slits, whereas all the other sharks 
have five. That reduces our eleven to ten, which we can arrange 
in two batches according to the position of their first dorsals. In 
the first batch we will place those in which the first dorsal comes 
over the space between the ventrals and the anal, that is, in the 
hinder third of the back; in the other batch, we will have those 
in which it comes over the interval between the pectorals and 
ventrals, or almost in the middle of the dorsal curve. Those with 
the dorsals well aft are two in number Pristiimis, in which the 
anal is long enough to nearly reach the caudal ; and Scyllium, in 
which it is not noticeably large, and never gets nearer the caudal 
than its own length. Of Pristiurus there is a solitary species, 
P. melanostomus,the black-mouthed dog-fish, recognisable at a glance 
by the three rows of squarish black blotches on its sides that 
suggest an ocelot; and of Scyllium, in which the markings are a 
multitude of spots and specks, there are but two species S. 
canicula, the rough-hound, and 5. catulus, the smooth-hound, in the 
first of which the anal ends below the interval between the dorsals, 
while in the second it reaches to beneath the middle of the second 
dorsal and no further. 

Of the sharks in which the dorsals come so far forward for 
the first to begin over the interval between the paired fins, one, 
Zygana, stands out boldly, not only from the sharks but from all 
other fish, by its hammer-shaped head, which extends right and 
left at right angles to the neck, and has the eyes in the middle of 
the square ends. These eyes have a lid or nictitating membrane, 
and this membrane will come in useful in sorting out the six 
remaining genera, in three only of which it is present. These are 
Carcharias, Mustelus, and Gakus, and they all have long, conical 
heads. The blue shark, Carcharias glaucus, has a pit at the base 
of the tail, and is without the spiracles that mark the opening of 
the respiratory passage leading into the pharynx. Mustelus and 
Galeus have no pit at the base of the caudal fin, and in the former 
the second dorsal is almost as large as the first, whereas in the 
other it is very small. Of each there is but one species, M. vulgaris 
being the smooth-hound, and G. vulgaris the tope which can 
be distinguished from it by the squarish gap in the caudal's lower 
lobe. 

Of the three genera in which the eye has no nictitating mem- 
brane, one is as readily recognisable as the hammer-head by reason 
of its enormously-developed tail, the upper lobe of which is as long 
as the body. This is the thrasher (Alopecias), also known as the 
fox-shark. The long tail has no keel, like that of the two remaining 
genera Lamna, in which the teeth are large and lanceolate, the 
British representative being the porbeagle, L.cornubica; and Selache, 
represented by the huge basking shark, S. maxima, in which the 
teeth are small and conical, as might be expected from the innocent 
nature of its food. With the vegetarian Selache we conclude our 
second category of sharks, which we tabulate in this way : 

Anal present 

One dorsal Notidanus. 



28 SORTATION. 

Two dorsals 

First dorsal above interval between ventrals and anal 
Anal long Pristiurus. 
Anal moderate Scyllium. 

First dorsal above interval between pectorals and ventrals^ 
Eye with nictitating membrane. 

Head hammer-shaped Zygana. 
Head conical ; 

Pit at base of caudal Carcharias. 
No pit at base of caudal ; 

Second dorsal almost as large as first 

Mustehts. 

Second dorsal small Galeus. 
Eye without nictitating membrane 

Tail not keeled 

Upper lobe very long Alopecias. 

Tail keeled 

Teeth large and lanceolate Lamna, 
Teeth small and conical Selache. 

At last we have reached the fishes with homocercal tails, and by 
eliminating the two flying fishes (Exoccztus), in which the pectoral 
fins are developed into organs of flight, and the lower lobe of the 
tail seems to be lengthened for steering purposes, we are left with 
the large group in which both lobes of the tail are similar in outline. 
The dorsal fins will guide us through the crowd, but before going 
straight ahead we can simplify matters to a great extent by clearing 
the road of some of the eccentricities. 

To begin with, there is one fish in the British list which seems 
to have had its tail broken off short and stuck on again in a hurry at 
the wrong angle. This is the deal-fish, Trachypterus arcticus, with two 
dorsals, a short aiid a very long one, and no anal. In the others 
the tail is in a line with the backbone. 

Two of the genera have short, stout bodies, one of them, Tetrodon 
(the globe-fish), having the gullet dilatable into a sphere dotted with 
star-like spines ; the other, Batistes, having the scales developed into 
a coat of armour. Of Batistes there are two species, the trigger-fish 
(B. maculatus), which has spots on the sides and no plates behind the 
gills, and the file-fish (B. capriscus), which has no spots on the sides 
and two plates behind the gills. 

Four genera are of little breadth, but much depth. Of these the 
opah (Lampris) is iridescent, and marked with rounded, silvery 
patches ; the dory (Zeus) is grey, with a large round black blotcli 
ringed with yellow, and has ragged filaments attached to the dorsal 
spines ; the trumpet-fish (Centriscus) has a lengthy tubular snout, 
not unlike the chanter of the bag-pipes; and that very queer fish, 
Argyropelecus,\mov/n by only one specimen, is square in the fore 
body, becoming suddenly narrow as if the hinder half of a slender 
fish had been telescoped into it. 

Four more genera we can group together, as having the body 
elongated and slender. Two of them are pipe-fishes, armoured with 



SORTATION. 



bony plates and ridged, the caudal ridge in one (Siphonostoma) being 
continuous with the lateral ridge, that in the other (Syngnathus) being 
continuous with the dorsal. The two others are distinguishable by 
the development of the jaws into a long beak, one of them (Scombre 
sox) the skipper, having finlets, and the other (Belone),the gar-fish or 
mackerel-guard, being without them. 

Two may be described as eel-like, one of them being the butter- 
fish (Centronotns), which has the dorsal marked all along its base 
with round black spots, edged with white, the other differing from it 
in having no spots and no ventral fins. This is A mmodytes, repre- 
sented by the three sand-eels, one of which, the smooth sand-eel (A . 
cicerellus) has only 15 rays in its caudal fin, the others having 19, one 
of them (A . tobianus) having the fins curved in outline, and one of 
them (A. lanceolatus) having fins of the same height all along. 

One genus (Centroloplius) has a long, flat body with a long dorsal, 
higher behind than in front in C. britannicus, and highest in the 
middle in C. pompilus, which also has long pectorals, while the other 
species, of which but a single specimen is known, has them short. 
Another genus (Lepidopus) has the body long and thin, and tapering 
to a small forked tail, and takes its name from the remarkable way 
in which the ventrals have departed and left behind a single scale 
as the only trace of their existence. Finally, there is Xiphias^ known 
by everyone for the long, thin projecting upper jaw, which has 
caused it to be called the sword-fish. 

In seven genera there may be a doubt as to whether there are 
two dorsals or one, owing to the first dorsal being in some way re- 
placed or obscured. In Echeneis, for instance, it is replaced by a 
sucker ; in Cyclopterus, the ungainly lump-fish, it becomes hidden in 
a fleshy ridge, and in five genera it is represented by isolated spines. 

In the angler (Lophius) these 
spines are furnished with fila- 
ments. A repulsive, but withal 
interesting, fish is this, not only 
for his hideousness, and the 
way in which he dangles the 
bait over his big half-moon of 
a mouth, but for the reptilian 
character of the paired fins 
with which he walks about the 
bottom of the sea ; and as to 
his teeth, justice can only be 
done to them by a sketch (Fig. 
12), which we may as well sup- 
plement with another (Fig. 13), 
showing how the teeth are 
hinged in the middle, so as to 
fall down as the capture enters 
and rise to prevent escape. 
In the four other genera the spines are short, and have no 
filaments. One, Lichia (the derbio), has the long lobes of the 
deeply-forked tail tipped with black, and of the spines, which are 
five or six in number, the first points forwards. Another, Naucrates 
(the pilot-fish), is banded vertically with broad, dark stripes that 




12 TEETH OF ANGLER. 




30 SORTATION. 

extend on to the fins ; another, Pammelas (the black-pilot or rudder- 
fish), has six or seven spines representing the first dorsal, and the 
anal fin has two spines. The last, Gasterosteus, comprises our 
familiar friends the sticklebacks, in which the scales 
along the sides are replaced by scutes. In the smooth- 
tailed stickleback these plates extend only to the tip 
of the pectorals; in the half-armed stickleback they 
extend half-way to the base of the caudal; in the rough- 
tailed stickleback the plates are keeled at the base of 
Fig. 13. the caudal. The other sticklebacks the three-spined, 
HINGED four-spined, nine-spined, and fifteen-spined are readily 
TOOTH OF recognisable by the number of their spines. 
ANGLER. ^he wa y j s now c } ear f or the long voyage home. 

Our representative fish is not one of this unimportant 
seven, nor was it one of the foregoing seventeen, being, as we have 
said, an ordinary fish of ordinary shape, with nothing out of the 
way about it. 

It has not three dorsals, that is the distinctive feature of the 
genus Gadus, including the cod-fish (G. morrhua), which, like the 
whiting, the haddock, the whiting-pout, and the power, has the 
upper jaw the longer, and, like all of them except the whiting 
(G. merlangus), has a barbule. It can be distinguished from the 
other three by having a white lateral line, the haddock (G. agkfinus) 
having a black lateral line, the two that remain having a brown 
lateral line, the whiting-pout (G. litscus) being coppery and broadly 
banded, and the power (G. minutus) silvery and without bands. 
Three species of Gadus have the lower jaw the longer ; one of them 
(G. virens), the coal-fish, has a barbule, those without a barbule 
being G. poutassou (Couch's whiting), on which the lateral line is 
straight, and G. pollachius (the pollack), on which it is curved ; the 
two fishes differing much in colour, the pollack being greenish and 
grey, the other silver and yellow. 

Nor has it two dorsals. The fishes having two dorsals can be 
sorted into those in which the second dorsal is adipose and small, 
and those. in which it is noticeably developed. 

Seven genera form the first division. In one, Paralepis, a rarity 
in British waters, the anal fin extends to the caudal ; in the others 
it is not nearly so long. Of these, another rarity, Maurolicus, has 
the anal of three different heights, the lowest portion being in the 
middle and the highest near the ventrals. Two from seven leaves 
us with five, and the five, as it happens, are the salmonoids, all of 
whom have less than twenty rays in their anal fins. The ridged 
body of the argentine (Argentina), almost quadrangular in section, 
distinguishes it at a glance. The long, high dorsal of twenty rays 
or more characterises the grayling (Thymallus) ; the short maxillary 
marks off Coregonus, the hautin (C. oxyrhynchus) having a projecting 
snout, the gwyniad (C. clupeoides) a truncated snout, the vendace 
(C. vandesius) a long lower jaw, and the pollan (C. poUati) equal 
jaws and no truncation of the muzzle. Of the two genera with a 
long maxillary, the smelt (Osmerus) is recognised by its dorsal rays 
numbering n, and Salmo by their ranging from 12 to 15. Of 
Salmo there are some twenty species or varieties, and as their many 
trifling differences cannot be dealt with briefly, we will hold the 



SORTATION. 31 

matter over until we go into detail in another chapter. One thing 
is perhaps worth mentioning here, and that is, that the salmon 
(Salmo salar), like the rest of the genus, has less than 14 rays in 
its anal fin, while the salmon of the Pacific, the fish that is canned, 
belongs to another genus, Oncorhynchus, distinguished by having 
15 or 16 rays, and is really the quinnat (O. quinnat), known as 
salmon for trade purposes. 

We may as well have this adipose dorsal assemblage in tabular 
form : 

Two dorsals, second dorsal adipose 
Anal extending to caudal Paralep is. 

Anal not extending to caudal 
Anal with over 20 rays 

Anal in three portions of different heights Maurolicus. 
Anal with under 20 rays 

Body ridged A rgentina. 

Body not ridged 

Dorsal rays over 18 Thymallus. 

Dorsal rays under 18 

Maxillary short Coregonus. 

Maxillary long 

Dorsal rays n Osmerus. 

Dorsal rays 12 to 15 Salmo. 

In sorting out the fishes with two ordinary dorsals, we will avail 
ourselves of the barbules and pectoral filaments that are so con- 
spicuous in a few. To the question as to what is a barbule, the best 

reply is a reference to the sketch of 
the barbel's head (Fig. 14) ; for tho 
barbel was named after the appendages 
he wears, and on his account it is more 
convenient to call them barbules, in 
the old style, to save confusion between 
the " little beard " and its wearer. Of 
barbules, or barbels, then, it will be 
tig. i 4 .-HEAD OF BARBEL. noticed tnat he has fourj two f rom the 

snout and two from the corners of his mouth. 

By the barbules, many and white, the octagonal body and the 
absence of pectoral filaments, we distinguish the pogge (Agomu). 
By the three pectoral filaments and the ridged body we know the 
gurnards (Trigla), of which there are half a dozen species, T. gur- 
nardus being the grey one. Of the five which are all red, more or 
less, the piper, T. lyra, is known by the flat triangular plates over 
the muzzle, which make it look as if it were divided, and the 
lanthorn gurnard, T. obscura, is distinguished by the broad silvery 
stripe which separates the red back from the white abdomen ; the 
streaked gurnard, T. lineata, has lateral ridges that slope forward 
from the back ; the red gurnard, T. cuculus, has a spiny ridge along 
the base of the dorsals, and red fins ; and the sapphirine gurnard, 
T. hirundo, has spines along the dorsals and large blue pectorals. 




32 SORTATION. 

By the two pectoral filaments, the ridged body, and the bifid 
snout, we identify the armed gurnard (Peristethus), and by the two 
stiff barbules under the chin, and the two dorsals wide apart, we 
recognise the red mullet (Mullus). With one barbule we have four 
genera (i), Phycis, distinguished by the ventral being replaced by 
the bifid filament, from which the fish is known as the forkbeard ; 
(2), Molva, the ling or " long-fish," in which the teeth are large in 
the lower jaw, and the first dorsal is short ; (3), Lota, the burbot, in 
which the first dorsal is also short, but there are no large teeth in 
the lower jaw ; and (4), Raniccps, the lesser forkbeard, in which the 
first dorsal consists of only three rays. 

In our next category we have those without barbules. Of these, 
five genera are distinguishable off-hand by having finlets. In 
Scomber and Auxis the dorsals are wide apart ; in Pdamys, Thynnus, 
and Orcynus they are close together. The finlets fill the gap 
between the tail and the second dorsal, and that between the tail 
and the anal ; in the common mackerel (Scox.uer vernalis), they are 
readily seen. There are three mackerels the ordinary species, 
which has a banded back and a spotless abdomen ; the speckled 
mackerel (S. punctatus), which has a thinly-streaked or speckled 
back and a spotless abdomen ; and the Spanish mackerel (S. colias), 
which has a banded back and a spotted abdomen. Auxis differs 
from Scomber in having a distinct keel on the tail instead of two 
slight ridges ; it is repre- /*X. 
sented only by A . rochei, the \ >v 
plain bonito. The three ) 
genera in which the dorsals 
are close together have 
keel 3d tails. Pelamys (the 
belted bonito) is recognis- 
able by its long first dorsal, 
which has more than twenty 
rays ; the others have 
shorter dorsals, one, Thyn- 
nus (the bonito), having 
seven finlets, the other, 
Orcynus, having eight or F j g ^ I5 ._THORACic VENTRALS 

nine. To this last belong 

the tunnies, of which there are two on the British list the short- 
finned tunny, O. thynnus, in which the pectorals do not reach the 
finlets, and the long-finned tunny, O. germo, in which they do. 

This finlet group may as well be set forth in a table like 
the rest 

Dorsals wide apart 

Tail with 2 slight ridges Scomber. 
Tail distinctly keeled Auxis. 

Dorsals close together ; tail keeled 

First dorsal with over 20 rays Pelamys. 
First dorsal with under 20 rays 
Finlets 7 Thynnus. 
Finlets 8 or 9 Orcynus. 




SORTATION. 



33 



Having neither barbules nor finlets to help us any more, we 
betake ourselves to the position of the ventral fins, which affords 
almost as easy a means of identification. These fins are found 
in three positions they maybe "jugular," that is, in the throat, 
or "thoracic," that is, in the chest (Fig. 15), or " abdominal," that 
is in the middle of the abdomen or thereabouts (Fig. 16). 

In only three genera of the double dorsal group are the ventrals 
jugular, and in one of them they are placed wide apart. This is Calli- 
onymus, the genus of the skulpin, in which the first spine is so unusu- 
ally long in the males as to be distinctive, like the length of the last 
ray in the females. The two in which the ventrals are at the normal 
distance apart are Trachinus (the weevers), in which the first dorsal 
has only five or six rays, and Merluccius, the hake, in which it has 
ten. The hake can be recognised by his black mouth and formid- 
able teeth, which are charac- 
teristic enough to deserve a 
sketch (Fig. 17) ; the greater 
weever, T. draco, has two 
spines above the eye, the 
viper weever, T. vipera, has 
no spines above the eye. 

As there are three genera 
of this group with jugular 
ventrals, so there are three 
with abdominal ventrals. In 
this case, however, there is 
but one genus (Capros) in 
which the dorsals are close 
up, it has but one species in our waters, C. aper, the boar-fish, flat and 
deep in body, red in colour, and rejoicing in a protractile snout from 
which it gets its name. The two genera in which there is a con- 
spicuous interval between the dorsal fins are Atherina, in which the 
first dorsal has 7, 8, or 9 spines, and Mugil (the grey mullets), in which 
it has but only 4. Of Atherina there are two species, one of which 
appeared once, and has never been seen again ; of Mugil there are 
two species, the grey mullet, M. capito, in which the anal begins 
nearly halfway between the dorsals, and the lesser grey mullet, M. 
chelo, in which it begins almost in a line with the second dorsal. 
As far as we have gone with the double dorsals, we stand : 

Ventrals jugular 

Ventrals wide apart Callionymus. 
Ventrals close together 

F'irst dorsal with 5 or 6 rays Trachinus. 

First dorsal with 10 rays Merluccius. 

Ventrals abdominal 
Dorsals wide apart 

First dorsal with 4 spines Mugil. 
First dorsal with 7 or more spines A therina. 
Dorsals close together 

Body red ; deep and compressed ; month protractile 
Capros. 




Fig. 16. ABDOMINAL VENTRALS. 




34 SORTATION. 

This leaves us with the double dorsal fishes having thoracic 
ventrals. Two we can deal with on their lateral line, that row of 
perforated scales running along the sides of so many species, the 
holes in which communicate 
with a muciferous duct lead- 
ing to the head, a good ex- 
ample of which was given 
in the outline of the dentex 
on a preceding page. In one 
genus of this group, Caranx 

(the horse mackerel or scad), F j g I7 TEETH OF HAKE 

the lateral line is armed with 

bony plates, a further distinctive mark being the two spines in front of 
the ventrals. In another genus, Sciczna (the shadow-fish), the lateral 
line is continued through the tail to the outer edge of the caudal fin. 

The genera that remain can be sorted out according to the num- 
ber of spines in the first dorsal. In Crystallogobius there are two 
spines which are placed wide apart. In Aphia there are five spines. 
In another of the gobies, the painted goby (Gobius pictus), there are 

6 spines in the first dorsal, the anal is without a spine, and the ven- 
trals have a spine and 5 rays. The other gobies (Gobius) have 6 or 

7 spines in the first dorsal, and the anal has a spine. The two- 
spotted goby (G. ruthensparri) is the only one with 7 spines ; the 
one-spotted goby (G. minutus) is the only one with the dorsals wide 
apart; the speckled goby (G. parnelli) has black fins with white 
lines, the first dorsal ending in a black blotch ; the rock goby (G. 
niger) has brown fins with whitish lines ; and of the two other 
gobies, G. quadrimaculatus has four spots in a line on the hinder half 
of the body, and G. pagandlus has the dorsals banded with orange. 

In Coitus the first dorsal has from 6 to 10 spines, the anal is 
spineless, and the ventrals have a spine and less than 5 rays. There 
are four species, one, C. quadricornus, having four short horns on 
the top of its head, the others having no horns. The miller's thumb 
(C. gobio) has a spine and 4 rays in its ventrals ; the long-spined 
cottus (C. bubalis) has a spine and 3 rays ; and the father lasher (C. 
scorpius) has no spine and only 2 rays. 

This leaves us with the two highest representatives of the perch 
family, Labrax and Perca. In Labrax, of which there is only one 
British representative, the bass (L. lupus), there are 8 or 9 spines 
in the first dorsal, and the anal has 3 spines ; in Perca, the sole 
representative being the perch (P. fluviatilis), the first dorsal has 
14 or 15 spines, and the anal has only 2. Summarising as before, 
we have : 



Ventrals thoracic 

Lateral line armed with bony plates 

Two spines in front of ventrals Caranx. 
Lateral line continued through caudal fin Scicsna. 
First dorsal of 2 spines, wide apart Crystallogobius. 
First dorsal of 5 spines Aphia. 



60RTATION. 35 

First dorsal of 6 spines 

Anal spineless ; ventrals with a spine and 5 rays Gobius 
(pictus). 

First dorsal of 6 to 10 spines 

Anal spineless ; ventrals with or without a spine and with 
less than 5 rays Cottus. 

First dorsal of 6 or 7 spines 
Anal with i spine Gobius. 

First dorsal of 8 or 9 spines 
Anal with 3 spines Labrax. 

First dorsal of 14 or 15 spines 
Anal with 2 spines Perca. 




In only one British fish with one dorsal fin are there no ventrals, 
and that is the wolf-fish or cat-fish (Anavrhichas lupus), whose 
powerful teeth and general ugliness 
have become proverbial (Fig. 18). 
In only two genera are the ven- 
trals rudimentary, and in each 
case they surround a sucker. One 
of them is Lepadogaster, which we 
sorted out before so far as L. 
gouanii was concerned, owing to 
the vertical fins being continuous ; 
in the two remaining species, the 
suckers (L. decandollii and L. 
bimaculatus) the vertical fins are not 
continuous, the last species being 
distinguished from the others by 
having a black ocellated spot under 
the tip of the pectoral. In all 
the species there are less than 20 
rays in the dorsal. In Liparls 
the dorsal rays exceed 20 in number ; the sea-snail, L. vulgaris, 
about six inches long, is streaked on the body, Montagu's sucker, 
L. montagui, which is about half the length, is spotted on the body. 

This clears us of the cripples, and leaves us only with such 
fishes as have the dorsal and ventrals properly developed. In four 
genera the ventrals are jugular, these comprising the rocklings, the 
blennies, and the torsk. The rocklings (Motella) have the fore part 
of the dorsal in the shape of a fringe with a long ray to begin with. 
The three common species are known by their barbules the five- 
bearded, four-bearded, and three-bearded and the rare species, 
M. macrophthalma, by its unspotted body, distinguishing it from the 
three-bearded rockling, which, like it, has three barbules, but, unlike 
it, has a large number of spots and blotches on its upper parts. 

The blennies have the dorsal low in the middle and small 
ventrals. One, the butterfly blenny (Bhnnius ocellaris), differs from 
the others in having an ocellated spot on the first dorsal. Another, 
the shanny (B. pholis), has no tentacle over the eye ; another (B. 



Fig. 18. TEETH OF CAT-FISH. 



3& SORTATION. 

galerita) has a black band at the base of the pectorals ; and the last 
(J5. gattorugine) has no such band. In Yarrell's blenny (Carelophus 
ascanii) the dorsal is long and straight, and there are filaments on 
the first three rays ; in the torsk (Brosmius brosme) the dorsal is also 
long and straight, and the ventrals are curiously thick and pointed. 
It belongs to the cod family, and is a couple of feet long or so. 
Practically, the four genera with jugular ventrals are so easy of 
recognition that we need not summarise their distinctions, but pass 
on to those with thoracic ventrals, which are much more numerous. 

In this large and important assemblage the anal fin is of great 
assistance. One genus (Luvarus) has a spine and 14 rays in its 
anal, and can otherwise be recognised by its quaint shape and red 
stripe. Three genera have two spines in their anal fin, one, Acerina 
(the ruff), having 5 or 6 rays behind it, while in Schedophilus and 
Brama the anal has over 25 rays, Schedophilus having 3 dorsal 
spines,' short and isolated, and Brama having 3 or 4 short and not 
isolated. 

Those in which the anal has 3 spines are 12 in number, Con's 
(the rainbow wrasse) differing from the rest in having only 12 or 13 
rays in its pectorals. The genera in which the pectoral rays num- 
ber from 14 to 17 can be divided into a batch having 12 or fewer 
spines in the dorsal and a batch having more than 12. In the first 
lot, all of which have forked tails, Dentex is conspicuous by its 
brilliant silver, blue, and gold coloration, and its four large teeth 
in the front of each jaw, and Cantharus by its black lateral line, 
which is parallel to the curve of the back. The other two are 
Pagellus and Pagrus, both of which have cutting teeth in front of the 
jaws and molars along the sides, Pagrus differing from Pagellus in 
having canine teeth as well, the molars in Pagellus being smaller 
than in Pagrus. These are the sea-breams, all much alike, and all, 
with one exception, red or pinkish, the exception being the gilt- 
head (Pagrus auratus), which is silvery, and has a golden crescent 
between the eyes. As the only other Pagrus, Couch's sea-bream 
(P. vulgaris) has been caught but once in British waters, it may be 
said that Pagrus is only represented by a silvery fish, and Pagellus by 
red ones. There are five of these the pandora (P. erythrinus), is red 
with purple and silvery reflections, and has colourless ventrals ; 
P. acarne is red with golden reflections ; P. owenii is carmine 
above and white below, with the fins paler than the body ; 
P. bogaraveo (the Spanish bream) is pinkish above and white below, 
with a dark axillary spot ; and the common sea-bream (P. centro- 
dontus), is scarlet above and paler below, with a black spot at the 
beginning of the lateral line. 

In the next group, that in which the dorsal spines are more than 
a dozen, one genus (Box) has a forked tail. Of the others a few 
have spines on the gill-covers, and their lips are thin, while the 
remainder, consisting only of the wrasses, have no spines on the 
gill-covers, and their lips are thick. Of the three with spiny gill- 
covers, one, Polyprion (the stone-bass) has less than 13 rays in its 
dorsal ; in the others there are more than 13, Serranus being dis- 
tinguished by its 10 dorsal spines (in S. cabrilla) or n (in S. gigas), 
and Sebastes (the bergylt) by its 15 dorsal spines, and, at once, by 
its orange-red body and fins. 



SORTATION. 



37 



The wrasses we have already disposed of the rainbow wrasse 
are not an easy group to sort. Some have 3 spines in the anal, 
some have more. Of the three-spined, three, Ctenolabrus has a 
characteristic notch where the spines join the rays in the dorsal, 
which is not present in either Crenilabrus or Labrus, and Labrus has 
more than 40 scales in the lateral line, while Crenilabrus has less 
than 40. Of Crenilabrus there are two species, the Conner (C. melops), 
which is purplish above and paler below, and the goldsinny (C. 
cornubicus), which is greenish above and yellow below. Of Labrus 
there are four species the green wrasse (L. lineatus), which is green, 
streaked with yellow ; the striped wrasse 
(L. mixtus), which is orange, striped with 
blue; the comber (L. donovani), which 
has a few white spots below the lateral 
line, and one incomplete white stripe ; 
and the ballan wrasse (L. maculatus), 
which is plentifully spotted with white 
both above and below the lateral line. 
In Labrus the teeth are in a single row, 
and characteristic, as shown in the 
sketch of those of the ballan wrasse 
(Fig. 19). 

Two genera only have more than 3 
spines in the anal, these are also wrasses ; 
they are Acantholabrus, with scales on 

the spines and rays, and Centrolabrus, TEETH OF BALLAN WRASSE. 
without such scales, the latter also 

differing from the former in having less than 40 scales in the lateral 
line. This completes the thoracic group having 3 or more spines, 
as follows: 




Fig. 19. 



Anal with three spines 

Pectorals with 12 or 13 rays Con's. 
Pectorals with 14 to 17 rays. 

Dorsal spines 12 or less 
Tail forked 

Front teeth conspicuous Dentex. 

No molar teeth 

Lateral line black and parallel to back Cantharus. 

No canine teeth Pagellus. 

Molar teeth and canine teeth Pagrus 

Dorsal spines more than 12 
Tail forked Box. 

Tail not forked- 
Gill covers spiny ; lips thin 

Dorsal rays under 13 Polyprion. 

Dorsal rays over 13 

Dorsal spines 15 Sebastes. 
Dorsal spines 10 or n Serranus. 



SORTATION. 



Gill covers smooth or serrated, but without spines ; 

lips thick 

Notch between dorsal spines and rays 
Ctenolabrus. 

No notch between dorsal spines and rays 

Lateral line with less than 40 scales Creni- 
labrus. 

Lateral line with more than 40 scales Labrus. 

Anal with more than three spines 
Lateral line with over 40 scales 

Scales on spines and rays Acantholabrus. 
Lateral line with less than 40 scales 

No scales on spines and rays Centrolabrus. 

To tbem, and to none that preceded them, does our specimen fish 
belong. Never was there a fish with a single dorsal in which the 
ventrals could be more distinctly abdominal. Back, then, to our 
barbules, which will give us four main divisions, that run 6, 4, 2, 
and none, to guide us through this crowd of everyday acquaintances. 
First, then, come the loaches, with six barbules, Cobitis, the spiny 
loach (C. tcenia), distinguished from Nemachilus, the common loach 
(N. barbatula), by the erectile, double-pointed spine below the eye. 
Next, with 4 barbules, Cyprinus, the carp(C. carpio), and Barbus, the 
barbel (B. vulgaris), the latter named from the conspicuous barbels 
we have thought better to spell in the older way to save confusion 
between the fish and its appendages. The carp has a long dorsal 
with 22 rays, the barbel has a short one with half the number ; the 

scales are larger, there are never 
more than 40 in the lateral line, 
while there may be 70 in that of the 
barbel; and the carp is deeper in 
build and more coppery in colour. 

Next are the genera with two 
barbules, another party of two, each 
represented by a single well-known 
species Goblo, the gudgeon (G. 
fluviatilis), and Tinea, the tench (T. 
vulgaris), Gobio having 8 rays in both 
anal and ventrals, Tinea having 9 
rays in the anal and 10 in the ven- 
trals; the gudgeon slender and 
graceful, clean and silvery, the tench 
deep and hump-backed, and slimy 
and dull, generally blackish, and 
occasionally yellow two very differ- 
ent fishes, never likely to be mistaken 
for one another. That clears away 
six genera in these groups of two, leaving us with seven we 
can group in a similar way when we have disposed of the most un- 
mistakable of our fresh-water fishes, the pike. 

Like the rest of this division the pike (Esox lucius) has no bar- 
bules, like two of them its abdomen is rounded all along, and has no 




Fig. 20. 
UPPER JAW OF PIKE. 



SORTATION. 



39 



sharp edge, but, unlike all of them, its dorsal fin is placed above the 
anal, much nearer the tail than the head. The character of the pike 
is betrayed by the teeth, which are so characteristic that we must 
find room for a sketch (Figs. 20 and 21). Look at the array on the 
vomer, and note how the palatines on each side of it are armed, and 




Fig. 21. DENTARY OF PIKE. 

how those on the premaxillary are kept small, so as not to obstruct 
the entrance into the capacious mouth ; look at the miscellaneous 
assortment, large and small, on the dentary, that is, the tooth-bear- 
ing portion of the lower jaw ; and, in addition to all these, there are 
teeth on the tongue and hyoid bones. Compare this formidable 
dental armament with the modest array of the carp (Fig. 22), which 
has teeth only on the lower pharyngeal bones. 

Now for the other genera, two and two. In the first two the 
abdomen is rounded throughout, but the dorsal is in the middle of 
the back ; these are Carassius, with 5 to 7 rays in the anal, and 
Leuciscus, with 8 to IT. Of Carassius there are two species, the gold- 
fish (C. auratus), which is reddish-golden and silvery, frequently 
marked more or less with black, and varying so much in its fin 
structure, that it can only be distinguished from C. vulgaris (the 
crucian carp) by the number of scales in its lateral line, the goldfish 
having under 30, the other having more than 30, but the colour is 

guide enough, the crucian carp being 
greenish above, with yellow sides 
and pinkish abdomen, which the 
goldfish never has. 

A genus of much more importance 
to the angler is Leuciscus, with its 8 
to ii anal rays. It includes the 
roach, the chub, the dace, the rudd, 
and the minnow. In four of these 
the lateral line runs from head to 
tail ; in the minnow it does not, in 
fact, in technical phrase, it is " incom- 
plete," although made up of from 80 
to go scales. As a rule the minnow 
Fig. 22. LOWER PHARYNGEAL is distinguishable by its small size, 
TEETH OF CARP it being generally some three inches 

or thereabouts in length, but as a few 

giant specimens are on record, running up to seven inches, it is as 
well to keep an eye on the incomplete lateral line. The four others 
have the line complete, and though easily recognisable when side by 
side are not so easy of description. The safest way is to count the 
rows of scales between the lateral line and the ventrals. If there are 




40 SORTATION. 

5 rows the fish is a dace (L. vulgaris), always silvery, with a dorsal 
about half as high again as its base is long. If there are 4 rows it 
is either a roach (L. rutilus) or a rudd (L. erythrophthalmus), and the 
rudd at once proclaims itself by its red eye, deeper build, and more 
coppery hue, and by the dorsal fin being rather nearer the tail. The 
rudd, too, has a habit of sticking out its under lip, so that it seems 
longer than it really is, while in the roach the upper lip is always, 
actually and apparently, a little the longer. If there are 3 rows of 
scales between the line and the ventrals the fish is a chub (L. 
cephahts), the back fin of which is only about a quarter as high as 
the base is long, and the head of which is proportionately 
stouter than in the other species, and is dashed with red 
and gold. 

Two genera we have in which the edge of the abdomen is of un- 
expected shape, being rounded in front of the ventrals and sharply 
ridged behind them. These are Abramis (the breams), in which the 
dorsal has a distinct spine, and Alburnus (the bleak), which is 
without any trace of a spine. No one is likely to mistake the 
slender bleak (Alburnus lucidus) for the deeply-built breams. The 
bleak might have been grouped with the flying-fish, owing to the 
lower lobe of its tail being frequently longer than the upper, but 
the difference is not always invariably apparent, and is always 
so slight that it seemed better to brigade him here with his family 
relations. There are two breams, the bream (Abramis brama) and 
the white bream (A. blicca) from which it can be distinguished 
by the truer curve of its back, by the fins being brownish and 
red, instead of bluish and red, by the lateral line having from 50 
to 63 scales, instead of from 43 to 52, by the scales between the 
line and the ventral fin being 6 or more, instead of 5 or 6, and 
by its having one row of pharyngeal teeth instead of two. The 
bream is often known as the carp bream, and the white bream 
as the silver bream, in reference to the olive colour of the one, 
and the lighter, whiter, and rosier hue of the other. 

We have now dealt with all those in which the abdomen is 
rounded throughout, and rounded in the fore half and ridged in the 
hinder half ; but are there none in which the abdomen is compressed 
all along ? Certainly and our specimen fish is one of them. What 
can it be? Let us look at its upper jaw. Does it project ? No. 
Then it is not the anchovy (Engraulis), and its genus must be Clupea, 
the only one left. 

But which of the five species is it ? Its back fin is nearer to the 
head than to the tail, so it cannot be C. sprattus (the sprat) ; and it 
is not nearer to the tail than to the head, so that it cannot be 
C. pilchardus (the pilchard), which it would be if it had from 6 to 8 
rays in its ventrals, or one of the two shads, C. alosa and C.finta, if 
it had 9 or 10 rays in them. Its dorsal fin, then, is no nearer to the 
head than to the tail, and there is only one species in which that is 
so. The pilchard has the tip of the back fin at the centre of gravity, 
which is not quite in the middle of the back, but when the dorsal is 
exactly half-way between the snout and the base of the tail we 
recognise the herring. Thus, by the trail of the herring, we have 
come home, and the fish we have identified by eliminating what it 
is not, is no other than the common bloater. 



SORTAT10N. 41 



Yet another key the last of the bunch 
Ventrals abdominal 
Barbules 6 

Erectile spine under eye Cobitis 
No spine under eye Netnachilus 

Barbules 4 

Dorsal with 22 rays Cyprinus. 
Dorsal with n rays Barbus. 

Barbules 2 

Anal 8 rays; ventrals 8 rays Gobio. 
Anal 9 rays ; ventrals 10 rays Tinea. 

No barbules 

Abdomen rounded all along 
Dorsal placed far back Esox. 

Dorsal placed midway 

Anal with 5 to 7 rays Carassius. 
Anal with 8 to n rays Leuciscus t 

Abdomen rounded in front of ventrals and compressed 

behind them 
Dorsal with spine Abramis. 
Dorsal without spine Alburnus- 

Abdomen compressed all along 
Upper jaw projecting Engraulis. 
Upper jaw not projecting Clupea. 

Externals have served our purpose of identification, but, when we 
come to classification and zoological order, recourse to internals is 
inevitable. A few notes on structure we cannot do without, but we 
need not in this little book, written for the special purpose of merely 
ascertaining the name of the fish, have more notes than are 
necessary for understanding the descriptions that follow. The 
anatomy of the fishes is not a simple subject; some species have a 
thousand separate bones, and some sharks have quite as many 
vertebrae as there are days in the year, though the vertebras of the 
bony fishes range from only 14 (in Batistes) to as many as 200. 

The vertebra of a fish that is, one of the sections of which the 
backbone is built up is, as is well known, hollow at both ends, or, 
to be correct, it is so in all British fishes. For descriptive pur- 
poses, the vertebrae are divided into those that are abdominal and 
those that are caudal, the former being in the front of the body and 
carrying the ribs by means of the transverse processes one on each 
side. From the top of all rise two " neurapophyses," which carry a 
neural spine, the arch formed by these at their bases being the 
neural arch, through which runs the spinal cord. From the bottom 
of the caudal vertebrae issue " haemapophyses," of much the same 
shape, which, at their bases, form the haemal arch and at their tips 
carry a haemal spine. Some exceptionally all of the neural spines 
are the supports of the " interneurals," with which the spines and 
rays of the dorsal fin articulate, and the haemal spines carry the 
" interhaemals," which are connected with the spines and rays of 



4 2 



SORTATION, 




SORTATION. 



43 



the anal fin. The ventral fins, otherwise the pelvics, are supported 
by the pubic bone, and the pectorals are connected with the 
scapular arch, consisting of the supra-scapular, the scapular, and 
the coracoid, which join on the head. 

The head we have intentionally left to the last, and we will be 
content with an outline of that of the perch, mentioning only a few 




Fig. 24. PREMAXILLARY, MAXILLARY, AND DENTARY OF SALMON. 

of the parts, and advising those who would know more to make 
acquaintance with some of the beautiful mounted specimens in 
most museums, where the many parts do not blend into the mass 
as they do in diagrams. 

In the region of the mouth (Fig. 23) we have the premaxillary 
and maxillary, and, in the lower jaw, the mandible, along which, 
carrying the teeth, is the dentary, A fish's teeth may be all over 
its mouth, not only on its jawbones, but on the bones of its palate 
and its pharynx, and even on its tongue-bones and tongue, which 
tongue is not free in its movements, but moves only as part of the 
hyoid apparatus. The curious way in which the teeth may cluster 
on the bones is well shown in the salmon, which has teeth on the 




Fig. 25. GILL ARCHES. 

dentary, the premaxillary, the maxillary, the palatines, and also the 
vomer, which is the bone placed in the middle of the mouth (Fig. 24). 



44 SORTATION. 

In the gill region we have the " covers," consisting of the oper- 
cular with the sub-opercular below it, and the pre-opercular 
with the inter-operular below it. Under the inter-opercular are 
the branchiostegals, the rays which protect the gills, and if we 
were to remove the gill-covers we should see the gill-arches, of 
which we have a separate outline (Fig. 25). Of these arches there 
are five, with, as a rule, gills on four of them, the gills being in a 
cavity below the pharynx, with clefts between the arches through 
which the water passes from the pharynx on its way out through 
the gill openings. The three arches in front are each made up of 
four bones ; in the fourth arch there are but three bones, and the 
uppermost, when dilated, becomes the upper pharyngeal, the fifth 
arch, composed of one bone only, becoming the lower pharyngeal. 
The inner side of the gill-arches, in some cases, carry projections 
known as gill-rakers, which act as a grating to prevent substances 
in the water from passing into the gills. The gills are usually held 
up by two rows of cartilaginous rods along the rounded edge of the 
arches, but in some fishes there is one row instead of two. The 
pseudo-branchiae, or false gills, are along the inner side of the gill- 
covers. They do not assist in respiration except in the fish's early 
life, and in the adult they receive only arterial blood. 

The gill-arches are bounded by the hyoid arch, which is con- 
nected with the temporal bones by the stylo-hyoids, its largest 
member being the ceratohyal, to the inner end of which are 
attached the branchiostegals, which carry the branchiostegal mem- 
brane in much the same way as an umbrella is spread by its ribs. 

At the base of the cranial cavity, and in the bony fishes more 
or less within it, is the ear, a highly-developed organ, consisting 
essentially of a sac often divided into chambers, each containing an 
otolith with indentations and grooves to which the acoustic nerve 
is connected. These otoliths are the bones that people are so fre- 
quently at a loss to assign a position to. That in the 
diagram is one of those of a cod (Fig. 26). 

The eye, like the ear, is of different grades of develop- 
ment. In some fishes it is very highly organised ; in 
one genus it is in two portions, one for seeing in water 
and the other for seeing in air, but this fish is not a 
Britisher. We have no occasion to go into detail ; all 
we have to deal with is the bony frontier. Below, this 
Fi 26 - cons ^ sts f tne infraorbitals or suborbitals, of which 
OTOLITH ^ ne P raeor bital or lachrymal (nearest the mouth) is the 
OF largest. Above the eye come the frontal and prefrontal, 
CODFISH. w ^ n tne nasals extending over the anterior half towards 
the maxillary, while below it, beyond the infraorbitals, 
an outer ring, whose main elements are the hyomandibular and the 
quadrate, join on to the mandible by means of the articulary. 

In this hasty run round the perch's head we have by no means 
mentioned all the bones, but we have said enough to enable us to 
deal with the identification of the families and genera on the British 
list. Before, however, venturing on the systematic, we must have a 
few examples of the way in which our keys are worked, and for this 
purpose we will give the tabular scheme complete. 




CHAPTER IV. 

TABULAR SCHEME, 



Body horizontal 

Both eyes on upper surface ; mouth on under surface ; no 

gill-cover. 
Gill-openings lateral Rhina, 237. 

Gill-openings inferior 

Tail without longitudinal fold 
No dorsal Trygon, 252. 

Dorsal on tail 

Dorsal between ventrals Cephaloptera, 251. 
Dorsal beyond ventrals Myliobatis, 250. 

Tail with longitudinal fold 

Caudal well developed, wings almost semi-circular 

Torpedo, 248, 249. 
Caudal rudimentary or absent, wings angular 

Raia, 238-247. 

Both eyes on upper side ; month extending to upper and 

under sides ; gill-covers present 
Eyes to the left 

Two spines behind left ventral Arnoglossus, 156. 
No spines behind left ventral- 
Caudal as long as from snout to pectorals 

Lepidorhombus, 155. 
Caudal short 

Scales ctenoid and rather large Zeugopterus, 

153, 154- 
Scales cycloid, and small or absent Rhombus, 

151. 152- 

Eyes to the right 
Jaws alike on both sides 

Lateral line straight Hippoglossoides, 150. 
Lateral line curved Hippoglossus, 149. 

Jaws not alike on both sides 

Mouth at end of snout Pleuronectes, 157-161. 
Snout curving beyond mouth Solea, 162-165. 

Body vertical 
Caudal fin absent 
Body tapering 
Tail filamentary Chimara, 221. 
Dorsal with a low penultimate section Zoarces, 82. 
45 



46 TABULAR SCHEME. 

Body rounded and smooth ; pectorals absent Nerophis, 

116-118. 

Body riband-shaped 

Anal absent ; dorsal with crest Regalccus, 103. 
Anal and ventrals absent Trichiurus, 22. 
Body ridged Hippocampus, ng. 
Vertical fins continuous 

Body truncated ; dorsal and anal placed far back 

Orthagoriscus, 123, 124. 
Body depressed in front, compressed behind; a sucker 

between the ventrals Lepadogaster (gouanii), gg. 
Body tapering from a large head Coryphanoidts, 148. 
Body riband-shaped Cepola, 74. 
Body long 

Skin not extending over gill-covers 
Ventrals a pair of filaments Opliidium, 143. 
Ventrals absent Fierasfer, 144. 
Skin extending over gill-covers 
Without pectorals Murana, 168. 
With pectorals. 

Upper jaw the longer Conger, 167. 
Lower jaw the longer Anguilla, 166. 
Tail heterocercal 

Body with bony plates in five rows Acipenser, 220. 
Body without bcny plates 
Anal absent 

Dorsals with spines 

Spine in the middle of each dorsal Centrina, 235. 
Spine in front of each dorsal Acanthias, 233. 
Dorsals without spines ; skin spiny 
First dorsal in the middle of the back Lam-argns, 234. 
Both dorsals near the tail Echinorhmus, 236. 
Anal present 

One dorsal Notidauus, 22g. 
Two dorsals 

First dorsal above space between ventrals and anal 
Anal long, extending almost to caudal Pristiums, 

232- 
Anal moderate, its length or more from caudal 

Scy Ilium, 230, 231. , 

First dorsal above space between pectorals and 

ventrals 

Eye with nictitating membrane 
Head hammer-shaped Zygcena, 224. 
Head conical 

Pit at base of caudal ; no spiracles CarcJiarias, 

222. 

No pit at base of caudal 
Second dorsal almost as large as first 

Mustelus, 225. 
Second dorsal small Galeus, 223. 



TABULAR SCHEME. 



47 



Eye without nictitating membrane 
Tail not keeled 

Upper lobe very long Alopecias, 227. 

Tail keeled 

Teeth large and lancelate Lamna, 226. 
Teeth small and conical Selache, 228. 

Tail homocercal 

Lower lobe of tail the larger 

Pectorals long and used for flight Exocattus, 89, go 
Lobes of tail equal 

Tail at an angle to backbone Trachypterus, 102. 
Tail in a line with backbone 
Body short and stout 

Scales forming a carapace Batistes, 120, 121. 
Gullet dilatable into a sphere Tetrodon, 122. 
Body deep and compressed 

Iridescent, with round silvery spots Lampris, 33. 
Grey, with black blotch edged with yellow, and spines 

with filaments Zeus, 29. 
Snout long and tubular Ctntriscus, 98. 
Fore half squarish, hinder half narrow ; ocellated spotr. 
along lower edge Argyropelecus, 187. 

Body long and slender 
Ridged, with bony plates 
Caudal ridge continuous with lateral Siphonostoma, 

114. 

Caudal ridge continuous with dorsal Syngnathus, 115^ 
Both jaws prolonged into a beak 
With finlets Scombresox, 88. 
Without finlets Belone, 87. 

Body eel-like 

With ventrals ; dorsal spotted Centronotus, Si. 
Without ventrals Ammodytes, 145-147. 

Body long and compressed 

Dorsal long-, and highest in middle or near tail 
Centrolophus, 30, 31. 

Body long, thin, and tapering 
Tail forked, each ventral represented by a single scale 

Lepidopus, 23. 

Upper jaw produced into a long sword Xiphias, 21. 
First dorsal replaced by a sucker Echeneis, 44. 
First dorsal hidden in a fleshy ridge 

Body bulky, with ridges and tubercles Cyclopterus, Go. 
First dorsal replaced by isolated spines 

Spines with filaments 

Head large ; mouth very large Lophius, 47. 
Spines without filaments 

Tail deeply forked and tipped with black Lichia, 27. 



<J.8 TABULAR SCHEME, 

Scales along sides 

Broad vertical bands extending on to fins Naucrates, 25. 
No bands Pammelas, 26. 

Scales along sides replaced by scutes Gasterosteus, 91-97. 
Three dorsals Gadus, 125-132. 
Two dorsals, second dorsal adipose 
Anal extending to caudal Paralepis, 186. 
Anal not extending to caudal 
Anal with more than 20 rays 

Anal in three portions of different heights Maurolicus, 

188. 

Anal with less than 20 rays 
Body ridged Argentina, 219. 
Body not ridged 

Dorsal rays over 18 Thymallus, 218. 
Dorsals rays under 18 

Maxillary short Coregonus, 214-217. 
Maxillary long 

Dorsal rays, n Osmerus, 213. 
Dorsal rays, 12 to 15 Salmo, 195-212. 
Two dorsals ; second dorsal not adipose 
Barbules many and white 

Body octagonal ; no pectoral filaments Agonus, 58. 
Three pectoral filaments 

Body ridged Trigla, 52-57. 
Two pectoral filaments 

Body ridged ; snout bifid Peristethus, 59. 
Two stiff barbules under chin 

Dorsals wide apart Mullus, 8, 9. 
One barbule 

Ventral a bifid filament Phycis, 134. 
First dorsal short 

Teeth large in lower jaw Molva, 135. 
No large teeth in lower jaw Lota, 136. 
First dorsal of only 3 rays Raniceps, 41. 
No barbules 

Finlets between second dorsal and caudal 
Dorsals wide apart 

Tail with two slight ridges Scomber, 36-38. 
Tail distinctly keeled A uxis, 43. 
Dorsals close together ; tail keeled 

First dorsal with over 20 rays Pelamys, 42. 
First dorsal with under 20 rays 
Finlets 7 Thynnus, 41. 
Finlets 8 or 9 Orcynus, 39, 40. 
Ventrals jugular 

Wide apart Callionymus, 72, 73. 
Close together 

First dorsal with 5 or 6 ra.ysTrachinus, 45, 46. 
First dorsal with 10 rays Merluccius, 133. 



TABULAR SCHEME. 49 

Ventrals abdominal 
Dorsals wide apart 

First dorsal with 4 spines Mugil, 85, 86. 

First dorsal with from 7 to g spines Atherina, 83, 84. 
Dorsals close together 

Body red, deep, and compressed ; mouth protractile 

Capros, 28. 
Ventrals thoracic 

Lateral line armed with bony plates 

Two spines in front of ventrals Caranx, 24. 
Lateral line continued through caudal fin Sciana, 20. 
First dorsal of 2 spines, wide apart Crystallogobius, 71 
First dorsal of 5 spines Aphia, 70. 
First dorsal of 6 spines 

Anal spineless; ventrals with a spine and 5 rays 

Gobius (pictus), 68. 
First dorsal of 6 to 10 spines 

Anal spineless ; ventral with or without a spine, and 

with less than 5 rays Coitus, 48-51. 
First dorsal of 6 or 7 spines 

Anal with one spine Gobius, 63-67, and 69. 
First dorsal of 8 or 9 spines 

Anal with 3 spines Labrax, z. 
First dorsal of 14 or 15 spines 

Anal with 2 spines Perca, i. 

One dorsal 

Ventrals absent Anarrhichas, 75. 
Ventrals rudimentary and surrounding a sucker 
Dorsal with under 20 rays LtpadogasUr, 99-101. 
Dorsal with over 20 rays Liparis, 61, 62. 
Ventrals jugular 

Fore-part of dorsal a fringe with a long first ray 

Motella, 137-140. 

Dorsal lowest in middle ; ventrals small Blennius, 76-79. 
Dorsal long and straight 

Filaments on first 3 rays Carelophus, 80. 
Ventrals thick and pointed Brosmius, 142. 
Ventrals thoracic 

Anal with one spine and 14 rays 

Body grey with red stripe Luvarus, 35. 
Anal with 2 spines 

Anal rays 5 or 6 Acetina, 3. 
Anal rays, 27 to 29. 

Dorsal spines 3, short and isolated Schedophilus, 34. 
Dorsal spines 3 or 4, short and not isolated Brama, 32, 
Anal with 3 spines 

Pectorals with 12 or 13 rays Coris, 113. 
Pectorals with 14 to 17 rays 
Dorsal spines 12 or less. 
Tail forked. 

Front teeth conspicuous Dentex, 7. 



50 TABULAR SCHEME. 

No molar teeth 

Lateral line black and parallel to back 

Cantharus, 10. 

No canine teeth Pagdhis, 14-18. 
Molar teeth and canine teeth Pagnis, 12, 13. 
Dorsal spines more than 12 
Tail forked Box, n. 
Tail not forked 

Gill-covers spiny ; lips thin 

Dorsal rays under 13 Polyprion, 6. 
Dorsal rays over 13 

Dorsal spines 15 ; body and fins orange red 

Sebastes, 19. 

Dorsal spines 10 or ii Strranus, 4, 5. 
Gill-covers smooth or serrated, but without spines ; 

lips thick 
Notch between dorsal spines and rays Ctenola- 

bms, no. 

No notch between dorsal spines and rays 
Lateral line with less than 40 scale ^ Crcnlla- 

brus, 108, 109. 
Lateral line with more than 40 scales Labrus, 

104-107. 

Anal with more than 3 spines 
Lateral line with over 40 scales 

Scales on spines and rays Acantholabrus, in. 
Lateral line with less than 40 scales 

No scales on spines and rays Centrolabrus, 112. 
Ventrals abdominal 
Barbules 6 

Erectile spine under eye Cobitis, 183. 
No spine under eyeNemachilus, 184. 
Barbules 4 

Dorsal with 22 rays Cyprinus, 169. 
Dorsal with n rays Barbus, 172. 
Barbules 2 

Anal 8 rays; ventrals 8 rays Gobio, 173. 
Anal 9 rays ; ventrals 10 rays Tinea, 179. 
No barbules 

Abdomen rounded throughout 
Dorsal placed far back Esox, 185. 
Dorsal placed midway 

Anal 5 to 7 rays Carassius, 170, 171. 
Anal 8 to n rays Leuciscus-^ 174-178. 
Abdomen rounded in front of ventrals and compressed 

behind them 

Dorsal with spine Abramis, 180, 181. 
Dorsal without spine Alburnus, 182. 
Abdomen compressed throughout 
Upper jaw projecting Engrauiis, 189. 
Upper jaw not projecting Clupea, 190-194. 



CHAPTER V. 

IDENTIFICATION, 



WITH the aid of our tabular scheme we ought to be able to find 
the genus of any British fish without difficulty. Let us try 
a few examples. 

Here is a flat-fish ; the mouth is not on the under surface, and 
there is a gill-cover. That takes us at once past the first group. 
Are its eyes to the left or to the right? To the left. Has it two 
spines behind the left ventral ? No. Is its tail short or long? 
Short. Are its scales large or small ? There are no scales. The 
genus is Rhombus, and of the two species it can only be R. maximus, 
the turbot. 

Here is a fish in which the vertical fins are continuous. That 
takes us on to another group. Is its body truncated ? No. De- 
pressed in front,' compressed behind, with a sucker between the 
ventrals ? No. Tapering from a large head ? No. Riband-shaped ? 
No. The body is long and rounded. Does the skin extend over 
the gill-covers ? Yes. Has it pectoral fins ? Yes. It is one of the 
eels ; but which ? Which jaw is the longer, the upper or the lower ? 
The upper. The genus is Conger, and there is only one species. 

Let us try one with a heterocercal tail. Has it bony plates 
along it ? No ; the body is without plates. Has it an anal fin ? 
Yes. One dorsal or two ? Two. Is the first dorsal above the 
interval between the ventrals and anal ? No ; it is over that between 
the pectorals and ventrals. Is its head hammer-shaped? No; it 
is conical. Has it a pit at the base of the caudal fin ? No. Is 
its second dorsal fairly large, or is it much smaller than the first ? 
Much smaller. The genus is Galeus, and there is but one species, 
the tope. 

Let us take one with a homocercal tail. Is its tail at an angle 
to the backbone ? No ; it is not Trachyptcrus. Is its body short 
and stout and armoured ? No. Is it deep and compressed ? No ; 
it is neither the opah, the dory, nor the trumpet-fish. Is it long and 
slender ? Yes. Is it ridged with bony plates ? No. Are both 
jaws prolonged into a beak ? Yes ; it is either Scombresox or Belone. 
Has it any finlets ? No ; and consequently it is Belone, the one 
species of which is the mackerel-guard, or gar-fish. 

Yet another. How many dorsals are there ? One complete, 
and a series of spines representing one in front of it. Have the 
spines any filaments ? No. Are there scales all along its side or 
plates ? Plates. The genus is Gasterosteus, one of the sticklebacks, 
for further particulars of which we refer to the chapter in which the 
genera are sorted into their respective species, though from the 

5 1 



52 IDENTIFICATION. 

fact of its having eight spines we know it can only be that known as 
the nine-spined stickleback, which may have 8, 9, 10, or n spines. 

Yet another. How many dorsals are there ? Three. Three ? 
It can only be Gadus ; but what species ? Refer to the ninth 
chapter. Is the upper jaw longer than the lower ? No. Has it a 
barbule ? No. We have reduced the possibles to two. Is the lateral 
line curved. Yes, and it has a greenish back and golden and silvery 
sides, and is altogether a good-looking member of the cod family. 
It is a pollack. 

Here is another with three dorsals, which is copper-coloured and 
broadly banded, and has blackish fins and a brown lateral line. Is 
its upper jaw longer than the lower ? Yes ; and it has a barbule. It 
is a whiting-pout. 

Let us have one with an adipose dorsal. Does the anal extend 
to the caudal ? No, the anal does not reach the tail. Has the anal 
more than twenty rays ? No. Is the body ridged ? No. How many 
dorsal rays are there ? A fair number ; it is a long dorsal. Are 
there more than eighteen ? Certainly. Then it is Thymallus, the 
grayling. 

Next, we take one with two dorsals fully developed. Are there 
any barbules ? No. Are there any finlets ? No. What is the 
position of the ventrals ? Jugular. Wide apart ? No ; close 
together. How many rays are there in the first dorsal ? Ten. 
Then it is the hake (Merluccius), which, by the way, has hinged 
teeth like the angler. 

Let us have a representative of the single dorsals. Has it any 
ventrals ? Yes, and they are thoracic. What is the anal like ? Has 
it a spine and fourteen rays ? No ; it has two spines. Two spines ? 
How many rays ? Five. Enough ; it can only be the ruff (Acerina), 
which its rough scales prove it to be. 

Here is another, with a single dorsal and abdominal ventrals. It 
has no barbules. Its abdomen is not sharply compressed, but gently 
rounded. Its dorsal is not pla-ced over the anal, but midway along 
the back ; and the anal is rather long, and seems to have ten rays, 
though, perhaps, there are eleven. The genus can only be Leuciscus. 
But what is the species ? The lateral line is distinct all along 
the body, and there are five rows of scales between it and the ven- 
trals, which, with the silvery side and bluish back, show the fish to 
be a dace (L. vulgaris). 

Finally, we will have another, and run it through the mill. Its 
body is not horizontal ; its tail fin is rather large ; the tail is not 
heterocercal ; the lobes of the tail are equal ; and the tail is in a 
line with backbone. There is nothing eccentric about its shape ; 
there is nothing to show that it ever had two dorsals ; it has one 
dorsal, and the ventrals are neither jugular nor thoracic, but 
abdominal. It has no barbules; the abdomen is not rounded at 
either end, but compressed all along; and the upper jaw does not 
project. The genus is Clupea, The dorsal is nearer to the head 
than to the tail ; the ventrals are below the middle of the dorsal, 
and have six rays and to end all this it can only be the pilchard, 
which we might have recognised at sight by its large scales. 



CHAPTER VI. 

SUB-CLASSES AND ORDERS, 



OF the more recent schemes of classification we have adopted 
that which divides the fishes, living and extinct, into four 
sub classes : 

1. Lung-fishes and Mud-fishes. 

2. Bony fishes and Ganoids. 

3. Chimaeroids. 

4. Sharks and Rays. 

The lung-fishes and mud-fishes (DIPNOI) have a heart with 
three chambers, and have lungs as well as gills, and their 
nostrils lead into the hinder part of the mouth cavity like those 
of animals of higher organisation. Up to the present they have 
only been found in Australia, Africa, and South America ; and 
as they are unknown in British waters they are beyond our scope. 

With them out of the way we can describe the fishes we have 
to deal with as cold-blooded vertebrates adapted for life in the 
water, breathing by gills, having a heart with two chambers, a 
mouth with distinct jaws, and limbs either absent or modified 
into fins. They form the fifth class of the animal kingdom, 
those that precede it being the mammals, the birds, the reptiles, 
and the amphibians. The class can be divided into the four 
sub-classes already mentioned, the three with which we are left 
being : 

1. TELEOSTOMI or Bony-fishes and Ganoids. 

2. HOLOCEPHALI or Chimseroids. 

3. ELASMOBRANCHII or Sharks and Rays. 

Dealing with these in our customary way, the first sub-clasS 
^an be divided into orders thus : 

TELEOSTOMI : 

Paired fins fan-like ACTINOPTERYGII. 
Paired fins lobate CROSSOPTERYGII. 

As the latter are not represented in the British fauna, and 
have only two surviving species (the bichir and the reed-fish) we 

53 



54 SUB-CLASSES AND ORDERS. 

confine ourselves to the first order, which is divisible into sub- 
orders as follows : 

ACTINOPTERYGII : 

Gills lobed LOPHOBRANCHII. 
Gills laminate. 
Air bladder with duct. 

Skeleton notochordal ; body with dermal ossifica 
tioris CHONDROSTEI. 

Skeleton osseous ; body without dermal ossifications 
PHYSOSTOMI. 

Air bladder without duct. 

Skeleton incompletely ossified ; skin smooth, roughly 
scaled or ossified PLECTOGNATHI. 

Some of the fin rays unarticulated ACANTHO- 

PTERYGII. 

None of the fin rays unarticulated ; ventrals, when 
present, jugular or thoracic ANACANTHINI. 

The second sub-class, HOLOCEPHALI, now represented by only 
three genera belonging to one family, is characterised by a single 
external gill-opening with a rudimentary cartilaginous gill-cover 
and four branchial clefts within the gill cavity, and by the jaws 
being attached to the skull. 

The sub-class that includes the sharks and rays is of consider- 
ably more importance. The body is more or less cylindrical or 
depressed, the skeleton cartilaginous, the gills are attached to 
the skin by their outer edges with from five to seven gill-openings, 
there being no gill-cover, and the jaws being distinct from the 
skull. The two orders are recognisable as follows : 

ELASMOBRANCHII : 
Gill openings lateral SELACHOIDEI. 
Gill openings inferior BATOIDEI. 

The first being the sharks, the second the skates and rays. 

Of course there are other distinctions in each case, but our 
object being identification and not classification, we have mentioned 
only those that are most noticeable. 



CHAPTER VII. 

ORDERS, SUB-ORDERS, AND FAMILIES, 



THE families represented in British waters are herein arranged 
alphabetically under each order or, in the case of the 
Actinopterygii, sub-order, which are also alphabetical as being 
more readily referred to. With each family is given a list, also 
alphabetical, of its British genera, the numbers indicating where 
the species are figured on the coloured plates, 

Acanthopterygii- (TELEOSTOMI.) Plates i. to xiv. Nos. i to 113 

ATHERINID^. Body more or less elongate. Two dorsals more or less 
remote from each other, spines of the first feeble and fewer than rays 
of the second, anal similar to second dorsal ; ventrals abdominal, of 
one spine and five rays. Lateral line indistinct. Scales cycloid and 
of moderate size. Eyes lateral ; mouth moderately wide and not 
deeply cleft ; teeth minute ; gill opening wide ; four gills ; pseudo- 
branchiae present ; branchiostegals five or six. Atherina, 83,84. 

BLENNIID.E. Body long and more or less cylindrical. One, two, or three 
dorsals occupying most of the back, spines varying in number from 
all to none ; anal long ; ventrals generally jugular and sometimes 
rudimentary or absent. Scales small and occasionally absent. Gill 
openings varying; pseudobranchiae present. Anarrhichas, 75; Blen- 
nius, 76 to 79 ; Carelophus, 80 ; Centronotus, 81 ; Zoarces, 82. 

CALLIONYMID^E. Body, fore part depressed, hinder part cylindrical. Two 
dorsals, first with three or four flexible spines ; ventrals widely sepa- 
rated, with five rays. Lateral line single or double. Eye moderate 
and generally directed upwards. Mouth narrow, upper jaw protractile. 
Small teeth on jaws, none on vomer. Angle of praeoperculum armed 
with a spine. Gill opening very narrow ; a slit behind the fourth gill ; 
pseudobranchiae present ; branchiostegals five or six. Callionymus, 
7 2 . 73- 

CARANGIDJE. Body more or less compressed, oblong or sub-cylindrical. 
One or two dorsals, spinous dorsal short, when present, and some- 
times modified into tentacles or a suctorial disk, soft dorsal always long 
when spinous is absent ; soft dorsal and anal similar, hinder portion of 
both occasionally consisting of finlets ; ventrals thoracic, sometimes 
rudimentary or absent. Lateral line with or without shield-like plates. 
Scales small or absent. Eye lateral. Mouth small; teeth conical, 
when present. Gill opening wide. Capros, 28 ; Caranx, 24; Lichia, 
27 ; Naucrates, 25 ; Pammelas, 26. 

55 



5$ ORDERS, SUB-ORDERS, AND FAMILIES. 

CENTRISCID^;. Body compressed, long, oblong, or elevated. Two dorsals 
the first short with one strong spine, the second soft and moderate in 
size like the anal ; ventrals abdominal and rudimentary. No lateral 
line. Scales absent or small and rough, body covered with bony 
patches. Mouth small and at end of a long tube or trumpet. No 
teeth. Gills four ; pseudobranchiae present ; branchiostegals three 
or four. Centriscus, 98. 

CEPOLID^E. Body long and compressed. Dorsal long, more or less con- 
tinuous with caudal and anal, caudal rounded ; ventrals thoracic and 
consisting of one spine and five rays. Eye large and lateral. Teeth 
of moderate size, angle of praeoperculum without bony stay. Gill 
opening wide ; pseudobranchiae present ; branchiostegals six. 
Cepola, 74. 



. Body compressed. One long dorsal, without spinous 
division, extending almost to caudal ; anal without spines ; ventrals 
generally thoracic and receivable in groove. Eye lateral. Mouth 
cleft wide. Teeth small and conical or absent. Praeoperculum with- 
out bony stay. Gill opening wide. Brama, 32 ; Lampns, 33 ; Luvarus, 
35 ; Schedophilus, 34. 

COTTIDJE. Body oblong or sub-cylindrical. Two dorsals, the spinous less 
developed than the soft one, or than the anal ; ventrals thoracic with 
five or fewer soft rays, sometimes rudimentary. Eye lateral or 
directed upwards and outwards. Mouth lateral. Teeth villitcrm, no 
canines. Some of the head bones armed. Infraorbitals articulate 
with praeoperculum. Cottus, 48 to 51 ; Trigla, 52 to 57. 

CYCLOPTERID^. Body thick or oblong. Dorsal spinous, or partly spinous 
soft part of dorsal equal to anal ; ventrals thoracic or jugular, com 
posed of one spine and four or five soft rays, which are rudimentary 
and support a round disk, which is encircled by a cutaneous fringe. 
Skin bare or tubercular. Teeth small. Gill opening narrow. Anal 
papilla prominent. Cyclop let us, 60 ; Liparis, 61, 62. 

CYTTID^E. Body elevated, compressed. Dorsal in two portions. Ventrals 
thoracic. Skin with small scales, or shields, or bare. Eye lateral. 
Teeth conical and small. No stay to praeoperculum. Gill opening 
large. Anal papilla not prominent. Zeus, 29. 

DACTYLOPTERID^E. Body elongate, sub-cylindrical and more or less 
angular. One or two dorsals ; ventrals thoracic, with five or fewer 
rays. Scales replaced by plates. Praeoperculum articulated with in- 
fraorbitals. Agonus, 58 ; Peristethus, 59. 

GASTEROSTEID^E. Body elongate, compressed. First dorsal absent or 
represented by isolated spines; second dorsal soft ; ventrals abdominal, 
consisting of a spine and a small ray. Scales absent but replaced by 
scutes along the side. Mouth cleft, small and oblique; teeth villiform ; 
opercular bones unarmed, infraorbitals covering cheek. Branchi- 
ostegals three. G aster osteits, 91 to 97. 

GOBJESOCID^. Body irregular and ungraceful. Dorsal soft and short and 
near tail ; anal similar to dorsal ; ventrals jugular with sucker be- 
tween them. No scales. Lepadogaster, 99 to 101. 



ORDERS, SUB-ORDERS, AND FAMILIES. 57 

. Body long. One dorsal, frequently divided into two, with 
flexible spines in front portion, which has fewer rays than the other ; 
anal similar to soft part of dorsal ; ventrals occasionally united into 
disk. Scales present or absent. Teeth generally small, sometimes 
canines present Infraorbitals not articulated with praeoperculum. 
Gill opening narrow. Pseudobranchiae sometimes rudimentary. 
Aphia, 70; Cry stallogob ius, 71 ; Gobius, 631069. 



. Body long or oblong. One dorsal, spinous portion with rays 
as many as or more than the soft portion ; anal similar to soft dorsal ; 
ventrals thoracic, with one spine and five rays. Lateral line con- 
tinuous or interrupted. Scales cycloid. Teeth on jaws ; none on 
palate. Gills, three-and-a-half. Pseudobranchiae present. Branchi- 
ostegals, five or six. Acantholabrus, in ; Centrolabrus, 112 ; Com, 113 ; 
Crenilabrus, 108, 109; Ctenolabrus, no; Labrus, 10410 107. 

LOPHIID^E. Body pyriform, head large. First dorsal absent or represented 
by a few spines placed forwards and developed into tentacles ; ventrals 
jugular, with four or five soft rays occasionally absent. Carpal bones 
prolonged into arms terminated by the pectorals. Scales absent. 
Teeth villiform or rasp-like. Infraorbitals not articulated with prae- 
operculum. Gills from two-and-a-half to three-and-a-half ; gill opening 
a small hole. Pseudobranchiae generally absent. Lophius, 47. 

MUGILID.E. Body oblong and compressed, fore part occasionally de- 
pressed. Two dorsals, anterior of four stiff spines, posterior shorter 
than anal ; ventrals abdominal. Scales generally cycloid. Head 
scaly. Eye lateral. Mouth narrow or moderate; teeth fine or 
absent. Gills four ; gill opening wide, Pseudobranchiae present. 
BranchiostegaCs four to six. Mugil, 85, 86. 

MULLID^E. Body long and compressed. Two dorsals wide apart, with 
weak spines : second dorsal similar to anal ; ventrals with one spine 
and five rays. Lateral line continuous. Scales ctenoid and large. 
Head convex ; eye lateral ; mouth in front of snout ; teeth weak and 
various : two stiff barbules below the chin. Pseudobranchiae present. 
Branchiostegals four. Mullus, 8, 9 

PERCID^E. Body more or less compressed, oblong, and not elongate. 
Dorsals one or two, occupying most of the back, spinous dorsal well 
developed, generally with stiff spines; anal similar to soft dorsal; 
ventrals thoracic, with one spine and five soft rays. Lateral line con- 
tinuous when present. Scales ctenoid or cycloid, rarely extending 
over vertical fins Eye lateral ; mouth more or less protractile ; no 
barbules ; teeth villiform, with or without canines. Praeoperculum 
entire or serrated and not articulated to infraorbitals. Pseudobranchiae 
present. Branchiostegals six to eight. Acerina, 3 ; Dentex, 7; Labrax, 
2 ; Perca, i; Polyprion, 6; Serranus 4, 5. 

SCI/ENLD^;. Body somewhat long and compressed. Two dorsals, second 
larger than first and longer than anal ; anal with one or two spines ; 
pectorals branched ; ventrals thoracic, consisting of a spine and five 
soft rays. Lateral line often continued on to caudal fin. Scales 
ctenoid or cycloid, covering both head and snout. Eye lateral. Mouth 
in front of snout. Teeth in villiform bands, palate toothless. Branchi- 
ostegals seven. Sciana, 20. 

E 



58 ORDERS, SUB-ORDERS, AND FAMILIES. 

SCOMBRESOCID^;. Body long and rounded. Dorsal rayed and opposite 
anal. Scales keeled along free portion of tail. Lower pharyngeals 
united into one bone. Pseudobranchiae glandular and hidden. 
Belone, 87 ; Exocatus, 89, go ; Scombresox, 88. 

SCOMBRID.E. Body slightly compressed. Two dorsals, first with fewer 
spines than second has rays, finlets behind dorsal and anal occasionally 
absent; ventrals thoracic, with one spine and five rays Side of tail 
sometimes keeled. Scales small or abssnt. Eye lateral. Infraorbitals 
not articulated to praeoperculum. Gill opaning wide. Auxis, 43 ; 
Echeneis, 44 ; Orcynus, 39, 40; Pelamys, 42; Scomber, 36 to 38 ; Thynnus, 41; 



. Body oblong, compressed, or sub-cylindrical. Dorsal with 
spinous part as large or larger than the soft part ; soft part similar to 
anal ; ventrals thoracic, generally with a spine and five rays, but 
sometimes rudimentary. Some of the head bones armed ; armature of 
angle of praeoperculum supported by the stay to the infraorbital ring. 
Teeth in villiform bands. Pseudobranchiae present. Branchiostegals, 
five to seven. Sebastes, 19, 



Body oblong, compressed. One dorsal, spinous and soft por- 
tions equally developed; anal with three spines; ventrals thoracic, of 
one spine and five rays. Lateral line not extending to caudal. Scales 
cycloid or minutely ctenoid. Eye lateral. Mouth lateral, in front of 
snout ; cutting teeth in front of jaws, or a lateral series of molars, or 
both. Pseudobranchiae well developed. Branchiostegals, five to 
seven. Box, n ; Cantharus, 10 ; Pagellus. 1410 18 ; Pagrus, 12, 13. 



. Body oblong and compressed. One dorsal, long and 
without distinct spinous division, or with rudimentary spines in front ; 
ventrals thoracic. Scales very small. Eye lateral. Teeth very small 
in jaws, palate toothless, oesophagus with barbed teeth. Praeoper- 
culum not articulated with infraorbitals. Gill opening wide. Centro- 
lophus, 30, 31. 

TRACHINID^E. Body long, hinder part compressed ; head often large 
One or two dorsals, spinous portion shorter and less developed than 
the other ; anal similar to soft dorsal ; pectorals with or without 
appendages ; ventrals thoracic, with one spine and five rays. Scales 
present or absent. Teeth small and conical. Praeoperculum not 
articulated with infraorbitals. Tra hinus, 45, 46. 

TRACHYPTERID^. Body riband-shaped; bones porous, thin, and light. 
Dorsal as long as back, rays unbranched and not articulated, front 
portion detached ; anal absent ; caudal at an angle to the longitudinal 
axis or rudimsntary ; ventrals jugular and filamentary. Scales absent. 
Eye lateral. Mouth cleft small. Teeth small and smooth. Gills 
four ; gill opsning wide. Pseudobranchiae present. Regalecus, 103 ; 
T r achy p terns, 102. 

TRICHIURID^. Body long, compressed or riband-shaped. Dorsal and 
anal long and many rayed, and nearly similar in size, and occasionally 
ending in finlets ; caudal forked or absent ; ventrals thoracic, some- 
times rudimentary. Scales absent or rudimentary. Eye lateral. 
Mouth cleft deep. Teeth in jaws or on palate, a few of them strong 
and conical. Gill opening wide. Lepidopus, 23 ; Trichiunis, 22. 



ORDERS, SUB-ORDERS, AND FAMILIES. 59 

XIPHIID^E. Body long and compressed. One or two dorsals, with no 
spinous portion ; ventrals thoracic and rudimentary or absent. Scalej 
forming rudimentary shields or absent. Eye lateral. Mouth deeply 
cleft ; upper jaw produced into a long sword formed of the coalesced 
premaxillaries, vomer, and ethmoid ; teeth absent or rudimentary. 
Pseudobranchise present. Branchiostegals, seven. Xiphias, 21. 



Anacanthini (TELEOSTOMI) PLATES xvi. to xxi. Nos. 125 to 165 

GADID.E. Body elongate. Dorsals, one, two, or three, occupying almost 
the entire length of the back ; rays of posterior dorsal well developed ; 
one or two anals ; caudal usually free ; ventrals jugular, consisting of 
several rays or filamentary. Scales cycloid, moderate or small. Gill 
opening wide. Gill membranes not as a rule attached to isthmus. 
Pseudobranchise glandular and rudimentary or absent. Brosmius, 142 ; 
Gadus, 125 to 132; Lota, 136; Merluccius, 133; Molva, 135; Motella, 
137 to 440; Phycis, 134 ; Raniceps, 141. 

MACRURID^E. Body with large head and tapering tail. Dorsals two, 
anterior short, posterior long., weak, and continued to end of tail ; anal 
similar to second dorsal; caudal absent; ventrals of several rays, 
thoracic or jugular. Scales spiny, keeled or striated. Coryphanoides, 
148. 

OPHIDIID/E. Body long. Dorsal united to anal, and occupying nearly 
the entire length of the back ; pectorals often absent ; ventrals 
rudimentary and generally jugular, but sometimes absent. Scales 
present or absent. Canine teeth sometimes present. Gill opening 
wide ; gill membranes not attached to isthmus. Ammodytes, 145 
to 147; Fierasfer, 144; Ophidium, 143 

PLEURONECTID^E. Body flat and unsymmetrical. Dorsal and anal united 
and long. Lateral line on upper side, single, double, or triple, and 
curved or straight. Scales present or absent. Both eyes on upper 
side, sometimes rudimentary. Gills, four. Pseudobranchise well 
developed. Colour dark on upper side, white or lightly spotted on 
lower. Arnoglosstis, 156 ; Hippoglossoides, ,150 ; Hippoglossus, 149 ; 
Lepidorhombus, 155 ; Pleuronecies, 157 to 161 ; Rhombus, 151, 152 ; 
Solea, 162 to 165 ; Zeugopterus, 153, 154. 



Batoidei (ELASMOBRANCHII.) PLATES xxxi. to xxxiii. Nos. 238 to 252. 

MYLIOBATID^;. Body flat, angular and broad. Dorsal small and situated 
on tail ' pectorals skirting the sides of the body, but absent from the 
sides of the head, except at the snout, where they form cephalic 
appendages ; caudal absent. Tail slender. Teeth, flat molars. 
Cephaloptera , 251 ; Myliobatis, 250. 



Body flat, rhombic, generally spiny. Dorsals, one or two, on 
tail ; pectorals skirting sides of body and extending to snout ; caudal 
rudimentary or absent. Tail with longitudinal fold on each side, and 
without serrated caudal spine. Raia. 238 to 247. 



60 ORDERS, SUB-ORDERS, AND FAMILIES* 

TORPEDINID^E. Body flat, broad, and smooth, and gradually passing into 
tail. Dorsal rayed, sometimes absent ; pectorals not extending beyond 
base of muzzle; caudal well developed. Tail with longitudinal fold 
on each side An electric organ between the pectorals and the head. 
Torpedo, 248, 249. 

TRYGONID.E. Body broad. Dorsal, caudal, and anal absent or rudi- 
mentary ; pectorals skirting body and head and confluent at snout. 
Tail long and slender without longitudinal fold. Vertical fins, often 
replaced by strong serrated spine. Try-on, 252 



Chondrostei. (TELEOSTOMI.) PLATE xxvii. No. 220 

ACIPENSERID^;. Body long and sub-cylindrical, with five rows of bony 
shields Dorsal near caudal ; anal nearer caudal than dorsal. Four 
barbules on lower side of snout. Teeth minute or absent. Gill mem- 
branes confluent at throat and attached to isthmus. Gills, four; two 
acce-.sory gills. Branchiostegals absent. Acipenscr, 220. 



Holocephali. PLATE xxvii. No. 221. 



. Body stout, with filamentous tail. Dorsals, two, occupying 
greater part of back, anterior dorsal with long, strong spine ; caudal 
absent, but tail with fins on upper and lower edges similar to a dorsal 
and anal ; anal very low Snout prominent and without appendage. 
Single gill opening covered by fold of skin enclosing rudimentary 
gill cover ; gill clefts, four, within the cavity. Chimara, 221 



Lophobranehii. (TELECSTOMI.) PLATE xv. Nos. 114 to 119. 

SVNGNATHID^. Body ridged or rounded. One dorsal, which is not 
spinous ; anal absent or present ; caudal absent or present ; pectorals 
absent or present ; ventrals absent. Snout prolonged. Mouth ter- 
minal, small, and toothless. Gills not laminated, but of small rounded 
tufts ; gill opening small, round, and at upper posterior angle of cover, 
which is a simple plate. Hippocampus, 119; Nerophis, 116 to 118; 
Siphonostoma, 114 ; Syngnathus, 115. 



PhysostOHli. (TELEOSTOMI.) PLATES xxii. to xxvii. Nos. 166 to 219. 

CLUPEID^S. Body slender, abdomen often compressed into a serrated 
edge. Dorsal not long, with weak rays, few or moderate in number; 
no adipose fin ; anal sometimes many-rayed. Lateral line present or* 
absent. Scales on body, but not as a rule on head. No barbules. 
Gill openings very wide. Pseudobranchiae well developed when 
present. Clupea, 190 to 194 ; Engnndis, 189. 



ORDERS, SUB-ORDERS, AND FAMILIES. 6l 

CYPRINID^E. Body oblong or long; abdomen usually rounded. Single 
dorsal, no adipose fin. Scales present or absent, no bony plates ; 
head without scales. Mouth toothless, but from one to three rows of 
teeth on lower pharyngeal bones. Margin of upper jaw formed by 
premaxillaries. Pseudobranchiae generally present. Branchiostegals, 
three. Abramts, 180, 181 ; Albtirnus, 182; Barbus, 172; Carassius, 170, 
171; Cobitis, 183; Cyprinus, 169; Gobio, 173; Leuciscns, 174 to 178; 
Newachiliis, 184; Tinea, 179. 



. Body oblong. Single dorsal near tail, no adipose fin. Scales 
on body but not on head. Margin of upper jaw formed by maxil- 
laries laterally, and premaxillaries mesially. Barbules absent. Gill 
opening very wide. Pseudobranchiae glandular and concealed. Esox, 
185- 

MUR^ENID^E. Body long, cylindrical, or riband-shaped. Dorsal long 
and confluent with anal, or separated by tip of tail ; pectorals present 
or absent; ventrals absent. Scales rudimentary or absent. Sides of 
upper jaw formed by premaxillaries more or less coalescent with 
vomer and ethmoid. Anguilla, 166 ; Conger, 167 ; Murana, 168. 

SALMONID/E. Body compressed, moderate or elongate ; abdomen rounded. 
Two dorsals, the anterior rayed, the posterior adipose. Scales on 
body but not on head. Margin of upper jaw formed laterally of 
maxillaries and mesially of premaxillaries. Barbules absent. Pseudo- 
branchiae present. Argentina, 219; Coregomis, 214 to 217; Osmenis, 
213; Salmo, 195 to 212; Thymalhis, 218. 

SCOPELID^;. Body elongate. Two dorsals, the posterior adipose. Scales 
present or absent. Margin of upper jaw formed by premaxillaries. 
Barbules absent. Gill opening very wide. Pseudobranchiae well 
developed. Branchiostegals generally numerous. Paralepis, 186. 

STERNOPTYCHID^;. Body compressed, elevated, or elongate, with phos- 
phorescent bodies along the lower parts. Adipose fin generally 
rudimentary. Scales thin and deciduous or absent. Margin of 
upper jaw formed of toothed maxillary and premaxillary. Barbules 
absent. Gill opening very wide. Pseudobranchiae absent or present. 
Argyropelecus, 187; Maurolicus, 188. 



PleCtOgnathi. (TELEOSTOMI.) PLATE xv. Nos. 120 to 124. 

BALISTID^E. Body compressed or angular. Dorsal modified or absent ; 
ventrals modified or absent. Skin with scutes or rough, or the scales 
forming a carapace. Mouth narrow, snout produced, teeth small and 
few. Gill opening narrow. Balistes, 120, 121. 

DIODONTIDJE. Body short. Dorsal, caudal, and anal without spines ; 
ventrals absent ; pectorals present. Scales modified with spines or 
laminae. Bones of jaw modified into a cutting beak, with a covering 
resembling ivory. Teeth consisting of plates in thin parallel layers. 
Orthagoriscns, 123, 124 ; Tetrodon, 122. 



62 ORDERS, SUB-ORDERS, AND FAMILIES. 

Selaehoidei. (ELASMOBRANCHII.) PLATES xxviii. to xxxi. Nos. 223 

to 237. 

CARCHARIID^E. Body cylindrical. Two dorsals, first without spine and 
placed above space between pectorals and ventrals ; anal present. Eye 
with nictitating membrane. Mouth crescent shaped, inferior ; snout 
slender and conical, or hammer-shaped. Teeth hollow when fully 
grown. Carcharias, 222 ; Galeus, 223 ; Mustelus, 225 ; Zygcena, 224. 

LAMNID^E. Body cylindrical. Two dorsals, first without spine and placed 
above space between pectorals and ventrals ; anal present. Eye with- 
out nictitating membrane. Mouth crescent-shaped and inferior. 
Teeth solid when fully grown. Alopecias, 227 ; Lamna, 226 ; Selache, 228. 

NOTIDANID^. Body cylindrical. One dorsal only, spineless, placed 
above space between ventrals and anal. No nictitating membrane. 
Mouth crescent-shaped and inferior. Gill openings six or seven. 
Notidanus, 229. 

SCYLLIID^:. Body cylindrical. Two dorsals, first without spine and 
placed above or behind ventrals ; anal before, below, or behind 
second dorsal. No nictitating membrane. Spiracles distinct. 
Mouth semi-circular or angular, inferior. Teeth small, and several 
rows in use at once. Pristiurus, 232 ; Scyllium, 230, 231. 

SPINACID^E. Body cylindrical. Two dorsals ; anal absent ; pectorals not 
notched at base, and not prolonged forwards. No nictitating 
membrane. Mouth inferior, slightly arched, with loag, deep oblique 
groove on each side. Spiracles present. Gill openings narrow. 
Acanthias, 233 ; Centrina, 235; Echinorhinus, 236 ; Lcemargus, 234. 

SQUATINID^;. Body depressed and flat. Two dorsals ; anal absent ; 
pectorals large with base prolonged forward. Spiracles behind the 
eyes. Mouth anterior. Teeth conical and pointed. Gill openings 
wide and lateral. Rhina, 237. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

FAMILIES AND GENERA, 



THE particulars given herein are only such as are necessary 
for distinguishing the genera from each other with regard to 
their representatives in the British list. The arrangement is 
alphabetical. The orders are given as facilitating reference to the 
preceding chapter. In the next chapter will be found the species of 
each genus and their main characteristics. 

Acipenseridse. (CHONDROSTEI.) Plate xxvii. 
Acipenstr, 220. 

Atherinidse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate x, 
Atherina, 83, 84. 

Balistidse. (PLECTOGNATHI.) Plate xv. 
Balistes, 120, 121. 

Blenniidse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate x. 

Ventrals absent. 

Anarrhichas t ia.vf teeth strong and conical, 75. 
Centronotus, jaw teeth small, 81. 

Ventrals small. 

Zoarces, caudal absent, 82. 

Carelophus, caudal present, dorsal level throughout, 80. 

Blennius, caudal present, dorsal not level throughout, 76 79. 

Callionymidse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate ix 
CalUonymus, 72, 73. 

63 



64 FAMILIES AND GENERA. 

CarangidcE. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate iv. 

Capros, first dorsal 9 rays, pectorals 13, 28. 

Caranx, first dorsal 8 rays, pectorals 19 to 21, lateral line armed 
with keeled or spiny scales, 24. 

Pammelas, first dorsal 6 or 7 rays, pectorals 23, caudal 
emarginate, 26. 

Lichia, first dorsal 5 or 6 rays, pectorals 17, caudal forked, 27. 

Naucrates, first dorsal 3 to 6 rays, pectorals 19 to 21, lateral line 
unarmed, tail keeled, 25. 

Carehariidse. (SELACHOIDEI.) Plate xxviii. 
Zygana, head in shape of hammer, 224. 
Carcharias, pit at base of caudal, no spiracles, 222. 

Mitstelus, no pit at base of caudal, spiracles present, second 
dorsal not much smaller than first, 225. 

Galeus, no pit at base of caudal, spiracles present, second dorsal 
much smaller than first, 223. 



Centriseidse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate xii. 
Centriscus, 98. 

CepOlidSB. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate ix. 
Cepola, 74. 

ChimSBPidSB. (HOLOCEPHALI.) Plate xxvii. 
Chimara, 221. 

Clupeidse. (PHYSOSTOMI.) Plate xxiv. 

Engranlis, upper jaw projecting, 189. 
Clufea, upper jaw not projecting, 190-194. 

Coryphsenidse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate v. 

Luvarus, caudal 16 rays, anal with one spine and 14 rays, 35. 
Brama, caudal 19 rays, anal with two spines and 27 or 28 rays, 32. 

Schedophilus, caudal 21 rays, anal with no spine and 27 to 29 
rays, 34. 

Lampris, caudal 22 rays, anal with no spine and 38 to 41 rays, 33. 

Cottidse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plates vii. and viii. 
Trigla, three free pectoral rays, 52-57. 
Cottus, no free pectoral rays, 48-51. 



FAMILIES AND GENERA. 65 

Cyelopteridse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate viii. 

Cyclopterus, two dorsals, first partly hidden, 60. 
Liparis, one dorsal, 61, 62. 

Cyprinidse. (PHYSOSTOMI.) Plates xxii. and xxiii. 

Cobitis, 6 barbules, erectile spine beneath eye, 183. 
Nemachilus, 6 barbules, no erectile spine beneath eye, 184 
Cyprinus, 4 barbules, dorsal with 22 rays, 169. 
Barbus, 4 barbules, dorsal with n rays, 172. 
Gobio, 2 barbules, anal 8 rays, pectorals 15, ventrals 8, 173. 
Tinea, 2 barbules, anal 9 rays, pectorals 17, ventrals 10, 179. 
Carassius, no barbules, anal short, with 5 to 7 rays, 170, 171. 
Leuciscus, no barbules, anal short, with 8 to n rays, 174-178. 
Abramis, no barbules, anal long, dorsal with spine, 180, 181. 
Alburnus, no barbules, anal long, dorsal without spine, 182. 

CyttidSB. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate iv. 
Zeus, 29. 

Daetylopteridse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate viii. 
Peristethus, two free pectoral appendages, 59. 
Agonus, no pectoral appendages, 58. 

Diodontidse. (PLECTOGNATHI.) Plate xv. 

Tetrodon, oesophagus distensible, tail and caudal fin distinct, 122. 
Orthagoriscus, resophagus not distensible, tail truncated, 123, 124. 

Esoeidae. (PHYSOSTOMI.) Plate xxiv. 
Esox, 185. 

GadidSB. (ANACANTHINI.) Plates xvi., xvii., xviii. 
One dorsal, one anal. 

Brosmius, dorsal long, anal long, 142. 

Motella, front of dorsal a narrow fringe, first ray prolonged, 137- 
140. 

Two dorsals, one anal. 

Merluccius, barbule absent, teeth large, 133. 

Phycis, barbule present, first dorsal short, second dorsal long, 
ventral a long bifid filament, 134. 

Molva, barbule present, first dorsal short, second dorsal long, 
ventral of 6 rays, teeth large in lower jaw, 135. 



66 FAMILIES AND GENERA. 

Lota, barbule present, first dorsal short, second dorsal long, 
ventral of 6 rays, no large teeth in lower jaw, 136. 

Raniceps, barbule present, first dorsal rudimentary, 141. 
Three dorsals, two anals. 
Gadus, 125-132. 

Gasterosteidse. (A.CANTHOPTERYGTI.) Plate xii. 
Gasterosteus, 91-97. 

GobiesoeidSB. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate xiii. 
Lepadogaster, 99-101. 

GobiidSB. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate ix. 

CrystallogoUus, without scales, and transparent, 71. 
Aphia, with scales, and transparent, 70, 
Gobius, with scales, and not transparent, 63-69. 



Labridse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plates xiii. and xiv. 
Cons, dorsal spines 9, 113. 

Centrolabrus, dorsal spines 18 to 20, anal spines 4 or 5, teeth in a 
single series, 112. 

Acantholabrus, dorsal spines 20 to 21, anal spines 5 or 6, teeth in a 
band, in. 

Ctenolabms, dorsal spines 16 to 18, anal spines 3, teeth in a band 
with a strong outer series, no. 

Crenilabrus, dorsal spines 14 to 17, anal spines 3, teeth in a single 
series, praeoperculum serrated, 108, 109. 

Labms, dorsal spines 16 to 21, anal spines 3, teeth in a single 
series, praeoperculum not serrated, 104-107 



Lamnidse, (SELACHOIDEI.) Plates xxviii. and xxix. 

Alopecias, two dorsals, upper lobe of caudal about as long as 
body, 227. 

Selache, two dorsals, upper lobe of caudal less than a quarter as 
long as body, teeth small and conical, 228. 

Lamna, two dorsals, upper lobe of caudal less than a quarter as 
long as body, teeth large and lanceolate, 226. 

Lophiidse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate vii. 
Lophius, 47. 

Maeruridse. (ANACANTIIINI.) Plate xix. 
Corypht?noides, 148. 



FAMILIES AND GENERA, 67 

Mugilidse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate xi. 
Mugil, 85, 86. 

MullidSB. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate ii 
Mullus, 8, 9. 

MursenidSB. (PHYSOSTOMI.) Plate xxii. 
Murcena, pectorals absent, 168. 

Conger, pectorals present, upper jaw longer than lower, 167. 
Anguilla, pectorals present, upper jaw not longer than lower, iCG 

MyliobatidSB. (BATOIDEI.) Plate xxxiii. 

Myliobatis, dorsal beyond ventrals, 250. 
Cephaloptera, dorsal between ventrals, 251. 

NotidanidSB. (SELA'CHOIDEI.) Plate xxix. 
Notidanus, 229. 

Ophidiidse. (ANACANTHINI.) Plates xviii. and xix 

Ophidium, ventrals a pair of bifid filaments, 143. 
Fierasfer, ventrals absent, anal beginning at throat, 144. 
Ammodytes, ventrals absent, anal remote from throat, 145-147 

Percidse (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate i. 

Two dorsals. 

Perca, anal with 2 spines, i. 
Labrax, anal with 3 spines, 2. 

One dorsal. 

Acerina, anal with 2 spines, 3. 
Dentex, anal with 3 spines, tail forked, 7. 

Polyprion, anal with 3 spines, tail not forked, operculum ridged, 6. 
Serranus, anal with 3 spines, tail not forked, operculum not 
ridged, 4, 5. 

Pleuroneetidse. (ANACANTHINI.) Plates xix., xx., xxi. 
Eyes right. 

Hippoglossus, jaws alike, lateral line curved, 149. 

Hippoglossoides, jaws alike, lateral line straight, 150. 

Pleuronectes, mouth at end of snout, teeth larger on blind side, 

157-161. 

Solea, jaws longer on blind side, teeth only on blind side, snout 
projecting beyond jaws, head curved, chin bearded, 162-165. 



68 FAMILIES AND GENERA. 

Eyes left. 

Arnoglossiis, mouth small, scales spiny along hinder edge of upper 
side, 156. 

Zeugopterns, mouth large, vomer toothless, dorsal and ventrals 
long, 153, 154. 

Lepidorhombus, mouth large, teeth on vomer, scales large and 
spiny, lateral line not semi-circular over pectoral, 155. 

Rhombus, mouth large, teeth on vomer, scales absent or small, 
I5 1 - 152. 

Ralidae. (BATOIDEI.) Plates xxxi. and xxxii. 
Raia, 238-247. 

Salmonidse. (PHYSOSTOMI.) Plates xxv., xxvi,, xxvii. 
Body ridged. 

Argentina, no teeth on jaws, maxillary short, scales large, 219. 
Body not ridged. 

Thymallus, dorsal rays over 18, 218. 

Coregonus, dorsal rays under 18, maxillary short, 214 to 217. 

Osmerus, dorsal rays n, maxillary long, 213. 

Salmo, dorsal rays 12 to 15, maxillary long, scales small, 195-212. 

Seisenidae. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate iii. 
Scicena, 20. 

SeombresOCidSB. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate xi 

Exoccetus, pectorals elongated into organs of flight, 89, 90. 

Scombresox, pectorals normal, jaws prolonged into a slender bea!:, 
finlets present, 88. 

Belone, pectorals normal, jaws prolonged into a slender beak, 
finlets absent, 87. 

ScombPidSB. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plates vi. and vii. 
Without finlets. 

Echeneis, first dorsal modified into an adhesive disk, 44. 
With finlets. 

Scomber, keel on tail represented by two slight ridges, dorsals 
wide apart, 36 to 38. 

Auxis, keel on tail, dorsals wide apart, 43. 

Pelamys, keel on tail, dorsals close, first dorsal over 20, 42. 

Thynnus, keel on tail, dorsals close, first dorsal under 20, 7 
finlets, 41. 

Orcynus, keel on tail, dorsals close, first dorsal under 20, 8 or 9 
finlets, 39, 40. 



FAMILIES AND GENERA. 69 

Scopelidse. (PHYSOSTOMI.) Plate xxiv. 

Paralepis, 186. 

SeorpsenidSB. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate iii. 
Sebastes, ig. 

Scylliidse. (SELACHOIDEI.) Plates xxix. and xxx. 

Pristiurus, flat spines on sides of upper edge of caudal, 232. 
Scjllium, no flat spines on sides of upper edge of caudal, 230, 231. 

Sparidse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plates ii. and iii. 
Cantharus, pectorals 14, no molar teeth, 10. 
Box, pectorals 21, no molar teeth, n. 
Pagnis, pectorals 15 or 1 6, molar teeth and canines, 12, 13. 
Pagellus, pectorals 15 to 17, molar teeth and no canines, 14 18 

SpinaCidiB. (SELACHOIDEI.) Plates xxx. and xxxi. 
Dorsals with spines. 

Centrina, spine in middle of each dorsal, 235. 

Acanthias, spine in front of each dorsal, 233. 
Dorsals without spines. 

L&maygus, first dorsal remote from ventrals, 234. 

Echinorhinus, first dorsal opposite ventrals, 236. 

Squatinidse. (SELACHOIDEI.) Plate xxxi 
Rhina, 237. 

Sternoptyehidse. (PHYSOSTOMI.) Plate xxiv. 
Argyropelecus, without scales, 187. 
Mauvolicus, with scales, 188. 

Stromateidse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plates iv. and v. 
Centrolophus, 30, 31. 

Syngnathidae. (LOPHOBRANCHII.) Plate xv. 
Pectorals absent ; body smooth. 

Nerophis, 116-118. 
Pectorals present ; body ridged. 

Hippocampus, tail prehensile, crest with coronet, ng. 

Syngnathus, tail not prehensile, no coronet, humerals united into 1 
breast ring, 115. 

Siphonostoma, tail not prehensile, no coronet, humerals movable 
and not united, 114. 



JO FAMILIES AND GENERA. 

Torpedinidse. (BATOIDEI.) Plate xxxiii. 
Torpedo, 248, 249. 

Traehinidae. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate vii. 
Trachimis, 45, 46. 

i 

Traehypteridse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate xiii. 

Regakcus, ventrals a pair of long filaments, no caudal, 103. 
Trachypterus, ventrals well developed; caudal placed at an 
angle, 102. 

Triehiuridse. (ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate iii. 
Trichiunis, caudal absent, 22. 
Lcpidopus, caudal well developed, 23. 

Trygonidse. (BATOIDEI.) Plate xxxiii. 
Trygon, 252. 

(ACANTHOPTERYGII.) Plate iii. 
Xiphias, 21. 



CHAPTER IX. 

GENERA AND SPECIES, 



THIS Chapter is devoted to distinguishing between the species, 
though here and there a few characters of the genus are 
given to assist in identification. For the distinctions between the 
genera, etc., reference must be made to the preceding chapters. 

Abramis, Plate xxiii. CYPRINID&. 

180. brama, BREAM. Fins brownish and red ; 6J or 7^ scales 

between lateral line and ventral fin ; pharyngeal teeth 
in one row. 

181. blicca, WHITE BREAM. Fins bluish and red ; 5 or 6 scales 

between lateral line and ventral fin ; pharyngeal teeth 
in two rows. 

The Bream has a single dorsal fin, with 2 or 3 spines, and n 
or 12 rays, the anal fin has 3 spines and 24 to 28 rays, the caudal 
has 19 rays, the pectorals have 15 to 17 rays and the ventrals 10. 
The dorsal begins midway between the eye and the base of the 
caudal where the body curves sharply downwards. The anal is the 
broadest fin. The lateral line has from 50 to 63 scales, and curves 
downwards from the nape. The scales are higher than they are 
broad. The body is flat, the curves awkward, and the abdomen is 
keeled between the ventrals and the anal fin. The head is short, 
and the mouth does not extend as far back as the front edge of the 
eye. The colour is olive or yellowish green, lighter on the sides, 
the fins being of a reddish brown. The Bream is gregarious, so 
that where there is one there are generally more. As a rule it is 
confined to lakes and large ponds, or gently flowing waters, and it 
feeds on plants, insects, and worms. One has been caught that was 
26 inches long, but perhaps 16 inches may be taken as the average. 

The White Bream has a single dorsal, with 2 or 3 spines and 
8 or g rays, the anal fin has 2 or 3 spines and from 19 to 24 rays, the 
caudal has 19 rays, the pectorals have 15 rays, and the ventrals 10. 
The dorsal begins midway between the ventrals and the anal fin, 
and the ventrals are nearer to the pectorals than to the anal. The 
anal is the broadest fin. The lateral line has from 43 to 52 scales, 
and curves gently downwards from the nape. The scales are higher 
than they are broad. The body is flat, the curves not so abrupt as 
those of the Bream, the depression at the neck being not so marked, 



72 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

and the hump where the dorsal begins being lower. The mouth 
does not reach the front edge of the eye, and its lips are thick. 
The colour is silvery, with a rosy blush, and the fins are bluish 
with a red tinge on some of the edges. Unlike the Bream, this 
species is not gregarious, though its haunts and food are similar. 
It is much smaller in size, and may be a foot in length, but is 
generally smaller. 



AcantMas. Plate xxx. SPINAC1D&. 

233. vulgaris, SPUR DOGFISH. A spine in front of each dorsal fin ; 
anal fin absent. 

This is the common Dog-fish, often called the Picked Dog ; the 
picked being a corruption of piked, the name being derived from 
the conspicuous spines which stand up in front of each dorsal like 
pike-heads, and are triangular in section with a groove behind. 
That of the first dorsal stands just above the inner edge of the 
pectorals, and that of the second dorsal, which is longer than the 
other, is a trifle nearer the tail than the after edge of the ventrals. 
The ventrals are small and the pectorals are larger than the dorsals. 
In colour this, the most frequent of the British sharks, is greyish or 
brownish above, with a few white spots, and whitish below In 
winter it feeds near the ground in deep water, but at other times it 
comes closer in, and preys on surface-swimming fishes. The spines 
are used by bending the back so as to dig them in and then drawing 
them asunder as the body straightens, tearing a gash outwards from 
each point of incision. In length the Spur-dog reaches about four 
feet. 



Acantholabrus. Plate xiv. LABR1DJE. 

in. palloni, SCALE-RAVED WRASSE. Upper lip thicker than lower 

The Scale-rayed Wrasse has a single dorsal fin with 20 or 21 
spines and 9 or 10 rays, which are longer than the spines ; the anal 
has from 4 to 6 spines and 5 to 8 rays ; the caudal has 14 or 15 rays ; 
the pectorals have 14 or 15, and the ventrals have i spine and 5 
rays. The dorsal begins above the base of the pectorals and 
gradually increases in height to the first ray with which the higher 
after portion begins, the anal spines also increase in height to the 
first ray. The lateral line runs parallel to the curve of the back, and 
contains from 40 to 45 scales ; there are 5 or 6 rows of scales on the 
cheek and 7 on the gill-covers. The mouth is large and extends to 
the front edge of the eye, the lower jaw being the longer. The 
teeth in the j aws are conical, the outer row being the larger. In colour 
this wrasse may be yellow, orange, brown, violet, or blue, with rosy 
sides and whitish under parts, but it always has a black blotch on 
the membrane between the 3 last dorsal spines. There are scales 
on its dorsal, caudal, and anal fins, hence its fisherman's name. It 
is a deep-water species, measuring 20 inches or more when fully 
grown. 



GENERA AND SPECIES. 73 

Acerina. Plate i. PERCH) JE. 

3. vulgaris, RUFF. Dorsal continuous ; scales rough to the touch ; 

lateral line prominent. 

The Ruff occasionally sp.elt with a useless " e " is the same fish 
as the Pope. It has the two dorsal fins of the Perch running into 
each other and forming one, though each is well marked. The 
dorsal thus consists of 14 spines and from n to 13 rays; the anal 
consists of 2 spines and 5 or 6 rays, the caudal of 18 rays, the 
pectorals have 13 or 14 rays, and the ventrals the usual single spine 
and 5 rays. In the dorsal the third and fourth spines are the 
longest, and all the spines project further above the membrane than 
those of the Perch. The tip of the pectoral is just half-way between 
the snout and the fork of the tail. Of the two anal spines the first 
is the longer. In the very distinct lateral line there are 40 scales, 
and in them the tubes are double. The body is flat and easily 
curved, except between the snout and the dorsal, where it runs 
almost straight, so that the eye which is brown with a blue pupil 
appears to be almost at the top of the head. The mouth extends to 
the front edge of the eye, the upper jaw being the longer. There 
are no teeth, except in the jaws, where they are in rows. There are 
6 or 7 spines on the gill-cover, and i spiny scale at the shoulder, and 
another at the angle of the pectoral fin. In colour the Ruff is olive 
brown or greyish, with cloudy spots, and is paler on the sides and 
whitish below. The fins are spotted and the ventrals are frequently 
of an orange tint. The Ruff is a bottom-feeding fresh-water fish, 
living in shoals, generally in deepish water in cool shady places. It 
feeds on the fry of other fish, on insects, and on worms, and is 
usually 3 or 4 inches in length, though it may be 7 inches or more. 



Acipenser. Plate xxvii. ACIPENSERIDM 

320. sturio, STURGEON. Shields along the back, the sides, and the 
abdomen ; 4 barbules in a row. 

The Sturgeon has the dorsal fin close to the tail ; in it there are 
from 35 to 40 rays, the anal having from 23 to 25 rays, the caudal 
100 to 125 rays; the pectorals have a spine and 28 to 38 rays, and 
the ventrals have 23 or 24 rays. The pectorals are placed very low and 
close to the gills, arid the anal is close to the tail, its base beginning 
under where that of the dorsal ends. The ventrals are in the tail 
end of the body, a little further in front of the dorsal than the dorsal 
is of the anal. The characteristic bucklers, or plates, number from 
ii to 13 along the back, 23 to 26 along the side, those along the 
abdomen being less conspicuous and varying greatly in number. 
The mouth extends to beneath the small eyes, the snout is protracted 
and often half as long as the head. In colour the Sturgeon is olive, 
greenish, or yellowish, as the case may be. It is a solitary fish that 
appears in our rivers in spring, and takes to the sea in winter, and is, 
as a rule, caught when 5 feet long, though it attains 9 feet, and has 
been recorded as long as 12 feet. 

F 



74 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

Agonus. Plate viii. DACTYLOPTERID&. 

58. cataphractus, POGGE. Body octagonal ; barbules under throat, white. 
The Pogge, or Armed Bullhead, bears a distant resemblance to 
the sea-horse. It has two dorsal fins, the first with 5 spines and the 
second with 5 or 6 rays ; in the anal fin there are 6 rays, in the 
caudal 12 ; the pectorals have 16 rays, and the ventrals a spine and 
2 rays. The dorsals are almost semi-circular, and the pectoral is 
very broad, and extends beyond the middle of the first dorsal. The 
body is divided by ridges of bony plates into 8 sides, and between 
the two side ridges runs the lateral line of 32 scales, which are without 
spines. The mouth nearly extends to the front edge of the eye, and 
there are many barbules. There are no teeth except in the jaws. 
In colour the Pogge is pinkish or yellowish grey, with broad vertical 
bands and many spots. The pectorals are distinctly banded, the 
other fins not so much so: This is a bottom-feeding species, haunt- 
ing the mouths of rivers and similar places. It rarely exceeds 
6 inches in length. 

Alburnus. Plate xxiii. CYPRINID^. 

182. lucidus, BLEAK. Tail with lower lobe longer than upper ; anal 
fin broad and cut square. 

The Bleak has a single dorsal fin with 2 or 3 spines and 7 or 8 
rays ; the anal fin has 2 or 3 spines and from 16 to 20 rays, and the 
caudal has 19 rays ; in the pectorals there are 16 or 17 rays, and in 
the ventrals there are 9 or 10. The dorsal is midway between the 
eye and the base of the caudal ; the anal is the broadest fin and is 
curiously square at the corners ; the pectorals are pointed. The 
lateral line curves downwards from the nape and rises to meet the 
caudal below the middle. It has from 47 to 57 scales, and there are 
3^ rows of scales between it and the base of the ventral fin. The 
mouth does not reach to the fore edge of the eye, and the lower 
jaw is hooked and projecting. In colour the Bleak is greenish above 
and silvery below, with a blue stripe along the side. It attains a 
length of 8 inches, but is generally caught smaller, and is not a 
favourite with anglers owing to its frequently taking the bait intended 
for other fish. It swims near the surface in rivers and running 
waters, always in shoals, which are generally more numerous where 
drains enter the stream, and it is particularly apt at springing out ot 
the water after flying insects, and making more fuss than its size 
would lead one to suspect. 

Alopecias. Plate xxix. LAMNIDJE. 

227. vulpes, THRASHER. Upper lobe of tail as long as body. 

The Thrasher, otherwise the Fox-shark, is unmistakable, owing 
to its peculiar tail. It has a stout, sturdy body, with a very large 
pectoral fin, a forked first dorsal about the same size as the pectorals, 
and very small second dorsal and anal. The mouth is in the shape 
of a crescent, the teeth are small, flat, and triangular, with smooth 
edges. The body is darker above than below, but the colour varies 
very much, though it is generally some shade of grey. This energetic 
shark is by no means rare in British waters, and has been caught 
over 15 feet long. 



GENERA AND SPECIES. 75 

Ammodytes. Plate xix. OPHID1IDSE. 

145. lanceolatus, SAND EEL. Caudal with 15 rays, pectorals with 12 or 

13 rays; scales many ; fins of same height throughout ; 
lower jaw with soft prolongation ; dorsal begins behind 
tip of pectoral. 

146. tobianus, LESSER SAND EEL. Caudal with 15 rays ; pectorals 

with 12 rays; scales many; fins curved in outline; 
dorsal begins above or before tip of pectorals. 

147. cicerellus, SMOOTH SAND EEL. Caudal with 19 rays; pectorals 

with 14 rays ; scales few or absent ; fins waved in out- 
line ; dorsal begins over tip of pectorals. 

The Sand Eel has from 53 to 61 rays in its dorsal fin, 28 to 33 in 
the anal fin, and 15 in the caudal ; the pectorals have 12 or 13 rays, 
and there are no ventral fins. The anal starts from under the 
middle of the dorsal or thereabouts, and both fins have their outer 
edges parallel to the very slight curve of the body, and are separated 
from the caudal by a short interspace. The scales are small, and 
there are two lateral lines, one with from 190 to 203 scales, the other 
being incomplete. The head is nearly flat on the top, the mouth 
does not extend to the front edge of the eye, and the lower jaw is 
the longer and has a long fleshy tip. Teeth are absent, but are 
represented by two processes on the vomer. The Sand Eel is 
greenish above and silvery below, with a bright stripe as a line of 
demarcation. It is about a foot long, but has been caught measuring 
over 15 inches. It is gregarious, and buries itself in the sand between 
the tide-marks. 

The Lesser Sand Eel has from 53 to 59 rays in its dorsal fin, 26 
to 30 in its anal fin, and 15 in its caudal ; the pectorals have 12 rays, 
and there are no ventrals. The dorsal begins above the last third of 
the pectorals, and gradually increases in height until it reaches the 
middle, when it curves slightly downwards towards the tail. There 
are two lateral lines, one incomplete and the other with from 125 to 
145 scales. The lower jaw is the longer, and the mouth extends 
backwards behind the nostrils. There are a few small teeth on the 
vomer and on the base of the tongue. The colour is olive green 
above and silvery below, with a bright stripe between. This species 
also frequents the shore in shoals, and burrows in the sand between 
the tide-marks. It measures about 6 inches in length. 

The Smooth Sand Eel has from 53 to 59 rays in its dorsal fin, 28 
to 30 in its anal fin, and 19 in its caudal ; there are 14 rays in its 
pectorals, and the ventrals are absent. The dorsal begins above 
the tip of the ventral and curves downwards, upwards^ downwards, 
and upwards again, and the anal curves inwards so as to be lowest 
in the middle. The mouth extends to the eye, the lower jaw 
slightly projecting. There are no teeth and few or no scales, and 
consequently no lateral line. The brownish green of the back and 
the white of the under parts are divided by a silvery stripe that 
reaches from the eye to the tail. The only specimen caught in 
British waters and that was off the Shetlands was 6 inches long. 



76 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

Anarrhichas. Plate x. BLENNIID&. 
75. lupus, CAT-FISH. Long curved teeth in the front of each jaw. 

The Cat-fish, Sea-cat, or Wolf-fish, is the unprepossessing indi- 
vidual who, with his head cut off, is frequently sold as " rock- 
salmon," a name really belonging to the coal-fish. There is a long 
dorsal fin with 72 to 74 rays, a long anal with 45 to 48 rays, a rather 
small rounded caudal with 15 to 18 rays, broad ear-shaped pectorals 
with 19 rays, and there are no ventrals. The dorsal begins at the 
nape and almost reaches the base of the tail, the outer margin being 
a gentle curve that dies away as it reaches the end, while that of the 
anal terminates abruptly exactly underneath it. The scales are 
rudimentary, and there is a row of pores on the head, which has a 
more ferocious appearance than that of any other British fish. The 
mouth is large, and extends beyond the eye. In the upper jaw there 
are 4 large curved canines and 6 or 8 smaller conical teeth ; in the 
lower jaw there are 2 or 3 diverging canines, which are conical and 
curved with 2 smaller ones behind, and behind them are two 
rows of rounded molars converging into one. In the roof of the 
mouth there are 3 double rows of teeth, those in the centre being 
flat and those at the sides being pointed. In colour the Cat-fish is 
bluish grey, darkest along the back, with broad vertical bands 
stretching down the sides. It is strong, swift, and fierce, and feeds 
on crustaceans and molluscs, using the powerful teeth for crushing 
the shells. As a rule it is found near the bottom along rocky 
coasts, its food being more abundant there. When a year old it is 
from 7 to 8 inches long, and when full grown it attains from 3 to 6 
feet or more. 



Anguilla. Plate xxii. MUR&NIDJE 

166. vulgaris, EEL. Vertical fins continuous. 

The Eel has a pair of pectorals with from 17 to iSrays; the dorsal, 
caudal, and anal join, forming one long fin extending from about 
a quarter the length of the body from the snout to nearly the middle 
of the body underneath. In this fin there are from 480 to 500 rays. 
The tail is prehensile. The mouth extends to the middle of the eye 
or slightly beyond, there being no great difference in the length of 
the jaws. The scales are small and buried in the skin. In colour 
the Eel is dark olive above and whitish or yellowish below. In 
length it may exceed a yard, but is generally shorter. In habits it 
is nocturnal, and its haunts are rivers and pools near them in which 
the water is clear and the bottom muddy, but it migrates to the sea 
to spawn. In the male the lips are broad, in the female they are 
narrow ; before the sexes were made out these were assumed to be 
two different species. The migration seawards takes place in the 
autumn and the spawn is deposited not far from the shore where the 
influence of the river water is still perceptible. Early in January 
young eels or " elvers," as they are called, are big enough to be 
noticeable on the ebb of the tide; in April or thereabouts they ascend 
the rivers, and when mature, perhaps in the second or third year, 



GENERA AND SPECIES. 77 

they begin their journey to the sea, whence very tew return. 
Eels will travel overland wherever it is fairly moist, and have even 
been reported by a gardener for eating his peas. They are quick of 
hearing, and in captivity will come to be fed when called. 

Aphia. Plate ix. GOBIID/E. 

70. pellucida. TRANSPARENT GOBY. Teeth conspicuous and in a 
single row. 

The Transparent Goby, the whitebait of the Adriatic, has two 
dorsal fins, the first having 5 spines, the second having i spine and 
from ii to 13 rays, the anal has i spine and 13 or 14 rays, the 
caudal has 17 rays, the pectorals have 16 rays and the ventrals have 
the usual spine and 5 rays. In the male the first dorsal is higher 
than in the females, and in both the anal is very similar to the 
second dorsal in shape and size. The caudal is rounded, and the 
sides are nearly parallel. In the lateral line there are 26 scales. 
The scales are large and cycloid. The mouth extends to the middle 
of the eye, the under jaw being the longer ; and in the male the 
jaws become larger and more oblique during the breeding season, 
when the teeth also increase in size. The Transparent Goby is 
generally transparent with a faint line of yellow, and a few orange 
dots, and is not much more than i^ inches long. It is a surface- 
swimmer and gregarious, and in the Mediterranean appears in large 
numbers, but is not very noticeable in our waters, though some 
have been taken all round the coast. 

Argentina. Plate xxvii. SALMONIDJE. 
219. sphyr&na, ARGENTINE. Body ridged. 

The dorsal fin has i or 2 spines and 8 or 9 rays ; the anal has 2 
or 3 spines and 9 or 10 rays, and the caudal has 19 rays; the 
pectorals have 13 or 14 rays, and the ventrals loor u. The ventrals 
start below the last ray of the dorsal and midway between the snout 
and the base of the caudal. Both dorsal and anal are higher in 
front than behind. There are from 50 to 53 scales in the lateral 
line, though exceptionally there are a few less. The scales are of 
good size, thin, and not so wide as they are high ; on those of the 
back and abdomen are stellate or spiny ossicles. The body is four- 
sided in shape, the back and sides and abdomen being divided off 
by 4 well-marked ridges. The mouth extends to the front edge of 
the silvery eye, the upper jaw being the longer. In colour the 
Argentine is yellowish above, silvery blue on the sides, and yellow 
below. It is a deep-water fish, rather uncommon, and about 9 
inches long. 

Argyropelecus, Plate xxiv. STERNOPTYCHIDJE. 

187. kemigyninvs. Head and trunk large and flat, and dotted along lower 
edge with a row of ocellated spots. 

The dorsal fin has 6 spines and 7 or 8 rays, the anal has 11 or 12 
rays, the caudal 19 ; the pectorals have 10 rays and the ventrals 6. 
The fore part of this curious fish is flat and almost square, the 



78 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

hinder half being narrow and joined on abruptly as if it did not 
belong to it. In colour it is silvery yellow, and along the lower 
edge are straight lines of eye-like spots, one under the gills, one 
where the hinder part joins on, and one on the tail itself. It appears 
in the list owing to a single specimen having been dredged up 
between the Shetlands and the Faeroes. 

Arnoglossus. Plate xx. PLEURONECTID&. 

156. Internet, SCALD FISH. Mouth small, scales spiny on upper side. 

There are from 87 to 101 rays in the dorsal fin, from 64 to 68 
in the anal, and 15 in the caudal ; in the pectorals there are 10 or 
n, and there are 6 in the ventrals. The first rays of the dorsal fin 
are occasionally separate, and are longer in the male than in the 
female. The eyes are on the left side, but the teeth and jaws are 
equal on both sides. The lateral line has 48 scales, and forms a 
half-circle over the pectoral ; the scales generally are rather large 
and deciduous, and the skin is thin and tears off as easily as if it 
had been scalded, whence the fish's popular name. The small 
mouth is at the end of the snout, the lower jaw is the longer, and 
the teeth are small and in one row. In colour the Scaldfish, or 
Scaldback, as it is often called, is light brown above and white 
below. It is found in rather deep water where the bottom is sandy, 
but is of no importance, and not used for food. 

Atherina. Plate x. ATHERINID&. 

83, presbyter, ATHERINE. Dorsals farther apart than the base of the 

second dorsal is long. 

84. boyeri, BOYER'S ATHERINE. Dorsals as far apart as the base 

of the first dorsal is long. 

Of the two dorsals of the Atherine, the first has from 7 to 9 
spines, and the second a spine and from n to 13 rays, the anal has 
a spine and from 14 to 18 rays, and the caudal has 17 rays; in the 
pectorals there are from 13 to 15 rays, and the ventrals have a spine 
and 5 rays. In the first dorsal the second and third spines are the 
longest. The lateral line has from 57 to 62 scales. The fish is 
translucent, with a silvery band from the eye to the base of the tail ; 
on the back it is brownish, and there is a purple tinge on the sides. 
It is from 7 to 8 inches long, and appears in small shoals in harbours 
and inlets, returning to deeper water in the winter. It seldom 
comes near the surface. 

Boyer's Atherine appeared at Polperro on Trafalgar Day, 1846. 
11 They were aH near the surface," says Couch, " not more than 
three or four within a foot or two of each other, but the whole 
scattered loosely over the water to the number of several thousands. 
Their heads were in one direction, as if passing inward, and they 
were constantly raising dimples on the surface, like scattered drops 
of rain, by apparently examining or seizing some floating object ; 
but however earnestly engaged their vigilance was never remitted, 
and it became scarcely possible to approach them, as in an instant 
they were off in another direction at the sight of a moving object." 



GENERA AND SPECIES. 79 

This mighty gathering of fishes not exceeding three inches long 
remained about Polperro for a week and then disappeared, not even 
a straggler having been since. The few that were caught have 7 or 
8 spines in the first dorsal, a spine and n or 12 rays in the second 
dorsal, a spine and 12, 13, or 14 rays in the anal, and 17 rays in the 
caudal ; in the pectorals there are 14 or 15 rays, and in the ventrals 
are a spine and 5 rays. The lateral line has from 50 to 57 scales. 
The mouth is cleft very obliquely, and extends to the front edge of 
the eye, the eye being much larger than that of the common 
Atherine. 

Auxis. Plate vi. SCOMBRID&. 
43. rochci. PLAIN BONITO. Dorsals re mote ; first dorsal triangular. 

The first dorsal is triangular and has 10 or n rays, the second 
dorsal is as far removed from it as the base of the triangle is long, 
and has n or 12 rays, and behind it are 8 or 9 finlets; the anal has 
ii or 12 rays followed by 7 finlets; the caudal has 24 rays ; in the 
pectorals are 21 or 22 rays, and the ventrals have the usual spine 
and fin rays. The ventrals are beneath the pectorals, and the anal 
starts below the first finlet. The lateral line becomes crooked above 
the anal fin. There are 3 keels at the base of the caudal, and pro- 
longations to the corslet. The mouth extends to the middle of the 
eye ; the teeth in the jaws are small, and there are none on the 
palatines and tongue. In colour this bonito is bluish, with silvery 
underparts. In size it measures about 18 inches. It is rare in 
British waters. 

Balistes. Plate xv. BALISTID&. 

120. maculatus, TRIGGER FISH. Side spotted ; no plates behind gills 

121. capriscus, FILE FISH. Side not spotted ; two plates behind gills. 

The Trigger-fish has 3 spines in its first dorsal, 26 or 27 rays in 
its second dorsal, 24 or 25 rays in its anal, and 12 in its caudal ; in 
its pectorals there are 15 rays, and the ventrals are represented by 
a movable bony knob. The dorsal spines are black and at equal 
intervals, and the front one is longer and stronger than the others. 
The scales are rough and granulated, and form a carapace. The 
colour is blackish, and the length is about 16 inches. The species 
is very rare in our home seas, in fact it is doubtful if it has been 
caught more than once. 

The File Fish is not quite so rare. In its first dorsal there are 
3 spines, and in the second 27 or 28 rays ; in its anal there are from 
24 to 26 rays, and in its caudal 12 rays; there are 15 rays in its 
pectorals, and the ventrals are represented by a bony process as in 
the other species. The first spine is the longest, and the second is 
not so far from it as from the third. The scales form a carapace. 
The colour is yellowish, darker on the upper portion ; the size is 
about 16 inches. The generic name is derived from the way in 
which the spines spring up when raising the fin. Like the preced- 
ing species it is a native of the tropical seas, where it feeds on corals 
and hard-shelled mollusca. 



8o GENERA AND SPECIES. 

Barbus. Plate xxii. CYPRINIDJE. 

172. vidgaris, BARBEL. Two pairs of barbules. 

The dorsal fin has 3 or 4 spines and 12 or 13 rays, the anal has 
2 or 3 spines and 5 rays, and the caudal has 20 rays ; in the 
pectorals there are 18 rays, and in the ventrals 9 or 10. The u ;>rsal 
begins over the ventrals in the middle of the back, and the tip 
of the pectorals is half-way between their base and the base of the 
ventrals. The anal is mid-way between the pectorals and the 
caudal ; the pectorals are low on the body and the anal is narrow. 
There are 7 scales between the base of the ventrals and the lateral 
line. The lateral line has from 52 to 70 scales. The back is curved, 
and the abdomen nearly straight ; the snout is long and the lips are 
thick and leathery. The colour is olivaceous, the scales being pale 
yellow edged with greenish black, the tint becoming lighter on the 
sides and underparts. The dorsal fin has a dark edge ; the other 
fins are reddish. The Barbel lives at the bottom of gently flowing 
rivers, generally in the middle third between the source and the sea. 
and searches for its food routing about among the stones. It feeds 
on vegetable matter, and on worms and insects, and other aquatic 
animals. It reaches 24 inches in length, perhaps more. It is very 
quick of hearing, and often makes a noise when caught, and growls 
under the water. It bites with a double knock, and tries to break the 
line by striking it with its tail. 

Belone. Plate xi. SCOMBRESOCID&. 

87. vulgaris, GARFISH. No finlets; tail forked, lower lobe slightly 
the longer. 

The dorsal fin is opposite the anal, and placed in the tail third 
of the body ; it has from 17 to 20 rays, the anal having from 21 to 
23, and the caudal 15 or 16 ; in the pectorals there are 13, and in 
the ventrals 6. The jaws are lengthened into a beak, the lower jaw 
being the longer. It is soft at its outer end, the upper jaw being 
sharp and pointed, so that it can be driven into the prey. In colour 
the Garfish is bluish green on the back and silvery below. It is 
generally gregarious, and swims near the surface, often on the very 
top of the water, and occasionally springing over the waves. The 
lower jaw is always long, but in the young the upper jaw is very 
short and increases in length as the fish becomes mature until there 
is not very much difference between them. There is a Garfish on 
record that was a yard long, but about half that length is the usual 
size when found, as it often is, among the mackerel shoals. 

Blennius. Plate x. BLENNIIDM. 
Eye spot on first dorsal 

79. ocellaris, BUTTERFLY BLENNY. First spine long; a tentacle 
above the eye. 

No eye spot on first dorsal 
8. pholis, SHANNY. No tentacle above the eye. 



GENERA AND SPECIES. 8l 

77. galerita, MONTAGU'S BLENNY. A tentacle above the eye ; a 
black band at the base of the pectorals. 

76. gattorugine, TOMPOT. A tentacle above the eye ; no black band at 
the base of the pectorals. 

The Butterfly Blenny, like the others, has really one dorsal, but 
the break in the middle is so marked that it may conveniently be 
considered as two fins, the first having from u to 12 spines, the 
second 14 to 16 rays. In the anal there are from 16 to 18 rays, in 
the caudal n ; the pectorals have la rays and the ventrals only 2. 
In addition to the tentacle over the eyes there is one on the fore 
nostril. The mouth extends to the middle of the eye ; in the upper 
jaw there are from 36 to 40 teeth, and in the lower jaw from 34 to 
36, there being a curved canine at the back of each jaw. The 
colour is grey with bands, blotches, and reticulations, and between 
the fifth and ninth dorsal spines there is a large round black spot 
with a narrow white edging. This Blenny, which attains a length 
of 7 inches, lives among seaweeds, feeding upon them and upon 
crustaceans, molluscs, and small fishes. Of late years it has 
become rare. 

The Shanny has the first part of the dorsal with n to 13 spines, 
the second, which is similar in appearance, but longer, having from 
18 to 20 rays. In the anal, which is just under this, there are also 
18 to 20 rays ; the caudal has 13 rays, the pectorals have 13, and 
the ventrals 2. There is no tentacle over the eyes, but on the 
fore nostril there is a short one divided into 4 or 5 filaments. The 
mouth is large and extends to below the eye, the upper jaw having 
from 14 to 20 teeth and the lower from 12 to 16, there being a curved 
tooth at the angle. In colour the Shanny is generally greenish 
yellow, banded, blotched, and spotted with black, the fins are 
yellowish, with black spots, and the anal has a white edging over a 
black stripe. It is a solitary fish, living in rock pools, driving away 
its would-be competitors from its hunting grounds, creeping about 
in and out of the water, jumping up with the aid of its tail, and 
taking a look round as it stands on its broad pectorals. It feeds on 
seaweed and on insects, molluscs, and other small animals, and is 
about 6 inches long. 

Montagu's Blenny has from 12 to 13 dorsal spines, and 15 to 17 
rays, the second half of the dorsal being higher than the first, and 
almost semi-circular ; in the anal there are from 17 to 18 rays, and 
there are n in the caudal, 12 in the pectorals, and 2 in the ventrals. 
The anal is longer than the second dorsal, but ends at the same 
distance from the tail. Across the head is an erectile crest, orange 
in colour, which is united to the dorsal by a row of tentacles. The 
mouth extends to the back of the eye, and in the upper jaw are 
from 55 to 65 teeth, there being only 35 to 45 in the lower jaw, 
which also has a curved canine. This is a small fish, 3 inches long, 
brownish grey in colour, with vertical bands, bluish white spots, 
and a line of white blotches from the pectorals to the caudal. It 
lives in rocky pools and shelters under stony ledges. 

The Tompot has from 12 to 14 spines and 19 to 20 rays in its 
dorsal, which is united by a membrane to the caudal ; the anal has 



82 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

21 or 22 rays, and is about the same size as the second half of the 
dorsal, but unlike it is not joined to the caudal. The caudal has 12 
or 13 rays, the pectorals have 14, and the ventrals, unlike those of 
the other British Blennies, have a spine and 2 or 3 rays. The 
mouth extends to the front edge of the eye, and there are about 40 
teeth in the upper jaw, the lower having about 35. It is the largest 
of our Blennies, being some 9 inches long, and has received its name 
from being frequently caught in lobster pots, to which it is attracted 
by the bait. It feeds on molluscs and small Crustacea, and lives 
among rocks in deep water, and not in tidal pools. In colour it is 
brownish grey, banded, blotched, and spotted. Like some of the 
other Blennies, it uses its pectorals and ventrals like hands and feet 
for crawling and feeling. 



Box. Plate ii. SPARIDsE. 

ii. vulgaris, BOGUE. Body narrow and not compressed. 

The Bogue has a long dorsal fin with 14 weak spines in the first 
sweep of the curve, and 14 or 15 rays in the second ; in the anal are 
3 spines and 15 rays, in the caudal are 17 rays, in the pectorals are 
21 rays, and in the ventrals are a spine and 5 rays. The scales 
are cycloid, there are 3 or 4 rows of them on the cheeks, and there 
are 75 in the lateral line. In colour this Mediterranean and Atlantic 
species, occasionally straying into British waters, is yellowish green 
on the back and silvery on the abdomen, with yellow streaks 
parallel to the lateral line. It is generally 8 or 9 inches long, but 
reaches 16, and feeds mainly on seaweeds. 



Brama. Plate v. CORYPH&NID&. 

32. rail, RAY'S BREAM. First few dorsal rays much higher 

than the spines, and rapidly decreasing in height. 

Ray's Bream has 3 or 4 short spines, and 29 to 34 rays, the fin 
rising at once to the tip of the longest ray and then curving 
suddenly downwards to continue parallel to the back. In the anal, 
which is somewhat similar in curve to the dorsal, are 2 spines and 
27 to 28 rays, in the deeply-forked caudal are 19 rays, the long- 
pointed pectorals have 19 to 23 rays, and the ventrals a spine and 
5 rays. The mouth, which is very oblique, extends to the outer 
edge of the eye, the lower jaw projecting to meet the curve of the 
head. The front nostril is round, the hinder one is a slit. The 
body is flat and little more than double as long as it is deep. In 
colour it is blackish above, whitish below, with black edges to the 
vertical fins. It is a deep-water fish, rare in our seas, but ranging 
from the Faeroes to the Cape of Good Hope. Our specimens have 
been generally washed ashore after a storm ; the first was found 
left by the tide in the Tees in September, 1681, and, being described 
by Ray, was named after him. 



GENERA AND SPECIES. 83 

Brosmius. Plate xviii. GADIDJE 

142. brosme, TORSK. Body round, only one dorsal. 

The Torsk is a member of the cod family with but one dorsal, 
and that extends from above the middle of the pectorals nearly to 
the caudal. It has from 85 to TOO rays ; the anal, which is rather 
more than half as long, having from 62 to 76, the caudal having 35, 
the pectorals from 21 to 23, and the ventrals 5. The ventrals are 
thick and pointed, and the skin generally is tough and thick. The 
colour is a yellowish grey, which becomes lighter on the edges of 
the fins. The Torsk is a deep-water fish, frequenting rocky ground 
in northern latitudes, and has never been taken south of Yorkshire. 
It is generally about 18 inches long, but grows to double that length, 
or rather more. 

Callionynms. Plate ix. CALLIONYMID&. 

72. lyra, DUSKY SKULPIN. Dorsal striped. 

73. maculatus, SORDID DRAGONET. Dorsal spotted. 

The Skulpin has two dorsals, the first with 4 spines, the second 
with Q rays. In the anal there are 9 rays, in the caudal 9, in the 
pectorals 20, and in the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. In the male 
the first spine is very long, in the female it is no longer than the 
rays, but in both the last ray is the longest. The body is long and 
narrow, the head flat, the snout long, and the upper jaw protractile. 
On the praeopercle there is a three-pointed spine. It is a solitary 
fish, from 7 to 12 inches long, hiding in the sand in bays and 
estuaries. The male is orange in colour, marked with blue, with 
the stripes purple on the first dorsal and pale blue on the second ; 
the female is brown, with 3 bands across the back, the second dorsal 
being bluish with a yellow stripe. 

The Dragonet has 4 spines in the first dorsal and 9 or 10 rays in 
the second, in the anal are 8 or 9 rays, in the caudal 9 or 10, in the 
pectorals 16, and in the ventrals the usual spine and 5. Both 
dorsals are high, the first spine being very long, and they are grey 
in colour, with 3 or 4 rows of round, pearl-edged black spots running 
across them. This fish, which is 4 inches long, appears in the list 
on the strength of a solitary specimen from the Shetlands. 

Cantharus. Plate ii. SPARIDJE. 

10. lineatus, BLACK SEA-BREAM. Lateral line black and parallel to 
back throughout. 

The Black Bream has n spines and 12 rays in its dorsal fin. 
3 spines and 10 rays in its anal fin, 17 rays in its caudal fin, 14 rays 
in its pectorals, and the normal spine and 5 in the ventrals. In the 
dorsal the rays are closer together than the spines, and start at a 
slightly higher level ; the fourth or fifth spine is the longest. The 
body is compressed and rather deep, the mouth extends to the front 
edge of the eye ; the only teeth are on the jaws, and they are cardi- 
form, the outer row being the largest. The general colour is grey, 
with yellow streaks below the lateral line, and a dark dorsal with 



84 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

two or three rows of spots occasionally continuous ; the long-pointed 
pectorals, the caudal, which has a light edging, and the spotted 
anal are mainly pale yellow. This species feeds on seaweeds, and 
comes inshore in small shoals, generally where the ground is rocky 
or there is a breakwater or pier on which seaweed grows. When 
fully grown it is about 16 inches long and 5 deep. 

Capros. Plate iv. CARANGIDJE. 
28. aper, BOAR-FISH. Body flat and deep ; colour red 

The Boar-fish has two dorsals, the first with 9 spines, the second 
with from 23 to 25 rays, and the anal is in two distinct divisions, 
the first with 3 spines, and the. second with 23 or 24 rays ; the caudal 
has 12 rays, the pectorals have 13 rays, and the ventrals have a 
spine and 5 rays. In the first dorsal the first spine is rather short, 
the second being the longest, the others shortening one after the 
other, so that the fin is triangular ; the second dorsal increases in 
height towards the tail ; the ventral spine is strong and has a rough 
fore-edge ; the anal is similar to the second dorsal. The mouth 
does not extend as far back as the eye, which is very large. The 
scales are small and spiny. The body rises in a hollow curve 
from the protractile snout to the beginning of the first dorsal, and 
then curves boldly outwards to the last ray of the second dorsal. 
The lateral line follows the outline of the body, and dies out 
between the dorsals. The hinder nostril is large and oval, the 
other is small and round. This unmistakable red fish is 7 inches 
long, and feeds on the molluscs and crustaceans it finds on the 
bottom in moderately deep water. It appears on the coast of 
England in May, and returns to the Atlantic in October, and ie said 
to grunt like a pig, but gets its name from the pig-like snout. 

Caranx. Plate iv. CARANGIDM. 
24. tracliurus, HORSE MACKEREL. 

The Horse Mackerel, perhaps quite as well known as the Scad, 
has two dorsal fins coming close together, the first with 8 spines, 
the second with i spine and n or 12 rays. There are two anals, 
also close up, the first with 2 spines, the second with i spine and 
from 26 to 29 rays ; in the caudal there are 17 rays, in the pectorals 
from 19 to 21, in the ventrals the usual spine and 5 rays. The 
second dorsal is not so high as the first, and, like the anal, extends 
almost to the tail. The lateral line has 73 large bony plates, 
which are keeled towards the tail end where the line becomes 
straight. Elsewhere the scales are very small. The mouth extends 
to the first third of the eye, the lower jaw being the longer. There 
are teeth not only on the jaws, but on the vomer and palatines, and 
in a band along the middle of the tongue, and they are all small. 
The dark blue back is marked off by the lateral line from the 
silvery sides. In food and habits this fish resembles the mackerel. 
It is of very wide distribution, and found solitary or in shoals, which 
are sometimes of immense extent. In the spring it feeds on the 
bottom, but in summer it is a surface swimmer. Large specimens 
measure 20 inches in length. 



GENERA AND SPECIES. 85 

Carassius. Plate xxii. CYPRINID&. 

170. vidgaris, CRUCIAN CARP. Back greenish, sides yellow, abdomen 

reddish white ; lateral line over 30 ; caudal rays 19 
or more. 

171. auratus, GOLD-FISH. Gold or silver; lateral line under 30; 

caudal rays 19 or less. 

It would seem to be more reasonable to treat these as two 
varieties of the same species, to which may be added a third, 
C. gibelio, the Prussian Carp, which differs only in being narrower 
in build and having a longer lower jaw and the tail more deeply 
forked. 

In the Crucian Carp and the Prussian Carp the dorsal has i to 4 
spines, and 14 to 21 rays, the anal has 3 spines and 5 or 6 rays, the 
caudal has from 19 to 21 rays; the pectorals have from 13 to 18 
rays, and the ventrals 9 or 10. The pectorals are twice as long as 
they are broad ; the dorsal begins behind them and over k he 
ventrals, and ends over the end of the anal. In the lateral line 
there are from 28 to 35 scales. The upper jaw is the longer ; the 
snout is blunt and the mouth small, and not reaching to the eye. In 
habits this fish resembles the Carp, but it thrives in water that would 
kill any other, and is generally small, rarely exceeding 7 inches in 
length. 

The Gold-fish is singularly varied in its fin arrangements, but 
the typical form has 3 or 4 spines and 16 to 18 rays in the dorsal, 
3 spines and 5 or 6 rays in the anal, 18 or 19 in the caudal, the 
pectorals having from 16 to 17 rays, and the ventrals 9. The 
pectorals should be three times as long as they are broad ; the 
dorsal begins over their tip, which should just reach the base of the 
ventrals. In the lateral line there are from 26 to 30 scales. As a 
rule both jaws are alike, and the mouth is small. Gold-fish are 
generally kept in tanks or glass bowls, and lead an artificial sort of 
life, feeding on worms, insects of all sorts and in all stages, 
generally as pupae, and occasionally shredded meat and even grain. 
In any water except rain-water be it from the tap, the pump, the 
stream, or the steam-engine, provided it is kept by frequent change 
or continual movement from becoming stagnant, they linger for 
years, but only really thrive in tanks or pools in which there are 
shady depths in which they can shelter. In such places they will 
reach n inches in length. In colour the Gold-fish is gold or silver, 
or red or white with gold, silver, or red markings, the colour 
seeming to vary with the temperature, the warmer the water the 
more golden being the fish, the handsomest and healthiest examples 
being found in the pools in which waste steam is condensed, where 
the average temperature is 80 degrees. 

Carcharias. Plate xxviii. CARCHARIID&. 

222. glaucus, BLUE SHARK. Pectorals long and pointed ; caudal 
large, upper lobe notched. 

The Blue Shark has two dorsal fins, the first in the middle of the 
back, the second above the anal close to the tail ; the ventrals are 



86 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

placed midway between the dorsals, and the pectorals are almost 
long enough to reach the beginning of the dorsal with their pointed 
tips. There is no fold at the angle of the mouth, the mouth is deep 
and wide, and the teeth are in four or five rows. The body is long 
and slender, dark greenish blue above, shading off into white below. 
It reaches 25 feet in length, but the British specimens, mostly 
caught in drift nets off Cornwall, average about 7 feet. 

Carelophus. Plate x. BLENNIIDJE. 
80. ascanii, YARRELL'S BLENNY. Vertical fins even. 

Yarrell's Blenny has a long dorsal running from the nape to 
the tail, and having from 50 to 52 rays ; the anal, which begins 
a little behind the tip of the pectoral, has from 36 to 40 rays ; the 
caudal has 17 ; the pectorals have 14 and the ventrals have a spine 
and 3 rays. On the first three rays of the dorsal are filaments, 
occasionally long. The mouth extends to the front edge of the eye ; 
over the eyes is a large tentacle, and at the nostrils are two small 
tentacles. The colour is reddish brown, with dark bands and 
mottlings. The length is about 7^ inches. This fish, which is found 
in crab-pots and lives in deeper water than the other Blennies, is 
not of frequent occurrence. 

Centrina, Plate xxxi. SPINACID&. 

235. salviani, The spine in each dorsal curving forwards from the 
middle of the base of the fin. 

Only one example of this shark has been caught in British 
waters. There is only one spine in each dorsal, and it curves for- 
ward, as stated, across the fin and projects beyond the front edge. 
There is no anal fin. The length of the captured specimen is about 
2ft., but the full size is between 4 and 5 feet. It is a Mediterranean 
species. 

Centriscus. Plate xii. CENTRISCIDJE. 
98. scolopax, TRUMPET FISH. Snout long and tubular. 

There are two dorsal fins, the first with from 5 to 7 spines, the 
second with n or 12 rays ; in the anal there are 18 to 20 rays ; in 
the caudal 16 ; in the pectorals there are 16 or 17, and in the 
ventrals 5. The first dorsal spine is short, but the second is long 
and thick, striated and serrated. The body is deep and thin, red 
above and silvery below, and about 5 inches in length. Only a few 
have been taken in British waters. 

Centrolabrus. Plate xiv. L ABRIDGE. 

112. exohtus, ROCK COOK. Five spines in the anal fin. 

The dorsal has from 18 to 20 spines and 6 rays; the anal has 
5 spines and 7 or 8 rays ; the caudal has 15 rays ; in the pectorals 
are 14 rays, and in the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The dorsal 
begins over the base of the pectorals, and its spines are all of the 



GENERA AND SPECIES. 87 

same height, the rays, which are also all of the same height, standing 
rather higher. In the lateral line are from 32 to 35 scales. The 
mouth is small and reaches only halfway to the eye. The lips are 
fleshy and the jaws equal. The Rock Cook, otherwise the Small- 
mouthed Wrasse, is the most graceful of the wrasses, and is brown 
above, yellowish on the sides, with yellow stripes along the rows of 
scales, blue stripes on the head below the eye, and dark bands 
along the fins. It is 5 inches long, and lives in deep water where 
the ground is rocky and weeds are plentiful. 

Centrolophus. Plates iv. and v. STROMATEID^E. 

30. britanmcus, CORNISH CENTROLOPHUS. Pectorals short. 

31. pompilus, BLACK-FISH. Pectorals long. 

The Cornish Centrolophus has a long dorsal fin higher behind 
than in front, with 46 rays; the anal, which is somewhat similar in 
shape, has 30 rays and the caudal 17 ; the short pectorals have 17 
rays, and the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The dorsal and anal 
are sheathed with scales ; the scales are small, and the lateral line 
begins with a short curve over the pectorals, and then continues 
straight along the middle of the long body. There is only one on 
record, and that was washed ashore at Looe. It is brownish pink 
above and paler below, and is 19 inches long. 

The Black-fish is fuller in the body. Its dorsal, which is highest 
in the middle, has from 38 to 41 rays ; its anal has from 23 to 25, 
and its caudal 17 ; in the pectorals are 21 rays, and in its ventrals a 
spine and 5 rays. The pectorals are long, and the lateral line 
becomes straight beyond their tips. The eye is large, and the 
mouth extends to its front edge. This is a Mediterranean fish, 
occasionally straggling into British waters, following vessels in the 
same way as the pilot-fish. It attains a yard in length, but none 
of that length has been caught off our coasts. In colour it is 
blackish, with irregular markings. 



Centronotus. Plate x. BLENNIIDJE. 
81. gunnellus, BUTTER-FISH. Dorsal even, long and spotted. 

The Butter-fish is of much the same shape as an eel. The dorsal 
is long and low, with from 75 to 82 rays ; the anal starts from the 
middle of the abdomen, has 2 spines and from 39 to 45 rays, and, 
like the dorsal, is connected by a membrane with the caudal, which 
has 15 rays ; the pectorals have n or 12 rays, and the ventrals have 
a spine and i or 2 rays, and are very small and placed immedi- 
ately below the base of the pectorals. The mouth reaches to the 
fore-edge of the eye, and has a single row of teeth in its jaws. The 
body varies in colour, but is generally yellow ; there is a dark stripe 
from the eye to the mouth, and along the base of the dorsal is a row 
of round black spots with a white edging. It is a very slimy fish 
hence its popular name found between the tide marks under the 
seaweed, and is occasionally left dry by the tide. In length it is about 
ii inches. 



88 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

Cepnaloptera. Plate xxxiii. MYLIOBATIDJE. 
2 5 X ' giorna, Ox RAY. Head with horn-like projections. 

In general outline this curious fish is not unlike a butterfly. The 
disk is nearly twice as broad as it is long. The upper and lower 
halves are doubly curved, and join in a point like a bird's beak. 
The top of the head, between the horns, is perfectly straight, and 
the tail is long with a spine at the base and a small triangular dorsal 
just in front of it. The skin is smooth, the colour greenish-blue 
above, white below. A straggler from the Mediterranean was once 
caught off the coast of Ireland, which was 45 inches long, but full- 
grown specimens are much larger. 

Cepola. Plate ix. CEPOLIDJE. 

74. rubescens, RED BAND-FISH. Body long; tail pointed. 

The vertical fins are practically continuous ; the dorsal has from 
67 to 74 rays, the anal 60 to 70, and the caudal 12 ; the 
pectorals have from 12 to 15 rays, and the ventrals a spine and 
5 rays. The dorsal and anal are of much the same height through- 
out ; the caudal, instead of having two lobes, ends in a long, central 
point. The scales are small and oval, and become larger towards 
the tail. The mouth is oblique, and extends to the middle of the eye ; 
the eye is large. In colour this long, thin fish is orange, with tints of 
yellow and rose. It measures about 22 inches in length, and swims 
like a snake at moderate depths over rocky ground, where it feeds 
mainly on crustaceans. 

Chimsera. Plate xxvii CHIM^ERIDJE. 
221. monstrosa, CHIM/ERA. Tail finless and filamentary. 

This is the King-of-the-herrings, so called from the spiny knob on 
the head, or the Rabbit-fish (from the rodent-like teeth), and is un- 
mistakable though not easily described. The girth is greatest at 
the gills, the body tapering gradually. There are three dorsals, the 
first high and triangular, with a strong, serrated spine in front, the 
second long and low, extending to the last quarter of the body, where 
it is separated by a mere notch from the third of equal height, which 
soon dies out along the whip-like tail. The pectorals are very large 
and almost reach the ventrals, which, in the male, have claspers. 
There are two anals, about equal in length, and divided from each 
other by a similar notch as that which separates the second and 
third dorsals, and is immediately above it. The so-called "crown " 
on the head is like a hook with a rounded end. The Chimasra is 
about 48 inches long, and in colour is blue above and white below, 
with metallic reflections. 

Clupea. Plate xxiv. CLUPEIDJE. 

190. harengus, HERRING. Dorsal halfway between snout and base 
of tail; ventrals behind commencement of dorsal. 

192. sprattus, SPRAT. Dorsal nearer tail than head ; ventrals before 
commencement of dorsal. 



GENERA AND SPECIES. 89 

191. pikhanlus, PILCHARD. Dorsal nearer head than tail; ventrals 
below middle of dorsal, and with from 6 to 8 rays. 

193. alosa t ALLIS SHAD. Dorsal nearer head than tail ; ventrals 

below third ray of dorsal and with 9 or 10 rays ; gill- 
rakers from 60 to 80. 

194. finta, TWAIT SHAD. Dorsal nearer head than tail ; ventrals 

below third ray of dorsal and with 9 rays ; gill-rakers 
from 20 to 28. 

The Herring has from 17 to 19 rays in the dorsal fin, 16 to 19 in 
its anal, 18 or 19 in its caudal, 17 in its pectorals, and 9 in its 
ventrals. In its lateral line there are from 53 to 60 scales ; the 
scales are moderate in size. The mouth extends to the centre of 
the eye, which has an adipose lid on each side; the lower jaw is 
longer than the upper, and is tipped with black. There are no 
radiating lines on the gill-covers. The abdomen is keeled, but the 
spines on it are short and weak. In colour the Herring is greenish- 
blue above, becoming silvery and iridescent on the sides and below. 
In length it ranges from about 8 inches to 15. It feeds on smaller 
fish, and minute Crustacea and other marine invertebrates, and 
swims at any depth, always in shoals, but is captured as a surface 
swimmer. It squeaks like a mouse when caught. Its migrations 
do not take it out of the northern seas, though it is found in the 
Pacific as well as in the Atlantic. When caught young at the mouth 
of the Thames it is known as whitebait. 

The Sprat has from 16 to 18 rays in its dorsal fin, 17 to 20 in its 
anal, 19 in its caudal, 16 or 17 in its pectorals, and 7 in its ventrals. 
In its lateral line there are 47 scales, which are rather larger than 
those of the herring, and are smooth and deciduous. The mouth 
extends to the first third of the eye, which has adipose lids. The 
lower jaw is the longer, and has no black tip. There are no 
radiating lines on the gill-covers. The abdomen is keeled, and the 
spines on it are strong and sharp. In colour the Sprat is slaty- 
blue above, becoming silvery and slightly iridescent on the sides and 
below. In length it ranges from 4 to 6 inches. Its food is 
apparently similar to that of the herring, but it is known only as a 
surface swimmer. It migrates as far south as the Mediterranean. 
When caught young at the mouth of the Thames it is known as 
whitebait, as the herring is ; in fact, whitebait consists almost entirely 
of the young of these two fishes. 

The Pilchard has the dorsal fin at the centre of gravity, so that 
the body hangs horizontally when held up by the first rays of the 
fin. The dorsal has 17 or 18 rays, the anal 17 or 18, the caudal 19, 
the pectorals 16 or 17, and the ventrals 6 or 8. In its lateral line 
are 29 or 30 scales ; the scales are the largest among the British 
representatives of the family. The mouth extends to the first third 
of the eye, the lower jaw being the longer. Like the foregoing 
species, there are eyelids, but unlike them there are radiating 
lines on the gill-covers. The abdomen is rounded and the spines 
weak. In colour the Pilchard is olive green above, and silvery 
below ; in length it ranges from 8 inches to 14. It has been 
seen feeding on the bottom, but is caught as a surface swimmer in 
enormous shoals that crowd together during the day, but spread 

G 



go GENERA AND SPECIES. 

out at night, and are frightened off at the slightest noise. The 
Pilchard ranges into the Mediterranean, and is the same fish as the 
Sardine, the Sardine being merely the Pilchard caught off the coast 
of France before it is large enough to have a roe. 

The Allis Shad has from 19 to 21 rays in its dorsal fin, 20 to 24 in 
its anal, and 20 in its caudal, and it has 15 or 16 in its pectorals and 9 
or 10 in its ventrals. The ventrals are almost level with the beginning 
of the dorsal, and the lower lobe of the caudal is rather longer than 
the upper. In its lateral line there are from 70 to 80 scales. The 
abdomen is sharply keeled, and has strong spines. The body is 
much deeper in proportion than those of the foregoing species. The 
mouth extends to the hinder edge of the eye, and the upper jaw is 
notched in the middle, the lower jaw being the longer. There are 
radiating lines on the gill covers and below the eye, the eye having 
vertical eyelids like the rest of the family. In colour the Allis Shad 
is greenish blue, with silvery sides ; in length it ranges, when fully 
grown, from 2 feet to 4 feet. It is solitary at sea, and gregarious 
when it enters the rivers to spawn ; and it is as quick of hearing and 
fond of music as the Twait Shad. 

The Twait Shad has from 1 8 to 20 rays in its dorsal fin, 20 to 
25 in its anal, 19 in its caudal, 15 or 16 in its pectorals, and 
9 in its ventrals. The ventrals are under the seventh ray of the 
dorsal, and the caudal is deeply forked, the lobes being equal. 
In its lateral line there are from 60 -to 75 scales. The 
spines on the abdomen are strong and sharp. The body is 
about a third as deep as it is long. The mouth reaches the hinder 
edge of the eye, and the upper jaw has a notch in the middle, the 
lower jaw being the longer. The gill covers have radiating lines, 
and the gill-rakers are thick, sharp, and under 29 in number. In 
colour the Twait Shad is blue above, silvery below, with a row of 
dark blotches in a line from the head to behind the dorsal, which 
are only found in the Allis Shad when young. In length it rarely 
exceeds 16 inches. It ascends the rivers to spawn in May, a month 
later than the Allis Shad, and returns in July. It is quick of hearing, 
frightened at thunder, and so fond of music that the Germans attach 
little bells to their shad nets, which ring under water, and not only 
attract the fish, but keep them lost in admiration as the nets are 
drawn in 1 



Cobitis. Plate xxiii. CYPRINW&. 

183. tcenia, SPINY LOACH. A double-pointed spine below the 

hind nostril. 

The Spiny Loach, otherwise the Groundling, has from 8 to 10 
rays in its dorsal, the first two or three of which are spiny ; in its 
anal are 7 or 8 rays, two or three of which may perhaps be called 
spines ; in its caudal are 16 rays, in its pectorals 8 or 9, in its 
ventrals 6 or 7. The dorsal, which is high in proportion to its width, 
is over the ventrals, midway between the eye and the base of the 
caudal, and the anal is midway between the ventral and the caudal, 
which is wide at its base, the body tapering gently with but a very 
slight curve. The mouth extends to the hind nostril, and on the upper 
jaw and snout are 6 barbules. This Loach is not common ; it is pale 



GENERA AND SPECIES. gl 

brown in colour, with dark markings on the back, and white below, 
the fins being banded. It is 3 inches long, lives where the bottom 
is muddy, and makes a guttural noise when touched. 

Conger. Plate xxii. MURJSNID&. 

167. vulgaris, CONGER. Head large; eyes large; upper jaw longer 
than lower ; teeth conspicuous. 

The Conger has the vertical fins continuous, the rays 
of the united dorsal, caudal, and anal numbering between 500 and 
550 ; in the pectorals there are from 16 to 19 rays ; there are no ven- 
trals. The dorsal starts from the tip of the pectoral, the anal from 
the middle of the body. The tail is prehensile. The mouth reaches 
the hinder edge of the eye. In colour the Conger is dark grey above 
and lighter or even quite white below, and it has white spots along 
its lateral line. It attains a length of 7 or 8 feet, and shelters among 
rocks in deep water, feeding most actively at night, generally on flat 
fish. Like young eels it can swim backwards as well as forwards, 
and tail first escapes from the lobster pots it robs of their bait. 

Coregonus. Plate xxvii. SALMON ID JE. 

214. oxyrhynchus, HAUTIN. Snout projecting. 

215. clupeoides, GWYNIAD. Snout truncated. 

216. vandesius, VENDACE. Lower jaw the longer. 

217. pollan, POLLAN. Jaws equal ; snout not truncated. 

The Hautin has two dorsal fins, in the first it has 14 or 15 rays, 
the second is adipose ; in its ana.! it has i.;. or 15 rays, and there are 
20 in its caudal ; in its pectorals it has 15 or 16, and in its ventrals 12 
or 13. The first dorsal is nearer to the snout than to the base of the 
tail, and the second dorsal is slightly behind the beginning of the 
anal. In the lateral line there are from 75 to 80 scales. The 
mouth extends to the first third of the eye, and the upper jaw, which 
ends in a conical black snout, is the longer. It is a sea fish entering 
fresh water, and rather rare. In colour it is grey above and silvery 
below, and in length measures from 7 to 14 inches. 

The Gwyniad has two dorsals, the second of which is adipose, 
the first having from 13 to 15 rays ; the anal has from 13 to 16 
rays, the caudal 19 ; in the pectorals there are 17 rays, and in the 
ventrals n or 12. The ventrals are below the middle of the first 
dorsal. In the lateral line there are from 73 to 90 scales. The 
mouth extends to the first third of the eye, and the snout is cut 
off short and square. It is the silvery fish with darkish fins, 
which is frequently called the freshwater herring, and is hardly 
ever found in running water. It is confined to some of the lakes 
in North Wales, the North West of England, and Loch Lomond, 
and attains a length of 16 inches. 

The Vendace has two dorsals, the second being adipose, the 
first having n rays; in the anal there are 13 or 14 rays, in the 
caudal 23; the pectorals have 15 or 16, and the ventrals n. The 
first dorsal begins half-way between the snout and the second 
dorsal ; the ventrals are under the middle of the dorsal. In the 



92 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

lateral line there are from 66 to 70 scales. The mouth extends 
to the middle of the eye, the lower jaw being conspicuously 
longer than the upper. It also is a lake fish, keeping to the bottom 
in the heat of the day when the weather is warm. It is found in 
Derwentwater and Bassenthwaite in the English lake district, but is 
better known as a native of the Castle Loch and Mill Loch at 
Lochmaben, in Dumfries. In colour it is silvery, with a greenish 
blue back and dark fins, and in length is about 9 inches. 

The Pollan has 13 or 14 rays in its first dorsal, the second 
dorsal being adipose ; in its anal are from 12 to 14 rays, in its 
caudal 23 ; its pectorals have 15 or 16, and its ventrals n or 12. 
The second dorsal is over the middle of the anal, and the first 
is midway between the hinder edge of the anal and the snout ; 
the ventrals are below the hinder half of the first dorsal. There 
are from 80 to 88 scales in the lateral line, and 9 between it and 
the base of the ventrals. The mouth extends to the first third of 
the eye, and the jaws are equal, the outline of the head being 
easy and graceful. In colour the Pollan is silvery, with a bluish 
back and dark fins, and it is about 13 inches long. It is an Irish 
lake fish, best known as living in Lough Neagh and Lough Erne. 

Coris. Plate xiv. LABRID1E. 

113. julis, RAINBOW WRASSE. 

This species has a long dorsal with 9 spines and 12 or 13 rays ; 
the anal has 3 spines and n or 12 rays ; the caudal has 13 or 14; 
the pectorals have 12 or 13 ; and the ventrals have a spine and 5 
rays. The dorsal begins over a spot on the hinder angle of the gill 
cover, and in the male the 3 first spines are long, the others being 
shorter than the rays ; while in the female the spines are all the same 
height, which is very little less than that of the rays. In the lateral 
line, which follows the curve of the back, there are from 75 to 80 
scales. The mouth extends to the hinder nostril, the snout being 
longer in the males than in the females, and in both there are four 
long teeth in front of each jaw, and a canine at the angle. The 
colours vary, but are generally purplish above and silvery below, 
with always a more or less indented whitish stripe along the side. 
The male has a spot between the longer spines. In the female the 
side stripe is not indented. In length this handsome wrasse is about 
7 inches. It lives among rocks, in fairly deep water, and feeds on 
molluscs and crustaceans. 

Coryphsenoides. Plate xix . MA CR URID& . 

148. rupestris, Body tapering from the large head to the pointed tail, 
This is a silvery deep-water fish, about 10 inches long, of which 
only one or two specimens have been dredged up between the 
Faeroes and Shetlands. 

Cottus. Plate vii. COTTWM. 

*i quadricornus, FOUR-HORNED COTTUS. Four short horns on top of 
head. 



GENERA AND SPECIES. 93 

48. gobio, MILLER'S THUMB. No horns ; spines on gill-covers 

less than 7 ; ventrals with a spine and 4 rays. 

49. scorpius, FATHER LASHER. No horns ; no spiny ridge on occiput ; 

spines on gill-covers over 7 in number, stout and short ; 
ventrals with 2 rays and no spine. 

50. bubalis, LONG-SPINED COTTUS. No horns ; a spiny ridge on 

occiput ; spines on gill-covers over 7 in number, slender 
and long ; ventrals with a spine and 3 rays. 

The Four-horned Cottus has two dorsals, the first lower than the 
second. In the first are 9 spines, in the second 14 rays ; the anal 
having 13 to 15 rays, the caudal 13, the pectorals 17, and the 
ventrals a spine and 3 rays. The anal is placed under the second 
dorsal; the caudal is rounded, and the pectorals are broad and 
reach to the end of the first dorsal. There are no scales. The 
mouth extends to the middle of the eye. The so-called horns are 
really rough tubercles. In colour this species is greyish brown 
above, with more or less red and yellow, and whitish below ; in 
length it averages about a foot. As might be expected from its large 
fins, it is a rapid swimmer, and it lives among seaweed in ambush 
for its prey. 

The Miller's Thumb has from 6 to 8 spines in its first dorsal, and 
from 16 to 18 rays in its second ; in its anal are from 12 to 14 rays, in 
its caudal n ; in its pectorals are 14, and in its ventrals are a spine 
and 4 rays. The first dorsal is not half the height of the second ; 
the second extends further back than the anal, but begins above it, 
the pectorals just reaching to a line joining the fore ends of their 
bases. The head is broad and flat, the mouth wide but shallow 
and reaching to the middle of the eye. There are usually only 
4 spines, but occasionally there are 6. In colour this bullhead is 
dusky yellow above and whitish underneath. It is 3 inches long, 
and shelters among the gravel in clear running water, being 
especially partial to mill-streams. It is not a vegetarian, but feeds 
on anything animal in a small way. 

The Father Lasher, otherwise the Short-spined Cottus, has 9 or 10 
spines in its first dorsal, and from 13 to 17 rays in the second ; in the 
anal there are 9 to 14, in the caudal there are n ; in the pectorals 
16 or 17, in the ventrals only 2. The dorsals are equal in height, the 
anal is shorter than the second dorsal, the pectorals overlapping 
the front of the second dorsal, but not reaching that of the anal ; and 
the tail is cut square. There are spines, often 20 in number, dis- 
tributed mostly over the gill covers and scapulars. The head is wide 
and flat, and the mouth reaches to the eye. This northern sea-fish 
is common on our coasts. It is usually 4 or 5 inches long, but has 
been known to attain 15 inches. In colour it is mottled grey above 
and yellowish below, the males having white spots on the under 
parts. When caught, the Father Lasher thrills his throat as if 
producing some sound that might be audible under water. 

The Loag-spined Cottus has the dorsals of the same height and 
length, and the anal of similar length, but not quite so high. In the 
first dorsal there are 8 spines, in the second n or 12 rays, in the 
anal there are 9 rays, in the caudal 10, in the pectorals 16, in the 
ventrals a spine and 3 rays. The fins are all comparatively large ; 



94 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

the pectorals extend to the front edges of the anal and second 
dorsal ; the caudal is square. The lateral line has bony plates. 
The head is broad and flat ; the mouth extends to the middle of the 
eye. This fish, which is about a foot long, is reddish or brownish, 
with white spots on the side. It is a coast-fish like the last, but 
haunts the rocks and stony ground in rather deeper water, and is 
fairly common. 

Crenilabrus. Plate xiv. L ABRIDGE. 

108. melops, CONNER. Purplish above ; lighter below. 

109. cornubicus, GOLDSINNY. Greenish above ; yellow below. 

The Conner has the usual wrasse-like dorsal, with from 14 to 17 
spines and 8 or 9 more closely-set rays ; in the anal there are 3 
spines and 9 or 10 rays, in the caudal 14 rays, in the pectorals 14 
rays, and in the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The dorsal spines 
become longer as they approach the rays, and the rays are higher 
than any of them. In the lateral line are from 32 to 35 scales ; it 
follows the curve of the back, and, like it, runs straight in the tail 
portion, the tail having almost parallel sides and the caudal being 
nearly square. The mouth does not reach the eye ; the hinder edge 
of the gill-cover is toothed. In colour this wrasse is purplish or 
reddish, with or without bands and spots. It is 9 inches long, and 
swims in shoals among the rocks in shallower water than any of the 
other wrasses except the Goldsinny. 

The Goldsinny differs from the Conner only in colour, it being 
greenish brown above and yellow below, with 6 faint bands on the 
body, and no spots on the fins, though there is a spot at the base of 
the caudal fin. It can be conveniently considered as one of the 
varieties of the Conner, the typical coloration of which is purple, with 
8 or 9 distinct bands on the body, round, ocellated spots on the 
second dorsal and caudal, round, blackish spots on the anal, and 
stripes across the cheeks and gill-covers. When there is no black 
mark behind the eye, and the reddish back is spotted with green, 
and the abdomen with silver, and the fins have red bands, we have 
C. rone. When there is a black spot behind the eye, another at the 
vent, and another at the tail, and the cheeks are banded with colour, 
the variety is C. pennantii ; when the body and fins are marbled with 
brown, and there is no spot behind the eye, it is C. norvegicus ; and 
when the fins are striped with red and green, and there is a spot at 
both eye and tail, it is C, couchii. 

Crystallogobius. Plate ix. GOBIIDJE. 
71. nihsonii, NILSSON s GOBY. Scaleless and transparent. 

This rare little fish is an inch and a half long. It has 2 spines 
in its first dorsal, 19 or 20 rays in the second dorsal, 21 rays in the 
anal, 14 or 15 in the caudal, 30 or 31 in its pectorals, and a spine 
and 5 rays in its ventrals. Its dorsal spines are wide apart, and its 
tail fin curves inwards on each of the three outer edges. It has 
been dredged from rather 4eep water in the northern part of the 
North Sea, 



GENERA AND SPECIES. 95 

Ctenolabrus. Plate xiv. LA BRIDGE. 

1 10. rnpestris, JAGO'S GOLDSINNV. A notch between the spines and 
rays of dorsal, owing to the last spine being 
much shorter than the last but one. 

There are from 16 to 18 spines in the dorsal, and from 8 to 10 
rays ; in the anal there are 3 spines and 8 rays, in the caudal there 
are 15 rays, in the pectorals 14, in the ventrals a spine and 5 rays, 
The dorsal is almost straight along the outer edge, gradually rising 
from the back until the last spine ; the rays are higher. In the 
anal the spines lengthen from the first to the third. The lateral 
line has from 38 to 40 scales, and follows the curve of the back. 
The mouth is small, and does not quite extend to the eye ; the snout 
is pointed. In general colour this wrasse is pinkish or golden, 
with a few blotches, and it is occasionally banded or striped. It is 
a deep-water species, not entering estuaries or harbours, and is 
5 inches long. 

Cyclopterus. Plate viii. CYCLOP7 'ERIDSE. 

60. himpus, LUMP-FISH. Sucker formed by union of the ventrals. 

This ugly fish with an ugly name has really two dorsal fins, the 
first being hidden beneath the skin when the fish is fully grown, 
The hidden dorsal has from 4 to 6 rays, the second dorsal having 10 
or ii. The anal has 9 or 10 rays, the caudal 10 or n, the pectorals 
have 20 or 21, and the ventrals have a spine and 5 rays, the two ven 
trals uniting. There are tubercles on the body, the largest of which 
are arranged in three rows on each side and one along the back, 
extending over the first dorsal fin. The male is blue above and red 
below, the female is blackish blue, the young are green or green 
and yellow. When fully grown the Lump-fish is 2 feet long. By 
means of the sucker it sticks to the rocks and to floating objects. 
The young use it for sticking themselves on to the male as he carries 
them off with him out of danger into deeper waters. It is not an 
uncommon fish, and is known all round the coasts of the North 
Atlantic. 

Cyprinus. Plate xxii. CYPR1NID&. 
169. carpio, CARP. Four barbules. 

The Carp has from 21 to 25 dorsal rays, the first two or three 
being bony and higher than the others ; the anal has 7 or 8 rays, 
with the first 2 or 3 bony. There are 20 rays in the caudal, 15 
or 16 in the pectorals, 8 in the ventrals. The ventrals are placed 
midway along the abdomen, and the dorsal begins a little in 
front of them ; the anal begins halfway between the front edge of 
the ventrals and the base of the caudal ; the pectorals just reach 
the front edge of the dorsal. In the lateral line there are from 
35 to 40 scales; the scales are large. The mouth is small, and 
reaches about half-way to the eye ; it is toothless, the only teeth 
being on the lower pharyngeal bones ; the lips are leathery. In 
colour the Carp is golden brown, paler below. 'It occasionally 



96 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

reaches 30 inches in length. It thrives in ponds and sluggish 
waters where the bottom is soft or muddy, spending the winter 
in the mud, and rising to the surface in summer among the 
weeds, when it can be heard grunting like a pig. It is very 
quick of hearing and discriminating in attacking its food, but it 
can be tamed so as to feed from the hand, and will come for its 
dinner when the bell rings. 

Dentex, Plate i. PERCIDM. 

7. vulgaris, DENTEX. Four large teeth in front of each jaw. 

The dorsal fin has 10 or n weak spines and n or 12 rays; the 
anal has 3 spines and 8 rays ; the caudal has 17 rays ; in the 
pectorals are 15 rays, and in the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The 
fourth and fifth spines are the highest in the dorsal, which curves 
downwards from them and rises again when the rays are reached. 
The pectorals are long and pointed, and extend to the middle of the 
dorsal. There are from 60 to 65 scales in the lateral line. The 
mouth does not quite reach to the eye, which is golden, with a blue 
pupil. The fish is brilliantly clothed in silver, and blue, and gold, 
and light red, and averages 40 inches in length, though it has been 
recorded up to 56 inches. It does not swim in shoals, and it is not 
often caught. 

Echeneis. Plate vii. SCOMBRIDM. 

44. remora, REMORA. First dorsal modified into an adhesive disk. 

This sucking-fish is recognisable at a glance by its being darker 
below than above, and by the first dorsal having developed into the 
disk of which its 17 or 18 rays are the laminae. The second dorsal 
has from 22 to 24 rays, the anal from 22 to 25, the caudal 19 ; in 
the pectorals there are from 20 to 24, and in the ventrals a spine and 
5 rays. By its disk it attaches itself to fishes and other objects, 
and gets a lift on its lonely way. It is between 4 and 5 inches long, 
and greyish brown in colour. 

Echinorhinus. Plate xxxi. SPINACID^E. 

236. spinosus, SPINOUS SHARK. Two small dorsals near tail ; no 
anal. 

The ventrals begin at three-quarters of the distance from the 
snout to the heel of the tail ; the first dorsal starts in a line with 
their beginning, and the second in a line with their after end. 
Ventrals and pectorals are of about the same size. The skin is 
studded with spiny scales. In colour this shark is brownish grey, 
with a white lateral line, and in length it ranges up to 9 feet. 

Engraulis. Plate xxiv. CLUPEIDM. 

189. encrasicholus , ANCHOVY. Upper jaw the larger and longer. 

The Anchovy has from 15 to 18 rays in its dorsal fin, 16 to 18 in 
jts anal, 21 in its caudal, 16 or 17 in its pectorals, and 7 in its 



GENERA AND SPECIES. 97 

ventrals. The dorsal rises behind the ventrals and in the middle of 
the back, and the anal is halfway between the ventrals and the 
caudal. There are from 48 to 50 scales in the lateral line. The 
scales are large and deciduous. The mouth is very deep and 
reaches beyond the eye. The body is slender, and thicker along the 
back than below. The greenish blue of the back is marked oft 
from the silvery lower parts by a steely stripe. The Anchovy is 
from 5 to 8 inches long, and swims in shoals, which, coming up the 
Channel at night, can be detected by their phosphorescence. 

Esox. Plate xxiv. ESOCID&. 

185. hicius, PIKE. Dorsal and anal fins opposite and near caudal 

body long ; head long ; mouth large. 

There are from 20 to 23 rays in the dorsal fin, of which the first 
6 or 8 are stronger than the others. In the anal there are from 17 
to 19 rays, of which the first 6 or 8 are also stronger than the rest ; 
in the caudal there are 19 rays ; in the pectorals 13 or 14, and in the 
ventrals 9 or 10. The pectorals, ventrals, anal, and caudal are 
almost at equal distances from one another. The dorsal begins just 
in front of the anal, and ends at exactly the same short distance 
from the caudal, where the body suddenly narrows. In the lateral 
line there are from 125 to 130 scales. The scales are small, bifid at 
the base, and extend on to the head. The back is almost straight 
from the eye to the dorsal ; the abdomen is very slightly curved ; 
the head is long and flattened above ; the mouth reaches to the eye, 
the lower jaw being the longer. There are no teeth on the max- 
illary ; those on the mandible are large at the sides and smaller in 
front ; there are small teeth on the vomer and tongue, and larger 
ones on the palatines. In colour the Pike is greenish or greyish, 
with yellowish marblings and other markings ; in size it exceeds 
3 feet, and is said to have attained 7 feet in Kirkcudbrightshire. It 
is generally found in slow-running weedy rivers and ponds, close to 
the surface in warm weather, and swimming deeper at other times. 
It is quick of sight and hearing, ferocious, audacious, and persistent, 
and mostly carnivorous, but will eat anything, even model yachts. 

Exoccetus. Plate xi. SCOMBRESOCID&. 

89. volitans, GREATER FLYING-FISH. Anal with 9 rays. 

90. evolans, FLYING-FISH. Anal with from 13 to 15 rays. 

The Greater Flying-Fish has from n to 13 dorsal rays; in its anal 
are 9 rays, in its caudal 19, in its pectorals 15 to 17, and in its ventrals 
6. The pectorals are placed high up, not far from the gills, and 
extend to the base of the tail ; the ventrals overlap the anal. The 
lower jaw is the longer, the snout is pointed, and the head wide and 
flat between the eyes. In the lateral line there are 63 scales. In 
colour it is bluish on the back, silvery below; the pectoral fins are 
grey, with whitish edges. It exceeds 20 inches in length. It swims 
in shoals, but in British waters is only known as a straggler. When 
in the water the pectorals are held close to the body, but when it 
springs above the surface it extends them to increase the length of 
its leap, but it never flaps them, so that it glides rather than flies. 



98 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

The Lesser Flying-Fish has from 12 to 14 dorsal rays ; in its anal 
there are from 13 to 15 rays, in its caudal 17 to 19, in its pectorals 14 
to 16, and in its ventrals 6. The pectorals extend to the base of the 
caudal ; the ventrals do not overlap the anal. Like the foregoing 
species the lower lobe of the caudal is longer than the upper. There 
are from 40 to 42 scales in the lateral line. In colour it is bluish on 
the back, lighter on the sides, and silvery below ; its pectorals are 
grey or black, edged with whitish. In length it measures about 9 
inches. In habits it resembles the Greater Flying-Fish, but it is much 
rarer on the British coast. 

Fierasfer. Plate xviii. OPHIDIID&. 

144. dentatus, DRUMMOND'S ECHIODON. Colour red, with dotted 
sides ; vertical fins continuous. 

This rare fish has 180 rays in its dorsal, 180 in its anal, 12 in its 
caudal, and 16 in its pectorals, and has no ventral fins. The dorsal 
and anal each begin about halfway along the pectorals, and are con- 
tinuous with the caudal, the middle rays of which are the longest. 
The body tapers to a point from the gills, and is about n inches 
long. The colour is pale red, with many dots and a few brownish 
markings. 

Gadus. Plate xvi. GADID& 

Upper jaw the longer 

129. merlangus, WHITING. Without barbule. 

125. morrhua, COD. With barbule ; lateral line white. 

126. eglefinus, HADDOCK. With barbule ; lateral line black. 

127. luscus, WHITING POUT. With barbule ; lateral line brown ; 

9 body copper coloured, with broad bands, fins bluish 
black. 

128. minitttis. POWER. With barbule ; lateral line brown ; body 

yellow and silvery, without bands. 

Lower jaw the longer 

131. virens, COALFISH. With barbule. 

130. poutassou, COUCH'S WHITING. Without barbule; lateral line 

straight ; body silvery with yellow stripe, back 
brownish. 

132. pollachius, POLLACK. Without barbule ; lateral line curved ; 

body grey, back greenish. 

The Whiting has from 13 to 16 rays in the first dorsal, 18 to 23 in the 
second dorsal, and 19 to 2 1 in the third ; in its first anal are from 30 to 35 
rays, and in its second anal from 20 to 24 ; in its caudal are 28 rays, in its 
pectorals 19, in its ventrals 6. The 3 dorsals do not join; the first anal is 
under the first two dorsals, the second anal being under the third 
dorsal:; the ventrals are some distance in front of the pectorals. The 
lateral line becomes straight under the middle of the second dorsal. 
The eye is large ; the mouth extends to the middle of the eye, and 
the snout is conical. In colour the Whiting is greyish yellow, with 



GENERA AND SPECIES. Q9 

yellow stripes along the silvery sides. In length it reaches 16 inches 
or more. It appears near the coast in shoals in spring and summer, 
but in winter retires to deeper water. It feeds mainly on small 
fishes and crustaceans, and hence is most often found in the vicinity 
of rocks and sandy bays, where its food is plentiful. 

The Cod has three dorsal fins, with 13 to 15 rays in the first, 16 
to 19 in the second, 17 to 21 in the third; and it has 2 anals, the 
first with from 17 to 19 rays, the second from 16 to 18. In the 
caudal there are 28 rays, in the pectorals from 16 to 19, in 
the ventrals 6. The dorsals are close together ; the ventrals are 
before the base of the pectorals, and the pectorals reach to the 
beginning of the second dorsal. The white lateral line follows the 
curve of the back until about halfway between the first anal and 
second dorsal, where it begins its straight run to the tail. In colour 
the Cod varies, but is mostly brownish or olive grey, with or without 
spots ; the lower parts being white, and the fins grey. In length it 
exceeds 5 feet. It feeds near the ground in enormous numbers, and 
indulges in very miscellaneous eating, including birds, hares, turnips, 
and tallow candles, though its main diet is evidently crustaceans, 
molluscs, and small fishes. 

The Haddock has 14 to 16 rays in its first dorsal, 20 to 24 in its 
second, and 19 to 21 in its third ; in its first anal it has 24 or 25, and 
in its second anal from 20 to 22 ; in its caudal it has 25, in its 
pectorals 19 or 20, and in its ventrals 6. The first dorsal is pointed, 
and its base is the same length as the pectorals, above which it is 
placed; the second anal is similar to the third dorsal, and 
immediately below it. The lateral line, which is black, straightens 
under the third dorsal. In colour the Haddock is greyish bronze 
above, lighter on the sides, and whitish beneath, and generally, but 
not always, there is a black blotch on the side beneath the first 
dorsal. In length it has been known to exceed a "yard, but the 
average of well-grown fish is about 2 feet. It is a ground-feeder, 
rarely found in the same localities as the cod, but quite as gregarious 
and voracious, and living on crustaceans, molluscs, echinoderms, 
worms, and young herrings and other fishes. 

The Whiting Pout has 12 rays in its first dorsal, from 20 to 23 in 
the second, and 19 or 20 in the third ; in the first there are from 27 
to 32 rays, in the second from 17 to 20 ; there are 25 rays in the caudal, 
17 in the pectorals and 6 in the ventrals. The first dorsal is close 
to the second, which is joined at the base to the third. The first 
dorsal is rather narrow, long and pointed, and the second begins 
with a short ray ; the first ray of the ventrals is about twice as long 
as the second. In proportion to its length this fish is the deepest of 
the British representatives of the genus. In colour it is coppery, 
with broad vertical bands ; the fins are .bluish black, and there is a 
black blotch on the base of the pectorals. In length it reaches 16 
inches. It frequents rocky ground and seaweeds, and congregates 
near pier piles and other timbers, sheltering during the day and 
feeding from the evening to the early morning. In cold and stormy 
weather it generally moves into deeper water, to return when the 
weather is warmer or more settled. 



100 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

The Power has from 12 to 15 rays in its first dorsal, 19 to 25 in 
the second, 17 to 22 in the third ; in the first anal it has from 25 to 
29, in the second from 17 to 24 ; in the caudal there are 26, in the 
pectorals from 13 to 16, in the ventrals 6. The dorsals are joined at 
their base ; the barbule, the ventrals, and the first anal are at equal 
distances from each other. The snout is rather large and obtuse. 
In colour it is brownish yellow, without bands. In length it is 
about 8 inches. It feeds on crustaceans, and lives among rocky 
ledges in somewhat deep water. 

The Coalfish has 12 to 14 rays in the first dorsal, 19 to 22 in the 
second, 20 to 22 in the third ; in the first anal there are from 24 to 
27, in the second 20 to 23; in the caudal there are 36, in the 
pectorals 19, in the ventrals 6. The dorsals are not joined. In 
colour it is greenish black above, silvery below, with an almost 
straight white lateral line. In length it reaches 42 inches or more. 
It is gregarious and voracious, and frequents deep, rocky coasts, 
but is well known as a surface feeder under more names than any 
other British fish. 

Couch's Whiting has 12 or 13 rays in its first dorsal, from 12 
to 14 in the second, from 22 to 24 in the third ; in its first anal are 
from 34 to 38, in the second from 20 to 25 ; in the caudal there are 
from 25 to 29, in the pectorals 20, in the ventrals 6. The first and 
second dorsals are narrow and pointed, with a much less interval 
between them than that between the second and third ; the first 
anal is long, low, and level. The lateral line is nearly straight, and 
the body is long in proportion to its depth, and flat in its curves. 
In colour it is brownish above, with a yellow stripe above the lateral 
line, and one or more lower down the silvery sides. It is 15 inches 
long, and is a deep-water species, common in the Mediterranean, 

The Pollack has from n to 13 rays in the first dorsal, 16 to 20 in 
the second, 15 to 19 in the third ; in its first anal there are from 24 
to 31, in the second 16 to 21 ; in the caudal there are 31, in the 
pectorals 19, in the ventrals 6. The first ray of each dorsal is rather 
short ; the second dorsal has an indentation in the middle. The 
lower jaw projects considerably. The lateral line straightens at the 
beginning of the second dorsal. In colour the Pollack is dark green 
on the back, and golden and silvery on the sides. In length it 
ranges as a rule from 18 inches to 30, but it has been known to 
reach 36. It is found in moderately deep water, where the rocks are 
covered with seaweed, and seems to feed on molluscs, worms, and 
crustaceans when young, and on fishes when large enough to 
swallow them. It is best known as a surface feeder, and is rarely 
found far away from the shore. It is unknown on the western 
coast of the Atlantic, and does not range much further south 
than the Mediterranean. 



Galeus. Plate xxviii. CARCHARIIDSE. 

223. vulgaris, TOPE. Back grey and unspotted ; snout conical and 
long. 

The Tope has the dorsals far apart and the ventrals midway 
between them ; the lower lobe of the caudal fin is notched and 



GENERA AND SPECIES. IOI 

much wider than the upper. The teeth are large and sharp, and 
have the inner edge serrated. The colour is grey above without 
spots, and whitish below. The largest British specimen measured 
7 feet. 

Casterosteus. Plate xii. GASTEROSTEIDM. 

Spines more than three 

97. spinachia, FIFTEEN-SPINED STICKLEBACK. Spines 15 or more; 
snout produced, body long. 

96. pungitius, NINE-SPINED STICKLEBACK. Spines 8 ton 
95. spinulosus, FOUR-SPINED STICKLEBACK. Spines 4. 

Spines three 

94. gymnurus, SMOOTH-TAILED STICKLEBACK. Plates extending to 
tip of pectoral. 

93. scwiarmatus, HALF-ARMED STICKLEBACK. Plates extending half- 
way to base of caudal. 

92. trachitms, ROUGH-TAILED STICKLEBACK. Plates keeled at base of 
caudal. 

91. acidcatus, THREE-SPINED STICKLEBACK. Spines very short. 

The Fifteen-spined Stickleback is a sea fish, and in other ways 
differs greatly from the others. The fore part of its dorsal fin is repre- 
sented by 15 or 17 isolated spines, the hinder part consisting of 6 or 
7 rays ; in the anal there are also 6 or 7 rays ; in the caudal there 
are 12 or 14 ; in the pectorals 9 or 10 ; and the ventrals have only 
one spine and one ray. The second dorsal is over the anal, and 
begins in the middle of the back, the hinder portion of the fish being 
long and slender. Along the body is a row of ridged plates, with 
shorter ridges above and below it, all three ending at the base of 
the tail. The snout is long, and the eye is placed halfway between 
its tip and the first spine. In colour this species is olive, with 
silvery underparts, and it has a silver stripe along the snout ; but 
under excitement the colour is changeable. In length it measures 
7 inches. It is found in rocky pools and among seaweed-covered 
rocks, where it makes a nest under one of the overhanging fronds, 
lacing together and affixing to it a sort of open ball of the softest 
and silkiest weeds around. This nest is watched over by the male 
until the young are about a month old. 

The Nine-spined, otherwise the Ten-spined, Stickleback is a 
fresh-water species. The isolated spines representing the fore-half 
of the first dorsal number from 8 to n, the rays number 9 or 10, 
and have a short spine to begin with. In the anal there is a short 
spine and 8 or 10 rays ; in the caudal there are 12 rays ; in the 
pectorals 10 ; and the ventrals are represented by a spine and a 
ray, or are absent altogether. In colour this species is olive green 
or brown above, the sides silvery spotted and dotted with black, and 
the fins transparent. In the breeding season the underparts become 
blue or red. The length is from 2 to 3 inches. The nest built by 
this species is like a muff in shape, and consists of soft-leaved 
water plants, the finest being confervoid filaments. 



102 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

The other Sticklebacks are little better than varieties of one 
species, and can only be briefly dealt with as such. As far as the 
fins go they can be tabulated : 

No. 91. Dorsal, 3 spines and u rays; anal, a spine and 8 or 9 rays; 
caudal 12 rays ; pectorals 10 to 12 ; ventrals, a spine 
and a ray. 

No. 92. Dorsal, 3 spines and n rays; anal, a spine and 8 fays; 
caudal 12 rays; pectorals 10 ; ventrals, a spine and 
a ray. 

No. 93. Dorsal, 3 spines and n rays; anal, a spine and 9 rays; 
caudal 12 rays ; pectorals 10 ; ventrals, a spine and a 
ray. 

No. 94. Dorsal, 3 spines and n rays; anal, a spine and 8 rays; 
caudal 12 rays; pectorals 10; ventrals, a spine and a 
ray. 

No. 95. Dorsal, 4 spines and 10 rays; anal, a spine and 8 rays; 
caudal 12 rays; pectorals 10 rays; ventrals, a spine 
and a ray. 

The body is short and compressed, and not over 3^ inches long ; 
in colour it is grey with greenish or golden reflections, and spots arid 
stripes. During the breeding season the underparts are red. As 
a rule these are inland fishes, but they descend the rivers 
in shoals to the sea, so that they are fresh-water, estuarine, and 
marine. When in sea-water they are darker and bluer in colour 
than when in fresh. In fresh- water the male builds his nest of straws, 
and lines and laces it with confervas, in sea-water he uses algae, as 
does his fifteen-spined relative. 



Gobio. Plate xxii. CYPRINIDJE. 

173. fluviatilis. GUDGEON. Two small barbules; abdomen nearly 
straight ; bands of spots on dorsal and caudal. 

The Gudgeon has 9 or 10 rays in its dorsal fin, 8 in its anal, 19 in 
its caudal, 15 or 16 in its pectorals, and 8 or 9 in its ventrals. The 
dorsal rises in the middle of the back, over the tip of the pectorals 
and in front of the ventrals, the ventral being half way between the 
pectorals and the anal. In the lateral line, which is straight, there 
are from 36 to 44 scales ; the scales are large and angular. The 
back is rather sharply curved, and is highest slightly in front of the 
dorsal ; the abdomen is nearly straight from the jaw to the anal fin, 
along the base of which it curves upwards, and continues almost 
straight again to the caudal. The mouth is small, and the upper 
jaw the longer, with a barbule at each corner like the end of a 
moustache. In colour the Gudgeon is olive above and silvery below, 
with lines of spots on the vertical fins. In length it reaches 8 inches 
or more. In habits it is gregarious, and prefers running water with 
a sandy or gravelly bed whereon it can feed on the molluscs, and 
worms, and plants, but it is not particular as to the purity of 
the water. 



GENERA AND SPECIES. 103 

Gobius. Plate ix. GOBI ID &. 
Seven spines 

63. ruthensparri, TWO-SPOTTED GOBY. A spot under pectorals, and a 

spot at base of caudal. 
Six spines 

69. quadrimaculatus , FOUR-SPOTTED GOBY. Dorsals close, first dorsal 
long; four spots in a line in hinder half of body. 

66. minutus, ONE-SPOTTED GOBY. Dorsals wide apart; black 

ocellated spot on first dorsal. 

67. parnelli, SPECKLED GOBY. Dorsals close ; first ending in a 

black blotch ; fins black with white lines. 

68. pictus, PAINTED GOBY. Dorsals close and banded with spots. 

64. paganellns, PAGANELLUS. Dorsals close, with an orange band; 

body nearly black. 

65. niger, ROCK GOBY. Dorsals close ; fins brown with whitish 

lines ; body mottled greyish brown. 

The Two-spotted Goby has 7 spines in the first dorsal, and a 
spine and 10 or n rays in the second, in the anal there are a spine 
and 10 or ii rays, in the caudal there are 15 rays, in the pectorals 
19, in the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The dorsals are some distance 
apart, and the caudal is square. In the lateral line there are from 
34 to 40 scales. The mouth is oblique, the lower jaw being the 
longer. There are teeth in both jaws, the longest being in front. 
The colour is reddish brown, with undulating bands, and a dark 
band from the eye to the corner of the mouth. The spots are dis* 
tinct. In length this goby is 2% inches. It swims among seaweeds, 
near the surface, over rocky ground. 

The Four-spotted Goby has 6 spines in its first dorsal, a spine and 
9 or 10 rays in its second dorsal, also a spine and 9 or 10 rays in 
its anal ; there are 13 rays in its caudal, 17 in its pectorals, and 
a spine and 5 rays in its ventrals. The dorsals are close together. 
The first dorsal is triangular, the secand spine being much the 
longest ; the caudal is spatulate. There are from 37 to 40 scales in 
the lateral line. The body is narrow, the back and abdomen being 
almost parallel to each other. In colour it is a yellowish grey, with a 
dark mark descending from the eye. Besides the four dark spots on 
the body, there are spots on the dorsals, and the caudal and anal 
have dark edges. In length it is 2 inches. Its only occurrence out 
of the Mediterranean is in deep water off the Shetlands. 

The One-spotted Goby has 6 spines in its first dorsal, and a 
spine and 10 or 11 rays in its second dorsal; in its anal it has a 
spine and from 10 to 12 rays ; in its caudal it has n ; in its pectorals 
27 ; in its ventrals 6. In the dorsals the spines are but a trifle 
higher than the rays, and neither are higher than the body is deep. 
In the lateral line there are from 60 to 70 scales. The mouth extends 
nearly to the eye. In the female the eye is more forward in 
the head than in the male. The colour is yellowish brown, with 
spots and vertical bands, and is darker in the male than in the 
female. The dorsals are faintly spotted with brown, but the black 
ocellated spot is conspicuous. This goby is from 3 to 4 inches 
long, and is generally caught in sandy bays, where it lives on small 
Crustacea. 



104 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

The Speckled Goby has 6 spines in its first dorsal, and a spine 
and 9 or 10 rays in its second dorsal ; in its anal it has a spine and 

9 or 10 rays ; in its caudal 13 rays ; in its pectorals 19 ; and in its 
ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The tail is cut square, and does not 
widen towards the tip, its edges being in line with those of the body. 
There are 40 scales in the lateral line. The scales are smaller in 
the fore-part of the fish than in the hinder half. The head is 
broader than it is high. In colour this goby is bluish grey, with 
blackish bands. The fins are black with whitish streaks. In length 
it is about 2^ inches. It is found on shallow shores in which the 
tide ranges over a wide distance of sand and mud. 

In the Painted Goby the first dorsal has 6 spines and the second 

10 rays; the anal has 9 rays; the caudal 13 ; the pectorals 20 ; and 
the ventral a spine and 5 rays. The pectorals are broad and reach 
to the second dorsal, which is very little higher than the anal. The 
caudal is long and rounded and rather narrow. There are from 
35 to 40 scales in the lateral line. In colour the Painted Goby is 
light brown with bands, and two short black streaks from the lower 
edge of the eye. The caudal has a dark inner margin, and the 
dorsals are iridescent, with spots and a dark edging. In length it is 
about 2 inches. 

The Paganellus has 6 spines in the first dorsal ; a spine and 
from 14 to 16 rays in the second dorsal ; a spine and from 14 to 
15 rays in its anal ; 13 rays in its caudal ; 20 in its pectorals ; and a 
spine and 5 rays in its ventrals. The dorsals are close together, 
and the caudal is rounded. There are from 54 to 58 scales in its 
lateral line. The teeth in the upper jaw are conspicuously large 
and curved; the lips are thick and bear papillae. The colour is 
blackish above, lighter below, and the dorsals are banded with 
orange. In length this species attains 4 inches, and is generally 
caught in seaweed among rocks. 

The Rock Goby is not as black as its specific name would imply. 
It has 6 spines in its first dorsal; a spine and 12 or 13 rays in its 
second dorsal ; a spine and from 10 to 12 rays in its anal ; 13 rays 
in its caudal; 18 in its pectorals; and a spine and 5 rays in its 
ventrals. In its lateral line are from 39 to 41 scales. The tail 
curves inwards from its base, so as to resemble the section of a 
cone. The jaws are equal in length. In colour it is a dull brown, 
with indistinct bands and mottlings ; the dorsals and caudal have 
lines of spots. This is the largest of the British gobies, and 
reaches 6 inches in length. Its home is among rocks, and it feeds 
on the small fishes and crustaceans that lurk in the clumps of 
seaweed. It is an active, voracious sea fish that will live in fresh 
water, at least, for a time. 

Hippocampus. Plate xv. SYNGNATHID&. 

1 19. antiquorum, SEAHORSE. Head crested, and somewhat like that 

of a horse ; tail tapering, finless, and prehensile. 

The Seahorse has either 3 or 4 fins, the dorsal which has from 
1 8 to 20 rays, the anal which has 5 rays, and is present only in the 
female, and the pectorals which have from 15 to 17 rays. The body 



GENERA AND SPECIES. IO5 

is armed with a series ot osseous rings, of which there are about a 
dozen between the head and the vent, and about three dozen from 
that point to the tip of the tail. The head and body are covered 
with tubercles, and the head is flattened and rises into a crest above 
the long gill covers. The colour is brown of a greenish hue with 
whitish dots, and frequently the tail is whitish. In size the Seahorse 
measures about 6 inches along the curve. It is a quaint, intelligent 
fish, which swims upright. The female transfers the ova to the 
male, who hatches them in its breeding pouch, and looks after them 
during their infancy. Seahorses call each other with a sort of 
cough. 

Hippoglossoides. Plate xix. PLEURONECTID& 

150. limandoidcs, LONG ROUGH DAB. Scales ctenoid and spiny on the 
hinder edge ; mouth large. 

The Long Rough Dab has from 76 to 87 rays in its dorsal fin, 60 
to 69 in its anal, 14 to 16 in its caudal, 10 in its pectorals, and 6 in 
its ventrals. The dorsal rises for two-thirds of its length, and then 
takes a straight slope towards the caudal, and the anal rises for half 
its length, and slopes at a similar angle. The lateral line has from 
85 to 95 scales, and is nearly straight. The eyes are on the right 
side, the mouth extends to the middle of the eye, the jaws being 
alike on both sides. The colour is brownish grey on the upper side, 
generally without spots, and it is white on the under side. This 
flat-fish is about 15 inches long, and lives in the northern seas in 
rather deep water, feeding on crustaceans and molluscs. 



Hippoglossus. Plate xix. PLEURONECTIDJE. 

149. vulgaris, HALIBUT. Scales cycloid and not spiny ; lateral line 
curved. 

This is the longest, narrowest, and thickest of our flat fish. Its 
dorsal rays number from 99 to 107 ; in its anal it has from 73 to 82, 
in its caudal from 15 to 18; its pectorals have from 14 to 18, and its 
ventrals 6. The dorsal and anal are low at their beginning, and 
reach their highest point at about half-way. The lateral line curves 
boldly above the pectorals, whereas in the last species it has little 
more than a shiver. The scales are smooth. The eyes are on the 
right side, the jaws alike on both sides ; there is a double row of 
teeth in the upper jaw ; the mouth reaches the back of the eye. In 
colour the upper side is marbled olive, the under is white. The 
ordinary size is from 3 to 7 feet, but it has reached 20 feet. The 
Halibut is not often found in the Channel, and it is confined to deep 
v/ater, the larger specimens being taken on rocky ground. 

Labrax. Plate i. PERCW1E. 

2. lupus, . BASS. Spines in dorsals, anal, and ventrals ; gill cover 
serrated ; colours slaty blue and silver. 

The Bass is like a slender Perch. Its first dorsal consists of 8 or 
9 prickly spines; in its second dorsal are a spine and 12 or 13 rays, 
in its anal are 3 spines and 10 or n rays, in its caudal are 17 rays, 

H 



X0 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

in its pectorals 16, and in its ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The first 
dorsal is almost semicircular, being highest in the middle; the 
second dorsal is not so high ; in the anal the third spine is the 
longest ; in the ventrals the spine is strong. The lateral line has 72 
scales, and curves gently downwards from the first dorsal. The mouth 
reaches to the eye ; there are 2 distinct spines on the operculum, 
and well marked serrations on the hinder edge of the praeoperculum. 
In colour the Bass is a deep bluish grey above, and silvery below, 
with a dark spot on the gill cover under the spines ; the vertical 
fins are grey, the others yellowish ; the eye is silvery. In length it 
reaches 18 inches. It is a summer fish, returning from the deep 
sea to the coast from May to November, occasionally ascending 
some distance up the rivers, but usually found among rocks or near 
wooden piers, feeding close to the surface on small fishes, Crustacea, 
and seaweeds. 



Labrus. Plates xiii. and xiv., LABRID&. 

104. maculatus, BALLAN WRASSE. Body plentifully spotted with 

white above and below the lateral line. 

105. donovani, COMBER WRASSE. Body with a few white spots 

below the lateral line, and with an incomplete white 
stripe. 

106. lineatus, GRKEN WRASSE. Green with yellow streaks. 

107. mixtus, STRIPED WRASSE. Orange with blue stripes and no 

vertical bars. 

The Ballan Wrasse has a long dorsal, in which there are 20 or 
21 spines, and from 9 to n rays; in the anal are three spines, 
and from 8 to 10 rays, in the caudal are 14 rays, in the pectorals 
14 or 15, and in the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The dorsal rays 
are half as long again as the spines, which are all of much the 
same height. The dorsal begins just behind the base of the 
pectorals. In the lateral line there are from 41 to 47 scales. Mouth 
extends to the fore nostril ; lips very thick ; teeth in a single row on 
the jaws, and prominent. Praeoperculum serrated when young. In 
colour this species varies, but it nearly always has spots, and never has 
a white side stripe or is green with yellow streaks. It attains over 16 
inches in length. It lives in moderately deep water, on rocky 
ground where seaweeds are plentiful. 

The Comber Wrasse and the Green Wrasse are really varieties of 
the Ballan, and resemble it in every way except in colour, as noted 
above. 

In the Striped Wrasse there are from 16 to 18 spines in the 
dorsal, and from n to 14 rays; in the anal there are 3 spines and 
from 10 to 12 rays, in the caudal from 13 to 15 rays, in the pectorals 
17 rays, in the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The dorsal begins just 
over the base of the pectorals, and is level throughout, the spines 
and rays being of the same height. In the lateral line there are 
from 50 to 60 scales. The lips are very thick and the teeth 
prominent. Orange, lighter below, is generally its colour, the male 
having blue stripes radiating from the eye, two of which extend to 
the caudal, one above the lateral line and the other below it, the 



GENERA AND SPECIES. 

female having 2 dark blotches at the base of the dorsal rays, and a 
third one at the root of the tail. This species is 13 inches long, and 
is found not in sandy bays, but on rocky coasts, where the molluscs 
and crustaceans that form its food are abundant. It is frequently 
caught in crab-pots, which it enters to feed on the bait. 

Lsemargus. Plate xxx. SPINACIDJE. 

234. borealis, GREENLAND SHARK. Body stout ; dorsals without 
spines ; anal fin absent. 

In the Greenland Shark the fins are all small in proportion 
to the girth of the body. The first dorsal is in the middle of the 
back, and also half-way between the pectorals and ventrals. The 
second dorsal begins above the hinder edge of the ventrals. The 
lower lobe of the caudal fin is much larger than the upper. 
The snout is prolonged, and the curve from its tip to the mouth is 
that of a clipper bow. The mouth extends to the eye, which is 
small and without a lid. The gill-slits are small. This is an Arctic 
species, known only as a straggler in British waters. It reaches 25 
feet in length, and is grey above, lighter below. 

Lamna. Plate xxviii. LAMNID&. 

226. cornubica, PORBEAGLE. Body stout; side of tail keeled; anal 
fin present. 

This is the second of the three stout-bodied sharks in our list, 
the third being the Basking Shark. It is distinguishable by the 
large size of its first dorsal, caudal, and pectoral fins. The second 
dorsal and anal are small and opposite. The first dorsal is half- 
way between the snout and the second dorsal, and the ventrals are 
halfway between the two dorsals. The upper lobe of the caudal is 
large, and notched near the tip. Along the side of the tail there is 
a conspicuous keel. It is fairly common, and attains a length of 9 
feet, the colour being greyish above and whitish below. 

Lampris. Plate v. CORYPHSENID&. 

33. luna, OPAH. Iridescent, with oval silver spots ; fins pointed. 

This is the moat brilliantly coloured of British fishes. There are 
from 53 to 55 rays in the dorsal fin ; 38 to 41 in the anal ; 22 in the 
caudal ; 24 in the pectorals, and from 14 to 16 in the ventrals. The 
dorsal is very long in front, and in about a quarter of its length 
suddenly shortens and becomes very low and level with the back 
until near the end. The anal is low and straight ; the caudal is 
deeply forked ; the pectorals are pointed, and extend beyond the 
middle of the dorsal. The lateral line is a semicircle for half its 
length, and then becomes perfectly straight. The shape is a deep 
oval, the body being flat. In colour it is best described as iridescent, 
the reds, greens, blues, and purples mingling and changing according 
to the point of view, the conspicuous feature being a number of 
large, well-defined oval spots of silver. The fins are mainly red. 
In size the Opah attains 6 feet. Notwithstanding its bright colours 
it seems to be a northerly fish, and is only found in deep waters. 
Though not common, it has been frequently taken in the North Sea. 



108 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

Lepadogaster. Plate xiii. GOBIESOCIDsE. 

99. gouanii, CORNISH SUCKER. Vertical fins continuous. 

100. decandollii, SUCKER. Vertical fins not continuous ; no black spot 

under tip of pectoral. 

101. Umaculatus , DOUBLY-SPOTTED SUCKER. Vertical fins not 

continuous ; black eye-spot under tip of pectoral. 

The Cornish Sucker has from 16 to 20 rays in its dorsal fin ; 9 to 
1 1 in its anal ; 19 in its caudal ; 20 to 25 in its pectorals ; and a 
spine and 4 rays in its ventrals. The dorsal begins beyond the 
middle of the back, and, like the anal, which begins nearer the tail, 
is continuous with the caudal. The pectorals are connected by a 
membrane with the ventrals. The spine of the ventrals is imbedded 
in skin ; between them is the sucking disk, with a deep groove in 
the middle. The skin is loose and tough, the snout spatulate, the 
upper jaw the longer. The mouth extends to the middle of the eye, 
and the eyes, like those of the other suckers and those of the 
blennies, can be moved independently of each other. In colour 
this species is red as a rule, though sometimes brown or green, and 
there are two dark spots on the nape which have a light edging. 
In length it rarely exceeds 4 inches, and it is generally found under 
stones between the tide marks. 

The Sucker has from 14 to 16 rays in its dorsal; 8 to n in its 
anal ; 18 in its caudal ; 25 in its pectorals ; and a spine and 4 rays in 
its ventrals. The dorsal begins in the hinder half of the back, and, 
ike the anal, is distinctly separate from the caudal, although in each 
case a membrane extends from the hinder edge. The pectorals are 
connected with the ventrals. The snout is spatulate and the upper 
jaw the longer, the mouth extending to almost the middle of the 
eye. The body tapers very slightly ; the head is the widest part, 
and is flat at the top. The sucker is of the same character as that 
of the last species. In colour this species is red with light spots. 
In length it is i\ inches, and it is generally found clinging to stones 
between the tide marks. 

The Doubly-spotted Sucker has only from 5 to 7 rays in its 
dorsal fin; in its anal are from 4 to 6; in its caudal 12; in its 
pectorals 17 ; and in its ventrals 5. The dorsal and anal are small, 
and though in the hinder part of the body, are some distance from 
the tail. The pectorals are not joined to the ventrals, as in the other 
two species, though the sucking disk is of the same character. The 
colour is orange, with reddish bands. The characteristic ocellus 
is just covered by the tip of the pectorals. In length this species is 
2 inches or more. It is found near low-water mark in rather deeper 
water than the other two. Like them, it has no scales on its body. 

Lcpidopus. Plate iii. TRICHIURID&. 

23. caudatus, SCABBARD FISH. Body long, thin, and tapering ; tail 

small and forked. 

In the dorsal there are from 100 to 105 rays, in the anal 18 to 25 
rays, in the caudal 16 to 18, in the pectorals 12. The ventrals are 
represented by the pair of scales from which the fish takes its name 



GENERA AND SPECIES. IOQ 

(lepidopus scale foot). The dorsal begins on the nape and extends 
almost to the tail. The lateral line is long, straight, and well 
marked. There are about 20 teeth in each jaw, with 2 or 3 barbed 
canines ; the lower jaw is the longer, and the mouth extends to the 
eye. This rare fish is silvery in colour, with yellowish grey fins ; it 
attains a length of 6 feet. 



Lepidorhombus. Plate xx. PLEURONECTIDM. 

155. megastoma, MEGRIM. Eyes left; eyes large; mouth large; jaws 
alike. 

In the dorsal fin there are from 85 to 91 rays, in the anal 61 to 
75, in the caudal 15, in the pectorals 13, in the ventrals 6. The 
dorsal is highest in its hinder half. The lateral line makes a semi- 
circular curve over the pectorals; it has from 104 to no scales. 
The scales are rough, and easily detached. The body is oval and 
thin ; the jaws have two rows of small teeth ; the mouth extends to 
the back of the eyes ; and the eyes are yellow, and unusually large for 
those of a flat fish. In colour thie fish is brownish yellow, spotted 
with dark brown, many of the spots being arranged in rings. In 
length it is about 18 inches. It lives in comparatively deep water. 
It is said to come ashore in the Orkneys with its tail in the air 
scudding before the wind, whence its name of Sail Fluke. It is also 
known as the Whiff and as the Merry Sole. 

Leuciscus. Plate xxiii. CYPRINIDJE. 
Lateral line incomplete 

178. phoxinus, MINNOW. Incomplete lateral line with from 80 to 90 
scales. 

Lateral line complete 

174. rutilus, ROACH. Bluish or greenish, lighter on sides and 

below ; base of dorsal | of height ; 4 rows of scales 
between lateral line and ventrals. 

175. cephalus, CHUB. Bluish or greenish, lighter on sides and below ; 

base of dorsal of height ; 3 rows of scales between 
lateral line and ventrals ; cheeks with red and gold 
reflections. 

176 vulgar is, DACE. Bluish above, silvery on sides and below ; base 
of dorsal of height ; 5 rows of scales between 
lateral line and ventrals. 

177. erythrophthalmus, RUDD. Silvery glossed with red ; eye red ; 
4 rows of scales between lateral line and ventrals. 

The ubiquitous Minnow has 9 or 10 rays in its dorsal fin, 10 or 
ii in its anal, 19 in its caudal, 15 in its pectorals, and 9 or 10 in its 
ventrals. The dorsal begins behind the ventrals, and ends in a line 
with the commencement of the anal ; the pectorals, ventrals, and 
caudal are at equal intervals. The upper jaw is the longer ; the 
mouth reaches to the first third of the eye. In colour this fish is 
silvery, occasionally dotted or striped with black. In size it is generally 



HO GENERA AND SPECIES. 

about 3 inches, but it has been recorded as long as 7. Its 
favourite haunt is in running shallow water, where it assembles in 
shoals near the surface or among the weeds. It feeds on plants and 
worms and watep animals, including the dead bodies of its own 
species. 

The Roach has from n to 13 rays in its dorsal fin, from 12 to 13 
in its anal, 19 in its caudal, from 16 to 18 in its pectorals, and 9 or 
i(5 in its ventrals. The first two or three rays in the dorsal and 
anal are bony. The dorsal is over the ventrals ; the ventrals are 
midway between the pectorals and anal. The lateral line has from 
42 to 45 scales it curves slightly downwards to the tip of the 
pectorals, and Jnen runs straight. The jaws are equal in length ; 
the mouth reaches to the hinder nostril. The silvery underparts 
become reddish in the breeding season ; the lower fins are tinged 
with red, and the dorsal and caudal have blackish edge's. In length 
it attains 15 inches. It is found in shoals in cleaF, deep, still, or 
slowly running water, where there is gravel or sand, keeping close to 
the bottom in running water, and not so deep in still. It feeds on 
water plants, worms, crustaceans, and other water a'nimals. It 
gathers in large numbers at certain spots for breeding purposes, and 
its eggs can be identified by their being greenish and becoming red 
when boiled. Though a typical fresh- water fish, the Roach is 
occasionally caught in estuaries. 

The Chub is rather more slender in build, and has a larger head. 
It has ii rays in its dorsal, from 10 to 12 in its anal, ,19 in its 
caudal, 16 or 17 in its pectorals, and 9 or 10 in its ventrals. 
The first 3 rays of the dorsal and anal are bony. The dorsal 
begins behind the ventrals ; the pectorals, ventrals, anal, and 
caudal are at equal intervals. The pectorals are very close to the gill 
cover ; the curve of the back is low. The lateral line has from 43 
to 48 scales, and is slightly concave throughout, reaching its lowest 
point over the tips of the ventrals. The jaws are equal, the snout 
blunt, and the mouth reaches the front edge of the eye. It is much 
the same colour as the Roach, but rather lighter below, the ventrals 
and anal are reddish, and the edges of the dorsal and caudal are 
dark in colour. There is a decided blush of red on its cheeks as a 
rule. It attains a length of 21 inches. It frequents deep 
holes in clear water flowing over gravel, sand, or marl, and comes 
to the surface in warm weather. It feeds on plants, worms, and 
insects. It is very quick of sight and hearing, and will sink to the 
bottom at a passing shadow or the slightest sound. 

The Dace is the slenderest and most graceful fish of the five. It 
has 9 or 10 rays in its dorsal; 10 or n in its anal ; 19 or 20 in its 
caudal ; 15 or r6 in its pectorals ; and 9 or 10 in its ventrals. The 
first 2 or 3 rays in the dorsal and anal are bony. The dorsal is 
nearly over the ventrals ; the ventrals are nearer to the anal than 
to the pectorals, and the anal is midway between the ventrals and 
the caudal, which is deeply forked. In the lateral line there are from 48 
to 52 scales ; it is concave, with the lowest point under the hinder 
end of the dorsal. At the base of the ventrals there is an angular 
scale. The upper jaw is the longer ; the mouth does not quite 
reach the eye. The curve of the back is easy and rather slight ; 



GENERA AND SPECIES. Ill 

the abdomen is nearly straight ; the head is almost as long as the 
body is deep. In colour the Dace is silvery, with a bluish back and 
greenish fins, the ventrals and anal being tinged with red. In length 
it attains 12 inches. It is a gregarious fish, living in clear running 
water, feeding on plants, worms, and insects, and often swimming 
near the surface and leaping out of the water. At breeding time it 
gathers in large numbers in weedy shallows. It is a fast swimmer, 
quick of sight and hearing, and will dart for some distance out of 
danger when alarmed. 

The Rudd has n or 12 rays in the dorsal, from 13 to 15 in the 
anal, from 19 to 21 in the caudal, 16 or 17 in the pectorals, and 
9 or 10 in the ventrals. The first 2 or 3 rays in the dorsal and anal 
are bony. The dorsal is placed on the highest point of the back ; 
the pectorals, ventrals, anal, and caudal are at equal intervals. 
There are from 40 to 44 scales in the lateral line, which curves 
downwards, the lowest point being over the tip of the ventrals. The 
body is elevated and flat ; the head is small, and has rather a 
hollow curve over the eye ; the mouth extends to the hinder nostril. 
The colour varies, but as a rule it is silvery, with the dorsal, caudal, 
and pectorals tipped with black, and the anal and ventrals yellow. 
The eye is always red, hence the fish is widely known as the Red- 
eye. In length it does not exceed 9 inches. It is mainly confined 
to gently-flowing rivers, particularly to their broads or expansions, 
frequenting deep water and pools. It feeds on plants, worms, 
molluscs, and insects, and will rise to flies when swimming near the 
surface. 

Lichia. Plate iv. CARANGIDJE. 

27. glauca, DERBIO. First dorsal consisting simply of 5 or 6 spines, 
the first of which points forwards. 

The Derbio has two dorsals, the front one being a row of 5 or 
6 short isolated spines, the first of which points forwards parallel to 
the lateral line. The second dorsal has a spine and from 24 to 27 
rays. There are also two anals, the first of which consists of 2 
isolated spines, the second anal having a spine and from 23 to 25 
rays. In the caudal there are 17 rays, in the pectorals 17, and in 
the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The caudal is deeply forked. The 
scales are small and cycloid. In colour this fish is sea-green with 
yellowish sides, the fins being yellowish and stained with black. In 
length it reaches 15 inches. It is very rare in British waters; 
independently of its spines it can easily be recognised by its black- 
tipped tail, the lobes of which are quite three times as long as their 
extreme width. 

Liparis. Plate viii. CYCLOPTERID&. 

61. vulgaris, SEA SNAIL. Body streaked. 

62. montagui, MONTAGU'S SUCKER. Body spotted. 

The Sea Snail has from 34 to 36 rays in its dorsal, 27 or 28 in its 
anal, 12 to 14 in its caudal, 28 in its pectorals, and a spine and 5 
rays in its ventrals. The pectorals are deeply notched, and extend 



112 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

under the throat ; the ventrals surround the disk. The head is 
broad and round; the mouth extends to the front edge of the 
eye ; the upper jaw is the longer. In colour this species is brown 
or pale grey, with many narrow stripes; in length it is about 6 
inches. 

Montagu's Sucker has from 26 to 30 rays in its dorsal fin, 24 in 
its anal, 14 in its caudal, 30 in its pectorals, and 6 in its ventrals. 
The pectorals are notched, and extend under the throat as in the 
foregoing species, but there are only 5 long rays on the lower side 
instead of 6. In colour it is brownish, covered with dark spots, and 
its length is 3 inches. Like the Sea Snail, it is found just below 
low-water mark along the coast and in estuaries, and seems to use 
its sucker to hold on by as the tide runs out. 



Lophius Plate vii. LOPHIID& 

47. piscatorius, ANGLER. Anterior dorsal spines modified into tentacles. 

The dorsal fin of the Angler is in four divisions, the first con- 
sisting of 2 long isolated spines, the second of a long spine at some 
distance from them, the third of 3 spines united by a membrane at 
their base, and the fourth of an ordinary sort of fin containing n 
rays ; in the anal are from 9 to n rays, in the caudal 8, in the pec- 
torals 13, in the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The pectorals are 
large and not unlike feet ; by their means the Angler can not only 
walk but cling to anything so as to be carried from place to place, 
and with them it digs a hole in sand, in which it hides, dangling the 
filaments attached to its anterior spines over its mouth as a bait. 
Its mouth is a quarter as wide as the fish is long, and there are 
two rows of teeth in the jaws, the inner row being the larger and 
being movable backwards. The eye is well developed, as is also 
the organ of hearing. In colour the Angler is dirty brown, with 
dark reticulations ; in length it measures from 4 to 7 feet ; and it 
feeds on fishes and crustaceans. 



Lota. Plate xviii. GADIDM. 

136. vulgaris, BURBOT. Two dorsals, one anal, and a long barbule. 

The Burbot is a fresh-water member of the Cod family. It has 
2 dorsals, the first short with 12 to 14 rays, the second long with 
from 67 to 76 rays ; the anal has from 65 to 71 rays, the caudal 30, 
the pectorals 19 to 21, and the ventrals 7. The vertical fins are 
nearly continuous ; the caudal is rounded, the lower half beginning 
nearer the head than the lower half. The lateral line is almost 
straight ; the scales are small. The head is broad, the mouth wide, 
the jaws equal, the mouth extending to the middle of the eye. In 
colour the Burbot is brownish, mottled or banded with darker brown ; 
in length it reaches 30 inches. It is found in clear streams and 
lakes, mainly in the Trent and rivers of the north-east coast, and is 
nocturnal in habit, hiding under stones or in the mud or in holes 
in the banks. 



GENERA AND SPECIES. 113 

Luvarus. Plate v. CORYPHMNID&. 

35. imperialis. Grey with a scarlet stripe ; tail forked and keeled. 

This Mediterranean fish is of rare occurrence round these islands. 
In full-grown specimens the dorsal has a spine and from n to 13 
rays, the anal a spine and 14 rays, the caudal 16, the pectorals 14 to 
18, and the ventrals a spine and 4. The rays of the dorsal and 
anal are wide apart ; both fins are in the hinder half of the body, 
which is pyriform in shape, with a curious head, small mouth, and 
large eyes. In colour it is grey above, silvery below, with a red 
stripe along the side, and red fins. In length it attains 5 feet. 

Maurolicus. Plate xxiv. STERNOPTYCHIDsE. 

1 88. pennantii, PEARLSIDES. Anal fin in three portions, of different 

heights. 

The dorsal fin has 10 rays; the anal has 10 longish rays, 
then 12 short rays, then from 4 to 13 rays rather higher than 
the middle group. The caudal has 19 rays, the pectorals 
16, the ventrals 7. Sometimes there is an adipose dorsal. 
In the lateral line are 28 scales ; the scales are cycloid, and are 
higher than they are wide. The head is unusually square, and the 
body tapers gradually backwards from the cheeks. The back is 
blackish, the sides silvery; there are many luminous spots, and 
under the spots are black marks. The average length seems to be 
3 inches. This is a deep-sea form, and the few British examples 
have been found after storms. 

Merluccius. Plate xvii. GADID&. 

133- vulgaris, HAKE. No barbule ; anal highest behind; eye round; 

teeth many and large. 

The first dorsal has 10 rays, the second from 36 to 40, the anal 
36 to 38, the caudal 22, the pectorals 14, the ventrals 7. The first 
dorsal is short and triangular, the second is long, lowest in the 
middle and highest at the end ; the anal, which is the same length 
as the second dorsal, is also highest near the tail ; the caudal is 
square, the pectorals and ventrals are pointed. The lateral line is 
straight, and is black with a white edging. The mouth is large, and 
its inner surface and that of the gill cavities are black. The teeth 
are long and sharp, and in two rows, the inner being the larger. In 
colour the Hake is greyish brown above and white below ; in shape 
it is long and slender; in length it reaches 48 inches. It is a 
voracious fish of wide distribution, active generally at night, and 
following the shoals of mackerel, herring, and so forth round the 
coasts. 

Molva. Plate xvii. GADIDM. 

135. vulgaris, LING. Long barbule ; anal level throughout ; eye 
oval. 

The Ling that is, the "long " fish has two dorsal fins, the first 
with 13 to 16 rays, the second with from 63 to 70 ; in the anal there 
are from 57 to 66 rays, in the caudal from 35 to 38, in the pectorals 19, 



114 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

in the ventrals 6. The dorsals are of the same height ; the first is 
rounded, the second long and rather higher behind ; both it and 
the anal almost join the caudal, which is spatulate. The fins are 
narrow and flexible. The lateral line curves downwards to the 
second dorsal and then becomes straight. The upper jaw is the 
longer. The teeth are not so conspicuous as in the Hake. In 
colour the Ling is greenish grey, with white underparts, the ver- 
tical fins becoming dark towards their edges, which are bordered 
with white. In length it reaches 7 feet, but the usual size is about 
3 feet. It is a night-feeding fish, keeping to the bottom, and rarely 
found where the ground is not rocky. 



Motella. Plate xviii. GADID&. 

137. mustela, FIVE-BEARDED ROCKLING. Barbules 5. 

138. cimbria, FOUR-BEARDED ROCKLING. Barbules 4. 

139. tricirrata, THREE-BEARDED ROCKLING. Barbules 3 ; body 

spotted. 

140. macrophthalma, Barbules 3 ; body unspotted. 

In the Five-bearded Rockling the first dorsal has a spine and 20 
low rays, the second dorsal has from 47 to 55 rays, the anal from 
40 to 47, the saudal 20 or 21, the pectorals 15, and the ventrals 
7 or 8. The first dorsal is a sort of fringe, headed by a spine which 
is the same height as the rays of the second dorsal ; the dorsals are 
continuous. The second dorsal is curved, and ends close to the 
caudal ; the anal ends in a similar manner, but is not so high ; the 
caudal is rounded. The mouth extends to the middle or back of the 
eye. In colour this species is brownish with brown fins. It is 18 
inches long, and feeds on molluscs and crustaceans in rocky and 
sandy localities, 

The Four-bearded Rockling has also a spine and 20 rays in its 
fringe-like dorsal, the second dorsal having 50 rays ; the anal has 
44 rays, the caudal 31, the pectorals 15, and the ventrals 6. There 
is one barbule on the upper lip instead of two, one on each side of 
the snout and one on the chin. The anal begins further back than 
in the foregoing species. In colour it is chestnut on the back, lighter 
below. In length it reaches 14 inches, and, like the others, it is 
found in rocky, sandy places abounding in molluscs and small 
crustaceans. 

The Three-bearded Rockling has a spine and 20 rays in its first 
dorsal, and from 55 to 57 rays in the other ; in the anal are from 
48 to 50 rays, in the caudal 21, in the pectorals 16 to 18, in the 
ventrals 6 or 7. There are two barbules on the upper lip, and one 
on the chin. The upper jaw is the longer ; the mouth extends 
behind the eye. The colour above is black or brown, with round 
spots and blotches, and white below. This Rockling is 20 inches 
long, and is a ground feeder, living among seaweeds on rocky shores. 

The fourth species of Rockling is small and but little known. It 
has a spine and 20 rays in its first dorsal, 55 rays in its second dor- 



GENERA AND SPECIES. 115 

sal, 55 in its anal, 32 in its caudal, 15 in its pectorals, and 6 in its 
ventrals. It has a barbule on each side of the snout, and one on the 
lower jaw. In colour it is brownish, becoming paler on the sides ; 
and in length it reaches at least 4^ inches. 



Mugil. Plate xi. MUGILID&. 

85. capita, GREY MULLET. Anal begins almost half-way between the 

dorsals. 

86. chelo, LESSER GREY MULLET. Anal -begins almost in a line 

with second dorsal. 

In the Grey Mullet there are 4 spines in the first dorsal, in the 
second there are a spine and 8 or 9 rays ; in the anal are 3 spines 
and 8 or 9 rays, in the caudal 17 rays, in the pectorals 17 rays, in 
the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The caudal is large ; the dorsals 
are wide apart. The upper lip is not thickened. In colour this 
fish is silvery, with stripes along the back and sides ; the fins are 
grey. It attains a length of 3 feet, and is a surface feeder in shallow 
waters, moving up rivers in shoals with the tide, and apparently 
delighting in oily foods. 

The Lesser Grey Mullet has 4 spines in the first dorsal, and a 
spine and 8 rays in the second ; in the anal are 3 spines and 9 or 10 
rays, in the caudal 15 rays, in the pectorals 17, in the ventrals 
a spine and 5 rays. The caudal is large and the scales are large. 
The upper lip is thickened, and has rows of papillae. In colour 
this species is grey with bronze reflections, and dark lines along 
the scales. It generally measures a foot, but has been known as 
large as 3 feet in length. Like the other, it is very quick of 
hearing, and is gregarious and generally found in estuaries. It 
burrows in search of food, and seems to have some special fondness 
for the grass-wrack, Zoster a marina. 



Mullus. Plate ii. MULLIDJE. 

8. barbatus, RED MULLET. Body not striped. 

9. surmulletus, STRIPED MULLET. Body striped. 

The Red Mullet has 7 or 8 spines in the first dorsal, and a spine 
and 8 rays in the second ; in the anal are 2 spines and 6 rays, in the 
caudal 15 rays, in the pectorals from 16 to 18 rays, in the ventrals a 
spine and 5 rays. The spines of the first dorsal are flat and weak 
at the ends, and the front spine is very short. The scales are large ; 
there are from 38 to 40 in the lateral line, the tubes of which are 
much branched. The forehead, nape, cheeks, and gill covers are 
scaly. In colour, this rather rare fish is a plain red ; in length it 
reaches 17 inches. It feeds at the bottom as well as at the surface, 
and for most of the year keeps out at sea, but in July comes into 
shallow, sandy ground among seaweed-covered rocks. 

The Striped Mullet is little better than a variety. Its fins are 
similar in all respects, except that the dorsals are banded. The 
profile is more oblique. The body is pale pink, with yellowish 



lib GENERA AND SPECIES. 

stripes along the sides above and below the lateral line. The 
caudal is often banded. This is the common Red Mullet which 
comes in with the mackerel in shoals in the summer, but spends 
most of the year out at sea. It reaches the same size as the other, 
but is generally smaller. 



Mursena. Plate xxii. MUR&NID&. 

168. helena, MURRY. Purplish brown with yellow markings. 

The vertical fins of this brightly-coloured Eel are continuous, and 
together have about 550 rays. The snout is pointed; the month 
ends in a black spot, and extends behind the eye, the upper jaw 
being the longer. The gill opening is in a black spot. In length 
this species reaches 52 inches. It is of very rare occurrence in 
British waters. 



Mustelus. Plate xxviii. CARCHARIIDJE. 

225. vulgaris, SMOOTH HOUND. Dorsals far apart ; anal under second 
dorsal. 

The pectorals are under the last three gill slits ; the first dorsal 
is behind the pectorals ; the ventrals are halfway between the 
pectorals and the anal, and the anal is under, but begins rather 
behind, the second dorsal ; caudal notched at tip. The colour is 
bluish, with or without spots, lighter below. The length is from 
3 to 6 feet. It swims near the ground, and comes in-shore in the 
summer months, retiring to deep water in the winter. Though not 
sought after this shark is not wasted, as it is used up among the 
" snacks " in fried-fish shops. 

Myliobatis. Plate xxxiii. MYLIOBATID&. 

250. aquila, WHIP RAY. No horns ; tail very long, with serrat. d 
spine near the roc t 

The disk is diamond-shaped, nearly twice as broad as long, with 
undulating edges. On the tail is a small square dorsal, the serrated 
spine being just behind it. The tail is like a whip. The teeth are 
hexagonal and in 7 rows. The colour is white below, greenish 
above ; the head and backbone being clearly shown. This fish, 
often known as the Eagle Ray, from its appearance when swimming, 
has been found as much as 50 inches in length. It is active in its 
habits, and swims much faster than would be supposed. 

Naucrates. Plate iv. CARANGIDJE 

25. ductor, PILOT FISH. Body blue, with 5 or 6 broad dark vertical 
bands. 

The Pilot Fish has from 3 to 6 spines representing the first 
dorsal, and a spine and from 26 to 28 rays in the second dorsal ; the 
anal has 2 isolated spines in front, and then from 26 to 28 rays ; the 
caudal has 17 rays, the pectorals from 19 to 21, and the ventrals a 



GENERA AND SPECIES. 117 

spine and 5 rays. The second dorsal is highest in front. The 
lateral line curves to the first third of the anal, and then forms a 
raised keel towards the caudal. The fins are grey, the dorsal and 
anal being tipped with black. The length is about 9 inches. This 
fish is usually caught in roadsteads, to which it has accompanied 
some vessel ; occasionally it is found in shoals, as at Falmouth, 
when 3 dozen were caught at a time. 

Nemachilus. Plate xxiii. CYPRINID^E. 
184. barbatula, LOACH. Barbules 6. 

The Loach has 10 rays in the dorsal fin, 7 or 8 in the anal, 17 in 
the caudal, 10 to 12 in the pectorals, and 8 or 9 in the ventrals. 
The dorsal is over the ventrals, and midway between the eye and the 
caudal ; the caudal is wide at the base and oblong in shape. The 
back is but slightly curved, and the abdomen is straight. The 
lateral line runs from the top of the eye along the upper half of the 
body. The snout overhangs the mouth, which extends to beneath 
the hind nostril ; there is no spine at the nostril. The colour is 
greenish, with white underparts, and the length 5 inches. The 
Loach avoids muddy water, and frequents clear streams and pools 
with a gravelly bottom, where it lurks under the stones and among 
floating grass, looking out for worms and insects. It is very sensi- 
tive to changes of temperature, and is occasionally kept in glass 
bowls as a weather indicator. 



Nerophis. Plate xv. SYNGNATHID&. 

116. aquoreus, OCEAN PIPE-FISH. Rings 28 to 31, and 56 to 61. 

117. ophidian, STRAIGHT-NOSED PIPE-FISH Rings 28 or 29, 

and 65. 

118. lumbriciformis, WORM PIPE-FISH. Rings 18 or 19, and 49. 

The Ocean Pipe-fish has from 37 to 44 rays in its dorsal. The 
anal, pectorals, and ventrals are always absent, the caudal usually 
so. The number of osseous rings mentioned above are given as 
before and behind the vent. The colour is olive, darkest along the 
back, with black-edged bluish bands, there being a purple stripe 
along the snout, and the dorsal rays being yellow. In length this 
Pipe-fish reaches 41 inches. It lives in deepish water. The tail is 
prehensile. 

The Straight-nosed Pipe-fish has from 34 to 38 rays in its dorsal, 
which stands on 12 rings, 8 of which are beyond the vent. The 
snout turns upwards a little. The colour is greenish, spotted with 
white, there being a black band across the gill cover. In length 
this fish measures about 12 inches. It lives in moderately deep 
water, and between the tide-marks. 

The Worm Pipe-fish has from 24 to 26 rays in its dorsal, which 
stands on 8 rings, of which 6 are beyond the vent. The snout is 
turned up. In colour the body is olive brown, with white lines and 
dots. In length it reaches 9 inches. This fish is found among the 
seaweeds in rocky pools, and is unknown below low-water mark. 



Il8 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

Notidanus. Plate xxix. NOTIDANID&. 
229. griseus, BROWN SHARK. Gill-slits 6. 

There is one dorsal, which is smaller than the ventrals, and 
placed between them and the anal. The pectorals are close to the 
gill-slits. The tail is long, with the lower part of the caudal fin 
highest near the base, and tapering off towards the tip, where it is 
but little higher than the upper portion, which is of the same height 
throughout. The colour is grey ; the length over 26 feet. This is 
a common Mediterranean species, rare in our seas. 

Ophidium. Plate xix. OPHIDIID&. 

143. barbatum, BEARDED OPHIDIUM. Vertical fins continuous ; 
ventrals, a pair of filaments under throat. 

There is apparently no caudal fin, the long and level dorsal and 
anal being continuous, and having from 230 to 260 rays. The 
pectorals have from 20 to 23 rays. The filaments representing the 
ventrals are bifid. The lateral line is in the upper half of the body. 
The colour is greyish brown, and the length 10 inches. A Mediter- 
ranean fish, of which only one specimen is recorded as British. 

Orcynus. Plate vi. SCO M BRIDGE 

39. thynnus, SHORT- FINNED TUNNY. Pectorals not reaching to 

finlets. 

40. germo, LONG-FINNED TUNNY. Pectorals reaching to finlets. 

The Short-finned Tunny has 13 or 14 spines in its first dorsal, i 
or 2 spines and 13 rays in its second dorsal, and 8 or 9 finlets 
between the second dorsal and the caudal ; the anal has 2 spines 
and 12 rays, with 7 or 8 finlets behind it ; the caudal ha from 32 to 
35 rays, the pectorals have 31, and the ventrals have a spine and 5 
rays. The dorsals are close together ; the pectorals are in a groove. 
The first dorsal is triangular ; the other fins are pointed ; the lobes 
of the caudal are narrow and long, the fork being deep and broad. 
The scales in the fore part of the body form a corslet, with three 
prolongations. In colour this Tunny is dark blue on the back, grey 
netted with darker grey along the sides, and white below ; the 
pectorals are edged with white, In length it reaches 9 feet or more. 
It is generally observed in shoals, but only a few stragglers have been 
caught round the British Islands. 

The Long-finned Tunny has 14 spines in its first dorsal, 3 spines 
and 12 rays in the second, with 7 or 8 finlets behind ; the anal has 
3 spines and 12 rays, with 8 or 9 finlets behind it ; the caudal has 35 
rays, the pectorals 37, the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The pectorals 
are in a groove, and are curved and pointed and a third as long as 
the fish ; the ventrals are close together, with only one scale between 
them. The colour is deep blue above and silvery below, with narrow 
stripes occasionally present. The few British examples have been 
between 2 and 3 feet in length. This Tunny ranges from the Bay of 
Biscay to the Cape of Good Hope, and migrates in shoals. 



GENERA AND SPECIES. Iig 

Orthagoriscus. Plate xv. DIODONTIDJE. 

123. mola, SUN-FISH. Hinder end rounded ; skin rough. 

124. truncatus, OBLONG SUN-FISH. Hinder end straight ; skin smooth. 

The Sun-fish has from 16 to 18 rays in the dorsal, 15 to 17 in the 
anal, 12 to 16 in the caudal, n to 13 in the pectorals, and is without 
ventrals. The dorsal and anal are narrow, high, and pointed ; the 
pectorals are short and rounded. The skin is granulated, and at 
first is spiny. The eye has a lid in front with which the eye can be 
covered. In colour this fish is pearly brown, and luminous in the 
dark, and in length has been known to reach 8 feet. It swims in an 
undulating way, and sometimes leaps out of the water. It groans 
loudly when it dies, and when hooked sighs and grunts like a pig. 

The Oblong Sun-fish has from 16 to 19 rays in its dorsal, 16 in 
its anal, 18 to 22 in its caudal, 12 or 13 in its pectorals, arid the 
ventrals are missing. The dorsal and anal are joined to the caudal, 
which is little better than a fringe. The skin has hexagonal 
divisions. The colour above is purple or bluish grey. This is much 
rarer in British waters than the other species, and has not 
exceeded 25 inches in length. 

Osmerus. Plate xxvii. SALMONID&. 

213. eperlanus. SMELT. Skin transparent, and having a silver stripe. 

The first dorsal has 10 or 12 rays, the second is adipose ; the 
anal has from 13 to 17 rays, the caudal 19, the pectorals have u or 
12, and the ventrals 8 or 9. The first dorsal is midway between the 
eye and the base of the caudal ; the adipose dorsal is over the middle 
of the anal ; the ventrals are under the beginning of the first dorsal. 
In the lateral line there are from 60 to 65 scales ; the scales are 
cycloid, and there are 6 rows between the lateral line and the base 
of the ventrals. The body is long, the sides rather flat, the back 
more curved than the abdomen, the mouth deeply cleft, the lower 
jaw the longer. The eyes are silvery. The Smelt has been caught 
12 inches in length. It is gregarious and voracious, and generally 
found in estuaries and harbours feeding on small fish and shrimps, 
being particularly numerous in fishing ports frequented by shrimp 
smacks. 

ragellus. Plates ii and iii. SPARID&. 

14. centrodontus, SEA BREAM. Scarlet, lighter below; a black spot 

where the lateral line begins. 

15. bogaraveo, SPANISH BREAM. Pinkish above, white below; a 

dark axillary spot. 

16. owenii, AXILLARY BREAM. Carmine above, white below; 

fins paler than body. 

17. acarne, Red, with golden reflections. 

18. erythrinus, PANDORA. Red, with purple and silvery reflections : 

ventrals colourless. 

The Sea Bream has 12 spines and 12 rays in its dorsal, 3 spines 
and 12 rays in its anal, 19 rays in its caudal, 17 in its pectorals, and 



I2O GENERA AND SPECIES. 

a spine and 5 rays in its ventrals. The fourth and fifth dorsal 
spines are the longest ; the pectorals are as long as the head. In 
the lateral line the scales number 75. The hinder nostril is oval and 
oblique, and larger than the other. This fish attains a length of 
15 inches. It lives among rocks and seaweed, and feeds on sea- 
weed, small fishes, and crustaceans ; it is very sensitive to cold, and 
sometimes appears in shoals. The characteristic black spot is a 
mark of maturity. 

The Spanish Bream has 12 spines and 12 rays in its dorsal, 3 
spines and n or 12 rays in its anal, 17 in its caudal, 17 in its 
pectorals, and a spine and 5 rays in its ventrals. The fourth and 
fifth dorsal spines are the longest ; the pectorals overlap the anal. 
There are 71 scales in the lateral line. There is a dark base to the 
pectorals, as well as the axillary spot, and the body is spotted with 
blue. In length this rather rare species measures about 12 inches. 
It has never been observed in shoals. 

The Axillary Bream has 12 spines and u or 12 rays in the 
dorsal, 3 spines and 10 rays in the anal, 21 rays in the caudal, 17 in 
the pectorals, and a spine and 5 rays in the ventrals. The fourth 
and fifth dorsal spines are the highest ; the last 2 dorsal rays are in 
a sheath. The third anal spine is the longest, and the last 2 rays 
are in a sheath. The pectorals are two-thirds as long as the head, 
and the ventrals three-quarters as long as the pectorals. There are 
from 68 to 70 rays in the lateral line. There is a rosy tint on the 
sides, and the fins are of a beautiful pale rose. The length is 14 
inches. It is not a common species. 

No. 17 is also a rare species in our waters. In its dorsal it has 
12 spines and n or 12 rays, in its anal 3 spines and 10 rays, in its 
caudal 17 rays, in its pectorals 17, and in its ventrals a spine and 
5 rays. The third spine in the dorsal and anal is the longest, and 
in both fins the last 2 rays are in a sheath. The pectorals reach to 
the anal spines. The lateral line has from 70 to 72 scales. The 
length is about 13 inches. 

The Pandora has 12 spines and 10 rays in its dorsal, 3 spines 
and 8 or 9 rays in its anal, 17 rays in its caudal, 15 in its pectorals, 
and a spine and 5 rays in its ventrals. The third dorsal is the 
longest, the hindermost rays are not sheathed ; the second and third 
anal spines are equal in length. The lateral line has from 56 to 60 
scales. In length this fish reaches 16 inches. It is not found in 
shoals, and appears in our waters during the summer months, 
retiring to the deep sea for the winter. 



Pasrus. Plate ii. SPARID&. 

12. vulgaris, COUCH'S SEA BREAM. Colour, red. 

13. auratus, GILT-HEAD. Colour, silvery. 

Couch's Sea Bream has 12 spines and 10 rays in its dorsal, 3 
spines and 8 rays in its anal, 17 rays in its caudal, 15 in its pec- 
torals, and a spine and 5 rays in its ventrals. In the lateral line are 
from 53 to 58 scales. The lower jaw is the larger, the teeth in the 
outer row are conical and conspicuous, and on each side of the 
mandible are 2 large canines. This fish varies in colour, but is 



GENERA AND SPECIES. 121 

always red on the back and in front. There is only one British 
example, and that measures 20 inches, but the species is fairly 
common in the Atlantic and Mediterranean. 

The Gilt-head has n spines and 13 rays in its dorsal, 3 spines 
and ii or 12 rays in its anal, 17 rays in its caudal, 16 in its pectorals, 
and a spine and 5 rays in its ventrals. The lateral line has from 75 
to 86 scales ; the scales are marked with lines and have irregular 
edges. The upper jaw is the larger; the teeth are not prominent. 
There are faint stripes along the body, a dark spot at the base of 
the pectoral, and a golden crescent between the eyes ; the head is 
greenish on the top. This is a rare fish, some 15 inches in length, 
found in rocky localities, where it feeds mainly on crustaceans. 

Pammelas. Plate iv. CARANGID^E. 
26. peniformis, RUDDER FISH. First dorsal of 6 or 7 isolated spines. 

The first dorsal is represented by 6 or 7 free spines, the second 
has a spine and 22 rays, the anal has 3 spines and from 26 
to 29 rays, the caudal has 21 rays, the pectorals 23 rays, the ventrals 
a spine and 5 rays. The two first spines of the anal are nearly 
imbedded in the skin, In the lateral line there are 78 scales. The 
lower jaw is the longer, and the mouth reaches to the eye. The 
teeth are in a single row and wide apart. The colour is purplish on 
the back and grey on the sides, the head mottled; the length is 
15 inches. This fish, which is quite as well known as the Black 
Pilot, is a North American species, of which only one example has 
appeared in our seas. That was found six miles off Penzance im- 
prisoned in a packing case of which only one of the boards of the 
lid was missing, so that the fish had got in and could not get out, 
the result being that it drifted across the Atlantic into the British 
list. 

Paralepis. Plate xxiv. SCOPELIDJE. 

1 86 coregonoides, Colour, silver and lilac, darker on abdomen. 

This is a small straggler from the Atlantic and Mediterranean. 
The head and body are long and compressed, the eyes large, the 
cleft of the mouth very wide. The dorsal is short and placed well 
back, though there is a small adipose fin ; the ventrals are below the 
dorsal, and the anal extends to the tail. 

Pelamys. Plate vi. SCOMBRID&. 

42. sarda, BELTED BONITO. Two series of bands are broad 

and vertical, the other narrow and oblique. 

There are two dorsals, the first with 22 spines, the second with 2 
spines and 13 or 14 rays, succeeded by 8 or 9 finlets ; the anal has 2 
spines and 13 rays, behind which are 7 finlets ; the caudal has 
26 rays, the pectorals 25 ; the ventrals have a spine and 5 rays. There 
is a corslet extending beyond the pectorals. The lateral line is undu- 
lated. The colour is dark blue above, with broad vertical bands 
crossed by a series of narrow bands that slope from the back down- 

I 



122 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

wards and forwards. The second dorsal and anal are yellowish, the 
caudal and pectorals blackish. In length this fish reaches 36 inches, 
but the few British specimens have been smaller. It is a surface- 
feeder, migrating in shoals, and leaping into the air after its prey. 



Perca. Plate i. PERCIDJE. 

i, fluviatilis, PERCH. Body with vertical bands ; large spinous dorsal. 

The Perch has two dorsal fins, the first with 14 or 15 strong 
spines, the second with one or two very short spines and 13 or 14 
rays ; in the anal are 2 spines and 8 or 9 rays, in the caudal 18 rays, 
in the pectorals 14, in the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. In the 
lateral line there are from 55 to 60 scales. There are villiform 
teeth on the jaws, vomer, and palatines, and none on the tongue. The 
mouth extends to the middle of the eye ; the gill cover has a strong, 
flat spine, and the edges of the opercles are serrated. The colour 
is olive green above, with dark vertical bands, and the underparts are 
yellowish, tinged with pink. The first dorsal is grey, with one or two 
black spots; the eyes are a rich yellow. The Perch is 5 inches long 
when two years old, and when old attains a length of 29 inches. 
Though occasionally found In brackish and even salt water, the 
Perch is a fresh- water fish, mainly found in ponds and rivers where 
the current is slow, keeping, as a rule, near the bank, and in deep 
holes, but in the breeding season betaking itself to shallow parts 
where the stream runs fairly fast. It feeds on insects, crustaceans, 
worms, and small fishes, and is best known when under a foot in 
length. It breeds in its third year, and in the breeding season 
becomes very bright in colour, with a good deal of red about 
the fins. 



Peristethus. Plate viii. DACTYLOPTERIDJE. 
59. cataphraclum, ARMED GURNARD. Snout bifid. 

There are two dorsals ; the first with 7 long spines, the second 
with a spine and 18 or 19 rays. In the anal there are from 18 to 21 
rays, in the caudal n, in the pectorals 12, with 2 free appendages, 
and in the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The spines of the first dorsal 
extend some distance above the membrane. The lateral line has 29 
or 30 scales; the scales are large and bony; there are three angular 
scales at the base of the caudal, and 3 bony plates between the 
throat and the anal fin. Along the body are 4 spiny ridges, and 
the body is octagonal in shape. The snout is long and spiny, and 
divides into two projections ; there are spines on the gill covers, 
barbules along the mouth, and one under the chin. In colour this 
fish is scarlet above and yellow below, the dorsals and anal being 
crimson. The few that have been caught in British waters have not 
exceeded a foot in length, but it grows to double that size in the 
Mediterranean. 



GENERA AND SPECIES. 123 

Phycis. Plate xvii. GADIDJE. 

134. blennoides, GREATER FORKBEARD. Ventrals represented by a 
long, forked filament. 

The first dorsal has 9 or 10 rays, the second from 54 to 62, the anal 
has from 54 to 58, the caudal 22, the pectorals 15, and the ventrals 
only the filament just mentioned. The first dorsal is triangular, and 
nearly joins the long, level second, which does not quite join the 
caudal. The lateral line has ji2 scales. The colour is brownish 
grey, paler on the sides, and whitish along the abdomen ; the length 
does not exceed 2 feet. It is a ground feeder, living among rocks 
in deep water. 

Pleuronectes. Plates xx. and xxi. PLEURONECTID&. 

157. platessa, PLAICE. With orange spots ; tubercles on head. 

158. mtcrccephalus, LEMON SOLE. With dark spots ; head small ; 

skin slimy. 

159. cynoglossus, WITCH. Unspotted ; lateral line straight. 

160. limanda, DAB. Lateral line curved over pectorals ; no 

tubercles along bases of fins or along lateral line. 

161. flesus, FLOUNDER. Tubercles along bases of fins and at 

beginning of lateral line. 

The Plaice has from 66 to 77 rays in the dorsal, 50 to 57 in the 
anal, 17 or 18 in the caudal, 10 or n in the pectorals, and 6 in the 
ventrals. There is a short spine in front of the anal. The eyes are 
on the right side ; the mouth is at the end of trTe snout ; the teeth 
are larger on the blind side; the scales are small, cycloid, and 
imbedded. There are bony tubercles on the head behind the eyes. 
The curve in the lateral line is very slight. The lower jaw is the 
longer ; the front teeth are broad and flat, and end in straight edges, 
those in the throat are rounded. The colour is brown, the orange 
spots being numerous and distinct. In shape this fish is oval, and 
in length it occasionally reaches 36 inches. It feeds mainly on 
molluscs, preferring those with two shells, but it also eats worms 
and crustaceans, though not many. It lives on sandy, muddy ground, 
in which it can hide. 

The Lemon Sole is perhaps more definitely known as the Smear 
Dab, " Lemon Sole " being a market term applied to several fishes. 
It has from 85 to 93 rays in its dorsal, 70 to 76 in its anal, 15 in its 
caudal, 10 in its pectorals, and 5 or 6 in its ventrals. The anal has 
no spine in front. The eyes are on the right side, the mouth is at 
the end of the snout, the teeth are larger on the blind side, and are 
conical and blunt. The mouth and head are small. The lateral line 
is very slightly curved over the pectorals, and has 130 scales. The 
shape is a long regular oval ; the colour a yellowish brown, marbled 
with round and oval blotches. In length this fish reaches 17 inches. 
Its names are many ; it is not only the Smear Dab, but the Merry 
Sole, the Lemon Dab, the Smooth Dab, and the Sand Fleuk, and 
from Yarmouth, Lowestoft and Grimsby is the chief species invoiced 
as Lemon Sole. 



J24 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

The Witch has from 102 to 115 rays in the dorsal, 86 to 100 in 
the anal, 18 in the caudal, 10 to 12 in the pectorals, and 5 or 6 in the 
ventrals. The eyes are on the right side ; the mouth is at the end 
of the snout ; the teeth are larger on the blind side. The eye is 
large ; the body is long, oval, and thin. The bones of the head are 
pitted ori the blind side. In the lateral line there are 115 scales; it 
does not curve over the pectorals, and it gives off a dorsal branch. 
The scales are cycloid on the blind side, and ctenoid on the upper 
side. In colour this fish is plain pale brown above and smoky 
white below. It reaches 17 inches in length. 

The Dab has from 65 to 78 rays in the dorsal, 50 to 62 in the 
anal, 14 in the caudal, 10 or n in the pectorals, 6 in the ventrals. 
There is a spine in front of the anal. The eyes are on the right 
side ; the mouth is at the end of the snout ; the teeth are lanceolate, 
and larger on the blind side. The lateral line has 86 to 96 scales ; 
it makes a rounded curve above the pectorals. The scales are spiny, 
and the skin is consequently rough ; the ridge behind the eyes is 
smooth. The colour is brown, with or without dark spots. The 
extreme length is 15 inches. This fish lives in sandy localities in 
rather shallow water ; it feeds principally on crustaceans. 

The Flounder has from 60 to 62 rays in the dorsal, 39 to 45 in 
the anal, 14 in the caudal, 10 in the pectorals, and 6 in the ventrals. 
The dorsal and anal are highest in the hinder half, where they rise to 
an angle, instead of being gently curved like those of the foregoing 
species. There are 85 scales in the lateral line. The eyes are not 
always on the right side ; the mouth is at the end of the snout ; the 
teeth are conical, and larger on the blind side. There is a row of 
spiny tubercles along the bases of the dorsal and ventral, and a 
group of similar tubercles along the beginning of the lateral line. In 
colour the Flounder is dark brown above and white below ; in 
length it reaches 9 inches. It lives in sandy or muddy places near 
the coast, in estuaries and harbours, and up rivers, even in fresh 
water. It feeds on shrimps and other crustaceans, on molluscs, 
fishes, almost anything animal. For a flat fish it is singularly active 
and enterprising, and it can climb and cling by means of its ventral 
fins. 



Polyprion. Plate i. PERCIDJE. 
6. cemium, STONE BASS. Head ridged on top. 

In the dorsal are n spines and n or 12 rays, in the anal 3 spines 
and 8 or 9 rays, in the caudal 17 rays, in the pectorals 16 or 17, in 
the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The dorsal spines form a regular 
curve ; they are lower than the rays, which give a spatulate shape 
to the hind portion of the fin, similar to that of the anal. The ridges 
above the eyes form a sort of crest ; there is a prominent bony ridge 
on the gill cover; the lower jaw projects. The scales are small ; 
there are 120 in the lateral line. The colour is greyish yellow, 
marbled or blotched; the fins are darker. The length reaches 
6 feet. The Stone Bass is gregarious, and frequents deep water 
where the bottom is rocky ; it also gathers round wreckage and any 
timber on which there are barnacles. 



GENERA AND SPECIES. 



125 



Pristiurus. Plate xxx. SCYLLIID^E. 

232. melanostomus, BLACK-MOUTHED DOG-FISH. Three rows of ob- 
long blotches, which are black, with a narrow 
light margin. 

The first dorsal is close up behind the ventrals, the second dorsal 
close behind the anal ; the first dorsal is the larger ; the pectorals 
are the largest fins ; the anal is placed between the dorsals, and the 
ventrals are midway between it and the pectorals ; the caudal is 
long, with a row or two of spines arranged like a saw along its upper 
edge. In colour this shark is greyish brown, blotched with black ; 
the blotches in the fore part being in rows and edged with whitish. 
The few British examples have been a little over 2 feet long. 



Raia. Plates xxxi., xxxii., xxxiii. RAIID&. 
Snout long 



238. 
241. 
239- 



batis, 

oxyi'hynchus, 
macrorhynchus, 



240. alba, 



242. fullonica, 

Snout short 
244. maculata, 

246. radiala, 

247. circular is, 



245- 



243- 



microcellata, 
clavata, 



SKATE. Under surface brownish. 
LONG-NOSED SKATE. Under surface grey. 

FLAPPER SKATE. Under surface white, with black 
spots. 

WHITE SKATE. Under surface white ; no row of 
spines round eye ; 3 rows of spines on tail, one 
row central. 

SHAGREEN RAY. Under surface white ; a row of 
spines round eye ; no central row of spines on tail- 



Under surface brown, with black 



Under surface brown, without 



SPOTTED RAY. 
spots. 

STARRY RAY. 
spots. 

CUCKOO RAY. Under surface white, generally 
with a dark edging ; upper surface with a black 
and yellow pater/ on each side of median line. 

PAINTED RAY. Under surface white ; spines con- 
fined to median line. 

THORNBACK. Under surface white ; spines not 
confined to median line. 



The Skate has 2 dorsal fins on the tail which are fairly large and 
nearly equal in size. The skin is smooth ; but there is a row of 
spines down the middle of the tail, with generally a row on each 
side. The males have a patch of spines on each wing, where the 
females frequently have a certain roughness of the skin. The snout 
is longer in the females than in the males and the eye is smaller. The 
edge of the disk is undulated in front and rounded behind. The 
tail is not so long as the body. The colour is brownish or greyish 
above, brownish below ; the length seems to be at least 7 feet. The 
Skate, like all the rays, is confined to soft sandy or muddy bottoms, 
at comparatively moderate depths. None of the family has been 



126 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

found at a greater depth than 500 fathoms. In the wholesale fish 
trade the skate is grouped with the other rays and sundries as 
" Roker." 

The Long-nosed Skate has the first dorsal larger than the other, 
with no spine between them. The disk is concave in front and 
almost straight behind ; the snout is very long and pointed. The 
tail has a row of spines along each side, and no middle row. In 
colour this species is greyish above, with spots and streaks, and 
below it is greyish. It reaches 3 feet in length. 

The Flapper Skate has the dorsals nearly equal in size, with a 
spine between them. The tail is half as long as the body. The disk 
is concave in front, convex behind. The mouth is arched. There 
are usually 2 spines in front of the eye ; and there are 3 rows of 
spines on the tail, the side rows being incomplete. In colour this 
species is brown above and white below, the under surface being 
dotted with black. The length is 26 inches. 

The White Skate has the first dorsal larger than the second, and 
there is a spine between them. There are 3 rows of spines on the 
tail, and 3 large spines in the middle of the body. There are spines 
on the under surface of the snout, and in the males there is a patch 
of spines on each wing. The disk is waved in front, convex 
behind, and broadest in the hinder half. The colour above is 
greyish or brownish, below it is pure white. The length reaches 
7 feet. 

The Shagreen Ray has 2 dorsals on the tail, and a well-developed 
caudal, all three fins being at equal distances and close together. 
There is no middle row of spines on the tail, but 2 or 3 lateral rows. 
There are spines on the snout, round the upper edge of the eye, and 
in the middle of the back. The disk is waved in front, slightly 
convex behind, and widest in the front half. The mouth is large ; 
there are 64 rows of teeth in the upper jaw, and 56 in the lower. In 
colour this species is yellowish brown above and white below. In 
length it reaches 37 inches. 

The Spotted Ray has the two dorsals of equal size, with a spine 
between them. There is a spine on each shoulder, a row down the 
back, 2 in front of each eye, 2 near its hinder edge, a few on the 
snout, and the line down the back iseontinued along the tail, with a 
row on each side of it. The male has a patch of hooked spines on 
each wing. In colour, both above and below, this ray is brown with 
black spots ; in length it reaches 45 inches. 

The Starry Ray has two dorsals of equal size and a small caudal, 
all close together. The disk is heart-shaped, widest in the lower 
half, the sides forming a continuous curve. It is dotted all over 
with large, curved, thorny spines on radiating bases, the largest 
being at equal distances along the tail. In colour it is sandy brown 
without spots ; in length it reaches 20 inches. 

The Cuckoo Ray has the two dorsals of equal size, and without 
an interspace. The caudal is very small. The disk is heart-shaped, 
widest in the lower half, the sides forming a continuous curve. 
There are many small spines. On the back is a diamond-shaped 



GENERA AND SPECIES. 127 

patch of spines from which runs a double row to the tail, along 
which the two rows continue as four. In colour the under surface 
is white, generally with a dark margin ; the upper surface is 
brownish yellow, and on each wing is a roundish black blotch with 
yellow spots and short streaks. In length this species attains 3 
feet. 

The Painted Ray has 2 dorsals, equal in size, lobed in shape, and 
rather wide apart. The disk is undulated in front, rounded at the 
angle, and convex behind. There is only one row of spines down 
the tail, and this begins in the lower half of the back. The teeth 
are flattened in the females and pointed in the males. In colour 
this species is grey above, striped and blotched with white and 
brown ; below it is white. In length it is about 33 inches. 

The Thornback has the 2 dorsals with one or two spines between 
them, and a small caudal contiguous to the second dorsal. There 
are spines along the back and tail, and the surface generally is 
spiny and tubercular above, and occasionally so below. The disk is 
waved in front, concave behind, the greatest breadth being half 
way- The mouth is curved. The colour is mottled brown with, 
in some cases, a white blotch on the wings ; the under surface is 
white. In length this species runs to 36 inches; it is found in 
shallower water than the others, and feeds voraciously on anything 
that swims. 



Raniceps. Plate xviii. GADIDM. 

141. raminus, LESSER FORKBEARD. Head flat and fleshy; barbule 
small ; first dorsal rudimentary. 

The first dorsal is inconspicuous, and has but 3 rays, the second 
has from 65 to 67 rays, and extends in a gentle curve almost to the 
tail ; the anal has from 57 to 60 rays, the caudal 35, the pectorals 20 
to 23, and the ventrals 6. The head is broad ; the mouth large, ex- 
tending behind the eye ; the body bulky in front, tapering to the 
round caudal. In colour it is purplish brown above, whitish below, 
the lips being white. The le-ngth is a foot or less. 

Regalecus. Plate xiii. TRACHYPTERID^E. 

103. banksii, RIBBON FISH. Front rays of dorsal forming a tall 
crest ; ventrals represented by a long spine. 

The fore end of the dorsal consists of some 10 to 15 rays, 
beginning over the eyes and highest in front, curving forwards and 
upwards, not unlike the crest of a cockatoo, the membrane extending 
no further up than the first third, and continuing at the same level 
all along the back, the number of rays ranging from 226 to 290 ; 
there is no anal fin, and there is no caudal ; in the small pectorals 
are n rays; and each ventral is represented by a spine, which is 
about a third as long as the fish. The body is long and flat, and 
the back and abdomen are very slightly curved ; it is covered with 
small deciduous scales and bony tubercles, and there are four ridges 
above the lateral line. In colour it is silvery, with spots and streaks ; 






128 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

and in length it attains 16 feet. It is a deep-sea species, of which 
there have been only a few British examples. From the paddle- 
like tips of its ventral s it is also known as Banks's Oar-fish ; 
it swims with lateral undulations. 



Rhina. Plate xxxi. SQUATINID&. 

237. sguatina, MONK FISH. Body flat ; tail thick ; eyes wide apart. 

This ugly fish has a broad flat body, with large paired fins. The 
dorsals are equal in size, and placed far back on the tail ; there is no 
anal ; the caudal is well developed ; the body tapers gradually into 
the tail, which is much thicker than in the rays. The eyes are 
curiously wide apart, and the mouth is large, and has several rows 
of sharp conical teeth. The colour varies with the ground in which 
the fish hides itself. It reaches 8 feet in length, and preys on flat 
fish. In appearance it somewhat resembles a monk with a cowl 
over the head. Its other name of Angel-fish is derived from the 
wing-like shape of its fins. 



Rhombus. Plates xix. and xx. PLEURONECTIDJE. 

151. maximus, TURBOT. With tubercles instead of scales. 

152. leevis, BRILL. With scales and without tubercles. 

The Turbot has its eyes on the left side. Its dorsal has from 61 
to 72 rays, its anal 45 to 56, its caudal 15 or 16, its pectorals have 
ii or 12, and its ventrals 6. The dorsal begins between the eyes, 
and is highest where the body is broadest ; the anal begins midway 
between the ventrals and pectorals. The lateral line curves over 
the pectoral, and then becomes straight. The body is shaped like a 
diamond, and has no scales, but blunt, bony tubercles. The mouth 
is large and placed at the end of the snout ; the jaws and teeth are 
alike on both sides. The colour above is mottled and speckled 
brown, darker or lighter according to the ground on which the fish 
lives ; below it is white. The average length is 17 inches ; but 
specimens measuring 28 inches have been taken. It is broader in 
proportion than the Brill, and, like it, feeds on other fishes. 

The Brill has from 63 to 85 rays in its dorsal, 50 to 63 in its anal, 
15 to 17 in its caudal, n or 12 in 'its pectorals, and 6 in its ventrals. 
Its eyes and colour are on the left side. The dorsal begins in front 
of the upper eye, and the first rays are fringed. The dorsal and 
anal are highest in the hinder half ; the anal and ventral are not 
attached to the caudal ; the pectoral on the blind side is smaller 
than the other. There are 150 cycloid scales in the lateral line, 
which curves over the pectoral ; there are no tubercles, hence the 
smoothness recorded in its specific name. The mouth is large, and 
placed at the end of the snout ; the jaws and teeth are alike on both 
sides. In life the colour is speckly brown ; when dead it is dark 
and without speckles. The Brill is generally about 20 inches long, 
but has been known to reach 26. It is longer than the Turbot in 
proportion to its width, and, like it, lives in rather shallow water. 



GENERA AND SPECIES. 1 2Q 

Salmo. Plates xxv. and xx vi. SALMONID^E. 

Teeth on body of vomer in a single series throughout 

195. salar, SALMON. Spots black, few and small. Lateral line 

120 to 125. 

200. levenensis, LOCH LEVEN TROUT. Spots black, many and large 

on head. Lateral line 120 to 130. 

202. orcadcnsis, GREY TROUT. Spots black and red and small. 

Lateral line 115. 

Teeth on body of vomer in one series dividing into two 

196. trutta, SEA TROUT. Sides silvery. 

198. eriox, BULL TROUT. Sides brownish. 
Teeth on body of vomer in a double series throughout 

197. albus, BLUE POLL. Head short, body long, pectorals 

pointed. 

203. Jerox, LAKE TROUT. Head long, snout long, caudal 

truncated. 

205. nigripinnis, HOG-BACKED TROUT. . Fins dark, pectorals long 

and black. 

204. stomachichus, GILLAROO TROUT. Pectorals 13 ; dorsals 15 ; fins 

edged with white. 

199. cambricus, SEWEN. Pectorals 13 or 14; dorsals 12 to 14; dor- 

sal longer than high. 

201. fario, TROUT. Pectorals 13 to 15; dorsals 13 to 15 ; dorsal 

higher than long. 

Teeth at head of vomer only ; teeth small ; lower jaw feeble 
211. colii COLE'S CHAR. Pectorals not reaching dorsal. 

209. killinensis, KILLIN CHAR. Pectorals reaching or overlapping 

dorsal ; colour, dark, with light spots. 

210. grayi, GRAY'S CHAR. Pectorals reaching or overlapping 

dorsal ; colour, light, with orange spots. 

Teeth at head of vomer only ; teeth moderate ; jaws equal in strength 

206. alpinus, ALPINE CHAR. Height of body a fifth or sixth of 

total length ; height of dorsal three-eighths or half 
the length of the head. 

207. perisii, TORGOCH. Height of body a fifth or sixth of total 

length ; height of dorsal two-thirds the length of 
the head. 

208. willughbii, WINDERMERE CHAR. Height of body a quarter of 

total length ; dorsal as long as the head without the 
snout. 

The Salmon, like all the genus, has an adipose dorsal fin, which 
we need not again mention. The dorsal has 13 or 14 rays, the anal 
n, the caudal 19, the pectorals have 13 or 14 rays, and the ventrals 
9. The dorsal is rather shorter than it is high ; the ventrals are 
beneath the middle of the dorsal ; the caudal is much forked in the 
young, and almost square in the adult. The abdomen is more 
curved than the back ; the mouth extends to the middle of the eye, 



130 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

or beyond it. The snout is longer in the male than in the female, 
and in the breeding season the lower jaw becomes hooked, so that 
the mouth cannot be completely closed. The colour is a steel blue, 
with crosses and round spots above the lateral line and on the upper 
half of the head, particularly in the female ; the dorsal, caudal, and 
pectorals are blackish, the ventrals and anal are whitish. The male 
is spotted and streaked with orange during the breeding season ; the 
young, known as parr, have broad, dark bands extending from the 
back down the sides. When first hatched, the Salmon is known as 
an alevin ; in a few months the alevin becomes a parr, and the bands 
become conspicuous. In its second or third spring the parr marks 
disappear, and the head and body become silvery, preparatory to 
starting for the sea. In this silvery stage the salmon is known as a 
smolt. The smolt returns from the sea next year as a grilse, having 
grown surprisingly. From its next sea trip it returns as a salmon. 
A kelt is a salmon that has spawned ; if a male, it is often called a 
kipper (from its hooked jaw) ; if a female, it is known either as a 
kelt or a slat. A grilse-kelt is a salmon that has spawned in the 
grilse stage. The salmon is " anadromous," that is, it lives both in 
salt and fresh water. It is as much a fish of the sea as it is a fish of 
the river. It ascends the rivers mainly, if not entirely, for the pur- 
pose of spawning, and in summer is found close in along the coast, 
gradually assembling at the mouths of the streams it intends 
entering when the time comes. It would seem to be the fact that, 
whenever possible, each salmon returns to the river from which it 
first reached the sea. To what part of the sea they retire on their 
outward migration is at present unknown. Salmon ova will not 
develop in sea water ; but that the fish can be reared entirely in 
fresh water has been abundantly proved by experiment, and is, 
indeed, obvious from the existence of salmon in waters uncon- 
nected with the sea. Nearly all the salmon that comes to market 
is caught in nets in the lower reaches of the rivers, or even along 
the coast in the vicinity ; the number caught by rod and line is but 
a small proportion of the total. In Frank Buckland's Fish Museum 
there is a cast of a Tay salmon which weighed 70 Ibs., and is 53 
inches long; it is apparently the largest about which there can 
be no mistake. 

The other British representatives of the genus Salmo are the 
trouts and chars, which differ so little in extreme examples that it 
would seem there is really only one species of each. In this list is 
included all between which any definite distinctions could be dis- 
covered, and we leave them to be ranked as species or varieties as 
opinion may dictate. It is a thorny question, and is merely men- 
tioned as accounting for the unusual order in which it became 
easiest to sort them out. 

The Loch Leven Trout has from 12 to 14 rays in the dorsal, from 
10 to 12 in the anal, 19 in the caudal, 12 to 14 in the pectorals, and 
9 in the ventrals. The fins vary in shape and size. In colour it is 
dark, and rather green or grey along the back, and there are small 
black ocellated spots on the head and gill covers, and black spots 
and crosses above the lateral line, except in the fore part, where 
they extend down to the pectorals. This fish used to be confined 



GENERA AND SPECIES. 13! 

to Loch Leven, but it has been largely bred in the fish farms and 
widely distributed in the streams, where it interbreeds with the 
common trout. In the original strain its flesh is very red, and it 
has been caught up to iSlbs. in weight. 

The Grey Trout has 14 rays in the dorsal, 12 in the anal, 19 in 
the caudal, 13 in the pectorals, and 9 in the ventrals. It has a 
broad, strong maxillary, and large scales on the tail, and is peculiar 
to Loch Stenness in the Orkneys. It is hardly distinguishable from 
the Lake Trout, except in the number of its pyloric appendages. 

The Sea Trout is one of the three or four species known as 
Salmon Trout. It has from 12 to 14 rays in its dorsal, n to 13 in its 
anal, 18 or 19 in its caudal, 13 or 14 in its pectorals, and 9 in its 
ventrals. The ventrals are generally under the last third of the 
dorsal. The lateral line has from 115 to 130 scales. The mouth 
extends beyond the eye, and the body is rather long and slender. 
In colour it is bluish grey, with a purple gloss on the sides, and it is 
dotted with black spots and crosses over the upper body. It ranges 
to 4 feet in length. 

The Bull Trout, or the chief of so-called Bull Trout, for in this case, 
as in others, the name is not restricted to the same fish, has fin rays 
the same as those of the Sea Trout, and like it, varies so much that 
the only external difference seems to be in the colour of the sides, 
which are brownish instead of silvery. 

The Blue Poll, otherwise the White Salmon, Whitling, or Herling 
is very long in the body. It also has a similar fin formula to the 
foregoing (D. 12-14; A. 11-13 5 c * 18-19; p - I3- J 4 5 v. 9). In colour it is 
mainly silvery, with a few black spots. 

The Lake Trout has 14 rays in its dorsal, 10 or 11 in its anal, 
19 in its caudal, 13 in its pectorals, and 9 in its ventrals. It feeds 
mainly on fish, hence it has large fins and large teeth. Its head is 
of moderate size, but the snout is long, and in the males is hooked 
in the breeding season. In colour it is generally rather dark ; in 
length it reaches 31 inches. 

The Hog-backed Trout has 14 rays in its dorsal, 12 in its anal, 
19 in its caudal, 13 in its pectorals, and 9 in its ventrals. The head 
is small, the snout rather short, and the lower jaw has not been 
observed to bear a hook in the breeding season. It has not been 
found over 16 inches long, but that may not be its full size. It re- 
sembles No. 203 in almost every respect that has not been mentioned, 

The Gillaroo Trout is found in the Irish loughs, and has the 
middle coat of its stomach thickened, owing to its feeding princi- 
pally on molluscs. There are no other distinctions except those 
given above. 

The Sewen has from 12 to 14 rays in its dorsal, n to 13 in its 
anal, 18 or 19 in its caudal, 13 or 14 in its pectorals, and 9 in its 
ventrals. It is rather long in the body. The lower jaw does not 
always become hooked in the breeding season, when the colour, 
which is bluish or greenish grey, becomes a sort of brownish orange 
in the males. There are always a few black crosses above the lateral 
line. 



132 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

The Trout has from 12 to 15 rays in the dorsal, 10 to 12 in the 
anal, 19 in the caudal, 13 to 15 in the pectorals, and 9 in the 
ventrals. The fins vary in size and proportion according to the 
surroundings, though in all cases the dorsal seems to be higher than 
it is long. As a rule, the swifter the stream the larger the fins and the 
slenderer the body. The colour also varies, being darker in deeper 
water; in general it is brown, more or less silvery below and on the 
sides, and it is marked with dark spots all over the upper part, with 
red ones along the lateral line, and close above and below it, the 
spots being usually ringed with white. In length the Trout reaches 
28 inches. It goes to sea every year when it can, and is brightest 
in colour when it returns. The typical Trout seems to be able to 
swim in any clear running stream, no matter how shallow it may 
be ; but deep water is evidently sought by its allies, some of whom 
find it in lakes and some in estuaries and the sea. 

The Chars are even more difficult of short description. They are 
all found in lakes formed directly by glacial action, or indirectly by 
the deposition of glacial moraines ; and they all become red on the 
underparts during the breeding season. Of the six on our list, 
Cole's Char has 14 rays in the dorsal, 12 in the anal, 19 in the caudal, 
13 in the pectorals, and 9 in the ventrals. In the lateral line are 
from 125 to 128 scales. The pectorals are short, and the ventrals 
and anal are edged in front with white. 

The Killin Char has 14 rays in the dorsal, 13 in the anal, 19 in 
caudal, 13 in the pectorals, and 9 in the ventrals. The dorsal, 
pectorals, and ventrals are the largest among the chars. There are 
135 scales in the lateral line. In colour this char is dark, with a few 
light spots on the sides. In length it is about 12 inches. It is named 
from Loch Killin, in Inverness-shire, to which it is peculiar. 

Gray's Char has 13 or 14 rays in the dorsal, 12 in the anal, 21 in 
the caudal, 13 or 14 in the pectorals, and 9 in the ventrals. The 
dorsal begins nearer -the snout than in the other varieties, and the 
scales are more conspicuous. There are from 125 to 140 scales in 
the lateral line. 

The Alpine Char has from 12 to 14 rays in the dorsal, n to 13 in 
the anal, 19 to 21 in the caudal, 12 to 14 in the pectorals, and 9 or 
10 in the ventrals. The dorsal begins midway between the snout 
and the caudal. There are from 125 to 145 scales in its lateral line. 
In colour it has a purplish tinge above. Like all the chars it is a 
deep-water species, rising to the surface only when the weather is 
warm. 

The Torgoch has 12 or 13 rays in its dorsal, n or 12 in its anal, 
21 in its caudal, 12 in its pectorals, and 9 in its ventrals. In the 
lateral line are from 125 to 135 scales. It is purplish in colour 
above, passing into yellow and red, and has many red spots on the 
back and sides. 

The Windermere Char has 12 or 13 rays in the dorsal, n or 12 
in the anal, 19 in the caudal, 13 or 14 in the pectorals, and 9 or 10 
in the ventrals. There are 118 to 128 scales in the lateral line. The 



GENERA AND SPECIES. 133 

base of the pectorals is not overlapped by the gill covers ; the 
nostrils are close in front of the eye, the hinder being the larger, and 
there being no flap between them. In colour this char is green 
above, and the red underparts are minutely dotted with black. 

Schedophilus. Plate v. CORYPH&NIDAL. 

34. medusophagns, Head greenish yellow ; body greenish, with dark 
olive stripes and spots more or less united. 

There are 3 spines and from 45 to 50 rays in the dorsal, 2 spines and 
from 27 to 29 rays in the anal, 21 in the caudal. 18 in the pectorals, 
and a spine and 5 rays in the ventrals. The scales are cycloid and 
small ; the gill openings are large. This is a Mediterranean species, 
of which only two have been caught in British waters. 

Sciaena. Plate iii SCI&NID&. 

20. aquila, SHADOW FISH. Lateral line continued through the caudal 
fin. 

The first dorsal has 9 or 10 spines, the second one spine and 
from 26 to 29 rays ; the anal has 2 spines and 7 rays, the caudal 15 
rays, the pectorals have 17, the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The 
first dorsal, of which the third and fourth spines are the longest, is 
united at its base to the second dorsal, the tip of the pectorals being 
just below the junction. In the lateral line are from 52 to 55 scales ; 
it curves above the pectoral, and then runs straight along to the 
outer edge of the tail, which is either rounded or truncated. The 
scales are ctenoid and large, and in oblique rows. The mouth is 
horizontal, and extends beyond the middle of the eye ; the stronger 
teeth are in the upper jaw; there are 9 on the vomer, palatines, or 
tongue. In colour this species is grey, darker on the back, with a 
grey blotch on the spiny gill-covers, the caudal being grey and the 
other fins red. It ranges up to 6 feet in length. It is called the 
Shadow Fish, from its passing like a shadow through the 
water ; sometimes it is known as the Meagre, though it is 
anything but meagre, being, on the contrary, particularly robust, 
active, and audacious. From it originated the myth of the songs of 
the sirens, for under water it bellows, and buzzes, and purrs, and 
whistles. It can be heard 20 fathoms down, and its whereabouts 
thereby known, so that it has been netted in shoals ; for it is gre- 
garious, and rather sought after as food, though not in so much 
esteem now as in the days of ancient Rome. 

Scomber. Plate vi. SCOMBRIDJE. 

36. vernalis, MACKEREL. Back with bands ; abdomen without spots. 

37. punctatus, SPECKLED MACKEREL. Back with small spots or thin 

streaks ; abdomen without spots. 

38. colias, SPANISH MACKEREL. Back with bands; abdomen 

with spots. 

The Mackerel has from n to 14 spines in its first dorsal, a spine 
and 10 or n rays in the second dorsal, and behind it are 5 finlets. 
The anal has a spine and 1 1 rays ; before it is an isolated spine, and 



134 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

behind it are 5 finlets. In the caudal there are 19 rays, in the 
pectorals 17, in the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The caudal is 
forked, and there are two faint keels along it on each side. The 
lateral line is nearly straight; the scales are small. The mouth 
extends to the middle of the eye ; the eyes have broad, fleshy, up- 
right lids. In colour the Mackerel is green, shot with blue, the 
sides being silvery and iridescent ; there is a yellow patch behind 
the eye ; the bands are waved and vertical, and there is a dark 
stripe below the lateral line. In length it ranges from 14 to 16 
inches. It is gregarious and a surface feeder, and comes into our 
shallows from the deep sea in pursuit of the fry of the other gregari- 
ous fishes on which it mainly feeds. 

The Speckled Mackerel has 12 spines in the first dorsal, and a 
spine and 10 rays in the second, behind which are 5 or 6 finlets. In 
the anal there are a spine and n rays, with a separate spine in front, 
and 5 or 6 finlets behind ; in the caudal there are 19 rays, in the 
pectorals 17, in the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. In colour the only 
difference is that the back is spotted instead of being banded, the 
spots being numerous, round, and small. This fish is never found 
by itself, but arrives with the summer shoals of the common 
Mackerel, of which it seems to be a variety. 

The Spanish Mackerel has 7 spines in its first dorsal, a spine and 
12 rays in its second dorsal, and behind this are 5 or 6 finlets. In 
the anal there is a spine and n rays, with a detached spine in front, 
and 5 or 6 finlets behind ; in the caudal there are 21 rays, in the 
pectorals 21, in the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The lateral line is 
rather irregular; the scales near the pectorals form a sort of corslet. 
The eye is larger than in the other species. The colour is dark blue 
on the back, with wavy bars, and a row of dark spots from the pec- 
torals to the caudal ; the dark colour extends below the lateral line ; 
the sides and abdomen are speckled and spotted. Finally, it differs 
from the other mackerel in having an air bladder, they having none. 
It comes in shoals, but is not very frequent. It reaches to about 16 
inches in length. 

Scombresox. Plate xi. SCOMBRESOCID&. 

88. saurus, SKIPPER. Jaws lengthened into a beak ; finlets in front of 
caudal. 

The dorsal has from 10 to 12 rays, with 5 or 6 finlets behind it ; 
the anal has from 12 to 13 rays, with 6 or 7 finlets behind it. The 
caudal has 14 rays, the pectorals 12 or 13, the ventrals 6. The dorsal 
is near the tail, the fin of which is deeply forked. A row of keeled 
scales runs from the gills to the tail. There are no teeth except the 
small ones in the jaws ; the lower jaw is the longer. The back is blue, 
the sides silvery; the dorsal is blackish, the anal yellowish. This is 
a near ally of the Flying-fish. Migratory in shoals, it is found further 
from land than the Gar-fish, and further inland up rivers when it visits 
the coast. It is a surface swimmer, frequently leaping into the air as 
it follows the Pilchards on which it preys, and at times gliding along 
the top of the water by a mere touch of the tips of the pectorals and 
lower fins. It reaches 18 inches in length. 



GENERA AND SPECIES. 135 

Scyllium. Plates xxix. and xxx. SCYLLIID&. 

230. canicula, ROUGH HOUND. Anal ends under space between 

dorsals. 

231. catulus, NURSE HOUND. Anal ends under middle of second 

dorsal. 

The Rough Hound has the first dorsal in the middle of the back, 
nearly half way between the ventrals and anal. The ventrals are 
wide apart ; in the male their inner edges are united nearly all along, 
but in the female for only two-thirds of their length. The nostrils 
are nearer to mouth than to end of snout ; the nasal flap is single. 
The colour is greyish or yellowish red, with blotches and spots ; the 
length reaches 42 inches. This shark feeds on fishes and molluscs, 
and keeps mainly to the bottom in sandy ground. When caught it 
turns its tail in a half coil round the object that holds it, and uses 
its rough skin as a rasp. Its egg-case is rather slender, with 
slender arms and filaments. 

The Nurse Hound has the dorsal farther back; the ventrals are 
close together, and the nasal flap is double. The colour is a brownish 
or reddish grey, with large spots arid blotches ; the length reaches 5 
feet. This is a deeper-water species than the other, and more frequent 
in rocky ground. Its egg-case is stouter, with broader, stronger 
arms and filaments. 

Sebastes. Plate iii. SCORP&NIDJE 

19. norvegicus, BERGYLT. Body and fins bright orange red. 

The dorsal is in two distinctly curved portions, the first with 15 
spines, the second with 15 rays. In the anal are three spines and 8 
or 9 rays, in the caudal 13 rays, in the pectorals 20, in the ventrals 
one spine and 5 rays. The caudal is cut square. The gill covers 
are spiny ; the lower jaw is the longer ; the mouth extends to the 
middle of the eye, or beyond. This is a rare fish, reaching 4 feet in 
length, frequenting rocky ground in deep water, feeding on crusta- 
ceans and flat fishes. It is stated to be viviparous. Its colour 
makes it easy of identification. 

Selache. Plate xxix. LAMNID&. 

221. maxima, BASKING SHARK. Snout porous and projecting like a 
beak. 

This large shark is of large girth. The second dorsal is small, but 
larger than the anal, the first dorsal is halfway between the pectorals 
and ventrals. There is a pit at the base of the caudal, and the tail 
is keeled. The teeth are in 4 or 6 rows, small and conical, and have 
smooth edges. The gill-slits are long and of almost equal length. In 
colour it is dark brown or blue above, lighter below, the long snout, 
which begins behind the eye, and projects for some distance beyond 
the upper lip, being of a red tint on its upper half. The specimen at 
South Kensington is 29 feet 10 inches long. It is said to feed on 
seaweed and other soft stuff, including eggs ; in fact it is mainly a 
vegetarian shark, and looks as though it did well on its diet. 



136 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

Serranus. Plate i. PERCID&. 

4. cabrilla, COMBER. Orange, with several bluish stripes. 

5. gigas, DUSKY PERCH. Reddish brown, without stripes. 

The Comber has 10 spines and 14 rays in its dorsal, 3 spines and 
7 or 8 rays in its anal, 15 rays in its caudal, 15 in its pectorals, and a 
spine and 5 rays in its ventrals. The dorsal rays are higher than the 
spines, the first being about double as high as the tenth spine. In the 
lateral line there are from 80 to go scales. The hinder edge of the 
prasoperculum is serrated ; the male has 2 spines on the gill cover, 
the female only one. The mouth extends to the middle of the eye, 
the tongue is small and free, the teeth in both jaws are large in the 
outer row, and the lower jaw is the longer. In colour this sea perch 
is an orange yellow, striped longitudinally with more or less greyish- 
blue, the fins being yellowish, some of them having blue spots. In 
length it reaches about a foot. It feeds on fishes and other animals 
of the sea, is never found in shoals, and frequents rocky ground in 
deep water. 

The Dusky Perch has n spines and 15 or 16 rays in its dorsal, 3 
spines and 8 or 9 rays in its anal, 17 rays in its caudal, 16 or 17 rays 
in its pectorals, and a spine and 5 rays in its ventrals. The spinous 
part of the dorsal is fairly level, and the rayed portion is not much 
higher, and only slightly curved. In the lateral line there are from 
120 to 130 scales. The prasoperculum is serrated. The lower jaw is 
the longer. In colour this fish is reddish brown, with no stripes 
beyond two faint streaks on the gill-covers. It reaches a yard or 
more in length, and is very rare in British waters. 

Siphonostoma. Plate xv. SYNGNATHID&. 

114. typhle, BROAD-NOSED PIPE-FISH. Body ridged, upper caudal 
ridge continuous with lateral ridge, dorsal ridge extending 
only to dorsal fin. 

In the dorsal there are from 38 to 46 rays ; the anal is absent ; in the 
caudal there are 9 or 10 rays, in the pectorals 15, in the ventrals 4. 
The dorsal begins about half way; it stands on 10 or 12 rings, and 
is longer than the snout. The snout is compressed, and the mouth 
almost upright. The lateral line joins the upper caudal ridge. 
From the head to the vent there are from 17 to 19 plates, thence to 
the tail there are from 36 to 42. The male is broader in the abdomen 
than the female, owing to the pouch in which the ova are carried. 
In colour this Pipe-fish is dark brown, with light spots on the under 
parts. In length it is about 13 inches. 

Solea. Plate xxi. PLEURONECTID&. 

162. vulgaris, SOLE. Nostrils alike. Pectorals on both sides, 7 ; 

caudal 16. Brown, with blotches in rows. 

163. lascaris, SAND SOLE. Nostrils not alike. Pectorals on both 

sides, 10; caudal 15. Orange, dotted and blotched. 

164. variegata, THICKBACK. Pectorals 4 or 5 on one side, 2 or 3 on 

the other ; caudal 15. Chestnut brown, with 5 dark 
bands. 



GENERA AND SPECIES. 137 

165. lutea, SOLENETTE. Pectorals 5 on one side, 3 on the other ; 
caudal 19. Stone grey, with blotches ; fins wkh 
occasional black rays. 

This genus has the eyes on the right-hand side. The Sole has 
from 73 to 97 rays in the dorsal, 61 to 74 in the anal, 16 in the 
caudal, 7 in the pectorals, and 5 or 6 in the ventrals. The dorsal 
begins on the snout in front of the eyes ; the pectoral on the upper 
side has a black spot at its outer end. The snout projects; the 
front edge of the head is curved ; the jaws are larger on the lower 
side ; the teeth are small, and only present on the blind side. There 
are 160 scales in the lateral line, which is straight. The colour is 
brown, with rows of black blotches along the bases of the fins and 
the middle of the dark side. The length may be as much as 18 
inches, but few large soles are taken in these days. The Sole is a 
night-feeding fish, frequenting sandy or gravelly ground in compara- 
tively shallow water, feeding mostly on molluscs, crustaceans, and 
worms. 

The Sand Sole, otherwise the French Sole, and perhaps the 
original Lemon Sole, has from 70 to 89 rays in its dorsal, 67 to 71 in 
its anal, 15 in its caudal, 10 in its pectorals, and 5 in its ventrals. 
The dorsal begins at the end of the snout. The dorsal and anal are 
joined by a membrane to the caudal. The nostril on the lower side 
is enlarged and fringed on its outer edge. There are from 130 to 
140 scales in the lateral line. The scales are larger than in the 
common sole. The colour is yellowish brown, with black spots and 
gold specks. The length does not exceed 14 inches. It frequents 
sandy ground in rather deeper water than No. 162, from which it 
differs in the points mentioned, and also in having smaller eyes, the 
upper eye nearer the snout, and the mouth further under. 

Ths Thickback has from 65 to 74 rays in the dorsal, 55 to 58 
in the anal, and 15 in the caudal ; in the right pectoral there are 
4 or 5 rays, in the left only 2 or 3, and in the ventrals there are 5. 
The dorsal and anal do not reach the base of the tail. The pec- 
torals are very small, the left being almost rudimentary. The 
mouth is nearer the snout than in Nos. 162 and 163, and is straighter. 
The lateral line has from 85 to 90 scales, and is nearly straight. 
The colour is reddish, with brown bands across, which become 
black as they run on to the fins. In length this species does not 
exceed 9 inches. 

The Solenette is never more than 5 inches long. It has from 65 
to 73 rays in its dorsal, 50 to 63 in its anal, 19 in its caudal, 5 in its 
right pectoral, 3 in its left pectoral, and 5 in its ventrals. The dorsal 
and anal have a few scattered black rays. The scales are rather 
large ; there are 72 in the lateral line. In colour it is generally pale 
greyish yellow, with rounded spots. It is not used as food. 

Syngnathus. Plate xv. SYNGNATHID& 

115. acus, GREATER PIPE-FISH. Caudal ridge continuous with dorsal 
ridge. 

The dorsal stands upon 10 or 1 1 rings, about halfway along the 
back. It has from 40 to 44 rays ; there is no anal fin ; the caudal 
has from 3 to 10 rays, the pectorals have 13, and the ventrals 3. 

K 



138 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

There is a ridge along the top of the snout which is joined by another 
over the eye. The osseous plates number 19 or 20 to the vent, and 
from 44 to 46 beyond. In the males the dorsal is higher and the 
abdomen broader than in the females. There are lines of spots on 
the dorsal, and a black spot at the base of the first ray. The colour 
is brownish, with dark broad bands ; the length reaches 16 inches. 
This pipe-fish is generally found in deep water, but has been taken 
in shallows among rocks and weeds. It can swim in almost any 
position, and occasionally skims over the water in duck-and-drake 
fashion. 

Tetrodon. Plate xv. DIODONTID&. 

122. lagocephalus, GLOBE FISH. Gullet dilatable into a spherical 
shape. 

The Globe Fish has from 12 to 14 rays in its dorsal, 12 to 14 in its 
anal, 12 in its caudal, 14 or 15 in its pectorals, and it has no ventrals. 
The dorsal and anal are placed more than halfway towards the tail. 
The eyes are well back, the nostrils distinct, the beak divided by a 
suture. In colour it is blue above, the underparts being silvery and 
armed with fixed spines, each having four roots. It reaches about 
22 inches in length. 



Thymallus. Plate xxvii. SALMONIDSE 

218. vulgaris, GRAYLING. Scales in regular rows; dorsal long and 
high. 

The Grayling has from 20 to 24 rays in the first dorsal, the second 
dorsal is adipose, there are from n to 14 rays in the anal, 21 in the 
caudal, 15 or 16 in the pectorals, and 10 or n in the ventrals. The 
ventrals are under the middle of the dorsal, and small, the anal is 
under the adipose dorsal. The scales in the lateral line number 
from 75 to 85. The back is more curved than the abdomen ; the 
shape is slender and graceful; the upper jaw is the longer. The 
head is bluish, the back golden, with parallel grey lines along the 
side ; the fins are banded and spotted with purple. In length the 
Grayling reaches about 16 inches. It is generally gregarious and 
local in occurrence, confined to clear streams running over sand and 
gravel, with many pools and shallows. It swims deeper than the 
Trout, and feeds mainly on molluscs and crustaceans. 



Thynnus. Plate vi. SCOMBRIDJS. 

41. pelamys, BONITO. Parallel stripes along the sides following the 
curve of the abdomen. 

The first dorsal has from 13 to 15 spines, the second a spine and 
12 or 13 rays, behind it are 8 finlets ; the anal has 2 spines and 12 
rays, behind it are 7 finlets; the caudal has 35 rays, the pec- 
torals have 27 rays, the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. Both dorsals 
are high, and pointed in front, the first spine of the first dorsal being 
twice the length of the highest ray of the second dorsal ; the pectoral 
is in a groove. The lateral line is curved throughout ; there is a 



GENERA AND SPECIES. 139 

corslet, and no other scales. The lower jaw projects, and on the 
jaws is a single row of teeth. In colour the Bonito is bluish above, 
silvery below, and is striped as above stated, the stripes being dark- 
blue . The few British examples have been from 2 to nearly 3 
feet long. 

Tinea. Plate xxiii. CYPRINID^E. 

179. vulgaris, TENCH. Scales small ; skin thick and slimy. 

The Tench has 12 or 13 rays in its dorsal, 9 or 10 in its anal, 17 
in its caudal, 17 in its pectorals, and 9 or 10 in its ventrals. The 
pectorals, ventrals, anal, and caudal are at equal intervals ; the dorsal 
is a little behind the ventrals, and half-way between the snout and 
the base of the caudal. The lateral line curves downwards from 
above the gill-cover, and has from go to 115 scales. The scales are 
small and embedded in the skin, which is covered with mucus. The 
fins are blackish, the body is generally blackish green or grey, but in 
one variety it is yellow, and in another it is spotted. The length, 
as a rule, reaches 18 inches, but one of 33 inches is on record. The 
Tench feeds on weeds, worms, and insects, and thrives where 
weeds are plentiful, preferably in still v/aters and sluggish rivers that 
are not particularly clean. As a rule it swims near the bottom, but 
in summer it rises to the surface and shelters among the weeds. In 
winter it buries itself in the mud like the Carp 

Torpedo. Plate xxxiii. TORPEDINID&. 

248. nobiliana, TORPEDO. Greyish, with or without a few blotches. 

249. mannomta, MARBLED TORPEDO. Mottled or spotted 

The Torpedo has the front edge of the disk straight, and the 
wings almost semi-circular. The two dorsals are close together, the 
first being as large again as the second ; they are placed above the 
tip of the ventrals, and not on the tail ; the caudal is almost as large 
as the ventrals put together. The skin is smooth, there being neither 
spines nor tubercles. The mouth is arched. The colour is gener- 
ally plain purplish grey, but it varies, and occasionally is faintly 
blotched. The length reaches 4 feet. It is a coast fish, living in 
sandy and muddy localities. The electrical organ is between the 
head and the pectorals. 

The Marbled Torpedo seems to be only a variety of smaller size 
and with rather larger veutrals. The few British examples have not 
exceeded 10 inches in length. It varies much in colour, but is 
invariably mottled or marbled and spotted. 

Trachinus. Plate vii. TRACHINID&. 

45. draco, GREATER WEEVER. Two spines over the eye. 

46. vipera, VIPER WEEVER. No spines over the eye. 

The Greater Weever, otherwise the Spitalfields Weaver, from, 
its being sold to the foreign Jews in Whitechapel, has 5 or 6 spines- 
in its first dorsal, 29 to 31 rays in its second dorsal, 31 in its anal, 12- 
in its caudal, 16 in its pectorals, and a spine and 5 rays in its ven- 



140 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

trals. The first dorsal is not unlike a quadrant in shape, the second 
is lower and parallel to the back for the greater part of its length ; 
both dorsals are in a groove ; the anal is lorrger than the second 
dorsal. The lateral line runs along the upper half of the body and 
has 78 scales ; the scales are cycloid and in oblique lines. The mouth 
is oblique, and extends to behind the eye< In shape the body is 
long and slender. There are 2 small spines over the eye, 4 on the 
praeoperculum, and a long one on the operculum, with loose skin 
extending nearly to its point. The colour is greyish or yellowish, 
the head being spotted or streaked. The length is as much as 17 
inches. It is found on sandy ground, occasionally between the tide 
marks, and can give a painful wound with its long spine, which it 
seems always anxious to use. 

The Viper Weever is even more active and venomous. It has 
6 spines in its first dorsal, and from 21 to 24 rays in the second ; in 
the anal it has 25 or 26 rays, in the caudal 12, in the pectorals 14, in 
the ventrals a spine and 5 rays. The fins are similar in shape to 
those of the larger species. The mouth extends beyond the eye, 
and there is a row of papillae along the upper edge of the lower lip. 
There are no spines over the eye, but there are two below the angle 
of the praeoperculum, and a long, straight spine on the operculum. The 
colour is brownish with grey streaks along the back and yellowish 
underparts ; the first dorsal is black, with thin white lines. In length 
it does not exceed 6 inches. Like the other, it feeds on small fry 
and almost anything animal, and it is of the same habits and 
disposition. 



Trachypterus. Plate xiii. TRACHYPTERID&. 

102. arcticus, DEAL-FISH. Caudal fin at a sharp angle as if dis- 
located. 

The Deal-fish is known by its tail, which looks as though it had 
been broken off and stuck on again in the wrong position. In the 
long dorsal there are from 158 to 172 rays ; there is no anal ; the 
caudal has 7 or 8 rays; the pectorals have from 5 to n, and the 
ventrals 6. The lateral line consists of spiny, oval plates, increasing 
in size towards the tail ; it is nearly straight. The back and abdo- 
men are almost parallel, curving towards each other just at the ends, 
and in shape the fish resembles the deal board from which it 
received its name. It is silvery in colour, has red fins, swims on the 
slant, is 7 feet or more in length, and is an Arctic species of rare 
occurrence in British waters. 



Trichiurus. Plate iii. TRICH1 U RID IE. 

22. Upturns, HAIRTAIL. No fins beyond a long dorsal and small 
pectorals. 

The Hairtail has 135 or 136 rays in its dorsal fin, and n in its 
pectorals. It is a long, thin, ribbon-like fish, tapering to a point, 
the dorsal beginning over the gill-covers and extending to the very 
tip of the finless tail. The lateral line runs along the lower third of 



GENERA AND SPECIES. 141 

the body ; and there are no scales. In colour this rare fish is 
silvery, and in length it does not exceed 30 inches. It straggles here 
from the tropics, and made its appearance on the British list by 
being left by the tide on a sandy shore. 

Trigla. Plates vii. and viii. COTTID&. 

52. lineatu, STREAKED GURNARD. Lateral ridges that slope 

forwards from back to abdomen ; lateral line with 
serrated spines. Colour red above, white below. 

53. cuculus, RED GURNARD. Spiny ridge along base of dorsals ; 

lateral line with spineless plates. Colour red ; fins 
red. 

54. hirundo, SAPPHIRINE GURNARD. Spines along base of dorsals ; 

lateral line unarmed. Colour brownish red ; pectorals 
large and blue. 

55. gnrnardus, GREY GURNARD. Colour grey with or without white 

markings. 

56. l>ra, PIPER. Two flat triangular plates over the snout, 

giving it the appearance of being divided. 

57. obscura, LANTHORN GURNARD. Broad silvery stripe along the 

side marking oft" the red above from the white below. 

The Streaked Gurnard has from 9 to n spines in the first dorsal, 
16 or 17 rays in the second, 16 rays in the anal, 12 in the caudal, 10 
or ii in the pectorals, and a spine and 5 rays in the ventrals. At 
the base of the pectorals it has three filaments, like the other species 
of the genus. The lateral line has 66 toothed spines, being half the 
number of the row of scales above it. The scales along the bases of 
the dorsals are keeled. Down each side is a series of narrow, parallel 
ridges that slope slightly forwards. The sides are banded with red ; 
the dorsals and caudal are reddish brown, spotted and blotched, and 
have red edges ; the pectorals are red, green, and blue. The length 
reaches 14 inches. This fish lives near the ground, and feeds on fish 
and crustaceans. Like our other gurnards it erects its dorsals when 
touched, and grunts. *' These sounds," says Cunningham, " are pro- 
duced in the air-bladder. That organ is entirely closed, and its walls 
contain well- developed muscles, which, by their contraction, drive 
the air from one part of the bladder to another. The air-bladder 
consists of three portions, a larger central chamber and a smaller 
chamber on each side, communicating with the central chamber at 
the front end. At the hinder portion of the central chamber there 
is a partition running in a slanting direction across it, and in the 
middle of this partition there is a round opening. The air is pressed 
to and fro through this opening, and so the sound is produced." 

The Red Gurnard has 8 or 9 spines in the first dorsal, 18 rays 
in the second, 16 or 17 rays in the anal, 13 in the caudal, 10 in the 
pectorals, and a spine and 5 rays in the ventrals. In the lateral 
line are from 73 to 76 plates, which are higher than they are wide, 
and have no spines. This fish is rose-coloured, the three filaments 
being red with a yellow tinge. In length it reaches 18 inches. In 
habits it resembles the Streaked Gurnard, and makes a similar noise 
in a similar way. 



142 GEXERA AND SPECIES 

The Sapphirine Gurnard has 9 spines in the first dorsal, 16 or 
17 rays in the second, 15 or 16 rays in the anal, 12 in the caudal, 10 
in the pectorals, and a spine and 5 rays in the ventrals. The lateral 
line is without spines, but along the base of the dorsals is a row of 
about 25 spiny plates. In colour it is a brownish red, the pectorals 
having a good deal of blue in them, the dorsal being reddish, the 
caudal purplish, and the filaments red. It is 24 inches long, and 
lives near the bottom in water of moderate depth, sometimes rising 
to the surface. It grunts like the other gurnards. 

The Grey Gurnard has 8 or 9 spines in the first dorsal, 19 rays 
in the second, 18 or 19 rays in the anal, 15 in the caudal, 10 in the 
pectorals, and a spine and 5 rays in the ventrals. In the lateral line 
are from 73 to 76 scales, armed with short spines. In colour it is 
slaty grey, generally with white spots or lines ; below it is white. Its 
extreme length seems to be about 24 inches. It is found in shoals, 
keeping to the bottom as a rule, but frequently swimming close to 
the surface and grunting with satisfaction. It croons as it is taken 
from the water. 

The Piper has 9 or 10 spines in its first dorsal, 16 or 17 
rays in the second, 16 rays in the anal, 12 in the caudal, 10 in the 
pectorals, and a spine and 5 rays in the ventrals. The third dorsal 
spine is the longest, the curve of the fin being rounder than in the 
other species. The lateral line is without spines, but there are 25 
or more spiny elevations along the base of the dorsals. The pre- 
orbital is extended into a broad, triangular plate, which is toothed 
in front and projects over the snout. The colour is bright red above, 
white beneath, the fins being red. It is rather larger than the other 
species, and is of the same habits. It grunts like the others ; but, 
when taken from the water, instead of crooning, it hisses, and from 
this hiss or whistle it derives its name. 

The Lanthorn Gurnard has 10 spines in its first dorsal, 17 or 18 
rays in the second, 17 rays in the anal, 12 in the caudal, 10 in the 
pectorals, and a spine and 5 rays in the ventrals. The second spine 
of the dorsal is very long. The lateral line is marked by spineless, 
lineated plates, but there are spiny plates along the base of the 
dorsals. There are spines on the head and gill-covers, as in all the 
species. The thin filaments are rather more slender than in the 
other gurnards. The colour is bright red above and whitish below, 
separated from each other by a wide silvery stripe. The pectorals 
are blue, the other fins red. In size it does not exceed 12 inches. It 
is the rarest of the British species. 

Trygon. Plate xxxiii. TRYGONID&. 

252. pastinaca, STING RAY. Disk pyriform, front ejge straight, angle 
rounded, hind edge convex. 

There is a long serrated spine on the tail, but no fins. The 
body is raised along the line of the backbone. The skin is smooth, 
with occasionally a few tubercles along the back. The mouth is 
small and the teeth are small. The colour varies above, but is 
always white below ; the length reaches 33 inches. The Sting 
Rav is found in shallow water where the bottom is soft and oozy. 



GENERA AND SPECIES. 143 

It is known by its spine, which has the teeth directed downwards 
like a spear-head. It was one of these spines which ended the 
career of Ulysses. 

Xiphias. Plate iii. XI PHI IDA?. 

21. gladius, SWORDFISH. Upper jaw long and shaped like a sword. 

The Swordfish has but one dorsal when young, but in time a 
portion of it dies away, so that in old examples the fin is almost 
divided into two. The anal becomes separated in a similar manner. 
When complete there are 3 spines in the dorsal, and 43 rays, and 17 
rays in the anal ; in the caudal there are 21, in the pectorals 15 ; 
there are no ventrals. The pectoral is placed low, and is long and 
pointed. The scales are quite rudimentary, and there are no teeth. 
The colour is blue above, white below ; the length 15 feet or less, 
generally 7 or 8. It is only a straggler in British waters. 



Zeugopterus. Plate xx. PLEURONECTIDJE. 

153. unimaculatus , ONE-SPOTTED TOPKNOT. Ventrals not joined to 

anal. 

154. punctatus, BROWNY. Ventrals joined to anal. 

The One-Spotted Topknot has from 70 to 80 rays in its dorsal, 
61 to 68 in its anal, 16 in its caudal, 10 to 12 in its pectorals, and 6 
in its ventrals. The marginal fins are highest in the hinder half. 
The lateral line curves over the pectoral. The eyes are on the left- 
side ; the mouth is large, and at the end of the snout ; the teeth and 
jaws are equal on both sides. The first ray of the dorsal is long. 
The underside is rough. The colour is reddish brown, with a 
round spot on the upper side near the tail. The length does not 
appear to exceed 5 inches. 

The Browny has from 87 to 101 rays in the dorsal, 69 to 80 in 
the anal, 14 to 16 in the caudal, 10 in the pectorals, and 6 in the 
ventrals. The dorsal and anal are highest in the hinder half, and 
are continuous with the caudal. The ventrals join the anal. The 
eyes are on the left, the mouth large and at the end of the snout, 
the teeth and jaws alike on both sides. The underside is rather 
smooth; on the upper side the scales are spiny. In colour it is 
dark brown with spots, and there is a pale streak extending from 
each eye. The length of this fish does not exceed 8 inches. 

Zeus. Plate iv. CYTTID&. 
29. faber, DORY. Grey, with a large black spot edged with yellow. 

There are 10 spines in the first portion of the dorsal, and 22 or 23 
rays in the second ; the anal is in two distinct portions, the first of 
which has 4 spines, the second 21 to 23 rays ; in the caudal are 13 
rays, in the pectorals 13, in the ventrals a spine and 6 rays. The 
dorsal spines have filaments at their tips, and spines at their bases ; 
and at the bases of the dorsal rays are spiny plates, the bases of the 
anal spines and rays being protected in the same way. The spinous 



144 GENERA AND SPECIES. 

portion of the anal is very broad, and the spines large. The lateral 
line curves to the middle of the anal, and then runs straight. The 
body is about two-thirds as high as it is long, and is much 
compressed. The mouth is large and protrusible so as to form a 
tube. The colour is a somewhat yellowish grey, frequently with 
wavy bands ; the length is under 24 inches. The Dory feeds on 
fair-sized fishes, such as sprats and smelts. It swims with a list to 
starboard, not upright ; and it grunts, squeaks, or groans when 
taken out of the water. 

Zoarces. plate x. BLENNIID&. 

82. viviparus, VIVIPAROUS BLENNY. Dorsal long, with a low section 
of 10 spines just before the end. 

The dorsal extends all along the back. In the fore part there 
are from 76 to 80 rays, continuous with which are 10 spines 
followed by 20 to 25 rays. The rays are level and not very high, 
and the spiny section is half the height of the rest of the fin. In 
the anal there are 84 to 89 rays ; the caudal is absent except in the 
young ; the pectorals have 19 rays, and the ventrals 3. The mouth 
extends to the middle of the eye ; the lips are thick. In colour this 
fish is olive, striped and banded with dark green ; it attains 2 feet 
in length, and is of slender tapering form. It lives among rocks, 
and hides among seaweed ; and it has been observed to bring forth 
at a birth 250 young, an inch and a half long, which immediately 
began to swim about and look after themselves. 

Zygsena. Plate xxviii. CARCHARIID&. 

224. malleus, HAMMERHEAD. Head in the shape of a hammer, with 
the eyes at the lateral extremities. 

This shark is recognisable at a glance, owing to its strangely- 
shaped head. The colour is slaty grey above, and white below. 
It is said to be very ferocious, but it has rather a small mouth. 
The teeth are oblique and notched. It is not uncommon in the 
Mediterranean, but better known in more southerly seas ; in 
British waters it is rarely seen. The largest yet caught on the 
English Coast measured 13 feet 7 inches. Its specific name means 
a balance, and it is frequently called the Balance Shark. It is the 
last on our alphabetical list, so that with a balance we close our 
account. 



CHAPTER X. 

SPECIFIC NAMES, 



THIS list contains, it is hoped, all the specific names 
appearing in the standard works on British fishes, in 
addition to a selection of those used by foreign authors, for 
the synonymy of the fishes is extensive and rather more 
miscellaneous than usual. The numbers refer to the coloured 
plates, in the list of which will be found the systematic and 
popular names adopted throughout this book. 



Acarne, Pagellus, 16, 17 
Acarne, Pagrus, 17 
Acerina, Perca, 3 
Aculeatus, Gasterosteus, 91, 92, 

93. 94. 95 

Aculeatus, Leiurus, 91, 92, 93, 

94. 95 

Acus, Syngnathus, 115 
Acuta, Perca, i 
Adhaerens, Lepadogaster, 100 
Adriatica, Trigla, 52 
^Eglefinus, Gadus, 126 
jEglefinus, Morrhua, 126 
^Equoreus, Nerophis, 116 
Affinis, Cottus, 48 
Alalonga, Orcynus, 40 
Alalonga, Thynnus, 40 
Alatunga, Scomber, 40 
Alba, Raia, 240 
Albacora, Thynnus, 40 
Albus, Gobius, 70 
Albus, Latrunculus, 70 
Albus, Salmo, 196, 197 
Alliciens, Ammodytes, 146 
Alosa, Clupea, 193 
Alpinus, Salmo, 206, 207, 208, 

209 

Alpinus, Salvelinus, 206 
Americanus, Amphibrion, 6 
Americanus, Lophius, 47 
Amia, Caranx, 24 
Anglorum, Lumpus, 60 
Antarctica, Sciaena, 20 
Antecessor, Gasterosteus, 25 
Antiquorum, Hippocampus, 119 
Ape-, Capros, 28 



Aper, Labrus, 104 
Aper, Zeus, 28 
Aphya, Gobius, 66 
Aquila, Cheilodipterus, 20 
Aquila, Myliobatis, 250 
Aquila, Sciaena, 6, 20 
Arcticus, Gymnetrus, 102 
Arcticus, Gymnogaster, 102 
Arcticus, Trachypterus, 102 
Argentatus, Merluccius, 133 
Argenteus, Lepidopus, 23 
Argenteus, Lepturus, 22 
Argenteus, Fario, 196 
Argenteus, Salmo, 195, 196 
Argenteus, Sparus, 12 
Argenteus, Trachinotus, 26 
Argenteus, Trichiurus, 22 
Argenti-vittatus, Thynnus, 40 
Argyrea, Scarcina, 23 
Argyreus, Lepidopus, 23 
Armatus, Aspidophorus, 58 
Armatus, Trachinus, 45 
Artedii, Blennius, 77 
Ascanii, Carelophus, 80 
Ascensionis, Scomber, 27 
Aspera, Trigla, 55 
Attenuatus, Gobius, 66 
Aurata, Chrysophrys, 13 
Aurata, Sparus, 13, 14 
Auratus, Carassius, 171 
Auratus, Gobius, 67 
Auratus, Pagrus, 13 
Ausonii, Salar, 196, 201 

Balbis, Lepadogaster, 99 
Ballan, Labrus, 104 



145 



146 



SPECIFIC NAMES. 



Ballanus, Labrus, 104 
Balteatus, Thynnus, 40 
Banksii, Gymnetrus, 103 
Banksii, Regalecus, 103 
Barbatula, Nemacheilus, 184 
Barbatum, Ophidium, 143 
Barbatus, Gadus, 127 
Barbatus, Liparis, 61 
Barbatus, Mullus, 8, 9 
Batis, Raia, 238 
Belonii, Mullus, 8 
Belonii, Pelamys, 42 
Berda, Sparus, 17 
Bergylta, Labrus, 104 
Biciliatus, Lepadogaster, 99 
Bicolor, Gobius, 64 
Bimaculata, Mirbelia, 101 
Bimaculatus, Cyclopterus, 101 
Bimaculatus, Gobiesox, 101 
Bimaculatus, Lepadogaster, 101 
Binotatus, Centronotus, 27 
Biocellatus, Gobius, 63 
Bipunctatus, Gobius, 63 
Bison, Aspicottus, 50 
Bisus, Auxis, 43 
Bisus, Scomber, 43 
Blennoides, Phycis, 134 
Blicca, Abramis, 181 
Blochii, Trigla, 55 
Bogaraveo, Pagellus, 15 
Bogaraveo, Pagrus, 15 
Bogaraveo, Sparus, 15 
Boops, Boops, ii 
Boops, Sparus, n 
Boyeri, Atherina, 84 
Brachycentrus, Gasterosteus.gi 
Brachypoma, Salmo, 196, 197 
Brachypterus, Thynnus, 43 
Brama, Abramis, 180 
Brama, Cantharus, 10 
Brama, Sparus, 10, 32 
Britannicus, Centrolophus, 30 
Britannicus, Gobius, 65 
Britannicus, Mugil, 85 
Brosme, Brosmius, 142 
Brosme, Centronotus, 80 
Brosme, Gadus, 142 
Bubalis, Aspicottus, 50 
Bubalis, Cottus, 50 

Cabrilla, Perca, 4 
Cabrilla, Serranus, 4 
Csecifer, Salmo, 196, 200 
Callarias, Morrhua, 125 
Cambricus, Salmo, 196, 199, 

206, 207 
Canariensis, Boops, n 



Canariensis, Pagellus, 18 
Canicula, Scyllium, 230 
Caninus, Serranus, 5 
Cantharus, Sparus, 10 
Capelanus, Gadus, 128 
Capensis, Scisena, 20 
Capitate, Gobio, 48 
Capito, Mugil, 85 
Capriscus, Balistes, 121 
Carassius, Cyprinus, 170 
Carbonarius, Gadus, 131 
Carbonarius, Merlangus, 131 
Carneus, Labrus, 107 
Carpio, Cyprina, 169 
Castaneola, Sparus, 32 
Cataphracta, Trigla, 59 
Cataphractum, Peristedion, 59 
Cataphractum, Peristethus, 59 
Cataphractus, Agonus, 58 
Cataphractus, Aspidophorus, 58 
Cataphractus, Cottus, 58 
Catulus, Scyllium, 231 
Caudatus, Lepidopus, 23 
Caudatus, Trichiurus, 23 
Centrodontus, Pagellus, 14 
Centrodontus, Sparus, 14 
Cephalus, Lepadogaster, 100 
Cephalus, Leuciscus, 175 
Cephalus, Mugil, 85, 86 
Cernioides, Serranus, 5 
Cernium, Polyprion, 6 
Cernua, Acerina, 3 
Cernua, Gymnocephalus, 3 
Cernua, Perca, 3 
Cetti, Dentex, 7 
Cetti, Sparus, 7 
Channus, Perca, 4 
Chelo, Mugil, 86 
Cicerellus, Ammodytes, 147 
Ciliatus, Lepadogaster, 99 
Cimbria, Motella, 138 
Cimbrius, Gadus, 138 
Circularis, Raia, 247 
Cithara, Callionymus, 73 
Clavata, Raia, 243 
Clupeoides, Coregonus, 215 
Cobitis, Aphya, 66 
Cocksii, Ausonia, 35 
Coeruleus, Cyclopterus, 60 
Colias, Scomber, 38 
Colii, Salmo, 206, 211 
Comber, Labrus, 105 
Communis, Liparis, 61 
Compressa, Lota, 136 
Compressus, Nauclerus, 25 
Conductor, Centronotus, 25 
Coquus, Labrus, 107 



SPECIFIC NAMES. 



Corax, Trigla, 54 
Coregonoides, Paralepis, 186 
Cornubica, Lamna, 226 
Cornubicus, Crenilabrus, 109 
Cornubicus, Cyclopterus, 99 
Cornubicus, Cynsedus, 109 
Cornubicus, Lophius, 47 
Cornubiensis, Gunnellus, 81 
Cornubiensis, Labrus, 104 
Cornubiensis, Lepadogaster, 99 
Cornubiensis, Pimelepterus, 26 
Cornubiensis, Salmo, 196, 205 
Cornutus, Macrorhamphosus, 98) 
Coronatus, Cyclopterus, 60 
Corvus, Trigla, 54 
Coryphaenoides, Astrodermus, 35 
Couchii, Acantholabrus, in 
Couchii, Serranus, 6 
Crassirostris, Chrysophrys, 13 
Cuculus, Trigla, 53, 54, 55 
Curtus, Pagellus, 14 
Cuvieri, Ausonia, 35 
Cuvieri, Caranx, 24 
Cynoglossus, Pleuronectes, 159 

Decandolii, Lepadogaster, 100 
Decandollii, Lepadogaster, 100 
Declivis, Caranx, 24 
Dentatus, Fierasfer, 144 
Dentex, Cichla, 7 
Dentex, Sparus, 7 
Desfontanii, Lepadogaster, 101 
Desfontanii, Mirbelia, 101 
Diacantha, Perca, 2 
Diacantha, Scisena, 2 
Diego, Scomber, 38 
Donovani, Labrus, 105, 109 
Draco, Trachinus, 45, 46 
Dracunculus, Callionymus, 72, 7 
Dracunculus, Uranoscopus, 72 
Drummondii, Echiodon, 144 
Ductor, Centronotus, 25 
Ductor, Gasterosteus, 25 
Ductor, Naucrates, 25 
Ductor, Scomber, 25 

Eckstromii, Gobius, G6 
Elegans, Astrodermus, 35 
Elegans, Callionymus, 72 
Elegans, Coryphaena, 35 
Elongata, Perca, 2 
Encrasicholus, Engraulis, 189 
Ensiformis, Lepidopus, 23 
Eperlanus, Osmerus, 213 
Eriox, Salmo, 196, 197, 198 
Erythrinus, Pagellus, 16, 18 
Erythrinus, Pagrus, 18 



Erythrinus, Sparus, 18 
Erythrophthalmus, Leuciscus, 

177 

Estuarius, Salmo, 196 
Europeus, Aspidophorus, 58 
Europeus, Gunnellus, 81 
Europeus, Trachurus, 24 
Eurypterus, Lophius, 47 
Evolans, Exocoetus, 90 
Exoletus, Centrolabrus, 112 
Exoletus, Crenilabrus, in 
Exoletus, Labrus, 112 

Faber, Zeus, 29 
Fanfarus, Naucrates, 25 
Fario, Salmo, 196, 201 
Fario, Trutta, 196, 201 
Ferox, Salmo, 203 
Festiva, Julis, 113 
Filaris, Trigla, 57 
Fimbriatus, Serranus, 5 
Finta, Clupea, 194 
Flavescens, Bodianus, i 
Flavescens, Gobius, 63 
Flavescens, Perca, i 
Flavus, Serranus, 4 
Flesus, Pleuronectes, 161 
Fluviatilis, Cernua, 3 
Fluviatilis, Coitus, 48 
Fluviatilis, Gobio, 173 
Fluviatilis, Perca, i 
Fluviatilis, Trutta, 196, 201 
Fontinalis, Salmo, 212 
Formosus, Labrus, 107 
Fuliginosus, Gobius, 65 
Fullonica, Raia, 242 
Furcatus, Phycis, 134 
Fuscus, Raniceps, 141 

Gadoides, Blennius, 134 
Galerita, Adonis, 77 
Galerita, Blenniops, 80 
Galerita, Blennius, 80 
Gattorugine, Blennius, 76 
Gallivensis, Salmo, 196 
Germo, Orcynus, 40 
Germo, Scomber, 40 
Germo, Thynnus, 40 
Gibbiceps, Dentex, 7 
Gibbosus, Cyclopterus, 60 
Gibbosus, Sparus, 7 
Gigas, Holocentrus, 5 
Gigas, Perca, 5 
Gigas, Serranus, 5 
Giofredi, Julis, 113 
Giornsc, Cephaloptera, 251 
Glacialis, Cottus, 49 



148 



SPECIFIC NAMES. 



Gladius, Trichiurus, 23 
Gladius, Xiphias, 21 
Glauca, Lichia, 27 
Glauca, Motella, 137 
Glaucos, Centronotus, 27 
Glaucus, Caranx, 27 
Glaucus, Carcharias, 222 
Glaucus, Gasterosteus, 27 
Glaucus, Lichia, 27 
Glaucus, Scomber, 27 
Glesne, Regalecus, 103 
Gobio, Cottus, 48. 
Gobius, Liparis, 62 
Goedenii, Salrao, 196 
Gouanianus, Lepidopus, 23 
Gouanii, Lepadogaster, 99 
Gouanii, Lepidopus, 23 
Gracilis, Gobius, 66, 70 
Gracilis, Perca, i 
Gracilis, Salmo, 195 
Granulata, Perca, i 
Grayi, Salmo, 206, 210 
Griseus, Cantharus, 10 
Griseus, Notidanus, 229 
Griseus, Salrao, 196, 198 
Groenlandicus, Acanthocottus, 49 
Groenlandicus, Cottus, 49 
Gulo, Holocentrus, 6 
Gunnellus, Blennius, 81 
Gunnellus, Centronotus, 81 
Gunnellus, Ophisomus, 81 
Gunnellus, Pholis, 81 
Gunneri, Scomber, 33 
Guntheri, Pagellus, 18 
Gurnardus, Trigla, 55 
Guttata, Muraenoides, 81 
Guttatus, Lampris, 33 
Guttatus, Zeus, 33 
Gymnothorax, Thymallus, 218 
Gymnurus, Gasterosteus, 94 

Hamata, Trigla, 59 
Hamatus, Salmo, 195 
Harengus, Clupea, 190 
Harvicensis, Lyra, 72 
Helena, Muraena, 168 
Helvetica, Perca, i 
Hemigymnus, Argyropelecus, 18^ 
Hepsetus, Atherina, 70, 83, 84 
Hexacornis, Cottus, 51 
Hirundo, Trigla, 54 
Hololepidota, Sciaena, 20 
Hololepidotus, Labrus, 20 
Horridus, Trachinus, 46 
Hucho, Salmo, 196 

Imberbis, Mullus, 52 



Imbricatus, Ajsantholabrus, in 
Imperialis, Luvarus, 35 
Imperialis, Zeus, 33 
Inaequalis, Blennius, 77 
Indicus, Naucrates, 25 
Ingens, Gunnellus, 81 
Islandicus, Bogmarus, 102 
Islandicus, Vogmarus, 102 
Italica, Perca, i 
Italica, Tinea, 179 

acobea, Echeneis, 44 

aponicus, Selar, 24 

effreysii, Gobius, 69 

ohnsoni, Dentex, 7 

onsoni, Sparus, 7 
Jozo, Gobius, 65 
Julis, Coris, 113 
Julis, Labrus, 113 
Jussieui, Lepadogaster, 100 

Karrak, Anarrhichas, 75 
Killinensis, Salmo, 206, 209 
Koelreuteri, Naucrates, 25 
Koelreuteri, Scomber, 25 

Labradoricus, Acanthocottus, 4 
Labrax, Perca, 2 
Labrax, Sciaena, 2 
Labrosus, Mugil, 86 
Lacustris, Salmo, 196, 203 
Laevis, Cataphractus, 78 
Laevis, Cottus, 48 
Laevis, Pholis, 78 
Laevis, Rhombus, 152 
Laevis, Trigla, 54 
Lagocephalus, Tetrodon, 122 
Lancea, Ammodytes, 146 
Lanceolatus, Ammodytes, 145 
Larvatus, Labrus, 107 
Lascaris, Solea, 163 
Lastovi-za, Trigla, 52 
Laticeps, Gobius, 68 
Laterna, Arnoglossus, 156 
Lauta, Lampris, 33 
Lemanus, Fario, 196, 201 
Lepadogaster, Cyclopterus, 99 
Lepturus, Trichiurus, 22, 103 
Lepus, Blennius, 79 
Levenensis, Salmo, 196, 200 
Limanda, Pleuronectes, 160 
Limandoides, Hippoglossoides, 

150 

Linearis, Gobius, 70 
Lineata, Trigla, 52, 53 
Lineatus, Cantharus, 10 
Lineatus, Labrus, 104, 106, 107 



SPECIFIC NAMES. 



Lineatus, Lepadogaster, 101 
Lineatus, Liparis, 61 
Lineatus, Pagrus, 10 
Lineatus, Sparus, 10 
Lineatus, Trachinus, 45 
Liparis, Centrolophus, 31 
Liparis, Cyclogaster, 61 
Liparis, Cyclopterus, 61 
Liparoides, Cyclopterus, 62 
Longicauda, Cepola, 74 
Lota, Gadus, 136 
Lota, Molva, 135 
Lucerna, Trigla, 57 
Lucidus, Alburnus, 182 
Lucius, Esox, 185 
Lumbriciformis, Nerophis, 118 
Lumpus, Cyclopterus, Go 
Luna, Chrysostosus, 33 
Luna, Lampris, 33 
Luna, Zeus, 33 
Lupus, Anarrhichas, 75 
Lupus, Centropomus, 2 
Lupus, Labrax, 2 
Lusca, Morhua, 127 
Luscus, Crenilabrus, in 
Luscus, Gadus, 127 
Lusitanicus, Lepidopus, 23 
Lusitanicus, Vandellius, 23 
Lutea, Solea, 165 
Lyra, Callionymus, 72, 73 
Lyra, Trigla, 56 
Lyra, Uranoscopus, 72 

Macrophthalma, Motella, 140 
Macropterus, Thynnus, 40 
Macrorhynchus, Raia, 239 
Maculata, Raia, 244 
Maculatus, Anarrhichas, 75 
Maculatus, Balistes, 120 
Maculatus, Callionymus, 73 
Maculatus, Labrus, 104 
Maculatus, Lepadogaster, 101 
Maculatus, Scomber, 38 
Maculis, BJennius, 81 
Maculosa, Lota, 136 
Maculosus, Acentrolophus, 31 
Maderensis, Gobius, 64 
Major, Mullus, 9 
Major, Trachinus, 45 
Malleus, Zygaena, 224 
Marginatus, Ctenolabrus, no 
Marginatus, Serranus, 5 
Marina, Brama, 32 
Marina, Perca, 19 
Marina, Rana, 47 
Marina, Trutta, 196 
Marinus, Draco, 45 



Marinus, Gasterosteus, 97 
Marinus, Holocentrus, 4 
Marinus, Lepus, 60 
Marinus, Lupus, 75 
Marinus, Scorpius, 50 
Marinus, Sebastes, 19 
Marinus, Serranus, 4 
Marmorata, Torpedo, 249 
Marsiliensis, Scorpsena, 6 
Marsiliensis, Sparus, 14 
Maxima, Selache, 228 
Maximus, Rhombus, 151 
Mediterranea, Julis, 113 
Mediterraneus, Scomber, 42 
Mediterraneus, Thynnus, 39 
Medusophagus, Schedophilus, 34 
Megastoma, Lepidorhombus, 155 
Melanostomus, Pristiurus, 232 
Melanura, Julis, 113 
Melops, Crenilabrus, 108 
Meridionalis, Aphia, 70 
Merlangus, Gadus, 129 
Merluccius, Gadus, 133 
Merou, Holocentrus, 5 
Microcellata, Raia, 245 
Microcephalus, Pleuronectes, i$V 
Microcephalus, Laemargus, 235 
Microps, Salmo, 196 
Micropterygius, Uranoscopus, 72 
Microstoma, Crenilabrus, 112 
Microstomus, Cottus, 48 
Milvus, Trigla, 55 
Minor, Anarrhichas, 75 
Minor, Mullus, 8 
Minor, Umbla, 206 
Minuta, Atherina, 70 
Minuta, Eleotris, 66 
Minuta, Morrhua, 128 
Minutus, Cottus, 48 
Minutus, Cyclopterus, 60 
Minutus, Gadus, 128 
Minutus, Gobius, 60, 63, 66, 67, 

68 

Minutus, Lepadogaster, 73 
Mirbelia, Lepadogaster, 101 
Mixtus, Labrus, 107 
Mola, Orthagoriscus, 123 
Molva, Gadus, 135 
Montacuti, Cyclopterus, 62 
Monstrosa, Chimaera, 221 
Montagui, Blennius, 77 
Montagui, Cyclopterus, 62 
Montagui, Icthyocoris, 77 
Montagui, Liparis, 62 
Morhua, Gadus, 125 
Morio, Centrolophus, 31 
Morio, Coryphaena, 31 



SPECIFIC NAMES. 



Morrhua, Gadus, 125 
Mustela, Gadus, 137 
Mustela, Motella, 137 
Naucrates, Echeneis, 44 
Neustrise, Labrus, 104 
Niger, Centrolophus, 31 
Niger, Gobius, 63, 64, 65 
Niger, Holocentrus, 31 
Niger, Spams, 32 
Nigripinnis', Salmo, 205 
Nilssonii, Crystallogobius, 70 
Nilssonii, Gobius, 70 
Nilssonii, Latrunculus, 70 
Nigra, Perca, 31 
Nobiliana, Torpedo, 248 
Nobilis, Salmo, 195 
Norvegicus, Coryphaenoides, 148 
Norvegicus, Sebastes, 19 
Norwegica, Perca, 19 
Norwegica, Scorpaena, 19 
Norwegicus, Holocentrus, 19 
Norwegicus, Sebastes, 19 
Norwegicus, Serranus, 19 
Novemboracensis, Naucrates, 25 
Novemcinctus, Serranus, 4 

Obscura, Trigla, 57 
Ocellaris, Blennius, 79 
Ocellatus, Acanthocottus, 49 
Ocellatus, Cyclopterus, 99 
Ocellatus, Lepadogaster, 101 
Octo-radiatus, Mugil, 85 
Olivaceus, Lepadogaster, 100 
Omorus, Caranx, 24 
Opah, Zeus, 33 
Ophidion, Nerophis, 117 
Ophidoides, Liparis, 61 
Orcadensis, Salmo, 196, 202 
Orientalis, Thynnus, 39 
Orphus, Aurata, 12 
Orphus, Pagrus, 12 
Orphus, Spar us, 14 
Owenii, Pagellus, 16 
Oxygeneios, Epinephelus, 6 
Oxyrhynchus, Coregonus, 214 
Oxyrhynchus, Raia, 241 

Pacificus, Thynnus, 40 
Paganellus, Gobius, 64 
Pagellus, Sparus, 18 
Pagrus, Pagrus, 12 
Pagrus, Sparus, 12, 14 
Palamitus, Thynnus, 42 
Pallida, Echeneis, 44 
Palloni, Acantholabrus, in 
Palmicornis, Blennius, 80 
Pantherinus, Anarrhichas, 75 



Papilio, Blennius, 79 
Parnelli, Gobius, 67 
Parva, Echeneis, 44 
Pastinaca, Trygon, 252 
Pavoninus, Adonis, 79 
Pavoninus, Cyclopterus, 60 
Pelagicus, Cyprina, 19 
Pelagicus, Scomber, 33 
Pelamides, Scomber, 41 
Pelamis, Scomber, 41 
Pelamys, Scomber, 42 
Pelamys, Thynnus, 41 
Pellucida, Aphia, 70 
Pellucida, Aphya, 70 
Pellucidus, Gobius, 70 
Pellucidus, Latrunculus, 70 
Pennantii, Blennius, 80 
Pennantii, Maurolicus, 188 
Pentacanthus, Labrus, 112 
Perciformis, Coryphasna, 26 
Perciformis, Palinuricthys, 26 
Perciformis, Palinurus, 26 
Perciformis, Pammelas, 26 
Perisii, Salmo, 206, 207 
Peronii, Lepidopus, 23 
Phinoc, Salmo, 196, 197 
Pholis, Adonis, 78 
Pholis, Blennius, 78 
Phoxinus, Leuciscus, 178 
Phycis, Blennius, 134 
Picturata, Seriola, 24 
Pictus, Gobius, 68 
Pilchardus, Clupea, 191 
Pini, Trigla, 53 
Piscatorius, Batrachus, 47 
Piscatorius, Lophius, 47 
Piscatrix, Rana, 47 
Platessa, Pleuronectes, 157 
Plumbeum, Astroderma, 35 
Poeciloptera, Trigla, 52, 54 
Poecilopus, Coitus, 48 
Pollachius, Gadus, 131, 132 
Pollachius, Merlangus, 132 
Pollan, Coregonus, 217 
Pompilus, Centrolophus, 31 
Pompilus, Coryphaena, 31 
Ponticus, Scomber, 42 
Porosus, Cottus, 49 
Poutassou, Gadus, 130 
Poutassou, Merlangus, 130 
Presbyter, Atherina, 83 
Prototypus, Proctostegus, 35 
Provensalis, Mugil, 86 
Psittacus, Labrus, 104 
Punctatus, Lepadogaster, 101 
Punctatus, Scomber, 37 
Punctatus, Zeugopterus, 153 



SPECIFIC NAMES. 



Punctipinnis, Gobius, 64 
Pungio, Zeus, 29 
Pungitius, Gasterosteus, 96 
Pungitius, Leuvius, 96 
Pusilla, Perca, 28 
Pusillus, Gobius, 63 

Quadricornus, Cottus, 51 
Cjuadrimaculatus, Gobius, 69 
yuinque-cirrata, Motella, 137 

Radiata, Raia, 246 
Rafinesqui, Lepadogaster, 100 
Raii, Brama, 32 
Raii, Sparus, 32 
Ramada, Mugil, 85 
Raminus, Raniceps, 141 
Raminus, Blennius, 141 
Regius, Zeus, 33 
Remora, Echeneis, 44 
Remoroides, Echeneis, 44 
Reticulata, Callionymus, 73 
Reticulatus, Gobius, 66 
Reticulatus, Lepadogaster, 101 
Rhodopterus, Gobius, 66 
Robusta, Perca, 5 
Rocheanus, Thynnus, 43 
Rochei, Auxis, 43 
Rondeletii, Colias, 38 
Rondeletii, Pagellus, 12 
Rondeletii, Pompilus, 31 
Rondeletii, Umbra, 20 
Rondeletii, Xiphias, 21 
Rostratus, Lepadogaster, 99 
Rostratus, Pagellus, 18 
Rubescens, Cepola, 74 
Rubescens, Serpens, 74 
Rubra, Taenia, 74 
Rupestris, Coryphaenoides, 148 
Rupestris, Crenilabrus, no 
Rupestris, Ctenolabrus, no 
Rupestris, Cynaedus, no 
Rupestris, Labrus, no 
Rupestris, Perca, no 
Rupestris, Sciaena, no 
Ruthensparri, Gobius, 63 
Rutilus, Leuciscus, 174 

Salmo, Salmo, 195 
Salmonata, Trutta, 196 
Salmulus, Salmo, 195 
Salvelinus, Salmo, 206 
Salviani, Centrina, 234 
Sanguineus, Holocentrus, 19 
Sarda, Pelamys, 42 
Sarda, Scomber, 42 
Sargus, Lepodus, 32 



Saurus, Scombresox, 88 
Schoneveldii, Cataphractus, 58 
Sciandra, Sparus, 10 
Scolopax, Centriscus, 98 
Scolopax, Solenostomus, 98 
Scomber, Scomber, 36 
Scombrus, Cordylus, 36 
Scorpius, Cottus, 49, 50 
Scriba, Perca, 6 
Scriptus, Sparus, r3 
Semiarmatus, Gasterosteus, 93 
Semilunata, Diana, 35 
Septentrionalis, Mugil, 86 
Septentrionalis, Sebastes, 19 
Serpentiformis, Cepola, 74 
Serrato-granulata, Perca, i 
Serranus, Lutjanus, 4 
Siculus, Ammodytes, 147 
Sinuatus, Merluccius, 133 
Sinuosa, Perca, 2 
Spatula, Cyclopterus, 99 
Speciosa, Julis, 113 
Sphyraena, Argentina, 219 
Spinachia, Gasterosteus, 97 
Spinachia, Gastraea, 97 
Spinachia, Polyacanthus, 97 
Spinosus, Echinorhinus, 236 
Spinosus, Zeus, 29 
Spinulosus, Gasterosteus, 95 
Spinulosus, Trachinus, 24 
Sprattus, Clupea, 192 
Squalipeta, Remora, 44 
Squatina, Rhina, 237 
Stomachicus, Salmo, 196, 204 
Strigosus, Anarrhichas, 75 
Strcemii, Carelephus, 80 
Stroemii, Gunnellus, 80 
Stroemii, Zeus, 33 
Struanensis, Salmo, 206, 208 
Sturio, Acipenser, 220 
Stuvitzii, Atherina, 70 
Stuvitzii, Gobiosoma, 70 
Stuvitzii, Latrunculus, 70 
Suillus, Labrus, no 
Surmuletus, Mullus, 9 
Surmulletus, Mullus, 9 
Symmetricus, Caranx, 24 
Taenia, Cobitis, 183 
Tancoides, Labrus, 104 
Taso, Auxis, 43 
Taurina, Salmo, 196, 200 
Tazo, Scomber, 43 
Tetradens, Lepidopus, 23 
Tetradens, Ziphotheca, 23 
Thymallus, Coregonus, 218 
Thymallus, Salmo, 218 
Thynnoides, Auxis, 43 



SPECIFIC NAMES. 



Thynnus, Orcynus, 39 
Thynnus, Salmo, 218 
Thynnus, Scomber, 39 
Thynnus, Thynnus, 39 
Tinea, Crenilabrus, 108 
Tinea, Cynaedus, 108 
Tinea, Cyprinus, 179 
Tinea, Labrus, 104, 108 
Tobianus, Ammodytes, 145, 146, 

J 47 

Trachurus, Caranx, 24 
Trachurus, Gasterosteus, 92 
Trachurus, Scomber, 24 
Trachurus, Trachurus, 24 
Tricirratus, Gadus, 139 
Tricirrata, Motella, 139 
Tricuspis, Cottus, 48 
Tridigitatus, Polynemus, 53 
Trifurcatus, Blennius, 141 
Trifurcatus, Raniceps, 141 
Trimaculatus, Labrus, 107 
Tropica, Remora, 44 
Truncatus, Orthagoriscus, 124 
Trutta, Salmo, 196, 201 
Trutta, Trutta, 196 
Truttula, Salmo, 196 
Typhle, Siphonostoma, 114 
Umbla, Salmo, 206, 207, 208, 2ic 
Umbra, Sciaena, 20 
Umbratus, Chaetodon, 32 
Unimaculatus, Zeugopterus, 153 
Unipunctatus, Gobius, 66 
Upsicephalus, Lophius, 47 

Vagans, Thynnus, 41 
Valenciennessi, Astrodermus, 35 
Vandesii, Coregonus, 216 
Vanloo, Perca, 20 
Variabilis, Acanthocottus, 49 
Variabilis, Cottus, 49 
Variabilis, Labrus, 104 
Variegatus, Labrus, 107 
Variegata, Solea, 164 
Varus, Blennius, 76 
Vassali, Ophidium, 143 
Venetorum, Paganellus, 64 
Ventralis, Cottus, 48 
Ventralis, Phobetor, 48 
Vernalis, Scomber, 36 
Vetula, Labrus, 107 
Vetula, Sparus, 10 
Vexillifer, Thymallus, 218 
Vipera, Trachinus, 46 
Virens, Gadus, 131 
Virens, Merlangus, 131 
Virescens, Holocentru*?, 4 



Vittatus, Labrus, 107 
Vividus, Trachinus, 46 
Viviparus, Blennius, 82 
Viviparus, Enchelyopus, 82 
Viviparus, Gunnellus, 82 
Viviparus, Zoarcaeus, 82 
Viviparus, Zoarces, 82 
Viviparus, Zoarchus, 82 
Vogmarus, Trachypterus, 102 
Volitans, Exoecetus, 89 
Vomerinus, Lophius, 47 
Vulgaris, Acanthias, 233 
Vulgaris, Acerina, 3 
Vulgaris, Anguilla, 166 
Vulgaris, Aurata, 13 
Vulgaris, Auxis, 43 
Vulgaris, Barbus, 172 
Vulgaris, Belone, 87 
Vulgaris, Box, n 
Vulgaris, Brosmius, 142 
Vulgaris, Cantharus, 10 
Vulgaris, Carassius, 170 
Vulgaris, Conger, 167 
Vulgaris, Dentex, 7 
Vulgaris, Galeus, 223 
Vulgaris, Gunnellus, 81 
Vulgaris, Hippoglossus, 149 
Vulgaris, Julis, 113 
Vulgaris, Leuciscus, 176 
Vulgaris, Liparis, 61 
Vulgaris, Lota, 136 
Vulgaris, Merlangus, 129 
Vulgaris, Merluccius, 133 
Vulgaris, Molva, 135 
Vulgaris, Motella, 139 
Vulgaris, Morrhua, 125 
Vulgaris, Mustela, 137 
Vulgaris, Mustelus, 225 
Vulgaris, Pagrus, 12, 14 
Vulgaris, Perca, i 
Vulgaris, Scomber, 36 
Vulgaris, Solea, 162 
Vulgaris, Spinachia, 97 
Vulgaris, Thymallus, 218 
Vulgaris, Thynnus, 39 
Vulgaris, Tinea, 179 
Vulgaris, Trachurus, 24 
Vulpes, Alopecias, 227 

Willughbii, Salmo, 206, 208 
Welbianus, Lepadogaster, 99 

Yarrellii, Blennius, 80 
Yarrellii, Chirolophis, 80 

Zebrinus, Lepadogaster, 99 



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